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Full text of "The Philippine islands, 1493-1803 : explorations by early navigators, descriptions of the islands and their peoples, their history and records of the Catholic missions, as related in contemporaneous books and manuscripts, showing the political, economic, commercial and religious conditions of those islands from their earliest relations with European nations to the beginning of the nineteenth century"

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THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

1493-1898 



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The PHILIPPINE 
ISLANDS 1493-1898 

Explorations by Early Navigators, Descriptions of the 
Islands and their Peoples, their History and Records of 
the Catholic Missions, as related in contemporaneous 
Books and Manuscripts, showing the Political, Eco- 
nomic, Commercial and Religious Conditions of those 
Islands from their earliest relations with European 
Nations to the close of the Nineteenth Century 

TRANSLATED FROM THE ORIGINALS 

Edited and annotated by Emma Helen Blair and 
James Alexander Robertson, with historical intro- 
duction and additional notes by Edward Gaylord 
Bourne. With maps, portraits and other illustrations 

Foiume XXXI~i640 



The Arthur H. Clark Company 

Cleveland, Ohio 

MCMV 



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COPYRIGHT 1905 
THE ARTHUR H. CLARK COMPANY 



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CONTENTS OF VOLUME XXXI 

Preface 9 

Historia de la provincia del Sancto Rosario de 

la Orden de Predicadores (continued). 

Diego Aduarte, O.P.; Manila, 1640. . . 23 
Bibliographical Data 301 



165260 

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ILLUSTRATIONS 

Title-page of Htstoria de la provincia del Santo 
Rosario de Filipinas, tomo primero, by Diego 
Aduarte, O.P. (Zaragoga, 1693); photo- 
graphic facsimile from copy in library of 
Harvard University 21 

Map showing portions of Cochinchina and the 
Philippine Islands; photographic facsimile 
of Dutch parchment MS. map (in colors; 
undated, but of eighteenth century), in 
Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris. . 177 

Map of Ituy and other provinces in northern 
Luzon, ca. 1641 ; photographic facsimile from 
original MS. map in Archive general de 
Indias, Sevilla 289 



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PREFACE 

The present volume is devoted to a further install- 
ment of Aduarte's Historia, begun in VOL. xxx- 
which work will be completed in our next issue. 
The part here given covers the years 1596 to 1608 
in the history of the Dominican order in the Philip- 
pines. 

Resuming Aduarle's account of the missions 
carried on by his order among the Indians of Ca- 
gayan, in northern Luzon, the pious and devout acts 
of their converts, and the joy and gratitude of the 
religious thereat, are recounted at length. In 1596, 
news comes to the islands of the death of Bishop 
Salazar in Spain. Aduarte describes in detail the 
life, achievements, and virtues of that prelate. He 
was distinguished - not only in the Philippines, but 
during a long residence in Nueva Espana - as the 
friend and protector of the Indian natives. His mode 
of life was most simple and austere ; he was charitable 
and generous to the full extent of his limited means. 
By nature choleric and quick-tempered, he trained 
himself to patience and forbearance ; and the slanders 
of the evil-minded against him only roused his com- 
passion. He was public-spirited, and foremost in 
all enterprises for the good of the community. To 
him are attributed the royal grant to the Jesuits for 



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lO THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol. 31 

maintaining a school, and the establishment and 
much of the endowment of the hospital for sick In- 
dians. 

Bishop Salazar's journey to Spain enables him to 
secure for his cathedral important aid, and the divi- 
sion of his diocese, so that its manifold duties may 
be more satisfactorily performed; soon afterward, 
he dies at Madrid. During his absence, his see is 
directed by his vicar- general, Fray Christobal de 
Salvatierra, to an account of whose exemplary life, 
valuable labors, and apostolic virtues a chapter is 
devoted. He protects the Indians, and does much to 
reform the morals of the Spaniards. Among other 
things, he compels the Chinese to cease such of their 
theatrical performances as contain idolatrous and 
superstitious matter; and obliges the Spaniards to 
give up attendance at these comedies. It is he who 
begins the spiritual conquest of the Cagayan region, 
and he goes on other expeditions; and he assumes 
charge of the Bataan mission until missionaries come 
for that field. At his death, he appoints two Domini- 
cans to assume his duties as vicar-general; but they 
are so opposed by the ecclesiastical cabildo that they 
resign the office to the latter. Next comes a bio- 
graphical sketch of the younger Juan de Castro, 
who is assigned to the toilsome and difficult mission 
of Pangasinan. In December, 1593, he accompanies 
an embassy to China; on the return voyage, the ship 
is wrecked. Castro escapes to land, but soon after- 
ward dies as a result of the shock and exposure thus 
suffered. 

Aduarte recounts, with much detail, the expedi- 
tion of 1596 to Cambodia, which is accompanied by 
himself and another Dominican, Fray Alonso Xime- 



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i64o] PREFACE I i 

nez. Velloso's junk is driven ashore by a storm, 
and the men, after much privation and suffering, 
make it over into a shallow oared vessel, and row 
along the coast in search of water and inhabited 
places. When reduced to the last extremity, they ac- 
cidentally find fresh water, and thus are saved, finally 
making their way to a fort where some Cambojan 
soldiers are stationed. From these the Spaniards 
learn that the king who was friendly to them has 
been driven out by a usurper, and that one of their 
consorts in the Spanish fleet has reached that coun- 
try. They join this ship, and soon afterward, learn- 
ing that the king is plotting to destroy them all, and 
coming to blows with the Chinese traders who have 
come to Chordemuco, the Spaniards attack the Cam- 
bojans at night and defeat them, killing the usurper 
of that throne. The Spanish commander Gallinato 
arrives, and decides to return to Manila; but con- 
trary winds force them to land at Malaca, after 
twice encountering enemies. Nearly a year later, 
they succeed in reaching Manila, without other re- 
sult of their journey " but that of having suffered for 
the gospel." 

In 1596, Fray Bernardo de Santa Catharina is 
elected provincial; under his rule, the conversion of 
the natives greatly increases. A new band of mis- 
sionaries arrives soon afterward, most of whom go 
to the Cagayan field. In Cambodia Velloso and 
Bias Ruiz, Spanish adventurers, have aided the law- 
ful king to regain his throne, and they persuade him 
to send to Manila requesting soldiers and the return 
of the two Dominican friars. Luis Perez Das- 
marinas offers to make this expedition at his own 
cost, and Aduarte and Ximenez accompany him. A 



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12 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol. 31 

fierce storm scatters the ships; that of Dasmarinas 
is driven upon the coast of China, and that in which 
Aduarte sails is wrecked on one of the Babuyanes 
group. He sends word of this misfortune to Manila; 
the governor orders the Spaniards to proceed to 
China, on which coast they again suffer shipwreck, 
but find Dasmarinas - who has met a like disaster 
there, and is enduring great privations. Aduarte 
has meanwhile returned to Manila; but word of 
Dasmarinas's misfortune reaches that place, and 
Governor Tello sends him a ship with aid, and 
orders to return at once to Manila. Aduarte accom- 
panies this vessel. He goes to Canton, to obtain the 
viceroy's permission for Dasmarinas's return to Ma- 
nila; but there falls into the hands of a greedy and 
corrupt official, who, thinking to extort money from 
the friar, has him tortured. Finally, Aduarte is 
placed in prison with the Spanish sailors, but is soon 
bailed out by a Chinese friend. He makes his escape, 
and joins Dasmarinas; the latter returns to Manila, 
but Aduarte's health is so injured that he is obliged 
to halt at Macao. Fray Alonso Ximenez dies at that 
place, as a result of his hardships and sufferings in 
the Camboja expedition; a sketch of his life and 
virtues is given. 

In 1597 another mission arrives at the islands, with 
Bishop Benavides. The intermediate chapter of the 
Dominican province is in session, and the new arriv- 
als are therefore assigned to the needy missions; 
various incidents in those of Cagayan and Pangasi- 
nan are related. Biographical sketches of Antonio 
de Soria and other pioneer missionaries are given. 
Two of these are sent (1598) on a politico-religious 
mission to Camboja, with a Spanish officer named 



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1640] PREFACE 13 

Mendoza; they are attacked by Malays, and most 
of the Spaniards are slain. The rest escape to Siam, 
but are attacked there also, with further loss of life. 
Among the dead are the two Dominicans and Men- 
doza. 

At the chapter-session of 1600, Juan de Santo 
Thomas is elected provincial. The Cagayan mis- 
sions are extended further into the interior; and the 
religious zealously pursue and destroy any trace of 
idol-worship. At the intermediate chapter of 1602, 
the house of San Juan del Monte, without the city, 
is established as a retreat for convalescent brethren 
of the order. At that time occurs a miraculous heal- 
ing of a friar possessed by an evil spirit; also, a large 
band of missionaries arrives from Spain, being di- 
vinely aided to escape various dangers of pestilence 
and shipwreck. With these friars all the convents 
in the province are supplied, and some even go to 
Japan. Aduarte explains the reason for Dominican 
missionaries being called to that country, and de- 
scribes their first establishment, which is in Satsuma. 

In 1603 the new king of Camboja asks the Manila 
government for soldiers and missionaries. Three 
Dominicans are sent, with a few soldiers as guards, 
and letters to the king. They are well received; but 
two of them die, and the factions in that country and 
the fickleness of the natives induce the remaining 
friar to return to Manila. In April, 1604, occurs 
the great conflagration in Manila, and, in the suc- 
ceeding autumn, the revolt and massacre of the Chi- 
nese in and near that city -which have been fully 
described in previous volumes. 

At the chapter of 1604, Fray Miguel de San Ja- 
cinto is elected provincial, and several new churches 



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14 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol.31 

in heathen communities are received. These are 
supplied with ministers from a new company that 
arrives that year from Spain. Some account is given 
of the journey of these friars, with its hardships and 
dangers - among these being an attack made upon 
them by hostile Indians at Guadalupe Island, in 
which six friars are slain and three wounded. Many 
of these new missionaries are sent to the Cagayan 
missions - some to the Itaves Indians, who were con- 
sidered fierce and untamable by the Spaniards (some 
of whom, having oppressed the natives, were slain 
by them) until "the holy gospel declared by the 
Dominican religious changed them from blood- 
thirsty wolves to gentle sheep." Aduarte declares 
that wonderful results were thus achieved, render- 
ing those Indians moral and obedient, and achieving 
this entirely by kindness and gentleness. The In- 
dians even consent to change their abodes to the mis- 
sion reductions. The fathers are almost worn out 
by these tasks, and one dies; but they are encouraged 
by the wonderful results of their labor and by 
miracles which the Lord vouchsafes them. 

Aduarte presents a long biographical account of 
Archbishop Benavides, Salazar's immediate succes- 
sor. He is distinguished in Spain, both as a student 
and as an instructor. Coming to the Philippines, he 
immediately undertakes to learn the Chinese lan- 
guage, that he may minister to the men of that nation 
who come to Manila; and founds a hospital for the 
poor sick Chinese there. Benavides goes to China 
(as previously narrated), and afterward to Spain. 
There he does good service in refuting the opinion 
prevalent there that conquest must precede conver- 
sion, and soldiers clear the way for missionaries. He 



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1640] PREFACE 15 

also procures the recall of a papal brief authorizing 
the bishops to visit the friars in charge of the In- 
dians, the same as if they were parish priests; and 
accomplishes other important business, especially in 
behalf of the Indians, winning golden opinions of 
his abilities, good judgment, and virtue. Returning 
to the islands, Benavides takes charge of the diocese 
of Nueva Segovia, where he labors zealously for 
the moral improvement of the Spaniards, but most 
of all for the protection of the Indians from Spanish 
rapacity. After Salazar's death, Benavides takes 
charge of the vacant see, and is finally appointed 
archbishop; but his mode of life is always as simple 
and austere as that of the poorest friar, and he spends 
all his income in almsgiving. At his death, he be- 
queaths the little that he possesses to his brethren, 
for the founding of a college at Manila. Biograph- 
ical accounts of other friars are presented. One of 
these, Jacinto Pardo, dies suddenly, it is supposed 
from poison given him by hostile Indians. Another, 
Juan de la Cruz, is a notable linguist. 

In 1605, a papal brief (obtained by the Jesuits) 
forbids any religious to go to Japan except by way 
of India; but it is revoked three years later. This, 
in the interim, causes the friar orders much trouble; 
and Japan, moreover, is greatly unsettled and dis- 
turbed by various political matters. In 1606 an 
intermediate chapter is held at Manila, at which the 
religious of the order are directed to collect mate- 
rials (of which Aduarte has availed himself) for 
a history of the Dominican province. The great 
victory of Acuiia at Maluco, which occurs about that 
time, is ascribed to the agency of our Lady of the 
Rosary, to whom the Dominicans have a special de- 



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10 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol. 31 

votion; a confraternity in her honor had been 
founded in Acuna's army, and the captured town is 
dedicated to her. In this same year, another com- 
pany of religious arrives from Spain; one dies be- 
fore reaching Manila. At this time, a Dominican 
mission is established in the province of Hizen, 
Japan. 

In 1605 the mission in Pangasinan is extended to 
the village of Manaoag, farther inland; and, " with- 
in a few months, there was not a heathen in the vil- 
lage." A chief in a neighboring village is also con- 
verted, to whom a miracle occurs. In 1607, two new 
churches are established in Cagayan. In Nalfotan 
the Indians, led by their excellent chief, build a 
church even before a missionary is sent to them; and 
all is prospering when a priestess of the old idols 
stirs up the people against the new faith, and the 
villagers take to the hills. Later, they burn the 
church; but the good chief saves the missionary's 
life. Another revolt occurs in that province, caused 
by the cruelty of an encomendero. Troops are sent 
from Manila; their commander finds that the In- 
dians had cause for revolt, and sends the people of 
Nalfotan home with their pastor. This mission pros- 
pers, and the chief is its mainstay during his life - 
a function long continued by his pious sister. 

The provincial chosen in 1608 is Baltasar Fort. 
Some account is given of the persecution of Chris- 
tians in Japan; they are banished from Satsuma, 
but many find shelter in Nagasaki. The Dominicans 
accomplish much in Hizen. They also extend their 
missionary labors among the wild mountaineers of 
northern Luzon, gathering many scattered hamlets 
into larger villages, and converting many of their 



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164°] PREFACE I? 

heathen inhabitants. In Ituy they attempt to open 
a mission, but the Franciscans claim that as their 
territory; the Dominicans yield, but regret to see 
these Indians abandoned soon afterward by their 
Franciscan teachers. In 1609 the general of their 
order commands the provincials of the mission prov- 
inces to report every year the work and achievements 
of the missionaries, with information regardiag the 
numbers and condition of the order in each prov- 
ince. Several friars die in that year, of whom bio- 
graphical sketches are presented. Oneof these, Pedro 
Rodriguez, has rendered special and distinguished 
service in the hospital for Chinese at Manila. 

The Editors 
August, 1905. 



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HISTORIA DE LA PROVINCIA DEL 

SANCTO ROSARIO DE LA ORDEN 

DE PREDICADORES 

(Continued) 

By Diego Aduarte, O.P. ; Manila, 1640. 

Source: Translated from a copy of the above work in the 
possession of Edward E. Ayer, Chicago. 

Translation: This is made by Henry B. Lathrop, of the 
University of Wisconsin. The present instalment covers pp. 167- 
384 of boot i of the Historia (which will be concluded in vol. 
XXXII }. 



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^TOMO PRIMERO I 

A H18TORIA DE LA 
INCIA DEL SANTO ROj 

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HISTORY OF THE DOMINICAN PROV- 
INCE OF THE HOLY ROSARY 

BY FRAY DIEGO ADUARTE, O.P. 
{Continued) 

CHAPTER XXXVIII 

The advance made by the Indians of this province in 
virtue, and their attendance upon the sacraments 

Even if the religious in this province of Nueva 
Segovia had done no other good than bringing to an 
end or preventing so many sins of idolatry as these 
Indians used to commit, every day and every hour, by 
adoring the devil and offering him superstitious rev- 
erence in all the ways which have already been de- 
scribed, a very great service indeed would have been 
done to the Lord, to whom all such actions as these 
are directly offensive. In these idolatrous acts His 
honor is taken from Him, and His divine suprem- 
acy is overthrown and given to His greatest enemy. 
To prevent one of these offenses to God would be of 
much more merit than to prevent any homicide what- 
soever, for that is a direct offense only against a man ; 
while idolatry is directly against God, and takes from 
Him His divine honor, which is much more valuable 
than the life of a man. If this be true, how high is 
the merit of having prevented the innumerable acts 



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24 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol. 31 

of idolatry which used to be committed daily by those 
Indians, and having brought to an end the multitude 
of sins which followed upon this one - constant wars, 
murders, robberies, drunkennesses which surpassed 
one another, lewd actions, and all the other vices 
which were committed- without the rulers of those 
people concerning themselves the least in them or 
punishing them, except when they personally were 
wronged. And this they did, not out of zeal for jus- 
tice, but as their personal act of revenge, so that they 
sinned more in the excess of the punishment than the 
delinquents had sinned in the faults for which they 
were punished. Now all these evils came to an end, 
as the result of the preaching of the religious, to the 
great glory of God. Hence, if they had done no 
more than this, very great indeed would the service 
have been which thereby they wrought and continue 
to work for the Creator of all and the universal Lord. 
But this was not all ; for when these evil growths had 
been rooted out, there were planted in the hearts of 
these Indians the opposite virtues. By the aid of the 
Lord they began so soon to bear flowers and fruit 
that the first bishop of this province, Don Fray 
Miguel de Venavides, a holy and most learned prel- 
ate, wrote to his Holiness Clement VIII, who at 
that time governed the church, the following report, 
in which he gives a faithful account of the establish- 
ment of his bishopric, with the accuracy to which his 
office and dignity obliged him. " This province," he 
says, " is very new in the preaching of the gospel, for 
it is only three years since there were ministers of the 
Order of St. Dominic in it. Before that time there 
used to be seen now and then a priest in the place 
where the Spaniards lived. As for preaching to the 



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1640] ADUARTE'S HISTORIA 25 

Indians, there was no idea of such a thing. This 
province is very near Great China, being distant from 
it less than seventy leguas ; so that now the faith of the 
Lord appears to be approaching their powerful and 
great kingdom. The native race of the province is a 
very spirited one, whom it has cost the Spaniards 
many efforts and the lives of many men to suhdue. 
As soon as the Order of St. Dominic came into this 
region, they immediately went to live among the 
Indians; and they built their churches and houses, 
which were more like huts built to last two days. 
They employed upon them very few laborers, and 
had no teacher or journeymen. The Indians would 
have died before they admitted them to their vil- 
lages (and, as it was, there was some difficulty about 
it), if the good name of those who had been in Pan- 
gasinan had not reached these Indians also -who in 
this way learned how the religious treated the In- 
dians as if they were their own children, and de- 
fended them against those who wronged them. When 
they began to consider the mode of life followed 
by the religious, their patience and labors, their 
avoidance of flesh food, their many fasts, continual 
prayers, great poverty - for the poverty of the Order 
of St. Dominic here is very great -and the gentle- 
ness and love with which they treated the natives, 
God was pleased that in those villages where there 
are missionary religious, all the inhabitants desired 
to be Christians. They have not only become very 
devout toward God, but very friendly to the Span- 
iards; thus the religious have put peace and security 
where they were not before. As a result, in regions 
where soldiers and garrisons used to be necessary, 
there now are none, and the country is very peaceful. 



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26 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol.31 

Every evening the men gather together and recite 
prayers before a cross, which is usually set up in the 
plaza of the village, the women doing the same by 
themselves in another place. Baptisms in the heathen 
villages are constantly increasing, while those for 
whom there are not missionaries enough ask for them 
with all their hearts, and are so desirous to become 
Christians that we ought therefore to offer thanks to 
God. [Some chiefs invited the missionaries to their 
village, saying that they all wished to become Chris- 
tians. A Spaniard who had command in one village 
where they were building a church, directed the sol- 
diers to interfere with the work, which would have 
injured his private interests; but within a short time 
all those men died horribly. The fathers drive out 
devils from those who are possessed by them. It is 
only for lack of missionaries that the whole country 
is not filled with churches." 

The report is very short, and it is therefore neces- 
sary for us to expand upon it, making use of the 
reports of the founders and first missionaries them- 
selves. In addition to what has already been said, 
they report as follows. Great as was the labor of 
bringing these souls from darkness to light, they have 
come to understand their duties, worshiping the Lord 
with great devotion, and regularly attending His 
holy sacraments. They go beyond the command- 
ments of God and of His church to do additional 
works of devotion - especially the women, for they 
can more easily come to be instructed, and can more 
easily do what they are told, as they are less occupied 
than the men are with things to distract their minds 
and thoughts. Some of them are so devout that they 
walk always in the presence of God, doing nothing 



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i640] ADUARTE'S HISTORIA 27 

without an inward prayer to Him. In Tular, or 
Abulug, a village of more than a thousand inhabit- 
ants, in which there were more communicants than 
in the other villages, the religious taught many of 
them to strive to meditate every day upon some of 
the mysteries of the rosary. This was an exercise to 
which the first founder of the province, father Fray 
Juan de Castro, was very much given, and in which 
many of his disciples and subjects have followed him. 
Thus these Indians day by day meditate upon one 
after another of the fifteen mysteries of the rosary. 
Other Indians lay aside part of their daily food for 
charity. Bringing about these results requires from 
the minister much labor, teaching, assistance, perse- 
verance, and prayer; for without these there is very 
little or nothing that they can do of themselves, with- 
out books or any other guide to direct them. As it is, 
the Indians have advanced wonderfully - visiting 
and caring for their sick, especially when they are 
poor; taking discipline at night in their houses; fast- 
ing beyond what they are required; frequenting the 
churches; and offering their prayers at dawn and at 
evening. There were some of them who, at the very 
beginning of their Christian career, went through 
the fields looking for the little children of poor 
people who could not take them to town; and, bring- 
ing these to be baptized, they acted as their sponsors, 
making gifts to them afterward of swaddling-clothes 
or some such thing. Heavy as are the labors of the 
religious, their joy in them is still greater. 

Very great difficulty was found, at first, in bring- 
ing the Indians to confess. They regarded it as a 
shameful thing for them to report to the confessor 
all the evil things they had done and thought, and 



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28 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol. 31 

they also feared to give the religious power to annoy 
or blame them by means of their confession. " When 
a dozen persons were gathered together for their 
first confession, there was not one of them who was 
willing to begin, for everyone wished the other to 
make the experiment. At last the fathers summoned 
an Indian who came from Pangasinan, and who had 
longer been a Christian and was better acquainted 
with the fathers. The Indians asked him many ques- 
tions about the matter, all of which he answered well, 
encouraging them greatly; he told them that in his 
country the Christians confessed without any evil 
results following. At last one Indian woman, more 
courageous than the rest, ventured to go to make her 
confession where the father was patiently waiting in 
the church - commending the matter to God with all 
his heart, because it was very plain that the hesita- 
tion of the Indians was on account of the fear they 
felt. She confessed, went away very well satisfied, 
and, returning to the rest, told them what had hap- 
pened. They asked her a thousand new questions, 
especially if the father was angry when she told her 
sins, and whether he had scolded her. She answered 
' No,' and that, on the contrary, he had treated her 
very kindly and lovingly; so they all determined to 
make their confessions, and began them heartily." 
So they come now and make their confessions; and 
in general it is not necessary to summon them, for 
they anticipate the confessors, and sometimes even 
beg that their confessions may be heard, as a penance. 
They showed the greatest faith and sincerity in their 
confessions, striving to be reconciled with all their 
enemies before making their confession. The re- 



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1640] ADUARTE'S HISTORIA 29 

ligious generally encouraged them to make their con- 
fessions on the day of their patron saint; and one 
Indian woman, named for St. Anne, was unwilling 
to confess on that saint's day. When the father asked 
her the reason, she answered that she had had a 
quarrel with one of her neighbors, and that they did 
not speak to each other; and she begged the father to 
reconcile them. After he had done that, she very 
readily made her confession. It frequently happens 
that a man accused in a court of law denies the 
accusation, and that the religious is unable to draw 
anything else from him; while in confession the same 
man will clearly accuse himself of the same fault 
which he had previously denied, and will deny again 
if the same question is asked him on another trial. 
It not infrequently happens that if they have any 
ill-will against the religious, or have said anything 
against him, they confess to that very man, telling 
him of the ill-will that they have felt against him.] 

CHAPTER XXXIX 

The devotion with which these Indians approached 
the holy communion, and some events which give 
much glory to the Lord. 

[Since the most holy sacrament of the Eucharist 
is so high and difficult a thing to teach a people 
whose heathen state makes them opposed to ideas so 
lofty, the religious in this region spend a great deal 
of effort upon teaching the Indians this supreme 
mystery.] At first, only very few and very carefully 
chosen persons were admitted to the communion, 
according to the ordinance of a provincial council 



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30 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol. 31 

of Lima, confirmed by the Apostolic See, which in 
Act ii, chapter 20, says/ Preceptt sancta sinodus 
parochis, ceterisque Indorum praedicatortbus, ut 
saepe ac serto, de fide huius mysterii eos instituant\ 
and, later, Quos autem parochus, et satis instructus, 
et correctione vitae idoneos iudicaverit, its saltern in 
paschate, Eucharistiam administrare non praeter- 
mittat. It is true that the Indians of these regions 
have much greater capacity than those of Peru, of 
whom this council spoke; yet because they were so 
new in the faith, and so badly fitted by their ancient 
customs for this supreme mystery, the holy com- 
munion is not given to them indifferently at Easter, 
but is given to those whom the minister judges to be 
properly prepared. At the beginning, greater atten- 
tion and caution were necessary. Hence, after they 
had been thoroughly instructed in the mysteries of 
the faith, and in particular in the doctrine of this 
holy mystery, and when they showed a desire to 
receive the holy communion, they were examined as 
to their lives, habits, and reputation, the most cred- 
ible witnesses in the village being called in to testify. 
If they were found prepared, they were admitted to 
this supreme meal, to this holy table. A week before 
they communicated, unless they were occupied - and 
they generally gave up their occupations for this pur- 
pose - they went to church and heard spiritual ad- 
dresses every day. [On these days they prepared 
themselves with more than ordinary prayer, and rose 

' i.e., " The holy synod commands parish priests and other 
preachers to the Indians to instruct them often and earnestly in the 
doctrine of this mystery ; " and, " To those whom the parish priest 
shall regard as sufficiently instructed, and made fit by the correct- 
ness of their lives, he shall not fail to administer the holy euchanst, 
on the first Easter following." 



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1640] ADUARTE'S HISTORIA 3' 

at midnight to pray and to take their discipline. If 
they were married, they separated their beds at least 
on the eve and the day of the communion. Many of 
the men went to the convent, and followed the hours 
with the religious. On the day of receiving com- 
munion, they followed the same customs as did the 
members of our order, dedicating the whole day to 
God, and keeping in it the silence which we observe 
in our convents on the day when those religious who 
are not priests communicate. They were taught to 
say something after mass in order to give thanks to 
the Lord; for since they cannot read, and have no 
books, the ministers have to teach them everything 
of this kind - especially at the beginning, for after- 
ward there are many of them who teach the others. 
At the same time, they receive what the minister tells 
them with greater respect. Many extraordinary 
examples of piety have been exhibited by the com- 
municants.] In the village of Pata there was an 
Indian chief, a man of great valor, named Don 
Francisco Yringan, of whom mention has several 
times been made. He, being governor there, had as 
a guest in his house a Spaniard who was traveling 
that way. He treated him kindly and entertained 
him as well as he could. The guest, not being con- 
tent with this, asked him to find an Indian woman, 
that he might sleep with her; and gave him some 
trinkets with which to gratify her. But the Indian 
refused to accept them and to do what the Spaniard 
asked him, saying that this was wicked and that no 
one ought to do such a thing, least of all a com- 
municant. This was a reply with which the old 
Christian ought to have been put to confusion, and 
which should have made him correct his desires; but 



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3^ THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS fVo!. 31 

it was not so; on the contrary, he grew angry at the 
answer, and threatened to cane the Indian unless he 
did what he was told. The Indian turned his back 
and bending his head said, " Give me as much of a 
caning as you please, for I am not going to do what 
you ask." The Spaniard was so intemperate and dis- 
courteous that he vented his anger upon him and 
caned him, the Indian suffering with great patience, 
as if he had received from God not only faith in 
Him, but the power of suffering because he refused 
to offend Him. This is a grace which the Apostle 
praises, urging the Philippians to esteem it highly; 
and now it was found in a Philippine Indian. The 
Indian who suffered this was a man who could have 
employed lawyers against him who wronged him, 
though he was alone; and, if he had shouted to his 
followers, "they would have cut the Spaniard to 
pieces. But, as he was a communicant, he would 
neither be an accomplice in the sin of the Spaniard, 
nor would he avenge himself; nor would he even 
make use of a just defense, as was taught in the 
counsel of Paul quoted above, Non vos defendentes 
carissimi [i.e., " Not defending yourselves, be- 
loved"]. On another occasion when a great insult 
was offered to this same Indian, a religious com- 
forted him and encouraged him to patience. The 
Indian answered : *' O father, how good it would be 
if we all served God with truth. If it were so, that 
wrong which has been done to me would not have 
been done. If this thing had happened in the days 
of our heathendom, it would have sufficed to cause 
me and my followers to make war to the death against 
this town ; but now that we are Christians, patience ! " 
He said nothing more and uttered not a word of 



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1640] aduarte's historia 33 

indignation, but passed over his sufferings and en- 
dured the insult, although he felt it keenly and was 
ashamed (though in a very Christian manner) . Thus 
he gave proof that his virtue was enduring, because 
such a blow could not overthrow it. There was one 
poor Indian slave woman whom a Spaniard, who 
had communicated a few days before in that village, 
tried to violate. She resisted him with spirit; and, 
as if horrified at the lack of respect which by his 
actions he showed to the Lord, whom he had re- 
ceived, she said to him: " How is it that, being a 
communicant, you dare to commit such a sin? " In 
this way may be seen how some of the new Christians 
surpass others who are old in the faith, going beyond 
them in virtue, devotion, and the fear of God. [In 
the village of Masi, which is near to that of which 
we have been speaking, there was an Indian, a com- 
municant, the fiscal of the church, who was of blame- 
less life. His name was Sebastian Calelao. His sown 
rice had not sprouted on account of the drought; but, 
in response to his prayers, God sent rain so that his 
crop was saved. In Pilitan there was an Indian 
woman, named Ysabel Pato, a faithful Christian. 
When she was about to receive the viaticum, the 
priest found that the Lord had anticipated him. 
Other marvels and instances of virtue have been 
exhibited among these Indians.] Some Indian 
women accused themselves of having eaten buyos on 
fast-days, but not on Fridays. When the confessor 
asked them if they had fasted on other days than 
Friday -for the Indians are not obliged to fast on 
the other days in Lent -they answered that they 
fasted the whole of Lent, performing these fasts as 
works of devotion; for the holy Apostolic See has 



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34 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol. 31 

excused them from this fast, because of their weak- 
ness and the scantiness of their food. When the 
religious thought that this was excessive, and told 
them that they could not do so much, they answered 
that by the favor of God they could do so, as they 
had already fasted during the whole of Lent on pre- 
vious occasions. The buyo is an aromatic leaf, shaped 
like an ivy-leaf, which the Indians are accustomed 
to chew with a sort of wild acorn and a little bit of 
lime. Even some of the Spaniards in this country 
very commonly use it, though they do not swallow 
it, so that only the juice reaches the stomach; it 
invigorates the stomach, and preserves the teeth. To 
carry some buyos in their mouths, if tliere were not 
many of them, would not break their fast; but in 
spite of all this, these Indian women made a scruple 
of taking it in their fasts, out of pure devotion and 
in an entirely voluntary way. [Visions of demons 
are frequent among the Indians. One such happened 
in a part of this province called Ytabes, of which the 
order took charge in 1604. The Indian concerned 
had a vision of demons driven away by persons whom 
he did not know, but who were clothed with white 
underneath and with black cloaks. This was some- 
thing which the Indian had never seen, because the 
religious rarely wear their cloaks in the Indian vil- 
lages, assuming them only when they go into the 
pulpit to preach. At that time the Christians there 
were so few that the sermons were not delivered from 
the pulpit, but from a seat, the cloak not being put 
on for the purpose. Frightful visions of the anito 
drove the father of Don Francisco Tuliau to baptism. 
In Camalaniugan father Fray Caspar Zarfate drove 
out several demons who were tormenting Indian 
women.] 



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ADUARTE'S HISTORIA 35 



CHAPTER XL 



The great comfort which the religious commonly 
felt in their ministry both in life and in death 
[In spite of the sufferings of the religious in this 
region -the heat, the strangeness, the homesickness, 
the poverty of their life - they had great joy in their 
work. The aniteras, or priestesses of the devil, who 
became Christians, often told them that as soon as 
they came to heathen villages the devil left the 
houses in which he was worshiped, which were 
wretched little hovels. They dreamed that they saw 
their anitos in the form of carabaos, or buffaloes, and 
of black men; and that they likewise suffered greatly- 
at such times, because the devil was so much their 
owner that he used to enter them visibly - one of 
them, who was the mistress of the others, saying that 
he entered her in the form of a shadow, and in that 
way gave his oracles. The aniteras were, as the 
Indians said, beside themselves and out of their 
minds at such times. Many miracles were wrought 
by the fathers, and they had great joy in the marvels 
which the Lord showed them in permitting them to 
save by holy baptism children and others who were 
at the point of death, from eternal damnation. The 
bishop of Nueva Segovia, Don Fray Diego de Soria, 
writing to his great friend, father Fray Bernardo de 
Sancta Cathaiina, or Navarro, on March 24, 1608, 
said that when they had come from the province of 
Ylocos, they had been detained in a port for two 
weeks by as heavy a storm as if they had been in 
Segovia itself, and that they had suffered much on 
the road; but that now they felt consoled by what 
they had found in the province, which was a perfect 
picture of Pangasinan. He reported that in the 



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36 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 31 

mountains of Fotol and Alamonag they had con- 
firmed more than six hundred Indians; and that even 
the little boys and girls knew the definition of the 
sacrament of confirmation. He reports that the re- 
ligious of the province are very harmonious, espe- 
cially those who came from the college of Alcala, to 
which they purpose sending a golden cup worth a 
thousand pesos, hoping that the college may pay for 
it with missionaries, which will not be simony. He 
goes on to say that he had been three days in the 
village, and that they had already confirmed eight or 
nine thousand Indians. The cup of gold was sent, 
but never reached its destination. His remarks with 
reference to the college of Alcala are due to the fact 
that several of the religious who came over on va- 
rious expeditions had been supplied by that college. 
Among them were some of the most devoted of the 
missionaries - for instance, the bishop himself, father 
Fray Bernardo de Sancta Cathalina, and father Fray 
Juan Cobo. The report of this father may well be 
followed by that of father Fray Francisco de San 
Joseph, or Blancas," who wrote from this province 
of Nueva Segovia to the father provincial, father 
Fray Miguel de San Jacintho. His letter is given 
in full by Aduarte; the substance of it is as follows: 
" I have seen with my own eyes something of what 

* Francisco Blancas de San Jose was a native of Tarazona, and 
entered the Dominican order at Alcala de Henares. He came to 
Manila with the mission of 1595, and was sent to Bataan; after- 
ward he spent several years in the Manila convent, preaching to 
Indians and Chinese, as well as Spaniards, He also gave especial 
attention to the instruction of the negroes and slaves there, of 
whom there were many thousands. He also lahored in Cagayan 
and (1609) in Mindoro and Balayan. In 1614 he sailed for 
Spain, but died on the voyage, before reaching Mexico. {Resena 
biogrdfica, i, pp. 172-177.) 



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1640] aduarte's historia 37 

I have read in the letters of your Reverence with 
regard to the great need of ministers here, and to the 
desire of the people for them. We found the in- 
habitants kindly and peaceful, and delighted to see 
us. When we disembarked at one of the heathen 
villages en the way, some of the children ran to kiss 
our scapulars. Some of the boys ran before us, re- 
citing the prayers very well, not because they had 
been taught, but because they had picked them up 
from a couple of our boys whom they had seen sev- 
eral times. Yet in spite of all this they will be lost 
and damned, for lack of friars. The wife of the 
governor of this village was very ill; and desiring to 
die a Christian, she had herself carried to the village 
of Pia, which is a Christian village about a day's 
journey from hers. Father Fray Pedro was at Pipig, 
a village near there, at the time, so that he was in 
time to baptize her." In another letter to the same 
provincial, he said: "Your Reverence might see 
here this morning a company of old men learning 
the doctrines of Christianity; another of girls; an- 
other of married women; another of young boys- 
giving praises to God like so many choirs of angels, 
proclaiming His doctrine and learning it to prepare 
themselves for baptism." Father Fray Jacintho de 
San Geronimo," who is still living, writes a letter to 
a friend of his in Nueva Espana, which is dated on 
the last day of the feast of the Resurrection, in 1607. 
It is substantially as follows: " I am at present in 
the province of Nueva Segovia, in great happiness 

" Jacinto de San Jeronimo came to the islands with the mission 
of 1604. The rest of his life was spent mainly in the missions 
of Cagayan ; near its end, he went to the new mission of Ituy 
(now Nueva Vizcaya), where he died in 1637. {Resena 
liosrafica, i, p. 327.) 



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38 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol. 31 

to see the desire of the people to become Christians. 
Our poverty and disinterestedness have caused them 
to have great confidence in us. I would not change 
my lot for any other in the world, in spite of the 
hardness of our life here." The same father wrote 
another letter to a friend in Manila, to the following 
effect; "There are more than four thousand souls 
in this village, not the eighth part of whom are 
Christians, though all desire to become so. On Holy 
Saturday three of us baptized six hundred persons." 
The date of this letter was April 2, 1607. Although 
this father had been but a short time in the province, 
he had already learned enough of the language for 
such great results, and could rejoice in the fruit of 
his labors. From all this it is plain that the mis- 
sionaries in this region who are busied with the 
ministry of souls have no need of Espana nor of 
anything Spanish for their comfort, except com- 
panions to help them in the work. As there is no 
rule without an exception, it must be so in this case; 
but if any missionary is unhappy here, it is generally 
because he has failed in his obligations and become 
lulcewarm in his devotions. Those that can speak 
the language and thereby convert souls are happy in 
their work; and those who cannot learn the language 
should accordingly be unhappy. But the Lord is 
not so poor as that, as will be sufficiently shown by 
a letter from father Fray Garcia de Oroz, written 
from Nueva Segovia to a brother at Manila : 
" Though I have been told that I would be very 
unhappy and discouraged by the difficulty of learn- 
ing the language, and though I find that it is very 
difficult to me because of my age and lack of mem- 
ory, I am not disconsolate; because merely to be in 



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1640] aduarte's historia 39 

company with a father who is a master of the lan- 
guage, and to act as his confessor, will greatly serve 
our Lord. This region is a pleasant one, and my 
health is good in it during the winter, which lasts 
from the beginning of October to March. It re- 
sembles the climate of Valencia during the same 
period, having cool and fresh nights. A great part 
of the country is very open, and the mountains are 
not high or rugged. Some of the convents are on 
the shore of the sea; others, on the bank of a copious 
river, which is navigated by canoes for a distance 
of sixty leguas up the river. No one has reached the 
head of it, or knows where the spring is." The 
happiness of the missionaries in their work will be 
plain from what has been said. As a result of having 
lived devoted lives they died happy deaths, rejoicing 
in their firm hope that they were going to enjoy the 
Lord whom they had served, and for whom they had 
abandoned their parents, kinsmen, native lands, and 
the ease which they might have enjoyed in Espafla.] 

CHAPTER XLI 

The servant of God, Don Fray Domingo de Salaqar, 
first bishop of the Philippinas 

By the ships which came to these islands from 
Nueva Espana in 1596, arrived the sad news of the 
death of their father and first bishop, Don Fray 
Domingo de Salagar. This was one of the greatest 
losses which they could have met with at that time, 
for they lost in him a most loving father and a most 
faithful defender. In their defense he had not hesi- 
tated to set out on a long and perilous journey to 
Espafla, and that in his very last years, when his 



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40 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 31 

great age would have excused him from such exces- 
sive labors. But the fervent love which he had for 
his sheep would not permit him to offer any excuses, 
when he saw them in so great need as they were in 
at that time. There was in these regions no place 
from which he could obtain relief for them, nor 
could he have obtained relief from Espana if he had 
not gone there in person to get it, for he had tried 
all other means. He had sent a procurator; and he 
had written most urgent letters, and had learned by 
experience that they did not bring about the results 
desired. In fine, these islands lost a shepherd and a 
holy bishop; and when this has been said, everything 
has been said. The Order of St. Dominic, which 
had been so recently established in these islands, suf- 
fered the greatest loss in this general affliction, for 
it had in him a father and a brother who loved it 
most affectionately; and a continual benefactor, who, 
though he was poor in the extreme, seemed rich and 
generous in the benefits which he conferred upon the 
order. Without them it would have suffered much, 
because the religious came as apostolic preachers, in 
the greatest poverty, and in the greatest need of the 
favor which they always received from this pious 
bishop. Don Fray Domingo de Salagar was born in 
La Rioja in Castilla, and had assumed the habit in 
the distinguished convent of San Estevan at Sala- 
manca, where he was contemporary with some who 
afterward became famous professors of theology in 
this illustrious university - the father masters Fray 
Domingo Baiies and Fray Bartholome de Medina. 
[Fray Domingo de Sala^ar was not inferior to them 
in scholarship, but his heart was set more on sanctity 
than on learning; and hence he desired to go to the 



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i64o] ADUARTE'S HISTORIA 4* 

province of Santiago de Mexico, which seemed to 
have renewed the primitive austerity of the time of 
our father St. Dominic. When he reached Mexico, 
though he wished to labor among the Indians, the 
orders of his superior kept him from doing so, and 
he became a teacher, and finally a master of theology, 
the highest degree of this kind which can be reached 
in the order. His virtue was such that during all 
the time while he was in Nueva Espana (namely, 
forty years), he never broke any of our sacred con- 
stitutions in any point. As one of the popes has said, 
a religious who thus follows the constitutions of our 
order, has done enough to be canonized. When the 
directions of his superiors at last permitted him to 
give the reins to his desire, he devoted himself to 
missionary work among the Indian tribes in the 
province of Vaxac. He suffered deeply from every 
wrong that the Spaniards did to the Indians; and hi3 
suffering was doubled because he could not remedy 
their wrongs. However, he did what he could for 
those that were under his charge by comforting them 
and encouraging them to patience; and it is no small 
consolation for the unfortunate to see that there is 
someone who pities them and sympathizes with their 
suffering. So desirous was father Fray Domingo of 
laboring for the Lord that he joined the expedition 
to Florida,' accompanying the holy Fray Domingo 
de la Anunciacion in the hardships which he en- 
dured, which he felt the more because he could not 
make the conversions which he hoped for among 

* Probably referring to the expedition sent from Mexico early 
in 1559, to conquer Florida, under command of Tristan de Luna 
y Arellano; it included 500 Spanish soldiers and a considerable 
number of Indian allies. This attempt proved unsuccessful, and 
most of the Spaniards were slain by the warlike Florida Indians. 



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42 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 31 

those Indians. Before beginning his journey, he 
asked the superior to bless all the waters of the 
streams and rivers from which he should have to 
drink, that he might not break the constitution which 
directs us not to drink without permission and a 
blessing. The want of food from which they suf- 
fered was such that they were obliged to boil the 
leather straps of their helmets and of the other parts 
of their armor that they might have something to 
keep them alive, or to delay death a little. When 
they had exhausted this supply they ate roots and 
the bark of wild trees. On this journey our Lady 
of the Rosary showed her favor to father Fray 
Domingo by assisting him in a remarkable way on 
several occasions. Once she enabled him to save the 
life of a poor soldier who had been condemned to 
death, and once gave him grace to change the heart 
of a man who intended to commit suicide. Although 
he desired to give himself to work among the In- 
dians, he was obliged by the orders of his superiors 
and by his vow of obedience to assume several hon- 
orable posts in the province of Mexico, becoming 
prior and vicar-provincial, and finally the chief con- 
suitor of the Holy Office; but he gave up these posi- 
tions as soon as he could to devote himself to the 
work which he preferred among the natives. He 
spent thirty-eight years in laboring for those poor 
people, teaching them, and protecting them against 
wrong. He was at one time sent to Espana by his 
superiors on matters of important business connected 
with the missions to the Indians. Here he met many 
difficulties, as vested interests and great wealth were 
arrayed against him; and on one occasion the nuncio 
of his Holiness, to whom he had complained, com- 



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1640 ADUARTE'S HISTORIA 43 

manded him not to visit the palace. But, though he 
did not attain the end for which he set out, he made 
a great impression upon his Majesty, who appointed 
him first bishop of the Philippinas.] His Majesty 
felt a particular affection for these islands, because 
their conversion had begun in his time and as a 
result of his initiative. As they had received their 
name from his, he desired also to give them a bishop 
with his own hand. He chose a man whose learn- 
ing, virtue, and deep zeal for the good and the pro- 
tection of the Indians qualified him to be the father 
and first shepherd of regions so new and so remote 
from the presence of their king. In such regions it 
is very easy for the wrongs which the powerful do 
to the weak to be -more and greater than in others; 
hence they needed a valiant defender, and a strong 
pastor and master to contend with the great difl^cul- 
ties which are always met with in new conquests. At 
first father Fray Domingo did not venture to accept 
the bishopric, and consulted learned and able re- 
ligious. They afl advised him to accept it, as being 
a very heavy charge, but one in which he could do 
great service to God and be of great advantage to 
the Indians. They suggested that, if he were the 
bishop of the Indians, he could help them better in 
the great sufferings which it might be expected that 
they would have to endure, as all newly-conquered 
people have endured them. These sufferings he saw 
and deplored when he went to his bishopric; and he 
strove to remedy them as completely as he could. 
He accepted the dignity for the labor and the ban- 
ishment which it offered him, knowing well that 
there was no honor and profit to be expected from it. 
At this time he strove to bring with him religious of 



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44 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol- 3i 

his own order, feeling that they would be more 
closely allied to him and under greater obligations 
to him; and that thus they would help him to carry 
his burden. His Majesty granted them to him, and 
they reached Mexico; " but here there were so many 
who died or fell ill that he had left but one com- 
panion, father Fray Christobal de Salvatierra - who 
was a wonderfully helpful associate, and aided him 
greatly in the government of his bishopric, as well 
as in everything else which had to be done; and 
these additional duties were neither few nor pleas- 
ant. He went to the city of Manila and built in it 
his cathedral church, assigning prebends and ar- 
ranging everything necessary for the service of the 
cathedral - although poorly, because he had no 
ecclesiastical income, and because the royal income 
in these islands was very small. He found his bish- 
opric like sheep without a shepherd, and strove to 
gather them together and bring them to order; but, 
as they had learned to live without control, they 
took his efforts very ill. Some of them broke bounds 
entirely, one of them going so far that he dared to 
tell the bishop to his face that he would better mod- 
erate his enthusiasm; for that if he did not, the 
speaker could hit a mitre at fifty paces with his 
arquebus. But the good bishop in these and similar 
cases followed the commands of St. Paul to his dis- 
ciple St. Timothy; Argue, obsecra, increpa, in omni 
patientia ei doctrina.'' The good prelate put his 

' The sketch of Salazar's life given in Resena hiografica (i, pp. 
35-49) states that he obtained permission to carry twenty religious 
with him to the Philippines, ail of whom he procured from the 
convent at Salamanca. But twelve of them died (apparently 
from ship-fever) before reaching Mexico; and the others were so 
prostrated by sickness that they could go no farther. 

* I.e., " Reprove, entreat, rebuke, in all patience and doctrine." 



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1640] ADUARTE'S HISTORIA 45 

shoulder and his breast to the wheel against all these 
difficulties, and with all his heart strove to reform 
the morals of the colony. By his example he ani- 
mated the preachers and confessors to tell the truth 
with greater clearness and courage than before; and, 
that this might be the better and more effectively 
done, he called a conference, or quasi-synod, com- 
posed of the superiors from all the religious orders 
and of the learned men who were in the land, both 
theologians and jurists. This conference sat for a 
long time. In it there were also six captains who 
had had experience in that country, and in the con- 
quests which had been made there. These officers 
were added to the conference that they might give 
information with regard to many matters of fact 
upon which the determination of justice and con- 
science in the case depended; and that the truth and 
righteousness of the proceedings of the conference 
might be more apparent. It was hoped that in this 
way the decisions of the conference would be better 
received. In this assembly the holy bishop showed 
his great capacity, his great knowledge and the 
clearness of his mind; and skilfully directed and 
disposed of a great variety of matters which were 
there very effectively decided. Many questions were 
there propounded and settled; and from the decrees 
of the conference there resulted a sort of general list 
or set of rules by which the confessors were to govern 
themselves in assigning penance to all sorts of people 
in that country. These rules affected the governor, 
the auditors, the royal officials, the alcaldes, the 
corregidors, those who had taken part in the con- 
quest, the encomenderos, the collectors of tributes, 
and people of all ranks - in a word, all the inhabit- 
ants of the country. It had validity for what had 



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46 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol. 31 

been done as well as for what was to come. This 
was a very helpful matter, because it dealt with 
affairs which offered no precedents, did not regu- 
larly happen, and could not be understood by every- 
one because of their great difficulty. On this account 
those who understood them best, and desired to deal 
with them as truth and reason required, were not 
respected by those who were most concerned. The 
latter, in order that they might avoid their obliga- 
tions, ordinarily tried to find confessors who would 
show leniency, to their own harm and to that of their 
penitents. But as soon as these decrees appeared, 
having been voted by so many learned and holy men, 
they were such that neither confessors nor penitents 
dared oppose them. This conference was accord- 
ingly a very important one; and in a few days it was 
possible to see the new light which had come to these 
islands and to perceive how thoughtful and careful, 
and how full of knowledge, was the new shepherd 
and spouse of this church. The holy bishop afforded 
much edification with his teaching, his addresses, and 
his sermons, for he was a learned theologian and an 
excellent preacher; but he did very much more by 
the example of his admirable life. The sermons 
which he preached in this way had great power over 
the souls of those who looked upon this noble ex- 
ample, and even hardened hearts could not resist 
them. He did not alter his habit, his bed, or his diet. 
His habit was of serge, as was customary in Nueva 
Espana. He wore a woolen shirt, and slept upon a 
bed which was even poorer than that of the poorest 
religious. His food was eggs and fish; his dwelling 
had no paintings or adornments in it. He rose at 
midnight to recite matins, and after this he offered 



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1640] aduarte's historia 47 

his mental prayer. That he might not trouble any- 
one to give him a light, he always kept a tinder and 
flint, and struck and kindled his own light without 
having any servant to attend upon him when he went 
to bed or when he rose. He was especially devoted 
to our Lady of the Rosary, whose grace and favor 
he had many times experienced; and he desired to 
see this same devotion well established in all. Wheri 
he spoke upon this matter, he seemed to surpass him- 
self ; and some believed that our Lady spoke in him, 
because of the grandeur of the heavenly ideas which 
he uttered on this subject. When our religious 
reached this country, he entertained them in his 
dwelling, as has been said ; and he kept and cherished 
them there for many days, gave them extraordinary 
alms, and bought a site for their convent. He helped 
very much in the building of the convent, without 
ever feeling poor for this or for similar objects - 
though he was really in extreme poverty on account 
of the smallness of the salary which he received, 
without having any other source of income. Al- 
though the salary was small, it never failed him 
when the poor required it, to whom belonged every- 
thing that he acquired. Thus he was always consum- 
ing his income, without ever lacking something to 
give. 

CHAPTER XUI 

A more detailed account of the virtues of the servant 
of God, Don Fray Domingo de Salaqar 

The conformity of the good bishop with the divine 
will, and his desire to be approved before the pure 
eyes of that heavenly Lord with whom he always 
desired most intimately to unite himself, and the 



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48 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol. 31 

knowledge that he could not attain this approval 
without striving with all his heart to imitate His 
virtues, and by means of them to acquire something 
of His likeness, made the bishop endeavor constantly 
with great solicitude to attain these virtues - although 
to attain them it was necessary for him to strive man- 
fully to conquer his own nature, in so far as it was 
opposed to them; and to multiply, in order to attain 
this victory over himself, penances and austerities, to 
the end that his nature might surrender and be sub- 
jected. The virtue of patience, which is in all cir- 
cumstances very desirable, and no less difficult to 
acquire and maintain, was that which the bishop 
most needed, for at every step occasions offered them- 
selves for the exercise of this virtue. Since he was 
by nature wrathful and hot-tempered, and was al- 
ways engaged in defending the right, it cost him 
much to control himself and to be patient. However, 
he had so restrained himself and so become lord of 
his nature, that he did not permit it to display itself. 
This was not only in cases where he had time for 
consideration and for preparation, but in those sud- 
den and unexpected accidents in which those who are 
wronged are accustomed to lose control of them- 
selves, if the virtue of patience is not well rooted 
within their souls or has not reached perfection. He 
was often obliged to hear many insulting words from 
soldiers who were angry because he had interfered 
with their excesses; but he kept silent, and walked 
on as if he had not heard them, attending to his 
business without taking any account of things which 
did not belong to it. Since the Indians suffered from 
the abuses which were inflicted upon them, he went 
in one day to speak on their behalf to the governor 



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i64o] aduarte's historia 49 

who was then in office. He was not permitted to 
proceed with his business without hearing many 
insulting words from the governor, who even put his 
hands upon his breast and gave him a push. The 
bishop did not change countenance; and, following 
the counsel of St. Paul, who bids us give place to 
wrath, he left the hall that he might not more inflame 
the wrath of this man. After a while, when he 
thought it was time, he went in again, and with great 
serenity of countenance and with gentleness of heart 
and words, he said to him: " Bend your knees, be- 
cause my heart does not permit me to leave you under 
so heavy a condemnation;" and he added: "By 
virtue of a brief of the Supreme Pontiff which I 
have for this purpose, I absolve you from the most 
dreadful excommunication which you have in- 
curred." When he had done this, he went out again ; 
and even commanded the cleric who accompanied 
him not to reveal to anyone what had happened, 
under penalty of excommunication. On another 
occasion another ecclesiastic whom he rebuked said 
to him, very angrily : " How badly you treat me, 
though you know that I am better than you are." 
The bishop answered, with great calmness, that he 
was delighted to have in his bishopric so honorable 
a person. With this gentleness he suffered the blows 
of those who exercised his patience, leaving his cause 
to God, as God commands us. The Lord assumed 
the care of his cause, and rigorously chastised those 
who spoke evil of him. Some people wrote letters 
against him to Espana; and, before the answer came 
back, they were called upon to give their answer 
before the tribunal of God, ending their lives in 
sudden and dreadful death. He took great pains to 



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50 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol 3^ 

preserve his chastity and the purity with which he 
was born, esteeming it highly like a precious jewel, 
and performing many penances to defend it from 
the assaults of the enemies who hated its beauty and 
ever strove to destroy it. Two priests have borne 
witness that he was a virgin: father Fray Diego de 
Soria, late bishop of Nueva Segovia, to whom he 
made a general confession in his old age, at the time 
when he was about to embark on the last voyage 
which he made to Espana. The other priest was a 
clergyman to whom he had confessed more than two 
hundred times, and who was well acquainted with 
the state of his conscience. This priest confirmed his 
testimony with an oath. In spite of this, the world 
is such that the chaste bishop found it necessary to 
defend himself against accusations in regard to this 
matter, and to bear testimony to the purity of his 
own conscience. At a public celebration of the holy 
sacrifice of the mass, with the divine sacrament in 
his hands, he affirmed, because necessity required it, 
that he hoped this celestial food might be his eternal 
damnation if he was conscious of any fault of such 
a kind. If those who spoke against him in this mat- 
ter had been only laymen, angry because they had 
been corrected and forcibly drawn from such vices, 
and mad with passion - for such persons will not 
forgive those who are most holy - if this accusation 
had proceeded from such as these, it would have 
been matter for sorrow, but would not have been 
intolerable; but there were even some ecclesiastics 
who saw that the bishop took great pains to seclude 
abandoned women, and who ventured to make them- 
selves defenders of these persons of disorderly life. 



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1640] aduarte's historia 5^ 

They declared that a man who gathered in so many 
of these women of evil Hfe (some of them hand- 
some), shut them up, and heard them at their trials, 
would be sure to put out his hand and select those 
who pleased him. This reached the ears of the 
bishop; and the vengeance which he took was to 
commend them to the Lord in prayer with all his 
heart - pitying them as being persons who were really 
worthy of compassion; since, without comparison, 
the harm that one who speaks evil does to himself 
is greater than the harm done to him who is wronged. 
The Lord heard these pious prayers, and touched 
their hearts. They acknowledged the evil that they 
had spoken, and very repentantly came to beg his 
pardon, at the episcopal residence, in the presence of 
those who lived there. The bishop received them 
with open arms and with abundance of tears, and 
had them that day as companions at his table. The 
vengeance which the saints desire to take upon their 
enemies is, to have them repent for their faults when 
they become conscious of their errors. 

He was very compassionate, and felt the utmost 
pity for the sufferings of his neighbor. Of this a 
marked example was given on the voyage from 
Nueva Espaiia to Manila. There were in the same 
ship more than twenty Augustinian religious, and, 
while they were at sea, their water gave out. This 
is one of the greatest hardships which may be suf- 
fered on a voyage. The bishop took pity upon them; 
and, although he had not enough to supply the neces- 
sity of so many, he preferred suffering with the others 
to seeing them suffer while he was comfortable. Ac- 
cordingly he offered them the opportunity to drink 



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52 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 31 

from what he carried in his martabana, which is a 
large jar holding twenty cantaros ' of water. Their 
need would not permit them to refuse what was thus 
offered them voluntarily; and, though they all drank 
of it, the Lord was pleased that it should last until 
they landed on the islands, as the servant of God had 
prayed. It is no new or rare thing for the Lord to 
multiply food and drink, that it may not be lacking 
to those who bring themselves to need out of pity. 
This same virtue caused the bishop to watch over this 
municipality of Manila, by taking care that in the 
houses of the fathers of the Society [of Jesus] there 
should be religious to give instruction in profitable 
learning to those who desired to study it. That this 
might be made permanent, and that there might not 
be any failure in it, he brought it about that his 
Majesty gave command that the religious should 
receive an allowance to be spent upon the teachers. 
The answer of his Majesty is contained in the royal 
decree given at Barcelona the eighth [sic} of fifteen 
eighty-three. The document runs as follows: "To 
the reverend father in Christ, Fray Domingo de 
Salagar, bishop of the Philippinas Islands. Three 
letters from you have been received from my Coun- 
cil, etc. Considering the good report which you 
give of the great results which have followed and 
which are likely to follow from the maintenance of 
the Order of the Society of Jesus, and considering 
that to this end it is necessary that the Society should 
receive from me what is needed for the support of 

' Cantaro (from Latin, cantharus) : the name of a large earthen 
or metal receptacle for liquids, hence for the amount contained in 
it; also, a measure for wine, varying in different parts of Spain. 
The cantaro (or alquiere) of Portugal is equivalent to nearly 
2 1/5 or 3 1/3 U. S. gallons in Lisbon and Oporto respectively. 



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i640j aduarte's historia 53 

the religious who desire to teach and instruct in 
Latinity, sciences and good morals, those who come 
to them, I have, until some one shall come forward 
to undertake this business, granted the decree en- 
closed. In pursuance of this decree, the president of 
the Audiencia and you will together determine how 
this object may be carried out," etc. From this same 
spirit of compassion arose the benevolence which he 
displayed toward all the natives by building a hos- 
pital in Manila in which sick Indians might be cared 
for. He gave so much energy to this that he not only 
was the chief person who concerned himself with it, 
but he gave the first and the chief contribution to 
establish and endow it. At the very beginning of the 
hospital he did something worthy of his virtue and 
prudence. The sick in this hospital were cared for 
by religious of the order of the seraphic father St. 
Francis, and particularly by a brother named Fray 
Juan Clemente. The infirmity for which they were 
ordinarily treated was buboes, which are very fre- 
quent on these poor Indians because they ordinarily 
have to walk in the water in their grain-fields.* The 
brother had much to suffer with the Indian men, and 
still more with the Indian women, the care of whom 
was in general not very consonant with decency. On 
this account, the religious determined to give up this 
duty, and actually asked the bishop for permission to 
leave the hospital. The bishop, who was well ac- 
quainted with the conscience of Fray Juan, and who 
saw the reason for his unhappiness, encouraged and 
consoled him; and exhorted him not to give up, on 
account of these temptations, the good work and the 

* Referring to the cultivation of their rice, usually in fields 
more or less under water. 



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54 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 31 

service which he had begun there. He gave the 
brother holy and devout reasons for this, and finally 
said: " My son Fray Juan, fast for three days in 
the week; give yourself a discipline, and keep your 
hour of prayer. As for the rest, I will charge myself 
with it, and will take the responsibility upon myself." 
The result was marvelous, for, because of the good 
advice which had been given him and the prayer 
which the bishop made for him, Fray Juan found 
himself so much consoled and changed that he no 
longer felt the least difficulty or disquiet in the 
world; and, as if he had cast all these difficulties 
upon another person, he no longer perceived them in 
himself. Yet before this he had found himself so 
much oppressed by them that, in order not to fall, he 
had desired to flee. In a case of this kind, to take 
flight is to conquer - but not so nobly as when the 
Lord puts forth His hand that His servants may 
handle such serpents as these without being harmed 
by them, which happened in this case as the result of 
the prayer of His servant the bishop. 

The many virtues which this servant of God pos- 
sessed were higher in degree as a result of the fire 
of charity which dwelt in his breast, which, as a 
queen of all the rest, held the highest place in his 
soul and governed all. He could not eat or drink in 
comfort without dividing with the poor; and there- 
fore every day he set aside a part of his food, and, 
placing it on the corner of the table, said: "You 
know for whom this is " - namely, the poor, as his 
servants understood. This was given to them, and 
not only this, but other alms. That the matter might 
be the better attended to, they kept, by order of the 
bishop, a memorandum of the poor and needy of the 



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i64oi aduarte's historia 55 

city. He directed his servants that whenever the 
poor women who asked alms were Spaniards, they 
should indicate the fact by saying, " Here is a lady 
that asks alms ; " if they were Indians or mestizas, 
they should say, " Here is a woman." In this way, 
without seeing them, he would be able to tell their 
station, and to aid them conformably thereto. Still, 
when he was told about some such matter, he often 
went down with the servant; and, if it was the first 
time that she came, he used to say to her: " Come, 
good friend, what is the matter now? Beware not to 
offend God, nor to be tricked by the devil into doing 
any base act for need or for selfish interest. Trust 
in God, who will aid you; and I for my part will 
assist with all my heart." In order that she might 
see that these were not merely good words, he used to 
give her- some assistance and to write her name with 
the rest, so that he might aid her with the care re- 
quired by her need, and by that of her children, if 
she had any. Every week he visited the prisons and 
the hospitals, generally assigning Fridays for that 
purpose. He encouraged and consoled the prisoners 
and the sick with kindly words and with alms, ac- 
cording to the need of each one. The money which 
he could get together from restitutions and confirma- 
tions he kept with the greatest care, that not a real 
might be lost; and, as if he were the most miserly 
man in the world, he took care of it for the poor 
alone, without permitting the members of his house- 
hold or anyone else to take anything from the con- 
firmations, as is customary. He used to say that this 
belonged to the poor, and that it was not proper that 
one who was not poor should share with them. From 
some of these alms, and from what he could add from 



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56 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol. 31 

his own poor income, he bought some lots near the 
Franciscan convent, and some cattle, with which he 
established a stock-farm, and gave it for the estab- 
lishment of a hospital for the care of the natives. 
The hospital was built and still exists, having been 
Very greatly increased by the care of the Franciscan 
fathers, who attend to it with the greatest charity. 
To exalt the hospital still more, the bishop obtained 
for it a liberal concession of plenary indulgence for 
the Sunday of Lazarus," as he did for the hospital of 
the Spaniards on Palm Sunday. So great was his 
charity and his desire to do good to the poor that 
once, when he was without money to give them, he 
sold his pectoral cross, which was worth one thou- 
sand eight hundred pesos, and gave it to them in 
alms. In the same way went his table silver; and his 
silver pontifical ornaments were almost always in 
pawn. His steward used to try to excuse himself 
when he was told to give alms, saying that he had 
not the means. The bishop, calling him to one side, 
would say to him, " Tell me the truth; how much 
money have you?" He commonly said that there 
was not in the house more than eight reals for the 
daily expense, and sometimes only four. The bishop 
then made him give half of what he had, saying that 
it was sufficient good-fortune to have some money in 
the house all the time, so long as the Lord would 
provide more; and the Lord to whom he gave toolc 
care that he should never lack, sending him what he 
needed for himself and for his poor from some source 
from which he had never expected it. When he got 
it, he would show it to the steward, or give it to 
him, and say: "Trust in God, father, and know 

" i.e., the fifth Sunday in Lent. 



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i64o] ADUARTE'S HISTORIA 57 

that even if you had given me all that you had, the 
Lord would have sent us more." It was a common 
saying among the people of his household that the 
Father of the poor provided money miraculously, in 
order that the hishop might give them alms. A 
person of rank was once obliged by necessity to ask 
alms from him. The bishop was much grieved, as 
this person seemed to be an honorable one; and he 
directed the steward to give him all the money there 
was in the house. As he found no more than eight 
reals, the hishop gave this to him, and asked the man 
to pardon him, saying that there was no more at that 
time, but that, as soon as he had any, he would be 
sure to come to his aid. The Lord did not delay 
assisting him who had not only given alms from his 
superfluity, but had given all that he had for the 
maintenance of himself and his household. For on 
that very night He touched the heart of a man who 
had laid upon him for ten years the duty of the 
restitution of four hundred pesos, and caused him, 
without waiting till morning, to embark at night and 
to come from Cavite to Manila; and in the morning 
he gave the money to the bishop without the bishop's 
ever having spoken to him. The bishop had desired 
that his penniless condition should be cared for 
wholly by the Lord, who was called upon to relieve 
the urgent need of him who was in such need as a 
result of aiding the poor. When the bishop saw him- 
self suddenly enriched with four hundred pesos, he 
gave thanks to the Lord, from whose hand he had 
received them rather than from the hand of him who 
had brought them hither. He instantly summoned 
the person to whom he had given only one peso the 
day before, because he had no more, and said to him : 



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5^ THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol. 31 

" For the little which I have given you and the much 
which you desired, the Lord has sent me some money. 
Take these fifty pesos and give me that one which I 
gave you yesterday; for it is that which attracted all 
this. Be sure that you spend well that which I give 
you; and, when you shall see yourself in prosperity, 
take care to be liberal to the poor." The good man 
promised this; and in a short time God, in fulfilment 
of what the bishop had said to him, gave him so 
much money that he brought four hundred pesos, and 
gave them to the bishop to be distributed among the 
poor. The rest of what the bishop had received he 
did not spend on his household, though it was so 
poor; but published in the church that he had some 
money to distribute, and summoned the poor to his 
residence. Among them he distributed it (as he 
wished to) very quickly; and, showing them the 
eight-real piece which he had given in the first place, 
he said to them with much happiness and joy: " Just 
this peso is for me, because it is that which attracted 
so many." When the bishop was at his meal, having 
with him at the table the first founders of this prov- 
ince, who had recently come to the city, a man came 
to beg alms. The bishop gave him a peso; and, as it 
seemed to the beggar too little, he showed it to the 
bishop, and said that he had not given him as much 
as he needed. This conduct appeared to those who 
were present bold, and even insolent; so they told 
the bishop that he ought to send the man away, 
because he had received sufficient alms, and that it 
was impossible at one time to succor every necessity. 
The bishop agreed; but before long his heart was 
moved to compassion at the thought that the poor 
man had gone away dissatisfied ; and, with his eyes 



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1640] aduarte's historia 59 

moist with tears, he said: " Call that poor fellow 
back again. His need must be very great, because 
it has forced him to be importunate." The beggar 
came back; and the bishop, augmenting the alms so 
that the beggar should be contented, was contented 
himself, and sent him away with his blessing. Once 
it happened that he went to bed with fifteen pesos, 
which, though for persons of his dignity it was a 
mere nothing, for him who gave everything to the 
poor it was great riches; and in the morning before 
nine o'clock he had not a penny, because the poor 
had taken it all. He used to say: "The riches of 
bishops are in caring for the poor, who are their 
proper purses; and, so long as my money is not in 
them, they will suppose that I have appropriated it." 
This did not appear only in his words, but he was so 
certain of the truth of it that he carried it out in 
practice; and it often resulted that he did not have 
money for the ordinary expenses of his household. 
He was obliged to set sail from Manila to Espafia 
on important business; and one of the chief supplies 
which he ordered to be laid in was a provision of 
chickens and of conserves- things which he never 
tasted, and which were so foreign to his way of 
living that he ate nothing but fish, as if he had been 
in the refectory of an extremely austere convent. 
They got together three hundred chickens for him; 
but before he had left port two hundred of them 
were gone; while with the conserves and other things 
that he took he was all the time feasting and making 
presents to the poor and needy, so that nobody could 
even induce him to taste a chicken. [On the road 
from Mexico to San Juan de Ulua, though very ill, 
he charitably undertook the ordination of some can- 



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OO THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol 31 

didates for the priesthood, who had been caught in a 
flood on their way to be ordained at Jalapa.] 

CHAPTER XLIII 

The marvels wrought by our Lord for His servants 
while in this life, and the happy death of the 
bishop. 

[It is not strange that the Lord should have hon- 
ored the virtues of the bishop by working many 
marvels through him. Many of these have fallen 
into oblivion because he strove to keep them con- 
cealed, and also because there has been no one to 
keep a record of them. Several times his prayers 
have saved men in imminent danger of death ; among 
these was father Fray Miguel de Venavides, who fell 
overboard on the voyage from Manila to Nueva 
Espana.] 

When he reached Espana it is said that his 
Majesty at first was vexed on account of his return, 
because his bishopric would need him during his 
absence. But afterward, when he saw him, his Maj- 
esty was greatly pleased with him, and carried out 
the wishes of the bishop in regard to the principal 
matters which had brought him there. The income 
of the church was greatly augmented, his Majesty 
bestowing upon him a large gift, and greatly increas- 
ing the small income assigned for the prebendaries. 
He succeeded in augmenting the number of prebends 
so that the church might be better served. A single 
bishop was not sufficient to attend to the confirma- 
tions and other episcopal acts in all the islands, still 
less to watch over the conversion of so many prov- 
inces as are contained in them, practically all of 



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i64o] ADUARTE'S HISTORIA 6 1 

them being at that time heathen. Hence the bishop 
succeeded in having his bishopric divided among 
four prelates - an archbishop and three suffragan 
bishops - and he marked out the limits of each bish- 
opric. He succeeded in gaining in Roma what he 
desired, and was himself appointed archbishop. This 
promotion did not suffice to alter the ordinary mode 
of life of this servant of God, and made no more 
change in him than if he had never been promoted. 
It is even said that he did not care to be informed 
or assured with regard to it; that as his soul had other 
purposes and more elevated desires, he cared little 
for these things. He was right in doing so, since he 
was soon to see how little substance there is in them; 
for he was attacked by a severe infirmity which, 
before the bulls for his archbishopric were de- 
spatched from Roma, despatched him to heaven, 
ending his labors and commencing his eternal rest. 
He had no need to make a will, for he distributed 
all that he could get among the poor. In the hour of 
his death, he had no more than six reals; and though 
he had a poor sister, he never gave her a real, because 
of his helping those who were in greater need. This 
came to the knowledge of his Majesty, and it pleased 
him so much that he displayed his royal generosity 
toward her, as indeed our Lord does command, who 
takes upon His own shoulders the obligations which 
His disciples fail to fulfil because of their love for 
Him. [These facts attracted great attention in the 
court, and the small estate of the bishop of the Indias 
became famous. He was buried in his convent of 
San Thomas at Madrid. The day before, the arch- 
bishop of Toledo had died, Don Caspar de Quiroga; 
he was cardinal, and the richest prelate in Christen- 



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62 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS EVol. 31 

dom. As he was to be buried on that same day, the 
counselors of the king did not know which funeral 
to attend; and his Majesty directed that they should 
go to that of the poorest. His epitaph states that he 
died December 4, 1594.] 

CHAPTER XLIV 

Father Fray Christobal de Salvatierra, associate of 
the first bishop of the Philippinas and governor of 
his bishopric. 

There was but a short space of time between the 
death of the first bishop of this region of which we 
have just spoken, and that of his associate and vicar- 
general, father Fray Christobal de Salvatierra. The 
bishop, when he went to Espafia, had selected him 
as governor of his bishopric — having by many years' 
acquaintance come to know that he was worthy, not 
only of this charge, but of much greater ones, be- 
cause of his great and well-established virtue, his 
•marked ability, singular prudence, watchful zeal for 
the honor of God, indomitable spirit, and the other 
noble qualities which he had found in father Fray 
Christobal. All these were necessary for the duties 
of vicar-general and governor of this bishopric at 
such times as these, which were so near to the first 
conquest of these islands. Even though the conquest 
had continued for some time, the very great difficul- 
ties encountered in their spiritual government will 
be evident. It will be even better understood by any 
one who has any knowledge of the conquests of the 
Indias ; for though it did not involve so many cruel- 
ties as others, it was still impossible to avoid many 
evil deeds which wars always bring with them, how- 



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i64o] ADUARTE'S HISTORIA 63 

ever well justified they may be. This is still more 
the case against poor Indians, who cannot defend 
themselves, and sometimes who cannot even com- 
plain of the wrongs that have been done to them, 
since these are committed by those from whom their 
redress should proceed. Since there had not been in 
the islands, before the coming of the first bishop and 
his vicar-general, any bishop to govern them as their 
own prelate, the two ecclesiastics found them abound- 
ing in vices which by inveterate custom had put out 
such roots and obtained such strength that it was not 
possible to destroy them without great difficulty and 
labor, much vigilance, and a courageous spirit, in 
order to meet the thousand perils which these duties 
brought with them at this time. God, who never 
fails the government of His church, provided for 
these offices persons with such endowments as were 
possessed by father Fray Christobal. He was a son 
of the distinguished convent of San Esteban at Sala- 
manca; and showed that he was so, not only by 
words, which often perish on the wind, but by works 
- and by noble works, which he had learned in that 
so prominent school of virtue and letters. He left 
his convent, intending to become one of the pioneers 
assembled by the bishop for this province. The 
number of these, as has been stated, was thirty. 
When they reached Nueva Espana, many died and 
others fell sick. The rest of them, daunted by the 
voyage which they had already taken, and attracted 
by the agreeable climate of Mexico, remained there. 
The good bishop was unable to persuade any of them 
to come to these regions except father Fray Chris- 
tobal, who, like an immovable column, was always 
firm in his opposition to these temptations, never 



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64 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol. 31 

abandoned the company of the bishop, and remained 
constantly at his side -not only in this tempest, in 
which all the others fell away, but in all the other 
and greater tempests which afterwards fell upon 
them. He was greatly aided in this by the conform- 
ity that there was in the natures of the two men. They 
were both grave and prudent, intrepid of soul in the 
performance of the right, and fearful of everything 
that not only might be evil, but might even seem so. 
Above all, they were of one mind in their efforts to 
attain virtue -devout, chaste, charitable, religious; 
zealous for the honor of God, in themselves and in 
others; and ready for this cause to undergo hardships 
or dangers of any kind. Hence, though the dangers 
through which they had gone had conquered all the 
others and discouraged them, father Fray Christobal 
was always firm and faithful to his promise; and he 
accomplished it by persevering with constancy in 
that which he had begun, even until death. This he 
did to his own great good and to that of his neigh- 
bors, serving the Lord not only as one good religious, 
but as if he had been many. He was like another 
Aod [i-e., Ehud], working with both hands, and 
having spirit, courage, and industry for every under- 
taking of importance that offered itself. He carried 
on together the offices of vicar-general and of mis- 
sionary to Bataan, at a day's journey from Manila, 
where he was obliged to reside. Withal, he filled the 
functions of these two positions, which seemed in- 
compatible, with such perfection and vigilance, that 
he has left for each one of them eternal fame behind 
him. As if this was but little in itself, whenever any 
military expedition was undertaken he accompanied 
the soldiers, in the capacity of chaplain, as if he had 



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1640] ADUARTE'S HISTORIA 65 

been the most unoccupied person in the province. 
He gave his greatest energies to the office of vicar- 
general, which he filled with the greatest justice and 
watchfulness, and in which he offered a very edify- 
ing example. He was greatly loved by the good and 
feared by the bad; for his only purposes were to do 
good to all, to adjust their disputes, and to make 
friendships, or to unmake tbem when they were bad- 
He defended and protected the Indians, as being a 
race in the greatest need of defense and protection. 
When it was necessary, he chastised them, but like a 
loving father. Hence he was much loved by them, 
and was feared both by them and the Spaniards - 
even by the Spaniards in official positions, because, 
when there was a question as to making restitution 
for the honor of God, he pardoned no one. The zeal 
which he displayed in rooting out vices and scan- 
dalous sins was extraordinary. He never hesitated 
at any labor in this cause, however great it might be; 
he never feared any danger which appeared in the 
prosecution of his holy purpose, not even the danger 
of death. He was at one time threatened with death 
itself; for a desperate man entered his very room 
with the purpose of taking his life, at a time when he 
was careless and not expecting any such evil inten- 
tion. But the Lord, to whom he left his defense, 
protected him; and the malevolent man was unable 
to carry out his purpose and to conquer the constancy 
of Fray Christobal. The latter knew that whatso- 
ever hardship or death befell him in this way would 
surely be for his own greater glory; and hence, cer- 
tain that no evil could happen to him that was really 
an evil, he did his duty with courage in opposing all 
the wicked, fearing no one, but feared by all. This 



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66 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol. 31 

was the case not only when he was present in the city 
or village where people were living scandalously, 
but even when he was at a distance from them; 
because without any warning he would appear, like 
a ray of light, in any place where he was needed. 
He would be at night in the city, and in the morning 
ten or twelve leguas away, following the track of 
those who were living in concubinage. When they 
seemed to themselves to be most safe, he caught them 
in flagranti delicto. He used to take out wicked 
women from any house, no matter how prominent it 
was, and no matter to what insults he might be ex- 
posed. Nothing of this kind daunted him, or held 
him back, or harmed him; nay, it did him much 
good, for, armed with patience for any wrong to 
himself, he was able to overcome any opposition to 
his holy zeal, and came out always victorious and 
with the upper hand. He knew the women of evil 
life so well that they were not able to escape him, 
or to conceal themselves from him. The punish- 
ment which he gave them was very appropriate, be- 
cause he shut them up in a secure place and forced 
them to work to earn their living; and this, on 
account of their licentiousness and idleness, was the 
worst punishment that could be inflicted upon them, 
while for the holy purposes of Fray Christoval, it 
was the most efficacious remedy which could be ap- 
plied. By being shut up they were kept from the 
sins which were caused by their being at large; while 
by their bodily labor they paid for something of what 
they wasted in their idleness. Hence in the time of 
this father this wretched class of people fled to the 
mountains, without daring to appear in the city. The 
Spaniards feared and hesitated to do many things 



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1640] aduarte's historia 67 

which after his days began to be very common. All 
of these actions of the father were accompanied by 
such prudence, purity of life and manners, and by 
such love and such good works for the people, that 
although at the time those who were blinded and 
carried away by their passions suffered greatly, and 
were very angry with the man who interfered with 
their vices, still afterwards, when their minds became 
calmed, they could not fail to recognize the goodness 
of father Fray Christobal. He even gained the hearts 
of these people, and forced them to love and esteem 
them. Wherever he went, he received information 
from the most honorable people of what needed a 
remedy; and being sure that they were persons who 
would not deceive him, he immediately applied the 
remedy, with the least possible cost to the delinquents. 
He knew them all very well, and knew how to treat 
them. Hence with some he used no more rigorous 
means than looking at them, and letting them know 
that he was acquainted with their faults; and this 
was enough to bring about their improvement, which 
was what he purposed and desired. But when more 
severe measures were requisite, he was not slow or 
hesitating in employing them. Accordingly he was 
very useful to God in his office by attacking many 
sins and scandals, and by preventing others (which is 
an act of higher prudence). For the juridical acts 
which he performed as an ecclesiastical judge he 
accepted no fees, and he moderated as much as pos- 
sible the fees of the officials of his jurisdiction. Since 
he understood the language of the Indians, he had no 
need of an interpreter, a matter of great importance 
and the means of avoiding much injury, deceit, and 
expense in the suits of the Indians. Since their means 



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68 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol. 31 

are very small, it is very easy to distort justice by 
bribing them, unless the activity of the judges pre- 
vents this evil. Even when this does not happen, the 
expenses of suitors are always very large. The vicar- 
general was desirous of avoiding these expenses, and 
therefore employed no interpreter, as in everything 
he took care that all might plead and gain their 
rights at small expense. This is an evidence that the 
great fear which he caused was not due to the fact 
that he was quarrelsome or litigious, but because he 
was zealous for the honor of God and the good of 
the souls that were in his care. So long as the bishop 
was in the islands, he had some comfort and defense; 
but as soon as the bishop had gone to Espana the 
father, being the sole governor of the bishopric 
(which at that time included all the islands), could 
not fail to suffer from the great increase of his labors, 
and greatly feel the want of the bishop's support. 
The thing to which he gave the greatest amount of 
attention and in which he found the greatest dif- 
ficulty, was the prohibition to the Chinese heathen 
of the comedies that they performed, and to Spanish 
men and women attendance on those comedies, on 
account of the manner in which they were per- 
formed, which was full of superstition and idolatry. 
Up to the time when our religious had come, there 
was no one who understood their language and cus- 
toms, so no one paid any attention to this point. The 
Chinese felt sure that no on^ but themselves could 
understand their comedies, and performed them as 
in China, full of superstitions and idolatries. This 
was found out by Father Juan Cobo when he had 
learned their language, letters, and customs. He 
gave notice thereof to the vicar-general, who ordered 



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i64ol ADUARTE'S HISTORIA 69 

the comedies to cease, as being superstitious. The 
Chinese were greatly grieved, and so were the Span- 
iards - the latter because, although they did not 
understand the comedies, they enjoyed seeing them 
for the sake of the actions and representations which 
the Chinese make in a very realistic way; and the 
Chinese, because they are devoted to this kind of 
entertainment. So every one, including the governor, 
was opposed to the vicar-general. He, because he 
did not understand the evil in the thing, took the 
side of the Chinese; but the vicar-general was cer- 
tain that these comedies were an offense to the Lord, 
as well for the reason stated as because they were 
performed by night, and many other evil results used 
to follow. They were attended at night by Spanish 
men and Spanish women and their female servants, 
and by other Indian women -who, covered by the 
dark cloak of night, did many things which ought 
not to be done in Christian lands. But the vicar- 
general put his shoulder to the difficulty, and com- 
manded that no one, on pain of excommunication, 
should go to see the comedies. Since the governor 
was of the opposite opinion, there was no one who 
dared to publish the excommunications; so the vicar- 
general himself went and fastened them on the 
church-doors, accompanied only by his friars, since 
there was no one else who ventured to accompany 
him. At last, although it cost him much and much 
evil was said against him, he brought this evil prac- 
tice to an end. Since that time Spanish men, and 
many more Spanish women, do not go to see these 
comedies; and no permission is given for their per- 
formance until they are first looked over and ap- 
proved by a religious who understands the language, 



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70 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol. 31 

and who sees that they are not superstitious but are 
historical, or have plots which are not idolatrous. 
This is what ought to be done in the realms of a 
Catholic prince, although the comedies are per- 
formed by heathens and idolaters; for as the latter 
are not permitted to perform their idolatries, they 
ought not to be permitted to play superstitious come- 
dies made in honor of false gods, for such comedies 
are part of the idolatry which is forbidden to them. 
It would be supposed that father Fray Christobal, 
being so busy and so usefully occupied, would have 
no time to attend to anything else except to his posi- 
tion as governor and vicar-general of this diocese. 
Yet this was not the case, but whenever the oppor- 
tunity was offered -as was not often, there being 
then so few whom he could employ - he took advan- 
tage of it to leave his duties for the time. Hence 
when the first Spaniards went to the pacification or 
conquest of Nueva Segovia, he went as chaplain of 
the soldiers, and was with them in all the conflicts 
which they had with the Japanese, which conflicts 
have already been described. He was the first priest 
that entered that country - as it were, to take pos- 
session of it for the friars of his order, who afterward 
converted it to the law of God and to His gospel. In 
the same way, when another expedition was made to 
Maluco, he embarked as chaplain, purposing in 
both expeditions to do the greater service to his king 
and lord by restraining the soldiers, by his authority 
and by the respect which they had for him, from the 
disorders which the inconsiderate are likely to be 
guilty of under such circumstances as these. This 
same desire of being useful in all things caused him 
to take charge of the district of Bataan, which, al- 



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i64o] aduarte's historia 7^ 

though it contained many Christians, had no minister 
and no one to take pity upon them or to assume the 
charge of them. This aroused great compassion in 
him; and though these Indians were a day's journey 
by sea from Manila, where he was obliged to reside, 
he assumed the ministry to them and cared for them 
with great solicitude and love and with no less labor. 
[The situation of that district made the labor of the 
ministry very great. Father Fray Christobal went 
on foot through all the lakes and swamps, attending 
to the needs of all the Indians, for whom the four 
religious who succeeded him were scarcely able to 
do the work. He did all this labor in spite of a 
painful ailment from which he suffered. Among 
the things which afflicted him was the necessity of 
sleeping in his clothes for the little time when he 
could repose. This is no small discomfort in so hot 
a country. His love for the Indians was such that, 
although his labors caused him this painful infirmity, 
he devoted himself to them up to the time of the 
coming of the other missionaries ; and even after they 
came he used to take his holidays by visiting these 
Indians as his beloved sons. He greatly assisted the 
first religious to learn who were and who were not 
Christians, for the absence or loss of records had 
brought everything into confusion. He was very 
charitable, especially to the Indians. To the Span- 
iards he was a father and a master, assisting them in 
all their necessities in peace and in war. He showed 
his zeal for the honor of God and for the rooting out 
of vice in the very last hours of his life, by writing 
to the governor, Don Luis Perez das Marinas, the 
request that he would have a bad woman taken from 
a captain's house which he indicated; and that he 



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72 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol, 31 

would send three soldiers to arrest a cleric of whom 
the report was spread that he was leading an evil 
life. The asthma from which he had so long suf- 
fered finally brought his life to an end. He died in 
the hospital of the Sangleys, in the midst of the 
brethren of his order.] He was mourned by the 
whole country, and especially by the religious of all 
the orders who were in it. All declared that there 
would never again come to this region such a friar, 
such a governor of the diocese, such a father of the 
poor, such a zealot for the honor of God, a man of 
such gifts for everything. When he died, the need 
of him was exhibited by the public way in which 
those vices which, so long as he lived, dared not 
appear or lift up their heads, began to prevail in 
the country. He received a solemn interment, at- 
tended by the ecclesiastical chapter and by all the 
religious orders, to all of whom he had done many 
friendly acts, and by all of whom he was therefore 
heartily beloved. At this very day his fame is as 
much alive as if he had died but yesterday. He 
appointed to be governors of the diocese, by the 
authority which he had received therefor from the 
bishop {whose death was not yet known), father 
Fray Alonso Ximenez, provincial of this province, 
and father Fray Juan de San Pedro Martyr, or 
Maldonado. The ecclesiastical chapter resisted; and 
although the nominees plainly had right on their 
side, and the governor, Don Luis Perez das Ma- 
rinas, offered to put them in possession, they were 
unwilling to obtain the control of the bishopric by 
lawsuits. They renounced or did not accept the 
appointment, and left the government to the chapter, 
as something which should not be sought or even 



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i64o] ADUARTE'S HISTORIA Jl 

received except as the result of compulsion or sheer 
necessity, not for one's own advantage, but for the 
common weal -which very seldom is attained when 
the entry upon such offices is obtained by lawsuits. 

CHAPTER XLV 

Father Fray Juan de Castro, one of the first 
founders of this province 

[When father Fray Juan de Chrisostomo went to 
Rome to get the documents necessary for founding 
the new province, he carefully looked in every one 
of the convents that he visited for men of the devo- 
tion, prudence, and holiness which he regarded as 
necessary for a firm establishment of the new prov- 
ince. In it the rule and the constitutions were to be 
punctually observed, and the religious were not to be 
contented with observing them as others do, for we 
all profess to observe them as they were written. He 
purposed to make this province one of such virtue 
that it should be not only holy in itself, but should 
have power by the aid of the Lord to fix holiness and 
virtue in the souls of persons so alienated from them 
as were these Indians, who had always been in the 
service of the devil. Among those upon whom father 
Fray Juan Chrisostomo turned his eyes was father 
Juan de Castro, of the convent of Sancta Cathalina 
in Barcelona. He was from the city of Burgos, and 
was the nephew of the other father, Fray Juan de 
Castro, the provincial of this province. God always 
shows His power in His saints; but to be superior 
among many saints, to shine with special glory among 
shining stars, is a much more marvelous effect of the 
divine grace. Such was father Fray Juan de Castro 



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74 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol- 3i 

in this convent, which of itself has the name of being 
a very religious one; and father Fray Juan Chrisos- 
tomo selected him for the high end which he de- 
signed. Christ our Lord, did not need to seek for 
holy men. His divine power was such that He could 
make apostles of great sinners, like St. Matthew or 
St. Paul; but Father Juan Chrisostomo, being a man, 
was obliged to choose, for the foundation of the 
province upon which he had begun, persons whose 
holiness was already formed. In order to obtain 
father Fray Juan de Castro, he caused the general of 
the order to assign him by name to the new enter- 
prise. In this way the convent of Barcelona, much 
as they regretted losing Father Juan de Castro, were 
obliged to let him go to the Philippinas. His uncle, 
having been appointed to the leadership of this com- 
pany, sent his nephew to the most laborious, but most 
meritorious part of the work - namely, to the prov- 
ince of Pangasinan. Father Fray Juan, to save the 
other fathers from hardship, carried water from the 
river, brought and split the wood, kindled and stirred 
the fire, and was, in a word, the servant of the rest; 
he anticipated all the others in these works and 
labors, so that the rest of the religious might not 
be wearied out, and that the Indians might not be 
annoyed, or feel ill-will toward the preachers of the 
gospel, by being forced, against their declared in- 
tention, to bring what was necessary for the services 
of the church and of the poor convent. He suffered 
the lack of food with special content and joy. He 
took great care of the neatness and cleanliness of the 
church and the altar. In spiritual things he distin- 
guished himself as he did in these material labors; 
yet his uncle did not appoint him to any place as 



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i6o4] aduarte's historia 7S 

superior, but gave him that which he most delighted 
in, the position of the greatest labor and the lowest 
honor. When the heaviest part of the duty in Pan- 
gasinan was over, the Lord ordained that he should 
seek labor somewhere else. It was decided to send 
an embassy to China after the death of the governor, 
Gomez Perez das Marinas. He had been killed by 
some Chinese traitors, who had afterwards made 
their escape with the galley, in which was the royal 
standard, much good artillery, and other things of 
value. The purpose of the embassy was to demand 
justice upon these traitors. On account of father 
Fray Juan Cobo's success in the embassy to Japan, 
it was decided to select religious of the same order 
for the present embassy. Father Fray Luis Gan- 
duUo was accordingly chosen, and named as his asso- 
ciate father Fray Juan de Castro. As secular am- 
bassador went Don Fernando de Castro, cousin of 
the governor who sent the embassy, and nephew of 
the dead governor. A storm blew them out of their 
course toward the province of Chincheo, to which 
they had intended to go, and drove them to the prov- 
ince of Canton, one of the thirteen into which the 
Chinese realm is divided. As the Chinese there had 
had no dealings with the people of Manila, they did 
not receive the ambassadors with the respect due 
their otEce, or with the kindness which ought to be 
shown to men who had suffered so from the storms 
of the sea. They were arrested on the charge of 
piracy, but, by giving two hostages, they obtained 
somewhat better treatment. They were finally per- 
mitted to go to Macan, and afterward proceeded to 
Chincheo, but could not find a trace of the galley 
which they were looking for. The traitors had not 



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7^ THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol. 31 

gone back to their own country, but to a neighboring 
kingdom which was less civilized and had less jus- 
tice. Some of them, not expecting to be recognized, 
afterward ventured to go to Malaca, and paid for 
their crime with death. At last the ambassadors 
returned, without having obtained any of the results 
which were desired from the embassy. The fathers, 
however, had at least carried the sweet savor of the 
Christian religion to those regions. On the return 
journey, they met with such a storm that the vessel 
was lost, and the people aboard her had to save 
themselves by swimming. Father Fray Juan de 
Castro was carried by a plank to the coast of Pan- 
gasinan, a day's journey from the coast of Bolinao, 
where the wreck occurred. The exposure brought 
on a severe illness. Father Fray Juan was taken to 
Manila and died in the hospital of the Chinese, pass- 
ing away serenely and devoutly.] 

CHAPTER XLVI 

The journey made by the father provincial Fray 
Alonso Ximenez to Camboxa 

[After father Fray Alonso Ximenez had com- 
pleted his provincialate, he went to Camboxa to 
preach the gospel there. Circumstances seemed to 
make this absolutely necessary. In 1595 there came 
to the city of Manila as ambassadors from the king 
of Camboxa two soldiers - a Portuguese, named 
Diego Velloso; and a Castilian, a native of La 
Mancha, named Bias Ruiz de Fernan Gonzales. 
The kingdom of Camboxa is on the mainland, like 
China and like Spain. The king asked the governor 
of Manila for soldiers to assist in the defense of his 



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i64o] aduarte's historia 77 

kingdom against the king of Siam, his neighbor; and 
also for Dominican friars, to preach the law of God 
in his kingdom. The people of Camboja have 
special knowledge of our order because of some 
religious, from the India of Portugal, who lived 
there a long time.'" One of them, named Fray Sil- 
vestre, was so highly esteemed by the king that he 
had him about his person continually. The Portu- 
guese, however, were unwilling to attempt the con- 
version of this region, because they thought, and 
quite properly, that they could not carry it on to 
advantage from India. The governor, in spite of the 
small force of soldiers which he had, and the re- 
ligious order, although likewise they had but few 
laborers, decided to do what they could to fulfil the 
wishes of the king. The order accordingly appointed 
the father provincial, who was within a few months 
of the end of his term. The governor gave him the 
title of ambassador, associating with him in the em- 
bassy the commander of the forces. Captain Juan 
Xuarez Gallinato. Great difficulty was found in 
providing an ecclesiastical companion for the father 
provincial, as those who were at first suggested could 
not be spared from their duties. Finally I was ap- 
pointed, accepting this duty in accordance with my 
vow of obedience. Three vessels were prepared for 
the expedition, one of them of Spanish build, the 
other two of the sort used in this country which are 
known as juncos. These are large boats, and carry a 

'"These were Dominicans and Franciscans (vol. ix, pp. i6l, 
172"), One of the latter was named Gregorio da Cruz; a letter 
from him to Dasmarinas may be found in vol. ix, p. 197, Huerta, 
however, says (Estado, pp. 672, 673) that the early Franciscan 
missions lasted only from 1583 to 1586, and were not resumed 
until the year 1700. 



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yS THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol- 31 

great deal of freight; but they are weakly built to 
meet the storms, and have very little rigging on their 
masts, and accordingly are easily lost in bad weather. 
A hundred and thirty soldiers were collected, most 
of them without permission of the governor, who 
had given his license for only forty. There were 
also some Japanese, who are too much given to rash- 
ness in war; and some Indians of this country, who 
on occasions of honor are very good auxiliaries. The 
leader of the expedition [i.e., Gallinato] commanded 
the frigate; Diego Velloso, the smaller junk, in which 
we religious went; and Bias Ruiz de Fernan Gon- 
zalez, the larger, which contained most of the 
forces." January 18, 1596, we set sail from the 
harbor of Manila, badly equipped and worse accom- 
modated, as usually happens on such occasions. We 
went to the island of Luban,^^ fourteen leguas from 
the fort, to finish our preparations for the voyage, 
which, though it is but a short one (only two hun- 
dred leguas in length), is across a treacherous sea; 
for the best-fitted vessels often suffer severely upon 
it, much more so those which are poorly equipped, 
as were ours. The frigate and the smaller junk made 
port that night; but the larger junk was unable to 
enter, and was not to be seen in the morning. We 
assumed, as was true, that it had taken advantage of 
the favorable wind and proceeded with its journey. 
We were, however, anxious; because it was not well 

" See Morga's account of this expedition and its results, in 
VOL. XV, pp. 78-89, 130-160, 187-190. Cf. letters sent from 
Manila to Camboja, and papers connected with the embassy sent 
to Dasmarinas, in vol. ix, pp. 76-78, 86, 87, 161-180. 

^^The island (and group) of Lubang, southwest of Manila; a 
dependency formerly of the province of Cavite, but now of Marin- 



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i64o] aduarte's historia 79 

supplied with food or water, though it was better 
supplied than the other vessels. Two days afterward, 
we set sail ; but on a calm sea, and with the wind fair, 
our mainmast snapped as if it had been made of 
candy. It was all rotten; and we were left like a 
cart on the water, with nothing but our foresail, and 
that very small. The flagship took us in tow and we 
towed a small boat with four Chinese sailors, which 
was the cause of no little trouble. We sailed in this 
way for eight days, the sea being calm. One night 
at the end of this time, the boat cable broke. The 
sailors that were in the boat called out for us to wait 
for them; and the flagship hove to, and began to 
sound while we were waiting for the boat. Finding 
bottom in forty brazas, they perceived that we were 
near the country of Camboja. In order to reach port 
early on the following day, they left us, thinking that 
in spite of the smallness of our sail we could reach 
there on the same day. The result, however, was not 
as was expected; for by bad navigation we had gone 
many leguas to leeward of the port. To make our 
way back there we had to sail against the wind. A 
storm arose soon after, and the flagship was obliged 
to run before the wind; it made port in Malaca, 
more than two hundred leguas to leeward of its des- 
tination, and was unable to return for three months. 
Our vessel could not make sail against the sea, being 
entirely unequipped, and good for nothing but to 
ask for the mercy of God. Under these circum- 
stances fell the night between the eighth and ninth 
of February. We all supposed that this was the last 
of our days, and no man expected to see the next 
morning. The force of the wind drove us aground 
more than two leguas from shore; we had to cut 



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8o THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 31 

away the stump of the mainmast, which was still 
standing, and to throw into the sea the rudder and 
everything there was in the ship. The boat, which 
might have saved us, was swamped; and the sailors 
who were in it got aboard the ship. The waves broke 
over the vessel, but could not sink it because it was 
already fast aground.] I sat all that night in the 
waist (for it was impossible to stand), confessing the 
Christians and catechizing the heathen. I baptized 
twenty-two of them, feeling that the great danger in 
which we were, authorized the act. When they had 
all received the sacraments, I encouraged them to 
the work which was necessary to keep us from per- 
ishing. Several times I went into the poop to confess 
myself, and to receive the confession of the holy old 
man, my provincial, who was there waiting for death 
- at the point of which we now were, with the rope, 
as they say, about our necks. We could do nothing 
but put up supplications and appeal from the jus- 
tice to the mercy of God, by whom sentence of death 
seemed to have been issued upon us. It was, how- 
ever, only a sentence of warning; and He accepted 
our prayer for the time, giving us hope that with His 
aid we might atone for our transgressions. The 
efficacy of God's mercy we almost felt with our hands 
on this occasion ; for death appeared to be actually 
upon us, making execution upon the lives of those 
who were there. We were somewhat encouraged by 
the hope of reaching the land which was so near to 
us; but we did not know what it was, and what we 
were to expect from it. If we had known, we would 
have preferred to die in the sea; for our sufferings 
in this way would have been less than those which 
we underwent by reaching the land. We were like 



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i64o] ADUARTE'S HISTORIA ol 

those of whom Jeremiah speaks in his Lamentations, 
for whom it would have been better to have the lot 
of those who died with the sword at one stroke than 
of those whose lives were brought to an end by hun- 
ger; for the latter died a prolonged and painful 
death, being destroyed by the barrenness of the land. 
The barrenness of this coast was such that it greatly 
exceeded that of which Jeremiah speaks. It was 
such that no one would go to it, even to escape death, 
unless, like us, he was not acquainted with it. Finally 
those waves which were on their way to burst upon 
the shore pushed on the ship, which was practically 
empty, and went along as if it had been a dry stick. 
This was a result of the coming in of the tide, 
and when the tide ebbed afterwards, we were left 
aground, a cannon-shot from the sea; and we saw in 
the mud (of which all this coast is composed) the 
track of the ship like a trench, for the force of the 
sea as it rose had pushed it along, breaking a road in 
the very ground. On this same day the tide came in 
again with such fury, because it was a spring-tide, 
that it carried the ship up to the trees and even buf- 
feted it about there with such violence that we were 
obliged to disembark for fear of perishing in it 
When we were on shore, exploring parties went off 
in various directions. After they had made an 
arduous march, they brought back the news that it 
was a wilderness inhabited only by wild beasts, with- 
out any trace of a river or a spring, at least near the 
coast; and that the country within proved to be inac- 
cessible because it was overflowed and very thickly 
overgrown. This news made us feel that the sea was 
less evil for us than such a land, and that the tortures 
which we had endured were slight compared with 



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o2 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol.31 

those to which we were exposed by this desired but 
unhappy landing. Since eating and drinking are a 
necessary and a daily obligation, and as our supply 
of food and drink was very small, while we were 
more than a hundred persons, we put forth all our 
energies to search for some remedy. As thirst was 
that from which we suffered most, we dug wells in 
the dryest parts we found, and when we met water, it 
was more salty than that of the sea. I declare, as 
one who has found out by experience, that the very 
dew which appeared in the morning on the leaves of 
the wild trees there, was salt. Hence since the land 
denied us the sustenance which we required, we 
determined to return to the sea, which had at least 
granted us our lives, and which now gave us greater 
hopes than the land of being able to preserve them. 
For this it was necessary to help ourselves by means 
of the unlucky ship which was stranded on the shore, 
for it had remained there after the spring tide was 
over. It had no masts, or sails, or rudder, or any- 
thing that could be used, because between losing 
them and perishing there had been no choice. To 
supply these, it was necessary to put our hands to the 
work, until it was finished. The most necessary thing 
to be done to the ship was to cut it down and fit it ' 
so that it would draw but little water, and might be 
rowed along the coast. Our relief was to be sought 
on land, but he who should find it had to seek for it 
by sea. We were not now planning for conquests or 
embassies, but for getting water - for which we 
would have given all that has been yielded by the 
hill of Potosi, if it had been ours. We spent ten 
days in getting the ship ready. We cast overboard 
all the upper works and a good part of the under 



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i64o] ADUARTE'S HISTORIA 83 

works. We fitted to it twelve oars. In this way it 
was like a badly made galliot; rudder, masts, and 
sails we replaced by rowing. While some of us were 
at this work, others went to explore the country, 
doing their utmost in the search for water. Some 
of these came back very joyful, with good news, 
saying that about four leguas up the coast from there 
a great river ran up into the land; that where it 
flowed into the sea the water was salt, but that it 
must be fresh above. They also said that they had 
seen the footprints of men on the shore. The work 
was hurried on in the hope of satisfying our thirst, 
which was increased by it, and still more by the heat 
of that region; for we were in the most torrid part 
of the torrid zone, and had practically no defense or 
covering against the heat. The vessel, being of so 
light a draught, was easily launched; and embarking 
in it all that we had left of provisions and clothes, 
which was very little, we put forth one evening and 
entered the bight of the river of which we have 
spoken, reaching its mouth in the morning by hard 
rowing. We entered it with great delight, which was 
increased by the sight of a hut on the bank not far 
from the ocean. Though there was no one in it, we 
promised ourselves large towns when we saw it, and 
even assured ourselves of certain news of our com- 
panions, of whom as yet we knew nothing, nor they 
of us. But within a few days we found out the deceit 
and lost our joy in it. After going for three days up 
the river, we constantly found the water salt like that 
of the sea, whose arm it was, and not a river. Upon 
its banks on either side there was nothing but im- 
passable undergrowth. At last we reached a point 
from which we could not go further up, because the 



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84 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 31 

seeming river divided into so many little creeks that 
the ship had not room in any of them. The change 
from the false hope of water and of towns, which had 
possessed our minds, served to redouble our misery; 
since now, as it seemed to us, we had lost the hope of 
relief by land or by sea. Our necessity had now 
reached such an extreme that the food was distributed 
by ounces, and the drink almost by drops -though 
the labor of rowing, each man in his turn (from 
which no one was excused), was such as to require 
much food ; and the heat was so excessive that even if 
we had been in idleness we should have needed much 
to drink. But at last, having confidence in the 
Father of mercies - who, though He distresses, does 
not overwhelm; and, though He chastises, does not 
slay -we returned to the sea by which we had come. 
At sight of it we left the vessel, in order to rest a 
little from the labor which we had endured to attain 
that for which we were hoping; and I went on land 
with my four Chinese (with whom I was very inti- 
mate) , and had them build a little boat of four planks 
- fastened together by some twigs, so to speak, for we 
had no nails; and calked with clay, for we had no 
tow, or any other thing better than the clay. This 
made a sort of canoe. If awkwardly handled, it filled 
with water. But, such as it was, I had two of the 
soldiers get into it - for if they kept close to shore 
they would run no risk - and told them to go up to 
the hut that we had seen to discover whether there 
were any people there; because perhaps they had 
hidden themselves, from fear of our vessel, when 
they saw it on the way up the river. They did so, 
and at nightfall they discovered two grown Indians 
and a boy. They made their way up to them, little 



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1640] ADUARTE'S HISTORIA 85 

by little; and when they got near them they found 
that they were asleep on the shore, not expecting any- 
thing to happen to them. They caught the Indians, 
and bound them. When the rest of us came by soon 
after in our ship, they called out from the land, tell- 
ing us what they had done. Our joy was so great that 
to render thanks the holy old man and I sang a Te 
Deum laudamus; and at this hour, which was mid- 
night, half a cuartillo [i.e., pint] of water was served 
out to the troops in token of joy. The soldiers came 
on board with their captives, treating them gently 
and showing them all sorts of kindness. It seemed 
to us that God had sent them to us as angels to guide 
us, as He sent St. Raphael to Tobias. We began to 
put questions to them by an interpreter, asking what 
country this was, what population it had; and where 
they had come from, and where they ate and drank. 
They answered that they were from Camboxa, and 
that the country along this coast, and inland for 
many leguas, was uninhabited; and that to go to the 
towns we should have to enter a large river and to 
sail up for eighty leguas. They said that large ves- 
sels went up the river, and that it was many leguas 
to windward of this place. They declared that they 
were natives of that country, slaves of one of its chief 
lords; and that, because of the ill treatment which 
they had received, they had fled from him, and had 
come hither where no man had ever landed. They 
said that they ate nothing except shell-fish, which 
they caught with their hands, and wild cocoanuts, 
that grew there; and that they had no other water 
except what fell from heaven. When it rained they 
caught what they could and kept it in some large 
reeds to drink afterward. They said that two years 



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86 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol. 31 

had passed since they had come there. The effect 
of such sad news upon the hearts of men who had 
suffered as we had may easily be imagined. They 
also told us that some days' journey further there 
was a port; but that, if we meant to go inland, where 
the king was, it would be necessary to leave the 
vessel at the port, because there was no river that 
entered inland. Since our desire was only not to 
die of thirst, any means by which we could get water 
seemed easy and light to us. We accordingly set out 
by sea in search of this port, taking these Indians 
with us, not with the purpose of increasing consumers 
when we had so little to consume, but to have guides. 
We went along the coast, running up to it very often 
wherever we thought we saw any signs of water, and 
sometimes digging wells, but always in vain, for the 
land could not give what it did not have. On the 
day of St. Matthew the Apostle, we discovered a 
high island in the sea, named Pulonubi.^' It was 
about six leguas from land. We laid our course 
toward it in search of water, thinking that doubtless 
it would have some, being high and mountainous, 
and having a sandy shore; but as the equipment of 
the ship was fastened on with pins, as the saying is, 
our rudder broke, when we had gone out a legua to 
sea. Being buffeted by the slight sea which was run- 
ning, we had to return to land, and even to run 
aground, in order to mend the rudder. The Lord 
seemed to have declared that He intended to bring 
death upon us, because the sustenance necessary for 
our life was entirely consumed; for since we had no 

^' Pulo Obi - that is. Obi Island ; it lies near Cape Camao 
(sometimes called Cambodia), the southernmost point of Cochin- 
china. 



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i64o] aduarte's historia 8/ 

water, we were not only without drink, but also with- 
out food, our provision being rice, which cannot be 
eaten unless it is boiled in water. For lack of water, 
some ate it parched, which dried their entrails. 
Others ate it imperfectly boiled in the steam of salt 
water, putting it in a little basket over a pot of this 
water on the fire, so that by the steam thus sent out 
it might be softened. The water was so salt that it 
made the rice like itself, and left it uneatable. There 
were some who, even after this fine example of cook- 
ery, drank sea-water, which increased the thirst they 
were so impatiently desiring to remedy. Others dis- 
tilled it over the fire and got some fresh water, but 
very little, at the expense of much wood and with the 
necessity of keeping up fire day and night, which 
dried them more than the water that they got moist- 
ened them. All this taught us the great need in 
which we live, with our life on a thread, and the 
Lord many times threatening to cut it short. When 
we had mended the rudder as well as we could at the 
time, we went on up the coast, being disillusioned, so 
that we would not have thought of going out to sea 
even if the ocean had been as smooth as milk. Three 
days later, the twenty-seventh of February, which 
was Shrove Tuesday, we took our hands from the 
oars and placed ourselves in those of God, despairing 
of life. The remedy came to us as from God's own 
hand without our expecting it, when we were over- 
come by labor, and dying of hunger and thirst, and 
had given up ourselves to death. Thus it is most 
certain that the Lord comes to the aid of him who 
calls upon Him when all things created fail him - 
blessed be God's holy name. We had reached such 
an extremity that of that sorry ration of water which 



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88 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol. 31 

we had now had about a month, and which was less 
than half a cuartillo daily for each person, there was 
only enough for two days. We were not now think- 
ing of making any effort to find any, but had our 
minds wholly turned to preparing ourselves for 
death, when the Lord of life ordained that the waves 
of the sea should drive us into a little inlet which the 
land formed there, where we went on shore with the 
intention of never leaving the place, but of ending 
in it our voyage and our lives. It happened that one 
of the Indians in the ship went to bathe in the water, 
to relieve the great heat from which he suffered, and 
somewhat to moderate the thirst which was destroy- 
ing us. He swam to land, and there right on the 
shore (which was muddy, like all of that along which 
we had coasted) , his feet sank in at the foot of a 
wild palm-tree. Feeling that they had gone into 
water, he drew them out, applied his lips to the hole 
which he had made, and found that the water was 
fresh. The thirst from which he suffered not per- 
mitting him to wait until it settled, he drank mud 
and water until he was satisfied. He shouted to us to 
tell us what he had discovered, but no one believed 
him. At last, the Indian persisting in his affirma- 
tion, all hurried to the water to look upon this mar- 
vel, which might be compared to that which God 
performed in drawing water from a rock that His 
people might drink in the desert; for no less miracu- 
lous appeared to us this fresh water in a marsh so 
near the ocean. We gave God a thousand thanks, 
and rejoicing in the feast, we forgot the labor and the 
fasting which we had undergone in the long vigil. 
We easily dug a well, for the whole soil was muddy, 
and on the next morning we filled all our casks with 



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i64o] ADUARTE'S HISTORIA 09 

the water, which had now settled. We set sail to 
look for food, and even aspired to greater things. 
[In a few days we reached the port, where there was 
a garrison of Indians against their neighbors, the 
Siamese. All the news which we obtained about our 
comrades, and about the country to which we had 
come, was bad. The flagship had not been heard of, 
and the other ship was at Churdumuco, which is a 
large town eight leguas from the port and eighty 
from the sea." We were told that the king who had 
sent for us from Manila, and whose name was Lan- 
gara, was not in the country; but that his place in the 
kingdom had been taken by his chief vassal, because 
of the following circumstances. The king of Sian 
had made war against the king of Camboja, with 
eight hundred thousand men. This number should 
not astonish anyone, because the kings could make 
war almost at no expense, their vassals providing 
their own arms and food. The king of Camboja did 
not dare to wait for so great a multitude of enemies, 
and retreated up the river to another kingdom known 
as that of the Laos. The king of Siam made himself 
master of the country, and after burning it all re- 
turned to his own country, being harassed by hunger, 
which made more war upon him than did the king 
his enemy. The army being in disorder, one of the 
chiefs of Camboja, with those who had retreated to 
the mountains (about thirty thousand men) , attacked 
his rearguard, thus obliging him to hasten his re- 
treat. This chief, having conquered him who had 

'* It is difficult to identify this town with exactness, but it is 
probably the same as the modern Pnom-penh (Panomping) on 
the great river Me-khong (also called Cambodia). The usurper 
6f Langara's throne was Anacaparan (see Morga' 
VOL. xv). 



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9° THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS IVol. 31 

conquered his king, took possession of the kingdom. 
The new king regarded those who had come at the 
request of the previous king as allies of his enemy, 
and therefore as his own enemies. This news alarmed 
us greatly, as we were without our comrades, our 
commander-in-chief, and our ships. However, being 
obliged to disembark, and to put ourselves into the 
hands of the rulers of the country, we made an honest 
man of the thief, as the proverb goes, and decided to 
send a soldier to him as an ambassador -offering to 
him our aid and service, on the ground that we had 
come to help the king of this country, and found no 
other king in it but him. The king received him 
kindly, saying that he only held the kingdom as a 
regent, and that he was ready to restore it to the 
lawful king when he should return. He sent an 
order to the mandarin of the coast where we were, to 
provide us with boats and carts. The soldier on his 
return met the Spaniards of the other ship, and 
learned from them that all that the king had said 
was false and that his purpose was to kill us at his 
ease. They advised us to join them in their ship, 
dissimulating in regard to our affairs, and keeping 
on our guard. The father provincial sent me ahead 
to confess those in the ship, because it was Lent, and 
they had sent to him to ask for a confessor. I was 
on foot and suffered much, although some things that 
I saw on the journey afforded me some alleviation of 
these hardships. I one day reached a village where 
there was a monastery of religious of their sort, of 
whom there are many in this kingdom. I went to it 
and talked to a venerable old man, who was as it were 
the superior of it. He was seated on a little platform 
about a palm's breadth in height, with a small mat 



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i64o] ADUARTE'S HISTORIA 9^ 

on it, and the others sat on the ground. Without 
saying anything, I sat down next to the old man - at 
which they smiled, thinking that I had done so be- 
cause I did not understand the custom of the coun- 
try, which did not permit that. We both showed 
each other much courtesy by signs, and I by using 
some words of their language which I knew, al- 
though, because I did not put them together prop- 
erly, they laughed much. They gave me a collation 
of some fruits; and the sacristan immediately took 
me to his temple, which was at some distance from 
the house. It had a sort of cemetery about it, sur- 
rounded by some slightly raised stones which divided 
it from the rest. The door to the temple was small, 
and the temple itself was arched, round, and small. 
(Here follows a full account of the appearance of 
the temple. Some description of their prayers and 
of their religious customs is also given. Aduarte 
states, upon the authority of the Portuguese religious, 
that these native monks are vicious and licentious in 
the extreme.) I finally reached the ship of our 
people, and on both sides we told each other what 
had happened.] 

CHAPTER XLVII 

The wars which followed in the prosecution of 
this embassy 

[By the sufferings and danger which we had 
passed through, the Lord had prepared us to endure 
those which were to follow. To protect the ship, 
some of the men had encamped on a little sand 
island in the middle of the river. On one bank was 
the town {i.e., Chordamuco) of the natives, near 



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92 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol. 31 

which there were about two thousand Chinese, some 
settled here, others who had recently come from 
China as traders, with their merchandise, in five 
large vessels, which they kept in the river near the 
town. They had controlled the natives, and resented 
the coming of the Spaniards, thinking that the latter 
had come to disturb or take away the superiority 
which they had. So they sought for an opportunity 
to quarrel with them, seeing that the Spaniards were 
few and that they were many. Whenever the men on 
the ship went to buy food on land, the Chinese tried 
their patience by annoying them without any reason. 
By orders of the captain, Bias Ruyz de Fernan 
Gongalez, they endured this annoyance, though sorely 
against their will. The captain sent a message to the 
king asking him to bring the Chinese to order. The 
king spoke fair words, but did nothing. Finally, the 
anger of our men got beyond their control. On the 
Sunday after Easter, when all had received com- 
munion, three or four were in the town with the 
captain's permission. One of them came back with 
his sword drawn, saying that the Chinese had chased 
and abused them, and that they had not dared to 
violate the captain's orders. The troops armed them- 
selves, and, breaking away from all restraints, went 
to take vengeance on the Chinese. I went along to 
calm the Chinese, if I could, by speaking to them in 
their language, which I understood. They were all 
armed with their catanas (a sort of hanger), and 
languinaias, or long knives drawn to a point. I dared 
not put myself in their hands, because I was told that 
they would be better pleased to get me than anyone 
else. Soon after, sixty of our men in two companies, 
with some of our Japanese and Indians, came ashore 



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1640] aduarte's historia 93 

and instantly attacked the Chinese. As our bullets 
took effect at such a distance that the latter could not 
attack our troops hand to hand, the Chinese were 
routed; and our men followed, killing them, until 
they had driven them out of the town. The natives 
of the country took no part in the conflict on either 
side. I saved as many lives as I could. The soldiers, 
seeing themselves masters of the field, pursued the 
Chinese to their ships, into which the Spaniards were 
able to shoot from the high banks. In this way they 
soon got control of the ships, which was necessary, 
because with these large ships they would easily 
have overcome our smaller vessel, and thus all hope 
to escape from the anger of the king would have been 
taken away from us. The king " was in great wrath. 
To send a message to him, and to carry a statement 
of the case, the father provincial, Fray Alonso Xime- 
nez, was chosen. He went accompanied by half of 
the forces, the rest of us remaining in the ships. 
Several days were passed in sending messages back- 
wards and forwards, but the king would not receive 
the ambassadors in person. It was plain that the 
king was planning to take all our lives. The demands 
which he made would have put us entirely in his 
power; and, when the father provincial asked per- 
mission to return and discuss them with the rest of 
the forces, the king refused permission for anyone 
to return except the father provincial alone. The 
intention of the king was to wait for a rainy day, so 
that our powder should be moistened and we be 
unable to use our arquebuses. When the father pro- 
vincial came back, he asked me if I would venture 

" That is, the usurper Anacaparan. According to Morga, he 
resided at Sistor, which probably was the modern Udong. 



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94 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol. 31 

to go to the camp, confess the soldiers and encourage 
them, and carry to the king our response declining to 
follow his wishes. When I reached the forces near 
the palace of the king, we did not consider the ques- 
tion of taking any answer to him, but discussed two 
plans of escape. One was to withdraw in good order, 
defending ourselves on the way; the other to attack 
the palace of the king by night and strive to capture 
him, his son, or his wife, whom we might use as 
hostages. Captain Diego Velloso declared that if 
we should attack these Indians boldly they would 
retreat to the mountains, and leave the field to us; 
but that if we should retreat they would all attack us. 
He had had experience in this part of the world, and 
what he said was confirmed by others, so that his plan 
was accepted. That night I confessed the men and 
told them what under the circumstances it was law- 
ful for them to do, enjoining them to commit no 
unnecessary violence, and to take no lives except in 
self-defense. The attack was planned carefully, the 
troops being divided into a front arid a rear guard, 
and some of the soldiers being left with a barge in 
the river near where we were encamped, with orders 
to capture two Indian boats as soon as they should 
hear the noise of conflict, so that we could make use 
of them in our retreat. I should have been glad to 
remain with the barge in order to avoid being present 
at the conflict, which promised to be sanguinary.] 
However, it seemed necessary for me to accompany 
the rest, and, armed as they were, and wearing no 
part of my habit except my scapular, I accompanied 
the troops who advanced against the palace. We 
were immediately detected, but succeeded in reach- 
ing the royal dwelling -which was built of wood, 



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i64o] aduarte's historia 95 

like the other houses in the town, but was very large. 
We broke in the doors, but the people all escaped 
through other doors; and thus, though we gained 
control of the palace, it was empty and we had failed 
in our purpose. I restrained the troops from burn- 
ing the palace; but we lighted some bonfires, so that 
we might see each other. One of these saved my 
life, for as an Indian on an elephant was charging 
upon me and was already very close to me, so that 
I looked around at hearing the noise, the beast fled 
in alarm, being scared away by the fire. The Indians 
were not frightened by our daring, as we had falsely 
imagined that they would be, but gathered in a large 
square near the palace to face us. Everything, how- 
ever, was noise and confusion among them, surprised 
as they were, and there was no less among us; for 
the number of our opponents was so much greater 
than theirs that, if darkness had not protected us, they 
could have buried us in handfuls of sand. [Like 
Joshua, I would have held back the dawn if I could. 
At daylight we were all in disorder. When the 
Indians could distinguish us from themselves and 
saw how few we were, they began to rain arrows 
upon us, several being wounded. Captain Diego 
Velloso having one leg pinned to another, so that he 
could not walk. Our troops were in entire con- 
fusion, some calling out that we ought to come fo an 
understanding with the Indians, others finding fault 
with the plan that we had followed, until God was 
pleased to give me courage that I might give courage 
to the others, and I took upon myself the office of 
captain. Our last day, as we expected it to be, was 
bright and clear. A body of courageous Indians 
charged down the street at us, and their captain 



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9^ THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol. 31 

almost reached our line. I confess that I wished to 
leap out upon him, not that I might kill him, but 
that I might be the first to die, and not see the 
carnage which I feared -or the worse than carnage, 
if we were taken alive. But wisdom ruled me, and 
I ordered Captain Bias Ruiz to attack him with his 
halberd ; with one blow he thrust the Indian through, 
shield and body. The death of their captain some- 
what abated the courage of the rest. God was pleased 
that one of our bullets should strike the king, who 
was in the rear, unseen by us, animating his troops. 
We did not learn of this for some days afterward, but 
we could see that the Indians attacked us with less 
ardor. The Indians cut off our retreat to the barge, 
and we were obliged to leave the soldiers who were 
with it and to make our way, back by the road. As 
we marched along, we were obliged to defend our- 
selves on all sides, and especially against the crowd 
of Indians which followed in our rear. We could 
go but slowly, burdened as we were with our arms, 
and being obliged to carry our wounded.] Two 
arrows struck but did not wound me, one being 
caught by a coat of mail which I wore, and the 
other by my shield. We suffered greatly from hun- 
ger and thirst- When we came to some puddles with 
rain-water in them (which was more mud than 
water), all drank of them, and when I came there, 
though I was one of the last, I did the same; and 
though the best had already been drunk, and the rest 
was mixed with mud, it tasted better to me than any 
water that I ever drank in my life. Under all these 
circumstances, we marched on this day, which was 
the twelfth of May, four leguas by four o'clock in 
the afternoon, [when we were obliged to halt be- 



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i64o] aduarte's historia 97 

cause we had reached the bank of a river. The 
Indians and we ourselves supposed that we should 
never be able to cross. Here some of our men urged 
that we ought to give ourselves up to the Indians as 
slaves for life; others declared that we ought to 
attack them, and force them to kill us. At nightfall, 
rain began; and the Indians, supposing that our 
powder would be moistened, prepared to attack us. 
I passed along the line, confessing some and encour- 
aging all, though I must admit I was in great fear 
myself lest before midnight we should be cut into 
bits, that each one of our enemy might have his piece, 
as is the custom of Indians when they are victorious. 
The storm ceased before they dared to attack, but the 
river was still before us. There were two fords, one 
narrow and deep; the other, wide and shallow, and 
at about ten o'clock at night I decided that we ought 
to make the venture, and learn whether we were to 
live or die. We chose the longer and shallower ford, 
marching as quietly as we could, and leaving behind 
us a number of burning bits of the matches that we 
used for firing our guns, tied on the bushes, in order 
to make the Indians suppose that there was a large 
number of troops there. Our retreat was covered by 
six courageous men with two arquebuses each. When 
we entered the river, our vanguard, which was al- 
ready in the middle, began to retreat upon us, fearing 
the people who were on the other bank, and their 
elephants, which they said they were driving into 
the water. I succeeded in reanimating them, and 
they fired a volley from the middle of the stream, 
where the water reached the beards of many of them. 
The enemy fled, and our passage was impeded only 
by the difficulty of dragging ourselves through the 



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9*' THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol. 31 

mud. We marched on for the rest of the night very 
slowly, with our clothes sticking to our bodies. On 
the morrow we found some fruit-frees and broke our 
fast of two nights and one day. We had great dif- 
ficulty in carrying our wounded. One of the men 
being left behind by all, I had to carry him myself 
with his arms over my shoulders, for he was taller 
than I, until, after his wound began to grow fever- 
ish, he was able to walk a little himself. Not long 
before sunrise we reached the great river in which 
the ships were, but at a distance of two leguas from 
us. We put three of the wounded who were the 
hardest to carry into a little boat there, and ordered 
them to row down the river and carry the news of 
what had happened, and to direct the others to bring 
the ship near the bank where we were. In the mean- 
time we cut some trees and made a breastwork; and 
when the Indians (who are not accustomed to attack 
by night) prepared to make their last rush and over- 
whelm us, our ship came up and, approaching the 
bank as closely as possible, played on the Indians 
with some artillery, and fired at them with arque- 
buses. Under this protection we succeeded in getting 
to the ship, being carried in two boat-loads.] 

CHAPTER XLVin 

Our departure from the kingdom and the events 
which happened during our return to Manila 

[On the same day on which we reached the ships. 
Captain Juan Xuarez Gallinato arrived. He was 
told of our experience with the Chinese and with the 
Cambodians, and of the good-will displayed in this 
kingdom for its conversion, and also for the temporal 



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1640I aduarte's historia 99 

ends proposed in the service of his Majesty. Captain 
Gallinato showed that he disbelieved much of what 
was told him, and that what he did believe impressed 
him badly. In spite of all that was done to persuade 
him to wait a few days, he was resolved to depart 
immediately; so we sailed to Cochinchina for pro- 
visions. Here we were at first very well received. 
Then Gallinato sent Captain Gregorio de Vargas as 
ambassador to visit the king, and to ask him for the 
royal standard, the galley, and the artillery, and the 
other things which had been carried to that kingdom 
by the traitors who murdered Governor Gomez 
Perez das Marinas. The king took this demand so 
ill that he tried to kill the ambassador, who barely 
escaped with his life. The king, partly because of 
his rage, and partly from fear that the news of his 
treatment of the ambassador would be carried back 
by the Spaniards, sent two fleets and a large land 
force to destroy us. We here got news of the death 
of the tyrant who had ruled over the kingdom of 
Camboja and of the plan of a number of loyal chiefs 
to reinstate the lawful king with the assistance of the 
Spaniards, to whom they meant to offer great re- 
wards. The Spanish ships were just putting out to 
sea when the Indians reached the shore with the 
purpose of giving them this invitation. It was known 
that the kingdom of the Laos (to which the king of 
Camboja had withdrawn) was very near that of 
Cochinchina; and Captains Bias Ruyz and Diego 
Velloso asked permission to go by land and find the 
king. Gallinato permitted them to do so, and I 
accompanied them to the city of Sinoa, where a son 
of the king acted as viceroy. Some Augustinian 
friars who were in that country begged father Fray 



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lOO THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol- 51 

Alonso Ximenez to go with them and celebrate the 
feast of St. Augustine. During his absence, the 
rumor that the Indians intended to murder us treach- 
erously kept increasing; so that we all went aboard, 
in order to be able to defend ourselves better. The 
time for sailing to Manila had come, of which we 
had to take advantage without waiting for either 
father Fray Alonso or the captain, because we should 
otherwise have been obliged to winter there. On the 
third of September, a multitude of people suddenly 
appeared on the hills, and a fleet came sailing up into 
the cove where we were. There were many galleys 
and small boats, and among them there were fifteen 
larger two-masted vessels, fastened together three by 
three, with no one on them but a steersman. These 
were loaded with wood and fagots, to set fire to us; 
while, if we took refuge in the water, the people in 
the small boats were ready to receive us. The men 
on the hills began to shoot at us with their arque- 
buses, which they used skilfully, aiming well, though 
they were slow in taking aim. The bullets, however, 
fell short. Our two smaller vessels set sail, and by 
the aid of a light breeze moved out into the middle of 
the bay. The ship in which I was was larger; and, 
though we tried to do as the other boats did, the wind 
was too light for us, and the fire-boats came upon us 
and gave us a great deal of trouble. They came so 
near that from the top of our poop we could see the 
steersmen, some of whom our men shot, while others 
took refuge in some little boats which they towed. 
When the fire-boats were left without anyone to steer 
them, they followed the current of the water, and 
left us in peace. At this point father Fray Alonso 



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i64o] ADUARTE'S HISTORIA IOI 

Ximenez reached the shore. They took off his habit 
and dragged him, with nothing on but his breeches, 
before the viceroy, who had come as general of this 
enterprise. He told him to put on his habit again, 
and talked of his ransom ; but our captain was so 
angry at their treachery that he sent back a very 
wrathful answer. Thus father Fray Alonso Ximenez 
was left a prisoner, but was not ill treated. He 
received permission to live with the Augustinian 
fathers, and at last was permitted to go to Macan 
without being obliged to pay a ransom. From there 
he came back to this country at the end of a year and 
a half. On the next day we set sail for Manila. 
There are shoals in the midst of this guif running 
for eighty leguas directly across the straight course 
for Manila; and to pass these shoals it was necessary 
to round one of the two ends of the chain -one in 
latitude nine, the other in latitude seventeen. The 
latter being nearer the direct line, we governed our 
course by it; and the flagship, sailing well against 
the wind, rounded it. The vessel in which I was, 
being a poor sailer, went by the other end, but got 
out of its course. We were becalmed one night, so 
near the coast of the Philippinas that the people were 
already beginning to prepare their clothes for going 
on shore. In the morning we found ourselves in the 
midst of reefs which were not on the charts. To 
make our way out from them, we were obliged to 
sail back on our course; and after we had made our 
way out the wind was against us, and we were 
obliged to sail toward the country which we had 
left. We decided to land at Malaca, that we might 
at least escape with our persons, for we cared little 



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I02 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol.31 

for anything else.] We reached an island named 
Pulotimon/^ which is forty leguas from Malaca. 
The Indians here told us that there were some pirates 
in that sea; that they were anchored about five leguas 
off, and that we should have to pass them. This 
news greatly disquieted us, because our vessel did 
not sail well or answer the helm well, which is the 
worst thing that can be in a sea-fight. But it was not 
possible to escape this danger, because there was 
greater danger in every other direction where we 
wished to go. So we continued our voyage and met 
with the pirates, as they had told us. They had five 
ships, four of them small, and one of them large, 
strong, and well equipped, and provided with net- 
tings. On these boats there were many little flags, 
which, we were told, were tokens of the prizes that 
they had taken. They were of a tribe called China- 
patan, descendants of Chinese who have colonized 
the kingdom of Patau. They had learned this busi- 
ness [of piracy], because it is easier than others; and 
they had now sailed out to practice it. That we 
might not show fear, but might excite fear in them, 
we passed close to their ships, with our flag flying 
and our drum beating. They failed to see that our 
invitation was feigned, accepted it, and, weighing 
their anchors, followed us all night, giving us chase 
till morning. The small vessels surrounded us, and 
with the large one attacked us. Their arms at close 
quarters were pikes and javelins with points hard- 
ened in the fire [tostadas}. The arms which they 
used at a distance were culverins and arquebuses. In 

'^Tiuman (Timoan, Timun) Island is off the eastern coast 
of the Malay peninsula; it is about ten miles long and five broad, 
and is a mass of rock, rising into heights of 2,000 to J.ooo feet. 



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1640] aduarte's historia 103 

using our arquebuses we did not waste a bullet, for 
there were many on whom to employ them. [We 
were alarmed by the explosion of a keg of powder, 
but fortunately only one man was killed. I was 
standing alone on the poop, watching for the result 
of the fight; and at first the enemy did not notice me, 
since the waist was full of their pikemen. At last, 
one of them perceived me and flung a pike at me, 
giving me a wound of three dedos in depth. I 
descended from the poop; but, before I reached the 
deck, one of the fire-hardened lances struck me in 
the right jaw, leaving its point and innumerable 
splinters in the flesh. With my two hands upon my 
two wounds I went to confess some wounded men 
who were in danger. At last when the enemies saw 
that their prize cost them much, they left us and 
went away without our being able to follow them, 
because our vessel was so unfit. We afterward 
learned in Malaca that out of two hundred pirates 
(which was their total number) more than half had 
been killed. Most of us were wounded, and two or 
three died -besides two others, who were shot by 
accident by their own friends. After we had escaped 
this danger we came, two days later, upon a surprise 
which was equally great. In the strait of Sincapura, 
by which we were obliged to pass, we found a fleet 
of eighty large galleys, with heavy artillery amid- 
ships and along the sides. This was the fleet of the 
king of Achen, who was going to do what injury he 
could to the king of Jor [i.e., Johor] to whom be- 
longs the country of that strait. The latter had 
sixteen galleys for its defense, which were in the 
mouths of the rivers to prevent his enemy from enter- 
ing them. Malaca is between these two kingdoms. 



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I04 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol.31 

There was at that time an agreement that neither of 
these kings should be assisted with men, but only with 
provisions and ammunition, one side receiving the 
one and the other the other, but neither receiving 
both. We passed ourselves off to them as Portu- 
guese; and when they called upon us to enter their 
galleys we excused ourselves, because of the afore- 
said agreement, and went on in peace to Malaca. I 
went to our convent, where the religious were sur- 
prised at my coming, partly because it was the mid- 
dle of November, when they did not expect a vessel 
from any direction, and partly because they saw me 
in so coarse a habit, very different from that which 
they wore. Besides that, I was very dirty and very 
lean, and had my body and face all bound up because 
of my wounds. Although my appearance was so 
strange, they were so discreet (or I had better say 
so charitable) that, without asking any questions they 
arranged to take care of me, called in the surgeon, 
and brought me underwear and a habit after their 
fashion. After I was cared for and clothed, they 
asked me whence I came and how I had been brought 
there. I was charmed with the kindness which they 
had shown me, and told of my wanderings and of the 
sufferings which I had endured, by which they were 
greatly astonished. I remained there for six months. 
My cure took three months, and from the wound in 
my face every day two or three splinters were dis- 
charged, some larger and others smaller, until at 
least a hundred had come out. Though the wound 
closed, two remained within, which came out two 
years later, two dedos below the wound. I was much 
inconvenienced during those three months, because 
I could or.ly open my mouth a little way; and hence 



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1640] aduarte's historia 105 

it was very painful for me to eat until, by exercise, 
my jaw came back to its former usefulness. Of the 
soldiers who came with me, some went to India and 
twelve to Camboxa, supposing that the rightful king 
was now probably there. They found on the throne 
his son, who with a great army given him by the 
king of the Laos, and with the captains of whom I 
have spoken, had returned to his kingdom of Cam- 
boxa and pacified it. Here they remained for a con- 
siderable time, though they were disappointed in 
everything. I and the others returned to Manila. 
The voyage is one of five hundred leguas, and it took 
us fifty days because of the many calms.] One calm 
night, when there was no one at the helm, the bin- 
nacle, or three-wicked candle which lights up the 
compass, fell down from the quarterdeck; and the 
flame instantly burst out through a hatchway which 
was over it, frightening all of us -for there is noth- 
ing more dreadful at sea than fire, for everything 
in a ship is like tinder. In this ship, although it was 
small, there were more than three hundred slaves, 
men and women. All of them raised their cries to 
heaven. The captain, whose duty it was to encourage 
them, immediately fell on his knees to make his con- 
fession, as if things had already gone beyond remedy, 
but I pushed him away a pace and a half, saying that 
it was not time for that yet, and that he ought to 
look out for the fire first. I am almost certain that 
if he had been permitted to confess to me we should 
all have burned to death, because, however little our 
safety might have been delayed by confessions, there 
would have been no remedy afterwards. We put all 
the clothes there were there into the water, to soak 
them, and then threw them down the hatchway, one 



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I06 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol.31 

on top of another. In this way God was pleased that 
the fire should be put out; and we were left as much 
amazed by this sudden and dangerous accident as 
people are who are waked out of their sleep by a 
beam of light falling on them. We at last reached 
Manila by St. John's day at the end of a year and a 
half of this tedious and painful journeying. Soon 
after, father Fray Alonso Ximenez arrived by way 
of Macan from Cochinchina, where he had remained 
a prisoner. After all our hardships, afflictions, dan- 
gers, and wounds, we brought back no other fruit but 
that of having suffered for the gospel. Our only 
intention was to go to preach in that kingdom, hav- 
ing been invited by its king, and influenced by his 
promises to that end. These were great, though he 
was unable to fulfil them, since he had been de- 
spoiled of his kingdom when we reached it, as has 
been said. 

CHAPTER XLIX 

The election as provincial of father Fray Bernardo 
de Sancta Catharina or Navarro, and the churches 
which were incorporated in the province. 

On the fifteenth of June, 1596, the fathers as- 
sembled in the convent of Manila to elect a pro- 
vincial, because father Fray Alonso Ximenez had 
finished his term. The definitors (who, as they 
afterward were to confirm the provincial, were 
elected first) were : father Fray Diego de Soria, 
second time prior of the said convent; father Fray 
Bartholome de Nieva, a religious of very superior 
virtue, as will be narrated in due time; father Fray 
Juan de Sancto Thomas, or Orma^a; and father 



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i64o] ADUARTE'S HISTORIA 1 07 

Fray Juan Garcia -all persons of conspicuous devo- 
tion to their religious duties, and of noble example. 
Several times they cast votes for the provincial with- 
out result. Because there were many who deserved 
the office, and because the votes were divided among 
them, no one had the number necessary for election. 
Those who had the largest number of votes were 
father Fray Diego de Soria and father Fray Juan 
de Sancto Thomas. These same persons endeavored 
to persuade everyone to vote for father Fray Ber- 
nardo de Sancta Catharina, who was accordingly 
elected. The election was a very satisfactory one, 
for, in addition to being a very holy man, he was 
very wise and learned, and most devoted to the min- 
istry and preaching of the holy gospel - in which, 
and in patience, and in the endurance of the most 
severe hardships which befell him for this cause, no 
one ever surpassed him, and he surpassed many. 
During his time he had seen the province greatly 
favored by the Lord, by a very great spread of the 
Christian faith among the Indians who were under 
his care. Many of them in the villages where there 
were religious were baptized; and, where there were 
no religious, they were desirous and eager to receive 
baptism. Accordingly, at this chapter not only were 
new churches admitted which had been built in the 
towns where there were already religious - as, among 
the Chinese, the church of San Gabriel at Minon- 
doc; and, in Bataan, the church in the village of 
Samal, besides others -but it also seemed good to 
admit heathen villages, although they had no re- 
ligious, and there were none in the province so that 
teachers could be provided for them. Yet in this 
way they strove to comfort those who asked and 



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Io8 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol.31 

desired them, and raised in them the hope that in 
this way they would receive religious when they 
came from Espana. Thus were received the church 
of San Vicente of the village of Buguey, afterward 
called Sancta Anna; Sancta Catarina of Nasiping, 
afterward called San Miguel ; and others like them - 
to which, in the course of time, religious were sent 
when they came to the islands. 

Soon after this provincial chapter had come to an 
end, another shipload of religious arrived from 
Espana. They had been gathered with great care 
and diligence by the new bishop of Nueva Segovia, 
Don Fray Miguel de Venavides, whose new dignity 
had not sufficed to diminish the love which he felt 
for his associates. He gave to this matter more than 
ordinary attention, because he knew how greatly 
needed were good workmen to aid in the great har- 
vest which the Lord had placed in their hands, ready 
to be gathered by the means of baptism into this 
church militant, that the faithful might pass from 
it to the church triumphant. The Indians them- 
selves asked to have preachers sent to their villages, 
and were grieved that these could not be given to 
them. This not a little afflicted the religious, who 
desired to satisfy them by the fulfilment of their just 
desires, but were unable to do so on account of their 
own small number -too smalt even for that which 
they had undertaken, and much more to go to the 
aid of new regions. Besides this, the careful bishop 
was influenced by the need of his own sheep; for 
nearly everything to which we ministered fell within 
the bishopric of Nueva Segovia, which was under 
his direction. Accordingly, taking advantage of his 
authority as a bishop, and of the reputation which 



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1640] aduarte's historia 109 

he had as a learned and holy religious, he gathered 
the second shipload, and afterward the third (with 
which he came). Father Fray Pedro de Ledesma" 
happened to be in Castilta when the shipload which 
the good bishop sent was about to sail. His presence 
was very convenient for his superior, because he was 
an old and venerable father who had been many 
years in the Indias in the very religious province of 
Guatimala, and who therefore knew what was needed 
for the voyage. He was also of a very gentle dispo- 
sition, which is of great importance for such pur- 
poses as his. The bishop laid upon this father the 
charge of conducting the religious who had been 
gathered for this province; and he, being inclined to 
all good, readily accepted the office, although he 
knew that it was a very troublesome one. It not 
only required him to go on business to the office of 
accounts -and, to him who knows what that is, it is 
not necessary to say anything more - but he had also 
to keep in contentment many religious who, as it was 
the first time when they were at sea, were seasick, 
miserable, and very much in need of someone to 
comfort them, bear with them, and encourage them. 
For all this father Fray Pedro was very well suited, 
and conducted them as comfortably as possible 
through the two long voyages which have to be made 
on the way from Espafia here. He did not shrink 
from the great labor which this duty brought with 
it, that he might serve the Lord, and aid in the 
preaching of His gospel and in the conversion of 
these heathen. They arrived in the month of July 

" Pedro dc Ledesma, although an old man when he came to 
the islands, lived until 1625, after having filled several offices in 
his order — mainly at Manila, where he died. He brought seven 
vith him {1596). 



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no THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol.31 

in this year of 1596, and were received with great 
joy; and with them those missions which were in 
need of religious were strengthened. 

Captains Bias Ruiz de Fernan Gongalez and 
Diego Velloso, who (as has been stated in the pre- 
ceding chapter} went from Cochinchina to the king- 
dom of the Laos to look for the king of Camboja, 
met with success. They found his son (for the king 
was already dead), and told him all that the Span- 
iards had already done to help him, and how they 
had slain the tyrant who had undertaken to establish 
himself in the kingdom and had usurped it. They 
told him that they had come to seek him that they 
might put him in quiet possession of his kingdom, 
and other things of this kind, and roused his courage 
so that he put himself in their hands. Depending 
upon them, he returned to Camboja with a tolerably 
large army, which the king of the Laos gave him; 
and the Spaniards fulfilled their word and estab- 
lished him in his royal throne and palace, causing 
the largest and best part of the kingdom to be 
obedient to him. The king in reward of services so 
faithful and useful gave them lands and vassals in 
his kingdom. To Bias Ruiz he gave the province of 
Tran ; to Diego Velloso that of Bapano, with titles 
very honorable in this kingdom. The two captains 
in their new favor did not forget God, to whom they 
had so especial reasons to be thankful; or their nat- 
ural king and lord, from whom also they had re- 
ceived rewards. They informed the king of Camboja 
of the great good that it would be to his kingdom to 
know and reverence God by entering into His serv- 
ice through holy baptism, and to have the king of 
Espana for his friend. For the first purpose, father 



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1640] aduarte's HISTORIA I 1 1 

Fray Alonso Ximenez and myself were proposed. 
They urged the great devotion, virtue, and prudence 
of the holy old man, and the many sufferings which 
we had both undergone from favoring the king's 
own cause; and they said that, if he sent to call us 
back, we would very readily come to preach the holy 
gospel. As for the second purpose they said that he 
ought to send an embassy to the governor of Manila ; 
and, as a sign of the beginning of this friendship, 
that he ought to ask for some soldiers, by whose aid 
he might easily complete the pacification of his coun- 
try. The king assented to ail this, and sent his em- 
bassy with letters to the governor, telling him that 
his principal reason for asking for soldiers was that 
his vassals might be baptized with greater certainty 
and less difficulty. To father Fray Alonso Ximenez 
he wrote another letter, in the language and char- 
acters which those people use, and sealed with his 
royal seal, of a red color. In the Castilian language 
its tenor was as follows: [" Prauncar, king of Cam- 
boja, to father Fray Alonso Ximenez of the Order of 
St. Dominic: Greeting. From what I have heard 
from the captain Chofa Don Bias Ruiz of Castilla, 
and from the captain Chofa Don Diego of Portugal, 
with regard to the conduct of father Fray Alonso 
Ximenez when the Spaniards slew Anacaparan, I 
have conceived a great affection for father Fray 
Alonso Ximenez. Now that I am in my kingdom I 
beg father Fray Alonso Ximenez to come to it, and 
to bring with him father Fray Diego. I promise 
to build them churches and convents, and to give 
permission to all in my kingdom to become Chris- 
tians. Though I have shown the two chofas " great 

'* For meaning of this title, see VOL. xv, p. 88. 



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112 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS lYol- 3i 

favor and wish to keep them in my kingdom, they 
are unwilling to stay, because there are no religious 
here." The two captains wrote in the same strain to 
the fathers, begging them to come and reunite this 
kingdom with the Church. 

The governor of Manila saw how much could be 
done for the service of the king by sending the sol- 
diers for whom the king of Camboja asked; but they 
were in such need of men and money that they could 
not well meet his desires. For this reason, a knight 
of the Habit of Calatraba who had been governor of 
these islands, by name Don Luis Perez das Marinas, 
promised to pay the expenses of the expedition from 
his own fortune. The enterprise thus being made 
possible, we two religious of the order for whom the 
king of Camboja asked were obliged to go; and with 
us some religious of the Order of St. Francis, who 
were much beloved by Don Luis. There were 
equipped for the expedition two vessels of Spanish 
build, of moderate tonnage, and a galleot. The 
preparations were made (as preparations usually are 
made by the hand of servants of the king) slowly and 
faultily, as was seen by the results. We did not set 
out for some months, and our ships were so badly 
equipped and so weak that they began to leak as soon 
as the voyage began - a forewarning of the evils that 
we afterwards suffered, in which the poor knight 
Don Luis was disappointed, while all of us who 
accompanied him paid for the inadequacy of the 
preparation.^* Since we were so late, the pilots 

'" See Morga's account of this expedition (vol. xv, pp. i6o- 
168). Another relation (unsigned) is presented in a MS. docu- 
ment conserved in the Archivo general de Indias, with the press- 
mark: " Simancas-Secular ; Cartas y expedientes del gobernador 
de Filipinas; aiios 1600 a 1628; est. 67, caj. 6, leg. 7." 



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1640] ADUARTE'S HISTORIA I I 3 

decided to follow the course by the gulf of Haynau 
to go round the shoals by the end in latitude seven- 
teen, because in that way the wind would be favor- 
able; while if they rounded the end in latitude nine, 
which was the regular course, the wind would be 
adverse. They left Manila September 17 [1598], 
with one hundred and fifty soldiers and sailors. In 
the flagship Don Luis, who went as commander, took 
with him father Fray Alonso Ximenez and the two 
Franciscan fathers. He directed me to go in the ship 
of the second in command,'" giving that officer orders 
to govern himself by my advice. Within six days the 
vessels were scattered in the storm and were all lost, 
no one knowing anything of the rest, and each one 
supposing that the others were continuing their voy- 
age in safety. The galleot met with the best fortune, 
for, although damaged, it reached a friendly port, 
was repaired, and continued its journey. The flag- 
ship was obliged to cut away the mainmast, and 
sailing under its foresail, ran aground in China on 
the eve of St. Francis. All who were on board had 
to save themselves by swimming, and lost even their 
clothes. In the ship of the second in command, in 
which I was, the mainmast broke close to the deck, 
fortunately falling over the side so as not to injure 
the vessel or to kill any of the men. The mizzen- 
mast, being badly wedged, began to topple, and had 
to be cut away. We sailed on under the foresail, 
hoping to reach a port. But the fury of the tempest 
and the force of the waves were such as to break the 
gudgeons of the rudder. Some of our men flung 
themselves into the sea after it and brought it back, 

=" According to the MS. mentioned in preceding note, this 
officer was Pedro de Beaztegui (probably for Verastegui). 



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114 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol.31 

but it was lost again ; and we steered the vessel with 
two long spars fastened to the side of the boat with 
a cable. The ship was so strained that the boards on 
the sides began to play up and down like organ-keys; 
but we threw cables about her, and drew them taut 
with arquebuses. Then the bow began to work loose, 
from the weight of the foremast and bowsprit, and 
we were forced to bind it firmly with cables to the 
poop. All that we could do against the storm and 
the wind was like the strength of a child exerted to 
restrain the fury of a mad bull. In fear of another 
storm, we took refuge upon an island which we en- 
countered, one of the group called the Babuyanes. 
We found a harbor, ran the bow ashore, and dropped 
two anchors from the poop. We put the ammuni- 
tion and the provisions that we had on shore ; and had 
hardly begun to dry our clothes, on the eve of St. 
Francis, when the storm broke upon us with such 
violence that it seemed to me to try to swallow us. 
The ship was broken in pieces; but the keel, and the 
artillery which was carried as ballast, being too 
heavy for the deck, were buried in the sand. We 
protected ourselves from the storm -which lasted 
two days, and was one of both wind and rain - in 
some huts, which we built on the beach of branches.] 
After the storm was over we dug up the artillery, 
which consisted of four medium-sized cannon, 
mounted, and set them up in a little fort which we 
made of logs, because there were many Indians on 
the islands, and we did not know whether they were 
friends or enemies. In a short time many of them 
appeared in a troop on the shore, with their weapons. 
These consisted of two lances, one for hurling, and 
the other large like a pike, with iron points; both 



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1640] ADUARTE'S HISTORIA ^S 

were made of ebony, of which there is much here. 
For defensive armor they had sheets of the bark of 
trees, resembling cork. We sent to them a man as a 
hostage and mark of peace, and they made signs to 
him from a distance to put down his arms. He laid 
them at one side and went to the Indians; and then 
they sent to us one of their own number, whom we 
treated kindly, and after giving him some trinkets, 
sent him back to his comrades; agreeing with him 
that they should bring us provisions at a just price. 
They did this for two days, although very scantily; 
and on the third day they broke the peace by killing 
one of our Japanese, and badly wounding another 
who had come in our company. He came back with 
his arm pierced, and with a wound a span long above 
the pit of his stomach, but not entering it; but he 
was very well satisfied because, by throwing himself 
forward by the pike, he had killed the Indian who 
had wounded him - so proud is that race. Now that 
our supplies were cut off, we were obliged, since food 
is necessary, to take it by force, where we could find 
it, since they would not sell it willingly; so for sev- 
eral mornings a troop of our Indians went out under 
escort of our soldiers, gathered what they could from 
the fields, and brought it back as food for all. At 
one time when they were engaged in this, they 
thought that they had discovered a great treasure; 
for they found some jars of moderate size covered by 
others of similar size. Inside they found some dead 
bodies dried, and nothing else. In that shipwreck 
we had had the good luck to bring the boat ashore, 
and thus to save it. This we intended to make use 
of by sending it to ask for aid from Nueva Segovia, 
which was only twenty leguas distant. In order to 



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Il6 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol.31 

do this, it was necessary to lengthen the keel a braza, 
and to raise the sides about half a vara. Both these 
things were done, though there was no one among 
us who understood more carpentry than that best 
teacher, Necessity, had taught them. We all thought 
that it was best that the pilot and two men and I 
should go in it, because they believed that, if I went, 
more ef5fectual aid would be sent. We did so, and 
then, when we sailed around the island we gave 
thanks to the Lord for His kindness in having 
brought us to this little bay; for on any of the other 
sides of the island we should certainly have been 
drowned in the ocean, or, if any of us had escaped, 
should have perished at the hands of the Indians. 
The Lord gave us a favorable wind, which was 
needed by our tiny boat in that rough ocean, and we 
reached the river of Nueva Segovia, which is very 
large; the distance from the mouth to the city is three 
leguas. The alcalde-mayor immediately set about 
the rescue, appropriated two fragatas, and had them 
prepared to go to our people who were in the islands. 
At the same time I wrote to Manila to the agents of 
Don Luys to send a ship, ship-stores, and everything 
else required for continuing the voyage. I also wrote 
to my superior, giving him an account of what had 
happened. The answer to my letters was made plain, 
both on the island and in Manila. The governor 
commanded that the voyage should be continued, all 
of the expenditure being made anew, while my 
superior directed me to return to Manila; and so I 
did, although my companions were greatly grieved. 
In truth, by failing to go with them I caused their 
destruction; because, as they were sailing toward the 
coast of China, they saw a Chinese ship, and, against 



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1640] ADUARTES HISTORIA 1 1? 

the will of the pilot and some few others, the rest 
determined to pursue and plunder it. The ship fled, 
turning toward the coast of its own country, which 
was all sown with shallows, well known to them but 
not to our men. So eagerly did the Spaniards chase 
after them in their greed for the prize, which they 
now regarded as certain, that our ship ran aground 
and broke into two parts. The men were all thrown 
into the sea, where some of them were drowned im- 
mediately, and others, who took refuge on shoals, 
were drowned when the tide came in. Some few 
only escaped, with the pilot, in a raft which they 
made of planks from the ship. Even of those few 
some died of the cold, which was very great, and 
was still more severe for them because they were all 
wet. At last those who escaped reached the coast, 
with difficulty enough. They were seized by the 
Chinese, and carried about for many leguas from one 
judge to another. In this way they learned that Don 
Luis was on the same coast, and that he had been 
wrecked on the same day of St. Francis, and at the 
same time with us. They learned that he was twenty 
leguas from there, on an island called Lampacao. 
They received permission to join him; and in spite 
of their miseries they forgot their ills in their pity 
for the poor knight and his men, who kept them- 
selves alive with shellfish, which they found there 
and ate in small quantities. They all suffered pa- 
tiently, because of the example of their commander - 
who, that he might not offend [the people of] the 
land, never allowed his men to ask for anything, even 
what necessity almost compelled them to request. 



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no THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS IVoL 31 

CHAPTER L 

/ am commanded to go to China; events there, and 
the death of father Fray Alonso Ximenez 

[In spite of the wretched state of the noble knight 
Don Luis, the Portuguese of Macan, who were only 
seven leguas away, were so far from pitying him that 
they rather made bloody war against him. He ac- 
cordingly decided to send the pilot of the second in 
command, with eight other men, to Manila in a 
small boat, to ask for what was needed to escape from 
that labyrinth. They arrived after great peril, and 
delivered their letters which were filled with the 
innumerable complaints of those who remained 
there. They moved all the city to great compassion, 
but our religious more than the others, who always 
had a very tender regard for the good knight, Don 
Luis, both for his virtue, and for his great love to- 
ward us. He never forsook us or our churches, 
where he received all the sacraments, and went to 
hear all the masses that were said, to the great edi- 
fication of the village of Minondoc- where he lived, 
near to our house. Consequently, I was charged with 
the immediate care of procuring what was needed 
for the relief of the present trouble, since the past 
troubles had none. My superior notified me that I 
should go to take the relief to Don Luis, and ordered 
me to attend to that matter with the greatest possible 
despatch, since delay meant manifest danger. With 
all that care he was unable to get the help out within 
four months, and notwithstanding that I exercised 
very great earnestness in it, and attended to the equip- 
ment of the ship that was assigned, which I had fitted 
up so that it would stand any storm - having taken 



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i64o] aduarte's HISTORIA ii9 

warning from the previous ships, which had proved 
deficient in the first storm that came upon us. By 
such diligence, we set sail, with suitable relief, on 
September six. Arriving with it in less than twenty 
days, we were as well received, as we were so heartily 
desired. We also found bad news from Camboja, 
which had been brought by some ships that had 
returned from that country. That news was that all 
the Spaniards there - both those of our galliot, and 
all the others - had perished at the hands of the 
Indians themselves, because of quarrelsome persons 
among them, who were intolerable to the natives. 
Since it was impossible to go thither as friends, and 
since our forces were very few to go in any other 
manner, consequently, a general council having been 
held, it resulted that we should return to Manila. 
To carry that into effect, it was necessary to go to 
the court of the viceroy at Canton to get permission, 
for we could not leave his port without it. It was 
determined that I should go to get the permission. 
I was accompanied by two soldiers and an Indian 
up a large river with most beautiful and refreshing 
banks, which contained some very densely populated 
villages. Arrived at Canton, we were lodged in a 
house in the suburbs, as foreigners were not allowed 
to live in the city, nor even to enter it without express 
permission from the judge who is in charge. Guards 
are stationed for that reason at all the gates, so that 
they may refuse admittance without such permission. 
It happened that there was a eunuch of the king 
there at that time, as inspector of that province. 
Within his palace the king of China is served only 
by eunuchs, and many are castrated, in order to be 
eligible to serve the king; and as they alone have 



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I20 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol. 31 

access to his person and ear, they persuade him of 
whatever they wish, and derive immense bribes from 
the judges throughout the kingdom. The latter give 
them the bribes, so that the inspectors may hand in a 
good report of them. That year the eunuchs got for 
themselves the inspection of the provinces of that 
kingdom, as a great harvest was offered therefrom, 
not only to the king but also to the others who re- 
mained at his side in order to perpetuate their acts 
of injustice with security, the gates to the complaints 
that could have been uttered against them having 
been closed. Then was it my unhappy lot that I 
should fall into the hands of one of them, called 
Liculifu, who had charge of the visit to Canton, and 
who, under pretext of the visit, was making haste to 
impoverish the country and the inhabitants; for his 
charge there also comprehended the inspection of a 
pearl-fishery for the king in the gulf of Haynao, 
which was situated about one hundred leguas farther 
along the coast. It was said that he had borrowed 
one thousand ships for that purpose, and that he was 
in haste; but that he wanted first what fish he could 
get on land - for which he had innumerable para- 
sites at his side who were wont to seek out means by 
which, rightly or wrongly, he could employ them, by 
which they were always the gainers; and who, in 
addition, always flattered him by showing him such 
means of gain, by which he considered himself as 
well served, and rewarded those most who were most 
advantaged by it. Certain of those creatures, ferret- 
ing us out, immediately went to denounce us, not as 
evildoers, but as men absolutely rolling in silver; 
for that is their opinion of the Spaniards, even 
though they see them going naked. Therefore, it 



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i64o] ADUARTE'S HISTORU 121 

suited him to employ his greed on us, although ask- 
ing silver from us was equivalent to asking pears 
from the elm tree. The inspector, believing that we 
had maliciously concealed the silver, tried to get it 
by force; but instead of silver he drew blood. Act- 
ing upon that information he had us summoned 
before him, a day or two after our arrival. We 
entered the gate used by foreigners, and there is only 
one such gate. The guards registered us there, so 
carefully do they watch and guard their city, al- 
though so rare are the foreigners who enter it. We 
approached the inspector's court, but before we 
entered it I had the inspector notified, by an inter- 
preter whom I had with me, that I would not kneel 
before him, as such was not the custom of Castilians 
-whether religious or captains - even were it before 
the kings of that land. He had me told that I should 
do so, but I answered to the contrary twice more. 
However, finally paying greater heed to the advan- 
tage that he expected [to derive], than to his honor 
and courtesy which he claimed, he had me told that 
the soldiers should kneel and that I should make him 
the bow and reverence that I was wont to make to 
my king. Thereupon we entered, and found him 
seated in great state at his desk, on which were the 
instruments used in writing, according to their usage. 
Many servants stood near him, in a chapel-like place 
that faced a large open court, whence those having 
business entered as he summoned them. Placed on 
their knees between two rows of executioners with 
frightful visages - twelve to the side, who stood there 
- their cases were disposed of, and they were pun- 
ished there immediately, as soon as he ordered it, 
without further appeal or recourse. The soldiers 



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122 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol.31 

and the interpreter knelt before them, while I re- 
mained upright, after having made him a very deep 
bow. He received us well, and addressed some 
pleasant words to us. I thanked him heartily, and 
made him a present of a piece of scarlet cloth and a 
large and excellent mirror, with its silver chain by 
which to hang it up, which had been given me for 
that purpose by General Don Luis. The latter 
already was aware that no business was transacted 
without a present. The inspector received the pres- 
ent very gladly, as it consisted of articles that were 
scarce in that country. He expressed many scruples 
in regard to it, so that it might not appear that he 
was receiving it as a bribe, and said that it would be 
taken as part payment of the duties due and to be 
paid by the ships; and that he had a conscience and 
kept his gaze on the heavens, so that he might not 
commit any unjust act. But in truth, although I 
thought that he would be satisfied with that present, 
he regarded it as the beginning of what we had to 
give and waited for the rest. I asked him to send 
someone to measure the ships and receive the duties, 
for it was now time for us to leave. He did so imme- 
diately, and sent officials like himself. Those officials 
declared, because they were not bribed at the begin- 
ning, that the duties amounted to one thousand eight 
hundred ducados. Don Luis, having been advised of 
what ought to be done, asked that the measurements 
be made a second time; and after he had given them 
their bribe, they took off the thousand ducados, and 
the duties remained at only eight hundred. Believ- 
ing that the inspector's greed was satisfied, I delayed 
two or three days in going to see him; but he, as his 
appetite had been whetted for the desire of more 



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i64o] ADUARTE'S HISTORIA 1 23 

with the taste that he had received, took my delay 
very ill, and had only the two soldiers and the inter- 
preter summoned, but ordered me not to go to him. 
On seeing them, he broke out into great anger be- 
cause they had not treated him according to his dig- 
nity. He ordered the interpreter to be beaten as the 
most guilty, since, knowing the custom of the coun- 
try, he had not advised us thereof. They actually 
administered five blows to him, and the blows that 
they give are always few, but very severe. Those 
blows accordingly formed great wounds on the upper 
part of his legs, that being where they are admin- 
istered. He ordered the soldiers to be all but lashed. 
They were thrown to the ground, and their legs 
bared, while the executioner stood near them with 
his lash raised. That instrument is made from a very 
large bamboo (such as grow there), split in two and 
weighted somewhat with lead, and having many slits, 
whose edges cut like knives. And as the executioner 
stood thus, waiting for the order to strike the blow, he 
ordered him to stay his hand, being satisfied to see 
them thus fearful. Then he ordered all three to be 
taken prisoners to a public prison, which was located 
at a considerable distance from his house. While on 
the way thither they had me summoned, and bribed 
the officials to stop in an idol temple. I went there 
alone, although with great difficulty. They implored 
me again and again not to leave them in custody, for 
they would die in prison. I promised them not to 
leave that place until they were liberated, or else I 
would share the same fortune with them. I well 
understood that those blows were directed at me, 
rather than at them; and that, although given to 
others, were a threat to me so that I should tremble 



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124 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol.31 

and give the inspector what he desired, or he would 
cause me also to suffer such things, or even greater. 
I knew already that his parasites had informed him 
of the esteem in which the Spanish hold their priests 
and religious, and that they would redeem by weight 
of silver whatever insult he might try to inflict on 
me; and that if he wished to fill his hand well, he 
should make what extortions from me his tyrannous 
and greedy taste dictated. I had no silver to satisfy 
his desire, nor, even had I desired to supply that lack 
by any efforts, did I have any method or means to do 
so. It even cost me very dearly to enter the city, and 
I could not go on that account. I was persecuted by 
children, who accosted me as did the children of 
Bethel the holy prophet Elisha; while not one of the 
men had compassion on me, for they do not know 
what compassion means toward their own country- 
men, however afflicted they see them to be. And 
further, if they behold them persecuted by the more 
influential men, then in such case they flee from the 
sight of them, in fear lest they receive a portion of 
the punishment, as being accomplices in the guilt. 
The soldiers, as they were afflicted, attributed the 
slowness of the relief to my neglect, and the inspector 
to obstinacy. Finally he endeavored to satisfy his 
greed by making open proof of my patience. There- 
fore, he summoned me on All Saints' day. I heard 
of his resolve some days beforehand, and prepared 
for it by saying mass - for which I had the oppor- 
tunity, as the Portuguese from Macan happened to 
be there at that time, by virtue of their ordinary 
permission to go to Canton twice each year, to pur- 
chase the articles that they need in certain fairs 
which are held there at that time. However, they 



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i64o] ADUARTE'S HISTORIA 125 

are not permitted to live in the city, but must remain 
in their own boats in the river. As that purchasing 
(which lasts many days) is a matter of consequence, 
the Portuguese bring a priest, who says mass to them 
in a little house near the river. At that time there 
were three fathers of the Society there, one of whom 
was acting in the capacity of chaplain for the traders, 
while the other two were about to enter the interior 
with Father IVIatheo Riccio, who had lived there for 
years. One of those two fathers, one Lagaro Catanio, 
had lived with the above father for some years; and, 
having gone to Macan on business, was then return- 
ing with another Spaniard named Diego Pantoja. 
Both of them dressed themselves, on the afternoon 
of the eve of All Saints, in Chinese habits, in order 
to make their journey with some guides that they 
had with them. Father Lagaro Catanio, as he had 
been a long time in China, had long hair and beard, 
but the other father, having only recently arrived, 
did not; and consequently he was in some danger, as 
he did not follow the customs of the country in every- 
thing. By way, then, of those fathers I was enabled 
to say mass. Scarcely had I concluded it, when I 
was accosted by an official of the inspector, with his 
chapa (or summons) to take me before the inspector. 
I went thither, and found him in his courtroom, as 
at the first time. Although I intended to show him 
the same courtesy as the first time, he made me kneel 
down, besides going between those two files of execu- 
tioners, who appeared to me like demons. The in- 
spector began then to shout at me, in his treble voice, 
and poured forth a torrent of words, which were 
explained to me by a Chinese who understood some 
Portuguese. He charged me in his speech with being 



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126 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol.31 

a spy, as I had not observed my duty. At the end 
of the speech came his deeds. At the inspector's 
order one of those executioners threw me to the 
ground, and, baring my legs, raised himself in a 
position to lash me. While in that position, the 
inspector repeated many times his assertion that I 
must be a spy. Thereupon I drew a report from 
my bosom that I brought from the Chinese who 
were living in Manila, both Christians and heathens, 
which told of the great good that the members of my 
order had done there to all of their nation -how 
we cared for their sick, supported the poor, arid de- 
fended them all from injuries which were attempted 
against them. It was written in their own characters, 
on a sheet of paper one braza long, and was folded 
within a covering, also made of paper, after their 
manner and custom. I had come prepared with that 
for whatever might happen, and accordingly I pre- 
sented it at that so pressing moment. The inspector 
read it, while I was kept stretched out and bared 
ready for the lash, and the executioner awaiting 
only the sign to chastise me. As the letter was not to 
the inspector's liking, he paid no heed to it. How- 
ever, he did not carry out the execution [of the pun- 
ishment], but ordered me to rise and adjust my cloth- 
ing and come to his desk. I thought that it was to 
make peace, but it was only to vary the mode of 
affliction by changing the torture, which he ordered 
to be given me between the fingers, while placed on 
my knees before him with folded hands. For that 
purpose some little rounded sticks were brought, in 
which there were some small grooves at each end and 
in the middle. Those sticks were placed between the 
fingers of both hands and were then pressed together 



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i64o] ADUARTE'S HISTORIA 1 27 

by some cords, tighter and tighter as the inspector 
ordered - until, when I fell as if in a faint, he ordered 
the torment to cease. He ordered me to be gone, and 
said that, if I did not give him a thousand taes of 
silver on the morrow {each tae being equivalent to 
ten reals, thus all amounting to about one thousand 
ducados) , he would kill me. I left his presence, with 
the bad treatment that I have described, and went to 
my lodgings as best I could, where I found an order 
from the inspector not to receive me. I knew not 
where to go, for all fled from me, being fearful lest 
some blow should come upon them by reason of me. 
I determined to go to the ship where the fathers were. 
Then the merchants returned, much earlier than was 
their custom, saying that all the city had risen against 
them, because I had gone to their ship. They be- 
sought me not to do so evil an act, for they feared a 
serious danger from that. As they refused to receive 
me, I returned to the shore, where a Chinese trader 
who had been in Manila on various occasions re- 
ceived me into his house. He got me the loan of one 
hundred taes of silver, payable with interest; and 
that night I went clad as a Chinese, so that I might 
not be recognized, to the Portuguese ships. On my 
word -which I pledged on that of General Don 
Luis, in whose cause I was acting - they lent me two 
hundred more. I sent that whole sum to the in- 
spector next day by my host, who was a man of 
esteem in the city; I also had him ask that the in- 
spector would be satisfied with that amount, as I had 
borrowed it as an alms, and could find no more, and 
that he would be pleased to liberate the prisoners, 
and grant us permission to go to our ship. That was 
a just petition, but it was ill received and worse 



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I2» THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol.31 

despatched; for although I thought that that gift 
would soften that heart of stone, I discovered that it 
had been like throwing a little water on the forge 
which blazes all the fiercer. The inspector sent a 
constable with his chapa to summon me that after- 
noon. It was necessary to go ; and, thanks to my host, 
who accompanied me, they took me to the entrance 
by another gate of the city, as it was nearer his house. 
But when the guards saw me they refused to allow 
me to enter, and although the constable showed them 
the chapa of the inspector, they declared that that 
concerned me, and not them; accordingly, they re- 
fused me entrance. It was necessary for the con- 
stable to go to his master, and report the matter to 
him. The latter gave another chapa for the gate- 
keepers, and they, taking it, copied it and allowed 
me to enter. I did not find the inspector in his court, 
but in a lodging nearer the center of the city. He 
was the only one seated, while all his officials were 
standing. The money which I had had sent to him 
was on a desk. I knelt down, at a considerable dis- 
tance from him, whereupon he began to chide me, 
and to say many things to me that I did not under- 
stand. It seemed to me that he was asking questions 
of me, and I only answered Purhtautet - that is to 
say, "I do not understand." He rose from his chair, 
and came toward me, in order to address me from a 
shorter distance. It seemed from his actions that he 
meant to scratch out my eyes with his fingers {they 
are great men for such deeds, the more when they 
are angry). He finally satisfied his wrath by order- 
ing me to be taken straight to the prison where the 
soldiers were. An iron chain was therefore quickly 
put about my neck, and fastened with a padlock; and 



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i64o] ADUARTE'S HISTORIA 1 29 

one of the executioners, holding the end of it, walked 
before me, obliging me thus to follow him as a cap- 
tive. The prison was at a considerable distance, and 
was under the orders of another mandarin, to whom 
he sent me, so that the latter might incarcerate me. 
In such guise, I crossed all those streets, which 
swarmed with people, at four o'clock in the after- 
noon, and appeared before this mandarin -who was 
in his tribunal, into which the door of the prison 
opened. When the soldiers saw me through the door, 
they began to weep. [I fell on my knees before him, 
and he asked me through my interpreter the cause of 
my imprisonment. I replied, and the cause seemed 
to him bad: but he told me that no one could undo 
what the inspector did. He said that he would try 
to satisfy the inspector, because the latter was obliged 
to go off very quickly on his inspection, and, if he 
left me a prisoner here, no one else had the authority 
to release me. With this he ordered the chains to be 
taken off, and sent me into the prison. When I saw 
myself in prison with the soldiers I was without 
anxiety, because for their sake I had made all these 
stations," and after all without succeeding in rescu- 
ing the prisoners - though I could have taken refuge 
in our ships if I had chosen, as I afterwards did; 
while now, by adventuring the same fortune with 
them, I left God to watch over all. There were in 
this prison some three hundred prisoners, many con- 
demned to death, but permitted to work during the 
daytime in order to earn their food. I suffered in 
the prison, because I had little protection and the 

'^ Spanish, Jvia jio andado todas estas estaciones : an allusion to 
the " stations " which represent, in a Roman Catholic church, the 
stages in Christ's sufferings; and to the devotion which consists in 
making the circuit of these stations. 



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13° THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 31 

weather was very cold. God delivered me within 
only three days; my host became my security for a 
thousand taes. As I was about to leave the prison, 
all the servants crowded about me asking for plata 
(silver), for they already knew its name in our Cas- 
tilian. There were so many that, even if I had had 
much to give, there would have been little for each 
one. As I had nothing to give, I gave them nothing, 
and they paid me with hard words and blows. It 
was very late; and we were obliged to go to the house 
of the inspector, and from it to that of the guarantor 
outside of the city, in which we were not permitted 
to sleep. All this was to be done before they closed 
the gates. We were kept waiting in the courtyard of 
the inspector for some time. In addition to falling 
on our knees before him, he made us bow our heads 
and then turned us over to our bondsman. When 
we reached the latter's house, we had to enter by 
leaping over a lighted fire which they said was the 
ceremony of security. The poor guarantor imme- 
diately began to suffer persecution, for all the serv- 
ants and attendants of the inspector, though they had 
in no way intervened in our business, came to beg 
money from him from that which they said he must 
have received from me, to persuade him to become 
my security. The man brought all these demands to 
me; but I answered him that nothing more was to be 
paid than the thousand taes, and these we should get 
from Don Luis. He was unwilling to go to Don 
Luis, and took great care to prevent us from escap- 
ing. We, fearing that Don Luis and his soldiers 
might be forced by our delay to leave us in this 
embarrassment, determined to save ourselves. We 



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i64ol ADUARTE'S HISTORIA 13" 

agreed with a Chinaman, for ten taes, to help us 
escape, letting us out through a secret door opening 
upon a creek that flowed into the large river, and 
taking us down in a boat. We sailed down stream 
that night and the next day, no one appearing on 
the boat in the daytime except the Chinese sailors. 
We succeeded in eluding all the vessels that might 
have wished to inspect us, and reached our ships. 
As soon as our sailors received their pay they ran 
away. A few hours later, my guarantor appeared 
with an armed vessel. He was unable to find out 
who had helped us, and was satisfied with receiving 
the amount of money for which he had been pledged. 
We then set sail, Don Luis and the rest to Manila, 
and I to Macan, for I was in such a condition of 
ill health as a result of hardship and exposure that I 
did not dare to undertake the voyage to Manila. 
At this time father Fray Alonso Ximenez died in 
Macan. His death was caused by the hardships and 
exposure which he had undergone in endeavoring to 
evangelize the kingdom of Camboja. Though he 
was almost seventy years of age when he set out on 
the expedition, he endured everything that befell 
him with patience and courage, consoling the others, 
though he had always himself the most to suffer. 
He was very devout, never omitting his daily hours 
of prayer on his journeys or voyages. When in 
Cochinchina, his captivity was comforted by the 
opportunity given him to convert two condemned 
criminals. The failures of his attempts to reach the 
kingdom of Camboja and to convert the people there 
did not discourage him or diminish his enthusiasm. 
When Don Luis and his men were cruelly attacked 



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132 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS (VoL 31 

by the Portuguese of Macan, father Fray Alonso 
went to Macan to interpose his authority, and to act 
as mediator between the Portuguese and the Cas- 
tilians. Father Fray Alonso had great difficulty in 
pacifying the Portuguese, and was obliged to en- 
counter much vituperation; but he received more 
joy in the baptism of two sick persons at the point 
of death than he had lost in all the sufferings which 
have been narrated. He died in our convent at 
Macan, to the great sorrow of the religious about 
him at the loss of so holy an associate. General Don 
Luis and all of the troops that he had brought with 
him attributed to the loss of father Fray Alonso all 
the sufferings which they were obliged to undergo 
afterward; while they ascribed to his presence and 
his prayers the rescue of their ship in the dreadful 
storm- which they had experienced on the day of St. 
Francis. On that day they had been in the midst of 
shoals, and had seen many Chinese vessels wrecked 
about them; and the wind had been so violent that 
it had thrown down many strongly-rooted trees on 
land. Father Fray Alonso was a son of the convent 
of S. Esteban at Salamanca. Desirous for the con- 
version of the Indians, he passed his youth in the 
devout province of Guatemala. Having retired to 
his convent, to take up the works of Mary after he 
had done those of Martha, he heard of the founda- 
tion of the province of the Philippinas. When many 
were turned back by the difficulties in Mexico, father 
Fray Alonso was always firm and constant. When 
he reached Manila, the ministry of Batan fell to his 
lot In spite of his age, and the great difficulty which 
he had in learning the Indian language, he at length 



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1640] aduarte's historia 133 

succeeded. In this ministry he suffered the hardships 
which have been described already. He was espe- 
cially-kind and serviceable to sick Indians, prepar- 
ing dishes of meat or eggs for them, and even putting 
the food in their mouths, with his own hands. Being 
taken severely ill as a result of all the hardships to 
which he was exposed, he was carried to the convent 
of Manila. Scarcely did he feel better, when he 
left his bed and began to work at the building of the 
church, turning his hand to this manual labor with 
the greatest skill. When he was elected prior, he 
had no assistance in the convent except one priest 
and one lay brother; but, few as they were, they per- 
formed all the offices of a community. As he had a 
sonorous voice and understood music well, he would 
sing the whole mass alone; then leave the choir to go 
to the pulpit and preach, and then return to the 
choir, though he had been hearing confessions all 
the morning. This he did without failing to make 
his regular daily prayer. Even when alone he used 
to say matins aloud, and on some feast-days would 
sing a great part of them. He was elected provincial 
from this office of prior; and in his provincialate he 
made many excellent ordinances for the ministry to 
the Indians, which are still observed and esteemed 
as if they had been ordained yesterday. During his 
time the province was greatly extended, the whole 
of the province of Nueva Segovia being admitted, 
and many new churches and missions being estab- 
lished in that of Pangasinan. It was his desire also 
that the kingdom of Camboxa should be added to it; 
and in the glorious enterprise of extending the gospel 
to that kingdom he ended his life.] 



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134 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol.31 

CHAPTER LI 

The coming of some religious to the province, and 
the transactions of the intermediate chapter 

Though the procurator whom this province had 
in Espaiia [i.e., Benavides] had become bishop of 
Nueva Segovia, he gave his main attention to the 
augmentation of the province, having seen with his 
own eyes the service done by the religious here to 
the Lord, and their service to their neighbors. So, 
though he had sent off two shipments [of mission- 
aries], he prepared to send a third, whom he should 
accompany when he went to his bishopric. So 
greatly had the hearts of the religious of all the 
provinces in Espana been moved that sixty were 
found gathered and assembled together, having been 
designated by Father Juan Volante. They were all 
far advanced in religion and letters, which are the 
excellences that the order desires and strives for in 
its sons, that they may fulfil the command of its 
institutes, by laboring not only for their own salva- 
tion, but for that of others. It happened at this time 
that the English found the city of Cadiz unguarded 
and unprepared, and sacked it." This aroused a 
great excitement in all the ports of Andalucia; and 
the announcement was made that in that year there 
would he no fleet for Nueva Espana. Though all 
these religious were at that time in or near Anda- 
lucia, they returned to their provinces of Espafia and 
Aragon whence they had set out, with the exception 
of some few who waited to see the end of this matter. 
Although it was true that there was no fleet, a rumor 

^' See VOL. XV, p. 206. 



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i64o] aduarte's HISTORIA 1 35 

spread that some ships were being fitted out for the 
voyage. Hereupon the bishop -who had come on 
foot from Madrid, but had been several days on the 
return journey because of the misfortune which had 
happened -took courage and went to the port a 
second time, reassembling the religious as well as 
he could. With these, and with some others who 
offered themselves, he made up a reasonable num- 
ber. When they reached the port they found that 
the ships which were about to sail were only some 
galizabras, with troops who were going to guard the 
silver which came from Peru and Nueva Espaiia. 
It seemed that for a second time the purpose of the 
bishop and the religious had been frustrated and 
their labor wasted; but God sent them a patache or 
fragata, with only one deck, which was to carry the 
baggage and the ship's stores; but it had no accom- 
modations for passengers, and was not designed to 
carry them, because of its small size. In spite of 
this, their willingness to suffer even greater evils for 
God made them despise the hardships which they 
might suffer by making so long a voyage on so un- 
comfortable a vessel, and they determined to sail in 
it. They spread the only tarpaulin which there was, 
that they might have some defense from the sun arid 
the rain. They could not place it high enough for 
them to stand under it, and whenever the sea was 
rough the waves dashed over it; but, as there was 
no better ship, the bishop and the religious had to 
take advantage of this one. The Lord felt such com- 
passion for their discomfort as to give them fair 
weather, so that during the sixty days of their voyage 
it only rained twice; thus they were able to sleep 
on deck, and at least to enjoy the coolness of night 



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136 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 31 

if they could not avoid the heat of the day. During 
the voyage, they acted as if they were in a very well- 
organized convent. The bishop filled the place of 
reader; and upon what he read they held daily con- 
ferences, and very frequent sermons and spiritual 
discourses. On the great feasts they had, as it were, 
literary contests, composing verses in praise of God 
and of His saints. Being thus very well occupied, 
they felt the discomfort of the ship less; and as a 
result of the fair weather they were all cheerful. 
The bishop alone was silent - so much so that his 
religious became anxious, and felt obliged to ask him 
the reason. He answered : " I am afraid, fathers, 
that the Lord does not look upon us as His own, so 
much happiness does He grant us in so cramped a 
ship. Such fair weather, and not more than one 
religious sick; we are not what we ought to be, for 
the Lord has sent us no hardships. My coming was 
sufficient to prevent you from receiving that bless- 
ing." When they reached Mexico, he planned to 
buy a house where the religious who came to this 
province from that of Espafla might be cared for. 
He wished to avoid scattering them among the towns, 
the evil results of which had already been learned by 
experience. He found someone to make a gift of a 
piece of land suited for the purpose, with the obliga- 
tion of building a church upon it named for St. Just 
and Pastor. The writings were already made out; 
but afterward, because of difficulties which arose, the 
agreement went no further and had to be given up. 
The voyage which they made from Acapulco to 
Manila was very prosperous. The religious having 
been divided between the two ships, those who em- 
barked in the flagship, called " Rosario," were unable 



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i64o] aduarte's HISTORIA 1 37 

to get their ship-stores on board because of the great 
hurry of the commander, Don Fernando de Castro. 
But God provided for them from the ocean; for 
every day without exception they fished from that 
ship, and thus the food of the religious was sup- 
plied. This is something which never happened 
before or since that voyage to any ship. Being so 
extraordinary, it caused astonishment, and gave 
reason for reflecting upon and praising the divine 
Providence, which with so free a hand comes to the 
aid of those who depend upon it in their need. The 
intermediate provincial chapter was in session when 
the bishop and the religious reached Manila; and 
thus they were received joyfully and gladly, and the 
meeting was enriched by their presence. Religious 
were assigned to the conversion of villages which, 
though they had been admitted for their own com- 
fort and for the sake of somewhat encouraging the 
holy desires with which they so eagerly begged for 
missionaries, could not hitherto obtain them, because 
of the lack of missionaries to send. In the convent 
of Manila a regular school of theology and arts was 
established. The chapter appointed as preacher- 
general father Fray Diego de Soria in place of 
father Fray Miguel de Venavides, who had hitherto 
held this place and had now become bishop. Be- 
cause of the small number of religious and of con- 
vents up to this time, it had been customary that 
some should be designated from the distant prov- 
inces to come and vote in the provincial chapters, 
although they were not superiors. Now, however, 
as there was a sufficient number of convents and of 
superiors, vicariates were designated, the vicars of 
which were to be in the place of priors. These and 



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13^ THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol.31 

no Others were now to have a vote in the provincial 
chapter, in conformity with the constitutions and 
privileges of the provinces of the Indias. It was also 
ordained that the confirmation of the newly-elected 
provincial should belong to the eldest definitor, ac- 
cording to the privilege of Nueva Espana, which is 
likewise that of this province. At this chapter there 
were received: in Nueva Segovia the village of 
Dumon, the church of which at that time was called 
San Antonino; the villages of Gatarang and Talapa, 
with the church of Sancta Catalina; and the village 
on the estuary of Lobo, the church of which was San 
Raymundo. The title of vicariate was given to San 
Pablo of Pilitan in Yrraya.^^ In this place it seemed 
that another climate had been found, different from 
that of the rest of this province, other fields and 
spacious meadows, another temperature, and another 
race of people. The country is very fertile, and 
abounds in game. It is very well watered, very 
pleasant and very healthful, although at first it did 
not seem so for the religious. The first vicar straight- 
way died, and those whom he took as associates were 
afflicted with severe illness. For this reason and 
because of the distance from the other convents, it 
seemed to many that it would be best to abandon it; 
but the desire prevailed to go to the aid of those 
souls, though at the cost of health and life, since on 
no occasion could these be better offered. [The 
devil greatly resented their coming, and complained 

^' Apparently meaning here, " the country of the Irrayas," 
rather than the name of any distinct district. The Irrayas are in 
modern times a heathen tribe, of mixed Malay and Negrito biood, 
dwelling in the southern part of Isabela province, Luzon, on the 
western slopes of the Palanan range, and on tributary streams far 
up the Rio Grande de Cagayan. 



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i64o] ADUARTE'S HISTORIA '39 

and uttered frightful bowlings through the mouths 
of his priestesses or aniteras. The coming of the 
missionaries and the building of churches forced him 
to show himself in bis true light to his deluded fol- 
lowers. He often appeared to them in dreams, bid- 
ding them resist and not become Christians. When 
they reminded him that he did not resist, he answered 
that he could not endure the sight of " those bar- 
barians with white teeth." He called the religious 
" barbarians," because of their little knowledge of 
the language at the beginning; and he spoke of their 
white teeth because the Indians regard this as a 
blemish, and make their own teeth black.] In this 
mission of Pilitan the fathers found a madman with 
a child, whom they desired to baptize as other chil- 
dren generally were baptized; the father feared that 
they wished to take it away, and never left it. He 
ate with it, slept with it, and went to the bath with 
it. He did all he could to give it pleasure, but as a 
madman would. Hence, often, in bathing it, he 
plunged it down so far under the water that he drew 
it out half dead. The religious was in great anxiety, 
fearing some disaster, and finally baptized it. Soon 
after, the father caught a venomous serpent, ate it, 
and caused his child to share in the meal. They 
both died, but the child to live forever, thanks to 
the care of the missionary in baptizing it so as fo 
give it grace and glory. [From the last village 
which at that time had been discovered, which was 
named Balisi, an Indian came with his family to 
that of Pilitan to spend a few days. He brought 
with him his little daughter, who was only six years 
old. She was so bright and charming that all who 
saw her loved her. She grew so fond of the church 



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14° THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol. 31 

that, though she was a heathen, she wept bitterly 
when she was obliged by her father to return to their 
own village. Soon after, falling sick to death, she 
was baptized by a Spaniard named Alonso Vazquez, 
who happened to be there. The Lord showed His 
kindness in several other striking or marvelous in- 
stances of baptism. In one case a little girl was very 
ill and the father had given his permission for bap- 
tism, but the relatives and all the rest of the village 
resisted. Father Antonio de Soria went there and 
asked him that they would let him look at her to 
cure her. Spreading over her a moist cloth which 
he had brought purposely, he cured her soul, which 
was soon to taste the joys of eternal salvation. 

To the province of Pangasinan there was added 
by this chapter a church and village, that of San 
Jacintho, which was formed here of people from 
different regions, on a very pleasant river named 
Magaldan," the inhabitants gathering to it from sev- 
eral villages and some from the mountains of the 
region. The Lord showed His kindness to one 
woman by striking her with blindness when she 
purposed to run away from the baptism which she 
had promised to receive, and by thus bringing her 
back to the salvation of her soul. 

At this time the Lord took to himself father Fray 
Antonio de Soria, one of the first missionaries of 
Nueva Segovia. He did not enter upon the religious 
life, as generally happens, when he was in boyhood 
or youth, but in mature manhood. He had been left 
a widower; and though he had sons to care for, he 
provided for them in such a way that he was no 

°*The Angatatati River, on which is situated the hamlet of 
Magaldan ; it falls into Lingayen Gulf. 



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1640] aduarte's HISTORIA 14' 

longer needed to attend to them. Being thus left 
free for the service of God alone, he determined to 
become a religious, and was accepted in the convept 
of our order at Puebla de Los Angeles, in Nueva 
Espana. Most persons of this age and condition, 
especially when they have lived in the luxuries which 
are common in Nueva Espaiia, find it difficult to 
accommodate themselves to the severities of religious 
life, both in little and in great things. Father An- 
tonio was not such. He began with the greatest 
humility to study Latin, and became a master of the 
tongue. He entered upon greater studies, following 
them with such success that he was made lecturer in 
arts and a director of students. And as he was so 
superior not only in his learning, but also in virtue, 
he was also appointed master of novices, which is 
the same thing as being a teacher of the religious 
life. He joined the fathers who came to these islands 
in 1595, and became one of the first missionaries to 
the province of Nueva Segovia, there suffering all 
the want, discomfort, and hunger which have been 
described. The first results of his mission were at 
Camalaniugan, where he drove a demon out of a 
woman who was possessed. In the following pro- 
vincial chapter, he was appointed superior of Nueva 
Segovia, to preach to and teach and guide the Span- 
ish, who in these new conquests need the best of 
teachers. For his consolation they gave him the care 
of the villages of Camalaniugan and Buguey. Not 
satisfied with all this, he also took charge of the vil- 
lage of Daludu.] There lived in that city Captain 
Alonso de Carvajal, encomendero of Pilitan, which 
is distant from the city five or more days' journey. 
He collected his tribute from the natives, and de- 



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142 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol. 31 

sired to give them a minister, as he was obliged; but 
he was unable to find anyone who was willing to 
undertake the mission. He accordingly urged father 
Fray Antonio to go to visit these Indians and their 
country, called Yrraya, to see if he could attract 
them to the law of God and the belief in His holy 
gospel. The journey was long and hard, not only 
because it was up the river, but because there were 
enemies on the road; and, besides, there was no re- 
ligious to leave in his place. Yet the desire of 
converting heathen was so strong in father Fray 
Antonio that he overcame all these obstacles and 
went to this new spiritual conquest, in which all of 
the rest of the religious soon aided him. He 
preached the holy gospel, and the Lord gave him 
such favor with that tribe, that he led them by his 
command like tame sheep. The credit which they 
gave to his teaching was such that long after, when 
Christianity was more settled in Yrraya, and there 
was some difficulty in rooting out some superstition 
which had remained among them, the old people 
said: " If father Fray Antonio had commanded us 
that, there would not now be a trace of it, or anyone 
to contradict him." To build the church in the vil- 
lage of Pilitan, he threw down the hut of an old 
woman, a noted anitera, by whom the devil gave 
answers to the questions which were asked him. As 
this was done in this hut, the devil regarded it as his 
own, and therefore greatly resented the overthrow of 
it. This he said on many occasions, and he even 
sometimes said that he had killed the father for 
tearing down his hut. But in this the Father of Lies 
should not be credited; for, as he often confessed, he 
was not able to appear before the religious; how 



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i64o] ADUARTE'S HISTORIA 1 43 

much less, then, to kill them. The manner of living 
followed by this father among these Indians was 
exemplary, and such as to cause wonder among 
them. He suffered and endured many hardships, 
and hunger and want, that he might not inconveni- 
ence them. He was at once the master and the 
servant, at the house. In order that a boy who served 
him by preparing his food might not be offended at 
the work, the father went to the river and carried the 
water that he had to drink; he was the sacristan who 
cared for the church, the porter who closed and 
opened the doors of the house. He it was who 
attended to everything that was needed, that he might 
not trouble any persons by making them serve him. 
It was a journey of a day and a half from Pilitan to 
the village of Nalavangan. He went there and built 
a church, and baptized many; for the spirit of Fray 
Antonio was to undertake much, and he was never 
contented with that which would have seemed exces- 
sive to others. While he was engaged in these holy 
exercises, the time of the intermediate chapter ar- 
rived, and he was obliged to go to it to Manila. 
Here he was definitor, and gave an account of the 
good work which was being wrought by the Lord 
in the conversion of Yrraya. The chapter, feeling 
that the Lord had chosen him therefor, appointed 
him as first vicar of San Pablo at Pilitan. He re- 
turned in great contentment, because he was going 
where he would have more to do than in other places, 
much as there was to do everywhere, since all of 
these were new conversions, where the labor is great 
and the ease very little. When he was among his 
children he gave himself with such devotion to the 
labor of the ministry that within six months he was 



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, 144 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol. 31 

attacked by a mortal disease, which obliged him to 
return to the city to be cared for. Here, when he 
had received the holy sacrament, he gave up his 
soul to his Creator, to the great sorrow of all the 
religious, who were greatly afflicted to lose such a 
father and associate. He made some compositions 
in the language of the natives, which served as a 
guide to those who followed him; but the greatest 
guidance that he gave was that of his life spent and 
consumed in these so holy exercises. 

CHAPTER LIT 

Fathers Fray Pedro de Soto, Fray Juan de San 
Pedro Martyr, and Fray Pedro de la Bastida who 
died at this time. 

[Father Fray Pedro de Soto was a native of 
Burgos, and assumed the habit in the convent of San 
Andres at Medina del Campo, where he professed, 
and whence he went to study in the distinguished 
convent of San Pablo at Valladolid. Here he showed 
signs of his great ability and the subtlety of his mind, 
soaring above his fellow-students as does a royal eagle 
above all other birds of less flight. In him the 
fathers hoped that they were to have a third Soto, in 
addition to the other two famous ones whom that 
province has had. He exhibited as much virtue as 
learning. When the religious for this province be- 
gan to be gathered, his superiors were planning that 
he should become a professor. The devotion and 
the severity of the discipline, and the opportunity to 
save souls, attracted father Fray Pedro; he was also 
influenced by the example of his two masters, Fray 
Miguel de Venavides and Fray Antonio Arcediano, 



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i64o] ADUARTES HISTORIA 145 

who had left their chairs of theology to enter the new 
province, as had also two other fathers, lecturers in 
arts at the same convent. The father master Fray 
Hernando del Castillo, who was then prior, strove 
by all means to prevent him from going; but the 
calling and inspiration of God prevailed in the heart 
of father Fray Pedro. He arrived at Manila July 
23, and on the day of our father St. Dominic, less 
than a fortnight later, they asked him to hold some 
public discussions of theology in the main church. 
Father Fray Pedro avoided display of his knowledge 
and ability; but, on occasions when necessity re- 
quired him to speak, he made evident the great 
superiority of his mind and his great learning. In 
the first distribution of the religious, he was assigned 
to Pangasinan. The people of this region still lived 
in their ancient villages and rancherias in the hills 
and mountains, without civilization, order, or sys- 
tem, any more than if they had never known Span- 
iards. Father Fray Pedro lived among these tribes 
for three years, suffering the hardships and perils 
which have been already described. He was con- 
stantly in danger of death, being particularly hateful 
to the hostile natives because he was the first one who 
learned the language of the Indians. When some of 
them began to accept the faith, he offered money for 
information as to those who continued to sacrifice to 
the devil. Keeping secret the source of his informa- 
tion, he immediately went] in haste to the place, 
sometimes alone, and caught the sacrificers in the 
very act. Without waiting an instant, he upset 
everything, and broke the dishes and bowls and other 
vessels which they used in their rites; poured out 
their wine: burned the robes in which the aniteras 



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146 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS (Vol. 31 

or priestesses dress themselves on such occasions, and 
the curtains with which they covered up everything 
else; threw down the hut, and completely destroyed 
it In this way he made them understand how little 
all those things availed, and how vain were the 
threats which the devil uttered against those who 
would not venerate him; and, in brief, that this was 
all falsehood and deceit. Many were thus aroused 
and undeceived; while others, and not a few, were 
angry, so that it was a wonder that he was not slain. 
[The rest of the fathers followed his plan; but father 
Fray Pedro led them all, following the track of this 
chase, in which his scent was so keen that nothing 
could escape him. At his death, father Fray Pedro 
was able to say that he was sure of the two aureoles 
of virgin and of doctor, and that he had almost suc- 
ceeded in gaining that of martyr. The village of 
Magaldan was the most obstinate of all these villages 
in their errors. They had striven to kill a father of 
the Order of St. Francis, insomuch that the dagger 
was already lifted above him for that purpose, and 
he had fled. They had refused to admit the fathers 
of the Order of St. Augustine, and they would not 
listen to a secular priest who was assigned to them, 
although the alcalde-mayor fined and punished them. 
It was these Indians whom father Fray Pedro de 
Soto came to conquer with patience and Christian 
charity. The Indians said that he never employed 
a word of their language wrong. He was engaged 
for a whole year in translating the gospel into this 
language, and translated some lives of saints and 
instances of virtue -which though they were com- 
posed in the very beginning, are still esteemed and 
are greatly prized, because of the propriety of the 



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1640] aduarte's historia 147 

words and the elevated style with which he treated 
these matters. He was devoted to the study of the- 
ology and sacred letters, and was continual in both 
mental and vocal prayer, to which he added fasting. 
Being taken to Manila to be treated for the fever 
from which he suffered, he died there. 

In spite of the failure of the two previous expe- 
ditions to Camboja, the governor, Don Francisco 
Tello, judged it desirable to send another ship with 
troops, and asked the order to send some of their 
friars with it. The father provincial directed that 
father Fray Juan de S. Pedro Martyr (or Maldo- 
nado) and father Fray Pedro Jesus (or de la Bas- 
tida) should go. Father Fray Juan was then com- 
missary of the Holy Office. He was a native of 
Alcala de Guadiana," and belonged to a rich and 
honorable family. He studied canon law at Sala- 
manca, and assumed the habit in the illustrious con- 
vent of San Pablo at Valladolid. The influence of 
Father Juan Chrisostomo attracted him to the new 
province to be established in the Philippinas Islands. 
When he was about to set forth, a certain Doctor 
Bobadilla, a canon in the church in Valladolid, took 
him to one side and assured him that he was to die 
a martyr; and this prophecy was corroborated by 
another devoted monk. It was on this account that 
he changed his name of Maldonado to that of S. 
Pedro Martyr. He spent his first year in the Phili- 
pinas in Manila; and in his second year was sent as 
vicar to a village in Pangasinan, which was at that 
time the most difficult in the province. From that 
place he was transferred to the vicariate of Bataan, 

'° Thus in Aduarte's text, but misprinted for Guadaira. Alcala 
de Guadaira is a small town in the diocese of Seviila. 



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148 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol.31 

the language of which he learned very well. When 
Father Juan Cobo went as ambassador to Japon, 
father Fray Juan was assigned to the mission to the 
Chinese, being thus required to learn a third lan- 
guage in addition to the two which he already knew. 
He learned more words of the Chinese language 
than any other member of the order, though he was 
not successful with the pronunciation. He assisted 
the Chinese so much that they named him as their 
protector; and he was, as it were, the advocate of 
their causes, so that they became very much attached 
to him, and listened with good-will to his preaching 
and his corrections. During the absence of the father 
provincial in Camboja, the province could find no 
one more suitable to govern it in his place, and ac- 
cordingly father Fray Juan was nominated as vicar- 
general. In the following provincial chapter he was 
appointed lecturer in theology, for there was nothing 
which the province did not find him competent to 
do. He made no objection to carrying out any 
orders that were given him, although they dragged 
him about hither and thither, causing him to learn 
so many languages and immediately to drop them 
again. This is a great evidence of his obedience and 
subjection to his superior. His reputation outside of 
the order was very great] The tribunal of the Holy 
Office of Mexico appointed him commissary-general 
of the Philippinas, which office he filled with the 
prudence and strength of mind which the Lord has 
given in these regions to the sons of the first inquis- 
itor-general, our father St. Dominic. Don Luis 
Perez das Marinas, a wise and holy knight, refused 
to accept the governorship of these islands until Fray 
Juan persuaded him to do so, stood security for him, 



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i64o] aduarte's HISTORIA 1 49 

and undertook the duty of confessing him and of 
aiding him with his good advice, that he might the 
better fulfil the office. This he did in spite of the 
fact that this was certain to be, as it was, to his own 
damage; for suitors who did not receive what they 
desired immediately threw the blame on Father 
Juan, whom they well knew that the governor con- 
sulted as to the appointments which he made. Father 
Fray Juan knew all this well, but accepted it very 
readily, in order that he might undertake the direc- 
tion of so upright a man as Don Luis. In spite of 
the fact that the esteem which was felt for Father 
Juan within and without the order was very great, 
the counterweight of humility and the consciousness 
of his own inferiority which he had was much 
greater. He regarded himself as the most useless in 
all the province, and treated himself as such. Hence, 
when he was named for vicar-general of the prov- 
ince, he managed that this title and office should be 
given to father Fray Juan de Sancto Thomas. [In 
the same way, when he was nominated prior of the 
convent of Manila at the time when father Fray 
Diego de Soria went as procurator to Espana, he 
succeeded in bringing about the election of another 
religious. He likewise strove to resign the office of 
commissary in favor of father Fray Bernardo de 
Sancta Cathalina, or Navarro. Such was the char- 
acter of father Fray Juan de San Pedro Martyr, 
whom the province was willing to spare for the mis- 
sion to Camboja. They would have spared an even 
more perfect religious if they could, well knowing 
that he who had to preach the gospel in a heathen 
kingdom like this should be such as father Fray Juan 
was, or even greater in all things. The companion 



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15° THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol.31 

of father Fray Juan, father Fray Pedro de Jesus or 
de la Bastida, a religious of great virtue, had come 
to the islands in the previous year, 1591, with the rest 
who were brought from Espana by father Fray 
Francisco de Morales. He had displayed high 
qualities in the mission to Bataan, to which he had 
been assigned. He had come from the very devout 
province of Aragon, of which he was a son. When 
they reached the great river of Camboja, father Fray 
Juan endeavored to carry out his mission, both for 
the conversion of those tribes and as an ambassador 
of the king our lord. He was contemptuously treated 
by the king,^^ the son of that king who had sent to 
ask for religious. The present king was wholly in 
the hands of Mahometan Malays, who persuaded 
him that the embassy involved some evil to him. 
When father Fray Juan asked his permission to re- 
turn to the ship which they had left in the port, the 
king refused to grant it, and thus showed that he was 
plotting treachery. Father Fray Juan saw no oppor- 
tunity for preaching the gospel, as the country was 
disturbed and in arms; and as the two captains, 
Diego Velloso and Bias Ruiz de Fernan Gonzalez, 
were in a difficult situation because their comrades 
were so few, and the Malays, their enemies, were in 
such favor. The captain of the ship {i.e., Mendoza] 
attempted to secure peace between these factions, but 
did not disembark from his vessel. The same thing 
was done by the captain of a fragata that had come 
from Sian. The Malays, seeing that they had the 



; son of Langara; he had been replaced on his 
throne by the Spanish adventurers. See Morga's account of Joan 
de Mendoza's expedition to Camboja, and the death of these two 
Dominicans, in vol. XV, pp. 183-190, 244-247. 



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1640] aduarte's historia 15^ 

advantage because their vessel was larger and 
stronger than ours, made an attack and shot con- 
trivances of fire and powder to burn the Spaniards 
and the Japanese. The ship caught fire, and those 
on board had to leap into the water to escape. Father 
Fray Pedro de Jesus was unable to swim, and took 
refuge from the fire on the poop. Here the Moros 
came out in small boats and thrust lances at him. 
He fell into the water and died of his wounds, or 
was drowned by the hands of the Moros. This vessel 
had done no harm to the Moros, and had not even 
tried to aid the Spanish captains in the kingdom. 
The only reason for attacking it was the desire of the 
Moros to prevent the preaching of the gospel; and 
hence father Fray Pedro died a glorious martyr. 
Father Fray Juan succeeded in reaching the fragata 
commanded by Juan de Mendo^a. In it father Fray 
Juan made his escape to Sian, being wounded in the 
throat by a shot which had passed obliquely through 
it; and thus half of the prophecy had been fulfilled 
that he and his comrade were to die the death of 
martyrs. Father Fray Juan went to Sian that he 
might be near to the kingdom of Camboja. The 
king of that country was a cruel and barbarous 
tyrant; he took delight in causing men to be thrown 
to wild elephants, who tore them to pieces with 
their trunks. He caused others to be fried with a 
very small quantity of oil, and their flesh to be torn 
off from them with pincers while they were thus 
tortured, and to be thrust into their mouths, that by 
force of the pain which they suffered they might 
bite and eat their own flesh. When there were no 
criminals, he used to perpetrate these cruelties solely 
for his own recreation; and that not to one, or a few, 



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152 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol.31 

but to a thousand at a time. Only a few days before, 
he had had four or five Portuguese fried alive for 
Some trifling offense, for which they had already 
paid a fine to him. There were here at this time a 
Portuguese religious, Fray Jorje de la Mota," and 
several other Portuguese who w;ere now trying to 
escape from the country. The force of the tides is 
so great that, when the tide is coming in, it is im- 
possible to make head against it; and as they were 
fifty leguas from the sea, it was easy to follow and 
catch them. Overjoyed with the possibility of escape 
offered by the coming of Father Juan, they prayed 
him for the love of God to rescue them in his boat 
without the knowledge of the king. The Spaniards 
planned to do so; but, because of the too great haste 
and anxiety of the Portuguese, the vessel was fol- 
lowed and found before it had made its escape into 
the sea. The king was mad with rage, and sent 
three separate expeditions after it. They surrounded 
the boat and fired at it with small cannon, arque- 
buses, arrows, and lances. There were about twenty 
persons, Castilians and Portuguese, on the ship, and 
they had about a dozen muskets and a few arque- 
buses to protect themselves with. So long as the 
tide was going out, they managed to defend them- 
selves fairly well, because they could manage to 
engage a part of the enemy only at one time. When 
the tide came in they were obliged to anchor, and 
they were like a target for the Sianese. After three 
days of this torture, they managed to get to sea. The 
pilot had been slain by a shot; and the captain, Juan 
de Mendoga, and father Fray Jorje de la Mota were 
so badly wounded that they afterward died. The 

" According to Morga's account, this friar was a Dominican. 



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1640] ADUARTE'S HISTORIA 153 

arm of father Fray Juan de San Pedro Martir was 
broken by a shot from a small culverin. As they had 
lost all their drinking-water in the combat, the suf- 
ferings of father Fray Juan were very great. He 
saw that his hour was come, and confessed to father 
Fray Jorj'e. He wrote to the fathers in this province 
an account of the fortunes of this voyage; and ex- 
pressed his joy in dying on an expedition carried out 
by the command of his superior for the purpose of 
preaching the gospel, in which he had saved those 
poor Portuguese from dreadful danger to both their 
lives and their souls.] Almost at the end of the 
letter which he sent he wrote: " What we have in 
this province is good, and God is greatly served in 
the province. Let us strive to keep what we have, by 
observing those things which we have established; 
for I am sure that God will show us a thousand 
favors. The arms of Saul do not fit all men; nor is 
preaching in these regions suitable to any but a very 
holy man." [They buried him on land near the 
port of Cochinchina, on an island called Pulocato- 
van, at the root of a tree - not daring to set up a 
cross, for fear of the derision of those heathen. He 
had set out upon this voyage certain to meet his 
death in it; and at the beginning of the expedition 
he had shown the perfection of his obedience in 
several ways.] 

CHAPTER LIII 

The election as provincial of father Fray Juan de 
Sancto Thomas, and the death of father Fray 
Damian Valaguer. 

[On the second of June, 1600, the electors as- 
sembled in the convent of Manila to elect a suc- 



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154 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS lYol- 31 

cesser to father Fray Bernardo de Sancta Cathalina. 
The example of father Fray Bernardo was so grand 
that it was difficult for his successor to reach the 
same pitch of excellence. Although all felt that 
father Fray Juan de Sancto Thomas, or Ormaga, 
was fitted for the position by character and abilities, 
there was some doubt whether his ill-health would 
permit him to fill the office as it ought to be filled. 
He was constantly under the necessity of receiving 
dispensations from the severity of the rules; and 
though this did no harm in a private friar, it was 
most unfortunate in a superior. It was also feared 
that he would be physically unable to perform the 
duties of the situation. One of the best physicians 
of the city was called in, without the knowledge of 
father Fray Juan, to express his opinion as to the 
ability of father Fray Juan to fulfil the duties of the 
office. His judgment was favorable, and father Fray 
Juan was elected. The election was a most fortunate 
one, for father Fray Juan was able, learned, and 
holy; and his nature was so gentle that the vicar- 
general. Fray Juan de Castro, who had a gift from 
heaven of special insight into character, chose him 
as his usual associate, and appointed him to the first 
position as superior in a mission to Indians. He 
filled the office well, and not only lived out the four 
years of his provincialship, but has seen ten other 
elections of provincials since his own; and he is still 
alive while this is being written, in the year 1637. 
Since he is still living, let us content ourselves with 
what has been said - leaving the rest till the time 
when, after the end of his life, it may be discussed 
with greater freedom. During his term, the Lord 
opened the gates for the entrance of the order to 



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1 640] aduarte's historia ^S5 

Japan, as will be narrated later; this was a great 
reward for the hardships suffered by the religious 
of this province, and by him in particular, from the 
perils and miseries of travel by land and by sea. 
Many new convents were admitted at this chapter, 
both in Pangasinan and Nueva Segovia; for the 
duties of the ministry in these regions were con- 
stantly increasing, and the religious kept constantly 
reaching out to new places. Many excellent ordi- 
nances were passed for the exercise of the ministry 
to the Indians, and also for the better maintenance of 
the rules affecting us ~ especially in the matter of 
showing ourselves disinterested, and careful not to 
annoy the Indians. 

In the province of Nueva Segovia the religious 
labored hard in the search throughout mountains 
and valleys, and other secret places, for the huts 
where the devil had been adored, to which those 
people used to make pilgrimages in search of health 
or other favors, giving offerings of bits of gold, or 
of stones regarded by them as precious. The natives 
dared not take anything from those places, or cut a 
reed or a tree from the natural growth of the earth 
in them, for fear of death, with which the devil had 
threatened them. In the villages on the coast many 
such little huts were found, with many little figures 
and idols in them. The religious burnt and broke 
the boxes with the offerings; took the gold and the 
stones, and all the other offerings; and burnt and 
ground to dust everything, and cast it into the sea, 
that it might not remain to be a stumbling-block to 
the Indians. When the heathen saw that the threats 
of the devil were not being carried out, their eyes 
were opened and they were very eager to be bap- 



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15"^ THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 31 

tized. Great aid was received from an epidemic 
of smallpox which attacked a whole region. In 
this way the Lord took to himself many souls, espe- 
cially of children; for there were many newly bap- 
tized in the province of Pangasinan and in that of 
Nueva Segovia.] Many of those who seemed to be 
near their end recovered after they received the 
water of baptism. All, therefore, came to be bap- 
tized, and the Lord, by means of those who recov- 
ered, gave authority to the baptism; while of the 
vast number who died baptized He peopled heaven 
with new angels. This brought great comfort to the 
missionaries, who, although worn out and greatly 
fatigued by going from house to house baptizing and 
confessing, and giving the sacraments to sick persons, 
saw their labors successful and rewarded by the send- 
ing to heaven of so many souls, and also by the 
strengthening of their hope that they should go to 
accompany those souls in glory; for it is not possible 
that these should not be grateful, and pray and strive 
to obtain salvation for those who labored, with such 
zeal, to give it to them by the means of baptism, 
without which it cannot be obtained. 

[Soon after the provincial chapter, one of the 
definitors, father Fray Damian Balaguer, died. He 
had lived but a short time in the province, but had 
gained great reputation in it; and his early death 
was much mourned. He was a native of the king- 
dom of Valencia, and had two brothers in the same 
order -one, the present Fray Pedro Martyr de 
Balaguer; and the other master Fray Andres Bala- 
guer, at one time bishop of Albarracin and afterward 
of Origuela. Father Fray Damian took the habit 
in the convent of the Preachers in Valencia, which 



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i64o] aduarte's HISTORIA 157 

has been happy in giving saints to the church. Dur- 
ing all his novitiate, the master of the novices never 
had occasion to discipline him, even for the merest 
trifle - although by the advice of another father he 
assigned him some discipline, without any fault on 
the part of Fray Damian, but not without a cause; 
for it is necessary for the novices to be initiated in 
these punishments of the order, that they may not 
afterward be new and strange to them. He was 
constant in prayer and fasting, given to speaking of 
the things of God, and to mortification. For many 
years he was accustomed to repeat the whole of the 
Psalter of David daily, in imitation of St. Vincent 
of Ferrara. He studied at Origuela, becoming a 
lecturer in arts in the same college, and afterward 
in theology - having a singular grace given him to 
declare with clearness the gravest and most pro- 
found difficulties of this holy science. He was an 
excellent and a moving preacher, having the power 
to change the hearts of many of his hearers, who 
selected him as their spiritual guide. Whenever he 
left the convent, which he did only on important 
occasions, he was followed by a troop of his dis- 
ciples, who gathered not only to honor him, but to 
profit by what they heard him say. He showed all 
his life the greatest humility, and from day to day 
did not change, except by the augmentation and 
advance of his virtue. Being eager for the con- 
version of souls, he went to Mexico with master Fray 
Alonso Bayllo, who was going out to Mexico with 
authority to divide the province of Vaxac from that 
of Santiago.^' For the space of two years he directed 

^*The DomtnicaJis made their first establishment at the City 
of Mexico in 1526; nine years later, their houses were organized 



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158 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol- 31 

the schools in the city of Vaxac; but, as that was not 
the end which he had intended, he was dissatisfied. 
When he heard that many ministers of the holy 
gospel were needed in the Philippinas, he took ad- 
vantage of the arrival in Mexico of father Fray 
Francisco de Morales to ask that he would take him 
to the islands with the rest of the company whom 
he was bringing over. Arriving in 1598, he was 
assigned to Nueva Segovia, where in a short time he 
learned enough of the language to be able to hear 
confessions. Father Fray Damian was first vicar 
and superior of the mission of Abulug. As such, he 
was a definitor in the provincial chapter, and re- 
turned to Nueva Segovia as vicar of the village of 
Pata. He died greatly mourned. 

At this time there died in the same province of 
Nueva Segovia brother Fray Domingo de San Bias, 
a lay religious of much virtue and known sanctity, a 
son of the convent of San Pablo at Sevilla, who came 
to these islands in the year 1594. He was of much 
use to the Indians, of whose language he learned 
enough to be understood by them and to teach them 
to pray, to attract the Christians to the church, and 
to teach the heathen the knowledge of the doctrine 
of Christianity. He was fervent in prayer, being 
often moved to sighs and tears during his devotions. 
He strove to hide them from his companion, father 
Fray Ambrosio de la Madre de Dios, but was unable 

into the province of Santiago de Mexico. In 1550, Chiapas and 
Guatemala were separated therefrom, and formed into a new 
province; and in 1592 permission was given to cut out still another, 
the province of Oajaca. Alonso de Vayllo was its second provin- 
cial (1594-97). See account of the Dominican order in Nueva 
Espaiia in the sixteenth century, in Bancroft's Hist. Mexico, ii, 
pp. 724-733- 



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i64o] aduarte's HISTORIA 1 59 

to do 80. Father Fray Ambrosio said to him that, as 
they two lived alone and like brothers, there was no 
reason why one should try to conceal anything from 
the other. With this permission from his superior 
he broke out in sobs, and his heart melted away in 
tears, directed mainly to the conversion of these 
heathen and to the perfecting in Christianity of the 
already baptized. Two extraordinary things hap- 
pened in this village of Pata while this brother lived 
there: One was the receiving of a fish on the day 
of St. Dominic, under such circumstances that there 
could be no doubt that the Lord had sent it to enable 
them properly to celebrate the feast of the holy 
founder of this order. The second event was the 
marvelous recovery or restoration to life, at the inter- 
cession of St. Dominic, of an Indian who had been 
given over for dead. It was the very man who had 
given them the fish. Father Fray Domingo died 
from exposure to the sun. He was sent back to the 
convent of Manila for care, and there grew worse; 
and, after having very devoutly received the holy 
sacraments, exchanged this wretched life for the 
eternal one.] 

CHAPTER LIV 

The intermediate chapter; an extraordinary event 
which took place in it, and the coming of religious 
to the province. 

In the year of our Lord 1602, the voting fathers 
assembled in their intermediate provincial chapter, 
at which was accepted the house of San Juan del 
Monte, which is situated a legua from the city of 
Manila in a solitary place, a healthful and pleasant 



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j6o THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol.31 

situation. There were two motives and ends with 
which this house was built. The first was the con- 
sideration that some aged fathers, after their many 
labors and years passed in the ministry, desired, hav- 
ing performed the duties of Martha, to give them- 
selves up wholly to those of Mary by leading the 
life of contemplation. For this purpose the locality 
is very well suited, for there is nothing in it to dis- 
turb the calm of prayer and contemplation, But it 
did not serve much for this end, because it was soon 
found by experience that these servants of God, the 
aged ministers, were of much more usefulness in 
the ministries, since their example and authority 
were very efficacious for the spiritual increase of 
faith and devotion in the Indians. Teaching and 
doctrine were received much better from such ven- 
erable ministers, who were well known, loved, and 
regarded. It was also found that the example of 
these venerable fathers was of great use to those who 
had newly entered upon the ministry, since they 
could not fail to venerate and follow the acts and 
the teaching which they beheld in these ancient and 
venerable ministers. Even though there are some 
who on account of their great age and infirmity can- 
not continue in the service, they are of more use in 
the convent of the city, where their infirmities may 
be better cared for, and where their good example 
and venerable age are more valuable. The second 
motive and object is one which is obviously of great 
advantage. It is found that in the city convalescence 
takes place slowly, or not at all; therefore those who 
are being treated for any sickness leave the city for 
their convalescence, by the advice of the physicians. 
If the order did not have this convent outside of the 



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i64o] ADUARTE'S HISTORIA l6l 

city, in a situation which is healthful and where the 
air is good -which is what convalescents most re- 
quire -the religious would be obliged to ask for 
permission to go for their convalescence to the farms 
or fruit-gardens of laymen, which are never so ap- 
propriate as the convent. Now that they have this 
convent, no permission is granted to go for con- 
valescence to any other place, which is to the great 
advantage of the province. Also when a religious is 
worn out and afflicted by the heats of the city, which 
are very great, he is permitted to go and obtain some 
refreshment and ease at San Juan del Monte, and 
soon returns to his labors in the city with new energy ; 
and this, too, is of great value. While the fathers 
were assembled at this chapter an event occurred 
which caused special awe in the hearts of the re- 
ligious, and created greater respect for the sacred 
constitutions which we promise to observe. Even 
when the obligation does not involve a matter of sin, 
even venial sin, still the Lord desires us to keep them 
with the greatest accuracy - not only in matters of 
importance, but even in the less significant ones. It 
was a very extraordinary incident, and one which 
seems to have happened like the blindness of the 
man who was born blind, as the gospel tells us, " not 
because of his own sins nor those of his fathers, but 
for the glory of God." Although there was a fault, 
it was such a fault as the Lord is accustomed to pass 
over (and even greater ones) in us. Therefore it 
was, as I said, that it seemed to be for the greater 
glory of God and of St. Cecilia, who, as we shall see, 
had a share in the remedy. There was a religious 
who came from the province of Andalucia, in which 
he had lived in a very devout convent. It happened 



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1 62 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol.31 

one evening that this religious ate between meals a 
few capers without the permission and blessing of 
the superior. This is something which in the eyes 
of men did not appear a special fault; but it was 
so in the sight of God, who punished this excess. 
From that evening the religious suffered from a 
pain, which seemed to him to be in his heart. Al- 
though from evening to evening it sometimes was 
very severe, still it was not of such a nature that on 
account of it they hesitated to ordain him, or, after 
he was ordained, prohibited him from the use of the 
orders which he had received. He came into these 
regions, and went as minister to the Indians in Pan- 
gasinan. In the course of time his sufferings in- 
creased, and afflicted him to such an extent that he 
was prohibited from saying mass, as it was feared 
that the malady would attack him during the cele- 
bration. During this time when he did not celebrate 
mass, his malady continually increased and afflicted 
him more than before, so that the religious suffered 
great torture; and they gave him great care, and as 
much comfort as was consistent with our poverty. 
In spite of this he grew worse and worse, and suf- 
fered greater afflictions and torments. It attacked 
him one day, and they gave him some relics. There- 
upon he began to be so furious that he lifted up and 
carried along the religious who came to hold him. 
It seemed to them that it was some evil spirit which 
received the holy thing so ill. The prior at that time, 
who was father Fray Francisco de Morales, after- 
ward a holy martyr in Japon, asked permission of 
the father provincial to exorcise him. While he was 
saying the litany, the grimaces and gestures made by 
the afflicted man were many; but when the prior 



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1640] aduarte's historia 163 

reached the glorious name of the martyr St. Cecilia, 
his fury became so great that with the torment of it 
he fell to the ground, deprived of strength as if in a 
faint. Now it happened that this religious was very 
devoted to this most illustrious saint, and had com- 
posed a special office which he used to recite out of 
devotion to her. He had even abandoned his own 
proper surname, and was called and called himself 
" de Sancta Cecilia." Although he did not perceive 
it himself, this was of great aid to him against the 
devil who tormented him; therefore it was that the 
evil spirit resented it so much when the religious 
invoked her. When the religious saw this, they 
called upon her many times, and all those present 
made a vow to fast for a day on bread and water, 
from reverence for this saint. The provincial vowed 
to celebrate a feast in her honor, and the church and 
an altar were prepared for saying a mass to her with 
great solemnity. All the religious were with the 
afflicted friar in the choir, singing the mass to the 
saint. At the first Kyrie, he began to be changed; 
and, when the priest said the first prayer, the noise 
which he made in the choir was so great that he 
disturbed the ministers who were at the altar. While 
they were singing in the creed the words Ex Maria 
Virgine, et homo factus est [of the Virgin Mary and 
was made man] the noise became very much greater; 
and at the lifting up of the Host his sobs and groans 
and cries were so loud that, to avoid exciting the 
people in the church, they kept sounding clarions to 
the end of the mass. They took him from the choir 
to the oratory. Here in the presence of all the 
religious gathered together, he performed an act of 
humility, saying that his faults had brought him to 



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164 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol.31 

this wretched state, and begging them to pray to 
God to pardon him; and that, if it was best for him 
to suffer ail the pains of hell, he was ready to re- 
ceive them. He asked permission of the provincial 
to kiss the feet of those who were present. The 
provincial comforted him, and they went on with 
the exorcism, during which the devil became calmer. 
The friar answered all the questions which were put 
to him, and, when they gave him the holy cross, he 
kissed it with reverence. These were evidences of 
his recovery. The friar became so weary that it was 
necessary for him to repose. When he lay down to 
sleep it seemed to him, whether in dreams or not he 
could not tell, that the devil complained of being 
suffocated, that a religious was repeating exorcisms 
to him, and that the glorious St. Cecilia came to his 
assistance. On the following day the religious 
fasted, as they had promised, on bread and water, 
and repeated the exorcisms. During them it became 
evident that the evil guest had departed, and that he 
must be one of those of whom the Lord said that 
they are not to be cast out except by fasting and 
prayer. There was no more necessity of cure for 
that malady. As a result, the religious became very 
much devoted to this glorious saint, who has favored 
the order on many other occasions; and they became 
very fearful of violating the constitutions, when they 
saw that the Lord was zealous for them in such a 
manner. Among the babblings which the Father of 
Lies muttered through the mouth of the afflicted 
friar, it was noticed that when he was directed to 
read the epistle in the mass of the cross, where the 
apostle says, Christus factus est pro nobis obediem 



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1640] ADUARTE'S HISTORIA 165 

usque ad mortem,^' he read pro vobts [i.^., " for your 
sake "], excluding the devils from the benefit of the 
holy Passion. When one of those present said that 
Christ our Lord had not died for devils, the proud 
one answered immediately: '* Then we have the 
less to be thankful for." When he reached the words 
of the apostle, that " at the name of Jesus every knee 
shall bow, of those who are in heaven, on earth, and 
in the hells," he refused to utter this last word, which 
affects the devils; and, when they forced him to utter 
it, he answered that it was enough to say that every 
tongue should confess that He was seated at the right 
hand of the Father. All this was to continue further 
the pride with which he was always tormented. 

At the same time, at the end of April, those re- 
ligious reached Manila whom father Fray Diego de 
Soria had collected in Espafia during the previous 
year. He assembled them at the port, where he 
delivered them to father Fray Thomas Hernandez,'" 
father Fray Diego remaining in Espana to collect 
and conduct another company, in which he suc- 
ceeded. The body of friars which arrived at this 
time was one of the best which had come to this 
province.^^ It contained fourteen members from the 
colleges of the provinces of Espafia, Aragon and 
Romana. These were all very superior in ability 

^' i.e., " Christ became, for our sake, obedient even unto death." 
'"Xomas Hernandez was sent, soon after his arrival at Manila 
(1602), to the Japan mission; but at the end of four years he re- 
turned with broken health, which compelled him to cease his 
labors. He lingered, however, until 1642, when he died at 
Manila. 

^' See list of these missionaries in Resena biografica, i, pp. 307- 
319. Thirty-one arrived at Manila, besides the two who died on 
the way. 



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l66 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol.31 

and advanced in knowledge, and still more so in 
religion and virtue. The provinces of Espana were 
not a little grieved to lose them. There, however, 
there was a very easy remedy because of the many 
who were left behind; while for this province these 
friars were of the greatest value, and have given it 
dignity and support in various ways, in the ofBces 
that belong to it. It appeared from the beginning 
that the Lord gave them His benediction, and such 
a spirit of constancy and firmness that, although they 
had the most urgent reasons for remaining behind, 
not one of those who were designated failed to come. 
This is something which probably never happened 
with any other shipload. There also came many 
besides [the fourteen above mentioned], taking the 
chance as to their being desired, which was an even 
greater marvel. This was in the year sixty-one, when 
Sevilla was afflicted with the plague. It was here 
that the religious were to assemble, and to wait for 
the sailing of the fleet. On the road, they met many 
who asked them where they were going. When they 
answered, " To Sevilla," those that heard them were 
amazed and answered: "You see, fathers, that we, 
who are inhabitants of Sevilla, have abandoned our 
houses and our fortunes almost to destruction, flee- 
ing from the plague there. Are your Reverences 
going to place yourselves in the midst of it? " But 
nothing sufficed to prevent a single one of them from 
continuing his journey, for they regarded dying in 
such an enterprise as good fortune, and death on 
such a journey as happy. At the court father Fray 
Thomas Hernandez and three companions who were 
with him found the father provincial of Espana, 
who at that time was the father master Fray Andres 



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16401 ADUARTE'S HISTORIA 167 

de Caso, an intimate friend of him who at that time 
was president of the Indias. He said to them, 
" Where are you going? There is no fleet, for the 
president of the Indias has told me so." In spite of 
all this, the religious were all moved by a higher 
impulse; and although it was true that, on account 
of the plague, it had been ordered that there should 
be no fleet, one was afterward permitted to sail. The 
religious reached Sevilla after much hardship; be- 
cause in many places they were unwilling to admit 
them to the towns, or to private houses, or even to 
our own convents, so great was the fear of the plague. 
They were even unwilling to be satisfied with the 
evidence that the religious brought with them that 
they were healthy. When they reached Sevilla they 
saw the plague-stricken taken almost dead to the 
hospitals and even this did not frighten them. They 
were in the Guerta del Corgo [i.e., " garden of the 
deer "] ; and there one of them was taken with the 
plague, and was carried suddenly off in two more 
days. Even then, not one of them even thought of 
giving up the voyage, although they saw the plague 
and death within the house where they were dwell- 
ing. The Lord favored them so that no one else 
took the plague. When they saw the danger more 
clearly, they gave greater thanks to Him who had 
not only rescued them from it, but had taken from 
them the fear which they naturally had of it -espe- 
cially as they had almost all come on foot, asking 
alms, all the way from the innermost parts of Cas- 
tilla la Vieja; and though they were persons who 
were not inured to that sort of hardship, and there- 
fore were the more likely to fall sick, especially in 
a season of plague. [The religious who died was 



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l68 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol.31 

Fray Juan de Solis, a son of the licentiate Jofre de 
Solis. He was a man of jovial disposition and fond 
of company, but corrected his weakness when he 
proposed to go to the Philippinas. His relatives and 
several of his fellow-friars tried to dissuade him, 
but he insisted upon going. In Sevilla, as there was 
no lay religious with them, he undertook the duty of 
cooking for the rest of the company; and it may be 
that the great heat and consequent exhaustion were 
the reasons for his being taken by the plague.] When 
the religious reached Sevilla, they were received 
with much joy and charity by father Fray Diego de 
Soria. Everything they had -their books, their 
clothes, their money, and everything, down to their 
very handkerchiefs- ail became common property; 
if they had any debts unpaid, the community took 
charge of these, and the religious were left without 
any care, and even without the use of anything for 
themselves, except the habit which they wore. From 
that day they even said all their masses for the com- 
munity, which provided for every one what he had 
need of, while no one possessed anything (not even 
by permission) except books. Everything else was 
in common for all of them; and hence they did not 
have to think of carrying anything with them for 
the voyage, except the very small outfit provided for 
the whole company. [On the voyage they strove to 
live as much as possible as if they were in a very 
strict convent. They encountered a frightful storm, 
so great that there was not a single vessel which did 
not lose at least one mast; and one of the largest and 
best of the vessels foundered, although without loss 
of life. Even the pilots confessed, which they avoid 
as much as possible for fear of disheartening the 



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i64o] ADUARTE'S HISTORIA 169 

crew. The ship on which the religious were was 
very old, and was being sent on its last voyage, to be 
broken up and sold as old lumber in the port. In 
response to a vow of the religious, the Virgin of the 
Rosary showed them grace, and brought the storm 
to an end. In Mexico some were sick, but none died ; 
and not one remained behind. This greatly aston- 
ished the fathers of the province of Mexico, because 
in every shipload some give up the distant mission 
- being wearied by the voyage which they have taken, 
fearful of the dangers to come, and pleased with the 
delightful climate of Mexico. This shipload was 
the first which occupied the hospice of St. Hyacinth, 
where they lived as if in a convent, following all 
the rules of the province. While in the hospice, they 
studied and had frequent theological conferences. 
They very rarely visited the city. On the journey 
from Mexico to Acapulco, which is very long and 
over a very bad road, many of them went on foot. 
As this was not customary at that time, it greatly 
edified those who saw them. There was only one 
ship in from the Philippinas ; and this and more 
were needed by the governor, Don Pedro de Acuiia, 
for the accommodation of himself and his troops. 
But while the religious were praying and offering 
vows to the Virgin for her aid, they were rejoiced 
by the news that one ship had come in from the 
Philippinas and two from Peru, which were all 
taken to make up the fleet. On the voyage they did 
much for the consciences of those who were in their 
ship, dividing among themselves all the people, from 
the admiral and his companions down to the lowest 
convict or ship-boy. They taught these men and 
heard their confessions, opening the way of peace 



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17° THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol.31 

and liberty to many a captive and unhappy soul. 
At the port of Acapulco died father Fray Vicente 
de Liano, a religious of much devotion and patience 
under suffering, for he was a confirmed invalid. 
When they reached Manila they were immediately 
distributed by the provincial council, w?hich was 
then sitting. The number of religious was the largest 
that has entered the province since its establishment. 
All of the houses in the province were filled, and 
enough were left to comply with the wishes of the 
king of Satzuma, who had sent to ask for religious.] 

CHAPTER LV 

The causes of the entry of our religious into Japan, 
and the circumstances under which they entered 
Satzuma. 

[Christianity in the kingdoms of Japon took its 
origin from the Society of Jesus, the first preacher 
and apostle therein being St. Francis Xavier. The 
fathers of this Society had entered Japon according 
to the rule of the gospel, without weapons or sol- 
diers, but with peace and mercy and in the strength 
of holy living. Christianity flourished so that the 
first missionaries were obliged to call in aid ; and they 
sent for assistance to the Philippinas, where at that 
time there were discalced Franciscans and Augus- 
tinians, besides members of the Society. Father 
Caspar Coello, vice-provincial of the fathers in 
Japon, wrote to the governor, Dr. Santiago de Vera, 
to the bishop, Don Fray Domingo de Salagar, and 
to the guardian of St. Francis, and the rector of the 
Society in Manila, urging the establishment of trade 
between the Philippinas and Japon. The bishop 
made a number of formal inquiries, which were 



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i64o] ADUARTE'S HISTORIA ^7^ 

verified before a notary. One is dated at Nan- 
gasaqui, September ii, 1584; and the other from the 
kingdom of Fixen, January 24, 1585. The witnesses 
when asked especially if it would be an advantage to 
have religious of various orders, and especially re- 
ligious under the vow of poverty, replied unani- 
mously that such would be very well received. They 
called to witness the case of the holy Fray Juan 
Pobre, a discalced friar who disembarked in Japon 
on his way to China, and whom the Japanese, both 
heathen and Christian, adored. It must be admitted 
that soon afterward the fathers of the Society in 
Japon changed their opinion, in spite of the fact 
that the extension of Christianity in Japon required 
more laborers in the field and that the empire was 
large enough for all the religious orders. God was 
pleased to put it into the heart of many of the kings, 
or tonoSj of that realm to send to Manila to ask for 
religious of all the orders. The particular reason 
for the calling of our religious was as follows : In 
i6or a number of Japanese vessels, with many Chris- 
tians on them, touched at Manila. A number of 
these Christians became very fond of our convent, 
and often visited it. One of them, by name Juan 
Sandaya, brought the captain of his ship to the prior. 
Fray Francisco de Morales; and they discussed the 
possibility of sending religious of the Order of St. 
Dominic to Satzuma, whence the captain came. In 
the following year a letter was brought from the 
king of Satzuma, Tintionguen, inviting them to come 
to his kingdom. The letter was dated on the twenty- 
second day of the ninth month in the sixth year of 
Keycho." In response to it religious were sent. 

" One of the year-periods used in Japanese chronology (see vol. 
vni, p. 263). The Kekho period is 1596-1615. 



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172 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol.31 

Father Fray Francisco de Morales went as vicar 
and superior, accompanied by the fathers Fray 
Thomas Hernandez, Fray Alonso de Mena, and 
Fray Thomas del Spiritu Santo, or Zumarraga, and 
brother Fray Juan de ta Abadia, a lay brother/' 
They set sail on the day of the most holy Trinity. 
They carried but little in the way of temporal things, 
expecting to live upon the alms which they should 
receive in Japon. They rested the first night in a 
heathen temple in the island of Coxiqui." The priest 
of the idols removed the images, and left the temple 
unoccupied, and the fathers consecrated it and set 
up in it an altar. The Japanese were very curious 
about the new missionaries, and were greatly pleased 
with them. They were welcomed in a few days by 
some Japanese gentlemen, who made them a very 
ceremonious greeting and welcomed them in the 
name of their king. They were escorted to the court 
of the tono, where they were honorably received. 
The black and white colors of the habit pleased the 
Japanese, for these are customary in that country; 
while the eating of fish as an ordinary article of food 
is very common in Japon. They also greatly ad- 
mired the devotion of the fathers to study, for they 
esteem their bongos [or " bonzes "] in proportion as 
they are learned; but what above all they admired 
was the contempt of these fathers for comforts and 
worldly advantages. The favor with which the 
religious were received enraged the priests of the 
idols, who insisted that the Japanese princes who had 



'* All these priests became martyrs, except Hernandez ; the 
Fate of the lay brother is unknown. 

"One of the Koshiki Islands, lying west of Satsuma, and be- 
longing to that district. 



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i64o] ADUARTE'S HISTORIA »73 

become Christians had been unfortunate. They 
mentioned the instance of Don Augustin Tzuno- 
tami,'" a great and valiant lord who had been de- 
stroyed by the emperor; also that of Don Francisco, 
the king of Bungo,^^ who had been conquered and 
lost his life; while this kingdom of Satzuma had 
been protected by its devotion to its gods, and espe- 
cially to Faquiman, who is their god of war. It 
was no wonder that two Christian princes should 
have been overwhelmed when thousands of heathen 
had suffered the same overthrow, but the idol priests 
passed that over. The emperor intervened, and 
enacted a decree that no king or tono, and not even 
any gentleman of distinction, should become a Chris- 
tian. The king of Satzuma, however, would not 
banish the religious, but gave them permission to 
build a church and a house. Not infrequently, how- 
ever, they were forgotten, and did not receive their 
customary supply of rice. The fathers converted the 
family of the man in whose house they lived, and 
made a chapel in the oratory of the house. The 
queen was desirous of seeing the image of the Virgin 

" Konishi Yukinaga Tsu- no-Kami, a noted general, was con- 
verted in 1584, and took the name of Augustin. In 1592 he com- 
manded the main army {composed mainly of Christian Japanese) 
sent by Taiko-sama for the conquest of Korea. Konishi won re- 
nown in that enterprise, in which he was engaged until Taiko- 
sama's death (1598) caused the recall of the Japanese troops from 
Korea. Opposing lyeyasu, Konishi was among the prisoners taken 
at the battle of Sekigahara (1600), and was beheaded at Kioto. 
See Rein's Japan, pp. 284-288, 290, 299. 

^^ Owotomo Bungo-no-Kami (called Franciscus by the Jesuits) , 
the most powerful feudal lord in Kiushiu, was one of the first 
daimios in Japan to accept Christianity, and was the main sup- 
port of the missions in their early years. He died in 1587. The 
family of this prince were deprived, under lyeyasu, of their pos- 
sessions, which were divided among the latter's adherents. See 
Rein's Japan, pp. 273, 519. 



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174 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol. 31 

which was set up in the chapel; and it was carried 
to the palace, and there worshiped with the greatest 
respect by the chief personages of the court The 
king, being unable to make up his mind how to treat 
the religious because of the opposition of the em- 
peror, permitted them, at their request, to return to 
the island of Quoxiqui, where they had landed, and 
where they had something of an establishment. Here 
they suffered from the rigors of the Japanese winter 
in a wretched hut. They had insufficient food, and 
received very small alms. In case of illness, it was 
impossible to give the sick man any treatment, or 
even proper food. The Lord, however, preserved 
them; and the tono at last, pitying them and being 
edified by their way of living, offered them a town, 
the income derived from which would suffice to 
maintain them. This they declined, as being against 
the rule of the province to which they belonged. 
The king was much amazed, and gave them some 
interpreters to speak for them when they preached. 
Being on an island seven leguas at sea, they could 
not preach to advantage, or learn the language; the 
king gave them permission to build a house and a 
church in the city of Quiodomari. They said their 
first mass here on the day of the Visitation of the 
Virgin Mary in 1606. Here the fathers made a 
number of conversions, although they were per- 
mitted to baptize only the common people, the con- 
version of persons of rank or of soldiers being for- 
bidden. Some, however, came secretly and were 
baptized- One of them, a soldier by the name of 
Leon, received the crown of martyrdom in four 
months.] 



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:t64o] ADUARTE'S HISTORIA ^75 

CHAPTER LVI 

Another mission of the religious to the kingdom of 
Camhoja 

In Espana many times the conquest of Camboja, 
Sian, and Champan, neighboring kingdoms, was 
much discussed. The theologians whom his Maj- 
esty consulted declared that this conquest was justi- 
fied within certain limitations. As captain-general 
was appointed the Conde de Bailen. There came to 
Manila in 1603 an embassy from the new king [of 
Camboja] asking for the friendship of the governor, 
for a force of soldiers, and, most important of all, 
for religious to come and preach the gospel. The 
king disclaimed any part in the murders which had 
been committed a few years before by the king his 
predecessor (who was his nephew), and by the 
Malay Moros whom that king favored. By them all 
the Portuguese and Castilians who were there had 
been slain, except one who made his escape." This 
new king had had nothing to do with that murder, 
because he was at the time a prisoner and captive 
in Sian, and had been taken from prison there to 
the kingdom at the death of his nephew, who had 
been slain by the Malay Moros whom he had fav- 
ored. They had taken possession of the kingdom, 
thus rewarding the ungrateful treachery which he 
had shown to the Spaniards, although they had 
restored him to his kingdom. At this time the gov- 
ernor of these islands was Don Pedro de Acuna, a 

" This was a soldier named Joan Diaz (vol. xv, pp. 189, 279). 
Cf. Morga's account of this Dominican mission {vol. xv, pp. 279, 
280). 



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1/6 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol. 31 

man of noble birth and a brave soldier, a devoted 
servant of his Majesty, and a true Christian. In 
this same year the Lord had given him a glorious 
victory over fifteen or sixteen thousand Chinese who 
attacked this city, of whom scarcely one was left 
alive, the Lord aiding this noble gentleman and the 
few Spaniards who were in Manila. Not long after- 
ward He gave him the great victory by which 
Maluco was recovered and given into the possession 
of his Majesty, without the loss of a man, which 
greatly enhanced the victory. [The governor was 
delighted by this embassy from Camboja, and sent 
to ask preachers of the order which had spent so 
much and labored so hard to introduce the gospel 
among these tribes. The province immediately ap- 
pointed father Fray liiigo de Santa Maria as vicar, 
and, as associates and apostolic preachers, father 
Fray Geronimo de Belen ^' and father Fray Alonso 
Collar, or de Santa Cathalina-whom the governor 
despatched with six Spaniards, letters, and a present, 
in a good frigate. They had bad weather, and were 
obliged to touch at Cochinchina and to coast along 
the kingdom of Champan, where they were attacked 
by Indians when they went on shore to get fresh 
water. They reached the port of Camboja called 
Chordemuco, in April. The king received them 
with great marks of honor, showing particular favor 
to the religious. The kingdom was in constant dis- 
turbance, but the king was greatly encouraged even 
by the presence of these Spaniards. He was greatly 

^^Jeronimo de Belen, a Portuguese by birth, came in the mis- 
sion of 1595, fr«Kn Puebia de los Angeles, Mexico. He ministered 
at Bataan, Manila, and Cavite respectively; in 1603 went on the 
Camboja mission, and on its failure returned to Manila. He died 
in 1642, in Pampanga. 



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Map showing portions of Cochinchina and the Philippine 

Islands; from Dutch parchment MS. map, 

undated but of seventeenth century 

[Fro!i] origiiii:/ in Bihli'itheque Nationiile, Paris} 



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i64o] aduarte's HISTORIA 1/9 

desirous of receiving further assistance from the 
Philippinas; but the fathers were doubtful whether 
any ought to come, for fear that things would turn 
out as they had before. Some vessels came from 
Cochinchina, the captain of one of them being one 
of those Sangleys who had killed the governor of 
the Philippinas (Dasmarifias) ; he took possession 
of the Spanish galley, and became a pirate. He had 
at this time the title of ambassador from the king of 
Cochinchina. Some of the Japanese knew him, since 
he had stolen a ship from them; and they wished to 
kill him, but were restrained by the religious. Soon 
after, when some more Japanese vessels came into 
port, they plotted against the man, and took his life, 
before the fathers could hinder them. At this time 
the fathers and the Spaniards suffered great risks, 
because the Siamese, the Chinese, and the Cochin- 
chinese, and much more the Malay Moros, who were 
all assembled here, hate Christianity. There was 
promise of much disquiet and many factions; and, 
to pacify them, the king asked one of the fathers to 
go to Manila and to ask for reenforcements of sol- 
diers and for more fathers, promising to pay the 
soldiers, who might defend and guard those who 
were converted. Father Fray Ifiigo went back for 
that purpose. The priests, or bongos, frequented 
our church and approved our manner of life, giving 
hopes of their conversion if the religious should 
remain. Some conversions were made, and the man- 
ner of life of the fathers greatly impressed all the 
people of the city. On his way back to Manila, 
father Fray Ynigo lost his life. He was a son of 
San Estevan at Salamanca, and was almost one of 
the first who came to this province, having been sent 



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l8o THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol.31 

as a result of the activity of the first bishop of these 
islands, and of his associate, Fray Miguel de Vena- 
vides. He was a great preacher and very devout in 
prayer. He was elected to the priory of Manila, and 
was most useful in enlightening the consciences of 
the inhabitants of that city. He was most devoted 
to St. Cecilia and to St. Ursula; and when he called 
upon their names, miracles were wrought for him 
by the supplying of a convent in Pangasinan with 
fish at his prayers, and on other occasions. He 
showed at some times the spirit of prophecy. 

At the same time there died in Camboja father 
Fray Alonso Collar or de Sancta Cathalina. Father 
Fray Alonso was a native of Cangas de Tineo, and 
assumed the habit and professed in Oviedo. He had 
come to the province in the previous year (1602), 
and after beginning to learn the Chinese language, 
had been sent by the order of his superior on this 
expedition. His death caused great grief in Cam- 
boja, and his funeral was attended like that of one 
of the grandees of the nation. His bones were after- 
wards taken to Manila, that he might be buried with 
his brethren. Thus there remained in Camboja, in 
the midst of many and great perils, one single re- 
ligious (Jeronimo de Belen), who dared not baptize 
the people, although he had the license of the king 
to do so, because of the confusion and disquiet of 
the time. Looking for no future success, and know- 
ing the fickleness of the Indians of that region - who 
had asked to have missionaries and soldiers sent to 
them, and who then had received them so ill, and 
had finally killed them - he wrote back asking per- 
mission to return; this was granted him by the pro- 
vincial, until such time as the affairs of this kingdom 
should promise greater stability and quiet] 



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i64o] ADUARTE'S HISTORIA 



CHAPTER LVII 



Some misfortunes inhich happened at this time, and 
the experience of the religious during them 
The city of Manila is the finest and richest of its 
size known in all the world. It is of great strength, 
being almost surrounded by the sea and by a large 
river, which wash its walls. It is the capital and 
court city of these islands, where the governor and 
captain-general of them has his residence, as well 
as the royal Audiencia and ChanciUeria. Here is 
situated the largest garrison of soldiers, with its mas- 
ter-of-camp, sargento-mayor, and captains. From 
here are sent out the forces and garrisons subject to 
this government, which are very many and very 
wide-spread, for it includes Maluco and the island 
of Hermosa - one of theni almost under the torrid 
zone, and the other almost within view of Great 
China and very near Japon. This city makes the 
name of Espaiia renowned and feared throughout all 
these neighboring kingdoms; for, although its in- 
habitants and its soldiers are few, yet by the aid of 
the Lord, whose faith they spread abroad, they have 
performed so many glorious exploits that even the 
barbarians of the smallest capacity have come to 
esteem above measure their greatness, when they see 
the Spaniards always victorious over enemies who 
so surpass them in number that experience only 
might make such victories credible. As a kind 
father with his son, whose good he desires, not only 
strives to give him honor and wealth, but in time 
provides him with punishment and discipline, there- 
fore, after our Lord had made the city illustrious 
with glorious victories and had filled it with riches, 
then in the year 1604, at the end of April, He sent 



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l82 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol.31 

Upon it a fire which, defying all efforts to control it, 
burned to the ground a third part of the city -with 
such swiftness that many had no opportunity to es- 
cape it (although the fire occurred about midday), 
and they perished in the flames; while the loss of 
wealth was so great that it can hardly be believed. 
Hearing the news of the fire, which was at some 
distance from our convent, the religious went to 
help extinguish it; for on such occasions as this they 
labor more and have more confidence than others. 
In a moment, as if it were flying, the fire reached 
our convent; and since there was no one to protect 
it, it was almost wholly burnt, the Lord leaving only 
so much as was necessary to supply a crowded shelter 
for the religious, without being obliged to go to the 
house of any other person. In this we were among 
the more fortunate who escaped; for the fire was so 
extensive that others had not even this small com- 
fort. Many who on that morning were rich, and had 
great houses and great wealth, had that night no 
house where they might lodge or shelter themselves, 
such is at times the fury of this terrible element. 

At the beginning of October in this same year, 
this city, and consequently all the islands, were in 
great danger of being lost, because of a revolt 
against it of the Chinese who lived near it. The 
event happened in the following way. In the pre- 
vious year, in one of the merchant vessels which 
come to this city from China every year there arrived 
three persons of authority, who are called by the 
Spaniards " mandarins." These are their judges or 
leading officers in war. They entered the city, borne 
on men's shoulders, on gilded ivory seats, having the 
insignia of magistracy; and they were received with 



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i64o] ADUARTE'S HIST08IA 103 

the display due to ambassadors of so powerful a 
king. They had come to search for a mountain 
which a Chinese, named Tiongong, had described to 
his king as being all gold. The name of this moun- 
tain was Cavite, and from it he promised to bring 
back to China ships laden with gold. The man- 
darins made their investigations, for which purpose 
they carried Tiongong with them; and when they 
reached the place which he described, they found 
no mountain of gold, nor any sign of one. When 
they accused him of fraud and deceit, he answered, 
" If you wish it to be gold, it is gold " (referring to 
the ornaments which the Indians wear, and much 
more to the wealth of the Spaniards) ; " if you wish 
it to be sand, it is sand." All this was done in the 
sight of the Spaniards, who came there with a good 
deal of interest to know the reason why these man- 
darins had come so far away from their regular 
duties -and especially their chief, who was, as it 
were, sargento-mayor of the province of Chincheo, 
one of the most prominent officers in their army. 
The whole thing aroused suspicion; and the arch- 
bishop, Don Fray Miguel de Venavides, a friar of 
our habit and a religious of this province, urged the 
governor to send them back immediately, that they 
might not perceive how small a force the Spaniards 
had, and might not make the other reconnoissances 
which are customary when foreign cities or king- 
doms are to be attacked. They feared that China 
was intending an attack upon us. The religious of 
the order, as they knew the language, visited the 
mandarins and learned from them that this Tion- 
gong meant to inform the king that the wealth of 
these islands in the hands of Spaniards and Indians 



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184 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol.31 

was great; and that, if he would send ships and 
forces, he might easily make himself lord of it all. 
They accordingly urged the governor to hasten send- 
ing the mandarins away, and he did so. After this 
event the Spaniards did not rest secure, but were 
very fearful that the king of China, being a heathen, 
might be carried away by avarice, and might be 
greedy for the great wealth which this trickster 
offered him. Since he was a very powerful king, his 
resources would certainly be greater than this coun- 
try could resist without great damage to itself. Even 
if the city were to be victorious, the result would be 
its destruction. It would lose a great many of its 
people, and the indignation of the king would be 
aroused because of his defeat. He would therefore 
take away their commerce from them, without which 
this country could not be sustained. All these reason- 
ings and considerations made the Spaniards very 
anxious and suspicious. Their suspicions were very 
greatly increased when the heathen Chinese kept 
saying that they believed a fleet would come the next 
year. This was heard by lame Chinese Christians 
who were so in truth; and they went immediately 
and told it to our religious who had the direction of 
them. There were some of them who put on false 
hair that they might look like heathen, and went 
with studied negligence to the alcaiceria [1.^., " silk 
market "] where the heathen lived, and heard their 
conversations at night with reference to the coming 
of the fleet. They immediately reported these things 
to their religious, and they to the governor and the 
archbishop. The archbishop, in a sermon preached 
at the feast of the most holy Sacrament in our con- 
vent, informed the governor and the city that they 



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1640] aduarte's historia 185 

ought to make preparations, because the Chinese 
were about to rebel. Although the governor knew 
all these things, because he had been told of them 
by our religious, on the aforesaid authority, he could 
never be persuaded that the Chinese were going to 
rebel, because of the great harm and the little or no 
advantage which they would receive from the revolt. 
Yet, to make ready for what might happen, he began 
to show special kindness to the Japanese who lived 
near Manila, and to prepare them so that in case of 
necessity they might be on the side of the Spaniards. 
He followed the same plan with the Indians, direct- 
ing them to prepare themselves with arms and 
arrows, to be ready if they should be needed. None 
of this was conceded from the Chinese, for it could 
not be kept secret from so many; and they even 
heard with their own ears the most prominent people 
in iVIanila say; " We cannot go out against the Chi- 
nese, if they come with a fleet, and leave behind us 
such a multitude as there is around the city; so, if 
we have news that there is a fleet of the Chinese, we 
shall have to kill all there are here, and go out and 
meet those who are coming." This kind of talk 
greatly afflicted them; and besides this, the more 
ignorant class of people already began to look at 
them as enemies, and treated them very badly. The 
result was that they became very much disquieted 
and fearful. In addition, there were not lacking 
some to go and tell them lies, bidding them be on 
their guard, for on such and such a day the Span- 
iards were going to break out upon them. In proof 
of this lie they called their attention to some facts 
which the Sangleys could see - for instance, that all 
the Spaniards were getting ready their weapons, and 



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1 86 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol.31 

the Indians were making new ones, though they had 
no other enemies, unless it were the Chinese. At 
last, more out of fear than from any purpose of 
their own, they rose in revolt, insomuch that some 
of them were seen to go where others had fortified 
themselves, .weeping bitterly because they saw their 
destruction, but feeling that there was no other means 
to save their lives. The governor and the Audiencia 
made great efforts to undeceive them and to pacify 
them, but nothing that was done gave them any se- 
curity. On the contrary, it seemed to them a trick 
to catch them unawares. It was a pity to see them 
leave their houses, which were many, and flee with- 
out knowing where, or considering how they were to 
obtain food for so great a multitude. Some of them 
in this affliction hanged themselves, to avoid the 
miseries which as they saw would befall them if they 
revolted, and the violent death which they feared if 
they did not rise. Finally, on the eve of the glorious 
St. Francis, they threw off the mask and came for- 
ward as declared rebels against the city. Sounding 
warlike music and waving banners, they began to 
burn houses and to kill people; and on that night 
they attacked in a body the town of Binondo, which 
is composed of Christians of their own nation. Their 
purpose was to force these to join them; but our re- 
ligious, to whom the teaching of these Chinese was 
committed, caused the women and children to be 
brought for protection to the church, while the Chi- 
nese Christians took their arms and defended the 
town under the leadership of the good knight Don 
Luis Perez das Marifias, who lived there next our 
church. With twenty arquebusiers, who were on 
guard in that town, they drove the enemy back with- 



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i64o] aduarte's historia 187 

out suffering any damage. The enemy, however, 
inflicted injury upon those who were at work in the 
fields, many of whom were taken by surprise and 
were compelled to join them or to suffer death. 
They also attacked the church and town of Tondo, 
which belongs to the religious of our father St. 
Augustine. As the latter had provided against them 
by a Spanish guard, they did no harm. After having 
defended the town all night, Don Luis das Marinas 
sent one of our religious to the governor before day- 
light, asking for some troops to attack the Chinese 
rebels who had fortified themselves near the town 
of Tondo, not far from Manila. He was of the 
opinion that as these people had spent all the night, 
disturbed themselves and disturbing others, they 
would be tired and sleepy, so that it would be easy 
to inflict great losses on them. The governor took 
the matter before a council of war; all approved, 
and he sent his nephew, Don Thomas de Acuna, with 
more than a hundred men, the best in the camp, to- 
gether with some of the men of highest rank in the 
city, who desired to accompany the nephews of the 
governor and the archbishop, who went with this 
party. This small force was regarded as sufficient 
to attack more than six thousand who were said to 
have banded together and to be in fortifications - so 
little did they regard the Chinese. The Spanish, 
marching in good order, met at least three hundred 
Chinese enemies, and, attacking them, put them 
immediately to flight. They were near some large 
plantations of sugar-cane, in which the Chinese con- 
cealed themselves; and the Spaniards followed them, 
being thus divided and brought into disorder. The 
rebels were posted not far from there, and, when 



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1 88 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol.31 

they saw the Spaniards in disorder, they all sallied 
out against them, and, surrounding them, killed them 
almost to a man, although with great loss on their 
own side. As a result, they plucked up courage to 
advance against the city, and to try to make an entry 
into it. For this purpose they made some machines 
of wood, much higher than the wall. They came 
forward with these, with no small spirit, but soon 
lost their courage because, before the machines were 
brought into position, they were destroyed by the 
artillery, which inflicted much damage upon the 
enemy. So, after some slight encounters, they aban- 
doned the siege and fled into the country. Against 
them was despatched the sargento-mayor, Christobal 
de Azcueta, with as many Spanish soldiers, Indians, 
and Japanese as could be got together. As a result 
of the good order which he maintained, the Chinese 
were killed off little by little, until there was not left 
a man of them. This was accomplished without any 
harm to our troops, for, no matter how much the 
Chinese strove to force them to give a general battle, 
they constantly refused it; but they kept the Chinese 
in sight while they were marching, and halted when- 
ever they halted, surrounding themselves with a 
palisade of stakes which they carried for the pur- 
pose. These they arranged not in one line, but in 
two, so that in case of attack - and many attacks were 
made -before the Chinese could reach the palisades 
and pass them, the Spaniards with their arquebuses 
and arrows killed the greater number of them. The 
loss of life was especially great among the most 
courageous, who led the van; while the rest turned 
back in terror, without effecting anything. Hunger 
also fought with them powerfully, because, as our 



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1640] ADUARTE'S HISTORIA ^°9 

soldiers kept them constantly under surveillance, 
they could not go aside to forage. The little food 
which they had brought from Manila was quickly 
exhausted; and, after that was gone, their lives fol- 
lowed rapidly. Thus by the twentieth of October 
the war was at an end and everything was quiet. 
But the city was greatly in need of all sorts of things, 
for all the trades were in the hands of the Chinese, 
and, now that they were dead, there was no shoe- 
maker, or tailor, or dealer in provisions, or any other 
necessary tradesman; and there was no hope that 
they would come again to this country for trade and 
commerce. On this account it was determined to 
send an embassy to China, to give information as 
to the facts of the case. There were appointed as 
ambassadors Captain Marcos de la Cueba and father 
Fray Luis Gandullo, one of our religious - a man of 
great virtue, sanctity, and prudence, who had gone to 
China on two other occasions. They suffered much 
hardship on the voyage, but finally succeeded in 
their negotiations with the viceroy of the province 
of Chincheo, which is the place from which the 
Chinese come to Manila. After he had given them 
license to get a supply of ammunition for the city, he 
dismissed them, promising to continue the trade. 
This promise was carried into effect, for in the fol- 
lowing year there came thirteen ships; and from that 
day forward everything has gone on as if nothing of 
what has been narrated had ever taken place. 



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19° THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol.31 

CHAPTER LVIII 

The election as provincial of father Fray Miguel de 
San Jaciniho and the coming of religious 

On May 9, 1604, father Fray Juan de Santo 
Thomas having completed his term as provincial, 
there was elected in his place father Fray Miguel 
de San Jacintho, a religious of much prudence, great 
virtue, and a mind greatly inclined to goodness, and 
one who loved and honored those who were good. 
He exhibited in the course of his office great talent 
in governing, watching over the order with great 
care, and filling his office with much atifability and 
simplicity, which caused the religious to love him, 
and to feel particular satisfaction in him because 
they had shown so much wisdom in appointing him 
as superior of the province, out of all the many can- 
didates who had been put forward at that election. 
His excellent and prudent manner of governing was 
not displayed on this occasion for the first time; for 
he had previously exhibited his high abilities in 
such offices when he was elected by his associates as 
their superior on the journey from Espafia, that posi- 
tion having been vacated by the death in Mexico of 
father Fray Alonso Delgado, who had come as their 
vicar. In spite of the youth of father Fray Miguel, 
he filled this office so much to the satisfaction of all 
that they regarded themselves as fortunate in having 
found a superior who looked out so carefully for the 
advantage of every one without ever forgetting the 
general good of the order -which, as being more 
universal, takes precedence and commands higher 
esteem. In the affairs of the voyage, which are 
many and full of difficulty, he conducted himself so 



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i64o] aduarte's historia ^9^ 

well and anticipated them with such accuracy that 
it seemed as if all of his life had been spent in the 
office of conducting religious. This is a function 
that calls for many diverse qualities, difficult to find 
united in a single person unless he is a man of so 
superior a nature as was father Fray Miguel. When 
he arrived in the province, they sent him to the dis- 
trict of Nueva Segovia. Here he was one of the first 
missionaries and founders of this conversion; and 
was one of the best and most careful, most beloved 
by the Indians, and most devoted to his duties as a 
religious, who had ever been in that province. He 
suffered all the hardships and necessities, the poverty 
and the lack of sustenance, which have been re- 
counted. From them, although he was a man of 
strong constitution and fitted to endure much, the 
want and the lack of food resulted in causing severe 
pains of the stomach. This evidently resulted from 
hunger, for as soon as he had a moderate amount of 
food he was well; but this happened seldom, and 
most of the time they had nothing to eat but some 
wild herbs which they gathered in the fields, and 
which were more suited to purge their stomachs than 
to sustain their lives. Hence in jest father Fray 
Caspar Zarfate, who was his associate, said to him 
that he was greatly in doubt whether they were prop- 
erly keeping the fasts prescribed by the constitutions, 
because they ate the same thing for supper in the 
evening as for dinner at noon ; for, as they had noth- 
ing else, they ate quilites at noon for dinner, and 
quilites at night for supper. There were received 
at this chapter the church and house of Nuestra 
Senora del Rosario [i.e., "Our Lady of the Ro- 
sary"] in the kingdom of Satzuma in Japon; and, 



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192 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol.31 

in the province of Nueva Segovia, those of San 
Vicente in Tocolano, San Miguel in Nasiping, San 
Pedro in Tuguegarao, San Raymundo in Lobo, 
Sancta Ynes de Monte Policiano in Pia, Santa 
Cathalina de Sena in Nabunanga (which is now in 
the village of Yguig), and Nuestra Senora de la 
Asuncion [" Our Lady of the Assumption "] in 
Talama. These were all villages which had been 
waiting for religious; and as the bishop of that 
region, Don Fray Diego de Soria, a religious of the 
order and of this province, had written that he was 
about to come back to it with a large following of 
religious, the new provincial was encouraged to take 
the charge of so many new churches and villages 
which were so much in need of teaching, for they 
had never had any, and were nearly all heathen. 
The good bishop did not fail of his promise. He 
had been one of the first and most prominent found- 
ers of this province, had seen and passed through the 
great sufferings which the establishment of it re- 
quired, and had likewise had his share in the great 
harvest which the religious had reaped in these 
regions. He therefore loved it much, and strove 
with all his might to increase it; and hence, when he 
was about to come to his bishopric, he endeavored to 
bring with him a goodly number of excellent re- 
ligious. The vicar in charge of them was father 
Fray Bernabe de Reliegos, a son of the distinguished 
convent of San Pablo at Valladolid, where in the 
course of time he went after some years to die, leav- 
ing the religious highly edified by his happy death, 
which was to be expected from his very devoted 
life. The example which they gave on the way 
from their convents to Sevilla was such that it highly 



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1640] aduarte's historia 193 

edified the people of the towns through which they 
passed. The religious who set out from San Pablo 
at Valladolid were four in number, and they made 
their way to the port on foot, asking alms and sus- 
taining themselves solely by what the Lord gave to 
them as to His poor. Although on some occasions 
they suffered from need because there was no one to 
give them sufficient alms, they never made use of 
the money which the superior had sent them for the 
journey -esteeming more highly that which was 
given them for the love of God, and putting aside 
the shame which begging alms at the doors brings 
with it. They came to a small hamlet in the Sierra 
Morena, and, though they went two by two to search 
for lodgings, they found none, and still less did they 
find any food. Hence in their need, which was great 
because they had gone on foot, they went to find the 
alcalde, to lay their necessities before him. After 
he had several times refused to see them, he at last 
admitted them at night, and sent them to a house 
with orders that they should receive the friars. A 
gentleman from Bae^a was there, who, seeing that 
they were poor, had compassion upon them and sent 
a page to invite them to eat dinner, although he had 
already dined before the religious could reach the 
house. They thanked him for these alms, but de- 
clined them, saying that the alcalde of the town had 
provided for their dinner and lodging; and the gen- 
tleman sent them forty reals in charity, saying that 
he did not send them more because he was journey- 
ing on business to the court, where the expenses were 
so great that they left him no more with which he 
could help the friars, as he wished to do. That the 
Lord permits such needs is not due to His lack of 



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194 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol.31 

power or of love, and He ordinarily makes up for 
them with similar or greater recompenses. In Bay- 
len they went around the town two by two, and 
when they had all come together, without obtaining 
more than two or three cuartos in alms, night came 
upon them without any inn or lodging. A man was 
following their path who had noticed what happened 
to them, and he offered them his house. They 
thanked him, and accepted his charity; but the house 
was nothing but a poor peddler's shed, three brazas 
long and two wide, and, that he might take them in, 
he sent his wife that night to sleep elsewhere. But 
a house of charity could not fail to be large and 
spacious, and hence the religious rested in it with 
much satisfaction and joy. In the morning the Lord 
paid the charitable host for the lodging; for the 
conde, learning of what had happened, called him 
to appear in presence of the religious, thanked him 
for what he had done, and, promising him his favor 
for the future, forced a man who had done our host 
some wrong, some days before, to recompense him 
for it immediately. Thus he went away happier 
than if it had been a feast day, though this is not the 
principal pay for such works, for they earn glory in 
the sight of God. All the religious reached Sevilla, 
and set sail on St. John's day in a small vessel to go 
to Cadiz and take ship. At noon they were at a 
considerable distance from land, and the master of 
the ship was very inattentive. The religious saw 
three vessels with lateen sails following them, and 
were amused at these because they had never seen 
that kind of sail before. This called the attention of 
the master, and he went up and looked at them. See- 
ing that they were Moorish vessels, he trimmed his 



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1640] aduarte's historia 195 

sails, and turning the helm, set out to run ashore. 
When he succeeded, he said: " Some saint is sailing 
in this boat, on whose account our Lord has delivered 
us today from falling into the hands of Moors; for 
it is they who were chasing us with their light sails 
and swift boats, from which it was impossible that 
this heavy bark with its heavy load should have 
escaped, if some superior power had not been watch- 
ing over us by some saint who has been traveling 
with your Reverences." On the following day it was 
learned that at that very same place some people 
who had taken the same voyage had been captured, 
wherefore they saw themselves obliged anew to ren- 
der most humble thanks to the Lord for His singular 
mercy and kindness. They went on board the ships; 
and when the fleet was sailing in the gulf which on 
account of its restlessness and the many waves which 
are always there, is called Golfo de las Yeguas [_i.e., 
"Gulf of the Mares"], two sailors fell overboard 
from the flagship - an accident which often happens 
when they are working in confusion at a critical 
moment. The flagship -not being able to help 
them, since it was carried on and separated from 
them by the wind - gave a signal, by discharging a 
piece, to the ships that followed it that they should 
try to pick up the men. As none of the other ships 
was able to go to their help, that one on which were 
the bishop and the religious hove to; but, on account 
of the excitement of the moment, they failed to do so 
with proper caution and prudence. The rudder was 
brought over with all the sails up so that the head 
of the ship was brought down dangerously, and the 
whole bow as far back as the foremast went under 
water. That there might not be one accident only, 



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19^ THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol. 31 

the violence of the wind and the burden of the sails 
and the force of the waves jerked the tiller [pingote} 
from those who were at the helm, and swung it 
across fast under the biscuit hatchway, leaving the 
ship without means to steer it when that was most 
needed. The hatchway was closed, and no key was 
to he found. The ship was going to the bottom, 
being submerged in the water, and the waves, which 
were like mountains, were beating on its sides, so 
that the mariners in alarm were shouting, " We are 
lost, we are going to the bottom and cannot help 
ourselves, for want of a rudder and direction." " Let 
us turn," said the bishop, " to our Mother and Lady, 
the mother of God, and let us promise to fast in her 
honor for three days on bread and water if by her 
help we may receive our lives." The religious did 
so, and, falling down in prayer, they supplicated her 
for aid; and instantly- a proper work for the divine 
pity and that of the Mother of Compassion- the 
tiller, or stem of the rudder, came out, of itself, from 
the hole into which it had gone. This was contrary 
to the common expectation in the ordinary course 
of similar cases ; for the hole was very small, and 
therefore it was very difficult for anything which 
had once entered it to be brought back again. Four 
men quickly caught it, and, bringing it across with 
great strength, turned the ship back into its course. 
The seamen were in amazement at this extraordinary 
event; and, as they had had experience in like cases, 
they regarded it as the favor and benefit of our Lady 
who had been invoked by her afflicted and unhappy 
chaplains. Therefore to her the religious rendered 
devout and humble thanks, and with great joy ful- 
filled the vow which they had made. 



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i64o] aduarte's HISTORIA 1 97 

On its voyage the fleet touched at the island of 
Guadalupe for wood and water. This island was 
inhabited by a barbarous and inhuman race, bare of 
any sort of clothing, and (what is worse) bare of 
any sort of pity; for they had no pity upon those 
who, without doing them any harm, came there to 
get water which would be wasted in the sea, and 
wood for which they had no use whatsoever. There 
were in the fleet the Marques de Montes Claros, 
going to be viceroy of Nueva Espaiia, and, as com- 
mander, Don Fulgencio de Meneses y Toledo; and 
on the eve of our father St. Dominic, twenty-five 
soldiers having gone ashore as a guard with an en- 
sign in command, all those on board the fleet went 
ashore and mass was said as the religious had desired. 
After that, the religious and all the rest went to wash 
their clothes and to bathe themselves, of which there 
was great need. The sailors went to get wood and 
water. Being all more widely scattered than was 
proper, they failed to keep a proper lookout, when 
they ought to have been more on their guard against 
the peril which menaced them. The islanders, tak- 
ing advantage of the opportunity to carry out their 
evil purpose, came down close to them, being hidden 
in the thick undergrowth of the mountain. They 
began to shoot arrows at the Spaniards when the 
Spaniards were not keeping a lookout, and when 
they themselves had the advantage. This they did 
so rapidly and in such numbers that it seemed as if 
it rained arrows. When the Indians were perceived 
many were already wounded, and much blood had 
been shed. The surprise and confusion threw the 
crew into a panic, and huddling together in a fright- 
ened group they fled, each man striving to put him- 



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198 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol.31 

self in safety -one leaping into the boat to go back 
to the ship; another throwing himself into the sea, 
which was then regarded as more pitiful than the 
land; still another hiding himself among the trees 
and letting the savages pass as they shot their arrows 
at those whom they found ahead of them, and letting 
them pick up as spoils the clothes which he had been 
washing, or which were now being dried after the 
washing. Those who could do least to resist the 
attack of the islanders were the religious; and hence 
many of them fell wounded and others dead, for it 
was easier to draw their souls from them than to 
draw out the arrows. Three of them hid them- 
selves in a thicket, where the Lord delivered them 
from a shower of arrows which were shot after them 
as they went to hide. Holding a little [image of] 
Christ in their hands, they begged him earnestly that 
he would blind the savages that they might not see 
them and might pass them by. The Lord heard 
them, and thus, though the islanders saw them hide 
themselves and shot many arrows after them, yet the 
arrows did not strike them; and the Indians, who are 
keener than mastiffs in discovering people, could not 
find them, though they passed the place where they 
were. 

The wounded were : father Fray Juan Luis de 
Guete, a son of the convent of Preachers in Valencia, 
in whose spine an arrow was fastened, being stopped 
by the bone; father Fray Juan Naya, a son of the 
convent of San Pedro Martyr at Calatayud, who 
escaped with a wound in his arm where an arrow 
had passed through it; and father Fray Jacintho 
Calvo, who was struck twice. He was a son of the 
convent of La Peiia de Francia, where in course of 



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i64o] ADUARTE'S HISTORIA '99 

time he hung up one of the arrows. The wounds 
were not so penetrating as to take their lives; but 
they made the fathers very happy because here, with 
this blessed beginning, they had begun to shed their 
blood for the Lord who had redeemed them with 
His own, and for the gospel which they were going 
to preach in His service. The religious who died 
there were six. They were so picked and selected 
among all the rest that, as they were the cream of 
all the others, it was plain that that which the 
islanders had done en masse was, so far as concerned 
the Lord, a most particular providence of His who 
had directed the arrows against the best and the ripest 
of the religious that they might be offered as early 
fruit on the table of the supreme Father, as some- 
thing in which one may safely assert that He takes 
much pleasure. Three of these holy martyrs were 
children of the most religious convent of Preachers 
in Valencia, which, as it is so prolific in saints, nat- 
urally had here the greater share. The first was 
father Fray Juan de Moratalla, a native of Murcia, 
a religious of noble example, great mortification, 
silence, modesty, and composure. [He was devoted 
to prayer and solitude, and to the good of others. 
The second was father Fray Vicente Palao Valen- 
ciano, a religious very precise in his observance of 
the rules, and such as a priest ought to be. The 
third was Fray Juan Martinez, a priest, an Ara- 
gonese, a religious of purest and holiest life. The 
fourth was Fray Juan Cano, a native of Burgo de 
Osma, a son of San Pablo de Valladolid, young in 
age, old in virtue. The fifth religious was Fray 
Pedro Moreno, a deacon, a native of Villalba, a son 
of the royal convent of Sancta Cruz at Segovia, and 



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200 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol 3i 

a member of the most illustrious college of San 
Gregorio at Valladolid. He was devoted to prayer 
and to silent meditation. At his death the Lord 
wrought a miracle by enabling him to make his way 
to the seashore, where he died in prayer, and was 
afterward found beneath the water in the attitude of 
prayer. The sixth religious was Fray Jacintho de 
Cistenes, a son of the convent at Valencia, and a 
native of that noble city. He was young in age but 
venerable for his virtue. The Lord had revealed to 
him that he should die on the day of St. Lawrence, as 
he actually did, after suffering for some time from 
his mortal wound.'*] 

CHAPTER UX 

The erection of some churches, ivhich took place 
at this time 

The religious who were coming to the province, 
although they had been diminished in number by 
the savages of Guadalupe, were of great use. They 
were fourteen in number, and, that they might im- 
mediately begin that which they had sought over so 
many seas and through so many hardships, they were 
assigned to their duties. The newly-elected pro- 
vincial took with him four for the province of 
Nueva Segovia, where at that time the conversions 
were going on rapidly, because the country was large 
and nearly all the inhabitants were heathen. When 
they reached the cape known as Cabo del Bojeador, 
a place which is ordinarily a difficult one, the pro- 
vincial saw that a small cloud which covered the 

^* Sketches of the lives of all these friars are given in Resena 

biozrafica, \, pp. 320-327. 



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1640] ADUARTE'S HISTORIA 2°^ 

peaks of some mountains near there was moving to- 
ward the sea, which began to be unquiet and rough. 
The pilot thought it best that the sails should be 
lowered somewhat, in order better to resist the attack 
of the wind and the waves which threatened them. 
While he was striving to do this, the tempest antici- 
pated him; and the wind came with such force that 
wind and wave turned the vessel on its side, and the 
water entered over the sides of the ship. It was 
necessary for the religious to put their hands to the 
oars, while the rest went to work, with great dif- 
ficulty, to get in the sails - nothing being left but the 
courses, in order to make it possible to steer. Al- 
though the amount of sail was so small, the wind was 
so powerful that, lifting the vessel on one side, it 
forced the other under the water. The religious 
repeated the exorcisms against the tempest, upon 
which it subsided a little; but when the exorcism 
was completed it came back with as much force as 
at first, almost capsizing the vessel, and making it 
ship water. When the exorcism was renewed, the 
tempest moderated itself anew; but when the exor- 
cism was completed, its fury returned as before. 
Thus they perceived that this tempest was not merely 
a tempest of wind and of waves, but was aided by the 
devil -who at the words of the exorcism lost his 
strength, and as soon as that ceased received it again, 
to hinder the ministers of the gospel. Four times 
they repeated the exorcism, and four times the same 
thing happened, upon which the father provincial, 
recognizing the author of this evil, said: " Since I 
see that ministers are to be given to the villages of 
the heathen, and that the devil, who unjustly keeps 
them under his tyranny, is about to be banished from 



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202 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol. 31 

them, I promise to build a church under the patron- 
age of the guardian angels, that they may aid us 
against this cursed enemy who is so clearly making 
war against us." As soon as he had made this prom- 
ise, it seemed tliat the guardian angels took upon 
themselves the protection of the fragata; for the tor- 
nado began to disappear, and they continued their 
voyage. On the following day they rounded the 
cape, by rowing against a slight contrary wind which 
had arisen; and when this wind had quieted down, 
the fragata came to some billows where a number of 
opposing currents met. The waves were so high 
that the little boat put its side under water. A re- 
ligious threw into the sea some relics of St. Ray- 
mond, repeating the glories of the saint, and the sea 
was immediately calmed -just as when water boils 
too violently in the kettle, and a little water is poured 
into it; and by the kindness of the saint a fair wind 
was given to them, with which they continued their 
voyage. 

When they reached Nueva Segovia, a minister 
was provided for the village of Nasiping, which 
had been accepted ten years before, but for which 
it had been impossible previously to provide a min- 
ister because the supply of them was so scanty. Even 
now there was so much requiring the attention of 
the religious, and they were so few, that half a 
miracle was necessary for the missionary to be given. 
Father Fray Francisco de la Cruz, or Jurado,'" was 
taken dangerously ill. He was a religious of much 
virtue, of whom they had great hopes. The father 
provincial, fearing to lose him, promised to give a 
minister to Nasiping if the sick man recovered. 

" This friar came in 1604; he died at Nasiping, July 16, 1611. 



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i64o] aduarte's historia 203 

Father Fray Francisco recovered, and the provincial 
fulfilled his vow and named the church after St. 
Michael. This village is on the banks of the great 
river [i.e., of Cagayan], five or six leguas higher 
up than the city of the Spaniards. In the year 1625, 
twenty-one years after it received ministers, there 
had been baptized in it more than three thousand 
four hundred persons, as is certified by the baptismal 
records; and, in addition to this, many were baptized 
in sickness who, because of their immediate death, 
were not entered on the records. To this village 
there came an Indian from Tuguegarao, which is 
distant two days' journey by water. He very ear- 
nestly desired the religious to confess him, and to 
give him the other holy sacraments. The religious 
confessed him and gave him the communion, more 
that he might assist his devotion than because he 
supposed he was in danger. He had come on foot 
and seemed strong, so that it seemed that he was very 
far from being in such a state of necessity; but after 
he had received the sacrament he died. This was 
something at which the religious wondered, and 
which aroused in him great devotion and joy when 
with his eyes he saw so plainly the power of divine 
predestination, carried out in ways so hidden and 
mysterious. Father Fray Pedro Muriel,*' who is 
still living, has testified as an eye-wimess that when 
he was minister in that village, in the year 163 1, the 
locusts were more in number than the natives had 
ever seen before. In the fields of that village they 
were in such numbers that they spread over a space 

" Pedro Muriel came to the islands in 1615, and was sent to 
the Cagayan missions, where he seems to have spent most of his 
remaining years. He died at Manila, about 1642. 



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204 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol. 31 

three leguas in length and a quarter of a legua in 
breadth, covering the earth and the trees so that the 
ground could not be seen, so thickly did they cover 
it; and they ravaged the fields as if they had been 
burnt. [The Indians did what they could to frighten 
away the locusts, but in vain; and the Lord heard 
the prayers of one of the Indians that He would 
drive away the locusts during the night. At dawn, 
when he expected to find all of his fields desolated, 
he found that just half of them had been eaten, and 
that all the rest had been left. The Lord showed a 
similar grace to a poor woman who prayed for His 
aid in protecting her field of maize.] 

In this same year, 1604, the provincial sent three 
religious to the estuary of Lobo and the country of 
Ytabes," in the province of Nueva Segovia. All 
those Indians are heathen; and though by nature 
they are very tractable and easy to deal with, simple 
and free from malice, and concerned with nothing 
but their agriculture, still the outrages of those who 
took tribute from them were so great that they 
enraged the natives and obliged them to take up 
arms, to the great loss of the Spaniards. As they 
were few and the multitude of the Indians many, the 
few, although they were very courageous, came to 
their death by the hands of the many; or, rather, the 
unjust came to death by the hands of divine justice, 
which in this way was pleased to chastise and end 
their injustices. And as we very seldom reckon 

" Itaves is a district south of central Cagayan, on the waters 
of the Rio Chico de Cagayan (or Bangag River). It has over 
15,000 inhabitants, contained in more than a hundred villages; 
these people are mainly Calauas, and arc heathen Malays. See 
U. S. Gazetteer of Philippine islands, p. 561 ; also Smithsonian 
Report, 1899, p. 535. 



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1640] aduarte's historia 205 

rightly, the chastisement which God wrought by the 
hands of these Indians was attributed by the Span- 
iards to the courage and valor of this tribe; and thus 
they were very fearful of them until the holy gospel 
declared by the Dominican religious changed them 
from bloodthirsty wolves to gentle sheep - the Lord 
aiding by manifest miracles to give credit to His 
faith and to His ministers, to the end that they might 
be able to do that which without this or similar 
assistance from the Lord it would have been impos- 
sible to achieve. One of the three religious who 
entered these heathen villages to undertake their 
conversion said, in giving an account of what hap- 
pened: " Since the hand of the Lord has been so 
plainly succoring these Indians by the hands of those 
religious who dwelt among them, their reformation 
has been great and marvelous. They have gone from 
one extreme to the other, almost without any inter- 
mediate stage, since the religious took them under 
their care. Before that they were so free, so com- 
pletely without God or law, without king or any 
person to respect, that they gave themselves up freely 
to their desires and their passions. Evidence of this 
is found in those wars which they were continually 
waging among themselves, without plan or order; 
and in the drunkenness and the outrages of which 
they were guilty, without regard to God or man. He 
who was most esteemed among them was the greatest 
drunkard, because, as he was the richest, he could 
obtain the most liquor. He who slew the greatest 
number of men was regarded as superior to all the 
rest. They married and unmarried daily, with one 
or many wives. In a word, they were a barbarous 
race, given up to all sorts of shameless conduct. In 



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2o6 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol, 31 

Spite of all this, when the missionary came among 
them they were as docile as if they had during all 
their lives been learning to obey, which is something 
very difficult even in religious orders. This was 
true, although the religious instantly laid a general 
interdict upon all their ancient vices; obliged them 
to consort solely with their lawful wives; even forced 
many to abandon their land and their old villages, 
that they might come where teaching was given 
them; and, in a word, compelled them to enter all 
at once, and in a body, into ordered ways of living, 
in matters both divine and human. They had not a 
thought of opposing a single command; and this has 
been achieved without stripes or penalties, but simply 
by kindness and gentleness. The result has been that 
those who did not understand anything except kill- 
ing, and drinking till they could not stand, and run- 
ning without any restraint after every sort of vice, 
now never think of doing these things - as I have 
seen in these first three villages in this district of 
Ytabes. The day we went among them we found 
all the men lying about the streets, dead drunk; 
since that day there has not been one drunk enough 
to lose his senses. The same reformation has been 
achieved in all other matters, for they were not com- 
pelled to do all this by fear of the Spaniards. Quite 
otherwise; the Spaniards regarded these Indians as 
so indomitable and intrepid that, for fear of them, 
they did not dare go up the river as far as their 
villages; but after the religious went among them, 
they were gathered into large villages that they 
might be more easily instructed in the faith, having 
been previously scattered among many small ones, 
like so many farmsteads [in Spain]. There were 



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1640] ADUARTE'S HISTORIA 207 

three villages thus formed: one of about five hun- 
dred tributes, named Taban, the church of which 
was called San Raymundo; and the other two of 
more than a thousand tributes each -one called Pia, 
its church Santa Ynes de Monte Policiano, after- 
wards known as San Domingo; and the last one, 
named Tuao, the church of which was dedicated to 
the holy guardian angels because of the incident 
referred to above. Thus all those people were 
brought together and united, to reduce them to set- 
tlements, and to a civilized mode of life and gov- 
ernment; and to the church; but this result was 
obtained at no small cost to the religious. Of three 
of them, two immediately fell very sick, and the 
third still more so, for he died as a result of the 
illness. This was father Fray Luis de Yllescas, a 
son of the convent of Sancto Domingo at Mexico, a 
very humble religious, very obedient and beloved by 
all. He received the holy sacraments for his de- 
parture with great devotion; and went away to enjoy, 
as may be presumed, the reward of his labors, which 
had been many in a short time. Yet neither this 
death nor the failure of health in the rest caused 
them to withdraw their hands from the work upon 
which they had begun. On the contrary, the great 
good which they beheld, wrought by the Lord among 
these Indians, served as medicines and remedies for 
the ills from which they suffered; and for their con- 
valescence, though they had no worldly luxuries, that 
fruit was much better which, more and more every 
day, was borne by this new plant of the church. 
From it they recovered health, strength, and new 
courage to carry on the work which they had begun. 
To give them still greater spirit, the Lord came to 



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2o8 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol 31 

them working miracles. The first mass which was 
celebrated in the village of Pia took place on St 
Bartholomew's day, the twenty-fourth of August 
[Before the end of tne month, a sick person who 
wished to be baptised beheld some firce and abom- 
inable forms which dissuaded him from baptism, and 
reminded him of the rights and customs of his an- 
cestors, charging him not to change the faith in 
which his fathers and grandfathers had lived. These 
dreadful forms were driven away by three persons, 
clad in black cloaks with white garments beneath. 
The sick man was often asked if he knew these three 
persons who had delivered him, and he said " no." 
When he was asked if they were religious of our 
order he also said " no," because he had never seen 
any of the religious wearing their cloaks. He always 
declared that he had been awake and not asleep; and 
the narrative was accepted as certain. At one time, a 
religious who was himself in poor health was left in 
charge of thirteen newly-converted Christians, who 
were all confined to their beds by sickness. Being 
unable to give them the care which he desired, he 
placed upon the abdomen of each of them a little 
roasted rice-bran, very hot, begging the Lord to 
make up by His pity for the lack of medicine. When 
he came back the next day to visit them, all but two 
were well, and had gone to work in the field; and 
the others soon recovered. The same treatment 
given by another Indian or by the sick man to him- 
self had no effect; and thus it is plain that the heal- 
ing was due to the desire of the Lord to honor and 
to give authority to the hand which applied the 
remedy. The Indians themselves observed that, after 
they had religious, far fewer died than before they 



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164°] aduarte's historia 209 

had them. In their ancient days of superstition, 
when a man fell sick he generally died, because he 
was treated only by the witchcraft of the aniteras, 
whose sole purpose was to get gold from the sick 
persons by false promises. The sorcerers did them 
no good and indeed rather harmed them, since cures 
came from our worst enemy, the devil; while now 
the Lord was giving them, by means of the religious, 
health that was health indeed. One of the religious 
in this region, father Fray Juan Naya," fell ill, and 
grew worse so rapidly that he was given up as a 
consumptive. By the advice of another religious, he 
made a vow to our Lady to serve in that province 
among the heathen, if she should be pleased to grant 
him sufficient health for him to carry on this work. 
He made the vow for seven consecutive years from 
the day of the Visitation, July 2, 1605. During all 
this time he had his health ; but at the end of the 
seven years he was attacked by a very severe and 
dangerous illness, which left him when he renewed 
his vow for four years more. Similar experiences 
have been frequent among the religious. It has even 
happened to some who were not very devoted to this 
work, and who desired to go to other provinces where 
the Lord might be served with less severity and with 
somewhat greater comfort, that they have been 
afflicted with diseases, which gave place to miracu- 
lous health as soon as they made vows to remain and 
minister to the Indians whom they wished to leave. 
In this region the Lord manifested His goodness and 
gave authority to his ministers, curing a sick woman 

" Juan de Naya spent most of his missionary life in Cagayan. 
Finally being ordered to Mexico, he died on the voyage thither, 
January 27, 1620. 



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2IO THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 31 

who was at the point of death, by means of the sacra- 
ment of holy baptism. In this same village it hap- 
pened to father Fray Juan Naya that a poisonous 
snake entered his shoe without any evil effect. An 
Indian in this same village called upon God in his 
illness, and, when it did not seem good to the divine 
Providence to heal him, he called upon the devil 
whom he had previously served. The Lord punished 
him with dreadful visions, from which he was de- 
livered upon praying to the Lord for His protection; 
and he was finally cured, after making his confession. 
A child was miraculously healed in the town of Pia 
at the time when father Fray Juan Sancta Ana was 
vicar there. A woman who did not seem to be dan- 
gerously ill prayed so earnestly to be baptized that 
the father granted her wish. She died almost imme- 
diately after, the Lord having shown her a marvelous 
kindness in causing the religious to baptize her im- 
mediately.] 

CHAPTER LX 

What our Lord wrought, by the intercession of our 

Lady of the Rosary, who stands in a shrine between 

the two villages of Pia and Tuao. 

[In the church of the village of Pia there was an 

image of our Lady on one of the side altars. It had 

been made in Macan, and had been first set up in the 

church of our order in the city of Nueva Segovia, 

whence it was taken to the church of Pia. Here the 

image was greatly beloved; and when father Fray 

Juan de Sancta Ana gave it away to another village, 

after having received a second image of much greater 

beauty, the people begged so earnestly to have it 

returned that the vicar was obliged to have another 

painted on canvas and sent to the village of Tugue- 



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i64o] ADUARTE'S HISTORIA 211 

garao (to which he had given the one for which the 
Indians begged) , and to have the first image brought 
back. While the father was considering where it 
would best be put, the idea occurred to him that it 
would be well to establish a shrine on the road be- 
tween Pia and Tuao, at a distance of about a league 
and a half from each of the towns. This shrine was 
set up on St. Stephen's day in 1623. On the day on 
which the shrine was consecrated more than ten 
thousand persons were gathered together from the 
neighboring villages. One of the women of the 
highest rank in the village of Pia undertook the care 
of the shrine, placing a lamp to burn constantly 
before the holy image. This Indian was named 
Dona Ynes Maguilabun. The Virgin was not slow 
to reward her for this devotion, for once when Dona 
Ynes took with her to the shrine her little nephew, a 
child of five years, who was suffering from a large 
swelling under his left arm - a disease -among the 
Indians which runs into an abscess, and, being so 
near the heart, is very dangerous indeed, because of 
the lack of medicines and of medical science among 
these Indians -the little one was left in the shrine, 
and fell asleep on the steps of the altar. While there 
he had a vision of the Virgin, and, when he awoke, 
the swelling was entirely healed. Other miracles 
were wrought by the same image. One particularly 
worthy of mention happened in the year 1624. There 
being a severe drouth, the father who was at that 
time in the village of Tuao, Fray Andres de Haro," 

"Andres de Haro, a native of Toledo, made his profession at 
Cuenca in 1613, He came to the Philippines in 1615, and spent 
more than forty years in the Cagayan missions. At various times 
he filled important offices in Manila, among them, that of com- 
missary of the Inquisition. He died in that city, September 19, 
1670, at the age of seventy-six years. 



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212 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol. 3 

and father Fray Juan de Sancta Ana, decided to 
make some processions and offer prayers to the Lord 
for His mercy. They accordingly arranged to make 
processions on a certain day from each of the villages 
to the shrine. The Indians of Pia confessed their 
sins, that the burden of them might be removed from 
the land; and on that same Sunday it rained so 
copiously in the region of this village of Pia that 
it seemed as if the village would be drowned and as 
if the floodgates of heaven were open. On the day 
appointed for the processions, the father of the vil- 
lage of Pia told the Indians that it was not necessary 
to make the procession, but that he would say a 
solemn mass of thanks to our Lady, which could be 
done in the church. They, however, insisted; and 
when they reached the shrine they found there all 
the people of the village of Tuao, where not a drop 
of rain had fallen, because the inhabitants of Tuao 
had not thought of confessing. They immediately 
began to prepare themselves for confession, and all 
that day the inhabitants of Tuao and Pia confessed 
their sins, revealing some which, from lack of faith, 
or pusillanimity, or shame, they had concealed. 
When they reached home in the evening it began to 
rain in both villages and in ail the fields around 
them; and it rained so hard that it was impossible 
to bring back the ornaments which had been taken 
to the shrine for the saying of mass. On several 
other occasions our Lady showed mercy by granting 
rain in answer to the prayers of those who besought 
it before this holy image.] 



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i64o] aduarte's historia 



CHAPTER LXr 



The venerable father Fray Miguel de Venavides, 
one of the first founders of this province and arch- 
bishop of Manila. 

Among the great kindnesses and benefits which 
our province, and indeed all these islands, have re- 
ceived from the Lord, one of the greatest was His 
having given them father Fray Miguel de Vena- 
vides as one of the first who came to establish this 
province of the Holy Rosary, and as second arch- 
bishop of this city. At a time when its inhabitants 
suffered great tribulations, and found themselves 
suddenly besieged by a number of enemies much 
larger than their own - enemies from within their 
houses and their homes -they found in him a true 
father for their consolation, and a prelate acceptable 
to God, who could placate His ire by interceding for 
his people. He was born in Carrion de Los Condes, 
oi noble parents, well known in that region because 
of their descent and their virtue. When he was not 
more than fifteen years old he assumed the habit of 
this religious order, and learned by experience how 
true is the saying of the Holy Spirit that it is well 
for a man to carry the easy yoke of the service of 
God from his youth. He received the habit and 
professed in the distinguished convent of San Pablo 
at Valladolid. He immediately began to display 
the subtilty of his mind, which was very great; at 
the very beginning of his studies he seemed like an 
eagle soaring above his fellow-pupils, distinguishing 
himself by special marks of acuteness, so that most of 
the students and the learned were astonished. He 
was, accordingly, soon made a member of the col- 



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214 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 31 

lege of San Gregorio in that city, a crucible in which 
is refined the metal of the finest intellects which the 
order has in the provinces of Espana and Andalucia. 
Here he had as master him who of right was the 
master of the theology of Espana ~ the most learned 
father Fray Domingo Banez. The two were so 
completely suited to each other in virtue and ability 
that father Fray Miguel could not fail to be the 
beloved disciple of such a master. So much did the 
great teacher love him that, when he saw him ad- 
vance so far in both virtue and ability, he was accus- 
tomed to say Hie est discipulus ille {i.e., "This is 
that disciple "], giving him by antonomasia the name 
of his disciple, out of the many, whom he regarded 
with so great praise. He taught the arts in his con- 
vent, and theology in many houses of the province; 
and finally returned to be lecturer in theology in his 
convent of San Pablo. It was while he was engaged 
in this duty and exercise that he was taken captive by 
the voice of father Fray Juan Chrisostomo, who was 
seeking for religious for the foundation of the prov- 
ince of the Holy Rosary in the Philippinas. The 
province was to be founded for the conversion of the 
many heathen who were in those islands, and for the 
purpose of entering upon the preaching of the gospel 
in the most populous kingdom of China, if the Lord 
should open the door to it, as well as in that of 
Japon and the other kingdoms neighboring to the 
said islands. Being seized by a fervent desire and a 
holy zeal for the redemption of the souls of the many 
heathen in these islands, he gave up his position as 
lecturer, and the honors and degrees which were 
waiting for him; and esteeming it a higher task to 
labor for Christ and for his fellow-men, he made 



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1640] aduarte's historia 215 

up his mind to go with those who were preparing for 
this holy journey. The Lord thus ordained because 
of the serious problems which were to be met, in 
which his character, ability, knowledge, and talents 
would be very necessary to overcome the many 
obstacles which confronted this holy foundation as 
soon as its founders reached Nueva Espana, and also 
in the royal court and in the Roman court; for in all 
these places there were many impediments. Against 
all of them father Fray Miguel was the defender of 
truth; and by his speeches and writings he came oS 
always victor. Afterward, when the difficulty which 
was met with in Mexico was overcome, he came, 
with the rest of the fathers who founded the prov- 
ince, to the city of Manila on the day of the apostle 
St. James; and on the day of our father St. Dominic, 
which came immediately afterward, he presided in 
the great church over some theological discussions. 
This he did to the admiration of his listeners, who 
were not accustomed to have anything so remarkable 
in these regions. The good bishop of these islands, 
Don Fray Domingo de Salaijar, was bathed with 
tears of joy when he heard, to the great refreshing 
of his spirit, such superior preachers of the gospel 
in his bishopric - men who were not only fit to be 
teachers of these heathen races, but to teach others 
who might be the same, and this more excellently 
than he had ever expected to see in those regions. 
Among the many various heathen nations who come 
to this country that which excels in intelligence, 
civilization, and courtesy is that of the Chinese; and, 
much as they excel in these qualities, they likewise 
excel in their multitude and number. For there are 
very many who come every year to attend to their 



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2l6 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol. 31 

large and rich business, and to serve the city in all 
the trades which can be expected in the best regu- 
lated of cities; for they learn everything with the 
greatest ability, and succeed in everything that they 
undertake. 

Some of the Chinese, though very few, were 
Christians; and it was believed that many would be 
converted if there were someone to preach in their 
language. But this is so difficult that, although 
many desirous to undertake that conversion had 
endeavored to learn it, no one as yet had succeeded; 
and thus no religious order had taken up this min- 
istry, being afraid of the difficulty of the language. 
When father Fray Miguel arrived, he instantly 
undertook this enterprise - for the Lord had created 
him for great things; and this ministry was given to 
our order, the bishop asking each and everyone of 
the religious orders who were there before to under- 
take it, and not one of them accepting it because of 
the reason given. Father Fray Miguel immediately 
began with all his energy to study this language, and 
succeeded with it. What is more, he learned many 
of the letters of it, which are much more difficult. 
Father Fray Juan Cobo joining him immediately, 
they began to teach the Chinese, amazing those peo- 
ple that anyone should have been able to succeed 
with their language and to preach to them in it. 
Much greater was their amazement, however, at 
the extraordinary virtue and charity which they be- 
held in these two religious. They did not content 
themselves with the labor of teaching them -which 
was not small, for soon many were converted and 
began to be baptized; but they proposed to huild a 
hospital where the sick poor could be cared for. The 
number of these was great, because their sufferings 



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i64o] ADUARTE'S HISTORIA 2^7 

were great in this foreign land, where they were neg- 
lected by all, and suffered the extremity of need, 
which is sickness and death. The fathers began 
their hospitals ; and, poor religious as they were, they 
had no better house than that which they were able 
lO make, almost without money, out oi Deams and 
old planks - the habits and cloaks of the religious 
often serving as beds, because they had no other bed- 
clothes. The religious sometimes brought in the sick 
whom they found lying on the streets, without power 
to move themselves and with no one to pity them. 
In this way the fame of the virtue of father Fray 
Miguel and his companions was very widely spread, 
and there were many of the Chinese heathen who 
were converted and baptized. The fragrance of this 
great charity spread so far that it reached Great 
China and proclaimed in trumpet tones what was 
done for their sick in the Philippinas. There was 
one man who came from China to look upon so rare 
a thing as caring for the sick - poor, and cast out by 
their own nation and kinsmen; but admitted, sought 
for, and cared for by persons who were not known 
to them, and who were not only of another nation, 
but of a different law and faith, and who labored 
without any expectation of temporal profit, but 
merely for the salvation of souls. Hence the Lord 
was favorable to them, and this work was constantly 
growing better in all things. It is today one of the 
most glorious things in Christendom, not because of 
its income and its building (though in these respects 
it is very good), but because of the many who at the 
hour of death are baptized in it with many indica- 
tions of going hence to glory, as being newly cleansed 
of their faults and their sins by baptism. 

The rich harvest which was reaped in the conver- 



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2l8 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 31 

sion of these Chinese, as well by preaching to those 
in health as by the care and instruction of the sick, 
was so sweet to father Fray Miguel that it caused in 
him glowing desires to go to Great China. It 
seemed to him, and with reason, that there, without 
abandoning their own country and the company of 
their fathers, sons, wives, and kinsmen, which here 
are great impediments to their conversion, the Chris- 
tians converted would be many more, and far better 
ones. Hence he was always making plans to go to 
that great realm, where the devil is so strongly forti- 
fied that he does not even permit the entrance of 
those who might, by preaching the gospel, cast him 
from the throne which he unjustly holds among that 
people. He was finally successful in making his 
entry into that kingdom, and went there with father 
Fray Juan de Castro, who was the first provincial of 
this province. They suffered the hardships which 
have been described in chapter twenty-six, together 
with the marvelous miracles which the divine pity 
wrought in their favor for the preachers of the gos- 
pel. When they returned to Manila from China, 
where they had suffered so much, the orders of their 
superior directed them to undertake another longer 
and more painful voyage, which was to Espana. 
They were to accompany and assist the bishop, Don 
Fray Domingo de Sala^ar, who was going to discuss 
very important business with his Majesty; and were 
also to endeavor to bring back religious from Espana, 
to aid in the great labor which rested upon the 
religious of this province in the conversion of the 
heathen of these lands. He did not take for this 
journey money or anything else, or even more clothes 
than those which he wore, so that he did not have a 



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i64o] aduarte's historia 219 

change of clothes in the whole voyage, which lasts 
for six months. A ship is so much an enemy to 
cleanliness that, when he reached Mexico, his habit 
was in such a condition that the father prior of the 
convent in that city was obliged to give him clothes 
wholly out of charity. During the voyage he fell 
into the sea and was miraculously brought back to 
the ship by the Lord at the prayer of the good bishop 
- who afflicted by the accident, prayed the Lord 
briefly but devotedly for the remedy of it; and he 
gained what he desired, for the Lord is very quick 
to listen to the prayers of His servants. The time 
between the end of this voyage and that which fol- 
lows afterward over the Mar del Norte [i.e., At- 
lantic Ocean] was spent by father Fray Miguel in 
the convent which offered him hospitality, but with- 
out the dispensations which the reception of hos- 
pitality usually brings with it. He was the first in 
the choir and the refectory, and in all the other labor 
of the convent. In particular he helped in the in- 
firmary, in caring for the sick and serving them, 
whenever he had an opportunity. This was a charge 
which he took upon himself when, at the coming of 
the first founders to the Philippinas, they were guests 
in this same convent. As at that time he had done 
well in this service, daily exercising many acts of 
humility and charity, virtues which are supremely 
pleasing to God, he would not cease this same con- 
duct on this second occasion; on the contrary, as one 
that had grown in virtue, he did it better than before. 
What he did here for the sick religious was not a 
heavy task [for him], for he had become accus- 
tomed to do much more in his hospital at Manila 
for the Chinese heathen, who are by nature filthy 



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220 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol. 31 

and disgusting. Father Fray Miguel reached Es- 
pana, and was present before the royal Council of 
the Indias, endeavoring to obtain religious for this 
province as its procurator-general. One of the coun- 
cilors, incorrectly informed by persons who resented 
the sermons of our religious, said: " If the matter 
were in my hands, the Dominican religious would 
not be in the Philippinas." The rest desired him to 
restrain himself, and he went on with what he had 
to say. Father Fray Miguel answered, showing his 
cloak, which was very old and patched and full of 
holes: " So far as concerns ourselves, we have no 
need to go to the Indias; what we endeavor to do 
by going there, this cloak tells well enough." So 
well did the cloak of rough, mended serge speak that 
all were highly edified, and he who had offered 
opposition was abashed and corrected. In the con- 
vent of San Estevan he gave to be washed his inner 
tunic, which served him in place of a shirt. This 
was of serge so rough and hard that one of the 
religious of the convent of novices, who put it on 
over his habit, was unable to bend any more than if 
it was a bell; and they all gathered around to look 
at it as if it were a bell that was sounded. That 
which began as jest and ridicule so powerfully sup- 
plied the place of father Fray Miguel in winning 
religious, that many determined to go to the province 
where the religious treated themselves so rigorously 
and observed such poverty. 

Father Fray Miguel found an evil doctrine spread 
abroad in the court, which a member of a religious 
order " had taken pains to introduce. He had come 

*• Apparently a reference to the Jesuit Alonso Sanchez, who 
had gone in 1586 to Spain (see vol. vi) as envoy from the various 
estates of the Philippine colony. 



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1640] ADUARTE'S HISTORIA 22! 

from the Philippinas with documentary authoriza- 
tions from the bishop and the two cabildos [i.e., 
ecclesiastical and civil], before the province of the 
Holy Rosary was established there, and before there 
were any Dominican friars in the islands. After 
having carried on some negotiations at Roma he had 
returned to the court, and endeavored to bring it 
about that the preaching of the holy gospel in 
heathen countries should be begun by soldiers, who 
by force of weapons and musketry should make the 
country quiet and subject the Indians, in order that 
the preachers might do their office immediately 
without resistance. This doctrine is very well suited 
to human prudence but is contrary to divine Provi- 
dence, to that which the Lord has ordained in His 
gospel, and even to the very nature of the faith, 
which demands a pious affection in those who hear 
it This is not to be acquired as the result of the 
violences, murders, and conquests wrought by sol- 
diers. On the contrary, as far as in them lies, they 
make the faith to be hated and abhorred; and hence 
the Lord commanded that the preachers should be 
as sheep among wolves, conquering them with pa- 
tience and humility, which are the proper arms to 
overcome hearts. Hence not only the apostles, but 
all the other apostolic preachers who had followed 
them, have by these means converted all the nations 
of the earth. This father saw all this very well; but 
it seemed to him, as indeed he said, that these were 
old-fashioned arguments and that the world was now 
very much changed; and that no conversion of im- 
portance could or would be made unless soldiers 
went before to bring into subjection those who were 
to listen to the gospel, before the preachers preached 
it. He painted out this monster with such fair colors 



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222 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol. 31 

of rhetoric and with arguments so well suited to our 
weakness, our little spirit, and our less readiness to 
suflFer for Christ and His gospel, that these lords of 
the Council were firmly established in this his doc- 
trine - a new doctrine, as its author himself affirmed, 
and, as such, contrary to the gospel and to the works 
of the saints who acted in conformity therewith. To 
overcome this error, much was done by the bishop 
of the Philippinas and by father Fray Miguel. The 
latter, being younger, was able to exert himself more ; 
and being so great a theologian and so subtile of 
mind, he was able to adduce such superior argu- 
ments, and so clearly to reveal the poison which was 
hidden in the arguments of this religious, that the 
king our lord and his Council were firmly persuaded 
of the truth. They came to regard it as a great 
inconsistency to say that our Lord Jesus Christ had 
acted with so short a view as a legislator that, when 
He made a law which was to last to the end of the 
world. He had announced a method which was to be 
followed only at the beginning by the preachers of 
it who were present before Him, and not under the 
same conditions by those who should follow after - 
just as if His providence were unable to apprehend 
that which was distant and future. It will further 
be seen, if we consider it well, that the gospel re- 
ceived much more opposition at the beginning than 
it does at the present time; and if it was not neces- 
sary at that time to subject kingdoms by war, in order 
to preach the gospel to them, much less will it be 
so now. Hence grave scandal would arise in the 
church if, when the Lord commands that gentle 
sheep shall be the ones to introduce His gospel, the 
introduction of it should be entrusted now to blood- 



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i64o] ADUARTE'S HISTOBIA 2^3 

thirsty wolves. Afterward, by the activity and dili- 
gence of father Fray Miguel these black clouds 
which promised thunderstorms of arquebuses and 
soldiery were dissipated; and there were left for the 
promulgation of the gospel the gentle clouds of the 
preachers, which with the soft rain of teaching, 
example, and patience have carried the gospel to the 
most savage and hardened heathen. On this occa- 
sion father Fray Miguel displayed such force, and 
such were his arguments, that the Catholic king 
directed a most important council to be held, at 
which were present the president of CastiUa, the 
father-confessors of the princes, the auditors of the 
Audiencia, the lords of the Indias, and many dis- 
tinguished theologians. In this conference it was 
determined that there should be soldiers in the Span- 
ish towns for the defense of the country, but that 
these soldiers should not go as escorts to the [Preach- 
ers, and that they should not go in advance of them 
subjugating or killing Indians; for this would be 
changing into a gospel of war that gospel which 
Christ our Lord delivered to us - a gospel of peace, 
love, and grace. So great was the reputation for 
learning and sanctity which father Fray Miguel 
gained in these matters that, in the arduous and dif- 
ficult undertakings which afterward came up, his 
Majesty directed that he should be consulted and his 
judgment should be followed, as that of a learned 
man despising all things which were not of God, and 
zealous for the good of souls. There was issued at 
this time a brief of his Holiness to the effect that the 
bishops of the Indias should have authority to make 
visitations to the religious who ministered to the 
Indians, in all matters connected with this ministry, 



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224 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS fVoI, 31 

as if they were parish priests. Father Fray Miguel, 
understanding the bad results which would follow 
such a plan, presented a very learned memorial, 
signed by all the procurators of the Indias, to the 
prince-cardinal Alberto, who gave audience and 
decided causes for his Majesty. Nothing more was 
necessary to cause the brief to be recalled, and not 
to be put into execution. Father Fray Miguel was 
directed to give the Council of the Indias his advice 
with regard to the repartimientos of Indians for 
mines, estates, and the like. He gave it, and it was 
so sound that they esteemed it highly, the more on 
account of the character of him who offered it. 
Hence, when the time came to appoint bishops for 
these islands he was appointed the first bishop of 
Nueva Segovia, although such an idea had never 
crossed his mind, and it was necessary to force him 
to accept the bishopric. The Council even went so 
far as to ask him to indicate to them those who 
seemed to him suitable for the other bishoprics; and 
those whom he thus indicated were appointed. He 
sent out religious to the province three times. The 
first company he sent with father Fray Alonso Del- 
gado, the second with father Fray Pedro Ledesma, 
and the third, whom he accompanied himself, went 
under the direction of father Fray Francisco de 
Morales as vicar, who was afterwards the first min- 
ister of our religious order in Japon, and a holy 
martyr. That he might better prepare the religious 
for the journey, he went twice from Madrid to 
Sevilla when he was already a bishop, traveling on 
foot with his staff and his hat like a poor friar; so 
the people who came to find him and did not know 
him asked him if he had seen the bishop of Nueva 



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i64o] ADUARTE'S HISTORIA 225 

Segovia. He, to avoid vanity, answered them that 
the bishop was on his way to Sevilla, concealing the 
fact that it was himself. For the advantage of the 
inhabitants of Manila, he brought it about that com- 
merce with Nueva Espana was opened to them and 
that the money which came from their trading was 
sent back to Manila up to the amount of five hun- 
dred thousand pesos in money or silver bullion. Up 
to that time, they had license only to receive the 
principal hack again; while the profits were retained 
in Mexico, or were brought back without a license, 
at great expense. For the Indians he obtained, by 
a memorial which he offered, that the natural do- 
minion and chieftaincy which they had over their 
villages should be left to them, with all their lands, 
mountains and rivers, and the other rights which 
they had from of old; since the fact that they had 
become subjects of his Majesty ought not to cause 
them to lose the natural right which they had in- 
herited from their ancestors. Further, since the 
conquest of these Philipinas Islands had not been 
carried out conformably to the holy instructions 
which the conquerors carried with them, and which 
they were bound to observe, but had been carried out 
in exactly the opposite manner and with the most 
serious acts of injustice, he gave information with 
regard to these things to his Majesty and to his royal 
Council of the Indias. It was decreed that the con- 
sent and voluntary obedience and allegiance of ali 
the Indians should be asked for anew. The new 
bishop, Don Fray Miguel, very earnestly undertook 
to attempt to carry this decree to execution, and 
accordingly it was made. When the bishop was 
desirous of embarking, there were so many rumors 



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226 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol. 31 

of enemies, and the damage inflicted at Cadiz was 
so great, that it was impossible to have any fleet that 
year; and there was no other vessel for him to travel 
in except a small patache with a single deck. The 
cabin in the poop which he occupied was so low that 
it could not be entered except on one's knees, while 
for the twenty religious whom he was taking there 
was no accommodation at all. He tried, by putting 
up an awning, to protect them from the sun and the 
water; but the only one on the ship was full of 
patches, and very small. The Lord made matters 
better for them by causing the voyage which they 
were obliged to take to be very calm, for the patache 
was not built to encounter storms. It did not rain 
more than twice, so that they were at least able to 
lie on the deck at night, though by day they were 
compelled to suffer the heat of the sun, which was 
extreme and very oppressive in their little patache. 
For this the religious gave thanks to the Lord; but 
the bishop was so accustomed to hardships that this 
fair weather grieved him; and he said that the Lord 
had forgotten them because He did not send them 
hardships, which are the best things which in this 
life He gives to His friends. " For my sins," he said, 
" the Lord deprives us of hardships, and of the merit 
which they bring with them when they are borne 
with patience for the love of the Lord who sent them. 
Not so did we sail on our first journey when so 
devoted servants of God were going; but we traveled 
in great and continual afflictions - tempests, fire, and 
fears of enemies. That we should now lack all this, 
and travel with such fair weather when we are not 
such as they, is not for our good. In me is the fault; 
it is well that I should feel it and weep over it." 



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x64o; ADUARTE'S HISTORIA 227 

When he went ashore, he traveled on foot all the 
way to Mexico, and from there to the port of Aca- 
pulco, a distance of more than a hundred and fifty 
leguas. Thus he afforded the example of a poor 
religious, even when his state as a bishop would have 
excused him from such poverty and hardship. How- 
ever, he did not seek for excuses, but for opportuni- 
ties for poverty and religious devotion, though at the 
expense of so great an exertion, and in his advanced 
age. He reached Manila at a time when there hap- 
pened to be a procession from our convent to the 
cathedral, because of an occasional need. He dis- 
embarked there, at a gate which was near our con- 
vent on the shore, and the procession began by 
receiving him. This caused much joy, on account 
of the high esteem and regard in which he was held 
by both religious and laymen. He accompanied the 
procession to the cathedral, and when the time came 
he went into the pulpit, taking the sermon from him 
to whom it had been committed. He preached most 
eloquently; and, though he came down bathed in 
perspiration, he did not change the heavy tunic of 
sackcloth which he wore. On the contrary, he went 
direct to the sacristy and robed himself to say mass, 
though he said it very slowly, and with so much 
feeling that it was a great effort for him. These were 
acts, and this was an entry, which promised an ex- 
tremely good bishop and superior. The promise was 
not falsified, but fell short of the truth, so much did 
he surpass it. He went straight to his poor bishopric 
to care for his flock. In the principal part of his 
diocese, the province of Nueva Segovia, they were 
nearly all heathen. There were only about two hun- 
dred baptized adults, those who were not so being 



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228 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS (Vol, 31 

innumerable; for it was only a very short time since 
our religious had begun to preach the gospel to them. 
When the new bishop was once among his sheep, he 
began to watch over their welfare, and to defend 
them from the alcaldes-mayor and the encomenderos, 
who abused them like wolves. The bishop's conduct 
forced him to hear rough words and violent insults 
from those who had fattened themselves with the 
blood of the Indians. They feared lest they should 
grow lean if the shepherd, coming out to the defense 
of the flock, were to force them to be satisfied with 
moderate returns, without flaying the sheep. The 
bishop was not intimidated, and did not desist from 
this just and due defense; nor did he cease to strive 
for the good of his Indians against the outrages 
which he beheld. On the contrary, he strove to give 
his remonstrances their due effect and if he was 
unable to succeed there in securing the rights of the 
Indians, he was accustomed to write to the governor 
and the Audiencia, without taking his hand from the 
work until he had brought it to the perfection which 
he desired. Though he aided the Indians, he did not 
neglect the Spaniards, who lived in the principal 
towns of his bishopric less edifying and exemplary 
lives than those whose Christianity is ancient ought 
to lead in towns of the newly converted. They are 
under obligation to be shining lights, to give light to 
those who are either blind because of their heathen 
belief, or who know little of God because they have 
been newly baptized. He stirred them up to live as 
they ought, and aided them in their necessities like 
a loving father; if he could not make them such as 
he wished, he improved them as much as possible. 
At the death of the archbishop of Manila, he was 



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1640] aduarte's historia 229 

obliged to go to that city, and saw in it so many 
things contrary to the divine Majesty and to the 
human one that he found himself under the necessity 
of writing to his Majesty a letter very full of feeling, 
which begins : " I have twice visited this city of 
Manila since I came to these islands as bishop. The 
first time was last year, ninety-nine, because I re- 
ceived reliable information that the governor and 
the auditors were in such bitter opposition that there 
was fear of a serious rupture. Now, learning that 
there was no archbishop in the city, it seemed de- 
sirable " (and was so without doubt) " that I should 
be present and prepared for any contingency." He 
gives an account of what had happened, and says: 
" I am obliged to speak as my position and the con- 
dition of affairs require, very clearly, without caring 
who may be affected by my words; for God, your 
Majesty, and the common weal are of more im- 
portance than any smaller things." The truth of 
what he stated, and the clearness with which he 
spoke, are plain in the rest of the letter, which to 
avoid prolixity is not inserted here. He strove to 
settle the state of the church in these islands; and 
when he saw some bad customs introduced without 
any foundation, and contrary to reason and theology, 
he was greatly grieved. What he was not himself 
able to remedy, he wrote of to the supreme pontiff. 
Since the competency of the bishop was so well 
known in Espana, he was appointed archbishop as 
soon as the vacancy was known, although he had no 
procurator there; for, being a poor and peaceful 
bishop, he did not expect to carry on any suits, and 
hence did not care for a procurator or agent at court. 
Since his poverty was known, his Majesty caused the 



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230 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol.31 

bulls to be drawn, and directed the royal officials of 
Manila to collect from the bishop the expense of 
drawing them when it should be convenient for him 
to pay it. The bishop hesitated long, and asked the 
advice of many, before he accepted this promotion, 
having seen and experienced the difficulties, the 
opposition, and the dissensions which accompanied 
this dignity, at such a distance from the eyes of his 
Majesty and of the supreme pontiff, to whom in 
difficult cases (of which there were many) he might 
have had recourse. Yet finally, since all thought 
that it was desirable for him to accept the office, he 
was compelled to take it for the public good, al- 
though he saw that for his private advantage it 
would be very injurious. Becoming an archbishop 
did not change that poor and humble manner of 
living which he had followed as bishop and as re- 
ligious. He continued to wear the same habit of 
serge and tunics of wool. His food was always fish, 
unless he had a guest, which happened seldom; or 
unless he was afflicted by some infirmity. Whenever 
he had a journey to take on land - for traveling in 
these islands is usually carried on by water -he was 
accustomed to go on foot; and, that he might travel 
with more abstraction from the world, he used to 
walk uttering prayers. He sent the others forward 
in hammocks or on horseback and he followed after 
alone, commending to the Lord himself and the 
undertakings in which he was engaged, in order that 
they might turn out more satisfactorily. If, when 
he was indisposed, he was forced by pleadings to go 
into a hammock -something which is much used in 
this country, and which is carried by Indians - he 
used to get out again as soon as he left the town, and 



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1640] aduarte's historia 23^ 

sometimes earlier, if he heard any of the carriers 
groan; for this groan so penetrated his soul that it 
was not possible for him to travel any farther in this 
manner. His bed was the same which he had when 
a poor friar, a mat of rushes or palm-branches on a 
plank. The small income of his archbishopric he 
spent in alms; and he used to delight in giving them 
with his own hands, kissing the alms with great 
devotion as if he were giving them to Christ, who 
has said that He receives them when they are given 
in His name to the poor. That the principal door 
of his house might not cause embarrassments to per- 
sons who had known better days and who were under 
the necessity of asking alms, he had another door for 
these persons which was always open, so that they 
might come at any time to tell him their troubles, 
and that he might relieve them as well as possible. 
In this way he spent all his income, and therefore 
had very little expense or ostentation in his house- 
hold. He never had a mule or a chair to go about 
with, avoiding all this that he might have means to 
give to the poor. He was most devoted to the min- 
istry and instruction of the Indians and the Chinese; 
and, whenever he had an opportunity for doing so, 
he used to aid in it with great pleasure. He envied 
much those who were occupied in so meritorious an 
exercise, as he wrote in the last year of his life to 
those whom he had left behind in Nueva Segovia, in 
a letter which reads as follows : " To my fathers and 
brethren, the religious of the Order of St. Dominic 
in Nueva Segovia. A poor brother of your Rever- 
ences, very weak in health and very full of troubles 
and of his own wretchedness, has written this to your 
Reverences, his truest brethren, who are walking 



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232 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol- 31 

about in those places of rest and new fields of the 
true paradise, feeding the flocks of the Great Shep- 
herd and rejoicing your souls with the sports and 
the gambols which the new-born lambs are making 
upon the hill-sides at the dawn of the true sun. May 
your Reverences refresh yourselves and feed upon 
that celestial milk which creates manna covered with 
honey upon those mountains. May you rejoice in 
the fair season that now is; for I once tasted the 
same pleasures - though the fair weather lasted but 
for a short time for me, because of my sins and my 
pride; and now I see myself wretched as no one else 
is wretched. Happy the father provincial, who, 
having seen as from the parapet of a bull-ring some- 
thing of the wounds and the bulls here, has returned 
so soon to the delights of that region, and is among 
his sheep. I refer you to him; let him speak the 
love which I have for every one of your Reverences 
and the esteem which I feel for you all. Pay me 
with the money of love and pity. Valete in Domino, 
viscera mea, felices valete in aeternutn.*" To all the 
Indians, a thousand greetings ; and I beg their 
prayers for this poor soul." His life was continually 
burdened with scruples which sometimes are more 
cruel enemies than those who are openly declared as 
such. They were not born in him from ignorance, 
but from his great depreciation of himself and from 
his looking upon the greatness of God, both of which 
caused him to be always timid. This, as he said, 
was the counterweight with which the Lord bur- 
dened him that he might not be puffed up by the 
great blessings which the Lord had granted him. 

" i.e., " Farewell in the Lord, beloved of my heart ; may you 
fare well and happily forever." 



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1640] aduarte's historia 233 

He preached continually, that he might the better 
advise and direct his sheep. He grieved for the 
poor much; and over sinners he was a Jeremiah, ■ 
weeping for what they failed to lament, that he 
might make them weep. He was deeply versed in 
sacred scripture, and with it he filled his writings, 
and even the ordinary letters which he wrote. In 
the opinions which he gave, everything was founded 
upon and approved by the divine authority, which 
was his rule and his arms, both offensive and defen- 
sive. He was accustomed to read with great care 
the sacred councils and canons of the church. In 
them he found stated with the greatest precision 
everything of which he had need for the government 
of his church, as well as for the satisfactory decision 
of the questions with regard to which they asked his 
opinion, and of the disputes which arose among 
learned persons. When there were different opin- 
ions among such persons, he was accustomed to say, 
" Veritas liberabit nos [ue., " the truth shall make us 
free "], and this will make clear to us that for which 
we seek; let us follow it and strive for it." This 
confidence was always justified; for on many occa- 
sions when it seemed that the whole world was in a 
tumult, and that justice was certain to be clouded 
over and obscured, he was then accustomed to say, 
with the greatest confidence, " The truth shall make 
us free," and finally it turned out so. Because of 
the love which he had for truth, he could not endure 
to hear new opinions; and if they were opposed to 
the doctrine of the ancient saints, he attacked them 
like a lion set on fire, though he was in all other 
things as gentle as a lamb. For the same cause, he 
was most devoted to the teaching of St. Thomas - 



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234 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 31 

who, like a mystic bee, made the honeycomb of his 
works from the flowers of holy scripture, sacred 
councils, sacred canons, and the works of the saints 
whom the Lord gave to His church as teachers and 
guides for its direction. In order that in the Philip- 
pinas so sound and safe a doctrine should be read, he 
strove greatly that in the province, although the 
numbers were so few, there should always be some- 
one to read St. Thomas. As soon as he entered upon 
his archbishopric, he asked for a religious of our 
order to read in the cathedral to those who had been 
ordained; and carefully took pains to encourage and 
favor those who went to listen, so that the rest should 
imitate them. This desire he retained up to his 
death; and hence in his last sickness he gave the 
little which he had, asking the order to build a col- 
lege for this purpose. With this beginning, which 
was of the value of a thousand pesos, was established 
the college which we now have in Manila under the 
advocacy of St. Thomas, in order that from their 
first letters the students may feel an affection to this 
holy doctrine, and may follow him afterward when 
they are further advanced. The devotion which 
Don Fray Miguel felt for our Lady was so great 
that in everything which he did or said he com- 
mended it to her, saying an Ave Maria before he 
began. So scrupulous was he that he was unable to 
say the Ave Maria unless he understood all the cir- 
cumstances; and even if it occupied a considerable 
time for him to repeat it, still, in spite of this, he 
always said it. One day the dean of his church, Don 
Francisco de Arellano - a man whom, on account of 
his virtue, the bishop loved and esteemed - asked 
what was the beginning of this devotion, and whence 



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i64o] ADUARTE'S HISTORIA 235 

it was derived. He answered that our Lady herself, 
to whom at first he had said the Ave Maria, was the 
beginning, and that she it was who had taught him 
this devotion. The dean remained in wonder, and 
did not dare to ask him more on this point; nor did 
the good archbishop ever make any further declara- 
tion. Hence the mode in which this happened was 
never known; but the great attention which he gave 
to it was seen. Whenever there was anything to be 
done the Ave Maria always preceded. It was said 
before he answered or put a question, or took any 
medicine, or gave alms, or did anything else. Thus 
always all his acts were actually referred to God our 
Lord, and to His most holy Mother. This was a 
custom of the highest virtue; but when the business 
was of unusual weight, he was not contented with an 
Ave Maria, but recited a rosary. Thus he did in 
China, when the judges caused him to write a peti- 
tion in their presence in Chinese characters -some- 
thing which far exceeded his powers, but not those 
of the Virgin. Accordingly he wrote a miraculous 
petition, to the satisfaction of the judges. They 
believed that which they saw to be impossible, as it 
really was; for though father Fray Miguel knew 
some of the commoner Chinese letters, he did not 
understand those which were necessary for what was 
then required of him, since they were extremely 
peculiar and were in the judicial style, with which 
he was not acquainted. Hence this was doubtless a 
miraculous event, worthy of the compassion with 
which this great Lady comes to the aid of her af- 
flicted devotees. The sufferings of the archbishop 
from storms at sea, as well as from the opposition 
of clergymen and laymen with disrespectful words 



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236 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol.31 

and acts, were very great, but were the cause of great 
happiness. As was affirmed by his confessor -a re- 
ligious of great virtue, a man who had known him 
for many years and who was familiar with the secrets 
of his soul -when the sufferings were at their great- 
est, and in his sorrow and affliction he went to God, 
our Lord himself visibly consoled him and gave him 
strength, not once, but often. To this was attributed 
his habit of looking sometimes with his eyes fixed on 
heaven, with flames of fire, as it were, shining upon 
his face. On such occasions he was heard to utter 
some words which, without his striving or having 
power to say more, he spoke in affectionate converse 
with God. This caused great devotion in those who 
heard; and as it was so, it is no wonder that he so 
much desired other sufferings in addition to the 
weighty cross of his scruples, because their absence 
was much more painful to him than the necessity of 
enduring them. Hence he showed much more sad- 
ness and melancholy when he was exposed to no 
hardships than when they were heaped upon him; 
for in the latter case he was sure of the consolation 
of heaven, which was lacking when he had no suf- 
ferings. 

The end of his days finally approached; and as he 
lay on his bed it was plain to him that this was his 
last sickness, and he began to prepare for this im- 
portant journey. At his departure he was much 
afflicted to leave without a minister the Indians of 
Marivelez, which is situated at no great distance 
from Manila. Since these Indians were few and by 
themselves, he had found no one who was willing to 
accept the charge of them. Taking advantage of 
the present occasion, he sent for father Fray Miguel 



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1640] aduarte's historia 237 

de San Jacintho, who at that time was provincial of 
the province, and most energetically begged him to 
urge on his religious to give instruction to these poor 
Indians. When the provincial promised that he 
would do all he could for this purpose, the bishop 
remained in great content, as if there were nothing 
now to cause him sorrow. He divided his poor 
treasures, sending part of them immediately to his 
church, and giving part to our Lady of the Rosary, 
and part to the poor. In his illness he did not com- 
plain or ask for anything; and when he was asked 
if he wished or longed for anything, he answered, 
" I desire to be saved." His face was very full of 
joy, and the words which he uttered came forth 
kindled so by the love of God that they showed 
plainly what a fire of love was in the breast where 
they were forged. He asked them to dress him in 
his habit; and on the coming of the festival of the 
glorious St. Anne in the year 1605 he asked them to 
get ready his pontifical robes, as if he were preparing 
to go out on that festal day. This was as much as to 
say that his departure was at hand. He was sur- 
rounded by his friars, and though they saw him joy- 
ful they themselves were very sad to perceive that 
they were to be deprived of such a superior and 
such a religious. He consoled them with loving 
words, and, perceiving that his departure was at 
hand he called fervently upon his special patroness, 
the Virgin, his guardian angel, our father St. Dom- 
inic, and the other saints of his devotion, with whom 
he spoke as if he were already with them in heaven. 
His countenance appeared to be celestial rather than 
to belong to earth; and amid loving converse with 
God, with His most holy Mother, and with the saints, 



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238 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol. 31 

his soul departed to his Lord, leaving his body, as 
many said, fragrant with the odor of roses. By the 
voice of all, he was given the palm of a virgin, as 
if all had heard him in confession and felt the cer- 
tainty which his confessor had and manifested in 
this respect, although this declaration was made after 
that in which the palm had been given to him as to 
a virgin. When the fathers of St. Francis came, 
father Fray Vicente Valero, who lived and died with 
the reputation of sainthood, went up to the dead man, 
saying, " This body is holy and should be regarded 
as such," and kissed the feet. After this all of his 
religious did the same thing, and they were followed 
by the others, for in this way the Lord honors those 
who faithfully serve Him. His interment was per- 
formed with all possible solemnity in the cathedral, 
on the epistle side near the high altar. The arch- 
bishop left behind him some writings of much eru- 
dition, and full of Christian teaching, which are very 
helpful to the ministers of the holy gospel. 

CHAPTER LXII 

Of some religious who died at this time 

[At this time there were taken away by death a 
number of the most superior religious, the lack of 
whom was greatly felt. In the year of our Lord 
1604 one of the definitors in the provincial chapter 
was father Fray Pedro de San Vicente. He was 
elected as a definitor in the general chapter, and also 
as procurator of the province at the courts of Espana 
and Roma. There was no one at either court at that 
time, and a procurator was necessary, especially for 
the purpose of bringing over religious from Espana, 



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164°] aduarte's HISTORIA 2 39 

without whom this province could not be maintained. 
He set out to undertake the duties entrusted to him, 
in the ships which sailed that year for Nueva Es- 
pana, and died on the way, the same ships in the 
following year bringing back the news of his death. 
Father Fray Pedro was a native of Zalamea. He 
assumed the habit in the convent of San Esteban at 
Salamanca, whence he came to this province in the 
year 1594. Here he was engaged in the ministry of 
Bataan, and afterward in the ministry to the Chinese 
of Binondoc, being much beloved and esteemed in 
both these offices. He always thought well of all, 
and never spoke ill of anyone. He was twice su- 
perior of Binondoc, to the great spiritual and tem- 
poral augmentation of that mission. He set sail on 
the voyage without taking a real or a piece of silk, 
or any other thing, either for the journey or for the 
business which fell to his charge, trusting solely in 
the divine Providence. He even refused to take for 
his convent some articles of little value here, but 
esteemed as rare and curious in Espaiia, and such as 
it is customary for a religious to take as a mark of 
affection to the convent where he assumed the habit. 
When he died he made the following testament or 
declaration : " I, Fray Pedro de San Vicente, de- 
clare that I die as a friar of St. Dominic, without 
having in my possession gold or silver, or anything 
else, except one old blanket with which I cover 
myself at night. I pray for the love of God that this 
may be given to a boy who travels with me, named 
Andresillo." Let it be remembered that father Fray 
Pedro was in the Philippinas ten years, for the 
greater part of the time minister to the Chinese and 
for four years their vicar, and that he was very much 



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240 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol.31 

beloved; that they are of their nature inclined to 
make presents; that many in this town are very rich, 
and are ready to give much on small occasions; and 
that when they saw him about to go to Espaiia they 
were much more likely to show generosity, without 
his needing to put forward any effort. Any one who 
will consider these things, and who will observe 
that he went from among them so poor, without 
money or anything else, will clearly recognize his 
great virtue, and see how justly he is entitled to the 
great praise of the Holy Spirit, who says, " Happy 
is he who does not follow after gold, and who does 
not put his trust in the treasures of money; who is 
he? let us praise him because he has wrought mar- 
vels in his life." 

In the province of Nueva Segovia there died at 
this time father Fray Jacintho Pardo, a learned 
theologian and a virtuous religious. He was a native 
of Cuellar and took the habit in San Pablo at Valla- 
doiid. He was so much beloved in the convent that 
the elder fathers strove to retain him; but it was 
shown in a vision to a devout woman that father 
Fray Jacintho was to serve among the heathen.] 
He was sent to Nueva Segovia, where there were 
very many heathen to be converted; for at that time 
missionaries had just been sent there, and nearly the 
whole of the province was without them. The 
natives were fierce, constantly causing alarm from 
warlike disturbances, and were much given to idol- 
atry and to the vices which accompany it. The good 
fortune of going thither fell to him; and he imme- 
diately learned the ordinary language of that prov- 
ince so perfectly that he was the first to compose a 
grammar of it. Since the village of Tuguegarao 
(where he lived) in La Yrraya had, although the 



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t640l ADUARTE'S HISTORIA 24 1 

inhabitants understood this common and general 
language, another particular language of their own, 
in which it pleased them better to hear and answer, 
he undertook the labor of learning that also, and 
succeeded very well. He acted thus as one desirous 
in all ways of attracting them to Christ, without 
giving any consideration to his own labor, and to 
the fact that this language could be of no use out- 
side of this village. They were a warlike, ferocious, 
and wrathful tribe; and, being enraged against their 
Spanish encomendero, they killed him, and threat- 
ened the religious that they would take his life unless 
he left the village. Being enraged, and having de- 
clared war against the Spaniards, they did not wish 
to see him among them. But father Fray Jacintho, 
who loved them for the sake of God more than for 
his own life, desired to bring them to a reconciliation 
and to peace; and was unwilling to leave the village, 
in spite of their threats. To him indeed they were 
not threats, but promises of something which he 
greatly desired. Under these circumstances he fell 
sick, and in a few days ended his life. The Span- 
iards, knowing what the Indians had said, believed 
that they had given him poison so that he should 
not preach to them or reconcile them with the Span- 
iards; and this opinion was shared by the physician, 
because of his very speedy death. If this were true, 
it was a happy death which he suffered in such a 
holy cause. He died on the day of the eleven thou- 
sand virgins, to whom he showed a particular devo- 
tion; and it might have been a reward to him to die 
on such a day, since the church knows by experience 
the great protection which these saints offer at that 
time to those who are devoted to them. 

[In the district of Bataan died Father Juan de la 



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242 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol. 31 

Cruz, a son of the convent of San Pablo at Sevilla. 
He was one of the first founders of this province, in 
which he lived for eighteen years. He was small of 
body, and weak and delicate in constitution; but his 
zeal gave him strength for the great labors which 
accompanied the beginning of this conversion. He 
was one of the first workers in the field of Pangasi- 
nan, where he suffered all the evils and miseries 
which have been described in the account of that 
conversion. He very rapidly learned the language 
of these Indians, which they call Tagala; and suc- 
ceeded so perfectly with it that father Fray Fran- 
cisco San Joseph, who was afterwards the best lin- 
guist there was, profited by the papers and labors of 
father Fray Juan de la Cruz. Father Fray Juan 
even learned afterward two other Indian languages, 
those of the Zambales and the Pampangos. Father 
Fray Juan, being the only linguist among the fathers, 
was called upon constantly to hear confessions; and 
therefore suffered even more than the rest from the 
exposures of traveling from place to place in this 
district. These hardships broke down the health 
even of strong men like father Fray Christobal de 
Salvatierra, who suffered from a terrible asthma. 
Father Fray Juan was afflicted by an asthma so ter- 
rible that it seemed as if every night must be his last; 
and he felt the dreadful anxiety which accompanies 
this disease. He also suffered from two other dis- 
eases even more severe, colic and urinary ailments, 
which afflicted him even more than the asthma. He 
was so patient and so angelic in nature that all these 
diseases and afflictions could not disturb him or make 
him irritable. His body he treated like a wild beast 
that had to be tamed, weakening it with fasts, bind- 



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164°] ADUARTE'S HISTORIA 243 

ing it with chains, mortifying it with hair-shirts, and 
chastising it with scourgings. He was chosen as 
confessor by the archbishop of Manila, Don Fray 
Miguel de Venavides. Immediately after the death 
of the archbishop he returned to his labors among 
the Indians, but did not survive long. When a 
religious of the Order of St. Dominic is about to 
breathe his last, the rest of the convent gather about 
him to aid him to die well ; and to call them together 
some boards are struck or a rattle is sounded, he 
who strikes them repeating, " Credo, credo." Father 
Fray Juan de la Cruz, desiring to follow the usual 
custom of the order, taught an Indian to strike to- 
gether these boards, although the father was alone in 
the village; and this was the last farewell of this 
noble religious. He had refused repeated requests 
to return to Manila for care; and he was buried, as 
he desired, in the church of those Indians for whose 
spiritual good he had spent his life. 

In this year 1605 the religious of our order had 
been three years in Japon. They were not a little 
disturbed by a brief which at this time reached 
Japon and which had been obtained by the fathers 
of the Society of Jesus. This brief directed that all 
the religious and secular clergy who desired to 
preach in Japon might go thither by the way of 
Eastern India, but that no one should have authority 
to go by way of the Western Indias. The brief 
directed that all who had come in that way or by the 
Philippinas should depart, on penalty of major 
excommunication, latts sentenli^. The religious of 
the other orders, when this brief was shown to them 
by the fathers of the Society, replied that the brief 
had been presented in the previous year to the arch- 



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244 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol. 3^ 

bishop of Manila; and that the fathers of the various 
orders had laid before the archbishop reasons for 
supposing that his Holiness had been misinformed, 
and had appealed to the supreme pontiff for a recon- 
sideration. They declared that it was unreasonable 
to expect them to leave Japon until the reply of the 
supreme pontiff should be received. The brief was 
annulled by his Holiness Paul V in i6o8, only three 
years after the petition ; and this repeal was con- 
firmed afterwards by Urban VIII. In the interim 
the fathers of the Society of Jesus did things which 
annoyed the other religious, but were not sufficient 
■to drive them from Japon. After the repeal the 
superior sent fathers Fray Thomas del Spiritu 
Sancto, or Zumarraga, and Fray Alonso de Mena 
to extend the mission from Satzuma to Vomura [i.e., 
Omura]. It was a time of great disturbance and of 
much feeling against the Christians. The fathers of 
the order did what they could for some fathers of the 
Society of Jesus who were imprisoned in a church. 
They went on to the kingdom of Firando-the lord 
of which*' had in 1587 begged for religious of St. 
Francis, but was now strongly opposed to Chris- 
tianity. Among his vassals they found some who 
were Christians in secret, and encouraged them and 
gave them the sacraments of the church.] 

" This was Matsura Shigenobu H6-in, the daimio of Hirado 
(Firando) and Iki. He succeeded his father in 1584, and died in 
1614, at the age of sixty-five. He was an officer in the Korean 
campaigns under Konishi, and served during 1592-98, See Satow's 
note regarding him, in Voyage of Saris ( Hakluyt Society's publica- 
tions, London, igoo), p. 79; also his portrait, p. 80. 



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aduarte's historia 245 



CHAPTER LXIII 



The conquest of Maluco by the intercession of our 
Lady of the Rosary; the foundation of her reli- 
gious confraternity in this province, and the entry 
of religious into it. 

On April 16, 1606, an intermediate chapter was 
held in Manila, at which notice was given of the 
brief of Pope Clement VIII, De largitione mune- 
rum. Directions were given to observe this brief 
with rigorous exactness, in all things which it com- 
mands to all religious orders and religious. It w^ 
ordered and directed that all memorable things, 
worthy of being placed in history, which had hap- 
pened in this province should be diligently gathered 
together. In accordance with this, the father pro- 
vincial gave a formal precept to all the religious 
of the province that they should write down, each 
one of them, what he knew in regard to this matter 
with all accuracy and truth. In this way something 
of that which has here been recounted was brought 
together; but there continues to be much which re- 
mains buried in oblivion. Some difficulties were 
resolved; and it was decreed that devotions to some 
saints should be offered, whose devotions had up to 
that time not been offered in the province. 

On the first of April in this year occurred the 
glorious victory which Don Pedro de Acuiia, knight 
of the Habit of St. John, knight-commander of Sala- 
manca, governor and captain-general of these islands, 
gained in the Malucas, restoring them to the crown 
of Espana, as for many years had been desired and 
intended but without effect. This memorable vic- 
tory was won by the intercession of our Lady of the 



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246 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [VoL 31 

Rosary, who was the sole source of it. This im- 
portant stronghold remains incorporated in the gov- 
ernment and province of the Philippinas, to the 
immortal reputation and glory of the great soldier 
and devout cavalier who gained them during his gov- 
ernment. He deserves this glory not less for his 
devout Christian zeal, love of God, and devotion to 
our Lady of the Rosary - in which from his tenderest 
years he was bred by his most devout and prudent 
mother -than for his great military skill and pru- 
dence, which he and all his valorous brothers ac- 
quired from his father, a distinguished and most 
fortunate captain, as also he saw all his sons become. 
The great favor which our Lady of the Rosary 
showed to our army in this conquest was very well 
known and celebrated. That the evidence of it might 
be more clearly made known to those who were not 
present [at the victory], a formal narrative of the 
matter was made before the treasurer Don Luis de 
Herrera Sandoval, vicar-general of this archiepisco- 
pate in the year 1609. Many witnesses being exam- 
ined, all agreed that this fort was gained by the 
miraculous aid of the Virgin, though the soldiers did 
not on that account fight the less valiantly. It was 
plain, in many things that happened, that sovereign 
assistance was given by this Lady, as may be seen by 
referring to the statement of the first witness, the 
sargento-mayor of that army, Christobal de Azcueta 
Menchaca, who was present throughout the whole 
matter; and, who on account of his position, had 
better knowledge of what occurred than anyone else 
in the army. His statement is as follows: " In the 
month of February, 1606, the governor was at Oton, 
four leguas from the town of Arebalo, in the bish- 



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i64o] aduarte's historia 247 

opric of Zebu, on his way to the conquest of Maluco 
-where the Dutch had built a fort, and had made 
treaties of peace with the king of that country against 
the Castilians and Portuguese. It was also said that 
they had invaded the country of the king of Tidore, 
our ally. The governor mustered his forces at Oton ; 
and with those who had come from Mexico in June, 
and those who had been added in these islands, the 
total number was thirteen hundred Spanish infantry, 
and six hundred Indians from the vicinity of Manila, 
who fought courageously under the protection of 
the Spaniards. Religious of all orders accompanied 
the troops, and among them was a certain father Fray 
Andres of the Order of St. Dominic, with another 
lay religious. As if by legitimate inheritance from 
their father, all the friars of this habit had in their 
charge the devotion to the Holy Rosary; and hence 
father Fray Andres suggested to the sargento-mayor 
that her holy confraternity should be established in 
this army, that this our Lady might open the door to 
the difficult entrance they were to make. The sar- 
gento-mayor spoke to the governor in regard to the 
matter, and to the holy bishop of Zebu, Don Fray 
Pedro de Agurto. The sargento-mayor received 
permission to discuss it in the army, and the captains 
and soldiers all agreed with great heartiness; and 
they determined that the holy confraternity should 
be immediately established, with all its ceremonies 
and ordinances, so that this important enterprise 
might begin with some service done to our Lady the 
Virgin. The governor ordered the image of our 
Lady of the Rosary to be embroidered on the royal 
standard, that she might guide the army. He was 
the first to pledge himself as a member of the con- 



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248 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol. 31 

fraternity, and was followed by the master-of-camp, 
Juan de Esquivel, and the captains, the soldiers and 
sailors, and the members of his household - all of 
them promising alms when they should be provided 
with money on account of their pay. It was then 
proposed to establish the confraternity in the first 
city which should be gained from the enemy, and 
to call it " the City of the Rosary." For this pur- 
pose a canvas was painted, having upon it a repre- 
sentation of our Lady with her son Jesus in her 
arms, distributing rosaries to the governor, the 
master-of-camp, the captains, and the rest of the sol- 
diers. They confessed and received communion, and 
went in procession, as is customary when the con- 
fraternity is established. The bishop celebrated 
pontifical mass, giving dignity to this solemn act 
with his holy presence. According to the ordinances, 
a Dominican friar is obliged to preach if any be 
present. Since Fray Andres had little skill in this 
office, and spoke with little grace, he tried to arrange 
that the bishop should preach; but matters turned 
out so that the religious was obliged to preach the 
great things of the Mother of God and of her rosary. 
As all this had been guided by God, and the 
preacher chosen by His own will, God controlled 
the preacher's tongue in such a manner that all 
should be fulfilled which concerned His purpose. 
Thus the father amazed those who were present - 
the bishop to such an extent that he said aloud to 
the whole congregation : " Gentlemen, this blessed 
father has preached in such a manner that it seems 
the Holy Spirit has been dictating to him that which 
he has said; and I do not know what account to give 
of the same except to praise God, for it is He who 



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1640] ADUARTE'S HISTORIA 249 

caused it." The fleet sailed to Tidore; and when it 
reached there the forces spent Holy Week in con- 
fessing and receiving communion. While they were 
there an eclipse of the moon occurred, which was 
taken by the augurs of the island as a bad omen, and 
they uttered presages of evil, and cried aloud; but 
the Spaniards took it as an omen of victory. They 
did not find in Tidore the king, who was friendly. 
They discovered two Dutchmen who had a factory 
there; and they and that which was in the factory 
were held for the king of Espaiia. On Friday of 
Easter week, which was the last day of March, the 
fleet cast anchor a cannon-shot from the fort of Ter- 
nate; and on Saturday the artillery from the ships 
and galleys was fired, to clear the field. The sar- 
gento-mayor made a landing with the army, drawing 
them up along the creek between the fort and the 
sea. The vanguard was held by the master-of-camp, 
Gallinato, lookouts being posted in the trees. While 
he was planning to make gabions, the tumult of the 
army, as if the voice of all, declared that they should 
not doubt the victory; that on that very day they 
were going to capture the fort and the country, for 
it was Saturday, a day dedicated to our Lady. They 
began with great readiness. It was about midday, 
an hour little suited for an attack in so hot a coun- 
try, for the sun beat down on them. In addition, on 
one side they were harassed by falcon-shots fired 
from the fort of Cachitulco; it was a very effective 
weapon, although at first they shot their balls too 
high. After lowering their aim somewhat, they 
struck seven Spaniards. The companions of the 
governor forced him to move to another place, as 
balls were constantly striking where he was. At the 



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250 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol. 31 

very moment when he left the spot, his shield-bearer, 
stepping into his place, was struck. On this account 
the sargento-mayor endeavored to hold back the 
forces until they could hear what the lookouts said, 
or receive an order from the governor. From 
among the body of the troops he heard a voice, call- 
ing upon him to attack without doubting of the vic- 
tory; that the mother of God purposed that on that 
day her holy confraternity should be established in 
this country. The sargento-mayor turned his head 
and asked in a loud voice: " What devout or holy 
person has said this to us? " There was no answer, 
and it was not known from whom the voice pro- 
ceeded; but it seemed to him that it spoke to him 
from within, and that it came from heaven. It 
inspired in him such spirit and courage that he 
turned to the captains and said: "Gentlemen, the 
mother of God wills us to gain this fort today." 
Captain Cubas reached the fort, from which his 
troops were somewhat driven back by the Moros, 
and his foot was wounded by a pointed stake [/jwi'a]. 
Some beginning to call "Sanctiago!" and others 
"Victory!" they all began to run on boldly and 
proudly without any order. So quickly was the fort 
taken that the captain-general did not even know it 
when the soldiers had actually surmounted the wall. 
They went on to where the king was fortified, with 
many arquebuses and culverins; and with four pieces 
of ordnance {piegas de batir) , and with a high wall, 
from which the enemy did much execution with 
bucacaos " and fire-hardened reeds anointed with 
poison. But none of these things availed him; and, 
seeing that the day was lost he fled with some of his 

**The same as bagacay or bacacae; see vol. xvi, p. 55. 



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i64o] ADUARTE'S HISTORIA ^5^ 

followers, in a caracoa and four xuangas, to the 
island of the Moro, or Batachina [i.e., Gilolo], to 
which they had sent their women and children and 
their wealth. On account of this the sack did not 
bring very much gold or money, but amounted to 
only two thousand ducats and some cloth and cloves. 
The rest of the prize was artillery, culverins, arms, 
and ammunition. After the victory, the sargento- 
mayor went to ask the governor for the countersign, 
and found him on his knees before an image of our 
Lady, saying: " I beg humility of you, our Lady, 
since by you this victory has been gained." On the 
following day, Sunday, the second of April (which 
was, accordingly, the first Sunday in the month), the 
governor ordered an altar to be prepared, and di- 
rected that the painting we carried of the mother of 
God of the Rosary, with the governor, the captains 
and the men at her feet should be placed thereon, so 
that mass might be said. They brought from the 
mosque a pulpit, in which father Fray Andres 
preached. That which had previously been a mosque 
was from that day forth the parish church and 
mother church - the religious living in one part of 
it, and administering the holy sacrament. The con- 
fraternity was established, and it and the city and the 
principal fort received the name of El Rosario [('.?., 
" The Rosary "] that this signal mercy might remain 
in the memory of those who were to come. In these 
events there were many things that appeared miracu- 
lous. The first of them was the voice which the 
sargento-mayor heard, with regard to which he de- 
clared upon oath that he could not find out who spoke 
it, that it appeared to speak to him within, and that 
the words inspired in him great confidence, as has 



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252 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol.31 

been said. The second miraculous element is the 
speed with which victory was attained; for when 
the governor went away to speak with the king of 
Tidore, who is friendly, the report that the fort had 
been gained reached him so quickly that the gov- 
ernor was amazed, and the king did not believe it. 
The third was the few deaths which occurred on our 
side; for only fifteen died in the war, and twenty 
were wounded. The fourth is that when a Dutch- 
man -or, as others say, a man of Terrenate- was 
trying to fire a large paterero to clear a straight path 
where a great number of our soldiers were marching 
up hill in close order, he tried three times to fire it 
with a linstock, but was unable to do so. When the 
Moros told him to hasten and fire it, he said that a 
lady with a blue mantle was preventing him with a 
corner of the mantle, and sprinkling sand in the 
touch-hole. So, throwing away the linstock, he 
began to run; and the Spaniards came up with him 
and killed him. 

At the beginning of August in the same year, large 
reenforcements of religious came from Espana; and 
so great was the need which there was of them that 
they came at a very fortunate time, especially since 
they were picked men in virtue and learning. The 
first who volunteered for this province were five 
members of the college of Sancto Thomas at Alcala, 
which event attracted so much attention in the con- 
vent of San Estevan at Salamanca that, when the 
vicar of the religious reached there, thirteen mem- 
bers of that convent volunteered. Among them was 
the preacher of that distinguished convent, father 
Fray Diego del Aguila. To these, others from other 
convents added themselves, and a member of the 



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i640] ADUARTE'S HISTORIA 253 

college of San Gregorio, of whose great virtue an 
account will immediately be given. When the time 
for beginning the voyage arrived, the thirteen mem- 
bers of the order from the convent of San Estevan 
at Salamanca prostrated themselves on the floor of 
the church, after thanks had been returned for the 
meal which had been completed, and asked for the 
blessing of the superior that they might begin their 
journey. This act aroused great devotion among 
those who were present. When they had received 
the blessing, they went in procession to the convent 
of novices, where they took their cloaks and bags; 
and intoning the devout hymn of the Holy Spirit, 
they began with His divine support upon this jour- 
ney, with their staves and hempen sandals, after the 
manner of persons who go on foot. They were led 
by father Fray Diego del Aguila, the preacher of 
that convent at the time, and an example of virtue in 
that city where he had preached with great reputa- 
tion for the four years preceding. Hence to see him 
walking on foot, and on his way to regions so remote, 
was a thing which caused great tenderness and devo- 
tion in those who knew him, and who saw so devout 
and so humble an act, so determined a resignation, 
and such contempt for the world. He labored much 
in the ship, hearing confessions, and preaching and 
teaching; for as in voyages there are so many kinds 
of people, there is need of all of these things, while 
many of the people need them all at once, because 
they do not know the doctrine which it is their duty 
to know and believe, and do not take that care of 
their souls which they ought to take. Some of them 
do not even desire to have such things spoken of, that 
their ignorance may not be known ; and hence there 



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254 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol- 31 

is much labor in teaching them, and it is a great 
service to God not to refuse this labor. 

[The member of the college of San Gregorio at 
Valladolid who came with the rest of these religious 
was Fray Pedro Rodriguez, a native of Montilla and 
a son of the convent of San Pablo at Cordoba. His 
departure caused much grief. His parents loved 
him tenderly, for he was, like Benjamin, the youngest 
and was very obedient and docile by nature. The 
religious of his convent were grieved because they 
had seen in him so notable a beginning in virtue and 
letters. In spite of the efforts of fathers, kinsmen, 
and religious, father Fray Pedro maintained his 
resolve. His virtues were very great, and he morti- 
fied himself constantly. His last illness befell him 
when the vessel had already come among these 
islands ; and they were already at the port of Ybalon, 
and were carrying him ashore that he might receive 
the viaticum, when he lost consciousness. He had 
desired to be left in the islands of the Ladrones, that 
he might serve as missionary; but he was not- per- 
mitted to do so, on account of the great difficulties 
which he would have met with because of ignorance 
of the language. It may be that father Fray Pedro 
would have overcome them; but such things ought 
not to be left in the hands of a single person. The 
evil results which follow are morally worse than the 
gain which may be expected, as has been found out 
by experience since religious of the seraphic father 
St. Francis have remained there. His body was 
taken to be buried in the church of Casigura. He 
left behind him among his brethren the name of 
saint.] 



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ADUARTE S HISTORIA 



CHAPTER LXIV 



Other events which happened at this time in Japon 
and the Philippinas 

[The circumstances in Japon were such that many 
of the converts were obliged to spend six, or eight, 
or even fifteen years without confessing, while some 
of them had not seen a confessor within forty years. 
Hence the fathers Fray Thomas and Fray Alonso 
were anxious to go up into the country to continue 
the good work which they had begun. The vicar- 
provincial, Fray Francisco de Morales, sent father 
Fray Alonso de Mena to the kingdom of Fixen,*' 
where there had been no church up to this year 1606. 
A certain captain, Francisco Moreno Donoso, had 
taken some Franciscan fathers with him on a jour- 
ney, and on the voyage had been delivered from 
great danger by the intercession of our Lady of the 
Rosary. He was therefore devoted to this our Lady. 
Although the kingdom of Fixen is very near Nan- 
gasaqui, the king had always been unwilling to admit 
preachers of Christianity; but this king had a great 
regard for Captain Moreno Donoso, who went to 
visit the king with father Fray Alonso; and the cap- 
tain made the king many gifts, refusing to accept 

" Hizen is one of the most notable provinces of Japan, com- 
mercially and historically. Its chief city is Nagasaki, which about 
1586 was wrested from the daimio of Omura by Taiko-sama, and 
declared the property of the central government. The Dutch 
maintained a factory there, although under humiliating conditions 
and restrictions, from 1639 to 1859. Another notable town in 
Hizen is Arima, where the Christians were so cruelly persecuted 
in 1637. The daimio of Hizen, mentioned by Aduarte, was prob- 
ably Nabeshima, prince of Saga, who was a favorite with lyeyasu. 

See Rein's Japan, pp. 300, 520-523. 



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256, THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol.31 

anything in return except a chain. The king showed 
him such favor that the captain took advantage of 
the opportunity to ask permission that father Fray 
Alonso might establish convents and churches in the 
kingdom. The king was pleased to grant it, insisting 
only that the sanction of a great bonze, named Gaco, 
should first be secured; he was a native of Fixen, 
and was the most highly regarded man in Japan 
because of his learning. The king sent his own 
secretary to go before the bonze, to tell him of the 
poverty, the penitence, the contempt for the things 
of this world, the modesty, the humility, and the 
courteous behavior of the father. The bonze, see- 
ing that it was the pleasure of the king, said that 
such a man might very well receive this permission. 
In conformity with it three poor churches and houses 
were built -one in Famamachi under the patronage 
of our Lady of the Rosary; the second in the city 
of Caxima [i.e., Kashima], named for St. Vincent; 
and, after some time, another one at the king's court 
[i.^., Saga], for which at that time permission had 
been refused. Father Fray Alonso and his com- 
panion, when he had one, got the little they needed 
for their support from Portuguese and Castilians in 
Nangasaqui, that they might avoid asking for alms 
from the Japanese, and might thus give no oppor- 
tunity for the bonzes to complain against them, and 
to find a pretext for sending them out of the country. 
Father Fray Alonso remained in this kingdom; and 
the order persevered until the persecution, when all 
the religious who had been hiding there were or- 
dered to depart from Japon. Father Fray Alonso 
found in this kingdom some Japanese who had been 
baptized in other kingdoms, but had not been well 



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1640] aduarte's historia 257 

taught in the faith, or who had forgotten the good 
teachings that they had received at their baptism. 
They were guilty of much irregularity in their mar- 
riages; and some of them had assumed to baptize 
others without knowing the essence of the baptismal 
form, so that it was difficult to determine which of 
them had received valid baptisms. These imper- 
fectly prepared converts had also done harm by 
endeavoring to sustain arguments against the op- 
ponents of Christianity, and, being insufficiently 
grounded in the faith, they had spread false impres- 
sions of the Christian religion. Notable cases of 
conversion occurred, there being some instances well 
worthy of remark in the court; and finally the sanc- 
tity of the life of the missionaries caused them to 
be called xaxtno padre, " fathers who despise the 
world." The father Fray Juan de Los Angeles, or 
Rueda, came to live at Fixen in the following year, 
1607. 

In this year 1606 of which we have been speaking, 
there died at sea father Fray Domingo de Nieva, 
who was on his way to act as procurator of the prov- 
ince. He had labored much and well among the 
Indians of Bataan and among the Chinese. Father 
Fray Domingo was a native of Billoria in Campos, 
and a son of the convent of San Pablo at Valladolid. 
He was a man of ability and of good will. When 
nearly all the lecturers in theology from that convent, 
together with the lecturers in arts, and many of their 
most able and learned disciples, determined to go to 
the Philippinas, father Fray Domingo joined his 
masters. He suffered his life long from headache. 
Being sent to Bataan in company with three other 
fathers, he, as the youngest, had to carry a very 



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258 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol, 31 

heavy burden of duties. He was fortunate enough 
not to suffer from any further diseases, the Lord 
being pleased not to add any to his constant head- 
ache. His mortification, fasting, and discipline were 
very great. He wrote some devout tracts in the lan- 
guage of the Indians, and some others in that of the 
Chinese. He had printed for the Chinese in their 
language and characters an essay upon the Christian 
life, with other brief tracts of prayer and meditation, 
in preparation for the holy sacraments of confession 
and the sacred communion. He wrote a practically 
new grammar of the Chinese language, a vocabulary, 
a manual of confession, and many sermons, in order 
that those who had to learn this language might find 
it less difficult. He was prior of Manila; and in the 
third year of his priorate the news arrived of the 
death of father Fray Pedro de San Vicente, who was 
going to Espana as definitor in the chapter general 
and as procurator for this province. Since it was 
necessary to send another in his place, father Fray 
Domingo received the appointment to the duty. 
Like his predecessor, he died on the voyage from the 
islands to Mexico.] 

CHAPTER LXV 

The foundation of Manavag in Pangasinan and the 
deaths of some religious 

In the year 1605 the missionaries to Pangasinan, 
not contented with the fruitful results of their labors 
in the level region of that province, took under their 
charge the village of Manavag, situated among the 
mountains at a considerable distance from the other 
villages. The first entry into this village was made 
by the religious of our father St. Augustine in the 



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1640] aduarte's historia 259 

year 1600; they built there a church named after St. 
Monica, and baptized some children. The village 
was so small, however, that it was not possible for a 
religious to find enough to do there to justify his 
continued residence; and accordingly it was visited 
from Lingayen, the capital of that province, which 
was at that time in their hands. It caused them a 
great deal of labor, since they were obliged to travel 
three days if they went there by water, and two if 
they went by land; and therefore it was seldom vis- 
ited, and little good resulted to the village. Inas- 
much as the whole population were heathen, they 
required much persuasion to lead them to baptism, 
and a great deal of attention to their religious in- 
struction. On this account, those fathers placed a 
juridical renunciation of the said village in the hands 
of the bishop, Don Fray Diego de Soria. The 
bishop, being a religious of our order, asked his 
brethren to take charge of this village, since there 
were in it many baptized children, and no other 
body of religious could care for and guide them. 
The bishop, in asking the religious to take this mat- 
ter in charge, was laying upon them no small burden ; 
yet the need was almost extreme, and the great labor 
brought with it great reward -for, as the apostle 
says, each man shall be rewarded at the last judg- 
ment in proportion to his labors. Hence they deter- 
mined to assume the charge, and the superior sent 
there father Fray Juan de San Jacintho,'" a devoted 
religious and an indefatigable laborer in the teaching 

"•Juan de San Jacinto made his profession in the Dominican 
convent at Salamanca, in 1594. He came to Manila in the mis- 
sion of 1602, and ministered to the natives in Pangasinan and 
afterward in Ituy. He was finally compelled by ill-health to re- 
tire to Manila, where he died in 1626. See Resena biograftca, i, 
p. 316. 



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20o THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol. 31 

of the Indians. He went to Manavag in the year 
mentioned, and the fact was spread abroad among 
the neighboring villages. On account of the great 
love which they had for the order, and especially for 
the religious who was there (for he was like an angel 
from heaven), some other hamlets were added to 
that one, and the village of Manavag was made of 
reasonable size. The Negrillos and Zambales who 
go about through those mountains were continually 
harassing this village, partly because of their evil 
desires to kill men, and partly for robbery. They 
often came down upon it with bows and arrows, and 
with fire to burn the houses and the church which 
was practically all of straw. They committed mur- 
ders, and robbed women and children. Those in the 
village being thus terrorized, and the men being 
unable to prevent the evil, since their enemies came 
when they had gone out into the fields, it was deter- 
mined to take as patroness the Virgin of the Rosary, 
that she might aid them in this need. They accord- 
ingly dedicated a new church to her, and solemnized 
the dedication with many baptisms of adult persons. 
Within a few months, there was not a heathen with- 
in the village -a clear proof that the presence of 
heathen in the country is due solely to a lack of 
missionaries. Wherever the missionaries are, all are 
immediately baptized; and not only those of that 
village which has the missionaries, but some of their 
neighbors also, participate in the teaching of the 
religious, and in the favors of our Lady of the 
Rosary. This is plain from a miracle which occurred 
a few years after, and was verified before the vicar- 
general of this country, who at that time was father 
Fray Pedro de Madalena. It happened thus. Four 



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1640] aduaete's historia 261 

leguas from Manavag, in a village of Ygolote In- 
dians who inhabit some high mountain ridges, there 
lived an Indian chief, a heathen, by the name of 
Dogarat, who used sometimes to go down to the 
village of Manavag, and to listen out of curiosity to 
the preaching of the religious. Since the matters of 
our faith are truly divine, the Indian began to incline 
toward them, and even toward becoming a Christian. 
He therefore learned the prayers, and knew them by 
heart; and the only thing which held him back was 
the necessity of leaving his vassals and his kinsmen 
if he was baptized, and going away from the wash- 
ings in a river of his village, where they used to 
gather grains of gold, which come down with the 
water from those hills and ridges where they are 
formed. God our Lord, to draw him to the precious 
waters of baptism, brought upon him a severe illness. 
When he felt the misery of this disease, he sent to 
call the religious who was at that time in Manavag, 
father Fray Thomas Gutierrez, who came to his vil- 
lage, called Ambayaban, and visited the sick Indian, 
giving him thorough instruction in the matters of 
our holy faith. When he was thoroughly prepared 
he baptized him and named him Domingo. By the 
aid of the Lord he recovered, and used to attend 
church on feast days. He asked for a rosary, which 
the religious gave him with a direction to say the 
prayers of the rosary every day, that the Sovereign 
Lady might aid him. He went out hunting once; 
and in order that the rosary, which he always wore 
about his neck, might not interfere with him or be 
broken by catching in a branch, he took it off and 
hung it on a tree, and with it a little purse in which 
he was carrying a trifle of gold. It happened soon 



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262 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol. 31 

after that some Indians set fire to the mountain to 
frighten out the game. The fire kindled the tree 
where the rosary was hanging, and burnt it all to 
ashes. Some time afterward Don Domingo came 
back for his rosary, and discovered the destruction 
which the fire had wrought, and the tree in ashes. 
As he was looking among them he found his rosary 
entire and unhurt, while everything else was burnt 
up, and the purse and the gold were consumed, 
though they were close to the rosary, which did not 
show a sign of fire. The Indian, amazed, went and 
told his story to father Fray Thomas, who for a 
memorial of this marvel kept the miraculous rosary 
among the treasures of the church, giving the Indian 
another in its place. There it remained, in token of 
the esteem and respect which our Lady willed that 
the fire should pay to her holy rosary. 

[In the month of June, 1607, father Fray Juan 
Baptista Gacet ended his labors happily in the con- 
vent of Sancto Domingo at Manila. He was a son 
of the convent of Preachers at Valencia, and a be- 
loved disciple of St. Luis Beltran, whom he suc- 
ceeded in the ofBce of master of novices at Valencia. 
When St. Luis returned from the Indias, the Lord 
moved father Fray Juan to go to them, as he desired 
to reap a harvest of souls, and feared that they might 
strive to make him superior in his own province. 
He received the approval of St. Luis, and went to 
the Indias at the time when master Fray Alonso 
Bayllo went out from his convent of Murcia, by 
command of our lord the king and of the general of 
the order, to divide the province of Vaxac from that 
of Sanctiago de Mexico. Being threatened with a 
superiorship in the province of Vaxac, father Fray 



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1640] aduarte's historia 263 

Juan did what he could to avoid it. When a com- 
pany of religious under the leadership of father Fray 
Pedro de Ledesma passed through Nueva Espana 
on their way to the Philippinas, father Fray Juan 
decided to accompany them, though he was already 
of venerable age; and he reached Manila in 1596. 
Here he was greatly honored, and, being too old to 
learn the Indian languages, was retained in the con- 
vent of Manila to act as confessor and spiritual guide 
to a number of devout persons in the city. He was 
made definitor in the first provincial chapter, and 
was later obliged to accept the office of prior - hav- 
ing no other country to flee to, as he had fled from 
Espana to the Indias, and thence to the Philippinas, 
to avoid this elevation. He was given to devout 
exercises and to prayer, reading often from some 
devout book, usually from St. John Climachus, and 
afterward discussing the passage, and making it the 
basis of devout meditation. After leaving the office 
of prior, he returned to his life of devotion and 
abstraction. 

On the twentieth of July in the same year, father 
Fray Miguel de Oro ended his life in the province 
of Nueva Segovia. He was a native of Carrion de 
Los Condes; and he took the habit and professed in 
San Pablo at Valladolid. He afterward went to 
the religious province of Guatemala, where he re- 
mained for some years, but afterward returned to 
Espana. In 1599 the plague attacked all Espana 
and raged with especial violence in Valladolid. 
Father Fray Miguel, with four other religious of 
our order, devoted himself to the care of those who 
were plague-stricken. After the plague he retired 
to the convent of La Pena de Francia; but his mem- 



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264 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol. 31 

ory was constantly stirred by the recollection of his 
service among the Indians, and in 1601 he went with 
some other religious to Manila. He was assigned 
to the province of Nueva Segovia, where, although 
on account of his great age he was unable to leam 
the language, his holy example was of great value. 
He was of great help and comfort to. the minister 
whom he accompanied, doing all that he could to 
make it possible for the minister (who knew the 
language) to work among the Indians, and to write 
in the Indian language compositions and spiritual 
exercises, which were of service to the ministers that 
came after them. He used to wear next his skin a 
thick chain, weighing ten libras; and, that the other 
brethren might not perceive the marks of it on his 
tunics, he used to take care to wash and dry them 
apart. He died as a result of a fever caused by the 
heat of the sun. Father Fray Miguel was of swarthy 
complexion, with black and very prominent eyes 
which inspired fear. After his death he remained 
handsome, fair, and rosy, which caused those present 
to wonder -all supposing that these were signs of 
the glory which his soul already enjoyed.] 

CHAPTER LXVI 

The establishment of two churches in Nueva Segovia 

In the month of August, 1607, at the octave of the 
Assumption of our Lady, a church was erected in the 
village of Nalfotan, the chief village among those 
which are called the villages of Malagueg \_i.e., 
Malaueg] in Nueva Segovia. This church had the 
name and was under the patronage of St. Raymond. 
The Indians of these villages were and are cour- 



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i64o] ADUARTE'S HISTORIA 265 

ageous and warlike. Hence before the coming of 
the faith they were constantly at war among them- 
selves and with their neighbors, being men of fierce 
mind and lofty courage, and highly prizing their 
valor, strength and spirit, an inheritance left to them 
by their ancestors. Thus they and their neighbors of 
Gatarang and Talapa, with whom they were very 
closely related, gave the Spaniards a great deal of 
trouble, and were feared and still are feared by the 
other Indians of that large province. In the village 
called Nalfotan the chief and lord at this time was a 
young man named Pagulayan, to whom our Lord, in 
addition to high rank, great wealth, and courage, had 
given a quiet and peaceful disposition. He was a 
friend of peace and of the public weal - [seeking not 
only] his own advantage, but that of his people, and 
striving to secure what he recognized as good; and 
in him ran side by side the love of peace, and mili- 
tary spirit and courage -in which he was distin- 
guished and eminent, and for which he was therefore 
feared by his enemies. God our Lord, so far as we 
can judge, had predestinated him for Himself; and 
this he showed by the great affection with which he 
listened to matters dealing with the service of God, 
even when he was a heathen and was living among 
barbarians, idolaters and demons, such as were all 
his vassals. When he heard that the Ytabes Indians, 
his neighbors, had religious of St. Dominic who 
taught them a sure and certain road to salvation, and 
to the gaining of perpetual happiness for the soul in 
heaven by serving God in peace and quietude, he 
strove with all his heart to enjoy so great a good. 
He discussed the matter with his Indians, and with 
their approval went down many times to the city of 



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266 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol 31 

the Spaniards to carry out his religious purpose, 
endeavoring to have the father provincial, Fray 
Miguel de San Jacintho, give him a religious for his 
village. The provincial would have rejoiced to give 
him one; but those whom he had were so busy, and 
he had already withdrawn so many in response to 
such requests, that he was unable to satisfy this good 
desire, except with the hope that a missionary would 
be provided there as soon as the religious had come 
whom he was expecting from Espana. The good 
Pagulayan, although he was somewhat consoled, did 
not cease to complain, with feeling, that he had been 
unable to bring to his village the good which he 
desired for it. As he was unable to obtain a re- 
ligious, he took with him a Christian child from 
among those who were being taught the Christian 
doctrine in the church, that the boy might instruct 
him until a father should come who could complete 
and perfect his teaching. Nay, more: he and his 
people, having confidence in the promise which had 
been given them, erected a church in their village 
that they might influence the religious [to go there], 
and have that stronger reason for supplying a min- 
ister to them rather than to other villages which had 
no church. All this greatly affected the religious; 
and finally, in August of this year [1607], father 
Fray Pedro de Sancto Thomas "' went there and 
found the church already built, and the whole vil- 
lage - men, women, and children - gathered on pur- 
pose to receive him, as they did with great joy and 
the exhibition of much content. This caused like 

'^ Pedro de Santo Tomas came to the islands in the mission of 
1602, and labored twenty years in the Cagayan missions — espe- 
cially among the Irrayas, whom he pacified after their revolt 
ag^nst the Spaniards. He died at Lal-16, June 29, 1622, 



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1640] aduabte's historia 267 

content in the soul of father Fray Pedro, who giving 
many thanks to the Lord, whose work this was, 
firmly resolved to labor with all his strength in this 
vineyard which seemed to bear fruit before it was 
cultivated. Father Fray Pedro was very well suited 
to begin a conversion like this; for he was so simple 
and affable that the most remote barbarians, if they 
talked with him, were compelled to love him. He 
was of a very gentle nature, and extremely open- 
hearted, being entirely free from any duplicity or 
deceit, and acting in all things with the bowels of 
charity. This is the greatest snare to catch love 
which may be set for men. Hence they received him 
as if he came from heaven, and at the beginning they 
listened to him and obeyed him with great zeal. The 
devil at these things suffered from rage and the 
worst pains of hell, as he saw himself losing, all at 
once, villages which had been his for so many ages. 
Hence by the means of a sorceress, a priestess of his, 
named Caquenga, he began to disturb the Indians, to 
whom this wicked woman said such things that many 
determined to follow the rites of their ancestors and 
not to receive the teaching of the divine law. So 
devilish was this cursed anitera that she kept stirring 
up some of them against the religious, while at the 
same time with those who wished to keep him she 
pretended to be on their side ; thus she deceived them 
all, especially those who were influenced by their 
zeal for ancient superstitions. Hence they themselves 
killed their fowls and the swine which they had bred, 
tore down their houses, and cut down their palm- 
groves, in which their principal wealth consisted; 
and, crying out, '* Liberty 1 " they fled to the moun- 
tains. Here they joined those who had hitherto been 



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268 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol.31 

their enemies, that they might be more in number 
and might bring a greater multitude of weapons 
against a solitary friar who went unarmed, and 
whom they had invited to their village with such 
urgency, and received with such joy; and against 
whom they had no complaint except simply that he 
preached to them the law of God and the gospel of 
peace, at their own invitation, and that a most earnest 
invitation. Pagulayan, with some of his vassals, was 
constantly at the side of Fray Pedro -who, being 
secure in his own conscience, was not intimidated, 
but strove to bring back those who had revolted. 
Seeking for means of speaking to them, he deter- 
mined to send an Indian who should arrange in his 
behalf for a conference; and who should promise the 
chief of the revolted ones, whose name was Furaga- 
nan, that the Spaniards who were in the city of 
Nueva Segovia would not punish him for what he 
had done. That the Indian might feel safe and 
might believe him, he gave the man a relic of St. 
Thomas to carry; for among them there was no one 
who knew how to read or write, because they had no 
letters of their own, so that he was unable to give him 
a letter, or any other token better known as coming 
from the father. This, however, sufficed to cause 
Furaganan to listen to the messenger without ill- 
treating him; and he agreed to meet the religious at 
a certain place and on an appointed day. As a token 
of fidelity and peace, Furaganan sent his bararao - a 
dagger with which they stab close at hand, and can 
easily cut off a head -that it might be put in the 
hands of the religious. They met on the assigned 
day; and the Indian, annoyed with Caquenga, who 
had caused the disturbance among them, imme- 



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i64o] ADUARTE'S HISTORIA 269 

diately joined the party of the religious against 
whom she had caused them to rebel. Furaganan 
asked them to give him this Indian anitera as a slave, 
alleging that she had been a slave of his mother, and 
that in this way and no other could quiet be restored, 
because he could not suffer that this intriguing slave- 
woman should, merely through her crafty acts, be 
more esteemed by the Spaniards than were the chiefs. 
She was, he said, full of duplicity, having remained 
with Pagulayan that she might be able to say after- 
ward to the Spaniards that she was not at fault for 
the uprising - although, in point of fact, she had been 
the cause of it. Fray Pedro promised to look after 
this business with great diligence, and to do what 
should be best. The Indian departed, apparently in 
peace; but the others did not continue in that frame 
of mind. At midnight, while the religious was re- 
citing the matins, on the first Sunday of Advent, and 
when he had come to the first response, the insurgents 
set fire to the church, thus alarming those who had 
remained in the village, and causing them to take 
flight. Pagulayan came to father Fray Pedro, and, 
acting as his guide, put him on a safe road, carrying 
him at times on his shoulders across creeks and rivers 
on the road which they followed. At dawn they 
halted in a thicket, whence the father went to a little 
village farther down, because the place where they 
were was not safe. Here Pagulayan carried the 
robes from the sacristy, and father Fray Pedro put 
them as well as he could into a chest, being obliged 
to leave out a canvas of our Lady, which on account 
of its size the chest would not hold. Leaving it 
there, he went on to the village of Pia, where there 
was a religious with many Christians, and where the 



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27° THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol.31 

people were peaceful. The insurgents went straight 
down to the village where the chest and the picture 
were; and, opening the chest, they took out the orna- 
ments, the chalice, and all the rest, and profaned 
everything. They cut the ornaments of the mass into 
pieces, to make head-cloths and ribbons. They tore 
the leaves out of the missal, and drank out of the 
chalice, like a godless race governed by the devil. 
Taking the image painted on the canvas, they set it 
up as a target for their lances. One of them blas- 
phemously said: "This, the fathers tell us, is the 
mother of God; if this were truth, our lances would 
draw blood, and since she sheds none, it is all trickery 
and deceit." The savage said this when he was 
throwing his lance at the image, and his audacity did 
not remain without its punishment, for he was soon 
after condemned to the galleys; and here, in addition 
to the ordinary hardships suffered in them, he was 
maltreated by all the other galley slaves when they 
learned that his crime had been committed against 
our Lady. They struck him, buffeted him, kicked 
him, and abused him with words as an enemy of the 
Virgin; and in this state he died, passing from the 
wretched life of the galleys to eternal death in hell. 
In this same year the Indians of Zimbuey, in the 
level part of La Yrraya in the same province, rose 
and murdered their encomendero Luis Henriquez, 
angered because he had treated them during the 
previous year with more rigor than was proper. 
There was no religious here. The Indians, in fear 
of like severity during the present year, had mutinied 
against the encomendero and thrust him through 
with a lance. Out of his shin-bones they made steps 
to go up to the house of their chief - a piece of 



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1640] aduarte's historia 271 

savagery such as might be expected from enraged 
Indians. Information of these two risings was sent 
to the governor of Manila, who sent out the sargento- 
mayor Christobal de Azcueta with a sufficient num- 
ber of soldiers. He ascertained the facts in both 
cases and brought out the truth clearly - namely, that 
the excesses of the dead encomendero had caused the 
Indians of his encomienda at Zimbuey to rise, and 
that the intrigues of Caquenga had roused the In- 
dians of Malagueg. The latter, conscious of their 
fault, came to the city of Nueva Segovia to beg that 
the religious might return to them; and father Fray 
Pedro de Sancto Thomas returned with them. He 
had greater confidence in the many hopes which he 
had, for many of them, that they would be good and 
faithful Christians, than resentment for the wrongs 
which he had received from others. All this dis- 
turbance came to an end, and he built convents and 
churches and baptized many. In course of time all 
those people were baptized. Pagulayan was named 
Luis, and one of his sisters was named Luysa Balinan. 
They were always very brotherly and sisterly in all 
things, especially in following virtue. They re- 
mained very firm in the faith, and have aided much 
to bring their Indians to embrace it. They lived 
according to the teachings of the faith, giving a 
noble example in this respect, and obviously surpass- 
ing all those of their land in everything that has to 
do with virtue and the service of God. They were, 
during all their lives, the support of the mission, the 
comfort of the religious, and generous honorers of 
their church - upon the adornment of which they 
spent freely in proportion to their means, giving 
silver lamps and other very rich ornaments for the 



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2/2 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol. 31 

service and beautifying of the church. Nor did they 
forget the poor, not only of their own village, but 
of the others, who very often come to this one to find 
food, since this is generally the village where food is 
most abundant. Don Luis Pagulayan died while 
young, in the year 1620. His death was much re- 
gretted and deplored, as it still is both by the re- 
ligious and by his Indians, and much more by his 
sister, Dofia Luysa Balinan. She is yet living, and 
perseveres in holy customs and in laudable acts of all 
the virtues; for she wears hair shirts underneath her 
dress as a married chieftainess, is constantly in the 
church, and is very frequent in her confessions and 
communions. She is very careful that not only those 
of her household (who are many) but all of the 
village- which is one of the largest in the province 
of Nueva Segovia - should carefully observe the law 
of God and hear and learn the Catholic doctrine. 
This she herself ordinarily teaches, and teaches well, 
for she has had much practice in this office, so that 
she greatly aids the ministers. A few years ago, there 
was in this province a great famine; and Dona Luisa 
having very fertile land, from which she might have 
made a great profit, preferred to offer it to Christ 
through His poor. Hence she spent it all upon 
them, directing all the poor to come every day to 
her for their food, as was done. In any tumult or 
disturbance that may arise, she is one from whom the 
religious learn with perfect certainty the truth of 
what has happened; and by her assistance (for she 
is very prudent) the remedy is obtained. The Lord 
watches over her and prospers her in all things -not 
only spiritual, in which she surpasses, but also tem- 
poral, for she is one of the richest persons that there 



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i64o] ADUARTE'S HISTORIA 273 

are in this province. When some superstitious per- 
formances were carried on here by some of the chiefs, 
she immediately informed the religious. When he 
asked her if she dared to declare the matter before 
the guilty persons, that in this way the evil might be 
demonstrated and cured, she replied that she would 
venture, even though they should give her poison; 
for they were unable to avenge themselves in any 
other way, and she had reason to expect them to do 
this. Such is the spirit and courage with which she 
serves the Lord and strives for the good of her fel- 
low-men; and so little does she esteem life when 
there is an opportunity for her to venture it for such 
a noble end. In the year 1626, the names of those 
entered in the records of baptism in this church of 
Nalfotan were counted. The total was found to be 
four thousand six hundred and seventy, in addition 
to those baptized in sickness, who were many; and 
all this rich harvest was reaped in a village which 
eighteen years ago was composed wholly of heathen. 
At the end of this year, 1607, another church was 
built in December, on Innocents' day, in a village 
of the same province named Yguig, two days' jour- 
ney up the river from the city of the Spaniards. The 
encomendero had collected his tribute from these 
Indians with great care; but he had given no atten- 
tion to providing them with Christian instruction, 
as God and the king commanded him. The Lord, 
who overlooks many other grievous sins, was unwill- 
ing to let this pass without chastisement; but the 
punishment which He gave the encomendero was 
that of a kind father, and was inflicted outside of his 
clothes - that is to say, it fell only upon his wealth, 
which, when it is guiltily acquired, shall not profit. 



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274 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol. 31 

This encomendero lost all ; and when these misfor- 
tunes came upon him, one after the other, he per- 
ceived that they did not come by chance, and saw 
what it was with which the Lord might be angry. 
This was his supporting idolatry and the service of 
the devil in this village, by his mere failure to pro- 
vide Christian instruction in it, as was his duty. He 
repented of what he had hitherto done, and vowed to 
provide in this village the teaching of the true God, 
and a religious to preach and leach it. In this year 
he asked for the religious from the father provincial, 
Fray Miguel de San Jacintho, and one was given 
him. Since there was a discussion as to what patron 
this new church should be given, many slips with 
the names of saints upon them were placed in a 
vessel. Three times the name of Sanctiago, patron 
of the Espanas, came out; and hence the church was 
given this name, which has been retained in this vil- 
lage of Yguig. This has been done in spite of the 
fact that, on account of great inundations and floods 
of the river, it has been necessary to build the church 
on four separate sites - the first three having been 
overflowed, although it did not appear possible that 
the river should reach land situated so high. This 
river, however, is very large; and its floods are so 
extreme that they overflowed these eminences, until 
the church was finally placed where it now is, which 
is upon a very high hill. Here it enjoys without dis- 
turbance the fresh breezes, and is safe against any 
flood. Among all these changes and difficulties, this 
tribe would have been scattered and their village 
destroyed, if the religious had not sustained them 
with alms and charities. They received much assist- 
ance from the Indian chiefs, in particular from one 



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i64o] ADUARTE'S HISTORIA 275 

who far surpassed the others in Christian zeal and 
in fidelity to God, the church, and the Spaniards. 
The Lord has wrought him great and apparent bene- 
fits for this. One was as follows. He went for many 
days under a temptation of the devil to kill another 
Indian chief, who had wrought him a great wrong; 
and could not rest by day or by night for thinking 
how he might obtain satisfaction against the guilty 
man. Now he thought of these plans, now of those, 
and was in such disquiet that he could not conceal 
the matter. The religious came to a knowledge of 
this, called him aside, and rebuked him earnestly for 
his guilt and the great sin which he was designing, 
which was entirely contrary to the laws which should 
govern a Christian, such as he was, who is bound to 
love his enemies. It was even contrary to the prin- 
ciples of his rank and his chieftainship for him to 
desire to commit a murder. Don Ambrosio Luppo 
(as this Indian was named) responded, weeping 
freely: " Would to God, father, that you might see 
my heart, in order that you might understand well 
how much I suffer from the deed of this man, and 
might also see plainly how great an impression your 
teachings have made upon me. If I had not looked 
to God for some way of following your teachings, 
would this man have had his head on his shoulders 
so long? But I pardoned him because God pardoned 
me; and from that time I have been calm, and more 
devout than before." He received another benefit. 
He and his wife much desired to have children, but, 
though they had lived for many years together, they 
had now passed their youth, and had no children. 
They communicated their desire to the father, and 
he advised them what they ought to do, saying: 



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276 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol. 31 

" When good Spaniards feei these desires, they offer 
particular devotion to the mother of God and to 
other great saints " - naming some who are of most 
signal assistance in such cases - " and they go to the 
churches and offer.prayers before their images, that 
they may intercede with God who can do all things. 
In this way they many times attain what they desire." 
" All this will we do very willingly," answered hus- 
band and wife; " but what shall we say in our prayer 
after we have recited the Paternoster and the Ave 
Maria?'" The religious taught them what they 
ought to say and what prayers they ought to make 
to our Lady, briefly indicating to her the desire 
which they had, and offering to her service the fruit 
of the blessing which they might attain by their 
prayers. This they did, going with their petition to 
the Lady of the Rosary which was in their church. 
A year later they had a son, to whom the religious, 
in memory of that which had been agreed upon, gave 
the name of Juan de Sancta Maria. The parents 
recognized him as a gift from our Lady. Afterward 
this same Lady, by means of this same religious, 
restored the child to complete health in an instant, 
when it was almost at the point of death. This she 
did for the comfort of the parents, for it seemed as if 
they would follow it out of sorrow. On many other 
occasions she has come to their help ; and the Lord 
has rewarded them with a generous hand for the 
faith and the good services which, since they became 
Christians, they have done and are doing. 



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i64ol ADUARTE'S HISTORIA 2/7 

CHAPTER LXVn 

The election as provincial of father Fray Baltasar 
Fort, the martyrdom of the holy Leon, and events 
in the province. 

In April, 1608, the electors, assembled in the con- 
vent of Sancto Domingo at Manila, chose as pro- 
vincial father Fray Baltasar Fort, minister of the 
holy gospel in the province of Pangasinan. He was 
by habit and profession a son of the convent of San 
Estevan at Salamanca, and adopted into that of the 
Preachers in Valencia, his native land, whence he 
came to this province in the year 1602. He was at 
this time prior of the convent. He was of a character 
such that all necessary qualities for so high an office 
were united in him; and hence his election was very 
agreeable to all, both religious and lay, because he 
was greatly loved and reverenced by all -not only of 
his own religious order, but also of the others. In 
this chapter were accepted the houses which had 
been newly formed in Japon, Pangasinan, and 
Nueva Segovia, an account of which has been given 
in the two preceding chapters. What had been at 
other times ordained and commanded was recalled 
to mind - namely, that in our conversations we 
should speak constantly of God, a subject which is 
never exhausted, is never wearisome to a good man, 
is edifying to all, and keeps the religious in the 
fulfilment of the obligations that belong to their 
estate. 

[At this time the fathers who were laboring for 
the good of the natives of Japon had a joyful day in 
seeing the martyrdom of a person who had been 



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278 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol. 31 

brought to the faith, instructed, and baptized by 
their ministry; and in whom the faith had struck so 
deep roots that he yielded fruit an hundred fold, 
according to the gospel, by suffering martyrdom 
within four months after becoming a Christian. 
Having been baptized on July 22, 1608, he was de- 
capitated for his confession of faith on the seven- 
teenth of November in the same year, in the king- 
dom of Satzuma, his native country. There were 
laws of the emperor, and also of the actual king of 
that region, that no soldier or person of rank should 
be baptized, since it was believed that the strength 
of these persons would be weakened if they gave up 
their obligations to those deities from whom victory 
was expected. In spite of this law, many soldiers 
and persons of rank were baptized, among them 
Xichiyemon, a youth of high rank. He received 
baptism from the hands of father Fray Joseph de 
San Jacintho, who warned him of the tumult which 
his baptism would arouse, and of the destruction of 
his soul which would follow if he were to renounce 
his baptism. He was so determined and courageous 
that the father baptized him by the name of Leon. 
His devotion was such that his conversion could not 
long be hidden ; and, when it was known, the valiant 
Leon was obliged to resist the supplications of his 
superior officers, his friends, and his relatives, who 
represented to him the shame which he would bring 
upon his family if he should die by the hands of the 
executioner. This is a thing above measure infamous 
in Japon, because all malefactors of rank who are 
condemned to death cut open their own abdomens, 
and wound their bowels with their own knives 
[catanoil, and thus kill themselves, that they may 



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i64o] ADUARTE'S HISTORIA 279 

not die at the hands of another." His obligations to 
his wife and children, and his duties of obedience as 
a soldier, were insisted upon; but he remained re- 
solved to die as a Christian, not taking his own life, 
but offering it. He was not imprisoned, and vis- 
ited his spiritual father, Fray Juan Joseph de San 
Jacintho, in a little village a quarter of a legua from 
Firaga. At the appointed time he dressed himself 
in new white clothes, washed his head, and girt on 
two swords. He then went to the cross-roads where 
he was to suffer, and died with a rosary in his hand 
and a little picture of the descent from the cross on 
his bosom. His holy body was exhumed by the 
Christians, and was kept by the fathers of St. Dom- 
inic, who afterward, when they were driven from the 
country, took it with them to Manila and placed it in 
the chapel of the relics. The tyrant commanded that 
Leon's wife and eldest son should suffer death, be- 
cause they had been unable to persuade him to recant. 
Pablo, Leon's friend, who was accused at the same 
time, was not so happy as he, but was merely banished 
from the kingdom of Satzuma. 

On the eleventh of April in this year (i.e., 1609) 
there arrived at Manila some religious from the 
number of those who were brought from Espafia to 
this province by father Fray Gabriel de Quiroga. 
He died on the voyage before he reached Mexico, 
and most of the others were scattered, and remained 
in Nueva Espaiia. Father Fray Gabriel was a son 
of our convent at Ocafia. He was a great preacher, 
and had come to this province in 1594. He was in 

"* The Japanese custom of hara-kiri, or seppuku ; see description 
in Rein's Japan, pp. 328, 329; cf. GriiBs's Mikado's Empire, p. 



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zSo THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol. 31 

the ministry to the Chinese; being unable to learn 
the language on account of his advanced age, and 
being in ill health, he returned to Espana. Here 
he felt scruples at having left the province of the 
Philippinas, and asked permission of the most rev- 
erend general to return to it with a company of 
religious. In 1607 he gathered a company in Se- 
villa, but was unable to come for lack of a fleet. 
Later in the same year, learning that six pataches 
were being prepared for the voyage, he arranged to 
reassemble the religious and to take them in these 
vessels, though he had already been appointed bishop 
of Caceres. He quickly got together thirty asso- 
ciates, taking the risk of sailing in December. The 
storms were so furious, and the asthma from which 
the bishop suffered was so severe, that he departed 
this life on the way. Of all those who came with 
him only eight completed the voyage which they had 
begun. 

The success of the religious in Satzuma during 
the six years which they had spent in that kingdom 
aroused the tono, who was persuaded by the devil 
and his servants the bonzes to expel the fathers from 
his country. The case of the holy martyr Leon con- 
tributed to influence the tono. It was said in that 
kingdom that no one ever failed to do what his lords 
commanded him, and hence such disobedience as 
that of Leon was regarded as dangerous to the state. 
The bonzes particularly were bitter against the 
Christians, who despised the deity whom they wor- 
shiped.^' All the cases of misfortune and all the 
downfalls which had happened to Christian princes 

" The bonzes are the priests of the Buddhist temples; but they 
belong to various sects under the general appellation of Buddhism. 



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1 640] ADUARTE'S HISTORIA 201 

within a few years were referred to their belief, 
although the misfortunes of the heathen princes had 
been much more numerous. As the king of Satzuma 
was at this time actually preparing for a war of con- 
quest against the islands of the Leuquios," he was 
greatly impressed by these reasonings. He was also 
disgusted because no vessels had come from Manila 
to this country, the desire for trade having been his 
chief object in sending for religious. The king of 
Satzuma sought for some pretext for expelling the 
father, without finding any. In the month of Au- 
gust, he sent word to them that the emperor com- 
plained because the Spanish religious in his country 
had never appeared before him. This was only a 
pretext to get the religious out of the country. There 
were at that time in all Japan, outside of Nangasaqui, 
not more than three churches licensed by the em- 
peror; one in Meyaco, of the fathers of the Society; 
a second in Yendo, of the Franciscan fathers; and a 
third in Ozaca, of the Society. All the rest were 
practically in concealment, and had license only 
from the tonos or kings. The emperor, though he 
knew this, paid little attention to the matter. The 
fathers, however, were able to say that father Fray 
Alonso de Mena had visited the emperor, and had 
received license from him for the stay in Japan of 
the rest of the fathers. Still, thinking that they 
might do well to appear before the emperor, they 
decided to follow the suggestion of the tono, and 
father Fray Francisco de Morales went directly to 
visit him and was kindly received. Before father 

"This daimio was Shimadzu Yoshihisa; he was commissioned 
to subjugate the Riu-Kiu Islands, which were then added to the 
province of Satsuma. 



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20 2 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol. jr 

Fray Francisco returned, the tono gave commands 
that all the Christians should recant, and exiled those 
who refused to obey, confiscating their goods. When 
this happened, there were in Satzuma only the 
fathers Fray Joseph de San Jacintho and Fray 
Jacintho Orfanel. Father Fray Joseph went directly 
to appear before the old tono, and was received with 
much apparent courtesy, which was a mere cloak for 
the evil which he was preparing to execute. The 
father also desired to go to visit the young tono, but 
was advised that he could do no good; and therefore 
he went from village to village, strengthening and 
encouraging the converts. He and father Fray 
Jacintho, happening to be both at once within the 
convent, the governor forbade the religious to leave 
the church, and prohibited the Christians from going 
to it, hoping thus to prevent the religious from 
receiving any support. There was only one half- 
leprous boy, named Juan, who succored them at this 
time. When he went to buy what they needed, the 
people paid no attention to his coming and going, 
because of his being afflicted in this way.] 

CHAPTER LXVIII 
The religious, being exiled and expelled from the 
kingdom of Satzuma, are admitted to other king- 
doms. 

[The kingdom of Japon is subject to constant 
changes and novelties, as may be known by those 
who have lived in it, and by those who have read 
what historians have to say of it. Although the 
plague of inconstancy is very common among all 
heathen, the Japanese are particularly subject to it. 
It is not to be wondered at that the king of Satzuma, 



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i64o] ADUARTES HISTORIA 



283 



after all that he had done to bring religious from 
St. Dominic to Manila, should have expelled them 
without any cause. The natural inconstancy of this 
race is sufficient explanation for his conduct. St. 
Francis Xavier was expelled from the same kingdom 
of Satzuma, as he was afterwards from the country 
of Yamagugu," whence he fled to the kingdom of 
Firando. As early as the year, 1555, the heathen 
Japanese believed that so soon as the faith should 
enter their country the kingdom would be destroyed; 
and in the following year the city of Amaguchi was 
destroyed, and there was a great persecution. In 
the year 1564 there was another persecution, even 
more severe, in Meaco, the imperial court. Father 
Cosme de Torres was obliged to leave there and 
to go to the kingdom of Bungo. In Firando the 
churches were overthrown, and the emperor Nabu- 
nanga imprisoned Father Argentine " and his asso- 
ciate, refusing to release them until he received, as 
a ransom, from the most noble and Catholic Don 
Justo the fortress called Tayca Yama.'^ In 1599 the 
Taico [i.e., lyeyasu] banished by public edict all the 

" i.e., Yamaguchi, in Nagato; the latter is the province at the 
southwest extremity of Hondo {or Nippon) Island, and lies 
opposite Kiushiu Island (in n'hich are Satsuma and Hizen). 

" Father Organtinus ( Sommervogel can find no distinctive 
Christian name) was born at Brescia in 1530, and entered the 
order in 1556. He set out from Lisbon for India in 1567; and 
soon went to Japan, where he spent the rest of his life, dying at 
Nagasaki in May, 1609. 

Murdoch and Yamagata's History of Japan, 1542-1651 {Kobe, 
1903), gives this Jesuit's name as Organtino Gnecchi (or Soldi), 
and the date of his arrival in Japan as 1572; and furnishes con- 
siderable information {partly derived from Charlevoix) regarding 
Gnecchi's labors in Japan. 

"'Takayama {called Justo Ukondono by the Jesuits) the gov- 
ernor of Akashi, in Harima; at Adzuchi-yama, on Lake Birva, 
he built a house and church for the Jesuits, and otherwise favored 



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284 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol. 31 

religious there were in Japon (all of whom were 
then Jesuits), declaring that all Christians were his 
enemies; but soon after he granted to father Fray 
Juan Cobo - a religious of St. Dominic, who had 
come from Manila as ambassador - that he, and 
religious of the Society or of any other order, might 
preach and make converts in Japon. The sons of 
the seraphic father St. Francis went, under this per- 
mission, in 1593, and were kindly received; but very 
soon afterward commands were given to crucify 
them, as preachers of the gospel. Father Fray Fran- 
cisco de Morales felt that conditions were such that 
it was necessary to comply, and began by taking 
down the church and looking for boats to carry it 
in; for it was fitted together with grooves, without 
nails, and could be used elsewhere. They removed 
for a time to Meyaco, and soon afterwards to the city 
of Ozaca. In the erection of both churches they 
were bitterly opposed by the members of the other 
religious orders, although the others could not serve 
the twentieth or the thirtieth part of the people of 
those cities. The Japanese banished from Satzuma 
sufifered greatly. Among this people banishment is 
often worse than death, which is not greatly feared 
by them. Banishment is generally accompanied 
with a loss of their goods, so that those who are 
noble and rich are by it instantly reduced to poverty 
and drudgery. The fathers carried away their vest- 

them. About 1615, he was, with other Christians, banished to 
Manila. 

Nobunaga became, about the middle of the sixteenth century, 
the most powerful feudal lord in Japan. He strove to govern the 
country in the name of the Mikado, but aroused the enmity of the 
other feudal lords and of the Buddhist priesthood, and was 
treacherously slain in 158a. See Rein's Japan, pp. 267-273, 306. 



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i64o] ADUARTE'S HISTORIA ^85 

ments, the timber of the church, and the body of 
the holy martyr Leon, removing them to Nanga- 
saqui. Father Fray Francisco also carried with him 
the lepers of the hospital which he had before his 
house, that they might not be left in the power of 
wolves. In the meantime, the affairs of Christianity 
went on prosperously in the kingdom of Fixen. In 
July, i6c^, father Fray Juan de Sancto Thomas, who 
sent the first religious to Japon when he was pro- 
vincial, came to Japon as vicar-provincial, bringing 
with him as his associate brother Fray Antonio de 
San Vicente. He labored much and successfully in 
Fixen, and the Lord showed the fathers grace by 
enabling them to baptize many whom He had pre- 
destinated at the point of death. There were espe- 
cially many cases of baptism of new-born children, 
whom the parents intended to kill, or left to drown 
in the river.] 

One day's journey up the river from Abulug, in 
the province of Nueva Segovia, there is a village 
named Fotol in the midst of a number of other 
smaller villages, as is customary among the moun- 
tains. When these villages were visited for the 
purpose of collecting tribute, the religious was 
accustomed to go along that he might be there con- 
veniently to give them some knowledge of the law 
of God, and strive to bring them to a love of the 
faith by which they might be saved. This diligence, 
although it was exercised so seldom -only once a 
year -was yet not in vain; for the words of the 
gospel sown in the hearts of these heathen took root 
and caused them to go down [the river], volun- 
tarily, for the purpose of seeking a preacher to live 
among them, to teach, direct, and baptize them. 



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286 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol.31 

Father Fray Miguel de San Jacintho, vicar of Abu- 
lug, sent there father Fray Diego Carlos."' The 
Spaniards did not dare to visit the village when 
they collected the tribute, except in numbers and 
with arms. On this account, and because they were 
surrounded by mountaineers who were heathen, 
untamed, and ferocious, it seemed to the Christian 
Indians of Abulug that the religious ought not to go 
without a guard to protect his life; but since the 
order given by our Lord Jesus Christ is not such, 
but directs that His preachers should go as sheep 
among wolves, father Fray Diego would not receive 
the advice given him by these Indians, though they 
were friendly; and departed alone with his associate, 
as a preacher of peace and of the law of love. All 
the Indians, great and small, came out to receive 
them with great joy; and the religious immediately 
began to preach to them and to teach them. In n 
short time they did a great work, and baptized not 
only those of this village, but also those who dwelt 
near there. They left their old sites and, gathering 
in this one, formed a new settlement. The church 
was built under the patronage of our Lady of the 
Rosary, and here the Christian faith went on flour- 
ishing until the devil, hating so much good, dis- 
turbed them and caused them to fall away for a time 
- to their great harm, spiritual and temporal ; though 
afterward, recognizing their error, they returned to 
their obedience to their Creator, as will be told here- 
after. Almost in the same manner, and following 

" Diego Carlos was a native of Guatemala, and made his pro- 
fession at Puebla de los Angeles in 1592. Six years later, he came 
to the Philippines, and spent the rest of his life in the Cagayan 
where he died in 1626, 



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i640] ADUARTE'S HISTORIA 28? 

the same course, another church was built at this time 
in the high region at the head of the great river, six 
days' journey from the city of the Spaniards, in a 
village named Batavag. Here father Fray Luis 
Flores, who was afterward a holy martyr in Japon, 
gathered together seven little hamlets, making one 
very peaceful one. He preached to them, taught 
them, and baptized many, without receiving any 
other assistance in all this than that which the Lord 
promises those who, for love of Him and from zeal 
for souls, go alone, disarmed, and in gentleness 
among heathen. To such no evil can happen, since, 
if the heathen hear the teaching and are converted, 
all is happiness and joy both in heaven and for the 
preachers, since the sinners are converted; while if 
they refuse to admit them, or if, when the preachers 
are admitted, the heathen do not become converts, 
the preachers have a certain reward, as the Lord has 
promised. This reward will be much greater if the 
heathen, in addition to refusing to be converted, treat 
them ill, or take their lives from them, for the sake 
of the Lord whom they preach. Therefore in this 
as in all the other conversions the religious have 
always gone alone, unarmed, and in poverty, but sure 
that they are to suffer no evil. The results in Bata- 
vag were very good, although they did not last many 
years because, desirous of a greater laxity of life 
than the divine law permits, the natives went up into 
the neighboring mountain, apostatizing from the 
faith which many of them had professed in baptism. 
In the mountains of Ytui, which are not far from 
Pangasinan, father Fray Juan de San Jacintho went 
on a journey at this time, accompanied by only two 
Indians. Here he taught, settled their disputes, and 



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288 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol. 31 

brought them to the faith. These people were a race 
of mountaineers, among whom other religious had 
not been safe even with an escort of many soldiers; 
but the gentle manners of father Fray Juan caused 
them to become calm, and many of them came some- 
times to Pangasinan to ask that religious might be 
given to them. Many years passed before it was pos- 
sible to provide them with religious; but the father 
provincial had, as minister of Pangasinan, seen their 
pious desires and wished to give them the religious. 
For this he requested the sanction of the ordinary, 
and asked the governor for the royal patronage. 
When the fathers of St. Francis learned this, they 
came and said that this conversion belonged to them, 
because it was very near to the ministry and the con- 
vent which they had in Baler. The order (which 
needed religious in other regions) instantly yielded 
without any dispute, permitting the fathers of St. 
Francis to take charge of these Indians. This they 
did, but very soon abandoned them, since the region 
was not one to be coveted, but was very unhealthy. 
As a result these Indians remained for some time 
deprived of the ministry of the holy gospel; and, 
what caused greater regret, they were morally certain 
to apostatize, like many other Christians among 
heathens, since they were children among idolatrous 
parents and kinsmen, without religious and without 
instruction. 

[In this year, 1609, father Fray Juan de Anaya 
departed this life. He was a native of San Pedro 
de las Duenas, two leguas from Segovia, and was a 
professed son of the convent at Valladolid, whence 
he came to this province in 1598. He was sent im- 
mediately to Nueva Segovia, the conversion of which 



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Map of Ituy and other provinces in northern 
Luzon, ca. 1641 

[^Froiii original MS. map in Jrchivo general de Indias, SevUla} 



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i64o] ADUARTE'S HISTORIA 29 1 

had just begun. He learned the language very 
quickly, and so wrought with them that he not only 
taught them the gospel and the Christian life, but 
also civilization. He showed them how to build 
their houses, and how to work their fields ; and taught 
them all other matters of human life, not only by 
instruction, but by example. He sought out the Indi- 
ans, and brought them down from the mountains and 
the hiding-places where some, deluded by their sins, 
had gone to hide from grace. Father Fray Juan was 
not content to ask where they were and to send for 
them; but, trusting in his natural strength, he went 
to look for them and brought them down from the 
mountains, traveling through the rough and thorny 
places among the thickets where they hid. He com- 
pelled them to enter upon the path of their welfare, 
not by the violence of a tyrant, but by the force of 
love and charity. When he was vicar of Pilitan, 
some of the poor Indians lost all their harvest from 
an overflow of the river. Not daring to wait for those 
who were to come and get the tribute, and indeed 
through fear of starvation, they left the village, and 
many of them fled to the mountains. Father Fray 
Juan was deeply afflicted because of the danger 
which their souls ran. This grief and his many 
labors affected his health, and finally brought on a 
flux, from which he died. Another religious, a sub- 
ordinate and companion of Father Juan, father Fray 
Vicente Alfonso, died eight days later. He was a 
Valencian by birth, and had been a sailor up to his 
twenty-fourth year. He assumed the habit in the 
convent of Preachers in Valencia, and set a good and 
humble example as a religious. He was very chari- 
table, giving away even his clothes to the poor. In 



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292 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol. 31 

the province of Pangasinan, in the month of August, 
1609, there departed from the miseries of this life 
father Fray Francisco Martinez, a native of Zacate- 
cas, and a son of the convent of Mexico. He came 
to Manila in 1598, and was assigned to Pangasinan, 
where he learned the language of the natives with 
great perfection. He was constant in labor and in 
prayer. To defend the Indians, he did not shrink 
from suffering or fear the perils of the sea. On one 
occasion, when he had gone to Manila on this ac- 
count, he fell into the hands of Japanese pirates on his 
way back to Pangasinan, and was several times in 
danger of death, with the pirate's knife at his throat, 
who intended by such terrors to increase the ransom. 
Death called him from his labors and sufferings. He 
rejoiced, and died a most holy death.] 

In this year the most reverend general of the order, 
seeing how many great things were wrought by the 
medium of the divine grace through the religious 
of this province, and condemning the silence with 
which they hid and covered them, without giving 
any account of them even to the general head and 
superior of the order, issued a mandate to the pro- 
vincials that they should every year, on pain of incur- 
ring mortal sin, give him information of what took 
place in this province of the Philippinas, Japon, and 
China in the conversions of the heathen and the ex- 
tension of the holy Church, the service of the divine 
Majesty, and the edification of the people of Christ. 
In addition to this, they were to give an account of 
the state of our order in each province, declaring how 
many and what convents it included, how many 
religious it possessed, and of what virtue, sanctity, 
learning, and good example they were; telling if 



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i64o] ADUARTE'S HISTORIA 293 

any of them, after having done illustrious things, had 
died gloriously; and recounting all other matters 
which might be an honor to God, a source of comfort 
to the religious, and an adornment and decoration of 
our religious order. Together with this mandate, 
he wrote with his own hand the following letter, 
from which may be seen the high esteem in which 
he held this province. The letter is in the archives 
of the convent of Manila. 

" Very reverend Father Provincial: Father Fray 
Alonso Navarrete has given me good news of the 
great devotion, spirit, and continual preaching in 
this new province. In this I have felt very great 
satisfaction; but it would be desirable that I should 
receive more detailed reports with regard to matters 
there, and particularly with regard to what has been 
done for the conversion of the heathen, by the grace 
of our Lord, in those kingdoms of China and Japon. 
This knowledge would be of great service to our 
Lord, great edification to our fellow-men, and great 
honor to our holy religious order. On this account 
and in order that you, very reverend Father, may 
have the merit of obedience, it has seemed good to 
me to send you the enclosed mandate. This is sent, 
however, still more that it may serve as a memo- 
randum for the fathers provincials who may succeed 
your Reverence in that province, because I know 
that there may be some carelessness in this respect. 
Orders have already been given that friars religious 
shall go to that province to preach and assist your 
Paternities in the conversion of the heathen. Would 
that it might please our Lord that I might go with 
those for whom our Lord has prepared so great 
rewards in heaven. Your prayers, very reverend 



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294 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol. 31 

Father, and the prayers of all that province I beg 
for myself and for my associates. 'Palermo, June 18, 
1609. Your Reverence's fellow-servant in God, 
Fray Agustin Galaminio, 
master of the Order of Preachers." 

CHAPTER LXIX 

The venerable father Fray Bartolome de Nieva, and 
brother Fray Pedro Rodriguez 

[Death fell heavily upon our fathers in this year, 
seizing the best on every side. In Manila it cut short 
the thread of the life of father Fray Bartolome de 
Nieva. Father Fray Bartolome was a native of 
Nieva in Castilla la Vieja. While still a layman, he 
went to the Indias in the search for wealth. He spent 
some years in Mexico; and in spite of the great 
wealth of that country, the luxury of life there, and 
the agreeable climate, he could not be satisfied or 
find peace. Hence he determined to change his 
course of life, that he might find the calm for which 
he sought. Though he was already a grown man, 
he became a child in following the duties of a reli- 
gious order. He assumed the habit in the convent of 
Sancto Domingo in that illustrious city, and began 
not only upon the elements of the religious life, but 
upon those of grammar. He did well in the studies 
of arts and theology, and by the aid of the Lord he 
came forth a religious of great spiritual qualities - 
prayer, penitence, and prudence, both spiritual and 
temporal. He joined a company of religious who 
passed through Mexico in the year 1594, on their 
way to the Philippinas. He was too old to learn the 
language of the Indians, but he accompanied the 



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i64o] ADUARTE'S HISTORIA 295 

brother who taught and baptized the Chinese in the 
hospital for that people; and thus assisted the other 
minister, whose duty it was to live in the hospital. 
When he determined to go to the Philippinas his 
companions in Mexico strove to prevent him, be- 
cause he suffered from several infirmities, and the 
labors in the Philippinas were known to be very 
severe. The Lord, however, gave signs that He de- 
sired him to go. He showed especial devotion to 
the holy Virgin and was a useful and devoted min- 
ister. The Lord gave father Fray Bartolome won- 
derful powers of spiritual conversation, and of in- 
sight into character; and even some powers of 
prophecy, of which a number of illustrations are 
given. Through him the Lord healed not a few sick. 
A letter of his is reported at length, in which he in- 
cites a sinner to give up his evil way of life, and shows 
a knowledge of the man's heart which could only 
have been given him by God. Other instances of the 
same sort are cited and an account of the holy death 
of father Fray Bartolome is given. 

At the same time there died brother Fray Pedro 
Rodriguez, a companion of the first founders of this 
province. He was most closely associated with those 
who taught and baptized the Chinese. During his 
whole life he had sole charge of the temporal affairs 
of the hospital. Father Fray Pedro was not content 
with receiving those who came, but had persons to 
inform him if there were any sick in the orchards or 
quarries, or other places where the Chinese who live 
about Manila were gathered for work; and imme- 
diately sent to have them brought to the hospital. He 
often went in person to bring them, and, no matter, 
how offensive or disgusting their diseases, he cared 



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296 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol. 31 

for them with his own hands. He waited upon them 
at all hours of the day and night, caring for their 
bodies; and he strove to teach them the things neces- 
sary for the salvation of their souls, as soon as their 
sickness gave him an opportunity. He suffered great- 
ly from asthma; but, in spite of this affliction, he con- 
stantly employed the discipline of stripes - not upon 
his flesh, for he had none, but upon his bones, which 
were covered with nothing but skin; insomuch that 
some Spaniards came to look at him, regarding it as 
a marvel that such a living image of death should be 
able to stand. His head was like a skull with eyes in 
it, but so sunken that it seemed almost as if he had 
none. The truth is that he ate no more than sufficient 
to sustain him in this condition; yet he was so atten- 
tive and careful to provide dainty food for a sick man 
that the religious were sent there to him during their 
convalescence. He had no greater pleasure than this 
and his unexpected success in converting some 
heathen. The Lord provided him with these pleas- 
ures, which served him as food and drink to sustain 
his life. To the two hours of mental prayer observed 
in the whole province he added two others daily, con- 
tinuing them after that which follows matins, and 
prolonging them till dawn. As soon as daylight ap- 
peared he left the work of Mary to go to that of 
Martha in caring for his sick, giving them break- 
fast after their own custom - which is followed in all 
the care that is given them, and in everything done 
for them. In spite of all these labors he thought so 
humbly of himself that one day when a religious 
heard him uttering heavy groans and deep sighs, and 
asked the cause, being unable to refrain from doing 
so, Fray Pedro answered that it was because he was 
so evil that, though he had so many times prayed to 



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i64o] ADUARTE*S HISTORIA 297 

the Lord for a trifle of His love and charity, he had 
not gained it. The superior desired to try him as to 
his obedience; and seeing that he labored with such 
delight at the hospital, and took such joy in serving 
the sick, he determined to find out if there were some 
self-love hidden in all this. He therefore directed 
him to leave the hospital, and to come to the city and 
take up the office of sacristan in the convent. Fray 
Pedro immediately obeyed, and, going into the sac- 
risty which was entrusted to him, he fulfilled his 
duty with cleanliness, neatness, and good grace in all 
things, just as if he had exercised it all his life, and 
had never been occupied with the other. He was ac- 
cordingly directed to return to the hospital, where 
he was more needed. The governor, Don Juan de 
Silva, went to visit the hospital; and when he saw 
this brother with nothing but bones and skin, and 
when he heard the things which they said of him, 
he felt such reverence for him that he kissed his hand, 
and offered him his favor for all things of which his 
hospital had need, and arranged to grant him all that 
he wished, for the governor looked upon him and 
venerated him as a saint. At the time of his death, 
about three thousand who had died in the hospital 
had received baptism. In the intermediate chapter 
which took place in the following year honorable 
mention was made of this religious.] 

CHAPTER LXX 

Father Fray Luis GanJullo, his entrance upon the 
religious life, and his coming to this province 

[The events which happened in the case of this 
father are such as God rarely manifests, even in the 
case of those who are nearest to Him; and I should 



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298 THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol. 31 

not dare to bring them to the light if they were not 
attested by three notable circumstances. The first 
is that he never formed his own judgment about what 
happened, but submitted the matter to a learned and 
spiritual man. The second is, that father Fray Luis 
kept such silence about these things that he only re- 
vealed them under the solemn mandate of his supe- 
rior. The third is the innocence of his life, and his 
marvelous virtue. A formal certificate as to these 
three circumstances is given at length; it is by Fray 
Juan de Sancto Thomas, and is dated at Manila, 
August 10, 1615. Father Fray Luis Gandullo was a 
native of the town of Aracena in the archbishopric 
of Sevilla, and was born of a rich and noble family. 
At the age of fourteen he made a vow to assume the 
habit of the Dominican order. This vow he was 
unable to carry out for eight years, because of his 
duties to his widowed mother and his two sisters. 
While still a youth, he was favored with a vision of 
the Virgin, which was followed soon after by a vision 
in which the devil appeared to him. After his two 
sisters were settled in life a certain trouble befell him 
in his own country, which obliged him to leave it and 
to go to the Indias. He dwelt for some time in 
Nueva Espana, where he lived with some freedom, 
the Lord preparing to drive him, by the very thorns 
which he should find in this road, to the religious 
life. His ancient desires to become a friar of St. 
Dominic returned to his mind, and he began to ar- 
range with the prior of the convent of the city of 
Puebla to assume the habit. The prior and the friars 
of the convent, being asked by him if a secret business 
pledge which he had made had any validity, declared 
that it had no force in conscience, and would not hold 



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1640I aduarte's historia 299 

him in a court of law if the party concerned would 
tell the truth of the case. He assumed the habit and 
waited for fourteen months to be professed. While 
he was looking for his profession to take place his 
creditor entered the convent, declaring that they were 
taking away his money by permitting the novice to 
enter the profession, since he could earn what he 
owed in the secular life. Upon this, the superior 
commanded Luis to lay aside the habit; but the Lord 
punished the creditor by burning a great deal more 
of his property than the debt amounted to. Luis, who 
knew that the obligation was merely a confidential 
agreement, refused to pay it because he did not owe 
it. He was ordained as priest, having determined to 
become a secular clergyman. Under this condition 
he prayed God to help him fulfil his vow; and after- 
ward had visions, among them a dreadful one of the 
devil in the form of a snake. Being constantly at- 
tended by visions, he determined to carry out his vow, 
and one night heard a voice calling to him, " Luis I " 
He answered, " Lord ! " and the voice went on to say, 
" Rise, and go to Mexico to assume the habit." It 
seemed to him that it was the voice of his dead 
brother. His conduct when he came to the convent 
was such that the brethren there decided to grant 
him the habit and the profession together, since he 
had already completed his novitiate. When the 
founders of this province went through Puebla, 
father Fray Luis desired to accompany them, but was 
unable to carry out his wish at that time. He re- 
ceived intimations from a holy woman, a penitent of 
his, that the Lord favored his desire to come to this 
province; and to this intimation were added other 
supernatural signs. A great scandal having arisen 



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30O THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS [Vol- 3^ 

because of violence shown by the viceroy to a supe- 
rior of a certain religious order," father Fray Luis 
felt called upon to preach against the viceroy; he 
was condemned to exile in the Philippinas, and re- 
ceived the sentence with joy. He accompanied father 
Fray Juan Cobo, who was exiled for the same cause, 
as is narrated in chapter twenty-four of this history.] 

" Probably referring to the act of Villamanrique in sending to 
Spain ignominiously (1588) the Franciscan comKiissary Alonzo 
Pon<» (Bancroft's Hist. Mexico, n, pp. 717, 718). 
(To be concluded.) 



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BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DATA 

The present volume contains the second instalment 
of Aduarte's Htstoria, begun in VOL. XXX (q.v.) ; it 
includes chapters xxxviii to Ixx (pp. 167-384), in- 
clusive, of book i. The concluding installment will 
be presented in vol. xxxil. 



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Important 
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Full descriptive circulars will be mailed 
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