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THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

1493-1898 



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The PHILIPPINE 
ISLANDS 1493-1898 

Explorations by Early Navigators, Descriptions of the 
Islands and their Peoples, their History and Records of 
the Catholic Missions, as related in contemporaneous 
Books and Manuscripts, showing the Political, Eco- 
nomic, Commercial and Religious Conditions of those 
Islands from their earliest relations with European 
Nations to the close of the Nineteenth Century 

TRANSLATED FROM THE ORIGINALS 

Edited and annotated by Emma Helen Blair and 
James Alexander Robertson, with historical intro- 
duction and additional notes by Edward Gaylord 
Bourne. With maps, portraits and other illustrations 

Volume XIX— 1620-1621 




The Arthur H. Clark Company 

Cleveland, Ohio 

MCMIV 



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COPYRIGHT 1904 
THE ARTHUR H. CLARK COMPANY 

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 



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CONTENTS OF VOLUME XIX 

Preface. 9 

Documents of 1620 

Reforms needed in the Filipinas (con- 
cluded). Hernando de los Rios Coronel ; 

[Madrid, 1619-20] 25 

Letter to Alonso de Escovar. Francisco de 

Otago, S.J.; Madrid, January 14. . 35 
Decree ordering reforms in the friars' 
treatment of the Indians. Felipe III; 
Madrid, May 29. . . . .40 
Relation of events in the Philipinas Islands, 

1619-20. [Unsigned] ; Manila, June 14. 42 
Compulsory service by the Indians. Pedro 

de Sant Pablo, O.S.F.; Dilao, August 7. 71 
Letter from the Audiencia to Felipe III. 
Hieronimo Legaspi de Cheverria, and 
others; Manila, Augusts. . . -77 
Letter to Felipe III. Alonso Fajardo de 

Tenza; Manila, August 15. . .90 
Letter to Alonso Fajardo de Tenza. Felipe 
III; Madrid, December 13. . . 173 
Memorial, y relacion para sv magestad, Her- 
nando de los Rios Coronel; Madrid, 1621. 183 

Bibliographical Data 299 

Appendix: Buying and selling prices of Orien- 
tal products. Martin Castanos(in part) ; [un- 
dated.] . . 301 



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ILLUSTRATIONS 

Autograph signature of Alonso Fajardo de 
Tenza; photographic facsimile from MS. in 
Archivo general de Indias, Sevilla. . , 165 

Title-page of Memorial y relacion^ by Her- 
nando de los Rios Coronel (Madrid, 162 1) ; 
photographic facsimile from copy in Library 
of Congress. 185 



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PREFACE 

The documents in the present volume cover a wide 
range. In greater or less detail are discussed affairs 
in the islands - civil, military, and religious, in which 
all the various ramifications of each estate are touched 
upon. Reforms, both civil and religious, are urged 
and ordered; and trade and commerce, and general 
economic and social conditions pervade all the docu- 
ments. The efforts of Dutch, English, French, Portu- 
guese, and Spanish in eastern waters are a portent of 
coming struggles for supremacy in later times. Japan, 
meditating on the closed door to Europeans, though 
still permitting the Dutch to trade there, con- 
tinues to persecute the Christians, while that persecu- 
tion is, on the other hand, lessening in violence in 
China. The piracies of the Moros endanger the is- 
lands, and allow the Dutch to hope for alliance with 
them against the Spaniards; and the importance of 
the islands to Spain is urged forcibly. 
. A letter addressed by Los Rios Coronel to the king 
(probably in 1620) urges that prompt aid be sent to 
Filipinas for its defense against the Dutch and Eng- 
lish who threaten its coasts. To it he adds an outline 
" treatise on the navigation of Filipinas," which sus- 
tains his demand by forcible arguments. The rich 
Oriental trade amounts to five millions of pesos a 



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lO THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol 19 

year, which mainly goes to sustain the Dutch and 
their allies, the enemies of Spain, whose commerce 
they will utterly destroy unless some check is placed 
on their audacity; and the effectual method of doing 
this is to deprive them of that trade. An armed ex- 
pedition for the relief of the islands is being prepared 
by the king; it should be despatched via the Cape of 
Good Hope, and all possible efforts should be made 
to drive out the Dutch and English from the Eastern 
seas. Los Rios proposes that for this purpose loans 
be asked from wealthy persons in Nueva Espana and 
Peru ; and that the vessels needed be built in India. 
He makes recommendations for the routes and equip- 
ment of the vessels, both going and returning; and 
for the seasons best for sailing. 

A letter from Francisco de Otago, S.J. (January 
14, 1620), mentions various arrangements for the 
despatch of more missionaries to the islands, and 
laments the recent loss of a fleet sent to the aid of the 
Philippine colony. A royal decree of May 29 in 
the same year orders the governor and Audiencia to 
correct the religious who have levied on the Indians 
exactions of forced service. 

The Jesuit chronicler of events in 1619 continues 
the record for the year ending July, 1620. Some 
account of the war waged by the Chinese and the 
Tartars is given. The persecution of the Christians 
in China has slackened, and the authorities of that 
country are more favorable to the Jesuit missionaries 
there. But in Japan the persecution continues, and 
the college at Macao is crowded with Jesuits who 
are disappointed in their efforts to enter Japan. Let- 
ters from Jesuits in that country enumerate many 
martyrdoms, of both missionaries and their converts, 



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1620-1621] PREFACE II 

and describe their holy zeal and faith in suffering 
death. The authorities and influential men of Japan 
consider it well to harbor the Dutch there, and even 
talk of conquering the Philippines, in order to get 
rid of the Spaniards ; but it is rumored that they also 
contemplate the expulsion of all Europeans from 
Japan. In the Malucas " there is constant strife be- 
tween the English and the Hollanders," and the 
French are obtaining a foothold. Portuguese India 
has but inadequate means of defense against the 
Dutch and other foes. An interesting and pictur- 
esque account is given of the religious fiestas held in 
Manila to celebrate the festival of the immaculate 
conception of the Virgin Mary; the chief features 
are processions, dramatic representations, dances, 
fireworks, etc. - to say nothing of the bull-fights and 
masquerades of the laity. Fearful earthquakes, with 
considerable loss of life, have occurred in the islands, 
especially in Ilocos and Cagayan of Luzon ; they are 
ascribed to the influence of the comets seen in the pre- 
ceding year. The commerce of Manila is increas- 
ing; rich cargoes arrive there from all parts of the 
world; and Manila is a magnificent city, surpassed 
by few in Europe. 

A letter from the Franciscan, Pedro de Sant Pablo 
(August 7, 1620), calls upon the king to abolish the 
repartimientos of forced service and supplies levied 
upon the Indians for shipbuilding and other public 
works by the colonial authorities. He recounts the 
oppression, cruelty, and enslavement caused by this 
practice; and in the name of both the Spaniards and 
the Indians he asks that the repartimientos be com- 
muted for certain payments of money, in proportion 
to the means of each household. 



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12 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol 19 

The Audiencia of Manila send to the king (Au- 
gust 8, 1620) a roll of complaints against Governor 
Fajardo. They accuse him of abusive and violent 
language toward the auditors, and arbitrary conduct 
in both sentencing and releasing prisoners; and of 
granting certain illegal appointments and privileges 
to the friends and relatives of himself and the royal 
officials. His conduct of an expedition made ready 
to repel the Dutch from the islands is sharply criti- 
cised ; covert attack is made on him as defrauding the 
treasury by the sale of Indian orders, and allowing 
reckless expenditures of the public moneys ; and he is 
blamed for failing to enforce the regulations as to 
the sale of the Chinese goods. 

Fajardo sends a long report of affairs to the king 
(August 15, 1620). The coming of the ships this 
year was delayed; and by storms and an encounter 
with the Dutch both were wrecked - but on Philip- 
pine coasts, which enabled them to save the rich 
cargo. As the Dutch failed to secure this prize, they 
have lost in prestige, while the Spaniards have gained 
accordingly. A marginal note here, apparently the 
reply of the Council of the Indias to this clause of 
Fajardo's letter, censures him for allowing the ships 
to leave Manila so late, and warns him to send them 
hereafter promptly, and not overladen. He is also 
directed to remonstrate with the Japanese officials 
who are aiding the Dutch with arms and other sup- 
plies ; and to strive to break up their friendship with 
the Dutch. Fajardo proceeds to say that he is equip- 
ping the ships for both the outward and return voy- 
ages with various supplies, to avoid the greater 
expense of buying these in Nueva Espafia; and for 
the same object is asking the viceroy of that country 



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1620-1621] PREFACE 13 

to make no unnecessary repairs on the ships. He 
complains of the reckless and arbitrary proceedings 
of the officials in charge of the ships at Acapulco. He 
is advised by the Council to send them a detailed 
statement of all matters in which unnecessary expense 
can be avoided. Fajardo recounts his difficulties 
with the viceroy of Nueva Espana over the appoint- 
ments to offices in the trading fleet, and with the pre- 
tensions of certain Philippine residents who claim 
rewards and appointments without meriting these. 
He complains that the troops just arrived from 
Nueva Espana are mostly " boys, mestizos, and mu- 
lattoes, with some Indians;" the viceroy is directed 
to send better and more effective soldiers to Filipinas 
hereafter. Fajardo is uncertain how far he can de- 
pend on aid from the viceroy; and he proposes that 
those troops and supplies be sent to him from Spain 
by way of Panama, enumerating the advantages and 
enconomy of that plan over the present one. He 
thanks the king for sending aid to Filipinas by the 
India route, and asks that such aid be regularly pro- 
vided for some years to come; while he states in gen- 
eral terms what he has accomplished during the last 
two years with the limited public funds of the islands. 
He has equalized the pay of the soldiers at Manila 
and Ternate, and has sent large reenforcements and 
supplies* to the latter region. Fajardo complains of 
the opposition and intrigues of the religious. He 
desires the royal appointment of a governor for Ter- 
nate, and the adjustment of certain difficulties con- 
nected therewith. He is informed that this appoint- 
ment has been already conferred on Pedro de Here- 
dia; and is advised not to allow the religious to in- 
terfere in purely secular matters, especially in those 



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14 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

which concern the conduct of government officials, 
and to warn the religious orders to refrain from med- 
dling with these matters. Dutch pirates infest the 
China Sea, plundering the Chinese trading ships 
when they can; but Fajardo is able to save many of 
these by warning them beforehand of the danger, and 
he has been able to keep them in awe of his own 
forces. He has begun to have ships built in Japan 
for the Philippines, which can be done there more 
conveniently and cheaply; the Council would like 
to provide thus ships foi^ the South American 
colonies. 

The governor has many annoyances regarding the 
Audiencia, which circumstances compel him to en- 
dure as best he can. He is directed to check trading 
by government officials, and to punish those who are 
guilty; and to do all that he can to obtain funds from 
the islands for their expenses, by opening the mines 
of Luzon and trading-posts in the Moluccas. In 
answer to his complaint that the auditors meddle in 
judicial proceedings in the military department, he is 
informed that they must observe the laws already 
enacted for such matters; and is ordered to punish 
severely anyone who shall obstruct the course of jus- 
tice in the islands. Fajardo recounts various other 
annoyances experienced at their hands - they claim- 
ing authority to restrict the Chinese immigration, 
and the right to appoint certain minor officials ; and 
he regrets that the auditors should be all new at one 
time, and so ignorant of their duties. He suggests 
that the king avail himself of the abilities of Arch- 
bishop Serrano, in case of his own death or other 
emergency requiring an aJ interim governor; and 
describes the character of Auditor Rodriguez. The 



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1 6201621] PREFACE 15 

trials of persons involved in the scandal at Sancta 
Potenciana have not pleased the governor, some 
whom he regards as guilty having been acquitted. 
The official inspection of the country, especially for 
the sake of the natives, Fajardo has committed to 
Auditor Mesa, but the latter is unwilling to under- 
take it. The Council order that no auditor shall 
shirk this important duty. The governor mentions 
in detail various minor matters, showing anxiety to 
act as the home government shall approve. He has 
been ordered to reduce military salaries, but objects 
to this, and enumerates the amounts paid to each 
officer. Directions for arranging this reduction are 
given by the Council, as also for the governor's man- 
agement of expenses, etc. Fajardo makes recommen- 
dations as to certain crown encomiendas, at present 
unproductive. This is approved by the Council, who 
order him to prevent any unjust collections. He com- 
mends certain officers as deserving rewards, and ex- 
onerates many of the religious from the blame of 
harassing the Indians. He is able to maintain 
amicable relations with the orders, especially by al- 
lowing the religious to transact certain secular busi- 
ness for him; but he finds them domineering and 
self-willed, and suggests that they cannot be kept in 
order without some change in their present mode of 
government. He is advised to check their arrogance, 
especially in their open and public censures of their 
superiors, whether ecclesiastical or secular. He re- 
lates his difficulties with Pedro Alvarez over the 
countersigning of Sangley licenses. He has sent an 
expedition to attempt the opening of mines in the 
Igorrote country -an undertaking in which he has 
received the support and countenance of the religious 



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1 6 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol. 19 

orders. He commends the Augustinian Recollects 
as not meddling in governmental affairs that do not 
concern them, and offering to take distant missions. 
The tributary Indians are peaceable, and appreciate 
with gratitude Fajardo's efforts to relieve them from 
taxes and wrongs. One of their burdens has been the 
erection of many churches -of which there are 
thirty, almost all of stone, in Manila and its imme- 
diate vicinity alone. The Council order that no re- 
ligious house or church be hereafter erected without 
the permission of both secular and ecclesiastical au- 
thorities. At the end of Fajardo's letter are added cer- 
tain comments and directions by the Council. They 
are inclined to send reenforcements, supplies, and 
merchandise to Filipinas via Panama, as Fajardo 
suggests, but direct the vessels to return to Acapulco 
instead. Illicit participation of government officials 
in trade shall be severely punished. The official visi- 
tations recommended by the governor are to be made, 
and the auditors are commanded to serve in this duty. 

A letter from the king to Fajardo (December 13, 
1620) answers previous despatches from the latter. 
He commends Fajardo's proceedings in discontinu- 
ing certain grants, and orders him to be careful in 
making his reports, to maintain harmony in the Au- 
diencia as far as. possible, to investigate the conduct 
of the auditor Legaspi, to correct with vigor the 
scandals at Santa Potenciana, to enforce discipline in 
the military department, and to maintain friendly re- 
lations with Japan. Felipe returns thanks to the col- 
onists for their loyalty and services in public affairs, 
and to the Augustinian order in the islands for their 
zeal in his service. 

A document of especial interest and value is the 



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1620-1621] PREFACE 17 

Memorial (Madrid, 1621) of Hernando de los Rios 
Coronel, long procurator-general of the Philippine 
Islands. Introducing the work with a statement of 
his coming to Spain as an envoy from " that entire 
kingdom and its estates," he begins with an historical 
account of the discovery and settlement of the islands, 
and the growth of the Spanish colony. The earlier 
historical matter in Part I of the Memorial is pre- 
sented to our readers in synopsis, as being largely a 
repetition of what has already appeared in our 
former volumes. In chapter vii Los Rios gives some 
account of the government of Juan de Silva, espe- 
cially of the latter's infatuation for shipbuilding, and 
its baneful effects on the prosperity of both the colony 
and the natives. He recounts the disastrous at- 
tempt to expel the Dutch by means of a joint 
Spanish and Portuguese expedition (1615-16), and 
its ruin and Silva's death at Malaca. Then he de- 
scribes the opposition to Silva's schemes that had 
arisen in Manila, where, although he had a faction 
who supported his ambitious projects, " all desired his 
absence." Los Rios cites part of a letter from Gero- 
nimo de Silva to the governor, blaming the latter 
for not going to Maluco, where he could have 
secured the submission of the natives in all those is- 
lands; and urging him to do so as soon as possible, 
as that is the only means of preserving the present 
foothold of the Spanish. The Dutch fleet there sets 
out for Manila, and, hearing in Mindanao of Silva's 
death, they concert plans with the Moros for ravag- 
ing the Philippines. Part of the Moros are defeated 
on the coast of Panay, but they meet with enough 
success to embolden them to make further raids; 
these go unpunished by the Spaniards, and thus the 



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1 8 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

islands are being devastated and ruined. The Chris- 
tian and friendly Indians are at the mercy of these 
cruel foes, from whom the Spaniards do not defend 
them; accordingly, they demand freedom and arms, 
that they may defend themselves against the invaders. 
All would revolt, were it not for the influence of the 
missionaries, especially the Jesuits. 

Los Rios makes complaint of the apathy, negli- 
gence, and blunders exhibited by the governors of the 
islands in regard to their defense from so many ene- 
mies, supporting his position with detailed accounts 
of the damages thereby suffered in raids by the Dutch 
and Moros, and failures to achieve success that was 
within the grasp of the Spaniards. 

In the second part, Los Rios discusses " the impor- 
tance of the Filipinas, and the means for preserving 
them." He enumerates the reasons why the crown 
of Spain should keep the islands, indicating a curious 
mixture of worldly wisdom and missionary zeal ; and 
refutes the arguments of those persons who advocate 
the abandonment of the Philippines, or its transfer 
to Portugal in exchange for Brazil. Los Rios ex- 
plains at length the desirability of retaining Manila, 
and its importance and desirability as a commercial 
and military center, and a check on the ambition of 
the Dutch. He then asserts that the money sent to 
the islands by the Spanish government is mainly ex- 
pended not on the Philippines, but for the defense 
of the Moluccas; and he enumerates the resources 
of the former, which but for that diversion would 
support them without aid from the crown. He then, 
enlarges upon the great wealth which is found in the 
islands, especially in the gold mines of the Igorrote 
country; and urges upon the king the necessity of 



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1620-1621] PREFACE 19 

developing these mines, and of converting the In- 
dians of that region. He asks that the governors sent 
to the Philippines be better qualij&ed for that post; 
praises Gomez Perez Dasmarinas as being the best 
governor of all who have ruled there; and describes 
the qualifications needed for a good governor. Los 
Rios considers the measures that should be taken for 
growth and preservation of the Philippines. He 
recommends that a fleet be sent to aid and reenforce 
them. If that cost too much, eight galleys should be 
sent to Ternate - a proposal which the writer urges 
for many reasons, explaining in detail the way in 
which these vessels could, at little cost, be made 
highly effective in checking the Dutch. They could 
be manned by captive Moros and others taken in war, 
or by negro slaves bought at Malacca. The third 
measure is one which he " dare not write, for that is 
not expedient," but will explain it to the king in per- 
son. Again he insists on the necessity of a competent 
and qualified person as governor of the islands, en- 
larging upon the great power and authority possessed 
by that official, and the consequent dependence of all 
classes upon his arbitrary will or prejudices. Los 
Rios cites various instances which prove his position, 
and expressly states his good opinion of the present 
governor, Fajardo. He would prefer to see the Au- 
diencia abolished. A special inspector is needed, 
with great experience and ability, and authority to 
regulate affairs and redress all grievances in the is- 
lands. The immigration of Chinese and Japanese 
into the colony should be restricted; and the Min- 
danao pirates should be reduced to submission. The 
opening already made for commerce and friendly 
relations with the king of Macassar, and for preach- 



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20 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

ing the gospel there, should be at once improved, and 
Jesuits should be sent there as missionaries. More 
care should be exercised to despatch with promptness 
the ships to Nueva Epana. More attention should be 
given to the garrisons, especially those in the Mo- 
luccas, to keep the men from discontent; and measures 
should be taken to encourage and aid new colonists 
to settle in the Philippines. The late restrictions on 
the possession and enjoyment of encomiendas should 
be removed. A letter from Lucas de Vergara, com- 
mandant in Maluco, is here inserted. He recounts 
the losses of the Dutch in their late attack on Manila 
(1617), and their schemes for driving out the Span- 
iards from the Moluccas; also his own difficulties in 
procuring food, fortifying the posts under his care, 
and keeping up his troops who are being decimated 
by sickness and death. He urges that the fleet at Ma- 
nila proceed at once to his succor, and thus prevent 
the Dutch from securing this year's rich clove- 
harvest. 

In the third part of the Memorial, Los Rios gives 
a brief description of the Philippines and the Moluc- 
cas, with interesting but somewhat desultory infor- 
mation of their peoples and natural products, of the 
Dutch factories, and of the produce and value of the 
clove trade. He describes the custom of head-hunting 
among the Zambales, and advocates their reduction 
to slavery as the only means of rendering the friendly 
natives safe from their attacks. The numbers of en- 
comiendas and their tributarios, and of monasteries 
and religious, in the islands, are stated, with the size 
and extent of Manila. All the natives are now con- 
verted, except some tribes in Central Luzon. Los 
Rios describes the Malucas Islands and others in 



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1620-1621] PREFACE 21 

their vicinity, and enumerates the Dutch and Spanish 
forts therein; and proceeds to state the extent and 
profits of the spice trade. He closes his memoir with 
an itemized statement of the expenses incurred by 
the Spanish crown in maintaining the forts at Tidore 
and Ternate. These amount yearly to nearly two 
hundred and twenty thousand pesos. 

In an appendix to this volume are presented sev- 
eral short papers which constitute a brief epitome of 
early seventeenth-century commerce in the Far East 
- entitled ** Buying and selling prices of Oriental 
products.'' Martin Castanos, procurator-general of 
Filipinas, endeavors to show that the spices of Ma- 
lucas and the silks of China, handled through Ma- 
nila, ought to bring the Spanish crown an annual net 
income of nearly six million pesos. Another paper 
shows the extent and value of the trade carried on 
with Japan by the Portuguese at Macao ; and another, 
the kind of commerce maintained by those enterpris- 
ing traders with the countries of southern Asia from 
the Moluccas to Arabia. All these enumerate the 
various kinds of goods, the buying and selling prices 
of most articles, the rate of profit, etc. 

The Editors 
September, 1904. 



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DOCUMENTS OF 1620 

Reforms needed in the Filipinas (concluded). Her- 
nando de los Rios Coronel; [1619-20]- 

Letter to Alonso de Escovar. Francisco de Otago, 
SJ.; January 14. 

Decree ordering reforms in the friars' treatment of 
the Indians. Felipe III; May 29. 

Relation of events in the Philipinas Islands, 1619-20. 
[Unsigned] ; June 14. 

Compulsory service by the Indians. Pedro de Sant 
Pablo, O.S.F.; August 7. 

Letter from the Audiencia to Felipe III. Hiero- 
nimo Legaspi de Cheverria, and others; August 8. 

Letter to Felipe III. Alonso Fajardo de Tenza; 
August 15. 

Letter to Alonso Fajardo de Tenza. Felipe III; 
December 13. 

Sources: All of these documents, except the second, fourth, 
and eighth, are obtained from the Archivo general de Indias, Se- 
villa. The second and fourth are from the Real Academia de la 
Historia, Madrid; and the eighth from the Archivo Historico 
Nacional, Madrid. 

Translations: The second and fourth are translated by 
Herbert E. Bolton, Ethel Z. Rather, and Mattie A. Austen, of the 
University of Texas; the eighth by Robert W. Haight; and the 
remainder by James A. Robertson. 



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REFORMS NEEDED IN THE FILIPINAS 
(concluded) 

Aid against the Dutch requested 
Sire: 

Hernando de los Rios Coronel, procurator-gen- 
eral of the Filipinas Islands and of all their estates, 
declares that he came the past year to inform your 
Majesty and your royal Council of the Indias, in 
the name of those islands, of the desperate condition 
to which the Dutch enemy have brought them. De- 
siring that your Majesty understand the importance 
of the matter, he gave you a long printed relation in 
which he discussed points important for their re- 
covery from the enemy and the expulsion of the lat- 
ter from that archipelago. Your Majesty, upon see- 
ing it, ordered a fleet to be prepared; but that fleet 
was so unfortunate as to be lost before beginning its 
voyage. Although your Council of the Indias is 
discussing the formation of another fleet to sail by 
way of the Strait of Magallanes, or by the new 
strait [i.e., of Le Maire], it cannot, if it leaves here 
any time in July (which is the earliest time when it 
can be sent from Espana), possibly arrive [at Fili- 
pinas] until one and one-half years from now -or a 
little less, if it has no bad luck. Now considering the 
watchfulness of the enemy, and the forces that they 



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26 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol 19 

are sending this year, namely, forty ships, which have 
left Olanda - whence can be inferred the importance 
to them of making themselves masters of those 
regions, since they are so persistent in their efforts, 
and incur so heavy expenses - he [/.e., Los Rios] ad- 
vises you for the discharge of his conscience, and his 
obligation, and his duty as a good vassal of your 
Majesty, that there is urgent need that, notwithstand- 
ing the relief that your Council of the Indias is 
about to despatch by way of the straits, other help 
be furnished from Nueva Espaiia and Piru; of both 
men and money, and to employ this [aid from 
Espana] with as great care as the gravity of the mat- 
ter requires, and to realize the fact that, were it lost, 
both Eastern and Western India would be endan- 
gered. They would be in great danger, as would also 
these kingdoms; for it would mean to permit the 
enemy to become so powerful and so rich as all know 
who are aware of the wealth of those regions. Be- 
sides, it would mean the extinction of whatever 
Christian element is there, and would shut the doors 
to the preaching of the gospel, which your Majesty 
and your ancestors have procured with so great glory 
and so many expenses. [That relief of Nueva 
Espana and Piru should be prepared] also, for if the 
relief [from Espana] should suffer an equal disaster 
with the last, and that country could not be succored, 
it would all be lost. 

I petition your Majesty to order that this matter 
be considered, as a matter of so great importance; 
and that your president of the Indias call a confer- 
ence of those most experienced in the Indias, so that 
they may discuss what measures can be taken most 
fitting for the relief of that country, and as speedily 



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16201621] REFORMS NEEDED IN FILIPINAS TJ 

as possible, where he [/.^., Los Rios] will also de- 
clare the measures that occur to him. 

{Endorsed'. " To the president of the Indias. Ex- 
amined, in the meeting of April 7, 620."] 

Treatise on the navigation of Filipinas, reduced to 

four chapters 
Sire: 

Your Majesty orders me to declare my opin- 
ion in regard to the navigation from Espana to 
the Philipinas and Malucas Islands, from them to 
Espana, the mutual navigation between those island 
groups ; and the seasons suitable for such navigation. 
In obedience to your royal order, I declare. Sire, that 
the propositions cover four principal points, each 
of which I shall explain in order. [The original 
document contains a marginal abstract of each of the 
four points that follow; but these abstracts are here 
omitted.] 

First point. This point contains in brief the sub- 
stance of all the others. In explaining it, I declare 
that the navigations from these kingdoms to those 
islands are so worthy of consideration, and so im- 
portant, that no others in the world at this time are 
equal to them. For the drugs, fragrant gums, spices, 
precious stones, and silks that the Dutch enemy and 
their allies bring thence - obtained partly by pillag- 
ing, and partly by trading in their forts and factories 
which they own throughout that archipelago - 
amount, as they do at present, to five millions [of 
pesos] annually. It has been stated how paramount 
is this undertaking to any others that can today be 
attempted; for besides the spiritual injury inflicted 
by those heretical pirates among all that multitude 



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28 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

[of heathen peoples] (which I think the universal 
Master has delivered to your Majesty so that you 
may cultivate it and cleanse it for His celestial gran- 
aries), it is quite certain - since the enemy are col- 
lecting annually so large a mass of wealth ; and since 
the sinews of war consist in that, both for attack and 
defense -that they are acquiring and will continue 
to acquire those riches daily, with greater forces. 
And, as they continue to increase in strength, their 
ambitious designs will also extend further. In the 
same degree as the enemy grows stronger, it is cer- 
tain that our forces will continue to decrease -and 
so much that, if relief does not arrive there in time, 
the day will come in which not one of your Majesty's 
vessels can be placed on the sea, because of the many 
that the enemy will have there. Inasmuch as there 
is no one in the world today who can oppose the 
enemy except your Majesty, they hate our interests 
with all their strength, and will attempt to destroy 
and ruin them by all possible methods. 

The method of preventing all those most consider- 
able troubles is the one that your Majesty is attempt- 
ing, by despatching the eight vessels that you are 
sending under color of reenforcements - and would 
that it had been with a fleet of sixteen vessels, each 
one of which would carry three hundred sailors and 
soldiers and be very well armed with artillery. For 
with that the rest [of the enemy's forces] would be 
drivee away, and that crowd of thieves, who are be- 
coming arrogant and enriching themselves - so much 
to the cost of our holy religion, of your Majesty's 
reputation and prestige, and of your most loyal vas- 
sals, by disturbing your Majesty's most holy designs - 
would be forced from those seas and even from these. 



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1 6201621] REFORMS NEEDED IN FILIPINAS 29 

For it is very certain that if that [trade] be taken 
away, the enemy would have no resources with which 
they could preserve themselves; while if your Maj- 
esty has all that profit - as beyond doubt, God help- 
ing (for whose honor it is being done) , you will have 
it, by encouraging your royal forces and by enforc- 
ing your holy purposes - all the heads of that many- 
headed serpent of the enemy will be destroyed. 

Inasmuch as it is proper for us who, like myself, 
are zealous for your royal service, let us hasten on 
that service, by as many roads as God makes known 
to us. I declare, Sire, that in order to encourage 
those most loyal though most afflicted vassals whom 
your Majesty has now in Manila, it is advisable for 
the present reenforcement to be sent; and that its 
route be by the shortest path and the one of least 
risk -~ namely, by way of the Cape of Buena Espe- 
ranga ; not only is the weather more favorable in 
that route, but it passes through less longitude. 

I mention the weather, for from this time on the 
weather is favorable, as was determined in a general 
council of experienced pilots of all nations that was 
held at Manila by Governor Don Juan de Silva. [I 
mention] also the longitude, because the time taken 
to go by the above route is known -namely (to one 
who follows his course without making fruitless 
stops) seven months; which, counted from the first 
of December, places the arrival there at the end of 
June. 

Some one may object to all this by saying that the 
intention is to import this relief into Manila, so that 
all that region may not be lost; and that, if it shall 
go by that route [/.^., of the Cape], it runs the risk 
of meeting the enemy and of being lost, and in- 



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30 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

cidentally that all that region [of Filipinas] will re- 
main in its present danger, and even greater, be- 
cause of your Majesty's resources being wasted, and 
the necessity of getting together a new relief expedi- 
tion - but [such objector would say], if this relief be 
sent by another route all those troubles will be 
obviated and the purpose attained. I answer that 
objection by saying: First, that eight vessels are not 
so weak a force that they should fear those of the 
enemy who, on their homeward trip - inasmuch as 
they do not fear along that route any encounter that 
will harm them -come laden with their goods, in 
great security, and carelessly; and they have at best 
only two or three galleons, while our eight galleys, 
ready and prepared for fighting, not only have noth- 
ing to fear, but can from the start expect the victory, 
in case they meet the enemy. Second, for this reason, 
if once our galleons cause the enemy loss in the chief 
thing that takes the latter there, namely, trade, they 
will have to diminish their forces, and will lose credit 
with their backers. Hence I infer that not only 
should this route and [possible] encounter not be 
avoided, but that express orders be given to the com- 
mander of this relief expedition to follow the routes 
taken by the enemy and to reconnoiter their chief 
factory of Batan, which is not fortified. For if God 
permits him to find and destroy that place, many and 
very important results will follow: First, that im- 
mediately word will be passed to all those nations - 
who love changes and cry " long live " to the con- 
queror - and they will lose the little affection that 
they have for the enemy at present; while they will 
incline toward and join us, turning against our 
enemy, as they have promised. Second, that our sol- 



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16201621] REFORMS NEEDED IN FILIPINAS 3 1 

diers, flushed with the beginnings of victory, will be 
worth after that for other victories just twice as 
much; nor will they be without military discipline 
for the first victory, for the Spanish infantry begins 
its military duty from the day when it establishes its 
camp, and daily becomes more valuable. Third, in- 
asmuch as when the vessels of this relief expedition 
reach Manila, they will necessarily arrive there in 
need of rest, and already the enemy will be warned 
to resist whatever sally they try to make, that which 
will now be made against them with eight vessels 
cannot later be made against them with many more. 
Fourth, because, on the journey they will lay down 
the complete and fixed route that should be taken by 
that course, so that your Majesty's fleets may go and 
come as do those of the enemy. Fifth, because the 
enemy are at present not only not sending any fleet 
to those regions, but are obliged to collect their forces 
in order to resist those of your Majesty in their own 
territory, because of the expiration of the truce.^ 
Consequently the attempt must be made to inflict all 
the damage possible on the enemy during these years, 
until they are driven entirely out of the Orient and 
your Majesty becomes lord of it all. For if that re- 
sult be once accomplished, the fruits of that victory 
will allow sufficient fleets to be maintained, both in 
these seas and in those, for the defense and conserva- 
tion of that region and much more. Moreover, in 
order to check the enemy and to remove completely 
from their eyes this illusion that has given and gives 
them so strong a belief that your Majesty's forces are 
exhausted by the large sums that you have spent in 

^ The twelve-year truce between the States-General and Spain, 
signed in 1608. 



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32 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

protecting our holy religion, I declare, Sire, that an 
effective plan occurs to me whereby this matter may 
be concluded without the expense of one single 
maravedi from your royal treasury. This is, that 
loans be asked from the rich and wealthy persons in 
the provinces of Nueva Espaiia and Peru (for there 
are many such), until you have two millions [of 
pesos]. Your Majesty can prepare a large fleet with 
that sum, and will finish with the enemy once for all. 
The vassals of those kingdoms will give that loan 
cheerfully if you ask it, proportioning to each one the 
amount in accordance with what he can give with- 
out inconveniencing himself. For they are also 
greatly interested in this matter ; and the payment will 
be easily made, if the result be thus attained. With 
that money, it would be best to go to Yndia to build 
the fleet; for there it can be built better and at a less 
cost than anywhere else. 

Second point. In order to return from those is- 
lands to Espana, it will be advisable to come but 
lightly laden, and well provided with arms, in order 
to withstand any encounter with the enemy; and that 
they follow the same route that is taken by the Dutch, 
or by the fleets of Portugal, for by no other route can 
the vojfage be made so quickly as by that route - con- 
sidering that, if one wishes to come by way of Nueva 
Espana (which is the shortest course except that by 
the Cape of Buena Esperanga), the voyage from 
Manila to Acapulco will last five or six months, even 
with favorable weather. Arrived there it is necessary 
to cross from one sea to the other over one hundred 
and sixty leguas of very bad road, and then to sail 
for another three months before reaching Espana; 
and the vessels must wait from January, the time 



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1620-16213 REFORMS NEEDED IN FILIPINAS 33 

when they arrive from Philipinas, until June, 
when they embark for Espana. In all more than 
thirteen months will be spent in the voyage. In case 
that one should prefer to come not by way of Nueva 
Espana, but by the Strait of Magallanes or that of 
Mayre, the delay is equal or greater, and the food 
will of necessity spoil and the men die; for the food 
of Manila, as that is a hot country, very soon spoils 
and rots. 

Third point. The voyages from Manila to Ter- 
renate are three hundred leguas, or a trifle more or 
less; and those from Manila to Malaca a trifle more 
than four hundred. 

Fourth point. The seasons required for those voy- 
ages are as follows: To go from Espana to Philip- 
pinas it is advisable to sail from Espana after the sun 
passes the equator in the direction of the Tropic of 
Capricorn, namely, from September twenty-third on; 
for, since one must mount to thirty-five degrees of 
latitude in the southern hemisphere, it is advisable to 
be in that hemisphere when the sun by its presence 
has put to flight the furies of the winds of those seas, 
since even with that care that Cape of Buena Espe- 
ranga bears the reputation of a stormy headland. In 
order to return, one would better, for the same rea- 
sons, sail from Manila during the time when the sun 
is still in the southern hemisphere, if he has to double 
the Cape. 

The suitable time to sail from Manila to Terrenate 
is when the winds in those seas are blowing from the 
north (because Manila lies almost due north of Te- 
rrenate), namely, during November and December. 
The same season is suitable to sail to Malaca, as Ma- 
nila lies almost due northeast of Malaca. For that 



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34 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

voyage the brisas that set in in January are also favor- 
able. The return trips from Maluco and Malaca to 
Manila are during the season of the winds from the 
south and the vendavals, which generally begin, the 
winds from the south by the middle of May on, and 
the vendavals during June, July, and August, etc. 

I petition your Majesty to deign to honor this 
humble service as such, by the benignity of your royal 
sight, so that I may gain strength to serve you to the 
measure of my desires. 

[Endorsed: " Juan de Sigura Manrrique. Have 
each point abstracted, so that it may be attended to 
in the Council." In another hand: "Abstracted.*^ 
" Examined."] 



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LETTER FROM FRANCISCO DE 

OTAgO, SJ., TO FATHER 

ALONSO DE ESCOVAR 

Pax Christi, etc. 

I have been urging Father Figueroa about the ef- 
forts to be made in regard to that grant of money, 
and he always replies with regret that other meas- 
ures must first be taken in Sevilla, as he has written 
to your Reverence. For my part, I must bring this 
matter to a head; for I have been much grieved by 
what your Reverence recently told me to the effect 
that they will charge to that poor province the four 
hundred ducados paid for provisioning the fathers. 
Your Reverence may be assured that I cannot permit 
the departure in the fleet, if the cost is to be charged 
in this way. I supposed that the going of Father 
Bilbao and his companions would be at the expense 
of his Majesty, as it has always been. 

I am now writing to Father Simon Cota that I 
have received that amount from your Reverence; and 
although by means of your order I have paid the debt 
already contracted, and have also funds to defray im- 
mediate expenses that cannot be avoided, yet, for the 
needs that are certain to arise in the future, I shall 
require help to the amount of more than two thou- 
sand reals, because it is better that I should have too 
much than too little. And things are so expensive 



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36 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

in all this country of Spain, that to collect and convey 
the fathers to Sevilla will cost even more than the 
sum I estimate. Your Reverence v^ill kindly send 
the amount to me at the time and in the manner most 
convenient 

Sad v^as the news that yesterday came to this court 
concerning the loss of our fleet,^ and such has been 
the grief that I do not know how to describe it to 
your Reverence. The president wept like a child, 
more especially because, to make this news worse, 
other bad news came from Flandes at the same time; 
this information was that the Hollander was setting 
out, or had already set out, with his twenty-five gal- 
leons. The president himself told this. He already 
considers our possessions in Philippinas and Yndias 
as lost; for it seems as if courage has deserted these 
men, and that no means for further aid remain. May 
God our Lord forbid this, and encourage them, in 
order that they may take heart in this difficulty, that 
valor and fortitude may be shown in the cause of 
God our Lord and of the king, and that the enemy 
may not prevail. There is no lack of people who are 
already encouraged, and are seeking remedies and 
forming plans. Your Reverence will kindly inform 

2 This squadron was sent for the succor of the Philippines, in 
December, 16 19; but soon after its departure it encountered a 
severe storm, which compelled the ships to take refuge in the port 
of Cadiz. Learning of this, the royal Council sent imperative 
orders for the ships to depart on their voj'^age ; the result was that 
they were driven ashore and lost on the Andalusian coast, Jan- 
uary 3, 1620, with the loss of one hundred and fifty lives. 
Among the dead was Fray Hernando de Moraga, O.S.F., who had 
come to Spain some time before to ask aid for the Philippine 
colony and the missions there. A council assembled by the king, 
after discussing the matter, recommended that Spain abandon 
the islands as costly and profitless ; Moraga's entreaties induced the 
king to disregard this advice, and to send a fleet with troops and 



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16201621] OTAgO TO ESCOVAR 37 

me of such plans as may occur to you, for those who 
are trying to give courage in this emergency desire 
light on all projects. 

The loss of our fleet is known here only in a gen- 
eral way. Your Reverence will please give me all 
the particulars, and inform me whether our Lord 
took our fathers unto Himself, which we much fear 
from the reports. Still, because their death has not 
been verified or related in detail, the masses which 
should be said in this province for Father Bilbao, in 
the other two provinces for their two fathers, and in 
the province of Philippinas for all three, have not 
been ordered. I, for my part, have many to say for 
them if dead - or if alive, in case our Lord has spared 
them. It has also been said that the cargo of the 
flagship floated ashore. I hope that our boxes of 
books which were in it were spared, for, so far as 
such things are concerned, I feel the loss of them 
greatly, although their loss is not to be mentioned 
in connection with that of our fathers. If the Divine 
Majesty has chosen to inflict this heavy blow upon 
us, supra modu, sed domini sumos et iustos est et rectu 
iudiciu eius.^ Such a fleet, and so well adapted for 
the grand service of God ! And those three apostolic 
men, going with such zeal - if in such a cause, they 
have already ended in a death resembling martyr- 
dom, blessed be the Lord! From here the author- 
supplies, in which embarked Moraga with thirty friars of his order. 
See La Concepci6n*s account, in Hist, de Philipinas, v, pp. 474-479. 

Another letter from Otago, dtated February 18, 1620, says: 
" There has been a very heated discussion (which still continues) 
regarding aid for the Philipinas, bet\^'een the lords of the Council 
and all the procurators and agents of those islands." 

' Translated : " [This blow upon us] , beyond measure, still 
wc are the Lx)rd*s and He is just, and His judgment is upright.'* 



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38 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

ities sent some person, I know not whom, as com- 
issary to recover what was lost from the flagship 
which ran ashore. Your Reverence, being near, will 
know whether any particular measure is necessary for 
our interests, etc. 

When your Reverence remits the money spoken of 
above, do not send it through our Father Figueroa. 
For, although he assures me that the last order is 
good, since it has been acknowledged, yet he asks for 
forty days' time, which is very long. I say this be- 
cause to your Reverence I may speak freely and con- 
fidentially, for you know the good father. I have al- 
ready determined not to trouble Father Figueroa 
about my own money, because I drew it for my 
private expenses, and it must be used in this way only, 
as I told him before I went to Rome. He now 
charges to me items of expense not conformable to 
this arrangement, although justified from his stand- 
point - for the good father is a saint and most faithful 
in everything, though not very prompt or skilful in 
accounts and correspondence, as is well known. Be- 
cause I have written at length, and more especially 
because I am so disturbed by grief at the news, I 
close this letter to your Reverence. May God guard 
your Reverence as I desire. 

The [word illegible in MS,] procrastinate here, 
and indicate that we are bound to have contests and 
wrangling with our fathers, wherefore there is much 
to fear lest they delay me, and frustrate my plans to 
go with a few [religious]. Now, too, with what has 
befallen the fleet, I think that these lords must per- 
force undertake the preparation of another large one, 
to go via the Strait, and that people there will de- 
sire us to come. I am prudent and on the lookout, 



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i6ac>-i62i] OTAgO TO ESCOVAR 39 

and will promptly inform your Reverence of every- 
thing; for to you I always look for advice, light, and 
strong support in the Father. Madrid, January 14, 
1620. 

+ 
Francisco de OxAgo 



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DECREE ORDERING REFORMS IN THE 
FRIARS' TREATMENT OF THE 

INDIANS 

The King: To the president and auditors of my 
royal Audiencia which resides in the city of Manila 
of the Fhilipinas Islands. I have been informed of 
great transgressions committed by certain religious 
in making repartimientos for their works on the In- 
dians; and that the religious take, for their support, 
from the natives their fowls and other food at less 
[than the just] price, and pfactice on them injuries 
and annoyances for their own gains. And inasmuch 
as it is advisable to correct this, by ordering that the 
religious shall not use the Indians, unless they pay 
them their just wage; and that, except by license of 
you my governor, they shall not make repartimientos 
on the Indians or oblige them to render service: 
therefore, my royal Council of the Indias having 
examined the matter, I have considered it fitting to 
have the present issued, by which I order you to at- 
tend to the above matter in the assembly of the 
Audiencia there. And in what concerns my royal 
patronage, my royal fiscal of my Audiencia shall 
prosecute as he may deem best, so that those imposi- 
tions and injuries may cease. The visitors and cor- 
regidors of the districts shall take especial care to 



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1620-1621] DECREE REGARDING INDIANS 41 

prohibit them, and shall reform those who shall be 
guilty. By virtue of the contents of this my decree, 
you shall despatch an order to the said religious, so 
that they shall, under no circumstances, inifliict such 
injuries upon their parishioners. This likewise do 
I charge upon the archbishop and bishops of those 
islands, and on the provincials of the orders therein. 
Issued in Madrid, May twenty-nine, one thousand 
six hundred and twenty. 

I THE King 

Countersigned by Pedro de Ledesma, and signed 
by the Council. 

[Note at beginning of MS.: *Trocurator for the 
Indians of Philipinas. To the Audiencia of Phili- 
pinas, in respect to redress for the wrongs committed 
by the religious on the Indians."] 



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RELATION OF EVENTS IN THE PHILI- 
PINAS ISLANDS 
AND NEIGHBORING PROVINCES AND KING- 
DOMS, FROM JULY, i6i9, TO JULY, 1620 

In the same style and order in which I last year 
reported the various events in the Philipinas Islands, 
and in neighboring kingdoms and provinces upon 
which the welfare of the Philipinas depends, I will 
now write what has happened this year. There 
have not been so many and various warlike occur- 
rences as in former years, for it has been somewhat 
more peaceful here. I will relate briefly what has 
happened as occasion may require. 

Of Great China 
Although last year I gave an account of the war 
which the Chinese were carrying on with the Tartars, 
I will now return to this point, because we have re- 
ceived letters from our fathers in China. To begin 
with the earliest events, there was in the province of 
Teatum,* one of the provinces of Great China ad- 
joining Tartaria, a powerful eunuch who collected 
taxes in the name of the king, and who had some 

* So in the MS., but apparently a copyist's error for Leatum, 
the form given in later pages; apparently a phonetic blunder for 
Liao-tung, the name of the province where the contest between 
Russia and Japan is now centered (May, 1904). 



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1620-1621] RELATION OF 1619-2O 43 

seventy servants in his following. They committed a 
thousand robberies and tyrannies among the people. 
The mandarins who governed that district reported 
this to the king. He ordered them to bring the 
eunuch in custody to Tiquin, where he is still in 
prison. The eunuch's servants were hunted by the 
mandarins in order that they might be given the pun- 
ishment they deserved for their crimes; but they, 
with many other Chinese, fled to the Tartars, whom 
they begged and persuaded to invade and destroy 
China, offering themselves to serve as guides. It was 
not difficult to induce the Tartars to do this, since 
for other reasons they were already angry with the 
Chinese. So they planned that these Chinese traitors 
and some Tartars should go with concealed weapons, 
and in the guise of friends, to a certain place. They 
went there, and one night suddenly seized their arms, 
killed the greater part of the soldiers, sacked the 
place, and, pretending to flee, withdrew with the 
spoils. They left a great number of people in am- 
bush in the woods. The Chinese viceroy of that dis- 
trict, learning of the affair, immediately sent a large 
body of soldiers who are always on duty there. The 
troops pursued the Tartars, but unexpectedly fell into 
the ambush and were completely routed. When the 
Tartars saw that they were victorious, they returned 
to the fort and destroyed it. When this was learned 
in Paquin the mandarins came together to discuss 
with the king some means of redress. As the king 
did not wish to see them he simply ordered that they 
should consult among themselves and then report 
everything to him. Now the Tartars sacked and de- 
stroyed some other smaller forts, as well as one very 
important stronghold called Sin Hon [/.^., Tsingho]. 



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44 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

From this point they made their forays through the 
whole of that district, and sacked a large part of 
it. 

The decision reached in the consultation by the 
mandarins was that the king should order all the 
noted captains who were not holding ofRce, and who 
had retired to their homes, to come to the court; that 
a large number of soldiers should come from all the 
provinces to lend aid and to meet the demands of the 
occasion; and that the mandarins who were for vari- 
ous reasons at their homes should come to the court of 
Paquin. All this was soon carried out by the king's 
order. He likewise commanded that heavy taxes 
should be gathered for supplying the soldiers; that a 
large number of horses should be collected ; and that 
the tuton, or the viceroy of that district, should be 
imprisoned. He sent another viceroy in his place 
with extensive powers, even with authority to put to 
death the chief captains who, on account of their fear, 
were contemplating flight. He sent other mandarins 
of great executive ability and prudence to help the 
viceroy; and, in order to prevent excitement among 
the people, he ordered that the students [^letradosY 

^ W. Winterbotham gives, in his View of the Chinese Empire 
(London, 1796), ii, pp. 6-8, an interesting account of the "man- 
darins of letters,'* the chief nobih'ty of the empire. He says: 
" There are only two ranks in China, the nobility and the people, 
but the former is not hereditary. . . . China contains about 
fifteen thousand mandarins of letters, and a still greater number 
who aspire to that title. . . . To arrive at this degree, it is 
necessary to pass through several others; such as that of Batchelor 
{siey or tsai)^ of licentiate (kiu-gin), and of doctor (tsing-tss'ee) , 
The two first, however, are only absolutely necessary; but even 
those on whom the third is conferred obtain for a time only the gov- 
ernment of a city of the second or third class. There are eight 
orders of [these] mandarins. ... In short, the whole admin- 
istration of the Chinese empire is entrusted to the mandarins of 
letters." 



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16201621] RELATION OF 1619-2O 45 

of the district should not come that year, as usual, to 
the court for examination and graduation as licenti- 
ates, but promised them their degrees for the follow- 
ing year. In addition to this, he ordered that the 
news from Leatum should not be divulged to the peo- 
ple. Although the gates of the city of Paquin and 
those of the royal palace had always had a strong 
guard of soldiers, he doubled the guard and closed 
the gates at sunset. And although, according to the 
custom of the Chinese, people could enter wearing 
spectacles and a mask, now, as a greater precaution, 
when one came through the gates of the city they 
made him show his face, in order that they might 
know whether he was a friend or not, and in order 
that enemies might not come into the city unper- 
ceived. All this has been brought about by their 
fear. The king likewise ordered that four hundred 
thousand soldiers should be stationed at different 
places and posts of the province of Leatum to impede 
the passage of the Tartars. The Corias, who were 
subject to China, sent the king seven hundred horses 
as a present, and ten thousand infantry to help in the 
war. 

The western Tartars, hearing of the good fortune 
of the eastern Tartars, came upon invitation to the 
aid of the latter, but were defeated by the Chinese. 
Another neighboring nation also came for the same 
purpose, but they were bought off by the Chinese 
with a great amount of silver, and so they returned 
to their homes satisfied. 

Finally, the best captains joined together to act 
upon this matter. But their efforts were quite un- 
successful, because, when they entered further into 
the interior of Tartaria than was safe, the Tartars, 



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46 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

awaiting a good opportunity, fired into them on all 
sides, wounded and killed the most celebrated Chi- 
nese captains, and destroyed almost all of the army 
that was there last year, 1619. It is a common saying 
in China that all the brave people died at this time, 
and that if now the Tartar should come he would 
meet with no resistance, and that he could easily 
make himself master of everything. It is estimated 
that the total number killed, part of whom died by 
the sword, part from unbearable cold, part from 
hunger, and part from lack of other necessaries, 
reaches three hundred thousand. But this loss is in- 
significant to a people who are so numerous as the 
Chinese are today. 

At the beginning of that year, 16 19, the king of 
these Tartars -who is even now styled king of 
Paquin, just as if he had already conquered it®- 
sent to the king of China a memorial of complaints 
against the Chinese, reciting in it reasons for his re- 
volt (for it must be supposed that he was formerly in 
a certain way subject) . These reasons I will briefly 
state, ist, because some years ago the Chinese had 
killed his grandfather; 2d, because, when he was at 
war with the northern Tartars, the Chinese aided 
them against him; 3d, because the Chinese had often 
gone into his country to plunder, and had captured 
some people, and, when he had made complaints of 
this injury to the mandarins of Leatum, they had con- 
tented themselves with degrading [acortar^ the de- 
linquents, whereas they well deserved death ; 4th, be- 
cause the Chinese had broken up a marriage for 
which he was making arrangements with the north- 

^ Referring to the Manchu chief Noorhachu (see vol. xvin, 
note 63) . His grandfather was named Huen. 



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i620-i62i] RELATION OF 1619-20 47 

era Tartars, a rupture which he deeply felt; 15th, 
because the Chinese had destroyed the grain-fields 
that his people had near the great walls, the strong 
ramparts that divide the two kingdoms, and had 
driven off a great quantity of stock that his people 
also had there ; 6th, because the Chinese had induced 
other Tartars, his enemies, to write him some very 
offensive letters ; and, 7th, because in different wars 
the Chinese of Leatum had aided his enemies, al- 
though this was without the knowledge of the king of 
China. Wherefore he asked that the Chinese king 
should order the people of Leatum to be punished 
as their crimes merited, and threatened that if this 
were not done he would take the punishment into his 
own hands, as he had, indeed, already begun to do. 

The king of China made no answer to this 
memorial, for both he and the mandarins think that 
they have not broken any of the agreements entered 
into with the Tartars, and that all that the Tartars 
say is false - except that they admit that they killed 
the Tartar king's grandfather, but only because he 
had been caught robbing in the Chinese territory. 
It is known that since this occurred bloody war has 
gone on between these two populous and powerful 
nations; that the Tartars have always gained the 
advantage therein; and that if they had so desired 
they could have come to the very gates of the court 
of Paquin, since fear has taken such hold upon the 
Chinese that they have closed all the gates of the city, 
except one which they use, and have made another 
wall completely encircling the one that was already 
around the city. 

The persecution against the Christians and against 
our Society which has been going on in China dur- 



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48 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

ing the past years is now mild. Hence people are 
being converted to Christianity as formerly; and our 
fathers are safe, for a great mandarin presented to 
the king a memorial in our favor, in which he re- 
futed the calumnies that a powerful enemy of ours 
had launched against us, and that had been the cause 
of this persecution. And, although the king made 
no answer, by his silence he consents to our fathers* 
remaining in China, for it was asked in the memorial 
that our fathers should not leave that kingdom; and 
since the mandarins know that the king has seen the 
memorial, and that he tacitly consents to it, they also, 
are satisfied with it. As this same memorial has 
been circulated throughout the whole of China, 
everybody has learned of our innocence and of the 
excellence of the law of God, which was dwelt upon 
at length in the memorial. Accordingly, as they 
inform us from here, a great number of literati and 
mandarins have become friendly toward Ours, and 
wish them to spread the holy gospel to the most in- 
terior parts of China. Hence it is believed that from 
this time on bur holy law will take deeper root in 
this kingdom. 

The bishop of Japon, Don Diego Valente, of our 
Society, came this year to Macan, where he is de- 
tained because of the bloody persecution in Japon. 
Because of the persecution, also. Father Matos,*^ who 
went to Rome as procurator and took a number of 
our men for Japon, left part of them in India; while 
ten who went with him to Macan have been de- 
tained there. 

^ Gabriel de Matos was born at Vidigueira, Portugal, in 1572, 
and entered the Jesuit order at the age of sixteen. He spent 
tvi^enty years in the Japan missions, and later was provincial of 



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1 620-1621] RELATION OF 1619-2O 49 

Father Nicolas Trigaucio ^ went to China as proc- 
urator, and returned this year with some of Ours. 
Some of them, for reasons unknown to me, he left in 
India, and seven he took with him to Macan. 

Of the members who came with these two father 
procurators, five died during the trip over, after 
leaving Lisboa. But if the persecution continues in 
Japon as it is at present, they will not be missed. In- 
deed there will be too many of Ours, for even now 
there is so great a number in Macan that it is often 
said that there is not standing-room in our college. 

Of the Kingdoms of Japon 
I will begin my account of the affairs of this king- 
dom with the cruel and bloody persecution against 
Christianity which is now at such a height, and in 
which they put so many to death for the faith that, 
to me, it seems a picture of what happened in the 
primitive church during the early persecutions by 
the emperors. What I have said may be realized 
from part of a letter dated in Nangasaqui October 
14, 1619, from Father Matheo de Couros,® provincial 
of Japon, to Father Valerio de Ledesma, provincial 

Malabar; and he died in Januan% 1633, either at Cochin or at 
Macao (according to differing authorities). 

^ Nicolas Trigault was born at Douai, France, in 1577, and 
became a Jesuit novice when seventeen years old. As a student, he 
made a specialty of Oriental languages, and in 16 10 entered the 
China mission, of which he was long in charge ~ meanwhile be- 
coming versed in Chinese history and literature, concerning which, 
as well as the Jesuit missions there, Trigault wrote various books 
and memoirs. He died November 14, 1628, at either Nanking or 
Hang-tcheou. 

® Matheo de Curos was born at Lisbon in 1568, and became a 
Jesuit when fifteen years old ; three years later, he left Europe for 
Japan, where during many years he occupied high positions in his 
order. He died at Fuscimo (Fushimi?), October 29, 1633. 



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so THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol 19 

of these islands. Translated from Portuguese into 
Spanish it is as follows: " In regard to news from 
Japon I will not write you at length, since I under- 
stand that the father visitor has done so. In tem- 
poral affairs everything is quiet. Persecution of 
Christians has been and is very severe in Meaco, 
where almost sixty are prisoners for the faith. Five 
or six of these Christians died in prison there, 
thoroughly resigned to the divine will. In this city 
of Nangasaqui there are twenty-eight imprisoned for 
Christ, in three prisons. In Omura seven religious 
are imprisoned, four of the Order of St. Dominic, 
one of the Order of St. Francis, and two of our 
Society. With them are imprisoned ten other Chris- 
tians. Of the inhabitants of the same city of Omura 
three were martyred - Lino, Pedro, and Thome- 
the first, because when he was guarding the prison 
in which the religious I have mentioned were con- 
fined, he allowed too much food to be given to the 
holy prisoners, as he was a Christian at heart him- 
self; the second, because from time to time he sent 
food to them; and the third, because he carried the 
food. All three were promised their lives if they 
would renounce our holy law; but they chose rather 
to die, in order that they might live forever in 
heaven." 

In another letter dated November 10, 1619, the 
same father writes : " On the sixth of October, 
Meaco oflfered to heaven the richest gift that has 
ever been seen in that great and populous city. The 
gift consisted of fifty-four Christians, who were 
burned alive for the faith of our Lord Jesus Christ 
We have already written how there was in the pub- 
lic prison at Meaco a large number of the faithful. 



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16201621] RELATION OF 1619-20 5 1 

incarcerated because they would not bend the knee 
to Baal. Nine of these died in the prison on account 
of the excessive labors and hardships which they 
suffered there. They died thoroughly resigned to 
the divine will, and rejoicing in their happy fate. 
When the emperor came to the court of the Dayri/^ 
the metropolis of the whole of Japon, they told him 
of the imprisoned Christians ; and since he is an im- 
placable enemy of our holy faith, he ordered that 
they should all be burned alive. Thereupon twenty- 
six stakes were set up in a public place in front of the 
temple of Daybut, a large and magnificent building, 
at a distance from the river that flows by the place. 
On Sunday, the sixth of October, they took the holy 
prisoners from the jail, not sparing even the tender 
young girls nor the babes at their mothers* breasts. 
They marched them through the principal streets 
of Meaco, accompanied by a crier who announced 
that they had been condemned to be burned alive be- 
cause they were Christians. Most of the soldiers 
of Jesus Christ were dressed in white, and their faces 
were so happy and so resolute that the power of the 
divine grace which upheld them was plainly shown. 
They encouraged one another for the trial, and with 
great calmness bade good-by to the friends and ac- 
quaintances whom they met along the way. From 
time to time they proclaimed aloud that they were 
dying for the faith of our Lord Jesus Christ. When 
they had come to the place where they were to offer 

^^ Dairi (" the great interior "), an appellation of the mikado of 
Japan, also of his palace in the city of Kioto (anciently called 
Miako). The temple referred to is the Daibutsu ("great 
Buddha"), located not far from the palace. See Rein's Japariy 
pp. 442-470, for account of Buddhism and other religions in 
Japan, and description and plan of Kioto. 



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52 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

their lives to the Lord as an acceptable sacrifice, they 
appeared more joyful, as does one who is about to 
gain the eternal reward. Two by two they were now 
tied to the stakes, the women with their babes in their 
arms. Some of our dojicos- people of our Society 
like lay brothers, who aid us in preaching ^^ - as 
well as other Christians who went to the place to en- 
courage the martyrs, were present. But the servants 
of the Lord showed such remarkable strength that 
they really encouraged the spectators. When the 
wood was finally set on fire, the majority of these 
fortunate martyrs turned their eyes toward heaven, 
and, without moving them in the least, remained in 
this posture after death. During the first few days 
a strict watch was kept over the blessed bodies to 
prevent the Christians from taking them away, but 
through the efforts of our fathers who live in that 
city some have already been recovered." So far I 
quote from the father provincial. To this I will add 
some points taken from other letters and relations. 

The above-mentioned father provincial is a strong 
pillar in Japon, and an excellent interpreter. He is 
director of the Christian community there, by virtue 
of a brief from his Holiness, which arrived last year, 
and in which it is ordered that in default of a bishop 
in Japon the provincial of the Society who may be in 
office at the time shall rule that bishopric and Chris- 
tian community. Therefore, although the bishop 
has come, the provincial has governed up to the 
present time, and continues to govern, because, as I 
have said, conditions in Japon do not admit of the 

^*Cf. Jesuit Relations (Cleveland reissue) xxvif, p. 311, and 
XXXV, p. 277 (and elsewhere), for mention of these helpers (Fr. 
dogiques) in the Jesuit missions of New France. 



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1620-1621] RELATION OF 1619-20 53 

bishop's going there, since it is feared that the situa- 
tion may be aggravated and persecution increased 
thereby. Consequently his Lordship is now in Macan. 
About two years ago our father general appointed 
Father Francisco Vieira as visitor of Japon. He 
is a man already past sixty, and, indeed, is nearing 
seventy; but in spite of this he is so vigorous that 
when the persecution was at its height he, with great 
courage, went from Macan to Japon. He was often 
in imminent danger of being imprisoned. He took 
refuge in Canzuga, a place in the lands of Arima, 
where he abode in a hut of straw. Here, on account 
of the hardships he endured, he was frequently at- 
tacked by a kidney disease which caused him great 
pain. Once he had so violent an attack that he sent 
in great haste to get holy oil in order that he might 
take the holy sacrament. Again the same disease, 
accompanied by a severe pain above the heart, at- 
tacked him with such violence that he could scarcely 
breathe. So he determined that extreme unction 
should be administered to him; but, remembering 
that he had a written signature of our holy father, 
he placed it with great devotion over his heart and 
commended himself to the saint ^^~ through whose 
merits the Lord caused the pain to be assuaged with- 
in an hour, and he became entirely well. From Can- 
zuga the father visitor went to Nangasaqui, to take 
ship to return to Macan. He was kindly received, 
and with due precaution taken into the house of a 

^2 Probably referring to St. Francis Xavier, who had been, 
seventy years before, so prominent a missionary in Japan and 
India. The word *' saint,'' however, is here used by anticipation, 
as Xavier was not canonized at the time of this document. That 
ceremony was performed, for both Xavier and Ignatius de Loyola, 
on March 12, 1622; they had been beatified on July 27, 1609. 



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54 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol 19 

certain Portuguese. But still he ran great risk of 
being imprisoned by the servants of the heathen 
president, who were searching for another religious, 
named Fray Bartholome Gutierrez, of the Order of 
San Agustin, who was wearing the Spanish dress. 
They suddenly entered three Portuguese houses, and 
the father visitor scarcely had time to retire from one 
house to another. In short, the labors and dangers 
that he suffered in Japon were great. But they had 
no power to turn him from so glorious an undertak- 
ing until he had been there fourteen months. Dur- 
ing that time he had visited all the Christians and all 
the posts that are ordinarily visited during times of 
peace. He had to visit Macan, where most of our 
fathers were taking refuge from the persecution; 
the missions of Cochin China, and of China, where 
there was also persecution, were likewise under his 
charge. Moreover, the bishop of Japon and the two 
procurators of China and Japon, who were return- 
ing from Rome, had arrived at Macan. For all 
these and other reasons he was obliged to leave Japon 
with great grief in his heart, and even with copious 
tears. Accordingly, on the tw^enty-sixth of October, 
619, he embarked in a patache which went as flag- 
ship of five galeotas. He finally reached Macan, 
where, a few days after, on Christmas eve, he died. 
Father Geronimo Rodriguez, who was there, and 
who had been appointed by our father general in the 
private assignment, succeeded him in oflSce. 

Father Carlos Espinola, of our Society, is still in 
prison, waiting each day for the crown. It has in- 
curred to me to insert here a letter which he wrote to 
the father provincial of this province of Filipinas. 
It reads as follows : 



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1620-1621] RELATION OF 1619-20 55 

" The Lord so ordained it that at midnight after 
St Lucia's day I was made a prisoner, together with 
Brother Ambrosio Fernandez, my companion, and 
Domingo Jorge, a Portuguese at whose house we 
were seized. The soldiers told us that they wished 
us to go on board a ship that was about to sail for the 
city of Manila. On the one hand I regretted this, 
because I was being driven from Japon, and was los- 
ing a good opportunity to give my life for the serv- 
ice of God, which for many years I had desired to 
do. On the other hand, I was delighted because His 
most holy will was being fulfilled in me. We made 
a very different voyage [from the one promised], 
for we were carried from Nangasaqui to this prison 
of Omura, in company with two religious of St. 
Dominic and three of our Japanese servants. They 
took us through some of the streets of Nangasaqui 
and finally embarked us for this place, handcuffed 
and with chains about our necks. It was daytime, 
and all the city turned out to see the spectacle and to 
take leave of us with cries and tears. Father Fray 
Thomas, of St. Dominic, and father Fray Apolinar, 
of St. Francis, with six Japanese, had already been 
here for some time. Here we are in great concord, 
just as if we were of the same religious order. And 
although there is no lack of suffering, because the 
house affords us but poor shelter, and although at 
times the guards will not allow anything to come 
in from outside except the little given us as rations 
(which is just enough to starve on) , yet at times it 
is ordered by the Lord, in His fatherly care, that in 
the gifts sent us by the devout we have more than 
we could desire. Above all, suffering for the love of 
God, and the expectation of the happy fortune that 



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56 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

may befall us, makes it all easy to us and hardships a 
source of joy. I am most content with the favors 
received, and, although I fear that because of my 
sins - because I have not worked in this vineyard as 
I should have done, and because of my great ingrati- 
tude for the many mercies that the Lord has be- 
stowed upon me - I have been driven from Japon as 
useless, still I console myself that I have come to be 
manacled and imprisoned in the service of God, 
which is no small mercy. I also trust that His Di- 
vine Majesty, who in awarding these crowns some- 
times does not consider the merits of men, but in His 
infinite mercy bestows them generously, will con- 
sider it right to reward this poor beggar as well as 
these holy religious that deserve more than I. I beg 
that your Reverence, in visceribus lesu Christiy will 
help me to give due thanks to the Lord, quod dignus 
factus sim pro nomine lesu contumeliam pati^^ and 
to obtain for me my profession for this novitiate with 
holy sacrifices, etc. From this prison of Omura, 
March 5, 161 9. From your servant in the Lord, 

Carlos, a prisoner for Christ" 

This ends the letter of Father Carlos. I have 
nothing to add to it except that this Domingo Jorge, 
whom he mentions therein, was burned alive, in No- 
vember, in Nangasaqui, because he sheltered preach- 
ers of the holy gospel in his house. Brother Leo- 
nardo, a Japanese who had been imprisoned for three 
years, and four others, were burned with him. After 
this, eleven other Japanese were beheaded. Later on, 
in January, 620, Brother Ambrosio Fernandez, a 

^^The two Latin phrases read thus in English respectively: 
" in the bowels of Jesus Christ," and " that I may be counted 
worthy of suffering reproach [or ignominy] for the name of Jesus." 



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1620-1621] RELATION OF 1619-20 57 

Portuguese who was the companion of Father Carlos 
Espinola, died in jail from hunger, and excessive 
cold, and the hardships and discomforts of the prison, 
and thus gained the martyr's crown. He was seventy 
years old. 

Although so many in Japon have thus become 
blessed martyrs, two persons bent the knee to Baal 
and miserably recanted for fear of torture. A Jap- 
anese religious who was in Rome and Spain, and 
who is now an apostate, did the same thing. He of- 
ten says that when he was in Madrid he knew that 
certain religious were persuading the king to con- 
quer Japon, but that our fathers dissuaded him from 
this. He adds that, although it is a fact that religion 
is our primary motive for entering Japon, yet it is 
our intention through religion to prepare matters 
for conquering the country. With this and other 
lies this apostate has done great harm to Christianity. 
The governors and principal men of Japon are so 
thoroughly convinced of our evil intentions that they 
say that one of the principal reasons for keeping the 
Hollanders in Japon is for their own greater security 
and to annoy us. They even have begun to discuss 
the possibility of conquering the Filipinas, in order 
not to have the Spaniards so near. On the other 
hand, it is said that in Japon they are thinking of 
driving out all Europeans from that kingdom - 
Spanish, Hollanders, Portuguese and English. If 
this is done it will not be possible for any of our 
fathers to remain there. At present they escape no- 
tice among other Europeans by wearing European 
dress - 1 mean that of Castilians and Portuguese ; 
but if the Europeans are driven from Japon this will 
no longer be possible. 



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58 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

Passing from spiritual affairs to those temporal 
affairs of Japon that concern these islands, let me say 
that on the twelfth of July, 619, there arrived at 
Firando, a port of Japon designated for the trade of 
the Hollanders, four of their ships, which, as I in- 
formed you last year, have been off the coast of Ma- 
nila. When our fleet prepared to sally out, the Dutch 
ships withdrew in good order, carrying with them a 
great many sick, beside the large number who had 
died from disease and from an infection which they 
say was given them in Bigan, a village on the coast of 
Manila. Since this is not known here, it must be 
their own imagination. Many of their people were 
drowned, also. In one ship which sank suddenly 
many people were drowned, among them a large 
number of Japanese, who were brought from Japon 
in the service of the Hollanders. These ships plun- 
dered nothing but three Chinese vessels of little 
value, which were coming to this city. A ship and 
a patache were sent from this coast of Manila to 
Maluco. It is well known that the ship was lost on 
the same coast by running aground, although the 
Hollanders hide the fact. The patache, driven by 
contrary winds, soon put into harbor. It reached 
Firando on the fourteenth of July; and as soon as it 
secured munitions, provisions, and people, it was sent 
to wait for the Portuguese galeotas which were go- 
ing from Macan to Japon. But it was the Lord's 
will that it should not find them, and so it returned 
to Firando. On October 3, however, it was sent to 
Pulocondor [/.^., Condor Island], opposite Cam- 
boxa, with thirty men, fourteen pieces of artillery, 
munitions and provisions, to search for the crew and 
artillery of a ship that the Hollanders lost there. 



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1620-1621] RELATION OF 1619-2O 59 

On the twelfth of October of the same year, 619, 
another ship, greatly injured and with its crew 
wounded and crippled, came to the same port of 
Firando from Patane, on the further side of Malaca. 
It, with two other Dutch ships, had fought, in the 
port of Patane, two English ships that were there. 
Although anchored and unprepared, the latter 
fought to the death, over the anchor-ropes. The 
smaller English vessel, seeing that it could not de- 
fend itself, and that there was no. help for it, blew 
itself up by setting fire to the powder. The larger 
ship, when nearly all the crew were dead, and the 
general himself had been killed by a ball, was over- 
come and boarded by the Hollanders. They say that 
they secured two hundred thousand pesos in that 
ship. It may be true, but I do not vouch for that. 
Two Portuguese had gone from the shore, on the 
preceding day, to see the English ships. They were 
seized by the Hollanders, who carried them to Japon 
in the ship which I mentioned, together with some 
Englishmen. When the prisoners reached Firando 
they formed a plot and escaped to land in that king- 
dom, where all the world is allowed. 

The quantity of munitions and provisions which 
the Hollanders secure every year from Japon for 
supplying all their fortifications is very great, and 
therefore if they were not harbored there, it would 
be a great injury to them and of much benefit to these 
islands. 

Of the Islands of Maluco 
With the lure of the cloves and drugs which are 
found in these Malucas Islands, more and more ships 
from foreign nations are continually coming to them. 



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6o THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol 19 

The French have built a factory in Macasar and 
havq at present four ships there. Between the Eng- 
lish and the Hollanders there is constant strife. In 
Jaba and Sumatra the English have twenty galleons; 
the Dutch general set out for that place with sixteen 
galleons which he had collected, but it is not known 
how the affair has ended, although it is known that 
there has been war between the two nations. 

This year Don Luis de Bracamonte was sent from 
this city of Manila as governor of the military posts 
in Maluco. He took with him two galleys and four 
or five pataches, loaded with a great quantity of sup- 
plies and more than two hundred infantry. When 
the galleys and the pataches had entered our fortress 
of Terrenate, one of them, called the "Sant Buena 
Ventura," remained behind as rearguard. A Dutch 
ship well supplied with artillery attacked it, and in 
sight of our own fortress overpowered it. Our gal- 
leys then sailed out and attacked the Dutch ship; 
but the wind arose, and thus the enemy had an op- 
portunity to take shelter under their fortress at Ma- 
layo. This victory was felt by us, because the enemy 
took from the patache a quantity of money, three 
thousand fanegas of rice, and other provisions and 
munitions belonging to his Majesty. The worst of 
all is that they took over one hundred men - Span- 
iards and Indians - and the capture cost them noth- 
ing. May God remedy this by giving us some great 
victory by means of which the loss may be repaired. 

On the way from India to Maluco two Portuguese 
galeotas encountered and conquered a good Dutch 
ship loaded with cloth and other merchandise; the 
Hollanders themselves escaped in the batel [i.e., 
launch]. In the same way, one of our pataches took 



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1620-1621] RELATION OF 1619-20 61 

from the people of Terrenate a ship loaded with 
provisions. 

Of Eastern India 
When Don Alonso Fajardo, governor of the Fili- 
pinas, saw the necessity for having a strong fleet here 
for such troubles as might arise with the Holland 
enemy, and that the impossibility of preparing it here 
was as great as the necessity for it, he sent Captain 
Vidana to Eastern India to arrange wdth the viceroy 
that he should send us some galleons to help us in the 
defense of this archipelago. At the same time he 
sent the viceroy a very rich present, consisting of 
various articles of great value. In return, the vice- 
roy sent a very costly present to our governor, and 
also an urea, which may prove very useful when 
occasion arises, for it mounts twenty-four pieces of 
artillery. Thereupon the captain returned to Fili- 
pinas, because India will have little power to defend 
herself against her enemies, even without dividing 
her small force with other kingdoms. 

Of these Filipinas Islands 
I will begin a discussion of this year's events in 
these islands with an account of the solemn fiestas of 
the immaculate conception of the holy Virgin. Let 
me say that these fiestas have been such that in the 
grandeur with which they have been celebrated, Ma- 
nila has not been inferior to places in Europe and 
America. They lasted nineteen days. Leaving aside 
the celebration by the laity - the bull-fights, mas- 
querades, etc., and the many illuminations and fire- 
works which took place every night, and for which 
the Chinese are very famous ~ I will describe only 



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62 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

the ecclesiastical part. The festivities were held [as 
a rule] in the cathedral. On the first day, which 
was Sunday, December 8, they were celebrated there 
with great magnificence. In the afternoon there was 
given a drama on the beauty of Rachel. On Monday 
the religious of St. Francis held their fiesta in the 
same church. In the morning one of the grandest 
processions ever seen in this vicinity set out from 
their house for the cathedral. First came the whole 
force of Manila in perfect order, the arquebusiers 
and musketeers firing their pieces at intervals. Next 
came a rich standard bearing the image of the con- 
ception of the Virgin, and at her feet Escoto ^^* on 
his knees, inscribed, Dignare me laudare te^ etc. 
After the standard, which was borne by the father 
guardian, came a lay friar called Fray Junipero- 
who, like the other, is regarded as a holy and sim- 
ple man; he was dancing, and calling out a thou- 
sand silly phrases about divine things.^^ Now fol- 
lowed banners, crosses, and candlesticks. After these 
came on floats eight saints of this order, so richly 
adorned that the people did not know whether to 
marvel most that there should be so large a quantity 
of gold, jewels, and precious stones in Manila, or 
that the fathers should have collected so many of 
them. These saints were accompanied by eight 
groups of Indian dancers - one with each saint, and 
each with its own device. One represented canons, 
one cardinals, another pastors, etc. The last sang 
while dancing. The intercalary stanza was: 

^^* This IS a reference to the celebrated scholastic Duns Scotus. 

^*The text reads thus: Junto al estandarte que lleuaua el Pe 
Guardian yha vn fratle lego llamado fr, Junipero y es tenido por 
sto sencillo como el otro vaylando y diciendo mil frialdades a lo 
diuino. 



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1 6201621] RELATION OF 1619-20 63 

Now we can speak aloud, 

And without fear; 
We can cry aloud to all the world, 

Without misgiving. 

The dancers repeated this aloud three times, and 
then danced with their timbrels in their hands until 
they were exhausted. Last of all came the most holy 
Virgin of the conception. The procession reached 
the cathedral and the fiesta was held. In the after- 
noon they presented a very devout drama, on the 
martyrs of Japon. 

On Tuesday the fiesta of St. Augustine began. In 
the morning this order likewise had a very grand 
procession, in which the soldiery led, as on Mon- 
day. There were many dancers, etc. In the after- 
noon there were balls, Indian dances [mitotes]^ and 
a thousand other lesser amusements. 

On Wednesday we of the Society began our fes- 
tivities; and, although we had no procession, as is 
our custom, the celebration at night was by no means 
inferior. On the contrary, there was burned a great 
quantity of illuminations - rockets, bombs, and other 
fireworks. Our people played a thousand musical 
instruments. During the day we held mass, in our 
impressive manner, and then had a sermon; and in 
the afternoon we presented a remarkable drama on 
the conception. All the people said they had never 
seen anything like it. 

On Thursday the fiesta was again held in the 
cathedral. In the afternoon there was another 
drama, about the sale of Joseph. 

On Friday the Augustinian Recoletos began their 
fiesta. In the morning there was a great procession. 
First came all the soldiery -not only the regular 



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64 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol 19 

troops, as was the case on former days, but all the 
companies composed of citizens of this city as well. 
Master-of-camp Don Geronimo de Silva, who was 
on horseback, commanded the troops. After the sol- 
diery followed a very fine procession. In the after- 
noon was presented the drama of the Prince of Tran- 
silvania, in which they brought out our father as- 
sistant, Alonso Carrillo, in a long taffeta robe and 
a linen frill with points. In order to announce who 
he was, a person who took part in the drama said, 
" This is one of those who there are called Jesuits, 
and here we name Theatins." ^** 

On Saturday there were two fiestas. One was held 
in the cathedral, as the preceding ones had been, 
while the other was at our house -where it seemed 
expedient to hold it in order that the cathedral and 
the religious of St. Francis should not monopolize 
the entire celebration, and acquire such a right for 
the future. That night there were many more il- 
luminations and fireworks than there had been on the 
previous Wednesday. At nightfall our collegians 
of San Joseph formed a procession remarkable 
enough to have appeared in Madrid. At the head 
were three triumphal chariots. In the first were the 
clarion-players; in the second the singers, singing 
motets and ballads; and in the third various musical 

*^* The Order of Theatins was founded in 1524, by St. Cajetan 
of Chieti or Teate (whence Theatinus) and three others, one of 
whom later became Pope Paul IV. Their vows were very strict, 
for they were even forbidden to solicit alms. They were the first 
congregation in the Church of regular clerics or canons regular 
{clerici regulares or canonici regulares). On account of the early 
renown for piety which they acquired, it became usual to style 
any devout person a Theatino or Chietino. They were also some- 
times called Tolentines, from the name of their principal church 
dedicated to St. Nicholas of Tolentine. Their dress being similar 



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16201621] RELATION OF 1619-20 65 

instruments - harps, guitars, rebecks, etc. Next came 
the standard of the immaculate conception, carried 
by Don Luis Faxardo, a student and a brother of 
the governor. At his side came Don Geronimo de 
Silva, master-of-camp and general of the artillery, 
and Don Fernando Centene, general of the galleys. 
Then came the alcaldes, the regidors, and other gen- 
tlemen, all on horseback and very richly dressed. 
These were followed by all the collegians, also on 
horseback two by two, wearing their usual robes of 
brown silk with facings made of fine scarlet cloth, 
and with shoulder-stripes of lace. Their caps were 
a blaze of gold and precious stones. About their 
necks they all wore many chains and jewels. Each 
of the prominent nobility of the city had ahead of 
him, as a body-guard, six or eight servants, with 
large tapers of white wax in their hands. They car- 
ried staffs having upon them large placards with vari- 
ous pictures, letters, and hieroglyphics, all appropri- 
ate to the occasion. Next came a very prominent 
collegian carrying a staff. Upon it was a placard 
with the oath (which they took the following day) 
always to defend the immaculate conception of the 
most holy Virgin. Finally came a very beautiful 
triumphal chariot drawn by two savages, and deco- 
rated with many arches of flowers and gilded figures 

to that of the Jesuits, they were through ignorance often mistaken 
for them. The term was also applied to some of the Jesuits who 
had been in Florida and afterward went to Manila; to the Jesuit 
missionaries in Japan; and to the first Jesuits in the Philip- 
pines. Paul IV wished to unite his order with the Jesuits, but his 
request was not acceded to by St. Ignatius Loyola. The Theatins 
were never widely known outside of Italy.- The editors are in- 
debted for this note to Revs. Jose Algue, S.J., Manila Observa- 
tory, E. I. Devitt, S.J., Georgetown College, and T. C. Middle- 
ton, O.S.A., Villanova College. See also Addis and Arnold's 
Catholic Diet,, pp. 792, 793. 



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66 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

of angels. In the midst of these and among a great 
number of lights went, enthroned, a beautiful carved 
figure of our Lady of the Conception. Before the 
chariot was a band of clarion-players. They fol- 
lowed eight children dressed in silk garments and 
carrying silver candles. They represented angels 
with candles in their hands, singing and reciting in 
praise of the Virgin. After the chariot came Orig- 
inal Sin, tied with a chain, and so well made up for 
his part that he became a mark for the blows and 
pinches of the people. Next day there was another 
very magnificent fiesta, in which a dance was given 
by more than sixty Japanese, who danced and sang to 
the accompaniment of various instruments, accord- 
ing to their custom. 

After this, on Sunday, the Order of St. Francis 
began their eight-day fiesta. Another was held at 
the port of Cavite, in which, as in Manila, all the 
orders took part - except one, which during all this 
time did not leave its house, enter the cathedral, nor 
display illuminations. About this there was no lack 
of gossiping in the city. 

The effects of last year's comets have been very 
frightful this year, especially in two provinces 
of the Filipinas, Ilocos and Cagayan -- the former of 
which is entirely under the instruction of the fathers 
of St. Augustine. The earthquakes in Ilocos have 
been so violent and so continuous that the people have 
gone about with severe headaches, as if seasick. At 
noon on St. Andrew's day, in the village of Batano, 
the church, the house, and the granary (a very sub- 
stantial one) fell because of the vibrations. The 
friars cast themselves from the windows and thus 
escaped with their lives, although they were badly 



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1 620-162 1 ] RELATION OF 1619-2O 67 

injured. In Dinglas a large portion of the church 
fell, and the prior of the convent leaped through a 
window. In Sinai the church was overturned. 
Great cracks have opened up in the ground in which 
men fall, but only one has lost his life in this way. 
In the mountains of Bigan two distant ranges came 
together and caught between them two heathen vil- 
lages. All the people were buried, only one man es- 
caping. In the province of Cagayan, which is in- 
cluded within the island of Manila and which is un- 
der the instruction of the fathers of St. Dominic, the 
earthquakes were even more horrible. On the same 
day, that of St. Andrew, it seemed that the prophecy 
of the Evangel had come true. On the following 
day, which was the day of Judgment, the earth tossed 
the people with such violence that men were not able 
to keep their seats; and they walked about as dizzy 
and as dazed as if they were intoxicated. In Nueva 
Segovia, the capital of that province, the church was 
demolished, as well as a part of the convent, which 
was a very handsome and substantial structure built 
entirely of stone. The religious there were injured, 
although all escaped in different directions with their 
lives; only two boys perished. The same thing hap- 
pened in the church of St. Vincent of Tocolano, 
which also had very strong walls. Many other tem- 
ples and stone buildings in this province likewise 
fell ; but in order to make my story short, I will not 
mention them separately. Large forests were over- 
thrown; great springs opened up; rivers changed 
their courses; and many other very strange things 
occurred. 

The island of Jolo was at one time subject to the 
king [of Spain], but some years ago it rebelled; and 



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68 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol 19 

now its natives, in company with some other enemies 
of ours, the people of Mindanao, go about with little 
fleets committing robberies upon these seas and do- 
ing all the damage in their power. This year they 
set out with only three caracoas, ships something like 
galleys. But when they discovered that an armed 
fleet of caracoas, which had been equipped in the 
city of Zebu, had set out on the eleventh of Novem- 
ber in search of them, and that another fleet had set 
out from Oton on the same quest, they returned to 
their own country, having committed almost no dam- 
age except that they captured some three Spaniards - 
of whom, they say, they killed two. 

This year there was completed in these islands one 
of the strongest and most remarkable galleons ever 
built here. It was at once equipped, along with an- 
other very large galleon, two [smaller] ones, and a 
patache. In March, 620, this fleet set out for the 
port where they are accustomed to go to watch for 
the Chinese ships that bring merchandise to this city. 
They went to protect the Chinese; for, although it 
was not known that there were Hollanders there, it 
was thought best to take timely precaution, lest they 
come to commit robberies, as they have done in previ- 
ous years. The galleon which went as admiral's ship 
sprang such a leak that it was forced to return to 
port, but when it had arrived there the rest of the 
fleet continued their journey. They were in this place 
[where they meet the Chinese] until the beginning 
of May, when they returned to Cavite. Don Luis 
Fajardo, brother of the governor, went as general of 
the fleet, and, as he was very young, other captains, 
brave and experienced in war, were assigned to him 
as companions and counselors. 



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1620-1621] RELATION OF 1619-2O 69 

The number of ships which have come this year 
to these islands from all parts of the world with rich 
merchandise has been great Some four or five have 
come from Japon, although some of them were lost 
on the coast of Manila with all their large cargoes. 
Some of the Japanese in them were drowned, but 
others escaped to land. From Macan ten Portuguese 
ships have come with much valuable merchandise. 

Last year the governor of the Filipinas sent to 
Macan to buy a very handsome galleon which was 
there. Those who went for the purpose bought it, 
loaded it with merchandise, and left Macan for the 
Filipinas on July 2, 619. They encountered such 
violent storms that at the end of two months, after 
having been in great danger of shipwreck, they re- 
turned to Macan without masts, and with a large 
part of their merchandise so wet and rotted that it 
was worthless - damages frequently sustained under 
such circumstances. They once more equipped them- 
selves, and this year left Macan in the month of 
May. They had a very difficult voyage, but at the 
end of more than twenty days they succeeded in mak- 
ing port in Cavite, on the seventh of June, the first 
day of Pentecost. The galleon is a very fine one, 
and it will be very useful when occasion arises. It 
brought much very rich and valuable merchandise. 

From Great China also have come many ships 
with silks and other merchandise. All these goods 
have been necessary, and indeed they have not even 
sufficed to supply the lack of merchandise which, 
because of the wars of the past years, has been very 
extreme in this city of Manila. There have been, 
moreover, some losses. If the wars with the rebel- 
lious Hollanders should entirely cease, the wealth 



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70 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

and grandeur of these islands would be remarkable. 
Indeed, in spite of these wars and the losses that have 
been sustained, Manila is a very grand city; and 
there are few citiejs in Europe that surpass it in trade 
and traffic, for alniost the whole world comes to these 
islands. 

Since writing this, I have learned that a large 
junk (a certain kind of ship) set out from Japon with 
a large quantity of provisions and munitions of war, 
and with five hundred infantry, whom the Holland- 
ers were bringing to supply and reenforce their 
strongholds in the Malucas. But God was pleased 
that they should run aground on the coast of Japon, 
where everything was lost, and nearly all the people 
were drowned. A galleon likewise set out from 
Japon with a Dutch patache to come to these coasts, 
to steal whatever they could, as they have done in 
years past. But God frustrated their attempts by 
running the galleon aground on Hermosa Island, 
which is between Japon and this country. It is said 
that all those on board were drowned. Although this 
is not known surely, it is a fact that many were lost. 

May God confound their arrogance, in order that 
this land may raise its head; and that the faith of 
Christ may be spread throughout many provinces 
and kingdoms into which the holy Evangel would 
enter were it not hindered by these heretics, who 
have hitherto been such a stumbling-block and so 
great an obstacle in these parts. 

It has occurred to me to write this to your Rever- 
ences as a consolation to many people who wish to 
know about affairs here. May God keep all your 
Reverences, to whose holy sacrifices and prayers I 
earnestly commend myself. Manila, June 14, 1620. 



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COMPULSORY SERVICE BY THE 
INDIANS 

Opinion addressed to his Majesty by Fray Pedro 
de Sant Pablo, preacher and provincial minister of 
the province of Sant Gregorio of the discalced re- 
ligious of the Philipinas Islands, of the Order of the 
seraphic Father St. Francis, for the increase and 
conservation of the said states of his Majesty, by 
reason of the building of ships and repartimiento ^' 
for the service of his Majesty. 

The native Indians of the. Philipinas Islands en- 
joyed great temporal prosperity and peace until the 
year 1609, when Governor Don Juan de Silva es- 
tablished in these islands the shipyards for construct- 
ing the fleets that he built For that purpose he im- 
posed the very burdensome taxes, and made reparti- 
mientos among the natives of the said islands -not 
only personal, but for wine, oil, timber, and other 
supplies and materials, in the greatest quantity. 
That has remained and been established as a custom. 
Those materials and supplies have been taken by 
some without payment, while others have paid the 

^^ The preachers of Charles V said to the Council of the Indias, 
in speaking of the repartimiento system in America: "We hold 
that this most great sin will be the cause of the total destruction 
of the state of Spain, if God does not alter it, or we do not 
amend it ourselves." See Helps's Spanish Conquest^ li, p. 56, 



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72 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

fourth or third part of the just and current value. 
Hence his Majesty owes them a great sum, but he 
cannot pay it, nor has he the money to pay it in these 
islands. When personal services are commanded, 
the Indian, in order not to go to the forests to cut 
and haul the wood, subject to the cruel treatment of 
the Spaniard, incurred debt, and borrowed some 
money at usury; and for the month falling to him, 
he gave another Indian six or seven reals of eight at 
his own cost, in order that the other should go in his 
stead. He who was taxed as his share one-half ar- 
roba of oil went, if he did not have it from his own 
harvest, to the rich man who gathered it; and, not 
having the money wherewith to buy it, he became the 
other's slave or borrowed the money at usurious rates. 
Thus, in the space of ten years, did the country be- 
come in great measure ruined. Some natives took 
to the woods ; others were made slaves ; many others 
were killed ; and the rest were exhausted and ruined : 
all of which is evident from the summary of the ac- 
count that I send his Majesty with the present. 
There can this truth be seen and recognized. In 
order that the injury committed may be more clearly 
evident, it is to be noted that these Indians are in 
the depth of poverty, and have no possessions of 
value. Neither do they inherit anything save a little 
plot of land which they sow with rice - not to sell, 
but only for what is necessary for their families. 
Their houses are built on four posts ; their walls are 
of bamboo and thatch, and are very small. Such 
was the spoliation committed on a people so poor and 
wretched that they would say: " Father, I will give 
the king twenty reals of eight annually, so that 
they will spare me from repartimientos;" but, hav- 



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16201621] COMPULSORY SERVICE BY INDIANS 73 

ing investigated, all their property is not worth an 
equal sum. This granted, request is made, by the 
common opinion and consent of the governor, Audi- 
encia, bishops, orders, the Spaniards, and the In- 
dians themselves, for permission from your Majesty 
for the following : 

The Indians of all these islands are willing to con- 
tribute annually to his Majesty all the aid that may 
be necessary, and what they are able to contribute, 
for the defense and conservation of fhese islands, the 
building of ships, and all other things needful, in 
the following manner. Every household and family 
will give, each year, such a sum as may be ordered 
and as shall appear necessary, in this manner. The 
Indians living at Manila, inasmuch as they have 
more property and money, will give one or two pesos 
per house; and those more remote the half or third 
part of that sum, or the fraction that shall seem ad- 
visable, inasmuch as they are less established and are 
very poor. This sum shall be collected and placed in 
one depository, which shall be in common for all the 
islands, and shall be in charge of a faithful person; 
and it shall have three keys. This money having 
been collected, whenever his Majesty may need one, 
two, or three vessels, more or less, in these islands, and 
shall choose either to buy them in India or to build 
and construct them in these islands, he needs fifty 
thousand pesos for that purpose. After first taking 
from his royal chest and treasury the usual sum, 
the balance and remainder- which is generally lev- 
ied from the Indians at very low rates, or without 
paying them at all - let him get from that chest of the 
common fund of the Indians. Then the sum given 
by his Majesty and the aid furnished by the Indians 



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74 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol. 19 

can be put together, and those boats built or bought 
without making repartimientos among the communi- 
ties of the Indians. If common seamen be needed, 
then a proclamation can be issued to see if there are 
any volunteers who will sign the register; and surely 
there will be many, as usual. The number lacking 
[to serve as volunteers] shall be paid from that fund 
[i.e.y the natives' chest] and from what his Majesty 
usually g^ives them. The same shall be done if sol- 
diers are needed for Terrenate, or rice and any other 
supplies. Thus will everything necessary be pro- 
vided, and that without delay f and the country will 
not be harassed or the Indians afflicted. 

Supposing that from the sum given this year by 
the Indians, there should be a surplus, because of no 
war or shipbuilding, then that sum would be kept, 
and the following year there would be no reparti- 
miento nor would the amount be again collected. 
And supposing that the sum that was collected 
should be insufficient because of the many expenses 
of that year, then the Indians would be again asked 
for what should seem necessary. If this were done 
with due system and method in using the chest, and 
in a Christian spirit, each Indian would be saved, 
besides his discomforts, persecutions, and afflictions, 
more than fifteen or twenty pesos; his Majesty would 
be served better; and many mortal sins committed by 
the officials -who rob the Indians on one side, and 
on the other defraud his Majesty's treasury- would 
be avoided; for (as has been experienced) the 
alcaldes-mayor or judges who go to get rice and the 
other things belonging to his Majesty send it by the 
quantity of five hundred baskets at cheaper rates. 
They get another equal amount for themselves, for 



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1 6201621] COMPULSORY SERVICE BY INDIANS 75 

which repartimiento is made among the Indians at 
the same prices [as for the king]. Many deaths 
among the Indians in the shipbuilding would also 
be avoided; for, supposing that ships are to be built 
in the islands (which must be avoided as much as 
possible), they can be built by the Chinese for pay. 
Consequently the Indian will live comfortably, and 
will feel more love toward the Spaniard and his 
king, and will attend better to his soul and the 
service of God. He will become a man of worship 
and devotion ; while in temporal affairs he will be- 
come more prosperous, and will have something with 
which he can be of use to his Majesty in case of any 
necessity. 

Prostrate at your Majesty's feet, I desire to beg 
one thing, in which lies the wealth and prosperity 
of this land, or its destruction. Your royal Majesty 
can remedy it - although it be at the loss of his 
office to the governor of these islands; for in no 
other way is there any relief, either with royal de- 
crees or orders from your Majesty -or in any other 
way -by your Majesty ordering the said governor 
that the ships sail from this port for Nueva Espaiia 
by St. John's or St. Peter's day;^^ for they can do it, 
as they used to do. In this way no shipwrecks will 
occur, just as therie were none before. The losses 
and shipwrecks caused by not observing this cannot 
be told. I will mention as an example only the case 
of the present year. Inasmuch as they sailed late, 
two hundred and eighty persons died in the flag- 
ship, and all the rest arrived in a dying condition. 
They were over seven months just now on the re- 
turn trip, after their escape from the Dutch enemy 

>® St. John's day is June 26, and St. Peter's June 29. 



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76 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

then assembled where they fought. Because they 
were not able to enter the channel to go to their 
usual port, as they were late, and because the winds 
contrary to them had begun, they were driven ashore 
and there the two hulls of the ships were wrecked. 
There was the one noteworthy thing, namely, that 
with only six pieces they fought the enemy, who had 
three ships. The loss was immense; besides the 
hulls, a great amount of property was lost -more 
than four hundred thousand pesos - and it was a 
miracle that everything was not lost. Written in 
this convent of Nuestra Senora de la Candelaria, at 
Dilao, outside the walls [of Manila], August 7, 
1620. 

The most unworthy servant of your royal Maj- 
esty, 

Fray Pedro de San Pablo, provincial minister. 



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LETTER FROM THE AUDIENCIA OF MA- 
NILA TO FELIPE III 

Sire: 

At the end of last year, 619, this royal Audiencia 
reported to your Majesty a portion of the numerous 
excesses and imprudent acts of Don Alonso Fajardo, 
governor and captain-general of these islands. For 
that purpose it despatched, by way of Yndia, Cap- 
tain Pedro Alvares, government and v^ar secretary 
of this kingdom, with the same document that is 
herewith enclosed. Although this despatch was at- 
tempted twice it did not succeed, because the gov- 
ernor, suspecting it, exercised great vigilance to pre- 
vent it -as in fact he did, a certain sailor revealing 
it while confused. But, although he made no little 
investigation and practiced extortions to verify the 
matter, he was unable to ascertain who the person 
was, or why he was going, because the matter had 
been managed by a priest. And although a long re- 
lation can be made here of his objectionable acts, 
we shall, in order to excuse prolixity, touch on only 
a few of them. 

He continues his careless way of living with so 
little modesty and caution that scarce can there be 
found any action in which is manifested the circum- 
spection, gravity, and prudence required by his 
office. 



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yS THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol. 19 

In regard to the little esteem (or better, the great 
contempt) that he shows toward this Audiencia and 
its auditors, both in the court room and in other 
public acts and meetings, what occurs is incredible. 
For without any occasion for it, he shows that he 
delights in making use of all the abusive terms that 
can be imagined. And, in order that it may be seen 
that this statement is not exaggerated, we shall men- 
tion here some particular instances. During the feast 
of the cross which Auditor Don Antonio Rodriguez 
made this month of May at the convent of St. 
Francis, Auditor Don Alvaro de Mesa went to that 
convent after the governor and the Audiencia were 
in the church, and the royal carpet had been spread, 
immediately upon his arrival; the governor there- 
upon told him that he was a dirty, impudent fel- 
low, and that he vowed to God that the first time 
when Don Alvaro should neglect to accompany him, 
he w^ould take him by the collar and fling him out 
of court. This he said with so much heat, disturb- 
ance, and passion, that it was observed throughout 
the church. When the auditors went for him on 
Easter day to accompany him to prison inspection, 
they advised him with all courtesy (warned by what 
had happened on other inspections) to be kind 
enough to allow the Audiencia to oppose privately 
the releases, when these were undesirable, that he 
intended to grant by his authority. To that request 
he answered in great heat and fury that he vowed 
to God that if any auditor contradicted him in the 
releases of prisoners that he thought best to make 
during the inspection, he would break his head with 
a club ; and, after dashing out his brains, would scat- 
ter them about the walls of the prison. Conse- 



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16201621] AUDIENCIA TO FELIPE III 79 

quently, in order to avoid greater evils that might re- 
sult to the disservice of your Majesty if his conduct 
should not be overlooked until your Majesty hears 
of it, he is allowed to continue his releasing [of pris- 
oners] here during prison inspection, and out of it, 
at his will, without considering that they are im- 
prisoned by the Audiencia, or the gravity of the 
crimes, or any other of very weighty circumstances. 
And so that [it may be seen] that we do not deceive 
ourselves in attributing to him these excesses in 
pardoning as being extreme, the same thing occurs 
in his sentences and punishments. For he thus 
executes his sentences, however rigorous they be (not- 
withstanding appeal, and without taking the trouble 
to present the criminals before the Audiencia), as 
if he were absolute lord of them, as is said to be the 
case in Japon. Consequently he follows and lets 
loose all the passions tp which his taste inclines him, 
just as if he did not have to give account to God and 
your Majesty. 

One Gregorio de Saldana, a sailor- against whom 
was executed a sentence of stripes and condemnation 
to the galleys, without allowing a report of his ap- 
peal to be made to the Audiencia - having presenteH 
a certain memorial of the frauds and trickery which 
he declared had been practiced against the royal 
treasury and the natives of these islands by the sar- 
gento-mayor, Estevan de Alcagar (brother-in-law 
of Don Juan de Alvarado, fiscal of this Audiencia, 
for he had married the latter's sister) , in the build- 
ing of a galleon under his charge, about which there 
have been public clamors, an investigation was be- 
gun by Auditor Don Antonio Rodriguez, and the 
said frauds were declared by Saldana, for which pur- 



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8o THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

pose the latter was taken from the galley. The gov- 
ernor took the cause away from the auditor and 
pigeonholed it/^ without being willing to allow any 
more investigations to be made upon it. On the con- 
trary, to prevent that, he remanded the sailor from 
the prison where he was to the galleys, and thus pre- 
vented him from obtaining his appeal, as it was a 
matter that touched the said sargento-mayor - to 
whom, for himself and for his brother-in-law the 
fiscal, he has granted permission, as is said, for ex- 
tortions on the Sangleys in theoffice of chief warden 
of the Parian. He has exercised that office for more 
than a year, succeeding to Gonzalo de Ocanipo, who 
married a cousin of the said fiscal. Ocampo held the 
said office for two years, and the said sargento-mayor 
is now sending him as admiral of the vessels about 
to be despatched to Nueva Espana, with the title of 
general for the return trip, without taking his 
residencia - notwithstanding that he was declared by 
an edict of Governor Don Juan de Silva to have 
fallen into condemnation and to have incurred the 
loss of his encomienda and all of his property, be- 
cause many others who were prepared for the ex- 
pedition of Sincapura ran away, in imitation of his 
example. That edict or proclamation is in force to- 
day, for the royal Audiencia alone declared null and 
void all that which was enacted after the edict. Al- 
though the governor has been advised of this in writ- 
ing, no reparation has been made; for, as it is a mat- 
ter that touches the fiscal, he defies the laws entirely. 
A few days ago Juan Cevicos, an ecclesiastic and 
presbyter, presented to the royal Audiencia a decree 

^^ Span., La puso en el cofrecillo secreto del acuerdo ; literally 
" placed it in the secret drawer of the assembly.*' 



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1620-1621] AUDIENCIA TO FELIPE III 8 1 

of your Majesty directed to the audiencias. In it 
you prohibit offices of justice to the sons, brothers, or 
brothers-in-law of auditors and fiscals, under pen- 
alty of a fine of one thousand pesos in gold. He peti- 
tioned that, in observance of it, the said sargento- 
mayor Alcazar should not exercise the office of 
warden of the Parian of the Sangleys, or Don Fer- 
nando Centeno,^® general of the galleys, also a 
brother-in-law of the said fiscal, that of alcalde-in- 
ordinary of this city. The Audiencia ordered that 
the decree be obeyed; and that the said governor be 
informed, so that he might appoint someone to fill 
the office of the Parian. He was so angered by that, 
that he expressed himself in unmeasured language; 
and especially, in the meeting held July 23, did he 
treat the auditors very harshly, chiding them for 
having meddled in his government. And inasmuch 
as they had ordered him by an act to fulfil the said 
royal decree, [he said] that the Audiencia had ex- 
ceeded their authority, since such action did not be- 
long to their duties. He told them not to show there- 
after similar discourtesy, for he vowed to God that 
he would proceed against the auditors, and would 
not allow his office to be taken from him before he 
had exercised it. He paid no attention to the said 
royal decree and act, or to the ordinance of the 
Audiencia that prohibits such appointments, because 
he [i.e.y Fernando Centeno] was an encomendero; 
there is, besides, another very great objection, 
namely, that the fiscal his brother-in-law has hitherto 
been protector of the same Sangleys, until now when 

^®In 1 62 1, the flagship of which Fernando Centeno was com- 
mander, ** Nuestra Senora de la Vida/' was wrecked in Isla 
Verde. See Colin, Labor evangelical p. 159. 



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82 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

he leaves it for the post of admiral. Luis Rivero 
having appealed from the sentence of death passed 
by the governor, and orders having been issued by 
the Audiencia that he should appear to state his case 
(inasmuch as he had presented himself to the 
Audiencia), and that the warden of the prison should 
not deliver the prisoner under penalty of two thou- 
sand ducados-of which the warden himself took 
notice, and refused to deliver him over -the sar- 
gento-mayor went with a detachment of arquebusiers 
and, after taking away the keys from the warden, 
took the prisoner out by force and executed on him 
the sentence of death. Auditor Don Alvaro de 
Messa having proceeded against the warden by com- 
mission of the Audiencia, the governor suppressed 
the case, and handled the auditor with rough speech. 
Without being ordered by the Audiencia, on his own 
authority he takes the prisoners from the jail and 
mans the galleys with them, even though their cases 
are actually pending at the time in the Audiencia; 
and it has been impossible to conclude them, not- 
withstanding that it is the Audiencia that causes all 
criminals to be taken from jail and placed in the gal- 
leys for which authority is granted them. He sup- 
presses the secular offices of justice at will, before 
their time-limit expires, without awaiting the opin- 
ion of the Audiencia, or even communicating the 
matter to them. He sends out investigators when- 
ever he wishes, although that is the proper business 
of the Audiencia. He appoints followers and kins- 
men to posts of justice, in violation of your Majesty's 
decrees. He removed the former reporter, who was 
exercising that office so that he might be given a 
post as alcalde-mayor (which was the usual prac- 



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16201621] AUDIENCIA TO FELIPE III 83 

tice), and appointed a reporter without an order 
from the Audiencia. He does the same with other 
offices which fall vacant, although the contrary is 
the custom. In the session of July 23, while vote 
was being taken upon a certain petition presented 
by Captain Pedro Alvarez, government and war 
secretary of these islands - which related the insults 
put upon him by the governor and the master-of- 
camp in proceeding against him in a certain cause, 
which is declared by acts of trial and revision to be 
outside of the military jurisdiction - and after Audi- 
tor Geronimo de Legaspi de Hecheverria had ut- 
tered his vote and opinion that a writ of your Maj- 
esty should be despatched against the said master-of- 
camp, since the acts of trial and revision were in- 
correct, so that in fulfilment of such writ he might 
be prohibited from trying the cause, under penalty 
of two thousand ducadps and warnings of greater: 
the said governor replied on the instant, with his 
usual heat, that he vowed to God that he would 
choke and skin the throttle of that auditor who 
should sign such a decree. " Why must he be sub- 
ject to three licentiates, each one of his own nation, 
and to have come to such a pass that a bandy-legged 
graybeard should order him?" At this rate, bluster- 
ing and snorting, he did and said things that made 
him seem out of his senses. The said Pedro Alvarez 
also mentions in the said petition other insults that 
have been shown him on account of taking away the 
licenses of the Sangleys and other perquisites of his 
office ; and concludes with requesting the Audiencia 
to inform your Majesty of what is the truth in this 
matter. What the Audiencia has to report concern- 
ing it is that, besides, the governor and the master- 



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84 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol. 19 

of-camp refused to obey the acts of trial and revision 
of this Audiencia, in which the said Pedro Alvarez 
is declared not to be included in the military juris- 
diction. Supposing that he were, no guilt results 
from the allegation with regard to imputing to him 
the purpose to go from these islands by way of Yndia 
to Espafta, so that he could be arrested justifiably; 
and yet he has endured more than one-half year of 
prison closely guarded, and fearing (not without 
reason) new annoyances, he has retired into the con- 
vent of St Francis. In respect to the licenses of the 
Sangleys- which he says should be attended to be- 
fore him, and states that the governor has taken them 
away from him - although as yet no further state- 
ment than the said petition has been presented to the 
Audiencia, it appears that Governor Don Juan de 
Silva declared, by act of November twelve, six hun- 
dred and twelve, that the issue of the said licenses 
(which are given to the Sangleys who remain an- 
nually in this city and these islands for their service) 
was annexed to and pertained to the said govern- 
mental office, in accordance with its title; and he 
ordered that then and thenceforth the issues of these 
licenses should be made in the said governmental 
office. In conformity with that order, Secretary 
Gaspar Alvarez (uncle of the said Pedro Alvarez, 
by whose resignation the latter succeeded to those 
offices) countersigned the said licenses from thence- 
forth until the year six hundred and eighteen, the 
first year of the administration of Don Alonso 
Fajardo. The latter began to take the licenses away 
from the said office last year, six hundred and nine- 
teen, when the said Pedro Alvarez began to exercise 
it. In regard to his right to the conduct of other 



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1620-1621] AUDIENCIA TO FELIPE III 85 

business, despatched by the corresponding secretary, 
the most authentic thing that we can now report is 
that the grudge held by the governor against the 
said Pedro Alvarez is well known, for he shows it 
on every occasion. 

He allows no testimonies to be given to the parties 
[in suits] in any case that does not suit him, even 
though the Audiencia order it. Neither does he per- 
mit the causes to be prosecuted, for he takes and 
keeps them in his possession as long as he chooses. 
And inasmuch as the relation of all that occurs after 
this manner would mean that it would never end, we 
avoid it -likewise considering that from the above 
statements, and from his often having said publicly 
that it would be best not to have auditors or friars 
(of whom he talks scandalously) in the Philipinas, 
the rest can be inferred. 

In respect to military aflfairs, in addition to what 
the Audiencia formerly wrote to your Majesty: after 
our fear here that a number of Dutch ships would 
descend from Japon-as we were advised from that 
kingdom -to await the Chinese ships along our 
coasts, a fleet was prepared to go out to attack them. 
After very considerable sums had been spent on it, 
it was despatched at the beginning of March, con- 
sisting of two galleons, one patache, and one galley - 
so ill-prepared that the almiranta galleon began to 
sink in the port. A few days after it had left this 
bay, it returned to port, because the pumps could not 
lessen the water, at great risk of the vessel's founder- 
ing. Thereupon the eflfort was made to prepare an- 
other ship to supply its lack; but so great unreadi- 
ness was found everywhere that that was impossible. 
In its stead sailed the other galley that had been left 



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86 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

behind. Finally, as they did not meet the enemy, the 
loss was less regretted. The fleet returned to port 
Although, because of a second warning received 
from Xapon that two Dutch ships and one patache 
were surely coming to our coasts, it was considered 
by many to be advisable that the fleet should go to 
El Embocadero to secure the safety of the ships from 
Nueva Espana, that was not done ; but on the con- 
trary the ships were immediately unrigged. That 
was a signal error, for within the few days necessary 
for its arrival at El Embocadero it would find the 
enemy's said two ships and one patache there await- 
ing our ships from Nueva Espana, and those ships 
of the Dutch would be taken or sunk. But this king- 
dom was relieved from the loss of this failure; and 
through God miraculously extending to it His mercy, 
the silver and soldiers aboard our ships (the flag- 
ship and the almiranta) escaped capture by the 
enemy. That capture would have meant the total 
ruin and destruction of these islands. There was no 
little danger of losing ships and merchandise by run- 
ning aground. Inasmuch as the governor will in- 
form your Majesty more fully and minutely of this 
event, the Audiencia will avoid doing so. We will 
only assure your Majesty that not only was no pre- 
ventive measure taken by the said governor for which 
thanks should be given him, but also the precon- 
ceived idea of those who are soldiers has been con- 
firmed - namely, that they considered him but little 
fit for so great matters, because they had seen the 
way in which he proceeded in the preparation of the 
fleet that he made ready, and with which he did 
not assail the enemy last year, as well as in the des- 
patch of the fleet that he made this year to protect 



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1620-1621] AUDIENCIA TO FELIPE III 87 

the Chinese ships. In the former matter, not only 
did he equip the fleet so poorly, as above stated, but, 
leaving in Manila the master-of-camp, the sargento- 
mayor, and captains of high standing, he sent as 
commander his brother, Don Luis Fajardo, a lad 
fifteen years old. He gave the latter (as it were, 
for his tutor) Admiral Juan Baptista de Molina, 
who was then alcalde-in-ordinary of this city; while 
Don Fernando Centeno, the fiscal's brother-in-law, 
remained as commander of the galleys, to whom the 
rod of alcalde-in-ordinary was given in the stead of 
Molina, who had served in that capacity as citizen 
alcalde. Without receiving pay as such, and al- 
though his galleys went on the expedition, he re- 
mained as alcalde ad interim. 

In respect to the despatch of ships to Nueva 
Espafia, although -on account of those of the pre- 
ceding two years that have been in his charge hav- 
ing sailed late -the governor had published that 
this year they would sail very early, they are now in 
Cavite. It is believed that he will cause them to 
await his letters in Mindoro, which is thirty leguas 
from Manila, all the month of August or but slightly 
less. Yet it is certain that, without changing things 
from their usual course, the ships could now be oui 
of the channel. However, it appears that all that 
may be a mistake, and that God is permitting it in 
order to compel the inhabitants of these islands, after 
losing faith in human, to turn to divine means. 

In regard to greed for gain, no good rumor is 
current; and it is said that of the loss therefrom no 
little share falls to the royal treasury in paying orders 
that are bought at less than the fourth of their face 
value. Consequently at the same time while not 



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88 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

one real of advance pay thereon is allowed to the 
owner of the order -which is issued to him for his 
sweat and toil, or to his wife and children on ac- 
count of his death while serving your Majesty in 
the war -it is sold for one-fourth or a less part of 
its face value, and that is paid in full to its purchaser 
by the governor's decree. A vast sum has been used 
up in this, for the money brought from Nueva 
Espana, that derived from the Sangley licenses, the 
loans of citizens, and that from other sources, have 
been spent in less than one year. In order that it 
may be seen that there is no way in which he does 
not endeavor to accommodate the fiscal, while the 
royal treasury was without one single real, and in 
debt many thousands to citizens who lent it money 
after the beginning of this year, the governor issued 
a decree in the month of June (but without it, not- 
withstanding an order may be issued, he has ordered 
that nothing be paid) that a definite warrant for 
three thousand and ninety pesos (of which some 
Sangleys had made him a gift for three or four 
years) be given to the fiscal from the duties of the 
Chinese ships. But it was not advanced immediately, 
because the officials of the royal treasury considered 
that the Sangleys who made the gift were not legally 
parties [to such a transaction]. As these things are 
so public, and the citizens are so vexed with loans 
and ill-treatment, they resent these things greatly. 

The same irregular procedure that was followed 
last year in regard to taking the merchandise from 
the Chinese at their own weighing was experienced 
this year. Although the governor issued a proclama- 
tion ordering all persons who should have the mer- 
chandise in their possession to return it immediately. 



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16201621] AUDIENCIA TO FELIPE III 89 

SO that it could be sold freely, and imposing severe 
penalties, they did not comply with it; as has been 
evident from its results, that edict must have been 
only to caution or amuse, for they only sold openly 
those goods that they w^ere unable to sell privately 
without these being taken from them. And then- 
when, with the delay of the ships from Nueva 
Espana, and the fear of the danger that they ran of 
being captured by the Dutch ; and the city, with hav- 
ing invested its share, was drained of money - those 
who had retained the said goods in their possession 
made lower prices with the many Chinese than those 
prices at which the goods that were allowed to be 
sold had been given. In consequence there were 
public murmurs from all classes. One Gonzalez, the 
governor's barber, and a prime favorite, whom he 
has made inspector of the Chinese ships ~ which be- 
cause of their late arrival remained this year for 
the most part on the coasts of these islands near 
China, from fifty to one hundred leguas from Ma- 
nila, sending their goods thither in small boats - 
went there and bought and brought back a large con- 
signment. Consequently that transaction, other 
things similar to it, and the appointments - or, as 
some say, sales -of offices and posts in the ships 
from Nueva Espana in violation of your Majesty's 
decrees, are not well endured or well spoken of, in 
regard to either his acts or his methods. May our 
Lord preserve and prosper the royal and Catholic 
person of your Majesty, as all Christendom desires, 
and has need, etc. Manila, August 8, 1620. 

Licentiate Hieronimo Legaspi de Cheverria 
Licentiate Don Alonso Messa y Lugo 
Doctor Don Antonio Pis<^ de Villegas 



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LETTER FROM FAJARDO TO FELIPE III 

Sire: 

I St. While anxious, as may be understood, over 
the delay of the ships from Nueva Espafia, and the 
anticipated rise of the vendavals with the so great 
fury with which they began this year; and fearing 
on that account some disaster, or their making port 
in distress at Japon, where also there is cause for 
fear; and while considering the hardship that might 
result to this country from any one of those things : 
we had news that three ships of the Dutch rebels 
were awaiting our ships between the channel of San 
Bernardino and the Cape of Spiritu Sancto, where 
the latter had to come. Consequently our anxiety 
deepened, knowing that this country would neces- 
sarily be endangered if those ships were driven from 
its coasts, with the men that we have for its defense, 
at such a season that, if they left the strait, they 
could not possibly return here this year; or, if there 
were a failure to act, the people [of this city] must 
remain not properly cared for, much less contented. 
Although it was evident that we might go out at a 
time when we could be of [no] use, and when the 
aforesaid danger would not happen to the ships, 
with all the resources at my command, I had the 
galleys and light craft manned, so that they might 
go out immediately with what advices and orders 



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16201621] FAJARDO' TO FELIPE III 9I 

seemed advisable. While preparing the ships, which 
were almost ready to go out, for whatever might 
arise, and in the midst of that anxiety, God was 
pleased to do us the favor of freeing us from it by 
the news that I received of our ships. That news, 
thanks to His Divine Majesty, was most favorable, 
when one considers what might have come. The 
news was that the flagship ~ a large galleon, and, as 
its actions showed, not a very good sailer - happened 
to encounter, without its consort (which was a bark), 
the three Dutch ships. These approached the gal- 
leon, and ordered it to strike its sails for Mauricio. 
Captain and Sargento-mayor Don Fernando de 
Ayala, warder of the port at the point of Cavite 
(whom I had sent out in order that he might return 
as commander of the said ships because the person 
who went as commander from here was to remain in 
Nueva Espafia - namely, Don Luys Fernandez de 
Cordova, a relative of the viceroy of that province) 
answered them, as a valiant cavalier and soldier, 
with his artillery and firearms. He continued fight- 
ing and defending himself all that day and part of 
the night, until under cover of its darkness and a 
heavy fog that settled down, pursuing their voyage, 
the Spaniards left the enemy with the intention of 
running upon the coast of an island of the strait, 
called Ybabao. Our Lord guided them to a port, 
where a ship was never known to have entered. 
There they anchored, and fearing that the wind with 
which they entered might shift to that which gen- 
erally prevails in that season and with greater fury, 
they determined to run the said ship into the mud, 
and to cut away the mainmast, in order to render 
them less liable to drag, and to leave the port again 



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92 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Voh 19 

and encounter the enemy. Accordingly, all possible 
haste was displayed in disembarking the men, and 
the silver and reals of your Majesty and of private 
persons, and the most valuable goods; but scarcely 
was that done when the storm, coming down upon 
the ship, drove it upon some rocks. There it 
foundered and sank, although in a place so shallow 
that but little of the ship's cargo was lost. For they 
continued to take out and use many things, except 
the articles of luxury. Although no use could be 
made of the ship's hull, as it was entirely ruined, the 
resultant loss is almost nothing, and inconsiderable 
when one thinks what it might have been, and what 
this event has gained in advantage and reputation 
for these islands, and for your Majesty's arms herein. 
For, although your Majesty, thanks to God, has had 
excellent successes in the islands, still it has all been 
by superiority of ships and men ; and there is noth- 
ing, according to common opinion, so fortunate as 
this event, considering what the enemy will have lost 
in all the aforesaid respects among all the nations 
with whom they have relations - especially with that 
of the Japanese, who place their honor and ground 
for self-praise in war. It would appear that they 
will not be well esteemed there, nor even pleasantly 
received by their creditors -with whom, as we un- 
derstand here, they were indebted for about three 
hundred thousand ducados for their preparations 
and the relief of their forts, having assigned to the 
creditors their pay from a good prize that they were 
to make, which must have been this galleon. 

Then, in order that everything might turn out well, 
our Lord guided the patache- which was coming as 
almiranta- without its meeting an enemy. How- 



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1 620162 1 ] FAJARDO TO FELIPE III 93 

ever, from the severity of the weather, the same thing 
happened to them as to the flagship ; but they lost no 
cargo, for that vessel was so small that I bought it 
for not more than one thousand pesos. 

Although some think that those ships did not have 
a more satisfactory voyage because they left Aca- 
pulco April 4, in my opinion that could not have 
been avoided; for they reached that port late be- 
cause their voyage thither was long and troublesome. 
Notwithstanding that they had been despatched, they 
would have found, when they arrived, vendavals al- 
ready in these islands, as these commenced so early, 
as I have said. Although the viceroy wrote request- 
ing greater haste in those despatches, yet because 
they are sent late from there, they also arrive late 
here, even if no such events happen as the above. 
It is almost impossible for the ships to leave here 
early, if the arrival of those from Nueva Espana is 
delayed, unless no opportunity be given the inhab- 
itants to receive their share of money and letters, 
which is a thing that they would feel keenly. 

[Marginal note: " War. What you say in these 
sections is reduced to three points. Firstly, the thanks 
that you give and should have given to our Lord«^for 
the good success of the flagship, and the same has 
been done here. May He be praised for all, and thus 
it is to be hoped, in His divine mercy, that He will be 
in all other events; for the just end and cause to 
which all is directed is His holy service and the ex- 
tension of the holy Catholic faith. The second main 
point is of the utmost importance, and is regarding 
what has been written you, with the remonstrances 
required by the case - namely, that if the flagship and 
almiranta sail late, it is impossible that they can be 



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94 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

despatched early from Nueva Espana ; and although 
we have written to the latter country, giving the 
method that is advisable to be used in that voyage and 
despatch, they always excuse themselves for the 
late sailing of the ships by the risk of vendavals, as 
the violence of the weather is an unavoidable diffi- 
culty. We have also written to you that the only 
cause of the delay is the waiting to lade those ships 
with the commerce of Manila -which are detained 
for personal ends, by awaiting the merchandise from 
Japon, China, and the Orient. That is poor manage- 
ment; and the welfare of private persons must not 
have more force than that of the public. For the 
customs duties received on departing and returning 
are not at all to be considered with the great danger 
of bad weather, in which everything is risked -es- 
pecially since the only cause for the commerce be- 
tween Nueva Espana and those islands is not the 
benefit of the merchants, nor the lading of Chinese 
cloth, but the maintenance, succor, and payment of 
the military and of the ministers who assist in the 
service and defense of that country. If you should 
one year cause the ships to sail on time, those at 
Acapulco [los terceros] would be warned by it for 
the ifuture, and would understand the diligence that 
they must use in their despatch. It is said- and let 
this serve as caution and warning to you -that the 
chief officials who have in charge the despatch of the 
flagship and almiranta are those most interested, as 
figure-heads for third persons, in what is laded. The 
third point is, that when those vessels (not only of 
trade, but of war) sail, and since their risk of enemies 
is at the departure and return (but most on the re- 
turn), you are advised to take warning not to let the 



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16201621] FAJARDO TO FELIPE III 95 

ships be so overladen that because of that they go ill 
equipped with seamen, and even worse defended. 
In conformity with this we have written to the 
viceroy of Nueva Espaiia; and have stated that it 
would be a less disadvantage to increase the number 
of ships than to overload those that are sent -to say 
nothing of the damage done to the hull of the ship 
by carrying so heavy a cargo. Also you are advised, 
on account of what you say in this section - since you 
say that the Dutch get help in boats, money, ammuni- 
tion, food, and men in Xapon-that it would be 
well, since there is so continual communication be- 
tween Japon and our government [in those islands], 
that you endeavor - through an embassy, or in any 
other way -to negotiate with any king of those of 
Xapon, or with the person who is the cause of that 
[aid to the Dutch], and tell them that those enemies 
are pirates, and that they violate the laws of nations 
and the public peace. Finally, since you have the 
matter in hand and know the importance of separat- 
ing the Japanese and Dutch, you shall do this with 
such energy and skill as your prudence admits, do- 
ing all that you shall deem necessary and useful to 
attain that end." In another hand: '^ A letter is be- 
ing written to the viceroy of Nueva Espana, sending 
him a copy of his [/.^., Fajardo's] clause, and what 
answer is made to it; and advising him, as here above 
stated, that an order has been given so that they shall 
endeavor to have the despatch of the flagship and 
almiranta of Filipinas attended to promptly and sea- 
sonably, as is necessary for their voyage. Accord- 
ingly he shall again issue orders to that effect, and 
advise us of what is done in this matter."]" 

^®One may see in this and subsequent marginal notes of this 



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96 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

2d. I am also writing to the viceroy not to waste 
time and money in making unnecessary repairs on 
the ships, and those for which their captains and 
commanders do not ask; for that is of use only for 
those who have slaves who act as calkers and as other 
kinds of mechanics, in which they sometimes gain 
more in such works than they are worth. 

In the same way [I have requested] that he shall 
not furnish rigging and other supplies unless they 
are requested; for I am sending the vessels from here 
already provided, for both going and coming, with 
everything necessary (even the candles), in the en- 
deavor to avoid the expense caused to your Majesty 
in the past with such outlays as have been made, and 
with the things brought here. This can be very well 
avoided, because there have been certain articles that 
can be obtained here for one-tenth as much as they 
cost in Nueva Espana, both rigging and other things 
that are not needed ; while ammunition and arms are 
so extremely necessary. Of these, on the occasion 
that I have mentioned, there was known to be a very 

nature, in this and in other documents, the possible working of the 
Spanish government offices. The memoranda thus made on the 
margins of the document by the council or government representa- 
tive in the king's name, evidently formed the basis of the various de- 
crees and orders despatched to the colonies, in regard to points 
brought out in the document that needed legislation. The docu- 
ment would probably be then turned over to the clerk or notarial 
secretary, who would have the decrees filled out properly, and in 
the stereotyped form, from these memoranda. Lastly, they would 
receive the king's signature (rubrica). Each of the marginal 
notes on this and other documents, when made by king or council, 
is generally accompanied by a rubrica, which attests its legality. 
These notes often consist of two distinct parts, one of matter to 
be addressed to the governor, in which the second person is used; 
the other, directions to clerks in regard to what should be done on 
points called up in the document. These distinct parts have each 
their rubricas. 



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16201621] FAJARDO TO FELIPE III 97 

great lack. The mistake must have been occasioned 
by my saying, in regard to the arms that I requested, 
that powder-horns were unnecessary here (as is the 
fact) . But it was not to be understood by that that 
the arquebuses and muskets for arming the infantry 
should come without powder-horns. That appears 
to have been the understanding, for on the said occa- 
sion not thirty pairs of them were found, and very 
little powder. All that resulted from those who 
despatched those ships not paying attention to what 
their commanders asked, while they supply them at 
times with what they do not need or request; and 
other things those persons furnish at their own pleas- 
ure, with no care whatever except for the bulk and 
lump - obliging the masters to receive them on faith, 
and even on appearances, according to what is ob- 
served here. Those who have made those voyages 
think strongly that the standards of measure there 
should be somewhat less. I hope for a reform in all 
this, through the good management and zeal of the 
viceroy, and that he will set a limit to what those 
who attend to these despatches at the port of Aca- 
pulco have done - as also to the vexation and trouble 
caused to the sailors and workmen of those ships by 
examining so minutely the wretched belongings that 
they carry in their little chests, and by treating them 
with more severity in this than appears advisable for 
men so necessary and who work so hard. 

[^Marginal note: " In the letters that were writ- 
ten you, in the next to the last and the last despatch 
before this one, that discussed this reform and the 
avoidance of expenses which were made and caused 
in Nueva Espafia for those reenforcements, you were 
directed to try to give special and minute informa- 



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98 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol 19 

tion as to what you have there, and of its cost; and 
advised that, if prices are so much more advan- 
tageous than those of Nueva Espana, those expenses 
might be avoided. The same thing has been written 
to the viceroy, while the royal officials there [Le.y in 
Filipinas] have been notified to send a detailed re- 
port of the matters of that sort [in which expense] 
could be avoided. If that has not been done, you shall 
do it; and with it those in whose charge are the des- 
patch and provision of the ships and the supplies, shall 
be convinced, and the losses and expenses repaired. 
Since you have abundance of all kinds of rigging and 
sea-stores, and they are obtained so advantageously 
in the ports and regions of your archipelago, provi- 
ision shall be made only in the smaller firearms 
- that is, outside the situado. And inasmuch as the 
Council should have the information that is desir- 
able in regard to these matters, you shall always send 
us a copy of what you write upon them to the viceroy 
and royal officials, so that observance of what is en- 
acted in this regard may be demanded from here, 
and that the account may be somewhat better regu- 
lated. The other things that pertain to the excesses 
that you mention in the preparations in Nueva 
Espana have been written to the viceroy, as per the 
enclosed copy, so that redress may be provided in 
what is so just."] [Here follows a note, on a sep- 
arate piece of paper.'^^] 

3d. And inasmuch as I am not confident that the 
viceroy will be willing to admit that the appoint- 
ments of offices and officials of these ships from these 
islands do not concern him, when those who are ap- 
pointed complete the exercise of their duties on their 

-^ See this note at end of the document, p. 167. 



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1 620162 1 ] 



FAJARDO TO FELIPE III 



99 



arrival at Nueva Espana~as, for instance, Don 
Francisco de la Serna, who is going this year as 
commander; and Don Luis Fernandez de Cordova, 
who was commander last year, as they commenced 
to exercise those offices from the time of their de- 
parture from those provinces and are returning in 
those functions through courtesy, and for just con- 
siderations - the viceroy undertakes to appoint men 
to those places, refusing to understand as he ought 
what your Majesty has ruled and ordered in this 
matter. On the contrary, in order to establish him- 
self in this pretension, he has suppressed the appoint- 
ments that I sent last year. Indeed, although he de- 
prived Don Fernando de Ayala of his appointment, 
he did not make another appointment, but said that 
he was satisfied for that time with that act of juris- 
diction. He said that he would send me another as 
commander of the ships - a young man, like those 
whom he sends as captains of infantry. That would 
have resulted in the disinclination of people in this 
country to send what is of so much importance [/.^., 
their cargoes to Nueva Espafia], with the supplies 
and artillery which I sent -very differently from 
the usual practice, in charge of a man of action and 
valor, who has fought very often. I cannot see why 
the viceroy should wonder at a thoroughly satisfac- 
tory person being appointed and sent from here, in 
order to return in such a post, since for a matter of 
so great consideration, value, and importance, it does 
not seem much or hurtful that each ship should al- 
ways have a captain, like those whom your Majesty 
appoints in the flagships and almirantas of the trad- 
ing-fleets, with the same preeminences and the right 
of succession to the responsibility and management 



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lOO THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

of them, in case of the death or absence of their com- 
manders. For it would be a misfortune, in case of 
their absence, for the relief or the ruin of these is- 
lands to depend, on the occasion of a fight or other 
emergency in which there is need of a leader, on the 
direction of a pilot or a master, when suitable 
provision can be made without any considerable 
increase of expense to your royal treasury. If your 
Majesty be so pleased, and will give me authority 
for it, I prefer to do this, even if, in order to 
give them some pay, that of the commanders and 
officials be curtailed ; or by seeking another plan and 
supplying them something with certain accommoda- 
tions in their vessels, as might be done better here. 
The men levied in Mexico and those provinces might 
be delivered at Acapulco to those captains, thus sav- 
ing the pay granted to the infantry captains and 
officers. For most of the latter are not usually very 
eager in their service, while their persons and the 
troubles that they bring are of no little embarrass- 
ment to the governors ; and perhaps it would be ad- 
visable to do away with their banners and distribute 
the men among the old companies. That has not 
been done at any time, both to place the aforesaid 
persons under some obligations, and because they 
bring the pay for one year already paid to them. 
I petition your Majesty to order this matter to be 
examined and considered, and to command me what 
I am to do in regard to it; and to order the said 
viceroy, in accordance with the above, to refrain 
from annoying with that pretension the respectable 
and deserving inhabitants who sail [on the ships] 
with appointments to such offices. For there are 
men here who have merits and are old residents of 



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1620-1621] FAJARDO TO FELIPE III lOI 

the country, to whom these employments might well 
be given; and others who, although they are not of 
so much prominence in this country, have been and 
are engaged in the service of your Majesty. Conse- 
quently, both for that reason and because of their 
qualifications, no one ought to be preferred to them 
-although there are, besides the aforesaid persons 
(who are numerous), a much greater number of 
others who demand everything, without right, rea- 
son, or justification, and assert that they deserve it. 
They must believe this, by the way in which they 
get angry about it; for it comes to such a pass that 
they do not treat one another well, as we have just 
experienced. For I appointed Captain and Sar- 
gento-mayor Esteban de Alcazar admiral of these 
ships that I am despatching- a man of many years 
of service (some in Flandes), and more than fifteen 
years of residence in this country, whither he came 
as captain of an infantry company. He has also 
served in Terrenate, and reenforced those forts with 
the supplies that he took in his charge, in considera- 
tion of which your Majesty confirmed him in an en- 
comienda, without debarring him therefrom because 
he was a brother-in-law of the fiscal. That relation- 
ship, however, no longer exists, because there is an- 
other fiscal, a man young in years and of little judg- 
ment, without services, merits, or any other quali- 
fications to support his claims, not even for the office 
of government notary, which an uncle of his re- 
signed. This man has tried to oppose my choice; 
he has had the audacity to demand the place, trying 
to disqualify the appointee with a suit brought by 
my predecessor, from which the royal Audiencia 
freed and acquitted him. Although I am certain 



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I02 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

that he [Esteban de Alcazar] is one of the most de- 
serv^ing of those who might be employed in this, I 
have chosen to send a sworn testimony in the form 
of a report (in duplicate), so that your Majesty, if 
such be your pleasure, may order it to be examined. 
Although any one might resent having to furnish an 
exoneration when there is no cause for the accusa- 
tion, there is much more to resent here in the ac- 
cusations which some are wont to write without any 
justification, and without the matter being known; 
for, by reason of the long time that must elapse be- 
fore one comes to have notice of it and the truth of 
the matter is made known, he has already suffered 
much in darkness from an evil and unauthentic re- 
lation, and this is the truth. 

According to the news received here of what has 
come in the said ships, the aid in silver and reals 
that has come on your Majesty's account amounts to 
three hundred and fifty-two thousand pesos; while 
the supplies that I asked both this year and last come 
to less than one-third of the amount that was gen- 
erally brought in several former years -for I am 
very careful not to exceed what is actually necessary 
and unavoidable, in order to save the so excessive 
expenses which were generally incurred in this; 
since other expenses are not wanting that render that 
saving very necessary. 

The infantry does not amount to two hundred 
men, in three companies. If these men were that 
number, and Spaniards, it would not be so bad; but, 
although I have not seen them, because they have 
not yet arrived here, I am told that they are, as at 
other times, for the most part boys, mestizos, and 
mulattoes, with some Indians. There is no little 



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16201621] FAJARDO TO FELIPE III 103 

cause for regret in the great sums that reenforce- 
ments of such men waste for, and cost, your Maj- 
esty. I cannot see what betterment there will be 
until your Majesty shall provide it, since I do not 
think that more can be done in Nueva Spana, al- 
though the viceroy must be endeavoring to do so, 
as he is ordered. 

[Marginal note: " Have the orders held by the 
viceroys regarding this collected. All that he. says 
for the benefit of the treasury is good. Thus I am 
trying to do on all occasions. In regard to the qual- 
ity of the soldiers, have the viceroy of Nueva Espafia 
informed that they must always be men who have 
served, and of the quality desirable. Those who 
were boys might be kept in presidios, and in places 
where there is not so great need of experienced sol- 
diers. By placing them in other companies and in 
diverse services, they might supply the lack of otheV 
persons. Have a letter written to the viceroy of 
Nueva Espafia, and a copy of this section and the 
answer to it sent to him. Have him advised to try, 
at the levy of these soldiers, that no places be given 
to any but persons who are suitable and useful for 
the Filipinas, for the contrary becomej a useless ex- 
pense."] 

4th. I wrote to the viceroy last year that if, in 
any year in the future - through any misfortune, or 
for any other cause or obstacle that might prevent it- 
no ships from this country should reach those prov- 
inces, he should try to send what aid he could, as 
is usually requested, especially that of money; so 
that in case of such a lack, the need should not in- 
crease, or the danger caused when ships of this com- 
merce do not sail. According to his reply, it seems 



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I04 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

that the viceroy does not dare assure it, because he 
doubts whether he can find ships in the ports of 
that country for that purpose. 

Desiring to find some plan for the greater facility 
and less cost of sending these reenforcements, it has 
occurred to us here and has been considered a reason- 
able and feasible means and expedient to have them 
come by way of Panama. If your Majesty would 
be pleased to keep there one of the two ships that 
leave these islands for Nueva Espafia, that would 
have very good results, if no obstacles thereto arise 
which we have not considered here. 

The advantages are, that what infantry your Maj- 
esty pleases can come from Espana divided among 
the vessels of the trading fleet of Tierra Firme, that 
go to Puertovelo or Nombre de Dios. Their pas- 
sage and the transportation of their food would not 
cost much, and the owners of the vessels might even 
carry them free for the concession of the register or 
permission for the voyage. If they left in due sea- 
son, nothing would be lost, nor any soldier either, in 
the short passage which must be made, in order to 
embark at Panama from Cruces, a distance of five 
leguas. One can reach that place in boats by means 
of a river. In the same way, all the things shipped 
here from Espana can be transported, thus saving 
the vast sum generally incurred by the freight 
charges and carriage of the goods in Nueva Espafia. 
This expense is caused by the long and dangerous 
road to Acapulco, and the rather long space of time 
from the arrival of the trading fleet at the beginning 
of September until the departure of our ships at the 
last of March -both in what the infantry consume 
and waste, and in those men of it who are lost. 



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1 620162 1 ] FAJARDO TO FELIPE III 105 

There will also be another advantage if your Maj- 
esty should be pleased to locate there [i.e.y at Pan- 
ama] the reenforcements of money and provisions 
for these forts. For if the ships from this country, 
by any misfortune or other occasion for delay, should 
not arrive, as many ships as were needed could be 
obtained there, ready, in which to send the ordinary 
and even extraordinary succor that your Majesty 
might despatch; while in Acapulco there would be 
no such facility, or even possibility, in addition to 
the long and most costly voyage of the ships des- 
patched thence. And, according as the despatch 
from Panama is considered and regarded, our ships, 
even if they should arrive there one month later, 
would leave the port earlier, and much earlier than 
from Acapulco, since the journey thence here is so 
safe and short, as experience has already demon- 
strated. 

By dividing this commerce, and by one ship go- 
ing to Acapulco and another to Panama, one would 
think that, if the vessels were not more nor larger, 
the export or sale of Spanish merchandise would not 
be checked; for inasmuch as Mexico would be 
abandoned in order to go to Panama, the former 
country would come to have need of Espafia, and 
would consume as much, and perhaps even more 
than the amount that was not used in Panama be- 
cause of the departure of the ships of this country. 
It is almost a certainty that no innovation would 
have to be experienced because of the way in which, 
it may be understood, the Mexican merchants have 
communication with those of Peru and all the In- 
dias ~ avoiding the royal duties on what is smug- 
gled. If each ship went publicly by permission from 



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Io6 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol 19 

your Majesty to that region, as I have said, the in- 
crease of duties would be very great, and there would 
be no difficulty in the way, according to the under- 
standing here -which, I have understood, is also the 
opinion of this city. They petition it from your 
Majesty, and I do the same, with the desire that I 
have and ought to have for you royal service and 
the welfare of this country. I find myself daily un- 
der new obligations to this country, which the in- 
habitants lay upon me by the willingness with which 
they respond to the service of your Majesty with 
their possessions, persons, and lives, as I have ex- 
perienced from many on the occasions that have 
arisen. According to the limit of my understand- 
ing, and that which I have been able to grasp with 
it in this particular, I regard the aforesaid as so im- 
portant to your Majesty's service that, considering 
the matter in case that it should be necessary for the 
ships to go together, I would regard it as more ad- 
visable for both to go to Panama rather than to 
Acapulco - although I think that the said division is 
better, and the advantage of the reenforcement of 
men, and that which that country [z.^., Nueva Es- 
pana] can give easily; for thus results service to your 
Majesty and good to this country, and apparently not 
a little benefit to the commerce of Espana. For the 
products and merchandise of Espana that are es- 
teemed here would be bought and imported in a 
much greater quantity with the saving of the freight 
charges overland, which are so excessive from Vera 
Cruz to Acapulco. The cost of those articles is also 
increased by the profit of the merchants who buy and 
retail them in that country [/.^., Nueva Espana]. 
If the merchandise were relieved from so high prices 



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16201621] FAJARDO TO FELIPE III 107 

as it reaches to in this manner, and if the goods can 
be so easily passed on from owner to purchaser with- 
out resale, the shipment here of a great amount of 
the said merchandise and products, and of money 
less that quantity, is certain. 

Likewise, in addition to the above, if the enemy 
should station themselves on that coast [/.^., of 
Nueva Esparia], to await the ships that sail to 
Acapulco (as they have already done at other times) , 
where they have captured some of those that have 
sailed hence, not only are there not ships at hand 
ready to go out to fight with them and to prevent 
them from making such attempts, but not one pa- 
tache in which to send advice of it out to sea ; while 
in Panama and on its coast that danger would be 
more easily averted because there are plenty of ships 
and seamen there. Will your Majesty be pleased 
to have this matter examined and considered so that, 
after understanding the pros and cons, what is most 
advisable to your service may be done. 

[Marginal note: ^^ Note of what was decreed, 
on a separate paper." ^^] 

5th. We are very happy at the good news that 
has arrived here of the favor that your Majesty con- 
cedes, to all of us who live in this country, of sending 
us reenforcements of soldiers and ships by the Cape 
of Buena Esperanza; and I more happy than I could 
express, because of my great desire for it and my great 
regret over its lack, in order to demonstrate effect- 
ively the desire that I have always had, and have, of 
employing myself in your Majesty's service. May 
His Divine Majesty so well manage it that, if life 
does not fail me, I shall, with the protection of God, 

^^ See this note, post, p. 168. 



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Io8 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol. 19 

endeavor to employ it to my very utmost - without 
my promising more at greater length, for we can 
promise much from the hands of His Divine Maj- 
esty, but from our own but little. In order that the 
successful end of such intents may be better attained, 
at the best time, without there being any lack, I peti- 
tion your Majesty to the utmost of my ability that 
the sending of this help, together with troops, be 
continued for some years ~ by way of Panama, or by 
whatever way your Majesty may please -so that the 
forces which might be assembled with such a fleet 
as is above mentioned might not be weakened so 
soon because of the many men that die here; and 
that the provision of money be in proportion to the 
men, and for the same time. I trust that, with the 
above, the cost and trouble incurred will succeed, 
without my endeavoring to excuse myself from it, 
or failing to economize and well administer the 
revenues as well as other things. The results certify 
it; for, with less money than has entered the royal 
treasury for many years, I have accomplished so 
many works, and have built or bought, in two years 
only, as many boats, provisions, and war stores as 
was done during many years in the past, and at a 
much less cost. For I have paid for all these, and 
of the arrears of debt a very large amount -as, if 
time allowed, could be seen by the official statements 
that would be sent to that effect. However, I shall 
try to do that on another occasion. I have come to 
say this, because your Majesty charges me to be very 
careful of your revenues, and as I have a bit of vanity 
in it, which seems to me not to be the most harmful 
vanity. I desire exceedingly that the manner in 
which I manage this matter be known, for there is 



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1620-1621] FAJARDO TO FELIPE III 109 

a great difference in faithfulness, in good adminis- 
tration alone. 

[Marginal note: "Council. You have already 
been informed in another letter that God was pleased 
to let the reenforcement be lost because of a bad 
storm. Nevertheless, all possible care is being taken 
to prepare another. May our Lord be pleased to 
direct it, since it is so important for the things of 
His service. By the despatches that you will re- 
ceive from the hand of the castellan Pedro de 
Heredia, you will understand about the two hundred 
infantrymen, with which your present need will be 
supplied, until the more important aid is made 
ready. Inasmuch as you are advised of other things 
touching this matter in the despatch of the said 
castellan, nothing more will be told you of it, as I 
refer you to what it contains."] 

6th. For this purpose, very acceptable aid has 
come to me with the arrival of the factor, Diego de 
Castro Lison. For the favor that your Majesty 
granted him in this - both to him and to me - 1 kiss 
your royal feet with the humility and acknowledg- 
ment that is fitting. 

It seems to me that with the commission borne by 
the above-mentioned, it will be very well if, during 
his execution of it, he be relieved somewhat of the 
many onerous duties of the office of factor; and for 
that purpose I shall endeavor to give him the aid 
and leisure that should appear necessary. If the 
treasurer -who has not yet arrived and whom I do 
not know - is such as I believe and have proved the 
factor to be, I shall have no need of carrying memo- 
randa in my pocket of what is paid into the royal 
treasury, as I have done sometimes, even constrain- 



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no THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

ing this present treasurer so that he might ordain 
that those warrants for whose despatch and pay- 
ment he did not have my decrees should not be 
honored. Consequently, I would not be sorry to 
see here two or three men for the accountancy of 
this treasury and for that of Terrenate ; but, although 
the governors are accustomed to make that appoint- 
ment, I cannot find many to choose here. 

[Marginal note: "It is well. With the arrival 
of the treasurer and that of the treasury accountant, 
he is relieved of his anxiety about the matter of ac- 
counts."] 

7th. I have equalized the pay of the captains, 
officers, and soldiers here and at Terrenate, by in- 
creasing that of some and diminishing that of others, 
as your Majesty has ordered. In order that they may 
have an equal amount of work, and comfort also, I 
am having part of them changed every year, so that 
their exile may not be perpetual, nor desperation 
compel them to go over to the enemy, as niany have 
done. Accordingly, for this reason, and so that the 
smaller and larger boats, in which the reenforce- 
ments are conveyed, may go and come in safety, I 
cause some infantry to go in all of them. 

[Marginal note: "Council. It is well. Ylou 
have already been informed in regard to this, and 
it was referred to your prudence and better judg- 
ment, as you are the one in direct charge of affairs. 
You shall give licenses and shall arrange for the 
passage of the soldiers from one part to the other in 
the manner most advisable."] 

8th. The last reenforcement that I despatched 
this year has been the most abundant that has entered 
those forts since their recovery, especially in money 



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1620-1621] FAJARDO TO FELIPE III III 

and men; for there were almost two hundred and 
fifty Spanish soldiers, besides the Pampangos and 
pioneers, and the men of the two galleys and four 
ships in which that reenforcement was taken. Of the 
latter only one small patache was lost, which is con- 
sidered miraculous here because of what has hap- 
pened on other occasions. But I, although not neg- 
lecting to give thanks to God for it, cannot be well 
satisfied with the result, until I can ascertain whether 
the galleys could have gone more quickly and ef- 
ficiently to the aid of the patache - although I am 
told that when they sailed there was sufficient wind 
so that they could not fight with a galleon carrying 
heavy artillery. I shall endeavor to inform myself 
of it, and of what the person in charge of the patache 
did, and what he neglected to do ; and, punishing the 
guilt that I shall find, I shall inform your Majesty 
of everything. I do not see how the master-of-camp, 
Don Luis Bracamonte, who had charge of that re- 
enforcement, can entirely clear himself; for after I 
had appointed captains and private persons to whom 
the ships could be entrusted, he committed the one 
that was lost to an accountant, one Don Alonsq 
Fajardo de Villalobos, when neither he nor I knew 
that man sufficiently to entrust such a ship to him. 
But until I have heard the reasons on which he based 
that action, I do not dare to blame him. 

{Marginal note: "What investigation you make 
in this will be very suitable. You have also well 
understood the matter, and reason on it in such a 
manner that there is nothing to add to what you pro- 
pose, except to await your reply with the suitable 
execution of it, for the good example that must 
emanate from it in similar matters."] 



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112 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

9th. I believe that your Majesty will already 
have learned of the occasion for sending the said 
master-of-camp to those places, by letters that I sent 
via India. By them w^ill be seen the causes that pre- 
ceded, and the pressing efforts made by the castellan 
Lucas de Vergara Gaviria, in order that he might 
be permitted to come here. A son of Doctor Que- 
sada, ex-auditor of Mexico, a man respected for his 
learning and integrity, w^ent to take his residencia. 
I gave him charge of one of the companies that I 
sent to those places and w^hich had to be reorganized 
in them, for that purpose, and because of his rank, 
the services of his father, and his wish to follow a 
military life. When the residencia and acquittal are 
made, I shall inform your Majesty of that also. It 
will have so much that is good or evil, as the religious 
shall have aided or opposed him; since their friend- 
ship is the greatest advantage here, and their hostil- 
ity the greatest evil. For if they desire to grant 
honors, even to one who does not merit them, the 
documents, vouchers, and negotiations are drawn up 
as may be desired; and the governor has to give in 
payment what they demand, even if he be unable. 
If he do not act thus, woe to him; for they reach 
him in conversations and pulpit in his most vulner- 
able spot, his honor. Consequently, as I know that 
to be usual here, I am resolved not to credit what 
they have written of Lucas de Vergara Gaviria; on 
the other hand, I am meanwhile not sure of the con- 
trary. I consider him a good soldier, although he 
has something of the harshness of temper that is 
reported. I also wrote to your Majesty when I in- 
formed you of his coming and of the departure of 
Don Luis de Bracamonte, asking you ta be pleased 



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16201621] FAJARDO TO FELIPE III II3 

to send a governor for those places, for Don Luis 
said that he would remain there only until the arrival 
of your Majesty's appointee -a thing that was self- 
evident, even had he not said it. Had it not been 
for placing a captain before one whom your Majesty 
had honored with the title of master-of-camp, I 
would have given those forts in charge to Captain 
Don Andres Perez Franco, to whom your Majesty, 
while he was alferez, granted thirty escudos' pay to 
induce him to come with me ; and I would trust him 
not only with those forts, but also with other things 
of importance that your Majesty has in these parts. 
But I considered the above facts, and his few years 
as captain, although he has spent many in service; 
and, on account of his popularity and the excellent 
proofs of his integrity and valor (as your Majesty 
can learn from the soldiers of Flandes who know 
him), I am not sorry - although I would be glad to 
have him in Terrenate -- to detain him here, as he 
is one whom I value most highly. He has aided me 
in all that I am doing in your Majesty's service, and 
in the fulfilment of the duties of my office -which 
he aids in the building of ships and in the repair and 
equipment of them, in all the works and the despatch 
of ships that are carried on at the point of Cavite, 
and in whatever else arises, very much to my satis- 
faction and to that of all. That is not inconsiderable, 
and I assure your Majesty of this on account of my 
obligations to your royal service, and to inform you 
of those who aid in it, rather than through my good- 
will and affection for this gentFeman, although these 
are great His mode of procedure constrains me to 
it. Although I have relatives here, I shall not in- 
form your Majesty of them, as long as they do not 



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114 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

merit my doing so by their time and experience here. 

If a governor is to be sent for Terrenate, your 
Majesty will not forget those persons whom I have 
proposed for that post. They are Captains Don 
Diego de Salcedo, Joan Gongales Corrilla y San- 
tander, who were among the men of best judgment 
in Flandes when I was there, and of whom I would 
rejoice to hear news. But if, in another man, to 
such qualities were united some experience as a 
sailor, or a taste for naval affairs, he would not be 
worse for that; for very gallant deeds might be done 
among those islands. 

[Marginal note: "The points mentioned in this 
section are reduced to two. First, you will already 
have learned about the appointment of Pedro de 
Heredia as governor of Terrenate. It is thought 
that you will be well satisfied with his person, and 
that he will suitably conduct the public service. Con- 
cerning the other persons of whom you advise me, 
and especially of Captain Perez Franco, I am in- 
formed of his good qualities. So long as nothing 
offers here in which to occupy him, you shall take 
charge of his person, and shall employ him for what 
you think him suitable, for the reputation of generals 
consists in their efficient choice of persons, giving to 
each office what concerns it and what it needs. The 
second and chief point is concerning the religious 
who through their favors and friendships affect the 
standing of officials, and by altering the truth impose 
blame on thje latter or injure their reputation - re- 
ducing [public] affairs to their own methods, which 
has pernicious and evil results. Since you see that, 
and have experienced it, as you say, it would be 
your own fault if you did not remedy that matter. 



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1620-1621] FAJARDO TO FELIPE III II5 

I leave it to you to do what is most fitting. What 
occurs to us to advise you is, not to allow any reli- 
gious to make charges or prove the innocence of any 
government official, unless it should be in some verjr 
special and particular case, in which his act may 
have occurred with the knowledge of such religious, 
and can be investigated in no other way. You shall 
observe the same rule in official investigations, in 
which if the religious do not form a part of the court, 
certainty may thus be felt that affairs will proceed 
with sincerity and truth, as justice requires. This 
that is told you, you shall impart to the Audiencia in 
your meeting. You shall endeavor to have the same 
course followed in the case of the government agents 
and other persons who shall conduct similar investi- 
gations. Inasmuch as the interpositions generally 
made by religious are usually effective, as well as the 
means by which they intimidate some and encourage 
others, you shall take measures, immediately upon 
receipt of this, to inform the superiors of those re- 
ligious, so that they may be warned and advise their 
subordinates of it, so that they may not perplex them- 
selves or meddle in any case of these secular judicial 
proceedings, or with claims of third parties. For 
their occupation does not consist in this, but in the 
contemplative life, and in the exercise of the spir- 
itual activities; and, moreover, the gravest disad- 
vantages to the service of our Lord result from the 
contrary course. You shall advise me of what you 
shall do and what you shall have put into execution, 
so that I may know what occurs."] 

loth. I have had no other advices of anything 
new, or of matters of greater importance, in those 
forts [of Maluco] than the above-mentioned en- 



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Il6 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol 19 

trance of the reenforcements. From the people sent 
thither, and from those who wrote me from Japon, 
I have learned that the reenforcement was very^ 
timely; for the Dutch had crews of Japanese, whom 
they hired with the intention, as was understood, of 
attempting with them some deed of arms in that 
place, or something else that would have meant evil 
to our forces and fortifications. 

I was also advised from Japon that a squadron of 
Dutch ships was to sail thence to run along these 
coasts, in order to hinder the commerce of the Chi- 
nese ships, awaiting and robbing them on their way. 
In order to obviate this mischief, I prepared two 
strong ships, one patache, and two galleys, with 
which to make the said coast safe. I gave warning 
to China; and thus, in consequence, many ships and 
merchants of China, thanks to God, have arrived in 
safety. That squadron is in charge of Admiral Joan 
Baptista de Molina, a man who has served many 
years, and who has served here with especial cour- 
age and good fortune. And since every one in this 
country considers that he is the one who deserves 
most, and in order to avoid the punctilios of those 
who hesitated in embarking and in taking charge of 
those vessels - desiring, perhaps, under pretext bf 
this to remain ashore - 1 gave out that the squadron 
was to be in charge of Don Luis Fajardo, my brother. 
Thereupon all followed him, and he obeyed the or- 
ders of the said admiral, Joan Baptista de Molina, 
like the meanest soldier of those who embarked with 
him. The enemy must have heard of it, or they must 
have had more important business to look after, for 
they did not approach these coasts. On the contrary, 
it has been learned that they lost one of their large 



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1620-1621] FAJARDO TO FELIPE III II7 

vessels (than which never better sailed), at the head 
of the island of Hermosa; and that, for the last two 
years, they have obtained nothing from this coast 
beyond the destruction of what had been made for 
equipment of our vessels, and the loss of the shijps 
that have been wrecked. I am thoroughly convinced 
that opportunities will not be lacking in which, 
coming to blows, they will lose more, if God help 
us; for their attachment is strong to the profit that 
they claim from these pillagings, as well as from 
those that they made in former years. 

Had not the Dutch been so embarrassed by the 
so ruinous wars that they have had with the Eng- 
lish, beyond doubt a greater number of vessels would 
have come here. According to what I have just 
heard from a Spanish pilot, whom the Dutch held 
prisoner, and who escaped from the ships that fought 
with us, those two nations [i.e., the Dutch and the 
English] were negotiating a peace, in order to be 
able to come here with a great number of vessels, or 
for other advantages to them. If the ships that I 
am awaiting with the reenforcements arrive, by 
God's help, I shall not care when the enemy comes. 

[Marginal note : '^ It is well. Through your dili- 
gence and zeal for the affairs of my service, I hope 
that our Lord will grant very good results in every- 
thing, since the expense and care incurred by those 
regions are known."] 

nth. That ship that I bought at Macan has 
come, with some freight charges and duties on goods 
that it carried. That goes a good way toward aiding 
the cost of its purchase and the expense [of main- 
taining it]. The price was eleven thousand pesos, 
with sails, rigging, seven anchors, and four good 



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Il8 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

cables. I am satisfied with it ; and it appears at least 
to be made of better woods than those here. It was 
made in India, and its burden is more than six hun- 
dred toneladas of the Northern Sea.'' 

Contract and agreement have been made to build 
another ship in Sasima [x.^., Satsuma?] a province of 
Japon near here. I am assured that it can be built 
there very well, and it will be strong and of good 
timber, and very well-proportioned and suitable as is 
needed for this line and trade with Nueva Espana. 

[Marginal note: ** Since the counsel that you 
have taken in this matter is very prudent; and since 
you have been advised in your despatches (which 
you have already received) as to what you shall do; 
and since the benefit to the royal treasury and the 
quality of the vessels is so well known: you shall 
continue the same plan for the vessels that must be 
built, since, as you have seen in other despatches, the 
vexations to the natives occupied in this shipbuild- 
ing and the heavy expenses incurred by that construc- 
tion, are thus avoided. Since you already have plans 
for the factory at Terrenate and for the cloves and 
drugs that you may get at Terrenate and its adjacent 
islands, it will be a very efficacious means, in order 
that the vessels may be cheaper, to send the cloves 
and drugs where they may have greatest value, so 
that with that profit the vessels may be built more 
cheaply. After you shall have more fully established 
that advantage to the royal treasury, you shall en- 
deavor to put into practice the building of some boats 
for the service of the South Sea in Callao, Panama, 
and the other ports of Tierra Firme. This alone I 

^^^See VOL. XII, pp. 53, 54, " four hundred short toneladas of 
the Northern Sea, which amount to three hundred [of the South- 
ern Sea]." 



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16201621] FAJARDO TO FELIPE III II9 

refer to you,, so that you may endeavor from now on 
to lessen as much as possible the profit [made by 
others] in this, both in material and construction."] 

1 2th. The vessel that went to Gba with a quantity 
of cloves, which I had traded for in Maluco and 
sent there on your Majesty's account (as will be done 
whenever possible), arrived safely; and in the same 
way, was despatched and returned here (thanks to 
God), bringing slaves for the galleys and other sup- 
plies for the magazines, and the provisions and arti- 
cles necessary for your Majesty's service. 

[^Marginal note : ** It is well. In this way con- 
tinue. In every despatch that you shall send, you 
shall not advise in general terms of matters like this, 
nor summarize; but shall send a copy of the list of 
what cloves and drugs you shall have or obtain in 
trade; their cost, as well as the expense of sending 
them; the price and method of sale; the transfer that 
was made, and in what articles and at what price. 
And in order that we might have as exact informa- 
tion and account of it as is advisable, you shall in- 
form us, especially and in detail, of all the aforesaid, 
so that things of this kind may not be furnished from 
Nueva Espafia or any other region."] 

13th. I thought that I would send them to those 
kingdoms, so that your Majesty might see some 
cloves from Maluco. Although they are not cheap, 
they would be a product not often seen in the ports 
of Castilla, and not often carried from here. But 
the majority of the auditors opposed me, thinking 
perhaps that an oral or written relation would be 
sent with them not greatly to their favor. However, 
the one that I have already given your Majesty is not 
favorable to them. I suspect that they have learned 



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I20 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

of it; but I am not sorry for that, as I consider it 
correct. Or [their opposition may have been] for 
other reasons, and for private ends. They do not 
desire me to achieve success, and I would not wonder 
at that so much, if I alone were the interested party. 
But where your Majesty and your royal service are 
concerned, such a thing appears incredible of any 
one who has a good heart and soul, and is under the 
obligations of honor. Therefore I would be 
ashamed even to think this, were there not many 
other causes like that mentioned, that are similar to 
it. I could send an account of them in authentic 
documents, had I more time and fewer occupations. 
But having to attend to these, not only can I not do 
more than I am doing in this, but I cannot even at- 
tend continually to the Audiencia, or consider many 
things that they have tried and attempted in it con- 
trary to the authority and preeminences that your 
Majesty has given to this office. Many of them I 
must swallow, in order not to fail in the affairs of 
your Majesty's service - which could not be con- 
ducted as their importance demands and compels, if 
one were to give much attention to these matters 
which concern personal grudges. For if one did 
that, he could necessarily attend to nothing else, be- 
cause as the auditors here have few important mat- 
ters that oblige them to close application, they must 
apply the greater part of their time to devising petty 
tricks on the president in order to vex and weary him, 
until [as they hope], not only will he allow them to 
live according to their own inclination, but also their 
relatives and followers shall, in whatever posts they 
desire, be employed and profited. And since har- 
mony has never been seen here without this expedient, 



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1620-1621] FAJARDO TO FELIPE III 121 

one would think it easy to believe such a supposition. 
Regarding what your Majesty writes in this matter 
of posts being given to the relatives or followers of 
the auditors, there is not much to amend. Perhaps 
that is the reason that some are ill satisfied and to 
such an extent that they show it not only by inflict- 
ing annoyances on the persons who aid me in the 
obligations of my office and in your Majesty's serv- 
ice - because they know that I esteem such men for 
that reason, and see our gratefulness for it - but in do- 
ing whatever can cause injury, and also in any acts 
of discourtesy, which are much to be regretted. 
Such has been the demonstration that they made by 
public act when, the chairs of this Audiencia having 
been carried in order to go to one of the sermons 
and festivals to which they go here ; and the chair of 
my wife, Dona Catherina Maria ^ambrana y Fa- 
jardo, having been placed behind them -just as is 
the custom in other places, and as was continued 
here, without exceeding in anything what is per- 
mitted to the wife of a president - the auditors voted 
that my wife's chair should be placed outside, or that 
they would not take theirs, as did Doctor Don Alonso 
de Mesa and Doctor Don Antonio Rodriguez. It 
is a matter whose telling even causes me shame. 
Were it the resentment and sorrow of another, I 
could set it right, by the mildest and most advisable 
method possible. But as it is my own affair, and a 
matter akin to vanity (from which I believe myself 
quite free) - for when I have finished the public 
acts of pomp and display in my office, I return to 
that of sailor, which is the chief thing of this govern- 
ment- I lay it before your Majesty, so that you may 
be pleased to provide in this matter and in other 



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122 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

things touching auditors, as may best suit you. [I 
ask that your Majesty act] without greater inclina- 
tion to one side than the other, since this office is 
yours, not mine; and since I shall live in the same 
manner with or without it, without coveting greater 
honors than your Majesty (may God preserve you 
for us) has granted me and grants me in employing 
my services. 

[Marginal note: "After considering what you 
mention in this matter, it is reduced to the following 
points. The first and more essential is that which 
you mention (although in ambiguous terms) regard- 
ing the trading of the auditors and government em- 
ployees there, for which reason they prevented the 
sending of the cloves. The testimony that you send 
of it does not concern this matter, but* only that of 
the goods and money that were to be sent to Ter- 
renate for trading. That indeed was done in ac- 
cordance with your opinion. The opinion that you 
shall hold in matters so worthy of reform you must 
always send to me distinctly and clearly expressed; 
for if there are such officials who commit illegal 
acts - nt)t only in trading, but in hindering the profit 
of the royal treasury - it is advisable not only for the 
greater security of the treasury, but also for the ad- 
ministration of justice, that such persons be punished 
with the rigor that the case requires. Consequently, 
you shall do this, sending me information of what is 
done in this matter. If any proven guilt results you 
shaU'sequester the property of offenders, in order to 
assure the judgment. In accordance with this, we 
are writing to the Audiencia, advising it of what it 
must do. In order that no official may have any 
cause to think that you, of your own accord, are try- 



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1620-1621] FAJARDO TO FELIPE III 123 

ing to prove him guilty in a matter so grave, you 
shall be accompanied, in whatever concerns the 
sequestration of goods, by the archbishop resident 
there, in whose person we have the necessary confi- 
dence. The second point is that you will have been 
informed of all the things that concern the advantage 
of the royal treasury. You shall accordingly declare 
those things in the tribunal of the treasury and in the 
assembly. This reply by letter will be your authority, 
so that you shall need nothing more special than this 
for whatever may be to the benefit of my royal treas- 
ury, and shall procure that benefit by all and any 
justifiable means. The third point is - as you have 
been informed and instructed in other letters concern- 
ing the purpose of the factory at Terrenate - that all 
the benefit received from the islands of Maluco by the 
enemy is by way of barter; and that so vast profits 
are obtained by them in this that these enable them 
to be on the offensive and defensive, and convey to 
their own country the wealth that we see in the Ma- 
lucas, the value of which is evident in the armies and 
other expenses that are incurred. From this example, 
since the expenses of my royal treasury are so heavy ~ 
inasmuch as the trade is carried on only by conquest 
and force of arms -l^verything is reduced to expense, 
and nothing to gain. In order to make profit you are 
advised that the factory of Terrenate should barter 
and negotiate, in order that the profit obtained by 
the enemy might follow, and more if possible. And 
if the natives of those islands see that their property 
is not taken from them, and if they are paid in the 
ordinary form, they will grow fond of us and become 
converted to our friendship. From that it will be 
possible to pass to other objects, the chief one being 



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124 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

the evangelical preaching. Consequently, setting 
aside the universal gain that might come to the royal 
treasury for the gain in a specific case, the chief 
thing, and one which you are to push thoroughly (or 
rather two things), is the operation of mines and of 
factories for trade. Fourth, that since you have al-, 
ready experienced the utility that follows from send- 
ing those cloves to the East, and using this merchan- 
dise for other purposes and trade, you shall continue 
to do so. You shall always send the detailed account 
about which you have been advised, of everything 
that will be of importance in this matter. When- 
ever any case of doubt occurs to you in regard to the 
ceremonious observance due your office, send the 
proposition that you shall have made in the assembly, 
together with what resolution shall have been made 
regarding it, so that after examination here, just 
measures may be ordered; for in no other manner 
could any decision be reached without depending on 
the Audiencia. In order to gain time, letters are be- 
ing written to the Audiencia ordering them, in ac- 
cordance with what has been done at other times, to 
maintain with you, in the condition of affairs at pres- 
ent, the amicable relations and the respect due your 
office and person; and to observe toward you and 
your wife such ceremonies as have been observed 
hitherto, and as are the custom. When there is any 
doubt about the matter, I shall be consulted, so that, 
having examined it thoroughly, I may provide what 
is advisable for the public peace and for decorous 
relations between the president and Audiencia. 
(Note for a separate paper.)" ^^*] 
14th. Although it is my desire to restrain myself 

22* See this note, posty p. 169. 



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1620-1621] FAJARDO TO FELIPE III 125 

in this particular, in order not to drag on this letter 
to greater length, and for other considerations, cer- 
tain of my obligations move me to say the things that 
I cannot avoid, because I have heard that the au- 
ditors claim that your Majesty should take from 
the ofSce of governor and captain-general and presi- 
dent, the declaration and trial of suits that concern 
government and war- which your Majesty conceded 
to him, on account of those which were being tried 
then, and the disadvantages that were experienced in 
leaving them to the Audiencia. This is a matter 
from which -even if it pertained to them, by op- 
posing what your Majesty has ordered in this mat- 
ter-it is impossible to dissuade them, seeking in 
such things any pretext or excuse to meddle in them, 
and to embarrass and hinder me in the exercise of 
my office. Thus have they endeavored to do ^n 
many things, especially in one trial, begun here by 
the master-of-camp against various persons employed 
for wages in marine works (who were under the mil- 
itary jurisdiction) because of a conspiracy and de- 
sertion that they had planned, and which they were 
ready to execute if they had any one to get their pay 
for them for that purpose. This occurred at a time 
when I, because of a pressing need then of men for 
your Majesty's service, was compelling the master- 
of-camp and Aclaras to restore all those to their 
places who for ten years back had been removed 
from them. In their guilt Pedro Alvarez, war and 
government notary, appeared to be implicated. One 
of his friends, an ecclesiastic, named Joan Qevicos, 
tried to prove himself leader of this affair, in order 
perhaps to clear him and the auditors, according to 
what I understand and many believe. In complai- 



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126 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

sance to Doctor Don Alvaro de Meso, or for other 
objects, the auditors took it into their heads that the 
notary of war did not belong to the military jurisdic- 
tion; and that the master-ofrcamp had not the right 
of first instance in his cause, but that it belonged to 
me, in order that appeals might go to them. Without 
what I declared, in accordance with your Majesty's 
royal decree (which I presented), being sufficient, 
they hindered me so in it that it was impossible to 
administer justice. At last, as I thought that the no- 
tary's imprisonment had been long enough -al- 
though during his trial he had no guards who could 
levy costs on him -■ at the news that the men and pos- 
sessions of your Majesty and of private individuals 
that we desired from Nueva Espana were in safety, 
and that the enemy were waiting, I released him (in 
part as a demonstration of the thanks due our Lord), 
among other prisoners who had not been tried, and 
who had no one to plead for them, whom I also re- 
leased. Such, then, is the end of that affair. 

{^Marginal note: "Let them observe the laws 
and what I have commanded by the decrees that I 
have given. Advices are being sent to the Audiencia 
in accordance with this." In another hand: " Have 
letters of this tenor sent to the Audiencia, so that they 
may observe the decrees of enforcement [/o acor- 
dado]. Let it be noted that since the distance from 
those islands to these kingdoms is as is known, and 
the delay and obstacles in the replies and receipt of 
letters is the same and in some cases greater, it is 
commanded and ordered that he who shall be guilty 
of opposing what is ordered for the good govern- 
ment of those islands, both in military and in civil 
matters, will be punished with the severity and ex- 



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1620-1621] FAJARDO TO FELIPE III \^^ 

ample that the case requires ; for it is nat right that 
he who merits it be unpunished in matters of such 
importance, involving loss and delay."] 

15th. Also the auditors claim the right of trial 
and jurisdiction in the lawsuits of the seamen. That 
has come to such a pass that when I ordered that a 
sailor, one Luys Rivero, should be hanged for an 
atrocious murder that he had committed— of whose 
trial and of what passed then I enclose a sworn state- 
ment - they actually ordered that he be not executed. 
That happened on a day when I had left this city, on 
account of having ordered that on that same day a re- 
tired sergeant be beheaded, who had deserted while 
under pay and after receiving help, and had aban- 
doned his colors at the time of the embarcation; and 
in order to avoid the intercessions and importunities 
that they lavish in order that justice might not be 
done. But this is only a pretext of mercy, since pun- 
ishment, when deserved, is the greatest mercy -es- 
pecially in this country, where the punishment of 
offenses was so forgotten or almost never adminis- 
tered. For that reason, and to lessen my grief over 
the execution by being farther away from it, I left 
the city and went up the river. The proceedings of 
Doctor Don Alvaro de Mesa, in procuring the ob- 
struction of what he and his associates had ordered, 
were of such nature that some clamor might have oc- 
curred, had not the people been satisfied at the justi- 
fication of the case, and had they not had some con- 
fidence in me, mixed with sufficient respect not to 
lose it on similar occasions, even in my absence. 

{Marginal note'. " Let what is provided in the 
preceding section be observed, and whatever pertains 
to your office. Thus shall you declare in the assem- 



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128 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol 19 

bly, and in like cases. Let the Audiencia observe 
the decrees and ordinances given that order the cap- 
tain-general to try military persons and their crim- 
inal causes, just as and in the form ruled by the said 
decrees. Let the Audiencia report why it prevented 
the execution of the sentence against that man."] 

1 6th. If for such things, and others like them, the 
Audiencia petition (as they are doing) for power to 
convoke the people, since as yet has not happened, 
and, God helping, will not happen what they sup- 
pose can occur - namely, that I will hinder them 
from the exercise of their duties and the execution of 
such of their provisions as concern them -let your 
Majesty determine whether their demand is well 
directed. Let your Majesty also consider the evi- 
dence and rectitude that I have, other than they have, 
for having the greater authority in matters touching 
the Sangleys and their Parian; since for this they give 
as an argument that it would be advisable for them 
to have that jurisdiction, in order to expel and drive 
out of the country those whom it will need for its 
quiet and security, so that no other insurrection might 
happen, as in the term of Don Pedro de Acuna - as 
if that did not even more concern the governor and 
captain-general. They had resolved, a few days be- 
fore, in the Audiencia, that my reason for ordering 
certain Sangleys to be expelled should be explained 
before them - although I had told the auditors be- 
fore that resolution that those Sangleys and others 
were known to be wandering and lazy people, with- 
out any trade or any other manner of living than that 
of sowing discord, causing uneasiness, and stirring 
up disturbances; and that they had other customs 
that were harmful and injurious to them and even to 



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16201621] FAJARDO TO FELIPE III 1 29 

US. I told them that in order to cleanse the country 
of such people, who are wont to disturb it and even 
to endanger it on such occasions as those of insurrec- 
tion, I had ordered them to go to their own countries. 
Notwithstanding all this, the auditors persevered in 
the said resolution. From that one can see what 
good results are attained with the intention that they 
show by such a demand; since the most certain thing 
is, that they wish to have the authority over this peo- 
ple, who are wont to be useful and even profitable to 
him who devotes himself to them. 

[Marginal note: " Let the ordinance of the pre- 
ceding section be observed."] 

17th. The said auditors also claim the right to 
fill the offices of the minor officials in the Audiencia 
and others, which may be filled in the interim until 
your Majesty grants them. These appointments 
usually belong to the president. In order to make 
those appointments I took the depositions that I en- 
close herewith; while they base their claim for this 
on a certain act of introduction which they had made 
in regard to this, at a time when there was no presi- 
dent. In the absences of the president, and during 
the government of the Audiencia, they have disused 
or destroyed many preeminences and decrees in favor 
of the governors and captains-general and president. 
Finally, they seek all the methods of opposition that 
they can find, so that, if one were to judge without 
looking for the best object, it might be thought that 
they are trying by this improper method and means 
to pass more speedily to better employments. I do 
not know whether there is more than to add the as- 
sertion that, when I called a council and asked their 
opinions, in order that an entrance might be efifected 



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I30 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

into the province of the Igolotes Indians ^^ (which is 
situated almost in the middle of these islands), and 
that it might be pacified and reduced to the obedience 
of your Majesty, for the greater service of God and 
the welfare of its souls -- and, what is more useful, 
the operation of those mines (of which I shall in- 
form your Majesty in due time) - Doctors Don Al- 
varo and Don Antonio opposed me; and the latter 
did so by a method that did not satisfy all, proposing 
greater doubts as to whether it could be done or no, 
as one can see clearly by the testimony. I am per- 
suaded that, if his wishes and inclinations were not 
so biased and so ready not to become a good associate, 
even in what is just, many of the things above men- 
tioned and that I could mention would be avoided. 
For that and complete harmony, it would be of great 
importance if all the auditors were not new, as they 
are. They make more trouble than even arises from 
the ignorance of their duties, since that does not pre- 
vent them from presuming that they know every- 
thing. For lack of another and better remedy-^ 
and one from which no trouble would arise -it 
would not be bad for those who come here to fill such 
places to be started [in their duties] and to be taught 
methods and usages by the auditors of Mexico, at 
least during the time while they are detained there; 
for it is a pity to see their deficiencies in this regard, 
and even more the qualifications that I have men- 
tioned in this and other letters. The eye that was 
left to us in this Audiencia, whereby we could see 
and direct ourselves to the light, God chose to take 
from us, by the death of Andres de Alcaraz. We 

^^ The report of this expedition, which was effected, will be 
given later, in a document of 1624. 



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1620-1621] FAJARDO TO FELIPE III 131 

were left with very great grief at the loss of so wise 
and prudent an associate, and at his not having had 
so great prudence at his death (at which time one 
needs more) as he showed during his life and gov- 
ernment, and in governing himself; for he died with- 
out receiving the holy sacraments. However, one 
who* was sick so long, it is believed, would have often 
received communion, since at the end he did not do 
so. Neither did he dispose of his possessions, which 
were not few. Of that Doctor Don Alvaro de Mesa, 
probate judge, will advise and inform your Majesty. 
May God keep him in heaven, as we scarcely doubt 
He will. 

[Marginal note: "This section is answered in 
the preceding ones. With your prudence you shall 
try to direct affairs so that the service of God our 
Lord shall be accomplished, and that the good re- 
sults that are demanded shall be secured by your 
person."] 

1 8th. With this reason, I again represent to your 
Majesty and lay before you, as I have done at other 
times, that I may die; for even if my subjection to 
death were not so natural, and more liable to acci- 
dent, as in one who holds offices exposed to the dan- 
gers of sea and war, I suffer at times from lack of 
health; and no matter how poor may be the head, 
it leaves a lack in any body. Your Majesty has no 
auditors here who can govern, even in affairs of 
only justice and peace; for at times they prove de- 
ficient therein. Had Don Hieronimo de Silva been 
absent at such a time - as he has told me that he de- 
sires and has requested leave of your Majesty for 
it - 1 do not know to whom I could leave the charge 
of military matters, who would bind himself to such 



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132 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

trouble (and even impossibility) as would be the 
necessity of obeying, pleasing, and satisfying such 
leaders. 

Until your Majesty shall appoint persons to the 
government of Terrenate or to the position of mas- 
ter-of-camp of this place, w^ho, in such case [/.^., 
the death of the governor], might act in this capacity 

- providing for it by the usual methods and appoint- 
ments, or as might be more pleasing to your Majesty 

- I cannot find here any person whose ability for this 
is equal to that of the archbishop. He is a man of 
force, system, and executive ability; and, in my opin- 
ion, he will lose nothing of the authority and pre- 
eminences of the office, or of the jurisdiction and 
power that your Majesty might grant him; for I re- 
gard it as certain that he would not err in his gov- 
ernment through having less knowledge than the 
auditors, and in it would make arrangements for 
greater efforts and aid to military affairs and those 
who engage therein. The latter would be advan- 
taged by him, for even in this, although it is not his 
profession, I consider him as having more decision 
and effective energy than the said [auditors] have. 

And that it may not appear that I am in every case 
speaking of them in general terms (my intention be- 
ing to tell the plain truth, without reserve or any 
other consideration than the telling of it), I "declare 
what I believe: namely, that if Doctor Don Antonio 
Rodriguez - who is the latest auditor, and has not 
much health or maturity of years - had resided here 
longer I would trust his executive ability in ^pref- 
erence to that of the two others here, whom I do not 
consider very capable, for the reasons explained in 
other letters and in this ; for as has been seen by ex- 



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16201621] FAJARDO TO FELIPE III 1 33 

perienee, he shows himself to be a man of greater 
knowledge and prudence, and of great sagacity. 
However, for a long time there have been rumors 
(and not few) that he has been the one who has dis- 
turbed the minds of his associates, writing, advising, 
and counseling them secretly. But by his not ap- 
proving the object of such things, and by his keep- 
ing aloof from the others, for that reason and some- 
thing of this having been well understood, I do not 
consider it as certain or sure; and in other things 
outside of this (except that it seems to me that he is 
anxious to grow rich quickly) I consider him as a 
man of good method, very prudent and well in- 
formed, and one who takes pride in appearing to be 
a good judge. 

[Marginal note: ** Council. May our Lord be 
pleased to grant you health, so that, having finished 
your term of office and fulfilled the hopes that are 
entertained of your service, you may be promoted to 
better things. Although what is advisable is de- 
creed in this matter, you will accordingly take all 
the care possible in it. It is to be hoped, in our Lord, 
that He will give you the health that you desire and 
the fortunate success that is so important"] 

19th. Consequently, I have requested him to take 
charge of the cause of one Joan Mohedano who was 
arrested ten days ago for the accusation made against 
him of having entered the seminary of Sancta 
Potenciana; and because there are so few here who 
could act as judges -some not having authority to 
try this cause, and others having been refused there- 
in - it has not been possible to finish it hitherto, 
which Doctor Don Antonio will do. 

[Marginal note: " It is well. Take special note 



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134 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

that such crimes and acts of sacrilege as this demand 
their punishment in the presence of our Lord. Ac- 
cordingly it is advisable, and I order and charge you, 
that in this crime and in others similar -may God 
forbid their commission - you shall show yourself, 
as shall the j'udges who take charge of these causes, 
as severe and rigorous in judgment, and prompt in 
their despatch, as the cause requires. You shall ad- 
vise me fully, in a short account, of what should be 
done in this matter, and the sentence and execution 
of justice therein."] 

20th. As for the other two causes similar to the 
above, of which I have also informed your Majesty, 
I remitted that of Captain Don Fernando Bezerra 
to Licentiate Legaspi; for certain persons, on see- 
ing justice done in this land, say that it is not jus- 
tice, but only passion, while others say that it is 
cruelty. Accordingly he concluded and judged it, 
and freed him. For the same reason, I committed to 
him the appeal to the Audiencia in the other cause of 
Don Joan de la Vega. While the latter, on my 
conscience, was more than guilty enough to suffer 
decapitation (to which I sentenced him), the same 
auditors so managed the cause that at last they did 
the same thing; they set him free, and condemned 
Captain Lucas de Manozca, formerly alcalde-in- 
ordinary of this city -who aided me in this cause 
and others to the service of your Majesty -to the 
sum of five hundred pesos and other penalties, and 
caused him to suffer a considerable time in prison, 
and to spend for other particular objects much time 
and money. 

[Marginal note: "You and the Audiencia have 
already been answered in regard to this matter, as 



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16201621] FAJARDO TO FELIPE III 1 35 

to what must be done. Now you are ordered to send 
a copy of these processes and acts -so that, having 
been examined, the satisfaction that is proper may 
be obtained - and of the justice that has been ad- 
ministered in like matters."^^] 

2 1 St. I am accustomed at times, for the sake of 
greater assurance, to refer to the Audiencia certain 
causes and matters that are of importance to your 
Majesty's service and the obligation of my office - 
some, to one of the auditors, who consults with me 
in them ; and in some, according to their nature - to 
ask them for their opinions. They are generally ac- 
customed to excuse themselves from all of these, if 
they do not care to attend to them, and arguments or 
reason do not suffice for it. I cannot tell how they 
are to be compelled to act if reason does not move 
them, or unless your Majesty be pleased to order a 
reform in this matter, with the orders that concern 
each one, and what is to be done both in the above 
and in the declaration of jurisdictions - concerning 
which I wrote to your Majesty quite fully in letters 
of last year. 

{Marginal note: " Observe the ordinances ac- 
cording to the despatches that have been sent you 
regarding this."] 

22d. I have committed the inspection of this 
country - which your Majesty ordered to be made 
by one of the auditors for the consolation and re- 
lief of its miserable natives, and of which no memo- 
randum exists as to when it must be made - to Doctor 
Don Alvaro de Mesa, as he is in better health and 
more suitable for that purpose than are his other 
associates. Although he resisted (even saying that 

^^ See a further note to this section, posty p. 171. 



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136 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

I could not appoint him), and even gave me other 
excuses, I think that he would do it after the con- 
clusion of this despatch of ships, had not the com- 
missions come for the residencias that your Majesty 
has entrusted to him. Consequently, when he con- 
cludes these, if there is nothing else to hinder, or an- 
other associate who may then be regarded as more 
suitable for it, he will have to do it Yet I petition 
your Majesty to have him advised of his obligation 
in this matter. 

[Marginal note: " These inspections are very es- 
sential, since they are based on the relief of miserable 
persons, and in no way can the condition of affairs 
be fully ascertained unless by means of these in- 
spections; and the most advisable measures can 
hardly be well understood, if the condition and facts 
of what ought to be remedied and can be bettered 
are not known. Hence I again charge you to pay 
especial attention to these inspections. The Au- 
diencia is commanded to observe the orders that 
you shall give in your capacity as president, so that 
each auditor, when it concerns him, may observe his 
obligations and go out on the inspections."^^] 

23d. On receiving your Majesty's despatch, in 
observance of your royal order that was directed to 
me, I gave his despatch to the fiscal, Don Joan de 
Alvarado Bracamonte, ordering him to refrain from 
going to the Audiencia and from the exercise of 
such office, and that he get ready to embark. He 
did so, and when he was ready for his voyage and 
had placed on board what he had for it, and while 
he was making his farewells preparatory to embark- 
ing: he was arrested by the judge of his residencia, 

25 See a further note on this section, post, p. 171. 



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1 620162 1 ] FAJARDO TO FELIPE III 1 37 

in order that he might give bail for the claims and 
appear before the judge; and the property found to 
be his was sequestered. Thereupon, what he had 
aboard ship was taken ashore. I communicated to 
the Audiencia your Majesty's royal order to embark, 
that he had received. It appeared right for him to 
give bail. That and other things were referred to 
the said judge, to whom I also showed the decree, 
so that he might facilitate the preparations of the 
said Don Joan and act according to justice. But it 
must be that he could not do so until now; for yes- 
terday, when I had come from Cavite, and the ships 
had sailed -even being outside the bay, since they 
are not seen inside it -the notary of the residencia 
came to me to say that the judge had now remitted 
the imprisonment and removed the guards with 
whom he had arrested the said fiscal. As if now 
there were any resource for his embarcation; or as if 
one could send him, with his goods, household, and 
sea-stores, overland on the shoulders of Indians, in 
order to intercept the ship at the landing-place where 
these letter packets go out! I am sending a state- 
ment of the time when I was informed of it, lest the 
matter should be forgotten, or in case he should not 
choose to make this report. As I know him, and 
here are now recognized the unjust complaints that 
he makes, that the Audiencia have hindered him in 
part from the exercise of his commission, I deem it 
advisable that the truth be recounted, without leav- 
ing it solely to his relation; for I am sure that he 
has not been restrained in anything, and that in this 
regard the Audiencia has proceeded with circum- 
spection and particular care, as they also know him. 
Although to all there his ancient hostility to us was 



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138 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

apparent, for which reason the fiscal challenged his 
judge, the only provision made in the matter was 
that he be accompanied as should be deemed ad- 
visable by the acts. From them likewise will be 
apparent the certainty of the guilt of which he has 
been accused. 

[Marginal note: "Have this section filed with 
everything touching the causes of this fiscal; and 
should there be any letter from the latter that dis- 
cusses this point, let a report of it be made when 
this section is examined. Have the governor an- 
swered, that we are advised of this ; and that he will 
be answered in a separate letter regarding this par- 
ticular."] 

24th. Answering the letters and decrees that I 
received from your Majesty just now, in those mat- 
ters that I shall not have answered and satisfied in 
the course of this letter, I declare that I have done 
or arranged most or a great part of what your Maj- 
esty orders in them. For I have always been care- 
ful to do all that I knew with certainty; or should 
consider to be advantageous to your Majesty's serv- 
ice, the efficient management of your royal treasury, 
and the welfare of this land, without halting therein 
because of the lack of such royal commands and 
orders, but not exceeding those given to this govern- 
ment. Consequently, when I received the said let- 
ters, I had already suppressed the repartimiento of 
rice, a thing so unjust and harmful, as they informed 
your Majesty and as I wrote last year. 

[Marginal note: " In regard to what you say in 
this section, you are to note that, for the better 
understanding of the correspondence that is main- 
tained with you, you observe in the future the order 



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16201621] FAJARDO TO FELIPE III 1 39 

that is always followed. You shall always advise us 
of the receipt of the despatches, with the day, month, 
and year of their date, and also the dates of your re- 
ceipt of them. In its order you shall insert the sec- 
tion written you; and, after answering it, you shall 
go on to the next, observing the same order. By 
that means, what you have received and what you 
have answered to that particular case can be sep- 
arately and explicitly ascertained, and although, with 
your good prudence, you shall have enacted certain 
things beforehand, which are already executed, in 
whole or in part, at the time of their ordering, or 
you shall have been intending such action, yet you 
shall advise us of what is ordered and of its fulfil- 
ment. That concluded, in a separate letter you shall 
report, as you are doing, of the other matters that 
it is advisable should be understood, in the depart- 
ment and office to which your correspondence goes, 
of what is ordered you, and what you have done, 
and the notice of what you say, so that you may.be 
answered and what is advisable be provided."] 

25th. In the same manner, I have reduced the 
pay that it has been customary to give, of all those 
who came here with me. 

[Marginal note: " It is well."] 

26th. In Terrenate there are four salaries of 
thirty pesos. Those who enjoy them are men of 
service and merits, both for aiding the governor and 
for their ability to enter and supply the lack of any 
captain, or to be entrusted with any post or affair 
that demands such a person. I am ignorant of the 
assignment and origin of these salaries, and by whom 
they were made. I shall inform myself of it from the 
documents of those forts, and ascertain what peo- 



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I40 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol. 19 

pie are sufficient for them. I shall give your Maj- 
esty a full account of everything, so that you may 
take v^hat measures you deem best. 

[Marginal note: "It is well. Observe what is 
ordained."] 

27th. The expense incurred in Terrenate, both in 
the pay and in the reenforcements and other ex- 
traordinary demands, is of such nature that it is very 
heavy, although according to the account, not very 
adequate; and as yet I have not made it so large as 
your Majesty has been informed. It is a fact that, 
without that drainage of men and money, the ex- 
penses here would be much less ; and we would get 
along and live with very small expenditures, and 
much better. But it must also be considered that if 
the enemy enjoy Maluco in quiet, their profits and 
gains would be very great; and I think they could 
consequently succeed in whatever plan they wished, 
and whatever they did would result well. But be- 
cause they do not possess it, there is war -■ in which 
he will prevail and succeed better who has more 
tenacity and force, especially on the sea. He who 
will remain lord of them will be lord of many 
profits and riches, which can be taken from these dis- 
tricts. Inasmuch as this is a matter that demands a 
more orderly and full treatment, in regard to ex- 
perience and certain well considered relations, I 
shall not involve myself further in it, until I shall 
be able to do so with these necessary conditions. But 
I shall endeavor to do it as soon and as much better 
as possible. 

[Marginal note: ** It is well. Endeavor will al- 
ways be made to reenforce and protect those islands 
and your government with the forces possible. But 



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1620-1621] FAJARDO TO FELIPE III 14I 

as these are limited, and consumed in so many diverse 
occasions and armies in Germany, Flandes, and 
Ytalia, and other places, it is highly advisable, as 
has been written you, to be careful in your expenses 
and in the accuracy of their account. It is also de- 
sirable that you endeavor to work the mines of the 
country, and to carry on a factory and the trade of 
cloves and drugs as much as is possible, so that you 
may sustain yourselves and may not prove so expen- 
sive, as has been represented to you in preceding 
clauses."] 

28th. I shall also endeavor to tell your Majesty 
what I shall ascertain and hear about the duties on 
the cloves of Terrenate and the factory, taking for 
that the depositions of the Audiencia and of the 
royal officials - which I shall not do now, for want 
of time. In the opinion that I asked from them some 
days ago in regard to sending [a vessel] to trade fol* 
cloves on your Majesty's account with goods and 
money that I had for that purpose, Don Alvaro op- 
posed me so strongly in everything, that one would 
think that he considers that the risks are mine and 
that it is done on my account (as if the gains were 
mine) , rather than for your Majesty's service. How- 
ever, I sent the goods necessary for this trading, be- 
cause of the gain that results from it and its invest- 
ment to the royal revenues and the provisions brought 
from India. 

[Marginal note: "Council. You have already 
been answered as to this."] 

29th. If it is true, as has been said in regard to 
these despatches of ships from Terrenate, India, and 
Nueva Espaiia, that the relatives and followers of 
him who made and managed them have profited. 



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142 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

now, thanks to God, things are run more openly and 
honestly, at least in so far as I have authority, and 
in matters that I can prevent or remedy. That I 
do, in such manner that well do my condition and 
that of my servants attest it; for the latter live on 
the rations and clothes that I give them now, and 
they will do so until they be entitled to more as citi- 
zens, and not by serving me, or by other merits. 
Consequently, I can affirm that the offices that my 
predecessors have given to the citizens, in fulfilment 
of your Majesty's orders, I have granted in the same 
manner; and have even given them others to which 
they had no right, either by custom or royal de- 
cree. 

[Marginal note : " It is well, and I trust that you 
will govern yourself in all matters as I expect from 
your person."] 

30th. In regard to preferring one's relatives, I 
have thus far not done anything that is not strictly 
in accordance with your Majesty's service. Two 
companies are under one of my cousins and a cousin 
of my wife, because of their many years of service 
when I gave those companies to them. One of them 
I entrusted with the office of alcalde-mayor in a 
place where he was, for an interim of four days. 
Outside of that I remember nothing more in this par- 
ticular. 

I shall not neglect to tell your Majesty what oc- 
curs to me in this matter, so that you may take what 
measures in it are deemed fitting: namely, that eight 
out of ten of the influential men that come here come 
with the governors, and the other two in various 
ways and through various causes, and with honorable 
intents. Of those other and common men who came 



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16201621] FAJARDO TO FELIPE III 1 43 

to retail what they bought there [i.e.j in Espaiia], 
those who established a place in order to gamble, 
and those who came under sentence (and these men 
are numerous), some, because of having acquired 
money, try to imitate the men of rank and merits 
here. Of a truth there are many of the latter to es- 
teem, and I shall do it, employing each one as he 
deserves and for what he is suitable. For that 
reason, however, it is not advisable that the number 
of the influential, good and useful men should not 
continue to increase. I assure your Majesty that 
not a few of those whom I brought with me were 
such, and some of them of qualities no less excellent 
than those above mentioned possess. I believe that 
their deeds will remain and testify as to that. 

[Marginal note: "Observe in this matter what 
has been written you ; and whenever there is any oc- 
casion for any of these persons to be employed, ad- 
vise us of their qualities, and answer will be made 
regarding them. In the meantime, furnish a good 
example, in your good life, discipline, and manner 
of governing, so that the other people, imitating you, 
may live as is proper and may obey and observe the 
commands given them." In another hand: " It is 
well."] 

31st. The deeds of Don Luis Fajardo, my brother, 
will, I trust in God, judging from the road that he 
is taking, merit not only the honor and favor that 
your Majesty has given him, with the pay of thirty 
[pesos?] that he now enjoys (for which we both kiss 
your royal feet in all humility and acknowledgment), 
if not even greater favors, such as we his brothers re- 
ceive and his father received. 

[Marginal note: "It is well. In everything 



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144 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

that pertains to you, account of your person shall be 
taken, as well as just remembrance of the services of 
your father."] 

32d. In one of the letters and decrees of your 
Majesty, to which I am replying, was a memorial 
signed by Joan Ruis de Contreras, concerning posts, 
pay, and other things which were represented to 
your Majesty as unnecessary. Because of it you or- 
dered it to be sent to me for the restriction of those 
things. I shall endeavor to observe it with the cir- 
cumspection and consideration that is advisable to 
the service of your Majesty, consulting on the matter 
with the Audiencia, the master-of-camp, and the 
royal officials. Whatever expense they shall find that 
can be reduced will be reduced. If I believed that 
it could be done throughout without any disadvan- 
tage, it would all be done. But for greater justifica- 
tion I shall make this effort; and if your Majesty 
shall yet order, notwithstanding what seems best 
here, that it is more advisable to retrench every- 
thing, that will accordingly be done. Security will 
at least be given for the salaries that are not reduced, 
by the persons who should enjoy them, so that they 
would be returned if your Majesty did not consider 
it fitting; or if not, I shall pay them, although I 
should not do so willingly. Inasmuch as the salaries 
of those of all the posts and offices were not stated in 
the memorial I shall do so here. 

The sargento-mayor of this camp and city of Ma- 
nila receives forty ducados of ten reals each per 
month. 

There are three adjutants, two of whom receive 
pay of twenty- four ducados per month; while the 
other serves in the ordinary post of soldier, waiting 



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16201621] FAJARDO TO FELIPE III 1 45 

until one of the two paid offices becomes vacant, and 
on account of meriting more. All are necessary. 

The captain of the guard receives twenty-four 
ducados of ten reals per month. 

The companies have their two drummers and the 
ordinary additional pay but not all of them. 

The reduction will include the companies that 
lately came new, as that is more proper, in order not 
to cause the old colors to be disbanded. But they 
will not be greatly restricted, if the captains and 
officers with their staff have brought a year's advance 
pay from Nueva Spafia. 

The castellan of Manila enjoys eight hundred 
pesos per year, or fifty-three ducados of ten reals, 
and three and one-third reals per month. If he has 
an encomienda, in addition to this, as your Majesty 
has been informed, it is a very small one. 

His lieutenant receives twenty-eight ducados of 
ten reals. 

The other lesser officers and soldiers receive the 
pay of those of any company of the army. 

The commandants of the forts of Nueva Segovia, 
the town of Arebalo, and the city of Cibu, receive 
each thirteen ducadoes of ten reals, plus three and 
one-third reals per month. Will your Majesty de- 
cide, according to the clear statement of this rela- 
tion, what you desire to be reduced, and the reduc- 
tion will be carried out, in accordance with your 
royal order; and the said effort will be made im- 
mediately, in order to assure this expense, as it cer- 
tainly shall be reduced from now on. 

[^Marginal note: "Join to this section what was 
written to him, and bring them here this afternoon. 
What you write in this section has been caused by 



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146 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

some misunderstanding. In order that you may un- 
derstand it better, and that what is advisable be done, 
three points are to be noted by you. The first is in 
regard to the number of men who have the title of 
officer. If such offices are those of the old men- 
that is, those offices that were introduced, and which 
have always existed, since the creation of the infantry 
[there], and which have always been filled by such 
men - there shall be no innovation. In case that 
other and supernumerary offices shall have been 
added, this is what you are to reduce, because this 
number of officers is costly and only serves for ex- 
pense and the ambition that there be many to com- 
mand, and that the infantry be in charge of many 
superiors. All that is contrary to good military dis- 
cipline. Such is usually tolerated in temporary 
armies when they go out on a campaign, because of 
the special achievements and undertakings in which 
they are occupied, all of which is usual in the train- 
ing of the militia. In the reductions ordered or made 
in the armies of Flandes and other places, this order 
has always been observed. The contrary is bad 
government, and means debt where there is no rev- 
enue, and causes the accounts to be always in arrears 
and to be never entirely paid - especially to the com- 
mon soldiers, to whom the officers are always pre- 
ferred. The second point concerns the pay, and what 
was ordered you by a section of the letter of Decem- 
ber 19, 618, and what is contained in the relation of 
the secretary Juan Ruis de Contreras. The pay of 
the ordinary officers shall not be entirely suppressed 
but only lessened and reduced in accordance with 
the old list; and the increase of pay that has been 
granted them shall be reduced for the just causes con- 



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16201621] FAJARDO TO FELIPE III 1 47 

tained in the despatches where this is ordered to you. 
In this consideration, also, you are ordered, by virtue 
of what has been given you in the said despatches, 
that if, besides what there might be of this reduction 
of pay, you should find any pay, even though of those 
long in service, that is not strictly necessary, and that 
will not detract from the necessary defense, it shall 
also be lessened and reduced, cautiously, as is ad- 
visable, in order that the service be made effective, 
that as much expense as possible be avoided, and 
that there be sufficient revenue with which to pay 
the active and serviceable soldiers. The third point 
is what you mention concerning consultation with the 
Audiencia and with other persons, in order to avoid 
difficulties. If this cannot be secured in executing 
what has been ordered you, and in the rest, it will 
be advisable that you speak clearly and not in am- 
biguous and general terms - especially stating what 
those difficulties are, what injury they cause, and 
whether they concern the public, or only the private 
affairs of certain interested parties. For to the lat- 
ter no attention is to be given, since it is certain that 
every one is working for his own interest and profit. 
Whenever these reductions have been made in armies 
and militia, they are resented at the beginning. 
Everything is assured, as is advisable, with good 
management and the execution of what is ordered. 
Hence I again charge you most earnestly that, inas- 
much as this matter of the expenses and revenues of 
those islands is paramount and cannot be overlooked, 
you shall endeavor to preserve whatever is possible, 
paying heed that the expense of what you shall take 
upon yourself does not prove of greater harm than 
what you are trying to remedy thereby."] 



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148 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol 19 

33d. I sTiall endeavor to have the same done in 
all the expenses that should be increased, when their 
utility and necessity should not be clear and evident, 
if they are not approved and confirmed by your 
Majesty. I shall exercise constant care that the ex- 
penses do not increase in the treasury sessions. I 
have also tried and shall try to lessen the expenses 
of the articles that are generally requested from 
Nueva Spafta, and that can be avoided; for never 
have fewer things been requested than now, as will 
be seen by the enclosed certifications. 

[Marginal note: ^* It is well."] 

34th. The most considerable and valuable part 
of the abundant aid th^t your Majesty was informed 
was given me in Nueva Spafia, when I came here, 
was the soldiers ; and of them the most and best, and 
those who made the best appearance, were the men 
that I brought from Spafta. The greater part of 
these, or nearly all, came aided and helped with my 
money, and even with the plate and silver pieces of 
my household. I do not know that notice of it should 
have been given to your Majesty, for one should not 
charge to you so slight a service to whom all his pos- 
sessions, his blood, and his life are due. Conse- 
quently, I am not surprised that this should have 
been passed by for another. 

[Marginal note: "It is well."] 

35th. The number of tributes will be placed in 
the titles of the encomiendas, what they pay, the 
value of their products, and in what district they are 
located, as your Majesty orders. 

Your Majesty has some encomiendas apportioned 
to your royal crown, some distance from here and 
in a district where their products cannot be used. 



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1 620-1621] FAJARDO TO FELIPE III 1 49 

That is the most serious thing; for the collectors gen- 
erally defraud [the royal officials] by saying that 
it was a bad year, and that they collected in money. 
If they confess to have collected something in kind, 
they say that it was too great trouble to bring it; 
and they sell it there, as they wish - perhaps selling 
it at retail to one who immediately returns it to them, 
and, besides this, harassing the Indians. On account 
of the distance, that is not often discovered, and less 
often can it be proved. And so that your Majesty 
might have much greater benefit from another equal 
number of tributes, I think that, as the encomiendas 
of private persons of La Pampanga and those in other 
districts near here, which yield a good harvest in 
products, continue to fall vacant, they should be ex- 
changed for the said distant ones; for the latter will 
not be unsuitable with which to reward services. 
If they have a private person as encomendero, the 
Indians will be much better treated, and the tributes 
will be well collected and administered, with more 
justification and mildness. The tributes near here 
will result well for your Majesty through the profit 
on those paid in kind, which can come from this bay 
overland and by rivers, straight to the door of the 
magazines. It would be better for your Majesty 
to have charge of them than the encomenderos, for 
they are so near the Indians that they never fail to 
gather in a harvest of some kind - either in services, 
'or some other thing. Being so near the governor, no 
collector would dare to treat the Indians badly. For 
the above reasons I think that I shall place this in 
execution as opportunity offers, unless I am so 
strongly opposed in this as in other things, that I 
would be embarrassed in it -although I cannot see 



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150 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

what arguments they would have for doing so. 

[Marginal note: "Council. This scheme and 
method of management that you present is excellent, 
and thus you shall do. In the council of the treas- 
ury, you shall always continue to deliberate on what 
could be of greater advantage to my royal revenues. 
Thus shall you do and advise, since it will all be so 
proper and justifiable, as I expect from you. You 
have noted one matter of unjust government, namely, 
excess [in the collections.] Accordingly, you ought 
to censure and punish it, and not permit any officer 
of justice or collector, whether for himself or for 
third persons, to be able to collect in public auction, 
or secretly outside of public auction, any products 
or articles that are owed by tributarios, landlords, 
Indians, or debtors. For great frauds are wont to 
ensue in that, and the laws punish and prohibit such 
acts as you are advised. For greater justification in 
the matter, the above shall be set forth as a clause 
in the patents made out for each one of these col- 
lectors, with a penalty of four times the amount of 
any excess that they might obtain."] 

36th. All the letters and decrees directed to this 
royal Audiencia, and your Majesty's orders therein, 
will be punctually fulfilled, although in the sale of 
offices, the city declares that it has sent a petition 
to your Majesty with representations of the justice 
in not diminishing here the little that there is with 
which to reward services. However, those that 
might bring a considerable price will be sold, and 
likewise those that might cause no great difficulty. 

[Marginal note: "It is well. In these matters 
of difficulties, you shall observe the order written 
to you in the preceding section."] 



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1620-1621] FAJARDO TO FELIPE III 151 

37th. I have heard that some of the reports of 
services and merits that are generally made by order 
and officially, which your Majesty commands and 
orders to be made, as is fitting and as is ordered, 
have been too much exaggerated and favored by 
the opinions of the Audiencia. By this new system, 
and by what I am attempting and shall attempt to 
fulfil, I hope this will be corrected - although since 
the making of these reports is usually divided among 
the auditors, each one appears to be favorable to 
his own client. If they agree in their opinions, this 
difficulty would scarcely intervene. 

Among the reports made and despatched this year 
are three, seemingly most justifiable. One is that 
of Captain Francisco Moreno Donoso, a man of 
honorable character, and who, as I have understood, 
has fulfilled his obligations as he should -both in 
peace, where he has been esteemed and honored; 
and in affairs of war that have occurred and have 
been entrusted to him. If your Majesty be pleased 
to occupy him in one of the posts that he desires, and 
of which the Audiencia expresses its. opinion, my 
opinion is that he deserves it, and will give excellent 
service. 

I cannot refrain from saying the same in the sec- 
ond report, that of Admiral Rodrigo de Guillestegui, 
for many reasons, especially those that have moved 
me to what I have written your Majesty in other 
letters, because of his honored abilities, services, and 
merits. 

Admiral Joan Baptista Molina has no less, but 
as much as he who deserves them most. He is an 
old soldier, having served from his youth, and is as 
obedient and attentive as when a youth. He deserves 



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152 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

thoroughly what is said in the opinion, but I would 
be sorry to have him go from here before me, for I 
am glad to have the aid of soldiers who have al- 
ways professed the trade of arms. On that account 
your Majesty should not neglect to concede him the 
favor that he requests, for he has also deserved it, 
as appears from his papers. 

[Marginal note: " It is well. In these relations 
and reports made by the Audiencia, charge them in 
the assembly that they try to make them with the 
exactness and integrity that the case requires. In- 
asmuch as the importunity and presumption of the 
parties necessitates at times that unsuitable things be 
said or done, the remedy for that will be for you 
to send - in a separate letter, that treats only of this 
matter - an annual relation of the persons who have 
had their reports taken under color of remuneration 
for services. You shall say of each one whatever 
offers; and here the necessary secrecy will be main- 
tained. Although you have been informed at length 
regarding this matter, inasmuch as it is an essential 
point you are again charged with it."] 

38th. On finishing the present despatch, I shall 
do what your Majesty orders me to do, together with 
the archbishop, both of us summoning the provincials 
of the orders who reside here, and charging them 
with the reformation of the matters contained in the 
section that treats of this. 

He who made such a relation to your Majesty 
might have made it more complete by saying what 
is so true, that there are in these orders (in which 
also there are those of every sort, as in all coun- 
tries), religious so virtuous and exemplary that if 
laymen did not divert and engage them in their af- 



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1620-1621] FAJARDO TO FELIPE III 1 53 

fairs, they would, I believe, work miracles. But 
they are so importuned that many cannot stay in their 
cells; nor do those who go to their cells to disturb 
them leave them until they negotiate with them what 
they desire. It might easily happen that any one 
who had received an unmerited favor from their 
hand, gave pay for it by such a relation, which is the 
one practiced here. The relation that I can make for 
your Majesty is, that there are among them men very 
pentitent and of most exemplary life, and of great 
utility for souls ; and also others who render vain any 
merits in one who does not fulfil their command and 
will. If it has been said that they distress the In- 
dians, this is not to be believed of all of them, for 
most of them at most times respond with great char- 
ity and love to the defense of the natives of their 
districts, even when the latter are of such a nature 
that almost all do not care to have this protection. 

In what pertains to your Majesty's service, ac- 
cording to what I have experienced, I can say that 
thus far all the orders - each one in what concerns 
it generally - have often responded well, for which 
I render them many thanks. The fact is, that since 
that does not keep them satisfied in all matters (for 
that is impossible), I have found the secret for this 
particular, namely, to refer everything to the re- 
ligious of the district where such [/.^., personal, by 
the Indians] service is rendered to your Majesty, 
making them masters and intermediaries in the pay, 
which takes precedence of all else, as I have done. 
Everything is executed in a wonderful and perfect 
manner ; but without this expedient, there is nothing 
to hope, but rather the reverse. For anything that 
the religious do not wish cannot be done, by any 



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154 I'HE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol 19 

means or method; for no one has any influence with- 
out them, except themselves. In my opinion, and 
that of many, they are lords in the temporal and 
spiritual affairs of the Indians, both men and women, 
and even of the Spaniards. There is no one who can 
oppose or who does oppose them, for there is no 
one from whom to obtain redress, not only in such 
things, but in regard to the complaints of Indians. 
For the provincials and superiors have before their 
eyes the end of their offices, and the necessity of 
their returning to be inferiors. Consequently, so long 
as your Majesty furnishes no remedy - either by your 
order that some superior should be sent who would 
not have to remain here afterward without acting 
as superior; or by giving authority to the bishops of 
those districts over the ministers of the missions - it 
must continue forever as hitherto. Well might 
Maestro Don Fray Diego de Guevara tell the little 
rigor that the provincial of St. Francis displayed to- 
ward certain friars who lost respect for him - among 
whom was one who went for the bishop with a sword 
and dagger, as if the right of each one was to lie in 
such armor. I have heard that he drew up a testi- 
mony in order to give your Majesty an account of 
it, and also of what little need there is for a bishop 
in his bishopric. 

I can also tell what happened to me with this same 
provincial, when, on the arrival of the morning of 
holy Thursday, I freed Pedro Alvarez, government 
notary -who is said to be some relative of his, and 
who was arrested on the charge of that desertion of 
which I have already written your Majesty in the 
present letters, telling you that I would have recourse 
to the judge who tried his cause. He succeeded in 



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i620-i62i] FAJARDO TO FELIPE III 155 

making the provincial resolve, and decide obsti- 
nately as to what he had to do for him, or had to 
preach of me, just as he pleased. He fulfilled it, 
as a man of his word. Although it was not much, it 
was so uncertain, that his conscience obliged him, ac- 
cording to what the other religious say, to retract it 
publicly in another sermon. . This is Fray Pedro de 
Sant Pablo, one of those considered here as a most 
holy man. I think that he must be one. 

As appears, by his protection and by that of Fray 
Joan Baptista of the same Order of St. Francis, Pedro 
Alvarez resolved to have me told that, unless I de- 
termined to give to his office the distribution of the 
Sangley licenses, he would write [information] 
against me. That threat did not give me any anxiety, 
but such audacity made me angry, as did the fact 
that those fathers had given hospitality in their house 
for it, if not for my being a magistrate, at least for 
what I represent, and since this is the royal patronage. 
But the latter is here regarded by them as nothing. 
Then they draw copies of what my predecessors in 
this government thought. 

[Marginal note: " Ecclesiastical council. In re- 
gard to this matter of the religious, in another sec- 
tion what has been written you is the order that you 
must observe; and to the Audiencia, so that they may 
order that in no case shall religious be admitted as 
witnesses, except in the manner ordered. The same 
has been said in regard to the insertions, so that like 
things or matters may be embarrassed in no manner. 
Thus shall you fulfil the order. In accordance with 
this, general letters are being written to the provin- 
cials of the orders, which will be given them by 
your hand. In regard to what you say here of the 



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156 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol 19 

sermons, and that the religious reserve approbation 
or reproof, with censure or gratefulness, for the per- 
sons whom they wish, this is prohibited by different 
general laws, councils, orders, etc. In some of their 
own special rules, a penalty is assigned them, among 
others, of reserved excommunication ^'** to the [MS. 
holed'jlation. Thus shall you be advised of this, so 
that you may govern yourself according to the mat- 
ters that arise; and you shall inform those fathers. 
You shall endeavor to avoid the trouble caused you 
by what you say in this section, and shall reduce mat- 
ters to plain and open terms, so that what you say at 
the last shall not contradict what you say in the be- 
ginning. Have general letters written to all the 
provincials of the orders, who already know that it 
is f ojrbidden under the most severe penalties by divers 
councils, canonical rules, orders, laws, etc., and by 
our decrees, for preachers to censure the government 
in the sermons that they give to the people or in con- 
versation with private persons, or to speak evil of 
their ecclesiastical or secular superiors, by censuring 
their management or action, in order that the people 
or private persons may not cast discredit on their 
superiors and be scandalized. Neither shall they 
meddle or interfere in secular affairs ; but shall con- 
tinue in their seclusion, and in the observance of 
their vows, as they are obliged. Inasmuch as it has 
been learned that, contrary to the tenor of all this, 
and to the serious harm of the administration of jus- 
tice, many religious and preachers, and others who 

^^*The reservation signifies that absolution from the said cen- 
sure is reserved exclusively to a superior, as the prior of a convent, 
a provincial, or general, or even to the supreme pontiff himself. 
See Addis and Arnold's Catholic Diet., pp. 135, and 717 and 718. 
- Rev. T. C. Middleton, O.S.A. 



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1620-1621] FAJARDO TO FELIPE III 1 57 

hold Special offices transgress against the above rules, 
from which results odium cast on the religious, fac- 
tions, the intimidation of justice, the reduction of 
affairs to their way of thinking and to their will, and 
other great annoyances, which they cause continually 
under pretext of insertions, importunities, and impo- 
sitions hidden under the name of charity: I charge 
and warn you to take particular care that the re- 
ligious of your order and you, in what concerns you, 
observe the aforesaid, and they likewise. They shall 
not transgress in proceedings of that sort, for such 
things being so, it will be necessary to use other and 
more special remedies, as has already been called to 
your attention by the said decrees despatched to the 
viceroys, audiencias, and governors of their districts. 
I expect from your devotion, and from your obliga- 
tion for the continued kindness that is shown you, 
that you will endeavor to inculcate the reform and 
proper method of procedure in this that is required 
for the good government of those islands, and the 
preservation of the public peace."] 

39th. In order that your Majesty may know what 
this Pedro Alvarez demands, I shall relate it here 
as briefly as possible, referring you to the report 
made concerning it (which is enclosed with the 
licenses of the Sangleys), since these licenses have 
been given in writing here, many years since ^^ the 
imposition or tax of the eight pesos, for distribution 
by different persons to whom the governor com- 
mitted it, or whom he appointed. Of these the San- 
gleys paid two reals for the cost of the document, 
whether printed or written. The notary, judge, in- 

^®The original reads " despues'' ("since"), but the sense 
seems to require '' antes '* (" before "). 



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158 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

terpreter, and other agents who made this distribu- 
tion, according to the order of the judge himself or 
of the governor, were ordered to distribute them. 
In this the government notary never had any hand, 
share, or participation. • Many years after the pay- 
ment of the eight pesos which were collected for it, 
and slightly before the death of Don Juan de Silva, 
Caspar Alvarez, then government notary, petitioned 
the governor to allow him to countersign them after 
the former had signed them, in order to get hold of 
it. This is the same thing that his nephew demands 
now. Don Juan, who was under many obligations 
to him, and was by nature very liberal, did not hesi- 
tate to concede it to hm. Consequently, Caspar 
Alvarez countersigned the licenses by declaring that 
he did so. I do not know why so special a commis- 
sion as this should belong to the government notary - 
especially when, because he may be busy or for just 
reasons, the governor does not sign them, and en- 
trusts them to a trustworthy and qualified person who 
signs them. For if this had to be given to the charge 
of the government notary, although from the divi- 
sion of the two reals he would get only the third, 
which would amount to five hundred pesos, besides 
another four hundred that he demands annually 
from the royal treasury, by arguments that moved 
them at a meeting of the treasury to concede them to 
him - but which I abrogated because it did not seem 
proper, as I have advised your Majesty before now, 
from which has resulted that anger of his - the whole 
would amount to nine hundred pesos of sure income, 
which means a principal of eighteen thousand pesos, 
although it only cost seventeen thousand, for which 
your Majesty sold the office to him. The o|fice 



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1620-1621] FAJARDO TO FELIPE III 1 59 

yielded [MS. holed: last?] year, without counting 
these nine hundred pesos, more than two thousand 
five hundred. In other matters pertaining to this, I 
refer to the report that, as above stated, in enclosed 
herewith. 

[Marginal note : " It is well. Have the fiscal ex- 
amine this section." In another hand: "It was 
taken to the fiscal."] 

40th. I had already made a beginning in what 
your Majesty orders to be done in the opening and 
working of gold mines, as I was desirous of obtain- 
ing such an order by authority, with excellent news. 
What I can impart of it is the news written me by 
Captain Garcia de Aldana, to whom I entrusted 
it.^^ Consequently, I am sending his letter and a 
copy with this, and his duplicate, in which he adds 
that they have greater hopes than those that we 
promised ourselves from the mines, since we had to 
continue the entrance into those provinces, and en- 
deavor to enjoy the fruits of our labor, with the 
pacification and reduction of so many people to the 
service of your Majesty, and their souls to the serv- 
ice of God (which is the thing of chief importance). 
If all cannot be obtained at once, it is well to have 
already made a beginning, and that it shall continue 
to advance. Touching the gold, it cannot be little, 
since those Indians who are called Ygolotes do not 
extract more than what they need for trade and bar- 
ter- for cattle, salt, and iron -with our peaceful In- 
dians with whom they trade. One year ago, from 
that province alone, according to the report here, the 
latter brought for sale to this city about twenty thou- 

^^An account of this expedition will be presented in a later 
document. 



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l6o THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol 19 

sand taes, each of which is equivalent to a peso of ten 
reals. When we secure efficient management of 
these mines and the duties from them, it may be that 
they will help in many expenses. That I shall do 
this with as great energy and force as possible, there 
is no doubt. The fathers of the Order of St. Dominic 
have assisted me greatly in this; and those of St. 
Augustine, in this and in whatever has offered in the 
service of your Majesty. For what I owe in all this, 
and in order to declare the truth in all things, I cer- 
tify this to your Majesty. 

Although the fathers of the Society have no mis- 
sions in those provinces near there, they supported 
very well by writing and speech the reasons and 
just rights that we had for making this entrance, so 
that no one doubted them -not even the members 
of the Audiencia, as I have written to your Majesty 
in this letter. What I can say of the Jesuits and 
their devotion, system, procedure, and prudence, 
and their gain of souls, is that they differ in no wise 
from what they are and do in those kingdoms [i.e., 
Espana and Portugal], and in those where they exert 
themselves in the conversion of new Christianities. 
For that reason, and because they do not return [to 
Europe] daily, as do others, it will be a good thing 
for your Majesty to grant them the religious that 
they request. 

The discalced Recollects of St. Augustine also 
help toward the same end of the pacification of the 
said provinces. I have known naught but humility 
among them in all things hitherto, and they do not 
meddle with the government of what does not con- 
cern them; nor do they do anything else outside their 
profession - offering to take charge of certain mis- 



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1620-1621] FAJARDO TO FELIPE III 161 

sions on the entrance into Ytuy, which lies on the 
other side next the missions of the Ygolotes. I bear 
them in mind and will try to act in concert with 
them by this same path, God helping. May His Di- 
vine Majesty, as He is able, bring it to pass so that 
they may know Him as their God, and your Majesty 
for their as well as our king. 

[Marginal note : " Ecclesiastical."] 

41st. Thanks to our Lord, this country is peaceful 
and prosperous in other things. The native vassals 
are orderly and full of courage, and those who were 
living in the forests have been reduced to their set- 
tlements and missions, being very confident that their 
possessions will not be taken from them, and that no 
repartimiento or [MS. holed: edict?] will be made 
among them, or that any other service will force 
them to flee or to be made slaves, in order to make 
them render service, as has happened to innumerable 
of these poor wretches; for they hope that what I 
have done hitherto to relieve them from so many 
burdens will be continued. If I avail myself of their 
services in any unavoidable and necessary labor, I 
do so, by paying them beforehand, saving the money 
from other things for it. Consequently, they now 
rather desire the opportunity to earn money by their 
services or the products of their fields, which now 
they reckon and hold as their own. I trust that, with 
divine favor, this will go daily from good to better, 
and that everything will succeed in the same way, 
until acts of injustice to these poor wretches will be 
avoided. Although I was taking delight in doing 
thus, now I am very happy, for I have learned what 
your Majesty desires, and that you commit this to me. 

They and we are so well supplied with churches 



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l62 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

that inside this city and about one legua around it, 
there are thirty of them, unless I have counted 
wrong; and of those not three are of other material 
than stone, nor are there as many others that fail to 
cause expense to your Majesty and labor to the na- 
tives -- and this in one legua about the city as I have 
said, in a semicircle, which is even not entire, for the 
other half falls within this bay. I have not resolved 
before now to inform your Majesty of it, because 
I hesitated, on the grounds that our Lord would be 
just so much better served by the increase of churches, 
and these Christians would be better governed. But 
since your Majesty is discussing the limitation of 
this, I cannot refrain from answering you with the 
plain and naked truth. Well do I know that this 
and the other things that I have related have not 
[MS, holed^ me, because I am already advised of 
it; and [MS, holed] resolution and execution of 
many, among whom are some who have issued a 
proclamation [for the services of the Indians?], 
while it was prohibited, for anyone in the world, not 
only of their profession but also for seculars, to issue 
one. But considering as surely slight any peril that 
will result, if revenge is to be taken on truth as truth, 
while, on the contrary, the neglect to tell the truth 
will result in great risk, I am convinced that I am 
doing my duty in this.^^ If they should say that I am 
a very good governor, your Majesty does not excuse 
me from my residencia for that reason. If they 
should say that I am very evil, I petition you to hear 
us all, and that you will pardon me for saying this 
which was unnecessary. 

28 The words lacking in the above, due to the dilapidation of 
the MS., render it impossible to translate this passage clearly. 



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16201621] FAJARDO TO FELIPE III 1 63 

[Marginal note : " Ecclesiastical governmeift. 
You mention some things in this section which it is 
advisable for you to understand thoroughly because 
of their gravity and for their better management, as 
follows. What you say of the good treatment of the 
natives, and of the burdens and evils that come upon 
them, is excellent. Endeavor that what you think 
best be carried out in regard to their services, reliev- 
ing, consoling, and comforting them by good works, 
equity, and administration of justice, taking their 
cause ex officio against the more influential and 
powerful who [MS. holed: oppress?] them. This, 
being to the service of bur Lord and good govern- 
ment, will give a most effective example and method 
for the reduction of the rest of the natives of those 
islands, and their incorporation into the Catholic 
church and our government. Accordingly endeavor 
to do what you have so thoroughly understood, and 
live with the prudence that the matter necessitates. 
Inform yourself by all means of what is being done, 
and of the fruit that results from it. No church or 
convent, not even a chapel, ought to be, or can be, 
founded unless concurrent with your permission, and 
that of the Audiencia, together with that of the ordi- 
nary. You shall demolish and reduce to its former 
state what should be done in violation of this, for the 
contrary is disobedience, spoliation, and offense; and 
it is not proper that reward, or permission to con- 
tradict what is proper, should follow from such as- 
sumptions, and that the insolent shame by their li- 
cense those who are obedient and modest. The num- 
ber of churches that you mention seems great, and 
there is excess in that, about which it is proper to be 
cautious. For few churches, well served and en- 



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164 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

dowed, are advisable and are sufficient, while from a 
great number of them signal disadvantages arise. 
You shall take note of all this, for religious zeal, 
v^hen unaccompanied with the knowledge and pru- 
dence necessary, becomes excess and disorder, and a 
matter for troubles, which will be avoided by seeing 
that the churches are established in the manner above 
mentioned."] 

42d. One of those of this profession, named Pedro 
Leussara, has been arrested on the petition of parties 
whom he has greatly offended, by word and writing, 
in the most vital part of their honor - and without 
proof, as will be seen by the writ. In this matter, if 
natural inclination frees from guilt, he will have to 
remain free. 

[Marginal note: " It is well."] 

43d. A ship just now in from Malaca brings as 
news that it was known there that the Dutch and 
English were already allied; but when the relief 
that we are awaiting arrives, I hope, with Divine 
favor, for better results. May our Lord give them 
to us, as He is able; and may He preserve the royal 
Catholic person of your Majesty, as Christendom 
needs. Manila, August 15, 1620. 

[Marginal note: "War. It is well. You have 
already been advised concerning this."] 

44th. While about to direct these despatches, so 
that they might cross over to Mindoro- where the 
ships generally stop in order to lighten and get sail- 
ors for their voyage - 1 am told that the ships Bad 
not even been able to double the island of Fortuna, 
because of the violent head-winds, which have con- 
tinued there with so great force; and also that [MS. 
holed} from China, which, although it is more than 



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1 620162 1 ] FAJARDO TO FELIPE III 1 67 

one month since they left, have not had the weather 
to enable them to get entirely free of the shoals and 
promontories of this bay, which is in [MS. holed'] 
the greatest difficulty. I trust, God helping, that the 
weather will moderate, for the sake of all. 

Don Alonso Fajardo de Ten^a 

{This belongs to the second section: "Have a 
letter written to the viceroy of Nueva Espafia, enclos- 
ing a copy of this section, and advising him at the 
same time of what is being written to the governor. 
Having informed himself of these disorders and lack 
of good management that have been observed in the 
government agents and persons who take part in that 
despatch of ships, he shall be advised that he must 
investigate and punish it. iWhat results from that is 
being awaited for public example, which is so neces- 
sary, and for the better despatch of those ships. In- 
asmuch as both the remedy and the punishment are 
to be included in this investigation, you [/.^., the 
viceroy of Nueva Espafla] shall endeavor to procure 
the execution of this with the earnestness demanded 
by the matter. In the future very trusty men shall be 
appointed, namely, men who do not commit the of- 
fenses and disorders so strongly prohibited. The ves- 
sels particularly shall sail very lightly laden, and in 
the order mentioned in the preceding section. In- 
asmuch as I understand that what the governor 
notes in his letter about sending unnecessary and 
costly things has been remedied, you are again 
charged to send a detailed relation every year to the 
Council of everything sent [to Filipinas], so that we 
may know what articles and products are sent, their 
prices, and whether they contain any things men- 



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1 68 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol 19 

tioned by the governor. It is a serious matter, and 
one that heavily charges your conscience and the 
reputation of the officials -who in that matter are 
aware that it is declared that in order to burden the 
royal treasury and to give advantages to third per- 
sons, opportunity is given for such actions. The 
service that you would perform would be very grate- 
ful to us, if you would advise us immediately of the 
condign punishment of any official guilty of such an 
offense; for it is a great offense for those who are 
placed in offices to protect the royal treasury, and to 
benefit the public cause, to convert the exercise of 
their offices into all manner of wrongs like this."] 

[Note to section 4: ^^ Have a copy of this section 
sent to the [India] House of Trade. State that al- 
though the matter there mentioned has always been 
considered harmful to the general commerce of these 
kingdoms ; and although the silver which must come 
here from Peru would in great part, if not all, be 
taken to Eastern Yndia, and delivered to our en- 
emies, whereby two wrongs would ensue, since the 
Filipinas serve only as a station and bridge : still we 
have considered whether adjusting the matter in the 
following manner w^ould be a suitable expedient, 
and one that would avoid all the troubles mentioned. 
That the reenforcements be sent straight to Filipinas 
from Panama, since it is a road so sure and favor- 
able; and also, as pointed out in this section, one 
could take the merchandise from Espaiia that would 
be useful and valuable in Filipinas, with which the 
blessing of this trade could be enjoyed ; and that the 
soldiers could sail from Espaiia until they should 
disembark for the short journey from Chagre River 
to Panama. In order to avoid any silver from Peru 



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1 620-1 62 1 3 FAJARDO TO FELIPE III 1 69 

being taken in these vessels . on their departure to 
Filipinas and so that the merchandise of those is- 
lands might not be brought to Peru on the return 
trip (which is forbidden), it shall be ordered that 
the return trip of those ships be to Acapulco, as now 
- prohibiting them under any circumstance from re- 
turning to Panama, Callao, or any port of Tierra 
Firme; and so that these boats should not remain 
[idle] in Acapulco without making a voyage, they 
might be used for the voyage to Peru, because of the 
permission that has been decreed for the preservation 
of mutual correspondence and trade between Peru 
and Acapulco. They shall advise us of their opin- 
ion, so that all expedient measures may be taken. 
Likewise have all the matter bearing on this in the 
Peruvian secretarial ofRce collected, so that, upon the 
arrival of the relation from Lalasa, the most expe- 
dient measures in all things may be taken, and the 
[present] section of this letter answered."] 

[Note to section I J, which these decrees concern: 
" Have a letter written to the Audiencia telling them 
that inasmuch as it has been learned that some gov- 
ernment officials, both lawyers and clerks, notwith- 
standing the prohibition decreed by royal acts, laws, 
and decrees - forbidding them to trade or engage 
in business, buy, sell, or lade vessels, themselves or 
through intermediaries, under the penalties con- 
tained in the said laws, acts, and decrees against all 
the aforesaid -secretly and clandestinely, under cover 
of intermediaries, make confidants of certain per- 
sons, so that, by means of the said trade, they not only 
become rich but prove an obstacle to the benefit of 
the royal revenues, besides causing other evils which 
are not mentioned because they are well known : for 



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lyo THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

the correction of all this it has been commanded and 
ordered that if any of the said officials should be 
guilty of like transgressions, the president and gov- 
ernor and captain-general of those islands shall in- 
vestigate and verify the aforesaid and send us a re- 
port, so that, after examining it, justice may be 
meted out and the fitting remedy applied. When 
the said investigation shall prove guilt, we have or- 
dered the said president by an act, to sequester prop- 
erty, and to be rigorous in the sentence of this execu- 
tion, according as we decreed it, and in the form or- 
dered. In order that you understand this, this decree 
is despatched." In another hand: " Despatch a de- 
cree to the Audiencia, so that if there should be any 
mutual doubt - whether any on the part of the presi- 
dent toward the Audiencia, or on the part of the lat- 
ter toward the president, concerning the matters of 
ceremony that must be observed toward the said 
president and governor and captain-general of those 
islands and his wife - in such case, the claims of each 
side shall be considered with the modesty, gravity, 
and promptness that are desirable; and I shall be 
advised of the result, so that after examining it I 
may decree what is expedient. And inasmuch as 
time spent in such matters is not only the loss of 
time necessary for other things, but also the causing 
of certain rivalries harmful to the common welfare; 
and inasmuch as under this pretext they are accus- 
tomed to revenge themselves for certain causes of 
anger: in order to avoid disturbances from persons 
who are obliged to give so good an example, I thus 
also order and command, and desire that you under- 
stand that, together with decreeing what shall be 
expedient in such matters, I shall order that he who 



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16201621] FAJARDO TO FELIPE III 171 

shall be at all guilty of this, or who should violate cus- 
toms or make any demonstration at public celebra- 
tions that is observed, or who leaves the body of the 
church or the public place where he ought to be, be 
punished severely and exemplarily; for that very 
thing serves as a scandal to the public, and a bad ex- 
ample to all, and these acts would arouse mutual en- 
mities, to the harm of the royal service."] 

[Note to section 20: "Have a letter written to 
the Audiencia saying that inasmuch as letters were 
sent to them in regard to these matters in the des- 
patch of a former year, on such and such a day of 
such a month and of such a year, a section to the fol- 
lowing effect (here insert the section). And now it 
has been learned by a letter from Don Alonso Fax- 
ardo, present governor of those islands, that those 
criminals have been set at liberty; and, in order that 
what happened in this matter may be understood, it 
is ordered that you send a copy of the records, to- 
gether with the part of the fiscal, with a memorial 
collated by him of all that results from the deed; so 
that, having examined it, the expedient measures 
may be taken, and that the condition of everything 
may be understood- The memorial and the records 
which shall be remitted shall be communicated to 
the governor, so that if there should be anything of 
which to advise, he may do it."] 

[Note to section 22: " Have a letter written to 
the Audiencia and a copy of it sent to the governor, 
in which mention shall be made that although it has 
been ruled by royal ordinances and decrees, and by 
other divers letters and orders, as to those things 
which must be observed, and the official visits to the 
natives in all and whatsoever parts where there are 



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172 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

missions and where justice is administered, this is not 
obeyed with the exactness required by the case ; and 
on that depends the relief and compensation of the 
poor, and the punishment of those who live licen- 
tiously, or make bad use of their offices. The visits 
were introduced for the consolation and relief of the 
natives - not only on that account, but in order to as- 
certain the characteristics of each region, and the 
products and articles that can be produced in them 
and carried in case of need to any other region ; and 
in order to take what measures may be advisable for 
justice and good government It has been learned 
that this has not been done with the exactness re- 
quired, and that on account of the personal occupa- 
tion and toils that generally accompany it, you ex- 
cuse yourselves and state other objections, in order 
not to make those visits ; but I order you to busy your- 
selves in them, in accordance with the order that 
shall be given you by your president, Don Alonso 
Fajardo, who shall advise me of what shall be done 
in this. You shall take very special care to send a 
minute copy of the findings for the districts visited; 
for thus it is advisable for the good government and 
for the information that must be had of affairs there; 
and so that what has been ordered for the benefit of 
the natives may not be converted into mischief and 
burdens for them, especially since that land is paci- 
fied. It is ordered to you that, in going to make the 
said visits, you observe the order decreed, avoiding 
followers and retainers. And in order that we may 
have the satisfaction necessary from this, when you 
send a relation of the said visits, you shall send one 
of the men whom the visitor took with him, and an 
account of what occurred in this."] 



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LETTER FROM FELIPE III TO FAJARDO 

The King: To Don Alonso Faxardo de Tenza, 
my governor and captain-general of the Filipinas 
Islands, and president of my royal Audiencia resid- 
ing there. The letter which you wrote me on the 
tenth of August of the past year has been received 
and examined in my royal Council of the Yndias; 
and the resolutions adopted in regard to the matters 
discussed therein will be explained to you in this. 

You say that Francisco Lopez Tamayo, on account 
of his many years and ill health, has left the office 
of accountant which he occupied, and that you have 
appointed in his place Pedro de Lenzara, as he ap- 
peared to you a suitable and intelligent person. In 
filling this office you have used the care and atten- 
tion which the matter demands; accordingly the ap- 
pointment will remain with [him as] a person com- 
petent for this employment. 

You inform us that in a council held in the time of 
your predecessor, which consisted of himself, the 
auditors of the Audiencia there, and the officials of 
my royal exchequer, it was decided to give, distrib- 
uted among them and the archbishop of the metro- 
politan church of that city, and other officials of the 
said Audiencia, three thousand four hundred fanegas 
of rice at the price at which my tributes are given to 



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174 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol 19 

me; and when you saw that they had not my order 
for this, you ordered that the said grant of rice should 
not be continued, and that what had been received 
should be restored if I did not decree otherwise. In 
this order, and in discontinuing the four hundred 
pesos which were given to the governor's secretary, 
you have done w^ell, and this action was advisable, 
and conformable to justice; and you are to under- 
stand that, if there are other affairs of this kind be- 
side those which you have pointed out, they are to be 
corrected, and an account of everything given to my 
fiscal, so that in respect to them he may fulfil the ob- 
ligation of his office. 

You have done well in having ordered that the 
money from the treasury of property of deceased per- 
sons in that city - which used to be taken to the treas- 
ury at Mexico without benefit in the property for 
their souls or their heirs, being divided or iifvested 
by order of the court having the jurisdiction in such 
matters - should be placed in my royal treasury and 
be paid in the said treasury of Mexico from the 
money which on my account is to be sent to those is- 
lands. What you have decreed in regard to this is 
just and expedient; and as for what you mention in 
regard to the proceeds of the bulls, you will do the 
same if the circumstances and conditions of their col- 
lection allow of it. You will act according to previ- 
ous directions. 

You say that the licentiate Andres de Alcaraz, my 
auditor in that Audiencia, wished to go to Mexico 
last year in the ships which left those islands for 
Nueva Espana; and that he did not do so because 
he was sick, and because of your urgent request that 
he should not desert the Audiencia until the other 



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1620-1621] FELIPE III TO FAJARDO 17S 

auditors thereof should become proficient in the des- 
patch of business and the duties of their offices, on 
account of the lack of harmony among them. As it is 
fitting that those things which you mention in gen- 
eral terms should be explained in detail, you will 
advise me what they are, and in regard to what per- 
sons, since as president of that Audiencia you are in 
duty bound to give the information, so that, having 
been considered, provision may be made according 
to justice ; and in the meantime you ought to correct 
and warn them in such manner that all shall be 
peaceful and that scandal shall cease -for this is the 
sole cause of bad government, of justice losing its 
prestige, and of those who are appointed to remedy 
evils being the authors thereof. In order to do away 
with this, I have had letters written to the other au- 
ditors (a copy of which is sent you), warning them 
that they must be subject to your person, and main- 
tain the respect and ceremony due to you by virtue of 
your office. Of the rest which you mention in that 
clause I have been informed. 

As for what you say in regard to not considering 
it expedient for my royal service that the order which 
I have given should be executed which directs that, 
on the death of the governors of those islands, the 
duties of the office of captain-general should be ex- 
ercised by the oldest auditor of that Audiencia; and 
what seems best to you to provide in this matter in 
order to do away with the difficulties which might 
be feared if, the licentiate Andres de Alcaraz be- 
ing gone, the licentiate Jeronimo de Legaspi should 
enter upon the said office, as he is the next oldest 
auditor, considering the scandal and evil example 
with which he and his son, Don Antonio de Legaspi, 



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176 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

are living: may God be pleased to grant you health, 
so that this thing will not happen which you wish to 
anticipate; and for this ofRce there are always per- 
sons appointed, and therefore you need not be anxious 
about this. Since you show so much dissatisfaction 
with the said licentiate Jeronimo de Legaspi, and he 
and his son have conducted themselves ill, you will 
make such investigation as seems most fitting to you ; 
and with the results thereof you will prefer charges 
against him, together with his answers thereto, 
and send them to my Council, so that, having ex- 
amined the documents, they may provide a remedy. 
I send you a commission for this with this letter, and 
you are warned that your principal duty as president 
is to watch and be attentive to the method of proced- 
ure of every one of the officials who are dependents 
of this government. With which I charge your con- 
science, and warn you of the account which you have 
to give to our Lord therefor, that you may proceed in 
a manner not to intimidate justice, nor to propose any- 
thing which shall not be purely for the service of His 
Divine Majesty, and the relief of your conscience 
and mine. Accordingly, let it be noted that you 
favor your friends with commendatory reports, or 
injure those who are not so well disposed to you by 
accusing or censuring them; for, considering that 
there is no other person there in whom this trust can 
be placed except yourself, this warning is necessary. 
You recount the service of the licentiate Don Juan 
de Albarado Bracamonte in the office of fiscal of that 
Audiencia, and the confidence that you have in him. 
As I have decreed what has appeared to be expedient 
in regard to this man, and you will have heard there- 
of, I have ordered him to be investigated on account 



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16201621] FELIPE III TO FAJARDO 177 

of the continual complaints I have received in re- 
gard to him. I warn you, as in the preceding clause, 
that you shall proceed in these reports as justly and 
cautiously as is necessary, considering the account 
v^hich you must give to God of them; and before 
you make them you should consider them with the 
great attention which I confidently expect from you, 
on account of the injuries which would follow if this 
were not done, both to the welfare of the people and 
to yourself. 

What you say in regard to the affair at the semi- 
nary of Santa Potenciana, and the investigations 
which were made in regard to it by the licentiate 
Jeronimo de Legaspi, concerning the persons who 
were guilty, and the state in which its lawsuits were, 
may be reduced to three points. The first, which 
concerns the seclusion which ought to be maintained 
in this seminary, is of the gravest importance ; and it 
is necessary that there should be special care exer- 
cised in regard to its prudent management, 
its reception-rooms, and doorkeepers, and especially 
the porters. To this end it would be desirable 
to inspect the said seminary often, and that 
its superior should place only approved persons 
on guard in the house and residence of those who 
are inmates, so that it may be as well secured 
and safe as is right; and that with its inmates, 
if they are guilty, the measures provided for by the 
sacred canons and councils should be taken. For it is 
not right that a house of prayer, seclusion, and retire- 
ment should be an offense, and scandal, and a cause 
for sacrilege. As for the secular persons concerned, 
I charge and order you to inform them that the crime 
which they have committed is one of the greatest 



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178 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

which cry out before God our Lord, defy justice, and 
offend the nations and the public cause. And a severe 
example must be made of them, not only in the main- 
tenance of justice but in the prompt despatch of the 
suits and cases of those who were implicated in so 
vile a deed; accordingly you will advise me fully, 
at all opportunities, of the condition in which they 
are, and of the execution of penalties, and of the cor- 
rective measures that have been applied to the said 
seminary. The second point concerns the complaint 
which you present in regard to the appeals from 
your decisions which are interposed. This is so well 
provided for by the laws that merely by command- 
ing that these be observed you will have at your dis- 
posal all that can be used for good of justice and of 
your government; for, in spite of the appeal of the 
parties, you can execute the sentence when the guilt 
of the accused and the gravity of the case require it. 
It cannot be presumed that the Audiencia will hin- 
der you in its execution in such cases; for what is 
permitted to an ordinary judge could not justly be 
hindered in you, being the person that you are, and 
the head of that government. Accordingly, for the 
fuller justification of the case, I have ordered that 
the letter which goes with this be written to the said 
Audiencia, and by the copy [sent to you] you will 
be aware of its tenor. The third point concerns the 
lack of obedience in military matters, and the hin- 
drance to punishment therein. This evil will be 
charged to you if you do not exercise in it the most 
thorough vigilance, in punishing not only insolent 
and lawless acts, but even the appearance of them, 
and all that would approach either possible or actual 
disobedience. For you know that without such strict- 



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16201621] FELIPE III TO FAJARDO 179 

ness there can be no military discipline, nor any suc- 
cessful result; and the arms which are borne for the 
defense of the commonwealth will be turned to its 
damage. Accordingly you must treat such cases sum- 
marily, in such manner that there shall be no delay 
permitted in the punishment of the act, so that it 
shall not cause an evil example or scandal. As for 
what you mention concerning appeals in this regard, 
a decision is sent in the said letter to the Audiencia, 
as you will there see. 

You inform us that the king of Japon and several 
private persons - great vassals, and lords of ports of 
that kingdom - have usually had presents and valu- 
able articles sent to them from your city at my ex- 
pense, every year when a ship went to that country; 
and for several years this has not been done, and 
various religious persons have considered the matter, 
and say that those Japanese have observed this, and 
attributed it as a lack of esteem for their friendship ; 
and this has aroused them to resentment, and to pre- 
fer the friendship of the Dutch, on account of the 
many presents which they give to the Japanese from 
the spoils they have taken. You say that since there 
are some advantages in retaining friendly intercourse 
with that country, and for other reasons, you give me 
an account of this that I may order what is most 
fitting for my service. This consists in the measures 
suggested by your own prudence, with the informa- 
tion that you have of the present state of affairs, and 
the ordinary relations with Japon; and to whom, 
how, when, and in what quantity it is best to make 
these gifts, in such manner that they shall only serve 
to win back their friendship, and not appear a reg- 
ular and settled thing, in the manner of an acknowl- 



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l8o THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol 19 

edgment [i.e.y of subjection to them] - for that, in 
the course of time, might be troublesome in other 
matters. Accordingly, examining into this in con- 
formity with your obligation for the benefit of my 
royal estate, you will do in this matter what, con- 
sidering the time and occasion, you shall judge suit- 
able for the interests of our religion, which is in- 
troduced into Japon, and for peaceful intercourse 
and friendship, and the greatest benefit to the traffic 
and commerce of those islands. 

All you say in regard to the affection with which 
the citizens of that city came forward to serve me on 
the occasion of the last year- offering not only their 
persons and servants, but lending the slaves that they 
have and a hundred and ninety- five thousand pesos - 
is very gratifying. To these persons in especial, and 
to all generally, you will show this reply, that they 
may understand how grateful I am for their loyal 
service and fidelity; and that on occasions which may 
arise for their advancement and benefit in property, 
they will be remunerated, as will be seen in future. 
As to what you say in regard to Don Juan Ronquillo 
no resolution will be adopted in regard to him until 
the termination of the suit in which he is engaged. 
The affair will be settled as soon as possible after 
the arrival of the papers, and on that will depend 
what shall be done with this person - of whose serv- 
ice and their good results I am well informed, and 
for which I wish to show him favor. In regard to 
Rodrigo de Guilestegui you will advise me more 
fully in what way provision can be made for him. I 
have been advised of the good qualities and merits 
which you say are displayed in Don Fernando Cen- 
teno Maldonado. You mention likewise how little 



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1 620162 1 ] FELIPE III TO FAJARDO 181 

justification there is for some of the informations 
which have been made by that Audiencia concerning 
the merits and services of those who claim that I 
should favor them. This has been so understood in 
my Council of the Yndias; and, for its remedy, you 
will so conduct this matter in the session of the 
Audiencia that no information shall be despatched, 
notwithstanding that it shall have been reviewed by 
an auditor, without its being again looked over by the 
whole Audiencia in its entirety -you being present 
as president, governor, and captain-general - and in 
no other manner; and each one giving his opinion, 
even if he alone should think that the merits of the 
person are insufficient because, on account of favor 
or by other means, they are presented when not based 
upon adequate services. In the case of Gonzalo 
Bazquez de Lara, notary, what you have done is 
proper; and you will advise me in detail of the exe- 
cution of sentence in this case, as you know the great 
evils which this would cause in the future, and which 
have come from it in the past, and how important it 
is to purge the commonwealth of such persons. 

The orders of the Society and St. Dominic have 
been provided with the persons whom their superiors 
asked for, as you will be aware; thus your sugges- 
tion in regard to this has been carried out. 

Since you say that the Order of St. Augustine has 
taken in its charge with great zeal to facilitate and 
execute all which has been and is necessary to ac- 
complish in my royal service - and especially Fray 
Alonzo de Baraona, the provincial, and the defini- 
tors have done so - it will be very desirable that you 
should therefore confer with them, and likewise with 
the provincial and definitors of the discalced [Au- 



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1 82 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

gustinians], and give them to understand my grati- 
tude to them. You will especially express to them 
the pleasure which I have experienced in learning 
their good reputation for procedure, religion, and 
prudence, and suggest that they should continue this, 
as I trust they will; and say that I shall always re- 
member, both in general their order in those islands, 
and themselves individually, as they shall see by the 
results. And you shall take care to encourage them 
to the preaching of the gospel, and the benefit and 
enrichment of souls, so that the public welfare shall 
not suffer for lack thereof; for it is my intention to 
aid them so far as possible; and the affairs of those 
islands, although they lie so far distant from my 
court, are very near to my thoughts. I trust through 
our Lord that. He lending you His divine favor, and 
you meriting it by your good government, you may 
put all in such good order that it will be preserved 
and advanced, and the enemy shall lose more. 

There are none of your letters which have not been 
answered, and the same may be said of those from the 
Audiencia, the officials of my royal estate, and other 
officers. Madrid, December 13, 1620. 

I THE King 

By commaod of the king, our lord : 

Pedro de Ledesma 



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MEMORIAL, Y RELACION PARA SV 
MAGESTAD 



By Hernando de los Rios Coronel. Madrid: Fer- 
nando Correa, 162 1. 

Source: This is translated and synopsized from the copy of 
the original printed work owned by the Library of Congress. 

Translation: The translation and synopsis are made by 
Robert W. Haight and James A. Robertson. 



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MEMORIAL, 

AND RELATION 

FOR HIS MAJESTY, OF THE 
PROCURATOR-GENERAL OF THE 

Filipinas, of what it is advisable to reform, and of 

the wealth contained in them, and in the 

Islands of Maluco. 



In the year 1621. 



MADRID 



By the widow of Fernando Correa. 



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MEMORIAL AND RELATION OF THE 
FILIPINAS 

Sire: 

I, Hernando de los Rios Coronel, an ordained 
priest, and procurator-general of the Filipinas Is- 
lands, Maluco, and all that archipelago, declared 
that, about thirty-two years ago or more, I went to the 
Filipinas Islands, where I lived a considerable time 
in the military habit and exercise, and as a citizen of 
the city of Manila, but with greater desires than 
strength to serve your Majesty, and endeavoring to 
give indications of this to all the inhabitants of that 
kingdom. On that account, they charged me with, 
and loaded upon my shoulders, in the year 1605, ^he 
weight of their cares and troubles. I came to this 
court, where I prostrated myself many times before 
the royal feet of his Majesty who is in heaven, and 
gave him an account of those things. I returned to 
that kingdom in the year 1610, to give account there 
of myself, and of my mission, undergoing many hard- 
ships and perils. Although such might have been 
avoided, and I could have made stipulations for my 
comfort and rest, as I had opportunity to do in your 
royal Council of the Indias, I confess that I know not 
what interior force and natural inclination has al- 
ways induced me to prefer the service of your Maj- 



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I90 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol. 19 

esty, and the welfare and increase of that kingdom, 
to my own rest or comfort -which, in order to fol- 
low your service, I have never regarded as impor- 
tant, or given it any care. Inasmuch as times change 
affairs, and considering the many casualties caused 
by the enemy from Olanda, things have come to a 
very different pass from that in which I then left 
them. For that reason, that entire kingdom and its 
estates resolved that I should return again to confer 
with your Majesty and your royal councils concern- 
ing what was most advisable for your royal service 
and the welfare and relief of that land. And al- 
though I found that I needed some rest in a corner, 
and it was a severe trial for me to consent again to 
undergo more arduous labors, and difficulties so 
much greater as are the gravity of affairs in those is- 
lands and the multitude of the enemies with whom 
the seas are infested, yet that desire and inclination 
[for your Majesty's service] had so much power 
over me that I postponed all my rest. 

I offer your Majesty this relation, which, when I 
came to this court about three years ago,^^ I gave to 
his Majesty who is in heaven, so that he might be in- 
formed, as was desirable, of that kingdom so remote 
from his royal eyes. I felt now that I was obliged to 
present it to your Majesty, and on this occasion I 
have taken the opportunity to extend it to greater 
length, and to give your Majesty a fuller account - 
being encouraged to do so by seeing the glorious be- 
ginnings that your Majesty has given to your mon- 

2^Cf. the three documents (1619-20) by Coronel, on "Re- 
forms needed in the Filipinas," begun in vol. xviil, and con- 
cluded in this volume. Felipe III died on March 31, 1621, and 
was succeeded by his son, Felipe IV, to whom this " Memorial " 
is now addressed. 



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1620-1621] MEMORIAL Y RELACION 191 

archy, on which, in the name of that kingdom, I 
give your Majesty a thousand congratulations, and 
may you enjoy it very many years, with the greatest 
happiness and increasing prosperity. I have written 
this relation with entire exactness and truth regard- 
ing all the facts that I have collected during so many 
years - and thus as well as was possible to me - with- 
out considering any human respects, which are what 
usually obscure such mirrors, in order that they 
might not give the light that is desirable in such an 
account. I relate, then, what has occurred in Fili- 
pinas, from the time of their first discoverers; their 
tendency toward advancement; and the mildest and 
most advisable measures for the attainment of ad- 
mirable ends. I trust, through God our Lord, that, 
if this child and offspring of my intellect has the 
good fortune to pass before the royal eyes of your 
Majesty, it will be of great importance to your royal 
service. 

[The present book is divided into three parts. 
Part first, consisting of ten chapters, is a short resume 
of Philippine history from the earliest discoveries 
until the naval battle at Playa Honda with the Dutch. 
The second part, consisting of seven chapters, deals 
more intimately with the needs and resources of the 
islands, and the importance of their conservation- 
that is, of matters that fell particularly to Los Rios 
in his capacity of procurator- general. The third 
part, in five chapters, relates to ecclesiastical matters 
in the Philippines, and contains brief remarks on the 
Moluccas. The first six chapters of part first are 
here only synopsized, with some extracts, as they deal 
with matters rather fully presented heretofore in this 



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192 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol 19 

series. All the remainder of the book is translated 
in full.] 

PART FIRST 
[Chapter I treats " of the first discoverers of the 
Filipinas, and of their location." In rapid survey 
Los Rios sketches the expeditions of Magalhaes, 
Loaisa, Villalobos, and Legazpi, although wrongly 
placing the latter's death in 1574 instead of 1572. 
The location of the islands is briefly described and 
the names of some of the principal ones given, among 
them " Mindanao, which is the largest, and with 
which we are at war, although it had formerly ren- 
dered your Majesty homage." Continuing his narra- 
tive, the governorships of Guido de Labagares (whose 
death is wrongly stated as occurring in 1575), Fran- 
cisco de Sande, the two Ronquillos (who are men- 
tioned as brothers) , and Santiago de Vera, are lightly 
mentioned. Limahon's expedition against Manila 
(wrongly ascribed to the period of Legazpi's gov- 
ernorship), and Sande's expedition to Borneo are 
particularly mentioned. The latter sacked the 
Bornean king's city "with but little justification." 
In his time also the Chinese trade begins to be steady. 
Gonzalo Ronquillo de Penalosa on coming to as- 
sume the governorship, according to the terms of his 
contract, brings a number of colonists, "who were 
called ro dead OS ^^* because they had come by way of 
Panama. . . . He was a peaceful man, although 
-because he had brought two sons with him, be- 
sides other relatives, whom he allowed to live with 
considerable laxity; and because numerous com- 
plaints had been written from the city to his Maj- 

^* That IS, " those who had come by a round-about way.*' 



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16201621] MEMORIAL Y RELACION 193 

esty-his Majesty, seeing the great trouble experi- 
enced in preaching the gospel, the evil example that 
those sons and relatives furnished, and the harm 
that this would cause unless it were stopped, re- 
moved Ronquillo from his governorship, and sent 
the royal Audiencia to govern, and as governor and 
captain-general its president, one Santiago de Vera." 
On the latter's arrival he finds Diego Ronquillo 
governing because of Gonzalo's death. An Indian, 
in snuffing the candles on the latter's catafalque, ac- 
cidentally sets fire to some rich draperies. The fire 
remains unnoticed and smoulders until, the friars in 
attendance having left the church, it bursts into 
flame, and the city is entirely burned, and the site of 
the fort, Santiago, becomes a lake. Tomas Vimble 
(Candish), who captures the Santa Ana near Cali- 
fornia in 1587, sets all its crew ashore, with the ex- 
ception of a priest whom he hangs. Alonso Sanchez's 
voyage to Spain and Rome as procurator-general is 
influential in the suppression of the Audiencia and 
the election of Gomez Perez Dasmarinas as gov- 
ernor. Sanchez " wrote some treatises about the jus- 
tification of the kings of Espana, and their right of 
title to the Filipinas, which merit that time do not 
bury them, although they exist in the archives of 
the Council of the Indias. He seems a prophet in 
many of his statements in those treatises." ^^ 

In Chapter II some of the leading events of the 
term of Gomez Perez Dasmarinas are noted, and 
his unfortunate death. Such is his activity and care 
" that he alone aggrandized that city more than had 
all his predecessors, or his successors to this time." 

^® Various MSS. by Alonso Sanchez are to be found in the 
archives of different countries, and will be mentioned in the 
bibliographical volume of this series. 



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194 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

Negotiations are opened with Japan, and the em- 
bassy from Camboja begging for aid against Siam 
is received at Manila. ^' I believe," says Los Rios, 
** that if he had done it, it would have been a great 
stroke of fortune, and your Majesty would justly be 
lord of that kingdom and of Sian, which is very 
wealthy. That is the only thing in which I believe 
that Gomez Perez erred." 

The succession of Luis Perez Dasmariiias to the 
government of the Philippines, and the designs of 
the Chinese to capture the islands, form the sub- 
ject matter of Chapter III. By virtue of his father's 
will and a royal decree empowering the latter to 
name his successor in case of absence or death, Luis 
Perez takes over the command from Pedro de Rojas, 
who has been elected by the city, with which " all 
the city received great happiness, both because of 
what they owed the father, and the love that they 
bore the son, of whose heroic virtues much might 
be said." The Chinese send a vast fleet to Manila 
in charge of a number of mandarins, in order to 
conquer Luzon, because they fear the Spaniards, and 
" would much rather see us very far from their king- 
dom than to have the gain derived from us. . . . 
The governor received the mandarins and their em- 
bassy, who pretended that they came to trade, and 
asked us not to receive the Japanese in our ports, 
who are their mortal enemies; and taking farewell 
of them with a good countenance, he sent them to 
their own country. The next year one of those man- 
darins returned disguised, in order to act the spy, 
but as I was inspecting the ships, I noticed and ar- 
rested him ; but such is the cunning of those people, 
that he was able to clear himself, so that it seemed 



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16201621] MEMORIAL Y RELACION 195 

better to the governor and to Doctor Antonio de 
Morga, his lieutenant of justice, to allow the man- 
darin to return to his own country." 

The expedition to Camboja by Gallinato^ and 
events there, and the arrival of Mendana's ship at 
Manila are told in Chapter IV. Blaz Ruyz, Diego 
Veloso, and Pantaleon Carnero, having seized the 
vessel on which they were being carried as prisoners 
to Siam from Camboja, arrive at Manila, and in- 
duce the sending of the three vessels under Galli- 
nato.^^ The latter, however, is blown out of his 
course as far as the strait of Sincapura. The other 
two vessels under Bias Ruyz and Diego Veloso reach 
Camboja, but the ship of the latter is wrecked on 
the coast. " A relative of the legitimate king was 
then ruling, one Nancaparan Prabantul," whom 
their arrival does not please. The trouble with the 
Chinese follows, of the three thousand of whom, the 
Spaniards kill five hundred, and the consequent em- 
bassy of Bias Ruyz with forty men to Sistor. The 
king's refusal to treat with them unless they make 
reparation to the Chinese, and his evident prepara- 
tions to seize their small body of men, lead to the 
attack on the palace, the killing of the king and one 
of his sons, and the flight to the Spanish ship, leav- 
ing three killed ~ one Indian, one Japanese, and one 
Spaniard - but with many wounded. Gallinato's ar- 
rival at this juncture puts an end to affairs there, and 
all depart for Cochinchina, where Bias Ruyz and 
Diego Veloso go to find the legitimate king of 
Camboja at Laos, " crossing those kingdoms for more 
than two hundred leguas, through territory where 

^^ See, however, Morga's account of this in vol. xv, pp. 79-92. 
See Morga also for a full account of the Camboja expeditions. 



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196 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

a Spaniard had never been seen. ... I have re- 
lated this event because of the many fictions that 
were told here about Captain Gallinato, who, al- 
though a good soldier, did nothing else in the king- 
dom of Camboxa. Of it Fray Diego Duarte, a 
Dominican, now residing at Alcala de Henares, proc- 
urator of his order in the Filipinas Islands, who 
was one of those who were present at the death of the 
king of Camboxa - and not the least important one 
there -and Captain Don Miguel de Xaque de los 
Rios, now at this court, are witnesses." The arrival 
at Manila of *' Dona Isabel Varreto," wife of " Al- 
varo de Amendaiia," is chronicled. The discovery 
that they attempted to make from Peru can be made 
better from the Philippines, and at less cost, because 
of its proximity to those regions. 

Chapter V treats of events during the term of 
Francisco Tello, the main part of the chapter being 
devoted to Louis Perez Dasmarinas's ill-fated expedi- 
tion to Camboja. Tello *^ began to govern with for- 
bearance, although one thing that he did before 
reaching the city seems to have presaged the evils 
of the future." This was in his detention of the ship 
bound for Nueva Espana, until he could reach Ma- 
nila and make a report to the king. As a conse- 
quence the vessel, sailing late, experienced so great 
storms that it was compelled to put in at a Japanese 
port, " and King Taycosama took their goods away 
from them, and it was the cause of the martyrdom 
of twenty-six Franciscan religious, and of the ruin of 
Manila. . . . Don Francisco began his govern- 
ment, in amusing himself with his authority and 
abundance, and in neglecting to despatch the ships 
on time; of which he should have taken warning 



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16201621] MEMORIAL Y RELACION 197 

by the loss of which he had been the cause, in the 
wreck of the galleon * San Felipe ' as above stated. 
But he did not amend his ways, and for that same 
reason other vessels were wrecked later -one called 
' Santa Margarita,' which was wrecked among the 
Ladrones Islands; and another called ^ San Gero- 
nimo' which was wrecked at the island of Catan- 
duanes, . . . and another which sailed from Cibu, 
called * Jesus Maria,' which was seen no more. And 
the worst of all was that such neglect became so firmly 
established, that it would not have been remedied 
later, and the same troubles would have occurred, 
unless we had made use of two royal decrees that his 
Majesty, King Don Felipe Third, conceded to me 
in the year of 68;^^ and on account of that neglect 
great need has come upon that kingdom." The ex- 
pedition of Oliver van Noordt is very lightly 
touched. Li^is Perez Dasmarinas fits out an expedi- 
tion of three ships for the relief of Camboja at his 
own cost, and Los Rios sails in the flagship. Misfor- 
tune follows them, and the flagship is lost on the 
Chinese coast. Such is the hatred of the Portuguese 
at Macao to the Spaniards " that as soon as they 
heard of our disaster, they issued an edict that no one 
should aid us under penalty of confiscation of his 
property, and three years in the galleys." Los Rios 
with eight men lands in order to seek a pilot, and 
after various adventures is granted audience by the 
Chinese, who offer asylum to the Spaniards and re- 

** Thus in the original. A marginal pen correction in faded 
ink, in the copy from which we translate, reads 608. The 
Cedulario Indico, consisting of forty-one manuscript volumes of 
decrees, for the various parts of the Indias, which is preserved in 
the Archivo Historico Nacional in Madrid, contains a number of 
decrees of 1608 in regard to the ships from the Philippines. 



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198 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

buke the Portuguese. Continuing, a short descrip- 
tion is given of Macao, which has about five hundred 
Portuguese inhabitants; its duties and other gains, 
however, belong to the Chinese monarch. The prin- 
cipal occupation of the inhabitants is the raw-silk 
trade with Japan. For the benefit of trade and re- 
ligion, Los Rios thinks it advisable to depopulate 
Macao and suppress it. Indeed the hate of the 
Portuguese goes so far that they attack the remnants 
of Luis Perez's expedition as it is about to return 
home. All their hostility they clinch with " a royal 
decree given more than thirty years ago, in which 
your Majesty ^^ orders Castilians not to go to that 
port to trade. It is very important for your Majesty 
to order the Portuguese not to use that decree for the 
evil that they do us -not only those of us who go 
there to trade (which was the reason of its being 
granted) , but also to those of us who make port and 
arrive there wrecked." 

Events of Pedro Acuna's government occupy the 
sixth chapter. " Don Pedro was a restrained and ab- 
solutely uncovetous gentleman, and lived temper- 
ately. He was affable and open to all; but signal 
disasters occurred during his term. The Indians of 
Mindanao ruined those islands, carrying away many 
captives and quantities of wealth, burning churches, 
and injuring images, to the great loss of our prestige. 
Also more than twenty thousand Chinese revolted in 
the city; and because the warnings of the archbishop 
and many other persons were not believed, the rem- 
edy was not applied in time, which would have 
been easy. However, although we prevailed against 

'^ The decree was of course granted by Felipe II, " your " be- 
ing used merely as a set phrase to indicate the royal source of 
the decree. 



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i620i62i3 MEMORIAL Y RELACION 199 

them (with evident miracles), the kingdom was 
ruined." This neglect of Acufia results in the mas- 
sacre of Luis Perez Dasmarinas and more than one 
hundred and fifty men, only one of the company 
escaping. To neglect Los Rios charges " the 
greatest ills " that have happened in the Indias. The 
expedition made to Maluco by royal command suc- 
ceeds well. The victory reacts on the Spaniards, 
however, because of the ill-treatment inflicted by the 
latter on the king of Ternate, whom they take cap- 
tive to Manila; and the Moluccans ally themselves 
with the Dutch. Los Rios begs that good treatment 
be given to the captive king, who is still in Manila, 
who, although well treated during Acuiia's life, is 
afterward neglected and uncared for.^* Los Rios 
asks that good treatment be accorded to the king " for 
the sake of your Majesty's reputation with those na- 
tions ; for they will think that you order your min- 
isters to inflict that ill-treatment. . • . Don 
Pedro de Acuna died when he was beginning to open 
his eyes, and to govern very acceptably to all. It is 
rumored that he was poisoned, although I cannot 
persuade myself of that fact." As governor ad 
interim the viceroy of Nueva Espaiia sends Rodrigo 
de Vivero, who governs until the arrival of Juan de 
Silva, when he sets sail in the ship " San Francisco," 
but is wrecked at Japan, because it sailed late.] 

Chapter VII. Of the government of Don Juan 

de Silva^ and events with the Dutch. 

On the death of Don Pedro de Acuiia in the year 
606, your Majesty sent Don Juan de Silva to govern. 

Upon his arrival at that kingdom, he was given 

®* See VOL. XVI, p. 60, note 31. 



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200 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

an Opportunity to put his wishes into effect. A 
Dutchman arrived there with four ships and one 
patache, and, having stationed himself at the entrance 
of the bay of Manila, remained there six months, 
capturing and pillaging all who came to the city. 
Don Juan de Silva had no ships ready to go out to 
drive the Dutch from that port; but, with the stay 
of the enemy, he set to work to repair four ships that 
were there, and to finish another that was being built 
in a shipyard. He made haste, and used the iron 
gratings from the houses of the citizens for the nails 
that he needed, which the people gave willingly, as 
well as whatever else was necessary. Further, he also 
cast five large pieces of artillery, with which, and 
with the artillery in the forts, he made ready and 
equipped five ships with high free-board, and three 
galleys, and manned them with the most valiant of 
the soldiers and citizens, among all of them more 
than one thousand men being Spaniards alone. He 
found the enemy very careless, his ships filled with 
wealth from many rich vessels that they had pillaged, 
belonging to the Chinese which were coming to Ma- 
nila, laden with the merchandise that came yearly. 
He found only three ships, and attacking and grap- 
pling with one of them, it was blown up because of 
a fire that unfortunately caught. The other two sur- 
rendered, although the victory was not bought cheap- 
ly, for many people were killed. It had been stated 
two months before that that victory would be gained 
on St. Mark's day,^*^ as happened, and, as he re- 
counted one night, had been told to him. But who 
would say that that victory was to begin his perdition, 
and so many troubles as I shall relate? 

2^ April 25, 1 610, the fight with Wittert, q,v, vol. xvii. 



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16201621] MEMORIAL Y RELACION 20I 

Don Juan de Silva was made very rich by 
that victory, for the fifth of the booty which your 
Majesty conceded to him was worth more than two 
hundred thousand pesos, as I learned from his own 
mouth. Besides that, the victory induced in him 
thoughts for great undertakings, and he did not stop 
to compare the wealth of that kingdom with his de- 
signs. He discussed building a fleet to go to Terre- 
nate, and put the matter into execution. Although 
he was greatly opposed by the entire city -and es- 
pecially by the royal Audiencia and royal officials, 
who judged from their experience that the plan was 
not advisable - yet he acted in defiance of them, and 
left Manila with his fleet, leaving the natives griev- 
ously burdened with taxes, your Majesty's treasury 
indebted to a vast amount, and the city without artil- 
lery. He went to Maluco, and not only did he not 
accomplish any good result, but he even returned 
with little reputation derived from that expedition, 
as all had foretold. 

He desired to correct that mischief, and deter- 
mined, without any one's counsel, to build seven gal- 
leons, which, with the three that he had, would 
make ten in all, and also six galleys. That was an 
undertaking disproportionate to the possibility of his 
forces, and innumerable evils resulted from it, just 
as they generally result to him who does not propor- 
tion means to ends, and who does not measure de- 
sires with strength. When he fought at Playa 
Honda with the Dutch, as he grappled he recog- 
nized the advantage that the larger ships had over 
the others. Consequently, he determined to build his 
ships so large that they should be superior to any 
ship that the enemy would bring. For that purpose 



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202 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

he made them of one thousand, one thousand five 
hundred, and nearly two thousand toneladas. He 
began to make arrangements for putting his desire 
into execution, and at the same time to write to the 
viceroy of India to send him ten more galleons and 
six galleys, so that the forces of both governments 
being united, they might at the same time complete 
the expulsion of the Dutch from the archipelago and 
seize their forts and factories. That idea would have 
been very commendable, and the most efficacious 
means of all, if he could have carried it out as he 
conceived it. I believe that, in order to facilitate 
that, he wrote to your Majesty, whereupon this court 
was filled with hopes. But to place it in execution, 
he had as much foundation as will be seen here. The 
forces of India are so few, that, although Silva was 
told that the viceroy could not send him six ships - 
and those that could go would be poorly equipped; 
and that if he did send them, the coasts of India 
would be left unprotected, which were daily being 
infested; and, besides, that they knew by experience 
the little love that the Portuguese bear to the Cas- 
tilians and that he should not trust in them - still by 
sending money to build galleons and for the men, 
of which at least one-half million [pesos] would be 
necessary, the viceroy would send that fleet. Don 
Juan de Silva was without funds; on the contrary, 
the royal treasury was deeply in debt from the ex- 
pedition to Maluco. Still, in order to forward his 
designs, he sent his master-of-camp, Christoval de 
Azqueta, with pledges and securities made out by 
the royal officials, binding your Majesty's royal treas- 
ury in order to get the money there from merchan- 
dise, and paying interest on them -a transaction 



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16201621] MEMORIAL Y RELACION 203 

which was considered ridiculous to those who knew 
India. He gave the master-of-camp sixteen thou- 
sand pesos which he borrowed in gold from the in- 
habitants of Manila, in order that he might bring 
back some necessary things. The master-of-camp 
sailed in a ship accompanied by forty Spaniards to 
indicate his authority. As yet, not one of them has 
been seen; and it is considered certain that all were 
drowned, since no further news has been heard of 
them. On the other hand, Silva wrote to the viceroy 
of Nueva Espana that he was building that fleet, 
and requested money, men, and ammunition from 
him. He despatched so late the ships, which had ar- 
rived on time, that although the viceroy made his 
utmost exertions he could not perform the friendly 
offices that Silva desired. 

He began to place the said galleons on the stocks, 
and, as they were so large, scarcely could he find the 
necessary timbers in the forest. Consequently, he 
had to have them sought under great difficulties, and 
by penetrating the thicker recesses of the woods. 
There having found them, it was necessary, in order 
to drag and carry them to the shipyard, to depopu- 
late the surrounding villages of the Indians, and to 
drag the timbers with immense labor, hardship, and 
cost to the Indians. The masts of one galleon cost 
the Indians, as is affirmed by the religious of St. 
Francis, and as I heard declared by the alcalde- 
mayor of the province where they were cut - namely. 
La Laguna de Bay -the labor of six thousand In- 
dians for three months to drag them over very rough 
mountains. They were paid by the villages at the 
rate of forty reals per month apiece, but were given 
nothing to eat, and therefore, the wretched Indian 



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204 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

had to look for food. I shall not relate the cruel and 
inhuman treatment of the agents, and the many In- 
dians who died in the forest. Had those galleons 
been of moderate size, and twice as many, they would 
not have cost one-half as much. Neither shall I tell 
your Majesty of the Indians who were hanged, those 
who deserted their wives and children and fled ex- 
hausted to the mountains, and those sold as slaves to 
pay the taxes imposed on them; the scandal to the 
gospel, and the so irreparable wrongs caused by that 
shipbuilding; and with how great inhumanity they 
passed sentence on and executed on the poor Indian 
not only what was necessary, but also what the law^- 
less greed of agents took from him. In short, the 
hardships, injuries, and harm inflicted upon the In- 
dians were vast, and there was no remedy for it 
And hence those ships had so disastrous an end; for 
all were wrecked in a storm, and all those in them 
were drowned forty leguas from the city - divine 
permission, which is so offended at injuries done to 
the poor, exacting those lives in order to make repa- 
ration for such wrongs. Now more than one mil- 
lion [pesos] is due to the Indians and there is no 
hope of recompense. From that may be inferred 
how great should be the trustworthiness and Chris- 
tian spirit of those persons who are to govern the 
Filipinas, since they have no one to restrain them for 
the injuries that they commit. Besides the said 
wrongs, those that I shall now relate were no less. 

When he discussed building those ships, three 
years before that fleet should be taken out, he ordered 
all the soldiers of the islands to be collected, and the 
forts and important posts to be abandoned, especially 
a fort in the city of Cibu. He took all the artillery 



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1 620-162 1 ] MEMORIAL Y RELACION 205 

and carried it to Manila, which was the cause of the 
Mindanaos destroying those islands when they 
learned that, without any one opposing them. He 
also ordered that no one leave the city without his 
permission, under serve penalties. On the one hand, 
he kept the men there desperate, who could not go 
out to find food ; and on the other, gave them nothing. 
Therefore, many men fled through those surround- 
ing kingdoms. And, when he most needed sailors, 
more than two hundred of them fled because of ill 
treatment and because they were deprived of one- 
half their rations. He imposed many taxes upon the 
Indians, with great oppression to them on account of 
the food that was ruined because it was not needed 
so early. As a result, he brought the country to the 
extreme of poverty, even worse than if the enemy had 
sacked it. 

On the other hand he sent to Japon for metals 
with which to cast artillery, and for saltpeter for 
powder; and they brought him what he had sent to 
ask. In two years he cast one hundred and fifty large 
pieces of artillery; but he had no master who under- 
stood it, and consequently the pieces were so poorly 
made that none of them stood the test. I saw twenty 
pieces out of thirty-six burst at the first shot, as the 
gunner, one Pedro Castafio, who is in this court, will 
tell; consequently they did not dare to test the can- 
non with the royal test. There was an excellent 
founder there, named Don Diego de Prado, who had 
made considerable artillery in Lisboa. Silva re- 
fused to accept him, but on the contrary let him go 
to Espana by way of India, although he should have 
diligently looked for him. He is a friar here now, 
named Basilio. They were unable to get a piece 



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2o6 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

that could be used, although they tried in various 
ways. They continued these efforts until certain 
Japanese built some ovens, in their own fashion, and 
made some bellows which forced in a great quan- 
tity of air. Those produced better artillery, although 
some of these pieces also burst, for they did not hit 
upon the alloy of copper in accordance with its 
quality. 

Don Juan de Silva persisted in his intentions; and, 
seeing after two years had passed that the master- 
of-camp Azqueta had not arrived, and that it must 
be believed that he had been drowned, he sent a 
father rector of the Society of Jesus, named Juan de 
Ribera,^^ and Captain Don Diego de Miranda, a 
Portuguese, to Goa, so that, in his name, they might 
ask the viceroy for the said galleons; and they did 
so. Although with great objection and opposition 
from the city of Goa, the viceroy gave them four 
galleons and four galliots, with very few and badly 
disciplined crews. What took place in India in re- 
gard to that matter is a pity. Your Majesty needs 
to make many reforms there, because of the danger 
of losing that country through the poor discipline 
of the soldiers, as they themselves confess, and warn- 
ing of this has been given in many memorials. 

They started for Manila, and arrived at Malaca 
and at the Strait late and in bad weather. The com- 
mander did not dare pass on, although he was urged 
and pressed to do so by the rector of the Society. 
Matters came to such a pass that the commander told 
the father that he would put him below decks, and 
the soldiers tried to kill him, for they said that he 
was going to drown them. Thereupon they re- 

^* See an account of his voyage in vol. xvii. 



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16201621] MEMORIAL y RELACION 207 

mained, and returned to Malaca, advising Don Juan 
de Silva that they were there awaiting his order. 

Don Juan de Silva learned the news of the gal- 
leons and determined to send a patache to Macan, 
and as its commander, Pilot Juan Gallegos, in order 
to purchase some ammunition and to go thence to 
Malaca. He ordered the four galleons to await him 
in the Strait, saying that he had resolved to pass 
there, and that all would go together to attack the 
factory of Xava, the chief factory of the enemy, 
which had no fortress; thence they would go to 
Banda and to Maluco. That would have been a very 
suitable idea if it could have been executed during 
the season for navigation. Juan Gallegos went to 
Macan, and thence to the Strait of Cincapura, where 
he found six Dutch galleons and one patache. They 
seized him, and learned from him of the coming of 
Don Juan de Silva with so large a force. They did 
not dare await the latter and so left the Strait. 
Shortly after Don Juan de Silva arrived, two ships 
of Goa came from China with the goods and mer- 
chandise from India, which it was our Lord's will 
to save in that way. 

Before the enemy happened to seize the patache 
of Juan Gallegos, they had negotiated with the king 
of Hachen, a country located in the island of Sama- 
tra, near the Strait, in regard to uniting with them 
to attack Malaca with more than four hundred craft, 
that would hold more than forty thousand men. 
That king fought with the galleons, and his presence 
there was of great importance. He burned one gal- 
leon, but returned without accomplishing any other 
exploit, although he carried a quantity of large artil- 
lery. After the king had gone, the Dutch arrived. 



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2o8 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

What they did was to burn the three remaining gal- 
leons in the river of Malaca. Then they went to the 
Strait, where they captured Juan Gallegos, as above 
stated. The Portuguese gained little reputation - or 
to say better, lost much -- in not defending themselves. 
But since it is not my intention to meddle with an- 
other jurisdiction, I shall not discuss that. 

Don Juan de Silva left Manila with ten galleons - 
larger than have been seen in Europa - and four 
galleys, on February 28, 16 16. He laid his course 
toward the Strait, as he thought that he would find 
there the four galleys from Goa, in accordance with 
the order that he had sent. He learned what had 
happened in the Strait; and although he might have 
gone to Bantan, in Xava Major, -to avenge the in- 
jury, since he might expect to find the enemy there - 
and he might at least have destroyed that factory and 
exacted satisfaction for what had been done ~ he did 
not choose to do so, but left the galleons anchored 
in the Strait, while he went to Malaca with the gal- 
leys. There he was received under the pall with 
great solemnity, honored with great festivities, and 
called that city's savior, since the ships had taken 
flight because of his coming. Don Juan became 
sorely perplexed, and could not come to a decision 
as to whether to careen his vessels and wait until 
the following year for the viceroy of Goa, or whether 
to return to Manila. Death overtook him in that 
perplexity, on April 19 of the same year. 

He left orders for the fleet to return to Manila, 
and to convey thither his embalmed body. There- 
upon our fleet returned. It was in as bad shape as if 
it had been a year at sea; for at that part of the 
Strait where it was anchored the air was so unhealthful 



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i620i62i] MEMORIAL Y RELACION 209 

and the water so poisonous that the soldiers Jbegan to 
sicken immediately, and to die swollen up and yel- 
low; and some days forty or fifty of them were 
thrown into the sea. All asserted that had they re- 
mained there one fortnight longer, not enough men 
would have been left to manage the sails, nor could 
they have brought back the galleons - which re- 
turned without anchors, for the few that they carried 
were lost in the currents, which are very strong. And 
had they not found nineteen anchors, which they 
bought, they would have perished. 

Chapter VIII. Of the opposition to Don Juan de 
Silva from all the city, and the opportunity that he 
lost by not taking the advice that they gave him. 
Strange are the judgments of the Most High, and 
nothing happens by chance that His infinite provi- 
dence does not register. The Portuguese regarded 
as certain the coming of Don Juan de Silva to the 
Strait with his fleet, and attributed to him, as was 
evident, the saving of their possessions. But he who 
regards the opportunity that Silva lost, and how 
much more important it would have been not to 
have left Manila, but to have been there when the 
enemy (who passed through the Strait of Magal- 
lanes) arrived, will see how unsatisfactory was the 
Malaca expedition. 

Don Juan de Silva had already prepared his fleet, 
and his yards were already squared, when a discus- 
sion arose as to whether it was advisable for him to 
go in search of the enemy, for which purpose he had 
prepared it. A general meeting of ecclesiastical and 
secular cabildos, the bishop, and the orders, was 
called, together with the royal Audiencia. Silva 



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2IO THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

made them a harangue, and showed a royal decree 
that he had received shortly before, in which it was 
ordered that he should make the expedition. He 
read what was most suitable to his purpose, where- 
upon Doctor Vega, your auditor, asked him to give 
it to the secretary to read publicly, as they wished to 
know its contents. It was read, and your Majesty 
ordered in it that the viceroy of India be advised, 
so that both should join forces and go in pursuit of 
the enemy with their fleets, and that the viceroy 
should act as superior oflicer if he came in person. 
From this, they took occasion to oppose Silva, and 
said that he was not obeying your Majesty's orders. 
They reminded him that he did not have sailors, be- 
cause while the fewest number of sailors necessary 
for ten galleys amounted to fifty, he did not have 
twelve effective ones, because they had fled, as above 
stated. 

Item: That he was only carrying two iron 
anchors for each galleon, disproportionate to their 
size, besides two others of wood, which are called 
cenepites ; and that he was going into seas with strong 
currents and shoals, where he had to anchor every 
day, with evident peril and known danger of losing 
his fleet. 

Item : That he was not carrying suitable rigging 
or sails. At the same time they told him that he was 
leaving the city depopulated of the men who might 
defend it in any sudden need. 

Item : That he had dismantled the forts and walls 
of artillery, and had left no good piece, contrary to 
the ordinances of your Majesty, and to all good gov- 
ernment. 

Item: That it was easy for the enemy, knowing 



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16201621] MEMORIAL Y RELACION 211 

the route that he was taking, to attack the city, which 
was surrounded by more than fifteen thousand Chi- 
nese, and a considerable number of Japanese, all of 
whom were angered by the many annoyances and in- 
juries that they had received ; especially the natives, 
of whom it could be feared that they would revolt at 
any news of an enemy, and what would most encour- 
age them would be to see the city without defenders 
or artillery. 

Item : That he was taking a route very foolishly 
chosen, because the season and monsoon (as it is 
called) for seeking the enemy was already past; and 
he was going with a known risk of suffering ship- 
wreck, or of accomplishing nothing. 

Item: That it was advisable for him to inform 
the viceroy of his expedition, as your Majesty or- 
dered, and in the meanwhile to continue to provide 
himself with everything necessary. The following 
year he could leave, as was advisable and as your 
Majesty ordered. In short, they reminded him of 
many other difficulties; but none of them were able 
to make him postpone his purpose. Doctor Vega 
gave him a memorial which is printed, in which he 
declares all the above and many other arguments; 
and the fiscal issued many injunctions and protests 
against him. They became so angered that he tried 
to arrest the fiscal, who absented himself, together 
with many influential persons. The city was very 
much in danger of being lost, and was divided into 
factions and different opinions; although it is true 
that all desired Silva's absence. After so many diffi- 
culties, and after having defied them all, Silva left 
the city with his fleet, leaving the walls dismantled, 
as above stated. When he embarked, many men of 



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212 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol 19 

those that he had providedT from the inhabitants of 
the city, and single men, were not to be found, for 
they had run away. 

Scarcely had he left Manila when news came that 
a Dutchman with five ships was coming, and within 
one week he came to anchor at the mouth of the 
bay of Manila. It was our Lord's pleasure that the 
Dutch did not learn the city's condition, which would 
have placed us in the greatest embarrassment and 
danger. The Dutch remained there one fortnight, 
and then, learning that Don Juan had gone toward 
their forts and factories, they set out for them. In 
the opinion of all it was the greatest misfortune that 
the news had not arrived sooner, so that our fleet 
could have gone to meet it; for not a single ship 
would have escaped; and, had he followed them to 
Maluco, he would have destroyed their forces with- 
out difficulty- as Don Geronimo de Silva, his cousin, 
wrote to him, whose letter I have. I heard 
afterward from the same man that he had made 
a treaty with all of them to surrender their forts 
to him if Don Juan arrived. God did not so 
ordain it, for our sins or for His secret judgments. 
So great an opportunity, which might have ended 
the war, was lost, for all the natives were resolved 
to become our friends; for they always cry "long 
live the conqueror! " Sections i, 9, and 15 of Don 
Geronimo's letter are of the following tenor. 

Letter of Don Geronimo de Silva, Governor of 

Maluco 
I am replying to the duplicate of your Lordship, 
which I received by the hand of Captain Juan 
Gutirez Paramo and Sargento-mayor Don Pedro 



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1620-1621] MEMORIAL Y RELACION 213 

Tellez, dated at the Strait of Sincapura, March 15, in 
which your Lordship gives me advice of the resolu- 
tion that you took in Manila to make your voyage to 
Malaca, expecting to find there the viceroy of India, 
or at least the squadron of galleons from that state - a 
thing as generally desired by all as it is deemed diffi- 
cult by me. For I could never persuade myself that 
the viceroy of India v^ould decide to send a larger 
fleet this year than the four galleons ; and, supposing 
this, I v^ould have been glad had your Lordship not 
gone in search of the viceroy this year. For, as I 
understand the decree of his Majesty, the prepara- 
tions were for the coming year; and by that time 
matters would have been suitably arranged, and, both 
powers having united, his Majesty's will would have 
been realized, without the possibility of any fears of 
danger. But if the resolution taken by your Lord- 
ship to go out with your fleet, because of the great 
expenses incurred, had been taken then to come to 
employ that fleet here, it would have arrived at so 
good a season and opportunity, that all these is- 
lands would have surrendered to you. I could an- 
swer with my head that his Majesty would possess 
them without your Lordship's needing to fire a sin- 
gle shot, for the material for this truth was very well 
arranged. I alone was unfortunate in that- your 
Lordship did not come directly here when you left 
Manila. I would give you as a witness of that the 
king of Tidore, only he cannot declare it in writing; 
but he will be a witness on that day that our Lord 
brings your Lordship to these islands. 

Your Lordship orders me at present to despatch 
to you what galleys are here. In fulfilment of that 
order Don Pedro Tellez is returning in the galley 



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214 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

that brought him, for Captain Juan de Guassa's gal- 
ley was such that it could not be repaired at all, al- 
though I summoned the royal officials, and persons 
who understood it, to examine it. To my summons 
they replied that it absolutely had nothing of use on 
it but the nails; accordingly, with their advice, it 
was beached. I have only the galliot ^left here and 
that is as free from iron and rigging as the galleys 
here have always been. The galliot is the feet and 
hands of these islands, and that which serves as a 
caracoa; for, glory be to God, the Meldicas [sic; sc. 
mestizos] and native Christians are wanting to me. 
The reason that moves me to this will be told your 
Lordship by Don Pedro Tellez, whom I wished to 
make a witness of this unfortunate state of affairs, 
and of what the service of his Majesty suffers. 

Will your Lordship advise me of your resolution 
to come to these forts, and whether the viceroy of 
India is coming now with the squadron that your 
Lordship has built. What I can say is that your 
Lordship's speedy arrival here matters so much, al- 
though it be with only your galleys, that on that 
alone depends the restoration of these two islands, 
which will be maintained with the hope that your 
Lordship will come hither in the time above stated. 
If you do not come, the islands and the Spaniards 
who inhabit them will certainly perish; for al- 
though the king of Tidore is our friend, he is the 
only one, and he does not have the same assurance 
of his island as hitherto. For that reason, it is ad- 
visable for me always to keep in this island the 
greater part of the infantry of this camp, divided 
among the fort of Santiago, the fort of Principe 
Tomanira, and Socanora. From the above your 



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16201621] MEMORIAL Y RELACION 215 

Lordship will infer that I have need of protecting 
myself not only from the Dutch but also from the 
natives and our intimates; for things are very much 
changed from what your Lordship is informed. 
Tidore, July 29, 1616. 

Don Geronimo de Silva 

Chapter IX. Of the coming of the Dutch to Ma- 
nila in search of Don Juan de Silva, 
It was learned in Maluco from the Dutch com- 
mander who passed through the Strait of Magallanes 
and infested the coasts of Piru and Nueva Espaiia - 
the same one who arrived at Manila just after the 
departure of Don Juan de Silva -- that Don Juan had 
laid his course toward Malaca and thence to Maluco. 
Immediately all their ships were collected, and, re- 
pairing many, they equipped the ten best ones, tak- 
ing the best artillery and men from their forts for 
that purpose, with the determination of awaiting 
Silva. But when they saw that he delayed so long, 
and that he could not come to Maluco now, because 
of bad weather, thinking that he would have re- 
turned, they went to try issues with him at Manila. 
On reaching the island of Mindanao, they learned of 
his death from the Indians. They made a compact 
with the latter that each side should go to destroy 
the islands, even as far as the city of Manila. The 
Mindanaos set out with a fleet that they had pre- 
pared, of seventy caracoas, which resemble galliots. 
They anchored with them in the province of Cama- 
rines, where they had heard that one ship and two 
pataches were being built for your Majesty. They 
killed and captured about thirty Spaniards and many 
Indians, set fire to the ships, and pillaged whatever 



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2l6 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

they could lay hands on. That disaster, which was 
very great, was the result of neglecting to send there 
fifty picked soldiers to guard the shipyard. The 
chiefs of those caracoas divided into two parties be- 
cause of disputes between them. One party went to- 
ward Manila in search of the Dutch. The other 
went to the island of Panay. Captain Don Diego de 
Quinones, who was stationed in that island as com- 
mandant and captain of the Pintados Islands, hear- 
ing of this, sent Captain Lazaro de Torres with seven 
caracoas in pursuit of them; he defeated them, and 
captured four caracoas. The rest took to the open 
sea in flight, and, those vessels being small, all of the 
men were drowned; for no news that they have 
reached their country has been heard here since. 

That island of Mindanao is the farthest of the 
Filipinas Islands, and is about twenty leguas from 
Cibu. That part that faces Cibu is pacified, and the 
Indians pay tribute, and there are a number of Chris- 
tians. The entire island formerly rendered homage 
to your Majesty. It extends east and west, being 
somewhat inclined to the northeast and southwest. 
It is more than three hundred leguas in circumfer- 
ence. The southern part lies in six degrees of north 
latitude. It has many gold mines, as those say who 
have seen them, although they are but little worked, 
and many cinnamon trees and much civet. 

Captain Estevan Rodriquez de Figueroa went to 
pacify it in 1596 at his own cost, with the title of 
governor and captain-general of the island conceded 
by your Majesty. But he was so unfortunate that, 
the first time when he set foot on land, he was killed 
by an Indian concealed in ambush. Captain Juan de 
la Xara, who was master-of-camp, continued the en- 



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1 620-1621] MEMORIAL Y RELACION 217 

terprise; but as he, like his master, died, the whole 
enterprise was destroyed by accidents that came upon 
them. Consequently, not only were the natives not 
pacified, but more angered and desirous of ven- 
geance. For that reason, they began to build vessels 
and to make inroads among those islands during the 
term of Don Francisco Tello, to commit depreda- 
tions. They captured many Indians and their wealth 
(for the latter had considerable gold) through the 
fault of the captains and alcaldes-mayor who were 
governing those islands, and were not punished for 
it. And although punishment is one of the two arms 
of justice that preserves states, there has been so great 
lack of it in Manila, that signal injuries have thereby 
resulted. 

The Moros became excited by those captures, and 
through the exercise of war they became more skil- 
ful and daring. To such a height has their boldness 
reached, through the carelessness and neglect of the 
governors, that all those islands have been destroyed 
and ruined. They could very well have been re- 
strained, but the reasons why they neglected to do 
that cannot be explained here, because the case in 
hand demands that many things be passed by; but if 
your Majesty cares to know, I will explain them. 

Those Indians [/.^., the Moros] are so vile and 
cowardly that they have never engaged in close com- 
bat with the Spaniards, very few of whom have 
dared to resist vast multitudes; yet the Moros have 
inflicted signal injuries. The worst is that these last 
few years they have committed greater ones, so that 
there is no Christian or friendly Indian who is safe 
in his house or country. These, although Indians, set 
forth arguments that must have shamed your Maj- 



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21 8 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

esty's governors considerably; since, although the 
latter are so careful not only to collect their tributes, 
but to impose continually so many taxes, and to cause 
the Indians innumerable troubles, yet they do not 
defend them from their enemies. Consequently the 
Indians say, *' Let us be free, and let us have arms, 
and wc shall be able to defend ourselves, as we did 
before the advent of the Spaniards." And, surely, 
did not the religious - especially those of the Society, 
who instruct nearly all those islands - entertain them 
with hopes and fair arguments, they would all have 
revolted, as some have done. I have related this to 
your Majesty so that you may order your governor 
to remedy that matter, which is so incumbent upon 
your Majesty's royal conscience. But how poorly he 
informs your Majesty; since at the very moment 
when those people were destroying your churches, 
the governor wrote that they were all peaceful and 
quiet. It is very easy to conquer that island, if its in- 
habitants are made slaves, as I have said in special 
memorials. 

Chapter X, Of the result obtained by the coming of 
the Dutch to the Filpinas Islands and the city of 
Manila, 

The enemy learned from the Mindanao Indians, 
as above stated, of the death of Don Juan de Silva, 
whom they had intended to go to seek. They went 
to the island of Panay, to a port called Yloylo, with 
the design of building a fort there, in order to gain 
possession of those islands and to get the quantity of 
food that was stored for the relief of Terrenate. 
(whence the forts of Maluco are chiefly main- 
tained), and at the same time to make themselves 



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1620-1621] MEMORIAL Y RELACION 219 

masters of the island. For, two years before, and 
during Don Juan de Silva's term, another Dutch- 
man had arrived at that island at a Spanish town 
called Arevalo, burned it, seized its provisions, 
made quantities of dried beef at stock farms near 
there, and then returned, without any one having 
dared to fire a shot, although there was a captain 
there with two hundred soldiers. Then he made a 
pact with the natives of the country, by which they 
were to render him homage. 

Three or four days before the arrival of the 
enemy, the news reached the ears of Captain Don 
Diego de. Quifiones, who was there with about 
seventy soldiers. He resolved to die there or to pre- 
vent the enemy from following out his designs. As 
hastily as possible, he threw up a redoubt, or small 
fort of fascines, stakes, and gabions, which he filled 
in with earth. Then having assigned his men to 
their positions, he awaited the enemy's arrival. The 
Dutch arrived with their ten galleons and went to 
anchor within musket-shot of the small fort, which 
they began to bombard with their artillery, and with 
musketry to pick off those who showed themselves. 
But seeing that they were defending themselves, and 
that so great a multitude of balls could not dislodge 
them, they threw seven companies of infantry 
ashore, and assaulted the fort twice with the bat- 
teries which were free ; but the infantry, getting the 
worst of it, had to retire. Don Diego, although shot 
through the thigh by a musket-ball, was encouraged; 
and had sent Captain Lazaro de Torres outside with 
forty soldiers to make an ambush. He pressed so 
heavily against the enemy that they had to embark 
hurriedly, leaving on the field and taking away 



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220 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

many dead and badly wounded, while we suffered in 
dead and wounded twenty or a few more. There- 
upon the enemy weighed anchor and left the port in 
great ignominy and sorrow. That feat of arms was 
of great importance as can be understood from the 
condition of the country and of the natives of that 
island and others near by. I cannot keep silent on 
one thing that happened through the fault of him 
who was governing, since my intention is to make 
your Majesty understand the state of that kingdom. 
The building of a fort in that port of Yloylo, and 
the sending there of six pieces of artillery and one 
engineer to Don Diego, had been discussed in 
Manila. But there was the utmost remissness and 
neglect in sending those pieces, for it was considered 
certain that if the enemy came he would manage to 
make himself master of the port. And although they 
could have been sent him one month before, they 
reached him one week after the opportunity was 
gone -when, if Don Diego had had them, he would 
have sunk half the enemy's fleet. Such injury is done 
by the remissness and neglect of him who governs. 
The enemy thought that they would make little 
from Don Diego, and consequently left that place, 
and went to anchor in the mouth of the bay of Ma- 
nila. They reached an island which is situated in 
the middle of the entrance, called Marivefez, where 
a sentinel is always posted to give notice of the ships 
that come to the city. He made signals, and hence, 
as we had advices, their arrival was known. They 
anchored their vessels at both entrances, so that no 
ship could enter or leave without being seen. They 
captured a few provision-boats, and on some days 
they entered the bay with two or three ships to re- 



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-16201621] MEMORIAL Y RELACION 221 

connoiter the port of Cabite, with the desire of hav- 
ing an extended view, and then returned. They had 
some communication with the Japanese, who, as ar- 
rogant and barbarous people, despised our fleet 
Those people informed the Dutch that they had noth- 
ing to fear, for we were unable to prepare our fleet 
because of the lack of many things, so that they could 
be quite easy. Consequently they proceeded as 
would those who feared nothing. 

Licentiate Andres de Alcaraz was then senior 
auditor, and was exercising the duties of captain- 
general. At several councils of war, it was dis- 
cussed whether it would be proper to prepare the 
fleet that was in port, in order to drive the enemy 
away. Most were of the opinion that the fleet should 
go out, founding their opinion on the ignominy and 
taunts that the enemy flung upon the Spaniards, the 
reputation that we would lose among so many na- 
tions who were watching us, the need of provisions 
that the enemy were making them endure, and the 
design of the latter to await the ships from China in 
order to enrich themselves from the merchandise 
that the Chinese were bringing to Manila. Those 
vessels were to come by April, and, besides the gen- 
eral danger of depriving the community of the neces- 
sities brought to it by the Chinese, many of the in- 
habitants were interested in the said ships. Al- 
though this last could be obviated by sending ad- 
vices to China, the captain-general refused to do it, 
although he should have done so, because of the 
harm that might ensue to your Majesty's service, the 
common welfare, and the great harm that would re- 
sult to the enemies." For opportunity was given 

^^ Thus in the original, but evidently an error for " Chinese." 



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222 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol 19 

to the enemy to enrich themselves exceedingly with 
the spoils [of the Chinese], at the expense of the 
community; then, too, the Chinese were losing so 
much there by favor of their friends, since they 
would be ruined. The cause of that error was that, 
in that former year when the other Dutchman came 
with five vessels thinking to stay there until he pil- 
laged the Chinese (for he bore instructions to that 
effect), advice was given the Chinese so that they 
should not come. They obeyed the advice and did 
not come, and as the enemy went away, the inhabit- 
ants conceived that they had signally erred, ruined 
the city, and deprived the royal treasury of the great 
sum that the duties on the merchandise brought by 
the Chinese would be worth. For that reason Al- 
caraz neglected to do that, although it was so de- 
sirable, whence so great injuries have resulted. 
When he who is governing heeds the murmurs that 
may be raised against him, and consequently neglects 
to take the measures that are advisable and to which 
he is obliged, such troubles generally follow. 

Returning to the case [under consideration], al- 
most all the city urged the preparation of the fleet, 
and it even came to such a pass that injunctions and 
protests were served on him by means of the entire 
ecclesiastical estate. Innumerable difficulties were 
represented to Licentiate Alcaraz: one that there 
were many repairs to make in the fleet, which had 
come in quite bad shape; that it even lacked con- 
siderable of its sails and rigging, and what was left 
was rotten; that, as no ship had come from Nueva 
Espana that year, the royal treasury was considerably 
in debt, and had no money with which to prepare the 
fleet; that for the same reason the citizens could not 



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1620-1621] MEMORIAL Y RELACION 223 

possibly loan what was needed ; that most of the ar- 
tillery was under suspicion, and it was necessary to re- 
cast it; and, above all, that if it did not succeed well 
the entire kingdom was about to be endangered. 

While affairs were in that perplexity and confu- 
sion, the vessels that had gone out laden with the 
goods of the kingdom returned to port; for, as they 
had sailed late, they could not make the voyage. 
That is a matter that is never remedied, although by 
its neglect the people are so heavily punished. They 
had some artillery, more than one hundred and fifty 
sailors, and many passengers. That was very im- 
portant, and it was a fine piece of luck that the enemy 
did not know it, for it would have been easy to cap- 
ture them; for one of those vessels had discharged its 
cargo about twenty leguas from the enemy and trans- 
fered its goods overland to the city. The other went 
to a port at a distance from there, at an island called 
Cibuian. 

At this same time, the Mindanaos who had re- 
mained with the other squadron of caracoas came 
to the coast of Manila, to a village called Balayan. 
The Mindanaos landed, and the inhabitants fled. 
They set fire to the village and to more than one 
thousand quintals of your Majesty's rigging, through 
the fault and neglect of him who was governing. 
For although the master-of camp, Don Juan Ron- 
quillo, had advised them -on account of the news 
that had come that the Mindanaos had burned the 
shipyard, and were pillaging- that fifty soldiers be 
sent to Balayan for its defense, and because the al- 
calde-mayor had sent to request it, they did not do 
so, but postponed it from day to day; and conse- 
quently the enemy was able to destroy that place. 



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224 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol. 19 

But as the inhabitants were warned, as soon as they 
saw the Mindanaos coming, they had a chance to get 
into the place of safety that was being prepared for 
them. Our Lord ordained that, although they set 
fire to the rigging, little of it was burned ; for God 
kept it for the preparation of the fleet, without 
which that would have been impossible. 

At the news of the coming of the Mindanaos, two 
galleys were sent under one commander, in order 
to prevent the junction of the Moros with the Dutch, 
and to try to scatter them. Although the Mindanaos 
had thirty-five caracoas, that would have been done 
without any danger, as caracoas are vessels which 
can be sunk with only the oar of a galley. He went 
out to look for the Mindanaos; and as he left by 
night, because of the proximity of the Dutch, he was 
not perceived, and found the Mindanaos in the best 
position that could be desired. The Mindanaos 
were intent on, and desirous of, gaining honor, for 
they were stationed with all their fleet within a river 
called Baco in the island of Mindoro. The galleys 
having been stationed at the mouth of the river, it 
was impossible for even a single caracoa to escape. 
Consequently when the enemy learned that the gal- 
leys were there, they were disturbed, and let go their 
prize, and begged the captives to intercede for them. 
They were determined, on seeing the galleys, to de- 
sert their caracoas, and to go inland into the forests, 
where not one would have escaped. But the courage 
to undertake the most glorious enterprise (and one 
of importance for all the kingdom) that could be 
offered was lacking; and, turning about, the galleys 
went to another island, under pretense that there was 
a heavy wind, and that they did not dare enter until 



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1620-1621] MEMORIAL Y RELACION 225 

it ceased, in order not to run the risk of losing a gal- 
ley. However that withdrawal was not without 
profit, for they met one of the ships- that had sailed 
for Nueva Espana from Manila, which was coming 
back to port; and had the latter not been warned it 
would have fallen into the hands of the Dutch, being 
ignorant that they were at the mouth of the bay. 
Thereupon, although the wind ceased at midnight, 
the galleys did not return until the afternoon of next 
day, and were told that, just as soon as the enemy 
heard that they were gone, they had very joyfully 
taken flight toward their country, and with so great 
fear, that they did not even wait for one another. 

One would believe that our Lord was doing every- 
thing necessary for the preparation of the fleet in or- 
der to encourage them; for at the same time came 
news that the two ships despatched that year from 
Nueva Espana with the goods of the city and the re- 
enforcements sent by the viceroy both in money and 
in men for Maluco, had been forced to put in at 
Japon in July because of the vendavals; and that the 
almiranta had been wrecked, although the goods and 
men had been saved. Having awaited favorable 
weather there, the commander (one Don Francisco 
de Serna) had come, and had arrived on the coast of 
Pangasinan, twenty leguas from where the Dutch 
were stationed. Being warned of the Dutch, the 
commander put into a port there, and with the help 
of the alcalde-mayor of that province they dis- 
charged the ship, removed the artillery, and fortified 
themselves with two hundred soldiers of the vessel, 
so that they could defend themselves if the Dutch 
heard of them. As quickly as possible they carried 
the silver and everything else to the city. The enemy 



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226 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol 19 

were advised of it, but at a time when everything 
was safe except the ship, which our men had to set 
afire, so that the enemy could not take it 

God was encouraging them in this way, and or- 
daining what was to be done; they appointed Mas- 
ter-of-camp Don Juan Ronquillo as commander, and 
he went immeciiately to the port to make effective the 
equipment of six galleons, for the others could not be 
made ready. Trustworthy persons were despatched 
in order that they might send what was necessary 
from the islands. In another direction, tests of the 
artillery were begun, and what burst was recast; and 
it all proved satisfactory, so that no piece turned out 
badly. All were encouraged - he who had means, to 
give what was needed, and all to go out to fight the 
enemy. The enemy, seeing that the season for the 
coming of the Chinese merchants had arrived, left 
the mouth of the bay, and went twenty leguas away 
to a port called Playa Honda, where all the Chinese 
ships come to make land, and where the other Dutch- 
man who surrendered to Juan de Silva was pillaging 
in the year 1610. Thereupon, since the entrance of 
the bay was unoccupied, they sent for the almiranta, 
which had put in and had been unladed. It was 
brought to port, laden with the food that had been 
collected there for the purpose of being brought by 
the said ship if the enemy gave any opportunity for 
it, as they did. Everything resulted as we desired. 
The ship carried thirty pieces of artillery, with 
which they managed to equip it, for it did not have 
to be repaired. Seven galleons were made ready for 
sailing, and even the one that carried the least artil- 
lery numbered thirty large bronze pieces. Then 
captains and commanders were appointed for the 



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1620-1621] MEMORIAL Y RELACION 227 

galleons, and each of the commanders was given the 
duty of directing and conveying the soldiers and in- 
habitants v^ho were inclined to go with him ; whereat 
each one labored to caress and attract not only his 
friends, but others also. The commanders were as 
follows: of the galleon "San Juan Bautista," Ad- 
miral Pedro de Heredia; of the galleon " San Mi- 
guel," Admiral Rodrigo de Vilastigui; of "San 
Felipe," Captain Sebastian de Madrid; of " Nuestra 
Seiiora de Guadalupe," Captain Juan Bautista de 
Molina; of "San Lorengo," Captain Azevedo; and 
command of the galleon "San Marcos "-which 
was called the almiranta, as it had been with Don 
Juan de Silva in the expedition which he made to 
Malaca-was given to Don Juan de la Vega, son of 
Doctor Vega, auditor of the royal Audiencia. There 
were many disputes over his appointment as admiral, 
for many of the commanders to whom it was due 
claimed it, especially Don Diego Quinones, who had 
been brought from Oton for that purpose, although 
he had not recovered from his musket-wound; also 
Hernando Munoz de Aramburo (who had come as 
admiral of the caravels), and Francisco de la Serna - 
who had gone as commander of the ships, and at the 
restoration of the country was a very great soldier, 
who, with twenty gentlemen, served in that expedi- 
tion at his own cost. Also for certain reasons, which 
I can not well recount, those captains were at odds, 
a mistake that caused much regret later, when there 
was no remedy. It is certain that no one would have 
escaped who would carry news of the enemy. Yet, 
so that it might not appear that they were shunning 
the opportunity, they offered their persons. Aram- 
buru went as associate of the commander, being skil- 



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228 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol. 19 

ful in war. Don Diego was given a galley and the 
title of quatralvo,^^ Don Alonso Enriquez took an- 
other galley, with the title of commander [general'] ; 
Don Pedro de Almazan, another. The galleon *' Sal- 
vador " was flagship, the best and largest galleon 
ever seen in the sea. It carried fifty large pieces of 
artillery, many of them of twenty-five and thirty 
libras' caliber, but most of them of eighteen. The 
fleet left port on the eighth of April, in pursuit of the 
enemy. That afternoon, which was Saturday, it an- 
chored at the mouth of the bay in order to ascertain 
the location of the enemy. They had heard already 
that the enemy had plundered many Chinese and 
had filled their ships with great riches. It was ascer- 
tained from a spy, who was the one who sent advices 
of what the enemy was doing, that two ships were 
six leguas from there, and the rest at Playa Honda. 
That report w^as false, and was the reason why the 
most fortunate victory that could be desired was not 
obtained without bloodshed, and without any one 
escaping, as will be seen in this relation. On receiv- 
ing this news the commander began to trim his sails, 
in order to reach the two ships by dawn. But find- 
ing nothing, he passed on to Playa Honda, where he 
arrived late, more than two hours after the sun had 
risen. Had the spy not deceived them, they would 
have reached the four of the enemy's ships at dawn, 
and the commander with most of his men could have 
slept on shore, entertaining guests with the booty 
that had fallen into his hands. But when they 
sighted our fleet, they were able to get aboard their 
vessels and to join the other two, which were coming 
with tw^o more very rich Chinese prize ships. They 

^^ Cuatralbo ; the commander of four galleys. 



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1620-1621] MEMORIAL Y RELACION . 229 

Spread their sails and went away together, and the 
fleets did no more that day than to watch one an- 
other, but our fleet always kept very close to, and 
did not lose sight of, the enemy. Next morning, 
Friday, our fleet came up scattered, either because 
of their inability to follow the flagship, or through 
the fault of the pilots. What is the most certain 
thing is that faults are not investigated in the islands, 
nor are they punished. Because there was no almi- 
ranta to collect the vessels, the flagship, the " San 
Miguel," and the " San Juan Bautista " were very 
near the enemy, while the others were more than 
three leguas to leeward. The enemy tried to improve 
the opportunity, and determined to grapple our 
flagship with all their fleet, which they had carefully 
collected - thinking that if it surrendered the war 
would be ended; for they thought that ship alone 
carried force, and that the others could only be carry- 
ing the pretense of it. The enemy worked to get to 
windward of our fleet, and our flagship, which was 
an excellent sailer, did the same ; but on tacking, the 
latter threw a rope to the galley of Don Alonso En- 
riquez and towed it a short distance. That allowed 
the enemy time to get to windward, and they came 
down upon our fleet to attack it in the following 
order: their flagship came first and then the other 
vessels, the bow of one right against the stern of the 
other. Although they could have raked the " San 
Juan Bautista," which was astern of the flagship, or 
have borne down upon the " San Miguel," which lay 
to leeward, they cared only to defeat the flagship. 
Since our ships could not get to windward, they passed 
it very closely, each ship raking it. But our flag- 
ship was not asleep, and kept replying in such a way 



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230 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

that, although the enemy's vessels came so close to- 
gether, so great haste was made that it gave each ship 
a full broadside volley from that side, namely with 
twenty-five pieces. iWith that they were so crippled 
that they did not dare return the fire, and so gained 
nothing. That night the enemy held a council of 
war, as some prisoners reported. All advised flight, 
as they had been surprised by our flagship. But 
their commander assured them that there was noth- 
ing to fear, and that the flagship had all the force, 
and he dared to defeat it Don Juan Ronquillo col- 
lected his fleet that night and sent an order by the 
galley of Don Diego de Quinones for each vessel to 
grapple with the one that fell to its lot, and for the 
" San Lorenzo " to act as a reserve in order to help 
the most needy. Next morning, Saturday, April 15, 
our fleet bore down upon the enemy and succeeded 
in getting to windward of it Don Diego de Qui- 
nones went with his galley to tell the commander 
that he was waiting to attack the enemy. The com- 
mander gave the same order, and also to leave the 
enemy's flagship for him. Invoking our Lady of the 
most pure Conception, whom they had taken as 
patroness of that undertaking on their departure, 
they attacked the enemy. The Dutch were confi- 
dent, when they were aware of the dash of the Span- 
iards, that our men would board their ships when 
they grappled. Accordingly they prepared for it by 
so many stratagems that all who boarded would be 
killed ; but Don Juan Ronquillo, taking precautions 
against that, issued an order for no one to board un- 
til the galleon with which he was fighting had sur- 
rendered. That order was obeyed; and our flagship 
grappled its adversary, and although almost all the 



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1620-1621] MEMORIAL Y RELACION 23 1 

latter's crew were killed it refused to surrender. 
Finally it was reduced to such a condition that it be- 
gan to roll violently, a sign that it was sinking, 
whereupon our flagship drew apart from it, and it 
went to the bottom. The commander and several 
who were left alive got into their small boat and 
escaped. It was said that the ship contained great 
wealth that had been pillaged along the coast of In- 
dia, and the best that they had pillaged from the 
Chinese. That galleon was called ** Sol Nuevo de 
Olanda " [i.e., " New Sun of Holland "], and it set 
very wretchedly for them that day. Captain Juan 
Bautista de Molina was the first to grapple another 
galleon, and the galley of Don Diego went to his 
aid. It had already surrendered, and the Dutch had 
been made prisoners, when another galleon, all on 
fire, bore down upon two galleons with which 
Rodrigo de Guillastegui had fought. It set fire to 
one of them, and it bore down ablaze upon the one 
defeated by Captain Molina, so that he was forced 
to ungrapple. Those two burning vessels bore down 
upon that of the Dutch admiral, with whom Pedro 
de Heredia had grappled, and whom he had already 
defeated and most of whose crew he had killed. 
When he saw the two burning galleons bearing 
down upon them, they threw off the grapples and 
separated. Consequently the admiral had oppor- 
tunity to escape, but in so bad a condition that his 
vessel sank next day, according to the report of some 
Indians and Chinese who saw it. Captain Sebastian 
de Madrid, on going to grapple with another galleon, 
was killed by a musket-ball ; and when his vessel was 
about to grapple, Don Juan de la Vega, with the 
galleon "San Marcos," came between. Those 



/" 



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232 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

aboard the '*San Felipe " thought that he would 
grapple, but he made for the open sea, whereupon 
they on seeing it went after him. Captain Azevedo 
grappled the other galleon, and after fighting gal- 
lantly, the grapples were thrown off, whereupon 
both Dutch galleons took the opportunity to escape. 
That battle was the most bloody ever seen, for all 
had come with the determination to die rather than 
surrender, and they did so. '* San Felipe," " San 
Juan Bautista," and *^ San Marcos " went in pursuit 
of the three galleons of the enemy; but since flight 
has so many advantages to the one escaping, the 
enemy threw overboard all their cargo into that sea, 
and, their sails being wet, the sea became narrow for 
them, notwithstanding it was so wide; and when 
dark night came, they changed their route and our 
ships lost sight of them. Thereupon the " San Juan 
Bautista," the '' San Felipe," and the *' San Marcos " 
changed their course, and returned two days later for 
the evil result that disturbed that victory. 

The commander determined to return to Manila, 
for their drinking-water was gone, and the galleon 
^^ San Miguel " was leaking badly, and they were 
unable to overcome the leak at the pumps, while the 
galleon of Pedro de Heredia arrived at the mouth of 
the bay in very bad condition. Next day two other 
galleons belonging to the enemy, which had not been 
present during the battle, reached the place where it 
had been fought. They had a Japanese prize-ship, 
laden with flour. Ignorant of the past event, they 
spied the *^ San Marcos " coming. One of them went 
to reconnoiter the latter, and upon seeing that it was 
our vessel went to advise its companion. Both bore 
down upon our vessel, whereupon it turned its course 



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16201621] MEMORIAL Y RELACION 233 

to the shore. For reasons known to its commander - 
and I think because he was mainly influenced by 
cowardly advisers -the ship was run aground and 
burned, so near the enemy that the latter flung at 
them innumerable insults. The largest galleon of 
the fleet, next to the flagship, was lost. It had thirty- 
six large pieces of artillery, most of which have been 
taken out of it. The commander was arrested, as 
well as his associates Captains Pedro de Ermura and 
Salvador de Onate. The most notable thing is that 
that galleon was lost on the very day of St. Mark, 
by whose intercession Don Juan de Silva had ob- 
tained the last victory. 

Don Juan Ronquillo heard of the disaster of Don 
Juan de la Vega, and set out in pursuit of the enemy. 
He was unable, however, to overtake them, for a 
Dutch lad aboard the '' San Marcos " escaped by 
swimming and went to the enemy, to whom he re- 
lated what was happening. Thereupon the Dutch 
returned to Japon, laden with spoils. 

Some have doubted whether the enemy had ten 
galleons, since only six fought, besides the two above 
mentioned, [and ask] what became of them. I an- 
swer that doubt by saying that one fled on the day of 
battle, and refused to fight, for which reason its cap- 
tain was hanged at Maluco. The Dutch com- 
mander sent the other vessel back with the wounded 
and some sick men, as soon as the engagement with 
Don Diego de Quinones had happened, chiefly be- 
cause that galleon was leaking badly. 

Captain Molina carried a carved image of our 
Lady in the galleon '^ Nuestra Senora de Guada- 
lupe." It was kept in a little wooden tabernacle. An 
eighteen-libra ball entered one of the ports, struck 



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234 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

the tabernacle of the image, and knocked it into a 
thousand splinters. I saw the latter and the ball 
with my own eyes. But the image remained on its 
base, and not a hair of it was touched, which was 
obviously a miracle. 

Pedro de Heredia was carrying another picture of 
our Lady, painted on a board beside a crucifix, on 
the galleon " San Bautista." Another ball of twelve 
libras entered and struck it on the breast, without 
doing it other harm than that the gold with which 
the drapery had been made stuck to the ball, which 
fell there at her feet, while the board was unbroken. 
I certify to that, for I saw it. 

An artilleryman went below decks to apply fire to 
a piece with which he had fired several shots. He 
applied the fire to it three times, although on similar 
occasions it was wont to catch without that, but it 
would not go off. The artilleryman was surprised 
and appi^oaching to ascertain what was the matter 
found the piece open. Had it taken fire, it would 
have caused a very great disaster, and perhaps have 
burned the ship. Whence one could clearly see that 
the Virgin, our Lady, was not slothful on that oc- 
casion. Neither was the city of Manila slothful, for 
they carried our Lady of Guidance, which is outside 
the walls, in solemn procession to the cathedral, 
whose advocacy is of the immaculate conception ; 
and all the people confessed and took communion. 
Having exposed the most holy sacrament, all accom- 
panied it during all those days, making many prayers 
to God and to His blessed mother, which were also 
answered. May He be blessed forever. Amen. 



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16201621] MEMORIAL Y RELACION 235 

PART SECOND, WHICH TREATS OF THE IMPOR- 
TANCE OF THE FILIPINAS AND OF THE 
MEANS FOR PRESERVING THEM 

Chapter /. Of the importance to your Majesty of 
preserving that country. 

For many reasons, which those who do not possess 
thorough information in regard to the Filipinas ig- 
nore, but which show how important to your Maj- 
esty is the preservation and increase of those islands, 
I shall insert them here as clearly as possible. 

The first is the increase and extension of the holy 
gospel and the glory and honor of God, which is so 
incumbent upon your Majesty -in the first place, 
because your Majesty has inherited from your 
blessed father and glorious ancestors this pious and 
holy zeal for spreading and extending the holy Cath- 
olic faith, by reason of which your Majesty enjoys 
the wealth of the Indias; in the second place, be- 
cause it is so suitable to the greatness of your Maj- 
esty's sovereignty and your reputation. For to leave 
this work when begun would be a great scandal be- 
fore the world, and the occasion of much complaint 
to all its nations - and especially to the heretics, who 
would say that your Majesty was influenced not by 
the glory of God, nor the preservation of the Indias, 
but by private interest, since where you had not that 
you allowed Christianity to perish. 

The second concerns the peace of your royal con- 
science, if you should not preserve those islands while 
possible. 

The third is for causes of state; for it would 
amount to giving your enemies arms and forces 
against your Majesty, and encourage others to the 
same enmity who are envious of your Majesty's great- 



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236 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

ness. It may well be inferred that since the enemy 
are attempting this with so great expense and labors, 
they have understood its importance to themselves. 
The possibility of this can be easily understood, for 
they could not persevere so long with their own 
forces only, if they were not privily incited by the 
secret enemies of your Majesty, and those who are 
envious and fearful of your greatness - who clearly 
recognize that, if they could possess that archipel- 
ago without opposition, it would be worth more to 
them than eight millions clear (as I will demon- 
strate to whomsoever may be curious or may desire to 
know it), through the profit which they can make 
in spices, drugs, and the trade with Great China, 
Japon, and the neighboring countries. 

The fourth is, because straightway the whole of 
Portuguese India would be infallibly lost; and, if 
it is not lost, it is because we so harass the enemy 
from Filipinas that they need all their forces in order 
not to lose what they hold. 

The fifth is the knowledge (as is evident) of 
the immense wealth which lies in the Filipinas, as I 
shall explain further in this treatise, and which hith- 
erto has been unrecognized. 

The sixth would be the loss of the most convenient 
and important post which your Majesty holds in all 
his kingdoms, not only for the extension of the holy 
gospel in so many kingdoms of idol-worshipers who 
are capable of receiving it, but, as these are in the 
neighborhood of the Filipinas, the hope, consequent- 
ly, of enjoying the immense wealth which they pos- 
sess through their trade and commerce - not to men- 
tion the risk which is incurred by the Western In- 
dias through the South Sea. 



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1620-1621] MEMORIAL Y RELACION 237 

Chapter II, Wherein those are answered who be- 
lieve that the Filipinas should be abandoned, or 
traded to the crown of Portugal for Brazil. 
The lack of knowledge regarding the Filipinas and 
the gains which may be obtained with them has been 
the cause for many of the servants of your Majesty, 
and other prominent persons, having a poor opinion 
of them. Accordingly it has seemed to such persons 
more expedient to be rid of those islands, and to 
others that they should be exchanged with the crown 
of Portugal for Brazil. All the reasons which they 
give for this may be reduced to five: The first is 
that there is a drain upon your Majesty's royal pat- 
rimony for their maintenance, and you derive no 
profit. The second is to avoid the flow, through jhat 
method of maintaining them, of silver from Nueva 
Espana to Great China, by cutting off commerce 
with the latter country. The third is on account of 
the troops that are there consumed. The fourth is 
that since your Majesty is in such straits it is ex- 
pedient to attend first to the relief most necessary, 
which is that of affairs here; and since you cannot at- 
tend to all, it is compulsory to abandon that coun- 
try. Finally, your Majesty's dominions are widely 
separated, and cannot be preserved except by with- 
drawing from those which are least necessary, for 
power united is the stronger. Or it is argued that, 
even though it be expedient to maintain the Fili- 
pinas, the commerce should be changed from Nueva 
Espana to these kingdoms, and ships should be sent 
from the city of Sevilla to the Filipinas, as is done 
from Portugal to eastern India; and that for this 
trade the ships should be laden with merchandise 
from this country [i.e., Espana], and in exchange for 



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238 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

that should bring back the wealth of Great China 
and those regions. ^ 

In answer to the first, your Majesty expends much 
in the preservation of that country, it is true; but the 
objectors do not consider that those expenditures 
which are made are not for the purpose of preserving 
the Filipinas - at least since Don Pedro de Acuna, 
your governor, won the islands of Maluco, where 
cloves are obtained; for since that time the expense 
has been to maintain the war against the Dutch, who 
have been fortifying and making themselves mas- 
ters there, and because we did not understand here, in 
the beginning and later, how important it would be 
to spend what was necessary to drive them out once 
for all, and to secure those regions. This has been 
the cause of spending so much in reenforcements, 
which have not served, and do not serve, more than to 
keep the forts which your Majesty holds in the is- 
lands of Terrenate and Tidore, and the friendship 
of the king of Tidore; and this is the cause of the 
expenses which your Majesty makes in the Filipinas, 
while the Dutch are taking away almost all the 
profits ~ although it is true that, if your Majesty had 
had ministers there zealous in your service, you might 
have obtained profit enough to maintain those forts 
without drawing upon your royal exchequer. The 
same thing could be done at any time when you wish, 
but the means for this are not at hand, and accord- 
ingly I defer them. If your Majesty should wish to 
know them, I will inform you of them. From this it 
may be concluded that the Filipinas are not the cause 
of these expenditures; and those which were made 
there before that time (as will be explained later, 
by themselves) exceeded the support with which 



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1620-1621] MEMORIAL y RELACION 239 

your Majesty maintained the islands. This was done 
by the kings, your Majesty's father and grandfather, 
for two reasons : in the first place, by their aiming at 
the glory of God and the spread of His holy gospel, 
since they enjoyed the title of patrons of the church, 
upon whom it would seem this obligation rests; in 
the second place, on account of the favorable situa- 
tion of that post for obtaining from it more wealth 
than from all the rest of the Indias - and if this has 
not hitherto been enjoyed the blame is not upon 
the country, but, for reasons which cannot be here 
set down, upon those who have governed it. 

To the second reason - that, as they say, much 
silver passes to the Filipinas and does not come 
to Espana - it may be answered that the fact is that, 
to obviate this difficulty, your Majesty has ordered 
that the citizens of the Filipinas Islands, in order to 
support themselves, be permitted, in return for the 
merchandise which they send to Nueva Espana, to 
have sent back to them 500U [/.^., 500,000] pesos of 
eight reals; and in the course of this, it is said, a 
much greater quantity passes. As it is an easy thing 
to increase the zeros in an account, in this manner 
they have increased it more than double and triple, 
basing their figures on what was written to this court 
by an auditor of the Filipinas, who was alleging serv- 
ices so that favors might be granted to him. He said 
that when he was going from Nueva Espana as com- 
mander, and the capitana in which he sailed was 
wrecked, he had placed the commercial silver: in a 
place of safety, and there were three millions of it. 
The truth is that he exaggerated this to enhance the 
value of his service, increasing the sum by more than 
half; for from us, who were there, this matter could 



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240 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol. 19 

not be concealed, and there has never passed so much 
silver as in that year. If this service was placed at 
such figures, it deserved a heavy punishment, and 
not the rew^ard w^hich he seeks. Since that time it 
is true that as much more passes, to Filipinas, by the 
permission v^hich your Majesty gives. The causes of 
this excess are two. In the first place, the necessity 
of the citizens, who are unable to support them- 
selves with so small a quantity, or to gain profit in 
trade; since, if there are no more than five hundred 
[thousand pesos] they need all which is sent them 
for their living alone. Accordingly, even at a great 
cost to themselves, they seek means to get profits from 
their property. The limitation of this permission 
entails a diflSculty which I have mentioned; for in 
the first place measures must be taken to enrich them, 
since it is of so great importance to kings that their 
subjects should be rich, while the poverty of the lat- 
ter causes such diminution of their power. If this 
reason holds in all the kingdoms of your Majesty, 
it does so much more in that one which is so dis- 
tant, where, when necessary, they lend to the royal 
treasury on occasions of need - as they did last year 
to Don Alonso Faxardo de Tenga, your governor, 
whom they lent 200U ducados to lead an army against 
the Dutch, and likewise their slaves to man four 
galleys. They have done this same thing on other oc- 
casions, and expose their persons in war and lose 
their lives, as many of the best men of that city have 
done - their misfortune lying in this, that they were 
so far distant from the royal eyes of your Majesty, 
wherefore their services are not conspicuous. 

In the second place, there is the greediness of the 
merchants from Mexico, to whom the greater part 



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1620-1621] MEMORIAL Y RELACION 24I 

of this silver which passes to the Filipinas belongs ; 
if this could be remedied, the difficulty of so much 
outflow of silver as is reported would be obviated. 
But the remedy is not to send thither judges and 
guards who are not to allow it to pass; for on 
the contrary, as our experience shows, they go to en- 
rich themselves by the salaries which your Majesty 
gives them, and the profit which they there make. 
For in all countries ill-gained wealth is thus chris- 
tened. The silver which goes there is of no less value 
to the royal exchequer than that which comes here, 
since the investment of it pays no fewer duties, but 
more ; and at least it comes finally into the hands of 
our friends, and is not like that which comes to 
Espana- which for the most part is enjoyed by the 
enemies of your Majesty; and the fleets go more 
heavily laden with the enemy's property than with 
that of your vassals. 

The merchants of Sevilla complain that the trade 
with China has been destroyed by the Indias, but they 
do not understand the cause of its ruin. The Marquis 
de Montesclaros, who governed Nueva Espana and 
Piru, and understood this matter very well (as he 
did many things), wrote your Majesty a letter from 
the Indias, which is in your royal Council, where he 
says with clear and evident arguments : " But what 
strikes me is, that as the commonest and most uni- 
versal means of working the mines is quicksilver, 
this loss is caused by giving that metal at so high a 
price to the miners. For in the first place, as most 
of them are poor, they cannot buy it, and therefore a 
great deal of metal is left unworked; and in the 
second place, because those who are able to buy it 
cannot work poor mines (for they would be ruined 



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242 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

thereby) , and as the greater part of those in the In- 
dias are of this kind, double the amount of silver 
[obtained] is left unmined. If your Majesty would 
order the quicksilver to be given at cost and expenses, 
it would be of incomparably more profit than today; 
and the Indias would be in a better condition, more 
merchandise would be bought, the duties would in- 
crease, and the merchants would not feel the want of 
the silver which goes to the Filipinas - as they did 
not feel it in times past, although there came much 
more merchandise from there than at present. I 
would that there were so great an abundance of 
quicksilver in the Indias, and so cheap, that it could 
be bought, not only by the miners, but by other Span- 
iards and Indians, who would then have so much 
silver that their complaints would cease." 

If the trade were transferred to Espana, those who 
say that the merchandise from this country would be 
carried to Filipinas, to be exchanged for the goods of 
that country, are not aware that in those regions there 
is no one to use Spanish goods except the Spaniards, 
who with four pipas of wine, and other wares of little 
importance, would be quite sufficiently supplied ; and 
that, if this were so, the Portuguese and Dutch would 
take the merchandise away, for nothing escapes their 
notice. Both of these take silver, and whatever else 
they take is of small importance; so that it would 
soon be necessary, in order to maintain the trade, to 
carry silver from Espana and risk it again. It is less 
trouble to carry it from the Indias, beside the incom- 
parably greater risk from the sea and from enemies 
[by the other route] ; and Nueva Espana would be 
ruined. 

To the third reason, in which they say that many 



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1620-1621] MEMORIAL y RELACION 243 

troops are used up, I would say that it is true that 
there go each year sometimes two hundred men, and 
other years less, and again none at all ; and of these 
more die from their excesses than from the war, and 
they do not count those who return and go through 
India and other regions. If those islands were to 
be abandoned on account of this difficulty, the same 
reason holds in Flandes and Italia, which use up 
more men in one campaign than do the Filipinas in 
twenty years. 

To the fourth, that because your Majesty is so hard 
pressed he needs must attend to matters here, etc., we 
could say that it is in no wise expedient that your 
Majesty should abandon that country, on account of 
the dependence of all the Indias upon it; because if 
the Dutch possessed themselves of that archipelago 
(which they are attempting to do), they would draw 
from it resources sufficient to destroy the Indias - not 
only by the power which they have, but also through 
the opportunity of keeping an open port in those re- 
gions where your Majesty could not defend him- 
self without spending much more than the profits 
of the Indias. For that reason it is necessary to 
preserve that country, as well as all the rest; for your 
Majesty is under expense for the same reason in 
preserving Habana, Puerto Rico, Santo Domingo, 
Jamayca, Florida, and the whole continent, without 
securing profit, merely on account of the damage 
which enemies could inflict upon the Indias. Not 
alone for this reason are the Filipinas important to 
your Majesty, but for another of no less consequence, 
and which these countries do not have, namely, the 
great profits which can be drawn from them. 

To the fifth I say that although this maxim, that 



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244 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

united forces are stronger, is usually true, yet there 
are occasions when this union consists not alone in 
compressing them, but in conserving the parts of 
which the whole is composed, although these are dis- 
tant from one another, as are those which your Maj- 
esty possesses in his monarchy. At first, when the 
Filipinas were discovered, this might have been done 
without any harm while that country was new and 
strange, unknown to the nations of Europe, unculti- 
vated and in disorder. No one desired it until Fil- 
ipo Second of blessed memory brought it to notice; 
and at that time, even if it had been abandoned, there 
was no one who coveted it ; but now that the great 
wealth contained in it is well known, all are desirous 
of it, and are trying to take it from your Majesty, so 
that they may thereby carry on their war. This was 
well considered by the exceedingly prudent grand- 
father of your Majesty; for he considered not only 
the service which he was doing to our Lord God, by 
spreading His Catholic faith and bringing so many 
souls to recognize Him, but likewise that, at the rate 
at which it was growing, it would increase for his 
posterity with greater magnificence. He told those 
who were persuading him to abandon it that, if the 
silver of the Indias was not enough, he would send 
what was needed from Espaiia. For if your Maj- 
esty possesses the Indias with so honorable a warrant 
as that of the Catholic church for the purpose of 
converting souls, and there has been and is being 
taken so much wealth from the Indias, where your 
reputation and royal conscience are to such an extent 
engaged, what reason can be so pressing that you 
should not attempt with great care and energy the 
preservation of that country, where the obligation of 



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16201621] MEMORIAL Y RELACION 245 

your Majesty is so pressing? And what excuse would 
yoUr Majesty have before the Divine Majesty for not 
aiding it in time, if for this reason so many millions 
of souls should retrograde from the faith? Then, 
too, consider the great multitude who, it is hoped, 
will come to the knowledge of the true God, in 
whose hand, as David says: Domini est terra, et 
plenitudo eius, orbis terrarum, et omnes qui habitant 
in eo.^^ Who but He gives kingdoms and monar- 
chies? for how could He be under greater obligation 
- if there is any way in which to oblige Him from 
whom nothing is due -than to procure His own 
greater honor and glory in the salvation of souls, 
which cost him so much? For these services are paid 
for, both here and in heaven, bountifully, and the 
holy Scriptures are full of examples to this effect. 
How many blessings did He shower upon Obededon 
for preserving the ark of the testament, and what 
favors has the most fortunate house of Austria *^ re- 
ceived from His hand, which was presaged in that 
manna which was once sent! God is very generous, 
and knows well how to further the affairs of him 
who charges himself with His ; but as for those who, 
on the contrary, put temporal good before His serv- 
ice, what success can they hope in this? I might well 
cite many examples which I do not, that I may not 
pass the bounds of my memoir. 

Although some give as an example the king of 
Great China, who abandoned many kingdoms of 
which he was the lord in order to preserve his own, 

^^ Translated : " The earth is the Lord's and the fulness there- 
of : the world, and all they that dwell therein " (Ps. xxiv, v. i). 

*** In the margin is written, in an ancient hand : " For the 
singular veneration which the archduke of Borgona showed to the 
most holy sacrament of the eucharist." 



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246 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol. 19 

this is not suited to your Majesty's position; for 
Great China is very extensive and holds as many 
people as eight Espanas, and its king has one hun- 
dred and fifty millions of revenue, or even more, 
and is made thoroughly secure by nature and art. 
What he abandoned, moreover, was not taken from 
him, nor was there any risk of putting himself in a 
position to make enemies - although where these rea- 
sons are present, those who advised this are right. 

Chapter III, How the city of Manila at present 

bears the burden of all this structure, 

I have already explained how the city of Manila 
is like the center of a circle, whose circumference 
includes all the kingdoms mentioned. It remains 
to explain how it maintains this structure and bears 
the whole burden of it 

In the first place, it maintains the war of Maluco 
and feeds it with troops, supplies, and munitions con- 
tinually, a thing which Portuguese India could not 
do. I argue the matter thus, that I may not seem to 
be actuated only by affection for my own country, 
instead of making a just estimate. It must be con- 
sidered that people cannot go to Maluco from In- 
dia more than once a year, on account of the weather; 
this is well known to all those who sail on those seas. 
From Manila the voyage can be made almost the 
whole year; whence it follows that Maluco could 
not be reenforced so conveniently [if the Filipinas 
were abandoned], especially in cases of great need. 

Item : They cannot so well send news [to India as 
to Manila], or receive advices, of the difficulties in 
which they find themselves, in order to seek aid ; for 
they are very far away and there is no favorable 



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1620-1621] MEMORIAL Y RELACION 247 

weather except during a certain monsoon of the 
year in order to go to India, and still less to come 
from there. 

Item : On account of the lack of available funds 
in India, for it is well known that that country is 
quite exhausted; and news is coming continually to 
Manila from Maluco, for information comes and 
aid is sent in a fortnight or less. Likewise on account 
of the abundance [in Filipinas] of provisions and 
other necessary things with which your Majesty 
provides them. 

Item: Because, beside the garrisons of troops 
which your Majesty has in Maluco, you have ships 
of war which molest the enemies. It is necessary, 
for the profit that they obtain, that they should not 
buy^^ cheaply, since they have to maintain, for the 
safety of the trade, a number of fortresses and armed 
ships on account of the Spaniards of the Filipinas; 
but, if the latter were not there, there would be no 
enemy to cause them anxiety, nor occasion for ex- 
pense. 

Item : Because the trade from Manila with Great 
China prevents the Chinese from trading freely with 
the Dutch; but if they could do so, it would induce 
the former to drain from their country great quanti- 
ties of merchandise, in order to satisfy their greed. 

Item : The check and apprehension which is im- 
posed on the enemy lest they extend their navigation 
farther, for fear of encountering our people; ac- 
cordingly they do not sail on those seas excepting 
with great caution. 

Item: In the city of Manila is a concourse and 

*^Thus in the, text (comprar) ; but the context would suggest 
that this was a slip for " sell," 



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248 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol.19 

traffic between many nations, by whom it is sup- 
ported- which proves how important it is to main- 
tain it for the greatness and reputation of your Maj- 
esty, with all those nations and with all the world. F^or 
they see with how few vassals you subject and make 
so many nations tremble, with the aid of God, who 
protects them surrounded by so many enemies as you 
have, even within the gates ; and yet they live in as 
much security, but not heedlessness, as if there were 
no enemy. 

Chapter IV, Explains the error which is generally 
prevalent that the money for the reenforcements 
which your Majesty sends to the Filipinas, and 
other things, is spent for their maintenance; and 
of the resources which they possess available {if it 
were not for Maluco) for their own maintenance. 
Since your Majesty sent an order and command 
to Don Pedro de Acuna to go with a force of troops 
to recover Maluco, which the Portuguese had lost, 
all the reenforcements of money, troops, and muni- 
tions which have since been raised here are spent in 
maintaining the forts of Maluco; and the great quan- 
tity that Don Juan de Silva expended was in the ex- 
peditions which he made. Not only has this been 
spent, but Manila and all the islands are today al- 
most xuined because of this, besides the embarrass- 
ment in which that placed your royal treasury, so 
that if it had to pay what is due to the Indians, ex- 
cluding what it owes the citizens, that would be 
more than two millions. If it had not these calls 
upon its revenues, there would be enough to main- 
tain it without your Majesty expending any more 
than the profits which he obtains from the islands, as 



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I620-I62I] 



MEMORIAL y RELACION 



249 



may be seen by what follows, which is copied from 
the royal books of the royal accountancy with all 
fidelity. 

Pesos 

There are assigned to the royal crown 
tributes amounting to 36U516 and a half, 
of which 28U483 and a half of 8 reals are 
collected. The rest, amounting to 5U033 
of 10 reals, which is the province of Ylocos, 
amounts to 39U807 

There are in all the islands 130U939 
tributaries in encomiendas, and those under 
the crown pay your Majesty two reals of 
income 32U734 

The tenths of gold are worth . . 2U000 

The tenths on herds of cattle . . . 2U5cm3 

The customs duties from the Chinese at 
six per cent on merchandise . . . 8oUcK)0 

Licenses imposed by Don Juan de Silva 
on every Chinaman who remains in the 
country, at 8 pesos 80U000 

Duties on cloth belonging to citizens, 
which is brought in the ships from Mexico. 2U500 

Customs duties on ships that go to Mex- 
ico sent by citizens of Manila, at three per 
cent of the merchandise .... 12U000 

Other items, 4U pesos .... 4JtJooo 



Total amount 



255U541 



In this way your Majesty has, from year to year, a 
little more or less than two hundred and fifty thou- 
sand reals of eight, and in this there are included 
neither the freight charges of the ships which go to 



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250 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol 19 

Nueva Espana, amounting to more than 30U pesos, 
nor the twelve per cent paid there on the merchan- 
dise which is sent, because this enters into the royal 
treasury of Mexico. The expenses which your 
Majesty has in these islands are not so great that, if 
it were not necessary to furnish support for the war 
in Maluco with the Dutch, there would not be 
rather some surplus than a deficit; and you could 
well maintain four galleons and six galleys for its 
protection and defense. 

Chapter V. That your Majesty possesses in the 
Filipinas enormous wealth, even with the little ef- 
fort made to realize it. 

What most discourages many servants of your 
Majesty, and even prevents others who are striving 
to forward your royal service from giving credence 
to great things, has been the incredulity which they 
display regarding the greatness of the Indias. This 
has been true since the first discoverers, as is well 
known. For not only are we to believe that the 
Holy Ghost gave them that impulse to persevere in 
their intention - even if that were not (which ought 
not to be believed) the glory of God and the saving 
of souls -- but our Lord, who sought by this means 
to accomplish His work, gave them so great per- 
severance and fortitude in breaking through the 
midst of so many difficulties and so much opposition 
and so many hard rebuffs that, indeed, if one look 
upon and read the history of the Indias, it would 
seem that men would be unable to suffer so much. 
But God would encourage them, for whose cause 
they persevered in their projects, bringing so great 
increase of grandeur to the kings of Espana. Al- 



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1620-1621] MEMORIAL Y RELACION 2^1 

though since that time some, more desirous of wealth 
and honor than moved by God, have tried to imitate 
those discoverers, and have had ill success, they 
ought not all for this reason to be condemned and re- 
proved w^ithout first examining their intentions and 
objects, and the real nature of the affairs which they 
are conducting. 

I have said this briefly, for in what I wish to say 
I think there will be many of this sort mentioned; 
and, just as it is imprudent to believe all, it would be 
going to the other extreme to give credit to no one. 

In the Filipinas Islands, in so far as I have been 
able to learn (and I consider it certain), your Maj- 
esty has, without going to conquer foreign kingdoms, 
the greatest wealth which has been found in the In- 
dias;"^^ and I base this upon these arguments, for in 
all those islands it is well known and established. 

After the Spaniards founded the city of Manila 
and reduced that island to peace, they learned that in 
some mountainous regions which lie about forty 
legua§ from the city, in the province of Pangasinan, 
there were many mines of gold, according to the in- 
formation which the Indians gave them; but that 
they were inhabited by warlike and barbarous In- 

*^ In this connection may be cited the following statement from 
Sawyer's Inhabitants of the Philippines^ p. 129: " The great wealth 
of the Archipelago is undoubtedly to be found in the development 
of its agriculture. Although the Central and Ilocan Mountains 
in Luzon and parts of Mindanao are rich in gold, it is the fertile 
land, the heavy rainfall and the solar heat, that must be utilized 
to permanently enrich the country. The land is there and the 
labour is there, and all that is wanting is capital, and a settled 
government. . . . The sun, the rain, the soil, and the hardy 
Philippine farmer will do the rest - a population equal to that of 
Java could live in affluence in the Philippines." 

See also Sa\^^er's remarks (pp. 145-152) on gold and gold- 
mining in the islands. 



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252 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

dians, who never permitted those of the plains to go 
up there. This was known because they came down 
at certain times of the year to buy a quantity of cat- 
tle, and brought a great deal of gold. On this in- 
formation, although it was somewhat indefinite, 
Guido de Labagares, who governed at that time, sent 
a number of soldiers to climb up the mountain.*^ 
These, being unprovided with necessities, and fewer 
in number than were needed, encountered much re- 
sistance from the natives. As the country is rough, 
and their food soon failed them, they went back, 
many of them ill. Although they brought some in- 
formation, it was not sufficient to encourage the gov- 
ernor or to cause him again to further the enterprise. 
Therefore, little by little, this knowledge was fading 
away among the Spaniards, notwithstanding that the 
religious who ministered in the neighboring prov- 
inces were well informed, and certain Indians told 
them of it. Accordingly, considering the host of 
vexations, injuries, and losses, and the diminution of 
numbers that are suffered by the Indians in all the 
Western Indias on account of the labor in the mines, 
the Order of St. Dominic especially, who administer 
the province of Pangasinan, have tried with all their 
might to cover up this information, on account of 
this fear which possesses them. 

Many years ago I learned something of this, but I 
sided with the others who gave little credit to it, 
owing to the little knowledge that we had. But as 
time is a great discloser of secrets, while I was dis- 
cussing with some religious the difficulties of the 
future which the kings of Espana, the successors of 
your Majesty, must meet in maintaining this country 

*^ See the document, " Expeditions to Tuy," at end of vol. xrs^. 



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1 620162 1 ] MEMORIAL Y RELACION 253 

if there were in the country itself no wealth or 
sources of profit which would oblige them to do so, 
I succeeded in securing a great deal of information 
concerning the wealth which is there. Particularly, 
he who is now archbishop ** told me that a religious 
of St. Dominic - the vicar of a village named Vina- 
latonga, who was named Fray Jasinto Palao, and 
who at that time had come from Luzon to this king- 
dom [i.e. J Espafia] - had shown him some rocks 
which an Indian had brought him from a mine, and 
which appeared extraordinarily rich, beyond any- 
thing that had been seen. But he enjoined the bishop 
to secrecy, because he himself had heard it in the 
same manner. I, who desired the preservation of 
that country, took occasion to make friends with that 
religious, in order to inform myself the better under 
pretence of curiosity. I asked him to tell me what 
he knew of those mines, whereupon that religious 
(who was already en route for the return to the is- 
lands) told me that what he had said was true; and 
further he said : " No one knows as much about 
those mines as I, because some Indians came down 
from the mountains and I entertained them. They 
told me that there was a great deal of gold up there, 
and that of what they took from the mines, half the 
ore was gold." And he said that when one of them, 
who was already somewhat versed in our tongue, saw 
reals of eight, he said to him : " We have much of 
this metal there, Father, much in the mines; but 
Indian wants nothing besides gold." I conferred 
with the bishop of I^ueva Segovia (as that province 
falls under his jurisdiction), who was Don Fray 
Diego de Soria, a Dominican, and with another re- 

^* The Augustinian Fray Miguel Garcia Serrano. 



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254 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol 19 

ligious, the provincial of the same order, named 
Fray Bernardo de Santa Catalina, in regard to this 
matter; and I gave them so many arguments to in- 
cline them to my plan that they were brought to my 
way of thinking. The most convincing argument 
which I used was to persuade them that the same rea- 
son did not hold there as in Nueva Espafia and Piru, 
for ill-treating the Indians; for there are so many 
Chinese who are raising their hands to God to find 
something to work at -as many as are necessary, as 
was well known by them. Thereupon they told me 
all the information that they had for certain from 
various Indians - not only from the Christians, some 
of whom had gone up peacefully to trade, but like- 
wise from those from above who came down to the 
province. The bishop certified that there was the 
greatest wealth in the world; and that they had 
brought him from one hill a little red earth, of which 
the whole hill is composed, which was as much as 
they could put upon a silver platter. They washed 
it, in his presence, and took out seven taes of gold, 
which amount to forty-four castellanos.*'' He as- 
serted that in every part of the hill the earth w^as all 
of this richness, With all this information I went to 
Don Juan de Silva and told him what had happened, 
and how I had pacified the friars. He agreed that 
we should go and discover it and said that he would 
go in person when he finished that expedition. He 
was overtaken by death, as has been said, and accord- 

^^ An ancient Spanish coin, which in the time of Ferdinand 
and Isabella was worth 14 reals 14 maravedis of silver; but its 
value varied in subsequent reigns. See the work of Fray Liciniano 
Saez, Monedas que corrian en Casttlla durante el reynado del Sr, 
D, Enrique IV (published by the Real Academia de la Historia, 
Madrid, 1805), pp. 408-426. 



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16201621] MEMORIAL Y RELACION 255 

ingly the matter has remained in this condition. 
And even if there were not in these mountains the 
wealth of which we are told, it seems that the obliga- 
tion to pacify these Indians exists, and that the holy 
gospel ought to be preached to them -in the first 
place, because your Majesty has undertaken so just 
and holy an enterprise; and second, because they are 
in the same island [with our Spaniards]. It is a 
shame that, being in the neighborhood of Manila, 
they do not enjoy the blessing that the others do. Be- 
side this, there is the fact that these as well as their 
neighbors will not allow other people to trade in their 
territory ; by the law of nations, therefore, the Span- 
iards have a right of action. 

The ease and little cost connected with this enter- 
prise are such that if the governor would send a sin- 
gle person suitable for it, with two hundred soldiers 
from the garrison of Manila, and levy a thousand 
Indians from the two provinces to help them and 
transport the supplies, they would subdue those sav- 
ages without difficulty, if the man who does it is 
prudent and has ambition to make the enterprise a 
success. This is not the place to discuss the other 
measures and affairs in detail; but if your Majesty 
should be pleased to have this done, I offer to give 
information of all that is necessary to provide, and to 
solve any doubts that may arise. I protest before 
the divine Majesty that I am not moved by covetous- 
ness, nor by desire that your Majesty should grant 
me any favor for this, nor am I trying to secure 
favors by this means ; but I am only seeking the glory 
of God, the service of your Majesty, and the welfare 
of that land. 



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2^6 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol 19 

Chapter VI, Of the persons who are needed in the 

government of the Filipinas. 

One (and the most important) of the matters 
which are necessary for the preservation and growth 
of that kingdom - whereon depends, as it were, the 
attainment of its object -is that the governors 
should be such men as are suitable for that post, and 
have the requisite qualifications demanded by that 
government. As so few have hitherto gone there 
who are thus qualified, the hindrance to the growth 
of that country has been much more than can be un- 
derstood here. 

For thirty years I have been a resident in the 
Filipinas, and have not seen one governor such 
as was needed there, excepting Gomez Perez de las 
Marinas, who improved and bettered that land 
in only the three years during which he governed, 
more than all together who had gone before or have 
come since have done. The reason for this is, that 
those who have succeeded since that time either had 
not had experience in government, or did not pos- 
sess the divine gift which is necessary for this so 
delicate task. Over there, although a soldier is 
needed who understands matters of war and knows 
how to regulate and direct them as they should be, 
yet he should be receptive of instruction; and he 
would learn much more there through the counsel of 
those who have broad experience, and through what 
experience can teach him, than through any knowl- 
edge that they can carry from here. This is the rea- 
son why matters there are very different from those 
in this kingdom, as if we were speaking of different 
species - not only of people and of their opinions, 
but of their modes of life and their natures. From 



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16201621] MEMORIAL Y RELACION 257 

this it has resulted that those who have undertaken 
to conduct affairs by the rules current here have com- 
mitted irremediable blunders. But the principal 
thing which is necessary there is that he should be a 
good public man, for the basis and fundamental need 
is good government, and efforts for the increase of the 
land, and directing all one's care toward its welfare, 
according good treatment to the citizens, showing 
kindness to foreigners, and attracting and winning 
the affections of all. Great care should be taken to 
despatch the ships from Nueva Espana promptly, 
and with proper supplies. All the people should be 
encouraged to go to trade with the neighboring coun- 
tries, to build vessels, to extend their interests, and 
to bring wealth from those lands. They should be 
not only governors, but fathers and protectors of the 
Indians. This land, I assure you in all truth, if it 
had been thus governed, would be the best and rich- 
est in the world, and your Majesty would possess 
many sources of profit. Thus all the misfortunes and 
losses of property that have occurred there (which 
have been very great), have resulted by reason of 
and through the fault of those who have governed it, 
without any one thus far having been punished or his 
residencia taken thereon. If Gomez Perez was suc- 
cessful, it was because he already had had experience 
in governing, and had been corregidor many times, in 
which capacity he was obliged to consider not only 
affairs of government but also those of war. Above 
all, he was a very, good Christian and desirous of do- 
ing right, which is the basis on which is founded all 
that is good. Accordingly, at his death, that country 
lost the special character that he had given it; but 
his memory will endure for many years in that city. 



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258 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol. 19 

as that of the father of the country. About the city 
of Manila he built a wall of great strength, fortified 
it, cast artillery, and performed many other works 
with no ado, nor cost to your Majesty. He took to 
Maluco the choicest fleet which has ever been col- 
lected in the Indias, without having used for it the 
thousands from Mexico which your Majesty has or- 
dered to be carried to other governors; and all this 
he did by his prudent plans and energetic action. 
Hence may be seen the importance of sending a gov- 
ernor there who is possessed of the traits that I have 
mentioned; for, besides so many advantages and good 
results as he can secure, and the evils which he can 
obviate, he will be able to save for your Majesty 
many ducados. Indeed, if the money which could 
have been dispensed with this year had been saved, 
your Majesty would be able to accomplish many 
military works and gain much wealth. And since your 
Majesty entrusts to him more than to all the other 
governors of the Indias, it is right that you should 
seek more carefully for such a man in that place than 
for any of the others; since not alone does your Maj- 
esty entrust him with a kingdom, but with your repu- 
tation and renown, which among so many different 
nations is only known through your governors for 
your Majesty. I even dare to say that hence also 
comes their knowledge of God. For to him is prin- 
cipally confided the honor of God and the conversion 
of so many souls, since we have seen so plainly how 
important is his good example; and, on the other 
hand, he will abolish evil and scandal not only there, 
but that which is spreading in Great China and other 
nations. They believe that our king is such a one 
as they see reflected in him who represents him. 



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1620-1621] MEMORIAL Y RELACION 259 

What is Still more to be deplored is that, within the 
last few years, there has arisen blasphemy against 
God and derision of your Majesty among those in- 
fidels, on this account. So great is the importance 
of your Majesty sending a person such as I have here 
described ; for those who have not these qualities will 
destroy rather than build. 

Chapter VII. Of the measures which should be 

chosen for the growth and preservation of that 

kingdom. 

The first thing which offers under this heading is 
the consideration of the matters pertaining to the 
war with the Dutch, which is the basal and funda- 
mental question for all the rest; for the enemy is 
making such efforts and using so many measures to 
get control of that archipelago, and drive out the 
Spaniards. 

Three ways and means present themselves to the 
mind, beside which I find no other ont^ although I 
have considered it well. 

The first, if it be possible for your Majesty, is to 
manage to have an armed fleet sent. If, when Don 
Alonso Faxardo was already your governor, he had 
taken the one which had been made ready, the time 
was opportune so that he could have driven out the 
enemy from their posts, together with the fleet which 
was in the Filipinas, which was weakened in men 
and artillery by its loss at Manila. On account of 
this, the natives of the island of Maluco, fearful of 
the power of your Majesty, entered our service. This 
fleet, which I say your Majesty should have des- 
patched, should have been sent with a previous warn- 
ing to the governor of the Filipinas so that he could 



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26o THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol. 19 

collect there as great a force as possible, and provi- 
sions with which to resupply the fleet which would 
go thither from here, the money for this purpose to 
be sent him from Piru or from Nueva Espana. 

Yet besides this, on account of the straitened cir- 
cumstances of your Majesty, and the need of attend- 
ing to other pressing matters, it is indeed true, in 
view of the great importance to your Majesty of not 
allowing the enemy to get possession of that archi- 
pelago (for he would infallibly become master of 
the whole of India, and become more powerful than 
can be understood here), that there appears to be 
another measure less costly in the meantime; al- 
though it will not result in dislodging them, at least 
it will give them such diversion and do so much 
damage that the profit which they will secure will 
be dearly bought. This is, that your Majesty should 
command the governor of the Filipinas to build eight 
galleys, and keep them in Terrenate; I will explain 
what their cost would be, shortly. These would be 
of great importance, as can be readily seen hefe, if 
one considers these reasons and the letter which Don 
Geronimo de Silva writes to his cousin, and another 
from Master-of-camp Lucas de Vergara to the dean 
of Manila, and to myself -the originals of which 
I possess, and which, as they explain the situation 
of those islands, I place at the end of this relation. 

In the first place, the enemy has no ports in those 
islands in which to take refuge; and ordinarily his 
fleet goes about, one way and another, among the 
coasts there. 

Second, every day in the year (or almost every 
day) there are six or eight hours of dead calm, at 
which time galleys never meet a galleon under these 



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1 620-1621] MEMORIAL Y RELACION 26 1 

circumstances without taking it or sending it to the 
bottom; for it has been seen by experience with a 
galleon and a galliot which the Spaniards possess 
there, what excellent results they have produced. 

Third, on account of this expedient of the galleys 
the enemy will not dare to divide their forces among 
the factories to carry on their negotiations; and, as 
they will have to go together, the cost will be so great 
that they cannot support it. 

Fourth, the supplies will be taken away from their 
fortresses ; for they have nothing wherewith to sup- 
port themselves except it be brought from other is- 
lands. This would be very easily accomplished, and 
the enemy would have no means to remedy it. The 
natives who are devoted to them would be so terror- 
ized that they would be obliged to come over to our 
side. If they accomplish that in this way and 
through the effective plans of whomsoever shall gov- 
ern there, and the negotiations which he would con- 
duct with them, it is quite certain that the enemy 
would be ruined, and could not maintain himself a 
year in his forts; for it is the natives who aid and sus- 
tain him, and furnish the cloves for his profit. 

Fifth, it would be easy to make an invasion with 
the galleys on all the factories where they have not 
fortresses - and especially in Bantan, which is in 
Greater Xava, whither they carry all the spices which 
are shipped to Holland - and then to gain them all 
and burn them. They have no port there for large 
vessels, but only a bay where vessels which anchor 
there are kept at a distance from the land in the mud, 
aground, so that they cannot make use of them when 
they wish. Accordingly the galleys could easily burn 
those which lie there. If Don Juan de Silva had 



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262 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

adopted this measure, the enemy would already be 
subdued; and your Majesty would not have spent so 
great sums of money, and so exhausted the Filipinas 
Islands. 

Sixth, the forces which your Majesty possesses in 
Maluco would be maintained with much less cost 
than at present by means of these galleys. For as 
there are no supplies in those islands it is necessary 
to send them from the Filipinas, which entails three 
difficulties. The first is that prices are thus made 
higher in that country, and the natives thereof are 
oppressed; the second, that it costs your Majesty a 
great deal, with the ships and men that are needed 
to man them; and the third, that the enemy gets a 
great deal of the aid which is sent. All this would 
be obviated by keeping galleys there; for it must be 
understood that the island of Macagar is very large, 
rich, and abundantly supplied, and lies a two days^ 
journey from Maluco. The king there is desirous 
of friendship with us, and has even sent to the gov- 
ernor of Terrenate to seek religious, as he says in 
the letter which is at the end of this relation. Last 
year he wrote a letter to the governor of the Fili- 
pinas, offering to furnish him all the supplies that 
he might need for the forces in Maluco; and saying 
that, if he had not the money to pay for them, he 
might have them on trust until the money came. 
Things are very cheap there, costing less than half as 
much as in the Filipinas, and the said galleys could 
transport them easily, without the danger which they 
now encounter of being taken by the enemy. Rather, 
on the other hand, those which the enemy carry from 
there could be taken away with ease, and they would 
be caused to perish with hunger. If an ordinary 



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1 620-162 1 ] MEMORIAL Y RELACION 263 

amount of care were taken in negotiating with this 
king, he would, as he is so well disposed to the Span- 
iards, be so devoted to your Majesty that he would 
not allow the enemy to enter his port. Besides, his 
friendship with them is already greatly strained; 
and there is a great disposition among all that people 
to receive the gospel. 

Seventh, as those islands have no posts where 
cloves may be laded, the Dutch send their ships far 
from the artillery of their own forts, which they can- 
not approach ; and it will be easy to secure the ves- 
sels, or not allow them to lade anything. Consider- 
ing the calms which prevail, even if there were many 
ships they could not aid one another, whatever injury 
the galleys were inflicting upon them - the least be- 
ing to dismantle them, so that they cannot sail, for 
there is nothing there with which to make a mast or 
rudder. 

Eighth, as they have a number of posts where they 
only keep twenty-five or thirty men with a squadron 
commander, and the forts have no ditches or drink- 
ing-water, they could be deprived of these at any 
time with ease. Galleons would be of no use in such 
engagements, as they cannot vie with galleys, which 
can get under cover whenever they wish. Likewise 
it must be understood, as their forts are in such dan- 
ger, they will need so many men to keep them from 
being taken, and so much to maintain them, that their 
profit will be so small that it will be gain for them 
to abandon it. This would indeed be making a 
pretty game of war, and cutting their throats with 
a wooden sword. And I assure your Majesty that 
this idea is not only my own, but that of all experi- 
enced men in Maluco. There resides at this court 



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264 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

Juan Gomez de Cardenas, who gained considerable 
experience in Japon with a Dutch factor, who never 
thought that this man was a vassal of your Majesty. 
The latter made known to him the said reason, and 
said that they feared nothing until your Majesty 
should send there six or more galleys. 

It now remains to tell the ease and little cost with 
which your Majesty could maintain these galleys and 
man them; and if this is explained for one, it holds 
in regard to all. The hull of a galley of twenty-four 
benches, put together and fitted for sailing, costs in 
the Filipinas four thousand ducats. The gang to 
man it must be secured in this manner. The gov- 
ernor of the Filipinas should send to Mindanao three 
hundred soldiers, by whom -besides setting free 
more than ten thousand Christian captives, vassals 
of your Majesty in the Filipinas - sufficient men 
could be captured to man the galleys. If this meas- 
ure be not sufficient, a frigate or two should be sent 
to Malaca for cloves on your Majesty's account, 
which would bring bark negroes at two hundred 
reals, more or less, with which to man them; these 
oarsmen are very satisfactory, as experience has 
show^n. In order to maintain the crew and replace 
those who die, men could be captured continually 
from our enemies, on a thousand occasions, without 
fail. 

The support of the galley slaves is inexpensive, 
for they live on rice, fish, and a little jerked beef - 
which, besides, is often captured from the enemy 
there; and is very low in price when it has to be 
bought, as, at present, in the island of Macagar. 

The third and last measure is, if these two fail, 
such that I dare not write it, for that is not expedient; 



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1 620162 1 ] MEMORIAL Y RELACION 265 

but I will explain it to your Majesty, if you are 
pleased to learn it. I shall not go into this matter 
any further, nor explain the reasons more in detail, 
as this is not to be long; but if your Majesty should 
be pleased to carry out any of the suggestions here 
made, I shall explain away the doubts which may 
present themselves. 

In the second place the person who is to govern 
should have the said requisites, for he is the soul 
of the undertaking; and it is he who must execute 
whatever your Majesty orders and commands. 
Whatever he is, such will be the rest. That this 
may not appear an exaggeration, I will prove it by 
evidence. 

There are dependent upon the governor not only 
the secular Spanish residents of those islands, but 
the ecclesiastics; also war and peace, and the royal 
Audiencia, the archbishop, the bishops, and all the 
other soldiers and citizens; for it is he who must re- 
ward and honor them with offices of peace and war. 
He must assign the cargoes of the ships, the profits 
and advantages. The royal Audiencia, because he 
appoints their relatives and constituents to offices of 
profit, must needs keep in his graces. The arch- 
bishop and bishops, if they do not conform to his 
will, may have their temporal support taken from 
them ; for if he cannot do it with good cause, he can 
easily do it in other ways. In a thousand things 
which occur, too, they need him for the direction 
of their affairs; and he can inflict on them so many 
burdens and annoyances that they realize how dearly 
they are buying the privilege of opposing him or 
contradicting his wishes. The chapter of the church 
is the same, or worse; for he makes appointments, 



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266 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS IVoL 19 

as your Majesty is patron, and orders the stipends 
to be paid. Accordingly it is necessary to be in his 
good graces. The cabildo of the city dare not do 
anything against his will; for those who oppose him 
or say anything in the sessions which is contrary to 
his wishes, it costs dear, and, besides, he is aware of 
whatever they do there. They dare not write to your 
Majesty, without taking to him the letters so that 
he may examine them; and there have been times 
when he has had these torn up, and ordered them to 
write others. Consequently, the religious who are 
teaching, and those of the convents, are all dependent 
upon him. 

The royal officials do no more than he wishes, and, 
besides, they have the example of former ones, who 
for not acting thus were removed, and held pris- 
oners for three years until your Majesty learned of 
it, and ordered their offices to be returned to them, 
and perchance the many hardships and afflictions 
which the governor inflicted upon them, and caused 
them to suffer, cost two x)f them their lives, and lost 
for your Majesty, in the factor, one of the best 
servants whom you had in the Filipinas. Accord- 
ingly, what I promised to prove is well established; 
for the complaints were so long in arriving, and the 
redress in returning, that he who awaited them was 
already dead. 

In the third place, it is essential that he should 
not be excessively grasping; and that your Majesty 
should give him such expectations, if he conducts 
himself well, that his profit will rest more on them 
than in what the government is worth to him. He 
should be of mature age and great experience in 
handling the affairs of the commonwealth, such as 



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1620-1621] MEMORIAL Y RELACION 267 

some knights possess who hold offices of corregidor 
on the coasts of Espana, and who govern in peace 
and war, as they never lack exercise for these abilities 
on the coasts. For if they were only required to be 
expert in war, the country would be in ruins before 
they became capable of governing it -as, for our 
sins, we have seen in past years. They should not 
come burdened with debts, which are demoralizing 
in a thousand ways. Notwithstanding that your 
Majesty has issued decrees which prohibit them 
from giving offices of profit to members of their 
households, rather than to the worthy persons of 
the kingdom, these decrees are the least complied 
with; nor is there any one who dares to interfere in 
this. If any one should make bold to put the bell 
on the cat, as the adage says, who would make him 
comply with it? By no means the royal Audiencia. 
At one time when I was petitioning for the execution 
of a royal decree of your Majesty there, an auditor, 
a friend of mine, said: "You should not do this; 
for, besides not accomplishing anything by it, you 
will get yourself into difficulty with him." 

With this in view, it is very important to forbid 
these offices to persons who are under obligations, 
which induce an insatiable greed and presumption; 
and, to fill that yawning void, the wealth of all the 
Indias is insignificant. The worst is, that they per- 
vert a man, and lead him astray by their influence. 
If I were to recount here in detail all the difficulties 
which they occasion, I should have to take twice the 
space. In short, everyone there is lamenting; and 
these people come in smiles, and even negotiating 
for the honors which belong to others, with crass 
insolence ; and, worse yet, it seems to the governor 



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268 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol 19 

I 

that his own people alone deserve all there is, and 
the rest are of no account. To give color to their 
impudence, one of them has dared to w^rite to your 
Majesty that there was not a person in all your king- 
dom who could in the least be trusted. The mistakes 
of these people are never punished, nor is there any 
one who dares to demand an investigation against 
them, even when they have done a thousand injuries. 
In short, he must be such a one as the emperor 
Theodosius spoke of to St. Ambrose, when he sent 
him to govern Milan : " Go ; and, look you, I send 
you not to act as governor, but as bishop." Such 
must be the governors of the Filipinas, if your Maj- 
esty would have them succeed. 

And on this account I have no fault to find with 
Don Alonso Faxardo, whom your Majesty has sent 
at present to govern. On the contrary, I believe that 
he will conduct himself there as befits the service 
of your Majesty and the welfare of your kingdom. 
For I recognized such desires in him in the little in- 
tercourse that I had with him in Mexico, where I 
was acquainted with him. I am therefore very 
thankful to God to see him so desirous of serving 
you, and may He give him grace to succeed. As 
for the persons who are sent to that Audiencia, 
they should be in a degree like the governors; for 
your Majesty places as much confidence in them- 
although I think it would be more to the purpose 
to discontinue it, for the reasons which are given 
by most people in that country, in which matter I 
will give your Majesty a memorial. 

The aflfairs of that kingdom are in such disorder, 
and move in so irregular channels, that people ask 
for an inspector to reform and adjust them and put 



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1620-1621] MEMORIAL Y RELACION 269 

everything in its place, redressing injuries and pun- 
ishing wrong-doing. The country is much in need 
of this; but that it may not be like the frogs who 
asked Jupiter for a king, and were given one that 
devoured them, it will be best for your Majesty to 
appoint some one from that country, who, through 
his great experience and knowledge, cannot be de- 
ceived, and knows what must be reformed, and who 
is possessed as well of the prudence and tact which 
are necessary in such a new country. And on the 
other hand, on account of the risks which exist in 
sending anyone from here who does not understand 
the affairs and conditions which must be remedied, 
and knows not how to proceed, it would be wiser 
to send no one, on account of the danger which ex- 
ists of ruining the city. 

Item: The governor should not consent to Japa- 
nese living in that country, as they are a great trouble 
and danger to the country, and the city is continually 
in danger from them. 

Item : The Chinese should be very carefully re- 
stricted, so that no greater number of them than 
your Majesty has ordered be [allowed to remain 
there] ; for they are permitted [to enter the country] 
without any exercise of caution, and we know by 
experience what this costs. 

Item: Your Majesty should command the gov- 
ernor finally to reduce the island of Mindanao to 
obedience to your Majesty; for those islands are so 
infested that they hinder the carrying of reenforce- 
ments to Maluco. And as they are in league with 
the Dutch, we have a perfect right to make war upon 
them and subject them to slavery. All this is easy for 
the governor if your Majesty command it, and is so 



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270 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol 19 

necessary for the security of your Majesty's vassals, 
as I intend to explain to your Majesty more at length 
in a separate memorial. 

Item : There is an island which lies about twenty 
leguas from Maluco, called Macagar, which meas- 
ures about two hundred and fifty leguas around ; it 
is very rich and well supplied, and from it the forces 
in Maluco could be supplied with ease and at little 
cost. It will be necessary for your Majesty to order 
the governor to negotiate with the king there for 
friendship and commerce. For the latter has already 
sent and written, saying that he desires it and that he 
will furnish all the supplies that are desired, and, 
if there is no money, will give credit for them until 
it is procured; and he has sent to ask for religious 
to preach the faith. They are a capable people, of 
good disposition, and are disposed to receive the 
gospel. As this district lies nearest to that which the 
fathers of the Society hold, it would be of much im- 
portance to send a few religious assigned to that 
island; and for your Majesty to be pleased to have 
their general requested to give them, which is of 
much importance even for temporal objects, besides 
the great service which they can render to God. 
And the Dutch could not get supplies from there, 
which would take away from them much of the 
provisions with which they are supported. Two 
fathers of the Society have been there, and have 
written that they were very well received; and it is 
highly expedient to encourage them. 

Item: Your Majesty should order the governor 
to attend with much diligence to the despatching 
of ships which go to Nueva Espaiia, for upon this 
so much of the growth of that kingdom depends; 



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1 620-1621] MEMORIAL Y RELACION 27 1 

and since he is so good a sailor and prides himself 
upon it, he should regulate that in the proper way, 
for at present it proceeds with great disorder and 
even recklessness, as I shall explain to your Majesty 
in a separate memorial. 

Item: Your Majesty should command that the 
garrisons of that kingdom be made open, on account 
of the fact that experience has shown that more men 
would go, if this were the case. Those in Maluco 
should be exchanged with those in the Filipinas 
every three years, for otherwise so many refuse to 
go to Maluco, and the forts there are in such ill- 
repute, that those who are taken there are discon- 
tented, as if they were being sent to the galleys ; but 
if they are exchanged, as I have said, they will go 
willingly. Beside, they would become experts, and 
the soldiers from Maluco are worth more than those 
who have not been there, on account of their con- 
stant exercise in war and labor. 

Item: Your Majesty should command that the 
city of Manila be made an open garrison, like San 
Juan de Ulua and Habana; for in this way the men 
will go to the Filipinas willingly. As Don Juan de 
Silva has done otherwise for years past, this country 
has become depopulated, and they have fled to 
various parts from time to time, no one daring to go 
there on this account. 

Item: Concerning the treatment of the Indians, 
and what it is well to inform your Majesty in this 
regard, as well in what concerns your royal con- 
science as the good of the country, a separate me- 
morial is required. 

Item: As to the manner of governing them and 
collecting their tributes, as has been seen by experi- 



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272 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

ence, the religious have done a great deal of harm 
by preventing the Indians from paying tributes on 
the fruits which they harvest; because the religious 
have not the inclination or sense to leave many things 
free - as will be seen in the account I shall give your 
Majesty in regard to this, all of which has been 
taught by experience. 

Item : Finally, it is very necessary that your Maj- 
esty shopld consider that that country is very new, 
and that your Majesty should desire its growth; and 
because, likewise, it was not so much in need of your 
Majesty's protection and favor in the beginning as 
it is now- when so few wish to go there on account 
of ill-treatment, many misfortunes, and the fear of 
enemies -your Majesty should protect it so that they 
may be encouraged to go there. For this your Maj- 
esty should command your ministers to give those 
who wish to go a comfortable passage. For if in 
early days the king our lord, the father of your Maj- 
esty, who so greatly favored and loved that land, not 
only furnished a passage, but likewise the neces- 
saries for their journey, to those who wished to go, 
and even freed them from duties and imposts, that 
aid is much more necessary today; and at least they 
should be given some exemptions, and should not be 
treated with such harshness as they now are. This 
I can affirm as an eyewitness, that when we arrived 
at the port of Capulco, after having been on the 
voyage five months, and a great many of our people 
had died, and God had brought us through such 
boundless hardships and dangers to the place where 
we were to refresh ourselves, they treated us worse, 
indeed, than they did the Dutch; for to the latter 
they gave food there, and sent them away satisfied, 



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16201621] MEMORIAL Y RELACION 273 

and to us they acted as they should have done to the 
Dutch. Since a proper remedy for what happened 
at the port of Capulco, which I am bound to sug- 
gest to your Majesty, and for many other matters 
concerning your royal service, cannot be suggested 
in this place, I shall give it in other memorials. 

Item: The encomiendas which your Majesty 
used to grant were formerly for three lives ; and a 
short time ago your Majesty ordered by a royal de- 
cree that they should be, and it should be so under- 
stood, for two lives. This is a great difficulty in 
the preservation of that community, and especially 
so as your Majesty has granted the favor to Nueva 
Espana of giving them for four lives; and as the 
Filipinas have been, and continue to be thus far, the 
colony of Nueva Espana, and almost governed by 
the royal Audiencia thereof, it is a great hardship 
that they should enjoy no more than two lives. In 
the first place, because many are discouraged from 
serving your Majesty, and even from remaining in 
that country, when they learn that their sons and 
grandsons must be reduced to the greatest poverty, 
the said encomienda expiring with the holder's first 
son or his wife, as at present happens; in the second 
place, because four lives are shorter in the Filipinas 
than two in Nueva Espana. The reason for this is 
the many occasions for war and naval expeditions, 
wherein men are easily killed or drowned, leaving 
their successors in the hospital ~ as is at present the 
case with many, which makes one's heart ache with 
pity. 

In answer to the tacit objection which might be 
brought up that it is better to have the encomiendas 
vacated quickly, so that others may be rewarded with 



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274 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

them, and with this hope will go to serve there, I 
would say that the important matter is to make a 
compromise - namely that your Majesty should con- 
cede the said encomiendas not for four lives, as in 
Nueva Espana, nor for two as at present, but for 
three, as formerly, which is a very necessary measure 
for the relief of some, and the encouragement of 
others to the service of your Majesty. 

Letter from Master-of-camp Lucas de Vergara, 
written to Don Francisco Gomez de Arellano, dean 
of Manila, which is the last that came from Maluco 
in the past year. 

By the ship " San Antonio," which I despatched 
to that city on the thirteenth of May last, I informed 
you, with other matters pertaining to me, of my 
health, and my arrival at these forts safely with the 
three ships in which I took the reenf orcements ; and 
of how well I was received by everyone, and every- 
thing which had occurred to me up to that time. 
What I have to say to you since that time is that, 
from the persons who have come to me from the 
forts of the enemy, both native and Dutch, and from 
other inquiries that I have made, I have learned that 
of the ten Dutch ships which were at the harbor- 
mouth of Marivelez only four have come back to 
these islands. One of them brought the wounded 
men from Oton; a second one, when our fleet went 
out to seek that of the enemy, was going out to sea, 
picking up Sangley ships. When it saw our fleet, 
without going back to theirs, it cast loose a very rich 
junk which it was towing astern, and took to flight. 
The captain of this vessel, they tell me, the Dutch 
put to death for having fled. Two other vessels ar- 



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1620-1621] MEMORIAL Y RELACION 275 

rived at the port of Malayo on the eighth of June. 
These had found occasion to fight with our fleet ; 
and accordingly they arrived dismantled byxcannon- 
sho'ts, and with many wounded men. These brought 
the news that only six of their vessels had fought 
with eight of ours and three galleys; and that their 
commander's ship and two others were lost, one go- 
ing to the bottom and the other two being burned. 
Their commander escaped in a boat which they saw 
was being followed by two of our galleons and a 
galley - although they did not know the result, since 
neither this one, nor two others that are lacking from 
the ten, have appeared here thus far. Of six hun- 
dred men whom they took from the forts which they 
have- on these islands to put in the ten boats, when 
they were at Manila, only a hundred came back alive. 
These two damaged ships are being put to rights, 
and in all they have five at present in these islands, 
with few men ; so that if a part of our fleet had come, 
and followed up the victory, they might all have 
been captured. This loss has made both the Dutch 
and those of Terrenate very sad and cast down, for 
they were in hopes to come back rich and victorious. 
A few silks and other goods were brought in the 
ships which escaped and they sold them to us very 
dear, although not so dear as they cost them. What 
they are considering now, and urge for the consola- 
tion of those of Terrenate and the other nations 
friendly to them, is that they are going to collect a 
great fleet which they have in Ambueno, and in the 
Sunda; and with the whole fleet they are to attack 
the forts of his Majesty before our fleet arrives from 
Castilla and from the Filipinas. This you already 
know of. Beside this, they are putting their for- 



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276 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

tresses in the best state of fortification possible, to- 
gether with the posts which they hold; for they see 
that the natives here are very lukewarm in their 
friendship, and they fear that when they see our fleet 
more powerful than theirs, the natives will drop their 
friendship and try to win ours. The king of Tidore 
and I consider it certain, judging from what we have 
heard from themselves, and particularly from those 
of the island of Maquien, that that alone is richer 
in cloves and native inhabitants than are all the oth- 
ers there. Their Sangaje, who went there to treat of 
this matter, was taken and killed in the fort at 
Malayo, which irritated the natives of that island 
very much. 

By a caracoa which I sent to Ambueno, to get 
word of what was doing there, I learned that the 
Dutch have seven ships in that island, and that they 
sent one ship laden with cloves to Holland. The na- 
tives there are, for the most part, at war with the 
Dutch, as are likewise those of the islands of Banda, 
where there are two or three English ships fortifying 
themselves with the permission and aid of the na- 
tives. The Dutch and the English have fought over 
this and the Dutch hold forty English prisoners - all 
of which is very good for us. It is rumored that 
in the Sunda there are twenty Dutch ships, but I 
do not know what truth there is in this. I am at 
present getting ready and fortifying, as well as I 
can, the forts which his Majesty has in these islands, 
so that they may be ready at any juncture; although 
there is a great lack of men for the necessary work, 
because there went this year to Manila more than 
came out, and some are sick, and there are many 
places to guard. Particularly there are three sit- 



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1620-1621] MEMORIAL Y RELACION 277 

uated in the island Batachina, which, as they are 
in an unhealthy country, exhaust the troops more 
by death and sickness. They are passably supplied 
with provisions at present, owing to the care which 
I take to seek out what is in the country ; and thus, 
with the rice which I brought, and a little which 
was here, I have managed to get along. I shall have 
enough provisions for the whole of October, and if 
I am sent those that I await from the island of Mateo 
I shall have enough for November. By that time I 
hope to get aid from those islands, for I am very 
confident that the lords there will aid me as ever; 
and the lord captain-general, being a man of so 
much experience, as he suffered so many needs in his 
own time, will aid in this with the expedition and 
care which are necessary for its preservation, since 
everything is and continues to be for that object. 
In whatever may happen which concerns this, I 
beg of you to further it as far as possible, as I shall 
take it as a great favor, besides being a service for 
God and for his Majesty, and as you are so zealous. 
I beseech you to be pleased to advise me of what 
may occur there and I shall do the same always 
here. 

By the last despatch I sent you three birds of para- 
dise, and the bearer of this, Sergeant Romero, brings 
you two more. I wished that there were more, but 
I assure you that they were not to be found, as the 
boats which usually bring them have not arrived. 

While I was writing this a Dutch trumpeter ar- 
rived from the forts of the enemy, and gave the same 
report as another who came two days ago, and whom 
I send by this ship, so that he may tell the whole 
thing there - for, considering the news and the state 



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278 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol 19 

of affairs, it is of the highest importance that our 
fleet should come here by the month of December. 
If those ships alone came which his Majesty has 
in those islands, it would be superior to the enemy's 
fleet; for with this they could be kept from taking 
to Holland this year the great quantity of cloves 
which they will harvest. This is the greatest loss 
which can be inflicted upon them at present; since 
with the profits from this they are waging war upon 
his Majesty in these parts with such great fleets. 
This is the opinion of those who have most at heart 
the service of his Majesty in these regions. I am 
writing, above all, to the lords there; and you will 
do me the favor which you always do in such cases. 

Although I do not know what new things there 
may be there, I leave it all to your good opinion and 
intelligence and that of Senor Canon Garcetas, as I 
know, since you are such friends of mine, that you 
will give the most fitting counsel. May our Lord 
protect you for the greatest possible number of years. 
I kiss your hands. Tidore, July 5, 1617. Your 
humble servant, LuCAS Vergara Gaviria 



PART THIRD. WHEREIN IS GIVEN INFORMATION 
OF OTHER MATTERS CONCERNING THE FILI- 
PINAS, THE ISLANDS OF MALUCO, AND 
OTHERS OF THE ARCHIPELAGO; OF THEIR 
RICHES, AND OF THE FORTS AND FACTORIES 
WHICH THE DUTCH HOLD; AND OF THE 
WEALTH WHICH IS AT PRESENT SECURED 
FROM THEM. 

Chapter I. Of the prelates and their districts in the 

islands, and of certain curious things. 

The island called Lugon, which is the most im- 
portant, has two bishops and an archbishop. The 



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16201621] MEMORIAL Y RELACION 279 

archbishopric has jurisdiction in the vicinity of the 
city of Manila, the capital of that country. Toward 
the east it reaches as far as the village called Cali- 
laya, forty leguas from the city on the same island. 
It has four offices of alcalde-mayor, which is the 
same thing as a corregimiento - namely those of La 
Laguna de Vai, La Laguna de Bonvon, another in 
Valayan, and that of Calilaya. In this there are 
many Indian villages administered by religious of 
the Augustinian order, and still more by the dis- 
calced of St. Francis. Toward the west of the juris- 
diction is that of the province of Pampanga, which 
is fertile and well-peopled, and that of Bulacan, and 
the Cambales. These are not Christians and cannot 
be reduced to conversion, but are negroes who go 
about like wild beasts through the inaccessible parts 
of the mountains. They are given to cutting the 
heads from other Indians, and no woman will marry 
a Cambal unless he has cut off a head; accordingly, 
in order to be married, he will cut one off, even 
though it be that of his own father when he finds 
the latter in the fields. If these had been given into 
slavery they would have been already reduced; but, 
although I have advised it many times in the Coun- 
cil, no measures for this have ever been taken. As 
the matter stands, they will never be pacified except 
by this means. The reason for this is that, if they 
were given into slavery, the Indians of Pampanga, 
with their great desire to hold slaves for the manag- 
ing of their crops, would have reduced them. They 
do a great deal of damage, so much that no Indian 
dares go out alone to work in his field, because they 
kill him merely for the sake of cutting off his head. 
They live upon roots and fruit from the woods, and 



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28o THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

have no houses, nor possessions, and go about naked. 
Toward the east this jurisdiction takes in all the 
island, and toward the west lies the sea. Several 
islands are joined to this jurisdiction, as are those of 
Lioban and Mindoro. In these are a number of 
trees resembling cinnamon [canela^^ which I have 
shown to our physicians, who say that it is the Cina- 
momo.^** Then there is the island of Marenduque, 
where there are mines of copper; and other islands, 
of little importance and sparsely peopled. 

Northward from this jurisdiction begins the 
bishopric of Nueva Segovia, starting from the prov- 
ince of Pangasinan, where end the Combales and 
the province of Ilocos- wherein are situated the 
mountains of the Idolotes [sic^j and where are so 
rich mines, as I have explained. They are all Chris- 
tains. The Dominican religious minister to the prov- 
ince of Pangasinan, and the Augustinians to that of 
Ilocos. Farthest to the north lies the province of 
Nueva Segovia, which is administered by Dominican 
friars. These three provinces are very fertile and 
well peopled, and to the north of this district there 
are several islands called Vabuianos, where the In- 
dians raise swine of rerriarkable size. Throughout 
the whole island [of Luzon] there are many wild 
swine. They are not fierce, like those in Espana, and 
accordingly are easily killed. There is a great num- 
ber of large, fierce wild buffaloes. They are killed 

^® In Spain the name cinamomo is popularly given to the 
Melia acedarak; but now In Manila that name Is applied to a 
species of Lausonia, L, inermis. This latter grows In Arabia and 
Egypt, and Is cultivated In Europe; It is there called alchena or 
alhena, and Its root Is employed as a cosmetic by the Turks, and a 
paste of Its leaves, known as hennas is used by them to dye the 
teeth or hair. See Blanco's Flora (ed. 1845), pp. 206, 241. 



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1 620-1621] MEMORIAL Y RELACION 28 1 

with muskets, and on one occasion they were un- 
able to bring down a buffalo with twelve musket- 
shots. If the man who is shooting misses, and does 
not get quickly under cover, he will be killed. The 
Indians catch them as we do partridges here, and it 
is a remarkable thing, wherefore I shall now explain 
it. They make a very strong stockaded enclosure 
[corr^/], and on either side of the gate they move 
out, carrying with them palm leaves of a certain 
kind, touching one another. They keep spreading 
out the line until it is about a quarter of a legua 
long, more or less. When they find a herd, for the 
animals go many together, they frighten and follow 
them, and, driving them along, continue with shouts ; 
and as they are running and striking with the said 
leaves, the buffaloes will not pass through the line of 
men if they are excited. Thus little by little they 
enter into the narrowest part until they are compelled 
to enter into the gate of the enclosure, which is then 
barred. There the Indians, by their devices, catch 
the animals one by one, tie them, and put them each 
one in a small enclosure of strong stakes so narrow 
that they cannot turn around, so that they have no 
chance to struggle. There they keep them without 
food for a fortnight, until they are so feeble and 
thin that they cannot stand. Then an Indian comes 
with a wisp of hay, and although angry, they needs 
must eat; and within twenty days they are so tame 
with the person who gives them food, that they let 
themselves be scratched. Iron rings are put in their 
noses, and they are led anywhere with a rope, like 
a beast of burden. I have seen one of these buffaloes 
with a negro who had fed him, seated on his head, 
and he played with the negro like a dog, but was a 



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282 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

lion for those whom he did not know. This jurisdic- 
tion is fifty leguas long on the sea side. The interior 
of the island remains unpacified, as it consists of the 
said mountains. The bishopric of Las Camarinas 
[jzc] is the most easterly on this island, and extends 
more than sixty leguas, including several adjacent 
islands, such as Burias, Ticao, Capul, and Catan- 
duanes. There are many nutmeg trees in this bishop- 
ric, the fruit of which no one gathers. There is in 
this province a spring from which flows hot water, 
and if anything is placed in it it turns to stone.^^ 

The bishopric of Cibu has the largest jurisdiction, 
as it includes all the islands to the east, such as Leite, 
Babao, Maripi, Tinagon, Panaon, the island of Ne- 
gros, and that of Oton. Westward are Cebuyan 
and Romblon; and to the south the island of Min- 
danao, which is almost as large as that of Luzon. 
There is in it a great deal of cinnamon, rich gold 
mines, and considerable civet; and so large a number 
of civet-cats that they do no more than catch them 
with snares, take the civet out and set them free 
again, and thus profit by them without furnishing 
them with food. There are many other islands, and 
from there to the Malucos it must be about eighty 
leguas. In all these islands there is collected a great 
deal of wax and honey, which is produced in the 
woods, and which, accordingly, the Indians do not 
cultivate. The bees are small and dark-colored, and 
do not live in the hollows of trees and rocks, but 
build their nests among the branches - using on them 
a dark, coarse wax, which is so strong that, even 

^"^ Probably referring to the springs at Jigabo, province of 
Albay, the waters of which carry in solution a gelatinous silica, 
which is quickly incrusted on any object placed therein. See 
Report of U. S. Philippine Commission, 1900, iii, p. 222. 



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1620-1621] MEMORIAL Y RELACION 283 

though it rains hard, not a drop of water enters. So 
much is gathered there that not only are we all sup- 
plied cheaply, but there are sent to Nueva Espana, 
Japon, and China more than two thousand quintals 
each year. There are many deer, not so slender as 
are ours ; and there are no other animals. There are 
many wood-fowl, smaller than ordinary ones, but 
more palatable; and which have breasts like par- 
tridges. There are in the forests certain shoots called 
bejucoSy which they use as we do osiers here; but 
they are much better, some of them being as thick 
as one's thumb, and even larger, and six or eight 
brazas long. When they are thirsty, the Indians cut 
off a braza, and a quartillo of fluid runs out of it, 
which is good and healthful. There are certain 
canes [/.^., bamboos], some of which are as thick as 
one's thigh, and others smaller, and five or six brazas 
long; of these the poor Indians construct their houses,* 
without other material - walls, floors, roofs, posts, 
and stairs. 

There are certain palms which bear a fruit called 
cocoanuts (which are ordinarily brought to Espana 
from Guinea) ; these are such an aid to human life 
that from them, or rather from the cocoanuts, they 
obtain the commonest oil of that country, which is as 
excellent for wounds, even though they be deep ones, 
as that of aparicio. From this tree they obtain wine 
which is the common beverage of that country; 
strong vinegar, which is good for the table ; and milk 
like that of almonds, to serve with rice, and which 
curdles like real milk. When it is soft the fruit is 
like green hazel-nuts in taste, and better ; and there is 
a serum for many ills and infirmities, which is called 
whey, as it looks much like that of milk. It is there 



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284 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

called tuba. They make honey from this tree; also 
oakum with which to calk ships, which lasts in the 
water, when that from here would rot. Likewise 
they make rigging, which they call cayro ; and they 
make an excellent match for arquebuses, which, with- 
out any other attention, is never extinguished. The 
shoots resemble wild artichokes while they are ten- 
der. There is a plant with leaves after the shape and 
fashion of the ivy, which is a certain species of pep- 
per which they call buyo, the use of which is com- 
mon throughout the whole archipelago; and it is so 
excellent a specific against ulcerated teeth that I do 
not remember ever having heard it said that any 
native suffered from them, nor do they need to have 
them pulled. It is a good stimulant for the stomach, 
and leaves a pleasant odor in the mouth. 

There is a bird which they call taborij 2l little 
larger than a partridge ; and it buries its eggs, which 
are as large as goose eggs, to the number of eighty 
or a hundred, half an estado deep in the sand of the 
bays of the sea. They are all yolk, without any 
white, which is an indication of their great heat. 
Accordingly, the mother does not sit upon them, and 
they hatch, and the birds scratch their way out from 
the sand. When the bird has come out it is as large 
as a quail, and goes about picking up its food as other 
birds do after they are grown. I have seen this with 
my own eyes, and there must be other eyewitnesses 
of it in this court. So marvelous is the character of 
these birds. I pass over many other peculiarities for 
fear of tiring your Majesty. 

There are many good and savory wild fruits there. 
The ordinary food in those islands is rice, as it is 
over all Asia and the neighboring islands; and I dare 



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16201621] MEMORIAL Y RELACION 285 

assert that more people are supported in the world 
by rice than by wheat. There is a great deal of 
sugar, which is usually worth four reals the arroba, 
or less ; and the Chinese bring so much rock sugar, 
which they call cande^ that it is ordinarily worth 
eight reals an arroba, or less. 

In that part of the island of Mindanao which faces 
the south, as I have said above, the Indians are re- 
bellious; and it is they who have done, and still do, 
great damage to the others. They have taken up the 
doctrine of Mahoma and are friendly with the 
Dutch. As they have not been given into slavery, 
they are not pacified; and this is one of the most 
important matters there, and deserves the applica- 
tion of a remedy. 

Chapter II. Of the ministers and religious instruc- 
tion in the islands, and those who have been con- 
verted to our holy Catholic faith, and those who 
pay tribute. 

The island of Luzon, in the archbishopric and the 
two bishoprics, has fifty-nine encomiendas, and in 
that of Nueva Segovia, which is the most northerly, 
there are twenty-six; in that of Camarines, which is 
the most easterly of the islands, there are thirty -in 
all, one hundred and fifteen. In the bishopric of 
Cibu there are seventy-one, which make, in all, one 
hundred and eighty-six encomiendas of Indians. 
They comprise 130U938 tributarios in all; each 
tributario includes husband and wife, and thus at 
least four persons are reckoned, including children 
and slaves (as they have no others to serve them ex- 
cept slaves) ; there are, then, 523U752 Christians in 
these encomiendas. There are assigned to the royal 



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286 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

crown 33U516 tributarios, and the rest are assigned 
and granted to deserving soldiers. This is exclusive 
of the people who pay no tributes, that is, the chiefs. 
There are, in all these one hundred and eighty-six 
encomiendas, the same number of monasteries and 
churches. Some of them have two monasteries each, 
as they are too large to be administered by two re- 
ligious ; ordinarily, to each one are assigned five hun- 
dred tributarios. - There are other encomiendas 
which have one monastery between two of them. 
Averaging these, I suppose there are about three 
hundred and seventy-two priests, besides the laymen. 
In the city there are about eighty or ninety, in four 
monasteries - one of St. Dominic, another of St. 
Francis, another of St. Augustine, another of the 
Recollect Augustinians - and the cathedral. These 
places of worship have as handsome buildings as are 
those of the same class in Espana; and the whole 'city 
is built of cut-stone houses - almost all square, with 
entrance halls and modern patios [/.^., open courts] - 
and the streets are straight and well laid out; there 
are none in Espana so extensive, or with such build- 
ings and fine appearance. The city has as many as 
five hundred houses; but, as these are all, or nearly 
all, houses which would cost 20U or more ducados in 
this court, they occupy as much space as would a 
city of two thousand inhabitants here. For the wall, 
as measured by me, is 2U250 geometrical pasos in 
circumference, at five tercias for each paso, which 
makes three quarters of a legua.*® In all these is- 

^* The " geometrical pace " is, in English measure, roughly 
estimated at five feet ; in Spanish measure, according to Los Rios's 
reckoning - the tercia (or " third *^), being one-third of a vara, is 
equivalent to**ii.i28 English inches -the geometrical pace would 
be 55.64 English inches. The length of the wall, accordingly, 
would be a little less than two English miles. 



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1620-1621] MEMORIAL Y RELACION 287 

lands there are none unconverted except the Zam- 
bales, as I have said above, and those in the moun- 
tains where the mines are, and a few villages behind 
these same mountains, which are called the province 
of Ituri - so called because it was discovered by Don 
Luys Perez de las Marinas, in the time of his father, 
who sent him there. For lack of religious, the gospel 
has not been preached to them. They are a peace- 
able people, and make no opposition. In Nueva 
Segovia, which is under the charge of the Order of 
St. Dominic, there are some to be converted, who 
have not yet been settled peacefully, as they are war- 
like and restless Indians. On the contrary, they have 
rebelled several times; but it has always been on ac- 
count of injuries which the Spaniards have inflicted 
upon them. 

Chapter III. Of the islands of Maluco, and others 
adjacent to them; and of the spice and other arti- 
cles that are contained in them. 
The Malucas Islands, commonly so called, where, 
of the spices, cloves are obtained, and so named from 
this drug,*^ are five. They begin at that of Bachan, 
which is on the equinoctial line, and extend north 
and south. The farthest north is that of Terrenate, 
which is six or seven leguas in circumference. It 
consists entirely of a very high elevation, on the sum- 

*^ Of this name Crawfurd says {Diet. Indian Islands, p. 283) : 
" The collective name, which the Portuguese write Maluca, and 
is correctly Maluka, is equally unknown, although said to be that 
of a place and people of the island of Gilolo. No such name Is, at 
present, known to exist in that island. . . . All that De 
Barros tells us of the name is, that it is a collective one for all the 
islands." He cites (pp. loi, 102) various names for the clove that 
are current in the Indian Islands, and some found In early writers; 
but among them is none resembling Maluca. 



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288 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol 19 

mit of which is a volcano, which sends forth fire. 
In the medial region of this mountain they raise the 
clove-trees, which are like laurel trees, the leaves be- 
ing a little narrower and longer. This island has 
five fortresses; the principal one is called Talangame, 
and another San Pedro. The Dutch have three: 
that of Malayo, which is the principal one; another 
called Tacome, and another Toleco, which is of little 
importance. 

The island of Tidore is distant about two leguas 
from this, and, although smaller, has about the same 
aspect. Your Majesty has a fort there, and the king 
of Tidore has another. The Dutch have two others, 
which they call Great and Little Mariaco. In the 
island of Motiel, farther south, the Dutch have a 
fort. 

In that of Maquien there is a fort. Directly be- 
yond this is another and smaller island, called Cayoa ; 
and that of Bachan, with several others of little im- 
portance, lies near. To the east of all these islands 
is one called Vatachina, or Gilolo, lying two or three 
leguas from these - a very large island, where your 
Majesty has two forts. This island extends so far 
that it makes a strait with the island of Nueva 
Guinea on the eastern end, according to the relation 
of Fray Diego de Prado, of the Order of St. Basil, 
who, while he was a layman, coasted along this is- 
land on the southern side, of which nothing was then 
known. This is the largest island in the world, and 
was discovered from the northern side. It extends 
from the equinoctial line. No one has thus far ex- 
amined what is in the interior, although it is known 
that it is well peopled, some of the natives being 
black, and some of the ordinary color of Indians. 



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1620-1621] MEMORIAL Y RELACION 289 

There are indications of much wealth. More to the 
east, there are the islands of Salamon near by. The 
blacks are sold among the Indians, as in Guinea, and 
they have fairs at set times. The Indians buy these 
people to cultivate their lands. Beyond these 
Malucas Islands there are some to the southward, of 
little importance, as far as that of Ambueno, which 
is seventy leguas distant from them. The Dutch 
have a fort there, which they took from the Portu- 
guese, and a port where abundance of cloves are 
gathered - which, transplanted from the Malucas, 
have grown in this island alone and in no other. 
Eighteen leguas farther east lies the island of Banda, 
where nutmeg is gathered; and the Dutch have an- 
other fortress there. 

Westward from the Malucas Islands, about twenty 
leguas distant, is an island called Macasar. It is 
more than two hundred and fifty leguas around, and 
is very fertile and rich, being inhabited by the best 
people in those islands; their king is friendly, very 
peaceful, and glad to trade with the Spaniards. He 
used to receive the Dutch, and let them provide 
themselves from his country with provisions for all 
their forts. He does not now admit them, and has 
sent to ask for religious to preach the gospel; and 
two of the Society and two Dominicans have been 
sent to him. The friendship of this king is very 
important for the preservation of Maluco. 

Next, farther to the west, lies the island of Borney. 
It is 400 leguas in circumference. On the side which 
faces the south the Dutch maintain trade, and 
through it they obtain the finest diamonds. 

In Greater Java, which is the island that forms 
a narrow strait with that of Samatra, they have a 



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290 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol 19 

factory (without a fort), to which they bring the 
cloves and nutmeg and pepper which they buy there, 
which amounts to a large quantity. They trade 
there, and a few years ago the Javans drove them 
out. Since the English have become their allies, 
they are able to keep the natives in subjection, and 
are building a fortress. 

They have other factories in the kingdom of Patau, 
at one of which they buy a great deal of pepper. 
Patau lies more to the north of the strait of Sin- 
capura (which others call the strait of Malaca) ; 
and further north lies the kingdom of Sian, which is 
very rich in many kinds of merchandise, and in 
rubies. They have another factory there. In the 
kingdom of Cambosea [sic; sc, Camboja] they have 
another, and still another in Cochinchina. They are 
not allowed to enter China, but rather, on account 
of the robberies which they have perpetrated, they 
are held to be enemies of the country. In the islands 
of Japon they have another factory, from which they 
procure supplies and military stores, and which is 
of much importance to them. Of the other islands 
of this archipelago no mention is made, to avoid be- 
ing prolix, although there are a great number of 
them. 

Chapter IV. Wherein are considered the riches of 
the spice trade of these -Malucas Islands and the 
others. 

These Malucas Islands give from year to year four 
thousand four hundred bares of cloves in clusters, 
which are called " selected," according to the rela- 
tion which is made and the information given by 
Don Juan de Silva, knight of the habit of Santiago, 



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1 620-1621 3 MEMORIAL Y RELACION 29 1 

when he governed the Filipinas Islands. Others say 
that there are eight thousand, and still others, six. 
The first statement is the most accurate, and agrees 
with another note made by Captain Gregorio de 
Vidana, a citizen of Manila; he was a person very 
learned in manuscripts, who spent many years there, 
and sought to inquire into the matter out of curiosity. 

Four thousand four hundred bares of cloves, 
each bare containing 640 libras, amount to 2,816,000 
libras - which at one ducado, the price at which 
they are sold [in Europe] will bring the same 
number of ducados. All this can be bought for 
a hundred thousand ducados.'^^ It is not bought 
with money, but with cloth purchased in India 
and in China; and what in those countries costs 
ten is sold in the Malucas at fifty. This profit is at 
present possessed by the Dutch, who buy on the coast 
of Caramendel, and from the Chinese in Cochinchina 
and Java, whence they take the merchandise which 
they trade for cloves in Maluco. The nutmeg, ac- 
cording to Don Juan de Silva, is worth 500U duca- 
dos, when transported to these parts. 

The cloves gathered in the island of Ambueno 
amount to a great deal, although I have no exact ac- 
count of the quantity. 

The pepper which is taken from Greater Java is 
much, although I do not know the exact quantity. 
They likewise have a factory and a treaty friend- 
ship with the king of Achen, in the island of Sama- 

'^^ See the detailed description of the clove tree, its product, the 
mode of gathering cloves, their properties, and the extent of the 
trade in this spice in Recuetl des voiages Comp. des Indes Orien- 
talesy i, pp. 503-507. The price at which the Dutch bought cloves 
from the natives (in 1599) is there stated at fifty-four reals of 
eight. The extent of the crop is thus stated : " According to 



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292 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

tra, where there is much merchandise. He is an 
enemy of ours, as well as he who attacked Malaca in 
the year 16, and burned a galleon of the four which 
were awaiting Don Juan de Silva. Soon afterward 
seven Dutch galleons arrived to aid him, and burned 
the other three. Malaca is a very important place, 
and it is very necessary that your Majesty should 
preserve it, as it is the passage to all the kingdoms 
and districts of that archipelago of San La^aro, 
where there is so much wealth. 

Chapter V . Of the expense incurred by your Maj- 
esty to maintain the fortified posts of Tidore and 
Terrenate in the Malucas Islands. 
I said in the second part of this relation that the 
reenforcements of money and men which are brought 
from Nueva Espafia to the Filipinas were not to 
preserve those islands, but were occasioned by the 
war with the Dutch. I shall now set down here a 
memorandum of the expenses of those forts, without 
the many other requisites. 

Relation of the salaries and expenses which your 
Majesty has to pay in the Malucas Islands 

Pesos 
A warden and commander of the troops, 
with two thousand ducados of salary each 
year, which at eleven reals to the ducado, 
makes 2757 pesos, 2 tomins, and 9 granos . 2U757 

what the inhabitants of Ternate say, the Molucca Islands produce 
annually the following quantity of cloves: the islands of Ternate 
and Tidore, each 1,000 bares; Bassian Island, 2,000 bares; and 
Motier Island, 600 or 700 bares." Crawfurd sa)^ {Diet. Indian 
Islands, p. 103) : " In England, before the discovery of the pas- 
sage by the Cape of Good Hope, a pound of cloves cost 30.y., or 
168/. per cwt." 



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1620-1621] MEMORIAL Y RELACION 293 

Pesos 

Seven captains of Spanish infantry, with ' 

990 pesos of salary a year, amounting to . 6U930 

Seven alferezes of these companies, with 
412 pesos, 4 tomins of salary each per year. 2U887 

Seven sergeants, with 206 pesos, 2 tomins, 
apiece each year, amounting to. . . 1U443 

Fourteen drummers, at 171 pesos each 
per year, amounting to ... . 2U394 

Seven fifers, at 165 pesos a year, amount- 
ing to. . 1U155 

Seven shield-bearers, at 103 pesos each, 
amounting to . . . , . . 0U721 

Seven standard-bearers, at 115 pesos per 
year each, amounting to . . . . 0U815 

Two adjutant sargentos-mayor, with 412 
pesos, 4 tomins, each per year, amounting 
to 0U825 

A campaign captain, at 330 pesos of sal- 
ary per year 0U330 

A captain of artillery, with a salary of 
480 pesos per year 0U480 

A constable for land and sea, with 300 
pesos per year. . . . . . 0U300 

Twenty artillerymen for land and sea, at 
200 pesos each per year, amounting to. . 4U000 

There are continually 600 soldiers, and 
at times more, seldom less. These usually 
earn 115 pesos per year, amounting to 
69U000 pesos . . . . . . 69U000 

Of this number 140 are musketeers, who 
get 36 pesos each per year beside their ordi- 
nary salary, amounting to 5040 pesos. . 5U040 

Thirty ducados of eleven reals each as 



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294 



THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 



[VoL 19 



extra pay to each company each month, 
amounting to 2520 ducados, which makes 
3465 pesos. 

Twenty-eight squadron leaders, with 
three pesos of extra pay each month, 
amounting in a year to 1008 pesos 

One accountant of the royal exchequer, 
with a salary of 800 pesos per year, and 50 
f anegas of cleaned rice .... 

One superintendent of supplies and muni- 
tions, with 500 pesos of salary and rations. 

One secretary of mines and registries, 
who serves on a salary of a major official of 
the office of accounts, with 400 pesos ; and 
one minor official with 150, which amount 
to 

Two secretaries, one of war and one of 
magazines, with 200 pesos apiece per year 
of salary, and rations for the magazines 
secretary . 

One engineer and one surgeon, with 600 
pesos each year, amounting to 1200 pesos. 

Two Pampango captains, with 120 pesos; 
two ensigns, with 96 pesos; two sergeants, at 
72 pesos; four drummers, two fifers, two 
shield-bearers, two standard-bearers, at 48 
pesos each ; and 200 soldiers, at 48 pesos of 
salary per year, amounting to 10717 pesos. 

A Spanish smith, with a salary of 300 
pesos per year, and one Indian with 48 
pesos; another, with 42 pesos; ten others, 
with 30 pesos; one keeper of arquebuses, 
with 42 pesos and all his rations, which will 



Pesos 

3U465 
1U008 

0U800 
0U500 



0U550 

0U400 
1U200 



10U717 



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1 620162 1 ] 



MEMORIAL Y RELACION 



295 



Pesos 
be mentioned in their place, amounting in 
money to 732 pesos 0U732 

Two Spanish carpenters and 20 Indians - 
the Spaniards with 300 pesos each per year, 
and the 20 Indians at 48 pesos and their ra- 
tions - the money amounting to 1560 pesos. 1U560 

One Spanish stonecutter, with 300 pesos ; 
and twelve Indians at 24 pesos, amounting 
yearly to 588 pesos ^ 0U588 

Two calkers and one cooper, Spaniards, 
at 300 pesos each per year, amounting to 
900 pesos . . . . . . . 0U900 

A hundred Indian pioneers, at 48 pesos 
each per year and rations, amounting to 
4800 pesos 4U800 

An alguazil of the royal exchequer, at 
150 pesos per year . . . . . 0U150 

Ten religious, of the Society of Jesus and 
the Order of St. Francis, and the vicar, at 
100 pesos; and thirty fanegas of rice each, 
the money amounting to 1000 pesos. . lUooo 

Commander, captains, pilot, masters, and 
other officials of the two galleys, besides 
rations, have each year in salaries 5643 
pesos, 4 tomins 5U643 

Four substitutes,*^^ who are about the per- 
son of the governor of those islands, at 30 
ducados of eleven reals per month each, 
amounting each year to . . . . 1U980 

Each year presents are taken to the king, 
his son, and the chiefs, worth 2000 pesos. 2U000 

•^^ Spanish, entretenidos ; persons who were performing certain 
duties, in hope of obtaining permanent positions, or waiting for 
vacancies to occur in certain posts. 



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296 



THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 



[Vol. 19 



The hospitals expend each year in medi- 
cines, food, cloth, and service more than 
1 0000 pesos 

There must be used powder, balls, iron, 
steel, pikes and boats for minor service, 
costing for their manufacture or construc- 
tion more than loooo pesos. 

The expenses of the vessels which bring 
reenf orcements ; the galleys which are kept 
there; the salaries of the captains, pilots, 
masters, officers, and sailors; the careen- 
ing; and other smaller expenses for their 
construction and voyages, amount each year 
to more than 40000 pesos. 

A purveyor, who is present in the prov- 
ince of Pintados, earns each year 700 pesos 
of salary; and there are others - commis- 
sioners, a storekeeper, and a secretary -in 
all amounting to 1300 pesos per year. 

The rice, wine, meat, fish, vegetables, and 
other minor articles used by the persons 
who are supplied with rations -as are the 
sailors, artillerymen, carpenters, smiths, 
pioneers, commanders, and rowers of the 
galleys; the religious, and others -will 
amount in Terrenate to more than twenty 
thousand pesos per year. 



Pesos 



loUooo 



loUooo 



40U000 



1U300 



20U000 



218U372 



Beside what has been mentioned, attention must 
be given to what has been spent on the fleets which 
have been collected since the year one thousand six 
hundred and six, when Don Pedro de Acuna re- 



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16201621] MEMORIAL Y RELACION 297 

covered it -both in ships and on casting [of artil- 
lery], soldiers' hire, and that which has been lost at 
different times, which has amounted to a large sum 
each year; and little or no income has been secured 
from the Malucas, for in nine years they have not 
brought in 20U pesos. This has been due to negli- 
gence ; for if there had been a faithful administrator 
posted there, and his accounts had been audited, and 
affairs had been orderly and regular (as they are 
with the enemy), your Majesty might have secured 
[sufficient] profit to maintain those forces without 
expending anything from your royal exchequer, as 
you now do. The same argument applies from now 
on. On this account it is very important to your 
royal service either that correction be applied to 
this, or that some means be considered, which it does 
not appear to me expedient to place in this relation, 
to spare your Majesty so great an expense. When 
those islands are secure from the Dutch enemy, your 
Majesty will suffer no expense, and will be able to 
further the working of the above-mentioned mines 
which lie near Manila. From them, with the favor 
of God, so great wealth may be looked for as will 
suffice to clear your Majesty from debt, and this can 
be accomplished in no other way; for with the ordi- 
nary practice, which has prevailed thus far, there is 
no more hope than for a sick man declared past re- 
covery, to whom the physicians give no remedies, 
and whom they declare to be at the end of his life. 



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BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DATA 

The documents of the present volume are from 
various sources (all manuscript except No. 9). 
The following are from the Archivo general de In- 
dias, Sevilla: 

1. Reforms needed.- Sec Bibliographical Data, 
VOL. XVIII, No. 12. 

2. Decrees ordering reforms of religious- " Au- 
diencia de Filipinas; registros de oficios y partes; 
reales ordenes dirigidas a las autoridades y particu- 
lares del distrito de la Audiencia; anos 1605 a 1645; 
est 105, caj. 2, leg. 12." 

3. Compulsory service.- " Simancas ~ Eclesias- 
tico ; Audiencia de Filipinas ; cartas y expedientes de 
religiosos misioneros de Filipinas vistos en el Con- 
sejo; anos 1617 a 1642; est. 68, caj. i, leg. 38." 

4. Letter fro m Audiencia.- " Simancas - Secular ; 
Audiencia de Filipinas; cartas y expedientes del 
presidente y oydores de dicha Audiencia vistos en al 
Consejo; anos 1607 ^ 1626; est. 67, caj. 6, leg. 20." 

5. Letter from F^^;W^/o.~ " Simancas- Secular; 
Audiencia de Filipinas; cartas y expedientes del go- 
bernador de Filipinas vistos en el Consejo; anos 1600 
a 1628 ; est. 67, caj. 6, leg. 7." 

The following are obtained from MSS. in the Real 



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300 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol 19 

Academia de la Historia, Madrid; all are in the col- 
lection '^ Papeles de los Jesuitas:" 

6. Letter to Escovar- " Tomo 129, num. 153." 

7. Relation of idlQ-BO-^' Tomo 112, num. 55." 
The following is from the Archivo Historico Na- 

cional, Madrid:^ 

8. Letter to Fajardo- ^^ Cedulario Indico, tomo 
38, folio loi, num. 80." 

9. Memorial^ y relacion para sv magestad (Ma- 
drid, 1621), by Hernando de los Rios Coronel.- This 
is translated and synopsized from the copy in the Li- 
brary of Congress. 



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BUYING AND SELLING PRICES OF 
ORIENTAL PRODUCTS 



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APPENDIX: BUYING AND SELLING 
PRICES OF ORIENTAL PRODUCTS 

[The first list of prices that follows is from a com- 
pilation by the procurator of the Philippines, Mar- 
tin Castanos, and is taken from a relation of Gov- 
ernor Juan de Silva entitled:] 

Relation of the importance of the Filipinas and 

Terrenate 
The Malucas Islands yield from year to year four 
thousand four hundred bars of cloves. Each bar is 
six hundred and forty libras. If his Majesty would 
make himself master of this, as well as of the nut- 
meg and mace, and establish his factories - in Yndia, 
in Ormuz,''^ for the nations who come from all Asia 
to trade for it; and in Lisboa, for Europa and the 
Yndias - it would be worth [from one year to an- 
other?] three million seven hundred pesos at the 
least, as I reckon it; because iv\. India each libra of 

'^^The ancient city of Ormuz was on the mainland, but was 
removed to the opposite island, Jenin, because of repeated Tartar 
attacks. Its fame almost rivaled that of Venice from the end of 
the thirteenth to the seventeenth century. It was owned by the 
Portuguese during 1507- 1622, when it was taken by Shah Abbas, 
with the aid of the English East India Company. It was next to 
Goa the richest of Portuguese possessions. See Voyage of Pyrard 
de Laval (Hakluyt Society's publications, London, 1888), li, p. 
238, notes I and 2. 



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304 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

cloves is worth at Ormuz one peso, and in Lisboa a 
greater sum, while in the West Yndias it is worth 
more than two pesos.'^ Averaging them all together, 
it will be equivalent to ten reals per libra, which 
will amount to three million five hundred and twenty 
thousand pesos. ... It will cost his Majesty to 
buy the cloves, in cloth, silks, and other things which 
the natives value, eighty thousand pesos; while the 
navigation and the pay of the factors will amount to 
one hundred and twenty thousand, all amounting to 
two hundred and thirty thousand pesos. Conse- 
quently, there will be a clear profit on the cloves of 
three million two hundred and ninety thousand pesos. 

The nutmegs and mace when delivered in Europa 
cost the Dutch five hundred and twenty thousand 
pesos annually. The purchase, navigation, and [pay 
of] factors amount to one hundred and ten thousand 
pesos. Consequently, the net gain on the nutmeg 
and mace is four hundred and ten thousand pesos. 
That added to the profit of the cloves amounts to 
three million seven hundred thousand pesos. 

His Majesty can make a profit of two millions 
annually on the silks of China in this way -that a 
ship of two hundred toneladas' burden go each year 

^^ The editors of Voyage of Pyrard de Laval (ii, p. 357, note) 
say of the clove : " It is curious that this spice seems not to have 
been known to the Romans, nor to any Europeans till the discovery 
of the Moluccas by the Portuguese." Duarte Barbosa, in East 
Africa and Malabar (Stanley's trans., Hakluyt Society edition, 
London, 1866), pp. 219-220, quotes cloves from Maluco as worth 
per bahar in Calicut 500 and 600 f anoes ; and, when clean of husks 
and sticks, 700 f anoes, 19 f anoes being paid as export duty. At 
Maluco they were worth from one to two ducats per bahar, and in 
Malacca as much as fourteen. Captain John Saris (see Satow's 
edition of Voyage of Capt, John Saris, Hakluyt Society publica- 
tions, p. 33) bought cloves for ** 60 rials of 8 per Bahar of 200 
Cattyes.'' 



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i620«i62i] PRICES OF ORIENTAL PRODUCTS 305 

with the ships from Filipinas to Nueva Espana, 
with these silks, which cost the following prices. 

One thousand picos of spun and raw silk of Chan- 
guei,**^ each pico containing one hundred and thirty 
libras, and costing two hundred pesos, amount to 
two hundred thousand pesos. 

Ten thousand pieces of Canton satin, at a cost 
of five pesos, amount to fifty thousand pesos. 

Ten thousand pieces of damask, at four pesos, 
amount to forty thousand pesos. 

Twenty thousand pieces of gorgoran, at a cost of 
one and one-half pesos, amount to thirty thousand 
pesos. 

Thirty thousand varas of velvet in colors, at one- 
half peso, amount to fifteen thousand pesos. 

These silks cost three hundred and thirty- five thou- 
sand pesos. They will, with the condescension of his 
Majesty, be taken to Peru (as is done, that other 
silks of China may not be taken from Nueva Es- 
pana), and are sold at Lima at the following prices. 

Each libra of silk of the quality named in the first 
item, at fifteen pesos, the one thousand picos amount- 
ing to one million nine hundred and fifty thousand 
pesos. 

Each piece of Canton satin at fifty pesos, the ten 
thousand pieces amounting to five hundred thousand 
pesos. 

Each piece of damask at forty pesos, the ten thou- 
sand pieces amounting to four hundred thousand 
pesos. 

Each piece of gorgoran at ten pesos, the twenty 
thousand pieces amounting to two hundred thousand 
pesos. 

^^ See Satow's Voyage of Capt, John Saris ^ ut supra^ pp. 224, 
225, 228, 229, for names and prices of various kinds of silks. 



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306 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

Each vara of velvet at four pesos, the thirty thou- 
sand varas amounting to one hundred and twenty 
thousand pesos. 

Taking from this amount the three hundred and 
thirty-five thousand pesos that those goods cost in 
China, and eight hundred and thirty-five thousand 
pesos for the cost of factors and of navigation, and 
whatever else their handling may cost, there is a 
net gain of two million pesos. 

In that way his Majesty can obtain every year from 
Filipinas five million seven hundred thousand pesos 
net, after deducting the entire cost. 

[The following list is from an undated memorial 
of probably the early seventeenth century which 
treats of the merchandise that the Portuguese were 
wont to take from China to Japan. The memorial 
first defines the value of certain coins and weights 
and measures.] 

First, the tae is equivalent to a ducado of ten reals 
of gold or silver; a maz is equal to one of our reals. 
One maz is equivalent to ten conderins; each con- 
derin being valued at six maravedis, is divided into 
ten caxes^ each cax [x.^., cash] being a round brass 
coin half the size of a half cuarto "^^ pierced with four 
holes, and with certain characters around the edge. 
One hundred of them make one maz; and it is the 
only coin that is stamped with a die, for all the others 
circulate by weight. 

Ranquel are ten pieces of plate or crockery-ware. 

Pico is equivalent to one quintal, but has one 
arroba more than ours. Gate is a weight of twenty 
onzas. 

^^ Cuarto : a copper coin worth four maravedis. 



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16201621] PRICES OF ORIENTAL PRODUCTS 307 

The ship of the Portuguese carries from five to 
six hundred picos of white untwisted silk. It costs 
at Canton eighty taes per pico delivered in Macan, 
and is sold in Xapon for one hundred and forty or 
one hundred and fifty taes. 

Laden with retros (the fine red silk), of four or 
five hundred picos of all colors, at a cost of one hun- 
dred and forty taes, it is sold in Xapon at three hun- 
dred and seventy and sometimes four hundred taes. 

The common assorted retros costs from fifty-five 
to sixty taes in Canton, according to its quality, and 
is sold in Xapon for one hundred taes. 

The silk of the darca^ of all colors, is worth forty 
taes in Canton, and is sold by the libra in Xapon at 
nine mages per cate. 

The said ship will also carry from one thousand 
seven hundred to two thousand pieces of a certain 
silk worked with birds, and other pictures done in 
silk and unwoven silver.*^* Each piece is worth up to 
eleven mages, and the fine ones up to fourteen. They 
have seven, eight, and nine gaxos, and they are sold 
in Xapon for about two and one-half or three taes 
apiece. 

It will take three or four thousand taes of gold. 
The tae of common gold is worth about four or five 
mages per tae, and it is sold in Xapon for seven taes 
and eight mages. 

Fine gold is worth in Canton six taes six mages, 
and seven taes per tae of common gold. It is sold 
in Xapon for eight taes and three mages. 

Moreover, two picos of musk will be taken. It 

^^ Saris {Voyage^ pp. 216, 225) mentions the following Chinese 
goods : " Veluet Hangings imbroydered with gold, eighteene Rialls ; 
vpon Sattins, fourteene Rials." " Imbrodered Hangings, called 
Poey, the best ten Rials the piece." 



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3o8 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

costs eight reals per cate in Canton, and is sold in 
Xapon at fifteen and sixteen, according to its quality. 

It will carry about five hundred picos of white 
lead. It costs at Canton two taes and seven maces per 
pico; and, delivered at Macan, three. It is sold in 
Xapon for six and one-half and seven taes. The 
Japanese use a considerable quantity of it. . . It 
is brought refined from there and is carried by way 
of Yndia to Portugal, where each ba[r?] is worth 
six [mages?] seven conderins. 

The ship will carry, moreover, two hundred or 
three hundred picos of cotton thread. It costs seven 
taes per pico delivered in Macan, and is sold in 
Xapon for sixteen, seventeen, and eighteen. 

It will carry three thousand gangalas [/.^., pieces 
of buckram], which are pieces of cotton, most of them 
white, while the rest are black and in colors. They 
cost various prices, the large pieces costing twenty- 
eight taes per hundred. It is sold in Xapon at fifty 
and fifty-four taes per hundred. These gangalas 
are made of cotton. Those from Lanquin [^^., Nan- 
kin], which are half cotton and half raw silk, are 
worth one tae three mages per piece of ten varas. 
Other smaller ones cost twelve taes per hundred in 
Canton, and are sold in Xapon for twenty-three and 
twenty-four. The red ones cost eight and one-half 
taes, and are sold for sixteen and seventeen taes. 

The ship will carry one hundred and fifty or two 
hundred picos of quicksilver. It costs forty taes at 
Canton, and fifty-three delivered at Macan. It is 
sold in Xapon for ninety and ninety-two, and at times 
for less than ninety. 

It will also carry two thousand picos of lead, at a 
cost of three taes per pico delivered in Macan. It is 



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1620-1621] PRICES OF ORIENTAL PRODUCTS 309 

sold in Xapon for six taes four mages, and the money 
doubled. 

It will a.lso carry five or six hundred picos of tin. 
I do not remember its buying or its selling price. 

It will carry besides five or six hundred picos of 
China-wood," at a cost per pico of one tae or twelve 
mages. It is sold for four or five taes in Xapon, and 
the money doubled. 

It will carry about two thousand ranquels of 
crockery-ware at the very least. These goods are 
bought in Canton at many prices, and the money 
doubled two or three times in Xapon. 

It will carry one hundred picos of rhubarb, which 
costs two and one-half taes, and is sold for five, thus 
doubling the money. 

It will also carry one hundred and fifty picos of 
licorice. It costs delivered in Macan three taes per 
pico, and is sold in Xapon for nine or ten taes per 
pico, thus tripling the money. 

It will also carry about sixty or seventy picos of 
white sugar. It costs fifteen mages per pico, and is 
sold in Xapon for three and four and one-half taes. 
However, little of it is used, and the Japanese prefer 
the black. The latter kind costs from four to six 
ma^es in Macan, and is sold for four, five, or six 
taes per pico in Xapon. It forms an excellent mer- 
chandise, and the ship will carry one hundred and 
fifty or two hundred picos of it. 

The captain of the ship will ask, for carrying the 
silk, ten per cent; and in order that the freight on 

**^ Spanish, palo de China; also known as " China root;" the root 
of Smilax china. It is not now used, but formerly had great repute 
for the cure of venereal diseases as well as for gout. Linschoten 
has a long account of its virtues and mode of use, in Voyage 
(Hakluyt Society's edition), ii, pp. 107-112; see also i, p. 239. Cf. 
Pyrard de Laval's Voyage^ i, p. 182. 



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3IO THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol 19 

the remainder of the merchandise may not be raised, 
five hundred dead taes are given him, besides sixty 
picos sold at its value there per pico. That which is 
sold, and all the bulk of the silk that is unsold, and 
the five hundred taes are given him beforehand; 
while on the other merchandise mentioned above he 
is given ten per cent. 

The said ship takes, on its return to Yndia, the 
aforesaid merchandise of loose white silk - one thou- 
sand picos at the abovesaid prices. They are sold in 
Yndia at about two hundred cruzados ^^ per pico. 

It will carry about ten or twelve thousand pieces 
of silk damasks and taffetas of all shades, bought at 
different prices. The common price of the fine pieces 
of damask is five taes, and the very fine, six and seven; 
and the pieces are four varas long. There are also 
some at four taes. These damasks are also sold at 
various prices. The greater part of them are sold 
among the natives. The same is to be said of the 
pieces of taffeta as to their purchase and sale. 

It will carry three or four picos of gold, bought 
in the manner aforesaid. A profit of eighty or ninety 
per cent is also made on this among the natives. 

It will carry five or six hundred picos of wrought 
and unwrought brass. The money invested in this is 
doubled. It is used among the natives. 

It will carry six or seven picos of musk, which is 
used by the people of the country. The money will 
be gained once and a half over. 

It will carry one hundred picos of quicksilver, 
which will gain seventy or eighty per cent. 

It will carry five hundred picos of vermilion, 
which will gain as much as the quicksilver. 

^® The cruzado was an old coin of Castilla and PortugaL The 



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1620-1621] PRICES OF ORIENTAL PRODUCTS 31I 

It will carry two or three [hundred?] picos of 
sugar, and the money will be gained once and a half 
over. 

It will carry one or two thousand picos of China- 
wood, the money invested for which will be increased 
two or three times. 

It will carry two thousand picos of brass bracelets, 
which cost five taes six mages, and seven taes per 
pico delivered in Machan. The money is doubled. 
They are used in Bengala. 

It will carry about two hundred picos of camphor, 
which goes to Portugal. 

It carries a considerable quantity of earthenware 
of all sorts. The money is gained once and a half 
over. 

It carries a great number of gilded beds, tables, 
and writing desks. 

Much fine colored unwoven silk. It costs eighteen 
and nineteen mages and two taes per cate. Some of 
the gilded beds are generally sold for three or four 
hundred cruzados. It carries many coverlets worked 
on frames; canopies, bed-curtains, and hangings; 
short cloaks of the same handiwork, made by the same 
Chinese; besides other trifles, and many gold chains 
exquisitely wrought. 

The Portuguese pay duties at Malaca of seven and 
one-half per cent on the merchandise which they 
carry from China, without selling or unloading any- 
thing in that city. 

They pay two or three thousand cruzados at 
Zeylao [/.^., Ceylon] for the support of the garrison 

Castilian coin was of gold, silver, or copper, and of different 
values. The Portuguese coin, evidently the one of our text, was 
worth ten reals de vellon in Spain. See Dice, nacional , . . 
de la lengua Espanola (Madrid, 1878). 



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312 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

Stationed there. For that purpose two or three fustas 
go to the ship and take it, in spite of itself, to the 
port, whence it does not sail until it pays that sum. 
The reason given by the captain of that fort is, that 
the viceroy of Goa discounts that money from the 
duties. The same is done with the ships which come 
from Bengala, as well as from all other parts from 
which it is necessary to pass that island (which is the 
island for cinnamon) in order to get to Goa. They 
pay eight and one-half per cent at Goa, both for en- 
trance and for clearance; and the same is true at 
Malaca, going and coming to [India?] But they 
do not pay in [Macan?] because they return thither. 

When the ship sails from Goa to China, it carries 
silver in money and in wrought pieces (as I saw) , of 
these two or three thousand; ivory, velvet from Es- 
pana and other places, and fine scarlet cloth Igrana'] ; 
one hundred and fifty or two hundred pipes of wine; 
about six other pipes of oil; also olives, and capers. 
One is surprised at the cheapness of these things in 
Machan since they are brought from Espana to Goa, 
and thence to China, a distance of more than one 
thousand leguas. What most surprised me was to 
see that a cuarto of wine is worth one real, which is 
about its worth in Lisboa. A jar of oil at eight or ten 
reals, or at the most twelve, is worth at Machan when 
it comes from Espana five, six, or eight pesos per 
botija, counting eight reals to the peso. A cuartillo 
of wine at four reals, is sold at little or nothing. The 
Portuguese say that they do not care to make their 
principal good in China, but to invest in China, as 
their interest lies in the investment. 

Ivory is sold to the Chinese at fifty taes per pico for 
the white and even ivory. It is understood that this 



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16201621] PRICES OF ORIENTAL PRODUCTS 313 

must be in exchange for other merchandise, and not 
for money or silver; for silver that enters China does 
not go out again except in merchandise. 

Velvet costs six or seven cruzados per codo in Goa. 
The codo is a palmo less than our vara. It is sold 
among the Portuguese at Machan for seven or eight 
taes, according to its quality. 

Grana costs five or six cruzados per codo at Goa, 
and even seven and eight. 

A pipe of wine is generally worth forty or fifty 
cruzados at Goa, and the fine and good wines ninety- 
five. However, the latter is not taken to China ; and 
that of the first-named price is sold in Machan, where 
it is worth eighty or ninety cruzados per pipe. 

One million of gold and upward enters China 
yearly through the Portuguese alone. 

The Portuguese pay anchorage at Machan accord- 
ing to the beam andlengthof their ships, and whether 
they enter light or laden. The length is measured 
from the mizzenmast to the bow, and the beam from 
edge to edge. According as the ship is larger or 
smaller it pays. The [standard of] measure is one 
candj and so much is paid for each measure. Con- 
sequently, a ship of three hundred toneladas will pay 
three or four thousand taes of silver. The Portuguese 
formerly paid the said anchorage in brasil-wood and 
in other merchandise which they carried; but for 
two or three years past they have had to pay it in 
silver. They do not like that as well as the other 
method. If, perchance, the ships have to lay up for 
the winter, even if they are the ships of the inhab- 
itants of Machan themselves, they have to pay with- 
out any remission. 



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314 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol 19 

Memorandum of the retail selling prices of wares in 

Canton 
The tae of fine gold is equivalent to seven of silver. 
One cate of musk is sold for eight taes. Raw silk at 
eight taes per pico. The contrary kind, or twisted 
silk [^sirguin]^ which is the best of the country, one 
hundred taes per pico. Good pieces of damask, seven 
taes; a piece contains fourteen varas. Other pieces 
of common silk, ten varas for one tae three mages. 
Vermilion, forty taes per pico. Copper, seven and 
eight taes [per pico]. Quicksilver, forty taes per 
pico. Herd-bells, eight mages per pico. White lead, 
two and one-half and three taes per pico. Cotton, 
eight taes per pico. Fine powdered vermilion, 
seventy mages per cate. One ranquel of fine porce- 
lain, one tae two mages ; fine dishes, fifteen mages per 
ranquel. Large fine dishes, five mages apiece. 
Medium quality earthenware is worth one and one- 
half mages per ranquel, both chinaware \^porcelana] 
and dishes. Fine pieces of taffeta of all colors, from 
Lanquin, each piece containing about twelve codos, 
are worth two and one-half and three taes. Large 
pieces of certain damasks, which contain sixteen 
varas, are worth twelve taes at the least and fifteen at 
the most. Common earthenware is worth less than 
one real per ranquel, either dishes or jars. Wheat is 
worth four mages per pico, and eight in flour. Rice 
is worth three and one-half and four mages per pico. 
One cow is worth four taes in Macan. One pico of 
flour, delivered in Macan, one tae two mages. Pork 
is worth two taes in Macan and one and one-half 
taes in Canton, per pico. Fowls, two taes per pico. 
One pico of salt fish, two taes and more - or less, ac- 
cording to the fish. Two cates of fresh fish, one con- 



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1620-1621] PRICES OF ORIENTAL PRODUCTS 3 15 

derin. One pico of sugar, two taes, or, at the least, 
one and one-half taes. One pico of the finest iron, 
which resembles a manteca^^^ is worth two taes, and 
in nails two and one-half and three taes. One pico 
of Chinese camphor is worth ten taes. One pico of 
cinnamon, three taes. Rhubarb, at two, two and one- 
half, and three taes; and there is an infinite amount 
of it in China. Pieces of thin, fine silk, which con- 
tain about twenty varas, are worth three and one- 
half and four taes. Red silk headdresses for women, 
four and five ma^es apiece. One pico of licorice, 
two and one-half taes. One pico of China-wood, at 
eight maces, and one tae. 

The merchandise brought by the Portuguese in 
their ships from the districts where they trade and 
traffic is as follows. 

First, they carry from Malaca to Goa a great 
quantity of cloves, nutmeg, and mace; also tin- 
which is the finest that is obtained from those parts, 
and which they also carry to China, for the tin of 
that country is not so fine. They carry tortoise-shell 
and many pearls. 

From Zeylao, a great quantity of cinnamon, the 
finest of diamonds, and other precious gems. 

From Bengala, abundance of very fine cotton; 
quantities of sugar and rock sulphur; and a quantity 
of rice - for which, if it were not for Bengala, Yndia 
would suffer. 

From Mozambique, ivory and brasil-wood. 

From Ormuz, which is in Persia, they bring ex- 
cellent horses, and very fine carpets; many larins,^® 

^^ So in the copy which we follow. Literally translated this is 
" butter/' which causes doubt as to the correctness of the copy. 

®** The larin was a silver coin that takes its name from the city 



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3l6 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 19 

each one a trifle smaller than one of our reals ; many 
clusters of dates; camlets/^ and many agras; and 
benecianos,^^ each of which is worth about one of our 
escudos of eleven reals. 

From the kingdom of Pegu, they carry a quantity 
of fine lac in loaves, and other things. 

From Siam, excellent silver, and arquebus-balls; 
much and very fine benzoin ; almond cakes ; a quan- 

of Lar in Persia. It has been current in a number of eastern coun- 
tries and districts, among them Persia, the Maldives, Goa, and the 
Malabar coast, Ceylon, and Kandy. It has gone out of circulation, 
although the name is preserved in certain copper coins at the Mal- 
dives. The ancient coin was of various shapes, that of the Mal- 
dives being about as long as the finger and double, having Arabic 
characters stamped on it; that of Ceylon resembled a fishhook; 
those of Kandy are described as a piece of silver wire rolled up like 
a wax taper. When a person wishes to make a purchase, he cuts oflE 
as much of this silver as is equal in value to the price of the 
article. Its probably first mention by an European writer occurs 
in the Lembrangas das Cousas de India (Subsidios iii, 53), in 
1525, where the following table is given: 2 fules = i dinar; 12 
dinars = i tanga; 3 tangas 10 dinars = i new larin; 3 tangas 9 
dinars = i old larin. At Cambaye (p. 38) i tanga larin = 60 
reis, and 45 larins weighed i Portuguese marco, or 50 grammes. 
Antonio Nunes (1554) in his Livro dos Pesos y says: "At the 
port of Bengala, 80 couries = i pone ; 48 pones = i larin. The 
Portuguese marco of the time of Joao III, being equivalent to 
2,500 reis, would make the larin worth 51,012 reis." Davy says 
that the larin of Kandy was worth about yd. in English currency. 
For detailed information about the larin, see Voyage of Pyrard 
de Laval, ut supra^ i, p. 232 and note 2 ; and ii, p. 68. 

®^ " Next, many watered camlets of Persia and Ormus, of all 
colours, made of the wool of large sheep that have not curled 
fleeces like ours. Of it they make also good store of cloaks and 
capes, called by the Indians Mansans, and by the Portuguese 
* Ormus cambalis ; ' they are made of the same wool, in bands of 
different colours, each four inches wide. Everyone takes these 
to sea for a protection from the rain. The tissue is the same as of 
cloth." It was called ** camlet," because made originally of cameFs 
hair. See ut supra, ii, p. 240. 

®^ The Venetian sequin, worth about 50 sols, which was silver 
money and circulated at Goa. Sec ut supra ^ ii, p. 69. 



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1620-1621] PRICES OF ORIENTAL PRODUCTS 317 

tity of oil of ginger, and of cocoa, and brasil-wood ; 
lead; and a quantity of rice. 

From Conchinchina, aguila-wood,^^ and another 
wood called calambac^^^ which is very valuable. It 
is black and contains oil, and is worth fifty cruzados 
among the Portuguese ; while in its own kingdom, it 
passes weight for weight with silver. [The ship also 
carries] lead, pepper, and some yellow silk. 

From the kingdom of Champa is brought the 
abovesaid wood, and it is even finer than that of 
Conchinchina. They carry another kind of black 
wood from which the Chinese make certain little 
sticks one cuarto [/.^., one-fourfh vara?] long with 
which they eat. This kingdom has nothing else [to 
trade]. 

From Cambay, they bring the finest incense that 

®^ Crawfurd {Diet, Indian Islands) says that this is the eagle- 
wood of Gommerce. Its name in Malay and Javanese is kalambak 
or kalambah, but it is also known in these languages by that of 
gahruy or kayu-gahru, gahru-wood, a corruption of the Sanscrit 
Agharu, This sweet-scented wood has been used immemorially as 
an incense throughout eastern countries, and was early introduced 
into Europe by the Portuguese. The perfumed wood is evidently 
the result of a disease in the tree, produced by the thickening of the 
sap into a gum or resin. The tree is confused with the aloes, but 
properly speaking has no connection with that tree ; and the word 
agila has been wrongly translated into " eagle " [see above 
" aguila"'\. The tree probably belongs to the order of Legumi- 
nosa. The best perfumed or diseased wood is found in the 
mountainous country to the east of the Gulf of Siam, including 
Camboja and Cochinchina. Castenheda says that at Campar, on 
the eastern side of Sumatra, are " forests which yield aloes-wood, 
called in India Calambuco (kalambak). The trees which pro- 
duce it are large, and when they are old they are cut down and the 
aloes-wood taken from them, which is the heart of the tree, and the 
outer part is agila. Both these woods are of great price, but espe- 
cially the Calambuco, w^hich is rubbed in the hands, yielding an 
agreeable fragrance; the agila does so when burned." See Craw- 
furd, ut supra, pp. 6, 7, and Yule*s Cathay, ii, p. 472, note i. 

®* Calambac : the kalambac, or normal form of the wood called 
agila, is evidently meant here; see preceding note. 



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3l8 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol 19 

those districts furnish. It is worth three taes per 
pico. They bring it from Far, which is Arabia the 
Blest [la Felice']^ and also from the island of Sama- 
tra, which the Portuguese call by another name 
Dachen. 

From Timor, white sandal wood, which grows in 
no other part, while they bring the red from Santo 
Tome. 

From Borney they bring camphor, which is the 
best which is usually found. It passes in its own king- 
dom weight for weight with silver. They also bring 
a great quantity of wood of the same tree for tables 
and writing desks, and it is very beautiful and sweet- 
smelling. 

From the islands of Ternate, Tidore, and three or 
four others, the spice of the clove. 

From the island of Banda, and from other islands, 
nutmeg and mace. From the same island they bring 
certain very beautiful birds which have no feet or 
claws. They have a very long tail with very beauti- 
ful feathers, and resemble young herons. 

From Xapon a great quantity of silver; [abun- 
dance?] of tunny-fish; certain catans (which resem- 
ble cutlasses, and are very large), and daggers 
wrought very richly in gold; and other things. 

From Sunda and many other places they bring 
various other articles. The Spaniards take from the 
Philipinas many pieces of cotton of very fine quality, 
and many pieces of various-colored damask; all kinds 
of taffeta, in greater or less quantity; much spun and 
loose silk of all colors ; a great quantity of earthen- 
ware -which, together with the silk, is all brought to 
Manila by the Chinese themselves, who also bring a 
great amount of gold, wrought and unwrought, and 



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16201621] PRICES OF ORIENTAL PRODUCTS 319 

of different carats. The following are the names of 
the gold in the Philipinas and their carats: first, 
gold of ariseisy of twenty-three carats three granos, 
and worth per tae in the said islands, nine eight-real 
pesos; gold of guinogulan^ of twenty carats, worth 
seven pesos ; gold of orejerasy of eighteen or nineteen 
carats, and worth five and one-half pesos per tae; 
gold of linguirij of fourteen or fourteen and one-half 
carats, and worth four or four and one-half pesos; 
gold of bislin, of nine or nine and one-half carats, and 
worth three pesos; gold of malubayy of six or six and 
one-half carats, and worth one and one-half and two 
pesos.^** 



^^ See VOL. IV, pp. 99, 100. 

All the old books of voyages of eastern countries contain much 
on the buj^ing and selling prices of various commodities. See 
especially the notable Hakluyt Society publications. 



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" We cannot thoroughly understand our own history, local or National, without some knowledge 
of these routes of trade and war."— 7"A^ Outlook. 



The Historic Highways of America 

by Archer Butler Hulbert 

A series of monographs on the History of America as portrayed in the evo- 
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III__VVashington*s Road: The First Chapter of the Old French War. 
IV — Braddock's Road. 
V— The Old Glade (Forbes's) Road. 
VI — ^Boone's Wilderness Road. 
VII — Portage Paths: The Keys of the Continent. 
VIII— Military Roads of the Mississippi Basin. 
IX — ^Waterways of W^estward Expansion. 
X — ^The Cumberland Road. 
XI, XII— Pioneer Roads of America, two volumes. 
XIII, XIV— The Great American Canals, two volumes. 
XV — The Future of Road-Making in America. 
XVI— Index. 

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