PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
PHILIP DEU: ADMINISTEATOE
A STORY OF TOMORROW
" No war of classes, no hostility to existing wealth, no wanton
or unjust violation of the rights of property, but a constant dis-
position to ameliorate the condition of the classes least favored
by fortune." MAZZINI.
B. W. HUEBSCH
Copyright, 1912 by
B. W. HUEBSCH
PRINTED IN U. 8. A.
This book is dedicated to the unhappy
many who have lived and died lacking
opportunity, because, in the starting,
the world-wide social structure was
I GRADUATION DAY 1
II THE VISION OF PHILIP DRU .... 9
III LOST IN THE DESERT 16
IV THE SUPREMACY OF MIND 30
V THE TRAGEDY OF THE TURNERS ... 34
VI THE PROPHET OF A NEW DAY ... 44
VII THE WINNING OF A MEDAL .... 46
VIII THE STORY OF THE LEVINSKYS . . .51
IX PHILIP BEGINS A NEW CAREER ... 56
X GLORIA DECIDES TO PROSELYTE THE RICH 61
XI SELWYN PLOTS WITH THOR .... 66
XII SELWYN SEEKS A CANDIDATE .... 72
XIII DRU AND SELWYN MEET 83
XIV THE MAKING OF A PRESIDENT .... 87
XV THE EXULTANT CONSPIRATORS ... 96
XVI THE EXPOSURE 100
XVII SELWYN AND THOR DEFEND THEMSELVES 108
XVIII GLORIA'S WORK BEARS FRUIT . . . .111
XIX WAR CLOUDS HOVER 115
XX CIVIL WAR BEGINS ....... 122
XXI UPON THE EVE OF BATTLE . . ... .126
XXII THE BATTLE OF ELMA 131
XXIII ELMA'S AFTERMATH 138
XXIV UNCROWNED HEROES ...... 142
XXV THE ADMINISTRATOR OF THE REPUBLIC . 148
XXVI DRU OUTLINES His INTENTIONS . . .154
XXVII A NEW ERA AT WASHINGTON . . .158
XXVIII AN INTERNATIONAL CRISIS m . . .162
XXIX THE REFORM OF THE JUDICIARY w . . 167
XXX A NEW CODE OF LAWS . lfc m m i.. .. 172
XXXI THE QUESTION OF TAXATION . . .176
XXXII A FEDERAL INCORPORATION ACT . .181
XXXIII THE RAILROAD PROBLEM . . . .185
XXXIV SELWYN'S STORY , . . .. . . 191
XXXV SELWYN'S STORY, CONTINUED . . . 202
XXXVI SELWYN'S STORY, CONTINUED . . . 206
XXXVII THE COTTON CORNER ... . . .214
XXXVIII UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE . . . . .218
XXXIX A NEGATIVE GOVERNMENT . . . .221
XL A DEPARTURE IN BATTLESHIPS . . 233
XLI THE NEW NATIONAL CONSTITUTION . 238
XLII NEW STATE CONSTITUTIONS , , . 244
XLIII THE RULE OF THE BOSSES .... 249
XLIV ONE CAUSE OF THE HIGH COST OF
LIVING . 254
XLV BURIAL REFORM 261
XLVI THE WISE DISPOSITION OF A FORTUNE 264
XLVII THE WISE DISPOSITION OF A FORTUNE,
CONTINUED . 268
XLVIII AN INTERNATIONAL COALITION . . 272
XLIX UNEVEN ODDS . . . . \ . . 277
L THE BROADENING OF THE MONROE
DOCTRINE . 280
LI THE BATTLE OF LA TUNA . . . . 287
LII THE UNITY OF THE NORTHERN HALF
OF THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE UN-
DER THE NEW REPUBLIC . . . 292
LIII THE EFFACEMENT OF PHILIP DRU . 295
WHAT CO-PARTNERSHIP CAN Do
PHILIP DEU: ADMINISTEATOE
IN the year 1920, the student and the statesman
saw many indications that the social, financial and
industrial troubles that had vexed the United
States of America for so long a time were about to
culminate in civil war.
Wealth had grown so strong, that the few were
about to strangle the many, and among the great
masses of the people, there was sullen and rebellious
The laborer in the cities, the producer on the farm,
the merchant, the professional man and all save or-
ganized capital and its satellites, saw a gloomy and
With these conditions prevailing, the graduation
exercises of the class of 1920 of the National Military
Academy at West Point, held for many a foreboding
3 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
promise of momentous changes, but the 12th of June
found the usual gay scene at the great institution
overlooking the Hudson. The President of the Re-
public, his Secretary of War and many other dis-
tinguished guests were there to do honor to the oc-
casion, together with friends, relatives and admirers
of the young men who were being sent out to the
ultimate leadership of the Nation's Army. The scene
had all the usual charm of West Point graduations,
and the usual intoxicating atmosphere of military
There was among the young graduating soldiers one
who seemed depressed and out of touch with the tri-
umphant blare of militarism, for he alone of his
fellow classmen had there no kith nor kin to bid him
God-speed in his new career.
Standing apart under the broad shadow of an oak,
he looked out over long stretches of forest and river,
but what he saw was his home in distant Kentucky
the old farmhouse that the sun and the rain and
the lichens had softened into a mottled gray. He saw
the gleaming brook that wound its way through the
tangle of orchard and garden, and parted the distant
He saw his aged mother sitting under the honey-
GRADUATION DAY 3
suckle trellis, book in hand, but thinking, he knew,
of him. And then there was the perfume of the
flowers, the droning of the bees in the warm sweet air
and the drowsy hound at his father's feet.
But this was not all the young man saw, for Philip
Dru, in spite of his military training, was a close
student of the affairs of his country, and he saw that
which raised grave doubts in his mind as to the out-
come of his career. He saw many of the civil in-
stitutions of his country debased by the power of
wealth under the thin guise of the constitutional pro-
tection of property. He saw the Army which he
had sworn to serve faithfully becoming prostituted
by this same power, and used at times for purposes
of intimidation and petty conquests where the in-
terests of wealth were at stake. He saw the great
city where luxury, dominant and defiant, existed
largely by grace of exploitation exploitation of
men, women and children.
The young man's eyes had become bright and hard,
when his day-dream was interrupted, and he was look-
ing into the gray-blue eyes of Gloria Strawn the
one whose lot he had been comparing to that of her
sisters in the city, in the mills, the sweatshops, the big
stores, and the streets. He had met her for the first
4 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
time a few hours before, when his friend and class-
mate, Jack Strawn, had presented him to his sister.
No comrade knew Dru better than Strawn, and no one
admired him so much. Therefore, Gloria, ever seek-
ing a closer contact with life, had come to West Point
eager to meet the lithe young Kentuckian, and to
measure him by the other men of her acquaintance.
She was disappointed in his appearance, for she
had fancied him almost god-like in both size and
beauty, and she saw a man of medium height, slender
but toughly knit, and with a strong, but homely face.
When he smiled and spoke she forgot her disappoint-
ment, and her interest revived, for her sharp city
sense caught the trail of a new experience.
To Philip Dru, whose thought of and experience
with women was almost nothing, so engrossed had he
been in his studies, military and economic, Gloria
seemed little more than a child. And yet her frank
glance of appraisal when he had been introduced to
her, and her easy though somewhat languid conver-
sation on the affairs of the commencement, perplexed
and slightly annoyed him. He even felt some em-
barrassment in her presence.
Child though he knew her to be, he hesitated
whether he should call her by her given name, and
GRADUATION DAY 6
was taken aback when she smilingly thanked him for
doing so, with the assurance that she was often bored
with the eternal conventionality of people in her so-
Suddenly turning from the commonplaces of the
day, Gloria looked directly at Philip, and with easy
self-possession turned the conversation to himself.
" I am wondering, Mr. Dru, why you came to
West Point and why it is you like the thought of
being a soldier? " she asked. " An American soldier
has to fight so seldom that I have heard that the
insurance companies regard them as the best of
risks, so what attraction, Mr. Dru, can a military
career have for you? "
Never before had Philip been asked such a ques-
tion, and it surprised him that it should come from
this slip of a girl, but he answered her in the seri-
ous strain of his thoughts.
" As far back as I can remember," he said, " I
have wanted to be a soldier. I have no desire to de-
stroy and kill, and yet there is within me the lust
for action and battle. It is the primitive man in me,
I suppose, but sobered and enlightened by civilization.
I would do everything in my power to avert war
and the suffering it entails. Fate, inclination, or
6 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
what not has brought me here, and I hope my life
may not be wasted, but that in God's own way, I
may be a humble instrument for good. Oftentimes
our inclinations lead us in certain directions, and it
is only afterwards that it seems as if fate may from
the first have so determined it."
The mischievous twinkle left the girl's eyes, and
the languid tone of her voice changed to one a little
more like sincerity.
" But suppose there is no war," she demanded,
" suppose you go on living at barracks here and there,
and with no broader outlook than such a life entails,
will you be satisfied? Is that all you have in mind
to do in the world? "
He looked at her more perplexed than ever.
Such an observation of life, his life, seemed beyond
her years, for he knew but little of the women of his
own generation. He wondered, too, if she would un-
derstand if he told her all that was in his mind.
" Gloria, we are entering a new era. The past is
no longer to be a guide to the future. A century
and a half ago there arose in France a giant that
had slumbered for untold centuries. He knew he
had suffered grievous wrongs, but he did not know
how to right them. He therefore struck out blindly
GRADUATION DAY 7
and cruelly, and the innocent went down with the
guilty. He was almost wholly ignorant for in the
scheme of society as then constructed, the ruling few
felt that he must be kept ignorant, otherwise they
could not continue to hold him in bondage. For him
the door of opportunity was closed, and he struggled
from the cradle to the grave for the minimum of food
and clothing necessary to keep breath within the body.
His labor and his very life itself was subject to the
greed, the passion and the caprice of his over-lord.
" So when he awoke he could only destroy. Unfor-
tunately for him, there was not one of the governing
class who was big enough and humane enough to lend
a guiding and a friendly hand, so he was led by weal*
and selfish men who could only incite him to further
wanton murder and demolition.
" But out of that revelry of blood there dawned
upon mankind the hope of a more splendid day. The
divinity of kings, the God-given right to rule, was
shattered for all time. The giant at last knew his
strength, and with head erect, and the light of free-
dom in his eyes, he dared to assert the liberty, equality
and fraternity of man. Then throughout the West-
ern world one stratum of society after another de-
manded and obtained the right to acquire wealth and
8 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
to share in the government. Here and there one
bolder and more forceful than the rest acquired great
wealth and with it great power. Not satisfied with
reasonable gain, they sought to multiply it beyond all
bounds of need. They who had sprung from the
people a short life span ago were now throttling indi-
vidual effort and shackling the great movement for
equal rights and equal opportunity."
Dru's voice became tense and vibrant, and he talked
in quick sharp jerks.
" Nowhere in the world is wealth more defiant, and
monopoly more insistent than in this mighty republic,"
he said, " and it is here that the next great battle
for human emancipation will be fought and won.
And from the blood and travail of an enlightened
people, there will be born a spirit of love and brother-
hood which will transform the world; and the Star
of Bethlehem, seen but darkly for two thousand years,
will shine again with a steady and effulgent glow."
THE VISION OF PHIUP DRTT
LONG before Philip had finished speaking, Gloria
saw that he had forgotten her presence. With
glistening eyes and face aflame he had talked
on and on with such compelling force that she beheld
in him the prophet of a new day.
She sat very still for a while, and then she reached
out to touch his sleeve.
" I think I understand how you feel now," she said
in a tone different from any she had yet used. " I
have been reared in a different atmosphere from you,
and at home have heard only the other side, while
at school they mostly evade the question. My
father is one of the * bold and forceful few ' as per-
haps you know, but he does not seem to me to want
to harm anyone. He is kind to us, and charitable
too, as that word is commonly used, and I am sure he
has done much good with his money."
" I am sorry, Gloria, if I have hurt you by what
I said," answered Dru.
10 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
" Oh ! never mind, for I am sure you are right,"
answered the girl, but Philip continued
" Your father, I think, is not to blame. It is the
system that is at fault. His struggle and his en-
vironment from childhood have blinded him to the
truth. To those with whom he has come in contact,
it has been the dollar and not the man that counted.
He has been schooled to think that capital can buy
labor as it would machinery, the human equation
not entering into it. He believes that it would be
equivalent to confiscation for the State to say 'in re-
gard to a corporation, labor, the State and capital
are important in the order named.' Good man that
he means to be, he does not know, perhaps he can
never know, that it is labor, labor of the mind and
of the body, that creates, and not capital."
" You would have a hard time making Father see
that," put in Gloria, with a smile.
" Yes ! " continued Philip, " from the dawn of the
world until now, it has been the strong against the
weak. At the first, in the Stone Age, it was brute
strength that counted and controlled. Then those
that ruled had leisure to grow intellectually, and it
gradually came about that the many, by long cen-
turies of oppression, thought that the intellectual few
THE VISION OF PHILIP DRU 11
had God-given powers to rule, and to exact tribute
from them to the extent of commanding every ounce
of exertion of which their bodies were capable. It
was here, Gloria, that society began to form itself
wrongly, and the result is the miserable travesty of
to-day. Selfishness became the keynote, and to
physical and mental strength was conceded everything
that is desirable in life. Later, this mockery of jus-
tice, was partly recognized, and it was acknowledged
to be wrong for the physically strong to despoil and
destroy the physically weak. Even so, the time is
now measurably near when it will be just as reprehen-
sible for the mentally strong to hold in subjection the
mentally weak, and to force them to bear the grievous
burdens which a misconceived civilization has imposed
Gloria was now thoroughly interested, but smilingly
belied it by saying, " A history professor I had
once lost his position for talking like that."
The young man barely recognized the interruption.
" The first gleam of hope came with the advent of
Christ," he continued. " So warped and tangled had
become the minds of men that the meaning of Christ's
teaching failed utterly to reach human comprehen-
sion. They accepted him as a religious teacher only
1 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
so far as their selfish desires led them. They were
willing to deny other gods and admit one Creator of
all things, but they split into fragments regarding the
creeds and forms necessary to salvation. In the name
of Christ they committed atrocities that would put
to blush the most benighted savages. Their very
excesses in cruelty finally caused a revolution in feel-
ing, and there was evolved the Christian religion of
to-day, a religion almost wholly selfish and con-
cerned almost entirely in the betterment of life after
The girl regarded Philip for a second in silence,
and then quietly asked, " For the betterment of whose
life after death? "
" I was speaking of those who have carried on only
the forms of religion. Wrapped in the sanctity of
their own small circle, they feel that their tiny souls
are safe, and that they are following the example
and precepts of Christ.
" The full splendor of Christ's love, the grandeur
of His life and doctrine is to them a thing unknown.
The infinite love, the sweet humility, the gentle char-
ity, the subordination of self that the Master came
to give a cruel, selfish and ignorant world, mean but
THE VISION OF PHILIP DRU IB
little more to us to-day than it did to those to whom
He gave it."
" And you who have chosen a military career say
this," said the girl as her brother joined the pair.
To Philip her comment came as something of a
shock, for he was unprepared for these words spoken
with such a depth of feeling.
Gloria and Philip Dm spent most of graduation
day together. He did not want to intrude amongst
the relatives and friends of his classmates, and he was
eager to continue his acquaintance with Gloria. To
the girl, this serious-minded youth who seemed so
strangely out of tune with the blatant military fan-
fare, was a distinct novelty. At the final ball she
almost ignored the gallantries of the young officers,
in order that she might have opportunity to lead
Dru on to further self -revelation.
The next day in the hurry of packing and de-
parture he saw her only for an instant, but from
her brother he learned that she planned a visit to the
new Post on the Rio Grande near Eagle Pass where
Jack Strawn and Philip were to be stationed after
Philip spent his leave, before he went to the new
14 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
Post, at his Kentucky home. He wanted to be with
his father and mother, and he wanted to read and
think, so he declined the many invitations to visit.
His father was a sturdy farmer of fine natural
sense, and with him Philip never tired of talking when
both had leisure.
Old William Dm had inherited nothing save a run-
down, badly managed, heavily mortgaged farm that
had been in the family for several generations. By
hard work and strict economy, he had first built it
up into a productive property and had then liquidated
the indebtedness. So successful had he been that
he was able to buy small farms for four of his
sons, and give professional education to the other
three. He had accumulated nothing, for he had given
as fast as he had made, but his was a serene and con-
tented old age because of it. What was the hoarding
of money or land in comparison to the satisfaction
of seeing each son happy in the possession of a home
and family? The ancestral farm he intended for
Philip, youngest and best beloved, soldier though he
was to be.
All during that hot summer, Philip and his father
discussed the ever-growing unrest of the country, and
THE VISION OF PHILIP DRU 15
speculated when the crisis would come, and how it
Finally, he left his home, and all the associations
clustered around it, and turned his face towards im-
perial Texas, the field of his new endeavor.
He reached Fort Magruder at the close of an
Autumn day. He thought he had never known such
dry sweet air. f Just as the sun was sinking, he strolled
to the bluff around which flowed the turbid waters of
the Rio Grande, and looked across at the gray hills
of old Mexico.
LOST IN THE DESERT
AUTUMN drifted into winter, and then with the
blossoms of an early spring, came Gloria.
The Fort was several miles from the station,
and Jack and Philip were there to meet her. As they
paced the little board platform, Jack was nervously
happy over the thought of his sister's arrival, and
talked of his plans for entertaining her. Philip on
the other hand held himself well in reserve and gave
no outward indication of the deep emotion which
stirred within him. At last the train came and from
one of the long string of Pullmans, Gloria alighted.
She kissed her brother and greeted Philip cordially,
and asked him in a tone of banter how he enjoyed
army life. Dm smiled and said, " Much better,
Gloria, than you predicted I would." The baggage
was stored away in the buck-board, and Gloria got
in front with Philip and they were off. It was early
morning and the dew was still on the soft mesquite
grass, and as the mustang ponies swiftly drew them
LOST IN THE DESERT 17
over the prairie, it seemed to Gloria that she had
awakened in fairyland.
At the crest of a hill, Philip held the horses for
a moment, and Gloria caught her breath as she saw
the valley below. It looked as if some translucent
lake had mirrored the sky. It was the countless blos-
soms of the Texas blue-bonnet that lifted their slender
stems towards the morning sun, and hid the earth.
Down into the valley they drove upon the most
wonderfully woven carpet in all the world. Aladdin
and his magic looms could never have woven a fabric
such as this. A heavy, delicious perfume permeated
the air, and with glistening eyes and parted lips,
Gloria sat dumb in happy astonishment.
They dipped into the rocky bed of a wet weather
stream, climbed out of the canyon and found them-
selves within the shadow of Fort Magruder.
Gloria soon saw that the social distractions of the
place had little call for Philip. She learned, too, that
he had already won the profound respect and liking
of his brother officers. Jack spoke of him in terms
even more superlative than ever. " He is a born
leader of men," he declared, " and he knows more
about engineering and tactics than the Colonel and
all the rest of us put together." Hard student
18 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
though he was, Gloria found him ever ready to devote
himself to her, and their rides together over the bound-
less, flower studded prairies, were a never ending joy.
" Isn't it beautiful Isn't it wonderful," she would
exclaim. And once she said, " But, Philip, happy as
I am, I oftentimes think of the reeking poverty in
the great cities, and wish, in some way, they could
share this with me." Philip looked at her question-
ingly, but made no reply.
A visit that was meant for weeks transgressed upon
the months, and still she lingered. One hot June
morning found Gloria and Philip far in the hills on
the Mexican side of the Rio Grande. They had
started at dawn with the intention of breakfasting
with the courtly old haciendado, who frequently visited
at the Post.
After the ceremonious Mexican breakfast, Gloria
wanted to see beyond the rim of the little world that
enclosed the hacienda, so they rode to the end of
the valley, tied their horses and climbed to the crest
of the ridge. She was eager to go still further.
They went down the hill on the other side, through a
draw and into another valley beyond.
Soldier though he was, Philip was no plainsman,
and in retracing their steps, they missed the draw.
LOST IN THE DESERT 19
Philip knew that they were not going as they came,
but with his months of experience in the hills, felt
sure he could find his way back with less trouble by
continuing as they were. The grass and the shrubs
gradually disappeared as they walked, and soon he
realized that they were on the edge of an alkali desert.
Still he thought he could swing around into the val-
ley from which they started, and they plunged steadily
on, only to see in a few minutes that they were lost.
"What's the matter, Philip?" asked Gloria.
"Are we lost?"
" I hope not, we only have to find that draw."
The girl said no more, but walked on side by side
with the young soldier. Both pulled their hats far
down over their eyes to shield them from the glare
of the fierce rays of the sun, and did what they could
to keep out the choking clouds of alkali dust that
swirled around them at every step.
Philip, hardened by months of Southwestern serv-
ice, stood the heat well, except that his eyes ached,
but he saw that Gloria was giving out.
" Are you tired ? " he asked.
" Yes, I am very tired," she answered, " but I can
go on if you will let me rest a moment." Her voice
was weak and uncertain and indicated approaching
20 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
collapse. And then she said more faintly, " I am
afraid, Philip, we are hopelessly lost."
" Do not be frightened, Gloria, we will soon be out
of this if you will let me carry you."
Just then, the girl staggered and would have fallen
had he not caught her.
He was familiar with heat prostration, and saw that
her condition was not serious, but he knew he must
carry her, for to lay her in the blazing sun would be
His eyes, already overworked by long hours of
study, were swollen and bloodshot. Sharp pains shot
through his head. To stop he feared would be to
court death, so taking Gloria in his arms, he stag-
In that vast world of alkali and adobe there was
no living thing but these two. No air was astir, and
a pitiless sun beat upon them unmercifully.
Philip's lips were cracked, his tongue was swollen,
and the burning dust almost choked him. He began
to see less clearly, and visions of things he knew to
be unreal came to him. With Spartan courage and
indomitable will, he never faltered, but went on. Mi-
rages came and went, and he could not know whether
he saw true or not. Then here and there he thought
LOST IN THE DESERT 21
he began to see tufts of curly mesquite grass, and in
the distance surely there were cacti. He knew that
if he could hold out a little longer, he could lay his
burden in some sort of shade.
With halting steps, with eyes inflamed and strength
all but gone, he finally laid Gloria in the shadow of a
giant prickly pear bush, and fell beside her. He
fumbled for his knife and clumsily scraped the needles
from a leaf of the cactus and sliced it in two. The
heavy sticky liquid ran over his hand as he placed
the cut side of the leaf to Gloria's lips. The juice
of the plant together with the shade, partially re-
vived her. Philip, too, sucked the leaf until his
parched tongue and throat became a little more pli-
" What happened? " demanded Gloria. " Oh ! yes,
now I remember. I am sorry I gave out, Philip. I
am not acclimated yet. What time is it ? "
After pillowing her head more comfortably upon
his riding coat, Philip looked at his watch.
"I I can't just make it out, Gloria," he said.
66 My eyes seem blurred. This awful glare seems to
have affected them. They'll be all right in a little
Gloria looked at the dial and found that the hands
22 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
pointed to four o'clock. They had been lost for six
hours, but after their experiences, it seemed more like
as many days. They rested a little while longer talk-
ing but little.
" You carried me," said Gloria once. " I'm
ashamed of myself for letting the heat get the best
of me. You shouldn't have carried me, Philip, but
you know I understand and appreciate. How are
your eyes now ? "
" Oh, they'll be all right," he reiterated, but when
he took his hand from them to look at her, and the
light beat upon the inflamed lids, he winced.
After eating some of the fruit of the prickly pear,
which they found too hot and sweet to be palatable,
Philip suggested at half after five that they should
move on. They arose, and the young officer started
to lead the way, peeping from beneath his hand.
First he stumbled over a mesquite bush directly in his
path, and next he collided with a giant cactus stand-
ing full in front of him.
" It's no use, Gloria," he said at last. " I can't
see the way. You must lead."
" All right, Philip, I will do the best I can."
For answer, he merely took her hand, and together
they started to retrace their steps. Over the track-
LOST IN THE DESERT 23
less waste of alkali and sagebrush they trudged.
They spoke but little but when they did, their husky,
dust-parched voices made a mockery of their hopeful
Though the horizon seemed bounded by a low range
of hills, the girl instinctively turned her steps west-
ward, and entered a draw. She rounded one of the
hills, and just as the sun was sinking, came upon
the valley in which their horses were peacefully
They mounted and followed the dim trail along
which they had ridden that morning, reaching the ha-
cienda about dark. With many shakings of the hand,
voluble protestations of joy at their delivery from the
desert, and callings on God to witness that the girl
had performed a miracle, the haciendado gave them
food and cooling drinks, and with gentle insistence,
had his servants, wife and daughters show them to
their rooms. A poultice of Mexican herbs was laid
across Philip's eyes, but exhausted as he was he could
not sleep because of the pain they caused him.
In the morning, Gloria was almost her usual self,
but Philip could see but faintly. As early as was
possible they started for Fort Magruder. His eyes
were bandaged, and Gloria held the bridle of his horse
24 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
and led him along the dusty trail. A vaquero froi
the ranch went with them to show the way.
Then came days of anxiety, for the surgeon at th
Post saw serious trouble ahead for Philip. He woul
make no definite statement, but admitted that the bri
liant young officer's eyesight was seriously menacec
Gloria read to him and wrote for him, and in man
ways was his hands and eyes. He in turn talked t
her of the things that filled his mind. The bettei
ment of man was an ever-present theme with then
It pleased him to trace for her the world's histor
from its early beginning when all was misty traditioi
down through the uncertain centuries of early ch
ilization to the present time.
He talked with her of the untrustworthiness of tli
so-called history of to-day, although we had ever
facility for recording facts, and he pointed out ho 1
utterly unreliable it was when tradition was the onl
means of transmission. Mediocrity, he felt sure, ha
oftentimes been exalted into genius, and brilliant an
patriotic exclamations attributed to great men, wei
never uttered by them, neither was it easy he though^
to get a true historic picture of the human intellects
giant. As a rule they were quite human, but peop]
insisted upon idealizing them, consequently they be
LOST IN THE DESERT 5
came not themselves but what the popular mind
wanted them to be.
He also dwelt on the part the demagogue and
the incompetents play in retarding the advancement
of the human race. Some leaders were honest, some
were wise and some were selfish, but it was seldom that
the people would be led by wise, honest and unselfish
" There is always the demagogue to poison the mind
of the people against such a man," he said, " and it
is easily done because wisdom means moderation and
honesty means truth. To be moderate and to tell
the truth at all times and about all matters seldom
pleases the masses."
Many a long day was spent thus in purely imper-
sonal discussions of affairs, and though he himself did
not realize it, Gloria saw that Philip was ever at his
best when viewing the large questions of State, rather
than the narrower ones within the scope of the mili-
The weeks passed swiftly, for the girl knew well
how to ease the young Officer's chafing at uncertainty
and inaction. At times, as they droned away the
long hot summer afternoons under the heavily leafed
fig trees in the little garden of the Strawn bungalow,
26 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
he would become impatient at his enforced idleness.
Finally one day, after making a pitiful attempt to
read, Philip broke out, " I have been patient under
this as long as I can. The restraint is too much.
Something must be done.'*
Somewhat to his surprise, Gloria did not try to take
his mind off the situation this time, but suggested
asking the surgeon for a definite report on his con-
The interview with the surgeon was unsatisfactory,
but his report to his superior officers bore fruit, for
in a short time Philip was told that he should apply
for an indefinite leave of absence, as it would be
months, perhaps years, before his eyes would allow
him to carry on his duties.
He seemed dazed at the news, and for a long time
would not talk of it even with Gloria. After a long
silence one afternoon she softly asked, " What are
you going to do, Philip? "
Jack Strawn, who was sitting near by, broke out
" Do ! why there's no question about what he is going
to do. Once an Army man always an Army man.
He's going to live on the best the U. S. A. provides
until his eyes are right. In the meantime Philip is
going to take indefinite sick leave."
LOST IN THE DESERT 27
The girl only smiled at her brother's military point
of view, and asked another question. " How will
you occupy your time, Philip ? "
Philip sat as if he had not heard them.
" Occupy his time ! " exclaimed Jack, " getting well
of course. Without having to obey orders or do any-
thing but draw his checks, he can have the time of
his life, there will be nothing to worry about."
" That's just it," slowly said Philip. " No work,
nothing to think about."
" Exactly," said Gloria.
" What are you driving at, Sister. You talk as
if it was something to be deplored. I call it a lark.
Cheer the fellow up a bit, can't you ? "
" No, never mind," replied Philip. " There's noth-
ing to cheer me up about. The question is simply
this : Can I stand a period of several years' enforced
inactivity as a mere pensioner? "
" Yes ! " quickly said Gloria, " as a pensioner, and
then, if all goes well, you return to this."
"What do you mean, Gloria? Don't you like
Army Post life?" asked Jack.
" I like it as well as you do, Jack. You just
haven't come to realize that Philip is cut out for a
bigger sphere than that." She pointed out across
28 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
the parade ground where a drill was going on. " You
know as well as I do that this is not the age for a
Jack was so disgusted with this, that with an ex-
clamation of impatience, he abruptly strode off to
the parade ground.
" You are right, Gloria," said Philip. " I cannot
live on a pension indefinitely. I cannot bring
myself to believe that it is honest to become a
mendicant upon the bounty of the country. If I
had been injured in the performance of duty, I would
have no scruples in accepting support during an en-
forced idleness, but this disability arose from no
fault of the Government, and the thought of accept-
ing aid under such circumstances is too repugnant."
" Of course," said Gloria.
" The Government means no more to me than an
individual," continued Philip, " and it is to be as
fairly dealt with. I never could understand how
men with self-respect could accept undeserving pen-
sions from the Nation. To do so is not alone dis-
honest, but is unfair to those who need help and have
a righteous claim to support. If the unworthy were
refused, the deserving would be able to obtain that
to which they are entitled."
LOST IN THE DESERT 29
Their talk went on thus for hours, the girl ever try-
ing more particularly to make him see a military
career as she did, and he more concerned with the
ethical side of the situation.
" Do not worry over it, Philip," cried Gloria, " I
feel sure that your place is in the larger world of af-
fairs, and you will some day be glad that this mis-
fortune came to you, and that you were forced
to go into another field of endeavor.
" With my ignorance and idle curiosity, I led you
on and on, over first one hill and then another, until
you lost your way in that awful desert over there,
but yet perhaps there was a destiny in that. When
I was leading you out of the desert, a blind man, it
may be that I was leading you out of the barrenness
of military life, into the fruitful field of labor for
After a long silence, Philip Dm arose and took
" Yes ! I will resign. You have already recon-
ciled me to my fate."
THE SUPREMACY OF MIND
OFFICERS and friends urged Philip to recon-
sider his determination of resigning, but once
decided, he could not be swerved from his
purpose. Gloria persuaded him to go to New York
with her in order to consult one of the leading ocu-
lists, and arrangements were made immediately.
On the last day but one, as they sat under their
favorite fig tree, they talked much of Philip's future.
Gloria had also been reading aloud Sir Oliver Lodge's
" Science and Immortality," and closing the book
upon the final chapter, asked Philip what he thought
" Although the book was written many years ago,
even then the truth had begun to dawn upon the poets,
seers and scientific dreamers. The dominion of mind,
but faintly seen at that time, but more clearly now,
will finally come into full vision. The materialists
under the leadership of Darwin, Huxley and Wal-
THE SUPREMACY OF MIND 31
lace, went far in the right direction, but in trying to
go to the very fountainhead of life, they came to
a door which they could not open and which no ma-
terialistic key will ever open."
" So, Mr. Preacher, you're at it again," laughed
Gloria. " You belong to the pulpit of real life, not
the Army. Go on, I am interested."
w Well," went on Dru, " then came a reaction, and
the best thought of the scientific world swung back to
the theory of mind or spirit, and the truth began to
unfold itself. Now, man is at last about to enter into
that splendid kingdom, the promise of which Christ
gave us when he said, ' My Father and I are one,' and
again, ' When you have seen me you have seen the
Father.' He was but telling them that all life was a
part of the One Life individualized, but yet of and
a part of the whole.
" We are just learning our power and dominion
over ourselves. When in the future children are
trained from infancy that they can measurably con-
quer their troubles by the force of mind, a new era
will have come to man."
" There," said Gloria, with an earnestness that
Philip had rarely heard in her, " is perhaps the source
of the true redemption of the world,"
32 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
She checked herself quickly, " But you were
preaching to me, not I to you. Go on."
" No, but I want to hear what you were going to
" You see I am greatly interested in this move-
ment which is seeking to find how far mind controls
matter, and to what extent our lives are spiritual
rather than material," she answered, " but it's hard
to talk about it to most people, so I have kept it to
myself. Go on, Philip, I will not interrupt again."
" When fear, hate, greed and the purely material
conception of Life passes out," said Philip, " as it
some day may, and only wholesome thoughts will have
a place in human minds, mental ills will take flight
along with most of our bodily ills, and the miracle
of the world's redemption will have been largely
" Mental ills will take flight along with bodily ills.
We should be trained, too, not to dwell upon antici-
pated troubles, but to use our minds and bodies in an
earnest, honest endeavor to avert threatened disaster.
We should not brood over possible failure, for in
the great realm of the supremacy of mind or spirit
the thought of failure should not enter."
" Yes, I know, Philip."
THE SUPREMACY OF MIND 33
" Fear, causes perhaps more unhapplness than any
one thing that we have let take possession of us.
Some are never free from it. They awake in the
morning with a vague, indefinite sense of it, and at
night a foreboding of disaster hands over the to-mor-
row. Life would have for us a different meaning if
we would resolve, and keep the resolution, to do the
best we could under all conditions, and never fear the
result. Then, too, we should be trained not to have
such an unreasonable fear of death. The Eastern peo-
ples are far wiser in this respect than we. They have
learned to look upon death as a happy transition to
something better. And they are right, for that is the
true philosophy of it. At the very worst, can it mean
more than a long and dreamless sleep? Does not the
soul either go back to the one source from which it
sprung, and become a part of the whole, or does it not
throw off its material environment and continue with
individual consciousness to work out its final destiny?
" If that be true, there is no death as we have con-
ceived it. It would mean to us merely the beginning
of a more splendid day, and we should be taught that
every emotion, every effort here that is unselfish and
soul uplifting, will better fit us for that spiritual ex-
istence that is to come."
THE TRAGEDY OF THE TURNERS
THE trip north from Fort Magruder was a most
trying experience for Philip Dru, for although
he had as traveling companions Gloria and
Jack Strawn, who was taking a leave of absence, the
young Kentuckian felt his departure from Texas and
the Army as a portentous turning point in his career.
In spite of Gloria's philosophy, and in spite of Jack's
reassurances, Philip was assailed by doubts as to the
ultimate improvement of his eyesight, and at the
same time with the feeling that perhaps after all,
he was playing the part of a deserter.
" It's all nonsense to feel cut up over it, you know,
Philip," insisted Jack. " You can take my word for
it that you have the wrong idea in wanting to quit
when you can be taken care of by the Government.
You have every right to it."
" No, Jack, I have no right to it," answered Dru,
" but certain as I am that I am doing the only thing
I could do, under the circumstances, it's a hard wrench
THE TRAGEDY OF THE TURNERS 35
to leave the Army, even though I had come to think
that I can find my place in the world out of the serv-
The depression was not shaken off until after they
had reached New York, and Philip had been told by
the great specialist that his eyesight probably never
again would pass the Army tests. Once convinced
that an Army career was impossible, he resigned, and
began to reconstruct his life with new hope and with
a new enthusiasm. While he was ordered to give his
eyes complete rest for at least six months and re-
main a part of every day in a darkened room, he was
promised that after several months, he probably would
be able to read and write a little.
As he had no relatives in New York, Philip, after
some hesitation, accepted Jack Strawn's insistent in-
vitation to visit him for a time, at least. Through
the long days and weeks that followed, the former
young officer and Gloria were thrown much together.
One afternoon as they were sitting in a park, a
pallid child of ten asked to " shine " their shoes. In
sympathy they allowed him to do it. The little fellow
had a gaunt and hungry look and his movements were
very sluggish. He said his name was Peter Turner
and he gave some squalid east side tenement district
36 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
as his home. He said that his father was dead, his
mother was bedridden, and he, the oldest of three
children, was the only support of the family. He got
up at five and prepared their simple meal, and did
what he could towards making his mother comfortable
for the day. By six he left the one room that shel-
tered them, and walked more than two miles to where
he now was. Midday meal he had none, and in the
late afternoon he walked home and arranged their
supper of bread, potatoes, or whatever else he con-
sidered he could aif ord to buy. Philip questioned him
as to his earnings and was told that they varied with
the weather and other conditions, the maximum had
been a dollar and fifteen cents for one day, the
minimum twenty cents. The average seemed around
fifty cents, and this was to shelter, clothe and feed a
family of four.
Already Gloria's eyes were dimmed with tears.
Philip asked if they might go home with him then.
The child consented and led the way.
They had not gone far, when Philip, noticing how
frail Peter was, hailed a car, and they rode to Grand
Street, changed there and went east. Midway be-
tween the Bowery and the river, they got out and
walked south for a few blocks, turned into a side
THE TRAGEDY OF THE TURNERS 3T
street that was hardly more than an alley, and came
to the tenement where Peter lived.
It had been a hot day even in the wide, clean por-
tions of the city. Here the heat was almost unbear-
able, and the stench, incident to a congested popula-
tion, made matters worse.
Ragged and dirty children were playing in the
street. Lack of food and pure air, together with
unsanitary surroundings, had set its mark upon them.
The deathly pallor that was in Peter's face was char-
acteristic of most of the faces around them.
The visitors climbed four flights of stairs, and went
down a long, dark, narrow hall reeking with disagree-
able odors, and finally entered ten-year-old Peter
Turner's " home."
" What a travesty on the word ' home,' " murmured
Dru, as he saw for the first time the interior of an
East Side tenement. Mrs. Turner lay propped in
bed, a ghost of what was once a comely woman.
She was barely thirty, yet poverty, disease and the
.city had drawn their cruel lines across her face.
Gloria went to her bedside and gently pressed the
fragile hand. She dared not trust herself to speak.
And this, she thought, is within the shadow of my
home, and I never knew. " Oh, God," she silently
38 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
prayed, " forgive us for our neglect of such as
Gloria and Philip did all that was possible for the
Turners, but their helping hands came too late to do
more than to give the mother a measure of peace dur-
ing the last days of her life. The promise of help
for the children lifted a heavy load from her heart.
Poor stricken soul, Zelda Turner deserved a better
fate. When she married Len Turner, life seemed
full of joy. He was employed in the office of a large
manufacturing concern, at what seemed to them a
munificent salary, seventy-five dollars a month.
Those were happy days. How they saved and
planned for the future! The castle that they built
in Spain was a little home on a small farm near a city
large enough to be a profitable market for their pro-
duce. Some place where the children could get fresh
air, wholesome food and a place in which to grow
up. Two thousand dollars saved, would, they
thought, be enough to make the start. With this, a
farm costing four thousand dollars could be bought
by mortgaging it for half. Twenty-five dollars a
month saved for six years, would, with interest, bring
them to their goal.
Already more than half the sum was theirs. Then
THE TRAGEDY OF THE TURNERS 39
came disaster. One Sunday they were out for their
usual walk. It had been sleeting and the pavements
here and there were still icy. In front of them some
children were playing, and a little girl of eight darted
into the street to avoid being caught by a compan-
ion. She slipped and fell. A heavy motor was al-
most upon her, when Len rushed to snatch her from
the on-rushing car. He caught the child, but slipped
himself, succeeding however in pushing her be-
yond danger before the cruel wheels crushed out his
life. The dreary days and nights that followed need
not be recited here. The cost of the funeral and
other expenses incident thereto bit deep into their
savings, therefore as soon as she could pull herself
together, Mrs. Turner sought employment and got it
in a large dressmaking establishment at the inade-
quate wage of seven dollars a week. She was skillful
with her needle but had no aptitude for design, there-
fore she was ever to be among the plodders. One
night in the busy season of overwork before the Christ-
mas holidays, she started to walk the ten blocks to her
little home, for car-fare was a tax beyond her purse,
and losing her weary footing, she fell heavily to the
ground. By the aid of a kindly policeman she was
able to reach home, in great suffering, only .to faint
40 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
when she finally reached her room. Peter, who was
then about seven years old, was badly frightened.
He ran for their next door neighbor, a kindly German
woman. She lifted Zelda into bed and sent for a
physician, and although he could find no other injury
than a badly bruised spine, she never left her bed until
she was borne to her grave.
The pitiful little sum that was saved soon went, and
Peter with his blacking box became the sole support
of the family.
When they had buried Zelda, and Gloria was kneel-
ing by her grave softly weeping, Philip touched her
shoulder and said, " Let us go, she needs us no
longer, but there are those who do. This experience
has been my lesson, and from now it is my purpose
to consecrate my life towards the betterment of such
as these. Our thoughts, our habits, our morals, our
civilization itself is wrong, else it would not be pos-
sible for just this sort of suffering to exist."
" But you will let me help you, Philip ? " said
" It will mean much to me, Gloria, if you will. In
this instance Len Turner died a hero's death, and
when Mrs. Turner became incapacitated, society, the
state, call it what you will, should have stepped
THE TRAGEDY OF THE TURNERS 41
in and thrown its protecting arms around her. It
was never intended that she should lie there day after
day, month after month, suffering, starving, and in
an agony of soul for her children's future. She had
the right to expect succor from the rich and the
" Yes," said Gloria, " I have heard successful men
and women say that they cannot help the poor, that
if you gave them all you had, they would soon be poor
again, and that your giving would never cease."
" I know," Philip replied, " that is ever the cry of
the selfish. They believe that they merit all the
blessings of health, distinction and wealth that may
come to them, and they condemn their less fortunate
brother as one deserving his fate. The poor, the
weak and the impractical did not themselves bring
about their condition. Who knows how large a part
the mystery of birth and heredity play in one's life
and what environment and opportunity, or lack of it,
means to us? Health, ability, energy, favorable en-
vironment and opportunity are the ingredients of suc-
cess. Success is graduated by the lack of one or all
of these. If the powerful use their strength merely
to further their own selfish desires, in what way save
in degree do they differ from the lower animals of
42 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
creation? And how can man under such a moral
code justify his dominion over land and sea?
" Until recently this question has never squarely
faced the human race, but it does face it now and to
its glory and honor it is going to be answered right.
The strong will help the weak, the rich will share
with the poor, and it will not be called charity, but
it will be known as justice. And the man or woman
who fails to do his duty, not as he sees it, but as
society at large sees it, will be held up to the con-
tempt of mankind. A generation or two ago, Gloria,
this mad unreasoning scramble for wealth began.
Men have fought, struggled and died, lured by the
gleam of gold, and to what end? The so-called for-
tunate few that succeed in obtaining it, use it in divers
ways. To some, lavish expenditure and display
pleases their swollen vanity. Others, more serious
minded, gratify their selfishness by giving largess to
schools of learning and research, and to the advance-
ment of the sciences and arts. But here and there
was found a man gifted beyond his fellows, one
with vision clear enough to distinguish things worth
while. And these, scorning to acquire either wealth
or power, labored diligently in their separate fields of
endeavor. One such became a great educator, the
THE TRAGEDY OF THE TURNERS 4$
greatest of his day and generation, and by his long
life of rectitude set an example to the youth of Amer-
ica that has done more good than all the gold that
all the millionaires have given for educational pur^
poses. Another brought to success a prodigious
physical undertaking. For no further reason than
that he might serve his country where best he could,
he went into a fever-laden land and dug a mighty
ditch, bringing together two great oceans and chang-
ing the commerce of the world."
THE PROPHET OF A NEW DAY
PHILIP and Mr. Strawn oftentimes discussed
the mental and moral upheaval that was now
generally in evidence.
" What is to be the outcome, Philip? " said Mr.
Strawn. " I know that things are not as they should
be, but how can there be a more even distribution of
wealth without lessening the efficiency of the strong,
able and energetic men and without making mendi-
cants of the indolent and improvident? If we had
pure socialism, we could never get the highest en-
deavor out of anyone, for it would seem not worth
while to do more than the average. The race would
then go backward instead of lifting itself higher by
the insistent desire to excel and to reap the rich re-
ward that comes with success."
" In the past, Mr. Strawn, your contention would
be unanswerable, but the moral tone and thought of
the world is changing. You take it for granted that
man must have in sight some material reward in order
THE PROPHET OF A NEW DAY 45
to bring forth the best there is within him. I believe
that mankind is awakening to the fact that material
compensation is far less to be desired than spiritual
compensation. This feeling will grow, it is grow-
ing, and when it comes to full fruition, the world will
find but little difficulty in attaining a certain measure
of altruism. I agree with you that this much-to-be
desired state of society cannot be altogether reached
by laws, however drastic. Socialism as dreamed of by
Karl Marx cannot be entirely brought about by a
comprehensive system of state ownership and by the
leveling of wealth. If that were done without a spir-
itual leavening, the result would be largely as you
And so the discussion ran, Strawn the embodi-
ment of the old order of thought and habit, and
Philip the apostle of the new. And Gloria listened
and felt that in Philip a new force had arisen. She
likened him to a young eagle who, soaring high above
a slumbering world, sees first the gleaming rays of
that onrushing sun that is soon to make another day.
THE WINNING OF A MEDAL
IT had become the practice of the War Department
to present to the army every five years a compre-
hensive military problem involving an imaginary
attack upon this country by a powerful foreign foe,
and the proper line of defense. The competition was
open to both pfficers and men. A medal was given to
the successful contestant, and much distinction came
There had been as yet but one contest; five years
before the medal had been won by a Major General
who by wide acclaim was considered the greatest mili-
tary authority in the Army. That he should win
seemed to accord with the fitness of things, and it
was thought that he would again be successful.
The problem had been given to the Army on the
first of November, and six months were allowed to
study it and hand in a written dissertation thereon.
It was arranged that the general military staff that
THE WINNING OF A MEDAL 47
considered the papers should not know the names of
Philip had worked upon the matter assiduously
while he was at Fort Magruder, and had sent in his
paper early in March. Great was his surprise upon
receiving a telegram from the Secretary of War an-
nouncing that he had won the medal. For a few days
he was a national sensation. The distinction of the
first winner, who was again a contestant, and Philip's
youth and obscurity, made such a striking contrast
that the whole situation appealed enormously to the
imagination of the people. Then, too, the problem
was one of unusual interest, and it, as well as Philip's
masterly treatment of it, was published far and wide.
The Nation was clearly treating itself to a sensa-
tion, and upon Philip were focused the eyes of all.
From now he was a marked man. The President,
stirred by the wishes of a large part of the people,
expressed by them in divers ways, offered him rein-
statement in the Army with the rank of Major, and
indicated, through the Secretary of War, that he
would be assigned as Secretary to the General Staff.
It was a gracious thing to do, even though it was
prompted by that political instinct for which the
President had become justly famous.
48 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
In an appreciative note of thanks, Philip declined.
Again he became the talk of the hour. Poor, and
until now obscure, it was assumed that he would
gladly seize such an opportunity for a brilliant ca-
reer within his profession. His friends were amazed
and urged him to reconsider the matter, but his de-
termination was fixed.
Only Gloria understood and approved.
" Philip," said Mr. Strawn, " do not turn this offer
down lightly. Such an opportunity seldom comes
twice in any man's life."
" I am deeply impressed with the truth of what
you say, Mr. Strawn, and I am not putting aside
a military career without much regret. However, I
am now committed to a life work of a different char-
acter, one in which glory and success as the world
knows it can never enter, but which appeals to every
instinct that I possess. I have turned my face in
the one direction, and come what may, I shall never
" I am afraid, Philip, that in the enthusiasm of
youth and inexperience you are doing a foolish thing,
one that will bring you many hours of bitter re-
gret. This is the parting of the ways with you.
THE WINNING OF A MEDAL 49
Take the advice of one who loves you well and turn
into the road leading to honor and success. The path
which you are about to choose is obscure and difficult,
and none may say just where it leads."
" What you say is true, Mr. Strawn, only we are
measuring results by different standards. If I could
journey your road with a blythe heart, free from re-
gret, when glory and honor came, I should revel in
it and die, perhaps, happy and contented. But con-
stituted as I am, when I began to travel along that
road, from its dust there would arise to haunt me
the ghosts of those of my fellowmen who had lived
and died without opportunity. The cold and hun-
gry, the sick and suffering poor, would seem to cry
to me that I had abandoned them in order that I
might achieve distinction and success, and there would
be for me no peace."
And here Gloria touched his hand with hers, that
he might know her thoughts and sympathy were at
one with his.
Philip was human enough to feel a glow of satis-
faction at having achieved so much reputation. A
large part of it, he felt, was undeserved and rather
hysterical, but that he had been able to do a big
50 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
thing made him surer of his ground in his new field
of endeavor. He believed, too, that it would aid him
largely in obtaining the confidence of those with whom
he expected to work and of those he expected to work
THE STORY OF THE LEVINSKYS
AS soon as public attention was brought to
Philip in such a generous way, he received
many offers to write for the press and mag-
azines, and also to lecture.
He did not wish to draw upon his father's slen-
der resources, and yet he must needs do something to
meet his living expenses, for during the months of his
inactivity, he had drawn largely upon the small sum
which he had saved from his salary.
The Strawns were insistent that he should continue
to make their home his own, but this he was unwilling
to do. So he rented an inexpensive room over a small
hardware store in the East Side tenement district.
He thought of getting in one of the big, evil-smelling
tenement houses so that he might live as those he
came to help lived, but he abandoned this because he
feared he might become too absorbed in those imme-
diately around him.
What he wanted was a broader view. His purpose
52 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
was not so much to give individual help as to formu-
late some general plan and to work upon those lines.
And yet he wished an intimate view of the things
he meant to devote his life to bettering. So the
clean little room over the quiet hardware store seemed
to suit his wants.
The thin, sharp-featured Jew and his fat, homely
wife who kept it had lived in that neighborhood for
many years, and Philip found them a mine of useful
information regarding the things he wished to know.
The building was narrow and but three stories
high, and his landlord occupied all of the second
story save the one room which was let to Philip.
He arranged with Mrs. Levinsky to have his break-
fast with them. He soon learned to like the Jew
and his wife. While they were kind-hearted and
sympathetic, they seldom permitted their sympathy
to encroach upon their purse, but this Philip knew
was a matter of environment and early influence. He
drew from them one day the story of their lives, and
it ran like this :
Ben Levinsky's forebears had long lived in Warsaw.
From father to son, from one generation to another,
they had handed down a bookshop, which included
bookbinding in a small way. They were self-educated
THE STORY OF THE LEVINSKYS 53
and widely read. Their customers were largely
among the gentiles and for a long time the anti-
semitic waves passed over them, leaving them un-
touched. They were law-abiding, inoffensive, peace-
able citizens, and had been for generations.
One bleak December day, at a market place in
Warsaw, a young Jew, baited beyond endurance,
struck out madly at his aggressors, and in the gen-
eral melee that followed, the son of a high official was
killed. No one knew how he became involved in the
brawl, for he was a sober, high-minded youngster,
and very popular. Just how he was killed and by
whom was never known. But the Jew had struck
the first blow and that was all sufficient for the blood
of hate to surge in the eyes of the race-mad mob.
Then began a blind, unreasoning massacre. It all
happened within an hour. It was as if after night-
fall a tornado had come out of the west, and without
warning had torn and twisted itself through the city,
leaving ruin and death in its wake. No Jew that
could be found was spared. Saul Levinsky was sit-
ting in his shop looking over some books that had
just come from the binder. He heard shots in the
distance and the dull, angry roar of the hoarse-voiced
mob. He closed his door and bolted it, and went
54 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
up the little stairs leading to his family quarters.
His wife and six-year-old daughter were there. Ben,
a boy of ten, had gone to a nobleman's home to de-
liver some books, and had not returned.
Levinsky expected the mob to pass his place and
leave it unmolested. It stopped, hesitated and then
rammed in the door. It was all over in a moment.
Father, mother and child lay dead and torn almost
limb from limb. The rooms were wrecked, and the
mob moved on.
The tempest passed as quickly as it came, and
when little Ben reached his home, the street was as
silent as the grave.
With quivering lip and uncertain feet he picked
his way from room to room until he came to what
were once his father, mother and baby sister, and
then he swooned away. When he awoke he was shiv-
ering with cold. For a moment he did not realize
what had happened, then with a heartbreaking cry
he fled the place, nor did he stop until he was a league
He crept under the sheltering eaves of a half-
burned house, and cold and miserable he sobbed him-
self to sleep. In the morning an itinerant tinker
came by and touched by the child's distress, drew
THE STORY OF THE LEVINSKYS 55
from him his unhappy story. He was a lonely old
man, and offered to take Ben with him, an offer
which was gladly accepted.
We will not chronicle the wanderings of these two
in pursuit of food and shelter, for it would take too
long to tell in sequence how they finally reached Amer-
ica, of the tinker's death, and of the evolution of
the tinker's pack to the well ordered hardware shop
over which Philip lived.
PHILIP BEGINS A NEW CAREEB
AFTER sifting the offers made him, Philip
finally accepted two, one from a large New
York daily that syndicated throughout the
country, and one from a widely read magazine,
to contribute a series of twelve articles. Both the
newspaper and the magazine wished to dictate the
subject matter about which he was to write, but he
insisted upon the widest latitude. The 'sum paid,
and to be paid, seemed to him out of proportion to
the service rendered, but he failed to take into account
the value of the advertising to those who had
secured the use of his pen.
He accepted the offers not alone because he must
needs do something for a livelihood, but largely for
the good he thought he might do the cause to which he
was enlisted. He determined to write upon social
subjects only, though he knew that this would be a
disappointment to his publishers. He wanted to write
an article or two before he began his permanent
PHILIP BEGINS A NEW CAREER 57
work, for if he wrote successfully, he thought it would
add to his influence. So he began immediately, and
finished his first contribution to the syndicate news-
papers in time for them to use it the following Sun-
He told in a simple way, the story of the Turners.
In conclusion he said the rich and the well-to-do were
as a rule charitable enough when distress came to
their doors, but the trouble was that they were un-
willing to seek it out. They knew that it existed
but they wanted to come in touch with it as little as
They smothered their consciences with the thought
that there were organized societies and other mediums
through which all poverty was reached, and to these
they gave. They knew that this was not literally
true, but it served to make them think less badly of
In a direct and forceful manner, he pointed out
that our civilization was fundamentally wrong inas-
much as among other things, it restricted efficiency;
that if society were properly organized, there would
be none who were not sufficiently clothed and fed;
that the laws, habits and ethical training in vogue were
alike responsible for the inequalities in opportunity
58 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
and the consequent wide difference between the few
and the many; that the result of such conditions was
to render inefficient a large part of the population,
the percentage differing in each country in the ratio
that education and enlightened and unselfish laws bore
to ignorance, bigotry and selfish laws. But little
progress, he said, had been made in the early centu-
ries for the reason that opportunity had been confined
to a few, and it was only recently that any consider-
able part of the world's population had been in a
position to become efficient; and mark the result.
Therefore, he argued, as an economical proposition,
divorced from the realm of ethics, the far-sighted
statesmen of to-morrow, if not of to-day, will labor to
the end that every child born of woman may have an
opportunity to accomplish that for which it is best
fitted. Their bodies will be properly clothed and fed
at the minimum amount of exertion, so that life may
mean something more than a mere struggle for ex-
istence. Humanity as a whole will then be able to
do its share towards the conquest of the complex
forces of nature, and there will be brought about an
intellectual and spiritual quickening that will make
our civilization of to-day seem as crude, as selfish
and illogical as that of the dark ages seem now to us.
PHILIP BEGINS A NEW CAREER 59
Philip's article was widely read and was the sub-
ject of much comment, favorable and otherwise.
There were the ever-ready few, who want to re-make
the world in a day, that objected to its moderation,
and there were his more numerous critics who hold
that to those that have, more should be given. These
considered his doctrine dangerous to the general
welfare, meaning their own welfare. But upon the
greater number it made a profound impression, and
it awakened many a sleeping conscience as was shown
by the hundreds of letters which he received from all
parts of the country. All this was a tremendous en-
couragement to the young social worker, for the let-
ters he received showed him that he had a definite
public to address, whom he might lead if he could
keep his medium for a time at least. Naturally, the
publishers of the newspaper and magazine for which
he wrote understood this, but they also understood
that it was usually possible to control intractable
writers after they had acquired a taste for publicity,
and their attitude was for the time being one of
general enthusiasm and liberality tempered by such
trivial attempts at control as had already been made.
No sooner had he seen the first story in print than
he began formulating his ideas for a second. This,
60 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
he planned, would be a companion piece to that of
the Turners which was typical of the native Ameri-
can family driven to the East Side by the inevitable
workings of the social order, and would take up the
problem of the foreigner immigrating to this country,
and its effect upon our national life. In this second
article he incorporated the story of the Levinskys as
being fairly representative of the problem he wished
In preparing these articles, Philip had used his eyes
for the first time in such work, and he was pleased to
find no harm came of it. The oculist still cautioned
moderation, but otherwise dismissed him as fully re-
GLORIA DECIDES TO PROSELYTE THE RICH
WHILE Philip was establishing himself in
New York, as a social worker and writer,
Gloria was spending more and more of her
time in settlement work, in spite of the opposition
of her family. Naturally, their work brought them
much into each other's society, and drew them even
closer together than in Philip's dark days when Gloria
was trying to aid him in the readjustment of his
life. They were to all appearances simply comrades
in complete understanding, working together for a
However, Strawn's opposition to Gloria's settle-
ment work was not all impersonal, for he made no
secret of his worry over Gloria's evident admiration
for Dru. Strawn saw in Philip a masterly man with
a prodigious intellect, bent upon accomplishing a
revolutionary adjustment of society, and he knew
that nothing would deter him from his purpose. The
magnitude of the task and the uncertainties of sue-
62 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
cess made him fear that Gloria might become one of
the many unhappy women who suffer martyrdom
through the greatness of their love.
Gloria's mother felt the same way about her daugh-
ter's companion in settlement work. Mrs. Strawn
was a placid, colorless woman, content to go the con-
ventional way, without definite purpose, further than
to avoid the rougher places in life.
She was convinced that men were placed here for
the sole purpose of shielding and caring for women,
and she had a contempt for any man who refused or
was unable to do so.
Gloria's extreme advanced views of life alarmed
her and seemed unnatural. She protested as strongly
as she could, without upsetting her equanimity, for to
go beyond that she felt was unladylike and bad for
both nerves and digestion. It was a grief for her to
see Gloria actually working with anyone, much less
Philip, whose theories were quite upsetting, and who,
after all, was beyond the pale of their social sphere
and was impossible as a son-in-law.
Consequently, Philip was not surprised when one
day in the fall, he received a disconsolate note from
Gloria who was spending a few weeks with her par-
ents at their camp in the hills beyond Tuxedo, saying
GLORIA DECIDES TO PROSELYTE 63
that her father had flatly refused to allow her to
take a regular position with one of the New York
settlements, which would require her living on the
East Side instead of at home. The note concluded:
" Now, Philip, do come up for Sunday and let's
talk it over, for I am sadly at variance with my family,
and I need your assistance and advice.
" Your very sincere,
The letter left Dm in a strangely disturbed state
of mind, and all during the trip up from New York
his thoughts were on Gloria and what the future would
bring forth to them both.
On the afternoon following his arrival at the camp,
as he and the young woman walked over the hills
aflame with autumnal splendor, Gloria told of her
bitter disappointment. The young man listened in
sympathy, but after a long pause in which she saw
him weighing the whole question in his mind, he said :
" Well, Gloria, so far as your work alone is con-
cerned, there is something better that you can do if
you will. The most important things to be done now
are not amongst the poor but amongst the rich.
64 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
There is where you may become a forceful missionary
for good. All of us can reach the poor, for they
welcome us, but there are only a few who think like
you, who can reach the rich and powerful.
"Let that be your field of endeavor. Do your
work gently and with moderation, so that some at
least may listen. If we would convince and convert,
we must veil our thoughts and curb our enthusiasm,
so that those we would influence will think us reason-
"Well, Philip," answered Gloria, "if you really
think I can help the cause, of course "
" I'm sure you can help the cause. A lack of
understanding is the chief obstacle, but, Gloria, you
know that this is not an easy thing for me to say,
for I realize that it will largely take you out of my
life, for my path leads in the other direction.
" It will mean that I will no longer have you as a
daily inspiration, and the sordidness and loneliness
will press all the harder, but we have seen the true
path, and now have a clearer understanding of the
meaning and importance of our work."
" And so, Philip, it is decided that you will go
back to the East Side to your destiny, and I will re-
main here, there and everywhere, Newport, New York,
GLORIA DECIDES TO PROSELYTE 65
Palm Beach, London, carrying on my work as I
They had wandered long and far by now, and
had come again to the edge of the lofty forest that
was a part of her father's estate. They stood for
a moment in that vast silence looking into each other's
eyes, and then they clasped hands over their tacit
compact, and without a word, walked back to the
SELWYN PLOTS WITH THOE
FOR five years Gloria and Philip worked in their
separate fields, but, nevertheless, coming in fre-
quent touch with one another. Gloria prose-
lyting the rich by showing them their selfishness, and
turning them to a larger purpose in life, and Philip
leading the forces of those who had consecrated them-
selves to the uplifting of the unfortunate. It did not
take Philip long to discern that in the last analysis
it would be necessary for himself and co-workers to
reach the results aimed at through politics. Master-
ful and arrogant wealth, created largely by Govern-
ment protection of its profits, not content with its
domination and influence within a single party, had
sought to corrupt them both, and to that end had
insinuated itself into the primaries, in order that no
candidates might be nominated whose views were not
in accord with theirs.
By the use of all the money that could be spent,
by a complete and compact organization and by the
SELWYN PLOTS WITH THOR 67
most infamous sort of deception regarding his real
opinions and intentions, plutocracy had succeeded in
electing its creature to the Presidency. There had
been formed a league, the membership of which was
composed of one thousand multi-millionaires, each
one contributing ten thousand dollars. This gave a
fund of ten million dollars with which to mislead
those that could be misled, and to debauch the weak
This nefarious plan was conceived by a senator
whose swollen fortune had been augmented year after
year through the tributes paid him by the interests
he represented. He had a marvelous aptitude for po-
litical manipulation and organization, and he forged
a subtle chain with which to hold in subjection the
natural impulses of the people. His plan was simple,
but behind it was the cunning of a mind that had
never known defeat. There was no man in either
of the great political parties that was big enough
to cope with him or to unmask his methods.
Up to the advent of Senator Selwyn, the interests
had not successfully concealed their hands. Some-
times the public had been mistaken as to the true
character of their officials, but sooner or later the
truth had developed, for in most instances, wealth
68 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
was openly for or against certain men and measures.
But the adroit Selwyn moved differently.
His first move was to confer with John Thor, the
high priest of finance, and unfold his plan to him,
explaining how essential was secrecy. It was agreed
between them that it should be known to the two of ;
Thor's influence throughout commercial America
was absolute. His wealth, his ability and even more
the sum of the capital he could control through the
banks, trust companies and industrial organizations,
which he dominated, made his word as potent as that
of a monarch.
He and Selwyn together went over the roll and
selected the thousand that were to give each ten thou-
sand dollars. Some they omitted for one reason or
another, but when they had finished they had named
those who could make or break within a day any
man or corporation within their sphere of influence.
Thor was to send for each of the thousand and
compliment him by telling him that there was a mat-
ter, appertaining to the general welfare of the busi-
ness fraternity, which needed twenty thousand dollars,
that he, Thor, would put up ten, and wanted him
to put up as much, that sometime in the future, or
SELWYN PLOTS WITH THOR 69
never, as the circumstances might require, would he
make a report as to the expenditure and purpose
There were but few men of business between the
Atlantic and Pacific, or between Canada and Mexico,
who did not consider themselves fortunate in being
called to New York by Thor, and in being asked to
join him in a blind pool looking to the safe-guarding
of wealth. Consequently, the amassing of this great
corruption fund in secret was simple. If necessity
had demanded it twice the sum could have been raised.
The money when collected was placed in Thor's
name in different banks controlled by him, and Thor,
from time to time, as requested by Selwyn, placed
in banks designated by him whatever sums were
needed. Selwyn then transferred these amounts to
the private bank of his son-in-law, who became final
paymaster. The result was that the public had no
chance of obtaining any knowledge of the fund or
how it was spent.
The plan was simple, the result effective. Selwyn
had no one to interfere with him. The members of
the pool had contributed blindly to Thor, and Thor
preferred not to know what Selwyn was doing nor
how he did it. It was a one man power which in the
70 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
hands of one possessing ability of the first class, is
always potent for good or evil.
Not only did Selwyn plan to win the Presidency,
but he also planned to bring under his control both
the Senate and the Supreme Court. He selected one
man in each of thirty of the States, some of them
belonging to his party and some to the opposition,
whom he intended to have run for the Senate.
If he succeeded in getting twenty of them elected,
he counted upon having a good majority of the Sen-
ate, because there were already thirty-eight Senators
upon whom he could rely in any serious attack upon
As to the Supreme Court, of the nine justices there
were three that were what he termed " safe and sane,"
and another that could be counted upon in a serious
Three of them, upon whom he could not rely, were
of advanced age, and it was practically certain that
the next President would have that many vacancies
to fill. Then there would be an easy working ma-
His plan contemplated nothing further than this.
His intention was to block all legislation adverse to
the interests. He would have no new laws to fear,
SELWYN PLOTS WITH THOR 71
and of the old, the Supreme Court would properly
He did not intend that his Senators should all vote
alike, speak alike, or act from apparently similar
motives. Where they came from States dominated
by corporate wealth, he would have them frankly vote
in the open, and according to their conviction.
When they came from agricultural States, where
the sentiment was known as " progressive," they
could cover their intentions in many ways. One
method was by urging an amendment so radical that
no honest progressive would consent to it, and then
refusing to support the more moderate measure be-
cause it did not go far enough. Another was to
inject some clause that was clearly unconstitutional,
and insist upon its adoption, and refusing to vote
for the bill without its insertion.
Selwyn had no intention of letting any one Senator
know that he controlled any other senator. There
were to be no caucuses, no conferences of his making,
or anything that looked like an organization. He
was the center, and from him radiated everything
appertaining to measures affecting " the interests."
SELWYN SEEKS A CANDIDATE
SELWYN then began carefully scrutinizing such
public men in the States known as Presidential
cradles, as seemed to him eligible. By a proc-
ess of elimination he centered upon two that appeared
One was James R. Rockland, recently elected Gov-
ernor of a State of the Middle West. The man had
many of the earmarks of a demagogue, which Selwyn
readily recognized, and he therefore concluded to try
Accordingly he went to the capital of the State
ostensibly upon private business, and dropped in upon
the Governor in the most casual way. Rockland was
distinctly flattered by the attention, for Selwyn was,
perhaps, the best known figure in American politics,
while he, himself, had only begun to attract attention.
They had met at conventions and elsewhere, but they
were practically unacquainted, for Rockland had
SELWYN SEEKS A CANDIDATE 73
never been permitted to enter the charmed circle
which gathered around Selwyn.
" Good morning, Governor," said Selwyn, when he
had been admitted to Rockland's private room. " I
was passing through the capital and I thought I
would look in on you and see how your official cares
were using you."
" I am glad to see you, Senator," said Rockland
effusively, " very glad, for there are some party ques-
tions coming up at the next session of the Legislature
about which I particularly desire your advice."
" I have but a moment now, Rockland," answered
the Senator, " but if you will dine with me in my
rooms at the Mandell House to-night it will be a
pleasure to talk over such matters with you."
" Thank you, Senator, at what hour? "
" You had better come at seven for if I finish my
business here to-day, I shall leave on the 10 o'clock
for Washington," said Selwyn.
Thus in the most casual way the meeting was
arranged. As a matter of fact, Rockland had no
party matters to discuss, and Selwyn knew it. He
also knew that Rockland was ambitious to become
a leader, and to get within the little group that con-
trolled the party and the Nation.
74 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
Rockland was a man of much ability, but he fell
far short of measuring up with Selwyn, who was in
a class by himself. The Governor was a good orator,
at times even brilliant, and while not a forceful man,
yet he had magnetism which served him still better
in furthering his political fortunes. He was not one
that could be grossly corrupted, yet he was willing
to play to the galleries in order to serve his ambition,
and he was willing to forecast his political acts in
order to obtain potential support.
When he reached the Mandell House, he was at
once shown to the Senator's rooms. Selwyn received
him cordially enough to be polite, and asked him if
he would not look over the afternoon paper for a
moment while he finished a note he was writing. He
wrote leisurely, then rang for a boy and ordered
dinner to be served.
Selwyn merely tasted the wine (he seldom did
more) but Rockland drank freely though not to ex-
cess. After they had talked over the local matters
which were supposed to be the purpose of the con-
ference, much to Rockland's delight, the Senator be-
gan to discuss national politics.
" Rockland," began Selwyn, " can you hold this
state in line at next year's election ? "
SELWYN SEEKS A CANDIDATE 75
" I feel sure that I can, Senator, why do you ask? "
" Since we have been talking here," he replied, " it
has occurred to me that if you could be nominated
and elected again, the party might do worse than to
consider you for the presidential nomination the year
" No, my dear fellow, don't interrupt me," con-
tinued Selwyn mellifluously.
" It is strange how fate or chance enters into the
life of man and even of nations. A business matter
calls me here, I pass your office and think to pay my
respects to the Governor of the State. Some political
questions are perplexing you, and my presence sug-
gests that I may aid in their solution. This dinner
follows, your personality appeals to me, and the
thought flits through my mind, why should not Rock-
land, rather than some other man, lead the party two
years from now?
" And the result, my dear Rockland, may be, prob-
ably will be, your becoming chief magistrate of the
greatest republic the sun has ever shone on."
Rockland by this time was fairly hypnotized by
Selwyn's words, and by their tremendous import.
For a moment he dared not trust himself to speak.
- " Senator Selwyn," he said at last, " it would be
76 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
idle for me to deny that you have excited within me
an ambition that a moment ago would have seemed
worse than folly. Your influence within the party
and your ability to conduct a campaign, gives to
your suggestion almost the tender of the presidency.
To tell you that I am deeply moved does scant jus-
tice to my feelings. If, after further consideration,
you think me worthy of the honor, I shall feel under
lasting obligations to you which I shall endeavor to
repay in every way consistent with honor and with a
sacred regard for my oath of office."
" I want to tell you frankly, Rockland," answered
Selwyn, " that up to now I have had someone else
in mind, but I am in no sense committed, and we
might as well discuss the matter to as near a conclusion
as is possible at this time."
Selwyn's voice hardened a little as he went on.
" You would not want a nomination that could not
carry with a reasonable certainty of election, there-
fore I would like to go over with you your record,
both public and private, in the most open yet con-
fidential way. It is better that you and I, in the
privacy of these rooms, should lay bare your past
than that it should be done in a bitter campaign and
by your enemies. What we say to one another here
SELWYN SEEKS A CANDIDATE 77
is to be as if never spoken, and the grave itself must
not be more silent. Your private life not only needs
to be clean, but there must be no public act at which
any one can point an accusing finger."
" Of course, of course," said Rockland, with a ges-
ture meant to convey the complete openness of his
" Then comes the question of party regularity,"
continued Selwyn, without noticing. " Be candid
with me, for, if you are not, the recoil will be upon
your own head."
" I am sure that I can satisfy you on every point,
Senator. I have never scratched a party ticket nor
have I ever voted against any measure endorsed by
a party caucus," said Governor Rockland.
" That is well," smiled the Senator. " I assume
that in making your important appointments you
will consult those of us who have stood sponsor for
you, not only to the party but to the country. It
would be very humiliating to me if I should insist
upon your nomination and election and then should
for four years have to apologize for what I had
Musingly, as if contemplating the divine presence
in the works of man, Selwyn went on, while he closely
78 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
watched Rockland from behind his half -closed eye-
" Our scheme of Government contemplates, I think,
a diffuse responsibility, my dear Rockland. While
a president has a constitutional right to act alone, he
has no moral right to act contrary to the tenets and
traditions of his party, or to the advice of the party
leaders, for the country accepts the candidate, the
party and the party advisers as a whole and not sev-
" It is a natural check, which by custom the coun-
try has endorsed as wise, and which must be followed
in order to obtain a proper organization. Do you
follow me, Governor, and do you endorse this un-
written law? "
If Rockland had heard this at second hand, if
he had read it, or if it had related to someone other
than himself, he would have detected the sophistry of
it. But, exhilarated by wine and intoxicated by am-
bition, he saw nothing but a pledge to deal squarely
by the organization.
" Senator," he replied fulsomely, " gratitude is one
of the tenets of my religion, and therefore inversely
ingratitude is unknown to me. You and the organi-
SELWYN SEEKS A CANDIDATE 79
zation can count on my loyalty from the beginning
to the end, for I shall never fail you.
" I know you will not ask me to do anything at
which my conscience will rebel, nor to make an ap-
pointment that is not entirely fit."
" That, Rockland, goes without saying," an-
swered the Senator with dignity. " I have all the
wealth and all the position that I desire. I want
nothing now except to do my share towards making
my native land grow in prosperity, and to make the
individual citizen more contented. To do this we
must cease this eternal agitation, this constant pro-
posal of half-baked measures, which the demagogues
are offering as a panacea to all the ills that flesh is
" We need peace, legislative and political peace,
so that our people may turn to their industries and
work them to success, in the wholesome knowledge
that the laws governing commerce and trade condi-
tions will not be disturbed over night."
" I agree with you there, Senator," said Rockland
" We have more new laws now than we can digest
in a decade," continued Selwyn, " so let us have rest
80 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
until we do digest them. In Europe the business
world works under stable conditions. There we find
no proposal to change the money system between
moons, there we find no uncertainty from month to
month regarding the laws under which manufacturers
are to make their products, but with us, it is a wise
man who knows when he can afford to enlarge his
" A high tariff threatens to-day, a low one to-mor-
row, and a large part of the time the business world
lies in helpless perplexity.
" I take it, Rockland, that you are in favor of
stability, that you will join me in my endeavors to
give the country a chance to develop itself and its
marvelous natural resources."
As a matter of fact, Rockland's career had given
no evidence of such views. He had practically com-
mitted his political fortunes on the side of the pro-
gressives, but the world had turned around since then,
and he viewed things differently.
" Senator," he said, his voice tense in his anxiety
to prove his reliability, " I find that in the past I
have taken only a cursory view of conditions. I see
clearly that what you have outlined is a high order
of statesmanship. You are constructive: I have
SELWYN SEEKS A CANDIDATE 81
been on the side of those who would tear down. I
will gladly join hands with you and build up, so
that the wealth and power of this country shall come
to equal that of any two nations in existence."
Selwyn settled back in his chair, nodding his ap-
proval and telling himself that he would not need
to seek further for his candidate.
At Rockland's earnest solicitation he remained over
another day. The Governor gave him copies of his
speeches and messages, so that he could assure himself
that there was no serious flaw in his public record.
Selwyn cautioned him about changing his attitude
too suddenly. " Go on, Rockland, as you have done
in the past. It will not do to see the light too
quickly. You have the progressives with you now,
keep them, and I will let the conservatives know that
you think straight and may be trusted.
" We must consult frequently together," he con-
tinued, " but cautiously. There is no need for any
one to know that we are working together harmoni-
ously. I may even get some of the conservative pa-
pers to attack you judiciously. It will not harm you.
But, above all, do nothing of importance without
" I am committing the party and the Nation to
82 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
you, and my responsibility is a heavy one, and I owe
it to them that no mistakes are made."
" You may trust me, Senator," said Rockland. " I
understand perfectly. 5 *
DRU AN,D SELWYN MEET
THE roads of destiny oftentimes lead us in
strange and unlocked for directions and bring
together those whose thoughts and purposes
are as wide as space itself. When Gloria Strawn
first entered boarding school, the roommate given
her was Janet Selwyn, the youngest daughter of the
Senator. They were alike in nothing, except, per-
haps, in their fine perception of truth and honor.
But they became devoted friends and had carried
their attachment for one another beyond their school-
girl days. Gloria was a frequent visitor at the Sel-
wyn household both in Washington and Philadelphia,
and was a favorite with the Senator. He often ban-
tered her concerning her " socialistic views," and she
in turn would declare that he would some day see
the light. Now and then she let fall a hint of Philip,
and one day Senator Selwyn suggested that she invite
him over to Philadelphia to spend the week end with
84 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
them. " Gloria, I would like to meet this paragon
of the ages," said he jestingly, " although I am some-
what fearful that he may persuade me to ' sell all that
I have and give it to the poor.' '
" I will promise to protect you during this one
visit, Senator," said Gloria, " but after that I shall
leave you to your fate."
" Dear Philip," wrote Gloria, " the great Senator
Selwyn has expressed a wish to know you, and at his
suggestion, I am writing to ask you here to spend
with us the coming week end. I have promised tliat
you will not denude him of all his possessions at your
first meeting, but beyond that I have refused to go.
Seriously, though, I think you should come, for if
you would know something of politics, then why not
get your lessons from the fountain head?
" Your very sincere,
In reply Philip wrote:
" Dear Gloria : You are ever anticipating my
wishes. In the crusade we are making I find it essen-
tial to know politics, if we are to reach the final
goal that we have in mind, and you have prepared the
DRU AND SELWYN MEET 85
way for the first lesson. I will be over to-morrow on
the four o'clock. Please do not bother to meet me.
Gloria and Janet Strawn were at the station to
meet him. " Janet, this is Mr. Dru," said Gloria.
" It makes me very happy to have my two best friends
meet." As they got in her electric runabout, Janet
Strawn said, " Since dinner will not be served for
two hours or more, let us drive in the park for a
while." Gloria was pleased to see that Philip was
interested in the bright, vivacious chatter of her
friend, and she was glad to hear him respond in the
same light strain. However, she was confessedly
nervous when Senator Selwyn and Philip met.
Though in different ways, she admired them both
profoundly. Selwyn had a delightful personality,
and Gloria felt sure that Philip would come measure-
ably under the influence of it, even though their views
were so widely divergent. And in this she was right.
Here, she felt, were two great antagonists, and she
was eager for the intellectual battle to begin. But
she was to be disappointed, for Philip became the lis-
tener, and did but little of the talking. He led Sen-
86 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
ator Selwyn into a dissertation upon the present
conditions of the country, and the bearing of the
political questions upon them. Selwyn said nothing
indiscreet, yet he unfolded to Philip's view a new and
potential world. Later in the evening, the Senator
was unsuccessful in his efforts to draw from his young
guest his point of view. Philip saw the futility of
such a discussion, and contented Selwyn by expressing
an earnest appreciation of his patience in making
clear so many things about which he had been ignor-
ant. Next morning, Senator Selwyn was strolling
with Gloria in the rose garden, when he said, " Gloria,
I like your friend Dru. I do not recall ever having
met any one like him." " Then you got him to talk
after we left last night. I am so glad. I was afraid
he had on one of his quiet spells."
" No, he said but little, but the questions he asked
gave me glimpses of his mind that sometimes startled
me. He was polite, modest but elusive, neverthele3s,
I like him, and shall see more of him." Far sighted
as Selwyn was, he did not know the full extent of
THE MAKING OF A PRESIDENT
SELWYN now devoted himself to the making of
enough conservative senators to control com-
fortably that body. The task was not difficult
to a man of his sagacity with all the money he could
Newspapers were subsidized in ways they scarcely
recognized themselves. Honest officials who were in
the way were removed by offering them places vastly
more remunerative, and in this manner he built up a
strong, intelligent and well constructed machine. It
was done so sanely and so quietly that no one sus-
pected the master mind behind it all. Selwyn was
responsible to no one, took no one into his confidence,
and was therefore in no danger of betrayal.
It was a fascinating game to Selwyn. It appealed
to his intellectual side far more than it did to his
avarice. He wanted to govern the Nation with an
absolute hand, and yet not be known as the directing
power. He arranged to have his name appear less
88 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
frequently in the press and he never submitted to
interviews, laughingly ridding himself of reporters
by asserting that he knew nothing of importance.
He had a supreme contempt for the blatant self -ad-
vertised politician, and he removed himself as far
as possible from that type.
In the meantime his senators were being elected,
the Rockland sentiment was steadily growing and his
nomination was finally brought about by the pro-
gressives fighting vigorously for him and the con-
servatives yielding a reluctant consent. It was done
so adroitly that Rockland would have been fooled him-
self, had not Selwyn informed him in advance of each
move as it was made.
After the nomination, Selwyn had trusted men put
in charge of the campaign, which he organized him-
self, though largely under cover. The opposition
party had every reason to believe that they would be
successful, and it was a great intellectual treat to
Selwyn to overcome their natural advantages by the
sheer force of ability, plus what money he needed
to carry out his plans. He put out the cry of lack
of funds, and indeed it seemed to be true, for he was
too wise to make a display of his resources. To
ward heelers, to the daily press, and to professional
THE MAKING OF A PRESIDENT 89
stump speakers, he gave scant comfort. It was not
to such sources that he looked for success.
He began by eliminating all states he knew the
opposition party would certainly carry, but he told
the party leaders there to claim that a revolution was
brewing, and that a landslide would follow at the
election. This would keep his antagonists busy and
make them less effective elsewhere.
He also ignored the states where his side was sure
to win. In this way he was free to give his entire
thoughts to the twelve states that were debatable, and
upon whose votes the election would turn. He di-
vided each of these states into units containing five
thousand voters, and, at the national headquarters,
he placed one man in charge of each unit. Of the
five thousand, he roughly calculated there would be
two thousand voters that no kind of persua-
sion could turn from his party and two thou-
sand that could not be changed from the opposition.
This would leave one thousand doubtful ones
to win over. So he had a careful poll made in
each unit, and eliminated the strictly unpersuadable
party men, and got down to a complete analysis of
the debatable one thousand. Information was ob-
tained as to their race, religion, occupation and
90 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
former political predilection. It was easy then to
know how to reach each individual by literature, by
persuasion or perhaps by some more subtle argu-
ment. No mistake was made by sending the wrong
letter or the wrong man to any of the desired one
In the states so divided, there was, at the local
headquarters, one man for each unit just as at the
national headquarters. So these two had only each
other to consider, and their duty was to bring to
Rockland a majority of the one thousand votes
within their charge. The local men gave the con-
ditions, the national men gave the proper litera-
ture and advice, and the local man then applied it.
The money that it cost to maintain such an organiza-
tion was more than saved from the waste that would
have occurred under the old method.
The opposition management was sending out tons
of printed matter, but they sent it to state head-
quarters that, in turn, distributed it to the county
organizations, where it was dumped into a corner and
given to visitors when asked for. Selwyn's committee
used one-fourth as much printed matter, but it went
in a sealed envelope, along with a cordial letter, direct
THE MAKING OF A PRESIDENT 91
to a voter that had as yet not decided how he would
The opposition was sending speakers at great ex-
pense from one end of the country to the other, and
the sound of their voices rarely fell on any but
friendly and sympathetic ears. Selwyn sent men
into his units to personally persuade each of the one
thousand hesitating voters to support the Rockland
The opposition was spending large sums upon the
daily press. Selwyn used the weekly press so that
he could reach the fireside of every farmer and the
dweller in the small country towns. These were the
ones that would read every line in their local papers
and ponder over it.
The opposition had its candidates going by special
train to every part of the Union, making many
speeches every day, and mostly to voters that could
not be driven from him either by force or persuasion.
The leaders in cities, both large and small, would
secure a date and, having in mind for themselves a
postmastership or collectorship, would tell their fol- r
lowers to turn out in great force and give the candi-
date a big ovation. They wanted the candidate to
92 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
remember the enthusiasm of these places, and to leave
greatly pleased and under the belief that he was mak-
ing untold converts. As a matter of fact his voice
would seldom reach any but a staunch partisan.
Selwyn kept Rockland at home, and arranged to
have him meet by special appointment the important
citizens of the twelve uncertain states. He would
have the most prominent party leader, in a particular
state, go to a rich brewer or large manufacturer,
whose views had not yet been crystallized, and say,
" Governor Rockland has expressed a desire to know
you, and I would like to arrange a meeting." The
man approached would be flattered to think he was
of such importance that a candidate for the presi-
dency had expressed a desire to meet him. He would
know it was his influence that was wanted but, even
so, there was a subtle flattery in that. An appoint-
ment would be arranged. Just before he came into
Rockland's presence, his name and a short epitome
of his career would be handed to Rockland to read.
When he reached Rockland's home he would at first
be denied admittance. His sponsor would say,
" this is Mr. Munting of Muntingville." " Oh, par-
don me, Mr. Munting, Governor Rockland expects
THE MAKING OF A PRESIDENT 93
And in this way he is ushered into the presence of
the great. His fame, up to a moment ago, was un-
known to Rockland, but he now grasps his hand
cordially and says, " I am delighted to know you,
Mr. Munting. I recall the address you made a few
years ago when you gave a library to Muntingville.
It is men of your type that have made America what
it is to-day, and, whether you support me or not, if
I am elected President it is such as you that I hope
will help sustain my hands in my effort to give to
our people a clean, sane and conservative govern-
When Munting leaves he is stepping on air. He
sees visions of visits to Washington to consult the
President upon matters of state, and perhaps he
sees an ambassadorship in the misty future. He be-
comes Rockland's ardent supporter, and his purse is
open and his influence is used to the fullest extent.
And this was Selwyn's way. It was all so simple.
The opposition was groaning under the thought of
having one hundred millions of people to reach, and
of having to persuade a majority of twenty millions
of voters to take their view.
Selwyn had only one thousand doubtful voters in
each of a few units on his mind, and he knew the
94. PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
very day when a majority of them had decided to
vote for Rockland, and that his fight was won. The
pay-roll of the opposition was filled with incompetent
political hacks, that had been fastened upon the man-
agement by men of influence. Selwyn's force, from
end to end, was composed of able men who did a full
day's work under the eye of their watchful taskmaster.
And Selwyn won and Rockland became the key-
stone of the arch he had set out to build.
There followed in orderly succession the inaugura-
tion, the selection of cabinet officers and the new ad-
ministration was launched.
Drunk with power and the adulation of sycophants,
once or twice Rockland asserted himself, and acted
upon important matters without having first con-
ferred with Selwyn. But, after he had been bitterly
assailed by Selwyn's papers and by his senators, he
made no further attempts at independence. He felt
that he was utterly helpless in that strong man's
hands, and so, indeed, he was.
One of the. Supreme Court justices died, two retired
because of age, and all were replaced by men sug-
gested by Selwyn.
He now had the Senate, the Executive and a ma-
jority of the Court of last resort. The government
THE MAKING OF A PRESIDENT 95
was in his hands. He had reached the summit of his
ambition, and the joy of it made all his work seem
But Selwyn, great man that he was, did not know,
could not know, that when his power was greatest it
was most insecure. He did not know, could not know,
what force was working to his ruin and to the ruin
of his system.
Take heart, therefore, you who had lost faith in
the ultimate destiny of the Republic, for a greater
than Selwyn is here to espouse your cause. He comes
panoplied in justice and with the light of reason in
his eyes. He comes as the advocate of equal oppor-
tunity and he comes with the power, to enforce his
THE EXULTANT CONSPIRATORS
IT was a strange happening, the way the dis-
closure was made and the Nation came to know
of the Selwyn-Thor conspiracy to control the
Thor, being without any delicate sense of honor,
was in the habit of using a dictagraph to record what
was intended to be confidential conversations. He
would take these confidential records, clearly mark
them, aJnd place them in his private safe within the
vault. When the transaction to which they related
was closed he destroyed them.
The character of the instrument was carefully con-
cealed. It was a part of a massive piece of office fur-
niture, which answered for a table as well. In order
to facilitate his correspondence, he often used it for
dictating, and no one but Thor knew that it was ever
put into commission for other purposes.
He had never, but once, had occasion to use a
record that related to a private conversation or agree-
THE EXULTANT CONSPIRATORS 97
ment. Then it concerned a matter involving a large
sum, a demand having been made upon him that
smacked of blackmail. He arranged a meeting, which
his opponent regarded as an indication that he was
willing to yield. There were present the contestant,
his lawyer, Thor's counsel and Thor himself.
" Before discussing the business that is before us,"
said Thor, " I think you would all en j oy , more or
less, a record which I have in my dictagraph, and
which I have just listened to with a great deal of
He handed a tube to each and started the machine.
It is a pity that Hogarth could not have been present
to have painted the several expressions that came
upon the faces of those four. A quiet but amused
satisfaction beamed from Thor, and his counsel could
not conceal a broad smile, but the wretched victim
was fairly sick from mortification and defeated ava-
rice. He finally could stand no more and took the
tube from his ear, reached for his hat and was gone.
Thor had not seen Selwyn for a long time, but one
morning, when he was expecting another for whom
he had his dictagraph set, Selwyn was announced.
He asked him in and gave orders that they were not
to be disturbed. When Selwyn had assured himself
98 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
that they were absolutely alone he told Thor his whole
It was of absorbing interest, and Thor listened
fairly hypnotized by the recital, which at times ap-
proached the dramatic. It was the first time that
Selwyn had been able to unbosom himself, and he en-
joyed the impression he was making upon the great
financier. When he told how Rockland had made an
effort for freedom and how he brought him back,
squirming under his defeat, they laughed joyously.
Rich though he was beyond the dreams of avarice,
rich as no man had ever before been, Thor could
not refrain from a mental calculation of how enor-
mously such a situation advanced his fortune. There
was to be no restriction now, he could annihilate
and absorb at will. He had grown so powerful that
his mental equilibrium was unbalanced upon the ques-
tion of accretion. He wanted more, he must have,
more, and now, by the aid of Selwyn, he would have
more. He was so exultant that he gave some expres-
sion to his thoughts, and Selwyn, cynical as he was,
was shocked and began to fear the consequences of his
He insisted upon Selwyn's lunching with him in
order to celebrate the triumph of " their " plan. Sel-
THE EXULTANT CONSPIRATORS 99
wyn was amused at the plural. They went to a
near-by club and remained for several hours talking
of things of general interest, for Selwyn refused to
discuss his victory after they had left the protecting
walls of Thor's office.
Thor had forgotten his other engagement, and
along with it he forgot the dictagraph that he had
set. When he returned to his office he could not
recall whether or not he had set the dictagraph. He
looked at it, saw that it was not set, but that there
was an unused record in it and dismissed it from his
mind. He wanted no more business for the day.
He desired to get out and walk and think and enjoy
tiie situation. And so he went, a certain unholy joy
within his warped and money-soddened heart.
THE EXPOSURE t
LONG after Thor had gone, long after the
day had dwindled into twilight and the twilight
had shaded into dusk, Thomas Spears, his
secretary, sat and pondered. After Thor and Sel-
wyn had left the office for luncheon he had gone to
the dictagraph to see whether there was anything for
him to take. He found the record, saw it had been
used, removed it to his machine and got ready to
transmit. He was surprised to find that it was Sel-
wyn's voice that came to him, then Thorns, and
again Selwyn's. He knew then that it was not in-
tended for dictation, that there was some mistake
and yet he held it until he had gotten the whole
of the mighty conspiracy. Pale and greatly agi-
tated he remained motionless for a long time. Then
he returned to Thor's office, placed a new record in
the machine and closed it.
Spears came from sturdy New England stock and
THE EXPOSURE 101
was at heart a patriot. He had come to New York
largely by accident of circumstances.
Spears had a friend named Harry Tracy, with
whom he had grown up in the little Connecticut vil-
lage they called home, and who was distantly related
to Thor, whose forebears also came from that vicinity.
They had gone to the same commercial school, and
were trained particularly in stenography and typing.
Tracy sought and obtained a place in Thor's office.
He was attentive to his duties, very accurate, and
because of his kinship and trustworthiness, Thor made
him his confidential secretary. The work became so
heavy that Tracy got permission to employ an as-
sistant. He had Spears in mind for the place, and,
after conferring with Thor, offered it to him.
Thor consented largely because he preferred some
one who had not lived in New York, and was in no
way entangled with the life and sentiment of the city.
Being from New England himself, he trusted the
people of that section as he did no others.
So Thomas Spears was offered the place and gladly
accepted it. He had not been there long before he
found himself doing all the stenographic work and
Spears was a man of few words. He did his work
102 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
promptly and well. Thor had him closely shadowed
for a long while, and the report came that he had no
bad habits and but few companions and those of the
best. But Thor could get no confidential report
upon the workings of his mind. He did not know
that his conscience sickened at what he learned
through the correspondence and from his fellow
clerks. He did not know that his every heart beat
was for the unfortunates that came within the reach
of Thor's avarice, and were left the merest derelicts
upon the financial seas.
All the clerks were gone, the lights were out and
Spears sat by the window looking out over the great
modern Babylon, still fighting with his conscience.
His sense of loyalty to the man who gave him his
livelihood rebelled at the thought of treachery. It
was not unlike accepting food and shelter and mur-
dering your benefactor, for Spears well knew that in
the present state of the public mind if once the truth
were known, it would mean death to such as Thor.
For with a fatuous ignorance of public feeling the
interests had gone blindly on, conceding nothing,
stifling competition and absorbing the wealth and
energies of the people.
THE EXPOSURE 103
Spears knew that the whole social and industrial
fabric of the nation was at high tension, and that it
needed but a spark to explode. He held within his
hand that spark. Should he plunge the country,
his country, into a bloody internecine war, or should
he let the Selwyns and the Thors trample the hopes,
the fortunes and the lives of the people under foot
for still another season. If he held his peace it did
but postpone the conflict.
The thought flashed through his mind of the big-
ness of the sum any one of the several great dailies
would give to have the story. And then there fol-
lowed a sense of shame that he could think of such a
He felt that he was God's instrument for good and
that he should act accordingly. He was aroused
now, he would no longer parley with his conscience.
What was best to do? That was the only question
left to debate.
, He looked at an illuminated clock upon a large
white shaft that lifted its marble shoulders towards
the stars. It was nine o'clock. He turned on the
lights, ran over the telephone book until he reached
the name of what he considered the most important
104 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
daily. He said : " Mr. John T'hor's office desires to
speak with the Managing Editor." This at once
gave him the connection he desired.
" This is Mr. John Thor's secretary, and I would
like to see you immediately upon a matter of enor-
mous public importance. May I come to your office
at once? "
There was something in the voice that startled the
newspaper man, and he wondered what Thor's office
could possibly want with him concerning any matter,
public or private. However, he readily consented to
an interview and waited with some impatience for the
quarter of an hour to go by that was necessary to
cover the distance. He gave orders to have Spears
brought in as soon as he arrived.
When Spears came he told the story with hesitation
and embarrassment. The Managing Editor thought
at first that he was in the presence of a lunatic, but
after a few questions he began to believe. He had a
dictagraph in his office and asked for the record. He
was visibly agitated when the full import of the news
became known to him. Spears insisted that the story
be given to all the city papers and to the Associated
Press, which the Managing Editor promised to do.
When the story was read the next morning by
THE EXPOSURE 105
America's millions, it was clear to every far-sighted
person that a crisis had come and that revolution was
imminent. Men at once divided themselves into
groups. Now, as it has ever been, the very poor
largely went with the rich and powerful. The reason
for this may be partly from fear and partly from
habit. They had seen the struggle going on for
centuries and with but one result.
A mass meeting was called to take place the day
following at New York's largest public hall. The
call was not inflammatory, but asked " all good citi-
zens to lend their counsel and influence to the recti-
fication of those abuses that had crept into the
Government," and it was signed by many of the best
known men in the Nation.
The hall was packed to its limits an hour before
the time named. A distinguished college president
from a nearby town was given the chair, and in a few
words lie voiced the indignation and the humiliation
which they all felt. Then one speaker after another
bitterly denounced the administration, and advocated
the overthrow of the Government. One, more intem-
perate than the rest, urged an immediate attack on
Thor and all his kind. This was met by a roar of
106 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
Philip had come early and was seated well in front.
In the pandemonium that now prevailed no speaker
could be heard. Finally Philip fought his way to the
stage, gave his name to the chairman, and asked to
When the white-haired college president arose
there was a measure of quiet, and when he mentioned
Philip's name and they saw his splendid, homely face
there was a curious hush. He waited for nearly a
minute after perfect quiet prevailed, and then, in a
voice like a deep-toned bell, he spoke with such fer-
vor and eloquence that one who was present said
afterwards that he knew the hour and the man had
come. Philip explained that hasty and ill-considered
action had ruined other causes as just as theirs, and
advised moderation. He suggested that a committee
be named by the chairman to draw up a plan of pro-
cedure, to be presented at another meeting to be held
the following night. This was agreed to, and the
chairman received tremendous applause when he
named Philip first.
This meeting had been called so quickly, and the
names attached to the call were so favorably known,
that the country at large seemed ready to wait upon
THE EXPOSURE 107
It was apparent from the size and earnestness of
the second gathering that the interest was growing
rather than abating.
Philip read the plan which his committee had
formulated, and then explained more at length their
reasons for offering it. Briefly, it advised no resort
to violence, but urged immediate organization and co-
operation with citizens throughout the United States
who were in sympathy with the movement. He told
them that the conscience of the people was now
aroused, and that there would be no halting until the
Government was again within their hands to be ad-
ministered for the good of the many instead of for
the good of a rapacious few.
The resolutions were sustained, and once more
Philip was placed at the head of a committee to per-
fect not only a state, but a national organization as
well. Calls for funds to cover preliminary expenses
brought immediate and generous response, and the
contest was on.
SELWTN AND THOR DEFEND THEMSELVES
IN the meantime Selwyn and Thor had issued an
address, defending their course as warranted by
both the facts and the law.
They said that the Government had been honey-
combed by irresponsible demagogues, that were fat-
tening upon the credulity of the people to the great
injury of our commerce and prosperity, that no laws
unfriendly to the best interests had been planned, and
no act had been contemplated inconsistent with the
dignity and honor of the Nation. They contended
that in protecting capital against vicious assaults,
they were serving the cause of labor and advancing
the welfare of all.
Thor's whereabouts was a mystery, but Selwyn,
brave and defiant, pursued his usual way.
President Rockland also made a statement defend-
ing his appointments of Justices of the Supreme
Court, and challenged anyone to prove them unfit.
He said that, from the foundation of the Government,
SELWYN AND THOR DEFEND 109
it had become customary for a President to make such
appointments from amongst those whose views were
in harmony with his own, that in this case he had
selected men of well known integrity, and of profound
legal ability, and, because they were such, they were
brave enough to stand for the right without regard
to the clamor of ill-advised and ignorant people. He
stated that he would continue to do his duty, and that
he would uphold the constitutional rights of all the
people without distinction to race, color or previous
Acting under Selwyn's advice, Rockland began to
concentrate quietly troops in the large centers of
population. He also ordered the fleets into home
waters. A careful inquiry was made regarding the
views of the several Governors within easy reach of
Washington, and, finding most of them favorable to
the Government, he told them that in case of disorder
he would honor their requisition for federal troops.
He advised a thorough overlooking of the militia, and
the weeding out of those likely to sympathize with
the " mob." If trouble came, he promised to act
promptly and forcefully, and not to let mawkish senti-
ment encourage further violence.
He recalled to them that the French Revolution was
110 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
caused, and continued, by the weakness and inertia
of Louis Fifteenth and his ministers and that the mo-
ment the Directorate placed Bonaparte in command
of a handful of troops, and gave him power to act,
by the use of grape and ball he brought order in a
day. It only needed a quick and decisive use of
force, he thought, and untold suffering and bloodshed
would be averted.
President Rockland believed what he said. He
seemed not to know that Bonaparte dealt with a rag-
ged, ignorant mob, and had back of him a nation that
had been in a drunken and bloody orgy for a period
of years and wanted to sober up. He seemed not to
know that in this contest, the clear-brained, sturdy
American patriot was enlisted against him and what
he represented, and had determined to come once more
jnto his own.
GLORIA'S WORK BEARS FRUIT
IN her efforts towards proselyting the rich, Gloria
had not neglected her immediate family. By
arguments and by bringing to the fore concrete
examples to illustrate them, she had succeeded in
awakening within her father a curious and unhappy
frame of mind. That shifting and illusive thing we
call conscience was beginning to assert itself in divers
The first glimpse that Gloria had of his change of
heart was at a dinner party. The discussion began
by a dyspeptic old banker declaring that before the
business world could bring the laboring classes to
their senses it would be necessary to shut down the
factories for a time and discontinue new enterprises
in order that their dinner buckets and stomachs might
Before Gloria could take up the cudgels in behalf
of those seeking a larger share of the profits of their
labor, Mr. Strawn had done so. The debate between
PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
the two did not last long and was not unduly heated,
but Gloria knew that the Rubicon had been crossed
and that in the future she would have a powerful ally
in her father.
Neither had she been without success in other direc-
tions, and she was, therefore, able to report to Philip
very satisfactory progress. In one of their many
conferences she was glad to be able to tell him that
in the future abundant financial backing was assured
for any cause recommended by either of them as
being worthy. This was a long step forward, and
Philip congratulated Gloria upon her efficient work.
" Do you remember, Gloria," he said, " how un-
happy you were over the thought of laboring among
the rich instead of the poor? And yet, contemplate
the result. You have not only given some part of
your social world an insight into real happiness, but
you are enabling the balance of us to move forward
at a pace that would have been impossible without
Gloria flushed with pleasure at his generous praise
and replied : " It is good of you, Philip, to give me
so large a credit, and I will not deny that I am very
happy over the outcome of my endeavors, unimpor-
tant though they be. I am so glad, Philip, that
GLORIA'S WORK BEARS FRUIT
you have been given the leadership of our side in the
coming struggle, for I shall now feel confident of
" Do not be too sure, Gloria. We have the right
and a majority of the American people with us; yet,
on the other hand, we have opposed to us not only
resourceful men but the machinery of a great Govern-
ment buttressed by unlimited wealth and credit."
" Why could not I * try out ' the sincerity of my
rich converts and get them to help finance your cam-
paign ? "
" Happy thought ! If you succeed in doing that,
Gloria, you will become the Joan d'Arc of our cause,
and unborn generations will hold you in grateful re-
" How you do enthuse one, Philip. I feel already
as if my name were written high upon the walls of
my country's Valhalla. Tell me how great a fund
you will require, and I will proceed at once to build
the golden ladder upon which I am to climb to fame."
" You need not make light of your suggestion in
this matter, Gloria, for the lack of funds with which
to organize is essentially our weakest point. With
money we can overthrow the opposition, without it
I am afraid they may defeat us. As to the amount
114 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
needed, I can set no limit. The more you get the
more perfectly can we organize. Do what you can
and do it quickly, and be assured that if the sum is
considerable and if our cause triumphs, you will have
been the most potent factor of us all."
And then they parted; Gloria full of enthusiasm
over her self-appointed task, and Philip with a silent
prayer for her success.
WAR CLOUDS HOVER
GLORIA was splendidly successful in her under-
taking and within two weeks she was ready
to place at Philip's disposal an amount far
in excess of anything he had anticipated.
" It was so easy that I have a feeling akin to dis-
appointment that I did not have to work harder," she
wrote in her note to Philip announcing the result.
" When I explained the purpose and the importance
of the outcome, almost everyone approached seemed
eager to have a share in the undertaking."
In his reply of thanks, Philip said, " The sum you
have realized is far beyond any figure I had in mind.
With what we have collected throughout the country,
it is entirely sufficient, I think, to effect a preliminary
organization, both political and military. If the final
result is to be civil war, then the states that cast their
fortunes with ours, will, of necessity, undertake the
further financing of the struggle."
116 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
Philip worked assiduously upon his organization.
It was first intended to make it political and educa-
tional, but when the defiant tone of Selwyn, Thor and
Rockland was struck, and their evident intention of
using force became apparent, he almost wholly
changed it into a military organization. His central
bureau was now in touch with every state, and he
found in the West a grim determination to bring
matters to a conclusion as speedily as possible.
On the other hand, he was sparring for time. He
knew his various groups were in no condition to be
pitted against any considerable number of trained
regulars. He hoped, too, that actual conflict would
be avoided, and that a solution could be arrived at
when the forthcoming election for representatives
It was evident that a large majority of the people
were with them: the problem was to get a fair and
legal expression of opinion. As yet, there was no
indication that this would not be granted.
The preparations on both sides became so open,
that there was no longer any effort to work under
cover. Philip cautioned his adherents against com-
mitting any overt act. He was sure that the admin-
istration forces would seize the slightest pretext to
WAR CLOUDS HOVER 117
precipitate action, and that, at this time, would give
them an enormous advantage.
He himself trained the men in his immediate local-
ity, and he also had the organization throughout the
country trained, but without guns. The use of guns
would not have been permitted except to regular au-
thorized militia. The drilling was done with wooden
guns, each man hewing out a stick to the size and
shape of a modern rifle. At his home, carefully con-
cealed, each man had his rifle.
And then came the election. Troops were at the
polls and a free ballot was denied. It was the last
straw. Citizens gathering after nightfall in order to
protest were told to disperse immediately, and upon
refusal, were fired upon. The next morning showed
a death roll in the large centers of population that
Wisconsin was the state in which there was the
largest percentage of the citizenship unfavorable to
the administration and to the interests. Iowa, Minne-
sota and Nebraska were closely following.
Philip concluded to make his stand in the West,
and he therefore ordered the men in every organiza-
tion east of the Mississippi to foregather at once at
Madison, and to report to him there. He was in con-
118 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
stant touch with those Governors who were in sym-
pathy with the progressive or insurgent cause, and he
wired the Governor of Wisconsin, in cipher, inform-
ing him of his intentions.
As yet travel had not been seriously interrupted,
though business was largely at a standstill, and there
was an ominous quiet over the land. The opposition
misinterpreted this, and thought that the people had
been frightened by the unexpected show of force.
Philip knew differently, and he also knew that civil
war had begun. He communicated his plans to no
one, but he had the campaign well laid out. It was
his intention to concentrate in Wisconsin as large a
force as could be gotten from his followers east and
south of that state, and to concentrate again near
Des Moines every man west of Illinois whom he could
enlist. It was his purpose then to advance simul-
taneously both bodies of troops upon Chicago.
In the south there had developed a singular inertia.
Neither side counted upon material help or opposition
The great conflict covering the years from 1860 to
1865 was still more than a memory, though but few
living had taken part in it. The victors in that
mighty struggle thought they had been magnanimous
WAR CLOUDS HOVER 119
to the defeated but the well-informed Southerner
knew that they had been made to pay the most stu-
pendous penalty ever exacted in modern times. At
one stroke of the pen, two thousand millions of their
property was taken from them. A pension system
was then inaugurated that taxed the resources of the
Nation to pay. By the year 1927 more than five
thousand millions had gone to those who were of the
winning side. Of this the South was taxed her part,
receiving nothing in return.
Cynical Europe said that the North would have it
appear that a war had been fought for human free-
dom, whereas it seemed that it was fought for money.
It forgot the many brave and patriotic men who en-
listed because they held the Union to be one and
indissoluble, and were willing to sacrifice their lives
to make it so, and around whom a willing and grate-
ful government threw its protecting arms. And it
confused those deserving citizens with the unworthy
many, whom pension agents and office seekers had
debauched at the expense of the Nation. Then, too,
the South remembered that one of the immediate re-
sults of emancipation was that millions of ignorant
and indigent people were thrown upon the charity and
protection of the Southern people, to care for and to
120 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
educate. In some states sixty per cent, of the popu-
lation were negroes, and they were as helpless as
children and proved a heavy burden upon the forty
per cent, of whites.
In rural populations more schoolhouses had to be
maintained, and more teachers employed for the num-
ber taught, and the percentage of children per capita
was larger than in cities. Then, of necessity, sepa-
rate schools had to be maintained. So, altogether, the
load was a heavy one for an impoverished people to
The humane, the wise, the patriotic thing to have
done, was for the Nation to have assumed the respon-
sibility of the education of the negroes for at least
What a contrast we see in England's treatment of
the Boers. After a long and bloody war, which drew
heavily upon the lives and treasures of the Nation,
England's first act was to make an enormous grant
to the conquered Boers, that they might have every
facility to regain their shattered fortunes, and bring
order and prosperity to their distracted land.
We see the contrast again in that for nearly a half
century after the Civil War was over, no Southerner
was considered eligible for the Presidency.
WAR CLOUDS HOVER
On the other hand, within a few years after the
African Revolution ended, a Boer General, who had
fought throughout the war with vigor and distinction,
was proposed and elected Premier of the United
Consequently, while sympathizing with the effort
to overthrow Selwyn's government, the South moved
slowly and with circumspection.
CIVIL WAR BEGINS
GENERAL DRU brought together an army of
fifty thousand men at Madison and about
forty thousand near Des Moines, and recruits
were coming in rapidly.
President Rockland had concentrated twenty thou-
sand regulars and thirty thousand militia at Chicago,
and had given command to Major General Newton,
he who, several years previously, won the first medal
given by the War Department for the best solution
of the military problem.
The President also made a call for two hundred
thousand volunteers. The response was in no way
satisfactory, so he issued a formal demand upon each
state to furnish its quota.
The states that were in sympathy with his admin-
istration responded, the others ignored the call.
General Dru learned that large reinforcements had
been ordered to Chicago, and he therefore at once
CIVIL WAR BEGINS
moved upon that place. He had a fair equipment of
artillery, considering he was wholly dependent upon
that belonging to the militia of those states that had
ranged themselves upon his side, and at several points
in the West, he had seized factories and plants mak-
ing powder, guns, clothing and camp equipment. He
ordered the Iowa division to advance at the same time,
and the two forces were joined at a point about fifty
miles south of Chicago.
General Newton was daily expecting reinforce-
ments, but they failed to reach him before Dru made
it impossible for them to pass through.
Newton at first thought to attack the Iowa division
and defeat it, and then meet the Wisconsin division,
but he hesitated to leave Chicago lest Dru should take
the place during his absence.
With both divisions united, and with recruits con-
stantly arriving, Dru had an army of one hundred
and fifty thousand men.
Failing to obtain the looked-for reinforcements
and seeing the hopelessness of opposing so large a
force, Newton began secretly to evacuate Chicago by
way of the Lakes, Dru having completely cut him off
He succeeded in removing his army to Buffalo,
124 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
where President Rockland had concentrated more
than one hundred thousand troops.
When Dru found General Newton had evacuated
Chicago, he occupied it, and then moved further east,
in order to hold the states of Michigan, Indiana and
This gave him the control of the West, and he
endeavored as nearly as possible to cut off the food
supply of the East. In order to tighten further the
difficulty of obtaining supplies, he occupied Duluth
and all the Lake ports as far east as Cleveland, which
city the Government held, and which was their fur-
thest western line.
Canada was still open as a means of food supply to
the East, as were all the ports of the Atlantic sea-
board as far south as Charleston.
So the sum of the situation was that the East, so
far west as the middle of Ohio, and as far south as
West Virginia, inclusive of that state, was in the
hands of the Government.
Western Ohio, Indiana, Michigan and Illinois, while
occupied by General Dru, were divided in their sym-
pathies. Wisconsin, Minnesota, and every state west
of the Mississippi, were 'strongly against the Govern-
CIVIL WAR BEGINS 125
The South, as a whole, was negligible, though Vir-
ginia, Kentucky, Tennessee and Missouri were largely
divided in sentiment. That part of the South lying
below the border states was in sympathy with the
The contest had come to be thought of as a con-
flict between Senator Selwyn on the one hand, and
what he represented, and Philip Dru on the other,
and what he stood for. These two were known to be
the dominating forces on either side.
The contestants, on the face of things, seemed not
unevenly matched, but, as a matter of fact, the con-
science of the great mass of the people, East and
West, was on Dru's side, for it was known that he
was contending for those things which would permit
the Nation to become again a land of freedom in its
truest and highest sense, a land where the rule of
law prevailed, a land of equal opportunity, a land
where justice would be meted out alike to the high
and low with a steady and impartial hand.
UPON THE EVE OF BATTLE
NEITHER side seemed anxious to bring matters
to a conclusion, for both Newton and Dru
required time to put their respective armies
in fit condition before risking a conflict.
By the middle of July, Dru had more than four
hundred thousand men under his command, but his
greatest difficulty was to properly officer and equip
them. The bulk of the regular army officers had
remained with the Government forces, though there
were some notable exceptions. Among those offering
their services to Dru was Jack Strawn. He resigned
from the regular army with many regrets and misgiv-
ings, but his devotion to Philip made it impossible for
him to do otherwise. And then there was Gloria
whom he loved dearly, and who made him feel that
there was a higher duty than mere professional regu-
None of Dru's generals had been tried out in battle
and, indeed, he himself had not. It was much the
UPON THE EVE OF BATTLE 127
same with the Government forces, for there had been
no war since that with Spain in the nineties, and that
was an affair so small that it afforded but little train-
ing for either officers or men.
Dru had it in mind to make the one battle decisive,
if that were possible of accomplishment, for he did
not want to weaken and distract the country by such
a conflict as that of 1861 to 1865.
The Government forces numbered six hundred
thousand men under arms, but one hundred thousand
of these were widely scattered in order to hold cer-
tain sections of the country in line.
On the first of September General Dru began to
move towards the enemy. He wanted to get nearer
Washington and the northern seaboard cities, so that
if successful he would be within striking distance of
them before the enemy could recover.
He had in mind the places he preferred the battle
to occur, and he used all his skill in bringing about
the desired result. As he moved slowly but steadily
towards General Newton, he was careful not to tax
the strength of his troops, but he desired to give
them the experience in marching they needed, and
also to harden them.
The civilized nations of the world had agreed not
128 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
to use in war aeroplanes or any sort of air craft
either as engines of destruction or for scouting pur-
poses. This decision had been brought about by the
International Peace Societies and by the self-evident
impossibility of using them without enormous loss of
life. Therefore none were being used by either the
Government or insurgent forces.
General Newton thought that Dm was planning to
attack him at a point about twenty miles west of
Buffalo, where he had his army stretched from the
Lake eastward, and where he had thrown up entrench-
ments and otherwise prepared for battle,
But Dm had no thought of attacking then or there,
but moved slowly and orderly on until the two armies
were less than twenty miles apart due north and south
from one another.
When he continued marching eastward and began
to draw away from General Newton, the latter for
the first time realized that he himself would be com-
pelled to pursue and attack, for the reason that he
could not let Dru march upon New York and the
other unprotected seaboard cities. He saw, too, that
he had been outgeneraled, and that he should have
thrown his line across Dru's path and given battle at
a point of his own choosing.
UPON THE EVE OF BATTLE 129
The situation was a most unusual one even in the
complex history of warfare, because in case of defeat
the loser would be forced to retreat into the enemies'
country. It all the more surely emphasized the fact
that one great battle would determine the war. Gen-
eral Dru knew from the first what must follow his
movement in marching by General Newton, and since
he had now reached the ground that he had long
chosen as the place where he wished the battle to
occur, he halted and arranged his troops in formation
for the expected attack.
There was a curious feeling of exultation and con-
fidence throughout the insurgent army, for Dru had
conducted every move in the great game with masterly
skill, and no man was ever more the idol of his troops,
or of the people whose cause he was the champion.
It was told at every camp fire in his army how he
had won the last medal that had been given by the
War Department and for which General Newton had
been a contestant, and not one of his men doubted that
as a military genius, Newton in no way measured up
to Dru. It was plain that Newton had been out-
maneuvered and that the advantage lay with the
The day before the expected battle, General Dru
130 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
issued a stirring address, which was placed in the
hands of each soldier, and which concluded as fol-
lows : " It is now certain that there will be but one
battle, and its result lies with you. If you fight as
I know you will fight, you surely will be successful,
and you soon will be able to return to your homes
and to your families, carrying with you the assurance
that you have won what will be perhaps the most
important victory that has ever been achieved. It is
my belief that human liberty has never more surely
hung upon the outcome of any conflict than it does
upon this, and I have faith that when you are once
ordered to advance, you will never turn back. If you
will each make a resolution to conquer or die, you
will not only conquer, but our death list will not be
nearly so heavy as if you at any time falter."
This address was received with enthusiasm, and
comrade declared to comrade that there would be no
turning back when once called upon to advance, and
it was a compact that in honor could not be broken.
This, then, was the situation upon the eve of the
THE BATTLE OF ELMA
GENERAL DRU had many spies in the enemies'
camp, and some of these succeeded in cross-
ing the lines each night in order to give him
what information they had been able to gather.
Some of these spies passed through the lines as
late as eleven o'clock the night before the battle, and
from them he learned that a general attack was to
be made upon him the next day at six o'clock in the
As far as he could gather, and from his own
knowledge of the situation, it was General Newton's
purpose to break his center. The reason Newton had
this in mind was that he thought Dru's line was far
flung, and he believed that if he could drive through
the center, he could then throw each wing into confu-
sion and bring about a crushing defeat.
As a matter of fact, Dru's line was not far flung,
but he had a few troops strung out for many miles
PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
in order to deceive Newton, because he wanted him to
try and break his center.
Up to this time, he had taken no one into his con-
fidence, but at midnight, he called his division com-
manders to his headquarters and told them his plan
They were instructed not to impart any informa-
tion to the commanders of brigades until two o'clock.
The men were then to be aroused and given a hasty
breakfast, after which they were to be ready to march
by three o'clock.
Recent arrivals had augmented his army to ap-
proximately five hundred thousand men. General
Newton had, as far as he could learn, approximately
six hundred thousand, so there were more than a mil-
lion of men facing one another.
Dm had a two-fold purpose in preparing at three
in the morning. First, he wanted to take no chances
upon General Newton's time of attack. His infor-
mation as to six o'clock he thought reliable, but it
might have been given out to deceive him and a much
earlier engagement might be contemplated.
His other reason was that he intended to flank
Newton on both wings.
It was his purpose to send, under cover of night,
THE BATTLE OF ELMA 133
one hundred and twenty-five thousand men to the
right of Newton and one hundred and twenty-five
thousand to his left, and have them conceal themselves
behind wooded hills until noon, and then to drive in
on him from both sides.
He was confident that with two hundred and fifty
thousand determined men, protected by the fortifica-
tions he had been able to erect, and with the ground
of his own choosing, which had a considerable eleva-
tion over the valley through which Newton would
have to march, he could hold his position until noon.
He did not count upon actual fighting before eight
o'clock, or perhaps not before nine.
Dru did not attempt to rest, but continued through
the night to instruct his staff officers, and to arrange,
as far as he could, for each contingency. Before two
o'clock, he was satisfied with the situation and felt
assured of victory.
He was pleased to see the early morning hours
develop a fog, for this would cover the march of his
left and right wings, and they would not have to make
so wide a detour in order that their movements might
be concealed. It would also delay, he thought, New-
His army was up and alert at three, and by four
134 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
o'clock those that were to hold the center were in
position, though he had them lie down again on their
arms, so that they might get every moment of rest.
Three o'clock saw the troops that were to flank the
enemy already on the march.
At six-thirty his outposts reported Newton's army
moving, but it was nine o'clock before they came
within touch of his troops.
In the meantime, his men were resting, and he had
food served them again as late as seven o'clock.
Newton attacked the center viciously at first, but
making no headway and seeing that his men were
being terribly decimated, he made a detour to the
right, and, with cavalry, infantry and artillery, he
drove Dru's troops in from the position which they
Dru recognized the threatened danger and sent
heliograph messages to his right and left wings to
begin their attack, though it was now only eleven
o'clock. He then rode in person to the point of
danger, and rallied his men to a firmer stand, upon
which Newton could make no headway.
In that hell storm of lead and steel Dru sat upon
his horse unmoved. With bared head and eyes aflame,
with face flushed and exultant, he looked the embodi-
THE BATTLE OF ELMA 135
merit of the terrible God of War. His presence and
his disregard of danger incited his soldiers to deeds
of valor that would forever be an " inspiration and
a benediction " to the race from which they sprung.
Newton, seeing that his efforts were costing him
too dearly, decided to withdraw his troops and rest
until the next day, when he thought to attack Dm
from the rear.
The ground was more advantageous there, and he
felt confident he could dislodge him. When he gave
the command to retreat, he was surprised to find Dru
massing his troops outside his entrenchments and pre-
paring to follow him. He slowly retreated and Dru
as slowly followed. Newton wanted to get him well
away from his stronghold and in the open plain,
and then wheel and crush him. Dru was merely keep-
ing within striking distance, so that when his two
divisions got in touch with Newton they would be able
to attack him on three sides.
Just as Newton was about to turn, Dru's two divi-
sions poured down the slopes of the hills on both
sides and began to charge. And when Dru's center
began to charge, it was only a matter of moments
before Newton's army was in a panic.
He tried to rally them and to face the on-coming
136 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
enemy, but his efforts were in vain. His men threw
down their guns, some surrendering, but most of them
fleeing in the only way open, that towards the rear
and the Lake.
Dru's soldiers saw that victory was theirs, and,
maddened by the lust of war, they drove the Govern-
ment forces back, killing and crushing the seething
and helpless mass that was now in hopeless confusion.
Orders were given by General Dru to push on and
follow the enemy until nightfall, or until the Lake
was reached, where they must surrender or drown.
By six o'clock of that fateful day, the splendid
army of Newton was a thing for pity, for Dru had
determined to exhaust the last drop of strength of
his men to make the victory complete, and the battle
At the same time, as far as he was able, he re-
strained his men from killing, for he saw that the
enemy were without arms, and thinking only of
escape. His order was only partially obeyed, for
when man is in conflict with either beast or fellow-
man, the primitive lust for blood comes to the fore,
and the gentlest and most humane are oftentimes the
Of the enemy forty thousand were dead and two
THE BATTLE OF ELMA 137
hundred and ten thousand were wounded with seventy-
five thousand missing. Of prisoners Dru had cap-
tured three hundred and seventy-five thousand.
General Newton was killed in the early afternoon,
soon after the rout began.
Philip's casualties were twenty-three thousand dead
and one hundred and ten thousand wounded.
It was a holocaust, but the war was indeed ended.
AFTER General Dru had given orders for the
care of the wounded and the disposition of the
prisoners, he dismissed his staff and went qui-
etly out into the starlight. He walked among the
dead and wounded and saw that everything possible
was being done to alleviate suffering. Feeling
weary he sat for a moment upon a dismembered gun.
As he looked over the field of carnage and saw
what havoc the day had made, he thought of the
Selwyns and the Thors, whose selfishness and greed
were responsible for it all, and he knew that they
and their kind would have to meet an awful charge
before the judgment seat of God. Within touch of
him lay a boy of not more than seventeen, with his
white face turned towards the stars. One arm was
shattered and a piece of shell had torn a great red
wound in the side of his chest. Dru thought him
dead, but he saw him move and open his eyes. He
removed a coat from a soldier that lay dead beside
ELMA'S AFTERMATH 139
him and pillowed the boy's head upon it, and gave
him some water and a little brandy.
" I am all in, Captain," said he, " but I would like
a message sent home." He saw that Dm was an
officer but he had no idea who he was. " I only en-
listed last week. I live in Pennsylvania not far
from here." Then more faintly " My mother
tried to persuade me to remain at home, but I wanted
to do my share, so here I am as you find me.
Tell her tell her," but the message never came
for he was dead.
After he had covered the pain-racked, ghastly face,
Dru sat in silent meditation, and thought of the
shame of it, the pity of it all. Somewhere amongst
that human wreckage he knew Gloria was doing what
she could to comfort the wounded and those that
were in the agony of death.
She had joined the Red Cross Corps of the in-
surgent army at the beginning of hostilities, but
Dru had had only occasional glimpses of her. He
was wondering now, in what part of that black and
bloody field she was. His was the strong hand that
had torn into fragments these helpless creatures;
hers was the gentle hand that was softening the
horror, the misery of it all. Dm knew there were
140 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
those who felt that the result would never be worth
the cost and that he, too, would come in for a meas-
urable share of their censure. But deep and lasting
as his sympathy was for those who had been brought
into this maelstrom of war, yet, pessimism found no
lodgment within him, rather was his great soul illu-
minated with the thought that with splendid heroism
they had died in order that others might live the
better. Twice before had the great republic been
baptized in blood and each time the result had
changed the thought and destiny of man. And so
would it be now, only to greater purpose. Never
again would the Selwyns and the Thors be able to
fetter the people.
Free and unrestrained by barriers erected by the
powerful, for selfish purposes, there would now lie
open to them a glorious and contented future. He
had it in his thoughts to do the work well now that
it had been begun, and to permit no misplaced senti-
ment to deter him. He knew that in order to do what
he had in mind, he would have to reckon with the
habits and traditions of centuries, but, seeing clearly
the task before him he must needs become an icono-
clast and accept the consequences. For two days
and nights he had been without sleep and under
a physical and mental strain that would have meant
disaster to any, save Philip Dru. But now he began
to feel the need of rest and sleep, so he walked slowly
back to his tent.
After giving orders that he was not to be dis-
turbed, he threw himself as he was upon his camp
bed, and, oblivious of the fact that the news of his
momentous victory had circled the globe and that
his name was upon the lips of half the world, he fell
into a dreamless, restful sleep.
WHEN Dru wakened in the morning after
a long and refreshing sleep, his first
thoughts were of Gloria Strawn. Before
leaving his tent he wrote her an invitation to dine
with him that evening in company with some of his
generals and their wives. All through that busy day
Dru found himself looking forward to the coming
evening. When Gloria came Dru was standing at
the door of his tent to meet her. As he helped her
from the army conveyance she said:
" Oh, Philip, how glad I am ! How glad I am ! "
Dru knew that she had no reference to his brilliant
victory, but that it was his personal welfare that she
had in mind.
During the dinner many stories of heroism were
told, men who were least suspected of great per-
sonal bravery had surprised their comrades by deeds
that would follow the coming centuries in both song
UNCROWNED HEROES 143
and story. Dru, who had been a silent listener until
" Whenever my brother soldier rises above self
and gives or offers his life for that of his comrade, no
one rejoices more than I. But, my friends, the high-
est courage is not displayed upon the battlefield. The
soldier's heroism is done under stress of great ex-
citement, and his field of action is one that appeals
to the imagination. It usually also touches our
patriotism and self-esteem. The real heroes of the
world are oftentimes never known. I once knew a
man of culture and wealth who owned a plantation
in some hot and inaccessible region. Smallpox in
its most virulent form became prevalent among the
negroes. Everyone fled the place save this man, and
those that were stricken. Single-handed and alone,
he nursed them while they lived and buried them
when they died. And yet during all the years I
knew him, never once did he refer to it. An old
negro told me the story and others afterwards con-
firmed it. This same man jumped into a swollen
river and rescued a poor old negro who could not
swim. There was no one to applaud him as he bat-
tled with the deadly eddies and currents and brought
to safety one of the least of God's creatures. To
144 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
my mind the flag of no nation ever waved above a
braver, nobler heart."
There was a moment's silence, and then Gloria
" Philip, the man you mention is doubtless the most
splendid product of our civilization, for he was per-
haps as gentle as he was brave, but there is still an-
other type of hero to whom I would call attention.
I shall tell you of a man named Sutton, whom I
came to know in my settlement work and who seemed
to those who knew him wholly bad. He was cruel,
selfish, and without any sense of honor, and even
his personality was repulsive, and yet this is what he
" One day, soon after dark, the ten story tenement
building in which he lived caught fire. Smoke was
pouring from the windows, at which many frightened
faces were seen.
" But what was holding the crowd's breathless at-
tention, was the daring attempt of a man on the
eighth floor to save a child of some five or six years.
" He had gotten from his room to a small iron
balcony, and there he took his handkerchief and
blindfolded the little boy. He lifted the child over
the railing, and let him down to a stone ledge some
UNCROWNED HEROES 145
twelve inches wide, and which seemed to be five or
six feet below the balcony.
" The man had evidently told the child to flatten
himself against the wall, for the little fellow had
spread out his arms and pressed his body close to it.
" When the man reached him, he edged him along
in front of him. It was a perilous journey, and to
" No one could see that he was bettering his con-
dition by moving further along the building, though
it was evident he had a well-defined purpose from the
" When he reached the corner, he stopped in front
of a large flagpole that proj ected out from the build-
ing some twenty or more feet,
" He shouted to the firemen in the street below s
but his voice was lost in the noise and distance. He
then scribbled something on an envelope and after
wrapping his knife inside, dropped it down. He
lost no time by seeing whether he was understood,
but he took the child and put his arms and legs
about the pole in front of him and together they slid
along to the golden ball at the end.
" What splendid courage ! What perfect self-
possession! He then took the boy's arm above the
146 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
hand and swung him clear. He held him for a mo-
ment to see that all was ready below, and turned him
" The child dropped as straight as a plummet into
the canvas net that was being held for him.
" The excitement had been so tense up to now,
that in all that vast crowd no one said a word or
moved a muscle, but when they saw the little fellow
unhurt, and perched high on the shoulders of a burly
fireman, such cheers were given as were never before
heard in that part of New York.
" The man, it seemed, knew as well as those below,
that his weight made impossible his escape in a like
manner, for he had slid back to the building and
was sitting upon the ledge smoking a cigarette.
" At first it was the child in which the crowd was
interested, but now it was the man. He must be
saved ; but could he be ? The heat was evidently be-
coming unbearable and from time to time a smother
of smoke hid him from view. Once when it cleared
away he was no longer there, it had suffocated him
and he had fallen, a mangled heap, into the street
" That man was Sutton, and the child was not his
own. He could have saved himself had he not stayed
UNCROWNED HEROES 147
to break in a door behind which the screams of the
child were heard."
There was a long silence when Gloria had ended
her story, and then the conversation ran along more
THE ADMINISTRATOR OF THE REPUBLIC
GENERAL DRU began at once the reorgan-
ization of his army. The Nation knew that
the war was over, and it was in a quiver of
They recognized the fact that Dru dominated the
situation and that a master mind had at last arisen
in the Republic. He had a large and devoted army
to do his bidding, and the future seemed to lie wholly
in his hands.
The great metropolitan dailies were in keen rivalry
to obtain some statement from him, but they could
not get within speaking distance. The best they
could do was to fill their columns with speculations
and opinions from those near, or at least pretending
to be near him. He had too much to do to waste a
moment, but he had it in mind to make some state-
ment of a general nature within a few days.
The wounded were cared for, the dead disposed
of and all prisoners disarmed and permitted to go
ADMINISTRATOR OF THE REPUBLIC 149
to their homes under parole. Of his own men he
relieved those who had sickness in their families, or
pressing duties to perform. Many of the prisoners,
at their urgent solicitation, he enlisted. The final
result was a compact and fairly well organized army
of some four hundred thousand men who were willing
to serve as long as they were needed.
During the days that Dru was reorganizing, he
now and then saw Gloria. She often wondered why
Philip did not tell her something of his plans, and
at times she felt hurt at his reticence. She did not
know that he would have trusted her with his life
without hesitation, but that his sense of duty sealed
his lips when it came to matters of public policy.
He knew she would not willingly betray him, but
he never took chances upon the judgment she, or
any friend, might exercise as to what was or what
was not important. When a thought or plan had
once gone from him to another it was at the mercy
of the other's discretion, and good intention did not
avail if discretion and judgment were lacking. He
consulted freely with those from whom he thought
he could obtain help, but about important matters
no one ever knew but himself his conclusions.
Dru was now ready to march upon Washington,
150 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
and he issued an address to his soldiers which was
intended, in fact, for the general public. He did not
want, at this time, to assume unusual powers, and if
he had spoken to the Nation he might be criticised
as assuming a dictatorial attitude.
He complimented his army upon their patriotism
and upon their bravery, and told them that they had
won what was, perhaps, the most important vic-
tory in the history of warfare. He deplored the fact
that, of necessity, it was a victory over their fellow
countrymen, but he promised that the breach would
soon be healed, for it was his purpose to treat them
as brothers. He announced that no one, neither the
highest nor the lowest, would be arrested, tried, or
in any way disturbed provided they accepted the re-
sult of the battle as final, and as determining a change
in the policy of government in accordance with the
views held by those whom he represented. Failure
to acquiesce in this, or any attempt to foster the
policies of the late government, would be considered
Seditious, and would be punished by death. He was
determined upon immediate peace and quietude, and
any individual, newspaper or corporation violating
this order would be summarily dealt with.
The words " late government " caused a sensation,
ADMINISTRATOR OF THE REPUBLIC 151
It pointed very surely to the fact that as soon as
Dm reached Washington, he would assume charge
of affairs. But in what way? That was the mo-
President Rockwell, the Vice-President and the
Cabinet, fearful of the result of Dru's complete dom-
ination, fled the country. Selwyn urged, threatened,
and did all he could to have them stand their ground,
and take the consequences of defeat, but to no avail.
Finally, he had the Secretary of State resign, so that
the President might appoint him to that office. This
being done, he became acting President.
There were some fifty thousand troops at Wash-
ington and vicinity, and Dm wired Selwyn asking
whether any defense of that city was contemplated.
Upon receiving a negative answer, he sent one of his
staff officers directly to Washington to demand a
formal surrender. Selwyn acquiesced in this, and
while the troops were not disbanded, they were
placed under the command of Dru's emissary.
After further negotiations it was arranged for
such of the volunteers as desired to do so, to return
to their homes. This left a force of thirty thousand
men at Washington who accepted the new conditions,
and declared fealty to Dru and the cause he repre-
152 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
sented. There was now requisitioned all the cars
that were necessary to convey the army from Buffalo
to New York, Philadelphia and Washington. A day
was named when all other traffic was to be stopped,
until the troops, equipment and supplies had been
conveyed to their destinations. One hundred thou-
sand men were sent to New York and one hundred
thousand to Philadelphia, and held on the outskirts
of those cities. Two hundred thousand were sent to
Washington and there Dru went himself.
Selwyn made a formal surrender to him and was
placed under arrest, but it was hardly more than a
formality, for Selwyn was placed under no further
restraint than that he should not leave Washington.
His arrest was made for its effect upon the Nation;
in order to make it clear that the former government
no longer existed.
General Dru now called a conference of his officers
and announced his purpose of assuming the powers
of a dictator, distasteful as it was to him, and, as he
felt it might also be, to the people. He explained
that such a radical step was necessary, in order to
quickly purge the Government of those abuses that
had arisen, and give to it the form and purpose for
which they had fought. They were assured that
ADMINISTRATOR OF THE REPUBLIC 153
he was free from any personal ambition, and he
pledged his honor to retire after the contemplated
reforms had been made, so that the country could
again have a constitutional government. Not one of
them doubted his word, and they pledged themselves
and the men under them, to sustain him loyally. He
then issued an address to his army proclaiming him-
self " Administrator of the Republic."
DRU OUTLINES HIS INTENTIONS
THE day after this address was issued, General
Dru reviewed his army and received such an
ovation that it stilled criticism, for it was plain
that the new order of things had to be accepted, and
there was a thrill of fear among those who would
have liked to raise their voices in protest.
It was felt that the property and lives of all were
now in the keeping of one man.
Dru's first official act was to call a conference
of those, throughout the Union, who had been leaders
in the movement to overthrow the Government.
The gathering was large and representative, but
he found no such unanimity as amongst the army.
A large part, perhaps a majority, were outspoken
for an immediate return to representative govern-
They were willing that unusual powers should be
assumed long enough to declare the old Government
illegal, and to issue an immediate call for a general
DRU OUTLINES HIS INTENTIONS 155
election, state and national, to be held as usual in
November. The advocates of this plan were willing
that Dru should remain in authority until the duly
constituted officials could be legally installed.
Dru presided over the meeting, therefore he took
no part in the early discussion, further than to ask
for the fullest expression of opinion. After hear-
ing the plan for a limited dictatorship proposed, he
arose, and, in a voice vibrant with emotion, ad-
dressed the meeting as follows:
" My fellow countrymen : I feel sure that how-
ever much we may differ as to methods, there is no
one within the sound of my voice that does not wish
me well, and none, I believe, mistrusts either my hon-
esty of purpose, my patriotism, or my ultimate de-
sire to restore as soon as possible to our distracted
land a constitutional government.
" We all agreed that a change had to be brought
about even though it meant revolution, for other-
wise the cruel hand of avarice would have crushed
out from us, and from our children, every semblance
of freedom. If our late masters had been more mod-
erate in their greed we would have been content to
struggle for yet another period, hoping that in
time we might again have justice and equality be-
156 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
fore the law. But even so we would have had a de-
fective Government, defective in machinery and
defective in its constitution and laws. To have
righted it, a century of public education would have
been necessary. The present opportunity has been
bought at fearful cost. If we use it lightly, those
who fell upon the field of Elma will have died in vain,
and the anguish of mothers, and the tears of widows
and orphans will mock us because we failed in our
duty to their beloved dead.
" For a long time I have known that this hour
would come, and that there would be those of you
who would stand affrighted at the momentous change
from constitutional government to despotism, no mat-
ter how pure and exalted you might believe my inten-
tions to be.
" But in the long watches of the night, in the soli-
tude of my tent, I conceived a plan of government
which, by the grace of God, I hope to be able to give
to the American people. My life is consecrated to
our cause, and, hateful as is the thought of assuming
supreme power, I can see no other way clearly, and
I would be recreant to my trust if I faltered in my
duty. Therefore, with the aid I know each one of
you will give me, there shall, in God's good time, be
DRU OUTLINES HIS INTENTIONS 157
wrought * a government of the people, by the people
and for the people.' "
When Dru had finished there was generous ap-
plause. At first here and there a dissenting voice
was heard, but the chorus of approval drowned it.
It was a splendid tribute to his popularity and in-
tegrity. When quiet was restored, he named twelve
men whom he wanted to take charge of the depart-
ments and to act as his advisors.
They were all able men, each distinguished in his
own field of endeavor, and when their names were
announced there was an outburst of satisfaction.
The meeting adjourned, and each member went
home a believer in Dru and the policy he had adopted.
They, in turn, converted the people to their view of
the situation, so that Dru was able to go forward
with his great work, conscious of the support and
approval of an overwhelming majority of his fellow
A NEW ERA AT WASHINGTON
WHEN General Dm assumed the responsi-
bilities of Government he saw that, unless
he arranged it otherwise, social duties
would prove a tax upon his time and would deter
him from working with that celerity for which he had
already become famous. He had placed Mr. Strawn
at the head of the Treasury Department and he of-
fered him the use of the White House as a place of
residence. His purpose was to have Mrs. Strawn
and Gloria relieve him of those social functions that
are imposed upon the heads of all Governments.
Mrs. Strawn was delighted with such an arrangement,
and it almost compensated her for having been forced
by her husband and Gloria into the ranks of the
popular or insurgent party. Dru continued to use
the barracks as his home, though he occupied the
offices in the White House for public business. It
soon became a familiar sight in Washington to see
him ride swiftly through the streets on his seal-brown
A NEW ERA AT WASHINGTON 159
gelding, Twilight, as he went to and from the bar-
racks and the White House. Dru gave and attended
dinners to foreign ambassadors and special envoys,
but at the usual entertainments given to the public
or to the official family he was seldom seen. He and
Gloria were in accord, regarding the character of
entertainments to be given, and all unnecessary dis-
play was to be avoided. This struck a cruel blow
at Mrs. Strawn, who desired to have everything in
as sumptuous a way as under the old regime, but both
Dru and Gloria were as adamant, and she had to be
content with the new order of things.
" Gloria," said Dru, " it pleases me beyond meas-
ure to find ourselves so nearly in accord concerning
the essential things, and I am glad to believe that
you express your convictions candidly and are not
merely trying to please me."
" That, Philip, is because we are largely striving
for the same purposes. We both want, I think, to take
the selfish equation out of our social fabric. We
want to take away the sting from poverty, and we
want envy to have no place in the world of our mak-
ing. Is it not so? "
" That seems to me, Gloria, to be the crux of our
endeavors. But when we speak of unselfishness, as
160 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
we now have it in mind, we are entering a hitherto
unknown realm. The definition of selfishness yes-
terday or to-day is quite another thing from the un-
selfishness that we have in view, and which we hope
and expect will soon leaven society. I think, per-
haps, we may reach the result quicker if we call it
mankind's new and higher pleasure or happiness, for
that is what it will mean."
" Philip, it all seems too altruistic ever to come
in our lifetime ; but, do you know, I am awfully op-
timistic about it. I really believe it will come so
quickly, after it once gets a good start, that it will
astound us. The proverbial snowball coming down
the mountain side will be as nothing to it. Every-
one will want to join the procession at once. No
one will want to be left out for the finger of Scorn
to accuse. And, strangely enough, I believe it will
be the educated and rich, in fact the ones that are
now the most selfish, that will be in the vanguard of
the procession. They will be the first to realize the
joy of it all, and in this way will they redeem the sins
of their ancestors."
" Your enthusiasm, Gloria, readily imparts itself
to me, and my heart quickens with hope that what you
say may be prophetic. But, to return to the im-
A NEW ERA AT WASHINGTON 161
mediate work in hand, let us simplify our habits and
customs to as great a degree as is possible under
existing circumstances. One of the causes for the
mad rush for money is the desire to excel our friends
and neighbors in our manner of living, our entertain-
ments and the like. Everyone has been trying to
keep up with the most extravagant of his set: the
result must, in the end, be unhappiness for all and
disaster for many. What a pitiful ambition it is!
How soul-lowering ! How it narrows the horizon !
We cannot help the poor, we cannot aid our neigh-
bor, for, if we do, we cannot keep our places in the
unholy struggle for social equality within our little
sphere. Let us go, Gloria, into the fresh air, for it
stifles me to think of this phase of our civilization.
I wish I had let our discussion remain upon the high
peak where you placed it and from which we gazed
into the promised land."
AN INTERNATIONAL CRISIS
THE 'Administrator did nothing towards re-
ducing the army which, including those in the
Philippines and elsewhere, totalled five hun-
dred thousand. He thought this hardly sufficient
considering international conditions, and one of his
first acts was to increase the number of men to six
hundred thousand and to arm and equip them
For a long period of years England had main-
tained relations with the United States that amounted
to an active alliance, but there was evidence that she
had under discussion, with her old-time enemy, Ger-
many, a treaty by which that nation was to be allowed
a free hand in South America.
In return for this England was to be conceded all
German territory in Africa, and was to be allowed
to absorb, eventually, that entire continent excepting
that part belonging to France.
Japan, it seemed, was to be taken into the agree-
AN INTERNATIONAL CRISIS 163
ment and was to be given her will in the East. If
she desired the Philippines, she might take them as
far as European interference went. Her navy was
more powerful than any the United States could
readily muster in the far Pacific, and England would,
if necessary, serve notice upon us that her gunboats
were at Japan's disposal in case of war.
In return, Japan was to help in maintaining Brit-
ish supremacy in India, which was now threatened
by the vigorous young Republic of China.
The latter nation did not wish. to absorb India her-
self, but she was committed to the policy of " Asia
for the Asiatics," and it did not take much discern-
ment to see that some day soon this would come about.
China and Japan had already reached an agree-
ment concerning certain matters of interest between
them, the most important being that Japan should
maintain a navy twice as powerful as that of China,
and that the latter should have an army one-third
more powerful than that of Japan. The latter was
to confine her sphere of influence to the Islands of
the Sea and to Korea, and, in the event of a com-
bined attack on Russia, which was contemplated, they
were to acquire Siberia as far west as practicable,
and divide that territory. China had already by pur-
164 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
chase, concessions and covert threats, regained that
part of her territory once held by England, Ger-
many and France. She had a powerful army and a
navy of some consequence, therefore she must needs
to be reckoned with.
England's hold upon Canada was merely nominal,
therefore, further than as a matter of pride, it was of
slight importance to her whether she lost it or not.
Up to the time of the revolution, Canada had been
a hostage, and England felt that she could at no
time afford a rupture with us. But the alluring
vision that Germany held out to her was dazzling
her statesmen. Africa all red from the Cape to the
Mediterranean and from Madagascar to the Atlantic
was most alluring. And it seemed so easy of ac-
complishment. Germany maintained her military
superiority, as England, even then, held a navy equal
to any two powers.
Germany was to exploit South America without
reference to the Monroe Doctrine, and England was
to give her moral support, and the support of her
navy, if necessary. If the United States objected
to the extent of declaring war, they were prepared to
meet that issue. Together, they could put into com-
mission a navy three times as strong as that of the
AN INTERNATIONAL CRISIS 165
United States, and with Canada as a base, and with
a merchant marine fifty times as large as that of
the United States, they could convey half a million
men to North America as quickly as Dru could send
a like number to San Francisco. If Japan joined
the movement, she could occupy the Pacific Slope as
long as England and Germany were her allies.
The situation which had sprung up while the
United States was putting her own house in order,
was full of peril and General Dru gave it his careful
and immediate attention.
None of the powers at interest knew that Dru's
Government had the slightest intimation of what was
being discussed. The information had leaked
through one of the leading international banking
houses, that had been approached concerning a possi-
ble loan for a very large amount, and the secret had
reached Selwyn through Thor.
Selwyn not only gave General Dru this informa-
tion, but much else that was of extreme value. Dru
soon came to know that at heart Selwyn was not with-
out patriotism, and that it was only from environ-
ment and an overweaning desire for power that had
led him into the paths he had heretofore followed.
Selwyn would have preferred ruling through the
166 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
people rather than through the interests and the
machinations of corrupt politics, but he had little
confidence that the people would take enough interest
in public affairs to make this possible, and to deviate
from the path he had chosen, meant, he thought, dis-
aster to his ambitions.
Dru's career proved him wrong, and no one was
quicker to see it than Selwyn. Dru's remarkable in-
sight into character fathomed the real man, and, in
a cautious and limited way, he counseled with him
as the need arose.
THE REFORM OF THE JUDICIART
OF his Council of Twelve, the Administrator
placed one member in charge of each of the
nine departments, and gave to the other
three special work that was constantly arising.
One of his advisers was a man of distinguished
lineage, but who, in his early youth, had been com-
pelled to struggle against those unhappy conditions
that followed reconstruction in the South. His in-
tellect and force of character had brought him suc-
cess in his early manhood, and he was the masterful
head of a university that, under his guidance, was
soon to become one of the foremost in the world. He
was a trained political economist, and had rare dis-
cernment in public affairs, therefore Dm leaned
heavily upon him when he began to rehabilitate the
Dru used Selwyn's unusual talents for organiza-
tion and administration, in thoroughly overhauling
the actual machinery of both Federal and State
168 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
Governments. There was no doubt but that there
was an enormous waste going on, and this he under-
took to stop, for he felt sure that as much efficiency
could be obtained at two-thirds the cost. One of his
first acts as Administrator was to call together five
great lawyers, who had no objectionable corporate
or private practice, and give to them the task of
defining the powers of all courts, both State and
They were not only to remodel court pro-
cedure, but to eliminate such courts as were un-
necessary. To this board he gave the further task
of reconstructing the rules governing lawyers, their
practice before the courts, their relations to their
clients and the amount and character of their fees
under given conditions.
Under Dru's instruction the commission was to
limit the power of the courts to the extent that they
could no longer pass upon the constitutionality of
laws, their function being merely to decide, as be-
tween litigants, what the law was, as was the practice
of all other civilized nations.
Judges, both Federal and State, were to be ap-
pointed for life, subject to compulsory retirement
at seventy, and to forced retirement at any time by a
THE REFORM OF THE JUDICIARY 169
two-thirds vote of the House and a majority vote
of the Senate. Their appointment was to be sug-
gested by the President or Governor, as the case
might be, and a majority vote of the House and a
two-third vote of the Senate were necessary for con-
High salaries were to be paid, but the number of
judges was to be largely decreased, perhaps by
two-thirds. This would be possible, because the sim-
plification of procedure and the curtailment of their
powers would enormously lessen the amount of work
to be done. Dru called the Board's attention to the
fact that England had about two hundred judges of
all kinds, while there were some thirty-six hundred
in the United States, and that the reversals by the
English Courts were only about three per cent, of
the reversals by the American Courts.
The United States had, therefore, the most com-
plicated, expensive and inadequate legal machinery
of any civilized nation. Lawyers were no longer to
be permitted to bring suits of doubtful character, and
without facts and merit to sustain them. Hereafter
it would be necessary for the attorney, and the client
himself, to swear to the truth of the allegations sub-
mitted in their petitions of suits and briefs.
170 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
If they could not show that they had good reason
to believe that their cause was just, they would be
subject to fines and imprisonment, besides being sub-
ject to damages by the defendant. Dru desired the
Board on Legal Procedure and Judiciary to work
out a fair and comprehensive system, based along the
fundamental lines he had laid down, so that the peo-
ple might be no longer ridden by either the law or
the lawyer. It was his intention that no man was
to be suggested for a judgeship or confirmed who was
known to drink to excess, either regularly or period-
ically, or one who was known not to pay his per-
sonal debts, or had acted in a reprehensible manner
either in private or in his public capacity as a law-
Any of these habits or actions occurring after ap-
pointment was to subject him to impeachment.
Moreover, any judge who used his position to favor
any individual or corporation, or who deviated from
the path of even and exact justice for all, or who
heckled a litigant, witness or attorney, or who treated
them in an unnecessarily harsh or insulting manner,
was to be, upon complaint duly attested to by relia-
ble witnesses, tried for impeachment.
The Administrator was positive in his determina-
THE REFORM OF THE JUDICIARY 171
tion to have the judiciary a most efficient bureau of the
people, and to have it sufficiently well paid to obtain
the best talent. He wanted it held in the highest
esteem, and to have an appointment thereon consid-
ered one of the greatest honors of the Republic. To
do this he knew it was necessary for its members to
be able, honest, temperate and considerate.
A NEW CODE OF LAWS
DRU selected another board of five lawyers,
and to them he gave the task of reforming
legal procedure and of pruning down the ex-
isting laws, both State and National, cutting out
the obsolete and useless ones and rewriting those rec-
ommended to be retained, in plain and direct lan-
guage free from useless legal verbiage and under-
standable to the ordinary lay citizen.
He then created another board, of even greater
ability, to read, digest and criticise the work of the
other two boards and report their findings directly
to him, giving a brief summary of their reasons and
recommendations. To assist in this work he en-
gaged in an advisory capacity three eminent lawyers
from England, Germany and France respectively.
The three boards were urged to proceed with as
much despatch as possible, for Dru knew that it would
take at least several years to do it properly, and
afterwards he would want to place the new code of
A NEW CODE OF LAWS 173
laws in working order under the reformed judiciary
before he would be content to retire. The other
changes he had in mind he thought could be accom-
plished much more quickly.
Among other things, Dru directed that the States
should have a simplification of land titles, so that
transfers of real estate could be made as easy as
the transfer of stocks, and with as little expense, no
attorneys' fees for examination of titles, and no re-
cording fees being necessary. The title could not
be contested after being once registered in a name,
therefore no litigation over real property could be
possible. It was estimated by Dru's statisticians
that in some States this would save the people an-
nually a sum equal to the cost of running their gov-
A uniform divorce law was also to be drawn and put
into operation, so that the scandals arising from the
old conditions might no longer be possible.
It was arranged that when laws affecting the
States had been written, before they went into effect
they were to be submitted to a body of lawyers made
up of one representative from each State. This body
could make suggestions for such additions or elimina-
tions as might seem to them pertinent, and con-
174. PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
forming with conditions existing in their respective
commonwealths, but the board was to use its judg-
ment in the matter of incorporating the suggestions
in the final draft of the law. It was not the Ad-
ministrator's purpose to rewrite at that time the
Federal and State Constitutions, but to do so at a
later date when the laws had been rewritten and de-
cided upon; he wished to first satisfy himself as to
them and their adaptability to the existing condi-
tions, and then make a constitution conforming with
them. This would seem to be going at things back-
ward, but it recommended itself to Dru as the sane
and practical way to have the constitutions and laws
in complete harmony.
The formation of the three boards created much
disturbance among judges, lawyers and corporations,
but when the murmur began to assume the propor-
tions of a loud-voiced protest, General Dru took the
matter in hand. He let it be known that it would
be well for them to cease to foment trouble. He
pointed out that heretofore the laws had been made
for the judges, for the lawyers and for those whose
financial or political influence enabled them to obtain
special privileges, but that hereafter the whole legal
machinery was to be run absolutely in the interest of
A NEW CODE OF LAWS 175
the people. The decisive and courageous manner in
which he handled this situation, brought him the
warm and generous approval of the people and they
felt that at last their day had come.
THE QUESTION OF TAXATION
THE question of taxation was one of the most
complex problems with which the Adminis-
trator had to deal. As with the legal ma-
chinery he formed a board of five to advise with
him, and to carry out his very well-defined ideas.
Upon this board was a political economist, a banker,
who was thought to be the ablest man of his pro-
fession, a farmer who was a very successful and
practical man, a manufacturer and a Congressman,
who for many years had been the consequential
member of the Ways and Means Committee. All
these men were known for their breadth of view and
their interest in public affairs.
Again, Dru went to England, France and Ger-
many for the best men he could get as advisers to
the board. He offered such a price for their serv-
ices that, eminent as they were, they did not feel
that they could refuse. He knew the best were the
THE QUESTION OF TAXATION 177
At the first sitting of the Committee, Dru told
them to consider every existing tax law obliterated,
to begin anew and to construct a revenue system
along the lines he indicated for municipalities, coun-
ties, states and the Nation. He did not contemplate,
he said, that the new law should embrace all the
taxes which the three first-named civil divisions could
levy, but that it should apply only where taxes
related to the general government. Nevertheless,
Dru was hopeful that such a system would be devised
as would render it unnecessary for either municipali-
ties, counties or states to require any further revenue.
Dru directed the board to divide each state into
districts for the purpose of taxation, not making
them large enough to be cumbersome, and yet not
small enough to prohibit the employment of able
men to form the assessment and collecting boards.
He suggested that these boards be composed of four
local men and one representative of the Nation,
He further directed that the tax on realty both
in the country and the city should be upon the fol-
lowing basis : Improvements on city property
were to be taxed at one-fifth of their value, and the
naked property either in town or country at two-
thirds of its value. The fact that country property;
178 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
used for agricultural purposes was improved, should
not be reckoned. In other words, if A had one hun-
dred acres with eighty acres of it in cultivation and
otherwise improved, and B had one hundred acres
beside him of just as good land, but not in cultivation
or improved, B's land should be taxed as much as
In cities and towns taxation was to be upon a
similar basis. For instance, when there was a lot,
say, one hundred feet by one hundred feet with im-
provements upon it worth three hundred thousand
dollars, and there was another lot of the same size
and value, the improved lot should be taxed only
sixty thousand more than the unimproved lot; that
is, both lots should be taxed alike, and the improve-
ment on the one should be assessed at sixty thou-
sand dollars or one-fifth of its actual value.
This, Dm pointed out, would deter owners from
holding unimproved realty, for the purpose of get-
ting the unearned increment made possible by the
thrift of their neighbors. In the country it would
open up land for cultivation now lying idle, provide
homes for more people, cheapen the cost of living to
all, and make possible better schools, better roads
THE QUESTION OF TAXATION 179
and a better opportunity for the successful co-
operative marketing of products.
In the cities and towns, it would mean a more
homogeneous population, with better streets, better
sidewalks, better sewerage, more convenient churches
and cheaper rents and homes. As it was at that
time, a poor man could not buy a home nor rent
one near his work, but must needs go to the out-
skirts of his town, necessitating loss of time and
cost of transportation, besides sacrificing the obvious
comforts and conveniences of a more compact pop-
The Administrator further directed the tax board
to work out a graduated income tax exempting no
income whatsoever. Incomes up to one thousand
dollars a year, Dru thought, should bear a merely:
nominal tax of one-half of one per cent. ; those of
from one to two thousand, one per cent.; those
of from two to five thousand, two per cent. ; those of
from five to ten thousand, three per cent.; those
of from ten to twenty thousand, six per cent. The
tax on incomes of more than twenty thousand dol-
lars a year, Dru directed, was to be rapidly in-
creased, until a maximum of seventy per cent, was
180 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
to be reached on those incomes that were ten million
dollars, or above.
False returns, false swearing, or any subterfuge
to defraud the Government, was to be punished by
not less than six months or more than two years
in prison. The board was further instructed to in-
corporate in their tax measure, an inheritance tax
clause, graduated at the same rate as in the income
tax, and to safeguard the defrauding of the Govern-
ment by gifts before death and other devices.
A FEDERAL INCORPORATION ACT
ALONG with the first board on tax laws, Ad-
ministrator Dm appointed yet another com-
mission to deal with another phase of this
subject. The second board was composed of econo-
mists and others well versed in matters relating to
the tariff and Internal Revenue, who, broadly speak-
ing, were instructed to work out a tariff law which
would contemplate the abolishment of the theory of
protection as a governmental policy. A tariff was
to be imposed mainly as a supplement to the other
taxes, the revenue from which, it was thought, would
be almost sufficient for the needs of the Government,
considering the economies that were being made.
Dru's father had been an ardent advocate of
State rights, and the Administrator had been reared
in that atmosphere; but when he began to think
out such questions for himself, he realized that den-
sity of population and rapid inter-communication
afforded by electric and steam railroads, motors,
182 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
aeroplanes, telegraphs and telephones were, to all
practical purposes, obliterating State lines and mold-
ing the country into a homogeneous nation.
Therefore, after the Revolution, Dru saw that the
time had come for this trend to assume more definite
form, and for the National Government to take upon
itself some of the functions heretofore exclusively
within the jurisdiction of the States. Up to the time
of the Revolution a state of chaos had existed. For
instance, laws relating to divorces, franchises, inter-
state commerce, sanitation and many other things
were different in each State, and nearly all were
inefficient and not conducive to the general welfare.
Administrator Dru therefore concluded that the time
had come when a measure of control of such things
should be vested in the Central Government. He
therefore proposed enacting into the general laws a
Federal Incorporation Act, and into his scheme of
taxation a franchise tax that would not be more
burdensome than that now imposed by the States.
He also proposed making corporations share with
the Government and States a certain part of
their net earnings, public service corporations to a
greater extent than others. Dru's plan contem-
plated that either the Government or the State in
"A FEDERAL INCORPORATION ACT 183
which the home or headquarters of any corporation
was located was to have representation upon the
boards of such corporation, in order that the in-
terests of the National, State, or City Government
could be protected, and so as to insure publicity in
the event it was needful to correct abuses.
He had incorporated in the Franchise Law the
right of Labor to have one representative upon the
boards of corporations and to share a certain per-
centage of the earnings above their wages, after a
reasonable per cent, upon the capital had been
earned. 1 In turn, it was to be obligatory upon them
not to strike, but to submit all grievances to arbi-
tration. The law was to stipulate that if the busi-
ness prospered, wages should be high; if times were
dull, they should be reduced.
The people were asked to curb their prejudice
against corporations. It was promised that in the
future corporations should be honestly run, and in
the interest of the stockholders and the public. Dru
expressed the hope that their formation would be
welcomed rather than discouraged, for he was sure
that under the new law it would be more to the
public advantage to have business conducted by cor-
iSee page 300.
184 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
porations than by individuals in a private capacity.
In the taxation of real estate, the unfair practice
of taxing it at full value when mortgaged and then
taxing the holder of the mortgage, was to be abol-
ished. The same was to be true of bonded indebted-
ness on any kind of property. The easy way to do
this was to tax property and not tax the evidence
of debt, but Dru preferred the other method, that
of taxing the property, less the debt, and then tax-
ing the debt wherever found.
His reason for this was that, if bonds or other
forms of debt paid no taxes, it would have a tend-
ency to make investors put money into that kind of
security, even though the interest was correspond-
ingly low, in order to avoid the trouble of rendering
and paying taxes on them. This, he thought, might
keep capital out of other needful enterprises, and
give a glut of money in one direction and a paucity
in another. Money itself was not to be taxed as was
then done in so many States.
THE BAILED AD PROBLEM
WHILE the boards and commissions ap-
pointed by Administrator Dru were work-
ing out new tax, tariff and revenue laws,
establishing the judiciary and legal machinery on
a new basis and revising the general law, it was
necessary that the financial system of the country
also should be reformed. Dru and his advisers saw
the difficulties of attacking this most intricate ques-
tion, but with the advice and assistance of a com-
mission appointed for that purpose, they began the
formulation of a new banking law, affording a flexi-
ble currency, bottomed largely upon commercial
assets, the real wealth of the nation, instead of upon
debt, as formerly.
This measure was based upon the English, French
and German plans, its authors taking the best from
each and making the whole conform to American
needs and conditions, Dru regarded this as one of
his most pressing reforms, for he hoped that it would
186 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
not only prevent panics, as formerly, but that its
final construction would completely destroy the
credit trust, the greatest, the most far reaching and,
under evil direction, the most pernicious trust of
While in this connection, as well as all others, he
was insistent that business should be honestly con-
ducted, yet it was his purpose to throw all possible
safeguards around it. In the past it had been not
only harassed by a monetary system that was a mere
patchwork affair and entirely inadequate to the needs
of the times, but it had been constantly threatened
by tariff, railroad and other legislation calculated
to cause continued disturbance. The ever-present
demagogue had added to the confusion, and, alto-
gether, legitimate business had suffered more during
the long season of unrest than had the law-defying
Dru wanted to see the nation prosper, as he knew
it could never have done under the old order, where
the few reaped a disproportionate reward and to this
end he spared no pains in perfecting the new financial
system. In the past the railroads and a few in-
dustrial monopolies had come in for the greatest
amount of abuse and prejudice. This feeling while
THE RAILROAD PROBLEM 187
largely just, in his opinion, had done much harm.
The railroads were the offenders in the first instance,
he knew, and then the people retaliated, and in the
end both the capitalists who actually furnished the
money to build the roads and the people suffered.
" In the first place," said Administrator Dru to
his counsel during the discussion of the new financial
system, " the roads were built dishonestly. Money
was made out of their construction by the promoters
in the most open and shameless way, and afterwards
bonds and stocks were issued far in excess of the
fraudulent so-called cost. Nor did the iniquity end
there. Enterprises were started, some of a public
nature such as grain elevators and cotton compresses,
in which the officials of the railroads were financially
interested. These favored concerns received rebates
and better shipping facilities than their competitors
and competition was stifled.
" Iron mines and mills, lumber mills and yards,
coal mines and yards, etc., etc., went into their ra-
pacious maw, and the managers considered the rail-
roads a private snap and ' the public be damned.'
" These things," continued Dru, " did not consti-
tute their sole offense, for, as you all know, they
lobbied through legislatures the most unconscionable
188 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
bills, giving them land, money and rights to further
exploit the public.
" But the thing that, perhaps, aroused resentment
most was their failure to pay just claims. The idea
in the old days, as you remember, was to pay noth-
ing, and make it so expensive to litigate that one
would prefer to suffer an injustice rather than go
to court. From this policy was born the claim
lawyer, who financed and fought through the courts
personal injury claims, until it finally came to pass
that in loss or damage suits the average jury would
decide against the railroad on general principles. In
such cases the litigant generally got all he claimed
and the railroad was mulcted. There is no esti-
mating how much this unfortunate policy cost the
railroads of America up to the time of the Revolu-
tion. The trouble was that the ultimate loss fell, not
on those who inaugurated it but upon the innocent
stock and bondholder of the roads.
" While the problem is complicated," he continued,
" its solution lies in the new financial system, to-
gether with the new system of control of public utili-
To this end, Dru laid down his plans by which
public service corporations should be honestly,
THE RAILROAD PROBLEM 189
openly and efficiently run, so that the people should
have good service at a minimum cost.
Primarily the general Government, the state or
the city, as the case might be, were to have repre-
sentation on the directorate, as previously indicated.
They were to have full access to the books, and
semi-annually each corporation was to be compelled
to make public a full and a clear report, giving
the receipts and expenditures, including salaries
paid to high officials. These corporations were also
to be under the control of national and state com-
While the Nation and State were to share in the
earnings, Dru demanded that the investor in such
corporate securities should have reasonable profits,
and the fullest protection, in the event states or
municipalities attempted to deal unfairly with them,
as had heretofore been the case in many instances.
The Administrator insisted upon the prohibition
of franchise to " holding companies " of whatsoever
character. In the past, he declared, they had been
prolific trust breeders, and those existing at that
time, he asserted, should be dissolved.
Under the new law, as Dru outlined it, one com-
pany might control another, but it would have to
190 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
be with the consent of both the state and federal
officials having jurisdiction in the premises, and it
would have to be clear that the public would be
benefited thereby. There was to be in the future no
hiding under cover, for everything was to be done
in the open, and in a way entirely understandable to
the ordinary layman.
Certain of the public service corporations, Dru
insisted, should be taken over bodily by the National
Government and accordingly the Postmaster General
was instructed to negotiate with the telegraph and
telephone companies for their properties at a fair
valuation. They were to be under the absolute con-
trol of the Postoffice Department, and the people
were to have the transmission of all messages at cost,
just as they had their written ones. A parcel post
was also inaugurated, so that as much as twelve
pounds could be sent at cost.
THE further Administrator Dru carried his
progress of reform, the more helpful he found
Selwyn. Dru's generous treatment of him
had brought in return a grateful loyalty.
One stormy night, after Selwyn had dined with
Dru, he sat contentedly smoking by a great log
fire in the library of the small cottage which Dru
occupied in the barracks.
" This reminds me," he said, " of my early boy-
hood, and of the fireplace in the old tavern where
I was born."
General Dru had long wanted to know of Selwyn,
and, though they had arranged to discuss some im-
portant business, Dru urged the former Senator to
tell him something of his early life,
Selwyn consented, but asked that the lights be
turned off so that there would be only the glow
from the fire, in order that it might seem more like
the old days at home when his father's political
192 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
cronies gathered about the hearth for their confiden-
And this was Selwyn's story:
My father was a man of small education and kept
a tavern on the outer edge of Philadelphia. I was
his only child, my mother dying in my infancy.
There was a bar connected with the house, and
it was a rendezvous for the politicians of our ward.
I became interested in politics so early that I can-
not remember the time when I was not. My father
was a temperate man, strong-willed and able, and
I have often wondered since that he was content to
end his days without trying to get beyond the en-
vironments of a small tavern.
He was sensitive, and perhaps his lack of educa-
tion caused him to hesitate to enter a larger and
more conspicuous field.
However, he was resolved that I should not Be
hampered as he was, and I was, therefore, given a
good common school education first, and afterwards
sent to Girard College, where I graduated, the young-
est of my class.
Much to my father's delight, I expressed a desire
to study law, for it seemed to us both that this
SELWYN'S STORY 193
profession held the best opportunity open to me.
My real purpose in becoming a lawyer was to aid
me in politics, for it was clear to both my father
and me that I had an unusual aptitude therefor.
My study of law was rather cursory than real,
and did not lead to a profound knowledge of the
subject, but it was sufficient for me to obtain ad-
mittance to the bar, and it was not long, young as
I was, before my father's influence brought me a
practice that was lucrative and which required but
little legal lore.
At that time the ward boss was a man by the
name of Marx. While his father was a German, he
was almost wholly Irish, for his father died when he
was young, and he was reared by a masculine, master-
ful, though ignorant Irish mother.
He was my father's best friend, and there were
no secrets between them. They seldom paid atten-
tion to me, and I was rarely dismissed even when
they had their most confidential talks.
In this way, I early learned how our great Amer-
ican cities are looted, not so much by those actually
in power, for they are of less consequence than the
more powerful men behind them.
If any contract of importance was to be let, be
194 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
it either public or private, Marx and his satellites
took their toll. He, in his turn, had to account to
the man above, the city boss.
If a large private undertaking was contemplated,
the ward boss had to be seen and consulted as to
the best contractors, and it was understood that at
least five per cent, more than the work was worth had
to be paid, otherwise, there would be endless trouble
and delay. The inspector of buildings would make
trouble ; complaints would be made of obstructing the
streets and sidewalks, and injunctions would be issued.
So it was either to pay, or not construct.
Marx provided work for the needy, loaned money
to the poor, sick and disabled, gave excursions and
picnics in the summer: for all of this others paid,
but it enabled him to hold the political control of
the ward in the hollow of his hand.
The boss above him demanded that the council-
men from his ward should be men who would do his
bidding without question.
The city boss, in turn, trafficked with the larger
public contracts, and with the granting and exten-
sions of franchises. It was a fruitful field, for
there was none above him with whom he was com-
pelled to divide.
SELWYN'S STORY 195
The State boss treated the city bosses with much
consideration, for he was more or less dependent
upon them, his power consisting largely of the sum
of their power.
The State boss dealt in larger things, and became
a national figure. He was more circumspect in his
methods, for he had a wider constituency and a more
The local bosses were required to send to the legis-
lature " loyal " party men who did not question the
leadership of the State boss.
The big interests preferred having only one man
to deal with, which simplified matters ; consequently
they were strong aids in helping him retain his power.
Any measure they desired passed by the legis-
lature was first submitted to him, and he would prune
it until he felt he could put it through without doing
too great violence to public sentiment.
The citizens at large do not scrutinize measures
closely; they are too busy in their own vineyards to
bother greatly about things which only remotely or
indirectly concern them.
This selfish attitude and indifference of our people
has made the boss and his methods possible. The
" big interests " reciprocate in many and devious
196 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
Ways, ways subtle enough to seem not dishonest even
if exposed to public view.
So that by early education I was taught to think
that the despoliation of the public, in certain ways,
Was a legitimate industry.
Later, I knew better, but I had already started
my plow in the furrow, and it was hard to turn back.
I wanted money and I wanted power, and I could
see both in the career before me.
It was not long, of course, before I had discern-
ment enough to see that I was not being employed
for my legal ability. My income was practically
made from retainers, and I was seldom called upon
to do more than to use my influence so that my client
should remain undisturbed in the pursuit of his busi-
ness, be it legitimate or otherwise.
Young as I was, Marx soon offered me a seat in
the Council. It was my first proffer of office, but I
declined it. I did not want to be identified with a
body for which I had such a supreme contempt.
My aim was higher. Marx, though, was sincere
in his desire to further my fortunes, for he had no
son, and his affection for my father and me was
I frankly told him the direction in which my am-
SELWYN'S STORY 197
bition lay, and he promised me his cordial assistance.
I wanted to get beyond ward politics, and in touch
with the city boss.
It was my idea that, if I could maintain myself
with him, I would in time ask him to place me within
the influence of the State boss, where my field of
endeavor would be as wide as my abilities would jus-
I did not lose my identity with my ward, but
now my work covered all Philadelphia, and my re-
tainers became larger and more numerous, for I was
within the local sphere of the " big interests."
At that time the boss was a man by the name of
Hardy. He was born in the western part of the
State, but came to Philadelphia when a boy, his
mother having married the second time a man named
Metz, who was then City Treasurer and who after-
wards became Mayor.
Hardy was a singular man for a boss; small of
frame, with features almost effeminate, and with any-
thing but a robust constitution, he did a prodigious
amount of work.
He was not only taciturn to an unusual degree,
but he seldom wrote, or replied to letters. Yet he
held an iron grip upon the organization.
198 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
His personal appearance and quiet manners in-
spired many ambitious underlings to try to dislodge
him, but their failure was signal and complete.
He had what was, perhaps, the most perfectly
organized machine against which any municipality
had ever had the misfortune to contend.
Hardy made few promises and none of them rash,
but no man could truthfully say that he ever broke
one. I feel certain that he would have made good
his spoken word even at the expense of his fortune
or political power.
Then, too, he played fair, and his henchmen knew
it. He had no favorites whom he unduly rewarded
at the expense of the more efficient. He had likes
and dislikes as other men, but his judgment was never
warped by that. Success meant advancement, failure
And he made his followers play fair. There were
certain rules of the game that had to be observed,
and any infraction thereof meant punishment.
The big, burly fellows he had under him felt pride
in his physical insignificance, and in the big brain
that had never known defeat.
When I became close to him, I asked him why he
SELWYN'S STORY 199
had never expanded; that he must have felt sure
that he could have spread his jurisdiction throughout
the State, and that the labor in the broader position
must be less than in the one he occupied.
His reply was characteristic of the man. He said
he was not where he was from choice, that environ-
ment and opportunity had forced him into the posi-
tion he occupied, but that once there, he owed it to
his followers to hold it against all comers. He said
that he would have given it up long ago, if it had
not been for this feeling of obligation to those who
loved and trusted him. To desert them, and to make
new responsibilities, was unthinkable from his view-
That which I most wondered at in Hardy was,
his failure to comprehend that the work he was en-
gaged in was dishonest. I led cautiously up to this
one day, and this was his explanation:
" The average American citizen refuses to pay at-
tention to civic affairs, contenting himself with a
general growl at the tax rate, and the character and
inefficiency of public officials. He seldom takes the
trouble necessary to form the Government to suit his
200 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
" The truth is, he has no cohesive or well-digested
views, it being too much trouble to form them.
Therefore, some such organization as ours is essen-
tial. Being essential, then it must have funds with
which to proceed, and the men devoting their lives
to it must be recompensed, so the system we use is
the best that can be devised under the circumstances.
" It is like the tariff and internal revenue taxes by
which the National Government is run, that is, indi-
rect. The citizen pays, but he does not know when
he pays, nor how much he is paying.
" A better system could, perhaps, be devised in
both instances, but this cannot be done until the peo-
ple take a keener interest in their public affairs.
" Hardy was not a rich man, though he had every
opportunity of being so. He was not avaricious,
and his tastes and habits were simple, and he had
no family to demand the extravagances that are
undermining our national life. He was a vegetarian,
and he thought, and perhaps rightly, that in a few
centuries from now the killing of animals and the
eating of their corpses would be regarded in the
same way as we now think of cannibalism.
" He divided the money that came to him amongst
SELWYN'S STORY 201
his followers, and this was one of the mainsprings
of his power/ 1
" All things considered, it is not certain but that
he gave Philadelphia as good government as her in-
different citizens deserved."
SELWYN'S STORY, CONTINUED
BY the time I was thirty-six I had accumulated
what seemed to me then, a considerable for-
tune, and I had furthermore become Hardy's
He had his forces divided in several classes, of
choice I was ranged among those whose duties were
general and not local. I therefore had a survey of
the city as a whole, and was not infrequently in
touch with the masters of the State at large.
Hardy concerned himself about my financial wel-
fare to the extent of now and then inquiring whether
my income was satisfactory, and the nature of it.
I assured him that it was and that he need have no
further thought of me in that connection.
I told him that I was more ambitious to advance
politically than financially, and, while expressing
my gratitude for all he had done for me and my keen
regret at the thought of leaving him, I spoke again
of nogr desire to enter State politics.
SELWYN'S STORY, CONTINUED 203
Some six years before I had married the daughter
of a State Senator, a man who was then seeking the
On my account, Hardy gave him cordial support,
but the State boss had other plans, and my father-
in-law was shelved " for the moment," as the boss ex-
pressed it, for one who suited his purposes better.
Both Hardy, my father-in-law, and their friends
resented this action, because the man selected was
not in line for the place and the boss was not con-
forming to the rules of the game.
They wanted to break openly and immediately,
but I advised delay until we were strong enough to
The task of quietly organizing an effective oppo-
sition to the State boss was left to me, and although
I lost no time, it was a year before I was ready to
make the fight.
In the meanwhile, the boss had no intimation of
the revolt. My father-in-law and Hardy had, by
my direction, complied with all the requests that he
made upon them, and he thought himself never more
I went to the legislature that year in accordance
with our plans, and announced myself a candidate
204 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
for speaker. I did this without consulting the boss
and purposely. He had already selected another
man, and had publicly committed himself to his can-
didacy, which was generally considered equivalent
to an election.
The candidate was a weak man, and if the boss
had known the extent of the opposition that had de-
veloped, he would have made a stronger selection.
As it was, he threw not only the weight of his own
influence for his man and again irrevocably com-
mitted himself, but he had his creature, the Gov-
ernor, do likewise.
My strength was still not apparent, for I had my
forces well in hand, and while I had a few declare
themselves for me, the major part were non-com-
mittal, and spoke in cautious terms of general ap-
proval of the boss's candidate.
The result was a sensation. I was elected by a
safe, though small, majority, and, as a natural re-
sult, the boss was deposed and I was proclaimed
I had found in organizing the revolt that there
were many who had grievances which, from fear,
they had kept hidden but when they were shown that
SELWYN'S STORY, CONTINUED 205
they could safely be revenged, they eagerly took
advantage of the opportunity.
So, in one campaign, I burst upon the public as
the party leader, and the question was now, how
would I use it and could I hold it.
SELWYN'S STORY, CONTINUED
FLUSHED though I was with victory, and with
the flattery of friends, time servers and syco-
phants in my ears, I felt a deep sympathy for
the boss. He was as a sinking ship and as such de-
serted. Yesterday a thing for envy, to-day an ob-
ject of pity.
I wondered how long it would be before I, too,
would be stranded.
The interests, were, of course, among the first to
congratulate me and to assure me of their support.
During that session of the legislature, I did not
change the character of the legislation, or do any-
thing very different from the usual. I wanted to
feel my seat more firmly under me before attempt-
ing the many things I had in mind.
I took over into my camp all those that I could
reasonably trust, and strengthened my forces every-
where as expeditiously as possible. I weeded out
SELWYN'S STORY, CONTINUED 207
the incompetents, of whom there were many, and re-
placed them by big-hearted, loyal and energetic
men, who had easy consciences when it came to deal-
ing with the public affairs of either municipalities,
counties or the State.
Of necessity, I had to use some who were vicious
and dishonest, and who would betray me in a mo-
ment if their interests led that way. But of these
there were few in my personal organization, though
from experience, I knew their kind permeated the
municipal machines to a large degree.
The lessons learned from Hardy were of value to
me now. I was liberal to my following at the ex-
pense of myself, and I played the game fair as they
I declined re-election to the next legislature, be-
cause the office was not commensurate with the dig-
nity of the position I held as party leader, and
again, because the holding of state office was now a
In taking over the machine from the late boss, and
in molding it into an almost personal following I
found it not only loosely put together, but ineffi-
cient for my more ambitious purposes.
208 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
After giving it four or five years of close atten-
tion, I was satisfied with it, and I had no fear of
I had found that the interests were not paying
anything like a commensurate amount for the spe-
cial privileges they were getting, and I more than
doubled the revenue obtained by the deposed boss.
This, of course, delighted my henchmen, and
bound them more closely to me.
I also demanded and received information in ad-
vance of any extensions of railroads, standard or
interurban, of contemplated improvements of what-
soever character, and I doled out this information
to those of my followers in whose jurisdiction lay
My own fortune I augmented by advance infor-
mation regarding the appreciation of stocks. If an
amalgamation of two important institutions was to
occur, or if they were to be put upon a dividend
basis, or if the dividend rate was to be increased, I
was told, not only in advance of the public, but in
advance of the stockholders themselves.
All such information I held in confidence even
from my own followers, for it was given me with
SELWYN'S STORY, CONTINUED 209
My next move was to get into national politics.
I became something of a factor at the national con-
vention, by swinging Pennsylvania's vote at a criti-
cal time ; the result being the nomination of the now
President, consequently my relations with him were
The term of the senior Senator from our State
was about to expire, and, although he was well ad-
vanced in years, he desired re-election.
I decided to take his seat for myself, so I asked
the President to offer him an ambassadorship. He
did not wish to make the change, but when he under-
stood that it was that or nothing, he gracefully ac-
quiesced in order that he might be saved the humilia-
tion of defeat.
When he resigned, the Governor offered me the
appointment for the unexpired term. It had only
three months to run before the legislature met to
elect his successor.
I told him that I could not accept until I had con-
ferred with my friends. I had no intention of re-
fusing, but I wanted to seem to defer to the judg-
ment of my lieutenants.
I called them to the capital singly, and explained
that I could be of vastly more service to the organi-
210 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
zation were I at Washington, and I arranged with
them to convert the rank and file to this view.
Each felt that the weight of my decision rested
upon himself, and their vanity was greatly pleased.
I was begged not to renounce the leadership, and
after persuasion, this I promised not to do.
As a matter of fact, it was never my intention to
release my hold upon the State, thus placing myself
in another's power.
So I accepted the tender of the Senatorship, and
soon after, when the legislature met, I was elected
for the full term.
I was in as close touch with my State at Wash-
ington as I was before, for I spent a large part of
my time there.
I was not in Washington long before I found that
the Government was run by a few men; that out-
side of this little circle no one was of much impor-
It was my intention to break into it if possible,
and my ambition now leaped so far as to want, not
only to be of it, but later, to be IT.
I began my crusade by getting upon confidential
terms with the President.
One night, when we were alone in his private study,
SELWYN'S STORY, CONTINUED
I told him of the manner and completeness of my
organization in Pennsylvania. I could see he was
deeply impressed. He had been elected by an un-
comfortably small vote, and he was, I knew, looking
for someone to manage the next campaign, provided
he again received the nomination.
The man who had done this work in the last elec-
tion was broken in health, and had gone to Europe
for an indefinite stay.
The President questioned me closely, and ended
by asking me to undertake the direction of his com-
paign for re-nomination, and later to manage the
campaign for his election in the event he was again
the party's candidate.
I was flattered by the proffer, and told him so,
but I was guarded in its acceptance. I wanted him
to see more of me, hear more of my methods and to
become, as it were, the suppliant.
This condition was soon brought about, and I en-
tered into my new relations with him under the most
If I had readily acquiesced he would have as-
sumed the air of favoring me, as it was, the rule was
He was overwhelmingly nominated and re-elected,
PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
and for the result he generously gave me full credit.
I was now well within the charmed circle, and
within easy reach of my further desire to have no
rivals. This came about naturally and without
The interests, of course, were soon groveling at
my feet, and, heavy as my demands were, I some-
times wondered like Clive at my own moderation.
The rest of my story is known to you. I had
tightened a nearly invisible coil around the people,
which held them fast, while the interests despoiled
them. We overdid it, and you came with the con-
science of the great majority of the American peo-
ple back of you, and swung the Nation again into
the moorings intended by the Fathers of the Repub-
When Selwyn had finished, the fire had burned
low, and it was only now and then that his face was
lighted by the flickering flames revealing a sadness
that few had ever seen there before.
Perhaps he saw in the dying embers something
typical of his life as it now was. Perhaps he longed
to recall his youth and with it the strength, the
SELWYN'S STORY, CONTINUED
nervous force and the tireless thought that he had
used to make himself what he was.
When life is so nearly spilled as his, things are
measured differently, and what looms large in the
beginning becomes but the merest shadow when the
race has been run.
As he contemplated the silent figure, Philip Dru
felt something of regret himself, for he now knew
the groundwork of the man, and he was sure that
under other conditions, a career could have been
wrought more splendid than that of any of his
THE COTTON CORNER
IN modeling the laws, Dru called to the attention
of those boards that were doing that work, the
so-called " loan sharks," and told them to deal
with them with a heavy hand. By no sort of sub-
terfuge were they to be permitted to be usurious.
By their nefarious methods of charging the maxi-
mum legal rate of interest and then exacting a com-
mission for monthly renewals of loans, the poor and
the dependent were oftentimes made to pay several
hundred per cent, interest per annum. The crimi-
nal code was to be invoked and protracted terms in
prison, in addition to fines, were to be used against
He also called attention to a lesser, though seri-
ous, evil, of the practice of farmers, mine-owners,
lumbermen and other employers of ignorant labor, of
making advances of food, clothing and similar neces-
sities to their tenants or workmen, and charging
them extortionate prices therefor, thus securing the
THE COTTON CORNER 215
use of their labor at a cost entirely incommensurate
with its value.
Stock, cotton and produce exchanges as then
conducted came under the ban of the Administrator's
displeasure, and he indicated his intention of re-
forming them to the extent of prohibiting, under
penalty of fine and imprisonment, the selling either
short or long, stocks, bonds, commodities of what-
soever character, or anything of value.
Banks, corporations or individuals lending money
to any corporation or individual whose purpose it
was known to be to violate this law, should be
deemed as guilty as the actual offender and should
be as heavily punished.
An immediate enforcement of this law was made
because, just before the Revolution, there was car-
ried to a successful conclusion a gigantic but in-
iquitous cotton corner. Some twenty or more ad-
venturous millionaires, led by one of the boldest
speculators of those times, named Hawkins, planned
and succeeded in cornering cotton.
It seemed that the world needed a crop of 16,-
000,000 bales, and while the yield for the year was
uncertain it appeared that the crop would run to
that figure and perhaps over. Therefore, prices
216 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
were low and spot-cotton was selling around eight
cents, and futures for the distant months were not
By using all the markets and exchanges and by
exercising much skill and secrecy, Hawkins suc-
ceeded in buying two million bales of actual cotton,
and ten million bales of futures at an approximate
average of nine and a half cents. He had the ac-
tual cotton stored in relatively small quantities
throughout the South, much of it being on the farms
and at the gins where it was bought. Then, in
order to hide his identity, he had incorporated a
company called " The Farmers' Protective Associ-
Through one of his agents he succeeded in officer-
ing it with well-known Southerners, who knew only
that part of the plan which contemplated an increase
in prices, and were in sympathy with it.
He transferred his spot-cotton to this company,
the stock of which he himself held through his
dummies, and then had his agents burn the entire
two million bales. The burning was done quickly
and with spectacular effect, and the entire commer-
cial world, both in America and abroad, were as-
tounded by the act.
THE COTTON CORNER 217
Once before in isolated instances the cotton
planter had done this, and once the farmers of the
West, discouraged by low prices, had used corn for
fuel. That, however, was done on a small scale.
But to deliberately burn one hundred million dol-
lars worth of property was almost beyond the scope
of the imagination.
The result was a cotton panic, and Hawkins suc-
ceeded in closing out his futures at an average price
of fifteen cents, thereby netting twenty-five dollars a
bale, and making for himself and fellow buccaneers
one hundred and fifty million dollars.
After amazement came indignation at such fright-
ful abuse of concentrated wealth. Those of Wall
Street that were not caught, were open in their ex-
pressions of admiration for Hawkins, for of such
material are their heroes made.
AT the end of the first quarter of the present
century, twenty of the forty-eight States had
Woman Suffrage, and Administrator Dru de-
cided to give it to the Nation. In those twenty
States, as far as he had observed, there had been
no change for the better in the general laws, nor did
the officials seem to have higher standards of ef-
ficiency than in those States that still denied to
women the right to vote, but he noticed that there
were more special laws bearing on the moral and
social side of life, and that police regulation was
better. Upon the whole, Dru thought the result
warranted universal franchise without distinction of
race, color or sex.
He believed that, up to the present time, a gen-
eral franchise had been a mistake and that there
should have been restrictions and qualifications, but
education had become so general, and the condition
UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE 219
of the people had advanced to such an extent, that
it was now warranted.
It had long seemed to Dm absurd that the igno-
rant, and, as a rule, more immoral male, should have
such an advantage over the educated, refined and
intelligent female. Where laws discriminated at all,
it was almost always against rather than in favor of
women ; and this was true to a much greater extent in
Europe and elsewhere than in the United States.
Dm had a profound sympathy for the effort women
were making to get upon an equality with men in the
race for life: and he believed that with the franchise
would come equal opportunity and equal pay for the
America, he hoped, might again lead in the uplift
of the sex, and the example would be a distinct gain
to women in those less forward countries where they
were still largely considered as inferior to and some-
what as chattels to man.
Then, too, Dru had an infinite pity for the de-
pendent and submerged life of the generality of
women. Man could ask woman to mate, but women
were denied this privilege, and, even when mated,
oftentimes a life of never ending drudgery followed.
Dru believed that if women could ever become
220 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
economically independent of man, it would, to a large
degree, mitigate the social evil.
They would then no longer be compelled to marry,
or be a charge upon unwilling relatives or, as in
desperation they sometimes did, lead abandoned
A NEGATIVE GOVERNMENT
UPON assuming charge of the affairs of the
Republic, the Administrator had largely
retained the judiciary as it was then consti-
tuted, and he also made but few changes in the per-
sonnel of State and Federal officials, therefore there
had, as yet, been no confusion in the public's busi-
ness. Everything seemed about as usual, further
than there were no legislative bodies sitting, and the
function of law making was confined to one indi-
vidual, the Administrator himself.
Before putting the proposed laws into force, he
wished them thoroughly worked out and digested.
In the meantime, however, he was constantly placing
before his Cabinet and Commissioners suggestions
looking to the betterment of conditions, and he di-
rected that these suggestions should be molded into
law. In order that the people might know what
further measures he had in mind for their welfare,
222 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
other than those already announced, he issued the
" It is my purpose," said he, " not to give to you
any radical or ill-digested laws. I wish rather to cull
that which is best from the other nations of the earth,
and let you have the benefit of their thought and ex-
perience. One of the most enlightened foreign
students of our Government has rightly said that
' America is the most undemocratic of democratic
countries. 9 We have been living under a Govern-
ment of negation, a Government with an executive
with more power than any monarch, a Government
having a Supreme Court, clothed with greater au-
thority than any similar body on earth; therefore,
we have lagged behind other nations in democracy.
Our Government is, perhaps, less responsive to the
will of the people than that of almost any of the
civilized nations. Our Constitution and our laws
served us well for the first hundred years of our ex-
istence, but under the conditions of to-day they are
not only obsolete, but even grotesque. It is nearly
impossible for the desires of our people to find ex-
pression into law. In the latter part of the last cen-
tury many will remember that an income tax was
A NEGATIVE GOVERNMENT
wanted. After many vicissitudes, a measure em-
bodying that idea was passed by both Houses of
Congress and was signed by the Executive. But
that did not give to us an income tax. The Supreme
Court found the law unconstitutional, and we have
been vainly struggling since to obtain relief.
" If a well-defined majority of the people of Eng-
land, of France, of Italy or of Germany had wanted
such a law they could have gotten it with reasonable
celerity. Our House of Representatives is sup-
posed to be our popular law-making body, and yet
its members do not convene until a year and one
month from the time they are elected. No matter
how pressing the issue upon which a majority of
them are chosen, more than a year must elapse before
they may begin their endeavors to carry out the will
of the people. When a bill covering the question
at issue is finally introduced in the House, it is re-
ferred to a committee, and that body may hold it at
" If, in the end, the House should pass the bill,
that probably becomes the end of it, for the Senate
may kill it.
" If the measure passes the Senate it is only after
PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
it has again been referred to a committee and then
back to a conference committee of both Senate and
House, and returned to each for final passage.
" When all this is accomplished at a single ses-
sion, it is unusually expeditious, for measures, no
matter how important, are often carried over for
" If it should at last pass both House and Senate
there is the Executive veto to be considered. If,
however, the President signs the bill and it becomes
a law, it is perhaps but short-lived, for the Supreme
Court is ever present with its Damoclean sword.
" These barriers and interminable delays have
caused the demand for the initiative, referendum
and recall. That clumsy weapon was devised in
some States largely because the people were becom-
ing restless and wanted a more responsive Govern-
" I am sure that I shall be able to meet your
wishes in a much simpler way, and yet throw suffi-
cient safeguards around the new system to keep it
from proving hurtful, should an attack of political
hysteria overtake you.
" However, there has never been a time in our his-
tory when a majority of our people have not thought
A NEGATIVE GOVERNMENT
right on the public questions that came before them,
and there is no reason to believe that they will think
" The interests want a Government hedged with
restrictions, such as we have been living under, and
it is easy to know why, with the example of the last
administration fresh in the minds of all.
" A very distinguished lawyer, once Ambassador
to Great Britain, is reported as saying on Lincoln's
birthday : * The Constitution is an instrument de-
signedly drawn by the founders of this Government
providing safeguards to prevent any inroads by pop-
ular excitement or frenzy of the moment.' And
later in the speech he says : * But I have faith in
the sober judgment of the American people, that
they will reject these radical changes, etc.'
" If he had faith in the sober judgment of the
American people, why not trust them to a measur-
able extent with the conduct of their own affairs?
" The English people, for a century or more, have
had such direction as I now propose that you shall
have, and for more than half a century the French
people have had like power. They have in no way
abused it, and yet the English and French Electorate
surely are not more intelligent, or have better self-
226 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
control, or more sober judgment than the American
" Another thing to which I desire your attention
called is the dangerous power possessed by the Pres-
ident in the past, but of which the new Constitution
will rob him.
" The framers of the old Constitution lived in an
atmosphere of autocracy and they could not know,
as we do now, the danger of placing in one man's
hands such enormous power, and have him so far
from the reach of the people, that before they could
dispossess him he might, if conditions were favorable,
establish a dynasty.
" It is astounding that we have allowed a century
and a half go by without limiting both his term and
" In addition to giving you a new Constitution and
laws that will meet existing needs, there are many
other things to be done, some of which I shall briefly
outline. I have arranged to have a survey made of
the swamp lands throughout the United States.
From reliable data which I have gathered, I am con-
fident that an area as large as the State of Ohio can
be reclaimed, and at a cost that will enable the Gov-
ernment to sell it to home-seekers for less than one-
A NEGATIVE GOVERNMENT
fourth what they would have to pay elsewhere for
" Under my personal direction, I am having pre-
pared an old-age pension law and also a laborers' /
insurance law, covering loss in cases of illness, in-
capacity and death.
" I have a commission working on an efficient co-
operative system of marketing the products of small
farms and factories. The small producers through-
out America are not getting a sufficient return for
their products, largely because they lack the facili-
ties for marketing them properly. By cooperation
they will be placed upon an equal footing with the
large producers and small investments that hereto-
fore have given but a meager return will become
" I am also planning to inaugurate cooperative
loan societies in every part of the Union, and I have \J
appointed a commissioner to instruct the people as
to their formation and conduct and to explain their
" In many parts of Europe such societies have
reached very high proficiency, and have been the
means of bringing prosperity to communities that
before their establishment had gone into decay.
228 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
" Many hundred millions of dollars have been
loaned through these societies and, while only a frac-
tional part of their members would be considered
good for even the smallest amount at a bank, the
losses to the societies on loans to their members
have been almost negligible; less indeed than regular
bankers could show on loans to their clients. And
yet it enables those that are almost totally without
capital to make a fair living for themselves and fam-
" It is my purpose to establish bureaus through
the congested portions of the United States where
men and women in search of employment can regis-
ter and be supplied with information as to where
and what kind of work is obtainable. And if no
work is to be had, I shall arrange that every indigent
,. / person that is honest and industrious shall be given
employment by the Federal, State, County or Mu-
nicipal Government as the case may be. Further-
more, it shall in the future be unlawful for any em-
ployer of labor to require more than eight hours
work a day, and then only for six days a week. Con-
ditions as are now found in the great manufacturing
centers where employes are worked twelve hours a
A NEGATIVE GOVERNMENT
day, seven days in the week, and receive wages in-
adequate for even an eight hour day shall be no
" If an attempt is made to reduce wages because
of shorter hours or for any other cause, the em-
ploye shall have the right to go before a magistrate
and demand that the amount of wage be adjusted
there, either by the magistrate himself or by a jury
if demanded by either party.
" Where there are a large number of employes af-
fected, they can act through their unions or socie-
ties, if needs be, and each party at issue may select
an arbitrator and the two so chosen may agree upon
a third, or they may use the courts and juries, as
may be preferred.
" This law shall be applicable to women as well
as to men, and to every kind of labor. I desire to
make it clear that the policy of this Government is
that every man or woman who desires work shall
have it, even if the Government has to give it, and I
wish it also understood that an adequate wage must
be paid for labor.
" Labor is no longer to be classed as an inert com-
modity to be bought and sold by the law of supply
230 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
and demand, but the human equation shall hereafter
be the commanding force in all agreements between
man and capital.
66 There is another matter to which I shall give my
earnest attention and that is the reformation of the
study and practice of medicine. It is well known
that we are far behind England, Germany and
France in the protection of our people from incompe-
tent physicians and quackery. There is no more
competent, no more intelligent or advanced men in
the world than our American physicians and surgeons
of the first class.
" But the incompetent men measurably drag down
the high standing of the profession. A large part
of our medical schools and colleges are entirely unfit
for the purposes intended, and each year they grant
diplomas to hundreds of ignorant young men and
women and license them to prey upon a more or less
" The number of physicians per inhabitant is al-
ready ridiculously large, many times more than is
needful, or than other countries where the average of
the professions ranks higher, deem necessary.
" I feel sure that the death list in the United States
A NEGATIVE GOVERNMENT
from the mistakes of these incompetents is simply
" I shall create a board of five eminent men, two of
whom shall be physicians, one shall be a surgeon, one
a scientist and the other shall be a great educator,
and to this board I shall give the task of formulating
a plan by which the spurious medical colleges and
medical men can be eradicated from our midst.
" I shall call the board's attention to the fact that
it is of as much importance to have men of fine
natural ability as it is to give them good training,
and, if it is practicable, I shall ask them to require
some sort of adequate mental examination that will
measurably determine this.
" I have a profound admiration for the courage,
the nobility and philanthropy of the profession as
a whole, and I do not want its honor tarnished by
those who are mercenary and unworthy.
" In conclusion I want to announce that pensions
will be given to those who fought on either side in
the late war without distinction or reservation.
However, it is henceforth to be the policy of this
Government, so far as I may be able to shape it,
that only those in actual need of financial aid shall
THILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
receive pensions and to them it shall be given,
whether they have or have not been disabled in con-
sequence of their services to the nation. But to
offer financial aid to the rich and well to do, is to
offer an insult, for it questions their patriotism.
Although the first civil war was ended over sixty
years ago, yet that pension roll still draws heavily
upon the revenue of the Nation. Its history has
been a rank injustice to the noble armies of Grant
and his lieutenants, the glory of whose achievements
is now the common heritage of a United Country."
A DEPARTURE IN BATTLESHIPS
DRU invited the Strawns to accompany him to
Newport News to witness the launching of a
new type of battleship. It was said to be,
and probably was, impenetrable. Experts who
had tested a model built on a large scale had de-
clared that this invention would render obsolete
every battleship in existence. The principle was
this: Running back from the bow for a distance of
60 feet only about 4< feet of the hull showed above
the water line, and this part of the deck was con-
caved and of the smoothest, hardest steel. Then
came several turreted sections upon which guns were
mounted. Around these turrets ran rims of pol-
ished steel, two feet in width and six inches thick.
These rims began four feet from the water line ancl
ran four feet above the level of the turret decks.
The rims were so nicely adjusted with ball bearings
that the smallest blow would send them spinning
234 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
around, therefore a shell could not penetrate be-
cause it would glance off.
Although the trip to the Newport News Dock
yards was made in a Navy hydroaeroplane it took
several hours, and Gloria used the occasion to urge
upon Dru the rectification of some abuses of which
she had special knowledge.
" Philip," she said, " when I was proselytizing
among the rich, it came to me to include the employer
of women labor. I found but few who dissented
from my statement of facts, but the answer was that
trade conditions, the demand of customers for
cheaper garments and articles, made relief imprac-
ticable. Perhaps their profits are on a narrow
basis, Philip; but the volume of their business is
the touchstone of their success, for how otherwise
could so many become millionaires? Just what the
remedy is I do not know, but I want to give you the
facts so that in recasting the laws you may plan
something to alleviate a grievous wrong."
" It is strange, Gloria, how often your mind and
mine are caught by the same current, and how they
drift in the same direction. It was only a few days
ago that I picked up one of 0. Henry's books. In
his ' Unfinished Story ' he tells of a man who
A DEPARTURE IN BATTLESHIPS 2S5
dreamed that he died and was standing with a crowd
of prosperous looking angels before Saint Peter,
when a policeman came up and taking him by the
wing asked: ' Are you with that bunch? *
" * Who are they ? ' asked the man.
" * Why,' said the policeman, ' they are the men
who hired working girls and paid 'em five or six dol-
lars a week to live on. Are you one of the bunch ? '
" * Not on your immortality,' answered the man.
4 I'm only the fellow who set fire to an orphan asylum,
and murdered a blind man for his pennies.'
" Some years ago when I first read that story, I
thought it was humor, now I know it to be pathos.
Nothing, Gloria, will give me greater pleasure than
to try to think out a solution to this problem, and
undertake its application."
Gloria then gave more fully the conditions gov-
erning female labor. The unsanitary surround-
ings, the long hours and the inadequate wage, the
statistics of refuge societies showed, drove an appall-
ing number of women and girls to the streets. No
matter how hard they worked they could not earn
sufficient to clothe and feed themselves properly.
After a deadly day's work, many of them found
stimulants of various kinds the cheapest means of
236 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
bringing comfort to their weary bodies and hope-
lost souls, and then the next step was the beginning
of the end.
By now they had come to Newport News and the
launching of the battleship was made as Gloria
christened her Columbia. After the ceremonies
were over it became necessary at once to return
to Washington, for at noon of the next day there
was to be dedicated the Colossal Arch of Peace.
Ten years before, the Government had undertaken
this work and had slowly executed it, carrying out
the joint conception of the foremost architect in
America and the greatest sculptor in the world.
Strangely enough, the architect was a son of New
England, and the Sculptor was from and of the
Upon one face of the arch were three heroic
figures. Lee on the one side, Grant on the other,
with Fame in the center, holding out a laurel wreath
with either hand to both Grant and Lee. Among
the figures clustered around and below that of Grant,
were those of Sherman, Sheridan, Thomas and Han-
cock, and among those around and below that of
Lee, were Stonewall Jackson, the two Johnstons,
Forrest, Pickett and Beauregard. Upon the other
A DEPARTURE IN BATTLESHIPS 237
face of the arch there was in the center a heroic
figure of Lincoln and gathered around him on either
side were those Statesmen of the North and South
who took part in that titanic civil conflict that came
so near to dividing our Republic.
Below Lincoln's figure was written : ?< With
malice towards none, with charity for all." Below
Grant, was his dying injunction to his fellow coun-
trymen : " Let us have peace." But the silent and
courtly Lee left no message that would fit his gigantic
THE NEW NATIONAL CONSTITUTION
BESIDES the laws and reforms already
enumerated, the following is in brief the plan
for the General Government that Philip Dru
outlined and carried through as Administrator of
the Republic, and which, in effect, was made a part
of the new constitution.
1. Every adult citizen of the United States, male
or female, shall have the right to vote, and no
state, county or municipality shall pass a law
or laws infringing upon this right.
. Any alien, male or female, who can read, write
and speak English, and who has resided in the
United States for ten years, may take out
naturalization papers and become a citizen. 1
3. No one shall be eligible for election as Execu-
tive, President, Senator, Representative or
i See Appendix.
NEW NATIONAL CONSTITUTION 239
Judge of any court under the age of twenty-
five years, and who is not a citizen of the
United States. 1
4. No one shall be eligible for any other office,
National or State, who is at the time, or who
has been within a period of five years preced-
ing, a member of any Senate or Court. 2
1. The several states shall be divided into dis-
tricts of three hundred thousand inhabitants
each, and each district so divided shall have
one representative, and in order to give the
widest latitude as to choice, there shall be no
restrictions as to residence. 3
. The members of the House of Representatives
shall be elected on the first Tuesday after the
first Monday in November, and shall serve for /
a term of six years, subject to a recall at the V/
end of each two years by a signed petition
embracing one-third of the electorate of the
district from which they were chosen. 4
8. The House shall convene on the first Tuesday
1 See Appendix. 3 See Appendix.
2 See Appendix. * See Appendix.
240 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
after the first Monday in January and shall
never have more than five hundred members. 1
4*. The House of Representatives shall elect a
Speaker whose term of office may be continuous
at the pleasure of the majority. He shall pre-
side over the House, but otherwise his functions
shall be purely formal.
5. The House shall also choose an Executive,
whose duties it shall be, under the direction of
the House, to administer the Government. He
may or may not be at the time of his election
a member of the House, but he becomes an ex-
officio member by virtue thereof.
6. (a) The Executive shall have authority to
select his Cabinet Officers from members of the
House or elsewhere, other than from the Courts
or Senates, and such Cabinet Officers shall by
reason thereof, be ex-officio members of the
(b) Such officials are to hold their positions at
the pleasure of the Executive and the Executive
is to hold his at the pleasure of the majority of
(c) In an address to the House, the Executive
i See Appendix.
NEW NATIONAL CONSTITUTION
shall, within a reasonable time after his selec-
tion, outline his policy of Government, both
domestic and foreign.
(d) He and his Cabinet may frame bills cov-
ering the suggestions made in his address, or
any subsequent address that he may think
proper to make, and introduce and defend
them in the House. Measures introduced by
the Executive or members of his Cabinet are
not to be referred to committees, but are to
be considered by the House as a whole, and
their consideration shall have preference over
measures introduced by other members.
7. All legislation shall originate in the House.
1. The Senate shall consist of one member from
each State, and shall be elected for life, by
direct vote of the people, and shall be subject
to recall by a majority vote of the electors of
his State at the end of any five-year period of
his term. 1
. (a) Every measure passed by the House,
other than those relating solely to the raising
i See Appendix,
PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
of revenue for the current needs of the Gov-
ernment and the expenditure thereof, shall go
to the Senate for approval.
(b) The Senate may approve a measure ty a
majority vote and it then becomes a law, or
they may make such suggestions regarding the
amendment as may seem to them pertinent, and
return it to the House to accept or reject as
they may see fit.
(c) The Senate may reject a measure by a
majority vote. If the Senate reject a meas-
ure, the House shall have the right to dissolve
and go before the people for their decision.
(d) If the country approves the measure by
returning a House favorable to it, then, upon
its passage by the House in the same form as
when rejected ~by the Senate, it shall become a
3. (a) A Senator may be impeached by a ma-
jority vote of the Supreme Court, upon an ac-
tion approved by the House and brought by
the Executive or any member of his Cabinet,
(b) A Senator must retire at the age of sev-
enty years, and he shall be suitably pensioned.
NEW NATIONAL CONSTITUTION
1. The President shall be chosen by a majority
vote of all the electors. His term shall be for
ten years and he shall be ineligible for re-elec-
tion, but after retirement he shall receive a
. His duties shall be almost entirely formal and
3. In the event of a hiatus in the Government from
any source whatsoever, it shall be his duty im-
mediately to call an election, and in the mean-
time act as Executive until the regularly elected
authorities can again assume charge of the
NEW STATE CONSTITUTIONS
TO the States, Administrator Dru gave govern-
ments in all essentials like that of the nation.
In brief the State instruments held the fol-
1. The House of Representatives shall consist of
one member for every fifty thousand inhab-
itants, and never shall exceed a membership of
two hundred in any State.
& Representatives shall be elected for a term of
two years, but not more than one session shall
be held during their tenure of office unless called
in special session by the Speaker of the House
with the approval of the Governor.
3. Representatives shall be elected in November,
and the House shall convene on the first Tues-
day after the first Monday in January to sit
during its own pleasure.
NEW STATE CONSTITUTIONS 245
4. Representatives shall make rules for their self-
government and shall be the general state law
1. The Senate shall be composed of one member
from each congressional district, but there
shall never be less than five nor more than fifty
in any State Senate.
. Senators shall be elected for a term of ten years
subject to recall at the end of each two years,
by petition signed by a majority of the elec-
torate of their district.
3. (a) No legislation shall originate in the Sen-
ate. Its function is to advise as to measures sent
there by the House, to make suggestions and
such amendments as might seem pertinent, and
return the measure to the House, for its final
(b) When a bill is sent to the Senate by the
House, if approved, it shall become a law, if
disapproved, it shall be returned to the House
with the objections stated.
(c) If the House considers a measure of suf-
ficient importance, it may dissolve immediately
246 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
and let the people pass upon it, or they may
wait until a regular election for popular ac-
(d) If the people approve the measure, the
House must enact it In the same form as when
disapproved by the Senate, and it shall then
become a law.
T. (a) The Governor shall be elected by a direct
vote of all the people.
(b) His term of office shall be six years, and
he shall be ineligible for re-election. He shall
be subject to recall at the end of every two
years by a majority vote of the State. 1
'& (a) He shall have no veto power or other con-
trol over legislation, and shall not make any
suggestions or recommendations in regard
(b) His function shall be purely executive.
He may select his own council or fellow com-
missioners for the different governmental de-
partments, and they shall hold their positions
at his pleasure.
i See Appendix.
NEW STATE CONSTITUTIONS 247
(c) All the Governor's appointees shall be con-
firmed by the Senate before they may assume
(d) The Governor may be held strictly ac-
countable by the people for the honest, efficient
and economical conduct of the government, due
allowance being made for the fact that he is
in no way responsible for the laws under which
he must work.
(e) It shall be his duty also to report to the
legislature at each session, giving an account
of his stewardship regarding the enforcement
of the laws, the conduct of the different depart-
ments, etc., etc., and making an estimate for
the financial budget required for the two years
3. (a) There shall be a Pardon Board of three
members who shall pass upon all matters re-
lating to the Penal Service.
(b) This Board shall be nominated by the Gov-
ernor and confirmed by the Senate. After their
confirmation, the Governor shall have no further
jurisdiction over them.
(c) They shall hold office for six years and
shall be ineligible for reappointment.
24*8 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
(d) They shall be subject to removal by the
joint action of the House of Representatives
and the Senate for neglect or failure of duty.
Besides the skeleton outline given of the simplified
National and State Governments, the Administrator
included a number of other provisions which seemed
necessary to meet existing conditions. One of which
was in regard to the civil service in the National,
State, County and Municipal governments. Pri-
marily, every employe of the people was to be sub-
ject to the requirements of the service, but there
were to be no removals except for good and sufficient
cause. Moreover, it was stipulated that reasons for
dismissal must be made public if requested by the
official or employe dismissed.
Dru recommended to the states and municipalities
that they pay their officials sufficiently well to in-
duce men of good ability to accept office. He pointed
out that they could afford to be liberal in compensa-
tion given, because the number of officials would be
greatly reduced, and because the general scheme of
government would be vastly more efficient and eco-
nomical than any which had heretofore been in force.
THE RULE OF THE BOSSES
GENERAL DRU was ever fond of talking to
Senator Selwyn. He found his virile mind
a never-failing source of information. Busy
as they both were they often met and exchanged
In answer to a question from Dru, Selwyn said
that while Pennsylvania and a few other States had
been more completely under the domination of bosses
than others, still the system permeated everywhere.
In some States a railroad held the power, but ex-
ercised it through an individual or individuals.
In another State, a single corporation held it,
and yet again, it was often held by a corporate
group acting together. In many States one indi-
vidual dominated public affairs and more often for
good than for evil.
The people simply would not take enough interest
in their Government to exercise the right of control.
Those who took an active interest were used as a
250 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
part of the boss' tools, be he a benevolent one or
" The delegates go to the conventions," said Sel-
wyn, " and think they have something to do with
the naming of the nominees, and the making of the
platforms. But the astute boss has planned all that
far in advance, the candidates are selected and the
platform written and both are * forced ' upon the un-
suspecting delegate, much as the card shark forced
his cards upon his victim. It is all seemingly in the
open and above the boards, but as a matter of fact
quite the reverse is true.
" At conventions it is usual to select some man who
has always been honored and respected, and elect
him chairman of the platform committee. He is
pleased with the honor and is ready to do the bidding
of the man to whom he owes it.
" The platform has been read to him and he has
been committed to it before his appointment as chair-
man. Then a careful selection is made of dele-
gates from the different senatorial districts and a
good working majority of trusted followers is obtained
for places on the committee. Someone nominates
for chairman the * honored and respected ' and he is
THE RULE OF THE BOSSES 251
" Another member suggests that the committee,
as it stands, is too unwieldy to draft a platform, and
makes a motion that the chairman be empowered to
appoint a sub-committee of five to outline one and
submit it to the committee as a whole.
" The motion is carried and the chairman ap-
points five of the ' tried and true.' There is then an
adjournment until the sub-committee is ready to re-
" The five betake themselves to a room in some
hotel and smoke, drink and swap stories until
enough time has elapsed for a proper platform to be
" They then report to the committee as a whole
and, after some wrangling by the uninitiated, the plat-
form is passed as the boss has written it without the
addition of a single word.
" Sometimes it is necessary to place upon the sub-
committee a recalcitrant or two. Then the method
is somewhat different. The boss' platform is cut into
separate planks and first one and then another of the
faithful offers a plank, and after some discussion a
majority of the committee adopt it. So when the
sub-committee reports back there stands the boss'
handiwork just as he has constructed it.
PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
" Oftentimes there is no subterfuge, but the con-
vention, as a whole, recognizes the pre-eminent ability
of one man amongst them, and by common consent
he is assigned the task."
Selwyn also told Dru that it was often the prac-
tice among corporations not to bother themselves
about state politics further than to control the Sen-
This smaller body was seldom more than one^
fourth as large as the House, and usually contained
not more than twenty-five or thirty members.
Their method was to control a majority of the
Senate and let the House pass such measures as it
pleased, and the Governor recommend such laws
as he thought proper. Then the Senate would
promptly kill all legislation that in any way touched
Still another method which was used to advantage
by the interests where they had not been vigilant in
the protection of their " rights," and when they had
no sure majority either in the House or Senate and
no influence with the Governor, was to throw what
strength they had to the stronger side in the fac-
tional fights that were always going on in every
State and in every legislature.
THE RULE OF THE BOSSES 253
Actual money, Selwyn said, was now seldom given
in the relentless warfare which the selfish interests
were ever waging against the people, but it was in-
trigue, the promise of place and power, and the ever
effectual appeal to human vanity.
That part of the press which was under corporate
control was often able to make or destroy a man's
legislative and political career, and the weak and the
vain and the men with shifty consciences, that the
people in their fatuous indifference elect to make their
laws, seldom fail to succumb to this subtle influence.
ONE CAUSE OP THE HIGH COST OF UVING
IN one of their fireside talks, Selwyn told Dm
that a potential weapon in the hands of those
who had selfish purposes to subserve, was the
long and confusing ballot.
" Whenever a change is suggested by which it can
be shortened, and the candidates brought within easy
review of the electorate, the objection is always
raised," said Selwyn, " that the rights of the people
are being invaded.
" 6 Let the people rule,' is the cry, 5 * he said, " and
the unthinking many believing that democratic gov-
ernment is being threatened, demand that they be
permitted to vote for every petty officer.
" Of course quite the reverse is true," continued
Selwyn, " for when the ballot is filled with names of
candidates running for general and local offices,
there is, besides the confusion, the usual trading. As
a rule, interest centers on the local man, and there is
THE HIGH COST OF LIVING 255
less scrutiny of those candidates seeking the more
" While I had already made up my mind," said
Dru, " as to the short ballot and a direct accounta-
bility to the people, I am glad to have you confirm
the correctness of my views."
" You may take my word for it, General Dru, that
the interests also desire large bodies of law makers
instead of few. You may perhaps recall how vigor-
ously they opposed the commission form of govern-
ment for cities.
" Under the old system when there was a large
council, no one was responsible. If a citizen had
a grievance, and complained to his councilman, he
was perhaps truthfully told that he was not to blame.
He was sent from one member of the city government
to the other, and unable to obtain relief, in sheer
desperation, he gave up hope and abandoned his ef-
fort for justice. But under the commission form of
government, none of the officials can shirk respon-
sibility. Each is in charge of a department, and if
there is inefficiency, it is easy to place the blame
where it properly belongs.
" Under such a system the administration of public
affairs becomes at once, simple, direct and business-
256 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
like. If any outside corrupt influences seek to creep
in, they are easy of detection and the punishment can
be made swift and certain."
" I want to thank you again, Senator Selwyn,
" for the help you have been to me in giving me the
benefit of your ripe experience in public affairs,"
said Dru, " and there is another phase of the sub-
ject that I would like to discuss with you. I have
thought long and seriously how to overcome the fix-
ing of prices by individuals and corporations, and
how the people may be protected from that form of
" When there is a monopoly or trust, it is easy to
locate the offense, but it is a different proposition
when one must needs deal with a large number of
corporations and individuals, who, under the guise
of competition, have an understanding, both as to
prices and territory to be served.
" For instance, the coal dealers, at the beginning
of winter, announce a fixed price for coal. If there
are fifty of them and all are approached, not one of
them will vary his quotation from the other forty-
nine. If he should do so, the coal operators would
be informed and the offending dealer would find, by
some pretext or another, his supply cut off.
THE HIGH COST OF LIVING 257
" We see the same condition regarding large sup-
ply and manufacturing concerns which cover the
country with their very essential products. A keen
rivalry is apparent, and competitive bids in sealed
envelopes are made when requested, but as a matter
of fact, we know that there is no competition. Can
you give me any information upon this matter ? "
" There are many and devious ways by which the
law can be evaded and by which the despoliation of
the public may be accomplished," said Selwyn.
" The representatives of those large business con-
cerns meet and a map of the United States is spread
out before them. This map is regarded by them
very much as if it were a huge pie that is to be di-
vided according to the capacity of each to absorb and
digest his share. The territory is not squared off,
that is, taking in whole sections of contiguous coun-
try, but in a much more subtle way, so that the de-
lusion of competition may be undisturbed. When sev-
eral of these concerns are requested to make prices,
they readily comply and seem eager for the order.
The delusion extends even to their agents, who are
as innocent as the would-be purchaser of the real
conditions, and are doing their utmost to obtain the
business. The concern in whose assigned territory
258 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
the business originates, makes the price and informs
its supposed rivals of its bid, so that they may each
make one slightly higher."
" Which goes to show," said Dru, " how easy it
is to exploit the public when there is harmony among
the exploiters. There seems to me to be two evils
involved in this problem, Senator Selwyn, one is the
undue cost to the people, and the other, but lesser,
evil, is the protection of incompetency.
" It is not the survival of the fittest, but an ex-
cess of profits, that enables the incompetent to live
After a long and exhaustive study of this prob-
lem, the Administrator directed his legal advisers to
incorporate his views into law.
No individual as such, was to be permitted to deal
in what might be termed products of the natural re-
sources of the country, unless he subjected himself
to all the publicity and penalties that would accrue
to a corporation, under the new corporate regula-
Corporations, argued Dru, could be dealt with
under the new laws in a way that, while fair to them,
would protect the public. In the future, he reminded
his commission, there would be upon the directo-
THE HIGH COST OF LIVING 259
rates a representative of either the National, State,
or Municipal governments, and the books, and every
transaction, would be open to the public. This would
apply to both the owner of the raw material, be it
mine, forest, or what not, as well as to the corpora-
tion or individual who distributed the marketable
It was Dru's idea that public opinion was to be
invoked to aid in the task, and district attorneys
and grand juries, throughout the country, were to
be admonished to do their duty. If there was a
fixity of prices in any commodity or product, or even
approximately so, he declared, it would be prima
facie evidence of a combination.
In this way, the Administrator thought the evil
of pools and trust agreements could be eradicated,
and a healthful competition, content with reasonable
profits, established. If a single corporation, by its
extreme efficiency, or from unusual conditions, should
constitute a monopoly so that there was practically
no competition, then it would be necessary, he thought,
for the Government to fix a price reasonable to all
Therefore it was not intended to put a limit on
the size or the comprehensiveness of any corpora-
260 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
tion, further than that it should not stifle competi-
tion, except by greater efficiency in production and
distribution. If this should happen, then the peo-
ple and the Government would be protected by pub-
licity, by their representative on the board of direct-
ors and by the fixing of prices, if necessary.
It had been shown by the career of one of the
greatest industrial combinations that the world has
yet known, that there was a limit where size and
inefficiency met. The only way that this corpora-
tion could maintain its lead was through the devious
paths of relentless monopoly.
Dru wanted America to contend for its share of
the world's trade, and to enable it to accomplish this,
he favored giving business the widest latitude con-
sistent with protection of the people.
When he assumed control of the Government, one
of the many absurdities of the American economic
system was the practical inhibition of a merchant
marine. While the country was second to none in the
value and quantity of production, yet its laws were so
framed that it was dependent upon other nations for
its transportation by sea; and its carrying trade was
in no way commensurate with the diginity of the coast
line and with the power and wealth of the Nation.
AT about this time the wife of one of the Cabi-
net officers died, and Administrator Dru at-
tended the funeral. There was an unusually,
large gathering, but it was plain that most of those
who came did so from morbid curiosity. The poig-
nant grief of the bereaved husband and children
wrung the heartstrings of their many sympathetic
friends. The lowering of the coffin, the fall of the
dirt upon its cover, and the sobs of those around the
grave, was typical of such occasions.
Dru was deeply impressed and shocked, and he
thought to use his influence towards a reformation
of such a cruel and unnecessary form of burial.
When the opportunity presented itself, he directed
attention to the ob j ections to this method of disposing
of the dead, and he suggested the formation in every
community of societies whose purpose should be to
use their* influence towards making interments pri-
vate, and towards the substitution of cremation for
PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
the unsanitary custom of burial in cemeteries. These
societies were urged to point out the almost pro-
hibitive expense the present method entailed upon
the poor and those of moderate means. The buying
of the lot and casket, the cost of the funeral itself,
and the discarding of useful clothing in order to
robe in black, were alike unnecessary. Some less
dismal insignia of grief should be adopted, he said,
that need not include the entire garb. Grief, he
pointed out, and respect for the dead, were in no
way better evidenced by such barbarous customs.
Rumor had it that scandal's cruel tongue was re-
sponsible for this good woman's death. She was
one of the many victims that go to unhappy graves
in order that the monstrous appetite for gossip may
be appeased. If there be punishment after death,
surely, the creator and disseminator of scandal will
come to know the anger and contempt of a righteous
God. The good and the bad are all of a kind to
them. Their putrid minds see something vile in
every action, and they leave the drippings of their evil
tongues wherever they go. Some scandalmongers
are merely stupid and vulgar, while others have a
biting wit that cause them to be feared and hated.
Rumors they repeat as facts, and to speculations
BURIAL REFORM 263
they add what corroborative evidence is needed. The
dropping of the eyelids, the smirk that is so full
of insinuation is used to advantage where it is
more effective than the downright lie. The burglar
and the highwayman go frankly abroad to gather in
the substance of others, and they stand ready to for-
feit both life and liberty while in pursuit of nefarious
gain. Yet it is a noble profession compared with
that of the scandalmonger, and the murderer him-
self is hardly a more objectionable member of so-
ciety than the character assassin.
CHAPTER XL VI
THE WISE DISPOSITION OF A FORTUNE
IN one of their confidential talks, Selwyn told
Dru that he had a fortune in excess of two
hundred million dollars, and that while it was
his intention to amply provide for his immediate
family, and for those of his friends who were in
need, he desired to use the balance of his money in
the best way he could devise to help his fellowmen.
He could give for this purpose, he said, two hun-
dred million dollars or more, for he did not want to
provide for his children further than to ensure their
entire comfort, and to permit them to live on a scale
not measurably different from what they had been
He had never lived in the extravagant manner that
was usual in men of his wealth, and his children had
been taught to expect only a moderate fortune at
his death. He was too wise a man not to know that
one of the greatest burdens that wealth imposed,
was the saving of one's children from its contamina-
WISE DISPOSITION OF A FORTUNE 265
tions. He taught his sons that they were seriously
handicapped by their expectations of even moderate
wealth, and that unless they were alert and vigilant
and of good habits, the boy who was working his
own way upward would soon outstrip them. They
were taught that they themselves, were the natural
objects of pity and parental concern, and not their
seemingly less fortunate brothers.
" Look among those whose parents have wealth
and have given of it lavishly to their children," he
said, " and count how few are valuable members of
society or hold the respect of their fellows.
" On the other hand, look at the successful in every
vocation of life, and note how many have literally
dug their way to success."
The more Dm saw of Selwyn, the better he liked
him, and knowing the inner man, as he then did, the
more did he marvel at his career. He and Selwyn
talked long and earnestly over the proper disposition
of his fortune. They both knew that it was hard to
give wisely and without doing more harm than good.
Even in providing for his friends, Selwyn was none
too sure that he was conferring benefits upon them.
Most of them were useful though struggling mem-
bers of society, but should competency come to them,
266 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
he wondered how many would continue as such.
There was one, the learned head of a comparatively
new educational institution, with great resources ul-
timately behind it. This man was building it on
a sure and splendid foundation, in the hope that
countless generations of youth would have cause to
be grateful for the sagacious energy he was expend-
ing in their behalf.
He had, Selwyn knew, the wanderlust to a large
degree, and the millionaire wondered whether, when
this useful educator's slender income was augmented
by the generous annuity he had planned to give him,
he would continue his beneficent work or become a
dweller in arabs' tents.
In the plenitude of his wealth and generosity, he
had another in mind to share his largess. He was
the orphaned son of an old and valued friend. He
had helped the lad over some rough places, but had
been careful not to do enough to slacken the boy's
own endeavor. The young man had graduated from
one of the best universities, and afterwards at a
medical school that was worthy the name. He was,
at the time Selwyn was planning the disposition of
his wealth, about thirty years old, and was doing
valuable laboratory work in one of the great re-
WISE DISPOSITION OF A FORTUNE 267
search institutions. Gifted with superb health, and
a keen analytical mind, he seemed to have it in him
to go far in his profession, and perhaps be of untold
benefit to mankind.
But Selwyn had noticed an indolent streak in the
young scientist, and he wondered whether here again
he was doing the fair and right thing by placing it
within his power to lead a life of comparative ease
and uselessness. Consequently, Selwyn moved cau-
tiously in the matter of the distribution of his great
wealth, and invoked Dru's aid. It was Dru's super-
normal intellect, tireless energy, and splendid con-
structive ability that appealed to him, and he not
only admired the Administrator above all men, but
he had come to love him as a son. Dru was the only
person with whom Selwyn had ever been in touch
whose advice he valued above his own judgment.
Therefore when the young Administrator suggested
a definite plan of scientific giving, Selwyn gave it
respectful attention at first, and afterwards his en-
CHAPTER XL VII
THE WISE DISPOSITION OF A FORTUNE, CONTINUED
F your fortune were mine, Senator Selwyn,".
said Philip Dru, " I would devote it to the
uplift of women. Their full rights will be
accorded them in time, but their cause could be ac-
celerated by you, and meanwhile untold misery and
unhappiness averted. Man, who is so dependent
upon woman, has largely failed in his duty to her,
not alone as an individual but as a sex. Laws are
enacted, unions formed, and what not done for man's
protection, but the working woman is generally ig-
nored. With your money, and even more with your
ability, you could change for the better the condi-
tion of girlhood and womanhood in every city and
in every factory throughout the land. Largely because
they are unorganized, women are overworked and
underpaid to such an extent that other evils, which
we deplore, follow as a natural sequence. By proper
organization, by exciting public interest and en-
listing the sympathy and active support of the
WISE DISPOSITION OF A FORTUNE 269
humane element, which is to be found in every com-
munity you will be able to bring about better condi-
" If I were you, I would start my crusade in New
York and work out a model organization there, so
that you could educate your coadjutors as to the
best methods, and then send them elsewhere to in-
augurate the movement. Moreover, I would not con-
fine my energies entirely to America, but Europe and
other parts of the world should share its benefits, for
human misery knows no sheltering land.
" In conjunction with this plan, I would carry along
still another. Workingmen have their clubs, their
societies and many places for social gathering, but
the women in most cities have none. As you know,
the great majority of working girls live in tenements,
crowded with their families in a room or two, or they
live in cheap and lonely boarding houses. They have
no chance for recreation after working hours or on
holidays, unless they go to places it would be better to
keep away from. If men wish to visit them, it must
needs be in their bedrooms, on the street, or in some
" How am I to change this condition? " said Sel-
270 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
" In many ways," said Dru. " Have clubs for
them, where they may sing, dance, read, exercise and
have their friends visit them. Have good women
in charge so that the influence will be of the best.
Have occasional plays and entertainments for them,
to which they may each invite a friend, and make such
places pleasanter than others where they might go.
And all the time protect them, and preferably in a
way they are not conscious of. By careful atten-
tion to the reading matter, interesting stories should
be selected each of which would bear its own moral.
Quiet and informal talks by the matron and others
at opportune times, would give them an insight into
the pitfalls around them, and make it more difficult
for the human vultures to accomplish their undoing.
There is no greater stain upon our vaunted civiliza-
tion," continued Dru, " than our failure to protect
; the weak, the unhappy and the abjectly poor of
" Philosophers still treat of it in the abstract, mor-
alists speak of it now and then in an academic way,
but it is a subject generally shunned and thought
" It is only here and there that a big noble-hearted
woman can be found to approach it, and then a
WISE DISPOSITION OF A FORTUNE
Hull House is started, and under its sheltering roof
unreckoned numbers of innocent hearted girls are
saved to bless, at a later day, its patron saint.
" Start Hull Houses, Senator Selwyn, along with
your other plan, for it is all of a kind, and works to
the betterment of woman. The vicious, the evil
minded and the mature sensualist, we will always
have with us, but stretch out your mighty arm, but-
tressed as it is by fabulous wealth, and save from
the lair of the libertines, the innocent, whose only
crime is poverty and a hopeless despair.
" In your propaganda for good," continued Dru,
" do not overlook the education of mothers to the
importance of sex hygiene, so that they may impart
to their daughters the truth, and not let them gather
their knowledge from the streets.
" You may go into this great work, Senator Sel-
wyn, with the consciousness that you are reaching a
condition fraught with more consequence to society
than any other that confronts it, for its ramifications
for evil are beyond belief of any but the sociologist
who has gone to its foundations."
AN INTERNATIONAL COALITION
BUSY as General Dru had been rehabilitating
domestic affairs, he never for a moment neg-
lected the foreign situation. He felt that it
was almost providential that he was in a position to
handle it unhampered, for at no time in our history
were we in such peril of powerful foreign coalition.
Immediately after receiving from Selwyn the infor-
mation concerning the British-German alliance, he
had begun to build, as it were, a fire behind the British
Ministry, and the result was its overthrow. When
the English nation began to realize that a tentative
agreement was being arrived at between their country
on the one hand, and Germany and Japan on the other,
with America as its object of attack, there was a
storm of indignation; and when the new Ministry
was installed the diplomatic machinery was set to
work to undo, as nearly as could be, what their pred-
ecessors had accomplished.
In the meantime, Dru negotiated with them to the
end that England and America were to join hands
AN INTERNATIONAL COALITION 273
in a world wide policy of peace and commercial free-
dom. According to Dru's plan, disarmaments were
to be made to an appreciable degree, custom barriers
were to be torn down, zones of influence clearly de-
fined, and an era of friendly commercial rivalry es-
It was agreed that America should approach Ger-
many and Japan in furtherance of this plan, and
when their consent was obtained, the rest would fol-
Dru worked along these lines with both nations,
using consummate tact and skill. Both Germany
and Japan were offended at the English change of
front, and were ready to listen to other proposals.
To them, he opened up a wide vista of commercial
and territorial expansion, or at least its equivalent.
Germany was to have the freest commercial access to
South America, and she was invited to develop those
countries both with German colonists and German
There was to be no coercion of the governments,
or political control in that territory, but on the other
hand, the United States undertook that there should
be no laws enacted by them to restrain trade, and
that the rights of foreigners should have the fullest
274 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
protection. Dru also undertook the responsibility of
promising that there should be no favoritism shown
by the South and Central American governments,
but that native and alien should stand alike before
the law so far as property rights were concerned.
Germany was to have a freer hand in the countries
lying southeast of her and in Asia Minor. It was
not intended that she should absorb them or infringe
upon the rights as nations, but her sphere of influ-
ence was to be extended over them much the same as
ours was over South America.
While England was not to be restricted in her
trade relations with those countries, still she was
neither to encourage emigration there nor induce cap-
ital to exploit their resources.
Africa and her own colonies were to be her special
fields of endeavor.
In consideration of the United States lifting prac-
tically all custom barriers, and agreeing to keep out
of the Eastern Hemisphere, upholding with her the
peace and commercial freedom of the world, and of
the United States recognizing the necessity of her
supremacy on the seas, England, after having ob-
tained the consent of Canada, agreed to relinquish
her own sphere of political influence over the Do-
AN INTERNATIONAL COALITION 275
minion, and let her come under that of the United
States. Canada was willing that this situation
should be brought about, for her trade conditions
had become interwoven with those of the United
States, and the people of the two countries freely in-
termingled. Besides, since Dru had reconstructed
the laws and constitution of the big republic, they
were more in harmony with the Canadian institutions
Except that the United States were not to appoint
a Governor General, the republic's relations with
Canada were to be much the same as those between
herself and the Mother Country. The American
flag, the American destiny and hers were to be inter-
woven through the coming ages.
In relinquishing this most perfect jewel in her Im-
perial crown, England suffered no financial loss, for
Canada had long ceased to be a source of revenue,
and under the new order of things, the trade rela-
tions between the two would be increased rather than
diminished. The only wrench was the parting with
so splendid a province, throughout which, that noble
insignia of British supremacy, the cross of St.
George, would be forever furled.
Administrator Dru's negotiations with Japan were
PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
no less successful than those with England. He first
established cordial relations with her by announcing
the intention of the United States to give the Phil-
ippines their independence under the protection of
Japan, reserving for America and the rest of the
world the freest of trade relations with the Islands.
Japan and China were to have all Eastern Asia
as their sphere of influence, and if it pleased them
to drive Russia back into Europe, no one would in-
That great giant had not yet discarded the ways
and habits of medievalism. Her people were not be-
ing educated, and she indicated no intention of pre-
paring them for the responsibilities of self govern-
ment, to which they were entitled. Sometimes in his
day dreams, Dru thought of Russia in its vastness,
of the ignorance and hopeless outlook of the people,
and wondered when her deliverance would come.
There was, he knew, great work for someone to do in
that despotic land.
Thus Dru had formulated and put in motion an
international policy, which, if adhered to in good
faith, would bring about the comity of nations, a
lasting and beneficent peace, and the acceptance of
the principle of the brotherhood of man.
GLORIA and Janet Selwyn saw much of one
another in Washington, and Dru was with
them both during those hours he felt neces-
sary for recreation. Janet was ever bubbling over
with fun and unrestrained humor, and was a constant
delight to both Gloria and Dru. Somewhere deep
in her soul there was a serious stratum, but it never
came to the surface. Neither Gloria nor Dru knew
what was passing in those turbulent depths, and
neither knew the silent heartaches when she was alone
and began to take an inventory of her innermost
self. She had loved Dru from the moment she first
saw him at her home in Philadelphia, but with
that her prescience in such matters as only women
have, she knew that nothing more than his friend-
ship would ever be hers. She sometimes felt the bit-
terness of woman's position in such situations. If
Dru had loved her, he would have been free to pay
her court, and to do those things which oftentimes
278 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
awaken a kindred feeling in another. But she was
helpless. An advancement from her would but lessen
his regard, and make impossible that which she most
desired. She often wondered what there was be-
tween Gloria and Dru. Was there an attachment,
an understanding, or was it one of those platonic
friendships created by common interests and a com-
mon purpose? She wished she knew. She was rea-
sonably sure of Gloria. That she loved Dru seemed
to admit of little doubt. But what of him? Did he
love Gloria, or did his love encompass the earth, and
was mankind ever to be his wife and mistress? She
wished she knew. How imperturbable he was!
.Was he to live and die a fathomless mystery? If
he could not be hers, her generous heart plead for
Gloria. She and Gloria often talked of Dru. There
was no fencing between these two. Open and en-
thusiastic admiration of Philip each expressed, but
there were no confidences which revealed their hearts.
Realizing that her love would never be reciprocated,
Janet misled Philip as to her real feelings. One
day when the three were together, she said, " Mr.
Administrator, why don't you marry? It would add
enormously to your popularity and it would keep a
lot of us girls from being old maids." " How would
UNEVEN ODDS 279
it prevent your being an old maid, Janet? " said Dru.
" Please explain." " Why, there are a lot of us that
hope to have you call some afternoon, and ask us
to be Mrs. Dru, and it begins to look to me as if
some of us would be disappointed." Dru laughed
and told her not to give up hope. And then he said
more seriously " Some day when my work here is
done, I shall take your advice if I can find someone
who will marry me." " If you wait too long, Philip,
you will be so old, no one will want you," said Janet.
" I have a feeling, Janet, that somewhere there is a
woman who knows and will wait. If I am wrong,
then the future holds for me many bitter and unhappy
hours." Dru said this with such deep feeling that
both Gloria and Janet were surprised. And Janet
wondered whether this was a message to some un-
known woman, or was it meant for Gloria? She
wished she knew.
THE BROADENING OF THE MONROE DOCTRINE
IN spite of repeated warnings from the United
States, Mexico and the Central American Repub-
lics had obstinately continued their old time habit
of revolutions without just cause, with the result that
they neither had stable governments within them-
selves, nor any hope of peace with each other.
One revolution followed another in quick succes-
sion, until neither life nor property was safe. Eng-
land, Germany and other nations who had citizens and
investments there had long protested to the American
Government, and Dru knew that one of the purposes
of the proposed coalition against the United States
had been the assumption of control themselves.
Consequently, he took active and drastic steps to
bring order out of chaos. He had threatened many
times to police these countries, and he finally pre-
pared to do so.
Other affairs of the Dru administration were run-
ning smoothly. The Army was at a high standard
THE MONROE DOCTRINE 281
of efficiency, and the country was fully ready for
the step when Dm sent one hundred thousand men
to the Rio Grande, and demanded that the American
troops be permitted to cross over and subdue the rev-
olutionists and marauding bandits.
The answer was a coalition of all the opposing
factions and the massing of a large army of defense.
The Central American Republics also joined Mexico,
and hurriedly sent troops north.
General Dru took personal command of the Ameri-
can forces, crossed the Rio Grande at Laredo, and
war was declared. There were a large number of
Mexican soldiers at Monterey, but they fell back in
order to get in touch with the main army below Sal-
General Dru marched steadily on, but before he
came to Saltillo, President Benevides, who com-
manded his own army, moved southward, in order to
give the Central American troops time to reach him.
This was accomplished about fifty miles north of the
City of Mexico. The allies had one hundred thou-
sand men, and the American force numbered sixty
thousand, Dru having left forty thousand at Laredo,
Monterey and Saltillo.
The two armies confronted one another for five
PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
days, General Benevides waiting for the Americans
to attack, while General Dru was merely resting his
troops and preparing them for battle. In the mean-
time, he requested a conference with the Mexican
Commander, and the two met with their staffs mid-
way between the opposing armies.
General Dru urged an immediate surrender, and
fully explained his plans for occupation, so that it
might be known that there was to be no oppression.
He pointed out that it had become no longer possi-
ble for the United States to ignore the disorder that
prevailed in Mexico and those countries south of it,
for if the United States had not taken action, Eu-
rope would have done so. He expressed regret that
a country so favored by God should be so abused
by man, for with peace, order and a just administra-
tion of the government, Mexico and her sister re-
publics, he felt sure, would take a high place in the
esteem of the world. He also said that he had care-
fully investigated conditions, knew where the trouble
lay, and felt sure that the mass of people would wel-
come a change from the unbearable existing condi-
tions. The country was then, and had been for cen-
turies, wrongfully governed by a bureaucracy, and
he declared his belief that the Mexican people as a
THE MONROE DOCTRINE 283
whole believed that the Americans would give them a
greater measure of freedom and protection than they
had ever known before.
Dru further told General Benevides that his army
represented about all there was of opposition to
America's offer of order and liberty, and he asked
him to accept the inevitable, and not sacrifice the lives
of the brave men in both commands.
Benevides heard him with cold but polite silence.
" You do not understand us, Senor Dru, nor that
which we represent. We would rather die or be
driven into exile than permit you to arrange our in-
ternal affairs as you suggest. There are a few fam-
ilies who have ruled Mexico since the first Spanish
occupation, and we will not relinquish our hold until
compelled to do so. At times a Juarez or a Diaz
has attained to the Presidency, but we, the great
families, have been the power behind each adminis-
tration. The peons and canaille that you would edu-
cate and make our political equals, are now where
they rightfully belong, and your endeavors in their
behalf are misplaced and can have no result except
disaster to them. Your great Lincoln emancipated
many millions of blacks, and they were afterwards
given the franchise and equal rights. But can they
284 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
exercise that franchise, and have they equal rights?
You know they have not. You have placed them in
a worse position than they were before. You have
opened a door of hope that the laws of nature for-
bid them to enter. So it would be here. Your the-
ories and your high flown sentiment do you great
credit, but, illustrious Senor, read the pages of your
own history, and do not try to make the same mis-
take again. Many centuries ago the all knowing
Christ advised the plucking of the mote from thine
own eye before attempting to remove it from that of
To this Dru replied : " Your criticism of us is
only partly just. We lifted the yoke from the black
man's neck, but we went too fast in our zeal for his
welfare. However, we have taken him out of a
boundless swamp where under the old conditions he
must have wandered for all time without hope, and
we have placed his feet upon firm ground, and are
leading him with helping hands along the road of
" That, though, Mr. President, is only a part of
our mission to you. Our citizens and those of other
countries have placed in your Republic vast sums
for its development, trusting to your treaty guar-
THE MONROE DOCTRINE 285
antees, and they feel much concern over their in-
ability to operate their properties, not only to the
advantage of your people, but to those to whom they
belong. We of Western Europe and the United
States have our own theories as to the functions
of government, theories that perhaps you fail to
appreciate, but we feel we must not only observe
them ourselves, but try and persuade others to do
" One of these ideas is the maintenance of order,
so that when our hospitable neighbors visit us, they
may feel as to their persons and property, as safe
as if they were at home.
" I am afraid our views are wide apart," con-
cluded Dru, " and I say it with deep regret, for I
wish we might arrive at an understanding without
a clash at arms. I assure you that my visit to you
is not selfish; it is not to acquire territory or for
the aggrandizement of either myself or my country,
but it is to do the work that we feel must be done, and
which you refuse to do."
" Senor Dru," answered Benevides, " it has been a
pleasure to meet you and discuss the ethics of gov-
ernment, but even were I willing to listen to your
proposals, my army and adherents would not, so
286 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
there is nothing we can do except to finish our argu-
ment upon the field of battle."
The interview was therefore fruitless, but Dru
felt that he had done his duty, and he prepared for
the morrow's conflict with a less heavy heart.
THE BATTLE OF LA TUNA
IN the numbers engaged, in the duration and
in the loss of life, the battle of La Tuna was
not important, but its effect upon Mexico and
the Central American Republics was epoch making.
The manner of attack was characteristic of Dru's
methods. His interview with General Benevides had
ended at noon, and word soon ran through the camp
that peace negotiations had failed with the result
that the army was immediately on the alert and
eager for action. Dru did not attempt to stop the
rumor that the engagement would occur at dawn the
next day. By dusk every man was in readiness, but
they did not have to wait until morning, for as soon
as supper was eaten, to the surprise of everyone,
word came to make ready for action and march upon
the enemy. Of Dru's sixty thousand men, twenty
thousand were cavalry, and these he sent to attack
the Mexican rear. They were ordered to move
288 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
quietly so as to get as near to the enemy as possible
before being discovered.
It was not long before the Mexican outposts heard
the marching of men and the rumble of gun car-
riages. This was reported to General Benevides
and he rode rapidly to his front. A general en-
gagement at nightfall was so unusual that he could
not believe the movement meant anything more than
General Dru's intention to draw nearer, so that he
could attack in the morning at closer range.
It was a clear starlight night, and with the aid
of his glasses he could see the dark line coming
steadily on. He was almost in a state of panic
when he realized that a general attack was intended.
He rode back through his lines giving orders in an
excited and irregular way. There was hurry and
confusion everywhere, and he found it difficult to
get his soldiers to understand that a battle was im-
minent. Those in front were looking with a feeling
akin to awe at that solid dark line that was ever
coming nearer. The Mexicans soon began to fire
from behind the breastworks that had been hastily
erected during the few days the armies had been
facing one another, but the shots went wild, doing
but slight damage in the American ranks. Then
THE BATTLE OF LA TUNA
came the order from Dru to charge, and with it
came the Yankee yell. It was indeed no battle at
all. By the time the Americans reached the earth-
works, the Mexicans were in flight, and when the
cavalry began charging the rear, the rout was com-
In the battle of La Tuna, General Benevides
proved himself worthy of his lineage. No general
could have done more to rally his troops, or have
been more indifferent to danger. He scorned to
turn his back upon an enemy, and while trying to
rally his scattered forces, he was captured, badly
Every attention worthy his position was shown the
wounded man. Proud and chivalrous as any of his
race, he was deeply humiliated at the miserable
failure that had been made to repell the invaders
of his country, though keenly touched by the con-
sideration and courtesy shown him by the American
Dru made no spectacular entrance into the city,
but remained outside and sent one of his staff with
a sufficient force to maintain order. In an address
announcing his intentions towards Mexico and her
allies, Dru said " It is not our purpose to annex
290 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
your country or any part of it, nor shall we demand
any indemnity as the result of victory further than
the payment of the actual cost of the war and the
maintenance of the American troops while order is
being restored. But in the future, our flag is to be
your flag, and you are to be directly under the pro-
tection of the United States. It is our purpose to
give to your people the benefits of the most enlight-
ened educational system, so that they may become
fitted for the responsibilities of self-government.
There will also be an equitable plan worked out by
which the land now owned by a few will be owned
by the many. In another generation, this beautiful
land will be teeming with an educated, prosperous
and contented people, who will regard the battlefield
of La Tuna as the birthplace of their redemption.
" Above all things, there shall not be thrust upon
the Mexican people a carpet-bag government. Citi-
zens of Mexico are to enforce the reconstructed con-
stitution and laws, and maintain order with native
troops, although under the protecting arm of the
" All custom duties are to be abolished excepting
those uniform tariffs that the nations of the world
have agreed upon for revenue purposes, and which
THE BATTLE OF LA TUNA 291
in no way restrict the freedom of trade. It is our
further purpose to have a constitution prepared
under the direction and advice of your most patriotic
and wisest men, and which, while modern to the last
degree, will conform to your habits and customs.
" However," he said in conclusion, " it is our pur-
pose to take the most drastic measures against revo-
lutionists, bandits and other disturbers of the peace."
While Dru did not then indicate it, he had in
mind the amalgamation of Mexico and the Central
American Republics into one government, even
though separate states were maintained.
THE UNITY OF THE NORTHERN HALF OF THE WESTERN
HEMISPHERE UNDER THE NEW REPUBLIC
SEVEN years had passed since Philip Dru had
assumed the administration of the Republic.
Seven years of serious work and heavy re-
sponsibility. His tenure of power was about to
close, to close amidst the plaudits of a triumphant
democracy. A Congress and a President had just
been elected, and they were soon to assume the func-
tions of government. For four years the States had
been running along smoothly and happily under
their new constitutions and laws. The courts as
modified and adjusted were meeting every expecta-
tion, and had justified the change. The revenues,
under the new system of taxation, were ample, the
taxes were not oppressive, and the people had quickly
learned the value of knowing how much and for what
they were paying. This, perhaps, more than any
other thing, had awakened their interest in public
UNITY OF THE NEW REPUBLIC 293
The governments, both state and national, were
being administered by able, well-paid men who were
spurred by the sense of responsibility, and by the
knowledge that their constituents were alert and
keenly interested in the result of their endeavors.
Some of the recommendations of the many com-
missions had been modified and others adjusted to
suit local conditions, but as a whole there was a
general uniformity of statutes throughout the Union,
and there was no conflict of laws between the states
and the general government.
By negotiations, by purchase and by allowing
other powers ample coaling stations along the At-
lantic and Pacific coasts, the Bahamas, Bermuda
and the British, French and Danish West Indies
were under American protection, and " Old Glory "
was the undisputed emblem of authority in the
northern half of the Western Hemisphere.
Foreign and domestic affairs were in so satisfac-
tory a condition that the army had been reduced
to two hundred thousand men, and these were broadly
scattered from the Arctic Sea to the Canal at Pan-
ama. Since the flag was so widely flung, that num-
ber was fixed as the minimum to be maintained.
In reducing the army, Dru had shown his confidence
PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
in the loyalty of the people to him and their satis-
faction with the government given them.
Quickened by non-restrictive laws, the Merchant
Marine of the United States had increased by leaps
and bounds, until its tonnage was sufficient for its
own carrying trade and a part of that of other coun-
The American Navy at the close of Philip Dru's
wise administration was second only to that of Eng-
land, and together the two great English speaking
nations held in their keeping the peace and com-
mercial freedom of the Seven Seas.
THE EFFACEMENT OF PHILIP DRTT
IN the years since he had graduated from West
Point General Dru had learned to speak Ger-
man, French and Spanish fluently, and he was
learning with Gloria the language of the Slavs at
odd moments during the closing months of his ad-
ministration. Gloria wondered why he was so intent
upon learning this language, and why he wanted her
also to know it, but she no longer questioned him,
for experience had taught her that he would tell her
when he was ready for her to know.
His labors were materially lightened in these clos-
ing months, and as the time for his retirement drew
near, he saw more and more of Gloria, Discarding
the conventions, they took long rides together, and
more frequently they took a few camp utensils, and
cooked their mid-day meal in the woods. How glad
Gloria was to see the pleasure these excursions gave
him! No man of his age, perhaps of any age, she
thought, had ever been under the strain of so heavy
296 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
a responsibility, or had acquitted himself so well.
She, who knew him best, had never seen him shirk
his duty, nor try to lay his own responsibilities upon
another's shoulders. In the hours of peril to him-
self and to his cause he had never faltered. When
there was a miscarriage of his orders or his plans, no
word of blame came from him if the effort was loyal
and the unhappy agent had given all of his energy
He had met every situation with the fortitude that
knows no fear, and with a wisdom that would cause
him to be remembered as long as history lasts.
And now his life's work was done. How happy
she was ! If he did not love her, she knew he loved
no one else, for never had she known him to be more
than politely pleasant to other women.
One golden autumn day, they motored far into the
hills to the west of Washington. They camped
upon a mighty cliff towering high above the Potomac.
What pleasure they had preparing their simple meal !
It was hard for Gloria to realize that this light-
hearted boy was the serious statesman and soldier
of yesterday. When they had finished they sat in
the warm sunshine on the cliff's edge. The gleaming
river followed its devious course far below them,
EFFACEMENT OF PHILIP DRU 297
parting the wooded hills in the distance. The even*
ing of the year had come, and forest and field had
been touched by the Master's hand. For a long time
they sat silent under the spell that nature had thrown
" I find it essential for the country's good to leave
it for awhile, perhaps forever," said Philip Dru.
" Already a large ma j ority of the newly elected
House have asked me to become the Executive. If
I accepted, there would be those who would believe
that in a little while, I would again assume auto-
cratic control. I would be a constant menace to my
country if I remained within it.
" I have given to the people the best service of
which I was capable, and they know and appreciate
it. Now I can serve them again by freeing them
from the shadow of my presence and my name. I
shall go to some obscure portion of the world where
1 cannot be found and importuned to return.
" There is at San Francisco a queenly sailing
craft, manned and provisioned for a long voyage.
She is waiting to carry me to the world's end if
Then Philip took Gloria's unresisting hand, and
said, " My beloved, will you come with me in my
298 PHILIP DRU: ADMINISTRATOR
exile? I have loved you since the day that you
came into my life, and you can never know how I
have longed for the hour to come when I would be
able to tell you so. Come with me, dear heart, into
this unknown land and make it glad for me. Come
because I am drunken with love of you and cannot go
alone. Come so that the days may be flooded with
joy and at night the stars may sing to me because
you are there. Come, sweet Gloria, come with me."
Happy Gloria! Happy Philip! She did not
answer him. What need was there? How long they
sat neither knew, but the sun was far in the west
and was sending its crimson tide over an enchanted
land when the lovers came back to earth.
Far out upon the waters of San Francisco Bay lay
the graceful yet sturdy Eaglet. The wind had
freshened, the sails were filled, and she was going
swift as a gull through the Golden Gate into a shim-
A multitude of friends, and those that wished them
well, had gathered on the water front and upon the
surrounding hills to bid farewell to Philip Dru and
his bride Gloria.
They watched in silent sadness as long as they
EFFACEMENT OF PHILIP DRU 299
could see the ship's silhouette against the western
sky, and until it faded into the splendid waste of
Where were they bound? Would they return?
These were the questions asked by all, but to which
none could give answer.
WHAT CO-PARTNERSHIP CAN DO
BY EARL GREY
(Governor-General of Canada, 1904-11.)
One of the ablest champions of Co-partnership as
a solution of the industrial problem is Earl Grey.
Below are some remarkable passages from his
presidential address to the Labor Co-partnership
THE problem before us is how to organize our
industry on lines the fairness of which will
be generally admitted. Fairplay is the key-
note of our British character, and I am satisfied, if
employers and employed are properly approached,
that wherever a feeling of mutual sympathetic regard
exists between them they will both be prepared to con-
sider fairly and to meet fully each other's require-
ments. This is the belief on which we build our
hopes of the future greatness of this country. Re-
move this belief and the outlook is one of blackest
WHAT CO-PARTNERSHIP CAN DO 301
Now what is the cause of the wide feeling of labor
unrest? At the same time, while the average stand-
ard of living, as a result of better education, has
been considerably raised and the retail prices of food
have risen 9.3 per cent, since 1900, wages in that
period have only risen 3 per cent. Consequently
the manual workers find themselves in straitened,
pinched, and most distressing circumstances. Their
difficulties have naturally given birth to a general
belief, or at any rate added strength to it, that they
are not receiving their fair share of the wealth their
labor has helped so largely to create. Now, whether
this belief is justified or not, there can be no doubt
of its existence.
LABOR AND CAPITAL IN OPPOSING CAMPS.
The great fact with which we are confronted in
the industries of to-day is that labor and capital
are organized not in one but in opposing camps,
with the object not so much of promoting the com-
mon well-being of all connected with industry as of
securing whatever advantage can be obtained in the
prosecution of their common industry for themselves.
The members of each camp consequently regard each
other with distrust and suspicion. The capitalist is
302 WHAT CO-PARTNERSHIP CAN DO
inclined to give the minimum that is necessary to
secure the labor which he requires, and the worker in
return considers that all that should be required from
him is the minimum of labor which will save him from
Then not only have we to consider the limiting
effect on the efficiency of industry caused by the fact
that capital and labor are ranged not in one but in
opposing camps, but we have also to consider the
effect on the attitude of the men towards the manage-
ment caused by the growing tendency of the small
business to be swallowed up by the large combine.
In such cases the old feeling of mutual affection,
confidence, and esteem, which in the past bound to-
gether employer and employed, has been destroyed,
and it must be obvious that unless we can adopt meth-
ods which will restore in a new, and perhaps in a more
satisfactory manner, the old spirit the efficiency of
industry and the prosperity of the nation will both
If you alter one part of any bit of machinery you
must readjust all the other parts in order to secure
smooth working, and if by substituting big businesses
for small businesses you destroy the old intimate con-
nection which formerly existed between masters and
WHAT CO-PARTNERSHIP CAN DO 303
men, it would appear to be necessary, if you wish to
maintain the old friendly relations between employer
and employed, that you should establish your bus-
iness on lines which will automatically create a feel-
ing of loyalty on the part of all concerned to the
industry with which they are connected.
How is that to be done? By co-partnership.
Now, what is the ideal of co-partnership?
Ideal co-partnership is a system under which
worker and consumer shall share with capitalists in
the profits of industry.
THE SURPLUS PROFITS GO TO" CAPITAL.
Under our present system the whole of the surplus
profits go to capital, and it is the object of capital to
give the worker the least wage for which he will con-
sent to work, and to charge the consumer the highest
price which he can be persuaded to give; conversely
it is the ob j ect of labor to give as little as possible for
the wage received.
Now, that is a system which cannot possibly sat-
isfy the requirements of a civilized and well-organized
society. What we want is a system which will safe-
guard the consumer, and also provide the worker with
a natural, self-compelling inducement to help the in-
304 WHAT CO-PARTNERSHIP CAN DO
dustry with which he is connected. That system is
provided by co-partnership. Co-partnership insists
that the workers have a right to participate in the net
profits that may remain after capital has received its
fixed reward. In a co-partnership business, just as
the reward of labor is fixed by the trade union rate of
wages, so the reward of capital is fixed by the amount
which it is necessary for the industry to give. That
amount will vary corresponding with the security of
the risk attending the industry in question. If the
industry is a safe one, it will be able to obtain the
capital required by giving a small interest ; if the in-
dustry is a risky one, it will be necessary to offer
capital better terms.
Then, if there should be surplus profits available
for division after labor has received its fixed reward
viz., trade union rate of wages and after capital
has received its fixed reward viz., the rate of inter-
est agreed upon as the fair remuneration of capital;
I say if, after these two initial charges have been
met, there should still be left surplus profits to dis-
tribute, that instead of their going exclusively to
capital they should be distributed between labor and
capital on some principle of equity.
The way in which the principle of co-partnership
WHAT CO-PARTNERSHIP CAN DO 305
can be supplied to industrial enterprise admits of in-
finite variety. In some cases the surplus profits are
divided between wages, interest, and custom, in some
cases between wages and custom without any share
going to interest, and on some cases between wages
As an example of a co-partnership industry which
divides all surplus profits that may remain after 5 per
cent, has been paid on capital between custom and
labor, one pound of purchase counting for as much in
the division as one pound of wage, let me refer to the
well-known Hebden Bridge Fustian Works. I com-
mend to all interested in co-partnership questions a
close study of this industry. Started by working men
in 1870, it has built up on lines of permanent success
a flourishing business, and is making sufficient profits
to enable it to divide 9d. in the pound on trade union
rate of wages and the same amount on purchases.
The steady progress of this manufacturing industry
over a period of forty-two years ; the recognition by
trade unionist management of the right of capital to
receive an annual dividend of 5 per cent., and the res-
olute way in which they have written down the capital
of 44,300 invested in land, buildings and machinery
to 14,800, notwithstanding that a less conservative
306 WHAT CO-PARTNERSHIP CAN DO
policy would have increased the sum available for
bonus to wages, all go to show how practicable are co-
partnership principles when they are applied by all
concerned to productive enterprise in the right spirit.
A BRILLIANT EXAMPLE.
I should also like to refer to Mr. Thompson's
woolen mills of Huddersfield, established in 1886, as
another brilliant example of successful co-partner-
ship. It is frequently stated that in an industry
where men are paid by piecework or share in the
profits there is a tendency for the men to over-exert
themselves. Well, in the Thompson Huddersfield
mills there is no piecework, no overtime, only the
weekly wage; no driving is allowed. The hours of
labor are limited to forty-eight per week. The work-
ers are given a whole week's holiday in August, and
in addition they enjoy the benefits of a non-contribu^
tory sick and accident fund, and of a 24s. per week
pension fund. In these mills cloth is made from wool
and wool only, not an ounce of shoddy. Here again
the surplus profits, after the fixed reward of capital
! viz., interest at the rate of 5 per cent, per annum
has been paid, are divided between labor and cus-
tom ; and here again the capital sunk in the mills has
WHAT CO-PARTNERSHIP CAN DO 307
been written down from 8,655 to 1,680. Un-
profitable machinery is scrap-heaped. The mill has
only the best, most up-to-date machinery, and all con-
nected with the works, shareholders and workers, live
together like a happy family.
As an illustration of a co-partnership industry
which divides its surplus profits between wages, in-
terest, and custom, I might point to the gas com-
panies which are being administered on the Livesey
principle, which is now so well known. Since co-
partnership principles were applied to the South
Metropolitan Gas Works in 1899 over 500,000 has
been paid, as their share of the profits, to the credit
of the workers, who also own over 400,000 of the
company's stock. The fact that over 50,000,000
of capital is invested in gas companies administered
on co-partnership principles, which divide surplus
profits between consumers, shareholders, and wage-
earners, encourages us to hope that we may look for-
ward with confidence to the adoption of co-partner-
ship principles by other industries.
As an illustration of a co-partnership industry
which divides its surplus profits between labor and
capital alone, let me refer to the Walsall Padlock
Society, one of the 114 workmen productive societies
308 WHAT CO-PARTNERSHIP CAN DO
which may be regarded as so many different schools of
co-partnership under exclusive trade unionist man-
agement. In this society the rate of interest on share
capital has been fixed at 7% per cent., and should
there be any surplus profit after trade union rate of
wages and the fixed reward of capital, 7% per cent.,
have been paid, it is divided between labor and capital
in proportion to the value of their respective services,
and the measure of the value is the price the Walsall
Padlock Society pays for the use of capital and labor
respectively. 1 of interest counts for as much in
the division of the profits as 1 of wage, and vice
versa. This principle of division, invented by the
Frenchman Godin, of Guise, has always seemed to me
to be absolutely fair and to be capable of being easily
applied to many industries.
Now in these cases I have quoted, and I could refer
to many others, a unity of interest is established be-
tween labor and capital, with the result that there is
a general atmosphere of peace and of mutual broth-
erhood and goodwill.
Capital receives the advantage of greater security.
Labor is secured the highest rate of wage the industry
WHAT CO-PARTNERSHIP CAN DO 309
WILLING AND UNWILLING SERVICE.
Now, what does the substitution of such conditions
for the conditions generally prevailing to-day in Eng-
land mean for our country? Who shall estimate the
difference between the value of willing and unwilling
service? The Board of Trade will tell you that a
man paid by piecework is generally from 30 to 50
per cent, more effective than a man paid by time.
If the co-partnership principle, which is better
than piecework, because it tends to produce identity
of interest between capital and labor were to increase
the efficiency of time-paid workers from 30 to 50 per
cent., just think of the result; and yet the fact that
co-partnership might add from 30 to 50 per cent, to
the efficiency of the worker is urged by many trade
unionists as a reason against co-partnership. They
seem to fear that the result of making men co-part-
ners will be to cause them to give 25 per cent, better
labor and to receive only 50 per cent, more wage.
No system can be right which is based on the assump-
tion that self-interest calls for a man to give his worst
instead of his best. When I compare Canada with
England I am struck by the fact, that, whereas Can-
ada's greatest undeveloped asset is her natural re-
310 WHAT CO-PARTNERSHIP CAN DO
sources, England's greatest undeveloped asset is man
himself. How to get each man to do his best is the
problem before England to-day. It is because co-
partnership harnesses to industry not only the muscle
but the heart and the intelligence of the worker that
we are justified in regarding it with reverence and
enthusiasm as the principle of the future.
Page 238. Sub. 1. Par. 2.
The former qualification was five years' residence in
the United States and in many States there were no
restrictions placed upon education, nor was an under-
standing of the English language necessary.
Page 239. Sub. 1. Par. 3.
Dru saw no good reason for limiting the time when
an exceptionally endowed man could begin to serve
Page 239. Sub. 1. Par. 4.
The Senate under Dru's plan of Government be-
comes a quasi- judicial body, and it was his purpose to
prevent any member of it or of the regular judiciary
from making decisions with a view of furthering their
political fortunes. Dru believed that it would be of
enormous advantage to the Nation if Judges and
Senators were placed in a position where their motives
could not be questioned and where their only incentive
was the general welfare.
Page 239. Sub. 2. Par. 1.
Why deprive the Republic of the services of a use-
ful man because his particular district has more good
congressional timber than can be used and another
district has none? Or again, why relegate to private
life a man of National importance merely because his
residence happens to be in a district not entirely in
harmony with his views?
Page 239. Par. 2.
The recall is here used for the reason that the term
has been extended to six years, though the electorate
retains the privilege of dismissing an undesirable
member at the end of every two years.
Page 240. Par. 3.
The purpose here was to convene the House within
two months instead of thirteen months after its elec-
tion, and to limit its size in order to promote effi-
Page 241. Sub. 3. Par. 1.
The reason for using the recall here is that the
term is lengthened to life and it seemed best to give
the people a right to pass upon their Senators at
Page 246. Sub. 3. Par. Ib.
The recall is used here, as in other instances, be-
cause of the lengthened term and the desirability of
permitting the people to pass upon a Governor's use-
fulness at shorter periods.
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