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PHILLIP STUBBES'S ANATOMY 

OF TFTE 

ABUSES IN ENGLAND 

IN 

SIIAKSPERE'S YOUTH, 

A.D. 1583. 

PART L w ' 



[The Editors alone, and not the Committee of the NEW SHAKSPJ^RE 
SOCIETY, are responsible for the opinions expresst in the Society's 
publications.] 



PHILLIP STUBBED ANATOMY 



OF THE 

u 



ABUSES ifi ENGLAND 

IN 

SHAKSPERE'S YOUTH, 

A.D. 1583. 



PART I. 

(COLLATED WITH OTHER EDITIONS IN 1583, 1585, AND 1595.) 



WITH EXTRACTS FROM STUBBES'S LIFE OF HIS WIFE, 1391, 

AND HIS PERFECT PA TWA Y TO FnUCITIS* 1592 (1610), 
AND BP. BABINGTON ON THE TEN COMMANDMENTS, 1588; 

ALSO 

THE FOURTH BOOK OF THOMAS KIRCHMAIER'S (or NAOGEORGUS'S) 

REGNUM PAPISMI, or POPISH fCJNGDOME, (ENGLISHT BY BARNABE GOOGE, 1570,) 

ON POPULAR AND POPISH SUPERSTITIONS IN 155?. 



EDITED BY 

FREDERICK J. FURNIVALL, 



PUBLTSHT FOR 

$iefo S^aftspere .Soctetg 

BY N. TRUBNER & CO., 57, 59, LUDGATE HILL, 
LONDON, E.C., 1877-9, 



CI, AY AMU TAYLOR, I'UINTKKHy BUWJAY, 



TO 



THE BNLIGHTEND STUDENT OF ENGLISH SOCIAL AND CONSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT, 
PROFESSOR OF LAW IN THE UNIVERSITY OF MOSCOW, 

ONE OF THE 
GENEROUS NATION WHO GAVE THEIR BLOOD AND TREASURE TO FREE BULGARIA, 

AND WHO WOULD HAVE 
FREED MORE FOLK, HAD NOT SELFISH ENGLISH SHOPMEN STOPT THEM, 

THIS BOOK 

OF AN ENGLISHMAN WHO BELIEVD IN GOD, AND CAR'D FOR CHRISTIANS MORE THAN TURKS, 



BY ITS EDITOR. 




Cut at the back of the Colophon of the 2nd 
(Aug. i, 1583) and 3rd (1584) editions of 
See p. 60*, note a , 



CONTENTS. 



WOODCUTS OF ELIZABETHAN DRESS, from Planches Hist of 
Costume and the Roxburghe Ballads, with Mr. Ebsworth's 

Memorandum on the latter 11* 

FOREWORDS (see the Contents of em, p. 35*) 35* 

APPENDIX; Extracts from Bp. Babington, 1588 75* 

Some Collations, and Title, of the Anatomic, ed. 1584 (C-D) 95* 

II. 

STf)0 xrtnatOmil Of afiU0?0: i Maij. 1583 (A), collated with 

three other editions, (B) i Aug. 1583; (E) 1585 ; (F) 1595 ... i 

The Epistle Dedicatorie, to Phillip, Earle of Arundell iii 

A Preface to the Reader (left out of all editions after the \sf) x 
Poems : 

a. Phillippus Stubeus candido Lectori xiv 

b. C. B. In commendation of the Auctors lucubrations ... xv 

c. A. D. In commendation of the Author and his Booke ... xvii 

d. I. F. In commendation of the Avthor and his Booke ... xviii 

e. (Ph. Stubbes). The Avthor and his Booke ... .. xix 



CHAPTER I. 1 

Introductory : The 2 S peakers, Spudeus and Philoponus (Stubbes) 2 1 -26 
Stubbes' s Travels about England (21-2); England describd : 
its people the wickedest on the earth (23), their sin coming from 
the Devil (24) ; Stubbes' s grief at it (25), and attempt to do 
them good by laying bare their abuses and enormities (26). 

CHAPTER II. 

A particular Description of PRIDE, the principall Abuse; 

and how manifold it is in ArxaNA (England) 26-49 

Three sorts of Pride : of the Heart, of the Mouth, of Apparel 
(27-8). How these Three are committed (28-30). Foreigners 
don't change their dress (31) : 'no People in the World is so 
curiouse in new fangles as they of (England) be* (32), or like 

* The chapters are not numberd in the ist edition, and sometimes not divided, as 
in chap, vii, on Covetousness, p. 114. 



4^ Contents. 

I'AOU 

< far-fetclit & dear-bought ' so well (33). Our M ingle-mangle 
of Apparel (34.). Men of birth and office only should wear 
fine clothes (35). Dress was first given to cover our shame 
(36); tho' we're not bound to wear leather 1 , like Adam 
(37-8). God regards not Attire (39). The pretence that 
setting forth God's Glory (40), or gaining acceptance with 
wise men (41) ; s a reason for fine Clothes. Reverence i , 
due to Virtue, not to Apparel (42-3). Apparel and Pride 
can't be separated (44). The Godly (45) and the Heathen 
Greeks, &c. (46), despisd Apparel (47) ; as clicl the Prophets 
and the Early Church (48). We are outrageously extra 
vagant in it (49). 

CHAPTER III. 

A perticuler Description of apparell in Ailgaa by degrees. 

Men's Dress 49-62 

Men's Hats, their many shapes, bands, and materials (50) ; no 
Bands, but Feathers (51). Ruffs (51)? an ^ ^ lc * r two stays, 
Starch and Supportasses. Workt Bands (52). Ruffs called 
'Three Steppes and a halfe to the Gallowcs.' Wrought 
Shirts (53). Our pampcrcl bodies grow weak (54). Mon 
strous big-bcllid Doublets (55). Hose, French, (rally, and 
Venetian (56). Nether-stoc&e$,c\QG\& stockings (57), Corkt 
Shoes, and Pantqfles (57-8), Coats and Jerkins (58-9). 
Neglect of the miserable Poor, who die in the streets like 
dogs (59: see too p. 105, 116). Turkish cruelty of the 
English rich to the poor (60). Cloaks short and long (60- 1 ). 
Boot-hose, from 4 to 10 (61), gewgaws to feed the wanton 
eyes of gazing fools (62). Rapiers, Swtmfjt and Daggers, in 
Velvet Sheaths. The Day of Judgment (6s), 

CIIAPTKR IV. 

A particulare Discriptiou. of tlxe Abuses of Womexis 

Apparell in Ailgna (England), and other Naughtinesses. 63-89 
Painting thdr Faces (64-7), as Harlots do (65), The Fathers 
denounce this (65-6). Tricking their Heads, propping' their 
hair with wires, hanging bugles, &c., on it (67). Wearing 
sham Hair, and Dyeing their Hair (68), Hoods, Hats, 
Caps and Ccvwt$ (69). Making holes in, their ears to wear 
jewels in (70). Riiffs, starch! and supportast (70). Minor 
Ruffs; Hbtft-Skirts ornamented (71), Fearful example of the 
Ruff-wearing Woman of Antwerp, whose neck the Devil 

1 "Sincy Uathem Adam, till tliib youngest hour," 1596. Rtfward Iff, IT, iL u, >, 



Contents. 5* 

PAGE 

broke (71-3). Doublets and Jerkins like men's : a curse on 
them for it (73). Gowns, Capes, Petticoats (74); Kirtles 
(75). Women are bundles of Clouts. Poor men's daughters' 
love of Finery (75), makes them Whores (76). Stockings of 
all colours (76), Corkt Shoes and Slippers : Perfumes (77); 
Nosegays in their Bosoms : Scents, &c. ? allurements to vice 
(78). Women's Mincing, Tripping (78), Rings, Armlets, 
scented Gloves, Looking- Glasses (Devil's Bellows), Silk 
Scarfs (79), Visors, Masks (80). Inventors of new Fashions 
denounct (80-1). Heathen women, German women, &c., 
despise fine Dress (81-2), so did Christian Women (83). 
God's punishments of Pride (84-6). Englishmen dress to 
please their Harlots (86-7). \_Added in 2nd edition'} How 
Englishwomen spend their days in idleness and sin (87). The 
Gardens they meet their Paramours in (88), are little better 
than Brothels (89). 

CHAPTER V, 

The horryble vice of Whordome in, Ailgna (England) ... 90-102 
The justifiers of whoredom denounc't (90), Marriage alone 
lawful (91). Heathens (92), and the Bible (93-5) against 
whoredom. Bodily evils of it (95-6). Every Englishman 
has bastards (96). Marriages of mere infants. Every boy 
huggles his pretty pussy, and runs-up a cottage (97). Early 
marriage should be restraind (97), and whoredom punisht 
(98) by branding with a hot iron (99). Judgments on W. 
Brustar and his whore (100). Wives are whores, and Hus 
bands keep whores (101). 

CHAPTER VI. 

GHuttonie and Drunkennesse in Ailgna (England) ... ... 102-114 

The English given to too many dishes and sauces (102,). In 
Stubbes's father's time, and earlier, men livd plainlier : 
We're weaker folk 1 (103). The Bible against Gluttony 
(104). Small relief of the poor now: 3 cankers of the 
Commonwealth, 'daintie Fare, gorgious Buildings, and 
sumptuous Apparel' (105). Food and health of the Poor ; 
dainties and diseases of the Rich (106). Drunkenness of 
the Maltworms in Alehouses 2 (107). The evils of Drunken 
ness (108). The Bible against it (109-10). Judgments on 

z Cp. Harrison's oken men, &c., Pt. I. p. viii, 337-8. 

a See the Exeter Regulations about Alehouses "m Mr. A. S. Hamilton's Quarter 
Sessions. 



6* Contents. 



PAGE 



Swabian drunkards (111-13) ; on Dutch ones (113-14: both 
added in ind edition}. 

CHAPTER VII. 

Couetousnes in Ailg-na (England) 114-123 

All Englishmen covetous (114-15). Racking of Rents, and 
Enclosure of Commons (116). Grasping Lawyers (117-18) ; 
Cheating Merchants (118). Dearness of all things (118). 
Taking house and land over the poor man's head (119). 
The Bible against Covetousness (120-1). Every Beggar 
tries to be " Master," a gentleman, and is flatterd by Titi- 
villers (122), 

CHAPTER VIII. 

Great Vsurie in Ailgna (England) 123-129 

The laws allow it, but don't conrnani it (123-4). The Bible 
against it (125). Debtors imprisond (126); their misery; 
the Creditor's / will make dice of his bones (127). Vsurers 
worse than Devils (128). Scriveners, the Devil's tools 
(128-9). 

CHAPTER IX. 

Great Swearyng in Ailgna (England : not m ist ed., added 

imnd) 129-136 

Papists allowd too much liberty in England (130-1). English 
men swear too much (131) ; the greatest swearer held the 
bravest fellow (132). Sin of Swearing (133). Swearers 
should be branded with a hot iron (134). Judgments on 
Swearers in Lincolnshire (135), Congleton in Cheshire, and 
London (136). 

CHAPTER X. 

The Maner of sanctifying the Sabaoth in Ailgna 136-140 

Plays, Lords of Misrule, Games, Bear-baitings, Fairs, Foot 
ball, reading bawdy Books (137). Why the Sabbath was 
instituted (138). The Jews strict in keeping it (139). Its 
true use : prayer, and doing good (140). 

CHAPTER XL 

Of Stage-playes, and Enterluds, with their wickednes ... 140-150 
Plays on religious subjects are Sacrilege ( 140-1). The Fathers, 
&c., against Plays (142-3). The sinful Arguments of Trage 
dies and Comedies (143). Curse those who say, Plays are 
as good as Sermons (144). The naughtinesses at The 
Theatre and Curtain (144). Bad things learnt at Plays 
(145). Players are Rogues and Vagabonds by Law (146). 



Contents. 7* 

CHAPTER XII. 

Lords of Mis-rule in Ailgna (England) 146-148 

How they dress up, play the Devil's Dance in the Church, and 
feast in bowers in the Churchyard (147). Their Badges, 
and the Gifts they get (148). 

CHAPTER XIII. 

The Maner of Maie- Games in England 148-150 

Folk spend the night in the woods, draw the Maypole home 
with oxen, and dance round it. 

CHAPTER XIV. 

The Manner of Church-ales in Ailgna (England) 1 50-1 52 

The Churchwardens brew the ale, sell it in Church, and men 
get as drunk as Apes (150-1). They let the Churches and 
Bibles go to rum (151). 

CHAPTER XV. 
The maner of keeping of Wakesses, and Feasts in 

Ailgna I52-I54 

Every town and village has its yearly Wake-day or Festival, at 
which the Parishioners and their friends stuff and get drunk, 
and gather together a lot of whores and drabs (152-3)- 
Wakes sprang from the Heathen and the Devil (154). 

CHAPTER XVI. 

The horrible Vice of pestiferous Dauncing, vsed in Ailgna. 1 54-169 
Dancing provokes Wantonness (154); Clipping, Kissing, 
Groping, &c. (155) ; hurts the Body, and lames the Mind 
( 1 56). The Bible and the Fathers against Dancing ( 157-8). 
Our Forefathers' dancing and ours compared (158-9)- The 
Israelites 7 dancing: not Men with Women (160-3). Our 
cheek-by-cheek Dancing is e beastly to behold ' ( 163). Bible- 
folk's dancing (163-5). Our filthy Dancing must do hurt 
(165). Each sex should dance by itself (i 66). The Fathers, 
&c., against Dancing (166-9). It sprang from the teats of 
the Devil's breast (169). 

CHAPTER XVII. 

Of Musick in Ailgna, and how it allureth to Vanitie ... 169-173 
< Musick is a good gift of God/ but used for < filthie dauncing ' is 
bad (170). Alehouse Musicians, and Minstrels, and their 
bawdy Songs (171). If you want your daughter whorish, 



8* Contents. 

PAGE 

'bring her up in Music & Dancing' (171). The harm of 
licensing Minstrels, &c. (172). 

CHAPTER XVIII. 
Cards, Dice, Tables, Tennisse, Bowles, and other Exer- 

cyses vsed vnlawfully in Ailgna 1 73- 1 77 

These fooleries specially us'd at Christmas (173). No Chris 
tian can play for money (174). Evil of Gaming or Brothel- 
Houses (175). Laws, &c., against Gaming (176-7). 

CHAPTER XIX. 

Beare-baiting and other Exercyses, vsed vnlawfully in 

Ailgna 177-180 

These heathenish games are held on the Sabbath (177). Some 
men'll keep 12 or 20 mastiffs, and risk from 20 to 100 on 
a Bear-bait: 'fight Dog, fight Bear! the Devil part all!' 
(178). God's Judgment on the Bear-baiting Folks at Pan's 
Garden^ Southwark, on Sunday, Jan. 13, 1583 (179); and at 
The Theatre a little before (180). 

CHAPTER XX. 

Cockfightingj Hawking & Hunting upon the Sabbath- 
Day in England ... ., ,,, ...180-182 

The Swearing, Cheating, Quarrelling and Drinking at the 
Coqkfights (180), Hawking and Hunting are only allow 
able on week-days (181). Is it Christian to break down 
your neighbour's hedges, and trample his corn ? (182). 

CHAPTER XXI. 
Markets, Fairs ; Courts and Leets upon the Sabbath-Day 

in England 182-183 

The former lead to Cheating, Lying, Drunkenness; the latter 
to Envy, Perjury, Pilling of the Poor. 

CHAPTER XXII. 
Football -playing on the Sabbath & other Days in 

England 183-184 

It's a bloody and murdering game, not fit for the Sabbath or 
any other day (184). 

CHAPTER XXIII. 

The Reading of "Wicked Books in England 1 84- 1 86 

The Bible, and Fox's Book of Martyrs are set aside for scur 
rilous and bawdy books (185). 



Contents. 9^ 

PAGE 

CHAPTER XXIV. 

How all tliese Enormities & Abuses maybe reformd ... 186-191 
By putting our good Laws into practise (186), and punishing 
those who give bribes to avoid them (187). The Day of Judg 
ment is not far off (187), as Signs and Tokens show (188). 
And then the wicked shall find a Material Hell with ' uggle- 
sorne Devills ' (188). Repentance must not be put off (189) ; 
it must be inward and true (190). Men cannot wallow in 
the Pleasures of the World, and live in Joy in Heaven (191). 

Faults escaped in Printing ... ... ... ... ... 192 



III. 
Extracts from PHILLIP STUBBES'S <ftjjti#tal <&U##e fOV 



<fff)rt0tiatt SlSBmimt, 1591, or Life S- Death of his 
Wife^ Katharine Stubbes, who died at Burton-upon-Trent on 
Dec. 14, 1590 ..................... 195-208 

Her parentage, marriage (197), sweet and pious character ( 198- 
9) ; her feeling that she should die in childbirth (200). Her 
boy born; Ague seizes her ; her gentle patience (200). Her 
desire to be set free (201), and to make a Confession of her 
Faith (202). Her Confession (mainly doctrinal, and there 
fore left out) (203-5). 

* A most wonderfull conflict betwixt Satan and her soule; 
and of her valiant conquest in the same, by the power of 
Christ' (205-7). Her death at the age of 18 (208). 

IV. 

Extracts from PHILIP SxuBBES's $)etfcCt idat^toag 10 

tie, oront&intng Goalie jttrtritationg antt 

, I592, and 1610 ............... 209-230 

Contents of these two Editions (1592, 1610) ...... 210,212 

The Epistle Dedicatorie to Mistresse Katherine Milward, 

1592 ........................ 213-214 

Precepts at thy going forth of thy Chamber ...... 215 

Meditations in the washing of ones Face and Hands ... 215 
A Praicr to be said at the washing of ones Face and Hands 215 
Directions how a Christian, should behaue himselfe at the 

Table ........................ 216 

A Thank -giuing to God after Dinner ......... 216 

A Thanks-giumg to God before Supper ......... 217 



io* Contents. 



PAGE 



A Thanks-gluing to God after Supper ......... 218 

Directions of Christian behauiour after Supper ...... 218 

Meditations when thou comest into thy Chamber ...... 219 

A Prayer when Sleepe cometh vpon one ......... 220 

(these fleas and gnats do bite &> gnaw 7ny skinne, 221) 

A Praier when one awakes out of Sleepe ... ... ... 221 

Christian Directions for the Morning ......... 221 



Extracts from & &$0tt fffati0 Of ItJtatft^ mitt 

uppUratt0n0 .................. 223-230 

A Praier for the Queenes Maiestie ............ 224 

A Prayer for a Competent & a necessary Lining ...... 225 

A Praier to be said of those that be vnmaried ...... 225 

A Prayer to bee said of those that be mariecl ...... 226 

A Prayer to be said of those that be Masters of Households 227 

A Prayer to be said of Seruants ............ 227 

A Prayer in the time of Pestilence ............ 228 

A Praier to be said of all such as be Maiestrates and Rulers 

in the Common Wealth ............... 230 



V. 

NOTES: (Chief headings) 231-320 

Men's Dress and its Absurdities 239 

Women's Dress, Face-Painting, Naked Breasts, &c. ... 253 

Fornication and Adultery . . ... ... ... ... 280 

Gluttony and Drunkenness 284 

Cruelty to the Poor, Usury, &c 288 

Swearing 2 94 

Sabbath-breaking, by Bearbaiting, &c. ... 296 

Theatres 3* 

Lords of Misrule, May-games, Church-Ales, &c 304 

Games, Sports, and Football- Playing ... 316 

VI. 

APPENDIX : Popular and Popish Customs and Superstitions 
in Germany, &c,, in 1553 : The 4th Book of Thomas 
Kirchmaicr's (or Naogeorgus 1 s) " Popish Kingdomc" *553, 

englisht 1570 321 

VII. 

INDEX 349 



i mm 





Spinster's Ruff and bare neck ; Farthingale (or Crinoline). Miss Anne Russell 
[formerly supposd to be Lady Hunsdon] ; from Virtue's print. See 
the Heliogravure, above. Planche, i. 187. 




Ruff Wings, &c. Queen Elizabeth. Plancht, L 246, 435. 
SHAKSPERU'S ENGLAND : STUBBES. ^ 




Time of James I. The Earl (Carr) and Countess of Somerset (Lady Essex). Planch^ ii. 230. 
Later fashion of marrid women baring the neck. 




Mask, from a print by P. de Jode; 
time of James I. Planch^ i. 366. 




Q. Elizabeth : early Portrait, with 

f Mary-Queen-of-Scots'-cap.' 

Ptanchg, i. 79. 



>^ 




Ruff ' underpropped with Supportasse. 
Stubbes, p. 70, foot. Planch^ i. 443. 




Wheel Farthingale (or Crinoline). Anne of 'Denmark, Queen of James I. PlancJt t i. 187. 
Later Fashion, of marrid Women baring the Neck. 

14* 




Cap. Earl of Oxford, 1578. 
Planche, i. 77. 





Ruff. Sir William Russell, 1590. Plancht, \. 436. 



CMMltS 






Hat, with Lady's glove in it (gauntlet shown). George 
Clifford, Earl of Cumberland. Planch> i. 256. 




Ruff, pointed Doublet, and Netherstockes 

(Stubbes, p. 57) ; time of Elizabeth, from 

portrait of Sir William Russell. 

Plancht, i, 172. 



Cap. Sir Christopher Hatton ; time 
of Elizabeth. PlanchS, i. 77. 



i 7 * 



ON BALLAD-BROADSIDE ILLUSTRATIONS OF 
COSTUME AND MANNERS. 

BY THE 

REV. J. W. EBSWORTH. 

THE history of the woodcuts illustrating the common street-ballads has 
never yet been systematically undertaken. Mr. William Chappell, our 
very highest authority on all matters connected with old songs and 
ballads, their words, music, and publication, has avowedly left the 
subject of their woodcuts to other students and specialists. It is of 
sufficient importance to be assigned to one volunteer, who has already 
made considerable progress in tracing the source from which many of 
the woodcuts had descended to the hawkers ; and his future gift to the 
Ballad-Society members may prove the interest attached to the search, 
and the value of several discoveries. Meanwhile here are some Ballad- 
Society woodcuts chiefly from the Roxburghe and the Bagford Collec 
tions, as reproduced under the editorship of Messrs. Wm. Chappell and 
J. W. Ebsworth. A few words from the latter may accompany the 
present selection of woodcuts, without borrowing from the Planchd 
descriptions. 

All the street-ballad cuts, of early, middle, or recent times, fall 
easily into one of two groups, i. Those which were engraved expressly 
for some one particular ballad. 2. Those which had originally belonged 
to a higher class printed-book, and, after having served the purpose 
of attracting attention and sale to it, became lessened in value, often 
mutilated of parts, worm-eaten, and cracked, and in such condition 
fell into the hands of those literary rag-pickers, the professional 
publishers of street-ballads for hawkers. There is seldom any practical 
difficulty found by an expert determining to which of these two classes 
every woodcut belongs, when it is encountered on a broadside. In 
general the first class, of ballad-cuts proper, are of much coarser execu 
tion, more clumsy in design, and later in costume than the book-illus 
trations. Of these latter a large number were no doubt the work of 
French and German artists. A few of these here given belong to 
known books, still extant, and there are many others in the Rox 
burghe, Bagford, Wood, and Rawlinson collections which are veritable 
relics of small quarto volumes of pleasantry, which must always be 
interesting to students of old literature. Thus the cut marked (A) 



1 8 * Memorandum on Ballad-broadside Illustrations. 

belonged to Robert Greene's " Quip for an Upstart Courtier, "published 
in 1592. (B) is a mutilated and spoilt illustration from the title-page of 
Will Kemp's "Nine-Days Wonder/' 1600; the figures separated and 
absurdly misplaced (after each had been elsewhere used singly, and the 
original intention forgotten) : with the bells on Kemp's legs shorn away 
to disguise their morris-dancer significance. These bells are better seen 
in the terribly-reduced copy (C) of the morris-dancer receiving his prize- 
cup and a " modest quencher," that " cheers/' if it does no more. The 
gambling Bordello-scene (D) is an Elizabethan picture of fast-life, that 
had originally belonged to a small pamphlet, (E ) is a very slovenly and 
inaccurate copy (Planches) from the wood-cut adorning the title-page 
of "A Faire Quarrell : written by Thomas Midlcton and William 
Rowley/' 1622. This edition is in the present writer's possession, but 
there was an earlier edition issued in 1617. The cut may have been 
used before that date, as evidently the two shields on the ground, with 
armorial-bearings emblazoned, mark some special duel 

The single figure (F) represents Gabriel Ilarvcy, as caricatured 
offensively by Thomas Nash (as though Harvey had anticipated Alder 
man Atkins of Civil- War elate, in forgetting his manners ; even as 
Hogarth misrepresented Felix when he " trembled"). It is from 
" Haue with you to Saffron Walclon," 1596, and become a favourite 
adornment among ballad-prints. There is clever satire embodied in ((/), 
showing how drink develops the latent animalism of human beings. The 
original cut, before it descended to the ballad printer Rich. Harper, was on 
the title-page of Thomas Hey wood's " Philocothonista ; or, the Drunkard 
opened, dissected, and anatomised," 1635. At the Bodleian Library, 
when engaged on the Bagforcl-Ballatl editing, the present writer found 
the Maypole-dance (H) ; with its primitive perspective of street-archi 
tecture resembling our modern workmen's cottages, and the clear indi 
cation of a prize-wreath for the Queen of the May, with the protecting 
stumps around the May-pole, and the Tabouret with his pipe, calling the 
flat-capped J Prentice-boys and the blithe damsels to a dancing-bout. It 
is apparently of Charles the First' s time, and, to the best of our belief, 
was never copied before, being used as an extra-illustration of the Ballad- 
Society' 3 Bagf ord-Ballads. 

The Tavern scene (I), with the "Drawer" waiting, was a favourite 
illustration of Martin Parker's convivial ballads, three of which it adorns, 
John Wade's publisher often selected (K), with its cavaliers regaling 
themselves oyer the Virginian weed : 

Much meate doth gluttony produce, 

And makes a man a Swine ; 
But hee's a temperate-man indeed, 

That with a bafe can dine. 



Memorandum on Ballad-broadside Illustrations. 19* 

He needes no napkin for his hande 

His fingers for to wipe ; 
He hath his kitchin in a box, 

His Roast-meate in a pipe. (1641.) 

The patient fisherman (L), we believe, appeared in some little precursor 
of Isaak Walton's " Compleat Angler, 7 ' and long before his date of 1653. 
(M) and (N) probably belonged to one story-book, and showed the pro 
gress of a love-affair, the garden-scene being a later incident in the tale. 
To us it seems to be of James the First's time. Most of the other cuts 
were intended from the first as ballad-illustrations. The Tinker (O) 
was always a popular, amatory, and reckless character ; to whom many 
old ballads were devoted, and he was always triumphant. The number 
of representations of Queen Elizabeth (P, Q, and R,) testify to the 
fondness with which the people regarded " Good Queen Bess," both 
before and after the Crown had passed to the Stuart family. We have 
an impression that the picture of a Queen with a veil depending from 
her head (S) represented " Bloody Mary/' It is of rare occurrence, in 
comparison with those of her more popular sister, Elizabeth. The 
obtrusively-indelicate exposure of the bosom (T) was a court-fashion of 
James the First' s time, to whose date the woodcut belongs. In Coryat's 
" Crudities," 1611, both the frontispiece and the illustration of his meet 
ing the Venetian Courtezan shew how this fashion prevailed among the 
frail sisterhood in other lands. Fuller's "Profane State/' an early 
edition, has a portrait of Joan of Naples, with exactly similar display ; 
probably in that individual case it was a wanton calumny, but it was 
intended to blacken her character. Many upright people love to believe 
the worst about women who are fascinating. In an extant portrait of 
the beautiful and wicked Countess of Somerset, Carr' s wife, there is an 
equal obtrusion of her charms, that ought to be kept secret. See the 
Bagford Ballads, p. 124, for what Dante writes on the immodesty of the 
Florentine women : " O dolce frate/' etc., Purgatorio^ canto xxiii. See 
also " Bagnall's Ballad," beginning, " A Ballet, a Ballet/ 7 in Musarum 
Delici&j 1656. An insufficiency of drapery to cover one part of the 
body seems generally to have accompanied some superabundance at 
another ; as shown in the hoop-extended robes, with shoulder-lappets, 
and wire-spread starched-RufT under the ears (U), in another Court- 
Lady of James the First : perhaps his Queen Anne, or the Lady Arabella. 
Even thus, bare shoulders and scanty under-garments are now found in 
conjunction with long trailing skirts. Going down to dinner, like Gold 
smith' s Traveller, ladies "drag at each remove a lengthening chain." 
The feather-fans appear in many of the cuts ; and examples meet us 
(X 1 to X 4 ) of the same design being often copied ; sometimes by rival 
publishers, but oftener to suit other-sized spaces, or admit of several 



ao*Memorandum on Ballad-broadside Illustrations. 

ballads being worked off simultaneously, before stereotyping was under 
stood. The Shepherdess with a crook (Y) affords a specimen of the 
fantastically Pastoral; her actual costume (compare Y 2 ) being whim 
sical enough to embody the ideal desired. The dashing Cavalier (Z) 
with three-plumed hat and fair depending Love-locks, often tied with 
knots of ribbon, belongs to the reign of Charles the First, and adorns 
ballads of the date 1639, Until shortly after that time the popular 
representation of a lover was always as an armed horseman : 

u I could not love thee, dear, so much 

Loved I not honour more." 

J. W, EBSWORTH. 





Roxburghe Ballad Cuts (Ballad Society). T. Bare Breasts ; Wneel Farthingale (or Crinoline). 

S. Queen Mary. P. Queen Elizabeth. Round Farthingale. 2,1^ 




Rutls, Fans, Chains, Farthingales or Hoops. X 2 . Unmarrid Woman, bare-breasted. 




Feathers, Ruffs, Fans, Farthingales or Hoops. V. Probably Queen Anne, of Denmark, with wired Ruff. 

Q. Queen Eli2abeth. ^ 

SHAKRPEKE'S ENGLAND : STUBBED. 




Women's Feathers, Wired Ruffs, Wheel Farthingales. Men's Bumbasted Breeches, 
Hat-bands, 'Feathers, &c. t. Elizabeth or James I. 

24* 




(JTime of James I.] 




Women's Ruffs, Farthingales, &c. 4. Men's fringed Boot-tops, &c 




D. Gambling in a Brothel. Time of Elizabeth. 




.BomDaated Breeches, time of Elizabeth. Plane**, i. 57- (Slovenly copy from the 
title-page of Middleton and Rowley's Fair* Quarrell, 1617-) 




Roxburghe Ballad Cuts. A : from R. Greene's Quip for an Upstart Courtier, 1592. 
B is the famous Clown Kemp's Dance to Norwich 1600, alterd from the title-page of his 

Nine-Day J Wonder : the Drummer ought to go before Kemp. 
C. Morris-dancer, with bells below his knee, going to take a drink. 




F. Gabriel Harvey, from. T. Nashe's Have with you to Saffron Walden, 1596. The rest 
probably of the time of James I. 

29=* 



\\WWwI\\\\v 



Fishing with an angle (? Dutch). Probably time of James I 




The Jovial Tinker, See Memorandum. 



3 




CK Drunkards, from the Title-page of T. Heywood's PMlocothonista, 1635. '' 




K. Pipes and Ale : final time of Q. Elizabeth or early of James I. 
SHAKSPERE'S ENGLAND : 8TUBBES. d 




[Probably a Professor or Lecturer at College, with his Students. Note the Dress, 
Benches, Chair, Bookshelves. J.'W. E.j 




A Judicial Complaint : with plaintiff on his knees supplicating for redress, and the defendant 

standing, but losing courage while being admonished. Their inferior size is an indication 

of being of lowlier station. J, W. E. 

33* 




I. Tavern-scene. Drawer attending at a revel. 




H. May-pole Dance: time of Charles I. See Memorandum. 



33 



35' 



FOREWORDS. 1 



i. The Anatomic : its ist and 

2nd Parts, p. 35* 
2. T. Nashe*s chaff and abuse of 

Stubbes, p. 36* 
3. Did Stubbes write against real 

Sins orfancid ones f p. 44* 
4. Was he a mere Railer, or did 

his indignation against Vice 

and Folly spring from an 

earnest Heart f p. 49* 
5. Stubbes, Ms Wife, and her 

Family, p. 50"* 



6. His ii known, and 8 extant 

Works , p. 55* 
$ 7. His Character, p. 69* 
8. Miscellaneous: p. 71* 

Queen Elizabeths Procession in 
1600, Kirchmaier's Popish 
Superstitions in 1553, the 
present Edition, &c. 
APPENDIX : Extracts from Bp. 
Babington more or less justifying 
Stubbes , p. 75"* 



i. As Harrison's Description of England is the best work on 
the general condition of our country during Shakspere's early time, 
so is Stubbes's Anatomie the worthfullest for the special depart 
ments of Dress and its extravagances in men and women, of 
Amusements and the excesses they ran into, of the Follies and 
Naughtinesses of the day. No one can pretend to know Shakspere's 
England without Stubbes' s help, and therefore the Anatome has 
taken an early place in our Society's Sixth Series, whose purpose is 
to put before our Members the best pictures attainable of our great 
poet's time. The First Part only of the book is generally known. 
The reputation which its slash and life have won for it, has (I have 
long thought) unfairly darkend the merits of the Second Part, in 
which Stubbes shows up briefly the Abuses and Corruptions in all 
classes of Society, Temporalty and Spiritualty, and describes, one 
after the other, the 

1 Prof. Nicliol, of Glasgow, calls this good word a barbarism ! How happy 
for us, that a little cherub sits up aloft in the Northern wilds to look after the 
civilization of us Southerners I 



36* i. Contents of the Anatomic, Part it. 2. T. Nashe. 

Country Landlords 

Queen Tailors 

Her Council Starchers 

Shires Tanners 

Judges (delays in law) Shoemakers 

Prisoners, their hard case Brokers (F, 4, bk.) 

Laws Hospitality, or relief for the 
Universities poor. 

Schoolmasters Beggars 

Merchants Husbandmen 

Drapers Ingraters or Forestalled 

Clothiers Chandlers 

Goldsmiths Barbers 

Vintners Surgeons and Physicians 

Butchers Astronomers and Astrologers 

Grasiers Prognosticators and Almanac- 
Parks Makers. 
Sheepmasters 

The list of subjects will show those who have had a taste of Stubbes 
in this First Part of his Anatomie how valuable the Second Part 
must be; and tho' the spice of it is not equal to that of the 
First Part, I mean to print it, as well for its own worth as to 
complete the work. But as the First Part was evidently written as 
a complete book, the Second Part being only calld out by the 
unwonted success of the First, I have put separate Forewords, 
Notes, and Index to the First Part, so as to keep it distinct 
from the Second; and I have not quoted in the Notes, any of 
the many illustrative passages that are in Part 11., where, as 
the reader has seen, some of the Part-I-subjects are dealt with 
again. 

2. The general view of Stubbes is, that he was a mere bitter 
narrow-sould Puritan, who saw only the dark side of everything, 
evil in innocence, sin in mirth, the devil in dancing, ami hell in 
Shakspere's art. In his own time this opinion prevaild. lie was 
held up to contempt as one of the Mar- Prelate zealots and 
hypocrites by the sharp-tongued Thomas Nashe, who in 1590 
plagiarised Stul bes's title, and 1 elpt his own Anatomie of 
Absurditie into sale by following in Stubbes' s wake, and yet had 
in 1389 cut him (and his fellows) up in the style following; 



2. T. Nasheon Stubbed s Dice-playing and Widow. 37* 

(i) NASHE on STUBBES, in his Almond for a Par rat ^ 1589. 

"If they will needes ouerthrowe mee, 
let them goe in hand with the 

exploite, 6^v [on sign. C. 4. 

T T OUa, holla? brother Martin, you are to hasty: what, Winter is 
JLJ[ no time to make warres in; you were best stay til summer, 
& then both our braines wilbe in a better temperature, but I thinke 
ere that time your witte wilbe welny worn thredbare, and your 
banquerout inuention, cleane out at the elbowes - } then are we well 
holpen vp with a witnesse, if the aged champion of Warwicke, doe 
not lay in his shoulders, and support discipline ready to lie in 
the dust, with some or other demonstration. I can tell you, Phil. 
Stu. is a tall man also for that purpose. What, his Anatomy of 
Abuses for all that, will serue very fitly for an Antipast, before one 
of Egertons* Sermons: I would see the best of your Trauerses* write 
such a treatise as he hath done, against short heeld pantoffles. But 
one thing it is great pitty of him, that being such a good fellow as 
hee is, hee shoulde speake against dice, so as he doth : neuerthelesse 
ther is some hope of him, for as I heard not lo/zg since, a brother 
of his, meting him by chance (as theeues meete at the gallowes) 
after many Christian questions of the well-fare of his persecuted 
brethren, and sistern, askt him when they should haue a game at 
tables together, "by the grace of God, the next Sabbaoth," quoth 
/%;/., " and then if it shal so seeme good to his prouidence, haue at 
you for ames ase and the dise." I forgette to tell you what a stirre he 
keepes against dumbe ministers, and neuer writes nor talkes of them,, 
but he calleth them minstrels, when his mastershippe in his minority, 
plaide the Reader in Chesshire, for fiue marke a yeare and a canuas 
dublet, couenanted besides, that in consideration of that stipend, he 
make cleane the patrones bbotes euery time he came to towne. 
What neede more words to proue him a protesta^t? did not he 
behaue himselfe like a true Christian, when he went a wooing for 
his friend Clarke ? I warrant you, he saide not ' God saue you, or God 
speed you/ with 'good euen, or good morrow,' as our prophane woers 
are wont, but stept close to her, with 'peace bee with you/ very de 
murely, and then told her a long tale, that in-so-much as widowhoode 
was an vncleane lyfe, and subiect to many temptations, shee 

1 This tract has been attributed also to John Lyly, the author of Euphues ; 
but it's surely more like Nashe, and ought to be his. 

2 The 'zealous Puritan and Preacher at the Black Fryers in London/ Stephen 
Egertori, author of a Lecture on Gen. xii, &c. Lon. 1589, 8vo. Catechizing 1594, 
8vo, &c. Wood, Ath. Oxon. (1691), i. 754. 

3 The famous Puritan, Walter Travers, author of * An Answere to a suppll- 
catorie Epistle of G. T. for the pretended Catholiques/ 1583, c. Wood, Ath. 
Oxon. (i. 1691), 741 ; Cooper, Ath. Camb. 



38^ a. T. Naske about Stubbes tempting a Widow. 

might doe well to reconcile her selfe to the Church of God, in the 
holy ordinance of matrimony. Manye wordes past to this purpose ; 
but I 1 wotte well the conclusion was this, that since she had hitherto 
conuerst with none but vnregenerate persons, and was vtterly 
carelesse of the communion of Saints, she would let him, that was a 
man of God, put a newe spirite into her by carnall copulation, and so 
engraft her into the fellowshippe of the faithfull j to which, that shee 
might more willingly agree, hee offered her a spicke and spanne 
new Geneua Bible, that his attendant Italian had brought with him 
to make vp the bargaine. But for all the Scripture he could alledge, 
it should not bee ; Phil. Stu. was no meate for her tooth. God wote, 
he could not get a penyworth of leachery on such a pawne as his 
Bible was ; the man behinde the painted cloth mard all ; and so, O 
griefe, a good Sabaoths day work was lost. Stand to it Mar-martin 
lunior, and thou art good inough for ten thousand of them ; tickle 
me my PhiL a little more in the flanke, and make him winch e like a 
resty iade, whereto a dreaming diuine of Cambridge, in a certain 
priuate Sermon of his, compared the wicked. Saist thou me so, 
good heart ? then haue at you Maister Compositor, with the con 
struction of Sunt oculos clari qui cernis sydera tanquam. If you be 
remembred, you were once put to your trumpes about it in Wolfes 2 
Printing-house, when as you would needes haue clari the infinitiue 
moode of a verbe passiue ; which determined, you went forwards after 
this order : Sunt there are, oculos eies, qui the which, cernis thou 
doest see, clari to be clear e, tanquem sydera as the Stars : Excellent 
well done of an old Maister of Arte ! yet why may not hee by 
authority challenge to him selfe, for this one peece of worke, the 
degrees hee neuer tooke? 3 Learning is a iewel, my maisters; make 
much of it; and PhiL Stu. a Gentleman, euery haire of his head; whom 
although you doe not regard according as he deserues, yet I warrant 
you, Martin makes more account of him then so, who hath substituted 
him long since (if the truth 'were well boulted out) amongst the 
number of those priuy Martinists which he threatens to place in 
4 euery parish. I am more then halfe weary of trotting too and fro in 
this cursed common wealth, where sinfull simplicitye pufte vppe with 
pride of singularity, seekes to peruerte the name and methode of 

1 Sign. D. r. 

2 Reginald Wolfe, the Queen's Printer, and planner of HolimhecT $ Chronicle, 
See Hairison, I. p. iv, and Stow, p. 65* ;/. below. 

3 This phrase I take to be the ground of Antony Wood's (or his coi respond 
ent's) paragraph below, p. 53* Stubbes didn't lake a degree ; thei cj'ore be was at 
a University. No tiace existed of him at Oxford ; therefore he was at Cambridge, 
and left before he took his degree. Then, because there was a Justinian Stubs, 
M.A., at Glo'ster Hall, Oxford, in 1589 (? entercl there in 1$%^ therefore Phillip 
vStnbbes, after his 7 years' ramble about England, 1576-83, settled at Oxford for 
a time, at Glo'ster Hall. 

4 Sign. D. I, back. 



2. T. Nashe's Attack on Stubbes and his Anatomic. 39* 

magistracy. But as the moste of their arguments, are drawn from 
our graue fathers infirmities,- so all their outrageous endeuors haue 
their offspring from affected vainglory. 

(" An Almond for a Parrat / Or Cutbert Curry-knaues / Almes. j Fit 
Tor the knaue Martin, and the / rest of the impudent Beggers, that / 
can not be content to stay their stomackes / with a Benefice, but 
they will needes / breake their fastes with / our Bishops./ Rimarum 
sum plemis.l Therefore beware (gentle Reader) you / catch not the 
hicket with laughing./ [Ornament.} Imprinted at a Place, not farre 
from / a Place, by the Assignes of Signior Some-body, and / are to 
be sold at his shoppe in Trouble-knaue / Street, at the signe of the / 
Standish./" [1589]-) 

(2) NASHE on STUBBES, in his Anatomie of Abmrditie, 1590 
(sign. B. ii.). 

" I leaue these [Girls and their praisers] in their follie, and hasten to 
other mens furie, who make the Presse the dunghill whether they 
carry all the muck of their mellancholicke imaginations, pretending 
forsooth to anatomize abuses,- and stubbe vp sin by the roptes, whe;/ 
as there waste paper beeing wel viewed, se ernes fraught with nought 
els saue dogge daies effects, who, wresting places of Scripture against 
pride, whoredom e, couetousnesse, gluttonie, and drunkennesse, 
extend their inuectiues so farre against the abuse, that almost the 
things remaines not whereof they admitte anie lawfull vse. Speaking 
of pride, as though they were afraid somebody should cut too large 
peniworthes out of their cloth : of couetousness, as though in them 
that Prouerbe had beene verified, Nullus ad amissas ibit amicus 
opes : of gluttonie, as though their liuing did lye vppon another mans 
trencher : of drunkennesse, as though they had beene brought vppe 
all the dayes of their life with bread and water: and finally of 
whoredome, as though they had beene Eimuches from theyr x cradle, 
or blind from the howre of their conception. But as the Stage player 
is nere the happier, because hee represents oft times the persons 
of mightie men, as of Kings & Emperours, so I account such men 
neuer the holier, because they place praise in painting foorth other 
mens imperfections. 

These men resemble Trees, which are wont eftsoones^to die, if 
they be fruitfull beyond their wont j euen so they to die jn vertue, 
if they once ouershoote themselues too much wyth inueighing 
against vice ; to be brainesicke in workes if they be too fruitfull in 
words. And euen as the Vultures slay nothing themselues, but pray 
vpon that which- of other is slayne, so these men inueigh against no 
new vice, which heere to fore by the censures of the learned hath not 
beene sharply condemned, but teare that, peecemeale wise, which 
long since by ancient wryters was wounded to the death, so that out 

1 Sign. B, ii back. 



4o* a. r l\ Nashes Attach on Stubbes & fellow-Puritans. 

of there forepassed pains, ariseth their Pamphlets, out of their volumes, 
theyr inuectives. Good God, that those that neuer tasted of any 
thing saue the excrernentes of Artes, whose thredde-bare knowledge 
being bought at the second hand, is spotted, blemished, and defaced, 
through translators rigorous rude dealing, shoulde preferre their 
sluttered sutes, before other mens glittering gorgious array, should 
offer them water out of a muddie pit, who haue continually recourse 
to the Fountaine, or dregs to drink, who haue wine to sell. At 
scire tuum nihil est, nisi te scire hoc sciat alter. Thy knowledge 
bootes thee not a button, except another knowes that thou hast this 
knowledge. Anacharsis was wont to say, that the Athenians vsed 
money to no other ende but to tell it; euen so these men make no 
other vse of learning, but to shewe it. But as the Panther smelleth 
sweetelie but onely to brute beastes, which shee draweth vnto her to 
theyr destruction, not to men in like maner, so these men seeme 
learned to none but to Idiots, whow with a coloured shew of zeale, 
they allure vnto them to their illusion, and not to the learned in like 
sort. I knowe not howe it delighteth them to put theyr Oare in [an] 
other mans boate, and their foote in another mans boote, to incurre 
that prouerbial checke, Ne sutor vltrd cre-^pidam, or that oratoricall 
taunt, Quam quisque norit artem, in ea se exerceat ; with the Elephant 
to wade and wallowe in the shallow water, when they woulde sooner 
sincke then swym in the deepe Riuer, to be conuersant in those 
Authors which they cannot vnderstande, but by the translatour their 
Interpreter, to vaunte reading when the sum of their diuinitie 
consists in twopennie Catichismes; and yet their ignoraunt zeale 
wyll presumptuously presse into the Presse, enquiring most curiouslie 
into euery corner of the Common wealth, correcting that sinne in 
others, wherwith they are corrupted themselues. To prescribe rules 
of life, belongeth not to the ruder sorte ; to condemne those callings 
which are approoued by publique authoritie, argueth a proude 
contempt of ths Magistrates superiority. Protogenes knew Apelles 
by one lyne, neuer otherwise seene, and you may knowe these mens 
spirit by theyr speeche, their minds by their medling, their folly by 
their phrase. View their workes, and know their vanitie ; see the 
Bookes bearing their name, and smile in thy sleeue at their shame. 
A small ship in a shallow Riuer, seemes a huge thing, but in the sea 
a very little vessell ; euen so each trifling Pamphlet to the simpler 
.sorte, a most substantiall subiect, whereof the wiser lightly account, 
and the learned laughing contemne. Therefore more earnestly I 
agrauate their faulte, because their crime is crept into credit, and 
their dooinges deemed deuotion, when as purposelie to some mans 
despight, they bring into act their cholericke motions. 

A common practise it is nowadaies, which breedes our common 
calamitie, that the cloake of zeale, shoulde be vnto an hypocrite in 
steed of a coate of Maile, a pretence of puritie, a pentisse for iniquitie, 

1 Sign. B. iii. 



2. T. Nashe s Attack onStubbesand the Puritans. 41* 

a glose of godllnes, a couert for all naughtines. When men shall 
publiquelie make profession of a more inward calling, and shall waxe 
cold in the workes of charitie, and feruent in malice, liberall in nothing 
but in lauishebackbyting, holding hospitalitie for an eschewed heresie, 
and the performance of good workes for Papistrie, may wee not then 
haue recourse to that caueat of Christ in the Gospell, Cauete ab l hipo- 
critis. It is not the writhing of the face, the heauing vppe of the eyes 
to heauen, that shall keepe these men from hauing their portion in 
helL Might they be saued by their booke, they haue the Bible alwaies 
in their bosome, and so had the Pharisies the Lawe embroidered in 
their garments. Might the name of the Church infeafFe them in the 
kingdome of Christ, they will include it onely in their couenticles, 
and bounde it euen in Barnes, which many times they make their 
meeting place, and will shameleslie face men out, that they are the 
Church militant heere vpon earth, whe^ as they rather seeme a 
company of Malecontents, vnworthy to breath on the earth. Might 
the boast of the spirit pind to their sleeues, make them elect before 
all other, they will make men beleeue, they doe nothing whereto the 
spirit dooth not perswade them : and what Heretiques were there 
euer that did not arrogate as much to themselues ? These they be 
that publiquely pretende a more regenerate holines, beeing in their 
priuate Chambers the expresse imitation of Howliglasse. 2 It is too 
tedious to the Reader to attend the circumstaunce of their seuerall 
shyftes, the lothsomnesse of their guilefull wiles, the tract path of 
theyr treacherie : you know them without my discourse, and can 
describe their hypocrisie, though I be not the Notarie of their 
iniquitie. Seeing their workes, shun their waies." 

(The Anatomie of / Absurditie : / Containing a breefe confutation 
of the slender/ imputed prayses to feminine perfection, with a 
short / description of the seuerall practises of youth, and / sundry 
follies of our licentious / times. / No lesse pleasant to be read, then 
profitable to be remembred / especially of those, who liue more 
licentiously, or addic-/ted to a more nyce stoycall austeritie. / 
Compiled by T. Nashe. / It a diligendi sunt homines, i)t eorum non / 
diligamus errores. / At London, / Printed by I, Charlewood for 
Tho-/mas Racket, and are to be solde at his shop / in Luniberd 
Street, vnder the signe of /the Popes heade./ Anno. Dom. 1590. / ) 

Gabriel Harvey, in his Pierces Supererogation, 1593, against 
Thomas Nashe, thus (pp. 183-4) answers the latter's attack on 
Stubbes : 

" It is the destiny of our language, to be pestered with a rable- 

1 Sign. B. iii. back. 

2 A supposd rough practical joker and dirty doer. Wm. Copland printed (in 
1548-60) 3 editions of the book recording his doings. For a list of its contents, 
see my Captain Cox> Ballad Soc., p. xlix-1. 



42* 2. Gabriel Harvey's Defence and Praise ofStubtes. 

ment of botchers in Print : but what a shamefull shame it is for 
him [T. Nashe], that makelh an Moll of his owne penne, and 
raiseth-vpp an huge expectation of paper-miracles, (as if Hermes 
Trisraegist were newly risen from the dead, and personally mounted 
vpon Banters presse *), to emprooue himself as ranke a bungler in 
his mightiest worke of Supererogation, as the starkest Patch-pannell 
of them all, or the grosest hammer-drudge in a country. He dis- 
daineth Thomas Delone, 2 Philip Stubs, Robert Armin, and the 
common Pamfletters of London, eue the painfullest Chroniclers 
tooe ; bicause they stand in his way, hinder his scribling traffique, 
obscure his resplendishing Fame, or haue not chronicled him in 
their Catalogues of the renowned modem Autors, as he meritoriously 
meriteth, and may peraduenture be remcmbred hereafter. But may 
not Thomas Delone, Philip Stubs, Robert Armin, and the rest of 
those misused persons, more disdainfully disdaine him ; bicause he 
is so much vayner, so little learneder, so nothing eleganter, than 
they; and they so much honester, so little obscurer, so nothing 
contemptibler, than he ? Surely, Thomas, it were pollicy, to boast 
lesse with Thomas Delone, or to atchieue more with Thomas More, 
If Vaunting, or craking may make thec singular, thy Art is incom 
parable, thy Wit superexcelient, thy Learning omnisufficient, thy 
memory infinite, thy dexterity incomprehensible, thy force horrible, 
thy other giftes more then admirable; but ..." 

In the same tract (Pierces Supererogation, 1593, pp. 190-1), 
Gabriel Harvey further praisd Stubbes 3 for his filed and workman 
like style : 

" Our late writers arc, as they are : and albeit they will not suffer 
me to ballance them with the honorable Autors of the Romanes, 
Grecians and Hcbrncs, yet I will crane no pardon of the highest, to 
do the simplest no wrong. In Grafton, llolinshed, and Stowe ; in 
Hey wood, Tusser, and Gowge 4 ; in Gascoigne, Churchyarde, and 
Floide 5 ; in Riteh, Whetstone, and Munclay; in Stany hurst, Fraunee, 

1 From whicli came in ^597 the first Quarto of JRoweo and Juliet* J. Danter 
also enterd a Titus AiidrouUits In 1593. 

2 See the long list of Dclcmcy's ballads, tracts, and books, in Ha/.Iitt. TIio* 
Peloney might have been calld a pamphleteer, Robert Armin, the actor and 
play-writer, couldn't. 

3 1 assume that he means Phillip Stubbes, and not John Stubbe oftho (*af>itig 
Cttttfet 1579 (p. S3* and 54* below). The Chroniclers who uie coupled with 
Stubbes above, are praisd here by name, Graftou, llolmshed, Stowe; and 
certainly Harvey would admire all the hard iukhorn words in the early editions 
of the Aiiatonih'. 

4 See a bit of Goojye's work in the Naogoorgus Appendix, p, 323 below. 

6 Lodowick Lloyd, of The nigrinutge of /V/v/cw, &c,, was so ealld, sa)S 
Mr. Ila/litt. See the list of his works in Lowndes, 



a. Naske's Widow-chaff of Stud es not to he believd. 43* 

and Watson ; in Kiffin 1 , Warner, and Daniel!^ in an hundred such 
vulgar writers, many things are commendable, diners things notable, 
some things excellent For a polished and garnished stile, few go 
beyonde Cartwright, and the chiefest of his Confuters, furnished 
writers : and how few may wage comparison with Remolds, Stubbes, 
Mulcaster, Norton, Lambert, and the Lord Henry Howarde? whose 
seuerall writings, the siluer file of the workeman recommendeth to 
the plausible interteinment of the daintiest censure. 2 " 

Now I don't want, with Harvey, to call the slashing Tom Nashe 
"the sonne of a mule, a rawe Grammarian, a brabling Sophister, a 
counterfaict cranke, a stale rakehell, a piperly rymer, a stump-wome 
railer, a dodkin autor" (ib. p. 61) ; or to say that his books are all 
like his Strange Newts (1592, against Harvey): "Railing, railing, 
railing : bragging, bragging, bragging : and nothing else, but fowle 
railing vpon railing, and vayne bragging vpon bragging, as rudely, 
grosely, odiously, filthily, beastly, as euer shamed Print " (ib. p. 64), 
but I do not believe his story about Stubbes and the widow. Nashe 
reminds me of a little drunken scribbler I once knew, who, when a 
man offended him, always said 'the fellow 's a drunken clown.' 
Nash and his loose-living likes, who sneerd at Stubbes and his mates 
as eunuchs, did, I believe, invent or get hold of any joking tale 
like that of the Bible that wasn't a high enough cushion for a willing 
sister and an endeavouring brother, because the Apocrypha wasn't in 
it 3 (Percy FoL, L.&H. Songs, p. 35), and stick it on to any Puritan 
they wanted to chaff. So that it raisd a laugh was all they cared for, 
and when it had done this, they were satisfied. Nashe's story goes 
too far. Even if Stubbes had been an Angelo, and the widow an 
Isabella, the bribe wouldn't have been a Bible, So I reject the 

1 Maurice Kyffin, of the Blessedness of Brytaine, 1587, &c. : see Hazlitt's 
Handbook, p. 322-3. 

2 See the praises of other authors, &c , before and after, p. 190-2 : Southwell, 
Scot (Disco-very of Witchcraft], Whitgift, Drant, Dr. Still, &c. On p. 60-1, he 
calls Nashe e ' a May-Lord of Primerose-hill, that hath all humours in his liuerie, 
& can put conscience in a Vices coate." I don't take up space by quoting the 
chief works of the authors nani'd in the text above, as they are either well known 
or can be easily found in bibliographical lists. 

3 See too in Dodsley, ix. 61-2, the jest about the Puritan lass who yielded only 
to prevent her lover breaking his oath, as he'd sworn to succeed. The point of 
the Apocrypha joke was that the Puritans calld the Apocrypha a lot of Popish 
fables, and refusd to acknowledge it as part of the Bible. 



44* 3 Was Elizabethan Dress outrageously absurd? 

widow tale. Nashe, however, is more to be regarded, and is nearer 
hitting the nail on the head, when he complains of Stubbes extend 
ing his "inuectiues so farre against the abuse, that almost the thing 
remaines not whereof they admitte anie lawfull vse." 

3. Bat the question is, t. whether Stubbes was writing against 
real abuses or not, and 2. whether he wrote from real earnestness, 
or only hypocrisy. If the excesses he denounct were real, and if his 
zeal against them was righteous, we shall not judge him harshly 
because he went a little too far in the words he used, or the sharp 
ness of the curb he'd have liked to put on offenders. 

On the first point he deals with, Men's and Women's Dress, I 
ask whether one single writer of the time can be produc'd, who 
treats the matter, and is satisfied with his contemporaries' practice ? 
I've never seen or heard of one. But on the contrary, every man 
whose book you open, from the catholic Shakspere, who surely 
liked his cakes and ale, to the sensible cheery Harrison, the odd, 
and liker of oddities, Tom Coryat, every single writer condemns 
the foolery, extravagance and evil of the outrageous garments around 
him. The Queen and her Council did so (see the fine volume of 
her Proclamations in the Grenville Library, Brit. Mus., an. i, 4, 8 
(p. 94-6), 16 (p. 155-7), 19 (p. 171-3), 30 (p. 253-7), 39 (p. 343-6, 
A,D. I597). 1 And we, by our practice, do it too. 

Why also did Stubbes condemn these follies? Not only 
because he saw with Shakspere that men bore manors on their 
backs, and sacrifict their inheritances to gratify their stupid pride ; 
not only because he knew, with Harrison, that for this, England's 
oaks were felld, her country hospitality stopt; but because the follies 
led to the neglect of the poor the humble folk that ben Christ's 
friends, as Chaucer says who were left to die in the streets like 
dogs, the dung that rotted, to grow the flowers that adorncl the 
Court 

Take the next vices with which Stubbes deals, Whoredom and 
Adultery, Gluttony and Drunkenness ; and on the first pair, con 
trast Shakspere' s Spring Song on the Cuckoo at the end of Love's 

1 See An. 42, for suppression of Ale-houses, and due observance of Fish-days j 
and an. 43 for prohibiting the carrying of dags (big pistols : Harrison^ i. 283). 



3. Did Stubbes condemn Whoredom too strongly? 45* 

Labours Lost with Wordsworth's, and judge whether Stubbes had 
cause to write as he did, or not, and whether we haven't cause to be 
grateful that he and his fellows did write thus, and set their faces as 
a flint against the idle wits that treated the soiling of women's purity 
as a joke, and the debauching of girls as an honourable token of 
manliness. Thank God, it requires an effort of the imagination to 
turn from our own state of society faultful tho' it be and con 
ceive one in which the so welcome note of the herald of spring, the 
recaller of youth's * golden time/ could suggest the idea of cuckoldry 
to any husband. No longer is it true in England, that 

" When Daisies pied, and Violets blew, 
And Cuckow-buds of yellow hew, 
And Ladie-smockes all siluer white, 
Do paint the Medowes with delight, 
The Cuckow then on euerie tree 
Mockes married men ; for thus sings he, 
Cuckow ! 

Cuckow, Cuckow ! O worde of feare, 
Vnpleasing to a married eare." 

L. L. Lost, V. 904-12, Folio I. p, 144, col. 2. 

And we have to thank mainly the Puritan party that this old evil is 
not ours still. 

As to the Drunkenness, that is still the great curse of our land. 
And ask any one who's been among working men, and seen what a 
drinker's home and wife and children are like, seen the blessed 
change that teetotalism makes in all ; ask any one who knows what 
went on in the upper and middle classes as late as my own father's 
day, my own youth, the daily debasing of men to worse than brutes; 
ask any one who knows but a little of Elizabethan books ; ask 
Shakspere, thro' Hamlet or Cassio, whether Stubbes has said one 
word too stern against that "devil drunkenness" (Oth. II. iii. 297), 
which was in his day, as it is in ours, the blight of our native land. 

As to the evils next complaind of, the enclosure of Commons 
without due regard to the rights of the poor, the cheating dealers, 
&c. what is our Commons -Preservation Society, what are our 
Co-operative Societies and Stores, but declarations that Stubbes was 
in the right; that landlords' greed needs check by law, the weakness 

SHAKSPEBE'S ENGLAND : STUBBES. e 



46* 3- Stubbes s abuse of Cheating, etc., justified. 

of the poor needs help ; and that the Dealer, standing between the 
workman and the buyer, to make out of both the most he can for 
himself, without regard to the welfare of either, is a being who has 
to be turnd into the agent of worker or buyer, or if possible both, 
bound to act honestly, and put down all adulteration, extravagant 
profit, and tricks of trade. As to the evil of letting usurers get the 
ownership of mortgagees' lands because the money was not paid on 
the day fixt for its return, our Courts of Equity and our Laws have 
long since settled that Stubbes was right, and have secured the 
mortgagee his equity of redemption, and prevented the mortgagor 
from taking more than his principal and interest. So also our laws 
have, by later Insolvency and Bankruptcy Acts, declard Stubbes 
right in his denouncing of the old iniquitous power of creditors to 
keep moneyless debtors in prison just as long as they lik'd, let 
their heels rot from their buttocks, as Stubbes says, in the foul 
prisons of the day, and then make dice of their bones. 

Swearing has so long ceast to be "good form," that Stubbes's 
condemnation of it will be acquiest in by all, tho' they may not 
want swearers now branded with a hot iron, or believe in judgments 
on em. 1 

We now come to Stubbes's wholesale abuse of the Amusements 
of his time ; and it is for this that many folk condemn him, that I 
allow he was "sumwhat too sour," and went beyond the bounds 
which he had laid down for himself in his Preface. But let the 
reader recognize how very much there was in the pastimes of the day 
that deservd the strongest blame, and in how many cases posterity 
has justified Stubbes's censures. Note first, that the main reason 
for Stubbes's fierceness was, that all the games and devilry that he 
complains of so bitterly, were carried on more vigourously on 
Sunday than any other day. This is the point the whole matter 

1 Years ago I chanced to ask a regular contributor to the Satttrday~& very 
high wrangler of my time at Cambridge what had made the S. Review such a 
success. He said, " Mainly Cook's (the editor's) power of swearing. He swears 
at everybody so fiercely, from the printer's devil to his best leader-writer 
or sub- editor, that he makes us all do exactly as he tells us. I never heard 
such oaths." The like procedure seems to produce contrary effects at the Horse 
Guards. 



3* Stubbes on Sabbath-breaking. Fairs, etc.. now. 47^ 

turps on. 1 Stubbes lookt on the Day as specially holy to his Lord, 
to be spent u ln hearing the woord of God truely preached, therby 
to learn and to doo his wil ; in receluing the sacraments, rightly 
admlnistred ; in vsing publique and priuate prayer; in thanks- 
giuing to God for ail his benefits ; in singing of godly Psalmes, and 
other spirituall exercises and meditations ~ } in collecting for the poore^ 
in dooing of good woorkes ; and breefly, in the true obedience of the 
inward man " (p. 140) ; and instead of this, he saw all the vagabonds 
and drabs of the country playing the devil's delight all day long, 
and all night too. No wonder that he rose in wrath, and curst the 
whole crew. And who even among us Sunday League and Sun- 
day-Society-men, goers by train and boat now wants to have bears 
baited, or theatres open 2 , on Sundays \ fairs held then, and markets \ 
the cancan danced, 3 or drunken jollifications going on in Church or 
Churchyard ? Who would let sister, daughter, or maid, be out with 
a mixt company of men and girls in the woods all night (p. 149} ? 
Depend on it, there were abuses of the grossest kind in the rough 
games of Stubbes's and Shakspere's day, abuses even justifying the 
call that they should in public be put down for a time altogether* 
We know how many of them have been rightly given up since ; anvj 
if we care, we may know that there are two sides to great gather 
ings for amusement now. Two of the occasions on which this has 
been brought home to me were these. The first time I was saying 
to a faithful-working curate-friend in a country town in Hampshire, 
how pleasant all lookt at the fair that morning. " Yes/' he answerd, 
"I suppose one oughtn't to grudge the people their gathering; but 
our annual crop of bastards '11 be sown to-night We had twelve last 
year, and eleven the year before ; and many of the girls get ruind for 
life." The second time, chatting to an easy-going acquaintance about 

1 So in Ms denouncing of the Church- Ales, p. 150 2, one great grievance is 
that the Churches lie " like swyn-coates (pig-styes), their windowes rent, their 
dores broken, their walles fall downe, the roof all bare . * . the booke of God 
rent, ragged and all betorn, couered in dust," p. 151. 

2 With Pink Dominoes (as describd to me) playd, or even the innocent Vemts 
and Adonis acted, with next Sunday's Referee notice that Miss Phoebe Don's 
legs were " monuments of managerial perspicacity and plumpness." 

3 See p. 146. Note too Chaucer on the dangers of Dances, &c., Cant. 71, C. 
65-6. 



48* 2- Stubbes right in abusing Bearbaiting, etc, 

our races on Runnymede, at Egham, and saying that I'd seen no harm 
going on to justify the outcry against them by some folk, he answerd: 
" Ah, your people just drive down to the course, and go away when 
the races are over. But if you want to know when the harm's 
done, and what it is, come with me to the booths the nights before 
and after, and then take a turn about the grass, and see what's going 
on there. I'm not one of the strait-laced lot ; but knowing what I 
do, I don't wonder at people trying to stop the whole affair." Eolk 
who like races and fairs and fun in general, either shut their eyes to 
the evils attending them, or say it's human nature, and there's no 
such great harm in it after all ; but other men and women exist in the 
world, who can't take sin and the causes of it like this ; they're just 
forced by their souls to fight against it, and its sources, with word and 
deed, with all their might; and if they do speak a little too sharply, 
or hit a little too hard, the self-indulgent -do-nothings had at least 
better keep from abusing or sneering at them. 

The justness of Stubbes's argument against hunting, on p. 182, 
is acknowledgd by our modern hunts paying for the damage they 
do to farmers' fences and crops \ and his plea that * For pleasure 
sake only, no man ought to abuse any of the cretures of God,' 
cannot be answerd, as every one '11 confess who's seen, at the end 
of his first day's hunt, the tears and distresst look of the stag he's 
followd, or the last tries of the fox to save his life. 1 

In Stubbes's condemnation of cockfighting, gambling, bear-bait 
ing, we all admit that he was right ; and on the whole, tho' he would 
have put me as an inveterate Sabbath-breaker 2 , dancer, and hon- 
ourer of Shakspere, into one of the hottest corners of his ' Material 
Hell,' I do not hesitate to ask his readers to believe that the 

1 The only defence is a shirk, and ' You're another : ' " You can do without 
meat if you like ; at any rate, you'd be better with little of it, and that of the 
simplest kind. But, solely for your pleasure, to tickle your palate, you have lots 
of animals needlessly killed ; while we hunting men, for our health and refresh 
ment, as well as our pleasure, only give a stag a good sweating, and kill a 
stinking fox now and then. Who are you to find fault with us I " (Mr. E. A. 
Freeman's articles on hunting and Mr. A. Trollope's answer, a few years back, I 
haven't seen.) 

2 And a backslider from the faith of Stubbes, for one Sunday, after a Sab 
batarian parson's sermon, my father's Sunday newspaper, the Windsor Express, 
to his great disgust disappeard till Monday morning. 



4* Stubbes didnt rail only, but car d for the Poor. 49* 

Abuses lie denounct were real and not fancid ones, cancers In the 
"body of the commonweal, and that his words in denouncing them 
were not, In most cases, one whit too strong, We pass then to 

4. Was Sfubfas a mere railer? In my early days in London, 
when one of a body of workers full of Christian-Socialist plans of 
social reform, helping In district- visiting, ragged schools, working- 
men's associations, &c., came out some Latter-Day-Pamphlets , by a 
certain prophet of the time, which seemd to me to do nothing but 
swear generally all round. Everything was wrong, everybody 
except the writer was a fool, niggers should eternally be slaves, 
and there was no hope for the world except in the coming of 
some beneficent hog-herd with a tremendous whip to drive the 
universal swine along the road they ought to go. 1 One night a 
well-known naval novelist, a disciple of this faith, was at a friend's 
house, holding forth with his usual fervour, and I ventured to 
suggest that he should do something to try and cure some of the 
evils he seemd to feel so keenly. I askt him to teach in our 
ragged school in Little Ormond Yard. On which he took his pipe 
out of his mouth, took a sip at his th glass of toddy, and said, 
' My dear Sir, I'll see you and your ragged school damnd first ! 
The world 's going to the devil its own way. Let it go ! ' 

Now Phillip Stubbes wouldn't have given a like answer if I 
judge him aright had John Stubbe, or any such man, askt him to 
lend a hand to any good work near Lincoln's Inn in his day. He'd 
have gone and done his best at it, tho 3 he'd ho doubt have insisted 
on dosing the workees with texts and sermons. On his Sundays, he 
didn't want only to sing psalms and pray he'd also collect money 
for the poor, and do good works (p. 140). He wasn't angry with the 
rich for their gay clothes and vain show only, but because these led 
to t cold charitie to the poore ' : 

" Do they think that it is lawfull for them to haue millions of 
sundry sortes of apparell lying rotting by them, when as the poore 
members of lesus Christe die at their doores for wante of clothing?" 

1 If I do injustice to this book, which was a cruel blow to me after the noble 
Life of Cromwell, the Sartor , &c., I am sorry. I never op end it after the Parts 
were bound. But, had that whip then come to my hands, the prophetic back 
would have been the first laid open by it. 



50* 4- Stubbes s care for the Poor, etc. 5. His life. 

p. 59. " And so [the poore diseased] being caried foorth, either 
in carts or otherwyse, and thrown in the streats, there they end their 
dayes most miserably. Truely, Brother, if I had not seen it, I would 
scarsly haue thought that the like Turkish cruelty had beene vsed in 
all the World." p. 60. 

Again and again Stubbes comes back to this, pp. 105, 116, 183, 
&c. He cares for God's dumb creatures too 1 (pp. 178, 182). And 
tho' we can't class him with Orlando, who "wil chide no breather 
in the world but my selfe, against whom I know most fault " (As You 
Like It, III. ii. 297-8), we can honestly refuse to couple him with 
Jaques, or any of those who merely want to " raile against our mistris 
the worlde," and "must have liberty Withall, as large a Charter as 
the winde, To blow on whom [they] please " (ib. II. vii. 47-9). 

5. Stubbes and his Family. Where he came from, when he 
was born, 2 where he was taught, and when he died, we don't 

1 He would, were he living now, certainly join the Fellowship of Animals' 
Friends that our Vice-Presidents Mr. and Mrs. Cowper- Temple have just 
founded. And he'd have curst the putting back Christians under Turkish rule in 
1878 as heartily as I did ; ' English interests' doing the Devil's work. 

2 I suppose he was born about 1555, the year that Latimer and Ridley were 
burnt at Oxford (Oct. 16) in bloody Mary's reign. If Stubbes's 7-years' travel 
about England by or before 1583, is to be taken literally, he probably did not 
start till he was his own master, and 21. I suppose that he didn't die till in or 
after 1610, when an enlargd edition of his Pathway was publisht, with 15 new 
prayers added, perhaps for the first time. That he was a well-read and learned 
man is plain from his books. 

Here's a suggestion from The Saturday Review (Sept. 25, 1869, p. 421, col. 
2) as to Stubbes's Christian name : " Why were there so many Philips in those 
days? Philip, Earl of Arundel, to whom this book (Stubbes's Anatomic) is 
dedicated ; Philip, Earl of Pembroke, to whom the Shakespeare folio is inscribed ; 
Philip Sidney and Philip Massinger, who could write books for themselves. 
Why but because Philip was the name of the 'father of our Kings to be,' and 
was the favourite godpapa with the rank-worshipping mammas of the period. 
And if the word Philip had been called out at a bearbaiting in the sixteenth 
century, there would have been as many responses to it as there are nowadays 
when H'albert is shouted for at a Foresters' Fete at the Crystal Palace." 

Now, though I can't pretend to measure the infinite flunkeyism of the Victorian 
or Elizabethan English mother and man, yet I must observe that Philip Massinger 
was baptizd on Nov. 23, 1583, only five years before the Armada, and Sir Philip 
Sidney bom on Nov. 29, 1554, four years before Elizabeth came to the throne 
(1558) ; and if the 'mammas of the period' kept up their fancy for the Popish 
Philip of Spain during all the changes of feeling in this time, the fact will surprise 
any one who has studied the period with the least care. How Stubbes must 
have hated his name if he thought he got it from the pet son of the scarlet whore ! 



5. Stubbed s Marriage Wife, and Boy. 51* 

know. 1 His Marriage-license we have, the Certificates of his son's 
birth, and his wife's death ; his own account of his 4^ years marrid 
life (below, p. 197-203, 208), and the few words he says of his 
travels about England, in his Anatomie, 1583 (p. 22, below), and 
Motive to Good Workes, 1593, p. 68*, 69*, below. Colonel Chester 
kindly sends me the Marriage License, from the Bishop of London : 

" 1586, Sep. 6, Philip Stubbes, Gentleman, of St. Mary at Hill, 2 
London, and Katherine Emrnes, spinster, of the same parish, 
daughter of William Emmes, late of St. Dunstan in the West, 
London, Cordwainer, 3 deceased To marry at any church or chapel 
in the diocese of London/' 

Mr. Henry Stubbs of Danby, Ballyshannon, sends me the fol 
lowing extracts from the Parish-Registers of Burton-on-Trent, as all 
that the latter yield : 

"1590. John Stubs 4 films Philippi baptized the 17 November 
1590. Catherine Stubs buried the 14 day of December." 5 

1 I say this notwithstanding the passage from Nashe quoted above, p. 37*, and 
the extract (evidently bas'd on it) from Ant. Wood that follows, p. 53*, note. 
But Nash's bit about the Cheshire readership may have some ground. 

2 Dr. Howard, who has searcht the Registers of St. Mary at Hill, reports that 
there are no Stubbes entries in them. J. L. C. 

3 Of course you understand that Katherine Emmes's father was something 
more than a mere "shoemaker," as we now understand the term. His will 
styles him *' Citizen and Cordwainer," i. e. a freeman of London, and member of 
the Cordwainers' Company. Stubbs in his tract intimates that William Emmes 
had held high office in his company, which elevates him to the level of the 
superior tradesmen of the old city. J. L. C. 

4 70 years after, a John Stubs, with George Fox and Benjamin Furly, publisht 
"A Battle-Door for Teachers and Professors to learn Singular and Plural : Yon 
to Many, and Ttiouto One: Singular, One, TJwu; Plural, Many^ You. Wherein 
is shewed forth by Grammar, or Scripture Examples, how several Nations 
and People have made a distinction between Singular and Plural, &c. London, 
Printed for Robert Wilson, and are to be sold at his shop at the signe of the 
Black- Spread-Eagle and Wind-mil in Martins le Grand, 1660. folio." Hazlitt. 
Collection and Notes > p. 166, col. 2. 

5 This is the day of her death, according to Phillip Stubbes. Possibly her 
fever led to her quick burial, but it looks odd. It was the Vicar, the Rev. C. F. 
Thornewill, that extracted the above entries in the Burton Registers for Mr. Henry 
Stubbes, who says, ** the Vicar in his letter to me remarked that there was a 
+ against the entry of Baptism of John Stubs, which he did not observe against 
any other entry ; *and likewise that the entry of Burial had evidently been made 
at a later date than that of the Burial itself, as it is in different ink from the rest, 
and is obviously put between the lines, having been forgotten or otherwise 
omitted at the time, 1 " 



52,* 5- Stubbes s Life. His Mother-in-law, Mrs. EMMES. 

All the facts, then, that we know about Philip Stubbes at present 
are, that he was a Gentleman either by birth, profession, or 
both; a writer, from 1581 to 1610 (?), of pamphlets and books 
strongly on the Puritan side, well-read in his Bible and holy books ; 
that before 1583 he had spent "seuen winters and more, trauailing 
from place to place, euen all the Land ouer indifferently " (p. 21, 
below) about England; that he marrid in the autumn of 1586, a 
sweet, gentle, pious girl of from 14 to 15, with whom he led a happy 
peaceful life for nearly 4^ years, expounding texts to her to his heart's 
content a blissful contrast to Milton's first experiment; that he 
lost her on Dec. 14, 1590, from a 6-weeks' fever caught after she 
had thoroughly recoverd from bearing 'a goodly man childe' * 
baptizd John, on Nov r 17 ; that he was in 'lodging by Cheapside, 
8 of November, 1593;' and that he probably livd till after the new 
edition of his Perfect Pathway to Felicitie was publisht, with 15 new 
Prayers, in 1610. Col. Chester writes : " I have again gone carefully 
over all the Stubbs' wills in Somerset House from 1550 to 1630, and 
can find nothing of his parentage. His own will is certainly not 
here, if he left one, and no letters of administration to his estate 
were ever taken out." 

Stubbes' s rnother-in-law, Mrs. Emmes, is describd by him as 
" a Dutch woman, both discreete and wise, of singular good grace 
and modes tie . . . both religious and verie zealous " (p. 197), and 
yet she must have been a very Wife of Bath in the matter of hus 
bands, 'one down, t'other come on.' Probably after her third 
husband's death, she in 1586 "bestowed her [daughter Katherine 
by her second husband, William Emmes,] in marriage to one 
maister Stubbes" our Phillip p. 197, below, and Col. Chester 
kindly sends me the following account of her : 

"The mother of Catherine Stubbes (nie Emmes) was also 
named Catherine, and she was first the wife of one Reginald 
Melchior (or Melcher), whose will, as of St. Martm-in-the-Fields, 
Middlesex, dated 22 Sept 1563, she proved 12 Nov. following. 
Melchior directed his body to be buried in St. Martin's Church 
yard. He merely left small sums to his apprentice and his maid, 
and the residue of his possessions equally to his wife Catherine and 
his son Melchior. 

"The widow did not grieve long, for on the 8th of November 



5- Stubbes's Mother-in-law. A. WOOPS Life of him. 53* 

1563, four days before she proved her husband Melchior*s will, a 
license was granted by the Bishop of London for her marriage with 
William Emmes, then of St. Sepulchre's, London. They subse 
quently lived in Fleet Street, St. Dunstan-in-the-West" 

"The will of William Emmes, Citizen and Cordwainer of 
London, is dated 26 Nov. 1583. He bequeathed considerable 
property in houses, &c. to his wife Catharine, and his children, 
William, John, Catherine [Stubbes's wife], Anne, Susan, and Alice, 
all under age. The widow Catharine Emmes proved the will 14 
Jan. 1583/4. 

"Four days later, viz. 18 Jan 1583/4, the Bishop of London 
granted another license for her to marry Richard Tompkins, of St 
Mary at Hill, London. She outlived her third husband, for, on the 
24th of April, 1591, letters of administration to her estate, as a 
widow, were granted to her daughter Alice, who was then wife of 
(blank) Dumper." 

(Of course the natural temptation has been yielded to, 1 to make 

1 By Antony Wood (or Ms informant) whose account of Stubbes (not in his 
1st ed.) is printed in inverted commas in Bliss's ed. of the Ath. Oxon. i. 645, and is 
as follows : " Philip Stubbs or Stubbes, was born of genteel parents, but where, 
one of his descendants of both his names who is a vintner in London, [Philip 
Stubbs, a vintner, living in the parish of St Andrew Undershaft in London 
(note)] knows not, nor can he positively affirm, whether he received his education 
in either of the universities or not. Be it known therefore, that he was mostly 
educated in Cambridge, but having a restless and hot head, left that university, 
rambled thro* several parts of the nation, and setled for a time in Oxon, parti 
cularly, as I conceive, in Glocester-hall, where a brother or near kinsman called 
Justinian Stubbs, M[aister] of A[rts] and a civilian, studied, by which name and 
titles I find him there in the beginning of 1589. This Ph. Stubbs was a most 
rigid Calvinist, a bitter enemy to popery, and a great corrector of the vices and 
abuses of his tune ; and tho j not in sacred orders yet the books he wrote related 
to divinity and morality, as the titles of them following partly shew." He then 
gives the titles of (b) the Two Judgments, 1581 ; (c) View of Vanity 1582; (e) 
Rosary 1583 ; (d) Anatomy 1583,* noting ' divers corrections in and additions to 
it ; J (g) Theatre of the Pope's Monarchy 1584. oct. ; (j) Perfect Path to Felicity 1592; 
(k) Motive to Good Works 1593; (?) "Praise and Commendation of Women. 
Printed in oct This I have not seen,f and therefore I cannot give you a larger 
title." (i) " Christial glass for Christian Women. Loud. 1626." He then 
speaks of Stubbes's wife, and says, " Near of kin, if not brother, or father to this 
Philip, was Joh. Stubs of Lincolns-inn, gent, a most rigid puritan, author of 
A Discovery of a gaging Gulphfor England. Printed 1579, oct." 

* "Bed to Phil. E. of Arundel ; black letter, double pages 125. Printed by 
Ric. Jones. At the back of the last page is a wooden cut of a man in a gown, 
round bonnet, stooping, and holding a pair of gloves in his left hand. Theb ook 
penes Mr. Lort of Trin. coll. Cambr., who in May 1772, gave fs. 6d. for it at 
Mr, Joseph Hart's auction of books." Cole. 

1* Nor has any one else that I can hear of. 



54* 5- John Stubbe of the Gaping Gulfe, 1579. 

Philip Stubbes, "near of Inn, if not father or brother" of the noble 
Puritan, John Stubbe 1 , (or Stubbes,) who in 1579 (not 1581) wrote 
against the proposd marriage of Queen Elizabeth with the Popish 
Duke of Anjou, the French King's brother " The Discoverie of a 
Gaping Gulf ^hereunto England is like to be swallowed by another 
French Marriage^ if the Lord forbid not the banes, by letting her 
Majestic see the sin and punishment thereof' ; and who had his right 
hand chopt off with a butcher's knife and mallet 2 for his sensible 

1 See the interesting memoir of him in Cooper's Atk. Cant. ii. 111-12. 

2 See Camden's Annales englisht, 1625, Bk. III. p. 14-16. His account is the 
best : " Her Maiestie likewise burned with choller that there was a booke 
published in print, inueighing sharply against the marriage, as fearing the 
alteration of Religion, which was intituled * A gaping gulf e to swallow vp England 
by a French marriage" In this Pamphlet the Priuy Councillors which fauoured 
the Match were taxed of ingratitude to their Prince and Countrey : the Queene, 
as not vnderstanding well her selfe, by the way of flattery is tauntingly touched : 
the Duke d'Anjou and his country of France in contumelious tearmes shamefully 
reviled : the marriage condemned, for the diuersitie of Religions, by poisonous 
words and passages of Scripture, miserably wrested, would seem to proue that 
the Daughter of God, being to match with the sonne of Antichrist, it must needs 
bee the mine of the Church, and pernicious to the State ; neitker would Queene 
Elizabeth bee perswaded that the Author of this booke had any other pur 
pose, but to bring her into hatred with her subiects, and to open a gap to some 
prodigious innouation. . . . 

" Since that, shee begunne to bee the more displeased with Puritans then shee 
had been before-time, perswading her selfe that such a thing had not passed 
without their priuitie : and within a few dayes after, lohn Stubbes of Lincolnes 
Inne, a zealous professor of Religion, the Author of this Ralatiue Pamphlet 
(whose Sister, Thomas Cartwright the Arch-Puritan had married), William Page 
the disperser of the copies, and Singleton the Printer, were apprehended ; against 
whom sentence was giuen, that their right hands should be cut off, by a law in 
the time of Philip and Marie against the Authors of Seditious Writings, and those 
that disperse them. Some lawyers storming hereat, said the iudgement was 
erroneous, and fetcht from a false obseruation of the time wherein the Statute 
was made, that it was onely temporarie, and that (Queene Marie dying) it dyed 
with her. Of the which Lawyers, one Dalton, for his clamorous speeches was 
committed to prison, and Monson, a ludge of the Common-pleas, was sharply 
rebuked, and his place taken from him. . . . 

"Not long after, [Nov. 3, 1579,* not 1581, as Stowe says, Annales, 1605, p. 
1 1 68], vponaStage set vp in the Market-place at Westminster, Stubbes and Page had 
their right hands cut off by the blow of a Butchers knife, with a Mallet strucke 
through their wrests. The Printer had his Pardon. I can remember that, standing 

* See " His Wordes upon the Scaffolde when he lost his Haund on Tewsdaie, 
3 November, 1 579. " In Nuga Antiqitcs. Cooper, 



6. Stulles's JForhs in the Stationers Registers. 55* 

and manly tract But Mr. Henry Stubbes of Danby, Ballyshannon, 

has a copy of the wills of the righthandless John Stubbs and Ills 
father, John Stubbe of Buxton, Norfolk, and in neither of them 
is there any mention of Philip Stubbes.) 

6. Stubfies's Works. Of these, eleven have survivd to our day 
in title, 1 and eight in copies. Of the eleven only six, and of the 
eight only five, were enterd on the Stationers' Registers, if I can 
trust my search through the second volume of the (alas !) indexless 
Transcript of Mr. Arber. They are ; 

1582-3. An. Eliz. XXV to . primo die Martij 

Biehard Licenced vnto him vnder thandes of the Bishop of 
Jones. LONDON and both the wardens. TJie Anatomye of 
abuses, by PHILLIPE STUBBES vji 

Transcript, ii. 421. 

1583. An. Eliz. XXV to . Tertio Die Augusti. 

John Receaued of him for his licence to ymprint The Rosarie 
Cfearlewood/ O f Christian Prayers Tp/ 

Transcript \ ii. 426. 

by John Stubbes, so soone as his right hand was off, put off his hat with his left, 
and cryed aloud, God saus the Qucene. The people round about him stood mute, 
whether stricken with feare at the first sight of this strange kind of punishment, 
or for commiseration of the man whom they reputed honest, or out of a secret 
inward repining they had at this marriage, which they suspected would be 
dangerous to Religion." Sir Walter Scott and Macaulay have word-painted the 
scene. 

The Svo mentiond by Antony Wood, The Praise and Commendation of 
Women, is not reckond in the ii, as I doubt the author of The Anatotnie, Part L, 
which scarified women so, ever having written a ' Praise ' of Women in general, 
tho he did praise his own dead wife. Moreover, we've no record of the Praise 
book being seen by any one ; and none of the long list of books on Women in 
Mr. Hazlitf s Handbook, and Collections and Notes suits Wood's title except ' to 
y* Prayse of Good women, y e odiij chapeter of y 6 Proverbis, licenst to John Aide 
in 1568 (Arber 9 s Transcript, i. 378), which is too early for Stubbes. * The Praise 
and Dispraise of Women ' in 1579 won't of course do. 

I don't think as Mr. Reardon did, Old Sh. Soc. Papers, iii. 15 ; and Mr. 
Collier, BibL Cat., ii. 399 that Gabriel Harvey necessarily meant to include 
Stubbes in " the common Pamfletters of London " (p. 42*, 1. 9 above), or we might 
suppose that many of Stubbes's works have been lost. There is no " other " 
before Harvey's <f common," as there ought to be if Mr. Reardon's and Mr. 
Collier's view were right ; and against it, is also Harvey's after praise of Stubbes 
for his filed lines (p. 43* above). Harvey meant to distinguish Stubbes from 
the " common Pamfletters," not confuse him with em. 



56* 6. Stubbess Works in the Stationers Registers. 



William 
wrigkt. 



Bichard 
Jones./ 



Thomas 
Man./ 



1583. 25 Eliz. Septimo Die Nouembris/ 
Licenced vnto him vnder the wardens handes The 
second parte of Thanotomye of Abuses^* . . . yj d 

Transcript, ii. 428. 

1591. An. Eliz. 33. xv to Junij 

Entred for his copie vnder the handes of the Bishop of 
LONDON and the wardens / A Christall glasse for 
Christian women / Conteyninge an excellent discourse of 
the godly life and Christian death of mistres KATHERINE 

STUBBES 2 &C YJ d / 

Transcript, ii. 585. 

1593. An. Eliz. 35 to . xiiij to . die Octobris/ 
Entred for his Copie vnder the handes of the Bisshopp 
of LONDON and Master warden Cawood. a booke 
entituled, A motiue to good woorkes or rather to true 

Christianity e &c ^ YJ d 

Transcript \ ii. 638. 

{Assignment?^ 1594. An. 36 Eliz. vltimo Maij 

Entred for his copies by order of Court Certens Copies 
whiche were Jolm Charlewoodes / Saluo Jure Cuius- 

cunque , - xm s lllj C 

The Rosary of Christian Praters 

Transcript, ii. 651. 

a. But Stubbes had begun printing as early at least as 1581, when 
(or earlier) he issued a broadside, with a woodcut, "A fearefull and 



James 
Kobertes 



Thomas 
Creede 



1 "9 August! [1596]. 

Entred for his Copie in full Court holden this Day. These ffyve 
Copies whiche were assigned from "William wright to Thomas 
Scarlet, and from Thomas Scarlet to the said Thomas Crede 

ija V jd 

. . . Item the second parte of the Anatomye of abuses called the. 
Displays of Corruptions " Transcript, iii. 68. 



master 
Whyte 
warden 



ij [1596], 

Entred for his Copyes these thinges followinge, viz. Catheryne 
Stubes, vj* (with The scale of vertue, vj d ; 7 1 wemfy Orders of 
Calettes and Drabes, yjd . . . The ffyve and Twentye orders of 
knaugs,^} Transcript, Hi. 187, 

Edward White's estate in * Katherine Stubes ' was assignd to Master Pauier 
and John Wright on Dec. 13, 1620 (Trans, iv. 44), and Pavier's share was, after 
his death, assignd by his widow to Edward Brewster and Robert Birde (Tran 
script ', iv. 164-5). 



6. Stubbes sjirst godly Ballad, m 1581. 57* 

terrible Example of Gods iuste Judgement executed vpon a lewde 
Fellow, who vsuaily accustomed to sweare by Gods Blood : which 
may be a Caueat to all the World that they blaspheme not the name 
of their God by Swearing. \Colophon\ Finis. Philip Stubbes. 
Imprinted at London for W. Wright, and are to be Sold at his shop 
in the Poultrie." x Reprinted by Mr. J. P. Collier in his " Broadside 
Black-letter Ballads, printed in the i&th &* i*]th Centuries, chiefly 
in the possession of J. Payne Collier," 4, 1868, p. 42 y. This 
is a ballad of 102 lines (25 verses, and a tag) of 7-measure or 14- 
syllable couplets, describd by Stubbes at p. 133 below, as telling 
the awful end of "a certaine yong man dwellyng in Enlocnilshire, 
in Ailgna, (whose tragicall discourse I my self penned about two 
yeares agoe, referring you to the said booke for the further declara 
tion thereof) who was alwaies a filthie swearer; his common othe 
was by Gods bloud." 

The story being given at p. 135 below, I quote only a few verses 
of the ballad from its second edition in the Lambeth Library (sign. 
B. L and B. iL), to show the doggrel it is written in ; 

* ' There is a towne in Lincolnshire, which Bothbie hath to name, 
Just three miles distant from Grantam, a towne of au^cient fame. 

(4) 

Wherein there dwels a Gentleman, the truthe for to decyde, 13 
Who Frauncis Penell called is, this may not be denyed. 
It pleased God this Gentleman, into his house did hyre 
A Seraingman t'atende him on, borne in Worstershire. 16 

(5) 

Which sayd youngman inclyned was, vnto a thing not good, 
As for to sweare by Christ his flesh, and by his precious blood. 18 

* # * * * 

(12) 

He had no sooner spoke these wordes, "which I haue shewed to you, 
But that a-pace his heart blood did, foorth of his boody flowe ; 46 
For why, out of his fingers endes, his blood did streame full faste ; 
So did it foorth at his toes endes, which made them all agaste. 48 

* * * * * 

1 Hazlitt's Collections and Notes, p. 410, col. I, from which* and Hazlitfs 
Handbook, most of the after titles, &c., are given. 



58* 6. Stubbes^s Second godly Ballad, in 1581. 

(14) 

Thus died he, commmitting his soule to the furies fell, 53 

Which doo possesse th' infernall gulfe and Laberinth of hell. 
Than was his body straight interde, although (in trueth) forlorne, 
For whome it had beene better farre, if he had not beene borne." 56 
(Old) Shakespeare Society's Papers, iv. 77-9, 1849. 

& Stubbes's second known publication contains his first ballad, 
with a second like one in 114 long lines, couplets probably first 
issued as a broadside too and prose forewords and hindwords, the 
latter calld " An admonition to the Christian Readers, inferred vpon 
the two straunge Stratagems before passed." The whole forms a 
4to pamphlet often leaves (A & B in fours, C in 2), of which there 
is a copy in the Lambeth Library, and a reprint by Mr. James 
Purcell Reardon in the Papers of the Old Shakespeare Society, iv. 
73-88. The title is : 

" Two wunderfull and / rare Examples. / Of the vndeferred and 
present / approching iudgement of the Lord our God : the / one 
vpon a wicked and pernitious blasphe-/mer of the name of God, 
and seraaunt / to one Maister Frauncis Pennell, / Gentleman, dwell 
ing at Booth-/bie, in Lincolnshire, three / myles from Grantham./ 
The other vpon a woman, named / loane Bowser, dwelling at Don- 
nington, in Leicestershire, to whome the Deuill verie / straungely 
appeared, as in the dis-/course following, you may / reade. In lune 
last 1581. / Written by Phillip Stubbes. / Imprinted at London for/ 
William Wright, and are to be solde at / his shoppe in the Poultrie : 
the middle / shoppe in the rowe, adioyning to / Saint Mildreds 
Church./" 

The story of the second ballad is told in the prose forewords, 
sign. A, iij, (p. 75-6, Sh, Soc. ) : how in Donnington, Leicestershire, 

there 

" dwelled a poore man named lohn Twell, who deceased, owing 
unto one Oswald Bowcer the summe of fiue shilling, which the 
sayde Oswalde did forgiue the sayde man before named, as he lay 
vpon his death bedde ; but the sayde Oswaldes wife, called loane, 
would in no wise forgiue the sayde Twell as long (she sayde) as she 
had day to Hue. Wherevpon, not long after, the Deuill appeared 
vnto her in the forme of the sayd Twell, deceased, expressing all 
the lyneamentes of the body of the dead man . . . this euill spirit 
vttered unto her these speeches, and sayd he had brought her mony 
from lohn Twell deceased, and willed her incontinent to disburse 
the sayd money vnto her husband for his paines. Which she, with 



6. Stubbes on Donnmgton, in his znd Ballad. 59* 

as couetous a desire, receyaed, saying, ( God thanfce you.' She had no 
sooner named God, but the money consumed away from betweene 
her handes, as It were a vapour or smoake, tyll it was all consumed : 
wherwith the DeuUl, gluing her a most fearefull and sore stroke, 
vanished out of her sight. 

"Wherewith her whole body, became as blacke as pitche, 
replenished all ouer with a most filthy scurife and other thinges, 
which w r as so odious, as heere my pen for modesties sake leaueth 
to wright . . . her body was most stratmgely benummed, and her 
eyes closed vp from the benefite of the light. " Thus remayning a 
certaine space, she confessed the hardnesse of her heart, and with 
great patience thanked God for his iudgementes bestowed on her. 
Wherevpon, to be breefe, it pleased God, seeing her repentaunce, 
to reuoke his Justice, and to restore her vnto her former health, 
where she remayned, praysing the name of God for his great 
mercies bestowed upon her." 

At the end of this ballad, Stubbes calls on Donnington to 
repent, and talks of the love he bears the town, as if he knew it well 
and had some connection with it. 1 And as his objection to dancing 
and piping, which he shows in his Anatomie^ conies out too, I quote 
a few lines from sign. B. iiij. back, and C. i. : 

"Therefore, thou Towne of Donington, I read thee to repent 83 

3 * * * # * 

God hath thee warned now by this, and that in freendly sorte, 87 
To leaue thy whoredome and thy pride, and all thy filthy sporte. 

(*3) 

Abandon, then, out of thy streates, all mirthe and rninstrelsie ; 
No Pipers, nor no Dauncers vile, in thee let extant b*e , 90 

Remember thou thy lately plague, of blayne, of Botche, and Bile 

[boil], 

Whereby thy God did scourge thee sore, least synne should thee 
defile. 

(24) 

O Donington, fall not againe vnto thy vomite old ; 
In filthy, scurrile, bawdie talke, doo not thy selfe vphold ; 94 

Ne yet with vaine and bloody othes, doo not thy selfe imbrew, (p. &6) 
For than the Lord will throwe thee downe amid the Deuils crew 96 
###**# 

1 The Rev. John G. Bourn, the Vicar of Castle Donnington near Derby has 
kindly searclit his Registers for 1550 1600, and finds no Stubbes or Bowcer entry, 
but one of John Twell (who may have been Stubbes*s man), marrid 5 May 1567 ; 
John Twell baptizd 18 June 1583 ; John Twell son of John Twell, baptizd 
1589, died (?) 25 March. 



6o* 6. Stubkess View of Vanitie ; and Anatomic, Pt. i. 

And now, O gentle Donington, be mindefull yet of me 103 

Who haue with paines contriued this same, for looue I beare to 
thee. 

(27) 
Requite me not with wrath againe ; that were disloyaltie, 

But see that thou accept hereof, as best beseemeth thee ; 
And as a pledge of my good will, let this be vnto thee, 
Desiring God, that I thy state, in health and wealth may see." 

r. Of Stubbes's third publication, no copy is known. It was 
"A View of Vanitie, and Allarum to England or Retrait from 
Sinne, in English Verse by Phil. Stubs. London, by T. Purfoot. 
1582. 8vo." 

d. His fourth was the famous Anatomic of Abuses^ enterd in the 
Stationers* Registers on the ist of March, and printed on the ist of 
May, 1583, 125 leaves, small Svo, 1 here reprinted. The success 
of the book was so great that a second edition was "Printed at 
London, by Richard lones. 16. August 1583. \Colophori\ Perused, 
aucthorised, and allowed, accordyng to the order appoincted in the 
Queenes Maiesties Iniunctions. At London Printed by Richard 
Jones dwellyng at the Signe of the Rose and the Crowne, neere 
vnto Holborne Bridge. 1583." small Svo, 133 leaves, black letter. 
( Collation : IT, 4 leaves : B R in eights, R 8 occupied by the colophon 
and device 2 ). Copies are in the Grenville Library in the British 
Museum (collated for the present edition), in the Bodleian (Malone 
526), and at Bridgewater House. In 1584, a third edition 3 of 
the book was issued, "now newly reuised and recognized, and 
augmented the third time by the same Author [Quotations]. 

1 There are 3 copies of it in the Bodleian, Crynes 833, Tanner 120, 8. S. 
269. Art. Mr. F. Ouvry has the copies of the 1st and 2nd editions describd by 
Mr. Collier in Ms Bibl Cat. iu 

2 The woodcut on the last page is that of a man in a round cap and long 
gown, stooping, his arms both stretching to the left, with a glove in his left hand; 
whereas the woodcut at the end of the 1st edition is of a lady seated, and looking 
over her right shoulder, with a flower in her hand. 

3 Formerly treated by Mr. Collier, and Mr, Hazlitt after him (and me after 
them), as 2 editions, the 3rd and 4th. Mr. C. (Bibl. Cat. ii. 393) states that "the 
fourth edition, also dated 1584, is without any specification of the month. We 
have examined all anterior impressions of the book and their dates, so that we are 
in a condition to speak positively on the subject." But can one trust him ? 



6. Stubbes $ 4th Book, the Anatomic, Part i. 61* 

and Printed at London, by Richard lones 12 October, 1584, 8 
black letter 1 "; this has A R 4 In eights, says Mr. Hazlitt, the 
colophon on R 4 repeating the date of the year, but not the 
month. In 1585 the fourth edition came out, and was still 
calld the third 2 : "now newly reuised recognized and augmented 
the third time by the same Author. . . 1585," (A copy Is in 
the British Museum, and has been collated for the present edition.) 
Then came a stay for ten years, when the fifth edition (calld the 
fourth) was publisht, " Now, the fourth time, newly corrected and 
inlarged by the same Author. . . Imprinted at London by Richard 
lohnes, at the sign of the Rose and Crowne, next aboue S. 
Andrewes Church in Holborne. 1595." 4to, 76 leaves. Of this 
edition two copies are In the Bodleian (Malone 527, and Tanner 
120) and have been collated for the present book. Mr. Huth also 
has a copy. 

Tho Mr. J. P. Collier has in his reprint of the Anatomie^ A. 1583 
(Introduction), and his Bibliographical Catalogue^ ii. 402, tried to 
kill Stubbes in 1593 of fie plague then raging in London, it is 
absolutely certain that he revisd his Anatomie for the edition of 
1595,3 and its title-page of that year leaves no doubt that he was 
not dead when it was issued. Also, if his Perfect Pathway of 1610 
Is not a reprint of an earlier edition, Its fresh 15 Prayers were added 
by Stubbes alive then. The changes made in the Anatomie after 
its first publication were mainly 4 these : 

i. he left out of the 2nd and all after editions, his Preface to the 
Reader, in which he had said that he didn't want to put down all 
amusements, but only the abuses In them, and had allowd that 
some kind of Plays, dancing in private, and gaming that wasn't 

1 "A perfect copy in the original vellum wrapper has been recently dis 
covered," Mr. Hazlitt tells me (Aug. 8, 1879), and is in the possession of Mr. A. 
Wallis, 88, Friar Gate, Derby, Editor of the Derby Mercury. Mr. Pyne has 
the imperfect copy mentiond in Mr. Hazlitt's Collections and Notes. 

3 The late Mr. Turnbull reprinted this, with a short Introduction. 

3 See notes, p. iii, viii, ix, 50, 52, 53, &c., &c. 

4 In F he left out his Latin verses, p. xiv, A. D. 's commendatory poem, 
p. xvii, and his own verses on { The Avthor and his Booke, 3 p. xix-xx, below ; in 
B, &c., he put in a poem by "C. B. In commendation of the Auctors lucubrations," 
p. xv-xvi, below. 

SHAKSPERE'S E^GLAM) : STUBBES. / 



6. Changes in the znd and 6th eds. of the Anatomie. 

gambling, were innocent. He evidently wrote, and perhaps printed, 
this Preface before he wrote all his book, and then saw that it was 
more or less inconsistent with the book itself, which denounst Plays, 
&c., so fiercely, and calld out loudly for their abolition. 

2. he put in the story at p. 71 3 of the Devil setting the Antwerp 
woman's ruff, and wringing her neck for it; the bit in p. 79 note, 
about Looking-glasses being the Devil's bellows; the 2 pages, p. 
87 9, on the bad way in which women spend their days and meet 
their paramours in Gardens in the suburbs ; the bit on p. 99 against 
allowing whoredom for a fine; the stories in in 13 of the Devil 
burning up the 7 Swabian drunkards, and on 113 14 of the awful 
end of the 2 Dutch drunkards ; the new chapter, of 7 pages in our 
text, on Greate Swearyng in Ailgna, p. 129 136, and the instance 
of the English Jew who fell into a privy on his Sabbath, and died 
there rather than ' break or violate the Lordes Sabbaoth,' p. 139. 
Some fresh sidenotes were added in B 1583, E 1585, and F 1595 (or 
the uncollated edition of 1584) : seep. 41, 53, 62, 63, Si, 82, 83, 87, 
103, in 14, 122, 130 6, &c. ; and some fresh chapter-headings. 
The worth of the Anatomie is too well known to need any dwelling- 
on by me, and so are the strength and raciness of Stubbes's words 
the ruffs that go flip-flap in the wind, and lie on men's shoulders 
like the dish-clout of a slut (p. 51), the women who are 'puppits or 
maumets of rags and cloutes compact together ' (p. 75), the boys who 
care for nothing, so that they have ' their pretie pussie to huggle 
withal! 7 (p. 97), the usurer, 'thou Deuill, for I dare not call thee a 
man* (p. i 2 7), the dancers, ( what kissing and bussing, what smouching 
and slabbering one another ' (p. 155), the minstrels who pipe up a 
dance to the devil (p. 172), the football players, when two charge 
one, ( to hit him vpon the hip, and to pick him on his neck, with a 
hundred such murdering deuiees 7 (p, 184), the 'vgglesome monsters 
and Deuills' (p. 188), &c, &c. 

Another change that Stubbes made in his 1595 edition (our F) 
was of his earlier inkhorn terms into simpler ones. Here are a few 
instances taken at random: 



A. tractation 
F. discourse 



27 



A. preparaunce 

F. great preparation 



72 



6. Changes ofinkhorn words used in the 1583 ed. A. 63^ 


A. momentaine 115 A. introite 154 


F. momentary F. entrance 


A. acuate 128 128 i A. instinction [on-pricking] 157 


F. whette F. instinct 


A. Implicate 129 'A. preter time 157 


F. entangled F. former ages 


A. denegers of (the faithe) 134 ! A. quauemire or plash 159, 168 


F. reprobates concerning 


F. quagmire or puddle 


A. abdicate (themselves) 134 


A. obtused 161 


F. abandon 


F. dulled 


A. evacuate 136 


A. babish 161 


F. haue discended 


F. wanton 


A. God his (left at 189) 142 


A. dlstincted 165 


F. Gods 


F. distinct 1 


A. exordium 145, 154 


A, victimats and holocaustes 168 


F. original 


F. and oblations 


A. procliue 146 


A. Hethenicall 168, 177 


F, prone 


F. Heathnish 


A. allections 146, 155 


A. auditorie 169 


F. enticements 


F. hearers 


A. Instinction 148 


A. fucate 174 


F. instinct 


F. counterfeit 


A. exterior action 152 


A. promulgat 176 


F. outward show 


F. published 


A. templaries & oratories 152 


A. vendicate . . commend 


F. temples and churches 


ations 177 


A. saturitie 153 


F. challenge . . rewards 


F. fulnesse 


A. adnull 178 


A. determinat 153 


F. annull 


F. prefixed 


A. prostrated 181 


A. circumvalled 153, 162 


F. humbled 


F. compassed about 


A. preiudicing 182 


A. concions 154 


F. annoying 


F. preachings 


A. consummate 183, 191 




F. ended 


But he has left amarulmt^ 147 ; alatrate^ 149 ; cmcufoate, 183, 


&c. ; and in one case he has turned the simpler trinckets of A, 82, 


to supellectiles in E and F : probably more of like kind occur. In 


F, too, Stubbes gave up his absurd way in A of spelling certain 


1 'Distracted' is left in F. 156. 



64* 6. Stulbess Rosarie, Anatomie n, against Papists. 

proper names backwards : ASgna, for Anglia, England ; Efmutna 
(71), for Antwerp; Lewedirb (100), for Bridewell; Munidnol (59), 
for Londinum, London; Ainatirb (21), for Britannia; Ratsurb 
(100), for Brustar ; Enlocnilshire (135), for Lincolnshire ; 'Notdgnoc 
for Congleton (136), c. Ericlissehcshire for Cheshire (135) he 
had given up in E (1585) or before. 

,?. Stubbes' s fifth book was "The Rosarie of Christian Praiers 
and Meditations for diuers Purposes, and at diuers Times, as well 
of the day as of the Night, by Phill. Stubbes. Lond. by lohn 
Charlewood, 1583, i8mo." It was enterd in the Stationers' 
Register on Aug. 3, 1583, and assignd to James Roberts on May 
31, 1594, but no copy is now known. 

/ Stubbes's sixth book was the "The /Second part / of the 
Anatomie of / Abuses, containing The display / of Corruptions, 
with a perfect de-/scription of such imperfections, blemi-/shes, and 
abuses, as now reigning in eue-/rie degree, require reformation for 
feare / of Gods vengeance to be powred vpon/ the people and coun- 
trie, without / speedie repentance and con/uersion vnto God : made/ 
dialogwise by Phil-/lip Stubbes. / Except your righteousnes exceed 
.... London, Printed by Ro[ger] W[ard] for William Wright,/ 
and are to be sold at his shop ioining / to S. Mildreds Church in the/ 
Poultrie, being the mid-/dle shop in the rowe."[is83]. A P in eights : 
a little 8vo of 5^ inches high by 3^ths broad, 2 copies at Lam 
beth, i in the Grenville Library, Brit. Mus., i in the Bodleian, &c. 
As I've already given the list of this book's subjects (p. 36*), and 
mean to print it for the Society, I need say no more about it now. 
It was enterd in the Stationers 3 Registers in Nov. 7, 1583. 

In the 1583 edition of Eoxe's Martyrs ('Ecclesiastical History 
.... Actes and Monumentes/ &c), the following eight lines of 
Stubbes's, on the Papist Bloodsuckers or Leeches, appeard at the 
end of the commendatory Poems, sign. IT iiij. They are not in the 
edition of 1570, but are repeated in that of 1596 : 



Q 



" In sanguisugas Papistas, 
Philippus Stubbes. 

k Vi sacrum Christi satagit conuellere verbum, 
Vulnificum contrk calcitrat hie stimulum, 



6. Stubbed $ Popes Monarchic, & Parry's Treason. 65* 

Florida quse nimio compresse est pondere palina, 
Fortius exurgit viribus aucta suis. 
Auricomansq//e crocus quo calcatur magis, exit 
Hoc magisy excrescit, floret, eoq&<? magis. 
Sic EvayygXior quantumrds turba papalis 
Conspuat, exurat, crescit, vbiqz/<? tamen. 
Finis." 

g. Of the seventh book: " The Theatre of the Popes Monarchic, 
by Phil. Stubbes. Lond. for Henry Carre. 1584. 8vo," no copy is 
known. 

h. His eighth, a 4to tract of 4 leaves, is represented by copies 
in the Lambeth and Huth Libraries, and was reprinted (with a few 
changes) by Mr. Reardon in the Old Shakespeare Society's Papers, 
iii. 17 21 : 

"The/ Intended Trea-/son, of Doctor Parrie:/ and his Com 
plices, A -/gainst the Queenes moste / Excellent Maiestie./ With a 
Letter sent from the Pope/ to the same effect./ Imprinted at 
London / for Henry Car, / and are to be solde / in Paules Church 
yard at the Signe / of the Blazing Starre. / " (i 585.) 

This little tract must have been written between Febr. 25, 1585, 
when Stubbes says that Parry "was conuaied from the Tower of 
London to Westminster Hall, where he was arraigned according to 
the lawe in that case prouided,"and March 2, when he was hangd. 1 
The object of the tract was to state Parry's crime, to print the Pope's 
letter to him * written by the Cardinall of Como' encouraging him 
to his crime, and granting him plenary indulgence and remission of 
all his sins, and to make Englishmen hate the Pope and papists ; 

" One Doctor Parrie, Doctor of the Ciuil Law, being (though 
beyond his deserts) very deer vnto her maiestie, and wel liked of, 
was by her grace sent ouer Seas in very waightie affaires, which he 
wel atchiuing, returned home, and no doubt was bountefully 
rewarded of her grace for his seruice and paines sustained : within 
a while after, this Doctor Parrie, vnwoorthy the name of a doctor 
or of a Christian, conspired the death of her maiestie, hauing 

1 And, as Stowe says in his Annahs (1605), p. 1180, "The 2. day of Marche 
1584 -5] William Parry was drawne from the Tower through the city of London 
to Westminster, and there in the palace court, hanged, bo welled, and quartered 
for high treason, as may appeare by a booke extant, intituled * A true and plaine 
declaration of the horrible treasons practised by W. Parry* Sec. & I have set downe 
the same booke in the continuance of Reine Woolfe's Chronicle " [calld by us, 
Holinshed's, ed. 1587, vol. ii. p. 138295]. 



66* 6. Stub&e/s Parry's Treason, & Life of his Wife. 

receiued his fees of the Pope (as it should seem) for the same. 
For the accomplishing of which moste hainous fact, he, with another, 
determined to kill her maiestie, sometimes with a Dag, 1 sometimes 
with a Poynado or dagger, sometime with one thi/zg, and sometimes 
with an other. Wei, this platforme being laid, and he hauing 
promised the Pope to performe the thing, one of his conspirators, 
through the goodnes of God, disclosed the same; which doon, 
both he and the said archtraitor Parrie were both apprehended 
and committed, and vpon the 25 of Februarie the said Parrie was 
conuaied from the Tower of London to Westminster hall, where 
he was arraigned according to the lawe in that case prouided 
sign. A. i> (p. 1 8). 

"What good subiect, now, knowing the Pope and papists to be 
the instruments of all mischeef, of blood and of treason, wil not 
abhor and detest the one & y e other? (A, iij. back, p. 20). . . . 
take this for a Maxim e, that all papists are traitors in their harts, how 
soeuer otherwise they beare the world in hand (p. 20) . . . blood, 
treason, rebellion, insurrections, commotions, mutenies, murther, and 
the like, are the badges and cognizaunce of them, and of that wicked 
generation ; and let vs look for it, they wil be pricks vnto our eyes, 
whips unto our backs, and kniues to cut our throts withall, if time 
wouldserue them, which I pray God neuer doo " (sign. A. iiij. p. 21). 

f. Stubbes's ninth book was his Life of his Wife, or Christal 
Glassefor Christian Women, i59i,enterd on the Stationers' Registers 
on June 15, 1591. Mr. Henry Pyne has been kind enough to lend 
me his unique copy of the first edition. 2 From it the part in which 
Stubbes describes his wife and her relation to him, is printed below, 
p. 195 208, the doctrinal part being left out. That Stubbes lovd 
his young wife, and did his duty by her, is clear. The picture of the 
stern grave husband and the sweet girl-wife looking up to him, never 
contrarying him, but gently persuading, listening to his exposition 
of Holy Writ, is surely one grateful to the mind, notwithstanding its 
dark background of hard religionism. 

/ Stubbes's tenth book is also in part reprinted below, p. 209. 

"A perfect Pathway/ to Felicitie,/ Conteining godly/ Medita 
tions, and prai-/ers } fit for all times, and / necessarie to be prac-/tized 
of all good / Christians./ Imprinted at Lon-/don by Richard 
Yardly / for Humfrey Lownes " / 15927. My copy, believd to be 

1 Pistole: F. A Pistoll; a great (horsemans) Dag . . Pistolet ; m. A 
Pistolet ; a Dag, or little Pistoll 1611. Cotgrave. 

2 The 2nd edition, 1592, is in the Huth Collection. The tract was printed 
as late as 1658. Of that edition I have a copy. 



6. Stubbes $ Pathway, and Motive to good Workes, 67* 

unique, is imperfect It is a little squarish book, much cut down, of 
3^-in. high, by 2f broad, every page having a printed border. Colla 
tion : IT in 8, and A to P in 8s ; no doubt the last three leaves, and 
perhaps 1F i too, were blank. The Contents of it are printed below, 
p. 210 and p. 212, the titles of the missing Prayers being given from 
the only other edition known to me, that of 1610, the only known 
copy of which the late Mr. Henry Huth, with his never-failing 
friendship, lent me. This 1610 edition has 15 more Prayers than 
that of 1592 their titles are given at the foot of p. 212, and I 
suppose that Stubbes livd till 1610 to write them. The 20 pages 
of Prayers, &c., reprinted below, are from the 1610 edition, as the 
1592 one did not turn up till after my pages were cast I chose 
those Prayers which interested me most not forgetting that on p. 
2 20- 1 below, which mentions ' those fleas and gnats' that in bed did 
bite the skin of Stubbes, as their fellows must have done that of 
Shakspere. These Prayers convinct me that their writer was a pure- 
minded earnest man, not only a bitter railer. Taking them with the 
other works, I cannot but feel a real respect for Stubbes : and all 
who wish to understand him should read them. 

k. Of the eleventh and last known work of Stubbes, only one 
copy seems to have been lately extant, and that belongd to Mr. J. 
P. Collier, but has (he says) been stolen from him. He thus 
describes it in his Bibliographical Catalogue, ii. 400-1 : 

"A Motive to good Workes. Or rather, to true Christianize 
indeede. Wherein by the waie is shewed, how farre wee are behinde, 
not onely our forefathers in good workes, but also many other 
creatures in the endes of our creation : with the difference betwixt 
the pretenced good workes of the Antichristian Papist, and the good 
workes of the Christian Protestant By Phillip Stubbes, Gentle 
man. Matthew. 5. verse 16. Let your light so shine, &c. 
London, Printed for Thomas Man, dwelling in Pater Noster rowe, 
at the signe of the Talbot. 1593. 8vp. 114 leaves. 

" In quoting the sacred text, which the author chose as the motto 
of his book, it is singular that he, or his printer, should have left out 
so important a word as * good ' before ' workes/ 

"This is the only copy of the book that we ever met with: 
Lowndes originally mentioned it, and the short title is given in the 
new edition, p. 2539 j but in both it is erroneously dated 1592 ; it 
is entirely prose. 



68* 6. Stubbed s nth booh, A Motive to good Workes. 

" Stubbes, in his dedication, tells Cuthbert Buckle, Lord Mayor of 
London for the year, that ' he took his gelding about the Annuncia 
tion of S. Mary last past 1 / and made a journey, which lasted about 
three months, into various parts of the kingdom, partly for pleasure, 
and partly to avoid the infection of the then raging plague. As he 
subscribes it 'from my lodging by Cheapside, 8 of November, 1593 ' 
we may conclude that by that date the virulence of the disorder had 
considerably abated. He complains that he every where found the 
country fertile and beautiful, but the people utterly unworthy of it 
a deplorable deficiency of good workes, and a lamentable decay 
of hospitals, almshouses, churches, schools, &c. His object in 
writing his book is therefore evident, and in a brief address ' to the 
courteous Reader' he apologises for the unadorned plainness of his 
style : ' I have not desired to be curious, neither to affect filed 
phrases, culled or picked sentences, nor yet loftie, haughtie or farre 
fetched epithetes.' 

"Considering the purpose for which the author travelled, we 
might reasonably expect some minute and interesting details of 
what he saw in the country nearly three centuries ago ; but we have 
little beyond general invective and pious lamentation over the 
prevailing vices, until we arrive at p, 184, where remarks are made 
upon the facility with which a license was obtained for a worthless 
or immoral book, while permission to publish a religious or 
meritorious work was long delayed. As this is a point which he 
had touched upon in his 'Anatomy of Abuses [p. 185, below]' we 
transcribe only a few sentences : he says 

* I cannot a lyttle mervayle that our grave and reverend Bishops, and other 
inferiour magistrates and officers, to whom the oversight and charge of such 
things are committed, will either license (which I trust they do not, for I wyll 
hope better of them) or in anie sorte tollerate such railing libels and slanderous 
pamphlets as have beene of late published in print, one man against another, to 
the great dishonour of God, corruption of good manners, breach of charitie, and 
in a worde to the just offence and scandall of all good Christians. And truely, 
to speake my conscience freely, I thinke there cannot a greater mischiefe be 
suffered in a common wealth, than for one man to write against another, and to 
publish it in print to the viewe of the world/ 

"In this passage we can scarcely fail to observe an allusion to 
.the very personal controversy about this date so vigorously carried 
on, through the medium of the press, between Nash and Harvey. 
The Martin- marprelate feud was also then at its height, and Stubbes, 
as a zealous Puritan, sincerely sympathised with his pen-persecuted 
brethren. 2 He proceeds : 

1 25 March, 1593. 

2 And had a direct personal feeling about it besides : see Nashe's attacks on 
him, p. 37* -41* above. But it is surely to Stubbes's credit that (so far as we 
know) he didn't, like Galriel Harvey, answer Nashe's personal railing by per 
sonal railing, as he could easily have done, but protested against the practice. 
It's a height of virtue which I have not yet reacht. 



6. Stubkes's Motive, 1593. 7. His Character. 69* 

4 1 wis, the noble science of printing was not given us to that end, being 
Indeede one of the chiefest blessings that God hath given to the sons of men heere 
uppon earth. For is not this the next i way to broach rancor, hatred, malice, 
exnulacion, envie and the like amongst men ? Nay, is not this the next I way to 
make bloudshed and murther, to rayse up nratenies, insurrections, commotions 
and rebellions in a Christian commonwealth ? and therefore I would wish both the 
bookes and the authors of them to be utterly suppressed for ever, the one by fire, 
and the other by the halter or gallowes, if nothing else will serve. But what 
should I say? I cannot but lament the corruption of our time, for (alas) now 
adayes it is growen to be a hard matter to get a good booke licensed without 
staying, peradventure, a quarter of a yeare for it ; yea, sometimes two or three 
yeares before he can have it allowed, and in the end happly rejected too ; so that 
that which many a good man hath studyed sore for, and traveyled long in, 
perchance all the dayes of his life, shall be buryed in silence, and smothered up 
in forgetfulness, and never see the light ; whilest in the meane tyme other bookes, 
full of all filthines, scurrilitie, baudry, dissolutenes, cosonage, conycatchlng and 
the lyke (which all call for vengeance from heaven) are either quickely licensed, 
or at least easily tollerate, without all denyall or contradiction whatsoever/ 

"At all events Stubbes had not much reason to complain of 
delay: he collected his materials in the summer of 1593, wrote his 
book on his return in November, and published it, duly registered 
[Oct. 14] and licensed, before the end of the year. 

"He is especially vehement on the neglected and ruinous state 
of the churches in the country and does not spare the Roman 
Catholics and Jesuits for their many attempts on the Queen's life, 
enumerating Parry (about whom he had himself written), Somerville, 
Arden, Throckmorton and Babington as among the principal 
offenders/' 2 

7. Stu&ttJs Character. On Sunday, July 17, 1575, and the 
Tuesday after, the Coventry folk, led by the great Captain Cox, 
playd before Queen Elizabeth at Kenllworth, their Hock-Tuesday 
Play, of how the English men and women drove out the Danes, 
A.B. 1 01 2. They had been wont to act the play yearly in their city, 
but it had been "of late laid dooun, they knu no cauz why, onless it 
wear by the zeal of certain theyr Preacherz : men very commendabl 
for their behauiour and learning, fy sweet in their sermons; but 
sumwhat too sour in preaching awey their pastime" 3 Now something 
of this kind may, I think, fairly be said of Stubbes. Tho his 

1 next is the contraction of * nighest,* as Juxt of 'highest.* 
3 On p. 402, Mr. Collier, besides trying to take a dozen or more years off 
Stubbes's life by making him die of the plague in 1593, thinks "It is rather 1 
singular that in the \Motwt to Good Workes, 1593] Stubs says nothing of the 
death of his wife which had occurred on the I4th December preceding," or 1592. 
But 1590 was the year of Katherme Stubbes's death : see p, 195 below. 

3 Captain Cox or Laneham's Letter, p. 27 of my edition for the Ballad 
Society. Who'll give us ^35, to issue it for the New Shakspere Society ? 



70* 7- The Character of Phillip Studies. 

Anatomie can ; t be calld a * sweet ' book, yet his purpose in writing 
it was a righteous one : 

"Wherefore I will assay to doe them good (if I can) in 
discouermg their abuses, and laying open their inormities, that 
they, seeing the greeuousnes of their maladies, and daunger of theyr 
diseases, mayin time seeke to the true Phisition and expert Chirurgion 
of their soules, Christ lesus, of whome onelie commeth all health 
and grace, and so eternally be saued." p. 26 below. 

And tho he cut out in after editions, the moderate and sensible 
Preface to the Reader?- p. x xiii below, which he wrote to his first 
edition, yet there stands his declaration of his meaning in the book, 
that it was the abuse, not the use, of amusements that he con- 
demnd : "take away the abuses, the thinges in themselues are not 
euill ; being vsed as instruments to Godlynes, not made as spurres 
vnto vice. There is nothing so good but it may be abused ; yet, 
because of the abuses, I am not so strict that I wold have the things 
themselues remooued, no more than I wold meat and drinke, 
because it is abused, vtterly to be taken away." p. xii ; see too p. x. 

And granting that Stubbes went beyond this limit in the body 
of his book, yet one knows that the evils he was denouncing were 
real sores in the common weal, and one sees how easily he, 
believing that the Day of Doom was close at hand (p. 187), would 
be led to speak, maybe too sharply, of the ridiculous petty vanities 
and fooleries that were going on daily and hourly around him. 
There was something better for English men and women to do in 
Shakspere's days than dress themselves like ' a dog in a doublet,' 
and paint themselves like harlots ; and if Stubbes while calling on 

1 I attach no value whatever to Mr. Collier's suggestion that Stubbes withdrew 
his Preface on account of the issue of * a public order . . forbidding the profanation 
of Sunday by the representation of plays and interludes.' Why should this make 
him withdraw his moderate Preface, and yet make him maintain his fierce attack 
on Sunday plays in the after part of his book ? And I suppose that the following 
paragraph is due to that imagination of Mr. Collier's which gave us his versions 
of the Alleyn letters (At/delay and Harman, E. E. T. S. xxv), Blackfriars petitions, 
&c : " We can readily believe that, considering the o fence it had given at Court and 
elsewhere, he [Stubbes] was glad also to omit what he had said, in the first instance, 
on the subject of indecency and extravagance in dress." JBibL Cat. ii. 394. The 
denouncings are made fiercer, if anything, in the 2nd edition ; the Preface is 
withdrawn only because it weakend the attack in the text. 



8. Queen Elizabeths Procession in 1600. 71* 

them to do this better thing, also calld them Idiots, and all the hard 
names he could lay his tongue to, let us hold that he was right in 
his main purpose, if he errd somewhat in his way of carrying it out. 

And if we read his meditations and prayers, and give him credit 
as we surely may for trying to do and be, from dawn till sleep 
came upon him, what he askt others to pray to do and be, in their 
daily life, I do not think we shall deny to Philip Stubbes a pure 
spirit, an earnest soul, a longing to be one with God, and fit himself 
and the world around him for the habitation of the Holy One, in 
whom he with his whole heart believd. 

. 8 Miscellaneous, a. The illustrations. As Stubbes writes so 
much about the dress of his period, I thought our members the 
foreign and colonial ones especially would like to have some 
authentic reproductions of trustworthy specimens of that dress : 
hence our heliogravure (by M. Dujardin) of Virtue's large engraving 
of Queen Elizabeth's Herbert Procession in 1600, from Lord 
Ilchester's picture, and the other cuts from Planches late work on 
Costume. For the Ballad cuts that follow the above, I cannot 
claim equal authority ; but as they could be had for the price of the 
casts of them, they were added, and Mr Ebsworth has been so kind 
as to write an interesting Memorandum on them. 

The cause of Elizabeth's Procession was her going to the 
marriage of Lord Herbert and Miss Anne Russell. A short notice 
of the event is given, says Mr. G. Schax{(Arck<zoLJbtmial 9 xxiii, 23 1), 
in the Sidney Papers, ii, 203 : 

" Rowland White to Sir Robert Sidney, June 23, 1600 : 

"This day se'night her Majesty was at Blackfriars to grace the 
marriage of Lord Harbert and his wife. The bride met the Queen 
at the water-side, where my Lord Cobham had prouided a lectica, 1 
made like a litter, whereon she was carried to my Lady Russell's by 
six knights. Her Majesty dined there, and at night went through 
Dr. Puddins (Sir Wm. Paddy's house) who gave the Queen a fanne 
to my Lord Cobham's, where she supped . . . Her Majesty upon 
Tuesday came backe againe to the court 1 ' 

p. 137 : "It may be observed, with reference to the costume of the 
Queen, that the wide-spreading, radiating ruff, open in front so as to 
show the neck, appears to be a peculiarity of the Queens latest 

1 Litera, a horselytter, Lectica. 1591. R. Perciuale. Spanish Diet. 



72* 8. Q. Elizabeth's Procession. Stubbes Extracts, 

years. The open neck was more particularly reserved for unmarried 
ladles. It does not appear either in pictures or on coins of this 
reign bearing dates earlier than i6oi. x Most of the portraits of the 
Queen, on the coinage especially, exhibit her wearing a small 
ruff, carried completely round and supported by a high stiff band or 
collar belonging to the dress, such as was worn during the reign of 
her predecessor. In this picture, however, a second minor ruff also 
appears, passing immediately under the chin, and corresponds 
exactly with a small frill in Lord Salisbury's curious portrait, 
exhibiting the robe embroidered with eyes and ears. No. 267 of 
the Kensington Portrait Exhibition." 

"All the noblemen's cloaks are black satin, and of the short 
Spanish cut. All legs are remarkably thin. The shoes are uniformly 
white, with ties of the same colour on the instep. All the courtiers, 
with the exception of the Earl of Cumberland, wear full-spreading 
lace-ruffs." Scharf, p. 143. The bride is in white. 

As to the house in the background, the antiquary whose loss 
we all so lament, Mr. J. G. Nichols, said (Arch. Journal^ xxiii, 302) 
that he 

". . . . did not attribute much reality to the landscape in the 
background, except that it may give a general idea of the detached 
buildings then existing in the fields and gardens on the Surrey side 
of the river. - He regarded the grand house immediately behind the 
figures as the mansion of Lord Cobham, in which the Queen was 
entertained, notwithstanding that the procession is represented as 
already passing it by. This house, after the attainder of Lord 
Cobham in 1603, passed to Lord Hunsdon, and then acquired the 
name of Hunsdon House, whence the confusion with the Queen's 
visit to Hunsdon House in Hertfordshire. . . . Inquiry being made 
where the house stood, Mr. Nichols replied that he believed very 
near the site of the famous Blackfriars Theatre (shown in the map 
by Playhouse Yard), in which Shakspeare was a partner : subsequently 
occupied by the Kings Printing-office, and now by that of the 
Times newspaper in Printing-house Square." 

b. The Extracts from Stubbed s other works are added to enable 
the reader to judge Stubbes's character better than the Anatomie 
alone allows them to do, and for the picture of his girl wife, a bride 
at between 14 and 15, dead between 18 and 19, and their marrid 
life. Her doctrinal belief I have left out 

The Extracts from Bp. Babington are given, to show how a grave 
Churchman in high place in Elizabeth's reign spoke of the social 

1 But in 1598, when Hentzner saw Elizabeth at Greenwich, ** Her bosom was 
uncovered, as all the English ladies have it, till they marry. " Harrison^ I. Ixxvi. 



8. Kaogeorguss Popular Superstitions. This Book. 73* 

ills of which Stubbes complains, so that the reader may judge, from 
them and the other extracts in the Notes, how little or how much 
Stubbes exaggerates. That I could have three- or four-folded the 
testimony borne by these extracts, and those in the Notes, every 
student of the literature of the time knows. 

c. The Fourth Book of Kirchmaier's (or Naogeorgus's) Eegnum 
Papismt, as englisht by Barnabe Googe In 1570, is reprinted here, 
because it deals with many of the superstitious customs against 
which Stubbes writes, and also because I believe many of our 
members must have often desird with me, to see the whole of the 
Book in which the passages occur that have so often informd and 
interested them in Brand (Popular Antiquities, ed. Ellis, ed. 
Hazlitt). This fourth Book of Kirchmaiefs easily lifts out of The. 
Popish Kingdome, the rest of which, tho' it abuses the Papists, 
isn't lighted by nearly so much of the church- and folk-lore that 
make the fourth Book of such worth to us now. 

d. TJie present Edition of the Anatomie (Part I) is the second 
reprint of Stubbes 7 s first edition of May i, 1583, Mr. J. Payne 
Collier's reprint in 1869 (with a few mistakes) being the first. As 
above noted, p. 61, note 2, the late Mr. W. D. Turnbull 1 re-edited 
in 1836, Stubbes's fourth edition of 1585, wrongly calld the third. 
That the worth of the book deservd more reprints, is clear ; but as 
Harrison's Description of England was never reprinted separately, 2 
till our Society did part of it in 1877-8, we cannot wonder at the 
fewness of the Anatomies reprints. 

Stubbes having so added to and changd this first edition, I 
thought it would be more interesting to print the text in its first 
state, and show all the changes in it, rather than to reprint the last 
edition of 1595, and note the earlier states of that The only 
difficulty was, how to deal with the chapter on Swearing, and the 
other long additions of the second edition ; I decided to put them 
in the text, between brackets, and with notes saying that they were 
insertions. Of no copy of the edition of 1584 (then considerd two 

1 See Canon Simmons J s note on him in Tfo Lay Folks* Mass Book, Early 
English Text Society, 1879, p. Ixvi. 

2 Sir Hy. Ellis of course included it in his reprint 



74* Thanks to Helpers. Asking for Notes. 

editions, p. 60* above, note 3) could I hear, and so I couldn't get 
it collated. For the copying and collations of the text I have 
to thank our helpers, Mr. George Parker and Miss Smith; for a 
great part of the Index, Mr. Sidney J. Herrtage and Mr. EL K. 
Deighton ; for some aid in the Notes, Mr. W. G. Stone j for their 
details of Stubbes* s family, Col. Chester and Mr. Henry Stubbes; 
for leave to have -the englisht Naogeorgus out of the Cambridge 
University Library, Mr. Bradshaw, our great Chaucerian; for his 
Memorandum on the wood-cuts, Mr. Ebsworth king, with Mr, 
Chappell, over Ballad-land; for tidings of editions, Mr. W. C. 
Hazlitt ; and for information about their paintings of Q. Elizabeth's 
Procession, Lord Ilchester and Mr. Digby. 

For any further tidings about Stubbes or his lost books, I shall 
be greatly obliged, for use in my edition of TJie Anatomic^ Part II. 

3 St. Georges Sq. t JV. W., July 20, 1879. 



p. 2*. Mr. Henry Stubbes says: "I have had the Eltham Registers 
examined, and they contain a great number of Stubbs entries of the branch from 
which I am descended, from 1584 to 1650, and among them some Philips, but 
none whom I can identify as the Author. " 

p, 66*. Life of Wife. Besides the witness that its many editions afford to the 
wide-spreadness of Stubbes's 'Life of his Wife/ we have other testimony in plays, 
Ac., as for instance, in William Cartwright's The Ordinary, probably written in 
* 6 34 printed in 1651, Vicar Catchmey says 

"I shall live to see thee 
Stand in a playhouse door with thy long box, 
Thy half-crown library, and cry small books : 

* Buy a good godly sermon, gentlemen/ 

* A judgment shown upon a host of drunkards ' ; 
' A pill to purge out popery 3 : 

' The life and death of Katharine Stubbs J " 

In Hazlitt's Dodsley, xii. 272. And, as the note there says, ' Richard Brome, in 
his play of The Antipodes , act iii, sc. 2. [acted 1638, printed 1640] mentions this 
book in the following manner : 

*' A booke of the godly life and 'death 
Of Mistress Catherine Stubs, which I have turn'd 
Into sweet meetre, for the vertuous youth, 
To woe an ancient lady widow with." - 
'Again, Bishop Corbet, in his Iter Boreale, [? 1647] says 

" And in some barn have cited many an author, 
JCafe Stubbs, Arme Ascue, or the Ladies daughter." ' 



APPENDIX TO FOREWORDS. 



EXTRACTS FROM BP. BABINGTON ON THE TEN 

COMMANDMENTS, A.D. 1588. 



Dress, p. 75* 

Charms^ Gaming, and Cursing, p. 78* 
Spending of Sunday i p. 78* 
Parmts" Neglect of Children, p. 82* 
A fid sitting them a bad Example, p. 82* 
Children's Neglect of Parents, p. 82* 
Stage-Plays and Players, p. 83* 
Dancing ; its Evils, p. 83* 
Wanton Looks and Books, p. 84* 
Lwsrus and Retainers, p. 86* 



Idleness in Youth, p. 86* 

Idle Jesting and Scoffing, p. 87* 

Amusements allowable, but not Gaming 

for Money, p. 88* 

Dicing: its evils (Chaucer on), p. 89* 
Oppressing the Weak. Taking Bribes, 

p. 91* 
Covetousness. Lawyers. Unfit Parsons^ 

p. 92* 
Pritth-$rattls : evils of it, p. 93* 



Bp. Babington on Dress. 

p. II. " Apparell again e is another of the raging desires of 
many. Eiien a worlde it is to see howe all, as dead, doe tast no sinne 
in it, but spend, and spare not, what possiblie may be gotten to bestowe 
on it ; yet what beginning had it ? Was it not then inuented, when man 
had sinned, grieuouslie offended his God, and cast himselfe away both 
bodie and soule? Seeing then in our integritie it was not vsed, but after 
sinne, bestowed on man to hide his shame withall, what may it euer 
beate into vs, but our rebellion against the Lorde, our sinne and cursed 
disobedience ? Howe should the sight of it and vse of it humble vs, 
and not puflfe vs vp, 1 seeing it plainely telleth vs, we are not as we were 



1 Dress, advantages of. " Fastidious Brisk. Why, assure you, signior, rich 
apparel has strange virtues : it makes him that hath it without means, esteemed 
for an excellent wit : he that enjoys it with means, puts the world in remembrance 
of his means : it helps the deformities of nature, and gives lustre to her beauties ; 
makes continual holiday where it shines ; sets the wits of ladies at work, that 
otherwise would he idle ; furnisheth your two-shilling ordinary ; takes possession 
of your stage at your new play ; and enricheth your oars, as scorning to go with 
your scull." 1598-1601. B. Jonson. Every Man in his Humour^ II. ii. Works, 
i. 94. See too 

" Macilente. I was admiring mine own outside here, 

To think what privilege and palm it hears 

Here in the court ! Be a man ne'er so vile, 

In wit, in judgment, manners, or what else ; 

If he can purchase but a silken, cover, 

He shall not only pass, but pass regarded : 

Whereas, let him be poor and meanly clad, 



76* *dpp x * Bp. Babington on Dress. 

when no apparell was worne, and yet no shame thereby ? Were it not 
monstrous pride, if a redeemed prisoner conditionally, that he should 
euer weare an halter, should waxe prowde of his halter ? Mans apparell 
is the badge of a sinner, yea of a condemned and cursed sinner, & 
therefore the pride of it and delight in it, no doubt very monstrous 
before the Lorde, and hatefull. If euery silken sute and gorgeous gowne 
in Englande shrowded vnder it a saued soule, and a sanctified bodie in 
the sight of God, O, happie then England of all the nations vnder 
heaue^. But if vnder such garded garments, may, and doeth lodge a 
body and soule abhorred of the Lorde, that in the day of wrath shall 
finde no fauour : then is it not apparell, that ought to be sought after, 
but in the day of iudgeme/zt how we may be saued. 33 

p. 308. " As for filthines, foolish talking, iesting, and such like, they 
are thinges vncomelie for a Christian. Againe, vnchast bookes and 
wanton writinges, who knoweth not howe they tickle to vncleannes ? and 
therfore both they and the reading of them forbidden in this la we. 
Sixtly, too much showe in apparel, painting, tricking and trimming of 
our selues aboue conueniencie : it is a daungerous allurer of lust, and 
therefore forbidden. 

Que t I could wish yet a litle larger speach of apparell, because I 
see it is one of the wormes that wasteth at this day the common wealth, 
that decaieth housekeeping, that maketh strait the hande of the 
master to his seruant, and the Lord to his tenant/ and a thing, to 

Though ne'er so richly parted *, you shall have 
A fellow that knows nothing but his beef, 
Or how to rince his clammy guts in beer. 
Will take him by the shoulders or the throat, 
And kick him down the stairs. Such is the state 
Of virtue in bad clothes I " ib. p. 108, col. i. 

1 Thomas Lupton gives us the grasping landlord's remorse in hell, in tl A 
Dreams of the Devil and Dives, most terrible and fearefull to the servaunts of 
Satan, but right comfortable and acceptable to the cbyldren of God &c. 
Imprinted at London by John Chailewood for Henrie Car." (B. L. 8vo. 60 
leaves, 1584. A copy at Lambeth.) 

"Then, said Dives, wo woorth these rackte rentes, and unreasonable fines 
that shall purchase such a kingdome ! I would to God I might cliaunge my estate 
of that kingdome with the most vilest and basest cottage on the earth. When they 
came hyther, they will crie out and say, Wo woorth the time that ever we rackt 
our tenants, or tooke such fines to irapoverislie them ! wo woorth the tyme that 
ever wee were so greedie of money, and wo woorth the tyme that ever we 
consumed the same in gluttonous and excessive fare, in proude and sumptuous 
apparell, in playing of Dice, Gardes, or other games, and other worldly vanities ! 
Wo woorth. the tyme that we made our Sonnes ritch by making Tenaunts poore ! 
But cursed be the time that we have made our Sonnes Lordes and Gentlemen on 
the earth, with the everlasting damnation of our owne bodies and soules in Hell 1 
That proverbe may be truelie verifyed in us, which is Happie. is that childe whose 
Father goeth to the Dcoitt. This will be theyr song when they come hither, but 
then they shall be without remedy, as I am." Collier's BibL Cat. i. 498. 

* Endowd with parts or talents, learned, &c. 



Appx. Decker, 3?c., against absurd Dress. 77^ 

conclude, that the deere children of God cannot ouercome themselues 
in." ' 

1 Ajpparel : (a) Women imitating nidi's dress; (b) Merts absurd Dress. 
Andrew B&ordls Cut of the naked Englishman, p. 249, "below. 

" For as man is Gods ape, striuing to make artificial! flowers, birdes, &c. like 
to the natural : So for the same reason are women, Mens Skee Apes t for they will 
not bee behind them the bredth of a Taylors yard (which is nothing to speake of) 
in anie new-fangled vpstart fashion. If men get vp French standing collars, 
women will haue the French standing coller too : if Dublets with little thick 
skirts, (so short that none are able to sit vpon them), womens foreparts are thick 
skirted too : by surfeiting vpon which kinde of phantasticall Apishnesse t in a short 
time they fall into the disease of pride : Pride is infectious, and breedes prodi- 
galitie : Prodigalitie, after it has runne a little, closes vp and festers, and then 
tumes to Beggsrie. Wittie was that Painter therefore, that when hee had limned, 
one of euery Nation in their proper attyres, and beeing at his wittes endes howe 
to drawe an Englishman, At the last (to giue him a quippe for his follie in 
apparell) drewe him starke naked, with Sheeres in his hand, and cloth on his 
arme, because none could cut out his fashions but himselfe (see p. 249, below), 

"For an English-mans suite is like a traitors bodie that hath beene hanged, 
drawne, and quartered, and is set vp in seuerall places : his Codpeece is in Den- 
marks, the coUor of his Duble[t], and the belly in France : the wing and narrowe 
sleeue in Italy ; the short waste hangs ouer a Dutch Botchers stall in Vtrich : 
his huge floppes [slops] speakes Spanish : Polonia giues him the Boates : the 
blocke for his heade alters faster than the Feltmaker can fitte Mm, and thereupon 
we are called in scorne Blockheadss, And thus we that mo eke euerie Nation, for 
keeping one fashion, yet steale patches from euerie one of them, to peece out our 
pride, are now laughing- stocks to them, because their cut so scuruily becomes vs." 
1606. T. Decker. Seuen Deadly Sinnes of London (Arber, 1879), p. 36 7. 

Women* Tight waists. "I have scene some swallow gravell, ashes, 
coales, dust, tallow, candles, and for the nonce, labour and toyle themselves to 
spoile their stomacke, only to get a pale-bleake colour. To become slender in 
wast, and to have a straight spagnolized body, what pinching, what girding, what 
cingling, will they not indure ; Yea sometimes with yron-plates, with whale-bones 
and other such trash, that their very skin, and quicke flesh is eaten in and 
consumed to the bones: Whereby they sometimes worke their owne death." 
1603. J. Florio. Montaigne's Essayes (ed. 1632), p. 133. [in French, 1580.] 

The following sketch of a fop with a toothpick in his mouth and a flower in 
his ear (compare the picture in the Natl. Portrait Gallery) is from "Laugh 
and lie downe: or Theworldes Folly" (Printed at London for Jeffrey Chorlton, 
and are to be sold at his shop, at the great North dore of saint Paules.) 1605. 4to. 
B. L. 

* c The next was a nimble witted and glib-toung'd fellow, who, having in his 
youth spent his wits in the Arte of love, was now become the jest of wit ; for his 
looks weere so demure, his words so in print, his graces so in order, and his 
conceites so in tune, that he was yea, iwis, so was he, and that he was such a 
gentleman for a Jester, that the Lady Folly could never be better fitted for her 
entertainement of all straungers. The picktooth in the mouth, the flower in the 

SHAKSPERE'S EKGHLAND : STUBBES. ff 



78* Appx. Bp. Babington on Gaming 



, 



Charms, Gaming, and Cursing. 

p. 158-9. " For sorcerie and witchcraft, charming and con hiring, am 
I able to say I haue as earnestlie abhorred them as I ought, and euerie 
way so absteyned from them as I shoulde ? Nay hath not rather ease 

c*oriwF b ? ene sou llt in P aine of mee b y tlaese raeanes, or at least 

wished if I coulde haue gotten them ? . . . Let it be wel weied 

of anie Cristian heart that feareth God indeede, and carefullie seeketh 

Gamins- t ^ ie crec ^ te ^ k* s name, howe often vnreuerentlie in sporting 

and playing, in shooting & bowling, in dising & carding, we vse 

Scripture his name, howe the phrase of scripture wil rowle out of our 

phrase. mouthes in iesting and light conferences, howe fearefully we vse 

Banning, him in cursing & banning our bretheren, and surely he shall 

see no smal guilt touching this commadement in euerie one of vs." 

Here is Babington's contrast of the way in which the Papists 
punisht breaches of God's laws swearing, &c. and of their own : 

p. 119. "Who so breaketh these, an Heretike hee is, a runneaway 
from the Church : cite him and summon him, excommunicate him and 
imprison him, burne him and hang him, yea, away with such a one, for 
Reade ike L. he is not worthie to Hue upon the earth. But if he blas- 
^am a tn P heine the name of th ? Lord b 7 horrible swearing, if he 
in theiegin- ofFende most grieuously in pride, in wrath, in gluttonie, and 
iting- of it. couetousnesse, if he be a drunken alestake, a ticktack tauerner, 
keepe a whore or two in his owne house, and moe abroade at bord with 
other men, with a nu;;zber such like greeuous offences, what doe they ? 
Either he is not punished at all, & most commonly so, or if he be, it is 
a little penance of their owne inuenting, by belly or purse, or to say a 
certaine of prayers, to visit such an image in pilgrimage, &c." 

Sabbath-breaking: the Spending of Sunday. 

p. 189-191. "If the sanctification of this day consist greatly in 
labouring to knowe the Lorde by the preaching of his worde, howe 
shall they safely passe the curse of God for the breache hereof, who 
with benummed soules, parched, padded, senselesse, and euery way most 
"hardened hearts, either lie and sleepe on the one side idle, or tossing the 
alepot with their neighbours, suffer this day to passe without any instruc 
tion, and like dumbe dogges hold their peace, no way discharging the 
dutie of a true minister, and one that tendereth the glory of God, his 
owne, & his peoples soules ? . . . Againe, if to sanctifie the Sabaoth, be 
to consecrate it to holy vses, such as haue beene named, is it possible 
for vs to escape the retienging hande of the eternall God, if he, content 
in mercie with one day in the 7. we denie him that also, and dedicate it 

eare, the brush upon the beard, the kisse of the hand, the stoupe of the head, the 
leere of the eye, and what not that was unneedefull, but he had so perfecte at his 
fingers endes, that every slie was 'my faire Ladye/ and scarce a Knight hut was 
* Noble Sir ' : the tobacco pipe was at hand, when Trinidado was not forgotten, 
and then a tale of a roasted horse to make an asse laugh for lacke of witte : why, 
all thinges so well agreede togither, that at this square table of people, or table 
of square people, this man (made by rule) could not be spared for a great somme." 
Collier's Bibl Cat. i. p. 452-3. 



Appx. Bearbaiting on Sundays 3 attackt & defended. 79* 

to drunkennes, to feasting and surfetting, &c. Nowe In y e name of the 

God of heauen, and of lesus Christ Ms son, who shall come to iudge the 
quick & the dead at the latter day, I require it of al that euer shall reade 
these words, that, as they wil an s were me before the face of God & all 
his Aungels at the sounde of the last trump, they better wey \s$endfag 
whether carding, dising, & tabling, bowling, & cocking, stage Sunday^ 
plaies and summer games, whether gadding to this ale or fJiat, 1 to this 
bearebaiting 2 & that bulbaiting, with a number such, be exercises com 
manded of God for the sabaoth day or no. O hart al frosen & void of 

1 See Harrison^ Part I, p. 32 : he speaks of Ales, &c. , as lessend in number. 

2 The sweet and comfortable recreation of B ears-bay ting. 

In Haslewood's account " of the London Theatres ; No. IX, The Bear 
Garden, " in the Gentlemaifs Magadne^ 1816, vol. 86, Part I, p. 205,* he says 
that "The Author of a tract in manuscript in the Museum, f- written about this 
peiiod [1606], having censured the players for the indirect attacks made by them 
upon the Nobility, under borrowed names of foreign Dukes and feigned persons, 
defends this diversion as needful for the common people, and that it should be 
exhibited upon festivals. f I cannot (he says) see ho we that sweet and comfortable 
recreation of beare-bayting (beinge, to our rude and inferiour vulgar, that which. 
Circensis Venatio was among the Romans) maye welbe forborne, seeinge like will 
to like, as it is in the black proverbe, and therfore conclude that our active 
spirritts and fine pregnant witts, with pleasant and ingenious playes would be 
intertayned, and the scumme of the people (evene vpon the festivall daies) to the 
Bancke-side drayned ... To retorne, where exception is taken to bear-bayting 
on festivall daies, I saye, vppon those, hell is broake loose, and it is good pollicye 
to drawe all the devylles (if it be possible) into one place, to keepe them from being 
easely tempted (for fares cum paribus facillime congj'^gantur^ pene dixissem 
copulanturi for one devill easely tempteth another,) and vnlawfull attemtinge 
ells where. Bestiis indulgmdum est infante plebi; the poore slaves have bene helcle- 
in harde to labour att the working daies, and would be gladd to have a little 
recreation on the holye dayes, which our commiserant Lord ordayned in part (as 
I conceive) for the reste of them, and all brutes in general!, whome tlie insatiable 
covetousnes of man wold contynually, without intermission, be hurrying in 
traveile and laboure, and partly for solace and refection to the droylinge servant. 
Nowe becawse the rude multitude dothe not knowe well Howe to vse libertye (and 
some they muste and will have), therefore, that they themselves may devise none 
madder, whereof mischief maye aryse to the weale publique of the poppular 
cittyes, let them vse the sweste pastitm of beare-bayteinge^ and other suche publique 
exercises (thoughe on the festivall dayes), a God's name, that we may knowe what 
they doe, and wheare to fynd them if neede be. And [in] generall, all manner of 
pastimes are to be permitted att customable tymes to a peaceable people for there 
solace and comfort, as Ms Majestic in those moste judicious and admirable 
preceptes and direccions to the Prince} hathe verye choisely noated and 
prescribed." 

* Mr. "W. G. Stone gives me the reference. 

f I can't identify the MS by the Class Catalogue, nor can the keeper of the 
MSS. tell me which it is. We've tried a few likely ones. 
J James Ts Book of Sports. 

SHAKSPBEE'S ENGLAND : STTJBBES. ff 2 



80* dippx. Bp. Babington against Sabbath-Breaking. 

the feeling of the mercie of thy God, that hauing euery day in 6. euery 
houre in euery day, & euery minute in euery houre, so tasted of the sweet 
grace of thy God in Christ, as that without it thou hadst perished euery 
minute, yet canst not tel howe possibly to passe ouer one day to his 
praise, vnlesse one halfe of it be spent in carding & bowling. Awake, 
awake, in lesus Christ admonished, awake ! & seeing al the weeke lorig* 
y e Lord of heauen doth defend & feede thee, comfort & blesse thee, & is 
contented but in one day especially to be regarded, vow vrith thy self in 
request of strength to keepe it, that to the Lord y t one day shall be 
consecrated of thee, & obserued according to his will/' 

p. 199-205. " Haue we spent the Sabaoth in godly conference & 
meditation, po wring out thanks from a feeling soule for y e Lords good- 
nes euer to vs, & namely the weeke passed? Haue we visited or 
thought vpon the sick, sore, diseased, imprisoned, banished, or any way 
suffring for a good cause, & to our power comforted them? Haue we 
studied how either to procure or continue or increase amongst our selues, 
or our neighbours, the meanes of saluatioTz, as y e preaching of the word, 
& such like ? O beloued, we haue not, we haue not, we know it & must 
needs confesse it, if there be any trueth in vs. Too much haue we neg 
lected all these ; yea, euen diuerse of them, it is greatly to bee feared, haue 
litle or neuer at all troubled our heads : but for their contraries, in most 
fill measure we haue wallowed in them, and with greedinesse euer accom 
plished them. Where is the minister whose negligence hath not made his 
people to pollute the Sabaoth ? Where is the people whose consciences 
awaked may not iustly condemne them for ungodly gadding icburckdUs 
on this day to Churchales, to weddings, to drinkings, to ba- stage flays, ' 
kets, to fairs, & markets, to stage plaies, to bearebay tings, & learbaitings.] 
summer games, 1 and such like? Where is that master that hath had a 

1 Dancing and Minstrelsy on S&ndays.-r-See Mr. Collier's account, in BibL Cat. 
L 489-492, of Thomas Lo veil's * Dialogue between Custom and Veritie, concerning 
tketise and abuse of Dauncing and Minstrelsie^ 1581, a book written to prevent the 
desecration of the Sabbath by' "heathenish dauncing and vain minstrelsie. " 
Custom defends these practises ; Verity condemns them, especially * the horrible 
immorality of kissing at the end of a dance, as we know was then usual (Henry 
VIII, Act I, sc. 4).' 



While men with maides in wanton 
daunce unseemly oft doo turn, 

Their harts blinde Cupid oft doth cause 
with Venus games to burn . . . 



If that his mate .doo seem to like the 

game that he would have, 
He trips her toe, and clicks her cheek, 

to show what he doth crave. 



For Thomas Deloney's advice in 1607 how to woo and wim a wench, see 
Collier's BibL Cat. i. 215. 

Arthur Golding, the great englisher of classical books in Sliakspere's day, 
also complains of the Sabbath-breaking that went on. In his little book on the 
earthquake * probably alluded to by Skakspere, through the Nurse's mouth, in 
Romeo andjuliety he says : 



* "A discourse upon the Earthquake that hapned through this Realme of 
Englande, and other places of Christendom, the sixt of Aprill. 1580. betweene 
the houres of five and six in the Evening. Written by Arthur Golding, Gentle 
man. At London, Imprinted by Henry Binneman, dwelling in Thamis streate 
nere Baynerds castle," small 8vo. B. L. 



Bp. Babington against Cockfighting. 81* 

COB science to restralne his seniants from this impietie, or the seraant 
againe that hath either brideied hlmselfe for y e Lords cause, or else wel 
accepted his master or mlstres restraint being made vnto him, and which 
hath not rather burst out into vngodly & disobedient speeches, murmur 
ing that because he hath wrought all the weeke, therfore he should haue 
libertie to do what he list on y* Sabaoth, not considering thai this com- 
mandement bindeth not only V s master himselfe to honor God on this 
day, but to see to his family so much as he can, that they also do it. Nay 
I would to God y* masters in many places were not ringleaders to their 
owne & al other mens people, to prophane this Sabaoth of the Lord, and 
that euen such maisters as in respect of their calling, office and credite 
in the countrey, should farre otherwise doe. When doeth a gentleman 
(to name no higher estates) appoint a shooting, a bowling, a r CocMn 
cocking, or a drunken swearing ale, for the helpe as they say ac mg 
of some poore one, but vppon the Sabaoth ? And if he be at y e Church 
in the forenoone, for the after noone it is no matter, he hath beene verie 
liberal! to God in giuing him so much. What day in the "week vsually 
doeth he giue so euill an example of vnmeasurable sotting in bed, as on 
the Sabaoth? But O filthie sauour that ariseth out of this lothsome 
chaneli, thus raked vp into the nostrels of the Lorde ! I spare to speake, 
I shame to see, I rew to knowe, what I fully knowe against our soules in 
this respect. . . . What should I say of the second end of the institution 
of the Sabaoth, namely for the rest of seruant & cattell ? But euen in 
an word, woe to the man whom God shall iudge according to his guilti- 
nesse herein. For it is too vsual with al estates to be a meanes to robbe 
their seruauntes of the blessing due to the keepers of this law, and to 
pull vppon them the plague for the contrarie, by making them ride and 
run, post and away, vpon euerie occasion that commeth in their heads, 
when in truth, if they would but euen look into it, the matter may be done 
wel without such hast . . . Wherein or ho we crucifie we the fleshe more 
on this day than any other, bridle the frowarde desires of the heart, 
restrayne our owne nature, and doe the will of God more on this day 
than any other ? Alas, our owne consciences crie vnto us, we doe nothing 
lesse : wee drbike, wee eate, wee surfet, wee sweare, we play, {Sunday 
we daunce, we whore, we, walke and talke idlely, vainely, amusements.^ 
vncleanely and vngodlily : these are our workes on y e Sabaoth more 
commonly than any day in the weeke else ; and if this bee to resemble a 
spirituall rest, then in deede wee doe it, not otherwise. ... A thousand 
times a thousand he might with great right haue destroyed vs either 
amongst our pottes, or in our daunces, or idle in our beds, asking vs if 
that were to halow his Sabaoth, or to honour his name to swill [Drinking- 
and to bibble, to leape, to walowe and tumble in bed, till it n Sundays.} 
bee noone, with such like." 

" The Saboth dayes and holy dayes, ordayned for the hearing of Gods word 
to the reformation of our lyves, for the administration and receyving of the 
Sacramentes to our comfort, for the seeking of all things beliovefull for bodye or 
soule at Gods hands by Prayer, for the mynding of his benefites, and to yeelde 
praise and thankes unto him for the same, and, finally, for the speciall occupying 
of our selves in all spirituall exercizes, is spent full heathemshly in taverning, 
tipling, gaming, playing and beholding of Beare-baytings and Stage playes, to 
the titter dyshonor of God, impeachment of all godlynesse, and unnecessarie 
consuming of mennes substances, which ought to be better employed." Collier's 
BibL Cat. ii. 31516. 



4ppx. Bp. Babington on Parents' want of Duty. 

Parents to blame for bringing up children badly. 

p. 221-2. "For too much it is of parents neglected, & yet are they 
grieued, if of their children they be not reuerenced : and howsoeuer 
many there bee, that in these daies are carefull ynough to procure vnto 
their children knowledge of Artes, of Countries, and of any thing that in 
world ely sort may make them might ie ? famous, and spoken of : yet is 
the grounde of all verie f carefully neglected, namely, to setle in them the 
true feare of the God of Israeli, deliuered and taught in his worde. Yea, 
it is euen accounted by father and child not so needefull or beseeming 
for a gentleman, to the great exasperating of the Lordes wrath against 
them and their seede. Humilitie also and shamefastnes are taken from 
youth in these daies, euen by their parents and their teachers ; and wheje 
it hath euer beene held, that blushing in measure, modestie, and silence 
haue been commendable tokens in young yeeres, nowe is it a shame to 
be ashamed at any time, blushing is want of countenance and bringing 
vp, silence is ignoraunce, modestie is too much maidenlinesse ; and in 
short, nowe vertue is vice, and vice very comely and gallant behauiour. 
So times are changed to and fro, and chaunging times haue chaunged 
vs too. But of this thus farre." 

Children's want of Reverence to Parents. Parents' setting bad 
Examples to their Children. 

p. 247-251. " What shoulde I name, what shoulde I feare to name, 
so will it wring vs all, the mocking of our Parentes ? Where is that 
childe that hath carefully couered to his power, and euer borne withall in 
him selfe, the wantes or infirmities whatsoeuer of his Parents ? No, no, 
the Lord hath not onelie something against vs in this behalfe, but euen 
great and greeuous hath beene our fault, and still it remaineth in manie 
of vs. Wee laugh to see our Parentes shame, we smile at their wants, 
wee publishe their infirmities, we disdaine their ignoraunce, wee loath 
their age, and in manie a thing to our owne confusion, if the Lorde giue 
not an amending repentance, we bewray a robbed hart of that true reuer- 
e;/ce which ought to bee in children to their parentes. Alas if God iudge 
vs for our obedience, where are we ? what witles wil erecteth a kingdome 
in vs ? Howe cleaue wee to our selues in all matters, and thmke our 
owne direction best ? Howe despise wee the counsell of our friendes, 
and cast behinde vs their experience ? Euerie sonne and euerie daughter 
would rule their mariage wholie themselues. And euen in euerie action, 
alas, what disobedience sheweth it selfe in vs vnto our parentes. . . , 
Are we parents ? . . . What life haue wee ledde before our children too 
breede and continue these duties in them ? Hath it beene holy, graue, 
and modest, and so remayneth, as neere as we can, seeking to hide from 
the eyes of their witlesse heades, such wantes as we knowe our selues 
subiect vnto ? No no, but carelesly and loosely, euen in euery place, 
parentes bewray neglect of religion : they will goe to the Churches or 
good exercises when they list, and that verie rarely; they shewe no 
regarde of the dutie of Christians, they carie no grauitie in their doinges, 
no modestie often in their behauiour, but liue most dissolutely and often 
incontinently; they sweare fearefully without regarde, speake prophanely, 
not respecting the frailtie of the youth that heareth them ; father and 
mother let vnkinde speeches passe from them one towardes an other in 
the presence of their children- to the great impayring of their credite 



Appx. Bp. Babington against Stage-Plays. 83* 

with them, carelesse, God knowes, of their bringing vp, and too full of 

foolish pitie when they should correct them. , . . The very vnnaturall 
and vnkinde dealing of Parentes with their children in their youth, 
denying them releefe, and comfortable helpe, maketh them often (though 
It should not) when they haue attayned to anie estate, to deale as 
Yndutifully with their needle Parentes againe." 

Stage-Plays and Players. (See too p. 85*.) 

p. 316-318. e These prophane & wanton stage playes or interludes : 
what an occasion they are of adulterie and vncleanenesse, by gesture, 
by speech, by conueyances, and deuices to attaine to so vngodly 
desires, the world knoweth with too much hurt by long experience, 
Vanities they are if we make the best of them ; and 
the Prophet prayeth to haue his eies turned away by the " 9 * 

Lorde from beholding such matter : Euill wordes corrupt i. Car. 15. 
good manners, and they haue abundance. There is in them , 

** , 7 t L i i_ / * Tkes. 5. 22. 

euer mame dangerous sightes, and wee must abstame from 
al appearance of euill. They corrupt the eies with alluring gestures : 
the eyes, the heart : and the heart, the bodie, till al be horrible before 
the Lord. Histriomris gestibus inqmnantur omnia : (sayth Chrysostome) 
These players behauiour polluteth all thinges. And of their playes he 
saith, they are the feasts of Sathan, the inuentions of the deuill, &c 
Councels haue decrieed verie sharply against them, and polluted bodies 
by these filthie occasions haue on their death beddes confessed the 
daunger of them, lamented their owne foule and greeuous faulles, and 
left their warning for euer with vs to beware of them. But I referre 
you to them, that vpon good knowledge of the abominations of them, 
haue written largely & wel against them. If they be dangerous on the 
day time, more datmgerous on the night certainely : if on a stage, & in 
open courtes, much more in chambers and priuate houses. For there 
are manie roumes beside that where the play is, & peradue^ture the 
strangenes of the place & lacke of light to guide them, causeth errour in 
their way, more than good Christians should in their houses suffer." 

Dancing, the Evils of it. (See too, p. 85*.) 

p. 318-321. " Que. What else ? 

" Ans. Dancing againe is in the number of vaine pastimes, 
and the allurements to vncleannesse, as much experience hath too wel 
proued. The scriptures checke it, the fathers mislike it, the cou^cels haue 
condemned it, & the proofe of Gods iudgementes vpon it biddeth vs be 
ware. Instrumenta luxuries tympana ^tripudia, sayth one, the inticers to 
lust are pipinges and dancinges. Laquei sunt &* scandala, non solum. 
saltatoribuS) sed spectatoribus. They are snares and offences not onely 
to the actors, but also to y e beholders. lob noteth it as an olde 
practise of the deuil to occupy men withall, & as an ancient exer- * ' 21 " IT * 
cise of the wicked, that they should daunce. Upon which wordes a godly 
writer sayeth : that from the tabret and the flute, which in c/. $erm 80. 
themselues are not vnlawefull, they come to dauncing, vponiob, 
which is the chief est mischief e of all. For there is alway (sayth he) 
such vnchast behauiour in dauncing, that of it selfe, and as they abuse 
it, (to speake the trueth in the worde) it is nothing else, but an intice- 
ment to whoredome. In the gospell the spirite of God noteth it 
in a wicked woman as an immodest thing, & of a damnable 



84* ^[pp x * Bp. Babington on the Evils of Dancing. 



effect in her wicked father Herode, to dance. And such as interpret the 
place are not afraide of these words, that it was meretricite lascinice 
Marior. ex. turpis notft nubiHs puellcs saltatio. That is, that for her 
Caiu. to dance, beeing a maide for yeares manageable, was a note 

of whorish wantonnesse. For whosoeuer (saith he) hath a care of 
honest grauitie, he euer condemneth dancing, and especially in a maide. 
Again e hee calleth it spectactihtm families Regice probrosum. A dis 
honorable sight in a kings house : with manie speaches moe of mislike. 
s rac Sirac, a wise man, and of great experience, biddeth a man not 

rac ' ' 4 * to vse the companie of a woman, that is a singer and a dauncer, 
neither to heare her, least hee bee taken with her craftinesse. The 
Ambros.de. godlie Fathers, as I saide, mislike it. For saltatio ad 
virgin, hb. 3 adulteraS) non ad pudicas pertinet, saith one of them : 
Dauncing belongeth to adulterous, and not to honest women, A sharpe 
Chryst. Math speeche : Yet was this graue father not afraide to speake 
hom. 48. " it. Saltatio barathrum diaboli, sayth an other : dauncing is 
in Genes, the deuils hell. And we heare speeche of Jacobs manage 
Tfoopkiiact (saith he) in the scripture, but not a worde of anie dauncing 
in Mar. &. that was at it. Mir a collusio sayth another, salt at diabolus 
per puellam : It is a strange iugling, when wee thinke the maide doth 
daunce, and it is not so, but the deuill in her, or by her. The councels 
haue condemned it, as others haue at large shewed. And verie Tullie 
could say, an honest man would not dance in an open place for a great 
patrimonie. For the iudgementes of God rpon this vaine pastime, it is 
An 130 stran e "which Pantaleon noteth out of Crantzius, that in Col- 
1505- "beck^ a towne in Germanie, certaine light persons hopping, and 
dauncing in the Churchyearde of S. Magnus, beeing by the minister 
admonished to cease, and not ceasing, did for a long time (not able to 
stay) runne rounde about, and at last fell all downe dead. 1 But because 
others haue so largelie writ against this vanitie, I say no more of it at 
this time, but wish vs to consider that it is an inticement often to adulterie, 
and therefore in this commaundement forbidden. And as for anie 
dauncing that wee reade of in the scriptures to haue beene vsed of the 
godly, we must vnderstande, that their dancing was euer a sober modest 
motion, with some song vsually to Gods praise, and men by themselues, 
women by themselues. Which nothing will warrant our custome and 
guise in these daies. 

Que. Are there yet anie moe allurementes ? 

Ans, There are yet many mo. But I may not in this sort stande 
Ezek 6 * v P on them. Gluttonie & drunkennesse, with houses of open 

ze - * whoredome, youre booke nameth and proofes for them. Idle- 

i. Cor. 7. sq. nesse also is an other meanes, the vowe of chastitie, the 

Deut 22 deniall of seconde marriages, the going of men in womens 

apparell, and women in mans apparell, with a number such/' 

Temptations to Unchastity : Wanton Looks and Books, Dress, 
PlaySy Dancing. 

p. 348-350. "The meanes and allurementes either to the actuall 
offence, or the thought condemned in this commaundement as we haue 

1 Robert Manning of Brunne cites this instance too, in his Handlyng Synne, 
A.D. 1303. See my edition, p. 279-286. He makes the sacrilegious Carollers 
or Dauncers go on hopping for ever after. 



Appx* Bp. Bablngton against Stage-Plays, &c. 85* 

heard before, are many and dluerse. Sometimes the eyes disorderly 
wander, and beeing not checked by a Christian conscience that feareth 
to giue them libertie too long, they become the occasions both of 
thoughtes and actes, "wicked and damnable. Sometimes behauiour 
vnchast and unseemeiy. Sometimes speeche wanton and light, stir the 
hart vp to conceiue that thing, and the wicked fleshe to perfourme it fully, 
which God and nature abhorre as filthie. The dalying tattles of these 
courting dayes, the lasciuious songes made by loose mindes^ and the 
wanton greetinges in euerie place nowe vsed, alas what thoughtes 
procure they, neuer liked of the Lorde, that I may say no worse ? 
Bookes written by vnreformed heartes, and continually redde to the 
greefe of God, are they no occasions to fraile flesh, both in thought and 
deede to offende against this law: God knoweth, and experience 
teacheth such soules as tast of Christ, that verie deadly poyson vnder a 
false delight, doth this way creepe into vs. An vnchast looke makes an 
vnchast heart, and a rouing tongue beyonde the listes of godlinesse ere 
euer we well knowe what we doe. So subtill is the sinne that this way 
creep eth into our soules. Apparell is next, a most fearefull allurement 
to the breache of this commaundement both in thought and deede, if God 
once in mercie would open our eyes. So are these stage playes ^ 
and most horrible spectacles, so is our dauncing, which at [ age ays ~* 
this day is vsed, so is drunkennesse, gluttonie and idlenesse, with a 
number such like, as can witnesse eche one in the world that will weigh 
them/* 

p. 351-354. " Light behauiour and alluring daliance is Behaviour. 
euerie where accompted comelie bouldnesse, and good speech. ^ 
bringing vp : discoursing speeche to a vaine ende, we count a quality 
commendable in vs^ and the want of it we esteeme simplicities whereso- 
euer we see it. And therefore by bookes to such endes set out, we 
endeuour to attaine vnto it, and hauing once polluted our speech (for I 
will neuer call it polishing) we are neuer better than when we haue 
company to bestowe our tales and greetinges vppon. Our ap- A ^ arg i L 
parell, in matter, to our power we make sumptuous, and in forme, 
to allure the eye asmuch as wee can. If this be true, in the name of 
Christ let vs better thlnke of it than we haue done. These are allure- 
mentes to sinfuil lust, and this lawe of God forbiddeth not onelyboth act 
and thought, but euen euerie allurement to either of them. What should 
I speake of stage plaies and dauncing ? Can we say in trueth before the 
maiestie of God that we carefullie abstaine from these thinges, because 
they tickle vs vp either more or lesse to the breach of this commaunde 
ment ? Alas we cannot a number of vs. But we runne to the one 
continually to our cost, when we will not be drawen to better ayes * 
exercises that are offered freely, we sucke in the venom of them with great 
delight, and practise the speeches and conueyances of loue which there 
we see and learne. The other wee vse with especiall pleasure, Dauncin ^ 
and God being witnesse to many an one, they wish the fruite of 
their dauncing to be this, euen the fall of them selues and others into 
the breach of this lawe. What should I say of gluttonie and idlenesse ? 
Doe they not make vs sinne ? Good Lord, giue vs eyes to see, and hearts 
to weigh the occasions of our fall. The spirite of God hath Gluttonie and 
sayde that these pricked up the flesh of the filthy Sodomites drunken^. 
to that height of sinne ; and yet we can imagine they will cause no sinne 
at all in vs against this lawe. And therefore professing the gospell and 
integritie of life, yet dare we so pamper, so stuffe, & cramme this rebelling 



86^ Appx. Bp. Babington on the Evils of Retainers, &c. 

flesh, as if we were gods that could suffer no temptation : we dare gull 
in wine and hote drinkes continually, beeing peraduenture both strong 
and young, and euerie way needing rather pulling downe, than setting 
vp* We dare solace our selues in soft beddes too long for our consti 
tutions, and all the day after betake our selues to nothing whereabout the 
minde might walke, and so escape impure conceptes." 

TJie giving of Liveries to Retainers and Serving-men, &*c. 

Limriesare p. 378-9. "And I wil yet adde one thing ouer vnto all 
andcomrs e of these, which must needes be included in this head of 
oppression. oppression, because it is a cowmon and a dangerous cloake 
of the same, to wit, lyueries of Prince or subiectes, noble men, gentle 
men, or whosoeuer. Which if they rnaintaine and beare out the vniust & 
wrongfull dealings of any man with y e knowledge of the Lord, not only 
the deede doer, but the giuer of that cloth and cote whatsoeuer he be, 
standeth giltie of that oppression before almighty God. The consider 
ation whereof being so true and sure, should iustly cause in al estats, 
that deale their cloth to others, a more vigilant eye & eare to see & heare 
the conuersation of their foiowers, & a restraining hand of such 
countenance, credite or couer to them (all worldly reasons set apart) 
when so euer they shall vnderstande the same to be abused. For why 
should any earthly respect euer stande so great in mens eies, as that for it 
they dare take vpon them the guilt of other mens sins, & spoyling 
oppression ? But alas great is the vnfeelingnesse of many mens harts 
in this matter in these tiayes. Either Pope, profite, or pollicie, doe make 
vs deale our cloth too liberally, and regard our mens behauiour too 
negligentlie. But a worde is ynough." 

p. 428. "What shoulde I say of that cloke and couer and cause of 
Liveries rEluc ^ 1 oppression, the cloth and hueries of Superiours ? Am I the 
giuer or the taker? If I bee the giuer, haue I neuer boulstred 
my cognisance out to doe the thing that God forbiddeth? Haue I 
hearkned about to see and learne howe they vse the credit that is giuen 
them? God knowes wee haue litle neede to be charged with other 
mens sinnes, as no doubt such a maister shall with such a mans 
offences. For we shall neuer be able to beare in our selues the burden 
of our owne. Am I the taker? what then saith my conscience? haue I 
sought it and sued for it for affection, and true duetie in my heart to him 
that gaue it ? Doe I weare it, and wishe to weare it, to haue my heart 
knowen to him or her the better, whom with heart and hande, bodie and 
goods, power and might till my death, in right I honour and serue, and 
wishe and will doe euer ? Or rather a false faith seeketh a faire shewe, 
and a powling hande of manie a seelie weake wretch seeketh a strength 
to establish my wickednesse, and a backer to beare on my foule 
oppressions ? " 

Neglect of honest Work in Youth. (The Grasshopper and the Ant.] 

p. 382-385. " There was a litle tittle tattle, when time was, they say, 
betwixt the grashopper and the pismire, and we may laugh at it, & yet 
looke better about vs as admonished by it. The grashopper bailing 
passed the summer ouer merily, as her custome is, singing and tuning 
the notes of a thoughtlesse minde vnder euerie leaf e, at last when winter 
came on, beganne to shake, and to goe to bedde with an emptie belh'e 



Appx. Bp. Babington on Idleness in Youth, & Jesting. 87* 

manie a night, to the great weakening of her liuely llmmes, and the quite 
marring of all her musicke. To steale, shee refuseth of her honest 
nature ; and to begge, shee is ashamed, for feare to be mocked. Yet neede 
maketh the olde wife trotte, they say; and modestie in this hungrie 
Creature must yeelde to necessitie. To it therefore shee goeth, and 
hauing a wealthie neighbour not farre off, that had laboured sore all 
summer, and layde vppe much good vitaile, to her she commeth, and 
craueth some succour at her hande. Who by and by demaunded of her 
what shee did all summer ? " Alas (sayeth the grashopper) I sung, and 
litle reinembred this change." " Did you so (sayth the Ant) in deede did 
you sing all summer? No we trust me, for mee, you shall daunce all 
winter, for I liue by my labour, and I will neuer mamtaine idlenesse 
In anie." Thus receiued slouth a checke, when it looked for helpe ; and 
wee, warned by it, may learne this morall, to labour least we lacke. 
Optimum obsonium senectute labor, (sayth one) They are good refresh- 
inges in our age, the wel-bestowed traueiles of our youth. Yeares passe, 
and strength fayles ; gette nothing in youth, and haue nothing in age. 
But O carelesse heartes of ours, and headie will, 2 who can perswade this, 
or beate it into the heades of young men, and maydes, of seruantes, and 
such as are comming on ? No, no, we will hoppe and daunce, tipple 
and drinke, banket and reuell, what connsell soeuer is giuen vs to the 
contrarie, with that litle we haue, and sing care away. And a litle gaze 
apparell on the backe, is worth much money in the chest. But wise is 
he whome other mens harmes can cause to take heede. Sicknesse may 
come, and euerie maister will not keepe a sicke seruant ; a mayme may 
fall to vs, and wee then may heare it, I haue no wages vnlesse you 
could worke, many thlnges may happen, and a mans owne is his owne, 
and great is gods blessing to faithfull labour, as trulie his plagues are 
not litle or rare to idlenesse and slouth. . . . 3 Wherefore it is not ynough 
to make vs guiltlesse of this commaun dement to say, we get that we haue 
by labour, but it must be good labour (sayth Paule) hist labour, and 
lawefull labour. The which distinction ouerthroweth al maintaynance 
gotten by massing, by iugling, by charming, by playing interludes, by 
fidling and pyping vppe and downe the countrey, by carying about beares 
and apes, by telling of fortunes, and such like trades, mentioned in the 
statute of this lande, touching vagabundes. For though they be labours, 
and make them sweate often, some of them, yet want they warrant in the 
worde to prooue them good, and lawefull labours. And therefore subiect 
to the penaltie of this lawe before God." 

Idle Jesting and Scoffing. 

p. 396-7. " Vnto this heade is referred all vngodlie counsell, whatso- 
euer, and all leawde vanitie, or babishe seruilitie to make men delight 
more in vs, and lesse in the feare of God. Is it not lamentable to see, 
that a popish, or an atheisticall Spirite shall doe more hurt at a table, or 
such like place with one peeuish iest, and girding skoffe in the heartes of 
the hearers, than twentie good men can recouer with much good counsell ? 
And yet what say we ? O, hee is a merie greeke, a pleasaunt companion, 
and in faith a good fellowe. 4 Hee cannot flatter, his words must be 

1 p. 383- 2 P- 384. ^ 3 P- 385- 

4 * Good men* fighting, <5><r. "howe dare these smfiill, brauling, quarelling, 
disquiet, hatefull, and furious fighters, take vppon them to he called good meii 



Bp. Babington on lawful Amusements. 

borne, and soe foorth. But marke marke what effect this mirth hath 
in us, and whereto it tendeth. And if it increase our knowledge, increase 
our zeale, and increase good graces in vs, then like it, and spare not, and 
cheerish such an one. But if it poyson the profite of the worde vnto 
vs, decay our diligence, and liking of good exercises, and decrease all 
that I haue named, then know him for a thiefe, though his handes be 
true, for he stealeth our soules from the liuing God, & both bodie and 
soule from eternall life." 

Amusements in Moderation are justifiable. What, Games are allow 
able. Gaming for money is not. The Evils of Gaming. 

p. 399-400. a Concerning then playing and gaming in generall, diuers 
you shall finde both in writing and speaking verie straite, who hardlie 
will bee perswaded to allowe vnto Christians almost anie plaie at alL 
For, say they, wee must giue accompt in the day of Judgement o feuerie 
action, of euerie idle worde, and .of euerie iote of time, howe wee haue 
bestowed it, and therefore we shoulde not play." 

p. 400-408. " The meaning of these our brethren no doubt Is good, 
and willingly would drawe vs to greater dutie to our God. And these 
reasons of theirs ought to haue this effect in vs, euen to abridge that 
excesse which al may see in our playing and pur sportes, and to bring 
vs home to a greater strictnesse of life in heeding what we should. But 
to cut vs off from all recreation by any play (be it without offence of 
anie spoken) indeede they cannot. For wee are men, and no Angels, 
and as men in this worlde wee must walke our course, subiect to 
dulnesse, and wearinesse, euen in good thinges, and wee must refreshe 
that feeble weakenesse of ours by lawful and allowed comforts. Which 
Zack 85 I so tearme, because I am assured that the worde of God 
Exod. 13. condemneth not all our play, and the corrupt constitution 
2 Sam. 18. o f our bodies, together with the dulnesse of our minds, 
Tkeapjwmt' require some play. Sparing in truth is the worde in giuing, 
mg of festival because well knewe the Lorde wee woulde not bee sparing 
dayes* - n ta k- m g iibertie for to play. Yet is it plaine inough. 

Notwithstanding fitly may it bee saide of play, as he saide of studying 
philosophic, Philosophandum faucis : Wee must play but litle. 

But nowe the seconde steppe is more harde than this, namelie to knowe 
what games ^wee maie vse, and at what wee may play. Wherein not 
purposing anie set and curious treatise, I aunswere briefely, that of those 
manie and differing kindes of sportes, that are deuised and vsed in euerie 
place, I condemne none, which make for the quickening of bodie or 
minde, which serue to actiuitie, and prepare men for better seruice an 
other daye, vnlesse they haue ioyned to them any vngodlinesse, or are 
by Lawe of that particular place forbidden : no, not Cardes or Tables in 
all respectes, and to euerie person at all times, and in all places : Neuer- 
thelesse I am fullie assured, and doe willinglie affirme, that they ought 
not of Christians professing the Gospel to bee so much vsed as they are. 
. . . Let vs therefore rather enter to consider an other poynt, which is 

And what witlesse woodcocks are they, that cals them good men-j bicause" 
St&ute fighters they fight lustily, sticke to it stoutely, and would mayme and kill 
are not good desp^ratly : neuer regarding their cause nor their quarrel." 1580. 
T. Lupton. Sivqila, p. 53* 



Appx. Bp. Babington against Gaming and Dicing. 89* 

harder than this, namelle, whether wee shoulde play for monie or no. 
And first I reason thus : If it bee iawefuil to piaie for monie, then is it 
lawef ull to winne monie in this sort, and the monie lawefullie possessed : 
But this seconde is false, therefore the former also. That the seconde is 
false, the ende and first inuention of plaie prooueth, which, as euerie one 
canne well witnesse, was neuer inuented to this ende, but onelie to refresh 
either body or mind ; and corruption afterward brought in mony, as we see 
dayly before our eyes. , . . Thirdlie, I reason from the multitude of miser 
able creatures, that are the same fleshe that wee are, and yet pitifullie crie 
for want of succour : from the multitude of godlie and Christian vses, 
to employ that which wee maie spare vppon, and euen from the -want of 
manie necessaries for our selues, that it is not Iawefuil nor tolierable to 
play for monie. For is It not lamentable, and mast fearefull, that anie 
Christian man shoulde carie about in bis conscience daie and night a 
"witnesse, that this seuen yeares hee hath not giuen seuen shillings to 
the naked, needie, and coinfortlesse members of lesus Christ, and yet hee 
hath lost at vayne playe, in a vayne manner, twentie times as much? 
Can a man bee so dull, as to thinke this thing will neuer pricke him, or 
neuer haue a iust rewarde of punishment at Gods handes ? Is it not 
lamentable, that a man can see no Christian vse to giue of hys 
abundaunce to, but thinke all that euer hee can get, litle inough to 
consume in playe ? Are wee exempted out of the number of them that 
are bounde to workes of loue, and deedes of rnercie, so that wee neede 
to doe none of these, and yet shall bee saued too r Naie, is it not 
woonderfull, and a thing that heauen and earth are ashamed of, and euen 
all the creatures in both of them stande astonished at, to consider, that a 
man shoulde not eyther doe the former dueties, or him selfe haue 
eyther anie good apparell to weare, anie bookes to benifite his soule by., 
no not so much as a Bible or a prayer booke, anie meate at home for 
his wife and Children, anie wages to paie hys Seruauntes, or his other 
debtes, or a number moe such necessaries, and yet thinke hys playing, 
yea his costlie playing, Iawefuil, and not to bee spoken agaynst ? Is 
it I say, possible, that euer a Christian man, that thinkes hee hath 
Gods spirite, shoulde thus haue his conscience seared vp ? Truelie, for 
myne owne part, I professe I haue stoode in my hearte amazed at jt, 
and I beseech the Lorde to driue awaie from vs such grosse securitie. 
For else as we Hue, wee shall knowe wee haue deceyued our selues, and 
others ; wee were neuer anie thing lesse, than Christians. These dueties 
therefore due to others, so manie, and great, and these wants of 
necessaries for our selues, improoue 1 our playing for monie." 

Dicing, the Evils of it Chaucer and Sir T. Elyot. 

p. 411-417. " The Poet layeth it downe amongest the Cankers that 
consume men and make them beggers, Dise, Wine, and Women. What 
shoulde I say ? Take anie booke in hande of an heathen man, and it is 
awoonder, if youfmde not some thing against dysing. Nowe come from 
heathens to Christians, and see euen as great misliking, Austen 
beginneth and is not afraide to say plainely, Aleam D B dmt, Dei. 
inuenit Dcsmon, The deuill first found out the game of /#. 4- 
dising. Lyra, detesting it, seeketh to make other men doe in preceptor. 
as much by diuerse reasons. It coueteth (sayth hee) an other mans 

1 Lat. improbo, disapprove, blame, condemn. 



90* Appx* Bp. Bahington, Chaucer, &c., against Dicing. 

goods greatly, It is a mightie meanes of deceite, it passeth vsurie, it 
causeth lying-, swearing, brawling, and manie idle wordes, it is an 
offence to the godly, it breaketh the lawes, it misspendeth the time, and 
what not ? Olde CHAUCER so long agoe set his sentence dovvne against 
this exercise, 1 and spares not to display the vertues of it in this maner : 

Dising, 2 (saith he) is verie mother of leasinges, [ 3 Hazard} 

And of deceite and cursed forswearings. 

Blasphemie of God, manslaughter, and waste also, 

Of battaile, naughtinesse, and other mo. 3 3 ofcatei,andoftime, andforthermo\ 

It is reproofe and contrarie to honour, 

For to be hould a common disesour. 4 \*kasardour\ 

And euer the higher he is in estate, 

The more he is houlden desolate. 

If thou a Prince dost vse 5 hazardie p y that a Prynce i vseth} 

In all[e] gouernance and pollicie 600 

He is, by a common opinion [*asfy\ 

Houlden lesse 7 in reputation. 602 (7 Ykoide the iese\ 

Lordes might finde other manner of 8 play, 627 ^fynden other maneri 

Honest inough to driue the day away. 628 

But of all other speeches, me thinkes it is a maruelous saying of Sir 
Thomas Eliot, and ought verie greatly to moue vs, who afftrmeth that 
if a man heare one to be a diser, and knoweth him not, by and by he 
iudgeth him to be a light and vaine person, and of no credite or accompt. 
. . . Last of all, peruse the Statutes of this our owne countrie, and 
I beseech you marke the liking they haue showed of dising. In the 
twelfth yeare of Richarde the seconde all vnlawefull games were forbidden, 
and by name Dising generallie. In the 21. yeare of Henrie the fourth, 
disers taken were imprisoned sixe dayes. And if anie heade Magistrate, 
as Maior, or Sheriffe, made not diligent search for them, they forfeited 
fortie shillings : If a Constable were negligent, hee lost sixe shillings 
and eight pence. In the seuenteenth yere of Edward the fourth, they 
that kept dicing houses were to haue three yeares imprisonment and 20. 
pounds fine. Players at dice in those houses, two yeares imprisonment 
and ten pounds fine. In the eleuenth yeare of Henrie the seuenth, 
Dicers shoulde be openlie set in the stockes by the space of one whole 
day, and the house keepers that suffered him to play, forfeit a noble, and 
be bounde to their good behauiour. In the 33. yeare of Henrie the 
eight, Dicing houses forfeited fortie shillings euerie time, & disers vi. s. 
viii. d. and bound in recognisance neuer to play againe. And yet more 
may you see in Pultons abridgement. 9 Now it is woonderfull that notwith 
standing all this, yet so foule a thing shoulde seeme so faire, and that a 
man should not thinke himself e vsed as a gentleman or almost as a man, 
vnlesse hee may haue libertie in this loosenesse, and the large reine to so 
great an euill And yet wee be Christians, and that of the better sort 
too, or you doe vs wrong. The heathen hated it, and we hatch it vp in 
euerie house, and yet we be Christians. The godly writ against it, wee 
waite for it, and yet we be Christians, The councels haue condemned 
it in the^spirite of Christ, and Christian lawes haue most sharpely 
punished it : wee day and night vse it, and cannot be reaued of it, and 

1 In the Pardoned s Tale, Group C, 1. 589-628; Six-text, p. 321-2. A few of 
the Ellesmere MS. readings are in the margin above. 

9 Of the Statutes, 



Appx. Bp. Bablngtoo 012 Oppression of the freak, 91* 

yet we be Christians. But alas, alas ! the day of vnderstanding, or the 
day of damnation for pur ignora trace, shall teach vs an other thing. We 
sweare, we lie, we reuile, and wee runne into the fielde with murthering 
mindes (for such anger is murther) moued by play, and yet we will not 
ieaue it. And if I doe not thus in shewe, yet inwardly I frette, I chafe, 
I gnash with my teethe, and teare the Gardes, burne the Dice, throw 
away the Tables, and such like, and yet I am religious. The Lorde 
forbiddeth all appearaunce of euill, all occasions of sinne, and r ^^ 
yet wee are the Lordes, and doe neither. The Lorde saith, < If 
thy right hande cause thee to offend, or thy right eye, cut it off, plucke it 
out, and cast it away 7 ; wee will bee the Lorcbs, and not restrayne a litle 
play, that, mine owne soule being witnesse, most greeuouslie inaketh mee 
offende. Fie, fie, what deadnesse is this ? Where is either loue of God, 
or feare in vs ? Loue makes vs burne with desire to doe well, feare 
makes vs shake, to thinke of anie sinne : we continually sinne in our 
greedie gaming, and yet we be godlie. But this either makes vs see it, 
or we will neuer (I feare) see the mischeefe of playing, and by name of 
Dising. The Lorde for Christ his sake awake vs, and so I end." 

Oppression of Servants and the Weak. Taking of Bribes. 

p. 425-428. "Who seeth not, who knoweth not, that all Oppression. 
oppression of my brother in his goods is contrarie to that loue that I ought 
to beare to him and his goods ? And how stande wee in this matter ? 
Haue wee neuer detained the poore seruauntes wages, and O f seruantes 
wrecked our anger vppon him to his harme further than a seruan es * 
mercifull heart shoulde haue doone ? Haue wee not taken euen the flower 
of his youth, the strength of his yeares, and the verie iuice and sappe of 
hys bodie to serue our turnes withali, and then either turned him off vnre- 
warded, 1 or taken from him, or diminished without cause, other than our 

1 "Nay, thou hast yet Another Cruelty gnawing in thy hosome ; Against want 
for what hope is there that thou shouldst haue pitty ouer others, ofprouision 
when thou art vnmercifull to thy self! Looke ouer thy walls into thy d ye i n the 
Orchards and Gardens, and thou shalt see thy seruan ts and appren- fid&- 
tises sent out cunningly by their Masters at noone day vpon deadly errands ; when 
they perceiue that the Armed Man hath struck them, yea, euen when they see 
they haue tokens deliuered them from heauen to hasten thither, then send they 
them forth to walke rpon their graues, and to gather the flowers themselues that 
shall stick their own Herse, And this thy Inhabitants do, because they are loth 
and ashamed to haue a writing ouer their dores, to tell that God hath bin there ; 
they had rather all their enemies in the world put them to trouble, then that he 
should visit them. 

" Looke againe ouer the walls into thy Fields, and thou shalt heare poore and 
forsaken wretches lye groaning in ditches, and trauailing to seeke out Death vpon 
thy common hye wayes. Hauing found him, he there throwes downe their 
infected carcases, towards which, all that passe by, looke, hut (till common 
shame, and common necessity compell,) none step in to glue them buriall. Thou 
setst vp posts to whip them when they are aliue : Set vp an Hospital! to comfort 
them being sick, or purchase ground for them to dwell in when they be well, and 
that is, when they be dead." 1 606. T. Decker. Scuen Deadly Sinnes of London 
(Arher, 1879), p. 48. 



92* Appx. Bp. Babington on Bribery and Covetousness. 

owne couetousnesse, the reward that our auncestour gaue to his seruice 
before ? If wee haue doone it, alas it is a great oppression, a great 
wrong, and it standeth not with that loue that I am charged withall 
Widffutand towardes him in this commaundement. . . . Haue wee 
fatkeriesse. not hurt the desolate Widowe, the fatherlesse childe, or 
anie whose might was lesse than ours to beare off the hardnes of our 
handes ? Haue we not lift vp our force against them when we sawe wee 
might haue helped them in the gate ? If we haue, what can we say why 
lob we s ^ u ^ not rot * n P eeces f r it, & our armes bee broken from 

' 3 ' 2 " the bones, as lob wished to him in such a case ? Haue wee 
neuer respected the person more of one than an other in cause of iustice, 
a strong meanes to drawe vs to oppression ? Haue wee neuer suffered 
Bribes t ^ iese k an( les to ^ ee ^ e the weight of a bribers gift 1 to drawe vs to 
oppression ? O spare not to spie your sinne euen to the full if 
you haue offended, and yet accuse not your selues if you dare boast of 
mnocencie. Happie were our countrie, and a thousande comfortes were 
it to euerie one of vs, if the dulnesse of our heartes in these deadlie 
sinnes pulled not vppon vs the often offending in them, and then such 
sinne, such wrath againe from heauen aboue, as is most due vnto it. 
Alas, wee see not, neither euer will bee made to see, what loue by this 
la we wee owe to all men in their goods ; but we robbe them, we spoyle 
them, and wee take giftes to do it, and yet we be no theeues/' 

Covetousness. Lawyers. Giving Church-livings to lad Parsons. 

p. 431-5. "Wee boldlie looke of euerie mans commodities. As we goe 
and ride, wee streight way couet, and that which is worse, presentlie we 
deuise to obtain our will to the impayring of our brothers wealth, and 
the fearefull breaking of this commandement. And woulde God the 
rage of our lust were not sometime so vehement, as that missing to get 
what it greedelie seeketh, it casteth vs downe sicke in curbed, or causeth 
vs to hurt him who hindereth our wishe, as wee see fell out in Achab to 
Naboth for his vineyarde. But of this hereafter more againe in the tenth 
By tongues commaun dement. For the tongue, alas what shoulde I saie, I 
will neuer bid you enquire whether you bee guiltie or no. For 
whither shoulde a man file in these dayes from flatterie, or where may 
we liue and not light of false forgers seeking by filed phrase to bleere 
the eyes of such as least suspect them. . . . Let them ioyne hereunto, 
Lawieres w ^ ose casing * s s ^ch a true viewe of the drift and successe of 
their pleas, whether they haue not often indeuored with 
their tongues, and often also obtayned by their speach, the wrongfull 
alienation of mens right from them to other men. And is not this a 
theft ? Might not he euen aswell haue robbed him with his handes, as 
to be a meanes by speach of wrong perswasion that others doe it ? But 
alas, what wordes can I vse, or anie man else this day aliue, to make men 
feele, that neither golden gaine, nor anie regarde to be named whatso- 
euer, shoulde make them speake vntruely against the good estate of their 
brethren in anie causes ? Surely, if this will nothing moue, that it is in 
nature theft which in name they so abbore, I will assay no further. . . . 
Are we al cleare of that theft of theftes committed in conueying of the 
Church liuinges to our owne vse from them that ought to haue them and 
doe the dutie for them, to the dishonour of God, the ruine of the Church, 
and the fearefull casting away of manie a soule into the pitte of hell for 

1 Compare Bacon's case, &c. 



. Bp. Babington on Unfit 

want of knowledge ? 1 . . . Shall the Lorde crie woe vppon woe, wrath 

vpon wrath, vengeance vppon vengeance, to the carelesse shepheardes 
that feede themselues, and not the flocke ; and shall he so quietly passe 
them ouer, that put in, and place such dume dogges, and vnable drones 
to doe anie duetle for their owne lucre ? Is it a token of lone to feede 
his sheepe, to feede his lambes ; and is it not a want of loue both to God 
and his lambss, to put in, for my gaine, such a drie nurse as can giue no 
milke nor feede at all, except it* be with follie, and a fowle example of 
drinking, swearing, carding, tabling, bowling, sleeping, and such like ? " 

Pritth-prattk and Tittle-tattle, the Evils of em. 

p. 481-2, " For the seconde which was telling of tales, wee haue 
heard it before shewed, and our owne knowledge both assure vs it is a 
branch of the breach of this command ement, which shall bume both 
bodie and soule in the lire of hell, And yet see, do we feare it, or file 
it ? Alas we knowe I am sure of it, we haue beene too too secure in this 
point, and our securitie not seeing and weighing the wickednesse of the 
vice hath stayned both heart and tongue horriblie. Looke about the 
worlde and veiwe the generall course of all Feareth anie man to 
discredite his neighbour priuily, and to whisper vpon hearesay or his 
owne imagination what tendeth to the blemish of his name whom he 
speaketh of? Feareth any woman when shee hath mette with her 
gossippe to tittle tattle, to the slander of an other, this thing and that 
thing, which yet hath no certaintie, and which full loth she would haue 
saide of her selfe vpon like coniectures ? No no we see too much the 
cursed course of lawlesse tongues in euerie place, though the Lorde in 
mercie giueth some consciences, and a thousande times I begge that we 
woulde see our sinne, confesse our sinne, and rippe vp our guilt in this 
respect Why shoulde wee be so dull and without feeling ? If it be a 
vertue thus to prittle and prattle of euerie bodie, vncertaine tales, but 
most certaine discredites, then prooue it so, and vse it : tut if it bee a 
branch of false witnesse, that doth truly witnesse gods wrath to hang 
ouer vs for it, good Lorde, shall we still be polluted with it ? " 



{Tea Gowns in 1878. See The World article, reprinted in The Royal 
Exchange, Nov. 9, 1878, a number sent out as an advertisement. (I, of 
course, see nothing of the set of folk referrd to in it.) 

{ f It is not so very long ago that the appearance in the drawing room 
or in any other place where she was visible to the naked eye of the male 
sex, of a lady loosely wrapped in her dressing gown, would have been an 
impossibility. But the world moves rapidly in this last quarter of the 
nineteenth century ; and ladies, who a few years ago would have con 
sidered the idea appalling, calmly array themselves in the glorified 
dressing robe known as a t tea gown, 7 and proceed to display themselves 
to the eyes of their admirers. ... It is absolutely useless and utterly 
ridiculous ; but tbis is not the worst that may be said about it It is, to 

1 See Harrison, Part I., p. 21, 26-27. 
SHAKSPEBE'S ENGLAND: STUBBES. h 



94* Tea Gowns in 1878. Rose in a Fop's Ear. 

all intents and purposes, a deshabille '; and so great is the force of asso 
ciation, that the conversation is exceedingly apt, nay almost certain, to 
become d&habiltt as well. The gentlemen, in houses where tea gowns 
prevail, relieve themselves of their shooting attire, and reappear very 
frequently in gorgeous smoking suits ; there is an ease and sans facon 
about the whole proceeding that favours laxity of discourse, and advan 
tage is generally taken of the latitude afforded. It is easier to take three 
strides forward than half a step backwards? consequently, when the 
company reassembles at dinner, the point of departure for the conversa 
tion is several degrees nearer to the doubtful borderland of hasardt 
allusions and double entendres than it would have been without the ante 
cedent symposium en neglige 9 . , . . Old-fashioned prudery has long been 
thrown aside in the eager desire for more admirers of such becoming 
raiment ; the tea gowns have descended to the drawing-room and the 
hall, and have become more marvellous and more voyant in the transit. 
With, the graceful neglige" toilet there has come in a habit of lounging, 
which is certainly of most doubtful grace. Hands are not unfrequently 
to be seen clasped above or behind the head, thus often liberally exhibit 
ing the arm by the falling back of the loose sleeve ; feet and ankles are 
lavishly displayed as dainty slippers are rested on the fender ; more 
ardent spirits recline in ostentatious repose on various sofas. It is con 
sidered the thing to suit the action to the attire, and exhibit in it the 
supremacy of ease. Any quiet spirits in the party generally disappear; 
they feel themselves as out of place among the stray remarks and 
Jiasarde stories, as their quiet morning dresses are among the pink and 
blue and other rainbow-hued tea gowns, with their lavish cascades of 
lace, and bewitching caps to match. They disappear ; and when they 
again meet their friends at dinner-time, are apt to be somewhat aston 
ished to find how much ceremony has been thrown to the winds in their 
brief absence, and on how much more familiar a footing their friends 
are than when they parted from them two or three hours before. 

" . . . It will be doubtless said, tea gowns are far less objectionable 
than the extremely decollete dresses of which such grievous complaint 
has been made during the last two seasons. But two wrongs do not make 
a right ; and besides, objectionable as too decollete dresses may be, they 
are still, by a fiction of society that unwritten law which is of such 
infinitely greater force than all the statutes in the judicial archives 
considered to constitute the fullest toilette, the greatest possible pitch of 
grande tenue; and owing to this belief they are by no manner of means 
so provocative of laxity of conversation as the moral dressing gown and 
slippers of the tea-gown?} 



For the loan of the following cut I have to thank Captain Harold 
Dillon. His uncle, at Ditchley, Oxfordshire, has a picture of one of the 
brothers of Sir Henry Lee, K.G., in the time of Elizabeth, with a Rose 
in his ear, like the fop on p. 78"* note, above : the Rose is just stuck like a 
pen is, between the hair and the ear, showing the flower in front. The 
dandies must have carrid their heads very steadily, to have kept the 
flower from falling out. Perchance it had a woman* s hair-pin to hold 
it in. 



Irish Costumes. The 1584 edition of the Anatomic. 95* 




Irish Costumes in the Time of Queen Elizabeth, from MS, 

Edel-vrwutte Burgher-wrou'we Wilds Iriscke 

Noblewoman Citizen's wife Wild Irish 



p. 60*. The 1584 edition of the Anatomic Since I wrote the Fore 
words, Mr. Wallis has been kind enough to lend me his perfect copy of 
the 3rd (or 4th, or 3rd and 4th as Mr. Hazlitt and I now suppose) edition 
of the AnatomiBy of C i2 October 1584.' I have tested it in different 
places chosen at haphazard with the collations of the other editions 
given at the foot of the original text below, and have found that all of 
the few important changes there noted as due to E. 1585, had been made 
before in this (C-D.) edition of 12 Oct., 1584. Out of 58 passages 
tested (counting the sidenotes singly, would make em full 70) only 4 
show small differences. It is clear, then, that Stubbes revisd the 1584 
edition more largely than that of 1585, though not so largely as the 
second of 1583 (August i) and his last of 1595. The results of my 
testing follow ; 



C-D. has all E.'s readings, p. iii.- 
p. iv. 6-6, 7, 9, 12, 13. 



3-3, 



h 2 



9 6* Collation of tke 1584 edition of the Anatomic. 

Pages 

viii/6. 2, 4, 6-6 differs, having both A. and B.'s reading, aneZTLJs : 
'a Lamp of light rnto the world, a mirrour of : has 7, 9, 14, 18, 19, 
20, 21-21, 22,23, 24- 

ix. i-i not in (as not in E.) ; 6, n, 12, 13. 

x. Preface left out ; as in B., E., F. 

xiv. 9. xvi Greek motto, xvii 3. xix 2. 

30. 8-8. 36. 13 differs ', having both A. and B. and E. : 'peltes 
felles & skins 7 (E. peltes & skins). 

38.- 6. 39. 2, * more ' not in C.-D. (as not in E.). 

40. 7. 41. 3, 4, lo-io not in C.-D. (as not in E.), 12-12. 68. 7. 

70, 71, 72. has E.'s sidenotes on Starche, A fearfull example, 
Women's lubricious mindes, and 2 on the Deuil ; as well as E.'s head 
line, 72 foot. But keeps A. and B.'s 'Eprautna/ p. 71, against E.'s 

* Antwarpe.' 

79 note. has the 'Demi's bellowes* sidenote. 

82. 8. 87. has E.'s * Handbaskets' headline, on back, and f great 
paynes * side-note, &c. 

96. 17. 97. 4 , 9 ' the ' not in (as not in E.). 

111-114. has all the side-notes and headlines markt E. F., and the 
top sidenote on 1 1 3 markt F. 

117, notes L 2. has, like E. ; ' Lawyers ruffling in. 3 

129-136. has all the side-notes markt E. F., and all B.'s headlines. 

139. -6, 10 c very 7 not in (as not in E.). 152. 9-9. 

i86-i90.has the side-notes of E., F. ; but on p. 188 * A materiall 
Hell, 1 like F., against E.'s ' Materiall.' 191. 4, 5. 

Mr. Wallis, too, thinks " that the other edition of 1584 exists only 
in imagination." He adds: "It may interest you to know that my 

* Stubbes * has never been in the market/ It came from the library at 
Brookfield Hall, in this county, at its dispersal on the death of my 
father's cousin, Miss Hannah Wright, some dozen or fifteen years ago. 
These Wrights were descended from the Dr. Wright, M.D., F.R.S., at 
the sale of whose books (in 1787) the ' first folio ' brought ^xo. 1 He was 
a Derby man, and closely related to our family. 2 I was told of a quan 
tity (the word applies here) of such books Horresco refer ens! being 
taken, from a loft over the stables, and used for fire-lighting and other 
base purposes by the grooms." 

The title and colophon are given on the opposite leaf. The cut at the 
back of the colophon is that of the stooping robed man of B. 

1 Lot 1960. Mr. William Shakespeare's Comedies, Histories and Tragedies, 
first folio edition, bound in Russia leather with gilt leaves. 1623. ;lo, 

1390. The Anatomic of Abuses, made Dialogue- wise by Phillip Stubbes, 
bl. letter. 1583. 

2 From the Derby Mercury, Oct. 26th, 1786 : "On Saturday the i4th inst. 
died at his house in Charles Street, Grosvenor Square, London, Richard Wright, 
M.D., F.R.S., late one of the physicians of St. George's Hospital; only son of 
the late Mr. Wright, surgeon, of this town (Derby). His remains were brought 
here yesterday, and interred in the family vault in St. Michael's Church." 



Title to Edition of 1584. 



The Anatomie 

of Abufes: 

Containing 

A Difcouerie, or brief Sum- 

marie of fuch Notable Vices and Corrupti 
ons, as nowe raigne in many Chriftian Coun- 
treyes of the Worlde: but (efpecially) in the 
Countrey of AILGNA: Together, with moft 
fearefull Examples of Gods ludgementes^ ex 
ecuted ypon the wicked for the fame, aC- 
well In AILGNA of late, as in 
other places, elfe- 
where. 



pfclg, to fre reatr of all true 

Jiians^ euery where: but moji chiefly, to be 
regarded in England 

Made Dialogue-wife by PHILLIP STYBS. 

Jtni turto tt^tolg rmisei rer0giti5ti), nnb 
mentei tke thiri time bg the same 



MATH. 3. Ver. 2. 
Repent, for the kingdome of God is at hande. 

LVKE. 13. Ver. 5. 
I say vnto you, except you repent you shall all perilh. 



at London, ftg Richard 
lones 12 . October .1584. 





9 8* 



Colophon to the Anatomie of 1584. 



Pemfed, audhorifed, and al- 

lowed, accordyng to the order 

appoincted in the Quee- 

nes Maiesties 

Iniuncti- 

ons. 




At London 
Printed by Richard Jones: dwellyng 

at tfje <Stgn 0f tfje 

and the Crowne, neere 
bitter 



1584- 




PHILIP STUBBES'S ANATOMY 

OF THK 

ABUSES IN ENGLAND 

IN 

SHAKSPERE'S YOUTH, 

A,D. 1583, 

PART L 



[Collations for the title-page of May i, 1583, opposite.] 

i i description F (1595). 
* corruptions E (1585) ; enormities F (1595). ^ now <?#*,, F. 

4 Christian not in B (i Aug. 1583), <?rF. 

5 5 the pountrie of E ; this Realme of F. 6 verie not in B. 

7 England F. 8 Gods lieauie F. inflicted F. 

10 euerie where not in B, u chiefly E, 

13 Gent, added in F. 

is is Arid now newly reuised recognized and augmented the third time "by the 
same Author. E (1585) ; Now, the fourth time, newly corrected and inlarged by 
the same Author F (1595)- u ~ u omitted F. 

15 sa:th Christ not in E. 

13 Imprinted at London by Richard lohnes, at the sign of the Rose and 
Crowne, next aboue S. Andrewes Church in Holboi-ne. 1595. F. 

17 16. August in B, not in E. ls 1585 in E. 



Scries VI 



JOHN CHILDS AND SON, PRINTERS* 



The Anatomic 

of A b u f e s : 

A ^ISCOVERIE, OR BRiEFE 

Summarie, 1 of fuch Notable Vices and Im 

perfections, 2 as now 3 raigne in many Chri- 

ftian 4 Countreyes of the Worlde: but (ef- 

peciallie) in 5 a verie 6 famous ILANDE 

called 5 AILGNA": Together, with 

moil fearefull Examples of Godb s ludge- 

nientes, executed 9 vpon the wicked for the 

fame, afwell In AILGNA T of late, as in 

other places elfewhere. 

to ie of all trite Christian** 

euerle where 10 ; but mofl needefull/ 1 to 
be regarded in ENGLANDE. 



Made dialogue-wife by flljillfp 

13 Seeoe and allowed^ according to order, 13 



u MATH. 3. ver. 2. Repent, for the kingdome of God 

is at liande. 

Lvc. 13. ver. 5, I fay vnto you (faith Chrift) 15 except 
you repent, you fhall all perifh. u 



15 ^[ Printed at London, by Richard 
lones. i. Maij. 17 1583. 

[ l The collations are on the opposite page.] 




To the 1 Right Hono 

rable; 2 Phillip Earle of Arundell: PhiUip 

Stubbes wifheth helth of body & foule, 1 fauour 

of God, increafe of Godly honour, re 

ward of laudable vertue, and eter- 

naE felicitie, 3 in the Heauens, 3 

b 4 IESVS Chrift 



Patrise DECVS. S 



HE Lord our God (right honorable) 6 hauing by the 
power of his word,, created Heauen and Earth, with 
all ^ thinges what foeuer^ for the comfort 7 and vie of 
Man, the laft of all other (enen the lixt daye) 8 made [God made man 
Man, after his owne fimilitude and likenelTe/that 10 in likeness, 
him he might be glorified aboue all other Creatures. And ther- 
fore, wheras in making of other thinges he vfed onely this Woord, 
FIANTJ be they made or let them be made, when he came to 
make Man, n as it weare adnyiing 12 himfelfe and 11 aiking councell at 
his wifdorne, he faid FACIAMVS HOMINEM, let vs make Man; that 
is, a wonderful Creature : and therfore is called in greek MICRO- 
COSMOS, a litle world in himfelf. And traely he is no leffe, whether a little world in 
we conlider his fpiritaall fonle, or his humaine body. For what 
Creature is theare vppon the face of the Earth comparable to man, 

1 l Christian Magistrates and godly Gouernors of England, whose authority 
& offices are to reforme vice and maintain virtue, P. S. wisheth the F. 

2 and Ms singular good Lorde added in E (1585), 

3 3 i n the Heauenly hierarchic E ; om* F. 4 through E. 5 5 om. F. 
6 6 Right Honourable, worshipfull and welbeloued, the Lord our God F. 

7 7 other thinges, for the benefit, F (benifite E). 

8 he made A, F. 9 to what end ? namely inserted in B (l Aug., 1583). 

10 to th|s end, that F. u u consulting with himself, & as it were E, F. 

12 consulting with in- B. 



IV 



The Epiftle 



L S Sig. U 2. 

k.A.J 
P Sig A 2, 
back. E.j 
[4 Sig. If 3, 
bacfc.B.3 



[God made man, 
to be glonfied in 

him, 



that lie might 
advp nee God's 

name -I 



[This was 
typiaed by 
Moses's 
Tabernacle, 



to which all men 
gave something 3 



either In body or Mn mind? what creature hath a foule immortall in 
herent in his body, 1 but onely Man ? what Creature can forfee things 
2 to come, remember things paft, or hidg of things prefent, but onely 
3 man? what Great urebeareth they mage of God 4 about with him/ but 
Man ? what Creature is made fo eret to behould the Heauens as man r 
What Creature may be likened to man, 6 either in proportiorz of body, 
or gifts of the foule 6 ? And (finally) what Creature hath the promife 
of the refurre6tiow & glorification of their bodies, & of eternall life, 
but onely Man r Than, feeing the Lorde hath made Man thus glori 
ous, and preferred him in 7 8 euery degree 8 before 9 al other Creatures (the 
Angelicall Creatures let a part) it is manifeft he hath done it to fome 
end 10 & purpofe, H namely, that he might be glorified in him, and by 
him aboue all other his works, according to the meafure of his integ- 
riiie, excellency and perfection. 11 And hereby we may learn that it is 
the will of GOD, that we 12 bend all our force to the aduauncing of his 
le glorious Name, 13 the edification of his People, and the building vp of 
his Church, which he hath redemed with the bloud of his deare 
Sonne. 

Which thing (mee think) is notably figured foorth vnto vs In the 
25 of EXODVS, wher the Lord commaunded Moyfes to build him a 
Tabernacle, or howfe of prayer, to this end and purpofe (doubtles) that 
therm his lawe might be read 14 , his Ceremonies 15 pra6tifed, Sacrifices, 
Vi&imates & Holocaufles ofrred, 15 and his glorious Name called vppon 
and obeyed. To the erection wherof euery one conferred fome what, 
fome brought gold, fome filuer & fome braffe, lead and tinne 5 other 
brought filk, purple, fkarlet, and other ornaments, and the meaneft 
brought fome what ; namely, ikins, heare, fand, lyrne, morter, wood, 
ftone,and fuch like. Euen fo 16 (right honorable) 10 would the Lord haue 

1 l soule ? For what creature hath an immortall soule, F. 

5 about with him om. F. 

S_G w h e ther we respect the lineaments the demensions and proportion of 
the body, or the gifts and giaces of the mind E, F. 

7 by E, F. 8 8 many degrees F. 9 above E, F. 10 speciall end B, 

n__n t } mtj as j n perfection and all kinde of integritie, he excelleth all other 
Creatures, so he might be glorified in, thorow, and by him aboue al other 
Creatures. B. 

la we should E, F. 13 13 glorie E, F. 14 read and preached F. 

is 15 d u iy practized, his Sacrifices and offerings faithfully performed F. 

ie_ie m . F. 



Dedicatorie. v 

cilery one to conferre feme what,, euen fuch as he hath, to the build 
ing 1 of his fpirituall howie, the Church, purcliafed with the blond of 
ChrifL 2 Wherfore feeing it Is ib, that euerv one Is to further this [So i, to help 

,..,..,. ' God's Church, 

ipintuall building to his poffible power, I haue rather chofen, with the brag now my 
fimpleft and meaneft fort, to bring, though but heyre, fend, (kins, 

lyme, morfer, 3 wood, or 4 ilones, than altogether to 5 contribute nothing. P Sig. H 3 AJ 

Not doubting, but that the chief Maiiter and Builder of this 
howie, Chrift lefus, will not diilike, but accept 6 of" 8 my poore con- P Si s- H 3- B 3 
tribution, no leiTe than he did of the 9 poore wydowes Mite, to whom p sig. A 3. E 3 
was 10 imputed that ihe had caft more n in Gazophilatiam Templi, 11 
into the treafury of the Temple, than all the reft j for what ilie 
wanted in eflfe6t that fhe fupplyed in affect. And for that, alfo, the [God bids us use 

A A J our talents, not 

Lord our GOD committing his talents to euery one, whether more or hide them * 

lelle, not onely requireth of YS the fame againe limply, but alfo,, as a 

ftraight computift, demaundeth intereft and gaine of euery one of vs : 

& for that not only he is a murtherer & a Homicide before God 

who ilayeth or killeth a Man with materiall fvvord, but he alfo who 12 

may 13 preuent the fame, 14 and will not. And 15 not onely he is guiltie 

of haynous tranfgreffion that committeth any euill really, 16 but alfo he 

who confenteth to it, as he doth, who holdeth his peace, or he who 

by any means might auoid it, and either for 17 " negligence wil not, or, 

tor feare of the world dare not. Therfore, albe it, that I haue re- 

ceitied but one poore talent, or rather the 18 lhadow of one, yet leaft I 

might be reproued (with that vnprofitable Seraaunt) for hyding my 

fmall talent in the Earth, not profiting therwith at all, either myfelf 

or others, I haue adue?ztured the making 19 of this litle treatife, intituled and so I've 

written my 

(The Anatomy of Abufes) hoping that the fame (by diuyne aHmance) Anatomy of 

/x=> \^s s / Abttses, to help 

fhall fomewhat conduce to the building 20 of this fpirituall howfe of the God's House,] 
Lord, 

And although I be one 21 (mofl honorable Lord) 21 tbat can do leaft in 
this Godly courfe of life (palpable barbarifme forbidding mee fo much 
as once to enter into Wyfdomes fchool), yet for that fome wil not, 

1 building vp F. 2 the Messyas B. 4 and F. 

5 to sit idle and F. 6 rather accept F. 7 of this E, F. 

10 it was F. n_n om ^ p, 12 v h o A. 13 might hinder B. 

14 same murther F. 15 And for that E, F. 16 actually F, 

17 through F. ls but the E, F. 19 contriuing F. 

20 building vp & erection E, F. 21 21 om. F, 



VI 



The Epiftle 



[and from love 
to God and my 
country.] 

C 1 Sig. T 3, 
back. A ] 



[Tho 1 I was at 
first minded to 
suppress m-yr 
book, my friends 
made me publish 
it.] 



[I didn't know 
whom to 
dedicate it to, 
till I thought of 
you, Lord 
Arundel, whose 
fame is world 
wide.} 



for feare of lofing worldly promotion (though, in the meane tyme they 
loie the Kingdome of Heauen), Other fome dare not for difplealing 
the world : I fay for thefe, & femblable caufes, together with the 
zeale and goodwill I beare vnto my Countrey, and feruent delire of 
their conuerflon and amende^-ment, I haue taken vp on me the contryu- 
ing 2 of this book j which GOD graunt may be with like plauiible alacri- 
tie receiued, as with paines and good will I haue publifhed 3 it for the 
benefit of my Cuntrey, the pleafure of the God 4 ly and amendement of 
the wicked. And I doubt not that as none but the wicked and per- 
uerfe, whofe gawld backes are tutched, will repyne againft mee, fo 
the Godly and vertuous will accept of this my labour and trauaile here 
in/ whofe gentle fauour and good 6 will ihall counterpoyfe ( 7 and farre 
furmount with mee 7 ) the maligne ftomacks and ftearu 8 countenances 
of the other. After that I had 9 (right honorable) 9 fully perfected this 
booke, I was minded,, notwithstanding, both in regard of the 
ftraungenes of the matter it intreateth of, and alfo in refpect of the 
rudeneiTe of my penne, to haue fuppreffed it for euer, for diuerfe and 
fundrie caufes, and neuer to haue ofrred it to the viewe of the world, 
But, notwithllanding, being ouercome by the importunat requeft, and 
infatigable 10 defire of my freinds, I grauTzted to publiih the fame, as 
11 now you fee 11 is 12 extant. 

13 But when I had once graunted to imprinte the fame, I was 14 in 
greatter doubt than 15 before, fearinge to whome I might dedicate the 
fame fo rude and impoliihed a worke. And withall I was not ignor 
ant, how hard a thing it is in thefe daies to iinde a Patrone of fiich 
books as this, which fheweth to euery one his fin, and difcouereth 
euery Mans wicked waies, which indeed the vngodly can not at any 
harad abyde, but, as i were, mad-mew difgorging their ftomacks. 16 ( Cum 
in Author em. turn in codicem plenis luccis et deniilus plufquam caninis 
rakid.1 feruntur ) they rage, they fume, and rayle both againfl the 
AVTHOU and his booke. Thus (vacillante ammo) my minde wandring 

2 publishing F. 3 collected F. 

6 sustained added in E, F. 7 7 yea farre surmount B ; om. F. 

8 austere F. 9 9 om. F. 10 orig, infagitable 

n 11 now (God haue the praise therof) B. 12 It F. 

is p rom h ers t f a iie neuer, last line, p. vii, is omitted in F. 

14 was then B. 15 than then E. 

16 and spewing out the poyson of their malicous harts inserted in B. 



Dedicatorie* vii 

too and fro, and reffing, as it weare, In extafie of defpaire, at laft I 

called to mind your honorable Lordfhlp, whofe praifes Iiaue 1 pearced 

the Skyes, and whole laudable vertues 2 are blowen not ouer the 

realme of England 3 onely, but euen to the furtheli coils and parts p sig. f 4. A.] 

of the world. 

All whofe vertues and condigne prayfes, If I fhould take vppon 
mee to recounte, I might as veil number the ftarres In the Sky, or 
graffe of 4 the Earth. 

For, for Godly "\Vyfdome, and zeale to 5 the truth, Is not your good p si s . F 4 . B.I 
Lordlhip (without oiFence be It fpoken) comparable with 6 the beft? 
For fobrietle, affabilite, and gentle curteiie to euerie one, farre excelling 
many. 

For your great 7 deuotion and compaffion to the poore opprefled, 
in all places famous : For Godly fidelitie to your Soueraigne, loue to 
the CVNTREY, and vertues in generall, euerie where mod re- 
nowmed. 

But leaffc I might obfcure yourWorthie commendations with my [8 si*. A3,bk. 
vnlearned penne (lytle or no thing at all emphaticall) I will rather 
furceafe than further to proceed, 9 contenting my felfe rather to haue 
giuen a ihadowe of them, than to haue ciphered them foorth, which 
indeed are both Infinit and Inexplicable. 

In confideratlon (whereof,) not withftandlng that my Booke be pew my book 
iimpler, bafer, and meaner than that It may (without blufhing) pre- you, ^ 

JL * yet take it uncier 

fent It felf to your good Lordlhip (being farre vnworthie of fuch an your protection ! ] 

honorable Perfonage) yet, accordlnge to your accuftomed 10 clemency, 

I molt humbly befeache your good Lordlhip to receiue the fame into 

your honors Patrociny and protection, accepting it as an infallible 

token of my faithfull heart, feruice, and good will towardes your 

honorable Lordflilp : For proofe whereof, would GOD it might once 

come to paffe, that if not otherwyfe, yet with my humble feruice, I 

might ihewe foorth the faithfull and euer willing heart I beare in 

breft to your good Lordelhip, protefting before Heauen and Earth, that 

though power want, yet fhall fidelitie n and f aithralnes n faile neuer. 

1 have long since B. 2 (by the golden trumpe of fame) inserted in B. 

* vpon E. 6 to E. 7 your great not in E. 

9 hearein added in E. 10 mansuetude, and pristine inserted in B. 
11 11 faithfulnes and goodwill B, 



viii The Epiftie 

And becaufethis my Bookeis fubiel 1 (my veriegood Lord) 1 to as 
[it exposes sins, many reproches, tauntes and reproofes as euer was any litle book 2 
[5 leaf IT 4, (f r that few can abydeto 3 haue 4 their fins 5 detected) therfore I haue 

back A ] 

had the greatter care to commit the lame to the guar dance and de 
fence of your honour, rather than to manie others, not onely for that 
GOD hath made your honour 6 a Lamp of light vnto the world of 
and you are true nobilitie and of al 7 integritie and perfection, but alfo hath made 
gerent to correct you his fubftitute, or vicegerent, to reforme vices, punifh abufes, and 

sins.] 

correcte mine. 

And as 3 in mercie he 8 hath giuen you this 9 power and autoritie, 
t 13 Sig TT 4, 10 fo hath he n giuen 10 you a hungrie ll delire to ac 12 complifh the fame 

13 according to his will : Which zeal in your facred breft the LORD in- 

creafe for euer. 
[Reform is And 14 as your Lordfhip knoweth, 13 reformation of maners and 

amendement of lyfe was neuer more needfull, for was pride (the 
Pride is rife. chief eft argument of this Booke) euer fo rype ? Do not both Men and 
Commoners Women (for the moft part) euery one in erenerall ero attyred in fiiks. 

wear gentlefolks' & 

dress. veluers 15 , damafks, fatans, and what not 16 ? which are attyre onely for the 

T? Sig. A 3, nobilitie and gentrie, and not for the other at 17 anie hand ? Are not 
Pia s whore- vnlawfull games, Playes, and Enterluds, and the like, euery where 
gnkT* USUry vfed 18? Is not whordome, couetoufnes, vfurie, & the like, day lie 

pra&ifed without all punifliment or la we 19 ? 

But hereof I 20 fay no more, 21 referring the 21 confi deration, both 22 

of thefe and 23 the reft, to your 24 Godly wyfdome. 25 Befeaching 26 your 

i i omi jr f 2 book subiect vnto E, F. 

3 z lieare their faults discouered) I thought it most meetest to be dedicated 
to all good Magistrates and men in authoritie, to reforme vice, & maintaine 
vertue : Vnto whom, in al humble dutie I doe willinglie present the same. 
And therefore, as the Lorde God F. 

* heare E. 6 - 6 a mirror of E. 

7 a rare Phrenix of for of al E. 8 om. F. 9 his E, F. 

10 10 to i-eforme vices and abuses, so I beseech him to glue eueiy one of F. 
11 11 by the operation of his Holy Spirite infused into your heart an earnest B. 

13 is f or as y OU know F. 
14 the rather for that inserted in B ; For, E. 

15 Velvets F. 16 not els ? F. frequented E, F. 

19 or execution of iustice added in^&; F adds. Was there euer seene lesse 
obedience in Youth of all sortes both men-kinde and women-kind towardes their 
superiours, Parents, Masters and gouernors ? 

20 I nead to E. 2121 reseruyng the good E, F. 32 as well E, F. 
23 as of E, F. 24 your Lordships E. 25 Wisedomes F. 26 26 you F. 



Dedlcatorie, ix 

good Lordship yj to perdon my preiumption in fpeakiog thus much, for 
(Zclus domini hue aJegit me} the zeal of my God hath dryuen me 
heather. 

! Knowinge that the LOHD hath ordelned you to himlelfe, a [You, Lord 

Anrodel, are 

choien veilell of honour, to pur^e his Church of thefe Abuies and God's Minister 

r to ptir^e his 

corruptions., which, as in a table, are depainted and let foorth in this Church.] 

Iitle 2 booke. 1 

Thus I ceafe to muleft your facred 3 eares any further with my 

rude {peaches, molt huwbl} 7 beieaching 4 your good Lordship, 4 not onely 
to admit this my Book into your 5 honours patronage and defence 5 / 
but alfo to perlift the iuft Defender 7 therof affainft the fwynish crew [Protect me 

against the 

of ravlinff 8 ZoiLvs and flowtine MOM vs, with their complices 9 ; to swinish crew 

_ . . ofrailersand 

whome !0 it is eafier to depraue all thins^, than to amend any thing mockers'] 

, C 10 leaf If s- A 2 

them felues : Which 11 if I shall perceiue to 12 be accepted of your 

honour, belides that I shal not care for a thouiand others difliking the 
fame, I shall not only think my felf to haue receiued a fafficiewt 
guerdon for my paines, and shalbe therby greatly incoraged (if GOD 
permit) hereafter to take in hand fome memorable thing to your 
immortall prayfe, honour and renowne 5 but alfo shall daylie pray to 
GOD for your good Lordship long to continue, to his good pleafure 
and your harts defire, with increafe of Godly honour, reward of 
laudable vertue, and eternal! felicitie in the HEAVENS by lefus 
Chrift. 

Column a glorite virtus. 

Your Honors to commaund, 13 
PHILLIP M Stubbes. 8 



E. 2 treatise B. 3 om, F. 

i 4 you F. 5 5 protection F. 6 protection E. 7 defenders F. 
8 ^ F Ji a $ the following, and slaunderous tongues, so shall I ackowledge my 
selfe most "bounden to pray vnto god for the prosperous & good estates of you 
all, whom I beseech for Christ his sonnes sake, to blesse and prosper you in all 
your godly proceedings now and for euer. 

Your Honours and Wisdomes most bounden, 

P. S. 

9 complies of braging Thrasoes and barking Phormions E. 
11 but E. 12 the same to E. 

13 in the Lorde added in E. u P. in B. 



X 



[leafff5,HcJ 



[Tho' I blame 
Plays, Dances, 
c., 



I don't want to 
abolish all 
amusements, but 
only the abuses 
in them.] 



[ a leaf 1 6] 

[Some plays are 
useful for good 
example 



and Godly 
recreation. 




A PREFACED 

to the Reader. 

Thought it conuenient (good Reader, who foeuer 
thou art thai {halt read thefe my poore laboures) 
to admoniih thee (leaft haply thou mighteft take 
my woords otherwife than I meant them) of this 
one thing : That wheras in the proceiTe of this 
my booke, I haue intreated of certen exercyfes vfually practifed 
amongeft vs, as namely of Playes and Enterludes, of dauncing, gaming 
and fuch other like, I would not haue thee Ib to take mee, as though 
my ipeaches tended to the overthrowe and vtter difliking of all kynd 
of exercyfes in generall : that is nothing my iimple meaning. But 
the particulare Abufes which are crept into euery one of thefe feuerall 
exercyfes is the onely thing which I think worthie of reprehenfion. 

For otherwife (all Abufes cut away) who feeth not that fome kind 
of pi ayes, tragedies and enterluds, in their own nature are not onely 
of great ancieTztie, but alfo very honeft and very commend 2 able 
exercyfes, being vfed and practifed in rnoft Chriftian common weales^ 
as which containe matter (fuch they may be) both of doctrine, 
erudition, good example, and wholfome infraction 5 And may be 
vfed, in tyme and place conuenient, as conducible to example of 
life and reformation of maners. For fuch is our groiTe & dull 
nature, that what thing we fee oppofite before our eyes, do pearce 
further and printe deeper in our harts and minds, than that thing- 
which is hard onely with the eares, as Horace, the hethen Poet, can 
witneife : Segnius irritant animum dimiffa per aures, quam cpice funt 
hominum occulis obieia. So that when honeft & chaft playes, 
tragedies &: enterluds are vfed to thefe ends, for the Godly recre 
ation of the mind, for the good example of life, for the auoyding of 
that which is euill, and learning of that which is good, thara are they 
1 This Preface is omitted in the editions of 16 August 1583, of 1585, and of 
1595- 



To the Reader. xi 

very tollerable exercyfes. But beinff vfed (as now commonly they [But Plays 

J J t> \ J J acted on Sunday 

be) to the prophanation of the Lord his fabaoth, to the alluring and to wantons, 
Inuegling of the People from the blefled word of God preached, to 
Theaters and ynclean aiTemblies, to ydlenes, vnthriftynes, whordome, 
wanto/znes, drankeTmes, and what not 5 and which Is more, when 
they are vfed to this end, to maintaine a great fort of ydle Perfons, ?j! d *? support 

. . & idle drones, are 

doing nothing but playing and loytring, hauing their lyuings of the insufferable ] 
fweat of other Mens browes, much like vnto dronets deuouring the 
fweet honie of the poore labouring bees, x than are they exercyfes (at ^ Ieaf ^ 6 ' bk 3 
no hand) fufFerable. 

Bat being vied to the ends that I haue faid,, they are not to be 
difliked of any fober and wife Chriftian. 

And as concerning dauncing, I wold not haue thee (good Reader) 
to think that I condemne the exercyfe it felf altogether , for I know 
the wifeft Sages, and the Godlyeft Fathers and Patriarches that euer 
liued, haue now and than vfed the fame, as Dauid, Salomon, and 
many others : but my woords doo touch & concerne the Abufes 
thereof onely. As being 1 vfed vppon the Sabaoth day, from morninef [Dancing ail 

. . . Sunday in pub- 

vntill niffht. in publique ai3emblies and frequencies of People, Men He, with music, 

. . . skippings, c., is 

8c women together, with pyping, uting, dromming, and luch like wrong; 
inticements to wantonneile & fin, together with their leapinges, 
fkippings, & other vnchaft gellures, not a few : Being vfed, or 
rather abufed, in this fort, I vtterly difcommend it. 

But vppon the other fide, being vfed in a mans priuat-chamber, or L allowable!] 6 ^ 
howfe, for his Godly folace and recreation in the feare of GOD j or 
otherwife abroade, with refpecl: had to the time, place and perfons, it 
is in no refpecl: to be difalowed. 

And wheras I fpeake of eraming 1 , my meaning is not that it is an [Gaming is only 

, wrong when 

exercife altogether vnlawful. For I know that one Chriftian may covetousness is 

to f J mixt with it] 

play with another at any kind of Godly, honeft, ciuile game, or 

exercife, for the mutuall recreation one of the other, fo that they be 

not inflamed with co 2 ueytoufnes, or defire of vnlawfull gaine j for the [ 2 leaf if 7] 

commaundemeTzt faith, thou {halt not couet : wherfore, if any be 

voide of thefe affections, playing rather for his Godly recreation, than 

for defire of filthie lucre, he may vfe the fame in the feare of God : 

yet fo as the vfe therof be not a let or hinderance vnto him to any 

other Godly exploit. 



Xll 



To the Reader. 



[Haunting 1 
gaming-houses 
to win money, is 
wrong 



I want the 
abuses of amuse 
ments removd ] 



[So in Dress. 
Noble folk may 
wear 

sumptuous 
apparel.] 



[But lower folk 
must not flaunt 
in velvets, gilt 
daggers, &c.} 



[Iain against 
abuse, not use.] 



But if a man make (as it weare) an occupation of it, fpending 
both his tyme and goods therein, frequenting gaming howfes, bowling 
allyes, and fuch other places, for greedineiTe of lucre, to him it is an 
exercife altogether difcommendable and vnlawfull. Wherfore, as 
thefe be exercyfes lawfull to them that know how to vfe them in the 
feare of GOD, fo are they pra6tifes at no hand fufferable to them that 
abufe them, as I haue mewed. But take away the abufes, the thinges 
in themfelues are not euill, being vfed as inftruments to Godlynes, not 
made as fpurres vnto vice. There is nothing fo good but it may be 
abufed -, yet becaufe of the abufes, I am not fo ftrift that I wold haue 
the things themfelues remooued, no more than I wold meat and 
drinke, becaufe 1 it is abufed, vtterly to be taken away. 

And wheras alfo I haue fpoken of the excefTe in Apparell, and of 
the Abufe of the fame, as wel in men as in women generally, I 
wold not be fo vnderftood, as though my fpeaches extended to any, 
either noble, honorable, or worfhipful; for I am farre from once 
thinking that any kind of fump 2 tuous or gorgeous attire is not to be 
worn of any of them, as I fuppofe them rather Ornaments in them, 
than otherwife. 

And that they both may, and, for fome refpe6ts ought, to were 
fuch attire (their birthes, callings, functions, and eflats requiring the 
fame) for caufes in this my Booke laid downe, as maye appeare 5 and 
for the distinction of them from the iiiferiour forte it is prouable, both 
by the Woord of GOD, Ancient Writers, and common practife of 
all ages, People and Nations from the beginning of the World to 
this day. 

And therfore, when I fpeake generally of the excefle of Apparell, 
my meaning is of the inferiour forte onely, who for the moft parte do 
farre furpalTe either noble, honorable, or worfhipfull, ruffling in Silks, 
Veluets, Satens, Damafks, Taffeties, Gold, Siluer, and what not, with 
their fwoords, daggers, and rapiers guilte and reguilte, burnilhed, and 
coftly ingrauen, with all things els that any noble, honorable, or wor- 
ihipfull Man doth, or may weare, fo as the one cannot eafily be 
difcerned from the other. 

Thefe be the Abufes that I fpeake of, thefe be the euills that I 
lament, and thefe be the perfons that my words doo concerne, as the 

1 be- it is 



To the Reader. 



Xlil 



tenure of my Booke, confideratly wayed, to any indifferent READER 
doth purport. 

This much I thought good (Gentle Reader) to informe thee of, 
for thy better Infraction, as 1 well in thefe few points, as in all other C 1 leaf ^ 8] 
the like, wherfoeuer they {hall chaunce to occurre in my Booke 5 
Be leaching thee to conftrue al things to the beft, to beare with the 
rudenes therof, and to giue the fame thy good-woord and 
gentle acceptaunce. And thus in the 
LORD I bid thee 
farewell. 

Thyne to vfe in the Lord, 
PHILLIP Stubbes. 






xiv 


[Sig. B i E, 
B.j 


Phillippus Stubeus 




CANDIDO LECTORI. 1 


[I don't wonder, 
reader, if my 
book offends you 
with its worse 
than Vanclalic 
words and dull 
themes ; so read 
something more 
useful.] 


Ofendit nimia te garrulitate libellus 
forte meus, Le&or $ miror id ipfe nihiL 
Oblitus eft etenim verborum colluuione 
plusquam vandalica, rebus et iniipidis. 
Ghiare fi fapias., operam ne perdito pofthac 




nortra legendo 5 legas vtiliora, vale. 




1T Idem in Zoih 


[Since, Zoilus, 
you rage like a 
mad dog, 


ZOILE, cum tanta rabie exardefcis in omnes, 
no72 aliter rabidus, quam folet ipfe canis : 
Dente Theonino rodens alios, calamoqae, 2 




IncelTens hos, qui nil nocuere tibi : 


and dart out 
your viper's 
tongue against 
everybody, and 
can never be 
quiet, 
and are always 
swelling like the 
frog, I wonder 
you too don't 
burst.] 


ViDeream in cunctos vi brans, O Zoile, linguam, 
linguam qua?7i innciunt toxica dira tuam : 
Cum debacchandi finis fitj Zoile, nullus, 
hora quieta tibi nullaque praetereat : 
Cum tumeas veluti veDtrolus., ZOILE^ bufo^ 
demiror medius quod minus ipfe crepes. 




1F Almd in eundem. 


[To the devil 
with Zoilus ! 
But why so with 
one who carries 
about the devil 
in his own 
bosom ? 


Daemonis ad tetrum defcendat Zoilus antrum^ 
hunc 3 lacerent fariae, Cerborus ore voret. 
Imprecor at mifero quid paenas, cui fatis intus ? 
daemona circumfert pedore namque fuo. 




IT Eiufdem aliud. 


If the book 
before you 
seems too long, 
make it short by 
reading but 
little, of it.] 


Si tibi prolixus nimium liber ifle videtur, 
pauca legas ; poterit fie liber efle breuis. 

1 This page is omitted in F. 
2 calomoque in B, E. 3 hunce in B. 



pC. B. In commendation of the Auctors lucubrations. 

You Sages graue with heares so hoare 
attend what you doe heare : 
And eke you youthfull gallants all, 

marke well and glue good eare. 
You princely peeres, and Senatours, 

in facred breafts imprint : 
These faiynges wife, and prudent eke, 

to praclize doe not Hint. 
You Biihoppes, and you Prelates all, 
learn here your flock to keepe : 
You Ministers, and Preachers eke, 

to feade your feely fheepe, 
You Commons all, whiche doe enioye, 

bothe high and lowe degree : 
Step boldly in amongeft the route, 

and view with lingle eye, 
This perfed glafle, and mirror pure, 

which doeth your linnes defcrie : 
And facred precepts doeth prefcribe, 

by name Anatomic. 
Approche therefore both high and lowe, 

this Booke fee that thou buye : 
And learne thy felf by facred lore, 

in vertue for to dye. 
To God, to Queene, to all men eke, 

how thou thy felf Ihouldft frame : 
To Hue, to dye in vertues lawes, 

to win immortall fame. 
*Loe here (you readers all) the gaine, 
which you herein maie haue: 
Delay not then, giue Stubles the praife, 
fince freely he it gaue. 



|_i Sig. B i, 

back B, E ; not 
In A.] 

[Sages, 



Gallants, 
Peers, 

Bishops, 

Preachers, 

Couiniuus, 



see here jrour 
sins describ'd 1 



Buy this book, 



learn your duty 
by it, 



;.Bij.B, 



and praise 
Stubbes.] 



XVI 

Loe, here my freende, liis freendly hartc, 

which he to Countrey beares, 
His taken paines, to all his 1 fendes, 

with fighes and tricklyng teares: 
[i, Stubbed In his behalfe, I, as his freende, 

friend, ask you to 

take his work m doe humbly of you craue : 

good part, and 

piaise him.] His willyng minde accept, and giue 

hym praife he ought to haue. 



Finis. 



jfo a/)cric Suyov' ?; revx n aXStcnaKai. B, E.] 

* ?he 



XYil 




[leaf A.] 



jrY. JD. in commendation of the Au 
thor and his Booke. 

IF Mort all-man may challenge prayfe 
For any thing done in this lyfe, 2 
Than may our Stubbes, at all affayes, 

Inioy the fame withouten ftryfe : 
Not onely for his Godly zeale, 

And Chriflian life accordinglie, 
But alfo for this 3 booke in fale, 

Heare prefent, now before thine eye. 
Herein the Abufes of thefe dayes, 

As in a glafle thou mayeft behold : 
Oh ! buy it than 5 hear what he fayes, 

And giue him thankes an hundred fold. 



[Sig.Bij. B,E.J 



[Stubbes should 
be jiraisd for his 
Christian life, 
and this book 
which, mirrors 
the abuses of our 
days.] 



1 This page is omitted in F. 



3 like B. 



8 Ms B, E. 



SHAKSPERE'S ENGLAND : STTTBBES. 



XV111 




[Sig. A i, hk. 
A ; B ij, back. 
B, K] 



[If profane men 
get praise for 
wanton 
pamphlets, 



Stubbes should 
receive the 
laurel for this 
godly book, 



in which the 
vices of the 
world are 
displayd.] 



I. F. In Commendation of the AVTHOR 
and his Booke. 

SHall men prophane, who toyes haue writ, 
And wanton pamphlets ftore, 
Which onely tend to nooriih vice, 

And wickednes the more, 
Deferue their praife, and for the fame 

Accepted be of all, 
And fliall not this our AVTHOR than 

Receiue the Lawrell pall ? 
Who for goodwill in facred breft 

He beares to natiue foyle, 
Hath publifhed this Godly Booke 

With mickle paine and toyle. 
Wherein, as in a Mirrour pure, 

Thou may eft behold and fee 
The vices of the World difplayed 

Apparent to thy 1 eye. 
He flattereth none, as moft men do, 

In Hope to gaine 2 a price; 
But Ihewes to all their wickednene, 

And Gods diuyne luftice. 
A Godlyer booke 3 was neuer 3 made, 

Nor meeter for thefe dayes : 
Oh! read it than, thank GOD for it; 
Let TH' AVTOR* haue his praife. 

1 the E, F. * get F. s s hath not beene E, F. 

T HAVTOR A ; TV Author B, E, F. 



N 



XIX 



1 The Avthor and his Booke. 

ow hauing made tlfa.ee, feelie booke, 

and brought thee to this frame, 
Full loth I am to publilh thee, 
left thou impaire my name. 

The Booke. 

Why fo, good Maifter ? what's the caule 

why you fo loth ihould be 
To fend mee foorth into the World, 

my fortune for to trye > 

The Author. 

This is the caufe ; for that I know 
The wicked thou wilt moue ; 

And eke becaufe thy ignoraunce 
is fuch as none 2 can loue. 

The Booke. 

I doubt not but all Godly Men 
will loue and like mee well 3 

And for the other I care not, 
in pride although they fwell. 



The Author. ISig A ij, 

J 



back. AJ 



Thou art alfo no lefle in thrall, 

And fubiect euery way 
To MOMVS and to ZOILVS crew, 

who'le dayly at thee bay. 

This and page xx are omitted in F. 2 fewe B, E. 



The Booke. 

Though MOMVS rage and ZOILVS carpe, 

I feare them not at all ; 
The Lord my GOD, in whom I trail, 

{hall foone caufe them to fall. 

The Author. 

Well, iith thou wouldeft fo faine be gone, 

I can thee not withhold $ 
Adieu, therfore - } GOD be thy fpeade, 

And bleffe thee a hundred fold. 

The Booke. 

And you alfo, good Maifter mine, 
GOD bleile you with his grace $ 

Preferue you ftill, and graunt to you 
In Heauen a dwelling place. 




Anatomic of 

2 the Alufes in AILGNA. 



CSiff-Bi. A. 

Sig B. iij, back. 

B,E] 



II The Interlocutors, or .Speakers. 
Spudeus, Philoponus. 

God geue you good morow, Maifter Philoponus. 
Philo. And you alfo, good brother Spudeus. 

Spud. I am glad to fee you in good health, for it was 3 bruted Jyjjg^j" 
abroad euery where 3 in our countrey (by reafon of your difcontinu- lyeth. 
ance, 4 I thinke) that you were dead long agoe. 5 

Philo. In deede, I haue fpent fome tyme abroad, els where then 
in my native countrey (I mnft needs confefTe), but how falfe that Re 
port is (by whom foeuer it was firft rumored, 6 or how farre fo euer 
it be difperfed) your prefent eyes can witneffe. 

7 Spud. I pray you, what courfe of lyfe haue you lead in this your [7 sig. B j, 
longe abfence foorth of your owne countrey t 

Philo. Truely (brother) I haue lead the life of a poore Trauayler The place 
in a certaine famous Ilande, once named ^AinalicL, after Ainatlrlf but thour hath tra- 
nowe prefently called Ailgna? wherein I haue liued thefe feuen winters Albania, 
and more, trauailing from place to place, euen all the Land ouer in- 2ngM*\ 
differently. 

10 Spud. That was to your no litle 11 charges, I am fure. 12 [ I0 leaf i. B t] 

13 Philo. It was fo, but what tharc ? I thank God I haue atchieued ps i ea f T . E ] 

. _._. .. . TrauaiHng' 

it, and by his dyuine affiftance profperoufly accomplished it, his glori- chargeable. 

2 the not in B, E, F. 3 3 reported F ; euery where not in B, E. 

* from thence inserted in B, E, F. 5 agone F. 

6 broched B, E, F. 8 8 Albania, after Britania F. 

9 Anglia F. t leaf I. The Author a Trauailer. B. 

small E ; no litle omitted in F. 12 F adds was it not I pray you ? 



The causes 
that moued 
the author to 
take this tra- 
uaile in hand. 



[6 Sig. B ij. A.1 



The difference 
betwixt a maw 
that * hath tra- 
uayled, and a 
man that hath 
not. 

[* the A; that B J 
[ T 3 leaf i, back. 
B.f] 
J 5 leaf i, back. 



L J 5 
E. 



The benefite 
of a good Com 
panion to tra- 
uayle withall. 
[ 20 Sig. B ij, 
Back. A.] 



22 The Author, a Trauayler. The Anatomic 

ous name (worthie of all magnificence) bee eternally prayfed there 
fore. 

Spud. And 1 to what ende did you take in hand this great trauayle r 
if I may be fo bould as to alke. 2 

Philo. Truely, to fee faihions, to acquainte my-felfe with the 
natures, qualities, properties, and conditions of all men, to breake my 
felfe to the worlde, to learne nurture, good demeanour, &: cyuill be- 
hauiour $ to fee the goodly lituation of Citties, Townes, and Countryes, 
with their profpe&s and commodities 5 and finally to learne the itate 
of all thinges in generall : all which I could neuer haue learned in 3 one 
place. 3 For 4 5 who fo 5 ntteth at home, euer 6 commorante or 7 abid 
ing 8 in one place, knoweth nothinge in refpede of him that trauayl- 
eth abroade : and hee that knoweth nothing, is lyke 9 a brute Beafte j 
but hee that knoweth all thinges (whiche thinge none doeth but God 
alone) hee is 10 a God amongeft men. And feeing there is a perfediorc 
in knowledge as in euery thing els, euery man ought to delire that per 
fection 11 5 for in my iudgement there is as muche difference (almoft) 12 
betwixt a man that hath trauayled much, and him that hath dwelt 
euer in one place, (in relpect of knowledge and fcience of things,) as 
is be ls twen a man lyuinge, & one dead in grauej And therfore I 
haue had a great felicytie in trauayling abroade. 14 

15 Spud. Seing that by diuyne prouidence we are heare 16 met toge 
ther, let vs (vntill we come to Me end of our purpofed 17 iorney) vfe 
fome conference of the Hate of the World now at this daie, as well 
to recreate our minds, as to cut of the tedyoufnes of oure iorneye. 

Philo. I am very well contente fo to doe, beinge 18 not a litle glad 19 
of your good companie $ for Comes facundus in via, pro vehiculo eft. 
i. A good Companion too trauayle withall, is in-fteade of a Wagon 
20 or Chariot. For as the one doth eafe the painfulnefs of the way, fo 
doth the other alleuiat the yrkfomnes of the iourney intended. 

1 And not in B, E, F. 2 aske you F. 

3 3 my owne countrey E ; my owne countrey at home F. 

4 For (in my poor iudgement) E, F. 5 5 hee that F. 

7 commorante or not in F. 8 or abiding not in B, E. 

9 like not in E, F. 10 i s ( as j t wer e) E, F. 

11 F adds aboue al other things. l3 om. F. 14 F adds all my life long. 

f leaf i, back. The benefite of trauailyng. B. 16 om. F. 

17 om. F. 18 reioysing E, F. 19 glad not in E, F. 



of Abuses. Allgna defcribed. 2,3 

Spud. But before I enter combat 1 with you (becaufe I am a 
countrey man, rude and vnlearned, & you, a Cyullian Indued with 
great wifdome, knowledge, and experience.,) I moft humbly befeech A request to 
you that you wyl not be offended with me, though I talke witi you or K] See. 
fomwhat grofly, 2 without eyther polifhed wordes, or fyled fpeeches, 
which your wifdom 3 doth require, and 4 my infufBciencie and inabyli- 
tie 5 is not 6 o power to afFoorde. 6 

Phil Your fpeeches (I put you out of doubt) ihali not 7 be offen- 
fiue to raee, if they be not offeniiue to God firft. 

Spud. I pray you 8 what maner of Countrey 9 is that Ailgna where E 9 leaf 2 . B.f] 
you fay you haue trauailed fo much ? 

Philo. A pleafant & famous Hand, immured aboute with the 



. . ,, goodly . 

Sea, as it were with a wall, n wherein the aire is verie 12 temperate, the [Angik, Eng- 
ground fertile, and 13 abounding with all things, either u neceilary to 14 [" i ea f 3 E.] 
man or needefull 15 for beaft. 

Spud. What kinde of people are they that inhabite there 16 ? 

Philo. A ftrong kinde of people, audacious, 17 bold, puirTant, and he- The people of 
roycal j of 18 great magnanimitie, valiauncie, and prowes, of an incom 
parable feature, 19 of an excellente complexion, and ^in all humanitie C* sig.BHj.A.3 
inferiour to none vnder the Sunne. 

Spud. This people, whome God hath thus blefled, muft needes 
bee a verie godly people, eyther els they be meere ingrate 21 to God, 
the authour of all grace, &: of thefe their blelfinges elpecially. 

Philo. It greeueth me to remember their Hues, or to make men 



tion of their wayes 22 5 for, notwithstanding that the Lorde hath bleffed T^ i* of 
23 that Lande 23 with the knowledge of his truth aboue all other Landes 
in the world, yet is there not a people more abrapte, 24 wicked, or per- 
uerfe, lining vpon the face of the earth. 

Spud. From whence fpring all thefe euills in man ? for we fee 

1 into dispute F. t 2 rudely B, E, F. 

3 F adds peraduenture * and whiche B. 5 being such added in E, F. 
6 6 able to perform B, E ; able for to yeelde F, 7 uot A. 

8 you then E, F. f leaf 2. Ailgna described. B. 

10 is England F. 13 verie not in B, E, F. 1S the earth B, E, F. 
14 u needfull for F. 15 necessarie F. le that Countrey E, F. 
17 most audacious F. 18 and of F. 19 of body added in F. 

21 meerlie vngratefull F. 22 workes F. 2333 t k em F. 

24 corrupt E, F. 



24 The original! of fmne. The Anatomic 

euene one is inclined to fin naturally, and there is no fleme which 
liueth and finneth not. 

Philo. All wickednes, mifchiefe, and iinne (doubte you not, 
we brotner Spud.} fpringeth of 1 our 2 auncient ennemie the Deuill, the 
spring in ma. inueterate corruption of our nature, and the interline malice of our 

[ z leaf 2, back. 

B.*] owne hearts, as from the 3 4 originals of all vncleannes & impuritie 4 

whatfoeuer. But we are nownewe creatures, and 5 adoptiue children, 5 

[6 leaf 2, "back. 6 created in Chrift lefus to doe 7 good woorkes, which God hath pre- 

We ought to pared for vs to walke in. 8 Wherefore wee 8 ought to haue no fellow- 



with the workes of darkneffe, but to put on the armour of light, 
fleTh. es f the 9 Chrift 10 lefus, 9 to walke in newnefle of life, and to worke our falua- 
r SiB.B2j.bk] t i on i n ii f eare an( i trembling, as the Apoftle faith 12 ; and our fauiour 
Chrift biddeth vs fo 13 work as our workes may glorifie our heauenlye 
Father. But (alas !) 14 the contrarie is moft true ; for there is no linne 
that 15 was euer broached in any age, which 16 floriheth not no we. And 
therfore the fearfull daie of the Lord cannot be farre of ; at which 
day all the World lhall ftand in flaftiing fier, and than fhall Chrift our 
The day of Sauiour come marching in the clowdes of heauen, with his 1T Taratan- 

Dome not re- ._/! i t r T-VII .-, 

garded. fara founding in each mans eare, ' anfe you Dead, and come to mdge- 

ment! ' and than ihall the Lord reward euery Man after 18 his owne 
workes. Eut how little this 19 is efteemed of, & how fmally re 
garded, 19 to coTzlider, it 20 greeueth me to the very harte, and there is 
almoft no life in mee. 20 

Spud. It is but a follie to greeue at 21 them who forowe not for them 

felues. Let them finck in their owne iinne : lyue well your felfe, & 

Euery Man you fhall 22 not anfweare for them, nor they for you. Is it not writen, 

for him seife. vnufqulfquQ portalit fuum onus 23 ? Euery one ihall beare his own bur- 

1 from E, F. * leaf 2, back. The originall of sinne. B. 

3 the causes and E. 

4 * efficient causes and stinking puddles of all vncleannes and filthinesse F. 
5 5 adoapted (sic) children of God F. 7 om. F. 

8 8 and therefore B, E ; and therefore we F^ 
9_9 no t in E, F. ll with F. 12 spe aketh F. w so to F. 

14 F omits alas. 15 which. F. 16 that F. 

17 this dreadfiill instead ofhis B, E, F. 18 according to F. 

19 19 daie is feared, {how smally perpended, J and how slenderly regarded 
in Ailgna B, E, F. f J om. F ; England F. 

20 20 wou id grieue any Christian hart to consider F. 21 for F. 

f leaf 3. Of Christian charitie. B. 23 onus suum F. 



of Abufes. The Authors Intent. 25 

den. Anlma qiice peccauerlt, ipja morletur : the foule that iinneth 

{hall dy. wherfore furceafe 1 to forow or greeue any more for them,, 

for 2 they are fuch as the Lord hath caft of 3 into a 4 reprobat fence,, 

& 4 5 preiudicat opinion, & preordinat 5 to G deilra6tion, that his power, i$ si#. B ifij. A. A 

his glorie, and 7 iuffice may appeare to all the World, 

Philo. Oh, brother ! ther is no 8 chrifteTz man in whofe hart Ihineth [The Christian's 
[cintillula aliquot piefatis, any iparke of 10 God his grace, which 11 will men's sins 3 
not greeue to fee 10 his brethren & fillers in the Lord, members of the 
fame body,, coheyres of the fame kingdom, & purchafed with one 
& the fame inercimable price of Chrifl his blond, to runne thus 12 def- 
peratlie into 13 the gulpheof deflruction and laberinth of 14 perdition. 15 
If the leaft and 16 meanefl member of thy whole body be hurt, wounded, 
cicatriced, or brufed, doth not the hart and euerie member of thy 17 
body feele the anguiih and paine of the grieued parte, feking & en- 
deuouring 18 them felues, 18 euery one in his office & calling, 19 to repaire The mutual! 
the fame, and neuer ioying vntill that 20 be reftored again to his former one member 
integritie & perfection? Which thinge, in the balance of Chriftian 
charity, conlideratly weighed, may 21 mooue any good Man 22 to mourn 
for their defection, and to afTay 23 by all pofQble means 23 to reduce 24 
them home 25 again, that their foules maie be faued in the daye of the C 2 s leaf 3, "back. 
Lord, And the Apoitle commandeth vs, 26 27 that we be 27 (alter* 
alterms emolumento) an 29 ayde and helpe one to an other. And that 
we do good to all men, dum tempus habemus, whyleft we haue tyme. 
To weepe with them that weepe, to mourne with them that mourne, 
and 30 to be of like affection one towardes an other. And common E 3 Big. B iiy, 

back] 

1 cease F. 

2 by all probable conjectures added in B, E ; F adds by all likelihood 
s not in F ; of = off. 4 4 not in B, E, F. 6 5 destinate F. 

7 and Ms F. 8 not any F. 9 vlla F. 

10 10 Gods grace, but will grieue, seeing F. n who B, E. 

13 thus not in B, E, F. 13 headlong into B, E, F. 

14 laberinth of not in F. 15 F adds both of body and soule for euer. 

16 or B, E, F. 17 the E, F. 

is is by al meanes possible B, E, F. 19 nature F. 20 it F. 

21 ought to B ; mooveth me and ought to E, F. 23 Christian man B, E, F. 

23 23 n0 f { n 3 . assaying by al meanes possible E, F. 
24 and to bring added in E ,- reclaime them, and to bring F. 

t leafs, back. The Authors intent B. 

26 to the vttermost of our power added in B, E, F. 27 om. F. 

28 vt simus alter B, E, F. (alteri in F.) 29 That we should be an F. 



2,6 Pride, the roote of all vices. The Anatomie 

reafon aduertifeth 1 vs, that wee are not borne for our felues onelie ; * for 

Ortus nqftri par tern patria, par tern amici, partem parentes vendicant : Our 

No ma bom Countrey challengeth a part of our byrth, our brethren and frendes 

for himselfe. J o A j 

require an other parte, and our parentes (and that optimo iure) doe 
vendicate a third parte : Wherefore I will afTay to doe them good (if 
I can) in 2 difcouering their abufes, and laying open their inor- 
mities, that they, feeing the greeuoufnes of their maladies, & daunger 
of theyr difeafes, may in time feeke to 3 the true Philition 4 & expert 
Chirurgion 4 of their foules, Chriit lefus, of whome onelie commeth all 
health & grace, and fo eternally be faued. 

Spud. Seeing that fo many and fo haynous Iinnes 5 do raigne and 
rage in Ailgna? as your wordes 7 import, and which mooue you to 
fuch interline forrowe and griefe of miude, I pray you defcribe vnto 
me more particularly forne of thofe Capitall 8 crimes, and chiefe 
Abufes 8 which are there frequented, and which diihonour the maieftie 
of God the moft, 10 as you fuppofe. 10 



eaf 4; sig. A particuler defcription of PRIDE, the principall 

Abufe 11 ; and how manifold it is 

in AlLGNA. 11 

PHILOPONTS. 

YOu do well to requeft me to cipher 12 foorth vnto you 13 parte 14 of 
thofe great Abufes (and Cardinall Vices) vfed 15 in AiLGNA, 10 for 
no man in anie ir Catalogue, how prolixe foeuer, 17 is able to comprehend 
the fumme of all 18 abufes there in pra&ife. 18 And whereas you woulde 
The number of haue mee to fpeake of thofe Capitall or 19 chiefe Abufes, which both 
Aiigna E ] are deadly in their owne nature, and which offende the maieftie of 

infinite. 

1 teacheth F. 2 by E, F. 3 to om. F. ** om. F. 

6 moralities B, E, F. 6 England F. 7 words doe B, E, F. 

8 s abuses and horrible crimes E, F. (vices for crimes F.) 

9 the not in B, E, F. xo_io m your iudgment F. 

11 in Ailgna (in England in F.) comes after Abuse in B, E, F. 

12 discipher B, E ; describe F. l3 unto you not in B, E. 14 some F. 

15 which are vsed F. 16 England F. 17 " competent volume F. 

18 18 the abuses there practised F. w an( j 33 jg t 



ofAbufes. Three forts of pride. 27 

God mofe, 1 Mee thinke you 2 fhake hands with the fwome enemies 

of God, the Papifles, who fay there are two kindes of finne, the one 

veniail, the other lethall or deadly. But you mnft vnderfland that 

there is not the leaft iinne, that is committed, eyther in thought, 

woorde or deede (yea, V& vniuerfce iuftitus nojtrte, Ji remota miferi- 

cordia iudicetur : Wo be to all our righteoufhes, if, mercy put away, AH sinne in it 

they 3 ftiould bee iudged) but it is damnable, dempta mifericordia Def, mortall 

if the mercie of God be 4 not extended. 4 And againej there is no 

finne fo 5 greeuous, which 6 the grace and mercy of God is not 7 able s to P Sjs> B. v, 

9 coun 10 teruaile withal, & if it bee his 11 pleafure to blot it out for euer. 9 [ I0 leaf 4 , back. 

So that you fee now, there is no iinn fo venial, but if the mercie of 

God be not 12 tretched out, 12 it is damnable] nor yet anie finne fo 

mortall, which by the grace and mercie of God may not bee done 

away. And therfore as we are not to prefume of the one, fo wee are 

not to defpaire of the other. But to returne againe to the fatisfying 

of your requeft. The greatefl abufe, which 13 both offendeth god The greatest 

A . abuse which 

mofte, & is there not a little aduaunced, is the execrable finne of offendeth god 

most is pride. 

Pride, and excefTe in apparell, which is there fo ripe, 14 as the fLlthie 
fruits 15 thereof hauelong iince prefented themfelues before the throne 
of the maieftie of God, calling and crying for vengeance day and 
nighte inceffantly. 

Spud. Wherfore haue you intended to {peak of Pride the fcft of all, 
geuing vnto 16 it the firft place in your tractation 17 ? Becaufe it is euill 
in it-felfe, and the efHciente cauie of euill, or for fome other purpofe ? 

Philo. For no other caufe but for that I thinke it to bee 18 not Pride the be- 
onely euill and damnable in it owne nature, but alfo the verie efficient euilL 
caufe of all euills. And therfore the wife man was bolde to call it ECCLES. 10. 
Initmm omnium malorum, the beginning and welfpring of al euils. 
For as from the roote all natural thinges doe grow, & take their 

1 as I suppose added in B, E. 

2 you herein B, E. 3 the B ; it E, F. 4 4 taken away E. 

5 lethall nor yet any offence so added in B, E ; so lethall or deadly, nor yet any 
offence so F. 6 but F. 7 om. F. 

9 9 pardon and remit, if it be his good pleasure so to do F. 
f leaf 4, back. Pride, the roote of all vices. B. u his good E. 

I2_i2 stretched forth E ; extended F. 
w in my judg-emente added in B, E, F. u so stinckyng B, E ; so rotten F. 

15 and lothsome dregges added in B E ; dregges F. 
16 am. F. 1>r discourse F. 1S to bee not in F. 



Pride, deuided. 



The Anatomie 



Sig. B vj.] 
[ 2 leafs. B.*] 



What is it but 
pride dares 
attempt it. 



Pride is three 
fold : pride of 
the hart, pride 
of the mouth, 
and pride of 
apparell. 



[^ leaf 5, back. 

B.f] 

[*8 Sig. B vj. 

back] 



[Isaias 50. E.] 



What pride of 
the hart is. 



beginning, fo from the curfed 1 roote of 2 peitiferous Pride do all 
other 3 etiilles fproute, and thereof are ingenerate. Therfore may 
Pride be called not improperly, Matercula et qrigo omnium vitiorum, 
the mother and mirfe of al mifchief : for what thyng 4 fo haynous, 
what cryme fo flagitious, what deed fo perillous, what attempt fo 
veraterous, what enterprife fo pernicious, or what thing fo ofTe7zfiue to 
God, or hurtful to man, in 5 all the world, which marc 6 (of himfelfe a 
very Sathanas,) 6 7 to maintain his pride withall, 7 wil not willingly 
atchieue 8 ? hereof 9 wee haue too muche experience euerye day, more 
is the pittie. 9 

Spud. How manyfold is this fm of Pryde, whereby the glorie of 
God is defaced, and his maierlie fo greeuoufly offended 1 

Pftilo. Pride is tripartite 10 ; namely, the pryde of the hart, the pride 
of the mouth, & the pryde of apparell, which 11 (vnles I bee deceiued) 
offendeth God more then the other two. For as the pride of the 
heart & 12 mouth is 13 not oppofite to the eye, nor vifible to the fight, 
and therefor 14 intice not 14 others to vanitie & fin (notwithftanding 
they be greeuous finnes in the fight of God) fo the pride of apparel, 
15 remaimng in 15 fight, as an exemplarie of euill, induceth the whole 
man to wlckednes and imne. 

Spud. How is the pride of the hart committed ? 

l6 Philo. Pride of the hart is perpetrate 17 when as a man lifting him 
felfeon highe, thinketh 18 of himfelf aboue that which he is 19 of him 
felfe, 19 dreamynga 20 perfection of 21 himfelfe, when he 22 is nothyng 
leife. And in refpect of himfelfe contempneth, 23 vilefieth, and re- 
proacheth 23 all men, 24 thinking none comparable to him felfe, whofe 
righteoufnes, notwithftanding, is lyke to the polluted cloth of a men- 
ftruous woman. Therfore the Pryde of the Heart maye bee faide too 
bee a Rebellious elation, or lyftynge vppe of the mynde agaynfle the 

* leaf 5. Three sortes of Pride. B. 3 other not in B, E. 

facte B, E, F. 5 is there in B, E, F. 6 6 not in F. 

7_7 come a ft er atchieue in B, E, F. 8 attempt E ; commit F. 

9 9 euery dales successe ministreth proof sufficient B, E, F. 

10 threefold F. n the laste whereof B, E, F. l2 and of the B, E, F. 

is are F. 14 - u cannot intice B, E, F. 

is is obiecte to B, E ; which is obiect to the F. 
f leaf 5, back. Pride deuided. B. 11 committed F. 

i9__i9 not i n E, F. 20 of a F. 21 in F. 

22 there F. 23 23 and despiseth * others E, F. 



of Abufes. Pride vainglorious. 29 

Lawe of God, attrybutynge and afcrybynge that vnto himfelfe whiche 
Is proper to God onely. And although It bee the Lorde, Qui opera- 
tar in nolis velle 1 et pqffe, who worketh In vs both the wil and power 
to do good, Ke gloriaretur omuls caro 3 leafte anie flefhe ihould bofte 
of his owne power and ilreagth, yet Pride, with his Cofin germayn 
Pkilautia, which Is Selfeloue, perfwadeth him that he hath neede of 
no mans helpe but his owne -, that he ftandeth by his own proper 
ftrength & power, and by no mans els, & that he Is al In all ; yea, 
fo perfect and good as no more can be 2 3 exacted of hym. 3 

Spud. How Is 4 Pride of wordes, or pride of 5 mouthe, committed ? 

Philo. Pride of the mouth, or of 6 wordes, Is when we boaft, 
bragge, or glorie, eyther of our felues, our kinred, 7 confanguynitie, HOW pride of 
byrth, parentage, and fuche like : or when w r e extol our 8 felues 9 for any 9 mputh^com- 6 
vertue, fan6tirnonie of lyfe, 10 fincerytie of 11 Godlynes 11 which eyther j^ie^" 7 . t there 
is In vs, or which we pretend to be In vs. In this kinde of Pride (as g***^ 6 - 
In the other) almofl euery one ofFendeth 5 for fhal you not haue all [Vain glorious 
(in a maner) boaft & 12 vaunt themfelues 12 of their Auncetors and pro- birthes, & 



genitors? faying & crying 13 with open mouth, I f am a Gentleman, B, E.] 
I am worfhipful, I am Honourable, I am Noble, and I can not tell 
what : my father was this, my father was that : I am come of this 
houfe, and I am come of that. 14 * Wheras, Dame Nature bryngeth vs 
all into the worlde after one forte, and receiueth all againe into the 
wombe of our mother, I meane 15 the bowelles of the earth, al in one 
and the fame order and manner, without any difference or diuerfitie 
at all y wherof more hereafter ihalbe Ipoken. 

Spud. How is Pride of Apparell committed ? 

Philo. By wearyng of Apparell more gorgeous, iumptuous, & 
precious than our ftate, callyng, or condition of lyfe requirethj HOW pride of 



1 et velle F. 2 be required or B, E. 

3 s required of Mm in this life F. 4 is the E, F. 

5 of the E ; the pride of the F. 6 am. F. 7 affinitie added in F. 

*f* leaf 7. Pride vainglorious. B, 
9 9 in respect of E ; in respect of some F. 10 of lyfe om. F, 

11 n integrity or perfection F; and the like added in E. 
ia_i2 bragge F. 13 aperto ore added in F. 

14 I was borne of this race, and I was borne of that, I am Jcome of this stocke, 
and I am come of that, J added in B, E, F ; but E & F have sprong of [descended 
in F.] this stock, and I of that jfrr J 1 15 I meane not in E, F. 



Men become Monfters. 



The Anatomie 



apparel is per 
petrate & 
cowmitted. 



[3 leaf 7, back. 

B.t] 

[ B 7, back] 



A decorum to 
be obserued. 



Our apparell 
rather deform- 
eth than 
adorneth vs. 



E 23 B viij] 



wherby we are puffed vp into Pride, and inforced l to thinke of our 
felues more than we ought, beyng but vile earth, and miferable 
linners. And this finne of Apparell (as I haue fayde before) hurteth 
more then the other two j For the finne of the heart hurteth none 
but the Author in whom it breedeth, fo long as it burfteth not foorth 
into 2 exteriour a<5tion 2 j 3 and the 4 Pride of the mouth 5 (whiche con- 
fifteth, as I haue fayd, in offcenting and braggyng of fome fingular 
vertue, eyther in himfelfe or fome other of his kinred, and which he 
arrogateth to himfelfe (by 6 Hereditarie pofTeffion or lineall diflent) 5 
though it be meere vngodly in it own nature 5 yet it is not 7 perma 
nent (for 8 wordes fly 8 into the aire, not leauing any print or character 
behinde them to offend the eyes 9 ) But this finne of 10 exceffe of Appa 
rell remayneth as an Example of euyll before our eyes, and as 11 a 
prouocatiue 12 to finne, as Experience daylye fheweth. 13 

Spud. Would you not haue men to obferue a decencie, a comli- 
neffe, & a decorum in their vfiiall 14 Attyre? Doeth not the worde 
of God commaund 15 vs to do all things 15 decanter etfecundum ordinem 
ciuilem, decently and after a cyuile maner 16 ? 

Philo. 1 1T would wifh that a decencie, a comly order, and, as you 
fay, a decorum were obferued, as well in Attyre as in all things els : 
but would God the contrarie were not true - } for 18 mofl of our nouell 19 
Inuentions and new fangled fafhions 20 rather deforme vs 21 then adorne 
vs, difguife vs then become vs, makyng vs rather to referable fauadge 
Beaftes and ftearne 22 Monfters, then continent, fober, and chafle 
Chriflians. 

Spud . Hathe this contagious inf e6tion of 23 Pride in 24 Apparell 
infe&ed and poyfoned any other countrey befide Allgna,^ fuppofe 
you ? 

1 induced F. 2 2 outward shew and appearance F. 

f leaf 7, back. Men become Monsters. B. 
s 5 n0 f i n jr - from his progenitors added in E. 
6 as it were by B, E. 7 is it not so F. 

8 8 Verba cito avolant, et euanescunt in aerem, words soone fly away and 
vanish E, F. . 9 eies withal F. w of the F. u is E, F. 

12 prouocation F. 13 prooueth F, u vsuall not in F. 

i_is vs a i thinges to be done E, F. w order F. 

17 yes truly I B, E ; Yea trulie I F. " do not tfa E. 19 fond F, 

20 dooe thei not added in B. 21 vs omitted in F. 

32 bruitish F. 24 of F. countries besides England F. 



of Abufes. Newfangledneffe in Ai!g[na.] 3 1 

I Philo. No doubt but this poyfon hath fhed foorth his influence, p leaf 8. B.*J 
and powred foorth his linking dregges ouer all the face of the earth $ [Circes cuppes 
but yet I am fure there is not any people vnder the Zodiacke 2 of p 
heauen, how 3 clowniih, rurall, 3 or brutiih foeuer, that is 4 fo poifoned w 
with this Arfnecke of Pride, or 5 hath dranke fo deepe of 6 the dregges 
of this 6 Cup as Ailgna 7 hathj with griefe of confcience I ipeake'it, 
with forow I fee it, and with teares I lament it. 

Spud. But I haue heard them faye that other Nations paffe them 
for exquifite 8 brauery in Apparell : as the Italians, the Athenians, the No Cuntrey so 
Spaniards, the Caldeans, Heluetians, Zuitzers, Venetians, Mufcouians, pride as 
and fuch lyke: now, whither this be true or not I greatly deiire to lgna " 
knowe. 

Philo. This is but a vifour, or cloke, to hide 9 their Sodometrie 10 
withall 5 onelye Ipoken, not prooued -, forged in the deceiptfull Mint 
of their owne 11 braynes : For (if credit maybe giuen to ancient writers) 
the Egyptians are faid neuer 12 to haue changed 12 their fafhion, or altered 
the forme 13 of their firft 13 Attire from the beginning 14 to this day : as 
lacobus Stuperius, lib. de diuerjis nojirte cetatis habitilus, Pag. id, [Stuperhis. B, 
affirmeth. The Grecians are faide to vfe but one kynde of Apparell 
without any chaunge: that is, to 15 wit, a longe Gowne reaching ^SBS, back] 
downe to the grounde. 

The Germaynes are thought to be fo precife in obferuing one 
vniforme faihion in Apparell, as they haue neuer receeded from their 
firft Original; as the faid Stuperius fayth in thefe 16 wordes: Non c 1 ^ leaf 8, back. 
enim mores leuiter mutare vetujtos, Germanus vnquam confueuit incola ; 
Whiche in Englyfh Verfe is thus muche in eifecl: : 
^T The Germayne people neuer vfe 

T- i ,7 IT , T T T [Cp. my Andrew 

lightly 1 ' to chop and chaunge Boorde, p. 159, 

Their cujlomes olde, or els Attyre, 
wherin abroade they range. 

^[ The Mufcouians, Athenians, Italians, Brazilians, <Affricanes t 

* leaf 8. Newfanglednesse in Ailg. B, 
2 face F. 3 3 sauage F. 4 that is not in B, E, F. 

* or that B, E, F. 6 6 this impotionate B, E, F. 

7 England F. 8 finenesse and added in F. 9 couer B, E, F. 

10 owne shame E, F. n own lying F. iz__ to chaunge F. 

13__13 or fashion of their F. u of the world added in F. 

f leaf 8, back. Foreigne guise of Apparell. B. 1T at all F. 



(All nations 
inferiour to 
Ailgna for 
pride of apparell 
B, E.] 



PCx] 



[No people so 
curious in newe 
fangles as thei of 
Ailgna. B, E ] 

[Meafg.B.t] 



Other coun- 
treyes not to 
be blamed' 
though they 
go in silks, 
veluets, and 
why. 
[ C i, back] 



32 Brutifh fafhions in Ailg[na.] The Anatomic 

Afianes, Cantalrians, Hungarians, Ethiopian*, 1 or els what Nation 2 
foeuer vnder the Sunne, are fo farre behinde the people of Ailgna 3 in 
exquifttnefTe of Apparell, as in effe6t they efteeme it litle or nothyng 
at all, fo it repell the colde and couer their ihame 5 yea, fome of them 
are fo finally addi&ed therto, that, fettyng apart all honeftie and 
fharne, they go cleane naked. Other fome, meanly apparelled 5 fome 
ill Beafts fkinnes, fome in haire, & what euer they can get 4 : fome in 
one thing, fome in another, nothing regarding eyther hofen, {hoes, 
bands, ruffes, fhirts, or any thing els. And the ciuileft nations that 
are, bee fo farre eftraunged from the pride of 5 Apparell, that they 
efteme him as brauelye attyred that is clothed in our carzies, frizes, 
ruggs, and other kinds of cloth, as we do him that is clad all ouer in 
filkes, veluets, fatens, damalks, grograins, tafFeties, and fuch like. So 
that herby you fee that they fpeak vntruly, that fay that other nations 
exceede them in brauerie of apparell. For it is manifeft that all other 
Nati 6 ons vnder the fun, how ftrange, how new, how fine, or how 
comly foeuer they think their falhioras to be, when they be compared 
with the dyuerfe fafhions & fundrie formes of apparell in Ailgna, 7 
are moft vnhandfome, brutifh, and monftroufe. And herby it appear- 
eth that no People in the World is 8 fo curioufe in new fangles as they 
of Ailgna 1 be. But graunte it were fo, and admit that others excelled 
them (which is falfe), fhall we do euill becaufe they do fo ? fhall their 
wickedneiTe excufe vs of iinne, if we commit the like & worfe? 
ihall not the foule that linneth dye ? wherfore let vs not finne of 9 
prefumptioTZ with the multitude, becaufe they do fo, leaft we be 
plagued with them becaufe we doe the like. Moreouer, thofe Cun- 
treyes are rich and welthie of them felues, abounding with all kinde 
of precioufe ornaments and riche attyre, as lilks, veluets, Satens, 
damalks, iarcenet, tafFetie, 10 chamlet, and fuch 11 like (for al thefe are 
made in thofe foraine cuntreyes), and therfore 12 if they weare them 
they are not muche 13 to bee blamed, as not hauing anie other kind ol 
cloathing to couer themfelues withall. So if wee would contente 
ourfelues with fuch kinde of attire as our owne Countrey doeth 

1 Dutch, French added in F, 2 nations F. 8 England F. 

4 get not in F. f leaf 9. Brutishe fashions in Ailgna. B. 

7 England F. 8 are B, E, F. s in B, E. 10 Taffeta F. 

11 theB, E, F. 13 noting. 



of Abufes. Pride and Pleafure in Ailg[na], 33 

1 minifter vnto 1 vs, It were much 2 tollerable. But wee are fo furprifed 3 

in Pride, that if it come not from beyond the feas, It is not worth a OAer Coira . 

fbraw. And thus we impoueriili our felues in buying their trifling LTt^muche 

merchandizes, more plefant than neceilarie, and 4 inrich them, who aswe'do. * 

rather 5 laugh at vs in their fieeues than otherwife, 6 to fee our gret j^/J^ 9 ' back - 

follie in affecting of trifles, & departing 7 \vitli good merchandizes 8 for 

it. 9 And ho we litle they efteeme of filkes, veluets, fatens, damaiks^ [Foreigners 

10 and fuchlike, 10 weemaye eafely fee, in that they fell them to vs for 11 vefvS^cf- for 

,, . T i -i -i 1-1*1 i -i TO our wools. Cp. 

wolles, frizes, rugges, carzies, and the lyke, whiche they coulde" neuer Stafford, p. 54 , 

doe 13 if they efteemed of them as much as we doe. So that you fee 

they are forced of neceflytye to weare fuch riche attyre, wanting 

other things (whereof we haue ftore) to inueil themfelues withall. 

But who feeth not (excepte wilfuilie blynde) that no neceffitie com- 

pelleth vs to weare them, hauing abundance of other things to attire 

our felues with, 14 both hanfomer, warmer, 15 and as comlie as 15 they 

in euerie relpe&e ? But ' farre fetched and deare boughte ' is good 

for Ladyes, 16 they fay. 

Spud. Doe you thinke it not permitted to any, hauinge ft ore of 
other neceilary clothing, I7 to weare iilks, veluets, taffeties, & other [^Cz] 
fuche riche attyre, of what calling foeuer they be of 18 ? 

Ph. I doubt not but it is lawfull for the poteftates, 19 the nobilitie, 
the gentrie, ^yeomanrie, and for euerye priuate fubiecte els 20 to weare 21 E uery man 
attyre euery one in 22 his degree, accordinge as his calling and con- ^aJSut 

, . -i i , r- , cording to his 

dition of life requireth 5 yet a meane is to be keept, tor omne extremum caiiinge. 

vertitur in vitium, euery extreme is turned into vice. 22 The nobilitye 

23 (though they haue ftore of other attyre) and the gentrie (no doubte) 

may vfe a rich and precioufe kynd of apparell (in the feare of God) 23 The noW i;ty 

to innoble, garniihe, & fet forthe their byrthes, dignities, 24 functions, ^-gbus^lt- 

and callings 5 but for no other refpecte they may not in any maner of Ure * w y 

i i afford B, E ; yeeld F. 2 somewhat B, E, F. 3 captiuate F. 
f leaf 9, back. Pride and Pleasure in Ailg. B. 5 rather not in B, E, F. 

6 than otherwise not in B, E, F. 7 parting F. 8 wares F. 

9 them B, E, F. 10 10 Taffetaes, and such, F. ll for our B, E, F. 

12 would F. 13 not in F. u with-all F. 

i5_i5 an( i comlier then B, E, F. (comelier F.) l6 ladies as B. 

18 of not in B, F. 19 the potestates not in B, E, F. 

20_so an ^ the magisterie B, E, F. 21 weare riche B, E, F. 

22 22 their calling B, E, F. 23___23 om itted in B ; and gentrie E, F. 
24__24 & estates. The magistery B, E, F. 

SHAKSPEKE'S EKG-LAND : STTJBBES. C 



34 



Sumptuous Attyre. 



The Anatomie 



Malestrats 
may were 
sumptuouse 
attyre, & why. 
[3 leaf 10 B.*] 



[7 C 2, back] 

[Men die for 
want of food.] 



wyfe. The maiefrrats alto & Officers in the weak publique, by what 
tytle foeuer they be called (accordinge to their abylities), may were 
(if the Prince or Superintendent do Godly commaund) coftlie orna 
ments and riche attyre, 24 to dignifie their callings, and to demonftrat 
1 and fhewe forth 1 the excelency 2 and worthines of their offices and 
functions, therby to ftrike a terroure & feare into the harts of the 
people to offend againft 34 the maiefty of their callings 4 : but yet 
would I wifh that what fo is fuperfluous or onermuche, either in the one 
or in the other, ihold be diftributed to 5 the helpe of 6 the pore mem 
bers of Chrift leius, of whom an infynite number 7 day lie do 8 periih 
thorowe wante of necefTarie refection and due fuftentation to their 
bodies. And as for the priuat fubiects, it is not at any hand lawful 
that they fhould weare filks, veluets, fatens, damafks, gould, iiluer, 
and what they lift (though they be neuer fo able to maintain it), 
except they, being in ibme kinde of office in the common wealth, do 
vfe it for the dignifying and innobling of the fame. 9 But now there 
is fiich a confufe mingle mangle of apparell in Allgna^ and fuch pre- 
pofterous u excefTe therof, as euery one is permitted to flaunt it out in 
what apparell he luft 12 himfelfe, or can get by anie kind of 13 meanes 
So that it is verie hard to knowe u who is noble, 14 who is worfhipfull, 
who is a gentleman, who is not : for you shall haue thofe which are 
neither of the nobylitie, gentilitie, nor yeomanry $ no, nor yet anie 
Magiftrat, or Officer in the common welth, go daylie in filkes, veluets, 
fatens, damafks, taffeties, and fuch like, notwithftanding that they be 
both bafe by byrthe, meane by eftate, & feruyle by calling. 15 This 
i leaf 10, back, is 15 a great confufion, & 16 a general diforder : 17 God be mercyfull 
vnto vs 17 ! 

Spud. If it be not lawfull for euery one to weare filks, veluets, 



Not lawfull 
for priuate 
subiectes to 
weare sump- 
teous attyre. 



Hard to know 
a Gentleman 
from another 
by apparell. 



B.tJ 



1 l not in B. 
* leaf 10. Sumptuous Attyre. B. 



2 the maiestie added in B, E, F. 
4 4 their office and audioritie B, E, F, 

5 and erogate to B, E, F. 6 and subvention of B, E, F, 8 do not in F. 
9 Or at the commaundement of % their superintendent, or Archprimate, J foi 
some speciall consideration or purpose, added tn B, E, F. ({ J, the chiefc 
Magistrate F.) 

10 England (and so in every other place where Ailgna occurs] F. 
11 horrible F. 12 listeth F j lusteth B, E. 13 kind of not in F. 

u__u no t i n F. i 5 15 And this I compt [accompt F.] B, E, F. 

f leaf 10, back. Riche ornaments. B. 
17 17 in a Christian common wealth E, F. 



of Abufes. By whom App[arell] was gluen, 35 

fatens, daniafks, taffeties, gold, filuer, precioufe ftones, & what not, 
wherfore did the Lord make & ordeln them ? 

Phllo. I denie not but they may be wome l of them who want p c 3] 
other things to cloth them withal, or of the nobylity, gentilytie, 2 or wherfore the 
rnagiftery, for the caufes abouefaid, but not of euery proud fixnet 3 rkhe oma- 
indirlerentlie, that haue 4 ftore of other at tyre Inough. And yet did 
not the Lord ordeane thefe riche ornaments and gorgioufe veftments 
to be wome of all men, or of anie, fo muche as to garnish, 5 bewtifie, 
and fet forth, the maiefty & glorie of this his earthly kingdome : For 
as cloth of gold, Arafe, tapeftrie, & fuch other riche ornaments, 
pendices, and hangings in a houfe of eftate, ferue not onely to manuall 
vfes and feruyle occupation, but alfo to decorate, 6 to bewtifie, & Wherto riche 

J ^ omamentes do 

become 7 the houfe, and to she we the riche eftate and glorie of the serue - 

owner 5 fo thefe riche ornaments, and furnpteoufe veftments of the 

earthly territory of this World, do not onelie ferue to be worn of 

them, to whome it doth appertaine (as before) but alfo to shew forth 

ths power, welth, dignity, riches, and glorie of the Lord, the Author 

of all goodnefTe. 8 And here in the prouidence and mercy of God 

appeareth moft plainelye 5 for wher there is flore of other clothing, 

there hath he geuen leiTe ftore of filks, veluets, fatens, damafks, 9 and p leaf n. B.t] 

fuch like : and wher there is plenty of them, there is no clothing els 

almoft} & thus the Lord 10 did deale 10 , for that euery cuntrey n ought 

to contente themfelues 11 with there owne kind of attyrej except 

neceflytie inforce 12 the contrarie $ for than we are to vfe our libertie, [" 03, back] 

in the feare of God. 

Spud. I praye you, let mee intreate you to Ihewe me wherefore 
our apparell was giuen vs, and by whome ? 

Phllo. Your requefte is both diffufe and intricate, and more than 
my weake and infirme knowledge is able to comprehend 13 ; yet leaft When, where, 
I might bee adiudged vnwillinpr to doe good, I will alTay to doe the cause our 

, - apparell was 

Deft 14 I Can. geuen vs. 

When the Lord our God, a ipiritual, intellectible vnderftanding 
fubftance, incompreheniible, immenfurable, & inacceffible, had, by 

2 Gentry F. 3 Thraso B, E, F. * hath B, E, F. 

5 splendishe B, E, F. decore B, E, F. 7 adorne F. 

8 thynges B, E, F. f leaf u. By whom App[arell] was giuen. B. 
io_io ^^ dea i t B? E} F% n_ii should be content B, E, F, 

13 performe B, E, F. u best that B, E, F. 



The fall of Adam. 



The Anatomie 



The fall of 
man by the 
malice of the 
deuill. 
f 7 C 4] 



his woord and heauenly wifedome, Chrifi: lefus, created and made 
the world & all things therin contayned, the fixte day he created 
man after his own fimilitude and likenes, in innocencie, holines, 
righteoufnes, & all kind of perfection, 1 he placed 1 him in Paradife 
terefirial, co7?zmaunding 2 him to tyl & manure the fame. Thaw the 
deuil, an old maligner of mankind, who before was an Angel in 
heaueTz, & through fin 3 of pride in arrogating to himfelfe the feate 
&: throne of Gods maiefty, carl down into the lake of hell, enuying 
mans glorious eflate, which he than had loft, came vnto man in Para- 
leaf ii, back, dife, & 4 inticed him (oh, 5 torteoufe ferpent !) to eat of the forbidden 
fruite, wherof the Lorde God had forbidden him to taft on pain of 
his life: notwithfta^ding Adam, condefcending to 6 his wife her per- 
fwaiions, 6 or 7 rather to 8 the Serpent, 9 hauing buzzed his venemous 
fuggeftions into their 10 eares, tooke of the apple & did eat, contrary to 
the exprefle com man dement of his God. This done, their eyes were 
opened, thei faw their nakednes, & were not a litle ashamed; (& 
yet before fin was committed, they, being both naked, were not 
ashamed 5 but fin once committed n they became vncleane, filthie, loth- 
fome, & deformed,) & fewed them garments of fig leaues together, 
to couer their shame with all. Than the Lord, pittying their miferie 
& loathing their deformity, gaue them pelts & 12 felles 13 of beafts 12 to 
make them garments withall, to the end that their shamefull parts 
might lefle appeare; yet fome are fo brafen faced &: fo impudent 
that, to make the deuill & his members fport, will not fticke to 
make open shew of thofe parts which God commaundeth to be 
couered, nature willeth to be hid, & honefty is ashamd once to be 
hold or looke vpOTZ. 

Spud. I gather by your words three ipeciall poynts. Firft, that 

fin was the caufe why our apparell was giuen vs j Secondly, that God 

is the author & giuer therof ; Thirdly, that it was gmen vs to couer 

leaf 12. B.fj our fhame wkAall, & not 14 to feed the infatiable defires of mercs 

wa?zto72 & luxurious eies. 

1 1 and placing B, E, F. 2 commanded B, E, F. 8 the sinne B, E, F. 

* leaf 11, back. The fall of Adam. B. 5 like a F. 

6 ~ 6 the perswasions of his wife B, E, F. 8 of B, E, F. 

9 in his wife added in F. 10 her F. n contracted F. 

12 12 beasts felles and skinnes F. 13 and skins E. 

f leaf 12. Proude Ap[parell] the Deuils nets. B, 



Impudent 
beasts, [that 
shewe their 
priuities, E,j 



of Abufes. The right vfe of Apjjparell]. 37 

Philo. Your colleftiora Is very true. Than., feeing that our apparel 
was giue?2 vs of god to couer our fliame, to keep our bodies from cold, 
& to bee as pricks In our eies to put vs in mind of our naileries, wherforour 
1 frailties, imperfections, and fin, of our backflyding from the COOT- geuen vs. 
maundements of god and obedience of the highefl, and to excite 2 vs 4 ' back3 
the rather to contrition and compunction of the 3 ipirit, to bewayle our 
mlfery, & to craue mercy at the mercifull hands of God, let vs be 
thankful! to God for them, be forie for our finnes (which weare the 
caufe 4 therof,) and vfe them to the glory of our God, & the benefyte 
of our bodies and foules, 5 againft the great day of the Lord appeare. 5 
But (alas) thefe good creatures which the Lord our God gaue vs for 
the refpecls before rehearled, we haue fo peruerted as now they feme, 
in ftead of the deuills nettes, to catche 6 poore foules In j for euery 
one now adaies (almoft) couet to 7 deck and painte their lining 8 
fepulchres, 9 or erthly graues 9 (their bodies I meane) with all kind of 
brauerie, what foeuer can be deuifed, to delight the eyes of the vnchaft Mens "bodies 

lyuin " sepul-* 

behoulders, wherby God is dishonored, offence 10 is encreafed, 10 and chres. 
much finne daylie committed, as in further difcourfe fhall plainly 
appeare. 

Spud. Did the Lord cloth our firfi: parents In leather, as not 
hauing any thing more precioufe to attyre them withal I, or for that it 
might be n a permanent 12 rule, or patern, vnto vs (his pofterity) for E" leaf 12, back, 
euer, wherafter we are of force to make all our garments, fo as It 
is not now lawfull to 13 go In u richer arraye, 14 without 15 offendinge [ x s GS] 
his maieftie ? 

Philo. Although the Lord did not cloth them fo meanly, for that 
he had nothing els more precioufe to attyre them withall, (tor Domini 
eft terra, et plenitudo eius, the earth Is the Lords and the fulneffe 
therof, faith the Lord by his Pfalmijft ; And by his Prophet, Gold is 
myne, filuer is myne, and all the riches of the world is my 16 own,) yet, 
no doubt, but he would that this their meane & bale attyre fhould 
be as a rule, or pedagogic, vnto vs, to teach vs that we ought rather 

2 exercise F. 3 the not in F. * causes F. 

6 5 at the last F. 6 intangle B, E, F. 7 couet to not in B, E, F. 

8 liuing0/ in B, E, F. 9 9 not in B, E, F. 10 10 ministred B, E, F. 

f leaf 12, back. The right vse of App[arell]. B. 12 perpetual F. 

13 for vs to F. u u riche attire B, E, F. 16 mine F. 



fn our appa 
rell we ought 
rather to obey * 
necessity than 
to feed vanity. 



[4 leaf 13. B.-fl 

iaw his 
mean kind of 
attire was a 
signe of medio 
crity vnto vs 
in our appa 
rell. 
[5 C 5, hack] 



No religion 
reposed in 
apparell. 



L" C 6] 



38 No confcience repofed in Ap[parell], The Anatomie 

to walke meanelye and nmplye, than gorgioufly or pompoufly - } rather 
feruing prefente necefHtye, than regarding the wanton appetits of our 
lafciuioufe rnindes. Not-withftandinge, I fuppofe not that his heauen- 
lye maiefry would that thofe garments of lether fhould ftand as a rule 
or pattern of necejffytie vnto vs, wherafter we fhold be bourad to fliape 
all our apparell for euer, or els greeuouflye to ofFende ; but yet by 
this we may fee his blened will Is, 2 that we {hould rather go an ace 
beneth our degree, than a iote aboue. And that any iimple couering 
pleafeth the Godly, fo that it repell the colde and couer the ihame, it 
is more than manifert, as well by the legends both 3 of prophane 
Hiftoryographers, Cronologers, and other writers, as alfo by the cen- 
fures, examples, 4 and lyues of all Godly lince the beginning of the 
world. And if the Lord would not 5 that the attyre of Adam fhould 
haue beene a figne or patterne of mediocritie vnto vs, he both in 
mercy would &, in his almighty 6 power, could, haue inuefted them in 
filks, veluets, fatens, grograins, gold, liluejr, & what not. 7 But the 
Lord our God forefawe that if he had clothed man in rich and 
gorgioufe attyre (fuche is our proclyuitye to finne), he wold haue bene 
proude therof, 8 as we fee it is come to paiTe at this day (God amend 
it!), and therby 8 purchafe to himfelfe, his body and foule, eternall 
damnation. 

Spud. Than, it feemeth a thinge material!, and of great import 
ance, 9 that we referable our flrft Parents in aufteriry 10 and Simplicity of 
apparell, 10 fo muche as maye be poflible, doth it not ? 

Philo* I put no religion in goinge, or not goinge, in the like 
fimple attyre of our parents Adam & Eua (as 11 our Papiftes, Papifts ? 
no, Sorbonifts, Sorbonifts? no, Atheifts, atheifts? no, plaine Sathanifts ll 
do, placing all thier religion in hethen garments & Romifh raggs) 
fo that we obserue a meane, and exceade not in pride. But notwith- 
ftanding, if we approched a litle nearer them in Godly iimplicitie 
and Christian fobrietie, both of apparell and maner of lyuinge, we 
ihould not onely pleafe God a great deale the more, and enritche our 
Cuntrey, but alfo auoyd many fcandals &: of 12 fences which grow 

1 oby A. 3 was then, & is now F. 3 both not in B, E, F. 

f leaf 13. No conscience reposed in App[arell]. B. 6 mighty E. 

7 not els F. 8 8 and so F. 9 moment F. 

10 10 O f apparell and simplicity of attire B, E, F. 

iin Sorbonicall Papists B, E, F (F prefixes the), 



of Abufes. Hell,, the reward of Pride. 39 

daily by our exceffiue ryot, and ryotouie excefle In apparell. For 

doth not the 1 apparell ftyrre vppe the heart to pride? doth It not [ x leaf 13, back. 

intice others to linne ? and doth not fin purchafe hell, the guerdon of The fruite of 

.. , Pnde. 

pride : 

Spud. But they fay they pleafe God, rather than offend him, in 
wearing this gorgioufe attyre, for therby the glory of his workmanihip 
in them doth more 2 appeare. Beiides that, it maketh a man to be 
accepted and efteemed of in euery place ; wheras other wife they 
thould be nothing leiTe. 

Philo. To think that the Lorde our God is delighted in the The Lord ac- 

cepteth no 

fplendente ihewe of outward apparell, or that it fetteth forth the man after HS 

f - 1 r , apparell. 

glory of his Creatures, and the maiefty of his kingdom, I fuppofe ther 

is no marc (at leaft no perfect chriftian man) fo bewitched or allotted : 

For that weare as much as to fay, that linking pride & filthie iinne 

tended to the glory of God $ fo that the more we fyn, the more we 

increafe his prayfe and glorye. But the Lord oure God is fo farre 

from delightinge in linne, that he adiudgeth them to eternall Death 

and damnation that committe the fame. Than, who is he that will 

take pleafure in vayne apparell, which, if it be worne but a whyle, 

will fall to ragges, and if it be not worne, will foone rotte, or els be eaten 

with mothes. His wayes are not oure 3 wayes, his Judgements not 4 [3 c 6, back] 

our Judgements, as he fayth by his Prophet : and wheras they holde 

that Apparell fetteth foorth the glory of his Maieftie in his creatures, 

makynge them to appeare fairer, than other wyfe they would of them- 

felues, 5 it is blafphemouily fpoken, and muche derogateth from the No attyre can 

exellency and glory of his name. For. faith not God by his prophet tureofGod 

seenie fayrer. 

Moyfes, that after he had made all creatures, he beheld them all, & r s leaf 14. B.f] 

behould they weare (and efpecially man, the excellenteft of all other 

his creatures, whom he made after his own iimilitude & likneffe) 

excedinge good ? And were all creatures good & perfect, & 

only marc not perfect, nor faire inough? If thefe their fpeeches 

were true (which in the 6 fulneffe of their blafphemie they fhame not 

to fpeake) thara might we eaiily conuince the Lord of 7 vntrue fpeak- 

* leaf 13, back. Hell, the rewarde of Pride. B. 

2 more not in E ; more brauely F. 

4 are not F. t l ea -f J 4- Man comely of hymself. B. 

6 the not in F. 7 7 untruthe B, E, F. 



40 Proud Appareir] deformeth man. The Anatomie 

ing/ who in his facred word inforrneth 1 vs, that ma;z is the perfected 
Creature, & the fayreil of al others, thai euer he made (excepting 
the heuenly fpirits, & Angelical creatures) 2 after his own likneife, 2 
as before. O 3 man ! who arte thou, that reafoneft with thy Creator? 
Euery one is ihall the clay lay vnto the potter,, why haft thou made me thus ? Or 

to contente 

^s^fe^with can the clay make himfelfe better fauored than the potter, who gaue 

GodTo^t^ k irn k* s ^ rft ^ am P & proportion ? Shall we think that ftinking 
pride can make the workma/zfhippe of the Lord to 4 feeme fayrer? 

[5 c 7 3 Than, why did not the Lord cloth vs 5 fo at the firft? or at leaft, why 

gaue he not commaundemewt in his will & teftament, which he 
fealed with the 6 price of the 6 bloud of his fonne, to cloth our felfes in 
riche & gorgioufe apparel to fet forth his glory the more ? But 
away with thefe 7 dogs & helliih haggs, who retaine 8 this opinion, 9 

L 10 leaf 14, back, that cur 10 fed pride glorhieth God, & fetteth forth or bewtifieth his 
workmaraihippe in his creatures ! In vain is It for me to expoftulat 
with them, for doubtles non hould this, but fuch as be 11 mifecreants (or 

The Lord our deuills incarnate) 12 & men 12 carl offfl into a reprobate fence, 13 whom 

God is a con- . 

suming fiie to I befeech the Lord, in the bowels of his mercy, either fpeedely to co?z- 

destroyall . J r J 

impenitent uert, that they penfh not, or els confounde, that they hurte not, that 

sinners. J ' 

peace may be vppo;z 14 Ifrael. Thus, hauing fufficiently (I truft) 
refelled their falfe poiitio/zs, I leaue them to the Lord, befeechinge 
them (as they tender their own faluation, linguas compefcere digitis, to 
ftoppe their facrilegioufe mouthes with ther fingers, & not to fpit 
againft heauen, or kicke againft the pricke, as they do, anie longer : 
For the Lord our God is a corafuming fier, & vpon obftinate iinners 
fhal raine down fire & brimfton, & confume them in his wrath. 
This is our 15 portion acquired by finne. 

Spud. But what fay you to the other branch of their concluiion, 
namely, that Apparell maketh them to be accepted, and well taken in 
euery place } 
L* C 7, back] 16 Philo. Amongeft the wicked and ignorante Pezants, I mult needes 



1 teacheth B, E, F. 2 2 not in B, E, F. 3 But O F. 

4 to not in F. 6 6 not in F. 7 sauage added in E, F. 

8 are of B, E, F. 9 mind F. 

f leaf 14, back. Proude Appa[rell] deformeth man. B, 

11 as be not in B, E, F. W 1 as the Lord hath B, E, F. 

13 and preiudicate opinion added in F. u vnto F. 16 their B, E, F. 



ofAbufes. Reuerence due to Vertue. 41 

confeffe, they are the more eftemed in refpect of their apparel! 5 but 

nothing at all the more, but rather the lefTe, amongeft the godly wyfe. 

So farre of[f] will all wyfe men be from accepting of any for his gay 

apparell onely, that (be he neuer fo gallantly painHe^ or curioufly [* leaf 15. B.*J 

plumed in the deceiptfuli f ethers of pride) they wil rather coTztemne 

him a great deale the more, taking him to be a mara puffed vp with 

pride and vaine glorie, a thing both odioufe, 2 & deteftable to God 

& good men. 2 And feeing it cannot ftand with the rule of god his The wise will 

. n . ~ not accept of 

luftice, to accept, or not to accept, 3 any man for 4 his apparell., or any any after j 

other externe fhew of deceiptfuli vanytie, it is manifeft, that man,, 

doinge the contrarie, is a ludos to the truth, a Traytor to iuffcice, & 

an enemy to the Lord : wherfore farre be that from al good chrilHans ; 

and if thofe that go richeiy clothed fhould be efteemed the rather 

for their rich apparel than a contrario, muft thofe that go in meane 

and bafe attire, be the more contemned, and defpifed for their pouertie. 

And than fhould Chrift lefus, our great Ambaffador from 5 the king 

of heauen, 6 8c only Sauiour, 6 be comtemned, for he came in poore 

& mean array : but Chrift lefus is bleiTed in his pore raggs, and all 

others are co/ztemned in their rich Sc precious attyre. Vnder a 

fimple cote many tymes lyeth hid great wifdom & knowledg; 8r [Wisdom not 

corctrarely, vnder braue 7 attyre fomtime is couered great ydiotacy 8 and Hour pompe of 

folly. 9 Hereof euery daies fucceffe offreth proofe fufficient : more is [7 c s] 

the py tie 9 ! 

Spud. Wherfore would you haue men accepted, if not for 
Apparell ? 

Philo. If any be fo foolifh to ymagin that he ihalbe worshipped, 
reuerenced, or accepted the rather for his apparell, he is not fo wyfe 
as I pray 11 God make me. For furely, for my part, I will rather wor- I0 Reuerence 
fhippe & accept of a pore marc (in his 12 clowtes & pore raggs 12 ) not to attyre/ 
hauing the gifts and orname?zts of the mind, than I will do him that B.f] ea I5 ' 
roifteth & flaunt eth 13 daylie & howrely in his lilks, veluets, fatens, 

* leaf 15. No estimation due to App[arellJ. B. 
2_2 before men and detestable before God B, E, F. 3 accept of E, F. 

4 after E. sent from B. 

e_6 wt in B, E, F. 8 adiocie F. 9 9 not in B, E, F. 

f leaf 15. Reuerence due to Vertue. B. io_io not j n . 

12 12 torne cloutes and ragges E ; ragged cloutes F. 

13 flaunteth it out F. 



Vertue maketh gentilitie. 



The Anatomic 



[All reuerence 
due to vertue 
and not to riche 
attire. B, E.] 



[* C 8, back] 

Wherfore 
man is to be 
worshiped 
and had in 
reuerence. 

P leaf 16. B.f] 



Gentilitie 

without vertue 
is no gewti- 
litie. 



[An exelent 
apothegme. E, 

3 D r] 



damafks, gold or iiluer, what foeuer, without the induments of vertue, 
wherto only al reuerence is due. And therfore as anj ma?z is indued, 
or not indued, with vertue, & true godlyneife, fo will I reuerence, 
or not reuerence, accept or not accept of him : wherfore if any gape 
after reuerewce, worhip or acceptation, let them thirft after vertue, 
as namely, 1 wifdome, knowledge, difcretion, modeftie, fobrietie, affa 
bility, gentleneffe &: fuche like $ than can they be without reuerence 
or acceptation, no more than the fonne can be without light, the fire 
witAout heat, 2 or the water without his naturall moyfture. 

Sp. Tha?z I gather, you would haue men accepted for vertue & 
true Godlines, 3 wold you not ? 

Ph. I would not only haue mew to be accepted & reuerenced 
for their virtue (though the 4 chiefeft reuerence is onely to be attri 
buted to him, whofe facred breft 5 is fraught with vertue, as it may 
well be called the Promptuarie or Receptorie of true wifdome and 
Godlines, but alfo (in parte) for their byrthes fake, parentage and 
confaTxguinitie^ and not only that, 8 but 9 alfo in refpect of their call 
ings, offices and functions, whether it be in the Temporal Magiflery, 
or 10 Eccleliaftical presbitery (fo long as they gouerne godly and well): 
For the Apoftle fayth, that thofe Elders which 11 gouerne wel amongft 
vs are worthie of double honor. But yet the ma/z whom God hath 
blefled with vertue and true godlynes, thoughe he be neyther of 
great byrth nor callynge, nor yet any Magifbrate whatfoeuer, is 
worthie of more reuerence and eilirnation then any of the other 
without the ornaments of the minde, & gifts of vertue aboue 
faid. For what preuayleth it to be borne of worfhipfull progenie, and 
to be deftitute of all vertue, which deferueth 12 true worftiip ? what is 
it els then to carie a golden Swoorde in a Leaden Scabbarde ? Is it 
any thyng els then a golden Coffyn or painted Sepulchre, makyng a 
fayre fhowe outwardly, but inwardly is full of all m'nche & loth- 
fomnes ? I remember once I red a certaine ftorie of one, a Gentleman 
by byrth and parentage, who greatly reproched, and withall difdayned 
an other, for that he was come to great autho 13 rytie onely by vertue, 

1 F adds feare of God, zeale to religion 

2 the heat. E. 3 onely added in F. * brest is so B, E. 

6 storehouse F. 7 discent F. 8 for that E. 

t 1 leaf 1 6. How to know a Gentleman. B. , 
10 a or (sic) A. " that F. 12 maketh B, E, F. 



of Abufes. An obiecticm to maintain pride. 43 

being but a poore mans child by byrthe : "What ! faith 1 the Gentle 
man by birth, 2 arte thou fo luftie ? Thon arte but a coblers fonne, and 
\vilt thou compare with me, being a Gentleman by 3 byrth and call 
ing ? ' * To whome the other anfweared, 4 c( thou arte no Gentleman, for 
thy gentilitie endeth in thee, and I am a Gentleman, in 5 that my [s i ea f 16, 
gentilitie beginneth in me : " Meaning (vnleil 6 I be deceiued) that the 
wante of virtue in him was the decay of his gentility, and his vertue The exordium 

. of virtue ib the 

was the beginning of true gentilitie m him felfe : for virtue therfore, exordium of 

a 6 gentilitie& 

not for apparell, is euerye one to be accepted ; For if we fhould accept worship, and 

r * J f want of the 

of men after apparell onely, refpe6ting nothinge els, thara fhold it come one is the 
to paffe, that we might more efteme 7 of one, both meane by birth, the *. 
bafe without 8 virtue, feruyle by calling, Sc poore in eftate, more than 
of fome, by birthe noble, by virtue honorable, and by callinge laud 
able. 9 And the reafon is becaufe euery one, tagge and ragge, go brauer, or 
at leaft as braue as thofe that be both noble, honorable and worfhipfull. 

Spud. But I haue hard fay, there is more holynefTe in fome kynd 
of apparell than in otherfome ; which makes them fo much to afe&e 
vary[e]tie of faihions, I thinke. 

Philo. Indeed, I fuppoie that the fumme 10 of their religion doth 
coniifte in apparelL And, to fpeake my confcience, I thinke there is 
more, n or as muche holyneife in the apparell, as in them ; that is, raft [ D i, back] 
none at all. But admit that there be holynefTe in apparell (as who is NO hoiynes in 

appajrell 

fo infatuat to beleue it) than 12 it followeth that the hoiynes pretended 

is not in them $ & fo be they plaine Hipocrits to make fhew of that 

which they haue not. And if the holines by there attire prefaged be 

in them felues, thaw is it not iu the 13 garments ; & why do they than [ I3 leaf 17. B.fl 

attribute that to the garments whiche is neither adherente to the one, 

nor yet inherent in the other ? Or if it wer fo, why do they glory 

of it to the world ? but I leaue them to their follie, haftinge to other 

matters more profitable to intreate of. 

Spud. But I haue hard them reafon thus : That which is good in 
it own nature cannot hurt -, apparell is good, and the good Creature of 

1 quoth B, E, F. 2 by birth not in F. 

3 both by B, E, F. 4 repliyng, saide B, E, F. 

* leaf 1 6, back. Vertue maketh Gentilitie. B. 6 vnlesse F. 

7 accept B, E, F. 8 in B, E, F. 9 venerable B, E, F. 

10 and enargie added in B, E ; and substance added in F. l2 then B. 
t leaf 17. An obiection to maintain Pride. B. 



44 App[arell] the Mother of pride. The Anatomic 

An argument God : ergo no kynde of apparell can hurte. And if there be anie 
wd. c n " abufe in it, the apparell knowethe it not -, Therfore take awaye the 

abufe, and let the apparell remaine Hill, for ib it maye (fay they) 

without anie hurte at all. 

Philo. Thefe be well feafoned reafons, and fubftantiall affeuera- 

tions in deed - y but if they haue no better arguments to leane vnto 
[But shortly to than thefe, their kingdome of Pride will fliortlie fall 1 without all 1 

fail, without hope . . , 

of recovery.] hope of recouene agame. The apparell in it owne nature is good, 

p B 2 ] and the good Creature of God (I will not de 2 nie) and cannot hurte, 

except it be thorowe ouer 3 owne wickednefTe abufed. And therfore 
wo be to 4 them that make the good Creatures of God inftruments of 
dampnation to them felues, by not vling them, but abuiing them. 
And yet, not withstanding, it maye be faid to hurte, or not to hurte, 
as it is abufed or not abufed -, And wheras they would haue the abufe 
of apparell (if any be) taken away, and the apparell to remain ftill, it 

[s leaf 17, back, is impofEble to fupplant the one, without 5 the extirpation of the other 
alfo. For it is trulye faid,fullata caufa, tollitur effe6lus ; But not 
fubrepto effeffiu tollitur caufa; Take away the caufe and the efFecte 
falleth/ but not contrarylye, take away the effect and the caufe 

Vnpossibieto fallethJ The 8 efficiente caufe of Pride is gorgioufe attire - } 9 the effect 






ecept is pride it felfe ingenerate by attire 9 : But to begin to plucke awaie the 

sumptuouse 

apparell be effecte (to wit, pride) and not to take awaye the caufe firft (namelie 

taken away . . 

also. fumptuoufe attyre) is as if a man, intendinge to fupplante a Tree by 

the rootes, ihould begin to pull the fruite and braunches onelye -, or, 

to pull downe heauen, Ihould dig in the earthe, workinge altogether 

prepofterouflie and Indyreclye. 10 And the reafon is, 11 thefe two col- 

Appareii and laterall Colins, apparell and Pride (the Mother and Daughter of mif- 

ld togeTe b r^s chiefe) are fo combinate together, and incorporate the one in 12 the 

daughter. other, as the one can hardlie be dyuorced 13 from the other, without the 

fD 2l back] aiftruaiow O f them both. To 14 the accompliihmente wherof, God 

graunte that thofe holfome lawes, fanctions, and ftatuts, which, by our 

moft gracious and ferene princeffe (whome lefus preferue for euer) 

i_i withall B. 3 through our F. 4 to not in F. 

f leaf 17, back. Appa[rell] the Mother of Pride. B. 

e sublato B, E, F. 7 fayleth F. 

8 The externe B, E, F. 9 9 not in F. 10 and contrarily added in F. 

u is for that B, E, F. 13 plucked F. u For F. 



of Abufes. The godly abhor pride. 45 

and her noble and renoumed Progenitors, haue beene promulgate and 

ena&ed hertofore, may be put in execution. For, in my opinion, it is 

as impoffible for a man to were precioufe appareil and gorgioufe 

attyre, and not to be proude therof (for if he be not proud therof, 

why doth he weare niche riche attire, wheras mea 1 ner is both better p leaf 18. B *j 

cheape, ealier to be had, as warme to the bodie, and as decent and 

comly to any chaft chriftlans eye) as it is for a man to cary fire in VnposslWe not 

his bofoTTze and not to burne. Therfore, would God euery marc might rich attyre. 

be compelled to weare appareil according to his degree, eftat, and 

condition of life ; which, if it were brought to paile, I feare leaft fome 

who ruffle now in filks, veluets, fateras, damafks, gold, liluer, and what 

not, 2 fhold be glad to weare frize cotes, & glad if they might get 

them. 3 

Spud. What is your opinion ? did the people of the former world 
fo much efteeme of appareil as we doe at this prefent day, without 
refpect had either to fex, kind, order, degree, eftat, or callinge ? 

^Philo. No doubt but in all ages they had their imperfections 5 and [4 D 3 ] 
faults, for Hominis eft errare, labi et dedpi ; it is incident to man to 
erre, to fall, and to be deceiued. But, notwithftandinge, as the wicked 
haue alwayes affected, not onelie pride in appareil, but alfo all other 
vices whatfoeuer, fo the chafte, Godly, and fober Chriftians haue euer The 
efchewed this exceiTe of appareil, haumg a fpeciall regard to weare 
(uche attyre as might neyther offend the maieftie of God, prouoke appare11 
them felues to pride, nor yet offend 6 any of 6 their Brethren in any 
refpecte. Bat (as I haue faid) not onely the Godlie haue detefted and The verie 
hated this vaine fuperfluitye of appareil in all tymes fince the be 7 gin- contemned 



ning of the Worlde, but alfo the verie panims, the heathen Philofo- 

phers, who knew not God (though otherwife wyfe Sages and great kf]^ l8 ' ^ 

Clarks), haue contemned it as a peftiferoufe euill ; in fo muche as 

they haue writ (almoft) whole volumes againft the fame, as is to be 

feene in moft of their Books yet extant. 

Spud. Are you able to proue that ? 

Philo. That I am, verie eafilye 5 but of an infinyte number, 
take a tafte of thefe few. Democrates beeing demaunded, wherin the Testimonies of 

* leaf 1 8. The godly abhorre Pride. B. 2 not els F. 

3 them too F. * blemishes added in F. 

B 6 jwt in B, E, F. f leaf 18, back. Vertue the comeliest ornament. B. 



46 Vertue, the comlyeft ornament. The Anatomic 



bethen people 
who dended 
riche attire. 

; D 3, back] 



Vertue is the 
comlyest orna 
ment of alL 



leaf 19. B.t] 



Diogines his 

ansuenty. 4 



[The example of 
a Philosopher, 
deriding 
pride. E, F.] 



bewtie and comlie feature of man, or woman, confifted ? aunfwered, 
in fewnes of fpeaches well tempered together, in virtue, in integrity 
1 of life, and fuche like. Sophocles, feinge one weare gorgeoufe ap 
parell, faid to him, ' thou foole ! thy apparell is no ornamente to the, 
but a manifeft ihewe of thy f ollie.' Socrates, being afked what was the 
greatteft ornamente in a woman, anfwered, e that which moft Iheweth 
her chaftitie, and good demeanoure of body and mind, & not fump- 
tuoufe attyre, which rather iheweth her adulterate life.' Ariftotle is fo 
diftrict 2 in this point, that he would haue men to vfe meaner apparell 
than are permitted them by the lawe. The Wife of Pkilo, the Philqfo- 
pher, being vppon a tyme demaunded why me ware not gold, liluer and 
precioufe garments, laid, {he thought the vertues of her hufbande fuf- 
ficiente ornaments for her. Dionifius, the king, fente the richeft gar 
ments in all his wardrobes to the no s ble Womew of the Lacedemonians, 
who returned them from whence they came, fayinge, they would be 
a greatter fhame to them than honore. Kinge Pirrus fente riche at 
tyre to the Matrones of Rome, who abhorred them as menftruous 
clowtes. The concerned opinion amoTzgeft the Grecians to this day 
is, that it is neithej gold nor gorgioufe attyre that adorneth either 
Man or Woman, but vertuous conditions, and fuch like. Diogines 
fo much contemned fumptuous attyre, that he chofe rather to dwell 
in wilderneffe amon 5 geft brute beafts all his lyfe longe, than in the 
pompoufe courts of mightie kings one daye to be commorante. 6 For 
he thought, if he had the ornaments of the minde, that he was than 
faire ynoughe, and fine inough allb, not needing any more. A certen 
other Philofopher addrefled himfelfe towards a kings courte in his Phi- 
lofophers attyre, that is, in meane, bafe and poore aray - } But foe fone 
as the Officers efpied him, they cried, ' awaie with that rogue ! what 
dothe he foe nie the kinges maiefties courte ? ' The poore Philofopher, 
feing it lighten fo faft, retyred back for feare of their thunderclappes, 7 
and repayringe home, appaireled himfelfe in riche Attyre, and came 
againe marchinge towards the court: he was no fooner in light, 
but euery one receiaed him plaufiblie, and with great fubmiffion and 
reuerence. When he came in prefence of the kinge, and other 

2 strict F. t leaf 19. Philosophers examples. B. 

4 austerie [austerity] in B, E. 6 resiant F. 

7 thunderboltes F* 



of Abufes. The Heathen difpife pride. 47 

mightie potentats, he kneled 1 down, and 2 ceaied not to kilTe s his [ 3 Jeaf 19, back 
garments. The king and nobles manieylinge not a litle therat, afked 

him, wherfore lie did fo ? Who aunfwered, * O noble kinge ! It is no The example 

marueyle 5 for that whiche my vertue and knowledge could not doe, pher dendmg 

tile pornpe 01 

my Apparell hath brought to paffe : For I, comminge to thy gates the World. 
In my PHILOSOPHERS 4 weede, was repelled ; but hamng put vpon me [* D 4 , back] 
this riche attyre, I was brought to thy prefence with as great venera 
tion and worfhip as could be.' "Wherby is 5 to be feene in what de- 
teftation he had the itinkinge Pride of apparell, takeing this occafion 
to giue the King to vnderHand the inormious abufe thereof, and fo 
to remoue the fame as a peliilent euill out of his whole dominion & 
kingdome. I read of a certen other Phlkfopher that came before a 
king, who, at the fame tyme, had inuited his nobles to a feast or ban- The example 

. ... f a Philoso- 

quet : the Philofopher comming in and feinge no place to fplt in (for pher who spat 

. in the kings 

euery place was hanged with cloth of gold, cloth of filuer, tinfell, fee*. 

arrace, tapeftrie, and 6 what not 6 ) came to the kinge and fpat in his 

face, faying, f it is meet (o king!) that I fpit in the fowleft place.' 

This good Philofopher (as we may gather) went about to withdraw 

the king from taking pleafure or delight in the vaine glittering fhewe, 

either of apparell or any thing els, but rather to haue consideration of 

his owne fiithynes, miferie & finne,, not ryfing vp into pride, and 

fpitting againft heauen, as he did, by dilighting in prowde attyre and 

gor 7 geoufe ornaments. Thus we fee the verie painims and heathen \? leaf 20. B.f] 

people haue from the beginning difpyfed this excefTe of apparell, both 

in them felues and 8 others, whofe examples heerin god graunt we may 

folowe. 

9 Spud. But you are not able to proue that any good Chriftians PD^] 
euer fet light 10 by precious attire, but alwayes efkerned it as a fpeciall 
ornament to the whole man. As for thele Heathen, they were f ooles, 
neyther is it materiall what they vfed, or vfed not. 

Philo. I am able to prooue that euen from the beginning of the 
world, the chofen and peculiar people of God haue contemned proude n p ro batio that 
Apparel, as things (not onely) not neceffarie, but alfo as very euilles 

i kneelyng, B f E, F. 2 not in B, E, F, 

* leaf 19, back. The Heathen dispise Pride. B. 6 it is E, P. 

e s t h e like p. f leaf 20. The base attire of the former age. B. 

e and in F. 10 lightlie F. n gorgious F. 



48 Chrift his example for Ap[parelIJ. The Anatomie 



contemned 
pompouse 
attyre. 



Ellas. 

Elizeus. 

Samuell. 

("4 leaf 21, back. 
B.*] 



[5 D 5, back] 



The children 
of Israeli. 



lohn Baptist 



Peter. 



[The early 
Church.] 



The humility 

and pouertie of 

Christe vppon 

earth. 

[9 leaf 21. B.f] 



themfelues, and haue gone both meanely and poorely in their vfuall 
attyre. What fay you to our Grandfather Adam, and Eua our 
Mother ? Were they not clothed in peltes, and fkins of beafis ? Was 
not this a meane kinde of Apparell, thinke you ? Was it not vnfitting l 
to fee a woman inuefted 2 all ouer in leather? But yet the Lord 
thought it precious and feemelie ynough for them. What faye you 
to the noble Prophet of the world, Ellas ? did hee not walke in the 
folitude 3 of this worlde in a limple playne mantell, or gowne, girded 
to him with a girdle of leather ? Elizeus, the Prophet, did not he in 
a manner the verie fame ? And what fay you to SanfftLell, the golden 
mouthed Prophet, notwithftanding thai 4 hee was an Archprophet, 
and a chiefe feer of that time ? did hee not walke fo meanely, as 
Saul, feking his fathers Afles, could not know him from the refte, 
but alked him, where was 5 the feers houfe? This muft needs argue 
that he went not richer then the common forte of people in his 
time ? The Children of Ifraell, beeing the chofen people of God, 
did they not weare their Fathers attire fortie yeeres togither in the 
wildernes ? was not lohn the Baptift clothed with a garment of 
Camels heare, girded with a thong of the fkin of the fame, in fled of 
a girdle or fuccinctorie about his loines ? Peter, the deere Apoftle of 
our Sauiour, was not diftincl: from the reft of his Felowes, 6 Apoftles, 
by any kinde of rich apparel, for then the maid would not haue faid, 
f l know thee by thy tung/ but rather, f by thy apparel.' The Apoftle 
Paul) writing to the Helrues, faith that the perfecuted Church, bothe 
in his time and before his dayes, were clothed, fome in Sheep fkinnes, 
and fome in Gote fkinnes, fome in Camels heare, fome in this, and 
fome in that, and fome in whatfoeuer they coulde get ; for if it would 
hide their shameful parts, and kept 7 them from the colde, they 
thought it fufficient, they required no more, but, to fpeak in one 
woord for all : did not our Sauiour lefus Chrijl weare the very fame 
fashion of apparell that his Cuntrey-men vfed, that is., a cote without 
a feame, either knit or weaued 8 ? which fashions the 9 Palejlynians vfe 
there yet to this day, without any alteration, or chauwge, as it is 

1 straunge F 2 couered F. or wildernesse added in F. 

* leaf 21, back. Christ his example for Appa[rell]. B. 6 fellow F. 

7 keepe F. 8 wouen F. 

f leaf 21. Create superfluitie of Apfparell]. B. 



of Abufes. Great fuperfluitie of Apfjparellj. 49 

thought. This his attyre was not 1 very hanfome (one would think) : t l D 6] 

at the 2 leait it was not curious, or new fangled, as ours is $ 3 but, as the 

Poet wel laid, 3 nitimur in vetitum,fempercupimiij<[\z& negata,we defire 

things forbid, and couet thinges denied vs. We lothe the 4 iimplicitte 

of Chrifte, and abhorring the chriilian pouertie,, and godly mediocritie 

of our Forefathers in apparel, are 5 neuer content except wee haue [Modem 

fundry futes of apparel, one diuers from an other, fo as our PrelTes extravagancc 

crack withall, our Gofers brafl, and our backs fweat with the cariage 

therof: we muft haue one fute for the forenoone, another for the c* side-note here 

in B, E, F.j 

afternoone, one for the day, another for the night ; one for the 
workeday, another for the holieday, one for fommer, another for 
winter $ one of the newe fafhion, an other of the olde, one of this 
colour, another of that, one cutte, an other whole, one laced, another 
without, one of golde, and other of iiluer, one of Hikes and veluets, * Superflmtie of 
and 6 another of clothe, with more difference and varietie than I can dySersine of * 
expreile. god be merciful vnto vs, and haften his kingdowe, 7 that all 
imperfections may be doon away 



T f 



A perticuler Difcription of appareli In Ailgna 
by degrees. 

g [Spud.] YOu haue borne me in hand of many and greeuous p leaf 21, back. 

B fl 

abufes reigning in Ailgna^ but now fetting aparte thefe 10 ambagies 

and Superfluous vagaries, I pray you defcribe vnto me more 12 par- [" D 6, back] 

ticularly the fundrie abufes in 13 Appareli there vfedj running ouer by 

degrees the whole ftate thereof, that I maye fee, as it were, the perfect 

Anatomie of that Nation in Appareli, whiche thinge I greatlye defire 

to knowe. 

Philo. Yourrequefl feemeth both 14 intricate and harde, 14: confider- 

2 the not in F. 

3 s jr or O f us that Poeticall Apothegme male very well be verified B, E, F. 
4 this F. 5 wee are F. 6 and not in B, E, F. 

?__7 f or H S electes sake B, E, F. s England F. 

f leaf 21, back. Hattes of sundry fashions. B. 

10 these impertenent B, E, F (ambagies not in F. 

12 more not in B, E. 13 of B, E, F. 

u u harde and intricate B," E, F. 

SHAKSPEEE'S ENGLAND : STUBBES. 4 



50 Varietie of Hattes. The Anatomie 

ing l there bee Tot iantce m&ryad&s ijiuentio?iu?n, So manie and fo 
fonde falhions, and inuentions of Apparell euerie day. 1 But yet, left 
I might be Judged vnwilling to iliewe you what pleafure I can, I will 
afTay (pro mrill mea y 2 omnibus neruulis vndiqne extenjis) 2 , with all the 
might and force I can, to fatisfie your defire. Wherefore, to begin 
firft with their Hattes. 

8 Sometimes they were 4 them fharp on the crowne, pearking vp 

like a 5 fphere, 6 or fhafte of a fteeple, ftanding a quarter of a yard 

The diuersity aboue the crowne of their heades : fome more, fome lefTe. as pleafc 

of hattes in ' 1 

the phantaiies of their 7 mindes. Otherfome be flat and broad on the 
crowne, like the battlements 8 of a houfe. An other fort haue round 
crownes, fometimes with one kinde of bande, fometime with an 
other 5 nowe blacke, now white, now rurTet, now red, now greene, 
now yellowe, now this, nowe that, neuer content with one colour or 
faihion two dayes 9 to an ende. And thus in vanitie they fpende the 



[ I0 D 7] 10 Lc-rcle his treafure, ll coufuming their srolden yeares and filuer dayes 

[" leaf 22. B.f] . . & J J 

in wickednes & fin. And as the fafhions bee rare and firaunge, fo 
The sundrye 12 are the tliin^es 12 wherof their Hattes be made, diuerfe alfo ; for fome 

things wherof 

hattes be are o f filke, fome of veluet, fome of taffetie, fome of farcenet, fome of 

made. 

wooll : which is more curious, fome of a certaine kind of fine 
haire, 13 far fetched and deare bought, you maye bee fare 13 ; And fo 
common a thinge it is, that euerie Seruingman, Countreyman, and 
other, euen all indifferently, do weare of thefe hattes. For he is of 
no account or eftimation amongft men, 14 if hee haue not a veluet or 
a 15 taftatie Hatte, and that mufte bee plucked and cunningly earned 
of the befte faihion 5 And good profitable Hattes bee they, 16 for the 
longer you weare them the fewer holes they haue. 17 Befides this, of 

i i the innumerable meriades of sondrie fashions daiely inuented amongest 
them B } E, F. 

2__ 2 not i n p. s A description of the Hattes of England added in F. 

* vse B, E, F. 5 the B, E, F. speare F. 

7 their inconstant B, E ; their wauering F. 8 battlement F. 

9 moneths F. t leaf 22. Varietie of Hattes. B. 

i2_i2 i s the stuffe B, E, F. 

i3__i3 These thei call Beuer hattes of xx, xxx, or xl shillinges price fetched 
from beyond the seas, from whence a greate sorte of other varieties* doe come 
besides B, E, F. (* vanities F.) 

u them F. 15 a not in F. these B, E 7 F. 

17 F adds : They haue also Taffeta hattes of all collours quilted, and im- 



of Abufes. Feathers, Flagges of vanytie. 5 1 

late there Is a new fafhion of wearing their Hattes iprung vp amongil 
them, which they father vpon the Frenchmen, namely to weare them 
without bandes; but how vnfeemelie (I will not fay how AiTy) a We ringof 
fafhion that Is, let the wife radge. Notwithstanding, howe euer it * 1 U 



bee, if it pleafe them, it shall not difpleafe me. An other 1 fort (as 

phantallicall as the reft) are content with no kind of Hatt without a 

great bunche 2 of feathers of diuerfe and fundrie colours, peaking on 

toppe of their heades, not vnlyke (I dare not fay) Cockfcombes, but 

3 as fternes of pride and en^gns of 5 vanitie 5 and 3 thefe fluttering fayles r_ 4 D 7 , back] 

and fethered flags of defiance to vertue (for fo they are 6 ) are fo g Jj 8 *" 2S > back 

aduaunced in ^Ugm, that euery Childe hath them in his hat or cap : 

many get good liuing by dying and felling of them, and not a fewe 

prooue them felues more then fooles 7 in wearing of them. 

Spud. Thefe Fethers argue the lightnes of their fond imagina 
tions, and plainly co?zuince them of inftabilitie and folly ; for fure I 
am, hanfome they cannot be, therefore Badges 8 of pride they muff: 
needs be, which I think none wil weare,, but fuch as be like them 
felues. But to your intended difcourfe. 

g PMlo. They haue great and monfterous ruffes, made either of 
Cambrick, Holland, lawn, or els of fome other the fmerl cloth that can Great ruffes 

deformed & 

be got for money, whereof fome be a quarter 01 a yard deep, yea, 
fome more, very few leiTe 5 So that they fraud a full quarter of a 
yarde (and more) from their necks, hanging ouer their shoulder 
poynts, infted of a vaile. 10 n But if Aeolus with his blafts, or Neptune 
with his fformes chaunce to hit vppon the crafie bark of their brufed 
ruffes, then they goe flip flap in the winde, like rags flying 12 abroad, 
13 and lye 13 vpon their shoulders like the difhcloute of a ilut 11 But wot 

broydered with golde, sillier, and silke of sundrie sortes, with monsters, antiques, 
beastes, foules, and all maner of pictures and images vpon them, wonderful! to 
behold. 

i And another B, E, F. 2 plume F. 

s_s fooles babies if you list : And yet notwithstanding F. 
t leaf 22, back. Feathers, Flagges of vanitie. B. 6 be E, F. 

7 Asses F. 8 Ensignes. F. 

9 heading : Of great Ruffes in England. F. lo Pentise F. 

11 _ 11 jr h a s ; But if it happen that a shoure of raine catch them before they 
can get harbour, then their great ruffes strike sayle, and downe they fall, as dish- 
cloutes fluttering in the winde, like Windmill sayles. 

is that flew B, E. 13 13 Kyng B, E, 



C'DS] 

Two arches or 
pillers to vn- 
der proppe the 
kingdom of 
great ruffes 
withall, vide* 
licet support- 
asses and 
starche. 
[5 leaf 23- B.] 



[ J S D 8, back] 

Euery pesant 
hath his stately 
bands & 
monsterouse 
ruffes, how- 
costly soeuer 
they be. 

p? leaf 23, back. 



52 Great Ruffes and Supportasies. The Anatomic 

you what \ the deuil, as he in the fulnes of his malice, firft inuented 
thefe x great ruffes, fo hath hee now found out alfo two great ftayes 2 
to beare vp and 3 maintaine that 3 his kingdome of 4 great ruffes 4 (for the 
deuil is 5 king and prince oucr all the children of pride): the one arch 
or piller wherby his kingdome of great ruffes is vnderpropped, is a 
certaine kinde of liquide matter which they call Starch, wherin the 
deuill hath willed 7 them to wash and diue his 8 ruffes wel, which,, 
9 when they be 9 dry, wil then ftand ftiffe and inflexible about their 
necks. 10 The other piller is a certain deuice made of wyers, crefled for 
the purpofe, whipped ouer either with gold, thred, filuer or lilk, & 
this hee calleth a fupportaffe, or vnderpropper. This is to be applyed 
round about their necks vnder the ruffe, vpon the out fide of the band, 
to beare vp the whole frame & body of the ruffe from falling and 
hanging down. 

Spud. This is a deuice paffing all the deuices that euer I fawe or 
heard of. Then I perceiue the deuill not onely inuenteth mifcheif, 
but alfo ordaineth inftrumentall n meanes to continue the fame. Thefe 
bands are fo chargeable (as I fuppofe) that 12 but fewe haue of them : 
18 if they haue, they are better monyed then I am. 13 

Philo. So few haue 14 them, as almoft none is without them 5 for 
euery one, how meane or 15 limple foeuer they bee otherwife, will 
haue of them three or foure apeece for fayling. And as though 
Camericke, 16 Holland, Lawne, and the fineft cloth that maye bee got 
anie where for money, were not good inough, they haue them 
wrought all ouer with lilke woorke, and peraduenture laced with 
17 golde and liluer, or other coftly lace of no fmall price. And whether 
they haue Argente 18 to mayntaine this geare withall, or not, it 19 forceth 
not muche, 19 for they will haue it by one meane or other, or els they 

2 pillers B, E, F. 3 3 vphold this F. * 4 Pride withall F. 

* leaf 23. Great Ruffes and Supportasses. B. 6 wherewith F. 

7 learned F. 8 their B, E, F. 9 9 beyng B, E, F. 

10 F adds : And this startch they make of diners substances, sometimes of 
Wheate flower, of branne, and other graines : sometimes of rootes, and somtinies 
of other thinges : of all colours and hewes, as White, Redde, Blewe, Purple, and 
the like. 

11 instmmentes and F. 12 that comes before as F 

is 13 such as are o f the richer sort F. u haue of F. 16 Cambricke F. 
f leaf 23, back. Costly shirtes and bandes in Ailg. B. 18 Unde F. 

19 19 is not greatly material B, E, F. 



of Abufes. Nice Ap[parell] make tender bodies, 53 

willeyther 1 fell or 2 morgage their Landes s (as they haue good ftore) s 

on Suters hill & Stangate hole/ withloiTe of their lyues at Tiburne in [New kind of 

J Ruffes, called 

a rope. 3 Three stepps and 

a halfe to the 

Spud. The ftate and condition of that Land mnft needes be mlf- Gaiiowes. F.I 
erable, and in tyme growe to greate fcarcitie and dearth, where is 
fuch vayne Prodigalitie, and 6 excefle of 7 all thynges 7 vfed. 

8 PAZo. Their SMrtes, which all in a manner doe weare (for if the The shirts 

TVT i i- /~i i i y -.A vsed in Ailgna 

Nobihtie or Gentne onely did weare them, it were fomedeal 9 more 
tolierable) are eyther of Camericke, Holland, Lawne, or els of the 
fineft cloth that maye bee got. And of thefe kindes of Shirts euerie 
one now doth weare alike : fo as it may be thoght our Forefathers 
haue made their Bandes & Ruffes (if they had any at all) of grolier 
cloth and bafer ftuffe than the worft of our Ihirtes 10 are made of now [ to E t] 
a dayes. And thefe fhurts (fomtimes it happeneth) are wrought 
through out with nedle work of filke, and luche like, and curiouflie 
ffitched with open feame, and many other knackes beiydes, mo than 
I can defcribe. 11 [In fo much as I haue heard of SJiirtes that haue [The cost of these 
coft fome ten fhillynges, fome twentie, fome fortie, fome fiue pound, 
fome twentie Nobles and (which is horrible to 12 heare) fome ten t 13 leaf 24. B.f] 
pounde a peece, yea, the meaneft fhirt that commonly is worne of 
any, doeft coil a crowne, or a noble at the leaft : and yet this is 
fcarlly thought fine enough for the limpleft perfon that is. B, E, F.] 
Spud. Thefe be goodly {hurts indeed, & fuch yet 13 as will not 14 chafe 
their tender fkinnes, 15 nor 16 vlcerat their 17 lyllie white 15 bodyes^ or 
if they 18 do, it wil not be much to their greeuances, I dare be bound. 
Is it anie maruell, j Criftas erlgant & corrnw attollant, if they ftand 
vppon their pantoffles, and hoyfe vp their layles on highe, hauinge 

I eyther not in B, E, F. 2 or at the least F. 3 s not in F. 

4 F adds, and Salisburie plaine. 

5 F adds : & in sure token therof, they haue now newly found out a more 
monstrous kind of ruffe of xii. yea, xvi. lengthes a peece, set 3 or 4 times double, 
& is of some, fitlie called : Three steppes and a halfe to the Gallowes. 

6 vaine comes after and in B, E, F. 7 t thinges is F. 

8 heading in F : Of costly Shirtes in England. & wot in F. 

II recount F. t leaf 24. Nice Appa[rell] make tender bodies. B |( F, 

13 yet not in B, E, F. u neither B, E, F. 

15_15 nor yet fret their delicate F. 16 nor not in B, E. 

17 tender fleshe, nor yet make perforation intdi their added in B, E. 

" it F. 



54 Men strong in tymes past. The Anatomie 

thefe dyamond ihurts on their I delicate bodies 1 : but how foeuer it is, 
I gather by your words that this muft needs be a nice and curious 2 
People, who 3 are thus nulfeled vp 3 in fuch daintie attyre. 

Philo* It is very true, for this their curiofity, and nicenes in 
Nicenes of apparell (as it were) tranfnatureth them, 4 making 5 them weake 

apparell male- * 

eth the body tender and mfirme, not able to abide fuch 6 fharp conflicts and blufter- 

ing ftormes 6 as many other people, both abroade farre from them, and 

in their confines nie to them, do daylie 7 fultaine. I haue hard my 

Father, with other wyfe Sages affirme, that in his tyme, within the 

compaffe of foure or fyue fcore yeres, when men went clothed in 

black or white frize coates, in hofen of Hufwyues carzie of the fame 

C * E *' back] colore, 8 that the Iheep bore 9 them ( 10 ihe want of making and wering 

B.tD ' ' of which clothe, together with the exceffiue wering of filks, veluets, 

fatens, damafks, taffeties, and fuch like, hath and doth make many a 

thoufand in Ailgno, n as poore mendicants 11 to begge their bread) 

wherof fome weare ftrait to the thigh, otherfome litle bigger : and 

Our predeces- when they ware Ihurts of hempe or flax (but now thefe are to groffe, 

mea'LTappf^ our tewder ftomacks cannot eafilye difteft fuch rouffhe and crude 12 

rell were 

strongew than meats) men weare Wronger than we, 13 helthfuller, fayrer comple&ioned, 
longer lyuinge, 14 and finallye, ten tymes harder than we, 15 and able 16 
to 1T beare out 17 any forowe 18 or paynes whatfoeuer. For be fure, this 
pampering of our 19 bodies makes them weker, tenderer and nefher, 
than otherwyfe they would be, if they were vfed to hardneiTe, and 
more fubiecl: to receiue anye kind of infection or maladie^ And 20 
rather abbreuiat 21 oure dayes by manye yeres, than extenuate our 
iiues one minut of an houre. 

Spud. I thinke no leife , for how ftronge men were in tymes 
paft, how loTzg they lyued, and how helthfull they weare before fuche 
Nicenes, and vayne pamperinge curiofitie was inuented, we may 
reade, and many that lyue at this daye can teftifie. But now, 

1 1 backes F. 2 womanish kind of F. 

3 s thus p am p er their bodies B, E, F. * them, and B. 5 and maketh F. 
6 6 blustering storaies and sharpe showers F. 7 dayly beare and F. 
9 bare F, t leaf 14, back. Men strong in tymes past. B. 

ii_n not i n B, E, F. a hard F. 

13 than we not in B, E, F. " liued F. 15 we be now B, E, F. 

16 abler F. 17 n undure F. 18 any discrasie B, E. 19 their B, E, F. 
s 20 and doeth B, E, F. shorten F. 



we. 



of Abufes. Monfterous dubblets in Ailg[na]. 55 

through our fond tojes and nice Indentions, we iiaue brought our 
felues into fuche pufiPIanimitie and effeminat condition, as \ve may C 1 E 2] 
feeme rather 2 nice dames and yonge 3 g}Tlesthao puiiTante 4 agents or 
manlle 4 men, as our 5 Forefathers haue bene. [5 leaf 25. B.*3 

6 Philo. Their dubieties are noe lelle monftrous than the reile 5 For 
now the faihion Is to haue them hang downe to the mldJeit 7 of their The monstrous 
thelghes, or at leait to their priuie members., beeing fo harde-quilted, Aiigua! 
and 8 fluffed., bombafted and fewed, as they can 9 verie hardly eyther 
ftoupe downe, 10 or decline 11 them felues 12 to the grounde, foe ftyffe 
and fturdy they Hand about them. 

Now, what handfomnes can be in thefe dabblettes whiche Hand 
on their bellies like, or 13 niuche bigger than, a mans codpeece (fo 
as 14 their bellies are thicker than all their bodyes befyde) let wyfe men 
iudge ; For for 15 my parte, handfomnes in them I fee none, and muche 
leffe profyte. And 16 to be plaine, Ineuer fawe any weare them, but 1 
fuppofed him to be a man inclined to gourmandice, gluttonie, and 
fuche like. 16 

For what may thefe great bellies fignifie els than that either they are Great bellied 

. J dublets betok- 

fuche, or els 17 are affected that way ? 17 This is the trueft ii2Tiication en gounnawd- 

ice, gluttony, 

that I could euer 18 prefage or diuyne 18 of them. And this maye euerye and s " ch llke * 
one 19 iudge of them that feeth them ; for certaine I am there was neuer [ r & E 2, baclc] 
any kinde of apparell euer inuented that could more difproportion the 
body of man then thefe Dublets wM great bellies, hanging down be 
neath their Pudenda (as I 20 haue faid), 8c fluffed with foure, fiue or f leaf 25, back. 
fix pound of Eombait at the leaft. I fay nothing of what their Dub- 

2 rather seeme F. 3 wanton B, E ; wayrisli F. 

4 ^4 valorous and hardy F. * leaf 25. Monsterous Dublets in Ailgna. B. 

6 heading to chapter : English Doublets. F. 
7 middle B, E, F. 8 and not in B, E, F. 

9 neither woorke, nor yet well plaie in them, through the excessiue heate f 
thereof : & therefore are forced to weare them lose ahout them for the most part 
otherwise they could added in B, E, F. (f F adds and stifhesse) 

10 downe not in B, E, F. n bowe F. 1S themselues not in B, E. 

13 as big or F. u that F. 15 2nd for not in F. 

16 is besides that I see no good end wherto thei serue, except it be to shewe 
the disposition of ye wearer, how he is inclined, namely J, to gluttonie gourman 
dice, riotte, and excesse. B, E, F. (J as namely F; drunkennesse added in.) 
i7__i7 would be thought to be such F. 18 ~ 1S gather F. 

U leaf 25, back. Pride in Dublets, and Hose. B. 



56 . Pride in dubblets, and hofe. The Anatomic 
Dubiettes of lets be made., fome of Saten, TafFatie, filk, Grogram, 2 Cliamlet, gold, 

dyuerse 1 fash- in- 

ions. filuer, & what not j flamed, lagged, cut, carued, pincked and laced 

with all kinde of coiHy lace of diuers and fundry colours, for if I 
jQioulde 3 Hand vpon 4 thefe particularities/ rather time then matter 
would be wanting. 

Spud. Thefe be the ftrangeft doublets that euer I heard of ; and 
the furdeft from hanfomnes in euery refpecl:, vnlelTe I be deceiued. 
5 Philo. Then haue they Hofen, which as they be of diuers faftiions. 

Hosen of j t j 3 



sundr Se fvh ^ are ^7 ^ ^ Un ^ r 7 names. Some be called french-hofe, fome 
ions - gally-hofe, 6 and fome Venitians. The french-hofe are of two diuers 

[French hosen 

of two surtes. E, makings, for the co/Tzmon french-hofe (as they lift to call them) con- 
tayneth length, breadth, and iidenes fufficient, and is made very round. 
The other contayneth neither length, breadth nor fidenes (beeing not 
paft a quarter of a yarde fide) wherof fome be paned, cut and drawne 
out with coftly ornaments, with Canions annexed 7 reaching down 
beneath their knees. 

F G f lyh sen " E ' 8Tile Gall y- no ** en are made very large and wide, reaching downe 

[ 8 E 3} to their knees onely, with three or foure guardes a peece laid down 

along either hofe. And the Venetian-hofen, they reach beneath the 
knee to the gartering place to 9 the Leg, 10 where they are tyed finely 

[ JI leaf 26. B.t] with n filk points, or fome fuch like, and laied on alfo with rewes of 
lace, 12 or gardes as the other before. And yet notwithftanding all this 

I* Side-note here ; s no t fufEcient, excepttheybe made of filk, veluet, faten, daraafk, and 
other fuch precious things 13 befide : yea, euery one, Seruing man and 
other inferiour to them, in euery condition, wil not iiicke to fiaunte it 
out in thefe kinde of hofen, with all other their apparel futable 
therunto. 

ceI S e e vS a in ex " In times $*&> Kin g s ( as olde Hiftoriographera in their Bookes yet 

hosen. extant doo recorde) would not difdaine to weare a paire of hofen of a 

Noble, tenne Shillinges, or a Marke price, with all the reft of their 

apparel after the fame rate 5 but now it is a fmall matter to beftowe 

twentie nobles, ten pound, twentie pound, fortie pound, yea, a 

1 diuers B, E, F. 2 grograine B, E, F. 8 could F. 

4 4 particularlie F. 5 heading in F : Costly Hosen in Englancle, 

6 Gallic in B, E , Gallic hosen F. ? adioyned F. of F. 

10 beneathe the knee added in B. f leaf 26. Great excesse in hose. B, 

12 of lace not in F, w s t u ff e F. 



of Abufes. Coftly netherftocks In Ailg[na]. 5 7 

hundred pound of one paire of Breeches. (God le merclfull vnto vs /) 1 
Spud. This Is a wunderful excelte as euer I hearde of, woorthy 

with the Swoorde 2 of Iiijtlce rather to be punithed, then with paper and 

pen to be 3 ib gentile 3 confuteed. 4 

5 P kilo. Then haue they nether-flocks to thefe gay hofen, not csE 3 ,back3 

of cloth (though neuer fo fine) for that is thought to bale, but of Thediuersity 

^ ofneither- 

larnfey worfted/ filk, thred, and fhch like, or els at the ieait of the stocks womc 

fineil yarn that can be, 7 and fo cnriouilye knit with open learn down 

the leg, with quirks and clocks about the ancles, 8 and fometime [8 leaf 26, back. 

(haply) interlaced with gold or liluer threds, as is wunderful to 

behold. And to fuch 9 infolency & 10 outrage it is now growen, that 

euery one (aim oft) though otherwile verie poor, hauing fcarce fortie 

(hillings of wages by the yeer, wil u be fure 11 to haue two or three 

paire of thefe filk nelther-Hocks, or els of the fineft yarne that may be 

got, though the price of them be a Ryall 12 or twentie flullinges or 

more, as commonly it is 5 for how can they be lefTe, when as the very 

knitting of them is worth a noble or a royall, and fome much more > 

The time hath beene when one might haue clothed all his body well 13 

for lelTe then a pair of thefe neither-ltocks wil coil. 

Stud. I haue feldome hearde the like : I think verely that Sathan, The mjserk of 

" these daies. 

prince of darknes & Father of pride, is let loofe in Me 1 * land, els it 
could neuer fo rage 15 as it doothj for the like pride (I am fully per- 
fwaded) is not vfed vnder the fonne of any nation or people how bar- 
berous fo euer : wherfore wo be to this age, and thrife accurfed be 
thefe dayes, which bring 16 foorth 17 luch fowre 18 frutes 5 & vnhappie [ r ? E 4 J 
are that people whom Balkan hath fo bewitched & 10 captiued in fin. 
The Lord holde Ms hand of mercy ouer vs/ 19 

Phllo. To thefe their nether-flocks, they haue corked fhooes, 
pinfnets, and fine pantofies, which beare them vp 20 a finger or two 20 

1 and yet is this thought no abuse neither added in B, E, F. 
3 Rodde F. 3 3 not in F. 4 confuted F. 6 crewell added in B, E, F. 
* heading to chapter .-Costly Nether Stockins in England. F. 7 be got F, 
f leaf 26, back. Costly netherstockes in Ailgna. B. 9 such impudent B, E, F. 
10 and shamefull B, E, F. n n not sticke B, E, F. 12 royal F. 
^ from top to toe added in F. u that F. 15 so far exceed F. 

15 bringeth F, 18 vnsauorie B, E, F. 

19 19 captiuate In Pride, (heading} Corked shooes in England. F. 
so 20 two inches or more F. 






5 8 Great excefTe in Ihooes. The Anatomie 

Corked shoes rQm ^ ground; wherof fome be of white leather, fome 1 of black, 

P.mtofHes and & ' 

pinsnets. anc j_ f ome o f re d fome of black \ r eluet, fome of white, fome of red, 

[ x leaf 27, B.* 1 '] 

fome of green, raced, earned, cut, and stitched all ouer with lilk, and 
laid on with golde, iiluer, and fuch like : yet, notwithstanding, 2 to 
what good vies ferue thefe pantofles, 3 except it be to wear in a priuate 
houfe, or in a mans Chamber to keepe him warme ? (for this is the 
onely vfe wherto they belt ferue in my Judgement) but to go abroad 
PantofHeh & in them, as they are now vfed al together, is rather a let or hindera?zce 

slippers are a let 

to tho^e that to a man then otherwife $ for mall he not be faine to knock and ipurn 

go abrode in 

^m. at euery 4 flone, wall, 4 or pofte to keep them on his feet ? 5 wherfore, to 

difclofe euen the bowels of my Judgement vnto you, 5 I think they be 
rather worne abrode for nicenes, the;z either for any eafe which they 
s yn- bring (for the contrary is mofle true), or any hanfomnes which is in 
them. For how fhould they be eaiie, when 6 as the heele hangeth an 
inch or two ouer the flipper on 13 " the ground? Infomuch as I haue 

[s E 4 , back] knoweii diuers mens legs fwel with the fame. 8 And handfome how 
fhould they be, when 9 as with their flipping & flapping 9 vp and down 
in the dirte 10 they exaggerate a mountain of mire, & gather a heape 
of clay & baggage together, loding the wearer with importable 
burthen. 10 

C 11 leaf 27, back. Spud. Thofe kinde of pantoffles can neither n be fo handfome, nor 

15. "f3 

yet fo warme as other vfuall 12 common fhoes be, I think. Therfore 
the weringe of them abrode rather importeth a Nicenes (as you fay) 
in them that weare them, than bringeth any other commodytie, els 
vnlefTe I be deceiued. 

13 Philo. Their coates and lerkins, as they be diuerfe in colors, fo 
Thevarytie be they diuerfe in fafhions: for fome be made with colors, fome 

of coates and 

ierkins. without, fome clofe to the bodie, fome loofe, 14 couering the whole 

* leaf 27. Greate excesse in shooes. B. 2 I see not added m F. 

3 doe serue added in F. 4 4 wall, stone F. 

5 5 And therefore to tell you what I iudge of them F. 

6 a man can not goe steadfastly in them, without slipping and sliding at 
euery pace ready to fall doune : Againe how should thei be easie where added 
in B, E, F. 

7 from B, E, F. 9_9 they go flip flap F. 

10 10 casting vp mire to the knees of the wearer F. 
f leaf 27, back. Coates and lerkins. B. 12 not in F, 

13 heading in F : Coates and lerkins in England. 
gy ca ]_ Mandilians E, F. 



of Abufes. Cold Cfaarytie in Ailg[na]. 59 

body downe to the theighe, like baggs or facks that weare drawen 

oner them, hidinge the dimenfions and proportions 1 of the body: [The shapes* of 

coats and jer- 

fome are buttened downe the breii, fome vnder the arme, & fome 



downe the back 5 fome with flappes ouer the breft, fome without, 

fome with great fleeues, fome with fmall, and 2 lbme with non at all 2 - y 

fome pleated and crefted behind, & curiouflye gathered - y fome not 

fo 3 j & how many dayes 4 (I might fay houres, or minuts of houres, 4 

in the yeare) fo many fortes of apparell fome 5 one man will haue, and 

thinketh It good prouifion in faire weather to lay vp againft a {tonne ! 6 

But if "they would confider that their clothes (except thole that they ^ E 5] 

weare vppon their backs) be non of theirs, but the poores, they would 

not heap vp their prefTes and wardrobes as they do. Do they think 

that it is lawfiill for them to haue millions 8 of fuadry fortes s of apparell 

lying rottinsr by them, when as the poore members of lefus 9 ChrIfle Thepoore 

. ought to be 

die at their doores for wante of clothing ? God commaundeth in his prouided for 

T T i , ./- , i t_ /i [ 9 leaf 28. B.1] 

law, that there be no miferable poore man, nor begger amongelt vs, 

but that euery one be prouided for and maintained of that abund- Our smai re- 

J r gard to the 

arace 10 which God hath blelTed vs withal. But we thinke It a great poore. 
matter if we geue them an old ragged coate, dublet, or a paire of 
hofen, or els a penny or two,, wheras not withftanding we flow in 
abundance of all things. Than we thinke we are halfe way to 
heauen^ and we need to do no more. If we geue them a peace of 
brown bread, a mefTe of porredge (nay, the Hocks & prifon, with 
whippinge cheare now and than, is the beft portion of almes which 
many Gentlemen geue) at our dores, it is counted meritorious, and a 
worke of fupererogation, when we fare full delicatelye oure felues, 
feeding on many a dainty 11 difh. There is a certen Citye in Ailgna, 
called Munldnol^ where as the poore lye in the 13 ftreats vppon pallets 
of ftraw, and well if they haue that to, or els in the mire and dirt, as 
commonlie it is feene, Charting neither houfe to put in their heads, cold ciianti 
couering to keep them from the cold, nor yet to hide their fhame ? 
withall, penny to buy them fuftenance, nor any thing els, but are 
permitted 15 to dye in the ftreats like dogges, or beafb, without anie 

1 lineaments B, E, F. 2 3 not in F. 3 so not in B, E, F, 4 4 not in F. 

5 some some (sic) F. 6 6 foule F. 8 ~ 8 of sutes F. 

f leaf 28. Cold Charitie in Ailgna. B. 10 store F. u danity A. 
12 Londou F. 13 the not in F. 15 suffered B, E, F. 



60 Turkifli impietie, in Ailg[na]. The Anatomie 

mercie or companion ihewed to them at all. And if anye be 

iicke of the plague (as they call it) or any other 1 difeafe, their 

[3 leaf 28, back. Ma liters and Maiftres 2 are fo impudent s (being, 4 it (liould feeme, at 5 a 

B,* 1 J 

league with Sathan, a couenante with Hell, and 6 as it were obliged 

them-felues by 6 obligation to 7 the deuil neuer to haue to do with the 

works of mercy) as ftraight way thei throw them out of their dores. 

The Turkish And fo being caned foorth, either in carts or otherwyfe. 8 and thrown 8 

impietie of J 

some Awards j n the ftreats, 9 there 9 they end their dayes moft miferably. Truely, 

diseased. Brother, if I had not feen it, I would fcarily haue thought that the 

like Turkilli cruelty had bene vfed in all 10 the World. But they fay 
vnus tejlls occulatus plus valet quam milk auriti, one eye witnelTe is 
better to be belyued than a thoufand eare witneiTes befydes. But to 
leaue thefe excuriions, and to returne from whence I haue digrefled, 
I think it the beft j for I am perfwaded, they will n as much refpect n 
my words (or amend their maners) as the wicked 12 World did at 13 
the preaching 14 of our Sauiour Chrifte lefus ; that is, raft nothing at all. 

V s E $3 15 Spud. Well then, feeing they are fuche a ftifneckned People, leaue 

them to the Lord $ and proceed to your former tractation. 16 

17 Philo. They haue clokes there alfo in nothing difcrepante 18 from 

The sundry the reft, of dyuerfe and fun dry colors, white, red, tawnie, black, 

fashions of - . ^, , . . . 

ciok*. greene, yellowe, ruflet, purple, violet, and mfynite other colors : fome 

of cloth, iilk, veluet, taffetie, 19 and fuch like, wherof fome be of the 
Spaniili, French, & Dutch failiion 20 : Some fhort, fcarfely reach- 
inge to the gyrdleftead, or waft, fome to the knee, and otherfome 
traylinge vppon the ground (almoft) liker gownes than clokes. 
21 Thefe clokes muft be garded, laced, & thorowly faced $ and fom- 
timcs 21 fo lyued as the inner iide ftawdeth almoft in as much as the 

1 other mortal! B, E, F. s Mistresses F. 

* leaf 28, back. Turkishe impietie in Ailgna. B. 
4 hauing made B, E, F (as added in F.) at not in B, E, F. 

6_s an B, E ; sealed an an F, 7 w ^ ^ ^ -p' 

8 8 are laied doune either B, E, F ; but E F have or laide 
e 9 or els conueied to some olde house in the fieldes, or gardens, where for 
want of due sustentation B, E, F. (and good tending added in F.) 
10 any place of F. " " regard as much F. former B. ^ at not in F. 
u of Noah, or the latter worlde at the preachyng added in B, E, F. 

16 discourse F. { " heading in F : Cloakes in Englande, 

is different F. f leaf 29. Costly Clokes in Ailgna. B. 20 fashions F. 
"" Then are thei garded with Veluette gardes, or els laced with costly lace, 



of Abufes. Great exceffe^ in bootehofe. 6 1 

outfide : fome haue ffeeiies, otlierfome baue none ; fome haue hoodes 
to pull ouer the head, fome haue none $ fome are hanged with points 
& talTels of gold, ftluer, or filk, fome without al this. But how 
foeuer 1 It be, the day hath bene when one might haue bought him 
two clokes for Idle thaw now he can haue one of thefe clokes made 
for, 2 they haue fnch liore of workmanship bellowed vppon them. 

Spud. I am fiire they neuer learned this 3 at the hands of our Pro- 
conful, and chief Prouoft, 3 Chrift lefus, nor of any other that euer lyued The counting 
godly In the Lord ; but rather out of the deceiptfull forge of their own eulu i&mans 
braines haue they 4 drawen 5 this 6 curfed Anatomy 6 to their owne [4^^ back] 
detraction 7 in the end, except the 8 repente. 

Philo. They haue alfo bootehofe which are to be wondered at 5 
for they be of the fyneft cloth that may be got, yea, fine Inough to 
make any band, ruffe, or Ihurt 11 needful to be worn : yet this is bad 
inough to were next their grefie boots. And would 12 God this weare 
all 13 : but (oh, 14 phy for fliame !) they muft be wrought all ouer, from 
the gartering place vpward, with nedle worke, clogged with filk of all 
colors, with birds, foules, beafts, and antiques purtrayed all ouer in 
comlie 15 forte. 16 So that I haue knowen the very nedle work of fome 
one payre of thefe bootehofe to ftand, fome in iiij pound, vi. pound, 
and fome in x. pound a peece. Befides this, they are made lb wyde 
to draw ouer all, and fo longe to reach vp to the wafte, that as litle, or 
leffe, clothe would make one a reafonable large ihurte. But tufb ! 
this is nothing in comparifon of the refte. 

Spud. 1 would thinke that boote-hofen of grolTer lynnen, or els The varitie of 

. fashions con- 

of 17 wollen clothe, weare both warmer to ride m, as comly as the uince vs of 

follie. 

other, though not fo fine, and a great deal more durable. And as for 

either of golde, sillier-, or at the least of silke three or fower fingers broade doune 

the back, about the skirtes, and euery where els. And now of late thei vse to garde 

their clokes rounde about the skirtes with (babies) I should saie Bugles, and Bugled clokes 

other kinde of glasse, and all to shine to the eye. Besides al this, thei are so 

faced, and withal B, E, F. 

1 howeuer E, F. 2 for not in F. 3 3 of our sauiour F. 

5 sucked E, F. 6 6 filthy poyson F. 7 confusion B, E, F. 8 they F. 
f leaf 29, back. Great excesse, in Boote hose. B. Heading in F : Boothose 
in England. 10 10 not in E. n shirt of F. 

12 would to E, F. 13 all too F. u oh not in F. 15 sumptuous B, E, F. 
16 yea and of late, imbroydered with Golde and Siluer very costly added in F. 
17 ofnofm'E. 



Swords and 
daggers guilt 
& damasked. 

[ 2 leaf 30. B.f] 



[Scabbards and 
sheaths of 
velvet] 



[Why gilt 
swordes, and 
daggers be 
worne. E, F J 



Luce. 16. 



62 Swoords, Rapiers and Daggers. The Anatomic 

thofe geugawes wherwith you fay they be blaunched and trimmed,, 
they ferae to no end but to feade th& wanton eyes of gazing fools, 
& planly argue tke vertiginie, and inftability of their more than 
fantastical brains. 

l Phll. To thefe haue they their Rapiers, Swoords and Daggers, 
gilt twife or thrife 2 ouer the hilts, with 3 [good Angell golde, or els 
argented ouer with filuer both within and without, and if it be true 
as I heare fay it is, there be fome hiltes made all of pure iiluer itfelf, 
and couered with golde. Otherfome at the leafl are Damafked, 
Verniihed, and ingrauen marueilous goodly : and leafl any thyng 
fhould be wantyng to fet forthe their pride, their] 3 fcaberds and 
iheathes of 4 Veluet or the like ; for leather, though it be more profit 
able and as feemely, yet wil it not carie fiich a 5 porte or countenance 
like 6 the 5 other. And wil not thefe golden fwoords & daggers 
almofte apale a man 7 (though otherwife neuer fo flout a Martialifi) to 
haue any deling with them ? for either to that end they be worne, or 
els other fwoords, daggers and rapiers of bare yron and fteele were as 
hanfom as they, & much more conducible 8 to that end whereto 
fwoords and rapiers ihould ferae, namely, 9 for a mans lawful and 
godly defence againfl his aduerfarie in time of neceflitie. But wher- 
fore they be fo clogged with gold and liluer I know not, nor yet 
wherto this excefle ferueth I fee not ; but certain I am, a great ihewe 
of pride it is, an infallible token of vain glorie, and a greeuous offence 
to God, fo prodigallie and licentiouflie 10 to lauifli foorth his treafure, 
for which we mufl reader accou?2ts at the day of Judgement, when it 
{hall be faide to euerie one, Redde rationem Vilicatlonis tuce. Come, 
giue accounts of thy Stewardfhip. 

1 Heading in F : Rapiers, Daggers, Swords, gilte in Englande. 
f leaf 30. Swordes, Rapiers, and Daggers. B. 3 3 in B, E, F. 

4 are of B, E, F. 6 5 Maiesty or glorious slicwe as the F. 6 as B, E. 
7 tMnke you added in F. 8 auaileable F. 9 that is F. 10 wastfully F. 



of Abufes. Coloryng of faces in Ailg[nal. 63 

* A particulare Df/crzptlon of the Abufes of Womens 2 [^J^; 
apparell in Ailgna. 

THus haulnge geuen thee a 3 fuperficial! 4 viewe, 5 or final! tail 5 
(bat not difconered the hu?zdreth part) of the guyfes of Allgna in mews 
apparel, and of the abnfes contained In the fame, now wil I, with like 
6 celeritle of matter/ 3 impart vnto thee the guyfe and feaerall Abufes [The abuses in 
of the apparell of wemen there vfed alfo : wherfore, geue attentiue apparel] 
eare. 

Sp. My eares be preft to heare : begin when you wil, and truely 
herin you llial pleaiiir me much, for I haue greatly deiired to know 
thorowly the ftate of that La/zd, euen a crepundlis (as they fay) from 
my tender yeres, for the great prayfe I haue hard therof. Wherfore 
I pray you proceed to the fame, 8c though I be vnable wlt/i any bene 
fit to couTiteraall your great pains/ yet the Lord, I doubt not ? wil 
fupplle my want. 

Ph. The Lord our God is a mercifull God, & a bountiful Re- 
warder of euery one that trufleth in him 5 but yet (fuch is the rnagnifi- 
ccncy 8 & liberalise of that gentle fex) that I truft I fhall not be rrhe rewarde of 

,.. T TQ T TI i i /-ji i the female sex. 

vnrewarded at their hands, if y to be called a thoula/id ksaoes be a B, E j 

fufScie/zt guerdon for my pains. But though it wilbe 10 a corroliue 11 to 

their hautie 12 ftomacks, & a nippitatum to their 13 tender brefts 13 to 

heare their dirtie dregs ript vp andcaft in 14 their dia 15 mond faces, yet ps leaf 31. B.tl 

hope 16 ing that they, feeing the horrour of their impieties, and tragicall 16 E 8 3 

abufes laide open to the world (for now they fleep in the 1T graue of 

obliuion) \\nl at the laft, like good Conuertes and 18 Penitentiaries of 

Chrijte lefus, leaue of their wickednes, call for rnercie at the hands of 

God, repent and amend. I will proceed to my intended purpofe. 

2 Womans F. 3 a taste or B, E, F. 4 net in F. 

s 5 nof i n B, E, F. 6 6 expedition F. 7 curtesie F. 

s munificencie B, E, F. 9 if at the least B, E, F. 

20 male bee perhappes B, E, F. 1L corrasiue F. 

12 tender F. l3 13 haughty minds F. w into F. 

f leaf 31. Colouring of faces in AilgnaPB. E has a new head-line here, 
Abuse of the female sex, 17 dust of silence and added in E, F* 

18 become faithfull B, E ; become the faithfuU F. 



64 Colored faces., abhord of God. The Anatomic 

1 The Women of Ailgna 2 vfe to colour their faces with certain 
Coloring of oyles., liquors, vnguents and waters made to that end, whereby they 
^ments and think their beautie is greatly decored : but who feethe not that their 
foules are thereby deformed, and they brought deeper into the dif- 
pleafure and indignation of the Almighty, at whofe voice the earth 
dooth tremble, and at whofe prefence the heauens fhall liquifie and 
melt away. Doo they think thus to adulterate the Lord his woork- 
manihip, and to be without offence? Doo they not know that he is 
f d the e Lord a Zelotipus? a ielous God, and cannot abide any alteration of his 

i P ThS aw " woorkes, other wife then he hath commaunded 4 ? 
Creatures. Yf Q& Artificer or Craftsman fhoulde make any-thingbelo72ging to 

his art or fcience, & a cobler fliould prefume to correct the fame, 
would not th& other think him felf abufed, and iudge him 5 woorthy 
of reprehenfion ? 

And 6 thinkeft thou (oh Woman!) 6 to efcape the Judgement of 
l E s, backj God, who hath fafhioned thee 7 8 to his glory, when thy 9 great, and 
["leaf 31, back, more then prefumptuous, audacitie 10 dareth to alter, & n chaunge his 
woorkmanfhip in thee 12 ? 

13 Thinkeft thou that thou canft make thy felf 13 fairer then God, 
who 14 made vs all? Thefe mufl needes be their inuentions, 15 or els 
they would neuer go about to coulour their faces with fiich iibber- 
fawces. And thefe beeing their inuentions, 15 what can derogate more 
from the maieilie of God in his creation ? For in this dooing, they 
plainly conuince the Lord of vntrueth in his word, who faith he made 
man glorious, after his owne likenes, and the fayreft of all other ter- 
They that reftiall 16 Creatures. If he be thus faire, then what need they to make 

colour their . J 

faces, deny the them fayrer ? Therfore this their colouring of their faces importeth 

Lord of glory * 

God ee and lo ( as by P robable conie&ure may be prefuppofed) that they think them 
no God at all. felues not faire enough, 17 and then muft GOB needs be vntrue in his 
woord. 

1 Heading m F : Collouring of womens faces in England. 

2 (many of them) use B, E, F. 3 ^eus added in B, E, F. 

4 made them B, E, F. c the repioouer F. 

6 6 doe these women thinke B, E, F. 7 them B, E, F. 9 their B, E, F. 

* audacicitie A, * leaf 31, back. Coloured faces abhord of God. B. 

13 them B, E, F. 
i3_is D OC ^ey SU pp OS e that they can make themselues B, E, F. 

u that B, E, F. 

15 intentions B, E, F : (suppositions^ the 1st word Y.) 16 terrestriall F. 
17 els why doe thei goe about to make themselues fairer added in B, E, F. 



of Abufes. Harlottes vse painted faces. 65 

And allb they deny the Lord to be either merciful or almightie, 
or bothe, and fo coniequently no God at all $ for if face could not 
Iiauemade themfaire, then is hee not almightie 5 and If liee could and 
would not, then Is hee not a merciful God 5 and fo euery way they 
1 fall Into the iinck 1 of offence,, 2 beeing 2 alharned of the good creation 
of the Lord In them ; but 3 It Is to be feared lca.il at the day of Judge 
ment the Lord Mil be aihamed of them, & in his wrath 4 denounce [ 4 FI] 
this heauie and ineuitabie lenience coivMemnatorie againii them : Sentence con- 
" D^partefrom mee, you curfid 3 into eiterlafting Jire y prepared for the against those 
deuil and his Angels : I knoire you not : (I Jay) depare y for you were their faces. 
qfhamed of mee, and of my creation in you.**" ea 32 " 

Spud. "Wherof doo they make thefe waters, and other 7 vnctions 
wherwith they beihieare their faces, can you tel ? 

Pkilo. I 8 am not fo ildifu! In their matters of pride, 9 but I holde 
this for a Ulaxime, that 10 they are made of many mixtures, and fundry 
compounded 11 fimples, bothe farre fetched and deer bought, cunningly [Materials of 
couched 12 together, and 13 tempered with many goodly condiments and ^S> s & fe^| 
holfome confections, I warrant you ; els you may be lure they woulde 
not applye them to their amorous 14 faces, for feare of harming or 
blemlfliing the fame. 

[Spud. I praie you {hewe me the 15 Judgements, and 15 opinions of 
the Fathers, concernyng thefe colourynges 1S of faces 17 with ointmentes 
and waters, that I male the better know, what to iudge of It 1S my felf. 17 
B, E, Fj part inserted with the pen in A.] 

Pkilo. S. Ciprmn, amongft all 19 the reft, faith, a "Woman, thorow inuectiuesof 
painting and dying of her face, iheweth her felf to be more then agLi^paynt- 
whorilh. For (faith hee) ihee hath corrupted and defaced (like a Curing of U " 
fi.lth.ie ffarumpet or brothel) the woorkmanihip of GOD in her : what aces * 
Is this els but to turae trueth Into falihood with painting and fibber- 

i i stumble at the stone of B, E, F. 

2 2 whiche one day will crushe them all to peeces, excepte they repent. And 
as they be B, E, F. 3 so B, E, F. 

f leaf 32. Harlottes vse painted faces. B. 6 hi you not in F. 

7 other not in B, E, F. 8 Truly I, F. 9 9 dealings. 

10 that not in E. n componnde B, E ; not in F. mingled B, E, F. 
13 and artificially B, E, F. u amiable F. 15 ~ 15 not in A, pen. 

16 this colouringe A, pen. 17 17 not in A, pen. 18 them E, F. 

19 all not in B, E, F. 
SHAKSPEEB'S EKGLASTD : STUBBES. 6 



66 Colouring of faces deteftable. The Anatomie 

fawces, wheras the Lord faith, " Thou canjl not make one haire white 

[i leaf 32, back or Hack" In an other place hee faith, Qui l fe pinguunt^ in hoc 

[3" F i, back] feculo, aliter quam creauit B Deu$> metuant ne, cum dies refurrelionis 

[St_Gyprian vMicrit, aTtifex creaturamfuam non recognojcat. Thofe which * paint or 

painting] collour them felues in this world otherwife then GOD hath made 

them, let them feare, leaft when the day of iudgement commeth, the 

Lorde wil not know them for his Creatures. Againe, Femince crines 

fuos injiciunt malo prcefagio, capillos enim flammeos aufpicari 5 non metu- 

unt. Whofoeuer doo color their faces, or their haire, with any vn- 

naturall collour, they begin to prognofticate of what colour they ihalbe 

In hel. 

S. Amlrofe faith that from the coullouring of faces Ipring the in- 
ticements to vices, and that they which 6 color their faces doo purchafe 
to them felues the blot and flam of chaflitie. 

For what a dotage Is it (faith hee) to chatmge thy naturall" face 
which God hath made thee for a painted face, which thou haft made 
thy felf ? If thou beefl faire, why painteft thou thy felf to feeme 
fairer? and if thou be not faire, why dooft thou hippocrittically deiire 
No painting to feerfie faire, and art nothing leile ? Can thofe things which, beiides 
to n sem k S, that they be fllthie, doo cary the brand of God his curiTe vpon their 
but fowler. backs for euer, make thee to feeme fayrer ? I coulcl iliow you the 

fliarp Inue6lions, and grounded reafons of many moe, as of Aug[u\ftine> 
Hkrome, C/irtfoftome, Gregorie, Caluin> Peter Martyr, Gualter, and 
[7 FS] of an infinite number moe$ 7 yea, of all generally lince the beginning 

[s leaf 33 B.t3 of 8 the world, againft this 9 whoriili and brothellous painting and 
coulouring of faces j but to auoid prolixitie I will omit them, defer 
ring them to further oportunitie, for pauca fapienti, lQ To a wifeman 
few woords are fufficient. 

Spud. It muft needs be grauiited, that the dying and coulouring 

t Colouring of of faces with artificiall colours, and vnnaturall Oyntments, is moite 

faces, the deuils offenfiue to Q od ^ and derogatorie to his Maieftie : [And when thei 

haue doen all that thei can, and the curmingeft artift that euer liued 

beiides, yet ihal thei neuer be able to make fo fplendent, fo orient, and 

3 pinguntE., * leaf 32, back. Colouryng of faces detestable. B, 

4 that F. 5 auspicare F. 6 wliich comes before that in F. 

f leaf 33. Painted faces, the Deuilles nets. B. those E. 

10 sapientia B, E, F, 



of Abufes. Painted faces 5 the deuills nets. 67 

fo natural! a colour, as dame Xstnre hath giuen to the berbes in the 

feeld. Then If God hath imprinted suche an excellent colour In the [God's own 

f colouring; 

graile of the feeld, which to-day 1 is ftanding, 1 and to-morrow is cut ^^ji-1 

donne^ how moclie more hath he ingrsnen a beautifull colour in 

man, the excellenteft creature of n!I others 2 ? Therefore ought euery 

one to content himielf with the fliape that God hath gluen hym, 

without fekyng of alteration cr change. B, E, F.] for doo they think 

that the God of all gloria, and who only decketh and adorneth the 

Sun, the Moon, the Starres, and all the hoalt of heanen with vnfpeak- 

able glorie, and incomparable beantie, cannot make them beautiful 

and faire enough (if it pleafe Mm) without their iibberfawces ? And [t side-note, 

what are they 3 els then the Beuiis indentions, to intangle poore foules m B/EJ 

in the nets of perdition ? 

*Phifo. Then followeth the trimming and tric 5 klng of their heds Trimming of 
in laying ont their hair to the fhewe, which of force mnit be curled,. j- 5 leaf ,j't ac k 
frilled and criiped, laid ont (a "World to fee !) on wreathes & borders B>t] 
from one eare to an ether. And leaft it ihould fall down, it is vnder simia ent 
propped with forks, -w-yers, & I ca;z not tel what, rather 6 like grime 7 aurea'gestat, 31 
fterne moniters, then chaiie cliriflian matrones. Then, on the edges msigma " 
of their boMred heir (for it ftandeth creiied rouTzd about their fron- Laying put of 
tiers, & hanging oner their faces like 8 pe?zdices 9 with glaffe windowes ^p^backf 
an 1!} euery lide) there is layd great wreathes of gold and filuer, curious- Gold wreathes, 
lie wrought & cnnninglie 11 applied to the temples of. their heads. S 



And for feare of lacking any thing to fet foorth their pride withal, eir ^ 

at their heyre, thus wreathed and creiied,, are hanged bugles (I dare 

not fay babies) ouches, rings, gold, filuer, glaffes, & fuch other 12 gew- Gewgawes 

gawes and 13 trinckets befides, which, for that they be innumerable, and their Frontiers. 

I vnfkiltull in wemens termes, I can not ealily recount. 14 But God giue 

them grace to glne oaer thefe vanities, and ftudie to adorn their heads 

with the incorruptible ornaments of vertue & true GodlyneiTe. 

Spud, The Apoftle Paul (as I remember) commaundeth wemen 
to cherilh their heyre, faying that it is an ornament to them 5 & 

1 x standeth E. 2 other F. but F. 

4 heading in F : Attiring of womens lieades in England. 

f leaf 33, back. Laying out of coloured liaire. B. 

6 rather comes before than in F. 7 and added in F, 

9 or vailes added in B, E, F. 10 on F. 1X cunning -= (sic] F. 

12 other childishe B, E, F. is an a foolish B, E, F. 

14 expresse B, E ; recompt F, 



68 Laying out of coloured haire. The Anatomic 

therfor me think this abufe of curling and laying it out 1 (if eyther 
were lawfull) is muSlie more tollerable than dying their faces. 
[ 2 leaf 34. B*] 2 Philo, If curling, & laying out of 3 their own naturall heyre 

Curling and weare all (which is impious, and at no hand lawfull, 4 notwithftand- 
faymg ouTof ing for 4 it is the 5 enfigne of Pride, and the ftern 6 of wan tonnes to all 
that behould it) it were the lefTe matter ; but they are not limply con- 
Bought heyre tente with their owne haire, but buy other heyre/ dying it of what 
vsed C tobe color they lift themfelues : [And if there be any poore women (as 

now and then, we fee God doeth bleife them with beautie, as well 
as the riche) that hath faire haire, thefe nice dames will not reft, till 
Keren's hair thei haue bought it. Or if any children haue faire haire, thei will 

cut off by women J 

in London.] intice them into a fecrete place, and for a penie or two, thei will cut 
of their haire : as I heard that one did in the citie of Munidnol 8 of 
late, who metyng a little child with verie faire haire, inuegled her into 
a houfe, promifed her a penie, and fo cutte off her haire. B, E, F.] & this 

[ IC? F 3] they were 9 in the fame order as you haue 10 heard, as though it weare 

theirowne 11 natural heir : and vppon the, other fide, if any haue heyre 12 

[Women dye which is not faire inough, than will they dye it into 13 dyuerfe colors, 
almoft chaunginge the fubftance into accidentes by their dyuelilh, 
& more than thrife curfed deuyfes. So, wheras their heire was 
geuen them as a iigne of fubieclion, and therfore they were com- 
maunded to cherifli the fame, now haue they made 14 (as it were) a 
Metamorphqfis of it, making 14 it an ornament of Pride, and deftruction 
to them felues 15 for euer, 15 except they repent. 

ps leaf 34, back. 16 Spud. This is a ftyfnecked People, & a rebellious, I fee well, 

B.'f] 

that thus dareth, in euerie refpe&e, to peruert the ftraight wayes of 
the Lord, digginge vp to them-felues cefterns of iniquity, 17 &pittes of 
aduerlity, 17 which in th'end, without the great mercy of God, will be 
their vtter cenfufion. 

1 forth F. * leaf 34. Bought haire & coloured, worne. B. 

3 of not in B, E, F. 4 ~~ 4 beyng as B, E, F. 6 - an B, E 5 and F. 

6 standerd F, 
7 either of Horses, Mares, or any other straunge beastes added in E, F. 

8 London F, 9 weare F. n owne owne F. 

12 haire of her owne naturall growyng B, E, F, 13 in E, F. 

u__u no t fa B, E, F. i 3 15 not in F. 

f leaf 34, back. Capitall ornamentes for heads. B, 



of Abufes. Capital! ornaments for heads. 69 

l Philo. Than, on toppes of thefe tately turrets (I meane their 
goodly heads whet-in Is more vanitie than true Philofophie now and 

than) ftand their other capital! ornaments, as french hood, hat, cappe, 

kercher,and fuche like; wherof fome be of reluct, 2 fome of taffatie, 

fome (but few) of woll, 2 fome of this falhion, fome of that, 3 and fome heacl 

of this color, fome of that, 3 according to the variable fantafies of 

their ferpeHtine minds. And to fuch exceiTe 4 is It growen, as 4 euery 

artificers wyfe 5 (almoft) wil 6 not ftlck to goe in her hat of Veluet I 6 F 3 ,back] 

euerye day euerv marchants wyfe and meane Gentlewomen In her Hattesof 

J J J . veluets : taf- 

french-hood, and euerye poore Cottagers Daughter in her taffatie hat, fat y wom in 

common 

or els of woll at leaft, wel lined with filk, veluet or taffatie. But how 

they come by this (fo they haue It) they care not $ who payeth for It 

they regard not, nor yet what hurt booth to them felues and others it 

7 dooth bring, 7 they feare not, But ranne daylie a malo adpelus (as they Tn&it sua 

fay) from one mifchiefe to an other, vntill they haue 8 filled vp the voiuptas. 

mefnre of their euill 9 to their owne 10 perdition at that day. 10 

11 They haue alfo other ornaments befydes thefe to furniih foorth [" leaf 35. B.tl 
their ingenious heads, which they cal (as I remember) cawles, made Net- 
wyfe, to th* ende, as I thinke, that the clothe of gold, cloth of filuer, or Cawles made 
els tinfell, (for that is the worfr) wherwith their heads are couered and 
attyred withall 12 vnderneath their cawles maye 13 appeare, and fhewe 
It felfe In the braueH maner. oe that a man that feethe them (there 
heads glrfter and ihine in fuche forte) wold 14 thinke them to haue 
golden heads. [And fome weare Lattice cappes with three homes, 
three corners I ihould faie, like the forked cappes of Popifhe Prieftes, 
with their pemwincles, chitterlynges, and the like apifhe toyas of 
infinite yarietie. B, E, F.] 

Thus lauiflie they foorth the ^oods of the Lorde, which are none Golden Beads 

J fraught with 

of their owne (but lent them for a tyme) vppon Pride and naughti- leaden wit. 
neife, delighting (as It feemeth) In nothing fo 15 muche as in the ftinck- ps F 4] 
Ing puddle of vanitie and finne, which will be their owne decay 16 at the 

1 heading in F : French Hoodes in England. 2 2 not in F, 

3 s no t i n F. 4 4 ft is grown that F, 5 wyse A. 

7 ? bringeth F. 8 haue not in F. 9 iniquitie B, E, F. 

KUJW confusion at the last F. f leaf 35. Golden heads with leaden wit. B. 
not in F. 1S may the better B, E, F. u lie would F. 

i* in the end F. 



Wearing of eare-rings. 



The Anatomic 



Malcing of holes 
in their eares 
to hang rings 
and Jewels by. 



[ 2 leaf 35, back. 
B.*] 



A people \\lio 
cut their skin 
to set precious 
stones m 
them selues. 



F 4, back] 



Great ruffes, 
Neckerchers, 
and partlets 
vsed of Wo 
men. 

[Starche the 
deuils liquor. E, 

Suppprtasses 

the pillers of 

pride. 

L 1 * leaf 36. B.f] 



lail. 16 Anotlier forte of diiiblute minions & wanto;z Sempronians (for 
I can term the?^ no better) are fo far bewitched, as they are not 
aihamed to make holes in their eares, wherat they hang rings., and 
other Jewels of gold and precious Hones. But what this fignifieth in 
them I will hould my peace, for the thing it felfe ipeaketh fuf- 
ficiently. There is a certen kinde of People in the 1 Ori entail parte of 
the World 1 (as Writers affirme), that are fuche Philautoi, 2 loners of 
them, felues, and fo prowde with all, that, hauing plentie of precious 
Stones and Margarits amongeft them, they cut and launce their 
ilunnes and flefhe, fetting therin theie precious Stones, to the end they 
maye glifter and fliine to the eye. 

So, except thefe Women weare minded to tread their pathes, and 3 
folowe their direfull waves in this curfed kind of 4 vnhard of 4 Pride, I 
wonder what they meane. 

But becaufe this is not fo muche frequented amongefi: Women as 
Men, I will fay noe more thereof, vntill further occafion be offred. 

Spud. Except it weare a People wedded to 5 the deuills eldeit 
Daughter 5 Pride (for I thinke chafHtie arrsongefl them maye dwell 7 a 
Virgin for any that wil marry her), and giuen ouer of God, I neuer 
heard the like. I am perfwaded 8 neither the Libertines, the Epicures, 
nor yet the vile Atheifts, euer 9 exceeded this people in pride, 10 nor 1:L 
the wickednes of them might euer counterpeafe with the wickednes of 
thefe people 10 : God le merciful vnto them I 

Philo. You heare not the tenth parte, for no pen is able fo wel to 
difcribe it, as the eye is to difcry 12 it. The Women there vfe great 
ruffes, & neckerchers of holland, lawne, camerick, and fuch cloth, as 
the greateft thred mall not be fo bigge as the leaft haire that is : then, 13 
leafL they fhould fall down, they are fmeared and ftarclied in the 
deuils liquore, I meane Starch ; after that, dryed with great diligence, 
ftreaked, patted, and rubbed 14 very nicely, and fo applyed to their 
goodly necks, and, withall, vnderpropped with fupportafTes (as I 
tolde you before) the ftatelie arches of pride : beyond all this they 

i i Orient F. * leaf 35, back. Wearyng of eare-ringes, B. 

3 and to F. * * not in B, E, F. 

5 5 not in F. e humilitie B, E, F. 

8 that neither B, E, F. that euer liued F. i 10 not in F 
11 nor that B, E. 13 discerne F. " and E, F, 

t leaf 36. Great ruffes and minor ruffes. B. 



of Abufes. Women wearing Dubletts. 7 1 

haue a farther fetch, nothing inferlorir to the reft ; as, namely, three 

or foure degrees of minor ralfes, placed gradatim, 1 flep by ftep, 1 one Minor ruffs. 

beneath another, and all vnder the, Maifter denil ruffe, the fkyrts, 

then, of thefe great ruffes are long and fide enery way, pleted and 

crefted ful curioufly, God wot. Then, laft of all, they are either 

clogged wit/i golde, filuer, or lilk lace of ftately price, wrought all 

2 oner with needle \roork, fpeckled and iparkled heer & there with 3 Fs] 

the fonne, the moone, the ftarres, and many other antiquities 3 ilrannge 

to beholde. Some are wrought with open \voork down to tiie midit The great 

of the mfFe and further, 4 ibme with purled lace fo cloyd, and oftier rufs and 

neckerchers, 

gewgawes fo peitred, as the ruffe Is the leaft parte of It felt. Some 
times they are pinned vp to their eares, fometimes they are ftJfered to 
hang ouer their ilioulders, like 6 windmil fayles fluttering in the \vinde 5 
and thus euery one pleafeth her felf with 7 her foolifh deuices,, forfeits en- 
injqu.e crepitus Jili lene olet, as the prouerb faith : euery one thi?zketh his 
own s wayes beft 3 , 9 though they leade to diimidion of body and foule, 
which I with them to take heed of. 9 PAnd n amongeft many other 
fearful! examples of Gods wrathe againft Pride/ 2 to fett before their 
eyes, the fearfull ludgement of 13 God,, Ihewed upon a gentlewoman of [ I3 leaf 36, back. 
Eprautna u of late, euen the 27 of Male i^Sa, the fearfull found where- [Anturarpe . E<] 
of is blowen through all the worlde, and is yet freih in euery mannes 
memorie. This gentlewoman beeyng a very riche Merchaunte 
mannes daughter : vpon a tyme was inuited 15 to a Bridall, or Weddyng, 
whiche was folemnized in that Toune^ againfte wliiche daie flie made [A fearfull 

f ,1 i f"t j- TC .1 i example against 

greate preparation, for the plumyng of her felf in gorgious arraie, that pnde shewed 
as her body was mofte beautiful!, f au*e, and proper, fo her attire in woman in 
euery refpecle might bee corefpondent 16 to the fame. For the accom- 
pliihment whereof, ilie curled her haire, flie died her lockes, and laied 
them out after the beft maner, fhe coloured her face with waters and 
Ointmentes : But in no cafe could ihe gette any (fo curious and [\vomens 
daintie Ihe was) that could iiarche, and fette her Ruffes, and Necker- LSs"euer 
chers to her mynde : wherefore fhe fent for a couple of LaundrefTes, anythb Je'when 

it is well E.] 

i i no t i n B, E, F. 8 antiques B, E, F. 

4 some with close woorke, added in B, E, F. 5 in E. 

6 flagges or added in F. 7 in B, E, F. 8 8 foist the sweetest F. 

9_9 ngt i n p. 10 added w B, E, F. n But F. 

12 I would wish tnem added in F. f leaf 36, back. JVb head-line* B. 

14 Antwerpe F. 16 inuiled A j inuited F. 16 answerable F. 



72 A curfe for Apparell. The Anatomie 

[The fearful who did the beft thei could to pleafe her humors,, but in any wife thei 

end of the proud 

Antwerp lady.] could not. Then fell ihe to fweare and teare, to curlTe and banne, 
cajftyng the Ruffes vnder feete, and wifhyng that the Deuill might 
take her, when ihe 1 weare any of thofe Neckerchers againe. In the 
meane tyme (through the furferaunce of God) the Deuill, tranfform- 
yng himfelf into the forme 2 of a young man, as braue, and proper 
as me in euery poin&e in outward appearaunce, came in, fainyng 
[3 leaf 37. B.*3 hymfelf to bee a woer or futer vnto her. 3 And feyng her thus 
agonized, and in fuche a peltyng chafe., he demaunded of her the 
caufe thereof,, who fbraight waie tolde hym (as women can conceale 
no thyng that lieth vppon their ftomackes) how ihe was abufed in the 
fettyng of her Ruffes, which thyng beeyng heard of hym, he promifed 
to pleafe her minde, and thereto 4 tooke in hande the fetting of her 
Ruffes., whiche he performed to her greate contentation, and likyng, 
[The deuil ' m ^ muche as he lokyng her felf in a glaiTe (as the Deuill bad her) 

bSeftheT^ny became greatly inamoured with hym. This dooen, the yong man 
, killed her, in the doyng whereof, he writhe her necke in fonder, fo 
ihe died miferably, her bodie beyng 5 Metamorphofed, into blacke and 
blewe 5 colours, moft vgglefome to behold, and her face (whiche be 
fore was fo amorous) became mofte deformed, and fearfull to looke 
vpon. This being knowen, 6 preparaunce c was made for her buriall, a 
riche coffin was prouided, and her fearfull bodie was laied therein, and 
it 7 couered verie fampteoufly. Foure men immediatly affaied to lifte 
vp the corps, but could not moue it, then fixe attempted the like, but 
could not once ilirre it from the place, where it iloode. Whereat the 
ftanders by rnarueilyng, caufed the Coffin to bee opened, to fee the 
caufe thereof. Where thei founde the bodie to be taken awaie, and 
[The deuil found a blacke Catte verie leane and deformed sittyng in the Coffin, fetting 
Ruff"l E g ] reat of greate Ruffes, and frizlyng of haire, to the greate feare, and 8 wonder 
P leaf 37, back. of all tlie Beholders. This wofull fpedacle haue I offered to their 
viewe, that by looking into it, in ftead of their other looking Glafles 

i shee did F. 2 shape F. 

* leaf 37, No head-line B. E has head-line^ A fearfull example agaynst 
Pride. 

4 so F. 5 5 straight waies changed into blew and black F. 

e 6 i n the cittie, great preparation F. 7 it not in F. 

f leaf 3 7, back. Women wearyng Dublets. B. E has The deuil found setting 
of ruffes. 



of Abufes. A curfe for Apparell. 73 

thei might fee their own filtlimeSle, & auoyde the like offence, for 
feare of the fame, or worfer Judgement : whiche God graunt thei 
maie doe 1 ,] 

Spud. As In a Camellon are faid to be all coulours, faue white, fo 
I think in thefe people are all things els 2 , faue Vertue and chriilian 
fobrietie* Proteus, that Monlter, could neuer chaunge him felf into Proteus, 
fo many fourmes & thapes as thefe women doo belike they hatie 
made an obligation with hel, and are at agreement 3 with the deuii, 
els they would neuer outrage thus, without either feare of God or re- 
fpecl to their weak Bretheren, whom heerin they offend. 

4 Philo. The Women alfo there haue dublets & Jerkins, as men Women wer- 
haue heer, buttoned vp the 5 breft, and made with wings, welts, and andierkbs 
pinions on the fhoulder points, as mans apparel is 6 for all the world 6 ; 5 ' at 
& though 7 this be a kinde of attire appropriate 8 onely to man, yet they 
blush not to wear it 5 and if they could as wel chaunge their fex, & 
put on the kinde of man, as they can weare apparel affigned onely to 
man, I think they would as verely become men indeed, as now they 
degenerat from godly, fober women, in wearing this wanton lewd 
kinde of attire, proper onely to man. 

It is written in the 22 of Deuteronomie, that what man fo euer A curse to 
weareth 9 womans apparel is accurfed, and what woman weareth weare contrary 
mans apparel Is accurfed alfo. Now, whether they be within the 10 bands their sex. 
and lymits 10 of that cuifle, let n thern 12 fee to it them felues 12 . n Our P Ieaf ^ B ' f] 
Apparell was giuen vs 13 as a iigne drftinctiue to difcern betwixt lex 
and lex, & therfore one to weare the Apparel of another lex is to 
participate with the fame, and to adulterate the veritie of his owne 
kinde. Wherefore thefe Women may not Improperly be called 
Hermaphroditi; that Is, MonHers of bothe kindes, half women, half Hermaphro- 
men. M 

Spud. I neuer read nor heard of any people, except drunken with 



1 added in B, E, F. 2 els not in E. 3 a league F. 

4 heading in F : Doublets for Women in England. 6 6 in all respectes F. 

7 although F. 8 proper F. f leaf 38. A curse for Apparell. B. 

io_io compasse F. J1 n they themselues radge F. 

I3 - 13 take heede B, E. " us not in E, F. 

14 Who if thei were natural! women, and honest matrones, would blushe to go 
in suche wanton and leude attire, as is proper* onely to man added in 
B, E, F. (* incident F.) 



The dmersity 
of Gounes. 



Siimse in 
purpuris. 



[8 leaf 38, back. 
B.f] 



Costly gownes. 



DIuers fashions 
of Gounes. 



F 6, back) 



Pettlcots. 



74 The great exceffe In, gownes. The Anatomic 

Cyrces cups, or poyfoned with the exorclfms of Medea, that famous 
and renoumed SorcerefTe, that euer woulde weare fuche kinde of 
attire as is not onely linking before the face of God, 2 offeniiue to 
mm, but alib 3 painteth out to the whole world the 4 venereous inclina 
tion 4 of their corrupt conuerfation. 

sphilo. There Gownes be no lelfe famous alfo 6 ; for fome are of 
filk, fome of veluet, fome of grogram, fome of taffetie, fome of 
fcarlet, and fome of fine cloth,, of ten, twentie, or fortie millings a 
yard. But if the whole gowne be not Hike or veluet, then the 
fame {hall 7 be layed with lace,, two or three fingers broade, all ouer the 
gowne, or els the mofte parte. 

Or, if not fo (as lace 8 is not fine enough fometimes 9 ), then it mull 
be garded with great gardes of veluet, 10 foure or fix fingers broad at 
the leafi, and edged with coffly lace 5 and as thefe gownes be of diuers 
and fundrie colors, fo are they of diuers fafhions, changing with the 
Moon, for fome be of the new fafhion, fome of the olde, fome of this 
faihioiij and fome of that, fome with eeues hanging down to their 
Hurts, trayling on the ground, and caft ouer their moulders, like Cow- 
tayles. 

Some haue fleeues much Shorter, cut vp the arme, 11 and pointed 
with filk-ribons very gallantly, tyed with true-looues knottes (for fo 
they call them). 

Some haue Capes reaching downe to the middefi of their backs, 
faced with Veluet, or els with fome fine wrought filk 12 Taffatie 13 at 
the leaft, and fringed about very brauely ; & (to Ihut vp all in a word) 
fome are pleated &: ryueled 14 down the back wo?2derfully, with more 
knacks than I can declare. 15 Than haue they Petticots of the belt cloth 
that can be bought, and of the faireft dye that can be made. And 
fometimes they are not of cloth neither, for that is thought to bafe, 
but of fcarlet, grograin, taffatie, filk, and fuche like, firinged about the 

2 and added in B, E, F, 3 such as added in F. * 4 dissolutenesse F. 

5 heading in F : Womens Gownes in England. 

6 then the rest for also B, E, F. 7 must F. 

f leaf 38, back, ,The great excesse in Gownes. B. 9 now and then F. 

10 euery gard added in B, E, F. 

11 drawne out with diuers and sundry collours added in F. 
12 silk not in F. u creasted F. 

15 expresse F. 



of Abufes. The impudencie of Harlotries. 75 

fkirts with lilk fringe of r haungable coloure. But which is more 
vayn, of whatfoeuer their pettlcots be, yet mail they haue kyrtles Kyrties. 
(for fo they call them)^ eyther of filk, veluet, grograin, taffatie, laten, 

or fcarlet, borde 1 red with gards, lace, fringe, and I cannot tell what c* leaf 39. B.l 
befydes. So that when they haue all thefe goodly robes vppon them, 
women feeine to be the fmalleii part of themfelues, not natural! 
women, but artificial! Women : not Women of flelh & blod, but Women the 

least part of 

rather pupplts or mawmets of 2 rags & clowtes compact together, themseiues. 

So 3 fanre hath this cancker of pride eaten Into the body of the com 
mon welth, that euery poore Yeoma?z his Daughter, euery Husband 
man his daughter. & euery Cottager his Daughter,, will not ipare 4 Poore Mem 

, -Daughters 

to flaunt it out In fuche gownes, pettieots, & kirtles as thefe. And excise, 
not withstanding that their Parents owe a brafe of bu/mdred 
pounds more than they are worth, yet will they haue it, quo mre 
quaue inluria, eyther 5 by hooke or 6 crooke, by right or wrong, as they I s F 73 
fay, wherby It commeth to paife that one can fcarily know who is a 
noble woman,, who is an honorable or worshipfull Woman, from them 
of the meaner forte. 

Spud. Their parents & Freinds are muche to be blamed for fuf- Parents to 

- 1 c blame. 

fering them to go in fuche wanton attyre. They ihould not allowe 
them fuch large pittance, nor fuffer them to meaiure their apparell 
after their own licentious yardes of felfe will, and wicked deiires. 7 

Pkilo. Than shall they 8 be Cure neuer to haue good day with them, 
For they are fo impudent 9 that, all be it their poore Parents haue but Tfce impnd- 

eftcy of proud 

one cow, horfe, or sheep, they wil neuer let them reft til they be harlots. 
fould to maintain them In their braueries, 10 paft all tongue can telL 1& B.JJ 39> 
And, to fay the truth, fome Parents (worthie to be inaugured 11 with 
the lawrell Crowne of triple follie,) are fo buxome to their shame- 
leffe deiires, and fo exorable to their proftitute requefe, that they 
grau?2t to their too too nice daughters more than they can 12 defire 

* leaf 39. Tlie impudencie of Harlottes. B. 2 consistyng of B, F. 

3 Yea, so F* - 4 stick E, F. 6 or by F. 

7 then should thei not rage f so farre as thei doe added in B, E, F ; fatt E F 
have could ; f F kas exceede, which conies after far, 

* theyr Parents F. 

J leaf 39, back. What makes youth wicked. B. 

i<L_io beyond all measure B, E, F. ll for fooles added in E, F, 

13 do E, F. 



76 



New faflilons euery day. The Anatomie 



leultie of Pa- 

rents to their 



[5 F 7, back] 



3 what maketh 
whores and 
strumpets. 8 



themfelues, taking a fingular felicity & 1 furmounting pleafure in 
f[ee]ing them 2 to go plumed and decked 2 in the Feathers of 
deceiptfuli vanity. 

Sp. This ouer great lenitie & remiiTe libertie in 3 the education 
of youthe, in refpect of the euent and fucceffe 4 in the end, maye rather 
be counted an extrem cruelty, than a Fatherly 5 pitie 6 of them to 
wards their children 5 For what maketh them fo foone whores,, fbrum- 
pets, 7 and bawdes, as that cockering of them doth ? 

What maketh them apt & prone to all kind of 'naughtynelTe but 
this ? Nothing in the World foe muche 5 For, giue a wild horfe the 
libertie of the head neuer fo litle, and he will runne headlonge to 
thyne and his owne deftru&ion alfo. 

So long as a fprigge, twirl, 9 or braunche, is yong, it is flexible 

and bowable 10 to any thing 10 a man can delire -, but if we tarie till it be 

a great tree, it is inflexible and vnbowable. If wax be taken whyleft 

it is hote, anye character maye be eaiilye imprinted 11 $ but tarying till it 

leaf 40. B.*] be hard, it re 12 ceiueth no printe at all. 

So, correct Children in their tender yeres, and you may bow them 
to what good lore you will your felfe $ but tarie till they be old, than 
13 is it 13 to late, as experience teacheth daylie. 

I4: P/dlo. Their neitherftockes, in like maner, are either of filke 
gearnfey, 15 worfled, crewell, or, at lealt, of as fyne yarn, thread, or 
cloth, as is poffible to be had, [yea thei are not afhamed to weare 
hofe of all kinde of chaungable colours, as greene, red, white, ruffet, 
tawny, and els what, 16 whiche wanton light colours, any 17 fober chafle 
Chriftian 18 (except for neceffitie fake) 18 can hardly, without any 19 fufpi- 
tion of Hghtneffe, at any tyme weare ; but whatfoeuer is a deformitie 
or fliame in 20 others is an ornament to them that be paft all lharne. 
Then thefe delicate hofen muft bee, B, E, F] cunningly knit and curi- 

1 and farre B, E, F. 2 - 2 decked and plumed B, E, F. 

3 of theirs in B, E, F. 4 that it bringeth added in F. 

6 loue or pittie B, E, F. 7 Harlots added in F. 

8 8 no t fa E, F. 

9 a twist F. io_io which way F, u in it added in F. 

* leaf 40. New fashions euery daie. B. 13 13 it is F. 

14 heading in F : Netherstockes of women in England. 

15 larnsey F. 16 what not F. 17 no F. 18 18 not in F. 

is any not in E, F. so to F. 



Netherstocks 
of gemsey or 
silk. 



of Abufes. Costly Perfumes and Muskes. 77 

00% indented in euery point 1 : wlierto they haue korked fhooes, 

pinfnets, pantoffles, and 2 flippers, fome of black veluet, forae of Corked shoes, 

white, fome of greene, and fome of yellowe : fome of fpanifh toffies, & 

f , - ^ suchlike, for 

leather, and fome of Engliih lether, 8 Hitched with filk, 4 and 1m- women, 
brodered with Gold and filuer all ouer the foote, with other gew- p F 8] 
gawes innumerable. All which, if I fhould 5 endeuoure my felfe 5 to 
expreffe, I might \rith more 1 facil:tye number the fanckof the Sea, 
the Starres in the fkye, or the graile vppon the Earth 5 fo infinit and 
innumerable be their abufes. For weare I neuer foe experte an 
Arithmetician 9 , 10 or 11 Mathematician 10 , I weare neuer 12 capable of 12 The mmimer- 
the 1E ha!e of them, the deuill brocheth foe many new f afiii ons euery day. of women* 

\Vherfore to their Author I leaue them, not omittinge to tell p leaf 40, bad. 
you by the way ( 14 as an interim 11 ) of a certen kynde of fweete Pride 
vfed amongeit 15 Gentlemen and Gentlewomen in Ailgna. 

Spud, I haue learned out of the Booke of God, that all Pride is p r ide stinking 
ffincking before the face of GOD 5 wherfore I greatlye defyre to If^*^ 
knowe what abortyue Mifcreant this is, 16 for it is fome portenteous 
mifhapen monfter, I am 17 perfwaded. 

IB Pkllo. Is not this a certen 19 fweete Pride to haue cyuet, muflce, 
fweete powders, 20 fragrant Pomanders, odorous perfumes, & fuch Thehaufogof 

ciuet rousk, 

like, wherof the fmel may be felt and perceiued, not only all ouer and other 

perfumes, a 

the houle? or place, where they be prefent, but alfo a ftones caffc of sweet Had of 

Pride. 

almost, yea, the bed wherin they haue layed their delicate bodies, the 

places where they haue fate, the clothes, and thinges which they haue 

touched, fhall fmell a weeke, a moneth, and more, after they be gon. 

But the Prophet Efalas telleih them, inftead of their Pomaunders, Esal, Cap. 3. 

mufks, ciuets, balmes, fweet odours and perfumes, they fhall haue 

flench and horrour in the nethermoft hel. Let them take heed to it, 

and amend their wicked Hues. 21 

1 with qnirkes, clockes, open seame, and euery thing els accordingly added 
in B, E, F. 3 lether not in B, E, F. 

* with silke repeated in F. 5 5 take vpon me F. 6 6 as easily F. 
7 like B, E. f leaf 40, back. Costly Perfumes and Muskes. B. 

8 AritKmetrician A, 10 -~ 10 not in F. n never so skilfull a added in B, E. 

I2__i2 a bi e to recompt F. 13 the one B, E, F, 

H_U comes a fe r y OU fa ^ ^ p. 15 amongest the B, E, F 

16 may be B, E, F. * 7 am fully B, E, F. 

18 heading in F : Muske, Ciuet, and sweet powder in England, 
is C erten not in E, F. 21 in tyme added in B, E, F. 



78 



Sweet fmelles hurtfull. 



The Anatomic 



[* leaf 41. B.* 

Nosegayes & 
posies of flow 
ers worn and 
caried abrod. 



Beware the 
Spanish pip. 



These 11 curious 
smelles obnu- 
bilat the 
spirits SL 
darken the 
sences. 



Sweet sraells 
of musks, 
cyuet, and such 
like, do 2I anoy 
the spirits. 

p 22 leaf 41, back, 
B.f] 



The vain 
gestures & 
coynes of 
women in the 
middest of 



And in the Sommer-time, whilft iioures be greene and fragrant, 
yee shall not haue any l Gentlewoman almoft, no nor yet any droye or 
puffie in the Cuntrey, but they will carye in their hands nofegayes 
and polles of fioures to fmell at; and which is more, two or three 
Nofegayes 2 ilicked in their brefts before, for what caufe I cannot tei, 
except it be to allure their 3 Paramours to catch at them/ wherby, I 
doubt not, but they get many a flabbering kifTe, and,, paradeuenture, 
more freendship beiides : they know beil 5 what I mean. 

Spud. You wil be thought very ftraight laced to fpeak againft 
thefe thinges, for I haue heard it faid, that thefe 6 fweet fmels 7 are 
bothe corroboratiue to the fences, and confortatiue 8 to the fpirits, and 
which doo viuifie and recreate aswel the body as the minde. 7 

Philo. They are fo far from comforting the braines 9 , or lightning 10 
the fpirits of men 12 , that as myfies and exhalations which euaporate 
from thefe earthly bodyes, and are drawen vp by the attracllue power of 
the Sun, Moon, and ftarres, doo rather 13 obnubilate 14 and darken the 
beames of the Sun, 15 not fuffering his radiations to difparcle abrode 15 $ 
So thefe (in a rnaner) palpable odors, fumes, vapours 16 , frnells of thefe 17 
mufks, cyuets, pomanders, perfumes, balmes, & iuche like, afcend- 
ing to the braine, do rather denigrate 18 , darken, and obfcure the Ipirit 19 
and fences, then either lighten them, or comfort them 20 any manner 
of way. But howfoeuer it falleth out, fure I am they are eniignes 
of pride, allurements to 22 iinne, and prouocations to vice. After all 
this, when they haue attired the?n felues 23 in the midft of their pride, 
it is a world to collider their coyneife in gefhires, their minfednes 
in woords and fpeaches, their gingerlynes 24 in trippinge on toes like 
yong goats, their demure nicitie and babiihnes, and withall their 

* leaf 41. Sweete smelles, hurtfull. B. 

3 nosegayes not m B, E, F. 8 their amorous B, E, F. 

* and to smell at their breastes added in F. 5 best not in. E, F. 

6 these not in B, F ; the for that these in E. 

7 7 doe corroborate the sences, comfort the spirits, and recreate both the 
body & mynd of man greatly, doe they not so ? B, E, F. 9 braine F. 

10 illuminating E ; reuiuing F. " The F. 12 man F. 

13 doo rather not in B } rather not in E, F. ll4 obnubilate not in F, 

i5_is #0* in F. 16 vapours and B, E, F. 

17 these not in B, E, F, 18 denigrate not in F. 19 spirites F. 

30 by any B. 21 do not in F. 

t leaf 41, back. Looking glasses, the deuils spectacles. B. 

23 thus added in B, E, F. 84 gingernesse B, E, F. 



of Abides. Silke Skarfes in Ailgna, 79 

hawtie ftoxnackes and more than Cvclopicall countenances, their their 

/. ijii.-f ,,.,, . - . fethers, 

lingers are 1 decked with gold, liluer and precioos itones^ their Fingers dog- 
\vriftes with bracelets and armlets of gold, and other precioufe 2 rings. 
lewels: their hands are 3 couered with their fweet wa 4 ihed gloues, trinckets. 

& Sweeted 

imbrodered with goidj, filuer. and what not : Sc to fuch abhomina- IMS. 

, Loklng 

tioTX is it 5 grown, as they muit haue their looking slaffes carved glasses, the 

. demlls specta- 

with them wherfoeuer they go. And good reafon, for els how cold cles - 
they fee the deuil In them? for no doubt they are the deulls 
fpecfcicles to allure vs to prlde^ &c co?zfequently to diflruclio# for 
euer. 6 and abone al tilings they mult 6 haue their filk fcarflfes caft 
about their faces^ & fluttering in the winde, with great taflels at silkskarfes, 
euery end, either of gold, iiluer, or filk. But I know wherfor they 
wil fay they weare theie fcarfes $ namely, to keep them from Sim- 
burning 3 But I wold aike theie Xicelings one queftion 3 wherin if 
they ca?z refolue mee, then I will fay, as they fay, that fcarffes are A question to 

skarfe vrerers. 

neceliary, and not flags of pride. Can that thing which is mofb 
glorious Sc fair of it felf, make any thing foule or ilfauored? the 
fan is a moft glorious & fair creature, & therfor cannot make them 
fowler then they are of their own nature. Fro??i whence then is it 8 
that the Son bnrneth them, & altereth their orient colour into 
woorfer hue ? The cauie therof proceedeth from their own genuine 
corrupt! 072 and natural imperfecliio^ 9 ^ for no more is their fowlenes to 
be afcribed to the iMliferous 10 beames of the glittering n Sun, then tJiQ 
ftench of a dead careafie may be faid to 12 conie of 12 the fun, & not 
rather of it own. corruption & filthines. They bufie the^zfelues in 

1 must be B, E, F. 2 costly B, E, F. 3 are not in B, E, F. 5 it is F. 

s 6 Spud. The deuill could neuer haue found out a more pestilent euill then 
this, for hereby man beholding his face, and being naturally giuen to flatter hym 
self too muche, is easely drawen to thinke well of hymself : and yet no man seeth 
the true proportion of his face, but a counterfaite effigie, and false image therof 
in the glasse, whiche the Deuill suffereth hym to see, that thereby he male rise 
into Pride, and so [so not in E, F] offende the Diuine Maiestie. Therefore male 
these lookyng glasses 7 be called the deuils bellowes, wherewith he bloweth the 
blast of Pride into our hartes : and those that looke in them may be said to looke bellowes. E, F.] 
in the DeuiUes arse, whilest he infuseth the venemous winde of Pride into their L 7 leaf 42. B.f] 
soules. PhUo* * Then must thei B, E, F. * Heading in F : Scarfles and 
Maskes in England. 

f leaf 42. Silke Scarffes in Ailgna. B. 

8 it is F. 9 prauitie F. 10 splendent F. n glistering not in F. 
proceed of B, E, F, 



8o 



Veluet Visors to ride with. 



The Anatomie 



[ r Ga] 

[3 leaf 42, back. 



Visors or 
inuisories of 
veluet to ride 
abrode in. 



Sues voluta- 
bris versantur. 



ft side-note here 
mB.] 



t The first 
finders and 
inuentors of 
new fashions 
are culpable of 
all the euil 
that cowmeth 
by them. 
9 leaf 43. B 

C 20 G 2, back] 



A vaine 
excuse. 



preferalng the beautie of their bodyes, which lafteth but for a time,, 
& in time 1 is caufe of his 2 own corruption, & which, 3 in effect, Is 
nothing els then 4 putrifactiora it felt; & a dunghil couered with 
white & red; but for the beautie of thQ foule they care nothing at 
all. When they vfe to ride abrod, they haue 5 inuifories, 6 or 5 r vifors 
made of veluet, 8 wherwith they couer all their faces, hauing holes 
made in thew againft their eyes, whereout they look. So that if a 
man, that knew not their guife before, should chaunce to meet one of 
them, hee would think hee met a monrter or a deuil ; for face hee can 
fee 9 none, but two brode holes againft her 10 eyes with glaffes in them. 
Thus they prophane Me name of God, & Hue in al n kinde of volup- 
tuoufnes & pleafure, wurffe then euer did the hetheii. 

Sp. "What think you, are not the inue?ztors & firft finders out of 
thefe new toyes & dyuelish deuices, in great daunger, and partakers 
with them of the euill committed ? 

Philo. It cannot be but the Inuentors of thefe new toyes are in 
great daunger before God, as they who {hall render accomzts to god,, 
not only for the inuentio;z of them, but alfo for the euil cor/zmitted by 
them. For whofoeuer is author of any euil mufh needs anfwer for 
the euil. And furely */ze authors 12 of thefe newfa?zgles are 13 not vn- 
worthy 13 to be canonized faints whew the yeere of lubilie cowmeth (I 
nieane faincts of fathan); for 14 there is no 14 deed fo flagicious, no 15 fact 16 
fo dangerous, 17 nor any 17 thing 18 fo hainous, which 19 with alacritie is 
not plauflbly committed for the 20 maintenance of thefe Diueliih toyes 
and deuices : And albeit that the Perfons themfelues who offend this 
way {hal dye in their finnes, their owne bloud being powred vppon 
their owne heads, yet the Authors of thefe new toyes, wherthorow they 
offended, fhalbe giltie of their deathes, and furely anfwear for their 
deftrudion in the day of the Lord. 

Spud. But fay they, ( if I make them not, an other wii, & it is as 
good for me to make them as an other 5 & it is my lyuing 5 wherfore 

* it B, E, F. * leaf 42, back. Veluet Visours to ride with. B. 

4 but E, F. 5 5 not in B, E. 6 masks F. 7 and F. 

8 (or in my judgement tliei maie ratlier be called invisories) added in B, E, F. 

shew F. 10 their E, F, n all in B, E. 12 author F. 

i3_ worthy F. u u what B, E, F. what B, E, F. 16 attempt F. 

i7__n or w h at B ? E, F. 18 fact F. 

f leaf 43. A Caueat for Artificers. B. 



of Abufes. Mans faluation to be regarded 8 1 

I am difcharged of blame, if I make them (being coroxnaunded) with 
fweai of m j face, and with trauaile and paine to get my lyuing." 

Philo. We are commaiinned (sic), indeed, to get our lyuing with 
the fweate of our face 5 but how ? Xot In doing thofe things which are We are bou*d 
euill of themfelues, and alfo drawe and iatice others to eu:ll^ but in lymngliTweii 
things lawful and good, 1 & which induce to goodneiTe. 2 And to fay cuiii doing. 
e others will make them,, if I s do not,' no more excufetli them of 
offence/ than for a Murtherer or 5 Thief to fay, if I had not robbed,, or 
killed this man, another wold, dlfchargeth him from the penaltie of 
the Indicia!! c lawe 7 to be inflicted againit 8 him. 7 Is it lawfull for vs Acaueatto 
to do euill becaufe others do it r Or dooth the wickednes of an other imient new 

feshlons. 

delyuer me 9 from blame, if I 10 commit the fame offence? no, no 
thing leife. Wherfore let Taylers and Artificers be 11 ware how 12 they [" leaf^s, back, 
eyther inuente or make thefe new deuyces and Dyuelifh faihions [ 03] 
euery day : And being reqaefted to make them, if they perceiue them 13 
tende to vice, and 14 allnre to finne, let them refufe them in the name 
of God, more tendering the fakiation of many, than the priuat com- F A caueat for 

... Tailours and 

modytie of themfelues alone : which thing, if enery one wold do, he -Artificers. FJ 

{hould delyuer his own foule, & fhpport an infinit number from 

falling into the giilphe of finne , and fo In fhort tyme thefe new toyes, 

fond deuyces, and childiih babelries (new faihions I ihould fay) wold 

foone vanifh away and come to naught 15 : which God graunt may 

16 once be feene 16 ! 

ir $pud. Did the women of the former world attire themfelues in 
fuche forte as thefe women do ? 

Philo. The Women of the former age, you may be fare, neuer 
appareled themfelues like one of thefe. But leaft you ihould thinke 
that the Godly onelie lyued thus auilerly, you fhal heare how litle the 
very hethe/z and barbarian Women haue, and do at this prefent, [Heathen women 
efteeme of apparel! 5 as Stuperius witnefleth, whofe words are thefe, ^^ * 

1 Honest F. 2 godlinesse E, F. 3 they B, E, F. 

4 before God added in F. 5 or a F. 6 not m F. 

7 7 or guilt of the fact F. 8 upon B, E. 9 vs E, F. 10 we E, F. 

f leaf 43, back. Mans saluation to be regarded. B. 
13 to added in E, F. 14 and to F. 15 naughe (sic) F. 

i6 IB come to passe E, F. 

17 heading in F : The meane attire of both Heathen and other Women in 
olde time. 

SHAKSPEEE'S E1JTGLA2TD : STUBBES. 6 



[Egyptian and 
othr heathen 
women are 
modest in dress.] 



G 3, T^ck] 
[3 leaf 44- B.*] 



(The meannes 
of other Nations 
in attire. B, E, 
F ; with maners 
for meannes.] 



[German women 
dress plainly.] 



F leaf 44, back. 
B.f] 



82 Wommens habit, in other curctries. The Anatomie 

fpeking of the Egiptian women : <e Peftimenta fciunt nee noua priftinis 
mutare, verum femper his in cultibus gaudent perpetuo tempore congredi, 
quafcunque gentes kunc per orlem vifitent ; Which may be thus turned 
into Englifh verfe: 

1 The Egiptian Matrones neuer vfe 

Their fq/hion 2 ofattyre to change, 
3 But euer keep one forme to chufe, 

Although they vijlte Nations Jlrange. 

AND as all Writers doo afBrme, all the Women there indifferently go 
with their haire hanging downe, with a broade hat vppon their heads, 
and other attyre as playne as the reft, foo farre are thefe People from 
Pride., and hunting after ftrange falhions as our Women doo. 

The Women of Affrica are witneifed, by the fame Stuperius, and 
others., to be fo farre from affecting 4 ftrange fafhions, or curioiity in 
aparel, that they cloth themfelues, in a manner, all ouerferinis pelli- 
bus, with beafts ikinnes, furres, and fuch like. And this they think 
fo riche attire, as they vfe it altogether when they celebrat their 
feftiual folemne daies, or when they go abrode to be feene. 

The Brajilian Women efteeme fo litle of apparell alfo, as they 
rather chofe to go naked (their fecret partes onely being couered) 
then they wold be thought to be proud, or deiiroufe of fuch vanities. 5 

The Cantabrian Women likewyfe, with many others, 6 do the fame. 
In High Germany , the Women vfe in effec"fc one kind of apparel or 
habite, without any difference at all, nothing like other Nations de 
lighting in new fangles, 7 yea, the wines there are fo far from pride 
that they will not difdaine to carie all their houfehould ftiiffe, and 
other trinckets, 8 about with them vppo?z their backs in tyme of 
extremitie. 9 Thefe 10 Mayds &: Virgins go very plain, with kerchers 
only on their heads, their n haire hanging down behinde, in token of 
Virginitie. 

Thus, you fee, euery Nation, how barbarous foeuer, are much 
inferiour to ths people of Ailgna in pride & excefle of apparell 5 and 

2 fashions F, * leaf 44. Womews habit, in other Countries. B. 

* affecting of E, F. 5 van ity F. 6 other F. 

8 supellectiles E, F. necessity F. 10 Their B, E, F. 

f leaf 44, back. Brutish Attire not commendable. B. 



of Abufes. Pride of the heart, and of Apjparell J 83 

yet thefe examples I alledge not to th* end I -wold wiih all others to 
vie ike fame, or Ike very like bratllh 1 kind of aufter 2 habite, but to 
fhew how farre they be from Pride, & how much the other be 
wedded to tke fame. And as for the vertuous, & godly chriilian 
women : from the beginning of the world they haue fo litle cared for 
the vain glory of apparell, & fo litle (or rather nothing at al) were jrhe contempt 

, . . , . , , r , . i _r i f apparell of 

they acquainted tnerwith, as they hunted for nothing els io much as the former 

for the ornaments of the mind, as wifdom, continency, chaiiitie, & 

true godlynefle, thinking the lame bewtie fufBcient. They counted it 

great fhame to cloth their bodies with fumpteous apparel, & their 

minds to be naked, & voide of true vertue. So, if thefe womeTz 

wold feek after the bewtie of the mind, they wold not affect apporell 

fo much j for if they be faire in body alredy, than need they not 

gorgeous apparel to make them fairer: & if they be deforme 3 in 

body, it is not the apparell 4 that can make them fairer. And either [4 G 4 , bad] 

their bewtie coniifleth in them, or in their apparel : If in them, than 

not in the Apparell, & fo it is meere foolery to were them 5 And if 

in apparel, than not in them, and fo cannot the garments make them 

fayre whome God & na 5 ture hath made otherwife: wherfor look in [s i ei f 45 B.t] 

what bape, forme, or condition, euerye one is created by God, let him 

content himfelfe with the fame, without any alteration or chaunge, 

with praife to his Creator. 

Spud. They hold (notwithstanding) that it is the pride of the 
heart, which God fo muche hateth and detefteth. 

Philo. It is verye true that GOD punimeth the pride of the heart Pride of the 
with eternal damnation (if they repent not), for he will be ferued and 
obyed either with the whole man, or els with none. Than, if he 
punifh the pride of the heart with euerlafting damnation, he muft 
needs (in iuftice) punifh the pride of Apparell with the like, being Pride of appa- 

,1- i . ... f f -11 re ^ sqinua.lewt 

booth loyned in one predicament of nnne, and the pride of apparell with Pride of 
much more hurting before the world than the other. 

Alfo it is manifeft that the pride of apparel rifeth firft from the 
corruption of the heart, as the efFe&s from the caufe, the finite from 
the roote of the tree : than, if the pride of the heart which, notwith- 
ftanding it hurteth not outwardly, but is fecret betwixt God and him- 

1 sauage F 2 not in F. 3 deformed F. 

t leaf 45. Pride of the harte, and of Ap[parell]. B. 



[Pride of apparel 
more damnable 
than pride of 
heart] 



f 3 leaf 45, back, 
B.*J 



Examples of 
God hts 
punishments 
executed 
vppon them, 
that offended 
in Pride in ail 
ages. 



[ I0 G 5, "back] 



'4 leaf 46. B.f] 



[The Tower of 
Babel.] 



84 Gods punifliments for pride. The Anatomic 

1 felfe. > be damnable in it owne nature before God, than muft it needs 
be that the Pride of apparell (which fheweth its felfe to the world,, 
both ofFenfiue to GOD, and hurtfall to ma?z, and which alfo is the 
fruite of the pride of the heart., and throweth almoft as many as be 
hold it, at leaft as many as followe it, into the deep dungion of hell.,) 
is 2 much more pernicious and damnable than the other. 

Spud. Hath the Lord plagued this linne of pride with any notable 
torture a or punifhrnerat ener from the beginning of the World vnto 
this day, or hath he 4 omitted the reuenge therof 4 as a thing of fmall 
force, or 5 importance? 

Q Philo. Moft fearfull plagues and dreadfull Judgements of GOD 
haue in all ages beene powred vppon them that offended herein, as 
all Hiftories, both holy and prophane, do beare record. For proofe 
wherof I will geue you a tafte but of a few, wherby may appeare how 
wonderfully the Lord, in all ages, tymes, kinreds, & peoples, hath 
punilhed thofe that thorow pride (like wicked recufants 7 and back- 
ilyders from God) haue rebelled againft his maieftie. The deuill, 
who before was an Angell in Heauew, arrogating to himfelte the im 
perial throane of the maiefly of God, was call downe into the deepth 8 
of Hell, burning with fire 9 and fulphur for euer. 

Adam, deliring to be a God (for the ferpent 10 tould him, he ihould 
be as God, knowing both good & euill), was for the iin of Pride 
throwne downe to the bottome of Hell, & not onely he but all his 
pofteritie to the end of the World. The hoaft of Core, Dathan, and 
Aliram,, for their exceding pride in ftirring vp mutenie, 11 12 rebelling 
againft their lawfull Magifirate, were fwallowed vp 13 quick into hell, 
the earth opening her mouth &: deuouring them, u with all their 
complices whatfoeuer. The People of Babylon, intending to builde a 
tower, whofe top fhould 15 tutche the Skye, 15 thinking that if God 
ihould drown the world againe with water, they would be fure 
inough on the toppe of their high turrets ; yea, they intending 16 to 

* leaf 45, back. Gods punishments for Pride. B. 
3 plague F. 4 4 passed it ouer F. 5 force or not in F. 

6 heading in F: Pun[i]shments of pride in all ages. 

7 nmnagats F. 8 lake E, F. 9 brimstone B. . ll mutinies F. 

12 and rebelling B ; and rebellion E ; and rebellions F 13 up not in E. 

f leaf 46. Punishments for Pride. B. 15 15 reach the heauens F. 

16 intended F. 



of Abufes. Prowde KInges punifhed. 85 

lit with God himfelfe (if need weare) weare all confounded, and a 
diuerfe language put into euery mans mouth* that none knew what 
an 1 other ipake. And thus were they fuiced to leaue there building, 
and dliperfed themfelues abroad \~ppon the face of the earth, wherof" 2 
(prag the firil diueriitie of languages in the world, "Wheribre when 
we heare any language Ipoken we 3 know not, it may be a memo- Amemo 
random to 4 vs to put vs in niinde of our Pride, which was the cauie 
therof. 

Goliak, the great Gyant, the huge Cyclops, and fworne enemy to 
the Children of Ifraell, for his pride againft the Lord was ilaine by 
Dauid, the iit[h]full Seraaunt of the Lord. 

5 AntiocktfSy intending to ouerthrowe and facke lernfalem, to fpoile Anttnch 
the Sanct:iiarie and Temple of the Lord, and to kill the people of 
God, was for his pride ouerturned in his chariet, ryding thetherward, 
Ms belly bruit, 6 and filthy wormes crawled 7 out mofle lothfomly 5 and, 
in fine, beganne fo to ftinke and iwell, 8 as neither his Seruants, nor he 
Iiimfelfe, cold abide his ow r ne fauoure^ and thus ended his lyfe in 
great miferie and wretchedneile. 

Nabuchodnnofor^ was for his pride call out of 1<a his Kingdom, and 11 Nabuch 
forced to eat graile with wild beafts in the wildernefTe, 

King Saule, for his pride and difobedience, was depofed of his 
principallitie and Kingly regimente^ and in the end flew r e him felf on 
mounte Gelboe moft defperately. 

Sodoma and Gomorra were both deifaroyed with fire & foriniHone 
from heauen for their fin of pride & contempt of the Lord. All the 
world in the daies of Noah was drowned with 12 vniuerfall deluge for 
pride & contumacy of heart. 

King Hezekiahs 1 for his pride in ihewing to the AmbaHadors of 3 Re s- Cap. 2 
the king of Balylon all Ms treafure {for he lent Meflengers vnto him 
with gifte 14 & lettres, congratulatorie 15 for the recouerie of his helth) 
loft al his iewels, trefures, & riches, with his owae 16 foranes alfo, 
being tranfported captiues into Balilon* K. Bauid, for his pride ia 
numbring the people contrary the wil of god, 1T was greuouflie pun- ^7 G6,backi 

1 an not in E, F. 3 and hereof F, 3 that we B, E ; that me (sic] F. 
* vnto F. 6 bursting B, E, F. 7 crawling B, E, F. 8 smell E, F. 

9 Nabuchadnezar F. f leaf 46, back. Proude Kynges punished. B. 
11 and and (sic) F. 13 with an B, E, F. l3 Ezekiah F. 

14 giftes F. 15 Tceioycmg-added in F, i6 owne not in B, E, F. 



86 Gods Judgements for Pride. The Anatomie 

2 Samuel i, c. iihed, and threefcore and ten thoufand of his People flaine with a 

24, Ver. 15, 

greeuous peffilence for the fame. 

King Pharao, for his pride againlt the Lord (for he thought him 
felfe a GOD vppon the Earth, and therfore allied he Moyfes, in derilion, 
who is the Lord ?), was drowned in the read Sea with all his hoai!. 
The proude The proude Pharifey, iuihfyiug himfelfe, for his pride was reproued 

Pharijaey. 

of the Lord, and reie&ed. 
K Herode. King Herode, for attiring himfelfe in fumpteous aray & not 

C 1 leaf 47. B.*] afcribing glory to the 1 Lord, was fhrucken 2 dead by an Angel, and 
wormes confumed his fielh immediatly. Al thefe, with infinit mil 
lions moe in al ages, haue perilhed thorow pride ; and therfore let not 
this people think that they lhall efcape vnpuniihed, who drinke vp 
pride as it weare fweet wyne, feede vppon it as vppon delicious meats, 
and wallowe in it as a 3 filthie fwyne doth in the dirtie 4 myre. will the 
Lord punilh his peculiare people and elecl: veflHs, and let them goo 
free? 

Wherfore I wold wyfhe them to be warned, for it is a terrible 

thing to fall into ths hands of GOD, who is a confuming fire & a 

God hk Plagues fearfull God. His bo we is bente, his arrowes of Judgements 5 are 

are prepared, if 

we repent not. drawen to the head, his fire is kyndled, his wrath is gone out, & 
ready to be powred vppon the contemners of his lawes. Tempt not 

1 6 &?1 the Lord any longer j prouoke not G his wrath, exafperate not his 

iudgements towards thee j for as mercy pro ceedeth fiom him, fo doth 
iuftice alfoj And, be fure of it, he payeth home at the laft. For as 
m mercie he fuffreth no good deed to be vnrewarded, fo, in his iuft 
iudgmente, there is no wickednes 7 which he leaueth vnpuniihed. And 
yet, notwithfta?zdmg, their wickednelfe and pride is fuch as jftincketh 
before the face of God, and maketh the Enemies to blafpheme and 
fpeake euill of the wayes of the Lord : for, fay they, the men of 
Ailgna are wicked & licentious 8 in all their wayes, which eafily 

p leaf 47, back, appeareth by their apparell & 9 new f angled falhions euery day in- 
uented. The beaftly Epicures, the Drunkards & fwilbowles, vppon 
their ale benches, when their heads are intoxicat with new wine, 10 wil 

* leaf 47. Gods iudgementes for Pride. B. 2 striken F. 3 a#0/wzE, F. 

4 dirtie not in F. 5 Judgement F. 7 without repentance added in F. 

8 dissolute F. f leaf 47, back. Our liues, a slaunder to the Gospell. B. 

10 and strong drinke added in F. 



of Abufes. Our lyues, a flaunder to the gofpell. 8 7 

not Hick to belch foorth and fay, that the Inhabitantes of Ailgna go Our new 
brauelye In Apparell, chaunging f alhions euerie daye, for no caufe fo toies are ocea- 

sions why all 

much as to delight the eyes of their harlots l withall, and to inamoure nations mocke 

and floute vs. 

the mlndes of their flelhly paramours, Thus be this People a laugh 
ing flock to all the world for their pride, a ilaunder to the "word of Our lyulng a 
God & to their profeffion, fcandalles to their brethren, a dishonor the truth. 
and reproch to the Lord,, and very caterpiliers to themfelues In waft 
ing and coTzfuming their goods and treafures vppon vanyties &r trifles. 

[ 2 Spud. I perceine thefe are nice dames, I pray yon what exercifes 
folio we thei, for the naofle parte beyng thus clothed in their robes, 
and how doe thei fpende the tyme ? For I ftand in doubte thereof? 3 

Pkilo. You neede not to doubt. For thei fpend their time very [The great 
well, I warrant you, and to their owne contentation. 4 For fome of thesegentie- 

women take E 1 

them lye in bed (I will not faie with whom) till nine or tenne of the 

clocke every mornyng; then, beyng rouzed forthe of their dennes, 

thei are twoo or three howers in puttyng on their Robes, which bee- 

yng 5 doen, thei go to dinner, where no delicates either of wines or 

meates are -wanting. Then their bo 6 dies beeyng fatiffied, and their r& i ea f 4 s B.i] 

heades pretely mizzeled with wine, thei walke abrode for a time, or 

els confer with their familiars (as wome?z you know are talkative 

enough, & caw chat like Pies) all the world knoweth it. Thus fome 

fpende the dale till fupper tyme, and then the night, as before. Other 

fome fpende the greatest parte of the dale, in fitryng at the doore, to 

Ihewe their braueries, to make knowen their beauties, to beholde the 

paffengers by, to viewe the coaft, to fee fafhions, and to acquainte [Exercises and 

themfelues with the braueft fellowes : for if not for thefe caufes, I fee gentlewomen of 

MunidnoL B, E.] 

no other caufes why thei fhould iitt at their doores, from Mornyng 
till Noone (as many doe) from Noone to Night j thus vainly fpercd- 
yng their golden dales in filthie Idleneife and finne. Againe, other- 
forne being weary of that exercife, wil 7 take occafion (aboute vrgent 
affaires you nmft fuppofe) to walke into theTowne ; Sc leaft any thing 

1 wliorisli mates F. 

2 p rom here f p. gg^ /. 24, is from B: it's not m A. Heading in F : The 
dayly exercises of the Women of England. 

3 they scarse spend it wel instead of thereof F. * contentments F, 

5 beeyng not in F. 

f leaf 48 ; no head-line B. E has Hand baskets clokes to sinne. 
7 wil not in E, F. 



{This page is 
not in A.] 

[Hand baskets 
clokes to 
sinne. E.} 



[3 leaf 48, back. 

[Garden in the 
fieldes no better 
then the 
Stewes. E.} 



[Garden 1 ;, places 
of baudry. B, E.] 



' leaf 49. B.f] 

[Euery thing 
abused, is not to 
be remoued, but 
the abuse to be 
taken away 
onely. E.] 



88 Horrible whordome, in Ailgna, The Anatornie 

[might bee gathered,, but that thei goe about fereons matters indeede, 
thei will l take their bafkets in their hands, or vnder their armes ; vnder 
which pretence, pretie conceites are practized, and yet maie no man 
laie blacke is their eye. But if al other waies faile them, yet haue 
thei one which be fure will Ipeede- 

Spud. What waie is that,, I praie yon declare vnto me, 

2 P kilo. Seyng you are fo deiirous to knowe I will tell you. In the 
Feeldes and Suburbes 3 of the Cities thei haue Gardens, either palled, 
or walled round about very high,, with their Harbers and Bowers fit 
for the purpofe. And leafl thei might bee efpied in thefe open places, 
they haue their Banquetting houfes with Galleries, Tmrettes, and 
what not els therm fumpteouily ere&ed : wherein thei maie (and 
doubtlefTe doe) many of them plaie the filthie perfons. And for 
that their Gardens are locked, fome of them haue three or fower 
keyes a peece, whereof one they keepe for themfelues, the other their 
Paramours haue to goe in before them, leail happely they fhould 4 be 
perceiued, for then were all their 5 fporte damt. Then to tbefe Gar 
dens thei repaire when thei lift, with a bafket and a boy, where thei, 
meeting their fweete hartes, receive their wiihed defires. Thefe 
Gardens are exelent places, and for the purpofe $ for if thei can fpeak 
with their dearlynges no where els, yet there thei maie be fure to 
meete thew, and to receiue the guerdon of their paines : thei know 
beft 6 what I meane. But I wifhe them to amende, for feare of Gods 
heauie wrathe in the daie of vengeaunce. 

Spud. Why ? doe you cowdemne the vfe of Gardens 7 and houfes 7 
then altogether ? 

Pkilo. No nothyng leile. For I knowe they bee very healthful, 
comfortable, and holfome for mans bodie, and fuche thynges, as the 
vie whereof we can 8 not lacke. But I condemne thefe abufes, thefe 
corruptions, and enormities there vfed, 9 and I pray God thei maie be 
reformed. There is no thyng fo good but it maie be abufed : yet I 
am not fo precife that I would haue the thyng remoued for the abufe, 
but the abufe to be taken awaie, whereby the thyng it felf is made 

1 will not in E, F. 8 heading in F : Gardens in Englande. 

* leaf 48, back ; no head-line B. E has Gardens places of baudrie. 
4 might F. 6 the F. 6 best not in E, F. 7 7 and garden houses F. 
8 can we F. t leaf 49 ; no head-line B. E has Women good and badd. 



of Abufes. Horrible whordome in Allgna. 89 

[worfe. Nor I fpeake not againft the ffood and Godly women, for I ITbispageto L 

J 24, not zn A.] 

knowe there bee a greate number, and the Lorde Increafe the num 
ber of them that are chaffc, wife, fober, continent, and verteous Ma 
trones, and voyde of all thefe corruptions ! But againft thofe light, W denounce the 

,,,,.. lewd Harlots, not 

leaude, 1 and incontinent Harlottes (as It Is well knowne there bee too the virtuous Ma- 

^ trons.] 

many) that ramie to thofe places,, as fait as euer did the brothelles to 
the Stewes. And truely I thinke fome of thefe 2 places are little better 
the?2 the Stewes and Brothell houfes were in tymes pail ; I befeeche 
the Lorde to make 3 them cleane, either with the Oliue braunch of 
his mercie, or with the broome 4 of his Judgement, that this wicked- 
nefle maie be doen 5 awaie. 

Spud. Are thefe nice Dames, gentle, fober and difcrite, or other- 
wife,, giuen to chiding, braulyng, and vnquietnefie : For thei fhewe 
themfelues abroade (by reporte) as though butter would not melt in 
their mouthes. 

Philo. There are fome, fober, wife, gentle, difcrite, and verteous 
Matrones, as any be in al the worlde. And there be other fome (yea 
maior numerus) that are neuer well, but when thei be. either brawl- CWbmea good 

and bad, but the 

yng, fcoldyng, or fightyng with 7 fome 8 of their houiholde 9 : and fuche greater number 

naught. EJJ F.j 

deuilles, as a man were better to be hanged then to dwel with them. P leaf 49, back. 
B ut becanfe I haue finall experience hereof 10 my felf 5 n bu t onely by n 
reporte of them that haue made triall thereof themfelues, I will faie 
no more, committyng them ouer to the Lorde, to whom thei either 
itand if thei doe well, or fall if thei doe euill. B, E, F.] 

Spud. Seeing that by diuyne affiftance you ^ haue now finished P G 7 , back] 
your tra6lation 13 of the Apparell of Jllgna}^ Ihew me (I pray you) 
what other abufes be there vfedj for I am perfwaded that pride, 
the Mother of all 15 iinne, is not without her Daughters of iinne 16 
femblable to her ielfe. 

1 lewd F. 2 those F. s sweepe E j purge F. * sharpe rod F. 
5 put F. e those R 7 eyther with F. 

* leaf 49, back. Horrible whordome in Ailgna. B. 

9 or some others added in F. 10 therof E, F. 

11 n saue one iy t)y the E, F. 1S discourse F. 

u This is always printed England in F. ls all not in B, E, F. 

16 of sinne not in B, E, F, 



90 Libertynes, defend whordome. The Anatomie 



Whordome in 
Ailgna too too 
rife. 



Vain and vn- 
godly reasons 
pretending 
that whor 
dome Is no 
siune. 
[5 leaf 50. B.f] 



Oh wicked 
Lybertynes ! 
PG8] 



[Those that 
make whoredome 
lawfull, are 
worser then 
Deuills. EJ 



The horryble vice of Whordome in Ailgna. 

Philo. THE horryble vice of Whordome alfo l is ther too too much 
frequented, to the great difhonor of God, the prouoking of his Judge 
ments againfl them, the ftaine and blemifh of their profeifion, the 
euill example of all the world, and finally to their owne damnation 
for euer, except they repente. 

Spud. I haue heard them reafon, 2 that mutuall coition betwixt 
man and woman is not fo 3 offenfiue before God 5 For do not all 
Creatures (fay they) as wel reptilia terrce as volatilia C&li, the 4 creping 
things vpon the earth, as the 4 flying 5 Creatures 6 in the aire, and all 
other Creatures in generall, both fmall & great, ingender together \ 
hath not nature and kynd ordained them fo ? & geuen them mem 
bers incident 7 to that vfe ? & doth not the Lord (fay they) (as it were 
wztA a ftimule or prick, by his mandat, faing crefcite & multiplicamini 
& replete terram : increafe, multiplie & fill the earth,) ftirre them 
8 vp to the fame? Otherwyfe the World wold become barren, and 
foone fall to decay: wherfore they conclude that whordome is a 
badge of loue, a cognizance of amitie, a tutch of luftie youth, a 
frendlie daliance, a redintegration of loue, and an enfigne of vertue, 9 
rather meritorious than damnable : thefe, with the like, be lQ the 11 
exceptions 10 12 which I haue hard them many times to obiect 13 in 
defence of their carnal pollutions. 

Philo. Curfed be thofe mouths that thus 14 blafpheme the mightie 
God of Israeli and his facred word, making the fame, clokes to couer 
their finne withall : 15 worfe are they 15 than Lybertines who thinke all 
things lawfull, or Atheiftes who denie there is any God. The diuells 
themfelues neuer finned fo horribly nor erred fo groffely as thefe (not 
Chriftians, but dogges) do, that make whordom a vertue and meritori 
ous : but becaufe you fhal fee their deceptions difplayed & their 
da??mable abufes more plainly difcouered, I will reduce you to tho, 

1 also not in F. 2 reason this B, E, F. 3 so much. F. 

4 the not in F. f leaf 50. Libertines defend whordome, B. 

6 Creatures not in F. 7 proper F. 9 good will B, E, F. 

10 10 their ridiculous reasons F. n their childishe B, E. 

13 and friuolous obiections added in B, E. * 3 pretende B, E ; alleadge F. 

14 dare to added in B ; care in E; do in F. 15 15 Thei are much worser B, E, F. 



of Abufes. Gods curfe^ for whordome. 9 1 

firft inftitutioa 1 of this Godly ordenajzce of matrimony. The Lord The first 

_, _ . . _ .. , institution of 

our God, hauing created all tilings in Heauen, earth or Hell what- matrimonie. 
foeuer, created of euerj lex two, male & female 2 of both kindes 2 ^ gjjafso, back, 
and Lift of a! other creatures he made man after his own HkeneiTe & 
limilitude, geuing him a woman, made of a ribbe of his own body, to Gene. 2. 
be his 3 companion, & comforter 4 5 & iincldng them together in the Marc/ 9 " 
honorable Hate of 5 venerable wedlocke, he bleiTed them both, faying x Cor. 6. 
' crefcite, multiplicamini & replete terrain. ' 5 Increafe, multiplie, & 
replenifh the earth : wherby it is more than apparent that the Lorde, ' c 

whofe name Is lehouah, the mightie GOD of Ifraell, is the Author of 
Godly matrimony, inftituting it in the tyrne of mans innocency 6 in 
Paradice ; and that, as mee feemeth, for foure caufes. Firft, for the . . i. 

Manage m- 

auoydau/zce of whordom : Secondly, for the mutuall comforte & stituded for 

J 4 causes. 2. 

confolatio/z that the one might haue of the other in all aduerfities & 

calamities whatfoeuer : Thirdly, for the 7 procreation and Godly 7 pro- 3- [Procreatbno 

pagation of Children in the ieare of the Lord, that both the world 

might be increafed therby, and the Lord alfo 8 in them glorified. 8 

And. fonrthlie, to be a fisrure or type of our fpirituall wedlocke be- 4- [As type of 

9 & /r r Christ .and his 

twixt Chrift and his church, both militant and triumphante. This Church.] 

congreffion, and mutuall copulation, of thofe that be thus ioyned 

together In the Godlye jftate of blelfed matrimony is pure virginitie, 

and allowable before God and man, 9 as an action wherto the Lorde [ 9 leaf 51. B.tj 

hath promiled his bleiEng thorow his mercy, not by our merite, ex 

opere operato, as fome fhame not to lay. All other goinges together 

and coitions are damnable, pefUferous, and execrable. So, now you AH mutual] 

fee that wheras the Lord faith 'Increafe, multiplie, &: fill the & earth/ cept manage 

is vnlawfull. 

he alludeth to thofe that are cheyned 10 together n in the u Godly ftate [ HI] 
O f 12 matrimonie and wedlock, and not otherwyfe: For to thofe that go 
together after any other forte, he hath denounced his curfe and wrath 
for euermore, as his alfauing word beareth record. And wheras they HOW all 
fay that all creatures vppon the Earth do ingender together, I graunte it goe togither in 
is true 5 But how ? m fuo genere, in their owne kinde. There is no 

* leaf 50, back. Gods curse for Whordome. B. 

2__2 not i n E, F. 3 a for Ms E, F. 

4 vnto him added in E, F. 6 inconcency A ; innocencie B, E, F. 

?_7 #0* in B, E, F. 8 8 he glorified in him E, F. (be not in F.) 

f leaf 51. Fidelitie in maried couples. B. 
1 linked F. i 2 -i2 state of godly F. 



gz The Heathen detest whoredome. The Anatomie 



The fidelitie of 

vnreasonable 

creatures in 

mariage one 

towards an 

other. 

[6 leaf Sr, back. 

B.f] 



H i, back] 



How much, 
the Heathen 
haue detested 
whordome. 



Sundery pu- 
nishmentb of 
whordome 
amongst the 
Heathen. 



creature creeping on the earth, or flying in the aire, how irrationable 
foeuer, that dooth 1 degenerate as man dooth, but keepethe- the fame 
ftate and order wherein they were made at the firft} 2 and fo 2 if man 
did, he ihould not commit 3 abhominable whordom and filthie linne 
as hee dooth. It is faid of thofe that write de natura animaliitm, that 
(almoft) all vnreafonable beafts and flying fowles, after they haue 
once linked and vnited them felues togither to any one of the fame 
kinde, and after they haue once efpoufed them felues the one to the 
other, wil 4 neuer after 5 ioyne them felues with, any other, til the one 
be diifolued frow the other by death. And thus they keepe the knot 
of matrimonie inuio 6 lable to the end. And if any one 7 chaunce to 
reuolte, and go togither with any other, during the life of his firft 
mate, al the reft of the fame kind aifemble togither, as it were in a 
councel or parliament, and either kil or greeuouily punilh the adul 
terer or adulterefle, whether [so]euer 8 it be 5 which lawe I 9 would 
God -were amongft Chriftians eftablilhed. By all which it may appeer 
how horrible a linne whordome is in nature, that the very vnreafon 
able creatures doo abhorre it. The Heathen people, who know not 
God, fo much lothe this {linking linne of whordome, that fome burne 
them quick, fome hang them on gibbets, fome cut off their heds, 
fome their armes, legs and hands , fome put out their eyes, fome 
burne them in the face, fome cut of their nofes, fome one parte of 
their bodye, fome another, and fome with one kind of torture, and 
fome with another 5 but none Icaueth them vnpuniihed : fo that we 
are fet to fchoole to learn our 10 firft rudiments 10 (like yung Nouices or 
Children fcarce crept out of the fhel 11 ) how to puniih whordome, euen 
by the vnreafonable creatures, and by the heathen people 12 who are 
ignorant of the deuine goodnes. I3 God le merciful vnto vs / 13 

Spud. I pray you rehearfe fome places out of the woord of God, 
wherin this curfed vice of whordome is forbidden, for my better 
inuTuclion. 

Pkilo. Our Sauiour Chrifte, in the eight of lohn, fpeaking to the 

1 doeth so B, E, F. 2 2 whiche thing B, E, F. 3 commit such E, F. 

* thei wil B, E, F. 5 after not in B ; follows themselves in E, F. 

t leaf 51, back. The Heathen detest whoredome. B. 7 one not in B, E, F. 

8 soeuer B, E, F. io__io A. B. C. in F. 

11 swadling cloathes F. 12 people themselues B, E ? F. 

no t i n B, E, F. 



of Abufes. Examples for wlior mongers. 93 

woman whom the malicious leire? had apprehended In adulterie, bad Testimonies 

out of the 

her go her way, and fin no more. If it had not been a mofte greeuous woord of god 

whenn whor- 

nn, he would nener haue bid her 2 to fin therin 2 no more. dome is forud 

3 In the fift of Alalhtw he faith, s Who fo lofteth after a woman in [3 ^ 52 " 
Ms hart, hath committed the fact alredy, and therfore is guiltie of Mat. 5. 
death for the fame.' To the Pkarifes, sfking him whether a man 
might not put away his wife for any occasion? Ckrljte anfwered, 'for 
no caufe, faue for whordome onelj ' , inferring that whordome is fo 
hainoos a linne, as for the perpetration therof it ihalbe lawful for a Mat. 19; Mat. 

10 , L.UC. il. 

man to lequeiler 4 him felf from his owne wife, and the wife from her 
owne hiiihand. The Apoffie Paul fayth, * know you not that your 
bodyes are the members of Chrlfte ? lhall I then take the mem- i Cor. 6. 
bers of Chrifle (faith he), and make them the members of an whore r 
GodforUdf knowe yee 5 not that he who coupleth him felf with a 
harlot is become one body with her?' c flee 7 fornication (faith he), 
therfore, for euery iinne that a man committeth is without the body, 
but who committeth fornication, finneth againft his owne body.' And [The Bible 
in an-other place : c knowe you not that your Bodyes are the temples domj 
of the holy gholt, which dwelleth within you ? And who fo defbroyeth 
the Temple of God, him fhall God deftroy.' 

In an other place he faith : * be not deceiued, for neither Whore 
monger, Adulterer, Fornica^or, inceftuous perfon, nor fuch like, fhall r 8 leaf 52, back 
euer enter into the kingdome of heauen.' Again, ' Coniugium hona- 
rallle eft inter omnes: 9 Manage is honorable amongit all men, and the p H 2> back] 
bed yndefiled ; but whooremongers and adulterers, God fhall iudge/ 
In the Reuelation of Saint lohn it is faid, that they who were not 
defiled with women doo waite ypon the Lamb, whetherfoeuer he 
goeth. The Apoftle Paul willeth vs to be fo far from fornication, that 
it 10 be 11 not once named amongft vs, as becommeth Saints; with 
infinit fuch places, which, for breefnes 12 I omit, referring you in the 
olde Teftament to thefe and fuch like ia places, namely, the ao of 
Exodus, ao of Leuiticus, u Deutronomie 22, Deutro. 27, 2 Reg. u n, 

* leaf 52. Examples against whoredome. B. 2 3 sin F. 

* deuide F. 5 youF. 6 an F. 7 Flie F. 

f leaf 52, back. The rewarde of chast liners. B. 

10 it maie B, E, F. n be comes after once in F. 13 breuitie F. 

13 like not in E, F. U H 22 . Deuteronomy.| 27. 2. KmgesF. (J 22 
Deuteronomie^r Deutronomie 22, Deutro. in B, E.) 



94 Punishmentes for Whordome. The Anatomic 

[Bible bits Leuit. iS, 1 Exodus 22. Num. $, Eccle* 9, Pro. 23, Pro. 7 2 ver/e, 24. 

agams w ore pz^. As you haue now prooued by inuincible teflimonies of holy 



Scripture, that whordome is forbidden by the Lord, fo, I pray you, 
fhew mee the greeuoufnes thereof by fome feuere & rare examples 

Genesis 7, a. of Gods iuft Judgement, executed 3 vppon the fame from the 
begining. 

Punishments 4 Philo. The whole world was deftroyed with water, not any liuine; 

of whordom in - 

ail Age^ thing left vpon the erth (faue in the Ark of Noath 5 ) for the fin of 

whordom, incerl, & brothelry, vfed in thofe daies. Sodoma and Go- 
morra, two famous Cities, were confumed with fire and brimftone 

[6 leaf 53. B.f] from heauen for the like fin of whordom, adu! 6 terie, and fornication. 

Genesis 19 ; rpj^ c ^ e o ^ Q ^IchemitSi man, woman, and childe, weare put to the 

V7cucsi& 24 " 

Genesis 20. edge of the 7 fwoord for the rauiming of Dina, the daughter of Jacob. 

The Lord alfo tolde Alimelech that if he did not let go vntouched Sara, 

Abraham his 8 wife, bothe he and all his houiholde fhould 9 dye the 

G. 26. death, notwithftanding he did it ignorauntly. The very fame hapned 

Ge. is. to Ifaac alfb. ludah^ vnderftanding that his daughter in law was 

impregnate and great with childe, and not knowing by whom, com- 

2 Reg 16. manded that she ihould be burned without any further delay. 11 Was 

[Absabn, not Altaian, king Dauid his fonne, plagued all his life for going into 

Ge - 2 9- his Fathers Concubines ? And did not Achitophel, who gaue c ounce 1 

Reuben,] fo to do, hang himfelf ? Was not Ruben, the firft borne fonne of 

Jacob, accurfed for going vp to his Fathers bed ; and loft he not his 

birth-right, his dignitie, his 12 primacie, ouer his Bretheren for the 

ludi. 20. fame ? Were there not abooue threefcore and fiue thoufand men 

2 Reg. 13, 12. Ham for the adulterie doon with one Leuits wife ? Was not king 

[David, Dauid punifhed all the daies of his life for his adultery doon with 

Berfabe, Vrias his wife? Was not his fowne Amon, for lying with 13 

Solomon,] Thamar, ilain? Was not Salomon^ beeing peruerted with 14 hethen 

[i Reg. ii. B, women, caffc out of the fauour of GOD, notwithstanding being other wife 

' the wifeft Prince in all the world ? 15 Did not 15 Achdb, at the perfwa- 

1 Leuiticus n B, E, F. 

2 2 Prouer. 7 B, E. 3 poured forth E, F. 

4 beading in F : Examples of whoredom punished in all ages. 

5 Noah F. t leaf 53. Punishmentes for Whordom. B. 

8 Abrahams F. 9 shall F. w ludas A. de-delay (sic) F. 

12 and B, E, F. 13 his Sister added in F. u with many F. 

isis not i n p. 



of Abufes. Examples for whormongers. 95 

lions of lefakel, his curled wife, falling 1 to Idolatrie and woorfhiping 3 Rg 21. 

of Jdolles 2 and deuiis, fuffer 3 mofte craei punifliment In this life all BJJ^ 53 ' back 

his dayes$ befides, what he fnffereth now, God onely knoweth. Were p H & backj 

not the Israelite and Madianltl/h woman both ilain 4 by that woorthy Num. 25. 

man Phinces, who ran them both thorow the 5 priuy members with lud. 16. 

his lauelin or fwoord r Was not Sampfon brought to a miferable end, [Sampson, 

his eyes beeing bothe put out,, and he made to be a laughing ftock to 

all men, thorow his too much fauouring of wanton women ? Was not 

king Pharao wunderfully plagued, but for intending euii in his hart Pharaoh,) 

towards Sara, Abraham his wife ? Did not the Lord flay (with a mofte 

greeuous mortalitie) foure & twentie thoufand of the Israelites in [24,000- Israelites 

one day, for whordome and adulterie with the women of the MocJ)- 

ites and Madianits ? 

By thefe, and fuch like fearful Examples of the iuftice of God we ail pan- 

J 3 r jsht for whore- 

powred vpon thefe whoremongers & adultrers, we may learn to mongenng.i 
know the greeuouihes of the fame, and the punifhment due to all 
whoremongers and fornicatours, either in this life, or in the World 6 to 
come, or els in both: for if the Lord deferre the punilliment of 
whordome in this life, hee referueth it for the world to come, fufFer- 
ing the wicked to wallow in their finne, and to fil vp the meafure of 
fniquitte, that their damnation may be iuft. And if the Lord left not 
fin vnpunifbed, no, not in r his moft deer Saints, 8 what he wil & doo in [7 leaf S4 . B.tl 
them who dayly crucifie him anew, let the world 10 iudge. f 8 H 4] 

Spud. Now am I fully perfwaded, by your inuincible reafons, that 
there is no fin greater before the face of God then whordome 5 wher- 
fore, God graunt that all his may avoid it. 

Pkilo. You haue faid true, for there is no finne (almoft 11 ) compar 
able ynto it -, for befides that it bringeth euerlafting damnation to all 
that Hue therin to the end without repentance, it alfo bringeth thefe Whatetdis 

whordome 

inconueniences, with many mo : vidilicet, it dimmeth the fis^ht, It im- briugeth to 

J ^ mans body in 

paireth the hearing, it infirm eth the, finewes, it weakneth the ioynts, it this life. 
exhaufteth the marrow, confumeth the 12 moifture and fuppleme7?,t of 
the body, it riueleth the face, appalleth the countenance^ it dnlleth 

* leaf 53, "back. Examples for Whoremongers. B. 
3 should be suffered in F. * for Whoredome added m F. 

5 their B, E, F. 6 life E, F. 

f leaf 54. Many euils come by whordome. B 9 wil B ; shall E, F. 

1 godly E, F. u almost not in F. 12 the radicall F. 



96 Caufes of Baftardie In Ailg[na], The Anatomic 



{7 leaf 54, back. 

B.f] 

(? H 4, backl 

The small 
care to auoid 
whordome in 
Ailgna. 



Whormcngers 
runagates. 



Manage an 
antidotarie 
against Whor- 
dorne. 



the fpirits, it hurteth the memorie, it weakneth the whole body,, it 
bringeth 1 it into a 1 confuwption, it bringeth 2 vlcerations, 3 fcab, fcurf, 
blain, botch, pocks, & biles 5 it maketh hoare haires & 4 bald pates 5 
it induceth olde age,, &:, in fine, bringeth death before nature vrge it, 
malady enforce it, or age require 5 it. 

Sp. Seeing that whordome bringeth fuch foure iauce with it, 
namely/ death euerlafting after this life, and fo many difcowmodities 
belides in this life, I wunder that men dare commit the fame fo fecurely 
as they doo now a dayes. 

Philo. It is fo little feared m Ailgna, that, vn r till 8 enery one hath 8 
two or three Baflardes a peece, they efteeme him no man 9 (for that 
they call a mans deede) $ infomuch as 10 euery fcuruie boy of twelue, 
fixteen, or twenty yeeres of age, wil make no confcience of it to haue 
two or three, peraduenture half a dofen feuerall women with childe 
at once 5 and this exploite beeing doon, he fhowes them ll a faire pair of 
heeles, and away goeth he, Euro 12 velocius, as 13 quick as a Bee 13 (as they 
fay) into fome ftrange place where he is not knowen, where, how he 
liueth, let the wife 14 iudge, for, coelum non animum mutant qui trans 
mare citrrunt ; though they chaunge their place of abode, yet their 
naughtie dilpoiitions they retaine ilil. Then, hauing eftraunged them 
felues thus for a fmall fpace, they returne againe, not to their prifline 
curfed life, I dare fay, but vnto 15 their cuntrey, and then no man may 
fay black is their eye ; but all is wel, & they as good chriflians as 
thofe that fuffer them vnpuniihed. 

Spud. The ftate and condition of that Cuntrey is mofl miferable, 
if it be true you report : it weare much better that euerye one had 
his lawful wife, and euery woman her lawfull husband, as the 
Apoftle commaundeth, then thus to be 16 drowned 17 in the filthie fin 
of whordome. 

Philo. That is the only falue and foueraine remedy which the 
lord ordained againft whordome, that thofe who haue not the gift of 

i_i no t in B, E, F. * causeth B, E, F. 3 vlceration F. 

4 and not in B, E, F. 5 constraine F. 6 as namely B, E, F. 

f leaf 54, back. Causes of bastardie in Ailgna. B. 

8 -8 one h a th had F. 10 that E, F. 

11 all added in E, F. " pilo F. 

I3__i3 roiin( i as a hall F. 14 world F. to E. 

16 lye B, E. 17 and immerged added in E ; plunged F. 



of Abufes. Caufes of many beggers in Ailg[na], 97 

continencie might maiy, and fo keep their veflels 1 vndefiled to the p H S A; leaf 

Lord. Bat, notwithftajiding, in Ailgna there Is oner great libertye |f"arin 3 of 
permitted therinj for litle Intants in fwadling clowts, are often 



marled by their amblcions Parents and frends, when they know 

neither good nor euill j and this Is the origene of much wickednefle, 

& direcliie againU: the word of God, and examples of the primityue 

age. And belydes this, you ihall haue euery fawcy boy of x, xiiij, Euery Boy 

xvi, or xx yeres of age,, to catch vp a woman & marie her, without Woman to* P a 

any feare of God at all, or refpedt had, either to her religion, wifdom, 

integritie of !ye, or any other vertue ; or, which is more, without 

any refpecte how they maye lyne together with fufficient mainte 

nance for their callings and effat. No, no 5 It maketh no matter for 

thefe things : fo he haue his pretie puille to haggle withall, 2 it forceth 

not, 2 for that is the only thing he deiireth. Than build they vp a [Cottages in 

cotage, though but of elder poals, in euery lane end, almoft, wher H^v.} ane en " 

they lyue as beggers al their life. 3 This filleth the land with fuch 

ftore of poore people, 4 that in fliort tyme (except fome caution 5 be 

prouided to preuent the fame), it is like to growe to great pouertie 

and fcarfnes/ which, GOD forbid ! 

Sp. I canot fee how this geare shold be holpera. 

Philo. What if a refbraint were made that 7 none (except A restraint of " 
vppon fpeciall and vrgente caufes) should marie before they come p^^'^tack 
to xx or xxiiij 8 yeeres, or, at /Ae 9 kail, before they be xiiij B *^ 
or xviii yeeres old, would not this make fewer beggers than now [ 8 H 5, back] 
there are ? 

Sp. But if this were eftablHhed, thaw ihould we haue moe 
Baitards 5 and of the two, I had rather we had many 10 legittimats than 
many illegitimates. 10 

Philo. The occalion of begetting of manye Baftards were foone Howwhor- 

dorne may be 

cut of, if the punifhment which either 11 God his lawe doth allowe, or suppressed. 

* leaf 55. Causes of many beggers in Ailgna. B. 
2^2 not in B, E, F. z life after B, E, F. 

4 Mendicantes, or to speak plainely , of Beggers as wee call them B, E. E 
has plainlyer. For * of poore people,' F lias of Beggers as we call them F. 

5 remedy F. 6 extream misery F. 

f leaf 55, back. Remedies to suppresse whordome. B. 9 the not in E 3 F. 
10 10 children lawfully begot than many Bastards F. 

11 either not in F. 
SHAKSPEBE'S ENGLAOT : STUBBES. 7 



The punish 
ment for 
whordome 
ouer remisit. 



leaf 56. B.t3 



6H6] 

[Whoredome 
ought not to be 
punished by the 
purse. E, F.] 



[Let the Arch 
deacons look to 
it 13 



98 Due punifliment for whordome. The Anat[omie] 

els which good pollicy 1 doth conftitute, 1 were 2 aggrauated and exe 
cuted 2 vppon the Offenders. 

For the punifhment appointed for whordom now is fo light that 
they efteeme not of it * y thei feare it not, they make but a left of it. 
For what great thing is it to go ij or three dayes in a white fheete 3 
before the congregation, and that fomtymes not paft an howre or two 
in a day, hauing their vfuall garments vnderneth, as commonly they 
haue ? 4 This impunitie (in refpe6te of condigne puniihement, 
which that 5 vice requireth) doth rather animate and imbolden them 
to the ade, than feare them from it. In fo much as I haue heard 
fome mifcreants impudently fay, that he is but a beaft that for fuch 
white lyuered punilhment would abftaine from fuche gallant pafryme : 
but certen it is that they who thinke it fuche fweet meate here, mall 
find the fawce fowre 6 and fHptick 7 enough in Hell. [ 8 And yet as 
light and as ealie as this puniiliment is, it may be, and is daiely 
difpenfed 9 with-all for monie: and this is thought to be the beft 
kinde of punilhme?zt, to punifhe them by the purfe. Then the whiche, 
what can be a greater dilbrder in a Chriftian common wealth ? Is this 
any thyng els then to buye and fell the bodies and foules of Chriftians 
for monie ? Can the Pope himfelf doe any more the?z this ? Is not 
this a maintenance of the Stewes ? Yea, fo long as this is vfed, the 
Stewes {hall neuer be out of Ailgna. Let the Magiftrates therefore 
of the Eccleiiaftical Hierarchie (for to them I fpeake) take heede 
that thei be not maintainers of Stewes and whoredome, whereof thei 
would fo faine bee thought to bee fupprelTors. For this kind of 
difpeniing with "Whoredome, Adulterie, and Fornication for monie, 
and fettyng of them free a culpa, rulore^ f poena, n in this worlde, 11 
from the falte 12 it felf, 13 from the mame, 13 and puniihment due for the 
fault ? What is it els then not onely a maintenaunce, but alfo a 

1 l hath constituted F. 2 2 executed and aggravate B ; inflicted F. 
3 or els in a Cope (a ridiculous kinde of punishmente) added in B, E, F. 
4 [And truely I can not a little admire, nor yet sufficiently deplore the * 
(* that F.) wickednesse of the Eeclesiasticall Magistrates, in not punishing more 
greeuously, this horrible sinne of whoredome : for to goe in a sheete with a 
white wande in their handes, is but a plain mockyng of God, and of his Lawes. 
Added in B, E, F.] f leaf 56. No headline. B. 

7 bitter F. 8 p rom t ^ to p t <^ /, I g ) no t { n A. 

9 suspensed in E. 10 not in F. u u not in E, F. 

12 falte B, E ; fault F. "-.is not in F. 



of Abufes, Due puniflimeEt for whordome. 99 

[ftirryng of them vp to commit whoredome, when for a little monie [7W : i6w/ 

thei 1 maie be difcharged of ail gilte? And this beyng certalne, or at |TodispeTlce 

h<don 



leaft very likely, that whofoeuer getteth one with child, of what J^ oneyt isa 



reputation or degree foeuer Hie be of, (If he be fingle) he ftiall be forced 
to marie her, and that 2 for a little peece of monie, thei may both liaue 
a Boll of difpenfation. This beyng fo, who, I faie, will not feeke to 
afpire as high as he can, 3 and affay 4 to deflower (in hope of further 
game) as many as he male. 5 Tliis filuer punifliment is It, that 
defikth honeft Matrones, polluteth chali Virgines, and diihonefteth 
poore Maldes, to their vtter fhame and vndoyng for euer. I sale 
nothyng, how the monie receiued for thefe difpenfations Is bellowed, 
howlpent, nor wherevpon 6 Imployed. The Lord for his mercies 
fake, glue them grace to punillie vice seuerely, as the worde of God 
doeth comniaunde, and not after their owne fenfuall deiires, 7 and 
Hcencious luftes, that God maie be glorified, and their confcienccs 
diiburdened 8 at the greate dale of the Lorde. Added In B, E, F.] 

Spud. What punifliment would you haue inflided vppon fuch as 
commit this horrible kinde of finne? 

Philo. I would wiih that the Man or Woman, who are certenlye what kind of 
knowen, without all fcraple or doubte, to haue committed the horry- whordom^ 
ble fad of whordome, adulterie, Inceft, or fornication, eyther ihould 9 
drinke a full 10 draught of Moyfes cuppe, that is, taft of prefent death [as 
Gods word doth 11 commaunde, and good polllcle allowe B, E] ; or els, [ i ea f 57- B.f 
if that be thought too feuere (for 12 In euill, men will be more mercimll 
than the Author of mercie him felfe, but in goodnelTe, fare well 
mercy) than wold GOD they might be cauterized and feared with a 
hote yron on 13 the cheeke, forehead, or fome other parte of their bodye 
that might be feene, to the 14 end the honeft and chaft Chriffians might 
be difcerned from the adulterous Children of Sathan. 14 But (alas !) 
this vice (with the reft) wanteth fuch due punifhement as GOD his 
Word doth commaunde to be executed 15 thervppon. 16 

* leaf 56, back. Due punishment for whordome. B. z thus F. 

s may m E, F. 4 assay not in E, F. 5 can in E, F. 

6 whereunto in E, F. 7 appetites F. 8 discharged F. 

9 eyther comes after should in F. 10 full not in F. 

f leaf 57. A late exawple for whordom, in Ailg. B. 
12 as in E, F. I3 vppon F. 

u__i4 eil c[ that the adulterous children of Sathan, might be discerned from the 
honest and chast Christians B, E, F. 15 inflicted F. 1S vppon them E, F. 



ioo Two adulterers burned in Ailg[na]. The Anatomic 
[Magistrates The Magifbates wincke at it, or els, as looking thorowe their 

wink at whore- 

domj fingers, they fee it, and will not fee it. 

1 And therfore the Lorde is forced too take the fword into his owne 

hands, and to execute punifhment him felfe, becaufe the Magistrates 

will not. 2 
[3 H 6, back] 3 For better proof wherof, marke this ftrange & fearful iudgment of 

god, shewed vpon two adulterous perfons there/ euen the lafl day in 

effect, the remembrance wherof is yet green in their heds. 
[A most dread- There was a man whofe name was W. Rat furl 5 , being certenly 

full example of J & J 

two notorious knowen to be a notorious vferer (and yet pretending; alway a fingular 

whoremongers. . 

E 3 zeale to religion, fo that he wold feldom tymes go without a byble 

ras about him : but fee the iudgements of God vpon them that will take 

his word in their mouthes, and yet lyue cleane contrarie, making the 

[<5 leaf 57, "back, word of God a cloke to couer their G linne and naughtynefTe withall 7 ) ; 

[BndeweiL] who, vppon occafion of bufines, vifiting Lewedirl, a place appointed 
for the correction of fuch that 8 be wicked lyuers, faw there a famous 
whore, but a very proper Woman, who?7z (as is faid) he knew not 5 
but whether he did or not, certe?z it is that he procured her delyuery 
from thence, bayled her, &, hauing put away his owne wife before, 
kept her in his chamber, vling her at his pleafure. Whylefl thefe two 

[Whoremongers members of tJiQ deuil were playing the vile Sodomits together in his 

members of the . 

Demii. E.] chamber, & hauing a litle pan of coles before them, wherin was a 

very litle fire, it pleafed GOD., euen in his wrath, to ilrike thefe two 
perfons dead in a moment. The Woman, falling ouer the pan of 
coles, was burned, that all her bowels gushed out: the man was 

[ 9 H 7] founde lying by, his 9 cloths in fome partes being fcorched and 

[The punish- burned, & fome partes of his body alfo. But, which is moft Wonder 
ment of whor- 

dome by the f u n hi s arine was burned to the very boone, his shirt ileeue and 

Lord himself * J 

from heauen. E.] dublet not once perished, nor tutched with the fire. Wherby may 
be thought, Be not without great probabilitie of truth, that it was eue?i 
the fire of God his wrath from Heauen, and not any natural fire from 
the earth. And in this wonderfull & fearfull maner weare thefe 
cupple founde: which God graunt may be a document 10 to all that 

i Prom here to $>. 101, end of line 3, not in F. 
* not do it added in E. 4 in Munidnol, yr there E. 

f leaf 57, back. Two Adulterers burned in Ailgna. B. 

7 as many do in these dales added in E. 8 as B, E. 

10 or lesson admonitorie added in B, E. 



of Abules. Impunitie for whordome. 101 

heare or read the fame, to avoyde the like offence, and to all Magif- 

1 trates an Example to fee the fame punished with more ieueritie, to [* feafs8,B.*3 

the glorie of God and their owne dilciiarge, 

But fo fane 2 are fome from fufiering condigne punifhment for this 
horrible Hnne, that they get good maintenance with pra&ifing the 
fame. For shall yon not 3 bane fome, yea many thoufands, that line 
vppon nothing els, and yet go clothed Gentlewomenlike, both in their 
iilks, 4 and otherwyfe, with 5 their fingers clogged with rings, their wriiis 
with bracelets & Jewels, and their purfes full of gold and iiluer. And 
hereof they make no confcience, fo their Husbands know it not. Or [Many gette 

> ^ great liumges 

if they doo, fome are fuch peafants, and fuch maycocks, that either ^^^ s |? s F f 

they will not, or (which is trner) they dare not, reproue them for it. 

But & If the Husband once reproue them for their mifde 6 meanour, l 6 H 7, back] 

than they co&fpire his death by ibme meane or other. And all this 

commeth to paile becaufe the puniihment therof is ^noextremer, as it 

ought to be 7 5 And fome, both Gentlemen and others (wherof fome I 

know) are fo nulled herein, that hauing put awaye their owne wyues, 

do 8 keepe whores openly, without any great punilhment for it ; and [Putting away 

a honest wiues, and 

hauing beene conuented before the ^masriitery, and there beene 9 retaining of 10 

. whores. E, FJ 

depofed vppon a booke to put away their whores, haue put them 
f oorth at one doore, and taken them in at the other. 

And thus they dally in their othes with the Lord, and ftoppe the 
courfe of the lawe u with rubrum argentum^ wherof they haue ftor-e C 11 leaf 58, bact. 
to beftowe vppo fuch wlckednefle, but 13 haue not a mite 13 to giue 
toi^ards any good purpofe. 

Wherfore, in the name of GOD, let all men that haue put away [Lawe ought t 
their honeit wyues be forced to take them again, and abandon all without par- 
whores, or els to tafie of the law. And let all whores be cut of with 
the fword of 14 right Judgement 1 "^ For as long as this immunitie and 
impunitie is permitted amongeft vs, let vs neuer looke to pleafe GOD, 
but rather prouoke his heuie Judgements againft vs. And the reafon 

* leaf 58. Knowne whores kept openly. B. 2 Yea so farre of F. 

3 not omitted In F. * and Veluets added in F. 5 not in F. 

7 ? so easie and gentle as it is F. 8 they E, F. 

9 s magistrates and thepe F. 10 of na in F. 

f leaf 58, back. Great excesse and belly cheere, B. E has Whoredome: 

Honest wines put away. 12 vnguentum F. 
I3_i3 not a 



IO2 Great excefle in delicate fare. The Anatomic 

is, for that there Is no finne in all the World, but thefe v/hores and 
whoremaiiiers will 1 willingly attempt and alcheiue for the 1 imoying of 
I 2 " H sj their whordoroe. 2 And Hell, deftru&ion, and death euerlafting, is the 

guerdon therof, and yet men cannot ^be aware 3 of it. The Lord 
4 rcmooue it from all his Children/ and prefent them blameles before 
his tribunall leate, without fpotte or wrincle at that & great day of the 
Lord! 

Spud. What 6 memorable thing 6 ' els haue you feen there fre 
quented I for feeing you haue begun in parte, I pray you defcribe the 
whole. 

Gluttonie 7 and drunkennefie* in jtilg^nd]. 

Pkilo. I Haue feene that which greeoeth mee to report. The 
"Dnintiefarev People there are marueiloufly giuen to daintie fare, gluttonye, belli- 
Kourmandice cheer, & many allb to drunkemieile & gourmandice. 
p leaf 59, B.*J 9 $P' That is a manifefk argume??t of good hospitality, which 

both is commended in the word of God, & which I know you wi! not 
leprehewde. 

Ph. Godly hofpitalitle is a thing in no wife worthy of reprehen- 

GodiyRospi- flo/?, but rather of great co7remendatio7z > for many haiie receiued 

commended. Angels into their houles, at unawares,, by vfing the fame, as Abraham, 

Lot, Tolias, & many others. Yet if hofpitality flow ouer into fuper- 

fluitie & riotous excefTe, it is not tolerable : for 10 now adaies, if the 

table be not couered 11 fro?;? the one end to the other, as thick as one 

[ r2 II s; back] difh can fta?2d by another, I2 with delicat meats 13 of fnndry forts,, one 

Vantieof eleane diiFerent from an other, and to euery dih a feuerall fawce 

rneats, 'w'i'th appropriat to 14 his kinde, It is thought there vnworthye the nanie of a 

sawe^ inous dinner. Yea, fo many difhes ihal you haue pelferuing the table 15 at 

once, as the infaciableft Helluo, the deuouringeft glutton, or the greed- 

ieft cormorant that is 16 , can fcarfe eat of euery one a litle. And thefe 

many ihall you haue at the firft courfe; as many at the fecond ; and, 

Excessc of peraduenture, moe at the third; befydes other fweet condyments, 17 and 

delicat confections of ipiceries, and I cannot tell what. And to thefe 

i__i gredily commit for F. 3 3 beware B, E, F. 

4__4 keep all his children from it F. 5 the F. 6 6 notable abuses F. 

^ The Gluttonie B, E, F. 8 excesse B, E, F. 

* leaf 59. Great excesse in delicate fare. B. 10 and B, E, u pestered F. 

13 meat F. u in F. 15 thereon F. i6 ever was B, E, F. l7 iunkets F. 



of Abiifes. Hard fare holsomest. 103 

dainties, all kind of wynes are not wanting, you may be fore. Oh, 

what niiitle l is this ! what vanitie, exceiTe,- ryot and fuperflultie Is The austerity 

9 J r andG'>dly 

iieare ! Oh, farewell former world ! For I iiane heard my Father fay simplicity of 

the former 

that in his dayes, one difh or two of good wholfome $ meate was World IB meats 

J * *=> and dnnkes. 

thought fufficient for a man of great worfliip to dyne withali 5 and If t 3 leaf 59, back. 

they had three or four kinds, It was reputed a fumptuous feafh A 

good peece of beef was thought tha/x good meat, and able for the 

beft 5 bat now it is thought too groffe, for their tender flomacks 4 are 

not able 4 to difgefi 5 fuch cnide and harfli meats 5 : For if they ihold, 

(their ftomacks being fo queafie as they be> and not able 6 to concocl it) Nke, tender 

stomacks. [not 

they fhould but 7 euacuat the fame againe, as other filthie excrements/ * F,] 
their bodies receiurag no nooriili 9 meiit therby, or els ie they fliouid m lye P * *1 
ffincking in their ftomack&j as darte in a filthie finck or prynie. If 
this be fo, I marueile how owe fore-Fathers lyued, who eat litle els but 
cold meats., grolle and hard of diigefiure. Yea, the ll moft of them fead 
vppon graine, corne, roots, pulfe, herbes, weeds, and fuch other bag 
gage, and yet lined longer then wee, I2 helthfulier then we, were 12 of 

oo^j Q y 9 

better completion then we, and much Stronger then we in euerie 
Telpeft : wherfore I cannot perfwade my felf otherwife, but that our 
micenes and corioufnes in dyet hath altered our nature, diftempcred 
our bodies, and made vs more ls fubied to milHoiis of H difcrafies and 14 
difeales thea eaer weare oiir Forefathers fiibied: vnto, and confequently 
of feorter life then they. matatt 

Spud. They wil aike you agai% wherfore god made fuck varietie 
of meats, but to be eaten of men 3 what anfwere giue you. to that r 

15 Philo* The Lord our God ordained, indeede, the vfe of meat 10 and L 13 kaf * B.f I 
drinks for man to fufiain the fraile, caduke, 17 and brittle eftate 18 of his 
mortall body wlthall 19 for a time 5 But he gaue 20 it him not 20 to 21 delight 
and 22 wallow therm continually 2 ^ for as the olde Adage faith, No 

1 wliat prodigality added in F. ^ wliat excesse F. 

* leaf 59, back. Hard fare liolsomest B. 4 4 and 5 5 not 2/2, B, E, 

F. From snch to prynie, line 13, not in F. so vnable_/0r not able B, EL 
7 but not in B ; might laappely E* 8 crude and indigest B, E. 

io___io i t would B ; might E. 11 the n&t in F. 

12 were before kelthMler B, E, F, 13 more not in B, E, F. U H no t i n F, 
f leaf 60. How meates bryng destraction. B. 16 meates B, E, F. 17 not in F. 
18 state F. IQ withaE not in F, 20 30 thew not unto Mm B, E, F. 21 for F, 
22 pleasure onely, bat for necessitie and aeede F j as tlie swiae do m ye 
mire added after continually in B, E. 



io4 Small releefe for the poore. The Anatomic 



Medietie to be 
obserued in 
meats. 

[7 I j, back] 



When meats 
and drinks are 
Instruments of 
destruction 
vnto vs. 



Ge. 24, 



i Reg 3/4 

[ X 5 leaf 60, back. 

B.*J 

[Bible instances 

of the evils of 

Gluttony.] 



Daniel $ 
verse 5 1 



[ IS sign. I 2] 
Luc. 1 6, 



Mat. 4. 
[The Devil 
tempted Christ 
through Glut 
tony.] 



muenduin?- vt edamus, fed edendum 2 vt viuamus : "Wee s mnrl not line 3 to 
eat, but wee mull 4 eat to liue^ wee muft not fwill and ingurgitate onr 5 
ifomacks fo fill, 6 as no more can be crammed 7 in. The Lord willed 8 
that they fhould be ordinarle 9 meanes to preferue 10 the irate of 10 our 
bodyes u a time, whllfte we line and foiourne in this vafte wildernes 
of the worlde, but not that they fhould be Infbrurnents of deflru&ion 
to vs bothe of body and foule. And truely they are no leiTe when 
they are takera immoderatly without the feare of God. And 12 dooth 
not the impletion and facietie of meates and drinks prouoke luft ? as 
Hiero faith,, Fenter Mero eftuans fpumat in libidinem, the belly enflamed 
with wineburfteth foorth into lufi Doth not lull bring foorth finne, 
and fin bring 13 foorth death ? The Children of Ifrael, giuing them- 
felues to delicat fare & gluttony, fel to Idolatrie, facriledg & apoitaiie, 
worshipping flocks, Hones, and deuils, in-fted of the lining God, The 
fonnes of Hely the Prieft giuing therafelues to daintie fare & belly- 
cheere, fell Into fuch fin as the Lord flew them all, & their farther 
alfo, for that he chaftifed them not for the fame. The Children of 
bleffed lob, In midft of all their banquetings & ryot, were flam by 
the lord, the whole houfe falling vpon them, and deflroying them 
moft pitifully. Balthqfar, king of the Chaldeans, in midft of all his 
good cheer, law a hand writing vpon the wall thefe woords, mene 17 
techel upharjin, iignifiing that his king-dome fliould be taken from him ; 
and fo it was, and he flain the fame night by the 18 hand of the lord. 
The rich glutton in the Gofpel, for his riotous feaftings & propofter- 
ous 19 liuing, was coTzdemned to th& fire of hel. Our Father Adam, 
with all his of-fpring (to the end of the world) was condemned to 
hel-fire for taking one apple to fatisfie his glotonus defire withall. 
Gluttony was one of the chiefeft canons wherwith the deuil aflailed 
Chrifte, thinking therby to batter his kingdome &: to win the feeld 
for euer 5 yet not withftanding the greeuoufnes heerof, the fame is 
thought to be a coutena?zce & a great credit to a marc In Ailg\na\. But 
true hofpitality confifteth not in many dilhes, nor in fun dry forts of meats 

1 viuiimis F. 3 edimus F. 3 - 3 Hue not F. * must not in F. 

so much into our B, E, F. 6 so ful not in B, E, F. 8 prouided them E, F. 

9 as F, io_io mi in F. u for a B, E, F. . 12 Besides that B, E, F. 

13 bringes F. u 3 Reg. 2. in B, E, F. 

* leaf 60, back. Small reliefe for the poore. B. E has Gluttony punished. 
16 verse 5. 25. in B, E, F. w mene added in B, E, F. 10 inordinate F. 



of Abufes. Diueditle of meats hurtful. 105 

(the fubstance wherof Is chaunged 1 almofte into accidents thorow 
their curious cookries, & 2 which doo help to 2 rot the 3 bodies & fhorten 
their dales) but rather in giuing liberaEy to the poor and indigent 4 
members of lefts Chrifte, helping them to meat, drink, lodging, 
clothing, 5 & ftich other neceilaiies wherof they ftand in need. [S Ieaf6z - B -* ] 

But fuch is their hofpitality, thai the poor haue the lead part of it : The small 

. . releefofthe 

you ihal haue 20, 40, 60, yea a C li. fpent in forne one houle in ba#- 



queting & felling, yet the poor ihall haue litle or nothing : if they 

haue any thing, It is but the refufe 6 meat, fcraps & parings, 7 fuch as 

a dog would fcarfe eat fo/?ztimes ; & wel if they can get thai too : infted 

wherof, 8 not a few haue whipping cheer to feed thewi 9 withall. 10 it 

is counted but a fmal matter for u a man that can fcarflie difpend I 11 12, back] 

fortie pound 12 by the yeer, to bellow againil one time, ten or twentie 

pound 12 therof in ipices. And truely, fo long & fo greeuoufly hath this 

excefie of gluttonie and daintie fare furfFeted in Ailgna, as I feare mee, 

it wiE fpue out many of his Maifters out of dores before it be long. 

But as fome be ouer lar^eous. 13 fo other fome are fpare enough ; for lacking vp of 

* Gates whew 

when any meat is fairing, then lock they vp their gates, that no man *&& is stir - 

may come in. An-other forte 14 haue fo many houfes that they vit 

them 15 once in vii yeer 16 ^ many Chimnies, but little fmokej faire 

houfes, but fmall hofpitalitie. And to be plaine, there are three cankers, 

which, in procefle of time, wil eat vp the whole common Welth, 17 if Three deuour- 

ing Cankers. 

ipeedy reformation be not had, namely, daintie Fare, gorgious Build 

ings, and fumptuous Apparel 5 which three jibufes^, 19 efpecially, yet p 9 leaf 61, back.] 

not without their cofin germanes^, doo floriih there. God remooue them 

thence, for his Chriflesfake. 

Spud. I had thought that dainty fare & good cheer had both noorifhed 
th& body perfectly, andalfo prolo?zged life 20 } &doothitnot fo think you ? 

P/zzZo. Experience, as [by] 21 my former intimations you may 

1 changed E. 

2 2 impotionate slibber sawces wMch B, E-, F ; (sibber in B.) 
3 their B, E, F. 4 needy F. * leaf 61. Small hospitalitie in Ailgna. B. 

6 refuge A ; refuse B, E, F. 7 pairings A ; parings B, E, F. 

8 now and then not B, E, F. 9 themselues B, E, F. 10 yea it B, F. 

12 poundes F. 13 and profluous herein added in F. 

14 forte A ; sorte B, E, F. 15 not once B, E, F. 16 yeares F, 

17 of Ailgna added in B, E, F. ls three deuouryng Cankers B, E, F. 

f leaf 6 1, back. Diuersitie of meates hirrtfuIL B. 
20 life greatly B, E, F. 2l by F ; in B, E 5 loth by and in wanting in A, 



Who more 
subiect to 
infirmities 
then they that 
fare best ? 
[ r sign. I 3. A.] 



Eating of di- 
uers meats 
at one time 
hurtful. 

[ I0 leaf 62. B.fl 



The spedy de 
cay of those 
that geue 
thewselues to 
daintie fare. 
F* I 3, baclc] 



106 The decay of daintie feeders. The Anatomie 

gather, teacheth clean contrary $ for who is ficklier then they that fare 
delicioufly euery day ? who is corrupter ? who belcheth more ? who 
looketh wurfle, who is weaker x and feebler then they? who hath 
more filthie colour/ flegme, and putrifadion (repleat 3 with grorTe 
humors) then they ? and, to be breef, who dyeth fooner then they ? 
Doo wee not fee the poor man that eateth brown bread (wherof fome 
is made of Rye, barlie, peafon, beans, oates, and fuch other groffe 
graines) & drinketh fmall drink, yea, fometimes water, feedeth vpon 
milk, butter, and cheefe ; (I fay) doo wee not fee fuch a one helth- 
fuller, fhronger, 4 and longer liuing, 5 then the other that fare 6 daintily 
euery day ? And how mould it be other wife ? for wil not the eating 
of diuers and fundry kindes of meats, of diuers 7 operations and quali 
ties (at one meale) engender diftemperance in the 8 body? And the 
body diftempered, wil it not fall into fundry del eafes ? one meat is 9 of 
hard difgefture, another of light 9 $ & whilft the meate of hard dif- 
gefture is in conco<5ti?zg, the other meat 10 of light difgefiure dooth 
putrifie and itink; & this is the very mother of all difeafes. one 
is of this qualitie, another of that-, one of this operation, another 
of that 5 one kind of meat is good for this thing, another is naught 
for that. Then, how can all thefe contrarieties & difcripancies n 
agree togither in one body at one & the fame time ? wil not one 
contrary impugne his contrary 12 ? one enemy reiift an other ? Then, 
what wifeman is he that wil receiue all thefe enemies into 13 the caflle 
of 13 his u body at one time ? Doo we not fe, by experience, that they 
that giue themfelues to dainty fare and fweet meats are neuer in helth? 
dooth not their light wax dim, their eares hard of hering, their teeth 
rot & fall out? dooth not their breth ftink, their ftomack 15 belch foorth 
filthy humors, and their memory decay ? doo not their fpirits and fences 
become heuie & dul by reafon of 16 ^exhalations & impure vapors, 
which rife vp in 1817 their gingered brefts & fpiced fbmacks? &, 

2 choller E, F. 3 together E, F. * fairer complectioned added in B, E, F. 
5 lined F. 6 fared F. 7 contrary B, E, F. 3 the not in F. 

9 9 hard of disgestion, another light F. 
f leaf 62. The decay of daintie feeders. B. 

11 repugnacies F. 13 contrary A. is__i3 no ti n p. 

15 stomackes F. ie O f fae B, E, F. 

17 i? faQ filthy vapours and stinking fumes which rise from F. 
18 from B, E. 



of Abufes. [Drunkennesse in Ailgna/] 107 

fumyng vp to the lied, they 1 mortifie the vital! fplrits & intelletiue 
powers. 2 dootli not 2 the whole body become 3 purfie & corpulent, yea, 
ibmtimes decrepit therwith, 4 & ful of all filthy corruption ? The Lord 
keep Ms ckqfenfrom the tafling thervf? 

6 Sp. You fpake of dniTzkeTmes, what fay you of that ? 

1 Phi. I fay that it is a horrible vice, & too too much vied in g leaf 62, back 

. Euery cmztrey, ci tie, towne, village, 8 & other, 8 hath 9 abun- 
da?ice of alehoufes, tauems, & Innes, 10 which are fo fraughted 10 with 
mault-wormes, night & day, that you would wunder to fe them. Yon The beastly 

"^ vice of drunk- 

ihal haue them there fitting at ike wine and goodale all the day long, nces frequented 

J inAilgna]. 

yea, all the night too, 11 peraduenture 12 a whole 12 week togither, fo 

long as any money is left ; fwilling, gulling, & carowfing from one to 

another, til neuer a one can fpeak a redy woord. Then, when with 

the fpirit of the buttery they are thus poiTeiTed, a world it is to con- 

iider their gefhires 13 & demenors, 14 how they fhit and ftammer, ftagger 

& reele too & fro like madmen : 15 fome vomiting, fpewing, & dif- [ J s sign. 14. A.] 

gorging their filthie ftomacks^ other fome 16 (Honor Jit aurilus) Thespmteof 

pifling vnder the boord as they fit, & which is mofl horrible, fome drunknes and 

fall to fwering, carfing, & ba/zning, interlacing their fpeeches wzt^ 

curious tearms of blaiphemie, to the great difhonour of God, and 

offence of the godly eares 1T prefent, 18 

Sp. But they wil fay, that god ordained wines & fhrong drinks to 
cheer the hart & to fuftain the body 19 5 therfore it is lawful to vfe them 
to that end. 

Philo. Meats (moderatly taken 20 ) corroborate 21 the body, refrefh The lotfcsome 

7 . . . ^ . . _ . . , qualities of 

me arteries, & reuiue the ipints, making them apter, euery member, to thobe that be 

dxunke. 

doo his office as god hath appointed 22 $ but being immoderatly taken pi leaf ^ ^.f] 

1 they iwt in B, E, F. 2 2 in so much that F. 

3 becommeth F. 4 withall F. 

5 A new chapter-heading in B mid E here : Drunkennesse in Ailgna, 

6 heading in F : Drunkennesse in England. 

* leaf 62, back. The beastly vice of drunkennesse. B. 

88 an d other places B, E, F. 9 haue F. 

io_io i n them, which are haunted F. n too not in F. 

12__12 ^1 the F. 13 their countenances added in F. 

14 one towardes an other, and towardes every one els, added in B, E, F. 

16__J6 not i n p. hearers B, E, F. 18 present not in E, F. 

19 body withall B, E, F. 20 by the blessing of God F. 

f leaf 63. The discommodities of drcwkennes. B. 

23 them added in E, F. 



io8 Drunkards wurffe then Beafts. The Anatomic 

(as commonly they be), they are mftrume;zts of damnation to the 
Thetransfi- abufers *of the fame, 1 & noorifh not the body, but corrupt it rather 

gttration of 

those that be 2 & cafteth 2 it Into a world 3 of defeafes. And 4 a man once drunk with 

drunks. 

wine or ftrong drink, rather refembleth a brute beafte then a chriflian 
man $ for doo not his eies begin to ftare & to be red, fiery & blered, 
blubbering foorth leas of teares ? dooth he not frothe & f ome at the 
mouth like a bore? dooth not his tung faulter and ftammer in his 
mouth? dooth not his hed feeme as heuie as a milftone, he 5 not being 
able 6 to bear it vp ? Are not his wits & fpirits, as it were, drowned ? 
Is not his vnderftanding altog[et]her decayed ? doo not his hands, & all 
his body 7 , quiuer 8 & fliake, as it were, with a quotidian feuer ? 9 B elides 
[ JI 1 4, back] thefe, 9 it cafteth him 10 into a dropile or plu n reiie, nothing fo foon j it 
The discom- infeebleth the iinewes, it weakneth the natural fbrength, it corrupteth 
the blood, it diffolueth the whole man at the length, and finally 



maketh him forgetful of him-felf altogither, fo that what he dooth 
being drunk, he remembreth not, being fober. The Drunkard, in his 
drunkennes, killeth his freend, reuileth his louer, difclofeth fecrets, 

g3 leaf 6 3 , back. ari( ^ re gardeth no man: he either 12 expelleth all feare 13 of god out of 
his minde, all looue of his freends & 14 kinffolkes, all remembrance of 
honeftie, ciuilitie, & humanitie $ fo that I will not feare to call drunk- 

Dnmkerds er( j s beafts, and no men : and much wuriTe then beafts, for beafts 

wursse thea . . 

Beasts. neuer exceed in 15 fuch kind of excefle or fuperfluitie, but alway modum 

adhibent appetitui, 1 they meafure their appetites by the rule of necef- 
litie; which) would God wee would doo. 

Spud. Seeing it is fo great an offence before God, I pray you 
{how me fome teftimouies of the holy Scripture againft it ; for 
whatfoeuer is euil, the woord of God, I doubt not, reproueth the 
fame. 

Philo. It feemeth you haue not read the holy fcripture very much, 
for if you had, you mould haue found it not only fpoke againft, but 
alfo throwera down euen to hel : for proof whereof, of infinit places I 

i l thereof E, F. 2~ castyng B, F. 3 sea F . 

4 besides E, F. 6 he not in E, F. G beeing not able F. 

7 euibrate added in B, E ; tremble F. 8 quauer F. 

s_9 mt i n E, F. 10 also added in E, F. 12 vtterly E, F. 

f leaf 63, back. Drunkardes worse then Beasts. B. 

14 and not in B. is j n any B, E, F. 

16 appetitui F ; appetitum A, with m altered by the pen to i. 



of Abufes. Teftimonles againft Drunkards. 109 

wil recite a few. The Prophet Efalas thundereth out againft it, fay 

ing, we qul confurgitis mane ad ebrtetatem fectandam : ' 1 Wo be to Esais 5. 

them that ryfe earlie to followe drankenneffe, wallowing therein from [I Slgn - J 5 A - ] 

morning to night, vntill they be fet on fire with wyne & ffarong 

drinke. Therfore gapeth hell, & openeth her month wyde, that the Testimonies 

glory, multitude, and welth of them that delight therin, may go 



downe into it/ faith the Prophet. The prophet Hofeas faith, fomicatio, GOD. 



vinicm et mujlum auferunt 2 anlmum. Whordome, wyne, s & ftrong 
drinke, Infatuat the heart of mara. 

The Prophet loel biddeth all Drunkards awake, 4 faying, e weepe loei 
and howle, you winebibbers, for the wickedneffe of definition that 
fhall fall vppon you.* 

The Prophet Halacuck foundeth a moft dreadfull alarme not only 
to all Drunkards, but alfo to all that make them drunken, faying, *wo 
be to him that geueth his Neighbour drinke till he be drunke, that 
thou mayfl fee his priuities.' Salomon faith, f wyne maketh a Man to Prouerb c. 20. 
be fcornfull, and ftrong drinke 6 maketh a Man vnquiet: who fo taketh S k m e ^ e a | 
pleafure in it, fhall not be wife/ In an other place, * keep not companie 
with wynebibbers and riotous Perfons, for fuch as be Drunkards ihal 
come to beggerie.' In the xxiij 7 of his Prouerbes he faith : * To whome 
is woo ? To whome is forow ? to whome is fbrife ? to whome is mur- Pmuerb 23. 
muring? to whome are wounds without caule? and to whome are 
red eyes ? Euen to them that 8 tarie longe at the wyne, to them that p 1 5, tack] 
go and feek rnixt wyne.* And, againe : ^Looke not thou vppon the 
wyne when it is red, and when it iheweth his colour in the 9 cup, or 
gooth downe pleafantlie, for in the end it will bite like a ferpent, and 
hurt like a Cockatrife, or Baiilicock, which flay 10 or kill men with the 
poifon of their fighte.* Again, 'it is not for Kings to drinke wyne, Prouerb 31. 

... [ TI leaf 64, back. 

nor for Princes to drinke ibrong drinke/ Our Sauiour Chrift, n in the B.tl 
gofpell of S. Luke, biddeth vs take heed that we 'be not ouercome LUC. 21. 
with furifeting and drunknes and cares of this lyfe, leaft the day of the 
Lorde come vppon vs vnawares.* 

Paule 13 to the Ephefians, biddeth beware that we 'be not drurck 14 

3 auferent F. * leaf 64. Testimonies against Drunkards. B. 

4 wayle E, F. 5 Joel 2 E. 6 wine F. 7 twenty and three F. 
9 any B. 10 slea F. f leaf 64, back. Drunkennesse forbidden. B. 
w S. Paule B, E, F. " drunken F. 16 not in E, F. 



no 



DrunkenneiTe forbidden. 



The Anatomie 



[St Paul against 
drunkenness.] 



Gene. 19. 

sign. I 6. A.] 



Examples 
against drunk- 
ennesse. 



[8 leaf 65. B.f] 
[Luc. 16. F ] 
Luc 16. 



Luc. 1 6. 



[ I2 I 6, back] 
How farr'e 
Di unkards are 
estranged fiom 
themselues. 



with wine, wherin is excefTe, but to be filled with the fpirit.' The fame 
apoflle, in an other place, faith, that 'neither whoremo??ger, adulterer, 
Drunkard, glutton, ryotous perfon, nor fuch like, flial euer enter into 
the kingdome of Heauen.' By thefe few places, out of many, you 
may fee the inormitie 1 of this vice, which is fo much 2 euery where 2 
frequented. 

Spud. Let me intreate you to fhew me fome examples withall, 
wherby I may fee 3 what euill it hath done In all ages. 3 

*Philo. Drunknes 5 caufed Lot to commit 6 molt lhamefull 6 inceft 
with his ownetwo Daughters, who got them both with Child, 7 he not 
perceuing it, neither when they lay downe, nor when they rofe vp. 
See how drunkennefTe aflbtteth a man, depriuing him of all fence, 
reafon, and vnderftanding. 

DrunkennelTe caufed Noah to lye with his priuities bare in his 
Tabernacle, in fuche beaillie forte as his wicked Sonne Cham ieiled and 
fcofFed at the fame. 

Thorow drunkennefle, Holopkernes, that s great and inuincible 
Monarche of the Affyrians, was ouercome by a Woman, hauing his 
head cut from his Ihoulders with a fauchone. Thorow drunkennerTe, 
King Herode was brought to fuche ydiocie and fooliilae dotage, that 
he caufed the head of good Ihon Baptljl to be cut of, to fatiffie the 
requeft of a dauncing ffarumpet. That riche Epulo, of whom g Luke 
niaketh mention, was for his drunkemiefTe and ryotous exceffe, con 
demned to the fire of Hel for euer ; with many moe examples, which 
for ihortnes I omit. Now, feeing than that drunkewnefie is both of- 
fenliue to GOD, and bringeth fuch euills in this lyfe prefent, let vs, in 
the name of GOD, auoyde it as a moft wicked thing and prenicious 
euill. For euery Drunkard is fo farre eflranged from himfelfe, that as 
one in an extafie of mind, 10 or rather in a playne Phreniie, he maye 
not be faid to befui animi compos, or 11 a man of founde wit, but rather 
a 12 very Bedlem, or muche worfe, no Chriftian, but an Antichriftianj no 

1 vnlawfulnes F. 2 2 not in F. 

3 3 the effectes thereof, and what punishment hath been shewed vpon the 
offenders herein in all ages. B, E, F ; (but F has therein.) 

* heading in F : -Punishment of Drunkardes. 

6 Drunkennesse B, E, F. 6 6 not in F. 

f leaf 65. Examples against Drunkennesse. B. 9 Sainct added in B, E, F. 

10 of mind not in F. ^ or not in B, E, F. 



of Abufes. Examples of thankfgeuing. 1 1 1 

member of Chriix lefus, but an impe of Sathan and a lymme of the 
Deuill. "Wberf ore, in the name of God, let vs auoyd al exceffe, im- 
brace temperancie and fobrietie, & recelue fo much 1 meats and drinks 1 
as may fatiffie nature, not the infaciat appetite of our fleihly 2 delires; 
Knowing that, except the Lord bleffe our meats and drinks within our 
boMyes, and giue them power & ftrength to nourifli and feede the 
fame, and our bodyes their natural! powers, euery member to doo his m 
office and dutie, onr meates fhali lye in our ftomacks, ftincking, finell- B 
ing, and rotting, like filthie carion in a 4 lothfom finck. 5 So farre of 
ought we to be from abufing the good creators of God by ryot, drunk- 
neffe, or excefie, that we ought neuer to take 6 morfeil of bread, nor 
fope of drinke, without humble thankes 7 to th& Lord for the fame. 8 
For we neuer read that our Sauiour Chriii euer eat or dranke, but he 
gaue thankes (or, as we call it, faid grace) both before the receipt 
therof and after. This needed 9 he not to haue done in refped of him- g 
felfe, but for our erudition 10 & learning, according to this fay ing, omnis meat & 
Ckrljii a&io nojtrd eft mJlruBlo : Euery adion of our Sauiour Chrifte 
is our example and inftrucliow, to follow as neere as 11 we are able. 
12 And thus much of diwkeneffe, which god grauwt may euery wher 
be auoided. 12 

if all that hath been saied hetherto, 14 bee not fufEcient to [A tcnftfe 



withdrawe vs from this beaffly vice of dronkennefle : yet lette vs fette 

drunkards.] 

before our eyes this mofte fearful! Judgement of God, executed vpon 

a forte of dronkardes, the ftorie whereof is this. The eight day |Amostdread . 

of February 1578 in the countrey of Swaben, there were dwellyng 

eight menne Citezens, and Citezens, fonnes, very riotouily and pro- 

digally inclined, 15 the names of whom, for the better credite of the 

ftorie, 16 I haue fett doune, viz. Adam Giebens, George Kepell, John 

Keifell, Peter Herfdorfe, Jhon Waganaer, Simon Henrickes, Herman I 16 if 6&. B.f] 

Fron, Jacob Hermans, 18 all whiche would needes goe to the Tauerne, 

vppon the Sabboth daie in the mornyng verie earely, in -contempt of 

i-irfiB,E>F. * greedy F 

* leaf 65, back. Examples of tiianksgiuyng. B. 4 all E, F. 

5 stinke F. 6 a added in F. 1 thankes geuing E ; thankes giuing F. 
8 before added in F. 9 need B, E, F. 10 example F. 

3, F. 



aref. 

is From here to I 23, f. H4, added in B, E, F. " heretofore F. giuen F. 
t leaf 66 ; no head-line B. E, F hoot The propertie of a good hoste. 
is Harmans F. 



[The propertie 
of a good 
Hoste. E, F.J 



[A caueat for 
cursers and 
banners. E, F.] 



leaf 66, back. 



[The desperate 
sccuritie of 
Dronkerdes. E, 
F.J 



[The demlles 
rewarde to his 
darlinges the 
Dionkardes. E. 
F.] 



112 The propertie of a good hoste. The Anatomie 

[the Lorde and his Sabboth. And commyng to the houfe of one 
Anthonie Hage, an honeft, godlie man, who kepte 1 a Tauerne in the 
fame Toune, called for burnte Wine, Sacke, Malmetie, 2 Hipocras, and 
what not. The hofte tolde them, that thei fhould haue none of all 
thefe., before the diuine feruice and the 3 fermon tyme were pafte, and 
councelled them to goe heare the facred woorde of God preached. 
But thei (faue Adam Giebins^ who aduifed them to heare the Sermon, 
for feare of Gods wrathe) denied, faiying : That thei lothed that kind 
of exercife. The good hofte, neither giuyng them any Wine hymfelf, 
nor fufferyng any other, went to the Sermon, as duetie did binde hym, 
who beyng gone, thei fell to curlyng, bannyng, and fwearyng, wifh- 
yng that he might breake his necke, or euer he came againe from the 
Sermon 5 and bruftyng forthe into thefe intemperate fpeeches, " the 
Deuill breake our neckes, if wee departe hence this daie, either quicke 
or dedde, till wee haue had fome wine!" Straight waie, the Deuill 
appered vnto them, in the likeneffe of a yong manne, bryngyng in 
his hande, a Flagon of wine, and demaundyng of them, why 4 thei 
caroufed not, he dranke vnto them, faiying : "Good fellowes, bee merie, 
for ye ihall haue wine inough, for you feeme luftie laddes, and I hope 
you will paie me well," who inconliderately anfwered, that thei would 
paie hym, or els thei would guage their neckes, yea their bodies and 
foules, rather then to faile. Thus thei continued fwillyng, gullyng, 
and caroufyng fo long, as till one could not 5 fee an other. At the 
laft the deuill their hofte, tolde them, that thei muft needes paie the 
ihotte,, whereat their hartes waxed cold. But the Deuill comfortyng 
thern, faied : ee Bee of good cheare, for now mufte you drinke boilyng 
Lead, Pitche, and Brimftone with me in the pit of helle for euermore " : 
Herevpon 6 immediatly he made their eyes like flames of fire, and in 
bredth as broad as Saucers. Then beganne thei to call for mercie, 
but it was to late. And ere thei could call againe for mercie and 
grace, the Deuill preuercted them, and 7 brake their neckes a fonder, 
and threwe mofte horrible flames of fire, flafhing 8 out of their mouthes. 
And thus ended thefe feuen dronkardes, their miferable daies, whofe 
Judgement I leaue to the Lorde. The other Adam Gibiens, who 



1 keep F. 3 Malmsie F. 

f leaf 66, back. No head-line, B. 
6 Heeeupon (sic) F. 7 and not in E, F. 



3 the not in F. 
5 scarsely in E, F. 
8 flashing not in F. 



of Abufes. An example of God's wrath. 113 

[councelled them before, to go to 1 lieare the Sermon, hauyng fome \TJK& page not 

iparkes of faith In hym, was preferaed from death, by the greate [The mercy of 

mercie of God, and greatly repented his former life, yeldyng pralfe idam 



vnto God for his deiiaerance. Thus haue I in fempiternam rel me- 

2 moriam, faithfully recorded the Storie of thefe eight dronkardes, and pieaf6 7 . B.*] 

of their fearfull ende, taken out of the 3 Dutche coppie printed at 

Arnfterdam, and at Straesburche, 4 for a caueate to all Dronkardes, 

Gluttons, and Riotous peribnes throughout the whole worlde, that 

thei orfende not the Lorde in the like kinde of offence. 

An other like example of Gods Diuine Juftice. {hewed vpon twoo tM exam P I , e of 

^ * r Godes wrathe 

blafphemous Dronkardes in Alrnaine, in the Tonne of Nekermofewe, and . se ' aere J 

lustice executed 

chaunced the fourth daie of July 1380, the truth whereof is as fol- ^^* 1 J >rounk " 

loweth. Thefe twoo Dronken verlettes, traiueilyng by the waie, came Aliaaine * E F -3 

into an Inne, and called for bread and wine : The Hofte with ipeede 

brought theni verie goodj but thei diflikyng the Wine, for the new- 

nerTe thereof, coni7/zaunded better Wine to bee brought 5 fo in fine 

thei had bothe newe, and old a good ftore. Tims fatte thei fwillyng, 

and caroufyng one to an other, till thei were bothe as dronke as Rattes. 5 

Then one of them powryng forthe wine, carouled to his fellowe, [Acaueatto 

blnspheniers, and 

the other pled^ynff hym. afked to whom he {hould drinker quothe contenders of 

r * J to J ^ the maiestie of 

this verlet " drinke to GOD " : he hearyng that, poured forthe wyne God. E, F.J 

alfo, 6 and dranke to God. This dooen, he afked his companion of 

whiche wine God mould pledge hym, of the newe, or of the old. He 

anfwered " of whether thou wilte." Then he, takyng the newe wine in 

his hande, filled the Cuppe therewith, and reachyng forthe his arme, 

as high as he 7 could, as though God mould haue pledged hym in deede, !? ^ 6 7> ^ c ^ 

faied thefe wordes : " God, I would faine knowe, what wine thou loueft 

befte: this newe wine is good inough, and too good for thee; if thou 

haddell 8 fent better, thou Ihouldeft haue had better 5 but fuche as it is, [Behoide the 

blasphemie of 

take it, pledge me quickly, and caroufe it of euery fope, as I haue this deum, and 
doen to thee, if not, thou doeft me wrong.'* Hauyng thus ftretched 
forthe his arme with the Cup of wine, and withall hauyng vttered 
forthe thefe wordes, the Lorde proceadeth in Judgemente agatnfte 

1 to not in F. 

* leaf 67. No head-line* B. E, F have An example of God's wrath. 
3 a in E, F. 4 Straesburcht F. 5 Swine F. 

* also not in E, F. f leaf 67, back. No head-line^ 8 hadst F. 
SHAKSPEEE'S ENGLAND: STUBBES. 8 



ii4 Couetoufnes in Ailgna. 



The Anatomie 



{Tkisfage, to /. 

23, not in. A.] 
[The Lord 
strikes the 
blasphemous 
drunkard. J 



[Oh fearefull 

iudgement of 
God, yet most 
mst punish- 
mente. E, F.] 



leaf 68. B.f] 



M sign I 7. A.] 



[England,] 
Ailgna a fa 
mous Yland. I0 



[hym : caufyng his arme to flande ftedfaft and vnmoueable, fo as he 
was not able to pull it to hym,, nor to ftere his bodie out of the 
place. And in this agonie he remained, 1 his countenaunce not changed, 
but roulyng his eyes to and fro, fearfull to beholde. And as for 
breathe, there was none perceiued to corne forthe of hym, nor yet to 
fpeake one worde he was 2 able: and yet for all that, feemed to every 
one to be a Hue. After this the people afTaied to remoue hym from 
that place, but 8 could not by any ftrength. In the ende thei tyed 
Horfes to hym, to drawe hym thence, but thei could not once ftere 
hym. Then thei aiTaied to burne the houfe, and hym withall, but no 
fire would once take holde of the houfe : wherefore, when thei fawe 
all their waies and deuifes to be frustrate, perfwadyng themfelues, 
that God had made hym a fpectacle to all dronkards, thei furceafed 
4 their attemptes, 4 and wiihedthe wil of the 5 Lorde to bee doen. And 
in this place, and in the fame pitifull cafe you haue heard, 
ftandeth this blafphemous villain to this daie, vnremoueable till it 
pleafe the Lorde, in the bowels of his mercie, to releafe hym. Whofe 
bleflyd will bee fulfilled for euer. The other Dronken beaft his com 
panion, thei hanged vppon a Gibbette, before the dore of the fame 
houfe, as he well defer ued ! Thus hath the Lorde in all ages, and at 
all tymes, punimed this horrible vice of DronkenneiTe, which God 
graunte euery true Chriftian 6 maie auoide, for feare of Gods ven 
geance. Added in B, E, F.] 

7 Spud. 8 Shew mee I pray, 9 the ftate of that Cuntrey a litle 
further : is it a welthle Countrey with-in it-felfe, or otherwyfe poore 
and bare ? 

Philo. It is a m oft famous Yland, a 11 fertile Cuntrey, & 12 abound 
ing with all maner of ftore, both 13 of riches, treafure, & u all things els 
whatfoeuer j but as 15 it is a 16 welthie and riche Countrey, 16 fo are the 
inhabitaunts, from the higheft to the loweft, from the prieft to the 
populare 17 forte, euen all in generall, wonderfully inclyned to couet- 

1 a long time after B, E, F. 2 was not F. 3 but they F, 

4 4 their enterprises any farther F. f leaf 68. No head-line. B. 

6 man added in E, F. 

8 In B, E, and F this begins afresh chapter, headed: Couetousnesse in Ailgna. 
9 pray you B, E, F. w This side-note not in B, E, F. 

11 and E ; and a F. 12 & not in E, F, 13 as well F. " as of F. 
i5_i5 the countrey is E, F. 16 Countrey not in E, F. 17 inferiour F. 



of Abnfes. Moderate care alowable. 115 

ouhes and ambition $ which thing whileft they follow, they can neuer [Englishmen 

covetous.} 

be fatiffied, for, crefdt amor nummi, quantum ipfa pcunia cre/cit: The 
lone of mony doth by fo much the more Increafe, by how much more 
the monle it 1 felfe doth increaie: and Me nature of a couetous man The nature of 

* a couetous 

is fuch that tarn dee ft quod habet, quam quod non halet : as well that ma - Ti - 

J J 2 2 [ J leaf 68, back. 

thing which he hath, as that which he hath not, is wanting vnto him. B.*] 

A 2 couetoufe man may 8 wel be compared to Hell, which euer gapeth 

and yawneth for more, and is neuer content with inough : For right 

as Hell euer hunteth after more, fo a couetous marc, drowned in the The loadable 

desire of a 

4 quagmire or plafh of auarice and 4 ambition, hauing hisfummani* vo- couetotise 

Luptatem repofed in momentaine 6 riches, is neuer content with inough, 

but ftill thirfteth for more, much like to a man iicke of the ague, who, 

the more he drinketh, the more he thurf 7 teth 5 8 the more he thurfteth, 7 T 7> **J 

the more he drinketh 8 ; the 9 more he drinketh, the more his difeaie 

increafeth. Therfore I hould it true which is writ, lurfa auari os ejl 

diaboll ; the powch of a rich couetous Man is the mouth of the deuill, ^ke P San f a 

which euer is open to receiue, but alway {hut to giue. 

Spud. But they will eailly wipe away this blot, 10 namely in faying, 10 
are we not bourad to prouyde for our felues, 11 our wyues, our children, 
& famelie ? Doth not the ApoftLe hold him for an infidell and ** a dene- 
ger of the faith, who prouydeth not for his Wyfe and Family? ^Is it 
not good to lay vp ibrathing againft a ftormie day ? wherfore they 
wil rather deeme themfelues good hufbareds, 13 than couetous or am- 
bicious perfons. 14 

15 P kilo. Euery Chriften Maw is bound, 16 in corafcience before God, C 1S leaf ^ B *t3 
to prouide for their 17 houihould & Family, but yet fo as his immoderat How farre^ 
care furpaile not the bands, 18 nor yet 19 tranfcend 20 the limits, of true bouwd toprc 

A j ' uyde lor nis 

Godlynes. His chiefeft truil & care is to reft onely in the Lord, who Fanulie - 

* leaf 68, back. The nature of a couetous man. B. 

2 Therefore may a E, F. 3 may not in E, F. 

4 quauemire of auarice and plashe of B, E, F ; after and F adds plunged In the. 

5 summum F. 6 momentary F. 8 8 not in E, F. 

^ and the E, F. 10 10 for B, E, F. " (sale thei) added in B, E, F. i 2 or F. 
is is A n ci therefore herein we shew ourselues rather good housbandes, care 
ful, and obedient Christians, B, E, F. 

14 This I haue heard them pretend for themselues added in B, E, F ; E has 
This exception have I ; F has haue I, and alleadgey&r pretend. 

f leaf 69. Moderate care alowable. B. 16 bound indeed B, E. 

* his B, E, F. ls boundes F. 19 yet not in B, E, F. > not the B, E. 



IS 

pro- 



n6 



Inclofures in Ailgna. 



The Anatomie 



Immoderate 
care for riches 
reproued. 

[3 sign. I 8. A.] 



Laud-Lords 

racke their 

tenantes. 

[8 leaf 69, tack. 



Inclosing: of 
commons 
from the 
Poore. 



[ 12 I 8. back] 



[Take heed you 
Richj who poll 
and pill the 
Poor!] 



giueth liberally to euery one that afketh of him in verity & truth, & 
reprocheth no ma?2 5 & withall he is to vie fuch ordinarie meanes as 
God hath appointed 1 to the performaunce I of the fame. But fo farre 
from couetoufnes, & from immoderate care, wold the Lord haue vs, 2 
that we ought not this day to 'care for to morow, for (faith he) fuf- 
ficient to the day is the trauail of the fame. After all thefe 3 things 
(with a diftruflfull & inordinat care) do the heathen feek, who know 
not God,' faith our Sauiour chrifl; * but be you not like to them.' And 
yet I fay, as we are not to diftruft the prouidence of God, or defpaire 
for any thing, fo are we not to prefume, nor yet to tempt the Lord 
our God, but to vfe fuch 4 fecundary 5 and inftrumental 4 meanes as he 
hath commaunded and appointed, to that end & purpofe to get our 
owne lyuing & maintenance withall. Eut this people, leauing thefe 
Godly meanes, do all runne headlo/zg to couetoufnes & ambition, at 
tempting all waies, & alfaying al meanes, poffible to 6 exaggerat & 6 heap 
vp riches, Q that 7 thick clay of damnation, to themfelues for euer. 6 So 
(likwife) La/2d 8 lords make marchandife of their pore tenants, racking 
their rents, railing their fines & inco??zmes, & letting them fo ftraitely 9 
vppon the tenter hookes, as no marc ca?z lyue on them. Befides that, 
as though this pillage & pollage were not rapacious enough, they take 
in and inclofe commons, moores, heaths, and other common paftures, 
wher-outthe poore commonaltie were wont to haue all their forrage 10 
and feeding for their cattell, & (which is more) corne for them felues 
to lyue vppon : all which are now in moft places taken from them by 
thefe greedye Puttockes, to the great impoueriming and vtter begger- 
ing of 11 whole townes and pariihes, whofe tragicall cries and inceffant 
12 clamors haue long nce pearced the Skyes, and prefented them-felues 
before the Maiefty of God, faying, 13 how long, Lord, how long wilt 
thou deferre to reuenge this villanie of 14 thy poore Sain6tts and vn- 
worthie 15 members vppon the earth? Take heed, therfore, you riche 
men, that poll and pill the poore, forthebloud of as manye as mifcarie 
any maner of way thorow your iniurious exactions, finifter 16 oppref- 

i_i f or the getting F. 2 to be added in F. * * ordinary F. 

5 causes added in E. 6 6 not in F. 7 the B, E. 

t leaf 69, back. Inclosures in Ailgna. B. 

9 straight B, E, F. 10 prouision F. " of many B, E, F. 

13 criyng B, E, F. " doen to B, E, F. l5 seelie E ; silly F. 

15 biting F. 



of Abufes. Fowling Lawiers, In Ailg[na]. 117 

lions, and indirect dealings, fhall be 1 powred vppon your heads 1 at the 

great daye of the Lord. Curfed is he (faith our Sauiour Chrift) that 

offendeth one of thefe II tie ones : It were better that a mllftone were 

hanged about Ms neck, & he caft into the middeft of the fea. Chrift 

2 fo entlerely loueth his poore members vppon earth, that he imputeth [^"^g 

the contumely which is done to anie one of them, to be done to him- ^f* 3 ^ 1S 

felfe, and will reuenge it as done to himfelfe. wherfor GOD giue them ?^ 

grace to lay open their inclofnres againe, to let fall their rents, fines, 

incommes, and other impofitions, wherby GOD is offended, their 3 

poore Brethren beggered, &, I feare mee, th& whole realme will be 

brought to vtter mine 8r decay, if this mifchiefe be not met withall, indosures 

and incowztred with verie fhortlie. For thele inclofures be the caufes 

why rich men eat vp poore men, as beails doo eat grafle : Thefe, I fay, 

are the 4 Caterpillers and deuouring locuftes that maiTacre the 5 poore, C 5 sign. K i. A.] 

& eat vp the whole realme to th& definition of the fame : The Lord 

remooue them ! 

Vpon the other fide, the Lawyers, they 7 goe railing 7 in their filks, Lawyers 

mfling f in [io 

veluets, and chaines of Gold : they build gorgeous howfes, 8 fumptuous A.] poore Mens 

riches. trufle FJ 

edefices, 8 and ftately turrets ; they keep a port like mightie potentates 5 
theyhaue 9 bands andretinewes of men attendant vppon them daylie 3 * 
they purchafe caftels & towers, Lands and Lord&ips, and what not > 
And all vppon the polling and pilling of the poore commons. 

They haue fo good confciences that all is fiih that comes to the 
net 5 thei refufe nothing that is offred; and what they do for it in pre 
ferring their Poore clients caufe, 10 the Lorde kno n weth, and one day [ leaf 70, feu*. 
theyfhall finde it. If you haue argent, or rather rubrum vnguentum, oyntmentto 
I dare not fay Gold, but red oyntment to greafe them in the fiffc with- ^^f 
all, than your fute fhall want no furtherance 5 but if this 12 be wanting, 
thara f arewel clyent 5 he may go fhooe the goofe for any good fuccefTe 
he is like to haue of his matter : without this, iheriffes & Officers wil 
returne writs with a tarde venit, or with a non eft inuentus, fmally to 
the poore maws profit. 1S So long as any of this ointmerat is dropping, 

1 l required at your hands F. 

* leaf 70. Inclosures vndoe tlie Poore. B. E also has Lawyers ruffling in. 
3 the B, E, F. 4 the not in F. 6 amende B, E, F. 

? 7 rufge i t ou t B, E, F. 8 8 not in F. 9 there bandes E 5 (their F.) 

10 causes B, E, F. J leaf 70, back. Powlyng Lasers, in Ailgna, B. 

12 this liquor B, E, F. I3 But so B, E, F. 



[ x K i, back] 
The pretesed 
excuse of 
Lawers when 
their chants 
haue loost 
their plees. 



The slalghtie 
practises of 



P leaf 71. B.f] 



The fraudu 
lent dealing of 
marchant 
Men. 



Artificers. 

[ X 4 sign. K 2, A.] 



Great dearth 
in plenty of all 
things. 



1 1 8 What maketh things deere. The Anatomic 

they wil beare him in hand his matter is good and iuit; & all to keep 
him in vre, till all be gon$ and than will they tell him his matter is 
naught : and if one afke them l why they tould not their clients fo in 
the beginning? they will anfwere, I knew not fo much at the firfi, 
the fault is in himfelfe 5 he tould me the beft, but not the worft 5 he 
fhewed mee not this euidence & that euidence, this prelident & that 
prefident, 2 turning al the fault vpo?z the fuggefter 5 wheras the whole 
fault indeed is in himfelfe^ as his own confcience can beare him witnelfe. 
In prefence of their clients they will be fo earneft one with another, as 
one (that knew not their flaightes wold thinke they would go together 
by the eares 3 ); this is 4 to draw on their clients withal ; but immedi- 
atly after, their clients being 5 gon, they la&gh in their fleeues to fee 
how pretily they 6 fetch in fuch fom 7 mes of money j and that, vnder 
the pretence of equitie and iuflice. But though thei carc for a time 
(preftigiatorum injtar 8 ), like cunning deceiuers, caft a mift before the 
blind world, yet the Lord, whofeeth ( 9 fuborned by none 9 ) the fecrets 
of all harts, mall make them manifeft to al the world, and reward 
them according to their doings. The 10 marcha?zt men, by their mart- 
ing, chaffering and changing, by their counterfait balances & vntrue 
waights, and by their furprifing of their wares, heap vp infinit trea- 
fures. n The Artificer 11 & Occupyers, euen all in generall, will not fell 
their wares for no 12 reafonable price, but will 13 fweare & teare pittifully, 
that fuch a thing coft them fo much, & fuch a thing fo much, wher u as 
they fwear as falfe as the lyuing Lord is true. But one day let them 
be fare that the Lord (who faith f thou {halt not fweare at all, nor 
deceiue thy Brother in bargaining') will reuenge this villanie done to 
his Maieftie. 

15 Into ftich a 15 ruinous eftat hath couetoufnes now brought that 
Land, that in plentie of all things there is great 10 fcarlitie and dearth of 
all thinges. So that that which might haue been bought heretofor, 
within this twentie or fourtie Yeers, for twentie millings, is now 

2 this Writing and that Writing added in F. 3 earers (sic] F. 

* instead of a shoyng home added in E, F. 5 bee B, E, F. 

6 they can E, F. f leaf 71. What maketh thynges deare. B. 

8 more>r instar B, E, F. 9 not in F. 

10 Vpon the other side, for the F. n 1J Artificers B, E, F. 

12 any F. 13 will not in E, F. 15 15 Yea, into such F. 

16 great not in F. 



of Abufes. Greed} r Couetoufnes in Ailg[naj. 1 19 

worth twentie nobles, or xs pound, 1 Tliat which than was worth 

twentie pound Is now 2 worth a C. pound,, and more : WJaerby the p leaf 71, back. 

rich Men haue fo balaunced their chefb with Gold and filuer, as they 

cracke agalne. And to fuch exceile Is this couetoulhes growne, as 

eueiy one that hath money will not ftick to take his neighbors houfe 

oner his head, long before his yeers be expired: Whertliorow 3 many a Taking of 

poore man, with his wyfe, children, & whole famelie, are forced to Hens heads. 

begge their bread all 4 their dayes 4 after. Another forte, who flow in 

welth, If a poore ma/i haue eyther houfe or Land, they will neuer reft 

vntill they haue purchafed It, gluing him not the thirde parte of that 

it Is worth. Befides all this, fo defperately giuen are many, that for The desperat 

the acquiring 5 of filuer and Gold, they will not s[t]icke to Imbrew to get money. 

their hands, and both 6 their armes, In /Ae blood of their 7 owne Parents p K 2, back] 

and Freends moft vnnaturally. Other fome will not make any con- 

fcience to fweare and forfweare themielues 8 for euer, 8 to lye, diflemble, 

and deceiue the deereft frends they haue in the world. Therfore the 

heathen Poet, Firgill, laid very well, Ofacra auri fames, quid non mor- 

talia peffiora cogis : Oh curfed defire of gold, what mifchief is It but 

thou forceft Man to attempt it for th& loue of thee ! This Immoderat 

thirft of Gold & monie bringeth an infinit number to fhamerull end ; Many 



g fome as homicides g for murthering and * killing $ fome n as latrones, 11 thorow 
for robbing & 13 Dealing: fome for one thing, fome for another,- ^So and diner. 
that furely I think l *mcdor eft numerus Hominum^ quos dim auaritzce 72 ' ^ 

peflis alforpjit, quam quos gladius vel en/is perforauit : 15 the number 
of thofe 15 whom the peililence of auarlce hath fwallowed vp, 16 Is 
greatter 16 than the nu??2ber of thofe whom the fword hath deftroid. 
The Lord affwage the heat 17 hereof with the. oyle of his grace, 18 If 
it be his good pleaiure and wil 1 

Spud. If I might be fo bold, I wold reqneft you to {hew me, out 
of the word of god, where this fo deteHable a vice Is reproued. 

1 pounds F. * leaf 71, back. Greedie couetousnesse in Ailgna. B. 
3 Whereby E ; Wherby F. 4 4 the dayes of their lines F. 5 getting F. 

6 bathe B, E, F. 8 8 not in F. 

9 9 as we see dayly, some are hanged F. 10 some for instead ^/"and F. 

n_n not f n p^ 12 some f or i ns tead of& F. 

f leaf 72. Testimonies against Couetousnes. B. 

u___u ^g nuin ber of men is greater B, E, F ; F has to "bzfar is. 

is 15 no f i n g ? E ? p\ i6__i6 not ^ B, E, F. n raging heate F. 

18 gracious mercy for grace F. 



120 



Punifhment of Vfurers. 



The Anatomie 



Math. 6. 
out S ofthe es 

Tgint coue- 
tousnex 



LUC. 6. 

Math, ix.3 



[Bible bits 

against covet 

ousness.] 



[5 le 



leaf 72, tack. 



Timo. vi. 



Psalm 39. 
Prouerbi. 



K 3, back] 



Mat. 5. 



Philo. Our Sauiour Chrift lefus, the 1 Arch-do6:or 1 of all truth, in 
his Euangely, the lixt of Mathew, faith, ' Be not carefull for to morow 
day, for the morow ihall care for it felfe.' 

Againe, 'be not carfoll for Apparell, what 2 you ihall put on, nor 
for meat what you ihall eat, but feeke you the Kingdome of Heauen, 
& the righteoufnes therof, and all thefe things ihal be giuen vnto you/ 
He charged his Difciples to be fo farre from couetoufnes, as not to 
cary two coates with them in their lorneys, nor yet any money in their 
purfes. He tould his Difciples another time, ilryuing which of them 

^ * J 

iliould be the greatteit, that he who wold be the greatteit, muil con- 
defcend 4 to be ferua?zt of all. When the people wold haue aduauraced 
him to haue beene King, he refufed it, and hid him felf. He telleth 
vs, we ' cannot ferue two Maifters, God & Mammon' : he biddeth vs 
c not to fet our minds vppOTz couetoufnes ' $ inferring that *" wher 5 our 
riches be 6 , there will our harts be alib. He faith, 'it is harder for a 
rich Man (that is, for a Man whofe trail is in 7 riches,) to enter into 
the Kingdome of God, than for a Caraell to go thorow the eye of a 
needle.' The Apoftle biddeth vs, f if we haue meat & 8 drinke and 
clothing, to be content, for they that will be rich (faith he) fall into 
diuerfe temptations and liiares of the Deuill, which drowne Men in 
perdition.' Dau id faith, e Man difquieteth him felfe in vaine heaping vp 
riches, & cannot tell who ihall polTeife them.' Salo7)i\pii\ C07??pareth 
a couetous man to him that murthereth & iheadeth innocent bloud. 
Againe, ' Hell and deftrudion are neuer ful, fo the eyes of Men can 
neuer be 9 fatiffled.' The Apoftle S. Paule faith, c neither Whor- 
mo?2gers^ Adulterers, nor couetous perfons, nor Extortioners flial euer 
enter into the Kingdom of Heauen.' And faith further, that ' the loue 
of monie is the root of al euil.' Chrift biddeth vs * be 10 liberal & lend to 
them that haue need, not looking for any reilitutio?z again 5 & neuer 
to turn our face away from any poore maw, & than the face of the 
Lord ihall not be turned away from vs.' By thefe few places it is 
rnanifeft how farre from al couetoufnes the lord wold haue al chriftiaws 11 
to be. 

1 - 1 teacher F. 3 E has Math. 9 ; F has no figure. 

4 humble F. f leaf 72, back. Punishment of Couetousnesse. B. 

6 is B, F. 7 in his F. 8 & not in F. 10 to be F. 

11 Ms children F. 



of Abules. Plagues for couetoufiies. 121 

Spud. Be their any examples in 1 fcripttures 2 to 3 fliew foorth the 
puniihmentes of the fame,, ie 4 fli6led vpon the Offenders therin ? 2 C 4 leaf 73. B.*j 

Ph'ilo. The Scripture Is fall of fuch fearful examples of the rail 
Judgements of God powred 5 vpon them that haue offended herein 5 
Wherof I will recite three or four, for the fatiffymg of your Godly 6 
mind. Adam was caft out of Paradice for coueting that fruit which pes " 
was inhibited him to eat. Giefe? the Seruant of Elizeus the Prophet, 4 Reg. 5. 
was fmitten with an incurable leprofie, for that he, to fatiffie his 
couetous defire, exacted gold, filuer, & 8 riche garments, of ]S"aaman, 
Ike K. of Stria his feraant. Balaam was reproued of his aiTe for his Num. 22. 
couetoufiies in sroing to curfe the Children of Ifrael at the requeft of [Bible examples 

00 ^ -i of punishments 



K. Balac, who promifed him aboundance of gold & iiluer fo to doo. 

Achab, the K., for couetoufnes to haue pore Naboth his viniard, flew 

him, 9 and dyed after himfelfe, with all his progeny, a ihameful death. [ 9 sign. K 4, A ] 

The SoTines of Samuel were, for their infaciable couetoufiies, deteined 10 Sa. viii. 

fro/72 euer inioying their Fathers kingdome. Tudas, for couetoufnes 

of mony, fould the Sauiour of the world, and betrayed him to the 

lewes, but afterward dyed a miferable death, his bellye burfting, & 

his bowels guihing out. Ananias and Sapkira his wife, for couetouf- Act. v. 

nes in concealing part of the price of their n la;?ds from the apofttes, ^ leaf 73 , back 

were both {lain, & died a fearful death. Achcm. was ftoned to death, 

by the lord his coTOnaandemewt, for his couetoufnes in Healing 12 gold, 

flluer, & lewels at the facking of Jericho, & al his goods were burned 

prefently. Thus you fee how for couetoufnes of mony, in all ages, 

Men haue made ihipwrack of their confciences, and in the end, by the [God's ju<%- 

* merits on covet- 

iuft iudgemeTit of God, haue dyed fearful deaths - } whofe iudgments I ous men -3 
leaue to the Lord. 

Spud. Seeing that couetoufnes is fo wicked a fin, & fo offenfiue 
both to God & Man, &: pernicious to the Ibule, I marueile what 
moueth Men to followe the fame 13 as they doo. 

Ph. Two things u moue me/i to affect mony fo 15 much as they 

i in the holie E, F. (holy F.) 

i _ 2 O f th e Justice of God, inflicted vpon them that haue offended herein F. 
3 that E. * leaf 73. Plagues for Couetousnesse. B. 

5 executed F. 6 Godly not in F. 

7 Gehesie F. 8 and other F. lo restrained F. 

f leaf 73, hack. Vaine titles of [maister and E] worship in Ailgna. B. 

12 for F, I3 so rauch added in F. 

14 in my iudgement, added in B, E, F ; (F adds doe.) 15 so so A. 



Vsurie in Ailgna. 



The Anatomic 



What make 
Men to affect 
money. 



K 4, back] 



Euery Begger 
almost is call 
ed Maister at 
euery word. 



P leaf 74- B.f] 



[Titivfllers, that 
is, flattering 
fellows. E, F.] 



Refusing of 
vaine Titles. 
{not in E, F.] 



1 sign. K 5. A.] 



do : the one, for 1 feare leaft they fhold fal into pouertie & beggery, (oh, 
ridiculous 3 indelitie !) the other, 3 to be aduanced &: promoted to high 
dignities : honors vpow earth. And thei fee the world is fuch, that he 
who hath mom enough ihalbe rabbled &: rnaiftered at euery word,, and 
withal faluted with 4 5 the vaine title of 6 ' worfhipfull/ 7 and Bright 
worfhipfull,' 7 though notwithstanding he be a dunghill Gentleman, or 
a Gentleman of the firft head., as they vfe to terme them. And to fuch 
outrage 8 is it growne, that now adayes euery Butcher, Shooemaker, 
Tailer, Cobler, 9 Huf band-man, 10 and other 10 5 yea, euery Tinker, 
pedler, 11 and fwinherd, euery Artificer and other, gregarii ordinis, of 
the vileft forte of Men that be, murl be called by the vain name of 
* Maifters ' at euery word. But it is certen that no wyfe Man will intitle 
them with any of thefe names, * worfhipfull ' and ' maifter,' (for they are 
names and titles of dignitie, proper to the Godly wyfe, for fome ipeciall 
vertue inherent 12 , either els 13 inrefpe6tof 13 their birth, or calling, due 
vnto them) but fuch Titiuillers, flattering Paralits, and glofing Gnatoes 
as flatter them, expecting fome pleafure or benefit at their hazels ; 
which thing, if they were not blowen vp with the bellowes of pride, 
and puffed vp with the wind of vainglori, they might eaiily perceiue. 
For certen it is they do but mocke and flatter 14 them with thefe titles, 
knowing that 16 they deferue nothing 16 lefle. 17 Wherfore, like good 18 
Hecufants 19 of that thing which is euill 19 , 17 they fhould refufe thofe 
vainglorious Names, remembring the words of our fauiour Chrift, 
faying, 20 e be not called Maifter,' in token there is but one onely true 
Maifter and Lord in Heauen; 21 which only true Maifter & Lord, God 
graunt all other may followe, lothe in life and name, vntil they come 
to 22 perfect men in lejiis Chrift. 

Spud. The people beeing ib fet vpon couetoufnes, as I gather by 
your Ipeeches they be, is it poflible that they wil lend moraey without 

i a for for F. 2 distrustfull B, E, F. 

3 other for desire B, E, F ; (F has &for for) 4 by far with E, F. 

6 Gentleman and added in F. 7 7 no f j n ^ ^ p^ 

8 extreme madnesse B, E, F. 9 cobler and B, E, F. 

io_io nof in B> E> Fi 

f leaf 74. Vsurie in Ailgna. B. 12 in them added in F. 

I3_ia f or B, E, F. 11 floute E, F. that not in E, V. 

16 no F. 17 17 And therefore as wise men and fearing God F. 

" wyse E. 19 w not in B, E, F. 20 saying not in Fi 

23 to be E, F. 



of Abufes. Lawes allowe no vfury. 

vfurie, or without ibme holtage, guage, or pawn? 1 for vfurie foilow- 

eth couetouf 2 nes, as the fliadowe dooth the bodle. g leaf 74 , back. 

Great Vfurie in Ailgna. 
Philo. 

IT is as impoffible for any to borrowe money there 3 (for the mofl Vsury. 
part), without vfurie 4 & Ioane,or with-out fome good hoftage, guage, 5 
or pledge, as it is for a dead man to fpeak with audible voice. 

Spud, 1 haue heard fay that the pofitiue and ftatute lawes there The posatiue 
doo permit them to take vfurye, limitting 6 them how much to 7 take 
for euery pound. 

Philo. Although the ciuile 8 lawes (for the auoiding of further in- 
conueniences) doo permit certain fommes of money to be giuen 9 ouer- 
plus, beyond or 10 abooue the principal!, for the loane of mony lent, yet 
are the vfurers no more u difcharged from the gilt of vfurie before God [ K 5, Inck] 
therby, then the adulterous lewes were from whordome, becaufe Moyfes 
gaue them a peraiifEue law, for euery man 12 to put away 13 their 
wiues 13 that would, for u euery light trifle. 14 And yet the 15 lawes there The lawes of 

Ailgna permit 

giue no Hbertie to commit vfurie 5 but feeing how much 16 it rageth, novsurie. 

left it fhould exceed, rage further, and ouer-flowe the banks of all 

reafon and godlynes, As couetouihes is a raging fea and a bottomlefle 

pit, and 17 neuer fati[f]fied nor contented, they haue limited them 15 

with 19 in certain meeres and banks 20 (to bridle the infatiable defires of F 9 leaf 75. B.ta 

couetous men), beyond the which it is not lawful for any to go. but 

this permiffio/z of the lawes argueth not that it is lawful to take vfury^ 

no more (I fay) then the permiliion of Moyfes argued that whor- 

dome & adulterie is 21 lawfull & good, becaufe Moyfes permitted them 

to put away their wiues for the auoiding of greater euil 2 * 2 : for, as chrift 

laid to the lewes, 'fro/Tz *Ae beginning it was not fo,' fo fay I to thefe 

vfurers, from the beginning it was not fo, nor yet ought ^fo to be. 23 

1 I tiiinke not, added m B, E, F. 

* leaf 74, back. Lawes allowe no Vsurie. B. 3 in England F. 

4 interest added in E, F. 5 pawne added in F. 6 appointing F. 
7 they shall E, F. 8 Statute F. 9 & taken added in F, 

10 and E, F. 12 one F. 13 13 his wife E, F. 

u_i4 an y light offence E, F. 15 positive lawes E, F. 1S farre F. 

and not m E, F. 18 it E, F. f leaf 75. Vsurie vnlawfolL B. 

20 boundes F. 21 was then E, F. 22 euils F. to be so F, 



124 



Vliiry vnlawful. 



The Anatomic 



[4 sign. K 6. A] 



The kwes 

permit some 
ouerplus, but 
commaimd it 
[not].<5 



3 leaf 75, back. 



Forbidding to 
outrage in 
mischeef is 
notj permission 
to comit 
mischeef 
[ mircheef A. 
tnoF.] 



L Ifi K 6, back] 



Spud. If no intereft were permitted, then 1 no man would lend, & 
then how ihould the poor doo ? wherfore the lawes, that permit fome 
fmall ouer-plus therin, doo very wel. 2 

Philo. ^Non faciendum eft malum, vt inde veniat lonum : we mufl 
not doo euil, that good may come of it. yet the lawes, in permitting 
4 certain reafonable gain to be receiued for the loane of money lent,, left 
otherwife the poore fhould quaile 5 (for without fome commoditie the 
rich would not lend,) haue not doone much amifTe j but if they had 
quite cut it of, and not yeelded at all to any fuch permiflion, they 
had doon better. But heerin the intent of the lawe is to be per 
pended, 7 which was to impale within the Forreft, or park, of reafon 
able and confcionable gain, men who cared not how much they could 
extorte out of poore-mens hands for 8 the loane of their money lent, 
and not to authorife any man to commit vfurie, as though it were 
lawful becaufe it is permitted. 

Therfore thofe that fay that the lawes there doo allow of vfury, & 
licence men to commit it freely, doo flaunder the lawes, & are woorthy 
of reprehenlion 5 for though the lawes fay, 'thou fhalt not take abooue 
ij.s. in the pound, x.li. in a hundred,' 9 and fofo 10 foorth, 9 Dooth this 
prooue that it is lawful to take fo much, or rather that thou ihalt not take 
more then that ? If I n fay to a man, 11 ' thou fhalt not giue him abooue 
one or two blowes,' 12 dooth this prooue that I licence him to giue him 
one or two blowes, or rather that he fhal not giue him any at al, or if he 
doo, 13 he Jthal not exceed or paffe the barcds u of refonable mefure ? 
fo this law dooth but mitigate the penalty, for it faith that the party 
that taketh but 15 x.li, for the vfe of an C.li, lofeth but the x.li, not 
his principal. 

lQ Spud. Then I perceiue, if Vfurie be not lawful by the lawes of 
the Realm, then is it not lawful by the lawes of God. 

1 then not in E, F. 

2 in my opinion added in E, F ; (F has mine^r my) 

3 The Apostle teacheth vs added in B ; The Apostle sayth, E, F. 

5 vtterly be distressed F. 6 not added in B, E, F. 7 considered F. 

t leaf 75, back. Vsurie vnlawfull by Gods lawe. B. 
9 - 9 &c. F. 10 so /<, r so so Bj E> 

iin S ee a man will needes fight with another, a (sic) I -hailing authority 
ouer him, say vnto him F. 

12 at the most added in F. that added in E, F. 

14 bounds F. is a b oue B, E, F. 



of Abufes, Vfury equall with Murder. 1 25 

Philo. You mar be fure of that : For our Samour Chrifte willeth M-*** s, s. 

J 7 Luc. 6, 

vs to be fo far from couetoufh.es and vfiiry, as he faith, " giue to him 
that afketh thee, and from him that would borrow turn not thy face 
away." Againe, 1 " Lend of thy goods to them who are not able to 
pay thee again, and thy reward fhalbe great in heauen." 2 If wee The word of 

God against 

muii lend our goods, then, to them who are not able to pay vs again, vsurie 
no, not fo much as the bare thing lent, where Is the Intereft, the vfurie, 7 " 

the galne, and ouer-plus which we fifli for fo much ? Therfore our 
Saulour Chrifte faith, l-eatius eft dare y potius^ quam accipere : It is 
more bleiled to giue, then to receiue. In the 22. of Exodus, Dent. * Exodtis 20. 



. 24 23. 

24, 23, Leu.it. 25, Neke. 5, E%e. 22, 18, & many other places, we are Leuit. 25, 

forbidden to vfe any kinde of vfury, or Intereft, or to receiue again Ezedu 22, 18.* 

any ouer-piuss befides the principall, either in money, come, wine, 

oyle, beafb, cattel, meat, drink, cloth, or any thing els what foeuer. 

Dauld afketh a queffion of the Lord, laying, Lord> whojhall dwell in 

thy Tabernacle, and 5 whojhall reft in thy holy hll ? wherto he 6 giueth Psalm 15.7 

the folution him felf, 8 faying, c euen he that leadeth an incorrupt life, & 

hath not giuen his mony ynto vliirie, 9 nor taken reward agalnft the p ago. K 7. A] 

innocent : who fo dooth thefe things fhall neuer fall/ In the ij of 

Deut. the Lord willeth vs not to craue again the thing we haue lent 

to our neighbor, for it is the Lords free yeer. If it be not lawful when it is not 

. . . lawful! to aske 

(then) to afke again that which Is lent (for it is not the law of good again our 

goods lent, 

confcience for thee to exact it, if thou be abler to beare 10 it then the 

other n to pay It,) much lefle Is it lawful 12 to demaund any vfury or 

ouer-plus. And for this caufe the Lord faith, e let there be no begger 

.imoTZgil you, nor poore perfon 13 amongft the Tribes of Iff ad? Thus, ps leaf 7 6, back. 

you fee., the woord of God abando/zneth vfurie euen to hel 5 and all 

writers, bothe diuine and prophane, yea, the very heathen people, 

oioued onely by the inftind of nature and rules of reafon, haue 

alwaies abhord it. Therfore Cato, beeing demaunded what vfurie was, 

liked againe, ' what it was to kill a man?' making vfurie equiualent 

with murther : And good reafon, for he that killeth a 14 man, riddeth 

1 And againe F. * leaf 76. The word of God against Vsurie. B. 

3 potius not in F. 4 4 not in F. 5 or B, , F. 

6 or rather .the holy Ghost in him added in F. T Psalm 25 in A ; 16 in F. 
8 him-self not in F. 10 forbear F. u other is E, F. 

12 for thee added in F. 
f leaf 76, back. Vsurie equall with Murther. B, u a a (sic] A. 



126 Imprifoning for debt cruel!. The Anatomie 



vsury equal! 
with murther. 



K 7, back] 



Sute com 
menced 
against him 
that is not 
able to pay 
aswel the 
Vsury as the 
Principall. 
[8 leaf 77. B.tl 

To prison with 
him. thai can* 
not pay the 
vsury. 



No mercy in. 
imprisoning of 
poor-men for 
vsury. 



[ I0 sigu, K8.AJ 



No crueltie to 
be shewed, but 
mercy and 
compasion 
ought to be 
extended. 



Mm out of his paines at once 5 but he that taketh vfury, is long in 
butchering his pacient, fuffering 1 him by little & little to languifh, and 
fucking out his hart 2 blood, neuer leaueth him fo long as he feeleth 
any 3 vitall blood (that is lucre and gaine) comming foorth of 3 him. 
The Vfurer killeth not one but many, bothe Hufband 3 Wife, Child 
ren, feruants, famelie, and all, not fparing any. 4 And if the poore 
man haue not wherewith to pay, as wel the intereft as the principal!, 
when foeuer this greedy cormorant dooth demaund it, then lute 
malbe 5 commenced againft him; out go butter-flies and writs, as 
thick as haile j fo the poore man is apprehended and brought coram 
noils, 6 and beeing once conuented, Judgement condemnatorie and 6 
difrmitiue fentence proceedeth againft him, compelling him to pay, 
aswel the vfury & the 7 loane of the money, as the money lent. But if 
he haue not to fatiffie aswel the one as th' other, 8 then to Bocardo 
goeth he as round as a ball, where he malbe fare to lye vntil he rotte, 
one peece from an other, without fatiffaction bee made. Oh, curfed 
Caitiue ! no man, but a deuil j no Chriftian, but a cruel Tartarian and 
mercilefle Turck / dareft thou look vp toward heauen, or canft thou 
hope to be faued by the death of Chrifte, that fuffereft thine owne 
nefh and blood, thine owne bretheren & lifters in the Lord, and, 
which is more, the nefh and blood of Chrift lefus, veiTels of faluation, 
coheirs with him of his iuperiall 9 kingdom, adoptiue fonnes of his 
grace, & finally faints in heauen, to lye and rot in prifon for want of 
payment of a little droife, which at the day of dome ihall beare wit- 
nefle againfh thee, gnaw thy flefh like a canker, and condemn thee 
for euer ? The very ffones of the prifon 10 walles {hall rife vp againft 
thee, and condemne thee for thy crueltie. Is this loue? Is this 
charitie? is this to doo to others as thou wouldeft wim others to 11 doe 
to thee ? or rather, as thou woz/ldeft wifh the Lord to doe vnto thee ? 
Art thou a good member of the bodie, which not onely cutteft of thy 
felfe from the vine, as a rotten braunch and void lop, but alfo heweft 
off other members from the fame true vine, Chrifte lefus ? No, no j 

1 causing F. 2 vitall F. 

3 3 life in him or any more gaines comming from F. 

5 is B, E, F. 

6 6 then presently E, F. 1 the not in F. 

f leaf 77. Imprisonyng for debt cruell. B. 9 supernall B, E, F. 

11 to not in F. 



of Abufes. The tyranny of Vfurers. 127 

thou art a member of the Demi, a limme of Sathan, and a Childe of 
perdition. 

Wee ought not to handle onr bretheren 1 In fuch forte for any 
worldly matter whatfoeuer. Wee 2 ought to fhew mercie and not P leaf 77, back. 
craeltie to our bretheren, to remit trefpafles and offences, rather then 
to exa& punilhment ; * referring all reuenge to him who faith, Mihi 
vindi&am, et ego retril'uam : Vengeance Is mine, and I wll rewarde 
(faith the LORD). 

Beleeue mee, it greeueth mee to heare (walking 3 in the ftreats) the 
pitiful cryes, and miferable complaints of poore prifoners In durance 



for debt, and like fo to continue all their life, deftitute of libertie, Prisoners in 

prison for 

meat, drink (though of the meaneft forte), and clothing to their <^p*- 
backs, lying in filthie ftrawe, and 4 lothfome dung, 4 wurffe then anie 
Dogge, voide of all charitable conlbiation and brotherly comfort 5 in [ s K 8, back] 
this World, wiihing and tbyrftmg after death to fet them at libertie, 
and loofe them from their lhackles, glues, and yron bands. 

Notwithstanding, fome 6 mercilefie tygers are growen to fuch bar- 



barous craeltie that they blufh not to fay, "tuih ! he fhall either paye saying. 

mee the whole, or els 7 lye there till his heels rot from his buttocks -, 

and before I will releafe him, I will make dice of his bones." Eut Math xviii. 

Marc xi. 

take heed, thou Deulll (for I dare not caH thee a Man 8 ), left the 
Lord fay to thee, as he fald 9 to that wicked Seniant (who hauing 
great fommes forgiuen him, wold not forgiue his Brother his fmall 
debte, but, catching him by the throte, fald, 'pay that thou oweft'), 
bind him hands and feet, and caft him Into vtter Darknes, wher flaall 
10 be weeping and gnafhing of teeth. [ I0 leaf 78. B.f] 

An Viiirer is worfe thaw a Thief, for the one ftealeth but for need, An Vsurer 

worse than a. 

the other for coueitoufnes and exceffe 11 : the one ftealeth but In the Thief. [w/^E] 
night commonly ; the other daylie and hourely, night and daye, at all 
times Indifferently. 

An Vfurer is worfe than a lew, for they, to this daye, will not An Vsurer 

take anye vfurie of their Brethren, according to the lawe of GOD. lew. [t worse 

They are worfe than ludas, for he betraied Chrift but once, made An Vsurer 

worser than 

1 brethen (sic) F. * leaf 77, back. The tyranny of Vsurers. B. ludas. [ worse 

3 as I walk F. 4 4 stinking litter F. ' * J 

6 these B, E, F. 7 he shal added in F. 8 Christian B, E, F. 

9 did F. t leaf 78. Vsurers worse then the Deuill. B. 

i 1 lucre F. 



[ 2 sign. L i. A.] 

Vsurers wursse 
then Hel 



An. "Vsurer 
wursse then 
Death. 



An vsurer 
wurse then the 
Deuil 



The sayings of 
Godly Fathers 
and Writers 
against vsury. 
[4 leaf 78, back. 



Vsurers pua- 
ished 6 with 
sundry tor 
tures. 6 



Scriuiners the 
Diuels agents 
to set forward 
Vserie, 
[7 L i, back] 



128 Scriueners., Inftruments of vfurie. The Anatomic 

reftitution, and repented 1 for it 1 (though his repentance fprang not of 
faith, but of defpaire), but thefe Vfurers betray ChrLft in his members 
daylie and hourly, 2 without any remorfe or reftitution at all. 

They are wurife then hel it felf, for it punifheth but only the 
wicked and reprobate, but the Vfurer maketh no difference of any, 
but punilheth all alike. They are crueller then death, for it deftroy- 
eth but the body and goeth no further, but the vfurer deftroyeth both 
body & fouie for euer. And, to be breef, the Vfurer is wurffe then 
the Deuil himfeif, for the Deuill plagueth but onely thofe that are in 
his hands, or els thofe whome God permitteth him $ the Vfurer 
plagueth not onely thofe that are within his iurifdi&ion alredy, but 
euen all other, without permiffion 3 of any. Therfore, faith Amlrofe, 
if any man commit vfurie, it is extortion, rauin, & pillage, 4 and he 
ought to dye. Alpkonfns called vfury nothing els then a life of death. 
Lycurgus baniflied all kind of vfury out of his lands. Cato did the 
fame. Ageffilaus, Generall of the Lacedemonians, burned the Vfurers 
bookes in the open market places. Claudius Fafpatiannus, and after 
him Alexander Seuerus made iharpe lawes againft vfury, and vtterly 
extirped the fame. 5 Ariftotle, Plato, Pythagoras, and generally, all 
writers, bothe holy and prophane, haue fharply inueighed againft this 
deuouring canker of vfury ; & yet cannot we, that fain would be 
called chriftians, auoid it. And if it be true that I heare 7 fay, there 
be no men fo great doers in this noble facultie and famous fcience as 
the Scriueners be : For it is fayd (and I feare me too true) that there 
are fome to whome is committed 8 a hundred or two ot poundes, 8 of 9 
fome more, of 9 fome leffe, they puttinge in good fureties to the 
owners for the repayment 10 of the fame againe, with certaine allow 
ance for the loane thereof 5 then come there poore men to them, 
n defirmg them 11 to lende them fuche a forn of money, and they wil 
recompence them at their owne defires, who making refufali at the 
firfte, as though they had it not (to acuate 12 the minds of the poore 
petitioners withall 13 ), at laft they lend them how much they defire, 

L i m t in E, F. 3 compassion B, E, F. 

t leaf 78, back, Scriueners instruments of Vsurie. B. 

6 out of their dominions added in F. 6 6 sundry wayes F. 

8__s an i lim dred poundes or two F. 9 to in B, E, F. 

10 payment F. n u with request F. 

12 whette F. 13 you must vnderstande added in B, E, F. 



of Abufes. Great fwearyng in Ailgna. 1 29 

receiuing of the poore men what intereft & 1 aflurawce they luft 2 

themfelues, and 3 binding them, their lands, 4 G0odes, and all, with t 4 leaf 79- B.*J 

forfaiture thereof If they fayle of payment : where note, by the way,, 

the Scriuener Is the Inftrument wherby the Diuell worketh 5 the frame * 

of this 7 wicked woorke of Vfurie, bee beeing rewarded 7 5 with a good 

fleece for his labour. For firfte, he hath a certaine allowance of the The Scrimners 

fleece or pit- 

Archdiuel 8 who owes the money, for helping him to ftich 9 vent for his taunce for ins___ , 

' Paynes. 

coyne: Secondly, he hath a greate deale 10 more vfurie to himfelfe, of 

him who boroweth the money, n than he alloweth the owner of the 

mony 11 : And, thirdly, he hath not the leaft part for making the 

writings betwene them. 12 And thus the poore man is fo implicate 13 ["sign. La. A. I 

and wrapped in on euerie fide, as It Is Impoffible for him euer 14 to get 

oat of the briers 15 without loiTe of all that euer hee hath, to the very 

/kin. Thus the riche are lunched, 15 the poore beggered, and Chrift 

lefus difhonored euerie way, God be mercifull vnto us ! ir De his 

hactenus IJ . 

[ l8 Greate S weary ng in Ailgna. ^S^f fr 

Spud. 

What is the ^qualitie., 20 and 19 naturall difpoiition 21 of this people ? 
Are the! not a verie godlie, religious, and falthfull kind of people : For 
the faiynec is, that the woorde of God, and good Religion, florisheth in [Gods word 

J " florisheth. m 

that lande, better then In the greateft parte of the worlde befides. E ^^ n ^ e b:it thc 
And I am f ullie perfwaded, that where the woorde of God is traely J^ked still E, 
prached and his Sacramentes duely mlniflered (all whiche thei 22 haue) E 22 leaf 79, back, 
there muft all thynges needes profper, and goe forwarde 5 wherefore I 
delire to knowe your Judgement, whether all thefe thinges be fo, or 
not. 

i and also E, F. 2 list B, E, F. 3 both E, F. 

* leaf 79. Great swearyng in Ailgna. B. 

5 5 this laudable worke, rewarding Ms Vassall F. 6 effecte E. 

7 t laudable woorke, rewarding his vassall, B, E. 8 master deuil F. 

* such not in B, E, F. lo deale not in F. n n not in B, E, F. 

13 intangled F. u hardly F. 15 againe added in F. 

inrinched (sic) F. 17 not in B, E, F. 

13 This chapter, not in A, is added in B, E, & F. 19 19 not in F. 

20 Inclination, added in E. 2l dispositistion (sic) F- 

f leaf 79, back. Hipocrisie vnder the cloke of Christianity. B. E has : 
The disposition of Englishmen. 

SHAKSPEBE'S EKG-LAND : STUBBES. 9 



130 The libertie of Papifts in Ailgna. The Anatomie 



[This page not 



[The natural! 
disposition of 
Englishmen. 
E, F.J 



[Great wicked- 
nesse committed 
vnder the cloke 
of the gospell. 
E, F.] 
[5 leaf 80. B.f] 



[Papistes suf 
fered in England 
with too much 
lenitie. E, F.] 



[Papists liuing 1 
in prison lyke 
Princes. E, F.] 



[Pkilo. The worde of God is truely and imcerely preached there, 
and his Sacramentes duely 1 and purely adminiftred, as in any place in 
all the worlde 2 ; no man can deny it ; and all thynges are pretelie 3 
reformed, accordyng to the prefcripte of Gods woorde, fauyng that a 
fewe remnantes of fdperftition doe remaine behinde vnremoued, 
which I hope in tyme will bee weeded out, by the ficcle of Gods 
woorde. And as concernyng the nature,, prppertie, and difpoiition of 
the people, thei bee deiirous of newf angles, praifyng thynges pafte, 
contemnyng thinges prefent, and couetyng after thynges to come. 
Ambicious, proude, light, and vnftable, ready to bee caried awaie with 
euery blafle of Winde. And whereas you afke me, whether thei bee 
religious : I anfwere. If Religion conliil in wordes onely, then are 
thei verie religious ; but otherwife, plaine irreligious. Thei heare the 
woorde of God fereouflie, night &: daie (a bleiTed exercife doubtlelTe) 
flockyng after fermons from place to place, euerie hower almofte : 
thei receiue the Sacramentes duely, and thei behaae themfelues 4 in all 
thinges verie orderly, to the worlde. But a greate forte plaie the 
Hipocrites herein egregiouflie; and vnder this cloke of Chriflianitie, 
and profeflion of the Gofpell, thei commit all kinde of De 5 uilrie, 
purchaling to themfelues the greater damnation, in that thei make the 
worde of God, a vizard 6 to couer their abhomi nations withall. And 
as for Sectes, Schifmes, 7 and fundrie factions, thei want none amongeft 
them. But efpecially Papiftes, and profefTors of Papifme, are fuffred 
with too much lenitie amongeft them. Thefe fedicious Vipers, and 
pithonicall Hidraes, either lurke fecretely in corners, feducyng her 
Maiefties Subie&es, and withdrawyng their hartes from their foue- 
raignes obedience, or els walk openly, obferuyng an outward decorum, 
and an order as others doe; and then maie no man faie c blacke is their 
eye/ but thei are good Proteftarcts. And if the worft fall, that thei be 
efpied, & found rancke Traitours (as all Papiftes bee) yet ihall thei be 
but committed to Prifon, where thei liue like yong Princes, fed with 
all delicate meates, clothed in fumpteous attire, and flowing in 8 gold 
and filuer. And no maruell, for euery one is fufFered to come to 

1 sincerely F. z besides added in E, F. 

3 well added in E, F. 4 themselued (sic) F. 

f leaf 80. The libertie of Papists in Ailgna. B. 

6 or cloak added in F. 7 Errors, added in E. 

8 aboundance of added in F. 



of Abufes. How a man ought to fweare, 131 

[them that will, and to bring them what 1 thei lift. Thei haite their iThi* ?*&*#* 

libertie at all tymes, to walke abroade, to fporte, and paftyme them- 

felues, to plaie at Gardes, Dice, Tables, Bowles, and what thei will : tExen%sof 

Papists in 

lo that it were better for them to be in prifon then forth. Alas, {hall Prisons in Eng- 

* land. E, F.J 

we fnfFer thefe fworne enemies of Gods giorie, of Chriftes Gofpell, 

and holy Religion, to haue this freedome amongeft vs r This maketh 

them obftinate, and incorrigible 2 : this hardeneth their 3 hartes 5 and P ]if &*<& 

this 4 maketh manya Papift moe then would be, if due correction 5 were 

executed. 6 But to retume againe to my former difcourfe. They are 

alfo inconftant, arrogant, vainglorious, hautie mynded, and aboue all 

thynges inclined to fwearyng, in fo muche, as if thei fpeake but three [Great swearing 

In England. 

or fower wordes, yet mint thei needes be interlaced with a bloudie E, F.] 
othe or two, to the great diihonour of God, and offence of the 
hearers. 

Spud. Why fir ? Is it fo greate a matter to fweare ? Doeth not 
the worde of God faie, thou {halt honour me, and fweare by my name, 
& thofe that fweare by me {hall bee commended ? Thefe places and 7 
the like, me thinke, dooe fufficiently proue, that it is lawfull to fweare 
at all tymes, doe thei not fo ? 

Pkilo. Nothyng leiTe : For yon muft vnderftand that there be two [Two kinds of 
rnaner of fwearinges 8 : the one Godly, the other vngodly : the one 
lawfull, and the other damnable. The Godly fwearyng, or lawful! 
othe, is when we be called by the Magiferates, and thofe that be of 
authoritie, in any doubtfull matter, to depofe a truthe $ and is to be 
doen in this order. When any matter of controuerfie happeneth 
betwixt man and man, vpon any occafion whatfoeuer, and the truthe [When, and how 
thereof can not by any meanes poffible be lifted out, otherwife then sweare. E, F.j 
by an othe : then thou, beyng called by the lawful Magiftrate, and 
commaunded vppon thy allegeance to coTzfeflTe what thou knoweft, 
9 thou maieft, and oughteft to depofe the truthe, by the inuocation and C 9 leaf 8j. B.t] 
obteftation of the name of God. And in this doyng, thou honoureft 
God. But beware that thofe things which thou fweareft be true, or 
els thou makeft God a Her (whofe name thou caller! to witneffe) 

1 what maintenance F. 2 vnreclaimable F. 

* leaf So, back. How a man ought to sweare. B. 

* this not in E. 5 punishment F. 6 vppon them added in F. 

7 with E, F. 8 or othes added in E, F, and p. 140, 142, 144. 

f leaf 81. Swearyng forbidden by God, B. 



132 Swearing forbidden by God. The Anatomic 

\rius jagenotin [thou defireil hym to powre his wrath vpon thee, thou periureil thy- 

[The daunger of felf > and purchafefl eternall damnation. The other vngodly and 

a/ake othe - damnable kinde of fwearyng, is, when wee take in vaine abufe, and 

blaipheme, the facred name of God in our ordenarie talke, for euery 

[A wicked kind light trifle. This kinde of fwearyng is neuer at any tyme vppon no 

o^ swearing. OC cation to be vfed; but the counfell of our Sauiour Chrifl is herein 

to be obeyed, who faieth : " Sweare not at all, neither by heauen, 

for it is his Seate : neither by the earth, for it is his Footeftoole : 

neither by Jerafalem, for it is the Citie of the great King : neither 

ihalt thou fweare by an heire of thy 1 head, becaufe thou canft not 

make one heire white or blacke : But let your communication be 

yea, yea : nay, nay," that is : yea in harte, and yea in mouthe : nay 

in harte, and nay in mouthe: "for whatlbeuer is more then this 

corameth of euill." That is, of the Deuill, faieth our Sauiour ChrifL 

Spud. I perceiue by your reafons, that fwearyng is a thyng more 

daungerous then it is taken to bee : and therefore not to bee fuffered in 

a Chriilian Commonwealth. 

[ 2 leaf 81, back, PMlo. A true othe is daungerous, a falfe othe 2 is damnable, and no 
[Sundry kinds of othe is fure. To fweare before a lawfull ludge, or otherwife priuately, 

othes, with their . . ~ 

effectes. E, R] f O r the appealing of corctrouernes, callyng the name 01 (jod to witnelle 
in truthe and veritie, is an honour, and a true feruice doen to the 
Lorde : for in thete caufes the Apoftle biddeth that an oth may make 
an ende of all controuerfies and troubles. But the other kinde of 
fwearyng in priuate and familiar talke, is moft damnable $ and there 
fore faieth Salomon : "A man that is giuen to muche fwearyng ihall 
bee filled with iniquitie, and the plague of God Ihall neuer goe from 
his houfe." And yet notwithftandyng this, it is vfed and taken there 

[Swearing taken for a vertue. So that he that can lame out the bloudieft othes, is 
!] coumpted the brauefb fellowe: For (faie thei) it is a figne of a 
coragious harte, of a valiaunt ftomacke, & of a generofeous, heroicall, 
and puifTant rnynde. And who, either for feare of Gods ludgementes 
will not, or for want of practice cannot, rappe out othes at euery 
word, he is counted a Daftard, a Cowarde, an Affe, a Pefant, a 
Clowne, a Patche, an effeminate perfon, and what not that is euill. 
By continuall vfe whereof, it is growne to this perfection, that at 
euery other worde, you ihal heare either woundes, bloud, fides, harte., 
i thine F. t leaf 81, back. The horrible vice of swering in Ailg. B. 



of Abufes. Horrible fwearing in Ailgna. 133 

[nailes, foote, or feme other parte of Chriftes bleffed bodie, 1 yea, ITAU page not 
fometymes no parte thereof (halbe left vntome of thefe bloudle 
Villaines. And to fweare by God at euery worde, by the World, by 
S. Jhon, 2 by S. Marie, S. Anne, by Bread and Sake, by the Fire, or p leaf fa. B.*] 

i x- ,.-., , . , . __ [Not lawful! to 

by any other Creature, thei thmke it nothyng blame worthier But I sweare by any 

* creature. E, F3 

glue all bloudie Swearers (who crucifie the Lorde of life afrefti, as the 
Apoftle faieth, as muche as is in their power, and are as giltie of his 
Death, Paffion, and Bioud-iheddyng, as euer was ludas that betrayed 
hyrn, or the curfed lewes that crucified hym) to vnderfbnde, that to 
fweare by God at euery woorde, is the greateft othe that can bee. 
For in fwearyng by God, thou fweareft by God the Father, by God 
the Sonne, and by God the holie Ghoil, and by all the whole diuine 
Nature, Power, dieitie, 3 and eflence. When thou fweareft by Gods 
harte, thou fweareft by his mifticall wifedome. When thou fweareft 
by his bloud, thou fweareft by his life. When thou fweareft by his [How dangerous 

J . . it xs to sweare by 

feete, thou fweareft by his humanitie. Whe/z thou fweareft by his anything. E, F.I 

armes, thou fweareft by his power. When thou fweareft by his 

finger, or tung, thou fweareft by the holie Spirite. When thou 

fweareft by his nofethrells, thou fweareft by his infpirations* When 

thou fweareft by Ms eyes, thou fweareft by his prouideTzce, Therfore, 

learne this, and beware of fwearyng, you bloudie Butchers, leaft God 

deftroye you in Ms wrathe. And if you fweare by the Worlde, by S, [To sweare by 

J J J any creature is 

Ihon, Marie, Anne, Bread, Salt, Fire, or any other Creature that euer idoiatne. E 3 

God made, whatfoeuer it be, little or muche, it is horrible Idolatrie, 

and damnable 4 in it felf. For if it were lawfull to fweare at euery 5 [* leaf 82, back. 

woorde for euery trifle, yet it were better to fweare by GOB in a 

true matter, then by any Creature whatfoeuer. Becaufe, that, that 5 a 

man fweareth by, he maketh (as it were) his God of it, callyng hym r 

to witneffe, that, that thyng which he fpeaketh is true. All which 

thinges dnely co?zfidered, I am fully perfwaded, that it were better 

for one to kill a man (not that Murther is lawful, God forbid !) thera 

to fweare an othe. And yet fwearyng is of fuche fmall moment in 

Ailffna, as I heare fay (and I feare me too true), there are many that [False swearers 

"* s in England for 

1 sworne by, added in E, F. money.* E, F J 

* leaf 82. Horrible swearing In Ailgna. B. 

3 Deity F. f leaf 82, back. False Swearers for money in Ailg. B, 

each E, F. 6 which in E, F. * .it E, F. 

e s f or money in England F. 



134 Punifliment of Swearers. The Anatomic 

t [for money will not fticke to fweare any thing, though neuer fo falfe, 
and are wel enough knowne, and difcerned from others by the name 
of Jurers : thei maie be called Libertines, or Atheiftes, naie, plaine 
1 denegers of 1 the faithe, and very Deuilles incarnate. Was 2 there euer 
[Swearers are any Deuilles that would abdicate 3 themfelues to eternall damnation 

very Devils.] 

for money, as thefe villaines dooe fell their bodies and foules to 
eternall deftra&ion for filthy droife and muck of the world ? Shall 
wee fuffer this villanie to bee doen to our God, and not 4 puniihe it? 
God graunt there maie fome Lawe be ena6ted for the fuppreflion of the 
fame. For now no man by any lawe in force may rebuke any 5 
man for fwearyng, though he teare the Lordes bo die, and blafpheme 
[A kwe for bothe Heauen and Earth neuer fo much. The Magiftrates can not 

swearers. H/ 3 Jr.J 

[ leaf 8 3 . B.t] compell them to keepe filence, for if thei doe, 6 thei will be readie to 
laie their Daggers vppon 7 their faces. So that by this impunitie, this 
horrible vice of fwearing is fuffered frill to remaine without al con- 
trolement, to the great diihonour of God, and nourifhyng of vice. 

Spud. What kinde of punifhment would you haue appointed for 
thefe notorious bloudy fwearers. 

[Punishment Philo. I would wifhe (if it pleafed God) that it were made death : 

due for 

swearers. E, F.] For wee reade in the Lawe of God, that whofoeuer blafphemed the 
Lord, was prefently ftoned to deathe, without all remorce, which law 
iudiciall ilandeth in force to the worldes ende. And ought not we 
to be as zealous for the glorie of God, as the people were then ? Or if 
this bee iudged too feuere, I would wilhe they might haue a peece of 
their tongues cut of, or loofe fome ioynt : If that bee too extreeme, 
to be feared in the fore head or cheeke with a hot Iron, ingraueii 
with fome pretie 8 pozie, that thei might be knowne and auoyded. Or 
if this be too ftri6t, that thei might bee banifhed their natiue Countrie, 
committed to perpetuall prifon, or els to bee whipped, or at leaft, for- 
faite for euery othe, a certaine fomme of money, and to bee com 
mitted to Warde, till the money be paied. If any of thefe Godly 
Institutions were executed feuerely, I doubt not, but all curfed fwear 
ing would vaniih away like 9 fmoke. Thenfhould God be 10 glorified, 

i i reprobates concerning F. 2 Were F. 

3 and abandone added in E, F* * not to E, F. 

6 a in E, F. f leaf 83. Punishment of Swearers. B. 

7 on E, F. 8 pretie not in F. 9 like a F. 

10 to be F. 



of Abufes, Two Swearers In Ailgna. 135 

[and our Confciences made 1 cleane againfl the 2 greate 8 fearfull daie of irhuja& net 

the Lorde appeare. p leaf 83, back. 

, B.*J 

Spud. If fwearing and blafpheming of God's name be fo 

hainous a finne, it is likely,, that God hath plagued the vfers therof 
with fome notable punifhment,* whereof I praie you ihew me fome 
examples. 

Philo. I could fhewe moll ftraun^e and fearMl iudo-enientes of [God's judgments 

oa Swearers.] 

God, executed vppon thefe curled kinde of Swearers in all ages : but 

for breulte fake, one or two fhail fuffice. There was a certaine yong 

man dwellyng in EnlocnilChire 5 in Ailgna, (whofe tragicall difcourfe [Lincolnshire ia 

I my felf penned about two yeares agoe, 6 referring you to the faid 

booke for the further declaration therof) who was alwaies a filthie 

Swearer : His common othe was by * God's bloud.' The Lorde will- [A. most fearefuii 

example of God t 

yng his connexion, chaftifed Mm with iickneile many times to leaue wrath - shewed 

J J vpon a filthy 

the fame, and moued others euer to admoniih him of his wickednene : Cursed swearer. 

E F-] [f gods ttt 

but all chaftifementes and louyng corrections of the Lorde, al freendly F * ] 

admonitions, and exhortations 7 of others, he vtterly contemned, ftil per- 

feuering in his bloudie kinde of fwearyng. Theft the Lord, feingthat 

nothing would preuaile to winne him, arefted hym with his Sargeant 

Death : "Who, with Ipeede laied holde on hym, and caft hym vppon 

his Death bed, where he languHhed a great while, in extreeme [Death, the 

mlferie, not forgettyng to fpewe ont his olde vomite of Swearyng. cuSoL^B, F.] 

At the laft the people perceiuing his ende to approach, 8 caufed the C 8 leaf 84- B.n 

Bell to toll Who, hearyng the Bell toll for him, rulhed vp in his bed ^ 1 mas J t d j ead * 

J r full end of a 

very vehemently, faiyng: "Gods bloud, he fliall not haue me yet:" shearer. E, F.] 

with that, his bloud gufhed out, fome at his toes endes, fome at his 

fingers endes, fome at his wriftes, fome at his nofe and mouth, fome 

at one ioint of his body, fome at an other, neuer ceafing till all the 

bloud of 9 his bodie was stremed forthe : and thus ended this bloudie 

Swearer his mortall 10 life, whofe Judgement I leaue to the Lord. 

There was alfo an other, whom I knewe my felf for a dozen or 
iixteene yeres together, dwellyng in ErichfTehcfhire, 11 in a Towne 

1 kepteE ; kept F. * leaf 83, back. Examples against sweaiyng. B, 

3 and added in E, F. 4 in all ages added in F. 5 Lincolneshire F. 

6 in verse added in F, 7 exhortation F. 

J leaf 84. Two Swearers in Ailgna. B. E has; A most dreadfull end of a 
swearer. 

9 in F. 1 cursed F. u ChesHre E, F. 



\Thispage, to I 
21, not in AJ 
[Congleton in 
Cheshire.] 



[The fearefull 
death of another 
swearer. E, F.] 



[+ leaf 84, back. 
Bfl 

[London.] 
[The example 
of a woman for 
swearing her 
selfe, E, F.] 



136 The vfe of the Sabaoth in Ailgna. The Anatomie 

called Notelgnoc, 1 whofe vfuall and common oth was euer to fweare, 
by Gods Armes : But in the ende, his arme being hurte by a knife, 
could neuer be healed by no kinde of meanes, but Hill wranckled 2 and 
feftered from dale to daie, and at the laft fo rotted, as it fell awaie by 
peecemeale, and he himfelf through anguifh and paine thereof dyed 
fliortly after. Thus the Lord God plagued both the one and the 
other, in the fame thinges wherein thei had offended., that the pun- 
ilhment might be like to the offence. For as the one offended 
through fwearyng by his blond, fo the Lorde puniihed hym with 
bloud. And as the other offended in fwearyng by his armes, fo the 
Lorde plagued hym in his arme alfo. As he punifhed B the riche Glutton 
in Hell by the tongue, for that he had offended in the fame by taftyng 
of delicate 4 meates. There was alfo a woman in the Citie of 
Munidnol 5 in Ailgna, who, commyng into a ihoppe to buye certaine 
Marchaundize, forfware her felfj and the excrementes whiche 
naturally fhould evacuate 6 downewarde, came forthe at her mouthe, 
and Ihe dyed miferablie. "With infinite 7 like exampled 8 of God's 
wrath and heauie iudgementes, executed vppon this wicked broode 
of Swearers, whiche if I had tyme and leafure, I could rehearfe. 
But contentyng my felf to haue faied thus muche, I will proceede to 
other matters no lefle needefull to be handled.] 

Spud. Hailing (by the grace of Chriile) hytherto fpoken of fundrie 
Abufes of that countrie, let vs proceed a little further, ho we doe they 
fandine 9 and keepetheSabbaotb day? In godly Chriitian exercifes, 
or els in prophane pailimes and pleafures ? 

The Maner of fanctifiyng the Sabaoth 
in Ailgna, 

Philo. 

THE Sabaoth day, of fome is well fan&ifled, 10 namely in hearing 
'the 11 Word of GOD read, preached, and interpreted in priuat and pub- 
lique Prayers, in finging of Godly Pfalmes, in celebrating the facra- 

1 Congleton F. 2 ranckled F. 3 puninished (sic) F. 

t leaf 84, back. The vse of the Sabaoth. in Ailgna. B. 



5 London F. 6 hawe discended F. 

8 examples in F. 
10 santified A ; obserued E ; obserued, as F, 



7 the added in E, F. 

9 sanctisie A. 
11 the blessed B, E, F. 



of Abufes. The prophanatioa of the Saboth, 137 

me/zts, & In collecting for the poore & Indigent 5 l which are the true [ x L a, back. A 3 

vfes and ends wherto the Sabaoth was ordained. But other fome 

fpend 2 the Sabaoth day (for the moft part) in frequenting of baudie [ 2 leaf 85. B.t] 

Stage-playes and enterludes, In maintaining Lords of mil-rule (for fo 

they call a certalne kinde of play which they vfe), 3 May-games, 

Church-ales, fealls, and wakeeiles : in pypinsr, dauncing, dicing, card- 



. exercises vpon 

Ing, bowling, tenniiTe playing ; in Beare-bayting, cock-fighting, hawk- * Sabaoth 
ing, hunting, and fuch like ; In keeping of Faires and markets on the [Fairs, football- 

playing and 

fabaoth : In keeping 4 Courts and Leets In foot-ball playing, and fuch. other profanities 

; r _ . . . on the Sabbath- 

Other deuillfh paiUmes; 5 reading of laciuious and wanton bookes, &*?] 
and an Infinit number of fuch like practlfes and prophane exercifes 
v r fed vppon that day, wherby the Lord God Is difhonoured, his Sabaoth 
violated, his woord neglected, his facraments contemned, and his 
People merueloufly corrupted and caryed away from true vertue and 
godly.nes. 6 Lord, remooue thefe exercifes from thy Sabaoth / 6 

Spud. You wil be deemed too too Stoical!, if you hould rertraln 
men from thefe exercifes vpon the Sabaoth ; for they fuppofe that 
that day 7 was ordained and coniecrate to that end and pznrpofe, only to 
vfe what kinde of exercifes they think good therafelues : & was it not 
fo? 

PhL After that the Lord our God had created the world, and all 
things therm contained, in 8 fix dayes, in the feuenth day he relied C 8 LS- A/J 
from all his woorks (that Is, from creating them, not from 9 gouerning When the 
them) and therefore hee commaunded that the feuenth day Ihould be ordained. 
kept holy in all ages to the end of the world : then, after that in effect B fj 5 ' 
2000 yeeres, he Iterated this Commandement, when he gaue the law 
in mount Horeb to Moyfes, &r in him to all 10 the Children of Ifrael, 
faying, remember (forget It not) that thou keep holy the feuenth day, 
&c. If we mutt keep It holy, then murl we not ipend it in fuch vain 
exercifes as pleafe ourfelues, but in fuch godly exercifes as he In his 
holy woord nath commaunded. And (in my iudgement) the Lord 
our God ordained the feuenth day to be kept holy for foure caufes 

* leaf 85. The prophanation of the Saboth. B. . 3 In added in E. 
4 keepyng of B, E, F. 5 in added in B, E, F, 

e e 



7 is a day of liberty, and added in F. 

t leaf 85, back. The Institution of the Sabaoth, B. (Sadaoth. A.) 
10 call E, F, 



Wherfore the 
Sabaoth was 
instituted. 



L 3, back. A.] 
leaf 86. B.f] 



[The 4th cause 
for the Sabbath.] 



Punishment 
for violating 
the sabaoth. 



Violaters of 
the saboth. 



t*S 'L 4. A.] 



138 Violaters of the Sab[oth] puniflied. The Anatomie 

efpecially. Firft, to put vs in minde of his wunderful woorkmanfhip 
& creation of the world and 1 creatures befides. Secondly, that his 
woord (the Church afTembling togither) might be preached,, inter 
preted, & expounded $ his facraments mimftred finceerly, according to 
the prefcript of his woord, & that fuffrages 2 & praiers, bothe priuat & 
publique, might be offered to his excellent MaieHie. Thirdly, for that 
euery chriftiara man might repofe himfelf from corporall labour, to 
the end they might the better fuftain the trauailes of the week to en- 
file 3 ; and alfo to the end that all hearts & cattel, which the Lord 
hath made for mans vfe, as helps & 4 adiuments 5 vnto him in his daylie 
affaires & buiinefTe, might reft and refrefh them felues, the better to 
6 go thorow in their traueiles afterward. For, as the hethen Man 
Knew very wt\,Jine alterna requie non eft duralile quicyuam : Without 
fome reft or repofe, there is not any thing durable, or able to continue 
long. Fourthly, to thend it might be a typical figure or lignitor 7 to 
point 8 (as it were) with the finger, and to cypher 9 foorth 10 and fhadowe 10 
vnto vs that bleiTed reft & thryfe happie ioye which the faithfull fhall 
poUefle after the day of Judgement in the Kingdome of Heauen. 
Wherfore, feeing the Sabaoth was inltitiated for thefe caufes, 11 it is 
manifeft that it was not appointed for the maintenance of wicked 
and vngodly paftymes, and vaine pleafures of the flelh ; which GOD 
abhorreth, and all good men from their hartes do loth and detefte. 

The Man, of whorne we read in the law, for gathering of a few 
fmall ftickes vpora the Sabaoth, was ftoned to death by the com- 
maundement of God from 12 the Theater of Heauen. 

Than, if he were ftoned for gathering a few fticks vppon the 
Sabaoth day, which in fome cafes might be 13 for neceffities fake, and 14 
did it but once, what ihall they be, who all the Sabaoth dayes of their 
lyfe giue them-felues to nothing els but to wallow in all kind of 
wickednefTe and finne, to the great contempt both 15 of the Lord and 
his Sabaoth? And though they haue played the lazie lurdens al the 

1 and all other his B, E, F. 2 orisons added in E, F. 

3 following (for to ensue) E, F. 6 supportes F. 

f leaf 86. Violaters of the Sabaoth punished. B. 

7 vnto vs added in F. 8 poynt out F. 

9 discipher F. 10 lo not in B, E, F. 

11 and to these endes added in B, E, F. 12 soundyng from B, E, F. 

13 lawfull added in F. l4 and yet E, F. 



of Abufes. Strict obferuaticm of the Saboth. 139 

weke before, jet that day of fet purpoie they wil toile 1 and labour, in p leaf 86, back. 
contempt of the Lord and his Sabaoth. But let them be fare, as he 
that gathered fiickes vpon the Sabaoth was ftoned for his contempt of 
the fame, fo {hall they be ftoned, yea, grinded to peeces, for their con 
tempt of the Lord in his Sabaoth. 

The lewes are verye ftrict in keeping their Sabaoths : in fo muche The lewes 

very precise in. 

as they will not drefle their meats and drinks vppon the fame day, but keepiag 3 

fet it on the tables the day befor. They go not aboue ij. miles vpora 

the fabaoth day $ they 3 fuffer not the body of any 4 Malefactor to hang 

vppon the gallowes vppon the Sabaoth day, with legions of fuch like 

fiiperfticioTzs. [ 5 And whiche is moft ibraunge, if any of them fall 

into any daunger, thei will not fnfFer any to labour for their deliuerie 

vpon that dale, for violatyng their Sabbaoth. So it chaunced that a [The English 

t- , . ., a i r /- i / 11 TV-- J ew w ^ died 

certame lewe beyng in Ailgna, 6 by greate 7 cafualtie fell into a Pnuie in a privy, rather 

than be pulld. 

vppon one of their Sabbaoth daies, and the people endeuouryng to helpe out on the 

Sabbath.] 

him forthe, he forbad them to labour about hym vpon the Sabbaoth 
daie, chofing rather to dye in that filthie ftincking place,, (as by the 
other morning he was dead indeed) then to breake or violate the 
Lordes Sabbaoth. 5 ] Wherin, as I do acknowledge, they are but 
too fcrupelous, 8 and ouerihoot the marke, fo we are therin plaine con- 
temp teous and negligent, mooting fhort of the marke altogether. 
Yet I am not fo ftrait laced, that 9 I would haue no kinde of worke p leaf 87. B.t] 
done vppon that daye, If prefent neceffitie of the thing require it (for NO work to be 

done vpon the 

Chrifte hath taught vs the Sabaoth was made for Man* not Man for sabaoth ex- 

cept necessite 

the Sabaoth,) but not for euery light trifle, which may as well be mforce it, 

done other dayes as vpon that day. And although the day it felf, in 

reipet of the very 10 nature and originall 11 therof, be no better than 

another -^day, for there is no difference of dayes, except we 13 become PL 4, back A.] 

temporizers, all 14 beeing alike good; yet becaufe the Lord our God 

hath commaunded it to be fan&ified & kept holy to him felf, let vs 

(like obedient & obfequious Children) fubmit our felues to fo loouing 

a Father 5 for els we fpit againft heauen, we ftriue againft the ftream, 

* leaf 86, back. Strict observation of the Sabaoth. B. 

2 keepyng of B, E ; keeping the F. 3 the F. 

4 any felone or B, E, F. 5 added in B, E, F. 

6 England E, F. 7 greate not in F. 8 supersticious F. 

t leaf 87. The true vse of the Sabaoth. B. 10 very not in E, F. 

11 originall not in F. 13 we wil B, E, F. all times B, E, F. 



140 Stage-play es and Enterludes. The Anatomie 

and we contemn him in his ordinances. But (perchance) you wil 
afke me, whither the true vfe of the Sabaoth conirft in outward ab- 
ftaining from bodilye labour and trauaile ? I anfwere, no : the true 
vfe of the Sabaoth (for Chriftians are not bound onely to the Cere- 
monie of the day,) confifteth, as I haue faid, in hearing the woord of 
wherin the God truely preached, therby to learn and to doo his wil, in receiuing 

true vse of the J r > J ^ . 

Sabaoth con- the facraments (as feales of his grace towards vs), rightly adminiftred, 

sisteth, 

in viing publique and priuate prayer, in thankfgiuing to God for all 
his benefits, In iinging of godly Pfalmes, and other fpirituall exercifes 
and meditations, in collecting for the poore, in dooing of good 

p leaf 87, back, woorkes, 1 and breefly, in the true obedience of the inward man. And 
yet, notwithstanding, wee muft abflain from the one to attend vpon 
the other: that is, wee muft refrain 2 all bodily labours, to the end that 
wee may the better be reliant at 3 thefe fpirituall exercifes vppon the 
Sabaoth day* 

[4 L 5. A 4 This Is the true vfe and end of the Lord his Saboth, who graurat 

that we may reft in him for euer ! 

Spud. Hauing ihewed the true vfe of the Saboth, let vs go for- 

[The abuses ward to fpeke of thofe Abufes particularlye, wherby the Saboth of the 

whereby the r r J J 

Sai^th is Lord is prophaned. And firft to begin with ftage playes and enter- 

luds : What is your opinion of them ? Are they not good examples to 
youth to fray them from iinne ? 

Of 5 Stage-play es, and Enterluds, with their 
wickednes. 

PJdlo. 
[Plays on ^ ALL Stage-playes, Enterluds,, and Commedies are either of diuyne 

religious subjects _.._.. , .-, 

are sacrilegious.] or prophane matter : If they be of dmme matter, than are they more 
intollerable, or rather Sacrilegious $ for that the bleffed word of GOD 
is to be handled reuerently, grauely, and fagely, with veneration to the 
glorious Maieftie of God, which fbineth therin, and not fcoffingly, 
ilowtingly, & iybingly, as it is vpon ftages in Playes & Enterluds, with- 

[ leaf 88. B.f] out any reuerence, 6 worhip, or veneration 7 to 8 the fame. 9 the word of 

* leaf 87, back. Stage plaies and Enterludes. B. 2 refrain from B, E. 

3 aboute B, E, F. 5 Of not in E 3 F. 

t leaf 88, Wamynges to Players. B. 7 honour F. 

* at all doen to B, E, F. 9 For it is most certaine added in B, E, F. 



of Abufes. Warnings to Players. 

our Saluation, the price of Chrift his bloud, & the merits of his paffion, 

were not giaen to l be derided and iefted at, 2 as they be in thefe filthie I 1 L 5, back. A.] 

& . , . Thedendlng 

playes and enteriuds on ftages & fcaffold^, 2 or to be mixt and inter- of the word of 

r J to . God in stage 

laced with bawdry/ wanton fhewes, & vncomely geftures, as is vied playes. 

(euery Man knoweth) In thefe playes and enterludes. 4 In the firil 

of Ikon we are taught that the word is GOD, and God is the 

word : Wherfore, who fo euer abufeth this word of our God on ftages ; 

in playes and enteriuds, abufeth the Maiefty of GOD in the fame* 

maketh a mocking fbck of him, & purchafeth to himfelfe eternal 

damnation. And no maraeil ; for the facred word of GOD, and God 

himfelfe, is neuer to be thought of, or once 5 named, but with great Reuerenceto 

the maiestic of 

feare, reuerence, and obedience to the fame. All the holy companie God due. 

of Heauen, Angels, Archangels, Cherubins, Seraphins, and all other 6 

powers whatfoeuer, yea, the Deuills themfelues (as 7 lames faith) doo 

tremble & quake at the naming of God, and at the prefence of his 

wrath : and doo thefe Mockers and Flowters of his Maiefty, thefe dif- 

fembling Hipocrites, and flattering Gnatoes, think to efcape vnpun- 

ifhed ? beware, therfore, you mafking Players, you painted fepulchres, A warnings to 

you doble dealing ambodexters, be warned betymes, and, lik good 

computiftes, caft your accompts 9 before, what wil be the reward therof P i af 88, back. 

in the end, leaft God deftroy you in his wrath : abufe God no more, 

corrupt his 10 people no longer with your dregges, and intermingle not P L 6. A.] 

his blefled word with fuch prophane vanities. For at no 11 hand it is Notiawfulita 

intermixt 

not lawrall to mixt fcunilitie with diuinitie, nor dminitie with fcur- diuynitie with 

scurriline. 

rilitie. 

Theopompus mingled Moyfes law with his writinges, and therfore 
the LORD ftroke him madd. Theodi&es began the fame practife, but 
the Lorde ftroke him blind for it ; With many others, who, attempt 
ing 12 the like deuyfes, were al ouerthrowne, and died miferably : befids, 
what is their Judgement in the other World, the Lord onely knoweth. 
Voon the other fide, if their playes be of prophane matters, thara tend What if pkye* 

r A J . . . be of prophane 

they to the difhonor of God, and noriihing of vice, both which matter. 

2 s no t in B, E, F. 3 scurrility added in F. 

4 vpon stages and scaffoldes made for that purpose, added in B, E, F. 

5 to be added in F. 6 other Ceraphicall B, E, F, 

7 as Sainct B, E, F. 8 wanning A. 

t leaf 88, back. Plaies and Enterludes vnlawfull. B. 

11 any F. * n attemptimg A. 



142 Playes and Enterluds vnlawfull. The Anatomic 



[4 leaf 89. B.*] 
[5 L 6, back. A.] 

The word of 
God, al Writ 
ers, counsels 
and Fathers 
haue writ 7 
against playes 
and enterluds. 



Wherfore 
playes were 
ordeined. 



Concilium 3. 
Cartha. Cap. 
II. Synode 
Laodicea, 
Cap. 54. 



[" leaf 89, back. 

Bt] 

C 12 L 7. A.] 



are damnable. So that whither they be the one or the other, they 
are quite contrarie to the Word of grace, and fucked out of the 
Deuills teates to nourish vs in ydolatrie, hethenrie, and iinne. And 
therfore they, cariyug the note, or 1 brand, of 2 GOD his 2 curfe vppon 
their backs, which way foeuer they goe, are to be hilFed out of all 
Chriffran Kingdomcs, if they wil haue Chrift to dwell amongft 
them. 

Spud. Are you able to ftiewe, that euer any good Men, from the 
beginning, haue refitted 3 Playes and Enterluds ? 

4 Philo. Not onely the word of GOD doth ouerthrow them, addiudg- 
ing them & the main 5 tainers 6 of them to Hell, but alfo all holie 
couflfels, and finodes, both generall, nationall, and prouinciall, to 
gether with all Writers, both diuyne and prophane, euer fince the 
beginning, haue difalowed them, and writ (almofl) whole volumes 
againft them. 

The learned Father Tertullian, in his booke de Speculo, faith that 
playes were confecrat to that falfe ydoll Bacchus, for that he is faid to 
haue found out and inuented fforong drinke. 

Auguftinus, de emit. Dei, faith that plaies were ordeined by the 
Deuill, and confecrat to heathen Gods, to draw vs from Chriftianitie to 
ydolatrie, and gentilifme. And in an other place, Pecunms Hiftrioni- 
lus dare vitium eft innane, 8 non virtus : To giue money to Players is a 
greeuous fin. 9 

Chrifq/tome calleth thofe playes fefta Sathani, feaits of the Deuill. 
La&antius, an ancient learned Father, faith, Hiftrionum impudiffimi 
gejlus, nihil aliud mjl Lilidinem mouent : The jfhamelelTe geilures of 
Plaiers ferue to nothing fo much as to moue the flefh to luft and vn- 
clennelTe. And therfore in the .30. Counfell of Carthage & 10 Synode 
of Laodicea, it was decreed that no Chriften Man or Woman mould 
reforte to playes and enterludes, where is nothing but blafphemie, 
n fcurrilitie, and whordome maintained. Scipio, feeing the Romaines 
bente 12 to ere6fc Theaters & places for plaies, dehorted them from it 

1 and E, F. 22 Gods F. disliked F. 

* leaf 89. Stage playes condemned. B. 

6 practisers E, F. 
7 haue writ not in E, F. 

8 immane B, E, F. 9 and no vertue added in B, E, F. 

10 in the added in B, E, F. f leaf 89, back. The effectes of Playes. B. 



of Abufes. Theaters, Venus Pallaces. 143 

with the 1 moft prudent reafons and forcible arguments. Fahrius 

* . aiayBC aaa 

Maximus faith, playes were neiier brought vpjine regni rubore, with- 
out fhame to the Cuntrey. Arift. debarreth youth accelle to Playes 
& Enterluds, Jeaft they, feeking to quench the thlrft of Fenus, doo 
quench It with a potle of fire, Auguftus banithed Quid for making 
Bookes of loue, Enterluds, and fuch other amorous trumperie. 

Conftantius ordeined that no Player (hold be admitted to the 
table of the Lord. Than, feeing that Playes were firft 3 inuented 
by the Deuil, pra&ifed by the heathen gentiles, and dedicat 4 to their 
falfe ydols, Goddes and GoddeiTes, as the howfe, Itage, and apparell to 
Fenus, the muficke to Appollo, the penning to Minerua and the Mufes, 
the action and pronuntiation to Mercuric and the reft, it is more than 
manifeft that they are no fit exercyfes for a 5 ChriHen 6 Man to follow. 
But if there were no enill in them faue this, namely, that the argu 
ments of tragredies is 7 anger, wrath, immunitie, craeltie, iniurie, inceft, Theargu- 

ments of 

murther, & fuch like, the Perfons or Actors are Goddes, Goddenes, tragedies. 
Furies,, Fyends, Hagges, Kings, Quee 8 nes, or Potentates. Of Com- P fcrf 9- B.t] 
medies the matter and ground is lone, bawdrie, cofen age, flattery, ^*g|g^ of 
whordome, adulterie ; the Per 9 fons, or age7zts, a whores, queanes, bawdes, [ 9 L 7 , back A.] 
fcullions, Knaues, Curtezans, lecherous old men, amorous yong men, 
with fuch like of infinit varietie. If, I fay, there were nothing els 
but this, it were fufficiewt to withdraw a good chriftian from the 
vfino- of them : For fo often as they goe to thofe howfes where Players Theaters and 

* -. cartaines Ve- 

freqne?zt, thei go to Fenus pallace, & fatha/zs fynagogue, to worlhip nus 
deuils, & betray Chrift lefus. 

Spud. But, notwithstanding, I haue hard 10 fome hold opinion that 
they be as good as fermons, and that many a good Example may be 
learned out of them. 

Phih. Oh blafphemie intolerable ! Are filthie playes & bawdy 

the word of 

1 the not in B, E, F. 2 Waiters F. God. 

3 first not in E, F. 4 dedicated F. 5 a not in B, E, F. 

6 men B, E, F. 7 is not in E. 

t leaf 90. Theaters, Venus Pallaces. B. 10 heard F. 

\ f The Theatre * (where Shakspere probably first acted) was built "by James 
Burbage in 1576 in the then fields near the site of the present Standard Theatre 
in Shoreditch, and was pulld down in 1598, and rebuilt as c The Globe* on Bank- 
side, Southwark, in 1599. * The Curtain ' theatre was close by The Theatre, near 
Curtain Court, now Gloucester St. Shoreditch, and was built by 1577. F. J. F. 



144 



He Is cursed 

that saith 

playts and 

enterluds are 

comparable to 

sermons. 

P leaf 90, back. 

P L 8. A ] 



Wherfore so 
many flock to 
see playes and 
enterluds. 



The fruits of 
theathers 6 & 
playes. 



The Godly 7 
demeanoures 
vsed at playes 
& enterluds. 
[8 leaf 91. B.f] 
L 8, back. A.] 



The fruictes of Playes. 



The Anatomic 



enteriuds comparable to the word of God, the foode of life, and life 
it felfe ? It is all one, as if they had faid, bawdrie, hethenrie, pagawrie, 
fcurrilitie, and diuelrie it felf, is equall with the word of God ; Or that 
the Deuill is equipolent 1 with the Lord. 

The Lord our God hath ordeined his blefled word, and made it 
the ordenarie mean of our Saluation j the Deuill hath inferred the 
other, as the ordenarie meane of our deftru&ion; and will they yet 
compare the one with the other ? If he be accurfed that calleth light 
darknes, &: darknes light, truth falfehood, & falihood 2 truth, fweet 
fowre, and fowr fweete, than, a fortiori, is he accurfed that faith that 
playes 8r enterluds be equiualent with Sermons. Be 3 lides this, 
there is no mifchief which thefe plaies 4 maintain not. For do they 
not norifh ydlenes ? and otia dant vitia, ydlenes 5 is the Mother of 5 vice. 
Doo they not draw the people from hering the word of God, from 
godly Ledures and fermons ? for you fhall haue them fiocke thither, 
thick & threefould, whe^ the church of God fhalbe bare & emptiej 
And thofe that will neuer come at fermons wil flow thither apace. 
The reafon is, for that the number of Chrift his ele6t is but few, and 
the number of the reprobat is many; the way that leadeth to life is 
narow, and few tread that path ; the way that leadeth to death is brod, 
& many find it. This fheweth they are not of God, who refufe to 
here his word (for he that is of God hereth God his word, faith our 
Sauiour Chrift) but of the deuill, whole exercyfes they go to vifite. 
Do they not maintaine bawdrie, infinuat folery, & renue the remem 
brance of hethen ydolatrie? Do they not induce whordom & vnclen- 
nes ? nay, are they not rather plaine deuourers of maydenly virginitie 
and chaftitie ? For proofe wherof, but marke the flocking and running 
to Theaters & curtens, daylie and hourely, night and daye, tyme and 
tyde, to fee Playes and Enterludes -, where fuch wanton geftures, fuch 
8 bawdie fpeaches, fuch laughing and fleering, fuch killing and 
buffing, fuch clipping and culling, Suche winckinge and glancinge 
of wanton eyes, 9 and the like, is vfed, as is wonderfull to behold. 
Than, thefe goodly pageants being done, 10 euery mate forts to his 



1 equiualent F. 

4 Playes B, E, F. 

6 Theaters F. 
t leaf 91. What to be learned at Playes. B. 



* leaf 90, back. The fruictes of Playes. B. 
6_5 doth m i n i ste r F. 
7 goodly F. 



10 ended E, F. 



of Abufes. Theaters, Schooles of mifcheef. 145 

mate, euery one bringes another homeward of their way veiye 
fteendly, and in their fecret conclaues (couertly) they play fhe Sodom- 
its, or worfe. And tbefe be the fruits of Playes and Enterluds for the 

moft part. And wheras you fay there are good Examples to be 

learned in them, Trulie fo there are: if you will learne falihoodj If The goodly 

you will learn cofenage; if you will learn to deceiue; if you will 



learn to play the Hipocrit, to cogge, lye, 1 and faliifie 5 If you will learn 

to ieft, laugh, and fleer, to grin, to nodd, and mow ; if you will learn 

to playe the vice, to iwear, teare, and blafpheme 2 both Heauen and 

Earth : If you will learn to become a bawde, vncleane, and to deuer- What things 

ginat Mayds, to deflour honeft Wyues : if you will learne to murther, SSiS at 

ilaie, 3 kill, picke, fteal, robbe, and roue : If you will learn to rebel 

againft Princes, to commit treafons, 4 to confume 5 treafurs, to pradife 

ydlenes, to fing and talke of bawdie lone and venery : if you will 

lerne to deride, fcofFe, mock, & flowt, to flatter & fmooth : If you will 

learn to play the whore-maifter, the glutton, Drunkard, or inceftuous 

perfon : if you will learn to become proude, haw 6 tie, & arrogant 5 and, Theaters 

finally, if you will learne to contemne 7 GOD and al his lawes, to care 

8 neither for heauen nor hel, and to commit al kinde of finne and mif- 

cheef, you need to goe to no other fchoole, for all thefe good Ex- B.f] eaf 91> *** 

amples may you fee painted before your eyes in enterludes and playes : I 8 M * A-l 

wherfore that man who giueth money for the maintenance of them 

limit needs incurre the Q damage 10 of 11 premunire, that is, 9 eternall dam- 



premunire. 

nation, except they 12 repent. For the Apoftle biddeth vs beware, leaft 
wee communicat with other mens finnes 5 & this their dooing is not 
only to communicat with other mens finnes, & 13 maintain euil to the What it is to 

com.nmnic3.te 

diftmdtion of them felues & many others, but alfo a maintaining 14 of a wlth 



great forte of idle lubbers, and 15 buzzing drone ts, to 15 fuck vp and de- 
uoure the good honie, wherapon the poor bees fhould liue. 

Therfore I befeech all players 16 & Founders 16 of plaies and enter- An ex 

tion to 

ludes, in the bowels of lefus Chrifte, as they tender the faluation of their 

1 to lye B, E, F. 3 flay F. * Treason F. comsume A. 

f leaf 91, back. Theaters, schooles of mischeefe. B. 

7 comtemne A. 9 9 ineuitable sentence of F, 

10 daunger B, E. n of a B ; of the deuine E. 

12 he E, F. and to B, E, F. supporting B, E, F. 

15 15 laizie Lurdens, who F, buzzing dronets who E. 

is _ie founders and maintainers B, E, F. 
SHAKSPEKE'S ENGLAND: STTJBBES. 10 



mens sinnes. 



The Ignomy 
due to Players. 
[* leaf 92. B *] 
M i, bade. A.] 



Players Hue 
vpon begging:. 



Players count 
ed Rogues by 
the lawes of 
the Realm. 



Lords of 
Mis-rule in 
Ailgna. 
[7 M a. A.] 

[ 9 leaf 02, back. 
B.tl 



146 Lords of mifrule in Ailg[na]. The Anatomie 

foules, and others, to leaue of that curfed kind of life, and giue them 
felues to fuch honeft exercifes and godly miseries as God hath com- 
maunded them in his woord to get their linings witAall : for who wil 
call him a wifeman, that plaieth the part of a f oole and a vice ? who 
can call him a Chriftian, who playeth the part of a deuil, the fworne 
enemie of Chrifte? who can call him a iuft man, that playeth the 
1 part of a difTembling hipocrite ? And, to be breef, 2 who can call him 
a ftraight deling man, who playeth a Cofoners trick 3 ? And fo of all 
the reft. Away therfore with this fo infamous an art ! for goe they 
neuer fo braue, yet are they counted and taken but for beggers. And 
is it not true ? Hue they not vpon begging of euery one that comes ? 
Are 4 they not taken by the lawes of the Realm for roagues and vaca- 
bounds ? I fpeak of fuch as trauaile the Cun tries with playes & enter- 
ludes, making an occupation of it, and ought fo to be punifhed, if they 
had their deferts. But hoping that they will be warned now at the 
laft, I wil fay no more of them, befeeching them to confider what a 
fearful thing it is to fall into the hands of God, & to prouoke his wrath 
and heauie difpleafure agamft them felues and others $ which the Lord 
of his mercie turn from vs ! 

Spud. Of what forte be the other kinde of playes, which you call 
Lords of Mis-rule? for mee thinke the very name it felf 5 caryeth a 
tafte of 5 fome notorious 6 euil. 



Lords ofMif-rule in Ailgna. 

Philo. 

THE name, indeed, is odious both, to God and good men, & fuch 
as the very heathen people would haue blufhed at once to 7 haue 
named amongft them. And if the name importeth fome euil, 8 then, 
what may the thing 9 it felf be, iudge you? But becaufe you defire to 
know the manner of them, I wil fhowe you as I haue feen them 

* leaf 92. Lordes of Misrule in Ailgna. B. 

3 part F. 4 And are F ' 

5 importeth B, E, F. 6 notorious not in B, E, F. 

8 as you say added in F. 
t leaf 92, back. The order of the Lord of Misrule. B. 



of Abufes. The order of the L. of mifrule. 147 

praeYtfed my felf. Firii, all the wilde-heds of the Parifli, conuenting 1 The manner 

How Lords of 

togither, chafe them a Grauad 2 -Captain (of all 3 mifcheefe) whome they Mis-mie are 

vsed to be 

ionoble with the title of s my Lord of Mis-rule*, and him they crowne played. 

with great folemnitie, and adopt for their king. This king anointed 

chufeth forth twentie, fortie, threefcore or a hundred Iziitie Guttes, 

like to him ielf, to waighte vppon his lordly Maieftie, and to guarde 

his noble perfon. Then, euerie one of thefe his men, he iraielieth with 

his liueries of green, yellow, orfome other light wanton colour -, And 

as though that were not (baudie) gaudie enough, I mould fay, they 

bedecke them fellies with fcarfs, ribons & laces hanged all oner wM 

golde rings, precious ftones, & other Jewels : this doon, they tye about 

either leg xs. or si. bels, with rich handkercheifs 4 in their hands, and The monster- 

fometimes laid a crofle ouer their Ihoulders & necks, borrowed for the my Lord of 

Misrules Men. 

moft parte of their pretie Mopiies & loouing Beffes 5 , for buffing them 
in the dark. Thus al things fet in order, then haue they their Hobby- 
horfes, 6 dragons & other Antiques, togither with their baudie Pipers 
and thundering; Drummers to itrike 7 vp the deuils daunce withalL Therabiement 

of the deuils 

then, marche thefe 8 heathen company towards the Church 9 and guard. 

Church-yard, their pipers pipeing, their drummers thundring, their p i ea f 93 . slf] * 
tamps damzcing, their bels lyngling, their handkerchiefs fwinging 10 

about their heds like madmen, their hobbie horfes and other moniters The behamour 

of the Deuills 

ikirmiihinsc amonsli the route 11 : & in this forte they go to the band in the 

& & J temple of God. 

Church ^ (I fay) & into the Church, 12 (though the Minifter be at praier 
or preaching), dancing & fwinging [t]heir haTzdkercheifs 13 ouer their 
heds in the Church, like deuils incarnate, with fuch a corafufe 14 noife, 
that no man can hear his own voice. Then, the foolilh people they 
looke, they ftare, they laugh, they fleer, & mount vpon fourmes and 
pewes to fee thefe goodly pageants folem[ni]zed in this fort. Then, 
after this, about the Church they goe araine and again, & fo f oorth Receptacles m 

* ./ o o o t ^ & Cemitenes 

into the church-yard, where they haue commonly their Sowmer-haules, <> r church 
their bowers, arbors, & banqueting houfes fet vp, wherin they feaft, 
baTzquet & daunce al that day & (peraduenture) all the 15 night too. And 
thus thefe terrelrriall furies Ipend the Sabaoth day. 

1 flocking F. 2 Ground E. 3 all not in F. 

* handkerchiefe F. 5 Bessies F. 6 their added m F. 

8 this F. f leaf 93. The order of the Lord of Misrule. B. 

10 fluttering F. u throng B, E, F. 1S 13 not in B, E, F. 

13 handkecHefes F. u confused B, E, F. I5 that F. 



148 The L. of mifrules cognifance. The Anatomie 



My Lord of 

mis-rules 

cognizances. 



[5 M 3 - A.] 
[6 leaf 93, back 
B.*] 

Wearing my 
Lord of mis 
rules badges. 



Sacrifice 
brought to 
this filthie 
Ydol, my L. 
of mis-rule. 



[ 2I leaf 94. B.fl 
p3 MS, back. A.] 



1 They haue alfo certain papers,, wherin is painted fome babblerie 
or other of Imagery woork, & thefe they call *my Lord of mif-rules 
badges 2 ' : thefe they giue to euery one that wil giue 3 money for them 
to maintaine them in 4 their hethenrie, diuelrie, whordome, drunken- 
5 nes > pride, and 6 what not. 7 And who will not be 8 buxom to them, 
and giue them 9 money for thefe 10 their deuil[i]{li 10 cognizances,, they 
are 11 mocked & flouted at 12 13 not a little. 13 u And fo affoted 15 are fome, 
that they not only giue them monie to maintain their abhomination 
withall, but alfo weare their badges & cognizances in their hats or caps 
openly. But let them take heede^ for thefe are 16 badges, feales, 
brands, & cognizances of the deuil, whereby he knoweth his Ser- 
uauts and Clyents 17 from the Children of God 5 And fo long as they 
weare them, Sufi vexillo diaboll militant contra Dominum et legemjuam .- 
they fight vnder the banner and ftanderd of the deuil againft Chriffc 
lefus, and all his lawes. Another forte of fantafticall fooles bring to 
thefe hel-hounds (the Lord of mif-rule and his complices) fome bread, 
fome good-ale, forne new-cheefe, fome olde, 18 fome cuftards, 19 &: fine 
cakes 19 ; fome one thing, fome another 5 but if they knew that as 
often as they bring any thing 20 to the maintenance of thefe execrable 
paftimes, they offer facrifice to the deuil and fathanas, they would 
repent and withdraw their hands ; which God graunt they may ! 

Spud. This is a horrible prophanation of the fabaoth (the Lord 
knoweth), & more peftilent then peftilence it felf. but what ? be 
there any 21 abufes in their May-games like vnto thefe? 

22 23p^/o. As many as in the other. The order of them is thus : 

1 Then for the further innobling of this honorable Lurdane (Lorde I should 
sale) added in B, E, F. 2 or Cognizances added in F. 

3 giue thew F. 4 in this B, E, F. 

* leaf 93, back. The Lord of Misrules cognizance. B. 
7 els added in F. 8 shewe hym self B, E, F. 9 them not in F. 

i(L__io t he deuffles B, E, F. shall be B, E, F. 12 at not in F. 

I3_i3 shamefully B, E, F. 

u Yea, and many times carried vpon a Cowlstaffe, and diued ouer head and 
eares in water, or otherwise most horriblie abused added in F. 15 assotted F. 

w are the B, E, F. 1T vassals F. 18 olde cheese B, E, F. 

19 19 some cakes, some flaunes, some Tartes, some Creame, some meate B, 
E, F (but F begins with some Cracknels.) 20 thing not in B, E, F. 

f leaf 94. The order of Male games. B. 

22 B, E, F -make a fresh chapter here, with the heading : The maner of Maie- 
games in England. 



of Abufes. The fruits of may-games. 149 

Againft May 1 , Whitfonday, or 2 other time, s all the yung men and 

maides, olde men and wines, run gadding ouer night to the woods, The order of 

groues, 3 hils, & mountains/ where they fpead all the night In plefant games, 

paftimes; & in the morning they return, bringing with them birch 5 

& branches of trees, to deck their ailemblies withall. and no mer- 

uaile, for there Is a great Lord prefent amongft them, as fuper- 

Intendent and Lord oner their paftimes and fportes, namely, Sathan, [* side-note bere 

in B.j 

prince of heL But the 6 clieifeit iewel they bring from thence Is 
their 7 May-pole, which they bring home with great veneration, as 
thus. They iiaue twentie or fortie yoke of Oxen, euery Ose hauing * A great Lord 

. , presewt in May 8 

a fweet noie-gay of flouers placed 9 on the tip of Ms homes : and thefe games as 

. . superintendent 

Oxen drawe home this May-pole (this ftinking Ydol, rather) which is therof. 
couered all ouer with floures and hearbs, 10 bound round about with I 10 leaf 94, back 

H.fJ 

fbrings from the top to the bottome, and fometlme 11 painted with vari 
able colours, with two or three hundred men, women and children, The manner 
following it with great deuotion. And thus beeing reared vp with home their 
handkercheefs and flags hoiierlng ^ on the top, they ftraw the ground 
rounde 13 about, binde green bonghes about it, fet vp fommer haales, 
bowers, and arbors hard by it j And then fall they to M daunce about 
it, like 15 as the 16 heathen people did at the dedication of the 17 Idols, [^ M 4. A.] 
wherof this is a perfect pattern, or rather the thing It fel I haue May-poles a 

pattern of the 

heard It credibly reported (and that viua wee) by men of great grauitie 18 fcethen Ydois. 
and reputation, that of fortie, threescore, or a hundred maides going 
to the wood ouer night, there haue fcareily the third part of them 
returned home againe vndeflled. Thefe be the frutes which thefe ihefruteof 
curfed paftimes bring foorth. ig Neither the 20 lewes, the 21 Turcks, ay " games * 

1 day added in F. 2 or some B, E, F. 

3 3 O f the yeare, euery Parislie, Towne, and Village assemble themselues to 
gether, "botke men, women, and children, olde and yong, euen all indifferently : 
and either goyng all together, or deuidyng themselues into companies, they goe 
some to the Woodes and Groues, some to the B^ E, F. 

4 some to one place, some to another, added in B, E, F, 

5 bowes added in B, E, F. 6 their B, E, F. 7 the F. 

8 May not in F. 9 tyed E, F. 

f leaf 94, back. The fruictes of Male games. B, 
11 sometimes F. 12 streaming B, E, F. 13 round not in B, E. 

14 banquet and feast, to leape and added in B, E, F. 

14 like not in B, E, F. 17 their B, E, F. l8 credite added in F. 

19 Assuredly I thinke added in B, E, F. ^ the not in B, E, F. 

21 nor B, E, F. 



Church-ales in Ailgna. 



The Anatomie 



[4 leaf 95. B.*] 



[5 M 4, back. A.] 

The manner 
of Church-ales 
in Ailg[na]. 



Sara/ins, nor Pagans, nor any other nations, 1 how wicked or barbarous 
foeuer, haue euer vfed fuch deuilifh exercifes as thefe -, nay, they 
would haue been afhamed once to haue named them, much leile haue 2 
vfed them. Yet wee, that would be Chriftians, think them not amifle. 
The Lord for glue vs } and remooue them* from vs ! 

Spud. What is the manner of their church ales,, which you lay 
they vie ; for they feem vn 4 couth and jftraunge to mine eares ? 

The Manner of Church-ales in Ailgna. 

^Philoponus. 

THE manner of them is thus : In certaine Townes where drunken 
Bachus beares all 6 the fway, agamft a 7 Chriftmas, an 8 Eafter, Whit- 
fonday, or fome other time, the Church-wardens (for fo they call them) 
of euery parifh, with the confent of the whole Parilh, prouide half a 
fcore or twenty quarters of mault, wherof fome they buy of the 
Church-Hock, and fome is giuen them of the Parilliioners them felues, 
euery one conferring fomewhat, according to his abilitie; which 
mault, beeing made into very ftrong ale or beere, it 9 is fet to fale, 
either in the Church, or 10 fome other place afllgned to that purpofe, 

Then, when the 11 Nippitatum, this Huf-cap (as they call it) and 
this nelar of lyfe, is fet abroche, wel is he that can get the fooneffc to 
it, and ipend the moft at it $ for he that iitteth the cloferl to it, and 
fpends the mofte at it, he is counted the godliefl man of all the reft 12 ; 
but who either 13 cannot, 14 for pinching pouertie, 14 or otherwife, 15 wil 
not Hick to it, he is counted one deftitute bothe of vertue and godlynes. 
In fo much as you ihall haue many poor men make hard ihift for 
leaf 95, back, money to fpend ther 16 at, 1T for it 18 beeing put into this Corlan, they are 
perfwaded it is meritorious, & a good feruice to God. In this kinde of 

1 people B, E, F. 2 to haue B, E. 3 them farre F. 

* leaf 95. Church-ales in Ailgna. B. 

6 all not in B ; all the not in E, F. 7 a not in B, E, F. 

8 and B, E, F. 9 it not in B, E, F. 1 or in F. n this B, E, F. 

13 and most in Gods fauour, because it is spent vpon his Church forsoth added 
m B, E, F. 13 either for want B, E, F. u u not in B, E, F. 

15 for feare of God's wrath added in E, F. 

f leaf 95, back. Churchale money bestowed. B. 

17 and good reason added in B, E, F. 18 it not in B, E, F. 



The filthiest 
beast, the 
godlyest man. 






of Abufes. Churchale money beftowed. 151 

pracHfe they continue fix weeks, a quarter of a yeer, yea, half a yeer 
togitber, fwilMing and gulling, eight and day, till they be as dranke P M s- A 3 
as Apes, 2 and as s b!0ckifh as beafts. 3 

Spud. Seeing they haue fo good vtterance, It fliould feeme they 
haue good gaines. But, I pray you, how doe they beflowe that money 
which is got therby ? 

Philo. Oh ! well, I wareet you, if al be true which they fay : For 
they repaire their Churches and Chappels with it ; they buy bookes 
for feraice, cuppes for the celebration of the Sacrament, furpleiles 
for Sir Ihon, and fuch other neceiTaries 5 And they maintaine other How the 

money is spsnt 

extraordinarie charges in the 4 pariihes befydes. Thefe be their 5 ex- which is gut by 

. Churchales. 

ceptions, theie be their 5 excufes, and thefe be their pretended 6 allega 
tions, wherby they blind the world, and conueigh themfelues away in 
uifibly in a clowd. But if they daunce thus in a net, no doubt they 
will be efpied. 

For if it wer fo that they beftowed it as they fay, do they think 
that the Lord will haue his howfe build 7 with drunkennene, gluttony, 
and fuch like abhominatioTz ? Muft we do euill that good may come 
of it } muft we build this houfe of lyme and ftone with the defola^ion wu the Lord 

haue his house 

and tter ouerthrow of his fpirituall howfe. 9 denied and waihed in 9 bund with 

A maintenance 

the precioufe blood of our Saulour lefus Chrift? But who feeth not ofeuiii? 

that they beflow this money vpon nothing leile than In building and [ 8 leaf 96. B.t] 

repayring of Churches 10 and Oratories ? For in moft places lye they L 10 w s, back. 

not like fwyn coates ? their windowes rent, their dores broken, their 

walles fall 11 downe, the 12 roofe all bare, and what not out of order? 

Who feeth not the booke of GOD, rent, ragged, and all betorn, 13 Jh r ^ y of 

couered in duft, fo as this Epltaphe may be writ with ones finger ^ 

v^pon it, ecce nunc in puluere dormio ? (Alas !) behold I fleep in duft torn - 

and oblyuion, not once fcarfe looked vppon, much leiTe red vpon, 14 

and the 15 leaft of all preached vppon. And, on the other fide, who 

feeth not (for 16 this I Ipeak but ir in way of parenthefis ir ) in the meane 



of their owae 
mansions 

2 Rattes B, E ; Swine F. 3_3 mad ^ March Hares F. 

4 their B, E, F. 5 5 golden reasons, these bee their falre B, E, F. 

6 pretensed B E. 1 builded F. 

t leaf 96. The decay of Churches in Ailgna. B. 9 9 purchased with F. 

fallen B. 12 their B, E, F. yea added m F. " on B, E, F. 

15 the not in F. " for not in B, E. F. 

i? 17 t a n-iend, I pray you say nothing F. 



Keeping of wakfes in Ailg[na]. The Anatomic 



C 2 the A.] 

[3 leaf 96, back, 
B.*] 

[7 M 6. A.] 



Churches 8 are to 
be maintained 
by mutuall 
contribution of 
euery one 
after his 
power. 10 



Our zeal 
waxen cold 
and frosen 
in respect of 
the zeal of the 
former world. 



[ leaf 97 B.f] 
E 13 M 6, back. 



tyme, their owne howfes and manfion places are curioufly build,, and 
fumpteouily adorned : which plainly argueth that they rather bellow 
this drunken got-money vppon prophane vfes and their own priuat 
aiFaires, than vpon the howfe of prayer, or the temple of God. And 
yet this their doing is wel liked of, and no man may fay * black is 
their eye 1 : For why ? Thei do all things well, and according to good 
order, as they 2 fay 5 And when time commeth, like good accoumpt- 
antes, they make their accoumptes as pleafe themfelues. 

Sp. Were it not better, & more confonaut 3 to the truth, that 
euery one contributed 4 fomewhat, according to his abilitie, to the 
maintenance of 5 templaries & 6 oratories, 5 thaw thus to maintaine them 
by drunken churchales, as you fay thei do ? 

7 Phllo. It weare muche better. And fo we read, the Fathers of 
the old Teftament, euery one after his abilitie, did impart fome-what 
to the building 9 and reftauration 9 of the Tabernacle which Moyfes 
erected to the Lord ; So as in the end there was fuch aboundance of 
all things, as the Artificers, confulting with Moyfes, were glad to re- 
queft the People to ftay their liberalise, for they had more than they 
knew what to do withall. Thefe People made no drunken Church- 
ales to build their edefice 11 withal, notwithstanding their importable 
charges and intolerable cofles. But as their zeel was feruewt, and very- 
commendable in bringing to the Church, fo our zeal is more than 
frofen & blame- worthie in detracting from the Church, and beftowing 
it vpon whordom, drunkennefle, gluttony, pride, and fuch like abhomi- 
nations : God amend it ! 

Spud. How do they folemnife their feaftes and wakeifes there j 
and what order do they obferue in them ? 

The maner of keeping of Wakeffes, and feafts 
in Ailgna. 

12 Philoponus. 
THis is their order therein : euery towne, pariihe, and Village, 

fome at one tyme of the Yeere, fome at another (but 13 fo that euery 

i i Domine, cur ita facis ? F. 
* leaf 96, back. Keepyng of Wakesses in Ailgna. B. * contribute B. 

5__s Temples and Churches F. 6 or B, E. 

8 Churges A. 9 9 and instauration E ; not in F. 10 this side-note not in F. 

11 house of Prayer F. f leaf 97. Keepyng of Wakes in Ailgna. B. 



of Abufes. The fruicts of wakeffes. 153 

1 towne, parifh, & village 1 keep 2 his proper day aligned and appropriat 
to it felf, (which they call their Wak day) vie 3 to make great prepara 
tion and ordenannce 4 for good cheer. To the which all their Freeods 
and kyns-f oiks, f arre and neer, are milked, wher Is fuch gluttony, fuch Samnrie in 
drunkenneile, fach faturitie 5 and impletion vied, as the like was netier waksses. 
feen : In fo muche as the poore men that beare tht charges of thefe 
feafts and wakeiles, are the poorer, and keep the Worfer howfes a long 
tyme 6 after. And no rnanieil, for manie fpend more at one of thefe 
wakefles than in all the whole yeer befides. This makes many a one The great 
to thripple & pinch, to ranne ioto debte and daunger, and finallie Wakesses. 
brings many a one to vtter mine and decay. 

Spud, Wold yon not haue one freend to vifite another at certen 
tymes of the yeer ? 

Phllo. I difalowe it not, but much commend it. But why at one 
determinat 7 day more than at another (except buiines vrged it) ; why 
fhould one and the fame day continue for euer, or be diftinct from Against wakes 
other dayes by the name of a wake day ? why fhould there be more 
excefle of meats and drinks at that day than at another 8 ? why ihould 
they abftaine from bodely labor 9 .ij. or three dayes after, peraduenture [ 9 leaf 97, back. 
the whole week, fpending it in drunkennefle, whordome, gluttony, 
and other filthie Sodo 10 miticall exercyfes. [ I0 M il 

Spud. Seeing you allowe of one Freend to vifite another, would 
you not haue them to congratulat their comming with fome good 
cheer? 

Phllo. Yes, truely; but I allowe not of iuch exceiTe of ryot & 
fuperfluitie as is there vfed. I thinke it conuenient for one Freend to 
vilite another (at fometimes) as oportunitie & occafion fhall ll offer it Wherto 

m wakesses and 

felfe 11 : but wherfore fliuld the whole towne, parifh, village, and feasts do very 

* r aptly tend. 

cuntreykeepe one and the fame day, and make fuch gluttonous feafts 
as they doo? Andtherfore, 12 to conclude, 12 they are to no end, except 
it be to draw a great 13 frequencie of whores, drabbes, 14 themes, and 
verlets together, to maintaine whordome, bawdrie, gluttony, drunken- 

i_i one B, E, F. 2 keeps F. 3 vseth F. * prouision E, F. 

5 fulnesse F. 6 yeare F, 7 prefixed F. 8 any other E, F. 

t leaf 97, back. The fruictes of Wakesses. B. 

ii_n bee offered F. w l2 in my opinion B, E, F. 

13 a great not in E, F ; frequencie of not in- F. u drafrbes not in B, E, F, 



From whence 
these airauaU 
feasts and 
stacionarie 
wakesses had 
their faeginL- 
nmg. 

[3 leaf 98. Bf} 
M 7, back] 



Scholes of 

dauncing 1 

erected. 



154 



Dauncing in Ailg[na]. 



The Anatomie 



neHe, thiefte, murther, fwearing, and all kind of mifchief and abhom- 
ination ; For thefe be the ends wherto thefe feailes and wakeffes doo 
tende. 1 

Spud. From whence fprang thefe feafts and wakeIes firil of all - f 
can you tell ? 

Philo. I cannot tell, except from the Paganes and heathen People, 
who, whan they were aflembled together, and had ofrred Sacrifices to 
their wodden 2 Goddes, and blockifh ydols, made feafts and banquets 
together before them, in ho 3 nour and reuerence of them, fo 4 appointed 
the fame yeerly to be obfenied in 5 memoriall of the fame 6 for euer. 
But whence 7 foeuer they had their exordium, 8 certe/z it is the deuill 
was the Father of them, to 9 drown vs in perdition, and detraction of 
body and foule : which GOD forefend 10 ! 

Sp. As I remember, you {poke 11 of dauncing before, inferring thai 
the fabaoth is 12 greatly prophaned therby : whereof, I pray you, mew 
mee your Judgement. 

The horrible Vice o/*peftiferous dauncing, vfed 13 
in Ailgna. 

Philoponus. 

DAuncing, as it is vfed (or rather abufed) in thefe daies, is an in 
troduction to 14 whordom, a preparatiue to wantonnes, aprouocatiue to 
vncleanes, & an introite 15 to al kind of lewdenes, rather than a pleafant 
exercyfe to the mind, or a holfome practife for the body 16 : yet 17 , not- 
withftauding, in ^fiZ^[na] both men, wemen, & children, are fo fkilful in 
this laudable fcierace, as they maye be thought nothing inferiour to 
Cynoedus, the ls proftitut ribauld, nor yet to Sardanapalus, that effemi- 
nat varlet. Yea, thei are not afhamed to erect fcholes of dau?icing, 



1 as farre as euer I could iudge added in B, E, F, but E, F, 
iudge : F then adds : & the best fruits that they bring foorth. 

2 false F. f leaf 98. Dauncyng in Ailgna. B. 



4 and so B, E, F, 
them for the same B, E, F, 

9 seeking thereby to F. 

lt) remoue farre from vs F. n spake B, E, F. 

13 not in F. u all kind of added in F. 



5 in a F. 

8 original F. 

12 was B, E, F. 
15 entrance F. 



16 (as some list to cal it) added in B, E ; (as some would haue it). And F. 
17 And yet, E. 18 that B, E, F. 



of Abufes. Daunting, ao allurement to fin. 155 

thinking it an ornament to their children to be expert in this noble 

fcience of heathen diuelrie : and jet this people 1 glory of their chrif- 

tianitie & integritie of 2 life. Indead, verlo Chnjtiami I'oni voci- l 3 leaf gs, back. 

leu fur, But vita et morilus Ethnich et piiores^ repenentur* .* 



From s |jle month outward they may be fald to be good Chriiliam, but 5 sign. M s. A,] 
in life & maners farre worier than the heathen or Pagan es. Wherof 
if they repent not & amend,, it ilialbe eafier for that 6 Land of Sodoma 
and Gomarra, at the day of Judgement, then for them. 

Spud, I haue heard It laid, that dauncing is both a recreation for 
the minde, & allb an exercyfe for the body, very holfome ; and not 
only that, but alfo a meane wherby loue is acquired. 

Ph. I will not much denie but being vfed in a meane., in tyme and Dauncing a 
place conueniente, it is a certera folace 7 to the minds of fuch as take fhcSTthat 

i / r i *- IL i - t* f delight in 

pseaiure in iuch vanities 5 bat it is no good reaion to fay, fome me?z vanities. 

take pleafur in a thing, ergo, it is good, bnt the co;ztrane 8 is true 

rather 8 : For this is 9 (&j/w 10 veritatls) a ground of 11 truth, 9 that whatfo- 

euer a carnall man, with vncircumcifed heart, either defireth or taketh 

pleafure in, is moft abhominable & wicked before god. As, on the 

other fide, what the fpirituall man regenerat, & borne anew in Chrift, 

by the direction of God his fpirit, defireth or taketh delight in, is good, 

and according to the will of God : And feeing mans nature is too pro- What allure- 

cliue 12 of it felfe to finne^ it hath no need of allurements & allections M be in 



to 14 fin (as dauncing is) but rather of reftraints& inhibit! OTZS 15 frozra the [^"leaf 99. B.tj 

fame* which are not there to be found. For what clipping, what 

culling, what kiffing and buffing, what 16 frnouching & ilabbering one [^M^back. A.] 

of another, what filthie groping and vncleane handling is not practifed 

euery wher in thefe daancings? yea, the very deed and action it 

felfe, which I will not name for offending chart eares, ihall be pur- 

tray ed and (hewed 17 foorth in their bawdye geftures of one to another. 

All which, whither they blow vp Fenus cole or not, who is fo blind 

1 forsooth added in F. 

* leaf 98, back. Dauncyng, an allurement to sinne. B. 

3 deteriores F. 4 intteniantttr B, inuenientur E, 6 the B, E, F. 

7 or recreation added ifi B, E, F. 8 6 is rather true B, E, F. 

9 9 a maxime F. 10 basis et fundamentum. B, E. 

11 or foundation of B, E ; E has oxudifor or. 12 prone F, 

13 enticementes F. t leaf 99. Dauncyng, a corrosiue. B. 

15 to stay him added in F. l7 shadowed F. 



Dauncing no 
recreation, but] 
a corrosiue to 
a good Chris 
tian. 



The onely ^ 
thing wherin 
a good chris- 
tian doth, 
delight. 



[* leaf 99, Lack. 
B.f] 



[6 sign. N i. A.] 



Dancing no 
hplsom exer 
cise for the 
Bodie. 



What looue 
dancing pro- 
cureth. 



156 Dancing vnholfome for the body. The Anatomic 

that feeth not ? wherfore, let them not think that it Is any recreation 
(which word is abufiuely vied to exprefle the ioyes or delightes of the, 
mind., which fignifieth a making againe of that which before was 
made,) to the mind of a good Chriftian, but rather a corrofiue 1 moft 
{harp and nipping. For feing that it is euill in it felf, it is not a thing 
wherin a ChriftiaTz Mans heart may take any 2 comfort. The onely 3 
fummum lonum, wherin a true Chriftians heart is recreated and com 
forted, is the meditation of the paflion of lefus Chrift, the efTufion of 
his blood, the remiffion of iins, and the contemplation of the ineffable 
ioyes and beatituds after this life, prepared for the faithfull in the 
blood of lefus ChrifL This is the only thing wherin a Chriftian mara 
ought to reioyfe and take delight in, all other pleafures & delights of 
this lyfe fet a parte as amarulent 4 and bitter, bringing foorth fruit to 
eternall detraction, but the other to eternall lyfe. And wheras they 
conclude it 5 is a holeVome exercife for the bodie, the contrary is mofte 
truej for I haue knowen diuers, by 7 the immoderate vfe therof, haue 
in fhort time become decrepit and lame, fo remaining to their dying 
day. Some haue broke their legs with ikipping, leaping, turning, and 
vawting, and fome haue come by one hurt, fome by another, but 
neuer any came from thence without fo??ze parte of his minde broken 
and lame 5 fuch a wholfome exercife it is ! But, fay they, it induceth 
looue : fo I fay alfo - 3 but what looue ? Truely, a luftful loue, a 
venereous looue, a concupifcencious, baudie, & beafliall looue, fuch as 
proceedeth from the ftinking pump and lothfome link of carnall 
affection and nefhly appetite, and not fuch as diftilleth from the 
bowels of the hart ingenerat by the fpirit of God. 

Wherfore I exhort them, in the bowels of lefus Chrill, to efchue 
not only from euil, but alfo from all apperance of euil, as the Apoftle 
willeth them, proceeding from one vertue to another 5 vntii they 
growe to 8 perfect men in Chrijfte lefus, knowing that we muft giue 
accounts at the day of 9 iudgment of euery minut and iote of time, 10 
from the day 11 of our birth to the time 12 of our death : for there is 
nothing more precious then time, which is giuen vs to glorifie God in 13 

1 corrasiue F. 3 any pleasure or F. 3 enely A. 

f leaf 99, back. Dauncyng vnholsome for the body. B. 

8 that it E, F. 7 t ] lat by Bj Ej F< 

8 to bee F. 9 of of F. 10 that is lent us in this life added in E, F. 

" first day B, E, F. 13 last houre B, E, F. 13 by B ; in, by E, F. 



of Abufes. Teftimonies In the behalf of dancing. 157 
good-woorks, and not to fpend in luxurious exercifes 1 after our owne * We must rw- 

f f t t , der accounts 

fantafies and delights. for tune facer 

Spud. But I haiie heard them affirme that dauncing is prouable 3 [* leaf zoo. B.*3 

by the woord of God 5 for (fay they) did not the women come foorth p N *' back| 

of all the Cities of Ifrael to meet king Saule 9 and 4 Dauid, returning [Bible examples 

of dancing.] 

from the Slaughter of Golmlk, with pfaiteries, flutes, tabrets, Cymbals, x sa. is. 
and other muficall Iniiroments, dauncing & leaping before them ? Exo. 15. 
Did not the Israelites, haulng paifed oner the red iea, bring foorth 
their loftrtunents, and danced for loy of their deliuerance ? Exo. 32. 

Againe, did they not daunce before the golden Calf, which they 
bad made in Horel or Sinai ? Did not king Dauld daunce before the 
Ark of the Lord ? Did not the Daughter of lephtah daunce with 2 Sa. 6. 
tabret and harp at the return of her Father from the Feeld ? Did not 
the women of the IfraelUs dance comming to vifit good ludith f Tudic. . 
Did not the Damfel dance before King Herod? Did not Chrlft Iudic ' I5 " 
blame tho. people for their not dancing when he laid, wee haue pyped Mat. 14. 
vnto yon, but you haue not daunced ? Llxc ' 7 " 

Saith not Salomon, c there is a time to weep, and a time to laughe, a Eccie. 3. 
time to mourne, and a time to daunce ? * 

And dooth not the Prophet Dauid, in many places of his Pfalmes, 
commend and commaund dauncing, and playing ypon Inftraments of 
Muilck ? 

5 Wherfore (for thus 6 they conclude) feeing theie holy Fathers P sign. N s. AJ 
(wherof fome were guided by the inffincTiion T of 8 God his 8 Spi 9 rit) p leaf 100, back, 
haue not only taught it in doctrine, but alfo exprelfed it by 10 their 
Examples of life, who may open his mouth once to fpeake againft it I 

Philo. The Fathers, as they were men, had their errors, and erred 
as men, for Hominis eft errare> decipi et lali : it is naturall for man to No ma*mtb- 
erre, to be deceiued & to Hide from the trueth. Therfore the Apoftle bothiniyfe 
faith, follow mee'in all things as I follow Chrift; but to the intent 
that they, who perpend 11 the Examples of the Fathers and 12 Scripture 
falily 12 wrefed to maintaine their deuiliflr dauncings'withall, may lee 
their owne impietie & groiie 13 ignorance difcouered, I wil compendi- 

* leaf 100. Testimonies in the behalf of dancing. B. 
8 probable E, F. * and also king E, F. 

6 this E, F. 7 instinct F. s_s Gods F. 

*!* leaf 100, hack. None withonte errours. B. 10 in B, E, F. 

11 pretende E, F, 12 12 Scriptures fasly (stc) F. I3 not in F. 



i Sa. 18. 

The first 
pillare of 
dauncing 
ouerthrowen. 



I 2 N 2, back. A,] 

No good cow- 
sequent to say 
others did so 3 
ergo it is 
good, or wee 
may doo th.e 
like. 
P leaf 101. B.*] 



The differewce 
between the 
dances of our 
Forefathers 
and ours. 



sign. N 3. A.] 



Their second 
Pillar shaken. 



[ I0 leaf roi, 
back. B,f] 



158 Euil examples not to be followed. The Anato[mie] 

oufly fet down the true fence and meaning of euery place, as they haue 
cyted them perticulerly. For the firft, wheras they fay that the 
Women came foorth in daunces with timbrels and Inftruments of loy 
to meet Dauid and Saule, I afke them for what caufe they did f o ? 
Was it for wan tonnes, or for very ioye of hart for their Vi&orie gotten 
oner 1 the Philiftines, their fworne Enemies ? Was it in prayfe of GOD, 
or to frirre vp filthie luft in them fellies, or for nicenes onely, as our 
daunces bee? 2 Did men and women daunce togither, as is now vied 
to be doon? or rather was it not dooii amongft women only? for fo 
faith the text, the women came foorth, &c. But admit it were neither 
fo, nor fo, wil they conclude a generall rule of a particuler example ? it 
is no good reafon to fay, fiich and 3 fuch did fo, therfore it is good, or 
we may doo fo 5 but all things are to be poyfed in the balance of 
holy fcripture, and therby to be allowed or difalowed, according to the 
meaning of the holy Ghoft, who is only to be heard and obeyed in 
his woord. 

The Ifraeliti/h women, hearing of the fame of Dauid, and how he 
had killed their deadly enemie Goliath, came foorth to meet him, 
playing vpon infr.rume?2ts, dancing, &: linging fongs of ioye and 
thanks-giuing to the Lord, 4 who had giuen them vi&orie, and de 
li uered them from the deadly holHlitie of him who fought their 
diltruction euery way. Now, what maketh this for our leud, wanton, 
nice and vbiquitarie dauncings, for fo I may call them becaufe 
they be vfed euery where, let the godly iudge. who feeth not 
rather that this example (let Cerberus 5 the dog of hel alatrate what 
he 5 lift to the contrary) clean ouerthroweth them. Theirs was a 
godly kind of dancing in praife of God 5 ours, a luftful, baudie kinde 
of deamenour^ in praife of our felues : theirs, to ihew their inward 
ioy of minde for the bleflings 7 of 8 God bellowed vpon them - y ours, to 
{how our actiuitie, agilitie and curious nicitie, and to "procure luftful 
looue and fuch like wickednes in Unit. But to their fecond allegation : 
the Children (fay they 9 ) oClfrael danced, being deliuered out of the 
feruitude of Pharo, and hauing paf 10 fed ouer the red lea. I graunt 

1 against F. * leaf 101. Euil examples not to be followed. B. 

4 their God added in F. 

8 5 and all other hel-houndes barke what thei B, E, F. 

6 daunting F. 7 blessing F. 9 they say F. 

t leaf 10 1, back, The Israelites Daunces. B. 



of Abufes. The Ifraelits dances, 159 

they did fo, and good canfe they had fo to doo 5 For were they not 
emancipate 1 and fet free from three great calamities and 2 extreame ^ 
miferies 2 : Firft, from the feraile bondage of Eglpt ; from the fwoord 



of Pharo 3 who purfued the rereward of their liofiej and from the 
danger 3 of the red lea, their enemies beelng oner-whelmed In the 
fame. 

For theie great and ineftimable benefits and bieffings, receiued at 
the hands of God, they played vpon Inftraments of mufick, leaped, 
dannced, and fung 4 godly fongs vnto the Lord, Ihewing by theie out 
ward geftures the Inward ioy of their harts and mindes. Now, what 
conduceth this for 5 the allowance of our luxurious dauncings ? Is it 
not direclly againft them? They danced for ioy in thanks 6 to god, HOW the 
wee for vainglorie : they for looue to God, wee for looue of our <:? 
felues : they to ihew the interior ioy of the minde for T God his blelT- 
ing heaped 7 vpon theni} we to fhew our concinitie, dexteritie and 
vain curiofitie in the fame; they to ftir vp and to 8 make them felues 
the apter to praife God $ we to ftir vp carnall appetites 9 and fiefhlie p N 3 , back. A.I 
motions: they to fhewe their humilitie before God; and we to 
ihew our pride both before God and the world. But how fo euer it 
be, fure I am, their dauncing was not like oures, corafifting in mea- 
fores, capers, quauers, & I cannot tel what, for thei had no fuch 
leafure in E^gipfc 11 to learne foch vaine curiofity in that luftfull 12 p leaf 102, B.f] 
bawdie fchoole, for making of brick and tyles. And notwithfland- fiie &Scbg 
ing it is ambiguous whether this 13 may be called a dauracing or not, thenfmaiiiot 
at left not like oures, but rather a certera kind of modeft leaping, daudng, but 
fkipping or moouing of the body to expreUe the ioye of the mind in 



rcloycing in 

prayfe of God $ as the Man did, who, being healed by the power of heart for ioy. 
our Sauiour Chrifte, walked in the Temple, leapping, ikipping & 
praifing God. 

We neuer read that they euer daunced but at 14 fome wonderfnll 
15 portent or ftraungeiudgment 15 of God 16 -, and therfore made 11 not a 
common pra&ife of it, or a daylie occupation, as it were , much leue 

1 deliuered F. * * extram (sic) miseries at once F. 3 daungeis E, F. 

4 sang F. 5 to E, F. 6 thanks-gearing E, F. 

?_7 Q 0< i s blessings bestowed F. 8 to not in B, E, F. 

t leaf 102. A confutation of dauncing. B. 12 lustfoll not in B, E, F. 

they E, F. " when E, F. great blessing F. 

is wa s shewed added in E j was bestowed vpon them F, n they made F. 



160 Mens actions vnlawful. The Anatomic 

fet vp fchools of it, and frequenting 1 nothing els night and 2 day, 
Theirs. Reason Sabaoth day and 3 other, as we do. But to their 4 third Reafon : The 
Ifraelits dau?zced before the Calf in Horel. And what than ? They 
made a Golden Calf and adored it : maye we therfore do the like ? 
They committed ydolatrie there ; therfore is ydolatrie good becaufe 
they committed it ? 

[5 sign. N 4. A.] ^ Adam difob[e]yed GOD, and obeyed the deuil : is obedience ther 
fore to the deuil good, becaufe hee did fo r 

Therfore wee muft not take heede what man hath doon heertofore, 

but what God hath commaunded in his woord to be doon, and that 

followe, euen to the death. But, to be fhort, as it is a friuilous tiling 6 

r/ leaf 102, back, to fay, becaufe they committed 7 Idolatrie, therfore may wee doo the 

B,*J 

like, fo it is no leile ridiculous to fay, becaufe they daunced, therfore 
wee may doo the fame $ for as it is not lawful to commit Idolatrie 
becaufe they did fo, fo is it not lawfull to daunce becaufe they 
daunced. 

So that if this place inferre 8 any thing for dauncing, it inferreth 
that wee muft neuer daunce but before a golden Calf, as they did : 
but, I think, by this time they are amamed of their dances, therfore 
of this place I need to fay no more, giuing them to note that this their 
dauncing, in refpect of the end therof, was farre dilTonant 9 from ours j 
for they daunced in honour of their Idol, wee clean contrary, though 
neither the one nor the other be at any hand tollerable. 10 

Tkeir.4. Reason, Their fourth reafon : Did not Dauid daunce before the Ark ? fay 
they, very true 5 and this place (as the reft before) refelleth their 
cufto marie dauncings of men and women togither mojfte excellentlie - y 

r 11 N 4, back. A.] For ll Dauid danced him felfe alone, without either woman or muficall 
Inftrument to effeminate the minde. And this dauncing of Dauid 
was no vfuall thing, nor frequented euery day, but that one time, and 
that in prayfe of God for the deliuerie 12 of the Ark of God his tefta- 
ment out of the hands of the Infidels and hethen people: the ioy ot 
this holy Prophet was fo vehement for this great bleffing of GOD (fuch 

[*4 leaf 103. Bf] a feruewt zeale he bore 13 to 14 the trueth), that it 15 burfl foorth into 

1 frequented E, F. 2 nor F. 3 nor F. 4 the B, E. 

6 reason E, F. * leaf 102, back. Dauncyng reproued. B. 

s conferre E, F. 9 different F. 

10 lawfull F. n deliuerance B, E, F. 13 did beare F. 

f leaf 103. Why Dauid daunced. B. 15 he B, E, F. 



of Abufes. lephtha his daughters daonce. 161 

1 exterior action, 1 the more to induce others to prajfe God allo. Would 

God \ve would dance, as Dauid daiinced, heer for the deiiiierle of his 

alfauing woord out of the hands of that Italian Philiftin & archenemy 

of all trueth, the Pope of Roome ! for in this refpect I would make 

one 2 to daunce, to leap, to fkip, to triumph, and reioyce as Dauid did 

before the Ark, By this, I truft, any indifferent man feeth, that by fore the Ark. 

this place they gain as much for the maintenance of their leude 3 

dancings and bandie chorailes, as they did by citing 4 the former 

places that Is, iuft nothing at all, which they may put in their eies 

and fee neuer the wurfle. 

Their fift realbn: Did not leptath his daughter meet her Father, Their fiftRe- 

* f son examined. 

when he came from -war, dancing before him, and playing vppon In- 

ftraments of loy 5 ? leptath, going foorth to \varre againft the Amon- 

ites, promifed the 6 Lord (making a rallie vowe) that if it would pleafe [6 sign. N 5. A.] 

his Maleltie to glue him viclorie ouer his Ennemies, he wold facrirlce 

the firlt lyuing thing that fhuld meet him from his houfe. It pleafed 

GOD that his fole daughter and heire, hearing of her Fathers pref- 

perous return (as the maner of the Cuntrey was), ran foorth to meete 

her Father, playing vppon Infrniments in praife of GOD, and daunc- 

ing before him for ioye. Now, what prooueth this for their daunces ? L 7 leaf io s* back 

Truely, it ouerthroweth them, 7 if it be well considered : for firft we Wherfbre& 

how the 

read that fhe did this but once, we daylie : She In prayle of God, we Daughters of 

lepthath 

in prayfes of our felues : fhe for loy of her Fathers good fucceiTe, we dauced. 

to Here vp filthie and vncleane motions : She with a vlrginall gramtie, 

we with a babilli 8 leuitie : fhe In comly maner, we in bawdie geihire. 

And, moreouer, this fheweth that women are to daunce by themfelues [Each sex must 

(if they wil needs daunce), and men by themfelues $ for fo importeth 

the Text, making no mention of any other her collegues or Con> 

panions dancing with her. 

Their 9 .vi. Reafon: Did not the Ifraelltlfh wemen daunce before Ther .6. Reason. 
ludith, comming to vifit her ? I graunt they did fo : the ftorie is [Judith, Ca, 15, 
thus: ' B ' EJ 

Holofernes, oppoling himfeLfe againfl the Ifraelits, the chofen 

1 x outward shew of the same F. 2 my selfe added in E, F. 

3 lasciuious added in F. 4 citing not in E, F* 5 musicke F. 

f leaf 103, back. Jeptha Ms daughters daunce, B. * wanton E, F. 

9 The E, F. 
BHAKSPEEE'S EKGLAI^D : STTJBBES. 11 



1 62 How dauncing is vnlawfull. The Anatomic 

people of GOD, and intending to ouerthrowe them, and to blot out 
[ r N 5, back. A.] l their remembrance for euer from vnder heauen, aifembled a huge 

power., and befieged them on euery fide. 

The Ifraetits, feeing thernfelues circumvalledp and in great 
ludith cutteth daunger on each fide, fuborned good ludith, a vertfulous, Godlye 

oftheheadof ^ T , r ' _ 6 .. f . 

hoiofemes. Woman (for without fome ftratagem or pollicie wrought, it was vn- 

polfible for them in the eyes of the world to haue efcaped) to repaire 

to Holof ernes, &, by fome meanes or other , to work his destruction : 

who, guided by the hand of God, attempted the thing & brought it 

happely to paiie. For me cut of his head with his owne fauchine, 3 

F leaf 104. B.*] wrapping his body in the canopie wherin he lay, fleepingly 5 poffeft 

as he was with tht fpirit of drunkennefTe : this done, the Women 

of IfraelL came together, and went to vifit this worthie Woman, and 

to coTigratulat her profperous fuccelTe with inftraments of mufick, 

fiuging of Godly fongs, and dauncing for ioye in honor and prayfe to 

God for this great vic~torie obtained. Now, who feeth not that thefe 

women fang, dau/zced, and played vppon inftrumentes in prayfe of 

God, & not for any other lewdnes or wantonnes, as commonly the 

The Tulawfuii- world doth now adaies ? This alfo ouerthroweth the dauncinges of 

?ngofmen nc " Men and Women together in one companies for though there was 

together. an infinite number of People by, yet the Text faith, there daunced 

[6 sign. N 6. A.] 6 Done but onely Women, which plainly argueth the vnlawfulnefTe of 

it in refpecte of Man. 7 And this being but a particular fact, of a fort 

of imprudent 8 Women, lhall we draw it into example of lyfe, and 

thinke it lawfull or good becaufe they did pra<5tife it ? 

It was a cuftome in thofe dayes, when God had 9 powred foorth 9 

A custometo any notable bleffing vpon his People, from his Heauenly Pallace, 10 the 

P rayse of God. People, in honour, praife, and thankefgiuing to God for them, 11 would 

play vppon their inftruments, fing Godly Songs, daunce, leape, fkip, 

and triumphe, ihewing foorth the ioye of their mindes, with their 

thankefulneife to GOD, by all exteriour gefuires that they could deuyfe : 

[ 12 leaf io 4j back. 12 Which kinde of thankefull dauncing, or fpirituall reioycing, wold 

B.f] 

2 about added in B, E ; compassed about F. 3 Faulchone F. 

* leaf 104, How dauncyng is vnlawfull. B. 5 sleepyng B, E, F. 

7 men & women together E, F. 8 simple F. 

9_9 bestowed F. 10 Consistorie B, E, F. n it E, F. 

t leaf 104, back. Dauncyng stirreth. vp lust. B. 



of Abufes. Wicked daunting reprooued. 163 

God we did 1 follow, leading all other wanton dancing to their Father 
the Deoill ! 

Their .vij. Reafoa : Did not (quothe they) the Damofell daunce Thcr .7. Reason, 
before Kinge Herode, when the head of lohn Baptlfl was cut of? She 
daunced, Indeed 5 And herein they maye fee the fmite of dauncing, 
what goodneffe k bringeth : For was not this the caufe of the behead 
ing of John the Baptljt ? See whether dauncing ftyreth not vp luft, 
and Inflameth the mind ; For if Herode with feeing her daunce was Dauncing 
fo inflamed in her ioue, and rauilhed in her 2 behauiour, that he f5T ethvp 
promifed her to giue her whatfoeuer fhe wold defire, though it were ^ N 6 ' back - ^ 
half of his Emperie 3 or Kingdome, what wold he haue beene if he 
had dannced with her? and what are thofe that daunce with them 
hand in hand, cheek by cheek, with buffing and kiffing, ilabbering 
and fmearing, rnoft beaftly to behold? in fo much as I haue heard 
many impudently lay that they haue chofen their Wyues, and wyues 
their Huibands, by dauncing j "Which plainely proueth the wicked- 
neiTe of it. 

Their .viij. reafon: Did not Chrift rebuke the People for not Their. s. Reason, 
dauncing, faying, ' we haue pyped vnto you, but you haue not daunced ' ? Lu c. 7, 
They may as well conclude that Chrift in this place was a Pyper, or a 
Minffarell, as that he alowed 4 of dauncing, or reproued them for not [4 leaf 105. B.f] 
exercyfing the fame. This is a Metaphoricall 5 or Allegoricall 5 kiiide 
of ipeach, wherin our Sauiour Chrift goeth abont to reprooue and The more 
checke the flyfneckednes, the rebellion and pertinacious contumacy of ha 
^Ae Scribes and Pharifeis, who were neither mooued to receiue the 
glad tydings of the Gofpell by the aufteritie of lohn the Baptifte, who 
came preaching vnto them the doctrine of reperataunce in mourning 
fort, neither yet at the preaching of our Sauiour him felfe, breaking 
vnto them the 6 pure Amlrofia, the 6 C&leftial Manna,, the word of life, 
in ioy^full and gladfome maner. r? sign. N 7. A.] 

Ikon the Baptlfl he piped vnto them, that is, he preached vnto 
them auiteritie of life, to mourn for their linnes, to repent, to faft, 
pray, and fuch like. Our Sauiour Chrift he pyped (that is) preached 
vnto them the glad & comfortable tidyngs of the Gofpell, yet at 
neither of thefe 8 kinde 9 of concions 8 they were any whit mooued, 

1 would B, E, F. 3 Empire B, E, F. t leaf 105. The contumacie of the lewes. B. 
6 5 not in F. 6 that E, F. 8 8 kinds of preachings F. 9 kindes E. 



164 Salomons fpiritual dauncing. The Anatomic 

either to imbrace Chrifl or his gofpell : Wherfore he fharply rebuketh 1 
them by a limilitude of fooliilie Children, fitting in the market place 
and piping vnto them that wold not daunce. This is the true vn- 
doubted fence of this place, which, whether it ouerthrow not all kinde 
of lewd dauncing (at left maketh nothing for them) allowing a 

[ 2 leaf 105, back. certen kind of Ipirituall dauncing, 2 and reioyfing of the heart vnto 
God (that I may fufpend my owne Judgement), let wyfe men deter 
mine. 

Eccie. 3 . Their .ix, Reafon : Saith not Salomon, e there is a time to weep, 

eir. 9 , eason. ^ a time to mourn, and a time to daunce ' ? This place 



is directly againft their vfuall kinde of dauncing ; For faith not the 

Text, e there is a time ', meaning fomtime, now and than, as the Ifrael- 

ites did in prayfe to 3 GOD, when anie notable thing happened vnto 

Salomon them, and not euery daye and howre, as we do, making an occupation 

meaneth a 

certen kind of of it, neuer leaning it, vntil it leaue vs. But what and if Salomon 

a spiritual! 

daucingor fpeaketh here 4 of a certen kind of fpiritual dauncing and reioyiiner of 

reioy[s]ing of r * J m 

the heart. / ie heart in praife to 5 GOD ? This is ealily gathered by the circum- 

ftances of the place, but fpecially by the fentence precedent; (vz. 
there is c a time to mourn & a time to darace', &c.) that is, a time to 
mourn for our ilnnes, & a tyme to dau/zce or reioyfe for the vnfpeak- 
able treafures purchafed vnto vs by the death & paffion of lefus chrifL 
How much this place maketh for defence of their nocturnall, diuturn- 
all, wanton, lewde, and lafcivious dauncings (if it be cenfured in the 
imparciall ballance of true Judgement) all the world may fee and 6 
iudge. 

Their vitimuw -&&& now, to draw to an end, I will come vnto their vltimum re- 

re ugmm. fugium ; That is, Doth not Dauid both commend, and alfo com- 

[7 leaf 106. B.fl maunde, dauncing and playing vpon inftruments in 7 diuerfe of his 

Pfal. ? In all thofe places the Prophet fpeaketh of a certera kind of 

ipirltuall dauncing and reioyiing of the heart to 8 the Lord, for his 

graces 8c benefits in mercie beftowed vpon vs. This is the true kinde 

of dauncing, which the word of God doth allow of in any place, and 

not that we mould trippe like rammes, 9 fkip like goats, 10 Sc leap like 

1 rebuked F. * leaf 105, back. Salomons spirituall dauncyng. B. 

3 ofB, E, F. 5 of F. 6 andA. 

t leaf 1 06. Why our feete were giuen vs. B. 8 in B, E, F. 

9 Goates F. 10 Does F. 



of Abufes. What dannciiig Is condemned. 1 65 

mad men: For to Me end our feet were not giueiz vs, but rather to why our feet 
reprefent the Image of God in vs, to keep Companie with the Angels, 
& to glorifie our tieuenly Father thorow good works, 

Spud. Do you condemne al kinde of daunting 2 as wicked and pro- [* sign. N s. A.] 
phane ? 

Pk. All lewde, wanton & lafciuious dauncing in publique ailem- 
blies & conuenticles, without refpe6t either of fex, kind, time, place, 
Perfon, or any thing els, I, 3 by the warrant of the word of God, do 
vtterly condemne : But that kind of dauncing which is vied to praife 



and laud the name of God withall (as weare the dan/zees of the people what 

iii cr is con~ 

of the former world) either priuatly or publiquely, is at no hand to demned by the 

7 r J r ^ J word of God, 

be dy fallowed, but rather to be greatly commended. Or if it be vfed 
for mans comfort, recreation and Godly pleafure priuatly (euery fex 
diffincl:ed 4 by themfelues), whether with niufick or otherwyfe, it can 
not be but a very tollerable exercife, being vfed moderatly and in /Ae 

feare of God. And 5 thus, though I condewme all filthie. luxurious and f s leaf 106, back. 

. B.t] 

vncleane dauncing, yet I condemne not al kind of dauncing gener 

ally; For certen it is, the exercyfe it felf, in it own nature, 6 qualitie 

& proprietie. 6 though to fome it is lawfull, to otherfome vnlawfull in [Dauncing how 

, lawful, how 

dyuerfe refpeclsj is both ancient & general, bailing been vfed euer in vniawfuii, E, F.] 

all ages^ as wel of /Ae Godly, as of the wicked, almoft from the begin 

ning. Wherfbre, when I condemne the lame in fome, my meaning 

is in refpefce of the manifold abufes therof. And in my iudgement, 

as it is vfed now a dayes, an occupatio/x being made of it, and a con- 

tinuall exercyfe, 7 without any difference or refpecl: hard either to time, 17 N 8, back. A.] 

Perfon, fex or place, in publique affemblies and 8 frequencies 8 of 

People, with fuche beaftlie flabberings, buffings 9 & fmouchings, and 10 

other filthie geftures & mifdeameanors therein accuftomed, it is as vn- 

poffible to be vfed without doing of infinit hurt, as it is for a naked 

Man to lye in the middeft of a hote burning 11 fire, and not to con- 

fume. 12 But thefe abufes, with other the like (as there be legions moe [Dauncing 

vnpossible to be 

in it) .being cut of from the exercyfe it felfe, the thing 13 remayneth vsed without 
14 very commendable 14 in fome refpetes. Or els, if our daunces 

2 then added in F. 3 I comes after God in F. 4 distinct F. 

f leaf 106, back. What dauncyng is condemned. B. 6 6 and quality F. 

8 8 great meetings F. 9 kissinges B, E, F. 10 with B, E, F. 

11 glowing F. 12 burne B, E, F. 13 thing it self B, E, F. 

m0 re tollerable B, E, F. 



1 66 Men & wom[en] to dance afu/zder. The Anatomie 

tended, as I haue faid, to the fetting foorth of GOD his glorie (as the 
daunces vfed in 1 preter time 1 did) to draw others to pietie and fanc- 
titie of life, and to 2 praife and reioyce in 3 God, to recreat the minde 

[4 leaf 107. B.*] opprefled with fome 4 great toyle or labor, taken in true virtue and 
godlynes, I would not (being don in the feare of GOD, men by them 

why men shoid felues, and Wemen by them felues, for els it is not poffible to be with- 

daunce by them- ,..-,. -n T r t i 

seifes and women out finne) much gainftand it. But I fee the contrane is euery where 
vfed, to the great dishonor of God and corruption of good maners, 
which God amend. 

Spud. And wherfore would you haue Men to daunce by them 
, felues, and Women by them felues ? 

[6 sign O i. A.J J 

7 why men Philo. Eecaufe 5 it is, without all doubte, a 6 prouocation to luft 

by thewseiues and venery, 5 and the fire of luft once concerned (by fome irruption or 

and Women by 

thew-seiues. other) burfteth foorthe into open action of whoredome and fornication. 
And therfore a certain godly Father faid wel, Omnisfaltus in chorea, 
ejifaltus in profundum inferni? Euery leap, or fkip in dance, is a leap 
toward hel. Yet, notwithstanding, in Ailgna it is counted a vertue 
and an ornament to a 9 man, yea, and the onely way to attaine to pro 
motion &: aduancement, as experience teacheth. 

Spud. Notwithstanding, for my further inftruction, I pray you 
fliowe mee what Fathers and Councels haue iudged of it, and what 
they haue writ and decreed againfl it. 

Philo. If I mould 10 goe foorth to 10 {hew all the inue&iues of 
["leaf 107, back. Fathers, all the decrees of councels, and all the places of holy Scrip- 
Testimonies of ture againft the fame, I mould neuer make an end : wher n fore of 
eels and c un many I wil felect a few, hoping that they wil fuffice any reafonable 

Writers against . _ , 

dauncing. man. Syrach faith, frequent not the company of a woman that is a 

finger or a dauncer, neither heare her, leaft thou be intrapped in her 

Eccie. 13. craftines. Chrifoftome, dylating vpon Mathew, faith, In euery dance 

Mat. 4. the deuil daunceth by, for companie, though not vilible to the eye, yet 

palpable 12 to the minde. Theophilus, writing vpon Mark, the lixt 

Chapter, faith, Mira collu/io faltat per puellam 13 Diabolus ; This is 14 a 

i__i former ages F. 2 to the E, F. 3 rejoycying in B, E, F. 

* leaf 107. Mew & women to dance asunder. B. 

5 5 otherwise it prouoketh lust, and stirreth vp concupiscence F. 

7 This repeated side-note not in B, E, F. 8 Cloaca F. 9 a not in F. 

10 _ 10 no f i n j? f f leaf 107, back. Testimonies against Dancing. B. 

sensible F. 13 illam E, F. u There is B. 



of Abufes. Dancing the cheef mifcheef. 167 

wnnMetful deceit, for the deuil dancetfa, amoHgft them for company. [ s o x, back. A.] 
Augufllne f writing vpon the 32. Pfalme, faith, It Is better to digge all Augustine, 
the Sabaoth day then to dance. Erqfmus, in his Booke de contemptu Erasmus. 
Mundi, faith, Vhofe minde Is fo well difpofed, fo liable, or wel fet!ed 3 
which thefe wanton dances, with {winging of armes, kicking of legs, 
playing vpon inftruments, and fuch like, would not 2 ouercome and 
corrupt ? Wherfore, faith hee, as thou delireft thine owne credit and 
welfare, efchew thefe fcabbed and fcuray companle of daiincers. 

Ludovicus Flues faith, amongft all pleafures, dauncing and volup- Lodouicus 
tuottfnes is the kingdome of Venus, and the empire of Cupid : wher- 
fore, faith hee, It were better for thee to ftay at 3 home, and to break 3 leaf 108. B.*] 
either a leg or an arme of thy body, then to break the legges and 
armes of thy 4 minde & fonle, as thou dooft In filthie fcuruy daunc- 
ings. And, as in all Feafts and paffimes, dauncing is the laft, fo it is 
the extream of all other vice. And again, there were (faith he) from Dauncers 

r * IT- /-Tiii thought to be 

far cuntnes, certain men brought into our parts of the world, who, mad-men. 

when they faw men daunce, ran away merueloufly airraid, crying out, 

and thinking them to haue been mad. And no meruaile, for who, 

feing them 5 leap, Ikip, 5 & trip like Goates 6 & hindes, 6 if hee neuer 

faw them 7 " before, would 8 not think them either mad, or els potfeft p sign, o 2, A.] 

with fome furie ? Bullmger, paraphrafting vpon Mathew 14, faith, 

After feaffing, {willing, and gulling, commeth dancing, the root of all 

filthynes and vncleannes. 

Maifter Caluln, writing vpon lol, Ser. 8, Cap. 12, calleth daunc- 
ing the cheefe mifcheef of all mifcheefs, faying, there be fuch vnchaft 
geftures in it as are nothing els but inticements to whordome. 

Marlorate, vpon Mathew, faith, \vhofoeuer hath any care either of 
honeftie, fobrietie, or grauitie, haue long lince bad adieu to all filthie 
dauncing. 

No man (faith a certaine heathen Writer) if hee be fober, daunceth, 
except hee be mad. 

^Salujilus* commending Sempronia, that renowmed whore, for Saiust 
many goodly gifts, condemneth her for her ouer great fk.il in daunc- ktf^ X 8j " 
ing ; concluding, that dauncing is the Inftrument of lecherie. 

2 not be B, * leaf 1 08. Dauncyng the cheefest mischeef. B. 

4 the E, F. 5 5 leap like Squirrilles, skippe like hindes B, E, F. 

66 as thei doe B, E, F. * 7 any B? E? F> 

f leaf io8 3 back. Danncyng a world of sinne. B. 



1 68 Who inuented dauncing. The Anatomic 



Cicero. 



[ x O z } back. A.] 



All Writers, 
bothe holy and 
prophane, 
against 
dauncing. 

Dauncing 1 a 
World of sin. 



leaf 109. B.f] 



Who inuented 
dauncing, and 
from whome it 
sprang. 



[3 sign. 3. A.] 



A Supposall 
who inuewted 
dauncing. 



Cicero lakh, a good man would not dance in open afTembles, 
though hee might by it get infinite treafure. 

The Councel of Laodecea decreed that it mould not be lawful for 
any ChriHia^ to dance at manages, or at any follemne feaft. 

In an other Councel it was enacted, that no man mould daunce at 
any marriage, nor yet at any other time. 

^The Emperour lujtinian decreed, that for no relpect in feails or 
arTemblies there mould be any dauncing, for feare of corrupting the 
Beholders, and inticing men to finne. 

Thus you may fee, bothe Scripture, councels, and Fathers, holy and 
prophane, heathen and other, euen all in generall, haue detefted and 
abhorred this filthie dauncing, as the 2 quauemire or plain 2 of all ab- 
horaination, and therfore it is no exercife for any Chriftians to followe j 
for it ftirreth vp the motions of the fiem, it induceth lufi, it inferreth 
baudrie, aifoordeth ribaldrie, maintaineth wantonnes, & minirlreth 
oile to tJiQ {linking lamp of deceitful pride $ and, i?ifumma, nouriilieth 
a world of wickednes and iinne. 

B Spitd. Now that the wickednes of it is fo manifeftly mewed, that 
no man can denie it, I pray you, 4 who inuented this noble fcience, 
or from whence 5 fprang it 5 ? 

Phiio. Heereof there be fundry and diuers opinions -, for fome 
holde an opinion (and very likely) that it fprang from the heathen 
idolatrous Pagans and Infidels, who, hauing offered vp their facrifices, 
6 vi6timats, 7 and holocaurtes, 6 to their falfe Gods, in reuerence of them, 
and for ioy of their fo dooing vied to daunce, leape, and ildp before 
them. 

And this may be prooued by the Ifraelits the?7?felues, who, hau 
ing feen and learned the fame 8 pra6tife in Egipt, feared not to imi 
tate the like in the wildernes of Horeb. fome again fuppofe that 
Pyrrhus, one of Sibils Preifts, deuifed it in Greet. Others holde that 
the Priefts of 9 Mars, who in Rooms were had in great eftimation for 
their dexteritie in dauwcing, inuented it. Others think that one Hiero, 
a truculent 10 and bloody Tirant in Sicilia, who, to fet vp his tyrannic 
the more, inhibited the people to fpeake one to an other, for feare of 



2 2 quagmire or puddle F. 
4 shewe me, added in B, E, F. 
7 victimats not in B. 



f leaf 109. Who inuented Dauncyng. B. 

5 5 it sprang F. 6 6 and oblations F. 

9 of of F. 1 Turculent F. 



of Abufes. to be 169 

:o hi* the of / &e 

therof : for the might not, 

nder of death, to daunting to 

the and intentions of the by outward 

becks and of the body , which vie afterward grew ^ %** **& fack 

3 cuftome, and now Into nature. But what foeuer men fay of it> 



thai dancing; 

or whence feeder it iprang, 5. ChTifiiwm faith plainly (to whom ^^;d b 

1 wlHcgly iabibribe*, that it iprang from the teates of the Den" Is 
brefi, from whence all milchee-f eh dootli flow. Tberfore, to conclude, 
if of the egges of a C^hatrlce may be made good meat for man to 

eat, and if of the web of a fpider can be made good cloth for mans 
body, 2 then may s lt be prooued that 3 dancing U 4 good, and an exer- 
clfe iitte for a chntlian man to foil owe, but not before. 5 JfTierfore 
Gcd r/kis mercy it ^from rs ! [ s O 3, back. A ] 

Spud. What fay you of 7 Mufick r is It not a laudable fcience ? 

Of 31ujick in Ailgna, and hoiv it allurcth 
to vanitie. 

Pkilo. 

I Say of Mufick as PlaiQ 9 AriftQtle 9 Galen, and many others faane fald 
of it ; It is Toy II fee yimg Eeds, for a certaine kinde of nice, 8 fmoothe 
fweetnes in & alluring the anditorle 10 21 to nicenes 12 , 11 efFeminacie, 13 
pufiilaBimitie, 14 & lothfomnes of lite, 14 15 fo as it may not improperly A comparison 
be compared to a fweet ele&uarie of hooie, or rattier to home it-felf 15 j aotT^Ac^^ 
for as honie and fncli 17 like fweet things,, 17 receiued into the flomack, 
dootli delight at the firft, but afterward they make 18 the ftomack lo 19 
qnafie, 20 21 nlce and weake, that it is not able to admit 21 meat of hard 
digeitiare : So fweet Muiick at the firft delighteth the eares, but after- 
22 ward corrupteth and deprauetli the minde, making It weake and 13 p 3 leaf no. B.tj 

* leaf 109, back, Danncyng vnpossible to be good. B. 

2 body to weare B E, F. 3 s not in E ? F. 4 be>r is in E, F. 

5 els E, F. 7 to F. nice not in B, E, F. 

9 In it B, E, F. 10 hearers F. n to a certaine kind of F. 

12 niceness not in B, E F. I3 and added in F. U___H ^^ i n j?^ 

is is muc lie like vnto Honey B, E, F. l6 mttsicke B E F. 

17 17 other sweete CoBserues B, E ; other sweete thinges F. 
is maketli>r they make B, E, F. I9 so not in B, E, F. 

w queasie F. 2i_si ^^ viable to receiEe B, E, F. 

f leaf no. Hurte by Musicke, B. weake and noi in B, E, F. 



170 How mufick Is tollerable. The Anatomie 

wits dulled quafie, 1 and inclined to all licencioufnes of lyfe whatfoeuer. And 

['sign!' Q 4. A.] right as good edges are not fharpned 2 (but 3 obtufed) by beeing 

whetted 8 vpon fofte ftones, fo good wits, by hearing of foft mufick, 

are rather dulled then fharpned, and made apt to all wantonnes and 

linne. 4 And therfore 4 Writers affirme Sappho to haue been expert in 

mufick, and therfore whorifh. 

Authors of the Tyrus Moximius faith, the bringing in of mufick was a cup of 

bringing in. of 

poyfon to all the world. 



ClytomachuSj if hee euer heard any talking of lootie, or playing 
vpon 5 muficall Inftruments, would run his way, and bidde them 
farwel. 

Plutarchus complaineth of Mufick, and faith, that it dooth rather 
femenine the minde as pricks vnto vice, then conduce to godlines as 
fpurres vnto Vertue, 

Pythagoras condemnes them for fooles, and bequeathes them a 
cloke-bag, that meafure Mufick by found and eare. Thus you he are 
the Judgement of the wife concerning Mufick : now iudge therof as 
you lift your felf. 

Spud. I haue heard it faid (and I thought it very time) that 
Mufick dooth delight bothe man and beafl, reuiueth the fpirits, com- 
forteth the hart, and maketh it apter 6 to the feruice of GOD. 
Musfckthe Philo, I graunt Mufick is a good gift of GOD, and that it de- 

God. lighteth bothe man r and beafl, reuiueth the fpirits, cornforteth the 

[ kaf wo^baui. ^ iart ' anc * ma ^ etn ^ ^dyer 9 to ferue GOD ; and therfore did Dauid 
at] bothe vfe mufick him felf, & alfo commend the vfe of it to his pof- 

teritie (and beeing vfed to that end, for mans priuat recreation, mufick 
is very laudable). 

But beeing vfed in publique affemblies and priuate conuenticles, 



publique assera." . . 

biles and B as diredories 10 to filthie dauncing, thorow the fweet harmonie & 

conuenticles. 

fmoothe melodie therof, it eftraungeth the mind, ftireth vp filthie luft, 
womannifheth the minde, rauifheth the hart, enflameth concupifence, 
and bringeth in vncleannes. But if mufick openly .were vfed 11 (as I 
haue faid) to the praife 12 and glory of God, as our Fathers vfed it, and 

1 queasie F. 3 3 dulled by whetting F. * * And hereof is it that F. 

5 of B, E, F, 6 and readier added in F. 

f leaf no, back. How Musicke is tollerable. B. 9 apter F. 

io_xo as a pirectorie B, E, F. ll openly follows used in B, E, F. i 2 prasie A. 



ofAbufes. Good mufitions fcarce. 171 

as was Intended by It at the firfl, or priuatly In a mans fecret Chamber How musicice 

i / r- -i <~ * i r. . t r. ,- were tollerabie 

or home, for his owne folace or l comfort to dnue away the fantanes & good. 
of idle thoughts,, folicitude, 2 care, forrowe, and fuch other perturba 
tions and moleftations 3 of the minde, the only ends wherto true 
Muiick tends, it were very commendable and tollerable. 4 If Mufick 
were thus vfed It would comfort man wunderfully, and mooue his 
hart to ferue God the better ; but beeing vfed as it is, it corrupteth 
good minds, maketh them womanniih, and inclined to all kinde of 
whordome and mifcheef. 5 

Spud. What fay you, then, of Mufitions & Minftrels, who liue 
only vpon the fame art ? 

6 Philo. I thinke that all good minftrelles, fober and chaft muficions t 6 sign, o 5. A.] 
(fpeking of fuche drun 7 ken fockets and bawdye parafits as range the g <!j>YSSu^m 
Cuntreyes, ryming and finging of vncleane, corrupt, and filthie fongs Wiles. 
in Tauernes, Ale-houfes, Innes, and other publique afTernblies,) may [7 leaf I1X - B ' t] 
daiiTzce tho. wild Moris thorow a needles eye. For how iliould thei 
bere chafte minds, feeing that their exercyfe is the pathway to all vn- 
cleanes. 8 Their is no {hip fo 9 balanced with maffie matter, 9 as their Themarcha- 
heads are fraught 10 with all kind of bawdie fongs, filthie ballads and streiies and 

rausitions. 

fcuruie ryraes, feruing for euery purpofe, and for euery Cumpanie. 

11 Who be 12 more bawdie 12 than they ? who vncleaner than they? 
who more licentious and loofe 13 minded 14 ? who more incontinent 
tha# they ? and, briefely, who more inclyned to all kind of infolencie 
and lewdnes than they ? wherfore, if you wold haue your fonne fofte, 
womanniih, vncleane, fmoth mouthed, affected to bawdrie, fcurrilltie, The wictednes 
filthie rimes, and vnfemely talking j briEy, if you wold haue him, as and minstrels. 
it weare, tranfnatured into a womaTi, or worfe, and inclyned to all 
kind of whordome and abhomination, fet him to dauncing fchool, 
and to learn muiicke, and than ihall you not faile of your purpofe. 
And if you would haue your daughter whoorifh, bawdie, and vncleane, tg 
and a filthie fpeaker, and fuch like, bring her vp in 15 mufick and How to haue 

,.. . T , Children 

dauncing, and, my lire for y cures, you haue wun the goale. lemed in all 

wickednes. 
1 and B, E, F. 2 to mitigate F. 3 passions F. 

4 lawful F. 5 vncleannes F. 

f leaf in. Good Musitions scarce. B. 8 Baudry & filtHnes F. 

9 9 laden with merchandize F. 10 pestred F. 

11 As for example added in B ; For proofe whereof added in E, F. 

12 ~ 1S haudier F. ia looser E, F. u then they added in F. 



1 72 Lycenfes for rninftrels. The Anatomic 

[* leaf m, back. l And yet, notwithflanding, it weare better (in refpecte of 2 accept- 

Tfae scarcytie atioB 3 ) to be a Pyper, or 4 bawdye minftrell, than a deuyne, for the 

yumes. ^ Q ^ looued for his ribauldrie, the other hated for his grauitie, wit- 

dome, and fobrietie. 

Euery towne, Citie, and Countrey, Is full of thefe minrtrelles to 
pype vp a dance to the Deuill$ but of 5 dyuines, fo few there be 6 as 
they 7 maye hardly be feene. 6 

But fome of them will reply, and fay, what, Sir! we haue 
lycenfes from iuftices of 8 peace to pype & vfe our minftrallie to our 
beft commoditie. Curfed be thofe licences which lycenfe any man to 
get his lyuing with the defbruction of many thoufands ! 

But haue you a lycence from the Arch-iuilice of peace, 9 Chrifte 

lefus ? If you haue fo, you may be glad ; if you haue not (for the 

Lkenccs Worde of GOD is againft your vngodly exercyfes, and condemneth 

graunted to J J J 

t0 ** e ^>) ^ an ma y y u as r g aes > extrauagantes, and ftraglers 



r heir 10 ^ rom tbe Heaueulye Country, 10 be arrefted of the high iuftice of 
Si c schief f peace, 11 Chrift lefus, 12 and be punifhed with eternall death, 12 notwith- 

ftanding your pretenfed 13 licences of earthly men. Who 14 {hall ftand 
betwixt you and the luftice of GOD at the daye of Judgement ? Who 
[ z s sign. O 6. A.J fliall excufe you for draw 15 ing fo manye thoufandes to Hell ? fhall the 
Noijcences to luffices of peace? fhall their licenfes ? Oh, no : 16 For neither ouo-ht 

do nurte witnali 

gmaSted, tlie}r to ^ raunt an 7 e licences 17 to anie to doo hurt withall neither (if 

they would) ought any to take them. 

E 1 leaf 112. B.f] 18 Giue ouer, therfore, your Occupations, you Pypers, you Fidlers, 
you minflrelles, and you mufitions,, you Drummers, you Tabretters, you 
Fluters, and all other of that wicked broode ; for the blood of all thole 

A Caue[a}tto whoine you drawe to deftruclion, thorow your prouocations 19 and in- 

mttsitions, / 11 

minstreiies, tyiiiig allurementes, malbe powred vppon your heads at the day of 

& all others J 

of that 30 stampe. 

* leaf in, back. Licences for Minstreiies. B. 
3 of worldly B, E. 3 t h e accO mpt of the world F, 

4 oraF. s of good F. 

6 6 that small skil in Arithmeticke will suffice to number them F. 

7 anyB, E. 8 o f the B, E, F. 

9 of peace not in B, E, F io_io not f n g, E, F. 

11 of peace not in B, E, F. not in B, E, F. 

13 presented A, pretensed B, E, F. ." Then who F. 

16 It wil not goe for payment at that day added in F. 17 licencens A. 

f leaf 112. A Caueat for Minstreiies. B, E has: Gardes, Dice, vnlawfull. on 
the Sab. w example F. o twat A. 



of Abufes. Gardes and dice, flaighty theft. 1 73 

ludgement. but hereof enough, arid, perchaunce, more than, will 
like l their humour. 2 

.Spud. Is it not lawfull vppon the Sabaoth daye to playe at Dice, 
Gardes, Tables, Bowles, Tennille, and fuche other pleafaunt exercyfes, 
wherein Man taketh pleafure and delight ? 

Cards, Dice, Tables, Tennifle, Bowles, and other 

exercyfes vfed vnlawfully in Ailgna. 

3 Philoponus. p O 6, back. A.} 

THefe be no Sabaothlike 4 exercyfes for any Chriffian man to fol 
low any day at all, much leiTe vppon the Sabaoth daye, which the 
Lord wold haue to be confecrat to himfelfe, and to be fpent in holy Exercises vn- 

lawfull vpon 

and Godly exercyfes, according to his will. As for cards, dice, tables, the Sabaoth 

day. 

bowls, tennille, and fuch like, thei arefurta offidofa, a certera kind of Furta offidosa. 

fmooth, deceiptfull, and ileightie thefte, wherby many a one is fpoiled 

of all that euer he hath, fometimes of his life withall, yea, of body 

and foul for 5 euer. And yet (more is the pitie) thefe be the onely [S leaf 112, back. 

exercyfes vfed in euery mans howfe, al the yeer thorow -, But fpecially 

in Chriftimas tyme, there is nothing els vfed but cards, dice, tables, 

mafking, mumming, bowling, & fuch like fooleries. And the reafon 

is, they 6 think they haue a commiffion and prerogatiue that time to do AH wicked t 

U$unes vsect in 

what they lull, 7 and to folow what vanitie they will. But (das !) do Christmas 

tyme. 

they thinke that they are priuiledged at that tyme to doo euill ? the 
holier the time is (if one time were holier than another, as it is not) 
the holier ou^ht their workes 8 to be. Can anie 9 time difpenfe with No tyme 

priulledged 10 a 

them, or giue them libertie to fin ? No, no : the foule which iinneth man to sinnc. 

{hall dye, at what time fo euer it offewdeth. But what will thei fay > 

Is it not Chriltmas ? muil we not be mery ? truth it is, we ought, 

both than and at n all tymes befides, to be merie in the Lord, but [** sign. O 7. A,] 

not otherwyfe; not to fwil and gull 12 more that time thaw at any other 

time, nor 1312 to lauim foorth more at that time than u at another 14 

time. 15 

1 please E, F. 2 daintie humours F. 4 not in F. 

f leaf 112, back. Al wicked Games vsed in Christmas. B. 

6 for that they F. 7 list B, E, F. 8 exercises B, E, F. 9 anie not in. F. 

10 priuiledgeth E, F. Wia in more then will suffice nature, nor F. 

13 not A. u " at any other B, E, F. lfi times A, B, E, F. 



The true 

keeping of 

Christmas. 



j* leaf 1 13. B.*J 



Christaaas. 



Vralawful for 

one Christian 

to play with 

another to 

win his 

money. 

C" 7, back. A. 3 



[Garayng worse 
then open theft 
E, F.] 



[*5 leaf 113, bade. 
B.t3 



174 Great wickednes In Chriftmas. The Anatomie 

But the true celebration of the Feaft of chriftmas is to meditat 
(and as it were to rumlnat 1 ) vppon the Incarnation and byrthe of 
lefus Chrift 2 not onely 3 that time, but all the tymes and daies of 
our life, and to fhewe our felues thankeful to his 4 Maieflie for the 
fame. Notwithstanding, who 5 is ignorant 5 that more mifchiefe is that 
time committed than in all the yeere befides ? 6 what mafking and 
mumming! wherby robberie, whordome/ murther, 8 and what not, 8 is 9 
committed ! what dicing & carding, what eating and drinking, what 
banqueting and feafting is than vfed more than in all the yeere be- 
fydes! to the great dilhonor of GOD, and impoueriihing of the 
realme. 

Spud. Is it not lawfull for one Chriftian to play with another at 
anye kinde of game, or to winne his monie, if he can ? 

PMlo. To play at tables, cards, dice, bowls, or the like (though a 
good ChrifHan man will not fo ydely and vainely Ipend his golden 
dayes) one ChrifUan with another, for their priuat recreations, after 
fome oppreffion of fhidie, to driue awaye fantafies 10 and fuche like, I 
doubt not, but they may, viing it moderatly, with intermiifion and in 
the feare of n GOB 5 But to play for lucre of gaine, and for defire onely 
of his Brothers fubftaunce (rather than for any other caufe) it is at no 12 
hand lawfull, or 13 to be fuiFered. 

For as it is not lawful to robbe, fteale and purloine by deceit or 
flaight, fo is it not lawful! to get thy Brothers goods from him by 
carding, dicing, tabling, bowling, or any other kynd of thefte; for 
thefe playes 14 are no better -, nay, worfer than opera theft 5 for opera 
theft euery Man can be ware of, but this being a craftie pollitick 
theft, and commonly don vnder pretence of Freendlhip, few or none 
at all can beware of 15 it The commaun dement faith, thou ihalt not 
couet nor defire any thing that belongeth to thy Neighbour : Now, it 
is manifeft that thofe that playe for monie, not onelye couet their 

1 in the secrete cogitations of our myndes added in B, E, F. 

* God and man added in B, E, F, 3 at added in E, F. 

4 blessed added in F. 6 5 Icnoweth not E, F ; is so for is B. 

* leaf 1 1 3. Great wickenes in Christmas. B. 

T and sometimes added in B, E, F. s 8 not i n j^ ji\ 

9 what no, tis A. 10 or melancholy passions added in F. 

13 not at &&yjbr at no F. 13 nor F. u games B, E, F. 

f leaf 113, back. Gamyng houses. B. 



of Abufes. Infamy gotten by gaming. 175 

Brothers monie, but alfo vfe craft, falmood and deceit to wjne the 
fame. 

The Apojlle forbiddetli vs to vfe deceipt in bargaining, in buying 
or felling ; much leiTe than ought we to vfe deceipt in gaming. 

Our Sauiour Chrift biddeth euery man do to an other as he would 
another ihould do vnto him. Which rule, If it weare duiie obferaed,, 
weare fufficient to with[d]raw men both from all kynd of gameing, 
and alfo from all kynd -of Mndyrecl: and 1 vniuil dealing. For as thou A rule to 
woldeft not that another man ihould wlnne thy money, fo thou vniawfuii 

garoclng. 2 

oughteft not 3 to defire the winning of his, for thou muft do as thou p s i gn . o 8. A.] 
wouldefl be done by. 

Spud. If gameing for money be fo vnlawfull, wherfore are there 
howfes 4 and places appointed for maintenance of the fame? 

Philo. That excufeth not the fault, but aggrauateth it rather. 
And truely great pitie it is, that thefe brothel howfes (for fo I call all 
gaming howfes) are fuffred as they be : For are they not the very Gaming 

houses with 

feminaries and nurferies of all kynd of abhomination, whatfoeuer heart their wieked- 

J nes. 

can thinke, or tongue expreile ? 

And therfore I marueile, that thole who keep and maintaine 
thefe gaming howfes can euer 6 haue light hearts, or once to 6 looke 
r vp towards Heauen, that not oneiy fufFer this manifeft theft in their C 7 leaf 114, B.tJ 
howfes (for gaming is no better) but alfo maintaine and nourifh 8 the 
fame. 

The Apojlle faith, not onely they that doo euill dlgmjunt morte, 
are worthie of death, but alfo qui confentlunt facientilus, thofe who 
confent to them that do it. 

Call to mind, than, what euills come of this wicked excercyie, I 
befeeche you. 

For doth not fwearing, tearing, and blafpheminge of the Name 
of GOD ; doth not ftinkinge Whordome, Thefte, Robberie, Deceipt, 
Fraude, Cofenage, fighting, Quareling, and fometymes Murder^ 9 doth C 9 8, back. A.] 
not pride, rapine, drunkn[e]s, beggerye, and, in fine, a mamefuil end 
followe it, as the ihadowe doth follow the body? wherfore I will not 
doubte to call thefe gaming howfes, the flaughter howfes, the 



2 gamening A. 

4 g amyng houses B, E, F. 5 neuer F. 6 to not in B, E, F, 

f leaf 114. Infamy gotten by gamyng. B. 8 vphold F. 



1 76 Lawes againft gaming. The Anatomic 

Ihanibles, or blockhowfes of the Deuill, wherin he butchereth 
Cliriften me/zs foules infinit waies, God knoweth : the Lord fupprefTe 
them 1 

Spud. Weare there euer anie lawes made againft the inordinat 
abufe hereof? or haue the Godly in any age mifliked it ? 
Law and Phtto. In all ages and times both the godly fober Chriftians haue 

sanctions _ > i n 

diuuigat detefled it, and holfome. lawes haue been promulgat 1 agamtt it. 

against 

gaming. OSaulus Auguftus was greatly reproched of the Writers of his 

time for his great delight in gaming, notwithstanding his manifold 
vertues befides. 

f leaf 1x4, back 2 Cicero obieded to Marcus Antonius his often gaming, as a note of 
infamie vnto him. 

The infamy The npble Lacedemonians fent their Ambaifadours to Corinth to 

gaSiifg? J cosclud a peace, who corning thither, and finding the People playing 
at dice and cards and vnthriftie games, returned back again (infela 
pace) their peace vnconcluded, faying it ihould neuer be reported that 
they wold ioyne in league with Dice-players and gameflers. 

The fame Lacedemonians fent to Demetrius, in derifion of his 

C 3 sign. P i. AJ diceplaying, a paire of 3 dice of gold. Sir Thomas Eliot (that worthie 
Knight) in his 'Book of gouernance ' aiketh,who will not think him a 
light man of fmall credit, diilblut, remife, and vaine, that is a Dice- 
player 4 or gamefter ? 

Publius faith, Quantb peritior eft aleator infua arte, tanto nequior 
ejl, & vita, & morllus : How much comiinger a ma?z is in gaming and 
diceplaying, fo much corrupter he is both in life and maners. lufHnian 

s Laws against made a lawe that none ihould play at dice,, nor cards, for no caufe, 

cranaiajr, ... * , 

neither prraately nor openly. 

Alexander Seuems banifhed all gameflers out of his dominions ; 
And if anie were found playing, their goods were confifcat, and they 
counted as mad men euer after, neuer trufted nor efteemed of anie. 
[fi leaf 115. B.fj 6 Ludouicus ordeined that al gameflers mold depart 7 his larcd, for 
feare of corrupting of others. 

K. Richard the fecond forbad all kynd of gaming, and namely 
dice-playing. 

1 published F. * leaf 1 14, back. Lawes against Gamyng. B. 

4 Dici-player A. fi this side-note not in E, F. 

f leaf 115. Punishment for Gamyng, B. 7 out of added in F. 



ofAbufes. Beare bayting. 177 

K. Henrie the fourth ordeined that euery Dice-player ihould be Punishment 

for gaming. 

imprifoned fix daies for euery feuerall time he offended in gaming. 

K, Edward the fourth ordeined, who fo kept gaming howles 
fhould fuffer imprifonment three yeeres, and forfait xx. li. 1 82: the 
Players to be imprifoned two yeers & forfait .x. pound. The penalty 

K. Henri the feuenth ordeined that euery Dice-player fhould be keep gaming 
imprifoned all a day, and the 2 Keeper of the dicing howfe to forfait p x /back. A.] 
for euery offence vL fhil. viij.d., and to be bourad by recognizance to 
good behauiour. 

K. Henrie the eight ordeined that euery one that kept dicing 
houfes fhould forfait xl. fhil., and the Players to forfait vi. ihil. viij.d., 
with many 3 good lawes and fanctioTzs 4 let foorth agamft this raging 
Abufe of gaming; which, 5 to auoid tedioufnes 5 I omit,, befechlng 
the Lord to root vp and fupplant thefe, and all other (tumbling blocks 
in his church 6 what fo euer. 6 

Sp. As I remember, in the Catalogue of abufes before, you faid, 
the fabaoth day was prophaned by bearbaiting, cockfighting, 7 hauk- [? i ea f 115, back, 
ing, hunting, keeping of faires, courts, 82: markets, vpon the faid day. 
Is it not lawful, thaw, to follow thefe exercifes vpon the fabaoth day 
neither ? 

Beare baiting and other exercyfes, vfed 
vnlawfully 8 in AILGNA. 

Philop&nus. 

THefe Hethnicall 9 exercyfes vpon the Sabaoth day, which the [Bearbaiting 
Lord 10 hath co/zfecrat 10 to - 11 holy vfes, 11 for the glory of his Name, and 
our fpirituall comfort, are not in any refpect tollerable, or to be fuf- 
fered. For is not 12 the baiting of a Bear, belides that it is a filthie, 
ftinking, ia and lothfome game, a 14 daungerous & 15 perilous exercyfe ? [^ sign, p 2. A.] 
wherein a man is in daunger of his life euery minut of an houre^ 
which thing, though it weare not fo, yet what exercyfe is this meet 

1 pound B, E, F. 3 other added in F. 4 statutes F. 

s s j eas t I might seeme tedious F. 6 6 & common wealth F. 

f leaf 115, back. Beare bayting. B. 8 vpon the Sabboth day added in F. 

9 Heathnish F. 10 10 would haue consecrated B, E, F. 

n__ii hi s seruice F. 12 is not not in B, E, F. 

14 is it not a B, E, F ; dangerous and not in F. 15 and a B, E. 

SHAKSPEHE'S ENGLAND: STUBBES. 12 



No Creature 

to be abused. 



[4 kaf 1x6. B.*] 



God is abused 
when his 
Creatures are 
mi&u&ed. 



Keeping of 

mastyties and 

bandogs. 

I 8 P a, back. A.] 



F* leaf 116, back. 
B.t] 



178 



Keeping of maftyues. 



The Anatomie 



for any Chriftian ? what chrifle;z heart can take pleafure to fee one 
poore beaft to rent, teare, and kill another, and all for his foolifh 
pleafure ? And although they 1 be bloody 1 beafts to mankind, &: feeke 
his deflruclio;2, yet we are not to abufe them, for his fake who made 
the/?*, & whofe creatures they are. For, notwithstanding that they be 
euill to vs, & thirft after our blood, yet are thei good creatures in their 
own nature & kind, & made to fet foorth the glorie 2 & magnificence 
of s the great 3 God, & for our vfe; & therfore for his fake 4 5 not to 
be abufed. 5 It is a [comjmon faying amongft all men, borowed from 
tfiQ french, Qui alme lean, alms fon chien ; 6 loue me, loue my dog : 
fo, lone God, loue his creatures. 

If any fhould abufe but the dog of another mans, wold not he 
who oweth the dog think that the abufe therof 7 refulteth to himfelfe ? 
And hall we abufe the creatures of God, yea, take pleafure in abuling 
them, & yet think that the contumely don to them redouwdeth not to 
him who made them ? but admit it weare graunted that it weare law- 
full to abufe the good Creatures of God, yet is it not lawfull for vs 
to fpend our golden yeers in fuch ydle and vaine^exercyfes, daylie and 
hourelie as we do. 

8 And fonie, who take themfelues for no fmall fooles, are fo farre 
allotted that they will not ftick to keep a dofen or a fcore of great 
maitiues 9 and bandogs, 9 to their no fmall charges, for the maintenance 
of this goodly game (forfooth) $ and will not make anie bones of. xx. 
xl. C. 10 pound at once to hazard at a bait, with " feight dog, feight 
beare (fay they 11 ), the deuill part all ! " And, to be plaine, I thinke the 
Deuill is the 12 Maifter of the game, beareward and all. A goodly 
paftyme, forfoth, worthie of commendation, and wel fitting 13 thefe 
Gentlemen of fuch reputation. But how muche the Lord is offended 
for the prophanation of his Sabaoth by fuch vnfauorie exercyfes, his 
Heauenly Maieftie of late hath reueiled, pouring foorth his 14 heauie 

l l bloudy be F. 2 p 0wer added in B, E, F. 

s ~ 3 our B, E, F. 

* Ieafu6. Keepyng of Mastiues. B. 
5 5 we ought not to abuse them B, E, F. e that is added in F, 

7 done to his dog F. 9 9 not in B, E, F. 

10 yea, an hundred B, E, F. u say they not in B, E, F, 

12 the not in F. 13 fitting F. 

f leaf 116, back, A wofull crye at Syrap [=Parys] garden. B. i 



of Abufes. A wofull cry at Syrap* garden. 179 

wrath, his fearfull Judgements, 1 and dreadfull vengeance vppon the 
Beholders of thefe vanities. 2 

-u 

A Fearfull Example of GOD his ludgement vpon [Accidental the 
the prophaners of 3 his Sabaoth. 3 iSiSK 

Sunday, Jan. 13, 

1583.] 

VPon the 13. day of lanuarie laft, 4 being the Sabaoth day, Anno 
1583, the 5 People, Men, Wemen, and Children, 6 both yonge and 
old, an infinit number flocking 6 to 7 thofe infamous places, where p sien. p 3 . A.] 
thefe wicked exercyfes are vfuallle pra&ifed, (for they haue their 
courts, gardens, &; yards for the fame purpofe) 8 when they were 8 all 
come together and mounted aloft vpon their fcaffolds and galleries., 
and in middeft of al their iolytie & paftime, all the whole building 
(not one flick Handing) fell down with a moft wonderfull and fcare- 
full confuiiOTZj So that either two or three hundred men, wemew, 
and children (by eftimatiow 9 ), wherof feue/z were killed dead, 10 fome 
were 10 wounded, fome lamed, and otherfome brufed and cruilied 
almoft to the death. Some had their braines daiht out, fome their 
heads all to fquaiht, 11 fome their legges broken, fome their arms, fome 
their backs, fome their fhoulders, fome one hurt, fome another. So 
that you ihould haue hard a woful crie, euen pearcing the fkyes, A wofuii crie, la 
parents bewayling their children, Children their louing Parents, 
wyues 13 their Hufbands, and Hufbands their wyues, maraeilous to be- [ I3 leaf 117 B.t] 
hould 14 ! This wofull fpedacle and heauie Judgement, pitifull to heare 
of, but raoft ruefull to behold, did 15 the Lord fend 16 down from 
Heauen, to ihew vnto the whole World how greeuoufly he is of 
fended with thofe that fpend his Sabaoth. In fuch wicked exercifes ; 
In the meane tyme, leauing his temple defolat and emptie. God 
graunt all men may take warning hereby, to fhun the fame for feare 
of 1T Iike or worfer 18 ludgement to come ! t*7 P 3, back. A.] 

* Paris (F. J. F.) * indgment B, E, F. 2 as hearafter followeth B, E, F. 
s__3 ^e Sabbaoth daie B, E, F. * last not in F. 

5 there resorted an infinite number of for the E, F. 

6 of each sort E, F. 8__8 and beyng B> E> F- 

8 by estimation not in B, E, F. 10 * were some F. n quasht B, E, F. 

12 this side-nots not in F. f leaf 117. A wofuU spectacle at the Theaters. 

14 haue heard F. 15 did not in B, E, F. 16 sent B, E, F. 

18 sharper B, E 5 F. 



1 8o Cockfeights. The Anatomie 

A fearfull Judgement of GOD, fliewed at 
the Theaters* 

THE like lodgement (almoft 1 ) did the Lord mew vnto them a 

II tie befor, being aflembled at their Theaters., to fee their bawdie 

enterluds and other trumperies 2 pra&ifed : For he caufed the earth 

mightely to ihak and quauer, as though all would haue fallen down 5 

A wofuii wherat the People, fore amazed, fome leapt down (from the top of 

spectacle, 

the turrets, pinacles, and towres, wher they flood) to the ground ; 
wherof a fome had their legs broke, fome their arms, fome their 
backs, fome hurt one where, fome another/ & many fore crufht and 
brufedj but not any but they went away fore 5 airraid, & wounded in 
cowfcience. And yet can neither the one nor the other fray them 
from thefe diuelim exercyfes, vntill the Lorde confume them all in his 
gjerf n 7f back. 1 wra th ; which God forbid/ The Lord of his mercie opera the eyes of 
the maieftrats to pluck down thefe places of abufe, that god may be 
honored and their confcieraces difburthened r . 8 

Cockfight- Belids thefe exercifes, thei flock, thick & three fold, to the cock 

ing vpon the 
Sabaoth.* feights, an exercyfe nothing- inferiour 9 to the reft, wher nothing is 

P* day added in 

lsi P A] V ^ ed but fwering, forfwering, deceit, fraude, colluiion, cofe 10 nage, 
fcoulding, railing, conuitious talking, feighting, brawling, quarreling, 
drinking, whooring ; - &, which is worft of all, robbing of 11 one an 
other of their goods, & that not by direct, but indirect means & at 
tempts : & yet to blauTzch & fet out thefe mlfchiefs witho.ll (as though 
Appointed they were vertues) thei haue their appointed daies & fet howrs, when 

exercise of thefe diuelries muft be exercifed. They haue houfes erected to *Ae 12 

dyuelries. 

purpofe, nags & enfignes hanged out, to giue notice of it to others, and 
proclamation goes out t proclaim the fame, to th' end that many 
may come to the dedication 13 of this folemne feaft of mifchief : u the 

1 in effect F. 3 fooleries there F. s whereby F. 

4 another where F. 6 sore B, E, F; store A. 

f leaf 117, back, Cockfightyng in Ailgna. B. " discharged F. 

8 A new chapter-heading follows in B, E, F : Cockfightyng in Ailgna ; F 
has ; Cockfighting vpon the Sabboth day in England. not in F. 

11 of not in F. that B, E, F. 15 celebration F. 
u u no f i n B ? E, F ; -^ new chapter-heading-follows this in B, E ; Hawking 
and Hunting in Ailgna ; F has : Hauking and hunting vpon the Sabboth day 
In England. 



of Abufes. Hawking and hunting. 1 8 1 

Lord fupplant them! 14 And as for hawking & hunting vpo?i the Hawking & 

fabaoth day, 1 it is an exercyfe vpon that day no leffe unlawful thaw th^sSSotff ^ 

the other 5 2 For no man ought to fpend any day of his life, much [ 2 ieafii8. B.J 

lefTe euery day 3 in his life, 3 as many do, in fuch vaine & ydle 

pailirnes : wherfore 4 let Gentlemen take heed 5 for, be lure, accounts 

muft be giuen at the day of Judgement for 5 euery minut of time, 

both how they haue fpent it, & in what exercyfes. And let them be No more 

Hbertie giuen 

fure no more libertie is giuen them to rnifpend an howre. or one iote to one 

. . . than* another 

of the Lord his goods, than is giuen to the pooreft and meaneft formispewd- 

*>. ' & r mg of their 

perfon that liueth vpon the face of the earth. I neuer read of any. & oods - 

f I* then to F.] 

in the volume of th& facred fcripture, 6 that was a good man and a 
Hunter, 

Efau was a great hunter, but a reprobat ; If^maell a great hunter, I 7 P 4, tack. A.J 
but a mifcreantj Nemrode, a great hunter, but yet 8 a reprobat 8 and 
a veifell of wrath. Thus I fpeake not to condemne hawking and No good 

hunters [in.] 

hunting altogether, being vfed for recreation, now and than, but scripture. 

againft the continuall vfe therof daylie, hourly, weekly, yeerly, yea, all 

the time 9 of their life without intermiflioTZ. And fuch a felicitie 

haue fome in it, as they make it all their ioye, fceftowing more vpon 

hawkes and hounds, and a fort of idle lubbers to followe them, in one Cost bestowed 

yeer, than they will impart 10 to the poore members of Chrift lefus in * 311 



vii. yeers, peraduenture, in all the dayes of their life. So long as mare 

in Paradice perfifted in innocency, all beails what fo euer weare obedi 

ent to him, and came and proflrated 11 themfelues be 12 fore him 5 But [" leaf us, back. 

euer fince his fall they haue fled from him, & difobeyd him, becaufe when ail 



of his fin 5 that feeing he difobeyed the Lord, they again dlfobeled 13 

him. For fo long as man obeied God, fo long they obeied him, but wherfore they 

fo foone as marc difobeyed God, they difobeyed him, &becam enemies 

to him; as it were, feeking to reue/zge <?Ae 15 iniurie which marc had don 

vnto 16 GOB in difobeymg his lawes. Wherfore the caufe why all beafts 

do fly from vs, and are become Enemies to 17 vs, is our difobedience to 

1 day not in E, F. * leaf 118. Hawkyng and huntyng. B* 

3 3 not in F. 4 And therfore F. 

6 of F 6 Scriptures F. 

8 ~ 8 an abiect E, F, 9 times F 

10 giuc F. n tembled F. 

f leaf 1 1 8, back. Why beastes rebell against man* B. 1S disobey F, 

15 that E, F. 16 to F. 17 vnto F. 



Harme by Hunters. The -Anatomic 

the LORD, which we are rather to forow for, than to hunt after their 

deaths by the {heading of their blood. 

For pleasure * l If neceffitie, or want of other meats, mforceth vs to feek after their 

man ' u$htto lines, it is lawfull to vfe them, in the feare of God, -with thanks to his 

fh^cretSresof name,* but for our paftiraes and vain pleafures fake, wee are not in 

any wife to fpoyle or hurt them. Is he a chriftian man, or 2 rather a 

3 pfeudo-chriftian, 3 that delighteth in blood? Is he a Chriftian that 

fpendeth all his life in wanton pleafures and plefaunt delights ? Is hee 

a Chriftian that buieth vp the corne of the poor, turning it into bread 

(as many doo) to feed dogs for his pleafure ? Is hee a chriftian that 

liueth to the hurt of his Neighbour, in treading and breaking down 

his hedges, in cafting open his gates, in trampling of his corne, & 

Hurt by otherwife 4 in prejudicing 4 him, as hunters doo? wherfore God giue 

poorelien. them grace to fee to it, and to mend 5 it 6 betimes ere it be to late ; 

119. ,tj OT t ^y know morn trahit periculum, delay bringeth danger. Let vs 

not deferre to leaue the 7 euil and to doo good, leaft the wrath of the 

Lord be kindled againft vs, and confume vs from of 8 the vpper face of 

the Earth. 9 

Notkwfuiito Spud. What fay you to keeping of Markets, of 10 Fayres, Courtes, 

keep ccmif ties r J J . . 

Leets, Markets an d Leetes vpon the Sabaoth day ? Think you it is not lawful to vfe 

and Fayres, vpp- r J J 

on the Sabaoth fa e f ame ypoil any 11 day ? 

Philo. No truely - y for can you 12 ferue God & the deuil togither ? 
can wee carrie to God, and ferrie to the deuil ? can we ferue two 
t*3 p s, back. AJ Malfters, 13 and neither offend the one nor 14 the other? can wee ferue 
God and Mammon ? can wee pleafe God and the world bothe at 
one time ? The Lord wil not be ferued by peecemeale ; for either 
he wil haue the whole man, or els none : For faith he, f Thoujhalt 
loom the Lord thy God with all thy foule, withall thy minde, withall I5 
thy power, withall thy Jlrength,' and fo foorth, or els with none 
at all. Then, feeing that we are to giue ouer our felues fo wholely 
and totally to the feruice of God al the daies of our life, but ef- 

3 or not B, E, F. 5 3 cruel Tartarian F. 4 4 annoying F. 

5 amend F. f leaf 119. Fayres on the Sabaoth day. B. 

7 the not in B, E, F. e O f not in B, E, F. 

9 A new chapter-heading follows this in B, E, F : Markettes, Faires, Courtes, 
and Leetes vpon the Sabbaoth dale in Ailgna [England F.]. 
10 of not in F. that E, F. 12 we F. 1* nor displease E, F 

15 withail A. , I 



ofAbufes. Fayres on the Sabaoth. 183 

pecially vppon the Sabaoth day, being corporate to that end, p leaf 119, Lack, 
we may not Intermedle with thefe prophane exercifes vpon that Abuse of the 

J . , Sabaoth by 

day- For it Is more then manileil that thefe faires, markets, courtes, Fayres, mar- 

7 kets. * 

and leetes, vpon the Sabaoth day, are not only a hindera?zce vnto vs 
in the true 2 feralce of God, and an abuie of the Sabaoth, but alfo 
lead vs the path way to hel. For what cofonaffe Is not there praclifed? The euli in 

* J r ayres aad 

what falfhod, deceit, & frande Is not there exercifed ? what dif- Markets. 

fimuiation in bargaining? what fetting foorth 3 of fucate 3 Sc decelu- 

able wares, Is not there frequented 4 ? what lying, fwering, foriwerlng, 

drankennes, whordom, theft, & fowzetimes murther, either there or by 

the way thither, is not euery where vied 5 ? In courtes & leets, what Thecuiisia 

J J Courtes and 

enuie, malice, & hatred Is noorlfhed 6 ? what expoftulation, railing, Leets practised. 
fcoulding, periuring, & reperiurlng is maintained? r what opreffion [7 sign, p 6. A.] 
of the poore, what fauouring the 8 rich, what iniuftice & indirect deal- 
Ing ? what bribing, deceiuing, what poling & pilling is there 9 praftifed ? 
it would make a chrlftia/z hart to bleed In beholding it. And yet, not- 
withftanding, we muft haue thefe goodly pagearats played vpon the 
fabaoth day (In a wanion),becaufe there are no mo dales in the week. 
And heerby lo the fabaoth is corataminat, 10 Gods woord contemned, his 
commandeme/zts difanulled, his facrame?2ts co?2culcate, his ordinances 
negleded, &, ll infumma, his blood trod vnder feet, and all mifcheef C 11 leaf 120. B.t] 
maintained. 12 The Lord cut of thefe, with all other Jin, loth from their 
foules and thy Sabaoth, that thy name may be glorified and thy Church 
truely edified 12 ! 

Spud. Is the playing at football, reding of mery bookes, & fuch 
like delectations, a violation or prophanation of the Sabaoth day? 

Ph. Any exercife which wztAdraweth vs from godlines, either vpon 
the fabaoth 13 or any other day els, is wicked &: to be forbiden. 14 Now, Playing at 

7 J * f Foot-ball 

who is fo groily blinde, that feeth not that thefe aforefaid exercifes not 
only withdraw vs from godlines Be vertue, but alfo haile & allure vs to 

* leaf 119, back. Fayres on the Sabaoth day. B. 

2 true not in F. 3 3 counterfeit F. 4 vsed B, E, F. 

5 committed B, E, F. 6 nooirshed A. 8 of the F. 9 the (sic] F. 

10 10 ^ commeth to passe that the Sabboth is prophaned F. 

f leaf 1 20. Footeball playing in Ailgna. B. 

12 12 wot in B, E, F. A new cfiajbter-heading follows, Plaiyng at Footehall 
*in Ailgna.* (* * vpon the Sabboth and other dayes in England F.) 
is day added in F. u forbidded (sic) F. 



1 84 Great hurt, by Foot-ball play. The Anatomic 
Fooi-bai! a wlckednes and fin. for as concerning football playing", I proteft vnto 

freendly kind * r 

of fight. you it may rather be called a freendly Idnde of fight, then a play or 

recreation $ A bloody and murthering practife, then a felowly iporte 

p P 6, bade. A.] or paffirae. 1 For dooth not euery one lye in waight for his Aduer- 
farie, feeking to ouerthrowe him & to picke him on his nofe, though 
it be vppon hard ftones ? in ditch or dale, in valley or hil, or what 
place foeuer it be, hee careth not,, fo he 2 haue him down. And he 
that can ferae the moil of this fafhion, he is counted the only felow, 

Hurt by foot- and who but he ? fo that by this meanes, fomtimes their necks are 

Iball playing, 

broken, 3 foretimes their backs/ fometime their legs, fometime their 
g kaf 120, tack, armesj 4 fometime one part thurft out of ioynt, fometime an other j 
fometime 5 the 6 nofes gufh out with blood, fometime 5 their eyes Hart 
out 7 ^ and fometiraes hurt in one place, fometimes in another. But 
whofoeuer fcapeth away the beft, goeth not fcotfree, bur is either fore 
8 woii7zded, craifed 9 / and brufeed, fo as he dyeth of it, or els fcapeth 
very hardly, and no meruaile, for they haue the 10 Heights to meet one 
betwixt two, to dame him againil the hart with their elbowes, to hit 
him vnder the fhort nbbes with their griped fifts, and with their knees 
to catch him vpon the hip, and to pick him on his neck, with a 11 
hundered fuch murdering deuices : and hereof groweth enuie, malice, 
ra?zcour, cholor, hatred, difpleafure, enmitie, and what not els : and 
fometimes fighting, brawling, contention, quarrel picking, murther, 
homicide, and great efruiion of blood, as experience dayly teacheth. 
C ia sign. P 7 . A.J 12 i s tkjg murthering play, now, an exercife for the Sabaoth day ? is 
this a chriflian dealing, for one brother to mayrne and hurt another, 
and that vpon prepenfed malice, or fet purpofe ? is this to do to 
another as we would wift another to doo to vs ? God make vs more 
careful ouer the lodyes of our Bretheren ! I3 

widced 2 f 14 And as for the 15 reading of wicked Bookes, they are vtterly vn- 

^ MI. B.t] lawfu11 ^ not onel y to bee read - but once to be named 5 & that not 
(onely) vpon the Sabaoth day, but alfo vppon any other day; as 

2 he maie B, E, F. a_a not in F< 

f leaf 120, back. Great hurt by Foote-ball play. B. 

5 sometimes F. their B, E, F. f o f their heads added in F. 

8 8 crushed F. craised not m B, E. w the not in B, E, F. an F. 
13 A new chapter-heading follows in B, E, F. Keadyng of wicked bookes in 
Ailgna. [England. F.J 

t leaf i2i. Reading of wicked bookes hurtful. B. 15 the not in F. 



of Abufes. Hethnicall bookes in Allg[na]. 185- 

which tende to the difhonour of God, deprauation of good manners,, 

and corruption of chriftian foules. For as corrupt meates doo annoy 

the Homack, and infed the body, fo the reading of wicked and vn- The rail 

godly Bookes (which are to the minde, as meat is to the body) infect reading euif 

the foule, & corrupt the rninde, hailing it to diftru6tion, if the great 

mercy of God be not prefent 1 

And yet, notwithilanding, whofoeuer wil fet pen to paper now a 
dayes, how vnhoneft foeuer, or vnfeemly of chrifHan eares, his argu 
ment be, Is permitted to goe forward, and his woork pi auflbiy 2 admit 
ted and 2 freendly licenfed, and gladly imprinted, without any prohibi 
tion or contradiction at all : wherby it is growen to this ilTtie, that 
bookes & pamphlets of fcunilitie and baudrie are better efteemed, and 
more vendible, then the godlyeii and fa 3 geft bookes that be: for 4 if it E 3 P 7, ^ck. A.] 
be a godly treatife, reproouing vice and teaching vertue, away with 
it ! for no man (almoU) though they make a floorifh of vertue and 
godlynes., will buy it, nor (which is leffe) fo much as once touch it. 
This maketh the Bible, the 5 bleffed Book of God, to be fo little 
efleemed - y That woorthie 6 Booke of Martyrs, 7 made by that famous [ 7 leaf 121, back 
Father & excellent Inftrument in God his Church, Maifter lohn Fox, 
fo little to be accepted, and all other good books little or nothing to 
be 8 reuerenced; whilft other toyes, fantafies, and bableries, wherof 
the world is ful, are fuffered to be printed. Theie prophawe fchedules, 
facraiigious libels, and hethnical pamphlets of toyes & bableries 
(the Authors wherof may 9 vendicate to them felues no fmal com- [The hurte that 
mendations 9 at the hands of the deuil for inuenting the fame) corrupt iyng E, FO 
mens mindes, peruert good wits, allure to baudrie, induce to whor- 
dome, fuppreffe vertue & ere<5t vice : which thing, how mould it be 
otherwife ? for are they not inue?zted & excogitat by Belxebul, written 
by Lucifer, lice/zfed by Pluto, printed by Cerlerus> 8c fet a-broche to 
fale by the infernal furies themfelues, to the poyfoning of the whole 
world? But let the Inuerztors, the licerafors, the printers, & the fellers 
of thefe vaine toyes, and more then Hethnicall impieties, take heed 5 
for the blood of all thofe which perilh, or take hurt 10 thorow thefe [ I0 'Q i, A. 

wrongly signd ; 
leaf P 8 is misst ; 

i present not in F. 2 receiued F. 4 but B, E, F, 

5 that B, E, F. 6 renowmed F. 

* leaf 121, back. Hethnicall bookes in Ailgna. B. 8 to be not in F. 

9 9 challenge no small reward F. 



1 86 How to reforme Abufes. The Anatomie 

wicked bookes, fhalbe powred vpon their heads at the day of Judge 

ment, and be required at their hands. 

Spud. I pray you how might al thefe inormities and Abufes be 

reformed ? For it is to final! purpofe to Ihew the abufes, except you 

fhewe wlthall how they might be reformed l 

[ leaf 122. B.*] Philo. By putting in practife and executing 2 thofe good lawes, 
me Laws s wholfome fanctions 3 , and Godly 4 ftatutes, which haue beene hereto- 

agamst Evil J 

^fowtT ot * orG> aDL< ^ da *^ are> ^ et ^ oort ^ anc * eftabliihed, as GOD be thanked, they 5 
are manie, The want of the due execution wherof is the caufe of all 
thefe mifchiefs, which both rage and raigne amongil vs. 

Spud. What is the caufe why thefe lawes are not executed, as 
they ought to be ? 

Philo. Truely, I cannot tell, excepte It be thorow the nigligence 
and contempt 6 of the inferiour Magistrates. Or els, perhaps (which 
thing happeneth now and than), for money they are bought out, dif- 
franchifed and dilpenfed withall $ for, as the faying is, 7 quid non pe~ 
cunm poteft : what is it but money will bring to paffe T ? And yet, 
notwithftanding, ftiall it be don inuilibly in a clowde (vnder lenedicite 
I fpeake It) the Prince being borne in hand that the fame are 8 dalie 

r / & 



to 



are not executed 

they ought executed 8 . This fault is the corruption of thofe that are put in truft 

bee E, F.J * Jr 

p 8, back to fee them executed, as I haue 9 tould you, and (notwithftanding) do 

rong Q i, bk.) 

A.] not. 

Spud. This is a great 10 corruption & 10 Abufe, doub ties, and worthie 
of great puniihment. 

Ph. It is fo truely ; for if they be good lawes, tending to the 
glorie of GOD, the publique weale of the Cuntrey and correction of 
vices, it is great pytie that money jthould buy them out. For what is 
that els, but to fell vertue for lucre, Godlynes for droffe, yea, mens 

["leaf 122, back, fouls for corruptible mo n ney ? Therfore, thofe that fell them are not 
* J ___ 

onely Traitors to GOD, to their Prince and Countrey, but are alfo the 

Tkey that buy Deuils Marchants, and 12 ferrie the bodies and foules of Chriftians,, 13 as 

1 amended B, E, F, 

* leaf 122. How to reforme Abuses. B. _ not in F. 

* Goldy A ; Godly B, E, F. * there B, E, F. corruption F. 

7 7 Pecunia omnia potest, Money can do all thynges B, E, F. 

8 8 duly excuted (sic) B, E, F. w 10 not i n B, E, F. 

t leaf 122, back. Lawes not executed. B. 12 to B, E, F. 

is 13 as mucn as ii et h j n fa tm p. 



of Abufes. The latter day at hand. 187 

it were, in C/iaronsboate 113 to the Siiglm flood of Hell, burning with or set! lawes for 

money are 

fire and brimftone for ener. traitors to God 

E, FJ 

And thofe that buy them are Traitors to GOD, their Prince, and 

Countrey alib. 

For if the lawes were at the firft good (as, GOB be praifed, al 2 the 
lawes in Ailgna be), why ihnld they be fupprefled 3 for money? and 
if they were euill, why were they diuulged, 4 but had rather beene 
buried in the wombe of their Mother before th[e]y had euer^feene 
the light. 

And why were lawes inffituted 5 , but to be executed > Els, it were 
as good to haue no lawes at all (the People lyuing orderly) as to haue 
good lawes, and them not executed. 

The Prince ordeininer a law may lawfully repeale & adnull 6 the [None maie stay 

the course of the 

fame agalne, vpon ipeciali 7 caufes & confiderations, but no inferioar kwes, but the 
maieftrat or fubiecle what fo euer, may ftop the courfe of any lawe tf siga. Qa.A.3 
made by the Prince, without daunger of damnation to his owne 8 foule, 
as the Word of GOD beareth witnelTe. 

And therfore, wo be to thofe men that w r ill not execut the fen- 
tence of the lawe (being fo Godly and fo Chriftian as thei be in A'dgna) 
vppon Malefactors and Offenders ! 

Verely they are as guiltie of their blood before GOD, as euer was 
ludas of the death 9 of Chrifte lefus. L 9 leaf 133. B,tl 

Spud. Seeing it is fb that al fleh hath corrupted his way before 
the face of God, and that there is fuch abhomination amongeft them, [The day of 

I am perfwaded the 10 daye of Judgement is not farre of 5 For when notlaraff.? 
iniquity {hall haue filled vp his meafure, than {hall the end of all 11 ap- 

peare, as Chrijl witnefleth in his Euangelie. 

Philo. The day of the Lord cannot be farre of 3 that is moft 
eerten; For what wonderfull portents, 12 ftrang miracles, fearful fignes, 
and dreadfull Judgements 15 hath he fente of late daies, as Preachers & 
fortellers of his wrath, due vnto vs for our impenitence 14 & wickednes 
of life. Hath he not caufed the earth to tremble and quake? the [The wonderful 

1 ouer the Sea of this world added in B, E, F. 
2 the most of B, E, F. 3 bought out F. * published F. 

6 constitute B, E, F, ajmul F. 

* not in F. t leaf 123. The latter daie at hande. B. w that the E, F. 

II all thinges E, F. 1Z not in F. 13 tokens F. u impenitencie E, F. 



sillies ancf 
tokens ; A'hich 
the Lord hath 
sent to wame vs 
of the daie of 
ittdgemenc E, F.] 
Q 3 , back. A. J 



3 leaf 123, back. 
B.*] 



F AH God's 
Creatures are 
wroth with us, 
but we don*t 

mend.] 



%n, Q 3. A.1 



[9 Materiall hell- 
after this life E. 
F.) 



leaf 124. B.f] 



1 88 Gods warnings, late fliewed. The Anatomie 

fame Earth to remooue from place to place ? the feas and waters to 
roare, fwell, & braft out, and ouerflow their bankes l to the definition 
of many thoufands ? hath he not caufed the Elements and Skyes to 
fend foorth flafhing fire ? to raine downe wheat, a wonderfull thing as 
euer was heard, and the like ? hath he not caufed wonderfull Eclypfes 
in the Sunne and Moon, with moft dreadfull coniundions of Starres 
and Planets, as the like this thoufand yeeres haue not been 2 heard of? 
haue not the clowdes diftilled downe aboundance of rayne and 
fhowres, with all kinde of vnfeafonable wether, to the deflroying (al- 
moft) of al thinges vppon the Earth ? haue we not feene Commets, 
blafing flarres, firie 3 Drakes, men feighting in the ayre, moll fearfully 
to behold ? Hath not dame Nature her felfe denied vnto vs her opera 
tion in fending foorth abortiues, vntimely births, vgglefome monfters 
and fearfull miihapen Creatures, both in man &beaft? So that it 
feemeth all the Creatures of God are angrie with vs, and threaten vs 
with deffcru6Hon, and yet 4 we are 4 nothing at all amended : (alas) what 5 
fhal become of vs ! Remember we not there is a God that fhal iudge vs 
righteoufly ? that there is a Deuili who mall torment vs after this lyfe 
vnfpeakably, If we repent not? At that day the wicked fhall find that 
there is a Material Hell, a place of all kinds of tortures, wherein they 
fhal be puniihed in fire and brimjftone amongeft the terrible Com 
pany of vgglefome 6 Deuills, world without end, how light fo euer 
they make account of it in this World. 

For fome fuch there be that, when thei heare mention of Hell, or 
of the paines therof in the other World, they make a mocke at 7 it, 
thinking they be but metaphoricah 1 fpeaches, onely fpoke to terrifie 
vs withall, not 8 otherwyie. But certen it is, as there is a God that 
will reward his Children, fo there is a Deuili that will remunerat his 
Seraauntsj And as there is a Heauen, a Materiall place of perfect 
ioye prepared for the Godly, fo there is a Hell, a Materiall place of 
punlfhmewt for the wicked and reprobat, prepared for the Deuil & his 
Angels, or els the word of God is in 10 no wyfe to be credited -, which 
blafphemie once to think 11 , God keep all his Children from ! 

2 seene or added in F. * leaf 123, back. Gods warninges late shewed. B. 

4 * are we F. s that A, B, E ; what F. 7 of F. * and not F. 

9 A materiaU F. f leaf 124. A reward for good and euilL B. 

11 think of F. 



of Abufes. Who are true repentants. 1 89 

Spud. But they will eafily auoid this > for they fay It is writ 1 , at 
what time fo euer a inner doth repent him of his iinne, I wil put all 
his fin 2 out of my remembrance, faith the Lord. So that, if they 
maye haue three words at the laft, they will wifh no more. What 

think you of theie felowes ? 

Philo. I think them no men, but Deuilis : no Chriftians, but worfe [Men who pat off 

repentance till 

3 than Tartarian^, and more to be auoided than the poifon of a fer- their deaths are 

but Devils.] 

pent 3 for the one flayeth but the body, but the other both body & 

foul for euer. Wherfore let euery good Chriften Man take heed of 

them, and 4 auoid them 5 For it is truely faid cum lonis lonus eris, [* Q 3, back. A.] 

et cum peruerjls peruerferis 5 ; with the good thou ihall 6 learne good, 

but with the wicked thou ihall 6 be peruerted. 

Spud. Do you think, than, that that cannot be a true repentance, 
which is deferred to the laft gafpe ? 

Ph. No, truely; For true repentance muft ipring out of a lyuelie 
faith, with an inward lothing, hating 7 , and detefting of finne. But 
this deferred repentance fprinoreth not of faith, but rather of the feare [No true regent- 

* A <j ance which is 

of death, which he feeth imminent before his eyes, of the grief and <^ erTed to ^ h . 
tedioulhes of paine, of the Horror of Hell, and feare of God his ineuit- 
able iudgement, which he knoweth now he mufl needs abyde. And 
therfore this can be no true repentance 5 For there is 8 two maner of 
re^peTztaraces, the one a true repentance to life, the other a falfe re- g leaf 134, back, 
pentance to death. As we maye lee by Iudas> who is faid to haue re- [T WO maners 10 of 
pen ted, and. which is more, to haue confefTed his faulte, and, which false repentance, 

* and a true re- 

is moft of all, to haue made reftitution, and yet was it a fane repent- pentance E, F.I 

ance. And why? becaufe it fprang not out of true faith, but as 

before. 

Peter repented and weept bitterly, and was faued therby, though 
he neither made corafeffion nor fatiffactionj and why? Becaufe it 
fprang of a true and lyuely faith. So thefe felowes may fay they re 
pent, but except it be a u true repentance, fpringing of faith, it can p 1 sign. Q 4 AJ 
ferae them no more to life, than the pretenfed repentance of ludas did 
ferae him to faluation. 

1 written F. 2 wickednes E, F, 

3 s tlien cither Turks or lewes, or any other infidels whatsoeuer F. 

5 peruerteris B, F. 6 shalt F. 7 not in F, 8 are E, F. 

+ leaf 124, back. Who are true repentants. B. 10 maner of repentances F. 



190 Repentance not to be deferred. The Anatomic 

Let them beware, for Cam repented, yet is he condemned. Efau 
did repent, yet is he condemned 5 Anthchus did repent, yet is he con 
demned 5 ludas did repent, yet is he condemned, with infinite moe. 
And why fo ? Becaufe their prolonged repentaunce fprange not of 
faith, &C. 1 

Thus they may fee, that euerye light affection is no true repentance, 
And that it is not ynough to fay at the laft, I repent, I repent -, For 
vnles it be a true repentance indeed, it is worth nothing. But, indeed, 
if it weare fo that man had lilerum arlitrium, free wil 2 of himfelf to 
repent truely when he wold, and that God 3 promifed in his word to 
accept of that repentance, it weare another matter. But repentance 
is donum Del, the gifte of God, de furfum veniens a patre luminum, 
4 leaf 125. B.f] com 4 ming from aboue from the Father of light, & therfore it is not 
in our powers to repent when we will. It is the Lord thai giueth the 
gift, when, where, & to whom it pleafeth 5 him ; & of him are we to 
craue it inceflantly by faithfull prayer, & not otherwife to prefume of 
our owne repentance, when, indeed, we haue nothing leffe than a 
true repentance. 

^ Q 4, back A.] 6 Spud. Than, thus much I gather by your words, that as true re- 
[Of true and pentance (which is a certen inward grief and forrow of the 7 heart, 
feignd repent- cowce ; ue( j f or our fi nnes ,, with a hatred and lothing of the fame) 
[fjerueth to faluation thorow the niercie of GOD in Chrift, fo fained 
repentance faueth not from perdition. And, therfore, we muft repent 
dayly and howrely, and not to 8 deferre our repentaunce to the lart 
gafpe, as many doo, thaa which nothing is more perilous. 

Phtto. True, it is ; for maye not he be called a great Foole, that 
by deferring and prolonging of repentance to the laft caft 9 (as they 
lay) will hazard his body and foule to eternall damnation for euer } 
Wheras, by daily repentaunce, he maye affiire him felfe both of the 
fauour of GOD, and of life euerlafting (by faith) in the mercy of 
GOD, thorow the moft precious blood of his deare Sonne, lefus 
Chrift, our alone Sauiour and Redemer, to who me be praife for euer 1 

1 & of an inward hatred vnto sin, &c, F. 
* and power added in F. 3 God had F. 

t leaf 125. Repentance not to be deferred. B. 

* shall please B, E, F. 7 the not in F. 

8 did not for not to F, 9 gasp F. 



of Abufes. A Chrifrian proteftation- 191 

Spud. Now rauft I needs fay, as the Wyfe King Salomon laid, AM things are 
all things are value and 1 tranfltorie, and 2 nothing Is permanent vnder vauitle it-seifc. 
the Soone : the workes of men are vnperfect and lead to detraction, B.f] * 25 ' 
their exercyfes are valne and wicked altogether. 

Wherfore I, letting apart all the vanities of this lyfe, will from 
hencefoorth confecrate 3 my felfe to the feraice of my GOD, and to I 3 sign. RX.A.I 
follow him in his Woord, which onely is permanent and leadeth vnto 
life. 

And I moft hartelie thanke the Lord 4 God for your good Com 
pany this day, and for your graue inftnictions 5 promising, by the af- 
fiftance of God his grace, to followe and obey them to my poflible 
power all the dales of my life. 

Philo. God glue you grace fo to do, and euery Chriften man els, 
and to auold all the vanities and deceiuable pleafures of this life : for Tke *y es of 

r 3 this life tread 

certenly they tread 5 the path to eternal detraction, both of body and f^ athto 
foule for euer, to as many as obey them. 

For It is vnpoffible to wallowe in the delights and pleafures of 

this World, and to lyue in ioy for euer hi the Kingdom of Heauen. 

And thus we, hauing Ipent the daye, and alfo coTzfummate 6 our 

iorney, we mull now depart, befeaching GOD that we may both 

meete againe in the Kingdome of Heauen, there to raign^ and lyue 

with him for euer, through lefus ChriHe our Lorde ; 

to whome, with the Father and the holy 

Spirit, be all honour & glorie 

for euer more. 

Amen. 



Amen. 



f leaf 125, "back. A Christian protestation. B. * and that F. 

4 Lord my E, F. s leade E, F. 6 ended our F. 

7 F then concludes with this line ; God haue the praise, both now and alwaies. 




S: Rl 



AJ 



Faults efcaped in print! tig. 



Letter. 

InB 
InB 

InD 
InD 
InD 
InF 



InF 

InF 
In I 
In I 
In I 



Page. 
vij 
xi 
xi [p. 49l 

XV 

i 

{Seep. 65, 4/> 
paragrapk~\ 
ix [p. 71] 

^r 

[p. 105] 



iij [ 
nj [ 



viij [p. 1 08] 



Line. Fault. Correction. 

6 the in Lord in the Lord 

5 what is ther what thing is there 

3 initimur nitivmir 

9 [L l] ta&tiz meriades ta&i&que meryades 2 

1 6 fupplyed applyed [p. 52, L u] 

19 Read thus : 
i Spud. I pray you fhew me the opinions of the 

Fathers, concerning this coloring of faces. 

3 [L 8] Antiquities Antiques 2 

5 pefteruing peftering 

26 [1. 9] refug meat refufe meate 

27 [ ] patrings parings ^ 
1 6 [L 23] appetitum appetitui 




{sign. R 2. A,j 



Perilled, authorifed, & 
allowed, according to the order 
appoincted in the Queenes Maiefties Iniun- 
ctions. 




At London 

Printed by Richarde 

lones: dwellinge at the Signe of the 

Rofe and the Crowne, neere vnto 

Holborne Bridge. 

1583 3 - 




\In F, a plate ewers the page following (R 2, back), imth this on the scroll: Qvel 
. che. mi . molestcma . accendo . et . ardo. This plate is not in B, E.] 

1 this page '192' not in F. 

2 The reader should make this correction. The other references are either 
wrong, or refer to another copy than that collated for this edition. 
* 1585 E, 1595 F. 



193 



EXTRACTS 



FROM 



PHILLIP STUBBES'S 



.+ +> A* r + 

m 0f m 



1591* 



SHAKSFERE'S ENGLAND; STUBBES. 



[EXTRACTS FROM] 195 

A Chriftal Glaffe for 

Chriftian women* 

CONTAYNING 

An excellent Difcourfe, of the godly life 

Christian fcratFj Of JStStttSSe Katharine Stubbes 

who departed this life In Burton vppon 

Trent, in Staffordfhire, the 14 day 

of December. 1590. 



a most ijeauralg confession of tfje Cfjrtsttatt 

Faith, which fhe made a little before her departure : 

togither, with a moft wonderfuil combate be 

twixt Satan and her foule : worthie to 

be imprinted in the tables of eue- 

ry Chriftian heart. 



tooths for toor&^ a0 01e spafcr it, && mere 

as could be gathered, by P. S. Gent. 

Reuel. 14. ver. 13. 

Blessed are tlie dead which die in the Lorde> euen so saieth. the 
Spirite, for they rest from their labours , and their workes 
follow them. 




Imprinted at London by Richard Ihones> at the 
antr erwtone mete 
1591- 



197 




A Chriftall Glas, for Chri- 

fifan fe0mra ; tofjeteiii tfjeg mag to a iuontjerftill 
and true example of a right vertuous life and 
# fig tije Sftftourft f ollotoittg, to 

their farther infiru&ion and comfort, 

F. J.. 

it may appeare. 
Allinar to remembrance (moii Chriftian Reader) the I publish my 

... wife's Life, to 

finall ende of mans creation, which is to srlorifie God. glorify God and 

3 . edify men, 

and to edifie one another in the way of true godli- 
neUe, I thought it my duetie as well in relpe6t of the 
one, as in regarde of the other, to publifh this rare 
and wonderfull example, of the vertuous life, and Chriftian 
death, of miftrefle Katharine StMes, who whilell ihe liued, was a 
myrrour of womanhoode, and nowe being dead, is a patterne of true 
Chriftianitie. She was of honeft and wealthie parentage, and her Her Father, a 

citizen. 

father had borne office of worihip in his companie : he was zealous Her Mother, 

in the truth, and of a found Religion. Her mother was a Dutch 

woman, both dilcreete and wile, of fingular good grace and modeftie : 

and, which did moffc of all adorne her, me was both religious, and 

verie zealous. This couple liuing together in the Citie of London 

certain yeares, it pleafed God to blefie them with children, of whom My wife, their 

7 n t* n youngest child 

this Katherme was yongeft faue one. But as the was yongeft faue one but one. 

by courfe of nature : fo was ihe not inferiour to any of the reft, or 

rather farre excelled them all without comparifon by manie degrees, 

in the induments and qualities of the mind. At xv. yeares of age At 15 she married 

(her father being dead) her mother beftowed her in marriage to one me*4 years. 

maifter Stulles, with whom he liued four yeares, and almofl an 

halfe, verie honeftly and godly, with rare commendations of all that 

knewe her, as well for her fingular wifedome, as alfo for her modeftie, 

courtefie, gentleneflej aifabilitie and good gouernment. And aboue 



A Chriftall Glaffe 



She was zealous 
for the truth, and 
opp r >ad Papists 
and Atheists. 



[leaf A 2, back] 



She was seldom 
without a Bible 
or good book in 



She was always 

asking me to 
explain texts. 



She sufferd no 
disorder in her 
house. 



She never 
scolded or 
brawld; 



or gossip*. 



all, for her feruent zeale which fhe bare to the truth, wherein fhe 
feemed to furpafTe manie : Infomuch as if ilie chanced at any time 
to be in place where either Papifts or Atheiils were, and heard them 
talke of Religion, of what countenauiice or credite foeuer they 
feemed to be, fhe would not yeeld a iote, nor giue place vnto them 
at all, but would moft mightily iuflifie the truth of God, againil 
their blafpemous vntnith.es, and conuince them : yea, and confound 
them by the teftimonies of the worde of God. Which thing, how 
could it be otherwife ? for her whole heart was bent to feeke the 
Lorde, her whole delight was to bee conuerlant in the Scriptures, 
and to meditate vpon them day and night : infomuch that you could 
feldome or neuer haue found her without a Bible, or fome other good 
booke in her hands. And when ilie was not reading, me would 
fpend the time in conferring, talking and reafoning with her huiband 
of the worde of God, and of religion : aiking him : " what is the ience 
of this place, and what is the fence of that ? Howe expounde you 
this place, and howe expounde you that? What obferue you of 
this place, and what obferue you of that ? " So that fhee feemed to 
bee, as It were, rauifhed with the fame fpirite that Dauld was, when 
hee faide : * The zeale of thy ho rife hath eaten me vp/ Shee followed 
the commaundement of our Sauiour Chrift, who biddeth vs to fearch 
the Scriptures, for in them you hope to haue eternal life. She obeied 
the commandement of the Apoftle, who biddeth women to be filent, 
and to learne of their hufbands at home. She would fufFer no drf- 
urder or abufe in her houfe, to be either vnreproued, or vnreformed. 
And fo gentle was {hee, and curteous of nature, that fhe was neuer 
iaeard to grae any the lie, nor fo much as to (thou) any in anger. 
Shee was nfeuer knowen to fall out with any of her neighbours, nor 
with tlie leaH childe that lined : much ]efle to fcolde or brawle, as 
many will now adayes for euerie trifle, or rather for no caufe at all. 
And fo folitarie wa& ihee giuen, that fhee woulde verie feldome, or 
neuec, and that not without great compulfion, go abroade with any, 
either to banquet or feaft,-to goffip or make merie (as they tearme it), 
infomuch that fhee hath beene accufed to doo it in contempt and 
,difdaine of others. 

When her hufbande was abroade in London, or elfewhere, there 
not the deareft friend fhe had in the world that coulde get 'her 



for Chriftian women. 199 

abroad to dinner or fnpper, or to any other exerelfe what foeuer; she'd not go to 

neither was fee giaen to pamper her bodie with delicate meates, partiesaioiie - 

wines, or firong drinke, but refrained them altogether. And as fee Deaf A 3 j 

excelled In the gift of fobrietie, fo fhe furpaffed In the vertue of 

humilitie. For it Is well fcnowne to diuerfe jet lining, that fhe 

vtterly abhorred all klnde of pride, both in apparell, and otherwlfe. 

She conlde nener abide to heare any filthie or vncleane talk of 

fcorrilitie, neither fwearing nor blafpheming, curling nor banning, 

but would reprone them iharply, feewing them the vengeance of 

God due for fuch deferts. And which is more, there was neuer one 

filthy, TOcleane, vndecent, or vnfeemly word heard to come forth of 

her mouth, nor nener once to curfe or ban, to fweare or blafpheme 

God any maner of way : but alwayes her fpeach were fuch, as both 

glorified (rod, and miniftred grace to the hearers, as the ApofUe 

fpeaketh. And for her conuerfation, there was neuer any man or 

woman that euer opened their mouthes againli her, or that euer either 

did or could accufe her of the leaft ihadow of dlflioneftie, fo con- u v d continently, 

tinently fee lined, and fo circumfpeaiy me walked, efchewing euer ' 

the outward appearance or ihewe of euill. Againe, for true loue and 

loialtie to her hnfband, and his friends, fee was (let me ipeake it 

without offence), I thlnke, the rareft in the worlde : for fhee was ft 

farre from perfwading her hufbande to bee lefle benefieia|| to 

his friendes, that Ihee woulde perfwade him to bee moc^ l^^ciall aS never wsst 



to them. If Hie lawe her hufband meme, then ihee was merrie ; if 

hee were fadde, {he was fadde $ if he were beanie, or paflionate, ihee 

would endeuour to make Mm glad 5 if jbewere angrie, Ihe would 

quickely pleafe him, fo wifely {bee demeaned her felfe towardes him. 

Shee woulde neuer contrarie Mm in any thing, but by wife counfaile, 

and politike adaice, with all humilitie and fubmiffion, feeke to per 

fwade him. And fo little giuen was ihe to this worlde, that fome of 

her neighbours maruayled why {bee was no more carefull of it, and She card not for 

would alke her fometimes, faying : " MiflrefTe Stulles, why are you no for Goi 

more carefull for the things of this life, but fit alwayes poaring vppon 

abooke,andftudying?" To whome ihe woulde anfwere : " If I flioulde 

be a friend to this worlde, I ihoulde be an enemie to GOD : for God 

and the worlde are two contraries. John biddeth mee^ c loue not the 

world * : affirming, that if I loue the world, the loue of the father is 



aoo 



A Chriftall Glaffe 



[leafA&badc] 



She felt she _ 
should not live 
long, 



but should die 
in child-birth. 



Her boy was 
bora, 



and she did very 
well, 



tiH a burning 
ague seizd her. 



She never slept 
an, hour together 
for 6 weeks ; 



but in all her 
suffering, no 
impatient word 
escapt her. 



not in me. Againe, ChriH biddeth mee, firfi feeke tlie kmgdome of 
heauen, and the righteoufneile thereof, and then all thefe worldly 
things fhall be gluen to me. { GodlinefTe is great riches if a man be 
content with that he hath.* I haue chofen with good Martha the 
better part, which fhall neuer be taken from me. Gods treafure 
(fhee would fay) is neuer drawne drie. I haue inough in this life, God 
make me thankefiil, and I know I haue but a fhort time to Hue here, 
and it ftandeth me ypon to haue regard to my faluation in the life to 
come." Thus this godly yong woman helde on her courfe three or 
foure yeares after fhee was married : at which time it pleafed God, 
that fhe conceyued with a man childe : after which conception me 
would fay to her hufband, and many other her good neighbours and 
friends, not once, nor twice, but manie times, that fhe fhould neuer 
beare more children, that that child woulde bee her death, and that 
fhee fhoulde Hue but to bring that childe into the worlde. Which 
thing (no doubt) was reuealed vnto her by the Spirite of God, for ac 
cording to her prophecie, fo it came to pafTe. 

The time of her account being come, fhee was deliuered of 
a goodly man childe, with as much fpeede, and as fafely in all womens 
iudgements, as any could be. And after her deliuerie, fhe grewe fb ffarong_ 
and luftie, that fhe was able within foure or fine dayes to fit vp in her 
bed, and to walke vp and downe her chamber, and within a fortnight, 
to goe abroade in the houfe, being throughly well, and paft all 
daungers, as euerie one thought. But prefentiy vpon this fo fudden 
recouerie, it pleafed God to vilite her againe, with an extreame hote 
and burning quotidian Ague, in which iicknes fhe languifhed for the 
fpace of fix weekes, or there aboutes. During all which time, fhee 
was neuer feene, nor perceiued to fleepe one houre together, neither 
night nor day; and yet the Lord kept her (which was miraculous) in 
her perfect vnderftanding, fence, and memorie, to the lafl breath j 
prayfed bee the Lorde therefore I In all her fickenefTe, which was 
both long and grieuous, fhe neuer fhewed any figne of difcontentment, 
or of impaciencie : neither was there euer heard one worde come 
forth of her mouth, founding either of defperation, or infidelitie : ot 
miftruft, or diftruft, or of any doubting or wauering, but alwayes 
remayned faithfull, and refolute in her God. And fo defirotis was 
ifhe to be with the Lorde, that thefe golden fentenfes were neuei 



for Chriftian women. 

forth of her mouth, " I defire to be difibloed, and to be with Chrift." 0f A 4 ] 

And, "oh miforable wretch that I am, who fhall deiiier me from this 

bodle febieA to finne? Come quickly, Lord leftts, come quickly! 

Like as the heart delireth the water fpriogs, fo dooth my foule thirft Be with Onist. 

after thee, O God. I had rather bee a doorekeeper in the houfe of 

my God, then to dwell in the tentes of the wicked : " with manie 

other heauenly fentences, which (leaft I ihould feeme to tedious) I 

willingly omit. She would alwaies pray in her lickenelfe abfolutely, 

that God would take her out of this miierable worlde : and when her 

huiband and others would deiire her to pray for health, if it were the 

will of God : Shee would anfwere, ee I pray you, pray not that I Ihoulde 

line, for I thinke it long to be with my God. Chrift is to me life, 

and death is to me aduantage. I cannot enter into life, but by death, She knew- death 

was the door to 

and therfore is death the doore or enterarcce into euerlafting life to everlasting life. 

me. I knowe and am certainly perfwaded by the Ipirite of God, 

that the fentence of my death is giuen alreadie, by the great ludge, in 

the Court or Parliament of heauen, that I fhall nowe depart out of 

this life : and therefore pray not for me, that I might Hue here, but 

pray to God to giue me fbrength, and pacience, to perfeuere to the ende, 

and to clofe vp mine eyes in a iuftifying faith in the blood of my ChrifL" 

Sometimes ihe would fpeake very foMy to herfelfe, and fometimes 

Tery audibly, thefe words, doubling them a thoufande times together, 

** Oh my good God, why not nowe ? Why not nowe, oh my good 

God ? I am readie for thee, I am prepared, oh receyue me nowe for 

thy Chrift his fake. Oh fend thy rneilenorer death to fetch me, fend She prayd God 

* J to send and 

thy fergeant to areft me, fend thy purfeuant to apprehend me, thy fetch her. 

herauld to fummon me : oh lend my lailour to deliuer my foule out 

of prifon, for my bodie is nothing elfe but a filthie fEnking prifon to 

my foule. Oh fende thy holie Angels to conduct my foule into the 

euerlafting kingdome of heauen I " Other fome times ihe would lie as 

it were in a flumber, her eies doled, & her lips vttering theie words 

very fofdy to her felfe : " Oh my fweete lefus, oh my loue lefiis : why She caiid on 

not no we, fweete leius, why not nowe ? " as you heard before, " Oh 

fweete lelus, pray for mee ! pray for me, fweete lefus ! " repeating them 

many times together. Thefe and infinite the like were her dayly 

ipeaches, and continuall meditations: and neuer worfer worde was 

there heard to come forth of her mouth during all the time of hei 



She often sralfd 
sweetly. 



seeing visions 
and heavenly 
sights. 



She took leave 

of her boy, and 



beqneatht him 
to me as the 

Lord's. 



She repented of 
having been too 
fond of her little 
dog. 



[leafBJ 



A Chriftall Glaffe 

fickheffe. She was accuitomed many times as ihe lay, verie fuddenly 
to fall into a fweete fmiling, and fometimes into a moft heartie 
laughter, her face appearing right faire, redde, amiable, and louely : 
and her countenaunce feemed as though ihe greatly reioyced at fome 
glorious light. And when her hufband would alke her why me 
fmiled and laughed fo, ihe woulde fay, " if you fawe fuch glorious 
vifions and heauenly lights as I fee, you would reioyce and laugh 
with me : for I fee a vifion of the ioyes of heauen, and of the glorie 
that I iliall go to 5 and I fee infinite millions of Angels attendant vpon 
me, and watching ouer me, readie to carrie my foule into the king- 
dome of heauen." In regard whereof, ihe was willing to forfake her- 
felfe, her hufband, her childe, and all the world befides. And fo call 
ing for her childe, which the Nurfe brought vnto her, ihe tooke it in 
her armes, and killing it, laid : " God bleffe thee, my fweete babe, and 
make thee an heire of the kingdome of heauen : " and killing it againe, 
deliuered it to the Nurfe, with thefe words to her hufband landing 
by : " Beloued hufband, I bequeath this my child vnto you 5 he is no we 
no longer mine, he is the Lords and yours. I forfake him, you, and all 
the worlde, yea, and mine owne felfe, and efteeme all things dungue, 
that I may winne lefus ChrifL And I pray you, bring vp this child 
in good letters, in difcipline $ and aboue all things, fee that he be 
brought vp in the exercife of true Religion." 

The childe being taken away, ihe fpyed a little Puppie, or Bitch, 
(which in her life time ihe loued well,) lying vpon her bed : ihe had 
too fooner ipied her, but ihe beate her away, and calling her hufband 
to her, iadd : *' Good hufband, you and I haue offended God grieuouily 
in receyulng th*$ Bitch many a time into our bed : the Lord giue vs 
grace to repent for it and al other vanities ! '* Aaid afterward coulde 
ihee neuer abide to looke vpon tie Bifcdb. my more. Hauing thus 
godly difpofed of all things, flae fell into an extafie, or Mto a iterance 
or fownde, for the fpaqe almoji of a quarter of an houre, fo as enery 
one -thought ihe had bee?ne dead. But afterward ftie, comming to her 
felfe, fpake to them that were prefent, (as there were many both 
worihiprall and others) faying : " Right worfhipf ull and my good 
neighbours and friends, I thanke you aH, for the great paines you haue 
taken with me : and whereas I am not able to requite you, I befeech 
the Lord to reward you in the kingdome of heauen. And for that I 



for Chriftian women. 203 

knowe that my hower-glaffe is out* and my time of departure 

hence is at hande. I am perfwaded, for three caiifes, to make a con- she wisht to f 

make confession 

feffion of my fayth, before you all. The firft caufe that moneth me offer faith, 

J J J i. to confirm 

Is, for that thofe (If there be any fuch here) that are not thorowly others ,- 

refoliied In the tmeth of God, may heare and leame what the fpirite 

of God hath taught me out of his bleiTed and alfauing worde. The iecond 

caufe that moneth me hereto., is, for that none of you fhoulde iudge 2 . to testify that 

she died a. 

that I died not a perfect Chriftian, and a liuely member of the myfti- Christian; 
call bodie of lefus Chrift, and fo by your ralh Judgement might 
incurre the difpleaiure of God. The thirde and laft caufe,, Is for that, 3 . that her 

. friends might be 

as you laaue beene witnefies of part of my life, fo you might bee witnesses of her 

witnefies of my faith and beliefe alfo. And in this my confefEon, I 

woulde not haue you to thinke, that it is I that fpeake vnto you, but 

the fpirite of God which dwelleth In me, and in all the elect of God, 

vnleffe they be reprobates : for Paul fayeth, Rom. 8, f If any one 

haue not the fpirite of Chrift dwelling in him, he is none of his.* 

This blelled ipirite hath knocked at the doore of my heart, and God 

hath giuen mee grace to open the doore vnto him, and Jaee dwelleth 

in me plentifully. And therefore I pray you giue me pacience a 

little, and imprint my wordes in your hearts, for they are not the 

wordes of flefh and blood, but of the Ipirite of God, by whom I am 

fealed to the day of redemption." 

A moil heauenly confeMon of the Chriftian faith, My Wife's 

J y J U J J J Confession of 

made % this lleffedferuant of God MiftreJJe Faith. 

S tulles a little before Jhe died. 

9 Lthough the Maieftie of God be both infinite and 
vnfpeakeable, and therefore can neither be con- 
ceiued hi heart, nor exprefled in wordes," yet to 
the end you may know what that God is, in 
whom I beleeue, as f arre as he hath reuealed him- 
felfe vnto vs in his holy worde, I will define him 
vnto you, as the fpirite of God ihall illuminat my 
heart. I beleeue therefore with my heart, and freely confefle with my [leaf B i, back] 
mouth, here before you all, that this God in 'whom I beleeue, is a 
moft glorious Ipirite, or fpirituall fiibflance, a diuine efience, or 




204 



A Chriftall Glaffe 



eflenciall being, without beginning or ending, of infinite glorie, 
power, might & maiefHe, inuifible, inaccellible, incomprehensible, and 
I believe in God altogether vnipeakable. I beleeue and confeife, that this glorious 
Godhead, this blefled fubftaunce, efTence, or being, this diuine powef 
which we call God, is deuided into a trinitie of Perfons, the father, 
the fonne, and the holy fpirite, diftind onely in names and offices, 
but all "one and the fame in nature, in eflence, fubffonce, deitie, 
maieftie, glorie, power, might, and eternitie. ..... 

&C., &C., &C. \ ......,. 



I believe tbat 
we shall know 
each other in 
heaven. 



Dives in hell 
knew Abraham 
and Lazarus in 
heaven. 



Much more shall 
we know one 
another in the 
life to come. 



" When God had cafl Adam into a deade fleepe, and made woman 
of a ribbe of his fide, hee brought her vnto him, and he knewe her 
fireight way, and called her by her name. Conlde Adam in the ffote of 
innocencie knowe his wife, hee lying in a dead fleepe, whileffc Ihe was 
in making ? And fhall not we being reftored to a farre more excellent 
dignitie and perfection, then euer was Adam in, not knowe one 
another ? Shall our knowledge bee leiTe in heauen then it is in earth ? 
Doo wee knowe one another in this life, where wee knowe but in 
part, and fee as it were but in a Glade, and ihall wee not knowe 
one an other in the life to come, where all ignoraunce fhall bee done 
away ? 

"In the 1 6. of Luke, we reade ho we that the rlche man lying in hell, 
knewe Abraham and Lazarus in heauen. Then I reafon thus : If the 
nicked that be in hell in torments do know thofe that be in heauen 
fo farre aboue them : how much more fhall the godly knowe one 
another, beeing altogether in one place, and fellowe Citizens in the 
kingdome of heauen > We reade alfo in the 17. of Matth. ho we our 
Sauiour Chrift, meaning to fhewe vntp his difciples, Peter, lames, and 
IoJm 9 as it were a fhadowe, or glimmering of the ioyes of heauen, and 
therefore hee is fayde to bee tranffigured before them, and his face 
did fhine as the Sunne, and his apparell was like the light. And there 
appeared vnto them Moyfes and Ellas, fayeth the text. 

"Then it followeth, that if the Difciples being in their naturall 
corruption, and but in fhadowe or glimmering of the ioyes of heauen, 
did knowe Moyfes and Elias, the one whereof dyed almofte two thou- 
fande yeares before, the other not much lefTe, howe much more fliall 
wee knowe one another in the life to come, all corruption being taken 



for Chriftian -women, 205 

away, and we In the fall fruition and pofleffion of all the ioies & glory of 

heaiien? This is my fait* _ this is my hope* & this is my trail j this hath [leaf C 2, back] 

the (pint of God taught me, and this hane I learned out of the booke of 

God. And (good Lord) that haft begun this goodnes in me, finiih 

it, I befeech thee, & ftrengthen me that I may perfeuere therein to 

the ende* and in the ende, through lefus Chrift my onely Lord and 

faniour. 1 * And ihe had no fooner made an end of this moft heauenly men she Bad 

ctded r Satan 

confeffion of her faith, bat Satan was readie to bid her the combate ; was ready to 

attack ker 

whom ihe mightily repulfed, and vanquiihed, by the power of onr 
Lord leius, on whom ihe conftantly beleeued. And wheras before 
ihe looked with a fweet, louely, and amiable countenance, red as the 
rofe, and moft beautiful! to bebolde, now vpon the fudden, ihe bent 
the browes, ihe frowned, and looking (as it were) with an angry, . She scowid at 

rt _ ,/,---, , him, and scornd 

fteame, & fierce countenance, as though ihe law fome filthie, vggle- him. 
fome, and difpleafant thing, ihe braft foorth into thefe ipeaches fol 
lowing, pronouncing her wordes as it were fcornefully and difdain- 
fully, in contempt of him to whom ihe fpake. 

A mqfl wonderfull conftiSi betwixt Satan and her HOW my Wife 

foule, aTid of her valiant conqueft in the 
fame, by the power of Chrift. 

Ow now, Satan ? what makes thou here ? Art thou 
come to temf>t the Lords ieruant? I tell thee, 
thou hel-hound, thou haft no part nor portion in Hdl-kotrad, 
me, nor by the grace of God neuer ihalt haue. I 
was, now am, -and ihalbe the Lords for euer, 
Yea, Satan, I was chofen and ele&ed in Chrift to 
euerlafting ialuation, before the foundations of the world were 
laid: and therefore thou maift get the[e] packing, thou damned be off i 
dog, & go ihake thine eares, for in me haft thou nought. But be gone i *" 
what doft thou lay to my charge, thou foule fiend? Oh, that I 
am a finner, and therefore ihall be damned ; I confeiTe in deede that 
I arn a finner, and a grieuous finner, both by originall finne, and TW I am a 
aftuall finne 5 and that, I may thanke thee for. And therfore, Satan, I smner * 
bequeath my finne to thee, from whome it firft proceeded, and 
I appeale to the mercie of God in Chrift lefus. Chrift came to iaue peaf c 3 ] 
finners (as he faith himfelfe) and not the righteous: 'behold the 




yet Christ's 

blood has 

cleanse! me. 



AH my sins arc 
pardond fo*- his 

name's sake. 



Deceitful devil, 



Christ has paid 
my debt to God 
for me. 

Firebrand of 
HeU, avoid! 



call on Michael. 



ao6 



A Chriftall Glaffe 



Lambe of God (faith lohn) that taketh away the iinnes of the world/ 
And In another place, he crieth out : * the blood of lefus Chrift doth 
cleanle vs from al finne/ And therefore, Satan, I conffently beleeue 
that my iinnes are wafhed away In the precious blood of lefus Chrif!, 
and lhall neuer be Imputed vnto mee. For Chrifts righteoufneile Is 
my righteoufhelTe, his holineiTe my holines, his Innocencle my inno- 
cencle, and his blood a full recompence and fatiffadion for all my 
iiimes. But what fayeft thou more, Satan ' Doft thou afke me how 
I dare come to him for mercy, he being a righteous God, and I a 
miferable finner? I tell the, Satan, I am bolde thorow Chriil to 
come vnto him, being allured and certaine of pardon and remiffion 
of all my Iinnes for his names fake. For, doth not the Lord bid all 
that be heauie laden with the burden of finne, to come vnto him, and 
he will eafe them ? Chriftes armes were fpred wide open (Satan) 
vpon the Croffe (with thatflie fpred her owne armes) to embrace me, 
and all penitent (inners : and therefore (Satan) I will not feare to 
prefent my felfe before his footftoole, in full aifurance of his mercie 
for Chrift his fake. What more, Satan ? Doeft thou fay, it is written, 
that God wil reward euery one according to his works, or according 
to his deferts ? But It is written againe, thou deceitfull deuill, that 
Chrifts righteoufneile is my righteoufnelfe, his works my works, his 
deferts my deferts, & his precious blood a full fatiffacYion for all my 
Iinnes. Oh, but God Is a iuft God, thou faieft, and therefore muft 
needs in iuftice condemne me. I grant (Satan) that he is a iuft God, 
and therefore hee cannot in iuftice puniih me for my Iinnes, which 
hee hath punifhed alreadie in his fonne. It is againft the law of iuftice, 
to puniih one fault twice. I was, and am, a great debter vnto God 
the Father, but Chrift lefus hath paled the debt for me : and there 
fore it ftandeth not with the iuftice of God to require it againe. And 
therefore auoid, Satan, auoid, thou firebrande of hell! auoid, thou 
damned dog, and tempt me no more! for he that is with me is 
mightier than thou, euen the mightie and vi&orious Lion of the 
tribe of luda, who hath bruized thy head, and hath promifed to be with 
his children to the end of the world. Auoid therfore, thou daftard, 
auoid, thou cowardly fouldier, remooue thy iiege, and yeelde the 
wottBfc, &: get thee packing, or elfe I wil cal vpon my grand- 
captaine Cliriil Iefe> tit aliant Michael, who beate thee In heauen, 



for Chriftlan women. 207 

and threw thee downe to hell, with all thy hellifti traine, and diuelilh 

crew." She had fcarcely pronounced the laft wordes, but ihe fell fud- Then she Uught, 

J r for Satan ran off 

denly into a fweet {"railing laughter, faying, " Now is he gone, now is iea beaten 

he gone I do you not fee him file like a cowarde, and ranneaway like 

a beaten cocke? He hath loft the fielde, and I haue wonne the 

vi&orie, enen the garland, and crowne of euerlafting life ; and that, 

not by my owne power or itrengtli, but by the power and might of 

lefus Chriit,, who hath fent his holy Angels to keepe me." And 

fpeaklng to them that were by, fhe faid, * s would God you faw but 

what I fee ! Do you not fee infinite millions of moft glorious Angels She saw minions 

J of Angels about 

ftand about me, with fine charets ready to defend me, as they did tlje her - 

good prophet Elizeus. Thefe holy Angels, thefe miniftring fpirits, 

are appointed by God to carrie my foule into the klngdome of heauen, 

where I fhall behold the Lord face to face, and fhall fee him, not 

with other, but with thefe fame eyes. Now am I happie and blefied 

for euer, for I haue fought the good fight, and by the might of Chrift By Christ's 

might she had 

bane wonne the vi<5torie. Now from, henceforth fliall I neuer tafte won the victory. 

neither of hunger nor cold, paine nor woe, miferie nor affliction, 

vexation nor trouble, feare nor dreade, nor of any other caiamitie, or 

aduerfitie, whatfoeuer. From henceforth is laid vp for mee a crowne 

of life, which ChriH lhal giue to thofe that feare him. And as I am 

now in poUeffion thereof by hope, fo ihall I bee anon in full fruition 

thereof by prefence of my foule, and hereafter of my bodie alfb, when 

the Lord doth pleafe." Then ihe fpake foftly to herfelfe as followeth. 

" Come, Lord lefus, come, my loue lefus, oh fende thy purfeuant (fweet 

lefus) to fetch me! Oh (fweet lefus) ftrengthen thy feruant, & 



Jesus to fetch 
her. 



keepe thy promife ! " Then fang Ihe diuers Pfalmes moil fweetly, and She sang Psalms 
with a chearefull voice : which done, fhe delired her huiband that the 
103. Pfalrne might bee fiing before her to the Church. And further,, 
ihee defired him that hee woulde not mourne for her, alledging the she bade me not 
Apoftle Paul, where he faith : ' Brethren, I woulde not haue you to moura 
rnourne, as men without hope, for them that die in the Lord ' : affirm 
ing that ihe was not in caie to be mourned for, but rather to bee 
reioyced for: for that ihee ihould pafle (ihe faide) from earth to [leaf c 4! 
heauen 5 from men to holie Saints, to Angels, to C3ieEiir and 
Seraphins, yea to God himfelfe. wimfes, rery fuddenly, 

* 111 T Shelookt 

Ihe feemed, as it were* to 1 reioyce, and to looke very cheere- cheerfully, 



208 A Chriftall GlafTe for Chriftian women. 



and welcomd 
death; 



spirit to her 
God, 



and then slept 
sweetly in the 
Lord. 



She was but 18 
when she died. 
May we all 
follow her 
example! 



fully, as though ihe had feene fome glorious light : and lifting vp her 
whole body, and ftretching foorth both, her armes, as though fhee 
would imbrace fomething, laid : " I thanke my God, through lefus 
Chrift, he is come, he is come, my good layler is come to let my 
Ibule out of prifon ! Oh fweet death, thou art welcome, welcome, 
fweet death ! neuer was there any gueft fb welcome to mee as thou 
art ! Welcome, the meffenger of euerlafling life : welcome, the doore 
and enterance into euerlaffing life : welcome (I fay), and thrife wel 
come, my good layler ! do tny office quickly, and fet my foule at 
libertie. Strike (fweet death), ftrike my heart, I feare not thy blowe. 
Now it is done. Father, into thy blerTed hands I commend my fpirit ! 
Sweete lefus, into thy blefTed hands I commend my fpirit ! Blefled 
fpirit of God, I commit my foule into thy handes ! Oh moft holy, 
bleffed, and glorious Trinitie, three perfons and one true euerlafling 
God, into thy Welled handes I commit both my foule and my bodie : ** 
at which wordes her breath Jftaied ; and fo, neither mouing hand nor 
foot, fhe flept fweetly in the Lord. 

Thus haft thou heard (gentle Reader) the difcourfe of the vertuous 
life and chriftian death of this faithfull feruaunt of God, Mifhreffe 
Katherine StiMes : which is fo much the more wonderfu.ll, in that 
fhe was but yong and tender of yeares, not exceeding the number of 
xviiL when fhe departed this life. The Lorde giue vs all grace to 
follow her good example, that we may come to thofe vnfpeakeable 
ioyes wherin fhe now refteth, through lefus Chrift our 
Lorde 5 to whome with the Father, and the holy 
Ghofl, be all honour, glorie, praife, domin 
ion, and thankefgiuing, both nowe and 
euermore. Amen. 



FINIS. P. S. Gent. 



EXTRACTS FROM 



PHILIP STUBBES'S 



PERFECT PATHWAY TO FELICITIE, 



A SHORT TREATISE 



PRAIERS AND SUPPLICATIONS, 



[The original is a pretty little dumpty volume, 3-^1 inches high by 2f inches 
broad. Collation If 1-8. A. to T in 8s. H" i, the 1st leaf, is blank ; the 
last leaf and page before it (T. 8 and 7 back) are blank too ; aU the leaves 
are borderd. 

Mr Hy. Huth's copy (from Heber*s library), which he has kindly lent me, is in its 
original gilt vellum cover, with the initials R D, separated by a rose, on each 
of the two sides. The borders and initials in this partial reprint are not of 
the same patterns as those in the original.] 




SHAKSPEBE'S 



: STUBBES. 



u 



CONTENTS OF STUBBES'S PATHWAY, 

ED. 1592 (AND 1610), 



^ i- Blank. 11 2. Title. 
IF 3. The Epistle Dedicatorie. 
T 8. f The Preface. 
A 2. Certaine Graces to bee saide "be 
fore and after meat. 
A 3. Thankesgiuing after meate, 
A 3, bk. Another prayer before meate. 
A 4, bk. An other praier after meate. 
A 5. A praier before meate. 
A 6. A thankesgiuing after meate. 
A 7. A note to knowe the beginning 

and ending of the foure 

Tearmes of the yeare. (A 8, 

back, blank.) 
B i. Speciall Meditations for all times 

and for all persons. 
B 4, bk. Precepts and directions for 

the morning. 

B 5. Meditations in the morning. 
B 6, bk Meditations to bee considered 

of at the rising of the Sunne. 
C I. A praier for the morning. 
C 4. Precepts at thy going foorth of 

thy Chamber. 
C 4, bk. Meditations in the washing 

of ones face and hands. 
C 5, bk. A praier to be said at the 

washing of ones face and 

hands. 

C 6. Meditations before and at dinner. 
C 7. A praier before meate. 
C 8. Directions how a Christian should 

behaue himselfe at the table. 
D I. f A Thanks -giiiing to God after 

dinner. 

D 2. Meditations after dinner. 
D 3, bk. Directions how to behaue 

thy selfe before and after 

Supper. 
D 4, bk. A thankes giuidg \sd\ to God 

before Supper. 
D 6, bk. A thankesgiuing to God after 

Supper. 
D 7. D irections of Christian behauiour" 

after Supper. 
D 8. f Meditations when thou comest 

into thy chamber. 
E 2, bk. "f* A Prayer when sleepe 

corneth vpon one. 

1 Kings, ed. 1610, which, also alters ^7" to his* 
to ' Lord and gouerner? 

\ From, the 1610 edition, my copy 



E 6. f A Praier when one awakes out 
of sleepe. 

E 6, bk. f Meditations when one awak- 
eth out of sleepe. 

E 7. f A Praier to be said at the breake 
of the day. 

E 8. f Meditations at the appearing 
of the day. 

F I. f A Praier when one ariseth forth 
of his bed. 

F I, bk. f Meditations when one aris 
eth out of his bed. 

F 2, bk. f A praier to be said at the 
putting on of a mans clothes. 

F 3. f Christian directions for the 
Morning. 

F 5. f [Fresh Title. ] A S HO RT / Treat- 
ise, offiraiers \ and Supplica- / 
tions; / COMPRISING la briefe 
summe of all suck / things as 
we stand / in need of in this / 
life. / By the same Atttkor. / 
P. S. Gent. / (F 5, back, blank. ) 

F 6. f A Praier for the Morning. 

F 7. f A Prayer for the Euening. 

F 8, bk. f A generall confession of our 
sins "to God the Father, neces 
sary to be said at all times. 

G 3, bk. A confession of our sinnes to 
Christ lesus our sauiour, with 
desire of forgiuenes. 

G 5. A fruitfull praier to God the holie 
Ghost. 

G 6, bk. A Praier for the Queenes 1 
Maiestie. 

G 8, bk. A praier to be said of all such 
as be maiestrates and rulers in. 
the common wealth. 

H 2. A praier for the increase of faith. 

H 3, bk. A praier against the deuill, 
the world and the flesh. 

H 4, bk. A praier for Gods direction 
in all things which we take in 
hand. 

H 5, bk. A praier for a competent and 
a necessarie liuing. 

H 7* bk. A praier for grace that wee 
may vse our wealth to the 
glorie of God. 

and [our souereigne] c Ladie and gouemesse* 




of the 1592 one being imperfect, 

{Continued at back of Title.] 




A perfect Pathway 

to Felicitie, 

Containing godlie 

Meditations, and Pray- 
ers 5 fit for all times, and 
neceffarie to be prac 
ticed of all good 
Chriftians, 



AT LONDON, 
Imprinted by Hinnfrey 

Lownes, dwelling on 

Bread Street hill, at 

the figne* of the 

Star. 1 6 10. 




CONTENTS OF STUBBZS'S PATHWAY, 1592, 1610. 



I I. A praier to be said of women 

with cfailde. 

13. A praier for godly wisedome. 
I 4, bk. A praier against all kind of 

enemies. 

16. A praier when one taketh a Jour 
ney in hand. 
I 7, bk. A thaiiksgiuing to God after 

ones retunie home from his 

iourney. 
K I. A praier for euerie subiect of a 

common wealth. 
K 2, bk. A praier to be said of those 

that be vnmaried. 
K 3, bk. A praier to be said of those 

that are maried. 
K 5, bk. A praier to be said of those 

that be maisters of housholds. 
K 7. A praier to be said of seruanfs. 
K 8. A praier to obtame the grace 

and fauour of God. 

Lr 2. A praier to God for a quiet con 
science. 
L 3, bk. A praier for a true and Huely 

faith. 

L 4, bk. A praier for loue and charitie. 
L 6. A praier against pride, and for 

humilitie. 

L 7. A praier for a good name. 
JL 8, bk. A praier for patience in sick- 

nesse. 
M 2. A praier for the assistance of 



Gods holie Angels in any 

extremitie or neede whatso- 

euer. 
M 3, bk. A praier against sudden 

death. 
M 5. A praier for one that Is sicke, and 

at the poynt of death. 
M 7, bk. A praier for those that be 

rich and wealthie. 
N i, bk. A praier for those that bee 

poore and needle. 
N 3. A praier for the increase and 

presentation of the fruits of 

the earth. 
N 4, bk. A praier against couetousnes 

and auarice. 
N 6, bk. A praier to be said before the 

reading, studying, or hearing 

of Gods word. 

N 8. A praier against swearing. 
O I, bk. A praier against drunken- 

nesse. 
O 3. A praier against slouthfulnesse 

and idlenesse. 

O 4. A praier for those that are per 
secuted for the truth. 
O 6, bk. A praier for Godly wisedome, 
O 7, bk. A praier for grace to be mind- 
full to die. 
P i y bk. f A Thanks-giuing to God 

for all his graces and blessings 

bestowed vpon vs. 



The first edition of 1592 ends on the back of sign. P 5. 

1610. 

and euerlasting GOD, be 
all honour, glorie, praise, 
might power maiestie and 



1592. 

uerlasting GOD bee all / honour, glorie, 

prayse do^minion power, and 

thanks/gluing for euermore. 

Amen. 



Vni Deo &* trino sit 9 
omnis gloria 



FIJSTIS. 



[Ornament.] 



i dominion, now and for euer. 
Amen. 

(i) A Praier for the Church. 

O Singular louer of vs, 
Christ Tesu, O Bride- 
groome to whom thy Church 
is most deare, and which hast 
promised that thou wilt ne- 
uer faile her ; increase her ; . 



The after prayers in ed. 1610 are: (2) A Prayer for the forgiuenes of smnes 
(P 6, back). (3) Another (Q 3). (4) Prayse and (5) Prayer for Gods mercy 
towards vs (Q 5, back). (6) A Prayer, in meditating on Christs Passion 
(R I, back). (7) Another (R 5). (8) A Prayer to Christ in glorie (R 6, 
back). (9) A Prayer before the hearing of Gods word (R 8). (10) A 
Prayer for Gods Grace (82). (il) A Prayer for confidence in. God alone 
(S 3, back). (12) A Prayer for true enlightning (S 4, back). (13) A Prayer 
that the olde man may die in vs (S 6, back). (14) A Prayer to be vsed 
by the sicke (T 2). (15) A Prayer, in the time of Pestilence (T 5). Fims. 
{T 7, front). Back of T 7, and T 8, blank, tho' with borders. 
'* sign. P S, bade. 



212 



The Epistle Dedicatorie 



213 



J To the right worfhipfull, 
vertuous, and godlie Gentle- 
woman, MiftrefTe Katherine 
Milwardj moft faithful fpoufe 
to the no lefie worfhipfull, wife and 
religious Gentleman^ M after Willi 
am Milward* Efqulre, P. S+ wilheth 

all happle fucceile in this life, with in- 

creafe of worfhip, and In the life 

to come,, eternal felicity in the 

Heauenly Hierachie by 

lefus ChrilL 




Wo things peraduenture (Right Worfhipfull) 
may be maruailed at y concerning this little 
look : ^as namely, J&rft, why I haue pub- 
li/hed if? coTifidering the great number of 
Books? either of the fame, or verie like 
Argument, extant in thefe dayes. Secondly, 
wherfore I haue dedicated it rather vnto 
you then to anie other. For the Jirfi, I 
proteft before God, who knoweth the fecrets 

of all hearts, I haue not pul'li/ked it, either for vain glory, lucre, or 
^gaines, nor yet for any other priuate re/pec^ of my owne whatsoeuer ; 
lut at the inflant requejl and earnejl defire of one of my verie good 
friends, and alliance alfo, who yet Ijeing liuing, & the onely man thzt 
hath borne the whole charges of the impreffion thereof, loth can, & I 
know will (if need Jhould require) iujlifie the fame again/I any that 
Jhold 5 auerre the contrarie. And for the fecond, when I conftdered 
with my felfe how much bound 1 haue alwaies beene to your worjhip 



sign, IT 3. 

4 sign, IT 4. 



2 sign. ^ 3, back. 



5 sign. ^ 4, back. 



vnso ong* 



2,14 



The Epiftle Dedlcatorie. 



eiierjince the time that I was fir jt acquainted with you, for your good 
opinion you haue euer concerned of me, & fundrie other your courtejies 
Jhewed towards me* far beyond my defer ts or expectation : As alfo when 
I cal l led to remembrance your feruent %eale which you haue euer lorn to 
the word of God & holy religion, your exqmjite knowledge therein, your 
careful indeuour to put the fame in practife, & to frame your life ther- 
qfter : Briefly , when I remembred your maruailous humilitie & lowli- 
neffe of mind \ your wonderful! modejiie, gentlenesse, and affability, your 
2 rare continencie and integritie of life, with infinite the like vertues and 
graces, wherewith God hath beautified & adorned your worjhip aboue 
manie others ; I say, when I rememlred ihefe things, with 'many mo, I 
doe ?io lejje (hauing fo Jit an occajion giuen me by reafon of my friends 
import u?iacie) then to dedicate thefe my labors to your ^worJJiip, though 
not as a guerdon anfweralle to your deferts, yet as an infallible tejti- 
monie, pledge, and token of my thankful goodwil and grateful heart 
towards you. And albeit that in rejpeffi of the formal jnethod of the 
booke (for herein I haue not Jtudied to be curious), it may feeme to be 
bafe and contemptible, and fuch as is Jarre unworthy to bee ^exhibited, 
to fo wife,fo difcreet, fo godly, & religious a gentlewoman ; yet in 
regard of the matter, which is heauenly and diuine, I mojl humbly 
befeech you to accept thewrf, and to permit the fame to go forth to the 
view of the worlde under the gard of your proteffiion, and to patronize 
Loth the author & the booke again/I the poyfoned tongues of raiding 
Phormions & flouting MomulTes, to whom all good things are had in 
difdaine. And info doing, both Godjhall bee glorified by you, the church 
& Saints Jh all praife God in you, &* I my felfe (be/Ides that I will not 
rejt vnthankfull to you to the death) will not ceafe a/Jo to pray to God 
for you. And thus I mojt hum Hie take my leaue. From my 
Q Chamber, this prefent 
tenth of AprilL 

1592. 

Your Worililps in the Lord. 
Philip Stubs. ' 



1 sign. U 5. 

4 sign. U 6, back. 



3 sign. 1F 5, back, 3 sign. IT 

5 sign. IT 7. 6 sign. IT 7, back. 




# <? f 5; 

^ : --..;- :,-<>-.,;<;<>;;-.,,>;....:<;*....,.-. % .,-<, V-. . . . ...-i.-..^-.. 



A perfect Pathway to Felicity. 



215 




1 Precepts at thy going forth 
of thy Chamber. 

HEN thou goeft foorth of thy chamber, salute thy 
bed fellow (if thou haft anie), gluing him. the time 
of the day, and in meeting others doe the like (for 
ciuilitie requireth it). And when thou commeft 
into the preience of thy Parents, not onely salute 
them, but alfo fall downe vpon thy knees before them, 2 and defire 
them to praie to God to bless thee. When thou haft fo don, waih thy 
face & thy hands, & keep thy body cleane and neat : in the doing 
wherof, meditate thus with thy lelfe. 

Meditations In the wafhing 
of ones face and hands. 

|S y e filthines and pollution of my bodie is wailied 
& made clean by y e element of water ; fo is my 
3 bodie and foule purified and waftied from the 
ipots & blemHhes of iin, by the precious blood of 
lefus ChrifL Think, alfo, this walhing putteth 
me in remembrance of my baptifm, of my Ipirit- 
ual birth and regeneration, whereby I am not 
onelie borne anew by the operation of the Holy-ghoft, but alfo am 
fealed vp to eternal! ialuation, thorowe the redemption that is in 
Chrift. Thefe Meditations ended* pray as followeth : 




yf 



4 A praier to be faid at the wa- 
Jhing of ones face & hands. 

OH gratious God, and louing Father, who haft giuen thy 
onelie begotten Son lefus Chrift, to fufFer death vppon 
the Crofle for my redemption 5 graunt, I moft intirely 
befeech thee, for his fake, that as this my bodie is now wafhed 
1 sign. 04. 2 c 4, back. C 5. < C 5, back. 







2l6 



A perfect Pathway 







and made cleane by the element of materiall water, ib my body and 
foule maie both bee purified : purged from all vncleanneffe and filthi- 
neile of iinne, thorow the efficacie of thy fonne his mofl precious 
bloud. Thele things thus ordered, go forth to thy labours in the 
feare of God, doing all things to his glorie, and the good of thy 
brethren. . . . , . 

Dire&ions how a Chriftian 

Jhould behaue himjelfe at 

the Table. 

Hen thou coTTzmeft to the Table, fhew all obeyfance 
and curtefie, behauing thy felfe modefllie, humbly, 
and foberly, as in the prefence of God. Eate fo 
much as nature requireth, not how much w infatiable 
appetite defireth. Be fpare, as well of hande as 
tongue. Let thy countenance be amiable and pleafant toward all 
men. Let all thy communication bee feafoned with fait, as the 
Apoflle Ipeaketh, that it maie giue grace to the hearers, remembring 
that wee mufl giue accounts at the daie of Judgement for euerie idle 
word. Vfe not to laugh much, to ieft, or fcoffe, to floute or mocke, to 
deride, backbite, or * detract anie man behinde his backe, but in all 
things fo demeanor thy felfe, that thou maift neither diihonour thy 
God, nor giue either offence or euill example vnto any at the table. 
Dinner being ended, giue God thanks as followeth. 

A ThankC-giuing to God 
after dinner. 

Oil holy-father, Lord of heauen & earth, I giue thee 

thankes in 2 the name of lefus Chrift for all thy benefites tf 

and bleffings in mercy beftowed vpon mee euer iince I was ff 

borne. And nainelie, O Fath.er, I praife thee for feeding my hungry fi 

body, as alwaie's heretofore, fo now prefentlie at this time, with |f 

earthlie f oode - y befeeching thee to feede my foule likewife with the |J 
1 sign. D. 




sign. D, back. 



to Felicity. 



217 



oeleffial! of thy word. And I pray thee, good Lord, that 

as thou vnto mee the vie of thefe 1 eartlil7 creatures in 

great meafare, fo thou wilt in mercie vouchfafe to glue vnto me the 
continual fnpply of all my neceffities & wants, needful! either far my 
ioeie, or bodle, to the end, aed in the end, thorow lefus Chrift our 
Lord 

2 A Thanks-gluing to God 
before Supper* 




Ather of mercie, and God of all truth, looke 
downe, I befeech thee, from the throne of thy 
heauenly palace vpon vs thy humble ieraants, 
albeit moil wretched and miferable tinners : 
fanctifie both our bodies & foules, by the 
preferice of thy holie Spirite, and blelfe thefe 
thy creatures vnto vs : glue them fbrength to 
nourifh our bodies, and our bodies their naturall powers and force, 
etterie member to performe his office and dutie, according as 
thou hail appointed, & as thou fee& to foee heft for thy glorie, and 
the fufoinSng and repairing of our ruinous and weake natures. And 
we praie thee, good father, alfo, to feede our foules with the celeffiall 
Manna of thy blefied worde, and bring vs once to iuppe with thee in 
the kingdome of heauen, thorow the precious bloud of lefus ChrifL 
Then fall to thy meate reuerently, as before at dinner, hauing al- 
waies a diligent eye, that thou abule not the good creatures of GOD, 
by gluttony, drunkenefle, gourmandife, or any other kinde of riot or 
excefle. Remember that nature is fatiffied with a little ; and what is 
more then will suffice nature is iuperfluous 5 and one daie thou fhalt 
be accomptable for it to the great ludge of all the earth. Thy body 
beeing fatiffied, forget not to relieue the neceffities of the Saints, 
according to thy abilitie, that God maie bleflfe thee, & multiplie thy 
ftore. When Supper is ended, giue god thanks, either as followeth, 
or otherwile, as the fpirit of God mall illuminate thy heart. 3 

1 sign. D 2. a sign. D 4, back, 5 Ends D 6, front. 



XE3T 1 

^ 
^ 
^ 

3 

I 
^ 







1 A Thankf-giuing to God 
after Supper. 

H Lord our God, moft gratious & holy father, we 
render all praiie & thankf-giulng to thy ibueraigne 
maiefty, for all thy benefites and bleffinges fo plentl- 
fully bellowed vppon vs. And namelle 2 we thanke 
thee (holy father) for thele thy good creatures, which 
thou haft at this prefent in full meafure giuen vnto vs. Oh Lord, make 
vs thankefull for them, & pardon oiir vnthankfulnefle, for lefus 
Chrift his fake. Finally, make vs all thy true, obedient, & faith- 
full feruants, and bring vs to euerlafting life in thy good time, for thy 
great mercies fake in thy beloued, Amen. 



Directions of Chriitian behaul- 
our after supper. 

jHe reft of the time after Supper, vntill thou goeft 
to bedde, 3 jpend with thy f ami lie, either in iinging" 
of Pfalmes and Ipirituall fongs, iinging and making 
melodie to the Lord in your hearts 5 or elfe in con- 
f erring, reafoning, disputing, and talking of the word 
of God, in reading, expounding, or interpreting of the fame. Then, 
when time calleth thee to goe to bed, call thy whole houiholde together 
in fome conuenient place, make publike confeffion of your linnes to 
God the Father, craue 4 pardon and forgiuenefle for lefus Chrifts fake, 
and praie for grace to bee able to refift fin hereafter, with all means, 
waies, & allurements leading thereunto. Which done, repaire to thy 
chamber, reuoluing with thy felfe thefe and the like things following. 

l D 6, baclc. 2 especially. 3 D 7, back. * sign. D 8. 

' 



%^ 






to Felicity 



Meditations when thou CO 
OT^/? into thy chamber, 

t Hen thou art ccme into thy chamber, call to 3 thy 
remembrance what euill thou hail committed that 
dale paft, either in thought, word, or deed, towards 
GOD, or towards mao, and the good which thou 
fhouldeft haue done, and haft not done. If thou 
haft feene or heard anie good thing In any man, note It, learne It, and 
praie for grace to follow It. If againe thou haft feene or heard anie 
euill in anie man, note it in thy felfe, and pray for grace to efchewe 
it. This done, kneele 2 downe by thy bed fide, confelTe thy fins to 
GOD the Father, crane pardon for lefus Chrift his fake, and praie to 
him to protect thee that night, and to defende thee vnder the ihadowe 
of his wings, from all perilles and daungers both bodilie and ghoftly. 
Thy clothes being put off, meditate thus with thy felfe. ' Oh what a 
filthy, vncleane, & vgglefome carkaffe doe I beare about with me, 
that for very iharoe 8 had oeede to bee couered with garments! 1 
Thinke alib from what an excellent ftate and dignity (in regard of thy 
firft creation) thou art fallen, by reafon of the filthines of fin. Then 
thinke, that If thy apparell were giuen thee for verie neceffities fake, 
to couer and hide thy ihame withall, what reafon haft thou to be 
proud thereof? For fhould a begger be proude of the cloutes that 
wrap his fores? Thinke alib, that as thou 4 canft not without thy 
fhame ftand before men, naked arid bare, fo canft thou not without 
fhame and confufion of face ftand before the maieftie of God, except 
thou be clothed & Inuefted with the garment of Chrifts righteoufnes 
and holinefle. Finally think, that as thou putteft off and layeft afide 
thy materiall garment, fo {halt thou once, and peraduenture before 
thou rileft againe, put off and lay away the earthly manfion of thy 
5 body, committing it to mother earth againe, from whence it firft came. 
When ileep commeth vpon thee, pray as followeth. 




D 8, back. 

4 sign, E 2* 



2 sign. E, 3 sign. E I, back, 

5 sign* E 2, back. 



220 



A perfect Pathway 




A Prayer when fleepe com- 
meth vpon one. 

Oft mercifull Father, with whome there Is no difference 
of time, nor varietie of chaunge, feeing thou haft 
appointed the daie for man to trauaile in, and the x night 
for him to take his naturall reft, I befeech thee that as my 
bodie hath beene occupyed and employed this daie in the labours of 
this life, fo it maie receiue by thy protection quiet reft and fleepe this 
night, that I may be the abler to goe forwarde in the exerciie of good 
works, in the reft of my life that I haue to Hue, to the praife and glorie 
of thy bleiled name : and in this my fleepe defend mee., I befeech 
thee, from all perilles 2 and daungers, and from all the force and vio 
lence of mine enemies both fpirituall and corporalL And as it maie 
pleafe thee to graunt to my bodie quiet reft and Ileepe $ fo let it be 
thy good pleafure to make my foule watchfull and vigilant to waite 
vpon thee, and diligently to looke for the comming of thy deare fonne 
lefus Chrift vnto iudgement for my redemption, Keepe me from all 
fearefull dreams and vilions, from all phanta s fticall apparitions & 
diuelifh illusions of the wicked enemie, from all carnall pollutions & 
vngodlie fuggeftions of the wicked fpirite. Finally graunt, that both 
my bodie and my foule, refting vnder thy diuine protection, may be 
fafe from all enmitie & hoftilitie whatfoeuer, and at the laft maie 
attaine euerlafting life, thorough lefus Chrift, my onelie Sauiour & 
Redeemer* This done, difpofe thy felfe to reft, com 4 mitting both thy 
bodie and foule into the hands of God, praying him to be thy watch 
man that night. Then defcend thou into the fecrets 5 clofets and 
priuie chambers of thine heart, fearch euery place, and ranfacke euerie 
corner -, and if thou findeft anie filthinefTe or vncleannefTe therein (as 
indeed thou fhalt finde nothing elfe) wafh it away with the teares of 
repentance, & make it cleane with the broome of contrition- Then 
thlnke thus 6 with thy felfe j < My bed dooth reprefent vnto me my 

1 sign. E 3. * sign. E 3, back. 3 ^ E ^ 

4 secretest ? or secret 5 E 4, back. 6 E 5. 



^g graue, wherein I muft once ileepej and the clothe$ y the earth, where 
withal! I IhaE fhortlie be couered In my lepulchre or graue : And as 

theie fieas and gnats do bite & gnaw my fkinne, fo fhall the wormes 
eate and confnme the frame of my bodle, In the duft of the earth, 
when the Lord doth pleafe.* When the morning beginoeth to dawn, 
and the dayftaxre to appeare, 1 thinke thus 5 *As now the morning com- 
meth on, and the dale ftarre beginneth to appeare, fo lhall Chrift lefus, 
the true morning ftar, fhew himfelfe at the time appointed of his Father, 
to radge both the quicke and the dead. 9 And when thou heareil the 
crowing of the Cocke, the founding of belles, or anle other noise 
whatfoeuer, think alwaies, that thou heareft the Tmmpe of the 
Archaogell found, laying, f Ariie, you dead 2 and come vnto ludge- 
ment.* When thou awakeft out of ileepe, praie to this effe&e as fol- 
loweth. 

A Praier when one awakes 
out ofjleepe. 

Ercifull father, grant that as thou haft now awaked my 
earthly body out of this naturall ileepe, fo thou wilt allb 
vouchikfe to ralie me vp from the fleep of fin, and in the 
general refurreclion of all 3 fleih, to eternall life, thorow 




lefos Chrifl my only Sauiour & Redeemer. 



4 Chriftian directions for the Morning. 

Hen thou haft attired thyfelfe decently and comely, 
not pompouily, nor proudly, goe forth of thy 
5 chamber, and if thou beeft a mafter of a houfehoulde, 
call thy familie together, confefle your linnes, craue 
pardon for 'lelus Chrift his fake, pray for grace to 
refift iinne hereafter prayfe God for all his benefites and bleffings in 
mercie beftowed vppon you, pray for continuance of them. Thanke 
him for your protection that night, befeechlng him to protect, you that 
^ and to blefle all your workes and labours. And fi%ally, defire him 

1 E 5, hack. 2 E 6. 3 E 6, back. * on sign. F 3. 

5 F 3, hack. 6 sign. F 4. 





i 






A perfect Pathway to Felicity. 






to keepe and defend you that day, and euer, from all perils and 
dangers, both bodily and ghoftly whatfoeuer, and to bring you to 
euerlafting life at the time appointed., through the precious blood of 
lefus CbrifL This done, goe forth to thy labours in the feare of God, 
doing all things with (ingle ele and good confcience, to the praife of 
him that made thee j being affured that as in mercie hee will not 
leaue the leaft l good worke that wee do, unrewarded 5 fo In iuftice hee 
will not leaue the leaft euill that wee doe commit, either In thought, 
word, or deed,vnpunihed, except we repent. To God, therefore, our 
Father, to Chrift lefus our Saulour and redeemer, and to God the 
Holie-ghoft our Comforter and Sanctifier, three perfons and one true 
and euerliuing God, bee all honour, glorie, praife, dominion thanks- 
giuing for euermore. Amen. 

i F 4, back. 




















A SHORT 

Treatife, of praters 

and Supplica- 

tions ; 



COMPRISING 




a brief fumme ofallfuch 

things as we ftand 

in need of in this 

life. 

By the fame Authour, 

P. S. Gent. 




224 



A perfect Pathway to Felicitie. 




J A Praier for the Queenes 
Maieftie. 

E render all prayfe and thanks to thee, oh 2 king 
of all kings, and gouernour of all things, for 
that in the multitude of thy mercies thou haft 
vouchedfafe to place ouer vs thy little flock, fo 
godly & vertuous a guide, fo gracious & wife a 
princes, as the worlde neuer had her peere. 
And we humblte pray thee, holie father, with thy fauourable coun 
tenance to beholde the fame thy feruant, our fouereigne Ladie and 
gouerneffe. And fo fandifie her heart with the grace of thy 3 holie 
fpir[i]te, that fhee male bend all her ftudie and indeuour to y e fetting 
forth of thy glorie, y e maintenance of thy holie religion, the aduaunce- 
ment of true vertue and godlines, the fupplanting of vice and com- 
moditie of this her maiefties common weale vnder thee : kindle in 
her a feruent zeale of thy glory and a vehement desire to effcablim 
whatfoeuer is defe&iue or waTzteth in this thy Church & vineyard 
in England, for the 4 true & lincere difcipline & gouernment of thy 
church & common welth. Saue and defend her from al forreigne 
power, & authoritie, from all traitterous confpiracies, plots and prac- 
tifesj either of papifts, Atheifts, or any other fefifcaries whatfoeuer. 
Giue her godlie, wife, & religions counfailers, fuch as may refpe<5t 
onlie thy glorie, that her maieftie ruling acording to thy wil, they 
counselling according to the inipiration of thy holy Ipirit, 5 and we 
her fubiects faithfully obeying, may altogether in the end receiue the 
incorruptible crowne of eternall glorie in the heaueiilie Hierafalem, 
thorow lelus Chrift our Lord, Amen. 



1 From ed. 1592, sign. G 6, back. 
* sign. G 8. 



2 sign. G 7. 3 G 7, back. 
s G 8, back. 




225 



A Prayer for a Competent & 
a necpjjary /hi ing. 

Lord our GOD, moft gratious &c holie father, 1 whofe loue 
towardes men in Chriffc lefus Is Infinite and vnfpeakeable, & 
whole tender care oner him is fuch, that thou haft promlfed 
that whofoeuer beleeweth In thee, dependeth vppon thy prouidence, 
and feeketh his relief e at thy bleiled handes, lhall neuer want anie 
good thing, eyther neceiTarie for foule or bodie : Therefore, moft 
gracious Father, I thy lielle creature, of my felfe poore, yea, pouerlle 
and nakednefie 2 It felfe, moft Intlrelie befeech thee, for lefus Chrift 
his fake, that thou wilt glue vnto mee a competent and a neceffarie 
lining, as meate, drinke, and cloth, -with all other things needfull for 
my bodie y that pinching pouertie oppreile mee not, nor that I be 
not drawen to attempt \\ iekedr and vnlawfull meanes for the main 
tenance of my life. To this end therefore (good father) blefTe my 
ftore, and replenish my bafket with thy 3 bleuings, that I male be 
able, thorow thy beneficial! Hberalitie, to Hue out of debt and danger 
of all men, and to occupie my felfe in the exerciie & pra&ile of good 
workes, Co the reliefe of them that hane neede, and the fettlng forth of 
thy honor & glory, thorow lefus Chrift our Lord. Amen 

*A praier to be faid of thofe 
that be vnmaried. 

Lord our God, in as much as thou haft commaunded in thy 
bleffed word, the word of truth, that wee, abftayning from all 
whooredome, and fornication, and vncleannefle, fhould keepe 
our veflelles in hollnefle, and not In y* filthy lufts of the nefli, as do 
the heathen, who know not thee: I befeech thee therefore to glue mee 
grace to perform this thy moft holy Commandement, and graunt that 
I neuer pollute nor defile my bodie with whoredome, fornication, nor 
any other vncleannefle. And becaufe, O Lord, chaftltle of the bodie 

1 sign. H 6. 2 sign. H 6, back. 3 sign. H 7. 

4 sign. K. 2,, back. 5 KL 3. 




: STUBBES, 





A perfect Pathway 



is nothing, without the continencie of the minde, bridle therefore, I 
befeech thee, all the motions and affections of mj heart ; that I, ban- 
iihing all wicked thoughts and vncleane imaginations out of 1 mj 
mind, may Hue in all holy innocencie, puritie, and integrity, both of 
bodle & foule, vnto my Hues ende, thorow the efficacy, power, & 
ibrength of the pretious bloud of lefus Chrift, Amen. 



A Prayer to bee faid 

qfthofe that be 

maried. 

\ Oly Father, wee are taught by thy facred word, the breath 
of thy own mouth, that after 2 thou hadft created all things, 
the lafl of all other tkou createdft man, & woman of a rib 
of his fide, giuing her vnto him in holy wedlocke, adding vnto 
them thy blefling, faying : * Increafe and multiplie, and replenish 
the earth : ' I giue thee moil humble & harty thanks, for that it hath 
plea fed thee to call me to the honorable ftate of mariage. And I moft 
heartily befeech thee that we may Hue together in thy true faith, feare, 
and loue, all the daies of 3 our Hues. Giue vs grace, the one to loue the 
other, & both of vs to loue thee, and our brethren for thy fake. Keepe 
vs (good lord) farre from all wicked ielofie, hatred, malice, and con. 
tention one with the other. And as our bodies are incorporate to- 
gither, and become, as it were, but one bodie 5 fo vouchfafe, holy 
father, that as thy owne Turtle doues, we may Hue togither in chafHtie 
and continencie, both of bodies and mindes, 4 without defrauding one 
the other. And if it pleafe thee to blefle vs with, children, giue vs 
grace to bring them vp in fuch holy exercifes, difcipline, and learning, 
as thou required of vs in this life. Grant that wee may labour and 
trauaile, either of vs in our vocation, that by thy blefling, we may al- 
waies haue fufficlent to maintain our eftates withall in thy holie feare $ 
that wee be not chargeable to others, but liuing forth of debt 5 and 



1 sign. K 3, back. 
4 sign, K 5. 



1 sign. K 4. 3 sign. K 4, back. 

5 sign. K 5, back. 





danger of all men, male be rich & plentiful! in all good works, to the 
praiie & gloria of thy bleiled oame, thorow lefus Chrift our Lord, to 
whom be praiie and glorie for euermore, Amen. 

*i 

A Prayer to be faid of 

ihofe that be majters 

of houfholds. 

Hou haft coj/imanded (oh gratious Lord God) by thy 
bleiled Apoille, that mailers 1 iliould intreate their 
feruants gently and courteonily, putting away all bit- 
terneile and threatning, doing vnto them all equitie 
and luitice, knowing that thou art our common 
mailer in heauen : graunt me grace, therfore (good Lord) , fo to order 
my feruants, as I neuer attempt nor enterprife anie viirighteous thing 
againft them, but fo to execute my authoritie ouer them, as I maie 
alwayes remember that thou art the Lord and 2 mailer of vs all, and 
reipecteft no mans perfon. Make me, O Lord, to be the fame vnto 
them, that a good Paftor is to his flocke, to teach them by wordes thy 
holie lawes, and by example of life, true righteouihefle and holineile 
in conuerfation, that they and I togither, in thy good time, may all 
inherite euerlafting lite, by Chrift our Lord, Amen. 

3 A Prayer to be faid of 
feruants. 

Lord our GOD, feeing thou haft ordayned fun dry degrees and 
ftates of men in this life, and arnongft them all haft appointed 4 
mee to bee a Seruant, giue me grace, I befeech thee, to ferue 
in my vocation faithfully, and to obey willingiie in all things not 
repugnant to thy bleifed will, not with eye feruice as 5 ftudying to pleaie 
men, but with all iinceritie and iingleneiie of heart, as feeking to glorifie 
thee : being thorowlie perfwaded that in feruing them, I ferue thee, 
and of thee fhall receiue my reward. Giue mee grace to demeane 

1 sign. K 6. * K 6, back. 3 sign. K 7. 

4 Appointest, orig. 5 sign. K 7, back. 




228 



A perfect Pathway 




my ielfe faithfully, iuitlie, and trulie towards all men, In all things, and 
not to Inrich ray ielfe by picking, ftealing, imbezeling, purloyning, or 
conueying anie thing from anie man by any iinifter pra6lice 1 whatfo- 
euer; but ib to behaue my ielfe towards all men, as there may be no 
fault found In me : that thy name may be glorified, and my faluation 
in Chriil lelus fealed vp vnto mee. Grant this, O Lord, for thy 
mercies fake, Amen. ..... 

2 A Prayer in the time of 
Peftilence. 

I T is no marueile, O moil righteous Father, that the 
elements of this worlde are fierce againft vs, fometime 
with earthquakes, fometime with tempefts & lightnings, 
fometimes with ouerflowing 3 of Seas & Riuers, fome 
time with peftilent concourfes of the heauenlie lights, and fome 
time with corruption of the infe6ted ayre : for we do commonly 
abuie thy gifts. We acknowledge, that enen in this cafe alfo the 
creatures ferue and obeie their Creator, whofe commandements wee 
neglect ib oftentimes. Alfo wee acknowledge thy fatherlie nurturing 
of vs, whereby thou calleil vs backe from 4 the truft of this world with 
gentle correction, and draweft vs to the deiire of the euerlafling life. 
We hamblie befeech thee to remember thy mercy euen in thy wrath, 
and fauorabiie to withdrawe the afni&ions which thou haft laid vpon 
vs in thy difpleafure. The infection of y e peftilence mall do vs no 
great harm, if we withdrawe our felues from the infection of finne. 
But both thofe things are of thy gift, O 5 Father of mercie, namelle, 
as well to haue our mindes free from the poyfon of linne, as to haue 
our bodies fafe from y e infection of y e plague. Such as haue fattened 
the Anchor of their hope in this life, are wont in their perils to flic for 
remedie to fuch Ihifts as thefe : namely, fome to certain Saints, as to 
S. Rooke, or S. Anthonie; and fome to the pernicious Art of witchcraft. 
But we, who are fully perfuaded that no 6 man can efcape thy hand 

2 On sign, T 5. 
5 sign. T 6, back. 



sign, 
sign. 



K8. 

T6. 



3 sign. T 5, back. 
6 sign. T 7. 



beleene there is no fuch fafetie as to retort to thy felfe, and to file from 
thy Iiiftice to thy mercie, as to the iiireft and fafeft fanctnarie that can 
be, forafmuch as thou neuer forfakeii them that put theyr trail in thy 
goodneffe j vnder whole proteclion, euen they that dye are iafe. To 

thee therefore bee praife for euermore, Amen. 




A perfect Pathway to Fellcitle. 



*A praier to be faid of all fuch 

as be maieftrates and rulers in 

the common wealth. 




Orafmuch as it hath pleafed thee, oh eternal! 
God, ruler of all kinges and 2 kingdoms, to con- 
ftitute and appoint me (though altogither vn- 
worthie) to be a ruler and gouernour of thy 
people vnder rny foueraigne, I befeech thee, 
giue me grace, fo to execute my office, and 
mlnifter iuftice in the common wealth, that I 
male pleafe thee in all things, iniurie no man, opprefTe no man, 
damnifie no man, neither in bodie, nor in goods, but by thy gracious 
working, may Judge iuftly 8 , neither fauoring 4 the rich nor mightie 
for defire of gifts, nor yet difpiling the poore for want of rewardes, 
that I, seeking thy glorie, the aduauncement of thy holie word, and 
Golpell, and the common benefite of all men, may be found accept 
able vnto thee in thy beloued, and may heare that fweete haruest 
fong 5 , e well, good feruant, thou haft beene faithfull in fmall thinges 
of this life, (which are but vanities and trifles to the things in the life 
to come) enter into the ioy of the Lord '. Oh Lord, let it be fo., for 
lefus Chrift his fake. Amen. 

1 From ed. 1592, sign. G 8, back. Given for Justice Shallow's sake. 

2 sign- H. 

3 Compare 2 ffeniy IV^ Act V. sc. i. : 

Davy. I beseech you, sir, to countenance William Visor of Wincot against 
Clement Perkes of the hill. 

ShaL There are many complaints, Davy, against that Visor ; that Visor is an 
arrant knave on my knowledge. 

Davy. I grant your worship, that he is a knave, sir : but yet, God forbid 
sir, but a knave should have some countenance at his friend's request. An 
honest man, sir, is able to speak for himself, when a knave is not. I have served 
your worship truly, sir, these eight years ; and if I cannot once or twice in 
a quarter bear out a knave against an honest man, I have but a vfery little credit 
with your worship. The knave is mine honest friend, sir ,- therefore, I beseech 
your worship, let him be countenanced. 

at. Go to ; I say, he shall have no wrong. Look about, Davy. 

[Exit Datvy.] 
4 H i, back. 6 sung, ed. 1592; song, ed. 1610. 



NOTES- 



p. vi, I. 10 : whose gawld are tmtcked. "But \\hat o' that? Your 

Maiestie, and wee that haue free scales, it touches vs not : let the galfd lade 
winch : our withers are vnrung." Hamlet > III. ii. 251-3 ; 1st Folio, Trag. p. 
268, col. 2. 

p. viii, 1. 7 from foot ; p. xil, Miners; p. 32, velvet. Cotgrave distinguishes 
between vi&ig/and velure: "Velours; m. Veluet * . Trips de Velours^ Valure, 
Mocke Veluet, Fustian an Apes. Tripe : f. . . Valure, Irish Tuftaffata, Fustian 
an Apes;" and as Harrison says that wool was used for mllurs$> the stuff 
must have been a kind of e velvet-pile cloth ' like that which ladies wore a few 
seasons ago, and which was all wool. * Velveteen ' and ' cotton velvet J have, 
I am told, no wool in them. Common velvets have a cotton back and silk 
face. The French have also velours in silk, cotton and wool (Littre) : 

"In time past, the vse of this commoditie [wool] consisted (for the most part) 
in cloth and woolsteds ; but now by meanes of strangers succoured here from 
domesticall persecutiofij the same hath beene imploied vnto sandrie other vses, as 
mockados, teles, veHures, grograines, &c. ; whereby the makers haue reaped no 
small commoditie " (not in ed. 1577), 1587. W. Harrison, Description of England^ 
bk. 3, chap. I, p. 221, 1. 31-7 ; my ed. Ft. II. 1878, p. 6. 

"at Westminster . . the bragging w/a;r^-canioned [with wool-velvet knee-rolls] 
hobby-horses prance up and down as if some o j the tilters had ridden J em." 1607. 
Webster & Dekker's Northward Ho, Act II. sc. I, p. 257, col. I, of Webster 3 s 
Works* ed. Dyce, 1857. (On Caftwns, see p. 246 below.) 

On the etymology of velvet, mlure, Mr Henry Nicol says : * f The second v of 
ttdvet is an alteration of w (wehudi Promptorium), and this of u (fdu& Launfal 
misprinted in Stratmann felvd vduet, Chaucer). That the n of Mid. E. vdmt 
formed a separate syllable is shown by the metre of 

And co|uered it | with vs\lu-et\tes blewje 

(Squire's Tale, Ellesmere MS. 6-Text, p. 496, 1. 644) 

and by the Cambridge MS. spelling velowdys. Mid. E. vdud comes from Old 
Fr. vduet (Roquefort who misprints vdvet}, also spelt *udlwt (Hippeau), for 
which no references are given ; but which occurs latinised as vdlnetum. Vduet 
corresponds to a hypothetical Latin wllutittum, being a diminutive of Fr. vein, 
hypothetic Lat villutum (Ital. velluto, Span, -vdludo}, which shows the usual Fr. 



232 Notes on p. viii to p. i. Veiure, f^elvet, &c. 

loss of Lat single / between vowels, and (like the other words here considered) 
has for its primitive Lat. vz/fas. Another diminutive of vefa is Old Fr. z>e/fueatt 
(Roquefort, with quotation), later "jduau and vtluyau, latinised vdludellum^ and 
corresponding to a hypothetical Lat. villutellum. 

** E. zvllttre (Shakspere vt/urf, Cotgrave probably by misprint vattin} is pro 
bably Early Mod. Fr. wlevre (Cotgrave), meaning * shag ; ' so far there is no 
authority for either word before the i6th century. The Old Fr. may be either 
veleure (four syllables), hypothetical Lat. villdtiiram^ with the common Fr. suf 
fix, or veloure (-are, -ure^ three syllables), hypothetical Lat. mlloram^ with a 
rare suffix, existing; in the Provincial Span, vdlora (' knot or lump taken off 
woollen cloth *). If E. vellure existed before the I4th century, it points to an 
Old Fr. ueteitrey as if from vdoure it would have been vdlour in Early Mod. E., 
change of suffix by analogy being unlikely. But if borrowed later, when Old 
Fr. vd&ure had become veleurf, either F. form (with eft = Late Mod. F. eu, or eu = 
Late Mod. F. ) would suit. It is very unlikely that E. welfare comes from Mod. 
Fr, mlourSy as the s of this, though now always silent, would be pronounced in 
many cases in the i6th century. Velours is a Mod. form for Old Fr. vdous 9 
which is Lat. mllosum (Ital. 2^//W, Span, velfaso) ; Froissart's vdus is possibly 
influenced by vf/u t but probably the vowel, as Sclieler says, was altered for the 
sake of the rhyme with Lus. The Mod. Burgundian veleur, velar \ quoted by 
Littre, is probably odours in phonetic spelling, hardly Early Mod. Fr, veleure; 
an exactly parallel example of inserted r in the termination ous is noted by Scheler 
in the Mod. Dutch jaloersck (* jealous 3 ), which presupposes a Fr.jaleurs for 
jaloux (Lat. zelosum}? 

p. xii : the inferiaur sorte onely. See p. 237, &c., below. 

p. I. Anatomic of Abuses., Compare Thomas Nashe's "The Anatomic of 
Absurditie : Contayning a breefe confutation of the slender imputed prayses to 
feminine perfection, with a short description of the severall practices of youth, and 
sundry follies of our licentious times. No lesse pleasant to be read, then profitable 
to be remembered, especially by those who live more licentiously, or are addicted 
to a more nyce stoycall austeritie." . . 1589. 4to, black letter, 23 leaves. Br. 
Museum. Hazlitfs Haitdbook. See the evils of Elizabeth's and James's time 
described in the play of No-Body and Some-Body, 1606, printed in Simpson's 
School of Shakspere, i. 348-351 (and reprinted in facsimile by Mr. Alexander 
Smith of the Hunterian Club, Glasgow). They are, engrossing corn, racking 
rents, debasing the coinage, absentee landlords, city wives' whoredom, harlot- 
keeping, watch-beating, seduction of girls at 13 years old, pick-pocketing, purse- 
cutting, &c. 

p. i. Abuses.- See in S. Rowlands^ FoolesBolt is sooneshot, 1614, sign. E 
3 (ed. 1873, Hunterian Club, p. 37), a list of 

** Certaiue common abuses 
Common Alehouse in this age of sinne, 

s now become a common Drunkards Inne : 
A common seller, and a common buyer, 
Are turned common swearer, common lyei 



A Con 
Is: 



Notes on pp. 127, 2-33 

A common Games! er s shifts hath "basely made 

A common Cheater, at the Dicing trade : 

A l common Thiefe, in Newgate common layle, 

Of Tyborne common live- way cannot fayle : 

A common Vag'rant, should by law be stript, 

And by a common Beadle sonndly whipt : 

A common Scould, her furious heate must coole : 

Wash'd by her dising in a Clicking stoole : 

A common Bawd, and filthy Pander slaoe, 

Must common Cart, and Brid-well whipping haue ; 

A common Rogue is tennant for the Stockes, 

A common Companyon 2 for the Pockes." 

Also see the set of folk whom Rowlands threatens to stab in his Looke to it : 
for lie Stab&eye, 1604. 

p. 22, 1. II : who so sitteth a home, Cp. Shakspere, Two Gentlemen of 

Verona, I. I. 2-8, Folio, p. 20, coi. I ; 

" Home-keeping-youth, haue euer homely wits. 

Wer *t not affection chaines thy tender dayes 
To the sweet glaunces of thy honour'd Loue, 
I rather would entreat thy company 
To see the wonders of the world abroad, 
Then (liioing dully sluggardiz'd at home) 
Weare out thy youth with shapelesse idlenesse." 

p. 23. A plesant <r* famous Hand. Cp. Shakspere in Rich- II, " This 
royall Throne of Kings, this sceptred Isle," &c., Folio, Hist. p. 28, coL 2, &c. 
&c. ; and on c the strong kinde of people ', the extracts in the Forewords to 
Harrison^ Parts I and II, and JFfarnsvn, I. p. 221, &c. ; my Andrew Boorde, p. 
117-119 (and see its Index). 

p. 24, 1, XI 10 from foot. Our Saviour * * * with his Taratantara. 
Extract from Luther's Danger of delaying Repentance quoted in the Philobibliorij 
vol. i. p. 251. New York. 1862. '* The kettle-dram and trumpet of our good 
God sounds thus : Foumarts poump ! pvumerle poump J pliz / plus ! schmi! schmir / 3 
This was the drumming of the Lord, or as Saint Paul says, the voice of the arch 
angel and the trumpet of God, for when God shall thunder at the last day, it will 
be suddenly, and like beating the kettle-dram, poumerle poump / This will be the 
war-cry and the taraMntara of our good God. Then the whole heaven will resound 
with this noise : Kir! Kir / pounierle pcnimp / " &c. S. (W. G. Stone.) 

p. 27, L 2 : two Jdndes of sinne. *' For sothe, synne is in two maneres : 
outlier it is venial, or dedly synne. Sothly, when man lovith any creature more 
than Jhesu Crist oure creatour, thanne it is dedly synne ; and venial synne is, if a 

1 Orig. Of. 2 Read it with 4 syllables, Com-pa-ny-on. 

3 schmiy schmir / in the Phttobiblion. Perhaps it should be schmi schmu ! like 
poumerle poump / S, 



234 Notes on pp. 27 31. Pride and Dress. 

man love Jliesn Crist lesse than him oughte. For sothe the dede of this venial 
synne Is ful perilous, for it amenisith the love that men schulde have to God 
more and more." ? 1398-1400. CHAUCER, Parsons Tale, Works, ed. Morris, 
iii. 290. * 

p. 27. PrUe . . the verie efficient cause of all mils. " thanne is Pride the 
general roote of alle harmes. For of this roote spryngen certein braunches : as 
Ire, Enuye, Accidie or Slewthe, Auarice (or Coueitise, to commune vnderstond- 
ynge), Glotonye, and Lecherye." CHAUCER, Parson's Tale, Group I, 1. 388, 
Ellesmere MS., p. 615, 

p. 28, L 13. Pride is tripartite. Chaucer, in his Parson's Tale evidently 
following some monk's treatise first divides Pride into 1 6 Twigs; I. Dis 
obedience, 2, Boasting, 3. Hypocrisy, 4. Despite, 5. Arrogance, 6. Impudence, 
7. Swelling of Heart (rejoicing in harm done), 8. Insolence, 9. Elation, 10. 
Impatience, 1 1. Contumacy, 12. Presumption, 13. Irreverence, 14. Pertinacity, 
15. Vain-glory, 16. Jangling (or Chattering). Then he tells of a private kind of 
Pride (like his Host's Wife's and the Wife of Bath's), wanting to go to offering 
first, &c. And then he gives the more important division of Pride into two 
kinds ; I. within man's heart ; II. without ; II. being the sign of I, 'as the gaye 
leefsel (portico, verandah} atte Taverne is sign of the wyn that is in the Celer.' 
This II, or Outside Pride, is shown in I. dear Clothing, 2. Horses & Grooms, 
3. Household, keeping too many retainers, 4. Table, not asking the poor, having 
too fine dishes, cups, &c., and too choice minstrelsy. (From my Contents of the 
Parson's Tale, Ellesmere MS.) 

p. 28. Pride, &c. Compare "Luxury, Pride and Vanity, the Bane of the 
British Nation," 8vo, p. 61, London, N.D. (about 1750) : 

" A scathing satire throwing curious light with all the vividness of a Hogarth 
on the vices of a century ago. Among the subjects treated of are the Increase of 
the Wine Trade ; a new piece of Frugality among men of quality in keeping their 
mistresses in their own dwelling-houses ; Beggars & Scotchmen, their respective 
consumption of white bread, *with diverse other entertaining subjects, serious 
and comical.' " Secondhand-book Catalogue* 

p. 29. Dame Nature* " And eek we been alle of o fader, and of o mooder ; 
and alle we been of o nature, roten and corrupt, both riche and poure." 
CHAUCER, Parson's Tale, Group I, 461, Ellesmere MS., p. 621. 

p. 31. Other nations dress. Compare in Andrew Boorde's Introduction, the 
High German's * I wyll not chaunge my olde father's fashyon,' p. 159 ; the Dane's 
* Symple rayment shal seme me ful wel ; My old fashion I do vse to kepe,' p. 
163 ; the Bohemian's * Of our appaiel we were neuer nyce ; We be content if our 
cotes be of fryce,' p. 166 ; the Hungarian's * The fashion of my apparel, I do 
neuer chaunge*, p. 171 ; the Sicilian's 'we loue no newe fashions ', p. 176 ; the 
Neapolitan's e Al new fashyons to Englond I do bequeue ; I am content with iny 
meane aray *, p. 177 ; the Italian's *in my apparel I am not mutable*, p. 178. 

p. 31, last line. English Men's absurd dress is contrasted with the Italians* 
sober dress, in Coryat's Crudities, 1611, p. 259, quoted in Harrison* Pt. II. p. 64. 



Notes on pp. 31 33. Exports and Imports. 235 

p. 31. Pride &* Lnxmrj in 



** Who can endure to see 
The fury of men's gullets and their groins ? 
\Vhat fires, what cooks, what kitchens, might be spared ? 
What stews, ponds, parks, coops, garners, magazines ? 
What velvets, tissues, scarfs, embroideries, 
And laces they might lack ? . . . what need hath nature 
Of silver dishes or gold chamber-pots ? 
Of perfumed napkins, or a numerous family 
To see her eat ? " 
1625. Ben Jonson, The Staple of News, IIL iL Works, il 314* col I. 

p. 32: new fangles : -" CUicchi, iests, toyes, new fangles." 1598 Florio. 
WorldeofWordes. 

p. 33, English valuables exchanged for fordgn trijks: see Harrison, I. ? In 
The Three Ladies of London, by R. W., 1584* Hazlitt's Dodsley, vi. 276, Lucre 
speaks thus of English exports and imports there : 
** Thou must carry over wheat, pease, barley, oats, and vetches, and all kind of 

grain 

Which is well sold beyond sea, and bring such merchants great gain, 
Then, thou must carry beside, leather, tallow, beef, bacon, bell-metal and 

everything : 

And for these good commodities, trifles into England thou must bring, 
As bugles to make babies, coloured bones, glass beads to make bracelets 

withal, 
For every day gentlewomen of England do ask for such trifles from stall to 

stall: 

And you must bring more, as amber, jet, oond, crystal, and every such bafole 
That is slight, pretty, and pleasant : they care not to have it profitable. 
And if they demand wherefore your wares and merchandise agree, 
You must say * jet will take up a straw ; amber wiU make one fat : 
Coral will look pale when you be sick, and crystal staunch blood,* 
So with lying, flattering and glosing, you must utter your ware, 
And you shall win me to your will, if you can deceitfully swear." 

* * * * * * 

Lucre. Then, Signor Mercatore, I am forthwith to send ye 
From hence to search for some new toys in Barbary and in Turkey ; 
Such trifles as you think will please wantons best, 
For you know in this country 'tis their chiefest request. 

Mercatore. Indeed, de gentlewomans here by so much vain toys, 
Dat we strangers laugh-a to tink wherein day have their joys," 

1584. R. W., The Three Ladies of London, Hazlitt's Dodsley, vi. 306. 

' Triqtudondaines ; All kind of superfluous trifles vsed, or vsually bought, 
by women ; hence, any trash, nifles, or paltrie stuffe/ 1611. Cotgrave. 

p. 33. Compare a modern writer :- " The hard times are slowly and surely 
working out their own cure. It is a painful and tedious process, but one sure in 



2,36 Notes on p. 33. c Far-Jetcht and dear-bought! 

the end to restore health to the business interests of the country not the feverish 
speculative activity that followed the war, and continued until the crash of 1873, 
but a condition of moderate and reliable prosperity. People are adapting their 
habits to their reduced incomes, are denying themselves useless luxuries, and are 
discovering that they can live just as comfortably with less outside display. The 
importations of foreign goods have fallen largely, and for the first time in sixteen 
years the balance of trade is in favour of the United States, a calamity to the 
importers, no doubt, but a benefit to the country at large. Fewer velvets, laces, 
diamoitds^ WortKs dresses, French wines, and ginicracks are brought across the 
Atlantic, but no political economist will see anything but a hopeful sign in that 
fact." Daitjr News, Oct. 5, 1876, p. 6, col. I, United-States 3 Correspondent 

p. 33, 1. 1 6 ; p. 65, I. 1 6 i far refetchid and dears boughte is good for Ladyes : 
" Mmdom. What shape ! Why, any quick-done fiction . . . some such anything. 
Somefar-fef trick go&d for ladies, some stale-toy or other, no matter so 't be of 
our devising." Marston & Webster's Malcontent, V. ii., Webster's Works, ed. 
Dyce, 1857, p. 358, col. 2. Dyce notes far-fet, \. e. far-fetched. An allusion to 
the proverb, " Far-fet is good for ladies " So in Jonson's Cynthia s Revels, Act 
IV. sc. i, " Marry, and this may be good for us ladies; for it seems 'tis far-fet by 
their stay." See my Tell- Troth, p. 6, 1. 7, Stafford, N. Sh. Soc. p. 106 ; also 
Lyly's Euj>hus y p. 33, e far fet, and dere bought, is good for ladies.' Again : 

** Minaur* God neuer gaue me the grace to be a Lady, yet I haue all 
implements belonging to the vocation of a Lady. 

Sir Vaughan, I trust, mistris Mineuer, you han all a honest oman shud 
haue. 

Mineuer* Yes perdie, as my Coach, and my fan 5 and a man or two that serue 
my turne, and other things which Ide bee loath euery one should see, because 
they shal not be common. I am in manner of a Lady in one point. 

Sir Vaughan. I pray, mistris Mineuers, let vs all see that point for our 
better understanding. 

ftfinmer. For I ha some thinges that were_/fcfc& (I am sure) as far re as some 
of the Low Countries ; and I payde sweetly for them too ; and they tolde me 
they were goad for Ladies. 9 * 1602. T. Dekker, Satiromastix. Works, 1873, 
i. 204. See too Latimer's use of the phrase, p. 254 below. 

p. 33, p. 52. Pride in England. Peasants' dress & extravagance* 
The pride of "And the pride of England is, as it were, set up upon the highest 
England mountain of the world, seen and scorned even of the very infidels of 
the earth : such as know not God make marvel of our monstrous attire, which 
exceedeth not only in cost and colour, but in weight and fashion. O pull it 
down : it is not fit for such as are taking the way to the kmgdome of heaven ; it 
agreeth not with the guest which lodgeth in us the Spirit of God ; it is no fit 
ornament to deck the house of our silly souls, for it stinketh and polluteth all 
corners of the house. O remove it, and send every country his fashion again : 
be not beholden to any nation for such trumpery, neither to the garment-maker, 
whose study therein, though it please the vain-glorious for a time, it will bring 
repentance, too late, to the work and the workman. It is from the court come 



Notes on pp. 33 42. 237 

into the country, a dangerous evil, and hath infected the poor ploughman, that a 
year's wages safficeth not one suit of attire. If I should tell all, J^ hj ^J e exc ^f 
the carter would step in with his courtly gards, and will defy e th in pride 
Mm that is not of the fashion ; men and women, the rich and the poor, the old 
and the young, are too far gone In this sickness : the Lord give a timely 
medicine lest we perish therein." 1596. J. Xortlen, Progress of Piety (Parke^* 
Soc.i. pp. 172-3. Compare also the Surveyor John Norden {is he the same as the 
write: of the religions tracts?) :** where in those days [Henry \Ts] Farmers 
and their wines were content with meane dyet and base attire, and held their 
children to some austere gonernment, without haunting Alehouses, Tauems, Dice, 
Cards, & vaine delites of charge, the case Is aitred : the Husbandman will be 
equal to the Yoman* the Yoman to the Gentleman, the Gentleman to the Squirej 
the Squire [to] Ms Superiour, and so the rest, euery one so farre exceeding the 
conniptions [? consumptions] held in former times, that I will speake without 
reprehension, there is at this day thirty times as much vainely spent in a family 
of like multitude and quality, as was in former ages whereof I speake." 1607, 
John Norden, The Surueyors Dialogue, p. 14. 

p. 365 I 12: his wife her psrswasions* See note on p. 36, 1. 3, of Tell Troth 
New Sh. Soc. S. 

p. 36, 1. 10 from foot : some are so brasen faced & so impudent^ <SrV. Cf, 
TWJ Gen. of Ver. 9 II. viL 11. 5356 (Lucetta and the codpiece to Julia's round 
hose), and Much Ado, III. in. 1. 146 (Hercules & the same article). S. 

p. 37 : in leather. Compare Edward Iff, II. ii. 120, Leopold Shakspere, p. 
1044, col. I : " Since leathern Adam till this youngest hour." 

p. 39, Ly: it maketh a man to bee accepted and esteemed of. 

" Keep good clothes on thy backe, and nearely weare them ; 
What want soeuer comes, doe not pawne them j 
For, once being gotten in the Deuils iawes, 
He will surely keepe them in with his pawes. 
In thy Apparell be something clenly, 
Though in thy purse thou hast neu'r a penny : 
Men may in some measure it esteeme thee, 
And a farther grace happily giue thee. 
Doe not seeme bace, though penilesse thou art ; 
But looke about, of whom to get a part." 
1613, The Vncasing of MacMmls Instructions to Ms Sonne, p. 1$. 

p. 42, 1. 8 from foot: what preuayleth it to be borne of -worshipjull progenie, 
&c. Compare Chaucer's Gentlejiess in Scogan*s Poem in Thynne's Chaucer, If. 
380, bk, coL i ; Urry's, p. 547, col I ; Morris's, vol. vi, p. 296. 

"This firste stoke was ful of rightwisnesse, 
Trewe of his worde, soboure, pitous and free, 
Cleene of his gooste, and lovid besynesse, 
Ageynste the vice of slowthe in honeste; 



238 Notes on pp. 42 49. Merfs Dress, Starch, &c. 

And, but his lieire lone verto, as did He, 
He nis not gentille, thouhe him riche seme, 
AI were tie mytre, corone, or diademe." 

4 The Idea of course Is not new. It Is found frequently enough In the Greek 
& Latin Htecature, It occurs, we believe, for the first time in the fragments of 

Eplchannus : 

dvtjp 



and afterwards it is found in Euripides, Horace, Juvenal, " Stemmata quid 
faciunt ?" and lastly in Seneca, Doubtless Jean de Meung took It from Seneca. 1 
W. Besant, in the British Quarterly Review, Oct. 1871, p. 388. See Shakspere's 
Mais, far Metis*) Tennyson's Lady Clara Vere de Vere? &cx 

p. 43, L 14: tagge and ragge. Compare John Partridge in The Wortku 
Hist&rwof . . Plasidas, 1566, "To walles they go, both tagge afid ragge, Their 
citie to defende," and the other quotations in Mr. H. B. Wheatley's Diet of 
Reduplicated W&rd$> Philolog. Soc. 1865, p. 85-6. 

p. 44. Pride <Sr Appard. See Chaucer's Parsons Tale ( Works, ed. 
Morris, iii, 296-$) on Pride, as shown " in superfluite of clotheynge '* in his day, 
the embroidering, indenthig, waving, furring, chisel-punching, dagging, of gowns, 
their trailhig in the mire; the short coats and tight particolourd hose or 
breeches showing the shameful members of man, and making em look as if 
flayn, &c. c. See also Piers Plowman^ Roberde of Brunne's Hawdlyng 



p. 49, L 5 abhorring the Christian pouertie, &c. 

** Be rich, I say ; nay boy, be rich and wise ! 
Gold is an actions \sd\ mettle for the eyes . 
Why ? rich men haue much monie and gale geare, 
And goodly houses, and most daintie cheare ; 
Faire wiues, fine pictures, playes and morris-dances, 
And many cheates, that come by many chances ; 
Fine Ciuet-boxes, sweet perfumes, and waters, 
And twentie other such kind of matters. 
While the poore man, that pines for want of friends, 
May sit and sigh, and picke his fingers ends, 
And euery morning wash his face with teares, 
And wipe his blubbered cheekes with sheualed heares, 
It is a heauie sence, where coyne is wanting ; 
At such a time of care, friends are scanting. J: 

1613. The Vncasing of Machivils Instructions to his Sonne, p, 22. 
p. 52, 1. 6 : Uquide matter which they call Starch. Howell relates that Mrs. 
Turner, the poisoner of Sir Thomas Overbury, "the first inventress of yellmv 
Starch was executed in a Cobweb Lawn Ruff of that colour at Tyburn ; and with 
her I believe that yellow Starch, which so much disfigured our Nation, and 
rendered them so ridiculous and fantastic, will receive its FuneraL" Epistote 
Ho-Elian<R, p.* 19, ed. 1737. S. 



Notes on pp. 49^ 60. Merfs Dress. 239 

p. 53, last line : if thy their pantcffles. See notes in Tell Troth 

on p. 55, last line. S. 



MEN'S ABSURD DRESS, &c. 

See Harrison's amusing Chapter 7, in his Book II, our Part I, p. 167; 
Fatkir Hnbburds Tales at the end of Dyce's J/u//fcn, vol. v, &c. 

p. 49, 60. Spanish, Frmch^ r* Dutch fashion. Men's changeable fashions and 
Women's extravagant dress also movd Schoolmaster Averell to wrath in 1588. 
In his "A merwzilffus combat of contrarieties. Malignantlis striuing in tht 
members of mans bodie alleg^rkallu representing vnto vs the enuied state of our 
fionsking Common "stealth : wkerin dial@gui-*wise by the imy, are touched the 
extreame vices of this present time, 6-v. 6r. by W. A." he makes ** The Bellie * 7 
say (sig. B. I & 2): 

w Why, had euer Premethens more shapes, then the backe sutes ? or ye Hydra 
more new heads then the back new Garments ? not so variable for their matter, 
as changable for their fashion : to dale French, to morrowe English, the next day 
Spanish, to daie Italianate, to morrow for fashion a deuill incarnat, O fempora, 
o marisl To daie you shine in sutes of silke, to morrow you iet it out in cloth 
of Golde, one daie in biacke for show of gnmitie, an other daie in white in token 
of brauerie, this day that cullour, the next day another, nowe short wasted, anon 
long beHied, by and by after great Buttoned, and straight after plaine laced, or 
els youi Buttons as strange for smalnes, as they were monstrous before for 
greatnes, this yeere humbd like a Barrel!, the next shottend like a Herring, nowe 
your hose hang loose like a bowe case, the next daie as straite as a pudding 
skinne, one while buskind for lack of stocks, another while booted for want of 
shooes, and thus from you that are the grand Maister, doo the inferiour members 
fetch their fashions, & these be the mutabilities of men.** 

[The continuation of the passage, on Women, is on p. 253, below.] 

See too Burton's Anatomy of Melancholy^ Part III. Sect. 2, Memb. 3, subs. 
3, "Artificial Allurements," p. 295 of edition 1676 : 

"Women are bad, & men worse; no difference at all betwixt their & our 
times. Good manners (as Smeca complains) are extinct with wantonness: in 
tricking up themselves mm go beyond women, they wear harlots colours, and do not 
walky but jit and dance, hie mtdisr, ktec mr, more like Players, Butterflies, 
Baboons, Apes, Anticks, than men. So ridiculous moreover are we in our 
attires, and for cost so excessive, that as Hierom said of old, * Vno filo villaram 
insunt pretia, uno lino decies sestertium inseritur * ; 'tis an ordinary thing to put a 
thousand Oaks, & an hundred Oxen into a suit of apparel, to wear a whole 
mannor on his back, What with shoo-ties, hangers, points, caps and feathers, 
scarfs, bands, cuffs, &c., in a short space their whole patrimonies are consumed." 
Compare also Harrison, Pt I. p. 343, and Shakspere, in Umry VIII, I. i. 
80-85, 'many Have broke their backs with laying manors on 'em For this great 
journey,' &c. Also in Histrio-mastix, by Peele and Marston, 1590-1600, pr. 



240 Notes on pp. 49,, 50* Mens Hats, &c. 

1610, we find the Serving man saying to his master (School of Shakspere, ii. 47) : 

" W? breake your backs? No ! 'tis your rich lac'd stites, 
And straight lac'd mutton : those break all your backs, " 

See too in * A Supplycacyon to . . Kynge Henry the Eyght,' 1544 (E, E. T. Soc., 
1871, p. 52} : " Is there not suche excesse and costelynes of apparel / bycause of 
dyueryte and ch.au/fge of fasshyons, that scarce a worshipfull mans landes, which 
in tymes paste was wonte to fynde and maynteyne twenty or thirty tall yowe- 
men / a good plentyfull howsholde for the releyfe and comforte of many poor and 
neadye/and the same nowe is not suffycyent and able to maynteyne the heyre of 
tkt same landes / his wiffe/ her gentle woman or mayde / two yowmen / and one 
lackey? The pryncypall cause herof is their costly apparell / and specially their 
manyfolde and dyuerse chaunges of fasshyons whiche the man, and specially the 
woman, muste weare vpon bothe headde and bodye. Somtyme cappe / somtyme 
hoode/nowetheFrenshefasshyon, nowe the Spanyshe fasshyon ; than the Italyan 
fasshyon / and then the Myllen fasshyon ; so that there is noo ende of consumynge 
of substaunce . . and all to please the prowde folyshe man and womans fantasye. 
Hereof spryngethe great myserye and neede." See too the Note for p. 53, 1. 4-6, 
p. 245, below. 

p. 49, 1. 9 : onesutefor the forenoons, &c. See the note from Bp. Pilkington 
(for p. 58), p. 248, below, 

p. 50: hats^ standing collars^ ruffs \ shoestjings^ &c. 

" Good Card-makers (if there be any goodnes in you) 
Apparrell vs with more respected Care, 
Put vs in Hats, our Caps are worne thread-bare, 
Let vs haue standing Collers, in the fashion : 
(All are become a stiffe-necke generation) 
Rose Hat-bands, with the shagged-ragged- Ruffe : 
Great Cabbage-shooestrings (pray you bigge enough) 
French Doublet, and the Spanish Hose to breech it : 
Short Cloakes, like old Mandilions (wee beseech it) 
Exchange our Swords, and take away our Bils, 
Let vs haue Rapiers, (knaues loue fight that kils 1 ) 
Put vs in Bootes, and make vs leather legs, 
This, I farts most humbly, and his fellowes, begs." 
1612. Samuel Rowlands, The Knave of Harts (1%*!^ Hunterian Club, p. 12-13). 

The dress obtaind is describd in Rowlands's More Knaues yet ? (1611 ?) sign. 
A 4 (ed. 1874 and p. 5) : 

". . now the honest Printer hath bin kinde, 
Bootes, and Stockins, to our Legs doth finde, 
Garters, Polonia Heeles, and Rose Shooe-strings, 
Which somwhat vs two Knaues in fashion brings . , . 

1 See the extract from Howes, in Harrison, Pt. II, p. 31*. 



Notes on pp. 50^ 51. Merits Feathers, &c. 241 

Well, other friends I hope we shall beseech 

For the great large abkominable breecfi 

Like Brewers Hopsackes : yet, since new they be, 

Each knaae will haue them, and why should not tree ? 

Some Laiiiidresse we also will entreate 
For Bands and Ruffes * ... 

Scarffes we doe want to hange our weapons by ... 
. . . . . . . hats of newest biocke " . . 



p. 50. Hat &*fmthers, &c. 

** His hat i Mmseife, small crowne and huge great brim, 
Faire outward *how, and little wit within. 
And all the band vrtih feathers he doth fill, 
Which is a signe of a fantastick still, 
As sure as (some doe tell rne) evermore 
A goate l doth stand before a brothell dore. 
His clothes perfum'd, his fustie mouth is ayred, 
His chynne new swept, his very cheekes are glared." 
1598. Jn. Marston, Satyrs III. Works, 1856, iii. 223-4 : see p. 216 too. 

p. 51: feathers, wings, brteckes, cloak^ rapier, hungers, boots, spurs. The 
dress of a young dandy in 160413 thus described by T. M. in his Father Hubburds 
Tales, reprinted (in modem spelling) at the end of vol. v. of Dyce's ed. of 
Middleton's Works, as probably Middleton's. * 4 At last, to close up the lament 
able tragedy of us ploughmen, enters our young landlord, so metamorphosed 
into the shape of a French puppet, that at the first we started, and thought one 
of the baboons had marched-in in man's apparel. His head was dressed up in 
white feathers like a shuttlecock, which agreed so well with his brain, being 
nothing but cork, that two of the biggest of the guard might very easily have 
tossed him with battledores, and made good sport with him in his majesty's great 
hall. His doublet was of a strange cut ; and shew the forye of his humour, the 
collar of it rose up so high and sharp as if it would have cut his throat by day 
light. His wings, 2 according to the fashion now, were as little and diminutive 
as a puritan's ruff, which shewed he ne'er meant to fly out of England, nor do 
any exploit beyond sea, but live and die about London, though, he begged in 
Finsbury. His breeches, a wonder to see, were full as deep 3 as the middle of 
winter, or the roadway between London and Winchester, and so longe and wide 
withal, that I think within a twelvemonth he might very well put all his lands m 

1 The emblem of lechery, as the sparrow also was. See the picture of 
Lechery in the Cambr. Univ. Library's MS. Gg. 4. 27, Chaucer's Parson's 
Tale, autotyped for the Chaucer Society. 

2 See p. 524, Dyce's Middldon, v : T. M.'s Black* Books, 1604 : "apparel- 
led in villanous packthread, in a wicked suit of coarse hop-bags, the wings and 
skirts faced with the ruins of dishclouts." * Wings, lateral prominencies extend 
ing from each shoulder.' Whalley's note on B. Jonson's Warks, ii. 105, ed. Giff. 

3 * They strangle and cloke more velvet in a deep-gathered hose, than would 
serve to line through my lord What-call-ye-him*s coach.' 1604. T. M., Blacks 
B&oke. Dyce's Middldon, v. 524. 

SHAKSPERE'S ENGLAND : STUBBES. 16 



Notes on p. 51. A Dandy $ Dress in 1604. 

them ; and then you may imagine they were big enough, when they would out 
reach a thousand acres : moreover, they differed so far from our [old] fashioned 
hose 1 in the country, and from his father's old gascoynes, 2 that his back-part seemed 
to us like a monster ; the roll of the breeches standing so low, that we conjectured 
his house of office, sir-reverence, 3 stood in his haras. All this while his French 
monkey bore his cloak of three pounds a yard, lined clean through with purple 
velvet, 4 which did so dazzle our coarse eyes, that we thought we should have been 
purblind ever after, what with the prodigal aspect of that and his glorious rapier 
and hangers ail bost [ = embosstl with pillars of gold, fairer in show than the 
pillars in Paul's or the tombs at Westminster ; beside, it drunk up the price of all 
my plough-land In very pearl, which stuck as thick upon these hangers as the 
white measles upon a hog's flesh. When I had well viewed that gay gaudy 
cloak and those unthrifty wasteful hangers, I muttered thus to myself: 'That is 
no cloak for the pain, sure ; nor those no hangers for Derrick ' ; when of a 
sudden, casting mine eyes lower, I beheld a curious pair of boots of king 
Philip's [= Spanish] leather, in such artificial wrinkles, sets and plaits, as if they 
had been starched lately and came new from the laundress's, such was my ignor 
ance and simple acquaintance with the fashion, and I dare swear my fellows and 
neighbours here are all as ignorant as myself. But that which struck us most 
into admiration : upon those fantastical boots stood such huge and wide tops, 
which so swallowed up his thighs, that had he sworn as other gallants did, this 
common oath, * would I might sink as I stand ! J all his body might very well 
have sunk down and been damned in his boots. Lastly he walked the chamber 
with such a pestilent gingle 5 that his spurs oversqueaked the lawyer, and made 
him reach his voice three notes above his fee ; but after we had spied the rowels 
of his spurs, how we blest ourselves ! they did so much and so far exceed the 
compass of our fashion, that they looked more like the forerunners of wheel 
barrows. Thus was our young landlord accoutred in such a strange and prodigal 
shape [= dress] that it amounted to above two years* rent in apparel." T. M. 
The Ant and tht Nightingale, or Father Hubburds Tales, 1604. 

" Asper . . But that a rook, by wearing a pyed^a^r, 
The cable hatband, or the three-piled ruff, 
A yard of shoe-tye, or the Switzer's knot 

1 breeches. 2 galligaskins. 3 See note, Dyce's Middleton, ii. 227. 

* "There is no fool to the satin fool, the velvet fool, the perfumed fool ; and 
therefore the witty tailors of this age put them, under colour of kindness, into a 
pair of cloth bags, where a voider will not serve the turn." 1602. Return 
from Parnassus. Hazlitt's Dodsley, ix. 184. 

5 * Caused by the large loose rowels which are presently mentioned ; they were 
commonly of silver/ Compare 

" Fastidious JB risk. . - my gray hobby . . a fine fiery little slave, he runs 
like a oh, excellent, excellent with the very sound of the spur. 

Carlo. How ! the sound of the spur ? 

Fast. O, it's your only humour now extant, sir : a good gingle, a good gingle." 
1599. B en Jonson, Every Man out of his Humour, II. i, Works, i. 80, col. 2 ; 
and in II. iL p. 93, col. 2 : 

"Fungvso. I had spurs of mine own before, but they were not ginglers." 



Notes on p. 51. Bandless haU 9 &c. 243 

On Ills French garters, affect a humour S 

O, It is more most ridiculous." 

Ben Jonson, Every out of Ms 1599). IndHction, Works, 

cd. Cunningham, 5. 67, col. I. See the Cap's complaiat about the Feathers 
stack In Mm In *' A jPfauawif] Dialogue or Di$puta]tmi the Cap^j and 

the Head*}" 1564, quoted In my Tnynne's Animadversions (E. E* T. Sac.}, 
p. cxxxi. 

p. 51, I. 3 : kafs voitkdut ; feathers in kats, scarfs, &c. 

" EPIGRAMS. Epig. 27. 

Aske Humors^ why a Feather he doth weare ? 

It Is his humor (by the Lord) lieele sweare. 

Or what lie doth with such a Horse-taile locke ? 

Or why vpon a Whoore he spendes his stocke ? 

He hath a Humor doth determine so. 

Why in the Stop-throate fashion doth he go, 

With Scarfe about his necke ? Hat without band f 

It is his humor, sweet e sir, vnderstand . . . 

Obiect, why Bootes and Spurres are still in season ? 

His Humor answeres : Humor is the reason. 

If you perceiue his wittes in wetting shrunke, 

It commetii of a Humor, to be drunke. 

When you befaould his lookes pale, thin, and poore, 

Th* occ[a]sion is, his Humor, and a Whore : 

And enery thing that he doth vndertake, 

It is a value, for sencelesse Humors sake." 

1600. S. Rowlands, TfoLMng of Humours Bl&ed in the Head- Vain^ sign. C 
(ed 1874, p. S3). 

p. 51, &c. : dress, & starchi -ntffs &* rabaios. "There was then [in Adam's 
days] neither the Spanish slop, nor the skipper's galligaskin, the Switzer*s blistered 
codpiece \ nor the Danish sleeve sagging down like a Welsh wallet, the Italian's 
close strosser, nor the French standing collar : your treble-quadruple dsedalian 
ruffs, nor your stiffnecked rabatos, that have more arches for Pride to row under 
than can stand under five London bridges, durst not then set themselves out in 
print, for the patent for starch could by no means be signed. Fashions then was 
counted a disease, and horses died of it 2 ; but now, thanks to folly, it is held the 
only rare physic, and the purest golden asses live upon it." 1609. T. Dekker. 
Guls H&rnbok, ch. I., ed. 1862, p. 8. 

1 See Coryafs Crudities on this. Rowlands makes it Danish : 

" His faces chiefest ornament, is nose, 
Full furnished with many a Clarret staine, 
As large as any Codpiece of a Dane, 
Embossed curious : " 
1600. S. Rowlands, Letting vf Humours Blood, sign. D 3 (1874, P- 53)- 

2 Lobado en d cuerpo, bunches in the flesh, the fashion in a horse, Tvber^ 
struma* 1591. R. Perciuale. Spanish Diet * Ltfatdo, m. bunches in the flesh^ 
a disease in a horse, called the fashions*' 1623. Jn. Minsheu's enlargd Perciuale* 



244 Notes on pp. 51, 52. Men's Bands, &c. 

p. 51. Ruff & Band> &c. (See p. 259 below, note on p. 70-1.,) 

" Behold, at length in London streetes he showes. 
His ruffe did eate more time in neatest setting, 
Then Woodstocks worke in painfull perfecting ; 
It hath more doubles farre than Ajax shield, 
When he gainst Troy did furious battle weild. 
Nay, he doth weare an embleme bout his neck ; 
For under that fayre ruffe so sprucely set, 
Appeares ay&//, ^falling-band forsooth 1 
O dapper, rare, compleate, sweet nittie youth ! 
Jesu Maria ! How his clothes appeare 
Crost and recrost with lace ! sure, for some feare 
Least that some spirit with a tippet mace 
Should with a gastly show affright his face." 

1598. Jn. Marston, Satyre IIL, Works, 1856, iii. 223. 

p. 52. "Lambskin. My father was a starch-maker, and my mother a laun 
dress ; so, being partners, they did occupy L long together before they were 
married ; then was I born," 1632. Wm. Rowley, A Woman never vexed, in 
Hazlitt's Dodsley^ xiL 137. 

p. 52, second side-note : Euery pesant hath his stately bands. See Fairholt's 
capital quotations in Hist, of Costume in England, p. 2 1 6, from Lodge's Wits 
Miserly 1596, and Euphues Golden Legacie, 1592. The first is, " The plowman, 
that in times past was contented in russet, must now a daies have his doublet of 
the fashion, with wide cuts, his garters of fine silk of Granada, to meet his Sis on 
Sunday. The farmer, that was contented in times past with his russet frock and 
mockado sleeves, now sells a cow against Easter, to buy him silken geere for his 
credit/' See too in Harrison, II, 36*, what Howes says : " men of meane ranke 
weare Garters and shooe Roses, of more then fiue pound price ; and some weare 
scarffes from ten pounds a piece, vnto thirtie pounds or more. The like may be 
truly said concerning wrought Wastcoates." The dresses of a smart Tailor 
(p. 19), a Baker (p, 29), a Dancing-master, and a Vintner (p. 30), a Grasier (p. 31), 
an Informer (p. 32), a Husbandman (p. 33), a Cumberland copyholder's family 
(p. 35), are described in The Debate between Pride and Lowliness wrongly ascribed 
to Francis Thynne, old Shakesp. Soc. 1841. The author has 15 men on his 
Jury, and rejects 3 : Greene, in his prose Quip for an Upstart Courtier, which was 
modelled on the earlier poem, has 24 men in his Jury, and rejects 27 : this Quip 
should be read for its sketches of the characters. See my Trial-Forewords to my 
Six- Text of Chatter's Canterbury Tales, p. 101-2. 



1 * Enjoy, in the sense of a man having knowledge of a woman. Doll Tear- 
sheet says of Pistol, in the Second Part of Henry IV, " These villains will make 
the word * captain ' as odious as the word occupy, which was an excellent good 
word before it was ill-sorted." See Nares, edit. 1859 in -v. ; and Percy Folio MS. 
Loose aiid Humorous Songs, p. 29.' 



Notes on p. 53. Cost of Men $ Dress, &c. 245 

p. 55, i 4-6 : result of octroi 'Ogatic* in dras 9 &c : 

"yet talce . . the cost with the pleasure, and tell me then If once in seaiien 
yeares, when your state is weakened and your Land wasted, your Woods 1111- 
tlmbered, yoar Pastures vnstored, and your Houses decayed : then tell me 
whether yon find the proaerbe true, of the Courtier young and old." * 1618. N. 
Breton, Tke Court an/ Country (iS6S), p. 178. See too the interesting c Health 
to the Gentlemanly profession of Seruingnicnf by I. M., 1598? in the same vol. 
Hazlitt's Imdit&l Tracts, 1868, p. 95 ; also, Quips upon Questions, 1600, 
sign. G 2. 

*'" Carlo. First, to be an accomplished gentleman, that is, a gentleman of the 
time, yon must give over housekeeping In the country, and live altogether in the 
city amongst gallants ; where, at your first appearance, 'twere good you turned 
four orjms hundred acres of your best land into two or three trunks of apparel.'* 
1599. Ben Jonson, E&ery Man out of Ms Humour, I. i., Works, ed. Cunning 
ham, L 73, col. i. In II, i, p. 87, col. 2 y Fungoso puts the cost of Ms suit at 
about 40 of our money; * s Let me see, the doublet: say fifty shillings the 
doublet ; and between three or [= and] four pound the hose ; then boots, hat, 
and band : some ten or eleven pound will do it all, and suit me, for the heavens." 
1596-8. Ben Jonson, JSvery Man in his Humour, II. ii., Works, ed, Cunning 
ham, L 21, col. i. 

p. 53 : shirts. When Fastidious Brisk is describing the articles of his dress 
injured in his due!, in Ben Jonson's Every Man out of his Humour (acted A.D. 
1599 ; 4to. 1600, fol. 1616), IV. iv, Carlo says, " I wonder he speaks not of his 
wrought shirt " [he does, 14 lines lower] ; and Gifford notes : " The linen, both 
of men and women, was either so worked as to resemble the finest lace, or was 
ornamented, by the needle, with representations of fruits, flowers, passages of 
history," &c. The Puritans, it appears, turned the mode to account, and sub 
stituted texts of Scripture for the usual embellishments. There is a pleasant 
allusion to this practice in the City Mate A : 

<c Sir, she's a Puritan at her needle too : 
My smock sleeves have such holy embroideries, 
And are so learned, that I fear in time 
All my apparell will be quoted by 
Some pure instructor." 

Works, ed. Cunningham, i. 120, Act II, sc. ii. 

In Ben Jonson's Every Man out of hzs Humour (1590) Puntarvolo describes 
his dress in the account of his duel with Luculento ; "He again lights me here, 



1 "And if thou be a Courtier, know thy place : 
But do not seme for onely shew of grace, 
But let thy profit answere thy expence, 
Least want do proue a wofull patience, 
And thou do proue the prouerbe often tolde, 
* A carelesse Courtier yong, a Begger olda' " 

1613. The Vncadng of Maehiwh Instructions to Ms Sowne: With the Answere 

to the same, p. 7* 



246 Notes on pp. 54-6. ftfens Doublets^ Canions, &c. 

I had on a gold cable hatband, then new come up, which I wore about a murrey 
French, hat I had, cuts my hatband, and yet it was massy goldsmith's work 
cuts my brims, which, by good fortune, being thick embroidered with gold twist 
and spangles, disappointed the force of the blow : nevertheless it grazed on my 
shoulder, takes me away six purls of an Italian cut-work band I wore, cost me 
three pound in the Exchange but three days before . . . He, making a reverse 
blow, falls upon my embossed girdle I had thrown off the hangers * . . strikes off 
a skirt of a thick-laced satin doublet I had, lined with four taffatas, cuts off two 
panes embroidered with pearl, rends through the drawings-out of tissue, enters 
the linings, and skips the flesh . . . not having leisure to put off my silver spurs, 
one of the rowels catched hold of the ruffle 2 of my boot, and being Spanish 
leather, and subject to tear, overthrows me, rends me two pair of silk stockings 
that I put on, being somewhat a raw morning, a peach colour and another, 
and strikes me some half inch deep into the side of the calf ; he . . takes horse, 
and away ; I, having bound up my wound with a piece of my wrought shirt . . 
rid after him." Act IV. sc. iv. Works, ed. Cunningham, i. 119, col. 2. 

p. 54: men te nder now. Cp. Harrison, Part I, p. 337-8, "when our houses 
were builded of willow, then had we oken men ; but now that our houses are 
come to be made of oke, our men are not onlie become willow, but a great 
manie . . altogither of straw," &c. 

p. 55. DMets with great bellies. tf Fungoso. look you, that's the suit, sir : 
I would have mine such a suit without difference, such stuff, such a wing, such a 
Ueeve, such a shirt, bitty and all ; therefore, pray you observe it." 1599- Ben 
Jonson, Every Man out of Ms Humour, III. L, Works, i. 101, col. I. 

p. 56. With Cantons annexed. See the Vtlwct-canioned hobbyhorses, in 
Northward flo, p. 231 above. ** Canons de Chausses, Cannyons. Chaussesa yueue 
de merlus. Round breeches with strait cannions ; hauing in the seat a peece like 
a fishes tayle; and worne by old men, schollers, and such like niggardlie or 
needie persons." 1611. Cotgrave. "Cantons were rolls of stuff which termi 
nated the breeches or hose at the knee (fig. 135,'* [where 2 heavyish rolls or 
sausages all round the knee are cut] ), Fairholt : he refers to Henslowe's diary, 
"under April, 1598, he [H.] disburses 6 Ss. for a bugell doblett and a payer of 
paned hose of bugell panes drawne out with cloth of silver and canyons to the 
same," &c. 

P* 56 : gatty-hasen; also Gally-gascoynes. See that word in Fairholt, p. 454. 

p. $6: hostn of a Marke price. This was an extravagant price in William 
Rufus's day, when 35. was the figure. See the anecdote about the king's hose in 
Robert of Gloste/s Chronicle, quoted by Fairholt under hose, p. 512. 

p. 56 : trunk hose. " Sometimes I have scene Tarleton play the clowne, and 
vse no other breeches than such sloppes or slivings as now many gentlemen wears : 

1 % *The fringed loops appended to the girdle, in which the dagger or small 
sword usually hung." 

2 The turn-over fringe or scollop of fine leather, often edgd with gold lace. 
"Ruffle your brow like a new boot." Ib. I. i. p. 73. 



Notes on pp. 56^ 57. Metis Trunk-hose, &c. 247 

they are almost capable of a bushel of wteate ; and if they be of sackeeloth, they 
would serve to came nmwlt to tie mill This absurd, clownish, and unseemly 
attire, only by custome now is not misliked, but rather approval." 1601. Thos. 
Wright TAe Passions of the Mzrnde in generall* (Dedicated to Lord Southampton ; 
and has Verses by Ben Jonson.) See also the interesting extracts and cut in 
Fairholt's Costume^ p. 217. He was before me, I see. In quoting the following: 

14 When Tail ton clown'd It In a pleasant vaine, 
And with conceltes, did good opinions gaine 
Vpon the Stage, his merry humors shop, 
Clownes knew the Clowne, by his great clownish slop. 
Bat now th'are gull'd, for present fashion sayes, 
Dicke Tarltons part, Gentlemens breeches playes : 
In enery streete where any Gallant goes, 
The swagg'ring Sbppe, is Tarltons clownish hose." 

1600. S. Rowlands, The Letting of Humours Blmdinthe Head-Vaine? C 2, back 

fed. 1874, p. 36). See too the bit from More Knaves Yd, p. 240, above, and Ben 
Jonson's " I'll go near to fill that huge tumbrel-slop of yours with somewhat, an 
I have good lack : your Garagantua breech cannot carry it away so.." 1598 
1601. Every Man in his Humour \ II. ii, Works > i. 1 8, col. I. 

** And for false cards and dice, let my great slops, 
And his big bellied dublet both be sercht, 
And see which harbors most hypocrisie." 
1606. No-Body and Some-Body, Simpson's School of Shakspere, i 353. 

'* The rest of France takes the modell of the court, as a rale unto it selfe to 
follow. Let Courtiers first begin to leave off and loath these filthy and apish 
breeches, that so openly shew our secret parts : the bnittbasting of long pease-cod- 
bellied doublets, which makes us seeme so far from what we are, and which are 
so combersome to anne : These long, effeminate, and dangling locks : That fond 
custome to kisse what we present to others, and Beso las manos in saluting of our 
friends: (a ceremonie heretofore only due unto Princes:)" 1603. J. Florio, 
Montcdgnes ssayes f 1634, p. 146. 

" In our Old Plays, the hnmor Love and Passion, 
Like Doublet, Hose and Cloak, are out of fashion." 

1667. Prologue to James Shirley's Love-Tricks* first calld The Schoole of Com 
plement^ 1631. (Shirley died in Oct. 1666.) 

p. 57: wtker-stockes, the stockings, as distinguisht from the hose, when the 
latter became breeches. See the Debate between Pride and Lowliness wrongly 
attributed to Frauds Thynne, from the forged ' F. Th.* on its title-page * The 
neatherstockes of pure Granada silke/ and other authorities quoted by Fairholt, 
Costume in England ^ 1860. p. 21 1. 

p. 57: shoes. See Fairholt, Costume w England, p. 385-7. " Pin met, 
apparently the same as Plnson, a thin-soled shoe. ' Calceamen and calcearium is 



248 Notes on p. 58. Merits Boots and Coats. 

a shoo, pinson, socke.' Withalf Dictionarie, ed. 1608, p. 21 1." Nares, by 
Halliwell and Wright. Phifon, pin^onnet are not in any French Dictionary or 
Glossary that Mr. Henry Nico! or I can find ; and my friend Prof. Paul Meyer 
doesn't know the words. See p. 266 below. 

p. 58 : boots with wide tops. " if thy quicksilver can ran so far on thy errand as 
to fetch thee boots out of S. Martin's, let it be thy prudence to have the tops of 
them wide as the mouth of a wallet, and those with fringed boot-hose over them 
to hang down to thy ancles." 1609. T. Dekker. Guls Hornbook^ ch. iii. (1862), 
p. 1 6. 

Instead of high-soled cork shoes, the earlier dandies had piked ones : See the 
passage at the end of Gregory's Chronicle^ after his death, p. 238. Camden Soc. 
1876. " A.D. 1468-9. Alle so that yere the Pope sende a bulle for the Cordyners, 
and cursyd thco that made any longs pykys passynge ij yenchys of lengthe, and 
that no Cordyner shuld not sylle no schone a-pone the Sonday, ne put no schoo 
a-pon no man-ys fote, ne goo to noo fayrys a-pon the Sonday, uppon payne of 
cursynge. And the kynge grauntyd in a conselle and in the Parlement tha+ hyt 
shuide be put in excecussyon, and thys was proclaymyd at Poulys Crosse. And 
sum men sayd that they wolde were longe/^^ whethyr Pope wylle or nylle, 
for they sayde the Popys curse wolde not kylle a flye. God amend thys! 
And within schorte tyme aftyr, sum of the Cordyners gate prevy selys and 
proteccyons to make long pykys, and causyd tho same men of hyr crafte that 
)aboryd to the Pope for the destruccyon of longe pykys to be trobelyd and in 
grete donger." 

" 1582. In this Queenes dayes [Anne of Bohemia, Rich. II's Queen], began 
the detestable vse of piked shooes, tyed to their knees with chaines of siluer and 
gilt Also noble women vsed high attire on their heads, piked like homes, with 
long trained gownes, and rode on side saddles, after the example of the Queene, 
who first brought that fashion into this land, for before, women were vsed to ride 
astride like men." 1605. Jn. Stowe. Annafa, p. 471. 

p. 58. Coats, &c. 

" But these tender pernels must have one gown for the day, another for the 
night ; one long, another short ; one for winter, another for summer ; one furred 
through, another but faced; one for the work day, another for the holy day ; one 
of this colour, and another of that ; one of cloth, another of silk or damask ; 
change of apparel, one afore dinner, another after, one of Spanish fashion, 
another Turkey ; and to be brief, never content with enough, but always devis 
ing new iashions and strange ; yea, a ruffian will have more in a ruff and his hose 
than he should spend in a year. I read of a painter that would paint every 
country man in his accustomed apparel, the Dutch, the Spaniard, the Italian, 
the Frenchman ; but when he came to the English man, he painted him naked, 
English and ave tiin c 10 ^ 16 * 1 and bad nirn make it: nimself 3 f r he changed his 
apparel fashion so often, that he knew not how to make it ; such be our fickle 

1 See the cut opposite, from Andrew Boorde. 



Notes on pp. 585 59. Metis Dress and Selfishness. 249 

and unstable heads, erer and new toys." 1560. Bishop 

PMkingtoii, Exp. -rf^graw, ( Parker Soa, 1 842)1 p. 5& 




If I am an English man, and naked I stand here, 
Musyng in my mynde what rayment I shal were, 
For now I wyll were thys, and now I wyl were that ; 
Now I wyl were I cannot tel what. 

1542. ANDREW BOORDE. The Fyrst Boke of the Introduction of Knowledge, 

chap. i. p. 116 of my edition, E. E. Text Soc., 1870. 

p. 59. Cold chariiu to the poor e* 

" Wealthye CIttizens. 

YOu Cittizens that are of Dims Wealth, 
His costly cloathing, and his dainty fare, 
Regarding nothing but selfe-ease and health, 
How euer Lazarus lyes poore and bare : 
Your Dogges are not so kinde to licke their sores, 
But rather serue to bite them from your dores, 
You that do make your Tables Poulters stalles, 
Great prouocation to the sinfull flesh, 
And though the famish'd, hunger-starued, calles 



250 Notes on pp. 59 61. Meti's foreign fashions. 

* For Jesus sake, with Grammes our wantes refresh/ 
Your Dishes haue the food for which they cry : 
You play with that, for which they pine and die. 

He Stabbe yee." 

1604. $. Rowlands, Looks to it : for, He Stabbe ye, B 2, back; p. 12, ed. 1872. 
Compare the corn-hoarder Sordido, in Ben J onsen's Every Man out of his 
Huni&ur (1599), I. i, Works, i. 78 : 

** O, but (say some) the poor are like to starve. 
Why, let 'em starve ; what's that to me ? Are bees 
Bound to keep life in drones and idle moths ? No." 

p. 59-61. Merfs Coats, Cloaks, Gowns, Caps, Chains* 

The madness To behold the vain and foolish light fashions of apparel used 
in their apparel, among us, it is too much wonderful. I think no realm in the 
world, no, not among the Turks and Saracens, doth so much in the vanity of 
their apparel, as the Englishmen do at this present Their coat must be made 
after the Italian fashion, their cloak after the use of the Spaniards, their gown 
after the manner of the Turks : their cap must be of the French fashion ; and at 
the last their dagger must be Scottish with a Venetian tassel of silk. -I speak 
nothing of their doublets and hoses, which for the most part are so minced, cut, 
and jagged, that shortly after they become both torn and ragged. I leave off also 
to speak of the vanity of certain light-brains, which, because nothing should want 
to the setting of their fondness, will rather wear a Martin chain x the price of 
eight-pence, than they would be unchained. O what a monster and a beast of 
many heacLs is the Englishman now become ! To whom may he be compared 
worthily, but to Esop's crow ? For as the crow decked herself with feathers of 
all kind of birds to make herself beautiful, even so doth the vain Englishman, 
for the fond apparelling of himself, borrow of every nation to set forth himself 
gallant in the face of the world. He is an Englishman : he is also an Italian, a 
Spaniard, a Turk, a Frenchman, a Scot, a Venetian, and, at the last, what not ? 
He is not much unlike a monster called chimsera, which hath three heads, one 
like a lion, another like a goat, the third like a dragon." ? 1550. Becon. 
Jemlofjoy, In The Catechism, &c. Parker Soc., 1844, p. 438. (This extract is 
continued at p, 255, below.) 

p. 60. Spanish, French, 6* Dutch fashion. Other articles of dress besides 
Cloakes were imported : 

" Behold, a most accomplish'd Caualeere, 
That the world's Ape of Fashions doth appeare, 
Walking the streets, his humors to disclose, 
In the French Doublet, and the Germane Hose : 



1 Martin^ chain : of counterfeit or base metal. So also St. Martin's rings. 
" They are like rings and chaines bought at Saint Martin's, that were faire for a 
little time, but shortly after will prove alchimy or rather pure copper," Minshull, 
Essays, p. 23. 



Notes on pp. 60-2. Alerts foreign fashions. 251 

Tfae Cloakc, Spanish Hat, Toledo bkde, 

Italian ruffe, a Sliooe right Flemish made : 
Like Lord of Misrule,, where he comes faeele reuel, 
And lie for wagers with the lying's! diiielL" 

1600. S. Rowlands, The Letting of Humours Blmd in the Head- Vaini* ed, 1874, 
Honterian Club, p. 32, 

** Col. Tipto. ... I would put on 

The Savoy chain about my neck, the ruff 
And cuffs of Flanders, then the Naples hat, 
With the Rome hatband and the Florentine agat, 
The Milan sword, the cloke of Genoa, set 
With Brabant buttons ; all my given 'pieces 
Except my gloves, the natives of Madrid." 
1629. Benjonson, 77M New Inn, II. n. s W&rks, iS. 354, col. I. 

**..., but leather and cloth both cannot suffice us at this time, be it 
never so fine and costious, except we add thereto ail kinds of silks and velvets. 



Against vain g U what do of these thing's ? gold, silver, pearl, precious stones, 
and sumptuous _ , _ . f r ' . - . 

apparel oucnes and what not, is now-a-days worn even of inferior persons, 

when the poor members of Christ have neither wherewith they may clothe 
themselves, nor yet comfort their hungry and thirsty bodies. O lamentable 
case ! 

Mark "And what snail I say of the manifold and strange fashions of the 
well garments that are used now-a-days ? I think Satan studieth. not so much 
to invent new fashions to bring Christian men into his snare, as the tailors now- 
a-days are compelled to excogitate, invent, and imagine diversities of fashions for 
apparel, that they may satisfy the foolish desire of certain light brains and wild 
oats, which are altogether given to new fangleness. O most vain vanity I Some- 
Nova times we follow the fashion of the Frenchmen. Another time we have a 
Pkcent trick of the Spaniards, Shortly after, that beginneth to wax naught : we 
must therefore now have the Italian fashion. Within few days after, we are 
weary of all the fashions that are used in Christendom ; we will therefore now, 
and God will, practise the manner of going among the Turks and Saracens : 
would God that with the Turks* apparel we were not also right Turks and 
infidels in our life, conversation and manners ! " . . . . ? 1540-50. Thomas 
Becon, The Nosegay, in Early Works (Parker Soc.), p . 204. 

p. 60. Cloaks. See Fairholt's Costume, p. 419. 

p. 61. Boot'hose. Did these hose go inside the boot, or were they overalls, 
outside it, and so corresponding, more or less, to the Wife of Bath's * foot- 
mantel ' as shown in the Ellesmere MS ? See the woodcut overleaf. Cotgrave 
(1611) has l Triquekouse : f. A boot-hose ; or a thicke hose worne in stead of 
a boot.* 

p. 62. Rapiers : sttvw kzlis & velvet sJteaihs. 

et Braimwrm* I assure you the blade may become the side or thigh of the 
best prince in Europe. 



25 & Notes on p. 62. Men's Rapiers and Daily Life. 




. KnowelL Ay, with a velvet scabbard^ I think. 

Stephen. Nay, an't be mine, it shall have a velvet scabbard, coz, that's flat : 
I'd not wear it as it is, an you would give me an angel. 

Bra*. At your worship's pleasure, sir : nay, 'tis a most pure Toledo. 

Stephen, I had rather it were a Spaniard. But tell me what shall I give you 
for it ? An it had a stiver hilt? 

p. 62. On how the young men of and about this time spent their days, see 
Sir John Davies*s In Fmcum, Epig. XXXIX., Marlowe's Works (stereo.), p. 
269, quoted in Harrison, I: Ixxx. ; also Marston's rebuke and ridicule of them in 
his Scourge of Vttlamie, 1599, Works, 1856, iii. 305-6. Compare too Rowlands : 

"Epig. 7. 

Speake, Gentlemen, what shall we do to day? 
Drinke some braue health vpon the Dutch carouse ? 
Or shall we go to the Globe, and see a Play? 
Or visit Skorditch, for a bawdie house ? 
Lets call for Cardes or Dice, and haue a Game, 
To sit thus idle, is both sinne and shame. 

This speakes Sir JReuell, furnisht out with Fashion, 
From dish-crownd Hat, vnto th' Shooes square toe ; 
That haunts a Whore-house but for recreation, 
Playes but at Dice, to conny catch, or so-; 



Notes on pp. 62, 64. Mens Days. Women. 253 

Drlnkes in kindats, for good fellowship ; 

Or to the Play goes, bat Purse to nip," 

1600. S. Rowlands, 73k Letting of Hummrs Blm^ m Ike Hmd-Vaint, Hunt. 
Clubfc 1874, p. 13. Again, 

44 A Fantastical! Jftiaue. 
J lira, come hither, I must send you straight 
To diners places, about things of waight ; 

First to my Barber, at his Bason signe. 

Bid Mm be heere to morrow about nine : 

Next to my Taylor, and will him be heere 

About eleaen, and his Bill He cleere : 

My Shoemaker by twelue, haste bid him make 

About the Russet Bootes that I bespake. 

Stay, harke, I had forgot, at any hand, 

First to my Laundresse for a yellow Band ; 

And point the Feather-maker not to faile 

To plume my head with his best Estridge tayle . . . 

Step to the Cutler for my fighting blade. 

And know if that my riding sword be made ; 

Bid him trim vp my walking Rapier neat, 

My dancing Rapiers pummel! is too great " . . . . 

1613. S. Rowlands, A Poire of Spy-Knaues, sign. B 3, back (Hunt. Club, 
1872, p. 8). 

** But now of the contrarie let vs consider our exercises, and how we vse to 
reckon our fattltes, and examine the whole day againe at night ere we go to rest, 

and slepe. Now are we occupied ? Verily we kepe ioly cheare one with another 
in banquettlng, surfeiting, and dronkenesse ; also we vse all the night long in 
ranging from town to town, and from house to house, with mummeries and 
maskes, dice-playing, carding, and dauncing, hauing nothing lesse in our 
memories than the day of death. " 1577- John Northbrooke, A treatise against 
Didng, etc., ed. 1840, p. 15. See p. 265 below, on Parents' neglect. 



WOMEN'S DRESS, FALSE HAIR, BARE BREASTS, 
KISSING, &c., p. 64. 

Schoolmaster Averell, hi his merualous Combat of Contrarieties 1588, quoted 
above on p. 239, says : 

*' As for women, you make them through your pride in lookes like Lais, in 
fashions like Flora, in maners like Thais, more wauering then the wind, and 
more mutable then the Moone j in Gate & iesture most daintie, in the Church 
most angelicall, in the streetes modest & amiable, abroade among men in 
finenes superficial!, but at home by themselues most sluttish and bestiall. Yet I 
meane not all, but the worst, and such as entertaine your pride, who from the top 



254 Notes on p, 64. Women and their Dress. 

to the toe, are so disguised, that though they be in sexe Women, yet in attire 
they appeare to be men, and are like Androgini, who counterfayting the shape of 
either kind, are in deede neither, so while they are in condition women, and 
woulde seeme in. apparrell men, they are neither men nor women, but plaine 
Monsters. 

" Their heads set out with strange hayre, (to supply nature that waie 
defeated, or rather by their periwigges infected) do appeare like the head of 
Gorgon, sauing that they want the crawling Snakes of Medusa, to hang sprawling 
in their haire along their faces, & yet they retaine the propertie of this Daughter 
of Phorcus, for they turn a number of their beholders into stones, who while 
they affectionatlie gaze on their painted pride, doe lose the reason of men and 
become like stones, without anie feeling of a vertuous mind, the onelie Image of 
a man. 

" But as they are Venerian Dames, euen so in their flatteries to beguile fooles, 
they imitate the nature of the Cyprian women, who comining into Syria, and 
seruing in y* Court would coure downe and become footstooles for the Ladies, 
thereby to ascend into their Coaches, for which cause they were called CHmacidae, 
of Climaca, which y* Assirians name a Ladder ; but heerin onlie they differ, in 
that our Phrynae and Cytherean Damsels, become not Ladders for Women, but 
footstooles, yea, and pillowes, for Men. And therefore it is not without cause 
that Tyresias saide, (being chosen an Arbiter betweene lupiter and luno, ) that 
there were In mero y tres amoris vnd^ mfemina^ nouem, in a man three ounces 
of lust, in a woman nine ; for what meaneth els their outward tricking and 
daintie trimming of their heads, the laying out of their hayres, the painting and 
washing of their faces, the opening of their breasts, & discouering them to their 
wastes, their bents of Whale bone to beare out their bunnies, their great sleeues 
and bumba^ted shoulders, squared in breadth to make their wastes small, their 
culloured hose, their variable shooes ? and all these are but outward showes. As 
for the rest, least their rehearsall might rather hurt, then profit the honest eares, 
I will couer them with silence : but all these are your prouvocations, these are the 
fruites of your pride, the signes of your waste, and the abridgment of my fare, for 
while you spend so freelie upon your Backe, the least share falles to the Bellie, 
nay, I am faine oftentimes to fast, to beare out the prodigalitie of your pride, and 
then wanting nourishment to feede the members, I am complained on for your 
fault" Sign. B I & 2. See also Harrison > Pt I. p. 170-2, and Latimer's address 
to his * sisters, the women,' in his last Sermon before Edward VI, in 1550 
(Sernwns* Parker Soc., p. 252-4) : ' Yea, it is now come to the lower sort, to 
mean mens wives ; they will rule and apparel themselves gorgeously, and some 
of them far above their degrees, whether tfieir husbands will or no ... Paul 
saith, that f a woman ought to have a power on her head ' . . But this * power ' 
that some of them have, is disguised gear and strange fashions. They must wear 
French hoods, and I cannot tell you, I, what to call it . . But now here is a 
vengeance devil : we must have our * power J from Turkey, of velvet ; and gay it 
must be ; far fetched^ dear bought; and when it cometli, it is a false sign . . It is 
a false sign when it covereth not their heads as it should do. For if they would 
keep it under the 'power * as they ought to do, there should not any such tussocks 



Notes on p. 64. Women* Dress, &c. 255 

EOI tufts be as be ; nor such laying out of the hair, nor braiding 

to have it open . . Of tussocks that are oat now-a-dajs, there Is 

no mention in scriptures, because . . they were not yet come to be so 

far out of order as to lay out such tussocks and tttfts. f| And see fab (Latimer's) 
jRtmaixs, ed. 1845, P- IO ^- 

** Toclus . . five hoars ago I set a dozen maids to attire a boy like a nice gentle 
woman ; bat there is soch doing with their looking-glasses, pinning, unpinning, 
nnseiting; formings artel conforming ; painting blue veins and cheeks ; such stir 
with and combs, cascanets, dressings, purls, falls, squares, busies, bodies, 

&carfs, necklaces, carcanets, rebatoes, borders, tires, fans, palisadoes, puffs, raffs, 
cuffs, muffs pasles, fasles, partlets, fridets, bandlets, fillets, crosslets, pendulets, 
amulets, annulets, bracelets, and so many lets, that yet she's scarce dressed to the 
girdle ; and BOW there is such calling for fardingales, kirtles, busk-points, shoe- 
ties, &c., that seven pedlars* shops, nay, all Stourbridge fair will scarce famish 
her. A ship is sooner rigged by far, than a gentlewoman made ready." ? 1602 
(printed 1607), Lingua, Hazlitt's Dtdsley, he. 426. See the extract from Dekker's 
Satiromastix, in the Notes for p. 150, below. 

** Sir Fratids Ilfird ... if thou wilt have their true characters, I'll give it 
thee. Women are the purgatory of men's purses, the paradise of their bodies, 
and the hell of their minds : marry none of them. Women 1 are in churches, 
saints ; abroad, angels ; at home, devils. Here are married men enough know 
this ; marry none of them.** 1607. George Wilkins, Miseries of Enforced Mar- 
riage* Hazlitt's Dodsley, be. 475* 

Tfee apparel "I P SLSS over tn % nt an< ^ wan ^on apparel of women now-a-days, 
of women partly because it is so monstrous, and partlybecau.se I haue not been, 
nor yet am much acquainted with them, whereby I might be the more able to 
describe their proud peacocks 1 tails, if not at the mil, which were an infinite 
labour, yet at the least somewhat to set it forth as a painter doth, before he do 
lay on colours. But of this am I certain, that they observe not in their apparel 
the rule of the holy scriptures. For Saint Peter saith, that * the apparel of 
honest and virtuous women should not be outward with broided hair, and hang 
ing on of gold, either in putting- on of gorgeous apparel ';.... It is enough 
for chaste and pure maids to wear clean and simple apparel, as a M . is 
testimony of the uncorniption and cleanness both of their body & mind, 
without the flaring out and colouring of their hair, without the painting of their 
faces, without the putting-on of wanton and light array, whereby they be enticed 
rather to pride and whoredom than to humility, shamefacedness, and cleanness of 
life." ? 1550. Becon, Jewel of Joy, in The Catechism, etc. (Parker Soc. 1844), 

P- 439- 

Sir Thos. More reproves face-painting in his Utopia, p. 317, ed. Roberts, 
1878. See the authorities referrd-to there, and in the Supplemental Notes, p. 
402 : * The Lmthsammesse of Long Haire ; with an Appendix against painting 
spots, naked backs and breasts/ by Thomas Hall, B.D. London, 1654, I2mo., 
&c. [Painting] "is the badge of an harlot; rotten posts are painted, and 

1 * See Mr: Steevens's note on Othello, Act II, sc. L Bat compare Middle- 
ton's Blurt, Master Ccmtable, 1602. Works, by Dyce, L 280,* 



256 Notes on p. 64. Women! s Face-painting, &c. 

gilded nutmegs are usually the worst . . . though I dare not say they are all 
harlots that paint, yet I may safely say, they have the harlot's badge, and their 

chastity is questionable.'* T. Hall. 

"Proud Gmtlewomen. 

YOu gentle-puppets of the proudest size, 
That are, like Horses, troubled with the Fashions, 
Xot caring how you do your selues disguise, 
In sinfull, shameles, Hels abhominations, 
You whom the Deuill (Prides father) doth perswade 
To paint your face, &, mende the worke God made. 

You with the Hood, the Falling-band, and Ruffe, 
The Moncky wast, the breeching like a Beare ; 
The Peiriwig, the Maske, the Fanne, the Muffe, 
The Bodkin, and the Bussard in your heare ; 
You Veluet-canibricke-silken-feather'd toy, 
That with your pride do all the world annoy, 
lie Stabbe yee." 

1604. S. Rowlands, Look to it ; for, lie Stabbe ye, sign. D 2, back (Hunt. 
Club, 1872, p. 28). 

* * Theyong woman commeth, married to an old man. 

They onus Another passeth on, passing portly, a sweete woman, she smelleth 
iwmam.. hither : and a rolling eye she hath, it turneth with a trice on both 
sides : a faire haire, if it be her owne : a rare face, if it be not painted : a white 
skinne, if it be not plastered : a full breast, if it be not bolstered : a straite backe, 
if it be not helped ; a slender waste, if it be not pinched ; a likely leg, if it be not 
lined ; a pretty foote, if it be not in the Shoomakers stockes ; a faire, rare, 
sweete, meete body, if it be not dishonest. " 1613. Anthony Nixon, A Straunge 
Foot- Post, E I, back. 

p. 64, 67, 78, &c. Women's coquetry &> dress. See The Psdlers Prophede, 
1595, attributed by the late R. Simpson to Robert Crowley, (who printed Piers 
Plowman and wrote the Epigrams, &c., and died on June 18, 1588,) on the 
strength of Greene's allusions, in his Farewell to Folly, 1591, to the Sexton of 
St Giles Cripplegate [Crowley's Church], and " Theological poets which . . . 
get some other Batillus to set his name to their verses " [which the writer of The 
Patters Prophecie does not]. 

" Proud lookes, stretcht out neckes, and wanton eies, 
Their frolike cheare, their fine walkes, and tripping, 
With all their pleasures which they now do devise, 
Their feasting, disguising, their kissing and clipping. 
Rich showes, strange funerals, precious abilliments, 
Golden collars, spangs, bracelets, bonnets and hoods, 
Painted and laid-out haire, filides, and nether ornaments, 
Their chains and sumptuous apparrell, that cost great goods, 



Notes on p. 64. IV omens Dress and Paint. 25 7 

Earing to set out their faces, 

Chaunge of cassocks, vales* lannes fine, 

Needles, glasses, portlets* fillets, and bnngraces s 
With culloars curious, to make tbe fe.ce 



* In the Interesting bat extremely rare volume by Jolin DickensoB, entitled 
** GREENE IN CONCEIPT: new raised from his graue to write the Tragiqne 
Historic of Faire JWmk of London," 1598? lie tells of the extravagance la 
costume, which is one token of her downward career : 

"She ware a! wales such Quersiif/jptuous attyre, that many in desert and 
dignitie fkire exceeding Mr, were In this as Carre behind hir. No common 
fashion could please Mr fancle, bat It must be strange and stately, drawing many 
eyes to gaze on hir, wMch aym^d wholly at singularitie, glorying to bee peerelesae 
in hir pompe. Nener was any to hir power more lauish In variety of wasteful! 
vanities : nener any so peraerse In pride, and with such difficulty to be pleased ; 
For were the least stitch in hir Attyre not as slice would haue it, though the 
garment most fayre and costly, the Tailor most rare and cunning, yet would shee 
furiously iing it from Mr, with purpose neuer to weare It ; so that the sillye 
workeman set at Ms non plus, lost both his cnstome and tbe creedit of his 
workmanshippe " (p. 24). Evidently, PetnicMo knew the expensive habits of 
ladies in regard to their dressmakers, and by Ms captious objections to the hat 
and the "sleeves curiously cut," reads Katharina a lesson. 1 J. W. Ebsworth, p. 
1017, Bagford Ballads. 

p. 64. Face-pGdnting." Another point that plainly struck Shakspere, and 
disgusted Mm [coming from the country], in London society, was, the fasMon of 
women the good, like the bad painting their faces, and wearing sham hair, 
which latter [tho* 'tis now happily gone out of fashion} has long offended many 
of us Victorian men too. He alludes to the lace-painting, not only in this, his 
first play [Lowfs Zafamrs Lost], IV. iii 259, 'painting and usurping hair,' but in 
his Smnefs also, 67, L 5 : 68, L 2-8, and again and again In Ms later plays. 1 " 
My Leopold Sh, Introd. p. xxili. See the Montaigne note, p. 261 below 

** MaquereUe* . . Do you know Doctor Plaster-face ? By this curde, hee is 
the most exquisite in forging of veines, sprightning of eyes, dying of haire, sleek- 
Ing of skinnes, blushing of cheekes, surphleing of breastes, blanching and bleach 
ing of teeth, that ever made an old lady gracious by torch-light, by this curd, 
law ! " 1604. Jn, Marston, The Malcontent, II. iv. W^rks, 1856, II, 233. 

See also Drayton's Muses* Elysium (A. D. 1630), Nymphal VII. , Works, 1793, 
p. 626, coL I, on the * night -masks, plaster'd well withia, to supp'e wrinkles/ 
the paper 

** In which was painting, both for white and red ; 
And next, a piece of silk, wherein there lies 
For the decay'd, false breasts, false teeth, false eyes." 



1 Two Gmt. II i 55-58 : Meas.for Meas. III. IL 80; IV. ii. 38 ; Ham'st, 
III. i. 148 ; V. L 201 ; Ant. & Chop. L IL 18 j Winters Tale, IV. iii. 101, &c. 

STTTBBES. 17 



258 Notes on pp. 67 70. 

p. 67. wam&fs hair and fainted f oca. 



" These flaming heads with staring 
haire, 

These wyers turnde like homes of 



ram : 



Can any tell from whence they 

cam ? 
Dan Sathan, Lord of fayned 

lyes, 
These painted faces which they | All these new fangeles did 

weare: 1 devise." 

1595-6. St. Gosson, Plmsant Quippes, Hazlitt's E. E. Pop. Poetry, 1866, p. 252. 

p. 68 : false hair; See Shakspere, L0vs Labours lost, IV. iii. 259 ; Merchant 
of Venice, III. ii 92-6 ; Henry V, III. vii. 60 ; Sonnets 68, 1. 2-8. 
** I cannot tell the greate foole hee is wise, 
Nor tell fowle ladies, they are wondrous faire ; 
I ne're applaude aboue heauns-spangled skies, 
The curfd-worne tresses of dead-borrowd hairs. 

Like Northern blaste, I breathe my critick aire : 
I am noe Mimyck ape ; I loathe and hate 
Each llght-braind giddy-head, to Imytate." 

? 1611. W. Goddard. A Satyricall Dialogue, sign. B, back. 

p. 69, L 3 : cappe. See Petruchio y s ridicule of the one brought for Katherine * ; 

and her * gentlewomen wear such caps as these/ in the Taming of the Shrew, IV. 

iii. 63-70, and 81-5. And Kitely says in Every Man in his Humour, Ben Jonr 

son's Works, i. 28, coi I (see the note there) : 

"Our great heads 

Within this city, never were in safety 
Since our wives wore these little caps : I'll change 'em. 
I'll change em straight in mine : mine shall no more 
Wear three-piled acorns, to make my honis ake." 
p. 69. Cawles : 



"These glittering cawles of golden 

plate, 
Wherewith their heads are richlie 

dect, 
Make them to seeme an angels mate 



In judgement of the simple sect : 
To peacockes I compare them 

right, 
That glorieth in their feathers 

bright" (Seep. 259, 271.) 



1595-6. St. Gosson, Pleasant Quippes, 1866, iv. 252. 
Ruffes, Starch, Supportasses : see the woodcuts above. 



* This starch, and these rebating props, 
As though ruffes 2 were some rotten 

house, 
All this new pelfe now sold in 



shops, 



In value true not worth a louse ; 
They are his dogs [the Devil's], 

he, hunter sharp ; 
By them a thousand he doth 
warpe.* 



1595-6. --Stephen Gosson, Pleasant Quippes, iv. 253. 



y, this was moulded on a porringer ; 
A velvet dish : fie, fie ! 'tis lewd and filthy : 
Why 'tis a cockle or a walnut-shell, 
A knack, a toy, a trick, a baby's cap." 64-7. 
2 See the long and interesting note in Hazlitt, E. . Pop. Poetry, iv. 252-3, 



Notes on pp. 70, 71, 259 

Gosson's * reflating props" were Still fayfs * supportasses, 9 I suppose. Tfse 
Rnfis were got into \x$ fo 



** What lack ye ? What lack ye ? | CosfiCj clieap : for love, or buy for money. 
What is It you will bay ? j Any coney, coney-sinus, 

Any points, pins, or laces, i For laces, poinK or pins ? 

Any laces, points or pias ? _ Fair maids, come choose or buy. 

Fine gloves, fine glasses, i I have pretty pi*ki?ifj;tic&s t 

Any bosks or masks ? And many other tricks ; 

Or any other pretty tilings ? > Come, choose forlove, or buy for money." 

1598. A. Mundayand H. Cliettle, Downfall of Robert, Earl of "Huntingdon. 
Hazlitl's Dodsley, viii 161. 

See the interesting extract from the Second Part of Stubbes's Anatomic about 
Peking-Sticks, Ruffs, &c., in my notes to Captain Cox or Lanekanfs Litter, 
I 57S> P* 72-3 (Ballad Soc.). I've already noted from Stowe, in Harrison, II, 
34*5 that about the 16 Eliz., Novr. 1573-4, * began the making of steele poking- 
stickes ; and vntfli that time all Lawndresses used setting stickes, made of wood 
or bone** 

p. 70, I. I : wanton Sempronians. There seems to be an allusion here to 
Sempronia, a Roman matron who took part in Cataline's conspiracy. Stubbes 
was perhaps thinking of Sallust's description of her, in some such words as 
these : 'liMdine st accetisa, Sempronia ut viros s&pius peteret quam peterdurS 
CataZina, xxv. S. 

p. 70-1 : ruffs* These seem to have been "succeeded by felling bands, 

unless the following passage is a * double entente.* (See p. 244 above.) 

" Mrnqmirdh. And by my troth, beauties, why do you not put yon into the 
fashion? This is a stale cut ; yon must come in fashion. Looke yee, you must 
be all felt fealt and feather a fealt upon your bare hair. Looke ye, these 
tiring thinges are justly out of request now : and do ye heare ? you must weare 
failing bands ; you must come into the falling fashion. There is such a deal a 
pinning these ruffles, when a fine cleanejfo// is worth all ; and agen, if you should 
chance to take a nap in the afternoone, your falling band requires no poting 
sticke to recover his forme. Believe me, no fashion to the falling, say L" 
1604. Jn. Marston, Ths Malcontent, V. iii. Works, 1856, iL 284-5. 

p. 71-2. Stubbes's story of the gentlewoman of Antwerp is alluded to in 
Greeks Tu Quoque, by John Cooke. 

" * * * for pride, the woman that had her ruff poak'd by the devil, is but 
a puritan to her.** Dodsley's Old Plays, ed. Reed, 1780, vol. vii. p. 19. S. 

p. 71. Womerts fashions* "1611. Wm. Goddard. A/ Satiry/call Dialo/gve 
or a shar/plye-invectiue conference, be/tweene Allexander the great, and/ that 
truelye woman-hater Diogylnes. Imprinted in the Lffwcountryes for &/// 



1 Bargain, deal : A. Sax. ceapiam* 



260 



Notes on pp. 71 



gatflnwmen as are not alfojgtaffar Idle nor yet well OCVPYED. (I have this, 

Goddard's other two known tracts in type, for private issue at a guinea each.) 
[sign. E, back] "The gossiping vviues complaint 

against Mr riche chuilishe husband .... 



" Two thinges I loue ; two vmall thinges 

they are ; 
The firsts^ newe-fashiond cloatJies I loue 

to weare, 
Newe tires > newe ntffes ; 7, and 

geslure too : 

In all newe fashions, I doe loue to gos. 
The second thing I loue, is this, I wesne, 
To ride ab&itte to haue those neiue doathes 

seme: 

At eti rye gossipping lam at, still. 
And euer wilbe, maie I ham my will, 
For, at om owne howse, prate, who is't 

cann see 
Howifyne in news-found fas ft ond tires 

wee bee I 
Vnles our husbandes : faithe! but very 

fewel 
And whoo*d goegaie, to please a husbands 

veiwe ? 

Alas, we wiues doe take butsmale delight 
Yf none (besides ozir husbands} sees that 

sight 



It ioyes our hear tes t to heere an other man 
Praise this or that attire, that we wears 

on. 
Wee iocond are, and think our selues 

much graste 
Yfwe hears some one saie *faire wenche, 

faithe, in waste 
This straight-girt gowne becomes you 

passing well ; 
From other Taylors, yours doth beare the 

belV 
Oh, her that well cann acte-out such 

sweets partes, 
Throwes-vp the lure which wynns our 

'verye hartes. 
When we are stubborns't, then let men 

with skill 
Rubles well with th* oyle of praise ; and 

bend we will, 
That smoothe-fyne supple oyle of praise 

doth soften vs soe, 

As what ist then, we will not yield vnto ? 
Meetings and brazierye were my delight" 



p. 72 : starch* City Night Cap. Old Plays, vol. 1 1, p. 309 : 

"My chambermaid 
Putting a little saffron in her starch, 

I most unmercifully broke her head." Southey, Com. PI. JBk. i. 514. 

p. 73 : wings : starch, laundresses, &c. 

" Chloe . . And will the ladies be anything familiar with me, think you? 

Cytheris. O Juno ! why, you shall see them flock about you with their puff- 
wings, 1 and ask you where you bought your lawn, and what you paid for it? 
who starches you ? and entreat you to help 'em to some pure laundresses 2 out of 
the city. 1 ' 1601. Ben Jonson, Poetaster, IV. i. Works, i. 236, col. 2. 

1 "That part of their dress which sprung from the shoulders, and had the 
appearance of a wing, inflated or blown up." See p. 241 above 

2 " This is a hit at the Puritans, many of whom followed the business of tire 
women, clear-starchers, feather-makers, &c. It is not a little singular that while 
they declaimed most vehemently against the idol, Fashion, they should be 
among the most zealous in administering to its caprice. Jonson notices this with 
good effect in his Bartholomew Fair; and Randolph ridicules it no less success 
fully in the commencement of his Muses 1 Looking- Glass. . ." 



Notes on pp. 73 75. 261 



p. 73-5. W0mm*s Gffsensi &c The Farthingales worn by Eliza 

bethan are not here* though they by Latimer : 

44 1 tMak Mary not macb fine linen ; she was not trimmed up as our 
women be now-a-tiays. I think indeed Mary had never a vardingal ; for she used 
no such superfluities as our fine damsels do now-a-days; for in the old time 
women were content with honest and single garments. Now they have found out 
round-abouts ; they were not invented then ; the devil was not so cunning 
to make such gear, lie found it out afterwards. Therefore Mary had it not . . 
It is nothing but a token of fair pride to wear sucli vardingals ; and I therefore 
think that every godly woman should set them aside. St. Paul speaketh of such 
Instruments of pride as was used in his time : Non tortis crinibus, * Not with lay 
ing out the hair artificially ; * Nvn plkatura capttforum, * Not with laying out the 
tussocks." I doubt not bat if vardlngals had been used in that time, St Paul 
would have spoken against them too, like as he spake against other things which 
women used at that time, to shew their wantonness and foolishness." 155^. 
Latnner, Sermon at Grimsthorpe. Remains^ 1845, p. 108. 

"All high and more than humane Sciences are decked and enrobed with a 
Poetical! stile. Even as women, when their natural! teeth faile them, use some 
of yuorie, and in stead of a true beautie, or lively colour, lay-on some artinciall 
hew ; and as they make trunk-sleeves of wyre, and whale-bone bodies, backes of 
lathes, and stifle biimbasted verdugals, and, to the open- view of all men, paint 
and embellish themselves with counterfeit and borrowed beauties ; so doth 
learning." 1603. J. Florio, Montoignes Essay es (writ. 1580) p. 301, ed. 1634. 

Stubbes doesn't seem to notice the Fans, Busks, Stays, Hoops, and Aprons, 
which Gosson condemns, though Stowe says (Harrison, Pt II, p. 34*) that 
" Womens Maskes, Buskes, Mais, Fauns, Perewigs, and Bodkins," having been 
invented ce ra Italy by Curtezans," came thro* France into England about the 
time of the Massacre of St. Bartholomew, 24 Aug. 1572. So, as they were in use 
in Elizabeth's time, I print Gosson's stanzas about them ; 

" This cloth of price, all cut in ragges, 

These monstrous bones that compasse armes ; 
These buttons, pinches, fringes, jagges, 

With them he [the Devil] weaveth wofull harmes. 
He fisher is, they are his baytes, 
Wherewith to hell he draweth huge heaps." 
Grosson, Pleasant Qmppes, in Hazlitt's . E. Pop. Poetry, iv. p. 254. 

fans. Gosson, p. 255. 

** Were fannes and flappes of feathers fond, 

To lit away the flisking flies, 
As taile of mare that hangs on ground, 
When heat of summer doth anise, 
The wit of women we might praise, 
For finding out so great an ease ; 

But seeing they are stil in hand, 
In house, in field, in church, in street, 



262 Notes on p. 75. Women s tight-lacing. 

In slimmer, winter, water, land, 
In cold, in heate, in drle, in weet, 
I judge they are for wives such tooles, 
As babies are in piayes for fooles. 
Busks. 

The baudie buske that keepes downe flat 

The bed wherein the babe should breed, 
What doth it els but point at that 

Which faine would have somewhat to feede ; 
Where bellie want might shadow vale, 
The buske sets bellie all to sale . . , 

[And] seeing such as whome they arme. 

Of all the rest do soonest yeeld, 
And that by shot they take most harme, 
When lustie gamesters come in field, 
I guess buskes are but signes to tell 
Where launderers for the campe do dwell. " 
1 595-6. St. Gosson, Pleasant Quippes, 1866, p. 255 6. 

Secret coats or stays. Gosson, p. 256. 

{ * These privie coates, by art made strong 

With bones, 1 with past, with such like ware, 
Whereby their backe and sides grow long, 
And now they harnest gallants are ; 
Were they for use against the foe, 
Our dames for Amazones might goe. 

But seeing they doe only stay 

The course that nature doth intend, 
And mothers often by them slay 
Their daughters young, and worke their end, 2 
What are they els but armours stout, 
Wherein like gyants, Jove they flout ? " 

1 " Winifri.de . . Oh, I could cracke my Whalebones, break my Buske, to 
thinke what laughter may arise from this." 1600 (ed. 1616), JackeJDrum, Act IV. 
Simpson's School of Shakspere> ii. 182. 

2 John Bulwer in 1650 inveighs against the abuse of tight-lacing. Doctors 
and all sensible folk have done so ever since ; but English women whose God, 
Fashion is, and who regularly sacrifice to it their bodies and health, and often then- 
souls still immolate their daughters and themselves on their Demon's shrine. 

"Another foolish affection there is in young Virgins, though grown big 
enough to be wiser, but they are led blind-fold by custome to a fashion pernitious 
beyond imagination ; who thinking a Slender-waste a great beauty, strive all that 
they possibly can by streight-lacing themselves, to attain unto a wand-like smalnesse 
of Waste, never thinking themselves fine enough untill they can span their Waste. 
JBy which deadly artifice they reduce their Breasts into such streights that they soon 
purchase a stinking breath ; and -while they ignorantly affect an angust or narrow 
Breast^ and to that end by strong compulsion shut up their Wastes in a Whale-bone 



Notes on p. 75. Hoops. 2,63 

w/7, p. 257 (cp. crinolines, oat of fashion, for ever* let tis hope)* 

" These that and do hi-ic, 

And aloft the gay trsune, 

As they are now in use for pride,, 
So did they first of palne : 

When whores In stewes bad gotten poxe, 
TMs French device kept coats from smocks. 

I not gainsay but bastards sprout 

Might arses greate at first begin ; 
And that when panncti of whore grew out, 
These hoopes did helpe to hide their slnne ; 
And therefore tub-talks all may rue, 
That they came from so vile a crae. 



prison or Ultli-mse ; they open a, door to Consumptions, and a withering roftennesse. 
Hincs such ars justly derided by Terence in Eunucho. 

ffaud similis inrgs, est virginum nostra-rum, quas matris student : JDemissis 
kumeris esse* vi 'ncto perform ut graciles fent* 

si qua est kabiior paulo, pitgilem esse aiunt, aeaucunt cibum^ 

Tamet si bona est natura, reddunt curvatura junceos. 

So that it seems this foolish fasMon was in request In the time that Terence lived. 

** Parseus where he propounds Instruments for the mending such deformities, 
observes that the Bodies of young Maids or Girls (by reason they are more moist 
and tender then the bodies of Boyes) are made crooked in processe of time : 
Especially, by the wrencMng aside, and crookednesse of the backbone; the most 
frequent cause whereof is the unhandsome and nndecent seituatlon of their bodies, 
when they are young and tender, either in carrying, sitting or standing (and 
especially, when &ey are taught to go too soon) saluting, serving, writing, or in 
doing any such like thing. In the mean while he omits .not the occasion of 
crookednes, that happens seldome to the Country people, but is much incident 
to the inhabitants of great Towns and Cities, which is by reason of the straitnesse 
and narrownesse of the garments that are worn by them ; which is occasioned by 
* the folly of Mothers, who while they covet to have their young Daughters Bodies 
so small in the middle as may be possible, pluck and draw their bones awry, and 
make them crooked/ 5 Antkropomctamorpkosis : Man Transformed, or the Arti 
ficial Changeling^ etc., byj.[ohnj. B.[ulwer], 1650 

Bulwer also denounces the Absurd, tho' now happily abandona custom of 
swathing children in tight bands : 

"We in England are noted to have a most perverse custome of Swathing 
Children, and streightening their Breasts. \VMch narrownesse of Breast occa 
sioned by hard and strict swadling them, is the cause of many inconveniences 
and dangerous consequences. For, all the bones of new-born Infants, especially 
the Ribs of the Breast, are very tender & flexible, that you may draw them to 
what figure you please j which when they are top strictly swathed with Bands, 
reduce the Breast to so narrow a scantling, as is apt to endanger not only the 
health, but the life of children. For hence it is, that the greatest part of us are 
so subject to a Consumption and Distillations, which shorten our dayes, and bring 
us to an untimely Grave." 1650. Anthropomztamorphosis : Man Transformed ; 
or, the Artificial Changding, etc. J.[ohn] B.ulweri p. 186. 



264 Notes on p. 75. Women s Hoops, Aprons y &c. 

If barreld bums l were full of ale, 
They well might serve Tom Tapsters turne ; 
But yeelding nought but filth and stale, 
No losse it were, if they did burne , . ." 

Aprons. 

11 These aprones white of finest thrid, 

So choicelie tide, so dearlie bought, 
So finely fringed, so nicelie spred, 
So qtiaintlie cut, so richlie wrought ; 
Were they in worke to save their cotes, 
They need not cost so many grotes. 

When shooters aime at buttes and prickes, 

They set up whites, and shew the pinne ; 
It may be, aprones are like tricks, 

To teach where rovers, game may winne. 
Brave archers soone will find the marke, 
But bunglers hit it in the darke." 

I 59$~6- Stephen Gosson, Pleasant Quippes* Hazlitt's E* E. Popular Poetry, 
iv. 257-8. 

p. 74- Gown layed with lace, &c. 

" Girtred* . . O sister Mildred, though my father bee a low-capt tradesman, 
yet I must be a ladie, and I praise God my mother must call me * Madam J . 
Does he come ? Off with this gowne for shames sake ! off with this gowne ! let 
not my knight take me in the cittie-cut, in my hand 1 . . I tell you I cannot 
indure it ; I must bee a lady ! Doe you weare your quoiffe with a London licket, 
your stamen peticoate with two guardes, the bufnn gowne with the tuff-taffitie 
cape and the velvet lace ? I must be a lady, and I will be a lady ! I like some 
humors of the Citty dames well . . to eate cherries onely at an angell a pound, 
good ; to die rich scarlet, black, prety ; to line a grogarom gowne cleane through 
with velvet, tollerable ; their pure linen, their smocks of 3 li. a smock, are to be 
borne withall. But your minsing niceries, taffata pipkins, durance petticotes, 
and silver bodkins Gods my life, as I shall be a lady, I cannot indure it," < 
1605. Jn. Marston, Eastward Hoe, I. i., Works, 1856, iii. 9. 

p. 75> ! *3- Cost of dress. See Rowlands's " To Maddam Maske and Francis 
Fan? as to how woods are cut down, and tenants rackt, to provide money for 
women's dress, c., in his Knaue of Spades, ? 1611 (Hunt. Club, 1874, P- 37)- 
See too the extract from Bp. Pilkington in the Note for p. 8l, below. 



1 An earlier satirist, Charles Bansley, in The Pryde and Abuse of Women* 
ab . 1550 (Hazlitf s Pop. Poetry, iv. 229), says 

" Downe, for shame, wyth these bottell arste bummes, 

And theyr trappynge trinkets so vayne ! 
A bounsinge packsadel for the devyll to ryde on, 
To spurre theym to sorowe and payne." p. 238. 



Notes on pp. 75-7. of Children, &c 265 

p. 75. to ** Who not mothers 

bring rp ia and ? from their infencie 

they bee to bat to priie, fiune, and vain idle 

and pastimes. 

** What prodigious apparel, what vndecent behauiomr, what IxmstiBg, brag 
ging, and letting vp and down, what quaffing, feasting, rioting, play 
ing, damclng diceing, with other like fellowship that is among them, it is 
a wonder to see : and fee parents can hereat reloice and laugh with them, and 
libeitie to theire children to doe what they liste, neuer endeaii0aring to tame 
and saliie their wilde appetites, What marueylle is it if they bee found titles 
nanghtie and vicious, when they come to their fall yeares and mans state, which 
"haxiQ of cMIdren been trayned and entered with such vice ? . . 

" Consider, I pray thee (good reader) what jolly yonkers and lusty [= lustfull] 
brutes, these wil be when they come to be citizens, and Intermedlers of the 
common-welth, which by their fathers have beene thus wantonly cockered up, 
neiier correcting them, or chasting them for any faults and offences whatsoever? 
What other thing but this, is the cause that there be now so many adulterers, 
vnchast, and lewde persons, and idle rogues? that we haue such plentie of dicers, 
carders, mummers, and dauncers? and that such wickednesse, and filthy liners 
are spred about in euery quarter, but onely naughty education and bringing vp. * 

" Also the slackness^ and vnreadinesse of the magistrates to doe and execute 
their office, is a great cause of this : if they that vse tauernes, playing and walk 
ing vp and downe the streetes in time of a sermon ; if disobedient children to 
their parents, if dicers, mummers, ydellers, dronkerds, swearers, rogues, and 
danncers, and such as haue spent and made away their lining in belly cheare and 
vnthriftinesse, were stra%iitly punished, surely there shad be lesse occasion giuen 
to and also good men should not hame so great cause to complain of the 

mameis of men of this age. Therefore, the magistrate must remember his office." 
Ak 1577. Jn. Northbrooke, A^ainst Z>mng, Dancing? Plays and 'Interludes, &c. 
(Shakespeare See. 1843), p. 11-12. See too the Note for p. 186, below. 

p 70-7. Ndhsr stocky korked skooss^ &c. 



** These worsted stockes of bravest die, 

And silken garters fringed with gold ; 

These corked shooestobeare them hie, 

Makes them to trip it on the molde : 

They mince it with a pace so 

strange, 

Like untam'd heifers, when they 
range. 



To carrie all this pelfe and trash, 
Because their bodies are unfit, 

Our wantons now in coaches dash, 
From house to house, from street to 



street. 5 



1595-6. St. Gosson, Pleasant Quippcs 
for Vpstart Newfangled Gentlewomen, 
Hazlitt, iS66, p. 258. 



" CrispindL Nay, good* let me still sit ; we lowe statures love still to sit, 
least when we stand, we may be supposed to sit. 

Jissefew. Dost not weare high corke shooes chopines? [Cp. Hamlet^ II. 

iL 447.] 

Crisp. Monstrous on's, I am, as many other are, peec'd above, and peec'd 
beneath." 1605. Jn. Marston, The Dutch Courtesan, III. L Works, 1856, ii. 147. 



2,66 Notes on pp. 77^ 78. IVomerfs Skoes^ Scents, &c. 

p. 77, 1. 2, pimnets, ? pumps, thin shoes. See p. 247-8 above. I don't know 
pinsnd except in Stubbes. Pimon is common in early writers : see Way's edition 
of the Promptorium, p. 400, col. 2, and his note 3, which ought to be 4 : * the 
pynson-showes, les eschapins Buwes. ? In the Articles ordained on Beer. 31, 
1494, by Henry VII, in that * As for the receaving of a Queene, and the Corona 
tion of her,' ** when masse is donne, [in Westminster Abbey, the barefooted Queen 
is] to come downe againe to the highe altar, and there to bee howselled, and then 
to goe into a closett, and the Abbott to putt St. Edwards Plnsons on her 
feete," Household Ordinances (1791), p. 124. Mr. Herrtage has sent me the 
following : " A Pynson "hsc pedibromita. e. ddcitm a pes, -dzs, & brico, & mitos 
gutta." Catholicon. Addit. MS. 15, 562, Brit. Mus. 

** Pedibomita / te. anglice (a pynson). 77 f, p. [feminine, 1st decl.] Orfus 
Vocabulorum. W. de Worde. 1532. 

" Calcearium. A shoe, pinson, socke.*' Withals. "A pinsone, osa" 
Manipulus Vocab. " Pynson, sho, caffignon" Palsgrave, p. 254, col. 2 ; but 
"Cassignon: m. a pump, or thin-soled shoe." Cotgrave. " Soccatw. That 
weareth stertups or pinsons." Elyot. '* Detmhere soccos alicui ; to pull off one's 
pinsons or his stertups." Cooper. *' Calcearium. A shoe, pinson, or socke." 
Calceo. To put on shoes, sockes, or pinsons. ib. 

p. 77, 1. IO from foot Pomanders. 

** ist. Bay. Your only way to make a good pomander, is this : Take an 
ounce of the purest garden mould, cleansed and steeped seven days in change of 
motherless rosewater; then take the best ladanum, benzoine^ both storaxes, 
ambergris, civet, and musk : incorporate them together, and work them into 
what form you please. This, if your breath be not too valiant, will make you 
smell as sweet as my lady's dog." 1602 (pr. 1607), Lingua. Hazlitf s Dodsley, 
ix. 419. See the note there, referring to another recipe in Markham's English 
Housewife, p. 151, ed. 1631 ; also printed, from ed. 1675, p. 109, in Marston's 
Works, 1856, ii. 302. " Why, any sensible snout may wind Master Amoretto 
and his pomander." 1602. Lingua^ Dodsley, ix. 181. 

p. 77, 1. 10 from foot '.fragrant Pomanders. <( Perfumed paste, generally rolled 
into a ball, but sometimes moulded into other forms : it was carried in the 
pocket, or hung about the neck, and was considered a preservative against 
infection. A silver case filled with perfumes was sometimes called a pomander." 
Dyce's Webster, ed. 1871, note on the Malcontent, V, i. p. 354. S. 

p. 78, 1. 2 : droye. " Droil. A drudge, or servant. North. See Malone's 
Shakespeare^ xviii. 42 ; Tusser's Husbandry ^ p. 256." HalliwelFs Diet* S. 

p. 78, 1. 3: gussle* Compare **Pucelle or puzzel, dolphin or dogfish," 
I Hen. VI, I. iv. 107, Globe ed. " Pnzel or Pussd, Dolphin or Bog-fish." 
Fol. 1623 . Ladislaus, king of Naples, fell in love with his physician's daughter, 
"a/z^<?//verie beautifull." Holinshed, ed. 1587, iii. 5457 1/52. S. "Then, 
three prety puzels az bright az a breast of bacon, of a thirtie yeere old a pees." 
1575. Laneham's Letter, my ed. p. 23. 



Notes on p. 78. IFvmerfs tare Breasts. 267 

p. 78 : flur&/ faouft. See ffarnsm, Pt 1. p. 170. Cp. Ben Josson's side-notes 
in his The Demi h am A$s t Works, cd. Cunningham, ii 2373 on the lines, 

....** since Love hath, the honour to approacli 
These aster-swelling breasts and touch this soft 
And rosy hand." 

* f Hare he grows more familiar IE his courtship. f s K Wittipol plays with her paps, 
kisses ber hands," &c.; and. in Cynthia's Reeds* iii. 2, p. i6S fed. Gilford ), 
44 Piays Ms mistress's paps, salutes her pumps." P. A. D. 



Let plncMng citty-dames orecloud their eyes : 
Our brests He forth, like condiiicts of delight, 
Able to tice the nicest appetite. 
Mistrease Plnckanie, shall I have this Fanne ? 

Pink. Madam, not this weake, do what I can," 

? 1590-1600^ pr. 1610. Peele & Marston, Histrifh-Mastix* Act III. R, Simp 
son's Sckml ofShaksper&t ii. 50. 

u Then silly old Fops, that kiss but like popes, 

And call us Night Walkers and Fanes, 
Go fumble old y&an^ and let us alone, 

And never come near oar canary's : 
We'll wear our breasts bare, x and curl up our hair, 

1 Mr. Ebsworth's note is, * The immodest exposure of the bosom had been 
assailed, not alone by the Puritans, but by many satirists, who could scarcely 
be deemed righteous over-much. But none of these had exceeded the stern 

rebuke uttered by Dante in the P$^g$eorW} Canto xsilL : 

** O ciolee feate* die noi te, ch j io dica ? 
Tempo fotnro m* e gia nel cospetto, 
Cui non sa quest' ora molto antica," etc. 

'Tans rendered by H. F. Gary ; 

" What wouldst thou have me say ? A time to come 
Stands full witnin my view, to which this hour 
Shall not be counted of an ancient date, 
When from the pulpit shall be loudly warn'd 
The unblushing dames of Florence, lest they bare 
Unkerchief d "bosoms to the common gaze. * 
What savage women hath the world e'er seen, 
What Saracens, for whom there needed scourge 
Of spiritual or other discipline, 
To force them walk with covering on their limbs. 
But did they see, the shameless ones, what Heaven 
Wafts on swift wing toward them while I speak, 
Their mouths were op'd for howling : they shall taste 
Of sorrow (unless foresight cheat me here)." 

* After the Restoration, in 1678, had appeared a pamphlet * f Just and reason 
able Reprehensions of 'Naked JBreasts and Shoulders" 

* On the Venetian courtesans* like undress, see Coryat's Crudities, 1611. 



268 Notes on p. 78. Women 9 s bare Breasts. 

And shew our Commodes to the people ; 

But, as I'm a w , if that you talk more, 

Well raise them as high as Bow-steeple." 

" The Vindication of Top Knots and Commodes," To 
the tune of London Top Knots. Bagford Collec 
tion, i. 124 (908, 967). Ballad Society, 1876. 

Puppies and books were occasionally housd in the same soft receptacle as 
Stuhbes's nosegays. TopselTs Four-footed Beasts (1607) says of the little 
Melitean or Sicilian dogs, "They are not above a foot, or half a foot long, and 
alway the lesser, the more delicate and precious. . . There be some wanton 
women which admit them to their beds, and bring up their young ones in their 
own bosomes, for they are so tender, that they seldom bring above one at a time, 
but they lose their life." ed. 1658, J. Rowland, M.D., p. 128. And Mr. R. 
Roberts cites from Richard Brath wait's The English Gentleman, 1630, 4to, 
p. 28 : 

" But alas ; to what height of licentious libertie are these corrupte times 
growne ? When that Sex, where Modesty should claime a native prerogative, 
gives way to foments of exposed loosenesse ; by not only attending to the wanton 
discourse of immodest Lovers, but carrying about them (even in their naked 
Bosomes, where chastest desires should only lodge) the amorous toyes of Venus 
and Adonis; which Poem, with others of like nature, they heare with such atten 
tion, peruse with such devotion, and retaine with such delectation, as no subject 
can equally relish their unseasoned palate, like those lighter discourses." 



' So early as 1595, in Pleasant Quippes for itpstart new-fangled Gentlewomen, 
Stephen Gosson had assailed a similar exposure, in Puritanical pride writing 
thus (Collier's Pref. to Gosson's School of Abuse, ed. 1841, p. xiii) : 

" These Holland smockes, so white as snowe, 

and gorgets brave with drawne-worke wrought, 
A tempting ware they are, you know, 

wherewith (as nets) vaine youths are caught," etc. 
" These perriwigges, ruffes armed with pinnes, 

these spangles, chaines and laces all ; 
These naked paps, the Devils ginnes, 

to worke vaine gazers painefull thrall : 
[He fowler is, they are his nets, 
Wherewith of fooles great store he gets.] " 

* These satirists and cynics who are perpetually decrying immodesty of feminine 
apparel, are invariably themselves of impure dispositions. They have a prurient 
longing to offensively rebuke offence. 

" Fie on thee ! I can tell what thou would'st do . ... 
Most mischievous foul sin, in chiding sin : 
For thou thyself hast been a libertine, 
As sensual as the brutish sting itself : 
And all the embossed sores and headed evils, 
That thou with license of free foot hast caught, 
Would'st thou disgorge into the general world." 

As You Like It, Act ii. sc. 7.' 



Notes on p. 78. Kissing of Women. 269 

p. 78, 1. 7 : kissing* ** I hold that the greatest of dlssolatenesse in some 

women in England is of kissing publiqnely, for that by this meanes 

they lose their sliaaiefastoesse, and at the very touch of the kisse there entreth 
into a poison which doth infect them.** [In Spain they don't do it] " because 
we are so wanton, that we need nothing to htlpe our appetite, to make a thousand 
ill matcties which would fall cat If we should haae this occasion. w 1623. 
J. Minsheiiy Pleasant D&^itfuU Dialogues, p. 51-2. On p. 39 he notes the 
sodomising of pages by their masters {%e Harrism, PL I. p. 130), on which 
Marstoa has a long psssage In his Scourge of Vilhznie, I599> Works, 1856, III. 
256-7. That kissing (smick-smack) was apt to lead to something further, see 
w, 1550, Hazlitt's D&dsley 9 ii. 85 : 

Well, wanton, well : 

Iwis I can tell 

That such smock-smell 

Will set your nose out of tune," 



* 4 What a hurly-burly Is here ! 

Smick smack, and ail this gear ! 
Yon will to tick-tack, 1 I fear, 
If you had time : 



See Beatrice's protest against the custom of Indiscriminate kissing. In Marston's 
Courtesan (1605), Act III. sc. I ; Works, 1856, ii. 144. She's one of Sir 
Herbert's daughters, and says, * { boddy a beautie ! tis one of the most unpleasing, 
injurious customes to ladyes ; any fellow that has but one nose on his face, and 
standing color, and sklrtes also lined with taffety sarcenet, must salute us on the 
IIpps as familiarly. Soft skins save us I There was a stub-bearded John-a-stile, 
with a ploydens. face, saluted me last day, and stroke his bristles through my 
Ilppes ; I ba spent ten shillings in pomatum since, to skinne them againe," &c. &c. 
A. D. 1792, " there are many practices openly made use of betwixt the sexes which 
with us [the French] are considered as marks of the greatest familiarity. On the 
stage the actor applies Ms lips to those of the actress, when he salutes her j the 
same is practised by the people In general ; the kiss of lore, and the kiss of friend 
ship are Impressed alike on the lips." H. Meister (Swiss by birth). Letters on 
England, engHsht 1799, p. 287-8. 

p. 78. Sweet smells of musks, &c. 

** Their odorous smelies of Mttske so sweete, 

Their waters made of seemely sent, 
Are lures of Luste, and farre unmeete, 
Except where needes they must be spent.*' 

1579. W. A., A sp&datt Remedie against . . lawlesse Lave. Collier's $1. Cat, 
ii. 237. 

" Mircatore. [I do] lack some pretty fine toy, or some fantastic new knack ; 
For da gentlewomans In England buy much tings for fantasy . . . 

Gerontus . . As musk, amber, sweet-powders, fine odours, pleasant per 
fumes, and many such toys, 
Wherein I perceive conslsteth that country['s] gentlewomen's joys. 



1 See M&as. for Meas., I. iL 196. 



270 Notes on pp. 78, 79. Women* s Toys, Scents, &c. 

Besides, I have diamonds, rubies, emeralds, sapphires, smaradines, opals, 
onacles, jacinths, agates, turquoise, and almost of all kind of precious 
stones, 

And many mo fit things to suck away money from such green-headed wantons/* 
1534. R. W., The Three Ladies of London, Hazlitt's Dodsley, vi. 330. 

SnuiFe, the Clown of the Curtain Theatre, is more reasonable than Stubbes : 

" What smets sweete ? 

Muske, Ciuet, Amber, and a thousand thinges 
Long to rehearse, from which sweete odours springes : 
Flowers are sweete, and sweetest in my minde, 
For they are sweete by nature and by kinde. 
Faire Women that in bosoms nosegays weare, 
Kisse bvt their lippes, and say what sent they beare, 
Their breath perfume, their flowers sweetly smell, 
Both ioyned to her lippes, do exceeding well." 

1600. Quips upon Questions . . By Clunnyco de Curtanio Snuffe. F 4, back. 
I do not trust the evidence that has induced Mr. Ouvry, in his reprint, 1875, 
to assign the tract to John Singer : " Mr. Collier informs me that the name 
J. Singer was written in his own autograph [?] on the title-page of the volume." 

p. 78-9. Feathers, wide-gowns, face-painting. 

"Epigram. 

WHat feather'd fowle is this that doth approach 
As if it were an Estredge in a Coach ? 
Three yards of feather round about her hat, 
And in her hand a bable like to that : 
As full of Birdes attire, as Owle, or Goose ; 
And like vnto her gowne, her selfe seemes loose \ 
Cri 'ye mercie, Ladie, lewdnes are you there ? 
Light feather'd stuffe befits you best to weare." (Sign. B 2, p. n.) 
1608. S. Rowlands, Humors Looking- Glasse (Hunterian Club, 1872) 

Gentleman, a verie friend of mine, 
Hath a young wife, and she is monstrous fine : 
Shee's of the new fantastique humor right, 
In her attire an angell of the light. 
Is she an Angell ? I : it may be well, 
Not of the light, she is a light Angell. 
Forsooth his dome must suffer alteration, 
To entertaine her mightie huge Bom-fashion. 
A hood's to base, a hat, which she doth make 

1 " Tailor* Inprimis, a loose-bodied gown : 

Grumio, Master, if euer I said loose-bodied gowne, sow me in the skirts 
of it, and beate me to death with a bottome of browne thred : I said a gowne." 
? 1596-7. Shakspere, Taming of the Shrew, IV. iii. 135-8. Folio, p. 224* 
col. 2. 



"A 



Notes on pp. 79^ 80. Feathers, &c. 271 

With in the Estridge tayle, 

She to our former proud wises traces, 

That pat their glory la their a[w]a fair faces ; 

la her conceit It is not faire enough, 

She mast reforms it with tier painters stnffe ; 

And she is neuer merry at the heart, 

Till be got into her leatherne Cart. 

Some halfe a mile the Coach-man guides the rayiies, 

Then home againe ; birladie, she takes paines. 

My friend, seeing what humours haunt a wife, 

If fie were loose, would lead a single life." 

Thi Humors that haunt a Wife (ib. B 3, back, p. 14). 

p. 79. Looking-glasses : mirrors in kats^ &c. 

** Afoorphus . . Where Is your page ? call for your casting-bottle, and 
place your mirror in your tat, 1 as I told you : so ! ' 7 1600. Ben Jonson, 
CyttiMa's Revels, IL i 

p. 79 : bracelets^ rings> &c. 



"and now, my honie Lone, 
Will we retume vnto thy Fathers house 
And reuell it as brauely as the best, 
With silken coats and caps, and golden Rings } 
With Ruffes and CufFes, and Fardingales and things ; 
With Scarfes and Fannes, & double change of brau'ry, 
With Amber Bracdds, B'eades, and all this knaa'ry." 
? 1596-7. Shakspere, Taming of tke Shrew* IV. iiL 52-8. Folio, p. 223,00!. 2. 

PL So. Masks, fisfg-paimfimg, &c, 

" Peace, Cynick ; see, what yonder doth approach ! 
A cart ? a tuinbreli ? No a badged coach. 
What's in't ? Some man ? No, nor yet woman kinde, 
But a celestial! angell, faire, refinde. 
The divell as soone ! Her masks so hinders me, 
I cannot see her beauties deitie, 
Now that is off, she is so vizarded, 
So steept in lemons juyce, so surphuled, 
I cannot see her face. Under one hoode 
Two faces : but I never understood 
Or saw one face under two hoods till now : 
Tis the right semblance of old Janus brow. 
Her maske^ her vizard, her loose-hanging gowne 
(For her loose-lying body), her bright spangled crowne, 

1 Both sexes wore them publicly ; the men, as brooches or ornaments in 
their hats, and the women at their girdles (see Massinger, voL iv* p. 8), or on their 
breasts ; nay, sometimes in the centre of their fans, which were then made of 
feathers, inserted into silver or ivory tubes. Lovelace has a poem on his mis- 
tresses's fan, 'with a looking-glass in it 7 Gifford, in Works, i. 160, col. 2. 



272, Notes on pp. 80, 81. Women s Masks, &c. 

Her long slit sleeves, stiffe buske, pufTe verdingall, 

Is all that makes her thus angelicall. 

Alas ! her soule struts round about her neck ; 

Her seate of sense is her rebato set ; 

Her intellectual! is a fained nicenesse, 

Nothing but clothes and simpring precisenesse. 

Out on these puppets, painted images, 
Haberdashers shops, torch-light maskeries, 
Perfuming pans, Dutch ancients, glowe-worms bright 
That soyle our soules, and dampe our reasons light ! 
Away ! away ! hence ! coach-man, goe inshrine 
Thy new-glas'd puppet in port Esqueline ! " 
599. Jn. Marston, Scourge of Villanie. Works> 1856, iil 283. 
p. So. Visors made of velud ; Of Masks, Gosson says, Pleasant Quippes, 
E. E. Pop. Poetry, iv. 254 : 



". . on each wight, now are they seene, 

The tallow-pale, the browning-bay, 
The swarthie-blacke, the grassie-greene, 
The pudding red, the dapple graie, 
So might we judge them toyes 
aright 



What else do maskes but maskers show? 
And maskers can both dance and play : 
Our masking dames can sport, you knowe, 
Sometime by night, some time by day : 
*Can you hit it' 1 is oft their 
daunce, 



To keepe sweet beautie still in I Deuse-ace* fols stil to be their 
plight. i chance." 

" Higgen. We stand here for an epilogue 
Ladies, your bounties first ! the rest will follow ; 
For women's favours are a leading alms : 
If you be pleas'd, look cheerly, throw your eyes 
Out at your masks. 

Prigg. And let your beauties sparkle ! " 

1622. Fletcher. The Beggars Bush, Works, i. 231. 

p. Si : makers of item fashions. Compart Massinger, in \x&Pieture, 1629-30. 
Act II, sc. ii, p. 220, col. I, Moxon's ed. 

"ubulus. There are some of you, 

Whom I forbear to name, whose coining heads 
Are the mints of all new fashions, that have done 
More hurt to the kingdom by superfluous bravery, 
Which the foolish gentry imitate, than a war 
Or a long femine. All the treasure, by 
This foul excess, is got into the merchant, 
Embroiderer, silkman, jeweller, tailor's hand, 
And the third part of the land too, the nobility 
Engrossing titles only." 

1 Compare Rosaline: 'Thou canst not hit it, my good man/ L. Z. Lost 
IV. JL ; Ritson's Robin Hood, ii. 213; Wily BeguiFd (1602-3), in Hazlitt, p. 
254-5, and P. 371. 2 A male's genitals. 



Notes on p. 81. f Foment Pride and Dress. 

p. 8 1. an /ff Ckrislian 

** And all may learn of these gentlewomen to set more "by 

at God's by trimming of themselves. Would God they 

would cm the poor members of Christ and citizens of this spiritual 

Jerusalem, they wastefelly bestow on themselves, and would pity their 

poverty something like as they pamper themselves ! St. Peter biddetfa, them 
leave their c gold frizzled hair, and their costly apparel y and so modestly 
belhave themselves * their husbands, seeing their honest behaviour, may 

be won * to the Lord by them ; for so Sara and other holy women did attire 
themselves, &c. 

** Bat it is to be feared, that many desire rather to be like dallying Dinah than 
sober Sara, And if the husband will not maintain it, though lie sell a piece of 
land, break up house:, borrow on interest, raise rents, or make like hard shifts, 
little obedience will be stewed. Flacilla the empress, the worthy wife of Theo- 
dosiiis the emperor would visit the sick folks in their houses herself, and help 
them ; would taste of their broths, how they were made, bring them dishes to lay 
their meat in, and wast their cups ; and if any would forbid her, she said she 
offered her labour for the empire, to God that gave it. And she would oft say to 
her husband, * Remember what ye were, and who ye be now, and so shall ye 
always be thankful unto God.' It were comfortable to hear of such great 
women in these days, where the most part are so fine that they cannot abide to 
look at a poor body, and so costly in apparel that that will not suffice them in 
jewels, which their elders would have kept good hospitality withal. When 
Moses moved the people to bring such stuff as was meet for the making of God's 
tabernacle and other jewels in it, the women were as ready as the men, and they 
* brought their bracelets, ear-rings, rings, and chains, all of gold ; * and the 
womem c did spHi with their own hands* both silk and goats hair; they 
wrought and brought so much willingly, that Moses made proclamation they 
should bring no more. 

** Compare this people's devotion with ours that be called Christians, and ye 
shall find that all that may be scratched is too little to buy jewels for my mistress, 
though she be but of mean degree ; and if anything can be pulled from God's 
house, car any that serveth in it, that is well gotten, and all is too little for them. 
God grant such costly dames to consider what metal they be made of ! for if 
they were so fine of themselves as they would seem to be, none of these glorious 
things needed to be hanged upon them to make them gay withal. Filthy things 
need washing, painting, colouring, and trimming, and not those that be cleanly 
and comely of themselves : such decking and colouring maketh wise men to think, 
that all is not well underneath : content yourselves with that colour, comeliness, 
and shape, that God hath given you by nature, and disfigure not yourselves with 
your own devices ; ye cannot amend God's doings, nor beautify that which he 
hath in that order appointed." . . , 1575- Bishop PilMngton on Nehemiah 
(pr. 1585), Works (Parker Soc. 1842), pp. 385-387. 

p. 82, 1. IO from foot In High Germany ths Wbmm use m effect one kind of 
appard, c. Munster {Cosmography^ bk. ii, p. 325, ed. 1550) says that when he 
was a boy (circa 1497) his countrymen dressed plainly now they follow foreign 
BHAEBPEBE'S ENGLASTB: STUBBES. 18 



2,74 Notes on p. 87. A Womans Day. 

fashions, but the German women Bare returned to the ancient frugality in apparef 
which distinguished the men. "Hse depositis multiplicibus & plicatissimis 
peplis, qtiibus grandia olim faciebant capita, unico tantum hodie uelantur, 
modestiusque incedunt, Satis honestus hodie est quarandam mulieram uestitus, 
nisi quod supeme nimium excauatur." S. 

p, 87, Wonimts dress : its motive : 

" For, why is all this rigging and fine tackle, mistress, 
If your neat handsome vessels, of good sail, 
Put not forth ever and anon with your nets 
Abroad into the world ? It is your fishing. 
There, you shall choose your friends, your servants, lady, 
Your squires of honour. I'll convey your letters, 
Fetch answers, do you all the offices 
That can belong to your blood and beauty." 

1616. Ben Jonson. The Devil is an Ass, Act II. sc. i. p. 352, col. 2. 
p. 87. How the day^s spent by Women. : 

** Daily till ten a clocke a bed she lyes, 
And then againe her Lady-ship l doth rise, 
Her Maid must make a fire, and attend 
To make her ready ; then for wine sheele send, 
(A morning pinte) she sayes her stomach's weake, 
And counterfeits as if shee could not speake, 
Vntill eleuen, or a little past, 
About which time, euer she breakes her fast ; 
Then (very sullen) she wil pout and loxire, 
And sit downe by the fire some halfe an houre. 
At twelue a clocke her dinner time she keepes, 
Then gets into her chaire, and there she sleepes 
Perhaps til foure, or somewhat thereabout ; 
And when that lazie humour is worne out, 
She cals her dog, and takes him in her lap, 
Or fals a beating of her maid (perhap) 
Or hath a Gossip come to tell a Tale, 
Or else at me sheele curse, and sweare, and rale, 
Or walke a turne or two about the Hall, 
And so to supper and to bed : heeres all 
This paines she takes ; and yet I do abuse her ! 
But no wise man, I thinke, so kind would vse her. 2 . . ." 
1609. S. Rowlands, A 'whole crew of kind Gossips, all met to be merry, sign. 
D 3 (Hunt. Club, 1876, p. 29). See the rest of this amusing piece, on the faults 
the Six Wives find with their Husbands, and the latters* answers finding fault 
with their Wives. 

1 Ironical She has no title. 

2 See S. Rowlands^ sketch of a Jealous husband, in his Diogines Lcmthome, 
1607, sign. B 3 (ed. 1873, P- 13)- 



Notes on p. 87. A Day. 275 



p. S7 Asd see in I>A jfc i/ ; fir, lie 1604^ the 

E, p. 34, of the Clsb reprint, 1872 : 

** TTIfae, neate, and carious mistris Butter Hie, 
JL The Idle-toy to please an Idiots eye, 
You that wish all Gcod-hcswines hanged for why ; 

Your work's done each morning when you rise, 

Put on your Gowne, yonr Ruffe, your Masske, your Chaine, 

Then dine & sap, & go to bed againe. 

You that will call your Husband 4 Gull & Clowne,' 
If lie refuse to let you haue your Will : 
You that will poute and lowere, and fret and frowne, 
Vnlesse Ms pars* be laaish open still, 
You that will feme it, get it how lie can, 
Or lie shall weare a Vuicans brow, poore man, 
He Stabbe thee." 

Compare too an older complaint in The Schole- House of Women* 1541 (ecu 
1572), in Hazlitt f s E. E.Pop. Poetry^ IT. 111-112 : 



! H Wed them once, and then adue, 
Farwel, all trust and huswifery ; 
Keep their chambers, and them 

self mew, 
For staining of their fisnamy 

[complexion], 

And in their bed all day doo lye ; 
Mastj once or frwise enery week, 
Fain them self fi>r to be sick. 

f Send for this, and send for that ; 
Little or nothing may them please 5 
Come in, good gossip, and keep 

me chat, 

I trust it shall do me great ease ; 
Complain of many asundry disease ; 
A gossips cnp between vs twain, 
Til we be gotten vp again. 



f Then must she haue maidens two or 

three, 
That may then gossips togither 

bring; 

Set them to labour to blere the eye ; 
Them self wil neither wash ne wrings 
Balce ne brae, ne any thing ; 
Sit by the fire, let the maidens trot, 
Brew of the best in a halfpeny pot. 

f Play who wil, the man must labour, 
And bring to house all that he may ; 
The wife again dooth nought but 

glauour, 

And holde him vp with yea and nay ; 
But of her cup he shall not assay, 
Other she saith, it is to thin, 
Or els, iwis, there is nothing in." &c. 



p. 87, L 10 from foot Otksrsome spende the greatest parte of the dale, in sittyng 
at the doors. "They [Englishwomen] sit before their doors, decked out in fine 
clothes, in order to see and be seen by the passers-by." Emanuel van Meteren's 
History of the Netherlands, in Rye's England as s&m by Fordgtisrs^ p. 72; 
Harrison^ Pt. I, p. Mii S. 

"JButier, I am now going to their place of resi lence, situate in the choicest 
place of the city, and at the sign of the Wolf, just against Goldsmiths' Row [see 
Part II* Forewords, i], where you shall meet me j but ask not for 



276 Notes on p. 87. Shopkeepers Wives used. 

me, only walk to and fro ; and, to avoid suspicion, you may spend some con 
ference with the shopkeeper^ wives ; they have seats built a purpose for such familiar 
entertainment" 1607. G. Wilkins, The Miseries of Enforced Marriage, 
Hazlitt's Dodsley, ix. 537-8. 

That tradesmen us'd their wives as lures, seems certain. Compare, in 
Mansion's Dutch Courtezan (1605), Act III. sc. i. (Works, 1856, ii. 155). Mis- 
tresse Mulligrab speaking to Lionel!, the man of Mister Burnish, a Goldsmith, 
about Ms master and mistress ; 

"An honest man hee is, and a crafty. Hee comes forward in the world well, 
I warrant him ; and his wife is a proper woman ; that she is \ Well, she has 
ben as proper a woman as any in Cheape. She paints now, and yet she keeps 
her husbands old customers to him still. In troth, a fine-fac'd wife, in a wain- 
scot-carv'd seat, is a worthy ornament to a tradesmans shop, and an attractive, I 
warrant : her husband shall find it in the custome of his ware, He assure him." 
And at p. 157, Master Mulligrub says, 

"All thinges with me shall seeme honest that can be profitable. 
He must nere winch, that would or thrive or save, 
To be cald nigard, cuckold, cut-throat, knave \ " 

And in his Satyre I, 1598, Works, iii. 215, Marston says : 

** Who would not chuck to see such pleasing sport, 
To see such troupes of gallants still resort 
Unto Cornutos shop? What other cause 
But chast Brownetta, Sporo thether drawes ? " 

Machiavelli's Instructions to his Son how to make money and get on in life, 
which, if not meant as a Satire, is an utterly base and mean-in-spirit, tho* 
worldly-wise book says on this subject : - 

** If fliat thy wife be faire, and thou but poore, 
Let her stand like a picture at thy doore, 
Where, though she do but pick her fingers ends, 
Faire eies, fond lookes, will gaine a world of friends. 
Taske her not to worke, if she be prettie ; 
Bid her forbeare ; her toyle makes thee pittie ; 
Shee may with ease, haue meanes for greater gaines, 
With rich rewards, and pleasure for her paines. 
Play at bo-peepe, see me and see me not; 
It comes off well, that is so closely got ; 
And euennore say, * aye ! well fare the vent 
That paies the charges of the house, and rent 1 ' 
Come, come, tis no matter, be ruTd by this, 
The finest Dames doth some times do amisse, 
Yet walke demure, like puritants indeede, 
And earely rise to a Sermon for a neede, 
And make great shew of deuoutest praier, 
When she only goes to meete her louer. 



Notes on p. 87. Maids. 277 

the ; 
Slice tels any thing that cometA ; 

And taming oVe the leafs to the verse, 

Scarse for laughing, one word can rehearse. 
Bat prettily turnes it off with some lest : 
He with all 5 be knowes it Is Ms best, 

II that tli j wife be olde, thy Daagitters yong 3 
And Faire of face 3 and of a fluent tongue. 
If "by her sntors ? slluer may be had, 
Beare with small faults ; the good will help the bad. 
Be not too seoere, time may mend their faults ; 
He Is a foole, before a cripple haults ; 
Or lie that findes a fault where gaine comes in, 
Tis pittie but his clieekes should e're look thin : 
What though thou knowst that vice doe gaine it all ; 
Will Yertue helpe, when thou. begmst to fall ? 
This is no world for vextuous men to thriue ; 
Tis worke enough to keepe thy selfe aliue. 
Let Wife and Daughters lone to make thee wealthie ; 
Thou knowst that gold will seeke to make thee healthie. 

If thy mald-seraants be klnde-hearted wenches, 
And closely make kinde bargins on the benches, 
Let them haue libertie, loue and pleasure ; 
All these are helpes to bring in thy treasure ; 
Let them laugh and be merrie ; it yeelds content ; 
Theile linmor all, till all their coyne is spent. 
If by their pleasures, may thy profit grow, 
Winke at a wanton who hath not beene so." 
1613. TJfe Vncasing of Mac&iwls Instructions ta his Sonne^ p. 13-14. 

** The Answer to Machiavels Vncasing " says, aJ. sign. F 2, back : 

" An honest minde in eiiery trade doth well, 
The winde blowes ill, that blowes the sonle to hell. 
Doe not before the Dinell a Candle hold, 
Seeke no corrupt meanes for siluer or gold. 

If that thy wife be feire, be thon not foule, 
To let her play the Ape, and thou the Owle. 
Winke at no faults ; it is but misery, 
By bestiall meanes to releeue necessity. 
If thou bee a Husband, gouerne so thy wife, 
That her peeuish meanes worke not thy strife j 
Giue her not too much lawe, to run before ; 
Too much boldnesse doth bring thy ouerthrow ; 
Yet abridge her not too much by any meane ; 
But let her still be thy companion. 



278 Notes on p. 87. Parents' Treatment of Children. 

And to thy daughter prone a better sire, 
Then [= than], like a hacknie, let her out to hire. 
What a greeuous case were this for thee, 
To extol! thy selfe to prosperity 
By such insatiat meanes ! a heauy sense 
Deseraing nought but hell for recompence." 

Then the Answer goes on to advise that austerity and distance between Father 
and Child which is in such markt contrast with our modern notions and practice, 
but is recommended in King Solomons Book of Wisdom^ in my Adam Dame (E, 
E. T. Soc., 1878), and other early books on the treatment of children (see my 
Bdbees Book, &c., E. E. Text Soc.) : 

" Like a kinde father, loue thy children deare, 
Yet to outward view let not loue appeare, 
Least too boldly they, presuming on thy loue, 
By audacious meanes doe audacious proue, 
Seeme not a companion in any case 
To thy children : learne them know who's in place, 
That due obedience to thee be done j 
The end must nedes be good, that's well begonne. 
Thus may thy children be at thy commaund, 
With willing heart, still helpefull at thy hand. 
Familiarity, contempt doth breed ; 
By no meanes doe thou stoope vnto thy seede : 
Whilst the twig is yong, bend it as thou list ; 
Once being growne, theill stubbornely resist, 
Caring not for parents nor their talking, 
Commending their owne wits ; age is doting, 
Looke well to youth and how their time is spent, 
Least thou by leasure afterwards repent . . . 
Vse no corrections in an angry vaine, 
Which will but vexe thee much, increase thy paine . . . 
The greefe is thine, when children goe astray j 
Giue them not too much liberty to play, 
Least that they doe to a custome bring it, 
And euer after forbeare to leaue it." 
* * * # # 

[sign. G 2] " Machiauels rules, let Machiauels reade ; 
Loue thou thy God ; his spirit be thy speede." 

p. 87-8. The following applies to a woman who keeps a shop herself : 

* e Tell mistris minkes, shee that keepes the shop, 
Shee is a Ship that beares a gallant top j 
Shee is a Lady for her louely face, 
And her countenance hath a Princes grace, 
And that her beautie hath inthrald thee soe, 



Notes on pp. 87^ 83. Gardens 279 

Except workes thy woe ; 

Tiien eye Ypon tier "beanliotis 

Protesting that thoa nener saw T st the like : 

Her forehead and her comly dressing ; 

Her lonely Breasts^ cause lones increasing ; 

Her luorie teeth, her lip and chin ; 

Her white hand, the like was nener scene ; 

Her leg and foote, with her gate so comlie, 

Her apparel's worne so neate and seemely : 

Thus o're- worne with care thou maTst seeme to be, 

Till thoa hast made her proiide herselfe to see ; 

Then she nods the head with smiling fauor, 

That thoa shoaldst bestow such lone vpon her, 

Then bite the lip, winke and hang the head, 

And giue a sigh, as though thy heart were dead ; 

And shew strange passions of affections sence, 

That she may pittie lone sineuerence, 

Wishing tier selfe worthie of thy fauor, 

Which is a meanes to gaine some thing by her. 

Thus let the issue of this cunning be, 

That from her purse, some profit come to thee, 

A peece of Sattin, Fustian, or some Stuffe, 

A Falling- Band, or a three Double-ruffe ; 

A Hat, a Shirt, a Cloack-cloath or a Ring, 

Kniues, Purses, Gloues, or some such prettie thing, 

Some- what hath some saiiour, 'tis this gaine 

That still ianeatKM giues his sweetest vaine." 

p. 11-12. 



p. 88, L 8 ; thd hose GardmSj <Srtr. Compare the description of Angelo's 
garden mMmmrtforMmmrg, IV. L 28 33. In it was a garden-house, V. i. 212. 
Corisca says, " I have a couch and a banqueting-house in my orchard, Where 
many a man of honour has not scorn'd To spend an afternoon." Massinger's 
Bmdman, ed. Gifford, 1840, Act I. sc. iii. p. 93, coL I. S. 

** This yeare is like to prouefatall to such as folio we the Garden Alley es^ for, as 
some haue gone before, so the rest are like to followe, and marre their drinking 
with an hempen twist vnlesse they leaue Harlotte-hunting, with more good will 
then Millers haue miade to morning prayer if the winde seme them in any comer 
on Sundaies," 1606. Anthony Nixon, The Black Yeare> C 3, back, 

In Sfeiakthda, 1598, mention is made of an old citizen, 

** who, comming from the. 

Curtaine [in Shoreditch] sneaketh in 

To some odde garden noted house of sinne ; " 

and West, in a rare poem, The Court of Conscience, 1607, tells a libertine, 
** Towards the Curtame then you must be gon, 



280 Notes on pp. 88-90. Gardens, Harlots, &c. 

The garden alleyes paled on either side ; 
Ift be too narrow walking, there you slide." 

(See p. 308 below.) HalliwelTs Illustrations, p. 38. 
Also in 1606, No-Body and Some-Body^ Simpson's School of Shakspere, i. 352 : 

** Somebody doth maintaine a common strumpet 
Ith Garden-allies, and undid hiniselfe. " 



FORNICATION AND ADULTERY. 

p. 89, 90. Harlots &> Brothels. See S. Rowlands's Doctor Merrie-Man, 
1609, sign. C 3 (p. 21, Hunt Club, 1877), and the fun she makes of the men 
she takes in : 



! * I am a profest Courtezan, 
That Hue by peoples sinne : 
"With halfe a dozen Puncks I keepe, 
I haue great comming in. 
Such store of Traders haunt my house, 
To finde a lusty Wench, 
That twentie Gallants in a weeke, 
Doe entertaine the French ; 
Your Courtier, and your Citizen, 
Your very rustique Clowne, 
Will spend an Angell on the Poxe, 
Euen ready mony downe. 
I striue to Hue most Lady-like, 
And scorne those foolish Queanes, 
That doe not rattle in then- Silkes 
And yet haue able meanes 
I haue my Coach, as if I were 
A Countesse, I protest, 
I haue my daintie Musicke playes 
When I would take my rest. 
I haue my Seruing-men that waite 
Vpon mee in blew Coates ; 



I haue my Oares that [do] attend 

My pleasure, with their boates : 

I haue my Champions that will fight, 

My Louers that do fawne : 

I haue my Hat, my Hood 1 , my Maske, 

My Fanne, my Cobweb Lawne j 

To giue my Gloue vnto a Gull, 

Is mighty fauour found, 

When for the wearing of the same, 

It costs him twentie pound. 

My Garter, as a gracious thing, 

Another takes away : 

And for the same, a silken Goune 

The Prodigall doth pay. . . . 

Another lowly-minded youth, 

Forsooth my Shooe-string craues, 

And that he putteth through his eare, 

Calling the rest, bace slaues. 

Thus fit I Fooles in humours still, 

That come to nie for game, 

I punish them for Venerie, 

Leaning their Purses lame." 



And see Macilente's chaff of Fastidious Brisk in prison, brought there by buy 
ing presents for smart ladies : 

"What, do you sigh? this it is to U$s the hand of a count 'ess -, to have her 
coach sent for yoU) to hang poniards in ladies* garters, to wear bracelets of their 
hair> and for every one of these great favours, to give some slight jewel of five 

1 "Alice. The poor common whores can have no traffic for the priuy rich 
ones ; your caps and hoods of velvet call away our customers, and lick the fat 
from us." 1616. Benjonson, Bartholomew Fair^ IV. iii. Works, ii. 192, col. I. 



Notes OE pp. 97, 98. in London. 281 

or sff : why, 'tis ! Xow 9 monsieur, you see the plague 

on the o s foppery ; well, go your in, remove yourself 

to the two-penny quickly to save diarges.'* 1599. Bern Jonson, JBvtry 
mfo/Ms V. vil ; llfarks, i p. 138, col. 2. 

p. 97, 1. 13 : to embrace closely. 

" Lye still, lye still, thorn little Musgrave, 

And from the cold. 1 * 

L&fy JSarmard, II. 61-2. Percy's Rdiques of Ancient 



p. 97. in lane end. Against this evil was passt ? in 1589, the 

Act 31 Etlz. c. 7. " An acte againste erectinge and mayntayninge of Cottages. 
For the avoydinge of the great InconTCnienczr wMcfae are founde by experience to 
growe by the erectinge and biiyldinge of great nombers and multitude of Cottager, 
-wkich axe daylie more and more increased in manye parte of this Realme : Be It 
enacted . . That . . noe person shall, within this Realme of England, make 
traylde or erect , , any manner of Cottage for habitaczon or dwelling, nor con 
vert or ordeyne anye Bnyldinge or Howsinge , . as a Cottage for habitaczon or 
dwellinge, nnlesse the same person doe assigne and laye to the same Cottage or 
Bnyldinge fower acres of Grownde at the least . . beinge Ms or her owne Free 
hold and Inheritaiince lienge nere to the said Cottage, to be contynuallie occupied 
& manured therewith, so longe as the same Cottage shalbe inhabited." The Penalty 
for breaking the Act was 10, and 401. a Month for keeping such a Cottage. 

p. 9&, Whoredom to be puniskt* 

** In this Treatise (toning comitrinien) yon shall see what . . . Inconnenience 
may come by following flattering strumpets. I know not, I, what should be the 
cause why so immmeiable harlots and Curtfeans abide about London, but because 
that good lawes are not looked vnto : is there not one appointed for the appre- 
heading of such hell-moths, that eat a man out of bodle & soule? And yet 
there be more notorious strumpets & their mates about the CItie and the 
suburbs, than euer were before the Marshall was appointed : idle mates, I meane, 
that Ynder the habit of a Gentleman or seruing man, think themselues free from 
the whip, although they can glue no honest account of their life." 1602. S. 
Rowlands, Greenes Ghost haunting Coniecatchers^ sign. A 2, back (Hunterian 
Club, 1872, p. 4-5), 

Compare in C. Bansley's Pryde and Abuse of Women, ab. 1550, Hazlltt's E. 
Pop. Poetry, iv. 233 : 



** Take no example by shyre townes, 

Nor of the Cytie of London : 
For therein dwell proude wycked 

ones, 
The poyson of all this region. 



For a stewde strumpet can not so soone 
Gette up a lyght lewde fashyon, 

But everye wanton Jelot wyll lyke it 

well, 
And catch It up anon." 



And Latimer's 6th Sermon, in 1549, before Edward VI. : " O Lord, what 
whoredom is used now-a-days . how God is dishonoured by whoredom in this 
tity of London ; yea, the Bank [Southwark], when it stood, was never so 
common 1 . . It is wonderful that the city of London doth suffer such whoredom 



282 Notes on pp. 99, locx Whoredom to be punisht. 

unpunished . . . There Is some place in London [the precinct of St. Martin-le- 
GrandJ, as they say, * Immunity, Impunity : ' what should I call it ! A privi 
leged place for whoredom. The lord mayor hath nothing to do there; the 
sheriffs, they cannot meddle with it ; and the quest, they do not inquire of it ; 
and there men do "bring their whores, yea, other men's wives, and there is no 
reformation of it." Sermons, Parker Soc. 1844, p. 196. See the further extract 
in the note for p. 174, on p. 317 below. 

But that the complaint was in the country too, see the "manifolde Enormities " 
in Lancashire and Cheshire, about 1590 : 

" XXV. Sundrie notoriowse vises abowndinge, by meanes of y e former con- 
fiision in y 6 Ecclesiasticall state. 

1. ValawfuU and vnresonable vsurie, in no Cuntrie more Common. 

2. fornication and Adulteru in all sortes shamefully prostituted* [ ? practist] 

3. Drunkennes maintayned by the multitude of Alehouses, and vnresonable 
strength of Ale soulde with owte sise of Statute : a vise altogether vnpunished, 
and not any way punishable that we knowe. (See the old Exeter regulations 
against it in Mr. A. Hamilton's Quarter-Sessions from Q. Elisabeth to Q. Anne.) 

4. Seditiowse and mutinowse talkinge vppon the Alebench, and openly in 
their street assemblies, tendinge to the depravinge of Religion and the ministerie 
now established, and to the advancement of Poperie and Popishe practises. 

5. Continual! sweringe and Blaspheminge the name of god in the mouthe of 
owlde and young, Eiche and poore ; no way punished or punishable." 

Remains, ffisL &* Lit, Chetham Soc. 1875, p. 12. 

p. 99 : punishment for Whoredom. Compare Latimer, last Sermon before 
Edward VI. , in 1550 : "I would therefore wish that there were a law provided 
in this behalf for adulterers, and that adultery should be punished with death ; 
and that might be a remedy for all this matter. There would not be then so 
much adultery, whoredom, and lechery in England as there is . . I would wish 
that adultery should be punished with death ... If this law were made, there 
would not be so much adultery nor lechery used in the realm as there is. Well, 
I trust once yet, as old as I am, to see the day that lechery shall be punished : it 
was never more need, for there was never more lechery used in England than is 
at this day, and maintained. It is made but a laughing matter, and a trifle ; but 
it is a sad matter, and an earnest matter, for lechery is a great sin." Sermons, 
Parker Soc. 1844, p. 244 : and see the note there from Sir T, More and 
Dr. Legh. Harrison would have made adulterers slaves : I. 326. 

p. loo, L 9. There was a man whose name was W. Ratsurb, " On the third of 
Februarie [1583-4] being sundaie, William Bruistar habardasher (a man of more 
than threescore yeares old) being lodged ouer the south-west porch of saint Brides 
church in Fleetstreet, with a woman named Marie Breame (whome the same Bruistar 
had bailed out of Bridewell) were both found smothered to death, hi maner follow 
ing. On the same sundaie in the morning, a marriage being solemnized in that 
church, a strong sauour was felt, which was thought to haue beene the burning of old 
shooes or such like, in some gentlemans chamber there about, thereby to sup- 
presse the infection of the plague. But in the aftemoone before euenlng praier, 
the parishioners espied a smoke to issue out of Bruistars chamber, and therevpon 



Notes on p. 101. on a 283 

to the fast and forced to breake it 

open, not till vp the of the cham 

ber to let oat the : which being doone,they found Braistar dead, 

on a by his (In Ms apparel! end close trussed) Ms right 

& right anne vp to the elbow burnt or scorched with the fire of a small 
of cooles that before him, but now b jirsg cleans quenched with the dampe 

or lacke of aire. The woman also laie oner the pan, so that hir aruies were 

likewise t>amt s with the n^tfeer part of Mr bodie before to hir brest, and behind 
to the shoulders, and nothing else in the chamber burnt, but the bottoms of the 
settle whereon Bniistar sat" Hihnshed* el. 1587, p. 1355, coll. I &2, 11. 6015. 
There were various surmises about this affair, bat it was never explained. 
Pamphlets were written on it. S. HoIInsbed's account is, as usual, from S tow's 
Anmales^ ed. 1605, p. 1173. Stow adds; "Marie Breaine had bene accused 
by her husband to be a nice [foolish, bad] woman of her bodie, but her husband 
being a bad man, and hauing spent faire and large possessions and aE whatsoever, 
tailing but two pence left in Ms purse, hung himselfe on a tree, against a stone 
wail at Marten abbey in Surrey about Whitsoatide, in Anno 1592." 

p. IQI. See the fourth Gossip's complaint of her stingy gambling Husband, 
in S. Rowlands's Crew of kinds Gossips, 1609, sign* B 3 (Hunt Club, 1876, p. 13) : 

* f Looke, heere's the best apparrell that I haue, 
The very wedding Gowne my Father gaue. 
He [my Husband] neuer gaue me yet a paire of Gloues, 
I am beholding more to others loues 
Then ynto him,' in honest manner tho, \irony\ 
And (Gossips) I beseech you take it so. 
There are Mnde Gentlemen, some two or three, 
And they indeed my louing Kinsmen be, 
Which will not see me want, I know it, I : 
Two of them at my house in Terme time lye, 
And comfort me with iests and odde deuice, 
When as my Husbands out a nights at Dice. 
For if I were without a merry friend, 
I could not Hue a twelue-month to an end ; 
One of them gaue me this same Ruffe of Lawne, 
It cost three pound, but last week in the Pawne, 
Bo y 7 thinke my husband would haue bin so free ? 
Alas he neuer made so much of mee." 

(See the rest^ about the Hat she sees in church, and the Husband's answer, 

P. 28.) 



p lot. 

" Knockem. . . I'll provide you a coach to take the air in, 
Mrs* Littlemi, But do you think you can get one ? 

Kn&ckem. O, they are common as wheelbarrows where there are great 
dunghills. Every pettifogger's wife has 'em ; for first he buys a coach that he 



284 Notes on p. 102. Gluttony, Drunkenness. 

may many, and then he marries tliat lie may be made cuckold in't ; for if tlieir 
wives ride not to tlieir cuckolding, they do them no credit." 1614. Ben 
Jonson, Bartholomew fair, IV. iii. Works, ed. Cunningham, ii. 192, col. 2. 



GLUTTONY AND DRUNKENNESS. 

p. 102 : glutton. * e What good can the great gloton do w fc his bely standing a 
strote, like a taber, & his noil toty with drink, but balk vp his brewes in y middes 
of Ms matters, or lye down and slepe like a swine. And who douteth but y e the 
body dilicately fed, maketh, as y e rumour saith, an vnchast bed." d. 1535, Sir T. 
More, Works (i$*fl\ p. ioo. R. Roberts. 

*' London, look on, this matter nips thee near : 
Leave off thy riot, pride, and sumptuous cheer ; 
Spend Jess at board, and s fare not at the door^ 
But aid the infant, and relieve the poor; 
Else, seeking mercy, being merciless, 
Thou be adjudg'd to endless heaviness." 

Lodge & Greene's Looking- Glass for London 6 England, 
pr. 1594; p. 1 20, col. ii., ed. Dyce. 

p. 102. Gluttony : see the *Gluttone' in Rowlands's lie Stabbe yee, 1604 
(1872, p. 36); S. Rowlands, *To a Gormandizing Glutton', in his Xnaue of 
Spades (? 1611), ed. 1874, p. 35; Ms Letting of Humours Blood (1600), ed. 
1874, p. 85. See too W. Averell, in 1588, on Gluttony and Drunkenness : 

" What should I speake of your two greatest Gods iro\v<pctffia and flroXvTroata, 
gluttonous feeding and excessiue drinking, by wMch you make a number, not men 
but beastes, that haue their souj.es but in stedde of salt, to keepe their bodies 
from noysome stincke, who, though they appeare men, are indeede but Ventres, 
that place their pleasure in long feeding, and their delight in strong drinking. 

" I [the Back] am not so changable in fashions, as you [the Belly] are choyse 
in dishes: what boyling, what baking, what roasting, what stewing, what curious 
and daintie consenting, what Syrropes, what sauces, with a thousand deuices to 
moue an appetite without necessitie, and charge nature without neede. I talke 
not of other effects that accompany your gluttonous beUie whew it is fant with 
wine. What lasciuiousnes in wordes, what wantonnes in gestures, what filthines 
in deedes, what swearing and blaspheming, what quarrelling and brawling, what 
murder and bloodshed, nay what wickednes is not vntemperat belly subiect to, 
and most readie to accomplish ? 

"Besides, howe doth your gluttonie chaunge Natures co^lines into foule 
deformednes ? how do the eyes flame with fierines, the face flush with rednes, the 
hands shake wyth vnstedfastnes, and the feete reele through drunkeneses ? the 
head swimmes, the eyes dazell, the tongue stammers, the stomack is ouercharged, 
the body distempered, and the feeble legges ouerburdened, wMch beeing not able 



Notes on p. 102. 285 

to an YTiniHe LcrI 5 d-oo lay Mm la y dart like an ruled sfose ; and so 

through your di&texRperatiire, your s^'ft not alone ireake&ed, but the other 

so as to reckon yppe the sicknesses and of which the 

is to pargu the stables of Aagea king of Elis, or to tibem 

downe which nener to Auicen, Gallen, Hippocrates, nor all the 

Piisitioas that Ilned^ so that by these meanes it may "be saide s that a glut 

tonous Bellye mates rich Fhisitions and fat Churchyardes.*' A 

by W.[illiam] A,|verell] 1588, si^n. B 2 t back, B 3. 

p. 102. DmnksrJ: see S. Rowlands' sketch of one in Ms 77*? yes, 

1604, C 3, p. 21 ; Diogines Lantforne, 1607 (ed. 1873, p. 7-8) ; also his Epigrams 

21 and 22 in Ms cf Blosd, 1600 fed, 1874, p. 27-8} ; and his 

praise of good liqnor in Letting, &c. p. 76-8. On c How to make Drunken folk 
Sober,* see Sir Win. Yaoghan's Naturmll Artifidatt Directions for Health, 

1605. Compare also the Act : 

A.D. 1606-7. 4 James I, chap. v. "An Acte for represslnge the odious 
and loathsome synne of DmnckeDes. Whereas the loathsome and odyous Synne 
of Dninkennes is of kte graven into common use within this Realme, beinge the 
roote and foundacion of many other enormions Synnes, as Bloodshed, Stabbinge, 
Murder, Swearinge, Fomicacion, Adulterye, and such lyke, to the great dishonour 
of God and of our Nacion, the overthrowe of many good Artes and Manuel! 
Trades, the disablinge of dyvers Workmen, and the geiw/rail ympov^Hshing of 
many good Siibjecte abtisievely wasting the good Creatures of God : Be it there 
fore enacted . . That all and every person or pfrsons whicn, after Fortie Dayes 
next foliowinge the end of this present Session of Parliament, shalbe dranke, and 
of the same Offence of Drenkennes shall be lawfullie convicted, shall for every 
such Offence forfeite and Ioos Fyve SMllinges . . to be paid within one week 
next after his her or their Conviccion thereof to the Handes of the Churchwardens 
of that Parish where the Offence shalbe cowmytted, who shalbe accompable 
therefore to the use of the Poore of the same Parishe. ." 

III puts a Penalty of y. 4^., or the Stocke, on Persons found tippling, on 
View of any Mayor, Justices, &c. (On Church- Ales, &c., see p. 307-9 below.) 

See too in Lnpton's STVguila (Aliquis), 1580, p. 57-60, the judgment on a 
rich drunkard and a poor one, in Nusquam or Nowhere, Lupton's * Utopia * : 
'* A, thou churle, more churlish tha a hog or swine ! for though 
sometimes they driue their fellowes from /^e meat, and eate by 
tllemsdues 7 et when &Q J tane ^^ themselues sufficiently, they 
goe awaye, and leaue the reste, eate it who wil. But thou, greedie 
cormorant, when thou hast taken more than is sufficient, thou dost not only con 
sume more on thy selfe, but also the rest thou keepest from the poore hungrie 
brother, and wilt not leaue anye thing for Mm, as the swine doth. And now, 
seeing Gods lawe cannot moue thee to go vnto Heauen, I will see if our kw can, 
stay thee from Hel. Therfore, bycause thou hast so much welth tka\ thou 
canst not tel how to bestow the same wel, and more liuing than thou art worthy 
I wil, according to the lawe made for drunkards, 



A d ' d 

ment giuen vpon that thou shalt giue yerely during thy life, a prechers stipend 

a drunkarde. to a g^iy learned man, for Ms better maintenance ; who shall 



286 Notes on p. 102. A Drunkard 's punishment. 

be bounce weeke, three times, during thy life, not only to 

e^o* attend vpoa tliee one halfe houre at a time, then instructing thee 
F Sies a* week 1 ^ v thLe Scriptures) thy dutie to God and ma?/, and the way to 
saluation, persuading thee also from draakewiiesse, and shewing 
also howe detestable it is before God, and what is the gaine thereof; But also 
[& 3 times m &*% P^eache tbree dayes enery weeke in the parishe Churclie 

week in his where then dwellest. And thou slialt sitte also three market 
pansa GtiufCu* J 

dayes in the open Market, with a pot in thy hand, & a wryting 



n &J foreliead > ^ foUoweth : * This is the Drunkards that 
h a pot ia as dayly at the Tauernes and for wine, as tetine of Ms 

nexie neyghbsurcs did spends day lye in their houses? And this 
on Ills bejag emie,^ t f 1011 s h a i te rem ayrie one halfe yeare in prison, and 



3. go to pxisoa there thou shalt be taught to fast for thy lo/zg excesse : for 
a yeare. QUQT j e dinner thou shalte be allowed not aboue a grote, in breade, 
drinke, and meate : and thou shalte be allowed nothing but breade and 
drinke at night in steade of thy supper, whiche shall not be aboue the value of a. 
pennye. 7 " The poor man who is a drunkard is to " sitte in the open market as 
the riche man did, but he shal not be imprisoned, . . he must not drinke in anye 
UpHng-hoose or Taaeme the space of one whole yeare after. And bycause he 
may be kaowen, lie shall weare on Ms bosome the picture of a swine, al that 
while, wheHSoener he shall be out of his owne house . . and euery Sondaye during 
that yere, he sbal sit before the Pulpit al the Sermon tyme, to heare the word of 
God, and ieame to auoyde drankennesse/' Then, after complaining of the richer 
drunkards in England, Sm/ui'Ia says " And the poorer sort, thoughe they are 
not so able as they (the rich), nor can not so conueniently as they, yet on the 
Sundaye at the furthest they wyll bee euen wyth them, (if one days drinking will 
senie) for they wyll so tipple almost al the daye, and perhaps the next night, 
that all their whole weekes worfce will scantly paye their Sundayes shotte : but 
some of them (not worth verye much) if they worke one day, they will loyter and 
drinke three for it, (I will not saye they will be drunketwo and a halfe of the same.) " 

See also the extract on drunkards from Bullein in rny Babees Book, p. 247, 
and Andrew Boorde's Intr&dmtion^ my edn., p. 147, 149, 337-8. 

"And I wonld to God, that in our time also wee had not iust cause to 
complaine of this vicious plant of unmeasurable Boalling [bowl-ing] ____ For it is 
not sofferable in a Christian Countrie, that men should thus labour with great 
contention, and strive, for the maistrie (as it were) to offende God, in so wilfull 
waste of Ms gratioiis benefits." 1570-1601. W. Lambarde. Perambulation of 
JSemty 1826 reprint, p. 320-1. 

*' Awake, thou noblest drunkard Bacchus ; ihou must likewise stand to me, 
if thoti <^nst for reeling. Teach me, you sovereign skinker, how to take the 
German's upsy-freeze, the Banish rousa, the Switeer's stoop of rhenish, the 
Italiaa's parmizant, the Englishmans healths, his hoops, cans, half-cans, gloves, 
Mc^ and fiapdxagoiis, tc^ether with the most notorious qualities of the 
truest tosspots, as, when to cast^ wfcea to quarrel, when to fight, and where to 
sleep : hide not a drop of thy moist mystery from me, tfcoa plumpest swHl-bowI; 
but, like an honest red-nosed wine-bibber, lay open all thy secrets, and the 
mystical hieroglyphic of rashers o' th' coals, modicums, and shoeing-horns, and 



Notes OE p. 103* in f r l!s 287 

for occupations, aact to be used" 1609. 

T. Dekker. Gals ffcrn^sh^ ed. 1862, p. 4. 

My Pro! Paal Meyer, in his interesting Preface to Ms edition of Le 

D&xtdes Heranis d"Arma (ab. 1546}, and John Coke's Answer to It (1550% for 

his dss Testa Francis, 1877, notes that among the kindly 

remarks on England of the French MUdle-Age writers for France and England 

were then nearly one, the only reproach wa.5 that Anzpit pstat 1 , or Li micldre 

m Angtetsrref though William of Normandy says In Ms Bss&nt s that Pride 

has married in England her 3 eldest daughters, Envy, Lechery, Drunkenness. 

The most fertile source of early cfeaff against the English was the legend of their 

having tails, being Austin faudati* as their apostle St. Augustine bare witness. 

See the article in Da Gauge ; A de Montaiglon, Anfiennes Poesies Fran- 

VI, 347, &c. P. Meyer. See also Robert of Brume's Chronicle* 

p. 103. England bdisr in old times. See the other side of the question, in 
S. Rowknds's "Twos a merry world in ike old time* in Ms A FooUs Bolt is 
smmskot^ 1614 (ed. 1873, Hanterian Club, p. 28-9). 

p. 103: mtgh fare of our Forefathers : roots., pulsf^ heroes^ &c. Compare the 

Ploughman's food in Will's JTtstou, Text B, Passus VI, L 282, 321, p. 107-110, 
E. E. T. SGC. ? ed. Skeat, bearing out this assertion, more or less. In Edward 
VI.' s time, \Vm. Forrest says in his PLasaunt Poesy e of Princelie Practise (Starkey's 

Life & Inters, E. E. T. Soc. 1878, Extra Series, ed. Heritage) : 

MS. Reg. 17 B III. If 61 (dated, on if 8, A.D. 1548). 

" So, for that Ose whiche hathe beene the like solde, 

for ffbrtie sheaMngis nowe takethe bee fyue pownde : 
yea, seafljm is more, I bane herde it so tolde : 
hee cannot els lyiie ; so deeare is Ms grownde. 
Slie^pe, thoi^he they neaaer so plentie abownde, 
smclie price they beare wMche shame is to here tell, 
that scace the pooareman can bye a morsell. 

Twoe pense (in Beeif) hee cannot baue seraed, 

other in Mutton, the price is so hye : 

vndre a groate hee can hane none keraed : 

so goethe hee (and his) to bedde hungrelye, 

and risethe agayne -withe bellies emptie, 

whiche tumethe to tawnye their white englisch skyn, 

like to the swarthie coelored Fflawndrekyn. 

Wlieaze they weare valiauntj stronge, sturdy & stowte, Of <si back.] 
to shoote, to wrastle, to dooe anye mannys feate : 
to matche all natyons dwellinge heere abowte, 
as hitherto (manlye) they holde the chief seate ; 

1 Reliquiae Antiqnae^ Wright & Halliwell, i. 5 (Cottoa MS. Vesp. B xiii). 
Archives des Missions, 2nd series, iii. 183 (Digby MS. 53, Bodleian Library). 

2 Le Rotix de Lincy, Lxorcdes Pr&Derbes, ii. 281. 

3 ed. Martin, 1, 2000-3 : cp. the editor's note on this passage. 



288 Notes on pp. 105, 116. Neglect of the Poor. 

if they bee pinched and weyned from meate, 
I wlsse, O kynge, they, in penurye thus pende, 
shall not bee able thye Royalme to defende. 

Owre Englische nature cannot lyue by Rooatis, 
by water herbys. or suche beggerye baggage, 
that maye well seme for vile owtelandische Cooatis 
geeue Englische men meate, after their olde vsage, 
Beeif, Mutton, Veale, to cheare their courage ; 
and then I dare to this byll sett my hande : 
they shall defende this owre noble Englande." 



TREATMENT OF THE POOR, USURY, c. 

p. 105. Stinginess of the Rich to the Poor. "The poore with vs, woulde 
thinke themselues happy, if they mighte haue a messe of potage, or the scraps 
that come from the Rich mens tables, two or three houres after they begin their 
dinner or supper, and to haue the same giuen them at their doore. But many of 
The wicked and ^ e sa ^ ( ^ e ^ c ^ greedie guttes, caring for nothing, but for the hilling 
cruel vsing of and filling of their owne backe and bellie, can not be content to 
goe by their poore pitiful brethren and giue them nothing, but 
they will moste vncharitably and vnchristianly rebuke them, chide them, rattle 
them, yea, and threat them, that the poore, being checkt of them that shoulde 
chearishe them, are almost driuen to despaire." 1580. T. Lupton. Sivquila, 
p. 28-9. 

p. 116. Neglect of the poor. See Robert Copland's most interesting account 
of the Beggars, Ne'er-do-weels, and Unthrifts of Henry VIIFs time in his Hye 
Way to the Spyttd Hous (The folk who come to St. Bartholomew's Hospital), 
about 1532-5 A.D., in Hazlitt's Popular Poetry, iv. 17-72. On the poor dying 
in the streets, and vagrants lying there, he says, p. 30-1 : 

( , . . I haue sene at sondry hospytalles 
That many haue lyne dead without the wattes, 
And for lacke of socour haue dyed wretchedly, 
Unto your foundacyon, I thynke, contrary. 
Moche people resort here, and haue lodgyng ; 
But yet I maruell greatly of one thyng, 
That in the nyght so many lodge without : 
For in the whatche whan that we go about, 
Under the staUes, in porches, and in doores, 
(I wote not whither they be theues or hoores, 
But surely,) euery nyght ther is found 
One or other lyeng by the pound, 
In the shepe-cootes, or in the hey-loft ; 
And at Saynt Barthylmews chyrch dore full ofte. 



Notes on pp. 116 118. Inclosures, Lawyers. 289 

And enen here by tMs biycke wall 

We do them fynd, that do bothe chyde and brail ; 

And iyke as bestes togyder they be throng, 
Bothe lame, and seke, and hole, them among, 

And in many corners wher that we go, 
Wherof I won ire greatly why they do so, 
But oftymes when they vs se s 
They do re//ne a great deal faster than we," 

p. i id. Im/osur$* See the series of extracts on this subject In my Ballads 
/ram JtfSS , Part I, Ballad Society ; the Supplications edited by Mr. J. M. Cowper 
and me for the E. E. Text Soc., 1871, and his edition of Starkey's England in 
ffmjy VUVs Time, E. E. Text Soc. 1871 j Harrison, Pt I. p. 306-7, &c. &c. 
And let us always remember that Shakspere, before he died, " told Mr. J. Greene 
that he was not able to beare the enclosing of Welcombe ", the open landbrow 
since enclosed whence one best sees his Stratford. (Leop. Sk. IntroiL, p. cix.) 

** Where, by the way, the country Rook deplor'd 
The grip and hunger of Ms ravenous lord, 
The cruel Castrel, which, with devilish claws 
Scratcheth out of the miserable jaws 
Of thee, poor tenant, to his ruin bent, 
Raising new fines, redoubling ancient rent, 
And, by th* inclosure of old common land, 
Racks the dear sweat from his laborious hand ; 
Whilst he that digs for breath out of the stones, 
Cracks his stiff sinew, and consumes his bones . 
. , . . . . and when he can no more, 
The needy Rook is turn'd out of the door, 
And lastly doth his wretchedness bewail, 
A bond-slave to the miserable jail.** 
1604. M. Brayton, The Owl. Works, 1793, p. 568, col. 2. 

p. 117. Lawyers, See Harrison, Part I. p. 204-7; Father HubbarcCs 
Tales (1604) in the last volume of Dyce's Middleton, &c. The complaint starts 
from long before Piers Plowman (Text B, Prol. 1. 214-15, ed. Skeat), and even 
still continues, more or less. 

** Oh, the innumerabyl wyles, craftys, sotyltes and delayes, that be in thelawe, 
which the lawyers wil neuer spye, because of their priuate lucres sake ; wherby 
the comon welth is robbed. Thei be almost as euyl as the wicked bisshops and 
prestes of Antichryst, sane only that thei robbe us but of our temporal goodys, 
and not of our fayth." Ab. 1542. Hy. Brinklow, Complaynt of Roderick Mors, 
E, E. T. Soc. 1874, p. 21. 

p. 1 1 8. Dearth (dearness, cost). See my Stafford's Compendious Examina 
tion of cerfeyne ordinary Complaints, 1581. New Shaksp. Soc. 1876* 

"What saies the craftie Clowne in clowted shooes, 
Time was ordain'd to get, and not to loose. 

SHAKSPEEE'S ESTGLAKD : STTJBBES. 19 



290 Notes on p. 119. Grasping Landlords, &c. 

What though the poore lye staruing in the ditch ? 
It is the dearth of Corne makes Farmers rich." 

The Vncasing of Machwils Instructions to his Sonne } p. 8. 



p. 119, 3. j 2 from foot. Notwithstanding some tnercihsse tygers, &*c. 
I knewe one that was empouerished bothe by the losse of the Sea, and by sureti- 
sh'p, yet notwithstanding he was caste into prison of his cruel Creditors, who 
hauing not sufficient lefte to satisfie them, offered to giue them all that he hadde, 
and to leaue hirnselfe nothing in the woiide but the simple clothes he went in 
(which were not worth the value of a Noble), and yet these mercilesse wretches 
wold not release him out of priso?z, but kept him there, saying, they woulde 
make Dice of his bones, if they hadde nothing else." Thomas Lupton's Swqila^ 
p. 35. 1580. S. See p. 293 below. 

p. 1 19. Covetous men buying up poor mm^s land. 

" Cormerauntes, gredye guiles, yea, men that would eate vp menne, women, & 
chyldren, are the causes of Sedition ! They take our houses ouer our headdes, 
they bye our growndes out of our handes, they reyse our rentes, they leauie 
great (yea, vnreasonable) fines, they enclose oure commens ! . . we knowe not 
whyche waye to turne vs to lyue ... In the countrey we can not tarye, but we 
must be theyr slaues, and laboure tyll our hertes brast, and then they must haue 
al. And to go to the cities we naue no hope, for there we heare that these 
vnsaciable beastes haue all in theyr handes. Some haue purchased, and some 
taken by leases, whole allyes, whole rentes, whole rowes, yea, whole streats 
and lanes, so that the rentes be reysed, some double, some triple, and some four 
fould to that they weie wythin these .xii. yeres last past Yea, ther is not so 
much as a garden grownd fre from them." 1550. R. Crowley, The Way to 
Wcilth. Select Works, E. E. T. S., 1872, p. 132-3. 

Meai also Becon, who died in 1570: " The cause of all thys wretchednesse 

Gentlemen and beggery in the common weale are the gredy Gentylmen, whyche 

ShepmoTzgers. are shepemongers and grasyars. Whyle they study for their owne 

priuate commoditie 3 the common weale is lyke to decay. Since they began to be 

shepe Maysters and feders of cattell we neyther had vyttayle nor cloth of any 

reasonable pryce. No meruayle, for these forstallars of the market, as they vse 

to saye haue gotten al thynges so into theyr handes, that the poore man muste 

eyther bye it at their pryce, or else miserably staiue for hongar, and wretchedly 

dye for colde. For they are touched with no pity toward the poore. It is founde 



p iiiif> a rail true in tliem that ^* ^ au ^ wri htetn - Al seke tlieir own aduawtage, 
and not those thinges which belong vnto lesu Christ. They 
whiche in tymes past wer wont to be fathers of the contry, are now pollers and 
pyllers of the contry. They which in times past wer wont to be the defenders 
of the poore, are now become the destroiers of the same. They by whow the 
common weale sometime was presented, are now become the Caterpillers of the 
common weale, and suche as serne by their maners to haue made a solemne vow 
vtterly to subuert the common weale, and to procure y e final destruction of the 
same. They are insatiable woulfes. They know no measure. So they may 
reigne, they care not who suffer pain. So they may abound, they care not who 



Xotes on p. 119. jfivaritious land-buy ers 9 &c. 291 

fal to the !e. So be enriched, care not who be enpouerished. 

Thei ar ri^ht of Cain, which had rather slea his brother Abel, tha/i lie 

should a0y part with Mm of worldly The wyse Gm g . ////. 

man sayeth the Bread of the Is the life of the pore, he y* ^-k ***- fI 

defraudeth him of it, is a manskare. Bo not these ryche worldlynges defraud 

the pore man of Ms bread* whereby is vnderstand al things neces- Bread what It 
sary for a mans lyfe, which thrcagh their insaciable couetousnes sei slgnUktli. 
a! things at so hie price, and suffer tonnes so to decay that the pore hath not 
what to eate nor yet where to dwell ! What other are they tha//, but 
very xna/isleam ? They abhorre the names of Monkes, Friers, "* 
Chanons., Xonr/es, &c. but their goods they gredely gripe." Becon, Jewel of Joy. 
Werks, 1564, Vol. II. fol xvl back fol. xvii. S, J. Heritage. 

* JLcs grj3 fpiszjKs mtHig&ii Its p:ih : Pro. Justly apply ed to the vniust 
world, wherein the rich deuoure the poore, the strong the weake, the mightie the 
meane.* 1 6 1 1 , Cot grave. 

p. 119: misers^ or rick men^ adding land to land. " Though all put their trust In 
God, with yon, the most put their trust in themselues with vs : for if they did not, 
the! would not so greedily gather their goods togither, & lay lands to lands, houses 
to houses, and riches to riches, as they do. Some that are worth thousands, 
though they loke euery day to die, Jbeing of such extreame age) haue so little trust 
and confidence in God, that gaue them, all they haue, that they are so sparing to 
themselues, so niggardly to theyr neighbours, and so pinching to the pouertie, as 
though they should line here euer, or else as though they had not ynough to finde 
themselnes one day." I5&x T. Lupton. Sivquila^ p^ 70-1. 

" What mettayle is this money that makes men so mad? 

What miscMefe is it thereby is not wrought ? 

What earthly thing is not therefore to be had ? 

What hath been so loYed, but money hath bought ? 

What vertue, or goodness, of us so much sought ? 

4 Who doth not wish for money,* each one doth say. 

How many for money have been robbed and murthered ? 

How many false witnesses, and for money perjured ? 

How many wives from their husbands have been enticed ? 

How many maydens to folly for money allured ? 

How many for money have spirits and divells coniured ? 

How many friends, for money have beene mortall foes ? 

Mo mischieves for money then I can disclose ! 

How many kings and princes for money have been poisoned ? 

How many betrayers of their country for money every day ? 

How many for money from true Judgment are led ? 

Did not the prophet Balaam curse God*s people for money ? 

Did not ludas, for money, his master Christ betray ? J> &xx &c. 
1578. T. Lupton, All for Money, in HalliweU's -EzV. of i6f& 6 i*jtk Centuries, 
p. 107, He also gives the other side of tlie question : 

" Pleasure, In what case were the worlde, were it not for money? 
Without ioye and pleasure, better be dead then aliue : 



292 Notes on pp. 123 127. Usurers, &c 

To Hue like dome [dumb] goddes, who would not be wearie ? 
To satisfie mans nature with pleasures, I can contrive, 
But I conteyne them at this time and hower, 
Hawking and hunting, shooting and fishing, 
Eating and drinking, dysing and carding, 
Riding and running, swimming and singing, 
Daunslng and leaping, with all kinde of playing, 
Banketing with fine meates, and wine of all sortes, 
Dallying with faier women, with other kinde of sportes : 
AH fine apparell that makes the heart ioye. 
With musicall instruments, both with man and boye. 
Thus no sporte or ioye wherein man hath solace, 
But I doe conteyne them, though money bring them to passe." 
1578. T. Lupton. All for money, sign. B.j. 

p. 123. Usury. See Harrison, I, p. 242. Also S. Rowlands, To Mr. 
Mony-bag the Vsurer' in his Knaue of Spades ( ? 1611), ed. 1874, p. 2 ^ ? an< i his 
sketch of Usury in his Dwgines Lanthorne, 1607 (Hunt. Club, 1873, p. 6 -7). 

See the description of Avarice in Piers Plowman, Text B, Pass. v. p. 67-73, 
ed. Skeat, E. E. T. Soc., and specially lines 257-9 : 

" Hastow pite on pore men, at mote nedes borwe? 
If I haue as moche pite of pore men, as pedlere hath of cattes, 
pat wolde kille hem, yf he cacche hem myjte, for coveitise of her<? 
skynnes." 

"Simplicity. O that vild Usury ! he lent my father a little money ; and for 

breaking one day, 

He took the fee-simple of his house and will quite away ; 
And yet he borrowed not half a quarter as much as it cost ; 
But I think, if it had been a shilling, it had been loste, 
So he kill'd my father with sorrow, and undoed me quite." 

1584. The Thrie Ladies of 'London, Hazlitt's Dodsley's Old Plays, vi. 259. 

See the list of books against Usury in 5th Series of N. 6 Q., x. 423, and xi 63. 

p. 123. Every Begger almost is called Maister. See Lancelot's "MAISTER 
Launcelet" in the Merchant of Venice, II. ii. 51, and the extract illustrating it 
from Sir Thomas Smith's Commonwealth of England, bk. I, ch. 20 (founded on 
Harrison, 1, 133, 137), which I printed in New S/i. Soc.'s Trans. 1877-9, p. 103-4. 
Also Shakspere getting his "yeoman " father arms, and making him a "gentle 
man" in 1596 {Leopold Shakspere Introduction, p. ciii) ; and p. 237, above. 

p. 124. Usury attowd by Law. The Act 13 Elizabeth, c. 8 which revivd 
the 37 Hen. VIII, cap. 9, that had been repeald by 5 & 6 Edward VI, cap. 20 
authorizd the taking of 10 per cent. Interest for money lent on loan or mort 
gage. The rate was reduced to 5 p. c. by the 12 Anne, St, 2, ch. 16. 

p. 126-7. Prisoners for debt, 

" Fallace , . . if he come with his actions upon you, Lord deliver you ! you 
are in for one, half-a-score year ; he kept a poor man in Ludgate once twelve 



Xotes on p. 127. Prisons. Usurers. 293 

year for sixteen shilling*. " 1599. Ben Ev&y 3fx# out of/its Humsur^ 

V. vii., JKwhj L 137, col. 2. 

'* I am, Sir, a Keeper of the Counter, and there are in our wards above a 
haadred pwre prisoners, that are like nere to come forth without satisfaction.* 7 
i6v6.Xj-B0Jy axJ &mg-B;3y. Simpson's Schiicl of Skatef*, z. 307. In The 
Play afStudfy^ 1605, z& p. 228, the prison stink or plague is mentiond : 

" Will you so much annoy your vita! powers 
As to oppieas them with the prison stink 1 ? 

YOJ shall not, if you love me, come so near. 
The place is mortally infected lately." 

"A prison . . is a Fabricke built of the same stuffe the Keepers of it are 
marie of, stone and Iron : It is an vnwholesome full-stuffed humorous body, which 
hath an Hale In the posteriors of it, whence It vents many stinking, noysome and 
vnsauory smels, which Is the onely cause there Is such a perpetual! sicknesse and 
disease in it . . when Epimetheus opened Pandora's box, there did not more 
mkchiefes and maladies file out of it Into the world, then there is in this cursed 
place, for It hath more sicknesses predominating in It, then there are in twenty 
French Hospitals, or at the Bathe, in the spring or fall of the leafe." 1617. 
Win. Fennor, The Compters Cjmjuon-i^jlt/i, or A Vutage made to an Infer nail 
Hind long since discouered fy many Cxptai/tts, &c., Sign. C. { Fennor had been 
arrested for a debt of^ioo, and confined in the Compter. He describes Interest- 
ingly the place, the exacting jailers, the occupants of the two sides of the prison 
those who could afford to pay well for food and drink, and those who couldn't 
how they went on, how young men were duped and led into debt, &c. The 2nd 
edition m 1619 was calld Miseries of a Jcale, or A True Description of a Prison.} 

p. 127. I will make dice of his bones. The same phrase is used by Lupton (p. 

290, above), and Rowlands : 

" Greedy Vsurer. 

THoa Fiir-gown*d slaue, exceeding rich and olde, 
Ready to be deuowred of the Graue : 
Thou that wilt sell a soule, to purchase Gold, 
And gold, still gold, nothing but golde dost craue : 
Thou most extreame hard-harted cruell wretch, 
Whorne Hell gapes for ; the Deuill comes to fetch. 

Thou that wilt not forbeare an howers tune, 
But wilt a forfayture seueerely take : 
Thou that by crueltie to wealth dost clyme, 
And threatnest, Dice, of poor mens batiks to make, 
Hauing that rustle gold vpon thy hand, 
For which, there's thousandes perish in the land, 

He stabbe yee." 
1604. S. Rowlands, Locke to it: for, He Stabbe ye, sign. B 3 ; p. 13, ed. 1872. 

i " See Bacon, Nat Hist. Cent X no. 914. Besides the well-known black 
assizes at Oxford in 1577, there was a similar outbreak at Exeter in 1586. See 
HoKnshed, IV. 868, and Leicester Correspopdence, 224. " 



294 Notes on pp. 128 -131. Swearing. 

"Rayse Rentes apace, builde Houses, purchase Lancles, 

Be alwayes raking with Oppressions handes. 

Thinlce all is lawfull purchase, thou can'st catch 

from thy distressed friendles needy wretch, 

Buye thy poore neighbours House oner his head, 

Tume him and's children out to begge their bread. 

Deale cruelly with those are in thy debt, 

And let them at thy handes no fauour get, 

Send them to Prison ; there in all distresse, 

To taste the mercie of the mercilesse. 

lie shackle thee, for stirring handes or feete, 

Within a Coffin and a Winding-sheet e." Ib. p. 43-4. 

"Thou that vauntest, and wilt make dice of thy debtor's bones; be these the 
words of a man?" Of Creditors, Minshul's Essay es and Characters of a Prison 
and Prisoners, 1618, ed. 1821, p. 29.$. 

p. 128. Scrizvners* See T. M.'s Father HubburcFs Tales in Dyce's Middle- 
toffs Works, vol. v. 



SWEARING. 

p. 129. S'ixaring. On this in 1303, see my Roberde of Branne's Handlyng 
Synne, pp. 23-7, 88-92. In 1550, R. Crowley's Epigrams, p. 19. On the 
hunting oaths j 1544, see the Supplication to Henry VIII. in Pour Supplications, 
E. E. T. Soc., 1871, p. 53: "What commessacyon / dronckenes / destable 
swearinge by all the partes of Christes bodye (and yet callynge them in scorne 
huntings othes} extorcyon / pryde/couetuousnes / and suche other detestable vyce, 
raigne in this yowr realme / " 

In 1542, Andrew Boorde said in his Dyefary, my ed. p. 243, "in all the 
worlde there is not suche oclyble swearyng as is vsed in Englande, specyally 
amonge youth & chyldren, which is a detestable thyng to here it, and no man 
doth go aboute to punysshe it." 

p. 131. Swearing* It was the fashion for gallants, not only to swear 
generally all round, but for each to have oaths special to himself. In Ben 
Jonson's Every Man out of his Humour (1599), I. i., Works, i. 73, " be sure you 
mix yourself still with such as flourish in the spring of the fashion, and are 
least popular [= vulgar] : study their carriage and behaviour in all ; learn to 
play at primero and passage ; and even [when you lose] have two or three 
peculiar oatJis to swear fy, that no man else swears." And in Every Man in Ms 
Humour, I. iii, Cob says : "Well, should they do so much to me, I'd forswear 
them all, by the foot of Pharaoh J There's an oath ! How many water-bearers 
shall you hear swear such an oath ? O, I have a guest [Bobadil] he teaches me 
he does swear the legiblest of any man christened : ' By St. George ! the foot 
of Pharaoh ! the body of me ! as I am a gentleman and a soldier ! J such dainty 
oaths ! " Ben Jonson's Works, i. 12. 

* // iure comme vn Getitilhomme. He sweares after a thousand pound a yeare. 5 
// iure comme vn Abbe [viz. extreamly], chartier ; gentilhomme ; prelat [A 
Huguenot's comparison]. Like a Tinker, say we.' 1611. Cotgrave. 



Notes on pp. 133, 135. S if earing. 295 

** Old Jack of Paris-garden, get 

A foaly ran ia debt ? 

Loolke sinug, smell sweet, taie tip commodities, 

Keepe whores, fee bauds, bekh fmpbus 

Wallow along In swaggering disguise, 

Snaffe up smoak- whiffs, and each morae, "fore she rise. 

Visit thy drab ? Canst use a false cut die 

"With a cleane grace and glib facilitie ? 

Canst tkundtr cfmnwn tfjtf&r, like th T rattling 

Of a huge, doable, full-charg'd culvering ? 

Then, Jack, troupe among our gallants, kisse thy fist. 

And call them brothers." 

1599. Jn. Maxston, Scsurge of Villanie, Works, 1856, ill. 295 ; and see on 

p. 281 : 

" What, means! thou him that in his swaggering slops 
Wallowes unbraced, all along the streete ? . . 
. . . . * What ! that ringo roote ! 
Means't that wasted leg, puffe bumbast boot ? 
What, tie that's drawne and quartered with lace ; 
That Westphalian gamon clove-stuck face r 
Why, he is nought but huge blaspheming ot/ies, 
Swart snout, big looks, mishapen Switzers clothes. 
Weake meager lust hath now consumed quite, 
And wasted cleane away his martlall spright ; 
Infeebling riot, all vices* confluence, 
Hath eaten out that sacred influence 
Which made Mm man." 

p. 133, II. I, 2. Ckri "sles blessed b&die, IM parte thereof skalle left untorne. 
** Our blisful Lordes body thay to-tere." 
CHAUCER, Pardoneres Tale, L 12. Bell's ed. iii. 73. S. 
R. Copland says of the Beggars at their Suppers in Henry VIII's time, ah. 
1532-5, ffye Way t& the Spyttel ffous, Hazlitt's Pop. Poetry, iv. 43 : 

" And there they reuell as vnthryfty braggers, 
With horyble othes swerynge as they were wood, [By Gods] 
Armes, nayles, woundes, herte, soule, and blood, 
Deth, fote, masse, flesshe, bones, lyfe, and body, 
With all other wordes of blasphemy, 
Bostynge them all in dedes of theyr myschefe, 
And thus passe the tyme with daunce, hore, pipe, thefe. 
The hang-man shall lede the daunce at the ende, 
For none other ways they do not pretende." 

p. 135, 1. 9. There ixtas a certaine yong man dwdfyng in Mnlacnilskire, &c. 
A copy of Stubbes's poem here referrd to, is in the Lambeth Library, and was 
reprinted in the old Shakespeare Society's Papers, 1849, iv, 73-&S. See my 
Forewords above. 



2,96 Notes on p. 136. Sunday bearbaiting, &c. 

p. 1369 1. 13. Tfanewas a/sff a 'w&man in the Citie ofMunidnol [ Londinufii\, 

&*<:. " The 1 1. of February, Anne Aneries, widow, for swearing her selfe for a Htle 
money that she should haue paid for sbce pound of towe, at a shop in Woodstreete 

^JST 6 - of London, fell immediatly downe speechlesse, casting vp at her 
th penury, mouth In great abundance, and with, horrible stinke, the same matter 
which by natures course should faaue bene voided downewards, till she died : a 
terrible example of Gods lust iudgement vpon such as make no conscience of 
falsiy swearing against their brother. " Stow's Annales, ed. 1605, p. 1152. S. 



SUNDAY SPORTS AND SABBATH-BREAKING. 

p. 136. JC&ffimg of Sunday (the Christian) as identified with the Sabbath 
(Jewish). 

As to Stage-playes, see the extract from Gosson's Schools of Abuse under 
Theatres,, below. As to Fairs and Markets, Harrison, I, p 344, and the passage, 
ab. 1584, quoted by Mr. J. M. Cowper in his Crowds Select Works, E. E. T. 
Sot, 1872, p, xxly : 

**Go to alehouses on tlie Saboth dales: there Is as well sold all kinde of 
loosenesse as vitayles. Go to Greenes : there is myrth that would wounde a 
Christian mans heart with heanlnesse. Goe to Fayres : there is a shewe and 
traffike, as well of all lewdnesse as of wares. Yea, goe to all other places, both 
In City and countrey ; and what shall you see, but so many euils that prouoke 
God to the powryng forth of most fearefull Judgements, the Theaters, Parish 
garden, Taueraes, streetes, fieldes, all full and prophanely occupied, and this 
chiefly on the Saboth day." Tks Vnlawfull Practises Of Prelates Against Godly 
Ministers, &c., sign. B 3, back. See p. 310, below. 

Crowley himself says in his One and thyrtye Epigmmmes, 1550 (ed. 1872, 

p. 9) s 

** How hallow they the Saboth, that do the tyme spende 

In drynkinge and idlenes tyll the daye be at an ende, 128 

Not so well as he doeth, that goeth to the plowe, 
Or pitcheth vp the sheues from the carte to the mowe." 132 

And at p. 16-17 " of Bearbaytynge," he writes : 

" What follye is thys, to kepe wyth daunger 

A greate mastyfe dogge and a foule ouglye beare ? 376 

And to thys onely ende to se them two fyght 
Wyth terrible tearynge : a foil ougly syght. 380 

And yet me thynke those men be mooste foles of all, 
Whose store of money is but verye smale, 384 

And yet euerye Sondaye they will surely spende 
One penye or two, the bearwardes lyuyng to mende. 388 

At Paryse garden, eche Sundays, a man shall not fayle 
To fynde two or thre hundredes for the bearwardes vaile. 392 
One halpenye a piece they vse for to giue, 
When some haue no more in their purse, I belieue." 396 



Notes on p. 136-7. and Bailing. 2,97 

So too Arthur in Ms * the Earthquake 1 on April 6, 

1580 : " The and holy for the - special! occupy 

ing of oar in all spiritual! exercizes, Is spent fa!! heathem&hly in tavernieg, 

playing, and beholding of Beare-baytin^ and Stage-playes, to 
the utter dyshcnor of God, impeachment of all godlynease, and unnecessarie 

consuming of substances, which ought to be better employed,"' (From 

Collier's Ri&krs, h. nS, and my Obtain C*x, p. 6S.) 

The Dancing on Sunday had Qaeen Elizabeth's countenance. This is how 

Sunday, July 10, 1575? was spent at Kenilworth, during Leicester's entertain 
ment of the Qaeen there : 

** On Sunday : the forenoon occupied (az for the Sabot day) in quiet and 
vacation from woork, & in diuine serais & preaching at the parish church : 
The afternoon in excelent mazik of sundry swet instruments, and in daitndng of 
Lordes end Ladi&, and Qother woorshipfiill degrees, vttered with such liuely 
agilitee & commendabl grace, az, whither it moouglit be more straunge too the 
eye, or pleazunt too the minde, for my part indeed I coold not discern : but 
exceedingly well waz it (me thought) in both. 1 * P. 12 of my edition of Captain- 
Cox t or Lanehanfs Letter, Ballad Soa 1871. 

Laneham's capital description of the bearbalting at Kenilworth (#. p. 16-17} 
is well known, bat J. Bboker's lifting of part of it " It waz a sport very 
plezaunt 3S to "a goodly releef" bodily into his continuation of Holinshed's 
Chronicle, ed. 1587, voL iiL p. 1582, col. i, I have not seen noted. 

p. 137. Beare bayting on the Saboth day. 

" What else but gaine and Money gote 



maintaines each Saboth day 
The baytiag of the Beare aad Ball? 

What biings this brutish play ? 
What is tie cause that it is borne, 



and not controlled ought, 
Although the same of custome be 

on holy Saboth wrought ? 
Now sure I thinke tys gaine or spite 
gainst good and godly lyfe. 7 * 



1569, E. Hake. Newes &$ oj Pewits Churchyarde, sign. E. 6, back, ed. 1579. 

The Sabbath day, says Kethe's Sermon at Blandford, 1570, " the multitude 
call their reveiying day ; which day is spent in bulbeatings, bearebeatings, bowl 
ings, dicyngy cardyng, daunsynges, drankennes and whoredome . . in so much 
as men could not keepe their servauntes from lyinge out of theyr owne houses the 
same sabbath-day at night." Hazlitt's Brand, L 158, note I. See p. 301 below, 

p. 137. What comes of frying' at Ckurck wheti yau ought to be at Bear-baiting. 
" Of sayeng sendee;, quod I, this is much like as at Beuerlay late, wha;* much of 
the people beyng at a bere baytyng, the church fell sodeinly down at euensonge 
tyme, and ouer whelmed some that than were in it: a good felow, that after 
herde the tale tolde, * lo quod he, now maie you see what it is to be at euen- 
song whan ye should be at the bere baytynge. 5 How be it, the hurt was not ther 
in beinge at eaensonge, but in that the churche was falsely wrought." Sir 71 
Mm (died 1535), Works, p. 208, ed. 1557. R. Roberts. 

Compare Dr. M. Busch's Bismarck in the Fmnco-German War, 1870-1, L 
221-2 (1879) : 

" And the 'keeping holy the Sabbath-day,* said the Chief [Bismarck], that 



2,98 I%o,es on p. 137. Sunday Bearlaitings, &c. 

is a perfectly horrible tyranny. I remember, when I first went to England, and 
landed in Hall, that I began to whistle In the street. An Englishman, whom I 
had go acquainted with on board, told me that I must not whistle. * Pray, sir, 
do not whistle ! * * Why not ; is whistling forbidden here ? ' e No,' said he, e it 
is not forbidden ; but it is the Sabbath ! ' This so disgusted me that I at once 
took my ticket by another steamer going to Edinburgh, [out of the frying-pan into 
tbe fire, eh ?] as I did not choose not to be able to whistle when I had a mind to." 
p. 137. Bearbaiting, &*c., on Sundays. See the Act I Car. I [A.D. 1625], 
Ch L An Acte for punishing of divers abuses committed on the LorcUv day 
called Sunday. ** Forasmuch as . . the holy keeping of the Lord^r day is a 
principal! part of the true Service of God, which in very many places of this 
Realme hath beene and now is profaned and neglected by a disorderlie sort of 
people, in exercising and frequenting Bearebaiting, Bullbaiting, Enterludes, 
com/Aon Playes, and other unlawfull exercises and pastimes uppon the Lord***- 
day ; And for that many quarrelk?, bloodshedd^r and other great inconueniences 
have growen by the resort and concourse of people going out of their owne 
Parishes to such disordered and unlawfull exercises and pastimes, neglecting 
Divine service both in their own Parishes and elsewhere ; Be it enacted . . that 
from and after fortie dayes next after the end of this Session of Parliament there 
shalbe no meetings assemblies or concourse of people out of their owne Parishes 
on the Lordifj day withia this Realme of England, or any the Dominions thereof, 
for any sporte? or pastimes whatsoever ; nor any Bearebaiting, Bullbaiting, 
Enterludes, common Playes or other unlawfull exercises or pastimes used by any 
person or persons within their owne Parishes, and that every person and p^ons 
offending in any the pranisses, shall forfeit for every offence three shillings foure 
pence, The same to be employed and converted to the use of the poore of the 
Parish where such offence shall be committed ..." (This Act was confirmd 
and continued by later ones.) 

p. 137. Prophanation ofths Saboth. 

About 154.2, says Henry Brinklow, Complaynt of Roderick Mors, E. E, T. 
Soc., 1874, p. 62-3, after the Latin service, " the people depart the church as 
empty of all sprytual knowledge as thei came thether. And the rest of the day 
thei spend in all wanton and vnlawful gamys, as dyse, cardys, dalyeng with 
wemen, dansing, and such lyke." The fact that Sunday amusements were 
inheritances from Popery, no doubt made them doubly offensive to the Reformers 
and the Puritans, 

22 July 1566 22 July 1567. 

lacye Recevyd of Alexandra lacye for his lycense for pryntinge of a 

ballett the abuse off sabooth of the lords &c/ . . . . iiij d 
Arber's Transcript of the Stationers Registers, i. 328. 

(1578-9.) 28 February. 

JhoxLhynde Lycenced vnto him vnder thandes of the wardens ij ballades, 
thone Dialogewise betwene William Wax-wise and Walter 
Wold-be- wanton coticeming thabuse of the Sabothe Days, thother 
the lamentacon of a synner troubled in comcyeme . . . viij^ 

(Ib. ii. 348.) 



Notes on p. 137. Fairs, &c. 299 

"For farther proof whereof, 1 call to\rknebe the Theaters [BurbageVJ, Cur- 

tiaus pn Shi/redstch] Hcstulng l bosses, Rif?iug booihes, Bowling &!leyes 9 and 

such places, where the time is so shamefully mispent, namely [= specially] the 

Sabaoth vRto the great dishonor of God, and the corruption: and viler 

distraction of youth." 1579, T. F., Xxjes frcm l j ie AV/&, ed. 1585, sign. F 4, 
in my Thynne's ^/woJrrraVsj, E. E. T. Sec., 1875, p. cxxxv. (Mr. 
Collier absurdly attributed the Ahtvj to Francis Thvnne.) 

ChJuvrxt "And trust me, I cm of that opinion, thai the Lord isr iieuer so 11 

ff^tifti en tfig 

S.^h-/"i dxies serucd as en the holie-dcJea. For then hel breake* loose. Then 
wee permit our youih to haul their swinge ; anil when they are out of the sight 
of their maisterp, such government haue they of themselues, that \\hat by i! com- 
panie they mtwte wiihr*!, <Sc il examples they leame at plaies, I feare me, I 
feare me, their harts are more alienated in two houres from virtue, than againe 
male wel be amended In a whole yeare." 1580, A second and third Most of 
retrait from plaies and Tii&Lters led. Hazlitt, 1869), p. 135, 

Fairs. Harrison, in Part II. p. 101, complains that the "paltrie fairs . . 
tendetb. to the corruption of youth . , whereby they often spend, not onelie the 
weeke doles 3 but also the Lords sabbaotli in great vanitie and riot." See too 
the notes on p. 152^ &c., that follow below. 

Fairs &* Markets on Sundays* Compare the then expired Act, 22 Hen* 
VI. cap. 5 (englisht). * * Considering the abominable Injuries and Offences 
done to Almighty God, and to his Saints, always Aiders and singular Assisters in 
our Necessities, because of Fairs and Markets upon their high and principal 
Feasts, as in the Feast of the Ascension of our Lord ... in the Day of Whit 
sunday, in Triaity Spaelay, with other Sundays . . and on Good Friday 
accustomablj and miserably holden and used in the Realm of England ; in 
which principal and festival Days, for great earthly Covetise, the People is wil- 
folly more vexed, and in bodily Labour toiled y than in other ferial Days, as in 
fastening and making their Booths and Stalls, bearing and carrying, lifting and 
placing their Wares outward and homeward, as though they did nothing remember 
the horrible Defiling of their Souls in buying and selling, with many deceitful 
Lyes, and fahe Perjury, with Drunkenness and Strifes, and so specially with 
drawing themselves and their Servants from divine Service: the . . King . . 
hath ordained That all Manner of Fairs and Markets in the said principal Feasts 
and Sundays, and Good-Friday, shall clearly cease from all shewing of any 
Goods or Merchandises, necessary Victual only except, upon Pain of Forfeiture 
of all the Goods aforesaid . . the Four Sundays in Harvest except . . . T> 

Sabbatk Doings* See in 1579, T. F. J s Newes from the North. Cap. 14. . . 
"For I hauc partely shewed you heer, what leaue and libertie the common people, 
namely 2 youth, haue to follow their own lust and desire in all wantonnes and 
dessolation of life. For further proof wherof, I call to witnesse the Theaters, 

1 Robbing: "tokmea bough, to robbe or rifle a boeweth [booth]." 1567. 
J. Harman, Cauwf: Rogues, their pelting Speche ; p. 84, E. E. T. Soc., 1869, 

2 specially. 



300 Notes on pp. 139, 141- Keeping of Sunday. 

Curtines 1 , Heauing houses, Rifling boothes, Bowling alleyes, and such places,^ 
where the time is so shamefuly mispent, namely 2 the Sabaoth daies, vnto the 
great dishonor of God, and the corruption and vtter distraction of youth " (ed. 
1585, sign. F. 4). With other extracts, in my edition of F. Thynne's Animad- 
verswns, p. cxxxv. 

"But what is he that may not on the Sabbath-day attend to hear God's word, 
But he will rather run to bowls, sit at the alehouse, than one hour afford, 
Telling a tale of Robin Hood, sitting at cards, playing at skittles, or some 

other vain thing, 

That I fear God's vengeance on our heads it will bring." 
1584. The Three Ladies of London. Hazlitt's Dodsley's Old Plays, vi. 28. 

p. 139, 1. 13. it chaumed that a certabu J&ve. ** In this yere [43 Hen III.] 
fell that happe of the Jewe of Tewkysbury, whiche fell into a gonge vppon the 
Saterdaye, and wolde not for reuerence of his sabbot day be plucked out ; 
wherof heryng the Erie of Glouceter, that the Jewe dyd so great reuerence to 
hys sabbot daye, thought he wolde do as myche to his holydaye, whych was 
Sondaye, and so kept hym there tyll Monday, at which season he was found dede." 
Fafyan* Quoted in Prompt. Parv., s. v. Goonge. According to Munster (Cos- 
megraphy, bk. III. p. 738, ed. 1550) this happened in Germany in 1270. Respect 
for the Sabbath made the Jews reject their unfortunate brother's entreaties to 
be released. Munster says that it was Conrad, bishop of Magdeburg, earl of 
Sternenberg, " Judseis multuw fuit infestus," who indulged in this vile jest, 
which the Jew seems to have survived. S. 

p. 141, 1. 7 from foot. Theopompus mingled Moyses law with his writinges. 
He [Demetrius Phalereus] told him [Ptolemy Philadelphia] that "Theopompus 
was desirous of writing somewhat about them [the Jewish laws], but was thereupon 
disturbed in his mind for above thirty days 7 time ; and upon some intermission of 
his distemper, he appeased God [by prayer] as suspecting that his madness pro 
ceeded from that cause. Nay, indeed, he further saw a dream, that his distemper 
befel him while he indulged too great a curiosity about divine matters, and was 
desirous of publishing them among common men ; but when he left off that 
attempt, he recovered his understanding again. Moreover he informed him of 
Theodectes, the tragic poet, concerning whom it was reported, that when, in a 
certain dramatic representation, he was desirous to make mention of things that 
were contained in the sacred books, he was afflicted with a darkness in his eyes ; 
and that upon Ms being conscious of the occasion of his distemper, and appeas 
ing God [by prayer], he was freed from that affliction." Whiston's Josephus, 
Antiq. XII. ii. 13, vol. ii p. 148, ed, 1818. S. 

1 See note for p. 144 on p. 304 below. 2 specially. 



Notes on pp. 140 146. Theatres, Players. 301 



PLAYHOUSES, THEATRES, AND ACTORS, &c. 

p. 140, &c. Step-Play;* B^ir\i;i!n^ &v., en SunJn'S. 

" Tae Sabboth day-* an 1 holy days ci-laine! far ths hearing of God's word to 
the reformation of oar lives, for ths administration and receiving of the Sacra 
ments to Oir comfort, for the seeking of all tilings Lehoovt-ful for body or sou! at 
God's hand by Prayer, for the minding of bl& benefits, and to yield praise and 
thanks unto Mm for the same, anJl finally, for the special occupy ing of ourselves 
In all spiritual exercises, is spent fall LeatiienL-hly, in taverning, tippling, gaming, 
playing and beholding of Bear-baiting and Stage plays to the utter dishonour of 
God, impeachment of ail godliness, and unnecessary consuming of men's sub 
stances which ought to be better employed." Liturgical Service*, time of Queen 
Elizabeth, p. 574, Parker Soc. 

p. 144. Theaters &* eiirtens. James Burbage's "Theatre" in Finsbary 

Fields, near Bis!iopgale St., built ab. 1577, anl said to have been the first 
regular theatre built (but see Harrison, I, Appendix I to Forewords, p. liv), 
and the Curtain* built before 1579, In or near the present Curtain Road close by. 

p. 140-6. Here are a few extracts from a rare tract in the Lambeth Library, 
made before Mr. Hazlitt reprinted it ia his Roxburghe Library (1869), English 
Drama and Stage^ 1543-1664. 

** A second and third blast ! / of retrait from plaies] and Theatres :/ the one 
wfaretf wju sounded by & r/-/uerend Byshop dead long since 2 ;/ the other fy a 
worshipful and] zealous Gentleman/ now aliue .*/ One showing the filthiness of 
plaies in/ times past ; tke&tkir the abhominatfan off Theaters in the time present :/ 
expTisty proving that the Common-weak is] nigh vnto the cursse of God ; 
what- {in either platers fa made of j or I Theaters main -lfainfd.1 Set forth by Anglo 
phile Eathea/ Ephes. 5, verse 15, l6./ Take kee& therefore that ye walke circum- 
spsctlie^ not] aszmwjsff, but as wise^ redeeming the time^ \ because the dates are euilJ 
Allowed by anctoritie/ 1580 

"Evils of travelling players Since the reteining of these Caterpillers [Players], 
the credite of Noble men hath decaied, & they are thought to be couetously per 
mitting their seraants, which cannot Hue of thewselues, and whome, for neerenes 

. they wil not maintaine, to Hue at the deuotion or almes of other men 

jrleuffTS . . ' 

bold passing from countne to countne, 3 from one Gentlemans house to another, 
beggers. o g- er j n g ^^ sen iice which is a kind of beggerie. Who in deede, to 
spealce more trulie, are become beggers for their seraants. For connnonlie 
the goodwil men beare to their Lordes, makes them drawe the stringes of their 
purses to extend their liberalitie to them, where othei-wise they would not, 

"By such infamous persons much time is lost ; and manie daies of honest trauel 
are turned into vaine exercises. Wherein is learned nothing but abuse ; poore men 

1 Gosson f s Sckwle of Abuse was the first. 

2 Salviano, Bp. of Massilia, ab. 470. De GubemaUme Dd, bk, vi, 

3 county to county. 



302 Notes on p. 146. Theatres, Satan's Chapels. 

lining on their handle labor, are by them trained vnto vnthriftines ; schoolers, 
by their gaudes are allured from their studies. 

" Thus the people are robbed ; youth corrupted ; the Sabboth proplianed : and 
of all these euils, who are counted the vpholders, but the Noble, who of right 
Traiam the should establish the lawe of the Roman Traiam, who commanded 
Mmpertr fl^ no pi a j erj i es ter, nor iugler, should be admitted in his Common- 
we^Ie to pick the purses of his subiects, but that they should either learne some 
occupation to mainteine themselues in their owne houses, or otherwise be 
banished out of Rome. But now, such like men, vnder the title of their maisters, 
or as reteiners, are priuiledged to roaue abroad, and permitted to publish their 
Temples mametree ! in euerie Temple of God, and that throughout England, 
& plate, vnto the horrible contempt of praier. So that now the Sanctuarie is 
become a plaiers stage, and a den of theeues and adulterers.'* p. 75-8. A second 
and third blast of relrait from plaies and Theaters, 1580. 

" Whosoeuer shal visit the chappel of Satai^ I meane the Theater, shal finde 
Theaters tfa there no want of yong ruffins, nor lacke of harlots, vtterlie past al 
C Saian. * shame : who presse to the fore-frunt of the scaffoldes, to the end to 
sliowe their impudencie. and to be as an obiect to al mens eies. 2 Yea, such is 
their open shameles bebauior, as euerie man may perceaue by their wanton 
gestures, wherevnto they are giuen ; yea, they seeme there to be like brothels of 
The opm the stewes. For often, without respect of the place, and company which 
^iarfots behold them, they commit that filtliines openlie, which is horrible to 
at plates, be done in secret ; as if whatsoeuer they did, were warranted. For 
neither reuerence, iustice, nor anie thing beside, can gouerne them " (ed. Hazlitt, 
p. 139). 

Against (p- I io.) "As I haue had a saieng to these versi-fieng Plaie-rnakers, 
%ffou*fta? so must * hkewise deale with shameles inactors. When I see by 
plaies. them yong boies, inclining of themselues vnto wickednes, trained 

vp in filthie speeches, vnnatural and vnseemlie gestures, to be brought vp by 
(p. in) these Schoolemasters in bawderie, and in idlenes, I cannot chuse, but 
with teares and griefe of hart lament, 

* { O with what delight can the father behold his sonne bereft of shamefastnes, 
& trained vp to impudencie ! How proane are they of themselues, 
^ apt t0 receiue instruction f A^ lewde teachers, which are the 
Schoolemasters of sinne in the schoole of abuse 1 what do they 
teach them, I praie you, but to foster mischiefe in their youth, that 
it maie alwaies abide in them, and in their age bring them sooner vnto hel ? 

" And as for those stagers themselues, are they not commonlie such kind of men 
Disposition in their conuersation, as they are in profession ? Are they not as 
%r l f^mst variable in hart, as they are in their partes ? are they (p. 112) not 
part. good practisers of Bawderie as inactors ? Liue they not in such sort 

1 maumetrie, idolatry. 

2 Cp. the ironical Actors Remonstrance in 1643 : "we shall for the future 
promise never to admit into our six-penny-roomes those unwholesome inticing 
Harlots that sit there meerely to be taken up by Prentizes or Lawyers Clerks, no? 
any female of what degree soever, except they come lawfully with their husbands 
or neere allies." (Hazlitt, ib. p. 65.) 



Notes on p. 146, P/ai/er$y iiifamousfoik. 303 

as they precepts vnto others ? not their talke on the stage 

Platm cam Declare the nature of their ? doth not eaerie one take that 

t^fffm^mJ P* 1 * w -^ cil ^ s P r p to his kind ? not the Floughmans toag 

t& f&s of Ms plough ; the Sea-faring man of his mast, cable, and 

a,xtAtt. g^jg . |, e i^; er O f ^5 harnes, speare, and shield ; <k bawdie mates 
of bawdie matters? Aske them, If in their laien^ out of their paries, they choose 
not those parts which is most agreeing to their inclination, and that thay can 
best discharge ? And looke what euene of them doth most delight in, that he 
can best handle to the contentment of others. If it be a misting, bawdie, and 
Iiiciuioas part ? wherein are vnseemelie (p. 113} speeches, & that they make cliolse 
of them as best ans",vering & proper to their manner of plaie : male we not 
sale, by how much lie exceedes in his gesture, lie delightes himselfe in his part ? 
& by so much It is pleasing to his disposition and nature ? If (it be his nature) 
to be a bawdie plaier, & be delight in such filthie & cursed actions, shal we not 
tMnke Mm in his life to be more disordered, and to abhor virtue ? . . . . 

" If the good life of a man be a "better instruction to repentance than the tong, or 
words, why do not plaiers, I beseech you, leaue examples of goodiies to their pos- 
teritie ? Bat which of them is so zealous, or so tendereth his owne saluatiow that 
he doth amend himselfe in those polntes, which, as they sale, others should take 
heede of ? Are they not notoriouslie known to be those men in their life abroade, 
as they are on the stage, roisters, brallers, il-dealers, bosters, loners, loiterers, 
ruffins ? So that they are alwaies exercised in plaieng their parts, and practising 
wickednes ; making that an art, to the end they might the better gesture it m their 
partes. For who can better plaie the raffin tha a verie ruffian ? who better the 



Ckie/e end ^ otler ^ ian &*&? wno make It a common exercise ? To conclude, the 
oftfeues* principal end of all their interludes is, to feede the world with (p. 116} 

sights & fond pastimes ; to wriggle in good earnest the monie out of 



other mens purses into their owne hands. What shall I saie ? They 
are infamous men.** (End of the Blast extracts. ) 

"Those also haue offended in wantoenesse, that giue themselues libertie 
to be present at, and see, such things as bee practises of wantonnesse, as 
stage-playes> which seme for nothing but to nourish filthinesse ; and where they 
are most vsed, there filthinesse is most practised ; where the man is cloathed 
with womans apparel! ; and that ordinarily is put in vse, which the Lord 
condenmeth as an hainous abomination. Dent. (22. 5.) This is a way to 
breede confusion of sexes, and it is a plaine belying of the sexe." 1615. [R. 
Cleaver] Exposition of the Ten Commandments t p. 299. 

On the *light-taylde huswiues* at the Globe in 1600, see John Lane in my 
Tdl-Traih volume, 1876, p. 133, and the note on p. 199 ; also Harrison, Ft. I. 
p. lxxix> kxx. 

"as enterlude-plaiers, you shal now see them on the stage, play a King,, an 
Emperor, or a Duke ; but they are no sooner off the stage, but they are base 
rascals, vagabond objects, and porterly hirelings, which is their naturall and 
originall condition," 1603,- J. Florio, Montaignes Essays (French, 1580), ed. 
1634, p. 140. 

" Players shal haue libertie to be as famous in pride and idlenes, as they are 
dissolute in lining, and as best in their marriages for commuiutie, as vnhappie in 



304 Notes on pp. 144 ! 47- Men and girk at Theatres. 

their choyces for honesty." 1606. Anthony Nixon, The Black Yeare, C 3. 
** There shall be also as much strife among Players, who shall haue the greatest 
Auditory, as is warre among the foure knaues at Cardes, for superioritie. " Ib. B 

2, back. 

p. 144, at foot. Gosson has an amusing passage IB his Schooli of Abuse, 1579 
(old Sliakesp. Soc., 1841, p. 25). on men's behaviour to girls at the theatre or 
play-house, and their making it a place for picking one another up on Sundays : 
s< In our assemblies at playes in London, you shall see suche heaving and 
shooving, suche ytching and shouldering, to sytte by women ; suche care for their 
garments that they be not trade on ; suche eyes to their lappes, that no chippes 
light e in them ; such pillowes to their backes, that they take no hurte : suche 
masking in. their eares, I know not what ; suche geving them pippins 1 to passe 
the time ; such playing at foote saunt without cardes ; such ticking, such toying. 
such smiling, such winking, and such manning them home when the sportes are 
ended, that it is a right comedie to marke their behaviour, to watch their con- 
ceates, as the catte for the mouse, and as good as a course at the game it selfe, to 
dogge them a little,, or follow aloofe by the printe of their feete, and so discover 
by slotte where the deare taketh soyle. 

** If this were as well noted as il seene, or as openly punished as secretely 
practised, I have no doubt but the cause woulde be seared, to drye up the effect, 
and these prettie rabbets verye cunnmglie ferretted from their borrowes. For 
they that lacke customers all the weeke, either because their haunt is unknowen, 
or the constables and officers of their parish watch them so narrowly that they 
dare not queaiche, to celebrate the Sabboth, flocke too theaters, and there keepe 
a general! market of bawdrie. Not that any filthmesse, in deede, is committed 
within the compasse of that ground, as was once done in Rome, but that every 
wanton and [his] paramour, everye man and his mistresse, every John and his 
Joane, every knave and his queane, are there first acquainted, and cheapen the 
merchandise in that place, which they pay for else where, as they can agree. 
These wormes, when they dare not nestle in the pescod at home, find refuge 
abrade, and ar hidde in the eares of other mens corne." 

p. 144-5. playhouse. See chapter vi of Dekker's Guls Hornbook^ 1609, 
" How a Gallant should behave himself in a Playhouse.'* 



LORDS OF MISRULE, MAY-GAMES, CHURCH-ALES, &c. 

p. 146. Lords QfMisruU See Brand's Popular Antiquities, ed. Ellis, 184.1, 
i. 272-8 (Stubbs is the chief authority), and ed. Hazlitt, 1870, i. 272-281 ; the 
latter has several valuable fresh extracts. 

p. 147. Lords of Misrule in the Churchyard. 

"Whether the minister and churchwardens have suffered any lords of misrule 
or summer lords or ladies, or any disguised persons, or others, in Christmas or 

1 See the extract from Gosson' s Playes confuted (ab. 1580) in Harrison, Pt. I. 
p, Ixxx : ' they give them pippines \ they dally with their garments,' c. 



Notes on pp. 148^ 149. May-games. 305 

at or any or at any to come tmrevareatly 

Into the or chnxchyaxd, to dance or play any nnseemlj parts, 

with or talk, [= specially] in the time 

of Prayer. . ."1576. Arch-Bi&hop Grindal, Artulm for the 

Province of Canterbury^ p. 175, Parker Soc, 1843, 

Sl . . . . their churches and chapels be kept clean and decently, that 

they be not to any, either by dust, sand, gravel, or any filth ; and 

that there be no dinners, or common drinking kept in the Church ; and 

that the Church-yard be well fenced, and cleanly kept, and that no folks he suf 
fered to in the same." 1571-2. Bishop Gri&dal, Injunctions of York for 
the Laity, 1843, p. 135- 

p. 148-9, games. See the latter part of the extract from Nortlibrooke, 

in the note for p. 155, below, p. 314. Compare Hemck's kindlier account: 
** Come, my Corinna, come ; and comming t marke 
How each field turns a street ; each street a parke 

Made green, and trimm'd with trees : see how 

Devotion gives each, house a bough, 

Or branch : each porch., each doore, ere this, 

An arke, a tabernacle is 
Made up of white*thorn neatly entenvove ; 
As if here were those cooler shades of love. 

Can such delights be in the street, 

And open fields, and we not see't ? 

Come, we'll abroad ; and let's obay 

The proclamation made for May : 
And sin no more, as we have done, by staying ; 
But, my Corinna, come, let* s goe a Maytag, 
There's not a budding boy, or girle, this daj f 
But is got up, and gone to bring in May. 

A deale of youth, ere this, is come 

Back, and with White-thorn laden home. 

Some have dispatcht their cakes and creame, 

Before that we have left to dreame : 
And some have wept, and woo'd, and plighted troth, 
And chose their priest, ere we can cast off sloth : 

Many a green-gown has been given ; 

Many a kisse, both odde and even : 

Many a glance too has been sent 

From out the eye, love's firmament : 
Many a jest toH of the keyes betraying 
This night, and locks pickt, yet w'are not a Maying.* 1 

Herric&s Ifespendes (1869), p. 70. 

I remember getting up before sunrise, forty years ago, on the First of May 
and eight succeeding mornings, and washing my face in dew to take away 
freckles, for which washing in May-dew nine mornings together was said to be a 
cure. R. Roberts. 

SHAXSPEBE'S ENaLAKD I STUBBES, 20 



306 Notes on pp. 149, 150. Ulay games, &c. 

p. 149. J/r'7w/,r. Stafford, In 1581, says that these, and wakes, revels, 
wagers at wrestling, &c., had been. * layde downe now*, p. 16 of my N. Sh. Soc. 
edition. He can have meant only f partly disused.' 

"Littifwif. He was a baker, sir, but he does dream now, and see visions ; 
he has given over his trade. 

Quarlous. I remember that too : out of a scruple he took that, in spiced 
conscience, those cakes he made, were served to bridales, maypoles, morrices, and 
such profane feasts and meetings. His Christian name is Zeal-of-the-Iand." 
1614. Ben J orison, Bartholomew Fair, I. i. ; Works t ed. Cunningham, ii. 152, 
col. L 

"Well, syr, after theez horsmen, a liuely morisdaumj- according too the 
auncient manner, six daunserz, Mawdmarion, and the fooL" 1575- Laneham's 
Leifer, p. 22 of my edition. 

p. 150. Ckurck-Ales, or Whitsun-Ales. See Brand's Pop. Antiq* i. 157-161, 
ed. Ellis, 1841, and ed. Hazlitt, 1870, i. 156-172. 'For Scot-Ales, Give- Ales, 
Sect- Ales, Bride- Ales, Clerk- Ales, &<x, see Arck&olog-ia, xii. 11-17.' 

Church- Ales on Sundays : ' by an order made in July, 1595, at a Sessions held 
in the Chapter House . , It is declared that all ** Church or parish ales, revels, 
May-games, plays, and such other unlawful assemblies of the people of sundry 
parishes unto one parish on the Sabitatk day and other times, is a special cause 
that many disorders, contempts of law, and other enormities are there perpetrated 
and committed, to the great profanation of the Lord's * Saboth,* the dishonour of 
Almighty God, increase of bastardy, and of dissolute life, and of very many other 
mischiefs and inconveniences, to the great hurt of the commonwealth." It is 
therefore ordered that these assemblies shall be abolished on the Sabbath ; that 
there shall be no drink "used, kept or uttered " upon the Sabbath, at any time 
of the day, nor upon any holiday or festival in the time of divine service or 
preaching of the Word ; nor at any time in the night season ; nor yet that there 
shall be " any Mynstralsy of any sort, Dauncying, or suche wanton Dallyances," 
used at the said May-games,' &c, 'In January 1599, the justices took a long 
step further, and having discovered that many inconveniences "which with 
modestie cannot be expressed, " had happened in consequence of these gatherings, 
they ordered that parish ales, church ales, and revels should thenceforth be 
utterly suppressed. A market which had l>een held on the " Saboth" at East 
Budletgh, was also abolished/ 1878. A, H. A. Hamilton, Quarter Sessions 
from Q. Elkateth fit Q. Anne, p. 28-9. 

And under James I * An order of Easter 1607 declares that church ales, 
parish ales, young men's ales, clerks' ales, sextons* ales, and all revels, are to be 
utterly suppressed. Yet we ind as late as 1622 that the war against them was 
still being carried on/ Ib. p. 73. 

"An other sorte of blynde sfeauelings . . preache muche holynes and Gods 
sendee to stande in their holy oyle/ holy creame / holy water / holy asshes / hal- 



1 See GifFord's Ben Jonson, Vol. i, pp. 50, 51, 52, and ChappeU's Popular 
Music, pp. 130 135.- W. C. 



Notes on p. 150. die-drinking, &c 307 

lowed / of a of In Laten / keepinge of churth 

m/s 9 in the with / / and / they zaaynt eyne (he 

profett of (to the honoare of God, as they both saye and thyncke}." 

1544.^ *> . . the Ey&t. E. K T. Soc. 1871, p. 4*- 



p. i^cx Ale ssld in 

** Item, whether upon the holy-days there "be kept in the Church or Church 

yard any market, buying or selling, with such doings as becometa neither the 
day nor the place." ? Ab. 1550. Hooper, Injmutims (?; in Ms Later 

(Parker Soc,), p. 142, 

44 Item, that the churchwardens do not permit any buying, selling, gaming, 
outrageous noises, tumult, or any other idle occupying of youth, in the church, 
church-porch or church -yard, daring the time of common prayer, sermon, or 
reading of the homily." ? Ab. 1550, Bishop Hooper, Later Writings (Parker 
Soc.), p- 129. 

"Ye snail not keep, or suffer to be kept, in your parsonage or vicarage 
houses, any alehouses, tippling-houses, or taverns, nor shall sell ale, beer or 
wine. 11 . . . 1571-2. Bishop Grindal, Injunctions at York far the Clergy > p. 
130, Parker Society. 

" The Churchwardens shall not suffer any pedler, or others whatsoever, to set 
out any wares to sale, either in the porches of churches or in the church-yards, 
nor any where else on holy days or Sundays, while any part of divine service is 
in doing, or while any sermon is in preaching." 1571-2. Bishop Grindal, 
Injunctions at York for the Laity, Retrains, p. 138, Parker Society. 

p. 150* L 19, Hufcap.--See Harrison* I. 295 : "there is snch headie ale & 

beere in most of them [markets], as for the mightinesse thereof, among such as 

seelce it out, is commonEe called /utjjfecafi, the mad dog, father whoresonne, 
angels food, dragons miBce, [go by the wall, stride wide, and lift leg, (iS^7)] 
&c . . It is increjdible to sale how oar maltbngs Ing at this liquor, enen as pigs 
should He in a row, lugging at their dames teats, till they lie still againe, and be 
not able to wag." 

I thought at first that the kuftie-tuftie of Snuffe, the Clown of the Curtain in 
1600, was this Hnf-cap : but the extract below, from T. Nash, in his ffaue -with 
you to Saffron Walden, sign. L 4, shows that Snuffe used the word for an exclama 
tion, "jolly," or the like. " Who's the Foole now ?" asks Snuffe, and answers, 
his drunken friend who got robbd on Ms way to the Curtain theatre in Shoreditch : 

" My friend was pleasant, drinking all the day, 

With hufS^tuftw^ let vs all be merrie, 

Foigetiing how the time did passe away : 

Sadi is mans folly, making himself wearie. 
But now attend, and I will teU the rest, 
How my Mends follie he could scarce disgest 

When he was beaten with a Brewers washing bittle 
Or had in deed almost quite burst Ms tnombe, 
Or had behelde the DineU, where he did tipple, 



308 Notes on p. 150. Church Ales, &c 

Or (the old word) was dninke, marke what did come. 
Thus It fell out, as lie him selfe did say, 
He to the Curtaine went, to see a Pky. 

His friendes went with him, and as wise as hee, 

Yet wiser as it chaunst, for he went reeling \ 

A tottering world it was, God wott, to see 

My friend disguisde thus without sense or feeling, 
Here a fell downe, and vp againe, God wott, 
Backward and forward staggring like a sott. 

A soberer man than he, or girle or boy, 
I know not who for he Mm selfe not knowes 
Begins to looke into this goodly toy, 
And, to teach him wit, this deede at pleasure showes : 
Into his pocket diues, and being alone, 
Pursse, hat, cloake, from my drunken friend was gone."- 
1600. Quips upon Questions, sign. B 4, back,, and C I. 

kufffy tet/ty, adv. bravely, finely. 

** I haue a tale at my tungs emd if I can happen vpon it, of his hobby horse 
reiielling & dominering at Audley-end, when the Queene was there : to which 
place Gabriell [Harvey] (to doo his countrey more worship & glory) came raffling 
it out tuffly in his suite of veluet" 1596. T, Nashe, Ham with you to 

Saffron~waldett 9 sign. L 4, back. 

(I've unluckily mislaid my other extracts on the names for being drunk.) 

p. 150. Church-ales. "There were no rates for the poor in my grand 
father's days 1 ; but for Kington St, Michael (no small parish) the church-ale at 
Whitsuntide did 'the business. In every parish is (or was) a church-house, ttf 
which belonged spits, crocks &c. , utensils for dressing provision. Here the house 
keepers met, and were merry, and gave their charity. .The young people were" 
there too, and had dancing, bowling, shooting at butts c., th'e ancients sitting 
gravely by and looking on." All things were civil and without scandal. This 
church-ale is doubtless derived from the ayaTrai, or love-feast, mentioned in the 1 
New Testament"- Aubrey's Introduction to the Survey of Wiltshire, in his, 
MiscdUauis (library of Old Authors), pp. 216-17- S. 

p. 150. Church- Aks &> Dandng, Compare the Bride- Ales*:* 
*' Early in the morning the wedding" people begynne to excead^ in superfluous 
eating & drinkyng j wherof they spytte vntiU the halfe sermon' be done. And 
whan they come to the preaching [ they are halfe 'dronke \ some altogether \ 
therefore regard they nether the preaching ner prayer ] but stonde ther onely 
because of the custome. Suck folkes also do come vnto the Church with all 
maner of pompe and pryde \ & gorgiousnesse of rayment' and Jewels. They 
come with a greate noyse of basens & drommes \ wher-with fhey trouble the 

1 Say about, 1600. Aubrey was born in 1626, and died about 1697. 



Notes on pp. 150^ 152. Bride-jfl&s and Wakes. 309 

J & in to god They come In to 

the ] as it into an hoase of merdmimdise | to lay forth theyr 

wares & offre to sell vato vyce and wickediiesse. And euen as they 

come to the Church | so go they from the Church agayne [ lyght 1 nyce f in 
slamefiill and vayae wantonesse." (Fol 50.) FoL Ivi, ed. 1552. 

** After the baacket feast ] there begynnetb a vayne | madd f and vn- 
xoanerly fhshio* . For the Bijde must be brought in to an open daunting place, 
Then is there a rennlnge \ leapinge I and flynging amonge them | then is 

there such a lyftinge Tp and dlscGiieringe of the damesels clothes and of other 
wemens apparell 1 that a man might thlnke | all tlxese dauncers had cast all 
sliame behmde them 1 and were become starke madde, and out of theyr wyttes 1 
and that they were swome to the deaeis dannce. Then must the poore bryd 
kepe foote with all dauncers J & refuse none j how scabbed ( foole | dronckew | 
rade and snameles soener lie be. Then must she oft tymes heare and se much 
wickednesse j & many an vnconaely word. And that noyse and rombllng 
endiiretla enen tyll sapper. 

" As for supper, looke how much, shameles and dronken the evening Is more 
then the morning, so much, the more vice, exces, and misimrtiire is vsed at the 
supper. After supper, must they begin to pype and dannce again of anew. And 
though the young persons (being weary of the bablyng noyse and inconvenience) 
come once towards their rest, yet can they haue no quietness. For a man shall 
find vnmanerly and restles people that wylJ first go to their chamber doore, and 
there syng vicious and naughty balates, that the devil may have his whole 
triomphe now to the vttermost." 1541. Miles Coverdale, The CMs&an State 
0fMzrimmj?% foL 51 (sign. H i, Fol. Mi, ed. 1552). 

**rje vpont, what a miserable thing tis to be a noble Bride! there's such 
delayes in rising, in fitting gownes, in tyring, in pinning; Rebatoes, in peaking^ 
in dinner, in supper, in Reuei% & last of aH in cursing the poore nodding fidlers 
for keeping Mistris Bride so long vp from sweeter Reuels, ^that, oh I could 
"neoer endure to put it vp without much bickering/* 16*02. T. Dekker, 
Satirvmastir. Works, 1873, i. 186, 

ct As for matrimony, that hath also corruptions too many .... Other petty 
jy-^ggg things out of the book we speak not of, as that women, contrary to the 
accidental nii e of the Apostle, come, and are suffered to come, bareheaded, with. 
bagpipes and fiddlers before them, to disturb the congregation ; and they must 
come in at the great door of the church, else all is marred." 1570-1600. 
Archbp. WMtgift, Works, vol. iii p. 353, Parker Soc. 

p. 152. Wakes and Feasts* See Brand's Popular Antiquities, ii. i-io, ed. 
Ellis, 1841, and ii i-io, Hi. 7-8, ed. Haziitt, 1870. 

* Wvka : a very old English custom. The 35th of EHric's Canons is : 
** ye ought not to make merry over dead men, nor to hunt after a corpse, unless ye 
be invited to it When ye are invited, forbid the heathenish songs of laymen, 
and thear loud cackling, and do not eat & drink over the body in their heathenish 
manner/ 1 (Quoted from Wilkins's Concilia^ Vol. i, p* 255, by Chappell, in his 
Introduction to Old English Dtitws, p. 81.) * 



3io Notes on p. 152. JFakes, Sunday Fairs, &c. 

The above are the real Irish wakes, not those on the eve of Saints* Days 
whin the people danced in the churches or church-yards through the night. W. C. 

p. 152. wakes, &c. See The Chetham Miscellan&s, Vol. V* Ed. F. R. 
Raines (Chetham Society). The Atkm@um Review^ August 12, 1876, says : 
" The first article in the collection is a Report on * The State, Civil and Ecclesi 
astical, of the county of Lancaster,' made by certain of the clergy about 1590.* 
.... The authors of the Report were for the most part men of Puritan leanings, 
bat there is nothing particularly strange or grotesque in the complaints they make. 
We know from many other sources that the rough-and-ready manner in which 
the Reformed doctrines and discipline had been planted in the county palatine of 
Lancaster had cruelly wounded the feelings of many, and that the first result of a 
change so violent was an alarming amount of godlessness. Almost every clause 
of this old paper shows that the bonds of authority had become terribly relaxed, 
and that there was no strong public opinion on the side of moral order to keep 
loose persons in check. Not only do we find that the mediaeval custom of hold 
ing fairs and markets on Sunday was still usually retained, and that 'wackes, 
ales, greenes, maigames, rushbearinges, bearebaites, doveales, bonfires, [and] all 
maner vnlawful gaming, pipeinge, and datmsing, and such like, ar in all places 
freely exercised vppon y* Sabboth/ but that the persons who professed to con 
form to the worship of the English Church frequently did so in such a manner as 
to show their contempt for her ritual, some walking about and talking, others 
laughing during prayers, 2 while the more devout evinced their adherence to the 

1 ** The manifolde Enormities of the Ecclesiasticall state in the most partes of 
the Countie of Lancaster j and many of them in som partes also of Cheshire 
[about the year 159