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Full text of "The Philippines, past and present"

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THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 



•The^)<i^ 



THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 

NEW YORK ■ BOSTON • CHICAGO ■ DALLAS 
ATLANTA • SAN FRANCISCO 

MACMILLAN & CO., Limited 

LONDON • BOMBAY ■ CALCUTTA 
MELBOURNE 

THE MACMILLAN CO OF CANADA, Ltd. 

TORONTO 




9 -3 




THE PHILIPPINES 
PAST AND PRESENT 



BY 



DEAN C. WORCESTER 

SECBETABT OF THE INTERIOR OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

1901-1913 ; MEMBER OF THE PHILIPPINE 

COMMISSION, 1900-1913 

AUTHOR OF " THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 
AND THEIR PEOPLE" 



IN TWO VOLUMES — WITH 128 PLATES 



VOLUME 11 






MILLS & BOON, LIMITED 

49 RUPERT STREET 

LONDON. W. 



COPTKISBT, 1914, 

bt the macmillan company. 

Set up and elcctrotyped. Published February, 1914. 



Notbjiioti ]9rmi 

J. 8. Cashing Co. — Berwick & Smith Co. 

Norwood, Mass., U.S.A. 



CONTENTS 
VOL. II 

CHAPTER FASH 

XIX. Education .501 

XX. The Exploration of Non-Christian Territory 532 
XXI. The Govern.ment of Non-Christian Tribes . 559 
XXII. The Government of Non-Christian Tribes (Con- 
tinued) 591 

XXIII. Corrigenda 637 

XXIV. Non-Christian Tribe Problems . . . .660 
XXV. Slavery and Peonage 676 

XXVI. Murder as a Governmental Agency . . - 7.30 

XXVII. The Philippine Legislature 768 

XXVIII. The Picturesque Philippines 792 

XXIX. Rod, Shotgun and Rifle 806 

XXX. Philippine Lands 829 

XXXI. Philippine Forests 846 

XXXII. Improved Means of Communication . . . 861 

XXXIII. Commercial Possibilities of the Philippines . 884 

XXXIV. Peace and Prosperity 911 

XXXV. Some Results of American Rule .... 921 

XXXVI. Is Philippine Independence now Possible? . 933 

XXXVIL What Then? 961 



APPENDIX 

Instructions to the First Philippine Commission . . 975 

Proclamation of the First Philippine Commission . . 977 

Instructions to the Second Philippine Commission . . 980 
Past and Present Organization of the Courts of the 

Philippine Islands 988 

Present accepted Estimate of the Non- Christian Popula- 
tion OF THE Philippines 999 

INDEX 1005 

V 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

VOL. II 
The Metamorphosis of a Bontoc Igorot .... Frontispiece 

FACING PAGE 

Head-hunters' Weapous 508 

The Three Leading Men in the Funeral Procession of an Ifugao 

who has lost his Head to the Enemy 516- 

The Sacred Tree of the Ifugaos 524 

Entrance to the Quiangau Schoolhouse 534 

An Ifugao School 540 

The Sub-provincial Building at Quiangan 546 

Ifugao Constabulary Soldiers 554 

Bontoc Igorot Head-huuters 562 

Bontoc Igorot Women in Banana-leaf Costume .... 570 

A Bontoc Igorot Tug-of-war 578 

Bontoc Igorot Boys learning to make Furniture .... 586 

A Conference with Ifugao Chiefs 594 

Finished Trail built by Ifugaos 602 

A Difficult Bit of Rock Work on the Mountain Trail in Benguet . 610 

A Flying Ferry in Operation 618 

A Wild Tingian of Apayao 626 

Tingian Girls threshing Rice 634 

Typical Manobos 640 

An Old Bukidnon Chief 650 

Typical Street in a Filipino Town 656 

A Typical Bukidnon Village Street 656 

A Typical Improved Bukidnon House 664 

A Typical Neglected Filipino House 664 

Making Friends with the Mandayas 670 

A Mandayan Boy 678 

A Group of Bagobos 686 

Moro Boats coming out to meet the Philippine Commission at Jolo 692 

Among the Moros 700 

A Moro Chief with his Wives and Daughter 706 

Lieutenant-Governor Manuel Fortich of Bukidnon .... 708 

Governor Frederick Johnson of Agusan 714 

A Typical Peon 722 

vii 



viii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

FAOWO PAOK 

The Penalty for Loyalty to the United States 728 

The Philippine Assembly in Session 738 

Senor Sergio Osmena, Speaker of the Philippine Assembly . . 742 

The Manila Hotel 750 

Mayon Volcano 756 

The Crater of Taal Volcano 764 

A Bit of the Pagsanjan Gorge 772 

A Giant Tree Fern 780 

Scene on a Bird Island 788 

A Day's Catch 796 

After the Hunt 804 

Typical Scene at the Edge of a Hardwood Forest .... 812 

A Typical Forest Scene 820 

Old-style Road across Lowlands 826 

New-style Road across Lowlands 826 

Typical Old-style Country Road . 836 

Typical New-style Country Road 836 

A Canga, or Carabao Sledge 844 

A New-style Cart, with Broad-tired Wheels, which does not injure 

the Roads 844 

Road Destroyers at Work 852 

An Old-style Culvert 858 

The Old Way of Crossing a River 868 

The New Way of Crossing a River 868 

A Typical Old-style Bridge 878 

A Typical Reenforced Concrete Bridge 878 

A Collapsible Bridge 886 

Slap : Manila, the Future Distributing Centre for the Far East . 888 

Preparing Rice Land for Planting 892 

Planting Rice 892 

A Three-year-old Coffee Bush 902 

A Ceara Rubber Tree 906 

A Typical Cocoanut Grove 918 

A Typical Filipino Town 922 

A Typical Group of Filipinos 930 

A Typical Spanish Mestiza 938 

A Strange Couple 946 

A Member of the Cabaruan Trinity 954 

A Typical Old-style Provincial Government Building . . . 962 

A Modern Provincial Government Building 962 

A Refuge from the Moros 968 

A Possible Office-holder 972 



THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 



CHAPTER XIX 

Education 

No work accomplished since the American occupation 
is of more fundamental and far-reaching importance than 
that of the Bureau of Education. In order to appreciate 
it one must gain some familiarity with the conditions 
which prevailed in Spanish times. 

The first evidence of the Spanish governmental attitude 
toward education in the Philippines is found in a royal 
edict of March 21, 1634,i in which Felipe IV orders all 
archbishops and bishops to take steps for the education 
of the Filipinos in the Spanish language and in Christian 
doctrine. 

That this decree was more honoured in the breach than 
in the observance is evident from another royal decree 
of June 20, 1686,- in which the king reminds civil and 
religious authorities that the non-observance of the decree 
of 1634 will be charged against them. 

Neither of these documents provided for financing 
the scheme of education ordained, but a decree of Decem- 
ber 22, 1792,^ did make financial provision for the estab- 
lishment of Spanish schools for natives. The salaries 
of teachers were to be paid from the royal treasury, and 
deficits were to be made up from the communal prop- 
erties and treasuries. 

Although this was the first practical attempt to in- 
troduce general native education, there are evidences 
that individual opportunities were offered to, and em- 
braced by, Filipinos. It is probable, too, that in certain 

• Blair and Robertson, Vol. 45, p. 184. 

» Ibid., Vol. 45, p. 186. ' Ibid., Vol. 45, p. 222. 

VOL. II — B 501 



502 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

localities the most generous of the Spaniards opened 
private schools. 

The College of San Jose was founded in 1601, the Uni- 
versity of Santo Tomas in 1619. Neither made provi- 
sion for educating natives. They were established for 
the children of Spaniards only, although both later ad- 
mitted Filipinos. But in the rules for the short-lived 
college of San Fehpe (1641-1645),^ Corcuera lays down 
the following: "The college servants shall be of influ- 
ential Pampango families, and they shall be taught to 
read and write in the Spanish language, and shall be given 
clerkships if they show aptitude therefor." We learn that 
when the charity school of San Juan de Letran passed 
under the control of the Dominicans in 1640, native boys 
were admitted, on payment of fees, to share the advan- 
tages offered charitably to Spanish orphans.^ 

Primary education for Filipinos secured no real foothold 
until 1863.^ In that year, by royal decree, a school system 
originally planned for Cuba was extended to the Philip- 
pines. It made provision for the beginnings of primary 
instruction in all municipalities of the islands. A sum- 
mary ^ called forth by a circular of March 1, 1866, gives 
information with regard to the progress actually made. 
This summary fixes the number of towns at nine hundred, 
the number of children attending school at one hundred 
thirty-five thousand boys and twelve thousand two hun- 
dred sixty girls, and the number of schools at sixteen 
hundred seventy-four, but it gives the number of build- 
ings actually in use for schools as only six hundred 
forty-one. Instruction in Spanish was not always, or 
even generally, given. 

In 1863 provision was also made for the establishment 
of a normal school at Manila. In 1893,^ forty years later, 

' Blair and Robertson, Vol. 45, p. 175. 

2 Ibid., Vol. 45, pp. 213-265. 

2 Census of the Philippines, Vol. Ill, pp. 578-590. 

* Ibid., Vol. Ill, p. 591. ' Ibid., Vol. Ill, pp. 579-580. 



EDUCATION 503 

the actual appropriation for the Normal School was 
$5525. Fourteen years after the American occupation, 
the appropriation for the Normal School was $56, 476.42, 
in addition to $224,500 spent for new buildings and 
furniture.' 

In 1892 there were two thousand one hundred seventy- 
three schools. The attendance of these schools was 
small and irregular. In 1896, at the outbreak of the 
insurrection, the Spanish had in operation a public 
school system which could call upon the Normal School 
for teachers and also upon such graduates of private 
schools as cared to undertake the work. Naturally the 
latter were few. Between 1863 and 1893, the Normal 
School had enrolled two thousand and one students. 

This may be contrasted with the number of schools 
which, under the present regime, prepare the pupils for 
teaching, as well as for other occupations. Including the 
students of the Phihppine Normal School, the Philippine 
School of Arts and Trades, the Provincial High and Inter- 
mediate Schools, nearly thirty-seven thousand pupils are 
now following studies which fit them more or less to un- 
dertake the work of giving instruction to others. 

In addition to the Normal School, the Spanish estab- 
lished a Nautical School in 1820, a School of Commercial 
Accounting and of the French and English Languages in 
1839, and an Academy of Drawing and Painting. Their 
final system of public instruction was not badly planned, 
but it was never actually put into full operation. 

From the beginning of the insurrection against Spain 
in 1896 until the beginning of the insurrection against 
the United States in 1899, most of the public schools were 
closed. The schooUiouses were used for barracks, prisons, 
or hospitals. No attempt was made to keep them in 
repair, and what scanty equipment they had once pos- 
sessed was for the most part destroyed or stolen. 

Between 1899 and 1901, many of these buildings were 
' Report of Director of Education, 1911-1912. 



504 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

repaired in towns which were occupied by American 
soldiers, and the beginnings of a public school system were 
made by our victorious army. Wlierever our flag was 
raised a public school was soon established, soldiers 
often serving as teachers, and the moral effect of this 
upon the Filipinos was very great. 

The city of Manila was natiu-ally the first place to 
receive attention. Three weeks after our army entered 
it on August 13, 1898, seven schools were opened 
under the supervision of Father W. D. McKinnon, chap- 
lain of the first Cahfornia Regiment. In June, 1899, Lieu- 
tenant George P. Anderson was detailed as city superin- 
tendent of schools for Manila, and during the following 
school year he had an average of forty-five hundred pupils 
enrolled in the primary schools. Captain Albert Todd 
was detailed to act as superintendent of schools for the 
islands, but on May 5, 1900, in anticipation of the transfer 
of the islands from mihtary to civil government, he gave 
way to Dr. Fred W. Atkinson, who had been chosen 
by the Philippine Commission as superintendent of pub- 
lic instruction. This title was changed later to that 
of director of education. 

On January 21, 1901, the commission passed Act 74, 
the basis of the present school law. It provided for the 
appointment of one thousand American teachers to begin 
the work of establishing a school system carried on in 
English. Appointments were made as rapidly as possible. 
By the end of the year, seven hundred sixty-five Ameri- 
can teachers were at work. 

When provision was made for the appointment of this 
large number of Americans, it was with the idea that they 
should act as teachers of Enghsh in schools over which 
there should be FiUpino principals, but there was, at 
that time, no body of Filipino teachers properly pre- 
pared to carry on school work, and by force of cu-cum- 
stances, this plan was soon altered. 

Ten school divisions were established, covering the 



EDUCATION 505 

archipelago. Each was presided over by a division 
superintendent of schools. The teachers were theoreti- 
cally subject to his control, but the divisions were so large 
that it was impossible for him to exercise control very 
effectively. It is perhaps well that many of the teachers 
were left free to employ their o\\ti ingenuity in meeting 
local conditions. 

The school system finally established represents a 
composite of the recommendations of hundreds of teachers 
scattered throughout the archipelago, and these recom- 
mendations were based on hard-earned experience. 

One of the first duties of teachers was to begin the 
training of Filipino assistants. This took form in the 
organization of so-called aspirante classes, into which 
the best of the Filipino youth who were old enough to 
teach, and who had already received some education, 
were gathered. These aspirante classes were often held 
side by side with classes in the primarj^ schools first 
estabUshed by American teachers, and by the beginning 
of the year 1902 some of the brightest pupils were able 
to assist in primary school work. These classes made 
possible the establishment of organized primary schools 
under the control of American teachers with Filipino 
teachers in the lower grades. Their graduates formed the 
nuclei of the first secondary schools, which were estab- 
lished in 1903. 

The difficulties which teachers had to overcome at the 
outset were numerous. In some of the older and richer 
towns there were stone or brick schoolhouses more or 
less fit for occupation. In such cases a small number of 
old wooden benches and a few square feet of blackboard 
were usually available. Sometimes there were books 
provided by the army : Baldwin's readers in English 
or in rudely translated vernacular ; Frye's geographies 
translated into Spanish ; and possibly Spanish editions 
of the history of the United States. This stock was 
greatly improved during the latter half of 1902, and 



506 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

teachers were furnished books and supplies as rapidly 
as transportation facilities penrdtted. 

In 1901 the number of school divisions was increased 
to eighteen, and in 1902 to thirty-six, making the school 
divisions identical with the thirty-six then existing poUt- 
ical subdivisions of the islands. The organization of the 
public school system gradually crystallized and assumed 
something of the form which it has to-day. Barrio ^ 
schools were opened, and the work of American teachers 
who were detailed to supervise them was thus greatly 
increased. 

The school system took permanent shape in 1903 and 
1904. As it now stands it is controlled by the director 
of education, who is responsible for its conduct. Serving 
with him, and subject to his control, are an assistant 
director and a second assistant director. The directors 
have immediate charge of the general office, which has 
the following divisions : records, accounting, buildings, 
property, academic, industrial and publications. Each 
has a chief who is directly responsible for its work. 

The islands are now divided into thirty-four school 
divisions, corresponding, except in two cases, to provinces. 
Each has its superintendent of schools. 

The divisions are subdivided into districts, over each 
of which there is a supervising teacher who is responsible 
for the conduct of its work. Certain of the intermediate 
schools are under supervising teachers, while others are 
directly under division superintendents. 

The school system to-day extends to the remotest 
barrios. It is organized and equipped for effective work, 
and ready to carry out promptly and effectively the policies 
determined upon by the central office. 

In each province there is a central provincial school 

offering intermediate and secondary courses. Only twelve 

of them now give a full four-year course. Others offer 

three years, two years or one year of secondary work. 

• Barrios are small outlying villages. 



EDUCATION 507 

There is also a manual training department attached to 
the provincial school, or a trade school. So much for 
the provincial school system. 

At JVIanila we have the PhiUppine Normal School, with 
an attendance of six hundred sixty-nine, and the Phil- 
ippine School of Arts and Trades, with an attendance 
of six hundred fortj^-one. Also, there are the School 
of Commerce and the School for the Deaf and Blind, 
both supported directly from insular funds. The School 
of Household Industries has recently been established 
for the training of adult women in embroidery, lace- 
making and smiilar arts, so that they may return to 
their provinces to estabUsh little centres for the produc- 
tion of articles of this nature. This is most important 
work. The FiUpinos are endowed with great patience, and 
with extraordinary delicacy of touch and manual dexter- 
ity. If productive household industries based on these 
valuable characteristics are generalized, the prosperity 
of the common people will be very greatly increased. 

Of the school system in general it can be said that 
Filipino teachers have been gradually employed for the 
lower grades, and Americans have thus been freed to take 
charge of the higher instruction. Priniary instruction 
is now in the hands of Filipinos, and intermediate in- 
struction is rapidly being tiu-ned over to them. In July, 
1913, there were about eighty-five hundi-ed Filipino 
teachers, with an estimated total enrolment of five 
hundred thirty thousand pupils. The total enrolment 
in primary schools was approximately four hundred 
ninety thousand, in intermediate schools thirty thousand 
nine hundred, and in secondary schools sLx thousand. 
'When we compare these figures with the hundred and 
seventy-seven thousand reported by the Spanish govern- 
ment in 1897, and when we consider the fact that attend- 
ance at that time was extremely irregular, it is e\ddent 
that noteworthy progress has been made. Mere figiu-es, 
however, come far short of telhng the whole story. There 



508 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

has been very great improvement in the qiiaHty of the 
instruction given. In the old days children ' ' studied out 
loud," and the resulting uproar was audible at quite a 
distance. 

On their arrival in these islands, Americans found that 
the educated Filipinos as a rule held honest manual labor 
in contempt, while many of those who had managed to 
secure professional educations did not practise their 
professions, but preferred to live a life of ease. There 
were doctors who made no pretence of treating the sick, 
and lawyers who had studied simply for the standing 
which the title would give them. The Bureau of Educa- 
tion has brought about a profound change in public 
sentiment ; a change of basic importance to the country. 
It was apparent at the outset that any educational sys- 
tem adhering closely to academic studies would simply 
serve to perpetuate this condition of affairs. Fortunately, 
those in charge of the situation were untrammelled by 
tradition, and were free to build up a sj'stem that would 
meet actual existing needs. The objection to manual 
labor offered much difficulty, but it has been largely 
overcome. There was, furthermore, a feeling against 
industrial work on the part of the people in many regions, 
based on the idea that teachers meant to supplement their 
salaries by the sale of the industrial i:)roducts of the 
schools. This prejudice, which seemed formidable at first, 
disappeared when the bureau took up in earnest the intro- 
duction of industrial education and vocational training. 

Just as the academic organization grew out of local 
conditions, so did industrial education accommodate itself 
to existing circumstances. In the Spanish colegios, 
girls had been taught to do exquisite embroidery and to 
make pillow lace. In various parts of the islands, hat 
weaving was carried on by families or groups of famiUes. 
The making of petates,^ of rough but durable market bas- 
kets and of sugar bags constituted widespread local 
• Sleeping mats. 



■i|Uti«irib«iHuiM 




EDUCATION 509 

industries. American teachers were quick to see how 
these vagrant arts could be organized and commercialized. 
An intense rivalry sprang up between supervising 
teachers, and as a result the arts of pillow lace-making, 
embroidery, Irish crochet, hat weaving, basketry and 
macrame work have been introduced and standardized 
throughout the primary and intermediate schools. The 
excellence of the output is truly astonishing. 

Courses in housekeeping and household arts also re- 
ceived early attention. The social and economic condi- 
tions in the Philippines are such that the so-called 
"domestic science" course of .American schools is quite in- 
adequate to meet the needs of Filipina girls. Specialized 
instruction in hygiene, in the care of the sick, in house- 
hold sanitation and in the feeding and care of infants is 
included in this course of housekeeping and household 
arts, which was taken by fifteen thousand two hundred 
twenty-seven girls during 1912-1913. 

School gardening was introduced at an early date. 
This course now includes the school garden, in which 
each pupil has his own indi\idual three and a fourth 
by thirteen foot plot, and home gardens which are not 
less than four times the size of the school plot. By this 
arrangement eighty per cent of the garden work is carried 
on at the homes of the pupils or on vacant lots under the 
direct supervision of teachers. 

In the beginning much of the school agricultural work 
was not very practical. Teachers who themselves knew 
nothing about agriculture were wedded to the small 
"individual plot" idea, which I regret to say still 
continues to prevail in some of the schools. On a bit of 
ground about three feet by si.x the pupil might plant 
one tomato plant, one camote vine, one grain of 
rice, two or three eggplants and a flowering plant 
or two. This gave him helpful open-air exercise, but 
taught him nothing about agriculture. Weeks after the 
school year had opened I once visited a number of school 



510 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

gardens in Mindoro and found that several of them con- 
sisted of rectangular plots marked off on soUd sod with 
shells picked up on the beach ! On my return I told the 
director of education that three active hens would have 
done far more toward preparing soil for cultivating than 
had all the childi-en in these towns. 

These conditions have changed rapidly since the adop- 
tion, three years ago, of a definite policy of agricultural 
education consisting of standard school and home gar- 
dens and farm schools for Filipinos ; and large com- 
munal tracts of land cultivated at the Settlement Farm 
Schools for non-Christians. 

Lieutenant-Governor Frederick Lewis of Bukidnon 
was as deeply disgusted with the former play agriculture 
as was I. Exercising, I fear, rather arbitrary authority 
over the local Filipino teachers, but with my connivance, 
he persuaded them to tm'n their active, strong school- 
boys loose on large tracts of the beautiful prairie land 
found near almost every school in the sub-province, and 
raise crops. As a result of this experiment, first carried 
out at Tankulan, each boy took home a bushel or two of 
unhulled rice. Parents were enthusiastic, and so were the 
boys. From this small beginnmg came the so-called farm- 
settlement schools, of which there are thirty-eight among 
the non-Christian tribes. On large, well-fenced, carefully 
cultivated tracts of ground the schoolboys grow camotes, 
upland rice, corn, bananas, cowpeas, beans, pineapples, 
egg plants, arrowroot, and in some cases, cacao and coffee. 
Instead of learning what incUiddual plants will do when 
grown quite by themselves under abnormal conditions, 
they learn to produce real crops. They become interested 
in the introduction of American sweet potatoes in place 
of the less nutritious camotes, in the selection of seed 
corn, in the generalization of the better varieties of 
bananas, and in other practical matters. Incidentally 
they largely furnish the school food supply. 

It is of course true that in many of the Fihpino towns 



EDUCATION 511 

sufficiently extensive tracts of land cannot be had near 
the schools to make such a system possible, but, wherever 
it can be done, school children should be taught how to 
raise crops on a commercial scale, instead of spending 
their time on small individual plots of ground. Even 
the latter procedure has good results. It teaches them 
not to be ashamed to work. It also makes possible the 
introduction of home gardens, and through this means 
brings the practical production of vegetables into the 
home life of the people, with the result that imused yards 
and vacant lots are put under cultivation. 

The system of establisMng home gardens is one which 
meets with my unquaUfied approval. In 1911-1912 
there were no less than twenty-two thousand nine hun- 
dred fifty-eight of these. It is said to be true that a 
large percentage of them soon pass into family care, and 
thus not only help to educate parents, but become a per- 
manent additional soui'ce of food supply. 

The schools have proved a useful medium through 
which to bring about the introduction of new and valu- 
able plants. There are many school nurseries in which 
grow thousands of seedUngs, and these are distributed 
at opportmie times. 

Woodworking is one of the industrial branches which 
received first attention. As previously stated, every one of 
the thirty-eight provinces has either a trade school with 
first-class equipment, or a manual training department at- 
tached to the provincial school. Eighteen schools have al- 
ready been established as regularly equipped trade schools. 
The Phihppine Normal School and the Philippine School 
of Commerce offer special advantages to those studying 
for the profession of teaching, or for a business career. 

Previous to 1909, industrial instruction was only par- 
tially organized. Experience had shown, by that time, 
that it was expedient to introduce a degree of specializa- 
tion into the courses of study at an early stage of the 
child's development. Special intermediate courses were 



512 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

therefore organized to meet this need. After finishing the 
four-year primary course, the child may choose between a 
course in teaching, a course in farming, a trade course, 
a course in liousekeeping and household arts and a 
general intermediate course. Relatively few children 
are at present able to take up secondary courses, and it is 
therefore necessary to provide in the lower grades for 
instruction which will prepare them for some vocation. 
So important has become tliis hne of instruction that it 
has been found necessary to maintain, in the general 
office, an industrial information department, under a 
division chief, which employs a botanist, a designer, 
four native craftsmen and a force of travelling super- 
visors who inspect trade schools, machinery, school gar- 
dens, building sites and the general industrial work done 
throughout the public school system. This system of 
industrial instruction receives the fullest support from 
the Filipino people. 

The following quotation from the twelfth annual 
report of the director of education serves to give some 
idea of the extent to which industrial instruction has been 
developed in the Philippines : — 

"As is at once evident, with requirements so definitely fixed 
for industrial work in the schools, the great majority of the 
pupils who are enrolled must be engaged in some branch of 
this work. An examination of the figures included among the 
statistical tables of this report will show that of the total en- 
rolment of 235,740 boys and 138,842 girls during the month 
of February, 1912 (an average month), 216,290 boys and 125,203 
girls — 91 per cent of the entire monthly enrolment — were 
doing some form of industrial work. More specifically, it will 
be found that 21,420 boys were taking manual training and 
trade work; 96,167 boys were engaged in school gardening 
and farming ; 15,463 girls were also engaged in garden work ; 
and 68,194 girls were taking up various lines which go under 
the general caption of minor industries. . . . Further in this 
connection it \\'ill be found that in the subject of lace-making 
alone 16,439 girls were receiving instruction; in embroidery, 
12,339; and in cooking 4768. There were 22,965 boys and 



EDUCATION 513 

7709 girls making hats in the industrial classes, 40,264 pupils 
making mats, and 104,424 studying the art of basketry. 

"... 1309 pupils were enrolled in the regular trade school 
classes ; 924 in regular trade courses in other schools ; and 
7360 in the shops operated in connection with provincial and 
other intermediate schools. In 401 school shops having an 
enrolment of 19,949 boys, articles to the value of P142,189.74 
were fabricated and from this product, sales to the amount of 
P131,418.13 were made during the school year 1911-12. In 
addition to the above, 10,3.56 pupils were doing work in 236 
primary woodworking shops conducted in connection with 
municipal primary schools in all parts of the Islands. The 
figures for trade and manual training are taken from the March 
report." 

This most important result is due in very large measure 
to the determination of the Honourable Newton W. Gil- 
bert, while secretary of public instruction, to give a practi- 
cal turn to the activities of the Bureau of Education. I 
must confess that at first I was profoundly dissatisfied 
with the work which this bureau was doing, for the 
reason that, in my opinion, it tended to produce a horde 
of graduates fitted to be clerks, in which event they 
would naturally desire to feed at the public crib, or be 
likely to become abogadillos,^ who would be constantly 
stirring up trouble in their owti tow^ls, in order to make 
business for themselves. 

Much of the industrial work originally provided for 
was at the outset carried out in a haphazard and half- 
hearted way. Under Mr. Gilbert's administration it 
has been hammered into shape, and we now see in pros- 
pect, and in actual realization, practical results of vital 
importance to the country. 

Personally, I feel especialh' indebted to Mr. Gilbert 
for his attitude relative to school work among the non- 
Christian tribes. The children of the hill people are 
naturally hard-working. In some places they were being 
actually taught idleness in the schools, and in most the 

' Literally, "little lawyers." This designation is commonly applied 
to pettifoggers. 



514 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

education given them was of little practical value. I 
found Igorot children in Lepanto studying geography. 
I asked a boy what the world was, and was told that it 
was a little yellow thing about the size of his hand ! This 
was a fairly accurate description of a map, the significance 
of which had utterly failed to penetrate his understanding. 
Filipino teachers who were not considered fit for appoint- 
ments in the lowlands were being foisted off on to the 
unfortunate hill people, as they were wilUng to accept 
very small salaries in lieu of none at all. Prior to Mr. 
Gilbert's assumption of office, my frequent complaints 
had produced no practical result. He was kind enough 
to say to me at the outset that he would give very serious 
consideration to my opinions in the matter of educational 
work among the people of the non-Christian tribes. 
To-day industrial work has taken its proper place in 
schools estabhshed for them, and considerable numbers of 
them are being fitted for lives of usefulness, although it is 
still ti'ue that school facilities among them are, as a rule, 
grossly inadequate. In Ifugao, for instance, with at 
least a hundred and twenty-five thousand inhabitants, 
there are but two schools. In Kalinga, with some 
seventy-six thousand inhabitants, the first school has 
just been opened. However, this condition will doubt- 
less be remedied in time. 

The former tendency of FiUpinos to prepare themselves 
for trades or professions and then not follow them has been 
largely overcome. IVIost of the students graduating from 
the Philippine Normal School take up the profession of 
teaching, and practically all of the graduates of the 
Philippine School of Arts and Trades are following the 
lines of work which they have studied. And now I 
come to what I deem to be one of the most important ac- 
complishments of the Bureau of Education. 

Before the American occupation of the Philippines the 
Filipinos had not learned to play. There were no athletics 
worthy of the name. Athletic sports had their begin- 



EDUCATION 515 

nings in the games played between soldiers. Gradually 
Filipinos became interested enough to attend contests of 
this nature. Later, through the influence of American 
teachers, they began to take part in them. As soon as 
athletic sports reached a point where competition be- 
tween towns and provinces was possible, they aroused 
the greatest enthusiasm among the people. To-day, 
the athletic policy of the Bureau of Education is heartily 
approved by all classes. At first, highly specialized 
sports were introduced, but the necessity for develop- 
ing some form of group athletics in which a large percent- 
age of the pupils would take part was soon niade manifest. 
For the past few years this programme has been pushed. 
Eighty per cent of the pupils now participate in some form 
of athletics, and the number steadily increases. 

The results are justifying the hope of the original pro- 
moters of this athletic programme. The physical develop- 
ment of the participants has been wonderful. The spirit 
of fair play and sportsmanship, hitherto lacking, has 
sprung into being in every section of the islands. Base- 
ball not only strengthens the muscles of the players, it 
sharpens their wits. Furthermore it empties the cock- 
pits to such an extent that their beneficiaries have at- 
tempted to secure legislation restricting the time during 
which it may be played. It has done more toward abol- 
ishing cockfighting than have the laws of the conamission 
and the efforts of the Moral Progress League ' combined. 
It is indeed a startling sight to see two opposing teams 
of youthful savages in Bukidnon or Bontoc "playing the 
game" with obvious full knowledge of its refinements, 
while their ordinarily silent and reserved parents "root" 
with unbridled enthusiasm ! 

Annual meets between athletic teams from various 
groups of pro\'inces, and a general interscholastic meet 
held each year at the Philippine Carnival, offer advan- 

' An organization wliich long vigorously combated the coek-pits, 
but failed to bring about their abolition. 



^ 



516 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

tages of travel to boys who have seldom if ever left their 
homes, and promote a general understanding between 
the various FiUpino peoples. In the " Far Eastern 
Olympiad " held at Manila in 1913, in which China, Japan 
and the Philippines participated, the victorious teams 
representing the Phihppines were largely composed of 
schoolboys. 

When the American school system was organized, it 
was found that adequate accommodations for school 
children were almost entirely lacking. In some of the 
towns there were long, low stone or brick buildings, 
small and poorly hghted. They were usually located in 
the larger centres of population, and had no grounds that 
could be used for play or garden purposes. In most of 
the barrios, there were no schooUiouses at all. 

The American teachers at once set to work to put the 
old buildings into decent condition. Some private 
houses were rented, and others were donated, for school 
purposes. In a number of cases the teachers attempted, 
as best they could, to construct buildings for the thousands 
of pupils who wished to avail themselves of school priv- 
ileges. At that time the whole burden of such con- 
struction fell upon the municipalities. The insular 
government had given them no aid. Many mistakes 
were made during these early days, and many of the 
buildings then erected have long since fallen into ruin. 
The experience gained has demonstrated the folly of 
spending large sums of money on anything but strong, 
permanent construction. It will be necessary, for a long 
time, to depend to some extent upon temporary buildings ; 
and when these can be erected at low cost they are good 
provisional expedients, but destructive storms and the rav- 
ages of wood-eating insects quickly reduce them to ruins. 

The demand upon local funds for the maintenance of 
schools was so pressing, and these funds were so limited, 
that it was found impossible to erect modern buildings 
without insular aid. Wlien the necessity for help was 




s 
a 
z 
w 

u 

s 



EDUCATION 517 

brought to the attention of the insular authorities, the 
commission responded by enacting a bill which ap- 
propriated $175,000 from the congressional reHef fund 
for the construction of school buildings. Two years 
later $150,000 were appropriated and, in August, 1907, 
an additional $175,000 were voted for this purpose. 
A total of $500,000 was thus made available by the Com- 
mission before the Philippine assembly came into existence. 
This amount was augmented by provincial and munic- 
ipal funds and voluntary contributions, and the erection 
of twenty-two buildings for provincial high schools, 
twenty-sLx for trade and manual training schools, and 
fifty-seven for intermediate schools other than provincial 
was thus made possible. 

The first act of the Phihppine Assembly was to vote 
for an appropriation of $500,000, available in four equal 
annual instalments, to aid municipalities in constructing 
school buildings. The bill was duly approved by the 
commission and became a law. Under its terms, munici- 
paUties received $2 for every dollar furnished locally, the 
maximum insular allotment for one project being $2500. 
This bill was later supplemented by an act which appro- 
priated an additional $500,000 under similar conditions. 
Three subsequent acts have been passed, each appro- 
priating the sum of $175,000 for the aid of municipalities 
in constructing school buildings under such conditions as 
the secretary of public instruction may see fit to prescribe. 
The funds made available by the three appropriations 
last mentioned are being used chiefly for the erection 
of large central school buildings at provincial capitals. 

The sums appropriated by the Philippine Legislature 
since the assembly was established have made possible 
the construction of five hundred twenty-nine school build- 
ings, of which two hundred seventy-thi'ee are finished 
and three hundred nineteen are being buUt. 

There have been additional appropriations for the con- 
struction of a Philippine Normal School already com- 

VOL. II — C 



518 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

pleted at a cost of $225,000, a girls' dormitory now build- 
ing to cost $147,000 and a building for the Philippine 
School of Arts and Trades to cost approximately $250,000. 

The bureau has required that school sites for central 
schools shall have a minimum of one hectare' of land, and 
the barrio schools a minimum of one-half hectare, for 
playgrounds and gardens. There have been secured to 
date three hundred eighty-nine school sites of ten thou- 
sand or more square metres, and six hundred forty-three 
sites of at least five thousand square metres. These rep- 
resent the results obtained during the past three years. 

The Bureau has formulated a very definite construc- 
tion policy. Its programme may be outlined briefly as 
follows : — 

1. The preparation of a set of standard plans for permanent 
buildings which provide for a unit system of construction 
whereby additions may be made ^vithout injury to the original 
structure, and which shall be within the limited means available. 

2. The selection of suitable school sites. 

3. A decent and creditable standard in temporary buildings. 

4. The proper care and maintenance of schoolhouses and 
grounds. 

5. The equipment of every school with the necessary furniture 
and appliances of simple but substantial character. 

From the beginning, other branches of the government 
have clearly seen that no agency is so effective as the 
Bureau of Education in the dissemination of knowledge 
among the people. It has therefore been called upon 
frequently to spread information, either through class- 
room instruction or through the system of civico-ed- 
ucational lectures established by an act of the Philip- 
pine Legislature. The Bureau of Health has frequently 
requested it to instract the people in the means to be 
used for the prevention of diseases, particularly cholera, 
smallpox and dysentery, and has always met with a ready 
response. Great good has doubtless been accomplished 

1 A hectare is equivalent to two and a half acres. 



EDUCATION 519 

in this way, but with regret I must call attention to the 
fact that in connection with a matter of fundamental 
importance the Bureau of Education has signally failed to 
practice what it preached, or at all events what it was re- 
quested to preach. The Philippines are constantly men- 
aced by epidemic diseases, such as cholera and bacillary 
dysentery, while amoebic dysentery occurs in every munic- 
ipality in the islands and is a very serious factor in the 
annual death-rate, hook-worm disease is common, and 
typhoid fever is gradually increasing in frequency. The 
question of the proper disposition of human feces is there- 
fore one of fundamental importance. It seems incredible, 
but is nevertheless true, that in connection with a large 
majority of the modern school buildings which have been 
erected there are no sanitary facilities of any sort whatso- 
ever. The condition of the ground in the rear of many 
of these buildings can better be imagined than described. 
This state of affairs not only sets an evil example to the 
children, but exposes them to actual danger of infection 
with the above-mentioned diseases. In many of the special 
provincial government towns where a great effort has 
been made to have the people clean up, I have found 
school grounds and the private premises of school teachers, 
including, I regret to say, those of American school 
teachers, to be in a more unsanitary state than were any 
others in town ; and finally, in despair of securing improve- 
ment in any other way, I have fallen back on the courts 
and caused teachers responsible for such conditions to be 
brought before justices of the peace and fined. 

The Teachers' Camp at Baguio was long maintained 
in a shockingly unsanitary condition ; and as a result 
many persons who went there seeking health and recrea- 
tion became infected with intestinal diseases, and were 
incapacitated for work during more or less prolonged 
periods. In deahng with this situation I finally resorted 
to radical measures, but got results. 

Such a state of affairs is wholly incomprehensible to 



520 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

me. School-teachers should be the first to set the people 
practical examples in sane living, which means sanitary 
living, and should improve the great practical opportunity 
afforded by the public schools to bring home to their pupils 
certain homely but much-needed lessons in ordinary decency. 

In another important particular the Bureau of Education 
has, in my opinion, fallen short of performing its manifest 
duty. Not only does beri-beri kill some five thousand Fili- 
pinos outright, annually, and cripple ten times as many, 
but it is believed to be a determining factor in the deaths 
of large numbers of infants through its untoward in- 
fluence upon their mothers. As previously stated, the 
fact that it is due to a diet made up too largely of polished 
rice has been demonstrated beyond a reasonable doubt. 
Persons who eat unpoUshed rice do not contract it. 
Tiqui-tiqui, the substance removed from rice in the process 
of polishing, has proved to be a very effective remedy for it. 
The use of polished rice should therefore be discouraged, 
yet at the Phihppine Normal School, where the brightest 
and best youths of the land receive their final education 
before going out to teach their fellows, polished rice is fur- 
nished the students ; and the director of health, and I 
myself, have sought in vain to have the unpolished 
article substituted for it. 

The secretary of public instruction has stated, with 
obvious truth, that it is only when polished rice forms 
a very large element in the diet that there is actual danger 
of its causing beri-beri, and so far as I am aware no case 
of beri-beri has occurred at this school ; but the practical 
result of the present practice will be that the graduates, 
while instructing their pupils in the dangers of the use 
of polished rice, will themselves continue to use it. There 
exists at the present time a foolish prejudice against 
unpolished rice, which, although far more nutritious 
and actually more palatable than the polished article, 
does not look so attractive and is commonly considered 
"poor man's food." So long as the instructors in the 



EDUCATION 521 

public schools continue to teach by precept that its use 
is dangerous, and by example that it is safe, the undis- 
criminating and ignorant Filipino public, which does not 
draw fine distinctions, will be encouraged to continue 
to eat it, will eat it in excess, and will pay the penalty. 

The Bureau of Education has cooperated with the 
Bureau of Lands in instructing the people as to the right 
to acquire homesteads and free patents. It has also 
given the Bureau of Public Works assistance in promoting 
the campaign for good roads. Its system of civico- 
educational lectures has met with fair results. Thousands 
of people have secured information relative to the rights 
and duties of citizens, the prevention of human and 
animal diseases, and the growing of corn, coconuts and 
other useful crops. A corn-raising contest in 1912 was 
participated in by more than thirty thousand boys, and 
thousands of people attended the demonstrations which 
formed a part of the campaign. This is a most important 
matter. Corn is a far better food than rice. 

At first the only books available for use in the schools 
were those prepared for American children. These were 
soon found to be unsuited to the needs of Filipino children, 
and teachers were set to work to prepare more suitable 
text-books. Book companies in the United States 
quickly interested themselves, and as a result there is now 
in general use a comprehensive series of text-books partic- 
ularly adapted to the needs of Filipinos. 

In the secondary grades American text-books are quite 
generally used, although a few special texts deahng with 
literature, rhetoric, economic conditions and colonial 
history have been prepared in the islands. 

In order to keep the teacher in the field well informed, 
the Bureau of Education has issued a large number of 
bulletins and circulars on matters of current interest. 
These bulletins have covered instruction in domestic 
science, drawing, manners and right conduct, school 
buildings and grounds, embroidery and athletics, and 



522 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

have conveyed information as to the general and special 
courses of study followed in such schools as the School 
of Arts and Trades, the School of Commerce and the 
Normal School. They have received much commenda- 
tion from educators in the United States and the Orient. 

When pubhc schools were first opened children crowded 
into them by thousands. With them came many adults 
who beheved that they could learn English in a period 
of a few weeks, or in a few months at the most. No doubt 
they entered the schools in many cases with the idea of 
thus conciliating the victorious American nation. It was 
not long until they realized that there was no royal road 
to learning. Then came a slump in attendance. Largely 
through the influence of the American teacher and his 
Filipino assistants, the attendance was again built up. 
This time the people clearly understood that education 
is not a matter of a few months or weeks. It is greatly 
to their credit that they have now settled down to a realiza- 
tion of what public education is, and are giving the public 
school system most loyal support. 

The industrial programme has been accepted with 
enthusiasm, and without doubt there are in the islands 
to-day thousands of people who believe that it is a Filipino 
product. 

There is an interest in athletic sports that can hardly 
be equalled in any other country. The crowds of en- 
thusiastic spectators that attend every meet of importance 
testify to the hold that such sports have taken upon the 
people, whose attitude toward all forms of education 
is such that it needs only adequate revenue to develop 
an effective school system along the broadest lines. 

Manhood suffrage does not exist in the Philippines. 
The qualifications for an elector are as follows : he must 
be a male citizen at least twenty-three years of age, with 
a legal residence of six months previous to election in the 
municipality where his vote is cast, and must belong 
to at least one of the three following classes : — 



EDUCATION 523 

1. Those who, previous to August 13, 1898, held the office of 
municipal captain, gobernadorcillo, alcalde, lieutenant, cabeza 
de barangay, or member of any ayuntamiento. 

2. Those who hold real property to the value of S250 or 
annually pay $15 or more of established taxes. 

3. Those who speak, read or write English or Spanish. 

With a population of approximately eight million 
people, there were, in 1912, two hundred forty-eight 
thousand qualified voters. Of these a large number had 
obtained the franchise because they belonged to class 1 
or class 2. Death yearly claims its quota from both 
these classes, but the public schools more than make up 
the decrease by their yearly contribution. Any boy 
who finishes the primary course possesses the Uterary 
qualifications of an elector, and will become one on at- 
taining legal age. 

In 1912 there were graduated from the primary schools 
11,200 pupils, of whom approximately 7466 were males; 
from the intermediate schools 3062 pupils, of whom 2295 
were males ; and from the secondary schools 221 pupils, 
of whom 175 were males. In that year alone the 
schools therefore contributed 9936 to the contingent of 
persons qualified by literary attainments to vote. Of these 
175 are perhaps capable of intelligently holding municipal 
and provincial offices, and to this number may probably 
be added half of the 2295 intermediate male graduates, 
making an increase of 1362 in the possible leaders of the 
people. 

The pubUc schools, however, do not limit their con- 
tributions to that part of the electoral body having lit- 
erary qualifications only. Vocational training, it is 
true, is limited in the primary grades to cottage indus- 
tries ; but no pupil is graduated from the primary schools 
with only literary quaUfications. In some form or other, 
he has had a vocational start. His own energy must 
determine the use he makes of it. 

The intermediate schools add vocational training to 



524 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

increased academic training. All their graduates have 
done three years' work in the general course, leading to a 
literary course in the high schools, the course in farming, 
the course in teaching, the business course, the course 
in housekeeping and household arts or the trade course. 

Of the graduates of secondary schools a small part have 
highly specialized vocational training; but the great 
majority have followed the literary course and have 
undoubtedly done this with the idea of entering pohtical 
life. Rome was not built in a day, and in spite of her- 
culean American efforts, it will be a long time before 
Filipinos cease to regard a certain kind of literary culture 
as the proper basis for statesmanship. It has been said 
of them that they have "the fatal gift of oratory" ! The 
future leaders of the Filipino people, dependent or in- 
dependent, must be the output of the pubhc schools. 
The danger is that the number of would-be leaders will 
be disproportionately great in comparison with that of 
the useful but relatively inconspicuous rank and file. 

There are in the Philippine Islands fully twelve hundred 
thousand children of school age. The present available 
resources are sufficient to educate less than one-half of 
that number. 

The claim has been made that a due proportion of the 
very limited revenues of the insular government has not 
been expended for educational purposes. It is not justi- 
fied by the facts. It is certainly important to keep the 
Filipinos alive, and if this is not done, they can hardly be 
educated. The expenditure to date ^ from insular funds 
for health work, including cost of necessary new buildings, 
has been approximately S9,630,000 ; that for educational 
purposes, also including buildings, approximately 
$21,376,000. 

As a simple matter of fact, the Bureau of Education 
has been treated not only with liberality but in one re- 
gard with very great leniency. Taking advantage of 
' End of fiscal year 1913. 




The Sacred Thee uf the Iflgai;*. 

This great tree at Quiangan is considered sacred by the Ifugaos of that region. 

They believe that when it dies they too will perish. 



EDUCATION 525 

the friendly attitude of the legislative body and of the 
people toward education, one of its earlier directors in- 
curred expense with utter disregard for appropriations. 
He repeatedly made deficits of $150,000 to $250,000 and 
then in effect calmly asked us what we were going to do 
about it. After stating that I, for one, would never vote 
to make good another deficit incurred by him while he was 
allowed to remain in the service, and at a time when I 
was threatening to hold the director of forestry per- 
sonally responsible for a deficit of S5000 resulting in 
his bureau from unforeseen expenditures by forest offi- 
cers in remote places, and therefore more or less excusable, 
I learned that the usual shortage in the Bureau of Edu- 
cation had again occurred and was being covered by the 
quiet transfer of a sum approximating $200,000. 

The present director of education believes that the 
total number of children who would enter the pubhc 
schools without compulsion, if adequate facihties were 
provided, is approximately eight hundred thousand. 
Until revenues materially increase not many more 
than five hundred thousand of these can be educated, 
if due regard is had for other imperative necessities 
of the government and the people. If the people of 
the United States, or any political body composed 
of them, really desire to help the Filipinos toward the 
practical realization of their ideal of an independent, 
self-sustaining government, let them stop talking about 
the advisability of now conferring upon the present 
generation of adults additional rights and privileges, and 
provide the hard cash necessary to make mtelligent, 
well-trained citizens out of the three hundred thousand 
children who are now annually left without educational 
advantages which they earnestly desire, and greatly need. 

Under the Spanish regime private education as dis- 
tinguished from that provided for by the government 
attained considerable importance. At the time of the 
American occupation, Santo Tomas, the oldest univer- 



626 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

sity under the American flag, had colleges of medicine 
and surgery, theology, law, engineering and philosophy. 
There were also numerous private so-called "colleges" 
for boys and girls and very numerous smaller private 
institutions. At first the establishment of pubUc schools 
had no apparent effect on those conducted privately other 
than to induce them to introduce the study of EngUsh, 
but as years went by, the organization, modern methods 
and industrial development of the public schools forced 
the private institutions into activity. The law provides 
that the secretary of public instruction may give ap- 
proval and recognition to such private schools as meet 
certain requirements, and in 1910 a division superintend- 
ent of schools was detailed to assist him in carrying out 
this provision. His report for the period ending Septem- 
ber 1, 1912, is a very interesting document. It compares 
the Philippine private schools with those of South America, 
very much to the disadvantage of the former. It notes 
particidarly the lack of manual training in boys' schools 
and the lack of standardization in the manual training 
of girls' schools ; and speaks of the allegiance of the 
Filipino institution to the classical programme of mediae- 
val institutions of learning. It is a notable fact, however, 
that English is gaining. Thirty-four private schools are 
giving their entire primary and intermediate courses in 
that language ; nine are giving primary, intermediate 
and high school courses in it, and two are so giving 
all courses, including the college course. 

These private institutions are employing pubhc and 
normal school graduates as teachers to a constantly in- 
creasing extent. They are bringing their courses of 
study into conformity and competition with those of the 
public schools ; are introducing athletics ; using stand- 
ard patterns and materials in their industrial work, and 
rapidly improving their buildings and equipment. Dur- 
ing the year 1911-1912 improvements to the value of 
$100,000 were made in four of the Manila private schools : 



EDUCATION 527 

the Jesuits are planning a new college to cost 81,000,000 ; 
the Dominicans an expenditure of 3500,000 on a new uni- 
versity, and the Liceo de Manila looks forward to becom- 
ing the most modern and best equipped school in the 
islands. 

Twenty-five private schools have already received 
government recognition and approval. 

No account of education would be complete without 
mention of the University of the Philippines. Higher 
education is the great conscious goal of Filipino desire ; 
and to meet the growing need for it, an act passed June 
IS, 1908, established this institution. Subsequent amend- 
ments authorized, when practicable, colleges of liberal arts, 
law, social and political science, medicine and siu-gery, phar- 
macy, dentistry, veterinary science, engineering, mines, 
agriculture and fine arts. At present there are in actual 
operation the colleges of hberal arts, veterinary science, 
engineering, medicine and surgery', law, agriculture and 
the school of fine arts. Instruction in pharmacy is given 
in the College of Liberal Arts, and instruction in forestry 
is given in the College of Agriculture. By special acts 
of the Philippine legislature, several scholarships have 
been provided, but for the most part the university is 
open only to those who can afford to live in Manila dur- 
ing their period of attendance. 

The opening of some of these colleges has served sharply 
to call attention to one of the present weaknesses of the 
Filipino people. It is but a few years since agriculture 
was well-nigh prostrated as a result of the decimation of 
cattle and horses throughout the islands by contagious 
diseases. The need for well-trained veterinarians was, 
and is, imperative. Filipinos properly qualified to under- 
take veterinary work would be certain of profitable em- 
ployment. A good veterinary course was offered in 
1909. At the same time the School of Fine Arts was 
opened. No one took the veterinary course the first 
year. Admissions to the School of Fine Arts were 



528 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

closed when they reached seven hundred fourteen. At 
the end of the school year 1912-1913 the students in the 
Veterinary College numbered twenty-seven as compared 
with six hundred ninety-four in the School of Fine Arts. 
The grand total enrolment of this latter institution since 
its organization is thu'ty-two hundred twenty-nine, while 
that of the Veterinary College during the same period is 
forty-seven. It is necessary to restrict attendance at 
the School of Fine Arts. Until there is a livelier and 
more general interest in saving carabaos than in paint- 
ing them, the country will not attain to a high degree 
of material prosperity through the efforts of its own 
people. 

I take genuine pleasure and pride in briefly describing 
the work of the Philippine Training School for Nurses. 
I have always beUeved that young Fihpina women would 
make excellent trained nurses, and I earnestly endeavoiu-ed 
to have a certain number of them included among the 
first government students sent to the United States 
for education soon after the establishment of civil 
government. In this effort I rather ignominiously failed. 
The prejudices of the Filipino people were then radically 
opposed to such a course, and my colleagues of the com- 
mission were not convinced that it would lead to useful 
practical results. 

To the Bureau of Education must be given credit for 
inaugurating the movement which has resulted in the 
firm establishment of the profession of nursing in the 
Philippine Islands as an honourable avocation for women. 
At an early date it employed an American trained nurse 
to give instruction, and inaugurated a preparatory course 
at its Normal School dormitory. The work at the out- 
set could not be made of a very practical nature, but 
after a number of bright and well-trained young women 
had become interested in it arrangements were perfected 
for giving them actual training at the government in- 
stitution then known as the Civil Hospital. Here strong 



EDUCATION 529 

racial prejudices of the Filipinos were gradually over- 
come, and the student nurses soon showed themselves 
to be unexpectedly practical, faithful and efficient. 

Later when the great Philippine General Hospital was 
estabUshed it became possible for the Bureau of Health 
to open a school under the immediate control of the chief 
nurse, and to take over all the work of training nurses. 
Students at this school are supported at government 
expense while in training. Its opportunities and advan- 
tages are open to young men, as well as to young women, 
and may be extended to a number not exceeding one 
hundred six of each sex at a given time. 

The training of young women began sooner, and thus 
far has resulted more satisfactorily, than has that of 
young men, although many of the latter are now making 
good progress. 

The work is popular, and as there are more candidates 
than places only the more promising are admitted. They 
have shown that they possessed common-sense bj^ avoid- 
ing the traps set for them by Filipino politicians and 
newspaper reporters. Their tact and self-respect have 
brought them safely through many embarrassing, and a 
few cruelly trjdng, situations forced upon them by the 
unkindness or brutality of those whom they have sought 
to serve. Their gentleness and kindness have endeared 
them to their patients, and it is now a common thing for 
Americans to request the services of Filipina nurses. 
Their faithfulness and efficiency have won the confidence 
of patients and physicians aUke. Their courage has 
enabled them to triumph over the prejudices of their 
own people, and to perform many hard, disagreeable 
tasks, and meet some very real dangers, -without faltering. 
The gratefulness which they have shown for the oppor- 
tunity to help their people, no less than for the interest 
taken in them by Americans, has won them many friends. 
The training of Filipina nurses has passed far beyond the 
experimental stage ; it is a great success. 



530 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

Instruction in the Philippine Nurses' Training School is 
now largely given by members of the university faculty 
and the graduates of this school must certainly be num- 
bered among the most highly educated women of the Philip- 
pines. More of them are sadly needed, not only in gov- 
ernment institutions, but in private hospitals, and es- 
pecially in the provincial towns, where a few of them are 
already engaging in district nursing with unqualified 
success. The country might well get on for the present 
with fewer lawyers, and fewer artists, if the number of 
nurses could be increased. 

Equally praiseworthy is the work of the students and 
graduates of the College of Medicine and Surgery, which 
is housed in a commodious and adequate building. Their 
theoretical instruction is of a very high character, and 
they have almost unrivalled facilities for practical clini- 
cal work in the Philippine General Hospital. Entrance 
requirements are high and the course of study is severe. 
A number of the best students do post-graduate work in 
the hospital, where they are employed as internes and 
assistants. As a result, the college is turning out grad- 
uates admirably qualified for the great work which awaits 
them among their own people. 

The other colleges of the university are, for the most 
part, doing their work efficiently and well, and as a rule 
their students are showing appreciation of the opportu- 
nities afforded them, and are utilizing them to good 
advantage. 

Important educational work is being carried on by 
various bureaus of the government. The Bureau of 
Lands has an excellent school for surveyors. The Bureau 
of Printing is in itself a great industrial school, and 
ninety-five per cent of its work is now done by Filipinos 
trained within its walls, while many others who have 
had practical instruction there have found profitable 
private employment. 

An excellent school is conducted in Bilibid Prison with 



EDUCATION 531 

convicts as teachers. A very large proportion of the 
prisoners receive practical instruction in manual training 
and are fitted to earn honest livings when their sentences 
expire. Furthermore, they readily secure employment, 
as the men discharged from this institution have in many 
cases earned well-deserved reputations for honesty and 
industry. 

All the women confined at Bilibid are taught to make 
pillow lace. 

At the Bontoc Prison, the non-Christian tribe convicts 
of the islands are taught useful industries, and so satis- 
factoiy are the results that I have formed the habit of 
calling the institution my "university." 

At the Iwahig agricultural penal colony convicts are 
taught modern agricultural methods under a system such 
that they gradually become owners of houses, land and 
agricultural implements and may in the end have their 
families with them so that they are well settled for life 
when their sentences expire, if they take advantage of 
the opportunities given them. 

The educational policy which the United States has 
adopted in dealing with the Filipinos is without a parallel 
in history'. I am glad to have assisted in its inauguration, 
and I am proud of its results, which will make themselves 
felt more and more as the years go by. Even now Eng- 
lish is far more widely spoken in the Philippine Islands 
than Spanish ever was, and this is a boon the magnitude 
of which cannot be appreciated by those who have not 
had brought home to them by experience the disadvan- 
tages incident to the existence of very numerous dialects 
among the inhabitants of one country. 

WTien it is remembered that in the present instance 
each of these dialects is very poor in hterature, and that 
its use is limited to a million or two of human beings at 
the most, the enormous value of instruction in English 
will be realized, to some extent at least. 



CHAPTER XX 

The Exploration of Non-Chkistian Territory 

At the time of their discovery the Philippine Islands 
were inhabited by a very large number of distinct tribes 
the civilization of which was directly comparable with that 
of the Negritos, the Igorots and the Moros as they exist 
to-day. Do not understand me to imply that the Negritos, 
the Igorots and the Moros have attained to the same stage 
of civilization. 

The Negritos belong to a distinct race. They are 
woolly-headed, nearly black, and of ahnost dwarfish 
stature. They seem to be incapable of any considerable 
progress and cannot be civilized. Intellectually they 
stand close to the bottom of the human series, being about 
on a par with the South African bushmen and the Austra- 
lian blacks. 

The Igorots are of Malayan origin. They are un- 
doubtedly the descendants of the earlier, if not the ear- 
liest, of the Malay invaders of the Philippines, and up to 
the time of the .\merican occupation had retained their 
primitive characteristics. 

The Moros, or Mohammedan Malays of the southern 
Philippines, exemplify what may be considered the 
highest stage of civilization to which Malaj's have ever 
attained unaided. They are the descendants of the latest 
Malay invaders and were, at the time of the discovery 
of the islands, rapidly prosecuting an effective campaign 
for their mohammedanization. 

At the outset the Spaniards made extraordinary progress 
in subduing, with comparatively little bloodshed, many of 
these different peoples, but the Moros at first successfully 

532 



THE EXPLORATION OF NON-CHRISTIAN TERRITORY 533 

resisted them, were not brought under anything approach- 
ing control until the day of steam gun-boats and modem 
firearms, and were still causing serious trouble when 
Spanish sovereignty ended. 

As time elapsed the political and military estabhsh- 
ments of Spam in the Philippines seem to have lost much 
of their virility. At all events the campaign for the 
control and advancement of even the non-j\Iohammedan 
wild peoples was never pushed to a successful termination, 
and there to-day remains a very extensive territory, 
amounting to about one-half of the total land area, 
which is populated by non-Christian peoples so far 
as it is populated at all. Such peoples make up ap- 
proximately an eighth of the entire population. 

When civil government was established I was put in 
general executive control of matters pertaining to the non- 
Christian tribes. Incidentally, a word about that rather 
unsatisfactory term "non-Christian." It has been found 
excessively difficult to find a single word which would 
satisfactorily designate the peoples, other than the 
civilized and Christianized peoples commonly known as 
Filipinos, which inhabit the Philippines. They cannot 
be called pagan because some of them are ]VIohammedan, 
while others seem to have no form of religious worship. 
They cannot be called wild, for some of them are quite 
as gentle, and as highly civilized, as are their Christian 
neighbours. The one characteristic which they have in 
common is their refusal to accept the Christian faith, and 
their adherence to their ancient refigious beliefs, or their 
lack of such beliefs as the case may be. I am therefore 
forced to employ the term "non-Christian" in designating 
them, although I fully recognize its awkwardness. 

While serving with the First Philippine Commission 
I was charged with the duty of writing up the non- 
Christian tribes for its report, and tried to exhaust all 
available sources of information. The result of my investi- 
gations was most unsatisfactory to me. I could neither 

VOL. H D 



534 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

find out how many wild tribes there were, nor could I 
learn with any degree of accuracy the territory which 
the kno\vn tribes occupied, much less obtain accurate 
information relative to their physical characteristics, their 
customs or their beliefs. 

The most satisfactory source of information was the 
work of Blumentritt, an Austrian ethnological writer ; 
but Blumentritt had never set foot in the Philippines, and 
I suspected at the outset what later proved to be the 
case, that his statements were very inaccurate. He 
recognized more than eighty tribes of which thirty-six 
were said by him to be found in northern Luzon. 

As it was obviously impossible to draft adequate legisla- 
tion for the control and civilization of numerous savage 
or barbarous peoples without reliable data on which to 
base it, and as such data were not available, I had to get 
them for myself, and undertook a series of explorations, 
carried out during the dry seasons so far as possible, in 
order to gather my information on the ground. 

I first visited Benguet in July and August, 1900. 

On my second northern trip I traversed the province of 
Benguet from south to north, arrived at Cervantes in 
Lepanto, and was about to leave for the territory of the 
Bontoc head-hunters when I received a telegraphic sum- 
mons to return to Manila for the inauguration of Governor 
Taft on July 4, 1901. 

The following year such time as could be spared from 
my duties at Manila was necessarily devoted to the search 
for a suitable island for the site of a proposed leper colony ; 
but in 1903 I was able to make a somewhat extended ex- 
ploring trip, traversing the country of the Tingians in 
Abra, passing through the mountains which separate 
that province from Lepanto, visiting the numerous 
settlements of the Lepanto Igorots and continuing my 
journey to Cayan, Bagnin, Sagada and Bontoc; and 
thence through various settlements of the Bontoc Igorots 
to Banaue in the territory of the Ifugaos. 




Entrance to the Quiangax 8cHOOL-HorsE. 
The Ifugao boys on either side of the stairway helped build this remarkable 
structure. Most of their companions in the work were older, but ail were 
of school age. 



THE EXPLORATION OF NON-CHRISTIAN TERRITORY 535 

The latter portion of the trip was not unattended with 
excitement. A few weeks before a fairlj^ strong con- 
stabulary detachment, anned with carbines, had been 
driven to the top of a conical hill in the Ifugao country 
and besieged there until a runner made his way out at 
night and brought assistance. We felt that there was 
some uncertainty as to the reception which would be 
accorded us. The Bontoc Igorots who accompanied 
us did not feel that there was any uncertainty whatever 
as to what awaited them, but were more than anxious to 
go along with us, as they were spoiling for a fight with 
their ancient enemies. 

We had to use them for carriers to transport our bag- 
gage, and each carrier insisted on having an armed com- 
panion to lug his lance and shield. As a precautionary 
measure we took with us twenty-five Bontoc Igorot 
constabulary soldiers armed with carbines, while each of 
the five American members of the party carried a heavy 
six-shooter. We also had with us a dog which was 
supposed to be especially clever at seasonably discovering 
ambushes and giving warning. 

We were able to use horses more or less as far as the 
top of the Polis range, but the trail down its eastern 
slopes was impracticable for horses and dangerous for 
pedestrians. 

We shivered for a night on a chilly mountain crest, and 
the next day continued our journey to Banaue. When 
still several miles from the town, we were met by an old 
Ifugao chief with two companions. They marched 
boldly up to us and inquired whether we were planning 
to visit Banaue. On receiving an affirmative reply, 
the chief asked if our visit was friendly or hostile. I 
assured him that we were friends who had come to get 
acquainted with the Ifugaos. He said he was glad to 
hear this, but that after all it did not really matter. If 
we wished to be friends, they were willing to be friendly ; 
but if we wanted to fight, they would be glad to give 



536 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

US a chance. As he and his companions were facing a 
column of eighty-seven armed men I rather admired his 
courage. 

He next presented me with what I now know to be an 
Ifugao gift of friendship, to wit, a white rooster and six 
eggs, after which" he took from one of his companions a 
bottle filled with bubud,^ and having first taken a drink 
to show me that it was not poisoned, handed it to me. 
I did my duty, and we were friends. 

We then proceeded on our way to Banaue, being obliged 
to plunge down through the rice terraces to the bottom of 
a deep canon and then climb two almost perpendicular 
earthen walls before reaching the house of the chief. 

I was completely exhausted when I began this climb, 
and did not feel comfortable clinging like a tree frog to 
the face of a clay bank with nothing to support me except 
rather shallow holes which could be better negotiated by 
Ifugaos, possessed of prehensile toes, than by men wearing 
shoes. Seeing my predicament, an Ifugao climbed down 
from above, pulled my coat-tails up over my head and 
hung on to them, while another came up behind me, 
put his hands on my heels and carefully placed my toes 
in the holes prepared for their reception. Thus aided, I 
finally reached the top. 

The Ifugaos did not invite us to enter their houses, 
but allowed us to camp under them. I was assigned 
quarters under the house of the chief. It was tastefully 
ornamented, at the height of the floor, with a very striking 
frieze of alternating human skulls and carabao skulls. 

One of my reasons for coming to Banaue at this time 
was that I had heard that the people of seven other 
towns had recently formed a confederation and attacked 
it, losing about a hundred and fifty heads before they were 
driven off. I therefore thought that there might be a 
favourable opportunity to learn something of head-hunting, 
and to secure some photographs illustrating customs 

■ A fermented alcoholic beverage made from rice. 



THE EXPLORATION OF NON-CHRISTIAN TERRITORY 537 

which I hoped would become rare in the near future, as 
indeed they did. 

Trouble promptly arose between our Bontoc friends 
and the Ifugaos. The Bontocs wanted to purchase food. 
Some baskets of camotes were brought and thrown down 
before them and they were told that they were welcome 
to camotes, which were suitable food for Bontoc Igorots 
and pigs, but that if they wanted rice they would have to 
come out and get it. As twenty-five of them were armed 
with carbines and all the rest had lances, shields and 
head-axes, they were more than anxious to go, but this we 
could hardlj- permit ! So we put them in a stockade under 
guard, and subsisted them ourselves, a thing which neces- 
sarily rendered our stay brief, as provisions soon ran low. 

The Ifugaos of Banaue showed themselves most 
friendly, but warned us that a large hostile party was 
waiting to attack us at Kababuyan, a short distance 
down the trail. ]My mission to the Ifugao country was 
to estabUsh kindly relations with the people rather than 
kill them, so I did my best to get on good terms with the 
inhabitants of the more friendly settlements. 

The day before we left, people came in haste from a 
neighbouring village to advise us that one of their men 
had lost his head to the Ifugaos of Cambiilo, and begged 
us to join them in a punitive expedition, assuring us that 
there were numerous pigs and chickens at Cambiilo and 
that our combined forces would have no difficulty in 
whipping the people of that place, after wliich we could 
have a most enjoyable time plundering the town, while 
they would secure a goodly toll of heads wliich might 
be advantageously emploj-ed in further ornamenting 
their Banaue homes. They were greatly disgusted when 
we declined to join them, and said they would do the job 
anyhow, as no doubt they did. 

First, however, they insisted that we come with them 
to see that the story they had told us was true. We soon 
overtook a procession carrying a very much beheaded 



538 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

man who was being borne out for burial on his shield, 
and were readily granted permission to attend his funeral. 
It was an interesting and weird affair. After it was over 
we hastened back to Banaue, in constant fear of breaking 
our necks by falling down the high, nearly perpendicular, 
walls of the rice terraces, on the tops of v/hich we had to 
walk. Most of us discarded our shoes, in order to mini- 
mize the danger of a fall. One member of the party, 
who insisted on wearing his, glissaded down a steep 
wall and had to be pulled out of the mud and water at 
the bottom. Fortunately he was not injured. 

Having succeeded beyond our expectations in establish- 
ing friendly relations with the Ifugaos of Banaue we took 
our departure, requesting them to tell their neighbours 
about us and promising to visit them again. I returned 
to Bontoc and made my way to Baguio in Benguet through 
the Agno River valley, stopping at numerous settlements 
of the Benguet Igorots on the way. 

It was not possible for me to make further explorations 
in the territory of the Luzon wild people until 1905. In 
this year I set out, accompanied by Mr. Samuel E. Kane, 
an American who spoke Ilocano exceptionally well, and 
Colonel Bias Villamor, a former Insurgent officer, who 
was more familiar with the territory which I desired to 
visit than any one else of whom I could learn. He had 
established friendly relations with some of its inhabitants 
during the insurrection. 

We visited several of the wilder settlements of the 
Tingians in Abra, then made a hard climb over Mount 
Pico de Loro and descended its eastern slopes to the 
Tingian village of Balbalasan in the Saltan River valley. 
Its people, while not really head-hunters, were often obUged 
to defend themselves against their Kalinga neighbours, 
and were consequently well armed. 

After a brief rest we continued our journey down the 
Saltan River, visiting settlements on the high hills in 
its immediate vicinity. 



THE EXPLORATION OF NON-CHRISTIAN TERRITORY 539 

At Salecsec we had an extended conference with an old 
chief named Atumpa, a very acute man of wide ex- 
perience and sound judgment, who exercised great in- 
fluence in the territory through which we had just passed. 

Atumpa, satisfied as to our good intentions, consented 
to accompany us into the Kalinga countrJ^ A Kalinga 
chief named Saking, whom Villamor had known during 
the insurrection, met us here, and told us of a war trail 
into his territory which would greatly shorten our pro- 
posed journey, and make it possible for us to reach in 
one day the first of the previously unknown Kalinga 
settlements of the Mabaca River valley. 

Saking, observing that the people in the Saltan valley 
had cleaned off their old trails, and in some cases had 
built new ones for our convenience, went ahead of us to 
his own country in order to tr}^ to j^ersuade his people 
to do some trail work, leaving us to follow him. 

Our route lay over the top of a high peak called "Dead 
Man's Mountain" because a good many people who 
tried to climb it never came down, the true explanation 
of their failure to appear being no doubt that they perished 
from exposure during violent storms. 

While ascending this mountain I suffered an attack of 
partial paralysis of the legs, due, as I now have reason 
to beheve, to heart strain, but was able to continue the 
journey after a brief rest and the use of stimulants. 

A considerable part of our trip down the steep northern 
slopes of this mountain was made by utihzing a stream 
bed in lieu of a trail, and was in consequence very un- 
comfortable and somewhat dangerous, as the chance 
for broken bones was good. Fortunately, however, no one 
was badly hurt. 

At the first Kalinga village we found about a hundred 
and twenty fighting men armed with shields and head- 
axes, but Saking and his brother Bakidan at once came 
forward to greet us and we did not suspect mischief. 

I had brought with me from Manila a great bag of 



540 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

newly coined pennies. They looked like gold, and we 
distributed them among the warriors, who were greatly 
dehghted and promptly proceeded to place them in the 
ends of the huge ear plugs which the men of this tribe 
are so fond of wearing. Every one seemed friendly enough 
at the outset, but soon a rather disturbing incident 
occurred. 

There were eight chiefs present. I noticed that they 
suddenly withdrew a short distance and squatted all 
together in a circle as if by word of command. After a 
brief but very animated discussion they rose simulta- 
neously, and six of them started down the trail at a run, 
while Bakidan and Saking came to us and somewhat 
anxiously suggested that it was time to be moving on. 

Our way lay through enormous runo grass which closed 
in over our heads, so that we were marching in a rather low 
tunnel through the vegetation. Bakidan went ahead 
of us, Saking brought up the rear, and both were evidently 
on the alert. Bakidan suggested that we keep our re- 
volvers handy, which we did. 

A short march brought us to Saking's place. Here a 
still larger body of fighting men awaited us, and there were 
no women in evidence except Saking's wife, who, at the 
direction of her husband, came forward, and under his 
instructions sought to shake hands with us. This was a 
new ceremony to the Kahngas, and she gave us her left 
hand. 

Standing in a conspicuous place in front of Saking's 
house were two baskets filled with flowers which were wet 
with blood. We surmised, rightlj^ as it later proved, 
that these baskets had contained human heads just 
before our arrival, and that we had interrupted a head- 



' Canao is the word commonly used by the northern Luz6n wild men 
in designating a feast or ceremony. In Ahayao it is also used as an 
adjective to designate a place which may not be approached, being 
then equivalent to "taboo." 




3 



a: 

z »^ 

< .2 



ft. 



THE EXPLORATION OF NON-CHRISTIAN TERRITORY 541 

One did not need to be an expert in the moods of wild 
men to see that the people of this place were feeling ugly, 
and after shaking hands with Saking's wife we promptly 
marched on. 

It was fortunate for us that we did so. We later learned 
that the conference of the eight chiefs which aroused our 
suspicion had been held to discuss our fate. Six of them 
were in favor of kilhng us immediatelj^, arguing that we 
were the first white men to penetrate their country ; 
that they might have to carry our baggage, which would 
be a lot of trouble ; and that if they allowed us to pass 
through others might follow us, whereas if they killed 
us they would have no further trouble with strangers. 
Saking was severely criticized for having told us the where- 
abouts of the war trail over which we had come, and was 
appointed a committee of one on extermination, with 
power to act. In fact, he was directed to take liis people 
and kill us, but he dechned to obey instructions, and the 
other chiefs had run down the trail ahead of us in order 
to gather a sufficient force to wipe our party out. Sak- 
ing's people were somewhat loath to act under the orders 
of any one else, and our sojourn among them was so brief 
that they did not have time definitely to make up their 
minds to attack us. 

We now rapidly completed our journey to Bakidan's 
place, where we were to spend the night. Here again a 
crowd of armed fighting men awaited us. It was momen- 
tarily augmented by the arrival of recruits from the 
villages through which we had just passed. 

Still unsuspicious of mischief, we turned our revolvers 
over to one of our Ilocano companions, a man named 
Lucio, who had served as Aguinaldo's mail-carrier during 
the latter days of the insurrection. We then walked 
into the middle of the crowd and sat down on pieces of 
our own luggage. 

Bakidan immediately brought me a small wicker basket 
of very dirty looking bananas. I was nauseated as a 



542 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

result of severe exertion in climbing Dead Man's Moun- 
tain, and the bananas did not look appetizing, so I thanked 
him and put the basket on my lap. Instantly I felt 
strong tension rising in the crowd. We had brought along 
chief Atumpa and several friendly Kalingas from the 
Saltan Eiver valley. They seized their head-axes and 
stepped in beliind us, facing out. Bakidan instantly with- 
drew into his own house, and from a point where hardly 
any one except myself could see him made emphatic 
gestures, indicating that I was to eat. Little suspecting 
the significance of the act, but desirous of placating his 
outraged feelings if he felt that his hospitality had not 
been appreciated, I hastily peeled a banana and took a 
bite. To my amazement, there was an instant and ob- 
vious relaxation of tension in the crowd. The Kalinga 
warriors loosened their grip on their head-axes and began 
to walk about and talk. My own old men also assumed 
an air of indifference. 

Much puzzled, I made up my mind to look into this 
matter further, and later learned that when people from 
one Kalinga settlement visit those of another if the latter 
wish to be friendly it is customary for them to offer the 
visitors salt if they have it, bananas if salt is lacking, and 
water in the event that neither salt nor bananas are 
available. If the visitors wish to accept the friendship 
thus profTered, they promptly eat or drink, as the case 
may be ; otherwise it is understood that they have come 
looking for trouble. 

Bakidan had ceremonially proffered the friendship of 
himself and his people, and in my ignorance I had practi- 
cally declared war on the whole outfit ! When I learned 
these facts I asked Bakidan why they did not kill us at 
once. He said they were afraid. I expressed my sur- 
prise that they should be afraid of three unarmed men, and 
he explained that it was very bad etiquette in the Kalinga 
country for a person with a head-axe to go behind another, 
and that we had amazed every one when we walked into 



THE EXPLORATION OF NON-CHRISTIAN TERRITORY 543 

the midst of that gathering of armed men and sat down 
with our backs to half of them. They instantly concluded 
that we had, concealed about our persons, some new and 
strange device with which we could annihilate a crowd, 
hence they were afraid ! 

Here, as at Saking's place, we had interrupted a head- 
cahao. The head had been smuggled out of sight just 
before our arrival. The canao was now renewed and 
continued all night, although the head was not again put 
in evidence. It is needless to say that we attended. We 
witnessed one of the weirdest sights I have ever seen. 

The following day was spent in distributing presents to 
the Kahnga head-men, in taking photographs, and in 
getting a Uttle much needed rest. As evening drew 
near Bakidan suggested that it was about time we formally 
made friends with each other. We were beginning to 
feel rather far away from home, and wanted all the friends 
we could get, so promptly acceded to his suggestion and 
repaired to his house at eight o'clock, the hom- he had in- 
dicated. 

The ceremony proved very simple. His wife fried 
some boiled rice in fat — dog fat as we afterward learned, 
but fortunately we did not know this at the moment ! 
We all squatted on the floor, Bakidan facing us, and the 
dish of fried rice was placed between us. He squeezed 
a mass of it into a ball and gave it to me. I ate it, and 
then rendered him a similar service. He ate in turn, and 
we were friends ! The same procedure was followed with 
each of my companions. 

In the midst of the ceremony there came a very unex- 
pected interruption. A KaUnga woman was standing 
near me holding a torch. She had been silent and had 
seemed timid. I chanced to stretch out my right hand 
palm up. To my surprise she uttered an exclamation 
which was almost a shriek, seized my wrist and began to 
point excitedly to the lines in my palm. The other 
Kahngas gathered about, evidently greatly interested. 



544 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

Several of them showed the lines in the palms of their own 
hands, and an animated conversation ensued. I asked 
what it all meant, and was informed that I was going to 
become a man of great influence ! I had ah'eady modestly 
introduced myself as the ruler of all non-Christians, so 
found this reply unsatisfactory, but could get no other. 

It was fortunate indeed for us that we made friends with 
Bakidan. On the following day we continued our journey 
down the valley. Our baggage was carried by women, 
children and a few old and more or less decrepit warriors 
who obviously felt deeply insulted at being required to 
render such a menial service, and were decidedly resent- 
ful toward Bakidan for having ordered them to do it. 

Before we started Bakidan warned us that the KaUngas 
were queer people, and in consequence it would be well 
for us very quietly to go around certain of their settle- 
ments. Others we would visit. Their inhabitants would 
be sm'e to invite us to stay and enjoy their hospitaUty. 
He would second every such invitation. We were to 
pay no attention to his words, but were to note whether 
or not he sat down. If he did, we might accept the invi- 
tation. Otherwise we must plead an urgent engagement 
farther down the valley and move on. 

Things came out exactly as he had foretold. In 
several villages we heard noises decidedly suggestive of 
head canaos, and discreetly circled these places. We 
declined all invitations seconded by Bakidan when he 
did not seat himself, and rested comfortably for a time 
in several ^'illages where he did. 

Toward noon we walked straight into an ambush laid 
for us in the runo grass, discovering it only when Bakidan 
began to dehver a forceful oration in which he set forth 
the fact that he had a right to stroll down his own valley 
with a partj^ of friends without being annoyed by having 
his fellow tribesmen hide beside the trail and prepare to 
throw lances. 

Bakidan, who was himself a famous warrior, told these 



THE EXPLORATION OF NON-CHRISTIAN TERRITORY 545 

men that they might kill us if they saw fit to do so, 
but must kill him first. Apparently rather ashamed of 
themselves, they came out on to the trail and slunk off to 
their town. Bakidan, greatly disgusted, suggested that 
we follow ithem and lunch in their village just to show 
that we were not afraid of them, and we did this. 

After lunch I photographed a number of our late 
opponents, and we then continued our journey, escorted 
by a Kahnga chief named Bogauit from Took-Took. 
This man had previously descended to the Cagayan 
valley, where he had seen white people, and hearing of 
our advent in the Kahnga country, and fearing that we 
might have trouble in getting carriers for our baggage, 
had come with his fighting men to help us out. 

The people of his village received us in a most friendly 
spirit, and after attending a bit of a canao organized in 
our honour, and doing our best to entertain the crowd with 
a few simple experiments in physics, and some sleight-of- 
hand tricks, we retired, as we supposed, for a peaceful 
night's rest. 

No such good fortune awaited us. We were aroused in 
the middle of the night by a fearful din only to find our 
hut surrounded by a great circle of armed men. The 
people who had attempted to ambush us earlier in the 
day had repented of their action in letting us pass through 
unharmed, had gathered a strong force of fighting men, 
had surrounded our house and were now vociferously 
demanding to be allowed to take our heads. 

Old Bakidan was apparenth' fighting a duel with their 
chief in the midst of the circle. The two men were dancing 
around each other with cat-like steps, occasionally coming 
to close quarters and clashing shields, then leaping apart, 
swinging their head-axes and obviously watching for 
an opportunity to strike home. Had either of them 
gained any decided advantage of position he would 
doubtless have used his head-axe, and this would have 
started a fight which could have had but one ending. 



546 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

Owing to a mistake made when the ammunition for 
our trip was purchased, we had just twenty-two revolver 
cartridges amongst us, and in the darkness they would 
have been worth about as much as so many firecrackers. 
The roof of the house was dry as tinder ; a blazing brand 
thrown on it would promptly have forced us into the 
open. We should have been met by a flight of head-axes 
and lances, and this book would not have been written ! 

The majority of the crowd were determined to take our 
heads. The Took-Took people, greatly outnumbered, 
were evidently on the fence, and Bakidan was our only 
advocate. He still insisted that any one who wished 
to kill us must kill him first. His reputation stood him 
in good stead, and no one tackled the job. The uproar 
continued until nearly morning. Bdsi, a strong native 
liquor, was constantly passed. Indeed, every one but 
Bakidan had been drunk when we were first awakened. 
Finally food was handed around, and when the excited 
warriors stopped yelling in order to eat it the liquor had 
a chance to work, and most of them went to sleep. 

We might probably have then effected our escape for 
the time being, but it was utterly impossible for us to 
get out of the country without the assistance of the 
Kalingas, and we decided to see the thing out right 
there. 

In the morning the crowd was uglier than ever. As 
we crossed the little plaza they suddenly closed in on us 
with the obvious intention of doing for us, and we thought 
the end had come. At this critical moment a diversion 
was created in our favour by the wholly unexpected arrival 
of a letter brought in by a Kalinga runner. It had fol- 
lowed us all the way from Abra, and contained information 
about two pieces of baggage which were missing when we 
started. Its arrival greatly alarmed the hostiles, who 
interrogated me as to whether soldiers were coming. 
They had heard of soldiers, but had never seen them. I 
assured them that the arrival or non-arrival of soldiers 







ill 

■J " a 






2 ' i 



i 3-3 

1. M CT 



i5 ^ 



^ 

S 



THE EXPLORATION OF NON-CHRISTIAN TERRITORY 547 

would depend on the way they treated us, and to our 

utter amazement, they presently faded away. 

The Took-Took people again showed themselves 
friendly when their unwelcome visitors had departed, 
and made us bamboo rafts on which we descended the river. 

Our voyage was a decidedly adventurous one. Our 
rafts were repeatedly smashed by the swift current. As 
we approached each Kalinga village we were met by a 
reception committee carrying a bunch of bananas, fol- 
lowed at a short interval by a crowd of fighting men fully 
armed, and were thus given an opportunity to decide 
whether there should be peace or war. Needless to say, 
we voted for peace every time. I ate bananas vmtil it 
was difficult to find room for more ! 

We spent the night at the rancheria of a friendly, 
white-haired old chief who had been to Tuguegarao, the 
capital of Cagayan, and knew a few words of Spanish. 
The next day we reached the settlement of Chief Doget, 
who had a wonderful house of red narra, a wood which 
closely resembles mahogany. It was furnished with beds, 
chairs and tables obtained from the Spaniards. Here 
we were able to rest in peace. 

After sleeping the clock twice around, we continued our 
journey, and at dusk reached the Filipino town of Tuao, 
glad enough to get back to civilization and feehng that 
the kindly Providence which watches over fools, drunken 
men and children had had its eye on us. Without es- 
cort, and armed only with six-shooters rendered almost 
useless by lack of ammunition, we had completed the 
first trip ever made through the Kalinga country, and 
had done it without firing a shot and without losing a man. 

This trip marked for me the beginning of friendly re- 
lations with the Kalingas. They have never since been 
interrupted, and now, when I ride a fast American horse 
rapidly over the splendid trails which cross their country 
from south to north and from west to east, or meet at 
Lubuagan the fighting men who were once so anxious to 



548 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

take my head but now make a long journey yearly in 
order to see me, I realize, as perhaps no one else does, how- 
very materially conditions in Kahnga have changed. 

It had been our intention, after spending a brief period 
in recuperation at Tuao, to proceed to Malaueg and con- 
tinue our journey through the absolutely unknown coun- 
try of the Apayaos, but we found it impossible to secure 
guides. The leading men of Malaueg, who came to Tuao 
to meet us, assured us that there were no trails known to 
them, which was untrue, and added that they would not 
under any circumstances consider trying to enter the 
territory of the fierce Apayao head-hunters. 

We accordingly proceeded to Tuguegarao, the capital 
of Cagayan, intending to descend the Cagayan River to 
Aparri, go overland to Abulug or Pamplona and there 
get guides and carriers. 

At Tuguegarao, however, we found assembled the pres- 
identes of all the Cagayan towns. Those from Abulug 
and Pamplona positively assured me that there were no 
trails thence into the Apayao country, and that guides 
and carriers would be absolutely unobtainable. I in- 
sisted that I would visit their towns and ask them to ac- 
company me, whereupon they actually wrung their hands 
and wept, complaining that the people of Apayao used 
bows and poisoned arrows. 

In disgust I told them that I would abandon the trip 
for that year, but the following year would go to Laoag 
in North Ilocos, cross the " Cordillera Central " and come 
out through the Apayao country, taking with me Ilocano 
guides and carriers, as the Ilocanos were real men. 

I then proceeded up the river to Ilagan and went over- 
land through Nueva Vizcaya, ultimately crossing Ifugao 
from east to west and thoroughly exploring the territory 
from which I had been excluded on my previous trip ; 
proceeding thence to Bontoc and Cervantes over a route 
new to me, and finally returning through Benguet and 
Pangasinan to the railroad, where I took train for Manila. 



THE EXPLORATION OP NON-CHRISTIAN TERRITORY 549 

The following year I carried out my promise, taking 
with me Colonel Villamor, who had rendered very valu- 
able and satisfactory assistance on my previous trip. I 
also had three white companions, Dr. Paul C. Freer, 
superintendent of government laboratories, Major Samuel 
Crawford and Lieutenant L. D. Atkins. These officers 
commanded a detachment of twenty-five Ilocano con- 
stabulary soldiers which I reluctantly took along, 
warned by my experience of the previous year and con- 
vinced by the arguments of my Ilocano carriers, who 
declined to accompany me unless I took an armed 
escort. 

Prior to my departure from Manila I had received an 
urgent telegram from the governor of North Ilocos in- 
forming me that one Abaya, a wild Tingian from Apayao, 
had been sentenced to a term of imprisonment in Bilibid, 
the insular penitentiary, and urging me to arrange if 
possible to have him detained at Laoag until my ar- 
rival there, which I did. 

On reaching Laoag, I was amazed to find a large delega- 
tion of fully armed Apayao men waiting for me at the 
river bank. They followed me to the house where my 
quarters were to be, and sat down on the stairway, with 
the obvious intention of seeing that I did not leave with- 
out their knowledge. 

On asking the meaning of tliis occurrence, I was told 
that they were friends of Abaya and wished to talk with 
me. When given an opportunity to do so, they told me 
a singular tale, which admirably illustrates the relations 
prevailing in that region between the wild men and their 
Fihpino neighbours. 

Abaya was one of a few men in Apayao who dared to 
descend to the lowlands. He came down occasionally, 
bringing tobacco and wax to barter for cloth, steel, salt 
and other necessaries not obtainable in Apayao. Being 
unable to speak Ilocano well, he obtained a Filipino agent 
known as his "commissioner," who transacted his busi- 



550 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

ness for him, withholding for himself a hberal percentage 
of the proceeds. 

On the occasion of his last visit to the lowlands, the 
"commissioner" had told Abaya that he had a Negrito 
slave who was planning to escape, and had directed him 
to take his head-axe and kill the Negrito, promising him 
half of a large pig in payment for this service. 

Abaya, nothing loth, hastened to execute the order, 
hunting up the Negrito and aiming a terrific blow at 
him. Fortunately the Negrito saw it coming and jumped 
so that he received it on his shoulder instead of his neck. 
It inflicted a horrible wound, but he nevertheless ran 
away so fast that Abaya was unable to catch him and 
finish the job. He returned and regretfully reported 
his lack of success to his "conmiissioner." To his amaze- 
ment he was arrested, taken to Laoag and held for trial. 
Both he and his friends were convinced that the reason 
for this was his failure to kill the Negrito, and the friends 
assured me in the most positive terms that Abaya had 
done his very best and that it was through no fault of 
his that the Negrito had escaped ! They demanded his 
immediate release. 

Meanwhile I had been informed by the governor of 
the province that Abaya's people had threatened to 
come and wipe out the village where his "commissioner" 
lived, and also to kill all of the Negritos in that vicinity 
in revenge for the arrest and imprisonment of their chief. 
It struck me that the "commissioner" was the man 
who ought to be in jail, but I did not care to allow the 
Apayao people to think that they could make such 
threats with impunity, so asked them whether it was 
true that they were planning to wipe out the village in 
question. They said yes. I then told them that they 
must not do it. They expressed a willingness to obey any 
instructions that I might give to them. I asked v/hether 
their promise to let the village alone was dependent upon 
Abaya's being set at liberty, and they answered no. We 



THE EXPLORATION OF NON-CHRISTIAN TERRITORY 551 

then took up the question of killing the Negritos. They 
were greatly amazed that I should object to this, urging 
that they had always fought the Negritos, and that the 
latter were bad people who constantly made trouble 
with their poisoned arrows ; theretofore it had been 
considered commendable to kill as many as possible. 
However, they said that they would let the Negritos 
alone if I insisted upon it, irrespective of whether or not 
Abaya was released. Having duly impressed them with 
the fact that the matter of the release of Abaya must 
stand on its own merits, and could not be made to depend 
on their subsequent good or bad conduct, and having 
interviewed the Filipino judge who sentenced Abaya 
and learned that he had been puzzled to know what to do 
and was heartily in favour of having him pardoned, I 
telegraphed to the acting governor-general requesting 
that this be done, and continued my journey, leaving 
word that Abaya should follow me if set at liberty. 

He was promptly pardoned. His people insisted that 
he join them and take to the moimtains, but he told his 
friends that since I had secured his release he would do 
what I had asked. He overtook me before I had finished 
my second day's march, and stayed with me until I gave 
him leave to go his way ! 

Our climb over the cordillera was by no means a pleas- 
ure trip. We were forced to use beds of streams and 
Tingian warpaths in lieu of trails. At one time our way 
lay over wet limestone rocks which were shppery as ice. 
Here our hobnailed shoes were a positive source of 
danger. The feet of our carriers were badly torn, and we 
ourselves suffered from occasional falls on the sharp rocks. 
We secured the help of some additional- Tmgians whom 
we met joumejdng to the coast, paying them liberally 
enough so that they were wilhng to abandon their pro- 
posed trip and accompany us. 

We sent all of our Tingian companions ahead to give 
notice of our friendly intentions before reaching the first 



552 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

village in Apayao, but its inhabitants nevertheless ran 
away. Thoroughly exliausted, we decided to spend a 
night there. In the course of the afternoon our men 
were able to bring in some of their fellow tribesmen who 
lived in the vicinity, and we made friends with them. 

From this point a half day's march brought us to the 
head-waters of the Abulug River at a point where it 
was navigable for bamboo rafts. We delayed at a- little 
village until we could construct rafts enough to float our 
large party, and then started downstream, kno'wdng that 
we should meet plenty of people, for the Tingians of 
Apayao are fond of placing their villages on river banks. 

Our trip was a wild and adventurous one. Fortunately 
I had purchased some twenty dollars' worth of beads and 
with these I made at least twenty-five hundred presents ! 
The friendship of the women at the first town which we 
met was thus secured, and thereafter the "grapevine 
telegraph ' ' worked ahead of us and we found waiting 
delegations of women and girls on the river bank at al- 
most every village. So long as they were about, it was 
reasonably certain that the men would not make any 
hostile demonstration. 

The trip proved a great success in every way. Many 
of the numerous settlements which we visited were at 
war with each other. One had just been attacked, and 
a number of its people had lost their heads, literally. 
We were constantly warned that the residents of the next 
town down the river were "bad people" and that "five 
hundred" of them were waiting in the river bed to attack 
us, but only once were we in any real danger of being 
molested, and even then diplomacj^ prevailed. 

We were careful to respect local customs. One town 
was reported to be canao, which is equivalent to 
"taboo," because of the death of the wife of the headman, 
and we religiously kept away from it. .\nother was 
canao because of a \arulent epidemic of smallpox, and we 
were more than willing to keep away from that one ! 



THE EXPLORATION OF NON-CHRISTIAN TERRITORY 553 

We bumped down rapids and shot over several low falls. 
Again and again our rafts were torn to pieces and we were 
precipitated into the rushing stream. At one time a 
constabulary soldier was under water for some ten 
minutes, and we thought him dead when he was first 
fished out, but finally succeeded in resuscitating him. 

We had been told that the trip would take eight days 
and had made our plans accordingly. It took fifteen. 
Food ran short. Shoes and clothing gave out. Some 
of our soldiers were dressed in clouts before we reached 
civilization, and crawfishes on which our men could 
pounce along the edges of the river were out of luck ! 

I shall long remember the shout of delight which our 
Filipino companions set up when we finally passed through 
the last mountain gap and came out into the open country, 
but as a matter of fact the most disagreeable part of our 
journey lay before us. Up to that time our progress had 
been rapid and exciting. Now the current of the river 
grew sluggish, and we were largely dependent on it, as 
our rafts were too heavy to paddle and the stream was in 
many places so deep that we could not pole them. 

We found ourselves in the country of very wild Negritos. 
Our Tingian friends had informed us that these people 
would certainly sneak up and shoot arrows into our camps 
at night, but nothing of the sort occurred. On the con- 
trary, through the liberal use of scarlet cotton cloth, we 
were able to establish very friendly relations with the 
Negritos encountered, some of whom gave us in exchange 
deer meat enough for a feast, which was highly appreciated 
by all concerned. 

On arrival at Abuliig we were received with great sur- 
prise by the people, who had heard that we had been 
attacked and killed. There I developed malaria and con- 
tracted bronchitis. 

We made our way up the Cagayan River to Ilagan 
and thence proceeded overland to the Kalinga villages in 
the vicinity of Sili. At the latter place we had an amusing 



554 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

experience. ICnowing that we were going to Mayoyao, 
some Ifugaos from that town had joined our party for 
protection. A delegation of Sili Kahngas waited on us 
during the lunch hour and politely asked to be allowed 
to take the heads of these Ifugaos, saying that they needed 
some fresh heads, and that it would save a lot of trouble 
if they could have these, so providentially brought to 
them by their respective owners. I explained to them 
that we really needed the Ifugaos, and they pohtely 
waived their claim to them in our favour ! 

I had been assured that I could ride a horse to Mayoyao 
in two and a half days. The trip took five days. Much 
of the way horses were worse than useless. Before we 
reached our destination my bronchitis had developed into 
pneumonia and I was very ill. My white companions 
on the Apayao trip had long since left me, but at Ilagan 
I had been jomed by Seiior Claraval, who was later 
elected governor of Isabela, and by an American school- 
teacher. Colonel Villamor had stayed with me. Now 
all my companions turned back and I continued my 
journey accompanied only by Ifugaos and by a young 
lieutenant of constabulary named Gallman, who had 
then just come to the Ifugao country but was later des- 
tined to play a most remarkable part in bringing its war- 
like people imder control and starting them on the road 
toward ci\'ilization. 

Our route from Mayoyao to Banaue of necessity fol- 
lowed the Ifugao war trails, which invariably run along 
the crests of mountains so as to command a \aew in both 
directions. The country through which we passed was 
frightfully broken, and I could hardly stand. 

Wherever it was humanly possible to do so, the Ifugaos 
carried me in a blanket slung under a pole. They took 
me up almost perpendicular ascents in this way, but in 
some cases the ascents were quite perpendicular and the 
descents the same, so that I had to try to climb, con- 
stantly falUng as the result of weakness and exhaustion, 




a s^ 



; J3 

: a 



_; o 
? S 



THE EXPLORATION OF NON-CHRISTIAN TERRITORY 555 

in spite of the efforts of the Ifugaos to keep me on my 
feet. We reached Dukligan at dusk and there we spent 
the night. 

In the morning I found myself unable to rise, so took 
a stiff dose of whiskey. As this failed to produce the 
desired result, I took a second and fuially a third. Under 
the potent influence of the stimulant I managed to get 
up. The willing Ifugaos carried me clear to the rice 
terraces near Banaue, making a joke of the hard work 
involved. There were always a dozen men on the pole, 
and whenever one set of carriers grew weary there was a 
scramble, closely approaching a fight, to determine who 
should be allowed next to take their places. 

These jolly people constantly gave a peculiar shout 
which was ridiculously like an American college cheer. 
Ill as I was, I almost enjoyed the trip, and conceived a 
great liking for the splendidly developed men who were 
seeing me through in such gallant style. Had it not been 
for their kindness, I should certainly have left my bones 
somewhere between Mayoyao and Banaue. 

They were determined to lug me through the rice 
terraces, but as it took at least four men to carry me, and 
the weight of the five of us was sufficient to cause the tops 
of the high terrace walls to crumble so that I had several 
narrow escapes from falling down them, I climbed out 
of my extemporized hammock, took one more big drink 
of raw wliiskejr and on the strength of it managed to 
stagger along to the river, where I was amazed to find a 
horse awaiting me. Nothing ever looked better to me 
than did that somewhat decrepit animal ! 

I was absolutely unfit to travel, but ha\dng rested at 
Banaue for half a day, and realizing that it was impera- 
tively necessary that I should get to a doctor at once, I 
made what was then record time to Banaue, Bontoc, 
Cerv^antes and Baguio, and on arrival at the latter place 
proceeded to go to bed and be comfortably iU. 

Tramping over the northern Luzon mountains with 



556 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

my lungs partly solidified left my pumping machinery in 
such shape that I have never since been able to make a 
hard trip on foot, but that is no longer necessary. Splen- 
did horse trails now make travel through this region a 
pleasure. 

When we crossed Apayao only one other white man had 
achieved the feat. This was a good missionary priest 
who in 1741 traversed the country between Abuliig and 
one of the North Ilocos towns. 

Lieutenant Gilmore's ^ Filipino captors took him and 
his companions across a comer of Apayao, and instead 
of murdering them in the forest, as they had been or- 
dered to do, turned them loose. They made their way 
across a portion of the territory traversed by us, and had 
reached .the Abulug River and were attempting to build 
rafts when overtaken by a rescue party of American 
soldiers. All hands then descended the river to the town 
of Abulug, and proceeded overland to Aparri. 

Colonel Hood, who was commanding the United States 
forces there, declined to let them enter the town until 
they had been provided with decent clothing, thinking 
that the sight of American soldiers clad in clouts might 
be too much of a shock to the inhabitants ! 

In 1907 I was able to land at various points along the 
then absolutely unknown Pacific coast of northeastern 
Luzon, but failed to get into touch with the Negritos, who 
constitute its sole inhabitants, until near Palanan, the 
northernmost settlement of Filipinos on the east coast. 

With this trip my exploration work in northern Luzon 
ended, although I have ever since made extended annual 
trips through the non-Christian territory of the island. 

During the years covered by this hasty narrative, I 
also made trips to the territory of the wild men in Min- 
doro, Palawan, and Mindanao, as opportunity offered. 
In Spanish days I had lived among the Moros and had 

' Lieutenant Gilmore, U.S.N.. was captured at Baler in the summer 
of 1899, and held a prisoner for many months. 



THE EXPLORATION OF NON-CHRISTIAN TERRITORY 557 

visited the mountains of Negros and Panay and seen 
something of the wild men Hving there, so that I finally 
gained a fairly comprehensive knowledge of the non- 
Christian tribes of the Philippines, having seen represent- 
atives of nearly all of them,' and lived for longer or 
shorter periods among all except some of the more unim- 
portant peoples in the interior of Mindanao. 

As a result of these personal investigations I was able 
to reduce to twenty-seven the eighty-two non-Christian 
tribes said by Blmnentritt to inhabit the Philippines ; 
to determine with reasonable accuracy the territory oc- 
cupied by each, and not only to become familiar with 
the manners and customs of the people of each important 
tribe, but to establish relations of personal friendship 
with many chiefs and headmen which have proved in- 
valuable to me in my subsequent work for the betterment 
of the non-Christian peoples which has so irritated cer- 
tain Filipino politicians who have wished to continue to 
oppress and exploit them, or, like Judge Blount, have 
sought to minimize their importance. 

The latter individual seems to regard my past efforts to 
portray actual conditions among the wild men as a per- 
sonal grievance, and has devoted an entire chapter to the 
shortcomings of "Non-Christian Worcester." In it he 
says of me that I impressed him as "an overbearing bully 
of the beggar-on-horseback type" ; that I am "the P. T. 
Barnum of the 'non-Christian tribe' industry"; that 
"in the earh^ nineties he [Non-Christian Worcester] 
had made a trip to the Philippines, confining himself 
then mostly to creeping things and quadrupeds — liz- 
ards, alligators, pythons, unusual wild beasts, and 
other forms of animal life of the kind much coveted 
as specimens by museums and universities," and goes 

' The only tribes of which I have not seen representatives inhabit 
the region of the gulf of Davao in Mindanao. It is doubtful whether 
they are really tribally distinct from the Bagobos, Bilanes and other 
tribes living near the coast. 



558 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

on to tell how it was that "the reptile-finder ulti- 
mately became a statesman." The Honourable Judge 
summarizes his views concerning me by stating that 
he "considers Professor Worcester the direst calam- 
ity that has befallen the Filipinos since the American 
occupation, neither war, pestilence, famine, reconcen- 
tration nor tariff -wrought poverty excepted." He de- 
scribes the experience on which he bases these statements 
as follows: "During all my stay in the Philippines I 
never did have any official relations of any sort with the 
Professor, and only met him, casually, once, in 1901." 

This latter statement is correct to the best of my recol- 
lection. "A man is known by the company he keeps." 
I feel that I have been fortunate in my friends and sin- 
gularly blessed in my enemies ! If I do not in turn attack 
the Philippine career of Judge Blount, it is not for lack 
of abundant anunmaition, but for the reason that I believe 
that the American public will be more interested in the 
truth or falsity of the allegations concerning more im- 
portant matters which we respectively make than in our 
opinions of each other. 

The Judge seems to have overlooked the fact that in- 
vective is not argument. I leave to him the use of need- 
lessly abusive and insulting language. He has also appar- 
ently overlooked the further fact that disregard of the 
truth is apt, sooner or later, to bring its own peculiar 
reward. Later I call attention to certain of his misstate- 
ments concerning the wild peoples of the Philippines, 
and correct them. 



CHAPTER XXI 

The Government of the Non-Christian Tribes 

When I visited Bengiiet in July and August of 1900, 
I found conditions there such that the early estabUshment 
of civil government seemed practicable and desirable. 
The people had taken no part in the insurrection and no- 
where in the province was there any resistance to American 
authorit3^ An act providing for the government of the 
province and its settlements was accordingly passed on 
November 23, 1900, Benguet being thus the first province 
to pass from the control of the militaiy. 

In drafting this act I was fortunate in having the co- 
operation of Mr. Otto Scheerer, a German citizen who had 
lived for a number of years among the Benguet Igorots, 
understood them fully and was most kindly disposed 
toward them. 

The Benguet law, in considerably ampUfied form, was 
applied to Nueva Vizcaya when that province was or- 
ganized on January' 28, 1902, and on April 7, 1902, a care- 
fully considered act entitled "An Act providing for the 
Establishment of Local Civil Governments in the Town- 
ships and Settlements of Nueva Vizcaya" was passed 
by the commission. 

On May 28, 1902, the province of Lepanto-Bontoc was 
established. It had thi-ee sub-provinces, Amburayan, 
Lepanto and Bontoc. The two Nueva Vizcaya acts above 
mentioned were made applicable to it, and to its towns, 
respectively. 

On June 23, 1902, an act was passed organizing the 
province of Palawan (Paragua) and extending to it, and 
to its towns, the more essential provisions of the two Nueva 
Vizcaya acts. 

559 



560 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

On the same day iMindoro was incorporated viith the 
province of ]Marinduque under the regular Pro^•incial 
Government Act, which was then being made applicable 
to all provmces populated chiefly by Filipinos. As 
might have been anticipated, it did not prove feasible 
properly to administer the affairs of ^Nlindoro under this 
act, and on November 10, 1902, a province of Alindoro, 
including the main island and numerous neighbouring 
small islands, was established under a law embodjing 
the essential provisions of the Nueva Vizcaya Act. Cer- 
tain provisions of the Nueva "\'izcaya to■w^lship and settle- 
ment act were made applicable to its municipalities, 
while on December 4, 1902, other provisions of the same 
act were made applicable to the settlements of the wild 
Mangyans, who occupy the whole interior of this great 
island so far as it is occupied at all. 

The desirabihty of imiform legislation for the govern- 
ment of the non-Christian tribes, except those of the 
Moro Province, soon became evident, and after much 
experience in the practical working of the several acts 
above mentioned under the conditions presented in the 
five provinces, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Lepanto-Bontoc, 
Palawan and Mindoro, I drafted the so-called "Special 
Provincial Government Act," and "The Township Gov- 
ernment Act." The former was made applicable to the 
five provinces above mentioned, and the latter to all 
settlements of non-Christian tribes tlii-oughout the Philip- 
pines except those of the Moro Province. 

On August 20, 1907, an act was passed carving the prov- 
ince of Agusan out of territor^^ wliich had previously be- 
longed to Surigao and Misamis, and organizmg it under 
the Special Provincial Government Act. 

Finally, on August 18, 1908, the Mountain Province 
was established in northern Luzon. 

At the same time that the Ifugao territory was separated 
from Nueva Vizcaj-a there was added to the latter prov- 
ince the Ilongot territory previously divided between 
Isabela, Tayabas, Nueva Ecija and Pangasindn. 



THE GOVERNMENT OF THE NON-CHRISTIAN TRIBES 561 

Before considering the details of the work accomplished 
in the several special government provinces and sub- 
provinces, I will state the general principles which have 
been found useful in bringing the non-Christian peoples 
under control and in establishing friendly relations with 
them, and will explain how these principles have been 
applied in actual practice. 

I have always considered the opening up of adequate 
lines of communication an indispensable prerequisite to 
the control and development of any country, and this is 
especially true of the territory of the wild man. No 
matter how unruly he may be, he is apt to become 
good when one can call on him at 2. .30 a.m., since that is 
the hour when devils, anitos and asudng are abroad, and 
he therefore wants to stay peaceably in his own house ! 
Again and again we have built a trail to an ugly, fighting, 
head-hunting settlement whose people have at first thrown 
spears at our road labourers, but later, when they found 
that the trail was really going to arrive, have ended by 
building one out to meet it. Constabulary garrisons 
which we have expected to be forced to establish have 
often proved unnecessary when communication was 
opened up. 

We have had scanty funds for public works in these 
regions. At the outset I had to get along with four or 
five thousand dollars a year in the territory now included 
in the Mountain Province and the task which confronted 
me seemed utterly hopeless. Nevertheless, I made a 
beginning and did the best I could. Now the Mountain 
Province has annual receipts of about $85,000, of which 
some $65,000 ai-e expended for public works and perma- 
nent improvements. This is made possible by the fact 
that the salaries and wages of the provincial officers, and 
certain contingent expenses as well, are met by direct 
appropriation of insular funds. 

Another principle to which I have steadfastly adhered 
is never to impose taxes on a wild man until he can be 



562 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

made to realize that direct good to him will result from 
their collection. One of several reasons why the Span- 
iards never could dominate the hill people of Luzon was 
that they insisted at the very outset upon exacting "trib- 
ute" from them. The hill people regarded the money 
thus contributed as a present to the man who collected 
it, and rebelled against making presents to people who did 
not treat them well and whom they did not like. 

The most important tax in the special government 
provinces is the so-called "public improvement tax." 

The law imposing it does not become operative on the 
non-Christians of any given territory without the prior 
approval of the secretaiy of the interior. 

It provides for the collection from every able-bodied 
adult male between the ages of 18 and 55 of an annual 
contribution of two pesos.' The taxpayer is allowed to 
render ten days of service upon public works in lieu of 
cash payment if he prefers, and most non-Christians do 
prefer to settle the obligation in this way. All money 
derived from this source is expended on public works, 
going to pay for supervision, dynamite, powder, caps, fuse, 
steel, road tools and the hke, as it is seldom necessary to 
hire labourers. 

We paid for all labour on the fii'st trails constructed, 
and it was only when the people themselves learned to 
comprehend the usefulness to them of improved means 
of communication that I made the pubhc improvement 
tax applicable to them. 

Except under very special circumstances, I did not allow 
the construction of a trail with a grade higher than six 
per cent. There are two reasons for this rule. First, the 
torrential rain-storms of the tropics rapidly destroy high- 
grade trails in spite of all efforts to provide adequate 
drainage ; second, if trails are constructed on low grades, 
every shovelful of earth which is thrown is just so much 
accompUshed toward the eventual opening up of cart 
1 Equivalent to one dollar. 







J3 



THE GOVERNMENT OF THE NON-CHRISTIAN TRIBES 563 

roads, carriage roads or automobile roads, the whole sub- 
sequent question involved being one of widening and 
surfacing. 

In constructing a trail we first carefully stake what 
seems the best possible line between the two points to be 
connected ; then build on this line a path which is cut 
into the hill ' four feet, the dirt being thrown outward. 
No special effort is made to give the bank a proper slope ; 
the Almighty does this in the course of the first rainy 
season, when the earth sloughs off on to the trail in those 
places where it stands too steeply. It is then promptly 
thrown off the road-bed while still loose, and much hard 
pick and shovel work and many "pop shots" are thus 
saved. Only the most necessary drainage is provided 
before the first rainy season, for the reason that experi- 
ence has shown that what seem dry beds of streams and 
look as if they would be converted into raging torrents 
during the rainy season sometimes then hardly carry 
water enough to wash one's face in ; while, on the other 
hand, destructive torrents come charging down the crests 
of hogbacks in places where one would least expect 
them, and cut out the trail completely where they strike 
it. With the first rain the maintenance gangs get to work, 
noting where drainage is especially needed and providing 
it, throwing off loose earth and stones when sUdes occur, 
and widening the trail or cutting off sharp comers when 
not otherwise engaged. 

American and Fihpino road foremen were at first used 
for trail construction, but the Igorots, Ifugaos and Ka- 
lingas, all of whom are very intelligent people, soon learned 
to serve as foremen. I had Ifugaos who ran about clad 
in clouts onlj^, but were nevertheless quite capable of 
carrv^mg a road or trail across the face of a precipice, 
doing all of the powder work. 

The wild men soon learn to take gi'eat pride in their 
trails, and usually keep them in an excellent state of re- 
' Nearly all our trails are on steep mountain sides. 



564 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

pair. It is a remarkable fact that on the thousand miles 
of road and trail which have been constructed since the 
American occupation in the Mountain Province and 
Nueva Vizcaya no one has as yet been murdered. In 
the wildest regions there has been an understanding from 
the outset that people travelling over government roads 
were to be let alone ! 

The establishment of government, and of a decent state 
of pubhc order, have gone hand in hand with the opening 
up of hues of communication. Wherever practicable it is 
highly desirable to police the wild man's country with 
wild men, and this has proved far easier than was antici- 
pated. The Bontoc Igorots make good, and the Ifugaos 
most excellent, constabulary soldiers. They are faith- 
ful, efficient, absolutely loyal and imphcitly obedient. 
The Ifugaos are born riflemen, and then- carbine practice 
is little short of marvellous when one considers their very 
limited experience. Natural fighters as they are, the people 
of these two tribes make the best of soldiers. They are 
absolutely fearless, and fight much as do the Ghurkas of 
India. Benguet Igorots and Kalingas are now being en- 
listed as constabulary soldiers, and from the very outset 
the people of many of the non-Christian tribes of the 
islands have been used as policemen in their own territory. 

The annual inspection trip which the secretary of the 
interior is required by law to make to every province 
organized under the special provincial government act 
has become very important in the control and advance- 
ment of the non-Christian tribes. 

It is now customary to hold fiestas, or as they are 
locally designated, canaos, at central points, to which are 
invited great numbers of the wild people from the neigh- 
bouring country. At the outset these gatherings served 
to bring together men who had hardly seen each other ex- 
cept over the tops of their shields when lances were flying. 
They were all friendly with me, but they were by no means 
friendly with each other, and trouble threatened on vari- 



THE GOVERNMENT OF THE NON-CHRISTIAN TRIBES 565 

ous occasions. Within the space of thirty seconds I have 
seen a couple of thousand men draw their war knives 
and snatch up their lances, and have feared that a record 
killing was about to occur, but in the end the excited 
warriors always quieted down. 

We took advantage of these great gatherings to bring 
about the settlement of old difficulties between hostile 
towns and they have thus proved an important factor in 
the establishment of peace and order throughout the 
wild man's territory. Furthermore, they afford excellent 
opportunity to discuss past events and future plans under 
the most favourable conditions. I well remember the oc- 
casion on which the Ifugao headman of Quiangan re- 
quested that the public improvement tax be imposed upon 
them and their fellow tribesmen. There was at that time 
but one decent trail in this sub-province. It had been 
built by paid labour. Some of the headmen who had 
gone to Bontoc with me had seen excellent trails there 
and had asked why Ifugao could not have some just as 
good. I had replied that the Bontoc Igorots were more 
civilized then the Ifugaos and had come so to appreciate 
the benefit of trails that they were willing to build them 
without being paid for their labour. Vehement exception 
was taken to my contention that the Bontoc Igorots were 
further advanced than the Ifugaos. The latter insisted 
that they were much better men than the Igorots, and 
could and would build better trails. I explained to them 
in detail the practical working of the public improvement 
tax, and asked if they would be willing to have this contri- 
bution imposed on them. They insisted that they wanted 
it, and I finally gave it to them, although I doubted their 
ability to bring their people into line. On the following day 
there was a precisely similar occurrence at Banaue. I soon 
found that I had underrated the influence of the headmen. 
That year twenty thousand Ifugaos worked out their road 
tax. The following year twenty-four thousand men ren- 
dered the prescribed ten days' service ; and the number 



566 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

has steadily increased year by year ever since, with the 
result that the sub-province is crisscrossed with trails, 
many of which are already wide enough for considerable 
distances to permit the passage of automobiles if they 
could be brought there, while the main line of communi- 
cation with Bontoc on the one hand and the capital of 
Nueva Vizcaya on the other is open for cart travel from 
the western to the eastern boundary of the sub-province. 

At many of the canaos we have athletic contests, which 
the wild men, with their splendid physical development, 
greatly enjoy. It is much better for two hostile towns to 
settle their differences by a tug-of-war, or a wrestling 
match, than by fighting over them, and they are now often 
quite wilhng to adopt these more pacific means provided 
the audience is sufficiently large and enthusiastic, for the 
average wild man has a very human love of playing to 
the gallery. He takes to the athletic contests of the 
American like a duck to the water, and soon learns to 
excel in them. No sooner is a cafiao over than those who 
have taken part in it begin to look forward to the next 
one, and the small expense involved is repaid a thousand 
fold in the good feeling produced. 

In the course of a year the people of each of the non- 
Christian tribes do many things for us simply because we 
want them to, and it seems only fair that we should give 
them at least one opportunity during the same period 
to have a good time in their own way. 

The personal equation is of vital importance in dealing 
with wild men. They know nothing of laws or pohcies, 
but they understand individuals uncommonly well. 

The men in immediate control of them must be abso- 
lutely fearless, must make good every promise or threat, 
must never punish except in case of deliberate wrong- 
doing committed in spite of warning duly given, and 
must, when punishment is thus made necessary, inflict 
it sternly but not in anger. The wild man thus dealt 
with is likely to call quits when he has had enough, and if 



THE GOVERNMENT OF THE NON-CHRISTIAN TRIBES 567 

he promises to behave must be treated like a man of his 
word, which he usually is. 

As a result of such just, firm and kindly treatment 
governors and lieutenant-governors soon find themselves 
endowed by their people mth powers far in excess of those 
conferred on them by law. They are ex officio justices 
of the peace, but are just as apt to be asked to settle a 
head-hunting feud between towns, which has caused a 
dozen bloody murders, as a quarrel growing out of the 
joint ownership of a pig. They are the law and the 
prophets, and no appeals are taken from any just decisions 
which they may make, nor is their authority questioned. 
On the contrar}^, their people usually object when sent 
to the courts, as is of course often necessary. 

These officers are always on the watch for opportunities 
to get the people of hostile towns to swap head-axes, or 
dance together, and so become friends. 

When one town has been in the very act of raiding another 
the timely appearance of an unarmed Apo ' has sufficed 
to shame the culprits into laying down their arms and 
going home without them. 

No one who has not seen for himself can appreciate the 
courage, tact and patience of the handful of Americans 
who have not only brought under control the wildest 
tribes of the Phifippines, but have estabhshed the most 
friendly relations with them. 

Having now outlined in a general way the pi-inciples 
which have been followed in the work for the non-Chris- 
tian tribes of the special government provinces, I will 
set forth some of the more important results which have 
been obtained. 

In Benguet, which under the Spanish regime was or- 
ganized as a comandancia,^ there dwell a kindly, in- 

' An untranslatable term of respect and affection given by the 
fighting men of northern Luzon to rulers whom they like. 

- A designation applied to a political division of less importance 
than a province, governed by a military officer. 



568 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

dustrious, self-respecting, silent tribe of agriculturists 
known as the Benguet Igorots. Governmental control was 
established over them by the Spaniards. They have 
never indulged in head-hunting nor caused any serious 
disturbance of public order, but have persistently refused 
to give up their ancient rehgious behefs, and for this 
reason were not allowed by the Spaniards to obtain ed- 
ucation, so that, with rare individual exceptions, they 
were completely illiterate. When I first visited their 
country I found the men clad in clouts, supplemented 
in the case of the more wealthy by cotton blankets. The 
women usually wore both skirts and upper garments, 
and bound towels around their heads for turbans. 

The Benguet Igorots were formerly compelled to trade 
for the necessaries of life in the lowlands of the neighbour- 
ing province of Union, where they were shamelessly ex- 
ploited by the Fihpinos. They had been obhged by the 
Spaniards to pay taxes for which they received no ade- 
quate return. They had furthermore been roughly 
treated by the Insurgents during the war, and were ex- 
tremely fearful and timid. Men ran away at my ap- 
proach. Women overtaken unexpectedly on the trail 
leaped down the steep mountain sides, squatting where 
they first struck the ground and covering their faces 
with their hands. 

It proved a simple matter to establish friendly and help- 
ful relations with these simple and gentle people. For- 
tunately for them Mr. Otto Scheerer, who had lived among 
them for years, helped organize their settlements. Some 
of them were still so wild that they ran away at his 
approach, sitting up on the high mountain sides and 
watching him from a distance, but declining to come down. 
Patience, perseverance and kindness soon overcame their 
fears, and local governments were established in the sev- 
eral settlements. 

Travel through Benguet was then dangerous and 
difficult because of the condition of the trails, which were 



THE GOVERNMENT OF THE NON-CHRISTIAN TRIBES 569 

mere footpaths. None of the streams were bridged. 
Work was promptly begun upon a trail system, and now 
one can ride a large horse rapidly to every settlement of 
importance. 

At first the people had nothing to sell, and no money 
with which to buy what they needed. From time to time 
they packed coffee and Irish potatoes down to the low- 
lands and traded them for salt, cloth and steel, which they 
needed, and for vmo, which was poison to them. 

We have protected them in their property rights and 
encouraged them to increase their agricultural holdings. 
As they were too ignorant to understand and exercise 
their right to obtain free patent to small tracts of land 
which they had long occupied and cultivated, I sent out 
a special survej' party to help them make out their appli- 
cations in due form. 

The gradual development of Baguio, first as a health 
resort and later as the summer capital, afforded them an 
ever increasing market for their products ; while trail 
construction, the opening of the Benguet Road and the 
erection of buildings at Baguio made it possible for every 
one desiring it to secure remunerative employment. In 
the old Spanish days they had been forced to build trails 
without compensation, and to feed themselves while 
doing it. Wlien they realized that the new regime had 
come to stay, their gratitude knew no bounds. 

For a time they could not be persuaded to tr>^ the white 
man's medicines, but ultimately the wife of the most 
important chief in the province, who was dying of dysen- 
tery, was persuaded to let Dr. J. B. Thomas, a verj' com- 
petent American government physician, treat her case. 
She recovered, and the news spread far and wide. After 
that Igorots came in constantly increasing numbers to 
the hospital which had meanwhile been established, and 
to-day their sick and injured are often carried to it from a 
distance of fifty miles or more. 

Schools were soon established in several important 



570 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

settlements. The boys proved apt pupils. At the outset 
parents would not allow their girls to attend. Gradu- 
ally the prejudice against sending them to school was 
overcome, and at three different places girls are now given 
instruction in English and in practical industrial work. 

The children learn English readily and the old folks 
pick it up from them. Mrs. Ahce M. Kelly, who started 
the first Igorot school, taught her boys respectfully to 
salute her in the morning, and shortly thereafter Ameri- 
can travellers over the Benguet trails were addressed by 
Igorots with the cheerful greeting, "Good morning, Mrs. 
Kelly." Their feelings were doubtless identical with 
those of the traveller in Japan to whom a beginning student 
of book English said, "Good morning. Sir, or Madam, as 
the case may be !" 

The Benguet Igorots have responded quickly to the 
opportunities afforded them, and several serious dangers 
which have threatened their progress have been met and 
overcome. 

The Filipino peoples will never become victims of al- 
coholism. They drink in moderation, but seldom be- 
come intoxicated. The non-Christian peoples, on the 
contrary, never lose an opportunity to get boiling drunk. 
All of them make fermented alcoholic drinks of their 
own. Fortunately most of these beverages are compara- 
tively mild and harmless ; but if a hill man can get hold 
of bad vino or worse whiskey he will get so drunk that he 
thinks he has to hang on to the grass in order to lie on the 
ground. 

The Filipinos had long taken advantage of this weak- 
ness of the Benguet-Lepanto Igorots to debauch them 
with vino and cheat them while they were intoxicated. 
I regret to say that since the American occupation some 
white men who wanted them as labourers have used liquor 
as a bait. Because of these conditions, and of more or 
less similar ones throughout the rest of the wild man's 
territory, I drafted and secured the passage of an act mak- 



THE GOVERNMENT OF THE NON-CHRISTIAN TRIBES 571 

ing it a criminal offence to sell or give white man's liquor 
to a wild man, or for such a man to drink such liquor or 
have it in his possession. This law has been very success- 
fully enforced. Although Benguet-Lepanto Igorots have 
sometimes succeeded in purchasing hquor at Baguio or 
Cervantes, their use of strong alcohohc stimulants has 
steadily decreased, and throughout much of the wild man's 
territory strong drink is absolutely unobtainable. 

The Benguet Igorots have an abiding love for gambling, 
and some of them learned new tricks, which did them no 
good, through contact with Fihpinos when working on 
the Benguet Road. Strict enforcement of the law against 
gambling has, however, prevented any considerable spread 
of this evil. 

One of the most interesting results thus far obtained 
is the arousing of a strong commercial instinct among 
them. It was literally true at the outset that one could 
not buy from them an egg, a chicken or a basket of ca- 
niotes, much less a pig or a cow. Now special market 
buildings have been erected for them at Baguio, and they 
are thronged on Sundays. The Igorots have money and 
spend it wisely. They also have farm products to sell, 
know what they are worth, and insist on getting full value 
for them. Among other things there may be mentioned 
sleek cattle, the best fat hogs grown in the Philippines, 
chickens, eggs, cabbages, Irish potatoes, peas, beans, 
tomatoes, squashes, camotes and strawberries. 

There have been some interesting episodes in connec- 
tion with the work for the Benguet Igorots. At one time 
it became necessary for the provhicial governor, Wm. F. 
Pack, to undergo a severe and dangerous surgical opera- 
tion. Word spread through Benguet that the doctors 
were going to cut him to pieces. Palasi, iin old Igorot chief 
of Atok, gathered his cohorts and came in hot haste to 
Baguio to stop it. He was assured by Governor Pack 
himself that the cutting was to be done with his consent, 
but still entertained some doubts about the matter and 



572 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

asked to be allowed to be present. His request was 
granted. There was then no operating room in Baguio, 
so one was extemporized in the governor's house. He 
walked out to the operating table, and Palasi, who was 
standing by, once more asked hun if he was to be cut up 
with his own consent, offering to stop the performance 
even then if the governor so wished ! 

On March 30, 1913, 1 sat at a luncheon given at Trinidad, 
Benguet, in honour of former Lieutenant-Governor E. A. 
Eckman, who had just been promoted to the governor- 
ship of the Mountain Province. At the long tables were 
seated a representative gathering of decently clad Ben- 
guet Igorot head-men, the hosts of the occasion. They 
understood the use of knives, forks and spoons. At the 
close of the luncheon they presented Governor Eckman 
with a beautiful silver cup. The presentation speech was 
made by an Igorot named Juan Carino, who had been 
shot and badly wounded by American soldiers from whom 
he foolishly endeavoured to escape in 1900 ! 

Fortunately old Juan was not killed. Like every other 
Igorot in Benguet he is to-day a good friend of the Amer- 
icans. The people of his tribe are now sober, industrious, 
cheerful, contented and prosperous. As time passes they 
keep cleaner, wear more and better clothes and build better 
houses. In this case, at least, a primitive people has come 
in close contact with the white man and has profited 
by it. 

Lepanto, like Benguet, was a comandancia in the 
Spanish days. Its Igorot inhabitants are fellow-tribes- 
men of their Benguet neighbours, and like them are, and 
have long been, peaceful agriculturists, raising camotes, 
rice, coffee and cattle. They also mine gold and copper. 
In the extreme southeastern and the extreme northern 
parts of Lepanto the people are wilder and less law- 
abiding than those of Benguet, and some of them are prone 
to indulge in cattle stealing. 

This subprovince has one Ilocano town, Cervantes, 



THE GOVERNMENT OF THE NON-CHRISTIAN TRIBES 573 

which was made the capital of the province of Lepanto- 
Bontoc. At the outset communication with the coast 
was maintained over a very bad horse-trail crossing the 
coast range at Tilad Pass. It zigzagged up one slope of 
the mountains and down the other on a grade such as to 
make travel over it very difficult. Furthermore, after 
reaching the lowlands on the west side of the range, it 
crossed a river some fourteen times. During the rainy 
season there were weeks at a time during which this stream 
could not be forded. In the early days of the American oc- 
cupation a good wagon road was built fiom the coast to 
the point where the trail began, and the trail itself was 
put in the best possible condition. It was subsequently 
well maintained, but after the estabUshment of a Filipino 
provincial government in South Ilocos the wagon road 
was allowed to fall into such a state of neglect that travel 
over it, even for persons on horseback, became impossible 
during wet weather. Mr. Kane, the supervisor of the 
Mountain Province, was nearly drowned in mud when 
trying to ride over it, being thrown from his horse into 
soft ooze so deep that his hands did not reach bottom, and 
had it not been for a timely rescue by FiHpinos who 
chanced to be passing, he would certainly have lost his life. 
Although forty or fifty thousand pesos' worth of supplies 
were annually sent into the mountain country by the 
people of South Ilocos over this trail, that province re- 
fused to spend a peso in keeping the connecting road up. 
The constantly growing trade of the mountain country 
made it, in my opinion, necessary that it should have 
a good outlet to the coast, and a route for a road was 
surveyed from Cervantes directly west over the Malaya 
range, traversing the subprovince of Amburayan from 
east to west and coming out at the municipahty of Tagu- 
din. In order to prevent the occurrence of a state of 
affairs such as had rendered the Tilad Pass trail practically 
useless during much of the rainy season, this Ilocano 
town was annexed to Lepanto-Bontoc, thus giving the 



574 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

province a route to the coast within the limits of its own 
territory. 

The people of Tagudin were at first incUned to protest 
against annexation to the country of the non-Christians, 
but soon discovered that the change was greatly to their 
advantage. Their town had long been threatened with 
destruction by the encroachment of the Amburayan 
River, and they had appealed in vain to South Ilocos 
for help. The Mountain Province gave them assistance 
in the construction of a protecting wall which held the 
river within bounds and adequately safeguarded the 
town. Their business rapidly increased when Tagudin 
became the western terminus of an important trade route. 
They soon began to take an active interest in improving 
local conditions, and their municipality was gradually 
changed from a dirty, down-at-the-heel place to a neat, 
clean, sanitary town in which its people could take 
justifiable pride. An old feud which had long separated 
the leading men into two parties so bitterly hostile to each 
other that the mere fact of advocacy of a given measure 
by one of them was sufficient to cause deterinined op- 
position to it by the other, died out, and Tagudin is 
to-day quite a model place in comparison with the gen- 
eral run of Filipino towns. 

The opening up of transportation lines has placed the 
people of Lepanto within much easier reach of a market 
for their rice, coffee and cattle. The successful combating 
of cattle disease by the Bureau of Agricultm'e has been 
a great boon to them, as has the suppression of the hquor 
traffic. Schools have been estabhshed in a number of 
their settlements. Last, but by no means least, their 
lives are no longer endangered by the head-hunting 
Bontoc Igorots. They are now a peaceful, prosperous 
people, and are progressing steadily in civilization. 

In Spanish days there was a comandancia known as 
Amburayan wedged in between the provinces of La Union 
and Ilocos Sur. After the American occupation this 



THE GOVERNMENT OF THE NON-CHRISTIAN TRIBES 575 

territory was at first organized as a part of Ilocos Sur, 
but it soon became necessary to make of it a separate 
subprovince and add it to Lepanto-Bontoc, to the end 
that its people might be adequately protected. In con- 
tact on two sides with Christian FiUpinos, they were 
shamefully maltreated and oppressed, and they appealed 
to me for help. 

Filipinos were graciously permitting them to cut fire- 
wood and lumber in the public forests, and taking the 
lion's share of the products in return for their consent ! 
They were debauching the Igorots with vino. I remember 
particularly the case of one unfortunate individual who 
owned five carabaos, two of which got to fighting. As 
usually happens with these animals, the one that was 
whipped ran away, and the victor blindly pursued it. 
Both charged over a precipice and broke their legs. The 
owner killed them, dressed them, and divided the meat 
among his family and friends. He was arrested, given 
a mock trial for killing carabaos without a Ucense, and 
fined three carabaos — all he had left — which of course 
went to his persecutors ! 

Instances of this sort of tiling could be indefinitely 
multiplied. 

Amburayan was freed from the vino traflSc soon after 
it became a subpro^dnce of Lepanto-Bontoc. This alone 
was a great boon to its Igorot inhabitants, v.'ho Httle by 
Uttle were helped to assert their rights as they gained 
greater confidence in their American lieutenant-governor 
and learned to go to him freely with their troubles. They 
had so long been helpless and hopeless that it was some 
time before they could be convinced that a new day had 
dawned for them. 

And now let us betake ourselves to the country' of the 
real wild man, and consider briefly past and present con- 
ditions in the subprovince of Ifugao. 

The people of the tribe known as Ifugaos are a remark- 
able lot. Their country is almost entirely made up of 



576 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

exceptionally steep mountain sides with hardly a naturally 
level piece of ground in it. On almost precipitous slopes 
they have built wonderful series of irrigated rice terraces 
held in position by stone retaining walls which have been 
laid without mortar or cementing material of any kind, 
and are so skilfully constructed that they withstand even 
the terrific rains which sometimes occur during typhoons. 
Accurate rainfall statistics for Ifugao are not obtainable, 
but, as we have seen, in the neighbouring subprovince of 
Benguet, there is of record a period of twenty-four hours 
during which forty-nine and nine tenths inches of rain fell ! 
Under such conditions as this, exceptionally good work 
is necessary to prevent structures of any sort built on 
mountain sides from sUding into the valleys below. 

Up to the time of the American occupation the Ifugaos 
had always been inveterate head-hunters. Unlike the 
Bontoc Igorots, who depend on large numbers of fighting 
men for protection, they live in small villages usually 
placed in inaccessible spots which can be reached only by 
ascending the almost perpendicular rice-terrace walls. 

Not only were the people of this tribe then constantly 
fighting among themselves, but they from time to time 
raided the Bontoc country or that of the Kalingas, and 
they persistently victimized the people of Nueva Vizcaya, 
making travel so unsafe on the main road between Nueva 
Vizcaya and Isabela that the Spaniards found it necessary 
to maintain several garrisons along it, and forbade private 
persons to pass over it without a iniHtary escort. Even 
so, parties of travellers were cut down from time to time, 
the savages making their attacks at the noon hour when 
Spanish soldiers had a way of going to sleep beside the 
road. 

I have already narrated my earliest experiences in 
this subprovince, which occurred in 1903, and have called 
attention to the fact that when I returned in 1905 I was 
able to traverse it from east to west without the slightest 
danger. This condition of affairs was due to the efforts 



THE GOVERNMENT OF THE NON-CHRISTIAN TRIBES 577 

of Governor Louis G. Knight, supplemented by those of 
Captain L. E. Case of the Philippine constabulary, who 
had established his headquarters at Banaue and had 
exercised a strong influence over his unrul}' constituents. 

Perhaps I ought to change my statement and say that 
order was established by Captain Case, assisted by 
Governor Knight. Captain Case was very fortunate in 
his deaUngs with the Ifugaos. He was a kindly man, 
who won their friendship at the outset. He resorted to 
stern measures only when such measures were so imper- 
atively necessary that the Ifugaos themselves fully rec- 
ognized the justice of employing them. 

On my trip through the Ifugao countrj^ in 1906 I was 
accompanied from Mayoyao to Banaue by Lieutenant 
Jeff D. Gallman, who had come to the former place to 
meet me. This young man had been especially selected 
by Colonel Rivers, of the Phihppine constabulary, to be 
trained for work among the Ifugaos. Never was a selec- 
tion more fortunate. When Captain Case injured him- 
self by over-exertion in cUmbing a steep, terraced moun- 
tain side in the hot sun, and had to return to the United 
States for recuperation, Gallman took up his work and 
devoted himself most effectively to the task of bringing 
the Ifugaos under control, protecting them, and improving 
their conditions. He was a dead shot with revolver and 
carbine ; was absolutely fearless ; was of a kindly, cheer- 
ful disposition, and soon not only won their respect but 
gained their love. 

As the years went by, the Ifugaos came to regard him as 
but little less than a god. He had extraordinary success 
in training them for service as constabulary soldiers. 
On the occasion of the first general rifle competition 
between all the constabulary organizations in northern 
Luzon ten Ifugao soldiers were sent to the lowlands to 
participate. Gallman, who had trained them, was travel- 
ling with me at the time, so they were taken down by a 
comparatively inexperienced ofRcer who, instead of se- 



578 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

lecting the best ten men from among the ninety possible 
candidates, took ten from the twenty who happened to 
be stationed at Mayoyao. 

The hot climate of the lowlands troubled them. The 
Filipino constabulary soldiers made fun of them because 
they wore no trousers, and bedevilled them in various 
waj^s. The best shot among them lost his nerve in con- 
sequence. Nevertheless, when the competition was over 
they ranked Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10, respectively, 
an Ilocano soldier from the lowlands being tied with the 
last man for tenth place ! 

Ifugao soldiers are submissive to discipline, obey orders 
implicitly, and are loyal and brave to a fault. When 
on duty they attend strictly to business. No prisoner 
ever yet escaped from one of them. This is more than 
can be said of the Bontoc Igorots. It is of record that 
on one occasion when a prisoner guarded by a raw recruit 
of the latter tribe made a break for hberty, the recruit 
followed him, firing as he ran. After missing the fleeing 
man five times, he threw his carbine at him, lance-fashion, 
and speared him with the bayonet ! So long as an Ifugao 
has a cartridge in his magazine he does not indulge in 
bayonet practice. 

The same general policy was pursued in Ifugao which 
had been found so effective elsewhere. Lines of com- 
munication were opened up ; after a short time criminals 
were for the most part apprehended and turned in by the 
head-men themselves ; whenever possible, hostile towns 
were left to sulk until they had learned from the ex- 
perience of their neighbours that there was nothing to 
be afraid of or to complain about, and vohmtarily came 
into the fold ; head-hunting was suppressed with a heavy 
hand, but only after due warning as to what the fate of 
transgressors would be. It is now some six years since 
a head has been taken in this region. Travel not only 
in Nueva Vizcaya but in Ifugao itself is at present ab- 
solutely safe, and general conditions as to law and order 










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THE GOVERNMENT OF THE NON-CHRISTIAN TRIBES 579 

are better than those which prevail in many American 
communities. The people have been assisted in the con- 
struction of irrigation ditches, and little by httle are being 
persuaded to come down from their steep and over- 
populated mountain sides to the neighbouring fertile, 
level vacant plains. They are loj^al and friendly to a 
marked degree, and I experience no greater pleasure than 
that which I derive from travelling through their country. 

Credit for this happy result is chiefly due to the efforts 
of Jeff D. Gallman, who speedily rose to be a captain in 
the constabulary and at an early date was made lieu- 
tenant-governor of Ifugao. He has done a monumental 
work for civilization in the Philippines. 

The Kalinga country was at the outset administered 
as a part of Bontoc. This made that subprovince so 
large that one lieutenant-governor could not hope satis- 
factorily to cover it, especially as there were no good lines 
of conmumication. .Although a constabulary garrison 
was early stationed at the town of Lubuagan, compara- 
tively httle progress was made in bringing the Kalingas 
under effective control until their territory was made 
a separate subprovince of the Mountain province and 
Lieutenant-Governor Walter F. Hale, of Amburayan, 
was transferred to it as its lieutenant-governor. 

Lieutenant-Governor Hale has now been in the special 
government service longer than any other man who 
remains in it, and has an admirable record for quiet 
efficiency. Like Gallman, he is a man with chilled-steel 
nerve, and he needed it in the early days in KaUnga where 
the people, who had been allowed to run wild too long, did 
not take as kindly to the estabhshment of governmental 
control as had the Bontoc Igorots and the Ifugaos. The 
Kahngas are a fine lot of head-hunting savages, physically 
magnificently developed, mentally acute, but naturally 
very wild. Hale soon made friends with many of the 
local chiefs, and thereafter when he received invitations 
from outlying rancherias to come over and have his head 



580 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

taken would quietly accept to the extent of setting out 
accompanied by a few soldiers, or none at all, and 
talking the matter over with the people who had made 
the threat ! In the end they always decided that he was 
too good a man to kill. 

Here, as in Ifugao, we felt our way, avoiding trouble 
with hostile settlements as long as it was possible to do so. 
And here, as in Bontoc and Ifugao, head-hunting was 
abolished and law and order were estabhshed practically 
without IdUing. In a few instances settlements which 
absolutely refused to come into the fold, and persisted 
in raiding and killing in the territory of people who had 
already become friendly, were given severe lessons, 
which they invariably took in good part. 

One of the pleasant things about dealing with people 
like the Kalingas and the Ifugaos is their manliness when 
they fight. They let one know, so plainly that there can 
be no mistake about it, whether they are friendly or 
hostile, and even if thoroughly whipped they bear no ill 
will provided they know that they deserve a whipping, 
but come calmly walking into camp to tell you that they 
have had enough and are going to be good. And they 
keep their promises. 

In Kalinga, as elsewhere throughout the Mountain 
Province outside of Apayao, an admirable trail system 
has now been opened up and travel is not only safe but 
comfortable. The people are most friendly and loyal, 
and while head-hunting has not completely disappeared, 
cases of it are extremely rare and occur only in the most 
remote parts of the subprovince. 

Apayao has proved a hard nut to crack. As previously 
stated, I made a trip across this subprovince from west 
to east in 1906, without encountering any hostility what- 
soever. Unfortunately, the officer who commanded my 
escort saw fit to go blundering back there with a con- 
stabulary command a few weeks later. He managed to 
get into a fight and was wliipped and chased out of the 



THE GOVERNMENT OF THE NON-CHRISTIAN TRIBES 581 

countrj'. A so-called punitive expedition was then sent 
in, which came near meeting a similar fate, but finally 
withdrew in fairly good order after ha^^ng inflicted sUght 
damage on the town of Guenned, the people of which 
made the original attack. 

Apayao was at first organized as a subprovince of 
Cagayan, and Colonel Bias Villamor, who had accompanied 
me on my two longest exploration trips through northern 
Luzon, was appointed its lieutenant-governor. The 
attitude of the pro\'incial officials of Cagayan toward 
the difficult task which confronted them in Apayao was 
most unsatisfactory. Indeed, the governor of that prov- 
ince informed me that in his opinion the best way to 
settle the Apayao problem was to kill all of the inhabitants. 
As Colonel Villamor reported that there were some 
fifty-three thousand of them ' tliis procedure would have 
presented practical, as well as moral, chfficulties ! I myself 
was of the opinion that the Apayao people, who proved 
to be wild Tingians, were altogether too good to kill. 

Colonel \'illamor was a native of Abra, where ap- 
proximately half the population is made up of Tingians 
who have attained to a high degree of civihzation. He was 
already quite famihar with the dialect spoken by these 
people, and speedily learned the language of their wild 
brethren in Apayao, many of whom understood Ilocano, 
which was his native tongue. 

At the outset he made excellent progress in bringing 
his people under control. The task was undoubtedly 
more difficult than that in any other subprovince of the 
Mountain Province, both because the Spaniards had 
failed to penetrate into this region, lea^ang the people 
untouched bj^ civilization up to the time of the American 
occupation, and for the further reason that their head- 
hunting is connected with religious behefs. Thej^ think 
that when a man dies his prospect for a good time in the 

1 This statement proved to be untrue. They number about twenty- 
five thousand. 



582 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

future world is bad unless the members of his family 
take a head within six months, and this idea has a ten- 
dency to keep society in a somewhat disturbed condition. 
For reasons which I have never been able fully to 
fathom, Villamor's progress in estabhshing governmental 
control grew steadily slower as time went by, and ulti- 
mately came to a standstill. During my absence from 
the islands it was deemed best to accept his resignation, 
for reasons not immediately connected with liis admin- 
istration of the affairs of his subprovince. Before sur- 
rendering his post he caused word to be spread among 
the Tingians that the kindly policy which had thus far 
been pursued in deaUng with them was to be superseded 
by one of severity, greatly alarming them, and seriously 
retarding work which he had quite auspiciously begun. 
There was absolutely no justification for his statements, 
as no one thought for a moment of dealing with the Apayao 
Tingians in a fashion differing at all from that invariably 
followed in our relations with non-Cliristians in the special 
government provinces. 

Mr. Norman G. Connor was appointed to succeed 
Senor Villamor. Mr. Connor had been acting governor 
of Nueva Vizcaya and had rendered very satisfactory 
service. He has made material progress in estabhshing 
control over the people of Apayao, where the work of 
trail construction has now begun. At the outset com- 
munication was maintained by boats on the Abulug River 
and its branches, near which most of the wild Tingian 
villages are situated, but it is a dangerous stream to 
navigate, especially when in flood, and hues of land com- 
munication must therefore be opened up. 

We found the subprovince of Bontoc peopled by a tribe 
of wild, warhke, head-hunting Igorots over whom the 
Spaniards had never been able to establish effective con- 
trol. At the time of the American occupation their 
numerous settlements were constantly at war with each 
other, and with the Kahngas and the Ifugaos as well. 



THE GOVERNMENT OF THE NON-CHRISTIAN TRIBES 583 

The Bontoc Igorots build large towns and depend on 
the numbers of their hardy fighting men for protection. 
Each town formerly kept a profit and loss account of heads 
with every town of its enemies. Physically these people 
are splendid men, and we soon found that they were 
usually both brave and fair in their fighting, formally 
making and breaking peace, and serving due notice on 
their enemies before attacking. 

If a small town felt itself aggrieved by a big one, it 
would send a messenger to say, "You have more fighting 
men than we have, but they are no good ! Pick fifteen 
of the best from your thousand and send them to a certain 
place at a certain time to meet fifteen real fighting men 
selected from among our five hundred. ' ' At the appointed 
time the tliirty warriors would meet in deadly combat, 
while their fellow-townsmen looked on. 

The Bontoc Igorots are naturally truthful and honest, 
and they soon became most friendly, gladly bringing 
many of their troubles to their lieutenant-governor for 
settlement. Fortunately, head-accounts between dif- 
ferent towns can be adjusted bj^ proper payments made 
by those who hold the highest scores. We took advantage 
of this fact to estabhsh peace between the towns, and when 
once established it was, as a rule, religiously kept. 

Trail construction was promptly inaugurated and has 
been steadily pushed. Most of the towns have thus been 
made readily accessible. 

When friendly relations had been established, and we 
were in a position to back orders with force if necessary, 
settlement after settlement was warned that head- 
hunting must cease and was further informed as to what 
would happen if the mandate was disobeyed. Certain 
dare-devils promptly broke over, partly, I fancy, to see 
what would happen, and partly, no doubt, because they 
found the influence of tribal customs too strong to resist. 
We made our warnings come true. One settlement re- 
quired three bitter lessons. For others a single mild one 



584 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

sufficed. The majority of the towns were content to get 
their experience vicariouslj^ We were amazed at our 
own success in stopping this horrible practice. At the 
outset we burned towns if their people engaged in head- 
hunting.' The Igorots recognized the justice of this 
action because the whole town was invariably cognizant 
of, and party to, every head-hunting raid made by any 
of its people. Later, when head-hunting became com- 
paratively rare, we began to deal with the individuals con- 
cerned. They were arrested, brought before the coiu-ts, 
and tried like any other criminals. To-day head-hunting 
in Bontoc is almost unknown. When it does occiu* the 
people themselves usually captvue and turn over the culprits. 

The respect of the Bontoc Igorots for the law is ex- 
traordinary. In 1910 a Constabulary soldier shot the 
presidente of Tinglayan without just cause. The people 
of the place rushed to arms, meaning to kill the soldier. 
Chief Agpad, assisted by the son of the murdered man, 
took station before the door of the house in which the 
assailant had sought refuge, and the two stood off then- fel- 
low-townsmen, sajdng that the government had pronaised 
to kill evil-doers and that this man must be tm'iied over 
to the government to be killed ! WTien I passed through 
their town a few weeks later, with Governor-General 
Forbes, they begged to have him killed promptly. 

In the early days I myself had a rather stormy clash 
with some of the Bontoc Igorots. Dm'ing Aguinaldo's 
long flight he had passed tlu'ough half a dozen of their 
towns, as had the American soldiers who pursued him. 
The Igorots did not like this, so tore out the trail to 
Ifugao, between Bontoc and Samoqui, and built high- 
walled rice paddies where it had been, with the result 
that persons making the journey had to use the river bed 
for several miles. This was all very well if the river was 
low, but was no joke if it chanced to be in flood. 

' Not so serious a matter as it may seem, when houses are made 
of grass and can be speedily rebuilt. 



THE GOVERNMENT OF THE NON-CHRISTIAN TRIBES 585 

I ordered that the trail be rebuilt, the Igorots to be 
paid for their work, and for the resulting damage to 
their rice fields, and this was done. 

The lieutenant-governor was a weak man, and the 
Igorots, after getting their money, tore the trail out again 
and rebuilt their stone terrace walls across the place 
where it had been, just to see what he would do about it. 
He did nothing. I found things in this condition when I 
arrived, and was obliged to come down the river bed at 
dusk, with the result that inj^ horse and I took several 
impromptu baths. 

The Samoqui warriors came dancing out to meet me, 
playing their gansas ' and making a grand hullabaloo. 
Summoning my sternest expression, I refused to shake 
hands with them, telling them to go home and to report 
at Bontoc at nine the following morning. 

The fighting men of the town of Bontoc met me on the 
other side of the river, and I served them the same way. 
The official under w^hose nose they had destroyed the 
trail was greatly alarmed, and assured me that if I 
ordered it rebuilt, as I told him I would do, there would 
be a fight, and the Igorots would cut the heads off all the 
Americans in town, including the ladies. He added, 
"Think how the ladies would look without any heads !" 
While this was a disquieting reflection, I remained ob- 
durate. 

At the appointed hour the Samoqui and Bontoc men 
appeared, armed with head-axes and lances. I asked them 
if they would rebuild that traO, and they said no ! I told 
them that if they did not I would cut their main irri- 
gating ditch and put a constabularj'' guard on it to see 
that it was not repaired until they changed their minds. 
This might have meant the loss of their rice crop. They 
knew me quite as well as they did their lieutenant-gov- 
ernor, and promptly rebuilt the trail for nothing, as I 
told them they must. 

1 Bronze timbrels. 



586 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

'V^^en the Mountain Province was established, the 
town of Bontoc was made the capital, as Cervantes, which 
had been the capital of Lepanto Bontoc, was hot, had 
proved unhealthful, and was not centrally situated. 
Bontoc has a cool, delightful climate, is near the geo- 
graphic center of the province, and from it radiates a road 
and trail system of constantly increasing importance. 
Things have moved rapidly there since the status of the 
place was changed. 

To-day the town has modern pubhc buildings of brick 
and stone. The brick have been made, burned and laid 
by Igorots. Much of the stone has been cut and laid by 
Igorots. The mortar used has been mixed by Igorots 
with lime burned by Igorots. Some of the carpenter 
work has been done by Igorots. There is a modern 
hospital to which the Igorots flock. There are schools 
in which Igorot boj^s and girls learn the Enghsh language, 
and become adept in the practice of useful industries. 

Perhaps the most unique of the Bontoc institutions is 
the provmcial jail. Years ago I discovered to my horror 
that a two-year sentence to Bihbid, the insular peniten- 
tiary, was a death sentence for a hill-man ! Not all who 
were sent there died, but the average term of life of men 
from the hiUs was two years only, while those who served 
out their sentences and returned to their mountain homes 
had invariably become adepts in crime as the result of pro- 
longed contact wdth vicious Filipinos. I promptly drafted 
an act providing for the establishment at Bontoc of a 
penitentiary where all prisoners from the highlands should 
be confined, and the commission passed it. The prison 
has been made a real educational institution. Most of 
its inmates have been guilty of crimes of violence, com- 
mitted in accordance with tribal customs, and are not 
vicious at heart. The jail building is perfectly sanitary. 
Its occupants are required to keep their persons clean and 
their quarters both clean and in perfect order. They live 
amid healthful surroundings and receive abundant and 







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THE GOVERNMENT OF THE NON-CHRISTIAN TRIBES 587 

nourishing food. They are taught useful trades and are 
compelled to work hard, which they do not in the least 
mind, as industry is the rule in the mountain country. 
They usually leave the jail better men than when they 
entered it, and thereafter, instead of being a menace to 
law and order, assist in their enforcement and main- 
tenance. 

We do odd things with some of these prisoners. Last 
year we paroled a man from Ifugao who had a score of 
heads to his credit. Learning that his people believed 
him to be dead and w^ere greatly troubled, we told him to 
go home, show himself to them, tell them how he was 
treated in jail, and come back. He did it ! 

Proof of the kindliness of the relations which have 
existed with the Bontoc Igorots is foimd in the fact that 
no member of this tribe has ever yet turned his hand 
against an American. On the contrary, there are not a 
few Americans who owe their Hves to Igorots. Agpad, of 
Tinglayan, has t^s-ice dived into rivers swollen by t>-phoons 
and rescued Americans who had sunk for the last time 
beneath the rushing, muddy waters, while their fellow- 
countrymen stood by paralyzed with fear. 

Last year there occurred an event of profomid signifi- 
cance. In the past, American officials have often worked 
hard for days to get representatives of two hostile towns 
to dance together, for this would make friends of them. 
On the occasion in question there had gathered at Bontoc 
to meet me representatives from every settlement in the 
subprovince. Each town had brought its gansas and its 
dancers. On the second day of my visit the people of 
one of the towns started a dance on the plaza. They 
were promptly joined by representatives from another 
towTi which had long been hostile to them. People from 
yet other to-mis followed suit, until finally the plaza 
swarmed with a great crowd of dancers in which every 
settlement in the subpro%dnce was represented. Even 
at that late day I should not have dared to attempt to 



588 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

bring about such a tiling. It happened of itself, and to 
the initiated told an eloquent tale of the results of our 
years of patient work ! 

The fii'st time I chmbed PoUs Mountain, on my way 
from the Bontoc country to the land of the Ifugaos, four 
Igorots went ahead of me, armed with head-axes and lances, 
carrying their shields in position. At each turn in the 
steep, worn-out trail, they drew back their lances ready 
to throw. I had eighty-six armed men with me, and 
knew that I might need them. To-day I travel through the 
length and breadth of the Mountain Province imescorted 
and unarmed. Furthermore, I usually take my wife with 
me. 

Prior to 1 903, if an Ifugao showed himself on the north 
side of the Polls range he lost his head. Now people of 
this tribe stroll into the towTi of Bontoc almost daily. 
They travel north through the Bontoc Igorot country to 
Lubuagan, in KaUnga, and west to Cervantes, in Lepanto, 
or even to Tagudin on the coast, crossing three subprov- 
inces on the latter trip. They also go south to Baguio. 

All freight was formerly packed in from the coast on 
men's backs a distance of eighty odd miles over steep, 
narrow, stony trails wliich were really foot-paths. Now 
it comes in carts over a good road which has a maximum 
grade of six per cent. 

The people of the settlement had to get their water 
from the river. Now it is piped into town. 

There was not a shop in the place, and every one had 
to go to the coast to make the smallest purchases. There 
are at present half a dozen good stores, beside the pro- 
vincial exchange, a store where the government sells 
the Igorots what they want at reasonable prices, thus 
preventing shopkeepers from overcharging them. 

Commodious quarters for visiting Igorots and Ifugaos 
have been provided, and there is a fine market where they 
may display and sell their products. This market is a 
busy place. 



THE GOVERNMENT OF THE NON-CHRISTIAN TRIBES 589 

The population is rapidly increasing, now that head- 
hunting has practically ceased. The area of cultivated 
lands steadily grows larger, for ,the men are freed from the 
necessity of being constantly imder arms, and we are help- 
ing them to get more irrigation water, so that they can 
extend their rice fields. 

There are a thousand or so Bontoc Igorots in Benguet 
to-day, contracting for railroad excavation work. Times 
have changed. 

When Nueva Vizcaya was first organized, its non- 
Christian inhabitants greatly outnumbered its Filipino 
population, as there were at least one hundred fifteen 
thousand Ifugaos in addition to several thousand Ilongots 
and a few Benguet Igorots, locally known as Isinayes, who 
had strayed over the boundary line. With the transfer of 
the Ifugao territory to the Mountain Province, the Fili- 
pinos were left in the decided majority. Later all of the 
Ilongot territory which had previously belonged to the 
provinces of Isabela, Tayabas, Nueva Ecija and Panga- 
sinan was added to Nueva Vizcaya, in order that the 
members of this wild and prinritive tribe might be brought 
under one provincial administration. 

The Ilongots are a strictly forest-inhabiting people. 
Many of them have a considerable admixture of Negrito 
blood and live a semi-nomadic hfe. Their settlements, 
which are small and more or less transient, are usually 
situated in remote and inaccessible places surrounded 
by the densest jungle. It is at present impracticable to 
open up horse trails through their country, for the num- 
ber of inhabitants is so small, in comparison with the 
area occupied, that such trails could not be built with 
Ilongot labour, nor indeed could they be maintained even 
if built. One main trail is, however, being constructed, 
and it is planned to build foot trails from this to the more 
important of the settlements which it does not reach. 

A special assistant to the Provincial Governor of Nueva 
Vizcaya for work among the Ilongots has been appointed 



590 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

and assigned to duty at Baler, on the Pacific coast of 
Luzon, from which place he can more conveniently reach 
the Ilongots east of the coast range. These people were 
very wild at the outset, and it proved difficult to establish 
friendly relations with them, but this has now been suc- 
cessfully accomplished, and their fear of the white man is 
largely a thing of the past. 

There is a school for Ilongot children at Campote. 
They prove to be bright, capable pupils. 

At the same place there has been established a gov- 
ernment exchange, where the Ilongots can sell such 
articles of their own manufacture as they wish to 
market, and can purchase what they need at moderate 
cost. 

They still fight more or less with each other, but 
depredations by them upon Filipinos have ceased. 



CHAPTER XXII 

The Government of the Non-Christian Tribes 
{Continued) 

The province of Mindoro includes numerous small 
islands, all peopled by Tagalogs, and the main island of 
Mindoro, which has a narrow broken fringe of Tagalog 
settlements along its coast. Its whole interior is popu- 
lated, so far as it is inhabited at all, by the Mangyans, 
a primitive semi-nomadic tribe which is of Malayan 
origin but has considerable Negrito blood. No one 
knows even approximately how many of them there 
are, for although the island has been crossed in several 
different places, much of it is still quite unexplored. In 
most of the interior regions thus far visited the popu- 
lation is very sparse, but one quite thickly settled dis- 
trict has been found. It is beheved that the Mangyans 
number something like 15,000. 

The Filipino settlements were so disorderly, filthy, and 
unhealthy that the energies of the first governor. Captain 
R. G. OfHey, and those of his successor. Captain Louis 
G. Van Schaick, were to a large extent expended in 
efforts for the betterment of the Tagalogs. It is a 
pleasure to record the fact that these efforts met with 
a very large degree of success. 

The condition of most of the Tagdiog towns is now 
good. Mangarin is the chief exception to this state- 
ment. Its surroundings are such as to make it im- 
possible successfully to combat malaria, from which 
every one of its inhabitants suffers. We are still en- 
deavouring to persuade its unfortunate people to move 
to a healthy site ! 

591 



592 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

Governor Offley did some work for the Mangyans. 
They have advanced but sUghtly beyond the Negritos 
in civilization. Many of them live under shelters not 
worthy of the name of huts, and in the vicinity of Mt. 
Halcon even the women are clad only in clouts. Houses 
are placed singly in the dense forests, or at the most are 
gathered in very small groups. It proved a most diffi- 
cult undertaking to persuade any considerable number of 
Mangyans to gather together and construct decent 
dwellings. It had been their custom to abandon their 
forest homes whenever a death occurred, leaving behind 
all their belongings, and perhaps even changing their 
names on the theory that their old names were unlucky 
and new ones inight prove advantageous. 

With admirable patience Governor Offley organized a 
little village called Lalauigan on the south coast of Min- 
doro. Lalauigan has prospered. It is very clean ; the 
houses of its Mangyan residents are quite presentable. 
The neighbouring fields are planted with corn and rice. 
It has a school, and the children prove to be apt pupils. 

Another Mangyan village, organized near the west 
coast, was short-lived. The Tagalog Filipinos look with 
great disfavour on the gathering of the Mangyans into 
settlements where they can be protected, as this renders 
it difficult to hold them in a state of peonage. Wlienever 
Governor Offley got a little group together, they did their 
best to scatter it. In this instance they passed the word 
that smallpox had broken out in a neighbouring Tagdlog 
village. All Mangyans are deathly afraid of this disease, 
and this particular set built a great fire, jumped through 
the flames to purify themselves from contagion, took to 
the hills, and have not been seen since ! 

Wliile in hearty sympathy with the admirable work 
which was being done among the Tagalogs, I was dissatis- 
fied with the failure to push explorations in the interior 
more actively and to get more closely in touch with the 
wild inhabitants. When the Tagalog settlements had 



THE GOVERNMENT OF THE NON-CHRISTIAN TRIBES 593 

at last been put in really good condition, I gave Governor 
Van Schaick, who had succeeded Governor Offley, posi- 
tive instructions that more attention must be paid to the 
Mangyans. He then began active explorations, and 
pushed them with considerable success up to the time 
when he was compelled to tender his resignation by the 
terms of the Army Appropriation Bill for 1913, which 
necessitated his return to his regiment. Prior to his 
departure he succeeded in establishing a new Mangyan 
village which has continued to prosper up to the present 
time. His successor, Governor R. E. Walters, was kept 
from actively pushing exploration work during the past 
"dry" season, by unprecedented rains. 

Road and trail construction began several years ago 
and is going forward as rapidly as Umited funds will 
permit. 

The great trouble with the Tagalogs of Mindoro is 
that nature has been too kind to them. They have only 
to plough a bit of ground at the beginning of the rainy 
season, scatter a little rice on it, and harvest the crop 
when ripe, to be able to live idly the rest of the year, and 
too many of them adopt this course. However, some 
good towns, like Pinamalayan, are waking up as the re- 
sult of iimnigration from Marinduque. 

Two great services have been rendered to the more 
orderly of the inhabitants of Mindoro, which was, in 
Spanish days, a rendezvous for evil-doers from Luzon. 
Indeed, it was the most disorderly province north of 
Mindanao. An excellent state of public order has been es- 
tablished, and there has not been an anned ladrone ^ in the 
province for years. It was famous for its "bad climate." 
We have shown that its climate is good, making its towns 
really healthful by merely cleaning them up. 

The establishment of a great modern sugar estate on 
the southwest coast has doubled the daily wage, and given 

' The words ladrones and tulisanes are used indiscriminately in the 
Philippines to designate armed robbers and brigands. 



594 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

profitable employment to all who wanted to work, and 
the people are beginning to bestir themselves. The public 
schools, of which every town has one, are materially 
assisting the awakening now in progress. 

Palawan, like Mindoro, is made up of one large island, 
which bears the name of the province, and a number of 
smaller ones. Indeed, it includes more small islands than 
does any other provmce, with the possible exception of 
Moro. 

The bulk of its Christian population are found on the 
smaller islands, several of which are very thickly 
settled. 

The non-Christian inhabitants are divided between 
three tribes, — the Moros, Tagbanuas and Bataks. The 
latter are Negritos of very pure blood. Their number 
is quite limited. They extend across the island from 
the east coast to the west in the region north of Bahia 
Honda. 

Until within a short time there have been Moro settle- 
ments scattered along both east and west coasts of the 
southern third of the main island. The Moro popula- 
tion of Palawan is largely composed of renegades who 
have been driven out of Jolo, Tawi Tawi, Cagayan de 
Jolo, British North Borneo and Banguey by their own 
people because of infractions of the laws of their tribe. 
When the province was organized, they were not cultivating 
a hectare of land amongst them. They lived in part by 
fishing, but chiefly on what they stole, or on the products 
of the labour of the hill people in the interior, many of 
whom they enslaved or held in a state of peonage, taking 
their rice and other agricultural products with or without 
giving compensation, as seemed to them good. 

The hill people, who occupy the higher mountains in 
the interior of southern Palawan, and who in the central 
and northern portions of the island extend down to the 
very coast, are known as Paluanes in the south and as 
Tagbanuas elsewhere. Tagbanuas are also found on 




s 

o 

o 
6 



- 03 



fe 



THE GOVERNMENT OF THE NON-CHRISTIAN TRIBES 595 

Dumaran and Linapacan, and quite generally throughout 
the Calamianes Islands, especially on Culion and Busu- 
anga. I have failed to discover any real tribal differ- 
ences between the Paluanes and the Tagbanuas and be- 
lieve that they should be classed as one people, although 
the Paluanes are more incUned to stand up for their rights 
than are the Tagbanuas, and by using blow guns and 
poisoned arrows have succeeded in keeping the Moros 
out of the interior highlands. They were, however, long 
forced to trade with the Moros in order to obtain cloth, 
steel, salt and other things not produced in their own 
country, and so were at their mercy. 

The Tagbanuas are a rather timid and docile people, 
giving evidence of a considerable amount of Negrito 
blood. They are at times quite industrious, and raise 
considerable quantities of rice and camotes, but live, in 
part, on fish, game and forest products. 

Communication in this province was very difficult. The 
main island of Palawan, which is some two hundred fifty 
miles in length and very narrow, extends in a northeast- 
erly and southwesterly direction, and as a result both of 
its coasts are swept by each monsoon so that there are 
only about two months of the year when travel by sea in 
small boats is comfortable and safe. At the outset there 
was not a mile of trail on the island. This latter condi- 
tion is being rapidly remedied. 

The first governor appointed for the newly established 
province of Palawan was Lieutenant E. Y. Miller, U. S. A., 
a man of splendid physique, tireless energy, and indomi- 
table courage. 

Governor Miller set to work very actively to better 
the condition of the Fihpinos and to establish friendly 
and helpful relations with the non-Christians. 

The bulk of the Christians are unusually poor and 
ignorant and many of them were held in a miserable 
state of peonage by a few caciques. Vigorous efforts 
extending through a long term of years have weakened 



596 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

the grip of the caciques, but have by no means 
broken it. 

At an early date the new governor won the admiration 
of the Moros, who like courage, by a series of very brave 
acts. A number of constabulary soldiers who were 
coasting along the west shore of Palawan in a sail-boat 
went ashore, leaving their rifles on board guarded by 
two or three of their comrades. They also left several 
Moros on the boat, and the latter, watching their oppor- 
tunity, killed the guards and got away with the rifles, 
taking them to Dato Tumay, their chief, who armed his 
people with them. 

Governor Miller, with Captain Louden, of the con- 
stabulary company concerned, promptly attacked Tu- 
may's place and drove him mto the hills. Tumay took 
refuge in a Tagbanua village, never dreaming that he 
would be pursued into the momitain fastnesses. Miller 
and his companions succeeded in getting mto the place 
before Tumay knew they were in the vicinity, and there 
followed a fight to the death at close quarters. Two 
soldiers, standing one to the right and one to the left of 
Governor INIiller, were shot dead, but he was not 
scratched. 

On a number of other occasions he displayed a bravery 
approaching recklessness. Hearing that a fleet of some 
fifty Moro boats had put to sea on a piratical expedition, 
he embarked in a twenty-foot launch accompanied only 
by a captain of constabulary, and the two of them ran 
down and disarmed the pirates and sent them home. 
They nearly sank their tiny launch with the dead weight 
of the weapons which they took on board. The tiling 
seems preposterous, and only Miller's extraordinary 
moral influence over these unruly people made it humanly 
possible. 

When I visited Palawan on my regular inspection trip 
in the year 1909, I found Mrs. Miller much worried about 
her husband, who was absent from the capital, having 



THE GOVERNMENT OF THE NON-CHRISTIAN TRIBES 597 

gone to arrest some Moro murderers at Lara. As usual, 
he had taken with hmi only a constabulary captain and 
three or four soldiers, and Mrs. Miller feared that he 
might be killed. 

I hastened down the coast of the island at the full speed 
of my steamer, keeping a close watch for his boat, and 
finally located it at Bonabona, where he had succeeded 
in arresting several of the criminals. On his way down 
he had stopped at Lara and had learned that a brother of 
the local chief, Dato Pula, was responsible for the murder, 
having ordered it and paid the assassins who committed 
it, one of whom was lurking in the vicinity, while others 
had gone to Bonabona. Governor Miller called upon 
Dato Pula to deliver both his brother and the murderer, 
who was then at Lara, and stated that he would be back 
on a certain day to receive them. As he insisted on 
returning at the appointed time and attempting to arrest 
these men, I took him on my steamer, together with his 
American companion and one constabulary soldier. 
The other soldiers remained on his boat to guard the 
prisoners he had already taken. 

We returned to Lara, but were unable to land in front 
of the town as a heavy siu'f was thundering on the beach. 
A mile to the north we found a sheltered spot where we 
could safely disembark and our httle party, consisting of 
Governor Miller armed with a six-shooter, a constabu- 
lary captain armed with a Winchester shotgun and a six- 
shooter, a constabulary soldier armed with a carbine, 
ex-Insurgent Colonel Pablo Tecson armed with my double- 
barrelled shotgun. Governor Pack of the Mountain Prov- 
ince, my brother George S. Worcester, and my stenog- 
rapher, all of whom were without weapons, and myself 
carrying an automatic Winchester rifle, marched on the 
town. Governor Miller sent the soldier ahead to warn 
the Moros that they must meet us unarmed. A small 
reception committee did so. 

On the very outskirts of Lara we waded a creek nearly 



598 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

up to our necks in water, then marched up the street and 
entered Pula's house. Just as we did so I saw twenty or 
thirty fully armed Moros come in on the run and hastily 
conceal themselves in one of the numerous neighbouring 
houses. I further promptly discovered that two rooms 
partitioned off in the corners of the great living room of 
Pula's house were crowded full of men armed to the teeth, 
and that a second-story room, immediately under the 
roof and over our heads, was similarly occupied. I 
asked Governor Pack quietly to ascertain how many of 
the houses in the village were occupied by fully equipped 
fighting men, and he soon informed me that every one of 
them was packed. We estimated that there were several 
hundred warriors in town, which meant that Pula had 
raked the coast of the island north and south for miles 
and brought in every male Moro big enough to wield a 
weapon. 

We seated ourselves on a table, back to back and facing 
out, with our own weapons very handy, and had a talk 
with Pula which lasted until late in the afternoon. Stand- 
ing within striking distance of us most of the day, were 
two stalwart Moros, each of whom had a kriss dagger 
firmly gripped in his right hand and concealed between 
his folded arms. When one remembers that the average 
Moro fighter does not seem to know when he is dead, but 
keeps on doing damage after he ought to be busily oc- 
cupied in passing to the other world, it will be seen that 
our situation left much to be desired. 

Under the pretext of sending for a phonograph with 
which to entertain the crowd while our negotiations con- 
tinued, I communicated with the captain of our steamer, 
advising him of the facts. He got out anununition for his 
two one-pounder rapid-fire guns and took up a position 
immediately in front of the town. We did not ask him 
for reenforcements, believing that any attempt on his part 
to send them would precipitate an attack on us. 

Never did I pass a more pecuhar, or a more unpleasant, 



THE GOVERNMENT OF THE NON-CHRISTIAN TRIBES 599 

day. Miller steadfastly insisted that Pula's brother and 
the hired assassin be given up. Pula produced two 
thoroughly cowed Tagbanuas whom he had induced by 
threats to declare that they had committed the murders, 
and most emphatically dechned to turn over either his 
brother or the true murderer. Our discussions were 
punctuated by tunes played on the phonograph which 
created great excitement among the Moros, some of whom 
got up and danced to the music ! 

Finally, late in the afternoon, Pula gave in, turned the 
murderer over to us, and promised to turnover his brother, 
but said that the latter must first be allowed to go home 
to get some clothes, and that he would then send hun 
on board our ship. 

We improved this our first opportunity to beat a re- 
treat wdthout losing face. Our Moro "friends" bid us 
good-b}^ on the beach, then armed themselves and fol- 
lowed us at a short distance as we marched back to the 
landing place where our launch was pounding in the surf, 
awaiting our return. Three strong fighting parties came 
out of the dense vegetation which bordered the beach im- 
mediately after we had passed the places where they were 
concealed. They had obviously been waiting there to cut 
off our retreat if trouble started, and could most certainly 
have done it. In fact, they could have shot us down from 
the brush without showing themselves. 

It requu-ed all the self-control which I could muster 
to keep my back toward the strong and constantly grow- 
ing group of armed men who followed us, and to look 
unconcerned, yet I knew, as did every other member of 
the party, that our seeing the hght of another day prob- 
ably depended on our abihty to do both things. The 
slightest e\ddence of alarm would have precipitated a 
fight which could have had but one outcome for us. 

When opposite the launch, we turned and faced the 
Moros and then the several members of the party went 
aboard, one at a time. Never did a widening strip of 



600 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

water look better to me than did that which finally began 
to separate us from the shore. 

To our great amazement Dato Pula kept his word and 
sent his brother on board ! 

No man ever laboured more diligently for the good of 
alien peoples than did Governor Miller. He evolved a 
wise plan for improving the condition of the Tagbanuas 
living in the vicinity of Puerto Princesa, many of whom, 
as is so often the case with the uncivilized peoples of the 
Philippines, were reduced to a state of peonage by their 
Filipino neighbours. A large reservation was set aside 
for their exclusive use, and they were persuaded to retire 
to it. At the cost of infinite labour and pains Governor 
Miller built there a fine set of school buildings, and the 
Bureau of Education started a school which gives in- 
struction in English, arithmetic and manual training to 
Tagbanua boys and girls. 

Governor Miller's keen interest in this project led him 
to stop to inspect the progress of the work when return- 
ing from a long trip around the island. In the face of a 
coming storm he ascended the Aborlan River to the school 
site, where he remained until after dark, oblivious of the 
fact that a tremendous downpour of rain in the neighbour- 
ing mountains had produced a sudden flood in the river. 
Returning to his launch, he jumped on board and cast 
off before the engine was started. The current swept 
the launch away like a straw, carried it in close to the 
bank, and an overhanging branch, which ordinarily would 
have been high above the water, struck the governor a 
stunning blow on the head, knocking him overboard. 
He never came to the surface, and twenty-four hours 
elapsed before his body was recovered. 

Mr. John H. Evans, then serving as heutenant-gov- 
ernor of Bontoc, in the Mountain Province, was appointed 
in his place, and I took him around the Palawan group of 
islands to introduce him to his unruly subjects. On 
arrival at Puerto Princesa we were told that the occupants 



THE GOVERNMENT OF THE NON-CHRISTIAN TRIBES 601 

of a fleet of Moro boats were already raiding and killing 
along the southern coast of the island, and we accordingly 
took on board Captain Moynihan of the Philippine 
Scouts, with thirty of his soldiers. The report proved 
unfounded, but nevertheless the soldiers came in very 
handily. 

I landed at Culasian Bay on the west coast, meaning to 
ascend a river to the settlement of Dato Tumay, the man 
whose people had on a former occasion fought Governor 
Miller with captured constabulary rifles and been soundly 
whipped. Finding no one on the beach, we walked up 
the river bank for a short distance to a group of half a 
dozen tightly closed houses which looked as if they might 
belong to fishermen. Here we were met by a splendidly 
dressed glad-hand delegation, who greeted us rather too 
effusively. My suspicion was further aroused by the 
fact that only three of them carried weapons, in sight at 
least. The weapons of a Moro chief are just as much a 
part of his full dress as are the garments he wears. I had 
a few moments' friendly conversation with these people, 
during which I noticed that several of them displayed a 
marked inclination to get behind me. This I did not 
hke, so took up a position with my back to the river. 
Presently I suggested that we had come to call on Dato 
Tumay. The following conversation ensued : — 

"You cannot go to see him." 

"Why not ? Are the trails in bad condition ?" 

"There are no trails." 

"Are you not Dato Tumay's people?" 

"Yes." 

"How did you come down if there are no trails?" 

"We came down the river." 

"Very well, we vn\\ go up the river. "- 

"You cannot do that." 

"Why not?" 

"There are no boats to carry you." 

"How did you come down?" 



602 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

"In those boats. [Pointing out two tiny dugouts 
barely able to carry two men each.] You and one of 
your friends can go up in them if you like. Two of our 
men will paddle you." 

This proposition did not seem attractive to me, so I 
suggested that I would take a little walk up the river. 
I had been positively assured that there was no other 
boat in the vicinity, but at the very first turn discovered 
a suspicious looking trail running up into the bushes and 
following it found a fully rigged war-canoe over which 
freshly cut brush had been hastily throAvn. I suggested 
to the Moros that this looked very much like a boat. 
They replied that it leaked. I asked them to put it into 
the water, stating that I Uked to see boats leak. Not 
a Moro stirred. We had brought twenty-five soldiers 
ashore with us, as Tumay's reputation was by no means of 
the best, and I now called to some of them to come and 
put the boat into the river. In passing back of the group 
of Moros, one of these men stubbed his toe on the shaft 
of a lance which was hidden in the grass, and fell on his 
nose. He raised the lance as he recovered his feet, then 
stooped and picked up a second one, trailed them behind 
him until he reached a position in front of me and dropped 
them on the ground. Both had the sheaths removed 
from their long steel heads. Another soldier kicked 
around in the grass a bit and produced a serpent kriss 
which had been drawn from its scabbard. Still another 
fished up a bar dug} 

I asked the ranking Moro present what was the meaning 
of these weapons, concealed at our very feet. He said 
that they were afraid that we would steal them and had 
therefore hidden them. I asked him whether any white 
man had ever stolen anything from them, and also why 
they had hidden them there, where we were likely to cut 
our feet on them, instead of in the forest which was not 
fifty yards away. Obviously there was no satisfactory 
1 A fighting knife of deadly effectiveness. 










'■«.», 









THE GO\^RNMENT OF THE NON-CHRISTIAN TRIBES 603 

answer to these questions and he had no time to attempt 
any, for one of the soldiers stooped down and pulled out 
of the grass from beside his very hand a forty-five caliber 
single-action revolver, cocked and with all six cylinders 
loaded. Fearmg to be taken at a disadvantage, I said 
to the soldiers, "Make these men sit down, and search 
the place for arms." 

The soldiers repeatedly ordered the Moros to sit down 
and the order was translated to them in their own language 
by my mterpreter. Not a man obej^ed. On the con- 
trary, one of them turned his back and started off at a 
quick pace, disregarding repeated orders to halt. Theo- 
retically he should have been shot. 

Practically, I had ordered the soldiers not to fire under 
any circumstances unless some Moro drew a weapon. 
Mr. Olney Bondm-ant, assistant to the provincial gov- 
ernor for work among the Moros, had been taking a hasty 
look back of the houses and was returning to tell me that 
they were full of armed men. The IMoro above men- 
tioned, just before meeting Bondurant, reached into a 
bush and drew out two of the cruel fighting knives known 
as barongs. They were in their flat sheaths, and lay one 
on top of the other. Snatching the upper one from its 
scabbard, he struck a wicked blow at Bondurant as the 
latter passed him on the trail. Bondurant, who was 
quick as a cat, dodged the blow, then whirled and shot 
his assailant. Instantly armed men with drawn weapons 
began to boil out of the houses on the side farthest from 
us, and those soldiers who were in a position to see them 
promptly opened fire. Other Moros also began to pop 
up at the edge of the forest, and we had a bit of a scrim- 
mage, lively enough while it lasted. I took no part in 
it, but with three soldiers helping me compelled eleven 
men of the group with whom we had been talking to sit 
down, and kept them sitting until the unpleasantness was 
over, as I wanted to talk with them. I then told the head 
man to stand up. 



604 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

He was very reluctant to do this, obviously expecting 
to be shot, but no such fate was in store for him. On the 
contrary, I gave hmi a lecture, told him where certain 
wounded and certain dead Moros were to be found, and 
instructed him and his people first to care for the wounded ; 
second, to bury the dead ; third, to go to Tumay's place 
and tell him that although I had come to make a friendly 
call on him, my party had been attacked bj^ his people, 
but that the only men who had been hurt were those who 
had endeavoured to use their weapons on us. I further- 
more directed him to tell Tumay that he must come across 
the island to the place where Mr. Bondurant lived, and 
explain this extraordinary occurrence. We then took 
our departure, marching down the beach a mile to our 
launch, and expecting every moment to be fired on from 
the dense forest close at hand. 

We learned from a wounded Moro that our party had 
been mistaken at a distance for that of Governor Miller. 
On his last trip around the island he had been threatened 
by Tumay, who surrounded him with a strong body of 
armed men and talked to him in a very insulting manner. 
Miller, who had but a single companion, knew himself 
to be at Tumay's mercy, and believing that he was in 
grave danger of being killed and that only a bluff could 
save him, slapped Tumay's face vigorously and then gave 
him a strong piece of his mind. Tumay, overawed at 
such temerity, allowed him to depart in safety. Before 
leaving. Governor Miller exercised his lawful authority 
to order Tumay to take his people and move to the east 
coast of the island.^ Tumay begged that his people be 

^ A governor of a province may, with the approval of the Secretary 
of the Interior, require members of a non-Christian tribe to take up 
their residence on land reserved for such purpose if he deems such a 
course to be in the interest of public order. The object of this provision 
is to malie it possible to compel lawless persons to live in reasonably 
accessible places. In only three instances has it been necessary to 
exercise this authority. Tumay and his people were outlaws and were 
li\nng in a nipa swamj) where it would have been almost impossible 
to attack them successfully. 



THE GOVERNMENT OF THE NON-CHRISTIAN TRIBES 605 

allowed to harvest some rice which he said they had 
planted, and Governor Miller, not knowing whether or 
not the statement was true, and not being in a position 
to investigate it, allowed him two weeks to be spent in 
this way. 

I was about Governor Miller's size. WTien I landed 
Tumay's people mistook me for him, and thought that he 
was returning with soldiers to punish them for having 
disobeyed him, or to enforce his order that they move to 
a more accessible place. Hence the plan for the attack, 
which was rather clever. While the reception committee 
entertained us, the men concealed in the woods were to 
open on us. As we turned to deal with them the ones 
hidden in the houses were to attack us from the rear, and 
the reception ■ committee were then to join in. Wlien 
they found themselves mistaken as to the make-up of the 
party, which was larger than they had expected, there 
was delay and confusion, and the attack fizzled. 

A few days later Tumay actually started across the 
island in obedience to my instructions, but on the way 
he met two recalcitrant Moro chiefs who encouraged him 
to stand out, sajdng that they and their people would 
help him fight the Americans, and he turned back. I 
accordingly asked that a hundred scouts be sent after him, 
and this was done, fifty of them marching over the moun- 
tains to cut off his retreat and fifty coming on a coast-guard 
boat which was intended to serve as a base of operations 
and afford a place to which injured men might be brought 
for treatment. Strict instructions had been given that 
there was to be no firing, except in self-defence, when 
women or children were liable to be hit. These orders 
were strictly adhered to, and Tumay was twice allowed to 
escape when he could have been shot down if it had not 
been for the danger of killing Moro women and children. 
Ultimately, after the non-combatants had surrendered, 
his armed band was overtaken early in the morning, and 
fired from ambush into the approaching scouts. The 



606 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

return fire killed or wounded most of them, but Tumay 
got away. It was stated by some of his followers that 
he was badly wounded, but this proved to be untrue. 
A little later he voluntarily surrendered, as he had been 
deserted by his people and was reduced to dire straits. 

The misconduct of Tumay and his men gave me a 
reason for moving the IMoros from the west coast of Pala- 
wan, where they were living in mangrove or nipa swamps. 
It was hard to approach their settlements under any cir- 
cmnstances, and very dangerous to do so if they were 
disposed to be hostile. The west coast of Palawan was 
a no-man's land, difficult of access on account of weather 
conditions and numberless uncharted reefs. It had long 
been a safe haven for evil-doers who fied from other por- 
tions of the Moro country to escape the vengeance of 
their fellows, and there was no possibility of compelling 
them to abandon their evil practices unless they were 
transferred to more accessible regions. 

Governor Evans, with my approval, now issued the 
necessary instructions to them, and they were all moved to 
the other side of the island, together with their household 
goods and chattels of every description. Once there 
they were assisted in procuring building materials, and 
were fed until such tune as they were able to take care of 
themselves. Only the old, the infirm, and women and 
cliildren who could not support themselves by working 
were given food gratis. Trail construction was inaugu- 
rated, and all able-bodied persons were given an oppor- 
tmiity to engage in this or in other honest labor for a good 
wage payable either in money or in rice. 

At the end of a year I visited these Moros at their new 
homes near Bonabona, going ashore without a weapon of 
any sort, and finding them more friendly than could 
reasonably have been anticipated. I sent for old Tumay 
and had a very frank talk with him about past differ- 
ences, in the course of which I asked him if he had had 
enough. He assured me that he had, and I then sug- 



THE GOVERNMENT OF THE NON-CHRISTIAN TRIBES 607 

gested that we forget the troubles which were behind us 
and try to get on better in future. He promised to do 
his part, and has faithfully kept his word. 

In August, 1912, I again visited the Moros of this 
region and to my great surprise was greeted as if I were a 
member of their royal family. They carried me ashore 
through the surf in a chair covered with a fine piece of 
purple brocade. Two men equipped respectively with 
a five-foot blue and a five-foot yellow umbrella, struggled 
with each other to see who should protect my delicate 
complexion from the sun. Wonder of wonders, the wives 
of the ranking chiefs were present in a dancing paviUon 
which had been erected for our benefit, this being the 
first time that these women had ever shown themselves 
in public. I learned that Hadji Mohanmied ^ had ex- 
plained to them that the women of other nations were 
getting progressive, and had argued that they ought to 
follow suit. The poor things were dreadfully frightened, 
and sat wdth their backs toward us, covering their faces 
with gayly colored cloths if we so much as glanced toward 
them, but they were there, anyhow ! 

At noon the Moros sat down with us to a fine luncheon of 
their own providing. This is the first time in my eighteen 
years of residence in the Philippines that I have known a 
Moro to sit at meat with a white man, or for that matter 
with any person not a Mohammedan. 

After the meal several chiefs insisted on my visiting 
them individually, and I found that entertainment had 
been provided at each of their houses. Old Dato Tumay, 
with only one woman to help him, had built the best house 
in town, and was cultivating with his own hands the largest 
piece of land farmed by any Moro in Palawan. He was 
greatly pleased when I complunented him on the good 
example he was setting. Later I referred to it in my an- 
nual report, and the assistant to the governor for work 
among the Moros read to him what I had said. The old 
' One of the most influential of the Palawan Moro chiefs. 



608 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

man was delighted. He immediately called the local 
chiefs together and delivered a long lecture on the ad- 
visability of settling down and tilling the soil. The prin- 
cipal request that the Moros made, on the occasion of this 
visit, was that they be furnished agricultural unplements 
and seeds. 

Tumay was very ill with dj^sentery. From the ship 
I sent him medicine and a case of milk. He recovered 
in due time. 

Moros are uncertain people to deal with, but I beUeve 
that we are now on the right road so far as concerns those 
inhabiting Palawan, and that with a continuance of the 
present policy there will be no further serious trouble with 
them. 

The Tagbanua reservation and the school estabUshed in 
connection with it have proved a great success. A large 
number of Tagbanuas have settled on the reserve and 
are farming industriously, while their boys and girls are 
making rapid progress in school, where they obtain prac- 
tical instruction that will make them better and more 
useful men and women. 

In Southern Palawan the wild people of the highlands, 
who have never yet allowed any one to enter their coun- 
trj^, are being persuaded to come down to the coast by 
the estabUshment of little government trading posts 
where they can sell their few products at good prices, and 
can purchase what they need at a reasonable figure. 

All in all, things are moving forward steadily in Palawan, 
although many of the Filipino settlements are still filthy 
and unsanitary. Encouraged by the results obtained in 
Mindoro, I have inaugurated an active campaign to 
compel these people to clean up, and anticipate success. 
One thing which renders it difBcult to deal with some of 
the Filipinos of this province is that in its more remote 
districts they are showing a marked tendency to scatter 
out into the forests where they make caingins, or forest 
clearings, and live in tiny huts. Little by little they are 



THE GOVERNMENT OF THE NON-CHRISTIAN TRIBES 609 

gravitating back to the barbarism from which they orig- 
inally emerged, and under existing laws they are free 
to do this if they like. I regret that this tendency is by 
no means confined to the province of Palawan. The 
Spaniards dealt with it in no gentle manner, but we are 
powerless to do more than argue against it. 

The (^ost of the work in Palawan in valuable human 
lives has been dear. No one can at the outset fill the 
place of a man like Governor Miller, who had become in- 
valuable not only as a result of his personal characteristics, 
but because of his years of experience and of the regard 
in which he was held by his people. Unfortunately his 
life is not the only one which has been sacrificed for the 
good of the inhabitants of this province. Mr. W. B. 
Dawson, who organized the work of the Tagbanua In- 
dustrial School and was in a fair way to make a success 
of it, died of mahgnant malarial fever contracted at his 
post of duty. Mr. William M. Wooden, who succeeded 
him, in his anxiety to return more quickly to his post 
after a brief absence, leaped overboard from a launch and 
was drowned while trying to swim ashore. Mr. Olney 
Bondurant, assistant to the provincial governor, who 
did admirable work among the Moros and the Tagbanuas 
in Southern Palawan, and though suffering from danger- 
ous illness never gave up, but rendered sei'\'ice in the field 
on the very day of his death, also fell a victim to per- 
nicious malaria. 

If the results obtained by these splendid men, who amid 
lonely surroundings and in the face of manifold discour- 
agements, bravely and effectively carried on their coun- 
try's work, are to be permanent results, then I hold that 
the price has not been too dear, but if they are to be de- 
stroyed by the premature withdrawal of American control 
these sacrifices are pathetic indeed. 

All of the territory in Northern Mindanao east of Dapi- 
tan and north of the eighth parallel of latitude was at the 
outset divided between the provinces of Surigao and 



610 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

Misamis. It is generally conceded that these provinces 
had been worse governed under An:ierican rule by their 
Filipino oiEcials than have any others, and it was to be 
anticipated that, under such circumstances, their very 
numerous non-Christian inhabitants would prove to have 
been very badly mistreated. Sinister rumoiirs reached me 
from time to time as to what was occiu-ring, but I had 
no competent persons whom I could send to make inves- 
tigations on the ground, and intended to defer action 
until I could go myself. 

Matters were finally brought to a crisis by reports from 
Catholic priests, school-teachers and other rehable persons 
setting forth a condition of affairs which seemed to demand 
immediate remedial action. The commission had pre- 
viously made a hberal sum available for work among 
the Bukidnon people of Misamis, and I had endeavoured 
to bring about the prosecution of this work by the Fih- 
pino provincial officials, but my efforts had been fmitless. 
Not one centavo of the funds appropriated had ever been 
expended. No Filipino pro\'incial official had so much as 
visited the main Bukidnon countrj', the borders of which 
were distant less than three hours' ride from the provin- 
cial capital. 

The Bukidnon people are industrious. They raise a 
large part of the coffee, hemp and cacao exported from 
Cagayan, the capital and the principal port of Misamis. 
They were being robbed when they sold their produce. 
A common procedure was to instruct them that they must 
sell to certain individuals at absurdly low prices, and if 
they did not promptly obey, to bring charges of sedition 
against them and throw them into jail. As a matter of 
fact, they hardly knew the meaning of the word 
sedition. 

Depredations upon them were by no means confined 
to the town of Cagayan de Misamis. Fihpinos from the 
coast invaded their territory, debauching them with 
vino and purchasing their property when they were 




A Difficult Bit of Rock Work on the Mountain Trail in Be:iguet. 

This trail has since been widened. It formerly required nerv'e to ride a horse 
around the corner where the Igorot is standing. 



THE GOVERNMENT OP THE NON-CHRISTIAN TRIBES 611 

drunk ; getting them into crooked gambling games and 
cheating them, or swaggering around armed with revolvers 
and so terrorizing them that they surrendered their be- 
longings. It was common for a Filipino to go into the 
Bukidnon country with nothing but the clothes on his 
back, and soon to return with three or four carabaos heavily 
laden with hemp, coffee, cacao, or gutta percha. 

Although the provincial governor had appointed, in 
some instances, men whom he had never seen as presi- 
dentes of settlements, the settlements were in reality with- 
out government, and their discouraged and disgusted 
people were betaking themselves to the mountains whence 
they had been brought years before by Jesuit missionary 
priests. The wilder members of the Bukidnon tribe, and 
the Manobos in the southern part of the province, who 
had never abandoned their mountain homes, were preying 
upon their neighbours, and committing crimes of violence 
undisturbed. 

In the Agusan River valley conditions were nearly as 
bad. The people along the main stream were for the 
most part broken-spirited Manobos. Their settlements 
had been parcelled out among the members of the munic- 
ipal council of Butuan to be plundered. The activities 
of these "Christian" gentlemen had been such that a 
number of Manobo villages were already completely 
abandoned, while the people of others were gradually 
betaking themselves to secure hiding-places in the track- 
less forests which stretch east and west from the banks of 
the Agusan. 

Both in the Bukidnon and in the Manobo country the 
trade in bad vi)io was being actively pushed. The prin- 
cipal business on the Agusan River at that time was 
shipping it up-stream. Opium was being imported in 
considerable quantities from Cebu. The use of this drug 
was already established among the people of Butuan, and 
was gradually spreading up the river. The wilder Mano- 
bos, who hved some distance back from the stream, and 



612 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

the Mandayas along its upper waters, were killing and 
plundering without let or hindrance. 

These statements, coming as they did from absolutely 
reliable witnesses, convinced me that I had allowed work 
for non-Christians in other parts of the archipelago to 
interfere unduly with investigations which I should have 
made in this region. As the legislation under which we 
were working for the betterment of the wild people had 
now taken final form, all that was necessary in order to be- 
gin active operations looking to the correction of these 
untoward conditions was to cut off a province from Surigao 
and Misamis and organize it under the Special Provincial 
Government Act. In view of the relative unimportance 
of the Filipino population in Misamis and Surigao, and 
of the lamentable conditions which had arisen there under 
Filipino pro\incial officials elected in accordance with 
the provisions of the Provincial Government Act, I sug- 
gested that both provinces be reorganized under the 
Special Provincial Government Act. This would have 
had the effect of making their officials appointive. Amer- 
ican governors who would have protected the non- 
Christian inhabitants could have been put in office. Un- 
fortunately, the first session of the Philippine Legislature 
was about to be held, the assemblymen having already 
been elected. Every member of the commission present, 
American and Filipino, agreed with me that the course 
which I suggested would be in the interest of the in- 
habitants of these two provinces, but they all shied off 
when it came to taking the needed action because of the 
political hullabaloo which would most certainly have re- 
sulted. I was forced to accept the best compromise I 
could get, and a law was passed providing for the estab- 
hshment of the province of Agusan with two sub-prov- 
inces to be known respectively as Butuan and Bukidnon. 
Butuan took in the whole Agusan River valley as far 
south as the eighth parallel of latitude, and east and west 
to the crests of the two watersheds. It also included some 



THE GOVERNMENT OF THEJ NON-CHRISTIAN TRIBES 613 

territory on the west coast of the northern peninsula of 
Mindanao. Bukidnon included all of the territory in- 
habited by the people of the same name, and that of some 
wild Manobos in central Mindanao. 

Armed with the law creating the new province, I pro- 
ceeded to investigate conditions on the ground, and ac- 
tually to estabhsh the provincial government. At the 
town of Butuan, situated about five miles up the Agusan 
River, and accessible to good-sized steamers, I was met 
by Frederick Johnson, a captain in the Philippine con- 
stabulaiy who had had wide experience in dealing with 
the non-Christian tribes of the Moro Province and had 
been very successful in this work. At my request he 
had been appointed governor of the Province of Agusan, 
of which the town of Butuan was the capital. 

We hired a launch, driven by a one-cylinder engine, from 
a man named Wantz, and in it proceeded up the river, 
taking the owner along to run the boat. It was paid 
for by the day, and I was warned before I started that 
Wantz had his o^ti ways of lengthening journeys. I 
soon discovered that this was true. Before starting I 
had indicated the settlement which must be reached 
before dark, but the engine soon began to wheeze and 
thump dolefully. It happened that I knew something 
about gasoline engines, and this one somided to me as if 
it were running with the spark advanced too far, but I 
could not discover the adjusting mechanism, so exercised 
diplomacy, involving Wantz in a discussion of the in- 
tricacies of modem gasohne engines, and stating that I 
had an automobile with a very convenient attachment 
for advancing and retarding the spark. He promptly 
and proudly showed me the device on his engine for the 
same purpose. It was hidden away where I could not 
have found it. After he had instructed me in its opera- 
tion I quietly retarded the spark, and the engine began 
to work in a most cheering manner. In order to punish 
Wantz, I insisted that we keep on until we reached our 



614 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

prescribed destination, in spite of the time we had 
lost. 

We had a prophet of evil on board who predicted that 
Wantz would certainly have the engine thoroughly 
stacked by the next morning, and he did. We had planned 
to start at daylight, but, when we climbed down to the 
boat in the gray dawn, found him puttering over its ma- 
chinery. He said that the cylinder was "froze up." As 
the temperature did not seem to warrant such a result, 
I got him to explain to me what was wrong, and after 
watching him put on and take off the cylinder-head several 
times, discovered that he had an ingenious contrivance so 
arranged that by giving a single push he could put the 
make-and-break spark connection out of commission from 
the inside of the cylinder. I myself adjusted it properly, 
compelled him to put on the cylinder-head without touch- 
ing his disarranging mechanism, and we went on our way. 
For some time I watched him closely, and wliile I continued 
to do so, the engine ran beautifully, but ultimately I had 
to go ashore to inspect a rotting Manobo settlement, and 
while I was gone he queered it again in such a manner that 
I could not find the cause of the mischief. We had speedy 
revenge, however, for while we were negotiating a swift 
rapid the engine died, with the result that the launch 
nearly turned turtle and narrowly escaped being wrecked. 
This frightened Wantz, and after a few mysterious manip- 
ulations on his part the engine began to "put, put, put" 
again most cheerfully, and we ascended the rapid without 
difficulty. 

On the evening of the third day we reached a Filipino 
settlement called Talacogon, seventy miles up the river. 
Wantz began to complain that he was sick, and as Talaco- 
gon would have been a very comfortable place to lie over, 
I opined that his ailment would become acute before 
morning. At four o'clock I sneaked down to the river 
bank by a back street to see what was going on. He was 
whistling cheerfully. I beat a careful retreat, then came 



THE GO\'ERNMENT OF THE NON-CHRISTIAN TRIBES 615 

ostentatiously down the main road to the pier. Sepul- 
chral groans were now issuing from the launch, and Wantz 
was not \'isible. I found him writhing on its bottom 
in assumed agony. By this time I had become convinced 
that a native banca with a few good oarsmen would be 
better than a launch with such an engineer, so told him 
I was f-o^ry he was ill, gave him permission to return to 
Butuan, and offered to pay what I owed him on the spot. 
WTien he found that it was not my intention to pay for 
the time consmned by the return trip his symptoms 
became less alarming, and he expressed hope of ultimate 
recover\^ Interrogated as to the probable date when he 
would be prepared to continue the journey, he put it three 
days ahead. I told him that I could not wait so long. 
Gradually he reduced to half a day the time which the 
reestablishment of his health would require, but I told 
him that I could not wait, and that his recovery must be 
immediate if he was to continue with us. This was too 
much of a jolt to his pride, and when we were ready to em- 
bark he was still too ill to start ! We accordingly loaded 
our belongings into two hancas each some sixty feet long, 
lay down on our backs in their little cabins, and con- 
tinued on our way upstream. 

The trip up the Agusan River is a most wonderful one. 
Nothing could surpass the magnificence of the tropical 
vegetation along its banks. The sportsman finds him- 
self constantly diverted. Great fruit pigeons and huge 
hornbills frequently fly over one's boat, or perch in trees 
where thej' can be shot from the river. Monkeys abound. 
Huge crocodiles may occasionally be observed sleeping 
on the banks. Wild hogs are plentiful, but usually keep 
out of sight. The trees are hung with a marvellous drap- 
ery of vines, orchids and ferns, and, as the stream is so 
broad and deep as to render its navigation easy, one can 
lean back and enjoy to the full the beauties of nature dis- 
played in prodigal abundance on every side. 

We found the human inhabitants of this wonderful 



616 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

region a highly unsatisfactory lot. The Manobo fam- 
ihes were living either singly, scattered along the river, 
or grouped in httle villages composed of a dozen or two 
rotting huts and surrounded by the accumulated filth of 
years. As was to be anticipated under the circumstances, 
most of the people were full of malaria, and many suffered 
from repulsive skin diseases. They had little cultivated 
ground. The growing and cleaning of hemp was their 
only resource, and they had become so accustomed to 
having the products of their labour taken from them by 
the people of Butuan that they had almost given up 
working. They hstened with dull, uncomprehending 
hopelessness to our story of better days to come, and it 
soon became evident that nothing but practical experience 
would convince these helpless people that times were 
going to change. 

The Filipinos of Talacogon were an especially lazy, 
vicious lot, who did no work themselves, but sponged or 
stole a living from their non-Christian neighbours. Forest 
trees were springing up on the plaza of this town. Its 
streets were deep in mud, and its sanitary condition beg- 
gared description. I was really afraid to stay overnight. 
I ordered the people to clean up, and they laughed at me. 
I ultimately made them clean up, but they successfully 
resisted my efforts to do so longer than the people of any 
other town ever did, and several years passed before I was 
at all satisfied with results. 

Our progress up the river was unimpeded until we 
reached what is shown on the maps of Mindanao as a 
series of extensive lakes, but is in reality a huge and track- 
less swamp. Some years before a very severe earthquake 
had caused the subsidence of a vast forested area along 
the banks of this portion of the Agusan River, with the 
result that the old river-bed was completely broken up, 
and the river below this point reversed its flow for some 
time until the depressed region had been filled up by the 
water which entered it from all sides. There were no 



THE GOVERNMENT OF THE NON-CHRISTIAN TRIBES 617 

well-established channels through this submerged forest, 
and navigation in it was dangerous unless one had ex- 
perienced guides. 

In order that such guides might be always available, 
the Spaniards had compelled a number of them to live 
on the outskirts of the swamp at a place called Clavijo. 
The ground on which their houses stood was under water 
most of the year. They were a miserable, sickly lot. 
Most of them were suffering acutely from malaria, and 
aU were verj' anxious to abandon the ill-fated site of their 
village, — a thing which, it is needless to say, they were 
promptly permitted by us to do. Having secured the 
services of several of them, we continued our journey 
toward Bunauan, but found the stream which we ascended 
after extricatmg ourselves from the swamp so choked 
with rubbish that it was frequently necessary either to 
clear channels or to haul our heavj' boats over masses of 
dead tree trunks, branches, bamboo, etc. From Bunauan 
we returned to Butuan and sailed for Cagayan de Misamis. 

\Miile passing along one of the main streets of the latter 
town on my way to the provincial building, I discovered 
Bukidnon people buying vino by the demijohn. The law 
prohibiting the sale of alcohohc Hquors to members of 
non-Christian tribes was then in effect throughout the 
archipelago. One of the first questions which I put to 
the FiHpino governor was whether he had taken the neces- 
sary measures to see that this law was enforced. He 
repUed in the affirmative. I asked him what he had 
done. He said that he had sent letters to the several 
Bukidnon settlements telling the people that they must 
not buy vino. I asked liim if he had warned the dealers 
in his own town that they must not sell to the Bukidnons, 
and he rephed, "It has not occurred to me to do that ! " 

Ha\dng explained to the governor the terms of the law 
establishing the province of Agusan, and the reasoia for 
its adoption, I proceeded across the bay to a barrio 
which then was, and stiU is, the point of departure for 



618 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

the interior, planning to start at daylight the following 
morning. I had with me my private secretary Mr. Zinn, 
and Mr. Frederick Lewis, who had just accepted appoint- 
ment as lieutenant-governor of the sub-province. 

Lewis had taken a number of Zamboanga Moros to 
the St. Louis Exposition and had also assumed charge of 
the Lake Lanao Moros there when their manager mis- 
behaved and it became necessary to dispense with his 
services. He had looked after his people so carefully and 
so well that some of the hardened old sinners from Lake 
Lanao actually wept when they parted company with 
him on the beach after their return from the United 
States ! He was a tireless rider, and the country which 
he was to govern was a horseman's country par excellence. 

Our transportation for the trip was in charge of a 
Filipino Ueutenant of constabulary, named Manuel 
Fortich, and I was not greatly pleased with this arrange- 
ment, as we had a hard journey ahead of us which might 
be rendered difficult or even dangerous by lack of effi- 
ciency on the part of the man who looked after our saddle 
animals and om- carriers. I soon learned, however, that 
no better man could have been selected for this task. 

We marched at daylight, as is my custom when travel- 
ling overland in the provinces. At midnight a mounted 
Filipino messenger, sent by the caciques of Cagayan, had 
started ahead of us to frighten the people of the towns 
which we proposed to visit so that they would take to 
the hills. In this he was partially successful. When 
we reached the small settlement of Tancuran late in the 
afternoon, after a hard day's work, the only inhabitants 
left were a few old cripples who had been too sick or 
too feeble to run away. However, many of those who 
had fled were hiding in the underbrush near by. Lieu- 
tenant Fortich, who had already made himself invalu- 
able to us, soon rounded up quite a number of them, 
and they were in turn despatched for their friends. 

This little village was in a deplorable state of abandon- 







--. -**■ 



A«jr« 










A FLYi.sti Ferry in Operation. 



THE GOVERNMENT OF THE NON-CHRISTIAN TRIBES 619 

ment. Only a few of its houses were habitable. It had 
been well laid out by some good Jesuit missionary priest, 
but its streets and plaza were choked with a jungle of 
tropical vegetation through which ran trails resembhng 
deer paths ! There was absolutely nothing growing in 
the vicinity which could furnish food for a human being. 

Lieutenant Fortich ultimately got together quite an 
audience for me. We squatted around a cheerful camp- 
fire and discussed the past and the future until late at 
night. I was deUghted to find that my auditors took a 
keen interest in my statements. They soon gained 
courage to tell me freely of the abuses which they had suf- 
fered, and while obviously not optimistic over my prom- 
ises of better things, were evidently willing to be shown. 

Just before we turned in Lieutenant Fortich asked me 
at what time I would Uke to start in the morning. I 
said "five o'clock." He replied, "Very well." While 
his remarks were gratifyingly in. accord with the biblical 
injunction to "let your conversation be yea, yea; nay, 
nay," I feared that he did not fully comprehend the 
difficulties involved in an early start, so decided to take a 
hand myself when the time came. I accordingly arose at 
three-thirty a.m., and nearly fainted when I found that the 
horses were already munching their grain and, wonder of 
wonders, that the carriers were eating their breakfast. 
The usual thing is to be informed, when you are about 
an hour on your way, that the carriers have had no break- 
fast, and to be forced to sit down and wait while they 
cook and eat their morning meal. I went back to bed, 
convinced that I had discovered a new kind of Filipmo con- 
stabulary officer. I got up again at four o'clock, dressed, 
and went to the table at four-thirty, finding a piping hot 
meal ready. When at five o'clock I descended the stairs 
of the house where I had spent the night, my horse was 
saddled and waiting at the gate. All I had to do was to 
cUmb aboard. Meanwhile I had not heard an order given, 
or a word spoken in a tone above that of ordinary con versa- 



620 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

tion. Throughout the trip Lieutenant Fortich continued 
to display quiet efficiency. I jotted his name down in 
my mental notebook as that of a man to be used later. 
He is to-day the lieutenant-governor of Bukidnon, and 
a most faithful, competent and efficient public officer. 

During my first day's ride I had had a decidedly start- 
ling experience. On leaving the sea beach one climbs 
rather abruptly for some nine hundred feet and then comes 
out on a wonderful plain. After riding over this beautiful 
stretch of level country for some time I could not longer 
resist the temptation to attempt to take a panoramic 
series of views showing it, so dismoimted, set up my 
camera and made three exposures, rotating the instru- 
ment so as to get a panoramic effect. I worked with my 
back toward my companions, and became so absorbed in 
my task that I failed to notice that they were moving on. 
When I finally turned around I discovered to my utter 
amazement that I was alone, save for the carrier who 
packed my camera and plates. In every direction an 
apparently unbroken plain stretched for miles, and 
there was not another human being in sight. My com- 
panions had disappeared from off the face of the earth. 
I actually began to fear that I had taken leave of my 
senses. Nothing which has ever befallen me has given 
me such a curious sensation. However, one tangible 
thing remained ; to wit, a well-marked trail through the 
grass. I followed it, and before I had gone three hundred 
yards came to the brink of a precipitous canon down 
the wall of which my companions were zigzagging. From 
the point where I had taken my photographs it was ab- 
solutelj' impossible to detect the existence of this narrow 
crack in the earth. We soon learned, to our sorrow, that 
this first canon was only one of many. 

At its bottom was a raging torrent which we forded 
with difficulty. My fool horse got frightened and turned 
down-stream where the current was swiftest, and I nar- 
rowly escaped taking an impromptu trip down rapids 



THE GOVERNMENT OF THE NON-CHRISTIAN TRIBES 621 

which would have hammered me into insensibility against 
the rocks. 

Until we reached Malaybalay the conditions encoun- 
tered in the several villages through which we passed were 
similar to those which we had found at Tanculan : houses 
abandoned for the most part, and always in a lamentable 
state of neglect ; sanitary conditions very bad ; streets 
and plazas overgrown ; an abundance of coffee bushes 
in some of the villages, but no visible source of food supply 
anywhere, except for a few scraggly banana plants. 

At the outset we had found all the villages deserted, 
but in each case had managed to get some of the people 
back and hold a friendly interview with them. The 
"grapevine telegraph" got to working, and soon they 
began to await our arrival. At Malaj^balay they gave 
us quite an ovation. This town was comparatively 
clean ; the grass on the plaza was neatly cut. All in all, 
conditions were so encouraging that I decided that it 
should be the capital of the subprovince. 

The following day we continued our journey to Linabo, 
where I heard of a Fihpino engaged, as usual, in terrorizing 
the inhabitants and taking their products from them. I 
twice sent him courteous requests to come to see me, and 
then had him unceremoniously brought into my presence. 
He was carrying an ugly looking, hea\y-calibre six-shooter. 
I demanded the document which justified his possession 
of this weapon, and as he could produce nothing more 
satisfactory than a note from the governor of Misamis 
authorizing him to use it in that province, I took his gun 
away from him. He assumed a threatening attitude and 
warned me that he was a friend of the provincial gov- 
ernor, but I told him that he was not a friend of mine, 
and started him on his way to the coast. 

This occurrence was known throughout Bukidnon 
within three days, and as the man in question was in- 
fluential the fact that his claws had been at least tempo- 
rarily trimmed greatly encouraged the people. 



622 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

From Linabo we returned by a different route, visit- 
ing tlie old settlement of Sumilao, the site of the origi- 
nal Jesuit mission in Bukidnon, and spending a day in 
endeavouring to reach a constantly disappearing vil- 
lage named Nanca. We had gathered from the writ- 
ten report of a lieutenant of the United States army 
that Nanca was distant from Sumilao about two hours' 
ride. We reached it after dark, having travelled stead- 
ily throughout the day except for some thirty minutes 
taken for lunch, and having, I firmly beUeve, broken 
the world's record for the number of canons encount- 
ered in the course of a fourteen-hour ride. 

Nanca proved to be a very interesting Bukidnon 
village, as its people retained theu* picturesque tribal dress 
and most of their priinitive customs. I became much 
interested in finding out about its organization, and the 
part that each family took in its affairs, and asked 
the persons present what each man did. I finally 
came to a particularly fine-looking white-haired mdi- 
vidual, and when I inquired about him my informant 
replied: "Oh, he does not do anything. He is a phi- 
losopher!" Then the crowd shouted with laughter. 
We decided that the Bukidnons were not without a 
sense of humor. 

A hard half day's ride brought us back to Cagayan de 
Misamis, and I sailed at once for Manila, leaving Lieu- 
tenant-Governor Lewis to face his difficult task alone. 
As I had anticipated, trouble promptly began. The 
wealthiest people of Cagayan had always lived off 
the unfortunate Bukidnons, and had no intention 
of relaxing their grip. I have deeply regretted that I 
did not myseK visit the remaining villages in the valley 
of the Cagayan River and explain to their inhabitants 
the change in their fortunes. Agents of the Cagayan 
caciques had been busy there while I was occupied on the 
other side of the subprovince, and shortly after my arrival 
at Manila a telegram was received from the provincial 



THE GOVERNMENT OF THE NON-CHRISTIAN TRIBES 623 

governor, saying that the Bukidnons were asking for a 
brown governor, instead of a white one, and were reported 
to be preparing ropes and poison with which to commit 
suicide. 

Now these simple people of the hills had no intention 
of committing suicide, nor did they want "a brown gov- 
ernor." Their petitions were prepared by Cagayan ca- 
ciques and they were forced to sign them. 

In the part of the subprovince which I had visited the 
conspirators against the new government made little 
headway. Nevertheless their vicious activities con- 
tinued, and later, on several occasions, they succeeded in 
frightening the people of one or another of the then 
rapidly growing towns so badly that they took to the 
hills, and Mr. Lewis had to hunt them up and persuade 
them to come back again, which he always succeeded in 
doing. 

"Wlien I returned to inspect Bukidnon a year later, I 
found that a marvellous change had already been brought 
about. Model villages had taken the place of the ram- 
shackle affairs which I had found on my first visit. The 
houses were grouped around spacious plazas on which 
the grass had been so carefully cut that they had already 
begmi to look like lawns. Streets were kept so clean 
that one could literally pick up a dropped pin without 
the shghtest difficulty. \Vhere the streets reached the 
open prairie, bars were provided to keep stray animals 
out of town. Every yard was neatly fenced. All do- 
mestic animals were properly confined if not out at pas- 
ture. Every village was perfectly drained, the slope of 
the land being such that all drainage promptly ran off 
onto the prairie. Yards were immaculately clean and 
were planted with useful food-producing crops. Little 
cultivated fields were already beginning to appear near 
the outskirts of the towns. This latter change greatly 
delighted me. These poor, ignorant people had always 
beheved that the prairie soil was worthless for agi-icultural 



624 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

purposes, and that in order to grow crops it was necessary 
for them to go to the distant mountains, clear forest land 
and plant it. Furthermore, they had been quite unable 
to break the prairie sod and bring the underlying soil 
under cultivation with such simple agricultm-al imple- 
ments as they possessed. 

At the request of Lieutenant-Governor Lewis, I had 
furnished two disk plows with the necessary animals to 
pull them, in order that the land might be plowed the 
first time for those who were wUhng to cultivate it. 
Thereafter they were left to cai-e for it themselves. This 
plan had aroused great enthusiasm. As I approached 
Sumilao I saw a crowd of men busily engaged in some 
task, and when I drew near was amazed and dehghted 
to find that, although the disk plow intended for use at 
that place had arrived before the animals which were to 
pull it, fifteen men had harnessed themselves to it and 
were vigorously breaking the sod. I decided on the spot 
that the Bukidnon people had a future, and have never 
changed ray mind. The progress which they have since 
made is almost unbelievable. 

Efforts to destroy the government wliich we had es- 
tablished in Bukidnon, and to reestabUsh the system of 
peonage under which its peaceful, industrious inhabitants 
had so long groaned, were persistently continued. Dur- 
ing my tliird annual inspection trip, I found that there 
was a plan on foot to trump up criminal charges against 
Lieutenant-Governor Lewis and Senor Manuel Fortich, 
whose ser\'ices I had meanwhile secured as an assistant 
to Mr. Lewis upon his severing his connection with the 
constabulary. The efforts of the mischief-makers had 
become so persistent and so \'icious that I decided to 
declare war on them. Accordingly, I ran over to Cagayan 
and summoned the provincial officers and several other 
prominent citizens, with whom I went straight to the 
point, telhng them that I had not anticipated that they 
would readily adapt themselves to the changed conditions 



THE GOVERNMENT OF THE NON-CHRISTIAN TRIBES 625 

which resulted from the separation of Bukidnon as a 
distinct subprovince, and had patiently waited three 
years for them to accept the inevitable, but that I had 
grown weary of their constant efforts to nuUify the work 
which we were doing, and that I was aware of the plan 
to destroy the usefulness of Lewis and Fortich ; adding 
that they must let the Bukidnon officials alone, and that 
in the event of futiue failure to do so I would temporarily 
transfer my office to Cagayan de Misamis and devote my 
time and attention to making things interesting for certain 
of them. I named no names, and it was not necessary 
to do so. The individuals referred to knew whom I 
meant. 

Conditions now rapidly improved for a time, but in 
November I was called to Wasliington to be investigated 
by the Committee on Insular Affairs with reference to 
my administration of public and friar lands, and the 
enemies of the Bukidnon government promptly became 
active. Governor Lewis was arrested and tried on two 
criminal charges, while his assistant, Senor Fortich, 
was charged with miu-der, no less. If the charges of 
estafa and falsification of pubhc documents brought 
against Lewis failed, it was proposed to prosecute him 
for adultery, the minimum penalty for which in the 
Phihppine Islands is imprisonment for two years, four 
months and one day. 

Fortunately, it took but a short time to show that the 
cases against those two young men were spite cases pure 
and simple, and they collapsed miserably. Other charges 
were promptly brought. 

There had been a sad mix up, resulting from an ill- 
defined boundary line between Bukidnon and the Moro 
Province, for which I myself was directly responsible, 
as the papers concerning it were on my desk awaiting 
action when I was called home, and in the rush of a hiu-ried 
departure I had overlooked them. Lewis and Fortich 
had been unjustly blamed for the result. I now took a 



626 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

hand in the game myself, and the whole matter was 
satisfactorily cleared up. Lewis was promoted to the 
governorship of the province of Agusan, and Fortich was 
made Ueutenant-governor of Bukidnon, a position which 
he has fiUed ever since with great credit to himself and 
advantage to the Bukidnon people. 

The progress which has been made in Bukidnon is 
really wonderful. At the outset there was not a decent 
trail in the subprovince. Now one can go nineteen miles 
inland to the Mangima River canon in an automobile, 
and it will be soon possible so to continue the jom-ney 
ten miles further to Maluco. Excellent low-grade horse 
trails, many miles of which are already wide enough 
to serve as automobile roads as soon as the line 
to the coast is completed, connect the principal settle- 
ments of Bukidnon proper, which also have telephonic 
communication, the people having gladly undertaken to 
cut and erect the necessary poles and build and maintain 
the lines, if furnished instruments, wire, insulators and 
tools. They have kept theii- bargain, and there are con- 
stant demands for an extension of the system, under 
similar conditions, to the more remote mountain villages. 

There was not a bridge or a culvert in the subprovince. 
Pack animals were constantly being swept away by the 
rushing cm-rents of the larger rivers, or perishing miser- 
ably in mud when attempting to cross soft-bottomed 
creeks. Now one may ride from the sea-coast to Malay- 
balay -sv-ithout wetting the feet of one's horse, and in so 
doing one will cross more than a hundred substantial 
bridges and culverts built by the Bukidnons themselves. 
As a rule, even the largest bridges have cost the govern- 
ment no more than the price of their iron bolts and braces. 
The people have voluntarily and cheerfully done the work, 
in order to get the benefits which would result. In some 
cases heavy hardwood timbers have been dragged for 
fifteen miles or more by teams of hundreds of men. All 
bridges are roofed, and they afford fine camping places 




A Wild Tingian of Apatao. 

The Tingians of Apayao have proved to be the most difficult of the liill-tribcs 
of Xorthern Luzon to bring under effective governmental control. With 
them head-hunting is connected with religious beliefs and observances. 



THE GOVERNMENT OF THE NON-CHRISTIAN TRIBES 627 

for travellers and their pack animals. Incidentally the 
load which pack animals can comfortably carry has 
been more than doubled. 

Old villages have increased greatly in size, and numer- 
ous new ones have been estabUshed. All have spacious 
plazas and streets which are beautifully kept. The 
mountains are almost depopulated. The hardy old 
fighters who used to frequent them have become peaceful 
agriculturists. Houses are neat and clean. Yards are 
fenced, planted with useful crops, and well cultivated. 
Each house has its own sanitary arrangements. No 
domestic animals are allowed to run at large in towns. 

Rich, cultivated fields surround the villages and each 
year stretch farther and farther out over the neighbouring 
prairies. Coffee production is increasing by leaps and 
bounds, and blight is disappearing from the plantations 
as the result of intensive cultivation. The people are 
well fed and prosperous. Their condition steadily im- 
proves. They have been taught the value of their prod- 
ucts, and encouraged to insist on receiving it. 

Practically every village has its schoolhouse and its 
schoolmaster's house, voluntarily built free of charge 
by the inhabitants. Children are sent to school by their 
parents and learn rapidly. On my second \'isit I found 
the boys trying to play baseball, using joints of bamboo 
for bats, and big, thick-skinned oranges for balls. I sent 
to each of the more important towns a complete baseball 
outfit, and now the boys certainly know, and can play, 
the game. 

These results have been accompUshed practically 
without bloodshed or rough treatment of any sort. Only 
in the rarest instances, and in dealing with the very worst 
of the hill men, who were professional murderers, has a 
shot been fired. 

When the subprovince was invaded by bands of savages 
from the mountains of Butuan and from the neighbouring 
Moro Province, the people requested firearms so that they 



628 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

might protect themselves. Some twenty-five old car- 
bines were furnished them, and they organized an effective 
force which pursued the evil-doers and policed them up 
very effectively. 

Maramag, one of the most recently estabhshed villages, 
is in the very heart of Mindanao. Two years ago a good 
many of its leading citizens were Uving in tree-houses. 
During August, 1912, I found them cutting the grass on 
their plaza with a lawn-mower ! 

Another thing which has made me rub my eyes and 
wonder if I were awake was the discovery that the people 
of this subprovince were clothing thejnselves and their 
children in garments purchased from Montgomery, 
Ward & Co., of Chicago, Illinois, U. S. A. ! The explana- 
tion is simple. The Cagayan shopkeepers persist in 
cheating them at every opportunity, and the house of 
Montgomery, Ward & Co. does not. Although Chicago 
is far away, the mail service is nevertheless good ! 

Death has just summoned Leoncio, one of the most 
remarkable men who has yet arisen among the Bukidnon 
people. We found him an absolutely iUiterate heathen. 
With no other instruction than that given him by Ueu- 
tenant-governors Lewis and Fortich, he learned to lay 
out and build roads and trails on any desired grade, to 
constmct bridges which will be standing twenty years 
hence, and to erect public buildings which would be a 
credit to any man compelled to use such materials as 
those available in Bukidnon. 

At the time of his death he was just finishing a bridge 
three hundred feet long across the rushing Culaman River. 
This structure has a galvanized iron roof, contributed by 
the enthusiastic residents of Sumilao. 

The healthful rivalry between towns is one of the 
delightful things about Bukidnon. Each desires to have 
better buildings, better streets, better bridges, better 
roads and better schools than its neighbours. 

I experience no keener pleasure than that which I enjoy 



THE GOVERNMENT OF THE NON-CHRISTIAN TRIBES 629 

on my annual trips through Bukidnon. There is always 
something new to see. The people are most grateful 
for the help which has been given them. Their friend- 
Uness and their loyalty cannot fail to touch the hearts of 
all who know them. They are now well housed, and well 
fed. Their children are being given in hberal measure 
the education which had previously been denied to them. 
The Bukidnons are to-day a prosperous, progressive 
people, happy, and contented. I have an abiding faith 
in their future if they are given a chance. 

When they meet their old FiUpino oppressors on trips 
to the coast, the latter grit their teeth and remark under 
their breath : "Oh, very well. This is your inning now, 
but ours will come ! The Americans are going soon, and 
then we will square our little account with you. You 
will pay dearly for your 'insubordination'!" Having 
set the feet of these people on the road which leads on- 
ward and upward, shall we leave them to their fate ? 

Conditions in Butuan have improved far more slowly 
than in Bukidnon. The climate is less favourable. 
Bukidnon is a highland country with a white man's 
cUmate. The Agusan River valley is usually hot, and 
always damp. The town of Butuan was considered the 
worst misgoverned municipality in the Philippines on 
the date of its separation from Surigao, and it was cer- 
tainly one of the filthiest. I have sunk to my knees in 
the mud of its streets. It is to-day a beautifully kept 
and sanitary place, and is certainly not misgoverned. 

As I have already said, the Manobo inhabitants of the 
wretched villages along the banks of the main Agusan 
River were a sickly, filthy, broken-spirited lot, besotted 
with vino and in danger of becoming victims of the opium 
habit. It is almost a physical impossibility completely 
to suppress the opium traffic because of the ease with 
which the drug is smuggled, but the vino traffic has been 
suppressed. The chief business on the Agusan River 
was formerly the transportation of vino up-stream. It is 



630 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

now the transportation down-stream of Manila hemp 
raised by the people of the valley. 

The villages have been greatly improved and rendered 
reasonably sanitary. The best of them compare not 
unfavourably with some of the Bukidnon towns. The 
people improve, but radical improvement will not be in 
evidence until the next generation comes on. 

Transportation facilities have been greatly increased 
by freeing several of the more important branches of the 
Agusan River from snags, and so opening them for 
launch navigation. Two good canals have been cut 
through the swamps, and conmiunication by launch has 
thus been opened with the upper Agusan ^^alley. 

There is an industrial school for Manobo boys, and a 
number of the villages have primarj' schools. 

Doubtless the most important single factor in improving 
the condition of the Manobos has been the estabhshment 
of a series of government shops at which they can sell 
their products for a fair price, and buy what they need so 
cheaply that it almost seems to them as if they were 
receiving presents. 

Governor Frederick Johnston, who is largely respon- 
sible for these improved conditions, laboured ceaselessly 
to bring them about. At the outset he had no launch 
transportation and Uved for weeks at a time in native 
canoes or bancas. He was fearless and tireless. When 
the time came for him to take long overdue leave I had 
no competent person to put in his place, and in deference 
to my washes he continued at his post for nearly two years. 
At the end of that time it was found that one of his legs, 
which had been injured on an early exploring expedition, 
had become cancerous, and that immediate amputation 
was necessary. This made it impossible for him to con- 
tinue his work, and crippled him for life. He had borne 
his trouble uncomplainingly, and I had not even known of 
its existence. Although a man of mature years, he bravely 
entered upon the study of medicine, hoping to prepare 



THE GO\'ERNMENT OF THE NON-CHRISTLAJ^ TRIBES 631 

himself for a useful life, but the operation had come 
too late. Cancer reappeared, and for a year he was 
dying by inches. In a way I am responsible for it. Do 
you think he laid it up against me ? You shall judge for 
yourselves. 

He used to write a copj'-book hand. Just before 
leaving Manila I received from him an almost illegible 
letter in which he economized words as if composing a 
cablegram. It brought the tears to my eyes. He said : — 

"I thank you for your slavery book just received. If 
strength is left me to read it, I shall read it though I do nothing 
else in this life. 

"I have had letter in preparation to you since last June but 
I haven't strength to sit at the machine. I expect now to die 
before New Year. 

" I have offered surgeons to take all chances, but they decline 
to operate, stating that thej' would consider operation delib- 
erate murder. 

"Tliis is first letter I wTite since last September. If I do 
not get strength to finish tjijewritten letter I have given in- 
structions it be sent when I am dead. I cannot write with 
pen; I have tried it. 

''If you hear no more, please remember I never forgot j'ou. 
Sorrj' you leave the Secretariat — so sorry I can't tell you. 

"I am ready to die. I know that I have lived unselfishly 
for what I thought was right and good, and death is nothing. 
If this should be the last, then accept from the man that was 
alwavs vour man and will be j'our man until he dies, a last 
Good-by." 

A few days later he went to his reward. 

The loyaltj' of such a man is a precious possession. 

The lot of the non-Christian tribes inhabiting the 
regTilarly organized pro\dnces is not a happy one. The 
township government act is apphcable to their settle- 
ments, and the pro\dncial officers have the same powers 
and duties with reference to them as have the correspond- 
ing officers in the special government provinces. In 
both cases these powers are exercised subject to the ap- 
proval of the secretary of the interior, but in providing 



632 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

for the government of non-Christians in Christian prov- 
inces, we overlooked one very essential detail. Neither 
the secretary of the interior nor any one else has authority 
to compel the governors or provincial boards of these 
provinces to act. They have discovered that efforts 
to improve the condition of the ignorant and primi- 
tive peoples intrusted to their charge can be very effec- 
tively nulhfied if they merely sit still and do nothing, and 
almost with one accord they have adopted this pohcy. 
Exception should be made in favour of North Ilocos, South 
Ilocos, Pangasinan, AmbosCamarines, Iloilo and Zambales. 
No other provinces have made any real effort to help their 
non-Christian population, and the funds set aside by law 
to be expended for this end simply go on accumulating in 
their respective treasuries, as I have managed to convince 
them that efforts to divert such fimds to purposes not 
authorized by law will not prosper. The law should be 
so amended as to provide that if provincial boards fail 
to act, the secretary of the interior may do so. 

The organization of the Moro Province was provided 
for by an act passed on June 1, 1903. It is the largest 
single province in the Phihppine Islands, including within 
its limits more than half of the great island of Mindanao 
with various small islands adjacent thereto, and Basilan, 
Jolo, Siassi, Tawi Tawi, Sibutu, Cagayan de Jolo and the 
very numerous other small islands stretching between 
Mindanao and North Borneo. It is divided into five 
districts, each with a district governor. The province 
has a governor, a secretary, a treasurer, an attorney, an 
engineer and a superintendent of schools. 

The four officials first named constitute a legislative 
council the acts of which are subject to the approval of 
the Philippine Commission. 

The province is allowed to expend the moneys accruing 
from the customs dues paid at Jolo and Zamboanga, 
which are ports of entry, but is not fully self-supporting. 
The insular government pays for the Phihppine constabu- 



THE GOVERNMENT OF THE NON-CHRISTIAN TRIBES 633 

lary serving there. Until within a very short time the 
provincial officials have been almost exclusively officers 
of the army of the United States. In my opinion this 
arrangement has been a bad one, not because of the 
character of the men who have done the work, many of 
whom were of exceptional abihty and were admii'ably 
fitted for the performance of the duties which fell to their 
lot, but because no one of them has retained a given office 
long enough to carry a policy through to its logical con- 
clusion and get the results which might thus have been 
obtained. Indeed, the lack of a fixed policy, combined 
with some unnecessary and unjustifiable killing, explain, 
in my opinion, the fact that the results accompUshed 
have come far short of what might have been expected 
when one considers the splendid body of men from which 
the provincial officials have been drawn. 

Noteworthy public improvements have been made in 
places like Zamboanga and Jolo, but the country of the 
hiU people, which ought to have been crisscrossed with 
trails long ere this, is still not opened up. Tribes Uke the 
Mandayas would, if given the opportunity, advance as 
rapidly as have the Bukidnons, but such opportunity has 
not been given to them to any considerable extent. 

Having heard much of the JMandaya villages near 
Mati, I improved the opportunity to visit them in August, 
1912, only to find to my amazement that the local con- 
stabulary officer, who ought to have been in the closest 
possible touch with these people, did not even know the 
way to their settlements. At another place where some 
1400 hill people had been compelled to come down from 
their native mountains and settle in a village which could 
have been made a model of cleanliness, and should have 
been surrounded by rich cultivated fieldsj not half enough 
ground had been cleared to furnish food for the inhabit- 
ants, even under the most favourable circumstances. 
The houses were faffing down ; the streets were deep in 
mud ; the garden patches were overgrown with weeds ; 



634 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

more than half of the people had taken to the hills again 
in a search for food, and small blame to them ! I found 
here as fine appearing a young constabulary officer as 
one could hope to meet, eating his heart out because he 
had nothing to do ! Neither he nor any of his soldiers 
spoke the local dialect. He was supposed to be running 
a store, among other things, for the benefit of the hill 
people. I asked to see it, and it took him half an hour to 
find the key ! In sixty minutes I could have set him work 
enough to keep him busy for three months. All that he 
needed was some one to direct him, but there was no one 
to do it. With the best intentions in the world he was 
using his soldiers to chase a lot of poor hill people back 
into a village where they ought never to have been asked 
to Hve. In other words, the Moro Province, having 
brought these people down and ordered them to settle 
on a site selected for them, had signally failed to back its 
own game. I myseK would not tliink of trying to compel 
members of a wild tribe to live in any given place, unless 
it were necessary to do so in the interest of pubUc order. 
Life in villages can, and should, be made so attractive to 
them that they will be glad to adopt it. 

The Moros, with their fanatical religious beHefs and 
prejudices, present a veiy grave problem. Conditions 
have undoubtedly greatly improved in Davao, Cotabato 
and Zamboanga. I am not sufficiently famihar with 
affairs in the Lanao district to express an intelhgent 
opinion concerning them. So far as concerns Jolo, it is 
my opinion that things have come to a bad pass there; 
that life and property are not as safe to-day as they were 
during the early days of the American occupation, and 
that we have progressed backward for some time. How- 
ever, Jolo pirates have at least been pretty effectively 
kept off the sea, and that in itself is a very important 
result. 

It is idle to suppose that the Moros can be subdued and 
made into decent citizens by throwing kisses at them. It 




TiNGiAN Girls Threshing Rice. 



THE GOVERNMENT OF THE NON-CHRISTIAN TRIBES 635 

was certain from the start that they would transgress. 
In my opinion, if we are to cure them of their evil ten- 
dencies, we must first warn them that they will be pim- 
ished if they misbehave, and then make the warning come 
true. This has been done, but to another very important 
part of the programme which I deem essential to success, 
comparatively httle attention seems to have been given. 
When people who have been punished for misbehavior 
have had enough they should be afforded a chance to quit, 
and mdeed should be encouraged and helped to do so. 
No grudge should be borne for past misdeeds after the 
account has once been settled. Occasions have not been 
lacking in the Moro Province on which men have been 
treated with severity when they should have been treated 
with kindness. 

In the Moro, native racial characteristics have been 
profoundly modified by rehgious behefs. Men endowed 
with such magnificent courage as the Moro warriors often 
display certainly have their redeeming quahties. The 
same old pohcy that has won with the Ifugaos, Bontoc 
Igorots and Kalingas, and is winning with the wild Tin- 
gians and Ilongots, has been tried in dealing with the 
renegade Moros of Palawan with a considerable degree of 
success. It is my firm beUef that it will work with the 
Moros of Mindanao, Basilan, Jolo and Tawi Tawi, but 
substantial and permanent progress cannot now be antici- 
pated for many years. The Moros must be given more 
than a square deal, or results will not differ essentially 
from those which have attended the efforts of Japan to 
subdue the hill people of Northern Formosa, or those of 
the Dutch to subdue the Achinese. 

Recently nearly all of the army officers holding posi- 
tions in the Moro Province have been replaced by ci- 
vilians. This is a move in the right direction; not, I 
repeat, because the men thus displaced are incapable of 
achieving success if given the opportunity, but because 
contmuity of policy is absolutely essential to success and 



636 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

is impracticable if the men charged with carrying out that 
pohcy are to be constantly changed. The next governor 
of the Moro Province should be a civiUan and should be 
selected with the greatest care. He should be able, en- 
ergetic, fearless, tireless and young. He should be kept 
in office for twenty years if he will stay so long. The task 
which awaits him is real man's work. 



CHAPTER XXIII 

Corrigenda 

I TRUST that the foregoing incomplete outline of what 
has been accomplished toward bettering the condition 
of the non-Christian tribes of the Philippines has at least 
sufficed to convey some idea of the nature of the task which 
has confronted us and of the spirit in which it has been 
approached. Before considering further the difficulties 
which have been successfully met and the problems which 
still remain misettled, I will correct some of the numerous 
misstatements which have been made relative to the un- 
importance of the non-Christian tribes, the nature of the 
work done for them, and the motives of some of those 
who have engaged in it. 

I once heard it said that the trouble with Blount's 
book was that it contained five thousand hes, that the 
correction of each would require, on the average, two pages 
of printed matter, and that no one would read the result- 
ing series of volumes ! 

I have not counted the misstatements of this author. 
They are sufficiently nmnerous to make it impracticable 
to answer them all in detail. It is hard to know just what 
to do in such a case, as one must run the risk of giving 
undue importance to them by noticing them, or of creat- 
ing the impression that they cannot be answered by 
ignoring them. 

Under all the circumstances it has seemed to me well 
to reply somewhat fully to his more important allegations 
relative to non-Christian tribe matters, for the reason, 
among others, that many of his statements embody the 
more important claims of the Filipino politicians relative 
thereto ; and to add that it would be equally easy to 

637 



638 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

riddle his contentions relative to most other matters which 
he discusses. He says : — 

"Professor Worcester of the Philippine Commission has for 
the last twelve years been the grand official digger-up of non- 
Christian tribes. He takes as much delight at the discovery 
of a new non-Christian tribe in some remote, newly penetrated 
mountain fastness, as the butterfly catcher with the proverbial 
blue goggles does in the capture of a new kind of butterfly." > 

I have never had the good fortune to discover even one 
new tribe, the net result of my explorations and studies 
having been to reduce the number of such tribes claimed 
to inhabit the Philippines from eighty-two to twenty-seven, 
and to throw serious doubt on the validity of several of 
those which I still provisionally recognize. Blount adds : — 

"Professor Worcester's greatest value to President Taft, 
and also the thing out of which has grown, most unfortunately, 
what seems to be a very cordial mutual hatred between him 
and the Filipinos, is his activities in the matter of discovering, 
getting acquainted with, classifying, tabulating, enumerating, 
and otherwise preparing for salvation, the various non-Christian 
tribes." ^ 

It is quite true that the Fihpino politicians have bit- 
terly resented my making known the facts relative to the 
existence of numerous uncivilized peoples in the islands, 
but to the charge that I hate the Filipinos I must enter 
an emphatic denial. 

Fifteen years ago I expressed my opinion of them in 
the following words : — 

"The civilized native is self-respecting and self-restrained 
to a remarkable degree. He is patient under misfortune, and 
forbearing under provocation. While it is stretching the truth 
to say that he never reveals anger, he certainly succeeds much 
better in controlling himself than does the average European. 
When he does give way to passion, however, he is as likely as 
not to become for the moment a maniac, and to do some one a 
fatal injury. 

> Blount, p. 543. 2 Ibid., p. 573. 



CORRIGENDA 639 

"He is a kind father and a dutiful son. His aged relatives 
are never left in want, but are brought to his home, and are 
welcome to share the best that it affords to the end of their 

"Among his fellows, he is genial and sociable. He loves to 
sing, dance, and make merry He is a born musician, and 
considering the sort of instruments at his disposal, and especially 
the limited advantages which he has for perfecting himself in 
their use, his performances on them are often very remarkable. 

"He is naturally fearless, and admires nothing so much as 
bravery in others. Under good officers he makes an excellent 
soldier, and he is ready to fight to the death for his honour or his 

home. 

******* 

"With all their amiable qualities it is not to be denied that 
at present the civilized natives are utterly unfit for self-govern- 
ment. Their universal lack of education is in itself a difficulty 
that cannot be speedily overcome, and there is much truth in 
the statement of a priest who said of them that 'm many things 
they are big children who must be treated like little ones. 

"Not having the gift of prophecy, I cannot say how far or 
how fast they might advance, under more favourable circum- 
stances than those which have thus far surrounded them. 
They are naturally law-abiding and peace-loving, and would, 
I believe, appreciate and profit by just treatment. 

"In the four months which separate May 1, 1898, from the 
day when the manuscript for this volume leaves my hands, 
important events have crowded on each other's heels as never 
before in the history of the Archipelago. Whatever may be the 
immediate outcome, it is safe to say that, having learned some- 
thing of his power, the civilized native will now be likely to 
take a hand in shaping his own future. I trust that opportuni- 
ties which he has never enjoyed may be given to him. it not, 
may he win them for himself." ' 

This opinion, which I trust will not be considered 
unkindly, has not been modified in its essentials as a 
result of many additional years of life in the Philippines. 
I have unexpectedly had a hand in giving to the Fili- 
pinos opportunities which they had never before enjoyed. 

1 "The PhiUppine Islands and Their People," by Dean C. Worces- 
ter, p. 480. 



640 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

I drafted the act under which the municipalities of these 
islands to-day govern themselves ; the act creating the 
College of Medicine and Surgery where young Filipino 
men and women may receive the best of theoretical and 
practical instruction ; the act creating in the Bureau of 
Lands a school of surveying as a result of which the 
present dearth of Filipino surveyors will soon end; the 
provision of law creating and providing for the Philip- 
pine Training School for Nm-ses, which is preparing hun- 
dreds of young Filipino men and women to practise a 
useful and noble profession. I drafted the legislation 
which created a forest school, where many bright Fili- 
pino lads are now being trained for the government 
service. I drafted the provision of law which gives to 
all FiUpinos the right to make personal use of timber 
from the government forests without paying a cent 
therefor, and the act which makes it possible for munici- 
palities to have communal forests, reserved for the special 
and exclusive benefit of their citizens. 

I fought for eight years to get the money for the Phil- 
ippine General Hospital, where nearly ninety thousand pa- 
tients, the vast majority of whom are Filipinos, are treated 
annually either in beds or at the several clinics ; I have 
approved, and indeed compelled, the appointment of a 
staff for that institution largely made up of Filipinos, and 
I have steadily supported the Filipino members of that 
staff when insulted or unjustly accused, as I regret to 
say they sometimes have been, as a result of race preju- 
dice with which I have no sympathy. 

I am the official ultimately responsible for the establish- 
ment and maintenance of a health system which indis- 
putably saves the lives of hundreds of thousands of Fili- 
pinos every year, and has practically rid their country of 
smallpox, plague and cholera. 

All of the employees of the Weather Bureau, which 
comes under my executive control, are Filipinos. 

I could name a score of other important measures, hav- 




Typical Manobos. 



CORRIGENDA 641 

ing for their sole object the betterment of the condition 
of the Filipinos, and extension to them of increased 
opportimity to demonstrate their capacity, which I have 
originated. I have never knowingly opposed a measure 
which would produce this result. 

I frankly admit that I have declined to approve the 
appointment of a Filipino to any position under my 
control simply because he was a FiUpino. I have insisted 
that appointees have higher and better reasons to claim 
consideration, among which may be mentioned decent 
character and ability to do the work of the positions to 
be filled. No living man entertains more genuinely 
kindly feelings toward the peoples of these islands, 
Christian and non-Christian, than do I. .\n allegation 
that I hate the Filipinos comes with especially bad taste 
from a man who himself never ceased to criticise them, 
and to denoimce them as utterly incompetent and worth- 
less throughout his Philippine career, but who finally 
experienced an eleventh-hour conversion on the eve of 
a presidential election which was likelj' to bring into 
power another pohtical party. 

Blount has worked out a theory, peculiarly his own, 
to the effect that the non-Christian peoples have been 
set aside as a field for purely Protestant missionary 
activities, and that I am a party to this scheme. In 
this connection he says : — 

"It seems that the Catholic and Protestant ecclesiastical 
authorities in the Islands get along harmoniously, a kind of 
modus Vivendi having been arranged between them, by which 
the Protestants are not to do anj^ proselyting among the seven 
millions of Catholic Christians. So this field of endeavour is 
the one Professor Worcester has been industriously preparing 
during the last twelve years. ' 

"Obviously, every time Professor Worcester digs up a new 
non-Christian tribe he increases the prospective harvest of the 
Protestants, thus corralling more missionary votes at home for 
permanent retention of the Philippines.^ 

' Blount, p. 580. ' Blount, p. 581. 



642 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

"But neither Bishop Brent nor any one else can persuade 
him 1 that it is wise to abandon the principle that Church and 
State should be separate, in order that our government may 
go into the missionary business. Since it has become apparent 
that the Philippines will not pay, the Administration has relied 
solely on missionary sentiments. . . . 

"The foregoing reflections are not intended to raise an issue 
as to the wisdom of foreign missions. They are simply intended 
to illustrate how it is possible and natural for President Taft 
to consider Professor Worcester 'the most vauable man we 
have on the Philippine Commission.' The Professor's mena- 
gerie is a vote-getter." ^ 

The first passage quoted has the merit of being ingen- 
ious, and embodies a half truth. Bishop Brent deems it 
inadvisable to try to proselytize Cathohc Christians, and 
outside of Manila his co-workers confine their efforts to 
the conversion of persons other than Filipinos. They 
conduct missions for non-Christians at Sagada and Bontoc 
in Bontoc, at Baguio in Benguet, and at Zamboanga in 
the Moro Province. 

In Manila they conduct a mission for Filipinos in con- 
nection virith a hospital vsrhich does most valuable work, 
but they mean to leave Catholic Filipinos alone. 

The Catholics recognize no corresponding limitations. 
They conduct missions for the Benguet-Lepanto Igorots 
at Baguio, Itogon, Kabayan, Cervantes and elsewhere; 
for the Bontoc Igorots at Banco and Bontoc and for the 
Ifugaos at Quiangan. 

The other Protestant denominations ha\'ing missions in 
the Philippines work chiefly among the Catholics. 

I have absolutely no connection with any such enter- 
prises except that I have helped to make them possible in 
the wild man's territory by the establishment of law and 
order there, and have sometimes made both Catholic and 
Protestant missionaries my agents for administering simple 
remedies to sick persons who might otherwise have 
perished miserably. 

' Blount. s Ibid., pp. 581-582. 



CORRIGENDA 643 

To this extent, and to this extent only, has our govern- 
ment gone into the missionary business. 

I am proud to count Bishop Brent and Archbishop 
Harty among my personal friends. I am in complete 
sympathy with the purposes which actuate both of them 
in prosecuting Christian missions. I have sometimes 
disapproved, personally, of methods employed by their 
subordinates in this work, and have felt free to tell them so ! 

Blount complains bitterly over the exhibition of mem- 
bers of non-Christian tribes at the Louisiana Purchase 
Exposition. For a wonder he admits that Tagdlog and 
Visayan Filipinos were also exhibited. He fails to record 
the fact that a conmiission of highly educated and cul- 
tured Filipino men and women were sent to the exposition 
and travelled quite widely in the United States, so that 
they were seen, and heard of, by great numbers of people 
who never visited St. Louis at all. Of the exhibition of 
wild men, he says : — 

"I think no deeper wound was ever inflicted upon the pride 
of the real Filipino people than that caused by this exhibition, 
the knowledge of which seems to have spread throughout the 
islands." ' 

And he rather ingeniously gives it to be understood that I 
was responsible for this exhibition, although he carefully 
avoids stating that this was the case. 

I am quite as strongly opposed to the exhibition of 
members of the Pliilippine non-Christian tribes as is 
Blount himself, but for very different reasons hereinafter 
set forth. As such peoples constitute an eighth of the 
population of the Islands, I also object to the attempt of 
certain Filipino politicians to conceal the fact of their 
existence, and to the efforts of certain misguided Ameri- 
cans to minimize the importance of the problems which 
their existence presents. Let us look the facts in the 
face. The Moros are as "real" as the Tagalogs. 

' Blount, p. 576. 



644 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

The average Filipino does not object in the least to 
the exliibition of wild people. On the contrary, he is 
just as much interested in them as is the average Ameri- 
can, and goes to see them whenever the opportunity offers. 
It is only the FiUpino pohtician who pretends to see any 
actual immodesty in scanty costumes worn with the 
innocence with which Adam and Eve were endowed be- 
fore the fall. The truth is that the politician himself 
does not really object to this semi-nudity, to which he is 
already sufficiently accustomed among his own people 
in his own native town, but he plays it up for political 
effect. 

The pedigree of the average Filipino poUtician very 
frequently runs back to white or Chinese ancestors on the 
father's side. In his heart of hearts he resents his Malay 
blood, and he particularly objects to anything which re- 
minds him of the truth as to the stage of civilization 
which had been attained by his Malay ancestors a few 
centuries ago. 

If he be a member of the Philippine Assembly, he fur- 
ther and bitterly resents his lack of authority to legislate 
for the Moros and other non-Christian tribes, and is ever 
ready to support his frequently reiterated demand for 
such authority by arguing the unimportance of these 
peoples, and that of the problems which their existence 
presents. Up to the time when the assembly was estab- 
Hshed and was denied the power to legislate for the non- 
Christians, mjr occasional illustrated lectures on the wild 
peoples, given at Manila, were very hberally attended 
by Filipinos, not a few of whom I am glad to say still 
continue to patronize them when occasion offers. 

My own attitude toward the exhibition of non-Chris- 
tians, and my reasons therefor, are set forth in the fol- 
lowing official correspondence, with which I will dismiss 
this phase of the subject : — 



CORRIGENDA 645 

(Telegram.) 
"Pack* Bontoc, Manila, Dec. 4, 1909. 
" Schneiderwind is back wdth his Igorots some of whom have 
as much as two thousand pesos due them. Am trying to 
arrange to have this money put in postal savings bank to 
protect them from themselves. Schneiderwind is after another 
party of wild people to take to Europe. Has asked about 
Ifugaos and Apayaos. Have told him strongly opposed to 
taking these people to other countries for exhibition purposes 
and will place all possible obstacles in his way if he attempts 
to do so. If after this warning he enters Mountain province 
to secure people for exhibition purposes give him no assistance 
but use every legitimate means to prevent his getting them. 
Give proper and seasonable instructions to your subordinates. 

" WORCESTEB." 

On April 22, 1910, in returning to the Governor-General 
a petition dealing with the exhibition of wild people 
I placed upon it this indorsement : — 

" Respectfully returned to the Honourable, the Governor- 
General. 

" The undersigned is strongly opposed to the sending of mem- 
bers of wild tribes to the United States or to other civilized 
countries for exhibition purposes. Apart from all other con- 
siderations experience shows that the men and women thus 
taken away from their natural surroundings are apt to be pretty 
thoroughly spoiled and to be trouble makers after their return. 

"The undersigned has recently informed Mr. R. Schneider- 
wind that he would, if necessary, do everything in his power to 
prevent the latter gentleman from taking another set of Igorots 
away from the Philippines for exhibition purposes. This, too, 
in spite of the fact that Mr. Schneiderwind has apparently 
been very considerate in his treatment of the Igorots whom he 
has taken to the United States for exhibition purposes. 

" The undersigned would assume the same attitude toward 
any other person endeavouring to obtain Igorots for exhibition 
purposes." 

The advocates of the "united people"' theory for these 
islands are forced to insist on the unimportance of the 
non-Christian tribes and it is needless to say that Blount 

' William P. Pack, governor of the Mountain Province. 

VOL. II — L 



646 



THE PHIXIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 



does this. His contentions on the subject are rather con- 
cisely stated in the following passage : — 

"You see our Census of 1903 gave the population of the 
Philippines at about 7,600,000 of which 7,000,000 are put down 
as civilized Christians; and of the remaining 600,000 about 
half are the savage, or semi-civilized, crudely Mohammedan 
Moros, in Mindanao, and the adjacent islets down near Borneo. 
The other 300,000 or so uncivilized people scattered throughout 
the rest of the archipelago, the 'non-Christian tribes,' which 
dwell in the mountain fastnesses, remote from 'the madding 
crowd,' cut little more figure, if any, in the general political 
equation, than the American Indian does with us to-day." ' 

If there were ten million American Indians who were 
in undisputed occupation of half the territory of the 
United States, this statement might in a way approxi- 
mate the truth. Blount's ten-year-old population fig- 
ures are a trifle out of date, but before demonstrating 
this I wish to show certain peculiarities in his method of 
manipulating them. He says : — 

"That the existence of these wild tribes — the dog-eating 
Igorrotes and other savages you saw exhibited at the St. Louis 
Exposition of 1903-4 — constitutes infinitely less reason for 
withholding independence from the Filipinos than the Ameri- 
can Indian constituted in 1776 for withholding independence 
from us, will be sufficiently apparent from a glance at the 
following table, taken from the American Census of the Islands 
of 1903 (vol. ii., p. 123): — 



Island 

Luz6n . . . . 

Panay . . . . 

Cebu . . . . 

Bohol . . . . 

Negros . . . . 

Leyte . . . . 

Samar . . . . 

Mindanao . . . 



Civilized 


Wild 


Total 


3,575,001 


223,506 


3,798,507 


728,713 


14,933 


743,646 


592,247 




592,247 


243,148 




243,148 


439,559 


21,217 


460,776 


357,641 




357,641 


222,002 


688 


222,690 


246,694 


252,940 


499,634 



"I think the above table makes clear the enormity of the 
injustice I am now trying to crucify. Without stopping to use 

> Blount, p. 577. 



CORRIGENDA 



647 



your pencil, you can see that Mindanao, the island where the 

'intractable Mores' Governor Forbes speaks of live, contains 
about a half million people. Half of these are civilized Chris- 
tians, and the other half are the ^vild, crudely Mohammedan 
Moro tribes. Above Mindanao on the above list, you behold 
what practically is the Philippine archipelago (except ]\Iin- 
danao), viz. Luzon and the six main Visayan Islands. If 
you will turn back to pages 22.5 et seq., especially to page 228, 
where the student of world politics was furnished with all he 
needs or will ever care to know about the geography of the 
Philippine Islands you will there find all the rocks sticking out 
of the water and all the little daubs you see on the map elimi- 
nated from the equation as wholly unessential to a clear under- 
standing of the problem of governing the Islands. That pro- 
cess of elimination left us Luzon and the six main Visayan 
Islands above as constituting, for all practical governmental 
purposes all the Philippine archipelago except the Moro coimtry 
Mindanao {i.e. parts of it), and its adjacent islets. Luzon 
and the Visayan Islands contain nearly 7,000,000 of people, 
and of these the mid tribes, as you can see by a glance at the 
above table constitute less than 300,000, sprinkled in the 
pockets of their various mountain regions. Nearlj' all these 
300,000 are quite tame, peaceable and tractable, except, as 
Governor Forbes suggests, they 'might possibly mistake the 
object of a visit.'" ' 

This is all very well unless you take the Judge at his 
word and turn to the page of the census report referred 
to, but if you do this a rude shock awaits you, for instead 
of the table above quoted the following is the table which 
you will find : — 

Table 1. — Total Population, Classified as Civilized and Wild, 
BY Provinces and Comandancias. 



ProVINCB OB COMANDANCIA 



Philippine Islands 

Abra .... 
Albay . . . 
Ambos Camarines 
Antique . . . 
Basilan . . . 



Total 

PoptJLATION 


CUHLIZED 


Wild 


7,635,426 

51,860 
240,326 
239,405 
134,166 

30,179 


6,987,686 

87,823 

239,434 

233,472 

131,245 

1,331 


647,740 

14,037 

892 

5,933 

2,921 

28,848 



1 Blount, pp. 567-568. 



648 



THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 



Table 1. — Continued 



PbOVINCE or COMANCANCIA 



Batadn . . . , 
Batangas . . . . 
Benguet . . . , 

Bohol 

Bulacdn . . . . 
Cagaydn . . . . 
Cdpiz . . . . , 
Cavite . . . , 

Cebii 

Cottabato . . 
Dapitan ... 
Ddvao . . . , 
Docos Norte 
Docos Sur . . 
IloQo .... 
Isabela ... 
Jolo .... 
La Laguna . . 
La Union . . . 
Lepanto-Bontoc 
Leyte . . . 
Manila City . . 
Marinduque ' . 
Masbate . . . 
Mindoro . . . 
Misamis . . . 
Negros Occidental 
Negros Oriental 
Nueva Ecija . . 
Nueva Vizcaj-a . 
Pampanga . . 
PangasLndn . . 
Paragua . . . 
Paragua Sur . . 
Rizal .... 
Romblou . . . 
Samar . . . 
Siassi .... 
Sorsogon . . . 
Surigao . . . 
Tarlac .... 
Tawi Tawi . . 
Tayabas ^ . . . 
Zambales . . . 
Zamboanga . . 



Total 
Population 


Civilized 


Wild 


46,787 


45,166 


1,621 


257,715 


257,715 




22,745 


917 


21,828 


269,223 


269,223 




223,742 


223,327 


415 


156,239 


142,825 


13,414 


230,721 


225,092 


5,629 


134,779 


134,779 




653,727 


653,727 




125,875 


2,313 


123,562 


23,577 


17,154 


6,423 


65,496 


20,224 


45,272 


178,995 


176,785 


2,210 


187,411 


173,800 


13,611 


410,315 


403,932 


6,383 


76,431 


68,793 


7,638 


51,389 


1,270 


50,119 


148,606 


148,606 




137,839 


127,789 


10,050 


72,750 


2,467 


70,283 


388,922 


388,922 




219,928 


219,928 




51,674 


51,674 




43,675 


43,675 




39,582 


32,318 


7,264 


175,683 


135,473 


40,210 


308,272 


303,660 


4,612 


201,494 


184,889 


16,605 


134,147 


132,999 


1,148 


62,541 


16,026 


46,515 


223,754 


222,656 


1,098 


397,902 


394,516 


3,386 


29,351 


27,493 


1,858 


6,345 


1,359 


4,986 


150,923 


148,502 


2,421 


52,848 


52,848 




266,237 


265,549 


688 


24,562 


2 97 


24,265 


120,495 


120,454 


41 


115,112 


99,298 


15,814 


135,107 


133,513 


1,594 


14,638 


93 


14,545 


153,065 


150,262 


2,803 


104,549 


101,381 


3,168 


44,322 


20,692 


23,630 



• Sub-province of Tayabas. ^ Exclusive of sub-province of Marinduque. 



CORRIGENDA 649 

From this it will be apparent to the reader that the 
Judge takes some rather unusual liberties even with such 
information as was available nine years before he finished 
his book. I have quoted the actual table in full, as it is 
useful for reference. 

In the middle of the page referred to by Blount there 
begins another table showing "Total Population, Clas- 
sified as Civilized and Wild, by Islands." This table 
occupies four and one-half sohd pages, and therefore 
does not closely resemble the one foisted on the public 
by him. 

It includes 323 islands, from which the Judge has 
selected eight which happened to suit his pm-pose, giving 
it to be clearly understood that the islands which he has 
not included are "rocks sticking out of the water" and 
"little daubs you see on the map " "eliminated from the 
equation as wholly unessential to a clear understanding 
of the problem of governing the Islands." 

Among the "rocks" and "little daubs" thus eliminated 
are Mindoro with an area of thirty-eight hundred fifty-one 
square miles, and Palawan with an area of four thousand 
twenty-seven square miles. Of the islands included, 
Leyte has twenty-seven hundred twenty-two square miles ; 
Cebu, seventeen hundred sixty- two square miles ; and 
Bohol, fourteen hundred eleven square miles. Inciden- 
tally, neither Leyte, Cebu nor Bohol have any non- 
Christian inhabitants at all, while all of Mindoro and 
Palawan, with the exception of narrow broken strips 
along the coast are populated by wild people, hence it is 
convenient for him to ignore them. 

In spite of his suggestion that it is not necessary to 
use the pencil in connection with his table, I ven- 
tured to do so, in connection with his statement that 
"Luzon and the Visayan Islands contain nearly 7,000,000 
of people." On his own showmg they contain 6,158,31L 

And now for the real facts. At the time the census 
enumeration was made Apayao had been crossed by a 



650 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

white man only once and that more than a hundred years 
ago. Extensive portions of Ifugao and Bontoc, and the 
greater part of Kalinga, were unexplored, as were the 
interior of Mindoro and most of the interior of Palawan, 
to say nothing of immense regions in Mindanao. As a 
matter of fact, we do not to-day know with any accuracy 
the number of Mangyans in Mindoro, nor the number of 
Tagbanuas in Palawan, but it has been conclusively 
demonstrated that the latter were greatly vmderestimated 
by the census enumerators. There will be found in 
the appendix ' a table giving in detail the present ac- 
cepted estimate of the non-Christian population of the 
islands, which numbers at least a million seventy thou- 
sand. 

It is reasonably certain that the necessary corrections 
in the figures for several provinces for which the present 
estimates are admittedly too low will raise the total 
slightly. 

Blount has made a further statement relative to the 
non-Christian population of Luzon which is indeed 
extraordinary. He says : — 

"Of the 7,600,000 people of the Philippines almost exactly 
one-half, i.e. 3,800,000, live on Luzon, and these are practically 
all civilized." ■ 

The table on the opposite page, giving the census es- 
timate of the non-Christian population of Luzon and 
the present accepted estimate, shows how erroneous is 
this statement. 

It will be seen that the census estimate of non-Christian 
inhabitants in the province of Luzon was 224,106 and the 
present accepted estimate is 440,926. 

In explanation of his extraordinary statement that prac- 
tically all of the people of Luzon are civiUzed Blount has 
inserted the following foot-note : — 

iPage 999. ^ Blount, pp. 231-232. 




An Old Bukidnon Chief. 

He is wearing the head-dress of scarlet and gold which may be donned only by 
those who have killed many eneniies. 



CORRIGENDA 



651 



"223,506 is the total of the uncivilized tribes still extant in 
Luzon, Philippine Census, vol. ii., p. 125, but they live in the 
mountains, and you might live in the Philippines a long hfe- 
time without ever seeing a sample of them, unless you happen 
to be an energetic ethnologist fond of mountain climbing." ' 



Pbovincb ok Subprovince 



Abra .... 
Albay .... 
Amburayan . . 
Ambos Camarincs 
Apayao . . . 
Bataan . . . 
Batangas . . . 
Benguet . . . 
Bontoe . . . 
Bulacan . . . 
Cagayan . . . 
Cavite .... 
IIocos Norte . . 
Ilocos Sur . . . 
Ifugao .... 
Isabela . . . 
Kalinga . . . 
La Laguna . . 
La Union . . . 
Lepanto . . . 
Lepanto Bontoe 
Nueva Ecija . . 
Nueva Vizcaya . 
Pampanga . . . 
Pangasinilii . . 
Rizal .... 
Sorsogon . . . 
Tarlac .... 
Tayabas . . . 
Zambales . . . 

Total . . . 



Census Estimate 



14,037 
892 


5,933 


1,621 

000 

21,828 



415 
13,414 

000 

2,210 

13,611 



7,638 



000 
10,050 



70,283 
1,148 

46,515 
1,098 
3,386 
2,421 
41 
1,594 
2,803 
3,168 

224,106 



Present Accepted 
Estimate 



14,037 

892 

10,191 

5,933 

23,000 

1,621 

000 

28,449 

62,000 

415 

15,000 

000 

2,210 

13,611 

125,000 

(?) 
76,000 

(?) 

000 

31,194 

000 

862 

6,000 

1,098 

3,386 

2,421 

41 

1,594 

2,803 

3,168 

440,926 



Also you might live in the Philippines a long lifetime 
and never see anything but wild people. The question of 



1 Blount, p. 232. 



652 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

where they live is not intimately connected with that of 
their number, which is the point under discussion. 

Blount devotes considerable space to alleged newspaper 
accounts of "a speech " said by him to have been deUvered 
by me in the Y. M. C. A. auditorium at Manila. I 
deUvered two illustrated lectures there, entitled respec- 
tively "The Non-Christian Tribes of the Philippines," 
and "What has been done for the Non-Christian Tribes 
under American Rule." 

In the course of the latter discourse I made the point 
that Filipinos who claim that conquest confers no right of 
sovereignty are hoist with their own petard, for the simple 
but sufficient reason that the Negritos were the aborigines 
of the Philippines and were later conquered and driven out 
of the lowland country into inaccessible, forested mountain 
regions by the Malay invaders who were the ancestors 
of the present Filipino claimants not only to the territory 
thus conquered, but to territory wliich was held up to the 
time of the American occupation by wild tribes whom they 
now propose to conquer and rule if given the opportunity ! 

My shaft struck home and called forth a howl of rage 
from the pohticians, which was the louder because I 
further expressed with entire frankness my firm belief 
that the FiUpinos were unfit to govern the non-Christian 
tribes, whether or not they were fit to govern themselves. 

In the course of further reference to the above-mentioned 
lecture, Blount says : — 

"Another of the Manila papers gives an account of the speech, 
from which it appears that the burly Professor succeeded in 
amusing himself at least, if not his audience, by suggestions 
as to the superior fighting qualities of the Moros over the 
Filipinos, which suggestions were on the idea that the Moros 
would lick the Filipinos if we should leave the country. (The 
Moros number 300,000, the Filipinos nearly 7,000,000.) The 
Professor's remarks in this regard, according to the paper, were 
a distinct reflection upon the courage of the Filipinos generally 
as a people." ' 

■ Blount, pp. 583-584. 



CORRIGENDA 653 

Here, as is so often the case, he finds newspaper state- 
ments more suited to his purpose than cold facts. I jdeld 
to no one in my admiration for the courage of Fihpinos, 
and have expressed it on a score of occasions. In mj^ first 
book on the Philippines I made the following reference 
to it : — 

"I once saw a man in Culion who was seamed and gashed 
with horrible scars from head to foot. How any one could 
possibly survive such injuries as he had received I do not know. 
It seemed that his wife and children had been butchered by four 
Moros while he was absent. He returned just as the murderers 
were taking to their boat. Snatching a machete, he plunged 
into the water after them, clambered into their prau, and killed 
them all. ^\^len one remembers the sort of weapons that 
Moros carry, the thing seems incredible, but a whole village 
full of people vouched for the truth of the story." ' 

This was not the only tribute which I paid to the 
courage of the Filipinos^ and I have never made a state- 
ment intended to reflect on it in the slightest degree. 
It is true that their fighting ability is on the average far 
below that of the Moros, and I may add that the same 
thing holds for Americans on the average. 

It is really funny to see how Blount sometimes tells the 
truth in spite of himself. He takes me to task for amusing 
myself "by suggestions as to the superior fighting quafities 
of the Moros over the Filipinos," and here is what he 
says on the same subject : — 

"Again, because the Filipinos have no moral right to control 
the Moros, and could not if thej^ would, the latter being fierce 
fighters and bitterly opposed to the thought of possible ultimate 
domination bj' the Filipinos, the most uncompromising advocate 
of the consent-of-the-governed principle has not a leg to stand 
on with regard to Mohammedan Mindanao." ^ 

" Consistency, thy name is not Blount ! " 

' The Philippine Islands and Their People, by Dean C. Worcester, 
p. 481. 

2 See p. 639. 

' Blount, p. 230. 



654 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

The Moros are religious fanatics. I have known one 
when bayoneted to seize the barrel of the gun and push the 
bayonet thi'ough himself in order to bring the man at the 
other end within striking distance, cut him down, unclasp 
the bayonet and, leaving it in the wound to prevent 
hemorrhage, go on fighting. I have knowTi two Moros 
armed with bamboo lances to attack a column of two 
thousand soldiers armed with rifles. It is an historic fact 
that Moro juramentados ' once attempted to rush the 
walls of Jolo and kept up the fruitless effort until they 
blocked -nath their dead bodies the rifle shts, so that it 
became necessary for the Spanish soldiers to take positions 
on top of the walls in order to fire. I have known a Moro, 
shot repeatedly through the body and with both legs 
broken, to take his kriss in his teeth and pull himself for- 
ward with liis hands in the hope of getting near enough to 
strike one more blow for the Prophet. 

The Fihpinos are afraid of the Moros and they have the 
best of reasons to be. The relative numerical insignificance 
of this Uttle Mohammedan tribe of desperate fighters has 
httle to do with the question under consideration. Their 
number has for centuries borne substantially the same 
proportion to the total population of the Pliilippines which 
it now bears, yet no one can deny that it is but a short 
time since they harried the archipelago from south to 
north and from east to west. The shores of Northern 
Luzon and the neighbouring islands are to-day dotted with 
the forts which were built for defence against them. The 
town of PoUllo, on the northernmost island off the east 
coast of Luzon, is still surrounded by a high wall built to 
protect its inhabitants from the Moros. The churches 
at Cuyo, Agutaya, Culion, Linapacan and Taytay stand 
inside of strong stone fortresses in which the people took 
refuge when the Moros descended on their towns. Back 
of Bacuit a cave high up in a cliff was kept provisioned that 
it might serve a similar purpose. Not only were the 

' Men who have taken a solemn oath to die killing Christians. 



CORRIGENDA 655 

Filipinos unable to protect themselves against these 
bloodthirsty pirates of the south, but the Spaniards 
were for nearly two and a half centuries unable to af- 
ford them adequate protection. WTien I was in Tawi 
Tawd in 1891 the Moros of that island were stiU ac- 
tively engaged in taking Filipino slaves and selling them 
in Borneo. 

With all of our resources we have not as yet been able 
to estabUsh a decent state of pubhc order in the little 
island of Jolo. No serious minded person, familiar with 
the facts, with whom I have ever talked, believes for a 
moment that the FiUpinos could establish an effective 
government over the Moros, or could keep them at home. 
They are wonderful boatmen and when once at sea in the 
httle crafts of their o^m building are liable to strike the 
coast of the Philippine Islands at any point. When it is 
remembered that this coast is longer than that of the con- 
tinental United States, the impossibiUty of adequately 
protecting the whole of it becomes immediately manifest. 
It would be always possible, under Fihpino rule, for the 
]\Ioros to strike defenceless towns, and where they struck 
the only resource of the inhabitants, whether Filipinos, 
Europeans or Americans, would be in speedy flight. It 
should be borne in mind that one INIohammedan who is 
earnestly desirous of being killed while fighting Christians 
can chase a good inany unarmed citizens into the tall 
timber, brave though they may be ! 

I ventm-e here once more to express the deUberate 
opinion that if American control were wdthdrawm from 
these islands and some other civihzed nation did not 
interfere to restore a decent state of pubhc order, the 
Moros would resume the conquest of the Phihppines 
which they were so actively and effectively pushing when 
the Spaniards compelled them to abandon it, and would 
slowly but none the less surely carry it through to a suc- 
cessful termination. 

The inaccuracy of Blount's statements regarding matters 



656 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

covered by absolutely conclusive documentary evidence 
is well typified by the following : — 

"The Philippine Assembly, representing the whole Filipino 
people, and desiring to express the unanimous feeling of those 
people with regard to the Worcester speech, unanimously 
passed, soon after the speech was delivered, a set of resolutions 
whereof the following is a translation." ' 

The resolution which he quotes was never passed by the 
Assembly which on February 3, 1911, four months after 
my Y. M. C. A. lecture,^ and while I was absent in the 
United States, passed another and quite different one 
criticizing language "ascribed" to me, without ever mak- 
ing any effort to ascertain from me what was really said. 
I might quote the two in parallel columns, but I grow 
weary of showing the details of Blount's false or mistaken 
statements, and refer those interested to the official 
records which he perhaps did not take the precaution to 
consult. 

I gave the Assembly and every one else interested in the 
matter a chance to attack me by incoiporating in my an- 
nual report for 1910 every important statement made at 
the lecture in question and by adding various new ones for 
good measure, but there was no response ! It is a time- 
honoured procedure, but one of somewhat doubtful real 
value, to build up a man of straw in order to have the 
pleasure of tearing it to pieces. I must decline to assume 
responsibility for statements which I did not make. 

Blount says he thinks that Nueva Vizcaya is my 

" ' brag ' province, in the matter of non-Christian anthropolog- 
ical specimens, both regarding their number and their variety." ^ 

With regret I must call attention to the fact that he 
thinks wrong. In Nueva Vizcaya as originally consti- 
tuted there were representatives of three non-Christian 
tribes, to wit, the Ifugaos, numbering approximately 

» Blount, p. 584. 2 Delivered October 10, 1910. ' Blount, p. 577. 




Typical .Street in a Filipino Tuwn. 

Contrast the neglect here shown, with the care given the village streets in 
Bukidnon. yet the Filipinos desire to govern the Bukiduons. 




A Typical Bukidnon Village Street. 



CORRIGENDA 657 

a hundred and fifteen thousand ; the Ilongots numbering 
perhaps five thousand ; and the Isinayes, who were numer- 
ically unimportant. 

Years before Blount wrote his book the number of wild 
tribes was reduced to two and that of their individuals to 
approximately seven thousand by changes in the provincial 
boundary. As we have seen, there are slightly more 
than one milUon non-Christian inhabitants in the archi- 
pelago. These facts are of interest cliiefly for the reason 
that they show how grossly unreliable are his statements. 

Finally he seeks to convey the impression that the hill 
people are a rather harmless and lamb-like lot. He says : — • 

"... while I was there,' though we knew those people 
were up in the hills, and that there were a good many of them 
the civilized people all told us that the hill tribes never bothered 
them. And on their advice I have ridden in safety, unarmed, 
at night, accompanied only by the court stenographer, over the 
main high-road running through the central j)lateau that con- 
stitutes the bulk of Nueva Vizcaj'a province, saitl plateau being 
surrounded by a great amphitheatre of hills, the habitat of the 
Worcester pets." ^ 

Had Blount taken this ride before the time when the 
American government established control ov-er the Silipan 
Ifugaos there might have been a different story to tell 
needing some one else to tell it, for the Ifugaos were not 
by any means the gentle and harmless people that one 
would infer them to have been from reading the above- 
quoted statement. 

At Payauan, a strongly held point within the plateau 
referred to, they annihilated a Spanish garrison. At 
Aua, further back in the hills, they did the same thing. 
The Spaniards never established control over the Ifugao 
country, into extensive portions of which they never 
even temporarily penetrated. On the main trail which 
connected the town of Bagabag, in Nueva Vizcaya 
with the nearest town in the province of Isabela, 

* In Nueva Vizcaya. ' Blount, p. 577. 



658 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

over which Blount rode, the Spaniards found it neces- 
sary to maintain two garrisons. There were also gar- 
risons at the terminal towns on this trail and it was 
prohibited to travel it without miUtary escort. Even 
so, parties were repeatedlj^ cut up by the Silipan Ifugaos, 
and the very soldiers who constituted their guard were 
again and again caught sleeping and butchered. 

It is only very recently that the murderous raids of wild 
men on the Filipinos of Isabela have been finally checked. 

Many a time have the FUipinos of Bagabag, in Nueva 
Vizcaj^a, thanked me for making their lives and property 
safe by quieting the Ifugaos. Ilongots killed Filipinos 
in the outskirts of Bayombong, the capital of Nueva 
Vizcaya, long after Blount left the province, and during 
a period shortly preceding his arrival conditions were very 
bad throughout the Cagayan vallej^ 

On August 29, 1899, the Insurgent governor of Nueva 
Vizcaj'a reported ^ that he had only a few rifles, that the 
"Igorrotes" were preparing to attack the towns, and that 
he had been forced to kill and wound a number of them. 
On September 6, General Tirona in Cagayan asked that 
General Tinio be ordered to give him some of his rifles 
to protect the people, as the "Igorrotes" were cutting off 
heads and the towns were in danger. Tirona said that he 
had nine hundred rifles ; Tinio thought that he himself 
had some two thousand and could spare two hundred as the 
conditions along the coast were not as serious as the con- 
ditions inland with the savages preparing to attack.^ 

In Jul}', 1899, the governor of Benguet asked that orders 
should be given prohibiting "Igorrotes" from leaving 
their own towns as they were growing restless and would 
probably soon become dangerous. The Benguet people 
are the most pacific of all the hill men. 

In October, 1899, the Ilocanos of Lepanto petitioned 
Aguinaldo to send them arms with which to defend them- 
selves against the people of the hills, who objected to 

' P. I. R., 150. 4. » Ibid. 



CORRIGENDA 659 

being forced into paying what the governor of Benguet 
Province called "voluntary contributions" for the support 
of the war. WTien an attempt was made to collect, 
they abandoned their towns and took refuge in the hills. 
Next to the Benguet Igorots, those of Lepanto have the 
best reputation for quiet and orderliness. 

From Simeon Villa's diary, heretofore referred to, we 
learn that Aguinaldo's armed escort was attacked again 
and again by Ifugaos, Kalingas and Bontoc Igorots when 
he passed through their country. 

The people of these three tribes, and the Ilongots, and 
the wild Tingians of Apayao, were fierce, war-hke, unsub- 
dued head-hunting savages at the time of the American 
occupation. 

Friendly as is our present relationship with the foi-mer 
head-hunters of Luzon, and excellent as is now the condi- 
tion of public order in their territory, we still often have 
the fact brought home to us that the blood-lust of these 
sturdy and brave fighters is only dormant. A steady hand 
must be held on them for many a year to come. 

The problems which the primitive peoples of the PhiUp- 
pines present are neither few nor simple. We shall not 
get far by ignormg them or misrepresenting them. Let 
us look them squarely in the face. 



CHAPTER XXIV 

Non-Christian Tribe Problems 

And now let us try to gain a clear appreciation of some 
of the problems actually presented by the existence of 
the non-Christian peoples of the Philippines. 

They belong to twenty-seven tribes at the most. Prob- 
ably this number will ultimately be somewhat further 
reduced. The number of dialects spoken is greatly 
in excess of the number of tribes, as the people of a single 
tribe sometimes speak three or four well-marked dialects. 

The tribes are divided between two wholly distinct 
races, to wit, Negritos and Malays. 

The Negritos are of very low mentality and are in- 
capable of any considerable degree of civilization. Many 
of them are kept in a state of abject peonage, and not a 
few are held in actual slavery, by their Christian Filipino 
neighbours. In revenge for the abuses which they suffer 
they are prone to commit criminal acts, and the problem 
which they present resolves itself into protecting them 
from their neighbours and their neighbours from them. 
The latter thing would be easy enough if the former were 
practicable, but unfortunately their neighbours cannot 
be persuaded to let them alone, and never do it except 
under compulsion. 

The people of all the Malay non-Cliristian tribes, with 
the exception of certain Negrito mestizos, are undoubtedly 
capable of attaining to a fairly high degree of civilization. 
Physically and, in my opinion, mentally the people of 
several of the hill tribes are decidedly superior to their low- 
land Filipino neighbours, who have degenerated to some 
extent as a result of less favourable climatic conditions 
and other causes. 

660 



NON-CHRISTIAN TRIBE PROBLEMS 661 

In social development these Malay tribes vary from the 
semi-nomadic Mangyans of Mindoro to the highly civil- 
ized Tingians of Abra, who are in many ways superior to 
the Ilocanos with whom they hve in close contact. Some 
of these tribes, hke the Benguet-Lepanto Igorots and the 
Tingians, are peaceful agriculturists ; others, hke the wild 
Tingians of Apayao, the Kahngas, the Bontoc Igorots, 
the Ifugaos, the Ilongots, the Manobos and the Mandayas, 
are, or recently have been, fierce fighters prone to indulge 
in such customs as the taking of human heads for war 
trophies, or even the making of human sacrifices to appease 
their heathen divinities. 

The Moros, who are numerically stronger than are the 
people of any other one tribe, stand in a class by them- 
selves on account of their strong adherence to the Moham- 
medan faith and their inclination to propagate it by the 
sword. Who would hold them in check if the Americans 
were to go? Certainly not the Filipinos. They have 
never been able to do it in the past, and they cannot 
do it now. 

All the non-Christian tribes have two things in common, 
their unwilhngness to accept the Christian faith and their 
hatred of the several Filipino peoples who profess it. Their 
animosity is readily understood when it is remembered 
that their ancestors and they themselves have suffered 
grievous wrongs at the hands of the Filipinos. In spite of 
all protestations to the contrary, the Fihpinos are ab- 
solutely without sympathy for the non-Christian peoples, 
and have never voluntarily done anything for them, but 
on the contrary have shamelessly exploited them whenever 
opportunity has offered. They have never of themselves 
originated one single important measure for the benefit 
of their non-Christian neighbours, and their attitude 
toward the measures which have been originated by 
Americans has always been one of active or passive oppo- 
sition. Their real belief as to what should be done with 
the wild people is that they should be used if they can be 

VOL. II — M 



662 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

made useful, but should be exterminated if they become 
troublesome. Governor Pablo Guzman, of Cagayan, 
actually said to me that the best thing to do with the wild 
people of Apayao, then supposed to number fifty-three 
thousand, might be to kill them aU. 

Americans have adopted a firm but kindly policy in 
dealing with the non-Christian tribes and have met with 
extraordinary success in winning their good-will and 
weaning them from the worst of their evil customs. 
Even with those of the Moros who live outside of the island 
of Jol6 considerable progress has been made. Head- 
hunting has been abohshed among the Ifugaos, Igorots 
and KaUngas with an ease which was wholly unantici- 
pated. 

In all work for the wild people the attitude of governors 
and heutenant-governors has proved to be a matter of 
fundamental importance. The problem in each province 
or subpro\'ince has been a one-man problem. He who 
would succeed in handhng wild men must be absolutely 
fearless, for if he is not, thej' are quick to discover the fact 
and to take advantage of it. He must protect his people 
from injustice and oppression, or they will lose faith in 
him. He must have a genuinely friendly feehng toward 
them, and must bear them no ill will even when they 
misbehave. They will not object to severe punishment 
when they know that it is deserved, but after being 
punished feel that the slate has been wiped clean, and 
that they are making a fresh start. They believe in 
letting by-gones be by-gones, and their officials should 
meet them half way in this. 

The following occurrence illustrates my point. Before 
all the settlements of Ifugao had been brought under 
control, Lieutenant-Governor Galhnan had a headman 
acting as a pohceman, who rendered invaluable service 
and was allowed to carry a gun. No one dreamed that 
he would ever be molested. When on a trip to Lingay 
he became overheated, and stopped to bathe in a stream, 



NON-CHRISTIAN TRIBE PROBLEMS 663 

leaving his gun on the bank. Some young men improved 
the opportunity thus afforded to attack him. One of 
them threw a lance into him, and then they all started to 
run away. Such was his reputation and influence that he 
succeeded in compeUing them to return and pull the lance 
out, but he was fatally hurt and soon died. 

After his death they took his head and his gun, and 
immediately thereafter the Lingay people sent to 
Gallman a challenge to come and fight them. He 
promptly accepted their invitation, taking a few 
Ifugao soldiers with him. He found the country de- 
serted. Women, children, pigs and chickens had been 
sent into the forested mountains. Roofs and board sides 
of houses had been removed so that there remained only 
the bare frameworks which could not readily be burned. 

For some time Gallman encountered no opposition. He 
at last grew careless and walked into an ambush. He" was 
met with a volley of stones and a volley of lances. For- 
tunately for him the stones arrived first and one of them, 
striking him in the face, knocked him senseless. Another 
injured his right hand and knocked his revolver from his 
grasp. The lances passed over him as he fell. He slid 
for some distance down the almost precipitous mountain 
side, and his soldiers thought him dead. When he 
recovered consciousness, he heard them talking close to 
him. They agreed that they must do two things : 
first, prevent his head from being taken ; and, second, 
punish his assailants. Before he could call to them they 
charged the latter and scattered them right and left. 
Gallman staggered to his feet, hunted around until he 
found his revolver, and rejoined his men. It was known 
that their opponents had had ten guns before killing the 
pohceman and taking his. There followed a marked 
unpleasantness, at the end of which Gallman had the 
eleven guns, and most of those who had been using them 
had been gathered to their fathers. He then returned 
to his station at Banaue. 



664 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

Three days later the headmen of Lingay came walking 
in, shook hands and announced that they had had enough. 
Gallman asked them why they had been so foohsh. They 
replied that as they already had ten guns, when they 
got one more the young men became overconfident, 
thought that they could whip the constabulary, get their 
guns also and dominate all that part of Ifugao. The 
old men said that they had warned the young fellows 
that their plan would result in disaster, but as they were 
not to be dissuaded, and as they were their young men, 
had finally joined in. They said, however, that they were 
glad things had come out as they had, for the young 
men would now behave themselves, and it is worthy of 
note that they have done so ever since. 

Six weeks later, when I visited Banaue, the one survivor 
of the eleven gunmen came in and danced with the other 
Ifugaos on the plaza, apparently as happy as any of them. 

How many Filipinos are there who have the courage, the 
kindhness, the knowledge of primitive human nature 
and the sympathy with it which would enable them to 
treat the really wild barbarians as Gallman and Hale 
have treated them ? Thus far I have found one, and one 
only. 

In a previous chapter^ I have told the story of a Kalinga 
with whom I had just made friends according to the 
formula of his tribe who put his Ufe in deadly peril twice 
within the space of twenty-four hours in order to save 
mine when it was gravely endangered by his fellow-tribes- 
men. Is such real friendship possible between FiUpinos 
and non-Christians? Not at present. A lot of ancient 
history must first be Uved down. 

In the Philippines it has invariably been true that 
the wild man has in the past been more or less completely 
despoiled of the fruits of his labour by his so-called ' ' Chris- 
tian" neighbours whenever compelled to do business with 
them in order to obtain some of the necessaries of life. 

1 Page 542. 




A Typical Improved Bckid.n-on House. 




A Typicai, Neglected Filipino Hocse. 

In the Biikidnon villages all the people now take j)ride in keeping their houses 
in good repair. Houses like the one here shown are frequently seen in neigh- 
boring Filipino towns. 



NON-CHRISTIAN TRIBE PROBLEMS 665 

He is accustomed to receive a mere pittance for his prod- 
ucts, and to pay enormous prices when he makes pur- 
chases. The opening of the so-called "government 
exchanges," which are stores where the products of the 
surrounding countrj' are purchased and where the things 
required by the hill people are sold at a small margin of 
profit, has proved very useful in the establishment of 
friendly and helpful relations with them. In some places 
they have been persuaded to grow new and more profit- 
able crops. Some of the Benguet Igorots, for instance, 
now raise strawberries for sale at Baguio, although a few 
years ago they had never seen them. 

If in control, would the FiUpinos reverse the policy 
they have heretofore always followed in commercial 
dealings with the wild men ? Most assuredly not. 

The Igorots, Ifugaos and Kalingas are adepts in the use 
of irrigation water, and know how to terrace the steepest 
mountain sides so as to employ it advantageously wherever 
it is available. The giving of help in running main irri- 
gation ditches through rock has been especially appre- 
ciated by them. The money which we expend for this 
purpose goes for the establishment of proper grade lines, 
the providing of necessary supervision and the purchase 
of explosives and tools for rock work. The people con- 
cerned are more than glad to contribute all necessary' la- 
bour free of charge. 

Would the FiUpinos continue to make funds available 
for such improvements in the wild man's country ? A 
thousand times no ! Before any one disputes me, let 
him show one instance where they have done any such 
thing in any one of the very numerous provinces where 
the expenditure of funds for non-Christians is under their 
control. 

In dealing with tribes which have been accustomed to 
hve by families, or small groups of families, and to select 
veiy inaccessible places for their homes, it is of course 
necessary to persuade them to hve in larger groups and 



666 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

in reasonably accessible places before much progress can 
be made toward improving their condition. This is 
usually not a very difficult task if one goes about it in the 
right way. 

In Bukidnon, for instance, where we are still bringing 
people down from the tree-tops, in which they and some of 
their ancestors have Uved for centuries, and settling them 
in well-ordered and beautifully kept villages, when new 
arrivals come in to inspect the towns and interrogate me 
as to the conditions under which they may take up resi- 
dence there, I often have conversations Uke this : — 

"What about this fife in town ?" 

"Look around and see for yourself. Talli with the 
people and hear what they have to say about it. They 
will tell you whether they like it or not, and why." 

"But what do I have to do if I wish to five in town ?" 

"A piece of ground will be assigned to you and on it 
you must build a decent house hke those you see. This 
house is for you and your family, not for me. I come 
here only once or twice a year and at the most stay over 
one night, so I do not need your house. The lieutenant- 
governor does not need it. When he comes he stays 
at the presidencia. He will not let any one take it away 
from you." 

"Very well. What else?" 

"You will have to build a good, tight fence around 
the lot given you and keep your domestic animals inside 
it. You must also clean it up thoroughly, removing all 
vegetation and filhng all the low places so that water 
cannot stand in them. Then you must keep it clean." 

"What is the use of that?" 

' ' The husaos ' who cause sickness do no like clean 
places and stay away from them." 

"I never heard of that." 

"Ask the people who have tried keeping their yards 
clean, and they will tell you that it is true." 

> Evil spirits. 



NON-CHRISTIAN TRIBE PROBLEMS 667 

"Well, what else?" 

"As long as you have to keep your yard clean you 
might as well plant something useful in it, so that you 
will get a good return for your laboui'." 

"That is a good idea. Is there anything more ?" 
"Yes. You must take up a piece of the beautiful 
prairie land near town, build a fence around it to keep 
out the wild hogs and deer, and plant it with rice, camotes 
or something else that will give your family plenty of 
food and if possible leave a surplus to sell, so that you can 
buy better clothes with the money you make." 
"But I cannot break this thick prairie sod." 
"The ground will be ploughed for you the first time. 
After that you must look after it yourself." 
"Is that all?" 

"No. There is one additional very important thing. 
I am getting old and fat,i and I can no longer scramble 
around over these hills as I used to do. I want to come 
and see you every year, and find out how you are getting 
on. You will have to help build good trails for my 
big horse, working ten days every year, or paying two 
pesos, so that some one else can be hired to work in your 
place. Everything else that I have told you must be 
done, if you come to town, is for your benefit, not for mine, 
and even the trails are only partly for my benefit. You 
will find it easy and safe to travel over them, and when 
you want to go to market, your carabao will be able to 
pack three or four times as much as he can now carry 
over bad paths." 

"Will I gain any other advantages by Uving in town ?" 
"Yes, two very important ones. You and your family 
will be safe from attack, and you will have a chance to 
send your children to school." 

"Must I come and live in town if I do not want to ?" 
"By no means. If you prefer to live up a tree in the 
mountains, no one will interfere with you so long as you 
' This is only too true ! 



668 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

behave yourself. There are plenty of mountains and 
plenty of trees." 

As a result of the simple arguments above outUned 
and of the protection and help given them, nearly all of 
the Bukidnon people have left the mountain fastnesses 
through which they have until recently been scattered, 
and are voluntarily taking up their residences in towns 
which in their way are models. 

Could the Filipinos keep them in the towns where we 
have settled them ? No ; and they would not if they could. 
They would chase them back into the forests as they were 
doing when we made them stop it. Furthermore, they 
could not if they would. In September, 1912, I heard 
the people of eastern Bukidnon tell Governor Reyes 
of Misamis that if their territory were put back into his 
province, they would take to the hills and Uve with the 
Manobos. 

One of the most important factors in winning and re- 
taining the good will of the non-Christian peoples has 
been the extension to them of protection from the im- 
positions of their Filipino neighbours. The following 
is a fair sample of the sort of thing to which they have in 
the past been subjected. 

During my last trip through Bukidnon I learned that a 
long-haired mountaineer who had been encouraged to plant 
coffee and Manila hemp had acted on the suggestion, work- 
ing very hard and establishing an excellent plantation which 
had prospered. Wlien he had products ready for market 
he had taken them to the coast town of BaUngasak. He 
did not speak the language of the Visayan Filipino inhabit- 
ants of that place, so fell into the hands of one of them 
who knew his dialect. This rascal helped him to sell his 
produce, but took a heavy commission for this service. 
The hillman was nevertheless delighted with the result, 
whereupon his "commissioner" suggested that what he 
really needed was a partner in town to sell his crops, 
so that he could spend his whole time in cultivating his 



NON-CHRISTIAN TRIBE PROBLEMS 669 

fields and not have to go to market. This struck the 
hiUman as a good idea. The Filipino made out what 
purported to be articles of partnership and the hillman 
signed them with his mark, in the presence of witnesses. 

A few months later he sent a valuable shipment of coffee 
and hemp to his "partner." When weeks had passed 
without his hearing from it, he went to Balingasdk to 
find out what was wrong, whereupon his "partner" 
stated that he was greatly obhged to him for his trouble 
in cultivating and harvesting the products of the farm. 
The hillman demanded his share of the returns and 
the "partner" calmly assured him that he had no share, 
having sold his farm at the time of his last visit. In- 
vestigation proved that this ignorant man had signed a 
bill of sale for his place. 

Lieutenant-Governor Fortich interested himself in 
the case and caused suit to be brought against the rascally 
"partner" for steahng the hillman's produce. The 
fiscal, or public prosecuting, officer was a bright young 
Filipino who had recently graduated from an American 
university. Nevertheless, he had the suit thrown out 
of court because the "partner" of the hillman claimed 
that the farm was his, and a question of property owner- 
ship could not be conveniently determined in connec- 
tion with a criminal suit. 

At this stage of events I took a hand and brought the 
matter to the attention of the Honourable Gregorio .Araneta, 
secretary of fuiance and justice. The fiscal had sug- 
gested that the wild man could bring a civil suit for 
damages against his "partner." How could this helpless 
barbarian have gone to Cagayan, hired a lawyer and 
lived there while his case was pending? He was ab- 
solutely helpless. Naturally, I was not. Another suit 
was brought and the "partner" was sentenced to pay a 
fine and was given a term in jail. 

This is no isolated case. The wild men are constantly 
deprived of their crops or their lands ; cheated in the sale 



670 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

of their products and in their purchases; arrested and 
fined on trumped-up charges ; compelled to work for 
others -nithout compensation ; charged by private individ- 
uals for the privilege of using government forests or taking 
up pubhc lands ; and badgered and imposed upon in a 
thousand and one other ways. 

If the Fihpinos were put in control, would there rise 
up among them unselfish men who would check the 
rapacitj^ of their fellows, and extend to the helpless peoples 
the protection they now enjoy ? 

At all events, those who have made it their business 
to protect the people of the non-Cliristian tribes have not 
been popular among the Filipinos. As a precautionary 
measure, I warned every man appointed governor of, or 
Ueutenant-governor in, a special government province 
that he must expect sooner or later to be accused of many 
of the crimes recognized by existing laws. Every such 
man who does his duty eventually has false, and usually 
foul, charges brought against him. A common, and 
indeed the favourite, complaint is that he has been guilty 
of improper relations with women. The FiUpino is an 
expert m framing up cases of this sort, and seems to 
take special dehght in it, partly no doubt because such 
charges are so excessively difficult to disprove. 

Cruel abuse of the wild men, or their famiUes ; falsifi- 
cation of public documents ; misappropriation of pubhc 
funds ; adultery ; rape, — these are all common charges, 
while more than one of my subordinates has been accused 
of murder, and one has actually been brought into court 
on such a charge. It is certainly no sinecure to be an 
officer of a special government province. 

A potent means of winning the undjdng regard of the 
wild man is to cure him when he is sick, or heal him 
when he is injured. Hospitals have already been es- 
tabUshed in two of the special government provinces and 
are doing untold good. Practically ever\'^ officer of these 
provinces carries a set of simple remedies with him when 




a 
< 



^ s 



NON-CHRISTIAN TRIBE PROBLEMS 671 

he travels, and treats the sick without compensation as 
opportunity offers, but this work is as yet in its infancy. 

The Filipinos have not doctors enough to heal their 
own sick. Would they remember to heal the wild men ? 
Hardly. 

Several of the wild tribes have progressed much more 
rapidly during the brief period since the American occu- 
pation than have any of the Filipino peoples, and if 
given adequate protection and friendly assistance they 
will continue to progress. Their splendid phj^siques 
and high intelligence, no less than their truthfulness, 
honesty and morality, certainly make them well worth 
saving. 

Under Filipino rule the more helpless of these tribes 
would speedily come under the control of their former 
oppressors, but people like the Ifugaos, Bontoc Igorots, 
Kalingas and wild Tingians would fight to the death 
before submitting to them, and there would result a 
guerrilla warfare as endless and disastrous as that which 
has lasted so long between the Dutch and the Achinese. 
There is every theoretical reason to believe that the 
Filipinos would adopt toward such hostile primitive peoples 
the policy of extermination which the Japanese have been 
so vigorously carrying out in dealing with the hill people 
of northern Formosa, who do not differ in any important 
respect from the hill people of northern Luzon, with 
whom such helpful and friendly relations have now been 
established. 

We have encouraged the primitive Philippine peoples 
to stand up for their rights. We have promised them 
our protection and help if they would do it, and thus far 
we have kept our promise. To break it now, and turn them 
over to the tender mercies of the Filipinos, who have 
never ceased to make threats as to what they will do 
when they get the chance, would in my opinion be a 
crime against civilization. 

The Moros openly boast that if the Americans go they 



672 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

will raid the Christian towns, and this is no idle threat. 
They will most assuredly do it. 

Were American control to be withdrawn before the 
civilization of the wild tribes had been effected, their future 
would be dark indeed. Under continued American con- 
trol they can be won over to civiUzed ways, and will in the 
end become mentally and morally, as they now are 
physically, superior to the lowlanders. 

No man has been blessed with better subordinates than 
I have had to assist me in the work carried on under my 
direction for the non-Christian tribes of the Philippines. 
I wish it clearly understood that it is to the loyalty and 
efficiency of these men that the results which have been 
obtained are due. Fearlessly, tirelessly, uncomplainingly, 
they have borne their heavy shares of the white man's 
burden, finding their greatest reward in the respect, 
gratitude, and in many cases the affection, of those 
whom they have so faithfully and effectively served. 

Think of Pack, weakened by illnesses which twice 
brought him within a hair's breadth of death, wearing 
himself out riding over the Mountain Province trails, 
many of which he himself had laboriously built, in order 
to keep the little handful of men who control its 400,000 
non-Christian inhabitants up to the high-water mark 
of efficiency, when he could have gone home any day 
and spent his remaining years in leisurely comfort ; 
of Bryant, wandering for weeks on end through the 
trackless forests of Nueva Vizcaya in order to get in 
touch with Ilongot savages who were a good deal more 
than "half devil" with the balance not "half child" but 
peculiarly treacherous, vicious and savage man ; of 
Offley, packing the bare necessities of life on his own back 
while he struggled out to the coast from the centre of 
Mindoro, where his frightened carriers had deserted him ; 
of Kane, burning in the heat of the lowlands or soaked 
and shivering on chiUy mountain crests, while building new 
roads and keeping old ones open for traffic ; of Lewis, 



NON-CHRISTIAN TRIBE PROBLEMS 673 

trying to cover a territory large enough to tax the energies 
of three men, and in his efforts to do so riding until so 
weary that at night he fell from his horse unable to dis- 
mount ; of Fortich, a Filipino Ueutenant-governor, 
faithfully carrying out the white man's pohcy and pro- 
tecting the Bukidnons from his own people who charged 
him with murder because he drove them from their prey ; 
of Gallman, risking his hfe a thousand times in a successful 
individual effort to bring 125,000 head-hunting savages 
under effective control and to establish relations of 
genuine friendship with them ; of Hale, turning tattooed 
Kalinga devils into effective officers for the maintenance of 
law and order, or making a bundle of the lances thrown at 
him and sending them back to the people who threw 
them with a mild suggestion that it was impolite to treat 
a would-be friend in such an unceremonious way ; of 
Johnson, tramping through the reeking filth of the Butuan 
swamps with a cancer eating away the bone of his leg, 
and referring to it as "a little swelling" when asked 
what made him lame ; of Bondurant, spending the last 
afternoon of his life in pursuing Moro outlaws through 
that worst of all tropical infernos, a mangrove swamp, 
when burning with pernicious malarial fever and fighting 
for the very breath of life ; of Miller, faithful unto death ! 

We are wont to quote with feeling the famihar words, 
"Greater love hath no man than this, that he lay down his 
life for his friend," but what shall we say of the love of 
duty of men like Miller and Bondurant, who in doing 
their country's work cheerfully laid down their lives for 
an alien people ? 

While in the United States in 1910 I read Rudyard 
Kipling's "If" and thereafter did not rest until I had sent 
a copy of it to each governor and lieutenant-governor 
employed in the special provincial government service 
of the Philippine Islands. Kipling wrote for these men of 
mine up in the hills without knowing it. They understand 
him and he would understand them. 



674 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

There is not one of them who has not learned to 

"... fill the unforgiving minute 
With sixty seconds' worth of distance run " ; 

not one whose personal experience has left him deaf to 
the appeal of the lines : — 

"If you can keep your head when all about you 

Are losing theirs and blaming it on you ; 
If you can trust yourself when all men doubt you, 

But make allowance for their doubting too; 
If you can wait and not be tired by waiting, 

Or being lied about don't deal in Kes, 
Or being hated don't give way to hating, 

And yet don't look too good, nor talk too wise." 

Furthermore, each of them has again and again finished 
on his nerve. Did not the words, — 

"If you can force your heart and nerve and sinew 
To serve your turn long after they are gone, 
And so hold on when there is nothing in j^ou 

Except the Will which says to them : ' Hold on ! ' " 

run through Bondurant's mind that last afternoon when 
he was following Moro outlaws through a foul mangrove 
swamp, while his senses reeled with the fever which was 
so soon to end his life ? 

In his wonderful quadruplet of stanzas Kipling has 
fixed one criterion of manhood which it is hard indeed 
to meet : — 

" If you can bear to hear the truth you've spoken 
Twisted by knaves to make a trap for fools. 
Or watch the things you gave your life to, broken. 
And stoop and build them up with worn-out tools." 

I beg my fellow-countrymen to remember that the 
non-Christians of the Philippines constitute an eighth 
of the population ; that the work undertaken for their 
physical, mental and moral advancement has succeeded 
far beyond the hopes of those who initiated it ; that its 



NON-CHRISTIAN TRIBE PROBLEMS 675 

results would go down like a house of cards if American 
control were prematurely wdthdrawTi. Shall the men 
who have devoted their lives to these things be forced 
to watch them broken, and then be denied the poor 
privilege of building them up again ? If the splendid 
results of so much efficient, faithful, self-sacrificing and 
successful effort were to be lost, would not the dead who 
gave their lives for them turn in their graves ? 

The greatest of the non-Christian tribe problems in 
the Philippines at present is, "Shall the work go on?" 

There is one satisfaction which no man can take from 
those of us who have worked for the advancement of 
these backward and hitherto neglected peoples. We have 
shown what can be done! 



CHAPTER XXV 

Slavery and Peonage 

Chattel slaverj^ existed in the Philippine Islands when 
Magellan discovered them in 1521. It exists there to-day. 

Morga, who was in the Phihppines from 1595 to about 
1608, and is admittedly the most rehable chronicler of the 
events of those early days, has given the following in- 
teresting account of the conditions then existing : ' — 

"There are three classes of persons among the natives of 
these Islands, by which the commonwealth is divided : yrin- 
cipales, of whom I have spoken before ; timawa which is the 
same as plebeians, and slaves, of principales as well as of 
timawa. These slaves were of various classes : some are in 
entire servitude and slavery, like those which we have, and 
these are called sagigilir; Ihey served in the interior of the 
houses and so also the children descended from them ; others, 
who have their o^\^l dwellings, which they inhabit with their 
family, away from the house of their master, and these come 
in at times to help the latter in their fields and crops, as also 
aboard the vessel when they embark, and in the construction 
of their houses whenever they erect such, and they also serve 
in their houses whenever there is a guest of some distinction, 
and they are under obligation, whenever the master has them 
called, to come to his house and to serve him in this ministry 
■ftdthout pay or other stipend; these are called 72ama)nahai, 
and their children and descendents are slaves of the same 
condition. Of these slaves sagigilir and naniamahai there are 
some who are slaves entirely, and others who are only half 
slaves, and others who are slaves only for a fourth part. This 
originates thus: if either the father or the mother was free 
and they had a single child, the latter was half free and half 
slave, if they had more than one child, the children were 
distributed in this way : the first followed the condition of the 

1 Rizal's 1890 edition of Morga's "Sueesos de las Islas Filipinas," 
p. 297, et seq. 

676 



SLAVERY AND PEONAGE 677 

father, be he free or a slave, and the second that of the mother ; 
and if the number was uneven, the last child was half free and 
half slave; and those descended from such child, if they had 
a free father or a free mother, remained slave only for a fourth 
part, because they were children of a free father, or mother, 
and of a half slave. These half or quarter slaves, namamahai or 
sagigilir, serve their masters only every second month, re- 
spectively, in proportion to their condition as slave. 

"Among the natives the ordinary price of a slave sagigilir 
used to be, if much, ten taes of good gold, worth 80 pesos, and 
if he is a namamahai half of that, and thus in proportion the 
others, taking into account the personahty and age. 

"It cannot be established as a principle from where these 
classes of servitude among the natives arose, for they are all of 
the islands and not foreigners; it is understood that they 
made them in their wars and differences ; and the most certain 
is that those who were most powerful made and took as slaves 
the others for slight causes and occasions, and most often 
through loans and usurious contracts current amongst them, the 
payment, risk and debt increasing with the lapse of time until 
they became slaves ; and thus all these forms of servitude have 
their violent and unjust origin, and it is about them that there 
arise the greater part of the lawsuits that exist among the 
natives and with which they keep busy the judges in the forum 
of the court, and the confessors in that of the conscience." 

To the last of the preceding paragraphs Rizal makes 
the following annotation, which, mutatis mutandis, should 
give leading Filipinos of to-day matter for reflection : — ■ 

"This class of slaves exists even now in many parts, and 
before all in the province of Batangas, but it must be confessed 
that their condition is very different from that of a slave in 
Greece, or Rome, from that of the negro, and even of those 
made in later times by Spaniards. . . . 

" Fihpinas, in spite of so many centuries of christianizar 
tion, in spite of the efforts of some few noble minds, priests 
as well as civilians, continues still, and is desired to continue, 
almost in the same state a.s formerly, for those who chrect 
the country look more to the present than to the future, and 
because they are guided not by confidence, but by fear. The 
efforts of the religious corporations to improve this state of 
things have never been as efficacious, nor as strenuous, as 
might have been expected from them." 



678 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

Morga continues : ' — 

" These slaves are the greatest wealth and capital which the 
natives of these islands possess, because they are to them very 
useful and necessary for their labors and farms ; and among 
them they are sold, exchanged, and made objects of contract, 
like any other merchandise, from one pueblo to the other, 
from one province to the other, and likewise from one island 
to the other. For which reason, and in order to avoid so many 
lawsuits that would arise, if the question of these servitudes, 
their origin and beginning, were taken up, they [the slaves, 
Tr.] are retained and kept as they were kept formerly." 

Rizal comments on this passage as follows : — 

"Thus Catholicism not only did not hberate the poor class 
from the tyranny of the oppressive, but with its advent in 
the Philippines increased the number of tyrants. Time alone, 
and instruction, which with it brings suaver customs, will 
ultimately redeem the Pariahs of the Philippines, for we see that 
the apostles of the peace did not find in themselves sufficient 
valour to battle with the oppressors, and this in times of great 
faith; on the contrary, they rather contributed indirectly to 
their misery, as we see from the foregoing." 

The most frequent cause, already mentioned above, 
from which these conditions of ser\'itude arose, is again 
pointed out by Morga in the following passage : ^ — 

"Loans with interest were in very common practice, exces- 
sively high rates of interest being current, so that the debt 
doubled and multiplied all the time during which the payment 
was deferred, until there was taken from the debtor what he 
possessed as capital, and, when ultimately nothing more was 
left, his person and liis children." 

Of these statements Rizal says : — 

"This is the sad truth, and so much the truth that it subsists 
until now. In many pro-vinces, and in many towns, there is 
taking place, word for word, what Morga says, it being to be 
lamented that at present not only Indios [Filipinos, Tr.] con- 
tinue this usury, but also the mestizos, the Spaniards, and 
even various priests. And it has come to this that the Govem- 

» " Sueesos," p. 300. ^ Ibid., p. 305. 




o 
pa 



SLAVERY AND PEONAGE 679 

ment itself not only permits it, but in its turn exacts the capital 
and the person in payment of the debt of others, as occurs 
with the cabeza de barangay." 

It would be easy to compile passages similar to the 
preceding from other authors, but those given are explicit 
and authoritative enough to make it clear, first, that 
slavery existed in the Philippines at the time of the con- 
quest as a general tribal institution of social and eco- 
nomical character and in minutely regulated form ; and, 
second, that although it lost, with the advent of the 
Spaniards, the character of an institution, and indeed 
was formally abolished by early edicts from Spain, it 
continued to exist as an unauthorized practice, so that 
Rizal, writing at the close of the nineteenth century 
could say that slaves still existed in many parts of the 
country. 

In a statement recently published in the New Yoi'k 
Evening Post, Senor Quezon, Resident Delegate from the 
Philippines to Congress, has said : — 

"Since there is not, and there never was, slavery in the 
territory inhabited by the Christian Filipinos, which is the part 
of the Islands sul^ject to the legislative control of the Assembly, 
this House has refused to concur in the anti-slavery bill passed 
by the Philippine Commission." 

Whom will the American public believe, Morga, the 
historian, and Rizal, the Filipino patriot, or Quezon, the 
Filipino politician ? 

While I entertain no doubt as to the answer, I shall 
nevertheless discuss at length the more recent history 
and present status of slavery and peonage in the Philip- 
pines, because of the vital importance -of full knowledge 
of the facts to intelligent consideration of the claim that 
the Filipinos have arrived at a stage of civilization com- 
parable with that of the more advanced nations of the 
world, and are capable of establishing and maintaining a 
just and humane government. 



680 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

The Spanish Penal Code did not prohibit or penalize 
slavery, or the purchase or sale of human beings. It did 
contain provisions against forcible detention of individuals 
and the abduction of minors, but in the Phihppines at 
least they were more honoured in the breach than in the 
observance during the Spanish regmie. 

The Moros raided the towais of the peaceful Filipino 
inhabitants of the Visayan Islands and of Luzon until 
within quite recent times. An unhappy fate awaited the 
prisoners whom they took. INIen were frequently com- 
pelled to harvest for their captors the crops which they 
themselves had planted, and were then mercilessly 
butchered. Women, girls and boys were carried away 
into slavery, the former to serve as household drudges or 
as concubines, and the latter to be brought up as slaves 
pure and simple. Some men met a similar fate. The 
only reason that more were not enslaved was that it was 
usually considered too much trouble to make full-grown 
individuals work. Slaves were held as chattels if it 
suited the convenience of their masters to retain them, 
and otherwise were sold, bartered or given away. Zam- 
boanga was at the outset largely populated by escaped 
Moro slaves who had sought the protection of the Spanish 
garrison there. Coming originally from widely separated 
^parts of the archipelago, these unfortunates had no com- 
mon native dialect, hence there arose among them a 
Spanish patois now known as Zajuhoangueho. 

The American occupation brought many and brusque 
changes in political conditions. The attitude of Ameri- 
cans toward slavery and peonage was very different from 
that of the easy-going Spaniards, who had never sanc- 
tioned it but had never made any determined effort to 
break it up. 

From the effective establishment of United States 
sovereignty in 1899 until July 4, 1901, the Philippines 
were under military rule, which has one great advantage : 
its methods usually bring quick results. 



SLAVERY AND PEONAGE 681 

Doubtless the majority of the slaves then held in the 
islands were too timid, and too suspicious of the character 
and purposes of Americans, to appeal to them for protec- 
tion ; but there were not a few whose lives had become so 
unbearable that they were prepared to take almost any 
risk on the chance of securing release. People of this 
class ran away from their masters and sought the protec- 
tion of army officers. I am glad to say that in every 
such instance which has come to my knowledge it was 
promptly given. Not only were they ad\'ised that they 
could not be held in bondage, and were free to go where 
they pleased, but when practicable their masters were 
warned against attempting to regain control over them. 
It is probable that the large majority of such cases were 
never officially reported. Most of the army officers con- 
cerned were in some doubt as to their legal status in the 
premises, but they knew that the constitution of the 
United States prohibits slavery ; their sympathies went 
out to the -ftTetched human beings who appealed to them 
for aid, and they decided to be a law unto themselves. 

After the establishment of civil government some army 
officers continued to exercise arbitrary powers in dealing 
with such cases of slavery as came to their attention, 
while others contented themselves with reporting them 
to the civil authorities. 

The conditions which prevailed in the Moro Province 
in 1902 are concisely described by its military governor. 
General George W. Davis, in a report written on August 
25 of that year. He said : — 

"With a people who have no conception of government that 
is not arbitrary and absolute ; who hokl human life as no more 
sacred than the life of an animal ; who have become accustomed 
to acts of violence ; who are constrained by fear from continu- 
ing the practice of piracy ; who still carry on slave trade ; who 
habitually raid the homes of mountain natives and enslave 
them ; who habitually make slaves of their captives in war — 
even when of their owa race ; who not uncommonly make 
delivery of their own kindred as slaves in satisfaction of a debt 



682 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

for liquidation of which they have not the ready money ; who 
habitually observe the precepts of the Koran, which declares 
that female slaves must submit to their masters, — it is useless 
to discuss a plan of government that is not based on physical 
force, might, and power." 

Senor Quezon, in describing conditions in the Moro 
country, has said : ^ — 

"American authorities made treaties with the Sultan of 
Jolo whereby slavery was legalized and recognized among the 
-non-Christian jMoros and received the protection of the United 
States army and civil authorities. This state of things con- 
tinued for a long time under official recognition and even after 
the treaties in question were abandoned it was allowed to go on 
tlespite the protests of Filipino and American students of the 
question." 

It is true that General Bates attempted to negotiate a 
treaty with the Sultan of Jol6, in which he felt himself 
compelled to recognize slavery as an existing Moro custom. 
This action was unauthorized and was disapproved by 
his superiors. It did not legalize slavery. Neither Moro 
nor any other kind of slavery was ever protected by the 
civil authorities. 

The act providing for the organization of the Moro 
Pro\-ince vras passed on June 1, 1903, and hardly had the 
civil officers therein pro\'ided for been appointed when, 
on September 24, 1903, the legislative council passed an 
act entitled "An Act defining the crimes of slaveholding 
and slavehunting and prescribing the punishment there- 
for," 2 which was promptly approved by the Philippine 
Commission and thus came to have the force and effect 
of law. Under it active measures were adopted to 

' "The Filipino People," Vol. 2, No. 1, p. 15, September, 1913. 

' On July 1.5, 1913, I published an ofBeial report, as secretary of 
the interior, on "Slavery and Peonage in the Philippine Islands." It 
is hereinafter referred to in foot-notes under the title of "Slavery and 
Peonage." Beginning on p. 84 of this document will be found extracts 
from court records sho-«-ing eon\-ictions obtained under this act, which 
is quoted in full on p. 83 of the same document. 



SLAVERY AND PEONAGE 683 

break up slavery in the Moro Province. They have re- 
sulted very successfully, and persons who have cap- 
tured others to be held or sold as slaves, as well as 
persons who have actually sold, bought or kept slaves, 
have been convicted and punished. 

Senor Quezon's statement relative to the attitude of the 
civil authorities in this matter is therefore recklessly false. 

The existence of slavery in the Moro Province was well 
known from the outset, hence the immediate enactment 
of legislation to meet the special conditions which pre- 
vailed there. 

Little by little the commission learned that slavery 
was by no means confined to Moro territory, and that 
peonage was general throughout the islands. 

Before going further, I wish to make clear the sense in 
which I use these terms. 

I define slavery as the condition of a human being 
held as a chattel and compelled to render service for 
which he is not compensated. As food and clothing are 
necessarily furnished by the slave owner, they are not 
considered to constitute compensation. 

Peonage I define as the condition of a debtor held by 
his creditor in a form of qualified servitude to work out a 
debt. 

On April 28, 1903, the senior inspector of con- 
stabulaiy in Isabela wired the first district chief of con- 
stabulary, Manila, as follows : — 

" In this province a common practice to own slaves. These 
are bought by proprietarios [property owners. — D. C. W.] 
from Igorrotes and Calingas who steal same in distant places 
from other tribes. Young boys and girls are bought at about 
100 pesos, men 30 years old and old women cheaper. When 
bought, are generally christened and put -to work on ranch or 
in house, and I think generally well-treated. In this town a 
number sold within last few months, and as reported to me, 
Governor has bought three. Shall I investigate further? 
Instructions desired. 

(Signed) "Sorenson." 



684 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

Senior Inspector Sorenson was instructed to make a 
thorough investigation of, and a detailed report on, the 
slave question. 

On May 2 he comphed with these instructions, ^ describ- 
ing the conditions under which slaves were taken by the 
neighbouring Kalingas and Ifugaos, whom he wrongly 
calls "Igorrotes," the methods employed in selling them, 
and the treatment subsequently given them by their 
purchasers. 

He also furnished a list of "Igorrotes" sold in the prov- 
ince during the past year, with names of the purchasers 
and prices paid. The ages of these unhappy individuals 
varied from eight to twenty-seven years, the prices paid 
for them, from one hundred and ten to two hundred and 
fifty Mexican dollars. 

This report led Governor Taft to write to Governor 
Dichoso of Isabela, who was charged with o^^^ling a slave, 
asking him for a frank statement of the facts as to the 
prevalence of slavery in his province. 

Governor Dichoso's reply, dated September 9, 1903, 
will make interesting reading for those who claim that 
slavery does not exist, and has never existed, among the 
Filipinos. I give it practically in full, omitting only the 
titles of the governor : — 

' ' Having noted the contents of the official letter of the Honour- 
able the Civil Governor in the Philippine Islands, Mr. W. H. 
Taft, dated the 8th of August, last, and of the copy of the report 
annexed thereto, which were received yesterday, I have the 
honour to respectfully reply that during the 21 years, ffiore or 
less, that I have resided in this provincial capital (llagan), 
I have never thought of buying a member or a child of the race 
mentioned in the "report, or of any other tribe, to serve as a 
slave in my household, not for the reason that this is pro- 
hibited and punished by section 484 and the following sections 
of the Spanish Code now in force, relative to the crime of kid- 
napping, but because it goes against my nature to trest in this 

> For the full text of this interesting and important report see 
"Slavery and Peonage," p. 85. 



SLAVERY AND PEONAGE 685 

manner a person who, like all human beings alive, is a likeness 
of the Highest. This I prove by means of the documents 
annexed hereto. 

"I could easily have done so in time of the late Spanish Gov- 
ernment, because I had good opportunities for doing so, and 
could have afforded to do so on account of my social position 
from that time on up to date, during which period I held 
successively the following public offices : — 

******* 

"This having been my status, and considering the power 
and the opportunity which I had for obtaining slaves, I might 
not have had only one, but enough to harvest the tobacco on 
my plantation, and the other crops which I had planted. 

"Under the past Government there existed slaves in this 
province, but only a .small number, for only wealthy families 
could afford to keep them. The same was the case in the neigh- 
bouring Provinces of Neuva Vizcaya and Cagayan ; in the former 
they also used to have slaves of the Ifugao tribe, and in the 
latter Negritos, but very few of these. 

"Since the glorious Star-Spangled Banner has been imfolded 
over the Province of Isabela, the slaves existing in the same, 
which had been purchased in that time and recently, are very 
well treated and seem to be members of the family, because the 
military authorities prohibited their masters from ill-treating 
them as they were wont to do. Since then many of the slaves 
have run away from their owners and have sought new masters 
who treat them well, as it happened in the case of an Igorrote 
woman of the Ifugao tribe, who was about 40 years of age, and 
who had been in the service of a lady in the pueblo of Echague 
for many years. When, in the year 1900, the military enforced 
the prohibition of ill-treatment of slaves in the said pueblo, this 
Igorrote woman ran away and presented herself at my house, 
I being at this time justice of the peace of this provincial capital, 
and asked me to employ her as servant. My principle not to 
have slaves preventing me from complying with her wishes, 
I directed her to apply to Mr. Andres Claraval and his wife, 
Filomena Salinas. They accepted her, and a short time after- 
wards they had her baptized and christened Magdalena Claraval. 
She is being treated like an adopted daughter by them. 

"The gentlemen who are mentioned in the report as having 
purchased slaves really acquired Igorrotes by purchase and 
keep them in their house, some of them having died since. 
Some of these transactions were made in the Spanish times, as 
in the case of the late Mr. Policarpo Gangan, who bought 6 



686 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

or 7 Ifugaos, whom on his death he left to his children, Mr. 
Pedro Gangan, Mrs. Susana Gangan, Miss Maria Gangan, and 
Mrs. Rufina Gangan, and others were made recently and 
secretly, while I was absent from town on official business in the 
pueblos of this province. Mr. Thomas Gollayan, the late pro- 
vincial secretary, bought two Igorrotes while I was in Manila in 
December and January, last. They were well aware of the fact 
that I prosecuted kidnapping with tenacity, my object being to 
put a stop, if po.ssible, to this abominable practice, which has 
since some time prevailed in the pueblos of this province. . . . 

"In order to prove that I endeavoured to make the proper 
investigation for the purpose of proving whether slavery really 
existed in this province, I have the honour to annex an affidavit 
by Agapito Telan, a resident of Ilagan, in which it appears 
that he sold Igorrotes of the Ifugao tribe to several residents 
of this town. I was unable to ascertain the numbers of Igorrotes 
of the same tribe sold by Modesto Sibal, Lorenzo Montevirgen, 
Lorenzo Montalvo, Andres Castro, and Cosme Ferrer, who are 
engaged in the same business as Agapito Telan, as it appears 
from the deposition of the latter, for the reason that these per- 
sons did not appear before me, although in 1902 I had on 
several occasions verbally requested the late municipal presi- 
dent, Mr. Pascual Paguirigan, to cause them to appear in an 
unofficial manner. I was not surprised that they did not ap- 
pear before me, as Paguirigan was involved in the investiga- 
tion, as it happened in the case of the aforesaid Agapito Telan, 
who appeared before me when I asked the acting municipal 
president to have him do so. 

"I was afraid to direct those persons to appear before me 
by means of written orders, because I had not document or 
complaint whereon to base them, as required by the procedure 
now in force, and feared that on account of the unlawful nature 
of the summons they might proceed against me for coaccion, 
and sue me besides for damages. 

"According to my personal observation and to what I have 
seen in the other pueblos of this Province of Isabela, but prin- 
cipally in the provincial capital, the Igorrotes who are said 
to be slaves cannot be considered as such since the times of the 
military government, as they are considered and treated as 
members of the family of the chief of the household. Never- 
theless, I am and shall continue to be inexorable in the prosecu- 
tion of slavery, as it is a crime and should be prosecuted as such, 
in order to prevent at least that the persons engaged in this 
business commit this crime again. 




> 



= Q 



. 5 a 

- - c 

o = c 

= 3 . 

O - 2 



SLAVERY AND PEONAGE 687 

"It is my humble opinion that an act should be passed to the 
end of eradicating this practice which has become general 
throughout the Cagayan Valley.^ Otherwise, as I have seen 
in my continual efforts, the provincial authorities cannot do 
anything to check the evil, however they may try. It is neces- 
sary that some one should be made to feel the rigour of the act 
suggested and suffer the punishment designated by it. 

"As a rule the inhabitants of this province already under- 
stand personal liberty and know that a person is entitled to go 
wherever he pleases, which liberty has given birth to the humane 
treatment of the fellow-men which now prevails. 

"Caciquism is still existing in parts of this pro\nnce, but I 
am confident that with the cooperation of sensible persons in 
my continuous efforts it will be completely eradicated, and 
personal liberty will reign supreme, as in every repubhc where 
the laws assure complete and real liberty, the liberty from 
slavery." 

As supporting evidence Governor Diehoso forwarded 
with his letter a number of statements from persons 
resident in the capital of Isabela to the effect that 
during the twenty-one years that he had Uved there he 
had never purchased, intended to purchase, or kept in 
his house any Igorrote of the Ifugao or any other tribe. 

In addition he forwarded a somewhat unique docu- 
ment in the form of a sworn statement by a slave dealer 
which is of such interest that I give it in its entirety : — 

"I, Agapito Telan, a resident of this provincial capital 
(Ilagan), certify: On the 19th of June, 1903, I was summoned 
by the provincial governor, Mr. Francisco Diehoso y Reyes, 
and when I was with him in the office of the provincial govern- 
ment, he and the secretary took my sworn deposition, as fol- 
lows : — 

"Upon being asked to state the number of children of the 
infidel tribe of the Ifugaos sold by me to several residents of 
this provincial capital, the approximate age of these children, 
the names of the persons to whom they were sold, the number 
of children bought by these persons, the value of each of the 
said children, their sex, and the year, month, and day on which 
the said sales were made, deponent repUed that in the year 

' This valley includes the Provinces of Cagayan and Isabela. 



688 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

1902, in the month of September, and on a day which he cannot 
remember, he sold to the late Policarpo Gangan two Ifugao boys, 
of the ages of 8 and 9, respectively, for the sum of 360 Mexican 
dollars, another boy, 9 years of age, he sold to Juan Dauag for 
the sum of 180 Mexican dollars, and another boy, 8 years of 
age, he sold to Seferino Malana for the sum of 160 Mexican 
dollars, the latter two being sold on the same month and year 
aforementioned, and in Ilagan also. 

"In the year of 1903 the deponent sold a boy and a girl of the 
Ifugao tribe, who, judging by their physical development, were 
about 6 and 8 years old ; the boy, six years of age, he sold to 
Pascual Paguirigan, late municipal president, and the girl to 
Dona Rufina Gangan, for the sum of 180 Mexican dollars each. 
This was in January, but deponent does not remember the day. 

"In February he sold a boy and a girl of the same tribe, 
8 years of age, the former to Cirilo Gantinao and the latter to 
Salvador Aggabao, for 180 Mexican dollars each. The pur- 
chasers are residents of this town. 

"Upon being asked who are the other persons who, like 
deponent, are engaged in taking Ifugao children from the settle- 
ments of the infidels and then selling the same to whomever 
wants them, and that he state where they reside, deponent 
replied that the persons who are engaged in the same business 
as he, are Modesto Sibal, Lorenzo Monte-Virgen, and Lorenzo 
Montalvo, residents of the pueblo of Gamii, and Andres Castro 
and Cosme Ferrer, residents of this provincial capital. 

"Upon being asked whether he knew if these persons are 
like him engaged in the purchase of minors and what was the 
number of children taken by each during the year of 1902 and 

1903, and if so, to state to whom they were sold, and at what 
price the deponent replied that he is completely ignorant of 
the matter in regard to which information is requested, but 
that it was possible that they had taken more children, as they 
are living nearer to the settlements from which they are taken, 
and as they are able to make the trip three times to the defend- 
ant's once. 

"Asked what methods they employ for the purpose of get- 
ting children from that tribe, deponent says that all they do is 
to enter into a contract with those whom thej^ consider their 
dattos or chiefs, and who come down from the mountains with 
the children, which are purchased from them by the persons 
engaged in this trade. 

"Asked to state the price of the children bought at the accus- 
tomed places for these transactions for the purpose of reselling 



SLAVERY AND PEONAGE 689 

them, the deponent states that the children are sold at the 
same price at which they are purchased at that place. 

"He having thus stated, the foregoing was read to him, and 
he agreed to it, signing it after the Provincial Governor, which 
I, the secretary appointed for this act, attest. 

"Francisco Dichoso, 
" Provincial Governor. 
"Agapito Telan, 
" Fernando Domingo. 
" Secretary appointed. 
(Sgd.) "Agapito Telan. 

"Subscribed and sworn to before me this 10th day of Sep- 
tember, 1903. 

(Sgd.) "Francisco Tauad, 
"Clerk of the Court, Ilagan." 

The existence of slavery in Misamis, a regularly organ- 
ized pro\ance, had been disclosed at a still earlier date. 

In May, 1902, its Filipino governor, Sr. Manuel Cor- 
rales, was asked to report, and did report, on slavery in 
that province, under the following circumstances : — 

On May 2, 1902, General George W. Davis telegraphed 
the Adjutant-General, Manila : — 

"Following telegram respectfully repeated: 'Zamboanga, 
May 1, 1902, via Malabang, to Wade. Commanding Officer, 
Misamis, reports April 30, that Presidente notified him that 
he was going to send armed party to capture two Moro slaves 
which have escaped from their Filipino master whose names 
were not given. Says there are many Filipinos who own slaves. 
Presidente was told that the troops had nothing to do with 
civilian affairs. I have no doubt but that the Filipinos on the 
north coast here have many slaves. At Butuan I saw one in 
November that had been recently purchased.'" 

Governor-General Wright referred a copy of this tele- 
gram to Governor Corrales with an indorsement — 

"calling his attention to the within communication. Informa- 
tion is desired as to whether or not the within facts are true as 
stated, and also whether there are any persons held in involun- 
tary servitude other than convicts within the province, and if 
so, that full particulars be given." 



690 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

Governor Corrales himself has none too good a record 
in connection with the treatment accorded the non- 
Christians of his province, and would certainly not paint 
a darker picture than was called for by the facts, yet in 
his reply ' he gives the names of six towns in which "one 
still finds a few slave servants, most of them acquired 
many years ago." He adds : — 

"At the present time, there are but few sales of slaves pro- 
ceeding from the mountain tribes, which arc now relatively 
civilized. In Iligan and Misamis, I have heard that such sales 
were more frequent, for two reasons : (1) the Moro race is 
more despotic and more numerous ; (2) the weekly market in 
Iligan gives them an opportunity to carry on that sort of busi- 
ness, although they have to do it by stealth, on account of the 
watchfulness of the authorities. 

" I will call your attention to the fact that the slaves proceed- 
ing from the Moro district constitute, in the Moro villages, an 
inferior social class, the slave family, whose origin is due to the 
prisoners taken by the Dattos on their e:cpeclitions ; when they 
are transferred to the Christians in Iligan or Misamis, because 
their masters wish to make money, or are hard pressed by the 
famines which are so frequent in the region of the Lanao, their 
condition is considerably improved by the good treatment and 
the better and more abundant food which they obtain in their 
new situation, by the mere fact that they live with a more civil- 
ized people. 

"Those who come from the mountain tribes are not born 
slaves ; with few exceptions, the chiefs and principal men of 
these tribes do not own slaves which they use for their service 
or for agricultural work, as the Moros do. Slaves are gener- 
ally obtained in the following way : — • 

"It happens that a chief with beUicose and sanguinary in- 
stincts, who leads a nomad life and does not belong to the peace- 
ful class which is given to farm life, organizes a gang of men 
of his sort, makes incursions in the wildest parts of the woods 
and raids the lone huts inhabited by savage and nomad families ; 
he kills by treachery the growia-up people and carries off the 
children, which he can easily master ; he then sells them to the 
peaceful farm dwellers, who sell them in their turn to the Chris- 
tian pueblos. 

' For the full text of this document see "Slavery and Peonage," pp. 
12-14. 



SLAVERY AND PEONAGE 691 

"As I have already said, such cases are happily rare. In 
Iligan and Misamis, which are far from the capital of the prov- 
ince, and therefore from the Court and the provincial author- 
ities, the slaves have had less opportunity to claim their rights, 
and it is not astonishing that neither the slaves nor their masters 
have a true notion of what is meant by individual liberty, al- 
though the former are at least sure of their lives since they left 
the jurisdiction of the !Moros, at whose absolute mercy they 
were, and are much better treated among the Christians. 

"I intend taking all necessary measures within my jurisdic- 
tion in order to put an end to such a hateful trade, and wait for 
any further instructions which you may deem it convenient to 
give me." 

Unfortunately neither the measures taken by Governor 
Corrales nor those adopted by his successors have 
sufficed to end this "hateful trade" in the pro\'ince of 
Misamis. 

In July of the present year,' a man accused of holding 
two Bukidnon children in slavery did not deny the charge, 
but set up the defence that he was a resident of Misamis, 
where there was no law against this crime. He had been 
proceeded against under an anti-slavery law passed by 
the commission for the provinces under its exclusive 
jurisdiction, on the theory that he resided in Agusan. He 
won his case, proving that his house was about a hundred 
yards over the line. 

The revelations contained in the reports above men- 
tioned naturally called for action. Inspector Sorenson's 
report was referred to the commission with the following 
indorsement : — 

"Office of the Civil Governor, 

"Manil.'I, August 13, 1903. 

"The Senior Inspector of Constabulary in the Province of 
Isabela reports that there is quite a slave trade in the Cagayan 
Valley. The report of Sorenson, the Inspector, is submitted to 
the Commission and I suggest a reference to Commissioner 
Wright in order that he may include in the Criminal Code some 
clauses which will enable us to reach this abuse. 

(Signed) "Wm. H. Taft, 

"Civil Governor." 
» 1913. 



692 



THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 



The report was, by direction of the commission, re- 
ferred to Commissioner Wright as suggested by Governor 
Taft for consideration in connection with a proposed new 
Criminal Code which was being prepared, under his 
general supervision, for enactment. An immense amount 
of work was necessary on this code, and it was never 
completed and enacted. Various matters needing atten- 
tion have since been reached through the medium ot 
special laws, and it is obvious that it was mtended to 
pursue this course in this instance, as is shown by the 
fact that Governor Dichoso's reply was forwarded to 
General Wright on October 19, 1903, with the following 
indorsement : — 

[First Indorsement] 

"Executive Bureau, 
"Manila, October 19, 1903. 

"Respectfully referred to the Secretary of Commerce and 
Police for his information and consideration m cx)nnection with 
the proposed Act denouncing slavery and kidnapping and 
kindred offences as crimes. ^^.^^^^ ,^^^ ^ ^^^_ 

"Civil Governor." 

Why such an act was not drafted and passed I do not 
know I was then absent on leave, and did not even 
learn of the existence of any of the above-quoted docu- 
ments until years afterward. My personal attention was 
forcibly drawn to the existence of slavery outside of the 
Moro territory when I first inspected Nueva Vizcaya m 
1905 The territory occupied by the Ifugaos, since sepa- 
rated as a sub-province of the Mountain Province, was 
then a part of Nueva Vizcaya, which had been organized 
as a province under a special act and was, in a way, sub- 
ject to my executive control. ,, ^- . 

Its governor, Louis G. Knight, called my attention to 
the fact that Ifugao children were frequently enslaved by 
Filipinos of Nueva Vizcaya and Isabela. I asked him to 
get specific data so that we might prosecute the offenders. 




( V • ■ . *,'','^? 



O 

a 
o 



SLAVERY AND PEONAGE 693 

He soon sent to the Executive Secretary a report ^ which 
gave full details of a number of recent cases of the buy- 
ing and selling of Ifugaos as slaves, contained a state- 
ment that Governor Knight, who was himself a lawyer, 
could "find nothing whatever in the penal code defining 
or punishing as a crime the buying or selling of human 
beings," and recommended that "this crime be defined 
and punished in the proposed new penal code." 

The report was referred to me by the executive secre- 
tary on September 20, 1905, and on September 22 was 
by me forwarded to the Honourable Luke E. Wright, 
governor-general, with an indorsement — 

"inviting attention to the inclosed statements from the Gov- 
ernor of Nueva Vizcaya, relative to the traffic in Igorrote chil- 
dren in his province. 

"The undersigned has reason to believe that Negrito chil- 
dren and children of other non-Christian tribes are occasionally 
bought and sold by civilized natives, and is strongly of the 
opinion that in case the Penal Code does not provide adequate 
punishment for such offences, it should be so amended as to 
make it possible to inflict severe penalties upon those who buy 
and sell human beings in this Archipelago. 

(Signed) "Dean C. Worcester, 

"Secretary of the Interior." 

The papers were referred by Governor-General Wright 
to the Attorney-General — 

" for an opinion as to whether there is not some provision in 
the present Penal Code which will provide adequate punish- 
ment for such offences as are related herein." 

The opinion of the Attorney-General rendered in re- 
sponse to this request' encouraged me to beheve that 
something could be done under existing law. 

' For the full text of this document see "Slavery and Peonage," pp. 
23-25. 

- "Respectfully returned to the Honourable the Governor-General 
of the Philippine Islands, with the following opinion : 

"The acts given in the attached letter of the Provincial Governor 
of Nueva Vizcaya, dated September 14, 1905, in so far as they refer 

VOL. II — o 



694 THE PHILIPPIXES P-\ST AND PRESENT 

I returned the papers, together with the opinion, to the 
governor of Nueva Vizcaj^a and three test suits were 
brought as promptlj' as possible. 

One of them has become historic. It was brought 
against Tomas Cabanag, a well-kno^vn slave dealer who 
made a business of brndng and selUng Ifugao children. 

to the purchase and sale of human beings, are not pro^aded for or pun- 
ished under the existing Penal Code ; but such actions are punishable 
under that Code when they constitute either the kidnapping of a 
minor, iUegal detention or serious threats, according to sections 481, 
484 and 494 thereof. 

"Therefore, in accordance with the fourth paragraph of the L=tter 
of the said Pro\'incial Governor, I am of the opinion that not only the 
Igorrotes who stole the Igorrote boy, but also those who received and 
sold him. as well as the woman who bought him for forty pesos, are 
guilty of illegal detention. The latter is furthermore guilty of grave 
threats, inasmuch as she threatened to kill the purchased Igorrote if 
he tried to escape from her sennee. 

"With reference to paragraphs 5, 6, 7 and 8 of the attached letter, 
I believe that those who stole the Mttle Igorrote and also the woman 
Antonia, who sold him when knowing him to have been kidnapped, 
are guiltj' of the offence of illegal detention. 

"If the boy who was stolen and sold, referred to in paragraphs 
9, 10, 11, 12 and 13 of the enclosed letter, was under seven j'ears of age, 
then those who stole him are guUty of the offence of kidnapping a 
minor, and the Igorrote woman, Antonia, and the wife of Senor Arriola, 
the Clerk of the Court, are accomplices in the crime. But if the child 
was over seven years old, then the oflfenee would be illegal detention. 
The same maj' be said of the case recounted in paragraphs 14 and 15 of 
this communication. The parties who stole, sold and bought the little 
Igorrote are guilty of kidnapping a minor or of iUegal detention accord- 
ing to the age of the victim. 

"The acts committed by Captain Vicente Tomang, referred to in 
paragraph 16 of this letter, are punishable both as a serious threat and 
as illegal detention, because he unlawfully deprived the two Igorrote 
women of their liberty when they desired to leave his service, for which 
purpose he threatened to kill them. 

"Although not asked for in the indorsement to which this is a reply, 
I venture to suggest that the Igorrotes who armed themselves and 
formed a band for the purpose of kidnapping persons for subsequent 
sale, be punished under Act 1121, which penalizes as bandolerismo the 
abduction of persons for any purpose, even though there may be no 
extortion or ransom demanded, if the abduction be done by an armed 
band. 

(Signed) " L. R. Wilflet, 

" Aitorney-General." 



SLAVERY AND PEONAGE 695 

He was charged mth illegal detention in connection with 
the admitted sale, by him, of an Ifugao girl named 
Gamaya.' 

He was convicted in the Court of First Instance. I 
quote the following extract from the decision of the court : 

"The Congress of the United States has declared that human 
slavery shall not exist in these islands and while no law, so far 
as I can discover, has yet been passed either defining slavery in 
these islands or affixing a punishment for those who engage in 
this inhuman practice as dealers, buyers, sellers, or derivers, the 
facts established in this case show conclusively that the child 
Jimaya was by the defendant forcibly and by fraud, deceit and 
threats unlawfully deprived of her liberty and tliat his object 
and purpose was an unlawful and illegal one, to wit, the sale of 
the child for money into human slavery. This constitutes the 
crime of Detencion ilegal defined and penalized by Article 481 
of the Penal Code and this Com't finds the defendant guilty as 
charged in the information." 

The case was promptly appealed to the Supreme Court 
and was there lost on March 16, 1907. 

Gamaya, a thirteen-year-old Ifugao girl, had been 
purchased from her mother for pigs, hens, rice and 
a cloak, under the absurd pretext that the object of the 
purchase was to keep her at home, where she would, of 
course, naturally have remained in any event. She was 
allowed to stay with her mother during a period of some 
three years. In this manner the purchaser was saved 
the cost of boarding her while she was growing up. Hav- 
ing now reached what the Igorots consider a marriage- 
able age, she was sold to a man who was engaged in the 
business of buying in Nueva Vizcaya children to sell in 
the lowlands of Isabela ; in other words, to a slave dealer. 
He sold her to an inhabitant of the town of Caoayan, in 
Isabela, who had instructed him to buy a girl. Caoayan 
is distant many days of hard overland travel from this 
girl's home. Wlien taken there she was among an alien 

• Also written " Jamaya." 



696 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

people of another tribe and another religion, and although, 
as stated by the Supreme Court, she was not kept under 
lock and key and although that court held that : — 

"... There can be no unlawful detention under article 
481 of the Penal Code without confinement or restraint of per- 
son, such as did not exist in the present case." 

and held further that : — • 

"Under the complaint for this crime it is possible to convict 
for coaccion under proof of the requisites of that offence . . . 
but among those requisites is that of violence through force or 
intimidation, even under the liberal rule of our jurisprudence 
. . . ; consequent!}' the charge of coaccion against the accused 
cannot be sustained upon the evidence." 

it is nevertheless true that this child, who had been 
thrice sold, was detained just as effectively in Caoayan 
as if chained to a post in the house of the man who bought 
her, and was required by him to perform menial labour 
without compensation. It would have been utterly im- 
possible for her to escape and to make her way back 
through Isabela and Nueva Vizcaya to her own people, 
no matter how strenuously she might have endeavoured 
to do so. 

It is extremely difficult to prove forcible detention in 
connection with most cases of slavery in these islands. 
Negrito slaves are usually purchased when mere babes 
and later have no recollection of their parents or of their 
former wild life in the hills. Babes or very young chil- 
dren bring a better price than do older children, for the 
reason that they are less likely to run away. 

Adult Negritos, and adult members of other tribes 
held in slavery, have, as a rule, been made to feel the heavy 
hand of the oppressor and are so afraid of their lives that 
they will not testify. Only under very exceptional cir- 
cumstances will they admit that they are being held 
against their will, although they are quick to make their 
escape when a favourable opportunity presents itself. 



SLAVERY AND PEONAGE 697 

The difficulty involved in protecting these simple 
people is illustrated by the following case which came to 
my personal attention : — 

An eleven-year-old Bukidnon girl was carried away from 
northern Mindanao to Bohol by a Filipino school-teacher 
who had been discharged from the insular service. Her 
parents gave every indication of bitter grief and begged 
to have their daughter restored to them. This was finallj- 
accomplished, to their great joj^, as a result of my efforts. 
The kidnapper was ultimately brought into court, but 
before the case came up for trial the parents had been 
subjected to such "influence" that when called to the 
witness-stand they swore that the kidnapper had taken 
their daughter with their full knowledge and consent. 

In order to be reasonably effective, laws in these islands 
must be so framed as to make it possible to protect people 
too ignorant, or too timid, to protect themselves. 

Returning now to the Supreme Court decision, the 
court also held that : — 

"... the defendant appears to have engaged in the business 
of bujang in Nueva Vizcaya children to sell in the lowlands 
of Isabela." 

But it further held that : — 

"Not even the abhorrent species of traffic apparentlj'' carried 
on by the accused justifies a sentence not authorized by law." 

More important still, the court held that : — 

"The judge below quotes the Bill of Rights of the Philippines 
contained in the Act of Congress of July 1, 1902, declaring that 
'neither slaverj' nor involuntarj^ ser\'itude, except as a punish- 
ment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, 
shall exist in said Islands.' This constitutional provision is 
self-acting whenever the natiu^e of a case permits and any law 
or contract providing for the servitude of a person against liis 
will is forbidden and is void. For two obvious reasons, how- 
ever, it fails to reach the facts before us : — 

"First. The emplojTnent or custody of a minor with the 
consent or sufferance of the parents or guardian, although 



698 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

against the child's own will, cannot be considered involuntary 
servitude. 

"Second. We are dealing not with a civil remedy but with 
a criminal charge, in relation to which the Bill of Rights defines 
no crime and provides no punishment. Its effects cannot be 
carried into the realm of criminal law without an act of the 
legislature," 

and also that : — 

"To sum up this case, there is no proof of slavery or even of 
involuntary servitude, inasmuch as it has not been clearly 
shown that the child has been disposed of against the will of 
her grandmother or has been taken altogether out of her con- 
trol. If the facts in this respect be interpreted otherwise, there 
is no law applicable here, either of the United States or of the 
Archipelago, punishing slavery as a crime." 

In view of the facts above cited the necessity for legis- 
lation seemed obvious. 

The commission in its capacity as sole legislative body 
for the territory inhabited by Moros or other non-Chris- 
tian tribes might have passed an act prohibiting and 
penalizing slavery, involuntary servitude and peonage in 
that territory ; but such an act unless supplemented by 
a similar one applicable to the neighbouring Filipino ter- 
ritory where most of the slaves are actually held would 
obviously have been ineffective, while the desirability of 
having uniform legislation throughout the PhiUppines 
was evident. 

The Philippine Assembly was about to meet for the 
first time. The work of drafting a proper bill was duly 
provided for and I am sure that no member of the com- 
mission for a moment entertained the belief that there 
would be any difficulty in securing the concurrence of the 
assembly in the passage of a reasonable act prohibiting 
and penalizing slavery, involuntary servitude, peonage 
and the sale and purchase of human beings. The gentle- 
man charged with drafting the bill encountered difficulty 
in so framing it that it would accomplish the desired end 



SLAVERY AND PEONAGE 699 

without unduly interfering with the rights of parents over 
their children. Long delay ensued. 

I myself finally drafted a bill entitled : "An Act pro- 
hibiting slavery, involuntary servitude, peonage, or the 
sale of human beings in the Philippine Islands," and in- 
troduced it in the commission. 

It was passed, in sHghtly amended form, on April 29, 
1909, and sent to the Philippine assembly, where it was 
introduced on May 6, 1909. On May 7 it was referred to 
the Committee on Revision of Laws, and on May 17 it was 
returned by that committee with the following report : — 

"May 17, 1909. 

"Mr. Speaker: The committee concurs with the Commis- 
sion in the approval of Bill No. 100 with the following amend- 
ments : 

"(a) That the word 'slavery' be stricken out of the title of 
the Act, because it does not exist in the Philippines. 

" (6) That from section 1, page 1, lines 7 and 8, the following 
words be stricken out: 'take the fruits of his labours, compel 
him to deliver to another the fruits of his labours,' since the 
acts contained therein constitute other crimes that may be 
robo, hurto, or estafa. 

" (c) From line 11 in the same section the words : 'less than 
six months nor;' and from line 12 the words: 'less than one 
hunched pesos and not ; ' because the acts penalized in section 1 
may be of such slight importance that they should not deserve 
a punishment of imprisonment for six months or a fine of one 
hundred pesos. 

"(d) From line 22 (p. 2), the word: 'peso,' substituting for 
it: 'two pesos and a half.' 

"With these enactments Commission Bill No. 100 is dra-WTi 
up, according to the one attached hereto. 

"For these reasons the committee submits for the considera- 
tion of the Assembly Commission Bill No. 100 and recommends 
its approval with the amendments introduced. 

"Respectfully submitted. 

(Signed) "Aguedo Velarde, 
" Chairman, Committee on Revision of Laws. 

"To the Honourable, 

"The Speaker of the Philippine Assembly." 



700 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

This report, if adopted, would have emasculated the 
bill by striking out the minimum penalties, but it was 
not adopted. On May 19 the assembly laid the bill on 
the table without discussion. 

So began a long struggle to secure the cooperation of 
the assembly in the enactment of legislation on this im- 
portant subject. 

I did not feel that the assembly ought to be allowed to 
make a joke of the provision of the Act of Congress of 
July 1, 1902, that "Neither slavery, nor involuntary ser- 
vitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the 
party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist in said 
islands," and inserted a frank statement of the case in 
my annual report. During my absence it was cut out 
by the governor-general acting on the cabled suggestion 
of General, then Colonel, Mclntyre, speaking for the 
secretary of war. The Secretary, it is understood, based 
his decision on the statement of alleged facts and the 
argument in the above-mentioned memorandum pre- 
pared by General McIntjTe, and signed by General 
Edwards, then chief of the bureau of insular affairs. 
Various of these statements of alleged facts were incorrect, 
and much of the argument was fallacious, but the toute 
ensemble was plausible, and likely to mislead any one not 
thoroughly famihar with local conditions in the Phihp- 
pines. I did not see this communication until three 
years later, and so had no opportunity seasonably to 
discuss it, or to present my side of the case. 

On learning that all reference to slavery had been cut 
out of my report, I sent the following memorandum to the 
governor-general : — ■ 

"Baguio, February 28, 1909. 
" Memorandum far the Honourable the Governor-General. 

"Practices in the matter of purchasing and practically en- 
slaving the children of wild people, and holding wild people 
in the state of peonage, closely approaching slavery, are more 
grave and more common than is ordinarily understood here ; 




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SLAVERY AND PEONAGE 701 

and, in my opinion, as stated in my report, ought to be brought 
to the attention of the Congress of the United States if the situa- 
tion is not dealt with effectively by the Philippine Legislature 
at its next regular session. 

"I do not object to the omission from my report of the 
matter treating on this subject, mth the understanding that a 
strong effort will be made here to secure legislation which will, 
at least, penahze the sale for cash or other valuable considera- 
tion of human beings. 

"As things stand at present, we should be placed in a some- 
what embarrassing situation if any one thoroughly acquainted 
with the facts were to ask us what we had done to make effec- 
tive the provisions of the Act of Congress prohibiting slavery. 

"Dean C. Worcester, 
"Secretary of the Interior." 

The following year I introduced in the commission the 
bill which the assembly had rejected. Action upon it 
was postponed, pending the receipt of information which 
was requested from the assembly as to the reason for the 
failure of that body to pass it the preceding year. Shortly 
after this was obtained in the form of the above-quoted 
extract from the minutes of that body I was called to the 
United States and no further action was taken in the 
matter at that time, although the Governor-General in 
his message to the Legislature had included the follo"ning 
recommendation : — 

"There is no express provision of law prohibiting slavery or 
involuntary servitude in the Philippine Islands. While the law 
pro\ad(>s certain methods of punishing the practice of slaver}', 
as for example, the law for illegal detention, yet it does not seem 
right that an enhghtened and modern country should have no 
way of punishing the purchase or sale of human flesh. It is 
recommended that this be remedied by appropriate legislation 
at the coming session." 

I had also again attempted to discuss this important 
matter in my annual report. 

I myself reached Washington at about the time this 
document arrived there, but that part of it dealing with 



702 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

slavery and peonage was cut out without either consult- 
ing me or giving me a hearing. I was advised by General 
Mclntyre that the secretary had disapproved it. 

In writing to me under date of January 11, 1913, Mr. 
Dickinson said : — 

" I have read with much interest the copy of your communi- 
cation of October 28, 1912, with the Acting Governor-General 
in regard to the law prohil:)iting slavery. The whole matter 
interests me very much and is very enlightening to me. 

"I note what you say in regard to the matter coming up 
during my administration and the memorandiun made by 
General Edwards. My memory may be badly at fault, but I 
really cannot recall that this matter ever came to my personal 
attention. I may have forgotten it among the many hundreds 
of things that came before me, but I certainly have no recol- 
lection in regard to it." 

I am quite prepared to believe that the matter was 
never allowed to come to his personal attention ! 

On January 31, 1911, I again introduced this bill in 
the commission. It was amended in minor details and 
passed on that date and was duly forwarded to the assem- 
bly. There it was introduced on February 2 and on 
February 3 was laid on the table. I here give the full 
record. It is significant as showing the lack of interest 
displayed by the assembly in this important subject. 

"An Act pRomsiTiNG Slavery 

" The Speaker. Commission Bill No. 88 is submitted to the 
House for consideration. Read the bill. 

"The Secretary, [reading]. . . . 

"Senor Sotto. The Committee on Revision of Laws pro- 
poses that this bill be laid on the table. 

"The Speaker. Is there any objection? 

" The House. None. 

" The Speaker. On the table." 

In my report as secretary of the interior for the fiscal 
year ended June 30, 1911, I again took up this subject. 



SLAVERY AND PEONAGE 703 

After this report had been submitted to the commission 
I myself cut out all mention of slavery at the request of 
Governor-General Forbes, who urged that we make a 
last effort to get the assembly to act before appealing to 
Congress. 

In spite of the desirabihty of having uniform legisla- 
tion on such a matter as this in adjacent provinces, the 
commission felt that it could no longer with propriety 
delay action for the territory under its exclusive jurisdic- 
tion, and on August 7, 1911, passed the bill for Agusan, 
Nueva Vizcaya and the Mountain Pro^^nce. 

The same act was again passed by the commission for 
the territory under the jurisdiction of the legislature, 
when that body reconvened. The assembly referred it 
to committee on October 27, 1911, and tabled it without 
discussion on February' 1, 1912. 

In my annual report for 1912 I included the follo\\ang 
recommendation : — 

"That for the adequate protection of the non-Christian tribes 
a final and earnest effort be made to secure the concurrence of 
the Philippine Assembly in the passage for the territory under 
the jurisdiction of the Philippine Legislature of an Act identical 
with, or similar to. Act No. 2071, entitled 'An Act prohibiting 
slavery, involuntary se^^•itude, peonage, and the sale or pur- 
chase of human beings in the ^Mountain Province and the 
Provinces of Nueva Vizcaya and Agusan, and providing pun- 
ishment therefor,' and that in the event of failure, the attention 
of Congress be called to this important matter to the end that 
it may pass adequate legislation if it deems such a course in the 
public interest." 

This time I sent the copy for the report to the printer 
without awaiting further possible requests or orders to 
remain silent, for I was thoroughly convinced that it was 
useless to expect action from the assembly and that 
nothing remained but to appeal to congress to pass sup- 
pletory legislation making effective the provision of the 
Act of July 1, 1902, prohibiting slavery and involuntary 
servitude in the PhiUppine Islands. 



704 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

At the next session of the legislature the commission 
again passed the bill. The assembly referred it to com- 
mittee on October 26, and tabled it without discussion on 
January 8, 1913. 

From the above record it will be plain that, beginning 
in 1909, the commission passed laws prohibiting and penal- 
izing slavery and peonage annually during four successive 
years, and that the assembly tabled each of the four 
measures without deigning to give any of them one 
moment's discussion. Much less have they ever asked 
for any information as to the necessity for such legislation. 

While no member of the assembly had ever made any 
official statement on the subject, the Fihpino press had 
on various occasions denounced me as a liar or an igno- 
ramus, and an enemy of "the Filipino people," for saying 
that slavery existed. 

In preparation for what I deemed to be a probable re- 
quest from Congress for a detailed statement of facts, I 
now proceeded to get together the information on file in 
government offices and courts, called upon various officers 
of the government for data in their possession which had 
never been made of record, and initiated new investiga- 
tions, using for this purpose the poUce of Manila, the 
Philippine constabulary and various other agencies. 
Drawing on the abundant material thus obtained, I 
began the preparation of a report to the coimnission, 
recommending that the necessity for legislation be called 
to the attention of Congress, and supplying abundant 
data relative to the existence of slavery and peonage in 
the Philippines. 

Before this report was completed there occurred a most 
unexpected event. 

Dr. W. O. Stillman, President of the American Humane 
Association, had written me months before asking about 
the power of the Philippine Legislature to enact humane 
legislation, and further inquiring what laws of this sort, 
if any, had been enacted. In my reply I had called his 



SLAVERY AND PEONAGE 705 

attention to the act of the commission prohibiting slavery 
and peonage in certain provinces, and to the fact that 
the attitude of the assembly had prevented the enact- 
ment of similar prohibitive legislation for the remaining 
territory. My letter, which furnished no supporting 
data, was eventually published by this gentleman and 
was read in the United States Senate by Senator Borah. 
On May 1, 1913, the senate passed the following resolu- 
tion : — 

"Resolved, That the Secretary of War be, and he is hereby, 
directed to send to the Senate any and all facts bearing directly 
or indirectly upon the truth of the charge publicly made that 
human slavery exists at this time in the Philippine Islands and 
that human beings are bought and sold in such Islands as 
chattels." 

The reply addressed by the secretary of war to the 
president of the Senate on May 6, 1913, contains the 
following statement : — 

"There is not in this Department, to the knowledge of the 
Secretary thereof or of the head of the Bureau having charge 
of insular affairs, a record of any facts bearing directly or in- 
directly upon the truth of the charge, publicly made, that 
human slavery exists at this time in the Philippine Islands and 
that human beings are bought and sold in such Islands as 
chattels." 

This was a most peculiar statement. The passage cut 
out of my 1909 report was certainly on file there, and it 
explicitly stated that slavery existed in the Islands. 

The similar passage from my 1910 report should have 
been on file there, and last but not least, when finally, 
after the lapse of years, I saw the so-called "Ed- 
wards" memorandiun, in reality written by General 
Mclntyre, on wliich the Secretary of War had based his 
action in ordering all reference to slavery cut out of my 
1910 report, I had made a full reply to it, containing a 
specific statement that slaverj^ and the sale of human 
beings were common in certain parts of the islands and 



706 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

citing certain specific cases. I had specially requested 
that this communication be filed in the bureau of insular 
affairs, and General Mclntyre, the chief of that bureau, 
who acknowledged its receipt, could hardly have for- 
gotten its existence. 

The war department reported on this matter without 
seeking any information from Manila. I can only con- 
clude that Secretary Garrison was deceived by some ir- 
responsible subordinate. 

As promptly as practicable I completed my report 
and sent it to the commission, which read and con- 
sidered it on May 17, 1913, immediately passing the 
following resolution : — 

"Whereas the Act of Congress passed July 1, 1902, 'tempo- 
rarily providing for civil government of the Philippine Islands 
and for other purposes ' provides that ' neither slavery nor invol- 
untary servitude except as a punishment for crime whereof the 
parties have been duly convicted shall exist in said Islands,' 
and 

"Whereas the Supreme Court of the Philippine Islands in 
the case of the U. S. vs. Cabanag (Vol. VIII, p. 64, Phil. Repts.), 
decided on March 16, 1907, decided that 'there is no law 
applicable here either of the United States or of the Archipelago 
punishing slavery as a crime ; ' and 

"Whereas, in order to remedy this condition in accordance 
with the above-mentioned provisions of the said Act of Con- 
gress, the Philippine Commission in its exclusive legislative 
jurisdiction over all that part of the Philippine Islands inhabited 
by Moros or other non-Christian tribes passed Act No. 2071, 
and as a branch of the Philippine Legislature has in four suc- 
cessive sessions passed an act prohibiting and penalizing slav- 
ery, involuntary servitude, peonage, or the sale of human 
beings, and 

"Whereas during each of said sessions the Assembly has 
failed to concur in the passage of such Act ; now, therefore, be 
it 

"Resolved, That the Honourable the Governor-General be 
requested to send to the Honourable the Secretary of War a 
copy of the proposed law entitled 'An Act prohibiting slavery, 
involuntary servitude, peonage, or the sale of human beings in 
the Philippine Islands ' as passed by the Commission in the last 



SLAVERY AND PEONAGE 707 

session of the last Legislature, but which failed of passage in 
the Assembly, with the recommendation that a copy of the law be 
sent to Congress wth the request that the necessary legislation 
be enacted to render fully effective the above-mentioned pro- 
visions of the Act of Congress of July 1, 1902." 

I was subsequently requested by the governor-general 
to address the report to him rather than to the com- 
mission, to the end that the Filipino members of that 
body might be spared the embarrassment which would 
otherwise result from the necessity of voting either for 
its acceptance or for its rejection, and I very wilhngly 
made the requested change. 

The printing of the report was delayed until July 19, 
1913, and I brought it up to that date, as evidence con- 
tinued to pour in. 

In this document I gave specific cases of chattel slavery 
in the provinces of Nueva Vizcaya, Isabela, Tarlac, Zam- 
bales, Pampanga, Batangas, Palawan, Agusan, Ambos 
Camarines, the Moro province, the Mountain province 
and Manila itself, describing quite fully the conditions 
under which Ilongots, Ifugaos, Negritos, Tagbanuas, 
Manobos, Mandayas, Moros and Filipinos are bought, 
sold and held as chattel slaves. 

I will here only briefly summarize them. 

The Negritos are savages of low mentality, and most 
of them lead a nomadic or senoi-nomadic life. They 
constantly get the worst of it in the struggle for existence 
and to-day are found only on the islands of Mindanao, 
Palawan, Tablas, Negros, Panay and Luzon, where for 
the most part they inhabit very remote and inaccessible 
mountain regions. Owing to their stupidity and their 
extreme tunidity it is comparatively ea&y to hold them in 
slavery, and they are probably thus victimized more than 
are the people of any other tribe. They are constantly 
warring with each other in the more remote of tlie moun- 
tain regions which they inhabit. It would be going too 
far to say that their moral sense has been blunted. It is 



708 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

probably nearer the truth to say that they never had any. 
It is therefore a simple matter for Filipino slave dealers 
to arrange with Negritos for the purchase of their fellow- 
tribesmen. The latter then proceed to obtain captives 
by raiding some hostile group of their own people, killing 
ruthlessly if occasion arises. 

They are more ready than are the people of any other 
Philippine tribe to sell their children or other dependent 
relatives, and do this not infrequently when pressed by 
hunger, a condition apt to arise because of their utter 
improvidence. Unfortunately, the matter does not end 
liere. It is by no means unknown for Filipinos to join 
in their slave-hunting raids, or even to organize raids of 
their own, kUling Negrito parents in order to get posses- 
sion of their children. I submit the following case to 
illustrate this latter procedure : — 

"Camp Stotsenburg, Pampanga, P. I., 
"September 26, 1910. 
"The Adjutant, 

"Camp Stotsenburg, Pampanga, P. I. 

"Sir : I have the honour to inform you that a report has this 
day been made to me that a party of hostile Filipinos, about 
15 in number, armed with 1 rifle, 1 revolver and the remainder 
with bolos, presumably ladrones, entered a small Negrito 
barrio situated about one and one half miles directly southeast 
from the Post during the forenoon of Tuesday, September 20, 
1910, and killed three men and carried away two small chil- 
dren. I have visited the barrio and the body of one man show- 
ing frightful mutilation, both head, feet and hands completely 
severed from the body, was found. This settlement is situated 
in a dense jungle and the other bodies were presumably carried 
away or hidden, so that they could not be found. 

"But one person can be found who witnessed the affair, 
an aged Negrito woman, who can scarcely walk from the 
treatment she received at the hands of these outlaws. She 
states that she would bo able to recognize and identify some 
of the party. I am informed by Negritos living in the vicinity 
that this party of outlaws has a rendezvous a short distance 
east of Solbac where they might be apprehended. 

"The killing took place without the reservation, but the 




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SLAVERY AND PEONAGE 709 

matter is of sufficient importance, since all the Negritos living 
in the vicinity of the post are greatly excited and distm-bed, to 
warrant the recommendation that it be referred to the Senior 
Inspector of Constabulary, San Fernando, Pampanga, P. I., for 
such action as he may desire to take. 
"Very respectfully, 

(Signed) "Kyle Rucker, 
" 1st Lieut, and Squadron Adjutant, 14th Cav. Intelligence Officer." 

The subsequent fate of these Negrito children is made 
plain by the following letter : — 

"Philippine Constabulary, 
"San Fernando, Pampanga, P. I., 
" October 4, 1910. 

"My Dear Holmes: We have a case up here of murder 
committed near the to^vn of Angeles in which several Negritos 
are mixed up. 

"We managed to locate two Negrito children who had been 
sold by the man who killed their father. They were in the 
possession of a man named Ambrocio David who says he paid 
sixty pesos for them and says they are his property. 

"I think that we can convict the murderer of the children's 
father, if we can catch him, but this sale of Negritos has gone 
such a pace that almost every family in Pampanga has at 
least one as a 'Companion' of their children, they say, but 
really as a slave. 

"The Fiscal says there is no law against the sale or purchase 
of Negritos and I cannot find it, although I seem to remember 
a law, but whether it alludes to Negritos or only Moros I am 
unable to say. 

"If there is a law, what number is it, and if not, can you get 
me an opinion of the Attorney-General or some ruling so as to 
show us how to act in this and future cases of this kind. 

"Yrs. 

"W.S. North, 
"S. I." 

In this case one of the kidnappers was convicted of 
murder, but nothing could be done to him for selUng the 
Negrito children nor could anything be done to Senor 
Ambrocio David for buying the children or for claiming 
that they were his property. 



710 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

Like many primitive peoples, the Negritos are inordi- 
nately fond of strong alcoholic drinks. It is strictly 
against the law to give or sell any of the white man's 
liquors to them, but this naturally does not restrain slave 
hunters, who frequently get adults deeply intoxicated and 
then trade with them for their children or kidnap the 
drunken persons themselves and drag them away. 
Negritos are held to-day in bondage, in considerable num- 
bers, in provinces like Zambales, Pampanga, Tarlac, Panga- 
sinan and Cagayan. Wliile they are not displayed for 
sale in any market in Pampanga, they can be readily 
negotiated for in several cUfferent public markets of that 
province ; and if none happen to be available at the 
moment, the would-be purchaser is assured that the 
supply in the mountains is inexhaustible and that his 
needs can soon be met. 

The publication of my report has caused consternation 
among slave owners in many provinces. Some slaves 
have since escaped and little effort has been made to re- 
capture them. Others have been voluntarily set free 
by their masters, but in Pampanga the trade still goes 
merrily on. Until recently Negritos have been peddled 
around the country adjacent to Manila like carabaos or 
horses, and it is but a short time since their purchasers 
have in some instances refused to give them up, stoutly 
asseverating that they were their property. Now, how- 
ever, warned by experience, owners make no such claim, 
but advance various more or less ingenious explanations 
of the fact that they have Negritos in their possession 
and deny that they are slaves. Some of them insist that 
it is a Negrito custom to kill orphan children, and that 
they have taken orphans out of kindness in order to save 
their lives. Patient investigation has failed to show the 
existence of any such custom among the Negritos. 

Perhaps the commonest procedure of all is to claim 
that Negrito slaves are "adopted children" or "members 
of the family." The presumption against a Filipino's 



SLAVERY AND PEONAGE 7H 

taking into his family one of these little woolly-headed, 
black, dwarf savages is strong. In no single case have I 
been able to obtain evidence of real, legal adoption. The 
following document illustrates the procedure which seems 
invariably to have been followed : — 

"On the 25th of December, 1912, I, the authorized curate of 
this district, Lubao, Pro\'ince of Pampanga, baptized solemnly, 
and put on the blessed Okos in this church in my charge on 
one Negrita ten and eight years of age (18), and have given 
the name of Juana, daughter of a father poor and unknown. 
The foster mother. Dona Pia Vitug, married in this towTi 
received the charge as a parent to care for the spiritual welfare 
and other obligations. 

"I for the truth sign, 

"Friar Pedro Diez." 

(Girl given the name of Juana de Jesus Vitug.) 

A document of this sort imposes no legal obligation 
whatever on the owner of a slave, and makes no change 
in the status of the slave, but merely serves as a basis 
for the claim that he or she "is treated as a member of 
the family." 

This is a cheap and easy method of securing a slave, and 
the child thus "adopted" may be compelled to labour for 
a lifetime without compensation, or turned over for a 
consideration to be similarly "adopted" by some one else. 

Other Filipinos who do not claim that their Negrito 
slaves are members of their families find complete justi- 
fication for purchasing them in the allegation that they 
have taken them to Christianize, thus preventing their 
going to hell ! 

In the provinces of Agusan and Surigao the slave- 
taking raids of the Mandayas and Manobos are historic. 
In the more remote parts of these provinces they continue 
from time to time up to the present day. "VMiile one 
of them lies within the territory for which the com- 
mission has been able to legislate, what shall we say 
of those who contend that slavery does not exist in the 



712 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

Philippine Islands in the face of such occurrences as have 
taken place there? The same query holds for the sub- 
province of Ifugao in the Mountain Province and for 
Nueva Vizcaya. The Ifugaos have been especially vic- 
timized. The following kinds of servitude are recognized 
by them : — 

Jim-hut. This is the name applied to real slaves. 
The Jim-hut becomes an article of commerce and often 
changes owners several times before reaching the country 
of the Ba-li-uon (Christians). 

Nij-cop. This is the name applied to children who have 
been really adopted under a formal contract made with 
their parents or nearest relatives in case the parents are 
dead. The Nij-cop acquire certain property rights from 
their new parents-by-adoption. 

Baj-dl. Tliis is the name given to orphan children 
who have been formally taken in charge by some well-to- 
do Ifugao and who are unable to support themselves. 
The Baj-dl is a tentative Nij-cop, for if he turns out to be 
bright and industrious, he may become a member of the 
family and acquire property rights. 

Ta-gd-Ia. Tliis is the name applied to servants who 
receive regular compensation. 

It is a matter of common knowledge throughout the 
sub-province that there are li\ang to-day in Isabela hun- 
dreds of Ifugaos who have been sold to Filipinos as slaves. 

In Nueva Vizcaya it has been possible to deal with the 
more flagrant cases since the passage by the commission 
of the law above referred to, but the conamission is power- 
less to pass a law effective in Isabela. 

The holders of slaves now seek to evade the law by 
nominally hiring them at a monthly salary wliich is not 
paid. The promulgation of Act No. 2071 prohibiting and 
penalizing slavery enabled Lieutenant-Governor Jeff D. 
Galhnan of Ifugao to liberate some forty boys and girls 
held by Filipinos in Nueva Vizcaya. In no single case, 
however, could it be proved that the child had been sold. 



SLAVERY AND PEONAGE 713 

The persons who held them testified in each instance that 
they were "hired servants." 

When they learned of the provisions of the above- 
mentioned act they were easily prevailed upon to pay. 
"salaries" long overdue to their "servants" and the 
latter were allowed to return to their homes. 

It was found that some of the persons originally sold 
into slavery in Nueva Vizcaya had run away from their 
masters and become vagabonds. Few really wanted to 
return to their parents, whose language in many cases 
they had almost forgotten. 

I wish this were the worst, but the worst is yet to 
come. Not only do the Filipinos buy, sell and hold the 
wild people as slaves, but Filipino children have been 
kidnapped, or enticed from their homes, by other Fili- 
pinos, and sold as slaves to their own kind. Yomig girls 
have been sold outright to Chinese who purchased and 
kept them for immoral purposes. They have been sold 
to panderers and keepers of houses of prostitution and 
compelled to enter upon lives of shame. Filipino children 
and young women have been sold to Chinese who have 
taken them to China. God only knows what fate may 
have befallen them there. In such cases the victims dis- 
appear from these islands, never to return. 

Some slaves are well treated. Others are half starved, 
brutally beaten, injured or even killed. The Manobos 
and Manadaj'as of Agusan and Surigao, and the Bagobos 
of the Moro Province, have been accustomed to sacrifice 
slaves to appease their heathen deities. The Manobos 
on occasion even have their boys take lances and try 
the effect of different thrusts on slaves tied to trees or 
posts. 

Those who desire long lists of specific cases of slavery 
will find them in my report. I think that I have here 
abundantly demonstrated the fact that genuine slavery 
exists in the Philippine Islands. It can never be success- 
fully checked until there is a law of general appUcation 



714 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

throughout the archipelago penahzing the sale, barter, 
or purchase of human beings. What reason has the 
Philippine Assembly for refusing to pass the necessary 
act? 

Without hesitation I assert that, apart from false and 
foolish pride which makes the persons concerned unwill- 
ing to admit the fact of the existence of slavery, their 
chief reason for objecting to this law is that it would not 
only prohibit and penalize slavery, but would prohibit 
and penalize peonage, which is so common and wide- 
spread that it may properly be called general. Indeed, I 
have no hesitation in asserting that it prevails in every 
municipality in the Philippine Islands. 

Slavery is a serious matter, but peonage is far more 
serious because of the very much larger number of persons 
involved. It Ues at the root of the industrial system of 
the Philippines. 

Much has been said relative to the probable attitude 
of large American landowners toward Filipino labourers. 
Thus far their attitude, and that of all other classes of 
-Americans, has been infinitely better than has that of 
the wealthy Filipinos themselves. The truth is that 
peonage is repugnant to the average American. One of 
the complaints persistently made against us by the Fili- 
pinos is that we have raised the daily wage throughout 
the islands, and this is true. When I was there in the 
Spanish days, it was possible, in many regions, to obtain 
abundant labour at five cents per day with food, and ten 
cents with food was the general rule. Now the same class 
of labour costs at least twenty-five cents per day with food, 
and in some provinces it costs fifty cents or more. It must 
be frankly admitted that Americans are responsible for this 
sad condition of affairs ! American landowners who desire 
to pay their employees regularly a living daily wage en- 
counter difficulty in doing so, for the reason that the 
labourers have become accustomed to the old system, 
the evils of which they know, and are afraid of a new 




Governor Frederick Johxson of Agusax. 
He is holding up the butt of a huge hemp stalk. Governor Johnson continued 
at his post for a year while a cancer was destroying the bones of his leg, with- 
out letting any one know of his trouble. His heroism cost him his life. 



1 



SLAVERY AND PEONAGE 715 

one, fearing that it may involve worse evils of vphich they 
know nothing. 

Incidentally, Americans have learned that their la- 
boui-ers are worth more if well fed, and this is another 
grievance held against us in certain quarters. 

With many of the Filipinos it is a different story. 

The rich and powerful man, commonly known as a 
cacique, encourages the poor man to borrow money 
from him under such conditions that the debt can never 
be repaid, and holds the debtor, and frequently the 
members of his family as well, in debt servitude for life. 
One might fill a score of volumes with records of cases 
and I can here do no more than to select a few typical 
illustrations of the workings of this vicious system. 

The Filipinos are born gamblers. Gambling is their 
besetting sin. The poor are usually glad to get the 
opportunity to borrow money, and will do this on 
almost any terms, if necessary, in order to continue to 
indulge in their pet vice. They are thoughtless about 
their ability to repay loans, and thus readily fall into the 
power of the cacique money-lenders, who thereafter use 
them as house servants or labourers, under conditions 
such as to render their escape from debt-servitude prac- 
tically impossible. 

Indeed, if they seek to escape, the caciques often threaten 
them with the law, or actually invoke it against them, 
while if they endeavour to homestead pubhc land and thus 
better their condition, the caciques only too often cause 
opposition to be made to thek claims and keep it up 
until they become discouraged. 

The following facts have been furnished me by Hon. 
James A. Ostrand, judge of the court of land reg- 
istration. 

"In 1907 a woman, whose surname, I think, is Quintos, 
asked me to lend her twenty-five pesos with which to 'redeem' 
her daughter who had been mortgaged for that amount to a 
Chinese merchant, whose name at present I do not recall, but 



716 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

who had his establishment on the ground floor of the house of 
Ubaldo Diaz in Lingayen. The woman stated that the China- 
man was corrupting the morals of the girl, and that this was the 
reason why she wanted to make the redemption. I told her 
that under the circumstances no redemption was necessary, but 
that I would see that the girl was allowed to leave the China- 
man, who, on proper representations, was induced to let the 
girl go home. She stayed with her mother for a couple of weeks 
but, by adding P75 to the mortgage debt, the Chinaman got 
her back and shortly before I left Lingayen I learned that the 
girl, though scarcely fifteen years old, had given birth to a 
child." 

"In 1907 a woman from the town of Balincaguin in Pangas- 
indn came to my office and stated that she, about six years 
before had 'mortgaged' [the terms 'salda' in Ilocano and 
'sanla' in Pangasindn are usually translated mortgage, but 
also imply pledge, as the crechtor generally takes possession of 
the mortgaged property] her twelve-year old son for some 
twenty pesos to Don Cirilio Braganza, the member of the 
second Philippine legislature for the district in which I was 
then living; that her son had been working for Braganza ever 
since, and that, according to her reckoning, the debt had already 
been paid, but that Braganza had unjustly charged the loss 
of a carabao to her son's account, thus adding P120, if I remem- 
ber correctly, to the debt. She further stated that she had 
asked Braganza to release the boy, but that he refused to do so. 
I informed her of the provisions of the PhiUppine Bill in regard 
to involuntary servitude, and advised her that her son was 
free to leave Mr. Braganza's services if he so desired. She 
said that if the boy should leave, she was afraid something 
might happen to liim as Braganza was very influential in that 
locality. I then gave her a note for Braganza requesting him 
to let the boy go. Shortly afterwards Braganza came to me 
and gave me his version of the case, stating that he had always 
treated the boy well, and that the loss of the carabao was 
entirely due to the boy's neghgence, and that he, Braganza, 
would not consent to the boy's leaving him before the carabao 
was paid for. At last reports the boy was still with Braganza 
and may be there yet. I may add that I believe Braganza 
told the truth, and that the boy was guilty of negligence in 
connection with the loss of the carabao." 

The net result in this case was that a boy was "mort- 
gaged" for a P20 debt and after six years the debt had 



SLAVERY AND PEONAGE 717 

very largely increased, probably in part as a result of the 
carelessness of the boy. 

In a letter to Judge Ostrand I had defined peonage as 
"the condition of a debtor held by his creditor in a form 
of quahfied servitude to work out a debt." Of its prev- 
alence the judge says : — 

"While practising law in the Province of Pangasindn, dur- 
ing the years 1905 to 1909, hardly a week passed but what 
cases of involuntary servitude, as defined in the within communi- 
cation, came under my observation." 

He also calls attention to the fact that interference 
with the system does not increase one's popularity : — 

"Interference by third parties in cases of involuntary servi- 
tude is not looked upon with favour, and is generally considered 
highly reprehensible. I remember, for instance, a case where 
Mr. Pedro Sison [not the member of the Legislature], then a 
prominent resident of Lingayen, was, as he himself regarded 
it, made the victim of unwarranted interference. A woman 
bought a small parcel of land from Mr. Sison, agreeing to work 
out the purchase price, forty pesos. She worked with Mr. 
Sison for six years, at the end of which period the debt had 
increased to over si.xty pesos, according to Mr. Sison's accounts. 
In the meantime the woman became a Protestant, and Rev. 
E. S. Lyons, the Methodist missionary in Pangasindn, advised 
her to leave Mr. Sison's service. Upon her doing so Mr. Sison 
became very indignant not only at her, but also at Mr. Lyons, 
and for some time thought seriously of having the latter crimi- 
nally prosecuted. He appeared to be very much surprised when 
he found that there was no penal provision covering Mr. Lyons's 
action. Mr. Sison was otherwise a very estimable and good- 
natured man, but he never until his dying day, which occurred 
a couple of years afterwards, got over his bitter resentment 
toward Mr. Lyons." 

Judge Ostrand summarizes the results of his observa- 
tions as follows : — 

"Nearly all the involuntary servitude cases of which I have 
any knowledge have arisen from the practice of mortgaging 
half-grown children. The sum advanced is usually some 
twenty or thirty pesos. As the money seldom draws interest 



718 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

at a lower rate than ten per cent a month, and the creditor 
furnishes the child food and such clothing as it may need, its 
services are ordinarily not considered worth more than the 
amount of the interest, and the debt instead of being reduced 
usually increases as the years pass. I venture to say that 
among the Filipinos in some sections of the Islands the major- 
ity of house servants are obtained and employed in this 
manner." 

It would indeed seem that with interest at the rate of 
120 per cent per year and the creditor in a position to fix 
his own price for food, clotliing and other necessaries fur- 
nished his debtors while they were trying to work out 
their debts, they would not be likely to succeed in doing 
so ! 

In this connection I call attention to the fact that in 
the course of the discussion recently caused by requests 
for the resignation of certain public officials who had 
been loaning money at usurious rates of interests, several 
of the native papers took the attitude that 18 per cent 
per year was a very moderate rate of interest. 

If the unfortunate peon finally rebels, the rich cacique 
often invokes the law against him by having him prose- 
cuted on some false criminal charge. 

In this connection the following letter is of interest : — 

" Philippine Constabulary, 
"Office of the Senior Inspector, 
"Pampanga, San Fernando, September 26, 1912. 

"The Superintendent, Information Division, P. C, 
"Manila, P. I. 

" (Thru' Adjutant, District of Central Luzon.) 
" Sir : Reference to the prosecution of Maria Guzman 
before the Justice of the Peace of Apalit for 'Infraction of 
Law 2098 ' (your file No. 8634-75) I have the honour to attach 
copy of decision in the case, and remarks : — 

"About three (3) years ago Simeon de los Reyes, by and 
with the consent of his wife Maria Guzman, borrowed and signed 
receipt for fifty pesos (P50) to Maria Santos of ApaUt, con- 
tracting that his wife work out the debt moulding earthen jars 
— that for every hundred jars made Maria Guzman received 



SLAVERY AND PEONAGE 719 

?1, 25 centavos of which was to go on the debt. The woman 
states she could make about fifty jars per week, so that her 
actual wages were 50 centavos per week, or $.005 per jar. This 
without board, as the woman states that any money she got 
for food was charged on original debt. 

"By the first part of this year the debt had 'decreased' to 
P70, when another receipt for that amount was signed by the 
husband, de los Reyes, and the old receipt for P50 destroyed. 
In the month of August ultimo the Santos woman refused to 
advance Maria Guzman more money, so Maria Guzman left 
and joined her husband, who was working in Manila. The 
debt at time of trial amounted to F79 and a fraction. 

"Warrants of this nature are being continually sent from 
Pampanga, either by messenger or mail, direct to the Superin- 
tendent Information Division, without passing through my 
hands. The reason is evident. 

"It is respectfully requested that in the future all warrants 
reaching your office in this way be referred back to me before 
execution. 

"Very respectfully, 

(Signed) "L. T. Rohreb, 

"Senior Inspector." 

This woman, if she succeeded in making fifty earthen 
jars per week, received wages amounting to twenty-five 
cents against which her creditor charged her food and 
doubtless also her clothing. In other words, she was in 
effect charged for the privilege of making fifty jars per 
week for her master. The interest on her debt was 
meanwhile piUng up while the principal steadily increased, 
and when she grew weary of her hopeless task and ran 
away, her taskmaster prosecuted her. 

The following letter presents a typical case of peonage : 

"ROSALES, 

"March 26, 1912. 
"Chief of the Secret Service Dept., Manila : 

"Dear Sib: On behalf of Garegorio Ahnario a young girl 
residing at my house I write to ask you if you cannot have this 
matter attended to. 

"Six years ago a man named Tomas Almario, li\-ing at pres- 
ent in Rosales, borrowed some money (twenty pesos only). 



720 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

This man was unable to repay this money so he sold this girl 
named Inocencia Almario to a Mr. Galban. I think he is the 
President of Bautista. Her sister has been to Bautista to take 
this girl away but she has been rebuked by these people in my 
presence. They state she owes F60 the extra P40 being interest 
on the P20 borrowed 6 years ago. They have got this girl and 
another girl working as slaves and to-day I heard that the girl es- 
caped in a carromatta but they sent an automobile after her and 
took her into Bautista beating her all the way. In the interest of 
justice I hope you will have this girl released and hand her 
over to her sister in my house here out of the hands of those 
wretches. I also found out that this girl is being sent from 
place to place amongst men who take girls to cover debts. If 
you send a man here to Rosales I have the proof and will show 
you where this girl is and will get the evidence against these 
people. I understand that the President of Bautista is the 
man who is at the bottom of the whole affair. I hope you will 
put a stop to this slavery. I have the man here who owes the 
money and sold the two girls to this man. I have the .sister 
here ; also the other relatives to prove that this girl has worked 
as a slave for 6 years to cover a debt of twenty pesos and now 
they want 60 before they will release her. Please release my 
sister and oblige 

"Yours truly, 

" j[her mark] Garegorio Almario. 
Witness: (Signed) "W.A.Cole. 
"Address Garegorio Almario, 
"c/o W. A. Cole, Rosales, Pang." 

I have not made the slightest effort to get the peonage 
records of PhiUppine assemblymen, but have taken cases 
as they came, yet three of the limited number here dis- 
cussed concern members or ex-members of the assembly. 
Is it any wonder that that body refuses to consider a law 
prohibiting and penaUzing peonage ? 

My investigation of tliis matter has developed some 
interesting phases of human nature. Knowing the cer- 
tain unpopularity which would result from telling the 
truth, not a few persons who might have given valuable 
testimony refused to tell what they knew, or even denied 
that they knew anything. Others made written state- 
ments which I was unable to use, as they insisted that 



SLAVERY AND PEONAGE 721 

their names be withheld, and I wanted testimony only 
from witnesses who had the courage of their convictions. 
Fortunately there was no lack of people unafraid to tell 
the truth. Among witnesses to the existence of chattel 
slavery were army officers, constabulary officers, the 
Manila chief of police and many men of the police force 
of that city, judges, CathoUc priests, the mother superior 
of a convent, the insular auditor and a number of his 
deputies, provincial governors, both Filipino and Ameri- 
can, provincial treasurers, the director of education, 
school teachers, an ethnologist, newspaper men, business 
men and women both English and American. I accepted 
only written and signed statements. The long list of 
cases in my official report was a sample list, not an ex- 
haustive one. I stand ready to furnish specific instances 
of chattel slavery, ad nauseam, giving names of slaves, 
their vendors and purchasers, prices paid and dates of 
transactions. I hold more than a thousand tj^aewritten 
pages of evidence, and it continued to come in up to the 
day of my departure from Manila. 

The attitude of the Filipino politicians toward this 
great mass of data and the witnesses who fm-nished it is a 
most interesting study, from which may be deduced logical 
conclusions of far-reaching importance. Let us examine 
it. 

In the issue of the Boston Herald for June 24, 1912, Sr. 
Quezon, resident delegate from the Philippines to Con- 
gress, published an article entitled "The Filipinos as 
Legislators," ' attacking Governor-General Forbes for re- 
ferring in a public speech to the attitude of the assembly 
on the slavery question. I will quote and comment on 
its essential statements : — 

"The fact that the Assembly has refused to approve of the 
bill referred to by Governor Forbes, bespeaks the legislative 
ability of our Assemblymen, while, on the other hand, the pas- 

• Republished in "Slavery and Peonage," pp. 37-39. 



722 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

sage by the Commission of said bill indicates either the incom- 
petency or the negligence of the Commissioners. Do we have 
slavery and compulsory service in the Philippines or not? If 
we do not, the bill to abolish it is umiecessary. If we do, it is 
also unnecessary, because the Act passed by Congress, creating 
the present Philippine Government, which serves as our con- 
stitution, already prohibits slavery and compulsory service, 
and, therefore, no act of the Philippine Legislature is needed 
to declare it illegal." 

This is a puerile quibble. The act referred to pro- 
hibits slavery, but does not penalize it. 

"If there is slavery and compulsory service in the Philip- 
pines, the Governor-General as the Chief Executive, and the 
members of the Philippine Commission, who, ^vith the Governor- 
General, compose the executive department of the Islands, are 
all of them guilty in not enforcing and executing the constitu- 
tion of the Archipelago." 

False. The Supreme Court of the Philippines has held 
that the "constitution" here referred to is non-enforceable 
without exactly such suppletory legislation as the com- 
mission passed and the assembly tabled. 

"If there is anything in the PhiHppines akin to slavery or 
compulsory service, it can not be found in the provinces to 
which the legislative jurisdiction of the Assembly extends." 

Utterly false. 

"Should there be such a thing in the territories inhabited 
by the few non-Christian Filipinos, which are under the exclu- 
sive control of the Phihppine Commission, I am sure the slave- 
holders can only be the Government officials, who are ap- 
pointed by the Secretary of the Interior, the Honourable DeanC. 
Worcester, the head of the executive department in charge of 
said territories." 

False and absurd. The larger majority of existing 
slaves are held by Christian Filipinos. Not a single 
official in the territory in question was subject to appoint- 
ment or removal by me. Not one has ever owned a slave, 




z 

o 
a 



< 



3^ 






SLAVERY AND PEONAGE 723 

to my knowledge. This statement illustrates Quezon's 
disregard for the truth. 

"It will not be out of place to indicate here the reason where- 
for the Philippine Commission has passed the bill alluded to by- 
Governor Forbes. The members of the PhiUppine Commis- 
sion are sternly opposed to Philippine independence. More- 
over, they are opposed to allowing the Filipino people to have a 
legislature wholly constituted of natives for reasons too apparent 
to be mentioned. One of their everyday arguments is 'that 
the premature withdrawal of the United States would result 
in the establishment of an oligarchy composed of small and 
favoured ruling classes who would oppress the masses.' 

"The passage by the PhiUppine Commission of the anti- 
slavery bill placed the PhiUppine Assembly in a very awkward 
position (as it was perhaps intended to do) ; to concur in the 
passage of the bill was to admit that there is such a thing as 
slavery and compulsory service in the Philippines, which is not 
a fact. To reject the bill would be construed as incUcating that 
the members of the Assembly were advocates of slavery. The 
moral courage of our AssembljTuen was shown when they took 
the former course, that of truth. The members of the Com- 
mission denounce the attitude of their colegislators as proof of 
lack of sjTnpathy for the masses of the people." 

False, interesting, and important. There were four 
rUipino members of the commission at this time, all of 
whom were in favour of ultimate independence, and one 
of whom was a leading advocate of immediate independ- 
dence. AU voted for the anti-slavery laws which the 
assembly refused to pass. 

The Fihpinos were not w^holly to blame for the existence 
of slavery at the time of the American occupation, but the 
politicians are unable to grasp the fact that the way to 
deal with a cancer is to cut it out, not to deny its exist- 
ence, and by their refusal to legislate have now made 
themselves fully responsible for the continued existence 
of slavery and peonage in the regularly organized pro\dnces 
of the Philippines. The FiUpino newspapers have even 
gone so far as to claim that there could be no slavery 
until a law defined it, hence to enact such a law would 
create slavery. 



724 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

Resident Commissioners Earnshaw and Quezon were 
prompt and emphatic in their denials of the existence of 
slavery when Senator Borah read in the Senate Chamber 
my letter to Dr. Stillman. Sr. Earnshaw did not know 
any better. Sr. Quezon claims to know the facts. He 
himself has said : — 

"As a Filipino familiar with the facts in the case, I do not 
hesitate to qualify the letter of Secretary Worcester as being 
at once false and slanderous. It is false, because there does 
not exist slavery in the Philippines, or, at least, in that part of 
the country subject to the authority of the Philippine Assembly. 
It is slanderous because it presents the Philippine Assembly, by 
innuendo, if not openly, as a body which countenances slavery." 

He was unquestionably familiar with the facts, or many 
of them. Did he know of the report of the Filipino 
Governor Dichoso, describing slavery in Isabela ; of that 
of the Filipino Governor Corrales, describing slavery in 
Misamis ; of that of the Filipino Governor Pimentel, 
describing the sale of Filipino children into slavery to 
Chinese ; ' of that of the American Governor George 
Curry, describing slavery in Isabela ; ^ of that of the 
American Governor Knight, describing slavery in Nueva 
Vizcaya ; ^ of that of the Filipino Governor Sanz,"* describ- 
ing the enticing from their homes of numerous Filipino 
children of Romblon and the disposal of them as peons 
or slaves ; of the reports of army, constabulary and 
police officers ; and of the records of courts on slavery 
and peonage? Under the circumstances explanation or 
retraction would seem to be in order, but we have had 
from him only two more puerile quibbles. In a published 
statement he has said that slavery does not exist as an 
institution in the Philippines. Wlio ever said it did ? It 
exists there as a demonstrated fact, and it ought to 
be made a crime. In another pubUshed statement,* 

1 " Slavery and Peonage," pp. 14—15. 

2 Ihid., p. 21. 3 /biti., pp. 23-25. * Ibid., pp. 17-19. 

5 "The Filipino People," Vol. II, No. 1, p. 15, September, 1913. 



SLAVERY AND PEONAGE 725 

Quezon says : — 

"The allegation is a most serious one and we think it desir- 
able to meet the charge directh' \\ithout hesitation by asserting 
that it is unqualifiedly false and that the accusations made in 
the report are not only not sustained, but cannot be sustained 
by any evidence tending to show that such a 'system' exists." 

The placing in quotation marks of a word not used by 
me fairly illustrates one of the typical methods of the 
FiUpino politician, and for this reason alone I refer to it 
and to the following statements from the same editorial, 
which will serve a similar purpose : — 

"There is a very serious aspect of this report of Commissioner 
Worcester's. If the system he speaks of exists and is known to 
him — indeed has been known to him for a long time — why 
did he never correct it ? He says that the Philippine Assembly 
has blocked action. The truth is that he and his fellows had 
absolute power long before the Philippine Assembly ever came 
into existence. 

"... Mr. Worcester now practically admits that he knew 
of similar conditions elsewhere than among the Moros, but 
that he never had anything to say about them and allowed them 
to go on until, it would seem, he thought that he could make 
some political capital out of a controversy with the Philippine 
Assembly regarding anti-slavery legislation." 

It did not lie in my power to correct it. On the Philip- 
pine Commission rests the full responsibility for failure 
to enact anti-slavery legislation from the time when it 
first learned of the existence of tliis crime among the 
Filipinos until it passed its first act proliibiting and penahz- 
ing it on April 29, 1909. As I have already shown, the 
matter was dealt -Rdth, in 1903, by directing the inclusion 
of proper legislation in a proposed new Penal Code never 
completed. Valuable years were then lost in testing the 
adequacy of existing law, and when it proved inadequate 
further time was, in my opinion, needlessly wasted in 
drafting the necessary act. To this extent, and to this 
extent only, the commission shares responsibility for 

VOL. II Q 



726 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

existing conditions. Since April 29, 1909, that respon- 
sibility has rested on the assembly alone. 

I have given two of the reasons for its refusal to act. 
There is another, but I should have hesitated to give it, 
as it would have been hard to prove, had not Speaker 
Osmena furnished the necessary evidence. He is com- 
monly considered to be the leading Fihpino statesman of 
the day, so special importance attaches to his utterances 
and he, if any one, can speak with authority concerning 
the attitude of the assembly. The ominous rumble from 
the United States which reached these distant shores led 
him to give out a newspaper interview explaining the in- 
activity of that body. He said : — 

"Never has Mr. Worcester attempted to furnish us with 
the facts which he has placed before Congress. The bill itself 
was sent to the Assembly for action but on account of the 
unfriendliness of the members for the secretary of the interior 
and the lack of sympathy between the Assembly and him, it 
was not given the consideration that it would have received if 
Mr. Worcester had at the same time sent us the facts which 
he has sent on to the United States. 

"IMr. Worcester as the secretary of the interior, and not as 
commissioner was in duty bound to furnish the Assembly with 
the facts that he claims to have found. It is the duty of all of 
the administrative officers of the government to enlighten the 
legislature and to furnish it ^\^th information gained officially 
by them. As a matter of fact, Mr. Worcester showed that he 
was not anxious for the Assembly to consider the matter by 
never once even mentioning the subject to me, as is customary 
with other matters for legislation which the secretaries have 
wished taken up by the Assembly." 

If this were not so pathetic it would be very, very 
funny. The assembly is now made up of 81 Filipino 
delegates representing 34 provinces. An unfeehng Ameri- 
can secretary of the interior, residing at Manila, is 
charged with having failed to inform them of what was 
going on under their very noses. All information deemed 
by the commission necessary to justify legislation was 



SLAVERY AND PEONAGE 727 

transmitted by me to that body when we lost our slavery 
case in the Supreme Court. 

Never dm'ing all the years that this matter has been 
pending has there been the slightest suggestion that the 
assembly desired to receive information concerning it. 
If its members were to tell the half of what they them- 
selves know about slavery and peonage the facts which I 
have been able to gather would fade into insignificance, 
but this is not the important thing in this interview. 

The important thing is that dislike of the person who 
happened to introduce in the commission a bill prohibit- 
ing slavery and peonage in the Philippines is considered 
a valid reason for the refusal of the assembly to consider 
it during four successive years. 

Shall thousands of suffering human beings be allowed 
to go on sweating blood for such a reason ? 

It is my earnest hope that as a result of the publicity 
which has now been given this matter there will be speedy 
action, either by the Philippine Legislature or by the 
Congress of the United States. 

I hope that every right-minded person who reads these 
lines will insist that we have done \Aath concealment of 
the truth and suppression of the facts ; have done with 
boggling over hurting the feelings of the Filipino people ; 
and will demand that those who have power to end the 
disgraceful conditions which now exist in the islands 
shall promptly and effectively exercise it. 

The native press has naturally bitterly opposed any 
investigation of the truth or falsity of my statements. 
The following extract from a recent editorial is typical of 
its attitude : — 

"Slavery is not slavery unless it has the characteristics 
of frequency and notoriousness. Is there here, or has there 
ever been, at least since Christian civilization has reigned, 
anything that resembles it ? Where is, or who has seen pre- 
vious to now, such characteristic slavery? Mr. Worcester? 
Let him point it out, let him give a detailed account of it, 



728 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

let him define it. What will you bet that ho will not do so? 
How is he going to do it if it does not exist ! It was enough 
for him to say: "There is slavery in the Philippines" for 
men, press, government officials and every stripe of public 
elements in America to admit the possibility of the affirmation 
and even an investigation of its likelihood to be ordered. 

"That is simply absurd. The mere investigation is an offense. 
The proof must come solely from, and must be demanded solely 
of, him who imputes the charge. If he does not demonstrate 
it, if he does not make it patent, further investigation is not 
needed. All that there was to investigate is investigated: it is 
that he has lied." 

Nevertheless aroused public sentiment in the United 
States has forced action here. Governor-General Harri- 
son called the matter to the attention of the assembly 
in his first speech, and that body is now ' investigating it. 
Unfortunately there is grave reason to doubt its good 
faith. 

It allowed me to leave Manila wdthout the faintest 
suggestion that it desired to hear me, and then had the 
governor-general cable me an invitation to testify and 
to assist in the investigation when I was halfway home 
and could not possibly return. 

Assemblj-man Sandoval, defending in the public press 
a friend charged with buying a Tagbanua slave who had 
been thrice sold, says that the several purchasers did not 
buy the unfortunate man but bought his debt. A debt 
is not ordinarily purchased for itself and it is admitted 
that in this instance the man went with it. 

The Filipino politicians have hardly approached this 
matter in a judicial spirit, and the timid and the politic, 
who refused to give me the information they might have 
furnished, had some reason for their fears. 

The removal of Judge Ostrand and Director of Educa- 
tion Crone, who gave valuable testimony, was loudly de- 
manded on the ground that they were "traducers of the 
Filipino people." 

» November 1, 1913. 




a 



XI a 




— 03 



a 
o 
ja 

03 

a 

03 



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J3 



SLAVERY AND PEONAGE 729 

The people were urged to "get together" and disprove 
my statements. 

I have been denounced as an enemy of "the Filipino 
people." 

It has been claimed : — 

That my charges were false, and without foundation. 

That, if they were true, I myself was to blame for the 
continued existence of slavery. 

That I pubUshed my report when I did in order to hold 
my position. 

That I pubhshed it when I did in anger because I had 
lost my position. 

That I had been removed because I pubUshed it. 

In just one instance, so far as I know, has a Filipino 
considered the possibiUty that the motive which actuated 
me was a desire to help many thousands of unfortunate 
human beings. 

Good old Arcadio del Rosario, at one time insurgent 
governor of Benguet, who has a kindly feeUng for the 
wild-men and was glad to note certain immediate results 
which followed the pubUcation of my report, has said : 
"Would that Sr. Osmefia' might have had the glory 
of doing what Sr. Worcester has done." 

What is needed to end slavery and peonage is con- 
gressional legislation enforced by Americans. 

Without hesitation I assert that their existence in the 
Phihppine Islands is the greatest single problem which 
there confronts the government of the United States, in 
its effort to bviild up a respectable and responsible elec- 
torate and establish representative government. 

Is it reasonable to suppose that the hand which to-day 
crushes down the Fihpino servant, the FiUpino labourer, 
and the wild-man of the hills, will to-morrow raise them 
up and point them on the way to freedom ? 

' Speaker of the Assembly. 



CHAPTER XXVI 

Murder as a Governmental Agenct 

In discussing the prevalence of slavery in the Philip- 
pine Islands, Sr. Manuel Quezon has stated that it has 
never existed there as an institution. This is true, to 
the extent at least that it has never been recognized as 
a legal institution, nor directed nor authorized by order 
of any competent governmental authority. The same 
statements cannot be truthfully made with reference to 
murder, as I shall conclusively show by the records of 
the Insurgent government. 

I wish at the outset to draw a sharp line between acts 
of barbarity or ferocity, coixmiitted without authority by 
ignorant and irresponsible Insurgent officers or soldiers 
during the heat of battle or as the result of passions 
aroused by armed strife, and those which I now discuss. 
The former must be regarded as breaches of military 
discipline. Aguinaldo sought to protect his government 
from their consequences by issuing endless orders in Span- 
ish strictly forbidding them. 

His troops were ordered again and again to respect 
American prisoners and treat them with humanity. 

So far as concerns his own people, however, he dis- 
played a very different spirit from the outset. 

As we have already noted there exists among the In- 
surgent records a document written in Tagalog by him, 
and therefore obviously not intended for the informa- 
tion of Americans, which contains the following : — 

" Any person who fights for his country has absolute power 
to kill any one not friendly to our cause." ' 

1 P. I. R., 206. 1. 
730 



MURDER AS A GOVERNMENTAL AGENCY 731 

Aguinaldo armed not only ignorant and irresponsible 
people, but thieves, outlaws and miu-derers, and turned 
them loose on the common people with blanket authority to 
kill whomsoever they would, and they promptly proceeded 
to exercise it. "Dukut"^ stretched out its bloody hand 
even in Manila, mider the very eye of American officers, 
and as often as not struck down wholly innocent victims. 

Aguinaldo was not alone in his views on the subject of 
murder. Felipe Agoncillo, long secretary of the Hong- 
kong junta, and official representative of the Insurgent 
govermnent in Europe and the United States, wrote 
him on August 1, 1898, from Hongkong, suggesting that 
he kill the Spanish prisoners "if the country requires" 
that this be done, and adding, "if you deem it wise you 
should secretly issue an order to kill the friars that they 
may capture." - 

Obviously Aguinaldo did not deem it wise to order the 
murder of the Spanish prisoners as a whole, nor that of 
the friars as a whole. 

The following letter, marked "confidential," addressed 
to liis cousin Baldomero Aguinaldo, for a tune the Insur- 
gent secretary of war, tells a significant tale of the course 
finally decided upon : — 

"Filipino Republic, 
" Office of the Military Governor, 
" Malolos, February 17, 1S99. 
" Senor Secretary of War : — 

"Referring to your note in regard to an unhealthy town 
or place in the pro\ance of Nueva Ecija fit for the concentra- 
tion there of the friars ; beside the town of Bongabong there is 

' Dukut means secret assassination. 

- "I was informed that some Spanish prisoners have succeeded in 
escaping. It is necessary to redouble vigilance upon them, especially 
upon the officers of rank and upon the friars, because said prisoners 
might be of great use to us later on. They should, however, be well 
treated, but without giving them liberty, and confined within prison 
walls. If the country requires that they should be killed, you should 
do so. If you deem it wise, you should secretly issue an order to kill 
the friars that they may capture. They should be frightened." — 
P. I. R., 471. 4. 



732 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

no good place except the town of La Paz in the province of 
Tarlac, because, according to my observation, even the per- 
sons born there are attacked by malarial fever and ague and if 
they are strangers very few will escape death. 
"Your always faithful subordinate, 

(Signed) " Isidoro Torres. 
" 17th February, 1899." ' 

Evidently General Torres' recommendation was favour- 
ably acted upon, for among the papers of the Insurgent 
government is a memorandum,' apparently in Aguinaldo's 
handwriting, stating that — ■ 

"there were 297 Spanish friars held prisoners in Luzon, and 
that on February 17, 1899, those in Nueva Ecija, Tarlac, and 
Pampanga, 111 in all, had been ordered by him to be concen- 
trated in La Paz" ! 

In many mstances other prisoners were murdered out- 
right. This hard fate befell three Spaniards, of whom 
one was a friar, and two were shipwrecked Englishmen, 
who were butchered in Zambales in December, 1899, upon 
the approach of the American troops, apparently by the 
order of the governor, Vicente Camara.^ 

On Febioiary 15, 1900, an expedition under the inune- 
diate command of Brigadier-General J. M. Bell sailed 
from Manila under the personal supervision of Major- 
General Bates. This was composed of troops detailed 
to take possession of North and South Camarines and 
Albay, to which provinces Insurgent troops, having many 
Spanish prisoners in their possession, had been forced 
to retire as a result of the operations in Tayabas Prov- 
ince. In compliance with these instructions the town of 
Daet was occupied after some resistance and the Insur- 
gents in that quarter were driven to the northeast, tak- 
ing with them a number of Spanish prisoners. A large 
proportion of these were murdered by conmiand of the 
officer in charge of the guerilla band guarding them, 
probably because he was not able to force them to move 
as rapidly as his own men. 

» Taylor, Ex. 833. Spanish A. L. S. 32-2. ^ Taylor, 46 A J. 

= Ibid., 15 HS. 



MUROER AS A GOVERNMENTAL AGENCY 733 

On November 15, 1900, Simeon Villa, of evil fame, issued 
a circular letter' to chiefs of guerillas in the Cagayan val- 
ley, recommending that they all ' ' learn the verb ' Dukutar ' ^ 
so as to put it into immediate effect," and adding "it is 
the most efficacious specific against every kind of evil-doer, 
and most salutary for our country." This, too, under the 
"Filipino RepubUc" before the outbreak of war with the 
United States, and at a time when we are assured that 
"profoiuid peace and tranquilhty " prevailed in this region. 

This villanous order was approved and made general 
in its application by Aguinaldo himself, on November 15, 
1900.3 

Aguinaldo's orders were not always couched in such 
general tenns as the one above quoted. Among the 
most interesting of the captured Insurgent documents 
is the following : — 

"Our Honourable President: We, the signers, who sub- 
scribe the declaration appended ; by these presents protest 
against the American proclamation ; we recognize no authority 
but that of God and the Revolutionary Government, and we offer 
our Hves and property for the independence of our country. 

"Manila, San Miguel, January 12, 1899. 

" Feliciano Cruz 
"Severino Quitiongco." 
(25 signatures follow.) 

(On the Ixick is written in the handwriting of E. Aguinaldo) : 

" Leberino Kitionko : 

"Feliciano de la Cruz : Commissioned to kill General Otis." * 

1 " To Chiefs of the Phiuppine Guerillas : 

" The undersigned, Chief of the General Staff in the office of the 
Captain General, recommends that all chiefs of guerillas, provided 
that, in their judgment, there is no obstacle in the way, should kindly 
order their suljordinates, down to the lowest, to learn the verb ' Duku- 
tar,' so as to put it immediately in practice. 

" It is the most efficacious specific against every kind of e\'il-doer, 
and most salutary for our country. " Simeon S. Villa. 

" Kagayan Valley, November 15, 1900.'' 

Extract from letter-sent book in Spanish of E. Aguinaldo, captured 
with him. — P. I. R., 368-3. 

^ Dukulnr means to assassinate. ' P- I. R., 1281 and 368. 3. 

' P, I. R., 1199-1, 



734 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

The difference in the spelhng of the name Severino 
Quitiongco is doubtless due to the fact that Aguinaldo 
wrote it down as it sounded to him. 

When the Insurgent government began to be pinched for 
funds, faihire to pay taxes became, in many cases, suffi- 
cient ground for murdering the delinquent. 

The method of procedure is set forth in the testimony 
of a tax collector, published in General Orders, No. 259, 
1901, Division of the PhiUppines : — 

"I carried a letter of authorization to act as special agent, 
which means authority to commit murder. Each time a 
murder was ordered a letter was sent to one of four men (named 
above) by one of the chiefs (naming them). Afterward the 
letter was taken up and burned. If a man did not pay his 
contributions to the insurgent collector he was ordered to be 
killed." 

The chief cause for murder was friendliness toward the 
Americans. As time passed and the conunon people 
had an opportunity to contrast the brutality of their 
own soldiers with the kindly treatment usually accorded 
them by the American troops, they welcomed the latter. 
Weary of danger to life and property, the better men in 
the towns became very desirous to see the reestablish- 
ment of local governments, and ready to assist in the 
work. The answer of the Insurgent leaders took the 
form of wholesale orders for the murder or assassination 
of all persons friendly to the Americans. I shall cite 
enough such orders to show that this policy was duly 
provided for throughout the length and breadth of the 
Insurgent territory. 

Many of the Visayans were friendly toward the Ameri- 
cans from the outset. On March 24, 1900, "General 
in Chief" Maxilom, of Cebii, issued an order providing 
for the execution, after a most summary trial, of the 
presidentes of all towns which subscribed to and recog- 
nized American sovereignty. This rule was to apply to 
Filipino citizens, including even the wealthy, a most 



MURDER AS A GOVERNMENTAL AGENCY 735 

unusual arrangement! Failure to be "subject to the 
will of the Honourable President Senor Emilio Aguinaldo" 
spelled death." 

Outside the Cebii towns occupied by the Americans the 
guerillas commanded by Maxilom were able to collect 
tribute by the employment of such methods as were pro- 
vided for on June 22, 1900, by Maxilom's order fixing 
the duties of the magdudukuts, or secret avengers, who 
were empowered to ' ' execute without remorse all notorious 
traitors." ^ This was, in practice, a general warrant to 
commit murder. 

Pursuant to these instructions Pablo IMejia, a Filipino 
of high character and conspicuous ability, was assassi- 
nated in a street of Cebu in August, 1899. The Visay- 
ans had reason to be proud of him and to execrate his 
assassins. 

On January 31, 1900, Pio Claveria, delegate to the Mili- 
tary Govermnent of Iloilo province, Panay Island, wrote 

1 " 1. The presidentes of all towns who subscribe to and recognize 
American sovereignty, shall be pursued by aU the re^'olutionists with- 
out mercy and when captured shall be sent to these Headquarters for 
a most summary trial and execution as traitors to the country. 

" 2. All Filipino citizens, including the wealthy, of the towns, are 
subject to the preceding regulation. 

" 3. It shall be the duty of the revolutionary armies with regard to 
the towns which shall recognize or intend to recognize such sovereignty, 
to destroy the town or towns and without any consideration whatso- 
ever to kill all males, even the poorest, and set fire to all the houses, 
without respecting any property excepting that of foreigners. And 
in order that hereafter such misfortunes may not occur, as chief of 
this province, I warn all the presidentes and wealthy people of each 
town to help us as Filipinos as we are your brothers fighting here in 
the field to give liberty to our mother country and woe to the traitor 
who falls into the hands of this revolutionary government, which will 
strictly carry out all the prescriptions above-mentioned. 

" As the government which the invaders are endeavoring to establish 
is always provisional, if all the inhabitants of this province are true 
FDipinos, they can easily and simply answer that we are subject to the 
will of the Honorable President Senor Emilio Aguinaldo, whom we 
follow and recognize in this new born Republic as the President of the 
Nation." 

= Taylor, 80 HS. 



736 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

the presidente of Tigbauan, that if it was true that he and 
various other residents of that town had taken an oath 
recognizing American sovereignty and did not retract it 
the town would be razed to the ground, and they would 
be "deserving of the terrible penalties prescribed by the 
laws of the revolution ! " ' 

On April 3, 1900, General Leandro Fullon, who signed 
himself "Political and Military Governor" of Antique, 
and was one of Aguinaldo's emissaries, wrote a circular 
letter, to be sent "by the fastest carriers from one town 
to the other," imposing sentence of death and confisca- 
tion of property on people who had taken out certificates 
of citizenship issued by the Americans, together with 
annihilation of their towns.^ 

1 " January, 1900. 
"To the Local Presidente, Tigbauan (Iloilo). 

" It is with profound regret that 1 have to state to you that in accord- 
ance with reliable information this military delegation has heard that 
you and various residents of that town have as electors already taken 
an oath recognizing the American sovereignty. If this news is true, 
you still have time to retract the oath, as otherwise we will raze that 
town to the gi-ound without any hesitation whatever, and you and 
your companions who have taken the oath shall be considered as pro- 
scribed, and consequently deserving of the terrible penalties prescribed 
by the laws of the revolution. This is not a tlu-eat : it is loyal and 
sincere advice for yoiu- own good and that of the town in general. 

" May God keep you many years. 

" Pig Claveria, 
" Delegate of the Military Government. 
"31st, 1900." —P. I. R., 1054-8. 

2 "April 3, 1900. 
" To the local chiefs mentioned in the margin. 

" I have heard with great sorrow that some of the towns of the 
southern district of this province have taken out the certificates of 
citizenship issued by the North American enemy, and have also com- 
plied with all the orders issued by them ; this is exactly opposed to 
the conduct of the northern district of the province and shows little 
love for the country and an implied assent to the Government estab- 
lished by them, for which reason I see myself obliged to impose the 
severest punishment which is a sentence of death and confiscation of 
property of all those who shall submit to said Government, from the 
Chief and his local Cabinet to the lowest citizen, and annihilating their 
towns. For this purpose I have ordered the Commanders of Zones 
to watch in their respective districts the towns which may show weak- 



MURDER AS A GOVERNMENTAL AGENCY 737 

On July 11, 1900, Fullon issued a more sweeping order, 
containing the following provisions : — 

"1. Any meeting or assembly of a popular character, 
held at the instance of the Officers of the United States, for the 
purpose of recognizing the lil)erty and independence of the 
towns of this province, is absohitely forbidden. 

"2. The person arranging such meeting shall be shot at 
once without trial or court martial, unless forced to do so by 
majeure. 

"3. Any Filipino filling any office in the name of the 
United States shall be considered a traitor to his country, and 
in addition to the penalties imposed by the Penal Code of 
Spain, provisionally in force, all his property shall be confis- 
cated, and if this should not be possible, the authorities of the 
Philippine Republic shall endeavour to . . ." (remainder of 
sentence unintelligible).' 

In Samar General Vicente Lucban ordered, on Feb- 
ruary 1, 1901, that persons who collected food for the 
enemy be killed, as well as those who "finding themselves 
in our camp pass to the enemy without previous pennis- 
sion from this government." - 

In Leyte, Honesto Ruiz warned all his "soldiers and 
bolo-men that whenever a real Americanista, like the 
police and volunteers, is caught he will be killed." On 
August 11, 1900, he reported to General Moxica that "the 
result is that every day they are killing traitors to our 
country." ^ 

The following is a sample order for the assassination 
of an obnoxious individual : — 

ness before said Government, and to impose the punishment which I 
have mentioned above. This circular is to be published three consecu- 
tive nights for general information of all, a report that this has been 
done being made to these Headquarters. Send it by the fastest 
cowiers from one town to the other, the last one returning it with the 
endorsements of the preceding ones. 

" Headquarters of Tierra Alta, April 3, 1900. 

" Leandro Fullon, 
" General and P. M. Governor." 
— P. I. R., 1047. 2. 
> P. I. R., 1047. 2. = lUd., 824. 1. ' Ihid., 1204. 3 



738 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

" October 4, 1900. 
" Confidential. 
"To the Local Chiefs of Sogod, Kabalisln, Anajauan, Hinun- 
dayan, and Hinunangan (Leyte) : 
" Immediately upon the appearance in the town under your 
jurisdiction of the traitor to the Mother Country, Severino 
Komandao, you will secure his person and send him to these 
headquarters under the proper guard ; or if that person should 
come into the town followed by an American force, j'ou shall try 
to have him Idlled by treachery (traidoramente), by 'Dukut' 
(assassination), for this is what a Filipino deserves who does 
not know how to respect his own land and proceeds to injure 
the beautiful ideal that we have in view. 

" Return the present communication, treating it as confiden- 
tial. Health and fraternity. 
" Maninging, October 4, 1900. 

"M. Pacheco, 

" Military Commander." 
" The Military Commander : 

" The undersigned, Local Chief, notes the orders contained 
in the present circular and will strictly comply therewith. 
" KabaUdn, October 6, 1900. 

"B. Veloso, 
" Local Chief.'"- 

In Negros, the Tagalogs long failed to effect a lodge- 
ment. Ultimately, however, they managed to stir up 
trouble, and to secure the help of "Pope" Isio, a noted 
outlaw. On May 19, 1900, he suggested the advisabihty t 

of punishing "by decapitation all those who go with the ■' 

Americans" and ordered that "if it should appear that 
they are real spies of the enemy they must be beheaded i 

immediately without any pretext whatsoever against 
it." To be considered a "real spy," it was necessary 
only to be seen talking to Americans. 

The letter from which I quote w^as addressed to Senor 
Rufo Oyos, General of Operations.^ 

1 P. I. R., 981. 5. 

2 "You and Captain Antonio must take the field this week without 
any pretext whatsoever, and must follow out my instructions very 
carefully. We have had patience enough, and now it becomes neces- 
sary for us to assert our authority. 



MURDER AS A GOVERNMENTAL AGENCY 739 

Evidently he obeyed orders, for he was still alive in 
November, 1901, at which time "Papa" Isio wrote him 
again, directing that there be an uprising of all the towns 
on December 20. 

Towns which did not rise on the appointed day were to 
be "reduced to ashes and all their inhabitants killed, men, 
women, children and old people." Any presidente who 
had not collected the taxes of his town before the arrival 
of Isio was to be "hung without any hesitation what- 
ever." ' 

"It is advisable to punish by decapitation all those who go with 
the Americans ; but it is necessary first to ascertain the existence of 
the crime, and if it should appear that they are real spies of the enemy, 
they must he beheaded immediately without any pretext whatsoever 
against it (being accepted). 

"You, Captain Antonio and Judge Cornello must perfectly under- 
stand what this order says : when the wealthy are Americanistas, 
you must seize all their money, clothing and other property belonging 
to them, immediately making an inventory of the property seized, 
and you may remain in the place where the seizure is made as long as 
may be necessary to make said inventory, even though a great amount 
is spent for maintenance. 

"Know furthermore that if the soldiers take any of the property 
seized, they will speedily be put to death and will surely go to heU ; 
therefore when it becomes necessary to enter a town to make a seizxu-e, 
you must direct the soldiers not to touch the goods seized, even the 
most insignificant, in order to avoid consequence of character. 

"I have heard, Rufo, that Judge Cornello is opposed to your father- 
in-law, and I want you to know that Judge Cornello is of my blood ; 
therefore, tell your father-in-law to be very careful because he will 
have me to treat with shortly, and will be made to pay for those threats 
which he is making against the people without good cause. 

"You will pubhsh this order in the town haU, in order that the evil- 
minded may see it. 

"You, Captain Antonio and Judge Cornello, who are the three 
comrades who are to take the field, wiU acquire some happiness if you 
comply with this order. 

" Health and Fraternity. 

" DiONisio Papa. 
"Calibon, May 19, 1900." —P. I. R., 970. 4. 

1 " Make it evident in that circular that the towns which do not rise 
up in arms on the day fixed, shall be reduced to ashes and aU their 
inhabitants killed, men and women, children and old people. 

"The circular is to emanate from me, and you will sign it only by 
my order. 



740 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

Obviously Isio's order was not without effect, for we 
learn that sometime during August, 1900, a man had 
just left the camp "with the head of the infamous Juan 
Carballo to hang it in a public place with a label saying 
'Juan Carballo, a man pernicious to the revolution. May 
he rest in peace.'" ' 

Isio's agents collected blackmail according to a regular 
tariff, based roughly on the value of estates, threatening 
that those who did not pay up would be regarded as spies 
of the heretics.- 

And now let us briefly review conditions in Luzon. 
Here many of the common people were at first hostile 
to the Americans, but flesh and blood could not endure 
what they had to suffer at the hands of vicious Insurgent 
officers and ignorant soldiers^ and ultimately, having 
learned by experience that Americans were not the incar- 
nate fiends which they had been led to expect to find 
them, they began to turn to them for help. And the 
answer of the Insurgent leaders was everywhere the 
same, — death. On March 20, 1900, Tinio ordered the 
killing of all officials who did not report to the nearest 
guerilla commander the movements and plans of the 
American troops.* 

" Communicate also to the presidents of Cagayan and other towns 
that they collect the taxes of their respective towns, as soon as possible ; 
and a president who shall not have collected the taxes on my arrival 
in the respective town, shaU be hung without any hesitation what- 
soever. 

" I desire that the Presidents meet there soon and await my arrival." 

— P. I. R., 970.5. 

1 P. I. R., 1102. 7. 2 Ibid., 970. 11. 

' " March 20, 1900. 
"Manuel Tinio y Bubdloc, 

" Brigadier General and Commander in Chief of operations in the 
region of Ilocos. 

" Considering that a sufficient time has passed and various means of 
having been employed as benignant as humanity counsels, to inculcate 
in the minds of many misguided Filipinos the idea of the country and 
to check in the beginning those unworthy acts which many of them 
commit, and which not only redound to the prejudice of the troops 
but also to the cause they defend, and having observed that such ac- 



MURDER AS A GOVERNMENTAL AGENCY 741 

It has been claimed that there was no opposition to 
the Katipunan Society, and that the FiHpinos everywhere 
joined it gladly. This was not the case. At different 
times there were a number of similar organizations opposed 
to it, and most important of these was the "Guards of 
Honour." ' Its members were ruthlessly murdered. On 
April 18, 1900, a guerilla chief m Union Province found it 
necessary to order that all towns in which members of 
the "Guards of Honour" lived should be burned with the 
property of the members of that association ; that their 
fathers, mothers, wives and sons should be beheaded, 
while the men themselves should receive that punishment 
or be shot. All grown men in every town, and the 
Sandatahan, were to proceed immediately to aid in the 
attack upon the Americans and Guards of Honour under 
pain of being shot or beheaded.^ 

tion does not produce any favourable result on this date, in accordance 
with the powers vested in me, I have deemed proper to issue the fol- 
lowing : — 

" PROCLAMATION 

" First and last article. The following shall be tried at a most sum- 
mary trial, and be sentenced to death : 

" 1. AH local presidentes and other civil authorities, of the towns as 
well as of the barrios, raneherias and sitios of their respective districts, 
who as soon as they find out any plan, direction of the movement or 
number of the enemy shall not give notice thereof to the nearest camp. 

" 2. Those who give information to the enemy of the location of the 
camp, stopping places, movements and direction of the revolutionists, 
whatever be the age or sex of the former. 

" 3. Those who voluntarily offer to serve the enemy as guides, ex- 
cepting if it be with the purpose of misleading them from the right 
road, and 

" 4. Those who, of their own free will or othensase, capture revo- 
lutionary soldiers who are alone, or who should intimidate them into 
surrendering to the enemy. 

" Issued at General Headquarters on March 20," 1900. 

(Signed) " Manuel Tinio." 

1 Guardias de Honor. ~~ ^- ^- ^•' 353. 8. 

* " So then dear brothers, be like those of Bacnotan who have not 
allowed their honour to be sullied, for when they saw the Guards of 
Honour enter their town they drove them off at once with blows [of 
bolos ? — Tr.] and cudgels and to the end that you may not have cause 

VOL. II — B 



742 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

In July, 1900, General J. Alejandrino ordered : — 

" 1st. That the Commanders of Columns proclaim as 
traitors all those in their respective Zones who in obedience 
to personal interests or from weakness under pressure of the 
enemy, accept civil positions and they shall be treated as such 
when they fall into our hands. 

"2nd. The commanding officers of columns will concen- 
trate their forces so as to fall upon the to\vns where exist indi- 
viduals who favour the formation of such unpopular and 
despotic Governments and will use every means to arrest 
the said traitors." ' 

Nowhere is the policy which was being carried out set 
forth with more brutal frankness than in the following 
letter : — 

" August 3, 1900. 
"This letter is folded in envelope shape and addressed: 
Sr. Teodoro Sandico, Colonel, 1st Military Chief of Staff in 
Santo Domingo. 

"My Respected Chief and Dear Brother: I have re- 
ceived your respected order, regarding the organization of the 

to repent of what without doubt I shall be obliged to do, comply with 
this order, listen to the following : 

"First. Whenever the Presidente of the town, Cabezas and Cabezil- 
las of barrios shall have knowledge of the presence in their barrios of 
Guards of Honour, be they many or few, and do not cause their disap- 
pearance or death, they will be immediately shot or beheaded. 

"Second. Every barrio or residence of the Guards of Honour where 
they are going about persuading the inhabitants to follow them in 
their noxious work — that we may be slaves forever — ■ will be burned 
and all their property together with their houses ; and their sons, their 
fathers, mothers and their wives will be shot or beheaded to pay for 
their treason. 

" Third and last. All the grown men in the barrios, territorial mili- 
tiamen or those called 'sandatahan' (bolomen), corporals, sergeants 
and privates, and everybody who is a Filipino will go immediately 
to help in the fight against the Guards of Honour and our enemy, the 
Americans ; and those who pay no heed to this or hide themselves wiU 
incur the penalty of being shot or beheaded. 

"This proclamation ^-111 be read in the barrios and will be passed 
from hand to hand so that it may be copied to the end tnat nobody 
may have an excuse when the time comes to put into execution what 
has been set forth." — P. I. R., 168. 9. 

1 Taylor, Exhibit 1083. 








a 

K 

a 

« 
o 



MURDER AS A GOVERNMENTAL AGENCY 743 

Committee in the towns of Zaragosa, Aliaga, and Licab ; (Nueva 
Ecija) from the movements and actions of these towns, I 
don't believe it possible to organize immediately. Before we 
can, it will be necessary that four or five lives be taken in each 
town. I beheve that what ought to be done to those towns is 
to make a new conquest of them, especially the town of San 
Juan de Guimba ; it is difficult there to set straight the Tagd,- 
logs and Ilocanos of importance, as they are badly inclined 
and they care to do nothing but pervert our soldiers. 

" This is what I am able to inform you, in fulfilment of the 
respected order of the Chief. 

"God guard you many years. 

"San Cristobal, August 3, 1900. 

(Signed) "C. Gonzales.'" 

The organization of municipal governments by the 
Philippine Conmiission, in towns north of Manila, espe- 
cially aroused the ire of Insurgent leaders, one of whom 
issued an order declaring traitors all persons who accepted 
municipal office under the Americans.^ 

' P. I. R., 509. 2. 

2 "September 11, 1900. 

"To the local Presidents of Malolos, Bulacan, Guigninto, Bigaa, 
Booaue, Marilao, Meyauayan, Polo, Obando, Santa Maria, San Jose, 
Angat, Norzagaray, Bustos, San Rafael, Baliuag, Pulilan, Quingua, 
Santa Isabel, Barasoain, Paombong, Hagonoy, Calumpit, and the 
military commanders Pablo Tecson, Bonifacio Morales, Maximo An- 
geles and Colonel Simon Tecson Libuano, Colonel Rosendo Simon, 
and also Major Dongon. 

" CiRCtlLAK 

"As the American Civil Commission has taken charge of the gov- 
ernment of the archipelago from the first of the present month and 
from that date will proceed to establish municipal government in the 
pueblos to take the place of the municipal councils which at present 
rule them ; in order to duly execute the orders of the Commanding 
General of the Centre of Luzon, I give you the following instruc- 
tions : — 

"1st. You will arrest and send to these headquarters with the 
proper precautions to prevent escape, all inhabitants of these pueblos 
who accept offices in the municipal governments about to be estab- 
lished by the Americans, as they have been declared traitors to the 
country by the order I have referred to as issued by these head- 
quarters. 

"2d. You will employ the same method of procedure with those 
who favoiu- the establishment of municipal government by the Ameri- 



744 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

In October, 1900, we find General Vito Belarmino order- 
ing that Filipinos in Ambos Camarines who accept office 
under Americans "be treated as traitors," and that "com- 
manders of columns and detachments will cause their 
forces to fall on those pueblos hi which there are individ- 
uals who are infavom-of the organization of such unpopular 
and therefore despotic governments." ^ One Tuason, 
an American adherent, is notified that he and two other 
persons, who are named, will be shot and their bodies 
hung on the cathedral tower as a lesson to the inhabit- 
ants.^ 

In La Laguna province Cailles, who was now in com- 
mand there, found hunself compelled not only to fight 
the Americans in the field, but to combat their growing 
popularity in the towns, and he promptly inaugurated 
a reign of terror, ordering the death of any person whom 
he considered an undesirable. His victims were shot, 
bayoneted or boloed. If they took refuge within the 
American lines, they were followed and assassinated. 
In his book of letters sent, ' there appear the names of 
thirty-one men whom he ordered killed between August 

cans. You will not show tliem the slightest consideration, even if 
they are your brothers. You are responsible under the severest pen- 
alties for the performance of this. God keep you many years. 
"Malolos, September 11, 1900. 

"I. Torres, 

General." 
— P. I. R., Books C-3. 

1 P. I. R., 341. 9. 

2 " Two weeks ago a court-martial was held at these headquarters 
presided over by Colonel Arejola, on you, Tuason, and other civil 
authorities of this capital, the decision being that you will be shot 
when we get there, which will be very soon. 

"You as well as Tuason and Santachia, after having been shot, 
■ndll be hung on the cathedral tower to be seen by the inhabitants in 
order that you may serve as a lesson ... I tell you this only as a 
companion and nothing more. Your obedient servant, who kisses 
your hand. 

"El Montero." 
— P. I. R., 2007. 1. 
' P. I. R., 716. 2. 



MtJRDER AS A GOVERNMENTAL AGENCY 745 

20, 1900, and April, 1901. Some of these men were 
described as highwa^Tnen or assassins, and probably 
deserved their fate, but others were classed as "spies" 
or "traitors," and certainly did not, miless in this country 
where it is claimed that Aguinaldo had his people a unit 
at his back it was an offence worthy of death to prefer 
peace and order under American rule to conditions such 
as Insurgent rule fostered. 

Cailles did not hesitate to report the results of his 
orders for the assassination of indi\aduals, giving full and 
grewsome details. The following is a sample circular 
letter on this subject, sent out by him : — 

"To the local Chiefs and Commanders of Columns, of the 
province : — ■ 

"On this date I have received a communication from the 
Presidente of Santa Cruz which is as follows : — 

"Sr. General: ... I am pleased, much pleased my 
General, to inform you ■nith much satisfaction of the end in 
this world of the villain, of the great traitor, Salvador Reyes, 
in the following manner : — 

"This morning at 8 o'clock, according to the reports of 
Srs. Ldzaro Alfonzo and Modesto de los Reyes, who would 
gladly give their lives for our honour and glory, your coachman 
told them that the traitor was proceeding to the northern 
part of the town. They followed him and upon coming to the 
front of the house and shop of Cabezang Jacinto Talcon, the 
aforementioned Sr. INIodesto attacked him ^\-ith a bolo like a 
tiger, -with all the strength of his body and soul, hitting by 
chance his left jaw, when the other, that is to say, Sr. Ldzaro 
Alfonso, followed the first, catching the traitor by the throat 
with his right hand and with the other fired three pistol shots 
at him, one of which missed and the other two took effect in 
the traitor's shoulder, from the effects of which he fell hke a 
stone upon his face. 

"Lastly, Sr. Modesto stabbed him mth'a bolo, and upon 
seeing that he was dead, took away his revolver, and carrjdng 
the traitor bj' his belt to Calle de Maria Christina, threw the 
body down. This was done in plain daylight and in plain 
view of everybody. . . ." ^ 

» P. I. R., 716. 5. 



746 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

"On January 6, 1901, 'the lieutenant-general of the Philip- 
pine Islands' ordered that all persons who disobeyed the orders 
of the Katipunau were to be tried and sentenced. A member 
of the organization who found that any person was contem- 
plating taking action opposed to the purposes of that venerable 
society' was authorized to kidnap him, and when the Katipiinan 
laid hold upon a man he was henceforth seen no more among 
the living." ' 

The organization of the Federal Party caused an out- 
burst of fury among the Insurgent leaders beside which 
that aroiised by the organization of municipal govern- 
ments was mild. 

Throughout the islands the murdering of officers, mem- 
bers and agents of this party was ordered, and even 
those who sjonpatliized with its ends were to be shot. 

The following is a sample of the orders sentencing to 
death the adherents of this truly patriotic organization : — 

"March 22, 1901. 
"Senor Emilio Zuebano t Kajigal, 

" Lieutenant Colonel and Military Governor of the 
Province of Tayabas. 

* * * * if tt It 

"2nd. In \'iew of the preceding section, the Local 
Presidentes and Commanders of the columns of this province, 
ynM carefully watch their respective jurisdictions in order that 
not one agent of the enemj- nor of the Federal Party, may be 
secretlj^ able to obtain any signatures of the residents, they 
shall seize any one who may do it and send him to me with all 
the possible safeguards for the execution of what is ordered in 
the foregoing section. 

"3rd. All persons who may show themselves to be 
inclined to the Federal Party, will also be captured and shot 
on being arrested prior to the proceedings and legal formalities, 
because being inclined towards this party, is the same as declar- 
ing oneself a traitor to the country. 

"4th. The commander of a column or local presidente 
who shall tolerate the existence of the Committees of the 
Federal Party in his jurisdiction, being able to avoid it, will be 
tried and in case he is found guilty, ^ill be discharged from 
his duty and will also be shot, as a traitor to his country. 

» Taj'lor, 35 HS. 



MURDER AS A GOVERNMENTAL AGENCY 747 

"5th. The presidentes of the popular committees, will 
furnish detailed information to the local presidentes and com- 
manders of columns of persons ^\-ithin the towTis occupied by 
the enemies who are engaged in the propagation of the Federal 
Party or in getting adhesions in any way, either directly or 
indirectly, to the said party, and the presidente of the popular 
committee who may fail to accomplish so sacred a duty, will 
also be punished with the penalty of death. 

"6th. When any of the representatives of the federal 
party, or any of its adherents cannot be captured on account 
of remaining constantly wdth the enemy or being protected by 
him, the local presidentes and commanders of the columns ■will 
procure by all means the execution of the said representative 
or adherent within the line of the enemy through persons of 
known decision and of patriotism worthy of all commendation. 

"7th. All the citizens living in the province of Tayabas 
who may be representatives or adherents to the Federal Party, 
aside from the criminal liability which he incurs personally, 
will be deprived of the benefits of his propertj^, which will be 
seized by the Government, who ^\ill take charge of the profits 
of the same. 

"8th & last. The Local Presidente of the pueblo in which 
exists any Committee of the Federal Party and the Com- 
mander of the column to whose protection the pueblo is 
entrusted on pain of incurring the pmiishment detailed in 
section third of the present proclamation, will proceed to the 
total destruction of the pueblo in which there is a federalist 
committee, if, after having been ordered to disband it, at the 
expiration of seven daj's the same continues in its traitorous 
and criminal functions. 

"Issued at the Mihtary Government, March 22nd, 1901. 

"Eaiilio Zurbano, 
"Lieutenant Colonel, Military Governor." ^ 

On March 3, 1899, Antonio Luna, general in chief of 
operations about Manila, directed that all persons who either 
directly or indirectly refused to aid the execution of his 
military plans were to be immediately shot without trial. 
Nothing could have been more sweeping than was his 
order, and the commanders of detachments of insurgents 
found in it an authoritative statement that the lives and 

1 P. I. R., 650. 8. 



748 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

property of the inhabitants of the Phihppines were theirs 
to do with as they chose.' 

Mabini made this vicious and cruel order the subject 
of bitter protest, writing to Aguinaldo, on March 6, 1899, 
a letter in which he says that Luna has grossly exceeded 
his powers, and making the very pertinent inquiry 
"if an educated man ^ can hardly imderstand his duties, 
how will the uneducated one understand his?" He sug- 
gests that it would be better to remove Luna.^ It does 
not appear that this order was ever modified. 

» "PROCLAMATIONS 

"March 3, 1899. 

"For general information, since it concerns everybody, we publish 
the two important proclamations lately issued by the Chief of Military 
Operations of Manila. 

"Antonio Luna y Novicio, General of Division of the Army of the 
Philippine RepubUc and General-in-Chief of Military Operations about 
Manila. 

"In order to prevent any act opposed to the mOitary plans of these 
headquarters and consequently to the ideals of the Filipino Republic, 
I order and command (only one article). From this day any person 
or individual whatever who either directly or indirectly refuses to give 
aid to these Headquarters in the prosecution of any mihtary plans, or 
who in any manner whatever interferes with the execution of orders 
dictated for that purpose by the General in Chief, commanding oper- 
ations upon Manila will be immediately shot without trial. Communi- 
cate and publish this order. 

" Given at the General Headquarters of Polo on the 3rd of March, 
1899. 

"Antonio Luna, 
" General-in-Chief of Operations." 
— P. I. R., 214-2. 

2 That is, Luna. 

3 "March 6, 1899. 

" Senor Presidbnte : Many complaints have been received here on 
account of the abuses committed by General Luna. It is said that he 
has lately published a decree in which he warned the people that those 
who disobey his orders shall be shot to death without summary trial, 
and he made his decree cover the whole province of Pampanga. 

"To be shot to death without siimmary trial is a punishment which 
can be inflicted on soldiers ; but a chief cannot enforce it in a civilized 
community, except among savages. Besides, he has only jurisdic- 
tion over Polo, where the General Headquarters is, and over the towns 
of the zones of Manila. 



MURDER AS A GOVERNMENTAL AGENCY 749 

I might furnish many similar data, but enough of 
orders. Any one who is not convinced by these extracts 
from the official Insurgent records that murder was a 
duly authorized govermnental agency under the Philip- 
pine "Republic" is not amenable to reason or influenced 
by incontrovertible facts. 

But were these brutal instructions carried out ? They 
were, indeed, with a ferocity and a cold-blooded barbarity 
which make one shudder. Fortunate indeed was the 
man who was really shot, like the presidente of Nag- 
carlan,' and it made no difference if innocent bystanders 
were wounded or killed as well. 

One of the common methods of procedure with victuns 

" I am very much surprised that these things are not well under- 
stood by General Luna. He has no exoeutive power over Bulacan 
and Pampanga ; he must have issued his orders through the military 
chiefs thereof. 

"During such time as he is the commander-in-chief of operations of 
Manila he is not the director of war, and even if he is, he has no power 
other than to conduct his office and to take the place of the secretary 
in his absence. 

"If an educated man can hardly understand his duties, how will 
the uneducated one understand his ? 

"Please make him acquainted with all of this in order to prevent 
any encroachment. 

" I am at yoiu- orders. (Signed) " Ap. Mabini. 

"P.S. — It would be better, I think, to remove him from his post. 

"A. M." 
— P. I. R., 512a-2. 
1 "AprH 6, 1901. 
"Cailles Brigade. Flying column of Rizal and Nagcarlan. 

"In conjunction with Captain Maeario Dorado, I believed it my 
duty to attack the town of Nagcarlan, for the principal purpose of 
killing the American local presidente, as was done during the procession 
last Holy Thursday. The Presidente was killed and one of his sons, 
and two residents were woimded, probably by stray bullets, while 
taking part in the procession. 

"Which I have the honor to communicate to you for your informa- 
tion and consequent effects. 

"God preserve you many years. 

"Nagcarlan, April 6, 1901." ,„, ., , . . v 

(Illegible signature.) 

" To the General in Chief and Superior Politico-Military 

Commander of This Province." — P. 1. R., 1142. 8. 



750 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

of "dukut" was to bury them alive. A number of 
individuals suffered this fate at Taytay, near Manila. 
They were taken out at night, made to kneel beside graves 
already dug, hit over the head with an iron bar and 
knocked into their last restmg places and the earth was 
shovelled in on to them. They were confessed by a native 
priest, and people of the town were required to stand by 
and see them meet their end. 

An American lawyer who afterward defended some of 
their murderers when the latter were apprehended and 
brought to trial, told me that among other grewsome 
details furnished by his cUents, who shamelessly ad- 
mitted to him their guilt, were the following : — 

A victim who watched the miu-der of others, while 
awaiting his turn, did not want to be struck on the head 
and begged that as a special favor the blow from the iron 
bar be omitted in his case. His request was granted, 
whereupon he climbed into his grave, lay down, covered 
his face with his handkerchief, and directed his murderers 
to proceed. I could cite numerous specific cases in which 
persons were buried alive, and will do so if my word is 
called in question. ^ If not, enough of this ! 

' The Insurgent leaders did not hesitate officially to report the com- 
mission of this ghastly crime. The following is such a report : — 

"June 24, 1900. 

In Margin, stamp : "Headquarters First Column, Laguna. No. 
144. 

"I have the honor to transmit to you the enclosed letter from a 
resident of the town of Pila who had just returned from Manila, in 
which he gives me news of our present political situation, and as such 
news are satisfactory to our cause I send you said letter for your in- 
formation. 

"It is known from very trustworthy information that General del 
Pilar is under arrest in ManDa and he has been substituted in the 
command of his forces by Colonel Macanea, who was his second in 
command, and is at the present time repressing with a firm hand the 
bandits who swarm about the outsku-ts of the zone under his command, 
as one of the celebrated bandits named Major Eusebio de Rateros, 
who had previously been in Pagsanjan was buried ali^'e in the ceme- 
tery of Taguig by Captain Simplicio Tolentino who is at the present 
time a member of that brigade. 




3 









MURDER AS A GOVERNMENTAL AGENCY 751 

Burning alive was occasionally resorted to.* More 
frequently, the victims had their eyes put out, their 
tongues cut out, and were then turned loose to shift for 
themselves. Justice Johnson,^ of the Philippine Supreme 
Court, has described to me a case in which four police- 
men of a town which had received him in a friendly 
manner, were served in this way, and the procedure was 
a comparatively common one. 

Taylor gives the following account of certain incidents 
which occurred in Ilocos Sur : — 

"On page 154 is a record of part of the murders of a body of 
men in the to^vn of Caoayan, Ilocos Sur Province, who, in July, 
1900, calling themselves ' Sandatahan,' appointed a chief 
executioner, assistant executioners and a requisite number 
of grave-diggers, and then, with set purpose, proceeded to 
assassinate all persons who manifested reluctance to join 
them or to contribute to their support or to the support 
of the insurgents in the hills whom their leader claimed 
they were serving. They operated secretly at night, the 
leaders usually selecting their victims one at a time; and 
when they were secured they were conducted to a 
lonely beach covered with tall grass where the grave-digger 
had already dug the requisite number of graves and where 
the executioners were already assembled. There in the pres- 
ence of the assembled band, men and women, bound and 

"Tho news is also confirmed of the execution of Major Espada 
ordered by General del Pilar. I send you this news for your informa- 
tion. 

"God preserve you many years. 

"Headquarters, June 24, 1900. —P. I. R., 605. 4. 

"JtiLio Herrera, 
" Lieutenant Colonel, Commanding 4th Column. 
" To the General and Politico-Military Commander and of 

Operations of This Province, General Camp." — P. I. R., 605. 4. 

i"A commissioner of the Katipunan society at Ibung, Nueva 
Vizcaya Province, compelled the inhabitants to take the oath of alle- 
giance to that organization, and issued orders that aU who should re- 
fuse to follow the dictates of the same should suffer death ; and, in 
pursuance of such orders, was proved to have had, in February, 1901, 
two men beaten to death, one man buried alive, and two women burnt 
alive. " — Taylor, 38 HS. 

2 At the time of this event he was a judge of first instance. 



752 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

helpless, were placed upon the brinks of their opened graves, 
their bodies were run through with swords and bolos and then 
buried. The band then dispersed, each man going to his 
own home. These operations were continued with industrious 
persistency through two months or more until the lengthening 
row of graves reached, in the language of one of the witnesses, 
'about thirty, more or less.' " ' 

The Insurgent leaders themselves reported in a most 
businesslike manner their orders for assassination and 
the results of their activities in this direction. 

The following are sample communications of this sort ; 

"Headquarters Camp No. 6. 
"TiERRA Libre (Free Soil), Saluyan (Laguna Province) 

" November 18th, 1900. 
" General Juan Cailles, 

" Military Governor of La Laguna : 

******* 

"In Nagcarlang it appears that there will be soon a spy, 
one Juan, a native of Binang, for he has already commenced 
to disobey the committee, and so I with much prudence have 
ordered his eternal rest. The inhabitants have left the town 
and no one will serve either as barber or laundry-man to the 
Americans. 

******* 

(Signed) " Julio Infante." * 

"Proclamation of Lieutenant Colonel Emilio Zurbano, 

"Military Governor ofTayabas, to his Fellow-citizens. 

"Headquarters and Military Government, 

"Tayabas, April 23, 1901. 

"Fellow-citizens: The holiness, purity and elevation 

of purpose of us who fight for our independence has caused the 

execution of five of our fellow-citizens on the 18th instant at 

five o'clock in the afternoon. They were shot on the plaza 

of the to\vn of Sampaloc. . . . 

"Vivencio Villarosa, for assassination of eleven foreigners 
and for disloyalty ; Pedro Cordero, for disloyalty and spying ; 
Remigfo Aviosa, for improper exercise of authority, for many 
assaults and robbery in a band ; Segundo Granada, for many 
assaults and stealing many animals, and Rufino Sabala for 

1 Taylor, 35-36 HS. ' P. I. R., 653. 10. 



MURDER AS A GOVERNMENTAL AGENCY 753 

being addicted to and a disseminator of the doctrines of the 
Federal Party have fallen on the plaza of Sampaloc at the 
very moment when the twilight of the happy triumph of our 
ideal began to advance over the horizon of our country until 
now hidden in clouds of blood. May they rest in peace. 
******* 

(Signed) " Emilio Zurbano." ' 

After reporting to his subordinates that the local chief 
of Bay had, under his orders, arrested Honorato Quisum- 
bing, an Americanista who had never served as a spy, 
and that his captor had killed hun when he called to 
American troops who were near to help him, Cailles adds : 
"His companion was likewise duly executed as a spy and 
guide for the enemy. Let us offer up a prayer for their 
eternal rest." ^ 

Blount has made the following statement : — 

"I have heard, so far as I now recollect, of comparatively 
few barbarities perpetrated by Filipmos on captured American 
soldiers. Barbarities on their side seemed to have been re- 
served for those of their own race whom they found disloyal 
to the cause of their country." ' 

One may well doubt whether he himself wrote the book 
which goes under his name, for in it he is made constantly 
to contradict himself. Relative to this matter he has also 
said : — 

"He* can never forget the magnificent dash back into the 
wide, ugly, swollen stream, made by Captain Edward L. King 
of General Lawton's staff, as he spurred his horse m, followed 
by several troopers who had responded to his call for mounted 
volunteers to accompany him in an effort to save the lives of 
the men who went down. Their generous work proved futile. 
But it was inspired partly by common dread of what they 
knew would happen to any half-drowned soldier who might 
be washed ashore far away from the column and captured. 
If an army was ever 'in enemy's country,' it was then and 
there." ^ 

• P. I. R., 332. 9. ' Ibid., Books A-1. ' Blount, p. 203. 

* Ibid. ' Ibid., p. 244. 



754 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

As a matter of fact, not only did the Insurgents re- 
peatedly torture and murder American prisoners, but 
they poisoned soldiers. Lucban and others directed that 
this should be done, described the procedure to be fol- 
lowed, and furnished the poison.^ 

Du'ections for poisoning soldiers were included in a 
letter written on August 21, 1900, to the Brigadier Gen- 
eral Superior Military Commander of the Province of 
Leyte as follows : — 

"It would also be well, in my humble opmion, for you to 
find out from the old men and quack doctors the kind of poison 
that can be mixed in alcoholic drinks and m cocoanut wine 
(tuba), as our enemies now drink these liquors; and after 
this poison has been known and tried, let it be used in such a 
way as to undermine the constitution of the man, until some 
day death occurs ; for which purpose you ought to have per- 
sons, wherever there are Americans, to poison them. These 
things are now bemg done m Luzon, Cebu and Panay. 

"There is a tree here in the province whose leaves inflame 
the body of a man considerably, once applied ; for I have 
seen about Manila the leaves converted into powder, rolled 
in pellets of paper and shot in the faces of Americans. This 
causes the parts to swell and become completely useless ; 
and I believe it would be well to do this within the towns, and 

'"June 5, 1900. 
" Sr. Local. Presidente of Katibug : 

" I send you a little of the poison known as 'dita' that you may put 
it on the points of the 'balatik' and 'siu-a' (spears and traps) ad- 
monishing you to take care that none of our people are wounded with 
the said poison, and if by misfortune any one is wounded, immediately 
apply the stem of the 'IJadian' mixed with that of the 'lingaton' in 
the wound, as this is the most efficacious means of neutralizing and 
removing the effect of said poison. Be active and place many of the 
spears, etc., in aU the roads and trails where the enemy must pass, 
and as soon as you know of his next expedition, inform me immedi- 
ately by despatch, both by day and night. 

" It is very necessary that the people detailed to place the poison on 
the points carry always the 'badian' and 'lingaton' so that in case of 
mishap some one may apply the remedy to neutralize the destruc- 
tive ingredients of the poison at once. 

" Headquarters of Matuguinao, 5th of June, 1900. 

(Signed) " Lukban, General. 
(Seal) " Military Headquarters of Samab." — P. I. R., 502. 7. 



MURDER AS A GOVERNMENTAL AGENCY 755 

especially to the drunkards asleep along the roads and to the 
fellows making love." ' 

Various other orders for the poisoning of soldiers or 
the use of poisoned arrows or spears were issued.^ Fur- 
thermore, they were faithfully carried out,^ and the results 
were duly reported. 

'P. I. R.. 2035. 3. 

2 The following issued by Col. R. F. Santos in Albay Province is 
a sample : — 

"October 14, 1900. 

"In view of the present exceptional state of affairs in our beloved 
mother country, the Philippines, considering the straits we are in, 
and in compliance with the order of the General of Division and Chief 
of Operations for his campaign plans, I trust that upon receipt of the 
present communication you will kindly order the captains of terri- 
torial militia, of that barrio, Apud, Pantao and Macabugos, to have all 
the soldiers of their respective companies provide themselves ■nith at 
least fifty arrows apiece and a sufficient quantity of the well-known 
poison called dila to apply to the points of the arrows, and to have 
their bolos well sharpened. I must remind you that as repeated 
practice is essential in order to secure the best results in the use of these 
weapons, you will endeavour to have at least twice a week, according 
to the convenience of the residents, said exercises take place in secluded 
spots, far from all danger of being surprised by the enemy. 

"For the purpose indicated above 3'ou \\dll likewise order that 
all the residents of your respective barrios have ready in a safe place 
a supply of the fruit commonly called Ydioc, putting it in water to 
decay, and to also have in readiness a squirt gun, that is to say, a 
'Sumpit,' in order to use it in case of any invasion or attack of the 
enemy." — P. I. R., Books B, No. 113. 

' The following is a sample report : — 

"February 4, 1900. 

" LlEDTEN.\NT-CoLONEL C. TiNIO : 

"My Dear and Esteemed Uncle : 

* * ***** 

"I am now carrying out a scheme here in this town for the purpose 
of ki ll i ng some American sentries, whose bodies will be buried in the 
woods near the town, where they cannot be traced and found by their 
comrades, in order to avoid any investigation by them. They wiU 
believe that these soldiers have deserted. I have just sent to Gerona 
for a supply of wine, which, mixed with a strong, sickening stuff, will 
be sold to them ; once they drink of it, the effect will soon teU on them, 
and then we will seize their rifles. 

' ' I feel that I should advase you of this matter, in order that you 
may know the reason if, perchance, it should happen that we lose 
the confidence of the inhabitants of the town on account of this scheme. 



756 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

The murder of sentries and of soldiers who straggled 
was often ordered, practised and reported.^ 

As damnable as any of these horrible documents was 
the order of General Antonio Luna for the massacre of all 
Americans, foreigners and "disloyal" Filipinos in Manila. 

Blount has alleged that Taylor "obtained no evidence 
convincing to hun," relative to the authorship of this 
order ^ and that "a like investigation by General Mac- 
Arthur in 1901 had a like result." Whether he is ignorant 

However, we will be satisfied if we can seize some rifles" without resorting 
to violent mean^ or to a scandal. 

"This is the purpose of your devoted nephew, who always prays 
God for your health and life, and who sends you his kindest regards. 
"San Juan (Tarlac Province ?)j February 4, 1900. 

(Signed) " Leoncio Alarilla, 
" Captain of Guerillas." 
— P. I. R., 480. 5. 
' The following is a sample report. It will be noted that its author 
was a civilian, not a soldier : — 

"January 19, 1900. 

"Sr. Lieut. Col. A. Tecson : 

"With due respect I address you to inform you that yesterday at 
10 a.m., I was in the barrio of Bagonbaulat and I saw one of the enemy's 
soldiers who was lagging behind his companions, and what I did was 
to order the man in charge of that place and three men to be called 
whom I ordered to capture the said soldier, and when a prisoner I 
ordered him to be led to the woods and there they killed him and 
buried the body ; the rifle he carried and ninety cartridges I left with 
the people and continued my march to San Isidro ; on my return when 
I was to get the rifle mentioned I could not find it and they told me 
they had sent it to Major Manolo. I inform you of this in compli- 
ance with the order. 

"God guard you many years. 
"Entablado, 19th January, 1900. 

(Signed) " Roman I. Torres, 
" Commissioner." 
— P. I. R., 573.2. 
2 "At page 1890 of the same volume, Captain J. R. M. Taylor, 14th 
U. S. Infantry, a gallant soldier and an accomplished scholar, who was 
in charge in 1901 of the captured insurgent records at Manila, states 
that he was 'informed' that the document was originally 'signed by 
Sandico, then Secretary of the Interior' of the revolutionary govern- 
ment. Captain Taylor made an attempt to run the matter down, but 
obtained no evidence convincing to him. A like investigation by Gen- 
eral MacArthur in 1901 had a like result." — Blount, p. '200. 



MURDER AS A GOVERNMENTAL AGENCY 757 

of the facts as to the authentication of the authorship of 
this very important document, or chooses to ignore them, 
I do not know. Taylor in the end conclusively settled 
the matter, and so reported. Luna's order,' which was 

' "Luna's Order: 

" 'Malolos, February 7, 1899. 
" 'To The Field Officers of the Territorial Militia : 

'By virtue of the barbarous attack made upon our army on the 
fourth day of February without this being preceded by any strained 
relations whatever between the two armies, it is necessary for the 
Filipinos to show that they know how to avenge themselves of treachery 
and deceit of those who, working upon our friendship, now seek to 
enslave us. 

" ' In order to carry out the complete destruction of that accursed 
army of drunkards and thieves, it is indispensable that we all work in 
unison, and that orders issued from this war office be faithfully carried 
out. 

" 'As soon as you receive this circular, measures wiU be taken for 
strict compliance with the following orders : 

'(1) Such measures will be taken that at 8 o'clock at night the 
members of the territorial militia under orders will be ready to go into 
the street with their arms and ammunition to occupy San Pedro street 
and such cross streets as open into it. 

" ' (2) The defenders of the Philippines under your orders wiU 
attack the Zorilla barracks and the Bilibid guard, and liberate all the 
prisoners, arming them in the most practical manner in order that 
they may aid their brethren and work out our revenge ; to this end 
the following address shall be made to them : 

'Brethren: The Americans have insulted us and we must re- 
venge ourselves upon them by annihilating them. 

'This is the only means for obtaining justice, for the many out- 
rages and infamies of which we have been the object. AH the Filipinos 
in Manila will second us. May the blood of the traitors run in tor- 
rents ! Long live the independence of the Philippines ! 

" '(3) The servants of the houses occupied by the Americans and 
Spaniards shall burn the buildings in which their masters live in such 
a manner that the conflagration shall be simultaneous in all part of 
the city. 

" 'The signals for carrying this into effect — shall be to send up two 
red paper balloons and the firing of rockets with lights and firecrackers. 

" '(4) The lives of the Filipinos only shall be respected, and they 
shall not be molested, with the exception of those who have been 
pointed out as traitors. 

'All others of whatsoever race they may be shall be given no 
quarter and shall be exterminated, thus proving to foreign countries 
that America is not capable of maintaining order or defending any of 
the interests which she has imdertaken to defend. 



758 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

issued on February 7, 1899, provided for the massacre 
of all Americans and foreigners in Manila. The lives of 
Filipinos only were to be respected. All others, of what- 
soever race, were to be given no quarter, but were to be 
exterminated, "thus proving to foreign countries that 
America is not capable of maintaining order or defending 
any of the interests which she has undertaken to defend." 

This effort to massacre all white persons in the city 
fell through, partly because the plan leaked out, and 
partly because Cavite Insurgent soldiers did not obey 
orders. 

I consider it important that the authenticity of this 
much-discussed order should be placed beyond reasonable 
doubt, and so give Taylor's findings in full. He says : — 

"A synopsis of this order was telegraphed to Washington 
by General Otis on February 21st, 1899, as having been 'issued 
by an important officer of the insurgent government at Malolos, 

" ' (5) The sharpshooters of Tondo and Santa Ana shall be the first 
to open fire and those on the outside of the Manila lines shall second 
their attack, and thus the American forces will find themselves between 
two fires. The militia of Trozo, Binondo, Kyapo (Quiapo), and 
Sampalok ahaM follow up the attack. All must go into the streets 
and perform their duties. 

" 'The militiamen of Paco, Ermita, Malate, Santa Cruz, and San 
Miguel shall attack when firing has become general everj'where, which 
will be approximately about 12 o'clock at night ; but if they see that 
their comrades are in danger before that time they shall give them the 
proper assistance and go into the streets whenever it becomes nec- 
essary. 

" 'The Spanish mUitia enlisted as volunteers in our army shall go 
out at 3 o'clock in the morning and attack Fort Santiago. 

" 'Brethren, the country is in danger and we must rise to save it. 
Europe sees that we are feeble, but we will demonstrate that we know 
how to do as should be done, shedding our blood for the salvation of 
our outraged country. Death to the tjTant I War without quarter 
to the false Americans who wish to enslave us 1 Independence or 
death ! 

" 'A. Luna. 
" ' Malolos, February 7, 1899. 

" ' Colonel Jose : By order of General Luna, have several copies 
of this made, in order that these instructions may be communicated 
to all.' " — SenateDocument331,part2,p. 1912, Fifty-seventh Congress, 
First Session. 



MURDER AS A GOVERNMENTAL AGENCY 759 

February 15th, 1899, for execution during the evening and night 
in this city' of Manila. Page 157, Senate Document 208, 
Fifty-sixth" Congress, First Session. On March 2, 1901, a 
Senate resolution called for all information in the possession 
of the Secretary of War 'relating to, or tending to show, the 
authenticity and genuineness of the alleged order for the mas- 
sacre of tho' foreign residents of Manila, P. I., on the evening and 
night of February 15, 1899 ; ' and, further, whether the original 
of that order was or ever had been in the possession of the 
War Department, and whether it had ever been seen by such 
a person. This order required a search in Manila, which was 
made. As a result of this it was ascertained that the sjTiopsis 
which was telegraphed by General Otis was brought to Maj. 
F. C. Bourns,^ an officer of the provost marshal general's office, 
by a rather prominent Filipino '^ who had given a good deal 
of information which on the whole had proved to be correct. 
He stated that the paper which he handed him was a copy of 
the original which had just been sent to officers of the bolo 
organization, the sandatahan, of Manila, but that he had not 
time to copy the whole of it ; yet as far as it went the paper 
was an exact copy of the original order, which was signed by 
Sandico. Major Bourns said that at the time the paper was 
received; there was no reason to doubt 'the man's statement 
that it was an exact copy of the original order, for we knew 
that some such order was imder consideration, that this bolo 
organization existed, and it was under the orders of Sandico, 
who, in turn, was entirely imder the influence of Luna. Since 
my return to the Philippines, however, several little things 
have occurred which have caused me to question whether or 
not the paper was an exact copy of the original order. That 
in the main it was correct, I clo not doubt; but I am just a 
little inclined to think the man may have "stretched" things 
a little.' 

"The search was continued, and finally one of the original 
orders, a translation of which immediately precedes this note, 
was produced by Dr. Manuel Xeres y Burgos who was then a 
surgeon employed in the Bilibid prison in Manila and who had 
been an officer in the territorial militia of that city. Doctor 
Burgos wrote in July, 1901, to Colonel Crowder, military 
secretary to the Military governor of the Philippines, that if 
he gave him all the details in regard to the means he had em- 
ployed in obtaining the document, it would require many sheets 
of paper, and the story would seem like a novel to those who 

' Major F. S. Bourns. ' Dr. Manuel Xerez Burgos. 



760 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

only superficially knew the customs of the Philippines. He 
said that ' a few days after the beginning of hostilities we were 
given to read an order of a mysterious character ; we were not 
allowed to take a copy thereof or to keep it in our possession, 
probably from fear of some treachery. However the bearer 
told me that several copies had been made which were to be 
sent to all the districts in which the " Filipino militia " had been 
distributed. The chief of the latter were the men called upon 
to execute said order. You know that, -thank God, it was not 
executed, not only through lack of arms, but also because 
most of the chiefs who were in Manila felt a repugnance to 
execute such a barbarous and foolish order, which, had it been 
attempted, would have lieen the cause of the extermination 
of all the Filipinos who were within the American lines as a 
just reprisal for such an atrocious order. 

" ' Luckily, not only the savage measure prescribed was never 
carried into execution, l>ut it was impossible to attack the 
American army, the men who had been detailed to do it in 
Manila having only a few hundred bolos as arms, and the 
chiefs of the mihtia midcrstood that with such arms they could 
not think of resisting the rifles and cannon of the Americans. 

" ' Up to the middle of April, 1899, several Filipinos who came 
from the lines declared that General Luna had sentenced us 
to death for having disobeyed that terrible order. We were 
14 who were considered as traitors to our country, and we were 
precisely those who had worked for the release of the prisoners 
in whom we had the greatest confidence, answering for them 
to the authorities and exposing ourselves to get into trouble 
if they had broken their word. 

" ' We had decided to collect all papers which referred to 
certain facts, in order to show some day who were those who had 
lent real services to the country, and we resolved to try and find 
the document which was the principal cause of the danger 
which had threatened us at that time. 

" ' We would have had the paper in our possession since 
August last if it had not been for the terror inspired by the 
secret police with its unjustified arrests, and our emissaries 
fled from Manila and did not come back until after the end of 
the persecution. 

" ' On the 25th of February, 1901, our friend Benito Albey, 
who had been lieutenant of the militia and had distinguished 
himself in the war against Spain, began, on our advice, a new 
investigation, which was crowned with success. 

" ' The document was found among the baggage left by 



MURDER AS A GOVERNMENTAL AGENCY 761 

Colonel Leyba to Teodoro de los Santos at Malolos, and which 
the latter had remitted to a certain Tolo Quesada at Alava, 
Pangasindn. 

" ' I am sincerely happy that said document, which is the 
clear proof of General Luna's iniquitous methods, should have 
been found so that it may serve as a voucher to the thorough- 
ness of General Otis' investigations ; although I would have 
liked to keep it among my papers, I have more satisfaction to 
be useful to the American General, who has obtained the 
sympathy of the Filipinos by his kind treatment. 

" ' And I hope, General Crowder, that you will say as much to 
General Otis, as I wish him to know that there are Filipinos 
who have kept a grateful recollection of him, and that all 
Filipinos are not ungrateful. 

" ' Very respectfully, 

" ' Manuel Xeres Burgos. 
" ' General Crowder.' 

"On June 30, 1901, the original of this order, signed by 
Luna and produced by Burgos, was shown to Aguinaldo, who, 
after examining it, stated that the signature wasthat of General 
Antonio Luna, with which he was well acquainted. He fur- 
thermore stated that he had no personal knowledge of such an 
order, and had hitherto been unaware of its existence. He 
was then asked whether General Luna's authority, as Director 
of War, was of sufficient scope to authorize him to issue such an 
order ^\'ithout ex-press authority from the insurgent government. 
He declined to answer this question. 

"A photographic reproduction of the original of the order 
of Luna, dated February 7, 1899, a prmted copy in Spanish, 
the translation which preceded this note, and the correspond- 
ence upon which the foregoing statement is based, is given 
beginning on page 1903, Senate Document No. 331, part 2, 
Fifty-seventh Congress, First Session, 'Hearings before the 
Committee on the Philippmes of the United States Senate.' 

"There does not seem to me to be the slightest reason for 
doubting the authenticity of this order. It was an atrocious 
one, but that argument is not sufficient to prove that the order 
delivered up by Dr. Burgos was a forgery in whole or in part. 

"The facts of the case seem to me to ,be the following: 
In January, 1899, Doctor Burgos was employed in Bilibid 
prison by the Americans, and as an officer of Sandatahan was 
deep in the plotting for a general massacre of the foreigners in 
Manila. Sometime that month he ^^Tote to Aguinaldo that the 
uprising in Manila should begm in Bilibid prison, and that the 



762 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

Sandatahan should be posted on San Pedro street and the ad- 
jacent thoroughfares in preparation for an attack upon the 
Zorilla theatre, where the Pennsylvania regiment was quartered 
across the way from the prison (Exhibit 349). His sugges- 
tion was adopted as part of the plan for the uprising. Burgos, 
like the majority of the Filipinos in Manila, believed that 
Aguinaldo would win, and was doing what he could to aid his 
cause, but ■without giving up his position under the American 
government. The plan embodied in Luna's order was to be 
carried out as part of the attack upon Manila ; but that attack 
was delivered prematurely, and it was found impossible to 
carry out the uprising in Manila which was to have preceded 
the attack upon the American lines. After February 5, 1899, 
the majority of the Filipinos in Manila ceased to believe that 
Aguinaldo was going to beat the Americans, and Burgos, who 
was known to have taken part in the movement in Manila 
headed by Sandico, found it expedient to ward off any investi- 
gation of his conduct by giving information. He wanted to 
stay out of prison, and he wanted to remain surgeon of Bilibid 
prison. He was well aware that Sandico was known by the 
Americans to have organized bodies of sandatahan in Manila, 
and he therefore delivered to the provost marshal general a 
partial copy of Lmia's order which, if it was not then in his 
possession, he had seen ; and he saw no reason for telling more 
than seemed expedient for the attainment of his immediate 
purpose, he said that it had been issued by Sandico, who he 
well knew the Americans would believe was the man most 
likely to have issued it. He naturally desired to avoid having 
to make too many explanations. In 1901, Luna being dead, 
and Burgos being safe from his vengeance, he found no great 
difficulty in delivering up the original document, which was 
probably, as he said, in the papers of Colonel Leyba, or Leiva, 
a native of Manila whose family lived there and whose house 
had probably been a centre of insurgent intrigue. Li 1899 or 
1900 Colonel Leyba, a trusted and confidential aid of Agui- 
naldo, had been murdered by 'The Guards of Honour' in 
Pangasindn Province, and Burgos seems to have had access to 
his papers. This, at least to me, seems a plausible explanation 
of the incomplete form in which this first order appeared, and 
why it appeared at all. It is true that I have found no record 
of it among the record-books kept at Malolos; but this order 
was not of a character to be written out in full in any letter- 
sent book ; and, furthermore, the record-books of the govern- 
ment at ]\Ialolos show that almost no records were kept there 



MURDER AS A GOVERNMENTAL AGENCY 763 

for a week after the outbreak of hostilities. The clerks and 
officials were probably busy in preparing to defend the place 
against an advance of the Americans, whom they had hitherto 
looked upon with contempt. 

"John R. Taylor." ^ 

In reality there was nothing novel about the issuing of 
such an order in the Phihppines. 

Alfonso Ocampo, who was to have led the attack in an 
attempt to massacre all Spaniards in Cavite at the out- 
break of the revolt of 1896, testified as follows concerning 
the proposed movement : — 

"It was to be carried out in conjunction with the towns of 
Imus and others of the province ; the people were to enter by 
the Porta Vaga (the main gate of Cavite) and uniting into 
groups, were to assault, kill and rob all the Spaniards. The 
deponent was in charge of this affair. The jailer of the prison 
was to distribute daggers among the prisoners and then re- 
lease them. When the plot was discovered, some of these 
arms had been distributed. The object of the rebellion was to 
assassinate all the Spaniards, then to rape the women, and 
cut their throats, as weO as those of their children, even the 
smallest." - 

On June 26, 1896, there was issued an order for an up- 
rising in Manila, which contained the following provi- 
sions, among others : — 

"Fourth. While the attack is being made on the Captain- 
General and other Spanish authorities, the men who are loyal 
will attack the convents and behead their infamous inhabitants. 
As for the riches contained in said convents, they will be taken 
over by the commissioners appointed by tliis G. R. Log. for 
the purpose, and, none of our brothers will be permitted to 
take possession of that which justly belongs to the treasury of 
the G. N. F. [Grand Philippine Nation ?-Tr.]. 

"Fifth. Those who violate the provisions of the preceding 
paragraph ^vill be considered malefactors, and -will be sub- 
jected to exemplary punishment by this G. R. Log. [Grand 
Regional Lodge?]. 

1 This is the "note by compiler on exhibit 816," which is Lima's 
order. 

2 Taylor, 96 FZ. 



764 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

"Sixth. On the following day the brothers designated will 
bury the bodies of all the hateful oppressors, in the field of 
Bgumbayan, as well as those of their wives and children. Later 
a monument commemorating the independence of the G. N. F. 
(Grand Philippine Nation ?) will be erected on that site. 

"Seventh. The bodies of the friars will not be buried, 
but will be burned in just payment for the crimes which during 
their lives they committed against the noble Filipinos, for 
three centuries of hateful domination." ^ 

As much is said, in the very numerous orders for assas- 
sinations, of trials by courts of most summary procedure, 
especial importance attaches to Taylor's statement that 
there is an almost complete absence of records of trials 
or legal proceedings among the two hundred and fifty 
thousand documents on which his work was based. He 
says that "there are probably less than twenty-five 
records of trials among these papers, and not above one 
or two records of military courts of summary procedure. 
Law was the will of the official who would force obe- 
dience to his desire. If he wanted to kill he killed." - 

General MacArthur is credited by Blount with the 
following statement : — 

"The cohesion of Filipino society in behalf of insurgent 
interests is most emphatically illustrated by the fact that 
assassination, which was extensively employed, was generally 
accepted as a legitimate expression of insurgent governmental 
authority. The individuals marked for death would not appeal to 
American protection, although condemned exclusively on account of 
supposed pro- Americanism." ^ 

As a matter of fact, plenty of people appealed to the 
Americans for protection and got it. I have seen docu- 
ment after document each recommending some individual 
to American officers everywhere as worthy of protection, 
and as needing it on account of services rendered to 
Americans. Relative to this matter, Taylor says : — 

1 Tavlor, 99 PZ. 

2 Ibid., 44 HS. 

5 Blount, p. 313. 




2 § 

dJ O 

Q; £ 

2"S 






3 
O 



ft 
a 



MURDER AS A GOVERNMENTAL AGENCY 765 

"Among the papers of the insurgents there are a few letters 
to American officers asking for protection against the insurgents. 
They represent a protest against conditions which were rapidly 
becoming unbearable ; but most of them must have been sent 
without copies, for in case they fell into the hands of the guer- 
illas they would have served as death warrants for the men who 
signed them. From early in 1900, they were much more 
frequent all over the archipelago than the number which have 
survived, either in the official records of the American army in 
the Philippines, or among the papers of the insurgents, would 
lead the investigator to beheve. Those which were sent to 
the commanders of American detachments were not kept as 
a rule, for a small detachment has few records. As early as 
March, 1900, the head of the town of Passi, Panay, asked 
American protection against robbers and insurgents." '■ 

General MacArthur had a fixed idea that all FiUpinos 
were against us, but he was wrong.^ 

In very many cases our efforts to furnish protection 
were necessarily futile. It is easy enough to protect a 
town from an open attack. It is often excessively diffi- 
cult to protect an individual against an assassin who 
proffers him one hand in assumed friendship and stabs 
him with the other. 

We shall never know how many men were murdered 
in accordance with the orders which I have cited, and other 
similar ones. 

On February 10, 1900, General P. Garcia wrote to 
General Isidoro Torres advising him to inform the inhab- 
itants of Bulacan, among whom it was understood that 
the Americans were about to establish municipal govern- 
ments, "of what occurred in the Island of Negros where 
two hundred men have been shot and forty more have 

1 Taylor, 70 HS. 

2 "In December, 1900, the people of the town of Santa Cniz, Ilocos 
Sur, seized the guerilla commander of the town because he had raped 
some women, and then burnt their acts of adhesion to the insurgent 
government. They declared themselves adherents of the Americans, 
proceeded to give them all possible aid and assistance, and captured 
and delivered to them all the guerillas who dared enter the place 
(P. 1. R., Books C-13)." — Taylor, 4.5 HS. 



766 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

been cast into the water for having accepted the American 
sovereignty, and because they were suspected of not 
being adherents of the cause of the independence of our 
country." ' 

In reviewing the sentence of the Taytay murderers, 
General Adna R. Chaffee, who, as the ranking mihtary 
officer in the Philippines, was closely in touch with the 
situation, made the following statement : — 

"The number of peaceful men who have been murdered in 
these islands at the instigation of the chiefs, while impracti- 
cable of exact determination, is yet kno^Ti to be so great that 
to recount them would constitute one of the most horrible 
chapters in human history. With respect to these chiefs, the 
commanding general has, therefore, no other recourse than to 
invoke the unrelenting execution of the law upon them and to 
appeal to the inteUigent and educated among the Filipino 
people to aid him by renewed efforts to end a reign of terror of 
which their own people are the helpless victims." ^ 

Taylor has made the following summary of the facts : — 

"The justice of the United States was slow in its course; 
witnesses had to be examined, and before a notorious criminal 
could be punished it had to be proved that he had committed 
some particular crime. Unless the crime was proved to the 
satisfaction of a military commission by witnesses, the greater 
part of whose testimony had to be translated into English 
from some native language by an interpreter, who was almost 
never an American, the man whom a whole village knew to 
be an assassin would escape punishment and would return to 
avenge himself upon those who had denounced him. The 
justice of Aguinaldo was a different matter. The Americans 
might hang for minder, but he would bury ahve for serving 
them. The Americans might send a man to prison for burning 
a town, only to release him when an error was found in the 
proceedings. There were no errors in the proceedings of the 
guerillas. There was usually no sununoning of witnesses, 
no slow taking of testimony and no careful search for laches 
which would invalidate the finding of the court and inure 
to the benefit of the accused. It was sufficient for some native 
to be denounced as in the employment of the Americans, or 

' P. I. R., Books A-9, No. 39. « Taylor, 37 HS. 



MURDER AS A GOVERNMENTAL AGENCY 767 

as an agent, or as a civil officer under the United States, for a 
summons to be issued for his appearance before a court of 
summary procedure, which was a court in name only ; or for 
a mandate to be sent ordering that ' the serviceable method of 
dukut was to be employed in his case.' That meant that he 
was kidnapped and murdered, usually after a priest had re- 
ceived his confession ; or that he was sent back to the town 
hamstruug, and with his tongue out, as a warning to the people 
that the justice of Aguinaldo was sharp and that his arm was 
long." 1 

The blood of these men cries out against those who 
would deceive the American people into believing that 
the Filipinos were ever united in loyalty toward the 
Filipino Republic or the leaders who made murder a 
governmental agency in the Philippine Islands. 

Most of the men who wi-ote the orders and perpetrated 
the acts which I have cited are alive and active to-day. 
Were independence granted, they would rule again the 
country that they ruled before. Is there any reason for 
believing that their warped intelligences have straight- 
ened, or their hard hearts softened ? Would the United 
States care to assume responsibihty for any government 
which they could set up or would maintain ? 

1 Taylor, 28-29 HS. 



CHAPTER XXVII 
The Philippine Legislatuke 

From September 1, 1900, to October 16, 1907, the Phil- 
ippine Commission was the sole legislative body. The 
Act of Congress of July 1, 1902, temporarily providing 
for the administration of the affairs of civil government 
in the Philippine Islands, had provided for the taking of 
a census after the insurrection should have ceased and a 
condition of general and complete peace should have been 
certified to by the commission. It had provided further 
that two years after the publication of the census, if such 
condition of peace had continued in the territory not 
inhabited by Moros or other non-Christian tribes, and was 
certified to the President by the commission, the President 
should direct the commission to call, and the commission 
should call, a general election for the choice of delegates 
to a popular assembly to be known as the Philippine 
Assembly, and that after said assembly should convene 
and organize all the legislative power theretofore con- 
ferred on the commission in all that part of the islands not 
inhabited by Moros or other non-Christian tribes should 
be vested in a legislature consisting of two houses, the 
Philippine Commission and the Phihppine Assembly. 

The first of the certificates required of the commission 
was issued on September 8, 1902. President Roosevelt 
on September 23, 1902, issued an order for the taking of 
the census. 

On March 28, 1905, Governor-General Wright pro- 
claimed the publication of the census. On March 28, 
1907, the commission issued the second of the certificates 
required of it.^ 

' The essential part of the resolution reads as follows : — 
"Whereas since the completion and publication of said census there 

768 



THE PHILIPPINE LEGISLATURE 769 

The following day a cablegram was received from the 
President directing the commission to call a general elec- 
tion for the choice of delegates, and on March 30, 1907, 
the commission adopted the necessary resolution caUing 
such election to be held on July 30, 1907, in accordance with 
an election law previously passed on January 9 of the same 
year. This law provided for eighty-one delegates pro- 
portioned among thirty-five provinces according to popu- 
lation, except that each province entitled to representation 
was allotted at least one delegate, no matter how few 
people it might have. Cebu, the most populous of all, 
was given seven. The Mountain Province, the Moro 
Province, Nueva Vizcaya and Agusan were left without 
representation because of the predominance of Moros or 
other non-Christians among their people. On April 1, 

have been no serious disturbances of the public order save and except 
those caused by the noted outlaws and bandit chieftains Felizardo 
and Montaldn, and their followers in the Provinces of Cavite and Batan- 
gas, and those caused in the Provinces of Samar and Leyte by the 
non-Christian and fanatical pulajanes resident in the mountain dis- 
tricts of the said provinces and the barrios contiguous thereto ; and 

"Whereas the overwhelming majority of the people of the said 
Provinces of Cavite, Batangas, Samar, and Leyte have not taken part 
in said disturbances and have not aided nor abetted the lawless acts 
of said bandits and pulajanes ; and 

" Whereas the great mass and body of the Filipino people have, 
during said period of two years, continued to be law-abiding, peaceful, 
and loyal to the United States, and have continued to recognize and 
do now recognize the authority and sovereignty of the United States 
in the territory of said Philippine Islands : Now, therefore, be it 

"Resolved by the Philippine Commission in formal session duly 
assembled. That it, said Philippine Commission, do certify, and it 
does hereby certify, to. the President of the United States that for a 
period of two years after the completion and publication of the cen- 
sus a condition of general and complete peace, with recognition of 
the authority of the United States, has continued to exist and now 
exists in the territory of said Philippine Islands not inhabited by 
Moros or other non-Christian tribes ; and be it further 

" Resolved by said Philippine Commission, That the President of 
the United States be requested, and is hereby requested, to direct 
said Philippine Commission to call a general election for the choice 
of delegates to a popular assembly of the people of said territory in the 
Philippine Islands, which assemljly shall be known as the Philippine 
Assembly." — Journal of the Commission, Vol. I, pp. 8-9. 



770 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

1907, the governor-general issued a proclamation embody- 
ing the resolution of the commission. 

The election was duly held, and on October 16, 1907, the 
first session of the Phihppine Legislature was opened, 
under authority of the President, by Mr. Taft, then 
secretary of war, who had returned to the Islands for 
this and other purposes. 

The action of the commission in issuing its second 
certificate has been criticised on account of conditions 
which arose subsequent to the publication of the census, 
in Cavite, La Laguna and Samar. These conditions were 
referred to in the commission resolution. There was no 
desire to conceal or misrepresent them. As we have 
already seen, the trouble in Samar was stirred up by 
abuses among the hill people. It has been claimed that 
they were not members of any non-Christian tribe. 
There are a limited number of genuine wild people in 
Samar, but the great majority of the so-called jmldjanes 
were in reaUty remontados ' or the descendants of re- 
montados. 

In La Laguna and Cavite disorder caused by wandering 
ladrone bands at one time had become so serious that it 
was deemed advisable temporarily to suspend the writ of 
habeaus corpus and to authorize the reconcentration of 
the law-abiding inhabitants of certain regions to the end 
that they might be adequately protected and to make it 
easier to distinguish between good citizens, and thieves 
and murderers. 

Whether these occurrences were or were not to be con- 
sidered as of such a nature as to render it impossible to 
certify that a condition of "general and complete peace, 
with recognition of the authority of the United States" 
had continued to exist in the Philippine territory not 
occupied by IVIoros or other non-Christians, was a matter 

' A designation applied by the Spaniards to people who had taken 
to the hills to avoid paying taxes or to escape abuses, or punishment for 
crimes. 



THE PHILIPPINE LEGISLATURE 771 

of judgment, and the commission exercised the best 
judgment it possessed. 

Dm-ing the Spanish days ladronism had always been 
rampant, affecting every province in the islands and being 
especially bad in the immediate vicinity of Manila. When 
we issued our certificate we had httle hope of promptly 
ridding the archipelago of ladrones, as has since been done. 
On the contrary we expected that a certain amount of 
ladronism would continue for many years. We did not 
think that it should be considered pubhc disorder within 
the meaning of the act of Congress. Furthermore, we 
were all anxious to encourage the Filipinos and to give 
them a chance to show what they could do. I for one 
hoped that by this act of liberality we might win the good- 
will, and secure the real cooperation, of many of the 
Filipino politicians. It is always easy to look back and 
see one's mistakes. I now know that nothing could 
have been more futile than the hope of gaining the good- 
will of the men with whom we were deahng by any 
concessions whatsoever, yet the attempt was worth mak- 
ing. It is the wild men in the hills and the good old 
taos ' in the lowland plains who appreciate and are 
grateful for fair treatment when they reahze that they 
are receiving it. 

The politicians of the present day are a hungry lot. 
The more they are fed, the more their appetites grow, and 
the wider their voracious maws open. Most of them are 
without gratitude or appreciation, and regard concessions 
as evidences of weakness on the part of those who grant 
them. Philippine officials and lawmakers might as well 
make up their minds to do what is right because it is right, 
and let it go at that. By the same token they should 
refrain from doing what is questionable in the hope that the 
good-will resulting will more than counterbalance the pos- 
sible evil effect of doubtful measures. 

• A TagSlog designation applied to the common people, and espe- 
cially to field labourers. 



772 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

It cannot be denied that the issuance by the comnoission 
of its certificate of March 30, 1907, was a somewhat doubt- 
ful measure, involving a rather strained construction of 
the words ' ' general and complete peace, with recognition 
of the authority of the United States" in the Act of Con- 
gress of July 1, 1902. I am now firmly of the opinion 
that in thus giving the Filipinos the benefit of the doubt 
we erred, with the result that the Philippine Assembly 
came at least ten years too soon. Its creation in 1907 
has resulted in imposing a heavy financial burden on the 
country for wliich there has been no adequate com- 
pensating return. 

In the Plulippine Legislature neither house enjoys any 
special privileges, and either may originate any bill which 
the legislature is authorized to pass. The assembly 
has been characterized as "a harmless little debating 
society" and the government of the Philippines has been 
called "a toy government" because it was claimed that 
no real powers were given to the lower house. The 
commission has exclusive power to legislate for certain 
non-Christian territory. In all other legislative matters 
the assembly and the commission have equal power. 
The passage of legislation requires affirmative action by 
both houses, a condition which is certainly sufficiently 
common in legislative bodies composed of two houses, and 
one that does not ordinarily evoke criticism. 

Of late the assembly has claimed for itself the exclusive 
right to initiate appropriation bills, but there is not a ves- 
tige of legal authority for such a claim, and even the so- 
called "Jones Bill" does not confer such right on the lower 
house. It shares, with the upper house, one power of 
deadly effectiveness. It can prevent legislation on any 
subject whatsoever. It has not hesitated to employ this 
power, when occasion arose, to obstruct the passage of 
many important and desirable measures, either in the hope 
of being able in the end to make a trade and thus securing 
the passage of acts of more than doubtful utility, or be- 




A Bit of the Pagsanjan GoRiiE. 



THE PHILIPPINE LEGISLATURE 773 

cause of a purpose to prevent the enactment of laws 
dealing with the matters in question. 

The most striking instance of the blocking of important 
legislation by the assembly is afforded by its action in 
tabling four anti-slavery acts passed by the commission at 
successive legislative sessions. Tliis matter has already 
been fully discussed. ^ 

The history of the Cadastral Survey Act affords an 
example of the holding up bj'^ the assembly of a measure 
of undoubted and undenied utiUty in order to attempt 
to force the passage of positively vicious acts. 

The case of the would-be landowner who has occupied 
land for years under such conditions that he could have 
completed an unperfected title to it, and who finally 
desires for one reason or another to do so, has been a 
rather hard one, as the cost of the necessary survey is 
chargeable to him and when a survey party has to be sent 
a long distance to measure a Httle tract of land the ratio 
of such cost to the value of the land is often very high. 
Cost of surveys can be materially reduced if all the pri- 
vately owned land parcels in a given area are surveyed 
consecutively, and tliis procedure has the further great 
advantage of effectively deUmitating the pubHc domain 
in the area in question. 

In the interest of small property owTiers, advantage 
has been taken of provisions of the Public Land Act 
which make it possible to compel the survey of private 
lands under certain conditions in cases of doubt as to 
ownership. As soon as the people concerned could be 
made to understand our object in doing tliis they be- 
came enthusiastic about it, but the legal procedure 
authorized was by no means adequate er satisfactory, 
and there was gi-eat need of the passage of a carefully 
drafted Cadastral Survey Act providing the necessary 
legal machinery for accomplisliing the desired end with 
the least possible delay and at the lowest possible ex- 

' See p. 699 et seq. 

VOL. II T 



774 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

pense, and providing further for the distribution of such 
expense between the insular, provincial and municipal 
governments and the property owners. All are inter- 
ested parties, the insular government because it learns 
what land in a given region belongs to the pubUc domain ; 
the provincial and mumcipal governments because the 
collection of taxes is faciUtated, and accurate maps of 
towns and barrios are made. 

Such an act w-as passed by the commission. It was 
clearly and indisputably designed expressly for the benefit 
of poor Filipinos. No legitimate objection could be made 
to it. The treatment accorded it by the Phihppine 
Assembly conclusively demonstrates the irresponsibility 
of that body, and its unfitness to deal with great questions 
which vitally affect the common people. Realizing that 
the commission, and especially the governor-general, 
were earnestly desirous of securing its passage, the 
assembly refused to pass it. It was duly reintroduced 
at the next session of the legislature. 

I was a member of the commission conference com- 
mittee appointed to meet a similar committee from the 
assembly and discuss it. The assembly committee 
informed us at the outset that a sine qua non for the dis- 
cussion of the bill was that we should agree to an amend- 
ment which would admit, without examination, to the 
work of making pubhc land surveys Fihpino so-called 
surveyors, Imown to be utterly incompetent, who coiild 
not make correct surveys under the most favourable cir- 
cumstances. But tins was not all. It was generally 
understood that an additional requu-ement was to be 
an amendment to the Judiciary Act providing for a num- 
ber of new judges. The commission committee believed 
that they were unnecessary, and were asked for with a view 
to making places for pohtical appointees. Needless to 
say, the Cadastral Survey Act failed in conference. In the 
session of 1912-1913 it finally passed, with practically all of 
these objectionable featm-es eUminated, but it is at present 



THE PHILIPPINE LEGISLATURE 775 

much less useful than it might be for the reason that 
an act amending the Judiciary Act so as to pro- 
vide more judges in the Court of Land Registration, 
where they are badly needed, instead of for courts of first 
instance, where no such necessity exists, was killed in 
the assembly. 

As it will take the Court of Land Registration something 
Uke three years to finish hearing the cases alreadj^ in hand, 
the preparation of a large additional number for it, as a 
result of the apphcation of the Cadastral Act, will not 
materially help the present situation unless the number of 
its judges is increased. There is reason to fear that future 
attempts to bring this about will be met by demands that 
there be more judges of first instance, and that they be 
given jurisdiction in land cases, which should be decided 
by specially trained and quahfied men. 

One who examined only the laws actually passed by the 
legislature might gain the impression that the assembly 
had done good work. It should be remembered that 312 
acts passed by that body have been disapproved by the 
commission. Had they become laws there would have 
been a very different story to tell. One hundred and 
seven acts passed by the commission have been disap- 
proved by the assembly. A careful study of these two 
groups of acts will be found worth while, but in order 
to make the picture complete it should be supplemented by 
detailed consideration of the amendments to assembly 
bills made by the commission before they have been 
passed, which have sometimes involved the striking out 
of everything after title, and the insertion of practically 
new provisions. It should further be remembered that 
many really good measures, which have apparently 
originated as assembly bills, have been drafted bj- mem- 
bers of the commission, or under their direction, and then 
first presented in the assembly in order to facilitate their 
passage. 

Had some one of the several gentlemen who have made 



776 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

brief visits to the Philippines and then expressed their 
views as to tlie fitness of the Filipinos for early indepen- 
dence devoted himself to the line of study above outlined, 
he would have gained valuable information on their 
present fitness to legislate, and we should perhaps now be 
profiting by the practical results of an experiment already 
made, instead of embarking on a new and dangerous 
one. 

I cannot here do more than briefly call attention to the 
nature of a few of the bills killed by the commission and 
the assembly respectively. For convenience of reference, 
I refer to these bills by session and number. 

FIRST LEGISLATURE 

Inaugural Session 

Assembly Bill 117 was "An Act to extend the period 
within which provincial boards organized under the Pro- 
vincial Government Act may remit the collection of the 
land tax in their respective provinces." 

This was the first of a very long series of assembly 
measures designed to abolish or reduce existing taxes, or 
indefinitely to postpone the time for their collection. 
Provincial boards, with a majority of their members 
elective, were very amenable to influence in the matter 
of "postponing" the collection of the land tax. 

The per capita rate of taxation is lower in the Philip- 
pines than in any other civilized country. Money is 
badly needed for education, health work and the improve- 
ment of means of communication, and all of these meas- 
ures were ill-advised. 

First Session and Special Session of 1908 

Assembly Bill 23 provided for the appointment of jurors 
in courts of first instance and justice of the peace 
courts. Under it the provincial boards were to select 



THE PHILIPPINE LEGISLATURE 777 

the eligibles from a list of names submitted by the mu- 
nicipal councils of the provincial capitals. This would in 
effect have put the administration of justice in the hands 
of the pohtical party in power. 

Assembly Bill 104 was entitled " An Act amending Act 
numbered fifteen hundred and tliirty-seven of the Philip- 
pine Commission on horse-races in the Phihppine Islands." 

Gambling is the besetting sin of the Filipinos, and in 
the city of Manila gambling in connection with horse rac- 
ing had grown to be such a scandal that the commission had 
been compelled to take action limiting the days on which 
it was permitted to legal holidays and one Sunday per 
month. The evil had reached large dimensions. Several 
race-tracks were maintained in one small city, and the 
money that went through the totalizer, or gambling 
machine, had reached the enormous sum of S3, 500, 000 
per year. Even poorly paid clerks were leaving their work 
to bet on the races, and then stealing in order to recoup 
themselves for their losses. The morals of the community 
were being rapidly undermined. The act passed by the 
commission interfered with the business of conducting 
daily crooked races. It certainly left plenty of oppor- 
tunity to indulge in horse-racing as a legitimate sport. 
The amendment proposed by the assembly permitted 
horse-racing on all Sundays, on three daj^s prior to Lent 
and on all legal holidays except Memorial Day, Rizal 
Day and Thursday and Friday of Holy Week. If passed 
it would have protected certain vicious interests and 
opened the way to a prompt extension of the gambling 
business. 

Assembly Bill 134 reduced the tax on distilled intoxi- 
cating liquors one-fourth. The tax was already low. 
The rate proposed by the assembly was a concession to 
the demand of powerful interests and its attitude was 
worthy of severe condenmation. 



778 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

Assembly Bill 136 abolished provincial boards of health, 
substituted therefor district health officers and took 
important powers away from the director of health and 
gave them to provincial boards. Substantial progress 
had been made in improving provincial sanitaiy condi- 
tions through provincial boards of health, under the 
control of the director of health. As was to be antici- 
pated in a country like the Philippines, many necessary 
health measures were unpopular. This bill, vitally 
affecting one of the most imperative needs of the islands, 
would if concurred in by the commission have resulted 
in widespread disaster. 

Assembly Bill 148 provided for the teaching of the local 
native dialects in the public schools. This would have 
had the effect of doing away with the teaching of English, 
or preventing its inauguration, in many places ; would 
have emphasized and perpetuated the different native 
dialects ; would have helped to keep the people speaking 
these several dialects apart, and would thus seriously 
have hampered progress toward national unity. One 
of the most important and useful things that the American 
government is doing is to generalize the knowledge of the 
English language, which not only gives the several peoples 
of the archipelago a common means of communication, 
but opens up new fields of knowledge to them and makes 
it easy for them to travel. Even during the days of the 
Filipino "republic" Mabini advocated making English 
the official language.^ 

1 Mabini's "True Decalogue," published as a part of his constitu- 
tional programme for the Philippine Republic (P. I. R., 40. 10) contains 
the following among other remarkable provisions : — 

"Elementary instructions shall comprise reading, speaking and 
writing correctly the official language which is Tagalog, and the rudi- 
mentary principles of English and of the exact physical and natural 
sciences, together with a slight knowledge of the duties of man and 
citizenship." — Taylor, 19 MG. 

Also the following : — 

"Whenever the English language is sufSeiently diffused through 
the whole Philippine Archipelago it shall be declared the official lan- 
guage." — Taylor, 20 MG. 



THE PHILIPPINE LEGISLATURE 779 

Assembly Bill 197 abolished the Bureau of Civil Service 
and organized in its stead a division attached to the Bureau 
of Audits. This bill, ostensibly an economy measure, 
was designed to minimize the usefulness of one of the most 
important bureaus of the government. In the early 
days of the American regime Filipinos who had served 
the government were often deeply offended that appoint- 
ments were not given to members of their families or to 
their near relatives, absolutely irrespective of their fitness 
for office. Naturally they disapproved of the civil 
service law when they found that it prevented such 
appointments. 

Second Session 

Assembly Bill 201 prohibited the employment of for- 
eigners as engineers or as assistant engineers on vessels 
in the Philippine Islands. There were at this time an 
extremely limited number of Filipinos capable of filling 
such positions, which were largely held by Spaniards and 
other Europeans who had married native women and had 
lived in the islands for years. This measure would have 
crippled shipping companies and would have been a grave 
injustice to the men above referred to. 

Assembly Bill 278, which heavily reduced taxes on dis- 
tilled spirits and cigarettes, was another attempt to make 
concessions to certain large tobacco and liquor interests, 
which could perfectly well afford to pay at the rates then 
prescribed. It would have decreased the annual insular 
revenues about $1,000,000 at a timewhen itwas anticipated 

Of this language matter Taylor says : — 

"Mabini's plan of having English the language of the state is odd. 
He wanted independence and he wanted the recognition of the right 
and of the ability of the natives to govern themselves ; and yet he 
wanted them to adopt a foreign language. By the-time this pamphlet 
was published, or shortly afterwards, Tagiilog had been tried and 
found wanting. The people of the non-Tagalog provinces did not 
know it and showed no desire to learn it, and indeed protested against 
its use. Spanish, and all things Spanish, Mabini was weary of, and 
would sweep them all away. Yet, when ho wrote this he did not know 
English." 



780 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

that free trade with the United States, resulting from the 
passage of the Payne Bill, would greatly reduce customs 
duties. Such a loss would seriously have crippled the 
administration of the islands. 

Assembly Bill 352 exempted all uncultivated land, 
except land in Manila, from the payment of the land tax 
for a period of five years. The excuse given for its 
passage was the alleged lack of draft animals. Its real 
purpose was to exempt valuable property from taxation. 
It would have encouraged the continued holding of great 
tracts of uncultivated land and was in the interest of large 
landowners whose land taxes were likely to be burden- 
some if they did not come to a reasonable agreement with 
their tenants and bring their holdings under cultivation. 

Assembly Bill 360, "specifying the responsibility in a 
publication and amending certain sections of the existing 
libel law," would have rendered that law abortive by mak- 
ing it possible for a newspaper to employ as a "libel 
editor" some irresponsible person who would be glad to go 
to jail upon occasion for a consideration. 

The Phihppines has a fairly good libel law and it was 
imperatively needed, for in oriental countries especially, 
the tendency of a public press which has been subjected 
to the strictest censorship is to run to license when com- 
plete liberty suddenly comes. 

Assembly Bill 370, creating the new province of Zam- 
boanga, embodied an attempt on the part of that body to 
legislate for territory inhabited by Moros and other non- 
Christian tribes, over which it had no jurisdiction. If 
passed, it would have led to bloodshed between Moros and 
Filipinos. 

Assembly Bill 433 was an act prohibiting the use of 
lumber imported from foreign countries in the construc- 
tion of pubhc buildings. It was not then possible to get 
enough native lumber to erect the public buildings 
authorized and needed. The passage of this act under the 
circumstances showed lack of business sense. 




A Giant Tree Fern. 



THE PHILIPPINE LEGISLATURE 781 

Assembly Bill 487 provided for compulsory school 
attendance. It was so worded as to make it largely in- 
operative, and if operative it would have been imprac- 
ticable, as there were something like 1,200,000 children of 
school age in the islands and there were neither teachers 
enough to instruct them, schoolhouses enough to hold 
them, nor funds available with which to pay for new build- 
ings and additional teachers. Its passage showed lack of 
business sense. 

Assembly Bill 547 amended the so-called "bandoler- 
ismo ' act." Up to the time of the American occupation 
brigandage had been a crying evil throughout the islands. 
The amendment proposed would not only have greatly 
weakened the act under which it had been very success- 
fully suppressed, but would have turned loose 1156 crim- 
inals, many of whom were desperate and hardened, 
seriously disturbing the tranquillity of the country and 
necessitating the early hunting down of many of 
them. 

Assembly Bill 567 was "An Act empowering the Secre- 
tary of Commerce and Police to make contracts with silk 
producers, insuring them the purchase of their silk at a 
price not to exceed $9 per pound." The Bureau of 
Science had conclusively demonstrated the possibility 
of estabhshing a silk industry in the Philippines. This 
extraordinary measure would have made it possible for 
an executive officer to provide for the expenditure of all 
the revenues of the government in case of a great develop- 
ment of the silk industry. Its passage showed lack of 
business sense. 

Assembly Bill 558 was "An Act to provide for a perma- 
nent annual appropriation of $15,000 to reward the 
inventor of a steam plough or any mechanical engineer who 
shall perfect a ploughing machine." It was a foolish meas- 
ure, as there were various successful steam ploughs and 
other motor-drawn ploughs then in use, and there was no 

' Brigandage. 



782 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

good reason for offering a reward for the invention of a 
thing which already existed. 

Assembly Bill 395 was a most extraordinary and dan- 
gerous measure. The Spanish law fi.xed the age of consent 
of women at twenty-three, which is about ten years after 
the time when young girls in the Philippines begin to turn 
their thoughts toward marriage. Whenever a man had 
sexual relations with a woman under twenty-three he was 
liable to go to jail for rape unless pardoned by the parents, 
grandparents or guardian. This provision of law was 
continually taken advantage of in blackmailing persons. 
Suit would be brought and the necessary proof provided. 
Pardon would be offered for a consideration. The crime 
was known as a private crime, not a crime against the 
public. The commission had amended the Penal Code, 
making it a public crime so that once complaint was made 
no pardon on the part of the interested persons could stop 
the proceedings. There had been a consequent noticeable 
falling off in the number of cases brought for the purpose 
of extorting money. Assembly Bill 395 was designed to 
change this state of affairs and restore the old conditions. 
It was a vicious measure. 



Special Sessio7i 1910 

Assembly Bill 396 authorized the use of certain kinds of 
sledges on improved roads, although it had been abun- 
dantly demonstrated that they were veritable road 
destroyers. The commission had passed a law prohibit- 
ing their use and the natives had been compelled to sub- 
stitute for them carts with wide-tired wheels that turned 
freely on their axles, and improved the roads instead of 
ruining them. This bill was an effort to authorize a 
return to the road-wrecking practices which had pre- 
viously prevailed. 

Assembly Bill 481, "An Act prohibiting the admittance 
of women and of minors under eighteen years of age into 



THE PHILIPPINE LEGISLATURE 783 

cock-pits established in the Philippine Islands," was a 
measure encouraging vice, masquerading in the guise of a 
reform. By inference it permitted the entrance of women 
and minors more than 18 years of age to cock-pits for the 
purpose of gambling, and it provided that women and 
minors could go as sightseers ! 

Assembly Bill 491 authorized certain classes of people 
to have firearms irrespective of their individual char- 
acteristics. The presence of firearms in the hands of 
irresponsible people had been a source of great trouble and 
the granting of gun licenses was then restricted to persons 
in whom the government had entire confidence. This 
had been an important factor in suppressing brigandage 
and highway robbery, and the proposed change in the law 
was highly undesirable. 

Second Session 

Assembly Bill 141, "An Act repealing the last paragraph 
of Act Numbered 1979," took away from the governor- 
general authority to approve suspension of the additional 
cedula tax for road purposes, and gave it to provincial 
boards. The need of improved highways was very great 
as the inadequate system which had existed under the 
Spanish regime had gone to pieces during the war. A 
comprehensive plan of highways for the islands had been 
worked out and was being put into effect as rapidly as 
possible. This act would have allowed provincial boards 
to determine whether funds should be collected for road 
construction and maintenance, thus bringing this funda- 
mentally unportant question into the domain of local 
politics. 

Assembly Bill 168 provided that "the Spanish language 
shall continue to be the official language of the courts until 
such time as the Philippine Legislature shall provide 
otherwise." 

The reasons why the generalization of English was 



784 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

desirable in the Philippines have already been stated. 
Under then-existing provisions of law it was to become 
the official language of the courts in 1913. Assembly 
Bill 168 would have had the effect of leaving Spanish the 
official court language for an indefinite time, thus dis- 
couraging the use of English and discriminating against 
young lawyers who had made every effort to obtain a good 
knowledge of it because of its supposed certainty of use- 
fulness to them. 

A novel and objectionable feature of Assembly Bill 947, 
which appropriated $375,000 for the construction of roads 
and bridges, was that it made executive action of the 
secretary of commerce and police subject to the approval 
of a committee of the legislature. 

First and Special Sessions of 1913 

Assembly Bill 91 was "An Act prohibiting the exhibi- 
tion of inhabitants of the non-Christian tribes, and estab- 
lishing penalties for its violation." 

This act grew out of the desire of the assembly to con- 
ceal the fact of the existence of wild peoples in the Philip- 
pines. It prohibited the publication of indecent photo- 
graphs of non-Christians, and the appearance at any fair 
or carnival of a member of a non-Christian tribe clothed 
in such a manner as to offend against public morals. The 
commission committee which had this Act under advise- 
ment stated, as a part of their report on it, that : — 

"It is obvious that no indecent or immoral picture should 
be published, irrespective of whether the person or persons 
depicted are Christian or non-Christian. It is equally evident 
that no person should be allowed to appear at any exposition, 
fair or carnival in a costume which offends against morality, 
whatever may be his religious beliefs or his tribal relationships. 
Your committee is of the opinion that there now exists on the 
statute books adequate legislation properly penalizing the one 
offense and the other." 



THE PHILIPPINE LEGISLATURE 785 

This act also attempted to limit the right of non-Chris- 
tians to enter into contracts. 

Assembly Bill 130, "An Act declaring invalid the con- 
fession or declaration of a defendant against himself, when 
made under certain circmnstances," provided that courts 
should not give anj' value to a confession or declaration, 
oral or written, of any defendant against himself made 
before the agents of the constabulary', municipal police, 
judicial or executive officers, or before any other person 
not vested with authority, during his preventive detention, 
or while in their custody, imless ratified by the defendant 
himself in proper style before a competent court. 

Only persons famiUar with the extreme timidity of many 
Filipino witnesses, and with the frequency with which they 
deny in court true statements p^e^^ously made by them, 
can appreciate the dangerous character of this measure. 

Assembly Bill 170, "-An Act obliging manufacturing, 
industrial, agricultural, and commercial enterprises in the 
Phihppine Islands to pro\'ide themselves with a duly 
qualified physician and a medicine chest for urgent cases 
of accident and disease among their laborers, and for other 
purposes," would have had the effect of forcing the em- 
ploj-ment of a large number of incompetent Filipino 
phj'sicians for the reason that no one else would have been 
available to fill many of the positions in question. 

-Assembly Bill 172, "An Act protecting the plantation of 
the cocoanut tree," prohibited the damaging, destroying, 
uprooting or killing of any cocoanut plant or plants without 
the owner's consent. There was then going on a large 
amount of highway construction and widening. This 
bill would have strengthened the position of certain per- 
sons disposed to ask exorbitant prices for land needed 
for rights of way. At about this time the Manila Rail- 
road Company was compelled to pay a large sum for 
orange trees on a piece of land through which its road was 
to pass. On investigation the orange trees proved to be 
cuttings from branches, or young seedlings, recently 



786 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

stuck into the ground, many of them being akeady 
dead. 

Assembly Bill 250 would if passed have had the effect of 
depriving agents of the Society for Prevention of Cruelty 
to Animals of the power to make arrests, and of compelling 
the payment of all fines imposed and collected through the 
efforts of the society into the insular treasury, so that 
the society would have been dependent upon direct appro- 
priations for funds with which to prosecute its work. For 
three successive years there had been no appropriation bill. 
The Filipinos have little sympathy with the work of this 
society, and this was a scheme to kill it. Under the exist- 
ing law one-half of the fines in question go to it for use in 
promoting its objects. 

Assembly Bill 251, "An Act to create riu-al guards in all 
the municipalities organized under Act No. 82, and for 
other purposes," would seriously have interfered with the 
maintenance of a proper state of pubUc order. The duties 
which it proposed to vest in rural guards are now per- 
formed most satisfactorily by the PhiUppine Constabu- 
lary. The effect of the bill would have been to restrict 
the administrative authority of the cUrector of con- 
stabulary over the movements of his force, and to interfere 
with the administrative authority of mimicipal presidents 
to utilize their police as in their judgment the pubUc 
interests require. 

Assembly Bill 262 contained the following : — 

"Prodded: That the Director of Agriculture or his agents 
shall not adopt quarantine measures in pro\4nces organized 
under Act No. 83 -svithout previous agreement with the Pro- 
vincial Boards concerned." 

For many years no more serious problem has faced the 
insular government than that of stamping out the con- 
tagious diseases which were decimating the horses and 
cattle of the islands and threatening to render agricul- 
ture almost impossible. The director of agriculture was 



THE PHILIPPINE LEGISLATURE 787 

necessarily given wdde authority in the matter of estab- 
lishing proper quarantmes. This act would have taken 
necessary powers from him and vested them in provincial 
boards. Quarantinmg was very unpopular with tlie very 
people who were benefited most by it, hence the passage of 
this act. 

Assembly Bill 282 was designed to do away with the 
public unprovement tax in the provinces of Palawan, 
Mmdoro and Batanes, and to substitute therefor the so- 
called double cedula tax. This would have resulted in 
decreasing by one-half the amount of money available 
for the construction of public works in those provinces 
and increasing in the same amount that available for pay- 
ing salaries of officials and employees. 

Assembly Bill 312, amending "The Philippine Road 
Law" "so as to punish the violent occupation of land 
on both sides of any public highway, bridge, wharf, or 
trail at present occupied by other persons, since prior to 
the passage of such Act," would have prevented the 
recovery by the government of highway rights of way 
where they had been encroached upon by abutting owners 
during the long period of neglect of road maintenance 
attendant upon war. 

Assembly Bill 319, entitled "An Act to prohibit, and 
punish judges for the issuance of orders of arrest at hours 
of the night or on days other than working days," was a 
most extraordinary measure, the object and effect of which 
are apparent from merely reading its title. There are 365 
nights and 63 legal hohdays in the year, so that the time 
during which judges could issue orders of arrest without 
exposing themselves to punishment would have been 
somewhat restricted. 

Assembly Bill 324, entitled "An Act amending certain 
articles of the Penal Code of the Phihppine Islands," had 
for its object the reduction of the age of consent of women 
to the crimes of abduction and seduction. 

Assembly Bill 348 pro\'ided for the formation of a "poor 



788 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

list," and regulated "gratuitous medical attendance at 
public dispensaries and hospitals in the city of Manila and 
the municipahties, or pubhc hospitals in the provinces." 

One of the great things which the American govern- 
ment has done for the Phihppines is to bring medical and 
surgical service of a high order within the reach of a very 
large number of poor persons. By the proposed bill free 
service to Filipinos was limited to those who declared them- 
selves to be paupers. Many of the deserving poor would 
have preferred to perish miserably rather than make such 
a declaration. Most of the self-respecting poor of the 
islands are not paupers. Free service could be rendered 
to foreigners only on presentation of certificates of poverty 
from their consuls, usually residing in Manila, which would 
have worked great hardship on such persons living in remote 
parts of the islands and in need of immediate attention. 
Charitable free service furnished by the government was 
objected to by certain Fihpino physicians, who hoped to get 
paid for attending the persons thus relieved. The practi- 
cal result of the bill would have been to force the poor to 
depend on these people, and to pay their charges, which are 
frequently very exorbitant. 

COMMISSION BILLS DISAPPROVED BY THE ASSEMBLY 
SECOND LEGISLATURE 

Conmaission Bill 55, amending "The Philippine Admin- 
istrative Act by including vessels within the provisions of 
Sections 322 and 323 of said Act," was designed to make 
vessels responsible for the transportation of contraband 
cargo, or for smuggling merchandise, in the same degree 
that attached to vehicles for land transportation, the 
attorney-general having held that the word "vehicle" 
used in the existing law could not be construed to include 
vessels. This measure was important in connection with 
the suppression of opium smuggling. 

Commission Bill 59 amended an act providing for the 



^ ^ -~^ 







^ 









< J 






il 



/ 



THE PHILIPPINE LEGISLATURE 789 

punishment of perjury "by changing the punishment for 
perjury and by punishing persons who endeavour to procure 
or incite other persons to commit perjury." Its object 
was to remedy a defect in existing law under which there 
is no punishment provided for subornation of perjury 
in official investigations. 

Commission Bill 60, "An Act defining habitual crim- 
inals and providing additional punishment for the same," 
had for its object the breaking up of petty thieving, the 
records of the Bureau of Prisons showing that one hundred 
twenty-nine persons had been convicted twice, twenty a 
third time and one as high as thirty-two times. It would 
unquestionably have been a very useful measure. 

The Supreme Court of the United States had found that 
certain punishments of the Spanish Penal Code, partic- 
ularly with reference to the falsification of public and pri- 
vate documents, were cruel and unusual, and under its 
decisions a number of criminals, who should have served 
moderate sentences, were turned loose because the sen- 
tences actually imposed were admittedly too severe. 
The Penal Code fixed the penalties in such cases and gave 
no option to the judge to impose lesser ones. This 
decision of the Supreme Court of the United States had 
the practical effect of making it impossible to penahze 
certain crimes at all. Commission Bill 61 remedied this 
situation by providing moderate penalties. The bill was 
asked for by the secretary of finance and justice, who is 
a Filipino, and by the president of the code committee, 
but the assembly would not pass it. 

THIRD LEGISLATURE 

First Session and Special Session 

Commission Bill 59 provided "more severe punishment 
for illegal importers and dealers in opium." 

Great difficulty has been experienced in endeavouring 
to check the use of opium in the islands. 



790 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

Commission Bill 70 provided for gradually restricting 
cock-fighting by decreasing from year to year the number of 
days on which it was allowed. It imposed annual license 
fees of S5 on each fighting cock or cock in training, pro- 
hibited persons under 18 years of age and women, except 
tourists, from entering cock-pits, and forbade all games 
of chance of any kind on the premises of a cock-pit. 

This very cursory review of some of the acts which have 
failed of passage will serve to show, in a general way, the 
attitudes of the two houses toward a number of important 
questions. 

Had the commission not prevented the passage of much 
dangerous and vicious legislation approved by the as- 
sembly the public service would have suffered seriously, 
and public order would have been endangered. 

Heretofore the commission has prevented the enact- 
ment of really vicious legislation. By giving the Filipinos 
a majority in this body a very important safeguard has 
been removed. 

Another serious result will follow. It was undoubtedly 
the will of Congress, when its Act of July 1, 1902, was 
passed, that Americans should control legislation for the 
Moros and other non-Christians ; hence the power to 
legislate for the territory which they inhabit was reserved 
by Congress for the commission. Under the new arrange- 
ment Filipinos will control in this matter also, and so the 
will of Congress will be defeated, although the letter of the 
law is not violated. The outlook for the backward peoples 
of the islands, under these circumstances, cannot fail to 
arouse grave apprehension among all who are genuinely 
interested in them. 

The elections for delegates to the assembly have caused 
endless trouble in many of the provinces. Neither the 
people at large nor the candidates themselves have as yet 
learned cheerfully to accept the will of the majority, and 
the number of protested election cases is out of all propor- 
tion to the number of delegates. 



THE PHILIPPINE LEGISLATURE 791 

In many towns, like Cuyo, these elections have given 
rise to serious feuds which have brought their previously 
rapid social and material progress to a standstill, divided 
famiUes against each other, and in general have produced 
very disastrous results. Many of the best people of Cuyo 
are now begging to have the right to elect an assemblyman 
taken from their province, on the ground that otherwise 
there is no hope for the restoration of normal conditions. 

The assembly is the judge of the qualifications of its 
members. It has seen fit to admit a number of very 
disreputable characters. In my opinion neither the char- 
acter of its members nor that of the legislation passed 
by it has justified its estabhshment, much less the 
" Filipinization " of the commission. 



CHAPTER XXVIII 

The Picturesque Philippines 

Having now devoted a good deal of time to the con- 
sideration of political conditions in the Philippines, 
let us turn our attention to the islands themselves and 
consider their phj'sical characteristics, their cUmate 
and their commercial possibilities. 

There has been much discussion as to the number of 
islands in the archipelago. The United States Coast 
and Geodetic Survey has counted them. Big and little 
they number thirty-one hundred fortj^-one, of which ten 
himdred ninety-five are large and fertile enough to be 
inhabited. 

The total land area is a hundred fifteen thousand 
twenty-six square miles. The Philippines lie between 
5° and 22° North Latitude and 117° and 127° East 
Longitude. It follows that the lowlands throughout 
the archipelago have a tropical climate, and in the 
past those two words have been very generally con- 
sidered to spell danger for people of the white race. In 
this connection it should be said, first, that the Philip- 
pines have one of the most healthful tropical climates in 
the world, and second, that the results of sanitary work 
both there and within the limits of the Panama Canal 
zone have largely eliminated the tropical climate bugaboo. 
There is plenty of malaria in some portions of the archi- 
pelago, but that is a matter of mosquitoes, not of climate, 
and there is no difficulty in freeing any given region from 
this disease if drainage is practicable. 

The two great drawbacks to life in the tropics are ad- 
mittedly heat and humidity. Curiously enough the heat 

792 



THE PICTURESQUE PHILIPPINES 793 

in most parts of the Philippines is never extreme. We 
do not have in Manila anything approaching the high 
temperatures sometimes experienced in New York or 
Boston. Humidity in the atmosphere makes heat trying, 
and is responsible for what we call "sultry" days. The 
dry-bulb thermometer shows how hot one is, but it takes 
an instrument with a wet bulb to show how hot one feels. 
Fortunately, the periods of greatest heat and greatest 
humidity do not coincide in the islands. April and May 
are the hottest months, while August and September 
have the highest humidity. 

It must be remembered, however, that very extreme 
heat for a few days, followed by cool weather, is not so 
debilitating as is a lower temperature which is neverthe- 
less continuously high. There are often many days in suc- 
cession during May when the thermometer stands in the 
nineties, but there is usually a cool northeasterly breeze 
at that season, and throughout the Philippines, except 
in the Cagayan valley and in one or two other inland 
regions of the larger islands, hot nights are almost un- 
known. Indeed, it is doubtless due to the fact that the 
land area is broken into myriad islands, and is there- 
fore swept by the cooling sea breezes, that it has 
such an exceptionally healthful climate. The heat is 
never trying when the monsoons blow, and they blow 
much of the time. 

Speaking of the islands in general one may say that 
they have a wet season from July to October and a dry 
season from December to May, the weather during June 
and November being variable. On the Pacific coast, 
however, these seasons are reversed, and in the southern 
Phihppines they are not well defined, the rainfall being 
quite uniformly distributed throughout the year. During 
the months of November, December, Januarj^ and Febru- 
ary weather conditions are usually ideal, with bright, 
clear days and cool and decidedly invigorating nights. 
Comfort throughout the year is largely dependent on oc- 



794 



THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 



cupying well-ventilated houses from which the winds are 
not shut off. 

The following table shows for each month the highest 
temperature, the lowest temperature and the average 
temperature recorded at Manila from 1885 until 1912 : — 



Month 



Highest ° F. 


Lowest " F. 


Average "F. 


93.0 


59.0 


76.8 


96.1 


60.3 


77.5 


97.2 


61.2 


79.9 


99.9 


64.4 


82.8 


100.9 


08.7 


83.3 


99.7 


70.9 


82.2 


95.4 


70.0 


80.8 


95.4 


69.1 


80.8 


95.5 


69.6 


80.4 


95.2 


67.3 


80.2 


93.0 


62.2 


78.6 


92.3 


60.3 


77.4 



January . 
February 
March . 
April . . 
May . . 
June . . 
July . . 

AuglLSt . 

September 
October . 
November 
December 



The highest temperature ever recorded at Manila is 
103.5° Fahrenheit, in May, 1878 ; the next highest, 101.9° 
in May, 1912. 

It should be remembered that there are no abrupt 
changes either between day and night or from season to 
season, and that one can therefore wear light, cool cloth- 
ing throughout the year. 

Far from being oppressive, the tropical nights are, as 
a rule, dehghtful. I know of nothing more satisfying 
in its way than a stroll in the moonlight on a hard beach 
of snow-white coral sand bordered by graceful cocoanut 
palms on the one hand and by rolling surf on the other. 

The vegetation in the provinces is a constant delight. 
Unfortunately, in the immediate vicinity of Manila it is 
less attractive than in most other parts of the archipelago, 
but by crossing the bay to the Lanao forest on the slopes 
of Mariveles Mountain, or by taking an automobile ride 
to Atimonan, one may see it in all its magnificence. No 



THE PICTURESQUE PHILIPPINES 795 

word painter, however skilled, can convey any adequate 
idea of it. 

Everywhere, both on land and at sea, one sees matchless 
greens and blues, — greens in the vegetation and in the 
water, blues in the water and in the sky. The cloud 
effects are often marvellously fine. I had begun to think 
that perhaps my prolonged residence in the PhiHppines 
had made me forget what was to be seen in other countries, 
but in 1913 I took the distinguished English vulcanologist, 
Dr. Tempest Anderson, on a trip with me, and his enthu- 
siasm over the cloud views knew no bounds. 

Phihppine simsets are unsurpassed and unsurpassable. 
I have repeatedly noted one remarkable effect which I 
have never seen elsewhere, namely the complete reflection 
in the east of the western evening sky. On the occasion 
when I first witnessed one of these extraordinary sights 
I could hardly beUeve my senses. I was at sea, and had 
taken a late afternoon siesta. When I awoke familiar 
landmarks showed me that I was looking due east, and yet 
I saw a magnificent sunset with v/onderful beams of rays 
radiating from a dark cloud behind which it seemed that 
the sun must be hidden. A glance to the westward 
furnished the explanation of the mj^stery, for the view 
was duplicated there. I have seen similar wonderful 
sights several times. 

A typhoon, or tropical cyclone, is often dreadfully de- 
structive but is a most imposing thing to watch from a 
safe viewpoint, and the weather service in the Philippines 
is so excellent that if one observes such a storm from an 
unsafe viewpoint it is usually one's own fault. The rush 
of the mighty waves at sea and their thunder on the shore, 
where they may dash up the cHffs for hundreds of feet, are 
awe inspiring. The resistless sweep of the wind, which 
sometimes attains a velocity of a hundred twenty miles 
an hour, or even more, makes one feel one's insignifi- 
cance. If one chances to be in the region over which the 
centre of the storm passes, there comes a sudden lull in the 



796 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

terrific gale, followed by a dead calm. Often the sun shines 
for a brief interval, and then, without warning, the wind 
renews its relentless assault, coming from a direction dia- 
metrically opposed to that from which it was blowing 
before the lull. The rainfall is often enormous. At such 
times rivulets are converted into roaring rivers, valleys 
into lakes. 

If one is near buildings with galvanized roofs which 
may fly through the air in pieces, or trees which may blow 
down, it is best to keep under cover, but after the storm 
there are always to be seen curious and interesting freaks of 
wind and water. When the northern district of Manila is 
flooded, as not infrequently happens during severe ty- 
phoons, the people turn out for a regular water fiesta as 
soon as the wind moderates, and go paddling about the 
streets in dugout canoes, wooden tubs, or on rafts ex- 
temporized from old barrels, pieces of bamboo, or the 
stems of bananas which have been blown down. 

Due warning of the approach of a typhoon is given by 
the Weather Bureau at least twenty-four hours in advance, 
so that the damage done may be reduced to a minimum. 
Houses of light materials are apt to suffer severely, but 
serious damage to strongly built houses is comparatively 
rare, as they are constructed with a view to meeting just 
such conditions. 

Waterspouts are among the most imposing and pictu- 
resque of nature's phenomena in the Philippines. I have 
repeatedly had the good fortune to watch them form, and 
start on their stately march across the sea, but to my 
everlasting regret have never had a camera available on 
such occasions. They sometimes produce a rain of fishes. 

The scenery is never monotonous. At sea one views a 
constantly changing panorama of islands, many of which 
are picturesque in the extreme. On land one may travel 
over long stretches of level, fertile plains, but there are 
always fine mountains in the background, and once among 
them what pleasures await one ! Some are grass-covered 



THE PICTURESQUE PHILIPPINES 797 

to their very peaks ; others are buried from base to sum- 
mit in the rankest tropical growth. On yet others, pine 
forests begin to cover the slopes at four thousand feet, 
and are in turn replaced by oak forests at five or six 
thousand feet. The numerous rushing streams and water- 
falls are a joy in themselves. In one short day one may 
go from the tropics to the temperate zone, and come back 
again. 

Active and extinct volcanoes form a striking feature of 
many Philippine landscapes. Of the former, Mayon, in 
the province of Albay, is the delight of the vulcanologist 
and of the layman ahke on account of its exquisite form, 
which is that of the theoretically perfect volcano. It 
rises to a height of seventy-nine hundred sixteen feet 
from an almost level plain, and the extreme outer pe- 
riphery of its base measures approximately a hundred 
twenty miles. An excellent automobile road extends 
completely around it, well within the peripheral line above 
mentioned, and the trip, which has no equal in its way, 
may readily be made in haK a day. 

Mayon is a storehouse of titanic energy which has 
frequently broken forth in the past with destructive vio- 
lence. During the last eruption, which occurred in 1900, 
lava flowed into the sea at a distance of some fourteen 
kilometres ' from the crater. During previous eruptions 
whole towns have been destroyed by lava flows or by falling 
volcanic ejecta. Mayon is quiet at present and has been 
repeatedly climbed of late. The trip is dangerous be- 
cause of the steepness of the slopes and the unstable na- 
ture of the material composing them. It takes two days. 

Taal Volcano, situated on an island in Bombon Lake, 
and distant but thirty-nine miles from Manila, is of special 
interest on account of its destructive eruption on January 
30, 1911, which killed some fourteen hundred people 
within the space of a few moments. It is very easily 
climbed, the elevation of the lowest point of the crater rim 

' 8J miles. 



798 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

above the lake being only 369 feet, and the ascent 
gentle. 

Other important active volcanoes are Apo, in Min- 
danao ; Catarman, on the island of Camiguin ; Canlaon, 
sometimes also called Malaspina, on Negros ; Caua, in 
northeastern Luzon ; and Claro Babuyan, on the island 
of the same name. A considerable number of the volcanic 
peaks of the Pliihppines, including the one last named, 
have never been ascended. 

It goes without saying that in a country where there 
are so many active, dormant and extinct volcanoes hot 
and mineral springs are of common occurrence. On the 
slopes of Canlaon there are three of the former, known 
respectively as "the chicken killer," "the hog killer" 
and "the carabao Idller," on account of the supposed de- 
structive powers of their waters. The Tivi Spring, near 
the base of Mayon Volcano, is famous. The water of 
Sibul Spring, in Bulacan Province, has medicinal proper- 
ties of undoubted value, as do the waters of various other 
mineral springs, including those at Itogon and Daklan 
in Benguet. The scenic surroundings of some of them are 
most attractive, and doubtless important watering places 
will be estabUshed in their vicinity in the course of time. 

Gigantic limestone cliffs are among the most striking 
features of many of the more mountainous regions, and in 
some parts of the islands, especially along the coast of 
Palawan, rise directly out of the sea. They take on won- 
derfully beautiful, and sometimes very weird, forms and 
are often full of caves in which may be found the famous 
edible birds' nests, so highly prized by the Chinese. 

A range of Umestone mountains ends at St. Paul's 
Bay on the west coast of Palawan. The bay takes its 
name from a majestic peak, vnth a wonderful limestone 
dome, which looks like a cathedral. Near it is another 
remarkable mountain called Liberty Cap, on account of 
its peculiar form. Beneath this range lies the scenic 
wonder of the Philippines, the famous Underground River, 



THE PICTURESQUE PHILIPPINES 799 

up which a ship's launch can run for more than three 
miles to what is called the "stone pile," caused by the 
falUng of a great section of the roof. One may climlD this 
obstruction, and utihzing native boats dragged over it 
by my party in August, 1912, may continue for a distance 
of half a mile, to a point where the roof of the cave drops 
to the level of the surface of the water, and further prog- 
ress becomes impossible. 

A trip up this river is an experience never to be for- 
gotten. There is no danger of getting lost, as the three 
short side passages which i-un off from the main cavern all 
end bUndly. The channel has been mapped by the Coast 
and Geodetic Survey and is plainly marked at all critical 
points. 

One's launch should be provided ■nith very powerful 
acetylene lights so arranged as to give a general illumi- 
nation. Stalactites and stalagmites occur in every con- 
ceivable form. There are vaulted chambers which are 
full of them, and there are long straight passages which 
lack them and have roofs and walls resembling those of a 
New York subwaJ^ In places the cavern is full of edible- 
nest-building sWts and of bats. The air in the main 
passage is fresh. During the rainj'- season water runs 
from the roof in many places, and one must expect an oc- 
casional shower bath, but this is the only cUscomfort 
attendant upon the trip. 

Unfortunately, the mouth of this river is quite fully 
exposed to the heavy seas stirred up by the southwest 
monsoon, which heap up sand, forming a bar on which 
the surf breaks heavily ; but during the northeast mon- 
soon the ciuTent often opens up a wide and deep channel 
through this bar. 

There are several other underground rivers in the Phil- 
ippines. An adventm-ous soldier embarked in a banca 
on one in Samar, and passed completely under a large 
mountain. Judging from his description of his experiences, 
this trip would be remarkably well worth taking. 



800 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

In the limestone caves we may some day find remains 
which will throw light on the history of the early in- 
habitants of the Philippines, as many of them have been 
used for bm'ial purposes in bygone times. 

Pleasurable river navigation is by no means confined 
to underground streams. In Mindanao there are two 
rivers which offer strong attractions to tourists. One 
may ascend the Rio Grande de Cotabato through fertile 
plains, to a remarkable series of lakes swarming with great 
tame crocodiles and with a wonderful variety of water- 
fowl. On this trip one will see the IMoros at home. 
The Agusan River, which rises near Davao Gulf and 
empties on the north coast of Mindanao, is the largest 
navigable stream in the islands. During ordinary- 
weather it is strictly confined between well-marked banks. 
The dense forests which cover them have been cleared 
in a few places to make room for IVIanobo villages. Ex- 
quisite orchids and beautiful ferns abound. After as- 
cending the river for one hundred twenty miles one comes 
to a remarkable submerged forest in a region which sub- 
sided a few years ago during a great seismic disturbance. 
Formerly it was very unsafe to enter it without taking 
an experienced guide, as the original river bed was com- 
pletely destroyed and the many small streams flowing 
through the sunken area formed a very compUcated 
maze. Now, however, two clearly defined canals have 
been opened up, both terminating in the immediate 
vicinity of the town of Veruela, and a trip through either 
of them will not soon be forgotten, for here tropical veg- 
etation is seen at its very best. 

During a portion of the year one may ascend the Rio 
Grande de Cagayan, the great river of northern Luzon, 
in a good-sized stern-wheel steamer for a distance of one 
hundred twenty miles, passing through a sparsely settled 
but potentially very rich agricultural district which now 
produces the best tobacco grown in the islands. 

It is a common thing for temporary residents in the 



THE PICTURESQUE PHILIPPINES 801 

PhiUppines to quote the foolish saying that the flowers 
are without odour and the birds without song. There is 
no more delicious fragrance than that given off in the 
evening by the shmb known as dama de noche} The per- 
fume made from ilang-ilang flowers goes all over the world. 
That extracted from the blossoms of the champaca brings 
fabulous prices. Jasmine is produced in abundance. If 
one wishes a hea%aer odour, tuberoses furnish it, while 
many species of trees make the whole forest fragrant 

when in flower. . , -i ,.u 

Some of the bu-ds are sweet singers, while others 
brighten the landscape with their vivid colours. A row 
of snowy egrets, perched on the back of a carabao, pre- 
sents a striking picture. One constantly hears by day 
the plaint of the limocon, a wood pigeon which exercises 
a most extraordinary influence over the Uves of mariy of 
the wild people, for they believe that the direction and the 
nature of its notes augur good or ill for the enterprises 
which they have in hand. The crescendo shriek of a 
great black cuckoo, called by the natives hahow, com- 
monly heard at night, is likely to cause alarm to one not 
cognizant of its origin, and has led many a sentry on a 
wild goose chase into a mangrove swamp m the belief 
that he was hastening to the rescue of some human being 
undergoing dreadful torment. , , . ^ 

One of the most interesting of the feathered demzens of 
Philippine fields and forests is the inconspicuous tailor bird, 
which carefully unmnds the silk from cocoons, and using 
it for thread, stitches together the edges of h\ang leaves 
and then builds its nest in the green pocket thus formed. 
The insects are as varied and interesting as are the birds. 
There are very numerous species of ants, and the mani- 
festations of their extraordinary inteUigence are well 
worth careful observation. The work of the huge flocks 
of locusts which sometimes devastate the fields is worth 
seeing, although the sight is not a cheering one. There 
1 Lady of the night. 



802 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

are butterflies and moths of great size and of the most 
brilliant and varied hues. Some of the very gaudily- 
coloured species disappear as if by magic when they alight, 
because the under surfaces of their wings, exposed when 
they close them, perfectly resemble dead leaves. Other 
protectively coloured insects look marvellously hke green 
leaves or dead twigs. 

After all is said and done, the most interesting study 
of mankind is man, and man in most varied form is to be 
found in the Philippines, beginning with Manila itself, 
where the mixture of Chinese, Japanese, Spanish, English, 
German and American blood with that of the original 
Malay invaders has produced a wonderfully varied series 
of types. 

Many of the women are bravely decked out in the gay- 
est of colours, which harmonize well with their raven black 
hair and brown or yellow skins. 

Manila is a very interesting city. North of the Pasig 
River are several native residence districts which have 
changed comparatively little in a century. Old Manila, 
lying just south of the river, is one of the best remaining 
examples of a walled town, and it has many buildings 
which have withstood tjrphoons and earthquakes for cen- 
turies. Its churches are of especial interest. The acous- 
tic properties of the cathedral are excellent, and if an 
opportunity to hear fine music there presents itself it 
should not be missed. 

At the University of Santo Tomds and at the Jesuit 
convento there are good museums. The insular govern- 
ment has a museum on Calle Anloague, where may be seen 
very interesting ethnological collections and an important 
and striking exhibit of the products of the Philippine 
forests. 

In the botanical and zoological collections of the Bureau 
of Science specialists will find a wealth of material. 

The Philippine General Hospital richly repays a visit. 
It is the largest and most complete institution of its kind 



THE PICTURESQUE PHILIPPINES 803 

in the Far East, and within its walls American and Fili- 
pino physicians, surgeons and nurses work side by side for 
the rehef of suffering humanity. 

I have only hinted at a few of the interesting sights 
which may be seen without leaving the city limits. The 
open country and the provincial towns are made readily 
accessible by splendid automobile roads. To the north 
one finds great mango trees with their solid hemispheres 
of beautiful foliage, and endless rice-fields in the culti- 
vation of which the people still employ the methods of 
bygone centuries. The good sanitary condition in many 
of the towns shows that American and Filipino health 
officers have not been idle. 

To the south the automobile road runs straight away to 
Atimonan on the Pacific coast, distant one hundred twelve 
miles. It passes near Bandjao, one of the most beautiful 
extinct volcanoes of the Philippines ; is bordered for 
long distances by cocoanut gi'oves, and extends for many 
miles through a most beautiful forest. 

No visit to the Philippines is complete without a trip 
to Baguio, the sunnner capital. It is reached by train and 
automobile in less than a day. Here one is just at the 
edge of the wild man's country and may go to villages of 
the Benguet Igorots in an automobile. 

Starting at Baguio, one may take one of the most won- 
derful horseback journeys in the world over the "Moun- 
tain Trail" to Cervantes in the neighbouring sub-province 
of Lepanto and thence to Bontoc, the capital of the 
Mountain Province. Here dwell the Bontoc Igorots, who 
were famous head-hunters until brought under American 
control. Four or five days more will suffice to make a trip 
north to Lubuagan, the capital of the sub-province of Ka- 
linga, inhabited by another most picturesque tribe of 
head-hunters. They are physically a wonderfully devel- 
oped people, and their personal cleanliness, brightly 
coloured clothes, and striking feather ornaments make 
them especially attractive. 



804 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

On the way one is sure to see women clad in skirts 
extemporized from banana leaves, camote tops, or ferns, of 
a type popularly but wrongly supposed not to have been 
in style since the days of mother Eve. 

From Bontoc one rides to the eastward over the Mount 
Polls range and descends along the wonderful terraced 
mountain sides of the Ifugaos, finding everywhere abun- 
dant evidences of the extraordinary industry displayed 
by the people of this head-hunting tribe. At Quiangan 
the traveller will be amazed to see beautiful buildings of 
cut stone, and when informed that they have been erected 
by Ifugao schoolboys under an American foreman will 
doubt the possibility of such a thing unless he is fortunate 
enough to see the boys at work. 

From this point one may return to Baguio by way of 
Sapao, and the Agno River valley, or may continue his 
journey to the eastward, coming out on the fertile plains 
of Nueva Vizcaya. Before the return to the lowlands of 
Fangasindn from this province one may make a short side 
trip of half a day into the country of the Ilongots, but I 
do not recommend such an expedition to persons not fa- 
miliar with the ways of savages who are sometimes inclined 
to be a bit treacherous. The Ilongots have harmed only 
one white man, but they still occasionally murder each 
other, and it is hard always to know what they will do next. 

There are comfortable rest houses at frequent inter- 
vals along the excellent horse trails over which one 
rides in making this trip, so that all one really requires 
is a good horse and saddle and necessary clothing. Bag- 
gage is transported by Igorot carriers or pack ponies. 
It is always well to take one's own blankets. Good thick 
ones will be needed, for the Mountain Trail reaches an 
elevation of seventy-five hundred feet, and at this height 
the nights are cold. 

Until within a short time it has been impossible for 
tourists to travel with comfort in the Philippines. There 
was no good hotel even at Manila. This latter difficulty 



THE PICTURESQUE PHILIPPINES 805 

has now fortunately been remedied. The old carriage 
and cart roads were impassable during much of the year. 
Their place has been taken, in many provinces, by heavily 
surfaced automobile roads serviceable at all times. 
Accommodations on the inter-island boats were atro- 
cious. They are still far from first-class, but are rapidly 
improving, and on a number of the steamers are now very 
fair. There is good prospect that a number of new and 
up-to-date steamers will be put on inter-island routes in 
the near future. 

Meanwhile it can safely be said that the world does not 
afford more attractive ground for yachting than that to 
be found in the Philippines. The scenery among the 
Calairdanes Islands and in Bacuit Bay and Malampaya 
Sound is beautiful beyond description. That of the 
famous Inland Sea of Japan does not compare with it. 
Safe, quiet anchorages are to be found at frequent inter- 
vals, and the weather during the winter months usually 
leaves nothing to be desired. 



VOL. II — X 



CHAPTER XXIX 

Rod, Shotgun and Rifle 

The Philippines offer strong attractions to the devotees 
of the shotgun and the rifle, and they are a fisherman's 
paradise. 

Having in my earlier days spent some four years in 
collecting natural history specimens in the islands I did 
not need to be enlightened as to the pleasure which 
might be had in hunting ducks, snipe, shore birds, jungle 
fowl, and wild pigeons ; nor as to those afforded to the 
hunter of large game by bringing down wild carabaos, 
hogs, and deer, bagging an occasional man-eating crocodile, 
or trying to outwit the wily tamarau of Mindoro, which 
is one of the most difficult of all forest-inhabiting rumi- 
nants to track down and kill, and has an uncomfortable 
habit of hunting the hunter when molested ; but now, in 
view of my neglected early opportunities, I must confess 
with shame and confusion of face that it remained for 
Governor-General Forbes to show me, after I had re- 
sided in the islands for sixteen years that I had been 
missing a sport fit for kings by not sooner taking up 
fishing in the sea. 

To one who has been even temporarily attached to a 
hundred-pound barracuda through the medium of a spUt 
bamboo rod, a tarpon reel, three hundred yards of line, 
and a good strong spoon hook, or has fought a sixty- 
pound tanguingui, or even a thirty-pound pampano, to 
a finish, it seems strange that any one should ever have 
characterized fishing as a "gentle art." 

If good old Sir Izaak Walton had struggled with a big 
tuna until his fingers and thumbs were blistered or 

806 



ROD, SHOTGUN AND RIFLE 807 

skinned, and every muscle in his body was tired and sore, 
only to see a huge shark bite his finny prey off back of 
the gills when it was almost ready to gaff, it is possible 
that his language in discussing fishing would have been 
less mild, and his general attitude toward the subject 
less gently philosophic. 

Verily, Sir Izaak missed much by not having been born 
after modern fishing tackle had been invented and em- 
ployed in taking the denizens of deep tropical seas. Let 
no one be unduly dismayed over the diminution of big 
game fish in the vicinity of Catalina Island, or ofT the 
Florida coast, for among the myriad islands of the Phihp- 
pine Archipelago one may fish to one's heart's content, 
visiting grounds already well known, or seeking new ones 
for himself, in the assurance that the supply of marine 
game fishes will not be perceptibly diminished for many 
a long year to come. 

Soon after his arrival, Governor-General Forbes began 
to inquire about the opportunities for sea fishing. He 
received little reliable information and less encourage- 
ment, but undeterred, proceeded to find out for himself 
when and where to fish and what tackle to use in order 
to obtain the best results. At the outset his efforts netted 
him few fish or none, but he kept at it as opportunity 
offered, and, thanks to his perseverance, the sport is now 
firmly established on a sound basis. 

One must have rod, reel, line and gaff suitable for tar- 
pon fishing, and an abundant supply of good spoon hooks, 
wire leaders and swivels. Live bait and cut bait are as 
useful here as elsewhere, but game fish are so abundant, 
and spoon hooks have proved so successful in taking 
them, that comparatively little use has as yet been made 
of other lures. One should fish from a power boat which 
can be slowed down to four miles an hour without stopping, 
and will safely ride a moderately heavy sea. 

When thus equipped, if the fisherman hies him to the 
edge of a coral reef where the bottom slopes steeply down- 



808 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

ward, runs the boat so that he sees green water on one 
side and black water on the other, and pays out fifty to 
a hundred yards of line, he will not have long to wait be- 
fore his reel sings the merry tune so dear to the heart of 
his kind, and he finds himself vainly striving, with both 
thumbs on the brake, to lower the pitch of that insistent 
high note by slowing down the speed of the barracuda 
which has grabbed the spoon, hooked itself securely, and 
started for the coast of China with the obvious intention 
of getting there before dark. 

A big barracuda may take fifty yards of line in his first 
rush and he may take two hundred , but one can be certain that 
when he is finally stopped he will jump clear of the water, 
and then will jump again just to show that he means it. 
After that, as he is reeled in, he will jump some more to 
keep up the interest. Ultimately, having acquired the habit 
of coming toward the boat, he will continue to practise 
it until he sees that craft, whereupon he is likely to start 
off at a rate which makes his first rush seem slow and 
deliberate. Now and then he will run down on the line 
for variety's sake, and then is the time for the boatmen 
to get into action, for if he gets slack line nothing remains 
but to bid him good-by as cheerfully as possible. 

The largest specimen yet taken in the Philippines and 
actually weighed was a hundred ten pound monster 
caught on a trolling line trailed behind the coast guard 
cutter Polillo, on which I was making an inspection trip 
along the west coast of southern Palawan. 

The largest specimen yet taken with rod and reel 
weighed fifty-two and eight-tenths pounds. It was 
brought to gaff in Biobican Bay by Governor Leo J. Grove 
of Nueva Vizcaya. 

Very numerous individuals weighing between twenty 
and forty-five pounds have been captured, and the only 
reason why numbers of much larger specimens have not 
been taken is that tackle was not strong enough, or the 
skill of the fishermen was not sufficiently great. Big 



EOD, SHOTGUN AND RIFLE 809 

barracudas have teeth that would do credit to small sharks, 
and have sawed through or broken many a wh-e leader. 

In the Philippines, as in other civiUzed countries, 
there are not lacking narrators of good "fish stories." 
From Fihpino residents of San Juan, Siquijor, I recently 
heard a tale of a barracuda which towed a native dugout 
boat all day, jumping frequently, and was finally cut 
loose after dark by its disgusted would-be captors who 
found themselves unable to tire it out ! 

Of tanguingui, or sail fish, there are at least two 
species. The smaller commonly attains a weight of twenty 
to forty pounds. In the open sea off the coast of Leyte I 
took a specimen which measured sixty-four inches in length 
and weighed sixty-five pounds. It proved to be of a 
species new to science. This magnificent fish, when fresh 
from the sea, was a sight calculated to cheer a graven 
image. 

Tanguingui fight much as do barracuda, except that 
they seldom jump out of the water after being hooked 
unless pursued by sharks. This seems strange, as under 
normal conditions they leap for the pure joy of the thing, 
attaining heights which I hesitate to specify lest I be held 
to have qualified for the Ananias club. I know of nothing 
more startling in its way than the shock one gets when 
his eye has missed the upward leap of a big tanguingui 
but catches the fish as it is dropping back toward the sea, 
apparently from the clouds. 

While barracuda and tanguingui may be taken through- 
out the year, there seems to be a time when the fish of the 
latter species "run." At all events they are found in 
great numbers during April and May in the vicinity of 
Fortune Island, a short distance south of Manila Baj', 
but are very scarce, or entirely absent, there during the 
remainder of the year. I once visited the famous fishing 
grounds around Tanguingui Island, north of Cebii, in 
August, only to be assured by a hght-keeper that I would 
find no fish at that season. He said that the barracuda 



810 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

would return in November and the tanguingui in February. 
His prediction as to tlie fishing in August promptly came 
true. 

Pampano rank high among the game fish of the Philip- 
pines. What will California coast fishermen, accustomed 
to taking little fellows weighing a pound or two, say to 
fifty-pound individuals ? I can imagine what they would 
say if not confronted by hard facts, but the truth is that 
a number of such pampanos have already been taken with 
rod and reel in the Philippines, and that there are plenty 
more waiting to be caught. During a trip to Palawan 
in December, 1911, Captain Tornroth of the coast guard 
cutter Polillo took a forty-nine-pound specimen. The 
same evening Dr. Victor G. Heiser, Director of Health, 
took an individual weighing thii'ty-two pounds. The 
following August the record was raised first to fifty-three 
pounds and then to sixty-three and a half pounds, the 
latter fish being caught by Mr. Frank W. Sweitzer. 

The pampano takes the hook with a rush and seldom 
misses his strike. He never leaps while being played, 
but helps himself to line very liberally at the outset and 
runs deep at once. A large specimen is never satisfied 
until almost directly under the boat with several hundred 
feet of line out, and will get bottom, snag the line on a sharp 
point of rock or a branch of coral, and break away, if 
such a thing is materially possible. A pampano never 
quits fighting until he is in the boat, and is an adept at 
turning up his broad side after being hooked and swim- 
ming in a circle, resisting to the utmost all efforts to raise 
him. Under reasonably favourable circumstances it 
usually takes from twenty minutes to half an hour to 
land a twenty-five-pound individual. Pampano run in 
schools and when they once begin to bite the fun is fast 
and furious. 

The sergeant fish is one of the gamest fighters for his 
weight to be met with in Philippine waters. He keeps 
up his determined rushes until brought to the side of the 



ROD, SHOTGUN AND RIFLE 811 

boat and leaps frequently while being played, at the same 
time making vigorous efforts to shake the hook. None 
of the specimens so far taken have exceeded twenty 
pounds in weight. 

Ocean bonito are often met with in great schools and 
present a wonderful sight when one drives one's boat 
among them and sees them leaping high into the air, 
close at hand, on every side. The largest specimen yet 
caught with rod and reel is a sixty-pounder taken by 
Governor Forbes. I have seen numerous individuals 
which must certainly have weighed a hundred pounds 
or more. 

Red snappers weighing five to twenty pounds also occur 
in great schools. They are usually caught with bait by 
sinking in deep water, but at times take the spoon freely. 
The larger individuals make a game fight. Annually 
during November and December these fish run in very 
large numbers from Naujan Lake in Mindoro to the sea. 
Wliether or not they can be captured with rod and line 
while in fresh water remains to be determined. 

The lapu-lapu, or "groupers," of which there are twenty- 
four known species in the Phihppines, do not attain very 
great size, but are much prized on account of the delicious 
flavour of their especially tender flesh. Dr. Heiser has 
taken one weighing twenty-two pounds and I have seen the 
dried flesh of one which must have weighed approximately 
forty pounds. The colouring of a number of the species 
is extraordinarily beautiful. Some are light gray with 
. round blue spots ; others carmine red with blue spots over 
the body and blue lines and bars about the head ; others 
are dark blue with carmine spots. There seems no end 
to the variety and beauty of the colour patterns, and each 
new one appears for the moment more wonderful than 
those which one has seen before. 

Lapu-lapu have a special fondness for crevices in the 
rocks, and for holes in coral reefs, and in consequence are 
responsible for the loss of much good tackle. One must 



812 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

fight them from the moment they strike and give them no 
slack. The penalty for any carelessness in this regard 
is a broken line. 

Leather jacks, commonly called dorados in the PhiUp- 
pines on account of their beautifully coloured yellow 
bellies, are extraordinarily abundant at certain seasons 
of the year when they run into the shallow waters at the 
heads of bays and sounds, apparently to spawn. When 
encountered at all they afford good sport for their size, 
fighting well and frequently making splendid leaps out 
of the water even after they are brought close to the boat 
and are apparently tired out. They commonly run from 
five to fifteen pounds in weight, but occasionally reach 
eighteen or twenty pounds. 

The Phifippine giant sea-bass, or jewfish, belongs to 
the same family as does the California species. While 
I was on shore at Mseander Reef in August, 1911, mmier- 
ous hand lines with which sailors were fishing from the 
Polillo were carried away by jewfish. With the permis- 
sion of the captain, the ship's log fine was then pressed 
into service. I returned to the steamer just in time to 
assist in landing a hundred-and-thirty pound specimen. A 
steam trawler, which operated for a short time in the 
Philippines, took a specimen seven feet three inches in 
length, which weighed three hundred thirty-four and a 
fourth pounds. 

In Coron Passage during July, 1911, I fought a very 
large fish, probably a jewfish, for an hour and twenty 
minutes, at the end of which time his dead weight broke 
my fine when Governor Forbes, who was with me, at- 
tempted to lift him by it after he had indulged in a pro- 
longed sulk in deep water. Although I had fought him 
steadily, I could not see that I had tired him in the least. 
In the course of the fracas the butt of my rod had made a 
two by three inch black and blue spot on my right leg and 
had worn the skin off over a similar area on my left leg, 
while my abdomen lacked a good deal of epidermis and I 




Typical Scene at the Edge of a Hardwood Forest. 



ROD, SHOTGUN AND RIFLE 813 

was tempted to believe that it lacked some dermis as well. 
My companions who witnessed the fruitless fight christened 
this particular fish the "sea carabao." ^ 

Belt and socket should, of course, be used in fighting 
fish of such size. Heavy cots for the thumb and first 
finger of the left hand and the thumb of the right hand 
are very essential. I once got a badly burned thumb 
because I thought that I was not likely to hook a fish 
which would make a quarter-inch-thick leather brake heat 
through. A big ocean bonito promptly undeceived me. 

Very exciting sport may be had by harpooning the huge 
rays which come to the surface in great numbers at cer- 
tain seasons of the year. Specimens thirty feet across 
have been taken in the vicinity of the island of Siquijor. 
When one of these great fishes is harpooned, Filipino 
fishermen make two or three large boats fast to it as soon 
as possible for the reason that a single boat might be 
dragged under. Even so the taking of giant rays is not 
unattended with danger, for thej' make most extraor- 
dinary leaps into the air, and were one of them to fall 
on a boat the result would be disastrous. 

We have knowledge of the existence of other very large 
game fishes which we have not as yet so much as seen. 
One species is taken by the natives of Siquijor, who use 
a three-quarter inch Manila rope and fish in water of 
considerable depth. A number of boats work close to- 
gether and as soon as a fish is hooked all flock to the as- 
sistance of the lucky fisherman. A tremendous struggle 
then ensues and we are assured that if the fish is landed, 
it makes a meal for a whole village. TVTiat this species 
may be we do not know. 

One of the charms of fishing in the Philippines lies in 
the fact that one can never tell what one is going to strike 
next. At Maeander Reef I took the first yellowtail ever 
caught in the islands with rod and line. Doubtless there 
are plenty more where that one came from. Indeed, 

' Carabao is the Filipino name for water buffalo. 



814 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

yellowtails are common in the market at Zamboanga 
at certain seasons. Off the coast of Mindoro I took the 
first dolphin known to have been captured in these waters 
On a recent trip I took a large porgy of a species new to 
the Phihppmes and likely to prove new to science. As 
yet we have hardly begun to explore the fishing grounds. 
Wliat shall we find among the swift currents of the Batanes 
Islands, and what along the barrier reef of the unexplored 
east coast of northern Luzon ? No one knows ! 

Although some 1400 species of fish have already been 
reported from the Philippines, new ones are constantly 
being added to the list, and it is rather a rare event when 
a returning party of fishermen fails to present the ichthy- 
ologist with one or more puzzles. On my first trip to 
Apo Reef, Dr. Heiser hooked a tremendous fish which 
leisurely went its way regardless of his efforts to control 
its movement. At one time it deigned to come under the 
bottom of the launch and within forty feet of the surface, 
where it could be seen with perfect distinctness. It was a 
long, slender, gamy-looking creature weighing perhaps one 
hundred fifty pounds, and it had vertical yellow bars on its 
sides. No such fish is known from these waters. Having 
viewed the boat to its satisfaction, it proceeded to go back 
to the reef and to take refuge under its overhanging 
edge. Vigorous efforts to dislodge it, lasting for half an 
hour, resulted only in sawing off a heavy wire leader. 

One may tire for the moment of catching fish, but with 
a glass-bottomed boat at his disposal he will never tire of 
looking at them as he floats over the wonderful coral reefs 
for which the archipelago is famous. Certainly there are 
no "sea gardens" anywhere which can excel those of the 
Phihppines. The powerful tropical sun penetrates the 
marvellously clear sea water to a great depth, reveaUng 
marine animal and plant life in endlessly varied and 
marvellously beautiful forms which beggar description. 
Former Secretary of War Dicldnson is a rather serious- 
minded man, but when he gazed for the first time through 



ROD, SHOTGUN AND RIFLE 815 

the glass bottom of a boat into one of these wonder houses 
of nature, he shouted in his excitement and dehght for all 
the world like a small and enthusiastic boy. 

In a few moments one may see fish of the most amazing 
forms and extraordinarily bizarre colours : huge sharks ; 
enormous rays ; great sea-turtles ; clam shells big enough 
f(jr cliildren's bath-tubs ; sea-urchins ; starfish ; sea- 
anemones ; jellyfish in endless variety of form and colour ; 
sea-fans ; and many other varied forms of marine animal 
and plant life. 

When one grows weary of the water, one may land on 
snowy coral-sand beaches, bordered by cocoanut palms, 
may visit old deserted Spanish forts rapidly being invaded 
by rank tropical vegetation ; may gather exquisite 
orchids ; or may for the time being substitute hunting 
for fishing. In the Sulu Sea he may visit wonderful bird 
islands where the feathered folk refuse to get out of his 
way and peck viciously at his legs if he comes too near. 

All these dehghtful experiences may be had without 
suffering any discomfort from the Philippine climate, 
concerning which such absurd ideas prevail among the 
uninformed. From November to March the temperature 
is dehghtful, except during the midday hours of bright 
days, when fish do not bite well in any event, and when 
sensible people keep off the v/ater. 

Thus far I have referred only to those game fishes which 
I myself have taken, or concerning wliieh I happen to have 
personal knowledge. I will now briefly summarize what 
is at present known about the game fishes of the Philip- 
pines. 

The albacore is fairly common, especially during the 
cooler months. 

Amberjacks, reaching a length of two feet or more, are 
also common. 

There are barracudas of seven different species, some of 
which attain a length of six feet and weigh a hundred 
pounds or more. 



816 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

Bonitos of four different species have been taken. The 
"ocean bonito" and the "true bonito" are both abundant 
and afford fine sport. The larger individuals sometimes 
attain a weight of a hundred pounds or more. 

There are six different species of croakers, also called 
roncadores. Some individuals reach a weight of a hundi'ed 
pounds. 

Groupers, locally Icnown as lapu-lapu, are found in great 
variety, no less than twenty-four species having been re- 
corded. 

Hardtails, reaching a length of three feet, are abundant. 

Leather-jacks, commonly called dorados, are also very 
abundant. They take the spoon freely and fight well. 
In weight they commonly run from five to fifteen pounds. 

There are several small species of vmckerel which are 
excellent table fish and afford fair sport. 

Pampanos are found in great variety, no less than thirty 
species having already been recorded. Individuals weigh- 
ing as much as fifty pounds are not uncommon. 

Porgies of twelve different species have been taken, and 
some of the individuals have weighed up to thirty pounds. 

Of snappers we have thirty-four known species. The red 
snappernotinfrequentlyattainsaweight of twelve to fifteen 
poimds, and the larger individuals fight well. At times 
they take the spoon freely. The gray snapper runs up 
to forty pounds in weight and makes a good fight. The 
rioulated snapper, which takes its name from the form of 
its beautiful colour pattern, is a good game fish, and I have 
seen specimens which weighed up to twenty pounds. 

Sea-bass of two distinct species are common. Speci- 
mens weighing fifty to seventy-five pounds are fre- 
quently seen in the markets. The largest specimen as yet 
recorded from the islands weighed three hundred thirty- 
four and a fourth pounds. 

Spanish mackerel, or tanguingui, are common through- 
out the islands at the proper season. A very intelligent 
Filipino collector of natural history specimens in the ser- 



ROD, SHOTGUN AND RIFLE 817 

vice of the government, who saw my sixty-five-pound 
specimen landed, assured me that he had previously 
seen larger ones caught. 

Swordfish, nine feet or more in length, may be taken 
during the cooler months. 

Tarpons up to five feet in length may be taken at the 
proper season, off the mouths of large streams. The 
species is distinct from that found in Atlantic waters, 
and the young take the fly freely. 

Ten pounders, commonly called bid-bid in the Philip- 
pines, are not uncommon, and in spite of their name often 
attain a weight of thirty pounds. 

Tunas. The great, or leaping, tunas are met with in 
large schools during the winter months. The natives 
call them "cachareta." So far as I am aware, none have 
yet been taken with rod and hne, but their capture is, 
of course, only a question of time. 

I beheve it certain that the Phihppines will become a 
Mecca for deep-sea fishermen, and to the end that pis- 
catorial pilgrims may not come in vain, reliable data are 
bemg gathered and compiled by the Division of Fisheries 
of the Bureau of Science. The exact locations where 
exceptionally good catches are made are being marked 
on a comprehensive series of charts which cover the entire 
archipelago, and an accurate card record is also kept 
giving full information as to the localities where, the seasons 
when and the weather conditions xmder which exceptional 
catches have been made. Fishermen seeking fine sport 
and novel experiences will surely not be disappointed if 
they come to the Philippines. 

Wliile it is possible to find sheltered waters at any season, 
and to take fish throughout the year, our experience thus 
far seems to justify the behef that the months from Jan- 
uary to August are on the whole the most favourable 
ones. 

Fishermen may establish themselves at some favourable 
point, such as one of the many excellent camping grounds 



818 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

on Malampaya Sound, and work from this as a base, 
with no other water transportation than the motor boats 
from which they fish. Those who wish to have a good 
movable base of operations and to explore for themselves 
may, by making seasonable application, secure the use 
of one of the government coast guard boats at a cost of 
$115 a day. These convenient little vessels measure one 
hundred forty-eight feet over all and draw nine to eleven 
feet of water, according to the amount of coal carried 
and its distribution. They are safe in all weathers. 
Most of them have four good staterooms for passengers, 
with berths for eight people ; but as they are provided 
with good double a^\Tiings and have abundant deck 
room, a much larger nmnber of persons can be made 
comfortable, if willing to sleep on deck, using the state- 
rooms for dressing-rooms. As a matter of fact, people 
who have been long in the islands seldom think 
of sleeping inside. The coast guard boats readily carry 
four motor boats on their davits, and two more might 
be placed on deck forward. The Negros is espe- 
cially fitted out, and has stateroom accommodations 
for twenty people. All of these vessels have electric 
light, refrigerating plants and distilling plants. 

I know of nothing more delightful than to explore the 
shores and bays of this wonderful archipelago in such a 
vessel, fishing and landing when and where one pleases. 
With the certainty of fine weather during the winter 
months the nights under the deck awnings are a delight, 
and nothing will more promptly restore jangling nerves 
to a normal state, straighten out impaired digestion and 
bring back vigorous health, than will such a salt water 
fishing trip in the Philippines. 

Ducks and snipe are the stand-bys for the hunters who 
love the shotgun. A few years ago magnificent duck 
shooting was to be had on the Laguna de Bay, as well as 
in the province of Bataan just across the bay from Manila. 
Unfortunately the ducks on the Laguna were educated 



ROD, SHOTGUN AND RIFLE 819 

by some stupid fellows who shot at them vdth. a Colt 
automatic gun. The ideas which they then developed as 
to danger zones seem to have persisted ever since, and it 
is now difficult to get within range of the great flocks which 
still continue to frequent this the largest fresh-water lake 
in the Philippines. 

Ducks have been shot in season and out of season around 
the water-holes in Bataan and in the Candaba Swamp, 
as well as in the vicinitj^ of the fish pens in Bulacan. 
The shooting has fallen off rapidly here, and in Nueva 
Ecija and Tarlac, for the same cause. We are powerless 
to remedy this condition. Some j-ears ago a law was 
passed authorizing the secretary' of the interior to pro\'ide 
regulations governing the seasons during which game 
might be shot, but through oversight no penalty was 
pro\ided for the infraction of these regulations, and the 
assembly has persistently refused to amend the law in 
this respect. 

On Naujan Lake in Mindoro, and elsewhere in the prov- 
inces, magnificent duck shooting may still be had. The 
whistling tree-duck and the Philippine mallard are the 
two species which afford the best sport, although pin- 
tails, bluebUls, widgeons, and blue- and green-wing teal 
come in on migration as does a tiny goose, smaller than 
the ordinary duck. Several other species straj' into the 
southern Philippines from the Celebes, while at least 
one Formosan species sometimes visits the Batanes 
Islands. 

Jacksnipe come to the islands in enormous numbers 
from Asia, usually arri^•ing about the middle of August 
in northern and central Luzon and gradually working 
their way south to ^Mindanao. The return migration 
commonly comes during February. The fhght of the 
Asiatic jacksnipe is exactly hke that of his American 
brother. In fact only an omithologi.st can distinguish 
between the two species. A bag of one himdred birds 
to the gun is by no means imusual at the height of the 



820 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

season, and a strong sentiment is developing among 
Americans in favour of limiting the bag. 

There are very numerous species of pigeons and doves 
in the PliiUppines. .\1I of them are excellent table birds 
and several of them offer good sport. If one can take up 
his position under a fruit tree frequented by the great 
gray and green pigeons, knoAvn locally as baluds, about 
the middle of the afternoon he will get a wonderful 
series of shots at incoming birds flying fifty or more yards 
up in the air. They approach very rapidly, so that one 
must lead them a long distance, "pulling them out of 
sight" in order to bring them down. One may bum 
many a cartridge before he learns the knack of stopping 
these powerful, swift-flying birds. Duiing certain seasons 
the larger pigeons roost, in countless thousands, in trees 
on little isolated cays remote from the larger islands, 
where wonderful shooting may be had during the morning 
and evening flights. 

Junglefowl, the ancestors of all our domestic breeds of 
poultry, are to be found throughout the islands but only 
in a few places do they offer much opportunity for the 
sportsman who likes to kill his birds on the wing. Prior 
to the last eruption they were very numerous on the slopes 
of Taal Volcano. 

A party which happened to visit Cavilli, a small isolated 
coral island in the Sulu Sea, once found it alive with 
junglefowl. No one else has ever seen any there. Ob- 
viously a great flock flew in and then flew away again. 

Particularly fine sport may be had on Fuga Island by 
walking along the edge of the forest in the late after- 
noon. The birds which are then feeding in the open fly 
straight for cover and present difficult cross shots. 

The larger hornbills are very good to eat, but as easy 
to hit on the wing as a fair-sized door sailing through the 
air would be, so do not offer much sport. 

Wild hogs are abundant throughout the archipelago. 
Deer are found on nearly all of the islands, but there are 



I 




f- 3 



^ ^ 
& i 



ROD, SHOTGUN AND RIFLE 821 

several noteworthy exceptions, such as Palawan and 
Cebu. The Fihpinos are very fond of hunting deer. 
Sometimes they run them down with dogs and drive them 
into nets where they lance them — a most unsportsman- 
like proceeding. The wealthier Filipinos like to take 
up their stations at good strategic posts, and then have 
the country beaten toward them. In this way they 
sometimes get fifty or more deer in a single drive. I have 
never been able to see anything very exciting about this 
method of hunting. 

It is very good sport, on occasion, to still-hunt deer. 
The best deer shooting I have ever had was at what is 
called the Cogonal Grande in the center of the island of 
Culion. It is a great circular valley sloping very gradu- 
ally toward the center. Its higher portions are over- 
grown ^dth cogon grass which gives the valley its name. 
Probably it was once the bed of a lake. At all events its 
centre is swampy at the present time and has grown up 
into a hopeless jungle of pandanus, bamboo grass, etc., 
through which runs a maze of deer paths. Numerous 
little canons lead do\^Ti from the neighbouring hills to this 
valley and each of them has forest in it. 

In the month of December, when the cogon is dry, if 
fired it bums toward the centre on all sides until the blaze 
reaches the wet swampy portion where the vegetation 
is not dry enough to burn. If dogs are then put into the 
little stretches of forest which run down the ravines toward 
the open valley, they almost invariably drive out deer 
which run straight for the tangle at its centre, necessarily 
crossing groimd which has been burned bare. 

As a result one gets hard cross shots but has the ad- 
vantage of seeing every bullet strike, as the soil is very 
dry at this season. This makes interesting shooting. 
One gets game enough to keep the camp in meat and not 
enough so that he feels like a butcher. 

Many hunters go out at night with bull's-eye lanterns, 
shine the deer and fire at their eyes. This is not so bad 

VOL. II Y 



822 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

as jacking them from a boat, because a man who hunts 
on foot necessarily makes a good deal of noise, and they 
are apt to become alarmed and run away, whereas one 
can approach in a boat so silently that they do not hear 
the noise of the paddles or the rippling of the water. 

Hunting at night in this way in the Philippines is very 
interesting. One sees all sorts of nocturnal animals 
which are never met with by day, and also gets a good 
opportunity to pick up owls, nighthawks and other birds 
which are not ordinarily taken except by accident. 
However, the ordinary hunter is not an ornithologist, 
and does not care for such opportunities. 

Wild hogs are hunted much as are deer. They drive 
readily. On account of the habit of the old boars of 
turning and facing dogs when the latter molest them, it is 
easy to bring them down. 

The common people Idll wild hogs with spears after the 
dogs have brought them to bay. This is by no means 
a safe undertaking, as some of the old boars attain tre- 
mendous size, have very formidable tusks and are capable 
of killing a man in short order if able to come to close 
quarters with him. 

The wild hogs of the Philippines are very cleanly beasts. 
They take daily baths whenever possible, and often build 
for themselves beds of clean, fresh brush. They are 
extremely inteUigent animals, and it is therefore very 
difficult to still-hunt them. In view of their huge bulk 
and ungainly proportions the absolute silence with which 
they move through the forests cannot fail to impress one 
who sees them stealing quietly along. After being dis- 
turbed they make plenty of noise as they rush away. 

One of the best ways to still-hunt them is to secrete 
one's self near a water hole which they frequent for bath- 
ing purposes, but their sense of smell is very keen, and if 
the wind happens to blow in the wrong direction they 
will not approach the place where a hunter is lying in 
wait. 



ROD, SHOTGUN AND RIFLE 823 

Wild hogs are fruit eaters for the most part, and their 
flesh is delicious. They are enormously abundant on the 
island of Taw-i Tawi, where the durian tree abounds. 
The More inhabitants will not touch them, and as food 
is very plentiful during much of the year the island 
swarms with them, and they attain the largest size. 
Moros say that during the fruit season they become so 
covered with fat that if pursued for any length of time 
they fall, overcome by the heat and the running ! 

When I was in Tawi Tawi in 1901 with Dr. Bourns 
and a Filipino helper, one of us took a rifle along each 
morning when we went out to collect birds and in a few 
moments, after finishing his bird shooting for the day, was 
able to kill hogs enough to keep not only our party but 
the local Spanish garrison in meat, while the lard which 
our servants tried out lasted us for more than a year 
thereafter. 

There are two animals in the Philippines which can 
with propriety be dignified by the name of "big game." 
These are the wild carabao, which is still to be found in 
various parts of the archipelago, and the tamarau, a true 
buffalo of a species which occm's nowhere in the world 
except on the island of Mindoro. 

The wild carabao is a formidable antagonist, hard to 
stop and a vicious fighter after he is once wounded. Under 
ordinary circumstances he is very wary and difficult to 
approach. It is highly important in hunting him to 
use bullets with great stopping power. A number of 
men have been killed in the Philippines by wild carabaos 
which they had severely wounded. The most recent 
case which has come to my knowledge was that of a Mr. 
Barbour, in Mindoro. He was an old hand at the game, 
and had killed fifty-odd specimens. He shot a bull three 
times and it dropped apparently dead. Walldng close 
up to it he dropped the butt of his rifle to the ground 
between his legs, and held the barrel with his knees while 
trying to light a cigarette. Without the slightest warn- 



824 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

ing the injured bull sprang to its feet and drove a horn 
completely through him, killing him instantly. 

There is an interesting and unsettled question as to 
whether the wild carabaos of the Philippines are indig- 
enous to the islands or are merely the descendants of 
imported animals which have made their escape from 
captivity. My own opinion is that both beliefs are true 
or, in other words, that we have both a native wild race 
and other carabaos just as wild and just as fierce which 
are the descendants of tame individuals. The ordinary 
wild bulls have comparatively short and thick horns, 
while the bulls of the species found in Nueva Ecija and 
in northern Luzon generally have long, slender, very 
sharp, strongly curved horns. I believe that the latter 
animals belong to the true native race. 

Wild carabaos are found not only at various points in 
Luzon, but abundantly in Mindoro and the Calamianes 
Islands. They appear in considerable numbers in Mas- 
bate, Negros and elsewhere in the archipelago. 

To the inexperienced hunters who are inclined to try 
to bring them down my advice is "Don't !" 

Few indeed are the men who have killed so much as a 
single specimen of the tamarau of Mindoro. It is a small 
jungle-inhabiting ruminant. Its color, when adult, is 
precisely that of the carabao. It is, however, a much 
smaller and more active animal. The bulls lose no 
opportunity to attack carabaos, both domesticated and 
wild, and in spite of their own inferior size kill them with 
apparent ease. 

The tamarau is extremely muscular and when it charges, 
which it is prone to do on very slight provocation, bores 
a hole through the jungle vegetation, coming on with the 
speed and recklessness of a rhinoceros. Under such con- 
ditions it is excessively hard to stop, and when it pushes 
its charge home, woe be to the unlucky hunter. With 
rare exceptions it attacks when wounded if it so m.uch as 
catches sight of a human being. Even when unmolested 



ROD, SHOTGUN AND RIFLE 825 

it not infrequently charges, without warning, when one 
gets unduly near. It feeds at night, and never lolls 
around in the water as does the carabao. 

At the time I first came to the Philippines to collect 
natural history specimens in 1887, this animal was known 
only from travellers' tales and from what purported to be 
a stuffed individual in the Dominican museum. It was 
certainly stuffed, being about as shapely as a kerosene 
barrel. Its skin looked so exactly like that of a carabao 
that uncharitable persons had suggested that it was an 
artifact. 

At this time the most absurd tales about the tamarau 
were in circulation. I was solemnly assured by one 
group of persons, who claimed to have seen it, that it had 
only one horn which grew out of the top of its head. 
Others were certain that it had two horns and but a single 
eye. 

We did not anticipate the good fortune of discovering 
either a unicorn or a cyclops, but thought that there must 
be something behind all of these remarkable stories. 

After undergoing many hardships and performing much 
hard work, our party succeeded in taking five individuals, 
the first ever killed and properly preserved. 

The best way to hunt these wary and dangerous ani- 
mals is to pick up a fresh trail early in the morning along 
some water course where they come to drink during the 
night, and follow it as noiselessly as possible. One is 
liable to jump the game at any moment. I shall never 
forget my astonishment when, on climbing up a steep 
river bank and diving into a tunnel through runo grass, I 
nearly fell over an old bull. Ordinarily, however, no 
such luck awaits one. It is frequently necessary to trail 
the quarry five or ten miles before one comes up with 
it, and then the usual reward, after crawling through 
underbrush and wriggling along on the ground, bitten by 
ants and mosquitoes, torn by thorns and covered with 
pestiferous land leeches, is to hear a terrific crash in the 



826 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

brush and never so much as catch a glimpse of the animal 
which makes it. The tamarau sleeps during the day, 
almost invariably lying down in the densest of jungle 
growth, facing back upon its own trail. Furthermore, 
it is uncommonly likely to put a bend in that trail before 
lying down, so that while one is still a mile or two from 
it by the line which it followed, it may in reality be not 
more than fifty or a hundred yards away. 

A very skilful tracker is necessary if one is to have 
much hope of success, and one should not fire, even after 
the game is in sight, unless he can get a brain shot or 
can be certain of breaking the spinal column ; otherwise, 
he endangers his own life by shooting, if the tamarau is 
at moderately close quarters. 

I believe that no other ruminant is harder to kill out- 
right. Certainly there is no other approximating the 
tamarau in size which is so tough. I refrain from chroni- 
cling my own experiences, as I am certain that my state- 
ments would not be believed, and prefer to leave hunters 
to find out for themselves how much shooting it takes 
to put one of these extraordinary beasts out of commission. 

There is one place in Mindoro called Canturai, where 
tamarau may be taken with comparative ease. It was 
described to me, in Spanish days, as an extensive open 
area with a conical hill near its centre, and I was told 
that by burning the grass and sleeping on the hill one could 
readily get early morning shots at tamarau which came 
out to lick up the ashes. 

But various other stories had also been told me, and 
one and all had proved false. I had dug pitfalls for the 
wary beasts in vain. I had perched in trees, devoured by 
mosquitoes, and with hard branches cutting into my flesh, 
waiting for some pugnacious bull to come out and fight 
a tame carabao fastened at a convenient distance from 
my hiding place, all to no purpose. Under such con- 
ditions a tamarau once came and bellowed around in the 
bushes, but did not show himself. I had heard tales 










Old-style Road across Lowlands. 
Tracks of this sort become completely impassable during the rainy season. 




New-style Road across Lowlanus. 
Roads like this are passable at all times. 



ROD, SHOTGUN AND RIFLE 827 

of men who rode tamarau down on horseback and lanced 
them, and these yarns I knew to be false. So I never took 
the trouble to look up the Canturai story, worse luck, 
for it proved to be true. 

American soldiers occupied Mindoro for years before 
one of them succeeded in kilUng a tamarau. Finally 
a party of officers went to Cantm-ai and the first morning 
they shot seven ! Various other persons who have since 
gone there have had extraordinary luck, although several 
have narrowly escaped being killed, owing to their folly 
in following wounded animals into the cogon grass. 

A tamarau pursued under such circumstances will 
almost invariably back off at right angles to its own trail, 
wait for its pursuers to come up, and charge them, giving 
them no time to fire. 

Young cah^es are as wild as their parents, and I am 
credibly informed will often endeavour to attack female 
carabaos if an attempt is made to get them to regard these 
animals in the light of foster mothers. 

It is a curious fact that calves, and in fact young ani- 
mals up to a year or more of age, are of a fight reddish 
colour closely resembfing that of some Jersey cattle. 
Their coats turn dark later on. Their horns, too, are at 
first circular in cross-section. Later they become tri- 
angular. 

When pm-sued, tamarau cows have a curious fashion of 
passing their heads under their calves, raising them with 
the horns pressed down in such a way as to hold them 
against their necks, with forelegs hanging on one side 
and hindlegs on the other, and running with them. All 
in all, they are very interesting beasts, and we stiU have 
much to learn about them. The man who attempts to 
hunt them with anything but a heavy and thoroughly 
reliable rifle is a fool. 

Crocodiles of the largest size frequent many of the 
streams and most of the lakes in the PhiUppines. They 
are also to be seen occasionally on sandbars rising out of 



828 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

the sea. Doubtless they will some day be shot for 
their hides, but as yet they are left undisturbed, unless 
they display special proclivities for eating human beings, 
valuable horses or fat cattle. The Filipinos claim that 
with crocodiles the liking for human flesh is an acquired 
taste, and that it is only in comparatively rare instances 
that they become man-eaters, as do tigers. I beheve that 
this is true. Certainly, I have seen a clear pool full of 
happy Tagbanua children with a big crocodile lying in 
plain sight at the bottom of it. On the other hand, I 
have known of individual crocodiles, of evil reputation, 
each of which have killed numbers of human beings. 
In one little pool crossed by a trail which I have had 
occasion frequently to use in Cagayan province ten 
persons were pulled down and devoured in three years. 
Most men who use the rifle sooner or later become in- 
terested in putting these vicious reptiles out of the way 
whenever opportunity offers. 

Hunters and fishermen, in search of new and exciting 
experiences, will not fail to meet with them in the 
Philippines, and the tourist will find there much that is 
picturesque, strange or wonderful. 



CHAPTER XXX 

Philippine Lands 

Especial interest attaches to the subject of Philippine 
lands for three reasons : first, the very large majority of 
small landholders in the islands have no titles ; second, 
there are enormous areas of unoccupied, unclaimed, un- 
cultivated land which are doing no one any good at 
present and ought to be brought under cultivation as 
rapidly as possible ; third, not only insular government 
officials, but Mr. Root and Mr. Taft have been very un- 
justly attacked for the land policy pursued in the Phihp- 
pines. 

As regards ownership, some 31,879 square miles may 
be considered to be private land to which owners have 
obtained titles or could have done so had they known how 
to assert their rights. Only about 8937 square miles of 
this total amount are estimated to be under cultivation at 
the present time. 

Excepting only private lands and a few acres belonging 
to municipal or provincial governments or to the insular 
government as the case may be, the remaining land 
constitutes the public domain of the Philippine Islands 
which is the property of the government of the United 
States, but is adininistered by the insular government. 
It is made up of forest land, mineral land, agricultural 
land, and foreshore and land under water. 

Fifty-four thousand square miles are estimated to be 
forest land. The rest is now provisionally classified as 
agricultural land for the reason that the mineral land 
and foreshore have never been segregated. 

The condition in which private land titles were found 
at the time of the American occupation was very distress- 

829 



830 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

ing. It had been a difficult matter to secure title under 
the Spanish regime and the very large majority of the 
common people had accordingly put it off until a mythical 
to-morrow which never came. Even those who had 
succeeded in obtaining formal documents had in many 
instances lost them as a result of the vicissitudes of 
war. 

The Public Land Act of the Pliilippine Commission, 
passed under the provisions of the Act of Congress of 
July 1, 1902, became effective on July 26, 1904. It 
contained liberal provisions relative to Spanish grants 
and unperfected titles. 

Any citizen of the Phihppine Islands or of the United 
States or of any insular possession thereof over the age 
of twenty-one years or the head of a family can obtain 
a forty-acre homestead by five years of cultivation, two 
years of occupancy and the payment of $10. 

The Public Land Act also provided for the issuance of 
a free patent to a tract not exceeding forty acres in extent 
to any native of the Philippine Islands then an occupant 
and cultivator of um'eserved, unappropriated, agricultm'al 
public land who had continuously occupied and cultivated 
such land either by liimself or through his ancestors 
since August 1, 1898 ; or who prior to August 1, 1898, 
continuously occupied and cultivated such land for 
three years immediately prior to such date, and who had 
been continuously since July 4, 1902, until the date of 
the taking effect of the Public Land Act, an occupier and 
cultivator of such land. 

Most Uberal provision was thus made for the small 
landowner, or would-be landowner, but neither Congress 
nor the commission reckoned with the ignorance of the 
common people nor with the opposition to the acquisition 
of land by poor Filipinos which developed on the part of 
their richer and more intelligent fellow-countrymen. 
This latter difficulty has proved to be a quite serious one. 
The cacique does not wish liis labourers to acquire land in 



PHILIPPINE LANDS 831 

their own right, for he knows well enough that if they did 
so they would become self-supporting, and it would cease 
to be possible for liim to hold them as peons, as is com- 
monly done at present. Serious obstacles are therefore 
frequently thrown in the way of poor people who desire 
to become owners of land, and if this does not suffice, 
active opposition is often made by municipal officers or 
other influential Filipinos, who claim as their own private 
jH-operty land which poor men are trying to get.' 

• Of the endless eases whicli might be given I cite the following as a 
fair sample : — 

" Personally appeared before me the undersigned , this 24th day 

of July, 1913, W. A. Northrop, who first being duly sworn, deposes 
and says : — 

" ' 1 . That he is a duly appointed Public Land Inspector of the Bureau 
of Lands of the Government of the Philippine Islands and that acting 
in such capaoitj' on the 3d day of June, 1913, he visited the sitio of 
Buyon, barrio of Maddelaro, Municipality of Camalaniugan, province 
of Cagayan and there investigated the complaint of homestead entry- 
men Pascual Valdez and Tomas Valdez whose applications for land 
in the said sitio of Buyon under provision of Act No. 926 as amended 
had been entered by the Director of Lands under No. 92.53 and No. 
9254 respectively, that they were prevented from occupying said home- 
steads and deriving the benefits therefrom by certain persons living in 
the barrio of Maddelaro : 

" ' 2. That while so investigating the claim of the said entrymen and 
their opponents he was told by Placido Rosal, one of the opponents to 
the homestead entrys, that " it was immaterial to him what decision was 
made by the Director of Lands concerning the land as, if he (Rosal) lost 
the land he and others would burn the houses of the entrymen and if nec- 
essary kill them" ; this in the Spanish language with which he is familiar. 

" '3. That at that time he was accompanied by Mr. Bias Talosig 
of the barrio of Buyag, who was acting as his interpreter in speaking 
in the lloco language and that these threats were made in his hearing 
and that he. W. A. Northrop, was informed by said interpreter that he 
not only heard them but that he heard similar threats made in the lloco 
language by various other persons, henchmen of the Placido Rosal 
and his family. 

'"4. That on the 9th day of June, 1913, said entrymen came to him 
in the City of Aparri and reported that on the night on the 7th day of 
June the granary of Eduardo BacUg, resident in the said sitio of Buyon 
and a son-in-law of Tomas Valdez had been burned and an attempt 
made to burn his house and that while the entrymen were not in posi- 
tion to prove that said Placido Rosal or his henchmen had started the 
fires they were sure they were of incendiary origin, as due to the diree- 



832 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

The Bureau of Lands now interests itself actively and 
directly in protecting the public lands against such 

tion of the wind the fires could not have originated from sparks from 
kitchen fires.' 

" Further deponent sayeth not. 

(Signed) " W. A. Northrop. 

" Subscribed and sworn to before me this 24th day of July, 1913, 
in Tuguegarao, Cagayan, Philippine Islands, the affiant first having 
exhibited his cedula, No. 1516, issued in Manila, January 3, 1913. 

(Signed) "Primitivo Villanueva 
"Notario Publico, 
" Mi nombramiento expira el 
" 31 de Dieiembre de 1913." 

" Extract from a report of H. 0. Bauman, chief of Bureau of Lands 
survey party No. 27. Report dated June 30, 1913 : 

" In 190o the applicant (Fernando Asirit) entered an application 
for homestead and proceeded to clear the remainder of the land not 
already cleared. Sometime during the following year or two, this 
Catalino Sagon began to clear a piece of land included in the homestead 
application. When Fernando Asirit saw the man cleaning the land, 
he told the man that that particular land was included in the homestead 
and that the work he was doing was useless. Catalino admitted this 
to me personally. However, the applicant to show his good faith, 
paid Catalino a sum of ten pesos for the small area that he had cleaned 
and took a receipt therefor and Catalino left the land. Now when 
the private surveyor came in 1910, this Catalino appears and claims 
this land despite the fact that he never cultivated nor occupied the 
land and that he received payment in full for the work that he had 
done in clearing an acre of the land. When the land was surveyed in 
1910, Catalino at the request of a politician of Ilagan, made a protest 
against the land and between the two they frightened the applicant 
into letting this Catalino have possession of the land. Since 1910, 
Catalino has not cultivated the land but loaned it out to another per- 
son Frederico Mayer by name. Personally, Catalino did not ever 
cultivate or live on the land. The politician who has been stirring 
up this trouble is Gabriel Maramag, third member of the Provincial 
board. The applicant is an old man seventy years old and this Mara- 
mag had the old man fined P125.80 for refusing to let these two have 
his land. They also told him that if he persisted in refusing to let 
them have the land, they would fine him P500. As the old man has 
no such amount and being thoroughly buUdozed by these cheap poli- 
ticians, he had no other course to pursue. The co-partner of the third 
member is the Sheriff Joaquin Ortega against whom the people are 
very bitter on account of his shady dealings. It might be noted here 
that these men are under investigation by the Constabulary now for 
accepting money illegally. Furthermore this Maramag has the plans 
of the land of a great many men in his house and thus has a hold on 
them and they cannot do anything without his consent." 



PHILIPPINE LANDS 833 

spurious claims, and thus keeps large areas open to claim 
by the common people. 

Absolute ignorance of the law was the commonest of all 
causes of the failure of the poor to take advantage of its 
very liberal provisions. Every known resource was ex- 
hausted in endeavouring to enlighten them. PampMets 
informing them of their rights were published in all 
important native dialects, and widely circulated. The 
schools cooperated in this good work. Provincial and 
municipal officials were instructed to inform the people 
of their rights, but in very many cases these instructions 
were disregarded. 

Because of the complete illiteracy of practically all 
of the members of the non-Christian tribes in Benguet 
and Lepanto, I caused a survey party to be sent out from 
the Bureau of Lands to inform them of their rights and 
to assist them in making the necessary applications. 
It was from this territory that proportionately the largest 
number of applications were sent in. 

The period within which applications might be made was 
extended from January 1, 1907 to January 1, 1909, yet 
it is undoubtedly true that when it finally expired the vast 
majority of those who might have profited by the free 
patent privilege had failed to take advantage of it because 
of ignorance that it existed. 

With the rapid spread of the English language such a 
condition would not now arise. At its last session the 
Philippine Legislature passed an act to renew for a period 
of ten years the right to secure free patent, but this act, 
like the one which it amends, is subject to the approval 
of the President and of Congress. It is to be hoped that 
such approval will be given. In my opinion every reason 
which made it advisable to grant free patents in the first 
instance is still of full force. 

The total number of homestead applications received 
since the Pubhc Land Act took effect is only 19,313, 
and of these it has been necessary to reject 4811 be- 



834 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

cause the provisions of law were not complied with. 
Forty-eight patents have been issued, and there are 
8225 approved appUcations, while 6219 not yet approved 
by the bureau are pending. 

The figures for free patents are as follows : Number of 
applications, 15,885 ; free patents issued, 722 ; cases 
still pending, 11,871 ; rejected for cause 3292. 

One reason why so many of the free patent cases are 
still pending is that there never has been, and is not 
now, a sufficient force of surveyors to keep the work of 
the Bureau of Lands up to date, all efforts to secure the 
necessary additions to this force having failed. 

Under the Land Registration Act provision was made 
for the issuing of so-called Torrens titles for which the 
government is virtually responsible, once they are given 
out, so all that is now necessary to make it possible 
rapidly and effectively to remedy the existing situation is 
the appointment of a sufficient number of judges in the 
Court of Land Registration. 

Government lands of provinces or municipalities are 
chiefly those needed and utilized as sites for public build- 
ings, plazas and the like. The insular government 
owns a similar class of lands, and has certain lands in 
trust, such as the San Lazaro Estate, wliich was set aside 
long ago as a source of income for the support of lepers, 
but the so-called friar lands, which have a history of 
their own, are its most important holdings. 

Under the Spanish regime several of the religious 
orders acquired large wealth in the form of estates, most 
of which were brought under high cultivation, although 
several of the largest, like the San Jos6 Estate in Mindoro, 
and the Isabela Estate in the province of the same name, 
were nearly or quite uncultivated, and a number of the 
others contained large uncultivated areas. 

Field labour was performed exclusively by tenants who 
were settled on the estates in large numbers and in a 
number of instances had built up large and well-organized 



PHILIPPINE LANDS 835 

towns. For various reasons bitter hostility arose between 
them and their landlords. In some parts of the islands 
the friars were detested by the populace on general 
principles. Furthermore, the Filipino becomes greatly 
attached to his home, especially if his fathers have lived 
there before him. Tenants on the friar estates could 
be, and not infrequently were, arbitrarily dispossessed, 
and the possibility that this might occur was a thorn in 
their flesh. 

Dm-ing the insurrection the confiscation of the friar 
estates was very seriously considered by the so-called 
Insurgent government, which nominally took over their 
administration. As a matter of fact, there was then no 
real administration of them, and the occupied lands 
passed under the control of the tenants, who remained 
in undisturbed possession for years and came to consider 
themselves the virtual owners of their holdings. We 
have already seen how hostility to the friars reached its 
climax at this time. Some were killed outright, and 
others imprisoned under such conditions as to make death 
probable, but the majority of those captured were in 
effect held for a long time for ransom, their liberty being 
offered on condition of a large cash payment. 

Upon the inauguration of civil government and the 
reestablishment of law and order the friars naturally 
endeavoured to reassert their rights. With few exceptions 
their former tenants absolutely refused to pay rent. 
The friars threatened action in the courts, and would 
have been abundantly justified in bringing it, but such a 
course would unquestionably have led to serious disturb- 
ances of public order. 

Agitators and demagogues had succeeded in firmly 
convincing many of the tenants that they were the actual 
owners of their lands, and those of them who knew better 
were bright enough to take advantage of the peculiar 
situation. 

Hostility between Filipinos and friars had become so 



836 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

general that the return of the latter to their parishes, 
accustomed as they had been to the exercise of a large 
measure of control over their parishioners, and with the 
memory of grave abuses recently suffered fresh in their 
minds, was deemed to be undesirable, but their permanent 
withdrawal from the provinces was hardly feasible so long 
as they continued to hold very large estates there. It 
was beheved to be in the public interest to encourage 
the several tenants to buy their individual holdings so 
that they might become responsible landowners rather 
than remain discontented and ready at any time to become 
ladrones. It was believed that without great difficulty 
they could be persuaded to attorn to the government, 
and that if the estates could be pm'chased at a reasonable 
price individual holdings could eventually be sold to 
their occupants. Because of the beneficial influence of 
such a com-se on public order and the probable resulting 
improvement in social conditions, the purchase of these 
estates was believed to be in the public interest. 

Had there been sufficient funds in the treasury the 
insular government would have been within its right in 
making this purchase, but as the total sum involved was 
large, and a bond issue was required to raise it, it became 
necessary to get the consent of Congress. This was 
given in sections 63, 64 and 65 of the Act of July 1, 
1902. Under the authority thus conferred the commission 
passed the so-called Friar Lands Act, which provided 
among other things for the temporary leasing and ulti- 
mate sale of their holdings to tenants as well as for the 
determination of values and the fixing of rentals and pur- 
chase prices. 

Naturally the first thing to be done was to get tenants 
to acknowledge the ownership of the government. Until 
this could be brought about little could be accomplished 
toward assisting them to buy their holdings. With all 
possible promptness temporary leases were issued to them. 
No effort was made carefully to ascertain the real extent 




Typical Old-style Country Road. 




Typical New-style Country Road. 

Note the deposit of surfacing material. Also the caminero, or road tender, at 
work. During the rainy season, one man looks after each kilometer of 
road, keeping it constantly in repair. During the dry season one man 
cares for two kilometers. 



o 



PHILIPPINE LANDS 837 

or value of their holdings, and unless their statements 
were upon their face obviously very gravely in error 
they were accepted as a basis for the first leases issued. 
The amount of opposition which was encountered was, 
under the circumstances, surprisingly small, and the prog- 
ress of the work was unexpectedly rapid. 

Planimeter surveys were made as rapidly as possible, 
and it was soon found, as had been anticipated, that ten- 
ants in general had understated both the size and value of 
their holdings. While the rate of rentals as compared 
with values remained unchanged, there was a resulting 
general increase in their amounts, and this caused mur- 
muring, but no really serious trouble resulted. There 
followed as rapidly as possible the completion of accurate 
surveys and the fixing of final values which necessitated 
further changes in rentals. The volume of work was 
simply enormous. Many of the estates were divided into 
an incredible number of small holdings with boundaries 
of the utmost irregularity. An effort was made to get 
the consent of the tenants to a readjustment of boun- 
daries on a rectangular system, leaving the size of their 
holdings unchanged but straightening them out. It 
had to be abandoned. A tenant would be unwilling to 
part with a given clump of bamboo or a magnificent 
mango tree planted by liis great-great-grandfather. The 
fact that these valuable possessions occupied salient 
angles in his boundary naturally did not worry him at all. 

The definite right to purchase their holdings was from 
the outset conferred upon lessees so that from the time 
the first leases were issued the only possible reasons for 
the failure of a tenant to purchase his holdings would 
be unwillingness to do so or lack of funds. 

In passing the Friar Lands Act, which they did during 
my absence on leave, the commission, none of whose 
members were posted on land matters, rather thought- 
lessly made applicable to the sale of vacant lands the 
conditions and limitations of the Public Land Act. 

VOL. II Z 



838 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

We had been compelled to purchase some vacant 
estates and to forego the purchase of several which were 
thickly occupied, for the reason that the friars insisted 
on selling the one and absolutely refused to sell the other. 
We had to take the best bargain we could get. The 
vacant lands on certain of the estates could not be sold 
in small tracts. 

The Friar Lands Act was accordingly amended by the 
Philippine Legislature, of which the Philippine Assembly 
was then the Lower House, and all restrictions on the 
areas of those lands which might be sold were removed, 
so as to make it possible to get rid of the vacant friar 
lands. 

Interest was piling up on the purchase price of the 
latter, and obviously it was best for the government, 
which had to administer them, and for the people, who 
had to pay the bill, that they should be disposed of as 
soon as possible. 

Ultimately an opportunity presented itself to sell the 
San Jose Estate of some fifty-eight thousand acres in its 
entirety to an individual, and it was thus sold after con- 
sultation with the attorney-general of the Philippines and 
the attorney-general of the United States as to the rights 
of the government in the premises, and with the approval 
of the secretary of war and of President Taft first had. 
The buyer acted as an agent for Messrs. Welch, Have- 
meyer and Senf , who were all heavily interested in sugar 
growing and desired to establish a modern sugar estate 
in the PhiUppines. This fact, when it became known, was 
the beginning of trouble. 

Two very distinct classes of men were interested in im- 
posing the existing legislative restrictions relative to the 
sale of Philippine lands. The first were influenced by the 
most honourable of altruistic motives. They feared the 
monopolization of agricultural lands and the evils of 
absentee ownershii). The other class were the represent- 
atives of certain important sugar interests in the United 



PHILIPPINE LANDS 839 

States who wished to keep out Philippine sugar at all 
hazards and had shrewdly figured out that the simplest 
way to do this would be to prevent its production on a 
commercial scale. They therefore sought to restrict the 
sale of pubhc land so as to make it impossible for an 
individual or an association to buy enough to establish 
a modern sugar estate. Tliis they succeeded in doing. 
They even went further, and by Umiting the land which 
a corporation might own and control made it impossible 
for a corporation to purchase enough land of any sort 
for such an estate. But that is another story with 
which we are not here concerned. 

They built a fence around Philippine lands which 
they deemed to be"pig-tight, horse-high, and bull-strong," 
but we unwittingly cut a small hole through it. The 
limitations on the sales of land did not apply to land 
belonging to the insular government which had first im- 
posed certain restrictions on the size of the areas of 
vacant friar land which might be sold and had then re- 
moved them, having the same right to do the one thing 
that it exercised in doing the other. 

The San Jose Estate was sold to an individual. By 
him it was sold in part to other individuals who had the 
undoubted right to acquire as much land as they coidd get, 
and in part to a corporation not authorized to engage in 
agriculture which acquired only such land as it needed to 
conduct its legitimate business and was therefore within 
its legal right. The transaction was a perfectly legitimate 
one from every view point. It spread consternation 
among the beet-sugar men, and Congressman Martin of 
Colorado, a state which has extensive beet-sugar interests, 
made upon the floor of the House a sciurilous attack 
upon President Taft, Secretary Root and the insular 
government officials concerned in which he accused them 
of violating the law and of having formed a gigantic 
conspiracy with great corporate interests, more especially 
with certain sugar interests, not only to deprive the friar 



840 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

land tenants of their holdings but to prevent FUipinos 
in general from acquiring land and to turn the Philip- 
pines over to the trusts. Mr. Martin and his fellows 
insisted that section sixty-five of the Act of July 1, 1902, 
in itself imposed the restrictions of the Public Land Act 
on the sale of friar lands ; that the commission in im- 
posing these limitations in the first instance had merely 
voiced the will of Congress and that its act in subsequently 
withdrawing them was illegal and iniquitous. They 
apparently lost sight of the fact that if so, the iniquity was 
shared by the Philippine Assembly. Later they endeav- 
oured to explain the action of the assembly by saying 
that it did not know what it was doing, and certain mem- 
bers of that body made a similar claim, for poUtical 
effect. As a matter of fact, I myself explained to the 
members of the assembly friar lands committee the 
purpose of the bill with which they were then in full 
accord. 

I requested an investigation. One was authorized by 
the House. It was made by the Committee on Insular 
Affaks. Its cost to the United States was very large. 
The secretaiy of the interior, the executive secretary, 
the attorney-general, the director of lands and other 
witnesses, were called to Washington from the Philip- 
pines and taken away from their work at a rather 
critical time. The result was a complete vindication of 
the several persons who had been attacked. Congress- 
man Martin failed to make good his charges in any 
particular, and incidentally members of the com- 
mittee and such other persons as cared to follow the 
proceedings were given a valuable demonstration of 
the manner in which the insular government transacts 
its business. 

There was, however, one unfortunate indirect effect. 
In view of the difference of opinion among congressmen 
as to whether Congress had or had not intended to make 
the limitations to the PubUc Land Act relative to areas 



PHILIPPINE LANDS 841 

which could be sold applicable to friar lands the sec- 
retary of war issued an executive order providing that 
their sale should be subject to such hmitations, pend- 
ing an expression by Congress of its will in the matter. 
Congress has never acted. 

There are large tracts of vacant friar lands which cannot 
be sold for years to come, if subject to existing restrictions, 
either because they are situated in very sparsely inhabited 
I'egions where there is no demand for them on the part 
of would-be small landowners, or because the price as 
fixed by law is materially in excess of that of equally 
good, adjacent, unoccupied pubhc lands which can be 
had subject to identical conditions as to areas purchasable. 
As the Philippines are "land poor," the inadvisabihty of 
such a pohcy would seem to be sufficiently evident. 
The argument against large estates is without force, 
both because the amount of land concerned is relatively 
insignificant, and because there are already in the islands 
so many large estates, owned in many instances by 
Filipinos, that the addition of a few new ones more or 
less would not perceptibly change the existing situation. 

The question might well be raised as to the authority 
of the secretary of war to suspend by an executive order 
the operation of a law duly enacted by the Philippine 
legislature pursuant to powers conferred by Congress, 
especially as Congress has power, and has had opportunity, 
to disapprove it. I think it possible that the director 
of lands could be compelled by mandamus to sell 
vacant friar lands in any quantity to an individual 
applicant. 

The facts as regards forest lands are, set forth in suffi- 
cient detail in the chapter on the Philippine forests. 

The existing legislation relative to mineral lands is 
defective, or objectionable, in several minor particulars, 
but on the whole is reasonably satisfactory except for 
the provision that a person may locate but one claim on a 
given vein or lode. Such a provision would have very 



842 THE PHILIPPIN'EP PAST AXD PRE5EXT 

greatly hampered the development of the mining industry 
in the United States and it greatly hampers it in the 
Philippines. 

Recommendations that Congress amend the law relative 
to mining claims have been persistently made by the 
commission and have been persistently ignored, probably 
for the reason that Congress is too busy with other 
matters to give much attention to such requests from 
the Philippines. 

We now come to the subject of pubhc agricultural lands. 
I have already called attention to the fact that little 
advantage has been taken of the liberal provision of the 
Pubhc Land Act relative to free patents and homesteads. 
There has been some agitation in favour of a homestead 
of one hundred sixty acres mstead of the forty acres now 
allowed. Pei-sonally I do not attach great importance to 
this matter. Five acres is as much as the average Filipino 
will cultivate^ and if he has forty there is abundant room 
for him so to distribute his cultivated area as to let much 
of his land "rest," which he is very fond of doing. To 
increase the size of the homestead woidd help a verj- 
liniited number of Americans, but a better way of 
accomphshing this would be to allow them to buy what 
thej' require, within reasonable limits. 

No one who has not traveUed ■ft'idely in the Phihppiaes 
can be adequately impressed with the insignificance of 
the areas now under cultivation as compared with 
those which would richly repay it. The country' is 
failing to produce food enough for eight millions of 
people, yet if advantage were taken of the opportunities 
which nature so bountifuUy affords it could readih' feed 
eighty millions. 

Under such conditions the present restrictions on the 

' The best e\-idenee of wliat the average Filipino cultivates is found 
in the free patents. Of the 15,88.5 free patents applied for the aver- 
age area is declared to be 7| acres ; 4,025 Free Patents have been 
actually surveyed ; their average area is only 5 acres. 



PHILIPPINE LANDS 843 

sale of public lands, which make it impossible for an 
individual to buy more than forty acres, or for a corpora- 
tion or association of individuals to buy more than twenty- 
five hundred acres, are simply absurd. What we want is 
not the indefinite preservation of our present vast track- 
less wastes of the richest public agricultural land, but 
productive farms. 

Every opportunity should be extended to each native 
of these islands who desires to obtain land and cultivate 
it with his own hands. 

The same statement holds for persons who wish to 
secure land and to employ others as labourers. Large 
estates on which modern machinery and modern agri- 
cultural methods are employed are greatly needed. 
The methods employed by Filipino owners of such estates 
are primitive. The natives believe what they see, and 
learn far better by example than in any other way. 
Absolutely no harm has resulted from the establishment 
of large sugar plantations on the San Jos6 Estate in Min- 
doro and the Calamba Estate in Luzon. On the con- 
trary, both of these great farms have supplied abundant 
labour at increased wages to a very large number of needy 
people ; have taught labourers much about sanitarj^ living, 
and have given them veiy valuable object lessons in 
agriculture. Both are frequently visited by intelligent 
agriculturists glad of the opportunity to acquire the 
practical knowledge which can there be so easily obtained 
by observation. 

It may be a revolutionary statement to make, but if 
I personally controlled the public lands of the Phihppine 
Islands, I would wathout hesitation give them to persons 
who would cultivate them, making the amounts con- 
ceded dependent strictly upon the abihty of their would-be 
owners to cultivate, and restoring to the public domain 
any lands not promptly and properly utilized. 

The monej' which the government now derives from 
the sale of pubhc lands is a bagatelle compared with the 



844 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

benefit which would result to the country if cultivated 
areas were widely extended, and there is abundant labour 
here to extend them very rapidly. All that is needed 
is the introduction of modern maclunery, modern agri- 
cultural methods and capital. 

The existing provisions of the PubUc Land Act relative 
to leases are very liberal, but the average man wants to 
owTi land before he spends much money on it. 

There are several serious omissions in the provisions of 
the act of Congress relative to the sale of public lands. 
No authority exists for their sale for residence purposes, 
business purposes, or cemetery purposes, except within 
town sites. The need of land for cemetery purposes 
became so acute that I deemed it wise to stretch the law a 
bit in meeting it. Many of the old cemeteries were 
situated in the midst of dense centres of population, or 
immediately adjacent to sources of pubhc water supply. 
Their areas were usually grossly inadequate properly to 
accommodate the very large number of bodies requiring 
to be buried. Shockingly unsanitary conditions resulted, 
and it became necessary for the Bureau of Health to 
close many of them. Because of the trouble between the 
Aglipayan and Cathohc churches, it was often im- 
possible for representatives of the Catholic church to 
purchase private lands for cemetery purposes. Their 
old cemeteries were closed, yet they could not open 
new ones, although able and willing to pay liberally for 
the necessary laud. Under these circumstances I ruled 
that public land could be sold to them, and that occupation 
by caretakers, and such cultivation as is ordinarily 
given in beautifying cemeteries, would be held to con- 
stitute occupation and cultivation within the meaning 
of the law, so that title could eventually pass. 

In closing let me emphasize the fact that the only 
method of informing the common people of the Philippines 
relative to their rights in the matter of acquiring pubhc 
lands thus far found practicable has been to send special 




A Canga, or Cahabao Sledge. 
Sledges of this sort, which were formerly in common use, promptly- 
destroyed Kood roads. 




A new-style cart, with broad-tired wheels, which does not injure tlie roads. 



PHILIPPINE LANDS 845 

land inspectors from house to house, to convey the 
information by word of mouth. A considerable number 
of such inspectors are now employed, and more are badly 
needed. 

The total area of all public lands sold to Americans 
or foreigners since the American occupation is seventeen 
thousand acres ; that of all public lands leased by such 
persons, seventeen thousand three hundred ninety acres. 
This is the answer to those who claim that there has been 
exploitation of the public domain. 

The needs of the PhiUppine Islands in the matter of 
land legislation may be briefly summarized as follows : — - 

More judges in the Court of Land Registration so that 
the cadastral survey work may be expedited, and the 
poor man may be able to obtain title to his holdings 
promptly and at small expense. 

The employment of more surveyors on public land work. 

A renewal of the privilege of obtaining free patents on 
the old conditions during a period of at least ten years. 

The employment of more public land inspectors to 
inform the poor and ignorant of their rights, and to assist 
them in obtaining them. 

More liberal legislation relative to the size of the 
tracts of public land which may be purchased, and the 
number of mining claims on a given vein or lode which 
an individual may record. 

Authorization for the sale of public agricultural lands 
outside of town sites for residence purposes, business 
purposes, and for cemeteries. 



CHAPTER XXXI 

The Philippine Forests 

Would that I had adequate words in which to describe 
the wonders of the PhiUppine forests, through which I 
wandered ahnost daily for four years, and which I love 
to revisit whenever the opportunity presents itself ! Their 
majestic stateliness and magic beauty defy description. 
I have seen them swept by hurricanes when huge branches 
crashed down and mighty trees thundered to earth, imperil- 
Hng life and limb, and I have seen them in the still noons 
of the tropics when not a leaf stirred. At times they are 
vocal with songs of birds and ceaseless din of insects, 
and again they are as silent as the grave. Who could 
do justice to the endless variety and beauty of tree-trunk, 
leaf and flower ; the exquisite drapery of vines, ferns and 
orchids which covers the older forest monarchs ; the 
weird masses of aerial roots which lead superstitious 
natives to beheve some trees to be haunted, and small 
wonder ; the ever changing Ught and shade bringing 
out new beauties where one least expects to find them ; 
the endless differences in the flora due to variations in 
altitude and in the distribution of moisture ? 

In Mindoro, Palawan and Mindanao we find tropical 
vegetation in its absolute perfection ; in the highlands 
of northern Luzon we meet our old friends, the pine and 
oak, while beside them grow strawberries, raspberries, 
huckleberries, jacks-in-the-pulpit and other friends of 
our childhood days. 

Surely the Philippine forests should be preserv^ed, but 
not for their beautj^ alone ! In them the people have a 

846 



THE PHILIPPINE FORESTS 847 

permanent source of wealth, if they can only be made to 
realize it and to take proper measures to protect it. Cer- 
tainly no other country has a greater variety of beautiful 
and serviceable woods. Some of them are so close- 
grained and hard that they successfully resist the attacks 
of white ants, and prove almost indestructible even when 
buried in the earth. Others will not stand exposure to the 
weather, but last indefinitely under cover and are excellent 
for inside framing and finishing. We have the best of 
cabinet woods, such as ebony, camagon, narra,^ acle, and 
tindalo. From some of our trees come valuable gums, 
such as almaciga - and gutta percha. Others produce 
alcohol, tan barks, dyewoods, valuable vegetable oils 
or drugs. The so-called "Singapore cane," so highly 
prized by makers of wicker furniture, grows abundantly 
in Palawan. Great areas are covered with a bamboo 
which makes an excellent paper pulp. 

In short, the Philippine forests should be like money 
in the bank for the inhabitants of the islands. There 
are in this world wise people who under ordinary circum- 
stances spend only the interest on their money ; and there 
are others who spend the principal while it lasts. To 
which class do the Filipinos belong? 

It has been said that the ci\'iUzation of a people may 
be measured by its forest practice, and in a sense this is 
true, for forestry as we know it to-day, and as the leading 
nations of Europe have known it for a long period, means 
the limiting of immediate gain in the hope of future re- 
ward, direct and indirect ; in fact, it means present-day 
sacrifice for the sake of an unborn posterity. A wise 
national forest poUcy therefore involves not only fore- 
sight, but statesmanship and patriotism, which in their 
most advanced degree are to be found onlj^ among the 
people of the most enlightened nations. The manner in 
which a people regards its forest resources may be taken 
as fairly indicative of its outlook in general. What then 

' Frequently and wrongly called rosewood. - Damax. 



848 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

has been the policy of the Phihppine government and 
what the attitude of the people, toward these resources ? 

There is little room for doubt that practically the 
entire land area of the Philippines from the plains at 
sea-level to the highest mountain-tops was originally 
covered with forest growth. At the time of the Ameri- 
can occupation two-thirds of this wonderful heritage had 
ceased to exist. This would be all very well if any con- 
siderable portion of the vast deforested areas were cul- 
tivated, or put to any permanent profitable use, but such 
is not the case. According to the best estimates which it 
has thus far been possible to make, only about fifteen per 
cent of the land from which the original forests have been 
stripped is to-day under any form of cultivation. The 
remainder is covered with conmiercially worthless second- 
growth forest, and with several giant grasses which are 
collectively known as cdgon. 

The cogondles ^ make up approximately sixty per cent of 
the deforested area, or forty per cent of the land area of 
the entire archipelago. They are not good for grazing 
unless fed down very closely. They are difficult to bring 
under cultivation because of the vitahty of the grass 
roots and the acidity which they impart to the soil. 
Cogondles are often the breeding places of swarms of 
locusts which devour growing crops in neighbouring fields. 
They have been produced by the shiftless form of agri- 
culture known as caingin maldng. 

A large majority of the inhabitants of the Philippines 
will not fight, for any length of time, the tropical weeds 
and grasses which invade their cultivated fields, and rather 
than attempt to do so prefer to clear forest lands, slaugh- 
tering the trees indiscriminately and burning them where 
they fall. An area so cleared is known as a caingin. It 
is usually planted with camotes, corn, rice or some similar 
quick-growing crop. Cultivation is carried on in a hap- 
hazard way, but is soon abandoned when a jungle growth 

• An extensive open region covered with cogon is called a cogondl. 



THE PHILIPPINE FORESTS 849 

of grass, weeds and seedling trees begins to spring up. 
At the end of the first, the second or, at latest the third 
year the caingin maker abandons his clearing and starts 
a new one. Fires sweep over the abandoned areas, kill- 
ing everything except the cogon grass which takes posses- 
sion and holds it against all comers. The forest de- 
struction thus wrought in the past is appalhng. Within 
limi ts, it still continues, although unUcensed caingin 
making is now forbidden by law. 

In cutting timber for domestic use and for the market, 
the Fihpinos have in the past been absolutely indifferent 
to the matter of reproduction, making a clean sweep in 
those places where merchantable tree species could be 
readily and cheaply obtained. 

Six weeks after the Philippine Commission became 
the legislative body of the islands, it passed an act for 
the reorganization of the Forestry Bureau, which had 
previously been created by military order, continuing as 
its chief Major George P. Ahem, who had held this posi- 
tion under the military regime, and who is to-day in length 
of ser\'ice the ranking bureau chief of the insular govern- 
ment. 

Major Ahern was thus intrusted with the management 
of some fifty-four thousand square miles of forest land, 
and was charged with the duty of investigating the 
forest resources of the Philippines, and of developing and 
protecting them. These two latter objects are by no 
means incompatible. Vastly more timber falls and rots 
in the Philippines than is cut and marketed, and the 
forest wealth of the islands may be developed in such a 
way as actually to improve the areas that are cut over 
by removing old trees, and thus gi^-ing light and air 
to younger ones which then rapidly grow up and take 
their places. 

The stand of hardwood timber in the Philippines is 
now probably the finest in the world. The United States 
and Europe are ready to purchase every foot of the selected 



850 THE rHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

grades of lumber that we can ship. China offers a prac- 
tically inexhaustible market for the cheaper grades. 
Stumpage charges are moderate. Yet in spite of all these 
advantages the islands do not, as yet, produce lumber 
enough to supply their own needs. 

This condition is rapidly changing, however, and if 
adequate measures are not adopted for the conservation 
of the forests, we shall sooner or later be confronted with 
the danger of their devastation by the lumberman. 

Under the direction of the Bm-eau of Forestry the trees 
which are to be felled are in many instances marked, and 
in any event care is taken to prevent the cutting of any 
which have not attained to certain prescribed diameters, 
while the leaving of enough adequately to provide for 
reproduction is obligatory. 

Up to the time of the American occupation forest 
operations had been limited to a very small number of 
well-known species of demonstrated conunercial value. 
The total number of tree species which had then been 
identified was about twelve hundred. The number identi- 
fied up to the present time is approximately twenty-five 
hundred. A large amount of important work has been 
done in determining what ones of the connnercially un- 
known species are valuable, and in what ways they may 
best be utihzed. 

One of the most important functions of the Bureau 
of Forestry has been to investigate unexplored and un- 
known forests, and ascertain definitely the stand of com- 
mercially valuable trees, at the same time giving proper 
consideration to the practicabiUty of getting lumber 
from them to the market at reasonable expense. As a 
result of this work the bureau has been able to furnish 
much accurate and valuable information to persons desir- 
ing to engage in the lumber industry. 

Some forests have been found to be very valuable, 
while others are practically' worthless either on account 
of the absence of the better tree species or because of 



THE PHILIPPINE FORESTa 851 

difficulties which render it impossible or unprofitable to 
transport lumber from them to a market. 

At the time of the American occupation the methods 
employed in felhng trees and converting them into lum- 
ber were primitive in the extreme. The small Malay 
axe, the edge of which is hardly wider than that of a good- 
sized chisel, was in common use. Once felled, trees were 
necessarily cut into short lengths, as all logs had to be 
hauled by carabaos. The logs were ultimately cut into 
lumber by hand with whip-saws operated, as a rule, by 
two men each. There was not a modem sawmill in the 
Phihppine Islands. The few mills which existed were of 
the most antiquated type, and with one or two negUgible 
exceptions were confined to Manila. 

To-day there are about sixty steam sawmills in opera- 
tion and orders have been placed for others, some of 
which will have a capacity of one hundred thousand 
board feet of lumber per day. The actual invest- 
ment in logging equipment and sawmills runs into the 
milUons of dollars. 

Logging was formerly closely restricted to the most 
valuable species, so situated that they could be rolled 
into the water or hauled to the beach by carabaos. Large 
tracts are now being logged with modem machinery under 
conservative forest methods, and the logging railway and 
the skidding engine are rapidly coming into use. 

Three forest reserves, smiilar in purpose to the national 
forests of the United States, have been set aside to insure 
a permanent timber supply in certain regions and to 
afford permanent protection to streams capable of fur- 
nishing irrigation water upon which may depend the 
prosperity of the inhabitants of neighbouring plains. 
One hundred and forty-nine conmiunal forests have been 
created for as many municipalities, in order permanently 
to provide them with timber and firewood. The interests 
of the Filipinos themselves have been given first considera- 
tion, and the inhabitants of towns for which communal 



852 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

forests have not been set aside may freely cut and gather 
from any public forest, without license and without 
payment, all timber of the second and lower groups which 
they require for domestic use, while gratuitous licenses 
can be had for first-group timber to be employed in the 
construction of permanent houses. 

Within recent years the revenue derived from forest 
products has steadily increased, in spite of the fact that 
the government charges have been materially reduced. 

The public forests of the Philippines are not sold, but 
are developed under a hcense system. Small operators 
usually work under ordinary yearly Ucenses for definite 
small areas. Exclusive licenses, or concessions as they are 
popularly called, are generally in the form of twenty- 
year exclusive licenses to cut and remove timber and other 
forest products from certain specified tracts. The land 
itself is in no way affected by such Ucenses. Merely 
the timber and minor forest products are included. 
When a lumberman is seriously considering an invest- 
ment in the Phihppines, he himself, or an experienced 
representative, should state to the director of forestry ap- 
proximately the extent of the investment he contemplates. 
He will then be given information about several tracts 
which promise to answer his needs, and arrangements can 
be made for an experienced forester to accompany him 
over the tracts in question so that he may size up condi- 
tions for himself. All maps, estimates and other detailed 
information which may have been collected on the tracts 
will, of course, be placed at his disposal, and he can count 
upon the heartiest governmental cooperation and assist- 
ance in making a success of his enterprise. It should be 
understood, however, that in no case does the director of 
forestry guarantee the correctness of the estimates or 
other data which he furnishes. These are given to the 
applicant for what they are worth, and in every case he is 
advised to take such steps as may be necessary to satisfy 
himself as to whether or not they are correct. If the 




5 >f 

J^ 3 

r -a 






o :g 



o 



J5 



o 
J3 






li 



THE PHILIPPINE FORESTS 853 

lumberman then decides to apply for a concession, he 
makes a formal application in writing to the director of 
forestry for an exclusive twenty-year privilege for the tract 
he has selected. His application is then forwarded by the 
director of forestry with recommendations to the secretary 
of the interior, who may approve the issuance of an exclu- 
sive license if he decides that such a course is in the public 
interest. For an area of more than a thousand hectares 
(approximately twenty-five hundred acres) proposals for 
bids to secure the desired privilege are published in the 
Official Gazette and other papers. At least six weeks inter- 
vene between the appearance of the first advertisement and 
the opening of the bids, but in order to give interested par- 
ties in the Philippines ample time to correspond with their 
principals in Europe or America, this period is usually 
extended to about four months. The advertisement also 
enumerates certain minimum requirements which princi- 
pally specify the minimum amount of capital which 
must be invested within a certain given time and the mini- 
mum cut during the several succeeding years, together 
with certain requirements regarding logging and milling 
equipment. 

Formal bids are finally submitted, and the license is 
ordinarily granted to the bidder who gives the best 
assurances of developing the tract most thoroughly and 
promptly. The right to reject any and all bids is ex- 
pressly reserved. 

In fixing the annual production there is taken into con- 
sideration, so far as possible, the amount of over-mature 
timber on the stand and the amount of the annual incre- 
ment, with the object of rendering the investment a perma- 
nent one instead of merely permitting the operator to 
strip and abandon the area he holds. In preparing regu- 
lations under which the operator is required to work, first 
care is given to the future condition of the area, in order 
that the land after logging may be potentially as valuable 
as before, and no consideration of immediate profit is 

VOL. II — 2 a 



854 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

allowed to interfere. Nevertheless, the logger in the 
Philippines will find that in comparison with similar 
conditions elsewhere he will have few restrictions to con- 
tend with, and in practically no cases are these such as 
seriously to increase the cost of his operations. It is to 
permit such permanent use of the land that concessions 
are granted over such large areas, often consisting of a 
hundred square miles or even more. 

As local residents are given the right to cut what lumber 
and firewood they may need for their private use in the 
territory covered by exclusive licenses, this system is not 
open to objection, especially as there are more than suffi- 
cient forest areas to accommodate all applicants desir- 
ing exclusive licenses. The director of forestry has 
the right to reduce cutting areas if outputs do not come 
up to requirements, so that a dog-in-the-manger policy 
is rendered impossible. 

The local market takes about one hundred million 
feet per year. Only a few million feet are exported an- 
nually at present. A properly distributed cut of five 
hundred million feet per year would actually improve 
the forests. 

It would seem that the pohcy which we have followed 
would meet with the almost unanimous approval of the 
Filipinos, but as a matter of fact it has been far from 
popular with them. The forest reserves have been set 
aside against the protest of the very people who will 
profit by the conservation of their resources, and would 
be the first to suffer from their destruction. The native 
press, and the Filipinos generally, have opposed the open- 
ing up of timber tracts by modern logging methods, 
despite the fact that such tracts are usually inaccessible 
to persons operating with old-fashioned equipment, and 
the further fact that the establishment of important 
lumbering enterprises means additional emploj^ment for 
well-paid skilled and unskilled labor, increase in the money 
in circulation, decrease in lumber imports and the ultimate 



THE PHILIPPINE FORESTS 855 

development of a lucrative export trade. Fear of Ameri- 
can capital can hardly be cited as an explanation of this 
phenomenon. Of three concessions granted last year 
only one, which was subsequently abandoned, went to 
American capitalists. 

Thus far the Fihpinos have made no attempt to share 
in the development of their forests on any save a very 
small scale. Of the total amount of lumber sawed in the 
islands only about ten per cent is produced in mills owned 
or controlled by them. It is useless to argue that the 
timber should be saved for future generations, for if not 
cut at maturity trees fall and rot. 

So far as concerns conservation, the attitude of the 
Fihpinos is even less satisfactory. There is abundant 
evidence on which to base a prediction as to the pohcy 
which they would follow in practice, if the compelling 
hand of an enhghtened nation were withdrawn. 

There is a singular indifference to the results of wanton 
forest destruction, not only on the part of the persons 
guilty of it but on that of the municipal, provincial and 
judicial officials who should prevent it by enforcing the 
law. Even when the employees of the Bureau of Forestry 
have laboriously gathered conclusive evidence against 
caingin makers it often proves excessively difficult, or 
impossible, to secure conviction. The existing opposi- 
tion to forest protection springs from a desire on the part 
of the Filipinos to consume their capital as well as their 
interest, without thought of the morrow, or of the perma- 
nent advantage to their country as a whole which would 
result from conservation of its forest wealth. If they 
were left to their own devices the forests would once more 
blaze with caingin fires set by the poor peasant at the 
command of the influential cacique. Unfortunately that 
is now only too often the way in which caingins come 
to be made. The rich landowners compel ignorant 
dependents to make them, furnishing seed for the first 
agricultural crop. Under this arrangement the poor 



856 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

labourer runs all the risk of being prosecuted, does all 
the work, and often gives half or more of his crop to the 
cacique as a return for the seed loaned him. After the 
caingin is abandoned the coLcique claims the land as his 
own, and through his influence in provincial politics can 
often succeed in delaying, or avoiding, prosecution even 
if detected in his wrong-doing. 

What the result would be were all restraint withdrawn, 
and were the Filipinos permitted to destroy their forest 
resources at will, may easily be inferred from what has 
happened in the past, as well as from the difficulties en- 
countered in enforcing the present law. Cebu, the most 
thickly populated large island in the archipelago, is 
already practically deforested, and until recently many 
other islands have been rapidly approaching the same 
unfortunate condition. 

Under conservative forest management the existing 
annual output of lumber might be increased fivefold and 
the unfortunate results from reckless cutting, which 
have so frequently occurred in the past and which not 
infrequently still occur, might be completely avoided. 

If these very desirable ends are to be attained, the 
force employed by the Bureau of Forestry must be mate- 
rially augmented. It has been conclusively demonstrated 
that every increase in the number of its employees is 
promptly followed by a sufficient increase in the insular 
revenues derived from forest products to more than offset 
the expense involved in the payment of the additional 
salaries and travel expenses. For every extra peso that the 
government expends in tliis way it takes in about two, and 
if this can be done, and the enormous forest resources of 
the islands developed and conserved at the same time, 
there ought to be no trouble in securing the necessary 
legislation. 

I long endeavoured to bring about the establishment 
of a fixed relationship between the amount annually 
collected on forest products and the amount allotted for 



THE PHILIPPINE FORESTS 857 

the work of the Bureau of Forestry. Obviously the work- 
ing force of the bureau must be increased as the lumber 
industry develops, or adequate supervision cannot be 
exercised. 

Increasing the working force of the bureau makes 
possible investigations which stimulate the development 
of the lumber industry, and lead to a largely increased 
output. 

The collection of revenue on forest products from 
government lands is made by the Bureau of Internal 
Revenue under the general supervision of the secretary 
of finance and justice. I have recently learned, to my 
amazement, that every large sawmill owner in the islands 
is allowed to make the statement of the output of his 
mill upon which collections are based ; a procedure 
very like allowing importers to assess their own cus- 
toms dues. The ine\itable result is that the goverrmient 
is robbed right and left. Finding that an attempt was 
made to justify this procedure on the ground that it 
was impracticable to have lumber measured at the mills, 
as the Bureau of Internal Revenue has not sufficient 
employees for this purpose, I endeavoured to remedy this 
extraordinarj' situation. 

Under existing law, timber may be measured in the 
round, in the square, or after it has been manufactured 
into lumber. Measurement in the round is quick and 
simple, and it has the further advantage that loss due to 
wasteful sawing falls on the lumberman, while if the 
sawed lumber only is measured such loss falls on the gov- 
ernment. I therefore drafted and submitted to the com- 
mission a law pro^^ding that all timber should be meas- 
ured in the round, with proper allowance for defects. 
Had the law passed, I could have had employees of the 
Bureau of Forestry measure the logs brought into each 
of the several mills which collectively turn out ninety per 
cent of the sawn lumber of the islands, and so could have 
effectively prevented frauds upon the government. 



858 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

A system which practically allows the individuals 
interested to fix the amounts which they shall pay the 
government for its timber naturally meets with the un- 
qualified approval of the lumbermen. I therefore ex- 
pected that they would strenuously object to the proposed 
change in law. To my surprise there was no com- 
plaint while it was pending before the commission, which 
passed it. 

Then, and only then, I learned that certain lumber- 
men had quietly done their work where they believed, 
rightly, that it would be effective, and that the bill would 
not pass the assembly. An effective lobby, headed by a 
Filipino representative of the largest Filipino lumbering 
concern in the islands, had been organized against it, 
and so a measure having no other object or effect than to 
prevent frauds on the government and increase its 
revenue, was killed, for the time at least, consideration 
of the bill being "deferred," by the assembly, with the 
result that a large number of foreign mill owners will be 
allowed to continue to make an illegitimate profit, and a 
very limited number of Filipino mill owners will do the 
same. 

The commercial outlook for the Philippine lumber 
industry is very encouraging. No more greedy lumber 
market exists than jManila has offered during the past 
few years, this condition being due primarily to the 
stimulus given to all lines of industrial development by 
the economic policy of the insular administration. 

Prices are high, and the supply is still unequal to the 
local demand. Forest products to the value of $696,407 
were last year imported into the Philippines when we 
should have exported them in large quantities. A lum- 
ber company properly equipped and managed, and operat- 
ing on a suitable tract, can place lumber in its Manila 
yards at a cost of half or even less than half the price at 
which the same lumber readily sells. The export trade, 
which should be very profitable, has as yet scarcely been 



THE PHILIPPINE FORESTS 859 

inaugurated. Tan bark, dyewoods, valuable gums and 
rattans find a ready sale. It may reasonably be expected 
that the world's demand for forest products of all kinds 
will increase as the years go by, and that the resources 
of older countries will become depleted, or at least inade- 
quate to supply steadily growing needs. Forest growth 
in the Phihppines is rapid, and under suitable conserva- 
tion methods reforestation comes about quickly. With 
continued enforcement of existing law, and with adequate 
supervision over cutting and reforestation, the cost of 
which should be paid by the lumber industry itself, the 
forests of the islands should become an important per- 
manent source of revenue and wealth. Fihpinos ought 
to become holders of forest concessions instead of labourers 
on the concessions of others. Wliether any considerable 
number of them will care to do so remains to be seen, but 
at all events their forests should be conserved, so that the 
opportunity may be ever before them. At the present 
time caihgin makers destroy far more timber in the course 
of a year than lumbermen use. 

In the hope of awakening an interest among Fihpinos 
in forest conservation and development, and of being 
able to train an adequate Filipino working force, a forest 
school has been started at Los Banos, m the immediate 
vicinity of one of our forest reserves, where practical 
instruction can advantageously be given. It is antici- 
pated that the graduates of this school will be of great use 
in bringing about a radical change in the attitude of the 
Filipinos toward forest conservation. 

It is an astonishing fact that the Bontoc and Lepanto 
Igorots have been the only ones of the very numerous 
Philippine peoples to see for themselves the benefits 
derivable from forest conservation. 

When I first visited their country I noted that all the 
trees in certain pine forests were carefully trimmed of their 
lower branches, and on inquiry found that trees might 
not be felled until they reached a certain size, although 



860 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

branches might be cut for firewood. The prevention of 
fires, which are very destructive in pine forests, and the 
care of young trees, were also adequately provided for ! 
The Bureau of Forestry now employs Igorots as fire war- 
dens in Benguet and Bontoc. 

If the policy were adopted of appropriating annually an 
amount equivalent to sixty per cent of the forest revenues 
for the work of the Bureau of Forestry, the proper con- 
servation and development of the great potential source 
of wealth intrusted to that bureau would be adequately 
provided for. The commission has agreed to such an 
arrangement ; ten per cent of the total forest revenues to 
be expended in the provinces under its exclusive legis- 
lative control, and fifty per cent in the other provinces. 
Appropriations for the territory occupied by non-Chris- 
tians are now made on this basis. No appropriation 
bill has been passed by the assembly since this pohcy 
was agreed to by the commission. It remains to be seen 
whether the former body will favour the expenditures nec- 
essary to support the work of forest conservation and de- 
velopment, with the reasonable certainty that such work 
will not only assure to them and to coming generations a 
permanent source of wealth, but will more than pay for 
itself in dollars and cents. 



CHAPTER XXXII 

Improved Means of Communication 

The improvement in means of communication which 
has taken place in the Philippines since the American 
occupation is almost revolutionary. I well remember 
my tribulations in the Spanish days, resulting from the 
inadequacy of the mail system. There were long delays 
in receiving letters sent from Manila to the more impor- 
tant to\\T.is in the archipelago, but if, as was usually the 
case with us, one was hving in a small and more or less 
isolated provincial to-mi, he was fortunate to get his 
letters at all. They would be forwarded from place to 
place by irresponsible native carriers, and under the most 
favourable circumstances were likely to be greatlj^ de- 
layed in transmission. There was httle respect for the 
privacy of letters. On one occasion I arrived at Jolo, 
confidently expecting a large mail, only to be disappointed. 
A week later my companion, Dr. Bourns, was calUng 
upon a German resident of that place. Lying in a 
waste-basket he saw a letter written in a hand which he 
recognized as that of one of my friends. He thereupon 
called upon the German to dehver any other letters he 
might have for me, and some were produced, but others 
had been throwoi away ! We foimd that our mail had 
begun to come prior to our arrival, and as the Spanish 
postmaster did not know any persons named Bourns 
or Worcester he turned it over to this man to see 
whether he could make out whom it was for. The latter 
opened the letters, read them, and threw them away. 

But this was not the worst of it. There was a time 
when for months I received no letters, and my companion 

861 



862 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

no newspapers or magazines. Then the arrangement 
was reversed. I got my letters but no papers or maga- 
zines, while he had papers but no letters. 

Under the Spanish regime letter carriers in Manila 
received the munificent salary of $46 per annum, but 
were authorized to collect a charge of three-quarters of a 
cent on every article of mail delivered by them, except 
letters from foreign countries and letters passing between 
persons hving in Manila. 

The Spanish government did not admit general mer- 
chandise to the mails, but accepted only samples and 
medicine. We admit all classes of merchandise except 
certain objectionable things and certain articles dangerous 
to the mails or to those handling them. We have in- 
creased the maximiun allowable weight of mail packages 
to eleven pounds, and on January 1, 1913, established a 
"collect on delivery" service under which merchants and 
others may send goods through the mails and have the 
charges thereon collected from the addressee before de- 
livery. These are important and valuable extensions of 
the service, and greatly benefit the Fihpinos as well as 
the merchants by bringing people throughout the islands 
into touch with shops from which they can order the goods 
they need. 

It is difficult to determine the difference in the amounts 
of business done under the Spanish and American systems 
for the reason that the Spanish figures are in many cases 
obviously unrehable. The latest available statistics, 
for the fiscal year 1893, show an enormous discrepancy 
between the amount of mail matter claimed to have been 
transported and the revenue received, which should 
theoretically have been about twice as large as seems to 
have been collected. It is believed, however, that the 
following figures are fairly reliable. 

The number of post-offices has increased from four hun- 
dred sixty-six to five hundred ninety. It is anticipated 
that one hundred fifty additional post-offices will be estab- 



IMPRO\'ED MEANS OF COMMUNICATION 863 

lished in smaller municipalities and out-of-the-way places 
within the present year, and as it is these places are re- 
cei\ang postal service through the employment of com- 
petent letter-carriers, who are collecting and deUvering 
their mails. 

Only sixty-five of the Spanish post-offices were in 
charge of officials employed by the general government. 
The remaining four hundred one were looked after in a 
way by local municipal officials. All postmasters are now 
paid by the general government. 

The mails are being carried with much greater frequency 
than ever before. Durmg the last j-ear there were 273 
contract routes on wliich mails were carried a total of 
873,957 miles at a cost of S40,440.75. 

So far as can be judged from the figures available the 
mails despatched from the islands during the fiscal year 
1912 were about five times those annually despatched 
during the late years of the Spanish regime. 

In 1893 nine parcel post packages were sent to foreign 
countries. In 1912, 2640 such parcels went abroad. 
In 1893 the number of registered articles transmitted 
between Pliilippine post-offices was 29,078. In 1912 
it was 535,137. The increased use of newspapers is 
shown by the fact that in 1893 the weight of the news- 
papers mailed for delivery within the Philippmes was 
121 ,070 pounds, while in 1912 it was 687,568 pounds. This 
difference is no doubt largely due to the severe restrictions 
imposed on the press under the Spanish regime as com- 
pared with the freedom which it enjoys to-day. 

The Spanish postal administration paid little attention 
to complaints by Fihpinos relative to . losses of articles 
transmitted through the mails. Now the most trivial 
complaint is painstakingly investigated, and only in rare 
cases is there failure to recover the value of lost or stolen 
articles from the postal employee responsible. The 
sanctity of the mails which now prevails is an important 
factor in the increased use which the people make of them. 



864 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

It is claimed that under the Spanish regime few matters 
of importance were intrusted to the mails by Filipinos 
because their letters were so frequently opened and in- 
spected by government officials. 

The Spaniards had four subsiiUzed mail routes after 
1897. We have nine subsidized routes, and six others 
which are maintained wholly at government expense by 
the Bureau of Navigation. 

The Spanish government provided no postal money- 
order service whatever, and the transmission of money 
by mail with safety was impossible. We have 265 money- 
order post-offices and during 1912 issued 160,524 money- 
orders payable in the islands, the total sum of which was 
$5,592,205.85. We also issued 68,229 orders amounting 
to $1,764,608.02 payable in the United States, and 2607 
orders amounting to $68,364.83 payable in other countries. 
These amounts were transmitted largely by Filipinos, 
who now do a considerable mail order business with mer- 
chants in the United States. 

A further great convenience not furnished by the Span- 
ish government is the pajTnent of money-orders trans- 
mitted by telegraph. During the last fiscal year there 
were forwarded 8333 such orders, covering payments 
amounting to $1,128,229.79. 

The improvement in the telegraph service has been 
quite as marked as that in the mail service. In 1897 
there were only 65 telegraph offices in the islands, 49 of 
which were on the island of Luzon, 9 on Panay, 4 on 
Negros and 3 on Cebu. The total length of all telegraph 
lines was some 1750 miles. There were no cables or other 
means of telegraphic communication between the islands. 

Practically all of the old lines were destroyed during 
the revolution wliich began in 1896, so that the lines now 
existing must be considered as having been built since the 
American occupation. There are 282 telegraph offices 
with 4781 miles of land line and in addition 1362 miles 
of marine cable and 7 wireless stations in operation. 



IMPROVED MEANS OF COMMUNICATION 865 

Every provincial capital, with the exception of Basco in 
the remote Batanes Islands, and Butuan in Agusan 
Province, now has telegraphic facilities as does almost 
every other place of commercial importance in the Pliilip- 
pines. The advantage of prompt telegraphic communi- 
cation with such oxitlying points as Puerto Princesa, 
Jolo, Zamboanga, Davao, Suriago and the east coast of 
Samar is enormous, while the extension of the cable ser- 
vice to Catanduanes has been a great boon to the hemp 
growers of that island. The latest available figures rel- 
ative to the telegrapliic business conducted by the Span- 
iards are for the year 1889, during the second six months 
of which there were handled 33,697 coimnercial telegrams. 
During the fiscal year 1912 our business of the same class 
reached a total of 496,643 telegrams. Tliis class of busi- 
ness has been increasing from 25 to 30 per cent yearly for 
several years. 

The expenditures of the Spanish government for all 
postal and telegraphic service for the fiscal year 1895 
amounted to $484,960.50. Those of the Bureau of Posts 
for 1912 were $1,072,684.48. No statement of the Span- 
ish revenues can be found. Our revenues for 1912 were 
$627,724.70. The personnel of the Spanish service for 
1895 shows only 31 positions paying salaries of more than 
$500 per year, most of which were filled by Spaniards. 
There are now 96 positions paying salaries of more than 
$500 per year filled by Filipinos. Filipino post-office 
employees receive salaries 50 to 100 per cent larger than 
those of employees of similar rank during the Spanish 
regime. Think how much these figiu'es mean in increased 
opportunity for employment of Filipinos, and m increased 
communication not only between the people in the islands 
but between them and the outside world. 

In a number of instances the telegraph lines which are 
controlled by the Bureau of Posts are supplemented by 
provincial telephone systems, which are of great value in 
maintaining quick communication with towns not reached 



866 



THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 



by telegraph wires. Such Hnes are especially useful in 
the Mountain Province, Mindoro, Palawan, Nueva 
Vizcaya, and the sub-province of Bukidnon, where mes- 
sengers who travel by land have to go on horseback or on 
foot. 

The following table shows the growth of the postal and 
telegraph business of the Islands : — 

Post-Office and Telegraph Statistics 





Monet Orders Sold 


Postage 
Receipts 


Telegraph Receipts 


Fiscal Yeae 


Amount 


Increase 

(+) or . 

decrease 

(-) 


Amount 


Increase 

C+)or 

decrease 

(-) 


1900 


$1,526,310 
1,514,435 
1,854,927 
2,842,587 
3,102,606 
3,444,053 
3,687,127 
3,229,446 
3,645,123 
4,008,678 
4,890,835 
6,132,582 
7,425,173 
8,272,858 


Per cent 

- i" 

+22 
+53 
+ 9 
+ 11 
+ 7 
-12 
+ 13 
+ 10 
+22 
+25 
+21 
+ 6 


$117,848 
122,833 
126,375 
132,445 
121,714 
121,648 
198,583 
198,546 
220,306 
245,482 
282,317 
313,549 
349,407 
380,942 






1901 






1902 






1903 






1904 






1905 






1906 

1907 

1908 

1909 

1910' 

1911 

1912 

19132 


■$56,351 
118,360 
136,138 
139,208 
168,402 
184,555 
236,679 
283,306 


+iid 

+ 15 
+ 2 
+ 21 
+ 9 
+ 28 
+ 4 



As I have elsewhere remarked, the Philippines have a 
coast line longer than that of the continental United 
States. A very large percentage of the municipalities 
are situated on, or close to, the sea and the maintenance 
of adequate marine transportation is therefore a matter 
of vital miportance to the peace and commercial pros- 

' First year for which statistics are available. 

- Twice the actual figures for the first half of the year : $3,942,647 ; 
$194,296; $123,339. 

' First year after Payne TariS Bill took effect. 



IMPROVED MEANS OF COMMUNICATION 867 

perity of the archipelago. In the early days of American 
occupation conditions were most unsatisfactory. Most 
of the boats in the coastwise trade were antiquated, foul 
and had no decent facilities for transporting passengers. 
As the number of vessels was too small to handle the busi- 
ness of the country, ship-owoiers occupied a very indepen- 
dent position. The freight rates on such things as lumber 
and currency were practically prohibitive. It was a 
common thing for vessels to refuse to receive hemp, sugar 
and perishable products that had been brought to the 
beach for shipment, giving as an excuse the fact that 
they were employed in the private business of Messrs. 
Smith, Bell & Co., Warner, Barnes & Co., or whoever 
happened to own them, and could not transport freight 
for the public as the volume of their private business would 
not permit it. However, if the owners of the freight were 
willing to sell it to the ships' officers for a fraction of its 
value, they encountered no difficulty in transporting it ! 

Furthermore, there existed the danger of Moro raids, 
the necessity for checking the operations of smugglers, 
and that of preventing the ingress of firearms, which in 
the hands of irresponsible persons might cause great 
damage and expense to the government and the pubhc. 

In view of these facts it was decided to establish a fleet 
of twenty coast-guard vessels, which were not only to 
do pohce duty and to assist in the transportation of troops, 
but were to carry freight and passengers when opportunity 
offered. Fifteen such vessels were ordered from Messrs. 
Farnham, Boyd & Co., of Shanghai, and five from the 
Uraga Dock Company of Japan. The Japanese vessels 
proved unsatisfactory, and only two were accepted, mak- 
ing the total fleet seventeen. As the condition of public 
order improved the coast-guard boats became available 
to a constantly increasing extent for cormnercial service. 

Prior to July, 1906, there were practically no established 
steamship routes over which conmiercial vessels operated 
on regular schedules. With the exception of the service 



868 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

between Manila, Cebii and Iloilo, vessels traded here 
and there without regular ports of call or fixed dates of 
arrival or departure. The policy which guided their 
owners was one of privilege and monopoly, and by agree- 
ment between them competition was rigidly excluded. 
Trade was discouraged and the commercial development 
of the islands seriously retarded. 

In accordance with a plan formulated by Mr. Forbes, 
then secretary of commerce and police, the coast-guard 
vessels were placed on regular commercial routes and were 
operated on schedules which gave efficient service to all 
important islands of the archipelago. Ten routes were 
maintained and many isolated points, and small towns or 
villages which offered so little business at the outset as 
to make them unprofitable, and therefore unattractive 
as ports of call for commercial vessels, were put in close 
communication with the larger towns and distributing 
centres, so that the small planters could market their prod- 
ucts with little trouble. This promptly led to increased 
production and trade, and greater prosperity through the 
islands. 

Business increased to such an extent that in July, 1906, 
it proved practicable to withdraw the government vessels 
and turn these routes over to commercial firms which 
entered into a definite contract with the government to 
maintain an adequate service. Their vessels were allowed 
substantial subsidies, amounting in the aggregate to 
$100,000 per year, in order to assure the prompt despatch 
of mail, adherence to schedule, and efficient service. The 
ten old coast-guard routes were divided into fourteen new 
conunercial routes which gave excellent service to all parts 
of the islands. 

Secondary routes were then arranged and coast-guard 
cutters were placed on them. A number of these were in 
turn given over to commercial vessels after they had 
developed enough trade to be commercially profitable. 
Three such routes are now maintained by the Bureau of 




'inE VIA) Way of (kossixg a River. 




The New Way of Crossing a River. 



IMPROVED MEANS OF COMMUNICATION 869 

Navigation, and it is planned to establish two more in the 
near future. 

The importance of the change thus brought about by 
the government in transportation facilities can be ap- 
preciated only by those who have had actual experience 
with the intolerable state of affairs which previously existed. 
Meanwhile conditions on the inter-island steamers have 
been enormously improved by the enforcement of proper 
sanitary regulations, and insistence that staterooms be 
decent and food reasonably good. 

Of the original cutters two were for a long time under 
charter by the military authorities for use as despatch 
boats and transports ; two are employed as lighthouse 
tenders, and two have been assigned to the Bureau of 
Coast Surveys for coast and geodetic work ; one collects 
lepers and takes them to the Leper Colony at Culion. 
The cable-ship Rizal, operated by the Bureau of Naviga- 
tion, has succeeded in repairing and keeping in repair 
the marine cables throughout the islands. Such cables 
are especially subject to injury in Philippine waters on 
account of the strength of the currents between the islands, 
the frequency with which stretches of sea bottom are over- 
grown with sharp coral, and the common occurrence of 
earthquakes. When not otherwise engaged the Rizal 
carries conmiercial cargoes if opportunity offers. She 
has proved useful for bringing in rice when a shortage of 
this commodity, which is the bread of the Filipino people, 
threatened, and for handling cargoes of lumber of sizes 
such that regular inter-island steamers could not load it. 

In addition to the vessels above mentioned, the Bureau 
of Navigation owns and operates a fleet of launches, some 
of which are seagoing, and a number of dredges which are 
employed in improving the harbours and rivers of the isl- 
ands as funds permit. The bureau also owns and oper- 
ates its own machine shop and marine railway, and repairs 
its own vessels. 

A section of the machine shop is set aside for lighthouse 

VOL. II — 2 b 



870 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

work, and in it lighthouse apparatus of every description 
is fabricated and repaired. While lighthouses and buoys 
are not means of communication they are aids to it. 

The thousand and ninety-five inhabited islands and ap- 
proximately two hundred and fifty ports of varying im- 
portance, depending as they do entirely upon water trans- 
portation for communication with each other and with the 
outside world, had no wharfage whatever available for 
large vessels, and no publicly owned wharfage within ten 
yards of which even the larger inter-island steamers could be 
berthed. Manila had no protected anchorage, and during 
the season of southwest monsoons and typhoons vessels 
were sometimes compelled to lie in the harbour for weeks 
before they could unload, a fact which gave the port a 
deservedly bad name. 

The Spaniards had commenced harbour work at Manila 
in 1892, twenty-five years after preliminary study began 
and sixteen years after prospective plans had been sub- 
mitted. Their operations were stopped by the insurrec- 
tion in 1896, at wliich time the present west breakwater 
had been about half completed, but as the completed por- 
tion was at the shore end and in shallow water it afforded 
no protection to ships. There had been constructed 
twenty-four hundred feet of masonry wall partly enclos- 
ing one of the basins provided for in the Spanish plans, 
and fourteen hundred eighty-five feet of wall fining canals 
connecting the proposed new harbour with the Pasig River. 
These also were temporarily useless, because there had been 
no dredging in front of them, or backfilling in their rear. 

Outside of Manila practically nothing had been done 
to facilitate the loading and discharge of vessels, or to 
protect them from the elements. 

We now have at Manila a deep-water harbour dredged 
to a uniform depth of thirty feet and enclosed by two 
breakwaters having a total length of nearly eleven thou- 
sand five hundred feet. Two hundi'ed and sixty-one acres 
of land have been reclaimed with the dredged material. 



J 



IMPROVED MEANS OF COMMUNICATION 871 

Two steel piers extend from the filled land into the deep- 
water harbour. One of these is six hundred fifty feet long 
and one hundi-ed ten feet wide, the other six hundred feet 
long and seventy feet wide. Both are housed in, the 
sheds covering them having a total area of ninety-two 
thousand square feet. These piers and sheds are prac- 
tically fireproof, and the largest ocean-going steamers on 
the Pacific can he alongside them. Additional work 
planned, which should be undertaken when funds permit, 
includes two more piers ; and bulkheads to connect the 
inner ends of the present piers, so as to give inter-island 
steamers opportunity to unload. 

At Cebii the sea-wall has been completed to a length 
of two thousand sixty feet and the channel in front of 
it dredged in part to ten and a half and in part to 
twenty-three feet at low water. Some ten and a half 
acres of land have been reclaimed with the material re- 
moved. Streets and roadways have been built on the 
reclaimed area, and a wharf eight hunch-ed twelve feet 
in length, designed as an extension to the wall, is now 
fifty per cent completed. The harbour at Cebii should 
ultimately be dredged so as to give thirty feet of water 
along the piers. 

At Iloilo the dredging of a fifteen-foot channel up to the 
custom-house was completed in March, 1907. Seven 
hundred and eighty-three feet of river wall and twelve 
hundred ninety feet of reenforced concrete wharf, both 
to accommodate vessels of eighteen feet di-aft at low 
water, have been built along the south bank of the middle 
reach of the river. The lower reach has been dredged to 
twenty-fom- feet at low water, the middle reach to eighteen 
feet and the upper reach to fifteen feet, while two hun- 
dred ten thousand square metres of land have been re- 
claimed and two hundred six thousand improved with 
the dredged material. Wharves for ocean-going steamers 
should ultimately be constructed at this important port. 

At Paracale, in Ambos Camarines, a reenforced concrete 



872 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

pier four hundred ninety feet in length has been built. 
It extends out to a depth of fifteen feet at low water. 

At Bais, Negros, a timber pier for vessels of sixteen 
feet draft, with a stone causeway approach a mile and 
a half in length, and a warehouse for the temporary stor- 
age of sugar, have been constructed. 

Channels have been blasted through the coral reefs 
surrounding the islands Batan, Sabtang and Itbayat in 
the Batanes group, where the annual loss of life had pre- 
viously been great, owing to the occurrence of sudden 
storms which often made it impossible for people to re- 
turn to their towns through the sm-f. The port of Pandan, 
in Ilocos Sur, has been improved by means of a stone 
revetment twenty-nine hundred seventy-five feet in length 
along the north bank of the Abra River, thus maintain- 
ing the channel in one position and affording vastly 
better means of loading and discharging cargo for the 
important town of Vigan. A self-propelhng combina- 
tion snag boat, pile driver and dredge for the improve- 
ment of the great Cagayan River has been built, and is 
now in operation on that stream. 

Very numerous other works of repair and construction 
have been carried out. Some 80 surveys have been made 
in minor ports to determine the feasibility of improve- 
ments, and in many cases plans have been prepared for 
proposed work. 

The Spaniards had devoted much time and study to a 
project for coast illumination. At the outbreak of the in- 
surrection in 1896 they had twenty-eight lights, fourteen 
of which were flashing and fourteen fixed minor lights, 
while fovu- additional stations were under construction. 
Then all work was stopped, and when systematic in- 
spection was made by American lighthouse engineers five 
years later, extensive repairs were found to be necessary. 
The repairs were made as promptly as possible, and new 
construction then began. To-day there are a hundred 
forty-five lights in operation, and the waters of the PhiUp- 



IMPROVED MEANS OF COMMUNICATION 



873 



pines are among the best lighted in the world. One 
hundred and eleven buoys of various classes axe being 
maintained. 

The following table shows the progress made in the 
construction of lighthouses : — 



Fiscal Yeah 


Light- 
houses IN 
Operation 


Fiscal Year 


Light- 
houses IN 
Operation 


1 

Fiscal Year 


LlOHT- 
HOnSES IN 

Opebation 


1902 .... 


57 


1906 . . . 


105 


1910 . . . 


143 


1903 .... 


66 


1907 . . . 


117 


1911 . . . 


142 


1904 .... 


76 


1908 . . . 


129 


1912 . . . 


146 


1905 .... 


89 


1909 . . . 


139 


1913». . . 


145 



In all nearly $7,000,000 have been expended in the 
improvement of ports and harbours, and about $750,000 
in the construction of hghts. 

At the time of the American occupation, knowledge of 
the waters of the archipelago was in a most unsatisfactory 
state. There was not even an accurate chart of Manila 
Bay. Navigating officers followed certain well-known 
trade routes which experience had shown to be safe, but 
did not dare to leave them. Uncharted dangers were 
soon discovered at IloUo and in other important ports, 
and the necessity for a systematic survey of the waters 
became immediatel}' apparent. 

On September 6, 1901, the Bm-eau of Coast and Geodetic 
Surveys was organized. The work is conducted under a 
joint agi'eement such that it is supervised by the superin- 
tendent of coast and geodetic surveys at Washington, 
who is represented in the Phihppines by an officer called 
the director of coast surveys. The' latter reports to 
the head of the insular government so far as concerns 
the expenditure of funds furnished by that government, 
which has the power of approval over his assignment to 
duty. There is a division of expenses between the two 

' On March 1, 1913. 



874 



THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 



governments. The United States has paid approximately 
fifty-five per cent of the total cost, and the insular govern- 
ment has paid the balance. 

The Bureau is engaged in a systematic survey of the 
coasts, harbours and waters of the Philippine Islands and 
of the topography of the shore-line. It determines posi- 
tions astronomically and by triangulation, investigates 
reported dangers to navigation, and observes tides, cur- 
rents and the magnetic elements. Five steamers are now 
engaged in this very important work. It is estimated 
that fifty-four per cent of the surveys of the coast and 
adjacent waters have already been completed. When one 
remembers that the coast-line of the Philippines is longer 
than that of the continental United States, one reaUzes that 
this is a remarkable achievement. 

The Bureau has pubhshed one hundred twenty-four 
charts covering the entire boundaries of the islands, and 
six volumes of sailing du'ections which are kept constantly 
up to date by additions whenever new facts of importance 
to mariners are ascertained. The greater part of the in- 
formation thus made available represents results obtained 
by the Bureau, but these are supplemented by the most 
reliable data that can be obtained from other sources. 

The following table shows the number of miles of coast 
surveyed at the end of each year, beginning with 1901 : — 

Number of Miles of Coast Surveyed 



Fiscal Year 


Miles 


Fiscal Yeah 


Miles 


1901 


89 


1908 


6,109 


1902 


576 


1909 


7,126 


1903 . • 


1,208 


1910 


8,763 


1904 


1,921 


1911 


9.992 


1905 


2,415 


1912 


11,308 


1906 


3,041 


19131 


11,748 


1907 


4,536 







1 On January 1, 1913 ; , increase of six months only. 



IMPROVED MEANS OF COMMUNICATION 



875 



Not only have all important waterways through the 
islands been surveyed and hghted, but travel and the 
transportation of merchandise on land have been enor- 
mously facilitated by the construction of additional rail- 
ways and of a system of first-, second- and third-class roads 
and of trails. 

Prior to 1907 the only railroad Line in operation in the 
Philippines was the so-called Manila-Dagupan Railway, 
which was 122 miles long. 

The following table shows the steady increase in mileage 
since that time and also the steady increase in railroad 
earnings : — 

Railroad Statistics 



Fiscal > 


'ear 


Total 
Mileage 
IN Opera- 
tion 


Earnings of 

Philippine 

Railway 

Co., Amount 


Inckeaoe 


Calendar 
Year 


Earnings of Manila 
Railway Co. 




Amount 


Increase 


19071 

1908 . 

1909 . 

1910 . 

1911 . 

1912 . 

1913 . 






122 
221 
290 
400 
455 
599 
611' 


$74,815 = 

118,646 

142,888 
386,970 


. . . 

59 

20 

171 


1907 

1908 
1909 
1910 
1911 
1912 


$25,823 
961,936 
1,023,812 
1,233.794 
1,919,244 
2,304,436 


'l6 ' 

6 

21 
56 
20 

















The north line of the Manila Railroad Company, which 
is the successor to the Manila and Dagupan Railway 
Company, now extends to Bauaug in the province of La 
Union. It has laterals terminating at Camp One, on the 

1 Only railroad line in operation prior to 1907 was 122 miles of the 
main line of the Manila Railroad Company. 

* First year of operation. 

' On February 1, 1913 ; increase of six months only. 

* The Philippine Railway Company has recently changed its ac- 
counting from the basis of the Government fiscal year (beginning July 
1) to a calendar year basis. Figures are not therefore available for 
a complete twelve months subsequent to June 30, 1912. The figure 
for the first year on the new basis (ending December 31, 1912, and 
dupUeating part of the last amount given above) is $376,512. 



876 



THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 



Benguet Road ; Resales in Pangasinan ; Mangaldang in 
Pangasinan ; CabanatuaninNuevaEcija; CampStotens- 
berg in Pampanga ; Florida Blanca in Pampanga ; Mon- 
talban in Rizal, and Antipolo in Rizal. 

The main south line of this road extends from Manila 
to Lucena in Tayabas. It has branches to Cavite in the 
province of the same name ; to Naic in Cavite ; to Pag- 
sanjan in La Laguna, and to Batangas in the Province of 
Batangas. 

The Philippine Railway Company has built and is now 
operating a line on Panay which extends from Iloilo to 
Capiz, and a line on Cebii which extends north from the 
city of the same name to Danao and south to Argao. 

The development of the road system is even more im- 
portant than that of railroads. 

The following tables show the mileage of first-, second- 
and third-class road, and the total number of permanent 
bridges and culverts, in existence at the end of each year, 
beginning with 1907 : — 

Public Works Statistics 





Total Mileage of Roads in Existence 


Fiscal Year 


First-class 
Roads 


Increase 


Second-class 
Roads 


Third-class 
Roads 


1907 

1908 

1909 

1910 

1911 

1912 

1913' 


303 » 
423 
609 
764 
987 
1,143 
1,187 ' 


Per Cent 
40 

44 
25 
29 
16 


6411 

664 
1,342.P 
1,305.3 


2,074 1 
1,837 
1,999 
1,967 



' No accurate statistics before 1907 and 1910, respectively. 

' Increase clue to change in definition. 

' On January 1, 1913. 

* Increase of six months only. 



IMPROVED MEANS OF COMMUNICATION 



877 



Fiscal Year 


Total of Permanent 
Bridges and Cul- 
verts IN Existence 


Fiscal Year 


Total op Permanent 
Bridges and Cul- 
verts IN Existence 




Number 


Per Cent 


Number 


Per Cent 


1907' . . . 

1908. . . . 

1909. . . . 

1910. . . . 


3,280' 

3,631 
3,865 
4,372 


11 

6 
13 


1911 . . . 

1912 . . . 

1913 . . . 


4,842 

5,181 
5,660 


11 

7 
9 



The old Spanish road system was quite extensive and 
very well planned, but the amount of really good construc- 
tion was very limited. The system of maintenance was 
faulty, and the abandonment of maintenance during the 
insurrection against Spain and the war with the United 
States resulted in the almost complete destruction of 
many roads which were in fairly good condition at the 
time pubhc order became seriously disturbed. The total 
value of Spanish work on existing roads is estimated at 
$1,800,000. The total value of all American work up to 
June 30, 1911, is estimated at $6,100,000. 

The imperative need of better highways throughout 
the islands was brought home by the difficulties encoun- 
tered by the army during the insurrection, and the first 
act of the Phihppine Commission, passed on the twelfth 
day after the comnussion became the legislative body of 
the islands, appropriated $1,000,000 ($2,000,000 Mexican) 
for the construction and repair of highways and bridges. 

Much of this money was very advantageously expended 
by the military, who contributed a large amount of trans- 
portation free of cost. Unfortunately, while the necessity 
for roads was at this time fully appreciated, there was 
failure to appreciate the extraordinary rapidity with 
which tropical rains and vegetation destroy good roads in 
the Philippines. We further failed to appreciate the ab- 
solute indifference of the Filipinos themselves as to whether 
roads once built are or are not maintained. 



' No accurate statistics before 1907. 



878 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

One of the first large pieces of work undertaken was a 
road from Calamba on the Laguna de Bay to Lipa, an 
important town in the province of Batangas, and thence 
to the town of Batangas itself. This road ran for its en- 
tire extent through a rich agricultural district. I passed 
over it when the dirt work had all been completed, 
and when all but two short stretches were surfaced. I 
certainly had vigorously impressed upon me the ne- 
cessity of surfacing. Over that portion of the road 
which had been so treated an automobile could have 
been di-iven at sixty miles an hour. Over the remainder 
of it, built by the same engineer, shaped up in the same 
way, and as good a dirt road as could be constructed, four 
mules could not haul the ambulance in which we were 
riding without our assistance. We had to get out and 
literally put our shoulders to the wheel, or tug at the spokes, 
in order to enable the faitliful beasts to extricate the am- 
bulance from the morasses into which the two unsurfaced 
stretches had been converted. 

Needless to say, the surfacing was completed as soon as 
possible, and then came what the Filipinos call a great 
desengaho} I venture to say that from the time the 
road was finished until it was completely destroj^ed there 
was never a shovelful of dirt nor a basketful of gravel 
placed upon it. In 190S I attempted to drive over it in 
one of the two-wheeled rigs known as carromatas, which 
will go almost anj-where. I was upset twice in as many 
miles and gave up the attempt. 

For a considerable time the destruction of roads almost 
kept pace with their construction, and until 1907 the small 
amount of provincial funds available usually resulted in 
failure to attempt repans until both surfacing and founda- 
tion had been badly injured or destroyed. The remnants 
of old Spanish roads still existing, and the new roads con- 
structed by Americans, were in danger of being wiped out. 
It was then decided that further insular aid for road con- 

' Literally "disillusion." 




A Typical Old-style Bridge. 




A Typical Reenfohced Concrete Bridge. 



IMPROVED MEANS OF COMMUNICATION 879 

struction should not be given until the indifference of 
provincial officials could be overcome, and funds provided 
for proper maintenance. It was further decided that 
roads and bridges should be considered as on a basis 
similar to that of other government property, and that 
maintenance must take precedence over new construction. 
Regulations providing for it were outlmed and incorpo- 
rated in a proposed resolution which was submitted to the 
several provincial boards with the information that further 
insular funds would not be appropriated for any province 
until its board passed this resolution, thereby agreeing 
to provide road and bridge funds by means of the so- 
called double cedula tax, and perpetually to maintain the 
heavily surfaced roads then in existence within its hmits. 

The cedula tax is an annual personal or poll tax. The 
amount originally fixed by the commission was one peso, 
but legislation was subsequently enacted empowering 
provincial boards to increase it to two pesos, the additional 
amount to go for road and bridge work. 

Most of the provinces promptly took the suggested 
action, and the few which at first stood out were soon com- 
pelled by popular opinion to follow suit. It is not too 
much to say that real progress in permanent road and 
bridge construction in the Phihppines dates from 1907 
when the present regulation relative to maintenance was 
put into effect. 

Provision was made for a yearly provincial maintenance 
appropriation of not less than $282 per mile of duly desig- 
nated road. Stone kilometer posts were erected beside all 
improved roads. 

During the rainy season one caminero, or roadman, is 
stationed on each kilometer section. During the dry 
season one caminero cares for a two-kilometer section. 
These men are constantly at work cutting the encroaching 
vegetation from the lateral banks, keeping drams clear, 
and immediately filling depressions in the road-bed as 
they appear, using for the purpose material stored in 



880 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

specially constructed bins placed at regular intervals 
and kept filled with broken stone and gravel. Heavy 
repair work which may be necessary after great typhoons 
or floods must be specially provided for. 

The inspection of each kilometer of road is made as 
follows : daily, by the sub-foreman ; bi-weekly, by the 
foreman ; monthly, by the district engineer ; and tri- 
monthly by the division engineer. 

Under this system, in spite of unfavourable climatic 
conditions the reconstructed or newly constructed Philip- 
pine roads are to-day maintained far better than are most 
of the roads in the United States, and one may drive auto- 
mobiles over them at top speed. Numerous freight and 
passenger automobile lines have already been established. 

The average present cost of constructing heavily sur- 
faced roads, including bridges which are apt to be numer- 
ous and expensive, is $8250 per mile. 

Only first-class bridges, of concrete, masonry or steel, 
are permitted on main roads in the lowlands. Arbitrary 
enforcement of this rule is the one thing about the present 
road system which in my opinion affords grounds for 
legitimate criticism. 

Wliile no one can dispute the wisdom of constructing 
bridges of hard materials whenever this can be done, it is 
possible to carry too far the poUcy of limiting construction 
to such materials, and in my opinion it has been carried 
too far in a number of instances. 

Years ago a good automobile road was constructed from 
Cagayan de Misamis to and beyond the barrio of Agusan, 
which is the point of departure for the main trail into the 
sub-province of Bukidnon. Numerous small streams on 
this road were bridged with reenf orced concrete, but proper 
allowance was not made for their terrific rise during heavy 
rains in the highlands and almost without exception the 
bridges were destroyed during the first severe typhoon. 
Funds are not yet available for their reconstruction with 
strong materials. Meanwhile nothing has been done. The 



IMPROVED MEANS OF COMMUNICATION 881 

road is therefore impassable during hea\'y rains, as the 
streams cannot then be forded. Meanwhile, our "tem- 
porary" wooden bridges on the connecting trail system, 
constructed before the bridges on the coast road were 
built, remain intact, and render it possible always to cross 
streams much larger than any of those which intersect the 
coast road. 

Of course if the hard and fast rule governing bridge con- 
struction in the lowlands is once departed from, its en- 
forcement may become difficult. Nevertheless, I am of 
the opinion that existing regulations should be so modified 
as to authorize and encourage the construction of tem- 
porary bridges m such cases as that above cited. 

The enormous change which road construction has pro- 
duced in ease of travel, and in reduced cost of transporting 
farm products, cannot be appreciated bj^ one unfamiliar 
with conditions in Spanish days. Then the ordinary 
country road was a narrow ditch sloping in on both sides 
toward the bottom, this condition being brought about 
by failure to provide proper drainage so that there was 
tremendous erosion during the rainy season, at which 
time these so-called roads became converted into deep 
quagmires by the action of very narrow-tired solid wooden 
cart wheels, most of which were fixed upon their axles. 
It was not unusual to see carts in mud up to their bodies, 
seeming to float on it while being pulled by floundering 
carabaos. Many of the roads were so bad that wheeled 
vehicles could not be used even during the drj' season, and 
their place was taken by so-called cangas, or bamboo 
sledges, which also caused rapid road destruction. When 
all else failed, the Filipino mounted his faithful carabao, 
which could swim the unbridged streams if the current 
was not too swift, and could successfull}' negotiate deep 
quagmires, and thus he journej^ed from place to place, 
leaving the transportation of his products until the coming 
of the dry season. 

The use on improved roads of cangas, and of carts with 



882 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

narrow-tired wheels or with wheels fixed on their axles, is 
now forbidden by law. The carts permitted to be used 
have broad tires that help to smooth the roads instead of 
cutting them to pieces. 

As already stated, this road system is supplemented in 
the wilder parts of the archipelago, so far at least as the 
special government provinces are concerned, by a trail 
system which is rapidly being extended. The traUs, 
which are at first built only wide enough to permit the 
passage of horses, are on grades such that they can be 
converted into roads by widening and surfacing, and are 
gradually widened in connection with the maintenance 
work so as to permit the passage, first of narrow-tired carts, 
and later of carts of ordmary width. Indeed one such 
trail extending from Baguio, in Benguet, to Naguilian, 
in the lowlands of the neighbouring province of Union, 
has already been sufficiently widened to permit the pas- 
sage of automobiles, and the same thing can be done with 
any of the others when occasion requires. 

It has been most interestmg to note to what an extent 
the construction of good roads and trails and the cultiva- 
tion of the land in their vicinity have gone hand in hand. 
The prosperity of the country has been enormously in- 
creased by the carrying out of the present sensible road 
pohcy for which Governor-General W. Cameron Forbes 
is primarily responsible. 

The policy of the Forbes administration contemplated 
the steady continuance of road and bridge construction 
and maintenance until a complete system, which had been 
carefully worked out for the entire archipelago, should 
have been finished. 

What would result if road and bridge work were turned 
over to a Filipino government? Judging from their 
absolute failure to maintain any roads until the insular 
government assumed control in 1907, and from the pres- 
ent neglect of municipalities to care for the sections of 
road for which they are responsible, we are justified in 



IMPROVED MEANS OF COMMUNICATION 883 

saying that new construction would promptly cease; 
maintenance would be neglected ; existing roads would 
be destroyed ; bridges would be left up in the air by the 
destruction of their approaches, and would ultimately 
go to pieces, and the whole system would come to rack and 
ruin. 

To be sure, the FUipino politicians loudly assert that 
they are heartily in sympathj'^ with the present road policy 
of the government, but this is largely because the securing 
of government aid for roads in their respective provinces 
increases their popularity with the people, and the prob- 
ability that they will be reelected. If it were left for 
them to determine whether money should be expended for 
this purpose or for some other which would more imme- 
diately inure to their private benefit, there can be no two 
opinions as to the result. 

The continuance of American control for the present 
is absolutely essential, if proper means of communication 
and aids to navigation are to be estabUshed and main- 
tained in the Philippine Islands. 



CHAPTER XXXIII 

COMMEKCIAL POSSIBILITIES OF THE PHILIPPINES 

If the commercial possibilities of any region are to be 
attractive to Europeans or Americans, it must have a just 
and stable government ; a reasonably healthful climate ; 
fairly good means of communication and transportation ; 
forest, agricultural, mineral or other wealth, and labour 
with which to develop it. Proximity to main lines of 
travel and to markets is also an important consideration. 

The present ' government of the Philippines is highly 
effective and the state of public order leaves little to be 
desired. Doubt has been expressed as to the stability 
of the existing regune, but it is at the very least safe to 
assume that the United States will never withdraw from 
the islands without leaving behind a government which 
will assure to the residents of the archipelago, foreign and 
native, personal safety, just treatment and security of 
property rights. 

Health conditions are now excellent, and the death rate 
among whites at Manila is lower than that in many 
European and American cities. If one will only vary the 
monotony of the continuous warmth by making an oc- 
casional trip to Baguio, and take reasonable precautions 
as to food, drink and exercise, there is no reason why one 
should not die of old age. 

Means of conmiunication by land are now fairly good 
and steadily improving. The seas are well lighted and 
the main lines of sea travel have been carefully surveyed. 

The islands have many beautiful harbors and, as we 
have seen, at Manila, Cebu and Iloilo extensive harbour 
improvements have already been made. There are no 

1 Oct. 1, 1913. 

884 



COMMERCIAL POSSIBILITIES OF THE PHILIPPINES 885 

special difficulties attendant upon the loading or unloading 
of ships anywhere in the archipelago. The rapid exten- 
sion of highways, and the construction of additional rail- 
ways, are faciUtating and cheapening land transportation. 

The natural resources of the country are unquestion- 
ably vast. I have ab-eady devoted a chapter to the dis- 
cussion of the forests and their wealth. 

As to the mineral resources, while we have much still 
to learn we already know that there are excellent lig- 
nite, some coking coal and extensive deposits of high- 
grade iron ore and of copper. One flourishing gold 
nune is now giving handsome returns, and several others 
seem to lack only the capital needed to develop them 
on a considerable scale in order to make them pay; 
dredges are operating for gold with great success in the 
vicinity of Paracale in eastern Luzon, and there are other 
gold placer fields m the islands which are worthy of care- 
ful investigation. The prospect of obtaining in quantity 
a high-grade petroleum with paraffine base rich in low- 
boiling constituents is very good. 

Difficulties in the way of the development of the mining 
industry are to be found in the disturbances of geological 
formations which are inevitably met with in volcanic 
countries, in the dense tropical vegetation which in many 
regions covers everything and renders prospecting diffi- 
cult, and in the unevenness of the rainfall which in some 
parts of the archipelago results in severe floods at one 
season and in the lack of sufficient water to furnish hy- 
drauUc power at another. But we are at least free from 
the troubles incident to freezing cold, and in my opinion 
a prosperous mining industry will ultimately be built up 
in the Phihppines. 

Agriculture has always been, and will doubtless long 
continue to be, the main source of wealth. In the low- 
lands may be found conditions of soil and climate favour- 
able to the growing of all unportant tropical products. 
Owing to the position of the islands with reference to the 

VOL. II — 2c 



886 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

northeast and southwest monsoons, practically any de- 
sired conditions as regard humidity and the distribution 
of rainfall can be found. There are regions which have 
strongly marked wet and dry seasons, and regions in 
which the rainfall is quite uniformly distributed through- 
out the year. In some provinces the heaviest rains come 
in January, while in others they come in July or August. 
The Philippine Weather Bureau has gathered an immense 
amount of very valuable rainfall statistics and is con- 
stantly adding to its present store of knowledge. Father 
Jose Algue, its distinguished director, can always be de- 
pended upon to furnish any obtainable information. 

But this is not all. We are not confined to tropical 
products. In the highlands of Luzon and of Mindanao 
practically all the vegetables and many of the grains and 
fruits of the temperate zone may be produced. 

When well fed, properly directed and paid a reasonable 
wage, the Filipino makes a good field labourer. Much of 
his so-called laziness is unquestionably due to malnu- 
trition. A diet made up largely of rice, especially if 
that rice be polished, does not develop a maximum of 
physical energy. 

When threshing machines were first introduced it was 
impossible to get Filipinos to handle the straw. The 
work was too strenuous for them. We soon discovered 
that by picking fairly strong men, and feeding them plenty 
of meat, we could make them able and willing to do it. 

Some extraordinary misstatements have been made as 
to Manila's position with reference to main lines of travel 
and to markets. In this connection Blount says that it is 
an out-of-the-way place so far as regards the main travelled 
routes across the Pacific,^ and adds that shippers would 

' " Of course, the writer did not mention that Manila is an out-of- 
the-way place, so far as regards the main-travelled routes across the 
Pacific Ocean, and also forgot that, as has been suggested once before, 
the carrying trade of the world, and the shippers on which it depends, in 
the contest of the nations for the markets of Asia, would never take 
to the practice of unloading at Manila by way of rehearsal, before 




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COMMERCIAL POSSIBILITIES OF THE PHILIPPINES 887 

not take to unloading cargo there before finally discharg- 
ing it on the mainland of Asia. 

With singular inconsistency he also says that Manila 
could never succeed Hongkong as the gateway to 
Asia.i 

One might almost believe him ignorant of the fact that 
Hongkong is an island, separated from the continent of 
Asia, and that the very thing which he says would not 
happen at Manila, to wit the "unloading by way of re- 
hearsal, before finally discharging on the mainland of 
Asia," is the thing which has made Hongkong harbour one 
of the busiest ports in the world. 

Manila has numerous very definite advantages over 
Hongkong. Health conditions are vastly better, and 
there is far less danger that crews of vessels will become 
infected. Ocean going steamers come alongside piers 
and unload directly into great sheds which protect goods 
during stonns. The pier sheds have direct connection 
with the electric railway system of the city, so that freight 
can be quickly and cheaply transported under cover. 
The Manila breakwater affords excellent protection during 
typhoons, whereas Hongkong harbour is periodically swept 
by storms which cause great damage to shipping and 
very serious loss of life. 

Hongkong is a free port, but the construction of bonded 
warehouses at IManila for the reception of goods intended 
for reshipment would largely make up for the fact that 
Manila is a port of entry. 

The reply to the claim that IManila is far from markets 
and established hues of travel is simple. Look at the 
map and compare it with Hongkong ! 

finally discharging cargo on the mainland of Asia, where the name of 
the Ultimate Consumer is legion." — Blount, p. 49. 

' " . . . Manila, being quite away from the mainland of Asia, could 
never supersede Hongkong as the gateway to the markets of Asia, 
since neither shippers nor the carrying trade of the world will ever see 
their way to unload cargo at Manila by way of rehearsal before unload- 
ing on the mainland ; . . . " — Blount, p. 44. 



888 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

Let US now consider more in detail the resources of the 
PhiUppines. 

The first thing that impresses one who studies their 
agriculture is the extremely primitive state of develop- 
ment to which it has attained. Rice is the bread of the 
people and is produced in large quantities, but as a rule 
land is prepared for planting it by ploughing with what is 
little better than a crooked stick, which may or may not 
have an iron point, and by subsequent puddling with a 
muck rake, both instruments being drawn by carabaos. 
As the ground cannot be worked in this fashion until the 
rains come on, and the young plants should be set in the 
ground very shortly thereafter, the period during which 
the soil can be prepared is brief, and the amount brought 
under cultivation is correspondingly small. Rice is 
usually planted in seed beds and transplanted by hand, 
the object of this procedure being to give it a start over 
the weeds which would otherwise swamp it. It is a 
common thing to see a crowd of men, women and children 
setting it to the music of a small string band, with which 
they keep time. Organizations which have the reputation 
of maintaining a rapid rhythm are quite in demand be- 
cause of the increased amount of rice set ! Ordinarily, 
in the lowlands at least, comparatively little attention is 
paid to subsequent weeding, and when harvest time comes 
the crop is usually gathered by cutting off the heads one at 
a time. Threshing is frequently performed in the open air 
on a floor made of clay and carabao dung. Often the grain 
is trodden out under the feet of the owners themselves ; 
sometimes it is stripped off by drawing the heads between 
the teeth of an instrument somewhat resembling an in- 
verted iron rake ; again it is beaten off against stones ; 
a more advanced method is to drive horses, carabaos or 
cattle over the straw until the grain has been loosened 
from the straw. The palay ^ is usually winnowed in the 
wind, although crude fanning mills are sometimes em- 

' Unhusked rice. 



COMMERCIAL POSSIBILITIES OF THE PHILIPPINES 889 

ployed for this purpose. The threshing takes much time, 
and while it is in progress great loss results from the dep- 
redations of rats and wild hogs, from unseasonable rain- 
storms, and from the carrying off of the grain by the 
threshers. A large part of the palay employed for local 
domestic use is husked by pounding it in wooden mortars 
and winnowed by tossing it in flat baskets. As a result of 
such methods the Philippines, which ought to export 
rice, are compelled to import it, the figiires for the last 
15 years being as follows : — 

Rice Imports 



Fiscal Years 


Tons 
(Metric) 


Valde 


1899 


68,389 
109,911 
178,232 
216,403 
307,191 
329,825 
255,502 
138,052 
112,749 
162,174 
137,678 
184,620 
203,083 
260,250 
179,205 


$1,939,122 
3,113,423 


1900 


1901 


5,490,958 

6,578,481 

10,061,323 


1902 


1903 


1904 


11,548,814 


1905 


7,456,738 
4,375,500 


1906 


1907 


3,662,493 
5,861,256 
4,250,223 


1908 


1909 


1910 


5,321,962 
6,560,630 


1911 


1912 


10 569 949 


1913 


7,940,857 





American influence has already made itself strongly 
felt on the rice industry and small steel ploughs, of suitable 
size to be drawn by single animals, are coming into very 
general use. A steadily increasing amount of rice is 
harvested with sickles instead of with small bladed knives. 
Modern threshing machines are rapidly discouraging the 
employment of the threshing methods of biblical days, 
and their operation in the large rice producing regions is 
a good business for persons with luxiited capital, as the 



890 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

returns are immediate and the investment is small. The 
customary toll taken for threshing is one-eighth of the 
output. 

While under my direction, the Bureau of Agriculture 
began the introduction of modern threshing machines. 
The amount of grain obtained from a stack of given size 
when thoroughly machine-threshed before there had been 
time for waste was so much greater than that to which the 
Filipinos had been accustomed that they thought that there 
must be a deposito of grain hidden away somewhere within 
the machine, and insisted on sticking their heads into it in 
search of this supposed source of supply ! 

Many small, mechanically driven hulling machines are 
now in use and the number of regular rice mills, with up- 
to-date machinery for hulhng and pohshing, steadily and 
quite rapidly increases. 

The rice industry has at present two great needs : the 
first is irrigation, the second, careful seed selection. The 
average Filipino depends directly on rainfall for irriga- 
tion water, and although there may be a stream close at 
hand, he does not trouble to turn it on to his land unless 
conditions happen to be exceptionally favourable. The 
result is that dry years cause a very heavy, and largely 
avoidable, loss to the islands. A dependable supply of 
irrigation water would make two crops a certainty where 
one is now more or less of a gamble. The insular govern- 
ment is spending considerable sums on irrigation work, 
and in my opinion it offers a wide field for profitable 
private investment. 

There are in the Philippines many different varieties 
of rice, each with its peculiar advantages and disadvan- 
tages. There is no possible doubt as to the opportunity 
which lies before the skilled plant breeder to increase the 
crop, and shorten the time required for its production, by 
the methods which have been so successfully applied to 
wheat and other grains. 

Finally, in the highlands of Bukidnon, in Mindanao, 



COMMERCIAL POSSIBILITIES OF THE PHILIPPINES 891 

there are immense areas which can be cultivated and 
planted with motor-drawn machinery. After taking off 
the first crop it would be readily possible to plough, harrow 
and seed in one operation, and here, if anjTvhere, modem 
harvesters and threshers can be employed to good ad- 
vantage. In short, rice can be growTi in Bukidnon as 
wheat is grown in the United States, and the company 
which goes into this business on a large scale should make 
money. 

Abaca, commonly called Manila hemp, was for many 
years the most important Phihppine export. The plants 
from which it is produced resemble bananas so closely 
that the uninitiated cannot distinguish them. They fur- 
nish the longest and strongest cordage fibre in the world. 
The Pliihppines have practically a monopoly on its pro- 
duction. Abacd, culture is carried on in a very primitive 
way. The plants require well-drained soil and for this 
reason the Filipino often puts them out on steep moun- 
tain sides. The forest is felled, the timber is burned on 
the ground and the young plants are set before weeds 
have time to encroach. The bolo is usually employed for 
subsequent "cultivation," which consists in the occa- 
sional chopping down of weeds. Fortunately the shade 
in an abaca plantation is so deep that it materially im- 
pedes the growth of other plants. The fibre is obtained 
from the leaf petioles which make up the stem. At the 
present time practically all of it is stripped by hand. This 
is a slow and tedious process, involving very severe phys- 
ical exertion to which the average Filipino is disinclined, 
and serious losses often result from inabiUty to get the 
crop seasonably stripped. Stripping is greatly facilitated 
if the knife under which the fibre bands are drawTi has a 
serrated edge, but in that case the fibre is not thoroughly 
cleaned, soon loses its original beautiful white colom-, and 
diminishes in strength owing to decay of the cellular 
matter left attached to it. 

The production of high-grade fibre or of comparatively 



892 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

worthless stuff is chiefly a matter of good or bad 
stripping. 

Abaca requires evenly distributed rainfall and constant 
high humidity for its best development, and should not 
be planted in regions subject to severe drought, which 
greatly reduces the crop and may kill the plants outright. 
Experience has shown that it richly repays real cultiva- 
tion. 

The trunks are heavy, and water makes up a large part 
of their weight, but they are full of air chambers, float 
readily and could be rafted or sluiced to a central cleaning 
plant wherever conditions are favourable for so transport- 
ing them. The one great desideratum of the industry 
is a really good mechanical stripper which will tm'n out 
clean, high-grade fibre in large quantity at small cost. 
At least one machine has been brought reasonably near 
perfection. In my opinion all that is now necessary is 
to put a skilled mechanic into the field with it under 
service conditions, and keep liim there until such minor 
difficulties as remain have been successfully overcome. 
Stripping mills could readily be established in regions 
like that along the lower Agusan River, where chmate 
and soil are ideal and water transportation is always 
available. A reasonable number of such plants in suc- 
cessful operation would go far toward revolutionizing the 
hemp industry, the development of which is at present 
greatly handicapped by the production of enormous 
quantities of badly cleaned fibre, which does not sell 
readily, whereas first-class abaca is without a rival and 
always sells at a high price. 

The table on the opposite page shows the value and 
amount of hemp exports during a period of fifteen years. 

Copra, or the dried meat of the coconut, has now be- 
come one of the most important exports of the islands, 
which lead the world in its production. The table on 
the opposite page shows the rapid increase in copra 
exports. 




Preparing Rice Land for Planting. 




I'lanti.ng Kice. 



COMMERCIAL POSSIBILITIES OF THE PHILIPPINES 893 
Hemp Exports 







To United States, inclddino Hawaix 










AND I'OHTO KICO 


Fiscal 




Value in U. S. 


Percentage 




Value in U. S. 


Years 




Currency 


Total Exports 




Currency 


1899 


59,840 


$6,185,293 


45.1 


23,066 


$2,436,169 


1900 


76,709 


11,393,883 


52.6 


25,764 


3,446,141 


1901 


112,215 


14,453,110 


34.6 


18,158 


2,402,867 


1902 


109,969 


15,841,316 


58.3 


45,527 


7,261,459 


1903 


132,242 


21,701,575 


54.7 


71,654 


12,314,312 


1904 


131,818 


21,749,960 


58.8 


61,887 


10,631,591 


1905 


116,733 


22,146,241 


59.6 


73,351 


12,954,515 


1906 


112,165 


19,446,769 


59.5 


62,045 


11,168,226 


1907 


114,701 


21,085,081 


61.7 


58,389 


11,326,864 


1908 


115,829 


17,311,808 


52.7 


48,814 


7,684,000 


1909 


149,992 


15,833,577 


51.0 


79,210 


8,534,288 


1910 


170,789 


17,404,922 


43.6 


99,305 


10,399,397 


1911 


165,650 


16,141,340 


40.5 


66,545 


7,410,373 


1912 


154,047 


16,283,510 


32.3 


69,574 


7,751,489 


1913 


144,576 


23,044,744 


43.3 


63,715 


11,613,943 



Copra Exports 



To All CotrNTRiES 


To United States inclddino Hawaii 

AND POHTO Rico 


Fiscal 
Years 


Tons 


Value in U. S. 
Currency 


Percentage 
of Total 
Exports 


Tons 


Value in U. S. 
Currency 


1899 
1900 
1901 
1902 
1903 
1904 
1905 
1906 
1907 
1908 
1909 
1910 
1911 
1912 
1913 


14,047 

37,081 

52,530 

19,687 

97,630 

54,133 

37,557 

66,158 

49,082 

76,420 

105,565 

115,285 

115,602 

169,342 

113,055 


$ 656,870 
1,690,897 
2,648,305 
1,001,656 
4,472,679 
2,527,019 
2,095,352 
4,043,115 
4,0.53,193 
5,461,680 
6,657,740 
9,153,951 
9,899,457 
16,514,749 
11,647,898 


4.7 

7.8 

10.0 

3.6 

11.2 

7.0 

5.6 

12.3 

11.8 

16.6 

21.1 

22.9 

24.9 

32.8 

21.9 


103 

61 
174 
.205 

1,110 

2,968 
4,714 
5,538 
12,241 
24,160 
7,460 


4,450 

9,173 

9,231 

14,425 

108,086 
228,565 
287,484 
447,145 
1,030,481 
2,,339,144 
720,245 



894 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

An extraordinary drought, which seems to have ex- 
tended thi'oughout the Far East, is largely responsible for 
the decrease in exports dm-ing the last fiscal year, its 
effect having been felt long after it had passed. 

Coconut oil is very extensively used in making high- 
grade soaps, and is now also employed in the manufac- 
ture of butter and lard substitutes. Their quality is 
excellent, they keep well in the tropics, and being non- 
animal in their natm^e are not open to the aesthetic or 
religious objections wliich some people entertain toward 
oleomargarine and true lard. Lard made from coconut 
oil is of course especially appreciated in Mohammedan 
countries. There is a steady demand for the shredded 
coconut used by confectioners. The press-cake which 
remains after the oil has been extracted is a valuable 
food for fattening animals. A rich, palatable and nu- 
tritious "milk, " on which "cream" rises in a most appetiz- 
ing manner, is made by wringing out fresh shredded co- 
conut in water. Whether or not it can be preserved and 
utilized as a commercial product remains to be seen, but 
the experiment would be worth trjdng. 

Thus far coconut cultivation has been conducted in 
a very haphazard way. In fac^, the existing groves are 
hai'dly cultivated at all. Nuts or young trees are put 
into the ground in whatever fashion seems good to the 
individual planter, and are invariably set too closely. 
There maybe a httle initial cultivation, but usually nothing 
is done except to cut down weeds and brush with a bolo, 
and often even this is neglected. The trees, once estab- 
lished, are left to shift for themselves, and are soon con- 
tending with each other for root space and air. The 
owner cuts notches in their bark in order to facilitate 
climbing. Water gathers in them and starts decay. 

If under such circumstances coconut growing is so 
profitable that to-day plantations can hardly be bought 
at any price, what will happen when carefully selected 
seed nuts are put out at proper intervals and growing 



COMMERCIAL POSSIBILITIES OF THE PHILIPPINES 895 

trees are given high cultivation? In considering the 
profits resulting from coconut culture, estimates are 
sometimes based on twenty nuts to the tree per year, while 
forty are considered a very hberal allowance. This number 
is even now largely exceeded throughout extensive areas 
in the Philippines under the unfavourable conditions 
above described. The effect of good cultivation can be 
determined, in a measure, by the condition of trees which 
chance to be so situated that the ground near them is 
kept clean. The results of fertilization can be estimated 
by observing the condition of trees standing near native 
houses. I recently endeavoured to have the nuts on a 
series of such trees counted from the ground. This 
proved impossible. In fact, it was necessary to cut out a 
bunch of nuts in order to make it possible for a climber 
to scramble over the great masses of fruit, and get among 
the leaves. I therefore bought the nuts on several trees 
and had them throwm down. The trees were in a Uttle 
Manobo village, and the ground around them was culti- 
vated. The two wliich seemed to be bearing most heavily 
could not be climbed, as bees had taken possession of them. 
The third best tree had three hundred ninety-seven nuts 
on it ; the fourth only three hundred twenty-three, but 
its output had been reduced by tapping a number of 
its blossom stalks for tuba. All the nuts were very large. 
The meat from an average specimen was carefully dried 
and we found that one hundred fifty-six such nuts would 
make a picul of copra. A common estimate of the 
average number of nuts required for a picul is three 
hundred. 

Of the whole number of nuts on these trees a few would 
have failed to develop, owing to lack of room, but it is fair 
to suppose that the first would have ripened three hundred 
fifty nuts and the second two hundred seventy-five. Actual 
observation has shown that it takes nuts two hundred 
thirty-eight to two hundred fifty-nine days to mature in 
Mindanao. 



896 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

Coconut trees attain a great age, and a producing plan- 
tation in the Agusan valley would be a mine of wealth. 

The time required for the trees to come into bearing 
varies from five to seven years with differing conditions of 
soil and climate, and with the altitude above sea-level. I 
have seen individual trees heavily loaded \\'ith nuts at four 
and a half years. The owner of a coconut plantation must 
wait for his returns, or grow something else meanwhile. 
Quick growing catch crops may at first be raised between 
the rows if soil conditions are favourable, but it must be 
remembered that coconut trees thrive on soil so sandy 
that it will produce little else of value. They require 
abundant water and plantations should be well open to 
the breeze. Such conditions are frequently found along 
the seashore, which doubtless explains the belief so com- 
mon among natives throughout the tropics that the coco- 
nut will not grow where it cannot "hear" or "see" the 
sea. The trees do equally well on open inland plains. 

They have few eneinies or diseases in the Philippines, 
the bud rot which has caused such destruction in other 
countries being almost unknown there. They resist 
wind storms admirably, and even typhoons seldom up- 
root them, but violent gales injure the leaves and blow 
down the fruits, thus temporarily checking production. 
While coconut growing is profitable on suitable soil 
throughout the islands, it can be carried on most safely 
to the south of the typhoon belt. 

At present practically all Phihppine copra is either 
sun-dried or smoked. The latter process hardens the 
outer layer of the meat before it is thoroughly dried 
within, and also causes the deposit of more or less creo- 
sote. The resulting product moulds and decays readily, 
and has given Phihppine copra an evil name, but 
this will not seriously interfere with the sale of a good 
article from the islands, as its quaUty will be readily 
determinable. 

Until within a very short time the crudest and most 



COMMERCIAL POSSIBILITIES OF THE PHILIPPINES 897 

antiquated hand machinery has been used in the local 
manufacture of coconut oil. Soon after the American 
occupation a modern oil mill was estabUshed at Manila. 
It prospered until it burned, which it rather promptly 
did for the reason that it was constructed of Oregon pine, 
which speedily became soaked with coconut oil, and was 
ready to flash into flame at the touch of a lighted match 
or of a cigarette butt. 

A new mill of iron, steel and reenforced concrete has 
now been erected. It is equipped with the latest ma- 
chinery and labour-saving devices, aud is reported to be 
operating on a wide margin of profit. 

The market for coconut oil seems to grow more rapidly 
than the supply increases. There is abundant room for 
more oil mills in the Philippines, especially as the ma- 
chinery used in extracting coconut oil is equally well suited 
to the milling of castor beans, peanuts and sesamum, all 
of which can be produced in any desired quantity. 

Modern drying apparatus is just beginning to be im- 
ported for copra making. 

Sugar and tobacco are the remaining principal agricul- 
ture products. Both can be very advantageously grown. 
All that has been said relative to primitive methods 
in rice, hemp and coconut production can be repeated 
with emphasis in discussing sugar culture. The machin- 
ery and methods employed might almost be called ante- 
diluvian, and it is a wonder that sugar could ever have 
been produced at a profit under such conditions as have 
prevailed. Deep ploughing was unknown. There was 
not an irrigated field of cane in the islands. The most 
modern of the estates was equipped with a three-roll 
mill, and with some vacuum pans which the owner did 
not know how to use. The soil was never fertilized, and 
no sugar grower dreamed of employing a chemist. Forty 
to sixty per cent of the sugar in the cane was thrown out 
in the bagasse, and that extracted was full of dirt and 
promptly began to deUquesce. 



898 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

Philippine sugar could never have competed success- 
fully in the world's market under such conditions. 

Fortunately one modern central has already been 
established, and several others are in process of construc- 
tion. Up-to-date mills could well afford to grind cane 
for Filipinos, giving them outright as much sugar as they 
had previously been able to extract from it and making 
a very handsome profit out of the balance. But as yet 
most Filipinos have not learned the benefit of cooperation, 
and are too suspicious to contract their crops of cane to a 
mill. It follows that inill owners must control, in one 
way or another, land enough to produce cane sufficient to 
keep their mills in profitable operation. As we have seen 
advantage has been taken of this fact by unscrupulous 
sugar men in the United States who have secured legis- 
lation hmiting the amount of land which corporations 
authorized to engage in agriculture may own, with the 
deliberate intention of thus cripphng the sugar industry 
in the Philippine Islands. It is iniquitous so to handi- 
cap an important industry in a colonial dependency, 
and this legislation should be stricken from the statute 
books. 

Fortunately there is no law Umiting the right of in- 
dividuals to contract their crops, nor is it apparent that 
such a law could be enacted. Furthermore, there is no 
law hmiting the amount of land which an individual may 
hold, nor is it hkely that any will be passed. It would 
therefore seem that while vicious legislation may inter- 
fere with the rapid development of the sugar industry 
in the Phihppines, it cannot destroy it. 

The table on the opposite page shows the amount and 
value of sugar exports for the past fifteen years. 

It is said that the tobacco wliich now produces the 
famous Sumatra wrapper originally came from the Phil- 
ippines, which now have to import it. This condition of 
things is mainly due to lack of system and care in to- 
bacco growing. Seed selection is almost unknown; 



COMMERCIAL POSSIBILITIES OF THE PHILIPPINES 899 

SUGAB 



To All Counthies 


To United States, includino Hawaii 
AND PoHTO Rico 


Fiscal 


Qtjaatitv 


Value in U. S. 


Percentage 


Quantity 


Value in D. S. 


Years 


(metric tons) 


Currency 


Exports 


((metric tons) 


Currency 


1899 


57,447 


$2,333,851 


15.9 


2,340 


$143,500 


1900 


78,.306 


3,000,-501 


12.3 


143 


21,000 


1901 


56,582 


2,293,058 


8.6 


2,1.53 


93,472 


1902 


67,795 


2,761,4.32 


10.0 


5,225 


293,354 


1903 


111,647 


3,9.55,828 


9.9 


34,433 


1,335,826 


1904 


75,161 


2,668,.507 


7.2 


11,626 


354,144 


190.5 


113,640 


4,977,026 


13.4 


57,859 


2,618,487 


1906 


125,794 


4,863,865 


14.8 


7,302 


260,104 


1907 


120,289 


3,934,460 


11.5 


6,610 


234,074 


1908 


151,712 


5,664,666 


17.2 


48,476 


2,036,697 


1909 


112,.380 


4,373,338 


14.0 


21,285 


881,218 


1910 


127,717 


7,040,690 


17.6 


94,156 


5,495,797 


1911 


149,376 


8,014,.360 


20.1 


128,926 


7,144,755 


1912 


186,010 


10,400,575 


20.6 


161,783 


9,142,833 


1913 


212,540 


9,491,.540 


17.8 


83,951 


3,989,665 



worms are not picked ; fertilization is not practiced ; the 
system under which each labourer settles on the land, 
plants as much or as httle as he pleases, and manages 
his crop in his own way, is in vogue, and it is an eloquent 
testimonial to the merits of soil and climate that the 
tobacco so grown is good for anything. 

The domestic consumption of tobacco is very large. 
Practically everj' one smokes. Exportations are increas- 
ing. The tables on pages nine hundred and nine hun- 
dred one wOl give an adequate conception of the recent 
growth of the tobacco industry. 

Bananas form an important part of the food of the 
people, yet there is not such a thing as a real banana 
plantation in the islands. The average Fihpino has a 
few plants around his house, but with many of them even 
this is too much trouble, and thej' prefer to buy the fruit 
at a comparatively high price in the local markets. Good 
bananas sell readily in Manila at half a dollar a bunch, 



900 



THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 



Table showing the Number of Cigahs removed from Mantj- 

FACTORIES for DOMESTIC CONSUMPTION AND FOR ExPORT DUR- 
ING THE Past Eight Fiscal Years 











CiGABS MaNCTFACTDKED AND 




Fiscal Year 








Total 


ENDED June 30 


Conaumed in 


Exported 


Shipped to 




the Philippine 
Islands 


to Foreign 


United 






Countries 


States 






Number 


Number 


Number 


Number 


1906 . . . 


74,184,537 


94,110,336 


231,206 


168,526,079 


1907 








79,476,459 


117,684,485 


82,175 


197,243,119 


1908 








82,986,278 


115,738,939 


29,570 


198,754,787 


1909 








86,800,520 


116,981,434 


867,947 


204,649,901 


1910 








89,272,890 


109,006,765 


87,281,673 


285,561,328 


1911 








96,115,525 


104,604,170 


27,531,596 


228,251,291 


1912 








109,924,014 


104.476,781 


70,518,050 


284,918,845 


1913 . . . 


96,193,811 


106,563,541 


102,894,077 


305,651,429 



Table showing the Number op Cigarettes removed from Man- 
ufactories FOR Domestic Consumption and for Export dur- 
ing the Past Eight Fiscal Years 





Cigarettes Manufactdeed and 




Fiscal Year ended June 30 


Consumed in 

the Philippine 

Islands 


Eitported to 

Foreign 

Countries 


Total 


1906 

1907 

1908 

1909 

1910 

1911 

1912 

1913 


Number 

3,509,038,750 
3,509,999,575 
3,774,303,310 
4,122,385,209 
4,138,647,668 
4,058,603,123 
4,369,153,048 
4,449,340,088 


Number 

21,062,844 
158,349,812 
72,387,396 
53,250,328 
34,859,581 
35,425,865 
35,776,760 
51,431,838 


Number 

3,530,101,594 
3,668,349,387 
3,846,690,706 
4,175,635,537 
4,173,507,249 
4,094,028,988 
4,404,929,808 
4,500,771,926 



COMMERCIAL POSSIBILITIES OF THE PHILIPPINES 901 



Table showing the Quantity op Smoking Tobacco Exported 
DURING Each of the Past Five Fiscal Years 



Country to which Exported 


Total Exports during the Fiscal Yeab 




1909 


1910 


1911 


1912 


1913 


Canary Islands .... 
For consumption on high 

seas 

France 

China 

All others 


Pounds 

33,488 

14,490 
4,740 
2,233 
5,082 


Pounds 

18,547 

17,655 
6,182 
1,586 
5,174 


Pounds 

21,329 

22,610 

11,334 

7,938 

25,791 


Pounds 

28,645 

24,488 
3,091 
6,077 
4,151 


Pounds 

59,454 

29,257 

11,433 

9,569 

7,417 


Total 


60,034 


49,145 


89,004 


66,452 


117,130 



Table showing the Quantity of Leaf Tobacco Exported 
DURING the Calendar Years 1909, 1910, 1911 and 1912 





Calendar Yeah 




1909 


1910 


1911 


1912 


E.xported in the leaf ' 
To the United States 
To other countries 


Pounds 

13,503 

21,218,588 


Pounds 

12,269 
26,469,800 


Pounds 

4,946 
28,354,636 


Pounds 

93,928 
28,041,374 


Total .... 


21,232,079 


26,482,069 


28,359,582 


28,136,302 



and the best varieties bring even a higher price. The 
latter may be bought at ten cents a bunch in the Agusan 
River valley, where conditions are ideal for their success- 
ful cultivation. I recently measured a series of trunks 
there which ran from forty inches to four feet in circum- 
ference. 

' There were also exported 423,877 pounds of cuttings, clippings 
and waste during 1910, and 914,630 pounds of the same materials 
during 1912. 

Note. — All figures given above are for unstemmed leaf. 

VOL. 11 — 2d 



902 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

There are numerous varieties of bananas in the Pliil- 
ippines, and some of them are of unrivalled excellence, but 
fruit of uniform quahty is unobtainable, if desired in any 
considerable quantity. In the course of a brief morning 
visit to the Zamboanga market I have seen fifteen to 
twenty different varieties of bananas on sale there, of which 
a considerable proportion were full of tannin and fit only 
for cooking. 

A banana plantation gives returns at the end of a year 
from the time of planting, and the fruit ought to be grown 
on plantation scale for the markets of Cebii, IloUo, Manila 
and Hongkong. 

Throughout extensive areas conditions are ideal for 
rubber production, and Para, castilloa and ceara trees all 
thrive. Those of the latter species reach their most per- 
fect development in Bukidnon, where they grow at an 
astonishing rate and produce hemispheres of foliage which 
look almost solid. A plantation of these trees should be 
not only beautiful to look upon but very profitable. 

Conditions in the highlands of Luz6n, in the sub- 
province of Bukidnon, and in other portions of Mindanao, 
are admirably adapted to the production of coffee. 
Indeed, one of the few known wild varieties is indigenous 
to the PhiHppmes. The coffee at present produced is 
grown in violation of every accepted principle of coffee cul- 
ture, but is nevertheless excellent in quality, and any sm'- 
plus not required for local consumption is eagerly bought 
up for shipment to Spain. In Bukidnon the opportunity 
for growing coffee upon a large scale is excellent. 

There is little doubt that tea could be advantageously 
produced in the Philippine highlands, especially in north- 
ern Luz6n. 

Throughout extensive regions the soil and climate are 
ideal for growing cacao, from which is made the chocolate 
of commerce. It has numerous insect enemies, and care- 
ful scientific cultivation is needed to obtain the best 
results. 




A Three-year-old Coffee Bush. 

Coffee thrives in the highlands of Mindanao, where this photograph was 

taken, and in those of Northern Luzon. 



COMMERCIAL POSSIBILITIES OF THE PHILIPPINES 903 

A determined and very successful effort is being made 
by the Bureau of Education to interest the Fihpinos in 
raising corn, which is a far better food than is rice. They 
are being taught how to grind and cook it for human food, 
and its use, which has long been common in islands like 
Cebu, Negros, Siquijor and Bohol, is rapidly increasing. 
It can be grown to good advantage in the Philippines, and 
at existing prices its production upon a commercial scale 
for hmnan consumption would be profitable, but there is 
another good use to which it can be put. The supply 
of fresh pork is not equal to the demand, and there would 
be a ready market, at a high price, for a largely increased 
amount. Corn-fed hogs are practically unknown in 
the islands. They ought not to be. 

Both corn and camotes flourish in Bukidnon, where the 
former often attains a height of from twelve to eighteen feet 
and produces one to fom- ears to the stalk. Here, as else- 
where, careful seed selection rapidly increases the crop. 
Camotes, planted after the first ploughing, kill out all grass 
and weeds, but rapidly impoverish the soU. Planting 
camotes on a large scale and close subsequent pasturing of 
the land with hogs would leave the soil enriched and in 
excellent condition for planting with other crops. A 
little corn would put camote-fed hogs in splendid condi- 
tion for the market. In this way it would be possible to 
raise them inexpensively and on a large scale. 

The PhiUppines produce citrus fruits in considerable 
variety. Some of the native oranges and lemons are ex- 
cellent. No care has as yet ever been given to their cul- 
tivation. They are never pruned or sprayed, nor is the 
ground around them kept clean. The larger Philippine 
towns and cities afford a good market 'for citrus fruits, 
and any surplus could be shipped to neighboiu-ing Asiatic 
cities. Experiments in budding American varieties on 
to the native stock are now in progress. 

In many parts of the islands climate and soil are per- 
fectly adapted to the production of pineapples, which at 



904 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

present usually grow uncared for. One pineapple planta- 
tion has already been established, and a factory for 
canning the product is under construction. Others will 
follow. 

Roselle, from the fruit of which is made a jelly equal to 
currant jelly in colour, and very similar to it in flavour, 
grows luxuriantly and produces heavy crops of fruit. 
An excellent fermented drink may be made from its lea\'es 
and stems. 

Mangos, coimmonly considered to be the best fruit 
produced in the islands, can be successfully canned. 

Guavas grow wild over extensive areas, and a properly 
located factory could produce guava jelly in large quantity. 

Briefly, there is every opportunity for the profitable 
investment of brains, capital and energy in agricultural 
pursuits along a score of difTerent lines. Such invest- 
ment would be of immense advantage to the Filipinos 
themselves. They are neither original nor naturally 
progressive, but they are quick to imitate, and would 
follow the example set for them. Their country would 
readily support eighty million people, and it has eight 
million, so there is still room for a few foreigners. 

If rice is the bread of the people, fresh fish is their meat. 
Twenty or thirty thousand pounds of fresh fish are sold 
daily in Manila, and the supply is inadequate to meet the 
demand. A smiilar condition exists in many of the 
larger towns throughout the archipelago. Dried fish 
is extensively used, and sardines preserved in brine find 
a ready sale. They may be taken in immense quantities 
in the southern islands at certain seasons. The intelligent 
apphcation of modern methods to the taking, preserving 
and marketing of fish would give immediate and large 
returns. 

Rinderpest appeared in the islands in 1888, and from 
that time until the estabUshment of civil government 
under American rule swept through the archipelago 
practically unchecked, causing enormous losses to ag- 



COMMERCIAL POSSIBILITIES OF THE PHILIPPINES 905 

riculture. For a time it was impossible to plough anything 
Like the normal amount of land, because of the lack of 
draught animals. 

Promptly upon their estabhshment, the Bureau of 
Science and the Bureau of Agriculture began a determined 
campaign against this the most dangerous pest of cattle. 
The fight has never ceased up to the present time. 
While the disease is not completely stamped out, its rav- 
ages have been reduced to insignificant proportions, and 
the natural increase of the surviving animals has re- 
habihtated agriculture. 

Good draught animals still bring abnormally high 
prices. I well remember that in Spanish days an or- 
dinary carabao cost $7.50, and an excellent one could be 
purchased for $12.50. Similar animals to-day bring from 
$50 to $75 each, and in certain districts the best cara- 
baos sell for $100 each. 

There is still a great shortage of beef cattle. Refrig- 
erated meat is imported in large quantities, but many of 
the Fihpinos do not like it, and will not buy it unless com- 
pelled to do so by the lack of any other. 

It has been found impracticable to remedy these con- 
ditions by importing Chinese cattle or carabaos for the 
reason that cattle disease is prevalent in the regions from 
which they would necessarily come, but a way out of the 
difficulty has now presented itself. Nellore cattle, one 
of the humped breeds of India, belonging to a distinct 
race known as zebus, are immune to rinderpest, and do not 
suffer from tick fever, which is prevalent throughout the 
islands. They flourish in the Phihppines, and do es- 
pecially well in Bukidnon. 

They are much larger than the Chinese cattle now in 
common use, walk faster, are extremely gentle and make 
superior draught animals. Their flesh is excellent. 
Cattle raising in Mindanao on a large scale is certainly 
possible, and offers a most attractive field for investment. 

The estabhshment of a great silk-growing industry is 



906 THE ; PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

dependent only upon the necessary capital and initiative. 
The Bureau of Science has laid the foundation for it by 
conclusively demonstrating that silk worms, and the mul- 
berry trees on the leaves of which they thrive, flourish 
here. Worms have now been grown for six years, and 
have never suffered from any disease. Filipina women 
and girls, with their deft fingers, would make excellent 
help for silk culture. Indeed, the opportunity to en- 
gage in it would be a great boon to them in many 
parts of the islands where they now lack profitable 
employment. 

Manufacturing is as yet in its infancy. There are a 
number of regions where very cheap power can be had by 
hydraulic development. That the Fihpinos make good 
factory labourers has been abundantly demonstrated in 
existing tobacco factories, a hat factory, a match factory 
and a couple of small factories for the manufacture of 
tagal braid, ^ all in successful operation. With plenty of 
good labour, cheap power and abundant raw materials, 
important manufacturing industries should be developed. 

I will not discuss at length the possibility of engaging 
profitably in trade. Such possibility exists wherever 
commodities are bought and sold, and here as elsewhere 
profits or losses largely depend on the abilities of individ- 
uals. But the question of the trade relations, present 
and possible, between the Philippines and the United 
States is one of very great importance. 

In the next chapter I show the enormous increase in the 
total trade of the country since the American occupation, 
and the rapid growth of trade with the United States. 

Next to rice, cotton goods form the most important 
element in the consuming markets of the islands, and the 
rapidity with which the United States is gaining control 
of this trade is well illustrated in the following table, 
showing by years the value of such goods imported since 
1904 : — 

• Made of Manila hemp, and used for sewing into hats. 



-mm 


1 






in 




w^ 


■■'s 


^KS&^:iej5^^ • • - ^?' 





K n 



o _ 



a 
it 



COMMERCIAL POSSIBILITIES OF THE PHILIPPINES 907 



Importations of Cotton Cloth 



Yeab 


United St.^tes 

Hawaii and Porto 

Rico 


All Countries 


1904 


$278,106 

764,990 

278,796 

1,056,328 

604,742 

508,229 

2,043,000 

4,110,837 

4,143,067 

6,827,082 


$4,919,840 
6,346,962 
6,642,329 
8,320,079 
7 909 395 


1905 


1906 


1907 


1908 


1909 


6,862,135 
8,444,4.53 

10,-305,017 
9,246,595 

11,483,638 


1910 


1911 


1912 


1913 


Total 

Annual average .... 


$20,615,177 


$80,480,443 
$8,048,044 



From a proportion of slightly over five per cent of the 
total trade in manufactures of cotton in 1904, importa- 
tions of the American product have increased until they 
supply fifty-nine per cent of the present local demand ! 

The following table is of especial interest. It shows 
in the first column the nature and amount of the total 
exports from the United States and in the second the 
nature and amount of United States exports to the Phil- 
ippine Islands. 





To All 

COUNTEIES 


To Philippine 
Islands 


Foodstuffs in crude condition, and food 
animals 

Foodstuffs partly or wholly manufactured . 

Crude materials for use in manufacturing . 

Manufactiu-es for further use in manufac- 
turing 


7.48 
13.19 
30.10 

16.84 

32.04 

.35 


2.25 

14.39 

.42 

7 19 


Manufactures ready for consiunption . . 
Miscellaneous 


75.73 
.02 


Total 


100.00 


100.00 



908 



THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 



The most profitable class of exports is manufactures 
ready for consumption. It forms no less than 75.73 per 
cent of the United States exports to the Philippines. The 
least profitable exports are crude materials for use in 
manufacturing, which make up but fortj^-two hundredths 
of one per cent of the total exports to the Philippines. 

Tropical and sub-tropical products are constantly in- 
creasing in popularity in the United States, which is able 
to produce them to so small an extent that although the 
classes included in this table comprise nearly forty per 
cent of the total United States imports for the year, there 
are but two on which duty is levied. 

The following table shows the amount and value of 
tropical products imported into the United States during 
the year ended June 30, 1913 : — 



Products 



Amount 



Value 



Cocoa 

Coffee 

Fibres 

Manufactures of fibres 
Fruits and nuts . . 
Goatskins .... 
Gums of various kinds 

Rubber 

Matting 

Vegetable oils . . . 
Silk, unmanufactured 

Spices 

Sugar 

Tea 

Leaf tobacco . . . 
Manufactured tobacco 
Cabinet woods . . . 
Rattans and reeds . . 



140,039,172 lb. 

863,130,757 lb. 

407,098 T. 



45,729,000 T. 



214,000,000 lb. 



65,225,401 lb. 

1,740,041,488 lb. 

94,812,800 lb. 

67,4.54,745 lb. 



$17,389,042 

118,963,209 

49,075,659 

76,972,416 

42,622,653 

24,790,417 

15,138,895 

101,.333,158 

1,651,813 

38,112,883 

84,914,717 

6,187,136 

103,639,823 

17,433,688 

.35,919,079 

6,577,403 

8,880,000 

1,800,000 



$751,401,991 



The balance of trade with the more important coun- 
tries from which we get these products is heavily against 



COMMERCIAL POSSIBILITIES OF THE PHILIPPINES 909 

US, as is shown by the following table in which I have 
included S'natzerland, not because we get tropical or sub- 
tropical products from that country, but because it fur- 
nishes us embroideries, etc., which could be very cheaply 
produced in the Phihppines. The figures are for the 
fiscal year ended June 30, 1913 : — 



U. S. Imports 

FROM 



U. S. Exports to 



Balance against 
U.S. 



Brazil . . 
Cuba . . 
British E. I 
Japan . . 
China . . 
Switzerland 
Mexico . . 
Colombia . 
Venezuela . 
Egypt . . 



$120,155,855 
126,088,173 
116,178,182 
91,633,240 
39,010,800 
23,260,180 
77,543,842 
15,992,321 
10,852,331 
19,907,828 

$640,622,752 



$42,638,467 
70,581,154 
15,108,956 

57,741,815 

21,326,834 

826,549 

54,571,584 

7,397,696 

5,737,118 

1,660,833 

$277,591,006 



877,517,388 

55,507,019 

101,069,226 

33,891,425 

17,683,966 

22,433,631 

22,972,258 

8,594,625 

5,115,213 

18,246,995 

$363,031,746 



There is no such relationship with the Phihppines, 
which during 1912 imported $20,770,536 worth of mer- 
chandise from the United States to offset the $21,619,686 
worth shipped to that country. 

The Philippines could readily produce all of these 
products in quantities sufficient to meet the demands of 
the United States if there were proper de^'elopment of the 
resources of the islands, which have rich land, good labour 
and suitable climate, but lack capital and competent, 
skilled supervision. 

The situation has been admirably summed up in the 
following statement issued some time since by the Manila 
Merchants' Association : — 



"The Philippines will consume of imported commodities 
what they are able to pay for. Their purchasing capacity will 
always be measured by their production of export commodities. 
There is nothing that they produce, or are adapted to produce, 



910 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

that the United States is not at present under the necessity of 
buying from foreign countries whose import trade it does not, 
and never will, control. Thus it cannot hope for such advan- 
tages in other fields yielding tropical products as it already 
possesses in these Islands." 

The Philippines should furnish the bulk of the tropical 
products imported into the United States. The commerce 
between the two countries should in the very near 
future increase to $100,000,000 per year each way and 
should go on increasing more and more rapidly thereafter. 



CHAPTER XXXIV 

Peace and Prosperity 

Unexampled material prosperity has come to the 
islands, partly as a result of the establishment of peace, 
and the improvement in means of communication ; 
partly from a very different cause. 

Among other dire calamities which he saj-s have be- 
fallen the Philippines Blount includes " tariff-WTought 
poverty," ^ and he roundly scores the Congress of the 
United States for its attitude toward the suffering 
Filipino. 

As a simple matter of fact, tariff legislation enacted by 
Congress has been the commercial salvation of the islands. 
The tariff law of 1909, known as the Payne Bill, was 
passed August 5, 1909, and went into effect sixty days 
thereafter. In order to make the effect of this act more 
apparent, the figures from July 1, 1909, in the following 
statistical tables are printed in bold-faced tjT)e. These 
tables speak for themselves, very loudly. 

Internal-Revenue Statistics 



Fiscal Yeab 


Total 
Collections 


Incbeasb 


Fiscal Year 


Total 
Collections 


Increase 
(+) OB De- 
crease (-) 


1906 2 . . 

1907 . . 

1908 . . 

1909 . . 


§4,434,364 
4,729,515 
5,542,022 
5,871,267 


Percent 

7 

17 

6 


1910 . . 

1911 . . 

1912 . . 

1913 . . 


$7,160,810 
7,922,787 
8,389,929 
9,035,922 


Percent 
+ 22 

+ 11 
+ 6 
+ 8 



' Blount, p. 571. 2 First year for which statistics are available. 

911 



912 



THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 



Trade with the United States 



Fiscal Year 


Imports from the 
United States 


Exports to the 
United States 


Total 


1899 

1900 

1901 

1902 

1903 

1904 

1905 

1906 

1907 

1908 

1909 

1910 

1911 

1912 

1913 (at the rate of) . 


$1,150,613 
1,656,469 
2,666,930 
4,035,243 
3,944,082 
4,843,207 
5,839,512 
4,333,917 
5,155,478 
5,079,670 
4,693,831 
10,775,301 
19,483,658 
20,970,536 
26,264,218 


$3,540,894 
3,635,160 
2,572,021 
7,871,743 
13,863,059 
11,102,860 
15,678,875 
11,580,569 
12,082,364 
10,332,116 
10,154,087 
18,703,083 
16,716,956 
21,619,686 
23,573,865 


$4,691,507 
5,291,629 
5,238,951 
11,906,986 
17,807,141 
15,946,067 
21,518,387 
15,914,486 
17,2.37,842 
15,411,786 
14,847,918 
29,478,384 
36.200,614 
42,390,222 
49,838,083 i 



Total Trade, including that with the United States 





Imports 


Exports 


Total 
CusToais 

COLLECTIO.N.-S 


Foreign Tonnage 
Cleared 


Fiscal 
Year 


Value 


In- 
crease 
(+)or 

De- 
crease 

(-) 


Value 


In- 
crease 
(+) or 

De- 
crease 

(-) 


Amount 


In- 
crease 
( + ) or 

De- 
crease 

(-) 


1899 . . 

1900 . . 

1901 . . 

1902 . . 

1903 . . 

1904 . . 

1905 . . 

1906 . . 

1907 . . 

1908 . . 

1909 . . 

1910 . . 

1911 . . 

1912 . . 

1913 . . 


$13,116,567 

20,601,436 

30,276,200 

32,029,357 

32,978,445 

33,221,251 

30,879,048 

25,799.290 

28.786;063 

30.918,745 

27,794,482 

37,067.630 

49,833,722 

54,549.980 

56,327,533 


Per 
Cent 

+ 57 

+ 47 
+ 6 
+ 3 
+ 1 
- 7 
-16 
+ 12 
+ 7 
-10 
+ 33 
+ 34 
+ 9 
+ 11 


$14,640,162 

19,821,347 

23,222,348 

24,544,858 

33,150,120 

30,226,127 

32,355,865 

31,918,542 

33,721,767 

32,829,816 

31,044,458 

39,717,960 

39,778,629 

60,319,836 

56,683,326 


Pa- 
Cent 

+ 35 

+ 17 
+ 6 
+ 35 

- 9 
+ 7 

- 1 
+ 6 

- 3 

- 5 
+ 28 
+0.2 
+ 26 
+ 17 


.153,106,380 

5,542,289 

8,982,813 

8,528,938 

9,540,706 

8,493,868 

8,263,444 

7,553,206 

8,194,708 

8,318,020 

8..539,098 

8,286,073 

8,678,810 

9.363,296 

8,246,026 


336,550 
636,034 
987,094 
1,104,968 
1,542,200 
1,542,138 
1,417,396 
1,4.55,055 
1,293,266 
1,464,448 
1,392,.333 
1,715,268 
1,808,308 
1,939,079 
1,868,811 


Per 

Cent 

+ 89 

+ .55 
+ 12 
+ 40 

- 8 
+ 3 
-11 

+ 13 

- 5 
+ 23 
+ 15 
+ 7 
-41 



' Twelve-seveuths of the actual figures for the first seven months 
of the year: $15,320,794; $13,751,421; $29,072,215. 



PEACE AND PHOSPERITY 



913 



Fiscal Year 



1906 
1907 
1908 
1909 
1910 
1911 
1912 
1913 



Receipts fkom 

Percentage 

Tax ox 

Business 



S 666,996 
677,847 
643,707 
631,877 
759,718 
885,804 
951,775 

1,110,000 



Amounts op 

Business on which 

Percentage Tax 

IS Collected 



5200,098,983 
203,354,298 
193,112,160 
189,563,361 
227,915,673 
265,741,443 
285.532,500 
333,000,000 



Increase 

(+) OR 

Decrease 

(-) 



Per Cent 

+ 2 

- 5 

- 2 
+ 20 
+ 17 
+ 7 
+ 17 



The Philippine government collects as internal revenue 
one-third of one per cent of the gross business done by mer- 
chants and manufacturers in the islands. The fiscal year 
ending June 30, 1909, was the last before the opening of 
free trade with the United States. The figures for the 
four subsequent years therefore show the resulting stimu- 
lus to business. 

The gross business on which the percentage tax was 
collected in 1909 was $190,000,000 (P380,000,000). The 
increases over that year have been : — 





Increases over 1909 




Year 


United States 
Currency 


Philippine 
Currency 


OF Increase 


1910 

1911 

1912 

1913 


$38,000,000 
76,000,000 
96,000,000 

143,000,000' 


P76,000,000 
152,000,000 
192,000,000 
286,000,000 


20.0 
40.0 
50.5 
75.3 




$353,000,000' JP706,000,000 





The gross business increased by a fifth in one year ; 
by two-fifths in two years ; by more than a half in three 
j^ears ; and by more than three-quarters in four years. 

' Estimate based on collections to March, 1913. 



914 



THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 



In the year 1909 the total exports and nnports of the 
Phihppine Islands amounted to $59,000,000 ( Pi 18,000,000) . 
The increases over that year have been : — ■ 





iNCBEAfiES OVEK 1909 


Percentaob 
OF Increase 


Year 


United States 
Currency 


Philippine 
Currency 


1910 

1911 

1912 

1913 


$18,000,000 
31,000,000 
46,000,000 
61,000,000^ 


P36,000,000 
62,000,000 
92,000,000 

122,000,000 


30.5 

52.5 

77.9 

103.4 




$ 156,000,000 


P312,000,000 





The total trade increased by nearly one-third in one 
year ; by more than a half in two years ; by more than 
three-quarters in three years; and more than doubled 
in four years. 





United States 
cubrenct 


Philippine 

CnRRENCT 


Total increase of business as above 
Total increase of trade as above . . 


$353,000,000 
156,000,000 


P706 ,000,000 
312,000,000 


Total increase of business and 
trade 


$509,000,000 


Pl,018,000,000 



An attempt has been made to make political capital 
out of one of the heavy drops in hemp values. - 

1 Estimate made pro rata on the basis of the flgiires for the first 
seven months. 

^^''It is precisely these Americans, and their business associates 
in the United States, who have gotten through Congn'oss the legisla- 
tion ■which enables them to give the Filipino just half of what he got 
ten years ago for his hemp, and other like legislation, and the Fili- 
pinos know it." — Blount, p. 118. 

Also the following : — 

"Apparently, Messrs. Roosevelt and Taft thought, in 1907, that 
granting the Filipinos a little debating society solemnly called a legis- 



PEACE AND PROSPERITY 915 

It is astonishing how fully Providence sometimes squares 
accounts with the falsifier. Whatever may be thought 
of the advisability or inadvisability of the hemp duty 
rebate, there is no escape from the conclusion that it does 
not determine the price of hemp. Wliile it is true that 
there has been a time during the past two years when 
the hemp grower received half, or less than half, the price 
for his product which he obtained ten years ago, it is also 
true that during the latter part of this same period he has 
received very much higher prices than either he or any 
of his ancestors ever before obtained. This apart from 
the fact that the price ten years ago was quite abnormal, 
due to crop shortage resulting from a bad state of public 
order. It is a poor rule that does not work both ways. 
If the hemp rebate is responsible for the recent slump in 
prices, it must also be responsible for their having later 
"kicked the beam." 

The facts set forth in the following tables are also signifi- 
cant of improved conditions : — 

lative body, but -wholly without any real power, was ample compensa- 
tion for deserted tobacco and cane plantations, and for the price of 
hemp being beaten down below the cost of production by manipula- 
tion tlirough an Act of Congi-ess passed for the benefit of American 
hemp manufacturers. If we had had a Cleveland in the White House 
about that time, he would have "UTitten an essay on taxation without 
representation, with the hemp infamy of this Philippine Tariff Act of 
1902 as a text, and sent it to Congress as a message demanding the 
repeal of the Act. But the good-will of the Hemp Trust is an asset 
for the policy of Benevolent Assimilation. The Filipino cannot vote, 
and the cordage manufactui-er in the United States can. No conceiv- 
able state of economic desolation to which we might reduce the people 
of the Philippine Islands being other than a blessing in disguise com- 
pared with permitting them to attend to their own affairs after their 
own quaint and mutually considerate fashion, the Hemp Trust's rope, 
tied into a slip-knot by the Act of 1902, must- not be removed from 
their throats. By judicious manipulation of sufficient hemp rope, you 
can corral much support for Benevolent Assimilation. Therefore, to 
this good hour, the substance of the hemp part of the Philippine Tariff 
Act of March 8, 1902, remains upon the statute books of the United 
States, to the shame of the nation." — Blount, pp. 614-615. 



916 



THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 



Banking 



Fiscal Year 


Total Re- 
sources OP 
Commercial 
Banks 


Increase 

(+)or 

Decrease 

(-) 


Fiscal Year 


Total Re- 
sources OF 
Commercial 
Banks 


Increase 

( + )OR 

Decrease 
(-) 


1906 . . . 

1907 . . . 

1908 . . . 

1909 . . . 


$15,351,690 

17,054,358 
17,454,214 
18,138,425 


Per Cent 

* + ii 

+ 2 
+ 4 


1910 . . . 

1911 . . . 

1912 . . . 

1913 . . . 


§22,856,455 
24,557,697 
35,885,728 
31,210,177 


Per Cent 

+ 26 

+ 7 
+ 46 
-13 



Postal Savings B.^nk 





Depositors in the 


Total Amount Due De- 


Fiscal Yeab 


Postal Savings Bank 


positors at Close of Year 




Number 


Increase 


Amount 


Increase 






Per Cent 




Per Cent 


19071 


2,331 




$254,731 


. 


1908 


5,389 


131 


515,997 


102 


1909 


8,782 


63 


724,479 


40 


1910 . 


13,102 


49 


839,123 


16 


1911 


28,804 


120 


1,049,737 


25 


1912 


35,802 


24 


1,194,493 


14 


1913^ 


38,076 




1,262,189 





Coastwise Tonnage Cleared 



Fiscal 
Year 



1899. 
1900. 
1901. 
1902. 
1903. 
1904. 
1905. 
1906. 



Tonnage 



237,852 
482,685 
676,307 
773,243 
832,438 
905,821 
840,504 
774,032 



Increase 

(+) OR 

Decrease 

(-) 



Per Cent 



+ 103 
+ 40 
+ 14 

+ 8 
+ 9 

- 7 



Fiscal Year 



1907 

1008 

1909 

1910 

1911 

1912 

1913 (.at the rate of) 



Tonnage 



899,915 
978,968 
1,045.075 
1,053,425 
1,303.606 
1,362,620 
1,262,136 = 



Increase 

(+) or 
Decrease 

(-) 



Per Cent 

+ 16 
+ 9 

+ 7 
+ 1 
+24 
+ 5 
- 7 



1 First year of operation. 

2 On December 31, 1912; increase of six months only. 

' Twelve-sevenths of the actual figure for the first seven months 
of the year : 736,246 tons. 



PEACE AND PROSPERITY 917 

Importations of Coal (Equal Consumption Very Nearly) ' 



Fiscal Yeab 



1899 
1900 
1901 
1902 
1903 
1904 
1905 
1906 



Metric 

Tons (2205 

Pounds) 



30,812 
87,238 
126,732 
236,332 
268,650 
295,716 
269,666 
268,577 



Fiscal Yeab 



1907 

1908 

1909 

1910 

1911 

1912 

1913 (at the rate of) 



Metric 

Tons (2205 

Pounds) 



295,684 
322,928 
294,902 
375,518 
413,735 
436,687 
408,118= 



If possible, let us have more of this same kind of tariff- 
wrought poverty and commercial distress ! The country 
needs it. 

This extraordinary story of rapid increase in commercial 
prosperity, as well as in the volume of commerce between 
the PhiUppines and the United States, is but a faint indi- 
cation of what would come about under a fixed policy 
which assured future adequate protection to life and 
property in these islands. 

Specific assurance that the United States would not sur- 
render sovereignty over the archipelago until its inhab- 
itants had demonstrated both abihty and inclination to 
maintain a stable, just and effective govermnent would 
be followed by a steady, healtliful conmiercial develop- 
ment which would bring in its wake a degree of prosperity 
hitherto unknown and undreamed of. The Philippines 
have the best tropical climate in the world ; soil of unsur- 
passed richness ; great forest wealth ; promising mines ; 

• The figures for coal importations are exclusive of the quantities 
imported from the United States by the federal government. These 
are excluded because they have been for the most part made in large 
quantities in alternate years, and would, therefore, while considerably 
increasing the average total amounts imported, give a false idea of the 
rate of increase of the more strictly domestic consumption, 

2 Twice the actual figure for the first half of the year : 204,094 tons. 

VOL. II — 2 E 



918 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

and a constantly growing population willing to work for 
a reasonable wage. Give assurance of a stable govern- 
ment, and prosperity will increase by leaps and bounds. 
Turn the country over now, or ten years from now, to the 
Filipinos to govern, and the reputable business men, 
mindful of Aguinaldo's demand for his share of the war 
booty when Manila was taken ; of the attempted confis- 
cation of the lands of the religious orders and of Spanish 
citizens generally,^ of the proposal to tax foreigners^ as 
such, and of the tortm'ing of friars, other Spaniards and 
Filipinos as well, in order to extort money from them ; of 
the widespread brigandage, the raping, the officially 
authorized and directed miu-dering and burying alive 
which prevailed during the period of undisturbed Fili- 
pino rule, will fold their tents like the Arabs and quietly 
steal away. There will remain that peculiar class of 
business men who, as the Filipinos put it, love to 
fish in troubled waters. They will not lack good fish- 
ing grounds. 

Should we not stimulate the commercial development 
of the islands by adopting liberal provisions as to the 
sale of public lands, safeguarding the pubUc interest by 
imposing at the same tune severe conditions as to culti- 
vation ? , And should not our anti-imperahst friends cease 

1 There were several different plans for the confiscation of the friar 
lands. The following shows the action taken in one instance, relative 
to the property of Spanish prisoners : — 

" On February 2, 1899, the secretary of the treasury informed the 
governor of the pro^^nce of Isabela that the property of all Spanish 
prisoners should be confiscated as booty of war." — - P. I. R., 1302. 0. 

2 The following telegram was sent to the cabinet by the director 
of diplomacy, Manila : — • 

"December 21, 1898, p.m. 
"Missed the train on account of government business. Beg of 
you to pardon my absence, and bear in mind my suggestion to look 
up an easy method of abohshing the law imposing a tax of 100 to 5000 
pesos on foreigners, as not only unjust but impolitic at this time, when 
we seek the sympathy of the powers. I represent to the cabinet that 
such step is very urgent, because I have ascertained that members 
of the chamber of commerce have reported this tax to their respective 
governments in order to formulate a protest." — P. I. R., 849. 




A Typical Cocoanut Grove. 
Dried cocoanut meat is one of the principal exports of the Philippines. 



PEACE AND PROSPERITY 919 

to rail at those of their countrymen who are willing to 
spend the money without which conmiercial development 
is impossible ? Can they not grasp the fact that the in- 
flux of Americans and American capital sounds the death 
knell of slavery and peonage? It was Americans whose 
testimony enabled me to prove to the world the existence 
in the Phihppines of these twin e\-ils, and to bring pres- 
sure to bear which resulted in prohibitive legislation. It 
is Americans who are helping the poor Filipinos to become 
owners of land. It is Americans who are encouraging 
them to take contracts for cultivating cane, so that they 
have a direct interest in the crop. 

Increasing prosperity means more money for the main- 
tenance of order, for schools, for hospitals, for sanitary 
work and for public improvements. The diminution of 
exports which would promptly follow any serious dis- 
turliance of the peace of the country would result in the 
loss of much of the ground already gained. 

The average business man is not a sentunentalist. So 
long as he can safely carry on his work, and can be sure 
of just treatment, he does not worry much over the na- 
tionaUty of the government officials who maintain such 
conditions, but he will not invest his money in a country 
where it is not reasonably certain that such conditions will 
continue to prevail. 

The business men of the Philippines know by experi- 
ence what American government of the archipelago 
means. Some of them know, also by experience, what 
Filipino rule means. The slump in real estate values and 
customs receipts which so promptly followed Mr. Wilson's 
expression of hope that the frontiers of the United States 
might soon be contracted, conclusively demonstrated their 
opinion as to the effect of Philippine independence on 
the peace and prosperity of the country. 

The number of Filipinos who thus far have demon- 
strated ability successfully to manage large commercial 
enterprises is exceedingly lunited. Must not conomercial 



920 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

prosperity coexist with political independence, if the latter 
is to be stable ? 

During the visit of the congressional delegation which 
accompanied Mr. Taft on his return to the Philippines 
in 1907, public sessions were held at which the Filipinos 
were given opportunity to make complaints. One fervid 
orator denounced the collection of customs dues, internal 
revenue taxes, the land tax and the cedula tax. A con- 
gressman asked him how he expected to get money to 
run the government after all taxes were abolished. He 
replied, "That is a detail which can be settled later." 

Would it not be well to consider, at this time, one very 
important detail, namely, what would be the effect on the 
insular government of a marked falling off in the business 
from the taxes on which practically all of the msular 
revenues are at present derived ? 



CHAPTER XXXV 

Some Results of American Rule 

Having set forth at length what seem to me the more 
essential facts relative to the American occupation of the 
Phihppines and the results of American rule, supporting 
my statements by a rather free use of documents chiefly 
drawn from the Insurgent records, I will briefly summarize 
some of the more important points which I have endea- 
voured to establish, lest my readers should not see the 
forest for the trees. 

Independence was never promised to Aguinaldo or 
to any other Filipino leader by any officer of the United 
States, nor was there ever any effort to deceive the Fili- 
pinos by arousing false hopes that it was to be conceded. 

The Insurgent force never cooperated with that of 
the United States. The two had a common enemy and 
that was practically all that they did have in common. 
Each proceeded against that enemy in its own way. 
Each ignored requests of the other relative to the manner 
in which it should proceed. The Insurgent officers 
planned from the outset to utifize United States soldiers 
in bringing about the termination of Spanish sovereignty 
in the Phihppines, and then to attack them if practicable 
and necessary in order to oust the United States from the 
islands. If not, they planned to consider asking us for 
a protectorate or for annexation. 

The temporary government estabhshed by Aguinaldo 
and his associates was not, in any sense of the word, a 
republic, nor was it established with the consent of the 
people. It was a military oligarchy pure and simple, 
imposed on the people by armed men and maintained, 

921 



922 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

especially during its latter days, by terrorism and by the 
very free use of murder as a governmental agency. The 
conditions which arose under it were shocking in the 
extreme. Property rights were not respected ; human 
Mfe was cheap indeed ; persons aggrieved had no redress, 
and there was hardly a semblance of a system for the 
administration of justice. 

There were individual instances in which Insurgents 
and Insurgent sympathizers were treated with severity, 
and even with cruelty, by officers and soldiers of the army 
of the United States, but it is nevertheless undoubtedly 
true that never before have the officers and men of any 
civilized nation conducted so humanely a war carried on 
under conditions similar to those wliich prevailed in the 
Phihppines. 

Hostihties were deUberately provoked by the Insurgents, 
who had previously prepared an elaborate plan for a 
simultaneous attack on the American Unes around Manila 
from within and without, and for the killing of all Ameri- 
cans, Europeans and American sympathizers among the 
FiHpinos. 

The war ended with a prolonged period of guerilla 
warfare, deliberately inaugurated by the Insurgents, 
which bred crime and struck at the very roots of good 
government. 

At the earliest possible moment the Filipinos were 
given a share in the control of their own affairs when 
municipal governments were estabhshed, under mihtary 
rule, by army officers. Many Filipinos who accepted 
municipal offices under the Americans paid for their 
courage with their lives, and a very large number saved 
their lives only by serving two masters. Because of the 
special conditions which prevailed, such persons were very 
leniently dealt with when their double dealing was dis- 
covered, and in the effort to afford adequate protection 
to those who had put their confidence in the United States, 
our armed forces were divided to an extent probably 




O a; 



d -1 



^ I 



SOME RESULTS OF AMERICAN RULE 923 

previously unprecedented in liistory, and more than five 
hundred separate garrisons were estabUshed. 

The first PhiHppine Commission was appointed in the 
hope of bringing about a friendly understanding between 
Insurgent officers and the representatives of the United 
States, and for the purpose of gathering reliable informa- 
tion relative to people and conditions which might serve 
as a basis for future legislation for the benefit of all the 
inhabitants of the islands. As the result of the break- 
ing out of hostihties before the commission reached its 
destination, its work was necessarily limited to the 
gathering of information and to efforts to promote the 
earhest possible establishment of relations of friendliness 
and usefulness between the two peoples. 

The second Phihppine Commission was endowed with 
far-reaching powers. Shortly after its arrival in the 
islands it became the legislative body, and proceeded 
gradually to estabhsh civil government as rapidly as 
practicable in a country under military rule, many parts 
of which were in active rebellion. 

This difficult undertaking was carried out with a 
minimum of friction between civil and military authori- 
ties. The latter were invariably consulted by the former 
before civil government was established in any given 
region, and their wishes in the premises were respected. 
The commanding general stated that the estabhshment of 
civil governments was a help to him in his work, and in 
accordance with his desires and recommendations they 
were established prematurely in three provinces, with 
the result that the temporary restoration of mihtary 
government became necessary. 

Under .American rule there has been brought about 
in the Philippines an admirable state of pubhc order, and 
life and property are to-day safe throughout practically 
the whole of an archipelago which, at the close of Spanish 
sovereignty, was harried by tulisanes, ladrones and Moros. 
There were also very extensive areas in undisputed posses- 



924 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

sion of wild and savage tribes where governmental control 
had never been established, where a man was esteemed in 
proportion to his success as a warrior, and where property 
was likely to find its way into the hands of men brave 
enough to seize it and strong enough to hold it. 

We have established friendly relations with the very 
large majority of the wild people and the numerous 
changes for the better which we have brought about in 
their territory have been effected practically without 
bloodshed except in certain portions of the Moro country. 
By effective legislation, strictly enforced, we have saved 
these backward tribes from the threatened curse of 
alcoholism. 

Good order was established in Filipino territory through 
the admirable work of the United States Army, assisted 
toward the close of military rule by the second Philippine 
Commission, wliich did much toward securing the co- 
operation of the better element among the Filipinos. 

Under civil control Filipinos and wild men have been 
utilized as pohce officers and soldiers in their respective 
habitats, and have been an important factor in bringing 
about present conditions. The Philippine Constabulary, 
recruited in part from Fihpinos and in part from Moros 
and other non-Christian peoples, has not only proved a 
most efficient body for the performance of ordinary 
police work but has rendered invaluable assistance to 
other bureaus of the government ; notably to the Bureau 
of Health and the Bureau of Agriculture for which it has 
effectively performed very important quarantine work. 
It has furthermore proved to be a reUable and most useful 
body in meeting great public calamities like those caused 
by the recent eruption of Tall volcano, and the Cebu 
typhoon. 

Reforms of radical importance in the judicial system 
have been another important factor in making hfe and 
property safe, and have resulted in bringing even-handed 
justice within the reach of many of the poor and the weak. 



SOME RESULTS OF AMERICAN RULE 925 

We found Manila and numerous provincial tovras 
pestholes of disease, while the death-rate of the archi- 
pelago as a whole was so hi^h that its climate had gained 
an evil reputation. 

We have given Manila a modern sewer system. We 
have suppUed its people with comparatively pure drink- 
ing water from a mountain watershed in place of the 
contaminated water of the Mariquina River which they 
were formerly forced to use. We have steadily reduced 
the death-rate of the city, which is now a safe and health- 
ful place of residence for all who will observe a few simple 
precautions. 

In the provinces, some eight hundred and fifty artesian 
wells have brought pure water to hundreds of thousands 
who were previously compelled to depend on infected 
wells, springs and streams. By making many of the 
previously most unsanitary regions of the archipelago 
healthful we have conclusively demonstrated that the 
lack of necessary sanitary measures, not the character of 
the climate, was responsible for the conditions which 
formerly prevailed. 

The islands were periodically swept by frightful epi- 
demics of disease. We have eliminated smallpox, pre- 
viously rightly considered an almost inevitable disease 
of childhood, as an important factor in the death-rate. 
We have practically stamped out cholera and bubonic 
plague. Years have now passed since there has been a 
wide-spread epidemic of disease among the inhabitants. 

The United States PubUc Health and Marine Hospital 
Service has not only thrown its protective line around 
the archipelago but has sent its outposts to important 
neighbouring Asiatic centres for the dissemination of disease, 
thus f acihtating the exclusion from the archipelago of dan- 
gerous communicable ailments and preventing the intro- 
duction of pneumonic plague, the most fatal of them all. 
It would uncjuestionably have entered the islands had 
it not been stopped at quarantine. 



926 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

We are giving humane care to a considerable number 
of insane persons who were previously chained to floors 
or posts. 

The lepers of the islands have been isolated and are 
being well cared for. A few have apparently been per- 
manently cured. 

The scientific work of the insular government has been 
coordinated in such a way as to insure maximum effi- 
ciency at minimum cost. Not only has an immense 
amount of routine work been economically performed 
but there has been a large amount of original investiga- 
tion, some of which has resulted in discoveries of far- 
reaching importance to mankind. 

We have found the cause of beri-beri, have eUminated 
this disease from government institutions and from among 
persons subject to governmental control, and have shown 
the Filipinos how they may rid their country of it, and 
save money at the same time, by a slight change in 
their food. 

We have found a specific for that horribly disfiguring 
disease "yaws," and have cured large numbers of persons 
afflicted with it, thus earning their lasting gratitude. 

We have made pure food and pure drugs purchasable 
throughout a country which was formerly a dumping 
ground for products not allowed to be sold elsewhere. 

We have not only made long strides in the improve- 
ment of sanitary conditions in the provinces but have 
brought skilled medical and surgical service mthin the 
reach of very large numbers of persons who formerly 
had none at all, successfully overcoming the previous 
universal prejudice against hospitals, to such an extent 
that those of the government are now thronged with 
Filipinos seeking treatment. 

In doing these things we have had to combat almost 
unbelievable ignorance and superstition, the remedy for 
which is to be found, we hope, in the generalization of 
education which is rapidly taking place. The hundred 



SOME RESULTS OF AMERICAN RULE 927 

and seventy thousand children, who formerly took advan- 
tage of the meagre educational facilities provided under 
the previous regime, consisting chiefly of very defective 
primary instruction, usually given amidst most unsanitary 
surroundings, and without adequate faciUties of any 
sort, have been replaced by a happy throng numbering 
no less than five hundred and thirty thousand, who receive 
from well-trained teachers excellent primary and second- 
ary instruction, both academic and practical. Through 
the school system we are generalizing the use of the 
English language which is to-day, after a decade and a 
half of American rule, spoken far more generally than 
Spanish was after it had been the official language of 
the country for three and a half centuries. In this way 
we are overcoming the veiy grave obstacle in the way 
of welding the numerous peoples of the Philippines into 
one which is presented by then- lack of a common medium 
of communication. 

At the same time we are teaching boys and girls the 
elements of good sanitation and right living. Girls 
are also being taught to cook, to sew, to embroider 
and to make lace. Both boys and girls are receiving 
instruction in gardening, and boys may learn wood 
working, iron working and other useful trades. Oppor- 
tunities for higher academic work have been provided 
in provincial high schools, and at Manila in the Philip- 
pine Normal School and the University of the Philip- 
pines, while the Manila Schools of Commerce and of 
Arts and Trades afford ample opportunity for advanced 
work on industrial and commercial lines, and the Manila 
School of Household Industries fits women to go out into 
the provinces and start new centres for the manufacture 
of laces and embroideries. 

We are educating a constantly and rapidly increasing 
number of highly trained nurses, physicians and surgeons. 

The working forces of certain bureaus of the govern- 
ment have been utilized for purposes of special instruction 



928 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

in surveying, printing and binding, and forestry, and 
even the inmates of penal institutions are not forgotten, 
but liave good schools provided for them. 

Quite as important as the development of the minds 
of the young is the development of their bodies through 
the introduction of athletic games and sports, which 
have incidentally promoted interconununication and 
mutual understanding between the several FiUpino 
peoples. In many regions baseball is emptying the 
cockpits, and thus aiding the cause of good order and 
morality. 

Educational work has not been limited to the Filipinos, 
but has been earned on among the children of the wilder 
tribes, many of whom are proving to be apt pupils and 
are making extraordinary progress in industrial work. 

By educating the masses we are giving to the Filipinos 
proper, as distinguished from the mestizo politicians, 
the first opportunity they have ever had to show what 
is in them. 

The means of the government are at present insufficient 
to educate all of the eight hundred thousand children 
who, it is believed, would attend school voluntarily if 
given the opportunity. The insular revenues are derived 
chiefly from import duties and internal revenue taxes, 
so that there is a very direct relationship between the 
amount of government receipts and the volume of busi- 
ness of the country. Careful attention has long been 
given to stimulating the development of the vast natural 
resources of the archipelago in order to increase the 
prosperity of the people and that of the government, 
which are inseparably united. 

Owing to the breaking up of the land area of the country 
into a veiy large number of small units, water transporta- 
tion plays an unusually important part in commercial 
development. More than two-thirds of the veiy long 
coast fine has been surveyed, as have the waters adjacent 
thereto. 



SOME RESULTS OF AMERICAN RULE 929 

The former scarcity of lighthouses has been remedied. 
An admirable weather service gives due warning of the 
approach of dangerous storms, and travel and the 
transportation of freight by sea have thus been rendered 
safe. 

The previous almost complete lack of good roads has 
been remedied by the construction of four thousand 
four hundred miles of well-built, admirably maintained 
highways in the lowlands, supplemented in the highlands 
of Luzon and Mindanao and in the lowlands of Mindoro 
and Palawan, by some thirteen hundred miles of cart roads 
and horse trails. Hundreds of thousands of smaU farmers, 
who p^e^^ously had no inducement to raise more than 
their famihes or their immediate neighbours could con- 
sume, because they were unable to sell their surplus 
products, have thus been brought within reach of the 
market. 

The hundred and twenty-two miles of railway which 
we found in 1898 have been increased to six hundred eleven. 

The government has utilized its coast-guard vessels 
to build up new trade routes untU they became commer- 
cially profitable, so that private companies were willing 
to take them over. 

Agriculture, the main source of the country's wealth, 
was conducted in a most primitive manner, modern 
methods and modem machinery being practically un- 
knowTi. Worse yet, it was threatened vdth complete 
prostration, owdng to the prevalence of surra among the 
horses and of rinderpest among the homed cattle. At 
a time when great areas were lying uncultivated because 
of lack of draft animals, and when the horses and cattle 
of the archipelago seemed doomed to extinction, a vigor- 
ous campaigii was inaugurated against animal diseases. 
It has been carried out in the face of manifold obstacles 
up to the present day, and is resulting in the re-stocking 
of the islands through natural reproduction and the safe- 
guarding of the young animals. Strenuous efforts, made 



930 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

through the medium of the pubUc schools and through 
demonstration stations, are bringing about a slow change 
in the previously existing antiquated agricultural methods, 
and the example set by Americans is leading to the gradual 
introduction of a considerable amount of modern farm 
machinery. 

The placing of the currency of the country on a gold 
basis has been a powerful factor in promoting material pros- 
perity, and together with the other measures previously 
enumerated, supplemented by favourable tariff legislation 
giving the Philippines a market in the United States, 
has led to an era of extraordinary commercial develop- 
ment. 

There has been a very rapid increase in the trade 
between the Philippines and the United States, the former 
country purchasing from us, practically dollar for dollar, 
as much as it sells to us, and furnishmg us tropical prod- 
ucts of a sort which we should otherwise be obhged to 
buy from countries with which we have a trade balance 
on the wrong side of the ledger. 

The Philippines have a potential source of great wealth 
in their fifty-four thousand square miles of forest. We have 
introduced a conservation system which, if maintained and 
developed, will permanently preserve the more important 
forests while at the same time facilitating the estabUsh- 
ment of a great lumber industry. The free use of forest 
products from government lands for other than com- 
mercial purposes has been granted to the people. 

In the face of quiet but determined opposition from the 
cacique class, material progress has been made in assisting 
the common people to become owners of agricultural 
land, while in spite of the restrictions imposed by unwise 
legislation, several modern agricultural estates have been 
estabUshed. They are not only serving as great demon- 
stration stations, of far more practical value than any 
agricultural college could be at the present stage of 
development of the FiUpinos, but have materially raised 



SOME RESULTS OF AMERICAN RULE 931 

the daily wage of agricultural labourers in the regions 
where they are situated. 

We have estabhshed an efficient civil service in which na- 
tional pohtics have played no part, and appointments and 
promotion have depended on merit alone. This rule has 
been made to apply to Filipinos as well as to Americans, 
with the result that the former have for the most part 
been compelled to enter the lower grades because of 
defective preparation, but with the further consequence 
that they have been promoted as rapidly as the result of 
subsequent careful training has fitted them for advance- 
ment. The proportion of Fihpino employees as com- 
pared with Americans has increased from forty-nine 
per cent in 1903 to seventy-one per cent in 1913. 

We have given to the country religious liberty. We 
have also given it free speech and a free press, both of 
which have been shamelessly abused. We have created, 
prematurely in my opinion, a legislature with an elective 
lower house composed exclusively of FiUpinos and having 
equal powers with the upper house in the matter of 
initiating and passing legislation. 

I reserve for the following chapter a statement of 
the opportunities which we have given the Filipinos to 
participate in the executive control of their towns and 
provinces, and of the results of these experiments. 

Never before in the history of the world has a powerful 
nation assmned toward a weaker one quite such an 
attitude as we have adopted toward the Filipinos. I 
make this statement without thought of disparaging the 
admirable work which Great Britain has done in her 
colonies, but on the contrary in the conviction that in 
some particulars we oiu-selves have gone too fast and too 
far, and as a result are Ukely in the end to have forcibly 
brought home to us the wisdom of making haste somewhat 
more slowly, and paying more heed to the experience of 
others, when dealing wath new problems. 

However, it will do those of us who thought that we 



932 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

were infallible, if such there be, a world of good to learn 
that this is not the case ; and it will do our Filipino wards 
good to discover, one of these days, that we can, if neces- 
sary, take away as well as give. 

Up to the present time our successes certainly over- 
balance our mistakes, and in my opinion we have just 
cause for pride in the results of our Pliilippine stewardship. 



CHAPTER XXXVI 

Is Philippine Independence now Possible? 

This question is one of great importance to the people 
of the United States, for national honour is involved in 
finding its true answer. 

Both of our great political parties are committed to 
the policy of granting independence when the Filipinos 
are ready for it. Are they ready now ? If so, the promise 
should be kept. If not, we should be guilty of an unjust 
and cowardly act if we withdrew our protection and 
control. 

I have already called attention to the fact that the 
Filipinos ' are divided into a number of peoples, some- 
times called tribes. The census of 1903 recognizes the 
following : Visayans, numbering 3,219,030 ; Tagalogs, 
1,460,695; Ilocanos, 803,942; Bicols, 566,365; Pan- 
gasindns, 343,686 ; Pampangans, 280,984 Cagayans, 
159,648 ; Zambalans, 48,823. 

The loose use of the word "tribe" in designating these 
peoples is liable to lead to very grave misapprehension. 
Their leaders vigorously, and very properly, object to 
the idea that they have at present anything resembling 
a tribal organization. The truth is that they are the de- 
scendants of originally distinct tribes or peoples which 
have gradually come to resemble each other more and 
more, and to have more and more in common. 

The very large majority of them have been brought 
up in the CathoHc faith. In physical characteristics, 

' This name is properly applicable to the civilized peoples only. 
VOL. II — 2 p 933 



934 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

dress and customs they resemble each other quite closely. 
They are alike in their dignity of bearing, their sobriety, 
their genuine hospitality, their kindliness to the old and 
the feeble, their love of their children and eagerness to 
obtain for them educational advantages which they 
themselves have been denied, their fondness for music, 
their patience in the face of adversity, and the respect 
which they show for authority so long as their passions 
are not played upon, or their prejudices aroused, by the 
unscrupulous. These are admirable characteristics and 
afford a good foundation on which to build. Such dif- 
ferences as exist between these several peoples are steadily 
diminishing. This is especially true of the Tagalogs and 
the numerically comparatively unimportant peoples lying 
inmiediately to the north and west of their territory, 
namely, the Pampangans, Pangasinans and Zambalans. 
The Tagalogs, Ilocanos, Cagayans, Bicols and Visayans 
are distinguished by much more marked differences. 

In general, the Tagalogs tend to become the dominating 
Filipino people of the islands, and successfully attempt 
to assert themselves in their dealings with all the other 
Christian peoples except the Ilocanos, who are quite 
capable of holding their own. The Ilocanos have a repu- 
tation for orderliness and industry which the Tagalogs 
lack. The Cagayans are, as a people, notoriously lazy 
and stupid, although there are of course numerous 
conspicuous individual exceptions to this rule. The 
Visayans are comparatively docile and law-abiding. 
Many of the Bicols are energetic and capable, and they 
seem to be possessed of a rather keen sense of humour, 
which their neighbours lack. 

Two things tend to keep the several peoples apart. The 
first is the present lack of any conmaon medium of com- 
rnunication. There are more quite sharply distinct 
dialects than there are peoples. The Visayans, for in- 
stance, speak Cebuano, Ilongo and Cuyuno. The 
language difficulty is of least importance among the 



IS PHILIPPINE INDEPENDENCE NOW POSSIBLE? 935 

peoples immediately north of Manila where the use of 
Tagalog is generalized to a considerable extent, but even 
here it is serious. 

Mr. Justice Johnson of the Philippine Supreme Court 
tells me that when he was serving in Zambales as a judge 
of first instance the examination of a family of four 
persons necessitated two interpreters, one for the father, 
and another for the mother and two step-children, while 
in the trial of seven men charged with a murder it 
was necessary to read the complaint in foiir different 
dialects. 

Taylor cites the following typical instances of practical 
difficulty growing out of the multiplicity of dialects : — 

"In December, 1898, General Macabulos was the com- 
missioner in Tarlac Province. At Camiling the orders 
prescribing how the elections were to be carried on were 
read in Spanish and then translated into Ilocano. General 
Macabulos next delivered in Tagdlog a speech informing 
the assemblage of their duties under the new form of 
government. This was translated into Ilocano, as the 
people did not understand Tagdlog any more than they 
did Spanish. ' When on July 6, 1898, a junta of men in 
favour of the independence of the Philippines met at Ger- 
ona, Tarlac, to elect among themselves the civil officials 
for the town, the decrees of Aguinaldo, of June 18 and 20, 
were read in Ilocano, in Tagalog, in Pampanga, and in 
Pangasinan, all of which languages were spoken in the 
town." 2 

The head of the town of Antipolo, Morong Province, 
wrote to the secretary of the interior on October 21, 1898, 
that his delay in executing orders had been caused by the 
fact that they were written in Tagalog, which he did not 
understand. He recommended that Spanish be always 
used by the central government.^ Mabini himself at 
one time proposed that English be made the official lan- 
guage. The constitution of the "Republic," while 

1 P. I. R., 1097. 2. = Ibid., 1157. 8. ' Ibid., 1018. 1. 



936 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

making Tagalog the official language, provided for 
instruction in English.' 

There is no literature worth mentioning written in the 
native dialects, nor do they open a way to the fields of 
science, the arts, history, or philosophy. Their vocabu- 
laries are comparatively poor in words, and they do not 
afford satisfactory media of communication, especially as 
words of generalization are almost entirely lacking. This 
latter fact conclusively demonstrates the stage of mental 
evolution attained by the peoples which have developed 
these several languages. Not long since I heard a keen 
student of Philippine affairs remark that the trouble 
with the Filipinos was that none of them were more 
than fourteen years old ! There is truth enough in the 
statement to make it sting. 

The use of Spanish never became common, and know- 
ledge of this language was limited to the educated few. 
After fifteen short years English is far more widely spoken 
than Spanish ever was. When English comes into compara- 
tively general use, as it will if the present educational policy 
is adhered to, one fundamental difficulty in the way of 
welding the Filipinos into "a people" will have been 
largely done away with. 

The second important barrier between the several 
Filipino peoples is built up of dislikes and prejudices, in 
part handed down from the days when they were tribally 
distinct and actively hostile ; in part resulting from the 
well-marked tendency of the Tagalogs and the Ilocanos to 
impose their will upon the others. The actual differences 
between a Tagdlog and a Visayan are not so great. The 
important thing, from the American view point, is that 

' Title X. — Of Public Instruction. 
124. . . . 

Elementary instruction shall comprise reading, speaking and writ- 
ing correctly the official language which is Tagalog, and the rudimen- 
tary principles of English and of the exact, physical and natural sciences, 
together with a slight knowledge of the duties of man and citizen. — 
Taylor, 19 MG. 



IS PHILIPPINE INDEPENDENCE NOW POSSIBLE? 937 

every Tagalog and every Visayan really considers them 
very great. 

There would have been no insurrection of any impor- 
tance in the Visayas and Mindanao if the Tagalogs had 
kept their hands off. We have seen how they worked 
their will on the people of the Cagayan vallej^ and the 
Visayas, and what bitter animosities they provoked. We 
have also seen how on various occasions the Ilocanos 
opposed the Tagalogs as such, and even planned to kill 
them, while the Visayans did kill them on various occa- 
sions. However much politicians may declaim about a 
united Filipino people, certain uncomfortable but indis- 
putable facts reduce such claims to idle vapourings. 

At the time when there was great excitement in Manila 
over the Jones Bill, and manj- Filipinos believed that inde- 
pendence was coming on July 4, 1913, there took place at 
the house of General Aguinaldo a very significant gathering 
of former insurgent generals and colonels. There was then 
much interest in the question of who would be appointed 
president of the coming Philippine Republic. It was 
officially announced that the object of this meeting was to 
unite those who attended it in an effort to aid in the 
maintenance of a good condition of pubhc order. I 
learned from a source which I believe to be thorouglily 
reliable that one of the conclusions actually reached was 
that no Visayan should be allowed to become president 
of the repubhc, and that one of the real objects of the 
meeting was to crystallize opposition to the candidacy of 
Senor Osmeiia, the speaker of the assembly. But the 
undesirability of giving publicity to such factional 
differences at this time was promptly realized and this 
attitude on the part of Aguinaldo 's supporters was not 
publicly announced. 

Troubles between Ilocanos and Cagayans continue in 
Cagayan, Zsabela and Nueva Vizcaya up to the present 
day. Several years since, when investigating the cause 
which lay behind a petition from certain people of the 



938 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

latter province for an increase in the educational require- 
ment precedent to the exercise of the franchise, I dis- 
covered that the whole thing resolved itself into an effort 
to disfranchise the Ilocanos, who always voted together 
and already controlled elections in several townships. 

Without going further into the differences which sepa- 
rate the several civilized peoples, I will say emphati- 
cally that the great mass of Filipinos do not constitute 
"a people" in the sense in which that word is understood 
in the United States. They are not comparable in any 
way with the American people or the English people. 
They cannot be reached as a whole, and they do not re- 
spond as a whole. In this they agree with all other Malays. 
Colquhoun has truly said : ' — 

"No Malay nation has ever emerged from the hordes of 
that race, which has spread over the islands of the Pacific. 
Wherever they are found they have certain marked character- 
istics and of these the most remarkable is their lack of that 
spirit which goes to form a homogeneous people, to weld them 
together. _ The Malay is always a provincial ; more, he rarely 
rises outside the interests of his own town or village." 

More important than the differences which separate 
the Tagalogs, Ilocanos, Cagayans, and Visayans as 
such, are those which separate the individuals compos- 
ing these several groups of the population. Very few of 
the present political leaders are of anj^thing approaching 
pure Malayan blood. To give details in specific cases 
would be to give offence, and to wound the feelings of men 
who certainly are not to blame for their origin. Suffice 
it to say that with rare exceptions, if one follows their 
ancestry back a very little way he finds indubitable evi- 
dence of the admixture of Spanish, other European or 
Chinese blood. The preeminence of these men is un- 
doubtedly due in large measure to the fact that through 

» "The Mastery of the Pacific,'.' p. 122, A. R. Colquhoun, Macmillan, 
1902. 




A Typical Spanish Mestiza. 



IS PHILIPPINE INDEPENDENCE NOW POSSIBLE? 939 

the wealth and influence of their fathers they had educa- 
tional advantages, and in many instances enjoyed broaden- 
ing opportunities for travel, which were beyond the reach 
of their less fortunate countrymen. To what extent their 
present demonstrated abilities are due to these facts, and 
to what extent they are due to white or Mongolian blood, 
will never be known until the children of the common 
people, who are now enjoying exceptional^ good educa- 
tional opportunities, arrive at maturity and show what 
they can do.^ 

Meanwhile there is more or less thinlj^ veiled hostil- 
ity between the mestizo class and the great dark mass 
of the people. For a time we heard much of Filipinos 
de cara y corazon- and while because of pohtical expe- 
diency there is less of this talk now than formerly, the feel- 
ing which caused it persists, and will continue to endure. 
Throughout the Christian provinces the same condition 
exists everywhere. The mestizo element is in control. 
Until the common people have learned to assert them- 
selves, and have come to take an important part in the 
commercial and political development of their country, 
anything but an oligarchical form of independent govern- 
ment is impossible. 

There has been complaint from pohticians and others 
of the mestizo class that American men are, as a rule, 
disinchned to increase it by marrying its women and 
breeding mestizo children. 

Juan Araneta, a very intelhgent Visayan of Negros, 
put the matter brutally to me by saying that white blood 
was the only hope for his people, and that if he had his 

' In this connection Bishop Brent has said, " Tie recognized leaders 
in the Philippines to-day, so far as racial quaUfications are concerned, 
would have at least equal right to claim citizenship in Spain, China 
or England. Thus far, it is the men of mixed blood who are the poli- 
ticians. The degree of capacity in the Filipino wiU not be revealed 
until the schoolboys of to-day are in active public life." 

' Literally, "Filipinos of face and heart." The expression means 
Filipinos in appearance and in sympathies. 



940 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

way he would put in jail every American soldier who 
did not leave at least three children behind him. 

Blount pretends to find an obstacle to American con- 
trol in the fact that American women will not marry 
Filipinos, and in the further fact that those American men 
who do marry Filipinas soon find themselves out of touch 
with their former associates. He says that this is not at 
it should be.i He adds that many Filipinos are sons or 
grandsons of Spaniards, and therefore have a very warm 
place in their hearts for the people of that nation. 

He neglects to mention the fact that the vast majority 
of the Spanish mestizo class were born out of wedlock. 

I believe that the attitude of American women on this 
subject is eminently proper and that American men, 
who expect ever again to live in their own country, as a 
rule make a grave mistake if they marry native women. 
Even when they are to remain permanently in the islands, 
such a course is in my opinion usually most undesirable. 
I have known a limited number of happy mixed marriages 
of this sort, but in the large majority of cases which have 
come under my observation they have led to the rapid 
mental, moral and physical degeneration of the men 
concerned. While some of the children born of such 
marriages are very fair, there are occasional reversions to 

' " But there is no doubt that many of the Filipinos after all have a 
very warm place in their hearts for the Spanish people. How could 
it be otherwise when so many of the Filipinos are sons and grandsons 
of Spaniards ? Much of like and dislike in life's journey is determined 
prenatally. On the other hand, the American women in the Philip- 
pines maintain an attitude toward the natives quite like that of their 
British sisters in Hongkong toward the Chinese, and in Calcutta toward 
the natives there. The social status of an American woman who 
marries a native — I myself have never heard of but one case — is 
like that of a Pacific coast girl who marries a .Jap. . . . But look 
at the other side of the picture. When an American man marries a 
native woman, he thereafter finds himself more in touch with his 
native 'in-laws' it is true, but correspondingly, and ever increasingly 
out of touch with his former associations. This is not as it should be. 
But it is a most unpleasant and inexorable fact of the present situa- 
tion." — Blount, pp. 554-555. 



IS PHILIPPINE INDEPENDENCE NOW POSSIBLE? 941 

the ancestral type of the mothers, and the lot of dark- 
skinned children is not a happy one, as even their own 
mothers are almost sure to dislike them. 

The mestizo class is now large enough, and the problems 
which its existence presents are grave enough, to render 
undesirable its further growth. Finally, while the hght- 
skinned mestiza girl almost always seeks a white husband, 
the real typical Filipinos, who are brown, are quite con- 
tent to mate with each other, and do not dishke whites 
for declining to marry their daughters. The people of 
this class are friendly toward Americans, if they have 
actually come in contact with them and learned how 
much they are indebted to them, and are hostile if their 
ignorance is so great that they can be led, by unscrupu- 
lous poUticians, to beUeve that Americans are responsible 
for any ills from which they happen to be suffering, such 
as cholera, which they have often been told is due to our 
poisoning their wells ! 

Blount says ^ it is a "verdict of all racial history . . . 
that wheresoever white men dwell in considerable num- 
bers in the same countiy with Asiatics or Africans, the 
white men will i-ule." 

Certainly Spanish and other European mestizos dwell 
in considerable numbers in the Philippines. Are indi- 
viduals with three-fourths to thirty-one thirty-seconds 
white blood white men or Asiatics? They certainly 
would determine what form of government should be 
established were independence now granted, and it is in- 
teresting to determine what they consider to be the requi- 

' " We should either stop the clamour or stop the American capital 
and energy from going to the Islands. After an American goes out 
to the Islands, invests his money there, and casts his fortunes there, 
unless he is a renegade, he sticks to his own people out there. Then 
the Taft policy steps in and bullyrags him into what he calls ' knuckling 
to the Filipinos,' every time he shows any contumacious dissent from 
the Taft decision reversing the verdict of all racial history — which 
has been up to date, that wheresoever white men dwell in any consider- 
able numbers in the same country with Asiatics or Africans, the white 
man will rule." — Blount, pp. 438-439. 



942 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

sites for the establishment of a government by them. 
One of these men in an address made at the time the con- 
gressional party visited the islands, with Mr. Taft, put 
the case as follows : — 

"If the masses of the people are governable, a part must 
necessarily be denominated the directing class, for as in the 
march of progress, moral or material, nations do not advance 
at the same rate, some going forward wMlst others fall behind, 
so it is with the inhabitants of a country, as observation -nill 
prove. 

"If the Philippine Archipelago has a governable popular 
mass called upon to obey and a directing class charged with the 
duty of governing, it is in condition to govern itseK. These 
factors, not counting incidental ones, are the only two by which 
to determine the political capacity of a coimtry ; an entity that 
knows how to govern, the directing class, and an entity that 
knows how to obey, the popular masses." 

The conditions portrayed might make a government 
possible, but it would assuredly not be a republic. The 
advocates of this view are hardly in harmony with the 
one so eloquently expressed at Rio Janeiro by Mr. 
Root : — 

"No student of our times can fail to see that not America 
alone but the whole civilized world is swinging away from its 
old governmental moorings and intrusting the fate of its civiliza- 
tion to the capacity of the popular mass to govern. By this 
pathway mankind is to travel, whithersoever it leads. Upon 
the success of this, our great undertaking, the hope of humanity 
depends." 

If what is needed to make a just and stable government 
possible is "an entity that knows how to obey, the popu- 
lar masses" and an entity that thinks it "knows how to 
govern, the directing class," then we might leave the 
islands at once, if willing to leave the wild tribes to their 
fate, but we have work to do before the civiUzation of the 
Filipinos can safely be intrusted to "the capacity of the 
popular mass to govern." 



IS PHILIPPINE INDEPENDENCE NOW POSSIBLE? 943 

Blount has said : — 

"Any country that has plenty of good la\\yers and plenty 
of good soldiers, backed by plenty of good farmers, is capable 
of self-government." '■ 

Do the Philippines fulfil even these requirements? 
Filipino la^svyers are ready speakers, but have their 
pecuHarities. \^Tien the civil suit which I brought against 
certain Filipinos for hbel was drawing to its close, and the 
prosecution was limited to the submission of evidence in 
rebuttal, important new e\'idence was discovered. To 
my amazement, my lawyers put the witness who could 
give it on the stand. They asked him his age, his pro- 
fession and a few equally irrelevant questions, and then 
turned him over to the la'w^ers for the defense, who 
promptly extracted from him the very testmiony it was 
desired to get on record. Their very fii'st question drew 
a most unjudicial snort of laughter from the judge, but 
even this did not stop them. 

I was later infoimed that FiUpino lawyers could usually 
be depended upon to do this very thing, and that their 
American colleagues habitually took advantage of this 
fact. The truth is that few of the Filipino lawj'ers are 
good, if judged by American standards. 

I have elsewhere stated my Aiews as to the excellence 
of the FiUpino soldier, but no military leaders have as 
yet arisen who were capable of successfully carrying on 
other than guerilla operation. 

The farmers of the islands are as a class anything but 
good. They are ignorant and superstitious, underfed, 
and consequently inclined to indolence, and are a century 
behind the times in their methods. - 

There are certain undesirable characteristics which are 
common to a large majority of the people correctly desig- 
nated as Filipinos. Ignorance and superstition are still 
to be met at every turn. At the time of the census of 

' Blount, p. 105. 



944 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

1903 the percentage of illiteracy in the Philippines was 
estimated to be 79.8. More than half of the persons 
counted as literate could read and write only some native 
dialect, and often did even that badly. 

More recent, and therefore more interesting, as showing 
present day conditions, are the statistics obtained in 
connection with the elections of June 4, 1912. Abihty 
to read and write English or Spanish entitles a male citizen 
of the Philippines, who is twenty-three or more years of 
age, to vote. 

The total number of registered votes was 248,154 only, 
of whom slightly less than one-third had the above- 
mentioned qualifications. In Manila 14 per cent of the 
voters were illiterate, and in the provinces 70 per cent. 
This lack of education opened wide the door to fraud and 
was one of the chief reasons why there were 240 pro- 
tested elections out of a total of 824, made up as follows : 
municipal, 709 ; provincial, 34 ; for delegate to assembly, 
81. 

The proportion of Uterate electors to total population 
in the territory in question was 1.47 per cent. 

One of the easiest kinds of business to start in the 
Philippines, and one of the most profitable to conduct, is 
the establishment of a new religion. 

We have recently had the "colorum," with head- 
quarters on Mt. San Cristobal, an extinct volcano. People 
visited this place and paid large sums in order to persuade 
the god to talk to them. A big megaphone, carefully 
hidden away, was so trained that the voice of the person 
using it would carry across a canon and strike the trail 
on the other side. If payments were satisfactorily large 
the god talked to those who had made them in a most 
impressive manner when they reached this point in their 
homeward journey. 

We have also had the Cabaruan fiasco in Pangasindn, 
in the course of which a new town with several thousand 
inhabitants sprang up in a short time. There was a 



IS PHILIPPINE INDEPENDENCE NOW POSSIBLE? 945 

place of worship where the devout were at prayer day 
and night. There was also a full-fledged holy Trinity 
made up of local talent. Unfortunately, some of the 
principal people connected with this movement became 
involved in carabao stealing and other forms of pubUc 
disorder, and on a trip to Lingayen I saw the persons who 
had impersonated God the Son and the Virgin Mary in 
the provincial jail. We have had "Pope Isio" in Negros, 
who was in reality the leader of a strong ladrone band, 
and we have had various other popes elsewhere who oc- 
cupied themselves in similar ways. 

Hardly a year passes that miraculous healers do not 
spring into ephemeral existence in the islands, and the 
people invariably flock to them in thousands. Con- 
spicuous among this class of imposters was the "Queen 
of Taytay," whose exploits I have already narrated. 

The belief of the common people in asudng and in the 
black dog which causes cholera has also already been 
mentioned. A very large percentage of them are firmly 
convinced of the efficacy of charms, collectively known as 
anting-anting, supposed to make the bodies of the wear- 
ers proof against bullets or cutting weapons. Within the 
past year a bright young man of Paraiiaque, a town im- 
mediately adjacent to Manila, insisted that a friend should 
strike him with a bolo in order that he might demon- 
strate the virtues of his anting-anting, and received an in- 
jury from which he promptly died. Again and again the 
hapless victims of this particular superstition have gone 
to certain death, firm in the conviction that they could 
not be harmed. 

The worst of it is that even the native press does not 
dare to combat such superstitions, if indeed those who 
control it do not still themselves hold to them. 

La Vanguardia, commonly considered to be the leading 
Filipino paper in the islands, published the following 
account of the event referred to above : — 



946 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

"Basilio Aquino, a native of Paranaque, and Timoteo 
Kariaga, an Iloko residing in Manila, made a bet as to wiiich of 
them had the better anting-anting, and to settle it Kariaga 
allowed himself to be struck twice on the right arm and once 
on the abdomen, but as they say, — Miracle of miracles ! 
Although Aquino used all of his strength and the bolo was ex- 
tremely sharp, ho did not succeed in making the slightest 
scratch on Kariaga. In view of that, Aquino invited his rival 
to submit him to the same test. Kariaga was reluctant to 
do so, for he was sure he would wound Aquino, but the latter 
insisted so much that there was nothing to do liut please him, 
and at the first cut his right arm was almost severed, and he 
died from loss of blood two hours later. The wounded man 
would not report the occurrence to the authorities, but the 
relatives of the victim were compelled to do so in view of his 
tragic end." 

From the report of this occurrence in El Ideal, a paper 
believed to be controlled by Speaker Osmeiia, I quote the 
following : — 

"The trial was made in the presence of a goodly number of 
bystanders, all of them townsmen, connections and friends of 
the actors. 

"Timoteo Kariaga, that being the name of one of the actors, 
an Ilocano resident of Manila, was the first to sulimit to the 
ordeal. His companion and antagonist, named Basiho Aquino, 
from Paraiiaque, bolo in hand, aimed slashes at the former, 
endeavouring to wound him in the arms and abdomen, without 
success, the amulet of Kariaga offering apparently admirable 
resistance in the trial, so that the bolo hardly left a visible 
mark upon his body." 

A very interesting and highly instructive book might 
be vrritten on Fihpino superstitions, but I must here 
confine myself to a few typical illustrations : — 

The following extract from a narrative report of the 
senior constabulary inspector of the island of Leyte, dated 
April 3, 1913, is not without interest. It deals with a 
murder which it describes as follows : — 

"Basiho Tarli had given the bolo thrust that killed the de- 
ceased, with a small fighting bolo belonging to Pastor Lumantal, 
who had given Basilio the bolo for this purpose. The deceased 




A Strange Couple. 
This photograph shows a feast given by a boy of thirteen years and a girl of 
twelve on the anniversarj- of the death of their son. Very early marriages 
are responsible in part for the poor physical development so conmion among 
the Filipinos. 



IS PHILIPPINE INDEPENDENCE NOW POSSIBLE? 947 

had the reputation of being a sort of witch doctor, and Pastor 
thought that his wife, Maria Subior, who was pregnant, had a 
dog or other animal in her womb instead of a child, placed 
there by the deceased. For this reason Pastor arranged with 
Basiho Tarli and Cecilio Cuenzona to kill the deceased." 

Lieutenant George R. F. Cornish, P. C, stationed at 
Catubig in Samar, reported on "Pagloon" as follows 
during August, 1913 : — 

"Pagloon, a method of overcoming certain weak traits in 
children, is practiced by most of the inhabitants of Samar. If, 
for example, a father who is not in the military service, shoots a 
man, superstition has it that his child w\\\ shortly become sick. 
The father, to prevent this, uses a method known as 'pagloon,' 
which, being interpreted, means 'to vaporize,' 'to make 
clean.' He places the stock of the gun that chd the shooting, 
along with a branch of a cocoanut tree that has been sanctified 
in incense by the padre of the Cathohc church in a fire. The 
padre furnishes these incense leaves only once a year. The 
hands are dipped in water and then placed in the smoke. The 
vaporous healing incense that collects on the hands, from placing 
them in the fire, is rubbed on the child from head to foot. This 
operation is repeated three nights in succession and then the 
child ought to be free from any danger." 

Serious trouble was made for men investigating the 
mineral resources of the island of Cebu by the circulation 
of a tale to the effect that they needed the blood of chil- 
dren to pour into cracks in the ground. 

The following is an extract from a narrative report of 
the senior constabulary inspector of Pampanga for 
April, 1913: — 

"April 9. — Between 2 and 3 p.m. in the barrio of San Pedro, 
Manilan, the two sisters (old women) Maria and Matea Manalili 
were cut up with a bolo by Hermogenes Castro of the barrio of 
Santa Catalina of the same town, resulting in the instant death 
of Matea. Maria, whose right hand was cut off, died on the 
21st instant. Castro gave up and on the 10th instant was re- 
manded to the Court of First Instance charged with murder. 
The two sisters were known in the locality as 'mangcuculan,' 
or witches, and were charged by Castro with having cast a spell 



948 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

on him, causing a stiff neck, which spell the sisters refused to 
remove." 

A number of comparatively reputable Filipino physi- 
cians, in the city of Marula itself, have confessed that 
they have to pretend to depend, to some extent, on charms 
and exorcisms, in order to get and keep practice. 

In this connection I quote the following decision of 
the Philippine Supreme Court in the case of the United 
States vs. Mariano Boston, rendered November 23, 1908 
(10 Phihppine Reports, p. 134). 

"The accused in this case was convicted in the Court of 
First Instance of the Province of Pangasinan of the crime of 
abortion as defined and penalized in paragraph 3 of article 410 
of the Penal Code. 

"The guilt of appellant is conclusively established by the 
evidence of record, the testimony of the witnesses for the prose- 
cution lea\ang no room for reasonable doubt, despite the fact 
that there are some inconsistencies and discrepancies in their 
statements. Counsel for appellant insists that the evidence 
does not conclusively establish the fact that he intentionally 
caused the abortion, because there is no evidence in the record 
disclosing the character and medicinal qualities of the potion 
which the accused gave to the mother whose child was aborted. 
The evidence clearly discloses that the child was born three 
months in advance of the full period of gestation; that the 
appellant, either belie^-ing or pretending to believe that the 
child in the womb of the woman was a sort of a fish-demon 
(which he called a balat), gave to her a potion composed of 
herbs, for the purpose of relieving her of this alleged fish-demon ; 
that two hours thereafter she gave premature birth to a child, 
having been taken with the pains of childbirth almost imme- 
diately after drinking the herb potion given her by the appellant ; 
that after the birth of the child the appellant, still believing 
or pretending to believe that the child was a fish-demon which 
had taken upon itself human form, with the permission and aid 
of the husband and the brother of the infant child, destroyed it 
by fire in order to prevent its doing the mischief which the ap- 
pellant believed or affected to believe it was capable of doing. 
These facts constitute, in our opinion, prima facie proof of the 
intent of the accused in giving the herb potion to the mother of 
the child, and also of the further fact that the herb potion so 



IS PHILIPPINE INDEPENDENCE NOW POSSIBLE? 949 

administered to her was the cause of its premature birth. The 
defence wholly failed to rebut this testimony of the prosecution, 
and we are of opinion, therefore, that the trial court properly 
found the defendant guilty of the crime with which he was 
charged beyond a reasonable doubt. 

"The sentence imposed is in strict accord with the penalty 
provided by the code, and should be and is hereby affirmed, 
■nath the costs of this instance against the appellant. So 
ordered." 

It is claimed that the Filipinos are a unit in demanding 
their independence. As a matter of fact, the bulk of the 
common people have little idea what the word really 
means. In this connection the following extract from the 
report of Colonel H. H. Bandholtz, later director of con- 
stabulary, of June 30, 1903, on the bandit Rios, is of inter- 
est : — 

"Rios represented himself to be an inspired prophet and 
found little difficulty in working on the superstitions of the ex- 
tremely ignorant and credulous inhabitants of barrios distant 
from centres of population. So well chd he succeed that he had 
organized what he designated as an 'Exterior Municipal 
Government' (for revenue only) with an elaborate equipment of 
officials. He promoted himself and liis followers in rapid suc- 
cession, until he finally had with him one captain-general, one 
heutenant-general, twenty-five major-generals and fifty briga- 
dier-generals and a host of officers of lower grade. In apprecia- 
tion of his own abilities he appointed himself 'Generalissimo' 
and 'Viceroy' and stated his intention of having himself 
crowned 'King of the Philippines.' Titles like these not 
proving sufficient, he announced himself as 'The Son of God,' 
and dispensed 'anting-antings,' which were guaranteed to make 
the wearer invulnerable to attack. Of the ladrones killed during 
this period, few were discovered who were not wearing one of 
these 'anting-antings.' 

"The dense ignorance and credulity of the followers of Rios 
was clearly shown by the fanatical paraphernaUa captured by 
Captain Murphy, P. C, on March 8, near Infanta. Among 
these was a box, on the cover of which was painted the word 
'Independencia,' and the followers of Rios profoundly beUeved 
that when they had proven themselves worthy the box would 
be opened and the mysterious something called independence 

VOL. II — 2g 



960 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

for which they had so long been fighting could be secured, and 
that when attained there would be no more labour, no taxes, no 
jails, and no Constabulary to disturb their ladrone proclivities. 
"When this mysterious chest was opened it was found to 
contain only some old Spanish gazettes and a few hieroglyphics, 
among which appeared the names and rank of the distinguished 
officials of the organization." 

The affair is typical of an endless series of similar oc- 
currences. 

The ordinary Filipino dearly loves mystery, and 
misses no opportunity to join a secret society. It 
matters little to him what its supposed object may be, 
and that end is, as frequently as anything else, the 
organization of an insurrection. All sorts of fees are 
collected from the ignorant poor by the leaders of such 
movements, who are almost invariably of the educated 
and intelligent classes. At the opportune time they get 
away with the funds, leaving their ignorant followers to 
blunder along until caught and lodged in jail. The 
American government has dealt very gently with such 
poor dupes, most of whom have been released without 
any punishment. Within the past few days ^ I have 
had an interview with an exceptionally intelUgent Filipino 
justice of the peace who sometimes gives me interesting 
information, in the course of which I asked him what 
was going on at present. He laughed and told me that 
the Filipinos in the vicinity of Manila believed that Mr. 
Harrison, the new governor-general, was coming to give 
them independence, and that a lot of smart rascals, who 
pretended to be organizing the army that would be 
necessary to maintain it, were selling officers' commissions 
at a peso each to any one who would buy them, and were 
doing a thriving business. 

Until it ceases to be so readily possible to prey on the 
superstitions, the credulity and the passions of the com- 
mon people, efforts on the part of the Filipinos to estab- 

1 Written September 15, 1913. 



IS PHILIPPINE INDEPENDENCE NOW POSSIBLE? 951 

lish and maintain unaided a stable government are not 
likely to be crowned with very abundant success. 

In general it may be said of the Filipino that he is 
quick to learn, but needs a teacher ; is quick to follow, but 
needs a leader. He is ready to do the things he is taught 
to do. He accepts discipline, orders, rules. He has a 
great respect for constituted authority. He lacks initia- 
tive and sound judgment. 

Let Americans beware of judging the Filipino peoples 
by the men with from one-half to thirty-one thirty-seconds 
of white blood, who so often have posed as their repre- 
sentatives. 

More important than the interrelations of the several 
Christian peoples inter se are those between the several 
Christian peoples on the one hand and the non-Christian 
tribes on the other. This subject has already been dis- 
cussed at length, so I will limit myself to a brief summary 
statement. 

The Filipinos dislike and despise the non-Christians. 
They take advantage of their ignorance and helplessness 
to rob or cheat them of the fruits of their labour, and often 
hold them as slaves or peons. The non-Christians in turn 
hate them, and the more warlike wild tribes do not hesitate 
to take vengeance on them when opportunity offers. 
The Filipinos as a whole are afraid of the Moros, and with 
good reason. The Moros frankly assert that if a Filipino 
government were established, they would resume their 
long-abandoned conquest of the archipelago, and this 
they would certainly do. Although the non-Christians 
are numerically few, as compared with the Christians, 
they are potentially important because they have the 
power to make an amount of trouble- wholly dispropor- 
tionate to their numbers. The Filipinos could not rule 
them successfully, and the probable outcome of any 
attempt on their part to control them would be the 
inauguration of a pohcy of extermination similar to that 
v/hich Japan is following with certain of the hill men of 



952 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

Formosa. Because of the inaccessible nature of the 
country inhabited by many of the Phihppine wild tribes, 
they would be able to hold their own for many years, and 
there would result a condition similar to that which has 
prevailed for so long in Achin, while the Moros with their 
abihty to take to the sea and suddenly strike unpro- 
tected places would cause endless suffering and loss of hfe. 

Under the Spanish regime the penalty which followed 
a too Uberal use of "free speech" was very hkely to be a 
sudden and involuntaiy trip to the other world. There 
was no such thing as a free press. A very strict censorship 
was constantly exercised over all the newspapers. The 
things that are now said and wTitten daily without attract- 
ing much attention would at that time have cost the 
Uberty or the Uves of those who voiced them. 

It is hardly to be wondered at that an Oriental people 
which had never had a free press or liberty of speech 
should have mistaken liberty, when it finally came, for 
license, and have gone to extremes which conclusively 
demonstrated their initial unfitness properly to utihze 
their new privileges. 

Governor-General Smith once told a delegation of 
leading Filipinos that it was all very well to have freedom 
of speech and of the press in a country ruled by the 
United States government, which was strong enough 
to maintain order in the face of manifold difficulties, 
but that if the islands ever secured their independence 
the first official act of those in power should be to do away 
with the one and the other, for the reason that such a 
government as they would estabhsh could not exist if 
either continued. 

While the curtailing of freedom of speech or of the press 
under American civil rule is almost unthinkable, it is 
nevertheless true that the attitude of many of the poh- 
ticians who do the talking, and who control the native 
press, has been poisonous. 

A very intelUgent student of Philippine affairs has 



IS PHILIPPINE INDEPENDENCE NOW POSSIBLE? 953 

truly said that nothing more is necessary to demonstrate 
the present unreadiness of the country for self-government 
than a careful study of the attitude of the native press 
toward important pubhc questions. From the beginning 
until nowthere has been one long and almost uninterrupted 
series of hes, innuendoes, sneers and diabohcally ingenious 
misrepresentations. Practically every important policy 
of the government has been viciously attacked, and the 
worst of it is that the people primarily responsible for this 
are not honest, or misled. They know perfectly well what 
they are doing and why they are doing it. They em- 
bitter that portion of the coimnon people who are reached 
by newspapers at all, and doubtless many of their dupes 
really believe that the established govermnent is a rotten 
farce, and that its highest officials are steeped in iniquity. 

Certainly no people are more skilful than are the Filipino 
politicians in pretending to write one thing with the 
certainty that another and very different one will be 
read between the hues. In the matter of libel, they are 
adepts at skating on thin ice. Rare indeed is the occur- 
rence of a decent attitude on the part of any native news- 
paper toward any important pubhc question.^ 

The historA' of the municipal and provincial governments 
is worthy of very careful consideration. 

' The editor of an American newspaper published at Zamboanga 
has accurately described the attitude of the native press as follows : — 

"We have often referred to the great opportunity prevailing for 
the native press of the Philippines to aid the material and political 
uplift of the inhabitants. Conditions of race and dialect naturally 
conduce to facilitate this work for the native journalist. With few 
exceptions^ however, the nativ'e press has persistently obstructed every 
effort toward general amelioration of the condition of the masses. 
Conspicuous efficiency in good government has furnished a target for 
its denunciation. Truth has been garbled, motives maligned, race 
hatred kindled, falsehood fabricated and sedition practised, encouraged 
and lauded. The public school system, the intrinsic foundation to 
free institutions, instituted under the military regime and constantly 
expanded under the civil regime, has been interpreted by the native 
press as a pernicious effort to oppress the masses by the enforcement of 
a foreign language upon them. The efforts to stamp out cattle disease 



954 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

It has been found necessary to exercise close supervision 
over them in order to correct a constant tendency on the 
part of those having authority to abuse it. 

Practically all the time of three lawyers in the executive 
bureau is taken up in examining evidence and reports 
of administrative investigations of charges against munici- 
pal officials and justices of the peace, of whom about two 
hundred are found guilty each year. Half that number 
are removed from office. One of the commonest charges 
against these officers is "abuse of authority," and one of 
the most difficult and endless tasks of the American ad- 
ministrative officers is to impress on the elective native 
official a sense of obligation toward his "inferiors," that 
is, the plain people who elected him. 

He expects obsequiousness and even servility, and if 
they are lacking, endeavours to get square.^ 

and for the restoration of draft animals huxe been maligned as being op- 
pressive to personal liberty. The sanitary measures which have so reno- 
vated the very atmosphere of the archipelago have ever been the mark 
of derision and violent attack. When cholera and plague have claimed 
their hundreds daily, efforts at prevention have persistently met with 
opposition from the native press. Officials with the most unselfish 
motives have been persistently insulted, slandered and maligned. 
The American flag, which is the only emblem giving assurance of safety 
in the home, peace from abroad, liberty of opportunity, and equality 
and justice before the law, has been constantly smeared with the oppro- 
brium of a malignant, filthy native press. Progress of the Philippine 
people as a whole is retarded." 

' On March 1.5, 191.3, the Assistant Executive Secretary had occa- 
sion to write the foUoTving letter to the Governor of Capiz : — 

" My Dear Governor AlT-^v.^s : I have to acknowledge receipt 
of your communication of the 28th ultimo, complaining against the 
Justices of the Peace of Jamindan and Tapaz for failing 'to salute' j'ou 
when visiting said towns, although your visits were frequently an- 
nounced in advance, and the Justices of the Peace were in town at 
the time. 

"The theoretical principles of democracy prevailing under this 
government do not require such courtesies as a matter of law. It 
may be that, as your letter intimates, the .Justice of the Peace should, 
as a matter of courtesy, call on you when you are in his town, but failure 
to do so in no wise constitutes ground for complaint, and were we 
to take your complaint seriously and cause it to be investigated, we 
would be indeed in serious danger of receiving a lecture on democracy 



I' 



^4 



mm 




A Member of the C.iBARCAN Tkinitt. 

This man impersonated Christ at the time a new religious sect established its 
headquarters at Cabaruan, Paugasinin. Nevertheless he got into jail for 
cattle stealing. 



IS PHILIPPINE INDEPENDENCE NOW POSSIBLE? 955 

Surely I have given enough illustrations of the ferocious 
brutahty with which Filipino officials treated the common 
people in the days of the "Republic." Such brutahty 
would again be in evidence were there to be any failure to 
hold officers strictly accountable. 

The following case, called to my attention by a rehable 
American woman, illustrates the fact that provincial 
governors are sometimes swayed by other than humani- 
tarian motives : — • 

"In 1902 when I was living at Capiz, a very pretty little 
fellow, a child of 7 or 8, often came begging to my house. 
Finally he ceased to come and I saw nothing of him for several 
months. Then I met him one morning, stone blind, his eyes in 
frightful condition. I made inquiry and learned that the people 
with whom he lived (liis parents were dead) not finding him a 
remunerative investment had decided that he must be made 
more pitiful looking to Ijring in good returns as a beggar. So 
they filled his eyes with lime and held his head in a tub of water. 
I took the child to the Governor (the late Hugo Vidal) to make 
complaint. The Governor listened to my storj-, and then ex- 
claimed, 'You are mistaken. I have known this child for years 
and he has been Hke this all the time.' The local sanitary chief 
agreed with him, and I was forced to give up all hope of having 
the inhuman wretches that had tortured the child punished." 

The attitude of provincial and municipal officials toward 
very necessary sanitary measures has often been exceed- 
ingly unfortunate. 

In 1910 the officials of the town of Bautista, Pangasinan, 
voted to have a fiesta, in spite of the fact that the health 
authorities had informed them that this could not be 
done safely, owing to the existence of cholera in the 

from either the Judge of the Court of First Instance or the Justice of 
the Peace himself. 

"I believe that, under the circumstances, the best course to be 
taken in the matter would be for you to withdraw the complaint, for 
even if the Justices concerned admit the charges, no administrative 
action against them would be possible. 

" Very sincerely, 

(Signed) " Thomas Cart Welch 
(Active Executive Secretary) " 



956 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

neighbouring towns. The town council preferred the 
merry-making to tlie protection of the hves of the people, 
and voted to disregard the warnings of the Bureau of 
Health, with the result that several of the neighbouring 
municipalities were infected with cholera, and many 
Hves were needlessly lost. The governor of the province, 
himself a Filipino, was lax in attention to duty in this 
instance or the town council would have been suspended 
before, instead of after, this action on its part. 

For a long time municipal pohcemen were commonly 
utiUzed as servants by the town officials, and were nearly 
useless for actual pohce work. To put firearms into their 
hands was little better than to present them outright to 
the ladrones. At present the constabulary exercise a 
considerable amount of control over municipal police, 
and there has resulted very material improvement in 
their appearance, disciphne and effectiveness. 

Municipal councils in the majority of cases voted all 
of the town money for salaries, leaving nothing for 
maintenance of public buildings, roads and public works, 
with the result that streets in the very centres of towns 
became impassable even for foot passengers. They were 
often indescribably filthy, cluttered with all sorts of waste 
material, and served as a meeting ground for all the horses, 
cattle, dogs, pigs, hens and goats of the neighbourhood. 

In many instances, the first use made of their newly 
acquired powers by provincial governors and municipal 
presidents was to persecute in all sorts of petty ways those 
who had opposed their election, while the latter displayed 
marked disinclination to accept the will of the majority. 

It is not to be expected that the FiUpino should under- 
stand modern democratic government. Where could he 
have obtained knowledge of it ? Under Spanish rule he 
saw officials habitually enriching themselves at the ex- 
pense of the communities they were supposed to govern. 
He saw a government of privilege where the work of the 
many benefited the few. How could he have gained 



IS PHILIPPINE INDEPENDENCE NOW POSSIBLE? 957 

experience in modem and enlightened administration 
for the benefit of the people rather than for the benefit 
of the administrators? Not only must there be knowl- 
edge on the part of officials that this is the proper way to 
govern, but there must be a demand on the part of the 
people for such a government, and until the people 
know and understand that such a government is their 
right there will be no such demand. There is not yet a 
suflScient proportion of the Filipino people literate to 
make approval or disapproval felt. 

Incidentally it should be remembered that in the 
Philippine Islands any provincial or municipal officer may 
be suspended by the governor-general, or removed for 
failure properly to perform his duties, for disloyalty, or 
for other causes. The provincial governors also hold the 
same power over the municipal presidents. Existing 
conditions are therefore not comparable with those which 
would arise without such control. I would as soon say 
that an automobile could go without a driver because it 
runs fairly well when there is a driver directing it as that 
the administration of the municipalities and provinces 
of the Philippine Islands would go as well as it now does 
under a system which does not pro\ade for strong central 
control. It is one thing to administer when you are care- 
fully supervised, and when the power of removal is held 
directly over you by a superior officer watching your 
every move, and another to administer equally well when 
the reins are not firmly held. 

Serious consideration must be given to another group 
of facts in considering the fitness of the FiUpinos for in- 
dependence. It is undeniably true that they have pro- 
gressed much further in ci\'ilization than has any other 
group of peoples of Malayan origin. It is just as in- 
dubitable that their development has not been a natural 
evolution, but has resulted from steady pressure brought 
to bear during three and a half centuries by Spain, and 
during the last decade and a half by the United States. 



958 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

What would happen were this pressure removed ? One 
may judge, within hmits, from what has happened where 
it has been removed. Take, for instance, Cagayancillo, 
which is an isolated town on a small island southwest of 
Panay. Here the Spanish friar was the sole representative 
of governmental authority in bygone days. Cagayancillo 
was then a thriving town, with a strong stone fort for 
defense against the Moros, a beautiful, large church with 
splendid wood carvings ornamenting its interior, and a 
fine masonry convento of most original architecture, 
with long rows of giant clam shells embedded in its 
outer walls. There were a good municipal building and a 
stone schoolhouse, also excellent for their day. I first 
visited the place shortly after Palawan was made a 
province under civil rule. No priest had been there for 
three years. The town and its inhabitants reeked with 
filth. The wits of the two or three exceptionally inteUigent 
men of the place were befogged with opium. The church 
and convento were falling into ruin. The fort had already 
gone to the bad. The presidencia^ was a wreck, and so 
was the schoolhouse. There were no teachers for the 
children. The people were rapidly lapsing into barbarism. 
In 1910 I visited the town of Malaueg, situated in the 
province of Cagayan. It was one of the first mission 
stations in northern Luzon. I found there the walls of 
an immense church and convento. These walls were 
approximately forty inches thick, and were intact, though 
roofs and floors had disappeared, in part from decay and 
in part from the steaUng of the boards. Over the door 
of the church was a thick hardwood beam on which were 
carved in raised letters Spanish words signifying that the 
church was rebuilt in 1650. The walls of Manila were 
built about 1590. When was this church constructed 
to require rebuilding sixty years later ? And what must 
then have been the size of the town which* furnished the 
necessary hands to erect such a huge structure ? 
■ Municipal building. 



IS PHILIPPINE INDEPENDENCE NOW POSSIBLE? 959 

The Spanish friar in charge had left during the revolu- 
tion against Spain some time subsequent to 1896, and 
as a result the town had gone to pieces after so many 
centuries of life. Nothing remained but a small collec- 
tion of grass huts. The men had reverted to the breech- 
clout, and were again adopting the head-axe. Many of 
them had already taken to the mountains. 

The Spaniards compelled Filipinos to live in towns, 
or at least to have houses there. Under our form of 
government we allow them to do as they please, with the 
result that in provinces hke Palawan our utmost efforts 
do not avail to keep them from forsaking settlements 
and scattering out through inaccessible mountain regions, 
where they are rapidly gravitating back to the state of 
barbarism from which they originally emerged. I might 
multiply instances of this sort of thing. 

In the early days of civil government the commission 
in many instances combined municipahties w'hich lay 
immediately adjacent to each other and could readily 
enough be administered from a common governmental 
centre. This action was taken in the interest of economy, 
and in the belief that the resulting saving in salaries would 
make possible the employment of more school-teachers, 
and the construction of better school buildings. 

In many, if not most, cases such fusion of municipali- 
ties proved a mistake. The town which happened to 
become the new seat of government prospered. There 
were spent the taxes collected in the other formerly 
independent centres of population, which, deprived of 
then- autoridades} promptly became insanitary, disorderly 
and unprogressive. 

I am firmly convinced that the Filipinos are where they 
are to-day only because they have been pushed into 
Une, and that if outside pressure were relaxed they would 
steadily and rapidly deteriorate. 

It is not necessary that there should be much retro- 
' Literally "authorities," by which is meant municipal oflScials. 



960 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

gression to cause serious trouble. I have discussed the 
character and attitude of the present FiUpino legislative 
body. I have shown indubitably what sort of a govern- 
ment the Filipinos themselves established while they had 
a free hand. I agree absolutely with Blount's contention 
that they would again establish precisely the same sort of 
a government if left to their own devices. There would 
follow, first aggression against the property of foreigners, 
and then attacks upon their persons, which would not only 
excuse, but would necessitate, intervention by other 
governments to protect their citizens. Some of the more 
inteUigent FiUpino leaders would set their faces against 
such conduct as firmly as they did during the rule of the 
so-called Insurgent government, but now, as then, would be 
powerless to restrain either the more unprincipled among 
the intelligent, or the great body of the ignorant rank and 
file, and nothing more than a fairly plausible excuse would 
be needed to start the ball of foreign intervention rolling. 

Many Americans may, in their present deep igno- 
rance of the value of their most recently acquired 
possessions, agree with that distinguished representative 
who announced on the floor of the House of Representa- 
tives that the Philippines were "a lemon," but agents and 
spies of Japan have worked throughout the entire archi- 
pelago and she knows better. England and Germany 
have had their business men in the islands for many 
years, and they know better also. 

The Filipinos are not yet fit to govern themselves, 
much less to govern the Moros and other non-Christian 
tribes, even if let alone, and they would not be let alone 
should we turn their country over to them. 

Philippine independence is not a present possibility, nor 
will it be possible for at least two generations. Indeed, 
if by the end of a century we have welded into a people 
the descendants of the composite and complex group of 
human beings who to-day inhabit the islands, we shall 
have no cause to feel ashamed of our success. 



CHAPTER XXXVII 
What Then? 

It has been urged by one class of our citizens that 
we abandon the islands because they are a source of miU- 
tary weakness, and that we guarantee their independence, 
which in plain Enghsh means that we hold ourselves ready 
to fight for them ! They insist that with our Caucasian 
origin and our years of hard-earned experience, we are not 
fit to govern them, but that their Filipino inhabitants, 
who are the Malayan savages of the sixteenth century, plus 
what Spain has taught them, plus what they have so re- 
cently learned from us, are fit to govern themselves and 
must be allowed to do so under our protection. 

In other words, having brought up a child who is at 
present rather badly spoiled, we are to saj' to the family 
of nations: "Here is a boy who must be allowed to 
join you. We have found that we are unfit to control 
him, but we hope that he will be good. You must not 
spank him unless you want to fight us." 

It has been suggested that we get other nations to agree 
to the neutrahzation of the islands. WTiy should they ? 
Are we prepared to offer them any tangible inducements, 
or do we believe that the millennium has arrived and that 
they are actuated by purely altruistic motives in such 
matters ? 

Blount quotes with approval the following statement 
of Secretary William Jennings Br>'an : — 

"There is a wide difference, it is true, between the general 
intelligence of the educated Filipino and the labourer on the 
street and in the field, but this is not a barrier to self-govern- 
ment. Intelligence controls in every government, except where 

961 



962 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

it is suppressed by military force. Nine-tenths of the Japanese 
have no part in the law-making. In Mexico, the gap between 
the educated classes and the peons is fully as great as, if not 
greater than, the gap between the extremes of Filipino society. 
Those who question the capacity of the Filipinos for self- 
government forget that patriotism raises up persons fitted for 
the work that needs to be done." ' 

This sounds well, but will it bear analysis ? We are 
now being furnished a practical demonstration of the 
results achieved by people like the Mexicans when they 
attempt to conduct a so-called republic. Whether the 
gap between the extremes of Mexican society is as great 
as that between the extremes of Filipino society depends 
on what one includes under the latter term. If one limits 
it to the Christianized natives, the statement quoted 
is true. If one includes the non-Christians which con- 
stitute an eighth of the population, it is not true. 

Would the United States care to assume responsibility 
for conditions in Mexico without any power to exercise 
control over the government of that country? Those 
who demand that we guarantee the independence of the 
Philippines are advocating a thing precisely similar to 
this, except that torture and burying alive do not seem to 
be in vogue in Mexico, and would be practised in the 
Philippines again, as they have been in the recent past. 

Can any one fail to grasp the fact that the following 
statements of Bishop Brent embody solid common sense ? 

"Finally it must be recognized that the Philippine problem 
cannot be settled without reference to its international bearing. 
Neutrahzation has been proposed. But can American or any 
other diplomacy secure the neutraUty of the Powers? Would 
it mean anything if promises of neutrality were made? Is it 
not so, that though no existing military power. East or West, 
would fight America in order to secure possession of the Philip- 
pines, there are at least two nations which would seize the first 
opportunity for interference if American sovereignty ceased? 
Can America afford to protect a government halfway round the 
worldj which she does not actually and constructively control ? 

' Blount, pp. 296-297. 



'^r^'^W^ 




A Typical Um-aTVLh. l'i!u\ ixti.vL (.iu\ lknment Building. 




A Modern- Provincial Government Building. 



WHAT THEN? 963 

She has found it difficult enough with one near at hand. It 
appears to me that it would be a measure of quixotry beyond the 
most altruistic administration, to stand sponsor for the order of 
an experimental government of more than doubtful stability 
ten thousand miles from our coasts. AVhen the Pliihppines 
achieve independence they must swallow the bitter with the 
sweet, and accept the perils as well as the joys of walking alone. 
There are national risks involved even in a limited protectorate 
to which I trust America will never expose herself." 

We stoutly asserted in 1899 that the Filipinos were not 
fit to govern their own country, and this was certainly then 
true. If in the short space of fifteen years, with leaders 
who have so recently committed almost incredible bar- 
barities still in the saddle, we had rendered them fit, we 
should have performed the most wonderful political miracle 
that the world has ever seen. But the age of miracles has 
long since passed. While the Filipinos have advanced more 
in the last fifteen years than during any previous century 
of their history, what they have gained is by no means in- 
grained in their character, and they yet have far to go. 
It is our duty and our privilege to guide and help them 
on their way. We should hold steadily onward disregard- 
ing the hostility and the murmurings of selfish politicians, 
and looking hopefully to the future for substantial results 
from the broad and generous policy which we have thus 
far followed. 

Many of the politicians want independence under a 
United States protectorate, by which they mean that their 
country shall be turned over to them to do with as they 
please, with a fleet of American warships lying conven- 
iently near to see that they are not interfered with w'hile 
thus engaged. It would be the height of folly for us to 
enter into any such arrangement. 

We must help the Filipinos to attain for their country 
commercial prosperity, so that its revenues may be more 
adequate for the support of government. Before com- 
mercial prosperity can exist, the people must learn to em- 
ploy modern agricultural methods and modern machinery 



9G4 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

in bringing considerable portions of the present enor- 
mous uncultivated areas of fertile land to a state of 
productivity. 

We must set right standards and insist that they be 
lived up to. The way to stimulate healthful develop- 
ment of the Filipinos is to let the apples hang high and 
make them climb for them, not to tell them to hold their 
hats and shake the tree. 

This policy of setting right standards has already been 
very successfully pursued in the education of Filipino 
doctors, Fihpino nurses, FiUpino surveyors, Filipino 
printers and Filipino teachers. 

A Filipino should never be appointed to public office 
merely because he is a Filipino, the clamour of politicians 
to the contrary notwithstanding. He should be ap- 
pointed only if, and because, he is fit. Such a policy, 
unswervingly followed, will do more to promote the 
real interests of the civilized inhabitants than will 
all the concessions that could be made in a thousand 
years. 

And what have we ever gained by concessions to Fili- 
pino politicians ? Can any one point out a single instance 
in which they have aroused that feeling of gratitude, or 
even that sense of obligation, which may fully justify the 
adoption of measures that would otherwise be of doubt- 
ful utility ? No ! 

This fact is well illustrated by the attitude of the poli- 
ticians toward the Jones Bill providing for the establish- 
ment of the Philippine republic on July 4, 1913 and in- 
dependence in 1920. 

Hardly were its terms known in Manila when various 
politicians announced that the Filipinos did not want 
to wait until 1920, they wanted independence right 
then! 

An editorial in the number of Speaker Osmena's paper. 
El Ideal, for March 19, 1913, contains the following sig- 
nificant sentence : — 



WHAT THEN? 965 

"We accept the test to which the Jones Bill subjects us, be- 
cause we have full confidence in ourselves. Afterward, we shall 
do what is most expedient for us." ' 

Gratitude does not enter into the make-up of the aver- 
age Filipino poHtician, and we must learn not to expect it. 
We must do what ought to be done because it ought to 
be done, and not look for appreciation to a small but 
very noisy body of men who curse us for standing between 
them and their prey, as we have stood from the day when 
Dewey first forbade Aguinaldo to steal cattle until now. 

It is just as easy to win the gratitude and the affection 
of the common people of the lowlands as it has proved to be 
in the case of the wild men of the hills, but if we are to 
do this there must be a radical departure from the present 
policy, and we must deal with them directly. 

In this connection it is instructive to study the career 
of James R. Fugate, Lieutenant-Governor, by appoint- 
ment, of the sub-province of Siquijor. In spite of 
wretched health, he has done work of which he and his 
country have just cause to be proud. No one can fully 
appreciate it who does not know conditions as they were 
when he went there and as they are to-day. Siquijor has 
been converted into a checkerboard by good roads and 
trails where formerly there did not exist decent means of 
communication. Dysentery and typhoid fever ravaged 
the island during each recurring dry season when drinking 
water was almost unobtainable in many places, and what 
could be found was really unfit for human use. There are 
now fine public baths in the towns. Beautiful drinking 
fountains for men and animals are to be seen, not only in 
the larger centres of population, but along many of the 
principal highways. 

Municipal officials have been taught their duties and 
perform them well. A complete telephone system con- 
nects the lieutenant-governor's office with all parts of 
the island. Siquijor was formerly completely isolated from 

1 This is a rather open tlireat to fight. 

VOL. II — 2 H 



966 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

the outside world, but now has cable communication. 
Fine schools have been established, and swarm with chil- 
dren. The man who has brought about all this is beloved 
by the people whom he has helped and protected. They 
cannot bear the thought of his leaving them. What is the 
explanation of this phenomenon, when the inhabitants 
of many parts of the islands seem to remain unmoved by 
the many advantages which they now enjoy, and murmur 
against those to whom they are indebted for them ? The 
answer is simple. Mr. Fugate speaks Visayan about as 
well as he does English, and there have been no inter- 
mediaries between him and his people, who consequently 
understand that they owe to him the benefits which they 
have received. 

Certain evil pohticians of Negros Occidental, whom he 
robbed of their spoils, attacked him with characteristic 
persistency and ingenuity. A young man of clean life, he 
was accused of adultery and of seduction of minors. Al- 
though he could at any time have had a better position at 
higher compensation ; although he gave much of his in- 
adequate salary to the poor and defenceless ; although he 
carried on pubUc works at a fraction of the cost of similar 
undertakings in neighbouring provinces, he was charged 
with profiting by government contracts and with the mal- 
versation of funds of the sub-province. All of these at- 
tacks failed miserably. His real offence was that he had 
stayed the hand of the oppressor, and let the people go free. 

In many, if not in most, of the Christian provinces we 
have utilized the services of Filipino politicians who are 
openly opposed to the policy which we are endeavouring 
to carry out, and have thus placed between ourselves 
and the people a screen of shrewd and hostile men who 
can communicate with them as we cannot, who play upon 
their ignorance and their prejudices as we would not if 
we could, who keep them firm in the belief that all their 
troubles are due to the * ' mucho malo gobierno Americano, " ^ 
1 Corrupt Spanish for "very bad American Government." 



WHAT THEN? 967 

and that all the advantages which they enjoy have been 
wrung from the unwilling and unjust Americans by the 
courage and political ingenuity of the local politicos. 
For this condition of things we have ourselves to thank, 
and these are the men who would be governors under 
' ' self-government . ' ' 

When the Federal Party was formed, a large number of 
conservative Filipinos came out into the open and risked 
their Uves to aid in the termination of war and brigandage, 
and the establishment of peace and tranquillity. At the 
outset we rewarded many of those who escaped assassina- 
tion by appointing them to pubhc offices which they 
seemed fit to fill. In a few instances we even helped the 
families of those who sacrificed their Uves to the cause of 
law and order. A little later, anxious to show that we 
were willing to let bygones be bygones, political offices, 
so far as they were within the gift of the government, were 
distributed practically without regard to the previous 
political records of the recipients. In taking this high 
attitude we assumed that the generous treatment thus 
accorded our late enemies would be appreciated by them 
and would win us their confidence and cooperation. We 
showed our ignorance of the men with whom we were 
dealing when we allowed ourselves to expect such a re- 
sult. They interpreted our generosity as an evidence of 
fear, and each new concession has served only to whet their 
appetites. For years we gave profitable government 
advertising to vicious publications which never for a mo- 
ment ceased to attack us. If there is any one lesson 
which should have been brought home to us by our experi- 
ence it is that in the Philippine Islands this sort of thing 
does not work as yet. In this, as in most other countries, 
there are just two political parties, to wit, the "ins" and 
the "outs." PubUc office is ardently desired by a large 
percentage of the educated Filipinos who dearly love to 
exercise authority, and will do without scruple what seems 
necessary to get it. 



968 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

We have gone too fast and too far in conferring on the 
people power to elect their officers. A larger percentage 
of the public offices should have remained appointive, and 
should have been filled either with Americans or with Fili- 
pinos of recognized ability who were really in favoiu- of the 
policy which the government was carrying out. Open 
and active opposition to that policy should have been 
made ground for prompt removal from office. The men 
who risked their lives to help us were entitled to recogni- 
tion and reward, and to the protection which the know- 
ledge that such recognition is being accorded gives in a 
country like the Phifippines. Left out in the cold, they 
turned against us when they saw om* political enemies 
filling fat offices, and why not ? Such a course was safer 
and more popular, and they thought that we might then 
be willing to buy their allegiance, judging by our deafings 
with others ! 

It has been claimed that the intelligent, highly edu- 
cated class are a unit for independence. Nothing could 
be further from the truth, but it would be uncommonly 
hard at present to prove this fact. 

Some time since, I sat beside a very distinguished Fili- 
pino at a public banquet. He made a speech in which he 
expressed the conviction that independence in the near 
future would be a most desirable thing. When he sat 
down I said to him, "What would you do if you got it?" 
His reply was, "Be still ! I would take the first steamer 
for Hongkong!" His attitude is typical of that of a 
large group of opportunists. 

There is a considerable body of inteUigent, conserva- 
tive Filipinos who believe, as do the vast majority of 
well-informed Americans, that independence at this time 
would be an unmitigated curse in that it would neces- 
sarily be temporary, would result in grave disturbances 
of public order, would bring foreign intervention and the 
occupation of the islands by some nation with purposes 
far less altruistic than ours, and would put the possi- 




c 3 

"B. cs 



9 -i '2 



■f f- — 



WHAT THEN? 969 

bility of real, permanent independence off until a time so 
remote as to be far beyond the range of our present vision. 
These men will state their attitude freely in private con- 
versation with those in whom they have confidence, but 
hardly one of them has the courage to go on record. 
Why should they? We have seen that in the old days 
those who opposed the views of Aguinaldo and his asso- 
ciates were given short shrift and that thousands of them 
were murdered in cold blood, while those who actively 
opposed the American military and civil governments 
were \\-ithout exception freely pardoned when further 
opposition became impossible, unless guilty of crimes of 
the gravest character. Nay, more. Under the amnesty 
proclamation there were turned loose from BiUbid Prison 
hundreds of murderers, some of whom had taken the 
lives of scores of human beings. Little attention has been 
paid at any time to the violation, by FUipinos, of their 
oaths of allegiance to the United States, and now, when 
we discover one of the periodic incipient insurrections 
frequently organized by intelligent natives for the sole 
purpose of wringing hard-earned pesos from the peasant 
class, we seldom punish severely even the vicious leaders. 
It is idle to suppose that these facts are lost upon the 
conservative FiUpinos. They know that if independence 
does not come no punishment will be meted out' to them 
for remaining neutral, or even for actively advocating it, 
but that if it does come, and they have opposed it, ven- 
geance swift, sure and dire ■nail smite them. They are 
afraid, and they have the best of reasons to be afraid, 
because we have annoxmced no definite policy. Let it 
be authoritatively stated that American sovereignty 
will be maintained in these islands for a long period and 
those who actually beUeve that there is not a strong ele- 
ment among the Filipinos who favour such a course will 
get a real surprise. 

At present, however, our ears are deafened by the 
clamour of the noisy politicians, who claim to represent 



970 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

"the Filipino people." In this connection Bishop 
Brent has pertinently observed : — 

"If desire implied ability, the clamor for independence on 
the part of the Filipinos, which just now is more widespread 
then at any time in their history, would be the signal for o\xc 
withdrawal, but only their achievements can determine their 
abihty." 

Before we can safely declare the Filipinos ready to 
try the great experiment of self-government we must 
bring them to the place where they no longer regard bandit 
leaders as popular heroes but are able and determined to 
maintain a state of pubUc order such that life and prop- 
erty will be safe. We must wean them from their present 
hostility toward legitimate foreign business interests. 
We must teach them that agriculture comes before art ; 
that a public office is a public trust ; that the enormous 
potential wealth of their forests is worth preserving ; 
that the poor Filipino must be encouraged to own and till 
his own land, not held as a slave or peon. We must go 
on training physicians, surgeons and sanitarians so that 
the pubUc health may be adequately protected and 
individual suffering relieved. We must be sure that our 
wards have developed the understanding and courage 
necessary successfully to oppose the great waves of epi- 
demic disease which constantly threaten their country 
from without. We must train up Fihpino engineers, 
to-day almost completely lacking, in sufficient numbers 
to make possible the construction of the pubfic works 
needed in future and the maintenance of those which 
already exist. 

There must be chemists and bacteriologists to do the 
routine work of the government, to make the investiga- 
tions necessary to safeguard the lives of the people, and to 
faciUtate the development of the resources of the country. 
Finally, there must be a sufficiency of just judges, of 
honourable lawyers, of able administrators, and of legis- 



WHAT THEN? 971 

lators unswayed by the childish motives which so often 
influence those of to-day. 

Most important of all, we must bring the Filipino 
people to the place where they can go on properly teach- 
ing their children and their youths. 

The day when all this will have been done of necessity 
lies far in the future, and if, when contemplating this fact, 
we sometimes grow weary, we should remember that the 
task, though a mighty and unprecedented one, is well 
worthy of the best energies of a great nation. It can 
never be accomplished through partisan politics. 

In considering our duty to the Filipinos let us not for- 
get the fate of him "who putteth his hand to the plough 
and turneth back." The old, old rule applies to nations 
as well as to individuals. 

We are giving the Filipinos a fair chance to develop 
every latent ability wliich they possess. In the very 
nature of the case, their future lies, and must Ue, wholly 
with them. There is no royal road to real independence, 
much less is there any short cut. Our Filipino wards 
must tread the same long, weary path that has been trod- 
den by every nation that has heretofore attained to good 
government. 

The case has been admh-ably stated by that dis- 
tinguished gentleman who to-day occupies the highest post 
within the gift of the American people. He has said : — 

" There is profound truth in Sir Henry Maine's remark that 
the men who colonized America and made its governments, to 
the admiration of the world, could never have thus masterfully 
taken charge of their own affairs and combined stability with 
liberty in the process of absolute self-government if they 
had not sprung of a race habituated to submit to law and 
authority, if their fathers had not been subjects of kings, if the 
stock of which they came had not served the long apprentice- 
ship of political childhood during which law was law without 
choice of their own. 

"Self-government is not a mere form of institutions, to be 
had when desired, if only proper pains be taken. It is a form 



972 THE PHILIPPINES PAST AND PRESENT 

of character. It follows upon the long discipline which gives a 
people self-possession, self-mastery, the habit of order and peace 
and common counsel, and a reverence for law which will not 
fail when they themselves become the makers of law ; the steadi- 
ness and self-control of political maturity. And these things 
cannot be had without long discipline. 

"The distinction is of vital concern to us in respect of prac- 
tical choices of policy which we must make, and make very 
soon. We have dependencies to deal with and must deal with 
them in the true spirit of our own institutions. We can give 
the Filipinos constitutional government, a government which 
they may count upon to be just, a government based upon some 
clear and equitable imderstanding, intended for their good and 
not for our aggrandizement ; but we must ourselves for the 
present supply that government. It would, it is true, be an 
imprecedented operation, reversing the process of Runnymede, 
but America has before this showii the world enlightened 
processes of politics that were without precedent. It would 
have been within the choice of John to summon his l>arons to 
Runnymede and of his own initiative enter into a constitutional 
understanding with them ; and it is within our choice to do a 
similar thing, at once wise and generous, in the government 
of the Philippine Islands. But we cannot give them self-gov- 
ernment. Self-government is not a thing that can be 'given' 
to any people, because it is a form of character and not a form 
of constitution. No people can be 'given' the self-control of 
maturity. Only a long apprenticeship of obedience can secure 
them the precious possession, a thing no more to be bought than 
given. They cannot be presented with the character of a com- 
munity, but it may confidently be hoped that thej' will become 
a community under the wholesome and salutary influences of 
just laws and a sympathetic administration ; that they will after 
a while understand and master themselves, if in the meantime 
they are understood and served in good conscience by those 
set over them in authority. 

" We of all people in the world should know these fundamental 
things and should act upon them, if only to illustrate the mas- 
tery in politics which belongs to us of hereditary right. To 
ignore them would be not only to fail and fail miserably, but 
to fail ridiculously and behe ourselves. Having ourselves 
gained self-government by a definite process which can have no 
substitute, let us put the peoples dependent upon us in the 
right way to gain it also." ' 

' " Constitutional Government in the United States," by Woodrow 
Wilson, Ph.D., LL.D., pp. 52-53. 




A Possible iJFFicE-noLDf;R. 
The man with the lance could be elected senator for the Mountain Province 
were the Jones Bill to be enacted. He has the qualifications therein pre- 
scribed as necessarj' to eligibility for this high office. 



WHAT THEN? 973 

These views will be indorsed by every intelligent Ameri- 
can who knows the Filipino, and has some adequate con- 
ception of the problems presented by the presence, in the 
same country with him, of the Ifugao, the Igorot, the 
Manobo, the Bukidnon, and the Moro. They are the 
views of Professor Wilson, historian and pohtical philos- 
opher, at a time when he was unswayed by party preju- 
dices and untrammelled by party pohcy. Let us hope 
that President Wilson, the titular leader of the Demo- 
cratic party and the dispenser of political patronage, has 
not entirely abandoned them, and that in embarking 
so boldly, not to say so rashly, as he has done, on the 
policy of suddenly giving to the Filipinos a radical increase 
in the control which they are allowed to have over their 
own affairs, and of leaving them subsequently to demon- 
strate their fitness or unfitness to exercise it, he will at 
least be bound by the actual results of an experiment 
which, as every one familiar with local conditions in the 
islands well knows, is fraught with the gravest danger. 

After all is said and done, the real Philippine question 
is not what path they shall take. That has been deter- 
mined, for all nations alike, by a Divine Providence that 
is all-seeing, all-wise and inexorable. It is not whether 
they shall travel the old, old road a little faster, or a little 
more slowly. That will ultimately be settled, for them 
and for us, by the unanswerable logic of events, and we 
need not worry over it. The real question is, shall they 
make their long and adventurous journey, guided, helped 
and protected by the strong and kindly hand of the 
United States of America, or shall they be left to stagger 
along alone, blind in their own conceit, under the keen 
and watchful eye of another powerful nation, hungrily 
awaiting their first misstep? 



APPENDIX • 

Instructions of the President to the First Philippine 

Commission 

"Department of State, 
"Washington, January 21, 1899. 

"My dear Sir: I inclose herewith a copy of the instruc- 
tions which the President has drawn up for the guidance of 
yourself and your associates as commissioners to the Philippines. 
"I am, with great respect, sincerely yours, 

"John Hat." 
" Honourable Jacob G. Schurman, 
"The Arlington." 

" Executive Mansion, 
"Washington, January 20, 1899. 
" The Secretary of State : 

"My communication to the Secretary of War, dated De- 
cember 21, 1898, declares the necessity of extending the actual 
occupation and administration of the city, harbour, and bay of 
Manila to the whole of the territory which by the treatj' of 
Paris, signed on December 10, 1898, passed from the sovereignty 
of Spain to the sovereignty of the United States, and the con- 
sequent establishment of military government throughout the 
entire group of the Philippine Islands. While the treaty has 
not yet been ratified, it is believed that it will be by the time 
of the arrival at Manila of the commissioners named below. 
In order to facilitate the most humane, pacific, and effective 
extension of authoritj' throughout these islands, and to secure, 
with the least possible delay, the benefits of a wise and generous 
protection of life and property to the inhabitants, I have named 
Jacob G. Schurman, Rear-Admiral George Dewey, ^lajor- 
General Elwell S. Otis, Charles Denby, and Dean C. Worcester 
to constitute a commission to aid in the accomphshment of 
these results. 

"In the performance of this dutj-, the commissioners are 
enjoined to meet at the earliest possible day in the city of 
Manila and to announce, by a public proclamation, their 
presence and the mission intrusted to them, carefully setting 

975 



976 APPENDIX 

forth that, while the military government already proclaimed 
is to be maintained and continued so long as necessity may 
require, efforts will be made to alleviate the burden of taxation, 
to establish industrial and commercial prosperity, and to pro- 
vide for the safety of persons and of property by such means 
as may be found conducive to these ends. 

"The commissioners will endeavour, without interference 
^dth the military authorities of the United States now in control 
of the Philippines, to ascertain what amelioration in the con- 
dition of the inhabitants and what improvements in public 
order may be practicable, and for this purpose they will study 
attentively the existing social and political state of the various 
populations, particularly as regards the forms of local govern- 
ment, the administration of justice, the collection of customs 
and other taxes, the means of transportation, and the need of 
public improvements. They will report through the Depart- 
ment of State, according to the forms customary or hereafter 
prescribed for transmitting and preserving such communications, 
the results of their observations and reflections, and will rec- 
ommend such executive action as may from time to time seem 
to them wise and useful. 

"The commissioners are hereby authorized to confer authori- 
tatively with any persons resident in the islands from whom they 
may believe themselves able to derive information or suggestions 
valuable for the purposes of their commission, or whom they 
may choose to employ as agents, as may be necessary for this 
purpose. 

"The temporary govenmaent of the islands is intrusted to 
the military authorities, as already provided for by my instruc- 
tions to the Secretary of War of December 21, 1898, and will 
continue until Congress shall determine otherwise. The com- 
mission may render valuable services by examining with special 
care the legislative needs of the various groups of inhabitants, 
and by reporting, with recommendations, the measures which 
should be instituted for the maintenance of order, peace, and 
public welfare, either as temporary steps to be taken imme- 
diately for the perfection of present achninistration, or as sug- 
gestions for future legislation. 

"In so far as immediate personal changes in the civil adminis- 
tration may seem to be advisable, the commissioners are em- 
powered to recommend suitable persons for appointment to 
these offices from among the inhabitants of the islands who 
have previously acknowledged their allegiance to this Govern- 
ment. 



APPENDIX 977 

"It is my desire that in all their relations with the inhabitants 
of the islands the commissioners exercise due respect for all 
the ideals, customs, and institutions of the tribes which com- 
pose the population, emphasizing upon all occasions the just 
and beneficent intentions of the Government of the United 
States. It is also my wish and expectation that the commis- 
sioners may be received in a manner due to the honoured and 
authorized representatives of the American Republic, duly 
commissioned on account of their knowledge, skill, and integ- 
ritj^ as bearers of the good will, the protection, and the richest 
blessings of a liberating rather than a conquering nation. 

"William McKinley." 

Proclamation of the First Philippine Commission 

To the people of the Philippine Islands : 

The treaty of peace between the United States and Spain, 
ratified several weeks ago by the former, having on March 20 
been ratified by the latter, the cession to the United States, as 
stipulated by the treaty, of the sovereignty which Spain pos- 
sessed and exercised over the Philippine Islands has now, in 
accordance with the laws of nations, received a complete and 
indefeasible consummation. 

In order that the high responsibilities and obUgations with 
which the United States has thus become definitively charged 
may be fulfilled in a way calculated to promote the best in- 
terests of the inhabitants of the Philippine Islands, his Excel- 
lency the President of the United States has appointed the 
undersigned a civil commission on PhiUppine affairs, clothing 
them ^vith all the powers necessary for the exercise of that office. 

The commission desire to assure the people of the Philip- 
pine Islands of the cordial good will and fraternal feeUng which 
is entertained for them by his Excellency the President of the 
United States and bj- the American people. The aim and ob- 
ject of the American Government, apart from the fulfilment of 
the solemn obligations it has assumed toward the family of 
nations by the acceptance of sovereignty over the Phihppine 
Islands, is the well being, the prosperity, and the happiness of 
the PhiUppine people and their elevation and advancement to 
a position among the most ci\alized peoples of the world. 

His Excellency the President of the United States believes 
that this felicity and perfection of the Phihppine people is to 
be brought about by the assurance of peace and order ; by the 
guaranty of civil and rehgious hbertj' ; by the estabUshment of 



978 APPENDIX 

justice; by the cultivation of letters, science and the liberal 
and practical arts ; by the enlargement of intercourse with 
foreign nations ; by the expansion of industrial pursuits, trade 
and commerce ; by the multiplication and improvement of the 
means of internal communication ; by the development, mth 
the aid of modern mechanical inventions, of the great natural 
resources of the archipelago ; and, in a word, by the uninter- 
rupted devotion of the people to the pursuit of those useful 
objects and the reahzation of those noble ideals which consti- 
tute the higher civilization of mankind. 

Unfortunately, the pure aims and purposes of the American 
Government and people have been misinterpreted to some of 
the inhabitants of certain of the islands. As a consequence, 
the friendly American forces have, without provocation or cause, 
been openly attacked. 

And why these hostihties? What do the best Filipinos 
desire? Can it be more than the United States is ready to 
give? They are patriots and want hberty, it is said. The 
commission emphatically asserts that the United States is not 
only wiUing, but anxious, to establish in the PhiUppine Islands 
an enlightened system of government under which the Philip- 
pine people may enjoy the largest measure of home rule and 
the amplest hberty consonant with the supreme ends of govern- 
ment and compatible with those obligations which the United 
States has assumed toward the civiUzed nations of the world. 

The United States striving earnestly for the welfare and 
advancement of the inhabitants of the PhiUppine Islands, there 
can be no real confhct between American sovereignty and the 
rights and Uberties of the PhiUppine people. For, just as the 
United States stands ready to furnish armies, na\'ies and all 
the infinite resources of a gi-eat and powerful nation to maintain 
and support its rightful supremacy over the PhiUppine Islands, 
so it is even more sohcitous to spread peace and happiness 
among the Philippine people ; to guarantee them a rightful 
freedom ; to protect them in their just privileges and immuni- 
ties ; to accustom them to free self-government in an ever- 
increasing measure ; and to encourage them in those democratic 
aspirations, sentiments and ideals which are the promise and 
potency of a fruitful national development. 

It is the expectation of the commission to visit the PhiUppine 
peoples in their respective provinces, both for the purpose of 
cultivating a more intimate mutual acquaintance and also with 
a \-iew to ascertaining from enUghtened native opinion what 
form or forms of government seem best adapted to the PhiUp- 



APPENDIX 979 

pine peoples, most apt to conduce to their highest welfare, and 
most conformable to their customs, traditions, sentiments 
and cherished ideals. Both in the establishment and mainte- 
nance of government in the Philippine Islands it will be the 
pohcy of the United States to consult the views and wishes, and 
to secure the advice, cooperation and aid, of the Philippine 
people themselves. 

In the meantime the attention of the PhiUppine people is 
invited to certain regulative principles by which the United 
States will be guided in its relations with them. The follow- 
ing are deemed of cardinal importance : — 

1. The supremacy of the United States must and will be enforced 
throughout every part of the archipelago, and those who resist it can 
accomplish no end other than their own ruin. 

2. The most ample liberty of self-government will be granted to the 
Philippine people which is reconcilable with the maintenance of a wise, 
just, stable, effective and economical administration of public affairs, 
and compatible with the sovereign and international rights and obli- 
gations of the United States. 

3. The civil rights of the Philippine people will be guaranteed and 
protected to the fullest extent ; religious freedom assured, and all 
persons shall have an equal standing before the law. 

4. Honour, justice and friendship forbid the use of the Philippine 
people or islands as an object or means of exploitation. The purpose 
of the American Government is the welfare and advancement of the 
Philippine people. 

5. There shall be guaranteed to the Philippine people an honest and 
effective civil serv'ice, in which, to the fullest extent practicable, natives 
shall be employed. 

6. The collection and application of taxes and revenues will be put 
upon a sound, honest and economical basis. Public funds, raised 
justly and collected honestlj-, will be applied only in defraying the 
regular and proper expenses incurred by and for the establishment and 
maintenance of the Philippine government, and for such general im- 
provements as public interests may demand. Local funds, collected 
for local purposes, shaU not be di\^erted to other ends. With such a 
prudent and honest fiscal administration, it is beheved that the needs 
of the government will in a short time become compatible with a con- 
siderable reduction in taxation. 

7. A pure, speedy and effective administration of justice will be 
established, whereby the e\'ils of delay, corruption and exploitation 
will be effectually eradicated. 

8. The construction of roads, railroads and other means of com- 
munication and transportation, as well as other pxiblic works of mani- 
fest advantage to the Philippine people, will be promoted. 

9. Domestic and foreign trade and commerce, agriculture and 
other industrial pursuits, and the general development of the country 



980 APPENDIX 

in the interest of its inhabitants will be constant objects of soUeitude 
and fostering care. 

10. Effective provision will be made for the establishment of ele- 
mentary schools in which the children of the people shah be educated. 
Appropriate facilities will also be provided for higher education. 

11. Reforms La all departments of the government, in all branches 
of the public service and in all corporations closely touching the 
common life of the people must be undertaken without delay and 
effected, conformably to right and justice, in a way that will satisfy 
the well-founded demands and the highest sentiments and aspirations 
of the Philippine people. 

Such is the spirit in which the United States comes to the 
people of the Philippine Islands. His Excellency, the Presi- 
dent, has instructed the commission to make it pulalicly known. 
And in obeying this behest the commission desire to join with 
his Excellency, the President, in expressing their own good will 
toward the Phihppine people, and to extend to their leading and 
representative men a corchal invitation to meet them for 
personal acquaintance and for the exchange of views and 
opinions. 

Manila, April 4, 1899. 

Jacob Gould Schurman, 
President of Commission. 
George Dewey, 

Admiral U. S. N. 
Elwell S. Otis, 

Major-General U. S. Volunteers. 
Charles Denby. 
Dean C. Worcester. 
John R. MacArthur, 
Secretary of Commission. 

Instructions of the President to the Second Philippine 

Commission 

War Department, 
Washington, April 7, 1900. 

Sir : I transmit to you herewith the instructions of the 
President for the guidance of yourself and your associates as 
commissioners to the Philippine Islands. 

Very respectfully, Elihu Root, 

Secretary of War. 



APPENDIX 981 

Hon. William H. Taft, 

President Board of Commissioners 

to the Philippine Islands 

Executive Mansion, April 7, 1900. 
The Secretary of War, 

Washington. 

Sir : In the message transmitted to the Congress on the 5th of 
December, 1899,1 said, speaking of the Philippine Islands: 
"As long as the insurrection continues the mihtary arm must 
necessarily be supreme. But there is no reason why steps 
should not be taken from time to time to inaugurate govern- 
ments essentially popular in their form as fast as territory is 
held and controlled by our troops. To this end I am consider- 
ing the advisabihty of the return of the commission, or such of 
the members thereof as can be secured, to aid the existing author- 
ities and facilitate this work throughout the islands." 

To give effect to the intention thus expressed I have 
appointed Hon. Wilham H. Taft, of Ohio ; Prof. Dean C. 
Worcester, of Michigan ; Hon. Luke E. Wright, of Tennessee ; 
Hon. Henry C. Ide, of Vermont, and Prof. Bernard Moses, of 
CaUfornia, commissioners to the Philippine Islands to continue 
and perfect the work of organizing and estabUshing civil gov- 
ernment already commenced by the mihtary authorities, sub- 
ject in all respects to any laws which Congress may hereafter 
enact. 

The commissioners named will meet and act as a board, and 
the Hon. Wilham H. Taft is designated as president of the 
board. It is probable that the transfer of authority from 
mihtary commanders to civil officers will be gradual and will 
occupy a considerable period. Its successful accomphshment 
and the maintenance of peace and order in the meantime will 
require the most perfect cooperation between the civil and 
military authorities in the island, and both should be directed 
during the transition period by the same Executive Department. 
The commission will therefore report to the secretary of war, 
and all their action will be subject to your approval and control. 

You will instruct the commission to proceed to the city of 
Manila, where they will make their principal office, and to com- 
municate with the mihtary governor of the Phihppine Islands, 
whom you will at the same time direct to render to them every 
assistance within his power in the performance of their duties. 
Without hampering them by too specific instructions, they 

VOL. II — 2x 



982 APPENDIX 

should in general be enjoined, after making themselves familiar 
with the conditions and needs of the country, to devote their 
attention in the first instance to the estabhshment of munici- 
pal governments, in which the natives of the islands, both in 
the cities and in the rural communities, shall be afforded the 
opportunity to manage their own local affairs to the fullest 
extent of which they are capable, and subject to the least 
degree of supervision and control which a careful study of their 
capacities and observation of the workings of native control 
show to be consistent with the maintenance of law, order and 
loyalty. 

The next subject in order of importance should be the organ- 
ization of government in the larger administrative divisions 
corresponding to counties, departments or provinces, in which 
the common interests of many or several municipalities falHng 
within the same tribal lines, or the same natural geographical 
limits, may best be subserved by a common administration. 
Whenever the commission is of the opinion that the condition 
of affairs in the islands is such that the central administration 
may safely be transferred from military to civil control, they 
will report that conclusion to you, with thei recommendations 
as to the form of central government to be established for the 
purpose of taking over the control. 

Beginning with the 1st day of September, 1900, the author- 
ity to exercise, subject to my approval, through the secretary 
of war, that part of the power of government in the Philippine 
Islands which is of a legislative nature is to be transferred from 
the military governor of the islands to this commission, to be 
thereafter exercised by them in the place and stead of the mili- 
tary governor, under such rules and regulations as you shall 
prescribe, until the establishment of the civil central govern- 
ment for the islands contemplated in the last foregoing para- 
graph, or until Congress shall otherwise provide. Exercise of 
this legislative authority will include the making of rules and 
orders, having the effect of law, for the raising of revenue by 
taxes, customs duties and imposts ; the appropriation and 
expenditure of public funds of the islands ; the establishment 
of an educational system throughout the islands ; the estab- 
lishment of a system to secure an efficient civil service ; the or- 
ganization and establishment of courts ; the organization and 
establishment of municipal .and departmental governments, 
and all other matters of a civil nature for which the military 
governor is now competent to provide by rules or orders of a 
legislative character. 



APPENDIX 983 

The commission will also have power during the same period 
to appoint to office such officers under the judicial, educational 
and civil-service systems and in the municipal and departmental 
governments as shall be provided for. Until the complete 
transfer of control the military governor will remain the chief 
executive head of the government of the islands, and wij 
exercise the executive authority now possessed by him and not 
herein expressly assigned to the commission, subject, however, 
to the rules and orders enacted by the commission in the exer- 
cise of the legislative powers conferred upon them. In the 
meantime the municipal and departmental governments will 
continue to report to the military governor and be subject to 
his administrative supervision and control, under your direc- 
tion, but that supervision and control will be confined within 
the narrowest limits consistent with the requirement that the 
powers of government in the municipalities and departments 
shall be honestly and effectively exercised and that law and 
order and individual freedom shall be maintained. 

All legislative rules and orders, establishments of govern- 
ment, and appointments to office by the commission will 
take effect immediately, or at such times as they shall designate, 
subject to your approval and action upon the coming in of the 
commission's reports, which are to be made from time to time 
as their action is taken. Wherever civil governments are 
constituted imder the direction of the commission, such military 
posts, garrisons and forces will be continued for the suppres- 
sion of insurrection and brigandage, and the maintenance of 
law and order, as the military commander shall deem requisite, 
and the military forces shall be at all times subject under his 
orders to the call of the civil authorities for the maintenance of 
law and order and the enforcement of their authority. 

In the establishment of municipal governments the com- 
mission will take as the basis of their work the governments 
established by the military governor under his order of August 8, 
1899, and mider the report of the board constituted by the 
military governor by his order of January 29, 1900, to formulate 
and report a plan of municipal government, of which his honour 
Cayetano Arellano, president of the audiencia, was chairman, 
and they will give to the conclusions of that board the weight 
and consideration which the high character and distinguished 
abilities of its members justify. 

In the constitution of departmental or provincial govern- 
ments, they will give especial attention to the existing govern- 
ment of the island of Negros, constituted, with the approval of 



984 APPENDIX 

the people of that island, under the order of the military gov- 
ernor of July 22, 1899, and after verifjang, so far as may be 
practicable, the reports of the successful working of that govern- 
ment, they will be guided by the experience thus acquired, so 
far as it may be applicable to the condition existing in other 
portions of the Philippines. They will avail themselves, to 
the fullest degree practicable, of the conclusions reached by 
the previous commission to the Philippines. 

In the distribution of powers among the governments or- 
ganized by the commission, the presumption is always to be in 
favour of the smaller subdivision, so that all the powers which 
can properly be exercised by the municipal government shall 
be vested in that government, and all the powers of a more 
general character which can be exercised by the departmental 
government shall be vested in that government, and so that 
in the governmental system, which is the result of the process, 
the central government of the islands, following the example 
of the distribution of the powers between the states and the 
national government of the United States, shall have no direct 
administration except of matters of purely general concern, 
and shall have only such supervision and control over local 
governments as may be necessary to secure and enforce faithful 
and efficient administration by local officers. 

The many different degrees of civilization and varieties of 
custom and capacity among the people of the different islands 
preclude very definite instruction as to the part which the 
people shall take in the selection of their own officers ; but 
these general rules are to be observed: That in all cases the 
municipal officers, who administer the local affairs of the people, 
are to be selected by the people, and that wherever officers of 
more extended jurisdiction are to be selected in any way, natives 
of the islands are to be preferred, and if they can be found 
competent and \\'illing to perform the duties, they are to re- 
ceive the offices in preference to any others. 

It will ])e necessary to fill some offices for the present with 
Americans which after a time may well be filled by natives of 
the islands. As soon as practicable a system for ascertaining 
the merit and fitness of candidates for civil office should be 
put in force. An indispensable qualification for all offices and 
positions of trust and authority in the islands must be absolute 
and unconditional loyalty to the United States, and absolute 
and unhampered authority and power to remove and punish 
any officer de\iating from that standard must at all times be 
retained in the hands of the central authority of the islands. 



APPENDIX 985 

In all the forms of government and administrative provi- 
sions in which they are authorized to prescribe, the commission 
should bear in mind that the government which they are 
establishing is designed not for our satisfaction, or for the 
expression of our theoretical views, but for the happiness, peace 
and prosperity of the i^eople of the Philippine Islands, and the 
measures adopted should be made to conform to their customs, 
their habits and even their prejudices, to the fullest extent 
consistent with the accomplishment of the indispensable 
requisites of just and effective government. 

At the same time the commission should bear in mind, and 
the people of the islands should be made plainly to understand, 
that there are certain great principles of government which 
have been made the basis of our governmental system which 
we deem essential to the rule of law and the maintenance of 
individual freedom, and of which they have, unfortunately, 
been denied the experience possessed by us ; that there are 
also certain practical rules of government which we have 
found to be essential to the preservation of these great princi- 
ples of liberty and law, and that these principles and these rules 
of government must be established and maintained in their 
islands for the sake of their liberty and happiness, however 
much they may conflict vfith the customs or laws of procedure 
with which they are familiar. 

It is evident that the most enlightened thought of the PhiHp- 
pine Islands fully appreciates the importance of these principles 
and rules, and they will inevitably within a short time command 
universal assent. Upon every division and branch of the gov- 
ernment of the Philippines, therefore, must be imposed these 
inviolable rules : 

That no person shall be deprived of life, liberty or property 
without due process of law ; that private property shall not be 
taken for public use without just compensation ; that in all 
criminal prosecutions the accused shall enjoy the right to a 
speedy and public trial, to be informed of the nature and cause 
of the accusation, to be confronted with the witnesses against 
him, to have compulsory process for obtaining -ndtnesses in 
his favour, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defence ; 
that excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines 
imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishment inflicted ; that no 
person shall be put twice in jeopardy for the same offence, or 
be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against 
himself; that the right to be secure against unreasonable 
searches and seizures shall not be violated ; that neither slavery 



986 APPENDIX 

nor involuntary servitude shall exist except as a punishment 
for crime ; that no bill of attainder, or ex-post-facto law shall 
be passed ; that no law shall be passed abridging the freedom of 
speech or of the press, or the rights of the people to peaceably 
assemble and petition the Government for a redress of griev- 
ances ; that no law shall be made respecting an establishment 
of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof, and that the 
free exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship 
without discrimination or preference shall forever be allowed. 

It will be the duty of the commission to make a thorough 
investigation into the titles to the large tracts of land held or 
claimed by individuals or by religious orders ; into the justice 
of the claims and complaints made against such landholders 
by the people of the island or any part of the people, and to 
seek by wise and peaceable measure, a just settlement of the 
controversies and redress of TVTongs which have caused strife 
and bloodshed in the past. In the performance of this duty 
the commission is enjoined to see that no injustice is done; 
to have regard for substantial rights and equity, disregarding 
technicalities so far as substantial right permits, and to observe 
the following rules : 

That the pro\asion of the Treaty of Paris, pledging the 
United States to the protection of all rights of property in the 
islands, and as well the principle of our ovra Government which 
prohibits the taking of private property without due process 
of law, shall not be violated ; that the welfare of the people of 
the islands, which should be a paramount consideration, shall 
be attained consistently with this rule of property right ; 
that if it becomes necessary for the public interest of the people 
of the islands to dispose of claims to property which the com- 
mission finds to be not lawfully acquired and held disposition 
shall be made thereof by due legal procedure, in which there 
shall be full opportunity for fair and impartial hearing and 
judgment ; that if the same public interests require the extin- 
guishment of property rights lawfully acquired and held due 
compensation shall be made out of the public treasury therefor ; 
that no form of rehgion and no minister of religion shall be 
forced upon any community or upon any citizen of the islands ; 
that upon the other hand no minister of religion shall be inter- 
fered with or molested in following his caUing, and that the 
separation between state and church shall be real, entire and 
absolute. 

It will be the duty of the commission to promote and extend, 
and, as they find occasion, to improve, the system of education 



APPENDIX 987 

already inaugurated by the military authorities. In doing 
this they should regard as of first importance the extension of 
a system of primary education which shall be free to all, and 
which shall tend to fit the people for the duties of citizenship 
and for the ordinary avocations of a civilized community. This 
instruction should be given in the first instance in every part 
of the islands in the language of the people. In view of the 
great number of languages spoken by the different tribes, it is 
especially important to the prosperity of the islands that a 
common medium of communication may be established, and 
it is obviously desirable that this medium should be the English 
language. Especial attention should be at once given to 
affording full opportunity to all the people of the islands to 
acquire the use of the English language. 

It may be well that the main changes which should be made 
in the system of taxation and in the body of the laws under 
which the people are governed, except such changes as have 
already been made by the military government, should be 
relegated to the civil government which is to be established 
under the auspices of the commission. It will, however, be 
the duty of the commission to inquire dihgently as to whether 
there are any further changes which ought not be delayed; 
and if so, they are authorized to make such changes, subject 
to your approval. In doing so they are to bear in mind that 
taxes which tend to penalize or repress industry and enterprise 
are to be avoided ; that provisions for taxation should be simple, 
so that they may be understood by the people ; that they 
should affect the fewest practicable sul)jects of taxation which 
will serve for the general distribution of the burden. 

The main body of the laws which regulate the rights and 
obhgations of the people should be maintained with as little 
interference as possible. Changes made should be mainly in 
procedure, and in the criminal laws to secure speedy and im- 
partial trials, and at the same time effective administration 
and respect for individual rights. 

In dealing with the uncivilized tribes of the islands the com- 
mission should adopt the same course followed by Congress in 
permitting the tribes of our North American Indians to main- 
tain their tribal organization and government, and under which 
many of those tribes are now living in peace and contentment, 
surrounded by a civilization to which they are unable or un- 
willing to conform. Such tribal governments should, however, 
be subjected to wise and firm regulation ; and, without undue 
or petty interference, constant and active effort should be exer- 



988 APPENDIX 

cised to prevent barbarous practices and introduce civilized 
customs. 

Upon all officers and employees of the United States, both 
civil and military, should be impressed a sense of the duty to 
observe not merely the material but the personal and social 
rights of the people of the islands, and to treat them ^vith the 
same courtesy and respect for their personal dignity which the 
people of the United States are accustomed to require from 
each other. 

The articles of capitulation of the city of Manila on the 13th 
of August, 1898, concluded with these words : 

"This city, its inhabitants, its churches and religious wor- 
ship, its educational establishments, and its private property 
of all descriptions, are placed under the special safeguard of 
the faith and honour of the American army." 

I believe that this pledge has been faitMully kept. As high 
and sacred an obligation rests upon the Government of the 
United States to give protection for property and life, civil and 
religious freedom, and wise, firm and unselfish guidance in 
the paths of peace and prosperity to all the people of the Phil- 
ippine Islands. I charge this commission to labour for the full 
performance of this obligation which concerns the honour and 
conscience of their country, in the firm hope that through their 
labours all the inhabitants of the Philippine Islands may come to 
look back with gratitude to the day when God gave victory to 
American arms at Manila and set their land under the sover- 
eignty and the protection of the people of the United States. 

William McKinlet. 

THE PAST AND PRESENT ORGANIZATION OF THE 
COURTS OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS' 

During the last years of Spanish sovereignty the courts 
in the Philippine Islands consisted of superior courts, 
which were the audiencia territorial de Manila, the au- 
diencia de lo criminal de Cebu, and the audiencia de lo 
criminal de Vigan; the courts of first instance, and jus- 
tice of the peace courts. 

I I am indebted to the Honourable Gregorio Araneta, secretary of 
finance and justice, for a summary statement of the judicial reforms 
effected since the American occupation, on which this statement is 
largely based. — D. C. W. 



APPENDIX 989 

The audiencia territorial de Manila exercised jurisdiction 
in civil matters over the entire PhiUppine archipelago ; in 
criminal matters it exercised jurisdiction over the central 
and southern provinces of Luz6n and over the islands of 
Catanduanes, Mindoro, Burias, Masbate and Ticao. 

Its legal personnel consisted of a president of the court ; 
two presidents of branches, one of the civil, and the other 
of the criminal ; mne justices (magistrados) ; four associ- 
ate justices {magistrados suplentes) ; one fiscal; one 
lieutenant-^scaZ, and three fiscal attorneys ; five secre- 
taries and four law clerks who were assistant secretaries. 

The audiencia de lo criminal of Vigan and that of 
Cebu had only criminal jurisdiction, the former over the 
northern part of Luz6n and the Batanes Islands and the 
latter over the Visayan Islands and Mindanao. Each of 
these courts had a president, two justices, two associate 
justices, one fiscal, one lieutenant-^scaZ, a secretary and 
one law clerk who was assistant secretary. 

There was at least one court of first instance in each 
province. In some, like Batangas, Ambos Camarines, 
Samar, Leyte, Cebu and Negros, there were two. In 
Iloilo there were three and in Manila four. These courts 
were divided into three classes designated as follows : 
de entrada; de ascenso; and de termino. 

Subject to the jurisdiction of the audiencia territorial 
de Manila, there were eight jusgados de termino; five 
jusgados de ascenso, and fourteen jusgados de entrada. 
Under the criminal jurisdiction of the audiencia terri- 
torial of Vigan there were three jusgados de termino, one 
jusgado de ascenso and sixteen jusgados de entrada. Under 
the audiencia territorial of Cebu there were two jusgados 
de termino and thirty jusgados de ascenso. 

In each court of first instance there was a prosecut- 
ing attorney (promotor fiscal) . In each pueblo there was 
a justice of the peace subject in his criminal and civil 
jurisdiction to the judge of first instance of the prov- 
ince. In criminal matters the justice of the peace courts 



990 APPENDIX 

as well as the courts of first instance were subject to the 
audiencia territorial of Manila. 

At the present time the courts of justice of the islands 
consist of a supreme court, courts of first instance and 
justice of the peace courts. 

The supreme court, which is composed of one chief 
justice and six associate justices, has civil and criminal 
jurisdiction over all the islands. 

In each province there is a court of first instance. 
Several such courts are usually united to constitute a 
judicial district, but this does not hold for the court of 
first instance of the city of Manila, which is presided 
over by three judges, each in his own court room, nor for 
the court of first instance of Hollo, which constitutes 
a district by itself. The remaining courts are divided 
between seventeen districts. 

The courts of the thirteenth and fourteenth districts 
have concurrent jurisdiction over ah actions arising within 
the district of Lanao of the Moro province, but the court 
fu'st acquiring jurisdiction in any cause has exclusive 
jurisdiction in the same. 

There are foiu- judges at large, without territorial 
jurisdiction of their own, any one of whom may be as- 
signed by the secretary of finance and justice to act in 
any district. He then has the same jurisdiction as its 
judge. The services of judges at large are necessary when 
the judge of any district is absent, or has vacated his 
position, or when the business of a court requires the aid 
of an assistant judge. 

There further exists the court of land registration, 
with one judge and five auxiliary judges. It has ex- 
clusive jurisdiction over all applications for the regis- 
tration of title to land or buildings or an interest therein. 
It also has jurisdiction to confirm the titles of persons 
who under the Spanish regime acquired imperfect titles 
to pubHc lands, provided that such persons fulfill the 
requirements of law for their perfection. 



APPENDIX 991 

There is now a justice of the peace court in each mu- 
nicipality and by resolution of the Philippine Commission 
there have been created justice of the peace courts in 
townships and other centres of population which have 
not been organized either as townships or municipaUties. 

In the provinces of Nueva Vizcaya, Mindoro, Palawan, 
Agusan and in the Mountain province, all of which are 
organized under the special provincial government act, 
the provincial governor, the pro\'incial secretary, the 
provincial treasurer, the pro\'incial supervisor^ and 
the deputy clerk of the court of first instance are jus- 
tices of the peace ex officio with jurisdiction throughout 
their respective provinces. 

In the Moro province, which is divided into five dis- 
tricts, called Jolo, Zamboanga, Lanao, Cotabato and 
Davao, there are tribal ward courts which consider 
and decide minor civil and criminal actions in which the 
parties in interest, or any of them, are Moros or members 
of other non-Christian tribes. These tribal ward courts 
have with regard to these actions the same jurisdiction as 
is vested by law in justice of the peace courts, but the 
legislative council of the IMoro pro\dnce may in its 
discretion vest in such courts jurisdiction in other actions, 
civil or criminal but not capital, which is at present vested 
in courts of first instance. In each district the governor 
and secretary are justices of tribal ward courts and there 
are as many auxiliarj' justices as may be needed. The 
sentences of the tribal ward courts, from which no 
appeal is taken to the court of fu-st instance, may be 
modified or remitted by the pro\ancial governor after a 
review of the case. 

In addition to these tribal ward courts there exist 
justice of the peace courts in each municipality and the 
governor-general may with the advice and approval of 
the commission appoint justices of the peace for towns 
or places in the Moro province which have not been or- 
' The engineer officer of the pro\'ince. 



992 APPENDIX 

ganized into municipalities or which, although included 
within the limits of an organized municipahty, are dis- 
tant from or have no convenient means of access to centres 
of population. The jurisdiction of the justices of the 
peace for the municipalities in which such towns or places 
are situated, and of the justices of the peace appointed 
for such towns or places, are concurrent over cases arising 
within the municipality. The several justices of the 
peace in any district of the Moro province exercise con- 
current jurisdiction over cases arising within the district 
but without the limits of an organized municipality, but' 
the justice of the peace first acquiring jurisdiction over 
any case has exclusive jurisdiction over it. The justices 
of the peace in the Moro province have no jurisdiction 
to try civil and criminal actions in which original juris- 
diction is vested in tribal ward courts. 

Under the present organization there exists a bureau 
of justice with the following legal personnel : attorney- 
general, solicitor-general, assistant attorney-general, and 
eleven assistant attorneys. There is a provincial fiscal 
in each province with the exception of the Moro province, 
in which there are an attorney and an assistant attorney. 
The city of Manila has, besides the city attorney and as- 
sistant attorney, a prosecuting attorney with four as- 
sistants. 

Under the Spanish legislation, justices of the peace 
had jurisdiction to try civil actions where the value of 
the thing in htigation did not exceed five hundred pesetas 
($50), and actions for unlawful detainer where the ac- 
tion was based on one of the following grounds. The 
completion of the term stipulated in the contract ; the 
expiration of the time within which notice had to be given 
for the conclusion of the contract, in accordance with 
law ; the stipulations made or the general custom in each 
pueblo ; and the failure to pay the price stipulated, pro- 
vided that in neither of these three cases the object of 
the action was dispossession of a mercantile or manu- 



APPENDIX 993 

facturing establishment, or of a rural property the annual 
rental whereof exceeded two thousand five hundred pesetas 
($250). They also had jurisdiction to try f alias, which 
are criminal offences penalized with a fine not exceeding 
five hundred pesetas ($50) or with aresto menor, which is 
imprisonment not exceeding thirty days, and to conduct 
the preliminary proceedings in crimes the jurisdiction 
over which was vested in the courts of first instance. 
Judges of first instance had original jurisdiction in all 
civil actions except those in which original jurisdiction 
was vested in justices of the peace and in actions for 
crime (delitos). The sentences of judges of first instance 
could be carried in appeal to the audicncia territorial of 
Manila, and in the majority of cases the supreme court 
of Spain could be petitioned for the cassation of the sen- 
tences of the said audiencia territorial. The judges of 
first instance also had appellate jurisdiction in cases of 
appeal against the decisions rendered by justices of the 
peace in actions in which the latter had original juris- 
diction. All the sentences of the courts of first instance 
in criminal cases, regardless of whether they were sen- 
tences of conviction or of acquittal, had to be submitted 
for review to the proper audiencia, the decision of the 
former not being final without the approval of the latter. 
From the decisions of the audiencia appeal lay in all cases 
to the supreme court of Spain. 

It naturally followed that legal proceedings were in- 
terminable, and one of the worst things which could be- 
fall an individual or a corporation in the Spanish days 
was to become involved in a lawsuit. It is an unpleasant 
thing to say, but the plain truth is that the character of 
the judges in not a few instances left much to be desired. 

Contrast with the endless complications of the above 
arrangement the simplicity of that which prevails to-day. 
Justices of the peace have exclusive original jurisdiction 
in all civil actions arising in their municipalities which are 
not exclusively cognizable by the courts of first instance, 



994 APPENDIX 

when the value of the subject-matter or amount of the 
demand does not exceed $100, exclusive of interest and 
costs ; and where such value or demand exceeds $100, 
but is less than 1300, the justices of the peace have juris- 
diction concurrent with the courts of fii-st instance. 
They also have original jurisdiction in forcible entry and 
detainer proceedings. They have no jurisdiction to ad- 
judicate questions of title to real estate or any interest 
therein, or in civil actions in which the subject of htiga- 
tion is not capable of pecuniary estimation, except in 
forcible entry and detainer cases, or in those which in- 
volve the legaUty of any tax, impost, or assessment, or in 
actions invohdng admii-alty or marine jurisdiction, or in 
matters of probate, the appointment of guardians, trus- 
tees, or receivers, or in actions for annulment of mar- 
riage. Justices of the peace, except in the city of Manila, 
have original jurisdiction to try persons charged with 
misdemeanors, offences and infractions of municipal 
ordinances, arising within the municipality, in which the 
penalty provided by law does not exceed six months im- 
prisonment or a fine of $100, or both such imprisonment 
and fine. In the city of Manila the justice of the peace 
does not have this jurisdiction ; there it is left to a 
municipal judge, who has jurisdiction to try all the 
infractions of ordinances and has a more ample juris- 
diction to try misdemeanors and crimes against the 
general laws of the islands. Justices of the peace, ex- 
cept in the city of Manila, also have jurisdiction to con- 
duct prehminary proceedings in all crimes and misde- 
meanors supposed to have been committed within their 
municipahties and cognizable by the courts of first in- 
stance. 

The jurisdiction of courts of first instance is of two 
kinds, original and appellate. Courts of first instance 
have original jurisdiction : in all civil actions in which 
the subject of litigation is not capable of pecuniary es- 
timation; in all civil actions which involve the title to 



APPENDIX 995 

or possession of real property, or any interest therein, 
or the legahty of any tax, impost, or assessment, except 
actions of forcible entry into or detainer of lands or build- 
ings ; in all cases in which the demand, exclusive of the 
interest or the value of the property in controversy, 
amounts to $100 or more ; in all actions in admiralty or 
maritime jurisdiction, irrespective of the value of the 
property in controversy and the amount of the demand ; 
in all matters of probate, both of testate and intestate 
estates, appointment of guardians, trustees, and receivers, 
in all actions for annulment of marriage, and in all such 
special cases and proceedings as are not otherwise pro- 
vided for ; in all criminal cases in which a penalty of more 
than six months imprisonment or a fine exceeding $100 
may be imposed; in all crimes and offences committed 
on the high seas or beyond the jm'isdiction of any country, 
or within any of the navigable waters of the Philippine 
Islands, on board a ship or water craft of any kind regis- 
tered or Ucensed in the Phihppine Islands in accordance 
with the laws thereof. This jm'isdiction may be exer- 
cised by the court of first instance in any province into 
which the ship or water craft upon which the crime or 
offence was committed may come after the commission 
thereof, but the court first lawfully taking cognizance 
thereof has jurisdiction of the same to the exclusion of 
all other courts in the Philippine Islands. Lastly, courts 
of first instance have power to issue writs of injunction, 
mandamus, certiorari, proliibition, quo warranto, and 
habeas corpus in their respective provinces and districts, 
in the manner provided in the code of civU procedure. 
Com'ts of first instance have appellate jm'isdiction over 
all causes arising in justices' and other inferior courts in 
their respective provinces. 

The supreme court of the Phihppine Islands has origi- 
nal jurisdiction to issue writs of mandamus, certiorari, 
prohibition, habeas corpus, and quo warranto in the cases 
and in the manner prescribed in the code of civil pro- 



996 APPENDIX 

cednre, and to hear and determine the controversies thus 
brought before it, and in other cases provided by law. 

The supreme court of the United States, according to 
the Phihppine bill, has juriscUction to review, revise, 
reverse, modify, or affirm the final judgments and de- 
crees of the supreme court of the Philippine Islands in 
all actions, cases, causes, and proceedings pending therein 
in which the constitution or any statute, treaty, title, 
right or privilege of the United States is involved, or in 
causes in which the value in controversy exceeds $25,000. 

Probably not more than ten Fihpinos held judicial or 
fiscal positions, except that of justice of the peace, under 
Spanish rule. To-day, three of the seven justices of the 
supreme court, ten of the twenty judges of districts, 
two of the four judges at large, and three of the six judges 
of the court of land registration are Fihpinos. In the 
bureau of justice the attorney-general and seven assist- 
ant attorneys are Filipinos. All of the provincial fiscals 
are Filipinos with the exception of the fiscal of the Moro 
province and the prosecuting attorney and the city 
attorney of IManila. All of the justices of the peace 
except those who serve ex officio are Filipinos, and the 
secretarj^ of finance and justice is a Filipino as well. 

Under the Spanish regime justices of the peace did not 
receive salaries, nor was there any appropriation for the 
payment of necessary clerical assistance, for office sup- 
phes, or for rental of their court rooms. The fees which 
the law allowed them to charge were their only compen- 
sation. These were fifty cents for each civU case tried 
and twenty-five cents when no trial was held on account 
of failure to appear on the part of either the plaintiff or 
defendant or of both. 

In criminal cases the fees were seventy-five cents for 
each case tried, but they could be collected only if the 
defendant was adjudged to pay the costs and was solvent. 

The compensation of justices of the peace was in prac- 
tice hmited to the paltry fees in civil cases, which in many 



APPENDIX 997 

municipalities amounted to almost nothing owing to the 
small number of such cases tried. Justices of the peace 
were burdened with orders from the courts of first in- 
stance for the service of process, and for this no compen- 
sation was given them. 

The only appropriations for office, personnel and sup- 
plies of the courts of first instance were the following : two 
Chinese interpreters and sixteen baihffs, drawing a yearly 
salary of $48 for the four courts at Manila ; interpreters 
drawng the following ridiculous salaries : S48 per annum 
in some courts, $36 in others and in still others $24 ; 
amanuenses whose salaries in some courts were $48 and 
in others $36 per annum, while in yet other courts there 
was no amount appropriated for their salaries. No 
appropriation was made for clerks, officers, messengers 
or bailiffs of the courts, for necessary office supplies or 
for court-houses. The clerks of courts had to pay all 
subordinate employees. They also had to pay for the 
building of a court-house out of the money collected as 
fees from litigants, and in many instances they were 
compelled to pay for the dwelling place of the judge, who 
ordinarily lived in the court-house. 

The salaries of judicial officers and fiscals were also 
very meager. The prosecuting attorney of a court de 
entrada was paid $750 per annum ; the judge of a court 
of first instance de entrada, the prosecuting attorney 
de ascenso, and the secretaries of the audiencia de lo crim- 
inal, all of whom had the same rank, di'ew salaries of 
$937.50 per annum. The judge of first instance de 
ascenso, the prosecuting attorney de termino and the 
secretaries of the audiencia territorial de Manila were 
paid $1125 per annum. The judges of courts of first 
instance de termino and the attorneys of the audiencia 
territorial of Manila and the assistant attorneys of the 
audiencias de lo criminal of Vigan and Cebu drew a 
salary of $1375 per annum. The assistant fiscal of the 
audiencia territorial of Manila and the justices of the 

VOL. II — 2 k 



998 APPENDIX 

audiencias de lo criminal of Vigan and Cebu, $1750. 
The justices of the audiencia territorial of Manila and 
the presidents and fiscals of the audiencias de lo criminal 
of Vigan and Cebu received $2125 per annum. The 
president of the audiencia territorial of Manila and the 
presidents of the departments of said court and its fiscal 
received $25 per annum. The president of the audiencia 
territorial of Manila had an additional allowance of $750, 
and the presidents of the departments and fiscal of said 
court had $250 each for entertainment expenses. 

At present, justices of the peace in first, second, third, 
and fourth class municipalities receive yearly salaries 
of $480, $420, $360 and $300, respectively. The justice 
of the peace of Manila receives $1800. The justices of 
the peace of Iloilo and Cebu receive $1200 each ; those 
of the provincial capitals of Albay, Ambos Camarines, 
Batangas, Bulacan, Ilocos Sur, Occidental Negros, Pam- 
panga, Pangasinan and Tayabas, $900 each ; those of 
Cagayan, Capiz, Cavite, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Rizal, 
Samar and Sorsogon, $750 each ; those of the remaining 
provincial capitals and of any municipalities considered 
as capitals of provinces organized under the provincial 
government act, $600 each. 

Every municipality is required to provide the justice 
of the peace with an adequate court room and the nec- 
essary office furniture, light, and janitor service. Office 
supplies, such as stationery, stamps, printed forms, books, 
etc., are furnished by the bureau of justice and paid for 
from the appropriation for said bureau. 

Clerks and other subordinate employees of the courts 
of first instance now have regular salaries prescribed by 
law, and the salaries of judges are sufficient to allow them 
to live comfortably and wth the independence and 
decorum which befit their official positions. Judges at 
large and some district judges receive $4500 per annum ; 
other district judges, $5000 per annum ; judges in the 
city of Manila, $5500. The judge of the couit of land 



APPENDIX 



999 



registration receives $5000 and the assistant judges are 
paid $4000 each with promotion to $4500 after two years 
of service. The chief justice and associate justices of 
the supreme court receive $10,000 each. 

THE NON-CHRISTIAN POPULATION 

The following table gives the present accepted estimate 
of the non-Christian population of the provinces as now 
organized, together with the census estimate : — 



PhOTINCE OB SUB-PEOVINCB 




Present Accepted 
Estimate 



Abra .... 
Agusan .... 
Albay .... 
Amburayan . 
Ambos Camarines 
Apayao . . . 
Antique . . . 
Bataan . . . 
Batanes . . . 
Batangas . . . 
Benguet . . . 
Bohol .... 
Bontoc .... 
Bulacan . . . 
Cagayan . . . 
Capiz .... 
Catanduanes . . 
Cavite .... 
Cebu .... 
IIocos Norte . . 
Ilocos Sur . . . 
Iloilo .... 
Ifugao .... 
Jsabela .... 
Kalinga 

La Laguna . . 
La Union . 
Lepanto 
{Lepanto-Bontoc) 

Carried forward 



14,037 

85,000 

892 

10,191 

5,933 

20,000 

2,921 

1,621 

000 

000 

28,449 

000 

62,000 

415 

15,000 

5,629 

000 

000 

000 

2,210 

13,611 

6,383 

125,000 

7,638 

76,000 

(?) 
000 
31,194 



514,124 



1000 



APPENDIX 



Province ob Sob-province 



Censtjs Estimate 



Present Accepted 
Estimate 



Brought forward 
Leyte .... 
Marinduque . . 
Masbate . . . 
Mindoro . 
Misamis 
Moro Province . 
Negros Occidental 
Negros Oriental 
Nueva Ecija . . 
Nueva Vizcaya . 
Palawan . 
Pampanga . . 
Pangasinan . . 
Rizal .... 
Romblon . 
Samar .... 
Siquijor . . . 
Sorsogon . . . 
Surigao 

Tarlac .... 
Tayabas . . . 
Zambales . . . 

Total . . 



176,865 

000 

000 

000 

7,264 

40,210 

316,664 

4,612 

16,605 

1,148 

46,515 

6,844 

1,098 

3,386 

2,421 

000 

688 



41 

15,814 

1,594 

2,803 

3,168 



514,124 

000 

000 

000 

15,000 

000 

486,316 

4,612 

16,605 

862 

6,000 

20,000 

1,098 

3,386 

2,421 

50 

1,390 

000 

41 

(?) 
1,594 
2,803 
3,168 



647,740 



1,071,832 



Certain of the items in this table require brief explana- 
tion. In it the name of each province or sub-province 
for which the census estimate has been departed from is 
italicized. 

Agusan. This province did not exist when the census 
was taken. It has since been carved out of the territory 
which formerly belonged to Surigao and Misamis. The 
figures given, based largely on actual enumeration, are 
approximately correct. 

Amburayan. This sub-province formed a part of South 
Ilocos at the time of the census enumeration. It does not 
appear that any account was taken of its non-Christian 
population. 

Apayao. The territory of tliis sub-province was a part 



APPENDIX 1001 

of the province of Cagaj^an at the time of the census 
enumeration. The estimate is that of its present lieu- 
tenant-governor. Lieutenant-Governor Villamor esti- 
mated its population at 53,000, but this figure was un- 
doubtedly too high. 

Antique. The non-Christian population of this prov- 
ince is probably given too low by the census, but I have 
allowed the census figures to stand. 

Batanes. This province did not exist at the time the 
census was taken. 

Benguet. The present figures axe based on an accurate 
enumeration. 

Bontoc. The territory included within this sub-province 
has been greatly changed since the census was taken. The 
present figures are based on a recent enumeration. 

Cagayan. The present figures were furnished me by 
Governor Antonio Carag on April 16, 1913. They repre- 
sent only the supposed Negrito population of the eastern 
Cordillera. There are other non-Christians in the prov- 
ince, but their number is not known. 

Ilocos Norte. The census estimate is undoubtedly too 
low, but is nevertheless adopted, in fault of new and more 
reUable information. 

Ifugao. No such political subdivision existed when the 
census was taken. This territory then formed a part of 
Nueva Vizcaya. A recent fairly accurate enumeration 
has shown the original estimate of the population of Nueva 
Vizcaya to be grossly in error. 

Isabela. This province has lost a part of its non- 
Christian population to Ifugao and a part to Kahnga. 
There remain some Kalingas and numerous Negritos east 
of the Cagayan River, but I have no reasonably accurate 
estimate of their numbers. The figures given are prob- 
ably too low. 

Kalinga. This sub-province did not exist at the time 
of the census enumeration. The figures given are quite 
accurate. 



1002 APPENDIX 

La Union. This province has lost all of its non-Chris- 
tian population by transfer to Benguet and Amburayan. 

Lepanto. The figures now given for Lepanto are ac- 
curate. 

Lepanto-Bontoc. Carried in the first column, but no 
entry made in the second because a direct comparison 
between the territory which was included in this province 
and the corresponding portions