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Full text of "Philadelphia in the world war, 1914-1919"

PHILADELPHIA 

IN THE WORLD WAR 



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1914.-1919 



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THE 

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PRESENTED BY 



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PHILADELPHIA 

IN THE WORLD WAR 
1914-1919 




© Rau Art Stxidios, Inc. 



T^hiladelphia 

in the 

World War 



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'Puhlishedjor 
~The Philadelphia)\5iir History Committee , 

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WynkoopHallenbeckCrawfordCo. 

"Trinimg T/ead<juarters " 

Troducers of WarTfistorus 

80 Lafayette Street 

C\ewyork^ 



I PUBLIC LlBIvARY] 

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Publishers Note: We cannot let this opportunity pass 
without taking occasion to express our thanks and the very 
great appreciation that we have for the fine spirit of co- 
operation which Mr. John Frederick Lewis, Chairman of 
the Philadelphia War History Committee, has shown in 
the preparation and publication of this volume, which is one 
of such historical interest and value as to be handed down 
through posterity. In this expression of our appreciation we 
wish to include also Mr. J. Jarden Guenther, Secretary, and 
the other members of the Committee, whose whole-hearted 
cooperation and sustained effort have made the book possible, 

Wynkoop Hallenbeck Crawford Co. 



Copyright 1922, by 
Wynkoop Hallenbeck Crawford Co, 



FOREWORD 

Pliiladelphia's patriotism and unswerving loyalty to the 
Nation were never more plainly manifested than during 
the World War. Her people gave without stint, of their 
time and their means; many were wounded, and some, 
alas, made the supreme sacrifice at their Country's call. 
It is appropriate that a record of their work shall be pre- 
served in permanent form for widespread circulation. 
Interest and sentiment ahke suggest that all information 
concerning the activities of Philadelphians, whether in 
military, naval, civil, industrial or linancial circles during 
the war, shall be preserved for historical reasons, and as 
an inspiration to future generations. 

The Philadelphia \\ ar History Committee, which was 
appointed September 22, 1919, by the Honorable Thomas 
B. Smith, then Mayor of Philadelphia, and continued in 
office during my administration, has been steadily at work 
since its appointment, gathering material for a compre- 
hensive history, and while it has not been possible to bring 
within the compass of a single volume all the details of the 
work of oiu" people, it is hoped that this vohune will be 
welcomed by every Philadelphian as a worthy memorial of 
the services of our fellow citizens during one of the most 
vital chapters in the history of the United States. 

J. HAMPTON MOORE, 

Mayor 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Philadelphia's War Chronology 15 

Mayor Smith's Wai- Committees ... 46 

Philadelphia Home Defense Reserve 55 

Philadelphia School Mobilization Committee 60 

Joint Councilmanic Committee 65 

Student Military Training Camps 78 

Philadelphia Military Training Corps 81 

Military Training in Local Schools and Colleges 83 

U. of P.; Drexel; Hahnemann; Jefferson; St. Joseph's; Temple 

Pennsylvania Women's Di\isi(>n for National Preparedness 90 

Local Belgian Relief Committee 93 

History of the 28th Division 94 

Work of the Draft Boards ... 126 

History of the T'Hli Division 134 

History of Other Philadelphia Lnils 154 

American Field Service; 414th Telegraph Battalion; 19th Engineers; 
Airmen of Philadelphia; American Foreign Legion; 16th Infantry; 
Women in the Service; Tank Corps; 406th Telegraph Battalion; State 
Fencibles; Pioneer Infantry Regiments; First Troop, P. C. C; V. S. 
A. A. S. ; Military Intelligence; Colored Units; Baldwin's Siberian 
Contingent. 

Base Hospital Units 201 

No. 10; No. 20; No. 34; No. 38; Hospital Unit A; Red Cross General 
Hospital No. 1. 

Frankford and Schuylkill Arsenals 231 

Army Casualty List 249 

Fourth Naval District Report and 258 

Philadelphians in the Navy; Recruiting for U. S. N. R. F.; Naval 
Intelligence; Naval Militia of Pennsylvania; Camouflage Painting; 
Naval Base No. 5; U. S. Naval Commissary Schools. 



CONTENTS— Continued 

PAGE 

Naval Casualty List 331 

History of Philadelphia Marines 333 

Marine Casualty List 342 

Pennsylvania and Philadelphia Councils of National Defense .... 343 

The Port of Philadelphia 357 

Work of U. S. Shipping Board and Local Ship Yards 361 

Cramps; Merchant Shipbuilding Corp.; N. Y. Shipbuilding Corp.; 

Sun Shipbuilding Co.; Traylor. 

Manning the Merchant Marine 399 

Philadelphia Ordnance District 403 

Some Wartime Industries of Philadelphia 410 

Alexander Brothers; Alteneder; American Metal Works; American 
Pulley Co.; Baldwin; Bethlehem Steel Co.; Blaisdell Pencil Co.; 
J. G. Brill Co.; E. G. Budd; Ford Motor Co.; Abram Cox; Day and 
Zimmermann, Inc.; Heller and Brightly; Janney, Steinnietz & Co.; 
Lupton; John Lucas & Co.; Fayette R. Plumb, Inc.; Jatob Reed's 
Sons; Shoemaker and Busch; Smith, Kline and French Co.; Summerill 
Tubing Co.; J. S. Thf)rn Co.; John Wood Mfg. Co.; Tacony Steel Co.; 
A. H. Fox; Taylor- Wharton; Hale and Kilburn; du Pouts; Hercules 
Powder Co.; Midvale Steel Co.; Niles-Bement-Pond. 

Bell Telephone Co. of Penna 457 

Board of Trade 462 

Chamber of Commerce 465 

Commercial Museums 466 

War Industries Board 469 

Some Federal Agencies ■ • 474 

Federal Reserve Bank; War Savings Division; Liberty Loans; Foreign 
Language Division; Four-Minute Men; Fuel, Food and Railroad 
(including B. & 0. R. R.; P. R. R.; P. & R. Ry.) Administrations; 
Employment Service; American Railway Express. 

The Newspapers' Pail in the War 515 

The Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts and Local Artists . . . 517 
American Red Cross 523 



CONTENTS— Co«/(>n/erf 

PAGE 

Emergency Aid of Pennsylvania 554 

Relief Activities 588 

American Friends Service Committee; National League for Woman's 
Service; Navy League; P. R. R. Women's Division for War Relief; 
Pennsylvania Society, Colonial Dames of America; Women's Land 
Army; Women's Permanent Emergency Association of Germantown. 

Religious Activities 620 

Protestant Churches and Organizations. 

Roman Catholic Archdiocese. 

Jewish Congregations and Organizations. 

War Time Recreational Work 640 

A. L. A.; Free Library; Community Singing; Historical Hikes; J. W. B.; 
K. of C; Benedict Service Club; Salvation Army; United Service 
Club; W. C. C. S.; War Emergency Unit; Historical Society of Penn- 
sylvania; Y. M. C. A.; Y. W. C. A.; War Welfare Council. 

Women's Clubs 689 

Civic; New Century; Philomusian. 
Men's Clubs 694 

Aero; Art: Engineers; Markham; Mercantile; Penn; Philadelphia; 

Philadelphia Country; Racquet; Rotary; University; Union League; 

Franklin Institute. 

University of Pennsylvania 711 

Bureau of Municipal Research 713 

North American Civic League for Immigrants 714 

Boy and Girl Scouts 716 

British and Canadian Recruiting Mission 719 

The Return of Troops 725 

Vocational Training 745 

War Department's Work for Demobilized Troops 749 

The American Legion 756 

Military Order of Foreign Wars 758 

Military Order of the World War 759 

National American War Mothers 760 

Philadelphia's Service Flag 762 



INTRODUCTION 

PHILADELPHIA is probably the most native American of all the large 
cities in the Lnited States, and is certainly second to none in patriotism. 
Her loyalty has been shown upon every battlefield which has marked the 
Nation's history — in Mexico, in the Philippines, in Cuba, and alas, in France — 
and none the less by those who, kept at home, spared neither time nor treasure 
for those who went away. It is well to record such loyalty and to publish the same, 
so that the present, as well as the future, may know what was done and may 
again be done by a united people. 

This book is such a record. It aims to be a comprehensive history of the part 
Philadelphia played in the World War. To publish everything her people did is 
manifestly impossible. Neither Municipal, State nor Federal archives have 
yet been completed, but it is hoped that in the following pages no important 
work has gone without mention, and that at least some credit has been given to 
all the different activities in which her people were engaged. Nearly 100,000 of 
her young men and women were in the Army or Navy, or in some branch of the 
Federal service directly connected therewith, and few indeed of her 400,000 homes 
but witnessed some effort towards winning the war. 

Philadelphia was the most congested war material producing district in the 
United States, and the total amount of her output and its varied character are 
extraordinary. Her ships, her locomotives and her trucks, her guns, rifles and 
shells, her medicines and chemicals, and her military and naval supplies of all 
kinds, were produced in enormous quantities, with amazing speed, and promptly 
sent wherever needed. 

From the day Archduke Ferdinand of Austria was assassinated, June 28, 
1014, the work of the mum'cipality and her citizens began, preparedness merely, 
but none the less earnest work against possible eventualities. The War Chronology 
prepared by Mr. Clark and published herewith will give at a glance the gradual 
sequence with which the road to war was marked. 

On March 20, 1917, the Mayor appointed a Home Defense Committee, 
and from that time until February 4, 1921, when the last of 122 ships were deliv- 
ered by the American International Shipbuilding Corporation from the plant at 
Hog Island, the city's activities never ceased. When President Wilson, on April 
6, 1917, declared a state of war with Germany to exist, instant support was offered 
the Government. While the Philadelphia Home Defense Committee was still 
in session, the Mayor wired the President pledging the ungrudging support of 
all the men and women of Philadelphia and all the City's resources to maintain 
the honor and dignity of the Nation and to protect the lives and property of 
Americans on land and sea, and this pledge was carried out to the letter. 

The work of the Philadelphia Home Defense Committee was afterwards 
largely taken over by the Pennsylvania Committee of Public Safety when a Phila- 
delphia Branch was appointed for the Council of National Defense, and after 
the termination of hostilities, when the work of the Philadelphia Council was 
completed, its Chairman, Judge Martin, suggested that the historical research 



which it had conducted should be continued by the appointment of a Philadelphia 
War History Committee. The Council had collected a large number of photo- 
graphs showing the war-time activities in Philadelphia, and had commenced 
the work of securing the war records of Philadelphia men and women in service. 
A house to house canvass had been made by the Police Department, and some 
55,000 records obtained, but much remained to be done. The suggestion of Judge 
Martin was accepted and a Committee appointed which organized as follows: 
John Frederick Lewis, Chairman; J. Jarden Guenther, Secretary; Mrs. J. Willis 
Martin, Mrs. Barclay H. Warburton, Franz Ehrlich, Jr., James E. Lennon, Dr. 
Edward B. Gleason, John A'. Loughney and Howard Wayne Smith. This Com- 
mittee received a small balance of an appropriation which had been made by 
City Councils to the Philadelphia Council of National Defense, subsequently 
followed by a small appropriation for clerical and stenographic service, and with 
these funds and the assistance of the Women's Committee of the Pennsylvania 
Council of National Defense, all the material in this book has been gotten together 
for publication. 

To J. Jarden Guenther, the Secretary of the Committee, acknowledgment 
is made for faithful and skilful service, but the printing and publication of the 
book are due entirely to the public spirit and enterprise of the Wynkoop Hallenbeck 
Crawford Company of New York, which has made an enviable record issuing war 
histories. 

John Frederick Lewis. 




PHILADELPHIA'S WAR CHROXOLOGY 



By William Bell Clark 




^^Z|HILADELPHIA'S varied part in the World War from 
June. 1911, to the beginning of 1921, is here arranged in 
chronological order. The dates of the great national or 
international events of the same period are shown in italics 
and form a basis of correlation with the local happenings. 
In no sense is this a complete chronology of the city 
in the war. To attempt to tell everything that happened, 
even through the medium of a sentence apiece, would re- 
quire more space than this entire volume. Hence, only 
the more important events are set forth. For illustration : 
the histories of the national guard units or the drafted men are not attempted 
after the departure from the city. Those desirous of following them can do so 
elsewhere in this volume. 

In arranging the chronology, the files of the local newspapers were used and 
the compiler sought to refrain from interpolating anything which, censured during 
the war period, has been made public since. For this reason there will be found 
little regarding what happened at the Navy Yard after April, 1916. The work of 
the Yard remained a closed book to the public until the war ended. 

Questions of space made it imperative not to attempt to recount every draft 
call from the city; every launching at the numerous shipyards; every meeting or 
rally of the loan and other campaigns, etc. The principal dates are given through- 
out in the cases of the loans — opening, closing, subscriptions— and one or two 
important incidents. 

The war period, particularly the year 1918, was filled with propaganda. At 
times it required a nice distinction to ascertain just what was news and what 
represented press agenting of war activities. This was particularly true in the 
recruiting campaigns and the many activities under the Food and Fuel Adminis- 
trations and various branches of the Pennsylvania Committee of Public Safety 
and Council of National Defense. 

Undoubtedly there will be many who may feel that their own activities 
have been slighted or overlooked. To them it can only be said that space 
was at a premium and all that could be crowded into that space appears in 
the chronology. 

15 



1914 
June 28 — Archduke Francis Ferdinaml. of Austria-Hungary, and his wife, assassinated in 

Serajevo. 
July 6 — Pennsylvania Naval INIilitia (Philadelphia Battalion), sails for two weeks' practise 

cruise on U. S. S. Rhode Island. 
July 9 — First annual German Day, held at Lemon Hill, by Gemian-American societies of 

the city. 
July 20 — U. S. Destroyer O'Brien launched at Cramps. 
July 23 — Austria-Hungarian ultimatum delivered to Serbia. 

German S. S. Prinz Adalbert sails with Philadelphia passenger, Dr. Maximilian 
Roedmann; ship subsequently put into Falmouth, England, and is seized as prize. 
July 25 — Austro-Hungary receives and rejects Serl>ia's reply to the ultimatum, 
July 26 — .Austria-Hungary and Russia begin mobilization. 
July 28 — Austria-Hungary declares war against Serbia, 

Paris Bourse closed. 
July 29 — Russia completes mobilization in districts of Odessa, Kiev, Moscow and Kazan. 

Austro-Hungarian Consulate at 8th and Spruce streets besieged by reservists 
awaiting call to arms. 
July 30 — Russia orders complete mobilizalion in all districts. 

Philadelphia Stock Market feels first elfects of war alarms. 
July 31 — Germany sends Russia ullimatuni to stop every war measure within twelve hours. 
London .Stock Exchange closed. 
Philadelphia Stock Exchange closed. 

Cancelation of sailing orders for German hner Imperalor temporarily maroons a 
number of Philadelphians in Hamburg, including Morris L. Clothier, Mr. and 
Mrs. George W. Kendrick, 3d, Mr. and Mrs. Herbert J. Tily. 
.\ug. 1 — France orders mobilizalion. 

Germany declares war against Russia. 

Austro-Hungarian Consulate receives Imperial order calling home every Austrian 

and Hungarian, between 21 and 33. 
American liner Merion sails from Philadelphia with 150 passengers. 
Thirty million in gold transferred from local U. S. Mint to Sub-Treasury, New York. 
Aug. 2 — Germany demands free passage for her troops across Belgium. 
Aug. 3 — Germany declares war against France. 

Germany serves ultimatum on Belgium and violates hitler's border. 

France declares war on Germany. 

Philadelphia Clearing House decides to issue certificates to protect gold supply 

from depletion by European demands. 
Newspapers begin to list hundreds of local tourists caught in the war zone. 
Aug. -1 — Great Britain serves ultimatum on Germany regarding violation of Belgian neutrality- 
German armies begin attack on Liege forts. 
Germany declares war on Belgium. 
President Wilson issues Neutrality Proclamation. 

North German Lloyd liner Kronprincessin Cecilie, after vainly trying to make 
German port with $10,600,000 in gold, runs into Bar Harbor, Me., the local pas- 
sengers on board including Morris L. Cooke, Dr. Francis X. Dercum, Robert 
Glendiiming, Mr. £md Mrs. Joseph B. McCall, Joseph B. McCall, Jr., and Miss 
Leonore McCall. 
British Consulate instructed to inform British ships not to enter German ports. 
Fifty French reservists leave loccd consulate for New York. 
Aug. 5 — Great Britain declares war against Germany. 

North German Lloyd liner Bradenburg reaches port after pursuit off Delaware; 

left Bremen, July 23d with 387 passengers. 
Hamburg-American liner Prinz Oskar arrives in Delaware. 
Aug. 6 — Austria-Hungary declares war against Russia, 
Serbia declares war against Germany, 
Philadelphia Sub-Treasury accepts deposits for Americans marooned abroad. 

16 



Aug. 6 — Maureiania reaches Halifax with the Philadelphians who had been delayed in Ham- 
burg when Imperator failed to sail. 
Aug. 7 — Italian liner Ancona arrives at Philadelphia. 

First Brigade, National Guard of Pennsylvania, leaves for two weeks' training at 

Mt. Gretna. 
Aug. 8 — Montenegro declares war ayainsl Aaslria-Hunoary. 
Aug. 9 — Auslria-Hungary declares war against Montenegro. 

Montenegro declares ivar against Germany. 
Aug. 10 — German warships "Goehen" and "Breslaa" enter the Dardanelles. 

American liner Haverford arrives from Liverpool with 555 passengers wlio hiiil l)(>en 

kept in ignorance of war declarations. 
Italian liner Ancona sails with 800 passengers, mostly reservists. 
Aug. 13 — France and Great Britain declare war against .Austria-Hungary. 
Aug. 14 — First Britisli Expeditionary Force begins to arrive in France. 
Aug. 15 — Haverford sails for Liverpool with seventy-three passengers. 
Aug. 17 — Last Liege forts fall. 
Aug. 18 — Charles J. Hexamer, president of National German AUiance, issues appeal lo keep 

Japan out of the war and save the Pacific from Japanese domination. 
Aug. 19 — U. S. Destroyer Nicholson launched at Cramps. 
Aug. 22 — North German Lloyd liner Bradenburg sails with heavy cargo of coal. (Note: 

The Bradenburg eluded the Allied blockade, coaled a German raider, and reached 

Norway in safety.) 
Aug. 23 — Japan declares war against Germany. 
Belgian forts at Namar fall. 

Serbia defeats .Austro-Hungarian invaders at .ladar. 
Aug. 21 — British forced back at Mons. 
Aug. 26 — British defeated at La Cateau. 
Aug. 27 — .Austria-Hungary declares war against .Japan. 

Paul Hageraans, Belgian Consul-General, denounces Iionibing of defenseless cities 

by Zeppelins. 
Aug. 28 — Austria-Hungary declares war against Belgium. 

British light cruisers defeat Germans at Helgoland Bight. 
Aug. 30 — Russian army annihilated at Tannenburg. 

Sept. 1 — American liner Merion reaches Philadelphia with 408 passengers. 
Sept. 3 — Twelve Philadelphia nurses, headed by Miss Margaret Lehman, leave for Red 

Cross work in Europe. 
Sept. 5 — The Battle of the Marne opens. 

Merion sails for Liverpool with forty-eight passengers. 
Sept. 9 — German armies retreat toward the Aisne. 
Sept. 11 — German and Austro-Hungarian Consuls devise plan to give Central iMupirc war 

news jointly. 
Sept. 13 — Battle of the .Aisne opens. 
Sept. 11 — Italian finer .Ancona arrives at Philadelphia with 111 passengers. 

Haverford, American Line, arrives at Philadelphia with 158 passengers. 
Sept. 19 — Knights Templar of First (Pennsylvania) Division, at fourteenth Annual Field Day 

on Belmont Plateau, pray for restoration of peace in Europe. 
Sept. 20 — First Belgian Mission to the United States, headed by M. II. Carton de W iart. 

Minister of Justice, visits Philadelphia. 
Sept. 21 — Secretary of the Navy Daniels present at Philadelphia Navy Yard, for opening 

of work on new .?200,000 shipway. 
Sept. 22 — British cruisers ".Aboukir," "Hague" and "Cressy" torpedoed and sunk by U-9. 
Sept. 30 — Battle of the Aisne ends in a draw. 
Oct. 5 — American finer Merion arrives at Philadelphia with 418 passengers. 

Citizens' Permanent Refief Conmiittee, Mayor Blankenburg, Chairman, issues 

appeal for money for war sufferers to be expended by Red Cross. 
Oct. 9 — Antwerp falls lo the Germans. 

17 



Oct. 12 — Mrs. Edward S. Sayres organizes Local Belgian Relief Committee. 

Oct. 14 — Belgian Consul General Hagemans makes appeal in connection with the visit 

of Mme. Emile Van der Velde, wife of the Belgian Minister of State. 
Oct. 19 — American liner Ilaverford arrives at Philadelphia with 128 passengers. 
Oct. 20 — Committee of Mercy, forerunner of Emergency Aid of Pennsylvania, formed at 

meeting at home of Mrs. Eli Kirk Price, 1709 Walnut Street. 
Oct. 22 — Child Federation opens booth in City Hall courtyard for Christmas gifts for 

orphaned little ones of Europe. 
Oct. 28 — Germans open attack on Ypres front in race for Cliannel ports. 
Oct. 30 — Emergency Aid Committee of Pennsylvania formed, and headquarters opened at 

1428 Walnut Street. 
Nov. 1 — Cradock'i Britisti fleet dispersed and partly destroyed by Von Spec's German Squadron 

off Coronet, Ctiili. 
Nov. 3 — Russia declares war against Turkey. 

Great Britain declares the North Sea a "military area" and restricts neutral shipping 
Martin G. Brumbaugh elected Governor of Pennsylvania. 
Nov. 4 — Emergency Aid Committee sends first consignment of 16 cases for European relief. 
Nov. .5 — Great Britain and France declare war against Turkey. 
Nov. 7 — Japan captures German Chinese concession at Tsinlau. 

John Wanamaker charters Norwegian S. S. Thelma, as Belgian food ship, and Com- 
mittee of Publishers is formed to raise money to stock same. 
Nov. 9 — Crcrman commerce destroyer "Emden" sunk by Australian cruiser "Sydney" off 

South Keeling Island. 
Nov. 12 — German attack on Ypres frord ends. 

Belgian relief ship Thelma sails with 1,700 tons of food. 
Nov. 23 — Turkey declares war against the Entente. 

Nov. 25 — Second foodship, the Orn, sails for Beligum with 2,000 tons of food. 
Nov. 27 — British super-dreadnaught "Audacious" sunk by mine off north coast of Ireland. 
Foodship Thelma reaches Falmouth, England. 




Mayor Hlnnkenhurg and (Committee speeding the Relief Shij) "Orn" 

18 



., 



Nov. 28 — Emergency Aid Committee takes over basement of Lincoln Building for five depart- 
ments. 
Nov. 29 — Food ship Thelma leaves Falmouth. 
Dec. 2 — Serbia declares war against Turkey. 

$198,891.06 and $60,000 worth of food raised in Philadelphia and surrounding 

towns for Thelma and Orn, according to report of Publishers' Committee. 
Dec. 5 — Foodship Thelma reaches Rotterdam. 

British S. S. Batiscan, with 6,700 tons of wheat and grain, sails from Philadelphia 

under auspices of American Commission for ReUef in Belgium. 
Dec. 8 — Von. Spec's German Squadron destroyed by Sturdee's British fleet off Falkland Islands. 
Dec. 10 — Councils appropriate $50,000 for relief of the city's destitute; fund administered 

jointly with Emergency Aid. 
Dec. 14 — Emergency Aid's three day "Made in America Bazaar," opens in Horticultural Hall, 

Broad Street, below Locust Street. 
Dec. 19 — Food ship Orn arrives at Rotterdam. 
Dec. 25 — British S. S. Ferrona, with 256,005 bushel" of wheat, sails from Philadelphia under 

auspices of American Commission for Relief of Belgium. 
Dec. 26 — American Government protests against Great Britain's "military area" order and 

irregularities of such a blockade. 
Dec. 30 — British S. S. Industry, with 5,000 tons of foodstulTs, including $57,000 worth pur- 
chased by Philadelphia Belgian Rehef Committee, sails from Philadelphia under 

auspices of American Commission for Relief of Relgium. 
1915 
Jan. 7 — Great Britain's reply to American protest declares that increased American trade ivith 

neutrals implies additional contraband goods destined for Germany. 
Hebrews at meeting in Mercantile Hall inaugurate $100,000 campaign for relief 

of starving Jews in war zone. 
Jan. 8 — Battle of Soissons opens. 

Jan. 11 — "Made in America Razaar" profits announced as $50,301.10. 
Jan. 15 — Battle of Soissons ends. 
Jan. 19 — Governor Rrumbaugh inaugurated. 

Jan. 24 — German cruiser "Btucher" sunk in sea-fight on Dogger Bank. 
Feb. 4 — Germany proclaims a "war zone" around the British Isles. 
Feb. 9 — American Uner Haverford arrives with seventy passengers. 
Feb. 10 — Great Britain amplifies reply of January 7th. 

American note protests German "war zone" order. 
Feb. 12 — "Self-Sacrifice Day," for poor of city, held under auspices of Emergency Aid to 

raise $100,000. (Fund completed in ten days.) 
Feb. 18 — German "war zone" order becomes effective. 
Feb. 20 — .American note, identical to Great Britain and Germany, suggests compromise to make 

situation of neutrals more tolerable. 
March 5 — Philadelphia Committee on American Ambulance Hospital, at Paris, reports 

$23,222.73 raised for establishment of Philadelphia ward. 
March 10 — German commerce raider "Prmz Eitel Friedrich" enters Newport News. (Subsequently 

interned.) 
Battle of Neuve Cliapelle opens. 
March 12 — British abandon attack at Neuve Chapelle. 
March 22 — Austrian fortress at Przemysl {Galicia) falls to Russians. 
March 28 — British S. S. "Falaba" sunk by submarine in St. George's Channel: one American 

life lost. 
AprU 11 — German commerce raider "Kronprinz Wilhelm" enters Newport News. (Subsequently 

interned.) 
April 22 — Germans first use gas in second Battle of Ypres. 
April 24 — British Expeditionary Force lands at Gallipoli (Dardanelles). 
April 27 — Itahan liner Ancona arrives with 444 passengers. 
April 28 — German aeroplane drops three bombs on American S. S. "Gushing." 

19 



April 29 — -Home of Dr. Pasquale Gorgas, physician to Italian Consulate, bombed because be 

refused to give sick certificates to reservists to avoid war service. 
May 1 — Germany begins offensive on entire Russian front. American tanker "Gulftt/jhl" 

torpedoed, eleven killed. 
May 7 — Canard liner "Lusitania" torpedoed and sunk off Old Head of Kinsale. south of Ireland; 
1J5,1 lost, including 188 Americans. 
Philadelphians lost on Lusitania: Mr. and Mrs. Paul Crompton with six children 

and governess. Miss Dorothy Allen, Mr. and Mrs. Harry J. Kesser, Mr. and Mrs. 

William S. Hodges and two sons, Mr. and Mrs. Charles H. Robinson, Mr. and 

Mrs. E. Booth Jones and two children, David Todd and George Nicoll. 
Philadelphians saved on Lusitania: Samuel M. Knox, Herman A. Meyers, Thomas 

J. Williams. 
May 9 — Battle of Artois begins. 
May 10 — President Wilson makes "Too Proud to Fight" speech at Convention Hall to 4,000 

newly naturalized citizens. 
May 13 — America sends first "Lusitania" note. 
May 18 — Street sale of Pohsh flags marks Polish Flag Day observance, under auspices of 

Polish Committee of Emergency Aid. 
"Peace Day" observed in city schools. 

Charles P. WeLkel is first Pbiladelphian to enroll in newly created Naval Reserve. 
May 19 — Portugal declares war against Germany. 

Battle of Artois ends. 
May 21 — Italy and San Marino declare war against .iustria-Hungary. 

May 31 — German reply on "Lusitania" justifies attack on contention that vessel was semi-military. 
June 2 — American liner Dominion arrives with 114 passengers from Liverpool and Queens- 
town; one dies of fright during submarine scare. 
June 8 — Secretary of Stale Bryan resigns on eve of second American note on "Lusitania." 
June 12 — Baldwin Locomotive Works announce receipt of order in amount of $6,000,000 

for 250 locomotives for Russia. 
June 14 — Italian liner .Ancona leaves for Italy with 400 reservists. 
July 9 — First Brigade, National Guard of Pennsylvania, leaves for Mt. Gretna, for two 

weeks' encampment. 
July 10 — German reply to second "Lusitania" note makes no disavowal. 
July 14 — French War Relief Committee of Emergency Aid observes fiastile Day, and makes 

plea for relief contributions. 
French residents observe Bastile Day at Central Park. 
July 19 — Eddystone Munitions Corporation, incorporated by Baldwin Locomotive Company 

to handle munitions orders amounting to $81,200,000. 
July 21 — Third American note on "Lusitania" declares German reply "very unsatisfactory." 
July 22 — Itahan liner .Ancona sails for Italy with 300 reservists. 

Philadelphia Branch of National Security League holds conference on national 

defense at Racquet Club, John Wanamaker advocating nation pledge its resources 

in the sum of $100,000,000, to redeem Belgium and restore peace in Europe. 
July 28 — Itahan Consulate issues final call to arms, more than 3,000 reservists having already 

responded, but 2.5,000 estimated in district embracing all of Pennsylvania and 

West Virginia. 
July 29 — Members of Atlantic Deeper Waterways Association, after inspecting defenses of 

Delaware, declare them inadequate. 
Aug. 5 — Warsaw (Poland) captured by Germans. 

City Solicitor Michael J. Ryan, in requested opinion, holds that reservists who leave 

city and desert dependents, should be arrested. 
Aug. 9 — Many Philadelphians leave city to attend four weeks' military training camp at 

Plattsburg, N. Y. 
Aug. 17 — American liner Dominion arrives and crew describe how American liner Merion, 

camouflaged as a super-dreadnaught, was sunk by German submarines under 

that impression at the Dardanelles. 

20 



\ug. 18 — Emergency Aid forms Italian Relief Committee. 

British liner "Arabic" sank off Ireland, forty-four passengers, including two Americans, 

lost. 
Aug. 21 — Italy declares war against Turkey. 
Aug. 28 — Provisional battalion of I?,") men of Second Infantry leave for Panama-Pacific 

Exposition. 
Sept. t — State Fencibles open three-day training camp at Broomall. Delaware County. 
Sept. 6— Constatter Volksvest Verein, at Central Park, opens for three-day celebration, 

funds to go to German war sufferers. 
Sept. 8— Many Philadelphians attend second Plattsburg training camp. 
Sept. 10 — President Wilson requests Austria-Hungary to recall Ambassador Conslantin Theodor 

Dumba. 
Sept, 17— Baldwin's receive contract for British high explosive shells, said to amount to 

$40,000,000. 
Sept. 18— Colonel Fred Taylor Camp, Sons of Veterans, observe "Preparedness Day," in 

Kensington. 
Sept. 20 — Italians forego usual parade, celebrating King Victor Emmanuel's triumphal entry 

into Rome forty-five years previous, and donate funds insteatl to Italian war 

relief work. 
Sept. 2.5 — British and French offensives at Loos and in Champagne open. 
Oct. 6 — Ij}OS and Champagne fighting ends. 

German and Auslro-llungarian invasion of Serbia begins. 
Oct. 12 — Emergency Aid opens free employment bureau at 1519 Arch Street. 
Oct. 11 — Bulgaria declares war against Serbia. 
Oct. 15 — Great Britain and Serbia declare imr against Bulgaria. 
Oct. 16 — France declares ivar against Bulgaria. 
Oct. 19 — Italy and Bussia declare war against Bulgaria. 

Oct. 22 — Drexel Biddle Bible Class opens six weeks' miUtary instruction camp at Landsdowne. 
Oct. 25 — Emergency Aid's report of first year's work shows 14,119 home relief cases worked 

upon; temporary positions secured for 5,408 women and 2,016 men, and permanent 

positions secured for 2,088 women and 2,755 men. 
Nov. 1— Government seeks sixty-three Philadelphians who failed to return passage money 

loaned them when caught in Europe, at outbreak of the war. 
Nov. 2 — Thomas B. Smith elected mayor of Philadelphia. 
Nov. 5 — American note to Great Britain protests irregularities of Allied blockade. 

France declares war against Turkey. 
Nov. 7 — Italian liner "Ancona" sunk by submarine in Mediterranean; nine American passengers 

lost. 
Nov. 10 — News of the sinking of the .Ancona results in furious denunciations in Italian colony. 
Nov. 11— Madame Paderewski, wife of the pianist and Polish patriot, sells "Polish Refugee 

Dolls" at the Bellevue-Stratford. 
Nov. 23— Philadelphia Conmiittee on American Ambulance Hospital, Paris, sends second 

$15,000 for Philadelphia ward. 
Nov. 29 — Emergency Aid opens week's "Rummage Sale" at war relief shop, in Widener 

Building. 
Dec. i— Henry Ford's "Out of the Trenches by Christmas" Peace Parly sails for Europe. 
Dec. 6 — .American note to .Austria- Hungary denounces sinking of ".Ancona." and demands 

punishment of U-boat captain and reparation. 
Dec. 13 — Owen Wister, novelist, appointed to publicity committee of American Defense 

Society. 
Steps taken to form Pennsylvania branch of Navy League. 
Dec. 14 — Women meet at home of Mrs. George W. Childs Drexel and form Pennsylvania 

Women's Division for National Preparedness. 
Dec. 19 — American second note to Austria-Hungary renews "Ancona" demands. 
Dec. 21 — Security League holds mass meeting in Academy of Music, with James M. Beck 

and E. Alexander Powell as chief speakers, and inaugurates campaign for 100,000 

members in fifteen days. 

21 



Dec. 24 — Remnant of Serbian Army escapes invaders and reaches Adriatic shore. 
Dec. 29 — Austria-Hungary yields to American demands on "Ancona." 

1916 
Jan. 2 — British S. S. "Persic" sunk in Mediterranean; American Consul lost. 

Jem. 8 — British complete withdratval from Gallipoli (Dardanelles). 

Jan. 13 — Major-General Leonard Wood addresses Pennsylvania Women's Division for National 

Preparedness, in Garrick Theater. 
Jan. 17 — Polish Relief Committee of Emergency Aid, holds mass meeting at Moose Hall, 

Miss Henrietta Ely, of Rockefeller Relief Commission to Poland, being the speaker. 
Jan. 18 — American note to Allies, in urging disarmament of merchantmen, contends that such 

armament constitutes an auxiliary cruiser. 
Jan. 19 — National Americanization Cormnittee begins two-day conference with meeting at 

Stotesbury home. 
Jan. 20 — Theodore Roosevelt, in address before National Americanization Committee, in 

Metropolitan Opera House, condemns hyphenated citizens and urges small, efficient 

standing army, susceptible to trained reinforcements. 
Jan. 22 — Emergency Aid report shows that $543,177 has been expended in war reUef work 

since inception. 
Jan. 24 — Pennsylvania Women's Division for National Preparedness opens week's campaign 

to enroll women in well-defined program for war or calamity work; recruiting 

station estabhshed in W'idener Building. 
Jan. 25 — Twenty-five young women canvassers begin drive for membership in Security 

League. 
Jan. 27 — Philadelphia General Relief Committee (Hebrew), begins campaign to raise $50,000 

for Jewish war victims by a "tag day." 
Jan. 31 — Jewish citizens, at Metropolitan Opera House, pledge $200,000 in three hours for 

Jewish war victims. 
Pennsylvania Division of Navy League appoints committees and prepares for mem- 
bership campaign with Alexander Van Rensselaer as Chairman. 
Feb. 1 — British South African liner "Appam" arrives at Newport News under German prize 

crew, tiaving been taken at sea January i5th by German commerce raider "Moewe." 
Feb. 8 — Drexel Riddle Rible Class plans reserve regiments in every ward in city to be known 

as Drexel Riddle Mihtary Corps. 
Feb. 10 — Secretary of War Garrison resigns as protest against American military program. 

German and Austria-Hungarian Ambassadors announce that after, February 29th, 

all armed merchant vessels will be treated as auxiliary cruisers. 
Feb. 15 — American note to belligerents says this country urges no changes in existing rules of 

warfare. 
Feb. 21 — Germans begin attack on Verdun. 

Pohsh law and medical students hold ball in Lithuanian Hall for PoUsh weu- sufferers. 
Feb. 28 — First American presentation of Pohsh Opera "Verbum NobUe," given at Metro- 

pohtan Opera House, under auspices of PoUsh Rehef Committee of Emergency 

Aid. 
March 9 — Portugal commandeers forty German and Austrian vessels in its ports and Germany 

declares war as a result. 
Pancho Villa and band of Mexican outlaws raid Columbus, N. M. 
March 11 — Major-General Leonard Wood addresses Princeton Club of Philadelphia, on pre- 
paredness. 
A. J. Drexel Biddle, by telegram, offers Drexel Biddle Military Corps to nation in 

case of war with Mexico. 
March 15 — Austria-Hungary declares war on Portugal. 
March 18 — Secretary Tumulty, for President Wilson, and Adjutant-General G. W. Read, for 

War Department, acknowledge Drexel Riddle Military Corps offer. 
March 23 — Third payment of $15,000, made by Philadelphia Committee of American Ambulance 

Hospital, Paris. 
March 24 — British S. S. "Sussex" sank in English Channel; iwenly-five American passengers on 

board saved. 

22 



March 31 — Navy League begins enrolling civilians for volunteer naval service; headquarters 
at Racquet Club. 

April 1 — Navy League secures 1,000 civilian volunteers in first day. 

April 11 — Chairmen of stale branches of Pennsylvania Women's Division for National Pre- 
paredness, meet here to plan extension of work. 

April 17 — Company A, Philadelphia Reserves, Navy League, drills at Philadelphia Navy Yard. 

April 18 — American note on sinking liner "Sussex" without warning, sent to Germany. 

April 24 — Southeastern Chapter, American Red Cross, formed a campaign for 50,000 members, 
launched with exhibit in Widener Building. 
German Bazaar opens for week at Convention Hall, Broad Street and Alleghany 
Avenue, under German Red Cross and German Relief Society. 

April 26 — Campaign opens to raise $500,000 in ten days to equip citizens' array of 48,000 men 
as part of Drexel Biddle Mihtary Corps; banquet at Hotel Adelphia, with General 
Leonard Wood as chief speaker. 
General Townsend and British force surrender at Kut-el-Amara {Mesopotamia), to 
Turks. 

May 2 — Twenty-three Philadelphians leave on Navy League practise cruise on U. S. Battle- 
ships Missouri, Wisconsin and Ohio. 

May 3 — First City Troop opens classes for rookies to be held each Wednesday and Thursday 
evenings in May and June. 

May 4 — German note renews "Arabic" pledges and assurances: admits "Sussex" may have been 
sunk by U-boat, but gives conditions of reparation based on restriction to Allied 
blockade. 
Citizens Army of Drexel Biddle Military Corps parades and attends mass meeting 
at Metropohtan Opera House, where Governor, Mayor and others speak. 

May 8 — .American note refuses to consider other questions in dispute in settling sinking of 
"Sussex." 
German note admits sinking "Sussex" and offers reparation. 

May 18 — Austria-Hungarian offensive in Italy opens. 

May 31— First day of the Naval Battle of Jutland. 

Plattsburg rookies, awaiting camp opening, driU at Second Regiment Armory. 

June 1 — Battle of Jutland ends with the British suffering great losses, but retaining cotdrul 
of the sea. 

June 3 — Brusiloff begins Russian offensive against Austria-Hungary. 

June 5 — Many Philadelphians attend third Plattsburg training camp. 

June 6 — Lord Kitchener lost when British cruiser "Hampshire" strikes mine and sinks in 
North Sea. 

June 10 — First Brigade, National Guard of Pennsylvania, fights sham battle on Belmont 
Plateau, and camps in Fairmount Park, as part of campaign for 1,800 new members, 

June 17 — U. S. Naval Transport Henderson launched at Fourth Annual "Navy Day" cele- 
bration, at League Island. 

June 18 — Austrian offensive against Italy ends. 

President Wilson orders National Guard of country to Mexican border. 

June 19 — Pennsylvania National Guard receives orders to mobilize at Mt. Gretna, not later 
than following Wednesday. 
Mayor Smith issues proclamation to display flags during National Guard mobili- 
zation. 

June 20 — Brigadier-General WiUiam G. Price, Jr., orders First Brigade (Philadelphia), National- 
Guard of Pennsylvania, to be under arras in armories, on morning of June 22d. 
Large coramercial and mercantile houses assure employes in Guard that they will 
be paid in full, or in part, while on duty. 

June 21 — First Brigade, National Guard of Pennsylvania, ordered to Mt. Gretna on June 
24th. 
Colonel Charles C. Allen, of First Infantry, discharges entire band, which requested 
two weeks' delay in mobilization to fulfill concert orders. 

June 22 — Officers of First Brigade sworn into Federal service at headquarters in Lincoln 
Building; men assemble in armories. 

23 



June 22— Citizens Soldiers' Aid Committee, formed at meeting in Mayor's reception room, 
with 300 in attendance; an executive committee of twenty-five, to be appointed 
by the Mayor, authorized. 
June 23 — First Brigade passes in farewell parade down Broad Street. 

June 24 — First Brigade, in special trains of two sections for each regiment, departs for Mt. 
Gretna. 
Emergency Aid Committee proffers aid to Citizens Soldiers' Aid Committee in case 
of war with Mexico. 
June 25— Four Philadelphia cavalry troops, company of engineers and hospital and ambulance 

company entrain for Mt. Gretna. 
June 27— Citizens Soldiers' Aid Committee completed, with Mayor Smith, as Chairman, launch 

work for rehef of militiamen's dependents. 
June 28— Mayor's office and Frankhn National Bank Building used as recruiting offices for 

volunteers for National Guard. 
June 30 — Second Regiment leaves for Mt. Gretna for border. 
July 1 — Verdun fighlinij ends. 

Bailie of Ihe Somme opens. 

Second Regiment, National Guard of Pennsylvania, passes through B. & O. 
Station, at 1 a.m.; luncheon served by Pennsylvania Women's Division for National 
Preparedness; vast crowd greets soldiers after waiting for twenty-four hours. 
First Regiment, National Guard of Pennsylvania leaves Mt. Gretna for border. 
July 2— Thhd Regiment leaves Mt. Gretna for border. 
July 6— Four Philadelphia cavalry troops leave Mt. Gretna for border. 

July 7— Philadelphia cavalry troops pass through B. & O. Station, at 1 a.m.; greeted by 
crowd; fed by West Philadelphia branch, Pennsylvania Women's Division for 
National Preparedness. 
Sixth Infantry, National Guard of Pennsylvania, leaves Mt. Gretna for border. 
July n^Brusiloff's Russian offensive against Austria-Hungary ends after remarkable success. 

National Guard personnel sent to border shows First Infantry, 53 officers and 876 
men; Second Infantry, 51 officers and 981 men; and Third Infantry, 51 officers 
and 875 men. 
July 10— Germora merchant submarine " Deulschland" arrives at Baltimore. 
July 15— One hundred and twenty-five Philadelphians in Naval Militia embark at League 

Island for two weeks' practise cruise. 
July 16 — First phase of Somme offensive ends. 
July 17— Citizens Soldiers' Aid Committee, at meeting at City Hall, receives generous pledges 

for support of guardsmen's families. 
July 18 — Second phase of Somme offensive begins. 

Great Britain publishes blacklist of American firms. Eighty-three on original list. 
Seven removed subsequently. 
Aug. 1 — Citizens Soldiers' Aid Committee sends appeal for financial help to 14,000 citizens. 
Emergency Aid Home Relief Division and Permsylvania Women's Division for 

National Preparedness take joint headquarters at 222 S. 18th Street. 
German merchant submarine "Deulschland" leaves Baltimore. 
Aug. 9— War Department order transfers Second Infantry to Second Artillery at El Paso, 

Texas. 
Aug. 15— Three hundred and fifty volunteers of the Association of United States Naval 
Volunteers, which separated from Navy League, depart for practise cruise on 
U. S. S. Rhode Island. 
Aug. 16 — Second phase of Somme batik ends. 
Aug. 27 — Roumania declares war against Germany and Austria. 
Aug. 28 — Italy declares war against Germany. 
Aug. 29 — Germany, Austria and Turkey declare war against Roumania. 

Congress passed Naval Defense Act with three-year building program. 
Sept. 2 — German-Auslria-Hungarian invasion of Roumania begins. 
Sept. 3 — Third phase of Somme battle begins. 
Sept. 7 — United States Shipping Act approved by President. 

24 



Sept. 13 — Secretary Daniels, of Nav^y, in address at League Island, before Atlantic Deeper 

Waterways Association, pledges Navy's support for inland waterways. 
Sept. 19 — War Department announces that brigade of Pennsylvania National Guard will 

soon be ordered home from border. 
Oct. 2 — Prinz Eilel Friederick and Kronprinz Wilhelm, interned German raiders, arrive at 

Philadelphia Navy Yard, from Norfolk, with their crews and also prize crew from 

Appam, totaUng about 750 men; vessels stored in Back Channel and crews begin 

erection of German village ashore. 
Special Joint Connnittee on Care, Sustenance and Relief of Men in the Naval 

Military Service of the United States, meets at City Hall to arrange to continue 

work of Citizens Soldiers' Aid Committee. 
Oct. 3 — Convention Hall leased by Councils' special connnittee for entertainment of national 

guardsmen returning from border. 
Oct. 5 — Mayor appoints a general committee to act in conjunction with councilmanic 

committee in welcoming home guardsmen. 
Oct. 7 — German U-boal, U-53 visits Newport and leaves ivilhin three Iwurs. 

Oct. 8 — U-53 attacks Altied and neutral stiipping off Nantucket, sinkinij one Norwegian, one 

Dutch, and six British freight and passenger steamers. 
Oct. 9 — First Infantry, National Guard of Pennsylvania, arrive home, parades on Broad 

street, and is banqueted at Convention Hall. 
Oct. 10 — Third Infantry, National Guard of Pennsylvania, arrives home, parades on Broad 

Street, and is banqueted at Convention Hall. 
Oct. 12 — National Defense Council, named by President Wilson. 

Oct. 21 — Philadelphia Committee for Armenia Relief takes up collections throughout the city. 
Oct. 22 — Three thousand Armenians and 500 Syrians hold services in St. Stephen's Church 

in behalf of aillicted brethren in Asia Minor. 
Oct. 24 — French attack at Verdun. 
Oct. 31 — Southeastern Chapter, Red Cross, holds first annual meeting and reelects Dr. 

Richard II. llarte to ccmtinue in charge of work. 
Nov. 1 — German merchard submarine " Deals. -hland" arrives at New London. Conn. 

British S. S. "Marina" sunk off Ireland, six Americans lost. 
Nov. 4 — Company B, Engineers, National Guard of Pennsylvania, returu from border. 

parade on Broad Street and are banqueted at State Fencible's Armory. 
Nov. 7 — Woodrow Wilson reelected for second term. 
Nov. 12 — Third phase of Sommc battle ends. 
Nov. 17 — German merchant submarine "Deutschland" in attempting to leave New London, runs 

down accompanying tug and is forced to return to pier: five of tug crew drowned. 
Nov. 21 — German nwrchanl submarine "Deutschland" sails for home. 

Nov. 28 — Provisional government (if Greece declares icar again.'tt Bulgaria and Germany. 
Dec. 6 — Bucharest, Roumania. captured. 

Lieutenant Arnold Bleeker, member of crew of Kronprinz Wilhelm. drowned when 

catboat capsizes in Back Channel. 
Dec. 11 — Second "Made in America Bazaar," conducted for week by Emergency Aid, opens 

in Horticultural Hall. 
Dec. 12 — Germany invites peace negotiations and asks President Wilson to transmit offer to England 

and France. 
Dec. 15 — Conquest of Roumania completed, its army escaping to Russia. 
Dec. 16 — French reconquer nnwh of ground lost at Verdun. 
Dec. 18 — .American note to all belligerents asks terms to l>ring war to an end. 
Dec. 30 — Twelve army aviators complete wing flight from Mineola to League Island. 

1917 
Jan. 4 — Allies refuse to consider German peace offer. 

Four Philadelphia troops request no entertainment upon return from border. 
Jan. 12 — .illies give outline of war aims, including restoration of Allied territory, reparation, 

dismemberment of .Austria-Hungary and partition of Turkey. 
Jan. 16 — Four Philadelphia cavalry troops arrive at West Philadelphia Station and go to 
armories. 

25 



Jan. 18 — President Wilson delivers "Peace Wiihoui Victory" address to Senate, and outlines 

"League of Peace." 
Jan. 31 — German note announces thai all ships will be sunk on sight in war zone, but offering 
safely for one American vessel weekly to Falmouth, England, if given distinetire 
marks and forbidden to carry contraband. 
Feb. 3 — President Wilson gives German Ambassador von Bernstorff his passports and recalls 
Ambassador Gerard. 
President Wilson addresses Congress and gives reasons for action. 
Great crowds watch bulletin boards in all sections of the city. 

Owners of twenty-three high power motor boats offer them to the Government. 
.\rrQy recruiting stations open recruiting campaign in entire district. 
Stoneman Fellowship, at Baptist Temple, pledge 10.000 men for war duty. 
Special police guard placed around Midvale Steel Works. 

Pennsylvania Women's Di\Tsion for National Preparedness announces itself as ready 
to sene. 
Feb. 4 — Mayor promises police cooperation with federal authorities in guEutling Government 
property. 
Southeastern Chapter, Red Cross, is ordered to place local unit on war basis. 
Philadelphia Na>"\- Yard closed to the public. 
Feb. 5 — Philadelphia Tumgemeinde closes its radio station on Tumgemeinde Building. 
Broad Street and Columbia Avenue. 
German sailors on merchant ships in harbor to be arrested if they go ashore. 
State leaders of Pennsylvania Women's Di%'ision for National Preparedness arrange 

for conference of all branches for February 8th. 
Collector of Port Berr\- orders no vessel to sail without proper clearance papers. 
Southeastern Chapter, Red Cross, starts to raise $15,000 for naval base hospital; 
has two army base hospitals ready. 
Feb. 6 — William Howard Taft. at dinner of League to Enforce Peace, in BeUe\Tie-Stratford, 

declares that America is being driven into war. 
Feb. 7 — Delegates to National German .VUiance convention here, pledge loyaltj- to the 

United States. 
Feb. 8 — ^Forty-three branch chairmen of Pennsylvania Women's Di>'ision for National 
Preparedness meet and plan two naval hospitals, one for League Island and one 
for Fort Mott (Delaware). 
Crews of German merchantmen allowed on shore. 
Feb. 9 — ^Herbert Hoover, at City Qub address, makes appeal for war sufferers of Northern 

France and Belgium. 
Feb. 11 — Second Artillen.. National Guard of PennsylvEuiia, returns from border. 

Red Cross api)eals for $100,000 to establish three base hospitals. 
Feb. 12 — Second Artillery-, National Guard of Pennsylvania, parades on Broad Street with 

full equipment, and is banqueted at Armory. 
Feb. 14 — Ambassador Bernstorff sails from ?>ew York. 

Feb. 15 — ^Agitation begun to remove interned German seamen from Philadelphia Na\"y Yard. 
Feb. 16 — ^Urquhart Chapter, Women's Di^■ision, opens working headquarters at 1802 Chestnut 

Street. 
Feb. 19 — Begin erecting barbed wire fence aroimd Gierman village at Navy Yard. 
Feb. 25 — Canard liner "Laconia" torpedoed, three Americans (two women) lost. 
Feb. 26 — President Wilson asks Congress for power to arm .American merchardmen. 
March 1 — Zimmerman's "Mexican-Japanese" note made public. 
March 4 — Pacifist filibuster in Senate defeats armed merchantman bill. 
March 5 — President Wilson inaugurated for second term. 

Pennsylvania Women's Div-ision for National Preparedness and Southesistem 
Chapter, American Red Cross, effect merger. 
March 9 — President calls session of Congress for April 16th. 

March 10 — -Federal agents arrest Frederick Rohner, Adelbert R. Fischer, Mrs. Helene Fischer 
and two chauffeurs on charge of receiving nineteen chronometers smuggled from 
interned German raiders at Navy Yard. 

26 



March 10 — Philadelphia Medical Auxiliary of Council of National Defense formed at meeting 

in Bellevue-Stratford. 
March 11 — British, under General Maude, capture Bagdad. 
March 12 — ^Belgian Relief Committee begins campaign to care for 100,000 Beigiain children 

for six months. 
March 14 — Enlistments in Naval Coast Defense Reserve begin at Naval Home on Grays Ferry 

Road. 
March 15 — Czar of Russia abdicated. 

German armies retire to Hindenhurg line, behind Somme battlefields. 
Rumor circulated that three interned Germans were shot by marines for attempting 
radio messages from decks of interned raiders. 
March 17 — American S. S. "City of Memphis" sunk by U-boat. 

George Wentworth Carr, chairman of Committee on Home Defense for Chamber 
of Commerce, Mayor Smith and naval officers confer on plan for voluntary military 
organization of 15.000 men to cooperate with Naval Coast Defense Reserve. 
Women's Section of Nav-y League formed for rehef work. 
German interned raiders towed out of Back Channel to new berths at Na\-y Yard. 

and crews ordered removed to Forts McPherson and Oglethorpe, Georgia. 
Governors of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, and New York, 
meet at Union League and adopt resolution calling on President to secure funds 
and equipment to put National Guard In shape for immediate work. 
Recruiting office for 6,000 men for Naval Coast Defense Reserve opened in Mayor's 
reception room. 
March 19 — American S. S. "Illinois" and "Vigilancia" sunk by U-boats. 

A. J. Drexel Biddle opens campaign to recruit division of 20,000 men at 1917 Mt. 

Vernon Street. 
Fourteen German seamen attempt to escape from interned raiders at Navy Yard; 
twelve are recaptured and Navy Department reports two drowned. 
March 20 — Philadelphia Home Defense Committee formed at meeting at Mayor's office, with 
300 citizens in attendance. Mayor Smith elected Chairman; John C. Bell, Vice- 
Chairman; George W. Carr, Secretar>-; and Joseph E. Widener, Treasurer. 
Emergency Aid and National League for Women's Service plan to coordinate all 
women's work in state. 
March 21 — President advances date of exlra session of Congress to April 2d. 

Navy enrols first woman for active duty. Miss Loretta Walsh, 734 Pine Street. 
Governor Brumbaugh appoints Pennsylvania Committee of Public Safety, including 

forty Philadelphians, and George Wharton Pepper, as Chairman. 
American tanker Healdton, twenty-one days out of Philadelphia, torpedoed and 
seven Americans lost. 
March 22 — ^Appeal made for 700 men for Philadelphia Naval Militia. 

March 23 — Mayor announces the names of the Executive Committee of the City Home 
Defense in addition to the officers: E. T. Stotesbur>-. Finance Committee; 
A. J. Drexel Biddle, Home Reserve; John F. Lewis, Decorations and Posters; 
W. W. Roper, Recruiting Stations; Wilfiam Potter, Edward A. Noppel, Mrs. 
J. Willis McLTtin, Clarence Wolf, Ernest T. Trigg, John B. Mayer and Cyrus 
H. K. Curtis. 
March 26 — German sailors, guarded by poUce and marines, leave Philadelphia Navy Yard for 

south, on two special trains. 
March 27 — Enrolment of women for national service and for Navy League work opens at 

1428 Walnut Street. 
Mwch 28 — .Vlbert W. Straub, Director of Atlantic Division, Red Cross, tells women of South- 
eastern Chapter of dastardly plot to spread death among wounded American 
soldiers by poisoning bandages. 
Permsylvania Committee of Public Safety organizes at Harrisburg, withGeorge 

^\ harton Pepper, Permanent Chairman, and Effingham B. Morris, Treasurer. 
British War ReUef Bazaar opens in Horticultural Hall. 
Independence Hall thrown open for Naval Coast Defense Reserve recruiting. 

27 




March 28 



National Guard 
open recruiting 



March 29 



Mai 



30- 



March :U 



C^jurtesy of Frank W. Buhler, Stanley Co. of America. 

Nalionat Guardsman yuardinij a Bridge. 

April 1 — Police prohibit Peace Meeting, adverlisetl 
Emergency Peace Federation. 



-Pliiladelphia 
regiments 
campaigns. 

Joseph R. Wilson plans to 
raise regiment of "President's 
Guards" and offer it to 
President Wilson. 

First Infantry, National Guard 
of Pennsylvania, mustered into 
iM'deral serv ice and assigned to 
guarding bridges and munition 
plants eastof the Susquehaima. 

Third Infantry, National Guard 
of Pennsylvania, sworn into 
Federal service. 

Vast patriotic meeting at Inde- 
pendence Square, addressed by 
Senator Hiram Johnson and 
others, and preceded by many 
parades of military, patriotic 
and fraternal bodies gathering 
from all sections of the city, 
for South Broad Street Theater, by 




Coui-tesy of Frank W. Buhler. Stanley Co. of .\merlca. 

Dr. Conwell leading in prayer at Palriotic Meeting in Independence Square. 



28 



April 1 — Philadelphia Military Training Corps, including Drexel Biddle, Land Title and 

Maccabean units, hold review at Landsowne, and addressed by Brigadier-General 

Waller, Marine Corps. 

April 2 — President Wilson addresses Congress, advising declaration of war against Germany. 

Third Infantry, National Guard of Pennsylvania departs in four sections for guard 

duty in western part of State. 
War Department accepts offer of International Motor Club of Philadelphia tender- 
ing its services. 
Recruiting for "President's Guards" opened at 3303 Race Street. 
Battleships of Atlantic Reserve Fleet open recruiting drive from automobiles. 
State Fencibles establish recruiting booth at City Halt. 
April 3 — Senate passes State of War Resolution. 

U. S. Battleship Kansas opens recruiting tent on City Hall plaza. 
April 4 — Plans made for volunteer police force of 20.000 men, composed of single men over 
forty-five, or married men, ineligible for military duty. 
National Security League, at Scottish Rites Hall, endorses conscription. 
April 5 — Governor requests Philadelphia Defense Conuuittee to cooperate with State Com- 
mittee of Public Safety. 
April 6 — House passes Slate of War Resolution. 

PRESIDENT WILSON DECLARES A STATE OF WAR WITH GERMANY. 
Hamburg-American liners Rlisetia and Prinz Oskar, which had been idle in port 

since 1914, are seized by Federal authorities; machinery found damaged. 
Naval Militia ordered to mobilize at First Regiment Armory. 
All recruiting in city spurred. 

Proclamation by mayor in ten languages, warns ahens to obey the law. 
April 7 — Cuba and Panama declare war against Germany. 

Home Defense Committee announces formation of motor transportation corps. 
Home Defense Reserve to have forty-one companies of about 500 men each. 
Battleship Ohio opens recruiting tent on City Hall plaza. 
April 9 — British Armies open .Arras offensive. 

Philadelphia Naval Militia. 170 men, report for duty at Philadelphia Navy Yard. 
Engineers' Club gets behind movement to form another Philadelphia engineer com- 
pany for National Guard (Company E). 
Austria-Hungarian steamer Franconia seized by Federal authorities in Delaware; 
machinery found damaged. 
April 10 — Explosion of undetermined origin at the Eddystone Ammunition Corporation, 
near Chester, kills 121 men and women workers, including thirteen Philadelphians, 
and injures 300, including many from this city. 
April 11 — Brazil severs diplomatic relations with Germany, and seizes forty-six German ships. 
April 12 — Belgian Rehef Committee receives $52,500 from six groups of Chamber of Commerce 

for child relief work. 
April 14 — Navy Department orders cdl wireless stations in city, whether receiving or sending, 
dismantled, save those government owned and operated. 
Three "anti-war" moving pictures withdrawn from circulation by State censors. 
April 15 — First stage of Battle of Arras ends. 

April 17 — Mayor Smith names Committee of 300 to entertain French and British War Missions. 
Engineers Club asked to secure volunteers for regiment of engineers for Roosevelt 

Division. 
Emergency Aid votes for three-course dinners for food conservation. 
April 18 — Mayor and committee call on Secretary Tumulty and Assistant Secretary of State 
Phillips, at Washington, and are assured visit of foreign war missions to Philadel- 
phia. 
Twenty-nine recruits enroll at new Bourse Recruiting Station for volunteer farm 
work, in wheat and rye fields of Northwest. 
April 20 — Naval recruiting mass meeting held at Academy of Music. 

University of Pennsylvania's battalion of 2,000 students is reviewed on Franklin 
Field. 

29 




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Mar 1 — Board <:£ Fiiar aLEM idknES fiar biince of texm al • 



May ^ — Marimes sbee daai^ batde st Scnad ^al Aec& streets. 

P taHfevI raaa Base Ho^xial No. IS, fAjiul meiXaeA. 
May B — \t"aynr'» St^ool Tttn.liiF^«i,^i n CammitiBt arzaBees to send tl > 
sprr.egi y^acs or @k^ t& a 

Jdfecaoa Hn»^nit'ii —it ciflri 1 1 iiT to 
Msy 3 — TTi ruikiaiii ti.i gi Withjitfiew^ BaMiag ty^Ed to iilli miI w eimM irt ef 



s of 



Aid. 



May T — G- - - . . -,1 States Xavj - naumies;. Kmm- 

- • ■ ^ ,-----,- "^imc hi^..-^'. .■ ■ ■ ■' ^. ■ 

Mav — ~" "" - -■ ' — 3t cipiijffli '•"- 

May I - ■ - -'''■-■ ' ' ajiee 

May 11 — TweBay-eevT- - , . , . - Rivgir Pbwer 

May I? 

May "_- - ~ ■ - :. ^J--t - _ s ifivisjoo- 

May L^ ■ ■ . • . --i&r 

y.- : ■-.-■ - . -.jiBiBn ai tlfflsnia- Ba:' 

May AtenBBJe: 

r -J : » _^ L. . - - . , , , , steps to IieJ^ eoBBple' 

oaaaSHT l ■■ . - . '" -.Jingg ira )'l 

May IS — CamaaifSm. 



May 19— Sertiy rf C; - 

Scfaiy&3 ^EsaraL 
GoKial WSaBB G. Kioe, Jr^ BaK>^~. -- _ ■ i -; ;,. ._ 

"VatMBrf Gsend of OennsflvaBa. 
Silay n-^%st LAerty Loan CamiiaiEB bsgii^ PMaiHiJmi dcv^^- ": t^t- <!a $14CteKW> ' '"■' 
3iby ^ — llflAted Static Jfeficsd CiMiB ^mnirn krta- as U. 3. A jsteiediii'. 

sariee at Cooper BattaEoa KIL 
May ^ — Mayor ■mbl^ bea& of soaae of legEstiatinn boai^ 

May 3 — Major eoB^detes iiBwiHimE le^tialiaB boards fat fiorty-tiro legkbatioo tfistiicls. 
jMay ^9 — Obluct Bf^g^-JK^i*— Boavu^ meet wilii li^s^tE^fiSH! f^n awmww qw*! aitgi leain 4}Qtie& 
May 31 — U. S. A. A. CI ka««s for AOoitoan. 
Jame 1 — BaUe sf jlrras andiL 

Ejmgfgency Aid iii^^iiK Enod eoononBy diiv?. 

United States Ai]ny]i«^iiBieiiaiAiiie;diive to laieelCQ^fNiOiiKii in twenty days. 
Jujne - — Mmni u ^M l mJillafy agji i i id l iiij l canqt opeofed at Bybeny, with tuFenty-^oar boys. 

^MDth ((19th]l Ba^ineas nmlaSied at Conumieiaal Mieeain. 
Jnne S — iSaikmai RegisSiraiian Dmr. 

Estimodte Ffedaddpfan emolment will leacb 176^([MM!L 
J^ae 10— Tbeodns Booseireit. as goesl cf five laBinad bnithedioads, in addres at Metio- 
piJitaw Opera HotBeydetfaies that nan urihowtm'tiiA Bfem war Aoold lose vole. 

Marmes liiaah natinnal leonoitiog; we^ with nuss meelhig at Keith's Tbeatie'. 
Jbil 12 — Coif Cimrioriinie of Qreece atikmlex. 

Home Drfaise Reserve begne diflls. 250 drilfans^eis acting as mstmclas at forty 
ooifieis. 
Jme 14 — Fiist Liberty Loan diive enfe; Philadelphia lakes $1-IS,172J*3(IL 
Jane IS-^kd Cxm^ Wedk opais with Ffaifadd^pfaia's quota $a.«NMIt.(NN)L 

1st Telegiaph BattaEon (Beil Oimpany)) leaves for training canqt at Long Branch. 
X.J. 

Opoi nsuuiiiug office for eanSdates Cor Second Officers' Training Canqk. 
Jme 20— It^an Caaan^oa. faeaifal by Eksico Adotta. entertained in Ffailaidelpliia. 
Jne S— Mooter Women's Bed Cknn pm^e fenlores Red Cros driveL 

31 



June 2S — Pennsylvania National Guard and army open week's recruiting drive. 
Philadelphia subscribes $3,200,000 to Red Cross fund. 
Fifty-one Philadelphia draft boards named by governor. 
July 2 — Greece {Government of Alexander) declares war against Bulgaria and Germany. 

Company B, Engineers, despatched to Camp Meade. 
July 4 — City holds official Independence Day celebration at Independence Hall, wilh Dr. 

Ernest LaPlace and Judge John M. Patterson as orators. 
Jul\ 7 — 1st Regiment headquarters and 1st Battalion move from armory to Camp Brown, 

at Connnercial Museum. 
July 9 — Police begin canvas to enlist women in Hoover food army. 
July 10 — Governor names members of two Government appeal boards. 
July 1 1 — City observes French Bastile Day with meeting at Independence Square. 
July 15 — National Guard units not already in service, mobilize in armories. 
July 17 — Truck Companies Nos. 3 and I, National Guard of Pennsylvania, go to Mt. Gretna. 
July 20 — National draft drawing takes place at Washington. 

Thousands walch bidletin boards for draft numbers. 
July 22 — Siam declares war against Austria and Germany. 
July 23 — British Recruiting Mission opens headquarters at 23 S. 9th Street. 
Philadelphia's first quota for National Army fixed at 14,245 men. 
July 27 — Local boards send out first call to draftees to report for examinations. 
Jvily 30 — Physical examinations of draftees begin. 

19th Railway Engineers reviewed in Fairmount Park. 
July 31 — British open offensive around Ypres. 
Aug. 4 — Liberia declares war against Germany. 
Aug. 9 — 19th Railway Engineers leave city before sunrise. 
Aug. 10 — Food Control bill passed. 

Aug. 13 — Company E, Engineers, National Guard of Peimsylvania, sent to Mt. Gretna. 
List of Fort Niagara commissions announced. 

Names of men to go to Second Oflicers' Training Camp at Fort Oglethorpe announced. 
2d Artillery, in camp at Camp Wanamaker, Noble, Pa. 
6th Regiment goes from Armory to Camp Ellis, near Lansdowne. 
Entire 1st Regiment assembled at Camp Brown. 

3d Regiment begins to arrive home from western Pennsylvania, and encamps at 
Camp Taylor, near Springfield, Delaware County. 
Aug. 14 — Cliina declares war against Germany and Austria. 
Aug. 15 — Niagara Training Camp oflicers arrive home on special train. 

Aug. 16 — Company B, Engineers, National Guard of Pennsylvania, with balance of 1st 
Battalion, ordered from Camp Meade to Camp Hancock, Georgia. 
Announce proposed numerical units of 79th Di\ision at Camp Meade. 
Aug. 19 — Italians begin second Isonzo offensive. 

Aug. 20 — Belgian High Commission, headed by Baron Ludovic Moncheur, entertained lavishly 
by city. 
First City Troop; Battery E, 2d .\rtiller\; Company D, 1st Infantry; Company K, 
3d Infantry; and Company I, 6th Infantry, are regimentid advance guards sent 
to Camp Hancock. 
Aug. 22 — Two sections carry men to Second Officers' Training Camp at Oglethorpe, Ga. 
Aug. 28 — War Department halts movement south of 2d Artillery within three hours of de- 
parture time; equipment held on trains. 
Aug. 29 — 2d Artillery leaves Camp Wanamaker for the South. 

Sept. 1 — Philadelphia holds monster parade in honor of drafted men, guard units, marines, 
sailors, defense units and patriotic organizations in line. 
Survey of Hog Island is first step in proposed shipyard for fabricating steel cargo 
steamers. 
Sept. 6 — -leoth Aimiversary of birth of Lafayette, celebrated at Independence Hall, with 
Ambassador Jusserand as guest of honor. 
Field Bakery Co., Field Hospitals Nos. 2 and 3; Ambulance Company No. 2, and 
1st Brigade Headquarters, leave for south. 

32 



Sept. 
Sept. 

Sept. 



Sept. 
Sept. 
Sept. 
Sept. 

Sept. 



Sept. 

Sept. 
Sept. 
Sept. 

Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 

Oct. 



8 — Explosion kills two and injures score at Frankford Arsenal. 

9 — 3d and 6th Regiments hold final review on Garrettsford Road, Delaware County. 
10 — :}(1 Regiment holds farewell parade on Broad Street. 

Philadelphia Tageblall raided by Federal officers, Herman Lemke and Dr. Martin 
Darkow being arrested and warrants issued for three other oflicers of company. 
12 — 1st Infantry and three remaining Philadelphia cavalry troops leave for South. 
1.5 — 3d and 6th Infantry leave for south. 

14 — Five officials of Philadelphia Tageblall held in heavy bail for Federal Grand Jury. 
15 — Federal Grand Jury indicts I^ouis Werner, Editor-in-Chief, and Dr. Martin Darkow, 

Managing Editor, for treason, and other three for violation of Espionage Act. 
16 — Kerensky becomes virtual didalor of Russia. 

Drafted men go to Lansdowne for two days' training with Philadelphia Military 
Training Corps. 
19— First Philadelphia draft army contingent, 387 men, leave from three West Philadel- 
phia districts. 
20 — One hundred and sixty-five men from 12th District leave for Camp Meade. 
22— About 3,000 drafted men leave for Camp Meade. 

23 — Two thousand eight himdred and thirty-five drafted men, completing 4.5 per cent 
of the Philadelphia increment, leave for Camp Meade. 
1 — Second Liberty I-oan Campaign opens. 

3 — William Potter appointed Federal Fuel Administrator for Peimsylvania. 

6 — Last increment of Philadelphia's 50 per cent of drafted men leave for Camp Meade. 

10 — E. T. Stotesbury reelected Chairman of Southeastern Chapter, American Red Cross. 

Francis A. Lewis appointed Federal Fiu-X Administrator for Philadelphia. 
15 — Women's Ijibcrty Loan Connnittee organized. 




Courtesy iif Frank W. Buliler. Stanley Co- of .America. 

Answer inn '■'"' /"'"■.•>•/ I>r:ifl ('all. 

33 



Oct. 17 — Transport "Antilles" sunk by submarines; sixty-seven lost. 

One Philadelpbian, H. H. Cummings, lost on Antilles. 
Oct. 24 — Austria-Hungary counter-attacks Italians on Isonzo and at Caporetlo. 
Oct. 25 — Liberty Bell parade in Independence Square, on behalf of Second Liberty Ijian. 
Oct. 26 — Brazil declares war against Germany. 

Oct. 27 — Second Liberty Loan drive ends. Philadelphia subscribed $234,901,000. 
Nov. 1 — ^Women's Committee, Council of National Defense, starts two-day drive to enlist 

600,000 Philadelphia women for war work. 
Nov. 3 — First American killed in action in France — Enright, Gresham and Hay. 
Nov. 4 — Four thousand draftees leave for Camp Meade. 
Nov. 7 — Lenine and Trotsky Revolution overthrows Kerensky in Russia. 
Nov. 8 — Italians in retreat reach Piave River line. 

Nov. 11 — Home Defense Reserves fight sham battle in Fainnount Park. 
Nov. 12 — Y. M. C. A. opens campaign for funds. 

Federal agents begin active investigation of food shortage and profiteering. 

Pennsylvania Railroad lifts freight embargo to supply city with coal. 
Nov. 15 — .John Frederick Lewis, named Chief of Section No. 2 of Recruiting Service for United 
States Shipping Board and its Schools of Navigation and Marine Engineering 
between the Connecticut River and Norfolk, Va., to train officers for the Merchant 
Marine. 
Nov. 16 — Clemenceau Ministry formed in France. 

Ex-President Taft addresses Y. M. C. A. campaign rally at Bellevue-Stratford Hotel. 
Nov. 18 — Sixty Poles leave Philadelphia, to serve in Polish Army. 
Nov. 19— Y. M. C. A. campaign nets $1,792,237. 
Nov. 20 — Battle of Cambrai begins. 

Destroyer "Chauncey" rammed and sunk in war zone. 

Seven wheatless meals a week required by Food Administration. 
Nov. 23 — British attack at Cambrai ends. 

Nov. 26 — State Food Administrator Heinz fixes food prices for City and State. 
Nov. 28 — Announce list of officers commissioned at Second Officers' Training Camp, at Fort 
Oglethorpe, Georgia. 

Food Administration requires meatless Tuesdays. 
Nov. 30 — Ludendorff attacks British at Cambrai. 

Food Administration requires meatless Fridays. 

University of Pennsylvania Hospital Unit No. 20 mustered into Federal service. 
Dec. 1 — ^Volunteer enlistments in Army, Navy and Marine corps resumed. 
Dec. 3 — German attacks at Cambrai end. 

War Savings Stamps Campaign opens with Robert K. Cassatt as Philadelphia 
District Chairman. 
Dec. 6 — Destroyer ".Jacob Jones" sunk in war zone by submarines. 

Six Philadelphians lost on destroyer Jacob Jones. 

Walter E. Goodenough, General Manager of American International Shipbuilding 
Corporation, in address to 900 Hog Island employes, tells them of 120 ships to 
be fabricated there for Government. 
Dec. 7 — United States declares war against Austria-Hungary. 

Jay Cooke named Federal Food Administrator for Philadelphia. 
Dec. 10 — General Allenby, with British Army, captures Jerusalem. 
Dec. 13 — Final day for volunteer enlistments brings total to 2,750. 

Henry P. Davidson, Chairman of war council of American Red Cross, addresses mass 
meeting in Metropolitan Opera House preceding Red Cross membership drive. 
Dec. 17 — Red Cross membership drive opens. 
Dec. 19 — .\uslria-Hungary-Italian fighting ends. 

City promised 15,000 tons of anthracite daily to relieve fuel shortage. 

Physicians named to medical advisory boards. 

Councils special conunittee on care and sustenance of men in military and naval 
service visits Camp Meade. 
Dec. 24 — Red Cross campaign closes with more than 540,000 members. 

34 



Dec. 27 — William G. McAdoo appointed Director-General of Railroads. 
Dec. 28 — United States lakes over control of railroads. 

Railroads of City in Allegheny region. 
Dec. 30 — Coldest day in nine years, with thermometer at four degrees below zero, and coal 
shortage acute. 

1918 
Jan. 1 — Pennsylvania Railroad annuls one hundred trains and Philadelphia & Reading 

annuls sixteen. 
Two killed, six injured, at explosion at Navy Yard. 
Jan. 2 — Mobs raid coal cars on West Philadelphia sidings. 

Jan. 3 — One thousand four hundred drafted men leave for Camp Meade, completing 86 

per cent of city's first quota. 
Jan. 4 — Pennsylvania Railroad embargoes all general freight to give city coal. 

Jan. 8 — President Wilson delivers his "li Points" address to Congress. 

Jan. 9 — Theodore Roosevelt visits war industries and addresses Peirce School, commence- 

ment exercises, at Academy of Music, scoring the country for unpreparedness. 
National Shipbuilding Labor Adjustment Board begins hearings at Hotel Walton 

on question of wages affecting 45,000 shipyard workers in district. 
Jan. 15 — Three men and five women socialists convicted in criminal court for "unlawfully 

endeavoring to persuade persons from entering the service of the United States." 
Jan. 16 — Fuel Administrator Garfield issues fuel conservation order, closing all industries, 

except shipbuilding and food producers, for five days beginning January 18th, and 

commands plants to remain closed on Mondays and holidays for ten weeks; 

order effects stores, theaters, etc.; 650,000 men made idle in Philadelphia district. 
Jan. 21 — City and Government authorities take first steps for homes for Hog Island workers, 

in Fortieth Ward. 
Jan. 27 — Rear Admiral Francis T. Bowles appointed Assistant General Manager in charge of 

agency yards of the Fleet Corporation and ordered from Washington to this city. 
Food Administration issues orders for wheatless Mondays and Wednesdays, and for 

all suppers to be likewise wheatless. 
Jan. 29 — Senate Commerce Committee decides to probe charge of $6,000,000 profit in building 

of Hog Island. 
Four Minute Men open anti-sedition drive in City. 
Feb. 4 — Fuel Administration seizes surplus domestic size coal in City for general distribution. 
Feb. 5 — Rear Admiral Bowles opens office in Medical Arts Building, and assumes control 

of Hog Island and Bristol. 
Feb. 6 — War Welfare Council formed to conduct all future welfare drives. 

Adalbert K. Fischer, seized and interned as a dangerous afien enemy. 
Feb. 12 — Americanization campaign opens with rally at Metropolitan Opera House, Senator 

Kenyon, of Iowa, being the principal speaker. 
Recruiting campaign for shipyard workers opens station in Widener Building. 
Feb. 13 — Fuel Administrator Garfield suspends Monday closing order. 

Police, after ten-day campaign, register 6,481 German alien enemies in City. 
Feb. 14 — Plant of Schutte and Koerting, 12th and Thompson streets, seized by Alien Property 

Custodian. 
Feb. 20 — Department of Justice begins probe of Hog Island. 
Feb. 26 — Naval tug Cherokee sinks in storm twelve miles off Fen wick Island Light; Philadelphia 

commander and two men included in twenty-nine lost; ten survivors rescued from 

raft. 
Feb. 27 — Philadelphia sends last of its 100 per cent quota to Camp Meade, under first call 

for 14,245 men 
Feb. 28 — General Allenby and British Army take Jericho. 

Food Administration hmits bread rations to two pounds per week, per person. 
March 3 — Russian Soviet signs Brest-Litovsk peace treaty with Germany. 

35 




Courtesy of Frank 



Stanley Co. of America. 

The Arclihislmi) of York ami Bishoj) lihiiietiwile 



March 4 — Archbishop of York visits City. 

March 18 — During week of March 18th, enrolment of 8,000 boys and men begun, for Pennsyl- 
vania's Farm Army. 
March 19 — Philadelphia oilicer, one of sixteen killed when destroyer Manley is in collision in 

war zone. 
March 21 — Ludendorff begins Somme offensive. 

Congress passes hill giving President power to operate railroads to end of war. 
March 23 — British caterpillar tank arrives to boost British and Canadian recruiting campaign. 
March 26 — Marshal Foch appointed Allied Generalissimo. 

Judge Dickinson orders Federal Jury to acquit two Tagehlalt editors accused of 

treason; to be tried later on espionage charge. 
March 28 — British halt German Somme offensive williin gun range of Amiens. 

Germans repulsed in attack at Arras. 
March 31 — First daylight saving law becomes effective. 
April 1 — Base Hospital No. 20 leaves for France. 

April 2 — Five hundred men, first contingent of second draft quota, leave for Camp Meade. 
April 3 — ^Approximately $500,000,000 worth of orders, covering construction of 382 ships, 

by eleven Delaware River shipyards, announced by Admiral Bowles. 
April 6 — Third Liberty Loan campaign opens with exercises, marking unveiling of Statue 

of Liberty, in South Penn Square. 
April 7 — Hog Island employes observing "Liberty Day" pledge themselves to win war 

with ships. 
April 9 — Ludendorff launches Lys offensive toward Channel ports. 
April 14 — Navy Department announces disappearance at sea of naval collier "Cyclops," with 

293 officers and men. 

36 



April 11 — Six Philadelphia men lost on Cyclops. 

April 16 — Charles M. Schwab named Director-General of Emergency Fleet Corporation. 

Philadelphia named as port of debarkation for supplies and troops, by War Depart- 
ment. 
April 19 — Schwab annomices that Emergency Fleet Corporation offices will be transferred 

from Washington to Philadelphia, and commandeers Gomery-Swartz Building, 

Broad and Cherry streets. 
April 20 — Women war workers parade 25,000 strong for Liberty Loan. 
April 21 — Guatemala declares war against Germany. 
April 22 — Vice situation, in Philadelphia, cleared by appointment of Captain William B. Mills 

as Acting Superintendent of Police. 
April 2.5 — William Howard Taft makes two local addresses on behalf of Liberty I^oan. 

Dragnet out for 10,000 British slackers in city. 
April 26 — British close Zeebrugge harbor in daring naral feat. 

Thirty-five thousand school children parade with Liberty Bell for Liberty Loan. 
April 27 — Four hundred and si.xty-two men depart for Camp Meade, as first contingent of 

3,632 men ordered to Camps Meade and Lee, in five-day movement. 
British halt German offensive at Lys. 
April 28 — Provisional brigade of 78th Division, from Camp Dix, parades on Broad Street, in 

Liberty Loan. 
April 29 — Eleven of Pershing's Crusaders arrive for Liberty Loan. 

Sixty-seven Philadelphia High School boys, first of local School Farm Army, leave 

for State College camp. 
May 1 — Sixty-six men drown when French cruiser rams coastwise steamer City of Athens. 

off Delaware coast. 
May 4 — Third Liberty Loan ends; Philadelphia subscribes §169,350,600. 
May 5 — S. S. Tuckahoe launched at New York Shipbuilding Corporation plant, 75 per cent 

complete, in twenty-seven days and three hours after first piece of steel was laid. 
May 6 — Nicaragua declares war against Germany. 
May 8 — A. Merritt Taylor, named head of Transportation and Housing Section, Emergency 

Fleet Corporation. 
May 9 — British partly close harbor of Ostend to submarines. 
May 13 — One hundred and five French Blue Devils pay city brief visit. 
Thrift Pledge Week opens in new War Savings Stamp drive. 
May It — Board of Education votes to end teaching of German in public schools. 
May 15 — First air mail route from New York to Washington opened, with half-way stop at 

Philadelphia (Byberry). 
Lieutenant Torrey H. Webb, United States Signal Service, pilots first plane to this 

city. Lieutenant James C. Egerton continues flight to Washington. 
May 17 — Governors and former governors of thirty-four states gather at Independence Hall 

and pledge themselves and their respective states "to carry the war to a vic- 
torious end." 
May 19 — War Chest campaign for $20,000,000 opens with many exercises. 
May 22 — Detachment of Company L, 315th Infantrv, first 79th Division unit to visit city, 

takes part in Women's Service flag parade for War Chest drive. 
May 23 — Costa Rica declares war against Germany. 

Provost Marshal General Crowder issues "Work or Fight" order. 
May 26 — One thousand two hundred drafted men leave for Camp Meade. 
May 27 — Ludendorff launches Aisne offensive. 

Schooner Edna, from Philadelphia, towed into port a derelict, and gives first warning 

of submarine operations off the coast. 
May 28 — ist Division. .American Expeditionary Force, captures Canligny. 
May 30 — Charles H. Markham takes charge of Allegheny region. United States Railroad 

Administration. 
War Chest Ccmapaign extended. 
Announce winners of commissions at Third Officers' Training Camp, Camp Hancock. 

37 




Courtesy of the Diiladelphia "Inqiii; r 

French "lilua Devils' cuinr In Philudelphia. 



June 1 — Transfer of oflScers of Emergency Fleet Corporation frdiii Washington to Philadelphia, 

begun. 
June 2 — German submarine (U-151) destroys Carolina. Texal and Winneconne, steamships; 
and Isabel B. Wiley, Edward H. Cole and Samuel B. Haskell, schooners, in raid off 
Jersey and Delaware coasts. 
June 3 — Tanker Herbert L. Pratt damaged by mine off Delaware Breakwater. 
June 4 — Crew of Edna, and of Schooners Hauppauge and Hatlie Dunn, reach New York 
with stor>' of being eight days prisoners on the U-151. 
Port of Philadelphia closed for three hours. 
June 5 — 2d American Division enters battle against German Marne offensive. 

Second registration day for men who became twenty-one since Jime 5, 1917. 
Sergeant-Major Ryan arrested as bogus war hero. 
June 9 — Fourth German offensive (Montdidier-Noyon) opens. 

June 13 — Emergency Aid asked by Federal authorities to supervise welfare problems for 
women entering war industries. 
War Chest fiUed. 
Fourth German offensive stopped. 
June 15 — Austro-Hungarian offensive on Italian Piavo line opens. 
June 23 — Austria-Hungary begins to retire from Italian front. 
June 27 — National draft lottery for June 5th registrants held. 

June 28 — First Liberty Sing held at Liberty Statute, with 1,200 sailors and marines parti- 
cipating. 
July 1 — Food Administration established sugar ration of three pounds per month, per person. 
Federal Grand Jury starts draft scandal investigation. 

Mrs. Emma C. BergdoU arrested for aiding her son, Grover C, to dodge draft duty. 
July 4 — Six cargo carriers and two destroyers launched as Delaware River district's part 
in the national Fourth of July launching of one hundred ships. 
Sixty thousand ahen-born march in great patriotic parade. 

38 




Courtesy of the Atlantic Refining Co. 

Tank Sleamxhip "Ufrhrrl L. Pnill" duinayed hy a Cennaii Mine uff Hen and Chicken Slioals, 

at the entrance to Delaware Bay. 



July 
July 
July 
July 
July 
July 
July 



July 



July 
July 

July 
July 

July 



1— Naval barracks, at Sewell's Point, N. J., destroyed by mysterious fire. 
6 — Pennsylvania Reserve Militia goes to Mt. Gretna to camp for two weeks. 
9 — Southeastern chapter, Red Cross, starts drive to enrol 300 nurses. 
10 — Fifth Ward draft board suspended by order of President Wilson. 
11 — Explosion at Frankford Arsenal kills two and injures six. 
12 — Haiti declares war against Germany. 

14 — Bastile Day celebrated at Mass Meeting at Metropolitan Opera House, speakers, 
including George Wharton Pepper, James M. Beck, and Lieutenant Paul de 
Perigord, French soldier-priest. 
Ten thousand people at Valley Forge celebrate Bastile Day and honor United States 

Marines, from League Island and Camp Fuller, Paoli, Pa. 
Federal agents and marmes arrest 400 in Chester vice clean-up, forerunner of slacker 
raids. 
1.5 — Ludendorff opens fifth offensive (Cliampagne-Marne). 

28th Division, excluding artillery, engaged south of the Marne. 
Marines open week's recruiting drive. 
18 — Foch's counter-attack (Ainse-Marne offensive) stops German drive. 
19 — Armored cruiser "San Diego" sunk by mine off Fire Island, N. Y.; six seamen lost. 

Honduras declares war against Germany. 
23 — Department of Justice starts hunt for Erwin Bergdoll, draft dodger. 
24 — Fuel Administration enforces lightless nights for the first four days of each week to 

conserve coal. 
26 — Twenty South Americcm diplomats inspect Hog Island. 

39 




Mrs. Wilson C.hrisli^ninq Die "Quislconck.' 



July 29 — First casualties of the 28th Division bepin to be received in city. 

Aug. 2 — Two huiiflrt'd men arrested in Woodside Park slacker raid, conducted by Department 

of Justice and .\uierican Protective League. 
Food Administration cuts sugar rations to two pounds per month, per person. 
Aug. 3 — Watonwan, first ship to be launched at the Merchant Shipbuilding Corporation, 

Bristol, sticks on ways. 
Aug. 5 — Mrs. Wilson (accompanied by the President) christens the Quislconck, Hog Island's 

first ship. 
Aug. 6 — Five hundred men arrested in Shibe Park slacker raid. 
Aug. 8 — British open Somme offensive. 
Aug. 10 — -American Isl Army organized. 

Aug. 12 — Dry zone established in one-half mile radius of Frankford Arsenal. 
Aug. 14 — Walouan launched successfully at Bristol. 
Aug. 15 — Several hundred arrested in Atlantic City slacker raid, conducted by Department 

of Justice and Philadelphia branch of American Protective League. 
.\.ug. 18 — Oise-Aisrte offensive launched. 

53d Artillery Brigade of 28th Division enters fighting. 
Aug. 19 — Ypres-Lys offensive launched. 

One hundred and fifty negroes arrested in South Philadelphia slacker raid. 

40 




Courtesy of A. -I. S. C. 



Tlw "^Jii islronci':" rrdily Jiir hrr JirsI (rip. 



Aug. 
Aug. 

Aug. 



Aug. 

Aug. 
Sept. 
Sept. 
Sept. 
Sept. 
Sept. 
Sept. 



Sept. 13 



Sept. 
Sept. 



Sept. 
Sept. 
Sept. 
Sept. 
Sept. 



22 — First local curb market opened at North College and Ridge avenues. 

24 — National Registration Day for men who have reached twenty-one since Juno .S, 

1918. 
26 — Battle of the Scarpe opens. 

One thousand two hundred and eighty-one drafted men leave for Camp Lee. 
New call received for 10,000 men. 
27 — Submarine Chaser No. 209 sunk by Felix Taussig, in mistake for submarine south 

of New York; 4 Philadelphians among seventeen lost; five saved. 
30 — Five hundred and fifty men captured in vice raids in city. 
1 — Fuel Administration enforces first "Gasless Sunday." 
2 — Ten thousand men, war workers in Labor Day Parade. 
3 — Battle of Scarpe ends. 

5 — District Appeal Roard No. 2 dismis.sed by Provo.st Marshal General. 
11 — $300,000 fire in New York Shipbuilding Corporation. 
12 — Battle of Havrincoart-Epehy opens. 
Battle of St. Mihiel opens. 
National Registration Day for men from eighlci'n to twenty-one and from ihirty- 

one to forty-five; 240,.i63 registered in city. 
St. Mihiel salient reduced hy 1st American .Army. 
Federal Grand Jury indicts twenty-eight for various draft frauds. 
15 — .illied dritv in Balkans opens. 
17 — Battle of Harrincourt-Epehy ends. 

The Spanish influenza makes its appearance in city when fourteen nurses and five 
internes, at the Pennsylvania Hospital, are reported ill as the result of observations 
and research upon six sailors taken there suffering with the disease. 
18 — One thousand influenza cases rejuirted in epidemic at Pliiladelphia Navy Yard. 
19 — Allenby begins final campaign against Turkey, in .Asiatic Turkey. 
21 — Bulgarian armies retreat in Balkans. 

24 — Registration of women for new- W omen's Food Army begvm. 
25 — One thousand four hundred cases of influenza reported in city. 

41 



Sept. 26 — Meiise-Argonne and Champagne offensives begin. 

28th anil 79lh (National Army) divisions, entering fighting. 
27 — Five Tagebtalt defendants convicted of having violated the Espionage Act. 
28 — Pageant on Broad street precedes opening of Fourth Liberty Loan. 
30 — Bulgaria granted an Armistice. 

U. S. A. T. C. Ticonderoga sunk by submarine (U-152), 230 lives lost; twenty-tliree 
saved and two captured. 
1 — Student Army Training Corps becomes compulsory in all colleges and universities. 
2 — Influenza epidemic spreads to all parts of the city. 

3 — Board of Health closes pubhc schools; all Liberty Loan meeting indoors called ofi'. 
4 — Second stage of Meuse-Argonne offensive begins. 

Five hundred and seventy deaths and 4,064 cases of influenza reported. 
Board of Health closes aU saloons, theaters and churches. 
8 — Second battle of La Cateau begins. 
9 — 2d American Army created. 
14 — Belgians open Dixmude offensive. 
16 — Seven hundred and eleven deatlis in twenty-four hours estabUshes an influenza 

record for city. 
n— Battle of tlie Selle begins. 
20 — Fourth Liberty Loan ends; Philadelphia subscribes, $311,306,250. 

Influenza epidemic considered well under control. 
23 — Six hundred Home Defense reservists patrol beats of police made ill by influenza. 
24 — Italy begins Victory offensive. 

25 — Board of Health lifts quarantine on schools and churches. 

26 — Representatives of 65,000.000 Slavs meet at Independence Hall to declare the 
independence of the mid-luiropean states. 



Sept. 
Sept. 
Sept. 



Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 



Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 

Oct. 
Oct, 

Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct, 




Courtesy of the Philadelphia "Press." 

Reading the Declaration of Independence of Mid-European Nations, Independence Square. 

42 




Courtesy of Frank W. Buhler, Stanley Co. of America. 

Governor Sproul and members of the Union League at the IJIjcrty Statue- 



Armistice Day, t'llH. 



Oct. 26 — ^Board of Health lifts quarantine against .saloons, theaters and public meetings. 
Nov. 1 — Battle of Samlire begins. 

Final stage of Meuse-Argonne offensive begins. 
Nov. 3 — Austro-Hungarian armies in Italy completely routed. 
Nov. 4 — Austria-Hungary granted an armistice. 

Italian colony holds great celebration for victory, culminating with meeting in In- 
dependence Square. 
Nov. 5 — ^William C. Sproul elected Governor of Pennsylvania. 

43 



Nov. 6 — Federal agents and American Protecti\e League raid Olympic boxing club for 

slackers. 
Nov. 7 — False armistice report starts jubilee in city. 

Secretary of the Navy Daniels, at reception to Director Schwab, at Metropolitan 

Opera House, tells Emergency Fleet he favors big merchant marine. 
Nov. 11— ARMISTICE DAY. 

President Wilsons Armistice Duy I'rocluuiatioii; "Aly fellow countrymen — The 

armistice was signed this morning. Everything for which America fought, has 

been accomplished. It will now be our fortimate duty to assist by example, by 

sober, friendly counsel, and by material aid, in the establishment of just democracy 

throughout the world. Woodrow Wilson." 
Nov. 13 — Food Administration lifts all wheat restrictions. 

Nov. 21 — President Wilson signs War Prohibition Bill, making nation dry after July 1. l')19. 
Nov. 27 — War Department orders demobilization of Student Army Training Corps. 
Dec. 1 — British cruiser Cumberland arrives at Navy Yard. 
Dec. 4 — Captain Alfred F. B. Carpenter, hero of Zeebrugge, is speaker at Red Cross meeting 

at Academy of Music, opening Red Cross Christmas membersliip drive. 
Dec. .5 — First British armed force to parade streets of Philadelphia since Revolution, is 

detachment of sailors and marines from H. M. S. Cumberland. 
Dec. 7 — President Wilson sails for Peace Conference. 



1919 
Jan. 30 — First troopship with returning American soldiers to reach this port is American 
liner Haverford, with 2.500 men of 6.5th Coast Artillery; 138 wounded colored 
enlisted men, and 38 wounded and sick officers. 




Courtesy of Frank \\. Buhler. Stanley Co. of Ameriea. 

Troops on the "Haverford." 
44 



Feb. 21 — ^American liner Northland arrives with 47 Red Cross and Y. M. C. A. workers and 

1,50 1 fighting men. 
Feb. 23 — President Wilson reaches Boston, returnimj from Peace Conference. 
March 5 — President Wilson sails again for Peace Conference. 
March 22 — American Hner Haverford arrives with 2,095 American soldiers, including 100 Penn- 

sylvanians. 
April 20 — Victory Loan opens with un\ eiling of Victory Statue. 
April 28 — Transport Mongolia reaches New York with first 28th Division imits; part of 11 1th 

Infantry. 
April 29 — Transport Kroonland reaches New York with balance of 111th Infantry. 
April 30 — Transport Finlarui arrives at New York with 103d Engineers. 

Transports Pocalmntas and Mercury race up the Delaware with Major-General 

Muir and the 112th Infantry complete, and 107th Machine Gun Battalion. 
May 4 — Transport Maui brings 109th Infantry to Philadelpliia. 
May 7 — Transport Liheralor brings 103d Field vSignal Batt;dion, 103d Supply Train ami 

balance of 103d Engineers, to Philadelphia. 
May 9 — Transport Mongolia reaches New York with 53d Artillery Brigade Headcjuarters, 

107th and 109th Field Artillery and 103d Sanitary Train. 
May 10— Victory Loan ends; Philadelphia subscribed $208,450,500. 

May 11 — Transport Edgar F. Luckenbach arrives at Philadelphia with part of 110th Infantry. 
May 12 — Transport Sanlu Olivia arrives at Philadelphia with balance of llOth Infantry. 
May 15 — 28tb Division 1 olds last review in monster parade on Broad, Chestnut and Market streets. 
May 16 — Transport Peerless reaches Philadelphia with 108th Field Artillery and 108th Machine 

Gun Battalion, too late for the Divisional Review. 
May 26 — Transport Princess Maloika reaches New York with first units of 79th Division — 314th 

Infantry; 304th Field Signal Battalion and 15 1th \rtillery Brigade Headquarters. 
Transport Tiger arri\es in New York with 310th Field Artillery. 
Transport Virginian arrives at Newport News, Va.. with 312th Field Artillery and 

311th Machine Gun Battalion; met by representatives of Philadelphia Welcome 

Home Committee. 
May 28 — Transport Edward Luckenbach arrives at New York with 311th Field Artillery and 

312th Machine Gun Battalion. 
May 29 — Transport Kroonland arrives at New York with part of 316th Infantry, Divisional 

Headquarters, 304th Engineers, Headquarters Troop and Divisional Train Head- 
quarters. Major-General Jos. E. Kuhn greeted at the dock by Mayor Smith 

and Committee from Philadelphia. 
Transport Texan reaches Philadelphia with balance of 316th Infantry. 
May 30^Transporl Santa Rosa arrives at Philadelphia with the 315th Infantry (Philadelphia's 

Own). 
May 30 — Secretary of the Navy Daniels witnesses launching of five ships at Hog Island 

in forty-eight minutes. 
May 31 — Transport Dakolan arrives at Philadelphia with 304th Supply Train, 79th Military 

Police Company, detachment of 310lh Field Artillery and Companies L and M, 

315th Infantry. 
June 1 — Transport Shoshone brings final 79th Division men to Philadelphia; Horse Battalion 

of 304th Ammunition Train and 301th Sanitary Train. 
Transports Central Gorgas and Canandaigua arrive at Philadelphia with 933 and 

1,327 troops, respectively. 
June 28 — Versailles Peace Treaty with Germany signed by Allies. 
Sept. 10 — Austro-Hungarian peace treaty signed at St. Germain. 

Sept. 26 — His Eminence, Cardinal Mercier, Archbishop of Malines, is guest of city. 
Oct. 27 — The King and Queen of the Belgians and the Duke of Brabant, received by Mayor 

Smith. Also entertained by the Belgian Committee of the Emergency Aid, and 

by the Red Cross. The King christens LInited States Army Transport Cantigny, 

at Hog Island. 
Nov. 18 — Prince of Wales makes brief visit to city. 
Nov. 27 — Treaty with Bulgaria signed by Allies at Neuilly. 

45 




MAYOR SMITH'S WAR COMMITTEES 
William Bell Clark 

^ARGE groups of public-spirited citizens were twice called 
into volunteer service by Mayor Thomas B. Smith during 
the mid-years of his term. Both functioned admirably, 
the first, in 1916, in caring for the families of the National 
Guardsmen from this city sent to the border, and the 
second, in 1917, in encouraging patriotic endeavor, aiding 
recruiting, preparing for home defense and oifering prac- 
tical assistance to service men and their families. 

The volunteer organization of 1916 was the Citizens' 
Soldiers Aid Committee of Philadelphia; the one of 1917, 
the Philadelphia Hf>me Defense Committee. While their duties were widely diver- 
gent, the personnel in each instance was somewhat similar, and the Mayor was 
Chairman of each. Likewise, the Mayor's reception room was generally the 
meeting place, and the original office personnel remained almost intact through 
the life of both organizations. For these reasons it has been deemed best to deal 
with them in a single chapter. 

In the few years which have elapsed since the days of the Mexican border and 
those of the World War, confused impressions have arisen regarding the work of 
the mayor's committees and those of other organizations. Frequently the Citizens' 
Soldiers Aid Committee and the .Joint Councilmanic Committee have been mis- 
taken as one and the same, while the myriad of mushroom organizations which 
sprang into temporary existence in the early days of 1917 have resulted in hazy 
ideas as to just what each did. 




Plioto by L. R. Snow. 



Philadelphia Mounted Police. 
46 



To one seeking to separate "the wheat from the chaff," the files of the Phila- 
delphia newspapers were che first recourse. Their columns were filled with valu- 
able information; the early activities of each of the committees were described 
in full. But the world-wide war news of 1916 and 1917 could not help but crowd 
the committee work into narrowing space until it eventually disappeared. This 
was particularly true when, with the first hurrah at an end, the organizations got 
down to routine. Fortunately, the original files of both committees are in exis- 
tence. Those of the Citizens' Soldiers Aid Committee are in the oflice of George 
Wentworth Carr, who was Secretary of both organizations; those of the Philadel- 
phia Home Defense Committee in the Mayor's filing room, No. 353, City Hall. 

The Citizens' Soldiers Aid Committee 

On June 18, 1916, a Uttle more than three months after Pancho ViUa and 
his Mexican bandits raided the border town of Columbus, N. M., President 
Wilson, by official proclamation, called the National Guard into Federal service. 
Two days later, Brigadier-General WiUiam G. Price, Jr., commanding the 1st 
Infantry Brigade^the 1st, 2d and 3d Regiments, all of Philadelphia— ordered the 
men under arms in their respective armories on the morning of June 22d, and, 
on the day of mobiUzation, the Citizens' Soldiers Aid Committee was formed. 

Mayor Smith had issued a call for the meeting the previous day and more 
than 300 representative citizens crowded into Room 202 (the Mayor's reception 
room) in response to his request. The mayor, as chairman of the meeting, outfined 
the purpose — to take steps to safeguard the famifies of the guardsmen by extending 
financial aid to those whose income was cut suddenly from a Uving wage to the 
thirty dollars a month paid by the Government to an enlisted man. In the course 
of his opening address he said : 

"No red tape methods should be pennitted to delay temporary relief where the need is 
apparent. It is far better that an miworthy few should impose upon us, than that the sufferings 
of the many deserving be prolonged, while a too critical investigation of their cases is being made. 
Our aim should be quick, effective, but quiet helpfulness For the present, and until experience 
has indicated more clearly the phases into which our work will develop, our organization should 
be simple and flexible; and I, therefore, suggest that our officers and committee be limited to 
a chairman, vice-chairman, secretary, treasurer, an executive committee, a managing committee, 
and a finance committee. Obviously the first thing needed is money and that in large amounts, 
[f Philadelphia's soldiers should be in the field for a year, we shall need hundreds of thousands of 
dollars. We cannot start too soon to raise it. Some sources from which speedy responses should 
be expected have occurred to me. Some of the plans suggested were by large individual sub- 
scriptions from Philadelphia citizens of wealth; the use of glass bowls in public places, and appeal 
to pastors of churches to take up special collections." 

Following the Mayor's suggestions an election was held and the following 
officers selected; Chairman of the General Committee, the Mayor; Vice-Chairman, 
Colonel Sheldon Potter; Treasurer, Joseph E. Widener, and Secretary, George Went- 
worth Carr. In addition it was decided to have a managing committee of the 
officers and eleven other members; an executive committee of sixty-five, and finance 
committee of eighteen. 

The Citizens' Soldiers Aid Committee became operative on June 24th, within 
one hour after the first troop train had left the city for Mt. Gretna, when an appU- 

47 



cation was received from a twenty-year old bride of a few months. She was given 
immediate assistance and subsequently placed in a lucrative position. Between 
June 21th and July 7th, the Committee paid out $,508 without any investigation, 
following the Mayor's idea that it was better to lose a few dollars than to permit 
some needy and worthy person to suffer. 

The first meeting of the executive committee of sixty-five was held on June 
27th, at which time a large sum of money was pledged. The personnel of the Ex- 
ecutive Committee was as follows: 

Herbert D. Allman, Richard L. Austin, C. C. A. Baldi, John C. Bell, General R. Dale Benson, 
A. J. Drexel Biddle, former Mayor Rudolph Blankenburg, Samuel T. Bodine, Charles S. Calwell, 
George Wentworth Carr, Mrs. Alexander J. Cassatt, Mrs. J. Gardner Cassatt, Frederick T. 
Chandler, Morris L. Clothier, Dr. Russell Conwell, Edward M. Cooke, Colonel J. Howell Cum- 
mings, Cyrus H. K. Curtis, Agnew T. Dice, Mrs. George Dallas Dixon, Mrs. George W. C. 
Drexel, Franz Ehrlich, Jr., William S. EUis, Nathan T. Folwell, Howard B. French, Joseph P. 
Gaffney, Ellis A. Gimbel, Dr. E. B. Gleason, Colonel John C. Gribbel, Mrs. John C. Groome. 
William Hancock, Charles C. Harrison, Stevens Heckscher, Max Herzberg, Isaac D. Hetzel, 
Mrs. George Q. Horwitz, James E. Lennon, Howard W. Lewis, Colonel Samuel D. Lit, L. H. 
Kiimard, Charles H. Krumbhaar, Hugh McCaffrey, Joseph B. McCall, Judge J. Willis Martin, 
Thomas Martindale. Gustav Mayer, Thomas E. Mitten, George Wharton Pepper, Colonel 
Sheldon Potter, Eli Kirk Price, Frank P. Prichard, Samuel Rea, Francis B. Reeves, Levi L. Rue, 
Dr. George E. de Schweinitz, Edgar Fahs Smith, Joseph IV. Snellenburg, Mrs. E. T. Stotesbury, 
E. T. Stotesbury, Edwin S. Stuart, Judge Mayer Sulzberger, Charlemagne Tower, John Wana- 
maker, Mrs. Rarclay H. Warburton, Joseph E. Widener, Alexander Van Rensselaer and Mayor 
Smith. 

On June 30th, the General Committee met in the Mayor's reception room and 
the personnel of the finance and managing committees were announced as follows: 

Finance CommiUee: E. T. Stotesbury, chairman; Frederick T. Chandler, Morris L. Clothier, 
Cyrus H. K. Curtis, Mrs. George Dallas Dixon, William S. Ellis, Nathan T. FolweU, EUis A. 
Gimbel, Colonel John C. Gribbel, Charles C. Harrison, Mrs. George Q. Horwitz, Howard W. 
Lewis, Colonel Samuel D. Lit, Hugh McCaffrey, Levi L. Rue, Joseph N. Snellenburg, Edwin S. 
Stuart, Alexander Van Rensselaer and John Wanamaker. 

Managing CommiUee: Mayor Smith, chairman; all officers ex-officio and John C. Bell, 
Samuel Bodine, William Hancock, Stevens Heckscher, Max Herzberg, Mrs. A. J. Cassatt, Mrs. 
George W. C. Drexel, Mrs. John C. Groome, Edgar F. Smith, Mrs. E. T. Stotesbury and Colonel 
J. Howell Cummings. 

As the relief work progressed an affiliation was effected with the Home ReUef 
Division of the Emergency Aid Committee, and by July 8th the work of the or- 
ganization had been so extended as to necessitate three departments, the Executive 
and Registration in City Hall and the Home Relief Division at 221 S. 18th Street. 
The Executive Department received contributions and disbursed the General Fund, 
took care of the general correspondence and outlined the policies of the Committee. 
The Registration Department received applications and the Home Relief Division, 
in charge of the Emergency Aid, made investigations and paid the allowances to 
the dependents of the soldiers. The Pennsylvania Women's Division for National 
Preparedness cooperated with the Emergency Aid Committee in the home reUef 
work. Under the direction of Mrs. J. Gardner Cassatt, a member of the Executive 
Committee of the Citizens' Soldiers Aid Committee, twenty -seven volunteer visitors 
made investigations. These twenty -seven were : 

Miss Madeline Asbury, Mrs. L. C. Black, Miss Louise Cochran, Miss Heanor Solis-Cohen, 
Miss Judith Solis-Cohen, Mrs. C. L. Card, Miss Ethel Dripps, Miss Blanche V. Moore, Miss 
Helen E. Donaghy, Miss Mary A. Gilbert, Mrs. Francis S. Hoskins, Mrs. Henry I. Hyneman, 

48 



Mrs. Emma Hoffa, Mrs. Henry F. Kassebaum, Mrs. George O. Lummis, Mi.ss Martha C. F. 
Bent, Dr. H. E. McSorley, Mrs. H. Gordon McGough, Mrs. Mustard, Mrs. Marshall, Mrs. 
Powers, Mrs. B. Ale.xander Bandall, Miss M. H. Stryker, Miss Amy D. Smith, Mrs. J. Harry 
Scott, Mrs. J. Frederick Thomas and Mrs. H. Frederick Wilson. 

The Emergency Aid Volunteer workers were: Mrs. J. Willis Martin, acting chairman; 
Mrs. John C. Groome, chairman Home Belief Division; Mrs. Bodman E. Griscom, Mrs. Beed A, 
Morgan, Mrs. F. M. Myer, Mrs. Gibson Bell, Miss Loviise Snowden, Mrs. Francis D. Lewis, 
Mrs. Henry C. Boyer, Mrs. Alexander Bandall, Mrs. W. Penn Smith, Mrs. J. B. Lipi)in(olt, .Jr., 
Mrs. Charles Piatt, Jr., Miss Eleanor Baker, Miss Eleanor E. Carr, and Miss Elizabelh D. 
Wheeler. 

By mid-July the Committee had received a total of $6,000 and had expended 
more than .§4,000 for relief work. In addition, by personal subscription outside of 
the Relief Fund but within the Committee, about $1,200 had been gathered to pur- 
chase baseball equipment for each of the thirty-six Philadelphia National (iuard 
companies then at Camp Stewart, El Paso, Texas. On July 18th, when the 
financial condition became exceedingly precarious, Mr. Stotesbury, as Chairman 
of the Finance Committee, addressed a meeting of the General Cftmmittee and 
secured pledges, within a half hour, for $9,540. He showed that the Committee 
needed between $500 and $1,800 weekly to carry on the work. Pledge cards were 
issued at the meeting, and also placed in the hands of business and other organ- 
izations and sent to a large maihng list of reputable citizens. On July 22d, the Com- 
mittee announced that it had received a total of $15,712.05 and had expended 
$5,756.10. 

The overhead expenses were kept tliroughout at a mimimum. The Pennsyl- 
vania Women's Division for National Preparedness paid for the services of one 
clerk and Mrs. J. Gardner Cassatt paid the expenses of a stenographer. Other 
patriotic women in the Committee personally paid incidental expenses, so that the 
overhead to the Committee consisted of the salary for six clerks — four at the City 
Hall and two at 221 S. 18th Street— with a total payroll of $94 weekly. 

By the end of .liily more than 400 families had appealed for help. These 
were: 21.3 wives; seventeen fathers; 206 mothers of soldiers. There was 
a total of 486 dependent children in these appeals and there were twenty-four 
expectant mothers. At first the persons on the allowance list called at the Home 
Relief Division for their money, but when the infantile paralysis epidemic became 
virulent in the summer of 1916, a plan was devised whereby money could be sent 
by check. In the case of foreign born parents of soldiers, the money was sent in 
cash to avoid misunderstanding. 

On August 1st, Mayor Smith made a public appeal for funds to aid the woik, 
and the immediate results were apparent when $981 came in on August .'5d and 
$1,658 on August 4th. By August 8th, the Committee had received a total of 
$27,060.40 and had expended $11,876.10. Through the balance of the month and 
early September receipts and disbursements grew alik(>, and on September 7th, the 
former reached $36,996 and the later $22,322. 

About the middle of September, the Committee learned that the Army Ap- 
propriation Bill, approved by the President on September 8th, contained an item 
of $2,000,000 for the relief of the dependents of the soldiers of the National Guard 
and the Begular Army. At that time it appeared as if the Philadelphia soldiers 
would remain indefinitely in the field. The Committee, realizing that its funds 
were inadequate to carry it beyond December 15th, took up the question of another 

49 



public appeal or securing the relief through the War Department. Fortunately 
in early October, two of the Philadelphia regiments — the 1st and 3d — returned 
from border service. There remained at Camp Stewart the 2d Regiment, at 
that time being converted into the Second Field Artillery. The Committee sent 
to the Commander of the 2d Artillery the names of the soldiers in the unit whose 
families were being aided and advised to apply for relief to the War Department 
under the terms of the act. 

Negotiations were at the same time carried on with the War Department, and 
on September 26th, N. B. Kelly, Secretary of the Chamber of Commerce, in- 
terviewed Secretary of War Baker at Cleveland, Ohio, acting for the Committee 
while traveling on another matter. Mr. Kelly wired the result of his interview 
as follows: 

"Secretary of War Baker advises that you do not seek additional contributions. Have 
applicants for relief inform their relatives to secure application blanks from their commanding 
officers at the front to be forwarded to War Department. Said department will secure family 
records through your committee. Said applicants will be paid by Government, if your reports 
as to their needs are favorable." 

With the return of two regiments in October the Committee found its funds 
sufficient to continue providing for the 125 dependent families in the 2d Artillery 
for a Uttle longer than had been anticipated, and it was not until November 27th 
that a letter was sent to each of the 125 soldiers stating that allowances would not 
be paid after December 15th, and instructing them to apply to the War Department 
for relief. When December 15th arrived the Committee's funds, as had been 
anticipated, came to an end. From June 24th to December 15th it had raised 
and expended, the major part being received from members of the Committee, the 
sum of $42,323.47. Its work practically ended on that date. What remained was 
merely considerable routine endeavor to get the dependent families safely trans- 
ferred from the payroll of the Committee to that of the War Department. The 
Citizens' Soldiers Aid Committee, as an organization, passed into history with the 
end of the year 1916. 

The Philadelphia Home Defense Committee 

The Philadelphia Home Defense Committee grew out of a meeting called 
originally to formulate plans to aid the Fourth Naval District recruit 6,000 men 
for the Naval Coast Defense Reserve. It was during the pre-war (for America) 
days, while the nation was awaiting President Wilson's address to the pending 
special session of Congress, after Ambassador Bernstorff had been handed his 
passports, and when all activities centered on preparedness. Captain Robert 
Lee Russell, U. S. N., Commandant Philadelphia Navy Yard, had requested 
public assistance in making the recruiting campaign go, and on March 20, 1917, 
in response to Mayor Smith's invitation, there gathered in the Mayor's reception 
room, representatives of many organizations, business, fraternal, social and pa- 
triotic. The total was close to 400. 

The gathering saw more before it than the recruiting campaign. It sensed 
the inevitable entry of the nation into war, and it used the opportunity of the 
public meeting to line up the city in solid front behind the President. Mayor 
Smith acted as chairman and, a few minutes after the opening of the session, Franz 
Ehrlich, Jr., President of the Philadelphia Branch of the National German-American 

50 



Alliance, introduced a resolution pledging the resources of the city and its people 
to the President. To make the resolution more emphatic in showing the disap- 
pearance of the hyphen, the seconder was John B. Mayer, President of the German 
Society of Pennsylvania. Ten minutes later the following telegram was on its 
way to Washington: 

"The Philadelphia Home Defense Committee, just organized, and now in session at the 
Mayor's office, Philadelphia, composed of representatives of great railroads, public utility com- 
panies, large mercantile and industrial establishments, great commercial and labor organizations, 
sectional business men's associations, athletic and yacht clubs, and representing a vast majority 
of all the citizens of Philadelphia, have unanimously adopted the following resolution: 

"The members of the Philadelphia Home Defense Committee, as individuals and for the 
corporations and associations represented by them as well as for the people of Philadelphia 
generally, pledge the ungrudging support of all the men and women of Philadelphia and all its 
resources to the President of the United States in his efforts to maintain the honor and dignity 
of the Nation and protect the Uves and property of Americans on land and sea. 

"Thomas B. Smith, Mayor." 

Before adjournment, the newly formed committee pledged its aid to the 
naval recruiting campaign as outlined by Captain H. A. Bispham, U. S. N.. repre- 
senting Commandant Russell; decided upon an executive committee to be appointed 
by the chairman, and elected the following officers: 

Chairman, Mayor Smith; Vice-Chairman, John C. Bell; Secretary, George Wentworth Carr; 
and Treasurer, Joseph E. Widener. 

The City beat the State by twenty-four hours in its preparedness work. It 
was not until the following day, March 21st, that Governor Brumbaugh appointed 
the Pennsylvania Committee of Public Safety. 

On March 23d, the Executive Committee having been appointed, met in the 
Mayor's reception room and considered a vast patriotic meeting as one of the best 
ways to arouse the people of the city to the emergency. At the same time the 
Mayor named the chairmen of the standing committees as follows: 

Finance, E. T. Stotesbury; Home Resen-e, A. J. Drexel Biddle; Decorations and Posters, 
John Frederick Lewis; Recruiting Stations, William W. Roper. 

These chairmen, with the officers of the General Committee and the following 
others, constituted the Executive Committee: 

William Potter, John B. Mayer, Clarence Wolf, Edward A. Noppel, Mrs. J. Willis Martin, 
and Ernest T. Trigg. 

Likewise a publicity committee was appointed that day consisting of: 

M. F. Hanson, Colonel James Elverson, Jr., Cyrus H. K. Curtis, Samuel Meek, E. A. Van 
Valkenburg, W. L. McLean, Thomas D. Taylor, P. H. Whaley, Gustavus Mayer, C. Lemke and 
Rowe Stewart. 

On the following day, Saturday, March 24th, the Executive Committee met 
at the Poor Richard Club and laid plans for the previously approved patriotic 
meeting to be held in Independence Square on the subsequent Saturday, March 
31st, with a special celebration for the school children in Washington Square, 
adjoining, at the same time. A Committee on Celebration was appointed with the 
following members: 

51 




f*itvmitiume 1' 









On IMairvl) 2t»th IIk^ pn^rsMiwel icif swaue of tine' standing «-<oaunittie«$ v»s^ ai»- 
nnHtmwl ;^ Mk>w^: 

Jid. IVini-> \|.. OfcmBiJBwr. J. Hk'^fUl OncommnMHiSs. S<lau!«fe-y Hi. Ufanfic. Jr.. JuiAux H. MaiajiiL Ltvi L^ 
Ri«r„ iV««j(MMiMt RtKt^. Dwmrl B. W^ettli.;. iVfiaiii^ II. Fituwr. ESis D. (LSontwl. CiitwMn} F. l{«Dtiunj. 
CkiAoMfl StitvwMl IX litv RiMMdbil \M^:!«ii. iVve^if II. MdR«i(Ulvn> Inkvkt K. RftssniiaiK'. .\dh!l|p& 

It/mu JOfstflnif CtumnSlStii: \. J. nnrawt ESdkttr. CktHtwiwi: Dr. CfenMBt GiJAr. Obiites B.. 
IMmis. LiW J. lia$«nittiM». J. IVW tit JkoUNwvL OoAimwI Jittrwb D. lit. TiHfifihiii ia B^ Xocrisv CL &. W. 
IV-t^wnl iMftdl .VlkaMnfter ViMk Rtmt$s<dbKir. 

The firsl big »clneviein«nt (ftlf the HuxvHe' rV't<;'a-?ii' <.■..■■■-■■:■:.•■. '.:■•:■ vatri.nk 
ralllly at Indefwrnlmo^ Squainf and Washin^nw Sqiwairif- w,i- .• o-i r. \Liah "^UC. 
AS lpilanne<dl. a full ww4 Mfuwv' the <oJffkul i(k<i-feaattoin oif «Rar. U was iwwwkd by 
ntany iMvu-wssinims <i>if miKlary unit& fratieniral loj^nuankvns. husiniK^ asjoctatknitSv 
s)dhio«>l dttkliKWL <e4c.. all ITiwniing in tbnr i«$|.wclivi^ kwditkis and i<:<etili»tii$ ujp^t 
thf hklkifk- sqmiainftf. A ttvuwd vai«>u$ly <ftj*UMaU\l as fnun KDLliXW liiv 2llXt!W«!> pxvtpiitf 
partkii-XAliNi in the tw> niadn (c«liflMratk>tt& Mayvr Snukh pret^Kkd at tlmr nue^tiini^ 
in IwkfXMndiniKir Squan^. and addrftssws wvixf d«fivi««cl by Smatior Hiiam W. Jiohn- 
s»iiia. coif CaKfttWWiia; Sfnalioc IViiftj. INftiroee. oJf IVmnsybiTania: Ftankltin Sjixfowr 
KktntMmisv C Stunart PaUwrsunt. Pirvii\\>is4t Kd^r Faks Stuikk. of tluf I mi^vtJsity oJf 
]^i«tt$\hania: R«t\. Dr. Rui$«idlll H. CtMJwidlL RU Rev. H«ury T- DiMUi^Kok'. 




Courtesy of Frank W. l^uhler. Ptanlpy Co. of America. 

Hflalives of Philadelphia men in Ihv Service briiuj Clirisimas packiii/es. 



and Lipu tenant-General S. B. M. Yoiin':. The speaker at the meeting for schiK>l 
children in Washington Square was city statistician, Edward J. Cattell. 

In the meanwhile the work of the standing committees was not neglected. 
The Committee on recruiting stands enlisted many volunteer workers who placed 
their ser\ices in clerical capacities under the recruiting officers of the Naval Coast 
Defense Reserve, the Regular \avy. the Regidar \rniy and the National (uiard. 
This volunteer force of helpers enabled the various branches of the Federal service 
to extend recruiting work to all parts of the city instead of being confined to certain 
central localities. The first Naval Coast Defense Reserve Station at the naval 
home was s<K)n augmented by a permanent station in the Mayor's reception ri.K)m, 
another in Independence Hall and a third in the Crozier Building. The battle- 
ships of the Atlantic Reserv e Fleet set up recruiting tents on the plaza of City Hall. 
The National Cuard went beyond their armories, centering around the City Hall, 
and they, with the Navy and Regular .\rmy, conductetl flying automobile recruiting 
squads, the machines in many instances being secured by the Rwruiting Stands 
Committee. 

The work of the Home Defense Reserve Committee, resulting in the creation 
of the Philadelphia Home Defense Reserve, is fully described elsewhere in this vol- 
ume, and is only touched upon here to show the connection between it and the 
Home Defense Committee, 

The work of the Sch<x)l Mobilization Committee, under the chairmanship of 
Franklin Spencer Kdmonds. is also reviewed elsewhere. 

\\ hile the Home Defense Committee found it uimecessary to take up the finan- 
cial aid to soldiers' dependents, which had been the function of the earUer Citizens' 

33 



Soldiers Relief Committee of the Mexican border days, it did find a valuable source 
of work in the establishment of a Personal Service Bureau to aid the soldier and 
his family to adjust themselves to war conditions, convey messages between them, 
look up those who failed to communicate properly with their homes, forward mail 
and packages and offer a general helping hand to service men from other cities 
located temportuily in Philadelphia. 

Perhaps the biggest achievement of the Personal Service Bureau, under Mrs. 
M. L. Woodruff, was the forwarding of Christmas packages to the Philadelphia sol- 
diers in American camps in the holiday season of 1917. All that the Home Defense 
Committee required was that the package conform to War Department rules and 
be properly addressed. Arrangements had been made with the various draft 
boards so that packages left with them were forwarded to the City Hall and, during 
the entire month of December, thousands of packages were sent to the men in the 
service, the great bulk going to Camps Hancock and Meade. The detail of this 
work was tremendous, as the Committee gave a receipt for each package accepted 
for shipment, issued acknowledgment cards which had to be placed within the pack- 
age, and then traced those which went astray or which failed of acknowledgment. 

The Personal Service Bureau remained in existence throughout the war, 
conducting in February, 1918, a military census of the city. This census lost its 
value because it was not possible to continue it daily throughout the balance of 
the war, the great draft exoduses of the subsequent months being too large to per- 
mit of codifying at the time. The census had an immediate value, however, to 
the bureau, as it enabled it to clear up questions of home address and nsunes which 
were in doubt or confusion. 

Of the other committees, the work of the Home Defense Reserve was also 
permanent throughout the war, but the Committees for Recruiting Stations, 
and Posters and Decorations gradually ceased activities through the substitution 
of the draft for volunteer enlistments, and the establishment of the State head- 
quarters of the Pennsylvania Committee of Public Safety in this city. 

The activities of the State Committee naturally found expression in the col- 
umns of the local newspapers; its organization was perfected on a larger scale and 
gradually it took over much of what the Philadelphia Home Defense Committee 
had planned. By the time the State Committee found it necessary to establish 
a Philadelphia branch of the Council of National Defense and Committee of Public 
Safety, the old Home Defense Committee, save for the Personal Service Bureau 
and the Home Defense Reserve, was a thing of the past. Its existence had been 
comparatively brief, but it had functioned well in the emergency. And, after 
all, it was for the emergency that it sprang into being. 



54 



PHILADELPHIA HOME DEFENSE RESERVE 

j^^^]N the eai'ly days of 1917, when the wtir clouds were 
gathering thick and fast and it became more and more 
appai'ent that this country would soon be drawn into 
the World War, the formation of a Philadelphia Home 
Defense Reserve was suggested. 

Two preliminary and simultaneous efforts were made, 
independently of each other, which later resulted in one 
definite movement, under the Mayor's Committee for 
Home Defense. 

George Wentworth Carr, afterweu'ds captain in the 
Ordnance Department, held a series of conferences with Mayor Smith and at the 
same time Wm. H. Wilson, former Director of Pubhc Safety, was also working 
out a general plan to be submitted to the Mayor for his approval. As a result 
of the efforts of Captain Carr and Director Wilson, a call for 21,000 men was 
made on April 7, 1917. 

Cards were printed and distributed widely throughout the city, outlining the 
general purpose of the Home Defense Reserve, giving the plan of organization and 





Courtesy of Frank W. Bubler, Stanley Co. of America. 

Home Defense Reserivs Pass in Review. 



55 



mobilization, authority conferred and the equipment which would be supplied. 
The appeal further suggested the formation of a motor transportation corps. 

The response to this call was encouraging, and all over the city the organiza- 
tion was effected. With so large an enrolment it was soon found diflicult to main- 
tain discipline and enthusiasm; therefore in September, 1917, a meeting was held 
which was attended by delegates from the different companies and a plan for 
reorganization was submitted to the mayor and approved by liim. 

As a result of this suggestion an executive committee of ten was appointed in 
addition to a chairman, who was to act as C.ivilian Director of the Reserve, and 
on October 31, 1917, the following circular letter was issued: 

Under the plan of reorganization, an executive committee of ten, in addition to a chairman, 
who will act as civilian director of the reserve — and a secretary, in conjunction with Captain 
William B. Mills, will effect the contemplated reorganization. After careful consideration the 
following plan has been adopted and unanimously indorsed at a meeting of delegates held on 
Wednesday afternoon, October 21, 1917, in room 627. City Hall. 

The organization shall be known as the Pliiladelphia Home Defense Reserve. 

The units of the reserve, now divided into forty-one districts, will continue in their respective 
districts, but will be grouped into four divisions, corresponding as nearly as practicable to the 
five main police divisions of the city. 

The first division will be east of the Schuylkill River from South Street, south, and will 
comprise the following districts: 1, 2, 17, 25, 3.3, 37, 41. 

The second and third di\ isions will be east of the Schuylkill River from South Street, north 
to Lehigh Avenue, and will roniprise the following districts; 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 18, 
19, 20, 24, 26, 28, 31, 40. 

The fourth division will be east and west of the Schuylkill River, north of Lehigh Avenue 
and Fairmount Park line, and will comprise districts 13, 14, 15, 22, 24, 27, 30, 35, 36, 39. 

The fifth division will be west of the Schuylkill River from the Fairmount Park line, south, 
and will comprise districts 16, 21, 29, 32, 38. 

All of the districts in each division will be formed into a battalion, which will be under 
the command of a major and the whole organization of the city will be under a regimental 
commander or colonel. All appointees in the military organization of the reserve will be 
provisional. 

The provisional appointees were as follows: WiUiam B. Mills, Commander; Waller Glascow, 
Major, First Division; Harry W. \\ alton. Major, Second and Third Divisions; Edwin Hulley, 
Major, Fourth Division; Lucien M. \\ iler, Major. Fifth Division. 

Pursuant to order, each division conmiander will inunediately get in touch with the ollicers 
now in command of the various districts now included in his division and arrange for the appoint- 
ment of provisional company officers. In each case the wishes of the respective units as to the 
identity of company officers shall be considere d; fitness and experience to be the deciding factors 

Qualifications for Membership in the Reserve 

Every applicant shall be at least twenty-one years of age. physically normal, ot good moral, 
character and shall either be a citizen of the United States or in possession of his first papers; 
provided, however, that he is not an enemy alien. 

The Home Defense Reserve will operate upon the above basis and continue intact in so far 
as each district is at present constituted and can muster a full company in accordance with the 
above regulations. Such districts as cannot muster a full company will be consolidated with 
the nearest adjoining district in the same division. The members of the reser\ e will be instructed 
in general military work and particularly in pohce duties. Regular drill will be conducted and 
promotions made on merit. Members will be sworn in only when ordered to acti\e duty in an 
emergency and will not carry arms except at drill and when on active duty. 

Social organizations in aid of the reserve will be encouraged and may combine in one or 
more districts. No special rules or regulations governing their formation will be promulgated 
for the present, the only conditions being that they shall be a help and credit to the organization. 

Recruiting will be supervised by the major in command of each division. 

56 



Statement of Purpose 

The organizcitioii is being created to servo in case of an emergency that niiglU threaten the 
lives and property of the citizens of Philadelpliia and tlieir families, necessitating the presence 
of a large part of the uniformed police force in a particular section of the city. Under such con- 
ditions, it is provided that the Home Defense Reserves shall patrol beats temporarily vacated 
by the regular police and render such other service as the exigency may demand. Should 
the police require assistance to meet the emergency, then the members of the Home Defense 
Reserve will be called upon to report to any place in the city. 

The members of the reserve can only be summoned by the mayor, through duly constituted 
oflicers, and cannot be called upon as an organization by any state or federal officer nor be required 
to do any military or police duty by reason of membership in the reserve. 

The above statement was signed by William B. Mills, acting colonel, and 
Arno P. Mowitz, civilian director. 

In the course of the reorganization ot the Reserve it was apparent that many 
of the men desired advanced military training and to meet this desire it was decided 
to organize a special regiment of 1,500 officers and men, to which were added the 
Home Defense Reserve units already organized, uniformed and equipped. This 
special regiment of 1,500 men — later increased to 2,500 — was uniformed and 
armed at the expense of the city. The men were selected by their respective 
captains on account of regularity at. drill, interest manifested, and general qualifi- 
cations. Out of the number so recommended the major of the particular division 
made a final choice and certified them to the commander. The tentative allotment 
to the four divisions was: First Division, 200; Second and Third Divisions, 300; 
Fourth Division. 400; Fifth Division, 600. 

In a short time the full number of men was enrolled and a waiting list was 
prepared of men anxious to serve. The known presence of 2,500 fully equipped, 
trained and aimed men, subject to the call of the Mayor and the Director of Pubhc 
Safety, was, ipso facto, a powerful deterrent to those who might have otherwise 
tried to stir up trouble. 

A uniform, consisting ot a blouse (United States regulation, except color of 
forestry green), trousers, overcoat, belt, police club, badge and cap was provided 
by the city and when the reserve was mustered out became the property of the 
men. Rifles were issued to 800 men and revolvers to l.-'JOO. 

William B. Mills was made colonel of the regiment and he appointed Joseph 
Klapp Nicholls regimental adjutant on November 8, 1917. Major Lucien M. 
Miller, commanding the fifth division was appointed fieutenant-colonel on April 24, 
1918. 

On November 19, 1917, companies were formed in Germantown and Chestnut 
Hill and a mounted troop was accepted as members of the military unit. The 
fourth division was divided into the fourth and sixth and G. Henry Davis was 
appointed major, commanding the sixth division. 

On November 19, 1917, Major Glascow resigned and Captain James W. 
Johnson was appointed acting major until January 18, 1918, when, upon resigna- 
tion, he was succeeded in command of the first division by Joseph L. Bailey. 

During the period of reorganization, from September, 1917, to April, 1918, 
the men were drilled twice a week and by March were uniformed and ready for 
any call to duty. The officers were sworn in by the Director of Public Safety on 
April 3, 1918. 

57 



The first call made by the Bureau of Police Avas on May 1 i', 1918, when some 
of the platform employees of the Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company struck for 
more pay and threatened to create a disturbance. The divisions were mobilized 
at the various station houses, sworn in by the Director of Public Safety and placed 
at the disposal of the Bureau of Police. Tliis duty lasted from May 17th to 21st, 
and, although no serious outbreak occurred, the presence of 2,500 efficient Reserves 
no doubt helped to keep in check any disorderly element. 

On June 5, 1918, Lieutenant-Colonel Wiler, entered the national service and 
was succeeded by Major Edwin Hulley, of the fourth division. Colonel HuUey, 
who had successfully commanded the fourth division, was a veteran of the Spanish 
War and developed the regiment to a great degree of efficiency. A full regimental 
staff was appointed and meetings were held twice a week at the headquarters, 
room 697, City Hall. Regular military discipline prevailed, reports were received 
from each division giving the name, address, badge number and equipment of each 
officer and man. This information was card indexed and kept in perfect order. 
In a short time the whole regiment felt the effects of his leadership. 

On July 1. 1918, the Reserve policed Broad Street from Girard Avenue to 
Washington Avenue in connection with the Parade of All Nations. 

From July 30 to August 4, 1918, the Reserve helped the poUce bureau main- 
tain order in South Philadelphia during the race riots. The entire regiment was 
quickly mobilized in South Philadelphia and Cooper Battalion Hall, 23d and 
Christian streets, made field headquarters. 

On September 28th, the regiment policed Broad Street from Lehigh Avenue 
to Snyder Avenue during the Fourth Liberty Loan Parade, and on October 11th 
assisted the Liberty Loan workers in details of two men each in about 600 parades 
to arouse popular enthusiasm and bring the citizens to a reahzation of the serious- 
ness of the situation and of their duties in connection with the loan. All over the 
City at a certain fixed time, two Home Defense Reservists escorted two Boy 
Scouts who carried the colors, two four-minute speakers and a town crier with 
a bell. 

Probably the most self-sacrificing duty performed by the members of the 
Reserve was in connection with the epidemic of influenza which swept over our 
City during the fall of 1918. INIembers of the fourth division rendered assistance 
at the Emergency Hospital at Holmesburg on October 13th, 14th and 15th. The 
fifth division was also very active along the same lines in West Philadelphia. 
The transportation corps of this division took the doctors to their patients during 
the epidemic, one doctor alone making 200 calls in one day. They also main- 
tained transportation service in connection with the Emergency Hospital at 
18th and Cherry streets. This division was equipped with a regulation army ambu- 
lance which was donated by citizens of West Philadelphia. From October 23d 
to 31st, owing to the number of policemen who were taken down by the epidemic, 
450 reservists were assigned each evening to the various police stations and per- 
formed regular police duty. At the same time about 100 men each day policed 
the down-town streets of the city in plain clothes, arresting spitters who were 
summarily fined. This service was particularly valuable during the epidemic and 
was efficiently rendered, as was demonstrated by the decrease in the number of 
arrests the second day of duty. Public recognition of this service was made by a 
resolution of Councils. 

58 



On November 7, 1918, due to the rumor of the armistice being signed, an 
emergency call was issued at 3 p.m. and by 6 p.m. the Reserves were on the streets 
at points designated by the Police Bureau, aiding in handling the crowds in the 
center of the city. This work lasted till midniglit. 

On November 11, 1918, at 3.50 a.m., when the news of the signing of the 
armistice was given out, every man reported at once to the call and was on duty 
until midnight, helping to maintain order and handle the crowds in the center of 
the city and along the important avenues which were congested. 

On August 12, 1918, the Wingohocking sewer at Broad and Courtland streets 
caved in, endangering property and hfe. Members of the fourth division rendered 
special service in aiding the citizens and pohce in this instance. 

October 29, 1918, members of the second and fourth divisions helped police 
the large fire on Broad Street below Montgomery Avenue. 

The members of the fifth division guarded the pubhc school at 56th Street 
and Kingsessing Avenue from January 1 to May 1, 1918, to protect it from in- 
cendiaries, who had set on fire several other school buildings. This service was 
especially arduous on account of the severe weather, the thermometer registering 
as low as six degrees below zero. 

From February 18 to 28, 1919, the Reserve furnished the Pohce Department 
with automobiles and men to be used as decoys in an effort to catch auto thieves 
and discover the disposition of stolen cars. 

What threatened to be the most hazardous duty assigned to the Reserves was 
the order mobiUzing the whole regiment for duty on May 1, 1919. May Day had 
been set as a day upon which a labor protest would be made over our whole country. 
No parade permits were issued in this city and no gatherings in public squares 
were permitted. Threats of labor agitators to pai-ade and hold meetings were 
made and it was feared that force would be required to back up the orders 
of the PoUce Bureau. The Reserves, fuUy armed, cooperated with the Police 
Bureau. 

On May 15th, the Reserves helped to pohce the hne of the parade of the 
28th Division, which had been engaged in France and had won an enviable 
record. 

During the floating of the Second Liberty Loan the Reserve secured $545,050, 
mostly in §50 bonds. There were about 3,000 individual subscriptions. 

When the Third Liberty Loan campaign was organized the divisions turned 
in with a wiU and the results spoke for themselves. 

In the Fourth and Fifth Liberty Loans, the Reserves cooperated throughout 
the City with the Citizens' Committee without any definite organization of the 
Reserves as a whole, although many of its members held important executive 
offices under the various district directors. 

In the War Chest and Salvation Army campaigns as in the Fourth and Fifth 
Liberty Loans, the Reserve was not asked to cooperate in its entirety, but co- 
operated individually, many of its members holding important positions and 
contributing largely to their success. 

The work of the Home Defense Reserve in Liberty Loans was under the 
direction of Captain W. Nelson Mayhew. 

After May 15, 1919, the Home Defense Reserve was inactive hut always 
subject to call, until demobilized. 

59 



Intelligence Bureau 

This bureau, under the personal direction of Captain Joseph B. Seaman, 
assisted by Lieutenant W. H. S. Bateman, Company C, Fourth Division, 
consisted of a large number of men of exceptionally high ability and standing. 

The Intelligence Bureau was in a position, due to its peculiar circumstances, 
to do valuable work in securing a voluminous amount of highly interesting in- 
formation. 

It is of special note that two foreign governments as well as our own govern- 
ment complimented Chief Seaman on the valuable information secured by this 
bureau. 

The spirit of cooperation was so strong that arrangements have been made to 
maintain the organization as a permanent agency for the promotion of mutual 
and government interest. Public spirited men within the bureau financed its past 
and future work. 

On Saturday, December 27th, a parade was held, and the Philadelphia Home 
Defense Beserve officially passed out of existence at 1 p.m., December 19, 1919. 

The Select and Common Councils of Philadelphia commended the Beserves 
for their work and, in view of the patriotic service which they rendered without 
pay, permitted the members to retain possession of their uniforms. 

THE PHILADELPHIA SCHOOL MOBILIZATION COMMITTEE 

Immediately after the declaration of war, a group of Philadelphia teachers 
requested Mayor Smith, to appoint a committee for the purpose of mobilizing the 
resources of the schools for public service to the nation, and in April, 1917, the Phila- 
delphia School Mobilization Committee was appointed to serve under the Phila- 
delphia Home Defense Committee. It continued its work until shortly after the 
signing of the armistice. 

The Committee coordinated the resources of the schools along the following 
lines: 

(1) The facilities afforded by the buildings, laboratories, shops, playgrounds, 
etc., of the schools of Philadelphia and vicinity. 

(2) The services of young men and women, largely pupils in the schools, 
who desired to work to the best interests of the city. State and nation. 

(3) The services of teachers, who could be released from their regular school 
duties during a part of the school year, to exercise an oversight and direction of 
these young men and women in patriotic service, either within or without the 
schools. 

(4) The services of teachers during the summer vacations. 

(5) The services of other volunteer workers. 

Headquarters, in the Widener Building, were donated for this purpose by the 
management, and various commissions were appointed to take charge of the de- 
tails of the work. At this time William H. Hall, of New York City, was Director 
of the United States Junior Working Beserve of the United States. He met with 
the Committee and aided in the consideration and formulation of plans of classes, 
which were later developed to a very large extent, not only in Philadelphia but 
throughout the nation. The Philadelphia School Mobilization Committee was 

60 



the first local committee appointed with these purposes in view, and therefore, 
its work has special significance. 

A resume of the woriv accomplished is as follows: 

The Commission on Junior Instruction inaugurated a campaign of education 
in patriotism and thrift among the pupils of the schools, and indirectly through 
them to their parents and the general public. Addresses were delivered at the 
various schools on current war topics, war and Liberty Loan, daily lessons were 
prepared for school use, instructions in thrift and domestic science were distributed 
through the schools for home use, and a series of pamphlets were prepared, pub- 
lished and distributed in conjunction with the Educational Committee of the Phila- 
delphia Chamber of Commerce, the most important being as follows: "Bobby 
and the War." "Democracy and Autocracy Compared," and "What the I'nited 
States Stands for in the War. " 

The Commission on Community Service lent encouragement to the Big Brother 
and Big Sister movement, established summer classes in public school buildings 
for delinquents, and organized committees on the care and feeding of young children. 
Eventually a large portion of the activities of this commission was assumed by the 
War Camp Community Service in Philadelphia. 

The Commission on Science and Technical Trainimi aimed to secure the fullest 
use of scientifically trained teachers and laboratory equipment for the service of 
the war, and stimulated instruction for those who desired to enlist in lines of work 
for which specialized skill was needed. This Commission assisted in the enlarged 
organization of the Philadelphia Trade School for Girls, and eventually secured 
the acceptance of this school by the Board of Public Education as a part of the 
school system of the city. It also estabhshed and furnished teachers and equip- 
ment for classes of sailors and soldiers in cooking, typewriting, French, surveying 
and navigation; it assisted the Philadelphia Navy Yard in starting apprentice 
classes in shipbuilding by examining and classifying applicants, securing instructors, 
and obtaining class-rooms and equipment for these purposes in the South Phila- 
delphia High School for Bo>s. It also aided in the development of the Summer 
High School for Girls in the William Penn High School in the summer of 1018. 

The Commission on Adult Enlistment and Census prepared an enrollment blank 
for the teachers of the city who would volunteer for public service in their vaca- 
tions and free time. Over 500 applications were received from men and women 
in the educational institutions of Philadelphia for services in agricultural, indus- 
trial and commercial work. This Commission supplied the material with which 
the other commissions worked. 

Tlie Commission on Farms and Farm Camps inaugurated the movement for 
placing older High School boys upon farms for farm labor, of which there was a 
great shortage. Permission was obtained from the Board of Public Education to 
excuse from the schools as early as May first those boys whose school standing justi- 
fied this privilege. Hundreds of farms were investigated, and thousands of acres 
of unused farm lands in the vicinity of Philadelphia were tested, and agricultural 
production stimulated wherever possible. During the summer of 1917 farm 
camps were established at Swedesboro, N. J., and at PaoH, Berwyn, Phoenixville, 
Glenloch, Gettysburg, and Byberry. in Pennsylvania. High School boys lived 
at these camps and went out during the day to work on the farms in the vicinity 
of the camp, returning to the camp at night. The success of the work of High 

61 



School boys on farms in 1917, not only in Philadelphia but over the whole country, 
led to the promotion by the Department of Labor at Washington of this method 
of helping to meet the acute farm labor shortage throughout the country by the 
organization of the United States Boys' Working Reserve. 

During the summer of 1918 the Philadelphia School Mobilization Committee 
organized the work of the Boys' Working Reserve for the Philadelphia district, 
comprising Philadelphia, Delaware, Bucks, Montgomery and Chester counties 
under the direction of William J. Serrill, with the Secretary of the Philadelphia 
School Mobilization Committee acting as Associate Director. 

Under this organization, Farm Camps organized as Liberty Camps were 
established at Andalusia, Bustleton, Byberry, Media, Kennett Square, Chelsea, 
Whiteland, Concordville, Norristown and Hatboro. 

These Liberty Camps were managed locally by Pennsylvania State College 
agricultural students. Pennsylvania State College further contributed largely 
to the success of these camps and to the farm work of the Committee in general 
by the establishment and conduct of a series of Farm Training Camps for High 
School boys from all parts of the State. The successive periods of instruction 
were two weeks in length, and during the existence of the training school more 
than 150 Philadelphia boys were taught the rudiments of farm work. 

The Commission on Junior Enlistment and Placement registered over 2,500 
pupils in the schools for patriotic service. From among these registrants the fol- 
lowing services were rendered: 

(a) More than 1,300 were placed in farm work; of these between 500 and 600 
during the summer of 1917, and 800 during the summer of 1918. 

(b) More than 200 boys were placed in industrial and clerical work and in 
apprenticeship courses in the United States Navy Yard. 

(c) More than 150 boys were sent to the Pennsylvania State College Farm 
Training Camp for instruction in farm work prior to assignment to summer farm 
work. 

(d) Several hundred girls were assigned to volunteer and paid services in 
Red Cross activities, food conservation work, community services, and light agri- 
cultural pursuits. 

(e) Recruits were selected by competitive examination, and sent to Camp 
Devens, the training camp of the L'nited States Naval Reserves. 

(f) Many hundreds of boys were enrolled in war garden and cooperative 
garden enterprises. 

The Commission on Inspection investigated the hours of labor, provision for 
recreation, working and living conditions before placement of these junior patri- 
otic workers, and continued this inspection at regular intervals during the period 
of their service. During the summers of 1917 and 1918 the Commission regularly 
inspected the boys in farm work, and recommended at the termination of such 
service in all meritorious cases that full credit be given by the various schools. 
It also provided supervision in motion-picture theaters for the High School girls 
engaged in the soUcitation of funds for the Red Cross in June, 1917. 

The Commission on Food Supply conducted the pioneer campaign for thrift 
in the use of food, and conducted campaigns for signers of Hoover Food Pledge Cards. 

It prepared and distributed literature, etc., to schools and houses in the cam- 
paign of education in food conservation. 

62 



It conducted series of food canning and drying demonstrations in twenty- 
one public schools to acquaint housewives with the latest and best methods of 
drying and canning. It published a daily report of the condition of the wholesale 
produce market, listing the supply as "abundant," "normal," and "scarce," and 
thus prevented serious gluts of food on the markets with their attendant waste. 

It also published wholesale prices of fish daily, together with propaganda for 
the greater substitution offish for meat. 

With the organization of the United States Food Administration in Phila- 
delphia with Howard Heinz as Director, the Commission was discontinued as a 
part of the Philadelphia School Mobilization Committee and became a part of the 
Food Administration. 

The Commission on Manufacturing Service organized the equipment in school 
shops and laboratories for the manufacture of articles and supplies in demand by 
the government and Red Cross. It supervised the construction of forty food dry- 
ing trays and apparatus for food canning and drying demonstrations under the 
school luncheon department of the public schools, the manufacture of ten thousand 
tent pins for the United States Quartermaster, Red Cross packing boxes. Red 
Cross bandage rollers and other types of Red Cross supplies. 

The Commission on Country Club Entertainment secured the cooperation of 
twenty country clubs in and near Philadelphia for the entertainment of enlisted 
men stationed in Philadelphia during the summer of 1917. Each club organized 
a Saturday or a Sunday party of fifty to one hundred sailors or soldiers, and pro- 
vided the transportation, meals and recreation for the day. This work later 
developed into the provision, through other channels, of a country club for enlisted 
men at Rockledge, Pa. 

The Commission on Lecture Courses for men in the service organized lecture 
courses, at the Philadelphia Navy Yard, Camp Dix, Camp Meade and Wissahickon 
Barracks. 

The Commission on School Entertainment organized a series of entertainments 
at the Philadelphia Navy Yard by High School pupils from the South Philadelphia 
High School for Girls and the Northeast High School. 

The Conmiission on the Junior Red Cross organized the Junior Red Cross School 
Auxiliaries in the schools of Philadelphia, Bucks, Chester, Delaware and Mont- 
gomery counties. The national campaign for the Junior Red Cross was held between 
Lincoln's Birthday and Washington's Birthday in 1918, and was a great success. 

The work of the School Mobilization Committee was financed through 4; 
popular subscription, through appropriations, from the Municipal Home Defense 
Committee, and the State Committee on Public Defense, and was supported bounti- 
fully by all of the public authorities. The private and parochial schools cooperated 
to the utmost, and the Superintendent of the Parochial Schools in Philadelphia 
served as a member of the Committee. In large measure the Committee served 
as an experimental testing station for work among juniors, and as soon as an idea 
had been tested out and its practicality demonstrated, it was copied in other 
communities, and by other committees, so that the work of this Committee may 
be fairly recorded as a pioneer in this line. 

As a result it demonstrated the tremendous capacity for public work among 
the juniors, their enthusiasm and sincerity more than making up for their lack 
of experience ; and it may be fairly stated that among the factors in bringing the 

63 



war to a successful conclusion, the boys and girls of Pliiladelphia contributed 
to their full capacity. 

The oilicers of the Committee and the members of the Commissions were as follows: 
General Officers: 

Chairmen. — Franklin Spencer Edmonds, Frankhn C. Brodhead. 

V ice-Chairmen. — John C. Frazee, April, 1917, to September, 1917: Louis iNiisbaum. Septem- 
ber, 1917, to January, 1919. 

Treasurers. — Jos. E. Widener, April, 1917, to October. 1917; Maurice Kcls, October, 1917, to 
January. 1919. 

Finance Manayer. — Thomas Robins, April, 1917, to Septcuiber, 1917. 

Secretaries. — Joseph M. Jameson, April. 1917, to June. 1917; Edwin W. Adams, June. 1917, 
to September, 1917; Raymond L. Chambers, September, 1917, to August, 1918; Henvis 
Roessler, August, 1918, to October, 1918; Charles C. Hazlet, October, 1918, to January, 
1919. 

Commission on Informalion and Publicity. — ^Joseph M. Jameson, Chairman. 

Commission on Junior Instruction. — Wm. D. Lewis. Chairman. 

Commission on Comnuinitv Seri'ice. — Wm. O. Easton. Chairman. 

Commission on Science and Teclinicat Training. — Henry V. Cummere, Chairman. 

Commission on Adult Eidistmcnt and Census. — Arthur J. Rowland, Chairman. 

Commissicm on ,/unior Enlistment and Placement. — Henry J. (iideiin. Chairman. 

Commission on Inspection. — Louis N'usbaum. Chairman. 

Commission on Food Supply. — Dr. J. Russell Smith. Chairman. 

Commission on Farms and Farm Camps. — Edward E. \\ ildman. Chairman. 

Commission on Manufacturing Service. — Charles C. Heyl, Chairman. 

Commission on Conunercial Seri'ice. — Parke Schoch. Chairman. 

Commission on Medical Inspection. — Dr. Walter S. Cornell. Chairman. 




Courtesy of the Philadelphia "Inquirer." 

Lord Reading and Charles M. Schwab at Hog Island 
64 



THE JOINT SPECIAL COMMITTEE ON THE CARE, SUSTE- 
NANCE AND RELIEF OF THOSE IN THE MILITARY AND 
NAVAL SERVICE OF THE UNITED STATES 

By Charles P. O'Connor 




^^ 



^HE uncertainty of the Mexican situation in 1916 found 
the Councils of Philadelphia preparing for eventualities. 
At a meeting of Select Council, held on June 22, 1916, 
a joint convention of Select and Common Councils was 
authorized on motion of Isaac D. Hetzell, and an invitation 
extended to the Hon. Thomas B. Smith, Mayor of the 
City, to address the meeting. The joint convention was 
held on Thursday. June 22d, at 3 p.m. Mayor Smith 
presented a resolution calling for the appointment of a 
joint committee for the care and sustenance of those 
in the military and naval service. 

The resolution was presented and passed. It provided for a "joint special 
committee of twenty members (ten from each chamber), to arrange for the pro- 
vision for the families of Philadelphians in the military and naval service, and for 
the care, sustenance and entertainment of those in such military and naval service 
who may be permanently or temporarily quartered in Philadelphia, for the trans- 
portation of the injured or sick, and for the burial of any who may die while in the 
service." 

The personnel of the committee was : From Select Council, Messrs. Lennon 
(ex-ofTicio), D'Autrechy, Davis, Dugan, Finley, Harris, McKinley, Quigley, 
Seger, Willard, J. and Hetzell (chairman). From Common Council, Messrs. 
Gleason (ex-officio), Barnes, Conn, Gafl'ney, Kelly, C. F., McCloskey, Bighter, 
Roberts, J., Schwartz, F., Siegert, Trinkle. At the meeting for organization 
Charles B. Hall was elected secretary, Harry Wittig, sergeant-at-arms and Charle 
P. O'Connor, stenographer. 

The following sub-committees were appt)inted: 

Finance: GafTney (chairman), Seger, Finley, McKinley, D'Autrechy. 
Sustenance and Relief: Kelley (chairman), Dufjaii, McKinley. Quigley. Schwartz. 
Hospitals and Quarters: Righter (chairman), Trinkle, Harris, Conn, Davis. 
Burials: Willard (chairman), Siegert, Barnes, Roberts, Finley. 

Mr. Siegert resigned from Councils and was succeeded by Joseph S. O'Brien 
who also served on the sub-committee on bmials. 

The executive committee consisted of th(^ chairman of the general committee, 
the presidents of Select and Common Councils and the chairman of the subcom- 
mittees. This executive committee cooperated with the "Citizens' Soldiers' 
Aid Committee," appointed by his Honor, the Mayor, to prevent overlapping 
or duplication of assistance to those in need. 

65 



Work During the World War 

When the United States entered into the World War, and it became ap- 
parent that the National Guard troops in Philadelphia and other military and 
naval organizations would be immediately called into active service and that 
great recruiting efforts would be made in the city, the duties, powers and juris- 
diction of the committee were extended by resolution to "meet any other emer- 
gency that may arise in the future which the committee may be called upon to 
consider in connection with the terms of the original resolution under which they 
were appointed." All expenses incurred were paid out of appropriations to the 
Clerks of Councils for the purposes of the committee and work was developed and 
continued until January 7, 1918. 

A resolution, similar to the one of June 22d, 1916, was adopted, and the com- 
mittee for 1918-1919 consisted of the following members: 

Ex-officio, .lames E. Lennon, president of Select Council; Ex-officio, Edward B. Gleason, 
president of Coninion Council; Isaac D. Hetzell, chairman; Morris E. Conn, Harry H. Davis, 
John F. Dugan, Joshua Evans, William E. Finley, Joseph P. Gaffney, Dennis J. Grace, John 
McArthur Harris (deceased), William J. McCloskey, Pringle Borthwick (appointed to succeed 
Mr. McCloskey), John J. McKinley, Jr., Philip M. Myers, Joseph S. O'Brien (resigned), Robert 
Smith (appointed to succeed Mr. O'Brien), William H. Quigley, Fred. Schwartz, Jr., Charles 
Seger (deceased), George W. Sheehan, Jefferson Shiel, W. W. Trinkle, James Willard, Charles 
B. Hall, secretary, Harry Wittig, sergeant-at-arms, Charles P. O'Connor, stenographer, David 
W. Harris, stenographer. 

Sub-Committees 

Executive Connnittee: Isaac D. Hetzell, chairman; James E. Lennon, Edward B. Gleason, 
Joseph P. Gaffney, James Willard, W. W. Trinkle, John F. Dugan. 

Camps and Quarters: Joseph P. Gaffney, Chairman; William J. McCloskey, Charles Seger, 
Joshua Evans, Joseph S. O'Brien. 

Sustenance and Relief: John F. Dugan, chairman; William E. Finley, Morris E. Conn, 
Philip S. Myers, William H. Quigley, John J. McKinley, Jr., Fred. Schwartz, Jr. 

Hospitals: W. W. Trinkle, chairman; J. McArthur Harris, Dennis J. Grace, George W. 
Sheehan, Harry H. Davis. 

Burials: James Willard, chairman; Jefferson Shiel, J. McArthur Harris, William E. Finley. 
Fred Schwartz, Jr. 

The various committees rendered reports which are herewith added. 

Executive Committee 

The first meeting of this committee was held on July 13, 1916, when the 
question of taking care of city employees in the military service by payment of 
their salaries, less the amount received from the Government, and the matter of 
substitute employees was taken up. Mr. Gaffney stated that he had had a con- 
ference with the mayor on the subject, and that the mayor had notified his directors 
to prepare a roster of city employees in the service to approximate the amount that 
should be set aside for their payment, and to use this for making an appropriation. 
The following were passed by Councils relative to the payments to be made to those 
entering the service as well as to substitute employees: 

An Ordinance 

Granting leave of absence to city, county and other employees paid on warrant 
from the city treasury whUe on military service in the National Guard of 

66 



Pennsylvania or in the service of the United States Government; providing for 
the appointment and payment of temporary appointees to fill such vacancies. 

Sect. 1. The Select and Common Councils of the City of Philadelphia do ordain. 
That leave of absence with pay shall be granted to any employee paid by warrant 
of the city and county of Philadelphia, who makes application therefor, for the 
purpose of military service in the National Guard of Pennsylvania or in the service 
of the United States Government. 

Sect. 2. That the vacancy created by the absence of any employee on such 
military service shall exist only until such time as said employee shall return fnon 
said military service. Such vacancy may be filled by temporary appoiulmcnl 
thereto, and such temporary employee shall be paid at the same rate of compensa- 
tion as was paid to the employee to whose position he was temporarily appointed. 

Sect. 3. The term "leave of absence with pay" as mentioned in Sect. 1 of 
this ordinance is hereby defined as the difference between the salary or wages of said 
employees and the salary or wages paid them in the service of the state or nation 
(where the same is less than paid by the city), and warrants for such amounts shall 
be turned over to such jiersons as shall be designated by them. 

Approved the 30th day of June, A. D. 1916. 

Thomas B. Smith, 

Mayor of Philadelphia. 

By resolution of July 26, 1916, an appropriation was made and approved by 
the Mayor. 

An ordinance later approved July 26. 1916. amended the Ordinance of June 
30, 1916. and provided that employees of the city, entitled to "leave of absence with 
pay" must have been "employed at least three months continuously." 

The committee met frequently during the period of trouble on the Mexican 
border and all matters referred to it were given prompt attention. 

Welcoming Troops Returning From The Border 

With the return of the troops, authority was given the committee to arrange 
suitably for their reception and entertainment. 

The receptions and banquets to the 1st and 3d Begiments returning from the 
border of Mexico on October 9 and 10, 1916, respectively, were held in Convention 
Hall, Broad Street and Allegheny Avenue; acconnnodations being made upon the 
stage for some 6,000 relatives and friends of the men. 

A program of one of these receptions is printed for future reference and 
guidance. 

CONVENTION HALL, PHILADELPHIA 
Reception to the 3d Regiment, N. G. P., Tuesday, October 10, 1916. 

Prayer of Thanksgiving Rev. Thomas W. Davis, Chaplain, 3d Regiment, N. G. P. 

Introduction of the Mayor . . .Mr. Isaac D. Hetzell. 

Address of Welcome Hon. Thomas B. Smith, Mayor of Philadelphia. 

Address Colonel George E. Kemp, Commanding, 3d Regiment, N. G. P. 

Greetings from Gov. Brum- 
baugh (Read by Mayor Smith.) 

67 



Presentation of bouquet to 

Capt. Derr, Co. C, from 

His Fellow-Officers of the 

23d Police District Hon. Joseph S. MacLaughlin, Director of Supplies. 

Address General William G. Price. 

Mess Call 

The following was the menu furnished at these banquets: ice cream and cake 
being served to the friends of the men : Oyster Cocktails, Celery, Olives, Gherkins, 
Stewed Snapper, Vienna Rolls, Sweetbread Cutlets, Punch, Broiled Half Spring 
Chicken, Glaced Sweet Potatoes, Peas. Harlequin Ice Cream, Fancy Cakes, 
Coffee, Cigars, Cigarettes, White Rock, Ginger Ale, ApoUinaris. 

Additional Receptions and Parade 

On the return of Company B, 1st Pennsylvania Engineers, a reception and 
banquet was tendered them at the State Fencibles Armory on Saturday, November 
4, 1916. In the absence of the Mayor, Joseph S. MacLaughlin, Esq., Director 
of the Department of Supplies, officially welcomed the engineers to Philadelphia. 

A reception and banquet to the 2d Regiment was held on February 12, 1917, 
in the 2d Regiment Armory, Broad Street above Diamond. The banquet was pre- 
ceded by a parade of the regiment in full army equipment, this being the first time 
that Philadelphians had an opportunity of viewing it as an artillery regiment. 

In connection with this parade, the committee was called upon to furnish 
800 horses and mules. These were secured with the cooperation of Messrs. 
John Wanamaker, Edwin H. Vare, James Mullen, James Irvin, T. L. Flannigan, 
Howard E. Ruch, Frank Curran, McMahon Brothers, S. A. McClay, the United 
Gas Improvement Company, R. & A. J. Peoples, and the Penn Reduction 
Company. 

The horses and mules were delivered at 13th and Callowhill streets on the 
morning of the parade, February 12, 1917, to Captain Geisel, of the 2d Regiment. 

Every detail incident to the parade and reception, such as printing of invita- 
tions, menu, police arrangements, souvenirs, etc., was completed prior to the arrival 
of the soldiers, and nothing occurred to mar what was conceded to be a gala event. 

The committee received a telegram from Major Cheules W. Edmunds, 
commanding the 1st Squadron, Pennsylvania Cavalry, comprising the 1st City 
Troop, 2d City Troop, Troops A and G, stating that the squadron did not desire 
any reception or entertainment upon their return from the Mexican border, as 
they wished to return to their homes immediately upon their arrival in Philadelphia. 

The approximate number of soldiers who were accommodated and fed at these 
various banquets was about 4,000. 

World War 

Beginning with the mobilization of troops for the World War, the executive 
committee was constantly called upon to dispose of various subjects which were 
referred to them by the general and sub-committees. 

Hon. Norris S. Barratt, President Judge of Court of Common Pleas No. 2, 
called the attention of the committee to the fact that the men in the 315th Infantry, 
an all-Philadelphia regiment at Camp Meade, were without gloves and other neces- 
sary woolen clothing. The committee visited Camp Meade and learned that many 

68 



Philadelphians were in the 311th and 315th Infantries; 312th Field Artillery and 
30 1th Engineers. The officers of these regiments stated to the committee that the 
men were in need of woolen clothing, such as sweaters, gloves, helmets, wristlets 
and stockings. Immediately after the visit of the committee to Camp Meade 
bids were received and contracts made for the articles mentioned, and as soon as 
the same were delivered to the committee, they were sent by special messengers 
to the men at Camp Meade. Many other soldiers who made appHcation for these 
articles were also supplied. 

The winter of 1917-1918 was the most severe in twenty-five years, and sweaters, 
hehnets, socks, wristlets, etc., were given away at various camps to the Phila- 
delphia men. Many pairs of woolen stockings were donated to the committee by 
the Home Defense Committee for distribution, and woolen wristlets in vast num- 
bers were knitted by the ladies of a church in Bridesburg of which Rev. August 
Piscator, 3391 Frankford Avenue, is the pastor. 

Major E. St. John Greble, commander of the 108th Field Artillery (formerly 
the 2d Pennsylvania Artillery) appeared before the committee in March, 1918, 
and requested the purchase of a machine designed for bathing purposes for the 
use of the men in the 108th Field Artillery, stating that such a machine was espe- 
cially adapted for this purpose and for sterilizing the clothing of the men, and was 
necessary to prevent an epidemic of vermin, and that such a machine would cost 
about $9,000. The committee immediately took up the question and unanimously 
agreed that purchase should be made and an order was given to the Exshaw 
Company of Bordeaux, France, to build one. It was later dehvered to Major 
Greble in France, and the committee received many letters of thanks for their 
kindly act in this respect. After the war was over this machine was sold in France 
for $1,724.14, and the money used by the 108th Field Artillery to defray expenses 
incurred prior to their departure overseas. 

On July 17, 1918, the members of the executive committee and a committee 
appointed by the Mayor received Lieutenant Clarke, five aviators and observers 
who flew from Mineola, N. Y., to Philadelphia in battle planes, landing at Belmont 
Plateau. A luncheon was given at the Bellevue-Stratford, their stay being limited, 
but all the men enjoyed the welcome very much. 

John Ashhurst, librarian of the Free Library of Philadelphia, urged the com- 
mittee to appropriate the sum of $500 to defray the expenses incident to furnish- 
ing books, magazines and other reading matter to the soldiers at training camps, 
cantonments, etc., stating Jthat the citizens of Philadelphia had, in answer to their 
appeal, sent tons of reading matter for transmission to the men, and that consider- 
able expense was necessary in the selecting, sorting, pasting, etc., of all this material 
incident to its being forwarded. The committee, recognizing the worthiness of 
the request, acquiesced. Four tons of tliis matter was sent to the Navy Yard and 
almost two tons distributed among the soldiers on the troop trains passing through 
the city. 

Reception to the 28th Division 

The joyous news of the signing of the Armistice in November, 1918, was fit- 
tingly received, but when the report came that the 28th (Iron) Division was headed 
homeward, Philadelphians felt a deep, personal thrill. This division, composed 
largely of Philadelphia men formerly of the 1st Infantry Brigade, N. G. P., bore, as 

69 



its divisional insignia, the red Keystone. It was, indeed, a City and State unit 
and the news of its return struck a responsive chord in the lieart of every citizen 
of the Commonwealth. 

The story of the parade of the division, and the general entertainment pro- 
vided for the men, will be found elsewhere. 

Reception Plans for the 79th Division 

When word was received that this division was about to return home, a 
city-wide demand was made that it, also, be paraded again. The War Depart- 
ment was communicated with and expressed entire willingness to accede to the 
request of the relatives and friends, but the long drawn out release of the units 
from France and the intense heat in Philadelphia at the time that the distinc- 
tively local men were at Camp Dix, combined to make a parade physically im- 
possible. The welcome accorded to General Kuhn and his men is described 
elsewhere. 

Subsequent to the return of the two divisions, the Welcome Home Com- 
mittee continued to function in arranging for the reception of otiier units. 

Reception to General Pershing 

On September 12, 1919, General John J. Pershing, commander-in-chief of 
the American Exp(>ditionary Forces, arrived in Piiiladelphia and was tendered a 
magnificent reception by the citizens of Philadelphia. The general was met at 




CeiuTid Perxliiittj. iitilh Governor Sproul and Mayor Sniilli, escorted by the "City Traiip.' 

70 



North Philadelphia Station by the Hon. William C. Sproul, Governor of Pennsyl- 
vania; the Hon. Thomas B. Smith, Mayor; a committee of representative citizens, 
the executive committee, and an honorary guard of Distinguished Service men, 
whom the general especially recognized. General Pershing, his staff, and the 
members of the committees then proceeded to Independence Hall, where in the 
Declaration Chamber, the Mayor presented to General Pershing, with the love 
of the people, a little golden reproduction of the world-loved Liberty Bell. In 
his response to the address of presentation. General Persliing said: "It fills me 
with deepest emotions to be on this sacred spot and it seems especially fitting that, 
upon the conclusion of the war which was fought fur the sacred principles declared 
to the world by the signers of the Declaration of Independence, we should 
be here. I feel that I should say a word as to the splendid part taken in this 
battle for civilization by the city of Philadelphia and by the state of Pennsyl- 
vania. You have given of your soldierly, young manhood in large numbers; they 
have carried forward to the battlefields of France the patriotism that they learned 
in this Cradle of Liberty; they have done a service not only to your state and your 
city, but a service to the world. We are all proud of them, and I, as their com- 
mander, desire especially to convey to you this appreciation. I am very grateful, 
for your thought of me in this connection and thank you from the bottom of 
my heart for this precious gift, which I accept as a present not only to me, but to 
the men of the American Expeditionary Force, whom I had the honor to command, 
and it is to them that I give the credit. I thank you, sir." 

After the exercises in the Declaration Chamber, General Pershing and his 
party took their places on the stand, erected at the south entrance of Independence 
Hall. He was greeted by thousands of Philadelphians and responded to their 
welcome in a brief speech. 

General Pershing then planted a tree to the east of the hall, the Emergency 
Aid of Pennsylvania and the Emergency Aid Aides, assisting. 

Reception to Cardinal Mercier 

On September 26, 1919, a public reception was tendered Desideratus, Cardinal 
Mercier, Archbishop of Malines and Primate of Belgium. A luncheon was served 
at the Bellevue-Stratford to Cardinal Mercier and his suite, at which 
addresses were made by Rabbi Joseph Krauskopf, Archbishop Dougherty, Bishop 
Rhinelander and Cardmal Mercier. The Cardmal remained in Philadelphia for 
several days and during his stay was accompanied by a special committee to 
numerous institutions, where individual receptions were given. 

Reception to the King and Queen of the Belgians 

King Albert and Queen EUzabeth of Belgium, accompanied by the Duke of 
Brabant, arrrived in Philadelphia on October 27, 1919, and were given an 
official reception at Independence Hall. Their Majesties were obhged to leave 
at 6 P.M., but following the visit to Independence Hall, the King christened a boat at 
Hog Island, and was taken through the Baldwin Locomotive Works at Eddystone 
through the courtesy of Mr. Samuel Vauclain, a member of the Citizens' Committee. 
Queen Elizabeth was*entertained at the headquarters of the Belgian Relief Commit- 
tee of the Emergency Aid and at Bryn Mawr College. 

71 



Sub-Committee on Sustenance and Relief 

In 1916, immediately after the National GuEird regiments were assembled by 
the War Department for service on the Mexican border, this committee's attention 
was called to several cases of destitution, caused by reason of the main support 
of a family being sent to the Mexican border and his iniome from civil life cut ofl". 

Applications for aid were made to members of the committee personally, 
through the Police Department and other public ofTicials and to various charitable 
organizations, who in turn forwarded tlicni to your committee. 

The sergeant-at-arms of the committee was given charge of this branch of the 
work and authorized to investigate each application and make such payments 
as the cii'cumstances warranted. The committee agreed that no publicity should 
be given about those seeking assistance and that all applications for aid be con- 
sidered in executive session. In carrying on its work the committee had the hearty 
cooperation of the Citizens' Soldiers' Aid C'.onunittee, which prevented duplication 
of payments to those seeking financial assistance. 

The first payment was made on June 27, 1916. and payments continued weekly 
to March 2, 1917. During that period the maximum number of applications 
favorably acted upon was fifty-nine, and the total amount expended was $4,925.30. 

The work of the committee during the Mexican border trouble had just been 
completed when Congress declared war upon (iermany and other luuopean coun- 
tries. Upon the decleu-ation of war the Philadelphia regiments were again called into 
service and immediate requests made upon the committee for financial assistance. 

The committee instructed the sergeant-at-arms to take charge and resume 
his former work of investigation. The first payments were made on April 13, 1917, 
to eighteen families and amounted to -SIO.t. 

In June, 1917, the draft law was passed and in September of that year the first 
draft made, followed at short intervals by others, which automatically sent thou- 
sands of our young men to various camps, and later overseas. As the drafts were 
made the number of applications for assistance jumped in leaps and bounds and 
the payments made by the committee increased correspondingly. 

Payments were continued weekly to December 28, 1917, on which date 
$2,932.39 was paid to 417 families. 

The payments due December 28, 1917 and 1918, being after Christmas, it was 
decided by the committee to make payments of the same prior to the 2.5th, so that 
famiUes of the soldiers might enjoy the festive season. 

The committee then decided to make payments semi-monthly and on January 
11, 1918, $6,503.61 was paid to a total of 512 families. Semi-monthly payments 
continued and the number of families on the roll increased to 1,085 on November 
29,1918, with a total pa>Tnent of $12,961.40 for that period, and it is estimated that 
at least 5,000 dependents benefited thereby. 

Preceding the above date (November 29, 1918), the armistice was signed, 
and the number of applications materially decreased, owing to discharges from 
service, etc. The committee continued making payments until November 14, 1919, 
when they were discontinued, and the total amount expended from April 13, 1917, 
to above date was $416,855.17. 

In the early period of the work of the committee applications were received 
so rapidly that it was necessary to employ two skiUed investigators as assistants 

72 



to the sergeant-at-arms, and not a single application was neglected. Every case 
was thoroughly investigated in a confidential way and considered on its merits. 

Before making payments to applicants, the committee verified, through the 
local draft boards and the War and Navy Departments, the fact that the soldier 
named in the application was in the service. In a number of cases, however, 
circumstances were such that it was necessary to grant immediate relief and later 
verify the service record of the man. but every case so assisted was found 
bona fide. 

From April. 1917. the office of the committee was open for those seeking finan- 
cial assistance — many times such applications being made at night. Hundreds 
were given advice on subjects of all kinds, viz: locating a relative in service; securing 
delayed allotments; adjusting controversies between landlords, agents and tenants; 
instalment accoimts and gaining admission to hospitals for those who were ill. 

Over 3.000 applications for aid were received and the conunittee worked in 
harmony witli tiic following organizations to prevent duplication of assistance and 
fraud : 

American Red Cross (Home Relief Division); The Jewish Welfare Board; 
The Mayor's Personal Service Bureau; Local Draft Boards; The Police Depai't- 
ment; The Home Defense Reserves. 

Delayed government allotments caused considerable hardship to the families 
of those in the service. These delays were, no doubt, due to the fact that men 
were constantly being transferred from one branch of the service to another ; from 
camp to camp, or sent overseas, but Dr. Carl Kelsey, the allotment officer at Phila- 
delphia, cheerfully aided the committee in adjusting all such matters. 

By reason of the delay in receiving these allotments, many of the dependents 
receiving aid from the committee, were unable promptly to pay their rent, so 
that landlords and agents, not knowing the circumstances, placed the collection 
of rents in the hands of constables. Immediately upon receipt of notices the 
dependents would rush to the office of the committee, complaining of the prospective 
eviction. Not less than two huiidr(>d cases of this nature were cared for, and 
through the kindness of the Philadelphia Constables' Association no evictions were 
made. 

Henry M. Stevenson, Esq., offered his legal seivices free to families of soldiers 
and sailors, and the committee was indebted to him for preventing the eviction of 
many dependents. 

In numerous cases ai'rangements were made with hospitals for care of a wife, 
mother or children of men in the service who were unable, through lack of funds, 
to secure medical treatment, or who were too ill to remain at home. To those who 
could remain at their home, but were unable to pay for medical attention, the 
committee procured the services of the district doctor free. 

Many cases were brought to the attention of the committee where an order 
had been made upon a delinquent husband by the Municipal Court. In accordance 
with the Allotment Act these orders had precedence over other claims, and with 
the cooperation of the Municipal Court the committee were able to have the orders 
complied with. 

Several cases were reported to the committee where tlie man in service was 
killed and the question came up as to how long the committee should carry his 
dependents upon the committee's list. After careful consideration it was finally 

. 73 



agreed to continue payments to such dependents until they received their first 
payment from the War Risk Insurance. 

In the beginning the committee was greatly concerned as to the manner of 
making payments to the dependents, but through an agreement with the City 
Controller a warrant was drawn for a lump sum semi-monthly and vouchers later 
filed with his office covering the amount ptiid to each individual. 

All payments were made by check which numbered upwards of 1,000 semi- 
monthly, and officials of the Continental-Equitable Trust Company, through which 
the checks were paid, were extremely courteous, and rendered a real service. 

The committee feels that its work was deeply appreciated by those who 
received financial assistance and that the taxpayers' money was judiciously 
expended. 

Sub-Committee on Camps and Quarters 

Shortly after the United States declared war on Germany a number of soldiers 
arrived in Philadelphia unannounced, and as no accommodations had been made 
for them, they were obliged to sleep in one of the city parks in the southern section 
of the city. This information was received by the committee and the matter 
promptly taken up by the Mayor and the secretary of the committee. 

The first motor truck company remaining over night in Philadelphia was on 
January 31, 1918, and was housed at the State Fencibles Armory. Supper and 
breakfast were furnished to the men and every comfort given them. 

As the armory was being used for mifitary purposes, it became necessary to 
arrange other quarters in which to billet the men remaining over night. After 
giving this problem considerable thought it was decided that the rooms and cor- 
ridors of Councils (fourth floor. City Hall) were the most available in which to house 
the companies, owing to the central location. Arrangements were immediately 
entered into with the Police Department to furnish cots and pillows; new sheets, 
towels and soap were purchased, and shower baths installed. 

The following procedure was carried out in preparing for the comfort and 
convenience of those billeted: Upon receipt of information that a motor truck 
company would arrive and remain over night in Philadelphia, notice was given the 
office of the superintendent of police, requesting that a motorcycle detail escort 
the train te the city's center. The trucks were parked on the Parkway or plaza 
of City Hall, and many times from 150 to 200 trucks were on City Hall Plaza, 
Broad Street and the Parkway. The doors at the northeast corner of City Hall 
were open at all times during the night and the elevators kept running continuously. 
City Hall guards were stationed on the fourth floor and at the entrances, to prevent 
outsiders from disturbing the men; cots were erected and soap and towels placed 
in the wash rooms and shower baths. The corridors were lighted, stationery and 
stamps placed in the writing room set apart for use of the men; free telephone 
service was given and everything done to make the men feel "at home." 

A kitchen was equipped on the fifth floor of City Hall where mess was served 
to companies. In the event of a company being without rations, or in emergencies, 
the men were fed at nearby restaurants at an average price of sixty cents per meal. 
This occurred frequently and many times late at night. 

When a large contingent arrived, too many to accommodate in the kitchen 
on the fifth floor of City Hall, field kitchens were erected on the plot of ground on 

74 



Filbert Street, between Broad and 15th streets, leased by the Pennsylvania State 
Construction Company, which showed a patriotic spirit by permitting the use of 
this ground and furnishing the necessary wood for the fires. 

As soon as a company arrived either at City Hall, at the Studebaker Building, 
or at 18th and Race streets, a representative of the committee was on hand 
and immediately got in touch with the officer in charge and procured for them oil, 
gasoline or rations, and telephoned the Fire Bureau, during the winter months, 
to have a fireman with hose put water in the radiators of the cars, which wore 
emptied immediately upon arrival to prevent freezing. 

The officers were entertained at one of the hotels or clubs, and it was said by 
many of these men, that nowhere else in the country were the men treated with 
such kindness and consideration as they were in Philadelpliia. 

Quite frequently men arriving required medical attention which was im- 
mediately rendered. Late in 1918, an order was received from the government 
that all such cases be referred to Major Pollard, who thereafter had general super- 
vision and gave medical attention to all ill or injured men. 

A medical officer from the War Department was sent to Philadelphia to in- 
spect the quarters used by the soldiers. He was given all information asked for, 
and when he saw that each man was provided with individual towel, soap, comb 
and brush, and that the cots were arranged so as to leave nearly two feet of space 
between, he was most agreeably surprised, and informed the committee that the 
sanitEiry arrangements and surroundings were excellent and in keeping with the 
stringent rules of the government. 

On June 1, 1918, and continuing for about a week, the Emergency Fleet 
Corporation moved their headquarters from Washington to Philadelphia by motor 
trucks. This gigantic task was performed by the Motor Transport Corps, their 
trucks leaving Washington and arriving in Philadelphia without a stop, the trip 
being made in about twenty hours. Immediately upon unloading the trucks at 
140 North Broad Street, the men came to City Hall carrying their heavy laden 
packs into the corridors and dropping exhausted upon the cots arranged for them. 

Motor truck companies were housed in City Hall corridors until the influenza 
epidemic of October, 1918, when Director Wilmer Krusen, of the Department of 
Public Health and Charities, directed that no soldiers be billeted in City Hall 
during this terrible epidemic, and suggested that a building be commandeered for 
the purpose of accommodating motor truck companies. Immediately the new 
building at the northwest corner of Broad and Brown streets, known as the Stude- 
baker Building was taken over and within twenty-four hours it was fully equipped 
and ready for occupation. The lessor of the building desired a two years' lease 
at a rental approximating $45,000 per year. This seemed excessive and a search 
for other quarters was begun. The committee occupied the Studebaker Building 
for about a month at a cost of §4,500. 

The four-story property at the northeast corner of 18th and Race streets had 
been condemned by the city for parkway purposes, and after looking at many 
other buildings, this property seemed to be the most desirable, as it was near to 
City Hall, faced the Parkway, on which the motor trucks could be parked, and 
would not cost the city a penny for rental. It was in a dilapidated condition when 
inspected by the committee, but within two weeks was transformed into thoroughly 
comfortable quarters for approximately 350 men. 

75 



During all the time the committee looked after the housing of these men, it 
was ably assisted by the canteen service of the American Red Cross, of which Mrs. 
George W. Childs Drexel was chairman, by Mrs. Harry Michell and Mrs. Zulick, 
and by Mrs. Rhodes, of the Motor Messengers' service, and her associates. 

Upon the signing of the aixnistice and demobilization many soldiers en route 
to their homes in various sections of the country stopped here, and being without 
funds, were cared for by the committee. This problem became so acute that 
at a meeting of the committee held on November 27, 1918, a communica- 
tion was received from the American Red Cross requesting permission to send 
demobilized men to the quarters at 18th and Race streets. 

The committee decided that to comply with this request would interfere with 
the activities of the committee in housing the personnel of motor truck trains by 
overcrowding or disorder, as these individual men would not be under the command 
of an ofQcer. In order to cooperate with the Red Cross in taking care of these men 
negotiations were entered into with the University of Pennsylvania for the use 
of a building owned by it at 1721 Arch Street. The Trustees of the University 
tendered the use of this building free of rent in lieu of the committee making all 
improvements. The committee had the house remodeled, and a boiler costing 
$4,000 was installed, as well as shower baths, new beds, mattresses, pillows and 
individual lockers. 

The Director of the Department of Public Safety detailed three patrolmen 
(eight hour shifts) to police the building, and the committee employed two janitors, 
one for day and the other at night, as the building was always open. Cards of 
admission were obtained from the American Red Cross, on which was the name 
and address of the soldier seeking lodging, and this rule was strictly observed to 
prevent promiscuous itinerants gaining admission, which would detract from the 
worthy purpose for which the quarters were being used. There were 12,664 sent to 
1721 Arch Street who made use of the accommodations provided. The total 
number of men billeted at City Hall, the Studebaker Ruilding and at 18th and 
Race streets, amounted to 20,000. In other words, the committee provided for 
about .■JS.OOO. 

Sub-Committee on Hospitals 

The subcommittee on hospitals, immediately after its appointment, received 
apphcations for medical attention from the dependents of those in the service. 
The hospitals in Philadelphia cheerfully complied with every request for the admis- 
sion or treatment of those afflicted. 

The district medical inspectors and police surgeons were frequently called 
upon at all hours to visit homes of those who were ill and unable to pay for medical 
attention. 

Particular attention is called to the number of cases admitted to the Rush 
Hospital, mainly through the kindly influence of the secretary of the committee, 
Charles R. Hall. Many of those admitted to this hospital were in the last stages 
of tuberculosis and every comfort and attention was given them during their illness. 
Several were greatly improved during their stay and were vhen sent to the con- 
valescent or outdoor hospital at IMalvern and discharged when permanent im- 
provement was shown. 

Preparatory to the campaign for the Liberty Loan in the latter part of 1918, 

76 



a number of soldiers wounded overseas were brought from Camp Dix to Phila- 
delphia to aid in floating the Loan, and were quartered in City Hall. About this 
time the epidemic of influenza struck Philadelphia, and several of these men suc- 
cumbed. 

Sergeant Blake, in charge of these wounded soldiers, was taken ill, and after 
considerable trouble to have him placed in a hospital. Mother Ines, of the Miseri- 
cordia Hospital, made room for him and he was admitted. Everything was done 
to save his life, but without success. 

Preparations were in progress for the opening of the Philopatrian Institute 
as an emergency hospital, and when it was found that sixteen of the soldiers quar- 
tered in City Hall were suffering from the "flu," a hurried consultation was held 
by the chairman of the committee, Mr. Hetzell, Doctors John M. Fisher and Henry 
A. Strecker, and the Sisters of St. Joseph, and the institute immediately trans- 
formed into Emergency Hospital No. 3, where these sixteen men were taken. 

Sub-Committee on Burials 

This subconnnittee on burials took charge of a number of requests for assis- 
tance in the burial of soldiers or for their immediate next of kin. 

In all cases of death, where financial assistance was requested and given, the 
committee kept the fact from the general public so that the families of the deceased 
would not be branded as recipients of charity. Proper vouchers and bills were 
filed in the office of the City ControUer covering the expenses. 

When a soldier was buried, the funeral was military in character, and through 
the courtesy of the commanding officers at the various military and naval depots 
in Philadelphia, firing squads and bugle corps were furnished whenever requested. 

No words can express the appreciation shown by the families of the deceased 
for the service rendered by the committee to those who had lost their loved ones, 
and while the number of applications was but smaU in comparison to the thousands 
who entered the service, the committee fulfilled, in every detail, the object of its 
appointment. 

The committee gave personal attention to the shipment to their homes of the 
bodies of several soldiers who died during the influenza epidemic and helped to 
defray the expenses in aU such cases. 



77 



EARLY PREPAREDNESS ME\SURES 



THE STUDENT MILITARY TRAINING CAMPS 
Known as the "Plattsburg" Camps 

j^^^^HESE camps, which proved to be so efficient an element in 
preparedness for national defense, were initiated by a letter 
addressed under date of May 10, 1913, by Major-General 
Leonard Wood, then chief of staff. United States Army, to 
the university and college presidents of the country, stating 
that the Secretary of War had decided to hold two exper- 
imental military camps of instruction for students of 
educational institutions, during the then coming summer 
vacation period, and that if these camps should prove to 
be a success, the intention was to hold them annually in 
each of the four military sections or divisions of the country. 

Camps were established that summer at Gettysburg, Pa., and at the 
Presidio of Monterey, Cal. One hundred and fifty-nine students attended the 
Gettysburg camp from sixty-one institutions located in different parts of the 
country. Of these, twenty-five were from Pennsylvania, and of the twenty-five 
six were from Philadcljjhia. all from the I'niversity of Pennsylvania. The attend- 





Presiitenl Henry S. Drinker, Major General Leonard Wood and officers, al Plall.ihurg. 1916. 

78 



ance from the State of Pennsylvania was distributed as follows: High School, 
Hanover, 1; Lafayette College, Easton, 1; Lehigh Liniversity, Bethlehem, 8; 
Pennsylvania College, Gettysburg, 2; Pennsylvania Military College, Chester,!; 
Pennsylvania State College, 2; Philadelphia Trades School, 1; L^niversity of Penn- 
sylvania, 6 ; Washington and Jefferson College, 3 ; a total of twenty-five. 

Sixty-three students attended the Monterey Camp, from twenty-nine institu- 
tions. Of these none were from Pennsylvania. 

These first camps in the summer of 1913 were succeeded in the summer of 
1914 by similar camps at Burlington, Vt., Asheville, N. C, Ludington, Mich., and 
Monterey, Cal., with a total attendance of 667, of whom thirty-four were from 
Pennsylvania and nine from Philadelpliia. 

In 1915 a movement to establish similar summer military training camps for 
business and professional men materialized. Camps for students were held with 
an attendance of 615 at Plattsburg, N. Y., 212 at the Presidio of San Francisco, 
Cal., 95 at American Lake, State of Washington, and 144 at Ludington, Mich. 
Camps for business men were held with attendance of 1,189 at the first camp and 
564 at the second camp at Plattsburg, N. Y., and of 72 at San Francisco. At 
Fort Sheridan, 111., a camp composed of both students and business men was 
held, numbering in all 515, the total for 1915 in all camps summing up to 3,406. 

In 1916 camps for students were held with attendance of 3,316 at Plattsburg; 
1,166 at Fort Terry, New York (for boys), and 125 at American Lake; for business 
men, at Plattsburg, with attendance of 1,387 at the first camp and 3,281 at the 
second. Following these, camps composed of both students and business men were 
held at Plattsburg, attendance at the first camp being 3,214 and at the second 
1,000; also at Fort Oglethorpe, Georgia, first camp 335, second camp 221; at Mon- 
terey, California, 1,094; at Fort Douglas, LItah, 579, and at Fort Sam Houston, 
Texas, 421 — a total attendance at all camps for 1916 of 16,639. The total attend- 
ance in the four years at all camps from the miUtary departments of the country 
was as follows: 

Eastern Department, 16,917; Western Department, 2,325; Central Depart- 
ment, 771; Southern Department, 421. Total, 20,434. 

The exact number of Pennsylvanians and of Philadelphians attending the 
summer camps of 1915 and 1916 is not available. 

The students attending the Gettysburg Camp in 1913, at a meeting held 
one evening at Hummelstown on their hike to the practice range at Mount Gretna, 
organized the Society of the National Reserve Corps of the United States, and 
elected as president of the corps Henry S. Drinker, president of Lehigh LTniversity, 
Pa. Following the close of the camp. President Drinker and General Wood after 
conference, sent out letters to presidents of institutions who had shown active 
interest in the estabfishment of the camps, suggesting the formation of an advisory 
committee of university and coUege presidents on the camps, and such a com- 
mittee was formed in the autumn of 1913, composed of John G. Hibben, Princeton, 
Chairman of the Committee; A. Lawrence Lowell, Harvard; Arthur T. Hadley, 
Yale; John H. Finley, College of the City of New York (later Commissioner of 
Education, New York State) ; H. B. Hutchins, University of Michigan (now re- 
tired); George H. Denny, University of Alabama; E. W. Nichols, Superintendent 
Virginia Military Institute; B. I. Wheeler, University of Cahfornia (now retired); 
Henry S. Drinker, Lehigh University, Pa., Secretary of the Committee. 

79 



President Hibben and President Drinker have continued to hold the office of 
chairman and secretary of the committee to the present time, 1920. Superintendent 
Nichols retired from membership in the committee in the autumn of 1916, and 
the committee since its formation in 1913 has been enlarged by the addition, as 
members, of the following: President M. L. Burton, University of Michigan; 
President J. Livingston Farrand, University of Colorado; President H. A. Garfield, 
Williams College; President A. C. Humphreys, Stevens Institute of Technology 
President E. J. James, University of Illinois (now retired and succeeded by Presi- 
dent David Kinley); Chancellor J. H. Kirkland. Vanderbilt University; President 
J. G. Schurman, Cornell University; Rt. Rev. Thos. J. Shahan, Rector, CathoHc 
University of America; President Henry Suzzalo, University of the State of 
Washington; President W. 0. Thompson, Ohio State University. 

The men attending the first business men's camps in 1915 formed organiza- 
tions for promoting the training camps movement, and in January, 1916, at a 
joint meeting held in New York City the students and business men's organiza- 
tions consolidated, forming the present Military Training Camps Association of 
the United States, and elected Henry S. Drinker, president of Lehigh University, 
Pa., chairman of the governing committee. This association was reorganized in 
May, 1920, the new constitution providing for a president, a vice-president from 
each continental military department of the United States, a secretary and treasurer 
and governing committee. Dr. Drinker, expressing a wish to retire from active 
executive duty, was elected honorary president, and GrenviUe Clark, of New York, 
who had been the active genius in the organization of the business men's camps in 
1915, was elected president, and Captain Arthur F. Cosby was reelected executive 
secretary with offices at 19 West 43d Street, New York City. 

The association in November, 1916, adopted the following resolution: 
"Resolved, That the object and policy of this association is to bring about a 
system of universal obligatory miUtary training and service for the young men 
of the United States, under exclusive federal control, and that this purpose be 
publicly announced and followed as the poUcy of the association." 

On the entering of the United States into the World War, in the spring of 1917, 
the Mihtary Training Camps Association at once tendered to the government the 
service of its entire organization and offices throughout the country to aid in the 
enrolment of officers for war service. It is estimated that the graduates of the 
training camps of 1913, 1914, 1915 and 1916 furnished about 16,000 much needed 
officers for active service in the World War. The officers' camps established in 
1917 by the Government at Plattsburg. Niagara Falls and other points in that 
year took the place of the training camps held in the summers of 1913, 1914, 1915 
and 1916, and following the close of the war, the Government has substituted the 
summer training camps for students enrolled in the R. 0. T. C. (Reserve Officers' 
Training Corps) for those of previous years. Today, 1920, units of the R. O. T. C. 
are estabUshed in many of the universities and colleges of the United States, 
directed by army officers detailed by the War Department for this especial service, 
and it is a notable fact that this is the only efficient, practical miUtary preparedness 
movement (outside of the National Guards organizations in the different States) 
in existence, and it is a cfirect result and outgrowth of the movement initiated by 
General Wood in 1913, and which had its main start at Gettysburg in Pennsylvania. 

80 



d 



THE PHILADELPHIA MILITARY TRAINING CORPS* 

The Philadelphia Military Training Corps had its inception in the summer of 
1915, when it came into existence through the untiring energy of Major A. J. 
Drexel Biddle. 

The late President Roosevelt was an enthusiastic supporter of Major Riddle's 
plan for military training, and Judge J. Willis Martin was a most active worker in 
developing the Corps. 

It is interesting to note in passing that the Philadelphia Military Training 
Corps movement was preceded by the definite preliminary work of the Drexel 
Biddle Bible Classes. Major General Leonard Wood addressed a meeting of the 
classes, and, by courtesy of the War Department, a non-commissioned officer took 
charge of the instruction and drills. 

On October 1, 1915, Major Biddle estabhshed an encampment at Lansdowne, 
Pa., which he placed under command of Colonel J. Campbell Gilmore. Through 
the cordial cooperation of Major (ieneral George Barnett, Commandant of the 
United States Marine Corps, non-commissioned officers of the United States Marine 
Corps were detailed as instructors. Sixteen students joined the camp. 




Courtesy of Pi-anK \V. I'.iilikr, ^tjiiley C 



of AnitTica. 
The first of Die 'lOO ( '.omiiiiiiies. 



The support of a number of prominent citizens of Philadelphia, who convened 
at a meeting in liie home of Alexander Van Rensselaer, made it possible to pay for 
the maintenance of 150 men at this first camp. 

After the close of the camp the recruits formed a military organization, known 
as the Drexel Biddle Military Training Corps, and various societies and business 
firms formed military bodies in association therewith. These groups became 
known as the Drexel Biddle Citizens' Army, and were driUed during the winter 
season at the various drill halls through the kindness of Major Logan Feland, 
U. S. M. C. (now Brigadier General, who was in command of one of the marine 
regiments on the battle front), and under his direction officers and non-com- 
missioned officers of the LTnited States ]\larine Corps volunteered their services 
as instructors in the Officers' School, which was established for higher training 
and at the drills. 

Thirty-two hundred (3,200) men had become well instructed in the Citizens' 
Army when, in .Vpril, 1916, A. J. Drexel Biddle opened the campaign for prepared- 
ness in Philadelphia. During the progress of this campaign the Citizens' Army 
grew to many thousands and, under the chairmanship of WiUiam R. Nicholson, 
the campaign met with success. 

*Suinniarized by the Secretary of the Philadelphia War History Committee. 

81 



Mrs. George W. Childs Drexel was Chairman of the Women's Division, while 
Mrs. Charles W. Urquhart was Acting Chairman. Although Mrs. A. J. Drexel 
Biddle was not an officer of the Division, her quiet and effective work and 
generous contributions aided materially in its success. 

During the progress of the campaign a parade of the Drexel Biddle Citizens' 
Army was held in Broad Street, culminating with a mass meeting at the Metro- 
pohtan Opera House, which was addressed by the Governor of Massachusetts, the 
Mayor of Boston and Major Biddle. The Hon. George S. Graham was Chairman 
of this meeting. 

Following the campaign a corporation was formed to continue the work, and 
William R. Nicholson became President and Major Biddle \ ice-President and 
Treasurer. 

A deep debt of gratitude is owed to the patriotism of the several thousand 
citizens of Philadelphia who generously contributed their time and means to 
the cause of the Corps. 

During the spring and summer of 1916. 12.000 men were enrolled in the Drexel 
Biddle Citizens' Army. As a result of this preliminary work and the organization 
of the Philadelphia Military Training Corps a bill was introduced in Congress by 
Representative Butler, authorizing the smn of .?31,000 to be used by the Marine 
Corps in the establishment of a camp for the training of citizen soldiers. 

Through the continued patriotic leadership and help of Major General 
George Barnett, and by his authority. General Feland, U. S. M. C. (then Major), 
assumed command of Camp Drexel, so named in recognition of the patriotic 
service and untiring devotion to her country of Mrs. George W. Childs Drexel. 

The camp was opened at Lansdowne, Pa., during July and August, 1916. 
Previous to the opening of the camp several hundred men who had received instruc- 
tion entered the various branches of the service, including the National Guard of 
Pennsylvania, the Army, the Navy and United States Marine Corps. At the end 
of the camp 179 men signed to enter the new branch of the service recently author- 
ized by act of Congress, known as the Marine Corps Reserves. 

At the outbreak of trouble with Mexico more than 100 of the men joined the 
National Guard. The Philadelphia Military Training Corps was signally honored 
by the city of Philadelphia, by being chosen as escort to the National Guard on the 
retiu-n of two of its regiments from the Mexican border. 

Besides the work at the camp. Major Biddle drilled the employes of a large 
number of banks, trust companies and commercial houses in Philadelphia. The 
Land Title & Trust Company, of which Colonel Nicholson is President, furnished 
more men to the government than any other bank or trust company in Pennsyl- 
vania. Several particularly large groups of men who regularly drilled were the 
employes of the Pennsylvania Company, Central National Bank, Gu-ard Trust 
Company, Autocar Company, Packard Automobile Company and the Goniery- 
Schwartz Motor Car Company. WilUam Freihofer supplied a uniformed regiment 
of men from his employes. The Bailey, Banks & Biddle Company furnished 
a fully uniformed company; Miss Natahe Sellers Baines recruited and uniformed 
a body of 200 men at Bryn Mawr, most of whom later joined the service; Rev. 
Father William J. Lallou furnished a company of men from his church; Jacob 
D. Lit, Isadore Stern and Louis Gerson patriotically recruited a regiment of fully 
uniformed men. 



82 



When Major Biddle and General Feland were called away from Philadelphia, 
the late H. Frederick Wilson, Managing Director of the Drexel Biddle Bible Class 
movement, took command of the Military Training Corps. At Mr. Wilson's 
death he was succeeded as Director of the Corps by H. D. Jones, who, with Marine 
Gunner II. Molloy, had charge of the drills. 

At Lansdowne, in Philadelphia and vicinity, some 40,000 men were drilled in 
the Philadelphia Military Training Corps, of which number more than 24,000 
entered the Government service. 

A particularly interesting fact is that several thousand of the men entered the 
service when most needed, namely, during the few weeks directly after war was 
declared and before the draft was instituted. 

The Directors of the Philadelphia Military Training Corps were James M. 
Anders, M. D., John C. Bell, Livingston Ludlow Biddle, A. J. Drexel Biddle, 
Col. Quincy Adams Gillmore, George Wharton Pepper, E. A. Van Valkenburg, 
Richard L. Austin, Wm. H. Donner, Lee J. Eastman, William Freihofer, Jacob 
D. Lit, Wm. R. Nicholson, Emile G. Perrot, David B. Provan. 

MILITARY TRAINING IN LOCAL SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES 

An effort was made to secure a brief statement from those institutions in 
Philadelphia in which a Students' Army Training Corps or some other military 
organization was established, and reports from the following places were received: 

The University of Pennsylvania: During the spring of 1917 almost two 
thousand men enrolled in the "N^oluntary Student Battalion under command of 
Colonel William Kelly. During the winter of 1917-18 a Reserve Officers' Training 
Corps was established under Major Charles T. Griffith, U. S. A., in which 900 
students enrolled. In the fall of 1918 the University started a four (4) year course 
in Military Science for students in order that they might be fitted to receive com- 
missions in the Army and Navy. This course, which was to include a number of 
carefully selected subjects from the College, Wharton, and Towne Scientific 
Schools, was intended to prepare students for the degree of Bachelor of Science in 
Military Science. 

In connection with the war-time work of the LIniversity, it is interesting to 
note that voluntary enlistments prior to June, 1917, represented 60 per cent of 
the law school students and two fifths of the medical students. 

The first LTnited States Ordnance School was established at the University. 
In the Engineering Department there were given special courses preparing men for 
the signal service, radio, etc. Most of the members of the Aviation Examining 
Boards throughout the United States were likewise trained at the Parent L'nit 
organized at the LIniversity Hospital, which conducted a number of special courses 
for nurses and nurses' aides. On July 1 , 1918, an Officer Material School was estab- 
lished in the Engineering Building of the University under the auspices of the United 
States Navy, which was being conducted for enlisted men in the Navy showing 
special ability. Each course extended over a period of three months and was 
attended by a squad of 200 sailors, who were quartered in the LIniversity dormi- 
tories. In other class rooms of the Engineering liuilding, a School of Navigation 
was conducted under the supervision of John F. Lewis, Chief of Section 2 of the 
United States Shipping Board's Recruiting Service, and for nearly two years 
these rooms were heated and lighted without expense to the Government. 

83 




huluclkm of Sliiilcrils into llif S. I. T. ('.. I iiiivrnily of Pi'niisylvdiiid. October 1. 1918. 

It is thus seen that several thousand men, beside the regular University of 
Pennsylvania students, were being trained at the University for special branches 
of the United States service. 

Besides this, the University organized among her sons three ambulance units, 
a Base Hospital, several Red Cross units, and various detached units. Its hospital 
set aside 250 of its beds for the special use of the Army and Navy. Many of the 
University laboratories were turned over to and were being used by the Government 
and its special experts. Various laboratories in the Engineering Building had been 




Final Revieiv of Naral Unil. University of Pennsylvania, December 7, 1918. 

84 



turned over to the United States Shipping Board, where it carried on routine work 
lor the Department of Concrete Ship Construction of the Emergency Fleet. The 
various testing laboratories of the Engineering School also were being used by the 
United States Signal Corps Instruction Department in testing airplanes, etc. 

In all departments of the University new subjects were introduced and old 
subjects modified so thafthe regular students had special opportunities to prepare 
for military, naval or other governmental service, or for constructive work in in- 
dustries related to the war or government work. In the professional schools 
many such couxses were offered. 

A report received January 15, 1920, gives the total number of 10,000 Penn- 
sylvania men, students, faculty and alunmi, who served during the World War. 
Of this number 207 died, 166 were wounded and 165 were decorated. 

Drexel Institute: The induction of students in the Students' Army Train- 
ing Corps Unit at Drexel Institute began on October 10, 1918. First Lieutenant 
James P. Lyons was detailed as Commanding Officer of the Unit on September 17, 
1918. On November 26th, Second Lieutenants Jammer, Sewell, Tarbox and 
Brunner reported from the Students' Army Training Corps, Training Camp, 
Plattsburg Barracks, New York. There were 247 men em:olled in this Unit, five 
of whom were transferred to the Officers' Training Camp for Infantry, Camp 
Cordon, Georgia. The Unit was demobilized on December 18, 1918. Four of the 
Drexel students received second lieutenants' commissions at the Plattsburg Camp. 
These were: WiUiam K. Woodruff, WilUam Adam, Jr., Edward B. Focht and Eugene 
T. White. 

Hahnemann Medical College: On October 1, 1918, the Students' Army 
Training Corps of the Hahnemann Medical College of Philadelphia came officially 
into existence and on December 16th officially went out of existence. Two 
hundred and eighteen men were enrolled. Colonel Lockwood was the first com- 
manding officer. 

Two and a half months of Army life and training was the lot of the students; 
that it did them nmch good physically, there is no doubt; how much medicine they 
learned during that time is a question. 

Barracks life at the First Begiment Armory gave the students something to 
think about for many a day. Their experiences were many and varied. How 
much studying they did no one will ever know, except, perhaps, the students 
themselves; how many pranks they played on one another and the officers they 
surely know ; perhaps the officers do not know, and it is just as well that they do not. 

Colonel Lockwood was succeeded by Captain WiUiam Henry Frazee. Captain 
Frazee was a strict discipHnarian, which goes with Army life, and it did not take 
him long to set to rights the relaxation which would naturally take place on the 
change of commanding officers. Captain Frazee was fond of his student body, and 
did everything possible to make barracks life jilcasant for them. Several dances 
were held for the students which were followed by "eats." Captain Frazee always 
seemed to know where to get free music and "feed" for these occasions, which 
were always enjoyable and for which the Corps was always doubly thankful. 

While Captain Frazee was fond of discipline, he still had a warm spot in his 
heart for those who were in trouble and always tempered his justice with mercy. 

Colonel Lockwood and Captain Frazee were fortunate in having an able 

85 



staff of assistants, who, like the student body, at once became devoted and 
attached to them, and left no stone unturned to make their stay at Hahnemann 
a most pleasant and successful one. The staff consisted of Lieutenant Sanuiel 
J. Hughes, Personnel OfTicer; Lieutenant Harold A. Donegan, Adjutant, and Lieu- 
tenant M. Berkman, Quartermaster. 

Jefferson Medical College: In the summer of 1917, immediately after the 
creation of the Medical Enlisted Reserve Corps by the War Department and the 
United States Naval Reserve Force by the Navy Department, under Presidential 
authorization, all students and prospective students of Jefferson Medical College 
were circularized and urged to join either one or the other of these organizations. 
During the session 1917-18, 339 of the 466 students of Jefferson College were enhsted 
in the Medical Enlisted Reserve Corps and thirty-one in the United States 
Naval Reserve Force. 

Following several conferences with the War Department by Dr. Ross V. 
Patterson, the Dean of the College, a contract was entered into on September 1 6, 
1918, for the establishment of the Jefferson Medical College Unit of the Students' 
Army Training Corps. Acting under special orders from the War Department. 
W. D. Canaday, Captain. Infantry, U. S. A., who had just successfully completed 
the organization of the Students' Army Training Coips at Williams College. 
Williamstown, Mass., reported at Jefferson Medical College on October 21, 1918, 
as commanding officer, and with five lieutenants began the organization of the Unit. 

The Unit was organized with extraordinary rapidity. The medical physical 
examination was completed within twenty-four hours. Almost the entire medical 
personnel of the faculty and their assistants were organized into an examining 
body and a systematic examination completed in a very short time. The Jefferson 
Hospital Medical Advisory Board, which had been organized for some months, and 



;7:sag 




Photo by F. Guteloinst 



Bayonet Practice. 
86 



had examined several thousand referred draft board cases, acted in the capacity 
of an Examining Board. Induction into miHtary service, through Draft Board 
No. 4, with which special arrangements had been made, was accomplished with 
equal facility. The details necessary to the induction of the students were 
expeditiously handled through correspondence and telegrams with their home 
boards. This was a task of some magnitude, as the home geographical distri- 
bution of the student body reached into some forty states. With the exception 
of two or three cases, the whole matter was very promptly handled and the induc- 
tion completed on November 1, 1918, when 431 of the 462 students in the College 
were inducted into service, 398 into the Students' Army Training Corps, and thirty- 
three into the United States Naval Reserve Force. Of the 398 students in the 
Students' Army Training Corps, 286 were transferred from the Medical Enlisted 
Reserve Corps. 

The majority of those not inducted into service were citizens of foreign coun- 
tries and those physically unfit for military service. 

The Inasmuch Mission at 1011 Locust Street, Philadelphia, was requisitioned 
for service as barracks. A contract for its lease from the Board of Managers was 
entered into; the building was rapidly emptied, cleaned and made ready for oc- 
cupancy. Cots, blankets and kitchen supplies were contracted for and deUvered. 
The students were rapidly placed in uniforms and soon received their entire 
equipment; and for the first time in the ninety-four years of its history, the 
student body of Jefferson Medical College was in the uniform of the military 
forces of the United States. The Recreation Board of Philadelphia placed the 
Starr Garden Park, 7th and Lombard streets, Philadelphia, at the disposal of 
the Unit to be used as a drill ground, this being within easy marching dis- 
tance of the College. Pei-mission was also received for the use of the Third Regi- 
ment Armory at Broad and Wharton streets for drill in bad weather. MiUtary 
drill was a part of each day's work. 

Before the barracks had been made ready for occupancy, it became evident 
to the students and the faculty and even to the commanding officer that any 
effective medical work would be ruined by putting students together in barracks 
under conditions entirely unsuitable for study, and in an atmosphere which would 
be utterly discouraging to scholarly attainment. The Dean made another trip 
to Washington and succeeded in getting approval of the War Department for the 
students of this Unit to remain in fraternity houses, of which there were eight, and 
in the boarding houses in which they had secured quarters before the institution 
of the Students" Army Training Corps. They reported for drill in the morning 
at six o'clock, however, and were satisfactorily messed at the Military Head- 
quarters on Locust Street. 

There was general satisfaction, reUef and much rejoicing on the part of the 
students, faculty and instructors upon the demobiUzation and discharge of the 
members of the Students' Army Training Corps. So far as medical schools were 
concerned, the experiment was a failure, both from the MiUtary and Medical 
standpoints. It was proved that it was quite as impossible to make both physicians 
and soldiers of students at the same time as it is to chase two rabbits at once. 
The error was a fundamental one of conception; impossible administrative diffi- 
culties were imposed by the plan upon both college and military authorities. The 
mistake should never be repeated. It was fortunate that the experiment lasted 

87 



only for a short time and that the discharge of the men on December 18, 1918, 
gave them an opportunity for the rest of the year to do effective medical work. 
There was no doubt in the minds of medical teachers that the plan was absolutely 
destructive of all effective medical work. Whether this would have become ap- 
parent to the War Department in time to have rectified the blunder is a matter, 
of course, of speculation. 

St. Joseph's College: The Student Army Training Corps was organized 
at St. Joseph's College, Philadelphia, September 26, 1918, and the students were 
inducted into the United States Army on October 1st. 

Owing to the signing of the armistice, demobihzation was ordered on November 
26th and was completed on December 10th. 

The prevalence of the influenza made it necessary to suspend classes from 
October 4th to 21st; so that in all less than eight weeks were actually employed 
in the normal activities of the Unit. 

The primary purpose of the Student Army Training Corps, as stated by the 
War Department, was to utilize the executive and teaching personnel and the 
physical equipment of the educational institutions to assist in the training of officer 
candidates to meet the needs of the service. 

As originally planned in August, the collegiate section was open to registrants, 
who were members of some authorized college, university or professional school, 
who were between the ages of eighteen and twenty-one, and who were physically 
qualified for general or limited service in the Army. 

On September 5th a Ust of twenty -three prescribed subjects of study was drawn 
up by the War Department for the student soldiers — fourteen hours of class and 
thirty-eight hours of study a week being prescribed for their prepcu-ation. On 
September 18th these subjects were grouped into courses appropriate to various 
branches of the service, and from time to time thereafter until the day of demobihza- 
tion detailed syllabi were sent from Washington, setting forth more specifically 
the grade and character of the instruction to be given in each fine of work. To 
meet these recurring suggestions, many readjustments in the program prepared 
by the College became necessary. 

The subjects from which the academic program was to be made up were the 
following: 

War issues (prescribed for all), military law (prescribed for all), English, 
French, German, mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, geology, psychology, 
geography, topography and map-making, meteorology, astronomy, hygiene, 
sanitation, descriptive geometry, mechanical and freehand drawing, surveying, 
economics, accounting, history, international law and government. 

By a concession of the faculty, work done by the members of the Student 
Army Training Corps in the following subjects was credited towards the 
requirements of the A. B. degree: War issues, mathematics, physics, chemistry, 
biology, astronomy, surveying. 

The miUtary officers were: Commanding Officer, Lieutenant J. P. Lyons; 
Adjutant and Quartermaster, Lieutenant L. E. Fields; Supply and Personnel 
Officer, Lieutenant F. P. McCardell ; Assistant Officer, Lieutenant Kessel ; Visiting 
Surgeon, Michael F. Gallagher, M.D.; Inspecting Surgeon, Lieutenant M. L. 
Lichtenberg. 

88 




Photo by F. Gutelninst. 

iS. .1. T. C al Ihe PennsylinnKi \liisimn mul ScIidoI of Industrial Arl. 

Temple University: In the early fall of 1918, Temple University estab- 
lished a Student Army Training Corps. It combined with its Units the students 
fioiii the Pennsylvania Museum and School of Industrial Art. The students at 




Phi.to by F (iutekullal. 



S. .4. T. C. al Temple UniversUy. 
89 



Temple were registered in the College of Liberal Arts, the Medical School and the 
Dental School. There were 275 men in this unit and ninety men in the Unit from 
the Industrial Art School. There was an additional Unit of sixty-eight Navy men, 
some of these being Temple students, others taking instruction at the Art School. 

The Second Regiment Armory k)cated near the University provided barracks 
for a portion of the men, other large halls being secured in the vicinity for additional 
barracks and a mess hall. The Samaritan Hospital assigned the large solarium 
waids and the roof garden ordinarily used for the children to the Corps as an in- 
firmary. 

Captain Will H. Dietrick was appointed to the official charge of the Unit 
remaining with th(> University after the demobilization of tlie Unit and until it was 
decided not to continue the Reserve Officers' Training Camp which succeeded the 
Student Army Training Corps. Dr. James H. Dunham, Ph.D., the dean of the 
College of Liberal Arts, had charge of the educational program. Almost im- 
mediately after the men went into barracks the influenza appeared among them 
and the entire University went into quarantine. Three members of the Corps 
died as the result of the epidemic, two being medical students who were serving 
for the time in the emergency hospitals. 

After the epidemic had passed the University settled down to the new con- 
ditions. All schedules were more or less made to conform to the regulations imposed 
by the presence of an Army camp in its midst. 

Professors and students rapidly readjusted themselves to the new conditions. 
The life of the LTniversity was beginning to function smoothly when the order for 
demobilization came. Many of the students returned to the colleges from which 
they had come. The students of Temple slipped back into their regular courses, 
and, save for the presence of the Captain and the small group who remained in 
the Reserve Officers' Training Corps, the University by the end of the school year 
was in very much the same condition as it had been at the close of the previous year. 

The University was fortunate in the oflicers assigned to it, so that there was 
no friction between the Army officials and those of the University. All cooperated 
in trying to work out the most stupendous problem that has ever been presented 
to the universities of America. 

PENNSYLVANIA WOMEN'S DIVISION FOR NATIONAL 
PREPAREDNESS* 

In the early autumn of 1915, Mrs. George W. Childs Drexel determined to 
organize the women of Pennsylvania to meet eventualities. With the war clouds 
in Europe growing blacker, Mrs. Drexel felt that 'it was only a matter of time 
before this country would become involved in the struggle. Women, she knew, 
would be called upon to render many and varied services, and it was to meet these 
new and real responsibilities that she quickly developed her plan. 

A meeting was held at her town house in September, 1915, among those present 
being: Miss Marion Riddle, Miss Sophie Cadwalader, Mrs. J. Gardner Cassatt, 
Mrs. John W. Geary, Mrs. Rodman E. Griscom, Mrs. G. Q. Horwitz, Mrs. Norman 
Jackson, Mrs. Thos. McKean, Dr. Clara Marshall, Mrs. J. Willis Martin, Miss 
Mary Mitchell, Mrs. I. H. O'Hara, Mrs. George Wharton Pepper, Mrs. Cornelius 

*By the Secretary of the Philadelphia War History Committee. 

90 



Stevenson, Mrs. Robert E. Strawbridge, Mrs. Alexander Van Rensselaer and Mrs. 
Barclay H. Warburton. 

At this meeting plans for an organization were discussed. Mrs. Drexel was 
elected President. The Vice-Presidents elected were Mrs. Martin and Mrs. O'Hara. 

The other women present constituted the Executive Committee. 

After several weeks, Mrs. Drexel had a series of interviews with Major General 
Leonard Wood and saw Secretary of Wai' Garrison, both of whom were much 
impressed with the practical way in which the matter was presented. 

The next meeting, to which representative women from all the counties in the 
State were called, was held on November, 1915, at 18th and Locust streets, when 
Mrs. Drexel summarized her plans and made her appeal as follows: 

"The purpose of this Division is to organize women throughout the State of 
Pennsylvania for preparedness in the event of war, and to be ready for work in 
those fields in which women can most effectively aid at such times or in case of 
State calamity. 

"The division will be composed of chapters, each with a minimum membership 
of 500, with a chairman for each chapter. These chairmen, by virtue of their 
office, will compose the State Council. There will also be officers and an executive 
committee with headquarters in Philadelphia." 

About 150 women were present and they returned to their several cities de- 
termined to organize for work. The Stale Vice-Presidents were increased to 
five, the three additional officers being Mrs. Sharp, of Chambersburg, Vice-President- 
at-large; Mrs. 11. Wells, of Wilkes-Barre, for the northeast section of the State; 
and Miss Adams, of Kane, for the northwest section of the State. 

Among the original Chapters were: 

AUentown — Miss Helen F. MacDonald 
Army and Navy — Mrs Francis Howard 

Williams 
Bristol— Mrs. Griffith H. Williams 
Bucks Comity — Mrs. F. Leroy 
Coatesville — Mrs. Addison A. Lamb 
Colored— Mrs. E. B. Leaf 
Columbia — Miss Lillie S. Evans 
College Women — Mrs. D. Feidl 
Delaware Valley — Mrs. Charles A. Parsons 
Doylestown — Miss Ehzabeth Ross 
Drexel Biddle Bible Class— Mrs. A. J. Hawk- 

sley 
Franklin — Miss Gertrude Adams 
Gettysburg— Mrs. Walter H. O'Neal 
Harrisburg — Mrs. Charles Ryder 
Lansdowne — Mrs E. Wager-Smith 
Langhome — Mrs. Tryon 
Lancaster — Miss Susan Carpenter Frazier 
Lebanon — Mrs Harrison Souder 



Main Line — Mrs. Charlton Yarnall 
Milton — Mrs. J. Hunter Miller 
Norristown — Mrs. Martha C. Mecunes 
Oil City — Mrs Fannie Gaude 
Old York Road— Mrs Harry E. Asbury 
Penna. Railroad — Mrs. George Dallas Dixon 
Phila., General — Mrs. Henry B. Coxe 
Pittsburgh — Mrs. Harry Brown 
Pottsville — Miss Anne E. Ridley 
Sewickley — Mrs. Alexander LauglJin 
Snyder County — Mrs. Schrier 
State College — Mrs. E. E. Sparks 
Sunbury — Mrs. H. J. Evans 
Urtjuhart — Mrs. George W. Urquhart 
West Chester — Mrs. George W. Phillips 
West Philadelphia — Mrs J. Hamilton Small 
Wilkes-Barre — Mrs. Wells 
Willianisport — Mrs. La Rue Munson 
VVyncote — Mrs. M. K. Neiller 
York County — Mrs. J. C. Schmidt 



Extension of Work 

As the Pennsylvania Women's Division for National Preparedness developed 
its work, eight departments were established : 

Department No. 1. Care of Soldiers' and Sailors' Families and Care of Sufferers 
from General Calamity — Mrs. J. Gardner Cassatt, Director. In the event of America 

91 



ongaging in war. soldiers in service would receive S15 a month; sailors, $20. It was 
obvious that this amount would be insufficient to provide even necessities for the 
families at home. Calamity, such as flood, earthquake or fire would produce con- 
ditions for the relief of which this department would work, but of which no estimate 
could be made as to the service required. The department pledged itself to re- 
sponsibility of the care of soldiers' and sailors' families and of sufferers from general 
calamity. 

Department No. 2. Nursing — Mrs. Norman Jackson, Director. Securing 
nurses for the Army. 

Department No. 3. Surf/ical Supplies — Mrs. Rodman E. Griscom, Director. 
This department enrolled all who wished to aid in the preparation of dressings, 
bandages, compresses, etc., to be used in time of war and calamity. 

Department No. 4. Convalescent Homes for Hospilah — Miss Marion Biddle, 
Director. The object of this department was to enroll all who would promise to 
provide and support, whoUy or in part, a suitable building to be used as a hospital 
building or convalescent home in the event of war or calamity. Fifty-five 
buildings were offered. 

Department No. 5. Messenger and Communicalion Service — Miss Mary 
Mitchell, Director. This department organized the first service of its kind, and all 
members were required to learn not merely the running of automobiles, but also 
their care and the making of at least minor adjustments and repairs. A large 
number of women were also enrolled who learned to wig-wag. 

Department No. 6. First Aid and Assistance in Daily Routine Work of Hos- 
pitals and Dietetics — Dr. Clara Mitchell, Director. 

Department No. 7. Emergency Commissariat. (Canteen) — Mrs. Robert E. 
Strawbridge, Mrs. Thomas McKean and Mrs. Barclay H. Warburton. Depart- 
ment No. 7 was the first of its kind anywhere, and as a result of the preliminary 
experiences the subsequent work of the Red Cross was expedited. Practically 
everj' troop train traveling through Philadelphia from Mt. (Iretna to the Border 
was met. 23,510 men were canteened. 

Department No. 8 A. Government Camps — Mrs. George Wharton Pepper, 
Director. The object of this section of Department No. 8 was to provide funds for 
Pennsylvania men who desired to prepare for miUtary service in the training 
camps at Plattsburg and elsewhere; also, to aid in securing the best candidates for 
enrolment. 

Department No. 8 B. Clerical Service — Miss Sophie Cadwalader, Director. 
The work of this section comprised bookkeeping, typewriting, card-cataloging, and 
other kinds of clerical work in the event of war or calamity, when professional 
workers would be hard to obtain. A knowledge of accounts was stressed, as well 
as a clear and legible handwriting. 

Department No. 8 C. Sewing — Mrs. Alexander Van Rensselaer, Director. 
The object of tliis section was to enrol women to cut out and sew upon garments 
required by hospitals and convalescent homes, in the event of weu- or calamity. 

In January, 1916, a mass meeting was held in the Garrick Theatre, at which 
1,700 women from all counties in the State were present, and so great was the de- 
mand for seats that over six hundred were unable to crowd their way into the 
building. 

The purpose of the Division was explained by George Wharton Pepper and 

92 



George Q. Horwitz. Major General Leonard Wood made the main address. 

State Headquarters were established in the Central City Building and spe- 
cially trained women speakers toured the counties. The number of chapters 
increased to sixty-two, with a membership of 11,000. Every member was com- 
pelled to take up one certain form of preparedness work and to abide by her choice. 

The division purchased a portable dental equipment for use on the Mexican 
Border in 1916 and paid the salary of Dr. C. J. Hollister. The sum of $25,000 
was collected for equipping Base Hospital No. 10. 

After America entered the war, it was found best to continue the work under 
the American Red Cross and the division, as such, discontinued in April, 1917. 
In practically every case where there had been a chapter of the division, the chair- 
man became the head of the local Red Cross Chapter. 

LOCAL BELGIAN RELIEF COMMITTEE 

One of the first efforts — if not the first — for Belgian relief was organized by 
Mrs. Edward S. Sayres, who, on September 30, 1914, called on the Belgian Consul 
and offered the services of the Flower Mission, of which she was President, to 
collect and ship food and clothing to non-combatants in Belgium. Her offer was 
accepted and on October 11th notices were read in all Main Line churches that a 
meeting would be held the next day at "Black Rocks," the residence of Mr. and 
Mrs. Sayres, and that on the 14th contributions would be received at the Bryn 
Mawr Reading Room. 

Twenty persons attended the first meeting, which was addressed by Mr. Paul 
Hagemans, the Consul General of Belgium. Mrs. Chai'les C. Harrison was 
appointed to carry on the work in Philadelphia and later became Chairman of the 
Belgian Committee of the Emergency Aid. On the 14th, an audience of 150 
contributed 2,091 pieces of clothing and blankets. From October 15th to 21st the 
Committee, assisted by Mrs. Hagemans and Miss Hagemans, received 8,831 gar- 
ments in Overbrook. The Committee collected $1,040.69 and purchased new 
garments and thirty barrels of flour. The 10,922 garments and other supplies 
filled an entire freight car. The Pennsylvania Railroad Company contributed its 
services and shipment was made to the Belgian Consul at New York, whence the 
shipment left on the Rotterdam addressed to The Netherlands Committee for 
Relief of Belgian Refugees. It reached its destination on November 7th. 

On April 17, 1919, the King of the Belgians conferred on Mrs. Sayres the 
Medal of Queen Elizabeth. 



9:5 



PHILADELPHIA AND THE 28th DIVISION 
William Bell Clark 

fNE-FOURTH of the total personnel of the National Guard 
of Pennsylvania, when it entered the Federal service to 
win immortal honor in the World War as the 28th Division, 
came from Philadelphia. Hundreds of the lads who left the 
City of Philadelphia in the ranks of its (Juard I nits made 
the supreme sacrifice on the battlefields of France. Other 
hundreds will cai'ry to their graves the scars of wounds 
sustained when Pennsylvania's Iron Division wrote grim 
history in a foreign land. Those so fortunate as to have 
escaped the casualty lists will have with them to the end 
memories of the shorn wheatfields by the Marne and the Ourcq, the ruins that 
once was Fismes, the gas-swept i^lateau overlooking the Aisne, the death- 
capped ridges beside the Aire and the No Man's Land beyond Thiaucourt. Thus, 
the '"red keystone" of the 28th is an insignia to which Philadelphia's claim is 
great. The history of the Division, as it is here unfolded, is written, therefore, 






ECRlgjSTATION 1229 ARCH ST' 






Courtesy of Frank W. Buhler, Stanley Co. of America. 

''The Call to Arms" by a Quartette from the Isf Regiment^ N. G. P. 




Courtesy of Frank W. 



IJuliIer, Staill.i Cu. ut Aiut-rica, 

Capt. Ward Pierson. Icadimj his ('ompany. 



with the view, not of slighting the State at large, but to expand upon tlie part 
played by those who hailed from this city. It is a history of the divisional units; 
a more intimate narrative of such of those units as were recruited in whole or 
in part from Pliiladeiphia. 

From the Border to Hancock 

On the day in 1916 when President Wilson decided to chastise Pancho 
Villa for liis temerity in attacking the border town of Columbus, N. M., the 
Pennsylvania National Guard Division began its momentous history. It is a 
far cry from Texas in the summer of 1916 to France in the summer of 1918, but 
the events which had their inception with the President's Executive Order of June 

18, 1916, marched with steady sequence to their culmination overseas. The tour 
of duty on the Mexican border proved the preliminary training for the achieve- 
ments of Pennsylvania's Guardsmen in the American Expeditionary Force. Down 
on the sand plains of Camp Stewart, Texas, was begun the transition from miUtia 
to a potent lighting division. 

One day after the President's call, the machinery of the Pennsylvania 
Adjutant General's office began to operate. General Order No. 21, issued on June 

19, 1916, from Harrisburg, directed all National Guard organizations, with a few 
exceptions, to report for duty at their hf)me stations on Thursday morning, June 22d, 
and to assemble at Mt. Gretna, long the training ground of the Guard, by June 21th. 
At that time Philadelphia had three full regiments of infantry — the 1st, 2d and 3d — 
forming the 1st Infantry Brigade; regimental headquarters and four companies of 
the 6th Infantry; a squadron of cavahy — First City, Second City, and A and G 
Troops, a company of engineers (B), and theTacony field hospital and ambulance 

95 



company. To these latter, designated as Field Hospital No. 2 and Ambulance 
Company No. 2, fell the honor of being first mustered into the Federal service. 
They passed into the control of the War Department on June 28th, four days 
after reaching Mt. Gretna, and were on their way to the border the following day. 
Company B of the Engineers was federalized on June 29th; the entire 1st and 2d 
Regiments of Infantry on June 30th; 1st Brigade Headquarters and the 3d Regi- 
ment on July 1st; the four Cavalry Troops on July 6th, and the Vw\d and Staff, 
Band, Sanitary Detachment and Companies E, K, L, M of the 6th Infantry on 
July 7th. Either the day they were mustered in or the day following, the units 
started southward in troop trains. 

If the Pennsylvania Guardsmen dreamed of following Pershing's Expeditionaiy 
Force into the heart of old Mexico after the wily Villa, they were doomed to dis- 
appointment. Arriving on the border, they were sent to Camp Stewart, not far 
from El Paso, Tex., where through the long hot summer they were drilled, drilled, 
drilled. Nor was this all. The War Department found the Pennsylvanians long 
on infantry and short on artillery and proceeded to remedy the defect by trans- 
forming two of the infantry regiments, the 2d, of Phila(leli)hia. and the 9th, of 
Wilkes-Barre and the Luzerne county mining region, into artillery. These, with 
the 1st Artillery, from Pittsburgh, Williamsport and Phoi-nixville, were formed 
into an artillery brigade. The 2d Infantry became the 2(1 Artillery and the 9th 
Infantry the 3d Artillery. The Philadelphia artillerymen were equipped with 
4.7 guns and became the "heavies'" of the brigade. 




Courtesy of Frank W. Buliler. Stanley Co. of America. 

National (Guardsmen in Camp at ,lcitl;intown, 

96 



The War Department found also that some of the infantry regiments and 
the cavalry regiment were minus certain units called for on the Army organization 
plan. Transfers effected in two of these increased the number of organizations 
credited to this city. In the 6th Infantry, a headquarters company, a supply 
company and a machine gun company were formed and designated as Philadelphia 
units, and, in the 1st Cavalry, headquarters and supply troops were organized in a 
similar manner and also awarded to Philadelphia. 

By early fall the Pennsylvania (uiard Division had secured a splendid basic 
training. There had been divisional maneuvers, brigade maneuvers and regi- 
mental maneuvers, target practice, bayonet instruction, trench digging lessons, 
schools of instruction on general military subjects, lectures and so on through a 
crowded curriculum. However, on September 29th when word came through 
ordering the 1st and 3d Regiments home, it was received with gladness. Phila- 
delphia waited with open arms and each organization upon its arrival was treated 
to a banciuet, those to the larger units being held in the temporary Convention 
Hall at Broad Street and Allegheny Avenue, and to the smaller ones in their own 
armories or headquarters. The last to get back from the border was the 2d Artillery, 
which on one of the bitterest days of the winter of 1916-1917 heralded its return 
by a regimental review wherein it displayed to a proud city its new artillery equip- 
ment, the heavy 1.7's and their caissons. 

Philadelphia's Guardsmen donned civilian clothes and began to pick up the 
threads broken the preceding summer. Some of them remained civilians for a 
half year, others — those who came up from the south among the last — for scarcely 
more than two months. The rumble of the World War was coming daily nearer 
to the United States. On February 15, 1917, Ambassador Bernstorff was given 
his passports; on February 14th he sailed for home; on February 26th President 
Wilson asked Congress for authority to arm American merchant ships; on March 
21st the President smnmoned Congress in extra session on April 2d, and on March 
25th, twelve full days before the declaration of a state of war with Germany, 
Philadelphia's 1st and 3d Infantry were called into the Federal service once 
more. 

The Guardsmen reported at theii respective armories for duty at 7 a.m. 
March 28th and were mustered into the Federal service on March 30th and 31st. 
The 1st Infantry was assigned immediately to duty guarding bridges, war industries 
and canal locks in the territory east of the Susquehanna River, with regimental 
headquarters in the armory at Broad and Callowhill streets. The 3d was ordered 
to the western part of the State on similar duty and departed in troop trains on 
April 2d. By April 6th, the day the gauntlet was cast down to the enemy, both 
organizations were on the lookout for aliens or alien sympathizers in the vicinity 
of places of military importance in the State. 

The disposition of the units of the 1st Infantry was as follows: 1st Battalion 
Headquarters, Broad and Callowhill streets; Company A, headquarters, Neshaminy ; 
detachments, Perkasie, Yardley and Midvale Steel Works; Company B, head- 
quarters, Bridgewater; detachments, Morrisville and Frankford Junction; Company 
C, headquarters, Schuylkill Arsenal; detachment. Grays Ferry Bridge; Company D, 
headquarters, 32d Street and Lancaster Avenue; detachments, Girard Avenue 
bridge and Chamounix Lake, Fairmount Park. 

97 




Courtesy of Frank \V. liuliler, Stanley Co. of Ai 



Trucks parked on City Hall Plaza. 



2d Battalion Headquarters, Coatesville; Company E, Frankford Arsenal; 
Company F, headfjuarters, Coatesville; detachments, Thorndale and Downingtown ; 
Company G, headquarters, West Reading; detachments, Tuckerton and Manayunk; 
Company H, headquarters, Phoenixville; detachments, Norristown, Manayunk 
and Earnest. 

3d Battalion Headquarters, Columbia; Company I, headquarters, Rockville; 
detaclunent, Lemoyne; Company K, headquarters. Safe Harbor; detachments, 
Lemoyne, Martic Forge and Columbia; Company L, headquarters, Boone Station 
near Darby; detachments, Eastwick, Eddystone and Remington Arms; Company M, 
headquaiters, Lemoyne; detachments, Hummelstown, Columbia and Shocks Mills. 

Headquarters Company, Broad and Callowhill streets; Machine Gun Company, 
headquarters. Broad and Callowhill streets; detachment, 37th and Market streets; 
Supply Company, Broad and Callowhill streets. 

West of the Susquehanna River, the 3d Infantry was disposed as follows: 
Regimental Headquarters, Altoona, Pa.; 1st BattaUon headquarters, Johnstown; 
Company A, Johnstown; Company B, Point Marion; Company C, Port Perry; 
Company D, Rockwood. 

2d Battalion Headquarters, Huntingdon; Company E, Huntingdon; Company 
F, Newport; Company G, Spruce Creek; Company H, Mifflin. 

3d Battalion Headquarters, 1155 Liberty Avenue, Pittsburgh; Companies I, 
K and L, same address; Company M, Washington, Pa. 

Machine Gun Company, 1155 Liberty Avenue, Pittsburgh; Supply Company, 
Altoona, and Sanitary Detachment, Altoona. 

98 



One other Pennsylvania infantry regiment, the 18th, of Pittsburgh, had also 
been called out at the same time as the 1st and id, and was on guard duty in the 
northwestern quarter of the State, with headquarters at Ridgeway. 

While the other units of the National Guard awaited the call to Federal service, 
they and the regiments already on duty conducted spirited recruiting campaigns. 
The main recruiting stations of both the 1st and 3d Regiments were in their local 
armories, although all of them set up sub-stations in the various towns where their 
units were quartered. At the same time the Adjutant General proceeded to 
organize additional units to fill the complement of the Division. To Phila- 
delphia fell another company of Engineers (E), a Field Bakery Company, Field 
Hospital No. .'?, Truck Companies Nos. 3 and 4 of the Supply Train, the 2d Com- 
pany of Military Police, and Truck Companies Nos. 10, 11 and 12 of the Ammuni- 
tion Train. 

On June 25, 1917, Company B, of the Engineers, reported for duty, was 
mustered into Federal service the following day and shortly afterwards was sent 
to Camp Meade, Admiral, Md., for construction work. Subsequently it repaired 




Courtesy of Frank W. 



lUiliIer. Stanley Co. of America. 

Philadelphia ArliUeryntcn al Jciikiiilown. 



to Camp Hancock for similar duty ahead of the balance of the Division which, 
within two weeks, was called to the colors, each unit being ordered to mobilize 
at its respective headquarters or armory on July 1,5th. 

On July 16th the entire Philadelphia Battalion of the 6th Infantry and 
the field and staff, headquarters, supply and machine gun companies were 
mustered in, as were all members of the Sanitary Detachment save three who 
reported on July 22d. On July 17th the Artillery Brigade Headquarters, Brigadier 
General William G. Price, Jr., commanding, was sworn in at the headquarters 
in the Liberty Building. Then in sequence came Truck Company No. 3 on July 
20th; the Field Bakery Company on July 20th and 21st; Field Hospital No. 2, 
July 21st; Ambulance Company No. 2, July 21st and 22d: Field Hospital No. 3, 
July 22d and 21th; Troops A and E (First City), July 23d; Headquarters Troop, 
July 21th; 2d Field Artillery, July 20th to 24th; Truck Company No. 4, July 24th; 
Troop G, July 25th; Troop D (Second City), July 26th; First Infantry Brigade 

99 



68924A 



Headquarters, July 26th; 2cl Company. Military Police, August 3d; Truck Com- 
panies Nos. 10, 11 and 12. Ammunition Train, August 2d; and Supply Troop, 
August 4th. 

On August 5, 1917, the entire Pennsylvania National Guaid Division, num- 
bering 841 officers and 25.234 men, was mustered into the National service formally. 
The following table shows the strength of the Philadelphia units on that day : 

Officers Men 

F'irst Brigade Headquarters 2 .5 

Artillery Brigade Headquarters 3 10 

Field Bakery 1 62 

1 81 

5 79 

(1 HO 

1 l'» 

I 16 

58 

53 

52 

t 71 

1 158 

2 123 
I 1,232 



\mbulance Company No. 2 

Field Hospital No. 2 

Field Hospital No. 3 

Truck Company No. 3, Supply Train 

Truck Company No. 4, Supply Train 

Truck Company No. 10. Vnimunition Train. 
Truck Company No. 11. .\mmunilion Train. 
Truck Company No. 12. Ammunition Train. 

Company B, Engineers 

Company E, Engineers 

Second Company, Military Police 

Second Field Artillery 

Headquarters Troop. 1st Cavalry 

Supply Troop, 1st Cavalry 

Troop A, 1st Cavalry 

Troop D, 1st Cavalry 

Troop E, 1st Cavalry 

Troop G, 1st Cavalry . 



3 94 

3 106 

3 99 

3 128 

1st Infantry 55 1,977 

3d Infantry 56 1,680 

Field and Staff, 6th Infantry 9 

Headquarters Company, 6th Infantry 1 29 

Supply Company, 6th Infantry 2 39 

Machine Gun Company, 6th Infantry 3 62 

Sanitary Detachment, 6th Infantry 5 27 

Company E, 6th Infantry 3 76 

Company K, 6th Infantry 3 81 

Company L, 6th Infantry 3 82 

Company M, 6th Infantry 3 78 

Total 232 6,821 

During the brief period between August 5, 1917, and the concentration at 
Camp Hancock, the smaller units, with the exception of some of the truck companies, 
were held at their local headquarters. The truck companies were either held at 
the 1st Regiment Armory or sent to Mt. Gretna for immediate duty. In the case 
of the 2d Artillery, a suitable site for a temporary camp was found near Noble, 
Pa., on the estate of John Wanamaker, and, in honor of the donor, was named 
Camp Wanamaker. In mid-August, the 1st and 3d Infantry were relieved of guard 
duty and began to concentrate in and near Philadelphia, the 1st securing a camp 
site near the Commercial Museum and naming it Camp Brown after its Com- 
mander, Colonel Millard D. Brown. The 3d Infantry left the western part of 
the State on August 14th, and the following day arrived home, camping at Camp 
A. Merritt Taylor, a short distance beyond the 69th Street Terminal in Delaware 
County. 

100 



The move south began in September. The 1st Infantry left Camp Brown 
by train on September 11th, arriving at Camp Hancock on Friday, September 
11th; the 3d left on September 12th, arriving September 15th, and the other units 
in order until by the end of the month the entire Division was assembled on the 
new grounds a short distance outside the City of Augusta, Ga. 

The ensuing nine months was a heart-breaking period for the officers and 
men of the old Guard. They saw brigadiers, colonels, majors and captains skilfully 
eliminated through the action of Army Plucking Boards. Even their iMajor- 
General, Charles M. Clement, was relieved December 11, 1917, and succeeded 
December 15th by General Charles H. Muir. Historic organizations were broken 
up or amalgamated with other units. The War Department, with wisdom learned 
abroad, was making some radical changes in Army organization, particularly with 
reference to infantry regiments. Under the new plan, the strength of the Infantry 
was increased from 150 men to a company to 250 men, while machine gun bat- 
talions, hitherto unheard of in the American Army, were being established as 
part of the Divisional Organization. All of this reorganization was not carried on 
without considerable trouble. \ arious portions of the State, through their repre- 
sentatives in Congress, attempted to save their regiments whole, remonstrating 
against the destruction of former identities. In the case of the 1st Cavalry, it 
was re-assembled, after the first break up, as the 103d Cavalry and was finally 
redistributed to other uiuts. In the final infantry alignment, the western part 
of the State was far more successful than the eastern in saving its regiments, as 
the 10th, 16th and 18th, all from west of the Susquehanna, were kept intact as 
the 110th, 111th and 112th Infantry regiments, respectively. 




Courtesy of Prank W. Buhler, Stanky Co. ol Ampnca. 

National Guardsmen canipmy on the Wanamaker Estate, Jenkinlown. 

101 




International. 



'2fith Dinisiun Men at Jersey City. 



mil Division Unit 
.109th Infant ry. 



The general order which caused all of the trouble, and which, incidentally, 
established officially the 28th Division, was dated November 15th. Its result 
will be better understood from the following table, wliich shows the original guard 
unit, from whence it hailed, and what became of it: 

National Guard Unit Locality 

1st Infantry Philadelphia 

3d Infantry (less band and 

several hundred men) Philadelphia 110th Infantry. 

4th Infantry: 

Machine Gun Company, C 
and D Companies, part of 
Sanitary Detachment and 

Supply Company Lancaster, Columbia, Allentown 109th Machine Gun 

Battalion. 
2d Battalion and part of Head- 
quarters and Supply Com- 
pany Columbia, Allentown, Hamburg, Sun- 
bury, Pine Grove, Lebanon 107th Machine Gun 

Companies A and B, part of Battalion. 

Headquarters, and Supply 

Company Reading, Allentown, Columbia ]08th Machine Gun 

Battalion. 
Detachment Headquarters, 

Supply and B Company Columbia, Allentown 53d Depot Brigade. 

102 



f)tb Infantry (less band) Philadelphia, PoUstown, Chester, Phoe- 

nixville, Norristown, Doylestown, 

Media, West Chester 111th Infantry. 

f!th Infantry (less band) Harrisburg, York, Tamaqua, Chainbers- 

burg, Mahanoy City, Huntingdon, 
Carlisle, Pottsville, Bedford, Lewis- 
town 112th Infantry. 

Kllli liifaiilry Greensburg.Monongahela, New Brighton, 

Somerset, Mount Pleasant, Indicma, 
Altoona, Washington, Waynesburg, 

Blairsville, Latrobe 110th Infantry. 

1.3tli Infiintry (less band) StTanton,Wilkes-Barre,EastStroudsburg, 

Honesdale, Bloomsburg, Moscow 109tb Infantry. 

16lh Infantry Oil City, Corry, Meadville, Bradford, 

Kane, Franklin, Erie, Ridgeway, 
Warren, Kittaning, Butler, Grove 

City 112th Infantry. 

18th Infantry Pittsburgh 111th Infantry. 

1st Artillery Pittsburgh, Willianisport, PhoenixviUe, 

South Betlilehem 107th Field Artillery. 

2d Artillery Philadelphia 108th Field Artillery. 

3d Artillery Wilkes-Barre, Hazleton, Pittston, Nanti- 

coke, Plymouth, Tunkhannock 109th Field Artillery. 

1st Cavalry: 

Detachments Headquarters 
Company, Supply Company, 

and Troops B, F, I, M, E. . .Philadelphia, Tyrone, New Castle, Sun- 
bury, Lewisburg 103d Engineers. 

Machine Gun Troop Boalsburg 108th Machine Gun 

Battalion. 

Detachment Troop I Sunbury Division Headquarters 

Troop. 

Detachments Troops F and H . Newcastle and Pittsburgh 107th Field Artillery. 

Detachments Troops D, K, I,L, 

M and Troops A, C, and G. .Philadelphia, Lock Haven, Bellefonte, 

Lewisburg, Simbury, Harrisburg 108tb Field Artillery. 

Detachments Troops I, K. L . . Simbury, Lockhaven, Bellefonte 109th Field Artillery. 

Detachments Troops E, B, M Philadelphia, Tyrone, Lewisburg 103d Trench Mortar 

Battery. 

1st Engineers Philadelphia, Scranton, Pottsville 103d Engineers. 

1st Battalion Signal Corps Pittsburgh 103d Field Signal Bat- 
talion. 

Military Police Pittsburgh, Philadelphia 103d Headquarters and 

Military Police. 

Supply Train Harrisburg, Lancaster, Philadelphia, 

Pittsburgh 103d Supply Train. 

Ammunition Train Philadelphia, Allentown, Shamokin, 

Harrisburg, West Chester, WiUiams- 

port, SeUnsgrove 103d Ammunition 

Train. 

Sanitary Train Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Lancaster, 

Coraopolis 103d Sanitary Train. 

Of the remainder, the bands of the ,3d, 4th, 6th, 8th and L3th Infantry were 
detached entirely from the Division, and the 3d Battalion of the 1th Infantry had 
months before been sent to the Rainbow (42d) Division as a machine gun battalion. 

Once the changes had been made and the men settled down to routine, the 

103 



time passed slowly on their hands. There were hikes and sham battles, bayonet 
practice and gas mask instructions, guard mounts and target shooting, trench 
digging and reviews, regimental and otherwise. One of the biggest days was 
February 22, 1918 (Washington's Birthday), when Secretary Lansing reviewed 
the entire Division in a morning parade. Rumors of a quick movement overseas 
began to float around the camp in January, 1918, and persisted continually until 
the orders finally came, but it was late April before the 28th bade farewell, and 
a hearty one, to Camp Hancock. 

Overseas and the Marne 

The 28th Division might have spent even a longer time at Camp Hancock 
had it not been for the critical situation which arose on the western front in the 
spring of 1918. The (iermans had launched two big offensives, the one which 
retook the old Somme battlefield and threatened to break the British line toward 
Amiens, and the other which endangered the channel ports in northern France. 
Great Britain had made frantic appeal to the United States for an army and it 




l'<nirtesy A. I, S. C. 



A Cargo Ship hiiill id lliiii Island. 



was in part answer to this appeal that sailing orders came to Hancock. The 
Division was at full war strength when the orders arrived. Some months before, a 
draft of Pennsylvania selective service men had been received and had been used 
to fill in what gaps existed on the regimental rosters. About a week before de- 
parture another small draft of men, from middle and western states and numbering 
about 500, was also added to the Division, making the first addition of non-Pennsyl- 
vanians. These men were distributed five or six to the line companies of infantry 
and soon absorbed. 

The units of the Division began to leave Camp Hancock by train on April 21st, 
traveUng to Camps Mills, Upton and Merritt. Of the larger units containing 
many Philadelphians, the 109th Infantry departed from the south on April 22d; 
the 110th Infantry on April 24th: the 111th Infantry on April 26th; the 103d 
Sanitary Train on May 10th and the 108th Field Artillery on May 11th. By 
May 15th the old training ground was deserted save for the 53d Depot Brigade. 

Twelve British and two American transports convoyed the Division overseas. 
Six ships were in the first convoy, wliich sailed from New York on May 3d, arriving 
at Liverpool, England, May 16th and 17th. They were as follows: 

104 



H. M. S. Cily of Calcutta, 107th Machine Gun Battalion and 1st BattaUon, 
110th Infantry ; H. M. S. Anchises, 108th Machine Gun Battalion; U. S. S. Corsican, 
2d Battalion, 110th Infantry; H. M. S. Ansonia, 3d Battalion, 110th Infantry; 
H. M. S. Denioslhenes, headquarters and auxiliary units, 110th Infantry; H. M. S. 
Carmania, 109th Infantry, and Division Headquarters, with Major General 
Muir and staff. 

On May 5th the speedy H. M. S. Olympic departed from Hoboken with the 
5(ith Infantry Brigade Headquarters and the Ulth Infantry and arrived at South- 
ampton on May 12th, four days before the slower convoy, which had sailed two days 
before it. On May 7th H. M. S. Aqaitania. with the 103d Train Headquarters, 
28th Division Military Police, 109th Machine Gun Battalion and 112th Infantry, 
set sail and reached Liverpool on May 14th, also ahead of the first convoy. Five 
more ships sailed in convoy from New York on May 19th. They were: 

H. M. S. Ceramic, 103d Ammunition Train; H. M. S. Briton, 103d Sanitary 
Train; H. M. S. Matagama, 103d Engineers; U.M.S. Justicia, 108th and 109th 
Field Artillciy: V. S. S. Saturnia. 107th Field Artillery. These five docked at 
Liverpool on May 30th and 31st. The final ship, H. M. S. Khiva, with the 103d 
Supply Train, sailed from New York on May 27th and arrived at Liverpool on 
June 7th. 

Short time was spent by any unit on the British Isles. Two days at "Notty 
Ash," a camp near Liverpool, was practically the longest stay, after which the men 
were loaded on trains for Dover and rushed from the British port across 




Courtesy of Frank W. Euhler. 



Stanley Co. of .\merica. 

National Guardsmen off for War, 
105 




Workers at Eddy stone Rifle Plant. 



the .English Channel to Calais. Once in France, rapid disposition was 
made of each unit. For purposes of accustoming it to modern warfare, the infantry 
was broken up in battalions and brigaded with the British in the vicinity of Nieles- 
les-Bleqiiin. This training lasted for two weeks; in other words, until the time 
when the Germans launched their third offensive toward Montdidier. 

With the enemy surging Paris-ward in mid-June, the 28th was called hastily 
from the British sector and everything, save the artillery brigade at ^ annes, 
assembled in the vicinity of Gonesse, which hes northeast of Paris and along 
highways radiating to either the British or French battle fronts. While at Gonesse, 
the Division heard of the fourth great German offensive of the year, an offensive 
which, aiming at Soissons and Bheims, was broken at the latter place but swung 
down to the Marne in a pocket which had its apex at Chateau-Thierry\ 

The epic of the 7th Machine Gun Battalion of the 3d Di\asion at the Chateau- 
Thierry bridge-head on May 31st and of the Marines of the 2d Division at Belleau 
Wood and Bouresches on June 6th had already gone down into history' when in 
late June the 28th Division — the artillery brigade excluded — was rushed in motor 
lorries to south of the Marne with divisional headquarters at Saulchery, and 
the four infantry regiments encamped eastward from that point as far as 
Montmirail. 

The first unit of the Division to reach the front line and suffer casualties was 
Company E (from Philadelphia) of the 103d Engineers, which, on the evening of 
June 28th, lost eight men wounded, when a road over which they were passing 

106 



to tlieir billots, a short distance from Chateau-Thierry, was heavily shelled. The 
entire 2d Battalion of the Engineers, working under orders from the .'58th French 
Corps, were engaged during the subsequent two days in digging second line trenches 
south of the Marne near Chateau-Thierry. 

On the night of June 30th the first infantry engagement took place with two 
"model" platoons from the ] 1 1 tli Infantry participating. It was purely volunteer 
work on the part of the Pennsylvania doughboys, who were chosen from A and B 
Companies of the regiment to join with the 135th French Infantry in an attack on 
Hill 20 1, lying north of the Marne and east of Chateau-Thierry. Lieutenant Cedric 
Benz, of A Company, and Lieutenant John H. Shenkel, of B Company, com- 
manded the two platoons. The attack, launched at night, was a complete success, 
thirty-eight prisoners being taken, the hill cleaned of machine guns and snipers, 
and all done with slight casualties and so much individual iieroic work that the 




Courttsy of Lht 



Hcflniiig Co. 

U. S. S. "Folger" showing anli-Suhmarine Can forward . 



French issued about twenty Croix de Guerres and were profuse in divisional and 
corps commendations of the Americans. 

From July 1st to 14th the balance of the Division trained in the region south 
of the Marne, platoons from the other three infantry regiments being sent occasion- 
ally to the front Une. To the westward, Companies A and B of the 103d Engineers 
and Company C of the 109th Machine Gun Battalif)n took over the defense of 
the Charly bridge-head on July 9th, and between then and July 15th were sub- 
jected to intensive shell fu'e and suffered quite a few casualties. 

A new offensive from the Huns was momentarily expected. Just where it 
would strike was a question of doubt which all the French and American aerial 
observers could not answer. It was figured that it would either be westward on 
the front between Soissons and Chateau-Thierry, or southward on the east and west 
sides of Bheims. The French did not expect a direct thrust across the Marne east 
of Chateau-Thierry and were confident that even if it should come there the 

107 




Transport "Sihoney," haill at Cramp's Shipyard. 

artificial defenses of barbed wiie would stop the advance. Hence the Frencii 
line was thinnest along the Marne between Chateau-Thierry and Dormans, while 
what reserves they had were concentrated back of Soissons and Rheims. 

The Hne of the Marne was held from Chateau-Thierry to Dormans by the 
3d American and 125th French Divisions, the former extending from Chateau- 
Thierry to Crezancy and the latter from Crezancy to Dormans. Behind them, 
on July 14th, was stationed the 28th Division, which had been moving up by easy 
stages for three days. The infantry line of the 28th. in the reserve trenches, three 
miles south of the front, consisted (from west to east) of the 11 2th. 111th. 11 0th 
and 109th Infantry, with the 109th_MachineCun Battalion in support of the 112th 
and 111th Infantry (the 56th Brigade) and the 108th Machine Gun Battalion in 
support of the 110th and 109th Infantry (the 55th Brigade). The 1st Battalion 
of the 103d Engineers was also stationed witli the 55th Brigade. 

In this position the 56th Brigade lay behind the 3d American Division and the 
55th Brigade behind the 125th French Division. The Surmelin River, which runs 
northwestward to empty in the Marne near Mezy, bisected the 55th Brigade, the 
109th Infantry lying to the east of the river and the 110th to the west. The 
Sm-mehn River did more than bisect the 55th Brigade. It marked the boundary 
between two groups of French armies with the following confused result: The 
56th Infantry Brigade was in the 38th French Corps of the 6th French Army, 
supporting the 3d American Division, of the same Corps, and the 55th Brigade, 




Copyright by X. L. Stebbins. Bostun. 

U. S. S. "Wyoming," flagship U. S. North Sea Fleet, liaill at Cramp's Shipyard. 

108 



while supposedly in the 5th French Corps instead of the 38th French Corps, had one 
of its regiments, the 110th, operating in 38th Coips territory, and the other, the 
109th. in 5th Corps territory. 

This was the general situation on the night of July 11th. save that four com- 
panies, two from the 109th and two from the 110th. had been detailed for purposes 
of instruction with the 125th French Division several days before and were still 
in the front line south of the Alarne. These units were Company L, 109th, Captain 
James B. Cousart; Company M, 109th. Captain Edward P. Mackay; Company B, 
110th, Captain William Fish, and Company C, 110th, Captain W. Curtis Truxal. 
The total strength of the four units was 9 42 officers and men, but. instead of being 
concentrated, they were scattered along a five mile front with French units between 
each. The exact disposition is given as follows: 

Company L, lOOlh — two platoons on the line of obser\ation along the railroad south of 
Jaulgonne with two platoons in the edge of the woods near the crest of the hill to the south. 

Company B. 110th, had two platoons on the line of observation immediately west of the 
river bridge south of Passy and two platoons in the edge of the woods about one kilometer to the 
south. 

Company C, 110th, was disposed similar to Company B, but on the right of the river bridge 
south of Passy. 

Company M. 109th, likewise had two platoons along the railroad to the east of Company C, 
1 lOlh Infantry, and two platoons in support in an orchard on the slope of the hill to the south 
and sUghtly west. 

For instructifm purposes l)nt one platoon of each company had been placed 
on the line of observation, but at the time the situation is given a relief was 
taking place in each company . the enemy barrage coming down at the time both 
the platoon relieving and the one to be relieved were on the line of observation. 

The story of the great German barrage which broke out at 11.55 o'clock on 
the night of July 14th, and which deluged not only the front line but the reserve 
positions as well, is by this time a familiar tale. In the dry terms of the report, 
the explanation of what happened on the front occupied by the fom" American 
companies reads: 

On the right of the sector of the 12.5th French Division, which extended to the east of Cour- 
thiezy, inclusive, the enemy followed the rolling barrage and succeeded in penetrating through 
the Bois de Conde until he reached the heights north of St. .\gnan at about 3 p.m. The French 
Une had gradually given ground, falling back to a line which ran roughly from St. Agnan north- 
west through the center of the clearing of Janvier Fme. to the Moulin Ruine, about two and one- 
half kilometers south of Varennes. 

But what had happened to the four companies? Read on: 

The orders issued by the commanding general, 12.5th French Division, prior to the attaching 
of the four American companies to his division for instruction purposes provided that in case of 
attack the outpost line would fall back to the line of principal resistance which ran around the edge 
of the woods on the northern crest of the hiUs throughout the sector. In view of the additional 
strength, in case the Boche should attack while the four American companies were attached to 
the division, subsequent orders were issued prior to the date of the Boche attack, to the effect that 
the outpost line would be held and the Boche prevented from crossing the river. The orders 
which the captains of the four American companies received were to "Resist to the utmost" in 
case of attack. The spirit of this order was carried out by the four American companies with 
the following results: 

Company M, 109th Infantry, on the extreme right, fought its way back through the woods, 
eventually reaching the French line north of Conde-en-Brie with about 150 (?) men. The other 

109 



three companies held their ground, the forward platoons being almost to a man either killed or 
captured, while the support platoons held their ground till outflanked or surrounded. But a 
small percentage of these three companies succeeded in reaching our lines. 

So much for the official report. Here are the figures of one of the bravest 
battles against odds in the history of the American Expeditionary Force: 

Company L, 109th: Killed, twenty-six; died of wounds, four (one of these a prisoner); 
wounded, forty-eight; prisoners, eighty-nine (fourteen of whom were wounded in addition to 
the one who died of wounds) ; escaped, seventy-six. 

Company M, 109th: Killed, twenty-three; died of wounds, four (all prisoners); wounded, 
twenty-nine; prisoners, one hundred and twenty-one (including fourteen wounded and four who 
died of wounds); escaped, sixty-six (including nine who were on detached service at the time). 

Company B, 110th Infantry: Killed, twenty-eight; died of wounds, four (all prisoners); 
wounded, forty-one; prisoners, fifty-three (including nineteen wounded and four died of wounds); 
escaped one hundred and fifteen. 

Company C, 110th Infantry: Killed, forty-six; died of wounds, three (all prisoners) ; wounded, 
nineteen; prisoners, one hundred and thirty-one (including fifty-one wounded and three died of 
wounds); escaped, twenty-six. 

Of the total of 942 officers and men with the four companies on July 15th, 123 
were killed in action, fifteen died of wounds, 137 were wounded, but did not fall 
into the enemy's hands, ninety-eight were wounded and captured by the Germans 
and 28 1 were captured although not wounded. Just 283 men escaped unscathed. 
In L Company, Captain Cousart was captured, as was Sergeant (Cadet) Abraham 
Mildenberg, wliile Lieutenants William Bateman and William R. Dyer were killed. 
Lieutenant James B. Schoch and Lieutenant Willard M. R. Ciosman brought off 
most of the survivors, the report stating: "About 8 p.m. (July 15th) Lieutenant 
Schoch, of L Company, of the 109th Infantry, and about fifty men came straggling 
through Brigade P. C. looking for something to eat." 

Captain Mackay, of M Company, also managed to escape with ten men, as did 
Lieutenant Thomas B. W. Fales with forty, while Lieutenants William B. Brown, 
Walter L. Swarts and Edward Hitzeroth were captured. 

In B Company of the 110th, Captain Fish, Lieutenant Claude Smith, Lieu- 
tenant Alban Jones and Lieutenant Gilmore Hayman brought oif about 123 men, 
while Lieutenants James Gus Graham, and Bert Guy were wounded and taken 
prisoners, the latter being so badly injured that he died shortly afterwards in a 
prison camp at Hindenburg, L pper Silesia. 

Captain Truxal, Lieutenants Wilbur E. Schell and Robert J. Bonner of C 
Company, 110th, were captured. Lieutenant Bonner being badly wounded, and 
Lieutenant Samuel S. Crouse was killed. 

In addition, three officers from other units on observation with the French were 
captured along with about eight men from the sanitary detachments of the two 
regiments. The officers were: Lieutenants James Gee of A Company, 110th; 
Edward R. Taylor of K Company, 110th, and Herman Sloan of K Company, 
109th. Lieutenant Charles F. Linn of the Medical Detachment of the 110th 
managed to fight his way back in safety, as did Captain Charles L. .McLain of F 
Company, 110th, but the latter was wounded. 

On the left, the 3d American Division held intact, but the collapse of the 
French and the isolation and ultimate destruction of the four companies of the 
28th endangered the entire right flank of the American forces and at the same time 
formed a pocket which began at Mezy and continued westward to Dormans. In 

110 



this extremity, the 38th United States Infantry, the most eastern unit of the 3d 
Division, swung its right wing down the course of the Sumerlin River as far as 
Coningis, where a portion of the 125th French Division, reorganized, maintained 
a front extending southeasterly to Monthurel. From Monthurel due eastward 
ran the line of the 109th Infantry, thus suddenly thrown from support to a front 
line position. To the right of the 109th lay the 20th French Division, a shock 
unit which had been hurried up when the 125th collapsed. The UOth American 
Infantry, west of the Sumerlin, wiiile exposed to the Hun bombardment, was 
protected by the French line between Coningis and Monthurel from direct attack. 

The German horde poured down through the Bois de Conde hours behind 
schedule, due to the splendid resistance of the four companies, and emerged on the 
front of the 109th late in the afternoon. The 2d BattaUon of the 109th, under 
Major Ralph A. Gregor^% faced the oncomers and was reinforced at once by the 
1st Battalion of the 103d Engineers and part of the 109th Machine (iun Battalion. 
By a ruse, in wccu'ing French uniforms, the enemy appeared in the open and the 
Pennsylvania men, mistaking them for retiring poilus, withheld fire until it was too 
late and found themselves driven back by terrific machine gun fire from the Conde 
woods. At 7.30 P.M. the French counter-attacked toward St. Agnan, but without 
success. In the meanwhile, on the left of the fine, Captain WiUiam C. Williams, 
of H Company, with a small reconnoitering party, crossed a plateau facing Mont- 
hurel and was in danger of being cut off. Bugler George L. Mcllroy won 
the Distinguished Service Cross by daring the withering fire with a message for 
help, and Captain Williams secured the same coveted honor by the manner in 
which he extricated himself and his men. The Distinguished Service Cross fell 
also to Captain Edward J. Meehan, of D Company, whose unit had been in an 
advanced exposed position, and which he saved by determined fighting. 

On July 16th at 10 a.m. the 109th counter-attacked, using all units save I 
Company, which was held in reserve. During the night, however, the Germans 
had brought up more machine guns and proceeded to enfilade the line from the 
direction of St. Agnan. Three impetuous assaults were halted by the terrific fire 
and the casualties ran high. Captain Walter M. Gearty and Lieutenant Donald 
MacNutt, of A Company, were killed, as was Lieutenant Henry Q. Griffin, of 
C Company. Lieutenant Walter Fiechter, of K Company and Captain Felix 
Campuzano, of B Company, were wounded. Corporal J. J. Lott, of B Company, 
was cited for bravery for the manner in which he twice shpped forward and cut 
barbed wire entanglements, returning each time to lead details through the gaps 
and not desisting until severely wounded. Gas and shells had added to the 
casualties in both the 109th and 110th. The Regimental P. C. of the 109th near 
Conde-en-Brie was struck and Rev. Walter Murray, the Regiment's Y. M. C. A. 
man, killed. The officers wounded included Captain Roland C. Heisler, Regimental 
Adjutant; Captain James F. Cooper, of G Company, and Lieutenants George Henry 
West, of L Company, and John J. Owens, Battalion Reconnaissance Officer. In the 
110th a whole squad of machine gunners were kiUed when a shell made a direct 
hit on their dugout, and another shell plowed into Company A while the unit was 
marching to position, killing four men and so severely injuring two others that 
they died on the way to a hospital. 

In the meanwhile, further west, the 2d Battalion of the 111th Infantry, under 
Captain William Dunlap, was sent forward on July 17th to relieve the hard-pressed 

111 



30th Infanti-y of the 3d American Division in the vicinity of Crezancy. On that 
same day the battalion counter-attacked between Crezancy and Fossoy, driving 
the Hims, who had gained the south bank of the Marne, in disorder across the river. 
On July 18th, Lieutenant John H. Burd Quinn, of B Company, 111th Infantry, 
was killed. 

Through July 17th the 109th Infantry continued a holding position on the 
hill north of Conde, while the French again attacked further east. The German 
heavy guns from along the Marne continued their bombardment throughout July 
17th and July 18th, but ceased before the end of the latter day. In the meanwhile 
the 109th had been reUeved at 2 o'clock on the afternoon of July 18th and with- 
drawn for a much needed rest. The combined Franco- American offensive, launched 
south of Soissons at dawn on July 18th, afforded the chance for the relief. 

From July 18th to July 20th the Germans continued to hold the Conde woods, 
but their chief desire was to get back across the Marne to safety. For the next 
three days the infantry regiments of the 55th Brigade rested, receiving replacements. 
They were particularly needed in the 109th. The regiment was minus 803 men on 
July 22d, the day the replacements arrived. These 803 were accounted for then 
as follows: Killed, 79; wounded, 407; missing, 317. In the 110th Infantry, where 
the loss had been entirely from shell fire and gas, save for B and C Companies, the 
casualties for the period were: Killed, 57: wounded, 137; missing, 226; total, 120. 

While the infantry rested, the engineers immediately set to work to prepare 
for an advance. The 1st Battalion repaired the roads at Moulins, Courthiezy 
and Chevaney, just south of the Marne, laboring between July 22d and 25th under 
terrific shell fire. At the same time the 2d Battalion was busy further west, 
Companies E and F repairing roads from Aulnois through Essomes and Chateau- 
Thierry, and Company D building a pile trestle bridge across the Marne at the 
eastern end of Chateau-Thierry. 

Through the Heabt of the Marne Pocket 

The 56th Brigade was the first to start north in pursuit of the retreating 
Germans. On the afternoon of July 21st the 111th and 112th Infantry, passing 
through Chateau-Thierry, crossed the Marne on pontoon bridges and on July 23d, 
with the 112th in advance, both regiments proceeded toward Grande Rue Fme., 
where orders were received from Brigadier General William Weigel, of the 56th 
Brigade, placing the 111th Infantry at the disposal of the 26th (New England 
National Guard) Division. The order was carried out by 9 a.m. July 23d and 
the regiment went into camp in the woods to the cast and west of the farm. At 
3 A.M. on July 24th the 2d and 3d Battalions of the 11 1th reheved the 101st and 
102d Infantry and prepared for an attack the same day at dawn. 

At 6.45 A. M. both battalions surged forward, but encountered no opposition. 
In the meanwhile General Weigel had taken over command of the sector from the 
26th Division and the 56th went forward again as a brigade, the 111th on the 
right and the 112th, under Colonel George C. Rickards, on the left. General 
Weigel named La Croix Rouge Ferme as the brigade objective. The advance 
continued, subjected to machine gun fire on the left, until about 4 p.m., when, in 
attacking through the Forest de Fere, a scalding machine gun fire was met. The 
far end of the tilth's fine, and the 112th were "hung up" and four companies of 
the 111th — E, H, I and K — with Colonel Shannon in the center, pushed ahead in 

112 



the form of a "V" and were almost surrounded. The men of the regiment call it 
their "Lost Battalion," as the four companies were isolated for two hours until the 
left and right wings were enabled to close up the gap. As darkness approached and 
the enemy's resistance redoubled, it was decided to hold the ground so far gained 
and dig in for the night. Company K was placed in the front Une and the balance 
of the troops echeloned to the rear. All night and through the following morning 
the Germans shelled the position, but without dislodging the defenders, and on 
the evening of July 25th the sector was taken over by the 167th Infantry and the 
111th returned to Courpoil and Trugny woods for a much needed rest. The 
111th remained in Trugny woods until July 28th, when it was moved to Vente 
Jean de Guillame and held in reserve until August .3d. 

On July 27th the 55th Brigade, the 110th Infantry leading, crossed the Marne 
near Mezy and pushed forward to the Foret de Fere in support of the .39th French 
Division. Ahead of the 109th and 110th lay the Ourcq country with the front 
line, from left to right, consisting of the I2d (Bainbow) Division, the 39th French 
Division and the 3d American Division. That same night the 110th Infantry 
moved ahead to reUeve the 156th French Infantry, effecting the reUef by daybreak, 
when the Pennsylvania regiment was ensconced with the 3d Battalion to the north 
and west of Courmont, the 2d Battalion on the edge of the village and the 1st 
Battalion in reserve in a woods two kilometers further west. The 110th faced one 
of the strongest positions prepared by the enemy in its retreat — a hill known as 
both 188 and 212, depending upon what elevation different maps happened to 
give it. The crest of the hill was covered by the Grimpettes woods and in this 
fastness the II un had assembled one of the choicest arrays of machine guns flanked 
by light artillery and protected by skilfully prepared trenches. Along the south 
slope of the hill flowed the Ourcq Biver, a stream at that season about ten feet 
wide. The side of the hill up which the 110th was to go was practically bare of 
vegetation, the only protection being a partially sunken road about midway up 
the slope. 

Before the first attack could be launched, the Begimental Headquarters at 
Fresnes was struck by a sheU which killed Lieutenant Colonel Wallace W. Fetzer 
and five orderlies. This was on the morning of July 28th. On the afternoon of 
the same day the 2d Battalion started for the hill. The Ourcq was crossed in 
small combat groups and, reforming on the northern side, the battalion started 
up, despite a total absence of artiUery support. The enemy waited until the 
advancing doughboys were about 300 yards away and then opened up with rifle 
and maciiine gun fire. The effect was deadly. The battalion halted and then 
the men attempted to work their way foi-ward on their stomachs. But the lire 
was too severe. After exhausting every effort to get closer to the German lines, 
the battalion was forced finally to withdraw. Three officers were wounded in the 
course of the afternoon, they being Lieutenants Bobert G. Frasier, Bobert B. 
Herbert and Frederick T. Yeager. 

On the morning of July 29th a combined attack was attempted upon the 
Grimpettes woods and Hill 230, directly north of it. The 3d Battalion attempted 
to storm the latter position, but was stopped by intensive fire from the summit, 
and the 2d Battalion fared no better in front of Hill 212. Companies G and E had 
led off, the former to the west and the latter to the east of the line. Each forced 
its way upward valiantly. Company G managing to get within 100 yards of the 

113 



woods before being held up and Company E penetrating the timber for a short 
distance. Neither could hold the positions gained, however, and by 9 a.m. were 
back along the Oiucq where they had started. The two attacks had cost the 
regiment dearly in both officers and men. In E Company, Captain James E. 
Zundell was so badly wounded that he died the following day. and Lieutenant 
Wilhcun C. Stevenson was instantly killed. Lieutenant Earl R. Churchill of F 
Company was shot to death by machine gun bullets. Lieutenant George T. 
Rodgers was killed while observing with the 37 mm. platoon of Headquarters 
Company. Lieutenant John W. Day of the Machine Gun Company was so badly 
wounded by a high explosive shell that he died of his injuries on September 7th, 
and two officers of K Company. Lieutenants Richard Stockton Bullitt and Walter 
B. Riggle, were killed by machine gun bullets along with thirty-nine men from their 
company. Among the wounded for that day were Lieutenant Frederick R. 
Bridges, Company H: Lieutenant Joseph R. Chambers, Company A; Captain 
Wade T. Kline, Company I; Lieutenant Owen F. McDonnell, Company D; Lieu- 
tenant George W. R. MEo-tin, Company A (who remained on duty and was wounded 
again the following day) ; Lieutenant Walter S. Peterson, Company C ; and Lieu- 
tenant George L. Roat, Company A. 

In the meanwhile, on July 29th, the 109th Infantry had been swinging to a 
support position to the left rear of the 1 10th. The .3d Battalion was in the lead and 
was advancing during the morning hours under both machine gun and shell fire 
which was sweeping down the Ourcq valley from Sergy and further north. M 
Company, under Lieutenant Edward B. Goward, advanced to flank a machine 
gun which was menacing the balance of the battahon, and to do so had to cross 
the Ourcq. The platoon in the lead came into the radius of other rapid- 
fire weapons and Lieutenant Goward was mortally wounded. First Sergeant 
Howard L. Barnes went to his assistance and was hkewise wounded. At this 
instant. Lieutenant Thomas B. W. Fales, the officer who had brought the remnant 
of M Company back from the Marne and had been out on a patrol, returned to find 
the men becoming demoralized. Lieutenant Fales went to the assistance of 
Sergeant Barnes and then kept on to Lieutenant Goward, but was so seriously 
wounded before reaching the latter that he died the following day. Despite this 
setback the 109th reached a narrow gauge railroad on the west bank of the 
Oiu'cq and dug in on the night of July 29th, maintaining the position despite a hail 
of shrapnel and high explosives. 

At 2.30 o'clock on the afternoon of July 30th the 110th made its final atlack 
on Hill 212. The regiment was given artillery support at last and, following a 
heavy barrage, went forward with the entire 3d BattcJion and Company D of 
the 1st Battalion in the lead, and the 2d Battahon in support. Before the attack 
started the Regimental Headquarters at Courmont had again been hit by a shell 
and seventeen men, including two captive German officers who were being inter- 
rogated, were killed. Despite this the plan as laid down was carried out. The 
victorious 110th, losing officers and men in large numbers, but undeterred, pressed 
forward into the woods and over the summit of the hill, clearing it of the enemy 
and taking hundreds of prisoners. When the fighting was over the bodies of 400 
Germans were counted on the ground. Four officers were killed in the attack 
and twenty-one wounded, the dead being Lieutenant Thomas Massey of G Com- 
pany; Lieutenant Wilbur Small of D Company; Lieutenant Nelson Perrine of 

114 



Headquarters Company and Lieutenant Arthur Walters, who had reported for 
duty the same day and was in Regimental Headquarters when the shell struck it. 
Among the wounded officers were Lieutenant Marshall S. Barron, I\I Company; 
Lieutenant Walter S. Bates, F Company; Lieutenant Henry H. Bonsall, Head- 
quarters Company; Lieutenant Andrew Boyes, H Company; Lieutenant Philip 
M. Darby, I Company; Lieutenant Harry M. Foos, Headquarters Company; 
Lieutenant David Garrison, K Company; Lieutenant Wlman C. Hendler, K Com- 
pany; Captain John D. Hitchman, Regimental Adjutant; Lieutenant William 0. 
Holmes, I Company; Lieutenant Joseph E. Kerst, A Company; Major Edward 
Martin, Acting Regimental Commander; Lieutenant William E. Myers, D Com- 
pany; Lieutenant William E. Pierce, Brigade Adjutant; Lieutenant R. B. Purman, 
K Company; Lieutenant Charles C. Schrandt, E Company; Lieutenant Franklyn E. 
Waite, K Company; Lieutenant Homer E. Wellman, L Company, and Lieutenant 
John W. Woodend, L Company. 

While the 110th was winning the Grimpettes woods, the 109th, on the left, 
was giving sterling support. The 109th crossed the Ourcq, the 2d Battalion leading, 
and stormed the woods in front of Cierges. On this day Sergeant John Winthrop 
(later killed in action) won special commendation for the way in which he took 
command of Company G when all of its officers had been wounded. Distinguished 
Service Cross winners of that day were Major Martin of the 110th; Captain John 
J. Kennedy of the 110th; Major Thomas B. Anderson (deceased), 110th; Lieu- 
tenant Ullman C. Hendler, Company K, 110th and Lieutenant Blake Lightner, 
110th. 

On the night of July 30th the 110th was relieved, the 109th taking over its posi- 
tion on the crest of Hill 212, and on August 1st the 109th in turn was relieved. Both 
regiments moved southward to the woods southwest of Le Channel and there 
on the night of August 1st a German bombing plane located the camp of the 
110th and dropped six bombs, killing twenty- two and wounding eighty men. In 
the period from July 28th to the air raid the 110th lost ten officers and 220 men 
killed, 31 officers and 960 men wounded and one officer and 39 men missing. In 
the same period the 109th lost three officers and fifteen men killed; seven officers 
and 391 men wounded and 154 men missing. Both regiments had also changed 
commanding officers. Colonel Brown, of the 109th being succeeded by Colonel 
Henr>' W. Coulter, and Colonel Kemp, of the 110th, by Major Martin, the changes 
being effected by order of Brigadier General Darragh, commanding the 55th 
Brigade, on the afternoon of July 29th. 

FiSMES .\J\D Beyond the Vesle 

Between the 1st and 4th of August the Germans conducted a rapid but 
successful retreat from Cierges and Serg>' to Fismes, on the Vesle, being closely 
pursued by the 32d American Division which had just swung into the fight. On 
the night of August 3d the 32d had thrown reconnoitering parties into Fismes, but 
these were driven out the following morning and it was not until nightfall of 
August 4th that the town was finally won. On the afternoon of August 3d, with 
the 56th Brigade leading, the 28th Division started northward to the support of 
the 32d, the road lying through the Bois Meuniere, Cierges, Sergy, Chamery, 
Coulemges, Cohan and Dravegny to St. Giles, just south of Fismes. 

On the night of August 6th the 2d and 3d Battalions of the 112th Infantry 

115 



relieved the 32d Division and occupied the woods lying directly south of the town 
of Fismes. The space between the woods and the town, known as "Death Valley," 
was constantly swept by shell fire and, like the town itself, almost untenable. The 
two battalions consoUdated their positions in the night of August 6th, and the 
morning of the 7th. supported by the fire of the 109th Machine Gun Battalion, 
succeeded in crossing the \ esle west of Fismes. On the next day the 2d Battalion 
of the 112th fought its way across the river into Fismette, a small suburb separated 
from Fismes proper by the 75-foot width of the \'esle and connected by a three- 
arch stone bridge, the northern third of which had been blown away by shell fire. 

In the meanwhile the 103d Engineers had not only repaired the road south 
of Fismes, but had built the bridge west of Fismes over which the 112th had won 
its way and had also bridged the Ardre River, a small stream running north- 
westward into the Vesle and which had to be crossed to enter Fismes. It was 
in this work that Lieutenant Hariy C. Hill, of Company A. was severely wounded 
on August 7th, while directing the erection of wire entanglements and groups of 
combat trenches south of Fismes. 

The 112th was being hard pressed in the hamlet on the north side of the 
Vesle and, on August 8th, the 1st Battalion of the 111th and the one-pounder 
platoon of Headquarters Company were sent forward to assist. The battalion 
reached Fismes early in the morning but was unable to cross the river during, 
daylight hours of August 9th. two officers. Lieutenants Anthony Wausnock, 
Company A, and James B. Wharton, Company C, and about twenty men being 
wounded. After darkness on August 9th, the battalion crossed on the shattered 
bridge and at 1 a.m. on the 10th attacked northward upon the hillside beyond 
Fismette in an effort to enlarge the holdings on the north bank. It was a daring 
effort, but enemy machine guns were too numerous for the small force. Within 
a few hours the battalion had lost some of its finest officers and men including, 
Captain Edmund W. Lynch and Lieutenant Frank M. Glendenning, killed, and 
Captain James A. Williams and Lieutenants Robert B. Woodbury, Frank C. 
Homer, Myer Kostenbaum, Harry J. Keller and Walter Ettinger, wounded. The 
2d Battalion of the regiment had started on August 9th to the support of the 1st 
and on August 10th the 111th took over the entire sector from the 112th. Shortly 
after midnight on the morning of August 11th. the 3d Battalion tried to throw 
part of its force into Fismette to the support of the other two battalions. A 
deadly German barrage stopped the effort after a few men had crossed the river, 
and these latter remained with the 2d Battalion until August 13th, when the 
regiment was reUeved by the 109th Infantry. 

The job of keeping open the fines of communication between the 
Vesle and Divisional Headquarters in Dravegny, devolved upon the 103d Engineers, 
and resulted in severe casualties. On August 9th, Captain John H. Ballamy, 
topographical officer, was kiUed while acting as liaison officer for the Regimental 
Commander south of Fismes. Two days later Lieutenant Harry D. Thrasher, 
camouflage officer, was killed near Resson Farm while directing the camouflage 
of a battery position, and on August 17th Lieutenant Colonel Frank J. Duffy 
was struck and instantly kiUed when a shrapnel burst overhead as he was entering 
his side car at Courville. His driver died at the same time. AU the engineering 
companies were suffering heavily, as were the men of the 103d Sanitary, Supply 
and Ammunition Trains. 

116 



For the ainhulance section of the Sanitary Train, the evacuation ol' the 
wounded from Fismette and Fismes was carried on under extraordinary difficulties. 
On August 10th the 110th Ambulance Comiiany (formerly Ambulance Company 
No. 2 N. G. P.) which, by the way, had been the only ambulance company 
available for duty at Conde-en-Brie in mid-July and had evacuated all of the 
wounded on supply trucks fiUed with straw, had five of its ambulances caught in 
Fismes under a terrific barrage. All live machines got through safely, one with 
its top blown away, the success of the achievement being due to the heroism of 
Captain George E. McGinnis. Wagoner Orignes P. Biemuller. Private James R. 
Brown, Private James T. O'Neill and Wagoner Harry E. Roach, who were 
awarded Distinguished Service Crosses. 

The 55th Infantry Brigade came up from the vicinity of St. Giles on August 12th, 
the 110th Infantry relieving a French regiment to the right of Fismes on that night, 
and the 109th taking over the defenses of Fismes and Fismette on August 13th. 
The 109th at first sent only a single company — I — into Fismette, but two days 
later reinforced it with two platoons from M Company. During its tenure of the 
town — until the night of August 19th — the slender force, aided by the fire of the 
108th Machine Gun Battalion and Company K of the 109th in Fismes, broke 
up all contemplated counter-attacks and enlarged its holdings. The footliold in 
Fismette was the only place in the sector where the division was across the Vesle. 
The line of the llOlh. from Fismes eastward and to the north of Coinville, was 
200 meters south of the ^ esle, the enemy having a fortified railroad embankment 




IO:i(I Trench Morlar Bakery arririny at New York. 
117 



between the 110th and the river. From August 12th to August 18th the 1st 
Battalion of the 110th held the line of resistance, two medical officers. Captains 
Fred B. Shaffer and Walter J. Shidler, being wounded during the period. On 
August 18th the 3d Battalion reUeved the 1st in the front line and, on the following 
day, the 109th was reheved in Fismes and Fismette by the 2d Battalion of the 
112th Infantry. Until August 25th the 110th was content with a holding position 
south of the Vesle, the period being filled with night raids, in one of which Lieu- 
tenant Augustus Aspenwall, of B Company, was kiUed. Other casualties of the 
period included Lieutenant Edward W. Fuge, of A Company, killed August 19th, 
and Lieutenants WiUiam V. Harvey, and Cyrus L. Horner of the Machine Gun 
Company, wounded August 24th. 

A determined effort was made before dawn on August 25th to drive the enemy 
back across the Vesle, the 3d Battalion of the 110th attacking in a three- wave 
formation wliich smashed forward to the objective, but was unable to hold it 
because of the overwhelming fire from the heights beyond. Companies I and L 
were enfiladed also by machine gun fire and were forced to withdraw before M 
Company, which, under Captain Edward J. Stackpole, Jr., held its position until 
9.30 A.M., when it also withdrew, the Captain wounded, and another officer, Lieu- 
tenant Leonard Jackson, killed. The battalion lost more than one hundred men 
in the attack. 

Emboldened by the success in driving back the 110th, the Germans, on the 




Courtesy of Prank W. Buhler, Stanley Co. of America. 

G. A . R. Veterans reviewing World War Troops. 
118 



morning of the following day, descended upon the 112th in Fismette, preceding 
the attack with a barrage which isolated Companies G and H in the town on the 
north bank. There is a story that a German, attired in an American uniform, 
ran through Fismette in advance of the attack, seeking to demoralize the defenders. 
If the story is true, the ruse was not successful, as G and H Companies started to 
retire in good order. The barrage, however, which prevented reinforcements being 
sent them, resulted in a total of 111 casualties out of 260 men engaged, the majority 
being taken prisoner. Captain Edward Schmelzer and Lieutenants Milford W. 
Fredenburg and Alfred Young were among the prisoners, while Lieutenant Joseph 
A. Landry was killed. One officer, Lieutenant Benjamin E. Turner, and ten men 
were the last to evacuate the town, reaching Fismes shortly after dawn of 
that day. 

On the night of August 11th the 53d Artillery Brigade, which had completed 
its training at Vannes, began to reach the lines of the division south of the Vesle, 
the 107th and 109th regiments equipped with French 75's and the 108th with 155 
howitzers. Batteries from all three swung into position along the front south of 
Fismes and \ illette, reUeving French artillery units, and soon making life unbearable 
for the enemy to the north. All through the last half of August the 53d Artillery 
Brigade tuned up with preUminary practice on the enemy in the highlands between 
the Vesle and the Aisne. Casualties were frequent, principally from gas, but 
valuable coordination with the tried and true infantry units was established and 
the precision of the brigade's barrages soon won it the confidence of the remainder 
of the Division. The fu-st fatahty occurred on August 18th at Arcis-le-Ponsart, 
when Lieutenant Henr^^ Howard Houston, 2d, Aide to General Price, the Brigade 
Commander, was killed by a high explosive shell. 

As August waned the pressure of the FrEmco-American forces north of Soissons 
began to be felt in the vicinity of Fismes. The enemy appeared restless and it was 
decided to drive them before they again became stabiUzed. The first step in this, 
the triumph of the Oise-Aisne offensive, fell to the 111th Infantry. On the night 
of August 31st it had gone forward to the relief of the 112th in Fismes and for a 
short distance to the right of the town. On the afternoon of September 4th the 
3d BattaUon launched a sudden attack in cooperation with the 77th Division on the 
left and the 110th Infantry on the right. The attack went home, the 3d Battalion 
retaking Fismette and driving the defenders pell-mell up the hills to the northward. 
Further east, the 2d Battalion of the 110th on the same day successfully crossed 
the Vesle and took Baslieux, a town some distance up the hill to the north of the 
river. On September 5th the 3d Battalion of the llOlh leap-frogged the 2d, and 
advanced further up the heights, but with the loss of Major Thomas B. Anderson, 
killed, and Captain Stackpole and Lieutenants John L. Bobinson and James T. 
Taylor, wounded. That night Major General Muir discovered a gap between 
his Division and the French units to the east and withdrew the 111th Infantry from 
Fismes, marching it across the front to position on the right of the divisional line 
in the vicinity of Courlandon. The 77th Division, on the left, took over the 
Fismes area thus vacated. 

The stage was set for the final act. The division was ready to attack, three 
regiments abreast, with the llOth on the left, the 109th in the center and the 111th 
on the right, the 112th being divisional reserve. At 1.25 o'clock, preceded by a 
twenty-five minute barrage, the three regiments started forward on what was 

119 




/ Sled Co. 



one of the most desperate battles of the war. From Fismette through 
BasUeux to Courlandon the air was heavy with gas wave after gas wave, which 
the Germans rolled down the slope. In the face of this, and of a tremendous 
concentration of machine gun and artillery fire, the three regiments pushed for- 
ward at the rate of 100 yards every two minutes until by 4 o'clock in the afternoon 
they had advanced approximately three kilometers north of the Vesle, and patrols 
from the 109th and 110th had fought their way into the little town of Glennes, 
on the very smnmit of the plateau between the \es\e and the Aisne. The attack 
had been driven home to complete success; the Germans were driven back to the 
Chemin des Dames, north of the Aisne; but the result was not achieved without 
terrific losses. In the 109th, Colonel Samuel V. Ham, who had succeeded 
Lieutenant Colonel Coulter, the latter being wounded September 4th, was him- 
self desperately injured and gained the Distinguished Service Cross for his intrepid 
conduct. With Colonel Ham evacuated, Major Martin of the 110th was detached 
to take hold of the 109th, and shortly after he left his original regiment, Colonel 
Frank Tompkins, its Commander, was desperately gassed, the command devolving 
upon Captain John Aiken, who was also gassed the same day. 

The 109th's casualties included Captain F. D. Wolfe of D Company and 
Lieutenants John Litschert of H Company, Earl R. Davis of F Company and 
Hazzard Melloy of I Company, killed, and the following officers wounded: Captain 
John M. Gentner, C Company; Captain Edward J. Meehan, D Company; Lieu- 
tenants William S. Cripps, Harold A. Falu- and G. Wingfield PhilUps, G Company; 
Alfred H. Loney, C Company; William T. Gammons, B Company; H. B. Van 
Ostenbrugge, K Company, and William C. Ross and Alexander H. Latta, Head- 
quarters Company. 

120 



In the 110th, Lieutenant. Jacob Feldman of D Company was killed and 
Lieutenant William F. Caldwell so badly wounded that he died on October 9th. 
Among those wounded or gassed on September 6th and the next day, while the 
regiment was in a holding position on the heights, were Captain William E. Pierce, 
Regimental Adjutant; Captain John R. Dunkel, Company G; Captain William M. 
Sylvis, Medical Detachment; and Lieutenants Stewart M. Alexander, Head- 
quarters Company; John F. Allison, Machine Gun Company; Charles F. Linn 
and Alvah L. Parsons, Medical Detachment; William W. Moyer, Dental Corps; 
Robert E. Perkins, Company D; Charles H. Quarles, Company F; William Spirko, 
Company E. and Cliauncey T. Young, Headquarters Company. Lieutenant Young, 
who was a Sergeant during the engagement, remained on duty although badly 
gassed, was promoted for gallantry in action, but died from the effect of the gassing 
before his commission reached him. 

In the Ultli Infantry. Captain Louis Fielding of E Company was killed and 
Lieutenants Carroll Missimer and Joseph B. Roulston were wounded. 

There were numerous instances of extraordinary heroism on the part of men 
of both the infantry and artillery regiments. One of the citations went to Captain 
(then Lieutenant) Hubert W. Dutton of D Company, 109th Infantry, who single- 
handed charged a German machine gun nest, killed the officer commanding, captured 
the crew of fourteen men and 1.000 rounds of ammunition and turned the gun 
on its former owners, keeping it in action for five hom's subsequently. Another 
Distinguished Service Cross man was Lieutenant Allan S. Dayton of Battery C, 
107th Field Artillei-j-, who led an infantry patrol out ahead of the line to adjust 
artillery fire on machine guns, held his advanced post for a half hour until telephonic 
communication had been established with his regiment and then helped to carry 
a wounded officer back of the lines. 

The Germans tried several counter-attacks on the night of September 6th, 
but all of them were repulsed by the triumphant 28th, which held its position 
for the next twenty-four hours and was relieved on September 8th by a French 
division. This operation marked the conclusion of the 28th's participation as part 
of a French Corps. It brought the following citation, signed by Generals Matter 
and Pougin, of the French Army: 

From the beginning of the attacli the American detachments were signalized Ijy their 
ardor, bra\ ery and enthusiasm. In spite of the firing of the enemy's heavy and light machine 
guns, trench mortars and the work of riflemen hidden in trees, these men threw themselves bravely 
on their adversaries. Fierce hand-to-hand fighting resulted and the combat was most \ iolent — 
the men never ceased fighting during all the operation, fighting in a way to arouse the enthusiasm 
and admiration of the French commanders and men of the French Army. 

Another citation, from General L. de Mondesir, reads: 

American comrades! I am grateful to you for the blood so generously spilletl on the soil 
of my country. I am proud to have commantied you during such days and to have fought with 
you for the deliverance of the world. 

The Argonne 

Following its relief on September 8th, the 28th Division was marched eleven 
kilometers south from the front to a point well below the \ esle, and from there 
to Epernay. There they were given two days of rest. The next move was on 
September 13th to Nettancourt. The Division was ordered out on the night of 

121 



September 17th, and proceeded by stiff night marches northward toward the 
Argonne, where, on September 20th, it took over the sector in front of the 
Argonne Forest and across the Aire Valley, leaving a thin screen of French 
troops on the outpost line. 

The first great American offensive was about to be launched with the 28th 
Division covering 1,000 yards front, extending from Boureuilles on the east to Cote 
28.5 on the west, with its right held by the 110th Infantry on the west bank of the 
Aire and its left, with the 112th in fine, extending deep into the thick woodlands 
of the Argonne. The 109th Infantry was in the center of the front line and the 
111th in divisional reserve. Little need be said of the great five and a half hours' 
artiller>^ barrage which covered the broad Meuse-Argonne front in the wee small 
hours of the morning of September 26th. It is too old a story to retell. The 
position of the 28th on the morning of September 26th lay between the 77th 
(New York National Army) Division on the left and the 35th (Kansas and Missouri 
National Guard) Division on the right. Contact with the 77th was established 
in the Argonne and the Aire River separated the most eastern regiment of the 28th 
from the most western one of the 35th. 

It was a dense foggy morning, which a preceding smoke screen served to render 
more opaque, through which the 28th advanced in the opening hours of the drive. 
Fortunately, the 75"s of the 107th and 109th and the 155's of the 108th had thrown 
the Huns out of their front line trenches, so there was little machine gun or sniper 
fire to hinder the men in moving forward. As it was, numerous small groups 
became hopelessly lost in the clouded atmosphere and several times it was neces- 
sary to halt and reform. The ground in front of the 109th and 110th was open 
but extremely hilly, ridge after ridge running in parallel from east to west, while 
in front of the 112th was the thick woodlands of the Argonne. As a result, the 
two regiments of the 55th Brigade were able to make more rapid progress than 
the 112th. and before the first day had ended two battalions of the 111th had been 
called from reserve to fill the gap. Despite the handicap of the country over 
which it fought, the 112th made much more rapid progress than the 77th Division 
on its left flank. On the right, the 110th Infantry stormed the town of \ arennes 
at the point of the bayonet in the late afternoon of September 26th, while the 
109th, in the center, pushed forward abreast of it, engaging in spirited contest 
with machine gunners and snipers, and eventually mopping up the suburbs of 
Varennes at the same time that the 110th was taking the portion of the town 
west of the Aire. The 55th Brigade dug in just beyond Varennes for the night, 
while the 56th continued its fight through the woods a kilometer or so behind. 
Captain John E. Boyle of the Machine Gun Company, 110th Infantn,, was wounded 
this day, as were three Lieutenants from the 109th: Edward W. Sterhng, E Com- 
pany; Daniel P. LafFerty, F Company, and Charles IVIcFadden, 3d, M Company. 

The next day, September 27th, the advance, with the German resistance 
stiffening, reached and passed Montblainville, a strongly fortified hamlet lying 
north of Varennes and on the west bank of the Aire. In the UOth Infantry 
Lieutenants William S. Bonsai, C Company; Stephen W. Dickey, C Company, 
and Elmer S. Ecay, L Company, were killed. The wounded of the regiment 
included Lieutenant Frederick G. Bell, F Company; Lieutenant Thomas L. Cort, 
E Company; Captain Wilham Fish, B Company (who remained on duty); Lieu- 
tenant Harry J. Flyrm, A Company; Lieutenant Arthur J. Schratweiser, Head- 

122 



quarters Company, and Lieutenant Harry J. Traphoner, G Company. In the 
109th, Captain John J. Owens, of I Company, and Captain Roland C. Heisler, 
Regimental Adjutant, were wounded or gassed. 

On the morning of September 28th the 55th Brigade launched forward along 
the Aire and stormed into Apremont, while the 56th Brigade, still finding the 
woodland hard going, was brought to bay before Le Chene Tondu, a hill lying just 
west of Apremont. The fighting of the day was terrific. Lieutenant Albert J. 
Oronsteen of Company G, 110th, was killed, and three Lieutenants, Samuel 
Hazlehurst, Company L; Joseph S. Ferguson, Company H and Clarence Laird, 
Company L, were so badly wounded that they died a few days later. In addition 
the following were wounded: Lieutenant Harry M. Foos, Machine Gun Company; 
Lieutenant Daniel Fox, Company G; Captain Albert 0. King, Headquarters 
Company; Lieutenant George W. Kuhnbaum, Company E; Lieutenant Frank L. 
Lynch, Company B; Captain Charles L. McLain, Company F; Lieutenant Arthur 
Robinson, Company G; Lieutenant Winthrop E. Sullivan, Company B, and 
Lieutenant Frederick T. Yeager, Company H. In the 109th Infantry, Lieutenant 
James A. Bonsack, Jr., Company A, was kiUed, and the following wounded: 
Lieutenant Harry A Fryckberg, Company E; Lieutenant Herman Goldstein, 
Company I; Lieutenant Harry R. Sage, Adjutant, 1st Battalion. 

Apremont had been originally set by General Headquarters as the objective 
of a two day advance. The brains which mapped out the campaign, however, 
had failed to take into consideration the nature of the terrain lying between the 
town and Boureuilles. That the 28th Division accomplished the task set for it in 
three days was remarkable. It had only done so at a terrific cost of men. Regi- 
ments were down to half their original strength, and the men surviving were in 
a bad state from constant exposure and extraordinary physical exertion. Never- 
theless, the high command decided on another stroke being necessary before 
relieving the Division. This stroke was needed because of the slow progress of 
the 77th Division on the left. Before it could be launched, however, it was neces- 
sary for the 55th Brigade to consolidate its positions in Apremont and ward off 
German counter-attacks, which came with frequency during September 30th and 
October 1st. It was in one of these on October 1st that the gallant remnant of 
the 110th and a few companies of the 109th withstood the assault of far superior 
numbers, and Brigadier General Dennis E. Nolan of the 55th Brigade won the 
Distinguished Service Cross by fighting in the ranks with the doughboys. The 
Distinguished Sei-vice Cross went also to Lieutenant Colonel Joseph H. Thompson 
of the 110th Infantry and Lieutenant Andrew B. Lynch of the same regiment, who 
performed meritorious service in repulsing the counter-attack. Lieutenant LesUe 
W. Horn of D Company, 110th, and Lieutenant Charles R. Rowan of G Company 
were both so severely wounded that they died within a few hours. On September 
29th Lieutenant John V. Merrick, Company D. and Lieutenant Chester A. 
Stover, Company M, were wounded and Lieutenant Guyon J. Wierman, Company 
D, was taken prisoner. 

About the same time that the counter-attacks were being repulsed by the 
55th Brigade, the 56th Brigade was attempting, but vainly at first, to take Le 
Chene Tondu. So strongly fortified were the Germans that the position seemed 
impregnable to an unsupported infantry attack. The 53d Artillery Brigade was 
rendering all the assistance possible, the 109th ArtiUery, in Apremont, having 

123 



already been badly gassed and shelled. On October 4th, Colonel Asher Miner 
of the 109th Artillery was badly wounded. 

Such, then, was the situation when on October 6th the 103d Trench Mortar 
Battery, its men exhausted after days of toil over the nniddy road and harassed 
by constant shell fire, reached the 56 th Brigade line and fur tiie first time put their 
wicked mortars into action. On that day the 103d Trench Mortar Battery 
justified itself completely. Its shells, deluging the ridge and the trenches beyond, 
literally blew the Germans out of the way so that the 111th on the right and the 
112th on the left were finally able to push forward and take with sUght loss the 
position which had cost them dearly enough during the preceding week. 

The 77th Division on the left was getting into more and more trouble, its 
"Lost Battalion" having suddenly sprung into history, and it was to save this 
battalion and also to clear the path for the farther advance of the New York 
Division that the final phase of the 28tli"s participation in the Meuse-Argonne 
offensive began. It was the morning of October 7th. Ahead lay the town of 
Chatel Chehery, with Hill 223 on the right fiank and Hill 2 1 1 on the left. The 
original plan was for the 327th Infantry, of tlie 82d Division, to the right of the 
28th, to take Hill 223 while the 55th Brigade captured the town of Chatel Chehery 
and the 56th Brigade stormed Hill 241. Under this arrangement, the advance 
of the 55th and 56th Brigades began on the morning of October 7th, and by 10 
o'clock the 109th and 110th were into and through Chatel Chehery, driving the 
Huns from house to house at the point of the bayonet, while the 112th Infantry 
was advancing upon HiU 244 and the 11 1th Infantry was suppt)rting both brigades. 
However, the 327th Infantry was held up south of Hill 223 and the Germans, 
in force on this eminence, were delivering a severe enfilading fire upon the 
occupants of Chatel Chehery. In this emergency the 2d Battalion of the 109th 
Infantry was sent to clean up Hill 223 and succeeded after a brief struggle. The 
112th also made history by the way in which it succeeded in storming Hill 214. 
By nightfall of October 7th the Division, or what was left of it, had cleared the 
entire region of the enemy, thrusting a menacing salient into the Argonne which 
had the immediate result desired — the rajiid evacuation of that territory by the 
(iermans, who had been holding up the 77th Division and surrounding the "Lost 
Battalion." One day later, October 9th, the entire 28th Division was relieved 




_r^Hf^| i^ 



Foiirleen-inch Naval Gun, Railway Mount, in action. Biiitt tiy The Baldirin Loconioiiiv Works. 

124 



by the 82d, the men being marched back through Apremont to Varennes and 
there loaded on motor trucks and taken southeastward. 

The Artillery in Belgium 

A few days later General Headquarters was asked by the British for a good 
artillery brigade to act in conjunction with one of the American divisions in Belgium. 
Two artillery brigades, the identities of which are not given, had failed the 91st 
American Division on the Ypres front and, according to reports, had deUvered 
barrages which fell short and endangered the advancing infantry. General Head- 
quarters responded by detaching the 53d Artillery Brigade from the 28th Division 
and entraining it on October 18th at St. Menehould for a two-day ride half-way 
across France to Calais and Dunkirk. As the operations of the artillery brigade 
from then until the end of the war were entirely apart from the movements of the 
balance of the Division, it will be best to take each up separately. 

With the brigade of artillery went the horse battalion of the 103d Ammunition 
Train and all of the units, after detraining, moved into Ypres for the night of 
October 20th. They started forward the next morning and on October 29th went 
into action in the vicinity of Boschmolens. Between October 29th and November 
11th the brigade was almost constantly in action. Its record shows a string of 
Belgian War Crosses awarded to the men of the various units for individual 
bravery, and a brigade citation, which went to Sergeant Major Howard Taylor, 
of the horse battalion of the Ammunition Train for the way in which he 
reorganized two sections of E Company, which had been demoralized and 
damaged by Hun air raiders during the night of October 30th between Boschmolens 
and Oygen. On Armistice Day the artillery brigade had reached Audenarde, 
but did no actual firing after November 10th. From Audenarde it marched 
through a number of Belgian towns and, after a month spent in the north, en- 
trained for Le Mans, in the embarkation area, where the rest of the Division joined 
it in April. 



125 



THE WORK OF THE DRAFT BOARDS* 



f^^%5^0 group of men rendered a more arduous, patriotic service 
in Philadelphia than the members of the fifty-one Local 
and two District Draft Boards and those who cooperated 
with the Boards in the capacity of Legal and Medical 
Advisers. It is unfortunate that no resume has been made 
of their activities, and the following summary is too frag- 
mentary to do them justice. However, they have the 
personal conviction that, called upon to aid in enrolling 
the young manhood of the City for the Army and Navy, 
they served disinterestedly and with signal success. 
The Selective Service Law was enacted by Congress on May 18, 1917, and 

June 5, 1917, was fixed by the President as the day on which aU males, between 

the ages of twenty-one and thirty years, inclusive, were required to register. 

Within that short period of time, a great administrative machine was set up. 

Following the initial registration many other problems were met and overcome, and 





Courtesy of Frank W. Buliler. Stanley Co. of America. 

Fathers and Sons checking up the draft numbers. 



*Suniinarized by the Secretary of the Philadelphia War History Committee from the records 
of Major William G. Murdock and the reports of the Provost Marshal-General. 

126 




Courtesy of Frank W, Tluhler. Stanley Co. of America. 

Drafted Men esrnrtefl hy hand. 

' 'on July 30, 1917, the Army assimilated the first man selected under the operations 
of the Act, and by September 1, 1917, the date by which the Act had originally 
been called upon to produce the first 30 per cent of the initial Draft, the Selective Ser- 
vice System stood ready to dehver to thenationalCantonments 180, OOOselectedmen." 

All work in connection with the various Drafts was done under the direction of 
Major General Enoch H. Crowder. the Provost Marshal-General. 

Major William G. Murdock, U. S. A., was appointed the Draft Executive and 
Disbursing Officer for Pennsylvania. Upon the recommendation of Mayor Smith, 
the members of the Registration (later Draft) Boards, and of the Legal and Medical 
Advisory Boards, were appointed by Governor Brumbaugh. Major Frank C. 
Hammond, M. C, was appointed as Medical Aide in the late summer of 1918. 

The area assigned to the Boards followed, generally, the Ward lines and, as 
far as possible, the Election officials assisted in the registrations. Each Local 
Board had a Legal Advisory Board and, in Philadelphia, there were fifteen Medical 
Advisory Boards. Local Boards had original jurisdiction in all claims, except 
Industrial and Agricultural, in which the District Boards had original jurisdiction. 
Members of the Local Draft Boards were paid $4.00 per day, under the First Draft 
regulations. When the "Questionnaire System " was adopted, and until September 
1, 1918, they were paid in proportion to the number of "Questionnaires" filled out. 
Finally, they were allowed a dollar an hour with a maximum fee of lendollarsperday. 

The first registration day was June 5, 1917, for all males within the ages of 
twenty-one and thirty years, inclusive. 

The second registration day was exactly one year later, June 5, 1918. At this 
time all males who since June 5, 1917, had become twenty-one years of age were 
required to register. 

127 



The third registration day was on August 24, 1918, and was similar in purpose 
to the second registration day. 

The fourth and final registration day was on September 12, 1918. All males 
between the ages of eighteen and forty-five years, inclusive, who had not previously 
registered, were enrolled by the Draft Boards. 

The following table gives the total number of actual registrants and the total 
number of inductions in Philadelphia: 

Number 







of Actual 


Number 








Number 


Registrants, 


of Actual 








of .\ctual 


June 5th 


Registrants, 


Total Number 


Total Number 


Local 


Registrants, 


and August 


September 


of Actual 


of 


Boards 


June 5, 1917 


21, 1918 


12, 1918 


Registrants 
11,518 


Inductions 


1 


5,077 


446 


5,995 


1,668 


2 


4,438 


358 


5,324 


10,120 


1,868 


3 


2,873 


233 


3,475 


6,581 


684 


4 


5,006 


436 


/ Combined 
\ with No. 6 


} 5,442 


1,153 


5 


3,267 


223 


4,609 


8,099 


774 


6 


5,161 


462 


14,852 


20,475 


2,017 


7 


3,219 


250 


5,230 


8,699 


1,120 


8 


4,961 


372 


7,328 


12,661 


1,298 


9 


4,680 


384 


6,277 


11,341 


1,552 


10 


3,114 


285 


4,244 


7,643 


723 


11 


2,865 


264 


3,403 


6,532 


638 


12 


4,414 


413 


6,082 


10,909 


1,377 


13 


5,228 


526 


6,936 


12,690 


1,614 


14 


3,488 


270 


4,429 


8,187 


996 


15 


1,587 


107 


2,553 


4,247 


581 


16 


2,949 


257 


3,863 


7,069 


858 


17 


2 022 


173 


3,039 


5,234 


688 


18 


3J69 


318 


4,960 


9,047 


1,176 


19 


2,743 


242 


3,830 


6,815 


902 


20 


2,699 


273 


3,815 


6,787 


763 


21 


4,740 


459 


5,969 


11,168 


1,585 


22 


6,495 


626 


8,276 


15,397 


1,951 


23 


2,167 


197 


3,027 


5,391 


548 


24 


1,908 


184 


2,681 


4,773 


671 


2.5 


2,749 


256 


3,899 


6,904 


907 


26 


2,981 


284 


3,979 


.7,244 


938 


27 


3,817 


326 


5,243 


9,386 


1,558 


28 


2,632 


265 


3,413 


6,310 


939 


29 


3,836 


386 


5,545 


9,767 


1,161 


30 


2 9'^2 


275 


4,106 


7,303 


732 


31 


3J64 


285 


4,016 


7,465 


837 


32 


2,748 


236 


4,603 


7,587 


910 


33 


3,389 


282 


4,963 


8,634 


970 


34 


2,668 


212 


3,945 


6,825 


740 


35 


5,458 


528 


7,332 


13,318 


2,106 


36 


2,019 


199 


2,853 


5,071 


684 


37 


5,399 


382 


6,756 


12,537 


1,386 


38 


2,139 


161 


2,653 


4,953 


555 


39 


3,222 


264 


3,823 


7,309 


906 


40 


4,785 


393 


5,594 


10,772 


1,615 


41 


3,323 


282 


4,981 


8,586 


845 


42 


3,115 


360 


4,982 


8,457 


791 


43 


4,433 


365 


7,183 


11,981 


142 


44 


2,931 


237 


4,071 


7,239 


787 


45 


2,364 


215 


3,155 


5,734 


777 


46 


4,307 


424 


5,979 


10,710 


1,281 


47 


4,129 


312 


4,820 


9,261 


1,080 


48 


3,162 


202 


5,018 


8,382 


863 


49 


3,125 


236 


5,457 


8.818 


683 


50 


2,792 


271 


4,087 


7.150 


973 


51 


2,606 


230 


3,191 


6,027 


756 


Totals 


179,085 


15,626 


245,844 
128 


440,555 


53,127 



DRAFT BOARDS 

(August 1, 1918.) 
Eastern Judicial District 

District Board for Division No. 1 

(Local Boards 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 22, 23. 27, 35, 39, 40, 41, 42, 48. 19, 51.) 

John Cadwalader, Chairman Julius Lamor 

Dr. Charles H. Willits, Secretary Samuel S. Fels 

Sanmel T. Bodine Edward C. Carson. Chief Clerk 

District Board for Division No. 2* 

(Local Boards 9, 10. 11. 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18. 19, 20, 21, 24, 25, 26, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 
33, 34, 36, 37, 38, 43, U, 45, 46, 47, 50.) 

Waller VVillard, Chairman Alexander Lawrence, Jr. 

James C. McDonald Charles H. Laflerty 

Bronte Greenwood, Jr., Chief Clerk 

LOCAL BOARDS AND LEGAL ADVISORY BOARDS 

Division No. 1 — James .\. Roberts, Chairman; Dr. Morris Cornfield, J. Harry Evans, J. W. 
Scott, Chief Clerk. Legal Advisory Board: Morris J. Speiser, Chairman; David Phillips, Herbert 
Salus. 

Division No. 2— Wliitmore C. Chambers, Chairman; Henry C. Rohlfing, Dr. Michael L. 
Levitt, Jos. M. Fruchter. Chief Clerk. Legal Advisory Board: Edwin Jaquett Sellers, Chairman; 
VViUiam J. Smyth, John J. Sullivan. 

Division No. 3 — Augustus \V. Murphy, Chairman; Dr. John H. Remig, Eugene McCarron, 
Matthew Rogers, Chief Clerk. Legal Advisory Board: Harry Mesirev, Chairman; Arthur Hagen 
Miller, Thomas F. McNichol. 

Division No. 1— Norton O. Harris, Chairman; Albert Niedelman, Dr. Samuel F. Levin, 
Abraham Cohen, Chief Clerk. Legal Advisory Board: Dwight M. Lowry. Chairman; Theo J. 
Grayson, Meyer Sack. (Later aboHshed. Local Board No. 6 given jurisdiction over former 
registrants and territory.) 

Division No. 5 — John P. Connors, Chairman; Daniel J. Connelly, Dr. Wm. Macintosh, 
Miss Helen Harrigan, Chief Clerk. Legal Advisory Board: John Weaver, Chairman; Thos. A. 
Meagher, John P. Connelly. 

Division No. 6 — George \\ . Ijjng, Chairman; John C. Hinckley, R. Francis Taylor, Graham 
C. Woodward, Clinton Rogers Woodruff, H. \V. Reilly, Chief Clerk. Legal Advisory Board: 
Robert Levin, Chairman; Thomas Reath, I. Smith Raspin. 

Division No. 7 — William Campbell Posey, Chairman; Edwin C. Atkinson, John H. Egan, 
Alexander C. Finley, Chief Clerk. Legal Advisory Board: Thomas W. Barlow, Chairman; Albert 
B. Weimer, Stanley Folz. 

Division No. 8 — Edward F. Swift, Chairman; John L. llazelton. Dr. W'ilUam S. Hoffman, 
Harry H. Hornstine, M. D., Chief Clerk. Legal Advisory Board: William F. Rorke, Chairman; 
William T. Connor, Emanuel Furth. 

Division No. 9 — Clarence L. Harper, Chairman; Daniel Gimbel, Dr. John Wanamaker, 3d, 
Albert C. Rommel, Chief Clerk. Legal Advisory Board: Robert W. Skinner, Jr., Chairman; 
WiUiam M. Boenning, Alfred M. Mohr. 

Division No. 10 — Rev. A. D. Geist, Chairman; Joseph Rosenbuth. Legal Advisory Roard: 
J. Frederick Martin, Chairman; Clinton O. Mayer, Samuel Wolf. 

Division No. 11— John Baker Tuttle, Chairman; Harry E. Walter, Dr. Robert McCreighf, 
Barbara Berryman, Chief Clerk. Legal Advisory Board: Frederick J. Knauss, Cheurman; Chas. 
H. Edmunds. 



*NoTE. — One District Board was later established in Philadelphia, known as the 
District Board for the City of Philadelphia. Membership consisted of members of former 
District Board No. 1. 

129 



Division No. 12 — Thos. B. Harbison, Chairman; Harrison Duffleld, M. D., Dr. Robert 
Judge, A. W. Dougherty, Chief Clerk. Legal Advisory' Board: David Lavis, Chairman; Isaac 
Yocum, Isaac Hassler. 

Division No. 13 — Frank Buck, Chairman; Philip E. Wright, Dr. Samuel J. Ottinger, Howard 
P. E. Ruimer, Chief Clerk. Legal Advisory Board: Max Aron, Chairman; CUnton A. Sowers, 
Thomas Fahy. 

Division No. 14 — Dr. John S. Woodruff, Chairman; Dr. David D. Custer, Arthur R. 
Littlewood, Raymond V. John, Chief Clerk. Legal Advisory Board: AKred R. Haig, Chairman; 
Frederick A. Soberheimer, Raymond V. John. 

Division No. 15 — Jos. M. Jennings, Chairman; George B. Linnard, Dr. Biddle R. Marsden, 
Robert E. Hirleman, Chief Clerk. Legal Advisory Board: Elles Ames Ballad, Chairman; John 
A. Brown, John B. Colahan, 3d. 

Division No. 16 — John J. Courtney, Chairman; Dr. John R. Minehart, Robert T. Mitchell, 
Joseph A. Bowes, Chief Clerk. Legal Advisory Board: Edward Hopkinson, Jr., Chairman; 
Shippen Lewis, Charles Hunsicker. 

Division No. 17 — William Blackwood, Chairman; James B. King, Dr. Chas. A. Currie, 
Thomas M. Gallegher, Chief Clerk. Legal Advisory Board: R. W. Archbald, Jr., Francis Chap- 
man, Francis R. Bracken. 

Division No. 18 — Henry K. Fries, Chairman; James T. Nulty, Dr. George C. Hanna, John 
T. Nulty, Chief Clerk. Legal Advisory Board: Henry S. Borneman, Chairman; William H. 
Peace, R. O. Moon. 

Division No. 19 — Stacy H. White, Chairman; Allen ^L Eberheart, Dr. A. Wiese Hammer. 
Legal Advisory Board: William B. Linn, Chairman; J. Washington Logue, Ernest L. Tustin. 

Division No. 20 — Theodore J. Lewis, Chairman; Dr. T. J. d'Apery, Ross E. Williams, W. H. 
Norris, Chief Clerk. Legal Advisory Roard: Joseph R. Wilson. Chairman; T. Henry Walnut, 
David J. Srnythe. 



1 



As il appeared, July 20.1917^ 
onlhearasionofllie 

riRST 

NATIONAL: 

DPATT 




Courtesy of Frmik W. liiihler, Stanley Co of America. 

This lioii'l is now in Independence Hall. 

130 



Division No. 21 — Eugene Ziegler, Chairman; William H. Zeigler, Joseph M. Smith, Daniel 
McCormick, Chief Clerk. Legal Advisory Board: Everett K. Schofield, Chairman; Horace 
Stern, James H. Wolfe. 

Division No. 22 — ^Joseph W. Gardiner, Chairman; Willard E. Barcus, John H. Bailey, H. 
Walford Gardiner, Chief Clerk. Legal Advisory Board: C. Berkeley Taylor, Chairman; John 
Cadwalader, Jr., Charles S. Wesley. 

Division No. 23 — Francis H. Shields, Chairman; Dr. John D. Ward, Frank W. Sheafer, 
Max Gordon, Chief Clerk. Legal Advisory Board: John Stokes Adams, Chairman; Francis 
H. Bohlen, B. Gordon Bromley. 

Division No. 21 — Andrew C. Keeley, Chairman; Dr. Deacon Steinmetz, Albert D. Kohler, 
Arthur R. King, Chief Clerk. Legal Advisory Board: Chester N. Farr, Chairman; Layton M. 
Schoch, James C. Jones. 

Division No. 25 — Dr. Arthur D. Kurtz, Chairman; Dr. Augustus H. Clagett, Harry A. 
Ade, Chief Clerk. Legal Advisory Board: W. S. B. Ferguson. Chairman; A. W. Sansom, Albert 
W. Shields. 

Division No. 26 — William Abrahams, (^.hairman; G. Ayres Swayze, Dr. Chas. E. Bricker, 
George H. Rettner, Chief Clerk. Legal Advisory Board: Max Hertzberg, Chairman; John 
Dickey, Leo. MacFarland. 

Division No. 27 — Lawrence Farrell. Chairman; William P. Tinney. Dr. Alfred C. Marshall. 
Francis A. Cotney, Chief Clerk. Legal Advi.sory Board: John C. Hinkley, Chairman; Murdoch 
Kendrick, Charles Sinkler. 

Division No. 28 — H. Watson Barras, Chairman; Dr. George Sinnamon, Frank H. Longshore, 
Chief Clerk. Legal Advisory Board: A. H. Wintersteem, Frank M. Riter, Sanuiel B. Scott. 

Division No. 29 — Lorenzo Smith, Chairman; Dr. James A. Brady, Dr. William T. Ellis, 
Paul W. Smith, Chief Clerk. Legal Advisory Board: Frederick J. Geiger, Julius C. Levi, Joseph 
P. McCullen. 

Division No. 30— Dr. H. B. Keech, Chairman; Dr. J. P. Emich, Edw. H. Weber, L. W. 
Keech, Chief Clerk. Legal Advisory Board: Russell Duane, Chairman; John M. Scott, Francis 
S. Mcllhenny. 

Division No. 31 — John W. Mortimer, Chairman; Edwin L. Hoffman, Dr. Edw. C. Kottcamp, 
Edw. C. Kottcamp, Chief Clerk. Legal Advisory Board: C. W. Van Artsdalen, Chairman; 
Samuel W. Cooper, Frederick C. Newbourg, Jr. 

Division No. 32 — W. R. Nicholson, Chairman; John P. Dwyer, Dr. Frank B. Hancock. 
Marie Gibbs, Chief Clerk. Legal Advisory Board: Robert A. Beggs, Jr., Chairman; Harold B. 
Beitler, C. Oscar Beasley. 

Division No. 33— Chas. E. Gill. Chairman; Dr. R. H. McCarty, Jr., David A. Kerr, Chief 
Clerk. Legal Advisory Board: Albert P. Gerhard, Chairman; Sydney Young, Chas. S. Wood. 

Division No. 31 — Caspar M. Titus, Chairman; Richard S. Wilson, Dr. George F. Enoch, 
Horace Stoy, Chief Clerk. Legal Advisory Board: Thomas Kilby Smith, (chairman; Frederick 
Beyer, Geo. W. Harkins, Jr. 

Division No. 35 — David C. Patcbell, Chairman; Dr. A. F. Allman, Thomas McCaffrey, 
Chief Clerk. Legal Advisory Board: Horace Rumsey, Chairman; Edw. Wells. 

Division No. 36 — Dr. John A. Bogar, Chairman; Richard V. Farley, Dr. Phil Kurtz, John 
A. Nagle, Jr., Chief Clerk. Legal Advisory Board: Joseph G. Magee, Chairman; David Mandell, 
Jr., Ormond Rambo. 

Division No. 37 — Allan Sutherland, Chairman; Charles D. Knauer, Dr. Robert D. Snively, 
Howard Eccles, Chief Clerk. Legal Advisory Board: Reynolds D. Brown, Joseph A. Culbert, 
Andrew R. McCown. 

Division No. 38 — Charles S. Osmond, Chairman; E. C. Delahunty, Dr. D. J. Boon, J. Fred 
Lieberman, Chief Clerk. Legal Advisory Board: Franz Ehrlich, Jr., Chairman; J. Rodman 
Paul, WiUiam N. Trinkle. 

Division No. ■i'i — John L. Murphy. Chairman; Alfred Heymann, Dr. Sanmel Gordon, 
Marie F. Murphy, Chief Clerk: Legal Advisory Board: Carroll R. Williams, Chairman; Cornelius 
Haggarty, Jr., Frank R. Savidge. 

Division No. 40— Samuel J. Buck, Chairman; H. D. Prettyman, Dr. Joseph A. Rainville, 
M. Richardson, Chief Clerk. Legal Advisory Board: J. B. Colohan, Chairman; Frank R. Savidge. 

131 



Division No. 41 — T. P. Sheneman, Chairman; Septimus Hatfield. Dr. H. L. Lutz. Sarah W. 
North, Chief Clerk. Legal Advisory Board; Francis G. Gallagher, Frank \. Harrigan, Joseph 
W. Kentworthy. 

Division No. 12 — Samuel Crothers. Chairman; S. Lord Gilberson, Dr. W. Warren Weaver, 
A. Bulnier, Chief Clerk. Legal Advisory Board: Grover C. Ladner, Jr., Chairman; Joseph 
Conwell, Francis H. Thole. 

Division No. 4.3 — William H. Margerison, Chairman; Frank Tooiney, Dr. William Harmer 
Good, Edward L. D. Roach, Chief Clerk. Legal Advisory Board; Edward M. Abbott. Chairman; 
John A. Boyle, Thomas Kitchen. 

Division No. 44 — D. Frank Black, Chairman; Alexander D. Robinson, Dr. Max F. Herrman, 
I. Hinkle, Chief Clerk. Legal Advisory Board; Michael J. McEnery, Chairman; Bertram D 
Rearick, Edmund Bayley Seymour, Jr. 

Division No. 45 — Harry A. Fricke, Chairman; Chas. ]\L Johnson, Dr. H. K. Roessler, John 
J. Klang, Chief Clerk. Legal Advisory Board: Robert P. Schick, Chairman; Wm. W. Smithers, 
Augustus B. Stoughton. 

Division No. 16 — David J. Fowler, Chairman; Dr. A. F. Targette. John J. Bradley. Rose- 
mary D. Bradley, Chief Clerk. Legal .\dvisory Board; H. B. Gill, Chairman; Howard Lewis, 
David Bortin. 

Division No. 47 — John J. Keenan, Chairman; George J. Steinmeyer, Dr. Wilbert J. \\ olf, 
John J. Keenan, Chief Clerk. Legal Advisory Board: Harry Felix, Chairman; Wm. Potter Davis, 
H. MacGregor iNIicheson. 

Division No. 48 — Rev. Win. M. Sullivan, Chairman; Rev. P. E. Osgood, Dr. \. F. Snively, 
Michael L Silver, Chief Clerk. Legal .\dvisory Board: Forrest N. Magee. Chairman: Charles 
C. Earickson, Roy M. Boyd. 

Division No. 49 — Rev. M. J. Crane, Chairman; Rev. Gearge M. Brudhead, Dr. George A. 
Knowles, James F. McCabe, Sr., Chief Clerk. Legal Advisory Board: Arthur S. Arnold, Chair- 
man; Stevens Heckscher, Frank H. Benham. 

Division No. 50 — Edward C. Shinidheiser, Chairman; Isaac H. Silverman, Dr. Leon F. 
Luburg, Hubert J. Dever, Chief Clerk. Legal Advisory Board; David N. Fell. Jr., Chairman; 
James A. Flaherty. 

Division No. 51 — William F. Gushing, Chairman; John I. Somers, Dr. Winlield H. Boeh- 
ringer, John F. Duffy, Jr., Cliief Clerk. Legal Advisory Board: Francis M. McAdams, Chairman; 
Francis J. Maneely, Joseph W. Shannon. 

MEDICAL ADVISORY BOARDS OF PHILADELPHIA 

Episcop.^l Hospital — Doctors H. C. Deaver, A. A. Stevens, C. Y. White, Thomas R. 
Neilson, Elliston J. Morris, Francis W. Sickler, G. Oram Ring, G. Morris Goldberg, A. B. Gill, 
Chas. C. Biedert, William T. \ an Pelt, Frederick Krauss, Clarence \V. Schaelfer, Thomas G. 
Aller, Thomas R. Curris. 

Germantown Hospital — Doctors A. D. Whiting, Howard A. Geisler, Thomas A. Cope, 
Elbert O. Day, Henry N. ThisseU, Mahlon R, Raby. 

Hahnemann Hospit.^^l — Doctors William B. Van Lennep, Herbert L. Northrop, John A. 
Brooke, Wilham C. Hunsicker, Clarence Bartlett, G. Harlan Wells, W. Lawrence Hicks, Ralph 
Bernstein, Samuel W. Sappington, Frank O. Nagle, Fred W. Smith, Joseph V. F. Clay, Clarence 
V. Clenmier. 

Jefferson Hospital — Doctors Frederick J. Kalteyer, F. T. Stewart, E. D. Funk, H. F. 
HonseU, F. X. Dercum, S. MacCuen Smith, Ross V. Patterson, Chevaher Jackson, H. W. Stel- 
wagon, H. A. Wilson, Joseph Head, H. K. Mohler, Edward J. Klopp, D. L. Despard, Fielding 
O. Lewis, A. Spencer Kaufman. Marion Hearn, Sherman F. Gilpin, R. Douglas Scott, W. H. 
Kinney, F. R. Widdowson, Alfretl Heineberg, George F. Phelps, Arthur C. Sender, Maurice 
Brown, A. J. Davidson, H. W. Banks, Charles R. Heed, J. Scott Fritch, W illiani P. Hearn, S. Sohs 
Cohen, Strieker Coles, Martin Emil Rehfuss, \\ . F. Manges. 

Jewish Hospital — Doctors Bernard Kohn, William H. Teller, Leon Jonas, S. Sohs Cohen, 
Joseph B. Potsdamer, Edwin A. Heller, George P. Katzenstein, IVL J. Karpeles, Milton K. Meyers, 
J. C. Knipe, Aaron Brav, Sidney Feldstein, Herman B. Cohen, H. W. Banks. 

132 



Lankenau Hospital — Doctors Henry F. I'm^i'. John U. Deaver, Stanley lleiniann, Allx-rt 
Ci. Miller, Joseph I. Smith, Charles Judson, Rex Hobensack, Henry Mercher, Henry Bartle, 
Bernard Mencke, H. C. Masland, William C. Sharkey, Edward A. Shumway, Ellwood Matlack. 

ISIethodist Episcopal Hospital — Doctors D. L. Despard, Richard C. Norris, Wm. R. 
Nicholson, .Mfred Hand, Jr., E. Paul ReifF, Jos. M. Enders, H. J. Hartz, Delno E. Kirshner. Ed. 
V. Clark, C. P. Clark. H. U. North, Israel Carp, L. J. Hammond, Jos. M. Spellissy, J. Hendrie 
Lloyd, Jesse H. Allen, \\ alter Roberts, J. B. Turner, Morris Markowitz, Thos. \V. Tait, Chas. 
S. Hearn, Thos. J. Byrne, A. R. Renninger. Wm. N. Watson, O. A. Zimmerman, Jos. M. McCarron, 
Henry Morris. 

Orthopoedic Hospital — Doctors Morris J. Lewis, G. G. Davis, Charles W. Burr, Louis H. 
Mutschler, E. P. Corson White, Hunter W. Scarlett, Walter E. Rahte. Frederick Fraley. 

Presbyterian Hospital — Doctors H. R. Wharton, F^rancis Allen, William E. Hughes, 

D. McVey Brown, McCluney Radcliffe, James Thorington, J. Aiman, W. A. Allwood, S. H. Home. 

Red Cross General Hospital No. 1 (Medico-Chirursical Hospital Staff) — Doctors James 
M. Anders, Albert E. Roussel, Arthur C. Morgan, H, Leon Jameson. Ernest La Place, James P. 
Mann, E. B. Gleason, L. Webster Fox, George E. Pfahler, Charles S. Potts, T. H. Weisenberg, 
Robert F. Ridpath. J. Hamilton Small, George H. Meeker. Herbert J. Smith, Warren C. Ratroff, 
H. M. Christian, W illiam J. McKinley, O. F. Mershon, Wm. M. Menah, F. A. Mantz, H. S. 
Snydemen. 

S.a^maritan Hospital — Doctors William Egbert Robertson, Harry A. Duncan, A. E. Oliensis. 
Herbert P. Fisher, E. H. Mcllvain. L. C. Peter, G. A. Lawrence, Wm. A. Hitschler, Harry Off, 
S. D. Ingham, Harry Hudson. 

St. Agnes Hospital — Doctors Joseph Walsh, Charles J. Hoban, John A. O'Connell, Paul 
B. Cassidy, George P. Midler, John M. Fisher, John A. Rrophy, Warren R. Davis, Frederick C. 
Narr, Alfred S. Doyle, W. H. .MacKinney, W. H. Haines, Benjamin L. Gordon, William J. Ryan, 
Leon Brinkman, Henry S. \Meder, Charles S. Wachs, John G. Penza, Charles F. Bailey, \\'. C. 
Posey, Milton K. Meyers. 

St. Mary's Hospital — Doctors Ellwood R. Kirby, William A. Hamilton, \\ illiam T. Demp- 
sey, Louis Love, William P. Grady, Louis J. Burns, WiUiam T. Rees, Eugene Lindauer. 

St. Timothy's Hospital — Doctors M. Howard FusseU, George D. Fussell, Linton Turner, 
Otto Rath, Edward Eichman, ^^'illiara Devitt, James A. Kelly, A. Hewson, Margaret Duff, David 
J. Roon, R. L. Entwistle, Lawrence L. Simcox, J. A. Maloney, Carl WiUiams, F'rederick Fraley. 

University of Pennsylvania Hospital — Doctors H. Maxwell Langdon, Edward Martin,. 
.\lfred Stengel, William G. Spiller, Allen J. Smith, A. C. Wood, Perry Pepper, Charles Turner, 
B. A. Thomas, Charles P. Grayson, Grier Miller, Fred D. Weidman, H. K. Pancoast. 

GOVERNMENT APPEAL AGENTS IN PHILADELPHIA 

Harry B. Gondolfo, Samuel P. Cohen, Francis Lytleton Maguire, Frederick Forced, Robert 

E. Hagan, Charles K. Bartlett, James C. Corry, W illiam T. Connor, J. Joseph Stratton, Lewis 
A. Feldman, Francis V. Godfrey, Agnew MacRride, Roy M. Livingstone, W illis B. Heidinger, 
Paul Reilly, James F. Friel, Rayard Henry, Robert T. Conson, H. S. J. Sickle, Lawrence C. Hick- 
man, Joseph .Smith, Frank R. Stockley, James M. Dohan, Harry S. Platowsky, W. R. S. Ferguson, 
Frederick G. Dussoulas, Robert B. Fletcher, Samson McDowell, P. H. Lynch, Vivian F^rank 
Gable, E. P. Gallagher, Joseph P. McCullen, Edward Harshaw, Herbert U. Porter, John Baxter, 
Samuel J. Ephraim, Horace H. Dawson, John Lamon, Sanuiel Kratzok, D. J. Callaghan, Jacob 
Mathay, Francis H. Thole, Edwin M. Abbott, John W. De F>ehn, Thos. Bluett, J. Fred Jenkinson, 
Harry C. Most, Arthur S. .\rn(ild, W alter N. Keating, Charles Edwin F'ox, Harry M. Berkowitz. 



1,'!3 



PHILADELPHIA AND THE 79th DIVISION 

Prepared under the Direction of Colonel J. Frank Barber, 
ChairiiiaiL Historical Connnittee. T'JtIi Division Association 




PHE largest group of Phila(lf'l[)hia mon inducted into the 
National Army through Selective Service formed the major 
part of the 79th Division and served with that organization 
during the World War. Originally the personnel of the 
79th was to have been drawn in entirety from the thirty- 
seven eastern counties of Pennsylvania and the State of 
Maryland and the District of Columbia. While this plan 
had to be abandoned, large drafts of the original Pennsyl- 
vanians being forwarded to other divisions after some 
months training with the 79th, there yet remained a sub- 
stantial Pennsylvania and Maryland majority in each divisional unit. The bal- 
ance consisted of Selective Service men from New York, Rhode Island, Connecticut, 
West Virginia, District of Columbia and Ohio. In the beginning there 
had been an efl'ort to organize battalions and regiments along geographical lines, 
with the result that Philadelphians were assembled in certain groups. The ratio 
of depletion in these groups was the same as in all others, so that "all Philadel- 
phia" units ceased to exist but a Philadelphia majority remained. 

The officer personnel, on the other hand, underwent slight changes and, having 
been chiefly drawn from Pennsylvania (Reserve Officers from the First Officers' 
Training Camp at Fort Niagara), remained thus throughout. Philadelphia was 
very largely represented among the officers, whether it was a unit of Pennsyl- 
vanians or of Marylanders. 

Thus, with Philadelphians in all units, an account of this city's men in the 
Division can be presented properly only through a summarized history of the Divi- 
sion in its entirety. Such then is the purpose of this chapter and if emphasis is 
laid upon Philadelphians, it must be remembered that this volume is primarily 
for Philadelphia readers. 

Camp Meade to Embarkation 

The 79th Division was one of the sixteen National Army divisions author- 
ized under the Act of May 18, 1917, but the establishment of a cantonment con- 
sumed so much time that it was not until late August, of the same year, that actual 
creation began. 

It was a long cry indeed from June 5th — National Registration Day — to late 
August, when the local Draft Boards were ready with the first "calls" for the new 
National Army, but if the personnel was to be slow of assembling, the preliminary 
measures were not neglected. The First Officers" Training Camp at Fort Niagara 
was preparing more than 1,100 candidates for commissions; barracks, mess 
halls, etc., were springing up like mushrooms at Admiral, Md., the site selected 
and designated as Camp Meade — named for that gallant Pennsylvanian who 
turned back the Southern host at Gettysburg. 

134 




Courtesy of Frank \V. Buhler, Sianles Co. oi America 



On the way lo Camp. 



Major General (then Biigadiei General) Joseph E. Kiihn airivcd al (^anip 
Meade as Division Commander on August 25th. Four days later came 1,100 gradu- 
ates of Fort \iagara, commissioned as lieutenants, captains and majors after 
thi-ee months of intensive training. On August 29th also 600 men from the Regu- 
lar Army were assigned as drill-masters and "non-coms" and the reguleir officers to 
command the various regiments arrived. By mid-September the skeleton frame- 
work of the Division was ready for the enlisted personnel. Construction on the 
cantonment was being pushed rapidly, in the effort to complete its housing 
capacity for 10.000 men as fast as they should arrive from the different Draft 
Boards. 

The first Draft Contingent arrived on September 19th, and the concentration 
of Selective Service men upon the camp cuntinued for eleven days, during which 
time the local Draft Boards of Philadelphia alone sent 45 per cent of tlie first 
draft call of 14,245 men. The first Draft Contingent to reach the camp on 
September 19th. and which was greeted personally by General Kulm. consisted 
of 369 men from three \^ est Philadelphia local boai'ds. 

Philadelphia completed sending the first call of 14,245 men on February 27, 
1918. the departure having been divided as follows: 45 per cent by September 23d. 
5 per cent by October 6th, 35 per cent by November 4th, and 15 per cent by 
February 27th. 

Following the plan to orgam'ze along geographical lines, the bulk of the Phila- 

133 




Courtesy of Frank W, Buhler, Stanley Co, of America. 

Suiitli Phihidclpliia Speeds ils Dm (led Men, 




Courtesy of Prank W. Eiihler. Stanley Co. of America. 

After the cheers had ceased. 
136 




(Vuirti'sy of Fia 



lU \\'. lluhler. Stanley Co. of Anierka. 

Inxpccliiijt of Dniflcd Men. 



delphians were assigned to the 312th Artillery and the 315th Infantry. This 
latter unit from then un became known as "Philadelphia's Own." Many from 
this city also went to the 3I4th Infantry, the 301th Engineers, the 30 Ith Trench 
Mortar Battery, and the 312th Field Artillery. Others were scattered through 
practically all organizations. The accompanying table shows the j)redominating 
personnel along geographical lines: 

Unit From 

79th Headquarters Troop Area at large 

3 1 0th Machine (inn Battalion tiastern Pennsylvania 

313th Infantry Baltimore and vicinity 

31 1th Infantry PennsyKania anthracite re(;ion 

31 Ith Machine Gun Battalion Eastern Pennsylvania 

313th Infantry Philadelphia 

316th Infantry Rural Eastern Pennsyhania 

312th Madiine Gun Battalion District of Columbia 

301th Engineers Phila<lelphia and Central Pennsylvania 

310th Artillery Eastern Pennsylvania and Maryland 

311th Artillery Pennsylvania anthracite region 

312th Artillery Philadelphia 

301th Train Headquarters Eastern Pennsylvania 

30 Ith Supply Train Maryland and Eastern Pennsylvania 

30 Uh Sanitary Train Eastern Pennsylvania 

301th Ammunition Train Maryland and Eastern Pennsyhania 

304th Field Signal Battalion Area at large 

30 Ith Trench Mortar Battery Philadelpliia and vicinity 

79th Mihtary Police Eastern Pennsylvania 

The total personnel of the Division in October, 1917, had reached about 20,000 
men, but instead of the remaining 7,000 being assigned, the War Department began 

137 



the first of a long series of drafts whicli took from tlie Division some of its best men. 
Between Octol:)er, 1917, and June, 1018, these drafts pared down tlie divisional 
strength to 12,000 men, despite the fact that thousands were coming in monthly. 
In fact, in that period some 80,000 men were trained at Camp Meade and 75 per 
cent of them transferred elsewhere. From Philadelphia a second Draft Contingent 
for Meade began to arrive on April 2, 1918, and on April 27th began a five-day 
movement of several thousand men. On May 26th, 1,200 men were sent to the 
camp from this city, and these formed part of the final assignment which brought 
so many from other states to the Division. 

Thj£ long training period at Camp Meade was featured by one big event when, 
on April 6, 1918, the first anniversary of America's entry into the war, the Division 
hiked to Baltimore and held a grand review in that city before President Wilson. 
The showing of the Division was remarkable, especially in view of the fact that 
many of the men had quit civiUan fife not more than a month before. 

Within three months after the review at Baltimore the Division was considered 
ready for overseas. The great July movement of troops was under way, a move- 
ment which eclipsed all world records in transportation overseas, and the 79th was 
dispatched as one of the first to start for France in that period. On June 30th, 
General Kuhn and his staff sailed from New York on the U. S. S. Calamares. 
On July 6th the various organizations began to leave Camp Meade by troop train. 
On July 8th the Leviathan (formerly the Hamburg-American liner Vaterland) 
sailed from Hoboken with the Division Headquarters, Headquarters Troop, 310th 
Machine Gun Battalion, 157th Infantry Brigade complete (313th and 314th 
Infantry and 311th Machine Gun Battalion), and the 301th Field Signal Battalion 
—-more than 12,000 men. The balance of the Division — artillery brigade excepted 
— sailed in a convoy of five transports on July 9th. These vessels, the Agamemnon, 
America, La France, Ml. Vernon and Orizaba, carried the 158 th Infantry Brigade 
complete (315th and 316th Infantry, and 312th Machine Gun Battalion), the 304th 
Engineers, and the Supply, Sanitary and Divisional trains. The 154th Artillery 
Brigade and the Anununition Train sailed from Philadelphia on July 14th, the 
transports CcU^rying them being the Haverford, North Land, Saxonia, Mesaba, 
Nevasa and Morvada. 

Training in France 

On July 15th, the day that Ludendorff launched the fifth and final German 
offensive on the Bheims-Chateau-Thierry front, the Leviathan steamed into Brest 
with the first 12,000 men of the Division. On Jul> 18th, the first day of Foch's 
Franco-American counter-offensive between Soissons and Chateau-Thierry, the 
second convoy of transports with the balance of the infantry and divisional troops 
reached the same port. On the last day of the month, the artillery brigade landed 
in England, and on August 6th the 310th and 311th regiments crossed the Channel 
to Cherbourg and the 312tb to Le Havre. The entire Division was in France. 

The 154th Artillery Brigade did not join the balance of the Division. Imme- 
diately after its arrival in France it was sent to the artiUery training area in the 
vicinity of Montmorrillon. The brigade trained hard through August, Septem- 
ber, and part of October, being ready to go into the Une on October 16th. But it was 
not to be. Just as lack of equipment had compelled it to train with wooden 
dummy guns at Camp Meade, so lack of equipment kept it impotent in its training 

138 



area until after the armistice. It was a terrible disappointment to the gallant 
artillerymen. Thr()Ufi:h no fault (if their own they were barred from firing a single 
gun at the enemy, and nothing which can be said in compliment can assuage the 
bitterness which swept over officers and men when thus deprived of what had been 
their goal and ambition through months of training. 

The balance of the Division, upon arrival at Brest, had been assigned to the 
Twelfth Training Area around Chatillon-sur-Seine. Only the 157th Infantry 
Brigade had reached the s[)ot, however, when the order was countermanded and 
the Division ordered to the Tenth Training Area in the vicinity of Prauthoy and 
Champlitte. The last unit of the Division (the artillery brigade is excluded here- 
after in referring to the Division) reached Prauthoy on July 29th. 

August and the first week of September was a hectic period of intensive train- 
ing. A French Mission was assigned to the Division, and officers and men learned 
more about war and its methods than they had in a much longer time at Camp 
Meade. Combat lessons were the chief items on a crowded curriculum, and officers 
and men absorbed everything with avidity. While in this area the influenza 
epidemic made its appearance and many men, suffering from the disease, had to 
be evacuated. 

On September 7th the Division was ordered to entrain the following day for 
the Robert Espagne Area, east of Bar-le-Duc, and to report to the 2d French Army 
for tactical control and administration. F'or three days, mostly through rain and 
nmd, the Division, alternating with rail and truck train, moved upon its new area, 
and on September 12th was ordered to take over the Avocourt-Malancourt Sector 
(known as Sector 304j, which lay due south of Montfaucon. The rehef was 
completed during the night of September 15-16th, the 157th Brigade taking over 
the left brigade sector and the 158th Brigade the right brigade sector. The front 
at that time was about six and one-half kilometers in width and extended from 
one kilometer west of Avocourt to a point 500 meters southeast of Haucourt. 

The first encounters with the enemy occurred during the period between 
September 16th and 22d. Both were trench raids undertaken by the (iermans and 
repulsed by elements of the 31.3th Infantry. The first was a minor affair, which 
cost the Germans the life of a young guard officer whose body was found in front 
of the trenches the following morning. The second raid was undertaken by picked 
■■ Sturm" troops, and fofiowed a severe artillery bombardment and a box barrage. 
It was the first real trial for the Americans and the men held splendidly, inflicting 
severe losses upon the enemy, although losing three men killed, nine wounded 
and one taken prisoner. 

FVom September 22d to the night of September 25th the stage was set for the 
first great American offensive, afterwards to go down int(j history as the first phase 
of the Meuse-Argonne battle. The original six and one-half kilometer front of 
the 79th was contracted to two and one-half kilometers. The whole American 
front for the first great offensive is familiar to all. It covered forty kilometers 
(twenty-five miles), extending from the western boundary of the Argonne Forest 
on the left to the Meuse River on the right, with the line in between held by nine 
divisions. The 1st Corps, with the 77th, 28th and 35th divisions in line from left 
to right, was stationed on the western flank; the 3d Corps, with the Ith, 80th and 
33d divisions from left to right on the eastern flank, and the 5th Corps in the 
center. The 79th Division was the easternmost of the three divisions of the 5th 

139 



MV^^'^fc 




I'liuitesy of the Evening Rulletin. 



79II1 Dii'isiun Men Dockinij at Philadelphia. 



Corps. It held liaison with the llh Division of the 3d Corps on the right and 
with the 37th Division of the 5th Corps on the left. Beyond the 37th, on the 
west lay the 91st Division, the left of which reached the line of the 1st Corps. 

On the night of September 25th, the 79th began preparations for the ofTensive. 
The 157th Brigade, commanded by Brigadier General William J. Nicholson, and 
consisting of the 313th Infantry (Colonel Claude B. Sweezy) and the 31Jth Infan- 
try (Colonel William M. Oury), had taken over the front line, with the 158th 
Brigade in support. The 158th Brigade consisted of the 315th Infantry (Colonel 
Alden C. Knowles), and the 316th Infantry (Colonel Oscar J. Charles). The 
Division was formed for an attack on a brigade front, the 313th on the left and the 
314th on the right. Behind the 313th lay the 316th, and hohiiid the 3Hth the 
315th. Each regiment was prepared to attack with two liattalions. holding one 
battalion in brigade reserve. The lessons at Meade and Prauthoy were about to 
be demonstrated in cold reality. 



The Meuse-Argonne via Montfaucon 

The opening blast of the Franco-American artillery on the morning of Sep- 
tember 26th heralded a bombardment never before equalled in warfare. Some 
3,000 guns of every caliber spoke incessantly on that forty -kilometer front, thun- 
dering away minute after minute, hour after hour, upon the fust, second and third 
positions of the enemy until, at 5 o'clock, a thick smoke screen was rolled 
forward from the American front, followed by a box barrage of 75's, under whose 

140 



arcing fire at 5:30 o'clock (H hour) the First American Arm;y "went over the 
top," a bkirred glimpse of drab in the haze of early dawn. 

The day's objective for the 79th Division was Montfaucon, a towering peak 
nearly six kilometers within the German line, but the American high command 
had set a schedule beyond human possibihties, as subsequent events showed. 
The American plan for the whole offensive was for the line to go forward to the 
first objectives and then keep on, breaking the Kriemhilde Stellung line and 
routing the enemy before it could recover from the shock. Montfaucon, how- 
ever, proved the stumbling block in this plan. It had been held by the Germans 
since 191 1, and had been rendered almost impregnable by long series of concrete 
emplacements, barbed wire entanglements, and every other defensive measure 
which the ingenuity of the Boche could conceive. Added to this, it was com- 
manded by an enfilading fire from the heights east of the Meuse, and the whole 
country approaching it was infested by machine gun nests and snipers. 

The 79th made a desperate effort that day to reach the giant hill. That 
the attempt was a failure was due to the fact that the Army Stall had planned 
something beyond the possibility of human accomplishment in the short space of 
time allotted. 

Getting away at 5:.''.0 o'clock, the .ILlth and ."51 1th Infantry met their first 
setbacks when they reached the barbed wire entanglement in front of the deserted 
German front line trenches and found that the wire-cutters had partially failed 
to clear the path. For twenty-five minutes the advance was held up until the wire 
was snipped away. Striking forward again, the 31,3th, on the left, immediately 
ran into the Bois de Malancourt, where it met its first serious resistance. Yard 
after yard was gained but with severe losses. Every tree seemed to harbor a sniper, 
every clump of bushes a machine gun nest. Occasionally there were open spaces, 
but these were swept by enfilading fire and proved veritable death traps. 

Casualties among officers and men ran high. By the time the regiment had 
gained the western end of the Bois de Cuisy, where it was necessary to halt and re- 
form, the losses had reached serious proportions. Major Benjamin Franklin 
Pepper, of the 2d Battalion, was killed by a sniper's bullet. Major Langley, of the 
3d Battalion, was seriously wounded. Officers and men of the shock companies in 
the advance were dropping everywhere. It was in this first stage that Captain Harry 
IngersoU of H Company; Lieutenant F. Stuart Patterson, Battalion Adjutant; and 
Lieutenant Thomas D. Vandiver, of B Company, were killed outright or mortally 
wounded. 

In the meanwhile, on the right, the 31 1th had swept forward after the barbed 
wire was cut and met little resistance in the first rush, engulfing the ruined hamlet 
of Harcourt and finally emerging upon another ruined town, Malancourt, lying well 
within the original enemy territory. Terrific enfilading fire swept this open area. 
Despite the resistance, the 31 1th kept advancing, its progress slowing up consider- 
ably, however. Supreme acts of heroism developed on all sides as the squads 
rushed or surrounded machine gun nests. The deaths of Sergeant Michael C. 
^'entura and Sergeant Peter Strucel, and the achievements of Sergeant Grant U. 
Cole, Sergeant Joseph Cabla, Corporal James A. Larson, and Private Clifford M. 
Seiders, are incidents of the manner in which the stalking was done. Late after- 
noon at last found the 311th abreast of the position of the 313th Infantry, with 
Montfaucon in plain view beyond. 

141 




Evflling Bullettii. 



Three Cheers for Ihe U. S. A. 



The 158th Brigade, coming up in support, was undergoing heavy punishment 
from shell fire, and its advance units were constantly engaged in mopping up the 
snipers and machine gunners whom the first waves had overlooked. In fact, the 
concealed Boche was even at times enabled to escape detection by the supporting 
troops, as in the instance of Captain Albert C. Rubel, of the 304th Engineers, who 
ran into a Boche machine gun on the road to Montfaucon. a kilometer or so behind 
the advance, and won the D. S. C. by the way in which he silenced it. Shell fire 
and snipers cost the 315th three officers and the 316th one, in the course of the day — 
those killed being Lieutenant William P. Craig, of the Medical Detachment; 
Lieutenant Raymond A. Turn. Company I; and Lieutenant Floyd S. Strosnider, 
Company L. all of the 315th, and Lieutenant John Harold Fox, Company D, 316th. 

Up forward the resistance in front of the 313th in the Bois de Cuisy was growing 
heavier with every passing minute, and the result was that by dusk the 157th Bri- 
gade was in front of Montfaucon, but some distance behind the Division on both the 
right and left, which had not met with such desperate resistance. Orders came to 
the brigade to make one last effort to take Montfaucon that day. The infantry 
had already outdistanced the heavy guns and the crowded conditions of the single 
highway — the Avocourt-Malancourt road — made it impossible to bring up ailil- 
lery. That meant an attack would have to be made without a covering barrage. 
In the gathering darkness the 313th attacked, aided by two small French whippet 

142 



tanks which had somehow gotten through. The shock companies in the lead had 
gotten about 200 yards from the edge of the wood, and up the slope leading to 
Monlfaucon, when they were deluged with machine gun and artillery fire and hand 
grenades. The men could not see the machine gun positions nor make any effec- 
tive return fire. Their leader, Major Israel Putnam, was instantly killed. In 
the words of the Divisional report of operations, "After suffering heavy casualties 
for some time in this attempt, withdrawal was ordered to the edge of the woods, 
at which point the regiment bivouacked for the night. " 

The 311th and 312th Machine Gun Battalions had managed to work in some 
effective firing upon located machine gun nests but only in isolated instances, while 
the 310th Machine Gun Battalion had been held up by traffic congestion. The 
road conditions, in fact, became seiious from the very opening hour, and the six 
companies of the 301th Engineers for the ensuing five days were building and 
repairing roads under continuous shell fire. 

On the morning of September 27th, General Ruhn, dissatisfied with the dis- 
position of the unils of the 1.58th Brigade, relieved the Brigade Commander 
and created a provisicjnal brigade of the 311th and 3l5th Infantry, under Colonel 
Oury. of the 31ith. General Nicholson, of the 157th Brigade, thus found his 
coniinaiid consisting of the 313th and 316th Infantry. With the 313th and 31 1th 
reformed during the night, the advance was resumed on the 27th, the latter unit 
getting off at 4 a.m. and the former at 7 a.m. Between 7 and 11 o'clock that 
morning the 313th fought a dogged, determined fight up the hill toward Mont- 
faucon. Swept by machine gun fire and heavies, the regiment kept on. Aided by 
effective fire from one company of the 311th Machine Gun Battalion, the 2d Bat- 
talion of the 3l3th reached the outskirts of the town on the hill at 11 o'clock, and at 
11:55 completed its occupation. The historic message, sent back to Divisional 
Headquarters by Colonel Sweezy, gave the news as follows: 

Took town of MONTFAUCON llh 55, after considerable fighting in town. Many snipers 
left behind. Town sheUed to slight extent after our occupation. Am moving on to Corps ob- 
jective and hope to reach it by 16 h(4 p.m.) 

From 4 a.m. onward the 314th had been in deadly fighting on the right, keep- 
ing abreast of the 313th's advance and topping the rises of the Fayal Farm at about 
the same time its companion imit was sweeping into Montfaucon. Both regiments 
suffered heavily. In the 314th, Captain Clarence P. Freeman, of M Company, 
and Lieutenant Clifford McK. Alexander, of L Company, were killed, while the lost 
among the ranks had been so heavy as to interfere with further successful advance. 
Nevertheless, both regiments tried to extend their operations. The 313th was 
heavily shelled from the Bois de Beuge to the northwest and finally, toward even- 
ing was compelled to dig in a few hundred meters north of Montfaucon; while the 
314th, after repeated attempts during the afternoon to take Nantallois, a hamlet 
about three kilometers north of the town on the hill, finally dug in about a half 
kilometer south of its objective. 

The 315th and 316th regiments in support had kept close on the heels of the 
leaders, with the result that elements of the 316th were in Montfaucon within a 
half hour after it fell. But conditions farther in the rear had grown worse and worse. 
With but a single highway for the evacuation of the wounded, the bringing up of 
ammunition and supplies and the advance of the artillery, it was inevitable that 

143 




^ 



Courtesy of the livfuiug BulletJii. 

A Wounded Man of the 79lli Division beinij carried from the Transport " Kroonlund." 



llie Divisional trains sliould become jammed. Eye-witnesses, however, declare 
that the congestion was absolutely indescribable. Of it Brigadier General William 
Mitchell, Commander of the Air Service for the 1st Army, states: 

Ahhoiif?h there was some congestion in oilier placiw. it was worse in this area (the Avocourt- 
Malancourt-Montfaucon road) than I ha\ e ever seen on a battlefield. 

The result was that the wounded were retarded for hours in their progress 
toward the rear and the supplies for the front line troops simply could not get 
through. The rations issued on the night of September 2oth were by this time 
exhausted, and to the fatigue of two days of gruelling fighting were added the dis- 
comfort of empty stomachs, and the depression caused by an almost incessant 
rainfall, which soaked every one to the skin and rendered the ground a muddy 
morass. 

On the night of September 27th, the 313tli and .^Uth regiments, which had 
borne the brunt of the first two days' fighting, were relieved and passed back into 
support, the 316th moving ahead to the left and the 315th to the right. The morn- 
ing of the 28th found new men facing the Boche, but men also fatigued and himgry. 
Nevertheless, the two regiments started off at dawn, the 315th on the east pressing 
along the highway toward the town of Nantallois, and the 316th attacking across 
open ground toward the Bois de Beuge, a cluster of woods which lay to the west 
of Nantallois. 

The way led across a valley which ran diagonally from northeast to south- 
west, and which was exposed over a two kilometer width to an enfilading fire from 
the heights of the Meuse far over to the right. This withering fire, aided by the 
myriad machine guns in front and Boche machine gunners in fast planes overhead, 
brought the advancing lines to a stop within a few hours. There was a pause and 
then another advance. The blood of the two regiments was up. The 315th 

144 



stormed into Nantallois and took it at the point of the bayonet, passing through 
the town al)oiit noon and gaining a hill beyond, where it dug in awaiting word 
that the 316th was up abreast. 

But the 316th, on the left, did not come up abreast. A terrible tragedy had 
occurred, one of those unforeseen disasters which moulds heroes and martyrs in 
the short space of minutes. The 316th had fought its way effectively through the 
Bois de Beuge and faced a slight woods beyond. The 3d Battalion, leading the 
advance, reached the edge of the woods and ran into a strong machine gun position. 
Major J. Bayard Atwood, commanding the Battalion, called a halt until such time 
as artillery or machine guns could be brought up to reduce the position. He 
received a curt command to go forward. It was just such a command which had 
sent the Jjight Brigade to destruction and eternal glory at Balaclava. It did the 
same for L and M Companies of the 316th on that September day in the depths of 
the woods. Some one had blundered. OlTicers and men of the 3d Battalion 
paid with their lives for the fatal error. I and K Companies were in reserve; L 
and M Companies made the attack. Two full companies, well-nigh 500 men, went 
forward without the slightest bit of aitillery or machine gun barrage to cover them. 
With them went Major Atwood to his death; with them went Lieutenant Albert 
Clinton Wunderlich, of L Company, to the same fate — oflicers and men, ,500 of them, 
assaulting in echelon with not a ghost of a chance, but refusing to quit until lioth 
companies were well-nigh annihilated. Three times they drove forward to wither 
away under the avalanche of fire until finally the attempt was abandoned. Says 
the Beport of Operations, "The regiment was badly disorganized at this point 
after this advance." It was humanly impossible for it to have been otherwise. 
It bivouacked on the spot and took account of casualties, while over to the right, 
the 315th found two officers, Lieutenant Seth Caldwell Hetherington and Lieu- 
tenant Alfred L. ()uintard, and many men killed. Nightfall found the positions 
unchanged. 

All through the day on the heights of Montfaucon a little detail of men, headed 
by Sergeant Thomas M. Rivel, of the Headquarters Detachment, had been earning 
the commendation of General Kuhn by their heroism in manning a periscopic 
telescope which had been captured the day before. The Hun, in his haste, had 
failed to destroy the telescope, which was incased in a solid concrete structure, 
and the enemy made every effort during the subsequent three days to atone for 
this mistake. The telescope was said to have been used by the CrOwn Prince when 
Montfaucon was the official observatory for the attacks upon \^erdun two years 
before, and now the same implement, which had aided the German observers, was 
used upon them by Sergeant Rivel and Privates A. J. McCain and A. S. Roberts. 
This trio clung to the concrete building while it was being blasted to fragments 
around them, and their services were rewarded subsequently by the D. S. C. 

The morning of September 29th found the 315th drawn up in the shelter of a 
low hill a few hundred yards north of Nantallois — "Suicide Hifi" — as it was called 
by the men, an apt name indeed, as it meant self-destruction to venture over its 
crest into the raging inferno of machine gun fire from the woods beyond. To their 
left the 316th still held the position north of the Boise de Beuge. The attack was 
resumed at 7 a.m. The left battalion of the 3l6th was only able to get about 
300 meters north of the small woods which had proven so disastrous the day 
before, but the right battalion pushed clear to the western edge of the Bois des 



Ogons. The advance was at so high a cost that by noon the regiment was down 
to 1.000 effectives. At this point the 313th was called from support to the attack, 
passing through the 316th, which in turn was reorganized as a battalion and held 
800 meters behind the advancing line. The 313th made a shght advance and then 
physical exhaustion won. The men had expended every ounce of driving power 
and the officers realized it. At 4 o'clock in the afternoon the Brigade Commander 
ordered the 313th to fall back and maintain a holding line along the northern 
edge of the Boise de Beuge, and this was effected successfully. However, the bat- 
talion of the 316th, passing too far to the right, got ahead of the 313th and was 
through the Bois des Ogons and in full view of the town of Romagne by late after- 
noon. The Battalion Commander urged an attack and asked for reinforcements, 
but there were none to send and his own men were "done up. " Regretfully he was 
forced to withdraw to the holding line. 

During the day the 315th, on the right, had been engaged in continuous and 
deadly fighting. Before it lay the Bois des Ogons, held by the enemy in force. 
The Divisional Artillery had succeeded in getting close enough to shell the woods, 
driving out the machine gunners and, with this effected, the 31.5tli advanced and 
obtained a temporary hold in the fastness. But not for long. From the Madeleine 
Farm, a strong point in the woods, and from the Boche artillery farther north, 
poured such a fire as to make the spot untenable. Finally, after a number of 
desperate efforts, the 315th was withdrawn and dug in on the reverse slope of 
"Suicide Hill." 

The toll in officers and men among all four regiments had been more severe 
than on any other day. In the 31 3th. Lieutenant Charles G. Reilly, of D Company, 
was killed; Lieutenant William P. McCoohan, of A Company, mortally wounded; 
Captain David Rupp, of C Company, killed; Lieutenant David M. Rupp, of G 
Company, killed: and Lieutenant William J. Walters, of A Company, killed. In 
the 314th, Lieutenant Ballard C:. Linch, of the Sanitary Detachment, had been 
killed. In the 315th, the killed or mortally wounded were Lieutenant George N. 
Althouse, of H Company: Lieutenant Benjamin Bullock, 3d Battalion Adjutant: 
Lieutenant James F. Delaney; Captain Joseph Gray Duncan, Jr., of the Machine 
Gun Company; Lieutenant Herman D. Partson, of Company G; and Lieutenant 
William A. Sheehan, of Company F. The killed or mortally wounded in the 31 6th 
were Lieutenant Joseph C. Fitzharris, Company K; Captain Benjamin H. Hewitt. 
Company F; Lieutenant Daniel S. Keller, Begimental Staff; Captain Allen W. 
Lukens, Company G; and Lieutenant Ivan L. Lautenbacher, Supply Company. 

That day back abreast of Montfaucon, where on the Fayal Farm Field Hos- 
pitals Nos. 315 and 316 had estabhshcd themselves, the Huns deliberately shelled 
the area. There were between 500 and 600 wounded men under treatment there 
when the enemy shelling began. Three tents were struck and twenty-one men 
killed, including a German captain and German private, captives who were being 
treated for wounds. The men of the two hospitals carried those most severely 
injured back to safety while the "walking cases" limped and staggered along, 
leaning on the shoulders of burdened orderfies, until the area was cleared without 
further casualties. 

Before dawn on the morning of September 30th an order from the 5th Corps 
announced that the 79th would be relieved by the 3d Division during the day. 
As a result it was decided to make no further advance but hold present positions 

146 



until relief arrived. During the entire day the enfilading fire from the Meuse to 
the eastward and northwestwaid from the region of Cierges and Romagne beat 
in upon the Division, causing many casualties, and also infiicting severe losses among 
the units of the 3d Division Avhich began to reach the front shortly before 11 o'clock. 
Under this fire the 314th Infantry lost two officers killed. Major Alfred Reginald 
Allen and Lieutenant E. Thorp ^ anDusen, of the Machine Gun Company, and had 
one mortally wounded, Lieutenant Matthew F. Olstein, of the Sanitary Detach- 
ment. The relief went on steadily under the greatest difficulties, and by 6 p.m. the 
last unit of the Division, save two companies of the 311th Machine Gun Battalion, 
which were not relieved until the following day, had fallen back to Montfaucon for a 
much needed rest. The 30 1th Engineers, however, after reaching the vicinity of 
Malancourt, were recalled and attached to the 3d Division, continuing the road 
work until October 8th, when they were permitted to march from the area. 

The 79th in its first offensive had advanced to a depth of ten kilometers and 
taken 90.5 prisoners, together with considerable quantities of machine guns and other 
cannon. Its casualties as computed immediately after its withdrawal from the 
front, totalled 108 officers and 3,315 men, divided as follows: 

Officers: Killed. 22; wounded, 77; gassed, 9. 

Men: Killed, 278; wounded 2,1.50; gassed, 138; missing, 749. 

The conclusions of the General commanding, as found in the Report of Opera- 
tions, are: 

The 79th Division came under fire for the first time since its organization. More than half 
of its strength was made up of draftees of not more than four months' service, and considerable 
loss of actual training, due to time lost in transport from the United States and in moving about 
while in France. So far as courage and self-sacrifice are concerned, the conduct of both officers 
and men was above all reproach; but, as in the case with all green troops, there was lacking the 
e.xperience, which comes only from actual contact with the enemy. In view of the difficulties 
of the terrain and the inexperience of the troops, I am of the opinion that both officers and men 
fought well. 

From Troyon to La Grande Montagne 

For three days after leaving the Montfaucon front the 79th Division was bivou- 
acked in the area south of the Esnes-Avocourt Road, and on October 1th and 5th 
marched to the Troyon Sector, lying south of Verdun, and eight kilometers north 
of St. Mihiel. It received several days' rest and then relieved the 26th Division 
on October 8th, pa.ssing from the administration of the 1st American Army to that 
of the 2d Colonial French Corps. The new front extended from Fresnes-en-Woevre 
on the north to one kilometer south of Doncourt-aux-Tem pliers, a distance of 
eleven kilometers. It was supposed to be a quiet sector. Perhaps it had been 
before the 79lh arrived: but immediately after it had taken over the line, the Huns 
began to alternate trench raids, with gas attacks, until the units in the trenches 
were constantly on the alert. Gas casualties totalled nearly 500 before the orders 
came to move out. Originally the A. E. F. reports gave the occupancy of the Tro- 
yon sector as a rest period, but a revision made in the fall of 1920 placed this sector 
as a part of the Meuse-Argonne, with the result that the 79th Division is now en- 
titled to credit for participating three times in the great offensive. 

On October 26th the 33d Division came into Troyon and relieved the 79th, 
which forthwith started northward, proceeding by marches along the Meuse River 

147 



to the sector on the east bank of the Meuse. known as La Grande Montagne, four- 
teen kilometers north of Verdun. 

In La Grande Montagne the 79th relieved the 29th and part of the 26th, 
wliicii had just completed the conquest of Belleu Woods (not those of Chateau- 
Thierry fame). The 79th was now a part of the 17th French Corps, and its activ- 
ities henceforth were interwoven with those of the French. The new divisional 
fiont covered a width of 7.3 kilometers in the form of a quadrant, with the left 
flank facing north and the right flank facing east. Back at Troyon the 157th 
and l.'jSth Brigades had been reformed, Colonel Oury returning to the command 
(if the 31 Itli Infantry and Brigadier (ieneral Evan M. Johnson assuming control 
of the l.")8th Brigade. The 316th Infantry was at that time under connnand of 
Colonel George Williams, the 313th under Colonel William J. Rogers, and the 
301th Engineers under Colonel J. Frank liarber, the other units remaining under 
the same leadership as at Montfaucon. Every organization was back at war 
strength, ample replacements having been received and drilled during the stay 
in the Troyon sector. 

On October 31st, when the 79tli took ovci- thr new sector, the 157lh Brigade 
moved in on the right, facing east and the 158th Brigade took over the left flank, 
facing due north. Each brigade had both regimcTits in the line, the disposition at 
first being two battalions on the line and one in support, altliough this later 
was changed to one battalion in the line, one in .support and one in brigade 
reserve. 

Directly in front of the 158th Brigade's sector, and about a kikmieter away, 
was the famous Hill 378 (Borne du Cornouiller, as the French called it, and " Corned 
Willie Hill."' as the doughboys termed it). It was a hii,'h. jagged eminence, gashed 
by shell-lire and wooded in spots. It had been considered by French military 
experts as impregnable. Three previous attempts had been made to take it, 
but all had failed, and the task was now up to the 79th. On the night of November 
2d patrols were sent out, and on November 3d the 316th Infantry began a recon- 
naissance in force in three columns which opened up severe fighting and resulted 
in {)artial success. At 6 a.m. on November 1th the 316th made its first assault 
upon the position, the 1st Battalion leading ofl'. There was immediate success; 
but the division on the left falling back enabled the Germans to counter-attack, and 
the 316th was forced to relinquish its hold on the lower slopes of the hill for the time 
being. Captain Claude Cunningham, of Company H, was mortally wounded and 
three oflicers and twenty-three men of B Company captured, one of whom. Cap- 
tain Louis C. Knack, died of his wounds. Lieutenant Maxwell McKeen, of D 
Company, also was killed. 

On November 5th the second attack was launched. Again the 316th fought 
its way doggedly up the slope. For a time it seemed as though it would have to 
fall back, but the men kept on and finally attained the coveted goal. By this 
time the fire from the left flank had become terrific. It would have been suicidal 
to try and hold the hill under such circumstances, so, although they had 
taken it, the men of the 316th were forced to return down the southern slope, this 
time stopping and digging in at the point they had reached in the farthest ad- 
vance of the preceding day. The attack had cost the fife of Major William Sinkler 
Manning, son of the Governor of South Carolina, who was killed on the bullet- 
swept slope, and of Lieutenant Lawrence J. Ayers, of H Company. On the same 

MH 



day Lieutenant .luliii 1'. Owens, of the :U5tli InCantiy, was killed during a support 
attack upon the right of the 316th*s objective. 

On November 6th a battalion of the 3l3th was ordered to assist the almost 
exhausted 316th in taking the position, but the newcomers did not reach the as- 
signed position until too late in the afternoon for an effective attack. On the 7th, 
however, after a heavy barrage delivered by the 312th Machine Gun Battalion, 
the 316th and the battalion of the 313th started up the hill together and nothing 
could stop theni this time. Within two hours they were over the crest, and the top 
of Hill 378 had been consolidated. A French division on the left, which had been 
ordered to advance and had been held up for three days because the defenses of Hill 
378 had not been overthrown, then got under way and put out of business the ma- 
chine guns that had delivered the enfilading fire on the 316th during the previous 
days. 

Hill 378 stands out as the brightest achievement in the history of the 316th. 
It won a divisional citation for the deed, while both Major General Kuhn and Bri- 
gadier General Johnson were cited by the French for planning and executing it. 

The advance of the P'rench division had straightened out the line, so that after 
November 7th the 70th was no longer on a quadrant front. The reduction of Hill 
378 enabled the 1.58th Brigade to pivot until it faced eastward in a line with the 
157th Brigade, and the divisional front now ran from west of Ecurey to west of Cre- 
pion, a front of almost ten kilometers. The straightening out of the line resulted 
in the mopping up of numerous machine gun nests entrenched in the rolling country. 

On the morning of November 8th the Germans unleashed a terrific rain of 
fire along the entire front. They seemed to be pouring everything in the shell 
line upon the 79th. Hour after hour it continued, until in the afternoon it slackened 
and finally died out completely. The front grew oppressively silent. The sus- 
pense was terrific, officers and men not knowing whether an assault was coming 
or whether the Germans were in retreat. Finally aerial observers brought in word 
that the Huns were indeed falling back toward Damvillers. The French Corps 
Commander, to reduce the width of the 79th's front, issued instructions to (General 
Kuhn on that day with the result that the 3Mth took over the entire divisional 
front for a short space of time while the 315th Infantry, the left element of the 158th 
Brigade, was compelled to side-step to the south. The efl'ect of the maneuver 
was to change the 79th's front slightly, the line now being from east of Etraye to 
east of Moirey, Etraye being some distance south of Ecurey and Moirey a short 
distance below Crepion. The 315th marched four and one-half kilometers at 
night through underbrush and woods, and reached its assigned position in time to 
attack on November 9th. 

On the mf)rning of November 9th, the Division was in position with the 31ith 
(jn the line and the 313th in support on the right of the sector, and the 315 th behind 
the line on the left of the sector, with the 316th coming upin support. As it was 
impossible to deploy the 315th into line on the then narrow front, the attack at 
dawn developed entirely upon the 31-lth Infantry. This unit, advancing at 6 a.m. 
took Crepicjn at 8.20, and Wavrille, Gibercy, Etraye and Moirey shortly after- 
wards. On the left the 31lth ran up against such heavy fire from Hill 356 and 
the Cote de Morimont that it was brought to a halt, but on the right it progressed 
to the crest of Hill 328 by nightfall. In the meanwhile a battalion of the 315th 
relieved the left battalion of the 314th in front of the Cote de Morimont, and both 

149 



brigades were again facing the enemy. Major Ward W. Pierson, of the 315th, was 
killed that day while effecting the relief. 

The plans of attack were changed for November 10th. Because of the natural 
strength of the Cote d'Orne and Cote de Morimont, facing the 315th Infantry, 
it was decided to flank them from the south and southeast, this necessitating a di- 
rect attack by the 157th Brigade and a feint against the strong hills by the 158th. 
At 6 A.M. the 31 1th attacked on the right, completing the reduction of Hill 328, 
passing through Chaumont-devant-Damvillers and, after dusk, capturing Hill 319. 
In the meanwhile the 315th had fought its way partly up the slope of Cote d'Orne 
and dug in for the night. The last officer of the Division killed in action died that 
day, Captain Frank F. Battles, of the Machine Gun Company, 311th Infantry. 

Beginning at 9:30 a.m. on November 11th the attack was pushed along the 
entire front. The 31lth moved forward against the Cote de Romagne, with a 
battalion of the 313th also pressing forward for the same oijjective and town of 
Azannes. At the same time another battalion of the 313th occupied the town of 
Ville-devant-Chaumont, and the 315th executed a flanking attack on the Cote 
d'Orne, one company (D) pushing up the slope and capturing a 9-inch German can- 
non. Armistice hour found the Division well on its way to its objectives. Nor 
had the other divisional units aside from the infantry been idle. The 301th En- 
gineers had been bridge and road building between Vaucherauville, the Divisional 
Headquarters, and the front line; the supply train had been under constant shell 
fire for the whole eleven days since taking over the sector, and even the 30tth 
Ammunition Train had managed to get into the offensive. The horse battalion 
had been with the Division at Montfaucon, but the motor battalion did not get 
away from the artillery brigade until just before the final olfensive. It had reached 
the sector on November 3d, and while C, D and F Companies had, through lack 
of equipment, been forced to turn engineers and work with the road and bridge 
builders. Companies A, B, E and G had served ammunition constantly from 
November 3d to Armistice Day and hour. 

The total depth of the 79th Division advance in the La Grande Montagne 
sector had been 93-2 kilometers. It had taken 192 prisoners and material in great 
abundance. Its casualties for the offensive totalled sixty-four officers and 2,636 
men, divided as follows; 

Officers: Killed, 10; wounded, 39; gassed, 13; missing in action, 2. 

Men: Killed, 153; wounded 1,417; gassed, 275; missing, including captured, 461. 

To compare the conclusions with those given after Montfaucon, the following 
is taken from the Report of Operations : 

The Division fought with niucii more skill, as a result of the first experience at Montfaucon. 
The energies of combat units were husbanded and not dissipated so rapidly as on the first offen- 
sive. Troops were kept well in hand, and straggling was kept at a gratifying low limit. After 
eight days of severe combat, the 1.58th Brigade, although somewhat depleted, was still capable 
of further effort, while the 157th Brigade, after three days' offensive, was still relatively fresh, 
and the Division as a whole could have maintained considerable driving power foranumberofdays. 

The Armistice Period and Afterwards 

From November 11th to December 26th, the 79th remained on the battle 
front, taking over a sector from Damvillers on the north to Fresnes-en-Woevre 
(the northern point of the old Troyon sector) on the south. They kept up patrol 

150 



and police duty during that month and a half. On Decemher 10th, headquarters 
of the 31 tth Infantry, Headquarters Company and one battalion proceeded to the 
area around Montmedy, Stenay and Virton (Belgium) for the purpose of guarding 
property, listing material and maintaining order. On February 1st, this detach- 
ment rejoined the Division in the Souilly area. 

It was on December 27th that the Division had moved to the Souilly area, 
where it was j((ined in January by the l.j4th Artillery Brigade, the first time the 
entire Division liad been assembled as such since leaving Camp Meade. While 
in this area General Kuhn took temporary command of the 9th Corps during the 
month of February, Brigadier General Johnson taking over the control of the 
Division during his absence. 

From the Souilly area the Division moved during the last days of March to the 
area northeast of Chaumont around Andelot and Bimaucourt (Fourth Training 
Area). It was here that the Division was reviewed by General Pershing, the last 
official review, by the way, in its history. General Pershing, who decorated the 
colors, and awarded numerous Distinguished Service Crosses, afterwards addressed 
a letter to General Kuhn in which he said : 

"It afforded me great satisfaction to inspect the 79tli Division on April 12tti, and on ttiat 
occasion to decorate the standards of your regiments and, for gallantry in action, to confer medals 
upon certain officers and men. Your transportation and artillery were in splendid shape, and the 
general appearance of the Division was well up to the standard of the American Expeditionary 
Forces. Throughout the inspection and review the excellent morale of the men and their pride 
in the record of their organizations was evident. 

"In the Meuse-Argonne Offensive the Division liad its full share of hard fighting. Entering 
the line for the first time on September 26 as the right of the center corps, it took part in the 
beginning of the great Meuse-Argonne Offensive. By September 27 it had captured the strong 
position of Montfaucon; and in spite of heavy artillery reaction, the Bois de Beuge and 
Nantillois were occupied. On September 30 it was relieved, having advanced ten kilometers. 
It again entered the battle on October 29, relieving, as part of the 17th French Corps, the 29th 
Division in the Grande Montague Sector to the east of the Meuse River. From that time 
until the armistice went into effect it was almost constantly in action. On November 9, 
Crepion, Wavrille and Gibercy were taken, and in conjunction with elements on the right and 
left Etraye and Moirey were invested. On November 10, Chaumont-devant-Danivilliers was 
occupied, and on November 11, ViUe-devant-Chaumont was taken — a total of 9 kilometers. 

"This is a fine record for any division, and I want the oilicers and men to know this and to 
realize how much they have contributed to the success of our arms. They may return home 
justly proud of themselves and of the part they have played in the American Expeditionary 
Forces." 

The corrected figures of the Divisional activities in France are as follows: 

Total advance: Montfaucon sector, 10 kilometers; La Grande Montagne sector, 9}i kilo- 
meters; total 193^2 kilometers. 

Prisoners taken: Montfaucon sector, 905; Troyon sector, 23; La Grande Montagne sector, 
192; total 1,120. 

Casualties: Deaths, officers, 66; men, 2,059. Wounded, officers, 179; men, 5,1.52. Prisoners, 
officers, 2; men, 78. Total, officers, 247; men, 7,289. 

The revised table of battle participations of the 79th Division is taken from a 
compilation completed May 15, 1920, by the War Department, and is as follows: 

157th Infantry Brigade (complete), 158th Infantry Brigade (complete), 304th Field Signal 
Battalion and 310th Machine Gun Battafion: 

1. Meuse-Argonne Offensive, France, September 26 to 30. 

2. Meuse-Argonne Offensive, France, October 8 to 25. 

3. Meuse-Argonne Offensive, France, October 29 to November 11. 

151 



304th Engineers, same as above with exception that No. 1 reads: Meuse-Argonne Offensive, 
France, September 26 to October 8. 

The movemenl of the 79th Division to the embarkation area began on April 
19th, the artillery going to St. Nazaire and the infantry to the vicinity of Nantes 
and Cholet. On May 13th the 314th Infantry, the 304th Field Signal Battalion 
and the 134th Artillery Brigade Headquarters, the first units to start for home, 
sailed from France on the Princess Maloika, and from then on until the end of the 
month the various units cleared either Nantes or St. Nazaire. The Princess Maloi- 
ka arrived at Hoboken on May 26th at the same time the transport Tiger brought 
the 310th Field Artillery into New York and the transport Virginian landed the 
312th Field Artillery and 311th Machine Gun Battalion at Newport News, Va. 
On May 28th, transport Edward Luckenbach arrived at Brooklyn with the 311th 
Field Artillery and 312th Machine Gun Battahon. On May 29th the transport 
Kroonland docked at New York with Division Headqum'ters, 304th F.ngineers, 
Headquarters Troop, Train Headquarters, and a part of the 3d Battalion 
316th Infantry. The same day the transport Texan sailed up the Delaware 
to Philadelphia with the balance of the 316th Infantry. The next day. May 30th, 
the transport San/a Rosa brought all but two companies of "Philadelphia's Own," 
315th Infantry, into their home port, and on May 31st the transport Dakolan also 
arrived at Philadelphia with the 304th Supply Train, 79th Military Police, a de- 
tachment of the 310th Field Artillery and Companies L and M, 31.5th Infantry. 
In the meanwhile the transport Pastores had taken the 313th Infantry to Newport 
News, so that on June 1st the final units of the Division reached America, they being 
the Horse Battalion of the 304th Ammunition Train and the 304th Sanitary Train 
complete. 

The men who arrived at Hoboken and Philadelphia were sent to Camp Dix, 
New Jersey, for demobilization, and those who arrived at Newport News were 
demobilized at Camp Meade and, before the middle of June, 1919, the 79th Div- 
ision had ceased to exist save in history. 




Courtesy of the Tulilic Ledger Co, 



Hume Again. 
152 




153 



OTHER PHILADELPHIA UNITS 




units, distinctly 
officers, were sunnnarized 



HILADELPHIA men served in practically every American 
Division and in all hranclios of the service, at home and 
overseas. It is, at this time, impossible to review the 
work of each unit in which Philadelphians served, but in 
the followinf; brief reviews some idea is given of the way 
in which the men of the city answered every call of 
duty. 

Nor should the work of the women of Philadelphia 
go unchronicled. Thex too, responded as they were able. 

Therefore, as opportunity offered, the records of those 
Philadelphia in personnel, or commanded by Philadelphia 



AMERICAN FIELD SERVICE 
James A. Develin, Jr. 

The American Field Service owes its origin to a small group of Americans in 
France, who, at the very outset of the war, finding a strict neutrality impossible 
for themselves, offered their services to France for the transportation of wounded 
at the fighting front. A gift of ten Ford cars was the nucleus from which the 
service grew to comprise thirty-five sections of ambulances and, in 1917, fourteen 
"camion" sections, used in transportation of ammunition and supplies for the armies 
at the front. 

This little group of American volunteers at no time amounted to more than 
2,000 men, but, at the time of France's greatest need, they were a tangible expres- 
sion of American sympathy. From the English Channel to the Vosges Mountains, 
French "poilus" saw American volunteers working in mud and rain, and under 
shell fire, to alleviate the sufferings of French wounded, and they knew that these 
men represented a friendly spirit in the American people. The American Field 
Service was composed largely of college men who, coming from every part of the 
country, were the means of influencing a great number of Americans in the 
Allied cause. 

Theodore Roosevelt said of those men in 1916: 

"There is not an American worth calling such who is not under a heavy debt of obligation 
to these boys for what they have done. We are under an even greater debt to them than the 
French and Belgians are .... The most important thing that a nation can possibly save 
is its soul, and these young men have been helping this nation to save its soul." 

Early in 1915, the French officials recognized the value of the work accom- 
plished by the few American cars attached to their own Sanitary sections and 
larger sections of Americans were formed and made independent, each one serving 
an army division. The light Fords were found to possess splendid qualities for 
this work. They could dodge through the traffic -jammed roads, pull themselves 
out of mire and shell holes, or could be pulled out by a few wilUng "poilus." Where 

154 



roads were blocked, they took fiayly to the fields in mockery of the heavy French 
trucks. The work was largely done from "postes de secours" and communication 
trenches to "'triage" (sorting) hospitals and field hospitals. A large part of the 
driving was done at night and without lights, over shell-torn roads full of trucks, 
field guns and annnunition caissons, for it was only under cover of darkness that 
some of the advanced posts could be served. Soon it became the custom to 
send Ihc most serious cases with the American drivers. Thus the Field Service 
aciiuired an enviable reputation for the manner in which it hurried the wounded to 
the hospitals. 

Among the first of the seventy or more Philadelphians who joined the service 
were John H. Mi'Fadden, Jr.. and Benjamin R. Woodworth. Wuodworth, who 
became a Section leader and was awarded the Croix de Guerre, went to the front 
with Section I in June, 1915, and served with it in Belgium and Flanders. He 
died in the service on June 15, 1917. Paul B. Kurtz, later leader of Section 18, 
also joined the service at this time. Kurtz was also awarded the Croix de 
Guerre. He was killed while in the V. S. Aviation Service. 

The number of Philadelphians was increased during the fall of 1915 and the 
spring of 1916 by the enlistment of L. Brooke Edwards, Julian L. Lathrop, Samuel 
H. Paul, W. Yorke Stevenson and S. M. Stephen Tyson. Stevenson and Edwards 
were both cited for the Croix de ( iuerre. Tyson was killed on July 19, 1918, while 
in the French Aviation Service. The Section served in the Amiens sector, in the 
Champagne sector near Soissons, and at Verdun in that year. This was the time 
of the great German drive on Verdun, and the men of the Section were put to a 
severe test of courage and endurance, serving the postes at Marre and Esnes on 
roads almost continually under sh«'ll fire. 

In 1915, Section 2 had but one Philadelphian, John R. Graham, who was 
later killed while serving with the United States Infantry. During 1915-17, 
Section 2 was stationed in Lorraine, in the vicinity of Pont-a-Mousson. 

Section 3, also formed in 1915, did dillicult duty in the Vosges Mountains, 
serving the postes which had hitherto been reached only by mules over the narrow, 
rough mountain roads. The work of Section .3 was .so dependable that in September 
of 1916 tills Section was dispatched to the Balkans at the request of the French 
Army, and served under difficult conditions at Salonica and later in Serbia, 
near Monastir, where its training in Vosges mountain-cfimbing stood it in good 
stead. Benjamin F. Dawson, Powel Fenton, Henry K. Moore and Albert Nalle 
joined this Section in 1915. Dawson was cited once and Fenton twice for the 
Croix de Guerre. 

Section 4 was joined by George A. McCall in 1915, and by Edward Joseph 
Kelley in 1916. Kelley, who was awarded the Croix de Guerre, was killed on 
September 23, 1916, a few days after he had reached the front. He was going to 
a poste near Marre, in the Verdun sector, when a shell exploded directly in front 
of the ambulance and killed him instantly. 

The advent of tiie year 1917 found the American Field Service rapidly increas- 
ing in numbers and gaining in the amount of contributions to its funds. Individuals, 
clubs and business oi'ganizations donated many cars, and college students and 
older business men flocked to do their bit for France. The German threat that all 
vessels in certain prescribed zones would be "spiirlos versenkt" did not deter a 
large number of volunteers from going over to form new Ambulance Sections. 

155 



Section 9 was formed in tiie latter part of 1916 to replace Section 3 in the 
Vosges. With it were Walter Chrystie, Jr., Arthur Enilen Hutchinson and F. N. 
SoUs-Cohen. Sections 10, 12 and 13 were rapidly formed in the early months of 
1917. No. 10 contained no Philadelphians. No. 12 had Wharton Allen, H. W. 
Crowhurst and Henry H. Houston, 2d. Houston, who was killed by a shell splinter 
on August 27, 1918, while serving in the U. S. Army on General Price's staff, 
received the Croix de Guerre for bravery under fire in the Argonne, at Verdun 
and in the Champaigne in 1917. 

Section 13 had among its members Thomas H. Dougherty, for a while its 
sous-chef (and later chef of a T. M. U. Section), Earnest S. Clark, James A. Develin, 
Jr., and H. H. Houston Woodward. Woodward later joined the Lafayette Flying 
Corps and was attached to Escadrille 91. He was killed in an aerial combat on 




Heady lo Aruiwer Any Call. 

April 1, 1918. Section 13 did its first work in the Champaigne district in the 
vicinity of JVIont CorneiUet, where it was cited in the orders of tlie Army, and 
received the Croix de Guerre with pahn, the first case of such a distinction being 
conferred upon an Ambulance Section. 

After the entry of America into the war Americans came over so fast that 
there were no places for them in sections at the front in spite of the fact that new 
sections were being formed every day. Of these men, John Y. Newlin, S. S. U. 19, 
has the distinction of being the only Philadelphian to receive the IVIedaille Militaire, 
the highest reward of bravery. He was among five Field Service men to get this 
citation, and he received the Croix de Guerre at the same time. On August 3, 
1917, he was severely wounded in the back by the explosion of a shell at Montzeville 
in the Verdun sector. He was taken to Paris and operated upon, but died on 
August 5th. 

At the request of the French Army, the Field Service undertook to supply 
volunteers for '"Camion Sections" to serve as transports for the French Army. 

156 



These T. M. U. groups did very effective work in augmenting and improving the 
important motor transport service. 

In October, 1917, the Field Service completed its official career with the 
enrolment of all of its members — a trained and efficient force — in the American 
Army. 

In a sense, the members of the American Field Service really comprised the 
first "American Expeditionary Force." 

H4TH TELEGRAPH BATTALION SIGNAL CORPS 
"The Galloping Four Fourteen" 

A signal battalion, composed of men of tlie Philadelphia & Readinji and Erie 
Railroads, was organized in November, 1917. 

Captain H. C. Evans of this city commanded Company D, which luid in it a 
number of men from Philadelphia, including; 

Sergeants, First Ctass. — Stephen C. tiilliard, Hugh J. Cavanaugh, Joseph T. Larkin, Louis 
Neigut. Sergeants. — Samuel Garrison. Corporals. — Edward O. Becker, I'jhiuT lieddy, George 
C. Reed, Isaac Van Horn. Privates, First Class. — Harr\ ,1. Bowden, Ediimnd D. Parlenheimer. 

The organization sailed on the White Star liner Adriatic January 31, 1918, 
and landed in Liverpool on February Ihtii. 

Of the voyage over. Sergeant Fisher says: 

"We stealthily crept on the enemy via the 2.3d Street pier on the East River, 
where we were loaded on a steam scow and taken around the island to the 
White Star line docks at West 23d Street, and there gleaned the information that 
we were to sail on the Adriatic for Liverpool, and after being lined up on the pier 
and given another talk on habits, drinking, etc., the Major announced that 
we would be searched and any man found with liquor would suffer court martial, 
and that if we possessed anything strong to turn it in. Results were not very 
good, and the talk only netted one 'petite' vial, which the C. 0. handed to Colonel 
Erricson of the 107th Annnunition Train, who sailed with us, and the Colonel 
said: 'Thank you; it is just what I have been looking for.'" 

Sergeant Fisher further states; "The food was horrible, and since finding out 
recently that America paid England §81.75 per man for transporting us, I have 
decided to ask for an §80.00 rebate. " 

The battalion celebrated Washington's birthday by landing at Le Havre. 

Company D proceeded to Chinon (Indre et Loire), and established head- 
quarters. 

Some idea of the work done by the battalion is given by Sergeant Fisher's 
pamphlet, in which he states that about 300 miles of wire were strung; 20,000 
post-holes dug and posts set. INlembers of the battalion served as dispatchers, 
chefs de gare, operators, linemen and maintainers at about eighty stations covering 
300 miles of railroad. 

After nineteen months of service, the battalion sailed from St. Nazaire 
on June 17, 1919, on the Julia Liickenhach and arrived in Brooklyn, June 
23, 1919. 

157 



19TH ENGINEERS (RAILWAY) 
Ry Lieutenant W. Frederic Todd. Regimental Historian 

The history of the 19th Engineers properly dates from June, 1916, when 
the possibility of operations in Mexico made necessary a definite plan for operation 
of the railroads, both as to material and personnel. At this time Samuel M. 
Felton, President of the Chicago and Great Western Railway, was appointed 
consulting engineer and adviser to the chief of engineers, U. S. Army, on railway 
matters, and it was he who conceived the i(l(>a of recruiting men for railway regi- 
ments direct from railway service. 

When the I'nited States entered the European War and the question of rail- 
way operation and maintenance in France became of paramount importance, 
Mr. Felton was officially placed in charge of all preparations for the organization 
and movement abroad of railway engineers. The pressing need for railroad men 
at that time is shown in a letter written by Mr. Felton: "The French railways are 
badly run down and in more or less need of complete rehabilitation; they have 
no men who can be spared to do this work; they want all their men on the firing 
line; before we can train men to go into the trenches we can supply them as to 
railroads, and this immediately. (General Joffre says any men we send over must 
be soldiers, so the railroad forces . . . must be enhsted men. . . . They are 
short of men in their shops to repair locomotives and it is proposed to organize 

a shop regiment " The shop regiment referred to in Mr. Felton's letter, 

when orgMTii/cfl. became the I'Hh luigincers (l^ailway). 




Inlirior <,J Commercial Museum, used as Barmrks by the I9lh (Railway) Engineers. 

158 



Rpcniiting was begun in the offices of the District Engineer, Witherspoon 
Building, Philadelphia, with Captains Charles P. O'Conner and Joseph Caccavajo 
as Recruiting Officers. The first enlistment was made on April 20, 1917, but it 
was not until the beginning of May that an active campaign for recruits was begun. 

On May 9, 1917, Lieutenant Colonel Herbert Deakyne, Corps of Engineers, 
arrived in Philadelphia to take command of the regiment, accompanied by First 
Lieutenant William F. Tompkins, Corps of Engineers, his Adjutant. 

Colonel Deakyne had served as District Engineer in Philadelphia from 1908 
to 1912, conducting important river and harbor work, and his knowledge ol the 
city was of immense assistance to liim in the work of organization. Colonel 
Deakyne was transferred to the command of the 11th Engineers six months 
after his arrival in France. In ]May. 1918, he was appointed Director of Light 
Railways and Roads and in September, 1918, became Chief Engineer of the Second 
Army, with the rank of Brigadier General. 

Since the regiment was to depend to a great extent upon the railroads for 
personnel, the need for the utmost cooperation was manifest. W. W. Atter- 
bury, Vice-President of the Pennsylvania Railroad, not only gave official assistance 
to Colonel Deakyne but also took an intense personal interest in the regiment. 
By his instructions, James Milhken, Special Agent of the railroad, devoted his 
entire time to work among the railroad men in encouraging enlistments, though 
little encouragement was needed. The "business" quickly grew to such pro- 
portions that the offices in the Witherspoon Ruilding became inadequate and the 
first two floors of the Hale Building, Juniper and Sansom streets, were taken 
over. 

Invaluable aid in recruiting was rendered by the Home Defense Committee 
of the Master Builders Exchange, under the Chairmanship of W. Nelson 
Mayhew. This committee, two members of which were on duty at all times, 
was directly responsible for a very large percentage of the enlistments, for approxi- 
mately 600 men were enlisted from railroads, the balance coming from various 
other lines of business. Of the men recruited from railroads, 357 were from 
the Pennsylvania, 11 from the Philadelphia & Reading and 10 from the Baltimore 
& Ohio Railroads. The remainder came in smaller numbers from twenty-six 
other railroad companies. 

The first men were called into active service on June 2, 1917, the barracks 
being the Exhibition Hall of the Philadelphia Museums, 34th and Spruce streets. 

The men were called out in groups of from one to two hundred and assigned 
to companies according to trades, each company containing, so far as practicable, 
all men of the same trade. Military training was begun at once under experienced 
instructors furnished by the Pennsylvania National C.uard and continued to the 
date of sailing, August 9th. 

It was understood that the regiment was to move into fully equipped shops 
and was not to take any tools abroad. A small number of hand tools, ordered 
as a matter of precaution, were not received until some time after the arrival of 
the regiment in France. Less than three weeks prior to the date of saihng, the 
Commanding Officer was advised that instead of going into equipped shops, it 
would go into the new Nevers shops of the Paris, Lyon et Mediterranee Railway, 
which were then under process of construction. As there was absolutely nothing 
in the shops, it was therefore necessary to equip them completely with all necessary 

159 



machine tools, travelling cranes, air and hand tools, steam, water and air piping 
power and lighting lines and fixtures, install a power plant and furnish steam and 
install lines for electric current (which was to be furnished by the Continental 
Edison Company from their new plant at Carchizy, about seven kilometers 
from the shops), and provide a complete supply of all materials necessary for the 
operation of the shops for a period of six months. The Wilmington and Trenton 
shops of the Pennsylvania Railroad were selected as being of about the same 
capacity as the Nevers sho^js, and brief studies of the equipment and supplies, 
were made, resulting in the formation of a complete list of tools, machinery, 
storehouse, drafting room and office cqiiijjment; in short, everything necessary for 
placing the shops in operation and ruiming them for a period of six months. The 
order for all tools and material was placed by th ; Director General of Railways, 
Mr. Felton, within two weeks of the time that information was received as to 
supposed conditions in the Nevers shops. It was not until after the arrival of 
the organization in France that the actual situation was ascertained. 

In accordance with orders from the port of embarkation, nuich important 
equipment was shipped from Philadelphia to New York five days in advance of 
the regiment, in order to insure its transportation on the same ship. Practically 
none of this equipment, consisting of clothing, cooking facilities, automobiles, 
motorcycles, tools, etc., was loaded on the boat, with the result that the regiment 
arrived in France with no automobiles, motorcycles or field ranges, and very little 
in the way of supplies of tools and clothing. Three days" reserve rations, supposed 
to be issued at New York, were not to be found, until, upon disembarking at 
Liverpool, they were discovered buried under hundreds of tons of other freight. 

Arriving at Liverpool on August 23d, the regiment disembarked the following 
day and immediately entrained for Rorden, about seven miles from Aldershot, 
where it remained in Oxney Camp until August 28th, when it moved to South- 
ampton for embarkation for France. Owing to bad weather the crossing was 
delayed until the following day and the regiment landed in Le Havre on the morn- 
ing of August 30, 1917. 

The Regiment Reaches France 

At Le Havre it was learned that the shops at Nevers were not ready for occu- 
pancy and each company was sent to a separate station for work in French loco- 
motive repair shops. The distribution of the companies was as follows: Company 
A, Regimental Headquarters and First Rattalion Headquarters to St. Nazaire; 
Company R to Rordeaux; Company C to Rennes; Company D to Sotteville-les- 
Rouen; Company E and Second RattaUon Headquarters to St. Pierre-des-Corps 
(near Tours), and Company F to OuUins, near Lyon. With the exception of Com- 
pany A, whose work was locomotive erection, all the companies were engaged 
on locomotive repairs in the French shops. 

With the exception of the detachments at St. Nazaire and Nevers, it is a 
difficult matter to give a detailed account of the work done by the companies in 
the French railway shops. None of the companies had tools, working clothing, 
motor transportation or cooking equipment. In one or two instances it was possible 
to purchase a few American-made tools, but for the most part the men had to make 
out as best they could with antiquated French equipment or to laboriously make 
for themselves such tools as were absolutely necessary. 

160 



Every company, upon arrival at its destination, met with an enthusiastic 
reception at the hands of the French authorities — and were looked upon with 
disapproval by the French workmen with whom they were to be associated. In 
some instances this disapproval was the result of the French workmen receiving the 
not unnatural impression that "les Americains" were getting easy berths back of 
the lines while the French workmen would be released for service at the front. In 
other cases the French workmen complained that the Americans set a higher stand- 
ard of production than they could meet and they, therefore, would either have to 
work longer hours or take less pay. As a matter of fact, the Americans in the shops 
did more work in an eight-hour day than the French workmen cUd in a ten or twelve- 
hour day, though the hours of the Americans were made to coincide with the French 
as far as possible in order to prevent any complaints on that score. As an instance 
of fast production by the American railroad men, a case at St. Nazaire was inter- 
esting. The locomotives erected by the French were usually completed in about 
three weeks. The first locomotive received by the Americans was erected in three 
days, with only the tools found on the locomotives themselves. The French shop 
men declared that it would not run, and great was their astonishment when they 
saw that it would. 

Antagonism on the part of the French workmen was brief. They met the 
Americans outside of the shops, in the cafes and in their own homes, and when the 
companies were withdrawn, there was not an instance in which the French, the 
workmen as well as the authorities, did not protest against taking them away. 

At St. Nazaire, the oidy preparation that had been made for the men was the 
erection of wooden barracks and the placing of wooden bunks. There were no 
kitchens, wash houses or other necessary facihties. Work was immediately begun 
on erecting such additional buildings as were needed. 

The instructions with regard to the erecting shops were for the Americans to 
get out six locomotives a day. There were no tools whatever, and, what proved to 
be the greatest difficulty of all, there was no provision of any kind for handling 
material. It was manifestly impossible to take the locomotive parts as they were 
unloaded from the boats and put them into the shops. It was discovered almost 
immediately that when a ship arrived with a consignment of locomotives it might 
be necessary to have it completely unloaded before there would be enough parts 
available to start work on a single locomotive. This meant that it was necessary to 
build storage yards. The French gave the Americans the use of a plot of ground for 
this purpose, but it was swampy in character and until the roadbed had been put in 
shape by throwing in ballast until it found a bottom, the locomotive cranes were off 
the tracks on an average of three or four times a day. 

There were few tracks running from the docks to the locomotive shops and 
these were constantly being used by the French to transport their own locomotives 
and material. As a result, locomotive chassis and boilers had to be left on the docks 
until it was possible to get other space to store them, lay tracks to the storage yard, 
get cars to haul them in, and fmally, secure cranes to load the parts on the cars. 

The history of the 19th Engineers at St. Nazaire, like Nevers, is a story of 
difficulty after difficulty overcome, of work done in spite of apparently insurmount- 
able obstacles. The situation at the docks was of the greatest seriousness. The 
only cranes there were being used night and day by the French for unloading of 
ships, all material being left on the docks, rather than use the cranes for loading 

161 



cars. On the occasions when the French cranes were available tor use by the 
Americans, there was difficulty in getting operators to handle them. Finally two 
thirty-five-ton cranes were assigned permanently to the work ; later four more were 
secured, two of which were used for loading and two for unloading in the yards. 
Additional storage yard space was secured from the French, more tracks laid down, 
and on January 1, 1919, there was a total storage space for about one hundred 
locomotives at one time. 

In the shops themselves there was space for about six or eight locomotives, the 
tracks being placed so close together that it was almost impossible for a man to 
work on an engine when there was another one on the adjoining track, in addition to 
which there was so little room for handling material that it was impossible to 
maintain any great degree of order. There were two large overhead cranes in this 
shop, the Americans having practically the exclusive use of one of them and the use 
of the other for lifts that required two cranes. The greater part of the crane work 
had to be done at night, when the French were not working in the shops. 

The difficulty in getting material to replace parts that were missing from the 
packing boxes upon arrival made it necessary to send men to Nantes, Angers and 
surrounding country in an endeavor to secure the material to make such parts. 
Buying from the French was necessitated by the fact that placing requisitions 
through regular channels did not bring satisfactory results. 

Eventually the American forces were given the use of another shop, which had 
been used by the French for the manufacture of railway guns (which same guns 
were on one occasion pointed out to a party of visitors as being part of the work of 
the regiment), and there was a corresponding increase in production. 

During the period from September 30, 1917, to December .30. 1918, the men of 
the 19th Engineers at St. Nazaire erected a total of 1,124 locomotives, in addition 
to building storage yards, laying tracks, and building from locomotive packing 
boxes practically an entire new camp, capable of accommodating over a thousand 
men, truly a notable achievement. 

Another phase of the work done by the St. Nazaire Contingent was the repair 
of steamship boilers by a detachment under Captain T. L. ISIallam, the work being 
done in such a manner as to merit the highest commendation of the naval author- 
ities, and which resulted in a citation for Captain Mallam. 

Time Records Established 

It has been said that the time consumed by the French in the erection of 
locomotives was three weeks, and that the first locomotive erected by the Amer- 
icans was completed in three days. On December 30, 1918, the average time in 
which a locomotive was erected in the American shops was twenty-six hours, and 
the fastest time in which any one locomotive was built was eleven hours and ten 
minutes. 

The situation at Nevers, where the first men of the 19th arrived on December 
23, 1917, compared favorably with that at St. Nazaire, in so far as lack of material 
and all working and living facilities were concerned. \ astly larger in scope than the 
operation at St. Nazaire, with each individual department presenting a multiplicity 
of problems, the results were more than could have been expected of any organi- 
zation. 

The shops, far from being completed and lacking only tools and equipment, 

162 



had progressed no further than the laying of the foundations of the main building. 
No machinery of any kind had been installed and the power plant at Garchizy, 
instead of being in operation, had progressed only to the point of partial erection of 
the building, no machinery having been installed. In addition, no arrangements 
whatever had been made for taking care of the troops, though it had been under- 
stood that this matter was to have been taken care of by the French. 

Cars of railway material began to arrive in November, and an organization 
was established to handle the unloading and storing of it. During November and 
December, 270 carloads of material came in, much of this being heavy machinery 
for installation in the shops. There were no cranes available and all the unloading 
of this machinery and material had to be done by hand. Company E was ordered 
to Nevers, and upon arrival there was drawn upon for personnel for the stores 
department, and a gang of mechanics was organized and assigned to the erection 
of locomotive cranes. By the first of February two cranes had been erected and 
greatly facilitated the unloading of material, 845 cars of which arrived during 
January and February. The development of the storehouse work and organi- 
zation, like that of every other operation at Nevers, was a matter of gradual 
growth and increased efficiency as new men were trained to the work. 

It is impossible, in a brief space, to give even a fair idea of what was accom- 
phshed. For example, the power plant at Garchizy. which was supposed to be 
ready to supply power, was finally taken over, the building construction completed, 
machinery installed and the plant operated by Americans. In the meantime, a 
complete electrical plant had been installed in the shops by the electrical depart- 
ment, furnishing light and power to both the shops and the camp. 

The growth of the various departments is well illustrated by the development 
of the blacksmith shop. This shop when started in the early part of 1918, con- 
sisted of two blacksmiths and two helpers, working in a small shed. In August, 
1918, the blacksmith shop occupied over half an acre of ground and employed 
nearly a hundred men. 

In addition to the work done in the Nevers shops proper, car shops were erected 
for the repair of freight cars, and a track system laid down with a capacity of 750 
cars. From September to December, 1918, inclusive, the car shops turned out, 
repaired, a total of 1,863 cars. 

T nder the supervision of the electrical department was the maintenance of 
American ambulance trains. The first order consisted of fifteen trains, with two 
more procured from the French, but finding that the number would be inadequate, 
an order was placed with the English to furnish thirty-three additional trains. 
Only four of the additional thirty-three trains had been delivered when the armis- 
tice was signed, and the order for the balance of twenty-nine was canceled. One of 
the greatest difficulties in handling the trains was the variation in ecjuipment and 
parts. There were, in the first fifteen trains received, seven dill'erent types, none 
of the parts of which were interchangeable, necessitating considerable additional 
work on the part of the supply department, to say nothing of the delay in getting 
additional parts when needed. 

Naturally, with the growth of the shops themselves, there was need for in- 
creased personnel, which, in turn, required additional camp space. Such of the 
companies still on duty in outlying French shops as could be released from this 
work were brought to Nevers, where a camp was built capable of housing 4,000 

16.3 



men, and additional men, most of them with no raikoad experience, secured from 
replacement camps. Camp Stephenson, as it was named, was undoubtedly one 
of the best in France, with its complete sanitary system, company shower baths, 
a Y. M. C. A. building capable of seating 1,400 men, and its well-stocked library. 
Classes in mechanical subjects were being conducted at Camp Stephenson some 
time before the organization of the regular A. E. F. schools. 

An idea of the magnitude of the Nevers operation may be gained from the 
fact that the camp itself occupied about twenty-five acres of land, the car shops 
about twenty acres and the locomotive shops forty-five acres. 

In February, 1919, the first detachment left Camp Stephenson en route for 
the United States. The remaining personnel was returned in detachments of about 
500 men, the last to leave being a small detachment from the supply depot 
who remained behind on special duty for the purpose of assisting in turning over 
the shops, supplies and equipment to the French. 

The work accomplished by the 19th Regiment of Engineers is something thai 
cannot be appreciated except by those fully acquainted with the difficulties that 
were continually encountered and overcome, both at home and abroad. With 
few exceptions, officers and men had had no previous military experience, their 
training consisting, on the part of most of them, of that obtained during the few 
weeks spent in barracks in Philadelphia, but they developed a military organi- 
zation and left behind a record of achievement, individually and as an organi- 
zation, of which any regiment may well be proud. 

AIRMEN OF PHILADELPHIA 

In the brief period that has elapsed since the ending of the World War, it 
has not been possible to secure complete and accurate records of either the airmen 
of Philadelphia or their wonderful feats, performed on both the training camps 
and fighting fields. 

Many a brave pilot gave up his fife in the training of the material that was 
later to be flying fighters over the battle fines of France. Heroes all: no matter 
the part they took, or whether at the present writing a record of their brave deeds 
be not obtainable. 

Philadelphia, standing for years, as one of the great cities foremost in aviation, 
from the birth of that art, it was but natural that hundreds of its bravest young 
citizens should enter the air service. In this brief sketch are included as Phila- 
delphians many familiar names of airmen who actually reside in towns adjoin- 
ing, but who are known as Philadelphians on account of their close association 
with the city in business and social life. 

A greater part of this history has been from necessity drawn from cable and 
telegraphic messages and some inaccuracies are bound to occur, as official records 
are not as yet accessible. 

Much credit is due the press of Philadelphia for the vast amount of material 
furnished regarding Philadelphians in the air service, their deeds and exploits. 
The files of all Philadelphia papers have been carefully searched for a part of the 
records following. 

The Air Service Journal of September, 1917, states that "the complete roster 
of the Americans who volunteered and were accepted for active duty with the 

164 



French Aviation Service has never been pubhshed." In the list of names that is 
given by the Journal, we find the following Philadelphians, some of whom were 
still in training at the French aviation schools at Avord and Etampes. 

Charles J. Biddle, Avord School; JuUan C. Biddle, killed in action; Leo J. 
Brennan, accepted, but not assigned; Lewis LesUe Byers, accepted, not assigned; 
James A. Connelly, Jr., Avord School; John Armstrong Drexel, Lafayette Esca- 
drille; Joseph Flynn, Avord School; Charles Kerwood, Avord School; Upton S. 
Sullivan, awaiting acceptance; Stephen Tyson, Avord School. 

On May 5, 1917, Robert Glendinning, prominent banker and aviator, received 
from Secretary of War Baker, his commission as a Major in the Aviation Section 
of the Officers' Reserve Corps of the United States Army. Major Glendinning 
had long been one of the leading promoters of better aviation service for 
the Army. 

In the autumn of 1916 the Major made a tour of the Army aviation schools 
of France and shortly after his return, gave a practical demonstration how Phila- 
delphia might be bombarded from the air, by flying over the City Hall and dropping 
imitation bombs in the heart of the city. It was through the efforts of Major 
Glendinning that the Philadelphia School of Aviation at Essington was taken over 
by the government as a training school for Army aviators. 

Major Glendinning is a native of Philadelphia and was graduated from the 
University of Pennsylvania, class of 1888. He is head of the firm of Robert Glen- 
dinning & Co., bankers and brokers. He is a member of the Aero Club of Penn- 
sylvania and a Spanish-American War veteran. For his illustrious services in 
France and Italy he was later promoted to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel. He 
was decorated by the King of Italy and served in the balloon section during the 
latter part of the war. 

The body of Julian C. Biddle of the Lafayette Escadrille who had been re- 
ported missing and probably killed in action on August 18, 1917, was washed 
ashore by the tide at Egmond-Aan-Zee, on the north coast of Holland on Septem- 
ber 2d. The manner in which Biddle met his death has never been cleared up. 
AU that is known is that the aviator ascended at St. Pol, France, to carry dispatches 
to Dunkirk, and disappeared, nothing definite being known as to his fate until his 
body was washed in by the sea. How he got over the sea is not understood, as 
his route was entirely over land. The most probable solution seems to be that 
the Philadelphia airman became involved with hostile flying forces and that the 
struggle carried him seaward. The burial of his body in the Httle coast village was 
made with due honor. 

Prominent among the American aces of the Great War stands the name of 
Major Charles J. Biddle, Pennsylvania's first "ace." Major Biddle's record as an 
airman is an enviable one. He was first a member of the Escadrille 73 of the 
French Aviation Service; then of the famous Lafayette Squadron, and later was 
Commanding Officer of the 13th American Pursuit Squadron. Still later he was 
made Commanding Officer of the 4th American Pursuit group, composed of four 
squadrons. It was on the second day of the advance on the Western Front, late 
in the summer of 1918, that Major Biddle carried out one of his bravest deeds. At 
an altitude of 18,000 feet Major Biddle lay in wait for a German two-seater, which 
at once accepted his challenge. After a considerable expenditure of ammunition 
on both sides, the observer of the German machine was shot through the head. 

16.S 



The German pilot, however, continued to fight until the synchronizing gear of his 
machine gun was disabled. He then attempted to escape but was wounded. 

Major Biddle preferred to capture the German and gradually drove him 
towards the American lines and they both made a perfect landing just north of 
Nancy, in the Vosges. 

Major Biddle was cited several times for his bravery. He was severely wounded 
in May, 1918, during one of his many air battles. Major Biddle has eight official 
victories to his credit and many decorations. 

High honors were given Captain J. D. Este who served with the aviation 
section of the Signal Corps in France. He was cited for extraordinary bravery 
while leading his patrol in an offensive over the enemy's lines. 

The official citation states that on September 13, 1918, while leading his patrol 
in an offensive at Chambley, his five machines were attacked from above and 
behind by an enemy formation of seven single seaters. It adds: "Although out- 
numbered and in a very disadvantageous position, he did not hesitate to lead his 
patrol to the attack." The citation further states that "through the combat that 
followed Lieutenant Este fought with the greatest bravery, in spite of the fact 
that he himself was attacked by two enemy planes, which fired at him from point 
blank range from the rear and above. By his skill and courage he was able to 
keep his formation together, and they succeeded in shooting down three of the 
enemy planes of which Lieutenant Este himself destroyed one and drove another 
out of control." 

Captain Este had the honor of iljing the first American-made aeroplane with 
a Liberty motor. He enlisted after war was declared and trained at Essington and 
Kelly Held. Texas, afterward being sent to France. While there he was assigned 
to training and organization work. Press reports credit Captain Este with five 
official victories over Hun planes and fuUy twice that number unofficially. 

Lieutenant J. Sydney Owen was another Philadelphian who served in 
France. Lieutenant Owen received citations in recognition of his work. 

One of the saddest incidents at the close of the war was the tragic death of 
Captain Hobart Hare Baker, familiarly known throughout the country as "Hobey 
Baker." Captain Baker was killed on liis last aeroplane llight, shortly after making 
his plans to return to his home. This was in a practice flight from the aerodrome 
at Toul. France, December, 1918. Captain Baker was one of the best known 
college athletes of recent years. He became interested in aviation and started 
flying long before the United States entered the war. Later he enUsted and was 
sent to Essington as an Instructor in Aviation. After a few months he went over- 
seas and became a member of the Lafayette Escadrille, and later with the forma- 
tion of the American flying units in France, he was transferred to one of these. 
Glowing tribute was paid Captain Baker by Major Charles J. Biddle, who was in 
command of the group in which Baker served. 

Major Biddle said that Captain Baker during his services at the front brought 
down three German machines in the last ten days of the war. The last machine 
attacked by Baker was 20,000 feet in the air and was carrying propaganda leaflets 
to be dropped among American infantry. "There was no finer man or a better 
pilot" said Major Biddle. "He was very skilful and particularly fearless. He 
would have had an even greater record than he did if it had been possible for him 
to have been at the front more than he was." 

166 



One of the bright spots of war's gloom are the letters which came to the mother 
of Lieutenant Charles Wallace Drew who was connected with the Thirteenth Aero 
Squadron while fighting in France. In September, 1918, he cabled his mother the 
message: ""Well and happy. Have downed my first Boche and am on a three 
days' permission." Later in his letters he writes: "I am absolutely jolly, well 
satisfied with my plane, my guns, my squadron, our quarters, life, and best of all 
our captain, who is no other than Captain Charles Biddle of the old Lafayette — 
a splendid fighter and a thorough gentleman." 

The official confirmation of Drew downing his Hun says he was attacked by 
four Fokkers. He attacked the first, a plane which was firing on Lieutenant Free- 
man. He then later attacked a Fokker which was climbing to get on the tail of 
his machine. He observed a number of his shots made direct hits on the motor 
and wings of his enemy's plane and he followed same down to an altitude of 600 
meters and when last seen the enemy was going down in smoke. 

Soon after this exploit Captain Drew was shot down by German planes and 
he was captured. An explosive shell had torn his right arm and he was taken to a 
German hospital where the arm was amputated in order to save his life. For his 
bravery Lieutenant Drew was officially cited and awarded the Distinguished Cross. 

"I am not a hero and I am not an ace." Captain Drew protests when his 
fellow citizens make a "fuss" over him. " I just did the task assigned to me." 

Late in February, 1918, General Pershing sent word to Washington of the 
death in France of Arthur H. Wilson, a cadet in the American Aviation Service. 

As no details were given it is believed his death was accidental, as letters re- 
ceived from him a short period before indicate that he had just finished his test 
and had not begun combats with the enemy. 

Wilson, although a Philadelphian, was studying and teaching in New 
York when war broke out between the United States and Germany — that very 
day he erdisted and was transferred to the aviation service. 

He finished his examination and was sent to Cornell where he did his ground 
work. From there he was sent to France as one of the "honor men," the best in 
his class. He was a graduate of the Arts Department of the University of Penn- 
sylvania in the class of 1912. 

In this short chapter it is not possible to give a record of the brave deeds or 
even names of all the Philadelphians in the flying service. At a later date no doubt 
a more voluminous history wiU be compiled wherein a complete record of all who 
took part in the Great War will be given credit for the work they did. 

The deeds recited above are ex-ploits of some of Philadelphia's most prominent 
and well-known aviators, but deeds just as brilliant and daring were undoubtedly 
performed by the other flying fighters as the following press account will show. 

Twenty Philadelphia aviators fell to their deaths abroad during the vast 
operations which marked the domination of the air by the Allies. Nine more were 
brought down by the Huns and placed in German prison camps until after the 
armistice. These figures show that in the fighting in the air this city contributed 
in the same unsparing manner that marked the sacrifice of Philadelphia lads in the 
battles on the soil of France. To offset these sad fatalities Philadelphia can lay 
claim to many signal honors bestowed as the results of the bravery of her sons in 
aerial conflict. The Distinguished Service Cross of the American Army has 
been won by three local aviators, one of whom paid the supreme price in the deed 

167 



which won for him the coveted honor. France has pinned the Croix de Guerre on 
the breasts of three other Pliiladelphia aviators and one of that trio also has made 
his last great flight. Four other Philadelphia flyers engaged with the Italian armies 
during the disastrous campaign edong the Piave and later in the splendid victory 
which thrust Austria from the war have won the ItaUan Service Ribbon for 
conspicuous bravery. 

Those who died abroad in combat or accident are as follows: Captain Hobart 
Amory Hare Baker, Lieutenant Horace Baker, Lieutenant Julian C. Biddle, 
Lieutenant David Bispham, Jr., Lieutenant Mortimer P. Crane, Lieutenant 
Richard Foulke Day, Lieutenant William L. Deetjen, Lieutenant Norton Downs, 
Lieutenant Charles T. Evans, Jr., Lieutenant William F. Gallagher, Lieutenant 
Norman Hughes, Lieutenant Warren T. Kent, Lieutenant Paul B. Kurtz, Lieu- 
tenant Harold B. Merz, Lieutenant Wistar Morris, Lieutenant Hilary B. Rex, 
Lieutenant Phihp N. Rhinelander, Lieutenant Walter M. Smyth, Lieutenant 
H. Pennington Way, Corporal H. H. Houston Woodward. Of the above. Lieutenant 
H. Pennington Way was awarded the Distinguished Cross (posthumously), while Cor- 
poral H. H. Houston Woodward was awarded the Croix de Guerre after his death. 

The nine who were brought down behind the German Unes and placed in prison 
camps were: Lieutenant Earl Adams, Corporal Lewis L. Byers, Lieutenant Charles 
W. Drew, Lieutenant Brooke Edwards, Sergeant Charles Wayne Kerwood, Lieu- 
tenant Henry Carvill Lewis, Lieutenant Stewart A. McDoweU, Lieutenant John 
Joseph Meredith, Lieutenant Frederick Westing. 

The following shows the Distinguished Service Cross, Croix de Guerre and 
Italian Ribbon awards for Philadelphia. This is the official list as announced by 
the government: 

Awarded Distinguished Service Cross : Major Charles J . Biddle , Lieutenant Chas. 
W. Drew, Captain J. Dickinson Este, Lieutenant H. Pennington Way (deceased). 

Awarded Croix de Guerre: Major Charles J. Biddle (with palm), Sergeant 
Charles Wayne Kerwood, Corporal H. H. Houston Woodward (deceased). 

Awarded ItaUan Service Ribbons: Lieutenant Horace Drever, Lieutenant 
George N. Hyland, Lieutenant Earl D. Ranck, Lieutenant Richard Goodman. 

Major Biddle also received the Cross of the Legion of Honor (French) and 
the Order of Leopold (Belgian). 

THE LAST FLIGHT 

God of France, we pilots pray 
For France's safety, and obey 

Thy pointed finger in the gale. 

Hail to Thee, Master of Storms, All Hail ! 
Keep me this day from sudden sorrow, 
Spare me today for I'm home tomorrow. 
Guard me this day 'gainst the weakened wire. 
The tiny buUet of flying fire. 

The treacherous wings that would buckle or break. 

To drag me down in its whistling wake. 
The morrow brings respite from fighting and flying — 
And a breath of the Seine ere day is dying. 

(Dabney Horton, Sergeant, French Aviation Service.) 
168 



THE AMERICAN FOREIGN LEGION* 

Very few civilians realize how varied were the efforts to make the American 
Army the most efficient fighting force ever produced in the history of the world. 

One of the problems confronting those in charge of the development of the 
Army was caused by the number of men, particularly among the draftees, who 
spoke little or no Enghsh, and whose conception of the reasons for America's entry 
into the war were vague or even worse. For example a National Army soldier con- 
fidentially told a Philadelphian in the Army "Y" that "The Kaiser, he treat his 
people so bad we go over to help them." 

Therefore, an experiment was made at Camp Meade which resulted in the 
formation of what was popularly known as the "American Foreign Legion." In 
September, 1918, the Fifth Development Battalion of the 154th Depot Brigade 
was formed and was composed entirely of foreign-born and foreign-speaking men. 
This unit was organized largely through the efforts of Brigadier General E. E. 
Hatch, who felt that there was merit in so uniting tongues and races that a real 
esprit de corps would be engendered. 

About 50 per cent of the men in this battalion were Philadelphians and three 
of the original officers were from this city: Captain Sigmund J. Laschenski, Captain 
Eugene Prostrednik and First Lieutenant Henry F. Vache. 

Each company had interpreters, and companies and platoons were composed 
exclusively of Italians, Poles and men of other nationaUties. The companies 
were officered by those who not only spoke Enghsh but also the native language 
of their men and the various commands when given in EngUsh were repeated in a 
foreign tongue. In this way the men learned how the vai'ious commands sounded 
when given in English and they were taught how to execute the commands by di- 
rections in their own language. 

Real Americanization work was undertaken. The men were taught to read 
and write English, and American sports were explained and played. Great rivadry 
sprang up between all nationalities which led to gieat efficiency in many ways. 

The attention of the General Staff at Washington was drawn to the way in 
which this scheme worked out and although at fiist it was beUeved that as a result 
of this classification a belter organized labor battalion only would result, in October, 
1918, the battaUon was fuUy equipped for overseas duty and was reviewed as an 
infantry unit at Camp Meade by officers from the General Staff at Washington. 

The result of this review was that a number of the officers were detached from 
the battaUon and sent to camps elsewhere to aid in the organization of similar units. 

In November the battalion made final preparations for overseas duty, but the 
signing of the armistice prevented and soon after November 11th the battalion 
was demobilized and was the first to leave Camp Meade. 

THE 16TH INFANTRY— 1ST DIVISION 
By Thomas S. Cline, Former Chaplain 

The story of the 16th Infantry in France is an epitome of America's achieve- 
ment in the World War. It tells how a regiment, originally composed of regulars, 
was reorganized for overseas service, whisked from the Mexican border 3,000 

*By the Secretary of the Philadelphia War History Committee. Information supplied 
by Lieutenant Vache. 

169 



miles across the country, spirited for another 3,000 miles over the sea, trained in 
the art of trench warfare by the Chasseurs, France's best, sent into the trenches 
for its baptism of fire, and llien after a month's rest plunged into the supreme 
test of war's crucible. It tells also how the 16th gained all the objectives assigned 
to it. in each of the great battles that followed — Cantigny, Soissons, St. Mihiel, 
the Argonne and Sedan. The regiment was refilled three times over. The origi- 
nals were half regulars, half volunteers; the replacements were National Army 
men. But from first to last the morale of the 16th remained constant and unbroken. 

A number of Philadelphians served as officers and enlisted men in the 16th. 

The regiment sailed from Hoboken for France on June 1 1. 1917, and reached 
St. Nazaire on June 26th. The four regiments which landed that day were the 
first American regiments to land in a European country. 

On the 1th of July, 1917, a battalion of the 16th was reviewed by .Marshal 
Joffre and President Poincare in Paris. When the parade visited the tomb of 
Lafayette, General Pershing uttered the famous words "Lafayelte, we are here." 

For intensive training the regiment located in the (jondrecourt area, not far 
behind the sector which was eventually to become the American front. During 
the first month the battalions were instructed separately. Then followed a month 
of actual occupation of the trenches with veteran troops in a quiet sector. The 
third month was devoted to training as a complete division, under the direction 
of their own officers. For teachers they had the Alpine Chasseurs. The splendid 
effect of the training of these brave and snappy .\l|)inists was evident in the dash 
and finish of the work not only of the 16th Infantry but of the whole of the 1st 
Division to which they belong. 

The Killi Infantrymen were among the first Americans to enter the trenches. 
They were the first to shed blood. This occurred in the Bathlemont raid which 
took place November 3, 1917. The 16th had refieved the French in what had 
been a quiet sector near the city of \ancy. The (iermans. wlio had been infcjrmed 
of the arrival of the Americans by traitorous signals from Bathlemont put over 
a box barrage. They captured several prisoners and killed three men of the 16th, 
(Iresliam. Fnright and Hay. A noble nionuineiit, erected l)\ the French Covern- 
ment, now marks the place where they fell. 

The 16th did vafiant service in defending the Toul sector and more particularly 
the Monldidier sectoi': but the first great oifensive battle in uliich they partici- 
pated was that of Soissons. 

The force of the German Chateau-Thierry offensive had estabUshed a deep 
Marne salient which tempted (ieneral Pershing to make a counter-offensive. In 
the great surprise attack which he launched on July 18tli, the 1st Division was 
in the forefront. For five days the 16th Infantry fought a terrible but glorious 
battle. Whole companies were wiped out in a short lime. When officers were 
shot down non-commissioned oflicers took command of battalions. The cas- 
ualty Ust tells the story of hard fighting. Killed, 20 1; wounded, 940; missing, 590; 
total, 1,734. 

Never before nor after did the 16th suffer such heavy losses in the same length 
of time. They had their objectives to take and they did not count the cost. It 
was something to recover seven or eight miles of the sacred soil of France, but that 
was incidental. They were helping to win the crucial battle wiiicli was destined 
to turn the whole tide of the war. 

170 



mt,' was 

free to cany out an all-Aincrican olVonsivo on a large scale at St. Mihicl, ajjain 
the 1st Division played a prominent pait. Here the 16th showed sijinal agfjres- 
siveness and efficiency in advancing against an entrenclied enemy, through for- 
midable wire entanglements, over a broken terrain made m()i(> (lifliciilt by rain, 
and capturing promptK all objectives assigned to it. 

The 16th went over the top in the Meuse-Argonne battle on October tth, and 
the ten days that followed were terrible days in the story of the regimiiiit. On 
the day of the attack they pressed forward over five miles against the stiffest op- 
position of (lermany's best warriors and took their objective, the town of Fleville. 
The Ikl Battalion which led that day start(>d out in the morning with twenty officers 
and 800 men. When they dug in at dusk they had but two officers and 210 men. 
Their heroic woik had enabled the regiment to carry out its orders. The fact 
should be recorded thai llie llJIh Injanlry was Ihr only miil not only of the Dirision 
hut also of the Army that was able to take all of its (ihjeclires that first terrible day 
in the Arqonne. 

When the 1st Division was liually rclic\ed b;^ the Hainbow Di\isiou. and op- 
portunity came for the calling of the roll it was found that of the sixty-two officers 
and approximately 2.600 men, which the 16th sent into action, seven officers and 
129 men wen> killed, twenty-three officers and iil2 men were wounded, four 
officers and 298 men were gassed, one officer and 361 men were missing. 

This casualty list of thirty-five officers and 1.600 men is more eloi|ueiit than 
anything we can say regarding the heroic battle fought by the boys of the 16th on 
the edge of the Argonne forest. 

In the citation which (ieneral Pershitig gave the Isl Division after the bailie 
of the Argonne, he said, "The Commander-in-Chief has noted in this Disisioii a 
special pride of service and a high state of morale, never broken by hardship or 
battle." Those words applied to no unit more truly Ihan to Ihe 16th. 

The 16th Infantry was the only unit of the 1st Division seriously engaged in 
the Sedan drive. By a maneuver, daring in its conception and brilliant in its 
execution, the icgiment reached Hill 202 o\ crlookiiig Sedan before the battle was 
called oil'. In speaking of this point Ccneral Pershing said, "The strategical goal 
which was our highest point was gained. We had cut the enemy's main line of 
commuiiicalioii, and nothing bul surrender or armislice could save his armies 
from complete disaster." 

On December 1, 1918, for I lie fiist time in history, American troops marched 
on German soil. The 16lh liifanlry led Ihe waN along Ihe west bank of the Biver 
Moselle. The regiment linally took slalion in the region of Dernbach, near the cir- 
cumference of the Coblenz Bridgehead, which had been assigned to the 3d Army. 
Here they remained on outpost duty for- inaii\ UKtnths until the glad news came 
that they were to have the honor of ictnining to the I nited States with (Ieneral 
Pershing. They liad been the liist to go to France and they had stayed to the 
finish. 

The men of the 16th take just pride in their regiment. 1 hey rejoici' in the fact 
that it was ready for immediate service when America entered the war; because 
it served in the 1st Division; becau.se it had the privilege of training with the 
Chasseurs; because it was the first to shed its blood in contact with the (iermans; 
because it never failed to take all objectives assigned to it; because it never yielded 

171 



a foot of ground to the enemy ; because it was among the first American troops to 
march on German soil; because it is entitled to wear the French fourragere; and 
because the Commander-in-Chief honored the regiment and the Division by 
parading with them in New York and Washington upon their return from 
France. 

The following tribute was paid to the 16th Infantry by Brigadier General 
Frank Parker, U. S. A.: 

To the 16lh Infantry of the 1st Brigade of the 1st Division American Expeditionary Forces: 

To those officers and men who have heltl, faitlifnlly, in this war, the posts of highest honor, 
those nearest the enemy; 

Who with their sweat and blood have taken the ground that meant victory; 

Who have impressed upon Europe, in the supreme test of battle, the quality of American 
manhood ; 

Surely all honor is due. 

Just so surely is this honor the greatest where duty was most difficult, and where it was best 
done, whether by colonel or private, matters not. 

Each one in his appointed place, each one to his own work, and each man's duty of equal 
importance in the face of death. 

There is to my thinking, nothing finer in this world than the self-etVacing role of the true 
private soldier of infantry, and nowhere in this war has this private soldier of infantry been truer 
to his country's expectations of him than in the 16th Infantry. 

All honor then to these men, and to those gallant officers and non-commissioned officers, 
who taught, inspired and led these private Great-Hearts in the van of the American Expeditionary 
Forces. 

PHILADELPHIA WOMEN IN THE SERVICE* 

In the World War the records established by American women proved that 
they were worthy to share with the men in the defense of the nation, for they 
occupied posts of danger and positions of grave responsibility. 

It is interesting to note that the first woman to enlist in the L nited States 
Navy was a Philadelphian — Miss Loretta Walsh — who was sworn in by Lieu- 
tenant Commander F. W. Payne, I J. S. N., at the LTnited States Naval Home on 
Grays Ferry Road, March 23, 1917. From that date it is estimated by Miss 
Margaret Thomas, Commander of American Legion Post 50, yeomen (f), that over 
2,000 Philadelphia women enhsted in the Army, Navy and Marine Corps. The 
majority of these were listed as yeomen (f), and they served at the Navy Yard, at 
the Commandant's Headquarters, 12th and Chestnut streets, at the Naval Home, 
in the disbursing offices, at the piers, and at the storehouses, recruiting stations 
and shipyards. In fact, at any plant or station under government control. 

A large number of Pliiladelphia women served in Washington and in other 
parts of the country, as they were all subject to transfer from point to point. 
The greatest nmnber served in various clerical capacities, as stenographers, tele- 
phone operators, etc., and in the Camouflage Depaitment. 

Among those who acted as stenographers were some specially trained women 
who, during the submarine excitement in 1917, served in the Communication 
Office at League Island and elsewhere. Time and again these women were on duty 
for twenty-four hours at a stretch, and a great deal of their normal work was done 
at night. The only yeomen (f) enlisted in the Fourth Naval District to go over- 
seas went with Naval Base No. 5. 



*Summarized by the Secretary of the Philadelphia War History Committee. 

172 



There were twelve "marinettes" 
stationed in Philadelphia, of which 
nine were residents of this city. Their 
work was at the Marine Recniitinp 
Station, at the Quartermaster Corps" 
Depot and at the Advanced Base 
Headquarters, U. S. M. C. 

Miss Margaret Thomas, whose 
length of service extended from April 
14, 1917, until January 1, 1920, was a 
Chief Yeoman, and rendered such dis- 
tinguished service under Lieutenant 
Commander Payne as to receive a 
special letter of commendation from 
him. 

At least one thousand Philadelphia 
women served as nurses in the Army. 
The Nurses' American Legion Post 
No. 412 is being rapidly developed. 
Miss Carohne Waltemate, who was 
with Base Hospital No. 10, is Secre- 
tary of the post. This post is known as 
the Fairchild Post, in honor of Miss 

Helen Fairchild, who also was with Base Hospital No. 10 and who died in service 
overseas. 

Among the Philadelphia nurses who were decorated for bravery were two who 
were with an American Base Hospital attached to the British Army. These women 
were decorated by the Prince of Wales during his visit to America, one in Washing- 
ton, D. C, the other in New York City. 




Courtesy of I'r.inl; W, lUilil.r, tl 



Miss Loretla Walsh of Philadelphia. First 
Yeoman (If). Sworn in March ?.V, 1917. 



PHILADELPHIANS IN THE TANK CORPS 

The original plans for the United States Tank Corps called for ten heavy and 
fifty light tank corps battalions. However, only a few were organized and a still 
smaller number went overseas and got into action. In the light tank corps 
battalions a number of Philadelphia men served, particularly in the 339th, 344th 
and 345th. 

The recruiting which was done in Philadelphia during the summer of 1918 
was largely for the light tanks. Those men who did serve in these battalions used 
French tanks with double Mercedes engines. 

The men recruited in Philadelphia and elsewhere during the special efforts 
made to increase the personnel of the "Treat 'em Rough" Corps were sent 
both to Tobyhanna and Gettysburg in Pennsylvania, and also to Camp Polk, at 
Raleigh, N. C, and to Camp Greene, at Charlotte, N. C. 

Of the heavy tanks corps battalions, the 301st was the only one to get into 
major actions. It operated with the British Army in support of the 27th and 30th 
United States Divisions in the second Somme offensive, and also with the 3d and 
5th Australian Divisions. These heavy tank corps battalions operated forty-eight 



17.3 



tanks of British make, driven by a specially designed Recardo engine, which re- 
placed the Daimler tractor engine in the original British tank. The .301st Battalion, 
United States Tank Corps, was largely recruited at Camp Meade, and Company 
A was mostly Philadeljjhian in personnel. From Camp Meade the battalion went 
to Camp Merritt and sailed in March, 1918. for France. 

It saw service in four major actions: first, at the Hindenburg Line, in the 
Bellicourt-Naury sector, September 29, 1918; next, in the second battle of Cambrai, 
in the Brancourt sector, October 8, 1918, and in two major actions in the LaSelle 
River, October 17 and 23, 1918. After this date it was held in reserve at the 
second battle of Mens, and remained with the British forces until the signing of 
the armistice. 

FIRST (lator l()6th) TELEGRAPH BATTALION, S. R. C. 

By p. L. Schauble 

When by Congressional action, just before our country declared war, a Signal 
Reserve was created, Philadelphia took the lead, and as a result the plans for 
organizing the First Telegraph Battalion S. R. C. were made in this city. Although 
the name was changed later to the 406th Telegraph BattaUon, S. C, U. S. A., its 
origintJ name was far more appropriate. There are many reasons. It was the 
first reserve telegraph battalion to be organized; it was the first reserve unit 
to be ordered overseas; it was the first complete signal unit to arrive in France; 
it was the first technical unit to be attached to General Headquarters, A. E. F. ; 
when the First Army Corps was formed, it was the first technical unit designated 
as a part of the corps. 

Congress created the Signal Reserve. The War Department organized it. It 
was but natural for the Bell System, as the largest communication business in the 
world, to be called on to assist in the work. Plans were made through the co- 
operation of the \merican Telephone and Telegraph Company, the parent organi- 




Baltalion at 1 niepenlenrr llnll. June /.V. 1917. 
174 



zation of the Bell System, for the recruiting of several battalions from the asso- 
ciated Bell Companies. It was due to the enthusiasm of its Mce-President and 
General Manager, Leonard H. Kinnard, who later became its President, that the 
Bell Telephone Company of Pennsylvania, with its two associated companies, which 
operate Delaware and southern New Jersey, were the first actively to start the work. 
Out of 6,000 male employees, 1,400 volunteered. As a result, a battalion was 
organized, one company from Philadelphia and the eastern territory and the other 
from western Pennsylvania. Practically the entire roster of this organization, 
comprising 215 men and ten officers, was drawn from the employe body. 

The battalion was sworn in during the latter part of April, 1917. By the 
middle of June they were in camp at Monmouth Park, New Jersey, later known 
as Camp Alfred Vail, and on August 7th were on shipboard, arriving at St. Nazaire 
on the 21st. In less than four months these raw recruits with no previous military 
experience had been whipped into shape as splendid soldiers and landed in France 
ready for any emergency. 

Just a word as to the quality of the personnel of the organization. Is it not 
significant that three men from this organization were picked to accompany 
General Pershing when he left the United States to take up his duties as Com- 
mander of the as yet embryonic A. E. F.? Is it not worthy of note that from the 
handful of men in the battalion, there developed prior to the end of the war, two 
lieutenant colonels, five majors, three captains, eight first lieutenants, nine second 
lieutenants and more than a score of non-commissioned officers? 

After a few days at Base Camp No. 1, in St. Nazaire, the battalion was assigned 
to Chaumont to equip with telephone service the buildings which in a very few 
days were to be used for General Pershing's headquarters. While part of the organi- 
zation was rushing this work, the remainder began the construction of a line from 
Chaumont to Neufchateau. This was a long and tedious task. American tools 
and materials were not yet available, as the battalion had come to France with 
one of the earliest convoys, and before any amount of equipment had begun to 
arrive. However, the line was completed on September 27th. 

While Company E of the battalion extended the line south toward Langres 
from Chaumont, Company D wired various training areas preparatory to the 
arrival of American divisions who were to be trained in this section. The entire 
winter was spent in this preliminary construction work. The area in the vicinity 
of Vaucouleurs was completely equipped and a line run from Vaucouleurs back to 
Chaumont. 

It was similar to work back home, and yet it was different. The boom of 
guns could be heard in the distance. Not far away men were falling, wounded or 
dead in the very cause which had brought these men with their "spurs" and 
pliers to France. There was no need to urge the men on. They were called the 
"battalion of hand picked men" and they knew why they were there. Telephone 
lines went up as by magic, switchboards and telegraph equipment were installed 
in jig-time. They were there for business. 

There was some diversion during that first winter on foreign soil. There were 
parties at Hallowe'en, at Thanksgiving and at Christmas. These parties were 
very much helped by the use of a mess fund which had been contributed by the 
employes of the telephone organization and which had been turned over to the 
battalion before it went to Monmouth Park. 

175 



It was during this winter that the battalion lost the name in which it took so 
much pride. But pride could not be considered in the waging of war and the 
First Telegraph Battalion became the 406th under which name it operated until it 
was demobilized. 

In January the 406th which had become scattered over the Chaumont area 
on various construction jobs, was mobilized at Neufchateau preparatory to 
forward work. In February, it was assigned to the First Army Corps as the Head- 
quarters Telegraph Battahon. The next couple of months were spent in divisional 
work, Company D building lines to the front and Company E doing construction 
work in the rear areas. 

From March until June, details from the battalion were assigned to listening 
post work for the radio intelligence service in the vicinity of Xivray and Seicheprey. 
This involved the stringing of lines over No Man's Land and maintaining them, 
constantly under fire. Several times during this period the enemy raiding patrols 
advanced past the dugouts in which the signal men were intercepting hostile radio 
and wire messages, but were driven back by the counter-attacks of the allied forces. 

In June, the First Army Corps was transferred to the Marne salient, there to 
prepare to meet the next German drive on Paris. This marks the beginning of 
the concentration of American troops for active service under American command. 
Many American divisions had seen service with various French and English 
units but now an American Army Corps, under American command, was to take 
the field. 

The battalion spent the next month in preparing the lines of communication 
for the coming battle. Headquarters was at La Ferte-sous-Jouarre. The battahon 
took over the operation of all the telephone exchanges in this area and kept the 
lines in repair. In addition to the telephone operation, repair work, and construc- 
tion work, the battalion motor sections were called on to assist in the transporta- 
tion of troops and ammunition to the front. 

The battle is a matter of history. The Germans made an attack on July 
15th. The Americans with their Allies could not be budged, and on the 18th, 
the great counter offensive began which drove the Hun back and removed the 
menace to Paris. 

As the battle progressed and the Germans retreated Corps Headquarters 
was advanced from place to place, first to Montreuil, then to Buire and later to 
Chateau Moucheton. The battalion installation men rushed the switchboards 
and wires ahead sometimes arriving at the place designated for the "P. C." (Post 
of Command) before the Germans were driven out of the vicinity. 

The advance continued to the Vesle, headquarters being established at 
Fere-en-Tardenois. There is Uttle opportunity in a brief account of this nature 
to tell of the strenuous days and nights, always under fire, which the signal men 
spent. They carried no arms except pistols. They had no opportunity to get 
the thrill which comes from actual fighting. They were forced to content them- 
selves with the thought that without the lines of communication which they were 
carrying forward, the battle could not proceed successfully. 

The Marne salient was wiped out. When the Vesle was reached and the 
battle fine became stationary, the First Army Corps hurried to new fields. It 
was next to take part in the great attack which was to drive the Germans out of 
the St. Mihiel sector. Corps Headquarters was established at Saizerais about the 

176 



middle of August, and until early in September preparations were made for the 
attack. All of the forward exchanges were taken over by the battalion men and 
on September 12th, the battle began. The orders provided that after three days 
the First Corps was to be withdrawn and transferred to the Argonne sector to 
assist in driving the Germans back in that region. The St. Mihiel offensive pro- 
gressed so rapidly that the Hun was completely on the run by the time the First 
Corps left the battle line. 

After a very brief period spent in equipping the new headquarters at Rare- 
court in the Argonne sector, and in taking over all of the advance telephone and 
telegraph offices, the attack began which was to continue almost without interrup- 
tion until the enemies threw up their hands on November 11 th. As the forces became 
engaged with the Germans in the Argonne, the construction of a telephone line was 
staited. following on the very heels of the advancing troops, to maintain commu- 
nication to the rear. This hue was built from salvaged poles from Boche camouflage 
screens and in places from lines abandoned by the enemy. The advance was so 
rapid that at times it was impossible for the signal men to keep up with it. At 
such times they jumped ahead and resumed work again just in the rear of the 
fighting forces. This line followed the entire advance through the Argonne. 

\n advance "P. C," the code name of which was "Bonehead," was estab- 
lished in a huge dugout at Cotes-de-Forimont. This was an important office and 
a large part of the battalion force was stationed here to operate the telephone 
and telegraph equipment and maintain the lines. As the Argonne was cleared 
of the enemy, lines were built in what were now the rear areas for the handling 
of trains on the rebuilt railroads. 

A lull in the advance was followed by a renewal of the offensive on November 
2d. (irandpre, after a terrific struggle fell to the Americans, and the telephone 
line was rushed on toward St. Juvin. Corps Headquarters was estabhshed at 
Harricourt to vvliicli place the battalion moved. The enemy was now on the run 
and the American forces rushed after tliem toward Sedan. Just two days before 
the armistice was signed, the First Corps, including the 406th Telegraph Battalion, 
was relieved. 

The battalion had seen practically continuous service since the first American 
offensive began in July. During that period of nearly four months on active 
fronts, the men had engaged in nearly every kind of work. They had constructed 
communication lines to prepare for the various attacks. And when the actual 
battles started they were occupying the front line telephone exchanges. This 
sounds like rather pro.saic work. Let one of the men dispel any such illusion. The 
Marne offensive was just starting. The 406th had installed a switchboard in a 
dugout at Montreuil. It was being operated and the lines in the vicinity kept in 
repair by the same organization as the attack began. It was the night of July 17th. 

"About 11.30 all our lines to the Yankee Division went out of service. Two 
of the men left the dugout to find the break. Shells were dropping by the ton. 
Down the hill in the pitchy darkness the men stumbled. They fell into a huge 
cavity. It was a shell hole. The shell had fallen on the telephone fine. Nearly a 
hundred feet of the wires had been shot away. A quick repair was made. No 
sooner had they returned than all lines to the rear went out. This cut us off 
from headtiuaiters. A detail started out and found the line almost completely 
broken down by shell fire. Repair after repair was made. Many times, the same 

177 




job had to be repeated as shells 
tore down the newly repaired 
wires. It was not until the 
next evening that these men 
returned to the dugout. 

"While they were gone, 
the operators at the switch- 
hoard were having a 'hot' 
time. Officers at the rear were 
demanding connections to the 
front. Officers at the front 
wore asking for connections to 
I he rear. Next was an order 
liianging the direction of 
attack. And every call was 
an emergency call." 

Such was life at the ad- 
^ance exchanges. In the rear 
the motor sections with some 
sixty to eighty vehicles of 
\ arious vintages in their care 
had no light task. Hauling 
signal corps material by day, 
snatching an hour now and 
again for repairs, and spending 
the night hauling troops and 
ammunition to the front, these chauffeurs and repairmen had a strenuous time. 

The Telegraph Battalion had been in France a year and a half. It had made 
such a reputation for itself that when Colonel ^'oris, Signal Officer of the First 
Army Corps was preparing to enter the Occupation Zone in Germany, he pleaded 
to be allowed to take this "Battalion of Experts" as he called it. He agreed to 
dispense with the additional signal unit which was allowed to an Army Corps, if 
he could have these Pennsylvania Bell men. The Chief Signal Officer ruled that 
these men had already done their share in the war and were not to join the Army 
of Occupation. So winter quarters were taken up at Tonnerre. 

The question uppermost in the minds of every man in France now was, "When 
do we go home?" During this winter the men of the battalion had their first 
"vacations" since they had arrived in France. During this period, too, a Horse 
and Motor Show was held in the First Army Corps and four motor vehicles were 
entered by the battalion. Each of the four was awarded the Blue Bibbon in its 
respective class. One of the four received the Grand Prize for all classes. 

On April 8th, the battahon boarded the Seattle at Brest. Easter Sunday 
found the ship in New York harbor, and at midnight the battahon arrived at 
Camp Upton. Three days later it was transferred to Camp Dix for demobiUza- 
tion. On April 26th the signal men were finally mustered out of service. 

The 406th, which many of its friends and members still called the First Tele- 
graph Battalion, ceased to exist as an active military unit, having completed just 
two years of service — twenty months of which had been spent overseas. These 



Photo by D. Sarsent Etll. 

Final Reinew of Hie 



'mill Ti-lei]n,ph lialliilion. 



men had laid down their telephone tools to serve their country. After two years 
of absence they again took up their work, richer by their experience in having 
shared in the fight to preserve democracy. 



THE STATE FENCIBLES liN THE WORLD WAR* 

The State Fencibles, having responded to every call for duty since its organiza- 
tion in 1813, and seeing the part the United States were destined to play in the World 
War, passed a resolution on March 28, 1917, requesting authority from the Mayor 
of the City of Philadelphia to increase the command from a battalion of four com- 
panies to a full regiment. This permission was granted on April 2, 1917, and 
recruiting was at once begun. 

By April 14, 1917, the regiment had been fully organized, recruited and partly 
equipped, and on that day, 1,200 men were paraded and reviewed by the Mayor 
of the City of Philadelphia and by members of Councils and citizens generally, from 
the West Plaza of City Hall. The services of this regiment were immediately 
tendered to the Governor of the State of Pennsylvania to form part of its quota, 
and to the President of the United States; also to Colonel Theodore Roosevelt, 
who was at this time attempting to form a division, to be known as the Roosevelt 
Expeditionary Forces, for immediate service in France. 

At the opening of the war the authorities at Washington found themselves 
divided into two groups, one favoring the volunteer system, and the other, the 
selective draft. The final decision of Congress, in favor of the selective draft, made 
it impossible for the State Fencibles' Regiment to enter the service as a unit. 
The regiment up to this time had been recruited to 1,960 officers and men. "I 
regret," said Colonel Theodore Roosevelt in a letter addressed to the State 
Fencibles, "from the standpoint of the country that your services were not utilized. 
But the country has every reason to be proud of the zeal, patriotism and business- 
like efficiency with which you came forward. " 

The Fencibles later deemed it advisable to permit the various members to 
select other branches of the service so that the organization would be properly 
represented in this conflict. 

The members of the Fencibles later entering the service were mustered at Fort 
AUen, Camp Brown. Columbus Barracks, Camp Dix, Frankford Arsenal, Camp 
Green, Camp Hill, Camp Hancock, Camp Humphreys, Camp Jackson, Camp 
Johnston, Fort Jay, Camp Lee, Camp Meade, Camp Merritt, Pliiladelphia Navy 
Yard, Camp Slocum, Camp Upton, Camp Vail and Wissahickon Barracks. 

Its members were represented in the United States Regular Army, National 
Guard, National Army, United States Navy, Marine Corps and Naval Reserve, 
serving in England, Italy, France, Germany and United States. 

Of the number originally recruited, it has been found impossible to trace all, 
but from the records now available, 960 entered the service during the war. Of 
this number thirty-seven were killed or died of disease and 186 were wounded. 

To the members of the Fencibles there were awarded the Distinguished 
Service Cross, British War Cross, ItaUan War Cross and Croix de Guerre. 

'Summarized from "Spectemur Agendo" by Colonel Thomas S. Lanard. 

170 



After the close of the war twenty-eight men remained in the service and 
were transferred to the regular Army and Navy. 



PIONEER INFANTRY REGIMENTS 
By Major Louis L. Tafel 

Among the Combatant Troops bearing an important part in the great American 
drives which helped to end the war were numerous regiments of Pioneer Infantry 
— a combination of infantry and engineers — among whom were many officers and 
men from Philadelphia and its vicinity. 

Major C. W. Davis, in his "Story of the 1st Pioneer Infantry, U. S. A.," has 
given the following concise and excellent description of this new branch of the ser- 
vice: 

"Pioneer troops, as the term was used in our Army, may be described as regi- 
ments trained and equipped as infantry to be used as troops of emergency, either 
for combat or simple engineering construction. The American General Staff, 
late in 1917, decided to form a number of infantry regiments to be attached to the 
headquarters of the Armies and Army Corps then in process of formation, and to call 
these Corps and Army Troops 'Pioneer Infantry.' Infantry regiments had always 
been attached to Corps and Army headquarters and, as has been shown, it was a 
logical step to call them Pioneers. The regiments could be used for such special 
work as the Army or Corps Commander might direct, trained and armed for con- 
struction or combat, and instantly available in cUiy emergency without destroying 
the tactical solidarity of the divisions." He adds: "The general idea of the 
European armies was to use as pioneers those troops who would be more skilled 
in the requirements of simple field construction than infantry and not so technical 
as the engineers; the heavy losses in purely technical troops having seriously 
inconvenienced their operations. " 

On the 4th of January, 1918, under an order of General Guy Carleton, com- 
manding the ProN-isional Depot for Corps and Army troops, at Spartanburg, S. C, 
there was organized the 1st Pioneer Infantry from what remained of the old 1st New 
York, under command of Colonel Jas. S. Boyer. The 2d, .3d, 1th and 5th Pioneer 
Infantry were formed from National Guard regiments which had been skeletonized 
in the creation of the new war strength regiments in the various divisions. All 
these Pioneer regiments were then completed by the transfer of officers and men 
from the Reserve Corps and National Army, and these regiments were designated 
as "Corps Troops," to be attached to the several Army Corps. There were or- 
ganized, in a similar manner, from these former National Guard regiments, other 
regiments, to be attached to the several Field Armies, called "Army Troops," 
numbered respectively from 51 to 65. Among the Philadelphians in the 1st Pioneer 
Infantry were Majors George Blair and Louis L. Tafel; Captain Lelan M. Haller 
and Lieutenants Charles P. Delp, Thomas A. Logue, William May, James S. Smith, 
Jr., and Francis J. Harrity. In the other Pioneer regiments, Philadelphia was 
likewise well represented. Nearly all of these regiments saw service 
overseas. Later, there were certain other regiments of Pioneers for con- 
struction work, bearing numbers over 800. which also rendered good 
service. 

180 



Overseas the Pioneers sometimes operated with the infantry, or as part of the 
reserve, but usually they worked with the engineers in building and repairing 
bridges, roads, camouflage screens and trenches, cutting wire entanglements and 
keeping open the communications over the spongy, shell-torn roads for the troops, 
artillery, ambulances, ammunition and supplies, often under the fire of artillery, 
machine guns and airplanes, and bearing their inevitable share of the casualties. 

The 1st Pioneer Infantry served with the 1st and 3d Army Corps during the 
Oise-Aisne, Aisne-Marne and Meuse-Argonne olTensives; and during the St. Mihiel 
and Meuse-Argonne drives, a number of these Pioneer regiments rendered valiant 
service, advancing with the infantry and later making and maintaining roads 
and bridges over No Man's Land for the miles and miles of troops, artillery, 
ambulances, wagons and ammunition trucks pressing to and from the advancing 
lines. The importance of this work is evidenced by the words of General Drum 
in his talk on "The Great American Offensive," when he states, in connection 
with the work near Montfaucon, on September 26, 1918, "Pioneers were collect- 
ing stone with their bare hands and throwing it on the road, and every handful of 
stone they put in was worth a hundred bullets." Working furiously, day and 
night, with little rest or food, during those first momentous days of that great 
attack, the Engineers and Pioneers opened and maintained the great Victory Road 
over No Man's Land, so that our Army could continue its advance, day after day, 
until the armistice found it well across the Meuse. 

It was, therefore, eminently fitting that several regiments of Pioneer Infantry 
should be chosen as part of that veteran Army of Occupation which made the 
memorable march to the Rhine and occupied the American sector in Germany, 
holding the bridgehead at Coblenz. It fell to the lot of the 1st Pioneers to cross 
the Rhine with the 3d Corps and to be the first American troops to occupy the 
great German fortress of Ehrenbreitstein, often called "The Gibraltar of the 
Rhine." 

As these Pioneer "Corps and Army Troops" were not an integral or permanent 
part of any particular division, the record of their achievements has often been over- 
looked. Nevertheless, no troops had a better record for duty earnestly and bravely 
performed in the face of hardships and danger than these same sturdy Pioneers, as 
they manfully struggled, day after day to carry out the part assigned to them in 
the "Great Adventure," which has added such a glorious chapter to our 
American history. 

54TH PIONEER INFANTRY 
By Major David B. Simpson 

January 5, 1918, marked the demise of the old 71st Infantry, New York Na- 
tional Guard, and the inception of the 51th Pioneer Infantry to Camp Wadsworth, 
South Carolina, the 1st Battalion of which was almost exclusively Philadelphian 
in personnel. The 3d Battalion was commanded by a Philadelphia officer. 
Major David B. Simpson. 

Its Commander, Colonel WiUiam G. Bates, a veteran of long service in the 
Army and National Guard, held fast to his regimental band and the very best of 
his non-commissioned officer personnel, which gave him a skeletonized regiment 
around which could be built an exceptionaUy fine organization. 

181 



On January 6, 1918, when it was assigned to Corps and Army troops, majors 
and captains from National Guard camps all over the country arrived and were 
assigned. They were followed by a quota of first and second lieutenants from 
the Reserve Officers' Training Camps and others who had been commissioned from 
the ranks in the Regular Army. 

Until June, the officers and specially selected non-commissioned officers at- 
tended engineering schools to fit them for the work they were to do later in a practi- 
cal way overseas. 

In July it received 3,300 selective service men. chiefly from Minnesota and 
Pennsylvania, and the training immediately began. 

The regiment left Camp Wadsworth on August 20th. arriving at Newport 
News the following day. It embarked for France on the transports Diica d'Aoslu 
and the Caseria — the troops being commanded by Colonel Rates and Major Simp- 
son, respectively — on August 29th, and arrived at Rrest, September 12th, where 
it remained in the rest camp area until September 17, when it entrained for the 
the Is-sur-Tille area. 

After a three-day train ride, further movement was stopped when the regi- 
ment arrived at Port d'Ateher, and at this point a shelter tent camp was pitched 
to await further orders. This happened on September 20th, and the following 
day "tin hats" and gas masks were issued. This meamt no training. On Septem- 
ber 22d the regiment, after spending one day in gas-mask drill, again entrained 
for the front. 

September 23d found it at Fleury-sur-Aire, where it detrained at 3 p.m., and 
immediately took cover in an adjacent woods because the Roche planes were 
reconnoitering overhead. Spending that night and all of the following day in the 
same woods, without fires for cooking or any other lights, it finally received orders 
at 7 P.M. to pack up and move for the advanced zone of operations. 

At precisely 9:30 p.m. a march of 15 kilometers began, with the Clermont 
woods in the Argonne forest as the objective. The "hike" was made in six and a 
half hours, along with other units in the one general direction in which all traffic 
was moving. 

On September 25th, while bivouacked in the Clermont woods, the regiment 
not only received its official assignment as 1st Army Troops for engineering work, 
but also its baptism of fire. Its initial battle orders called for it to follow the 28th 
Division when it made its "jump off" on the morning of September 26th. Subse- 
quent orders assigned individual companies to special lines of engineering work. 

Companies D and M were sent to AubreyviUe to assist the 14th and 21st 
Engineers in the construction of narrow-gauge railways, and push forward as the 
advance zone moved northward. The rest of the regiment was assigned for duty 
with the 23d (road) Engineers. 

From the opening to the close of the Meuse-Argonne offensive, September 26th 
to November 11, the regiment remained in the Argonne, constantly subjected to 
shell fire and nightly air raids. It operated as companies always within range 
of the Roche artillery, especially in and around Varennes, Apremont, Montblain- 
ville, Raulny, Charpentry, Very, Malancourt, Cunel and other strategic points 
in that sector. 

Its designation as Army Troops subjected it to being ordered for road work 
with most of the divisions in the west sector of the Meuse-Argonne offensive. 

182 



It operated with the 28th, 35th, 79th, 77th, 78th, 42d, and 2d and with the 1st 
Division in its six weeks in the Argonne. 

On November 1st, when the big drive was started in the Argonne, the regiment 
followed up the fast moving infantry, and repaired roads that had been 
badly damaged by the American "million dollar" barrage which drove the 
Boche back towards the Rhine and brought about the signing of the armistice on 
November 11th. 

As fast as the infantry moved up, the various companies took stations in 
Landres-et-St. Georges; Verpel; Champignelles; Imniicourt, Buzancy and Beau- 
mont in the western sector, and the 2d Battalion was sent to \'auchreville on the 
Verdun front. At these points the several units operated until November, 15th 
when orders were received to concentrate at Dun-sur-Meuse. 

Assigned to Army of Occupation 

All through the night of November 15th and the early part of November 16th 
the various companies began to arrive at Dun-sur-Meuse, and the same day it was 
assigned to the Army of Occupation. The various divisions of the Army of Occu- 
pation were marching towards the Rhine, and the following day the regiment took 
its position in the column as the last element. 

As a part of the column it did not last very long, because orders were received 
by the Commanding Officer to detach his battalions for various duties while en 
route, either to do some road work or concentrate and guard war munitions and 
villages but recently vacated by the Germany Army. 

The regiment was first assigned to the 7th Corps, and its several battalion 
Commanders received orders as follows: 1st Battalion to Virton, Belgium; 2d to 
Briey; and the 3d to Longwy, and await further orders. 

The 1st Battalion concentrated, guarded and took inventory of all German 
property in its area; the second battalion did Ukewise, and also guarded the iron 
mines in its vicinity; the third battahon had the task of the regiment. It entered 
Longwy and took over from the 11th Infantry, the 1st Engineers and the 13th 
Machine Gun Battalion all of the work these organizations had been performing, 
which included the following : Guarding forty miles of railroad ; establishing a civilian 
prison for the French who had been friendly to the Boche during their fifty-two 
months' stay in Longwy; guarding and taking inventory of the largest German 
ration dump and warehouse in France; an aviation field with all equipment; a 
manufacturing plant for gas shells; a mine- throwers' school, and the big "clearing 
house" for repatriated prisoners of war. These prisoners were mostly Russians, 
who had been confined in Boche prison camps since 1914, and they had to be bathed, 
deloused and fed. Every five days a train load of 2,500 was sent with an 
American Army guard and with American rations to the Allied Commission at 
Verdun. 

Remaining at these three points, until December 16th, the Relief orders called 
for another regimental concentration at Longwy, when it was relieved by the 34th 
Infantry at Longwy and 110th Infantry at Briey. 

Still under orders from 7th Corps Headquarters, it proceeded to the vicinity 
of Wittlich, Germany. It arrived at Salmrohr, Germany, on December 22d, where 
it was billeted in fifteen small villages awaiting instructions. On December 29th, 
in pursuant to orders by courier, the regiment was detached from the 7th Corps, 

183 



and assigned to the 3d Army Headquarters, with instructions to finish the rest 
of the trip to the Rhine by rail. 

It entrained in three sections between 3 p.m. and 9 p.m. December 29th, and 
arrived at Coblenz on December 30th at 3 p.m.. making a fifty-seven mile trip 
by rail in twenty-four hours. 

Arriving at Coblenz the regiment was again shattered. Regimental Head- 
quarters, Supply Company, Medical Detachment and Companies A, B, and C 
with 1st Battalion Headquarters were stationed at Coblenz-Neundorf. Company 
D went to Wallersheim. 2d Battalion Headquarters; and Company E to Kessel- 
heim. Company F to St. Sebastian, Company G to tirmitz; Companies H 
and K to Mulheim; Companies I, L and M and 3d Battalion Headquarters 
to Rubenach. 

Spending all of the winter of 1918-19 in the Rhineland at drill, or furnishing 
details for the several quartermaster depots, and squads for demolition of hundreds 
of thousands of Cierman hand grenades, the officers and men of the regiment soon 
recuperated from the hardships endured in the gruelhng days of the Argonne drive, 
with its long marches, constant subjection to shell fire, bombing and machine gun 
fire from the air, and soon became a smart, snappy well drilled, equipped and dis- 
ciplined body of men. 

After "sitting on the World," as the men termed it, for seven months, orders 
were received to detrain for the I^eMans l^]mbarkation Center on May 23, 1919, 
and the regiment concentrated and entrained at Coblenz-Lutzel on May 24th 
en route for home. 

It arrived at LeMans May 28th, had its Memorial Day exercises at Regimental 
Headquarters at Avoise on May 30th, and pulled out for St. Nazaire on June 1st. 
Arriving at St. Nazaire two days later, it partook of all the essential inspections, 
and worked night and day preparing for its homeward trip. For some reason 
this movement was delayed until June 16th, when the entire regiment saw the 
best sight in Europe, i.e.: — the U. S. S. Artemis — which was the ship that brought 
the men home. 

The regiment arrived at Camp Stuart, Newport News, Va., on the morning 
of June 29th, and after another day of inspections and farewells among the officers, 
who came from forty-two states of the Inion and the men who hailed from forty 
states of this country and eight European countries, it was broken up. Irre- 
spective of previous company designation, it was divided into three groups; the 
New York men and New Englanders going to Camp Upton, New York; the 
Pennsylvanians and New Jersey men going to Camp Dix, New Jersey; and all 
others, including Regimental Headquarters, going to Camp Grant, Illinois, for 
final muster out. 

The Philadelphia contingent, numbering 582 officers and men, were brought 
to Camp Dix by Major David B. Simpson, of Philadelphia, who commanded the 
3d Battalion, but whose command was entirely from Minnesota. The Philadel- 
phians served in the 1st Battalion. 

All were demobihzed on July 1st, but awaited the last man's discharge so that 
they could come home in a body. This they did. They were met at Market 
Street Ferry by the Philadelphia Police Band and escorted to the 1st Regiment 
Armory, where they were dismissed. 

During the service of the regiment it lost many men by death, either killed 

184 



or from disease, to say nothing of the men wounded, 
killed or died of disease are the following: 



In the list of Philadelphians 



Company B: Corporal James M. Smith, 121 W. Wyoming \venue. 

Private Pasqualle Balassone, 2:510 Meredith Street. 

Private William B. Pfrommer, 1221 S. 57th Street. 

Private William .1. Perkins, 5219 Knox Street. 
Company C: Corporal Joseph J. Maguire. 1801 E. Adams Street. 

Bugler Harry McCain, 1832 E. Wishart Street. 

Private John B. Wilkinson, 530 Brinton Street. 
Company D: Private William Buckius, 2528 Martin Street. 

Private Harvey Fitzgerald, 516 1 Marvin Avenue. 

Private Edward I. Garrity, 1089 Lancaster Avenue. 
Company H: Private Lantus Johnson, 1525 McKean Street, died aboard U. S. S. Caseriu. 
en route to France. 

FIRST TROOP PHILADELPHIA CITY CAVALRY 1917-1919 

The First Troop Philadelphia City Cavalry has had a continuous military 
existence since November 17, 1774, when it was organized in anticipation of the 
American Revolution, and has taken part as an organization in every war involving 
the I iiited States in which volunteer tinops were employed. 

During the Revolution it took pari in the battles of Trenton and Princeton 
and served during the advance to winter quarters at Morristown, N. J., acting 




TJie King of the Belgiims with Mayor Smilh, escorted by the "City Troop.' 

185 



as personal escort to General Washington; later it took part in the Battle of Brandy- 
wine and rendered many other services durinjj the war. In the War of 1812, the 
Troop, four days after news of the declaration of war reached Philadelphia, offered 
its services to the Federal Government and was accepted. Its principal service 
was in 1814, when it was on duty in the neighborhood of Elkton. Md.. and 
Chesapeake Bay, guarding against the advance of the British troops which at that 
time held Washington. 

In the Civil War, the Troop volunteered on April 15, 1861, and was accepted 
in May for three months' service, it being the only volunteer cavalry fully equipped 
with horses and arms ready for immediate service. Upon the completion of this 
service practically the entire personnel received commissions and served as officers 
of various ranks. In the Spanish War in 1898 it volunteered and served as a unit 
throughout the entire war; it took part in the Porto Rican campaign, being attached 
to General Brooke's column. 

Just prior to the declaration of war upon Germany by the United States 
in 1917, the Troop, under the command of Captain J. Franklin .McFadden, its 
nineteenth Captain, had returned from Camp Stewart. El Paso, Texas, after 
six months' active service on the Mexican border as a unit of the National Guard 
of the United States, and was mustered out of Federal service into State service 
on January 22, 1917. In March, 1917, in anticipation of the war against 
Germany, practically all the enlisted members of the Troop applied for 
examination and appointment as reserve officers. When these examinations 
were suspended shortly after the declaration of war, about half of the Troop had 
already taken the examinations and had been reconnnentU'd for commissions. 
They and those who had not yet been examined attended the First Officers' 
Training Camp at Fort Niagara, which opened May 15, 1917, first having obtained 
discharges from the National Guard for that purpose, and at end of the three 
months' training were commissioned or recommissioned in various branches of 
the service. A large proportion of these officers were assigned to the 79th Division, 
and served with it throughout the war, though many served with other organiza- 
tions. A considerable number of other Troopers served with the 309th Cavalry 
at Fort Sam Houston, Texas, from the time of its organization, and when it was 
disbanded were transferred to the 56th and 57th Regiments of Field Artillery. 

The Active Roll of the Troop, as it was on the return from the Mexican border, 
including those who volunteered for border service, suppUed ninety-six officers 
in the service of the United States. Included in this number are two lieutenant 
colonels, fourteen majors, forty-six captains, twenty-eight first lieutenants, four 
second lieutenants and two officers in the Navy. In addition, the non-active 
and honorary membership of the Troop furnished thirty -five officers from the grade 
of colonel to that of first lieutenant. Three others served as officers in the Navy. 

Decorations and Citations 

For gallantry in action and for meritorious service a number of decorations and 
honors were awarded to members of the Troop. Harry Ingersoll and Effingham 
B. Morris, Jr., received the Distinguished Service Cross; Harold M. Willcox, the 
Navy Cross; George McFadden, the Distinguished Service Medal; J. Franklin 
McFadden, John Houston Merrill, Effingham B. Morris, Jr., and Barclay H. War- 
burton, the Cross of the Legion of Honor (French); John C. Groome, the Order 

186 



of the Bath (British), the Distinguished Order of St. Michael and St. George (Brit- 
ish), the Order of St. Vladimir (Russian), the Order of the Black Star (French), 
the Croix de la Liberte (Esthonian); Robert Glendinning, the Order of the Crown 
of Italy; Schofield Andrews and Effingham B. Morris, Jr., the Croix de Guerre 
(French): and Norton Downs, Jr., the Italian War Cross of Merit. For faithful 
performance of duty, Schofield Andrews was cited in General Orders by the Com- 
mander-in-Chief, American Expeditionary Forces; for especially meritorious and 
conspicuous service, John Houston Merrill was awarded a certificate by the Com- 
mander-in-Chief. WiUiam W. Bodine, Joseph N. DuBarry, Edward Law and 
Edward W. Madeira were mentioned in orders by their Division Commanders. 

Seventy-nine members of the Troop served overseas and fifty took part in 
engagements. Three Troopers fell in action and three others died in active 
service; seven were wounded. Those who lost their lives in the war were: 

Phinehas P. Clirystie, Captain, 312th Field Artillery 

Norton Downs, Jr., First Lieutenant, Air Service 

Thomas Graham Hirst, First Lieutenant, 151st Field Artillery 

Edward IngersoU, Captain. Air .Service 

Harry IngersoU, Captain, 31.3th Infantry 

Frank F. Battles, Captain, 314tb Infantry 

The Volunteer National Guard Troop 

In order to replace in the National Guard Troop, the members of the Old Troop 
who had been discharged to accept commissions, the Troop Officers, in April, May 
and June, 1917, enlisted 102 volunteers. This \ olunteer Troop, under the name of 
"First Troop Philadelphia City Cavalry" commanded by Captain George C. 
Thayer, the twentieth Captain of the Old Troop, was drafted into Federal service in 
August of 1917, as one of the component units of the First Regiment of Cavalry of 
the Pennsylvania National Guard Division, with which it went to Camp Hancock, 
Georgia, where the Division was reorganized as the 28th Division. In November, 
1917, the cavalry regiment was disbanded and the Troop assigned as Head- 
quarters Troop, 28th Division. It served in this capacity for only a few weeks 
before it was replaced, and the personnel of the Troop transferred to the 103d 
Engineers. Shortly afterwards the former officers and men of the Troop, 
with additional personnel from other troops of the former cavalry regiment, 
were assigned to the 103d Trench Mortar Battery of the 53d Field Artillery 
Brigade (28th Division). In the course of the winter all of the Troop Officers 
were transferred to other organizations, and a considerable number of the men at- 
tended officers' training schools and received commissions. Practically all those 
who were commissioned were assigned to the 28th Division, which rendered gallant 
service in France. 

The Battery, after a long period of training went to France with the 
28th Division in May, 1918, and served in the fine near Fismes on the Vesle in Au- 
gust: and in the Meuse-Argonne offensive, just east of the Argonne Forest, from 
September 26th to October 9th. It was then sent to Belgium and served there, 
until the armistice, with the 53d Field .\rtillery Brigade, which supported the 91st 
Division in the Ypres-Lys offensive. 

Of those who volunteered in 1917, forty -nine in the course of war were com- 
missioned officers. Six fell in action ; three others died in service. 

187 



Those who lost their Hves were: 

James A. Bonsack, Second Lieutenant. 109th Infantry 
William S. Bonsai, First Lieutenant, llOlh Infantry 
Richard Stockton Bullitt, Second Lieutenant, 110th Infantry 
Orville S. Kidwell, Sergeant First Class, Quartermaster Corps 
Dallas W. Koons, Private, Company A, ^0'2d Tank Battalion 
Nelson \V. Perine, Second Lieutenant, 110th Infantry 
Frederic B. Prichett, Second Lieutenant, 109th Field Artillery 
Carl Daniel Schnioize, Bugler, 103d Trench Mortar Battery 
Taylor Everly Walthour, Corporal, 103d Trench Mortar Battery 

The total contribution of First Troop Philadelphia City Cavalry to the military 
and naval service of the United States in the World War was 242 men, of whom 
183 were commissioned officers. 

The present officers of the Troop (1921) are: Captain, Clement B. Wood (the 
twenty -second Captain) ; First Lieutenant, W. West Frazier, 3d; Second Lieutenant, 
Effingham B. Morris. Jr.. and Cornet, John B. Thayer. 

THE UNITED STATES ABMY AMBULANCE SERVICE 
By Fr.\ncis F. Bodine 

In the summer of 1918, during the height of America's activities in the World 
War, an officer on the tieneral Staff at Chaumont was heard to query, '"What 
in the devil is the United States Army Ambulance Service.'*" The annals of the 
part played by America in the World War would tend to show that this ig- 
norance of the identity of this organization prevailed in many quarters, notwith- 
standing the fact that the L nited States Army Ambulance Service was not the 
least in importance of the various units of the A. E. F. 

The LInited States Army Ambidance Service was an organization formed 
originally for the purpose of supplying ambulance units to the French Army. 
After the sailing of the third overseas contingent for France, it was decided to send 
a contingent of thirty anibulancc sections to Italy. The French branch numbered 
about eighty-one sections: the Italian branch thirty sections; and each maintained 
its own headquarters under the command of a chief of service with the rank of 
colonel. 

When the first French High Commission arrived in Washington in May, 1917, 
General Joffre was asked by the then Siu-geon General what the LInited States 
Army Medical Department could do for P'rance; his reply was a request that the 
United States shoidd undertake the responsibility of handling the wounded of the 
French armies at the front. As a result of this request, the organization of the 
United States Army Ambulance Corps (later known as service instead of corps) 
was effected. 

During May, 1917, a recruiting headquarters for the Ambulance Corps was 
opened in Cooper Battalion Hall. Philadelphia, under the command of Lieutenant 
Colonel E. E. Persons, who chose for his _Vides Dr. Clarence P. Franklin and Dr. 
Arthur W. Yale. Philadelphia was for a time the center of the recruiting for the 
Corps; but appeals were sent out to men of the universities and colleges all over 
the country, who responded in large numbers, in many instances forming entire 
units. 

188 



The site chosen for the training camp of the Ambulance Corps was the Fair 
Grounds at Allentown, Pa., which were situated on the edge of that city and 
made an ideal place for a camp. The large exhibition buildings, stables, etc., 
were easily transformed into excellent barracks; the large brick grandstand 
had a great area beneath the seats which was utilized as a mess hall; while the race 
track proved a natural drill grounds. 

It would be diflicult at this time to give separately the part played by indi- 
vidual Philadelphians and Philadelphia units in the Ambulance Corps. Suffice 
to state that there were a number of entire units from Philadelphia. At the open- 
ing of the camp in June, 1917, Philaddpliia units were the first to go into training. 

Upon the removal of Colonel Persons' headquarters from Philadelphia to Allen- 
town, the Corps was organized on the basis of sections of thirty-six men each com- 
manded by a first lieutenant. Several sections formed a battalion, commanded 
by a captain, one of which was commanded by Captain Wai'd Brinton of Phila- 
delphia. Later these sections were increased from thirty-six to forty-five men. 
In France, the strength of each section was reduced to thirty-seven men. Twenty- 
Ford ambulances comprised an ambulance train. (In France, these sections went 
under the French designation of S. S. U.) 

Short K after the organization of the Corps, a personnel was sent to France 
to establish a headquarters for the Corps there. Brigadier General Kean, who 
was later succeeded by Lieutenant Colonel Percy L. Jones, was assigned as Chief 
of Service. An early task confronting him after his arrival there was the absorp- 
tion of the American Field Service by the Ambulance Corps. In the assimilation 
of the American Field Service the Ambulance Corps had now within itself several 
ambulance sections comprised of volunteers who, serving without pay, had carried 
more than 500,000 French wounded between the years 1914 and 1917; men whose 
unselfish devotion to a then foreign cause, and whose valor and heroism had won 
citations from the French (iovernment for their units more than fifty times; and 
upon more than 250 of the drivers was conferred the Croix de Guerre, while five 
others received the JMedaille Militaire. the highest honor for military valor given 
in France. 

In the meanwhile at Allentown the Corps was thoroughly organized on a firm 
military basis, equipped, and uniformed. The time was given to foot, stretcher, and 
ambulance drills, sanitary lectures, and hikes. A military band was formed under 
the supervision of Lieutenant W. E. Baken. a Philadelphian, to instill in the breasts 
of the rank and file that proper military enthusiasm which martial music never 
fails to inspire. 

The first contingent of ambulance sections sailed for France in August, 1917. 
The second was scheduled to leave a short time later; but after preparations were 
complete the sailing orders were canceled, the second contingent broken up. a 
portion of which sailed in October, while the remainder, with other sections, formed 
a third contingent, which sailed in January, 1918, from ^ew York on the Cannuinu, 
reaching France by way of England. 

Of the activities of the French and Italian branches of the Corps (now called 
Service), lack of space prevents more than a cursory touch being given. The French 
branch first maintained a base camp near Paris, but in February, 1918, the 
base camp was changed t(j a famous old monastery in the village of Ferreriers. sixty 
kilometers from Paris. Headquarters was maintained in Paris, as was also the garage. 

189 



With the signing of the armistice (jn November 11, 1918. the Ambulance Ser- 
vice in France had estabh'shed an enviable record for service on the frf)nt. Am- 
bulance sections had served in practically every important engagement, and on 
every portion of th(! battle front from the Dutch border to the southern end of 
the line. For the most part, these sections served with French divisions, but at 
limes several operated with American divisions. In an attack ambulance drivers 
would be on the road day and night incessantly, operating from a point well up at 
the front to a base hospital distant from the lines anywhere from twelve to 
(ift> miles. The roads these ambulances traveled over were usually rough, broken, 
muddy affairs (in Flanders, in the vicinity of Ypres. the ambulances invariably 
wallowed Ihrough seas of mud). 

Th(! Fren('h branch of the Service paid u hca\.\ toll in dead and wounded. 
Thi' casualty list was a long one; many sections, too, suffered heavy losses in am- 
bulances destroyed by shell fire. The record for gallantry in action was also a long 
(jne. Many citations were made for entire sections, while 80 per cent of the per- 
sonnel of the entire Service were cited in the orders of the French Government; 
in a number of instances awards of the Distinguistied Service Cross by the American 
(iovernment were receivi-d. The lirst of any American unit abroad to receive; 
the famous French fourragere was an ambulance section, S. S. U. 646, which w(m 
that decoration for work in llie attack at the Chemin fles Dames in October, 1917. 
Sections 501, .■j02, .jOj, and .501, all Philadelphia sections, received sectional, and 
many individuals, citations for the Croix de Guerre. 

A very conspicuous part was pcrfornicd, duiing llic hcit'lit of activities. })y a 
Philadelphia section, S. S. U. 502. I nder the command of Lieutenant D. L. llath- 
way, this section was working with an American division in the vicinity of Chateau- 
Thierry. During an attack, Lieutenant Hathway and fifteen men were overcome 
by mustard gas, and Private Arthur L. Cannon was killed; but the remnant of tiie 
section "carried on" to such a degree that the Division Surgeon wrote a letter tf) 
the Commanding Oflicer of t}i(! Divisifin ralliriL' attention to "tlie superb work of 
Lieutenant llalhway and S. S. I . 502 duiing the battle of July 18-2.'5."' going on 
to slate that "these ambulances have been veritable mechanical litter-bearers, 
traversing zones hitherto considered passable only by littei-bearers on foot." 

It is regrettable that lack of time prevents the historiar) from securing more 
information concerning the activities of other Philadelphia sections, and the con- 
spicuous action of Philadelpliians. on tlie French front. Names of Philadelphian 
ambulance drivers appear on the list of those cited for valor; many, too, a])pearon 
the list of those whose names are set apart in immor fal distinction — the wounded 
and the dead. 

Under date of .lune 29, 1918, the newspapers of I he I nited States carried a 
Washington dispatch to thr- effect that "an American J]xpeditionary Force has 
arrived in Italy." This body of troops referred to was the Italian branch of the 
fniled States Army Ambulance Service, consisting of thirty ambulance sections 
under the command of Colonel Persons, who had organized the Service in 
Allentown. 

( pon the debarkation of the Ambulance Service in Genoa, Italy, a headquar- 
ters was established in one of the most famous old palaces of Italy — the ducal 
j)alace of the Cionzagas in the city of Mantua. In (jenoa. ambulances were as- 
sembled by the Mechanics Detachment with remarkable celeril> and assigned to 

1 90 



sections who, within a short space of time, were reporting to ItaUan divisions on 
the difterent portions of the Italian battle-fronts. 

There were no distinct Philadelphia units in tlie Italian branch uf the Service, 
bul there were many Philadelphians in the various units. Lieutenant Colonel 
Franklin was second in command to Colonel Persons, while Captain (later Major) 
W. K. Raken, also from Philadelphia, was in command of the Hospital Detachment 
which was established in the MUa Raggio in Cornigliano. 

Like the Ambulance Service in France, the Italian branch soon established a 
wonderful reputation for itself. Owing to the nature of the country in which the 
fighting was carried on, it is not improbable that the sections in Italy had more 
(lifiiculty in jjeiforming the evacuations of the wounded than the sections in 
France, for the latter had, in most instances, smooth or rolling country: in Italy 
there were the steep slopes of mountains to work on. But in spite of this 
natural handicap, the sections w(jrked steadily and faithfully in the various 
campaigns on the Italian fronts. Entire sections were not only commended 
repeatedly by the Italian division, corps, and army commanders, but received 
numerous awards of the Italian War Cross. 

Perhaps the best impression of the work performed by the Service in Italy 
can be given by a brief account of the records of a few of the sections. On Mount 
Grappa, sometimes styled the "(iibraltar of the front," one ambulance section 
worked for days and nights without pausing an instant, evacuating the wounded 
over roads always under shell fire and quite often lined for long stretches with 
mutilated bodies of mules and soldiers. The record established by one and)ulance 
section was 17,488 patients carried, and 54,355 miles traveled in four months. The 
record of another was 10,338 patients; a third, 33,034 patients with 156,128 
kilometers covered, 104,082 kilometers of which were traveled at nighl time. 
Still another record was 33,377 patients and a total mileage covered of 122,235 
between August, 1918, and January, 1919. 

The emblem of the Italian branch of the Ambulance Service was the Lion of 
St. Mai'k; that of the French branch, the famous Cock of \ erdun. With the sign- 
ing of the armistice, sections of both brtuiches continued to do evacuation work 
with their respective combat units until recalled to the base to prepare for the re- 
turn to the States. This was effected in the late spring of 1919, and on reaching 
the States the men, irrespective of units, were sent to the nearest demobilization 
camp and from thence to their homes. 

Tile Allentown camp, known as Camp Crane in 1918, was under the command 
of Major (later Lieutenant Colonel) Richard Slee, after the departure of the 
Italian contingent for Italy. The camp was turned into a strictly medical camp, 
and men were in training f(jr all branches of the servic(>. These men were taken 
principally from the medical camps at Fort Oglethorpe, Georgia, and Fort Riley, 
Kansas. Most of them were draft troops, although considerable numbers were still 
enlisting for this work. They were trainerl for laboratory units, field hospital 
units, evacuation hospital units, and organizations to conduct base hospitals far 
behind the lines. 

When the members of the French and Italian branches of the Ambulance 
Service were looking forward to the return to America, it was the cherished hope 
of all that they would be sent back to Camp Crane for demobilization; but 
their hopes were not realized, as the War Department at Washington decided to 

191 



close the camp, which was done liy Colonel Richard Slee on \pril 10, 1919, at 12 
o'clock noon. 

PHILADELPHIA BRANCH, MILITARY INTELLIGENCE DIVISION, 

GENERAL STAFF 

In August, 1917, John W. Geary was appointed an Agent of the Mihtary 
Intelligence Service for Philadelphia. In December of the same year. Colonel 
R. H. Van Deman, Chief of the Military Intelligence Service, decided it would 
be advantageous to open an office in Philadelphia. 

Mr. Geary was commissioned a ( '.aptain. V. S. R., and was instructed to or- 
ganize and take care of the Philadelphia branch office. On December 20th (ieorge 
W. Elkins, Jr., joined Captain Geary, and headquarters were established in Room 
2032, Commercial Trust Building, on January 1. 1918. The Staff on that date con- 
sisted of Captain Geary and Mr. Elkins, a telephone operator and a stenographer. 
The work increased with such rapidity that the force and office space had to be 
continually increased until, at the time of the signing of the armistice, the force 
numbered approximately one hundred and the entire twentieth floor of the 
Commercial Trust Building was required for office space. 

During the month of January, George L. Harrison, Jr., Edgar W. Baird, 
Dr. Charles D. Hart, Morton H. Fetterolf and Joseph Haines, Jr., offered their 
services, and were accepted, as volunteers in the Philadelphia brauch of the Mili- 
tary Intelligence Service. 




0(/jr<7'.v uj I'lnladi-lijliia iinuiih. Military Inlclliyence. 
192 



The Philadelphia ofTire. at its inception, had under its jurisdiction the territory 
as far west as Pittsburgli in the State of Pennsylvania, all of the State of Delaware 
and all of the State of New Jersey. Later, the northern part of New Jersey was 
taken over liy tlie Alilitary Tntellif^'cnce OfTice in Hoboken, where the closer proximity 
enabled the handling' of work with greater dispatch. The work of the outlying 
districts was handled by volunteer agents, cooperating with the Pennsylvania 
State Constabulary under Supt. George B. Lumb. Satisfactory cooperation was 
also estabhshed witli the branches of Naval Intelligence, Aide for Information, 
Department of Justice, all local Federal offices and organizations engaged in war 
work. 

Acting under advices from the Director of Military Intelligence in Washington, 
upon information obtained locally or from other parts of the country, the work 
of this office was varied and manifold. It embraced cases of those under suspicion 
of being (Jerman or enemy agents, violators of the "Trading with the Enemy Act, " 
revolutionary propaganda, radical labor cases, conscientious objectors and paci- 
fists, tampering with soldiers, draft evasions and deserters, the impersonation of 
officers, both American and foreign, cjuestions of graft and fraud in the Army, 
and many others. In addition to these functions, a Counter Espionage Organiza- 
tion was developed in the various military units in Pliiladelphia — this territory 
being, probably, the greatest industrial center in tlie country and filled with manu- 
facturing plants doing Government work for all departments of the Army, partic- 
ularly, the Ordnance Department and the ()uartermasters" Depot. The employes 
in these plants represented all the elements of the foreign races, including large num- 
bers of Germans, Austrians and Russians, also representatives of all the Latin 
and Slavic peoples. Consequently, during the war the field for sabotage, propa- 
ganda and enemy activity was a dangerous and an important one. This work, 
combined with the difi'erent service of the Plant Protection Division, under Wm. 
J. McCarron, agent in charge, proved most advantageous, and it can be stated that 
no serious damage or sabotage was committed within the limits of the jurisdiction 
of the Philadelphia office. 

A rigid port control was established September 15, 1918, and it was the function 
of the Military Intelligence to act as advisory to the Port Control officers, who were 
the Collector of Customs for outgoing traffic and the Commissioner of Immigra- 
tion for incoming traffic. It was hoped thus to prevent the entry and departure 
of persons disclosed in the files and investigations of the Intelligence as "unde- 
sirable" travelers. 

The foregoing and many other matters were handled by the Military Intelli- 
gence, though many of its activities did not strictly come under its jurisdiction; 
but as there was no other Government office equipped to handle such cases, they 
were willingly taken on. greatly to the advantage of the local community and 
country at large. 

The work was largely of a confidential and secret nature, and even today it 
is not possible to give to the public the details with their incidents of humor 
and pathos. 

The usefulness of the organization waned after tiie signing of the armistice, 
and the office of the Military Intelligence in Philadelphia, on its war basis, was 
ended on February 28, 1919. 

Its work had been well done, as the following extract from a personal letter 

193 



written by Brigadier General Marlborough Churchill, Director of Military Intelli- 
gence, to Major Geary, dated May 14, 1919, will show: 

"Only those of us who have been on the 'inside' of the Intelligence work can 
have any idea of the magnitude and importance of the Intelligence offices in our 
larger cities, and for this reason it is all the more fitting that I should gladly go on 
record as stating that you and your associates rendered the country and the Army 
distinguished service in a post of great responsibility and successfully contributed 
to the war we waged on the 'Hun at Home'." 

"If the whole story of the war could ever be written, the coimtry would know 
something of which you and your officers, non-commissioned officers, clerks and 
agents accomplished. Such a story is impossible, and this letter seems a poor 
substitute for the reward to which you all are entitled." 

OFFICE FORCE, NOVEMBER 11, 1918. 

Major John W. Geary, U. S. A., 

Commanding Officer. 

Captain Geo. W. Elkins, Jr., U. S. A. First Lieutenant Joseph Haines, Jr., U. S. A. 

Captain Edgar W. Baird, U. S. A. Second Lieutenant W. S. Stokes, U. S. A. 

Captain Ralph Dudley, U. .S. A. Second Lieutenant W. T. Tiers, U. S. A. 

First Lieutenant E. Marshall Scull, U. S. A. Second Lieutenant J. Morgan Lister, U. S. A. 
First Lieutenant M. H. Fetterolf, U. S. A. 

Volunteer Aides (Full Time, $1.00 a Year): Geo. L. Harrison, Jr., M. B. Burton, W. R. 
Landis, J. L. Langsdorf, M. A. Apple, C. M. Rainsford, E. B. Colket, J. S. Lovering, C. P. B. 
Jeffreys, M. A. Schoettle. 

Oat of Town Agents: Grant Weidman, B. Dawson Coleman, Lebanon, Pa.; Bruce Bedford, 
N. Petty, S. Dickinson, Trenton, N. J.; J. S. Parsons, H. II. Gilkyson, Jr., J. B. Emack, Phoenix- 
ville. Pa.; Stanley Bright, G. Howard Bright, Reading, Pa.; Louis C. Madeira, 3d, Wilkes-Barre, 
Pa.; T. I. Snyder, Reading, Pa.; Cornelius Mundy, W. G. Jones, Jr., Wilmington, Del.; W. S. 
Emley, Atlantic City, N. J.; W. V. Barnes, York, Pa.; Parke Davis, Easton, Pa.; Albert G. Rau, 
Bethlehem, Pa.; H. R. Gummey, Jr., Downington, Pa.; George Bright, Pottsville, Pa.; W. P. 
Fisher, Hamburg, Pa. 

Volunteer Aides (Special Service): Dr. C. D. Hart, H. A. Lewis, C. J. Schmidt, John C. 
White, J. M. Reynolds, Martin Bergen, Everett Brown, Dr. Eric Bernhard. 

Investigators: J. H. Sparks, W. G. Petry, J. Laskey, Thomas A. Grady, Robert A. Fleming. 

Clerical Force: The Misses D. Rigg, E. Moore, A. Ryan, M. Davidson, L. Neice, P. Sheaffer, 
A. Kennedy, Mrs. A. M. Ely, Private Mohr. 

Sergeants Intelligence Police: Sergeants Gillespie, Hill, Hughes, C. Davis, McLaughlin, 
Wills, Burnside, Booth, Warren, Adler, Allen, Polk, Salvatori, Haines, Mathews, MacBain, 
D. Davis, Downey, Unfreed. 

THE COLORED MEN OF PHILADELPHIA ANSWER THE CALL* 

The colored men of this city were found in many branches of the service and 
won for themselves high commendation. 

The 92d and 9.3d Divisions were composed of colored men. The 93d Division 
was originally made up of colored National Guardsmen and the 92d Division of 
National Army men. 

368th Infantry. 

The 368th Infantry was a unit in the 92d Division and in it were many 
colored men from Philadelphia. 

•Summarized by the Secretary of the Philadelphia War History Committee from data supplied 
by Dr. De Haven Hinkson, Captain, M. R. C. (inactive) and Lieutenant Egbert T. Scott, M. C. 

194 



This regiment was organized and trained at Camp Meade, Maryland, its 
first complement being furnished by the first draft. After general routine infantry 
training, the regiment left Iloboken, N. J., on June 18, 1918, on the George Wash- 
iuglnti. and arrived at Brest on June 27, 1918. It remained at Camp Pontanazen 
until July 1, 1918, and moved to its training area with Regimental Headquarters at 
Chatillon-sur-Saone and Divisional Headquarters at Bourbonne-les-Bains (Haute 
Marne). 

On July 21, 1918, Colonel W. P. Jackson, then Regimental Commander, was 
promoted to Brigadier General and assigned to the 74th Brigade, of the .37th Divi- 
sion, being succeeded by Colonel Fred R. Brown on August 20, 1918. 

On August 12, 1918, the regiment moved with the entire division to the St. 
Die sector in the Vosges Mountains. On August 24, 1918, a portion of the regiment 
took up its first position in the lines near Docelles (\ osges), and on September 4, 
1918, the first two German prisoners were captured by the regiment. 

On September 20, 1918, the entire Division left the St. Die sector for the 
Argonne. They were relieved by the 81st Division. On September 26. 1918. 
the Argonne Drive began with the 92d Division in reserve. The 368th Infantry 
was ordered into line and began its work by capturing eight prisoners. 

On October 1. 1918, the regiment moved Ijack from the line and started for 
the Marbache sector just south of Metz. At that time this was a defensive sector, 
and offensive operations as planned were halted by the signing of the armistice. 

The regiment was among the first to enter Metz after the armistice, much 
to the admiration of the citizens, many of whom had never seen men of dusky hue. 
Some actually thought that the color was due to paint placed on the skin, and there 
were instances where the curiosity was so great that attempts were made by the 
people of the city to rub the supposed coloring from the faces of these colored Amer- 
icans. 

In December, 1918, the regiment started back to Brest, but, owing to the con- 
gestion it was sent to the Department of Mayenne, arriving there about 
Christmas Day. About the middle of January, 1919, the men were sent to LeMans 
for delousing and then started for the port of embarkation. After about ten days 
at Camp Pontanazen, Brest, the regiment sailed on February 5, 1919. Upon its 
return to the United States, it was sent to Camp Meade and there demobilized. 

Although additional citations have been made since disbanding, nine Distin- 
guished Service Crosses and one Croix de Guerre are known to have been 
received by members of the regiment. The regiment itself received the following 
citation from General Burand (French) for the capture of Binarville (in the 
Argonne) : 

"The prize of the honor of the capture of Binarville rightly goes to the 
.368thlnfantry, U. S. A." 

813th Pioneer Infantry 

The 813th Pioneer Infantry had many Philadelphia colored men of the second 
Draft. The regiment had but little over a month's training at Camp Sherman, 
when it was ordered to France. It left for Camp Mills on September 8, 1918. 
On September 14th, it proceeded to Hoboken and embarked on the transports 
Pocahontas, Finland and Martha Washington. These ships sailed on the following 

1% 



day, with four other ships in their convoy. Arriving at Brest, France, on Septem- 
ber 28. 1918. they remained at Camp Pontanazen for six days, and then went by 
rail to the training area assigned to them in the vicinity of Braux. 

On October 25, 1918, they proceeded to the St. Mihiel sector and helped with 
road construction, often under fire. After the armistice the regiment went up near 
Metz to fill in shell holes and to salvage equipment, etc. On February 28, 1919, 
it was sent to the Argonne to help clear up the battleground and rebury many of 
the men whose bodies had been hurriedly interred at the time of their death. In 
May, 1919, it was transferred to Belleau Woods for the same purpose. Here 
were met women workers for the Y. M. C. A. This was a happy meeting, for the 
men had not seen women of their own race since leaving the United States. 

On June 26, 1919, they started by rail for the port of embarkation at Brest 
and on July 2, 1919, part of the regiment left on the transport Freedom, arriving at 
Newport News, Va., where the regiment was disbanded. 

325th Field Signal Battalion 

This Unit of the 92d Division had in it a number of Philadelphia colored men. 
Its work was largely of a technical nature, and was so well performed as to win 
the commendation of superior officers. 

Officers' Training Camps 

Of the 639 colored officers who were commissioned at the Officers" Training 
Camp at Des Moines, Iowa, Philadelphia had a good representation. Later, train- 
ing camps afforded an opportunity to a number of other Philadelphians to win 
commissions. 

It is interesting to note that about twelve colored Philadelphians still hold 
commissions in the Officers' Reserve Corps. 

350th Field Artillery 

The Philadelphia colored troops who served in the 350th (Light) Field Artillery, 
were commanded by Colonel Walter Prosser. The men were mobilized at Camp 
Dix and were sent to France with very little preliminary training in America. 
However, as soon as they landed on French soil they began intensive training. 

The first guns received were the French 75"s and a few heavy howitzers, and 
by August 10, 1918, when the brigade left for the target range, the men had made 
substantial progress. Headquarters had set October 1st as the date when the 
brigade was to be called upon for active service; but on September 20th it was 
ready, and four days later demonstrated its ability by firing a rolling barrage, a 
defensive barrage at night, and by other ways. 

Nevertheless, a serious problem confronted these troops — there were no means 
of transportation, either horses or motors. The brigade needed twenty-four 
tractors, of which at that time there were but fifty in France. By strenuous efforts 
the required number was secured. Only thirty-six of the 200 necessary trucks and 
231 of the necessary 2,300 horses were available. 

LTnder such conditions, two of the regiments of light artillery were sent to a 
reserve billeting area of the 2d Army near Toul, about fifteen miles from the front. 
They were promptly ordered to move elsewhere to make room for other troops. 

196 



Therefore, they rejoined the 92d Division, borrowed additional trucks and moved 
up to the front. 

Frequently it was impossible to get the guns in position by means of motors 
and many of them were placed by hand, often after the men had hauled them over 
miles of soft slippery ground. 

The 92d Division at this time was holding a sector of abf)ut 9' ■> miles wide, 
on the east bank of the Moselle. It had been supported by the French Artillery 
and by an American Artillery Brigade. These were withdrawn and replaced on 
October 20th by the 167th Brigade. Up to this time the sector had been known 
as a quiet one, into which not more than 500 shells a day were thrown and from 
which about the same number of shells were sent. 

With the arrival of the colored troops, conditions changed. On November 1st 
all the guns were properly placed and from 2,000 to 3,000 shells were fired 
daily. 

In order to deceive the enemy as to the number and place of guns, each battery 
was divided into silent and active platoons, the latter of which did all the firing 
and was constantly changing its location. 

Enemy raids soon began and the artillery iiad its first real opportunity to send 
over a curtain of fire for protection. 

On November .ith some of the Infantry of the Division made a raid in force. 
The notice of this attack was so short that it was necessary to move a regiment 
and a half of the Light Artillery and a half a regiment of Heavy Artillery into new 
positions, from whicii a rolling barrage was sent over by map calculations, a feat 
which called for the highest ability in the use of artillery. 

On November 8th. although the German Envoys were within the American 
lines, arranging for the terms of the armistice, plans were made for a general offen- 
sive, which was made at dawn on the 10th. 

After a heavy preparatory fire, the Infantry of the Division advanced the 
American front lines three kilometers and captured Frehaut and Vouvrette Woods, 
strongly fortified positions, which had resisted two previous attacks by other 
divisions. 

On November 11th an attack on the heights, which were the main defense of 
Metz on the south, was about to be started when hostilities ceased. 

Speaking of the 167th Field Artillery Brigade, Brigadier General John H. 
Sherburne, who commanded it. said: "The brigade never failed to do creditably 
any task it was called upon to do, and many appreciative and flattering things were 
said about it by the military authorities who observed its work. Perhaps the best 
testimony is the fact that when the intelligence officer of the German Division 
opposite came into our lines at the close of hostilities, he refused to believe that 
the artillery supporting the colored infantry was not French Artillery. 

"But perhaps beyond and above the performance of the merely technical 
duties was the splendid morale of the brigade. The courage of the men under 
fire was without criticism. In many instances, gun crews and telephone line men 
showed a notable courage and determination under fire. At all times and under 
all conditions, the men showed a fine cheerfulness and willingness. Their conduct 
was almost flawless, and they left each billet with the good will and affection of the 
French civilians." 

197 



349th Light Field Artillebv 

Philadelphians in this regiment were trained at Camp Dix and were com- 
manded by Colonel O'Neil. 

351sT Heavy Field Artillery 

The men in this regiment were trained at Camp Meade and commanded Ijy 
Colonel Carpenter. 

THE BALDWIN LOCOMOTIVE WORKS' CONTINGENT TO SIBERIA 

That Philadelphians served in practically every United States military and 
naval unit, at home or abroad, is common knowledge. However, it may not be 
known that at the time when the first divisions of American troops were sailing 
eastward, and before the great convoys were rushing men and supplies to the 
eastern front, a picked group of technically trained Philadelphians was proceeding 
westward for service in Siberia. 

The Baldwin Locomotive Works Contingent of the Russian Railway Service 
Corps, a branch of the United States Engineer Corps, comprised of seventy-five 
mechanical and constructing engineers, all skilled in their respective work and care- 
fully selected from The Baldwin Locomotive Works, was formed October 17, 1917, 
and each man commissioned an officer in the Engineer Corps, United States Army, 
November 1, 1917, commissions ranking from second lieutenant to lieutenant 
colonel. 

This contingent was to supervise the re-erection of locomotives and to assist 
in any manner possible to relieve the chaotic conditions in Siberia, and was formed 
on the recommendation of Samuel M. \'auclain. Chairman of the Committee of 
National Defense, now President of The Baldwin Locomotive Works, and S. M. 
Felton, Director General of Military Railroads. 

This force left Philadelphia, Pa., November 9, 1917, accompanied by thirty- 
three Russian interpreters, arrived in San Francisco, Cal., November 14, 1917, 
and was joined at that point by a contingent of 215 officers, railway experts from 
various railroads in the United States, commanded by Colonel G. M. Emerson, 
General Manager, Great Northern Railway. The unit sailed from San Francisco, 
Cal., November 19, 1917, on the United States Army transport Thomas, destinia- 
tion Vladivostok, Siberia, stopping at Honolulu, T. H., November 26, 1917, leaving 
November 30, 1917, and taking a direct route to Vladivostok, via Pacific Ocean, 
Tsugaru Straits, Japan Sea and Bay of Peter the Great, arriving December 14, 
1917. The American Consul, with several Russian officials, came aboard and 
advised that the Bolshevik party was in complete control of that city and condi- 
tions were critical, as there was constant danger of serious outbreaks. Vladivostok 
at this time was in a very congested condition; freight, such as locomotives, 
machinery, tractors, munitions and equipment, wire, etc., was piled in the town 
and on the hillsides. 

The Bolshevik controlled the railroads; and being very unfavorable to any 
attempt to enter Siberia, it was decided to proceed to some port in Japan to acquire 
additional supplies and await developments. Leaving Vladivostok, December 17, 
1917, the contingent arrived at Nagasaki, Japan, December 19, 1917. 

lOR 




The Baldwin ContingenJ. 



As time progressed, conditions in Siberia remained unclianged, and instruc- 
tions were received to quarter in Japan until furtiicr orders and to allow the trans- 
port to return to the United States. The Baldwin contingent was quartered in 
Obama, Japan, thirty-five miles from Nagasaki, until April 15, 1918, when arrange- 
ments were made to return to the United States, as it was unlikely that they could 
fulfill their mission for several years, owing to the disastrous conditions existing 
in Siberia. During the stay in Japan, the commanding officers of the Baldwin 
contingent proceeded to Harbin, Manchuria, to go over the Siberian situation 
with Colonel Emerson and John Stevens, of the Railroad Commission, but 
were unable to make any arrangements for the contingent to commence their 
duties. 

The Baldwin contingent sailed from Nagasaki, Japan, April 16, 1918, stopping 
at Yokohama and Honolulu, arriving at San Francisco, Cal., May 6, 1918, and 
Philadelphia, Pa., May 10, 1918. Some members of this contingent were trans- 
ferred to various branches of the Army and the naval gun batteries, others were 
held in reserve. 

The following men of The Baldwin Locomotive Works were commissioned: 

Lieutenant Colonels: F. Jaspersen, Chas. \V. Werst. 

Majors: B. F. Paist, J. A. Trainor. 

Captains: J. C. Brooke, J. A. Clarke, B. Douglas, W. C. Kipe, Wni. L. Lloyd, W. Byrd 
Page, J. D. Bogers, B. Soinmerville, G. A. Supplee, M. F. Welsh. 

First Lieutenants: W. I,. Fagan, C. Grow, J. W. Hutchinson, P. T. Jones, A. W. Machunas, 
G. Pflueger, G. F. Prendergast, A. Russell, H. B. Snyder. 

Second Lieutenants: J. Ashenfelder, F. Atlee, F. Bailiff, J. A. Barrett, J. J. Brown, R. 

199 



Butler, H. Carter, C. Chapman, Raymond Colesworthy, W. H. Cox, C. Grouse, H. Crouse, 

D. Douf^herly, Geo. J. Dougherty. G. Eberhardt. G. L. Eby, H. Funk, R. Gray, F. Haney. 
G. Haney, W . W . Harri.son. Richard James. Robert Jaiues. Robert Johnson, A. W. Kelly. Earl 
McConisey, F. McGeehan, L. T. Martin, \. B. Mahan, R. I'atton, E. J. Powers, J. I'urcell, H. E. 
Ralletto, R. D. Reese, L. A. Rehfuss, W. C. Rehfuss, .M. Replogle, P. B. Shelmerdine, W. Shraek, 

E. Scheetz, W. A. Snyder, J. W. Stapleton, R. Stoyer, J. F. Stowe, E. J. Tierney, H. Veitz, 
Albert Wagner. E. R. Wagner, E. A. Welsh. R. P. Winn. Walter \\'ilson, J. A. Youngblood. 

In October, 1918, Samuel M. Vauclain was commissioned by Secretary of War 
Baker to organize a contingent to be commissioned into service in the Ordnance 
Department, United States Army, to build and place into service 1500 30-ton 
MARK VIII armored tanks. This contingent was organized and the following 
men of The Baldwin Locomotive Works were commissioned : 

Lieutenant Colonel C. H. Crawford 
Lieutenant Colonel Chas. W. Werst 
Major John L. Tate 
First Lieutenant John V. Applin 

Mr. Vauclain, then Chairman of the Federal Board of Industries, commanded 
this contingent, and it was his desire to command as a civilian, although a commis- 
sion had been offered him by President Wilson. 

The contingent was to be composed of several thousand workmen and to be 
located at Chatcauroux, France. All preliminary work was completed, but 
further work was discontinued on account of the armistice. 



200 




PHILADELPHIA HOSPITAL UNITS 

OLIR important Base Hospitals were organized in Phila- 
delphia, the personnel of which was exclusively or in large 
measure drawn from the Pennsylvania Hospital, the 
University of Pennsylvania Hospital, the Episcopal Hos- 
pital and Jefferson Hospital. A Naval Base Hospital, 
No. 5, was organized at the Methodist Hospital, and 
Hospital I'nit A, formed at the Presbyterian Hospital, 
was the first of its type in the Medical Corps of the 
^ Army. 



BASE HOSPITAL No. 10, U. S. A. 
By E. M. Jefferys, Chaplain 

The inception of Base Hospital No. 10 was in 1916, and was largely the result 
of the practical patriotism of the Pennsylvania Hospital of Philadelphia, the 
Pennsylvania Committee for National Prepari'dness, and of Dr. Richard H. 
Harte, the I nits Director. The Pennsylvania Hospital supplied a large pro- 
portion of the original personnel. The Committee for National Preparedness 




Courtesy of Frank W. 



Biihler, Stanley Co. of America. 

Col. HichanI II. Harle ani Col. Mallliew A. Delaiiev. 



201 



largely furnished the materiel. Dr. Haite was the foreseeing leader and organizer. 
Early in May, 1917, Major Matthew A. Delaney, of the Regular Army, was placed 
in command. Miss Margaret A. Dunlop was appointed Chief Nurse. Some of 
the most distinguished members of the medical profession in Philadelphia were 
commissioned, and assigned to duty with this hospital unit. Dr. Jefferys, the 
rector of St. Peter's Church, Philadelphia, was appointed its Chaplain by the 
President on May 3d. A few days, therefore, after war was declared Base Hos- 
pital No. 10 was ready to move at a moment's notice. 

On Wednesday, May 16th. orders were received for the Unit to leave Phila- 
delphia on the 18th. This day of departure proved to be bright and clear. The 
Unit left Philadelphia from the West Philadelphia station of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad at 10 a.m. Many friends were there to see the first organization from 
l^hiladelphia leave for the front. There were no stragglers, every officer, every 
nurse and every enlisted man being on hand. The Unit detrained in Jersey City, 
and after lunch crossed to New York by ferry-boat to the dock where the Si. Paul 
was lying, the ship which was to take them across the Atlantic. DiscipUne in the 
Unit was good from the beginning, and although shore-leave was granted to many, 
no one failed to respond to roll-call at 6 a.m. on the 19th. 

On the iS7. Paul, besides Base Hospital No. 10, there was the Hospital Unit 
No. 21, from St. Louis, and an Orthopedic Unit. Some civilians were also on 
board. The 5/. Paul mounted several six-pounders and four four-pounders for 
defense against submarines. These guns were in charge of a lieutenant and a 
detachment of blue-jackets from the Navy. 

The Unit sailed from New York on Saturday, May 19, 1917, at noon. The 
trip was uneventful. The time was occupied with some setting-up exercises, efforts 
at driUing and the inoculation of the members with various sera. The Chaplains 
of Base Hospitals 10 and 21 held reUgious services every evening in the dining- 
saloon, which were largely attended. Early Sunday morning many attended a 
celebration of the Holy Communion in the ship's Ubrary, and a crowded general 
service was held afterwards in the dining-room. 

On Saturday, May 26th, at about 9 o'clock in the morning. Destroyer No. 59, 
of the American Navy, was sighted, and was greeted with cheers. Later in the day 
another American destroyer joined the first. After a few hours these destroyers 
departed, and British destroyers took their place. The St. Paul, in approaching 
the Irish coast, was so well guarded that no trouble was experienced from the sub- 
marines which infested those waters. 

On Sunday, May 27th, the ship entered the Mersey, and at 6.15 p.m. docked 
at Liverpool, too late for Base Hospital No. 10 to disembark. On the following 
morning. May 28th, the Unit left the ship at 7.30. The enhsted personnel and a 
few officers were sent to Blackpool. The officers and nurses were provided with 
accommodations at the Northwestern and Adelphi hotels, respectively. Colonels 
Begbie and Johnson of the British Army were in charge of the reception and 
accommodations, and everything was done promptly and efficiently for the Unit's 
comfort. The English people gave the Unit a cordial welcome wherever it ap- 
peared. They openly showed their pleasure at the sight of American uniforms, 
the Unit being one of the first American outfits to go overseas in the Great War. 
At Blackpool the enlisted men received instruction in the use of gas masks and 
were put through the fitter drill. Amusements and entertainments were pro- 

202 



vided for them. It was said that they made a most favorable impression on the 
British officers and men stationed there. The detachment remained in Blackpool 
twelve days. It was then sent on by train to Southampton. At Oxford twenty 
minutes were given for refreshments. The detachment was embarked on the 
Northwestern Miller (a ship which in peace times had pUed between Philadelphia 
and London), her cargo consisting of 1,800 men, 750 horses and mules, and her 
hold filled with high explosives. The Northwestern Miller reached Le Havre on 
June 11th. 

The officers and nurses left at Liverpool had a few days there, and were then 
sent by train to London, where they became the guests of the British Government, 
and were royally welcomed and entertained. Advantage was taken of the time 
in London by medical officers, the chaplain and the nurses to visit some of the great 
military hospitals, in which much information was to be had. On June 10th the 
L^nit left London, reaching Southampton the same day, and embarked on a 
hospital ship, formerly one of the Castle line. German submarines were evidently 
anxious to give the first American troops to go overseas a warm reception, for a 
British destroyer sunk one of these pestiferous craft, just outside of Southampton, 
and a French transport was torpedoed by one of them just astern as they were 
going into Le Havre. The hospital ship on which the Unit was transported was 
fortunately well guarded by British destroyers. The LTnit reached Le Havre on 
June 11th, being the third American Unit to reach France, two other hospital 
units having preceded them l)y a few days. 

In London, Base Hospital No. 10 had been turned over to the British Govern- 
ment, the British Army being then very short of doctors and nurses, the casualties 
in the medical corps having been greater in proportion to its size than in almost 
any other branch of the service. When, therefore, the L^nit arrived in France it 
practically became a part of the British Army. "Nurses" became "sisters." 
The chaplain became a "padre", and a good deal of other nomenclature had to 
be changed. For a while a British colonel presided at mess. Colonel Thurston, 
of the British Army, their commanding officer for some weeks, endeared himself 
to every member of the Unit. 

From Le Havre to Le Treport 

Base Hospital No. 10 was sent from Le Havre through Amiens and Beauvais 
to Le Treport, a long tiresome journey. Le Treport is in the Seine Inferieure, 
not far from Dieppe, AbbeviUe and Eu. Above the town on the cUffs there was a 
Hospital Group, Canadian No. 2, British Red Cross No. 10, British General Nos. 
3, 47 and 16, and the Isolation Division for Contagious Diseases, and a large 
Convalescent Camp. The American Unit was placed in charge of British General 
Hospital No. 16, a well-equipped hospital with over 2,000 beds, and of the Isolation 
Division for Contagious Diseases. The Unit had ex^jected to take over about 
500 beds. Nothing but its fine personnel and splendid organization saved it from 
failure. These two and other qualifications, however, saw it through, and enabled 
it to leave a great reputation for efficiency in the British Army at the end of the 
war. Reinforcements were at once asked for on reaching Le Treport. Accord- 
ingly eight officers and forty-seven enlisted men from Philadelphia, under the com- 
mand of Dr. H. B. Wilmer, sailed on the Aurania on August 18, 1917, and thirty 

203 



nurses, under the command of Dr. J. Paul Austin, sailed soon after on the 
Baltic, the one group arriving in Le Treport on September 7th and the other on 
September 21st. 

Base Hospital No. 10 remained at Le Treport throughout the war and for 
several months after the armistice. From time to time its officers, nurses and 
enlisted men were detached temporarily for special service. Occasionally members 
were detached permanently from the 1 nit. Five of the enlisted men received com- 
missions. A Mobile Unit was organized under Dr. Ht)dge to move along the front. 
Dr. Arthur H. Gerhard was attached to the British Tank Corps. Dr. Taylor 
served for a time with the military hospitals in London. 

A number of the officers, nurses and enhsted men served at Casualty Clearing 
Stations along the front. Dr. Dillard and others served with British fighting 
units. Dr. Drayton was one of the nerve specialists in the Maghull Hospital 
in England, and also served at the front. Drs. Norris, Gibbon, Cadwalader, Pack- 
ard, Knowles, Earnshaw and Cruice were all transferred to highly important posi- 
tions in the American Expeditionary Forces. Dr. Sweet was assigned to advanced 
research work. The Cliaplain served from time to time as Chaplain of British and 
Canadian hospitals, British labor battalions, Australian Infantry, British Tanks, 
American hospitals and the Headquarters Troops of the 3d Army. Nearly every 
officer in the I nit and some of the nuiscs and enlisted men were at times detached 
for special service at the front or elsewhere. Dr. Harte, the Directoi of the Unit, 
and later its commanding officer, and Dr. Mitchel, for some months its commanding 
officer, took their turn at the front. Dr. Vaux, Dr. Wilmer. Dr. Outerbridge, Dr. 
Nolan, Dr. Austin, Dr. Fhck, and nearly all the other surgeons and doctors did 
the same. All who were given the opportunity to serve at the front did so eagerly. 

General Hospital No. 16, of which Base Hospital No. 10 had charge, was in 
the form of half a wheel, with the operating room at the hub and the wards or huts 
radiating like spokes from this center. The most serious surgical cases were in 
the huts nearest the operating room. The medical huts were at the periphery. 
The Isolation Division for Contagious Diseases was remote from the rest of the 
hospital. Le Treport was situated on the Channel, and during the winter the 
climate was severe, with high winds and cold rains. The sick and wounded were 
brought as far as Le Treport by hospital trains, and from the town to the hospital 
by ambulances driven by Enghsh ladies attached to the Women's .Motor Convoy 
Service. The hospital was evacuated by train and ambulance through the Chan- 
nel ports to England. When the Germans reached Amiens, the entire hospital 
area had to be evacuated in a few hours, so far as the patients were concerned. 
This was done only with great suffering to the patients and at the cost of many 
lives. There was no help for it, however. 

From June 13, 1917, to December 31, 1918, there were admitted to General 
Hospital No. 16, 47,811 patients, of whom 22,431 were wounded, and 24,222 were 
sick. Of these 398 of the wounded and 140 of the sick died, making a total of 
538 deaths. Such a great number of patients with so few deaths gave the Unit 
one of the lowest death averages of any hospital in France. 

The patients were chiefly from the British Expeditionary Forces. English, 
Scotch, Irish, AustraUan, South African, Canadian, New Zealand, and West In- 
dian. Three thousand and twelve American soldiers were admitted, of whom 
forty-four died. 

204 



The Dental Department of the Hospital, under Dr. Jack and Dr. Edwin Shoe- 
maker, was very active. It elicited the admiration of the British Medical Corps. 
There were 15,926 patients who received treatment in this department. 

The X-ray Department was extremely important too. Under Dr. Knowles 
and Dr. William T. Shoemaker and Sergeant Cressy 5,852 patients were X-rayed. 

The Pathological Laboratory, under Dr. Krumbhaar and Dr. Cloud, assisted 
by Mrs. Krumbhaar and Privates Le Boutillier, Stevens and Smith, medical 
students, was responsible for 18,878 pathological and bacteriological examinations, 
including 318 autopsies. 

The nursing of the patients was under Miss Margaret A. Dunlop of the Penn- 
sylvania Hospital, Philadelpiiia, and her able assistants. No praise could be too 
high for the work of these women. There was no more efficient or able hospital 
matron in France than Miss Dunlop, and she was supported by a magnificent 
corps of nurses. Their patience, sympathy and skill saved hundreds of lives, 
and the "American Sister" will long be an expression to conjure by among British 
soldiers. Miss Fairciiild died as the result of her work at the front. Miss Stam- 
baugh was severely wounded, but happily recovered, and many of these women 
sacrificed their health and strength permanently in the performance of their nerve- 
wrecking and heart-breaking duties over there. 

Army regulations place the social and educational work among troops (under 
the commanding officer) in the hands of the Chaplain of the Organization. Dr. 
Wilmer, specially assigned to this duty, and tlie Chaplain of Base Hospital No. 10 
gave a great deal of their time to this side of their work. Baseball, hockey, tennis, 
football, cricket, boxing were made possible and encouraged. It was a surprise 
to British soldiers that this Unit could meet them on even terms in their national 
sport. Philadelphians, however, have always been good cricketers. A reading- 
room was provided. A dramatic club was formed. Lectures on history, hygiene 
and social questions were given at regular intervals. Every week an entertain- 
ment, known as "the Padre's Party," took place. At these parties such refresh- 
ments as were obtainable were furnished and some special program was presented. 
Dancing was allowed. Concerts were given frequently, the ladies of the Motor 
Convoy Service usually assisting. 

A great deal of attention was given to the amusement of the patients. Ward 
concerts were given almost daily, French artists, nurses, officers. Red Cross workers, 
British Y. M. C. A. and Salvation Army workers and the enlisted personnel and 
convalescent patients assisting. 

In the British Army the work of the Chaplain is taken seriously, and every 
possible provision is made for such work. The Church of England put at the 
disposal of the Chaplain of the Unit a well equipped church hut for public services 
for the personnel and the convalescent patients. Several services were held every 
day in this hut. On Sundays the hut was crowded, so crowded that often many 
had to be turned away for lack of room. Services were also held by the Chaplain 
in the Y. M. C. A. and Salvation Army huts. Ward services for the sick and 
wounded were part of the regular routine. Services were also held for the sick and 
wounded German prisoners in their stockade. 

The burials took place in the British Military Cemetery of Mt. Huon, not 
far from the hospital area. Every soldier, officer or private, who died received a 
dignified burial with miUtary honors. The MiUtary Cemetery was beautifully kept. 

205 



The graves were carefully marked with a cross bearing the name, rank, organiza- 
tion and date. 

Even a brief sketch of Base Hospital No. 10 in France would be incomplete 
without reference to the band, which was trained and led by Dr. Beebe. The in- 
struments were procured and paid for by the Commanding Officer, Dr. Harte. 
There was much musical talent in the Unit, and before it had been long organized, 
it did the Unit much credit. 

On January 12, 1919, the Unit consisted of thirty-nine officers, 125 nurses, 
and 327 enhsted men, 491 in all. Those who had not been in service for a year 
were ordered to various camps in the A. E. F. On February 3d, all patients were 
transferred to General Hospital No. 47. Early in March the nurses were sent to 
Plouharnel in the heart of Brittany, near ^'annes. On March 12th they were sent 
to Brest, and on April 3d sailed on the Rotterdam for New York, arriving April 12th. 
A few days afterwards the nurses received their back pay, a bonus of $60. and 
their official discharge. 

On March 4t.h Dr. Sweet, with twenty-five officers and 154 enlisted men, left 
Le Treport for Plouharnel; Dr. Mitchel and Dr. Newlin, with twenty-five enUsted 
men, remaining at Le Treport to complete the closing of the hospital. The latter 
contingent left on March 12th. On the 23d all were sent to Camp Pontanaza at 
Brest. General Smedley D. Butler, commanding officer of the camp, later wrote 
to G. H. Q. that Base Hospital No. 10 was the best outfit of its kind that had come 
under his charge. The Unit embarked on April 6th on the Kaiserin Augusta- 
Victoria, saiUng on the 8th. and arriving at Hoboken April 17th. On the 18th 
the Unit was sent to Camp Dix, New Jersey, and was demobiUzed on April 22, 1919. 

Some of the officers, nurses and enlisted men remained in France longer, and 
were scattered. Some came home with other organizations, and some returned 
as "casuals." It was not long, however, before nearly all of the original outfit 
were home and honorably discharged. 

BASE HOSPITAL NO. 20, U. S. A. 
By Lieutenant Colonel Eldridge L. Eliason 

U. S. Army Base Hospital No. 20 was organized at the I niversity of Penn- 
sylvania. Colonel Edward Martin, the first Director, resigned in April 1917 and 
was succeeded by Lieutenant Colonel John B. Carnett, who supervised the 
organization of the Unit, under the auspices of the American Bed Cross. 

Preliminary work proceeded simultaneously along three main lines; the 
selection of the personnel; the raising of funds; and the purchase of equipment. 

Lieutenant Colonel Carnett, together with Lieutenant Colonel Efiason, 
Chief of the Surgical Service, and Lieutenant Colonel George M. Piersol, Chief 
of the Medical Service, selected an able professional personnel, representing all 
specialties of surgery and medicine from the University of Pennsylvania Hospital. 

Lieutenant Colonel Thomas H. Johnson, M. C, LI. S. A., was assigned to duty 
as Commanding Officer, and Major Sherman M. Craiger, Q. M. C, as Quarter- 
master. 

The selection of a sufficient number of properly qualified nurses was a diffi- 
cult problem which, however, was admirably handled by Edith B. Irwin, Chief 
Nurse, who was formerly Chief Nurse of the General Surgical Clinic at the Univer- 

206 



sity Hospital. Miss Irwin, at her own request, in January, 1918, was placed on 
active duty for several weeks at the United States Army Walter Reid Hospital, 
Washington, D. C, to familiarize herself with the duties of Chief Nurse for an 
army hospital. Fifty-seven of the sixty-five nurses were graduates of the Nurses 
Training School of the University Hospital. 

The selection of 153 enlisted men was entrusted to Major John H. Musser, 
Jr., and Major Philip F. Williams. All of the enlisted men were chosen because 
of exceptional ability. They were all volunteers and sought service with Base Hos- 
pital No. 20 as the quickest route to France. Over 80 per cent of them were college 
men and the remainder were proficient in special trades or occupations. The actual 
work of recruiting was performed by Major P'loyd E. Keene, together with the 
volunteer assistance of Captain Thomas Edwards. Captain Richard D. Hopkinson, 
and Major P. F. Williams, who were then on the inactive list. 

Funds were immediately necessary for the purchase of equipment, as the Gov- 
ernment made no appropriation for the financing of a Base Hospital organized under 
the direction of the American Red Cross. The $25,000 worth of hospital equipment 
that each Base Hospital was originally required to purchase and store in times of 
peace was amply provided for Base Hospital No. 20 by the Harrison Fund of 
$30,000, contributed in equal parts by (ieorge L. Harrison, Mrs. Emily Leland 
Harrison and Thomas Skelton Harrison. When, after war was declared, the Base 
Hospitals were required to increase their equipment, further appeals met with 
patriotic support. Contributions of $110,202.18, in cash and of forty thousand 
dollars worth of equipment were secured largely by the individual efforts of 
Lieutenant Colonel Carnett, and were turned over to the Medical Department 
of the Army, without a cent of expense to the Government. 

A total of thirty-four freight carloads of equipment was shipped to New York, 
and the greater part of it accompanied the personnel on the U. S. S. Leviathan 
on the voyage to Brest, and arrived fairly promptly at Chatel-Guyon, where the 
hospital was stationed during its activities in France. 

On November 24, 1917, orders came from the War Department mobilizing the 
enlisted men at the First State Armory, the remaining professional personnel, 
nurses and civilian employes to be mobihzed later. By November 30, 1917, prac- 
tically all of the men had reported. Through the courtesy of the Athletic Asso- 
ciation of the University of Pennsylvania, the Students' Training House 
was turned over to the hospital for use for mess and quarters. The cooks, "K. 
P.'s" and a majority of the N. C. O.'s were also stationed in the training house. 

By the 20th of December all of the officers and men had reported and routine 
military' instructions were well under way. Of the 153 enlisted personnel, 103 had 
at least five weeks hospital training as orderlies and anesthetists. Every member 
had full instruction in practical first-aid treatment, given by Lieutenant Colonel 
E. L. Eliason. and every man was required to apply splints, bandages and dressings. 

On Monday, April 1, 1918, Base Hospital No. 20 started for Camp Merritt, 
New Jersey, on the first leg of its overseas journey. The organization arrived in 
camp about 4 p.m., where they were stationed for three weeks, sailing on the U. S. S. 
Leviathan from Hoboken on April 22. The nurse personnel, the dietitian and the 
three civilian stenographers, who had been at EUis Island, No. 3 N. Y. H., since 
February 18, 1918, joined the Unit at Hoboken and sailed with it. After 
an uneventful voyage, the Leviathan reached Brest on May 2, 1918. The officers 

207 



and men debarked the following day and marched to Camp Pontanazen. After 
a stay of two days, they were joined by the nurses and left for Chatel-Guyon, where 
they arrived on the mornini; of May 7th. 

Chatel-Guyon is a village of some 2,000 inhabitants and is situated in the 
Province of Puy-de-Dome, which forms a part of the picturesque Auvergne section 
of France. The village takes its name from tlie chateau built by (iuy 11, Duke 
of Auvergne, in 1195. Its altitude is about 1,200 feet, and it is on the edge of the 
large fertile plain of Liganne and in the foothills of the Puy Mountains. It, 
therefore, enjoys an excellent climate dining both summer and winter. 

The first month of the stay of Base Hospital No. 20 was devoted to the hard 
and tedious work of cleaning up and repairing the numerous hotels and other 
buildings that had been assigned for its use. 

The total yearly rental (in francs) for the buildings used by Base Hospital 
No. 20 was ,328,612, or in normal times equivalent to $65,722. 10. 

Two weeks" hard work made the hospital ready to care for 200 patients. Four 
weeks saw the organization ready to receive 500 patients. This number was later 
increased to over 2,000. 

Functioning of the Hospital 

The hospital formally opened to patients on Decoration Day, 1918. With 
but the few exceptions of patients from the post and neighboring camps, all jjatients 
were brought to Chatel-(iuyon on hospital trains. 

The first one of these arrived on June 8tli witli .559 patients and others con- 
tinued to arrive as often as twice a week. It may be stated here that Base Hospital 
No. 20 operated as a true Base Hospital in that it kept and cared for patients until 
they were either cured or classed for ultimate distiibution. It at no time acted 
as an Evacuation Hospital, as did many Base Hospitals, merely keeping patients 
a few hours before evacuating tiiem to other hospitals. 

The patients were classified according to their disease or' injur\, and were 
placed in separate wards for surgical, medical and infectious diseases and the spe- 
cialties. A dispensary or "ambulatory" surgical ileparlment treated all minor 
walking cases, thus relieving the work in the ward dressing rooms. 

From June 8th to December 20th, twenty-three additional hospital trains 
brought a total of 7,872 patients to Base Hospital No. 20 IVoni the various battle 
fronts. The largest number, 587, was received on July 25th, all of which came from 
the Chateau-Thierry front. 

These figures do not include the 106 admissions from the command to and from 
hospital and quarters prior to the arrival of this Unit at Chatel-Guyon. The 
maximum number of patients in the hospital in any one day was 2,15.3 on October 
10, 1918. The last patient was discharged on January 20, 1919, and the Unit 
ceased to function as a hospital on that date. 

During the nine months that Base Hospital No. 20 functioned, it cared for 
8,703 patients, of which number only sixty -five died — a remarkable showing. The 
largest number of patients in the hospital any one day was 2,153, on October 20, 
1918. 

In the personnel of the organization itself there was only one death during its 
entire existence, another tribute to its efficiency. 

208 



General Method of Receiving and Treating Wounded 

On the receipt of telegraphic notice of the impending arrival of a Hospital 
Train, eacli ward surgeon was required to submit to the Chiefs of the Surgical 
and Medical Service the number of vacant beds in each ward as well as the number 
of patients who could be transferred to other buildings if the necessity demanded it. 
From this data the Chief of Medical and Surgical Service made provision for the 
number and variety of cases which the incoming train contained, and a chart was 
prepared stating the exact number of beds available in each ward. The Com- 
manding Officer and the two Chiefs of Services, with a corps of men, boarded the 
Hospital Train at Riom. the first town beyond the Chatel-Guyon, and each patient 
was examined and tagged with the number of the section and ward to which he 
was to go. l^pon the arrival of the train the patients were carried immediately 
to the section on the station platform as indicated by their tags. Here they were 
loaded into ambulances or trucks bound for the hospital section, and upon arrival 
there they were at once carried to the several wards. An entire train load of pa- 
tients could thus be transferred to their beds within two hours. Each surgeon 
was required to be in his ward, day or night, to receive his patients, so that he 
could dress all wounds as soon as possible. This fact was responsible for the im- 
mediate recognition of sixteen wounded cases infected with gas gangrene, and the 
immediate operation, with the consequent saving of life. 

Detached Duty 

Shortly after the arrival of Base Hospital No. 20 in France, orders came from 
the Chief Surgeon to form two Operating Teams for work in the hospitals at the 
front. The two Teams were formed and were later designated as No. 61 and No. 
62. Each Team was made up of a surgeon in charge and an assistant, an anesthe- 
tist, a senior nurse, a second nurse, and two men as orderlies. 

Surgical Operating Team No. 61 

On June 8, 1918, this Team, under command of Lieutenant Colonel EHason, 
went to Evacuation Hospital No. 1, near Toul, for instruction in war surgery. 

The personnel of Team No. 61 was: Lieutenant Colonel E. L. Eliason, Surgeon 
in Charge; Major F. E. Keene, Assistant; Major William Bates, Anesthetist; 
Florence Williams, A. R. N. C; Sabina Landis. A. R. N. C; Sergeant Joseph 
Dougherty ; Private George Farabaugh ; Captain Thompson Edwards later replaced 
Major Keene and Mary Hume replaced Miss Williams. 

On July 21st the Team reported to Lieutenant Colonel Bingham in Paris, and 
was sent to the A. R. C. Military Hospital No. 1 at Neuilly, and later to the A. R. 
C. MiUtary Hospital No. 3 (officers' hospital). The Team was ordered to La Ferte 
and was taken by ambulance to Chateau-Thierry, reporting to Evacuation Hospital 
No. 5. In August it proceeded to Chaligny, reporting to Field Hospital No. 162, 
which on September 2d was taken over by Evacuation Hospital No. 113. 

On October 3d, it was ordered to report to headquarters at Froidos, to Evacu- 
ation Hospital No. 10. The Team stayed with this hospital for the remaining 
period of the war and for three weeks afterwards. 

209 



Surgical Operating Team No. 62 

At the front they performed about 600 operations in addition to dressing many 
severe cases that needed no operation. 

Surgical Operating Team No. 62 was the first to leave Base Hospital No. 20 
for service at the front. It left Chatel-Guyon for Chaumont on June 5, 1918. 

The personnel of Team No. 62 was: Lieutenant Colonel John B. Carnett. 
Surgeon in Charge; Captain George M. Laws, Assistant; Captain N. B. Goldsmith, 
Anesthetist; Helen Pratt, A. R. N. C; Marie Bergstresser, A. B. N. C; Sergeant 
First Class de Benneville Bell; Private Rufus B. Jones. 

After a short stay at Base Hospital No. 15 and at Evacuation Hospital No. 1, 
on the Lorraine front, the Team reported to the 117th Sanitary Train of the 42d 
(Bainbow) Division and was assigned to duty with Mobile Hospital No. 2 at 
Bussy-le-Chateau, on the Champagne front. From July loth to July 18th, the 
Team operated with Evacuation Hospital No. 4 at Ecury and then rejoined Mobile 
Hospital No. 2 at Vatry, accompanying it to Lizy-sur-Ourcq on the Chateau- 
Thierry front. On July 31st the Team was sent to Evacuation Hospital No. 2 
at La Ferte Milon, went with it to Crezancy, on the Marne, and rejoined Mobile 
Hospital No. 2 at Coincy, on August 6th. On August 25th, the Team proceeded 
to the St. Mihiel front and located at Becourt, on August 30th. On September 
25th, it left for Chateau Salvange, near Froidos, on the Argonne front, and re- 
mained there until it returned to Chatel Guyon on November 24th. 

Subsequently each member of Team No. 62 received a copy of a letter of com- 
mendation from General Pershing. 

On September 3d, Captain Laws was detached and placed in charge of 
Surgical Team No. 562, taking Mat Grenville, A. R. N. C, from Team No. 62. 
Major F. E. Keene and Letitia Gallagher replaced them on Team No. 62. 
Team No. 562 saw duty with Mobile Hospital No. 2, Evacuation Hospital No. 1, 
Base Hospital No. 31, and returned to Base Hospital No. 20 on November 28, 1918. 

Shock Team No. 116 

The personnel of Team No. 116 was: Major John H. Musser, Jr. (in charge) ; 
Grace MacMillan, A. R. N. C; Sergeant F. G. Connor, M.D.; Private Jos. R. 
Arnold, M.D. 

On July 22, 1918, the Team was ordered to report to La Ferte-sous-Jouarre 
and arrived there the following day, in charge of Major John H. Musser, Jr. 

They were sent to Verdolet, reporting to the Commanding Officer of Field 
Hospital No. 27, and were immediately assigned to the task of handfing the severely 
wounded of the 3d Division. 

While at Chateau-Thierry the members of the Team received a letter of com- 
mendation from General Dickman, commanding the 3d Division. 

On August 10th the Team was sent to Field Hospital No. 112 at Cohan. 
After several other transfers the Team was ordered to report at Field Hospital No. 
127 of the 32d Division. This hospital received only the severely wounded, and at 
the same time acted as a triage station. 

Four days, beginning September 4th, the Team spent in the forest of Pierre- 
Fonds, returning to Base Hospital No. 20 on September 11th. 

210 



Emergency Medical Team No. 116 

The personnel of the Team consisted of Captain George K. Strode, M.C., 
Commanding; Elizabeth J. Coombs, A. R. N. C, and Corporal Robert F. 
McMurtrie, M.D. By orders from General Headquarters, Captain Strode was 
detailed to the Central Medical Department Laboratory for special instruction 
in shock and hemorrhage in September, 1918. By authority from H. A. E. F., 
the Team left Chatel-Guyon September 24th and proceeded to Evacuation Hos- 
pital No. 6 at Souilly. Team No. 116 immediately took charge of the Shock 
Ward of Evacuation Hospital No. 6 at Souilly, and during the fust week worked 
night and day without relief. A second Team was then assigned to duty, and 
therccifter Team No. 116 alternated on night and day duty. 

On November 26th, when orders arrived relieving them from duty at Evacua- 
tion Hospital No. 6, Team No. 116 proceeded to Paris. Two days later the 
Team returned to Base Hospital No. 20. 

Copies of the commendation that was extended to Evacuation Hospital No. 6 
by the Chief Surgeon of the 1st Army, A. E. F., on November 30, 1918, were for- 
warded to each member of Emergency Medical Team No. 116. 

Social Life at Base Hospital No. 20 
The fkst celebration of any type held in France by Base Hospital No. 20 
occurred at Chatel-Guyon on May 30, 1918, and marked not only Decoration 
Day but also the formal opening of the hospital and the first raising of the American 
Flag at Chatel-Guyon. Less formal were the exercises on Independence Day, 
when a reception was given for all sick and visiting French officers in the morning. 
In the afternoon this courtesy was reciprocated by the French officers. A public 
reception in the late afternoon was extended to the officers at the Casino, at which 
addresses were made by the Mayor of Chatel-Guyon and by Lieutenant Colonel 
Johnson. Somewhat similar was the reception on Bastile Day on July 1 tth. 

Entertainments for the patients on Thanksgiving and Christmas were given. 
On the afternoon of Christmas the juvenile population of Chatel-Guyon, under 
the age of ten years, were the guests of Base Hospital No. 20 at a Christmas tree 
celebration. For this purpose a large spruce tree in the park was decorated with 
colored electric lights, and after some singing, and a short speech by the cure, each 
child was presented with package of candy furnished by the Red Cross. 

Many of the social activities were arranged by the Red Cross representative, 
Captain J. M. Ware, who reported for duty on June 2, 1918. Among the various 
forms of diversion were baseball, football and tennis. An old reservok near head- 
quarters served as a swimming pool. 

Base Hospital No. 20 was fortunate in possessing an abundance of theatrical 
talent. A committee was formed when the Unit was still in training in Phila- 
delphia, and after short rehearsals the "Retaming of the Shrew" was produced, 
the affair proving in every respect most successful. Later "Base 20 Follies" 
was staged. At Camp Merritt, the Y. M. C. A. rendered much assistance. 

At Chatel-Guyon a large number of entertainments were furnished both for 
the benefit of the patients and for the civilian population. At these entertainments 
there were popular music, and classical dancing, in which several members of the 
Unit took female parts with the ease and grace of long trained performers. 

211 



An orchestra was formed of the enlisted men which was used for furnishing 
music for various entertainments. The piano was antiquated and out of tune, 
and the drum was made from a banjo head. Other instruments were brought 
from home by the men themselves. 

Leaves and Trips 

Six regions were designated as leave areas, including some of the most famous 
resorts in Europe, and it was possible on a leave to go anywhere in France from the 
Alps to the Channel, and from the Pyrenees to the border. It was possible for 
nurses and enlisted men to take advantage of trips throughout France with no 
expense, as hotels with comfortable quarters and excellent meals were provided 
for their exclusive use. Nice was undoubtedly the Mecca, and whatever the route 
traveled the trail inevitably lead to that resort. 

French War Orphan Fund 

The French War Orphan Fund was initiated by the Stars and Stripes as a 
special Thanksgiving donation in 1918. Chaplain Rogers Israel acted as treas- 
urer for Base Hospital No. 20, and a sum of 7,500 francs represented the collection 
from the officers, nurses, and enlisted men ; no patients in the hospital were allowed 
to contribute. Base Hospital No. 20 adopted fifteen French war orphans. 

Medical Society 

Soon after the hospital opened a Medical Society was formed which met bi- 
monthly, and to which other hospital staffs were invited. Base Hospital No. ^0 
accepted the invitation to join. At these meetings papers and reports of work 
done were presented by the officers. The meetings were fully attended and much 
profit obtained from them. 

Classes 

After the armistice, Lt. Col. Ehason arranged for a course in anesthesia. 
Twenty nurses availed themselves of this opportunity and obtained practical and 
didactic instruction from Lieutenant N. R. Goldsmith. Further lectures were 
arranged for on miUtary surgery and medicine, and several talks were given by staff 
members on French history. Classes in various subjects were being organized 
for the enUsted men when orders arrived to leave Chatel-Guyon. 

Celebration of the Armistice 

On November 10th, many rumors reached Chatel-Guyon that the armistice 
had been signed. The French believed it to be true and an impromptu celebra- 
tion was started. In the evening the rccil celebration commenced. About twenty- 
five American convalescent soldiers started to parade. This number soon in- 
creased to several hundred Americans, and an equal number of French men, women 
and children. As they passed each hospital there was a general turnout of all 
patients who could walk, so that by the time they reached the main street there 
were over 1,000 in line. As no drums were to be had four Itirge hard-tack tins 
were secured as a result of a raid on the Mess Department. 

The next morning official news that the armistice was signed was received, 
and the Mayor ordered all church Ijells to be rung. The town was decorated, 
and that night another parade was organized led by a real band. 

212 



Auxiliary of Base Hospital No. 20 

The Auxiliary of the University of Pennsylvania Hospital Unit of the Red 
Cross, known as No. 122, was organized under the direction of Mrs. Wni. Woodward 
Arnett on April 11, 1917. The seventy women who were present at the first meet- 
ing pledged $6,000 to purchase supplies and material for the equipment of a 500-bed 
base hospital. The actual work of making up supphes was begun on April 15th, con- 
tinuing for ten months five days a week. Within three months from the time 
the auxiliary was organized sixty-six boxes of patients' equipment containing 
22,244 articles and about 35,000 surgical dressings were completed and boxed. 

The original seventy members were increased to 256, and the .$6,000 promised 
soon totaled $10,000, nor was it difficult to secure additional funds as rapidly 
as needed. 

Welfare Committee 

In j^February, 1918, the Welfare Committee of Base Hospital No. 20 was 
organized and undertook to aid the hospital in many ways. It pledged itself to 
represent the hospital on this side, to distribute a semi-monthly community let- 
ter from France to friends and relations of the hospital, to transmit funds to the 
hospital, to supply it with reading material and to aid in many other ways. 

During its existence Base Hospital No. 20 was under the command of four 
different officers, Lieutenant Colonel T. H. Johnson, Lieutenant Colonel G. M. 
Piersol and Lieutenant Colonel J. B. Carnett. When the organization was split 
up at embarkation area, and the officers sent home as casuals, the command of the 
LTnit fell upon Major Philip Williams" shoulders. 

Officers, men and nurses returned in separate small detachments during April 
and May, 1918. 

After demobilization of Base Hospital No. 20 the University of Pennsylvania 
Hospital received letters from the American Red Cross at Washington, D. C. , and 
from the Surgeon General commending Base Hospital No. 20 for its "readiness for 
service, patriotic devotion to duty and excellence of professional persormel." 

A further letter of commendation for exceptionally meritorious and conspicuous 
services was sent to Dr. J. B. Carnett. 

Base Hospital No. 20 Association 

The Association was formed November 14, 1919, in Philadelphia, and provision 
was made to hold a reunion each year. The first reunion was held in November, 
1920. 

BASE HOSPITAL No. 34, U. S. A. 
By Lieutenant Colonel Ralph S. Bromer 

During the early months of 1917, the Medical Department of the Army and 
the Red Cross, Colonel Jefferson R. Kean, M. C, in charge, organized fifty base 
hospitals for service with the American Army. The idea was early conceived of 
forming one at the Episcopal Hospital. Dr. Charles H. Frazier was first appointed 
Director, with Dr. Astley P. C. Ashhurst as Chief of the Surgical Service. Funds 
were raised and friends of the hospital gave liberally in contributions to the Red 
Cross until a sum of .§65,000 was obtained for the equipment of the hospital, 
George H. Frazier serving as treasurer and disbursing officer. 

213 



The months of March and early April, 1917, were occnpied with these pre- 
liminaries. Late in April Dr. Frazier, owing to inabihty to leave his University 
duties, very reluctantly reUnquished his charge of the hospital and Dr. Ashhurst 
was appointed Director. Progress in the procurement of equipment was rapid. 

In late May, Malcolm Douglas became affiliated with the hospital as Registrar. 
Under his charge the work of enrolling the enlisted personnel progressed most 
speedily. Applicants were many, and men were secured of excellent caliber and 
of varied vocations, foreshadowing success in the eventual operation of the hospitals 
different departments. By June 30th, the entire quota of 152 men had been 
sworn in and enlisted in the Medical Enlisted Reserve Corps. 

In the meantime the hospital was formally accepted by the Medical Depart- 
ment and was given the number of "34." In July, Captain Raphael I. Levin, 
Quartermaster Reserve Corps, was assigned and reported for duty as ([uarter- 
master. As fast as equipment was bought it was assembled and stored in the 
Larkin Building, 20th and Arch streets, and at the Episcopal Hospital. 

The organization of the nurse corps personnel was entrusted to Miss Katherine 
Brown, Superintendent of Nurses, Episcopal Hospital. During these same months 
she was busily engaged in recruiting and enlisting sixty-five nurses. By August 
she reported a full quota. 

Mention should be made of the men who attended the early meetings at Dr. 
Frazier's office and who devoted much time to the purchase of supplies for their 
respective departments. Besides Drs. Frazier and Ashhurst, there were Drs. 
Emory G. Alexander, Geo. P. MuUer, Joseph Macfarland, John B. Carson, Ralph 
S. Bromer and Mr. Malcolm Douglas. Of these Drs. Muller and Macfarland 
unfortunately could not serve with the unit. The assistance and advice of Dr. 
l^ichard H. Harte, of the Board of Managers of the hospital, and Captain E. N. 
Leiper, the Superintendent, were also greatly appreciated. After the retirement 
of Dr. Frazier, Dr. Ashhurst strenuously pushed the preparation of the organiza- 
tion for active duty, and by the time orders were received for its mobilization 
it was in a state of excellent preparedness. 

On September 7, 1917, the organization was mobilized at the Episcopal 
Hospital and Major Ralph G. DeVoe, Medical Corps, United States Army was 
detailed as commanding officer, assuming commemd September 4, 1917. Captain 
R. S. Bromer was detailed as adjutant. 

On September 7, 1917, the organization moved to the Concentration Camp 
of the LTnited States Army Ambulance Service at Allentown, Pa., later called 
Camp Crane. Here two months or more were spent in equipping and training 
the men. Instruction in first aid, Medical Department drill, bandaging, etc., 
was routinely given. On November 21st, the command moved to Camp Mills, 
Long Island, and remained there until December 14th, awaiting instructions for 
embarkation. These finally arrived, after three weeks of most severe weather 
spent in the tents of Camp Mills. On the 15th, the organization embarked on 
the Leviathan, the nurses included, they, in the meantime, having been mobilized 
and ec[uipped at Ellis Island. The voyage was uneventful and on December 24th, 
at noon, Liverpool was reached and debarkation immediately begun. The nurses 
were sent to Southampton on a separate train from that of the officers and men. 
Southampton was reached midnight of December 24th, the nurses being quai'tered 
at hotels and the officers and men at a rest camp. On December 25th, the former 

214 



were sent to Le Havre on one of the British hospital ships, the Warilda and on 
December 26th, the officers and men crossed on a British Channel ship, the Mona's 
Queen, debarking early on the morning of the 27th. 

Work Overseas 

The command remained at Le Havre imtil December 29th, when the entire 
personnel was sent by train to Blois, where Medical Casual Camp No. 6, Inter- 
mediate Section L. 0. C. was then located. 

Here during January, 1918, the unit was spht up. The Commanding Officer, 
Major Ashhurst, the adjutant, quartermaster and registrar, and about sixty men 
were sent to Nantes where the hospital was to be located for prehminary survey and 
for the purpose of pushing the work of renovation of the seminary building to be used 
as a hospital. Five officers and thirty men were sent to Brest where Camp Hospital 
No. .31 was started and organized by them in the Pont-a-Nezon Barracks. Five 
men were sent to American Red Cross Mihtary Hospital No. 5 in Paris, and 
thirty-five men were ordered to Camp Hospital No. 15 at Coetquiden, an artillery 
training center. The nurses were distributed to Base Hospital, No. 101 at St. 
Nazaire, Camp Hospital No. 15 at Coetquidan, and American Red Cross Military 
Hospital No. 2 in Paris. 

January, February and Mai-ch, 1918, were spent in renovating the building, 
constructing new barracks, moving equipment from freight stations and docks, 
and in securing additional equipment for a 1,700 bed hospital. 

The main building, four stories high, was furnished with 1,000 beds. This 
building had a usable attic, which was remodeled to house the Medical Supply 
Department and to provide space for storage of patient's clothing. The adapta- 
tion of tliis building required an enormous amount of labor by men of the unit. 
They built seventeen shacks, which accommodated the operating rooms, X-ray 
department, large bath houses, receiving ward, enhsted men's quarters, and wards 
aggregating 700 additional beds. AU this construction was accomphshed with 
great dispatch and by April, 1918, the entire unit was reassembled and patients 
were admitted. The first train of patients received came from American Red 
Cross Mihtary Hospital No. 1 at Paris. After these arrivals the hospital was 
soon filled and it reached its full capacity dming and immediately after the Chateau- 
Thierry drive. The patients were almost entirely Americans. Though a base 
hospital situated far in the rear, the majority were wounded men from the fighting 
fine. 

The work was carried on actively throughout the remainder of the year. 
Peak capacity was again reached during the fighting in the Argonne. Mention 
also should be made of the care and assistance rendered the personnel of the Army 
during the influenza epidemic, wliich reached its height during October, 1918. 
These cases were drawn largely from the gai'rison of Nantes, which at times num- 
bered 11,000 or more men, also from the 38th Division which had been sent immedi- 
ately on debarkation to biUets in the "south of Nantes" biUeting area. 

In July, 1918, the hospital became a part of the hospital center of Nantes. 
The large hospital project known as the Grand Blottereau, located on the opposite 
side of the city was occupied at this time by Base Hospitals Nos. 11, 38 and 216, 
and the whole center was placed under command of Colonel Thomas J. Kirk- 
patrick of the Regular Army Medical Corps. 

21.5 



Early in October, 1918. the hospital was further expanded by the acquisition 
of the Ecole Normale, a normal school building owned and turned over gratuitously 
by the Department of the Loire Inferieure to the Medical Department of the 
Army. It was equipped and furnished as a hospital for officers and designed for 
reception of medical cases and convalescent surgical patients. It was operated 
as an annex to Base Hospital No. 34 and Major, later Lieutenant Colonel, A. J. 
Ostheimer was placed in immediate charge. 

During the fu-st half of the year under careful guidance of Colonel DeVoe, 
the Commanding Officer, the organization of the various administrative departments 
of the hospital was perfected and all showed themselves fully equal to the strain 
thrown upon them during the heavy work of the Argonne drive and the influenza epi- 
demic. The adjutant's office was organized and run by Captain Ralph S. Bromer, M. 
C. ; the registrar's office by Captain John P. Jones; the Medical Supply Department 
by First Lieutenant, later Captain, B. F. Buzby; the Mess Department, by First 
Lieutenant, later Captain, Malcolm G. Douglas; Sanitary Corps and the Quarter- 
master's Department by Captain Raphael I. Levin, Q. M. C. Especial mention 
should be made of the supply by the latter department of the entire garrison of 
Nantes from the very beginning of the hospital until the organization in June, 
1918, of Quartermaster Depot No. 2, Base Section No. 1, on the Isle of St. Anne 
in Nantes. This threw extra strain and labor upon the officer in charge and the 
men of this department. 

The professional services were early organized by Colonel Ashhurst in charge 
of the Surgical Service, Major Carson of the Medical Service, Captain Moore in 
the CliiuccJ and Pathological Laboratory and Captain Bromer in the X-ray 
Laboratory. Changes in these departments will be mentioned later. 

The American Red Cross sent as its first representative. Captain Chas. G. 
Petrie, who began during April the organization of a service which later grew to 
large proportions. In July Captain Louis H. Fead arrived to replace Captain 
Petrie, who was transferred to the Grand Blottereau. Under his direction, a 
canteen was started, magazines, books, etc., were distributed to the patients, 
regular moving-picture shows were held, a Home Communication Service was 
established, a large recreation hut was built, where different show troupes gave many 
and varied entertainments, dances for the enlisted men were held and numerous 
comforts suppUed the nurses. A Y. W. C. A. representative was also continuously 
assigned to the nurses' quarters to provide all recreation and entertainment possible. 

The main hospital building and the ground occupied by the adjoining barracks 
was originally a seminary for priests. Additional space was soon required and on 
the street immediately opposite the east entrance, a large riding school was acquired 
as a quartermaster store and warehouse. On this same street a house was obtained 
as quarters for the female civilian employes. Two large chateaux were rented 
to house the nursing personnel. The officer personnel was billeted in private 
homes in the immediate vicinity of the hospital. 

Activities After the Armistice 

With the signing of the armistice the nature of the work of the hospital changed. 
Its situation in proximity to the base port of St. Nazaire and within easy 
rail connection with Brest, put it in direct line for the evacuation of the sick and 
wounded to the United States. The work of evacuation was early started and 

216 



convoys were received and forwarded as rapidly as patients could be prepared and 
reequip{)ed for the trip home. The organization was not destined, however, long to 
remain in this work. In pursuance of the policy of the chief surgeon's office for 
the early return of the hospitals fkst sent over, word was unofficially received 
Christmas Eve, 1918, of the hospital's return as soon as its relief arrived. On 
January 2d, Evacuation Hospital No. 36 reached Nantes and preparations 
were rushed for the transfer of the hospital to that organization. This was accom- 
plished January 16, 1918, and the command was prepared for embarkation. After 
linal inspections were made and the unit officially reported ready, it yet had sevei'al 
weeks to wait until orders to move arrived. The officers finally left Nantes, 
March 23d, the nurses soon after, and the enlisted men with three officers April 
2d. They all ultimately reached the United States and the organization was 
finally demobilized April 29th, at Camp Dix, N. J. The transport bringing the 
officers home was the Pretoria, one of the ships turned over by the Germans, after 
the ai'mistice. The nurses crossed on the George W ushington and the enlisted men 
on the Walter A. Lackenbach. 

Major A. P. C. Ashhurst, the Director of the Unit, was promoted colonel and 
was assigned surgical consultant of the important hospital centers of Nantes, 
Savenay and St. Nazaire. During the course of the organization's existence in 
the A. E. F., Major R. G. DeVoe, the Commanding Officer, was promoted colonel 
and was placed in connnand of the Nantes Hospital Center. Major Emory G. Alex- 
ander became Surgical Director of the Unit, Captain Ralph S. Bromer was promoted 
Lieutenant Colonel and assumed command of Evacuation Hospital No. 36, the 
organization sent to replace Base Hospital No. 34. Major Rutherford L. John 
was made Chief Orthopedic Surgeon of the Nantes Center and Major John P. 
Jones became Chief of Surgical Service of Evacuation Hospital No. 36. Captain 
John W. Moore was promoted major and placed in charge of the laboratories of 
the Nantes Center, and Miss Katharine Brown, Chief Nurse , was made supervisor 
of nursing for the same. 

While in service in the A. E. F., Reserve Nurse AHce Ireland died at St. 
Nazaire, Base Hospital No. 101, of pneumonia. Private Joseph F. Covert died 
of septicemia at Camp Hospital No. 15, and Private James L. Murray of influenza 
at Base Hospital No. 34, A. E. F. 

The hospital furnished its quota of "teams" for front line work, as the organiza- 
tions of surgeons, nurses and orderlies sent from base hospitals in the rear to front 
line hospitals were caUed. The fust of these sent out was Surgical Team No. 23, 
headed by Colonel Astley P. C. Ashhurst, M. C. He had with him as his assistant 
Captain Henry S. Kerchner and Nurses Margarita Andrews, Ethel P. Kandle and 
Grace E. Stephens, and Privates Winsor Josselyn and Joseph E. Miles. They 
left Nantes, early in April, 1918, going to Crevecoeur-le-Grand where they served 
with Auto Corps No. 6 of the French Army until July. On July 18th, they arrived 
at the American Red Cross Hospital No. 1, Neuilly sur Seine, Paris and remained 
there until August 14th. They were then transferred to Evacuation Hospital 
No. 6, American Army serving with it during the Argonne Campaign. On Novem- 
ber 18th, Colonel Ashhurst was transferred to Savenay as consultant in surgery 
and Major Emory G. Alexander, M. C. was sent to refieve him. 

Surgical Team No. 24 was composed of Major Chas. D. Lockwood, M. C, 
Captain Irvine M. Boykin, M. C, and Captain Louis W. Frank, M. C. The 

217 



nurses and enlisted men composing it were Nm-ses Anna Behman and Katherine 
Holler and Sergeants Horace B. Austin and Harry G. Bostick. This team 
served with the American Army in the Champagne and the Argonne sector, being 
stationed with several American evacuation hospitals. 

During the course of the summer a gas and shock team in charge of First 
Lieutenant, later Captain Boyal E. Durham, M. C. was dispatched to the front. 
The nursing and enlisted personnel of these teams routinely consisting of one each. 
Nurse Jane D. Nicholson and Private WiUiam ^^ogel were detailed for the duty. 
It was first sent to the central laboratory at Dijon for instruction purposes and 
from there was sent to the front, serving with one of the American evacuation 
hospitals. No. 8, dming the Argonne Drive. 

During the course of the latter drive, the second team was broken up, Major 
Lockwood, Captain Frank and Miss Holler formed the nucleus of one, and Captain 
Boykin, was placed in charge of the other with Lieutenant Simon and Miss Behman. 

Immediately after the termination of hostilities the various teams of the 
A. E. F. were returned to their respective organizations. During late November 
and early December all the personnel returned to Nantes, and was re-attached to 
the hospital for return to the United States. 

BASE HOSPITAL NO. .38 U. S. A. 
By Colonel W. M. L. Coplin 

War is the summation of all tragedies, — the pinnacle of all follies, the abysmal 
depth of all horrors; the conjoined, coordinate, contemporaneous supremacy of 
flame and famine, of holocaust and hate, of disease, disaster and death, of slaughter 
and starvation. It is the insanity, the infanticidal, homicidal, suicidal mania of 
nations — the darkness of doomsday out of wliich shines but one lone star, red — 
and purple-rimmed — the light of the Samaritan who feeds and clothes, arrests bleed- 
ing, binds wounds, bears anesthetic, sedative, and opiate, nurses with tender hand, 
brings water to lips athirst and dying, wipes off the sweat of agony, takes the last 
faltering message to loved ones at home and, when comes the end, closes staring 
eyes, composes limbs, enshrouds and coffins, covers with the flag which the soldier 
loved and for which he died, and bears the fallen victim to his last rest, his dream- 
less sleep of peace eternal. These purveyors of mercy and kindness, — all out of 
harmony with the fields in which they labor — amid scenes no pen can describe, 
ply their caUing from sheU-torn trench to bomb-wrecked hospital far in the rear, 
along lines of communication, at ports of embarkation, on hospital ships in port 
and at sea, imtil, at last, the restored soldier rests on the bosom of loved ones at 
Jiome, or bivouacs forever on Fame's eternal camping ground. 

Much, if not most of this work was done by those who enlisted to serve in base 
hospitals. Officers, nurses and hospital corps men — often detailed from an original 
base hospital — at one time or another served in every position from firing line back 
through the apparently unending labyrinth of "communications." To bear its 
share of the burden Base Hospital No. 38 of the Jelferson Medical College and Hos- 
pital was organized. 

Founded in 1825, and nearing the centenary of its existence, the work was 
not new to the institution which, through almost one hundred years, had sent its 
graduates to every battlefield and into every disaster in the nation's history, had 

218 



given Silas Weir Mitchell and William Williams Keen to the work of the great 
Civil conflict, and in the World War its graduates to the number of 1, 162, while more 
than 370 undergraduates worked in every professional capacity from Surgeon 
General Merritte W. Ireland (Class of 1891), to the humblest positions in the 
service of their country. 

Organization 

The Jefferson Medical College Base Hospital, organized under the direction 
of the American Red Cross and known as Base Hospital No. 38, was rendered pos- 
sible by the generous contributions of Adeline Pepper Gibson and Henry S. Gibson. 
Organization was begun May 3, 1917. Before the summer had ended officers 
and enlisted men had been selected, necessary commissions obtained and most of 
the preUminary work completed. The personnel, included thirty -five officers, 
100 nurses, five civilians, and 200 enlisted men. 

Major W. M. L. Coplin was designated Director, and Chief of the Laboratory 
Division; Major J. Norman Henry, Ciiief of the Medical Division and Major 
Charles F. Nassau, Chief of the Surgical Division. Major John S. Lambie, M. C, 
U. S. A., was later detailed as executive officer. 

MOBIUZATION AND TRAINING 

The organization was mobilized October 15. 1917, and went immediately into 
training at the 2d Regiment Armory, Philadelphia. The novitiate in Philadelphia 
extended from the date of mobilization to June 21, 1918, when tlie unit embarked 
for France. During this period of preparation it was decided, at the suggestion 
of the director, to inaugurate a new and hitlierto untried plan of preparing enlisted 
men for hospital duty. It had previously been the custom to assemble tlie per- 
sonnel of base hospitals at some training camp, for example, AUentown, where 
military' and certain didactic instruction could advantageously be given. 
Obviously the functions wliich hospital corps men ai'e supposed to perform differ 
materially from those of any other miUtary unit. Necessary though a knowledge of 
policing and military drill may be, the men should know something of hospital 
organization and the care of patients; consequently it was decided to institute 
two courses of instruction — didactic and practical. 

The former was inaugurated (October 29, 1917) by an introductory lecture by 
William W. Keen, M.D., Sc. D., LL.D., Hon. F.R.C.S. (England and Edin.) 
Emeritus Professor of Surgery, at the Jefferson Medical College, in which he out- 
lined the history of hospital organization and duties as he knew them in Philadel- 
phia and in army hospitals during the Civil War. This was followed by lectures 
given by members of the staff and others, covering problems of hospital admin- 
istration, the care of patients, treatment of injured, transportation, sanitary science, 
antisepsis and on other subjects bearing directly upon the functions of base hospitals. 

Through the courtesy and cordial cooperation of the Jefferson Hospital, 
Pennsylvania, St. Agnes, St. Joseph's, Philadelphia General, Philadelphia Hospital 
for Contagious Diseases, Frankford, Episcopal, Lankenau, Presbyterian and 
Samaritan hospitals, valuable instruction was given to small groups of men de- 
tailed to the institutions named. They were assigned to laboratory, operating 
room, dispensary, ward, and accident room, and saw useful practical service. The 
courses were continued throughout most of the winter, thus affording the men an 

219 



extended knowledge of the work they would be called upon to perform. Con- 
currently, officers improved in every possible way their knowledge by special work 
in laboratories. X-ray departments, surgical and medical clinics, and the specialties. 
Some of the officers were detailed to the Rockefeller Institute, New York, for 
special training. 

Equipment 

To the foundation of §50,000 given by Adeline Pepper Gibson and Henry S. 
Gibson, generous citizens of Philadelphia, contributions by others — including $5,000 
given by Mrs. Thtmias P. Hunter for operating rooms, brought the total to $79,- 
992.39, practically all of which was expended for equipment. In addition to cash 
contributions many gifts were made directly. These included an ambulance by the 
residents of Logan, another by employes of the Philadelphia Rapid Transit Com- 
pany, another by the Philadelphia Teachers' Association, another by the West 
Philadelphia Auxiliary No. 1 of the American Red Cross, another by the Fotterall 
Square Association and one given by Mr. and Mrs. Arthur H. Lea — a total of six 
ambulances. Through the efforts of Mr. Norman L. Barr and Mr. William C. 
Haddock, Jr., and their friends, a delivery truck was supplied. The American 
Red Cross, Washington, D. C, gave a carload of dressings; the local Red Cross and 
many auxiharies aided also. The Emergency Aid assisted generously. The con- 
tributions including cash of $79,992..39, a special fund given nurses $8,001.54*, and 
supplies valued at $34,.318.58, make a total value of $I22,312.5L 

Service in the American E.kpeditionary Forces 

On June 21, 1918, six officers and 192 enlisted men under the command of 
Lieutenant Colonel John S. Lambie, M. C, LT. S. A., embarked on the S. S. 
Nopalxn, New York, and twenty-nine officers under the command of Major Coplin, 
boarded the S. S. President Grant. The latter, on account of an accident to the 
refrigeration plant, was compelled to return, sailing finally on June 30, 1918. 
Passengers on the S. S. Nopaiin landed at Brest July 5th, left July 10th, and arrived 
at Nantes, France July 11th; on July 17th they were joined by the remaining 
officers. The nursing corps had sailed from New York on May 18th, and upon 
arrival in France the nurses were assigned to duty in base hospitals at Nantes, or to 
stations nearer the line of combat. 

Location 

At Nantes, a quaint and beautiful city on the Loire, designated as one of the 
American hospital centers, was also stationed Base Hospital No. 34, which, at the 
time "38" arrived, was receiving patients. Base Hospital No. 38 was located 
in the Grand Blottereaii which was later to receive three other hospital 
organizations. The Grand Blottereau is a park surrounding what had been a small 
gem of a chateau with its exquisite grounds, partly wooded, containing tall trees, 
veritable monarchs, small shrubs and liedges, and all intervening types of woodland 
growth. Along one side extended a beautiful walled road of rural France, no 
longer in good condition. On another side was a small tributary of the Loire, and 
just beyond the slowly moving majestic river. On another side were the botanical 

*This embraced gifts specifically for nurses, and is not included in the Director's reports. 
All other contributions have been accounted for to the American Red Cross, Washington, D. C. 

220 



and agricultural gardens of Nantes, and off from a corner the town of Doulon, 
really a part of the historic old city. 

The Hospital in France 

Physically, the plant included twenty-one wards, also diet kitchens, per- 
sonnel barracks and mess hall, officers' barracks and mess hall, nurses' barracks 
and mess hall, ablution sheds and barracks, receiving wards, quartermaster supply 
buildings, mess supply building, operating pavilion, and laboratory, a total of 
about iifly buildings, ail of temporary construction. They were supplied with 
electricity and running water, and an emergency sewage system was installed 
which became inadequate on account of the unexpected number of patients and 
the unanticipated floods which inundated that region of France and impeded 
drainage. The original barracks were constructed of composition board, felt roof 
and concrete floors, with adequate window space. The overflow, amounting to 
more than 2,000 patients, administered to by the organization, was sheltered in 
tents erected on a contiguous section of the park. The extraordinary rains of 
1918 in France rendered the soil so soft that the temporary roads soon became a 
veritable mud-plant through which officers, nurses, convalescents and enlisted 
men waded for weeks; part of the plain was under water for many days, but the 
hospital, more fortunate than one of its neighbors, was not reached by the high 
water. 

The buildings which "38" was to occupy were only partly completed when 
the organization arrived; officers and enlisted men proceeded to assist in the 
construction. As early as July 22d, 1.32 sick and injured from the Soissons 
front were received and cared for, although the liuildings were not finished 
until several weeks later. By September over 1,000 patients had been 
admitted. It was originally contemplated that for each base hospital pro- 
vision for 500 patients would be adequate. Before leaving the United States 
the personnel had been increased to that of a thousand-bed base, shortly after 
arrival in France it became obvious that it might at any time be required to shelter 
2,000 incapacitated soldiers, and early in November, 1918, the daily census included 
2,412 patients. It is believed, however, that every possible attention was given 
and that the enormous expansion did not weaken the efficiency of the organization, 
notwithstanding the fact that, at one time, only ten officers remained at the base, 
three of whom were largely occupied in administrative capacities. 

Because of pressure at other hospitals and the urgent demand for nurses, practi- 
cally all of those belonging to the unit had been transferred to needy centers at 
Nantes and elsewhere in France; therefore, shortly after "38" was placed in opera- 
tion. Miss Clara Melville, Chief Nurse, had only seven nurses to assist in operating 
rooms and to care for approximately 1,000 seriously wounded and sick soldiers; 
later the number reached more than 2,000. Nevertheless it must be universally 
recognized that the depletion of nurses was one thing from which the organization 
suffered intensely; the loyal and unflagging devotion of officers and enlisted men 
did much to ameliorate conditions, but in a great hospital, containing many seriously 
ill and wounded, no one fills the place of a properly trained nurse. Our nurses 
were performing more important duties with operating teams at the front, in hos- 
pitals on the field and along the line of comnumication, and on hospital trains, so 
that whatever the original organization may have suffered, the benefits to the 

221 



service in the A. E. F. were no doubt greater; consequently our loss was borne 
though less patiently than would have been decorous. 

Detached Duty 

Shortly after arriving in France, and in common with all other organizations 
which included highly trained specialists, we suffered severe losses from detach- 
ment of important officers to more active, and it was beUeved more important, 
duties nearer the front and elsewhere in the stricken country. Indeed some highly 
efficient men had been detached before Base Hospital No. 38 left the United States. 

Originally Captain J. Torrence Rugh was chosen for the orthopedic division 
of Base Hospital No. 38. The Surgeon General's office requested his release as an 
orthopedist of established repute was needed to direct the proper care of enlisted 
men in tliis countiy. Reluctantly the release was granted, his work was weU 
done, and his promotions continuous to and including the rank of Colonel. 

Captain E. J. G. Beardsley, who had been a member of the Medical Reserve 
Corps since 1909, was also transferred to a larger field. The Surgeon General's 
office recognized in him a man of unusual attainments, a capable teacher and an 
exi^erienced clinician. He was detailed to the Army Medical School, later to train- 
ing camps, became Chief of Medical Service, Base Hospital No. 89, Camp Sheridan, 
and joined the A. E. F. in France. His promotions passed through the grades of 
Captain, Major and Lieutenant Colonel. 

Captain George E. Price preceded the unit and was on duty as consulting 
neurologist in Paris; later succeeded by Major M. A. Biu-ns, who was also detached 
for pennanent duty in the capital city. 

Major Thomas C. Stellwagen had also sailed in advance of "38," and was 
on observation duty at Queen's Hospital, Sidcup, England; later transferred to 
Evacuation Hospital No. 1, to Field Hospital No. 27, acting as surgeon for non- 
transportable cases, to Evacuation Hospital No. 5, with Field Hospital No. 112, 
and for three months served with Mobile Hospital No. 4. After the armistice 
he resumed duty at Base Hospital No. 38 as Chief of the Department of Oral and 
Plastic Surgery. 

Major W. M. L. Coplin, Director, and Chief of the Laboratory Division, later 
Lieutenant Colonel and Colonel, was detailed to Headquarters, Laboratory Service, 
A. E. F., Dijon, later becoming Laboratory Officer, Hospital Center, Beaune; 
December, 1918 transferred to the 3d Army as Director of Laboratories, accom- 
panying the Army of Occupation and having charge of twenty-seven laboratories, 
with headquarters at Coblenz, Germany. 

Major J. Norman Hem-y, Chief of the Medical Division, was detailed to the 
Army Sanitary School at Langres, August 19,1918, to headquarters at Toul, to 
the 89th Division where there were unusual opportunities for studying the prob- 
lems of a division in action. After his return early in October, he became Com- 
manding Officer of Base Hospital No. 38. 

Major Charles F. Nassau left the Base Hospital early in July, 1918, for ob- 
servation duty in Evacuation Hospital No. 1, at Toul, to the Red Cross Hospital 
in Paris, where he was joined by other members of the operating team consisting 
of Captain Mark D. Hoyt, Lieutenant Louis D. Englerth, Miss Amanda Boyer, 
R. N., and Privates Edward G. Huth and Herbert W. Duke. From Paris Major 
Nassau went to Evreux, American Red Cross Hospital No. 109; in September to 

222 



Evacuation Hospital No. 7, Souilly; to Mobile Hospital No. 1, Esnes, returning 
to SouiUy, and after the armistice resumed his position as Chief Surgeon 
with "38." 

Captains Frank H. Hustead and Charles E. Hays joined Major Stellwagen 
in the assignments detailed above and served in the Argonne and St. Mihiel drives. 

Lieutenant Colonel John S. Lambie detailed by the Medical Department 
as Executive Officer of Base Hospital No. .38, left the organization on September 2, 
1918, becoming commanding officer of the hospital center at Puy de Dome and later 
inspector of hospitals in the A. E. F. Major John B. Lownian was left in command, 
but shortly thereafter on account of illness, was relieved by Major J. Norman 
Henry, who became Commanding Officer, and continued in this service until Novem- 
ber 22, 1918, when Major Lowman returned and resumed command. 

Major John B. Forst passed through tlic St. Mihiel and Argonne offensives 
with Mobile Hospital No. 2, serving as Ophthalmologist with this organization on 
the Meuse, returning to the base in October. He was in command of Base Hos- 
pital No. 38 when the patients were turned over to Evacuation Hospital No. 31, 
returned with the unit and was mustered out with the boys at Camp Dix, 
New Jersey, April, 1919. 

Captains Borzell, Burns, Hays, Mohler, Musser and Tyson at different times 
were off on observation duty or on other details. 

Our Heroic Dead 

Every great adventure has its tragedy and the experience of Base Hospital 
No. 38 was no exception. Wliile in line of duty the call to higher reward was 
answered by live members of tlie unit. Every death was due to the stress of ac- 
tivities upon which the worker was engaged. The nurses in travel to detailed 
stations or on duty, a physician going from ward to sick-bed under war conditions 
where the comforts of a modern hospital or of a home were not available; enlisted 
men dying from disease — all falling in line of duty. In each instance it is reason- 
able to believe that, had the unfortunate one avoided the rigors of war and the 
hardships of service, life might have been spared. They are heroes and heroines 
who fell outside the glamour of attack and screeching shell, but none the less 
gave their lives for the cause. 

AdeUne Pepper Gibson, benefactress of Base Hospital No. 38, while on active 
duty contracted pneumonia and died at Nantes, January 10, 1919. Through 
the many trying days of effort, Mrs. Gibson gave unsparingly of all those things 
worth while. There was no opportunity to do good that was too laborious, no 
time of need when her interest was not aroused and her helping hand was not ex- 
tended, no weariness of body that arrested her enduring endeavor, no situation 
she did not see, and seeing act. To officers and men, to nurses and patients often 
she brought cheer and sunshine where before existed despair and gloom. Her life 
with us was one continuing period of smUing, patient, helpfulness, and her passing 
weighed upon us as an unforgettable sorrow of our adventure. A stranger to all 
the wearying sadness of hospital life imder the shadow of grim war, the things 
she did and the way she did them won the hearts of all. There was a noble sin- 
cerity in her life best known to those near enough to see the warp and woof of the 
cloth of gold woven in the loom of duty before which she daily and hourly cast 
life's flying shuttle. A world peopled by such souls would be sunshine and cheer, 

223 



without pain or sorrow — a veritable paradise. A history of Base Hospital No. 38 
is being published as a fitting memorial to our lamented benefactress. 

Captain M. Mauney came to the organization a stranger, detailed by the 
Surgeon General's office when the personnel was increased. He endeared himself 
to all the men with whom he worked and was faithful, devoted, serious minded and 
capable. During the influenza epidemic he continued at work in the wards when 
he should have been in bed. and it is the feeling of those about him that his devotion 
to duty made certain the tragedy of his death which resulted from pneumonia on 
November 1, 1918. 

Meryl Grace Phillips died May 18, 1918, of pneumonia, the day her companions 
sailed for France. She was a graduate of the Williamsport Hospital, an accom- 
plished nurse, a woman of unusual attainments and possessed a delightful per- 
sonality. 

Nellie Jane Ward died on July 5, 1918 of pneumonia contracted while on duty 
at Chaumont, France. Because of her attainments and superior qualifications 
Miss Ward had been assigned to the work at Chaumont. She was a graduate of 
the Massachusetts General Hospital, long known ff)r the high grade of women 
prepared in its halls. 

Kenneth B. Charlton of Washington, D. C, a member of the enlisted per- 
sonnel, while home on leave, was stricken with pneumonia and died in the Walter 
Reed Hospital, Washington, D. C, January 1,'}, 1918. 

Kenneth J. Ellis of Philadelphia, an original member of the unit, contracted 
pneumonia while training, and died in the Pennsylvania Hospital, Philadelphia, 
March 7, 1918. Both Charlton and Ellis were men of the nobler type, esteemed by 
all who knew them and popular among their fellows. Their memory will ever 
be with us. 

Summary of Work Done 

Aside from the nearly 9,000 patients who passed through operating rooms, 
wards and convalescent camp, the officers, nurses and men of Base Hospital No. 
38 administered to the sick and injured at the bases at Nantes, St. Nazaire, Dijon, 
Beaune, Langres, Saumur, Paris, Dancourt, Evreux, Esnes, Souilly, LaTouche, 
Euverzin, Louey, Chaumont, Toul, in the Argonne and St. Mihiel drives, and 
after the armistice, with the 3d Army at Prum, Trier, Mayen, Neuenahr, Ehren- 
breitstein, Coblenz and elsewhere — a continuous line of faithful workers extend- 
ing from the parent institution in Philadelphia across paths of communication, 
to bases in Europe, to the battle-fields of stricken France and Belgium, and beyond 
to the remotest outposts of the Army of Occupation along the Rhine, and in the 
bridge-head area to the most advanced relief station in Germany. 

A SKETCH OF THE SERVICE OF HOSPITAL UNIT A 

John H. Jopson, M.D. 

Hospital Unit A, the first of the Red Cross units of this type to be authorized 
by the Red Cross, was organized and equipped by the Presbyterian Hospital of 
Philadelphia, as its contribution to the sanitary service of the United States Army 
during the World War. It was felt that a unit of this character was a wise addition 
to the considerable number of base hospitals already under process of organiza- 

224 




A Surgical Dressing /?< 



tion at other hospitals in Philadelphia, some of which, especially the Hospital of 
the University of Pennsylvania and the Pennsylvania Hospital, had drawn heavily 
on the personnel of the Presbyterian Hospital staff. 

The organization of the unit was authorized by the Red Cross, and guaianteed 
by the board of managers of the hospital early in the spring of 1917. The officers 
as originally selected were all connected with, or had served as members of the 
staff of the Presbyterian Hospital, some as visiting physicians and surgeons in the 
house, others in the same capacity in the dispensary, and the juniors as recent 
internes. The nurses were all graduates of the training school of the same insti- 
tution, including the Chief Nurse, Miss Kate Liddle. The enlisted men were from 
Philadelphia and the vicinity, and were selected by Dr. Henry P. Brown, Jr., one 
of the original officers of the unit, who was transferred to the 77th Division 
before the unit was mobilized. The equipment conformed to that prescribed 
by the Red Cross for this type of organization. While awaiting mobilization, 
a number of the officers were called to active service, and assigned to the 
training camps for medical officers at Fort Oglethorpe and Fort Benjamin Har- 
rison. The writer, who was director of the unit, was included in the second class 
of observers at the War Demonstration Hospital of the Rockefeller Institute in 
September, 1917, where Dr. Alexis Carrel had started his course of instruction in 
wound sterihzation and treatment to which officers were assigned for a two weeks' 
course of instruction. This course was a most convincing demonstration of the 
value of the Carrel method. The cUnical and laboratory instruction as given 
by Dr. Carrel and his associates, some of whom had extended practical experience 
in the sanitary organizations of the French Army, was carried on with a freshness 
and enthusiasm that was contagious. 

225 



The unit was mobilized at the Presbyterian Hospital on November 6, 1917, 
and three days later proceeded to Fort Porter, Buffalo, N. Y., for equipment and 
training, preparatory to service overseas. Three of the officers had been transferred 
from the training camps to other organizations, or to service with troops, and 
their places were taken by others assigned by the Surgeon General. The twelve 
medical officers ordered to Fort Porter included Major John H. Jopson as Com- 
manding Officer, Captain John Speese, Captain Charles A. Fife, Captain CUfford 

B. Farr, and First Lieutenants Albert G. Mitchell, Ralph W. Walker, Douglas 
N. Forman, Douglas P. Murphy, George K. Tweddell, Percy D. Moulton, WilUam 

C. Powell and Walter R. Holmes. Lieutenant Mitchell was Adjutant. There were 
forty-seven enlisted men. 

The twenty-one nurses were assembled at ElUs Island in charge of Miss 
Kate Liddle, Chief Nurse. 

In addition to Hospital L^nit A, there were assembled at Fort Porter, Hos- 
pital Units F and K, from the Harlem Hospital, New York and Council Bluffs. Iowa, 
respectively, under the command of Majors Neff and MacRae. The station was 
under the command of Major T. D. Woodson ot the Regular Army Medical Corps. 

The units remained in training at Fort Porter until January 10, 1918, when they 
were ordered to Camp Merritt, New Jersey, and on January 15, 1918, left there for 
the port of embarkation, Hoboken, N. J., and embarked and sailed the same day on 
the Cunard Line S. S. Carpalhia, officially designated in orders as Transport 509. 
The Nashville, Term., Unit S was also on board, under command of Major 
Barr. There were all told about 2,000 troops on board, nearly 100 officers and 
84 nurses. The commanding officer of troops was Colonel Symmonds, of the 
Cavalry Corps of the United States Army. Two days later stop was made at 
Halifax, N. S., to join a convoy of seven vessels which was made up there, and 
which left January 19, 1918, under the escort of U. S. S. San Diego and the British 
converted cruiser Vklorian. 

The commanding officer of Unit A was transport sui'geon. After the first 
three days out the sanitary arrangements were satisfactory, although the presence 
of so many newly enlisted men necessitated constant vigilance until they could 
be brought into famiUarity with their surroundings. The ship was filled to 
capacity and there were double tiers of bunks on both lower decks. There were 
three rooms below decks available as hospitals with accommodations for fifty- 
eight patients, and the cases of illness developing on board were at once segregated 
when indicated, and admitted to one or the other of these hospitals according to 
the nature of the disease. They were fairly well filled during the voyage and the 
cases of contagion included influenza, measles and mumps, and one case of German 
measles. Ten men were landed at Hahfax, N. S., according to instructions, 
cases of contagious illness of the above types, and sent to the military hospital. 
The severe epidemic of influenza, which led to such high mortahty and morbidity 
on the transports, had not as yet appeared, and the cases of this form observed 
were mostly ot a mild type and few in number. There were eighty-nine cases of 
all types of disease and injury treated in hospital and quarters during the voyage 
and of these, thirteen were classified as influenza. There were eleven cases of 
measles and twenty-one of mumps. Twenty-six cases remaining in hospital on 
arrival at Glasgow on January 30th, were transferred to the hospital at that port. 
These were mostly cases of mild contagion of the above types. One case of in- 

226 



sanity developed during the voyage. The presence of a large number of medical 
officers on the ship rendered it possible to conduct the inspections, to administer 
the hospitals, and to run the dispensary, which was at once established, in a thorough 
and satisfactory manner. Special dispensaries for treatment under specialists 
were conducted, and the services of oculists, aurists, and surgeons were freely 
drawn upon at all times. One death occurred during the voyage. 

The entire convoy made the trip across safely. No submarines were sighted, 
and although there was some excitement when a strange ship was sighted, and was 
pursued and called on to lay to by a shot from one of the cruisers, no enemy was 
seen. An extreme northern course was followed, and the escort of destroyers was 
met three days out from land. The convoy then divided, two, including the 
Carpalhia, making for tdasgow, the remainder for Liverpool. 

The unit landed at Glasgow on January 30, 1918, and proceeded to Win- 
chester Rest Camp wdiere it remained until February 3d, when it embarked at 
Southampton and landed at Le Havre, France, the following day, February 4, 
1918. The same evening the enlisted men, under the command of the Adjutant, 
Lieutenant Mitchell, were ordered to Base Hospital No. 18 at Bazoilles sur Meuse, 
which was the John Hopkins Unit, and the following day the remaining officers, 
eleven in number, were ordered to the casual officers' camp at Blois. It was, 
perhaps, unfortunate that the original idea of the Red Cross and the Surgeon 
General's office as to the function of units of this type could not have been better 
understood and carried out at this time. 

These units, while small, were so selected as to be capable of taking over a 
small hospital, or to reenforce a large one. It was also considered an advantage 
to secure groups of men accustomed to working in cooperation in civil life. Where 
an emergency requires the quick induction of a Red Cross unit into active service, 
there can be little doubt as to the wisdom of such a method of organization. It 
is quite otherwise when time permits of building up and training a personnel 
winnowed out after experience in existing military hospitals. 

In common with some of the other hospital units arriving in France at this 
time, LTnit A did not function as a united organization after its arrival. The 
enlisted men were attached to Base Hospital No. 18. This hospital had at this 
time an abundant supply of its own officers and nurses. L'nit A nurses, originally 
assigned there, were at once sent back to Paris and distributed among Red Cross 
Hospitals Nos. 1, 2 and 3 in that city. After a few days in Blois, the officers 
who had been ordered there were sent to various stations, including Tours, Langres 
and Paris. The history of the unit was thereafter merged with that of the various 
organizations to which officers and men were ordered. The enUsted men remained 
at Bazoilles throughout the war, and returned to the United States with Base 
Hospital No. 18 in February, 1919. 

Their first commanding officer was jNIajor George Edwards, and later, when 
the hospital group was constructed at this place. Colonel Elmer Dean. One of 
the first hospitals to go overseas, and functioning most of the time as a base. No. 18 
was utilized as an evacuation hospital during the Argonne-Meuse offensive, and 
was at all times one of the most active organizations on the line of communications. 
The enlisted members of Unit A earned, by their deportment and work, the highest 
praise from their commanding officers at this hospital, and Major Edwards was 
always most enthusiastic over their work, and pronounced them as among the 



finest ho had ever commanded. A number of them, including Atlee, Coleman, 
Mellor, Teal and Brice, were promoted to sergeants. Teter, who died, and Brewster 
were corporals. 

The writer was on temporary duty at this hospital during February and March 
of 1918. On April 3d, he proceeded to Evacuation Hospital No. 1 at Scbastopol 
near Toul, with the first group of observers, six in number, assigned there for 
instruction in front line surgery. Ordered to assemble a team and remain there, 
he secured the services of four of his associate officers of Unit A, Captain Speese 
and Lieutenants Walker, Murphy and Holmes, and of two of the nurses. Miss 
Addams and Miss Barnsley, and two orderlies of the same unit. Walters and 
.[ohnson. His team remained on duty at this place until after the armistice. 
Captain Speese soon headed a team of his own and went through most of the 
engagements of the American Army with one or the other of the evacuation hos- 
pitals or mobile units, being finally Chief of the Surgical Service in Mobile 
Hospital No. 8. 

Evacuation Hospital No. 1, the first to be formed in the American Army, 
and the first to take its place in the line, originally behind the Fiist Division in 
th(! St. Mihiel sector, was, in the spring and summer of 1918. the chief instruction 
center of operators in the Army in France. A large number of officers who after- 
ward themselves became the heads of, or members of operating teams, as well as 
many X-ray and laboratory speciaUsts, were assigned here for observation, usually 
for a two weeks' period. 

The hospital, organized at Fort Riley, was commanded at various times 
by Major Davis and Colonels Gosman, Hanner and Marrow, the greater part 
of the time by Colonel Gosman, and was at all times a model of administrative 
efficiency. The surgery was under the direction of Colonel John H. Gibbon during 
most of the period of activity, and this hospital was the first to receive systematic 
evacuations of freshly wounded soldiers from the American Line. The original 
operating staff at this time (April, 1918) was composed of Pool, Heuer, and 
McWilliams, and later Vaughan and Jopson and their assistants, while many 
teams were added for temporary duty before the St. Mihiel Drive, for which this 
hospital was designated as one of the main ones for the reception of severely 
wounded. Twenty-six teams were on duty with Evacuation No. 1 and Mobile 
Hospital No. 3 during the drive in September. Later Percy, Dorrance, Heyd 
and Hetzel operated for long periods at this station. The surgery was moulded 
by and modeled after the teacliings and practice of the leading French, Belgian 
and British operators, under whom the first operators here had been trained. 

The location of the hospital nine miles behind the line on the ^'erdan road was 
a favorable one for the speedy reception of freslily wounded soldiers, and the type 
of buildings in which it was housed, a French cavalry barracks, was well adapted 
to the definitive treatment of the wounded. It was not a mobile type of con- 
struction, but th3 necessity of moving did not develop. 

In regard to technique and methods of instruction, which latter, it is generally 
agreed, are better carried out in the technical branches of a military surgeon's 
education in the field, it suffices to say that the methods of the clinics and hospitals 
of DePage, WiUems, and LeMaistre, in regard to debridement, primary and 
secondary suture, were taught and practised, as far as the exigencies of the military 
situation permitted. The sterihzation of unclosed and grossly infected wounds 

228 



by the Canel metliod was at all times employed, and with the most satisfactory 
results, and to tnosi of the observers was an eiilif;lit(<iinient and revelation. The 
results as tabulated in monthly reports for the c;iii<'f Consultant, showed that the 
results of primary and secondary suture, joint closure, and other radical inno- 
vations of the l')elj;ian and French schools. c(juld be duplicated by American 
surgeons. The Carrel method, at lirst condemned as a tedious and impracticable 
measure in front line work, was not only shown to be a life-saving but a time- 
saving measure, ('aptain Theodore C. Beebe, in charge of the laboratory, and 
Captain Lockwood, Director of the X-ray department, were responsible for the 
training of many officers in these specialties. The fact that almost 50 per cent 
of the officers of Hospital llnit A served at this hospital renders proper this resume 
of its work. 

Of the remaining ofiicers, Farr was attached to the Chemical Warfare Service, 
Fife was at the Attending Surgeon's office in Paris, later attached to Evacuation 
Hospital No. 4 and finally Chief of the Medical Service at Base Hospital No. 31 
at Nantes. Moulton was at the aviation center at Isidun, Forman and Tweddell 
were at Tours, and Powell was with the 10th (By.) Engineers. Mitchell was 
Medical Chief at the B(>d Cross Hospital at Neufchateau, and later with the 19th 
Machine (!un BattaUon (Rainbow Division), during the St. Mihiel and Meuse- 
Argonne offensives, and with the Army of Occupation. Nearly all received promotion. 
The head nurse. Miss Liddle, was Chief Nurse at Base Hospital No. 202 at 
Orleans in the latter part of 1918 and several of the unit nurses joined her there. Up 
to that time, in common with the other nurses except those on duty at Evacuation 
Hospital No. 1, she had enjoyed an active and useful service in the Red Cross 
hospitals in Paris. One of our nurses, Miss Jeanette Watkins, was decorated with 
the Medaille d' Honneur by the French for notable services during the influenza 
epidemic. 

The unit lost one member by death, Corporal Horace E. Teter, who died at 
Base Hospital No. 18, in March, 1918, of pneumonia. He was a fine soldier, 
extremely efficient, and popular with the entire unit. 

In conclusion it may not be amiss to point out that a unit of this size could 
be organized in peace times along the lines which have been found so adaptable 
for mobile warfare, namely as a mobile hospital. The rapid rise in favor of this 
type of hospital, the smaller number of officers, the limited equipment as compared 
with a base hospital, and the ability to utilize it either in civil or military emergencies 
suggests it as a good type upon which to model a certain number of emergency 
organizations. The average hospital could build up from its staff a skeleton 
organization along the lines of a mobile hospital, staffed by young but experienced 
surgeons, capable of sustaining the severe strain thrown upon them during periods 
of active fighting, or the occasional emergencies or great disaster in times of peace, 
and due to natural causes. In fact, the second mobile hospital in the American 
Army, Mobile Hospital No. 1 (Mobile Hospital No. 39 was the first), was staffed 
in the main by Hospital Unit A. 

RED CROSS GENERAL HOSPITAL No. 1 

Previous to the entry of the L^nited States into the war a portion of the 
Medico-Chirurgical Hospital of Philadelphia had been taken over by the City and 
condemned to be torn down to make room for the Parkway, the remaining portion 

229 



of the buildings having been acquired by the University of Pennsylvania. Upon 
the declaration of war it was deemed inadvisable to curtail any hospital accom- 
modation then in existence, and the City and University then agreed to allow the 
buildings to remain intact until the termination of the war, or as long as they might 
be required for military purposes. 

The National Red Cross therefore agreed to take over the entire hospital 
and maintain it for the Navy under the designation of Red Cross General Hospital 
No. 1. It was turned over to the Navy on June 21, 1917. Captain Frank Ander- 
son, M. C, V. S. N., was placed in command and shortly afterwards Lieutenant 
Thomas M. Kelly, M. C, U. S. N. R., was ordered as his assistant. It was the 
intention of the Navy Department to use what accommodation might be required 
by the Navy and gradually eliminate the civil patients to make room for those of 
the Navy. 

No change was made in the organization or general administration of the 
hospital. The professional and nursing staffs continued in their duties as before 
the transfer, and likewise the same civil employees were retained. 

During its occupancy by the Navy the two commissioned naval medical 
officers above mentioned, together with a pharmacist, were attached to the hospital 
for purposes of naval administration, and in all about seventy naval hospital corps 
recruits were sent there from time to time for training and instruction. Fourteen 
graduate trained nurses, assisted by about thirty undergraduates of the Medico- 
Chirurgical training school for nurses, performed all the nursing duties of the 
hospital for both civil and Navy patients. 

David Milne, who had for some years been treasurer of the Medico- 
Cliirurgical Hospital, consented to continue in the same office when it became a 
Red Cross hospital and was appointed by the National Red Cross as its financial 
representative for the institution. 

During the ten months of its existence as a Red Cross hospital, about 450 naval 
patients were under treatment, the average at any one time being about fifty. 
The great majority of these patients were such cases as occur in the ordinary 
service of peace times; only a few had seen service on the other side in the war 
area. As the full capacity of the hospital was not required by the Navy, it was 
possible to continue the admission of civil patients. Emergency and accident 
cases especially were accepted and in this way valuable service was rendered to 
the civil population of the neighborhood as well as to the Navy. 

With the increasing accommodation afl'orded by the regular naval hospitals 
of the Philadelphia Station, the necessity for maintaining this Red Cross hospital 
no longer existed, and, therefore, on IVlay 1, 1918, all naval patients were with- 
di'awn and its use by the Navy was discontinued. 

The most willing and conscientious professional attention was at aU times 
rendered to the patients by the medical and surgical staff of the hospital, and it 
was to their regret that a greater demand could not have been made upon their 
time and services. 

Apart from the strictly professional work much was done for the comfort and 
entertainment of the men by the social service committee of the hospital. Extra 
clothing was fiberally provided, a recreation room was fitted up for use by convales- 
cents, a piano and phonograph contributed, and diversion furnished by theatre 
parties and automobile tours. 

230 



PHILADELPHIA ARSENALS 




]HE two arsenals in the city, the Frankford Arsenal and the 
Schuyklill Arsenal, were old established government works 
when the World War broke out. 

With very little delay the personnel was increased, 
new buildings erected and — new problems solved. 

Some interesting developments occurred. For ex- 
ample, before the War the opticed departments of the 
Frankford Arsenal purchased its finest glass from Ger- 
many. Wlien the supply there was cut off, the necessary 
material was secured from France. FinaUy, when the 
marine warfare made it difficult to get the glass with any degree of satisfaction, 
it was found that it was quite possible to get an equally high grade glass at 
Pittsburgh, Penn. 

THE FRANKFORD ARSENAL 
Ry L. W. Roddy 

The Frankford Arsenal Reservation, located in the northeastern section of 
Philadelphia, comprises an area of 91.5 acres, and is a portion of a tract of land 
which was transferred by patent from John, Thomas and Richard Penn, 
proprietaries, to Andrew Hamilton on May 19, 1742. 

The territory on which the arsenal reservation is now situated was sold and 
resold at various dates until the United States Government made an original pur- 
chase of some twenty acres thirty-four perches in 1816. A final purchase of twenty- 
three and a fraction acres was made in March, 1917. 

That portion of the present arsenal reservation which was first acquired by 
the United States Government as above described is located on the Rridge Street 
side of the grounds and extends from the Frankford Creek along Rridge Street to 
Tacony Street. 

Arrowheads and other Indian relics have been found in the vicinity of the 
mouth of the Frankford Creek, showing that Indians had a camp there. They 
lived there as late as 1755 and inspired such names as Tacony, Wissinoming, 
Tacawana, Wingohocking, etc. 

The Frankford Arsenal was established under the general authority providing 
depots to be estabUshed in various parts of the country as contained in Section 9 
of the Act of Congress February 8, 1815, viz.: "That to insure system and uni- 
formity in the different public armories, they are hereby placed under the direction 
of the Ordnance Department; and the colonel of the Ordnance Department, under 
the direction of the secretary for the Department of War, is hereby authorized to 
establish depots of arms, ammunition, and ordnance stores in such parts of the 
United States and in such number as may be deemed necessary." 

The first commanding officer of the arsenal was Captain Joseph H. Rees, 
Ordnance Department, who took command in 1816. Since that time it has been 
under command of officers of the Ordnance Department. 

231 



An interesting event associated with its early history was a visit by General 
Lafayette, described as follows: 

"On the 26th of September, 1824, the 1st City Troop left the town (Philadel- 
phia) and at Holmesburg it was joined by the 2d City Troop and the 1st and 3d 
County Troops; the whole squadron being under command of Captain J. R. C. 
Smith, of the 1st City Troop. 

"The next day at Morrisville, where the governor had delivered an eloquent 
address of welcome to Lafayette, they were joined by the 2d County Troop and 
the Bucks County Troop. They met and escorted General Lafayette and Governor 
Schultze to Frankford, where they slept for the night at the United States Arsenal. 
The people of Frankford were very much disappointed at the escort arriving when 
it was yet too light for illumination and still too dark to give a favorable view of 
the procession. 

"Lafayette visited the village the next morning and was received by Isaac 
Worrel, town clerk, who made a speech of welcome in behalf of the borough 
authorities." 

When the arsenal was first established it was in the town of Whitehall, which 
was subsequently merged into the borough of Frankford and in 1850 the whole 
incorporated in the city of Philadelphia. 

From 1816 to the war with Mexico, the work that was done at this arsenal 
consisted chiefly in the repair of artillery and infantry equipments, and the manu- 
facture of various component parts of ammunition and ordnance articles. 

Dming this period the arsenal was also used as a place of receipt, storage and 
distribution. 

The work at the arsenal seems to have gone smoothly along during the first 
tliirty years of its existence, except for a short time in May, 1844, when it was 
suspended on account of a riot in the city of Philadelphia. 

Dming the War of the Rebellion the operations assumed formidable pro- 
portions, the plant and working force being correspondingly increased. 

From 1866 to the Spanish- American War the work was confined to the manu- 
facture of the service ammunition. 

By 1894 the importance of the arsenal as a place of storage was greatly 
reduced, there being only a few articles stored here, such as rifles, carbines, fight 
cavalry sabers, non-commissioned officers' swords, horse artillery swords, field 
guns and caissons^ gatfing guns, nitre, etc. The capacity of the smaU arms ammuni- 
tion plant at that time was about 75,000 rounds per day. 

The output of aU the Frankford Arsenal departments was greatly increased 
during the Spanish-American War, aU working at least two shifts. 

The history of the arsenal from about 1894 to 1912 may be briefly divided 
into three classes of work, namely, the manufacture of small arms ammunition, 
artillery ammunition, and instruments for fire control. 

Small Arms Ammunition Department 

Prior to the entrance of the United States into the war, the only government 
operated plant in the United States engaged in the manufacture of small arms 
ammunition was located at Frankford Arsenal. For several years the manufactur- 
ers of sporting ammunition were given contracts each year by the government for 
a small amount of .30 caliber baU cartridges, so that they might be trained in the 

232 




International. 



Slioii ill irliich Shi'lh were mwle. 



manufacture of military ammunition. The placing and inspection of these 
contracts was under the supervision of the commanding officer, Frankford 
Arsenal. 

After the European War broke out, the capacity of private manufacturers 
for production of military ammunition was greatly increased, due to the fact that 
large orders were received from the Allies. As these contracts were practically 
completed when the United States entered the war, it was made possible for these 
companies to contract with our own government for large quantities of military 
ammunition. The fust contracts were let by the Frankford Arsenal, and this 
arsenal was responsible for the organization of the inspection personnel, and equip- 
ment at their plants. 

Major John E. Munroe was appointed inspector of small arms ammunition. 
Major Munroe at that time was also the officer in charge of the Small Arms Ammu- 
nition Department at this arsenal. As it was inadvisable to cripple the private 
manufacturers by commissioning officers from their personnel, commissions were 
given to technically trained men, and over fifty reserve officers and a large number 
of civilians were instructed, in the Small Arms Ammunition Department at this 
arsenal, in the manufacture and inspection of military ammunition. The product 
of the Frankford Arsenal was also used as standard, and blueprints, specifications, 
gauges, samples and information were furnished to private companies, without 
which it would have been practicaUy impossible for them to obtain an early pro- 
duction of large quantities of the desired ammunition. The instructions included 
the study of operations on .30 and .45 caliber cartridges, ballistic tests and proof 
house equipment, nomenclature, operations, repair and care of rifles, pistols, 
revolvers and machine guns, and army correspondence, personnel and property. 

233 



About the middle of October, 1917, the office of the inspector of small arms ammuni- 
tion was moved to Washington, and Major Munroe was transferred to Washington 
as chief inspector. The inspection of small arms ammunition at this arsenal was 
then placed under the supervision of Captain H. S. Mcllvain, who had charge of 
inspection until the 1st of June, when Captain Albrecht, Army Inspector of 
Ordnance, representing the Inspection Division, was stationed at Frankford Arsenal, 
with Captain Wilkins as his assistant. They had charge of the production and 
inspection of small arms ammunition until November 1, 1918, when it was found 
advisable to return the production and inspection to the officer in charge of the 
Small Arms Ammunition Department, Major Wm. B. Doe. There were frequent 
revisions of specifications for the manufacture of such ammunition during the war, 
either to insure better quahty or to increase production. 

Exhaustive tests were conducted at the Springfi(>ld Armory of ammunition 
manufactured by the Frankford Arsenal, National Brass & Copper Tube Co., U. S. 
Cartridge Co., Winchester Bepeating Arms Co., Western Cartridge Co., Bemington 
Arms U.M.C. Co., and Peters Cartridge Co. The result of these tests proved that 
Frankford Arsenal ammunition was superior to all other ammunition. It was there- 
fore decided by the Ordnance Department that Frankford Arsenal should manufac- 
ture the special aircraft ammunition (the .30 caliber aircraft service, tracer, 
incendiary and armor piercing) required for machine guns for army and navy 
airplanes. It was vital that this anmnuiition should be more perfect, if possible, 
than any ammunition heretofore manufactured, as failures of the cartridges might 
cause the loss of the aviator's life or an airplane, and give military advantage to the 
enemy. During the year 1918 the quahty of the ammunition manufactured by the 
Small Arms Ammunition Department at this arsenal was unsurpassed by any other 




finishing Shells. 
234 



inanul'acluier, and lepurls bruuglit back fiuiii France bear Uiis out. Andrew 
Hallowell, of the Small Arms Department, spent several months in France and 
England visiting various testing stations, airdromes and factories, and he frequently 
asked aviators and other users of ammunition what ammunition they preferred, 
and the reply was, "Frankford Arsenal." 

There follows a tabulation showing production of small arms ammunition 
throughout the United States during the war, these records being taken from the 
reports of the Inspection Division, Ordnance Department, Washington, D. C. 

Total Accepted 

Up to Up to 

Jan. 1, 1918 Nov. 11, 1918 

All types small arms 351,117,928 3,349,930,200 

.30 caliber ball cartridges (all classes) 251,405,600 2,492,902,900 

.45 caliber pistol ball 36,010,784 308,426,200 

Aircraft .30 caliber service 29,725,800 

.30 caUber tracer 25,249,500 

.30 cahber incendiary 13,759,500 

.30 cahber armor piercing 4,370,400 

.30 cahber ball cartridges (all classes) 15,543,800 44,987,400 

.45 caUber pistol ball 3,600,000 26,400,000 

The following figures give the production of small arms ammunition at Frank- 
ford Arsenal during the war: 

Total Accepted from 4-1-17 

Up to Up to 

Jan. 1, 1918 Dec. 1, 1918 

.30 cahber ball cartridges (all classes) 90,174,820 173,637,908 

.45 cahber pistol ball 5,618,230 13,392,670 

Aircraft .30 cahber 

Tracer 9,500 22,971,860 

Incendiary 15,943,829 

Armor piercing 365,860 5,707,501 

Total 96,168,410 231,753,768 

The total production of the Small Arms Ammunition Department from Jan- 
uary, 1917, to November, 1918, inclusive, was 231,753,768 cartridges of all types. 
In addition to this amount, the Small Arms Ammunition Department produced 
a large number of miscellaneous items and components, such as 20-grain and 
110-grain primers, primer bodies, powder bags, .30 and .45 caliber primers, .30 
cahber cartridge clips, bandoleers, gas checks, pressure cylinders, tracer gilding 
metal cups, serrated and base slugs for incendiary cartridges, and so forth. 

The production during the Spanish War was 37,000,000 cartridges, and it 
will therefore be noted that during the World War the production of the Small Arms 
Department was approximately six times as great. The maximum production was 
obtained the last few months of the war, and the highest total production for two 
consecutive months was for August and September of 1918, with an average per 
month of 13,223,450 cartridges. It is thought that this rate of production would 

235 




International. 

Girl niunilion worhrt: u/ Frankjord Arsenal. 



have been increased in October and 
November, except for the severe in- 
fluenza epidemic which was prevalent 
in I'hiladelpliia during October and 
production was consequently reduced 
1.000.000 rounds. The average month- 
ly production for 1918 was 12,325,000 
rounds, as compared with the average 
monthly production of 10,685,000 
rounds in 1917, for the nine months 
after this country declared war. In 
March and April, 1918, production 
fell off due to the change from the 
manufacture of special aircraft ammu- 
nition (tracer, incendiary and armor 
])iercing), which change necessitated 
new and additional operations; the 
training of new employees; and the 
development of these types of ammu- 
nition on a manufacturing basis. 

Three new frame buildings and some 
additional equipment were available for 
the loading of the special bullets with the tracer mixture, phosphorus and other 
components required for aircraft ammunition, but no new equipment and buildings 
were available for the manufacture of the cartridge case, which was the same as 
the cartridge case used in the regular' service ammunition, with the exception that 
tlie primer had to be crimped into the case. As no machinery was available for this 
crimping operation, it was necessary to take hall of the venting and sizing machines 
and tool them, thereby handicapping the production of cases for several months 
until crimping machines were received. 

The manufacture of tracer bullets on a production basis was started in Feb- 
ruary, 1918, in two of the frame buildings and a third building was available for 
the manufacture of incendiary bullets in June, 1918. 

During the entire period of the war there were many difficulties and obstacles 
encountered in increasing production, such as scarcity of labor, both skilled and un- 
skilled, delay in obtaining necessary macliinery, tools, equipment and buildings, 
frequent orders from Washington which changed the types of ammunition to be 
given preference in manufacturing, and the change to the special aircraft 
ammunition. 

The Ordnance Department placed several contracts with outside manufac- 
turers for the production of special aircraft ammunition, but as these manufacturers 
were unable to satisfactorily furnish the quality and quantity of ammunition re- 
quired, it was necessary to rely almost entirely upon this arsenal to produce this 
very important ammunition. In spite of the above mentioned difficulties, the 
SmaU Arms Department produced not only the amount which it had originally 
promised, but also the additional amount required due to the failure of outside 
sources. 

The Small Arms Department started a second or night shift on December 4, 

236 




International. 

Gauging 'i-lnch cases before packing. 



1917, and on March 26, 1917, both 
shifts were changed from an eight 
hour to a ten hour basis. For several 
months the second or night shift 
worked four hours on Saturday after- 
noon, but on February 9, 1918, the 
Saturday afternoon work was discon- 
tinued. 

The total number of employees 
in the Small Arms Department at the 
start of the war in April, 1917, was 
1,101, and in November, 1918, when 
the armistice was signed, there were 
2,654 employees. When it is taken 
into consideration that the manufac- 
ture of military ammunition requires 
trained employees, the magnitude of 
the task of training the new employees 
is appreciated. That it was possible to 
train these new employees quickly 
and correctly was due to the loyalty 
and interest of the old employees in 
the Small Arms Department. During 
the war the morale of the employees was of the highest order; they always had 
for their motto: "More and better ammunition." 

As the war progressed, operations which had previously been performed by 
men were performed by female operators, thereby releasing all available men for 
the Army. It was the policy of the Small Arms Department to ask exemption 
only for those male employees who, because of the nature of their work, could not 
be spared. 

Edward L. Uhl was the civilian head of the Small Arms Department from 
March 26, 1917, to October 15, 1917, when he was succeeded by H. B. Yande- 
grift of the Small Arms Department. 

A. H. HalloweU was the civilian head of the night shift for several months. 
He was transferred to the day shift as assistant to Mr. Vandegrift and was sent 
to France in August for three months as the arsenal representative of the manu- 
facturers' association. Mr. HalloweU visited various arsenals and ammunition 
factories in France and England, and also visited testing stations and airdromes. 

W. Rowley succeeded Mr. HalloweU as civilian head of the night shift. 

The following foremen were in charge of the small arms shops during the war : 

Day Shift Night Shift 

G. P. Kappler Box, gauging and packing C. H. Gibbs 

J. Matthews Loading — bullet assemble J. Costello 

M. F. Cleary Case shop J. Wilhelm 

Thomas Hess Draw press shop Harry Penn 

Wm. Ashworth Blanking and cupping shop Harry Penn 

W. C. Smith Tool and machine C. Robinson 



237 



Chas. McCann Sorting shop 

J. G. Schneering Proof house C. F. Hogue 

H. F. Schwind Tracer shop S. Cariiss 

C. Partridge Incendiary shop R. S. Wolford 

Lieutenant Colonel Lionel D. Van Aken (then major) succeeded Colonel 
Munroe in October, 1917, and was in charge of the Small Arms Department until 
April, 1918, at which time Colonel Van Aken was transferred to the production 
division for duty. 

Major W. B. Doe (then captain) succeeded Colonel Van Aken in April, 1918. 

The following officers were assigned to duty in the Small Arms Department: 
Capt. R. Fenton Fisher, Capt. Thomas L. Page, Capt. Julius M. Lonn, Capt. 
Seymour P. Houghton, Capt. Dwight F. Morss, Capt. Harold S. Wilkins, 1st 
Lieut. E. P. Harris, 1st Lieut. Nicholas V. S. IMumford. 2d Lieut. Lee H. Williams. 

The following officers were assigned to duty in the Small Arms Department 
for a few months: Major Julian S. Gravely, Major S. A. Sten Hammar, Capt. 
H. S. Mcllvain, Capt. John H. Buckley, Capt. Joseph F. Sees, Capt. H. B. Allen, 
1st Lieut. Alvin R. Whitlock. 

Artillery Ammu.mtion Department 

The entrance of the United States into the European War in April, 1917, 
found the organization in the Artillery Ammunition Department greatly depleted 
of experienced shop superintendents and foremen, as the flood of ordnance work 
which came to this country at the outbreak of the war in 191 1 caused commercial 
manufacturers throughout the country, who undertook this work without any 
previous experience, to search for men acquainted with this type of work. These 
commercial establishments paid, in many instances, more money than such em- 
ployees were receiving at this arsenal. The result was that the Artillery Ammuni- 
tion Department lost practically all of its experienced men, especially those en- 
gaged here for any length of time in an executive capacity. Immediately after 
war was declared steps were taken to have a suitable tool and gauge design depart- 
ment estabhshed at this arsenal. 

In the late spring of 1918 the new addition to the fuze shop was completed, 
and many machines from the old fuze shop were moved and relocated in the new 
fuze shop, the old fuze shop having been too crowded with machines for satisfac- 
tory operation. Production of combination time fuzes for the months of April, 
May, June, July, August and September of 1917 amounted to 84,000 fuzes. On or 
about September 8, 1917, there was a serious explosion of the dryhouses and 
powder blending houses, together with a large quantity of primers and various 
other components necessary for the manufacture of fuzes and complete rounds 
of artillery ammunition, and this seriously affected the production of fuzes during 
the months of October and November and December of 1917 and January of 1918, 
when production was cut down to 26,000 combination time fuzes for the four 
months. However, during that period arrangements were made with the DuPont 
Company to load and dry primers and detonators, and with the Artillery Fuze 
Company to load time train rings. This permitted the resumption of the assembly 
of fuzes in February, 1918. Production from then on to the first of November, 
1918, was 155,000. In October of 1918, the last month of the war, production 

238 




International. 



Working on (he larger guns. 



reached a total of 35,000 for the month. During this period, in conjunction with 
the manufacture of combination time fuzes, there was also carried on the manu- 
facture of base detonating fuzes and miscellaneous primers. 

In connection with the Artillery Department short sketches might be given 
of the shrapnel shop, case shop, forge shop, primer shop, assembling shop, and so 
forth, the same as has been given relative to the fuze shop, but owing to the desire 
to condense this article as much as possible this will be omitted. 

It is thought it may be interesting, however, to the reader to know that loaded 
artillery ammunition was produced at this arsenal at the rate of 100,000 rounds 
per month at one time during the war. 

The Artillery Department was very ably handled by Major Joseph H. Pelot, 
the officer in charge. 

Instrument Department 

The Instrument Department was from the beginning of the war until May 
1.3, 1918, under the supervision of Lieutenant Colonel Harry K. Rutherford. On 
that date he was reheved from duty in the Instrument Department and assigned 
as officer in charge of production and the management of the Instrument Depart- 
ment was placed under the control of Captain W. C. Hamilton. 

The articles manufactured by the Instrument Department, Frankford Arsencd, 
are panoramic sights, quadrants, telescopic sights, drill cartridges, plotting boards, 
range finders, gun sights, fuze setters, telescopes, tools, fixtures, etc. Repairs to 
vEirious instruments sent in from the service are also made. 

239 



Stock Department 

At the beginning of the war Major Bricker was in charge of the Stock Depart- 
ment, and his force was increased somewhat to take care of the increased amount 
of material delivered. Jimes Gill was in charge of the Receiving and Stock- 
keeping departments, and Peter Sullivan was the Chief Stock Clerk. 

Major Bricker was relieved in June and Major G. B. McClellan, formerly 
Mayor of New York City, took charge. Major McClellan was soon relieved by 
Captain W. W. Newcomb, who took up his duties in the Stock Department in 
July. In February Captain Newcomb was relieved and Captain J. A. Stone as- 
signed to take charge of this department. 

Administrative Department 

The Administrative Department of the arsenal during the period of the war 
may be briefly described as follows: 

Colonel George Montgomery was Commanding Officer of the arsenal until 
March of 1918, when he was relieved, and Colonel Samuel Hof was detailed as 
Connnanding Officer. Major Bricker (now colonel) was the officer in charge of 
Administration Division at the begining of hostilities. He was superseded by 
Major G. B. McClellan, who served in that capacity but a short time, when he 
was superseded by Lieutenant Colonel P. J. O'Shaughnessy. L. W. Boody 
served as Chief Clerk of the arsenal throughout the period of the war. 

At the beginning of hostilities a certain number of reserve officers, upon their 
appointment in the Ordnance Department, were sent to the Frankford Arsenal 
for instruction in War Department and Ordnance Department regulations, admin- 
istrative methods, property accountabihty, etc. Lewis W. Boody, Chief Clerk of 
the arsenal, was first assigned as instructor and performed such duty for some 
time, or until the appointment of Captain (now Lieutenant Colonel) W. F. 
Bowley. 

The disbursing office of the arsenal during the months from April, 1917, to 
November, 1918, inclusive, expended — for material and labor — $10,463,463.61. 

In regard to the personnel of the arsenal, from a general point of view, it is 
thought that the most interesting development is the extent to which women were 
utilized to fill positions formerly occupied by men. On March 1, 1917, just before 
the expansion which occurred, and when it was clear that war was imminent, 
there were employed at Frankford Arsenal 3,238 employees — 2,372 men and 866 
women ; the men constituted 73 per cent of the total and the women 27 per cent. 
On November 1, 1918, when the activities of the arsenal were almost at the highest 
point, there were 6,174 employees, not including the 100 inspectors then under 
the jurisdiction of the Philadelphia District Ordnance Office. Of these 6,174 there 
were 3,784 men and 2,390 women; the men at this time constituting only 61 per 
cent of the total and the women 39 per cent. « 

The labor situation at this arsenal was not as bad as at other places, due to 
the large number of old and steady employees who acted as an example to the 
newer ones, and there was a very small turn-over, so far as labor was concerned. 
For the last six months of the war the turn-over was not more than 8 per cent 
per month. 

240 



WORK AT SCHUYLKILL ARSENAL. 
By Clarence M. Rusk 

Exeniit.ive Assistant, Q. M. C. 

By Act of Congress April 2, 1794, it was directed that "three or four Arsenals 
with magazines shall be estabhshed in such places as would best accommodate the 
military forces of the United States." The present site of the Schuylkill Arsenal 
was purchased soon thereafter, and the foundation stone was laid in the 
year 1800. In 1802, it was reported to Congress that the cost of tlie buildings 
at "the laboratory," or barracks, as 
the buildings were called, was up to 
that time (they being unfinished) 
1152,608.02. The buildings were fin- 
ished in 1806. There were four large 
storehouses of brick set at some dis- 
tances apart, three stories high, and 
forming a hollow squai-e. There were 
also on the premises several other 
buildings, including a brick house 
for the residence of the Commanding 
Officer, a powder magazine, and other 
smaller constructions. The Grays 
Ferry Road buildings were in use for 
storage as early as 1806. 

For more than one hundred years 
this estabUshment has been used as a 
place of manufacture for supplies for 
the Army, in which nearly everything 
coimected with the comfort of the 
soldier, his uniform, bedding, blankets, 
tentage, were prepared and stored. 
Coats, trousers, breeches, overcoats, stockings, shoes, gloves, caps and hats, etc., 
have been manufactured here in immense quantities or purchased from contrac- 
tors, cuid inspected and stored in the warehouses. 

A writer of the early 80's says of the Arsenal : 

" For many years the Schuylkill Arsenal was a great workshop, at which'cloth 
and other material for clothing, etc., were cut and made up on the premises or 
delivered to tailors and tailoresses outside, who made them up and delivered them. 
Frequently from 700 to 1,200 women were employed at this work, and from 100 to 
1.50 men. During the Rebellion the disbursements at this depot were from $20,- 
000,000 to $35,000,000 a year. The amount of property in storage is frequently 
very large and valuable. The area of the ground is eight acres." 

Thus, the Schuylkill Arsenal continued its work along general lines. It was 
used as a supply base during the Spanish-American War, and with the entrance 
of America into the World War was developed to its present size. 

In 1917 the Schuylkill Arsenal, located at 2620 Grays Ferry Road, comprised 
twenty-two buildings, with a gross floor capacity of 1,265,175 square feet. 

The twenty-one buildings of the Schuylkill Arsenal at the present writing 

241 




iif Frank \V. Buliler. Stonlpy Co- 

Main Entrance. 




Courtesy Day & Zimmermann, Inc., Engineer.^ 

Airplane Vie>i\ U. S. Army Supply Base. Greenwich Point. 

(1920) are occupied by the Salvage Division of the Army, the Factory Operating 
Division and the Finance and Transportation Services. 

The expansion of the Schuylkill Arsenal activities under a Depot Quarter- 
master during the World War included the General Quartermaster Interior Depot, 
21st Street and Oregon Avenue, leased from the Girard Estate, comprising 60.7 
acres. The work there started in February, 1918, and the first stores were moved 
in about May, 1918. 

When completed the buildings numbered thirty-two.. The five main ware- 
houses had a total of 912,000 square feet of storage space. 

Under the supervision of the zone supply ofiBcer, the following warehouses, 
etc., were included in this zone: 

Pillsburgh Storage Warehouses, 40th and Butler streets, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Ford Building, Broad Street and Lehigh Avenue, on lease the third, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh 
and eighth floors, comprising 38,300 square feet per floor. Used for reserve storage supphes, 
equipment, subsistence, etc. 

Reed Street Factory, 26th and Reed streets, on lease, a five-story and basement fireproof 
building was entirely used for manufacturing, inspection, baling, offices, etc. 

Commercial Museum, 34th and Spruce streets, leased at SI per year, one story high, but 
equivalent in storage space to a three-story building. 

Port Storage. Pier No. 78, south wharves, was not used until after the armistice. Nearby 
were four warehouses with a total area of 271,000 square feet. 

Pier 38, comprising 194,698 square feet, leased during the war. Pier No. 57 was also used 
in the beginning and there was some loading at Greenwich Point. 

In February, 1918, Pittsburgh was made an independent depot and in June, 1918, again 
transferred to the jurisdiction of Philadelphia General Supply Depot. 

242 



New Construction 

At the Schuylkill Arsenal, the following improvements to meet war-time 
work were made. A new garage was built at a cost of $13,182. A new 
elevator was installed in No. 3 Building at an approximate cost of .S7,800. Two 
new fast freight elevators in special new brick towers were installed at a cost of 
$33,804, one in each end of Building No. 10. A new three-story temporary office 
building was erected at a total cost of approximately $10,571. 

Previous to the outbreak of the World War, the organization of the Depot 
Quartermaster at the Schuylkill Arsenal was as follows: 

Adminislralive Division — IVlail and Record Branch; Personnel and Miscellaneous Brancli. 
Finance and Accounting Division — Finance Branch; Accounting Branch. 
Supplies Division — Supplies Branch; Purchasing Branch; Transportation Branch; Manu- 
facturing Branch (only depot to have this). 

At the beginning of the war the Arsenal was in charge of Colonel M. Gray 
ZaUnske, who was succeeded in turn by Benedict !\1. Holden, a civilian, in April, 
1918, Colonel Edmond R. Tompkins. Q. M. C, in November, 1918, and Colonel 
J. M. Houston. Q. M. C, in July. 1919. 

The organization as perfected by C. M. Rusk, Executive Assistant, who was in 
charge of Administration August 1, 1918, was as follows and indicates the 
stupendous task and intricate detail of quartermaster operations: 

QUARTERMASTER CORPS, U. S. A. 
Philadelphia Depot. 

Index 

Depot Quarlerniaster — Executive Secretary — Executive Officer 

Division Branch Section 

Administrative Administrative Personnel, Publication, Time and Payroll, 

Operating Cost, Office Service. 

Control 

Communications Post Office, Central Filing, Messenger 

Service. 

Publishing Printing, Contract Printing. 

Office Service Stenographic 

Cemeterial 

Personnel Administrative Personnel, Publications. Time and Payroll, 

Operating Cost, Office Service. 

Commissioned 

Enlisted 

Civilian 

Departmental 

Methods Control Administrative Personnel, Publication, Time and Payroll, 

Oixrating Cost, Office Service. 

Investigations 

Statistical 

Audits 

Procurements Administrative Personnel, Publications, Time and Payroll, 

Operating Cost, Office Service. 

Purchase Contractors' Service, Industrial Informa- 
tion, Contract Preparation, Advertising. 

243 



Procurements Raw Materials Production Records, Coal, Cotton, Min- 
erals and Metals, Leather and Rubber, 
Miscellaneous. 

Manufacturing Materials .. Contract Analysis, Production Records, 

Raw Material Requirements, Stock 
Maintenance Distribution. 

Manufactured Proflucts 

Inspection Inspection, Laboratory. 

Stores Administrative Personnel, Publication, Tiuie and Payroll, 

Operating Cost, Office Service. 
Order Entering and Regis- 
tering Stock Maintenance 

Order Service Inventory, Domestic, Foreign. 

Warehouse Receiving, Placement, Packing, Shipping. 

Labor 

Property Property Accounts, Audits, Depot In- 
voicing. 
Sales and Issues Office Supply and Equipment. 

Conservation and Reclama- 
tion Administrative Personnel, Publication, Time and Payroll, 

Operating Cost, Office Service. 

Receiving and Sorting 

Salvage 

Clothing Repair 

Hat Repair 

Shoe Repair • . 

Laundries and Dry Clean- 
ing 

Tents, Tentage, Cots, etc 

Warehouse 

Finance and Accounts Administrative Personnel, Publication, Time and Payroll, 

Operating Cost, Office Service. 
Apportionments and Money 

Accounts Apportionments, and Money Accounts, 

Cost Accounting. 

Cash Cash and Sales, Payroll Audit. 

Voucher Vendors' Invoice, Vouchers Audit, Ex- 
pense Account, Miscellaneous Service. 

Plant Service Administrative Personnel, PubUcation, Time and Payroll, 

Operating Cost, Office Service. 

Building Design 

Construction and Repair 

Permanent Equipment 

Power, Heat and Light 

Plant Supplies 

Plant Equipment 

Plant Protection Administrative Personnel, Publication, Time and Payroll, 

Operating Cost, Office Service. 

Fire Protection 

Depot Watch 

Quartermaster Detachment 

Safety Engineering 

Plant Inspection 

Medical Dispensary. 

Policing Janitors. 

244 



Transportation Administrative Personnel, Publication, Time and Payroll, 

Operating Cost, OlTice Service. 

Inbound Freight Inward B/L. 

< )utbound Freight Outward B/L. 

Transportation Order Depot Service, Contractors' Service. 

Motor Transport Motor Service, Procurement, Maintenance. 

Depot .ManufacturiuK Administrative Personnel, Publication, Time and Payroll, 

Operating Cost, Office Services. 
Operating 

Correspondence School, Quartermaster Officers' Reserve Corps 

The Correspondence School for Reserve Officers of the Quartermaster Corps 
was established by authority of the Secretary of War and began operations 
at Philadelphia on April 1, 1917. This division of the Quartermaster Corps 
School was organized for the purpose of instructing persons holding com- 
missions in the Quartermaster section of the Officers' Reserve Corps, both on active 
and inactive list. 

Instruction was imparted by mail. The students were given certain assign- 
ments for study and professional reading. Examinations or problems on the sub- 
ject studied were then sent to the student officers, who answered the questions and 
returned all papers to the School. The instructors at the School corrected the 
student's paper, making such pertinent remarks thereon as called for. The papers 
were then graded and returned to the student, together with an approved solution 
made up by the instructors. As soon as the student turned in a set of papers he 
was given the next series. A record was kept of the percentage attained by each 
student. All quartermaster reserve officers were encouraged to avail themselves 
of this course and about 75 per cent did so. 

Mail, Telegrams and Messenger Service 

During the war period 4,000 pieces of mail were received daily and upwards 
of 6,000 pieces were sent from the arsenal. As speed was a matter of the greatest 
importance the telegraph service was also heavily used. 

A messenger service which made possible direct communication with all de- 
partments was early installed. From a central point four branch stations were 
established, each branch having a separate service to all sections; at one time there 
were twelve branches. 

Transportation Facilities Within the Depot 

Thirty-nine small electric tractors were used to haul the 317 foin--wheel trailers 
and two Troy trailers. Three light Dodge trucks and two light Dodge busses, 
twelve touring cars, thirty cargo trucks, and one electric truck were also included 
in the equipment and were daily called upon for heavy service. 

Printing Plant 

Previous to 1916 the annual expenditures for depot printing, exclusive of 
multigraph, mimeograph and similar duplicating devices, did not exceed $4,000. 
Upon the mobilization of troops to patrol the Mexican border, local requirements 
for this class of work increased approximately 300 per cent. A job press was 
thereupon installed, the saving by which reimbursed the department for its cost 

245 



in the first year of operation. Later, the faciUties of a printing plant were in- 
cluded; large automatic feeder presses and accessories were installed, and resulted 
in a saving of 50 per cent on what the printing bills otherwise would have been. 

Zone Storage Operations 
growth and expansion of the supplies division 

April 6, 1917, at the beginning of the war with Germany, the Supplies Division 
was one of the three main divisions, comprising the Philadelphia Depot of the 
Quartermaster Corps, with approximately ninety-six monthly employees and 
296 per diem employees. This number included the Manufacturing Branch, of 
whom forty -five were employed in the office. 

The following branches comprised the SuppUes Division: Administrative, 
Requisition, Stock Maintenance, Property, Invoicing, Transportation, and Manu- 
facturing. The Supplies Division also attended to the duties of receiving, shipping 
and warehousing all supplies, making sales to officers and the militia and the super- 
vision of laborers, carpenters, painters and watchmen. By the ^Oib of April 
the depot had increased its personnel as follows: Factory, 1,381; labor, 212; 
clerks and inspectors, mechanics, etc., 606; a total of 2,199. 

Philadelphia the Main Clothing Supply Depot 

Previous to 1917, the Philadelphia Depot was known as the main clothing 
depot for the supply of the Army, including the furnishing of chevrons and 
ornaments, flags, colors, guidons and equipage to all posts and recruiting stations, 
and to the Eastern Department. It was also the source of supply for tableware and 
kitchen utensils for all posts in the Northeastern, Eastern, Southern and Central 
Departments, excepting posts in Kansas, Nebraska, Colorado, Wyoming, North 
and South Dakota and Missouri. 

In addition to the above equipment, the Philadelphia Depot also supplied all 
band instruments and band instrument supplies to the entire Army. 

All requisitions for clothing and equipage supplies were forwarded direct to 
the Philadelphia Depot, and the distribution was efi'ected entirely from this city. 

The three Disciplinary Barracks, located at Fort Jay, New York, Fort 
Leavenworth, Kansas, and Alcatriz Island, Cal., also depended on Philadelphia 
Depot for supply of such prisoners' clothing as was not manufactured at the 
prisons, Fort Jay forwarding their requisitions through the Eastern Department; 
Fort Leavenworth, being independent, through the Q. M. G. 0.; and Alcatriz 
Island, through the San Francisco Depot. 

Being an independent station, directly under the supervision of the Quarter- 
master General, numerous requisitions for the replenishing of stocks of clothing 
and equipage at New York, St. Louis, Fort Sam Houston and San Francisco were 
forwarded to the Philadelphia Depot from time to time. 

Stocks of supplies at the Philadelphia Depot had been considerably drawn 
upon, due to the mobilization on the Mexican border in June, 1916, and practically 
the entire stock of the Field Supply Depot No. 1 was depleted by the spring of 1917. 

In April, 1917, after the declaration of war the number of requisitions received 
averaged about 120 daily and increased until the requisitions numbered 150 daily, 
each containing increased quantities of supplies. 

246 



Storage Capacity — Schuylkill Arsenal 

In April, 1917, the storage capacity of the Philadelphia Depot consisted of 
3,017,966 cubic feet, scattered over eight buildings: 

Number op Shops, Storehouses, Quarters and Other Public Buildings on the Grounds 

April ], 1917. and Their Use 
Shops 

5-A Building Manufacturers of clothing and sponging plant 

2 Building Manufacturers of flags and tentage 

11-A Shed Carpenter and box shop 

9 Tin and paint shops 

1 Basement, cooperage repairs 

21 Blacksmith shop 

Storehouses 

5-A Building — Basement and second floor Storage of materials 

2 Building — Basement Storage of equipage 

1 Building General storehouse 

3 Building — Basement General storehouse 

First floor Dispensary and general storehouse 

Second floor Storehouse 

Third floor General storehouse 

4 Building Storehouse and inspections 

5 Building General storehouse 

10 Building General storehouse 

12 Building General storehouse 

6 Building— Basement General storehouse 

First floor Inspections, laboratory 

Second floor Museum 

8 Building — (old magazine) Stable and general storehouses 

Quarters 

No. 1 ?4'-A OlBcers quarters 

No. 2 -A Officers quarters 

Other Buildings 
7 Boiler House 

14 Oil House 

15 Scale Shed 

16 Main Office 

17 Gate House 

With the acquisition of the Inland and Pier 78 warehouses, and other points, 
the carload storage capacity increased tenfold, until approximately 30,000,000 
cubic feet were avadlable for storage purposes. 

Some idea of the magnitude of the work may be had from the figures showing 
the yardage received and issued or stored. 

Melton O. D 16 and 20 ounces 

Melton 0. D 30 and 32 ounces 

Shirting flannel 

Cloth cotton O. D 

Duck, khaki 12.4 ounces 

Duck, khaki 8 ounces 

Duck, shelter tent 

247 



1917 


1918 


7.246,501 


12,893,669 


4,477.013 


5,232,913 


6,716,316 


11.963,191 


19,454,430 


15,265,657 


9,411,437 


20,432,926 


5,779,967 


9,218,643 


6,957,857 


9,890,474 



Reserve Stock of Subsistence 

In June, 1918, arrangements were made by the Q. M. G. 0. for storage of 
reserve stocks of subsistence of 45,000,000 rations to be divided among Philadelphia, 
Baltimore and Newport News. Shipments here arrived at the rate of twenty 
carloads per day and required 200,000 square feet of warehouse space. This was 
the first instance in the history of Philadelphia Depot that it handled subsistence 
in such quantities, as it had always been known as a clothing depot. 

Value of Production 

Depot Factory Reed SI. Factory 

Clothing .<;13,389,028.09 .$4,315,568.37 

Chevrons 258,192.00 

Flags 339,634.49 132,068.84 

Tents 7,832,313.28 



$21,819,177.86 $4,447,6.37,21 
Total $26,266,815,07 

The Largest Shipment During the W.\r 

The largest shipment made during the war on one requisition was in Janu- 
ary, 1918, in favor of the Expeditionary Forces, and called for the bulk of the 
subsistence at that time at the Philadelphia Depot. This shipment consisted of 
105 carloads and 1,600 truckloads, and was completed in ten days. 

The second largest shipment also covered an overseas requisition and was made 
about July 25, 1918, consisting of 102 cars and completed in ten days. Itemized 
list of this requisition is as follows: 

400,000 undershirts, wool; 600,000 underdrawers, wool; 2,960,000 pairs stockings, wool, light 
weight; 1,500,000 pairs stockings, wool, heavy weight; 75,000 overcoats; 375,000 trousers, wool; 
3,000,000 pairs gloves, wool; 125,000 coats, wool; 100,000 jumpers, denim. 

It is interesting to note that all band instruments from the American Expedi- 
tionary Force were returned to the Schuylkill Arsenal for storage or sale. In- 
deed, the salvage department of the arsenal has always been one of the most im- 
portant branches of the service, and during the period of the war handled 5,096,538 
articles, of which 2,219,491 were reissued. 

To!VNAGE Handled at the Arsenal 

F. Y. 1914 9,708 tons F. Y. 1918 719,512 tons 

F. Y. 1915 8,511 tons F. Y, 1919 487,929 tons 

F. Y. 1916 12,950 tons F. Y. 1920 405,970 tons 

F. Y. 1917 36.400 tons F. Y. 1921 (Estimated) 300,000 tons 

Expenditures at the arsenal during the period of the war amounted to 
$.318,753,837.42. 

Personnel 

In 1917, six officers were on duty at the Schuylkill Arsenal and 1,815 civilians 
were employed. These numbers increased in 1918 to 140 officers and 9,827 civilians. 
With the signing of the armistice, the policy of retrenchment decreased this number 
to sixty-five officers and 4,025 civOians. On January 1, 1920, a further reduction 
of personnel decreased the number to nineteen officers and 2,800 civilians. 

248 



ARMY CASUALTY LIST 

HE following names of Philadelphians, who died while 
serving with the United States Army, were copied from 
the list issued by the Government for use in the prepara- 
tion of the French Government Memorial Certificates. 
It was the most authentic and inclusive list available at 
the date of its pubUcation. 

The Government has appropriated several million 
dollars to check up all lists so that as quickly as possible 
all men — and women — who were killed in action, or 
died of wounds or from other causes, will be properly listed. 
At the same time the records of all who were wounded, or who were sent for 
treatment to hospitals, will be listed. 

When the records are complete, the Usts will be turned over to the Adjutant 
General of the several States. They, in turn, will no doubt list the men and women 
of their respective commonwealths according to locality. 




Airams, Albert L. 
Abrams, Joseph A. 
Achterman, Edward 
Adair, A. 
Adams, Earl 
Adams, Hiram 
Adams, Thomas R. 
Afihano, PasquaJe 
Agostini, Joseph E. 
Aitkins, Charles 
Aitkins, John 
Akins, Frank L. 
Alberts, John Archer 
Albrecht, Carl J. 
Albridge, Frank 
Alcope, Otto 
Alden, William 
Aleander, Gail H. 
Allen, Alfred R. 
Allen, Edward 
Allen, John R. 
Allen, John J. 
Amandola, Giovanne 
Amodei, Anthony 
Anderson, Harry U. 
Anderson, John 
Anderson, Robert L. 
Andrews, John H. 
Archer, Edward T. 
Archer, Joseph D. 
Armoo, Carlo 
Armstrong, Elmer H. 
Armstrong, George M. 
Arnold, Harry 



Ashmore, Donald 
Ashton, .Mfred T. 
Ashton, James K. 
Aspell, Rernard 
Astbury, Thomas W. 
Attica, Herman 
Atwood, Walter 
Auchenbath, Henry W. 
Auritsky, Samuel 
Auritt, Nathan 
Ayre, Jr., John 

Rackley, W. E. 
Railey, Henry 
Bain, Joseph 
Bainbridge, Howard C. 
Raird, Joseph A. 
Raker, George B. 
Baker, Howard S. 
Balasone, Pasquale 
Baldrick, Joseph J. 
Raldwin, Jessie P. 
Ralinsky. William 
Ballay, George 
Rallentine, Samuel L. 
Rambrick, Vincet 
Ramford, Edward G. 
Ranhof, Wilham 
Barker, Edward J. 
Barnitz, Reed \^^ 
Barr, Edwin 
Barr, Robert 
Barrett, William V. 
Rarron, John A. 



Rarry, James J. 
Rarry, John J. 
Rarry, Stanley H. 
Rasile, Edward L. 
Raskin, Andrew 
Rattista, Ermindo 
Rattles, Frank 
Rauer, Frederick E. 
Rauer, George H. 
Bauman, Frederick 
Rauraeister, Frederick 
Raumgartner, Fred. J. 
Reanchionelle, G. 
Beatty, Charles L. 
Reatty, George 
Reaumont, Fred. A. 
Reckworth, Eugene 
Redingfield, Jolin C. 
Redingfield, Joliii J. 
Rehrend, Charles 
Belfatto, Fehx 
Rell, George E. 
Relli, Frederick F. 
Relza, Michael 
Renedict, Hyman 
Bender, John X. 
Render, Wilham 
Renischeck, Clem M. 
Renner, Rubin 
Reimicker, Charles N. 
Rensing, Fred W. 
Rerkowitz, Louis R. 
Ressano, James 
Riddle, Julian Cornell 



Rieri, Otto J. 
Rilling, John L. 
Rilhtt, Richard S. 
Birney, Knox B. 
Rlack, Robert E. 
RIaszkiewicz, Julian 
Hlein, Wilham H. 
filotts, Domenick 
Rock, Charles J. 
Roehn, Frank R. 
Roldezar, Lawrence J. 
Roles, Matthew H. 
Rolte, Raymond 
Roltersdorf, Edward A. 
Holto, Louis 
Rond, Mark V. 
Ronlivare, William 
Ronsack, Jr., James A. 
Rooth, John 
Rorowski, Theodore 
Rorucki, Anthony V. 
Rosbyshill, William L. 
Ross, John G. 
Bowden, Frank 
Rowns, William H. 
Royer, John 
Hoyer, Oscar D. 
Royle, Charles J. 
Rradley, Charles D. 
Rradley, John 
Brady, Edward J. 
Brady, John 
Brady, Joseph Henry 
Braham, Albert 



249 



Braker, Jr., George E. 
Brantz, Harry M. 
Bratcher, George 
Brawley, Jr., James C. 
Braxton, Earl 
Bray, Harry 
Brazek, Leon 
Breen, Bernard F. 
Brcidenlieki, John 
Brenner, P retleriek 
Brett, John J. 
Brewer, Arthur S. 
Briggnian, Charles 
Briggs, Bichard 
Brinnisholz, Joseph 
Brhiton, Howard A. 
Broielli, Sylvia A. S. 
Bro<;k. Frank P. 
Broderiek, Thomas J. 
Brogan, James J. 
Brooks, George M. 
Brown, Francis 
Brown, John F. 
Brown. Raymond 
Brown, William J. 
Brownstein, Benjamin 
Bruhl, Martin M. 
Brunett, Theodore 
Bryant, Oscar S. 
Buchanan, El wood K. 
Buchman, Harry G. 
Buchsbaum, Ralph T. 
Buchwald, Fred. W. 
Buck, Brinton S. 
Buckhart, Nicholas W. 
Buckius, \\ illiam 
Buckner, Albert W. 
Bunting, James S. 
Burger, George 
Burke, Peter J. 
Burley, Raymond C. 
Burnett, Thomas L. 
Burns, Harry 
Burns, James D. 
Burroughs, William E. 
Byrne, Cornelius J. 
Byrne, Engelbert H. 
Byrne, M. P. 
Byrne, Vincent 
Byrnes, Joseph A. 
Bysin, Harry 

Cabaldo, Frank T. 
Cahill Lawrence A. 
Cain, John W. 
Calhoun, John H. 
Callaghan, James M. 



Camerote, Antonio 
Camniarata. Arthur 
Campbell. Edward M. 
Cann, Samuel 
Cannon. Antonio 
Canserano, Basilio 
Cantz, Edward J. 
Can\ ate, \\'illiam 
Capony, Joseph 
Caramanna, Salvatore 
Carlile. Walter W. 
Carlin, James A. 
Carmange, Michael 
Carmelo, V. 
Carney, WilUam J. 
Caroline, Robert E. 
Carpenter, James D. 
Carr. Bernard A. 
Carr, Johnson D. 
Carr. Thomas A. 
Carrigan. Sniythe B. 
Carrigan. Thomas L. 
Carroll, Ronnie 
Carson, Frank 
Carson, John 
Carter, W illiam 
Cartin, Charles 
Casey, Bernard J. 
Casey, Charles Joseph 
Casey, Clifton M. 
Casey, Harry Martin 
Cassady, Samuel L. 
Cassel, Frank B. 
Cassel, George H. 
Cassia, Domenico 
Cassidy, James J. 
Cassidy, Thomas Jos. 
Castor, John H. 
Castrigiana. Sostino 
Caville, Francis Leo 
Chamberlin, Carl B. 
Chancier, Joseph A. 
Chanen, Samuel 
Cherry, Joseph H. 
Chillis, Edgar S. 
Cholerton, Harry 
Ciccone, Daniel J. 
Cimino, Tony 
Cindis. John D. 
Clair, Frederick S. 
Clark, Early R. 
Clark, Patrick 
Clark. William H. 
Clark. \\ illiam J. 
Clark. W illiam Joseph 
Clauser, Robert L. 
Cleary, WilUam J. 



Cobar, Peter 
Coccia, Alphonse 
Cochran, James Joseph 
Coen, John J. 
Coffan, Howard H. 
Cohen, Morris 
Coleman. Earnest 
Coleman. Jai'ies J. 
Colio. Guiseppe 
Coll, James A. 
Collins, Frank 
Collins, Frank T. 
CoUins, Hugh A. 
Collins, Joseph B. 
Colliton, Ignatus J. 
Comniaker, Alliert 
Condran, John J. 
Conley, Francis X. 
Conley, William M. 
Conlin. Andrew A. 
Conlin, Matthew 
Connell, Carl J. 
Connelly, Edward T. 
Connor, Edgar 
Connor, William 
Connor, William N. 
Conroy, Harry J. 
Contriciano, Frank 
Conway, Harry J. 
Conway, John H. 
Conway, Peter J. 
Cook, George D. 
Cook, Harry Anthony 
Cooney, John Michael 
Cooper, Joseph W. 
Corbett. Francis W. 
Corcoran. Daniel J. 
Cornish, George T. 
Corr, John 
Costello, Frank P. 
Costello, John A. 
Costigan, James Thos. 
Cotter, WiUiam P. 
Cotton, William O. 
Covelle, Frederick 
Coyle, Charles 
Coyle, Charles J. 
Coyle, Joseph A. 
Coyle, Samuel J. 
Coyne, Charles 
Cozzie, Victor A. 
Craig, George A. 
Craig, William F. 
Crawford, Francis J. 
Crawford, Joseph P. 
Crawford, Samuel W. 
Crispi, Nicolo 



Crocco, Jerry 
Crossen, Joseph A. 
Crossley, Harry 
Crowe, Charles H. 
Crute, WiUiam 
Cubler, Raymond J. 
Cucinotta, Pantalione 
Cullen, Thomas J. 
Cullen. Walter J. 
Cummings, OrviUe S. 
(Cunningham. (Claude C. 
(Cunningham, Wm. M. 
Cupitt, Harold D. 
Curran, John 
Currie, Richard J. 
Curry, WilUam L. 

D'AUessandi, Guiseppe 
Daily, Leonard J. 
Dakin, Richard E. 
Dalbey, Joseph L. 
DaUas, John M. 
Dal ton, Joseph H. 
Daly, Edward J. 
Danig, George 
Darrell, John E. 
Daul, Joseph Y. 
Davis, Earl R. 
Davis, Harry F. 
Davis, H. G. 
Davis, Stanley D. 
Dawson, George A. 
Day, Joseph A. 
Day, Richard F. 
Decker, Calvin W. 
Decker, Warren J. 
De Flavia, Frank 
Delaney, Lawrence 
De Lulla, Michael 
Dempsey, John A. 
Depue, James H. 
Desimore, Generino 
Devenny, James V. 
Devine, George S. 
DevUn, Charles J. 
Dewees, Charles G. 
Dewees, Herbert K. 
Diamond, David 
Diamond, Harry 
Diamond, Harry F. 
Diamond, Thomas E. 
Dickerson, George F. 
Dieterle, George J. 
Dietz, Benjamin F. 
Dignan, John D. 
Di Marcia, Guistine 
Dinan, James F. 



250 



Di Nardo, John M. 
Dine. Thomas L. 
Di Plaudo, Antonio 
Di Pietro, Constango 
Di Sciscio, R. 
Distler, Walter H. 
Di Vito, Anthony 
Dixon, William S. 
Dobbins, Reiibin 
Dobrowolski, Bolesaw 
Dolan, W illiam F. 
Doland, Frank 
Doland, Morris J. 
Dolfo, Anthony 
Dombrouski, John 
Dominico, George 
Donaghy, James A. 
Donaghy, John L. 
Donaghy, Joseph 
Donahue, George M. 
Donahue, James J. 
Donald, George 
Donnelly, John 
Donnelly, John F. 
Donnelly, William 
Dooley, Kyrien J. 
Dooney, Thomas 
Dougherty, Charles J. 
Dougherty, George 
Dougherty, George P. 
Dougherty, Hugh F. 
Dougherty, James A. 
Dougherty, Joseph 
Dougherty, Thomas F. 
Dougherty, Wm. L. 
Dowd, John J. 
Doyle, John J. 
Doyle, John J. 
Downs, Jr., Norton 
Draper, Arthur M. 
Druding, George J. 
Drum, Robert I. 
Dubs, Valentine 
Dudzik, Andrew 
Duffel, Reuben 
Duffy, Charles H. 
Duffy, Frank J. 
Duffy, James 
Duffy, John 1. 
Duffy, Micliael 
Duffy, Patrick 
Dugan, Walter S. 
Duncan, Howard 
Duncan, Jr., Joseph G. 
Dunn, Howard K. 
Durando, Camillo 
Dutill, Arthur 



Dzikouski, J. 

Earner, John J. 
Eberle, H. E. 
Ebner, Frank 
Eckels, Lauren S. 
Eckert, Henry 
Edgar, Harry D. 
Edward, Joseph S. 
Egan, Patrick J. 
Egerter, John 
Eidam, Frank 
Eisele, John A. 
Elliott, Charles F. 
Elhson, Asberry 
Emery, Thomas F. 
EngUsh, WilUam H. 
Entwistle, Zachary 
Epler, WiUiam R. 
Erb, Frank E. 
Erb, Henry E. 
Erdwein, William (i. 
Ernest, Howard 
Ernst, WiUiam A. 
Erpert. Ike 
Escandel, Charles A. 
Esher, George W. 
Essing, Arthur T. 
Evans, Jr., Charles T. 
Evans, Horace L. 
Evans, Richard 
Everhart, Jr., E. E. 

Faber, William C. 
Fagan, Francis 
Fakey, James P. 
Fales, Thomas B. W. 
Falls, Frank 
Fanean, Bernard E. 
Fantacona, Nicholas 
Faracca, Attiho 
Farrell, Lewis A. 
Farrell, Patrick J. 
Faunce, Wilmer 
Faust, Stephen 
Fay, John P. 
Fearn, Jr., Joseph J. 
Fecca, Daniel 
Fee, James 
Ferguson, Clarence P. 
Ferguson, Joseph S. 
Ferguson, Robert J. 
Ferriter, Joseph 
Ferry, Alphonseous 
Ferry, Michael 
Fickerson, Elmer 
Fiechler, Jacques 



Fielding, Louis H. 

Fields. Percy 

Fife, John 

Fineburg. Joseph 

Fink, Wilbur E. 

Finn, Bernard 

Finnegan, Michael G. 

Finnegan, Thomas F. 

Fischer, Benjamin H. 

Fischer, Bernard A. 

Fischer. Herbert A. 

Fischer. John J. 

Fishburn. Anion E. 

Fitzgerald, Edward 

Fitzgerald, Harvey P. 

Fitzharris. Joseph C. 

Fitzpatrick, Louis H. 

Flanigan, Thomas 

Fleckal, Frederick J. 

Fleisch, Edward 

Fleming, James G. 

Fleming. Joseph F. 

Fleming, \\ illiam 

Fleming, William 

Fleming, WiUiam 

Fleming, Jr., WiUiam 

Fleshman. Albert N. 

Fletcher. Arthur 

Fletcher. Frank 

Florio. Humbert 

Flynn. Charles 

Flynn, John J. 
Foell, Harry R. 
Foley, Edward H. 
Foley, John J. 
Fontanini, Charles 
Forbes, Oliver D. 
Ford, Harry J. 
Ford, James J. 
Ford. William 
Forsyth. Albert E. 
Forsyth, Matthew 
Foss, Rudolph 
Foster, Francis 
Foster, Joseph P. 
Foster, Lee M. 
Foster, Leon R. 
Foulke, Walter L. 
Fox, Elmer 
Fox, Fred R. 
Fox, Harry L. 
Fox, James 
Fox, John H. 
Fox. Joseph 
Fraim, John 
Francis, Joseph 
Francis, Raymond 



Frank, Charles 
Frank, Frederick J. 
Frank, Harry 
Frazier, Edward P. 
Frederick, John 
Freed, John B. 
Freedman, Nathan 
Freihofer, Wm. A. 
Friedel. Jr., Alexander 
Friedman, Isidore 
Friel, Harry 
Fritz, Stephen G. 
Fudala. Fred J. 
Fuller, Harry J. 
FuUerton, Joseph P. 
Fulton, Stewart 
Furlong, Charles 
Furman, Thomas J. 

Gabrack, Miketar 
Gabriele, Andrea F. 
Gabriele, Joseph 
Gakle, WaUace H. 
Galgiordi, Lugi 
GaUagher, James L. 
GaUagher, John L. 
Gantz, Frank C. 
Garan, Frank M. 
Garland, John P. 
Garner, Robert E. 
Garrity. Edward I. 
GaskiU, Joseph E. 
Gaskins, John F. 
Gaumer, Albert H. 
Gavaghan, James F. 
Gazzara, John 
Geever, Michael J. 
Geib, Adolph 
Geiger, WiUiam D. 
GeUer, Sanmel 
GemmeU, John J. 
Gerhardt, Jr., George 
Gerngross, John A. 
Geyer, George H. 
Gibson, Albert E. 
Gihotte, Frank J. 
GiU)ert, Noble H. 
Gilchrist, Alexander 
Gilland, John V. 
GiUen, Jacob 
GUIen, Jacob 
GiUen, Samuel W. 
GiUespie, Harry J. 
GiUespie, Jerry 
Gillian, William M. 
Giordano, Dominic N. 
Giordano, Vincent 



251 



Girmscheid, Joseph T. 
Gi\ens, Horace 
Givens. John 
Givens, John J. 
Glashofer, Philip 
Glassen, Andrew J. 
Glendon, Martin 
Glenn, Frank Peter 
Glentworth, John H. 
Godericci, John 
Godshall, Walter M. 
Goering, Henry L. 
Gold, Isaac 
Gold, Louis 
Golden, John J. 
Golden, Thomas M. 
Golden, William H. 
Goldfus, Louis Samuel 
Goldman, Max 
Goldman, Wilhani 
Goldstein, Morris 
Goldstein, Robert 
Gollmer, David 
Goonan, Michael J. 
Goodridge, PhiUp R. 
Gordon, Louis 
Gordon, Nathan 
Gordon, Robert F. 
Gorman, Edward C. 
Gosner, George R. 
Goward, Edward B. G. 
Gowen, Edwin A. 
Grady, Jr., Michael J. 
Graff, John Charles 
Graham, John R. 
Graubert, Isadore H. 
Graves, Warren V. 
Gray, Caleb 
Gray, John H. 
Greeley, Edward 
Greeley, Raymond E. 
Green, Cl>Tnan C. 
Green, Herbert 
Greenberg, R. 
Greenway, Frank W. 
Greenwood, Harry L. 
Greenwood, John 
Gregory, John H. 
Grejber, John H. 
Griffin, Joseph F. 
Griffin, Wiffiam V. 
Grigull, Otto E. 
Grimm, Wilbur E. 
Grinnan, Thomas P. 
Grochowski, Boleslaw 
Grosholy, Alfred C. 
Gross, Alfred 



Gross, R. 
Gross, Russell C. 
Grosz, Jacob C. 
Grout, Leo M. 
Grove, Leroy R. 
Gruber, Oscar H. 
Guida, Pasquale 
Guihana, Antonio 
Guinana, Philip A. 
Guise, George J. 
Gullioyle, William F. 
Gunsallus, Frank J. 
Gustave, Stanley 

Haas, Lawrence F. 
Hackett, Earl T. 
Hackett, John 
Hagen, Harold 
Hager, Harry S. 
Hagerty, John T. 
Haggerty, Russell W. 
Hahn, Harry 
Haidner, Nicholas A. 
Haines, Joseph 
Halbig, John 
Hale, Leander 
Hales, Joseph 
Haley, James J. 
Ham, Timothy 
Hanna, Eugeness 
Hanrahan, Stephen J. 
Hanschumaoker, A. 
Harmer, Alfred D. 
Harms, John P. 
Harper, Frank V. 
Harr, Jr., Timothy 
Harrington, Alex. S. 
Harrington, Geo. A. 
Harris, George L. 
Harrison, Ernest J. 
Harrison, \\ illiam J. 
Hart, Lee J. 
Hartman, Wiffiam R. 
Hassen, Daniel L. 
Hasson, William J. 
Hastie, \\illiam \I. 
Hattal, Clarence 
Hause, Joseph W. 
Hausser, Ernest T. 
Havenstine, Edw. C. 
Hawthorne, Emlen 
Healis, Charles A. 
Heathcote, Joseph A. 
Heckroth, Vernon B. 
Heffron, Joseph 
Heicklen, Morris 
Heinrich, Leonard 



Heller, Nicholas 
Heller, Samuel W. 
Hellings, Charles H. 
Helms, C. 

Henderson, Harry W. 
Hendricks, Alfred Y. 
Hendricks, John 
Henkele, Paul 
Henkle, Albert W. 
Hennessey, William J. 
Henry, Albert 
Henry, Howard H. 
Henry, James J. 
Henz, Harry R. 
Heppard, Arthur J. 
Hepworth, James T. 
Herbert, James E. 
Herbsleb, George R. 
Herkert, Robert A. 
Herman, John G. 
Hermann, Fred. W. 
Hermann, Paul M. 
Herrman, John G. 
Herron, Nelson M. 
Herter, Harry 
Hess, Walter 
Hester, Julian S. 
Hetherington, Seth C. 
Hewson, Robert J. 
Hey, Wilham S. 
Heyser, William E. 
Hickey, Robert D. 
Hieke, Harry A. 
Higgins, John J. 
Higgins, Jr., M. J. 
Hill, Frank E. 
Hill, William O. 
Hill man, John 
Hinchman, Charles S. 
Hinger, Charles E. 
Hink, John G. 
Hinton, Leroy B. 
Hirst, Thomas G. 
Hittner, Edward 
Hockenbury. Geo. W. 
Hoeltzel, Wilbur R. 
Hoesle, H. W. J. D. 
Hogan, James H. 
Hogarth, F. Wilbur 
Holladay, Harry 
Holland, Harry W. 
HoUowell, John J. 
Homes, Felix 
Hone, Frank A. 
Hoopes, George D. 
Hoopes, Joseph E. 
Hooten, John J. 



Hoover, Howard R. 
Horan, Thomas J. 
Horn, Thomas 
Horsey, Earl 
Horst, George 
Houck, Wiffiam H. 
Houseknecht, Chas. B. 
Houston, Charles J. 
Houston, Henry H. 
Howley, James J. 
Hubacher, Paul 
Hudson, Harry N. 
Hughes, James F. 
Hughes, Joseph A. 
Hughes, Norman D. 
Huling, Jr., Samuel H. 
Hunter, George G. 
Husik, Benjamin 
Hutchinson, Robert E. 

laanelli, Vincent 
Imhof, George H. 
IngersoU, Harry 
Inverso, Angelo 
Ireland, Harry 
Irvine, Robert P. 
Irwin, Leonard C. 
Irwine, Wiffiam J. 
Isett, Robert T. 

Jablouowski, Z. 
Jacebucca, Nicola 
Jackalitz, J. 
Jackson, W. A. 
Jacobs, R. G. 
Jaeoby, H. J. 
Jaeger, F. J. 
Jamerisan, Edw. E. 
Jannacone, N. 
Jarnett, Fred S. 
Jeffrie, Thomas E. 
Jeffries, Charles 
Jenkins, R. 
Jenks, J. A. 
Johnson, Admiral 
Johnson, F. 
Johnson, F. A. 
Johnson, Hiram D. 
Johnson, John H. 
Johnson, L. F. 
Johnson, R. 
Johnston, James A. 
Jokrus, Stiney 
Jones, A. H. 
Jones, D. J. 
Jones, E. J. 
Jones, Frank 



252 



Jones, Frederick 
Jones, G. 
Jones, Harry L. 
Jones, S. A. 
Jones, Samuel J. 
Joyce, Michael J. 
Junior, M. 
Junkin, William G. 
Junod, William 
Jusinski, A. 

Kachuk, Mike 
Kahl, Christian 
Kaiser, William J. 
Kalb, Lemuel 
Kamerer, George C. 
Kane, H. S. 
Kane, James P. 
Kane, Thomas J. 
Kaperrati, Anthony 
Karpativa, Louis 
Kaulker, George S. 
Kavis, W. 
Kazinetz, Jacob 
Kealey, James F. 
Kearney, Edward J. 
Keating, Charles 
Keckhut, Henry J. 
Keefe, Harry T. 
Keenan, John 
Keenan, Joseph J. 
Keer, Einar J. 
Kehoe, WiUiam J. 
Kelejian, Charles L. 
KeUar, John 
KeUer, H. V. 
KeUer, Wilham A. 
Kelley, George L. 
Kelley, John G. 
Kellman, Samuel 
Kelly, Charles J. 
Kelly, Christopher 
Kelly, Edward J. 
Kelly, Frank J. 
Kelly, James A. 
Kelly, James P. 
Kelly, John P. 
Kelly, Martin J. 
Kelly, Michael J. 
Kelly, Thomas W. 
Kelly, William 
Kennedy, George E. 
Kennedy, John A. 
Kennedy, Joseph D. 
Kenny, Michael 
Kenworthy, Charles 
Kenworthy, E. M. 



Kerr, Peter 
Ketterer, W. G. 
Kidwell, S. 
Kilda, James A. 
Kimble, Millard F. 
Kincade, Harry H. 
Kine, Benjamin 
King, Aloysius 
King, Perry E. 
King, Robert 
Kinis, Edgar H. 
Kinzler, Ernest J. 
Kirschman, Charles S. 
Kister, Frank 
Klebe, John B. 
Klotz, Frank L. 
Kluth, Wilham C. 
Knapp, Charles A. 
Knapp, David A. 
Knight, Frederick H. 
Knoff, Edward J. 
Knowalski, Adam W. 
Knowles, Austin L. 
Knox, Harrison 
Koch, George 
Koch, George D. 
Koch, Harrison W. 
Koehler, Louis H. 
Kohler, Charles 
Kolp, George B. 
Kolzen, WiUiam W. 
Koons, Dallas W. 
Kowalski, Joseph 
Kozaski, Bolstow 
Krantman, Nathan 
Krause, A. 
Krause, Joseph 
Krauss, Edward 
Kremens, D. 
Kreps, Herbert L. 
Kriderman, Morris 
Krimbach, Herbert 
Krombach, Herbert 11. 
Krouse, Louis 
Kubat, Joe 
Kucinsky, John 
Kuhl, Raymond F. 

La Fontaine, E. J. 
Laflerty, Daniel F. 
Laird, Clinton \\ . 
Laird, G. W. 
Lamb, J. J. 
Lambs, W. E. 
Lamonica, Alphonso 
Lanard, S. A. 
Landenberger, T. T. 



LaiKlman. Jr., L. E. 
Landolt, Charles 
Langan, J. P. 
Langsdorf, L. 
Lapczyk, C. 
Larsen, B. E. 
Latney, Howard D. 
Latney, R. 
Laub, E. G. 
Law, James W. 
Lawler, William J. 
Laws, Joseph E. 
Laws, L. W. 
Lay, H. T. 
Layden, A. W. 
Leach, Wilham J. 
Leahan, William 
Leek, L. 
Lee, G. W. 
Lee, James W. 
Lee, Richard 
Lee, Richard A. 
Lee, William J. 
Leedom, H. S. 
Leible, Jules 
Leidy, Harry 
Leifer, Jacob 
Leighton, John L. 
Leithold, Frederick 
Lenarty, Louis B. 
Lentine, WiUiam 
Leon, Harry 
Leonard, Joseph 
Leonard, M. 
Leskie, Charles E. 
Lessig, W. T. 
Levan, H. 
Lever, H. 
Lever, MarshaU B. 
Lewis, F. 
Lewis, Joseph 
Lewis, W. T. 
Lichetti, Jr., A. B. 
Lieberman, M. 
Limabacher, \\ in. G. 
Lipschutz, L. J. 
Lipscomb, D. W. 
Lister, Brooks 
Lifschert, John II. 
Lloyd, H. H. 
Lloyd, J. 
Lloyd, \V illiam J. 
Lobaccaro, L. 
Lockhart, G. R. 
Lockhart, J. S. 
LohmiUer, J. 
LohrauUer, L. 



Long, C. H. 
Loughram, P. 
LowTy, J. R. 
Lucas, Charles 
Lucera, B. 
Lucherdjurg, E. L. 
Lumer, William J. 
Lunn, W. 
Lutz, Albert P. 
Lynam, Horace 
Lyons, G. L. 
Lyons, J. M. 
Lyshon, W. J. 
Lytton, H. S. 

McAleer, Albert A. 
McAnemy, Joseph P. 
McArthur, John S. 
McAuley, Robert J. 
McBride, John 
McCabe, Joseph D. 
McCabe, Leo Thomas 
McCabe, Michael 
McCaffery, Francis J. 
McCaffrey, W. E. 
McCain, Harry 
McCaU, Howard C. 
McCann, Henry J. 
McCann, John P. 
McCann, Thomas J. 
McCaughan, F. M. 
McCaughney, R. K. 
McCauley, Edw. A. 
McCausland, Harry E. 
McClain, Harry 
McClean, Alexander 
McCleUan, John 
McClurg, Joseph T. 
McColgan, Maurice 
McColgan, Wm. M. 
McCoUum, Robert 
McConaghy, Thomas 
McCoimeU, Graham 
McConnell, Thos. A. 
McCord, Vernon 
McCormick, Chas. A. 
McCormick, Jos. F. 
McCrory, Sanmel 
McCuUough, Albert J. 
McCullough, Robert 
McCunney, Mark 
McCusker, George J. 
McCutcheon, James 
McDaid, Thomas E. 
McDevitt, Bernard W. 
McDevitt, Daniel 
McDonald, Hugh D. 



253 



McDonald, James B. 
McDonald, Ronald 
McDonald, Wni. J. 
McFetrick, James B. 
McGearty, Walter M. 
McGee, Arthm' J. 
McGinn, Joseph 
McGinnis, Ivouis R. 
McGinty, Charles 
McGlone, James 
McGonigle, James B. 
McGothan. \Vm. R. 
McGrath, Joseph A. 
McGreal, Joseph H. 
McGuigan, Eugene I. 
McGuire, Joseph J. 
McHugh, Joseph 
Mcllvaine, James 
Mclntyre, Michael J. 
McKee, Joseph L. 
McKenna, Edward P. 
McKenna. Francis 
McKeon, Thos. Jos. 
McKernon, Chas. 11. 
McLaughlin, John 
McLean, George 
McMackin, John J. 
McMahon, John P. 
McMenamin, P. J. 
McNamara, J. J. 
McNeamey, John 
McNeills, John J. 
McPeak, Frank J. 
McPolin, John J. 
McSharry, Francis P. 
McTuillan, Edward 
McVey, Joseph A. 
MacArthur, John S. 
Machette, Kirk W. 
Macken, Charles 
Madden, Frank A. 
Madenford, Walter 
Magarahan, James 
Magee, John J. 
Maguire, Francis A. 
Maher, Edward F. 
Mahler, Leslie James 
Maleahoka, Samuel 
Maleczerski, Louis 
Malloy, John L. 
Malloy, Thomas B. 
Malone, Charles F. 
Malone, Edward J. 
Malone, Roy W. 
Maloney, Raymond 
Mancine, Lawrence 
Mancusi, Frank 



Manger, Henry B. 
Marano, Frank 
Marauer, Charles 
Marchesano, Carl 
Martin, Edward T. 
Martin, John P. 
Martin, Robert J. 
Martin, Vincent 
Martin. William 
Maruchella, Fenlinando 
Massey, Thomas 
Mastropiese. Palo 
Matthews, Arthur W. 
Mayer, Andrew W. 
Maylie, Jacob L. 
Mazkewiz, Louis 
Meaney, Harry 
Meell, Geo. Winfield 
Meisle, John 
Melick, Phillip G. 
Mellon. James M. 
Mellory, Hazzare 
Melvin, Frank J. 
Mengel, Harry 
Mentz, Morris B. 
Mercer, Wilbert 
Mericke, Stephen 
Merkle, WiUiam J. 
Merrian, Frank 
Merz, Harold B. 
Mesteyky, Josel 
Meyers, Harvey F. 
Meyers, William 
Michalski, Stephen 
MicheU, Henry F. 
MickayUk, Metrofan 
MidiU, Angelo 
Mikilkiewich, Joseph 
Milano, Joseph A. 
Milgram, Nathan 
Miller, Charles 
Miller, Charles S. 
Miller, Charles W. 
Miller, David 
Miller, Frederick E. 
Miller, Frederick J. 
Miller, Herbert 
Mingle, Roy C. 
Mirarchi, Frank 
Miszeikis, V. 
Mlodorzenec, Joseph 
Mock, Frank 
Moebius, Alvin H. 
Moeckel. John E. 
Moffa, Louis 
Mogerman, Abraham 
Monaghan, Charles P. 



Monahan, Edward 
Mondelli, James 
Alondress. Harry 
Monroe, Shadrick 
Moonan, James F. 
Mooney, John P. 
Mooney, Peter E. 
Mooney, William 
Moore, Clarence P. 
Moore, Peter 
Moore, Russell H. 
Moore, Salmage H. 
Moore, Samuel 
Moore, Thomas 
Moore, William J. 
Morage, Joseph L. 
Morgan, Ernest P. 
IVIorgan. ^^'alter P. 
Moriarty, John Henry 
Morman, Milton J. 
Morris, Franz 
Morris, Howard L. 
Morris. John F. 
Morris, John T. 
Morris, Raymond T. 
Morris, Robert R. 
Mose, Oscar C. 
Mosier, Everett B. 
Moss, G. 

Mount, Richard E. 
Moy, Hugh 
Mulch, Joseph Daniel 
MuUerschiven, A. M. 
Mullhizer, James A. 
Mulrine, W. J. 
Mulrine, Wm. Joseph 
Munusevitz, Harry 
^lurphy, Charles 
Murphy, James E. 
Murphy, John Henry . 
Murphy, John R. 
Murphy, Joseph F. 
Murphy, Joseph M. 
Murphy, Michael 
Murphy, Thomas 
Murphy, Thomas 
Murray, James 
Murray, John A. 
Murray, John W. 
Murray, Thomas 
Murtagh, Michael 
Murtha, George B. 
Musto, Angelo 
Myers, Harry 
Myers, John 
Myers, John 
Myers, John E. 



Myers, William D. 

Naegle, Richard C. 
Nagel, Harry T. 
Naimo, Phillip 
Natale, Michael 
Nau, Piers J. 
Neal, Thaddeus P. 
Neinian, William 
Nelis, Edward 
Nelson, Harvey C. 
Netherington, Wm. 
Neumann, Jr., William 
Neural h, Ernest C 
Newell, Harry G. 
Newman, Edward 
Newman, Nelson 
Newman, WiUiam F. 
Newns, James D. 
Nice, Eugene 
Nichol, Clark B. 
NiehoUs, George M. 
Nickerman, George E. 
Nickles, W. 
Nickman, Sylvan 
Noel, William L. 
Nolan, William P. 
Noonan, Thomas P. 
Noran, E. C. 
Norris, David J. 
Norton, William H. 
Norton, WUham J. 
Novak, Ike 
Nowak, Edwin A. 
Nuffer, Ernest G. 
Nusbickel, John 

O'Brien, William A. 
Ochinto, Joseph 
O'Donnell, Daniel J. 
O'Donnell, James F. 
O'Donnell, Pet«r 
Oerlemans, Louis 
Ogden, Elmer 
Ogilvie, WiUiam A. 
O'Hara, Oliver 
O'Hearn, WiUiam 
O'Leary, Charles X. 
O'Leary, WiUiam J. 
OUve, Antonio 
OUivier, Alfred 
O'NeiU, Edward 
O'NeUl, Francis E. 
O'Neill, James 
O'Neill, Thomas 
O'Riordon. Jas. Francis 
OrUcka, Paul 



254 



Orr, Jr., William C. 
Osmond, Raymond T. 
Ott, George H. 
Otto, Herbert J. 
Otto, John H. 

Pahl. Carl O. 
Pahler. Walter 
Pahls, Harold W. 
Painter, Harold W. 
Pancoast, Clatence S. 
Pangbur, Irwin 
Pantley, Wni. Collins 
Pardini, Quinto 
Parker, Howard E. 
Paroonagian, I. T. 
Pasant, Joseph 
Patterson, Elmer E. 
Patterson, Francis 
Patterson, John E. 
Patterson, Phillip 
Paul, Archibald S. 
Paul, EUwood G. 
Payne, Samuel J. 
Paynter, WiUiam M. 
Pearl, Harold 
Peel, W illiam C. 
Pegg, William J. 
Pegram, Frederick 
Peiffer, Percival H. 
Pepper, Benjamin F. 
Perine, Nelson W. 
Perkins, William J. 
Persichetti, Leonard 
Peslin, William 
Pessin, Kolman 
Peters, Frederick 
Peterson, Ralph E. 
Pfeifer, Francis J. 
Pflieger, A. F. 
Pfrommer, Wm. B. 
PhiUips, Robert J. 
Pickering, Clifford 
Pickett, Norman O. 
Picone, James 
Picot, Herman M. 
PiUing, Thomas J. 
Pleate, John A. 
Plews, William 
Plosky, Harry 
Plunketf. Benjamin 
Polenski, Mike 
Polinski, Harry 
Polito, Joseph 
Pollock, Robert H. 
Popplewell, John D. 
Porco, Dominico 



Portens, Francis I. 
Porter, Edward M. 
Potter, William A. 
Potts, John 
Prandie, Frank E. 
Prediger, Heijry G. 
Price, Aaron O. 
I'rince, Harry W. 
Pritchard, H. E. P. 
Proctor, George W. 
Promondoni, G. 
Proszez, John 
Przestselski, Wolph 
I'taskiewicz, S. 
I'udlock, Joseph 
Pugh, Jr., John 
Purcell. WiUiam A. 
Putz, Frederick 

Quinn, Jr., James J. 
(.)uinn, John H. B. 
Quinn, William F. 
Quintard, Alfred L. 

Rados, Castos 
Raebiger, Adolph 
Raffo, Joseph 
RahhiU, WiUiam J. 
Raistrick, WiUiam A. 
Ranson, WiUiam F. 
Rasmussen, H. P. 
Ratajack, Ignacy 
Rath, George R. 
Raylould, Daniel W. 
Read, John J. 
Reale, Angelo 
Reape, Wilham J. 
Redding, James 
Redman, Charles H. 
Redner, Howard B. 
Reese, Edward Henry 
Reif, Harry PhiUip 
Reilly, Joseph John 
Reinhart, Frank W. 
Reis, Byron C. 
Reitz, Joseph 
Reivich, Herman M. 
Rende, Gennaro 
ReveU, Edward J. 
Reveney, John W. 
Reynolds, .Stephen W. 
Reynolds, Stevens 
Re.x, Albert C. 
Richard, George F. 
Richards, Thomas M. 
Richardson, Stephen 
Richter, Frank C. 



Riley, John 
Risso, Theophilio 
Ritchie, Robert 
Rizzo, Charles 
Roach, Walter 
Robbins. Gordon E. 
Roberts, John E. 
Roberts, Leon 
Robertson, Claude R. 
Robinson, Robert 
Robinson, Walter 
Roche, Edward 
Roche, Jr., W m. F. 
Rochelman. .Mphonsc 
Rock, William C. 
Roetz, Stephen 
Rogers, Rernard F. 
Rogers, Harry Tuttle 
Roivelto, Secore 
Ronser, Charles O. 
Rooney, WiUiam A. 
Rorke, Richard J. 
Rosenfeld, James 
Ross, James S. 
Ross, John N. 
Rote, Charles 
Rothnian, Charles H. 
Rothman, G. G. 
Ruchola, Walter 
Ruff, Frank A. 
RusseU, Leo R. 
Ryan, Harold A. 
Ryan, Stephen F. 
Ryder, Thomas A. 

Saalfrank, F. W. 
Sabari, R. 
Sabulis, A. 
Sack, Kabe 
Sadler, Albert H. 
Sailer, John 
Salatsky, M. 
Salesky, M. 
SaUese, G. 
Saltman, Abraham 
Salvador, W. H. 
Salzee, WiUiam W. 
Sampson, George 
Samules, David 
Sandora, J. 
Sandrow, Harry 
Sandy, M. W. 
Sargen, M. 
Sargosky, Harry M. 
Sarnkowski, J. 
Sat tier, Walter L. 
Sauberblatt, D. 



Sauer, Spencer H. 

Sault, David 

Saunders, F. D. 

Savage, Arthur W. 

Saylor, Herman P. 

Sayre, Frank D. 

Scanlon, John A. 

Schaaf, Otto F. 

Schanbaur, August C. 

Schase, Jesse E. 

Schaub, Charles E. 

Scher, Joseph A. 

Schiavi, Pasquale 

Schiavone, Charles A. 

Schick, Charles A. 

Schiking, Albert 

Schindler, William C. 

Schlossberg, David 

Schlossberg, Max 

Schmidt, Alfred J. 

Schmidt, WiUiam H. 

Schmitt, Harry R. 

Schneid, Frank 

Schneider, P. A. 

SehneU, C. H. 

Schommer, Frank T. 

.Schontz, Fred S. 

Schoonover, Edward J. 

Schully, J. T. 

Schumaker, George R. 

Schun, Joseph A. 

Schwartz, Benjamin 

Schwartz, E. D. 
Schwartz, S. 
Schwartzman, Harry 
Schweiker, Wm. H. 
Sciloi, M. 
Scott, C. R. 
Scott, Joseph T. 
Seeger, C. 
Segal, Jacob 
Segal, Samuel 
Segall, Arthur R. 
SeiberUch, L. W. 
Seifert, Frank E. 
Seltzer, Joseph 
Servinski, Stanislaw 
Shagren, Andrew C. 
Shamoff, Alexander 
Shanton, Donald T. 
Sharkey, Frank 
Shawn, Samuel C. 
Sherman, Max 
Shepherd.son, Geo. P. 
Sheppnian, John R. 
Sherlock, William D. 
ShetzUne, W. T. 



255 



Shiver, Charles H. 
Shulnian, S. 
Shute, Nathan 
Sibel, W. 
Sibel, William 
Sievers, William A. 
Simcoe, John J. 
Simcox, Howard L. 
Simmons, C. H. 
Simon, D. 
Simon, H. G. 
Simpson, Charles M. 
Simpson, George L. 
Simpson, John O. 
Simpson, Paul H. 
Siner, F. C. 
Siner, G. Wesley 
Singer, Henry F. 
Sinlowitz. Morris 
Skinker, Alexander R. 
Skivmont, A. 
Slander, Felix 
Slane, Francis Joseph 
Slatcher, C. S. 
Slater, H. 

Sloan, Benjamin H. 
Sloan, David A. 
Slook, G. H. 
Slugman, Max 
Snialley, Alfred P. 
Smalley, Jr., A. P. 
Smith, Albert 
Smith, B. V. 
Smith, Charles C. 
Smith, Charles W. 
Smith, E. 
Smith, E. A. 
Smith, E. F. 
Smith, Frank 
Smith, Frank 
Smith, H. P. 
Smith, James 
Smith, James M. 
Smith, P. J. 
Smith, W. 
Smith, W. E. 
Smith, W. M. 
Snyder, Wm. Miller 
Solly, Robert W. 
Solomon, Samuel 
Somma, R. 
Souder, E. R. 
Spare, E. D. 
Speck, Gerald 
Sperling, H. 
Spielberg, H. 
Spirite, Peter 



Spiro, J. 
Spitzer. B. H. 
Stahl, J. W. 
Stange. Leonard J. 
Stanley, W. H. 
Starkey, W. Harold 
Stasidi, S. 
Stead, E. Z. 
Steever, S. K. 
Stein, Jacob 
Stein. Louis 
Steinmetz, II. M. 
Stellar, Vincent 
Stengel, Daniel S. 
Stern, Milton 
Stevens, Joseph 
Stevenson, Elmer H. 
Stewart, Clark 
Stewart, J. T. 
Stinson, J. T. 
Stoe, A. J. 
Stone, John 
Stork, James L. 
Stratson, John 
Straugh, Fred R. 
Street, Abram 
Sturma, Jr., William 
Sukalsky, Sanmel 
Suplee, Charles 
Suplee, Edward F. 
Suplee, Howard R. 
Susson, Samuel 
Sutton, Marshall H. 
Swank, Tebley T. 
Swartley, Rolland W. 
Swiaski, Alexander 
Swobod, William J. 
Swolboda, W. J. 
Sykes, Gomer 

Tadlock, Ray H. 
Tamborella, Michael 
Tarbett, John M. 
Taylor, Amos R. 
Taylor, George M. 
Taylor, Lewis A. 
Taylor, Richard S. 
Taylor, Samuel J. 
Taylor, WilUam E. 
Tenanova, Samuel 
Teter, Horace E. 
Thai, Morris 
Thomas, Bernard 
Thomas, Harry H. 
Thompson, Albert L. 
Thompson, William 
Thompson, William C. 



Tiedeken, Theodore F. 
Tiefentaylor, Jas. J. 
Tighe. James T. 
Tindley, John 
Tinline, James H. 
Tirico, T. 
Tisot, Rene 
Toramano, Dominic 
Torco, John 
Townsend, David G. 
Tracy, Leroy S. 
Traflicano, Benjamin 
Trautman, Gustave J. 
Travers, William H. 
Trebino, Frank M. 
Trengrove, Raymond 
Triplett, Norman 
Trojan, Peter 
Trotta, Samuel J. 
Trotter, Thomas J. 
Truss, Jules J. 
Tuck, Ernest 
Tumas, Anthony F. 
Turkan, Albert A. 
Turner, George A. 
Turner, W. J. 

Llleary, Edward II. 
Lllrich, John A. 
Updike, Jolm 
LIpton, William 
LIrnanis, Francis 

Vail, Neal 
Vandergrift, Jesse 
Vandiver, Thomas Del 
Van Dusen, E. Thorpe 
Vandyke, Edward J. 
Van Luvanee, Jos. A. 
Vasello, Joseph 
Ventura, Michael C. 
Venziele, John 
Vere, Frank J. 
Veton, Jacob 
Vetrona, Michaelo 
Viscusi, Girolania 
Voipe, Alexander 

Wagner, Alfred 
Wagner, John 
Walker, Harry 
Walker, Jacob C. 
Wallace, Samuel 
Walls, J. 
Walsh, J. 
W alsh, John F. 
Walthour, Taylor E. 



Waltman, Norman 
Wankmiller, Frank 
Wanner, Alfreil H. 
Waples, J. Douglass 
Ward, Andrew J. 
Warren, Arthur J. 
Warrick, Lin wood 
Warrick, Thomas 
Warriner, Herbert 
Warushok, John 
Wasser, /Charles R. 
Waterhouse, Chas. M. 
Waters, George James 
Watson, Charles E. 
Watson, James C. 
Watson, John S. 
Watson, Joseph J. 
Watt, Graham B. 
Weber, Alfred 
Weber, George J. 
Weber, Joseph H. 
Weber, StillweU E. 
Webster, Thomas S. 
Weer, Milton R. 
Weight, Charles E. 
Weisbrod, Harry 
\\'eiss, Richard G. 
\\eiss, Richard J. 
W ells, Andrew J. 
Wells, Walter 
Welsh, Jr., John II. 
W elsh, Jolm WiUiams 
\\'entz, Lemuel K. 
Werrukove, Louis 
West, Dennis 
West, Gordon B. 
Wethersline, Harry H. 
Weyersburg, Walter 
Whaley, Robert A. 
Wheatley, Richard 
White, Albert B. 
\\'hite, James 
White, John 
White, WiUiam T. 
Whitehurst, William 
Whiteside, Gus 
Whitson, George F. 
Whorowski, Zigmont 
Wiegand, Walter J. 
Wilkinson, Edward 
Wilkinson, John B. 
Wilkinson, Joseph M. 
Willowitch. Frank 
Wilson, Arthui 
Wilson, Arthur H. 
Wilson, David 
Wilson, John P. C, 



256 



Wilson, Louis M. 
Wilson, William C. 
Wine, William E. 
Winnals, Walter E. 
Winston, Erskin 
Witsil, Earle 
Wolf, George R. 
Wolf, Horace J. 



Wolfe, Frederick P. 
Wolpert, John .1. 
Wood, T. E. 
Wood, William 
Work, Jr., John W. 
Worthington, Frank E. 
Wright, Reuben O. 
\\'right, William M. 



Wrigley, Charles E. 
\\ yborski, Charles C. 
Wyoitka, Antonio 

Yaimuzzi, Guiseppe 
Yarak, John 
Yearsley, Edward F. 
Yekle, Joseph O. 



Young, Adolph L. 

Zack, Peter 
Zakaroska, Paul P. 
Zaun, Jacob 
Zeissing, Dan 
Ziegler, Conrad W. 
Zuendel, William H. 




Memorial W'rcdlhs. 'JSIh Dirixioii Parade. 



257 




REPORT ON WAR ACTIVITIES FOURTH NAVAL DISTRICT 
April 6, 1917 to February 1, 1919 

George F. Cooper, Captain, U. S. N. 

James A. Campbell, Jr., Lieutenant-Commander, U. S. N. (Ret.) 

Frank J. Gorman, Ensign, U. S. N. R. F. 

^^^^^§^^Z^ MBUED with the spirit of patriotism which inspired the 
^ " founders of the nation assembled nearly a century and 

a half ago in this city, the history of the Fourth Naval 
District reads true to the high ideals of Americanism 
enunciated when this nation was born and upholds to 
the fullest the best traditions of the naval service. 

From a civilian population, peace-loving by Quaker 
teachings, there was created a commissioned and enlisted 
personnel second to none, representatives of which found 
their way by the ever-changing needs of the service 
into every branch of its activities, afloat and ashore, at home and abroad. There 
were given to the Navy without stint man power, money and possessions, that the 
war might be prosecuted to a successful conclusion. Even industrial activity 
which had its inception and its existence in peaceful pursuits was converted to 
war-time needs and the Navy was the recipient of this bounty and cooperation. 

On the Atlantic Coast, from Barnegat on the north to Assateague on the 
south and backward into the great industrial, mining and manufacturing cities, 
and from the largest to the smallest centers of population, the people stood staunchly 
behind the Navy; no call was unanswered. 

Men in every walk of hfe dropped their normal pursuits and the flower of 
young manhood forsook institutions of education to don the Navy blue. And 
wherever assigned and to whatever duty, they acquitted themselves honorably, 
ably and without flinching. 

The intensive activities of the Fourth Naval District may be properly said 
to have had their origin in the promulgation to the naval service of the President's 
Neutrality Proclamations of August 4 and 5, 1914. These were contained in the 
Navy Department's General Order No. 11,3 of August 7th, of the same year. 

The necessity for subdivision of control of naval activities naturally prompted 
the system of district organization. In making the territorial limitations of naval 
districts, the established navy yards were considered in conjunction with the 
natural water-ways, the ports that were to be defended, and that were to be utilized 
for offensive military purposes. 

The careful study and investigation made of the subject were embodied in 
concrete form in the regulations for the government of the naval districts of the 
United States, which were made effective by the promulgation to the naval ser- 
vice of the Department's General Order No. 36 on August 20, 1909. As far as it 
was possible, each district contained one port of recognized importance, and one 
estabhshed navy yard. 

258 



The Fourth District embraced the coast-line from Barnegat Light, N. J., 
south to Chincoteague Inlet in Virginia, and the Delaware Bay and Biver. At the 
junction of the Delaware and Schuylkill rivers, and at the southernmost extremity 
of the city of Philadelphia was located the important Philadelphia Navy Yard, 
protected from attack, as was the city itself, by land forts on both banks of the 
Delaware, manned by the Coast Artillery Corps of the United States Army. 

The Fourth Naval District's northern boundary extended in a general nortli- 
westerly direction from Barnegat to Trenton, where it intersected the boundary 
line of Pennsylvania, which line became the boundary of the district, so that the 
entire State was included with the exception of a small section bordering on Lake 
Erie. 

The district was made to include also the entire State of Delaware and a 
rectangular portion of Maryland bounded on the north by the southern boundary 
of Delaware, on the east by the coast-line, and on the southwest by a line drawn 
from the southwestern corner of the State of Delaware southeastward to Assa- 
teague. These boundaries remained fixed, with slight changes, until the end of 
the war. 

Before there was even an intimatiim of the great Eumi^ean coTiflict, and many 
years before there was any thought that the United States would be engaged in it, 
preliminary information and tentative plans were formulated by the Navy Depart- 
ment for the utilization of properties ashore and equipment afloat as auxiliaries to 
the regular naval establishment. 

The several commandants of the Fourth Naval District, prior to the war, 
had in their possession descriptions of coast-guard stations and (jf lighthouses. 




Photo by Keplogle. 



Delaware Hirer i-ronl. 
259, 




Photo by Replogle. 



Navy 1 ard. lookiiKj east, Ocluher. 1917 . 



with comments as to tlieir availability in time of war as naval patrol bases and 
as visual signal and reporting stations. 

Data were collected and corrected from time to time as to the vessels habitually 
found in the district with a view to their conversion and employment in harbor 
entrance and off shore patrol duties, in mine-sweeping and in other necesseuy 
naval purposes. Plans for arming these auxiliaries, for strengthening their decks 
for gun mounts, for fitting magazines and necessary other incidental changes in 
their construction and equipment were perfected and standardized. 

Later on, when logical preparedness dictated more advanced steps in this 
direction, owners of power-boats constructed craft along the standard lines as 
indicated by the Navy Department. In fact, the ultimate utilization of pleasure 
boats in the event of war had a marked elTect upon the designs of large sized power- 
boats constructed within recent years. 

Inland water routes were investigated and charted and their availability in 
war times reported upon. The resources of local ship repair yards, and particularly 
those equipped with docking facilities, ship chandleries, wrecking companies and 
the locations of wharves and docks, with depths of approaches thereto, were care- 
fully catcJogued for ready reference in war time. 

Undefended harbors and possible landing places were surveyed with a view 

260 



to their defense by mines and mobile forces. Anchorages suitable for the use of 
district patrol vessels of deeper draft were gone over, while minor inlets and refuges 
for small craft that might serve an enemy purpose were not neglected. Most 
careful consideration was given to the telephone and telegraph facilities within the 
naval district, and what changes would be necessary to adapt these systems to 
strategic naval use with particular reference to the extensions necessary to cover 
outlying points adequately. 

The collection of information as to privately owned and amateur operated 
radio stations proved to be a considerable task, as it was not realized until this in- 
vestigation was concluded how widespread the amateur interest had become in radio 
telegraphy. It was found that hundreds of these stations with small antennffi were 
scattered through the district, not any of them of a considerable range, but all of 
them a detriment to the smooth and perfect operation of war-controlled radio, and 
capable of being of service to the enemy if operated by alien enemies. 

Statistics as to pilots, tug captains and local mariners, information as to 
hospitals, both municipal and private, and their availability for treatment of 
navy personnel, all found a place in the comprehensive pre-war data. 

Last, but most important, as the plans of the district took shape, there were ap- 
proved tentative complements of personnel and plans for its distribution through- 
out the Fourth Naval District in connection with possible war-time requirements. 

So that there might be a minimum of duplicated defensive effort, the Com- 
manding OfBcer of the Artillery District of the Delaware, comprising the fortifica- 
tions at Fort DuPont, Delaware; Fort jMott, New Jersey; and Fort Delaware, 
Delaware, furnished the Commandant of the Fourth Naval District with charts, 
plans, and data indicating the arcs of gun fire, the areas covered by searclilights, 
and other necessary information concerning the defensive and offensive characteris- 
tics of the posts under liis command. 

The presence in the port of Philadelphia of the interned German ships Prinz 
Oskar and Rhaelia, and of the Austrian steamship Franconia, and the operations 
of the commercial radio stations at Cape May and on the Wanamaker Building, 
and of the transatlantic station at Tuckerton, N. J., imposed upon the Navy 
the necessity of carrying out the instructions contained in the orders of the Secre- 
tary dated January 1, 1915, and as subsequently modified April 21, 1915 and 
March 3, 1916. 

These instructions prohibited the transmission of any information by radio 
that might be considered as unneutral in character. It prohibited the receipt or 
transmission of cipher or code messages from ship stations of belligerent nations 
by any radio shore station. Communication of any character with warships 
or beUigerent nations was prohibited except calls of distress, messages relating to 
weather, or hydrographic information. Operating companies were charged with 
the responsibility for the enforcement of these regulations where such companies 
were neutral, but in the case of the transatlantic station at Tuckerton which 
operated with certain other commercial stations in Germany, navy censors were 
stationed to prevent the transmission of unneutral matter between that country 
and the United States. Lieutenant E. A. Lichtenstein, U. S. N., was assigned to 
this duty. 

The first officer ordered to duty in the Fourth Naval District in connection 
with the enforcement of the President's Neutrality Proclamation was Lieutenant 

261 



Charles H. Bullock, U. S. N., who reported January 12, 1916. This officer was made 
responsible for the inspection and sealing of radio outfits on board belligerent aiul 
neutral vessels arriving at the port of Philadelphia, and for the suppression of 
unneutral activities of the amateur and commercial stations in the district. Of 
the latter there were two, one on the Wanamaker Building, Philadelphia, the other 
the Marconi Station at Cape May, N. J. In addition, he was charged with the 
inspection, at least once a week, of the German steamers Prin: Otikur and 
RImeliu, and the Austrian steamer Franconia. 

The work rapidly assumed larger proportions and [inasmuch as Lieutenant 
Bullock was also in charge of the Hydrographic Office, Lieutenant H. H. Porter, 
U. S. N. (Ret.), and Ensign Earl W. Jukes, U. S. N. (Ret.), were assigned to the 
duties of the neutrality enforcement, and made their headquarters at the branch 
hydrographic office. 

In 1916 Captain Robert L. Russell, U. S. N., was Commandant of the Fourth 
Naval District, and of the Navy Yard, Philadelphia, as well. In October of that 
year the district pre-war activities became so numerous that Ensign Jukes was 
detached from the branch hydrographic office, and was ordered as aide to the com- 
mandant of the Fourth Naval District. George W. Carney, who had previously 
been designated as Chief Clerk to the Commandant of the Fourth Naval District, 
assisted materially in the preparation of the revised plans and the statistics found 
necessary by the changed conditions due to later developments. The necessary 




Photo by Replogle. 



A Dry Duck at the Navy Yard, October, 1H17. 
262 



clerical assistance at that time did not keep pace with the rapid increase of work 
and John Heisler. chief clerk to the Commandant of the Navy Yard, cooperated 
with the district force by placing his clerical organization at its disposal whenever 
possible. 

The plans for the use of physical property and floating equipment were 
practically completed, and toward the end of the year the war slate, which 
embraced the assignment of reserve and retired officers to war duty was com- 
pleted after frequent conferences with Captain G. R. Marvell, U. S. N., who was 
then Director of Naval Districts, with headquarters in Washington. 

Utihzation of coast-guard stations was the subject of considerable correspon- 
dence between the Commandant and Captain F. S. Boskerch, U. S.C.G., with head- 
quarters at Atlantic City, and who was in charge of the coast-guard stations located 
within the district. 

The necessity for control over and censorship of radio activities was early 
recognized, and plans were formulated for taking over the commercial radio 
stations in the district, and for the dismantUng of amateur stations. This followed 
the appointment in December, 1916, of Ensign Jukes as Aide for Information and 
District Communication Superintendent of the Fourth Naval District. On April 
11, 1917, Lieutenant James A. Campbell, Jr., was assigned to duty as Communica- 
tion Oflicer at the Navy Yard and on June 13th relieved Ensign Jukes as District 
Communication Superintendent. 

In the early part of 1917 the expedient of borrowing yeomen from the receiving 
ship to perform the necessary clerical duties in connection with the district proved 
unsatisfactory. Effort was made to enroll yeomen in the naval reserve force, but 
with no definite prospect of war, the reserve force did not prove attractive. Finally 
on March 2, 1917, Clarence G. Supplee, the first man enrolled in the reserve force 
of the Fourth Naval District, was accepted and reported for active duty the foUow- 
ing day. He was later commissioned as ensign in the reserve force, and performed 
valuable duty at the District Headquarters. Captain Harrison A. Bispham, U. S. N. 
(Ret.), reported for duty in the Fourth Naval District on March 15, 1917. On 
March 28th, on the eve of the declaration of war, Captain George F. Cooper, 
V. S. N., reported as Chief of Staff of the Fourth Naval District, and immediately 
undertook with zeal the organization of the forces, and the further development 
of the plans for the establishment of the naval district organization on a war 
footing. 

International developments followed rapidly at this time, and with the war 
but a matter of formafity, a recruiting rally was held in the reception room of the 
Mayor of Philadelphia in City Hall on March 20, 1917. PubUcity was given to 
the need for recruits, and citizens were requested to assist immediately in the 
recruiting campaign that was opened in the same room the foUowing day. 

The plans previously formulated for the organization of the naval reserve 
force were outlined at the meeting by Captain Bispham, representing the command- 
ant of the Fourth Naval District. The Mayor of Philadelphia, Thomas B. Smith, 
pledged the city's loyalty and cooperation as did others prominent in civic affairs 
and in tiie activities of the German-American Society. 

The pubUcity given at this meeting gave great impetus to the work of traveUng 
recruiting parties sent throughout the Fourth Naval District. 

Wliile the actual enrolments were not commenced until late in March, the 

263 



headquarters of the Fourth Naval District, when war seemed probable, was flooded 
with verbal, written and telephonic offers from men in every walk of life, and of 
every occupation. Owners of power-boats and of steam yachts hastened to ascer- 
tain whether their particular craft could be utihzed, and whether they could or 
could not was paramount over the conditions under which the Government would 
accept them. 

Palatial pleasure craft were offered to the Government outright, and in order 
to give the acceptance formality, a dollar a year contract was formulated, giving 
the Government the use of vessels that could not have been chartered in peace 
times for thousands of times that amount. These offers were carefully catalogued 
and their availability was determined in advance by the Joint Board of Inspection 
of Merchant Vessels, Commander C. P. Nelson, U. S. N., senior member. 

When the declaration of war actually was made it found the district in posses- 
sion of much auxihary material which needed only the formality of taking over. 

Coincident with the perfection of organization of the district, and while the 
nation's activities were restricted to those of purely a defensive nature, merchant 
ships were equipped with guns for defense against German submarines if attacked. 

The fu-st of the armed guard crews which manned and operated these defense 
batteries was commanded by commissioned officers of the United States Navy. As 
the armed guard crews became thoroughly drilled in their duties, command was 
given to warrant officers and to cliief petty officers. The mounting of these guns, 
the preparation of suitable ammunition rooms, the installation of fire control, 
the fitting out of augmented crews' quarters on the ships that cleared from this port 
and the training and assignment of gun crews, constituted one of the most im- 
portant of the pre-war activities. 

During the entire period of the war, due to the large number of ships building 
on the Delaware, and by the large increase in shipping entering and clearing the 
ports of Philadelphia, Chester and Wilmington, this continued to be a most im- 
portant function of the district. 

As international complications might be precipitated at any time by the actions 
of these crews, the men assigned were carefully selected with regard to their train- 
ing and dependability. 

The first ships so outfitted that cleared the Fourth Naval District were the 
steamships Polarine and Pelrolile on March 14, 1917. 

The training of ai-med guard crews was carried on at the Navy Yard, Phila- 
delphia, under the direction of Commander H. T. Kays, U. S. N., and later 
Lieutenant C. H. Stoer, U. S. N. R. F. In all 120 such crews were trained. Of 
this number forty-three guards were placed on merchant vessels, twenty-six were 
sent to vessels of the Naval Overseas Transportation Service for manning the 
batteries of those vessels; twenty-seven were transferred overseas and to other 
stations, and twenty-four complete armed guards, thoroughly trained, and ready 
for immediate assignment to merchant vessels were awaiting orders at the time 
the armistice was signed. Batteries, necessary fke control apparatus and am- 
munition stowage facilities were installed on thirty-three merchant vessels touching 
at this po:t. 

After preying upon Allied commerce in the Western Atlantic the German 
raiders, Prinz Eitel Friedrich and Kronprinz Wilhelm, made port at Norfolk, and 
as they remained there beyond the time prescribed by international law, they 

264 



were interned at the Navy Yard. Temporary living quarters were establislied 
ashore, wooden huts being constructed for the accommodation of the officers and 
crew. The necessity for rof)ni at the Norfolk Navy Yard and the advantage of 
having tiic hulls, while idle, rest in fresh water, caused the transfer of these two 
ships from Norfolk to the Navy Yard, Philadelphia. They were moored in the 
reserve basin. The huts were transferred and reerected within the Government 
Reservation on the south shore, and these quarters were afterwards generally 
referred to as the "German Village." 

As the relations with Germany became more delicate it was felt that tlie 
presence of the men and officers of the ships constituted a menace to the large 
industrial and naval establishment at the Navy Yard. Accordingly they were 
interned at Fort Oglethorpe, Georgia. 

Until the actual declaration of war made it possible for the United States 
Government to take physical possession of these ships, which had the status of 
men-of-war, it was not possible to prevent the crews from doing serious damage 
to the machinery. 

Formal notice that a state of war existed between the United States and 
Germany was received here at 4 p.m. on April 6, 1917. Three words flashed over 
the telegraph wires from Washington simultaneously to every Naval District 
started the war. 

It had been understood in advance that upon receipt of these tlu-ee words 
"Mobihze war slate," all prearranged war activities should be set in motion. 
Following the receipt of this message telegrams were sent immediately to all 
officers on the retired list ordering them to report for duty at their predetermined 
stations. 

All naval reservists who had been enrolled were ordered to report at the 
Receiving Ship, Navy Yard. The Navy Yard was closed to the public, guards 
doubled, and everything placed upon a war footing. 

It became necessary innnediately to establish a Communication Office at the 
Navy Yaid, and on the night of the day that the President declared that a state of 
war existed between Germany and the United States of America, the following 
officers reported for communication duty: Lieutenant Joseph L. Tinney, 
U. S. N. R. F., Ensign Frank J. Gorman, U. S. N. R. F., Ensign William H. 
Morse, U. S. N. R. F., and Ensign William S. Baker, U. S. N. R. F. These 
officers were immediately placed upon a continuous communication watch. 

Lieutenant H. R. Leonard, U. S. N. R. F., had reported some days previous to 
the outbreak of the war, and had been given duty in connection with the mobiliza- 
tion of what was then the National Naval Volunteers and Naval Militia. Lieu- 
tenant Leonard formulated plans for the quartering of these bodies of men, but 
the number that actually came to Philadelphia subsequently was so far in excess 
of anything that had been anticipated that it was found necessary to use the 
battleships Iowa, Indiana and Massachusetts as tenders to the receiving ship. 

The headquarters of the Fourth Naval District were originally located in the 
old Board Room Building No. 6, Navy Yard, and the small private office belonging 
to the inspection officer was occasionally used. 

The business of the district grew by leaps and bounds. To meet the'increased 
demand for accommodations, the Commandant directed that the entire northern 

26.S 



end of Building No. 7 should be outfitted as the headquarters of the Fourth Naval 
District. 

The conditions concerning administrative work there were anything but 
ideal. Partitions separated one office from another, hastily constructed of un- 
matched boards. Yard locomotives hauling stores, traveling cranes, liberty 
parties, companies lea\ing sliips for drill, wagons and automobiles contributed 
to the medley of noise that characterized the initial days of activity aiound the 
district offices. 

With but little ini])rovement in surroundings the headquarters continued in 
this building until .March of 1918, when they were moved to the S. S. White Build- 
ing, 12th and Chestnut streets. The constant growth and the diversity of the 
activities of the district were recognized by the Department on April 27, 1917, 
when Captain George F. Cooper, U. S. N., was appointed Commandant of the 
Fourth Naval District, relieving Captain Bobert L. Russell, U. S. N. Captain 
Russell, as Commandant of the Navy Yard, was relieved shortly there after by 
Rear-Admiral Benjamin Tappan, U. S. N. (Bet.), leaving the activities of the yard 
and the district under separate administrative control, where previously it had 
been concentrated in the hands of one command. 

Captain Cooper continued as Commandant until February 9, 1918, when 
Rear-Admiral James M. Helm, U. S. N., reported as Commandant. This change 
was the result of the policy outlined by the Navy Department to have flag officers 
as Commandants of all the Naval Districts. 

The declaration that a state of war existed immediately released for action 
all pre-war plans, and with a district organization that was only in process of forma- 
tion the initicJ steps to carry them out were undertaken. On the day preceding 
the actual declaration, the President of the United States, in his capacity as Com- 
mander-in-Chief of the Army and Navy-, published an executive order establishing 
defensive sea areas. The area defined in the proclamation had as its outer Umit 
a line drawn east and west through the north end of Reedy Island, and as its inner 
limit a Une drawn east and west through Finns Neck Rear Range Light. At the 
same time regulations were promulgated for carrying into eifect the executive order 
of the President. It was ordered that any vessel desiring to cross the defensive 
sea area should proceed to the vicinity of the entrance of the proper channel, 
flying her national colors and displaying identification signal letters, and "there 
await communication with the harbor entrance patrol. " The entrances to defen- 
sive sea areas referred to in the Fourth Naval District were designated as follows: 
for incoming vessels the channel below Reedy Island, and for outgoing vessels 
the chaimel off Newcastle, Pa. 

The promulgation of this order immediately imposed upon the district the 
estabfishment of a harbor entrance patrol. To carry out this order, the U. S. S. 
Beale was ordered, at the outbreak of the war, to duty as senior patrol ship in the 
defensive sea area. She took up a mooring on the east side of the channel on 
Newcastle Range abeam of the wharf at Fort Delaware, on Peapatch Island. 
At this time a submarine net was placed across the Delaware River from Peapatch 
Island to shoal water on the east side. This net had a movable gate 600 feet long, 
which was closed at sundown and opened at sumise, sliip traffic being suspended 
after nightfall. The net was placed by the United States Army and operated by 
the Navy. To open the gate the end was swung up or down stream according as 

266 



tide conditions favored, by tlie tugs Indian, Bernard and Visitor, and moored to buoys. 
This net was destroyed by ice in the winter of 1917-18 and was not replaced. 

The war liad been in progress but one day when two scout patrol vessels 
were placed in commission, the U. S. S. Arawan, S.P. No. 1, and the U. S. S. Petrel, 
S. P. No. 59. On April 11th the Commandant of the Fourth Naval District ordered 
the S. P. Arawan to duty in connection with the patrol of the submarine net. 
After reporting to the L'. S. S. Beale she took station below Finns Point, Delaware, 
where she was used for boarding purposes. The U. S. Coast Guard Tender Guthrie 
about the same time was ordered to similar duty. 

The Delawai'e River section was organized April 17, 1917, under the command 
of Commander F. W. Hoffman, N. N. V.; his jurisdiction was defined to extend 
from Fourteen Foot Light to Trenton, N. J. 

Cooperative efl'orts between the army authorities, charged with the land 
defenses of the Delaware, and the naval authorities were early developed. The 
codes in use in each branch of the service were interchanged, so that secrecy of 
communication might be safeguarded. Reedy Island was subsequently estabhshed 
as the headquarters of the Delaware River section afloat, and recognition signals 
of all incoming vessels were demanded at Foit Delaware and also by the Harbor 
Defense Area Patrol Squadron, which was constantly in touch with Reedy Island, 
located five mUes below the fort. Direct telephone communications between this 
station and Fort Delaware were established and from the reporting station's 
outpost position it was possible to notify the fort long in advance of the approach 
of any hostile craft. Actual tests proved that this information could be trans- 
mitted, the batteries manned and fire drawn within three seconds. As a matter 
of fact, in actual operations tluring the entire war, the Harbor Defense Area Patrol 
intercepted all shipping and satisfied itself of its friendly intent before it was 
allowed to proceed to within range of the forts. Ships not equipped with the 
recognition signals issued by the Navy were boarded and made subject to the 
process of port examination. When German submarines commenced operations 
off the coast, the Army authorities were immediately apprised of their proximity, 
and throughout the entire war the closest cooperation existed between the Army 
authorities and the Navcd forces. 

The immediate defensive needs of the great water course having been cared 
for, plans were hastened for the extension of the military control, both offensively 
and defensively, for the entire district. It was recognized at once that the strategi- 
cal points on the north and south ends of the entrance to the Delaware Ray should 
be the centers of activity for the forces afloat. Cold Spring Inlet, Cape May, 
furnished an ideal mooring for patrol vessels and larger craft drawing up to eighteen 
feet. The Delaware Rreakwater, with its sheltered harbor of refuge, similarly 
recommended itself as a base for district vessels. To the north of Cape May as 
far as Rarnegat and to the south of Cape Henlopen as far as Assateague the coast- 
guard stations were immediately brought under naval control. Connected by an 
intercommunicating telephone system and furnishing at once a personnel trained 
in observation and in action, the two flanks of the Delaware Ray were thus at 
once guarded by observation. The value of Cape May was further enhanced 
by established means of rail, telephone and telegraphic communications, and by 
the presence and immediate avaUabihty of the Marconi Radio Station, which was 
at once taken over and manned by Navy personnel. 

267 



Ten days after the declaration of war. Lieutenant Commander F. A. Savage, 
N. N. v., and liis Aide, Ensign Julius Zieget, N. N. V., were ordered to proceed to 
Cape May to organize the section. I pon arrival the following day they were met 
by Assistant Paymaster H. W. Peacock, Jr., U. S. N. R. F., and Pay Clerk D. N. 
Miller, U. S. N. R. F., and headquarters were established in room 137, Columbia 
Hotel. A group of buildings bordering on Cold Spring Inlet and known as " Sewell's 
Point Amusement Pavilion, " was determined upon as the site for the section base. 
About the middle of May, 1917, the contractual formalities were concluded and 
the Navy undertook the conversion of what had been a fun factory into an adequate 
headquarters for naval operation. With an adaptability that was most commend- 
able, the so-called "Fun Factory" was demolished so that its housing might 
constitute a barracks. The "Rarrel of Fun," a cylindrical structure weighing about 
five tons, was jacked up on skids and rolled out of the building, where an iron 
door was fitted, this completing its conversion into a brig. The "Human Roulette 
Table" was converted into a scrub table, and the "Cave of the Winds" became 
the guardhouse. Most of tliis conversion was done by ship's force, and it was 
typical of the " Win-the-War " spirit that college graduates became pick and shovel 
men, architects and draftsmen became carpenters and every kind of skilled force 
turned to with the will to assist in the labor. 

Commander Savage continued as Commanding Officer of the Section Base 
until April 1, 1918. On December ,5, 1917, Captain F. J. Haake, U. S. C. G., was 
ordered to duty in command of the forces afloat. In April, 1918, Captain Haake 
was also ordered as Commander of Cape May section, relieving Commander 
Savage. 

During the continuity of the operations of enemy submarines. Captain Har- 
rison A. Bispham, U. S. N. (Ret.), was detailed as Commander of the district patrols, 
with his headquarters at the Cape May Section Base. He was succeeded by 
Commander J. B. Patton, U. S. N. (Ret.), when Captain Bispham was detailed as 
Commandant of the naval unit of the student army training corps at the University 
of Pennsylvania. 

The expeditious results accomplished in the establishment of a section base at 
Cape May were dupUcated at Lewes, Delaware, it being intended that this base 
should guard the southern entrance to the Bay, while Cape May protected the 
north end. 

Shortly after noon on April 12, 1917, a board consisting of Paymaster R. T. 
Jellet, U. S. N. R. F., Lieutenant F. F. Boyd, U. S. N. R. F., and Pay Clerk 
M. A. Hunt, U. S. N. R. F., met in Lewes with James Thompson, the Mayor 
of the city, and considered the availability of properties located about one mile 
west of Cape Henlopen, Delaware, as a base for mine-sweeping operations. 
Lieutenant Commander Earl Farwell, N. N. V., Lieutenant (j.g.) H. T. Williams, 
Assistant Surgeon J. T. White, Ensign J. L. Murray and Ensign S. H. McSherry, 
U. S. N. R. F., were the first officers to arrive, and headquarters were immedi- 
ately established in the Federal Building, at Lewes. 

The outfitting of vessels for district service progressed rapidly at the Navy Yard, 
and as these vessels became available, they were manned by naval reservists fresh 
from civil life and with little training or experience in naval affairs, except what had 
been secured in amateur yachting or in previously orgcmized auxiliary training 
schools. In this connection mention might be made of the training cruise 

268 



made by naval reservists during the preceding summer, when through the efforts 
of Thomas Newhall and W. Barklie Henry, both of whom subsequently became 
Lieutenant Commanders in the reserve force, regular naval vessels were made 
available for training purposes. The needs of the service brought into active 
service many of those who had taken advantage of this short course. The need for 
commissioned personnel was immediate, and it was necessary, therefore, to give a 
commissioned rank to those whose knowledge of navigation had been obtained on 
navigational cruises conducted under the direction of officers detailed from the 
regular service to regular yachting organizations, among which were the associations 
embraced in what was known as the Delaware River Yacht Racing Association. 
Many of those who entered the service as enlisted men were subsequently com- 
missioned, after the completion of courses at training schools established at the 
various bases; they constituted a considerable contribution to the service corps of 
commissioned officers, and saw duty far outside the confines of the Fourth Naval 
District. 

The department originally planned class four of the reserve force for duty 
witfiin naval districts, but the plan of confining the activities of such promising 
personnel within naval district boundaries was soon recognized to be not feasible 
and to be restrictive of the opportunities of these men. All who had so enrolled 
were given an opportunity to volunteer for general service without restriction as to 
territorial limits, and it is a matter of pride that the personnel in this class in the 
Fourth District volunteered almost without exception. 

The mobiUzation of what were then the National Naval Volunteers and the 
tremendous recruiting that was under way at the outset of the war soon exhausted 
the receiving ship's facilities at the Philadelphia Navy Yard. It was felt that the 
activities at the section bases, both offensively and defensively, would be interfered 
with by paralleling their well-defined purposes with a training station of sufficient 
size to take care of the incoming raw recruits. 

The activities of the receiving ship at the Navy Yard were concentrated largely 
toward meeting drafts for personnel for duty abroad and for the replacement of 
personnel aboard vessels of the fleet; and it was constantly transferring trained 
personnel overseas and to armed guard details. A distributing barracks and 
receiving ship for the Fourth Naval District were early found to be essential to the 
district activities; the Municipal Pier, No. 19 North Wharves, Delaware River, 
which was opened May 28, 1917, as the District Supply Department, was later also 
used as a distributing barracks for district forces. 

Through the District Supply Department the various bases were outfitted as 
they were established, and during the war the entire district organization and its 
outlying activities, together with the district vessels, were supphed. 

The Massachusetls, Indiana and Iowa were supphed when stationed here as 
tenders to the receiving ship, as were the U. S. S. Savannah, as flagship of the Com- 
mander, Division Eight, Submarine Force, and the destroyers and subchasers that 
constituted the several hunt squadrons. 

A total of 165,161 items was handled aggregating 12,257,664 pounds. 

Out of the Naval Emergency Fund '" for the purpose of training members ol the 
Naval Reserve Force for vessels of the coast patrol" the Secretary of the Navy on 
May 22, 1917, allotted $780,000 for the construction of training stations. The 
Naval Training Association of the United States, which was the result of the 

269 



battleship cruise in 1916, greatly aided in the estabUshment of these naval training 
stations. That the Fourth Naval District received so generous a share of the 
total amount available was largely through the untiring efforts of Lieutenant- 
Commander Thomas Newhall, U. S. N. R. F., who, prior to his enrolment in the 
service, worked indefatigably to secure a large training station for this district. 

Six days after the larger fund was set aside. §300,000 was apportioned for the 
estabhshment of proper facilities in this district. Later an additional sum of 
•130,000 was added. It was understood that none of this money was to be expended 
for the purchase of ground and it was necessary, therefore, to secure a contribution 
of a site. Professor William Easby, Jr., of the University of Pennsylvania, and 
H. S. Farquhar, a civil engineer, volunteered their services as a selection board, and 
after considering the suitability of three sites from the standpoint of health and 
accessibility to naval centers, determined upon a farm near Cape May owned by 
Messrs. Henry Ford and James Cuzens of Detroit, Mich. This ground, which 
became the site of Wissahickon Barracks, was leased to the Government for the sum 
of one dollar per annum. The original purpose of Wissahickon Barracks was 
broadened by the necessities of the service, and it contributed trained persoimel to 
the Navy without regard to any consideration except its needs. There were estab- 
lished at Wissahickon Barracks an officers' material school and schools for training 
coxswains, quartermasters, guimers' mates, yeomen, hospital corpsmen and armed 
guard. 1,529 men were received from other stations and 6,577 recruits were 
received, making a total of 8,106. Of this number 897 graduated from the armed 
guard school and saw duty in this capacity afloat. The remainder were transferred 
throughout the district to meet the needs of its activities and to the listeners' school 
at New London, Conn., signal school, Hampton Roads, Va., and engineering 
school for officers at Pelham Bay, and elsewhere. 

The outfitting of district vessels kept pace with the other rapidly expanding 
activities of the district, and at the end of April, but three weeks after war was 
declared, eight district patrol craft were in commission. The first scout patrol 
vessel to pass out the Delaware Capes during war time was the U. S. S. Nevada, 
S. P. 64, which patrolled the waters of the district north of Cape May to Barnegat. 
This cruise served a double purpose, in encouraging recruiting in coast towns. The 
promptness of the response to calls for pleasure boats for conversion as scout patrol 
vessels is evidenced by the fact that during the month of May eighteen additional 
ves'sels were placed in commission. The rapidly increasing district forces afloat 
made it possible to establish harbor entrance patrols to the northward and to the 
southward, so that any hostile craft might be intercepted. 

Similarly expeditious results were accompUshed in the commencement of 
mine-sweeping operations in the Fourth Naval District. 

On June 14, 1917, but two months after commencement of hostifities, the 
channel from Brown's Shoal buoys to Overfalls Light Vessel was swept by the 
U. S. S. McKeever Brothers, S. P. 684, the U. S. S. McKeerer, S. P. 683 and the U. S. S. 
Rehnboth, then known as M. S. No. 1, wliich was subsequently ordered overseas 
and foundered off the EngUsh coast. Mine-sweeping operations were continued 
with vigor, thoroughness and without cessation, being interrupted only when the 
severest weather conditions and floating ice made them absolutely impossible. The 
fact that no vessel engaged in this arduous work sustained damage by contact 
with an enemy mine merits comment. The U. S. S. Kingfisher, however, did strike 

270 



a mine while sweeping ofT Barnegat in the fall of 1918, but it failed to explode and 
the mine was destroyed. 

The carefully thouglif-out pians for the control of the operation of radio in 
war time were but a skeleton of the activities that centered about the communica- 
tion service. Instantaneous service was essential between district headquarters 
by land wire and by radio, so that instructions and information might be trans- 
mitted with secrecy and despatch. 

The first step was the suppression of all amatem' radio stations, and a circular 
letter was sent to all those of record as operating sucli apparatus. With but a few 
exceptions, the request of the department for the dismantling of the stations and 
the taking down of the antennae was complied with. Such as doubted the earnest- 
ness of the riovernment were rapidly convinced by the inspectors who traveled 
from one end of the district to the otiier. Leased telephone lines and leased tele- 
graph wires emanated from the communication office at the Navy Yard, and sub- 
sequently from the headquarters of the Fourth Naval District to every sectional 
point of activity. 

A perfect system of radio communication was established between district 
vessels afloat and the Naval Radio Station at Philadelphia, and the Marconi 
Station that was taken over and operated as Navy Radio, Cape May. 

The establishment of a district radio station to communicate with patrol 
vessels was authorized at Lewes, and in advance of the equipmcTit designated by 
the bureau, a set designated for a district vessel was temporarily placed in opera- 
tion until replaced by the navy standard apparatus. 

As an effective check upon the unauthorized operation of radios two listening- 
in stations, not used for transmission, were established, one in the Parkway Build- 
ing, Philadelphia, and the other in the West Philadelphia High School. 

A second district radio station was established on the Million Dollar Pier at 
Atlantic City which subsequently proved to be a most reliable outpost. 

Navy Radio, Philadelphia, continued as the transmitting station until the 
office of the district communication superintendent was moved to the district staff 
headquarters in October. 1918. Shortly after this date a distant control station 
was estabUshed in the White Building. 

Distant control of Navy Radio, Cape May, was established about the same 
time, the control station being operated from the section base. To expedite the 
transmission of routing instructions lightships were equipped with radio. Five 
Fathom Bank Lightship was put in operation .July 2.')th. and Fenwick Island 
Light Vessel was equipped November 1, 1918. 

The U. S. S. Falcon, which was already equipped with radio, was stationed, 
after the signing of the armistice, fifty-two miles due east of Five Fathom Bank 
Lightship as a route ship for incoming troop transports. 

A strict censorship was imposed to prevent the movements of naval ships or 
of naval units becoming known to the enemy. The transaction of virtually all 
Navy business was in confidential codes. As a further safeguard the transmission 
of personal messages to personnel on major ships as well as on district ships was 
handled through the department, and although this caused much inconvenience, 
it was recognized by the Navy personnel as a necessary war measure and was 
rigidly adhered to. 

The big transatlantic station at Tuckerton, wliich was seized at the outbreak 

271 



of the war, was operated under naval control, and a substantial force of marines 
detailed to protect and safeguard this property were at the same time a formidable 
outpost force on land in the northern end of the district. 

This station, in charge of Lieutenant 0. F. Haslar, U. S. N., operated continu- 
ously as an important factor in the transatlantic communication service. 

The radio service contributed directly to the safety of ships in many ways 
during the war. During the entire course of the submarine activities off the At- 
lantic coast, war warnings were sent broadcast through the air to all ships, in 
Enghsh, and for ships passing within range of the radio stations at Philadelphia 
and Cape May, this service enabled them to a\oid the immediate locahty of 
danger. In addition there was sent out nightly by the broadcast method, hydro- 
graphic information concerning lightships off stations, gas buoys that were not 
lighted and positions of derehcts and obstructions that were a menace to navigation 
as well as information in regard to mine fields. 

For ships of the Navy more detailed and more confidential information was 
sent in code, so that every fighting unit was promptly apprised of the latest develop- 
ments in the submarine campaign. 

Naval radio operators were assigned to vessels of the Naval Overseas Trans- 
portation Service, United States Army transports, all merchant vessels operated 
by the United States Shipping Board and all other United States merchant vessels 
of 2,500 tons or greater. 

In connection with the daylight saving bill, which was effective, as far as 
clock changes were concerned, at 2 a.m. Sunday, March 31, 1918, care was exer- 
cised to prevent confusion in convoy meetings and in clock times used in con- 
nection with dispatches by radio. The daylight saving bill set the clocks at all 
naval stations and on all ships in the territorial waters of the United States ahead 
one hour at the time before mentioned. Greenwich mean time was employed, how- 
ever, in designating the times of radio broadcastings of radio watch keeping on 
ships having one or two operators. In communication between AUied naval vessels 
and shore stations and Allied merchant vessels, Greenwich mean time was con- 
tinued to be employed. Greenwich meridian summer civil time was employed on 
the North Atlantic Ocean in all communications between United States naval 
forces concerning contact between forces passing designated positions at sea and 
rendezvous, when such forces were east of the 40th meridian; when west of the 
40th meridian, 75th meridian summer civil time was employed between the dates 
prescribed in the dayUght saving bill. 

The seizure by the United States of all vessels belonging to Holland, in ac- 
cordance with the executive order of the President of the United States, resulted 
in the taking over of the Dutch ship Themisto, then in the port of Philadelphia. 
A guard was placed aboard the steamer at Pier 28, South Wharves, Delaware 
River, March 20, 1918. On March 27th the commandant was directed to release 
the ship to the shipping board, as the vessel was to be manned by a shipping board 
crew. This was done. The seizure was carried out without incident, and the 
several regulations prescribed to be followed under the circumstances were executed. 

During the early months of the war the district forces had no actual contact 
with the enemy. The rigid discipUne and training and the actual ex-perience afloat 
and ashore welded together a formidable district force at the same time as the 
district contributed its full quota in every other direction. 

272 




U. S. S. "DeKalh." al Navy Yard, SeplemlxT. I91H. showing Paravane Skeg. 



Major ships were repaired, placed in commission and manned at the Navy 
Yard. The big interned German raiders, the Kronprinz Wilhelm and the Prinz 
Eiiel Friedrich, afterwards bearing the names of two revolutionary heroes of Ger- 
man birth, sailed from Philadelphia as the U. S. S. DeKalb and U. S. S. Von Steuben 
for overseas ports crowded with the first complements to leave this section. 

The losses suffered by our Allies made the need for mine-sweeping vessels in 
European waters imperative. The District was requested to furnish its quota of 
such vessels, and the City of Lewes, S. P. No. 383, and the Behobolh (sunk), S. P. 
No. 384. intended for district use, were designated for duty overseas. 

In addition, the U. S. S. Alcedo was placed in commission on April 20th, and 
was sent to the war zone, where she was later torpedoed and sunk. The U. S. S. 
Chipper, S. P. 1049. and two scout patrol vessels, the U. S. S. Elf, S. P. 81, and the 
U. S. S. Little Aie, S. P. 60. were fitted out and transferred to the Fifth and Seventh 
Naval Districts, respectively. The U. S. S. Sialia and the U. S. S. Lyndonia were 
also fitted out and assigned to duty elsewhere, the latter returning some months 
later, renamed the U. S. S. Vega. 

TheU. S. S. Henderson, a navy transport, built at the Philadelphia Navy Yard, 
was completed with despatch, and sailed on her maiden voyage with no trial trip, 
except that between Philadelphia and New York. Everything proved so satis- 
factory that she was immediately employed in transport duty. About the same 
time that the U. S. S. Henderson sailed, the 5th Regiment of Marines, commanded 

273 



by Colonel C. A. Doyen, U. S. M. C, embarked at the Navy Yard. This contingent 
was distributed on the U. S. S. St. Louis, U. S. S. Charleston, U. S. S. Hancock and the 
U. S. S. DeKallj, w hich was making her maiden voyage under American colors. At 
New York, the marines on the U. S. S. St. Louis and the U. S. S. Charleston were 
transferred to the U. S. S. Henderson, which transported them to France. 

Every available piece of ground at the Navy Yard was utilized, and there 
sprung up in record time a seaman's barracks, a well-organized hospital, and a 
naval aircraft factory that was destined to turn out naval air-fighting machines 
for duty at home and abroad. Such open spaces as were available were piled high 
with stores destined for overseas, and gigantic storehouses supplemented those at 
the Navy Yard, which were soon found to be totally inadequate for the demands 
made upon them. Every available docking space was crowded with ships under 
repair, being outfitted, or loading with stores. 

The imperative necessity for the maximum number of destroyers to operate 
in European waters gave precedence at the Navy Yard to work done on this class 
of vessels. 

When the U. S. S. Stewart, II. S. S. MacDonough, U. S. S. Hull and U. S. S. Hopkins 
arrived, on the last day of the year of 1917, at the Navy Yard, they were immediately 
inspected and a conservative estimate was made of the time necessary to place 
these vessels in condition for offensive operations abroad, and for the transatlantic 
cruise necessary for them to reach their base of operations. It was found that at 
least two months would be required to complete the repairs thought necessary 
according to pre-war standards. The reception of this report by the chief of naval 
operations brought from him a characteristic reply as follows: 

"Delay of two months in fitting out destroyers of Divisions A and B may 
defeat object of present orders, as the need of our destroyers in European waters 
is immediate. (Thirty-six hours after receipt of orders, U. S. S. Alywin sailed for 
distant service, and the department hopes to receive a similar hearty reply from 
Divisions A and B.) It is the desire of the department that as many of the de- 
stroyers of these divisions as possible proceed to the Azores within one week and 
with the assistance of the U. S. S. Prometheus, to equip there for duty in French 
waters. The U. S. S. Stewart shall inform the department of the destroyers that 
can sail from Philadelphia as soon as the ice clears, and also of the dates that the 
remaining destroyers can follow." 

This compelling appeal caused an immediate revision of the plans that had 
been made, with the result that on the following day the chief of naval operations 
was advised that the U. S. S. Stewart, the U. S. S. Hopkins, the U. S. S. Paul Jones, 
the U. S. S. Worden, and the U. S. S. MacDonough would be ready to sail from the 
Navy Yard on January 15th, two weeks after the majority of them had arrived for 
overhaul. He was advised that the U. S. S. Hull would follow on the 1st of Feb- 
ruary and the Preble on February 15th. 

Considerable of the time required for the overhaul was consumed by repairs 
of damage sustained from ice, during the passage of these vessels from Hampton 
Boads to Philadelphia. 

The same speed demanded in the outfitting of combat ships was also expected 
in the conversion of merchant vessels to naval auxiliaries. On the last day of the 
year 1917, the department outUned its poficy in this particular, as follows: 

"The conversion of merchant vessels to naval auxiUaries and their upkeep 

274 



shall be considered of the greatest importance, and every energy and resource shall 
be used to obtain this end. Vessels must not be unnecessarily delayed and only 
repairs that are demanded by sanitation, safety and efficiency of vessels should be 
undertaken for immediate accomplishment. Desirable alterations should be laid 
out so that they may be undertaken while vessels are in port between cruises." 

This policy prevailed in the taking over and the outfitting of ships subsequently 
operated by the Navy for the several governmental accounts, and vessels that were 
taken over and operated directly by the Navy. To this end the resources of the 
Navy Yard and of the large shipyards were utilized to the fullest. At the same 
time this work was so arranged as not to interfere with the new construction so 
urgently needed. 

The urgency of repair and outfitting work at the Navy Yard and other causes 
resulted in the suspension of actual construction work, for a time, on the program 
of combat vessels. Resumption of work on the necessary ways, buildings, etc., 
for this purpose was as prompt as circumstances would permit. 

The Fourth Naval District assisted in and was responsible, to a great extent, 
for the assembling, organization and shipment of the material and personnel for 
the Northern Bombing Group, a naval aviation unit which operated in the northern 
part of France, near Calais, and which bombed the German U-boat bases at Zee- 
brugge, Bruges and Ostend. 

This group had a personnel in the field of about 2,000 men, marines and blue- 
jackets, and nearly all of the latter were selected and assembled on the receiving 
ship in the Navy Yard. The material for the group was also assembled on the 
docks of the Yard. This included about 200 planes, DH-4 type, equipped with 
Lib(>rty motors whiih were constructed in the United States, assembled and boxed 
for shipment from Philadelphia. 

This group operated under the general direction of Mce-Admiral R. Keyes, 
R. N., commander of British Naval Forces operating against the Belgian coast; 
headquarters, Dover. 

The late fall and early winter of 1917 saw many ships actually engaged in 
overseas transportation, both of troops and supplies, and on December 27th, at 
1 P.M., the U. S. S. Stocklon, the first of the new type of destroyers to be delivered 
during the war, arrived at the Navy Yard from the William Cramp & Sons Ship 
and Engine Building Company, where she was constructed. She was placed in 
commission immediately and sailed three days later. 

The contribution made to depleted world shipping by the yards bordering on 
the Delaware River, and the construction ot various types of war vessels, constitute 
one of the most effective coincident war efforts prosecuted in the District. The 
early estabhshment of the Hog Island Plant of the Emergency Fleet Corporation 
on the Delaware River, south of Philadelphia Navy Yard, and the governmental 
control exercised over every other yard, made necessary cooperation easy. There 
was at all times a close weave of interdependency that made the prompt and 
efficient performance of the responsibilities imposed upon the Commandant a matter 
of prime importance. The taking over, outfitting and manning of the ships, the 
inspection and testing of their radio equipment, the movement of hulls before 
they were able to operate under their own power, might be enumerated as among 
the most important. 

The successful operations of enemy submarines in the vicinity of the Azore 

27.5 



Islands prompted the Government to secure from the Portuguese Government a 
concession which enabled this Government to establish naval bases on these islands. 

The first shipment of stores and personnel for the new naval bases, established 
at Ponta Delgada and Horta Fayal, were transported from the Navy Yard, Phila- 
delphia, aboard the U. S. S. Hancock. When the Hancock sailed, she flew the flag 
of Rear-Adniiral Herbert 0. Dunn, who was assigned to command the naval forces 
operating in the Azores. 

On December 24, 1917, the department directed the loading of the Hancock 
and instructed that she should proceed to Ponta Delgada, where stores and personnel 
for that base were to be unloaded. Upon completion of the discharge the Hancock 
was directed to proceed to Hampton Roads, Va. 

The U. S. S. Beale and the U. S. S. Terry were detailed as escort for the U. S. S. 
Hancock and were further directed upon arrival to report to Vice-Admiral Sims 
for duty. 

At 11 A.M., January 9th, the Hancock, escorted by the U. S. S. Beale and the 
U. S. S. Terry, sailed from the Navy Yard. Philadelphia, to the Azores, under escort. 

The majority of the ships attached to Detachment 3, Squadron 5, Patrol Force, 
was outfitted at the Navy Yard for duty overseas. The detachment was command- 
ed by Commander David F. Boyd, U. S. N., with the U. S. S. Nokomis as his flag- 
ship. The detachment was made up in its entirety of vessels that had been con- 
verted for this duty, and at various times between December 17, 1917, and 
December 22, 1917, the detachment sailed from the Na^^' Yard for the Azores. 
The sliips included the foUowing: 

U. S. S. Nokomis, U. S. S. Concord, U. S. S. Gypsum Queen, U. S. S. Nahanl. 
U. S. S. Mariner, U. S. S. Nokomis U, U. S. S. Barnegat, U. S. S. Monlauk, U. S. S. 
Penobscot, U. S. S. Lyndonia and U. S. S. Veneiia. 

Changes in the characteristics of certain battle cruisers made available for 
other service a number of 14-inch, 50 cahber naval guns. 

The plan of converting these into land batteries by placing them upon railway 
mountings resulted in the organization of this unit, under the command of Rear- 
Admiral Charles P. Plunkett, U. S. N. And the United States Railway Batteries 
in France subsequently did terrific execution at an effective range of thirty miles 
and contributed largely to the demorahzation and interruption of communication 
far in the rear of the German fines. In action these guns threw a heavier projectile 
with greater accuracy and to a greater distance than any guns previously placed 
on mobile shore moimts. 

The gun mounts were constructed in Philadelphia by the Baldwin Locomotive 
Works, and the material and personnel were assembled in the Fourth Naval Dis- 
trict, and shipped from here to St. Nazaire, France, at which port the material 
was assembled and promptly put into action. 

The history of this project from its inception in America until the first shots 
were fired into German defended territory is an example of the speed that won the 
war. 

The project was first discussed in November, 1917. On December 26th the 
Bureau of Ordnance instructed the naval gun factory to prepare plans and speci- 
fications for the gun mounts, locomotives, cars and other necessary ec[uipment. 
The work was finished in thirty days. 

The equipment included five 14-inch railway mounts, six locomotives and 

276 



five complete trains of cars — seventy-five in all. Bids were opened February 6th, 
but w«Me rejected because of the time of delivery demanded. On February 13th 
new bids weic submitted and the awards made the same day. The Baldwin 
Locomotive Works undertook the dehvery of the gun ecu's by June 15th. 

The first mount was completed and moved from the Baldwin Shops on April 
25th, seventy-two days from the day of the award, and the last of them one 
month later or ten days ahead of the contract time. AH the cars and special 
equipment were delivered June 1st, only 155 days from the time the project was 
conceived. 

General Pershing directed the shipments of the expedition to St. Nazaire. 
The first shipment was made June 20th. Trained personnel had been assembled 
and preceded the material. The first shipment arrived overseas July 8th, and the 
last of it on July 21st. Erection work began July 20th, and the first gun train 
left for the front August 17th. 

The first gun fired was on September 5th, and continued in action until the 
signing of the armistice. 

The gims weighed ninety-eight tons each and fired a projectile weighing 1,470 
pounds with a range of twenty-eight miles. 

The mobihty of the guns heightened the impression of the Germans that the 
AUies were equipped with hundreds of them. They were extremely effective in 
interrupting vital supply railroads and main lines of communication. 

The winter of 1917-18 was the most severe in more than a decade, and despite 
ice conditions in the Delaware River that were almost unprecedented, the steady 
progress of navy^ ships and of transports was uninterrupted. 

But few of the district vessels, however, were able to operate, and many of 
those of wooden construction were of necessity laid up out of reach of the ice packs 
that extended for miles to seaward. Such vessels as could possibly be expected 
to operate under these conditions were kept in service and it is worthy ol mention 
that despite the rigors of the winter, patrols were maintained in the defensive 
area, at the harbor entrance and well off shore, without interruption. This work 
was carried on by the following scout patrol vessels: U. S. S. Emerald, S. P. 177; 
U. S. S. Susanne, S. P. 510; U. S. S. Absegami, S. P. 371; U. S. S. Gaivota, S. P. 436; 
U. S. S. Edorea, S. P. 5 19 and U. S. S. Victor. S. P. 1995. The severest test was 
imposed upon the vessels detailed to the offshore patrol. The U. S. S. Emerald, 
S. P. 177, and the U. S. S. Susanne, S. P. 510, commanded by Lieutenant Maxwell 
Wyeth (j.g.), U. S. N. R. F., and Ensign Samuel Wetherill, U. S. N. F., respectively, 
are deserving of high commendation for the maintenance ot this duty, which re- 
quired them at times to proceed to their stations through ice floes extending eight 
miles to seaward. The mine-sweeping fleet, consisting for the main part of 
converted fishing boats, swept the entrance to Delaware Bay throughout the 
winter, whenever weather conditions made it possible. 

The vessels depended upon for offensive and defensive action were of great 
variety both as to size, construction and power plants. At the outbreak of hostili- 
ties any vessel that could be utiUzed was taken over. These included steam yachts, 
steam tugs, steam fishing boats and pleasure craft, with almost every make of 
gasoline motor represented. The upkeep of this machinery constituted one of the 
greatest problems. It was impracticable to keep in stock repair parts for every 

277 



make represented, and in this connection a machine and repair shop established 
at Cape May did excellent work. 

Later, when subchasers were made available, it was possible to standardize 
repair work for them. Considering the demands made upon all the vessels, the 
consistency of performance is remarkable, and is a tribute to the engine room 
forces of this fleet. That some of them weathered conditions that they were forced 
to meet was a surprise to even those who manned them and a tribute at the same 
time to the efficient manner in which they were handled. But one vessel, the Annie 
Gallup, a mine sweeper, was totally lost out of the entire fleet that operated for 
a period of nearly twenty months. 

The durability and cruising of the subchasers are also worthy of note. Nearly 
all of those attached to this district have covered over 12.000 miles since they were 
commissicmed. 

A coastal air station was established at Cape May early in the war and manned 
by the United States Marine Corps. On December 4, 1917, it was taken over by 
the Navy, and operated as a patrol station for the protection of the coast against 
depredations by hostile submarines. At this time. Cold Spring Inlet was com- 
pletely frozen over so that no flying could be done, and this condition prevailed 
until the latter part of the month of February, 1918. 

As soon as the weather conditions became at all favorable for flying, ten 
additional pilots were ordered to the station and the complement was raised to 
238 men. Twelve R-type seaplanes were at the station and in operation. Syste- 
matic patrols were established when definite information was received that enemy 
submarines might be expected off the coast. These machines were equipped with 
Mark-3 bombs for offensive purposes. The patrols normally consisted of two 
machines, although at times four traveled in company. 

Paralleling the District activities, but in a sense separate from them, were 
what might be considered the overseas contributions. Philadelphia, the district 
headquarters, was one of the ports of embarkation, and through it during the entire 
progress of the war there flowed personnel and a vast quantity of stores and supplies 
manufactured in Philadelphia and its environs. The systematic and efficient 
handling of these stores and the outfitting and commissioning of the ships taken 
over, constructed or operated for the army and navy account, brought into being 
the Naval Overseas Transportation Service. This service was created by chief of 
naval operations, January 9, 1918. Commander F. W. Hoffman, N. N. V., was 
ordered as District Supervisor on January 21, 1918, and continued as such until 
relieved by Commander M. H. Simons, U. S. N., on September 2, 1918. 

The safe routing of ships overseas required secrecy and the closest cooperation 
between this country and the forces abroad, and it was early recognized that this 
was an activity that required the cooperation between navcd district and naval 
forces abroid so that the locafity of every navigation menace might be avoided 
and every system of safeguarding overseas convoys might be utilized. This 
prompted the creation of routing offices in each naval district. On June 2, 1917, 
Captain F. S. Van Boskerck, U. S. C. G., was appointed American Routing Officer. 

All vessels leaving port were required to report to the ship routing office, 
prior to putting to sea. From the day of its creation until the submarine activities 
commenced along the coast, the routing officer's functions were limited to the 
dissemination of information to outbound shipping, and until the distribution of 

278 



confidential publications was taken over in its entirety by the issuing officer acting 
under the direction of the district communication superintendent, the routing 
officer issued to American vessels, other than commissioned navy ship., such 
confidential instructions as the department desired them to receive. The actual 
routing of ships overseas was done by the British routing officer of this port, 
Lieutenant-Commander R. H. Reade, R. N. R. 

All vessels bound overseas, however, were given such information as was in 
the possession of the district authorities relative to enemy raiders, movements of 
submai'ines, locations of mines, and obstructions to navigation. All ship owners, 
masters, customs officials and shipping agencies were advised of the contents of 
the circular letter of instructions issued May 4, 1918, by the chief of naval opera- 
tions, relative to the steps to be taken for the protection of shipping in the event 
of enemy submarine activity on the Atlantic coast. The British routing officer 
was invited into conference, and when it became necessary for the district authori- 
ties to assume control of coastwise shipping to save it from the danger of enemy 
mines or from contact with enemy submarines a perfect system of coastal routing 
had been devised. 

On June 3, 1918, the department directed the Commandant to assume control 
of coastwise shipping, and handle traffic in accordance with the instructions 
previously given. 

Coastal routings were made effective immediately and continued until October 
16, 1918, when routing instructions were revoked. Subsequent to tliis date, how- 
ever, shipping was routed so as to avoid known mined areas. 

Supplementing the system of coastal routings were the speaking stations 
established on Five Fathom Bank Lightship and Fenwick Island Shoal Lightship. 
These light vessels were equipped with radio, and necessary day and night signaling 
apparatus gave routing directions to passing ships. These signals were put in 
effect September 16, 1918. In addition, a vessel was constantly stationed at 
McCries' Shoals Buoy on the same duty. This vessel gave information to ships 
proceeding inbound on courses that would not take them in the vicinity of the 
lightships previously mentioned. 

Winter Quarter Shoal Light Vessel was equipped with a special large size 
light for distance signaling, thus enabling ships to pass well inside of the light vessel. 

The policy carried out in the main was as follows: First, that shipping was 
not to be delayed by the activity of submarines. Second, that they should be 
directed through areas that had been swept, and which were reasonably certain 
to be free of mines. Third, that shipping should not be unduly alarmed by unau- 
thenticated reports of enemy activity, and fourth, that they should be given the 
maximum protection possible by convoys. 

The sinking of the Diamond Shoal Light Vessel by a submarine led to the 
belief that light vessels in this district would share the same fate, and during the 
entire submarine activity these ships were afforded as much protection as was 
consistent with the other mihtary necessities of the district, and with the com- 
plement of vessels that was available. Submarine patrols were established for a 
time in the immediate vicinity of the lightsliips, upon the assumption that such 
location would be the likely one to make contact. 

It is worthy of mention that no ship routed out of the district suffered any 
mishap, and the only sizable ship that was lost inbound after routing instructions 

279 



were effective was the U. S. S. Saetia, which at the time was out of the routed 
channels. 

As soon as it was definitely determined that enemy submarines were operating 
in this district shipping was afforded the protection of convoys. 

Convoys proceeding south were escorted by the vessels of the Third Naval 
District to the vicinity of Barnegat Light, where these craft were reUeved by vessels 
of the Fomth District, and in tarn escorted to the vicinity of Winter Quarter 
Lightship, where the escort was in turn assumed by ships attached to the Fifth 
Naval District. 

The same practice prevailed for northbound convoys. The commandant 
of the district in which the convoy was made up arranged with the next adjacent 
district for the reUef of his escort, and each succeeding district arranging ia turn 
for its reUef. These arrangements were made through the communication service, 
details of the convoy, the meeting places, and other matters of a confidential 
nature being transmitted in code. 

The successful consummation of this work meant that a considerable fleet 
of escorting vessels, usually subchasers of fair speed and fair armament, should be 
available at all times, and in many cases it meant that they had no sooner returned 
to the base for fuel and supplies than they were ordered out on new duty. The 
escorts were furnished under all circumstances, except in the most violent weather, 
when the navigation of these small ships was impossible. 

The successful meeting of convoys, one relieving the other, was a good test 
of the seamanship of the men. 

The use of radio to make contact was seldom resorted to, and the fact that 
both the escorted vessels and the convoking chasers ran without running lights 
made these meetings in absolute darkness doubly difficult. 

It is a matter of congratulation that no ship escorted through the waters of 
the Fourth Naval District suffered any mishap, and while no convoy was attacked, 
it can be safely said that the presence of these miniature men-of-war meant security 
to the very essential cargoes, both in men and material, that were frequently being 
transported up and down the coast. 

From the day that the escort system was inaugurated until the day it was no 
longer felt to be needed, convoys were escorted through the waters of the Fourth 
Naval District northward and southward. 

The spring of 1918 found the Fourth Naval District thoroughly organized for 
offensive and defensive purposes. In November, 1917, two subchasers, the 
No. 209 and the No. 211, were added to the District forces, and these were the first 
vessels especially built for submarine work available in the District to date. In the 
months that had elapsed the section base at Cape May and at Lewes, Delaware, 
had been thoroughly organized and equipped. The training camp at Wissahickon 
Barracks was finished and a steady flow of trained personnel was furnished to 
ships both in and out of the district. There were attached to the District forty-two 
scout patrol vessels, a great variety of craft of var^■ing sizes, most of which were 
equipped with gasoline motors. In addition, there were ten vessels used as mine- 
sweepers. On March 19, 1918, the coast guard cutter Itasca was assigned to the 
District and she was foUowed on April 25th by the coast guard cutter Morrill. In 
addition there was the lighthouse tender Iris and the lighthouse tender Woodbine. 
In March the subchasers 71, 72, 73, 74 and 144 reported for duty, and in June 

280 



the subchasers 180, 210 and 212 were added to the District complement. As soon 
as weather permitted, all the wooden section patrol vessels were restored to duty, 
having been overhauled during the winter. A strong harbor entrance patrol 
was maintained off the mouth of the Delaware Bay. A listening patrol estabUshed 
July 19, 1918, was maintained daily by two vessels until the signing of the armistice. 
The normal war activities, including investigations of mines sighted, of submeuines 
reported and assistance to vessels in distress, kept the larger vessels constantly 
on the go. The end of the winter of 1917-18 found the section bases thoroughly 
equipped to keep the floating equipment in operation. EfEcient personnel had 
been assembled to operate machine shops and repair shops at Cape May, and 
throughout the war the district forces based at Lewes and Cape May found their 
faciUties sufficient for all pur[3oses except where extraordinary repairs .vere neces- 
sary'. The district forces had participated in target practice and squadron ma- 
neuvers and proficiency in signaling and radio communication was brought to 
a high standard of efficiency. The personnel engaged in the operation and upkeep 
of the engines became highly proficient in their several duties. 

Realization of what had been accomplished by intensive training and ex- 
perience inspired the confidence that these forces would rise to any emergency with 
which they might be confronted. When the war had been in progress six months, 
reports that German submarines were on their way to bombard the American 
coast were received with credence. As early as October 2, 1917, the office of 
naval intelligence advised that twenty submarines of the Deutschland type were 
reported to be leaving Germany early in October in two divisions. The informa- 
tion then had indicated their objective to be in the neighborhood of Hampton 
Roads, Va., and Pensacola, Fla. At that time it was believed necessary 
for enemy submarines to be refueled on this side and the information further 
indicated that shortly after their arrival they would proceed to a Mexican port 
for oil and then northward to engage in military operations. The necessity of 
a mother ship was also assumed, and it was believed that a vessel of neutral register 
would assist the submarines at a prearranged rendezvous. This plan was not put 
into operation by the German naval authorities, but every possible precaution 
was taken, and the receipt of this information prompted the establishment of 
land batteries at Cape May. The army authorities mounted six-inch coast defense 
guns at Cape May and at Lewes, and the jetties at Cold Spring Inlet were fortified 
by a six-inch naval gun. 

In December of 1917 the District was warned that if enemy submarines 
attempted to operate off the Atlantic Coast efforts might be made to decoy 
merchant ships by false S. 0. S. calls, and the District authorities were cautioned 
to determine the authenticity of all such messages received. Although no enemy 
activity developed at this time, the vigilance of patrols was maintained and every 
shore radio station was constantly on the alert to intercept any message that 
might indicate enemy submarine activity. On May 16, 1918, the department 
advised that enemy cruising submarines might be encountered anywhere west of 
the 40th degree ot longitude, and stated that this information was based upon 
contact that had been made. Immediately upon receipt of this information the 
section bases at Cape May and at Lewes were advised to keep a sharp lookout 
and be on the alert. Admiral ^YiUiam S. Benson, chief of naval operations, made 

281 



a flying tour of inspection of the outlying bases of the District and of the Navy Yard, 
Philadelphia, on I\Iay 16, 1918. 

On the same day the department advised that a United States submarine 
had been ordered to the Fourth Naval District. 

The first definite information of the activity of the German raider was received 
by radio on May 19th at 12.14 p.m. Atlantic City Radio intercepted an S. 0. S. 
from the British steamship Nyanza, advising that she was being chased, and gave 
her position as latitude 38 degrees 28 minutes north, longitude 70 degrees west. 
That the submarine was proceeding westwardly into the waters of the Fourth Naval 
District was indicated by information received on May 20th from the master of the 
ship, ./. C. Donnell, who upon his arrival at Lewes, Delaware, on that day, reported 
that his ship's radio intercepted a message from the American steamship Jonancy 
on May 19th, advising that she was being torpedoed and giving her position as 
150 miles east of Winter Quarter Shoals. On May 21st at 11.15 a.m. the Canadian 
Government steamship Montcalm relayed to Cape May Radio a radio received 
from the steamship Crenella advising that a submarine had been sighted in latitude 
37 degrees 50 minutes north, longitude 73 degrees 50 minutes west. At 1 p.m. 
on the same day the same ship advised that the Crenella had escaped. All of this 
information was immediately disseminated to the section bases and to the forces 
afloat, and the commanding officer of the coast defenses of the Delaware advised 
that merchant vessels had repoited a German submarine proceeding towards 
the coast. 

In addition to the regular patrols maintained at all times, several searching 
patrols of subchasers were ordered, whenever practicable, to the several positions 
given in S. 0. S. messages received. Subsequent information indicates that as the 
submarine approached the coast she picked as her prey sailing vessels not likely 
to have radio. That this was the policy of the commanding officer of the enemy 
submarine was confirmed by information subsequently received and by inter- 
views had with the cveiv of the American schooner Edna. That schooner cleared 
Philadelphia on May 17th and sailed from the Delaware Breakwater on May 
24th, passing Fenwick Island Lightship about noon. At about 1.30 p.m. on 
May 25th the schooner was fired on by a German submarine, which afterwards 
proved to be the U-151. The enemy vessel overhauled her, removed the crew 
to their vessel, bombed the schooner, and after leaving her in sm apparently sinking 
condition, submerged and went in quest of othea- vessels. The Edna did not 
sink, but was taken in tow by the Clyde Line steamer Mohawk near Winter 
Quarter Shoal Lightship. The schooner's towing bitts carried away and she 
was abandoned by the Mohawk and subsequently picked up by the tug Arabian 
and towed into Philadelphia, arriving May 29th. Investigation made by the aide 
for information disclosed that there were two holes in the vessel's hold, twenty 
to thirty inches in diameter, above the turn of the bilge, evidencing an external 
explosion. A time fuse was found, the extreme end of which was shattered by 
an explosion. On June 6th the master of the Edna arrived in Philadelphia and 
was examined by the aide for information. From him it was learned that the 
damage to the schooner was inflicted by the crew of the LI-151. Upon reaching 
the Li-151 the master of the Edna found already aboard her the masters and 
crew of the schooners Haltie Dunn and Hauppauge. Both of these schooners 
had been sunk and the crews taken prisoners. It was learned that the Hauppauge 

282 



had been bombed and sunk in latitude 37 degrees 46 minutes, longitude 75 degrees 
5 minutes. On June 2d at 10.30 a.m.. they were placed in a boat taken from 
another vessel just sunk, and set adrift seventy miles east of Atlantic City, 
N. J., and allowed to make their way to land. The description of the submarine 
as given by Captain Cilmore was most complete and proved that the U-151 was 
armed with two 15-centimeter Krupp guns, each about twenty-seven feet long, 
and that the vessel was also equipped with mines. Valuable information as 
to the submarine's dimensions, her personnel, her movements and destination 
were obtained and forwarded to the department. The Fourth District, therefore, 
was the first to establish definitely the identity, characteristics and other important 
information as to the first German submarine to operate off the Atlantic coast. 

This information was disseminated to all naval forces by the department on 
June 7th and the mihtary characteristics of the German submarine U-151 were 
given as follows: length, 213 feet; breadth, 29 feet; surface draft, 11 feet; dis- 
placement, surface, 1,700 tons; submerged, 2,100 tons; engine, 1,200 horsepower; 
speed, eleven and a halt knots an hour, surface; eight knots submerged; fuel 
storage, 250 tons; endurance, 17,000 miles at speed of six knots an hour on the 
surface, fifty miles at speed of seven knots an hour submerged; armament, two 
six-inch guns, two twenty-two pounders; one machine gun, six torpedo tubes, 
four in the bow and two in the stern; complement, eight officers, sixty-five men; 
type, Deulschland, vessel converted merchantine submarine type; ammunition 
capacity, limited number of torpedoes, maximum twelve, may be equipped to 
carry and lay forty mines; 400 rounds of ammunition for each gun. 

On May 28th, Cape May Radio received radio information from the steam- 
ship Adelheid, that she had sighted a submarine in latitude 36 degrees 45 minutes 
north, longitude 73 degrees 38 minutes west. 

The depredations of the enemy raider continued, the ship making its appearance 
at first one place and then another. The Isabella B. Wylie, a schooner of 775 tons 
gross was bombed on June 2d in latitude 39 degrees 10 minutes north, longitude 
73 degrees 7 minutes west, and the same day the schooner Winneconne, of 1,869 
tons gross, was destroyed in the same manner in latitude 39 degrees 26 minutes 
north, longitude 72 degrees 50 minutes west. The following day the schooner 
Jacob Haskell, 1,778 tons gross, was sunk by bombs fifty miles east true of Barnegat 
Light. 

The American Steamship Texel, operated by the United States Shipping 
Board, encountered the enemy at 4.21 p.m., Sunday, June 2d, in latitude 38 
degrees 58 minutes north, longitude 73 degrees 13 minutes 30 seconds west. The 
submarine announced her presence in the vicinity by a solid shot fired over the 
vessel. The ship was immediately manoeuvered in the manner prescribed in war- 
time instructions and the aggressor was brought directly from the stern of the 
Texel, headed full speed ahead. A shrapnel sheU was next fired which exploded 
on the water to the staiboaid of the vessel. The first and second shots were fired 
at a range of approximately 2,000 yards. 

The Master of the steamer K. B. Lowrie reported subsequently that a 
second submarine came to the surface directly ahead of the Texel, 1,500 yai'ds 
distant. With two enemy vessels, one on his bow and the other astern, the Master 
decided to heave to, rather than expose his crew to injury or loss of fife. Two 
additional shots were fired by the submarine engaged in the stern chase, the first 

283 



hitting a lifeboat on the starboard side under the bridge, carrying it away and 
shattering the starboard wing of the ujjper bridge. The second shot passed about 
100 yards forward of the bow and exploded. Twenty-five minutes after the sub- 
marine was first sighted an under-lieutenant and three German seamen boarded 
the vessel and demanded the ship's papers. All papers and Navy instructions 
had been thrown overboaid during the attack. The ship was abandoned with 
Absecon Light bearing 295 degrees true, distance fifty-eight and one-half miles. 
Three bombs were set at the base of each mast and others in the engine and 
file rooms. The master left the sliip with a German naval officer of the rank of 
Ueutenant at 5.10 p.m., the passengers and crew previously having shoved off in 
the ship's boats. At 5.18 p.m. the bombs exploded and the ship sank rapidly by 
the stern, fisting to starboard and going under the surface completely three minutes 
afterwards. 

The submarine disappeared in the haze, running on the surface, taking a 
course east-southeast. 

The Master adrift in one of the ship's boats heard firing at 6.20 p.m. and again 
at 7.20, but had no knowledge of what had transpired. No vessel was encountered 
by the boats of the Texel as they proceeded toward the shore. On June 3d the 
boats were beached at Absecon Light and the survivors, thirty-six in number, were 
landed at Atlantic City, where they were met by coast guards, and arrangements 
made for their accommodation during the night. The description of the sub- 
marine talfied in general with that given by previous victims. This was the first 
instance of where two submarines were reported acting in company. AJl of the 
passengers and crew of the vessel were saved. 

The firing heard by the survivors of the Texel at 6.20 p.m was in all probabifity 
the shots fu-ed at the steamship Carolina, proceeding from San Juan, Porto Rica, 
to New York. The steamer, which belonged to the Porto Rican Steamship Com- 
pany, was halted by three shots fired over her bow and by two shots over the stern 
at about 6.15 p.m. the same day. At the time of the attack the ship was in latitude 
39 degrees 10 minutes north, longitude 73 degrees 7 minutes west. When the ship 
hove to the submarine came alongside and ordered that the ship be abandoned im- 
mediately. Captain Rarber, the Master, disembarked the women and children who 
were passengers in the first boats. As each boat was loaded it was directed by 
the submarine to lay astern of the Carolina. Three sheUs were fired into the ship 
amidships and others into the bow at short range. She immediately began to 
settle, going down bow first at 8.15 p.m. The crew of the German raider fined 
the decks, waved a farewell and disappeared in the mist. The ship's motorboat 
took the lifeboats in tow, but after a short run the towing fine parted and the 
lifeboats became separated from the motorboat in the fog. Twenty-nine survivors 
landed through the surf at the foot of South Carolina Avenue, Atlantic City, N. J., 
at 1.45 P.M on June 4th. Tliis number included eight women passengers and ten 
men passengers and eleven of the crew. Sixteen men and two women were picked 
up by the British Steamer Appleby and brought into Lewes, Del. Sixteen 
were lost from one Ufeboat that capsized at 12.15 a.m., Monday, June 3d. The 
other boats that reached land survived a violent summer storm that tossed them 
about during the early hours of the morning of June 3d. 

While the ship's boats were making their way to land they were sighted, on 
June 3d, twenty miles southward off Bamegat, steering westward by the S. S. 

284 



Mexico. Late that night the Carolina, before being sunk, reported by radio that 
she was attacked and that she had stopped. Unfortunately, however, the ship 
failed to give her position, and a request for this information from Navy Radio, 
Cape May, evidently reached the ship after her capture. The commanding 
officer at the Section Base at Lewes was directed to stop all outgoing vessels, and 
the Commander of Cape May Section reported that all men away from base had 
been recalled, and all vessels at the base had been ordered to stand by for imme- 
diate sea duty. 

The U. S. S. Rathburne was ready to proceed on her trial trip the following 
day. That the ship might be equipped for offensive and defensive purposes, even 
before she was commissioned, one hundred rounds of four-inch ammunition was 
placed aboard of her together with depth charges, and the officer detailed to com- 
mand her was instructed to use his own judgment as to taking command in an 
emergency. 

The port of Philadelpliia was closed temporarily on June 4th, until such time 
as all outgoing ships could be afforded the protection of convoys, and until the 
Commandant was assured that the channels to sea were safe and free from mines. 

The schooner Samuel C. Mengel was destroyed by bombs in latitude 38 degrees 
8 minutes north, longitude 73 degrees 38 minutes west on June 3d. The Norwegian 
Steamship Vinland was sunk June 5th, in latitude 36 degrees 32 minutes north 
and longitude 73 degrees 58 minutes west. On the same day the Carpathian was 
chased in latitude 36 degrees 16 minutes north and longitude 74 degrees west and 
the Eidswold was bombed and sunk in latitude 37 degrees 12 minutes, longitude 
73 degrees 55 minutes. 

On June 8th an underseas craft was reported in latitude 36 degrees 2 minutes 
north, longitude 71 degrees 20 minutes west, and on the same day it sunk the 
steamer Pinar del Rio in latitude 37 degrees 42 minutes north, longitude 73 degrees 
56 minutes west. Subsequent to this date, for a time, the enemy raider pursued 
her activities in other waters. The alarm given to shipping gave rise to many 
false rumors that were amusing except for the fact that it involved ceaseless activ- 
ity on the part of patrol vessels in running them down. A dead whale, sighted 
two miles north of McCries Shoals Buoy, was once reported as a well-authenticated 
submarine. 

The Commandant was warned that the enemy might resort to the old trick 
of scattering dummy periscopes at sea, and in certain instances it was beheved 
that mines might be attached to these false periscopes in the hope of attracting 
a ship into a danger zone in an attempt to ram the supposed submarine. To 
heighten the interest in the search for a submarine base, if such did exist, the 
Secretary of the Navy, on June 19th, offered a reward of a thousand dollars to any 
person who might furnish authentic information which would lead to its location. 

The Department received information which led to the beUef that a submarine 
base existed in the back sound north of Cape May. This report was investigated 
on August 23, 1918, and found to be without foundation. The entire vicinity 
of Cape May was so thoroughly patrolled that the estabUshment of such a base 
would have been impossible even had there been water sufficient and it had been 
possible to elude the naval patrol maintained. 

Up to this time the district was without the services of a vessel of the destroyer 
type. On June the 4th the U. S. S. Walke was instructed to take up patrol on a 

285 



line adjoinirif!: the following limits: Latitude 39 degrees north, longitude 74 degrees 
10 minutes; latitude 34 degrees 20 minutes north, longitude 74 degrees 35 minutes. 
The Walke was detailed to escort the steamer Czar and the U. S. S. Matsonia from 
the Delaware Breakwater to Winter (Quarter Shoals on June 5th, and subsequently 
she was attached to the district and operated under the direction of the Com- 
mandant in prosecuting searches for submarines. 

A capital ship of the Navy was only once attacked within the waters of the 
Fourth Naval District by an enemy submarine. At 5.15 a.m. on June 9th the 
U. S. S. South Carolina was in latitude 38 degrees 26 minutes north, longitude 
74 degrees K) minutes west, when a periscope was sighted and fired upon. The 
South Carolina was escorted by subchaser 231, wliich immediately headed for 
the periscope, discharging depth bombs from her "Y" guns over the spot where 
it had submerged. The South Carolina proceeded at full speed and made her 
escape. The position of attack was fixed as 110 degrees true from Fenwick Island 
Lightship, distant five miles. The submarine sighted was evidently proceeding 
south at the time of the attack, as the Norwegian Steamer Luna reported at the 
Delaware Breakwater, the same morning, that she had sighted a submarine at 
2 A.M. ten miles east-southeast from Winter Quarter Shoal Lightship. Every pre- 
caution had been taken to insin-c the safety of the ship in approaching the Delaware 
Breakwater. The approach channels had been swept and subchasers had been 
detailed to escort the battleship in, and mine sweepers sent out to meet the ship 
and sweep ahead of her as she proceeded. She was further warned by radio to 
avoid the vicinity of On erfalls Lightship. 

These precautionary measures against mines were dictated by the fact that 
six days previous the steamship Herbert L. Pratt, an oil tanker, struck a mine in 
the neighborhood of Overfalls Light Vessel while proceeding toward the Delaware 
Breakwater. The damage to the Pratt was the first occasioned by enemy mines 
laid in the waters of this district. The vessel was proceeding to the shelter afforded 
by the Harbor of Befuge at the Delaware Capes in accordance with radio warnings 
sent broadcast, advising that enemy submarines were operating off the coast, 
and directing all ships to make the nearest port. 

When Overfalls Lightship was bearing N. by E., ?4 E. and Cape Henlopen 
W. by N., J/s N., both magnetic, at 3.35 p.m., the ship suffered severe vibrations 
froTu a slight explosion. At first it was believed that she had been torpedoed, 
but the Boards of Investigation appointed to determine the cause of the damage 
determined from the character of the damage done and from all other facts in its 
possession that it would have been impossible for a submarine to have operated 
with success in the chai'acter of water through which the ship was proceeding at 
the time. 

The belief that the damage was from a torpedo was heightened for the time 
by a report made by the Commanding Officer of the S. P. 591, Miramar, a patrol 
vessel of the Fourth Naval District, that was in the vicinity immediately after 
the ship struck. The Commanding Officer of the Miramar reported having sighted 
a periscope wake. He gave chase, firing several shots, after which the surface 
disturbance disappeared. 

The Pratt sailed from Mexico on May 26, 1918, commanded by H. H. Bennett, 
Master Mariner, with a full cargo of crude oil in bulk and a crew of thirty-eight men. 

At 8.00 A.M. on June 3d, when off Winter Quarter Shoal, radio warnings of 

286 



the operation of enemy submarines were received on board ship by wireless. Every 
precaution was taken and a sharp lookout kept while proceeding towai'd the 
Delaware Capes. Immediately following the explosion the ship was headed toward 
the beach. The life boats were manned and S. 0. S. calls sent by radio that the 
ship had been either mined or torpedoed. In the fifteen minutes that the ship 
was able to retain steerage way she proceeded far enough into shallow water so 
that when she went down by the head her bow rested in ten fathoms, and her 
stern remained afloat. The ship was then abandoned. 

As evidencing the thorough patrol that was maintained the Master of the Pratl, 
in his statement made subsequent to the occurrence, may be quoted as follows: 

"We then left the ship. Just previous to this I hailed a guard boat, I don't 
know her name or number, and ordered her to stand by, that I was smking. This 
guard boat was approximately 2,000 feet on my port side. He signalled me 
'All right.' They stood by until we left in the boats. I was placed aboard the 
guard boat and the crew was placed aboard the pilot boat. On the return to Cape 
May we met another guard boat and hailed him. We then turned around and 
started for Cape Henlopen." 

At .3.45 P.M the following S. 0. S. was received at Cape May from the Pratt: 
"Overfalls Lightship Delaware Breakwater have struck a mine or am torpedoed." 

The patrol vessels referred to by the Master of the Pratt were the S. P. 591 Mir- 
amar, the S. P. Georgiana 111, and the S. P. Edorea. These vessels were on patrol in 
that vicinity and themselves intercepted the S. 0. S. and proceeded to the scene. 
Mine sweepers engaged in sweeping from Overfalls Light Vessel to Five Fathom 
Lightship, and for a distance of five miles beyond were ordered to return imme- 
diately and sweep in the vicinity of the mined steamer. 

At 6.45 P.M. an object resembling a mine was swept up and tiie Coast Guard 
Cutter Morrill stood back to examine it. A boat was lowered and the mine photo- 
graphed by Third Lieutenant ^ on Paulson. It was subsequently sunk by a shot 
from a six pounder at a range of one hundred yards. It did not explode. A sea- 
plane patrolling in the neighborhood signaled another mine two miles to the 
southward. This was reported by the commanding officer of the S. P. 683 as a 
moored mine. It was sunk by rifle fire. 

The foUowing day the S. P. 684 swept up another mine of the same type, 
which exploded when hit by a shot from a six pounder. It was located one and 
four-tenth miles southeast of Overfalls Light Vessel. 

On June 9th, while sweeping between McCries Shoal Buoy and Overfalls 
Light ^'essel, a mine was swept up and sunk by a shot from a six pounder at a range 
of 600 yards. A partial explosion occurred and the mine disappeared. 

The U. S. S. Wisconsin, which was about to proceed to sea from the Delaware 
Breakwater, was ordered back, in view of the imminence of danger, and instructed 
to anchor at Brandywine Shoals. A thorough search in the vicinity failed to 
show any evidence of the presence of a submarine, other than that seen by the 
lookout on the Miramar. 

The foUowing day, due to the efforts of Naval Constructor Davis, the Pratt 
was taken in tow by the Navy Tug Tasco and brought into the Delaware Break- 
water. Naval Constructor Davis happened to be at Lewes, Del., engaged in 
salvage operations, and his effort and the equipment at his disposal was imme- 
diately appUed to salvaging the Pratt. Steam had been kept up on the Pratt and 

287 




Courtesy of the Atlantic Refining Co. 

Repairing Damage lu the "Herbert L. Pratt." 

her pumps were set to work to empty the forward tanks. She was subsequently 
righted and ran to the Navy Yard, Philadelphia, under her own steam, where 
she was placed in dry dock and where the following, who were appointed as a 
Board of Inquiry to determine the cause of the damage, viewed the ship : Armistead 
Rust, Captain, U. S. N. (Ret.), Senior Member; Maurice G. Belknap, Lieutenant, 
U. S. N. R. F., Member and Recorder; Ernest L. Bass, Assistant Naval Constructor 
of Engineers, U. S. C. G.; F. C. Wells, Third Lieutenant, Member; and Joseph J. 
Tibbetts, U. S. N. Member; Carpenter, U. S. N. R. F., Member. 

The conclusions of the board were as follows: A submarine to have fired a 
torpedo would have had to be operating between the Pratt and the Hen and Chicken 
Shotds. The ten-fathom curves show a sort of funnel-like entrance of deep water 
from the sea from the southeast to the locality between Overfalls Light Vessel 
and Hen and Chicken Shoals. This is plainly the channel in which ships enter 
the bay. For that reason it is plainly a place where mines would be planted by 
an enemy who had the opportunity to do so. On the other hand, the fact that 
it was a locality where war vessels of the United States might be expected, would 
present grave elements of danger to the operation of a submarine in the day time, 
the water being too shoal to permit diving without danger in case of pursuit. 
Mines planted in the locality would serve as a menace for a long period unless 
they were suspected and dragged for. The use of a torpedo would be, of course, 
more certain, but the operation of a submarine in such a locality at that time of 
day would present almost prohibitive risks which would make it unhkely that 

288 



such a course would be taken. For these reasons the board is of the opinion that 
the damage to the Pratt was caused by a mine and not by a torpedo fired from a 
submarine. 

Therefore, the most intensive mine-sweeping operations were carried on. 
Approach channels were laid out and swept and the regulations for the local 
control and safeguarding of shipping as set forth in the instructions of operations, 
under date of May 18th, and as amended by further instructions received on June 
5th, were rigidly adhered to. The Department enjoined upon all commandants 
the heartiest cooperation, especially between districts that were adjacent, in the 
dissemination of proper information, control of coastwise shipping and in offensive 
actions against the enemy. These instructions were carried out to the letter, 
S. 0. S. calls received by radio were immediately transmitted to adjacent districts 
by telephone and subsequently confirmed by dispatch over the leased telegraph 
lines. The districts were constantly in touch with each other by telephone, so 
that their activities might not conflict or overlap. Information as to the move- 
ments of coastwise shipping was given and every fact of possible value or of possible 
assistance in the conduct of the campaign was forwarded to adjoining districts 
for their information. While offensive action was prosecuted to the limit of 
the resources of the district in the destruction of mines, defensive action was taken 
so that mines should not be planted by vessels operating under neutral flags. 
Neutral vessels were boarded and inspected, so as to make absolutely certain that 
no mine-laying equipment was aboard, and the further direction that neutral 
vessels were to be followed in and out by patrol boats, and their actions observed, 
was complied with in certain instances. 

It was the opinion of the department at this time that possibly two sub- 
marines were operating on the Atlantic coast and the widely separated reports 
of activities seemed to confirm this possibility. The department's views were 
expressed as follows: "From the character of these enemy operations, the enemy's 
mission is estimated to be primarily political with the object of causing us to in- 
augurate such an offensive campaign as to prevent us placing our naval forces 
where they wiU operate to best military advantage. If tliis estimate of the enemy's 
primary mission is correct, it is reasonable to expect the enemy submarines to 
sfiift their base of operations frequently, both to gain added victims and also to 
create the impression that more submarines are on this coast than are really here." 

The mine-sweeping squadron which carried out these operations at this time 
was organized early in the war, and among the first vessels taken over were a 
number of steam powered wooden hulls which had heretofore engaged in the so- 
called Menhaden fishing operations in waters adjacent to the Delaware Breakwater. 

The vessels originally taken over were the Delaware, S. P. 467; Breakwater, 
S. P. 681; Garner, S. P. 682; McKeever Brothers, S. P. 68.3; E. J. McKeever, S. P. 
684; 5. W. McKeever, S. P. 1169; Fearless, S. P. 724; Annie Gallup, S. P. 694; 
Vester, S. P. 686; Brown, S. P. 1050. The vessels were purchased outright and 
rapidly converted at the Navy Yard to the purpose intended. The latter two 
after some months' service were detached from this duty, after their unsuitability 
had been demonstrated. 

The U. S. S. Teal, mine sweeper 23, and the U. S. S. Kingfisher, mine sweeper 
25, were added to this fleet on August 20, 1918, the former being constructed at the 
Sun Shipbuilding Company, and the latter at the Puget Sound Navy Yard. 

289 



These vessels were specially constructed for tliis purpose and their power, sea- 
worthiness and adaptability constituted a considerable contribution to the fleet. 

The coast defense cutters Morrill and Iltisrn were at various times assigned 
as flagships of the mine-sweeping squadron. 

Exclusive of the flagships, the U. S. S. Teal and Kingfisher, the ships averaged 
about 200 tons gross. They were fitted to sweej) in accordance with the English 
system, in pairs, with wire between each boat, and using one kite. 

A mine-sweeping fleet was based at Lewes, Del., until May 6, 1918, 
when it was transferred to Cape May. The limited number of vessels made 
it necessary in the beginning to sweep prescribed channels rather than definite 
areas. This channel extended generally from Overfalls Light Vessel to a position 
one-half mile south of Five Fathom Bank Lightship. 

Latterly, sweeping operations w(;re shifted and carried on intensively, as 
information was received indicating the probable location of mined areas. When 
the German submarines commenced their operations at the latter end of May, 
1918, the mine-.sweeping fleet concentrated its efforts upon chiaring certain approach 
routes to the Delaware Bay. Daily sweeping operations covered a distance of 
from sixty to eighty miles, and to insure the safety of ships a channel 600 yards 
wide was covered. 

The Department (^arly directed attention to the delayed action of German 
mines, and pointed out that "in connection with sweeping of channels, it is no 
guarantee that the channel is clear after having Ixsen sw(!pt the; previous day." 
This involved continuous sweeping, and it was therefore entirely possible that in 
the wide areas to be covered a mine laid would rise after the identical area had 
bcMTi swept. 

The next ship to make contact with an enemy mine within the waters of the 
Fourth Naval District was the U. S. S. Minnesota. 

Th(! ship was i)roceeding to the Navy Yard, Philadelphia, when she; struck, 
at 5.00 A.M. on September 29th, in latitude .38 degrees 11 minutes .30 seconds north 
and longitude 71 degrees 11 minutes 'i seconds west. She was convoyed by the 
\j. S. S. Israel. The mine exploded on the starboard bow below the water line, 
tearing a hole from thence downwaj'd to the keel. The forward compartments 
were flooded, compelling a reduction in speed to ten knots. The ship proceeded 
under her own steam and without assistance. Immediately upon her arrival at 
the Navy Yard at 7.30 p.m. the same day, she was placed in drydock and tem- 
porary repairs made, so as to enable her tf) be undocked at noon on October 2d. 

I pon i'ecei|)t of information that a mhu; had hi'cm discovered in this locality 
two seaplanes from the Naval Air Station, Cape May, scouted in that vicinity 
without result, and four mine sweepers, including the U. S. S. Teal and U. S. S. 
Kin;/ fisher, swept for a distance of five miles around the position without discovering 
additional mines. 

The majority of mines swept up conformed to the description of those laid 
out of torpedo tubes by the U-].'I. l"he dimensions in the main were diameter 
19J^ inches, length, exclusive of horns, 4 feet 9^4 inches, holding in their center 
a charge of approximately 200 pounds of trinitrate of toluol. They were usually 
of the four-horned variety with a single mooring. The varying tactics employed 
by the mine layers necessitated sweeping of approach routes as far as the hundied 
fathom curvf!, and in order to safeguard the routes followed by ships huggine the 

290 



coast, to avoid submarines, sweeping; operations were necessary I'roni lianiejjat 
south to the vicinity of Winter (Quarter Shoals. 'Ilie immediate vicinity of North- 
east End Lightship, Five Fathom Hank IJ^hlshi]), Fenwick Island Shoal [light- 
ship and Winter Quarter Lightship were constantly investigated by ])atrol vessels. 

Regular .sweeping operations were interrupted by the necessity of detailing 
certain sweepers to investigate localities where mines were reported. Such reports 
rarely proved to be accnirate, and in order that mines sighted might b<^ immediately 
destroyed by passing ships, the l)ej)arlmenl on September 18. 1918, directed 
that all vessels be instructed to sink floating mines by rifle fire, and that steps 
he taken to determine definitely whether the sus])i(ious objcict was a mine or not. 

Prior to the issuance of these instructions, it had been customary for merchant 
ships to report the min(! sighted, leaving it as a constant menace to any shiji 
that might pass in its vicinity before mine sweepers could reach the locality. 

The L. S. S. South Carolina, proceeding south at 1.00 p.m. on September 7. 
|i»l!!. cut (.If a tiiiiir which came to the surface. At the time IJarnegat Light was 
>ix miles distant, beaiing 290 dc^grees. The coast guard cutter Morrill, with two 
mine sweepers, .searched the area, sweeping twelve hours for a distance of eighty- 
four miles, without encountering anything. \ month later, the U. S. S. Teal 
swej)t up and sunk by rifle fire a mine in latitude :59 degre(!s \'] (ninules north, 
longitude 71 degrees 1 minute west. 

The loss of the U. S. S. Sealia, a cargo carrier, operated for the army account, 
on November 9, 1918, concluded the damage done by enemy mines. The Sealia 
sailed from a French jjort bound for Philadelphia, and had been given instructions 
by the American routing officer at the port of clearance, as to the lines of api)roach 
to use when nearing the 1 'niled States coast. By reason of bad trim, foul weather 
and an accompanying northeast gale, the steamer found herself, on the morning 
of .\ovember 9th, six miles to the .southward and wi^stward of the approach line; 
of the imier position, and hauled up to make th(! lighlshi]). At 8. ."50 p.m. she 
struck a mine tftn rnil(;s south-southeast from P'enwick Island Lightship, one 
of the many that had been laid by a tlerman submarine from and to the south- 
ward and westward of the lightship. Although th(! ship stayed afl(jat but a short 
time all of the crew were saved. A number made their way to the coast south 
(jf ('ape llenlopen in lifeboats, and the remainder were jiicked up by S. S. Kennebec 
and subsequently transferred to district vessels hastening to the scene. These 
latter survivors were landed at the Section Base, Cape May. 

A total distance of 1,08.5 miles was swept in the vicinity of Barnegat. Prior 
to the signing of the armistif^e, nine mines were accounted for in this area. 

With the signing of the armistice, information was r(!ceived from Vice-Admiral 
William S. Sims, commanding the United States Naval Forces in European waters, 
that charts showing thr- positions ol mme fields in this country had been turned 
c)\er U> the Allies. From this information, it was indicated where mines had been 
laid in areais located within the Fourth Naval District. 

The actual arrival of the enemy off the coast was j)rom[)tly followed by the 
assignment by the department of the U. S. S. M-1, an American submarine, which 
took up a periscopf! patrol. 

Inasmuch as no suitable tender was available, it was determined to base the 
submarine al the Cape May Section Base and she was accordingly transferred to 

291 



Cold Spring Inlet. After minor repairs had been made, she was assigned to patrol 
an area which would cover the approach to the Delaware Bay. The value of 
submarines for defensive purposes was realized and the Department »vas requested 
to detail two additional vessels of the same type for like duty. The duration of 
the patrol was fixed as six days. 

The operation of the M-1 early emphasized the tremendous responsibility 
imposed by the operation with safety of our own submarines. While they were 
instructed to remain submerged during the day and to come to the surface only 
at night, there was constant danger that they might be mistaken lor an enemy 
craft by patrolhng seaplanes. Contact by district vessels was constantly made, and 
to insure the safety of our own submarines it was necessary that most complete 
and accurate information should be disseminated to all naval vessels and to ad- 
joining districts so that they might not be mistaken for enemy vessels. The 
British steamship Sovereign, on June 19th, sighted an American submarine and 
could have sunk her by gun-fire. Fire was withheld when the American flag 
was displayed, and the fact that she was friendly was confirmed by the action of 
the submarine in proceeding away from the merchant ship without further action. 

On June 25th, the U. S. S. N-7 was assigned to the Fourth Naval District, 
arriving at Cape May on July 23d, at 4 p.m. She was followed shortly thereafter 
by the U. S. S. N-4, but due to the salting of her engine while proceeding, she was 
not available for patrol until repairs had been made. 

The U. S. S. Savannah, flying the flag of the commander of Division 8, Sub- 
marine Force, arrived at the Delaware Breakwater at 11 a.m. on Sunday, August 
4th. The ships of this division were rapidly assembled at the Delaware Breakwater, 
where it was found that the ground swell coming into the Harbor of Refuge from 
seaward made that rendezvous, in the judgment of the commander of Division 8, 
not only unsuitable but also dangerous to the ships of his division. Permission 
was requested to shift the division's base to Cold Spring Inlet, Cape May. 

Before the U. S. S. Savannah and her accompanying submarines were permitted 
to enter Cold Spring Inlet, a careful inspection was made and soundings taken. 
It was found at low water there was a depth of eighteen feet with a tide rise of 
four feet six inches. The U. S. S. Savannah has a length of 416 feet and beam of 
forty-six and maximum draft loaded of twenty-three feet six inches and maximum 
draft light of sixteen feet. It was determined, . therefore, that it was entirely 
feasible for the Savannah to enter Cold Spring Inlet, as while acting as tender her 
maximum draft was eighteen feet six inches. 

The adaptability of Cold Spring Harbor as an operating base for submarines 
was enhanced by the ability of the communication service to run direct lines, 
both telephone and telegraph, from the shore to the tender. The Savannah 
arrived at Cape INIay on August .'50th. Two submarines of this division were 
constantly on patrol in designated areas, while the waters adjacent were utilized 
for target practice, torpedo practice and submerging tests. 

The U. S. S. 0-6, one of the ships of this division, was badly damaged by gun- 
fire when she came to the surface astern of a convoy she was escorting, being 
mistaken for a hostile submarine. She proceeded to the mother ship in Cold 
Spring Inlet, where repairs were completed August 29th. It was considered that 
exceptional work had been done by the tender in repairing the damage, and the 
work of the Savannah's officers in this particular was the subject of a con- 

292 



gratulatory letter Iruiu the conimander of the Submarine Force Atlantic, on 
August 30th. 

The presence of the Samnnah and her division, the coincident flights and 
landings of seaplanes from the coastal air station, and the comings and goings of 
district vessels made Cold Spring Inlet one of the busiest coastal bases at this time. 
Submarines exercised daily, particularly in torpedo practice and submerging 
tests. One of the latter, carried out on October 10th by the U. S. S. O-IO was of 
ninety-six hours' duration, at the conclusion of which the boat and crew were in 
excellent condition. The operation of the division from this point proved highly 
satisfactory, permitting the closest cooperation between district forces, and placed 
at the disposal of the submarine force commander the latest information available 
through the communication service established at Cape May, as well as the supply 
and repair facilities of the section base. 

In the late spring the hunt squadrons were organized to supplement the dis- 
trict activities. On June 6th the Commandant was advised that the U. S. S. 
Jouell with a force of more than a score of subchasers had been instructed to en- 
deavor to engage and maintain touch with the enemy submarine operating off the 
coast with the objects, first of destroying her, and second, faiUng in that, to track 
the enemy to his base of suppUes in the western Atlantic. To that end the Jouell 
and its force was instructed to follow him to the full extent of their resources. 

Information received by the Department when the Pinar Del Rio was sunk 
was to the effect that the submarine was accompanied by a freight steamer, pre- 
sumably acting as a decoy and supply ship. This freighter was described as being 
450 feet long, of 6,000 tons, painted gray, with a funnel amidships and two well 
decks. After a cruise out of Hampton Roads to the northward, the Joueil and her 
force based at the Delaware Breakwater until pursuit of the enemy took them to 
the northward, Provincetown, Mass., that becoming their base of operation. 
The basing of the Joiiett and her force at the Delaware Breakwater placed upon the 
Commandant the responsibility of refueUng and resupplying these ships, and 
it should be noted that upon their arrival there was awaiting them a store of fuel 
more than sufficient for the entire squadron, and this service was maintained for 
the Joiiett and subsequent hunt squadrons that based there and at Cape May. 

The activities of the German submarine practically ceased toward the end 
of the month of June, and it was indicated that she was proceeding eastward by 
the fact that the U. S. S. Von Sleiiben was attacked by torpedo, but escaped in 
latitude 38 degrees 42 minutes north and longitude 61 degrees 19 minutes west, 
on June 18th, and by the sinking the same day of the steamship Dwinsk in latitude 
30 degrees 30 minutes north and longitude 61 degrees 16 minutes west. 

Five days later the Norwegian steamship Augvald was sunk by torpedo in 
latitude 38 degrees 30 minutes north and longitude 53 degrees 50 minutes west. 
The survivors of this ship were brought to Philadelphia, and their statements 
were secured by the aide for information. 

No activities were recorded within the waters of the District after those above 
mentioned until several weeks later. It should be noted that the last three of 
which mention was made were far to the eastward of any waters that might 
reasonably be expected to be patrolled by the District vessels. The absence of 
enemy activity, however, caused no relaxation in the vigilance maintained. That 
such might be expected was evidenced by a dispatch received on June 24th, 

293 ■ 




I'lioto by Replogle. 



Crew of L. >. >. rim .s/riiArn nn ' I nsiin-tmn." Aiii/iisl i. I!>l/. 



from the chief ol naval operations, who desired that all forces should be impressed 
by the necessity of vigilant palrols both in the air, under water and on the surface. 

The section commanders at Cape May and at Lewes and the commanding 
officer of the naval air station at Cape May were enjoined to strictly carry out 
these instructions. Patrol vessels were cautioned to be vigilant, and all possible 
boats were kept on patrol and mine sweepers continued the sweeping of prescribed 
channels. 

That the enemy raider would be promptly relieved was indicated about the 
middle of July by information received from the Department to the effect that the 
U-156 was proceeding towards this coast, and that a submarine cruiser of a possibly 
later type would accompany her. Further information indicated that the next 
raid would be one calculated to create terror along the seacoast by bombardment. 

Just prior to the receipt of information that a renewal of submarine acti-s ity 
might be expected, virtually all the temporary structures that had constituted 
the Cape May Section Base were destroyed by fire on Independence Day, 1918. 
The fire, which was of unknown origin, started at about 10 a.m. under the inside 
corner at the rear of the sleeping quarters. The fire extinguishers and bucket 
brigades were unavaiMng against the rapid spread of the flames through the 
flimsy wooden structure, thoroughly dried after years of use. Over half the com- 
plement of the base was participating in the Independence Day celebration in 
Cape May proper, and the parade in progress was hastily disbanded and the men 
returned to the base for fire fighting by every available conveyance. A strong 

294 



wind blew from the harbor side, driving the flames directly toward the magazines, 
and the splendid courage exhibited by the men in removing the contents of the 
magazine is deserving of praise. Within less than half an hour the structure was 
in ruins. That the salvage work was carried on thoroughly, efficiently and with 
great dispatch is evidenced by the fact that the records of the commanding officer, 
executive officer, communication officer and most of the valuable records of the 
paymaster were saved. No one was killed and injuries sustained by enlisted 
personnel were of minor character. The total loss to the Government, including 
the amount expended in improvements, provisions, clothing and small stores, 
general stores issued and awaiting issue, was estimated at .§327,000. 

The activities of the base were continued without interruption, except for 
the time required in fire fighting. The ruins were still burning when telephonic 
and telegraphic communications had been reestablished with the district head- 
quarters. The section base headquarters were estabhshed in the Corinthian 
Yacht Club adjacent to the original site. Personnel was quartered at Wissahickon 
Bai-racks temporarily, until a camp was established. No vessels were damaged, 
and wliile the routine ot the base was interrupted in minor details, offensively and 
defensively, until conversion of the yacht club had been completed the base was 
in a position to meet immediately any enemy submarine activity. 

During the entire wai', but one fire occurred outside of a Government reser- 
vation that seriously menaced the progress of naval affairs. This occurred shortly 
after 8 p.m. on September 12, 1918, at the plant of the New York Shipbuilding 
Company in Camden. The fact that the new superdreadnought Idaho was at 
that plant nearing completion, and the further fact that a number of destroyers 
were on the ways in various stages of completion caused prompt action to be taken 
to safeguard the Government's interests. 

The U. S. S. Modoc and the U. S. S. Samosel from the Navy Yard were dispatched 
immediately, and every major ship at the yard had a detail of one hundred men 
standing by ready to place aboard the Idaho, in case it should be found 
necessary to move that vessel out of the path of the flames. Auxiliary tugs 
were engaged and were ready. The fire was controUed, however, without 
serious dcunage to any of the construction work under way, and as additional 
protection to the plant during the excitement, which attracted great crowds, 
a detail of 150 marines were placed on guard on the shore side, and district vessels 
patrolled the river front. 

On July 8th a submarine was believed to be in the neighborhood of latitude 
40 degrees north and longitude 50 degrees west. The railway between Barnegat 
and Beach Haven, the fuel ofl depot and the radio station at Tuckerton, and prom- 
inent landmarks along the coast, such as hghthouses, water tanks, etc., were 
said to be the objects of bombardment. 

Upon receipt of this information, the guard at the Tuckerton radio station 
was doubled, as acts of sabotage in conjunction with these efforts were expected. 
A constant patrol was ordered to be kept from Barnegat to a point five miles 
south of Atlantic City, scout patrol vessels being assigned to this duty. The 
patrol boats were instructed to attack submarines on sight, and although it was 
realized that they would be no match for the lai-ge cruising submarines in a standup 
fight, Fourth District vessels were ordered to fight to a finish. 

Three section patrol vessels equipped with Ustening devices maintained a 

295 



constant listening patrol, and an additional vessel cruised in the vicinity of Winter 
Quarter Light. 

The commanding officer of the air station at Cape May was instructed to have 
planes patrol constantly, as far north as Barnegat. Mine-sweepers were instructed 
to be particularly cautious and to perform their duties with the utmost efficiency, 
as it was believed that the activities of a German submarine operating in the fore- 
noon of July 21st, off Cape Cod, was for the purpose of diversion to enable others 
to lay mines at points further south. That the submarine was not confining its 
activities to the vicinity of Cape Cod, and that another than this one was proceed- 
ing to the westward was indicated by the messages received on July 30th, by radio, 
that the S. S. Kermanshaw at 5.45 p.m. was being pursued by a submarine, which 
had fired two torpedoes at her in latitude 38 degrees 45 minutes north, longitude 
68 degrees west. 

The presence of an enemy submarine in the vicinity of Fire Island, N. Y., 
prompted the Department to order the U. S. S. Jouetl, then at Lewes, Del., to 
proceed with her force forming a scouting line east and west from the coast to 
the 73d meridian and to scout northward covering the area to Long Island, N. Y. 
She sailed on July 20th and from that date until late in August the district was 
without the services of a hunt squadron, until the LI. S. S. Pallerson, with the 
Fifth District Hunt Squadron, was ordered northward to search the area from 
the latitude of the capes of Virginia to the capes of Delaware Bay and west 
of the One Hundred Fathom Curve. The Patterson and the squadron arrived at 
Delaware Breakwater at 4 p.m. August 23, 1918, and carried on operations for 
about one month. 

That the enemy submarine was again operating in the waters of the Fourth 
Naval District was evidenced by an S. 0. S. message received at 8 p.m. on August 
13th, to the effect that the steamer Henry S. Kellogg had been torpedoed thirty 
miles south of Ambrose Light Vessel. As the location given was outside of the 
boundary of the Fourth Naval District, and nearer to the headquarters of the 
Third Naval District, the information was immediately telephoned to the comman- 
dant of that district. In an endeavor to intercept the submaiine if it proceeded 
southward, a hstening patrol was immediately ordered to be estabUshed at the 
extreme northern boundary of this District. Scout patrol vessels were ordered 
to cruise in the vicinity of the wreck to locate any survivors and a seaplane patrol 
was ordered at daybreak. The U. S. S. Henderson, which had sailed from the 
Navy Yard, Philadelphia, proceeding to New York, was warned by radio of the 
presence of the enemy raider in that vicinity and was advised that a sliip had been 
sunk by it off the north Jersey coast. The commandant of the Third Naval 
District advised that thirty-five survivors had been landed in New York and that 
seven ot the crew had been lost. 

On August 14th, shortly after noon, information was received that an enemy 
submarine was sheUing a schooner five miles southeast of Northeast End Light- 
sliip. Tliis information was contained in an S. 0. S. from the Schooner William 
Green, which was proceeding with aU speed toward the Delaware Breakwater. 
The schooner attacked proved to be the Dorothy Barrett, proceeding from Norfolk 
to Boston with a cargo of coal. At 10.00 a.m. on August 14th the submarine sud- 
denly appeai-ed and fired a warning shot. The master and crew abandoned sliip 
in a motor boat, and proceeded toward the submarine, which submerged, the motor 

296 



boat then starting towaixls Cape May. At this time the submarine chasers 71 
and 73 were exercising fourteen miles southeast of Cold Spring Inlet with the 
U. S. S. N-7. The mine-sweeper Kiin/llsher was in the vicinity but not in sight, 
searching for a wrecked seaplane. The schooner's boat sighted the Kingfisher 
and the master boaided her, while the boat and survivors continued toward land. 

At 11.50 A.M. the Kingfisher sighted what was thought to be two submarines 
in chase and she opened lire heavily. The submarine chaser 73 was attracted 
by the firing and proceeded north and intercepted the S. 0. S. sent two hours after 
the occurrence from the schooner II illiani Green. The schooner had for self preser- 
vation kept her wireless silent until she had passed out of the danger zone. The 
Green was intercepted by the submarine chaser 73 at 12.50 a.m. 

Securing the correct position of the Dorothy Barrett she proceeded to the then 
burning and sinking schooner, arriving alongside at 1.15. The receipt of the S. 0. S. 
at the Section Base, Cape May, was followed almost immediately by the saihng 
of the submarine chaser 144 and the seaplane 1859. Fifteen minutes later sub- 
marine chasers 180, 210 and tlu'ee other planes left for the scene. Scout patrols 
177 and 372, returning but a short time later from escort and patrols, were dis- 
liatched also. The seaplane upon arriving detected bubbles on the surface 
()00 yards south of the wn>ck. The plane released bombs over the spot and 
flirected submarine chasers to it by gun fire. Depth charges were released from 
the chasers and sweeping with trailing device was resorted to without contact 
being made. On a radial line to the southwest from Five Fathom Lightship the 
area was searched by submaiine chasers 71, 210 and 144. The U. S. S. N-7 and 
submarine chaser 72 were sent to patrol off Northeast End Lightship. 

The Barrett sank six miles southeast by south of Northeast End Lightshij) 
in fifteen fathoms. Her sails were partly set cuid the topmast and twenty feet 
of lower mast showed above water. Pending her destruction, which was after- 
wards accomplished, a buoy was placed to mark her position. 

The cessation of enemy activity about this time caused the department to 
call attention to the fact that much of the raiding on this coast had occurred on 
Sundays, and that September 2, 1918, was a legal hoUday following a Sunday. 
All forces were cautioned to be on the alert and prepared for any emergency. 
In response to these directions, shore leaves were withheld and Uberty was not 
granted, so that during these two holidays the entire forces of the District ashore 
and afloat were ready for any emergency. 

During the entire time of the submarine activity described in detail many 
reports were received by the section aide for information of signaling by improvised 
blinkers from shore to seas. Flickering lights in rooms of seashore hotels and 
rocket signals sent up at isolated points along the Jersey shore and along the 
shore south of Cape Henlopen early resulted in the establishment of coast patrols. 

Land forces detailed from Cape May and Lewes augmented the regular 
patrols of the coast guard, the navy personnel being stationed at the several coast 
guard stations. No actual contact was made with any persons upon whom 
responsibility could be fixed. 

The problem was a particularly difficult one and the occurrences reported so 
widely scattered and of such varying character as to be almost beyond detection. 
These occurrences came to a cfimax at 11 p.m. on August 30th, when three 
cream-colored rockets were observed in the air in the neighborhood of Coast Guard 

297 



Station No. 126, located in the northern end of Ocean City, N. J. At about the 
same time, L. J. Meehan, apprentice seaman, on guard to the north of the station, 
encountered a civilian acting suspiciously on the beach in a locality distant from 
habitation. The guard ordered him from the vicinity and in order to emphasize 
the mihtary character of his command, discharged his pistol into the sand. The 
directions were repeated without compliance, and the civilian attempted to dis- 
possess the guard of his sidearm. In the resulting encounter the civilian was shot 
and killed. Notliing subsequently found upon his person indicated any connection 
with alien activities, nor was any explanation available for his suspicious action. 

After a period of inactivity so far as the enemy was concerned, information 
was received from the department on September 1.3th that a large German sub- 
marine with about forty-five mines aboard might lay off the important ports 
along the Atlantic, and the commandants of all districts were enjoined to carry 
on intensive sweeping operations. This was complied with. 

At about this time radio S. 0. S. calls intercepted indicated that the enemy 
raider was operating in the Fifth Naval District. The Sabin; Sun reported on 
September 11th, at 8.30 a.m., that she was being gunned south of Diamond 
Shoals Light Vessel. The captain of the American S. S. J. E. O'Neill reported 
having sighted a submarine on September 6th, near Fenwick Island Lightship. 

The sinking of Diamond Shoals Light Vessel, on August 6th, led to the beUef 
that similar action would be taken against one or all of the lightships located in 
the Fourth District. The enemy, however, failed to pursue the sinking of light- 
ships further, but in the latter part of September such operations within the 
District as were noted were in the vicinity of light vessels. 

Five Fathom Bank Lightship reported on September 23d that a periscope 
and wake were seen about three miles astern of the U. S. S. Jupiter and about 
500 yards off the Ughtship itself. The Jupiter had passed the Ughtship shortly 
before 1 p.m. and sighted the periscope at the same time as it was sighted on the 
lightship. The collier speeded up and the periscope disappeared. During the 
entire afternoon, seaplanes and subchasers scouted in the vicinity without, how- 
ever, sighting anything. 

Seaplanes 1757, 1210 and 1934 were dispatched on special duty, and their 
search was augmented by seaplanes 1165 and 1733 already on patrol in that 
neighborhood. 

Two days previously a submarine appeared at 9 a.m. off Winter Quarter 
Shoal Lightship. She signaled the lightship her identity as that of the U. S. S. 
Orpre and took a course north-northeast. Inasmuch as no United States sub- 
marine is identified by name but by letters and by numbers, it was thought that 
this was a case of mistaken signaling, and that the ship was in reality the U. S. S. 
0-9, then returning to her base at Cape May. 

When the U. S. S. 0-9 arrived at her base, the commemding officer reported 
that he was in the vicinity of the lightship at the time mentioned, but that he had 
not signaled, but had identified himself by raising his standard. It was impossible 
to reconcile the conflicting facts, and the commandant was of the opinion that the 
vessel sighted belonged to the enemy and not to the United States naval forces. 

That there was an enemy submarine to the north of this vicinity shortly 
afterward was proved when contact was established by the U. S- S. Patterson 
and her hunt squadron on September 25th. The Patterson and her squadron 

298 



had left Cape May a short time pie\ioiisly and was cruising northward when the 
subchaser 234 advised the flagship at 1 a.m. that he had made sound contact 
in latitude 39 degrees 26 minutes north, longitude 73 degrees 46 minutes west. 
All listeners in the force agreed that the sound was that made by a submarine. 
The prescribed form of attack was made and depth bombs launched. 

\ftor the attack all sound ceased and the commanding officer of the V. S. S. 
Pallersuii advised that in his opinion the submarine was resting on the bottom in 
sixteen fathoms. Doubt was expressed as to damage having been done to the 
submarine. The chasers anchored about the spot and listening patrols were 
maintained. Subchasers 71, 72, 74 and 278, attached to the district forces, co- 
operated with the U. S. S. Patterson and the hunt squadron, when the flagship 
the following day was compelled to return to the Cape May Section Base, on 
account of an epidemic of influenza aboard. The U. S. S. Emerald, S. P. 177, 
attached to the Fourth Naval District, reUeved her as support ship. A Ustening 
patrol was maintained for sixty hours. During a gale that broke on the night of 
September 26th. the District forces and those of the Patterson's hunt group were 
badly scattered. Chasers anchored on the spot of contact broke adrift and lost 
the position. For several days subsequent to tliis event, the U. S. S. Philip relieved 
the U. S. S. Patterson as flagsliip, that ship being unable to operate because of the 
depletion of the crew by influenza. 

Submarine activities subsequent to this date were negligible. On October 
3d the Oakley C. Curtis reported sighting a submarine north of Winter Quarter 
Shoal Light Vessel. An investigation of this area by the U. S. S. Philip and the 
chasers of the hunt squadron based at Cape May failed to disclose its presence. 

Again on October 9th the enemy was thought to be present when reports 
were received that a merchant ship seven miles off Coast Guard Station No. Ill 
and headed south had been firing her guns for some time. The U. S. S. Philip and 
her force investigated this also. 

On October 17th the S. P. 591 reported by radio that the S.S. Mohican had 
sighted a submarine off Winter Quarter Shoal Light Vessel. 

This was the last report received of the presence of a submarine. It proved 
to be one of our own. 

All of the activities, both of an offensive and defensive nature, were continued 
without diminution until the signing of the armistice on November 11th, although 
from the middle of October until that date there was no indication of the presence 
of hostile crafts. 

That the menace was no longer one that might be regarded seriously was 
evidenced on October 31st, when the burning of dimmed side lights and stern 
lights was permitted west of the 40th degree of longitude, and the following day 
coastwise shipping was ordered to burn a single masthead fight and side lights 
undimmed. 

The utiUzation of every sizable ship in war work and the employment of 
coast guard cutters as patrol vessels imposed upon the commandants of naval dis- 
tricts the duty of rendering assistance with district vessels, wherever possible, to 
ships in distress. Where in peace times the well-known signal of distress, the 
S. 0. S. was accepted without question, there was ever present, especially during 
the activities of German submarine, the fear on the part of every sliip that an 
S. O. S., might have been sent by a German submarine to decoy the rescuing ship 

299 




l'l;oto by Replogle. 



Making repairs on U. S. S. Kanawha and "Sabs.' 



to a given point, where she might be easily and successfully attacked. The fact 
that these were the only messages permitted to be sent in English radio during 
war time made this deception more easy of execution. 

When it is considered that many ships were traveling out of regular channels 
and that navigation was without the conventional aid of running lights and that 
zigzag courses were sailed for safety against attack and that war vessels, troop 
transports and cai'go carriers were constantly crossing the coastwise lanes of travel 
without a gUmmer of light to indicate their position, the number of accidents from 
the ordinary hazards of the sea was extraordinarily few. 

The most serious of these was the sinking of the steamship Poseidon by the 
United States Shipping Board steamer Somerset. The Poseidon sailed from Boston 
on July 30, 1918, for Norfolk in ballast. At 11.30 p.m., July 31st. when about 
five miles north northeast of Five Fathom Bank Light Vessel, the collision occurred. 
The night was rainy and misty and the visibility was extremely low. Both vessels 
were running without hghts. S. 0. S. calls were intercepted at the section base. 
Cape May, the first being received at 11.35 p.m. The two ships were in constant 
radio communication for about thirty-five minutes, when the Poseidon sank. 

The Somerset, due to weather conditions and fog, was unable to locate the 
sinking ship. The coast guard cutter Morrill sailed from the section base at Cape 
May at 1.15 a.m. on August 1st and she was followed by the S. P. 681 and S. P. 
467, the ships proceeding as rapidly as weather conditions would permit, it being 
deemed unsafe to send the smaller ships until the weather had moderated after 

300 



daybreak of August 1st. In addition to being engaged in their regular duties 
there were minor calls for assistance due to stormy weather that reduced the number 
of available vessels at the time of the occurrence. 

The coast guard cutter Morrill rescued one survivor and recovered three 
bodies. 

The S. 0. S. call was also intercepted by the tank steamer James McGee, en 
route from New York to Baton Rouge. The ship cruised in the vicinity of the 
collision and at 7 a.m. August 1st, while steaming back from Fenwick Island 
Light Vessel to Five Fathom Light Vessel and when about five and a half miles 
from the scene of the collision, survivors were sighted on rafts, clinging to upturned 
boats and floating wreckage. Thirty-two membeis of the crew were rescued, 
including the master, who subsequently died from injuries and shock, when landed 
with the others at Lewes, Delaware. At 9.30 a.m. the McGee spoke to the coast 
guard cutter Morrill and a naval surgeon was put aboard the tanker to render 
medical aid. 

The greatest loss of life of navy personnel resulted from the foundering of the 
U. S. S. Cherokee, at 8 a.m., February 26, 1918, in about latitude 38 degrees 38 
minutes north, longitude 74 degrees 38 minutes west. Tills position was twelve 
and one-half miles north northeast magnetic of Fenwick Island Light Vessel. 
The crew consisted of thirty-two men and the ship had a complement of six 
officers. Of these but one officer and nine men were saved. She was originally 
assigned to duty with Squadron 3, Division 5, Patrol Force, but was diverted and 
retained for coastwise service. 

On February 26th she sailed from Newport for Washington, taking an offshore 
course after leaving the vicinity of Barnegat Inlet. The ship was hove to from 




Photo by Replogle. 



U. S. S. "Kanawha" in Dock. 
301 



midnight, February 26th. until she sank. Storm warnings were received aboard, 
but the course was kept by the commanding officer. At 7.30 a.m. the ship sent 
an S. 0. S. call, giving lier position as fifteen miles southwest of Fenwick Island 
Lightship. At this time she was leaking badly and thirty minutes before founder- 
ing the steering gear was carried away. The weather was extremely cold and 
although the steamship British Admiral was promptly on the scene, but eleven of 
the crew and Chief Boatswain Sennot were found to be afloat. Two of these 
died of exposure. The survivors and bodies were brought to the Navy Yard, 
Philadelphia, aboard the rescuing steamer. 

The sinking of the subchaser 209, and the consequent loss of lives, by the 
armed guard crew of the steamship Felix Taussig at 2. .30 a.m. on August 27th was 
a matter of sincere regret to everyone connected with the Fourth Naval District. 
The subchaser 209 was placed in commission November 28, 1917, and was attached 
to the Fourth Naval District from that date until June 21, 1918, when she was 
ordered to New London, Conn., to be fitli'd out for tlistant service. Subsequently 
she was diverted from the duty originally intended upon her detachment 
and was attached to the hunt squadron of wiiich the U. S. S. Patterson was the 
llagsliip. 

The officers and crew were recruited in this district, and when she was de- 
tached she sailed under the command of Lieutenant (j. g.) Henry J. Bowes, 
U. S. N. R. F., her original commander. The steamship Felix Taussig, a cargo 
transport, was proceeding from France toward New York. She had reached a 
position some twenty miles south of Fire Island Lightship, latitude 40 degrees 8 
minutes north, longitude 73 degrees 18 minutes west, when the unfortunate chaser 
was sighted and mistaken for a German submarine. Five shots were fired by the 
armed guard crew aboard the Taussig, four from the forward gun and one from 
the after gun. 

Both the commanding officer and Ensign Randolph, the executive officer, 
went down with the ship. Of the crew eleven were lost with the vessel. The sub- 
chasers 188 and 270, also attached to the hunt squadron, were soon on the scene, 
together with the flagship, the U. S. S. Patterson, and picked up the survivors. 
The Felix Taussig proceeded to her destination and on August 28th sailed from 
New York for Philadelphia, arriving at the Navy Yard. Philadelphia, at 10 a.m. 
on August 29th. 

At various times the dangers of inshore navigation by large ships was em- 
phasized by groundings. However, there were but two District vessels that 
suffered mishap. The U. S. S. Gallup, S. P. 694, went ashore February 21, 
1918, on Cape Henlopen during a gale. The hull was a total loss. As much of 
her machinery as was worth it was salvaged, together with the stores, supplies and 
equipment. 

The U. S. S. Mary Garner, S. P. 682, went ashore on Broad Kill Beach, about 
five miles from Lewes, Del., on the ^ night of April 12, 1918. anchors dragging 
in a heav^' blow. She was salvaged and restored to service. 

With the signing of the armistice, all war activities ceased. Convoys, patrols, 
both air and water, were suspended and district vessels were placed out of com- 
mission and returned to their respective owners. The base at Lewes was abandoned 
and demobilization was begun and carried out promptly. 

Expenditures for new projects were stopped even before the armistice and 

302 



contracts for war material were canceled whenever possible. Curtailment of ex- 
penditures and reductions in complements are still being made. 

Effort has been made within reasonable compass to review the main features 
of the war-time activities of the Fourth Naval District and to record those facts 
which would merit interest from the broad standpoint of naval affairs. To that 
end they have been separated from the more detailed accounts of the activities of 
the various bases and the several district departments. 

MAINTAINING THE MORALE AT THE NAVY YARD 

In January, 1916, Chaplain Curtis H. Dickins, Captain ChC, U. S. N., 
reported for duty, and, as Chaplain of the Yard, was immediately placed in 
charge of the mental, moral, physical and religious welfare of the men of the Navy 
and the Marine Corps. 

After over twenty years spent in the naval service, ashore and afloat. Chaplain 
Dickins was especially fitted to handle any problem arising in his department. 

The Navy Yard, always a busy military center, became more so when, in 
April, 1917, American seamen were ordered to take their places with the Navies 
of the AlUes, and the U. S. Marines crowded to their standards to prepare for their 
memorable part in the struggle which was to bring to them such undying fame in 
military annals. 

The men came in such numbers that the equipment of the Chaplain of the 
Yard proved totally inadequate to meet the emergency, and, as a result of a 
conversation with the Reverend Dr. James A. Montgomery, of the University 
of Pennsylvania, a luncheon was arranged where the situation might be discussed. 

In response to the suggestion that a large tent, costing about $1,000.00, 
was a pressing need. Dr. James Mockridge, Rector of St. James, and Dr. E. M. 
Jefferys, of Old St. Peters, in one voice said: "Go ahead! Order your tent and 
anything else you need." 

The tent came and was known as the "Ree Hive Tent" 

Thus the work began, and with the equipment came workers. Space forbids 
that record be made of how widely and promptly the call for workers was responded 
to. Allen Evans. Jr., Loyal Graham, Fred Halsey, Russell Hartwell, Albert H. 
Lucas, Tom Merriweather, James Midgeley, A. V. Rorkey, and others, repre- 
senting the Divinity schools of Philadelphia, Rerkeley, and Drew, coupled with local 
clergymen, all reported immediately for duty; and to this number. Rev. A. H. 
Haughey, Rev. Dr. A. W. Henzell, and the well-known architect, Walter S. Rauer, 
were added within a week. All of this preparation to meet the emergency took 
place the early part of May, 1917. 

Then came help from another important source. Through the interest of 
Rishop Rhinelander, Rishop Garland, Rishop Rerry, Father Lallou, Dr. Kraus- 
kopf. Dr. Ferry, Dr. Delk and others, a Committee representing the leading 
rehgious bodies of the city was organized to meet two pressing needs : first, imme- 
diate workers in the field; second, the making of preparations for winter quarters. 

As a result of the Committee's activity, several rehgious bodies immediately 
put paid workers in the field, and in some cases this work was kept up for a year 
or more. Two outstanding workers who came to the support of the Chaplain 
of the Yard were Father George C. Montague and Reverend A. C. Carty, the 

303 



latter still continuing the work. No task was ever too great and no hours too 
long for these workers, who strove for the interests of the seamen and Marines. 

The first tent, 40 feet wide and 140 feet long, soon proved inadequate, and 
it was then that the Philomusian Club took up the work and provided a tent 
of equal size, with an abundance of equipment, which they maintained until winter 
weather made tent life impossible. 

July, 1917, had not passed before plans were laid for providing winter quarters, 
the Navy Department having given, in the meantime, its carte blanche to Chaplain 
Dickins to meet the situation in the most efficient way possible. 

Buildings were planned. The Church Commission, of which Bishop Garland 
was Chairman, pledged the several represented bodies to raise a fund of six thousand 
dollars ($6,000.00) for new buildings to house the welfare work. The enlarged 
requirements meant a call for further help; consequently interested citizens were 
consulted and they gave their enthusiastic support. In the meantime the bankers 
of the city had become deeply interested, and through their representative, 
Richard E. Norton, a series of out-door smokers was staged, at which the bankers 
provided both smokes and shows and which were usually attended by more than 
six thousand men in an evening. 

When the new and larger housing scheme was laid before them, the bankers 
Committee immediately and generously responded. The buildings were planned 
and constructed under the direction of Waiter S. Bauer, which fact in itself 
guaranteed perfection. The two buildings, still in active service (1921), were 
opened respectively in November, 1917, and in February, 1918. 

The buildings, ,50 feet wide and 115 feet long, provide a library; a chapel; 
an auditorium; writing facilities; a canteen, with soda and ice cream stands; pool 
room; bowling alleys; school rooms; in fact, everything that goes to make the 
Yard life of the men useful and happy is to be found in these buildings, and these 
advantages have been enjoyed by over 2,000,000 men. 

Splendid support was given by Mr. and Mrs. E. T. Stotesbury; Messrs. 
Arthur E. and Clement B. Newbold; Richard E. Norton; Mr. and Mrs. Sidney 
Thayer; Mr. and Mrs. Henry Brinton Coxe; Mr. and Mrs. Wm. M. Field; Miss 
Clara G. Chase; Holstein DeHaven Fox; Albert H. Hoxie, who devoted his whole 
time as song leader: the Colonial Dames, who outfitted the game room; the 
New Century Club: the Philomusian Club; Kelly Street Business Men's Associa- 
tion, and numberless other orgcmizations which responded so generously to the 
calls for help. 

It is impossible to mention, by name, all who gave without stint of their time 
and talents, but a tribute must be paid to the earnest work of Mrs. Caroline A. 
Moore, who is known to thousands of seamen emd Msuines under the affectionate 
term of "Mother Moore." 

Somewhere, in the silent waters, there rest in peace those sailors whose 
spirits never forget; on the shell-torn hills of France, in fair Picardy, at the Somme, 
in the Argonne, and elsewhere, little white crosses mark the last resting places of 
men whose souls forever stand guard ; they, and their companions who fought and 
returned, remember that Philadelphia was a happy though temporary home. 
In the "City of Brotherly Love" they found friends, whose motto was the one 
made glorious by the men in the service : 

Semper Fidelis! 

304 



'A 



•7^ 



is E RVICE^ffRECORD 




PHILADELPHIANS IN THE NAVY 
William Bell Clark 




'PPROXIMATELY ten thousand five hundred Phila- 
delphia men and women served in the naval forces of the 
United States during the World War. The exact figure is 
not available. The approximation is established by ratio 
based upon the exact fatalities for the City and State. 
Philadelphia lost 208 in the navy and Pennsylvania lost 
618; the city's mortality thus was .336 per cent. The 
Navy Department's statistics show that there were 31,063 
from this state in all branches of the naval service — 
regular, reserve and National Naval Volunteers. Working 
out the ratio would give Philadelphia 10,437, or 10,500 in round numbers. 

In setting the figures of both enlistments and fatalities, the actual boundary 
fines of the county have been adhered to strictly. Consequently, the compilation 
excludes all those who came from suburban towns. Thus, in preparing a table of 
naval deaths, it was deemed best to consider Philadelphia's honor roll as made up 
of residents of the forty-eight wards only rather than embrace adjoining counties 
which have or wiU prepare their own lists. Many of those from Montgomery, 
Delaware and Chester counties, who surrendered their lives while in navy blue, 
were in business or employed in this city and Philadelphia might, in a measure, lay 
claim to them. However, the counties where they resided rightfully have the 
prior claim, and rendering them that due will avoid duplication, confusion'^and 
contention. 

Where They Served 

To attempt to tell in detail how, and where, and when the Philadelphians in 
the navy served their country in the World War would mean writing practically a 
history of the American Navy for 1917 and 1918. Few were the vessels in the 
service, from subchasers to battleships, which at one time or another in the course 
of the war did not have a Philadelphia name and address on its roster. Men from 
this city who enlisted long before the eventful days of March and April, 1917, 
were among the first to face the enemy either among the armed guard on American 
cargo vessels, or on the first destroyer contingent which reached Queenstown on 
April 26, 1917, less than a month after hostilities began. 

The first Philadelphia lives lost in action with the enemy were those of naval 
men, members of the armed guard on the tanker Vacuum. The Vacuum, sunk 
by a submarine on April 28, 1917, in 57° 00' north, 10° 45' west, was the second 
American vessel attacked after the declaration of a state of war, the first being 
the Mongolia on April 19th. Eighteen members of the Vacuum's gun crew perished 
when the tanker was destroyed, Charles John Fisher, one of thePhiladelphians, 
going down with the ship, and Frank Hazleton Loree, the other, succumbing on 
May 2d to exhaustion after days in a small boat. Thus, in the first month of the 
war, before the recruiting campaigns were really underway, before the^naval 
reservists had begun to concentrate for training, before even the plans of naval 
cooperation with the AUies had been worked out, the effect of the war on Phila- 
delphia lives was first felt. 



305 




Courtesy of the Atlantic Refining Co. 



Anti-Subniarine Gun. 



Elsewhere in this volume are descriptions of the recruiting campaigns for the 
reserv^e and the regular navy, the mobilization of the naval mihtia and the intimate 
history of the 4th Naval District, the area best known to Philadelphia. Dis- 
missing them, therefore, with merely a mention, this article aims to go further 
afield, to touch briefly upon the broad scope of naval work where Philadelphians 
always were to be found. 

During the first year of the war, the brunt fell upon the regular navy, aug- 
mented by the earliest classes of the reserve. The first base established by the 
destroyers at Queenstown in April. 1917, was followed by the arrival in June of 
the same year of a contingent of American yachts at Brest. Numbered among 
these was the Alcedo, formerly the private yacht of George W. Childs Drexel, 
which, some months later, on November 5, 1917, was torpedoed and sunk. Two 
Philadelphians, Ensign W. Frazier Harrison, 1633 Locust Street, and Pharmacist's 
Mate Richard William Rudolph, 1830 Orleans Street, were among the rescued. 

In August, 1917, a third base was established at Gibraltar, and these three 
functioned throughout the war as the ports from which sailed the destroyers, 
yachts and cruisers on convoy duty in the war zone. 

In the meanwhile, an American fleet under Rear Admiral Caperton was 
despatched to the South Atlantic and in June, 1917, reheved the British and French 
vessels on duty there in guarding South American waters from a chance raider or 
submarine. 

In November, 1917, the first contingent of battleships, headed by the New 
York, steamed out of the Chesapeake to rendezvous several weeks later with the 
British Grand Fleet at Scapa Flow and to remain for fifteen months on guard 

.306 




Pboto by Keplogle. 



Submarines at League Island. 



under Admiral Beatty (British) and Admiral Rodman (American) while they 
waited in vain for the German High Seas Fleet to come out from behind Helgoland. 
In the early winter of 1917-1918 another force of battleships proceeded overseas, 
basing at Bantry Bay, Ireland, and engaging in convoy duty in the Irish Sea as 
well as backing up the destroyer forces at Queenstown. 

By this time the swelling personnel of the NaN^' was being trained rapidly and 
centers, Uke Wissahickon Barracks at Cape May and the Great Lakes Naval 
Station in Michigan, were beginning to turn out the men wherewith to provide 
complete naval crews for transport and cargo boat. At the same time the 7.5-foot 
sub-chasers were coming into being, and their crews recruited at New London and 
other bases. 

Convoking had already grown extensively. The first convoy with Pershing's 
original Expeditionar^- Force consisting of four groups reached St. Nazaire be- 
tween June 25th and July 2d, and there were Philadelphia men on the two dozen 
cruisers, yachts and destroyers which guarded the first troopships. From then on 
until the armistice the overseas service grew, the convoying being confined at first 
to troopships exclusively and afterwards to cargo vessels as well. There are 
Philadelphians of the navy who will tell how they sailed on convoying cruisers 
from Boston, or New York, or Philadelpliia, month after month and never saw- 
England or Fr£ince. The system as perfected provided a flotilla of light vessels 
and one cruiser to escort the convoy to a certain point off the American coast 
where all but the cruiser put back to home ports. The cruiser continued across 
the Atlantic, on guard until relieved on the edge of the war zone by the Queens- 
town, or Brest, or Gibraltar detachments. Thereupon the cruiser also turned 

307 



homeward. Aside from the convoying ships, the navy provided crews for 150 
transports, and not one of those transports, but wliat contained at least one Phila- 
delphian. 

Then there were Philadelphians among the crews of the first seven submarines 
which went abroad on August, 19 17 ; Philadelphians on the " suicide fleet," the coal 
carriers out of Newcastle, England ; Philadelphians on the subchasers at Corfu and 
Queenstown; Philadelphians with the great naval batteries on the western front 
and Phila(le![)hians in the Naval Air Seivice at home and overseas. 

In brief, 10,500 Philadelphians were scattered wherever a naval detachment 
was to be found and the navy, in addition to the duties previously enumerated 
kept quite a few thousand men busy guarding America's own coast from sub- 
marines, to say nothing of those held in reserve at the naval bases from Maine to 
California. 

How They Served 

Some deeds of Philadelphians in the navy came to the attention of the Navy 
Department and resulted in citations. Here are a few of them, selected at 
random. 

Lieutenant Orlando 11. Petty (Medal of Honor) Medical Corps, U. S. N. R. F., 
for extraordinary heroism beyond the call of duty while serving with the 5th Regi- 
ment of I Jnited States Marines in France during the attack on the Rois de Relleau, 
June 11, 1918. While under fire of heavy explosives and gas shells in the town of 
Lucy, where his dressing station was located, he attended to and evacuated the 
wounded under most trying conditions. Having been knocked to the ground by 
an exploding gas shell, which tore his mask, he discarded the mask and courage- 
ously continued his work. His dressing station being hit and demolished he per- 
sonally helped carry Captain Williams wounded, through the shell fire to a place 
of safety. 

Stanley F. Roman, 2651 Relgrade Street: For exceptionally meritorious and 
distinguished service as member of the crew of the U. S. S. McCall. On September 
9, 1918, the Canadian Pacific S. S. Missaimhie was torpedoed twice by a German 
submarine. Roman with other members of the crew rescued the survivors of the 
Missanabie at imminent risk of life and for this heroic duty should be considered 
as having performed distinguished service in the line of duty. 

Joseph S. Marcio, 760 S. Warnock Street: Member of the crew of the 
U. S. S. Smith. On December 17, 1917, during the worst gale of its kind for eight 
years, Marcio jumped overboard and saved a shipmate who had been washed over- 
board. 

Harry L. Gibson, 5240 Locust Street: Commended for heroic conduct following 
the sinking of the Jacob Jones on December 6, 1917. Displayed cheerful conduct 
and was an inspiration to the rest of the crew. 

Ensign William T. McCargo, 5642 Malcolm Avenue: For exceptionally 
meritorious and distinguished service on duty in connection with the important 
and hazardous work of clearing the North Sea of mines while in command of sub- 
chaser 164. 

Lieutenant-Commander R. G. LeConte: For distinguished service in the line 
of his profession in the organization of Naval Rase Unit 5. Lieutenant-Com- 
mander Le Conte volunteered for service at the front at critical periods and per- 

308 



formed very valuable surgical work for the wounded on the occasions of the battles 
of Chateau-Thierry, Belleau Woods and Pierre Fonds. 

Ensign Benjamin Lee (deceased) : For distinguished and heroic service as an 
aviator operating with the United States aviation forces, foreign service, engaged 
in patroling the waters of the war zone, escorting and prntccfing troop and cargo 
ships and operating against encMny submarines. 

William Robert Ransford, 2330 N. 26th Street: For gallant action in jumping 
into an icy sea and risking his life to save W. A. Wells, another seaman, who fell 
overboard and was drowned January 30, 1918. 

David Goldman, 409 Moore Street: For heroism in leaping overboard from 
the U. S. S. O'Brien and. at the risk of his life, rescuing Arthur G. Palmer, a fellow 
seaman, on October 30, 1917. 

James Fulton Miller, 6708 Leeds Street: For jumping overboard from the 
U. S. S. Iowa March 23, 1918, and rescuing a drowning man. 

Charles J. Steel, Jr., 812 N. 41st Street: As a member of Base Hospital No. 5 
submitted to a blood transfusion operation in an effort to save a wounded sailor. 

Harry ADiert Marynowitz. 1231 Lee Street: One of nine enhsted men who 
volunteered for inoculation with influenza for the purpose of learning specific facts 
regarding the epidemic. 

How They Died 

A total of 206 Philadelphia men and two Philadelphia women lost their lives 
in the naval service during the war. The influenza epidemic, beginning in August, 
1918, was far more deadly in its effects than the worst efforts of the enemy, and 
disease, as a whole, laid claim to approximately 75 per cent of this city's fatahties. 
The following table shows at a glance just how the 208 men and women died: 

Enlisted 

Officers Personnel Total 

Killed in action 17 17 

Died in accident 5 18 23 

Lost at sea unheard of 6 6 

Drowned 8 8 

Suicide 3 3 

Influenza epidemic 14 94* 108 

All other diseases 4 39* 43 

Total 23 185 208 

*Including one woman. 

Taking up the most serious factor in the table, th(> influenza epidemic, the 
figures represent the number who died from the Spanish influenza and also from 
pneumonia, which was generally fatal if the influenza had not been. Of the 208, 
ninety-four of the victims died on this side of the Atlantic— some few in their 
homes, others in hospitals throughout the country, and the majority in the Phila- 
delphia and Great Lakes, III., naval hospitals. Numbered among those who died 
in the Philadelphia Naval Hospital was Miss Mary Gertrude Lowry, of 805 S. 
49th Street, who had enlisted as a landsman for yeoman on September 6, 1918, 
and succumbed to the influenza on October 19th of the same year. Only four 

309 



Philadelphians fell victims to the epidemic overseas and two of these four died in 
this city's own naval hospital (Navy Base No. 5) at Brest, France. The remaining 
ten who lost their lives through the scourge died on shipboard. 

The chief causes of the forty-three deaths due to diseases other than influenza 
were tuberculosis and pneumonia (contracted prior to the epidemic). The other 
Philadelphia young woman who died in the naval service comes in this classification. 
She was Miss May Adele Turner, of 3213 N. 6th Street, a chief yeoman, who died 
June 21, 1917, of cerebral meningitis. 

There was a total of twenty-five men who died through self-destruction, falling 
overboard from naval vessels, in quarrels, or in accidents ashore, and thirty-two, 
whose deaths came either in action with the enemy or in the perils of collision, 
storm, etc., while at sea. In the cases of the latter, their stories form a part of 
the threads from which is woven the fabric of the naval history of the country 
during the war. 

How the first Philadelphia lives were lost in action with the enemy has already 
been told. They were the two members of the naval gun crew on the tanker 
Vacuum, which was torpedoed on April 28, 1917. 

Five were killed on the U. S. Destroyer Jacob Jones, which was torpedoed on 
December 6, 1917, in 49° 23' north, 6° 13' west. The Philadelphians among the 
sixty -two lost on the destroyer were. Dock Johnson, cabin cook; Bernard Joseph 
McKeown, fireman, first class; George Christian Merkel. machinist's mate, first 
class; George Washington Pote, oiler, and John Thomas Tufts, blacksmith. 

The tragedy of the naval tug Cherokee, which sank in a storm off the Dela- 
ware Capes on February 26, 1918, cost twenty-three lives, among which were 
numbered three Philadelphians, one of whom was the vessel's commander. 
Lieutenant Edward Dolliver Newell. The other two were Herbert Martin 
Biddle, quartermaster, third class, and Sylvester Bernard Noland, fireman, 
third class. 

An explosion of a shell on the transport Von Steuben on March 5, 1918, resulted 
in thi'ee deaths, one of whom, a Philadelphian, was Earl Crouse Martin, seaman, 
second class. 

The second Philadelphia officer to die in an accident was Lieutenant-Com- 
mander Richard McCall Elliot, Jr., who was killed with thirty-two members of his 
crew on the U. S. Destroyer Manley, when it collided with a British transport, 
on March 19, 1918, the coUision resulting in the explosion of a depth charge on the 
stern of the American war vessel. 

Foiu- Philadelphians were among the forty-five killed in action on the cargo 
steamer Lakemoor, which was torpedoed by a submarine on April 11, 1918, when 
about three miles off the Scottish coast near Crossley Light. They were Chai'les 
Bernard Hiller, seaman, second class; Thomas Aloysius Mclntyre, seaman, second 
class; Joseph Francis Ryan, seaman, second class and Philip Henry Stein, Jr., 
seaman, second class. 

When, on April 21, 1918, the Navy Department announced the naval coUier 
Cyclops, as being lost at sea unheard of with its crew of 293 men, there were six 
Philadelphians among the missing and they are missing today. The Cyclops left 
the Barbadoes for Philadelphia on March 3, 1918. It was due in Philadelphia 
about March 13th, and it never arrived. The naval men from this city were John 
Herbert Blemle, machinist's mate, first class; Percy Leon Carpenter, chief water 

310 



tender; Anthony Glowka, fireman, third class; Samuel Goldstein, seaman, second 
class; Louis Minch, fireman, third class and James Arthur Shooter, seaman. 

Two seaplane accidents cost Philadelphia lives in May and August of 1918. 
In the first, on May 31, 1918, at Miami, Fla., Ensign George B. Evans, Jr., plunged 
to his death and, in the second, on August 23d at St. Trojan's, France, Quarter- 
master John James McVeigh was so badly injured that he died shortly afterwards. 

Just twenty miles south of Fire Island, N. Y., on the morning of August 27, 
1918, the armed cargo boat Felix Taussig spotted what it supposed to be an enemy 
submarine and fned three times upon it. The shots were fatal to the craft, but in- 
stead of a submarine it was American sub-chaser No. 209. It sank carrying down 
with it seventeen men. The destroyer Patterson and sub-chasers Nos. 188 and 270 
picked up the survivors. Four Philadelphia boys were among the seventeen lost. 
They were Harry Sawyer Denney, gunner's mate, first class; Leonard Alonzo 
Haskett, Jr., boatswain's mate, second class; John Alexander McBride, quarter- 
master, first class and Irwin John Sheehan, oiler. 

Two Philadelphians were killed in an encounter between the transport Mt. 
Vernon and an enemy submarine on September 5, 1918, while 250 miles off the 
French coast. The Mt. Vernon, although torpedoed, managed to get back to port. 
Thirty-six men were kiUed including Harry Nealson Skelly, engineman, second 
class, and George Joseph Sofian, fireman, second class. 

There was one Philadelphian who died on the army cargo boat Buena Ventura, 
which was torpedoed and sunk on September 16, 1918, in 44° 36' north, 13° 10' west, 
the total death toll being sixty-four. The Philadelphian was James Mahathey, 
water tender. 

One of the most tragic episodes of the war, the attack of the U-152 on the 
navy cargo carrier Ticonderoga on September 30, 1918, in 43° 5' north, 38° 43' 
west, took the lives of three Philadelphia boys. A total of 216 men perished on the 
Ticonderoga, either kiUed by the shelhng, or drowned in eiforts to escape in shot- 
riddled boats. The Philadelphians were: Benjamin Baylor, wardroom steward; 
Ulrich Joseph Thomas Charette, seaman, second class and WilUam Frederick 
Miller, plumber and fitter. 

When the Herman Frasch, a small army transport, sank on October 4, 1918, 
in coUision with the navy cargo boat George C. Henry, a Philadelphian went down 
with the sixteen men lost. He was Joseph Howe Vasensky, water tender. 

The final Philadelphia naval ofQcer to lose his Ufe in accident was Ensign 
Benjamin Lee, who was killed at the naval air station at KiUinghome, England 
on October 28, 1918, after having served for many months in the bombing squadrons 
based there. 

RECRUITING FOR UNITED STATES NAVAL RESERVE* 

Approximately 32,000 men were enrolled in the United States Naval Reserve 
Force in the Fourth Naval District, of which number, according to Lieutenant 
Maurice SaviUe Tucker, district emolhng officer, 20,000 were from Philadelphia. 

About March 17, 1917, a recruiting office was opened in the mayor's reception 
room, 202 City Hall, in charge of Ensign Jukes. As the work developed Ensign 



*By the Secretary of the Philadelphia War History Committee. Information supplied by 
Lieutenant Tucker. 

311 




Courtesy of Frank W. Buhler, Stanley Co. of America. 

Recruiling Rally at City Hall. 



Jukes was succeeded in Uiin by Ensign Ignatius F. Cooper and Ensign Wesley 
B. Johnson. On April 2d, Lieutenant M. S. Tucker reported for duty and remained 
in charge at City Hall until June 22, 1917, when all recruiting for the United 
States Naval Reserve Force in the Fourth Naval District was suspended, except 
for some special units of the service. 

Later there was also special recruiting at the LTnited States Naval Home on 
Grays Ferry Road, in charge of Lieutenant-Commander F. W. Payne, U. S. N. 
(Ret.), who was Senior Enrolhng Officer in the Fourth Naval District. Among the 
branches in which men were enlisted at this time were the Medical Corps and 
Aviation Corps. Special efforts were also made to enhst ex-ser^^ce men. 

The rapidity with which various recruiting stations were estabUshed is exem- 
plified by the following incident: Almost simultaneously with the opening of the 
main recruiting station in City Hall, the commandant of the Fourth Naval District 
desired to open another branch in the Crozier Building. At 9 p.m. a telephone 
message was sent by Mrs. Barclay H. Warburton to John F. Lewis, who was 
one of the original five members of the Committee on Municipal Defense, with 
the peremptory request that he have an office ready for business the following 
morning at 8 o'clock. In spite of the fact that he was ill in bed at the time, he 
telephoned to William Cowdery, caterer, and asked him if it would be possible 
to have a number of large screens, sufficient to make four dressing rooms, Emd some 
two hundred chairs sent to the Crozier Building by 8 o'clock the next morning. 
This Mr. Cowdery did, and refused to make any chcu'ge for the rental of the equip- 
ment which he suppUed. A night call to the Wanamaker Store resulted in the 

312 




Courtesy of Frank W. Buliler. Stanley Co of Aintrica. 

ThroiK/s al a Recruiliiui linlly. 

delivery of suflicient office furniture and the first recruits were examined and 
accepted before the general offices in the building were opened the next morning. 

In December, 1917 (1st to lath), there were special drives for recruits for all 
classes in the naval reserves, and on February 19, 1918, Lieutenant Tucker was 
made District EnroUing Officer, and offices were again opened in the mayor's recep- 
tion room at City Hall. At about this time the recruiting offices for the regular 
navy, particularly the one at 15th and Arch streets, were directed to enroll for the 
naval reserves as well as for the navy. 

In April of 1918 a recruiting office was also opened at 52d and Sansom streets, 
and during the period between April 15 and May 15, 1918, 2,500 men were enrolled 
in the Fourth Naval District. 

The enthusiasm of the men for this work is well exemplified by a man who 
enrolled in Philadelphia but who originally came from the Pacific Coast. He was 
especially fitted to handle the Deisel engines, but was rejected because of a 
serious physical disability. Upon examination and assurance that he could be 
fitted for work by an operation, he submitted to it and was ready in three weeks 
to be discharged from the hospital. In a fit of enthusiasm he slipped while still 
at the hospital and seriously injured liimself, necessitating another operation, with 
a five weeks continued visit at the hospital. By the time he was ready for dis- 
charge all recruiting had stopped, but through special efforts of Lieutenant Tucker he 
was accepted in the reserves and later became an officer. Many other men sub- 
mitted to operations of major or minor character in order to qualify for enrolment. 

When the recruiting first started, practically all of the men were sent to their 
homes to await further call. However, mechanics, clerks and others with special 
qualifications were immediately sworn in. Large numbers of men upon being 

313 



called to active duty were sent to Washington Barracks, Cape May, to League 
Island and also to Norfolk. Others went to Pelham Bay or to the officers' school 
at Washington, D. C. Some Philadelphians were among those who took the special 
three months' course at the United States Naval Academy, Annapohs, Md. 

Until the Navy Department at Washington completes its records it will be 
difficult to trace with any degree of accuracy the subsequent history of Philadelphia 
men in the United States Naval Beserve Forces. 

"IF" 

Dedicated to the United States Naval Reserve Force 
(With apologies to Kipling) 

If you can keep up heart when those about you 

BeUeve all navy rumors to be true; 

If you will give no man a chance to doubt you. 

Yet never make a statement you will rue. 

If you salute each officer who passes. 

No matter what his place in civil life. 

And never make excuse of "need for glasses," 

Nor give — nor wish to give — a cause for strife. 

If you can see a stupid man commissioned 

Because his second cousin's son has pull. 

And though your officers have all petitioned 

High rank for you, such places then are full; 

If you can wait, and wait, and keep on waiting, 

Till golden opportunity is past 

Move on, nor waste your energy in stating 

That, hook or crook, you'll "get" that man at last. 

If you can give the best of all that's in you 
And work from dawn to dark, just to be told 
The one who cringed for fear in every sinew 
Was sent across, and merits stripes of gold; 
If you can listen to returning sailors 
From Naval Base at Pauillac or Bordeaux 
Recount sea tales of trench and German jailers. 
And never tell the pests where they can go. 

If you can see your least loved comrade given 
Release, who played and "passed the buck" the while. 
And now receives the place for which you've striven 
In your old firm and yet you dare to smile; 
If you obey all rules, howe'er chaotic. 
If you are merely glad the war is won. 
And are, in spite of hardships, patriotic. 
You're ready to be canonized, my son. 

Patricia F. Crosby, 

Yeoman 1st Class, U. S. N. R. F. 
314 



BRANCH OFFICE OF NA.VAL INTELLIGENCE 

The OHice of Naval Intelligence, of the Navy Department, Washington, had its 
fust representation in Philadelphia by the appointment on April 16, 1917, of 
W. Barklie Henry as Confidential Representative, Mr. Henry having previously 
volunteered his services to Franklin D. Roosevelt, Assistant Secretary of the 
Navy. From the beginning the work grew rapidly, and additional help and space 
were required, and various men of prominence in the Philadelphia business world 
were added as assistants. 

On July 18, 1917, the office was located in the Morris Building and fully recog- 
nized by the Navy Department and assigned certain definite duties to perform. 
From this time on, the personnel was rapidly increased as additional duties were 
delegated, the personnel including commissioned officers, volunteers to the United 
States Government with salaries at $1.00 per annum, enlisted persons assigned to 
the office by the Navy Department, and salaried civil employes, until at the time 
of the signing of the armistice about seventy persons were directly connected with 
the office, and more than 1,000 indirectly connected in various capacities as confi- 
dential representatives throughout the Fourth Naval District. 

The work at first consisted of certain investigations as specifically requested 
by the Secretary of the Navy. Later on it consisted of investigations of 
the activities of suspected German agents in munition plants and other companies 
with navy contracts, acts of sabotage and various other suspected activities, leading 
to internments or continued surveillance or proof that the suspicion was unfounded. 
Many investigations were made of commercial and shipping houses and enemy 
goods in storage. In the above duties, the office cooperated with the Aide for 
Information of the Fourth Naval District, Military Intelligence Section and the 
Department of Justice. 

Many in\ estigations were made at the request of the Cable Censor and of 
various other Branch Offices of Naval Intelligence in the other Naval Districts. 

A Plant Protection Section was established which, in addition to investigations 
of acts of sabotage and various suspects, required various protection measures, 
with the view of preventing interruption of the completion of the navy contract 
on which the plant was engaged. This protection included investigation of and 
installation of fire protective measures, guarding by watchmen, adequate fencing 
and lighting, patrolUng, and inside agents to detect unrest or suspicious acts. 

Food canneries supplying goods to the Army and Navy were added eventually 
to the work. Here the quality of materials used, the source of water supply and 
general cleanliness were investigated and, if necessary properly improved — all 
this work for the purpose of safeguarding such supplies. 

For a short time, investigations were made for the Postal Censorship authori- 
ties, but this work was later transferred to the Aide for Information and Military 
Inteffigence Section. 

Upon the close of the office, after the signing of the armistice, the Investiga- 
tion Section had covered and reported on approximately 2,000 cases, and the Plant 
Protection Section had inspected and reported on 468 manufacturing plants and 
thirty-four canneries. 

In aU this work it was necessary to combine speed and accuracy, as quick 
work was often necessary to frustrate some enemy plot or catch suspects before 

315 



there was time for their escape. A number of internments were procured and n( i 
explosion or serious fire occurred in any of the protected plants. 

The work done received commendation from the Navy Department, and several 
members of the staff received commissions, Mr. Henry being made a Lieutenant- 
Commander of the United States Naval Reserve Force on March 8, 1918, and 
J. Shipley Dixon, his assistant, a Lieutenant (j. g.), on April 12. 1918. and later 
promoted on October 11, 1918, to a Lieutenant (s. g.). 

The office had branches in Altoona, Atlantic City, Bethlehem, Chester, 
Harrisburg, Lancaster, Lebanon, Pottsville, Reading. Scranton, Wilkes-Barre, 
Williamsport, Wilmington, and York, this work being in charge of Ensign 
Malcolm Goldsmith. 

The departments of the office were in charge of the following: 

Officer in Charge. — W. Barklie Henry, Lieutenant-Commander, U. S. N. R. F. 

AssislanI lo Officer in Charge. — J. Shipley Dixon, Lieutenant, U. S. N. R. F. 

Offiice Management. — Kane S. Green. Chief; \\'. Howard Pancoast, Assistant. 

Supplies and AccounJs. — John R. Maxell. 

Investigalions. — Haliowell Irwin, Chief. (Mr. Irwin succeeded Charles F. DaCosta, Esq., 
«ho had been appointed Special Assistant to the United States District Attorney.) 

Plant Protection. — Howard F. Hansell, Jr., Chief; \V. Carlton Harris, Assistant, Chief Yeo- 
man, U. S. N. R. F. 

Motor Service Department. — Eaton Cromwell, Chief Yeoman, U. S. N. R. F. 

Some time after the office was discontinued the Navy Department awarded 
Lieutenant-Commander Henry a special letter of commendation, with the right 
to wear the silver star in recognition of his meritorious service in organizing and 
establishing the Branch Office of Naval Intelligence in Philadelphia. 

THE NAVAL MILITIA OF PENNSYLVANIA 
By Lieutenant Henry C. McIlvaine, Jr. 

The Naval MUitia of Pennsylvania, at the time of the outbreak of the war, 
consisted of one (1) battalion composed of four divisions or companies, two in 
Philadelphia, and two in Erie. On April 6. 1917, the battaUon was called into 
active service and mobihzed at League Island Navy Yard, together with various 
naval militia units from other States. 

All divisional and even State lines were wiped out; units were broken up; offi- 
cers separated from their men, and each assigned to duty according to rank or 
rating to fill vacancies existing on ships, and in shore details. Of the 154 men in 
Philadelphia divisions, fifty were assigned to the U. S. S. Chicago, which had 
been their training ship; 101 were assigned to the U.S. S. Iowa, and three 
were assigned to shore duty. Of the eight officers in Philadelphia, including staff 
officers. Commander Harvey M. Righter (M.C.). Lieutenant Henry C. McIlvaine, 
Jr., and Lieutenant Henry S. Austin served on the V. S. S. Chicago; Lieutenant 
Walter M. Gorham, Jr., and Lieutenant (j. g.) Edward 0. Burke on the U. S. S. 
Iowa; Lieutenant Thomas W. Rudderow on the V. S. S. De Kalb; Commander 
Thomas T. Nelson, Jr., and Lieutenant Albert L. Byrnes (S. C.) were assigned 
to shore duty in the Nav>' Yard. 

It is impossible to give the story of the Pennsylvania Naval Militia as a unit. 
Officers and men after mobilization were transferred from one place and from one 
duty to another. However, due to the fact that the members of the Naval Militia 

316 




317 



were already prepared for efficient service, when war was declared all of the 
officers and men were ready and served in the majority of cases on combatant ships 
on foreign service. It is interesting to note that the only Naval Militia Officers 
assigned to the Destroyer Force, based at Queenstown, were Lieutenants Thomas 
W. Rudderow, Henr>' C. Mcllvaine, Jr., and Henry S. Austin of the Philadelphia 
divisions. Lieutenant Walter M. Gorham, Jr., was later transferred to the mine- 
sweepers operating off the French coast and based at Brest, where he had command 
of the U. S. S. Anderton. 

CAMOUFLAGE PAINTING ON THE DELAWARE 
By William Bell Clark 

The application of camouflage painting in the Delaware River District began 
on April 25, 1918, approximately one month after the newly created Doparlment 
of Camouflage of the Emergency Fleet Corporation, and the Bureau of Con- 
struction and Repair of the Navy Department had agreed to discard all other 
previously approved methods, and concentrate on baffling the German submarines 
with the English "dazzle" system, with its principle of distortion, rather than 
concealment. During March, 1918, Lieutenant Commander Norman Wilkinson, 
R. N. V. R., had explained and lectured in this country upon the "dazzle" idea, 
a system which he had invented, and which had already been used efl'ectively in 
England. AU patterns of the "dazzle" system were based upon the theory of 
geometrical perspective, lines drawn gradually, and increasing in width from stern 
to bow, and broken up into checkers, increasing in size, the whole creating an im- 
pression to the eye that the vessel was proceeding in an entirely different direction 
than its actual course. 

In the month of April, 1918, the nucleus of the camouflage branch of the 
Delaware River District Office had been formed, with Harold E. Austin as District 
Camoufleur, and one assistant, Frank V. Smith, loaned from the New York Dis- 
trict, where he had been under the instruction of Commander Wilkinson, to aid 
in the organization of the Philadelphia office. District Camoufleur Austin was 
serving in the Navy, and could not report for duty until disenrolment. In the 
interval between the application for Austin's disenrolment March 25, 1918, and 
the date of his actual appointment as District Camoufleur, several days after 
April 13, 1918, few steps were taken looking toward the creation of a camouflage 
organization in the District. Uncertainty in all minds as to the scope and juris- 
diction of the new Camouflage Department tended naturally toward marking time, 
until matters were made clearer, and the District Camoufleur arrived. Several 
additional local factors also entered into the situation. First, was the existence 
of the Agency Yards, the American International Shipbuilding Corporation at 
Hog Island, and the Merchants' Shipbuilding Corporation at Bristol, which, 
about two months before, had been removed entirely from the jurisdiction of the 
district office. Second, was the presence of the Philadelphia Navy Yard, within 
the Shipping Board District, which might or might not have to depend upon the 
district office for camouflage painting. Fleet Corporation and navy circular 
letters, issued on March 19th and March 29th, helped to clear up numerous points 
regarding the respective duties of the two government departments, but left other 
questions still obscured. In fact, as late as April 13th, the home office, writing 

318 




Photo by W. N. Jennings. 



Canioujiagc thorps. Delmmre River District i\o. ID. 



to F. H. Grogan, at that time Delaware River District Officer, referred certain 
inquiries of his to the District Camoufleur, "Whom we expect will report to you 
for appointment within a few days." 

The Delaware River District, or District No. 10, as it was then known, had 
not the large area it later attained. As has been said, the Agency Yards were 
excluded from it. In addition, the Traylor Woodship Yard, at Cornwells Heights, 
Pa., was under the jurisdiction of the Second District (New York), and the Pusey 
and Jones and Harlan and Hollingsworth Yards, at Wilmington, Del., were in the 
Third District (Baltimore). This left but six active shipyards in the Delaware 
River District, namely, the William Cramp and Sons Ship and Engine Building 
Company, Philadelphia; the Sun Shipbuilding Company and the Chester Ship- 
building Company, Chester, Pa. ; the New York Shipbuilding Corporation, Camden, 
N. J., and the Pennsylvania and New Jersey yards of Pusey and Jones, Gloucester, 
N. J. At Cramps, and the New York Ship, also, a large part of the output was 
devoted to Navy contracts, over which the Shipping Board District Office had no 
control. In fact, a list of vessels estimated for delivery before July 5, 1918, shows 
that the District's management extended over just sixteen ships nearing completion 
at that time. 

The question was, would the new camouflage organization in the District 
confine itself to the limited total under control of the District office, or, would its 
painting go further, to the Agency Yards and naval vessels? As will be shown, 
the camoufleiirs were not even halted at that point, as every vessel entering the 

319 




L. S. S. "Isunli." canuinjlaijcil uinlrr llic direction uj the I'lulmlvlpliiii olJicc, L. S. S. B. E. F. C. 



port of Philadelphia, under charter or ownership of the Shipping Board, Navy 
Department, War Department or Railroad Administration, was subsequently 
adorned with the weird geometric patterns of the "dazzle" system, applied under 
supervision of District Camoufleur Austin's force. 

An office for the District Camoufleur was provided in the same building 
which housed the district office, the Medical Arts Building. By April 25th he 
was ready for business, and on that day the newly completed tanker ,/. M. 
Connelly, was painted as the first camouflaging job on the Delaware. This ship, 
a vessel of 7,000 tons, built at the Permsylvania yard of the Pusey and Jones 
Company, (iloucester, N. J., was painted as she lay beside her fitting-out pier, 
the event being the occasion of the testing of a new device, a pole with chalk 
clamped on the end, to trace the outline of the design over the areas not reached 
by stagings. The device worked so well that it was recommended to the home 
office for general adoption, particularly in shipyards not equipped with sufficient 
floats and stagings. 

An announcement from the home office that stringent orders soon would be 
issued by the Division of Operations making the "dazzle" system mandatory for all 
vessels sailing into the war zone came while the ./. M. Connelly was being painted, 
as did a further definition of the respective duties of the Navy and Fleet Corporation 
regarding camouflage. This latter circular established finally that district cam- 
oufleurs were to be advised and consulted whenever naval vessels were to be 
"dazzle" painted. The letter further instructed District Camoufleur Austin to 
call upon the Commandant of the Fourth Naval District and the Commandant 
of the Philadelphia Navy Yard. During the second week of active work in the 
district, Austin completed the camouflaging of the J. M. Connelly: called at the 
Navy Yard and was assured, although not seeing the Commandant, that he would 
be notified a day in advance of all camouflage jobs; made arrangements with Port 
Captain Abbott, of the Division of Operations, to be given ample notice of all 
vessels entering the port, and secured from the manual training branch of the 
Philadelphia public schools the promise to build him wooden ship models for 
experimental work. 

On September 18th, the Railroad Administration decided to camouflage its 

320 



coastwise fleet and shortly afterwards the District Camoufleur received plans for 
the painting of several vessels of the Clyde and Merchants and Miners Lines. 
Work was started shortly afterwards on these vessels. An increase in the duties 
devolving upon the camouflage branch came also on September 18th, when the 
two shipyards at Wilmington, Del., were added to the Delaware River District. 

The first ship launched at Hog Island, the Qaistconck, was ready to be camou- 
flaged on October 14th, and was completed on October 29th. The Watonwan, 
the first ship at the Bristol plant, had the painting started on October 9th and 
was finished on October 14th. George W. Lawlor, who was given the rating of 
Chief Camoufleur, was placed in charge of all camouflage work at Hog Island. 

At the time of the armistice there had been 111 vessels camouflaged in the 
Delaware River district, including a few which had been merely retouched. The 
official telegram on Armistice Day, ordering that all camouflaging cease, was 
followed by a telegram which instructed the District Camoufleur to cut down his 
force. Almost all of the camoufleurs were discharged from the service on Novem- 
ber 15th, being given accumulated leave and paid to December 1st. In notifying 
them of the end of their work, the District Camoufleur sent a complimentary letter 
to each. On November 16th, before departing for their homes, the camoufleurs 
presented a letter of farewell to District Officer William G. Coxe. Chief Camoufleur 
George W. Lawlor resigned about November 21st, and the District Camoufleur was 
transferred on January 1, 1919, to the chief inspector's office, remaining in the 
Fleet Corporation service until August 31, 1919. 

On May 6th, Albert Rosenthal was added to the camouflaging force in the 
district, and Paul King joined the same day as an assistant camoufleur. Camou- 
fleur Smith was ordered to Boston, to report May 1.3th, but before leaving super- 
vised the painting of the second ship, the 10,000 ton navy cargo boat Radnor, mak- 
ing necessary changes in the design which caused some discussion subsequently, and 
led to stringent orders that camoufleurs should never alter designs for naval vessels. 
To continue with the personnel of the camouflage branch of the Delaware River 
District, a new camoufleur, George W. Lawlor, was added on May 1.5th, and a 
few days prior to that the staff had been increased by the arrival of Camoufleurs 
Oscar de Clerk, Paul King and Earl Selfridge. On May 24th, Camoufleurs George 
McLaughlin, Harry W. Moore and Fred J. Thompson were ordered from New 
York to Philadelphia. The same day, de Clerk and King were ordered to New 
York. On July 1st, also, Camoufleurs Wilson V. Chambers and Ralph P. Coleman 
were transferred from New York to Philadelpliia, as was Camoufleur Franklin C. 
Watkins on July 9th. Two more camoufleurs, Leo Kernan and Hamilton D. 
Ware, arrived from New York about July 30th, and a third, Warden Wood, on 
July 31st. 

Camoufleur Wood was ordered back to New York after a stay of about 
ten days, and, on August 13th, Camoufleur Selfridge was sent to Jacksonville. 
Camoufleurs McLaughlin and Moore were transferred to Boston on July 30th, 
and Camoufleur Rosenthal left the service August 23d, reducing the total staff 
at that time to nine. Three other men also served in Philadelphia: Camoufleur 
Robert D. Gauley, Camoufleur Mitchel R. Buck, Camoufleur Arthur D. Carles. 

To return to the actual progress of camouflage, the third vessel painted was 
the Giilfland, an oil tanker at the New York Shipbuilding Corporation, and while 
the work was in progress on it, the Avondale, at the Chester Shipbuilding Com- 

321 



pany; the Themisto, at Pier No. 2; the H. C. Folger, at Point Breeze, and the 
Mundale and Meiise, at Port Richmond, were also undertaken. 

It was necessatry to settle a number of questions regarding vessels already in 
the service, and which had been camouflaged under the old designs approved by 
the Ship Protection Committee prior to the adoption of the English "dazzle." 
The district camoufleur, on May 25th, pointed out, for example, to the Atlantic 
Refining Company that it would be necessary for the Pioneer, one of their tankers, 
to be repainted with a "dazzle" design. 

During the week ending June 10th, the Camouflage Theater received twenty- 
five wooden models for experimental purposes. A conference of the camoufleurs 
of the district was held on the night of June 11th in the studio of Mr. Austin, 
at which time it was decided to procure a tank for the experimental work so that 
the camoufleurs could develop atmospheric effects by means of flexible arrange- 
ments of electric lighting. This tank was also constructed by the manual training 
branch of the Philadelphia public schools. 

During the month of July, the camoufleurs were busy in all sections of the 
district. They were painting oil tsmkers at Marcus Hook and Point Breeze; 
Navy cargo boats at the various piers along the Delaware in Philadelphia; newly 
completed ships in the yards at Cramps, New York Shipbuilding Corporation, 
Sun Shipbuilding Compemy, Chester Shipbuilding Company, and Pusey and 
Jones Gloucester Yards, and were also being caUed upon to place "dazzle" designs 
on Army quartermaster vessels at Pier 78, South. 

The first step in camouflaging the fabricated ships from the Hog Island and 
Bristol Yards came in August, when complete plans were prepared for the Waton- 
wan, the first ship to be launched at the Merchants' Plant. That same week 
District Camoufleur Austin made arrangements with both the Merchants' and 
American Internaticinal for future camouflage work. He established positively 
that while from a constructive standpoint the Agency Yards might not come 
under the district, for camouflaging purposes the district camoufleur was^supreme. 
Toward the end of August, Henr>' C. Grover, Manager of the Camouflage Depart- 
ment, asked the opinion of Mr. Austin on a plan that would place all camouflaging 
— even to the purchase of the paint and the employment of the painters — directly 
under his department. A week or so later Mr. Austin gave it as his opinion that 
such a plan was impracticable because it would cost "more money to handle the 
work of our own force than to pay the shipyard for painting the boat." In the 
same letter he made mention of a plan he had devised to arrive at a comparative 
cost table, and this plan was later adopted and carried out through the months 
of September and October. j\Ir. Austin did recommend that the Camouflage 
Department purchase its paint direct, but the district officer vetoed it. 

NAVAL BASE HOSPITAL No. 5 
By Dr. Leon Herman 

In April, 1917, the Methodist Episcopal Hospital of Philadelphia, through 
Dr. Richard H. Harte, of the Southeastern Chapter of the American Red Cross, 
was asked by Surgeon-General WilUam C. Braisted, United States Marines, to or- 
ganize a Naval Base Hospital of 250 beds for foreign service. 

322 




Hnildings in Brest 



Dr. Robert G. LeConte, who had served in the United States Navy during 
the Spanish-American War, was selected as Commander. 

The Board of Trustees of the hospital formally voted to comply with the re- 
quest of Surgeon-General Braisted and a committee, consisting of Dr. Richard 
Norris, Frank Freeman and Charles Scott, Jr., Chairman, was appointed to pur- 
chase the necessary equipment and to enroll the required personnel, to be com- 
posed of a surgical and medical staff of forty and an enlisted personnel of ninety. 

The estimated cost of the equipment was $25,000, but the actual expenditures 
far exceeded that amount. It was decided that the expense should not be charged 
against the funds of the hospital and, therefore, the financial problem was impor- 
tant. It was solved, however, by contributions of about $20,000 received from 
the Methodist churches of the city, from personal contributions amounting to 
$5,000 and from an appropriation from the Southeastern Pennsylvania Chapter 
of the American Red Cross amounting to about $15,000. There was, moreover, 
a large number of additional contributions. 

On June 1, 1917, the equipment for a 250-bed base hospital, as well as the equip- 
ment for the personnel, was purchased, packed and stored ready for shipment. 

In recruiting physicians, surgeons and nurses, the staff of the Methodist 
Hospital was largely drawn upon. Practically all of the doctors had been or 
were connected with the hospital and 80 per cent of the nurses were Methodist 
Episcopal graduates. Miss AUce Garrett, Superintendent of the Nurses Hospital 
Training School, was appointed Chief Nurse. 

Training was given to the enlisted personnel at the Navy Yard and Naval 
Home, and thus everyone connected with it received special hospital training. 

32S 



On Thursday, September 13, 1917, a telephone message was received from 
Washington ordering the Tnit tf) he ready to sail on the transport Henderson on the 
following Saturday, September 15th. 

At ten o'clock on the morning of September 17th, after reporting to Dr. Le 
Conte, it was learned that five of our officers, Dr. James Talley, Dr. George 
Ross, Dr. ^'incent Lyon, Dr. Grayson McCouch and Dr. John Hugo, together 
with the enlisted personnel, had been ordered away on the U. S. S. Henderson, 
while the remaining officers, together with the nurses, were to "stand by." 

On board the Henderson the group was met by Commander H. C. Curl, who 
had been assigned to the Unit as Commanding Officer and who guided our fortunes 
throughout the war. 

Navy Base Hospital No. 1, from Brooklyn, N. Y., was aboard, with a full 
personnel of twelve officers and forty nurses. The miUtary atmosphere of the 
ship was much enhanced by the presence of the 2d Battalion, 6th Regiment, United 
States Marines, under the command of Major Hughes and seven fellow officers. 
These men were destined to make history at Belleau Wood, and such are the strange 
workings of fate that some of them came under the care of our operating teams 
when the latter were on duty at American i\Iilitary Hospital No. 1, in Neuilly, 
in June, 1918. 

On Tuesday morning, September 18th, the ship's company awoke in New 
York Harbor. There they remained until 8 p.m., September 22d. The delay 
was caused in part by a fire which began in the afterhold among a ton of Y. M. 
C. A. literature. At eight o'clock on Saturday evening, September 22d, the good 
ship Henderson silently glided out into the darkness of the Atlantic. No lights 
were showing, but forms of the other ships in the convoy including two other large 
transports, two destroyers and an armored cruiser could be made out. 

The newly made group of civilian soldiers were deeply impressed with the 
strangeness of their new life, but all was forgotten for the moment as the Ughts 
of the Statue of Liberty disappeared. The weeks of impatient waiting for orders, 
the considerable task of giving up the old fife and preparing for the new, the sad 
farewells to families and friends — all had been completed, and now at last the great 
adventure was begun. 

Next morning the ship was again in New York Harbor! 

At 10:15 on Sunday evening, September 23d, another start was made, and by 
seven o'clock next morning the convoy was well up toward Nantucket shoals. 
The day opened overcast, and by eleven in the morning a nasty " South wester " 
sprang up which soon knocked out at least one-third of the Marines, hospital 
corpsmen and nurses. A seasick marine expressed his desire to "bayonet the guy 
who invented the ocean. " 

The convoy consisted of eight vessels: two destroyers, the Roe and Monaghan, 
the cruiser San Diego, transports Finland, Antilles, Henderson and Lenape, and the 
oil tanker Konahawa. 

"Abandon ship" drills were regularly performed and the strictest orders 
were enforced regarding the use of lights. 

On Tuesday morning, September 25th, it was found that the Lenape and Kona- 
hawa had gone astray during the night, and to this misfortune was added the sig- 
naled news of "man overboard" from the San Diego. All of the ships hove to for 

334 



three-quarters of an hour, but the unfortunate sailor was not to bo found and we 
again got under way. This was the first casualty. 

On the early morning of Wednesday, October 3d, five United States destroyers 
met the east-bound ships, and several hours later the San Diego and the two 
destroyers turned back and headed for America. It seemed like parting with the 
last ties to home and country. 

Immediately the order was given for all on board to don life preservers and 
to carry or wear them night and day until port was reached. 

That night an impromptu dance was given on the hurricane deck, much to 
the disgust of at least one line officer, who was heard remark, "This certainly is 
a hell of a warship." A rather heavy sea was riuming and some improvised steps 
were introduced. 

On Friday morning. October 5th, at 4:15, Bell Isle Light was sighted on that 
little plot of land first fortified by Porthos of Three Musketeers fame. Forty 
miles to the east lay the French coast and safely. 

Leaving the Bay of Biscay with its dangers, the Henderson entered Quiberon 
Harbor and thence into the Biver Noire. The town of St. Nazaire was reached 
in the late afternoon. Here a hearty welcome was given by the natives and a 
group of United .States Marines. It was good to learn that Navy Base No. 5 
was among the first 100,000 Americans to land on French soil. 

The few succeeding days were spent in unloading the stores and putting them 
in a warehouse assigned by the Army for the purpose, and in getting settled in 
Army Camp No. L 

Commander Curl had left for Paris immediately after disembarking, and 
returned October 10th, with the news the I nit had been ordered to Brest. 

Our future troubles in business negotiations with the natives, not to mention 
difficulties with the language, were anticipated in the arrival f)f M. Heau as 
official interpreter. 

Orders to proceed to Brest arrived in the morning of October 17th, and by 
night the LInit reached that place. 

After one month of impatient waiting, having heard in the mean time of the 
safe arrival in France of the advance guard of our Unit, the rest of the Unit left 
Philadelphia on October 15th on the S. S. St. Louis, afterwards the L^. S. S. Louis- 
ville, and, as the sun was sinking low in the west, we waved our farewells to famiUes 
and friends whose faces and forms were soon lost in the thickening shadows of 
the evening. 

Doctors Le Conte, Darby, Kerr, Hewson and Herman, together with the 
nursing staff of forty-one women, answered the roll call. 

The S. S. iS7. Louis was still in the passenger service and the majority of 
voyagers were in "mufti," although many, and perhaps the majority, were on 
war missions. Prominent among the latter was a group of Congressmen en route 
to France. A group of thirty-five army aviators, fine young Americans every one 
of them, and among the first bird-men to embark for foreign service, were aboard, 
but, like our own, their names did not appear on the passenger list. The future 
experiences of this group of men has added a fine chapter to American heroism. 
Among them was Mr. McLanahan, a Philadelphian, who later did meritorious 
combat work with the troops, and who fought side by side with Quentin Roosevelt 
on the day that he was killed. 

325 



The atmosphere of the ship was quite peaceful, notwithstanding the arma- 
ment on deck and the lack of lights by night, until October 17th, when all were 
ordered below decks while the guns blaz(>d away in target practice at imaginary 
submarines. 

On the morning of October 23d a lighthouse was sighted, and soon the coast 
of Wcdes loomed up in the distance. Next morning the pilot guided us up the 
river to Liverpool, where we docked at 9 a.m. 

By four o'clock in the afternoon we had rescued our luggage and were on a 
specicJ train en route to Southampton. The great furnaces of Birmingham opened 
their doors and lit up the sky as if to bid us welcome and good luck. We reached 
Southampton at 11 p.m. 

While marching through the rain and mud to the great military camp we 
inquired of our young soldier guide his native city. "I'm from Philadelphia — 
Wolf Street, just opposite the Methodist Hospital," he replied. 

On October 26th, Dr. LeConte and the nurses crossed the Channel, and after 
spending a day in Le Havre proceeded to Brest, where they arrived at noontime, 
October 29th. 

Doctors Darby, Hewson, Herman and Kerr lingered, through no fault of their 
own, in the camp at Southampton for several days. Crossing the Channel one 
night on a boat otherwise filled with sleepless horses, they took up a brief resi- 
dence in the camp at Le Havre, famous for its mud and Scotch. On November 2d 
they, too, arrived in Brest via Paris. 

Base Hospital No. 5 began its work in a small "sick bay" which Dr. Garrison 
of the regular Navy had established, sometime before the arrival of the Unit, in 
a nuimery in the town of Brest, to meet the need of the "American fleet" of yachts 
and the earUest arrivals of the destroyer fleet which had been assigned to the port. 
Brest, now famiUar to thousands of veterans, was at that time reposing in 
its ancient sohtude. But few American sailors were to be seen and only an occa- 
sional soldier. However, conditions in Brest were found to be quite satisfactory, 
with reasonable prices for necessities. The Villa Maria, a large private dwelling, 
was procured and transformed into a dormitory for our nurses. The officers found 
lodgings at first in hotels and later in pensions or apartments. 

Buildings suitable for hospital purposes were not many in Brest, and it was 
only after considerable effort that we were able to procure one that could by any 
stretch of the imagination be considered at all desirable. Further delay was 
caused by the temporary occupation of the first two floors by a school and orphan- 
age. We were ejected in due, if slow, course by the local courts of justice. 

On October 18th the U. S. S. Antilles was torpedoed and sunk 380 miles out 
of St. Nazaire. Some of the survivors were brought to Dr. Garrison's hospital, 
which was locally known as Hospital No. 9 and were attended by our surgeons. 
On the morning of October 29th, survivors arrived from another torpedoed trans- 
port, which proved to be the Finland. 

The search for suitable hospital quarters continued and proved to be disap- 
pointing, and it became more and more evident that we were to be deprived of our 
quarters in the orphanage. In the meantime, the staff had been completed with the 
arrival in Brest of the group which had come by way of England. 

Moreover, there seemed Kttle opportunity, or need, for creating a fine hospital 
in a place where the Navy's activities were apparently very shght. No one could 

326 



foretell the remarkable growth of our Navy in foreign waters, a growth that pro- 
ceeded with extreme rapidity until our Flag Office imder Admiral Wilson, was 
second in importance only to the London Office. 

After considerable effort, an ancient nunnery was leased from the French, who 
had occupied it as a Convalescent Hospital since the early days of the war. This 
institution, which was loccdly known as No. 4, was taken over by our unit on Novem- 
ber 10, 1917. The hospital was situated in the Rue de Kerfautrau, in the extreme 
eastern section of the city, just off the Rue de Paris, the main thoroughfare. 

That portion of the building which was to be used for hospital purposes 
was entirely unprepared for the reception of patients, and so far as the uninitiated 
could determine the possibility of ever getting it into fit condition seemed ex- 
tremely remote. In addition to the repeated scrubbing necessary to remove the 
universal filth, provisions had to be made for the installation of heat, gas, 
electricity, running water and modern plumbing. The main building could 
accommodate only several hundred patients, so that it was necessary to provide 
barracks and tents for the contagious cases and to reheve the overflow from the 
main building. 

It was originally intended that the repairs should be made before the hospital 
was put into commission, but the arrival of about one hundred patients, from a 
group of four lai'ge transports, which had arrived with 14,000 troops, necessitated 
a change in our plans. 

On November 12, 1917, half of the patients in Dr. Garrison's hospital were 
moved to Navy Rase Hospital No. 5 and on this day, therefore, the hospital began 
its own real work. The erection of barracks for the contagious cases proceeded 
rapidly, so that we were soon able to take care of this class of patients without the 
assistance of the French, who had up to this time admitted our contagious cases. 

Groups of patients continued to arrive from the transports, and in the mean- 
time the work of making the hospital habitable went on apace. 

To describe accm'ately this hospital is a difficult task. The institution was 
surrounded by a stone wall, perhaps ten feet in height, enclosing a plot of land a 
half an acre or more in extent. Numerous human thigh-bones, the bones of de- 
parted Sisters, so the story goes, were incorporated in the walls, projecting for about 
half their length. These the "gobs," whose liberty was restricted, irreverently 
used as stepping-stones to their stolen freedom. 

There were many beautiful trees within the enclosure, and these, as was the 
agreement, were carefully preserved, although this necessitated a rather irregular 
distribution of the tents and barracks which it was necessary to erect for our grow- 
ing family. 

The main building was situated at the eastern extremity of the property, 
occupying approximately one-third of the area, with a small courtyard in front sepa- 
rating it from the wall and street. This little courtyard had served as the means 
of entrance for the populace to the pubhc chapel, which was the largest room in the 
building and which we used as a surgical ward. To the left of the courtyaid 
just mentioned was a two-story building, which was utilized for the executive 
offices. Here also was stationed the druggist in charge of the United States 
Naval Medical Supply Depot, which, in April, 1919, began the distribution of 
suppUes to our numerous stations in France and to vessels in the Mediterranean 
and Adriatic. 

327 



A small private chapel for the inmates of the nunnery, situated behind the big 
chapel, was transformed into a surgical ward with fourteen beds. The remaining 
portion of the building was constructed in the form of a hollow square siu"rounding 
a central courtyard. It was three stories in height and divided into many rooms 
of all sizes and shapes, far too intricate for detailed description. 

The southern side of the first floor was devoted to small surgical wards, operat- 
ing rooms and the X-ray Department, while the remaining portions were taken 
up by the officers' and nurses' dining-rooms, storerooms, galley and carpenter's 
shop. The spacious corridors served as a dining-room for the crew. 

The second floor was used for the most part by the medical staff with wards 
and a small private room for sick officers. Two large dormitories were used as 
living quarters for the crew. 

Large double walled tents were secured from the French and used as wards, 
thus bringing our bed capacity to 800. The facilities of the hospital were, when 
completed, thoroughly adequate for first-class work. A pathological laboratory, 
together with the dental office, hospital pharmacy and diet kitchen, were situated 
on the second floor of the main building, and these departments, which were fully 
equipped, contributed largely to the success of the institution. 

In the operating room the same exceUence of equipment prevailed, and a general 
mortality rate of 2.05 per cent in surgical cases bespeaks the efficient organization 
and equipment of this department. 

Dr. LeConte had been appointed Liaison Medical Officer, representing the 
Navy in Europe, and a considerable part of his time and energies were taken up with 
duties in other places than Brest. By the beginning of the new year, 1918, the 
hospital was functioning normally. The ancient buildings had been transformed 
into a really modern hospital with all of the physical convenience, but lacking, 
however, in architectural attraction. The professional work was much the same 
in amount and kind that we had been accustomed to do at home. 

Impending American activities at the front were foreshadowed by the receipt 
of an order to organize operating trains, which were to be prepared for distant service. 
No call came, however, until June, when three operating units were ordered to 
American Mihtary Hospital No. 1 at Neuilly. Twenty-five hundred cases were 
admitted to the hospital during the first three weeks of June, the majority being 
Marines who had been wounded at Belleau Wood and Chateau-Thierry. On 
the last day of June the operating units returned to Brest and two days later the 
320 survivors of the U. S. S. Covington became our guests. 

On July 17th the operating teams again left Brest and were on active service 
at the front for one month. 

The evacuation of the American wounded was now assuming considerable 
importance and our hospital bore its share of this work. About the same time 
the influenza began to take its awful toll of our sailors on the incoming transports 
and the hospital became very much overcrowded. These eventful days passed 
rapidly, and on November 7th the false armistice was duly celebrated in Brest. 
On November 11th the true news was received. Eighteen days later the officers 
of the organization were at sea homeward bound. The Unit was not formally 
demobilized, as some of its members had been returned to the States as 
"casuals." 

Navy Base Hospital No. 5 had the unique distinction of having served our 

328 



Navy in French waters during almost the entire period of America's participation 
in the war. The great majority of Navy men who were injured in foreign service 
came to our hospital. We also treated the survivors from the vast majority of 
the American ships which suffered at the hands of the enemy. The operating 
teams were the only ones from a naval base hospital able to serve with the Army 
at the front. 

We take a pardonable pride in Base Hospital No. 5, feeling that it played well 
an important part in the war. 

Personnel of Navy Base No. 5 when organized: 

Medical, Surgical and Nursing Staff 

Director, Lieutenant-Commander Robert G. LeConte, M.D. 

Assistant Director, Lieutenant-Commander James E. Talley, M.D. 

Staff: Lieutenants J. H. A. Cleaver; George Darby, D.D.S. ; Leon Herman, M.D.; William 
Hewson, M.D.; John A. Hugo, M.D.; P. M. Kerr, M.D.; B. B. Vincent Lyon, M.D.; Grayson P. 
McCouch, M.D.; George G. Ross, M.D. 

Chief Nurse, Alice M. Garrett. Assistant, Mary S. Young. Operating Room Nurse, Mice 
L. Hurst. Ansestfietisl. Faye L. Fulton. 

UNITED STATES NAVAL COMMISSARY SCHOOLS 
By Mrs. Mary A. Wilson 

There had been great difficulty in securing cooks and chefs for the Navy, or 
at least men who could prepare palatable and nutritious meals, ctnd on June 1, 
1916, Frederick R. Payne, Lieutenant-Commander, U. S. N., retired, acting for 
Captain Hetherington, Commandant, I'nited States Naval Home, conferred with 
Mrs. Mary A. Wilson, instructor of cooking, in reference to the establishment of 
a school in which cooking could be taught. 

The first class was started by Mrs. Wilson on June 5, 1916, with fifty recruits 
of the United States Naval Reserve forces. After the first class was trained and 
sent to ships and stations and produced palatable meals, the Regular United States 
Naval School at Newport, R. I., sent a detachment of fifty men to the school. 

The men trained for the first six classes were used as cooks for Naval Base 
No. 20 in France, on the coast patrol boats in the Fourth Naval District, and on 
Pier No. 19. 

The success of the school soon spread, and Chaplain Tirbou, then on Common- 
wealth Pier, Boston, Mass., sent his daughter to investigate and to ask Mrs. 
Wilson to help them at Boston, where there was a great shortage of dependable 
cooks. WiUiam Rush, commandant of the First Naval District, urged Mrs. 
Wilson to spend part of the time in organizing a school there, which she did in 
the fall of 1916. Harry Schiffman, cook, first class, who was a salesman before 
he enlisted for the cooking school in the Fourth Naval District, was sent with 
Mrs. Wilson on leave of absence, and there on Commonwealth Pier started a 
school similar to the one in Philadelphia, alternating weekly between Boston and 
Philadelphia. 

The quality of the food and the splendid records of the men, caused the 
Secretary of the Navy, Mr. Daniels, to send Rear Admiral Albert E. Ross to 
investigate, and his report, after a rigid inspection of the class, to the Surgeon- 

329 




General of the Navy at Washington, D. C, was that he found the men well berthed, 
though in tents, and the food was of splendid character. 

The men were willing and earnest and took great pride in their work. The 
vEiriety and quantity of food far surpassed other stations in the Navy, and at a 
cost of 28 cents per day per man. 

In Boston, Mass., Admiral Wood, upon the inspection of bread made by the 
boys in the commissary school of which Mrs. Wilson was instructor, inquired the 
cost of the bread, and was told it averaged about 53^2 cents per pound, not counting 
the cost of the labor and heat. He then issued orders that men were to bake 
sufficient bread to supply the boats patrolling the coast as well as the five or six 
thousand men on the pier, and he remarked that he would give the order because 
of the qucdity of the bread, even though it should cost 16 cents per pound instead 
of 5)4 cents per pound, and because he beUeved that men should have good 
bread whenever possible. This school made 2,800 pounds of bread daily. 

In a short time it was found that this home-made bread was not only econom- 
ical in price, but also that when the bread purchased on contract was used 25 per 
cent of it was wasted, against only ) 2 P^r cent of the bread made on the pier — so 
the commandant decided that was a splendid advantage of the navy; the con- 
tracted bread cost 12 cents per pound, and bread made on the pier cost oJ4 cents. 

The fame of the naval cooking school in Philadelphia spread, and Lieutenant- 

330 



Cuminander Parker of New London. Conn., urged Mrs. Wilson to come to the 
fort tlicre and establish a school. 

The Food Administration and the other organizations active in war work in 
Philadelphia were constantly seeking to have the hoys sent out to display theif 
ability with cooking as an incentive to the housewife in her patriotic duties. 

During the "flu" epidemic the cooking school of the United States Naval 
Home manned the municipal hospital and other places, helping out in emergencies. 

Harry Stinger, who in 1916, before enlistment, was a boxmaker,is nowthe United 
States Naval Commissary steward at the United States Naval Home at Philadelphia. 

James A. MacAnally, now steward for the Philadelphia Electric Recreation 
Club, Llanerch, who before the war was an inspector for the electric light com- 
pany, went right from the United States Naval Cooking School to become steward 
to the United States Naval Home and held this position during the war. 

Mrs. Wilson closed her own school in Philadelphia and devoted her entire 
time, day and night, to the training of naval cooks, from June 5, 1916, to December 
31, 1918. without compensation of any kind. She used the equipment of her 
school, including ranges, tables trnd bake ovens, utensils, etc., and from June 
until October purchased such supplies — flour, baking powder, eggs, shortening, etc., 
for the classes to work with. After October, Captain George Cooper, upon an in- 
spection trip, (jfl'ered a yeoman's wage to cover expenses, but his offer was declined. 

Captain Ernest F. Bennett, Chief of Bureau of Navigation, Washington, 
D. C, gave Mrs. Wilson much valuable information on the naval mess, and Secre- 
tary Daniels personally commended her for the meritorious work done. 

Mrs. Wilson's title was instructor of cooking in the United States Naval 
Commissary Schools. No other schools of this character were recognized by the 
United States Naval Department at Washington, D. C. Two or three attempts 
were made by other commissaries to run schools, but they were turned into mess 
galleys. The Bureau of Navigation at Washington recognized the United States 
Naval Commissary Schools at Philadelphia and Boston as the only schools of 
their character outside of the training stations at Newport, R. I., where cooking 
instructions were abandoned during the war. 

PHILADELPHIA'S NAVAL ROLL OF HONOR 



Bellak, Joseph Fausett 
Callioun, Charles Raymond 
Cheney, Richard H. 
Duke, Leo E. 
Edwards, Joseph Francis 
Elliot, Richard McCall 
Evans, George B., Jr. 
Feely, James Francis 



Achatz, John 

Allander, Charles 

Aim, Edwing Alfred 

Anderson, Otto 

Arnold, Edward Frederick 

Ash, Joseph Mansfield 

Baker, Albert Francis 



OFFICERS 

Fry, Charles 

Grover, Joseph McKinney 
Hagood, Walter Brown 
Hill, Richard Franklin 
Kendall, Charles S. 
Lee, Benjamin 
Montague, Harold Edgar 
Neuberger, Gilbert M. 

ENLISTED MEN 
Balfour, Alexander 
Bartlett, John Frederick 
Battersby, Robert Schultz 
Baylor, Benjamin 
Becker, Leonard 
Bennett, Thomas Joseph 
Bennis, Edward Francis, Jr. 

331 



Newell, Edward Dolhver 
Patton, Thomas Bustard 
Roberts, Albert Charles 
Slamm, Charles W. 
Small, Joseph Chandler 
Steel, Basil L. 
Zeckwer, Janiard Richard 



Berman, Benjamin 
Biddle, Herbert Martin 
Bish, Walter Benjamin 
Blemle, John Herbert 
Boyce, Howard Charles 
Boyle, John James, Jr. 
Brearey, Richard Joseph 



Brenizer, Clarence Bruco 
Brickley, Joseph George 
Brister, Bobert Fitch 
Broegger. Joseph Wilhaiii 
Brown, Bernard 
Burton, Evan William 
Burton, Richard, Jr. 
Callahan, James William 
Carpenter, Percy l^eon 
Charette,Ulrich Joseph T. 
Cherry, Joseph Andrew. Jr. 
Clark, John, Jr. 
Cleveland, William Jacoli 
Coldmon, Ivery 
Cormolly, John Edward 
Connor, John Joseph 
Connor, William Aloysius 
Corkle, lieorge Connell 
Corkle, Joseph Jackson 
Dallas, Cecil 
Davis, Frank John 
Davis, Oscar 

Dembress. Anthony Joseph 
Denney, Harry Sawyer 
Deutsch, Morris Adolph 
DeVine, Clarence Richmoml 
Disharoon. Benjamin Coulter 
Dougherty, Dennis 
Drumm, Harry Jacob 
Duane, James Joseph 
Durgin, Dennie Francis 
Fenton, John Lee 
Finnegan, John Michael 
Fischer, Charles John 
Fish, W ilbur 
Fisher, Edward 
Fitzgerald, Edward 
Ford, Thomas Walker 
Foster, Harvey John 
Frank, Gustave 
Freas, Arthur William 
Fredline, John Morris 
Frohner, Raymond Ashton 
Fugita, Kg 
Gallagher, Andrew Jackson 

Town 
Gillan, Hugh Michel 
Givens, Samuel Fitzmaurice 
Glowka, Anthony 
Godshall, Fred 
Goldstein, Samuel 
Golphin, Eugene Prince 
Gordon, William Beif 



Graham, Joseph W ilson 
Greasley, Mark W infield 
Haskett, Leonard Alonzo, Jr. 
Hedges, William Henry 
Henry, William Thomas 
Hill, Robert Gray 
Hiller, Charles Bernard 
Hoover, Frederick 
Hoyle, Harry 

Jenkins, John Wm. Harrison 
Johnson, Dock 
Johnson, John Oscar 
Jordan, Matthew Harson 
Joseph, Thomas Edward 
Kelly, James Vincent 
Kenney, Thomas Joseph, Jr. 
kanuer, Henry Garber 
Kroupa, Frank Laybold 
Kynock, Robert 
Lacy, W infred Herman 
Le Conipte, Paxson 
Lees, Spencer Montgomery 
Leupold, Theodore Philip 
Lindsey, John 
Loree, Frank Hazelton 
Lowry, Mary Gertrude 
Lyons, Daniel Joseph 
McBride, John Alexander 
McCann, George Henry 
McCarthy, Robert Florence 
McCorkle, Henry 
McCullough, James 
McDougall, N\ illiani J., Jr. 
Alclnerny, John Aloysius 
Mclntyre, Thomas .^oysius 
McKeown, Bernard Joseph 
McKnight. John Joseph 
McVeigh, John James 
Maclntyre, John 
Mahathey, James 
Martin, Earl Grouse 
Mason, Charles Eugene 
Meagher, Joseph 
Merkel, George Christian 
Messang, John Peter Albert 
Mickelson, Louis 
Mickum, Martin Wilem 
Miller, Arthur Raymond 
Miller, WilUani Frederick 
Milligan, Joseph Richie 
Minch. Louis 
Moore, Harry Joseph 
Morris, Alfred 



Mulcahy, John Michael 
Murphy, John Edward 
Nickum, Martin Wilen 
Nolan, Sylvester Bernard 
O'Brien, Ferdinand Aloysius 
O'Brien, Hugh Francis 
O'Briest, Charles 
Pote, George \\ ashington 
Pugh, David Edwin Claude 
Pugh, Russel Haworth 
Reichner, Henry Alfred 
Rembold, Edward Louis 
Riir, James Joseph 
Rittenhouse, Ralph Anderson 
Rothschild, Lester Benedict 
l^uir, Alfred Gus 
Ryan, Jeremiah John 
Ryan, Joseph Francis 
Sager, George Francis 
.Schafer, Fred 
Schmidt, Henry Leonharl 
Seltzer, Joseph Nelson 
Shapiro, Robert 
Shea, Frank John 
Sheehan, Irwin John 
Shooter, James Arthur 
Simpson, William Henry 
Singleton, Richard Savage 
Skelly, Harry Nealson 
Slater, George James 
Slaugh, Wilfred Charles 
Smith, John Bolton 
Smith, John Joseph 
Smith, Michael Joseph 
Sofian, George Joseph 
Sojka, Rudolph 
Sopp. Ernest W illiam 
Sporkin, Abraham Leonard 
Stein, Philip Henry, Jr. 
Stemen, Sanfred Aca 
Stovall, Desford Ewing 
Traynor, Alfred Crewitt 
Tufts, John Thomas 
Turner, May Adele 
Vasensky, Joseph Howe 
W ainwright, William Stewart 
Wardick, Harry Beckett 
Warner, Elvin Martin 
Weiss, Harry Benjamin 
Weldon, Anthony Thomas 
White, Albert E. 
W inmill, Charles Fenton 
Yeager, David Krider 



ENLISTED MEN NOT IN ACTIVE SERVICE 



Dudosky, Meyer 
Hanlon, John Jacob 



Landy, Abe 
Lott, John 



Scheer, Arthur Bussell 
Schneider, Emil 



332 



PHILADELPHIA MARINES DURING THE WORLD WAR* 




HILADELPHIA is probably the foremost Marine Corps 
city of the United States. The resohition dated No- 
vember 10, 1775, of the Continental Congress, bringing 
into official existence a Corps of Marines as a part of 
the organized forces of the Thirteen United Colonies, 
was passed in Philadelphia, and a great majority of the 
American Marines, who served during the Revolution, 
were enlisted in Philadelphia. During the French 
War, TripoUtan War, War of 1812. Mexican War, 
Civil War and Spanish War. Philadelphia sent her sons 
with the Marine Corps in large numbers. The Act of July 11, 1798, establishing 
the United States Marine Corps in its present form was passed by Congress in Phil- 
adelphia, and the Crst headquarters of the United States Marine Corps were lo- 
cated in Philadelphia until they moved, at the same time the national capital was 
changed, to Washington in 1800. Since that date the Marine Barracks and the De- 
pot of Supplies have been maintained continuously in Philadelphia. 

The activities of the Marine Corps in Philadelphia during the World War were 
numerous and varied, among them being the Marine Barracks at the Navy Yard; 
the Advanced Base Force, organized for expeditionary service; a Signal Battalion, 
part of the Advanced Base Force, first located at the Marine Barracks and later 
in camp at Paoli, Pa.; a regiment of Marines, which went to Cuba: the Depot of 
Supplies; and a large military police force, which assisted the civil authorities. 

When the World War broke out, the Philadelphia Barracks, a very important 
Marine Corps post, the oldest and foremost station of the Corps, was under com- 
mand of Colonel (now Brigadier-General) Charles G. Long; Colonel Long being 
ordered to Headquarters Marine Corps, Washington, D. C, on September 4, 1917, 
he was relieved of command at Philadelphia by Colonel Ben H. Fuller, who re- 
mained commanding officer until August 31, 1918, when he was succeeded by Col- 
onel Thomas (i. Treadwell, who held command until November 3, 1918; during 
the brief period from November 3, 1918, to the end of the war the barracks were 
under the command of liieutenant-Colonel Macker Babb. These barracks acted 
as a clearing house for most of the Marines that were sent overseas and to the 
other foreign posts where Marines were serving. When the war was over a large 
number of returned Marines passed through the barracks. 

When it became apparent at the beginning of the war that the present Marine 
Corps Recruit Depots would be unable to handle the large number of recruits 
daily enlisting, it was decitled that a new depot would be necessary and Phila- 
delphia was chosen as the site for this new Recruit Depot. A Recruit Depot was 
therefore opened at Philadelphia on April 16, 1917, under command of the Post 
Commander. Colonel Charles G. Long, Major John C. Beaumont and Sergeant- 
Major John F. Cassidy reporting for duty at this Depot on April 19, 1917. The 

*Suniinarized from data received from Major-General L. W. T. Waller, U. S. M. C, Colonel 
William B. Lemly, U. S. M. C. and the Historical Section, U. S. M. C. 

333 




I'hoto by KepIoBle. 



Mess Hall, Marine Barracks, December, 1918. 



camp was located at the Barracks reservation and was opened with approximately 
180 recruits, this number, however, steadily increased until, during June, 1917, the 
maximum of 1,700 recruits was reached. The maximum capacity of the Depot 
was 1,500 men. During the period that the Depot was in operation approximately 
5,000 recruits passed through, receiving their preliminary training there. During 
the war the training period of a recruit covered seven weeks, including target 
practice, averaging about SJ/o hours of training per day. The Depot was dis- 
continued about September 1, 1917, and during the five months of its operation 
was noted for the excellent discipline maintained, there being but thirteen offenses 
committed during this time. 

The First Advanced Base Force was organized in the latter part of 1912, and it 
gradueJly developed until it reached its present high standard. It took part in 
the occupation of Vera Cruz. IMexico in 1914, and in the occupation and pacifica- 
tion of Haiti and Santo Domingo in 1915 and 1916, respectively. 

Field telephone and wireless outfits, mine planting and field signal service 
are important branches of the advance base training given to United States Marines 
in the Advanced Base Force. 

Marines attached to the 1st Begiment are coached in all branches of advanced 
base work. This work is distinctive in many respects from the regular expedi- 
tionary duties undertaken by the Marines from time to time. An advanced base 
may be permanent or temporary, advanced or on the line of communications, at 

334 



home or at a naval base elsewhere. Its work is the establishment and holding of 
a certain base, situated at a coastal point. 

The Marines at Philadelphia during the World War, who were available for 
advanced base duty in connection with the Atlantic Fleet, were trained especially 
for that duty. It is true that our expeditionary forces have accompanied the ad- 
vanced base regiment on sundry expeditions in the past, and have carried out 
operations in which both forces joined. 

However, the work of the advanced base, according to military authorities, 
includes heavy and light artillery, engineering, signaling and mining forces, but 
not necessarily large bodies of infantry. Moreover, they are subject to call at 
a moment's notice to perform operations under the direct command of the 
Commanding Officer of the Fleet. 

During the working day at the barracks during the World War one saw more 
of the workmanlike dungaree than the regulation khaki or winterfield. Outside 
of hours for drills, the majority of Marines wore those rough-and-ready working 
clothes and fell in for mess without changing garments. 

One of the most interesting departments of the advanced base was the "search- 
light outfit. " All of the apparatus, including the searchlights and the dynamos for 
their operation, were carried on huge trucks. The searchlights were mounted on 
platforms fitted with pneumatic-tired wheels, and were lowered to the ground on 
rails, inclined from th(^ platforms of the trucks. They carried several hundred 
feet of cable that permitted the light to be stationed and operated at points in- 
accessible to the large trucks. 

The field telephone was different from the old single-line affair and, by the aid 
of a switchboard, the operators were able to maintain conmiunications with several 




Unirerslly of Pciinsylraiiia Marine Recruils lenrinf) for Marine Base al Paris Island. 

335 







* »«• Mi tuimwkmm^^^^ 



^J^i' 




... ,2^r«S^"^^ 



^F • • ■- ■ -* ^* . 'I 




IJ.inJ 



different points. The linemen, too, were experts in their business. One of them 
performed a lot of stunts while swinging from a telegraph pole, and completed the 
exhibition by coming down the pole head foremost. 

The wireless, or field radio, was equally up-to-the-minute. The Marines 
carried their apparatus out (jn the field, connected up the pole, ran out the wires 
(or antennae) and were ready to operate within a few minutes. There were also 
mine planters, artillerymen, engineers and other specialists in advanced base work. 

The old Philadelphia Barracks and Navy Yard changed with the times. Dur- 
ing the World War there were three brick barracks where formerly there was only 
one. The old wooden barracks to the rear were occupied by "rookie" sailors, large 
numbers of whom were in training at that station. 

Major-General Littleton W. T. Waller was in command of the Advanced Base 
Force during the entire war, with Headquarters at No. 210 South 13th Street, Phila- 
delphia. General Waller's staff consisted of the following officers: Adjutant- 
General, Colonel Louis J. Magill; Paymasters, Colonel William G. Powell, Cap- 
tain S. F. Birthright; Quartermaster, Captain W. C. Barnaby; Aides: Captain 
0. B. Cauldwell, Captain Maurice G. Holmes, Lieutenant William Herbert Derby- 
shire, Captain Wethered Woodworth, Lieutenant Andrew L. W. Gordon, and 
Lieutenant George Bower. 

The Signal Battalion was one of the largest and most interesting of the Units 
of the Advanced Base Force. At the beginning of the war, the old Third Company, 
at the Navy Yard, Philadelphia, represented the total number of signalmen under 
the jurisdiction of the Marine Corps. With the commencement of the recruiting 
CEimpaign, the force was quickly developed and the company so increased that it 
had to be divided and another company, the 87th, created. Further recruiting 
eventually led to the formation of six companies in all, the 3d, 87th, 100th, 147th, 
148th and 158th. These companies were organized into a batteJion under the com- 

336 



mand of Major James J. Meade, U. S. M. C, which was charged with a course of 
training of the most thorough and intensive character; this training was accom- 
ph'shed at the Navy Yard, Philadelphia and during the period June 19 to November 
7, 1918, at Camp Edward C. Fuller, at Paoli, Pa. The battalion was extremely 
fortunate in the site chosen for its work, its camp, known as Camp Edward C. 
Fuller, which was maintained through the summer season of 1918, at Paoli, Pa., 
offering all the necessary advantages for work of this particular kind. The people 
living in the neighborhood were helpful in every way, giving the battalion the 
advantages of their beautiful homes and estates, so that the whole region was at 
the service of the battalion for their maneuvers. The Y. M. C. A. was on hand 
from the day tiie men arrived in camp and a secretary was placed in charge of 
the work. 

The Signal Battalion, as an organization, was not privileged to reach the battle 
lines, to the very deep regret of its members and those who had had the duty of 




Fiflh Beqimenl. U. S. Marines, leaving for France. 

training it, but many men were taken from its ranks and attached to nearly every 
expeditionary force that went abroad. The needs of the entire Marine Corps 
for signalmen were supplied from this battalion. The 5th Regiment of Marines, 
which made its iniix'risiiablc fame at Belleau Wood, took its signalmen contingent 
li'oni tliis battalion and tiiose men had their full share in the world famous work 
of that historic unit. The battalion also furnished signal detachments to various 
other organizations thai went to France, including the 6th, 11th and 13th Regi- 
ments, and other dctaciuiients went to tropical expeditionary forces. 

From July 11, 1798, when the Marine Corps was authorized in its present 
form by Congress, the D(>pot of Supplies, or a corresponding organization, has been 
continuously located in Philadelphia, and it was Captain FrankHn Wharton, a 
noted Philadelphian and later Commandant of the Marine Corps, who was the 
officer fust placed in charge of this important post. 

During the World War, Brigadier General Cyrus S. Radford, was in command 
of the Depot of Supplies, located at No. 1100 South Broad Street, Philadelphia. 

337 



General Radford was decorated by three difTerent nations for distinguished service, 
receiving the Navy Cross from his own country, the Medaille Militaire from the 
Republic of Haiti, and from the Republic of Cuba the First Class Military Merit 
Medal. The following officers served at the Depot of Supplies for ail or part of 
the period of the World War: Major Norman G. Rurton, !Major Edward H. Conger, 
Major Wilham J. Crosson, Captain Rudolph C. Rasmussen, Captain William 
L. Riley, Captain Walter Wooding, First Lieutenant Claude T. Lytle, First Lieu- 
tenant William L. York, Second Lieutenants Napoleon L. Rourret. Charles P. Hill, 
Patrick H. Kelly, .losephus Daniels, Jr., Charles H. Lovett, Allen G. WilUams, 
Marine Gunner William A. Fragner, and the following Quartermaster Clerks, 
William E. Quaster, Robert Falconer, Russel S. (iarland, Charles W. Griesing, 
Rarney W. Johnson, Charles F. Shisler, William M. Wellemeyer and Joseph S. 
King. 

During the period of the war the Depot outfitted and equipped thirty-six 
expeditionary units for service in France and the West Indies, and over 31.000.000 
pounds of various kinds of supplies were shipped on Govermnent bills of lading. 
The Depot departments were so organized that it was only necessary to expctnd 
each division of the office forces and increase the number of employes and machines 
in the manufacturing departments in order to meet the increased demands during 
the war. The personnel of the Depot on June 30. 1919, was as follows: thirteen 
commissioned officers, seven warrant officers, two ci\ilians. 102 enlisted men of 




Courtesy of Frank W. Buhler. Stanley Co. of America. 

Marine Veteran greets wounded Marines. 
338 



the regular service, twenty-one reservists and 1,095 other employes of all classes, 
making a total personnel of 1.210. 

During the period of the World War there were enlisted at the recruiting 
offices in Philadelphia and the surrounding towns 4,110 men. Many of these 
Marines served in P'rance and in actual battle against the Germans. 

The first organization of Marines to leave the United States for service in 
France during the World War was the 5th Regiment, and it was organized on June 
7, 1917, at the Marine Barracks, Navy Yard, Philadelphia, Pa. This regiment 
consisting of seventy officers and 2,689 enlisted men, approximately one-sixtli 
of the entire enlisted strength of the Marine Corps, sailed from the United States 
on June 14, 1917. forming one-fifth of the first expedition of American troops 
to France. Many Phiiadelpiiians were a part of this regiment. 

Between April 6, 1917, and November 11, 1918, there was a total of 331 officers 
and 13,593 enlisted men sailing from Philadel|)hia on board the following vessels 
for service overseas: 

Henderson 116 officers 7.266 enlisted men 

De Kalb 85 officers 2,821 enlisted men 

Von Steuben 50 officers 2.041 enlisted men 

Hancock 37 officers 999 enlisted men 

St. Louis 9 officers 346 enlisted men 

Newport News 4 officers 120 enlisted men 



Total 331 officers 13,593 enlisted men 

Three Marine officers and fifty other Marines from Philadelphia died overseas . 

That Philadelphia Marines performed their share of heroism during the 
war is evidenced by the award to those who claim Philadelphia as their residence 
of one Distinguished Service Medal, five Distinguished Service Crosses, ten 
Navy Crosses, and twenty-nine Croix de Guerre. 

Major Pere Wilmer was awarded a Croix de Guerre and a Navy Cross for " e.xceptionally 
meritorious and distinguished service as Battalion Commander, 2d Battalion. 6th Regiment. At 
the attack of the 19th of July, 1918, near Vierzy. he showed great courage and an utter disregard 
of danger in crossing with his battalion an ejcposed terrain for a distance of three kilometers under 
intense artillery and machine gun fire. He led his men on by his example." "On June 6, 1918, 
be displayed remarkable courage and coolness under \-iolent artillery and machine gun fire, giving 
fine example to men placed under his orders, many times exposing himself to the bombardment 
of the enemy in order to discover machine gun emplacements." 

Captain John Henry Fay was awarded the Navy Cross and the Distinguished Service Cross 
while serving with the 5th Marines. "At Chateau-Thierry, France, on June 6, 1918, he displayed 
extraordinary heroism in the disposition of his machine gims under particularly difiicull conditions 
opposed by superior forces; his utter indifference to p«Tsonal danger furnished an example which 
inspired his men to success." 

Captain Frederick C. Wheeler, for service with the 6th Marines, was awarded a Croix de 
Guerre, Navy Cross and Distinguished Service Cross. "On June 5, 1918, near Bouresches, he was 
conspicuous for his bravery in remaining in action although twice wounded, refusing to be evacuated 
until wounded a third time, and then endeavoring to return to his command." Captain Wheeler 
was also cited for bravery on July 19, 1918. 

First Lieutenant William Paul Henchel, for service with the 6th .Machine Gun Battalion of 
Marines, was awarde<l the Croix de Guerre. "During the combats of July 19, 1918, near Vierzy, 
he displayed absolute courage and devotion, charged with supporting a nearby regiment he followed 
the attack under violent artillery and machine gun fire, encouraging his men and giving them an 
excellent example of coolness under most difficult circumstances. " 

339 



First Lieutenant Robert C. Pitts was awarded the Crobc de Guerre and Navy Cross "for 
attacking enemy out of his sector, June 6 to 9, 1918, thereby assisting the 116th Infantry of France. " 
First Lieutenant Carl Robertson Dietrich served on the staff of Brigadier General Wendell 
C. Neville, participating in every engagement in which the .5th Marines took part, was awarded 
the Croix de Guerre and the Navy Cross. "On June 11. 1918, in Belleau Wood, under ex- 
tremely violent artillery and machine gun tire, he demonstrated remarkable courage and inde- 
fatigable energy, and conducted himself in a manner worthy of praise in the incessant execution 
of his duties." 

Second Lieutenant Thomas H. Miles, while serving with the 5th Marines, was awarded the 
Distinguished Service Cross and Navy Cross. "Killed in action at Chateau-Thierry, France, 
June 6, 1918, he gave the supreme proof of that extraordinary heroism which will serve as an ex- 
ample to hitherto untried troops." 

Second Lieutenant Henry P. Glendinning, while serving with the ."Sth Marines, was awarded 
the CroLx de Guerre and the Navy Cross. "On the 3d and tth of October, 1918. in the region 
of Mont Blanc, under a violent Ijonibardment. he showed fine quahties as a commander as well 
as remarkable courage and an absolute contempt for danger. Directed the advance of his men, 
assuring himself personally of the prompt evacuation of the wounded," 

Second Lieutenant Frank Nelms, Jr., was awarded a Distinguished Service Medal (Navy) 
"for extraordinary heroism as a pilot in the 1st Marine Aviation at th(> front in France; on Septem- 
ber 28, 1918, while on an air raid in enemy territory, he was attacked by a superior number of 
enemy scouts and is believed to have destroyed an enemy plane. On October 2, 1918, he flew 
over besieged French troops who were cut off from supphes for two days, and at 100 feel altitude 
dropped food to them, each time under intense tire from rifles, machine guns and artillery on the 
ground; he repeated this performance three times." 

Marine Gunner Thomas Quigley was awarded a Croix de Guerre while serving with the 
5th Marines. "On October 4, 1918, near St. Etienne a Arnes, he proved himself of exceptional 
courage under the fire of enemy artillery and machine guns; during the attack aroused the ardor 
of his men. He was seriously wounde<l during the action. " 

Sergeant Thomas Roberts Reath, while serving with the 5th Marines, was awarded the Navy 
Cross. " On June 8th, in Belleau Wood, Sergeant Reath volunteered to take an important message 
from his company to the battahon. The enemy were laying down a heavy barrage and machine 
gun fire and the delivery of the message involved passing over a stretch of exposed ground. In 
the performance of this duty, voluntarily assumed. Sergeant Reath was killed. " 

Corporal Edward Howard Haws was awarded the Croix de Guerre, Navy Cross and Distin- 
guished Service Cross. "For extraordinary heroism in action near Mont Blanc, October 2 to 9, 
1918, throughout, eight days of fighting he fearlessly and tirelessly carried messages between his 
company and battalion headquarters through heavy machine gun and artillery fire." 

Corporal Charles Wilmer Hewitt, Jr., was awarded the Navy Cross and Distinguished Service 
Cross. "Killed in action at Chateau-Thierry, June 6th, he gave the supreme proof of that ex- 
traordinary heroism which will serve as an example to hitherto untried troops. " 

Private Roy Hobson Simpson, while serving with the 5lh Marines, was awarded the Navj 
Cross and the Distinguished Service Cross. "For extraordinary heroism in action in the attack 
on Bois de Belleau, June 12th; he carried a message from battalion to company headquarters 
directly across the face of the enemy fire. Shot through the chest, he continued running and called 
out, 'I must deUver this message,' struggling forward for 50 feet more before falling in his heroic 
effort to carry out his mission. " 

The Croix de Guerre was also awarded to; 

Second Lieutenant Cornelius McFadden. Jr., 6th Marines. 

Sergeant WiUiam H. Bulman, 5th Marines. Died of wounds received in action, 7-30-17. 

Sergeant Langdon Austin Cook, 6th Marines. 

Sergeant Frank Gray, 5th Marines. 

Sergeant Thomas James Kelly, 6th Marines. 

Sergeant John Stapleton, 5th Marines. 

Corporal WiUiam Feaster, 5th Marines. 

Corporal Edward Russell Quay, 6th Marines. 

Private, First Class, Edward Harry Rilfert, 5th Marines. 

340 



Truiupeter Junies Ijouis Toner, 5th Marines. 

Private Edward Dorsey, 5th Marines. Killed in action, 10-5-18. 

Private Charles Theodore Alton, 5th Marines. 

Private Elwood Francis Engle, 5th Marines. 

Private \\ illiain M. E. Hess, 6th Marines. 

Private Milton Ernst Horn, 5th Marines. 

Private Daniel Joseph Littley, 5th Marines. 

Private Walter Morris, 5th Marines. 

Private Jack Pierce, 5th Marines. 

Private Warren Morgan Piatt, 6th Marines. 

Private Joseph Francis Quinn, 5th Marines. Died of wounds, 10-4-18. 

Private Morris Robert Llnckel, 5th Marines. 

Private William Edward Wanipler, 6th Marines. 

Among other of the many Marine officers not mentioned above who were from 
Philadelphia, and who served with credit in the Marine Corps during the war, are 
the following: 

Major General William P. Biddle (retired), recalled to active service, performed duty as 
President of a General Court-Martial Board at San Diego, Gal., from May 20, 1918, to May 
21, 1919, when he returned to the retired list. 

Lieutenant Colonel WiUiam L. Redles, awarded Diploma of the 4th Class, Order of the 
Rising Sun, by the Eniperor of Japan, "as an expression of his benevolence for the excellent service 
performed by him for the Empire of Japan while assistant naval attache to the American Em- 
bassy at Tokyo during the World War." 

Lieutenant Colonel Hamilton D. South served as Commanding Officer of the Marine De- 
tachment, American Legation, Managua, Nicaragua, from the begining of the war until April 16, 
1918, and as officer in charge of the Marine Officers' Training Camp at Quantico, Va., from May 
2,3, 1918, to the end of the war. 

Major Clayton B. Vogel during the period of the war served as an Inspector in the Haitian 
Gendarmerie in Haiti. 

Major Edwin N. McClellai] .tl the beginning of the war was in command of the Marine Guard 
of the U. S. S. Arizona of the Atlantic Fleet, and on December 29, 1917, was transferred to the 
U. S. S. Minnesota as Aide to Vice-Admiral Albert W. Grant, Commander, Battleship Force One, 
Atlantic l<"leet, and in coiimiand of the Marine Regiment in that Force. Major McClellan received 
the following letter of commendation from tlie Secretary of the Navy, which is authority for him 
to wear a silver star in his Victory Medal: "As Aide to Commander, Battleship Force One, Force 
Marine and Discipline Officer, performed distinguished services and rendered unusual assistance 
in connection with inspections, connnunications, legal work and other staff duties; and in command 
of the Force Marine Regiment. While serving on the Minnesota, when that flagship was mined 
by the Germans, September 29, 1918, his services, among others, were such as to cause the Board 
of Investigation to express the opinion that officers and crew deserved the highest praise for the 
manner in which the ship was handled after the explosion, for maintaining order, for localizing 
the injury to the sliip, and for successfully navigating her to port. " The Commander, Battleship 
Force One, Atlantic Fleet, recommended Major McClellan for the Navy Cross on the following 
citation: "For distinguished service in the fine of his profession while Aide to Commander Battle- 
ship Force One, and Discipline Officer, having direct charge of all legal work, courts and proceedings 
pertaining to Naval Administration of the Force. The percentage of trials by General Court- 
Martial in Battleship Force One was about four-tenths of one per cent, or one trial for every four 
hundred men in the force. As evidenced by this extremely low percentage, the maintenance of 
discipline without resort to such trials is a mark of the efficiency of the Force Discipline Officer. 
It was largely through Major McClellan's efforts that the number of prisoners serving sentences 
at Naval Prisons on shore was reduced." Major McClellan also served with the A. E. F. in 
command of the Ninth Separate Battalion, and on a second tour of duty abroad served with 
the Historical Section, G. H. Q., at Chaumont and with the Fourth Brigade of Marines in 
Germany. 

Major Harold F. Wirgman at the beginning of the war was Marine Officer on the U. S. S. 
Pennsylvania, and on August 14, 1918, was transferred to the U. S. S. New Mexico, where he served 

341 



as Force Marine (Mlicer, Batlli-ship Force Two, and aide on stall' of Force Commander, until Sep- 
tember 4, 1918, when he served as Division Marine Officer. Di\ision 8, Atlantic Fleet and aide to 
Division Conniiander until the end of the war. On October 14, 1919, aboard the New Mexico, 
His Majesty the King of the Belgians, conferred the decoration of "Officer of the Order of Leopold 
II " upon Major W irgman, stating that the decoration was conferred by his Government in recog- 
nizance of the in\aluable services to the .Mlied cause rendered by the United States Navy during 
the war with Germany. 

Major Samuel P. Budd served with the 2d Brigade U. S. Marines in Santo Domingo at the 
outbreak of the war until June 3, 1917, when he was transferred to the 10th Regiment at Quantico, 
Va., where he remained to the end of the war. 

Major A. J. Drexel Biddle served with Headquarters, Advanced Base Force, Philadelphia, 
at Paris Island. S. C, and at (.)uantico, Va. Major Biddle was on temporary <hity in Europe from 
March 11, 1918, to June 1, 1918, for the purpose of obtaining informaticjn concerning the training 
of troops for service in the war zone. 

Major R. R. Ilogan was stationed at the Navy Yard, Philadelphia, in command of the Engineer 
Unit of the Ad\-anced Base Force. In June, 1918, he took the 2d Casual Replacement Battalit)n 
to France and returned to Philadelphia in October, 1918, to organize a full regiment of engineers. 

Captain Miles R. Thacher served at Paris Island, S. C, at Quantico, Va., and with the 
American Expeditionary Force in France. 

Captain Maurice S. Berry commanded the Marine Guard on U. S. S. Wilmington, on the 
Asiatic station: was transferred to Marine Barracks, Olongapo, P. I., and then to Quantico, Va. 
He served with the A. E. F. in FVance also. 

Captain I^uis E. Fagan was with the Haitian Gendarmerie at the beginning of the war. 
After transfers to \\'ashington. D. C, to U. S. S. Rhode Island and to Quantico, \a., he joined 
the 5th Marines in France and participated in the Meuse-Argonne ofrensi\e. 

Captain Jolm H. Craige sailed for France with the 11th Marines as Regimental ,\djiitant 
and Intelligence Officer. After the armistice, he was appointed Athletic Officer of the Tours 
District in the SerNice of Supplies. While the 4th Brigade of Marines was stationed in Ger- 
many, Captain Craige was attached to it on special temporary duty. 

Captain David H. Miller served with the Haitian Constabulary imtil October 18, 1917, 
when he was transferred to Marine Barracks, Norfolk, Va., where he remained until November 9. 
1917, when he joined the U. S. .S. Florida as Marine Officer; he was transferred to the U. S. S. Seattle 
as Marine Officer, on November 16, 1917, and remained on that vessel during the remainder of the war. 

Second Lieutenant Errol \\ bite went to France with the First Expeditionary Force, serving 
with the 5th Marines, participating with them in the St. Mihiel offensive. 

PHILADELPHIA'S U. S. M. C. HONOR ROLL 



Three Marine officers and fifty other Marines from Phihidelphia, diet! overseas: 



Arnott, James Barnes 
Atkins, Harold Dewey 
Berman, Benjamin 
Black, William B. 
Bulman. William H. 
Cabell. Edward Elvin 
Corbin, Francis Bernard 
Cummings, Brinton Snuth 
Devlin, Bernard Joseph 
Dorsey, Edward 
Dorsey, Howard Swier 
Dowling, Joseph Edward 
Farrell, Joseph 
Given, Raymond Newlin 
Gravener, John Nelson 
Green, Charles Naylor 
Hartley, Paul Francis 
Hauberry, Joseph Henry 



Hausler, Walter Anthony 
Hewitt, Charles Wilnier, Jr. 
Jones, Felix William 
Lacey, William Joseph 
Lewis, Wheatley Dale 
Logue, Frank C. 
Lowe, John Wilham. Jr. 
Mcllhenney, G. V. 
McMenamy, Charles 
Mahrer, William John 
Mautz, Charles Henry 
Miles, Thomas H., Jr. 
Napp, Jack 

Osborne, Vivian Nickalls 
Paul .\ndrew Stanton 
Quinn, Joseph Francis 
Reath, Thomas Roberts 
Reichert, H. D. W. 



Rowan, Bernard John 
Rubinson, Harry 
Rudd, Frederick Ashton 
Sacks, Howard 
.Seifert. Julian Henry 
Souder. Herbert Hibbs 
Spearing. Walter Joseph 
.Stanton, Paul .\ndrew 
Stirling, Hugh Alexander 
Sustin, Benjamin 
Taunt, Clarence 
Taylor, Corwin Blessing 
Thorn, Raymond Stacy 
Titus, Charles Warton 
Willis, George Thomas 
Wolfkill. Frank Earnest 
Zinnel. \\ alter Joseph 



342 



PENNSYLVANIA COMMISSION OF PUBLIC SAFETY AND 

DEFENSE 

Hon. William C Sproul, ChMiniinii 
Hon. Frank B. MrClain. TrfasiiriT 
Hon. Edward K. Beidli-nmn 
Hon. Harmon M. Kt'phart 
Hon. Charles A. Snyder 
Adjutant General Frank D. Beary 

PENNSYLVANIA COUNCIL OF NATIONAL DEFENSE 

George Wharton Pepper, Chnirnian 
Lewis E. Beitler. Secretary 
Eflingham B. Morris, Treasurer 
Lewis S. Sadler, E.xecutive Manager 

Executive Commitlee 
E. M. C. Africa, W. W. Atterhury, Captain C. W. Brown, \. C. Dinkey, Spencer C. Gilbert, 
H. J. Hayden, J. B. McMlister, Dr. S. B. McCorniick, Mrs. ,1. Willis Martin, A. W. Mellon, 
E. B. Morris, Arthur E. Newbold, Allen P. Parley, A. C. Holiinscm, James Scarlet, A. W. Sewall, 
E. T. Stotesbury, Col. L. A. Watres. 

Wlien a history is written of Pennsylvania's part in winning the war, the chap- 
ters devoted to civihan atti\ities will be largely a recital of the work of the 
Pennsylvania Council of National Defense, the headquarters of which were in the 
Finance Building, Philadelphia. 

This war- emergency body, originally known as the Committee of Public 
Safety for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, was created in March, 1917, by 
appointment of the Governor, to mobilize and conserve the civil resources of the 
State for the benefit of the Federal war program. Some 300 prominent citizens 
were named to inaugurate the work. Successive appointments soon increased 
the membership imtil the Coimcil became the largest public organization ever 
created in Pennsylvania, with a roster of 15,000 representative, influential civilians 
whose services were given voluntarily as required to help the nation win the war. 

Federal authority was early vested in the Council, through which it became 
the medium for the conduct of practically all of the national war policies, so far 
as they applied to Pennsylvania. The State Legislature promptly provided a war 
work fund of S2.000,000, control of which was assigned to the Pennsylvania Com- 
mission of Public Safety and Defense, composed of the Governor, Lieutenant 
Governor, Auditor General, Adjutant General and State Treasurer. The Council 
(at that time the Committee of Public Safety) became the functioning arm of this 
Commission, and its numerous war emergency undertakings were approved and 
financed to total appropriations of more than $1,000,000. 

To review the comprehensive work of the Council would be to enumerate 
almost all of the noteworthy war-time achievements of the State. Its far-reaching 
program gradually led to an assimilation of all of the important civilian service 
essential to successful prosecution of the war. The conduct of its work repre- 
sented a concentration of eil'ort not paralleled at any other time in Pennsylvania's 

343 



history and probably unexcelled by any other State mobilization of potential 
resources. Splendid as were its physical accomplishments, perhaps the greatest 
service rendered by the Council was its fusing of the patriotic endeavor of all creeds 
and classes into a singleness and unanimity of purpose — that purpose a fixed and 
unselfish resolve to spare no efl'ort and to shirk no duty that would help to win the 
war. Never before in Pennsylvania has this unanimity of pubfic aim been achieved. 
The Council was able to bring about this result because of its State-wide organiza- 
tion and its solitary objective— success of the national war program. 

Much of the work undertaken was of a constructive character, and its value 
was so apparent that some features were continued aftt-r the general activities of the 

Council were terminated . Among these 
were: Americanization; work for the 
foreign-born; Food Supply and Food 
Conservation work; Employment Ser- 
\ ic{> and Child Welfare activities. 

The work of the Council was con- 
ducted under a plan which concentrated 
all activities in five divisions, with 
a|ipro])iiate st>parate departments, all 
under central executive control. 

Major divisions directing activities 
were: Administration: \vhi<li included 
the Departments of Finance, Publicity, 
Legislation and Legal Advisory De- 
partment; Relief: including the 
Departments of Medicine, Sanitation 
and Hospitals and Civic Relief; 
Equipment and Supplies, with the 
Departments of Food Supply, Con- 
struction and Materials, and Highways 
Transport Committee; Service: with 
the Departments of Civilian Service 
and Labor, Military Service. Naval Service, and Volunteer Home Defense Police; 
Transportation: with the Departments of Railroads, Electric Railways and 
Motors, and Highways and Waterways. 

The Council, therefore, had a working scope covering practically every field 
of useful endeavor. 

The Directors, Chairmen and Chiefs of the several Departments, Committees 
and Bureaus, included: 

Finance — Director, Arthur E. Newbold. 

Publkily and Education— D'necioT. Dr. William McClellan; Chief of Bureau of Publicity. 
Herman L. Collins; Chief of Speakers' Bureau, Benjamin H. Ludlow ; Chief of Liberty Sing Bureau, 
John F. Braun; Chief of Bureau of Americanization, E, E. Bach; Chief of Bureau of War Charities, 
Sydney L. Wright. 

Legislation — Director, Hon. Frank Gunnison. 

Legal Advisory Department — Director, John Hampton Barnes. 

Medicine, Sanitation and Hospitals— Bheclor, Dr. Hobart A. Hare; Vice-Director. Charlton 
Yarnall. 

Civic Relief— Director, Col. Louis J. Kolb; Vice-Director, Dr. Samuel McC. Hamiil. 

344 




Courtesy of Fi 



\V lUiliiLT. Stanley Co. of America. 



Food Supply — Director, Howard Heinz; Vice-Director, J. S. Crutchfielil. 
Construction and Materials — Director, B. Dawson Coleman. 
Plants — Director, George S. Davison. 

Highways Transport Committee — Director, Da\i(l S. I,ii(lhiiii: Vice-Director, Gideon M. 
Stull; Vice-Director, J. Howard Reber; Vice-Director, J. M. Miirdiick. 
Civilian Service and Labor — Director, Edgar C. Felton. 
Military Service — Director, T. DeWitt Ciiyler. 

Naval Service — Director, E. Walter Clark: Vice-Director, David Newhall. 
Volunteer Home Defense Police — Dire<t(jr, Ijeiilenant Colonel .John C. Groonie. U. S. A.; 
Acting Director, William S. Ellis. 

Railroads, Electric Railways, Highways and Waterways — Director, Sanuiel Hea ; Vice-Direclor. 
Agnew T. Dice; Vice-Director, Thomas E. Mitten; Vice-Director, Moorhead C. Kennedy. 

War History Commission — Chairman, Hon. William C. Sproul; Vice-Chairman, John Bach 
McMaster; Secretary, .\lbert E. Mckinley. 

Woman's Committee — Chairman, Mrs. J. Willis Martin. 

V ice-Chairmen: Mrs. Anthony Wayne Cook, Mrs. Ronald P. Gleason, Mrs. John C. Groome, 
Mrs. Edward S. Lindsey, Miss Anne McCormick, Mrs. John O. Miller, Mrs. Lonis Piollet, Mrs. 
Thomas Robins, Mrs. Edward T. Stotesbury, Mrs. Helen Glenn Tyson. 

Secretary: Mrs. H. S. Prentiss Nichols; Treasurer: Miss Helen Fleisher. 
Ceneral Directors: 

Registration and Organization, Mrs. Walter King Sharpe, Chambersburg. I'a. 

Food Conservation and Production, Mrs. Charles M. Lea, Philadelphia. 

Associate Director, Mrs. Edith Ellicott Smith, Moorestown, N. J. 

Women in Industry, Mrs. Thomas Robins, Philadelphia. 

Child Welfare, Miss Katherine Tucker, R. N., Philadelphia. 

Education — Speakers' Bureau, Americanization, Mrs. Herbert Lincoln Clark. Philadelphia. 

Liberty Loan, Mrs. John O. Miller, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Foreign Relief, Mrs. Hutton Kennedy, Philadelphia. 

Health and Recreation, Mrs. John Gribbel, Wyncote, Pa. 

Acting Director, Mrs. John Meigs, Pottstown, Pa. 

Bureau of Information, Miss Helen Fleisher, Philadelphia. 

Standing Conunittee on Nursing, Chairman, Miss Roberta .M. W i-st. R. N., Philadelphia. 

As the Council was the only body which had delegated State authority to 
mobilize and conserve all resources essential to the prosecution of the war. it 
coordinated and assimilated operations of many useful established organizations 
and institutions. As necessity demanded, their functions were incorporated al- 
most wholly or in part into the general work. Activities of official State depart, 
ments essential to the efficiency of the Council's program were at its (onnnand- 
The Council thus stood as the one body in Pennsylvania with organization 
and authority for carrying out its great and vital work. 

There were seventy sub-divisions of the Council in the sixty-seven counties 
of the State, and, generally, a man served as Chairman and a woman as 
Vice-Chairman. These sub-committees were duplicates, in organization and working 
scope, of the main Council. Each sub-council had one salaried officer — an Execu- 
tive Secretary — who was responsible for stimulation of effort in his county, for 
keeping his Council informed of the State-wide work, and for acquainting head- 
quarters with the activities of his particular Council. 

A word of appreciation is due those loyal and untiring citizens who so promptly 
accepted membership in the Pennsylvania Council of National Defense and so 
devotedly fulfilled the patriotic obligations which they assumed with that member- 
ship. Th(nr services were vital as a re-inforcement of the country's military efl'ort, 
and will be held in grateful remembrance as having enabled Pennsylvania to main- 

345 



tail! her seivicf Ijack ul' the line equal to the imsuipassrMl staiidaid nl' her service 
on the battle front. 

THE PHILADELPHIA COUNCIL OF NATIONAL DEFENSE 

On August 13, 1918, the Philadelphia Council of National Defense was 
organized under the Chairmanship of the Hon. J. Willis Martin. Its other officers 
were: John H. Mason, \ ice-Chairman; George Harrison Frazier, Treasurer; Irvin 
L. Stone, Secretary. Robert D. Dripps was appointed Executive Manager together 
with J. Jarden (iuenther and Raymond M. Slotter as Associate Managers. Cpon 
the resignation of Mr. Dripps in February. 1919, he was succeeded by Mr. (iuenther. 
The offices of the Council were in the Liberty Ruilding and were given, rent free. 
by the Hon. John Wanamaker. 

The Executive Committee included, in addition to the officers: Chester N. 
Farr, Arthur V. Morton. Samuel Rea. John A. \ oil, Mrs. John C. (iroome. Mrs. 
Henry D. Jump, Mrs. Louis C. Madeira. William West. 

The members of the Philadelphia Council were: Jay Cot)ke, 3d. John T. 
Windrim. Sydney L. Wright, Ernest T. Trigg, Mrs. Rarcla> H. Warhurton, J. D. 
Sutherland. Ir\in L. Stone. Frank Roma, Murtha P. Quinn, Kli K. i^rice, Mrs. 
George Wharton Pepper, Lewis H. Parsons, Mrs. Wm. L. McLean. Mrs. George 
McFadden. Mrs. H. G. McCouch, Wm. McClellan, Horatio G. Lloyd, Dr. Wilmer 
Rrusen, Jos. A. Janney, Bayard Henry. Lt. -Col. C. B. Hatch. Charles B. Hall. 
Mrs. F. B. Geraghty, Geo. H. Frazier, J. A. Flaherty, Edward J. du Mee, Rev. 
Edw. Heyl Delk. J. Howell Cummings, Herman L. Collins, Charles Riddle. 

The puiposes of the Philadelphia Council were to cooperate with the work 
of the State Council of Defense and to develop other activities to meet local needs. 

As its work expanded the following departm(>nts were created: Speakers' 
Bureau, including the Four-Minute Men; Publicity Department; Civilian Service 
and Labor; Public Service Reserve; United States Boys' Working Reserve; 
Transportation; Civic Relief; Construction and Material; United States Homes 
Registration Rureau; Farm Service Bureau; Liberty Sing; Associated Federal 
Labor Boards for Philadelphia; Committee on Social Hygiene; \ olunteer Place- 
ment Bureau. 

Almost immediately after being organized, the Council was called upon to aid 
in the influenza epidemic. It acted as a coordinating force and as a clearing house 
for general relief work. By courtesy of the Strawbiidge and Clothier store, it 
operated a switchboard for the purpose of giving information in regard to doctors, 
nurses and undertakers. Its transportation department, with the assistance of 
the Automobile Club of Philadelphia, the Auto-Car Company and other auto- 
mobile agencies, provided special ambulances and, later, with the cooperation of 
several of the depai'tment stores and local truck owners, supplied motor trucks 
for the removal of bodies. The Council secured the release, on furlough, of men 
in Camp Dix and other netu'by cantonments, who previous to their service in 
the army had been employed in undertaking establishments. So great was the 
mortality in Philadelphia during the epidemic that thousands of bodies had to 
be handled with the greatest possible speed and, therefore, the undertakers were, 
in many cases, unprotected in the matter of payment. The Council arranged 
with the city government to guarantee the sum of $7.t for the interment of a body. 

:M6 




Courtesy of Frank W. 



Buhler. Stanley Co of America. 

Brilisli Marines al Hillenhonse Square. 



whenever the family was unable to pay. The services rendered in this time of 
crisis ehcited expressions of sincere gratitude from scores of bereaved people. 

The signing of the armistice on November 1 Ith made the spirit of Thanksgiving 
Day, 1918, very real, and throughout the city Thanksgiving services were con- 
ducted in forty or more of the pubUc squares by clergymen. The Council had 
pi'inted a special program which contained the President's Proclamation, a message 
written for the occasion by George Wharton Pepper and a number of patiiotic 
hymns and songs. A song-leader and cornetist led the music at each place. 

A nation-wide observance was asked for Saturday, Decembers, 1918, in honor 
of Great Britain. The British Admiralty dispatciied H. M. S. Cumberland, under 
command of Captain Blackett, to Philadelphia, and a series of events were arranged 
for the entertainment of the officers and men. Three hundred and sixty sailors 
and marines. inc;luding a band from the Cumberland, escorted by sailors from League 
Island and a navy band, marched through the streets in the center of the city, 
and were reviewed in Bittenhouse Square by Major General McLachlan, of the 
British War Mission, and by American naval and military officers. The officers 
were entertained at a luncheon at the Navy House, East Bittenhouse Square, 
and the men marched over to the United Service Club, 22d Street below Walnut, 
where sandwiches, coffee, cakes and cigarettes were served. It is interesting to 
note that this parade of men from a British ship was the first time since the Amei'ican 
Bevolution that British troops, under arms, had marched through the city. 

347 



A football same was staged at Franklin Field in the afternoon, and between 
halves the visiting navy men paraded around the held and were given a great 
ovation. After the game the men marched to Houston Hall for a "'smoke," and 
then proceeded on special trolleys to the War Camp Community Service Canteen, 
where supper was served by a committee from the National League for Woman's 
Service. The officers of the ship were the guests of Lewis S. Sadler, Executive 
Manager of the Pennsylvania Council of National Defense, at an informal 
dinner at the Bellevue-Stratford Hotel. In the evening a mass meeting was held 
in the Metropolitan Opera House, and so great was the crowd that an overflow 
meeting was hurriedly arranged and speeches were delivered from the Poplar 
Street steps of the building. 

In December, 1919, Bayard Henry, a member of the Council, suggested 
that the Council secure permission from the British Bureau of Information, of 
which Sir Geoffrey Butler was the head, to exhibit in Philadelphia the collection 
of British naval 'photographs in color. These photographs, the largest of which 
was 26 feet by 12 feet, disclosed every phase of modern naval warfare, and a 
number of them, taken by American sailors, showed the American fleet on duty. 
Permission having been obtained, the pictures were placed on exhibition in the 
galleries of the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts. A small entrance fee was 
charged and, at the r(>quest of the British authorities, the net proceeds were donated 
to American war charities. Over 3.5,000 people viewed the exhibit, of which 
number were some 8,000 school children, who were admitted free and who had 
the pictures personally explained to them. 

The gentlemen in charge of the photographs were H. N. D. Talbot and Lieu- 
tenant H. T. C. Walker. Mr. Walker was one of the heroes of the Zeebrugge fight. 
On January 19, 1919, the Council assisted the British Committee of the 
Emergency Aid of Pennsylvania in arranging for a meeting at the Academy of 
Music, addressed by Sir Arthur Pearson on behalf of St. Dunstan's Hospital for 
blinded soldiers. 

In February. 1919, Judge Martin appointed a committee to plan for welcoming 
the troops which were soon to return to Philadelphia. The city government was 
represented by the presidents of Select and Common Councils, the Hon. James E. 
Lennon and the Hon. E. B. Gleason; Isaac D. Hetzell and Charles B. Hall, Chair- 
man and Secretary respectively of the Councihnanic Committee for the reUef and 
sustenance of soldiers' families. Other members of the committee, as originally 
appointed, represented the Y. M. C. A., Y. W. C. A., Knights of Columbus, Jewish 
Welfare Board, Salvation Army, American Red Cross, and the War Camp Com- 
munity Service. 

An information bureau was established in charge of Mrs. W. L. Mann. 
The names of transports Usted in the mimeographed bulletins from the 
port embarkation office in Hoboken were card indexed. This enabled the 
bureau to give information as to the movement of all troops as soon as they 
had left a foreign port for home. The Navy Yard stationed a radio operator 
in the Liberty Building, and messages were received for immediate transmittal 
from the wireless station at League Island. Whenever Philadelphia men 
retuined on transports not docking at their home port, the committee 
wirelessed a greeting to the commanding officers and men of such units. When 
transports docked at Philadelphia, the committee chartered sufficient boats 

348 



to take the relatives of the men down the river to meet them. The poHce boats 
Ashbridge and Slokley were always available and the police band was carried on 
the former. At one time it was necessary to provide accommodations for 3.000 
people. AU committee boats were gaily decorated and bore large banners with 
the words "City of Philadelphia Welcome Home Committee." 

Several signal men from the Navy Yard were usually detailed to go on each 
committee boat and thus relatives were able to have messages wigwagged to the 
men on the transports. Frequently it was possible to steam so close to the ships 
that greetings could be called back and forth. A s(M\ice that was greatly ap- 
preciated by the officers and men of other cities returning to the port of Phila- 
delphia was the gift of home-town newspapers. When the government bulletins 
showed that men from other states and cities were due on a certain transport, 
the committee telegraphed to the Governor of the State or to the Mayor of the City 
and asked that newspapers be sent at once. These were distributed at the pier 
by the Red Cross or, in some cases, were sent to Camp Dix in care of one or more 
of the welfare agencies. 

With the news that the 28th Division was about to return, plans were im- 
mediately made to give it a reception worthy of its war record and the committee 
was reorganized. An account of the work of this larger committee will be found 
in the chapter devoted to the story of the parade of the 28th Division. 

On March 21, 1919, the Rev. Hugh Birckliead, a former Red Cross chaplain 
overseas, delivered an address in the Academy of jNIusic on the subject "America's 




Courtesy of Frank W. Buhler. Stanley Co. 

Men from U._S. S. "Haverford" 



of America. 

parading in Philadelphia before entraining for Camp Dix. 

349 



Opportunity." The other speakers of the evening were Lieutenant Colonel D. J. 
McCarthy, who had recently returned from service in Russia, and Major Charles 
J. Biddlc, Pliiladel])hia's first "Ace." The meeting was under the joint auspices 
of the Countil and the Emergency Aid of Pennsylvania. 

Memorial Day, 1919, was observed by services in the public squares very 
.similar to the exercises on Thanksgiving Day, 1918. They were arranged by the 
Council and the programs included President Lincoln's "Gettysburg Address," 
KipUng's "Recessional," national hymns and popular songs of the three wars — the 
Civil, Spanish-American and World War. At the conclusion of the exercises 
"Taps" was sounded. 

At a time when a strike among the textile workers of Philadelphia promised 
to assume menacing proportions, a committee of conciliation was appointed by 
the Chaiiinan of the Council. They entered earnestly into the work of 
bringing the employes and employers together. A compromise was elfetted 
between the parties, and the strike ended without disorder or destructit)n of 
property. 

Turbulent uprisings of a serious revolutionary character having been threatened 
for May 1st and July 4th, the Executive Council was convened and arrangements 
were made with the authorities to call upon the local police, the Home (iuard, 
volunteer police, the reserve militia, and a body consisting of 7,500 sailors and 
marines. Guards were placed in banking institutions near the threatened scene 
of disorder. The preparations proved sufficient for the emergency, and the days 
passed without incident. 

In the spring of 1919, at the request of the Pictorial Section, Historical Branch, 
W. P. D., General Stalf, Washington, D. C, the Council secured, in duplicate, 
about three thousand pictures, showing war-time activities and conditions in 
Philadelphia. One set of these pictures was sent to Washington and the other set 
filed for reference. Mrs. Thomas Robins acted as Chairman of the committee 
and Mrs. Albert E. Peterson, Jr.. had general charge of collecting the photographs. 

In June, 1919, Charles B. Hall was appointed Chairman of a committee of 
the Council to secure the war records of Philadelphia men and women in service. 
The Pennsylvania War History Commission, of which (Governor William C. Sproul 
was Chairman, provided the record blanks and a house-to-house canvass was made 
by the PoUce Department. As a result of this canvass over fifty thousand records 
were secured. It is estimated that at least eighty to ninety thousand men and 
women from this city served in the Army and Navy, but until the Wai- Depart- 
ment sends copies of its lists to the Adjutant General at Harrisburg, which will be 
a matter of some years in all probability, it will be impossible to issue a correct Ust. 

The Philadelphia Council closed its offices on July 1.5, 1919. Its historical 
research work was continued by the appointment, at the suggestion of Judge 
Martin, of the Philadelphia War History Committee. The Executive Manager of 
the Council became the Secretary of the new committee and this book is the result 
of the History Committee's work. 

The Staff of the Council included, besides the Executive Manager and the 
Associate Managers: A. C. Wright, Mrs. W. L. Mann, Miss Miriam Moses, 
Miss M. E. Desmond, Miss Sara Mays Taggart, Miss Agnes C. McCann, Mrs. 
Jane Illi, Mrs. A. M. Whyte, Miss Elsie Mandell, Miss T. R. Jacobs, Miss Krantz, 
James E. Corneal, Miss Anne McDonough, Miss Myrtle E. Dunn, Miss Elsie 

350 



Burghart, Miss Nann McLaughlin, Miss Hilda Kaplan, Mrs. E. R. Smith, Miss 
F. Laeff and Mrs. A. H. BoUman. 

Among others associated in the woriv of the Council were: Henry V. 
Gummere, Henry S. Drinker, Jr., W. J. Wheatley, John Huneker, Clarence S. 
Cates. Henviss Roesseler, Charles C. Hazlett, E. E. Hogle, James O'Neill, Arno 
P. Mowitz, Miss Edith Sheldon. Dr. Caroline Colvin, Dr. Sarah Kingsbury, 
Miss Edith Lowber, Miss Leslie B. Stewart, Miss Jane Hemratty, Miss E. Eh- 
land. Miss M. E. Kern, Miss E. F. Mclntyre, Mrs. N. S. Betts, Miss G. F. 
Mulchrone, Miss Elsie Gilbert, E. R. Cheney, G. E. Williams and C. L. Buck- 
mum. 

WOMAN'S PHILADELPHIA COUNTY COMMITTEE COUNCIL OF 
NATIONAL DEFENSE, PENNSYLVANIA DIVISION 

Chairman: Mrs. Henry D. Jump. 

Vice-Chairmen: Mrs. George A. Dunning, Mrs. A. A. Eshner. Mrs. Frank 
T. Griswold, Mrs. George McFadden. Miss Clara Middleton. Mrs. Paul D. 
Mills, Miss Mary M. Rivinus, Mrs. E. T. Stotesbury. 

Secretary: Mrs. George A. Piersol. 

Chairman of District Committees: Miss Beulah Fennimore, Mrs. Bowman 
Leaf. Mrs. B. F. Richardson, Mrs. Wilmer Krusen. 

The Woman's Committee, Council of National Defense, for Philadelphia 
County was organized in October, 1917, following the Hoover campaign to conserve 
food, which was carried on during the summer months by a splendid body of 
women who came forward to assist in the distribution of the Hoover ft)od pledge 
cards. A registration of .'50,5,000 Philadelphia women was sent to Washington. 
The State Chairman, Mrs. J. Willis Martin, naturally turned to this group for 
leadership and appointed Mrs. Henry D. Jump as Chairman for Philadelphia 
County. 

An organization of women covering all parts of the city was immediately 
started, and the colossal task of house-to-house visiting, arranging the streets, wards 
and districts of the city in card catalog form for future reference was tirelessly 
carried on during the hot summer months. This campaign proved to be one of 
the most constructive pieces of work accomplished by the Philadelphia Council. 
All clubs and organizations of women were called upon to help, regardless of color, 
creed or condition; everywhere the chairman received hearty cooperation and 
generous offers of assistance. From this group of women the chairman appointed 
an efficient executive committee, as well as district chairmen in all parts of the 
city, with directors for all departments. The Council, the State and City owe 
a deep debt of gratitude to Mrs. Edward T. Stotesbury, through whose 
generosity it was enabled tf) maintain headquarters and an adequate office force 
at 1()07 Walnut Street, until such time as the Committee of Public Safety 
invited it to share their offices in the Finance Building, and paid all overhead 
charges. 

Registration Department, Mrs. George A. Dunning, Director. Mrs. Dun- 
ning splendidly organized this department, but was obliged to resign early in 
the year, after which the first active piece of work was the registration of 
women, under the efficient direction of Mrs. Louis B. Taylor. This campaign 
was conducted by means of special drives and then by organized committees 

351 




Women working on Army hals ai Ihr John II. Slclson Co. 



in the various wards until the total of 95,000 women had signed these cards. 
The work of filing them was alone an enormous task. They were filed and 
cross-filed under occupations so that a woman required for a certain piece of 
work could be immediately obtained. From this department munition workers, 
and recruits for all sorts of war activities were obtained, and registration proved 
its value in numerous ways. The Director of Registration became a member of 
the Federal Employment Bureau, and used these files very actively in her work. 

When this source of assistance became generally known, many and frequent 
calls were made upon it by government as well as by the local industrial plants. 
Not the least interesting feature of this work was the recruiting and placing of 
women on the land in cooperation with the Woman's Land Army, and an amusing 
incident occurred when an actress registered for farm work, stating that she was 
ready to work all the year round, but was naturally untrained. Shortly after, a 
woman farmer applied to the Department of Women in Industry for a helper 
willing to do all-the-year-round work in any and every capacity. She was a wee 
bit skeptical about taking an actress whose sole qualification was an altogether 
untested love of the outdoors, but at last consented, and the registrant, seizing 
the opportunity, went on the land early in February. After a three months' 
trial, a letter came from the farmer, enchanted with the enthusiasm, earnestness 
and skill of her assistant, and begging for a woman who would be willing to do the 
housework. Again the files were consulted, and though domestics, in the ordinary 

352 



sense of the word, were hot on the Hsts. it was found that a patriotic woman of fifty 
who had had her own comfortable home, but was otherwise untrained, stood ready 
to answer the call, stating in cheerful terms that as she too was an untrained worker 
she was willing to do a bit of drudgery as her share of war work. Few reach such 
heights of patriotism! These cards became extremely valuable during the influenza 
epidemic, when those who had registered as willing and able to nurse were sum- 
moned to answer the many calls that came to us from all parts of the city. Four hun- 
dred and eighty women were written to, fifty per cent of whom reported at the office. 

Food Production Department, Mrs. George H. White, Director. While 
there was not a great deal of ground available for cultivation within the city 
limits, Mrs. White was able to do valuable work in establishing school gardens 
in vacant lots throughout the city, some of which are still in operation, and much 
was done among the school children in stimulating their interest in backyard 
gardens and food conservation. 

Food Conservation Department, Mrs. H. C. Boden, Director. Perhaps 
no department had a more colossal task than that of the Food Conservation 
Department, to whose lot fell the education of every class of society in the 
necessity of self-denial in the use of every available foodstuff. This depart- 
ment was fortunate in having as director Mrs. N. D. Hitchcock, instructor 
of home economics at Temple University, who began the work assigned, but 
was obliged to resign when called to New York, and her able assistant, Mrs. 
H. C. Boden, was appointed to the vacancy. Mrs. Boden devoted nmch time 
to the opening of food kitchens in different parts of the city where daily demon- 
strations were given in the making of war breads and the use of wheat flour substi- 
tutes, and was tireless in her efforts to present food conservation in its most 
agreeable and practical form. Thousands of posters and recipes were distributed 
among the foreigners, written in the language of each nationality: the drive for 
food conservation among foreigners became the next important phase of the 
work, and in Philadelphia alone, during three months, more than four thousand 
pcfjple of alien birth were visited. The work began primarily as a war measure, 
but led often to permanent Americanization propaganda, developing, as it does, 
a certain unity of thought between the foreign element and our native population. 

The foreigners were powerfully influenced by the knowledge that, as a result 
of war's devastation, they could not return again to their native countries. 

The method of approach was through the medium of informal meetings; 
demonstrators who had the ability to "mix in." and were experienced in social 
service work, organized neighborhood groups of Italians, Poles, Russians, 
Lithuanians and Roumanians. 

Surveys were made of conservation work done in the hospitals, showing that 
hundreds of loaves of bread per day and hundreds of pounds of butter per week 
had been saved, and that the consumption of sugar had been reduced more than 
half. Later the department of food became federalized, and went under the Federal 
Food Administrator for Pliiladelphia. A remarkable food army of thousands of 
women was organized and was doing active service when the armistice was signed. 
A war bread shop was run in the center of the city where all sorts of war bread 
and muffins were sold and war bread recipes were distributed. 

Women in Industry Department, Mrs. Thomas Robins, Director. It 
was soon discovered that all over the State the call for women workers was 

353 



becoming more and more insistent, so that this department had a difiicuH time 
to fill all the applications made upon it. Certain standards were insisted upon 
by the director of tliis department and women were recruited only for those 
plants in which Uving conditions were good, serious basic needs such as housing 
and transportation were carefully studied, and a booklet was published giving 
a list of boarding houses, cafeterias, places of amusement, churches, etc.. for the 
convenience and protection of strangers and itinerant workers. 

The aim of this department was not only to secure work for women, but in 
so doing to improve the conditions under which they worked; to advance woman's 
position economically, politically and socially; to ask from the working woman a 
spirit of cooperation and loyal service; to arouse all women to the fact that the 
.savings of every worker are an asset to the country, as well as a guarantee of her 
own economic security in the future. This department did valuable service in 
familiarizing itself with the rulings of the Secretary of Labor and the Secretarx 
of War on questions of women's work, as well as state laws, and insisted that they 
be carried out in all plants, both governmental and |ni\alc. whnc woiucii were 
employed. 

A very notable piece of work accompUshed by the director of this department 
acting with a committee of pubhc-spirited men and women in Philadelphia under 
the direction of Dr. Lucy W. Wilson, was a War Kmergency Summer High .School, 
opened to give intensive training: and for this purpose the use of the building of 
the William Penn High School for girls was offered by the Board of Kducation. 
This school was patronized by workers of all ages, and the pupils were taught the 
reading of blue prints, stenography, typewriting, stenotyping. fding. etc. 

No class of Pennsylvania citizens responded more promptly and more patrioti- 
cally to the call to work than the colored women of the State. Approximately 
four thousand were employed in arsenals, chemical plants, oil and sugar refineries, 
the railroads, and the munition and rifle plants. 

The Department also undertook to recruit the requisite number of workers 
to establish several units for the Woman's Land Army, and financed the necessary 
office staff until such time as they established their own headquarters. 

Child Welfare Department. Mrs. Wilmer Krusen. Director. .Mrs. 
Krusen had an able assistant in Dr. Hartley, who gave instructions by lectures 
to women who afterwards accompanied the visiting nurses to the homes of 
the people to acquire proper training: these women later became very valuable 
during the epidemic of influenza. The energies of this department were 
devoted to preserving the health of children under six years and securing 
adequate care of mothers both before and after confinement, providing proper 
care for the baby from the moment of birth, protecting the health and maintaining 
nutrition of the child up to pre-school age. This department gave hearty support 
and active assistance to those committees working for an increase in mothers' 
pensions. 

Department of Education. Dr. Maude Hansche. Director. Dr. Hansche 
estabhshed a Speakers' Bureau for patriotic purposes and had the full cooperation 
of the superintendent of public schools in the work of Americanization. A survey 
was made of the foreign people in the city and very effective work was carried 
out among the Poles, Itafians, Hebrews, Russians, etc., who responded loyally to 
ever^' patriotic measure. The State Director was fortunate in securing speakers. 

354 



wlu) f,'roatly stiiiuilatod production in the plants tlioy visited \>\ ;:rapln'c 
doscriptions of the work bi'ing done by the hJnglisli; showing what a powcrl'iil 
asset the women of the British Isles had become to the government. An 
\nicricaiiization Conference held in conjunction with the Liberty Loan and 
Food Departments proved of great value in bringing together men aTid women 
prominent in Americanization work from all over the country, who spoke of 
the work then carried on by the govermnent as well as private agencies 
among the foreign population in this country, not the least important 
feature of which was the stimulation of patriotism among (jur own people. Perhaps 
this need had not occurred to us before, but became a real issue to stem the tide 
of pro-{ierman propaganda. Mary Antin was a forceful and interesting speaker 
at the conference. Giving an eloquent account of her first experiences in America, 
she demonstrated what the foreigner can contribute to this country as well as receive 
from it. and strongly urged for the foreigner free expression of his native arts and 
talents, which would make for his greater happiness and the greater de\elop- 
ment of this country. 

LiBKRTV Loan Department, Mrs. Barclay H. Warburton. Director. 
While the organization of the women for this work was not begun until the Second 
TJlierty Loan was well under way, Mrs. Warburton reported the sale of 
•Si.'i. 000. ()()(* worth of bonds. In the Third Loan, under the direction of Mrs. 
Walter S. Thomson, the women of Philadelphia raised $53,020,850. which was 
■31}^2 P<'i' t'^nt of the quota. In the Fourth Loan, despite the ravages of inlhienza, 
a total of $72,020,115 was raised, with over 8.000 women organized and woiking 
on various committees. The chairman of the Philadelphia County Committee 
of National Defense was chosen chairman of the Woman's Liberty Loan Committee 
for the Third Federal Beserve District. Great interest was shown in the Liberty 
Loan Conference held jointly with the Food Department when the Philadel|)hia 
committee invited the chairmen of all of the sixty-seven counties in the State to 
attend the three-day session. 

Department of Foreign Belief, Mrs Hutton Kennedy, Director. This 
department acted as a coordinating agency to bring together all the war relief 
organizations in the State, working in unison and reducing to a minimum all 
duplication of effort. 

Department of Health and Becreation, Miss Theodora Butcher, 
Director. This Department was closely associated with the Committee on 
Becreation for girls affected by war conditions. Its function was to stimulate 
recreational interest and to develop recreational facilities, laying emphasis on 
the need for patriotic service and the necessity for higher standards among 
the young girls. A colored woman was appointed for the extension work 
among the colored girls and frequent consultations were held with Mrs. T. 
W. I^ayton of the Protective Association for Colored Women in regard to 
improving the conditions under which colored women were then working. All 
activities having to do with women and girls were brought together and worked 
in full accord. Outdoor neighborhood gatherings in parks and open spaces were 
planned where frequent concerts and Community Sings were given. Many 
industrial plants showed notable cooperation in providing recreational diversions 
and patriotic demonstrations among their employes, Samuel Fleisher himself 
heading a Liberty Loan parade in which the workers in his factory took prominent 

355 



|mrl. 'Tliis (Irpiirliiii'iil in ('(iiijiiiu'lioii wil-li oilier cominitt.ocs working for pro- 
l('<lioii of woincii iiikI ^^iiis was insli'iiiiKMiliil in liavinjj; woiiicti vifjilancc ofliccrs 
widi (lolicc |iow('i- a|i|)oiiilc(l hy the mayor lo patrol llic streets in lonely sectiiuis 
III ni^ht. 

l)l•■,l'vnrMl■,^■r oi' I'lnrn ir^ amd I nkohm ation. Mrs. Arliiur \V. Sewall. 
Director. \\\ nuaiis ol' a weekK W/z's- l.clU'r. this Oepartnienl undertook to 
inform llie pnlilic of its pinjiose ami aim in tlie field of war work, and lo pulilisli 
the reports of all that was liein^' aecomplislied l)y tlie dill'erent departments. It 
was also a useful medium for eonununicatin^' the necessity for iiearly coo[)eration 
with ffoveriMiient ri'ipiireuK'nts. which were priiileil in oriiiinal form from time to 
lime as seemed ad\isalilc. l.atiT on liie icporls icceixed from all the counties 
in this Slate were puhlished in llie \cirs I .cilrr and proved a stimulatiiii; 
eni'ourafit'inent to all hranches of the work. \ \ci\ line pi(<ce of work was a 
directory of \ocalional <ipportunilii"s lor women in liic State of Pennsylvania, 
issued li\ the Stale niiccloi of lliis I >cparlmiiil . which l)rouj,'hl forth mo>t 
fa\ oralile connuent and liecame of lastini: \ahie. 

I'he d<'\ (-lopment of distiici couuuittees foinicii a nolahle achicx i-nient ; 
two weic doinu active work aloni^ all iin(~s. and otiicr-- were in llie process of 
I'oiiiialioii. l'oil\-Iwo wards out of thi" forty -eii,dil were orjiani/.ed. with special 
tjroiips of women ready lo lake up acliv e work. \ sp<>cial orirauizer had personally 
visited llies(> jiroups in order lo (ircparc liii-iu I'di liiluii" eineriioncios. One ward 
was or^'aiii/ed and n-ady to work witii holh men and wonuMi. In Scptendvr. 
It war work confi>renci> was held in IMiiladclpIni, in w iiich [\\c Philadelphia C.ounty 
(oiimnllcc piavc'd an active pari ll c,ill(\i Li^cliii-r thi' lii--t w oman's war rally 
ever held iii llic I uited Sialics, and iuchuicd munition worki'is and industrial 
wiirkers as well .i-- v olmili>eis in war acliv ilic Ml i;roiips o{ women and v\ omen's 
orjjHui/alions aiiin.lcil m l.uuc unmhciv .uid IisIimuhI lo a roiuarkahle pi-cijrram of 
patriotic e\pres>ioii. Prior lo lhi>. the only r.illy '.•>( the kind ever held had Iwn 
llu> oiii- ii'portcil in Paris a few days In^torc. 

rill diue for lI'v.OOO \rni\ nurses. ixH^nested hy \\w \ nit<Hi States SurgtHin 
(ieneiai. was condiu-led in July and \ui:iist of PMiv. Philadelphia Coimty. wluvso 
«|iiola wa-> 110. went over the top with an enrolment of o\er (vOO. with r