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The Philobiblon of Richard 
De Bury 





Seal of Richard de Bury 

The Philobiblon of 
Richard de Bury 

Bishop of Durham Treasurer and 
Chancellor of Edward III 

Edited and Translated by Ernest C. 
Thomas Barrister-at-law late Scholar 
of Trinity College Oxford and Li- 
brarian of the Oxford Union 

Kegan Paul, Trench and Co. 





Librorum Dilectoribus 

ac praecipue 

Sam : Timmins 

Ricardi Nostri 


I I 13561 


Preface .... 
Introduction : 


Bibliographical . 
Philobiblon Ricardi de Bury 
The Philobiblon translated 
Index .... 







Although more than five centuries have passed aivay 
since Richard De Bury wrote the last words of the 
Philobiblon in his ^ Manor at Auckland on the 2/\th 
of January^ 1345/ l^^i^ ^^ only the second occasion on 
which the original text of his little treatise has been 
printed in his native coujitry. The editio?is printed 
abroad were based upon inferior 7na??u scripts ^ and 
even the edition published by Tho7?ias James, Bodlefs 
first librarian, left much to be done with 7?iore pains 
and the aid of better manuscripts. The French editor 
Cocheris, in 1856, though he made 2ise of three 
new manuscripts, printed a?i eveti less correct text than 
those of the ea7iiest editiofis, yet, owing to the scarcity 
of the earlier copies, this edition is the only one that 
ca7i be said to be generally accessible. The text now 
printed after a careful examination of twenty-eight 
manuscripts a?id of the various printed editions may 
claim to give for the first time a representation of the 
Philobiblon as it left its winter's hands. 

The plan of the present edition has been sufficiently 
explained in the Intro duct io7i {seep. Ixxvii), a?id it only 
re77iains for the Editor i7i this place to express his 
ack7iowledg77ients to those fro?n whom he has received 


the most liberal and valuable assistance in his under- 

He is indebted to the President and Fellows of 
Corpus Christi College, Oxford; to the President and 
Fellows of Magdalen College, Oxford; to the Master 
and Fellows of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge ; 
and to the Trustees of Bishop Cosines Library, Dur- 
ham ; for the liberality with which th^^y have en- 
trusted to him their MSS. of the Philobiblon. He 
also tenders his thanks to the Curators of the Bodleian 
Library, Oxford ; the Warden and Fellows of All 
Souls' College, Oxford ; and the Master and Fellows 
of Trinity College, Camb?'idge ; who havelzindly sent 
their MSS. to the British Museum, or to Grafs Inn 
Library for his use. 

He has further to acknowledge the if iter national 
comity ivith which the Governments of France and 
Bavaria have sent to this country, the former three 
MSS. frotn the Bibliotheque Nationale, and the 
latter, two MSS.fvm the Konigliche Hofund-Staats- 
biblioihek at Munich. He has to acknowledge a 
siniilar kindness from the University of Basel. He 
must express his acknowledgfnents to Mr. E. M. 
Thompson, Keeper of the Ma7iuscripts at the British 
Museum, and to Mr. IV. P. Douthwaite, Librarian 
of Grafs l7in, for their kindness i?i accepting the 
charge of the MSS. so sent. 

The Editor is i7idebted to the Rector and Fellows 
of Lincoln College, Oxford ; the President a?id 
Fellows of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge ; the 


Master atid Fellows of Ball iol College ; the President 
and Fellows of St. John's College^ Oxford^ for the 
facilities they have kifidly afforded him for i?ispecting 
tJmr MSS. 

He has also to tha?ik the Fight Hon. Earl Spen- 
cer, K.G.f who was good enough to send his copy of 
the editio princeps to London for his use, and Mr. 
W. A. Tyssen Amherst, M. P., for a similar courtesy. 
To Mr. Chancellor Christie he is indebted for the 
loan of his copy of the Oxford edition, and for several 
valued communications. He is especially indebted to 
Mr. Sam : Timmins for the loan of his MS. and of 
several of the early editio7is of the book. The greatly 
regretted death of Air. Henry Bradshaw has removed 
one who took much interest in the p?'ese?it work 
and e?ttrusted to the Editor a MS. of the Philo- 
biblon which was in his custody. Fro??i the same 
cause, the Editor is unable to tender his thanks to 
M. Alvifi, the Conservateur of the Bibliotheque 
Royale at Brussels, who ki/uily u?idertook to collate 
the three MSS. in that library, and to Mr. J. E. 
Bailey, of Manchester, who was specially ifitei'ested 
ifi the work and career of De Bury, and lent the 
Editor his copy of 07ie of the early editions. 

Finally, the Editor has to express his acknowledg- 
ments for special courtesies or obliging com?nunicatio7is, 
to His Enmience Cardinal New7nan ; the Lord 
Bishop of Chester ; the Lord Charles Bruce, M.F.; 
the Preside7it of Trinity College, Oxford ; the De- 
puty Keeper of the Records; [P.] Felix Rozdnski ; 


M. Leopold Delisle ; Dr. Attgiist Reichensperger ; 
Dr. G. Laubman7ty of Munich ; Dr. Auerman?t, 
of Erfurt ; Dr. L. Sieber, of Basel ; Dr. F. Letts- 
c/iuh, of Bamberg ; Signor Castellani^ of Venice ; 
Dr. Moritz Steinschneider, of Berliji ; Dr. Leopold 
Seligmann ; M. Henri Omont ; Mr. Geo. Bullen^ 
Mr. E. M. Thompson^ and Dr. R. Gametic of 
the British Museum; Mr. E. B. Nicholson, Mr. 
F. Madan, and the Rev. W. D. Macray, of the 
Bodleian Library ; the Rev. J. T. Fowler, of Dur- 
ham ; Mr. W. Bliss, of Rome ; the Rev. S. S. 
Leivis ; Mr. IL, D. Blakiston ; Mr. T. G. Law ; 
Mr. Evelyn Abbott ; Mr. J. Bass Mullinger ; 
Mr. H. R. Tedder; Mr. C. W. Sutton; Mr. C. W. 
ILolgate; Mr. J. LI. LLessels; Mr. J. A. C. Vin- 
cent, and Mr. Bernard Quaritch. 

Since the Bibliographical l7itroduction was in 
type, Prof essor Henry Morley has reprinted the trans- 
lation of Lnglis. Of this the Editor need say no 
more than that to have reprinted this version without 
an attempt to co7'rect its ?iujnerous mistakes, or to 
make use of the 7naterials for its i77iprove77ient, which 
have co77ie to light sittce it was published, was to do 
less than justice to L7iglis, who did i/ifend to revise 
his tra7islation, and to do the cruellest possible in- 
justice to the 77ie77iory of Richard De Biuy. 

Sherringham, Norfolk, 
October, 1888. 



€r I. Though the account given of himself by 
Richard De Bury in the Fhilobiblon is far from 
satisfying our curiosity, it must be reckoned a 
fortunate circumstance that he has told us so much 
as he has of his career and of his pursuits. Apart 
from the autobiographical particulars which he has 
there set down, we should have had but scanty 
materials from which to present his portrait. The 
chief authority for his life is William de Chambre/ 
one of the Durham historians, whose sketch, how- 
ever, is so slight that, although he tells us of the 
Bishop's great affection for books, and his wonder- 
ful collection of them, he says nothing of his 
project of founding a library at Oxford, and makes 
no mention of the Philobiblon. 

C 2. Richard De Bury was born on the 24th of 
January, 1287, in a little hamlet near Bury St. 
Edmund's, in Suffolk, which was famed for its 

^ Chambre's life, first printed in Wharton's Anglia Sacra, 
is more accurately printed in the Surtees Society edition of the 
Scriptores Tres. Little is known of Chambre, who appears, 
however, to have been an officer of the Convent of Durham. 


monastery.^ His father was Sir Richard Aunger- 
vile, a knight, whose ancestor had come over with 
the Conqueror, and settled in Leicestershire, where 
the family held the manor of Willoughby.^ The 
charge of his education was undertaken by a rector- 
uncle, John de Willoughby, who in the fashion of 
the times had assumed the name of his birth-place. 
From the grammar-school he was sent to Oxford, 
where he is said to have distinguished himself in 
philosophy and theology. It is sometimes said 
that he then became a Benedictine monk in the 
Convent at Durham ; but if this is so, it is curious 
that none of the Durham authorities refer to the 
circumstance, and it seems more likely that the 
story rests upon a blunder in the chronicle of 
Adam de Murimuth.^ His university distinction 
appears to have attracted the attention of the 
Court, and he was called from his studies to 
become governor of Prince Edward of Windsor, 
afterwards Edward IH., who was born in 131 2. 
Dibdin gives De Bury credit for having com- 

^ The Dictionary of National Biography^ following the 
EncyclopiBdia Britannica and the Biographia Bj-itannica^ 
says 1 28 1, but this date rests upon an entirely mistaken 
reading of the final note in the Cottonian copy. 

^ Burton, Description of Leicestershire, p. 288, says that 
in the church of Willoughby, " is this only coat of arms of 
Angervile : Gules, a cinquefoil ermine, a border sable, 
bisante." Cp. Harl. MS., 1404, f. 91 (Papworth, p. 869). 

^ Ed. Hog., p. 73 : Chambre says nothing of it, and the 
first reference to it seems to be in Pits. Ziegelbauer, Hist. 
Lit. Ord. S. Benedict, iv, 636, evidently relies upon Pits. 


municated to his royal pupil some share of his 
own affection for books/ 

C 3. In the year 1322 he was appointed Cham- 
berlain of Chester,- having apparently already 
held the office of clerk to the justices of Chester, 
though the identity of the Ricardus de Sancto 
Edmundo of the Chester records with our Richard 
de Bury had been obscured until Mr. J. E. Bailey 
recently called attention to it.^ He was next 
appointed the King's principal receiver in Gas- 
cony, ■* which was then an English province. In 
this position he became mixed up with the wretched 
intrigues and disturbances which ended in the 
deposition of Edward II. When Prince Edward 
and his mother Isabella were at Paris, in 1325, 
Richard furnished them with a large sum of money 
which he had received in his office. The King's 
lieutenant in Gascony pursued Richard with four- 
and-twenty lancers to Paris, where, in fear of his 
life, Richard had to hide himself for seven days in 
the Campanile of the Friars Minor. 

' Dibdin, Bibliomania, pp. 118-119. 

^ Cp. Coke, 4th Inst. 211 : " The Chambedain of Chester 
hath, and time out of mind hath had, the jurisdiction of a 

^ See Papers of the Manchester Literary Club, 18S0, pp. 
283-2S8 ; Acade?ny, 20 Mar. 1880, p. 214. In the Wells 
register he is called " Ricardus de Bury, alias de S. 
Edmundo." Wharton, Angl. Sacra, i. 589. 

* This is Chambre's phrase ; but his office was perhaps 
more correctly Const alnila7-ins Btirdegaliae. Rot. claus. 
15 Edw. III., p. 3, m. 18 : Reg. Pal. Dunelm. iv. 24S. 


C 4. The accession to the throne, on the 14th of 
January, 1327, of the prince, to whom he had had 
such opportunities of endearing himself, was a 
decisive event for the fortunes of De Bury. He 
was appointed, in quick succession, Cofferer to the 
King, then Treasurer of the Wardrobe,^ and after- 
wards Clerk of the Privy Seal. The King, more- 
over, repeatedly wrote to the Pope, with his own 
hand, recommending his "beloved clerk and secre- 
tary" for ecclesiastical promotion.^ 

In 1330,^ and again in 1333,* De Bury was sent 
as ambassador to the Papal Court, which was then 
in ' Babylonian captivity' at Avignon/ It was an 
age of splendour and display, and Richard fully 
maintained the dignity of his office and of his 
master. Whenever he visited the Pope, or any of 
the Cardinals, he was accompanied by twenty 
clerks uniformly attired, and by thirty-six esquires, 
all wearing his livery. It is of more interest to 

' His inventory of the Crown jewels on resigning their 
charge is printed in the Archccologia, vol. x. p. 241 foil. 

■^ See the King's letter of 26 Dec. 1330, in Rymer, ii. 
2. 804, describing Richard as " virum in consiliis providum, 
conversationis et vitae munditia decorum, litterarum scientia 
praeditum et in agendis quibuslibet circumspectum. " 

^ See the King's letter on his return, dated 25 Oct. 1331 : 
Rymer, ii. 2. 827. 

■^ The co7npotus of his expenses is at the Record Office : it 
extends from 20 Feb. to 20 Nov. 1333. 

^ Even Thomas Watts, in his account of De Bury in the 
English Cydopizdia, and Lord Campbell, in his Lives of the 
Chancellors, 4th ed., i. 192, make De Buiy visit Italy. 


note that during his stay at Avignon, he made the 
acquaintance of Petrarch, who has left upon record 
a brief account of his intercourse with him, the 
extent of which has been somewhat exaggerated. 
So far from a Hterary correspondence having been 
estabhshed between them, Petrarch complains that 
he could get no answer to his letters : " quamvis 
saepe litteris interpellatus exspectationi meae non 
aliter quam obstinato silentio satisfecit." ^ He so 
commended himself to the Pope, John XXII., that 
he was made his principal chaplain ; and, besides 
other privileges, received a rochet in place of a 
bull for the next vacant bishopric in England. 
His ecclesiastical preferments" were already so 
numerous and valuable, that he was master of an 
income of five thousand marks. The most con- 
siderable of them was the Deanery of Wells, to 
which he was appointed in 1333 — "a goodly 
preferment in those daies, better I think than the 
Bishoprick is now," as Bishop Godwin says.^ Nor 
had he long to wait for the promised bishopric. 

^ Ep. Fam. iii. i. De Sade, i. 165-9, points out that 
their friendship must have been fonned during De Bury's 
first visit, as Petrarch was absent from Avignon in 1333. 

^ See the long list of them in Tanner, Bibl. Brit. , 1 748, 
p. 57; which, however, may be supplemented from Browne 
Willis, Cathedrals, ii. 437. Dr. Hook, Archbishops, iv. 
82, gives a highly imaginative account of De Bury as a pre- 
bendar}' of Chichester, but there is no evidence that he held 
a stall there. 

^ Bishops of England, 1601, p. 524. 


C 5. On the 25th of September in the same year, 
the See of Durham became vacant by the death of 
Bishop Louis de Beaumont/ The vacancy led to 
an unfortunate conflict of interests, in which, 
however, the King appears to have been more to 
blame than De Bury. On the 7th of October 
Edward issued his license to the Prior and Con- 
vent of Durham to elect a new Bishop, and the 
choice of the electors fell upon their learned sub- 
prior, Robert de Graystanes. Having received 
letters proclamatory from the Archbishop of York, 
Graystanes proceeded to the King at Ludgers- 
hall, to ask for the temporalities. Meantime the 
King had written to the Prior and Convent and 
also to the Pope, to secure the appointment of 
Richard De Bury ; and his answer to Graystanes 
on his arrival was, that he did not wish to offend 
the Pope, who had already provided De Bury to 
the See, and could not, therefore, consent to his 
election. Graystanes returned to York, and after 
taking advice, was consecrated by the Archbishop 
of York, and duly installed at Durham, after which 
he made another ineffectual attempt to see 
the King. It was impossible for Graystanes and 

^ Beaumont was the Bishop who could not pronounce a 
Latin word at his consecration, and preferred to take it 
as read : " Seyt pur dite ! Par Seynt Lowys, 11 ne fu 
pas curteis que ceste parole ici escrite ! ' He was a relative 
of the Queen, who is said to have begged the appointment 
for him on her bare knees : Scriptores Tres, pp. 98 and 


the Convent to Avithstand the King further, and 
Graystanes returned to his cloister — sine episcopatu 
episcopus.^ He has left upon record a temperate 
statement of his case, in which he refrains from 
throwing any of the blame upon De Bury." 

^ 6. Richard was on his return from Avignon 
while these things were happening, and the tempo- 
ralities were only restored to him on the 7th of 
December.^ On the 1 9th of the same month, the Sun- 
day before Christmas Day,* he was consecrated by 
the Archbishop of Canterbury, in the Abbey of the 
Black Friars of Chertsey, the Bishop of Lincoln pay- 
ing all the expenses at the King's direction. Richard 
was installed by proxy on the loth of January 
following, but was not enthroned in person until 
the 5 th of June,® amid great festivities, attended by 
the King and Queen, the Queen-mother, the King 
of Scots, two archbishops, five bishops, seven earls 

^ Adam de Murimuth, Chronica sui Temporis, ed. Hog, 
p. 74. 

^ See his Chronicle in the Historice Diinelmensis Scriptores 
Tres, p. 120 ff. Abp. Melton's letters to the Prior and Con- 
vent and to the Pope add some curious details : Raine's 
Historical Letters from Northern Registers, p. 36S. 

3 Pat. 7 Edw. Ill,, p. 2. m. 6 ; Reg. Pal. Dunelm. iv. 179. 

^ Hardy makes a curious slip in translating "Dominica 
ante Natnle" as "the Sunday preceding his birthday"; 
which has misled Mr. J. E. Bailey, Papers of the Manchester 
Literary Club, 18S5, p. 402. 

'" The Diet, of Nat. Biography, following the blunder 
of the B. B., puts these festivities at Chertsey at the time of 
the consecration, 19 Dec. 1333. 


with their countesses, and all the magnates north 
of the Trent, together v/ith numbers of knights and 
esquires, and still more abbots, priors, and religious 
persons, and an innumerable multitude of common 
folk. The Bishop was present at Newcastle, on 
the 19th of June, when Edward of Balliol did 
homage to the King.^ 

The Bishop had already on the 3rd of February 
in the same year been appointed Lord Treasurer, 
and on the 28th of September following he ex- 
changed the Golden Keys for the Great Seal^ A 
few days before his appointment as Lord Chan- 
cellor he was made a commissioner, with the 
Bishops of Coventry and Norwich, to visit Oxford 
to inquire into the grave disturbances which had 
led to a secession of a large number of the students 
to Stamford.^ In 1332 Bury had visited the sister 
university of Cambridge as one of the commissioners 
to inquire into the state of the King's scholars there ; 
and it was perhaps upon this occasion that he be- 
came a member of the Gild of S. Mary ^ — one of the 
two gilds which founded Corpus Christi College. 

* Chronicle of Lanercost, p. 277. 

^ Le Neve, Foss, and Hard}' all state the date ot his 
treasurership quite correctly ; yet the Dictionaiy of National 
Biography, again relying upon the B. B., says, " In 1334 he 
was made high chancellor of England and treasurer in 1336." 
Lord Campbell also seems to have been misled by the B. B. — 
See Fat. 7 Edvv. III. p. 2, m. 20 ; 8 Edw. III. p. i, m. 40. 

^ Rymer, ii. 2, p. 892 ; Maxv/ell Lyte, Hist. U. Oxford, 

P- 134- 

'^ Ixlasters-Lrjnb, Corpus ChiisLi College, p. 16. 


C 7- I^e Bury did net long occupy the Marble 
Chair of the Chancellor, whether because its duties 
were not very congenial to one who has spoken so 
disparagingly of the law, or perhaps more probably 
because his services were even more urgently 
required elsewhere. At all events on the 6th of 
June, 1335, at York he restored the Great Seal to 
the King, who transferred it to John Stratford, 
the Archbishop of Canterbury.^ The attention 
of the King and nation was at this time chiefly 
concentrated upon foreign politics and the claim 
put forward by Edward to the French Crov/n. 
The keenest and coolest intellects of the age 
were required for the tasks of diplomacy, and the 
choice of the sovereign again fell upon De Bury. 
The next few years of the Bishop's life were mainly 
devoted to this service, in the course of which he 
thrice visited Paris and spent some time in Flanders, 
Hainault, and Germany. 

|[ 8. Before proceeding abroad, however, the 
Bishop was called upon to put his Palatinate into a 
condition to resist a threatened attack from the 
Scottish border. The King spent great part of the 
year 1335-6 in the north, and appears to have been 
at Auckland from the 12th to the 21st of December 
1335,^ where he was no doubt the guest of the man 
whom he delighted to honour.^ A truce having 

' R)'mer, ii. 2, p. 909. 

* Surtees, Hist, of Durham, i. p. xxxli. 

' See Rymer, ii. 2 pp. 927fF. 


been made with the Scotch, Richard De Bury was 
appointed a special ambassador with the Bishop of 
Winchester and two others to the King of France 
with full povv^ers to treat as to a proposed crusade, 
and as to all questions in dispute between Edward 
and Philip, and also to treat for peace with David 
Bruce. Their appointment was on the 6th of July, 
1336,^ and they returned on the 29th of September,^ 
the result of the mission being unfavourable.^ In 
October the King appears to have been again at 
Auckland.* During the year 1337 Richard De 
Bury v/as three times put at the head of com- 
missioners nominated to lay the King's intentions 
before assembhes of magnates at York and New- 
castle, as to an invasion of Scotland.^ 

^ 9. All the energies of the King were engaged 
in pushing forward preparations for the struggle 
with the French King. But in deference to the 
Pope he consented to make another attempt to 
agree with his adversary; and on the 21st June, 
1338, full powers were given to John Stratford, 
Archbishop of Canterbury, Richard De Bury and 

^ R5^mer, i. 2, pp. 941, 942. 

^ The order for payment of De Biiry's salary of 5 marks 
per diem and of his expenses is dated 4 Nov. ; Ryraer, ii. 2, 
p. 950. His covipotus is at the Record Office. 

"^ Rymer, ii. 2, p. 944. 

^ See docvmicnts in Rymer, ii. 2, pp. 947-9 ; cp. Gibson, 
Miscellanies, 1863, p. 78. 

^ Rymer, ii. 2, pp. 963 (24 March), 979 (28 Jun.), icoo 
(6 Oct.). 


Others, to treat of all causes of difference.^ On the 
1 6th of July the King himself sailed for Antwerp, 
where he landed on the 22nd, and on~the same 
day revoked the powers conferred upon his ambas- 
sadors,^ and they were not renewed until the 15th 
November.^ Edward was busily engaged in pro- 
curing allies and engaging assistance in the Low 
Countries and Germany. De Bury accompanied 
his master on his magnificent progress up the 
Rhine in August and September to that stately 
meeting between Edward and the Emperor Lewis 
at Coblentz, which must have rivalled in the 
splendour of its pageantry the more famous meet- 
ing on the Field of the Cloth of Gold."* Edward and 
Lewis sat on thrones surrounded by more than 
17,000 barons and knights, and Edward was ap- 
pointed Vicar-General of the Empire. The task 
of negotiating with Edward's allies proceeded 
slowly, and we find Richard named as one of the 
hostages for the observance of a treaty made with 
the Duke of Brabant on 22nd June, 1339.^ Edward 
was so pressed for money that he was obliged to 
pledge his crowns. In September a commission 
was issued to the Prince, the Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, and De Bury, to lay the King's pecuniary 

^ Rymer, ii. 2, p. 1043. 
"^ Ibid. p. 1051. 
^ Ibid. p. 1065. 

* See Pauli, Pictures of Old England, pp. 146 ff., for an 
account of this progress from the Wardrobe accounts. 
' Rymer, ii. 2, p. 1083. 


difficulties before his people/ and Richard seems 
to have returned to Endand on the lothof October 
in that year,^ and by December was again in his 
bishopric. His dread and dislike to the war which 
had now begun is clearly visible in his letter to the 
Prior of Durham, ordering thanksgiving for the 
naval victory of Sluys in 1340.^ Though he was 
appointed with others to treat of peace with Philip 
on the Toth of April, 1341/ there seems to be no 
record of his expenses ; and, as a fresh commission 
was issued for the same purpose to other ambas- 
sadors en the 24th of July,^ it is probable that 
De Bury did not proceed upon the embassy : at all 
events we find him attending parliament at Easter, 
and appointed with others to consider the charges 
of treason preferred by the King against the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury and other ministers of the 

C[ 10. This appears, accordingly, to have been De 
Bury's last visit to the Continent. Henceforward, 
save for his attendances in Parliament, he seems to 
have spent his time in the care of his diocese and 
in communion with his books, a communion less un- 
interrupted, doubtless, than the peace-loving Bishop 

^ Rymer, ii. 2, p. 1091. 

^ His coinpohis is at the Record Office and extends from 
II July, 1338, to 10 Oct. 1339, or 457 days. 
^ Depositions, etc. (Surtees Soc), p. 10. 
^ Rymer, ii. 2, p. II 56. 
■' Ibid. p. 1 168. 
^ Rot. Pari. ii. 129. 


would have wished, by the more military duties 
imposed upon him in the protection of the Pala- 

On 28th April, 1340^ he was appointed a com- 
missioner with others to treat with the Scotch for 
peace/ and a truce was concluded in September. 
But in the following July, De Bury and others were 
directed to take measures for the defence of the 
realm against the Scotch,^ and in September a comi- 
mission of array was directed to De Bury.^ In 
December Edward was again at Newcastle to 
invade Scotland, and granted an indemnity to 
De Bur}", who had furnished forty men-at-arms at 
his own personal expense.* The expedition effected 
little, and in April, 1342, De Bury was again 
appointed to treat for peace or a truce with 
Bruce." In the following years v\'e find De Bury 
enjoining the Prior of Durham not to absent him- 
self from the Convent, in anticipation of an inroad 
of the Scotch.® 

Meantime Edward was devoting all his efforts to 
the preparations for the great conflict with France, 
which was to exhaust the energies of both peoples 
during the next hundred years. In 1344 the peers 
called upon the King to cross the sea and appeal to 
the judgment of God by battle, and the representa- 

^ Rymer, ii. 2, p. 1122. ^ Ibid. p. 1171. 

=» Ibid. p. 1 175. ^ Ibid. p. 11S3. 

' Ibid. p. 1 191. 

^ Scriptores Tres, App. p. cxxix (20 Aug.). 


tives of the clergy eagerly voted him three years' 

De Bury therefore saw and heard quite enough 
of the temper and circumstance of war to sharpen 
the pen with which — probably about this very time — 
he was describing the injuries inflicted upon htera- 
ture, in the Qiterimonia Librorum contra Bella. He 
does not present to us, however, that curious 
combination of the soldier and the bishop which 
was familiar to the age of chivalry; and we are 
not called upon to picture him, like his predecessor 
Anthony Bee, leading a host of " 140 knights, 500 
horsemen and 1000 foot " to war under the sacred 
banner of S. Cuthbert. On the contrary, Chambre 
tells us not only that the Palatinate enjoyed reason- 
able tranquiUity during his pontificate,^ but that his 
maintenance as Lord Palatine of the rights of the 
liberty of Durham despite his frequent absences 
caused the lot of his subjects to contrast favourably 
with the burdens and exactions imposed upon the 
rest of the country. 

^11. How soon De Bury felt the attack of the 
disease from which he died we do not know, but 
Chambre tells us that he died longa infiiDiitate de- 
codus^ and it appears that he was not in parliament 

^ Rot. Pari. ii. 147 foil. 

2 The story of the sack of Durham and massacre of its 
inhabitants, told by Froissart (c. 71) as having happened in 
1341, is accepted by Cocheris (Introd. p. xiv), but has been 
rejected by historians. 


in 1344. To this period we are to assign the 
writing of the Philohiblon^ which was completed, 
according to the concluding note, on the Bishop's 
fifty-eighth birthday, the 24th of January, 1345. 
The latest documents in his Register are dated 
the 5th of April of the same year at Durham Castle, 
and on the 14th of April, at his manor ot 
Auckland, in the words of the memorandum entered 
on the rolls of his Chancery : Do??ii?tus Ricardus 
de Bury inigravit ad Dominuni} He was buried on 
the 2 1 St of April, honourably indeed, but in the 
judgment of his warm admirer Chambre, not with 
all the honour he deserved — quodammodo honori- 
fice 71011 iaincn cum honore satis congruo — before the 
altar of St. Mary Magdalene in the western angle 
of his Cathedral. The place of his sepulture was 
marked by " a faire marble stone, whereon his 
owne ymage was most curiously and artificially 
ingraven in brass, with the pictures of the twelve 
Apostles of either side of him, and other fine 
imagery work about it, much adorninge the marble 
stone."- Chambre records that after his death one 

' According to Gervase of Tilbury, this elegantissimum 
dictamii schema is derived from S. Athanasius ; Otia Imper., 
ii. 16. 

^ Surtees, Hist. Durh. i. p. xxxiv, says " It does not 
appear that any monument was erected to the memoiy of 
Bury ; " but the account of his tomb in the text is taken from 
a *' Description of all the ancient monuments, etc. in the church 
of Durham," written in 1593 and printed by the Surtees Soc, 
p. 2. The tomb appears to have been destroyed during the 
Civil Wars. 


of his chests which was supposed to contain treasure 
was found full of linen, shirts, and hair breeches : 
so that his abundant charities and his expenditure 
upon books had left him but little. His benefactions 
to the Cathedral during his lifetime had been con- 
siderable. The horses which bore his body to the 
grave and his ecclesiastical vestments, were the 
admitted perquisites of the sacrist, who, however, 
had some difficulty in obtaining them. Other rich 
vestments which De Bury intended for the Cathe- 
dral, he had been obliged to pledge to Lord Neville, 
who ultimately presented them to the Church. 
In accordance with ancient usage, his four seals of 
silver were broken up and dedicated to S. Cuthbert ; 
a silver-gilt cup was made of them with the inscrip- 
tion : 

*' Hie ciphus insignis fit presulis ex tetra signis 
Ri : Dunelmensis quarti, natu Byriensis.'^ " 
^12. De Bury's passion for the collection of 
books v/as not selfish, and he intended to bestow them 
so as to promote the advancement of learning and 
the interests of the students of his old University. 
It has been assumed that this intention was duly 

^ His seals have been engraved in Surtees' Hist, of Durham, 
vol. i., pi. iv. and an extremely beautiful example is figured in 
the Archcpologia, vol. xxvii. pp. 401-2. Yet another is in the 
Arch(2ological Jotirnal, vol. xxii. p. 389. See also B. M. 
Cat. of Seals, i. 402. 

^ Signis is obviously the right reading for sigillis in 
Chambre : compare the appendix to the Surtees Soc. edition 
of the Scnptoj'es Tres, p. ccclxxxviii. 


carried out and it may appear unreasonable to 
doubt the truth of the tradition to this effect. But 
apart from the fact that there is little early or 
positive evidence that the library was really 
established, there are one or two circumstances 
which confirm rather than allay our doubts. We 
have seen that De Bury actually died in debt, and 
we know that his executors sold at least some 
portion of his books. It has already been noticed 
that de Chambre says nothing of a library at Oxford; 
and the language of Leland is quite consistent 
with the idea of a scheme that vv'as never carried 
into effect. If now we look into the xixth chapter 
of the Fhilobiblon, we find that in the best MSS., 
instead of naming the Hall to which his books are 
to be presented, the Bishop leaves a capital letter 
N in the text — which was the common fashion of 
indicating a place left for the insertion of a proper 
name. In the xviiith chapter he speaks of his 
long nourished design of founding a Hall, but so 
as clearly to imply that this intention had yet to be 
fulfilled — and it must be remembered that De 
Bury died less than four months after finishing the 
Philobiblon. That the Bishop had more than an 
intention to found a college we know, because he 
had in fact entered into an agreement with King 
Edward for himself and his successors under the 
following circumstances. The Crown and the 
Bishop each claimed the right of presentation to the 
Church of Symondburn and an action was pending 


in the King's Bench to decide the matter when the 
battle of Halidon Hill was fought. On the eve 
of the conflict Edward vowed that if victorious he 
would found a house for thirteen monks of S. 
Benedict. He won the battle and was bound to 
carry out his vow, and accordingly agreed with De 
Bury to resign the advowson in question on con- 
dition that the Bishop or his successors should 
found a Hall for a Prior and twelve Monks of 
Durham at Oxford, on the site of the house estab- 
lished by Prior Hoton in 1290.^ The formal brief 
issued by the King, and dated at Walton on the 
25th of June, 1338, is one of the earliest documents 
appearing in De Bury's Register.^ It is quite 
evident that the Bishop in the xviiith chapter of 
his book refers to this intended foundation, which 
was only carried into effect by his successor 
Bishop Hatfield,^ who founded Durham College, 
where Trinity College now stands. Unfortunately 
De Bury's will has not been preserved, so that we 
are deprived of any light which it might have 
afforded us upon this question. 

The traditional account of the library is that the 
Bishop's books were sent in his life-time or after 

^ Maxwell Lyte, Hist. U. Ox. 105. 

^ Reg. Pal. Dunelm. iii. 210. The first four years of the 
Register in De Bury's time ai-e missing. Dibdin has en- 
graved in the BihL Decameron, vol. iii, 229, what he assumes 
to be De Bury's autograph signature from the first folio of 
his register, but this is very doubtful. 

^ De Chambre in Scriptores Tres, p. 1 38. 


his death to the house of the Durham Benedictines 
at Oxford, and there remained until the dissolution 
of the College by Henry VII I., when they were 
dispersed, some going into Duke Humphrey's 
(the University) Library, others to Balliol College, 
and the remainder passing into the hands of Dr. 
George Owen, who purchased the site of the 
dissolved college. That a library belonging to the 
college was then dispersed is probable enough, but 
it is far from clear that it contained any of De 
Bury's books.^ 

It has been assumed by Cocheris, who has been 
followed by more recent writers,^ that the regula- 
tions laid down by De Bury for the management of 
his intended library were taken directly from the 
regulations made for the library of the Sorbonne in 
132 1. The cardinal points of the Sorbonne rules 
are, according to Cocheris, the system of pledges, 
and the election of keepers by the sodi. It is true 
that we find these two points in De Bury's regula- 
tions, but it is not necessary to suppose that he 
borrowed them from the Sorbonne. The practice 
of taking a pledge for the loan of a book had long 
been exceedingly common ; ^ and the appointment 

^ Gutch's Wood, ii. 911 ; cp. Some Account of Durham 
College, Oxford, Durh. 1840. 

2 Le Clerc, Etat des lettres au xi\^ siec'e, i. 345 ; Bass 
Mullinger, Univ. Cam. i. 204 ; Maxwell Lyte, Hist. Univ. 
Ox. 158 ; Egger, Hist, du livre, 272. 

^ See Botfield's Preface to the Darham Cataloguer-, p. xxxvi 
fT. ; Merryweathcr, Bibliomania in the ]!.Iidale Age.-, 10, 27. 


of keepers by the scholares was but a natural exten- 
sion to the case of books of the general system of 
government in the Colleges of Oxford and Cam- 
bridge.^ The regulations of the Sorbonne, which 
are only partly quoted by Cocheris, have since been 
printed by M. Alfred Franklin,^ and the rules pre- 
scribed by De Bury will be found to be more minute 
and complete than those of the Sorbonne. Among 
other important variations, De Bury does not direct 
that any of his books are to be chained, which is a 
main feature of the system of the Sorbonne. 

The "special catalogue" of his collection, which 
De Bury tells us he had prepared, has unfortunately 
not survived. No doubt from his own book and from 
the books cited in the works of his friends and house- 
mates, who may reasonably be supposed to have 
drawn largely from the Bishop's collections, it 
would be possible to restore a hypothetical but not 
improbable Bibliotheca Ricardi de Bury. The diffi- 
culty would be with that contemporary literature, 
which they would think below the dignity of quota- 
tion, but which we know the Bishop collected. How 
considerable the contemporary literature was in 
point of quantity, we may learn from Le Clerc, who 
has registered no less than ten thousand productions 
for the fourteenth century.^ 

€[13. Chambre's account of De Bury exhibits him 

Maxwell Lyte, Hist. Univ. Ox., pp. 77, 79, 83. 
La Sorbonne, 2 ed. 1S75, P- 45- 
Etat des lettres au xiv^ siecle, i. 5-^2. 


as an excellent bishop, and an amiable and warm- 
hearted man. He was discreet in the government 
of his household, hospitable to strangers, and zealous 
in dispensing charity. Every week he distributed 
to the poor eight quarters of wheat, besides the 
fragments that were left, and any who were too late 
for this distribudon received a halfpenny. On his 
journeys from place to place in his diocese, he 
would bestow in alms between Newcastle and 
Durham, twelve marks; between Durham and 
Stockton, eight marks ; between Durham and Auck- 
land, five marks, and between Durham and Middle- 
ham, a hundred shillings — all which sums must of 
course be multiplied many times to represent the 
difference in the value of money then and now. 

He was quick of temper, but easily appeased, and 
he delighted to have about him, besides his chaplains 
and friends, the sons of the gentlefolk in his diocese, 
so that he was much beloved by his people, and he 
always showed great regard for the monks of his 
Cathedral church. Chambre tells a couple of 
anecdotes v/hich illustrate the Bishop's character. 
He was at Paris when the news reached him of the 
death of his predecessor, Beaumont, and one of his 
clerks, William de T3^kaH, rector of Stanhope, urged 
him to write to the Cardinals and other friends at 
the Curia, urging his claim to the Bishopric, but he 
answered that he v/ould not ask for that Bishopric or 
any other. Again, when the news was brought to 
him of the death of Graystanes, his unlucky rival on 


that occasion, as he was sitting in company at York, 
he was so much affected that he could not bear the 
presence of the messenger. And when his com- 
panions asked why he grieved so greatly, he 
answered : '' If you had known his worth as I do, 
I believe that you would grieve as much as I ; for 
he was fitter for the Papacy than I or any of my 
fellows for the smallest dignity in Holy Church." 

|[ 14. Chambre's account of his book-loving 
propensities adds something to the Bishop's own 
account of them in his book. Iste summe delecta- 
batur in imdtiiudine librorum ; he had more books, 
as was commonly reported, than all the other 
English bishops put together. He had a separate 
library in each of his residences, and wherever he 
was residing so many books lay about his bed- 
chamber, that it was hardly possible to stand or 
move without treading upon them. All the time 
he could spare from business was devoted either to 
religious offices or to his books. Every day while 
at table he would have a book read to him, unless 
some special guest were present, and afterwards 
would engage in discussion on the subject of the 
reading. The haughty Anthony Bee delighted in 
the appendages of royalty — to be addressed by 
nobles kneeling, and to be waited on in his 
presence-chamber and at his table by knights 
bare-headed and standing;^ but De Bury loved 
to surround himself with learned men. Among 
' Surtees, Hist. Durh. i. p. xxxv. 


these were such men as Thomas Bradwardine, 
afterwards Archbishop of Canterbury, and author 
of the De Causa Dei\ Richard Fitzralph, after- 
wards Archbishop of Armagh, and famous for his 
hostility to the mendicant orders,^ Walter Burley, 
the *' Plain and Perspicuous Doctor," who dedi- 
cated to him a translation of the Politics of Aris- 
totle made at his suggestion,' John Mauduit the 
astronomer, Robert Holkot, author of many books, 
Richard de Kilvington, Richard Benworth, after- 
wards Bishop of London, and Walter Seagrave, 
who became Dean of Chichester. 

The Philobiblo7i may be supposed to represent 
the fruit of the Bishop's intellectual converse with 
these and other learned men, as well as of his own 
reading and experience. It is unnecessary to 
present any summary or analysis of a treatise 
which is so short, and which every reader will 
prefer to peruse for himself. De Bury tells us 
that he designed it to justify his all-absorbing 
devotion to books in the eyes of those v>'ho had 
condemned it as excessive, by indicating their 
supreme value, and the disinterestedness of his 
own love for them, as shown by his ultimate 
purpose in their collection. But he felt that it 
was not enough to provide the books, unless he 

^ Lorimer suggests that De Bury shared the liberal views 
of Bradwardine and Fitzralph : Lechler's Life of Wiclif, 
i. Ii8. A too fanciful writer in the Boston Bevieiv, 1863, iii. 
94, regards him as the Erasmus of Wiclif 's movement. 

^ Brit. Mus. MS. Burney, 304. 



could kindle in the hearts of those for whom they 
were intended the love that burned so warmly 
in his own. And so he gives his treatise a 
name which expresses the central theme of his 
discourse ^ — the love of books.^ 

€[ 15. Widely varying judgments have been 
passed upon the intellectual position of De Bury. 
It was long the fashion to speak of him with Sir 
Henry Savile as the learnedest man of his age. 
More recent critics have regarded him as not 
a scholar himself, but a patron and encourager 
of scholarship.^ The truth lies perhaps midway 
between these different verdicts. There is no 
reason to suppose that he was a sustained or 
original thinker like Occam or Bradwardine; nor 
did he share the literary productiveness of Burley 
or Holkot. He has left us nothing of his own 
but what may be described in his own phrase as 
a '' panfletus exiguus." But we must bear in mind 

^ Cp. Pro!, s. 12, and c. xviii. 

^ Even Fabricius uses the unauthorised form Fhilobiblion, 
which is of course quite impossible, while to (pikoftijiXov is 
at least defensible. It is, perhaps, just possible that it 
was suggested to him by the article in Suidas (whose book is 
said to have been translated by Grosteste) on Philo Biblios the 
grammarian, who wrote a treatise Ilfpt KTrjGsojg Kai eK\oyrjg 
(3t[3\iiov. The adjective ^jX6/3(/3Xoc, of course, occurs in 
Strabo, xiii. p. 608, who says of Apellikon, the purchaser 
of Aristotle's library, that he was 0iX«/3(/3Xoy jxaXXov /) 

^ E.g. Mr. Bass Mullinger, Univ. Camb., i. 201 ; Dr. 
Creighton in the Diet. Nat. Biog., s.n. 


that De Bury was essentially a man of affairs, and 
that his official preoccupations left him compara- 
tively scanty interv^als of time to devote to literature. 
The judgment of Petrarch may be sufficient to 
satisfy us as to the extent of his knowledge and the 
width of his literary interests. 

We must not indeed look in De Bury for culti- 
vated taste or historical criticism. The age in 
which he lived was, in the phrase of Savile, " aetas 
minime omnium critica,"^ and he shares its defects. 
Not to speak of his faith in books and sciences 
''before the Flood," he cites, in common with 
Holkot and Bradwardine, Hermes Trismegistus 
and the Pseudo-Dionysius, quotes the De Fo??io 
as Aristotle's and seems to have no suspicion 
that the miserable verses of the De Vehila are 
not Ovid's own. His knowledge of Greek was 
probably slender enough, but is unduly depreciated 
by Hallam.^ He was anxious to see the study of 
Greek, Hebrew, and Arabic more zealously prose- 
cuted, and prepared grammars of the two former 
languages, as well as glossaries of grammatical 
terms and "exotic" words. On the other hand, 
I find nothing in De Bury to justify the viev/ of 

* In Pref. to the De Causa Dei. So Leibniz says of the 
thirteenth century, "quod ego ciun proximo omnium ssecu- 
lorum pest Christum natum ineptissinnan esse comperi." — 
Introd. to the SS. Rerum Brunsv. Ixiii. When James, in 
his letter to Lord Lumley, called it " illud aureum saecu- 
lum," he was thinking of it, no doubt, as an age oi faith. 

^ Lit. of Europe, i. 94. 


one of his recent critics, that he was " penetrated 
with the principles of humanism,"^ and I fear that 
he would have felt little sympathy with Petrarch's 
enthusiasm for the "new learning," or at least 
with his continual invectives against the aims and 
methods of scholasticism. This is evident enough 
from his complaint that the dialecticians of Paris 
produced no new authors. It was in his days 
that the University of Oxford was the scene of 
the last effort of scholasticism, before the revival 
of classical culture which was to revolutionize the 
studies of Europe. Again, he does not rise above 
the view that the liberal arts and the writings of the 
poets are to be studied only in order to assist the 
understanding of the Scriptures and of the Fathers. 
He is not free from a certain ecclesiastical narrow- 
ness, which leads him to forbid even the handling 
of books by the laity ; and there is nothing in his 
book to show that he felt any interest in the 
vernacular literatures which were springing up in 
France, in Italy, and in his own country. 

The style of De Bury is exactly what the fore- 
going considerations would lead us to expect. 
There is no attempt, as in the case of Petrarch, 
to return to a classical standard, which he had not 
learned to appreciate. His models are not the 
purest writers of the purest age of Latinity, but the 
late grammarians and the Fathers of the Church. 
His style is stiff with a heavy embroidery of scrip- 

^ Dr. Creighton in tlie Diet. Nat. Biog. 


tural quotation and allusion ; like that of many 
among the mediceval writers, it is " made of the 
Scriptures."^ Though he affects to write "in the 
lightest style of the moderns," he has none of 
the ease and fluency of such writers as John of 
Salisbury, and his rhetoric, genuine as no doubt it 
is, is too often clumsy and overlaboured. Although 
his book can scarcely claim to rank as a masterpiece 
of literature, the text now printed will show that 
his style is much more correct than has been 
hitherto supposed. 

The special interest to us of Richard De Bury 
is that he is, if not the prototype, at least the 
most conspicuous example of a class of men who 
have been more numerous in modern than in 
ancient or mediceval times. No man has ever 
carried to a higher pitch of enthusiasm the passion 
for collecting books. On this point, at least, De 
Bury and Petrarch were truly kindred spirits, and 
their community of feeling finds expression in a 
striking similarity of language. The letter in which 
Petrarch seeks the co-operation of his brother 
Gerard presents close resemblance to a well-known 
passage in the Pliilobiblon. Petrarch writes^ : 

" Aurum, argentum, gemmae, purpurea vestis, 
marmorea domus, cultus ager, pictae tabulae, pha- 

- "The writings of the dark ages are, if I may use the 
expression, vicule of the ScripHires. " — Maitland, Dark Ages, 

- Ep. Fam., iii. 18. 


leratus sonipes, caeteraque id genus, mutam habent 
et superficiariam voluptatem : libri medullitus de- 

One mifrht think that the writer had had before 


him the very words of De Bury in his eighth 

Again, Petrarch bids his brother employ trusty 
and learned men to search for books for him : 

"Etruriam perquirant, reHgiosorum armaria evol- 
vant caeterorumque studiosorum hominum. . . . 
Scias me easdem preces amicis aUis in Britanniam, 
GalHasque et Hispanias destinasse." 

The words seem but an echo of De Bury's 
account, in the same chapter, of his own pro- 

There is one other point of similarity between 
Petrarch and De Bury : that each of them intended 
to bestow his books for public uses. In each case, 
moreover, this pious intention appears to have been 
frustrated by the carelessness of their successors. 

f[ i6. De Bury has told us in his book a good 
deal of his principles and practice as a collector. 
He collected everything, and he spared no cost ; a 
book in his opinion could never be too dear — unless 
one might reasonably hope for an opportunity 
of purchasing at a cheaper rate. Besides main- 
taining a staff of copyists and illuminators in his 
own household, he was on excellent terms with 
"the trade" — limited as it then was — not onlv 

' S. 123. 


in England, but in France and Germany. He 
pressed into his service the members of the re- 
ligious orders, who supplied him with books from 
the monastic libraries, and used in his behalf the 
opportunities of picking up rare volumes, which their 
wandering life abundantly afforded. He made use 
of his various offices in Church and State to gain 
access to every quarter whence he might expect some 
accession to his treasures. The gifts which were 
then the recognized perquisites of such exalted 
officers came to him in the shape of books. Let 
us hope that he speaks no more than the truth when 
he declares that meantime "justice suffered no 
detriment." One or two anecdotes have survived 
which throw a curious hght on this aspect of the 
matter. It is recorded in the history of the Abbots 
of the great monastery of S. Alban's, that one of its 
abbots, a man himself distinguished for his literary 
and scientific zeal, presented to De Bury, then 
Clerk of the Privy Seal, four volumes, viz., Terence, 
Virgil, Quintilian, and Hieronymus against Rufinus, 
in the hope of securing his favourable influence in 
fonvarding the interests of that house. Besides this, 
the abbot sold him thirty-two other books for fifty 
pounds of silver. The pious chronicler expresses 
his horror at this transaction, and records that after 
he had become Bishop, De Bury, conscience-smitten, 
restored several of the books, and that others were 
bought from the Bishop's executors by the next 
abbot, Michael de Mentmore, at a price below 


their real value/ Richard faithfully carried out his 
compact ; for it is recorded that by his aid the 
abbot obtained the right, which ordinarily apper- 
tained only to bishops, to imprison excommuni- 
cated persons as a matter of course, and not by a 
special vvrit.^ 

It appears that later Richard's interference in the 
business of the convent brought him into trouble. 
It happened that the abbot suffered from leprosy, 
and there was a cabal within the convent to have 
him removed. Representations were made to the 
Papal Court, and Richard appears to have put the 
Privy Seal to the letter sent to the Pope. The 
matter was brought before Parliament, and De 
Bury was censured for this use of the seal without 
authority. The only excuse he could offer v/as 
that pressure had been put upon him by men who 
were too powerful to be withstood.^ 

There is now preserved in the British Museum a 
large folio MS. of the works of John of Salisbury, 
which was one of the books bought back from the 
Bishop's executors. It bears upon it a note to the 
effect that it was written by Simon (who was Abbot 
of S. Alban's, 1167 — 1183), and another note, 
v/hich runs as follows : " Plunc librum venditum 
Domino Ricardo de Biry Episcopo Dunelmensi 
emit Michael Abbas Sancti Albani ab executoribus 

' Chronica Mon. S. Albani, ii. 200. 
- lb. p. 283. 
3 Tb. p. 288. 


predict! episcopi anno Domini millesimo ccc" 
XLv'" circa purificationem Beate Virginis."^ 

^17. There seems no sufficient reason to sup- 
pose that De Bury wrote any other book than the 
Fhilobiblon. Boston and Leland mention only this 
book, but Bale ^ and Pits add a volume of Epistolce 
Familiares with another of Orationes ad Principes. 
This list has been repeated by subsequent writers, 
and even figures to this day in the Encyclopcedia 
Britannica.^ Bale was not a very exact biblio- 
grapher, and there seems to have been some con- 
fusion, the source of which it is perhaps not diffi- 
cult to indicate. Bale gives as the initial words of 
the PJiilobiblon : "Thesaurus desiderabilis " and of 
the Eptstohe : " Ricardiis miseratione divina." 
Now the former words are the beginning of the first 
chapter of the PJiilobiblon omitting the prologue, 
and the latter words are at the beginning of this 
prologue or introductor}^ letter to the reader, so 
that Bale has merely made the one work into two. 
This suggestion derives support from the fact that 
in at least one MS. the prologue is omitted and 
the PJiilobiblon begins with the TJiesaiirus desidera- 
bills of Chapter I.* This is perhaps a more probable 
explanation than to suppose, as Dr. Creighton 

^ Roy. 13 D. iv. 3. 

2 Bale, indeed, says : " et alia scripsit ;" which is adopted 
by Godwin, Cat. of Bishops, 1601, p. 524 : "he writ many 
things not yet perished." 

^ S.v. Aunger\'ile. 

^ The Magdalen MS. ; cp. p. Ixviii. post. 


suggests, that Bale had heard of the letter-book of 
Richard De Bury, which has recently been described 
for the Historical MSS. Commission,^ and more 
fully by Sir Thomas Hardy." This is not a work 
of literary interest, but a collection of precedents, 
no doubt collected by the Bishop for the use of the 
clerks in his chancery. It is described on the first 
page as Liber Epistolaris quondajti domini Ricardi de 
Bury, Episcopi Dufielm. ; and from another inscrip- 
tion, " Liber Monachorum Sancti Edmundi Regis 
et Martiris," appears to have for some time belonged 
to the Monastery of Bury S. Edmund's. Sir Thomas 
Hardy suggests that it was probably bought by the 
monastery out of consideration for its original 
owner. It is now in the possession of Lord Harlech. 
Very few of the documents transcribed into it throw 
any light upon the career of De Bury. It is per- 
haps just possible that this book may be the founda- 
tion of fact for the supposed volume of Orationes 
ad Pri7icipes, of which Bale speaks. 

I need only mention that in James's Bodleian 
Catalogue of 1620,^ and the Catalogues of 1738* 
and 1843 ^ The Conie7nplacyon of Smners, printed by 
De Worde in 1499, is attributed to De Bury, an 
error due to a confusion between Richard De Bury 
and Richard Fox, one of his successors in the See of 

^ Fourth Report, 85 ; Fifth Report, 379. 
2 In the pref. to the 4th vol. of the Reg. Pal. Dunebn.^ 
pp. xxv-cxxvii. ^ App. p. 10. 

^ Vol. i. p. 109. ^ Vol. i. p. 377. 


Durham, at whose request this treatise appears to 
have been written at the end of the fifteenth 

^ i8. Some reference must be made to the 
attempts to deprive De Bury of the authorship of 
the Philobiblon in favour of Robert Holkot. This 
claim, which has the support of Tanner, Hearne, 
and Warton,^ appears to have been first formally 
put forward by Altamura and Echard, the biblio- 
graphers of the Order of the Friars Preachers, who 
rely upon the authority of Laurentius Pignon and 
Lusitanus. These authorities are of course a cen- 
tury later than the time of De Bury and Holkot ; 
and if this were all, there would be no difficulty in 
disposing of the claim. But in seven of the 
extant MSS. oi \\\q Philobiblon the book is ascribed 
to Holkot,^ as well as in a MS. once in the 
possession of Fabricius,^ and perhaps in another 
which was formerly in the Royal Library at 
Erfurt.^ The Paris MS. has simply "Philobiblon 
olchoti anglici," and it does not contain the con- 
cluding note of which I have elsewhere spoken. 

^ See Herbert's Ames, i. 135-6. The book is "very 
scarce," and there is no copy in the British Museum. The 
Bodleian has t'djo copies, in one of which is a note by Douce. 

^ Tanner in Holcot, p. 407 ; Reliq. Eodl. p. xi.; Camden, 
Annal., p. cxxix ; Leland, Collect, vi. 299; Hist. Engl. 
Poetr}', i. 215. 

3 B. M. Harl. 492 ; Roy. 8 F. 14 ; Paris, 3352 ; C. 
C. C, Oxen. ; Bodl. Add. C. 108; Venice; and Escurial. 

* Bibl. M. et I. Lat. i., 308. '" Post, p. Ixxvi. 


In the other MSS., in which I have found the 
work attributed to Holkot, the concluding note is 
found, but they begin with some such words as 
" Incipit prologus philobiblon Ricardi Dunelmens. 
Epi que hbrum compilauit RoBus Holcote de ordine 
predicatorum sub nomine dicti episcopi."^ In 
the great majority of MSS. then, inckiding the 
earhest, this preliminary note is not found, and in 
nearly all the MSS. where it does occur, it is ac- 
companied by a final note, which is, to say the 
least, hardly consistent with it. 

As evidence, therefore, that Robert Holkot wrote 
the Philobiblon it is not very satisfactory. In 
order to gain such light as can be thrown upon the 
matter from internal evidence, I have read through 
most of Holkot's own writings, and I have no hesi- 
tation in saying that so far as the evidence of style 
goes, there appears little reason to assign the 
Philobiblon to Holkot. Lord Campbell has already 
pointed out that the essentially autobiographical 
character of the book is all in favour of De Bury's 
authorship. Holkot, who was one of De Bury's 
chaplains, may indeed have acted as the Bishop's 
amanuensis in the preparation of the book. A 
traditional and perhaps exaggerated account of this 
may have reached the ears of some scribe or pos- 
sessor of a MS. of the Philobiblon^ and he may 
have set down the note in question. But it would 

* The Harl. MwS. reads coviposiiit for coinpilavit ; and the 
final note is sometimes modified : see account of MSS., post. 


be unfair to deprive De Bury of the credit of 
having planned and written his own book on such 
shadowy evidence as can be adduced in favour of 
Holkot's claim/ 

It is the more satisfactory to think that we are 
not called upon to deprive De Bury of the author- 
ship of the PJiilobiblon^ as, now that his books have 
been dispersed, and his tomb despoiled, it is the 
sole abiding memorial of one who loved books so 
much in an age and country that loved them so 
little. One who has sung his praises, in his own 
words, " even to raving," has truly said of Richard 
De Bury, that " his fame will never die."^ So, too, 
the PhilobibloJi will ever continue to kindle the 
love of those silent teachers who " instruct us with- 
out rods and stripes, without taunts or anger, with- 
out gifts or money ; who are not asleep when we 
approach them, and do not deny us when we ques- 
tion them ; who do not chide us if we err, or laugh 
at us if we are ignorant. 

» 3 

^ Father Denifle, himself a member of the Order of 
Preachers, supports Holkot's claim in his recent work, Die 
Universitiiten im Mittelalter, i. p. 727 note. 

'^ Dibdin, Reminiscences, i. 86 note. 

^ S. 26: "words which," it has been said, '* Cicero 
might have owned :" J. P. Andrews, Hist, of Great Britain, 
i. 428. 



Since this Introduction was in type, Mr. E. 
Maunde Thompson has called my attention to a 
remarkable account of De Bury in a passage of 
Adam Murimuth, which has never yet been printed 
and has been overlooked by all the Bishop's bio- 
graphers. If it is to be accepted, it not only con- 
firms the doubt I have suggested as to the estabHsh- 
ment of the contemplated Oxford library, but 
supports the view that De Bury did not himself 
WTite the Philobiblon., and may indeed seriously 
modify our estimate of his character. The passage, 
as found in MS. Harl. 3836, f. 49"", is as follows : — 

" Hoc anno, xiiij. die Maii,^ anno Domini 
M° cccxLV^*', regni vero dicti regis E. tertii a con- 
questu decimo nono, obiit Ricardus de Bury, 
episcopus Dunolraensis, qui ipsum episcopatum et 
omnia sua beneficia prius habita per preces mag- 
natum et ambitionis vitium adquisivit, et ideo toto 
tempore suo inopia laboravit et prodigus exstitit in 
expensis, unde dies suos in gravissima paupertate 
finivit. Imminente" vero termino vite sue, sui 
familiares omnia bona sua mobilia rapuerunt, adeo 
quod moriens unde corpus suum cooperire poterat 
non habebat, nisi subtunicam ^ unius garcionis in 

^ No doubt a slip for Aprilis. ^ Eminente MS. 

^ Altered from supcrtimicam. 


camera remanentis. Et, licet idem episcopus fuisset 
mediocriter literatus, volens tamen magnus clericus 
reputari, recollegit sibi librorum numerum infini- 
tum, tarn de dono quam ex accommodatoa diversis 
monasteriis et ex empto, adeo quod quinque 
magne carecte non sufficiebant pro ipsius vectura 

Adam Murimuth's position as a canon of S. 
Pauls's and a distinguished lawyer, who was several 
times employed in diplomatic negociations, no 
doubt gave him ample opportunities of collecting 
trustworthy information as to the leading men of 
his time. It is true that he and De Bury were 
engaged in similar lines of public employment, and 
his view of the Bishop's character may have been 
coloured by jealousy, and by a sarcastic temper. 
But it is not so easy to dispose of his allegations of 
fact, and his account of De Bury's poverty agrees 
only too well with several significant indications in 
Chambre's life, and in the Durham records : sub 
jzidice lis est. 


I. — Printed Editions. 

We may infer from the corruption of the many existing 
MSS. that the Philobiblon was frequently copied, and 
from their distribution that it soon found its way into 
the libraries not only of our own country, but of France, 
Germany, the Low Countries, Italy, and Spain. In 
1358 long extracts from it are found embodied in a 
University statute at Oxford,^ yet, as has been already 
stated, the Bishop's biographer Chambre makes no 
mention of his book ; and the earliest references to it 
that I have found are in Boston (f 1410) in this country, 
and in Trithemius (f I5i6),the famous Abbot of Spon- 
heim, on the Continent. It has been suggested that 
Thomas a Kempis made use of the Philobiblo7i in 
his Doctrinale luvenmn, but I have shown elsewhere 
that the suggestion is unfounded.^ 

The book appears to have found a wider audience 
abroad than at home, and it was three times printed 
on the Continent— at Cologne in 1473, a-t Spires in 1483, 
and at Paris in 1500— and then had to wait for another 
century before it found an English printer. The 
edition of Thomas James, Bodley's first librarian, 
appeared in 1598-9. It v/as then again printed in Ger- 

^ This is in the Cliancellor's and Proctors' book, and is 
printed by Anstey, Munim. Acad., i. 207-8, who has not 
noticed the quotation. It may be a quotation in De Bury. 

^ Library Chronicle, 1885, vol. ii. 47. 



many by Melchior Goldast, apparently without any 
knowledge of the Enghsh edition, in 1610, and reprinted 
in 1614 and 1674. It was also included in 1703 by 
J. A. Schmidt in his supplement to the collection of 
treatises on libraries published by J. J. Mader. There 
is then no edition to record until the present century, 
when an anonymous English translation was pub- 
lished in 1832. In 1856 Cocheris issued the Latin text 
with a French translation at Paris; and in 1861 
Cocheris' text and Inglis's translation were reprinted 
in the United States. 

The bibliography of the Phllobiblon long remained 
uncertain and obscure, and indeed is hardly yet well 
understood. Trithemius says of the book in his De 
Script 07'ibiis Ecclesiasticis (begun in 1487 and printed 
1494) " iam impressus est," but there is nothing to show 
whether he was acquainted with the Cologne or Spires 
edition, or with both. Leland, Bale, and Pits do not 
mention a printed text. The Paris printer must have 
known that the book was in print, for he prefixes to his 
edition the account of De Bury from Trithemius, but 
carefully omits the statement that the book had been 
already printed. When James came to print it, he 
described his own impression as " editio iam secunda," 
and Goldast intimates on his title-page that his issue 
of the book was a first impression. When the in- 
cunabulists set to work to register the early produc- 
tions of the press, they ignored one or other of the 
Cologne and Spires impressions, or, worse still, con- 
founded them together. Thus Maittaire,^ Panzer,^ and 
Denis ^ mention only the Spires edition, and Hain ^ is 
the first to record the two impressions, assigning both 

^ Ann. Typ., i. 449. '^ Ann. Tj^p., iii. 22. 

^ Ann. Typ., 177. * Rep. bibliogr., i. 579. 


however to 1483. Other bibhographers were no less at 
fault : Fabricius ^ and Clement ' know nothing of the 
Cologne impression ; Peignot ' dates both editions 
1473. Our own Dibdin believed that the supposed 
Cologne edition was a myth ;■* and it was with surprise 
as well as delight that he found it ' fall to his good for- 
tune' in the Bibliotheca Spoiceriana^ "to describe the 
present rare and inestimable impression," meaning this 
very edition of Cologne. 

There has been a good deal of confusion as to the 
Paris edition of 1500 and a supposed reimpression of 
James's edition at London in 1600. I will show 
presently that there was in the former case only a 
single impression, and that in the latter case there was 
no impression in 1600, but that James's book was first 
printed in 1598 and reissued the following year. 
Again, none of the bibliographers has given a full list 
of the several impressions of Goldast's text, and a 
complete account of them here appears for the first 
time. Finally, it has been asserted by the Dictionary 
of National Biography that the edition now in the 
reader's hands was published "in 1885." 

I propose now to describe the various editions in 
their chronological order : — 

1473 The EDITIO PRINCEPS of the Philo- 

Cologne biblon was printed at Cologne in a small 
quarto volume of 48 leaves, without pagination, sig- 
natures, or catchwords. Its printer is said to have 

^ Bibl. M. et I. Lat., i. 307. 

^ Bibliotheque cur., v. 431-9. ^ Rep. bibl. univ., 378. 

* Bibliomania, 181 1, p. 38. 

' Vol. iii. 237-8. This was in 1814 ; yet in 1842 he 
reprints the old account in the new edition of the Bibliomania, 
p. 29. Home, Introd. to Bibl., ii. 517, copies Dibdin. 


been G. Gops de Euskyrchen.^ It contains no indica- 
tion of authorship outside the text, but begins : 

Incipit prologus in librum de amore librorum qui 
dicitur philobiblon 

It ends : 

Explicit philobiblon sci. liber 
de amore librorum Colonie impres 
sus anno domini Mcccc.lxxiij. etc. 
On ff. [5 v.] and [6 v.] there are indications in at least 
one copy of a rearrangement of the type during the 
process of printing. The text was no doubt printed 
from a single MS. without any attempt at editing. It 
presents a very close resemblance to the Cologne MS. 
described further on.^ There are two copies of this 
impression in the British Museum, and I have had the 
opportunity of consulting the copies in the possession of 
Earl Spencer, Mr. W.Amherst T. Amherst, M.P., and 
Mr. Sam: Timmins. Dibdin's account of the Althorp 
copy is not very accurate, as I found no trace of the 
" copious ms. memoranda " to which he refers. Ac- 
cording to Cocheris there are two copies in the Biblio- 
theque Nationale. Mr. Quaritch gave ^45 for the copy 
in the WodhuU sale in 1886. 

1483 Ten years afterwards the Philobiblon 

Spires ^as printed by the brothers John and 
Conrad Hiist in a small quarto volume of 39 leaves, 
with 31 lines to the page, without pagination, catch- 
words, or signatures. The 7'ecto of the first leaf is 
blank. On the verso is a letter from the anonymous 
editor, who simply describes himself as "minimus 

^ B. M. Cat. ; Ennen, Kat. d. Inkunabeln in d. Stadtb. 
zu Koln, p. 132. Peignot wrongly made Veldener the 
printer : Rep. bibl. univ., p. 378. 

^ 'Steposf, p. Ixxi. 


sacerdotum," ^ to the brothers Hiist, who are addressed 
as " studiosissimi impressores." The letter is dated 
" idibus lanuarij anno xpi etc. Ixxxiii ", and the writer 
speaks of the difficulty he had found in performing the 
editorial task imposed upon him, owing to the defective 
state of the copy he used. On the second leaf the title 
is given as follows : 

Phylobyblon difertifTimi viri Richardi 
dilmelmeh epi. de qrimonijs librol/. ornib^ 
lra2/. amatorib^ putil' ,plog^ Incipit. 
It ends with the words, after coitspectimi Ame7t : 

Valete 7 sciaz lfa2^ colite. 
The book, which was no doubt printed from a single 
manuscript, presents a somewhat better text than that 
of Cologne, though both are very defective. Dibdin's 
suggestion that it would " be probably considered to 
be a mere reprint of the Cologne impression" is with- 
out foundation.- The Spires editor allowed himself 
the liberty of altering the opening words of the pro- 
logue to " Universis litterarum cultoribus " and of 
omitting the following clause. Other traces of editor- 
ship may also be noticed in the book. 

This edition seems to be even rarer than the editio 
princeps.^ Cocheris could find no copy in Paris. It 
is in the British Museum ; and I have had the use of 
the copy belonging to Mr. Sam : Timmins. A copy 

^ Weislinger, Armament. Cathol., 1749, p. 274, assumed 
that the letter is ffom De Bury himself, in sending " pre- 
tiosissimum hocce opusculum " to Spires to be printed ; which 
misled Schelhorn, Anleitung, i. 5. 

^ Bibl. Spenc, iii. 238. 

^ Baur, Primit. typ. Spin, p. 28 ; Hocker, Hallsbronn. 
Antiquitatenschatz, p. 156; Maichelius remarked in 1721 : 
" Liber hodie rarissimus est, nee facile comparet in biblio- 
thecis seorsim editus : " Introd., p. 132. 


was sold at the Williams sale for ^6 los. ; and at the 
Fuller-Russell sale in 1886 I bid in vain for a copy 
against Mr. Quaritch, who secured it for ;^ 12 15^. 

1500 Thirteen years afterwards the book 

Paris was printed at Paris in a small quarto of 
24 unnumbered leaves (sig. a [i]-iiii, b i-iiii, c i-iv) with 
the following title-page : 

Philobiblion Tractatus pulcher | rimus de amore 
librorum [Then follows the printer's mark and 
name JEHAN PETIT] Venundatur in leone 
argenteo | vici sancti lacobi. 
On the recto of the last leaf : 

Explicitum est philobiblion scilicet liber de amore 

librorum quem impressit apud parrhifios hoc anno 

secundum eosdem millesimo quingentesimo ad 

calendas martias Caspar philippus pro loanne 

parvo Bibliopola parrhifiensi. 

On the verso of the first leaf is an account of De 

Bury taken from Trithemius, from which however his 

reference to the printing of the book is significantly 

omitted. This is followed by a letter dated i March 

from the scholar-printer lodocus Badius Ascensius to 

Laurentius Burellus, confessor of the King and Bishop 

of Sisteron, who appears to have sent the book to him 

to print. He expressly says that Jean Petit had joined 

him in the undertaking " hoc munus nobiscum sus- 

cepit." This I think explains and disposes of the 

statement of the bibliographers,^ which has been 

repeated down to Cocheris, that there were two 

editions of 1 500, one by Petit and the other by Badius 

Ascensius.^ Cocheris himself does not say that he has 

^ It dates apparently from Panzer, ii. 336. 
^ The story told by Chevillier and repeated in Burton's 
Book Hunter (fi-om Peignot's Diet, de Bibliologie, i. 38), 


seen either edition, and he gives the title inaccurately. 
There can be no doubt that the Paris edition is simply 
a reimpression of that of Cologne. The spelling 
Philobiblon was however altered by Ascensius to Philo- 
biblioHy and he extended the title by adding a part of 
the phrase employed by Trithemius : " scripsit de 
amore librorum et institutione dictae Bibliothecae 
pidcherrijimm tractatuin ," 

1598 & 9 It was not until the very end of the 

Oxford next century that the first English edition 
of this English book appeared, with the following 
title-page : 

Philobiblon [ Richardi | Dvnelmensis | sive | De 

amore librorvm, et Institvtione bibliothecae | 

tractatus pulcherrimus. | Ex collatione cum 

varijs manuscriptis edi- | tio jam secunda ; | cui | 

accessit appendix de manuscriptis Oxoniensibus. | 

Omnia haec | Opere »& Studio T. I. Novi coll. 

in alma Academia ] Oxoniensi Socij. | [B. P. N.^] | 

Non quaero quod mihi vtile est sed quod 

multis.^ I Oxoniae, | Excudebat losephus Barne- 

sius 1598. I 

The book is in quarto and consists of 62 pages, with 

four unnumbered pages of prehminary matter and 8 

unnumbered pages of appendix. So far as I know, 

the copy in the Bodleian Library is the only copy 

extant bearing the date 1598, and Fabricius, Oudinus, 

that the Philobihlion was the first book printed by Badius 
Ascensius after settling in Paris, will not bear inspection. 

* The meaning of these letters, which appear only on the 
1 599 title-page, is perhaps Bibliothecae Praefectus Novae or 
Nostrae ; but there is rather reason to believe that they v,'ere 
intended to mean Bono Publico Naitts. 

^ From I Cor. x. 33. 


and Tanner the only bibliographers who mention this 
date. The other extant copies bear the date 1599 and 
appear to be a mere reissue with a fresh title-page. To 
this reissue the editor prefixes a Latin Epistola Dedi- 
catoria of four pages addressed to Thomas Bodley, in 
which he compares him with De Bury for his devotion 
to literature and his benefaction to the University. He 
explains how he had found his author " in membranis 
inter blattas et tineas semivivum, semiesum, pallentem 
expirantemque," and how far he was from being satis- 
fied with his efforts to restore his author. He begs the 
reader to condone the " barbarisms and solecisms " in 
the Bishop's style and his slight lapses in matters of 
faith and religion, both the faults of his age.^ He 
concludes by congratulating Bodley on the success of 
his plans for restoring the University library. The 
letter is dated " Ex Mus^o meo in Collegio Novo, 
Julii 6. 1599 ", and is signed " Thomas". 

James was evidently under the impression that the 
book had been only once printed. It is not improbable 
that he had before him the Paris edition. His title- 
page at all events reproduces the title of that edition 
as borrowed from Trithemius ; though he uses the 
phrase in a fuller form and may of course have taken 
it from Trithemius only. He reprints Bale's account 
of De Bury, together with a MS. note of T[homas] 
A[llen's] in his copy of Bale,^ taken from Chambre's 
life of the Bishop, then still in manuscript. 

'^ Dibdin speaks of this preface as "the veriest piece of old 
maidenish particularity that ever was exhibited ! However, 
the editor's enthusiastic admiration of De Bury obtains his 
forgiveness in the bosom of every honest bibliomaniac." 
— Bibliomania, p. 185 note. 

^ This annotated Bale is now in the Bodleian. Hearne 
printed from it the note in question in Leland's Itin., ix. 131. 


Fabricius ^ says that the text of James was again 
printed at London in the following year in the Ecloga 
Oxo?iio-Cajitabrigie7isis ; but this statement appears 
to rest upon a misunderstanding. The Ecloga is an 
account of the MSS. at Oxford and Cambridge, and 
was to have been published, as James tells us, with the 
Philobiblon. As it was not finished and the printer 
grew impatient, James decided not to wait for it, but 
instead gave the appendix which is affixed to the 
Philobiblojt, and which is merely an index of authors 
represented in the Oxford MSS. But the Philobiblon 
was ?iot reprinted with the Ecloga issued in 1600, as 
Fabricius must have supposed.^ 

The Ecloga enables us to say what MSS. James had 
at his disposal for the purposes of his edition. The MSS. 
enumerated in the Ecloga^ are : At Oxford four, viz., 
at All Souls', Lincoln, Magdalen, and Balliol ; at Cam- 
bridge, at Benet's (now C. C. C), and one in Lord 
Lumley's library. The five college MSS. are still where 
they were ; Lord Lumley's should have passed into the 
Royal Library, and may be one of the MSS. now in the 
British Museum. There can be little doubt that James 
relied largely upon the Magdalen and Lincoln MSS." 
James's text has been condemned by Dibdin as 
containing " nothing more than the Cologne impres- 
sion, being sometimes, indeed, less particular," ^ and 
Inghs, who "doubts his having looked into several 
MSS., but has no doubt of his having preferred his 
own words to those of the author." ^ This is not 

' Bibl. Med. et Inf. Latin., i. 307. 

2 The Ecloga appears in Prof. Arber's Stationers' Register ^ 
iii. 164 (25 June, 1600), but I find no entry of the Philo- 

3 At p. 81. * See Library Chronicle, 1885, ii. 132. 
^ Bibl. Spenceriana, iii. 238. ^ Notes, p. 131. 


deserved ; though Hearne's language is no doubt ex- 
aggerated when he says of hhn " in Hbello perpurgando 
multum sudavit," '^ there seems no reason to doubt that 
he honestly looked into several MSS. At the same 
time he left a good deal to be done for the text of his 
author. One of the copies of James's edition in the 
British Museum is a presentation copy to Lord Lumley, 
and contains an interesting autograph letter to Lumley 
written in James's exquisitely neat hand.^ 

1610 From this time until the present cen- 

Frankfurt ^^^^ ^^ Philobiblo7i was not again printed 

1674 by itself, but only in collectaneous works. 

Leipzig In 1610 was published in a small octavo 

volume : 

Philologicarum epistolarum centuria Vna diversorum 
a renatis literis Doctissimorum virorum ... in- 
super Richardi de BVRI Episcopi Dunelmensis 
Philobiblion & Bessarionis Patriarchae Constan- 
tinopolitani & Cardinahs Nicaeni Epistola ad 
Senatum Venetum. Omnia nunc primum edita 
ex Bibliotheca Melchioris Haiminsfeldii Goldasti 
. . . Francofurti Impensis Egenolphi Emmelii,anno 
The Philobiblon occupies pp. 400-500 of the book, 
p. 400 being a fresh title-page bearing the words " ex 
Bibliotheca et recensione Melchioris Haiminsfeldii 
Goldasti." From these words and from the " omnia 
haec prhnum edita " the natural inference would be 
that Goldast thought he was printing the Philobiblon 
for the first time, or at least that he was printing it 
from a MS. But the text with a few trifling variations 

' Leland, Collect, ed. alt., vi. 299. 

^ Printed in Miscellanies of the Philobiblon Society, vol. i. 
art. I. It is curiously overlooked in Delepierre's Analyse. 


is obviously that of the Paris impression of 1500, and 
indeed Goldast actually silently reprints from that 
edition the account of De Bury by Trithemius, and 
even the letter of Badius Ascensius already described. 
The edition of 1614 seems to be merely a reissue with 
a fresh title-page, and the reprint of 1674 at Leipzig 
by Conringius presents no variation to call for remark. 

1703 The edition printed by J. A. Schmidt 

Helmsiadt jn (he " Nova accessio " published by him 
in 1703 to the well-known collection of treatises " Ue 
Bibliothecis atque Archivis virorum clarissimorum 
libelli et commentationes" (sec. ed., Helmstadii, 1702, 
4°), does not call for than more brief notice, as it is 
merely a reprint of the edition of Goldast with a few 
slight alterations. The Philobiblion (as it is called) 
occupies pp. 1-66. 

J832 In 1832 there appeared an anonymous 

London English translation of the Philobiblon^ 
(Transl.) ^^ London : Printed for Thomas Rodd, 
2 Great Newport Street, Leicester Square'' (8vo, pp. 
viii. 151). Lord Campbell, in the first volume of 
the Lives of the Cha?tcelIors, published in 1845, 
cites it anonymously.^ But it is known to have 
been translated by Mr. John Bellingham Inglis,'- a 
student and collector of early printed books. The 

' Fourth ed., i. 192. Campbell speaks of " that very 
learned and worthy bookseller, my friend Thomas Rodd." 
Some account of Rodd, who died in 1849, will be found in 
Nichols' Illustrations, \aii. 681-4. 

^ Knight, William Caxton, 1844, p. vii ; Merryweather, 
Bibliomania in the Middle Ages, 1S49, p. 76. AUibone, 
Diet. Brit, and Amer. Authors, s.v. Richard de Bur)', says 
Inglis "gave it to Rodd ; " but I am indebted to Mr. R. F. 


translation is a work of more spirit than accuracy, and 
Inglis has too slavishly followed the edition of 1473) 
under the mistaken idea that it was most likely to 
represent the genuine text of the author. In conse- 
quence he unduly disparages the authority of James's 
text. He has added "a few collations," which are 
however confined to printed editions, and thirty-seven 
pages of notes, devoted largely to what Dibdin de- 
scribes as " unprovoked and unjustifiable abuse of the 
English Church and her Ministers." ^ Probably only a 
small edition was printed, as the work has become 
scarce, and Cocheris was unable to secure a copy.^ 

1856 The first edition of the book professing 

Paris to furnish an adequate critical apparatus 
and explanatory notes was issued in 1856 by M. Hip- 
polyte Cocheris, then engaged in the Bibliotheque 
Mazarifie, of which he afterwards became Conserva- 
tetir. The book formed part of a series called " Le 
Tresor des pieces rares ou in^dites," and bears the 
following title : 

Philobiblion excellent traite sur I'amour des livres 
par Richard de Bury, Eveque de Durham, Grand- 
Chancelier d'Angleterre, traduit pour la premiere 
fois en frangais, precedd d'une introduction et suivi 
du texte latin revu sur les anciennes Editions et 
les manuscrits de la Bibliotheque imperiale : par 
Hippolyte Cocheris. . . . Paris : Aubry, 1856. 

Butler for the following note on a copy of the book : * * Pub- 
lished at the expense of the Rev. W. J. Jollifife and given by 
him to William Routh." 

^ Reminiscences, i. 86, note. An interesting memoir of 
Mr. Inglis was written by his friend J. P. Berjeau for his 
periodical The Bookzvorm, 1870, vol. v. 178-182. 

^ Introd., p. xxvi. 


8vo, pp. xlvii. 287. [500 copies printed, of which 
22 were on special papers and 2 on vellum.] 
The book was dedicated to the late Prince Consort. 
I have elsewhere expressed an unfavourable judg- 
ment of this edition/ and a longer acquaintance with 
it has only confirmed that judgment. Though the text 
professes on the title-page to be " revu," Cocheris has 
in fact left the text untouched and has only given the 
various readings of the three Paris manuscripts at the 
foot of the page. This he justifies on the curious 
ground that it was impossible to distinguish between 
the faults of the author and those of the copyists, 
though that is most assuredly the first business of an 
editor.^ Unfortunately his report of the readings of 
the manuscripts he has collated is quite untrustworthy 
and in many instances even wildly wrong. But this is 
not all : while professing to follow the text of the editio 
princeps, what he has really done is to send to the 
printer the text of 1703, with all the misprints, errors 
of punctuation, and defects of all kinds which it had 
accumulated in passing through the process of repro- 
duction in 1500, 1610, and 1703. The result is that his 
text is in many points less genuine and even less 
correct than that of 1473. At the same time, Cocheris 
cannot fairly be denied the praise of industry, and he 
has brought together a great deal of matter for the 
illustration of his author, though he has done little or 
nothing to clear up the more formidable difficulties of 
the text.^ 

^ Library Chronicle., i. 151 > ii- 130- 

' " Comme il m'etait impossible de distinguer celles que je 
devais respecter de celles que je devais enlever, j'ai prefere 
Cjnserver a. I'ouvrage son cachet barbare !" (Prcf. p. ii. ) 

^ There is a highly laudatory article on Cocheris in Le 
Bibliophile fran^ais, 1873, "V"* 303'9> ^"^ which he is declared 


1861 In 1 86 1 one Samuel Hand published 

Albany jq ^^ United States a volume, which 
Allibone, "as an American, is glad to register ;" but 
which, as a flagrant piece of book-making, is not very- 
creditable either to its editor or to America. Mr. 
Hand reprinted the text of Cocheris and the translation 
of Inglis,^ reproducing all the errors and inaccuracies of 
both. He translated also the introduction and notes 
of Cocheris, but his own few notes are worthless. It 
is an octavo of pp. x. 252, of which 230 copies were 
printed, 30 on large paper. I am glad to know that 
Prof Andrew F. West, of Princeton, contemplates an 
edition more worthy of the book and of America. 

The relation of the editions which have been now 
enumerated may be thus exhibited : 

1473 1483 1599 






1 861 

It must be considered a surprising circumstance that 
a book which has been so often printed abroad and so 

to have acquitted himself "a son honneur et a sa gloire de 
cette tache reconnue generalement comme tres difficile et que, 
le premier, il avait ose entreprendre." Scheler, a more com- 
petent critic, was evidently disappointed : Bull, du Bibliophile 
beige, 1857, xiii. 142. 

^ Berjeau, and no doubt Inglis, resented this proceeding 
and announced a new edition here : Notes and Queries^ 
4Ser, ii. 378 (17 Oct. 1868). 


frequently quoted at home should have remained so 
long without an English editor; and in particular that 
neither the Surtees Society ^ nor the Philobiblon 
Society* should have secured an adequate edition. 
But in fact the idea of re-editing the book has been 
several times entertained. In 1816 Surtees announced 
in his History of Durham ' that " Messrs. Taylor and 
David Constable are at present employed in collating 
MSS. for a new edition." The announcement was re- 
peated in the Quarterly Review'' in 1829 and in the 
Bibliographical and Retrospective Miscellany^ in 1830. 
In the first issue of Lowndes' Bibliographer's Manual 
in 1834, the compiler, though he does not mention the 
translation published two years before, announces that 
"a new edition of this curious tract is preparing for 
publication, with an English translation, notes and 
various readings, by Edw. R. Poole, B.A."^ But time 
passed on and neither of these promised editions saw 
the light ; so that in 1845 Mr. Corser could still speak 
of the Philobiblon as " a book of which, curious 
and interesting as it is, we have yet, to our national 
shame be it said, no edition which a reader can take 

' Established in 1834 for the publication of inedited manu- 
scripts illustrating the condition of those parts of England 
and Scotland which constituted the ancient kingdom of 

* Established in 1853, perhaps in consequence of Lord 
Campbell's suggestion in 1S45 • " -^ ^^i rather surprised that 
a ' De Bury Club ' has not yet been established by the Philo- 
biblists, as he was undoubtedly the founder of the order in 
England." — Chancellors, 4th ed., i. 200. 

' Vol. i. p. chx. ■* Vol. xxxix. 372. 

' At p. 158. The editor of the yl/zVa'/A/w^ was E. R. Poole. 

° Vol. i. p. 309. Cp. Allibone, Diet. Brit, and Amer. 
Authors, s.v. Poole. 


up with pleasure." ' In 1850, Mr. W. S. Gibson, M.A., 
of Lincoln's Inn, read a "very elaborate " memoir of 
De Bury at the Oxford meeting of the Arch^ological 
Institute ; ^ and in the Gefitlevian^s Magazine for that 
year it was announced that " Mr. Gibson's memoir of 
this Bishop is to be prefixed to a new translation of his 
Philobibloji which Mr. Gibson announces for publi- 
cation." ^ This work, however, had not appeared 
when the British Archaeological Association met at 
Durham in 1865, where Mr. Gibson read a paper on a 
"Seal of Richard de Bury."'' But, despite the re- 
nev/ed promise, neither memoir nor translation has 
ever appeared,^ and it has remained for the present 
editor at least to remove from our country the reproach 
of so long leaving the task of preserving De Bury's 
literary legacy exclusively in foreign hands. 

* Introd. to the Iter Lancastrense, Chetham Sec, vol. vii. 
p. vi., in his account of Thomas James. 

'^ Archaeological Journ., vii. 310; G. M., 1850, ii. 184. 

3 G. M., ii. 346. J cp. N. 6^ Q., i Ser., ii. 203 (' W. S. 

^ Archseological Journ., xxii. 389-396. For De Bury's 
seals, see ante, p. xxvi, note. 

^ A prospectus and syllabus of the proposed work is 
appended to Mr. Gibson's Miscellanies, issued in 1863. The 
Philobiblon Society printed Mr. Gibson's "Book-Hunting 
under Edward III., a popular Lecture founded on the life of 
Richard de Bury, Bishop of Durham, the first English Philo- 
biblist," with an Introductory Note by Lord Houghton : 
Miscellanies, 1865-6, vol. ix. art. 3, pp. 78. The entry in 
Hole's Brief Biogr. Diet., s.v. Angarville, " Life by S. 
Gibson," refers no doubt to the unpublished work. M. Syl- 
vain Van de Weyer had promised a " Notice sur Richard de 
Bury" for the Philobiblon Society's Miscellanies. The 
promise was not redeemed : see his Choix d'Opuscules, i. 
art. 2. p. 9. 


//. — Manuscripts. 

It has been already pointed out that the three 
earliest editions of the Philobibloii appear to have 
been produced from a single MS. in each case, and 
that James recorded the existence of six MSS. in this 
country. This was in 1600; and even at the end of 
the next century the number enumerated in the Cata- 
logi libroi-um mamiso'iptoriivi AnglicB et Hibernicz 
was only nine. In 1843, E. G. Vogel contributed to 
the Se7-apeum^ a German bibliographical journal, a 
ver>' careful article on Richard de Bury, in which he 
registered nineteen MSS. This article appears to 
have dropped out of sight, and was evidently unknown 
to Cocheris, whose list embraces only sixteen MSS., 
including that of Fabricius, and omits therefore four 
MSS. recorded by Vogel. 

The inquiries made in preparing the present work 
have enabled me to raise the number of MSS. known 
to exist to the number of thirty-five, all of which have 
been examined for the purposes of this edition.^ It is 
only possible here to find space for a brief account of 
them, which it will be most convenient to arrange in 
geographical order. Unless the contrary is stated, 
the MSS. are all upon parchment or vellum. 

London : Th^ British Museum is in possession 

Brit. AIus. of no less than seven MSS. of the Philo- 

^'^' biblon, of which four belong undoubtedly 

to the fifteenth century. The remaining three belong 

^ Bd. iv. 129-141, 154-160 : cp. 191-2. 

^ The number has been increased from twenty-eight, since 
I gave an account of them in the Library Chronicle, 18S5, 
vol. ii. 129 foil. 


in the judgment of the Keeper of the MSS. to the end 
of the fourteenth century. 

Roy. 8 F. xiv (f. 70) is a folio MS. written probably 
between 1380- 1400 and has at the beginning the follow- 
ing note : 

" Incipit prologus in philobiblon ricardi dunelmensis 
episcopi que libru composuit Robertus holcote de 
ordine predicatoi|. sub noTe dci episcopi ; " and at the 
end the usual note as to the date on which the treatise 
was finished. 

Roy. 15 C. xvi (59^) is a large folio MS. written in 
double columns about 1400. It begins : Incipit philo- 
biblon ; and has the concluding note. 

Harl. 492 (f. 55) is a small 8vo. MS., written about 
1425, and begins with the preliminary note in red in 
the same form as that in Roy. 8 F. xiv, except that it 
has philtl)iblo?i. It has a.lso the final note, but with the 
blunder of libro for 1 (=50) 2Ci\^ feciliter iox feliciter 
and adding at the end the word Qiiod. 

Harl. 3,224 (f. 67) is also a small 8vo. MS., written 
about 1400, with no note at the beginning, and at the 
end the abbreviated note : 

" Explicit philobiblon dni Ricardi Almgeruile cogno- 
minati de Bury quondam Episcopi Dunelmeh." 

Cott. App. iv (f. 103) is a folio MS. written about 
1425, having no note at the beginning and at the end 
simply : — " Explicit philibiblion etc." 

Arundel 335 (f. 58) is a small quarto MS. of the 
fifteenth century, formerly belonging to the " Soc. 
Reg. Lond., ex dcno Henr. Howard, Norfolciensis." 



It begins " Philobiblon Rico de Bury Dunetm. epo 
authore," these words being in a later hand ; it has 
no note at the end. 

Add. j\IS. 24,361 (f. 4^) is a quarto MS. also of the 
fifteenth century, purchased at the Hunter sale in 
1 861. It ends ! '' Explicit philibiblon diii Rici de 
Aungerv^le cognoiati de Bury quondam epT dunelm. 
Copletus Anno Doi 1344'° etatis nre 58 Ponf. nrl 

Oxford There are altogether nine MSS. at Ox- 

(9) ford, of which two are in the Bodleian 

Library and the remaining seven in the libraries of 
various colleges. 

The most important of them is MS. Digby 147 
(f. 9), a quarto MS. written in Mr. Macray's opinion 
about 1375. It has no note at the beginning, but has 
the usual note at the end. This MS. also bears a note 
showing that it v/as formerly "Liber ecclesie sancte 
Marie de Mertone"; it afterwards belonged to Tho. 
Allen, from whom it passed to his pupil Sir Kenelm 

The Bodleian Add. MS. C. 108 (f. 20^) is a quarto 
paper MS. in double columns, written in a German 
hand in the second half of the fifteenth century. It 
begins : " Incipit Philobliblon id est tractatus de amore 
librorum venerabilis viri dhi Richardi de b'uri EpI 
Dunelmensis editus p venerabilem mgfm Robcrtum 
Holkot anglicum ordinis predicatorum," but has no 
note at the end. It was acquired by the Bodleian 
in 1868. 

This MS. is follov%^ed by a glossary of some interest, 
as it consists chiefly of the uncommon and exotic 


v/ords found in the Philobiblon ; of the 244 words 
comprised in it, no less than 212 are used in this 
book. If I had seen it earher in my work, it might 
have been of service in suggesting clues to the explana- 
tion of some of the difiiculties of the book ; but as it 
was, I had puzzled them out for myself before I saw 
the glossary. It only once or tv/ice cites any authority, 
and the explanations are seldom adequate and very 
often incorrect. It includes asub, aux, and ellefuga ; 
inserts genzahar, but without explanation ; and makes 
no mention of Crato, Logostilios, comprehensor, invi- 
sus, hereos, lilia, canonium, viola, hierophilosophus, and 
many other words which urgently call for explanation. 

At Balliol College, there are two paper MSS. in 
folio written in the fifteenth century : clxvi (A), and 
cclxiii, the latter written in double columns, and with 
the usual note at the end. 

At Lincoln College, No. Ixxxi (f. 79) is a foho MS. of 
the early fifteenth century in double columns, with illu- 
minated initials. It has no preliminary note and 
ends : " Explicit tractatus qui vocatur Philobiblon." 
There can be no doubt that it was one of the MSS. 
chiefly used by James. 

At Magdalen College, No. vi (f. 164) is a small quarto 
MS. of the early fifteenth century. It has no title and 
begins with Chapter I., omitting the Prologue. At the 
end is a note : " Explicit philibiblon diii Ricardi de 
Aungervile cognoTati de Bury quondam Epi dimelm 
copletus anno do' 1344'° etatis nre 58. pontf nfi 
undeclo." This also was one of the MSS. upon 
which James mainly relied. 


At All Souls' College, No. xxxi (f. 236) is a large 
quarto MS. of the fifteenth century, ^Yritte^ in double 
columns. It begins : " Incipit prologus in philobiblon 
Ricardi dunolmensis episcopi.'' At the end is the 
usual note with some variations : " Explicit tractatus 
qui dicitur Philobiblon id est amor hbrorum editus 
a Dho Ricardi de Buri quondam Dunoliii epo com- 
pletus est autem in manerio nostro de Ackeland in 
festo conversionis sancti Pauli A°. diii m' ccc°° xUijj". 
etatis nostre lviii° pont vero nri Anno xi''. finiente ad 
laudem dei fehciter et Amen." 

At Corpus Christi College, No. ccxxii (f. 57) is a 
small quarto MS. of the fifteenth century. It begins : 
" Incipit prologus in Philobiblon Rici Dunelmenfsis epi 
que librum compilauit Ro^us holcote de ordine pre- 
dicatou sub nomine dicti Episcopi " ; and ends with 
the usual note. 

In Mr. Coxe's catalogue of the Corpus MSS., he ob- 
ser\^es under no. clxvii (p. 68) that this MS., which 
contained the Philobiblo7i^ has long been missing. 
It is, I think, apparent on comparing the entries in 
Bernard under nos. 167 and 222 that two volumes 
have been bound together, and that nothing is really 
" missing ; " and the entry in Coxe's catalogue should 
be corrected accordingly. 

At S. John's College, No. clxxii (f. 2) is an early 
fifteenth century quarto MS. with an illuminated 
initial. After the title Philobiblon follow the words 
in red : " Hie aurum tibi non valet vbi nitet Philo- 
biblon." At the end is the usual note. The MS. 
bears a note to the effect that it was presented to the 
college in 1634. By an oversight, though duly cata- 
logued by Mr. Coxe, it is not included in his index. 


Cambridge There are three MSS. at Cambridge, in 

(3) the hbraries of as many colleges. 

At Trinity College, is a MS. (R. 9, 17, f. 48) in small 
quarto of the early fifteenth century. A preliminary 
note or title has unfortunately been cropped by some 
careless binder. At the end it has the usual note. 

At Corpus Christi, College, among Archbishop 
Parker's books is a quarto MS., on f. 127 of which 
is the Philobiblon, written in the fifteenth century. 
There is no preliminary note, and the concluding note 
is very inaccurately given. It is catalogued by 
Nasmith, Catal. librorum MS.orum, 1777, at p. 416. 

At Sidney Sussex College, is a MS. partly on parch- 
ment and partly on paper, poorly written in the 
fifteenth century ; which was presented to the college 
by William Pratt, Vicar of Bossel, Yorkshire. It has 
the concluding note. 

Durham In Bishop Cosin's Library at Durham 

(i) is a fifteenth century octavo MS., which 

found its way into the Bishop's collection through the 
Rev. George Davenport, its first Keeper, who pre- 
sented seventy MSS. to the library. An account of 
Davenport is in Surtees' Hist, of Durh., i. 153, 170. 
The MS. is catalogued in Rud's catalogue, at p. 177 
of Botfield's Durham Catalogues. Though very neatly 
written, the MS. presents numerous omissions of single 
words. It is without preliminary note and ends : 
" Explicit philobiblon Dhi RicI Almgeruile cognolati 
de Buri quod epi Dunelmen]?. 

It may be noted that the Philobiblon is not found in 
any of the earlier catalogues of Durham books printed 
by the Surtees Society. 


In private Two MSS. have been lent me out of 
hands private custody. The first of them is a 
very small quarto Flemish IMS. of the not veiy early 
fifteenth century. It has no preliminary note, and 
ends : " Explicit phylybyblon Richardi de Bury epi 
de amore librorum et scientiarum : Deo gratias." It 
contains several interpolations, including one of about 
a dozen lines. 

The other is an octavo fifteenth century German 
MS. in a stamped leather binding, on which the 
figures of the " Three Kings," besides the half-erased 
entry at the beginning " Liber domus sancte Barbare 
. . .", clearly point to Cologne. This would at once 
suggest an association with the editio princeps, 
and a close examination of its text shows that it is 
ver>' nearly identical with that of the first edition. 
It is, however, hardly safe to say that we have here 
what is so rarely met with — the actual MS. original of 
a fifteenth century book. But there can be no doubt 
of the very close relationship. It begins : " Incipit 
prologus in librii de amore libroru qui philobiblon 
dicitur," in red ; but has no concluding note. It be- 
longed to David Laing and 1 have called it L. 

Paris An account was given by Cocheris of 

(3) the three MSS. in the Bibliotheque 

Nationale, used by him for the purposes of his edition, 

which requires to be supplemented in some important 


The MS. formerly numbered 797, now 15,168, forms 
part of the Fonds de St. Victor, and is a small quarto 
containing several treatises, of which the Philobiblon 
is the first. It has a note at the foot of fol. i"" : " Iste 
liber est sancti Victoris parisiensis — quicunque eum, 
etc. ; " at the foot of fol. V : " Ihs . m . S ." [A shield 


with the arms of Navarre] " Victor . S Aug^tin^ " in 
red letters ; and again at the foot of fol. 4'' this note : 
" Iste hber est sancti Victoris parisiensis. quicunque 
eum furatus fuerit vel celaverit vel titulum istum dele- 
verit anathema sit amen . O." At the end of the Philo- 
biblon is a note : " Hunc hbrum acquisiuit monasterio 
sancti victoris prope parisius frater Johannes lamasse 
dum esset prior eiusdem ecclesie." Lamasse was 
Prior from 1448 to 1458.^ This MS., which is in a 
poor handwriting, begins : " Incipit prologus Philo- 

The MS. numbered 3,352 c. is a well written folio 
MS., which formerly belonged to Colbert, whose arms 
are on its red morocco covers. Cocheris by an almost 
incredible oversight has not noted that it bears at the 
top of fol. I'' the words in red letters : " Philobiblon 
olchoti anglici." It begins nevertheless : " Incipit 
prologus in philobiblon Ricardi dunelnensis episcopi," 
and ends : " Explicit Philobiblon." 

Both these MSS., which I have called respectively 
A and B, present a fairly good text. M. Leopold Delisle 
is of opinion that they may have been written between 
1375 and 1400, but Mr. E. M. Thompson thinks that 
they are not earlier than the beginning of the fifteenth 

The third Paris MS. is a folio MS. on paper 
numbered 2,454 of the Ancien Fonds latin. It was 
written pretty late in the fifteenth centuiy and 
presents a very inferior text. 

The concluding note as to the date and authorship of 
the book is not found in any of the Paris MSS. 

' Gallia Christiana, vii. 686. 


Bmssels Iri the Bibliothcque Royale de Belgique 

(3) are three copies, of which the late Con- 

sen-ateur en chef, M. Alvin, sent me the following 
account: "Notre Bibliothtciue possede trois manu- 
scrits du PJiilobiblion de Richard de Bury : le No. 
738, transcription du xv*^ siecle, provenant du prieure 
du Val St. Martin h Louvain ; le No. 3,725, date de 
1492 et ne se composant que du primum manuale 
relatif aux livres sacres ; le No. 11,465 du xv<^ siecle, 
provenant de labbaye des Prdmontrds de Pare. 
Ces trois transcriptions sont trop recentes pour avoir 
quelque valeur paleographique et ne semblent pas 
contenir des variantes ^ signaler." 

Catalogued in Catal. des MSS. de la bibhotheque 
royale des dues de Bourgogne, Brux., 1842, torn, 
i. p. 15. 

Munich In the Royal Library at Munich are 

(2) two paper MSS. numbered 4,705 and 

5,829, written in the first half of the fifteenth century. 
No. 5,829 is actually dated by the scribe 1426, and the 
other was written somewhat later and was indeed not 
improbably transcribed from the former. Both MSS. 
begin in the same way : " Incipit tractatus greco 
vocabulo philobiblon (No. 4,705 has phylobiblon) 
amabiliter nuncupatus de amore valore et conserua- 
cione librorum." 

Bamberg In the Royal Libraiy of Bamberg is a 
(i) quarto paper MS. entitled : " Tractatus 

de amore librorum grece dictus philobiblon. Phylo- 
bylon magnifici disertissimique viri Richardi dilmeli- 
nensis episcopi de querimonijs librorum." A letter is 
prefixed to it from "Johannes Abbas in Ebrach" to 
Friedrich Creussner, the Nuremberg printer. From 


this letter, which is dated 17 September, 1484, it 
appears that the Abbot, who was from 1456 to 1474 
professor of theology at Vienna, had read the book 
when a student there. He complains bitterly of the 
corrupted text of the Spires edition, which had 
appeared the year before, and he had accordingly 
carefully corrected it, and now sends his work to 
Creussner to print. So far as we know, Creussner 
did not print it. The Abbot's letter was published 
by Jaeck in the Sei'apeuin in 1843, Bd. iv. 191-2. 

Basel In the University Library at Basel is a 

(i) quarto paper MS. of the fifteenth century 

beginning : " Incipit prologus in librum de amore 
librorum qui dicitur philobiblon " (in red). It is 
without the concluding note, and belongs to the 
inferior group of MSS. It is catalogued in Haenel, 
Catal. Libror. MSS., Lips. 1830, p. 527. 

Venice In 1 650 Tomasini recorded the existence 

(i) of a MS. in the library of S. Giovanni and 

S. Paolo at Venice, belonging to the Dominicans, 
adding : " quern miror hie Gesnerum non observasse." ^ 
It was more fully catalogued in 1778 by Berardelli, the 
librarian,^ who as a good Dominican maintains that it 
was written by Holkot. Since the collection has 
passed into the Biblioteca Nazionale di S. Marco, it 
has been catalogued by Valentinelli,^ who assigned 
it to the fourteenth century. The present librarian, 
Signor Castellani, has been good enough to send me 

^ Bibliothecae Venetae manuscriptae . . . Utini, p. 27. 
^ Nuova Raccolta d'opusculi . . . xxxii. 19. 
^ Bibliotheca manuscripta ad S. Marci Venetiarutn ; Venet. 
1868, vol. i. p. 257. 


some account of the MS., which enables me to correct 
tliat of Valentinelli. He has also sent a tracing of the 
handwriting, which appears to be of the fifteenth century. 
The title appearing in the MS. must, I think, have 
been added after the edition of Paris : " Philobiblon 
seu de amore librorum ac de institutione bibliothe- 
carum." The MS. ends: " Explicit philobiblon magistri 
Robert! Holkot^ ordinis Praedicatorum." 

Rome In May, 18S5, M. Delisle, on returning 

(i) from Italy, was good enough to write to 

me : — •' Le hazard m'a recemment fait passer sous les 
yeux le MS. 259 au fonds Ottoboni au Vatican. C'est 
un volume copie au xiv"^ siecle, dont la premiere partie 
est le Philobiblon de Teveque de Durham." Mr. W. Bliss 
has kindly sent me an account of this MS., which he 
assigns to the " end of the fourteenth century, or 
later." From a note upon it, it appears to have be- 
longed to "Daniel Aurelius, 1564." It does not give 
the note at the end, and has no reference to Holkot. 

Escurial There is a MS. at the Escurial (Real 

(i) Biblioteca de San Lorenzo), which was 

catalogued by the late G. Lowe in the Bibliotheca 
patruni latiiioriini Hispaniensis, ed. by W. von H artel, 
Wien, 1887, p. %(i (cp. p. 537), who attributes the 
volume of which it forms part to the fourteenth 
century. According to Denifle, Die Universitiiten 
im Mitlelalter, 1885, i. 797 71., the book is attributed 
in this MS. to Holcot, but of this Lowe says nothing. 
Father Felix Rozanski, late librarian at the Escurial, 
has, however, kindly sent me the following account of 
the MS. : 

^ Not Kolkot, as Valentinelli has printed it. 

Ixxvi INTR on UC TION 

"Cod. sec. XV., 11. J. 25. Inter alia fol. 157 incipit : 
" Incipit libellus dictus Philobiblon editus a fratre . . . 
\ito7nen auctorzs aviilsiwi\ predicator[e] sacre pagine 
preclarissimo professore ad petitionem domini Ricardi 
dimelinensis [sic) episcopi in cuius persona ipse 
magister Robertus loquitur in libello presenti. — In- 
cipit prologus in philobiblon Ricardi Dimelinensis 
episcopi . . ." 

" Continet hoc opusculum xix. capitula finitque fol. 
186 : faciei conspectum. Amen. Explicit philobiblon 

Missing It may be of interest to record such 

manuscripts traces as I have met with of the existence 
of other MSS., which may perhaps some day be found. 
There was a MS. in the Bibliotheca Amploniana at 
Erfurt, as appears by the catalogue published by 
Dr. Schum in 1887, p. 382. In a paper MS. (Q. 123), 
described as of the end of the fourteenth century, the 
twenty-fifth v/ork was the Philobiblon. This MS. was 
sent to London for my use, but I found on examination 
that the portion containing the Philobiblon had been re- 
moved, as in fact appears from Dr. Schum's catalogue. 
I cannot identify the MS. mentioned by Fabricius in 
the Bibliotheca Af. et Inf. Latinitatis^ as being in his 
possession with any extant MS. Cocheris^ suggests 
that it may be the Cottonian copy, but in the first 
place this does not correspond to the description of 
Fabricius, and in the next place the MS. was in the 
Cottonian Library in 1696 ^ and can never have been in 
the possession of Fabricius. 

^ Lib. ii. p. 308. 
^ Introd., p. xxi. 
^ Smith, Catalogue, p. 158. 


J. F. Reimmann, the German bibliographer, had a 
MS, in his possession, which he described in his Bib- 
liotheca Histor.-Lit., ed. sec, 1743, p. 147. He 
declares it to contain a text very much superior to 
any of the printed editions. He mentions also that 
it was followed by a " carmen leoninum de re biblio- 
thecaria," which was not to be found in any of the 
published texts. I do not know to what this refers ; 
it is certain, however, that the poem never formed any 
part of the Philobibloii} 

The most interesting, perhaps, of the missing MSS. 
is that which Dr. Thomas Kay (or Caius) tells us he 
saw and read at Durham College, Oxford, towards the 
end of Henry VIII. 's reign, and which he supposed to 
be the copy given to the college by the Bishop him- 
self — " eundem ipsum indubie, quern ipsemet biblio- 
thecae illi vivus contulerat : " see Hearne's ed. of the 
Assertio Antiquitatis Oxon. Academiae, ii. 433. 

His opponent in the controversy as to the respective 
priority of the two universities, Dr. John Caius, boasts 
of the possession of a MS. of the Philobiblo7i^ which 
he says was accompanied by a copy of the foundation- 
deed of Durham College : loc, cit, i. 242. 

Present A very few words must suffice to explain 

edition the use I have made of the MSS. in 
forming the text of the present edition. Of the whole 
number of MSS. here enumerated I have personally 
examined or collated twenty-eight. I have not indeed 
in the critical notes attempted to give a collation of 
all these MSS. Nor even of the four MSS. of which 

^ At the end of his notes, Inglis printed three elegiac 
couplets, which Lord Campbell quotes as De Bury's, but 
this is of course a mistake. 


I have recorded all the important variants, does the 
printed collation profess to be absolutely complete. 
In an edition intended primarily for the general 
reader, it seemed unnecessary to burden the notes 
with a mass of various readings due to the errors of 
copyists or to unsettled orthography. A complete 
collation of the best MSS. and the important varia- 
tions of all the MSS. must be reserved for a more 
elaborate critical edition, if there should appear to be 
a demand for it. That will also furnish a more suitable 
occasion for a discussion of the relationship of the 
various MSS. 

The MSS. which appeared to be for my present 
purpose the most important were the two Paris MSS. 
which I have called A and B ; Digby 147, which I have 
denoted D, and Royal 8 F. xiv, which I have called E. 

I have felt myself bound in consequence of the 
unfavourable judgment I had formed of the critical 
v/ork of Cocheris to give the variants of the two 
former MSS., because he has affected to give them, 
and I have also given the various readings of D and E 
in all important places. In a few places of special diffi- 
culty or interest I have occasionally given the readings 
of other MSS. The readings of the Cologne MS. I have 
given pretty frequently, in order to exhibit its close re- 
lationship to the text of the editio princeps ; and for 
a similar reason I have given the readings of the 
Magdalen MS., to indicate the extent to which James 
seems to have used it in forming his text. 

Occasionally I have given the readings of the early 
printed texts, when they differ from what may be almost 
called the texttis receptus. Where I have recorded 
this current text, as it is found in the successive 
editions down to Cocheris (comp. the pedigree on 
p. Ix.), it may be assumed that except in the matter 


of orthography and accidental errors of the press it 
reproduces the readings of the editio princeps. 

I have thought it right to reduce the orthography of 
the MSS. to a classical standard. While I accept the 
general soundness of the view that mediaeval writers 
should be reproduced in their ov/n orthography, I 
justify my deviation from this rule on two grounds : 
first, that the PJiilobiblon is a work of literature and 
not of philology, and secondly, that I feared to repel 
many readers who feel no interest in mediaeval 
Latinists generally, but will be led to take up the 
present work from the interest of its subject and its 
claim upon all to whom 

** Books are a passion and delight." 

The explanatory and illustrative notes are mainly 
directed to the establishment of the text. The 
Bishop's style is made of scriptural and liturgical 
quotation and allusion ; and a reference to the 
Vulgate frequently determines the probable reading 
in a doubtful passage, as well as explains its mean- 
ing. I have been more sparing in references to 
previous or contemporary writers, a kind of illustra- 
tion Vv'hich it would be easy to multiply. I have tried 
to leave nothing really difficult unexplained, without 
burdening the reader with irrelevant or superfluous 
annotation, and can only hope, in the words of 
S. Augustine : qtiibus pa7'um vel qtiibus 7iimium^7iobis 

Ricardi de Bury 

Inclpiunt Capitula 

1. Quod thesaurus saplentlae potissime 

sit in librls. 

2. Oualis amor libris ratlonablllter de- 


3. Qualiter in libris emendis sit pretium 


4. Ouerimonia librorum contra clericos 

iam promotos. 

5. Querimonia librorum contra religiosos 


6. Ouerimonia librorum contra religiosos 


7. Ouerimonia librorum contra bella. 

8. De multiplici opportunitate quam 

habuimus librorum copiam con- 

I potissimum Ja. I| 5 iam /. ^ || 8 conquerendi D 
conqureiidi E |j 


9. Quod licet opera veterum amplius 
amaremus, non tamen damnavi- 
mus studia modernorum. 

0. De successiva perfectione librorum. 

1. Quare llbros liberallum litterarum 
praetulimus libris iuris. 

2. Quare libros grammaticales tanta 
diligentia curavimus renovare. 

3. Quare non omnino negleximus fabu- 
las poetarum. 

4. Qui deberent esse librorum potis- 
simi dilectores. 

5. Quot commoda confert amor libro- 

6. Ouam meritorium sit libros novos 
scribere et veteres renovare. 

7. De debita honestate circa librorum 
custodiam adhibenda. 

8. Quod tantam librorum collegimus 

copiam ad communem profectum 
scholarium et non solum ad pro- 
priam voluptatem. 

9 damnajuus B Ja. 1| 12 curamus B retiovare om. E i| 
13 neglexeriimts J a. poetamm renovare £" || 14 debent 
A B potissime ^2i. || 18 vohintatetn /^ Ja. l| 


19. De modo communicandi studentlbus 

omnes libros nostros. 

20. Exhortatio scholarium ad rependen- 

dum pro nobis suffragia debitae 

19 ojnnibics A B om. Ja. || 20 repetendum D pietati 
D pietatis etc. B || 


A = Paris MS. 15168 : see Introd. p. Ixxi. 

B = Paris MS. 3352 : see Introd. p. Ixxii. 

D = Bodleian MS. Digby 147 : see Introd. 
p. Ixvii. 

E = Brit. Mus. MS. Roy. 8 F. xiv. : see In- 
trod. p. Ixvi. 

L = Cologne MS. : see Introd. p. Ixxi. 

M = Magdalen Coll. MS. ; see Introd. p. Ixviii. 

1 = Editio princeps, Cologne, 1473 * ^^^ I^' 

trod. p. li. 

2 = Edition of Spires, 1483 : see Introd. p. Hi. 

3 z=: Edition of Paris, 1500: see Introd. p. liv. 
Ja. = Edition of James, Oxford, 1598-9: see 

Introd. p. liv. 
Gold. = Edition of Goldast, 1610 (161 4, 1674): 

see Introd. p. Iviii. 
Schm. = Edition of Schmidt, 1703: see Introd. 

p. lix. 
Coch. = Edition of Cocheris, 1856 : see Introd. 

p. Ix. 
edd. = The editions representing the current 
text, including all except those of Spires 
and James : cp. table in Introd. p. Ixii. 
vulgo = the current text and inferior MSS. 

Inclpit Prologus. 

Vnlversis Christi fidelibus, ad quos tenor prae- 
sentis scripturae pervenerit, Ricardus de Bury, 
miseratione divina Dunelmensis episcopus, salutem 
in Domino sempiternam, piamque ipsius praesentare 
memoriam iugiter coram Deo in vita pariter et post 5 

Quid retribuam Domino pro omnibus quae retri- 
buit mihi ? devotissimus investigat psalmista, rex 
invictus et eximius prophetarum : in qua quaes- 
tione gratissima semetipsum redditorem volun- 10 
tarium, debitorem multifarium et sanctiorem optan- 
tem consiliarium recognoscit, concordans cum 
Aristotele, philosophorum principe, qui omnem de 

See Introduction || l litterarum ctdtoribus Ricardus 2 i| 3 
Dunolmensis A Dumiel?7iefisis ^ || 4 represattare Ja. || 8 dato- 
tissimis A devotissime vulgo |1 9 inunctiis D Ja. iiiuictissimits 
E \\ll saniorem L l\\ i^ ad oi}i7icm Ja. 1| 

Universis C. f.] The common form of introduction or 
salutatio in formal documents. The Spires editor altered the 
words C. f. to litterarum cultoribus. 

Dunelmensis] The MSS. vary between Dunt^lm. and 
Dun^lm. The latter form appears to have been that com- 
monly used at Durham : cp. the Boldon Buke (Surtees 
Society), pass.; and Sir T. D. Hardy's edition of Bishop 
Kellawe's Register (Rolls Series), vol. i. p. ci. 

Quid retribuam] Ps. cxvi. 12. 




agibilibus quaestionem consilium probat esse : 3° et 
6° Ethicorum. 

3 Sane si propheta tarn mirabilis, secretomm praes- 
cius divinorum, praeconsulere volebat tam sollicite 
quomodo grate posset gratis data refundere, quid nos 5 
rudes regratiatores et avidissimi receptores, onusti 
divinis beneficiis infinitis^ poterimus digne velle? 
Proculdubio deliberatione sollerti et circumspectione 
multiplici, invitato primitus spiritu septiformi, qua- 
tenus in nostra meditatione ignis illuminans exar- 10 
descat, viam non impedibilem providere debemus 
attentius, quo largitor omnium de collatis muneribus 
suis sponte veneretur reciproce, proximus relevetur 
ab onere et reatus contractus per peccantes cotidie 
eleemosynarum remediis redimatur. 15 

4 Huius igitur devotionis monitione praeventi ab eo 

3 m.futurtis p. Ja. Ii 5 g^ciiis grata Ja. 1| 7 dignius edd. || 8 
circumspicione D^w non om. Coch. redibilem Ja. || 13 reue- 
letur D 2\\i4 ab . . . redimatur om. D || 

consilium] The Trpoaipeffig of Aristotle. The reference to 
Aristotle, as Inglis has remarked, is not very happy. 

septiformi] This word, which is first used by S. Augustine 
{e.g. De Serm. Dom. i, 4), refers to the seven gifts of the 
Spirit (Is. xi. 23). Cp. John of Salisbury, De Septem Septenis, 
s. 5, and the septem spiritus Dei in Rev. i. 4. 

exardescat] Ps. xxxviii. 4, in meditatione mea exardescet 
ignis : cp. Ps. xlix. 3 ; Eccli. ix. 9. 

impedibilem] Not in the dictionaries, but used by Bradwar- 
dine, De Causa Dei, i. i ; it was no doubt suggested by the 
viam sine impedi77iento of Wisd. xix. 7, and the use of impe^ 
dire in such passages as Rom. xv, 22, Gal. v. 7, i Thess. ii. 18. 

eleemosynarum remediis redimatur] Cp. Dan. iv. 24. 


qui solus bonam hominis et praevenit voluntatem 
et perficit, sine quo nee sufiicientia suppetit cogi- 
tandi solummodo, cuius quicquid boni fecerimus 
non ambigimus esse munus, diligenter tam penes 
DOS quam cum aliis inquirendo discussimus quid 
inter diversorum generum pietatis officia primo 5 
gradu placeret Altissimo, prodessetque potius 

5 Ecclesiae militanti. Et ecce mox nostrae considera- 
tionis aspectibus grex occurrit scholarium elegorum 
quin potius electorum, in quibus Deus artifex et 
ancilla natura morum optimorum et scientiarum 10 
celebrium plantaverunt radices, sed ita rei fami- 
liaris oppressit penuria, quod obstante fortuna con- 
traria semina tam fecunda virtutum in culto iuven- 
tutis agro, roris debiti non rigata favore, arescere 

6 corapelluntur. Quo fit ut lateat in obscuris condita 15 
virtus clara, ut verbis alludamus Boetii, et ardentes 

3 solo modo A \\4. qui ^ |! 5 dhdnorian D i! 7 cogitationis 
Ja. II II ita COS edd. || 13 ta?fi orru Ja. \\ in inculto A E\ 

bonam voluntatem] Phil. i. 15 : perficit ; ib. ii. 13. 

elegorum] This word is used in classical Latin only ol 
verses : cp. note on Elifuga in ch. xiii. s. 182. 

in culto] A quotation from the anonymous author of the De 
varietate cannifitim, who says, " Tria sunt seminum genera 
quae in culto iuventutis agro absque comitantibus zizaniis 
rarissime convalescunt." Cp. Holkot, in Sap. 151 b., 247 b. 
The date assigned to this work in Warton, H. E. P., iii. 
125, requires correction. 

lateat] A quotation from Boetius, De Consol. Phil. i. m. 5, 
" Latet obscuris condita virtus Clara tenebris, justusque tulit 
Crimen iniqui." 


lucernae non ponantur sub modio, sed prae defectu 
olei penitus exstinguantur. Sic ager in vere floriger 
ante messem exaruit, sic frumenta in lollium et vites 
degenerant in labmscas, ac sic in oleastros olivae 
silvescunt. Marcesciintomninotenellaetrabeculaeet 5 
qui in fortes columnas Ecclesiae poterant excrevisse, 
subtilis ingenii capacitate dotati, studiorum gym- 

7 nasia derelinquunt. Sola inedia novercante, repel- 
luntur a philosophiae nectareo poculo violenter, 
quam primo gustaverint, ipso gustu ferventius 10 
sitibundi : liberalibus artibus habiles et scripturis 
tantum dispositi contemplandis, orbati necessario- 
rum subsidiis, quasi quadam apostasiae specie ad 
artes mechanicas, propter victus solius suffragia ad 
Ecclesiae dispendium et totius cleri vilipendium 15 

8 revertuntur. Sic mater Ecclesia pariendo filios 

I nunc C pomintur codd. ponantur Ja. pro Ja. !| 2 exstin- 
gtiuntur codA, exstinguantur ^2l. || \o gustaverunt q^l^. gustave- 
rant Ja. frequentkis D || 

non ponantur] Cocheris absurdly says that the reading 
nunc "est la seule admissible." The reference is of course 
to Matt. V. 15. 

labmscas] Cp. Is. v. 2, '* exspectavit ut faceret uvas et fecit 
labruscas. " 

oleastros] Cp. Rom. xi. 24. 

nectareo poculo] Cp. the De disciplina Scholarium, c. ii. : 
* Multos autem artes mendicare prospeximus, nullis eis pocula 
philosophiae administrantibus' ; c. v. : ' Nullum vero vehe- 
menter obtusorum vidimus unquam philosophico nectare 
vehementer inebriari.' For the De disciplina^ see note on 
ch. xiii. s. 182. 


abortiri compellitur, quinimmo ab utero foetus infor- 
mis monstruose dirumpitur, et pro paucis mini- 
misque quibus contentatur natura, alumnos amittit 
egregios, postea promovendos in pugiles fidei et 
athletas. Heu quam repente tela succiditur, dum 5 
texentis manus orditur ! Heu quod sol eclipsatur 
in aurora clarissima et planeta progrediens regiratur 
retrograde ac naturam et speciem verae stellae 
9 praetendens subito decidit et fit assub ! Quid 
poterit pius homo intueri miserius? Quid miseri- 10 
cordiae viscera penetrabit acutius ? Quid cor con- 
gelatum ut incus in calentes guttas resolvet facilius ? 
Amplius arguentes a sensu contrario, quantum pro- 

I aboi-tire L l \\ 2 mensh'uose I menstncoso 2 jnonstrose Ja. 
7 atira Ja. \\ 9 decidejis Jit Ja. a sub I 2 1| 12 mmtis I in- 
tzis E 2 calesctntes D\\1 arguentes om. D H 

pro paucis] Cp. Boet., De Cons. Ph. ii. pr. 5 : "Paucis 
enim minimisque natura contenta est." 

athletas] Athleta Dei is a common phrase for a Christian ; 
as for instance in John of Salisbuiy's life of Becket. It is no 
doubt based on S. Paul's references to the arena, 2 Tim. iv. 
7, I Cor. ix. 26, etc. Cp. TertulL, Ad martyres, 3. 

succiditur] Cp. Job, iii. 6, "a texente tela succiditur," and 
Is. xxxviii. 12. 

assub] This word, which has been found unintelligible by 
the editors, is derived from the translations of Aristotle made 
from the Arabic, in which it means a falling star. Cp. Roger 
Bacon, Op. Maj., iii. i, ** impressiones inflammatae in acre 
ex vaporibus ignitis in similitudinem stellaram, quae vocantur 
Arabice Assub;" and Vincent of Beauvais, Spec. Nat. ii. 84 ; 
iv. 72 (" De Asub, id est stella cadente ") ; see also Jourdain, 
Traductions d'Aristote, pp. 367, 414. I have even found the 
word used in poetry : see Anoiiyjui chronicon rhythmicum 


fuit toti reipublicae Christianae, non quidem Sardana- 
pali deliciis, neque Croesi divitiis enervare studentes, 
sed melius mediocritate scholastica suffragari pau- 

10 peribus, ex eventu praeterito recordemur. Quot 
oculis vidimus, quot ex scripturis collegimus, nulla 5 
suorum natalium claritate fulgentes, nullius haere- 
ditatis successione gaudentes, sed tantum proborum 
virorum pietate suffultos, apostolicas cathedras me- 
ruisse ! subiectis fidelibus praefuisse probissime ! 
superborum et sublimium colla jugo ecclesiastico 10 
subiecisse et procurasse propensius Ecclesiae liber- 
tatem ! 

11 Quamobrem perlustratis humanis egestatibus 
usquequaque caritativae considerationis intuitu, huic 
tandem calamitoso generi hominum, in quibus 15 
tamen tanta redolet spes profectus Ecclesiae, prae- 
elegit peculiariter nostrae compassionis affectio pium 
ferre praesidium et eisdem non solum de necessariis 
victui, verum multo magis de libris utilissimis 
studio providere. Ad hunc efFectum acceptissimum 20 

2 enarrare B entinierare D enutrire Z I || lo et humiliutn 
edd. II 15 tandem om. E tafn cah'gitioso Qdd.. \\ 16 ecclesiae om. 
A II 20 affectum A Ja.H 

Austriacunt, printed in Pertz, Scriptt. xxv. p. 364. The word 
occurs in the Pro7?iptorium Parvuloi'^an and the Catholicon 
Anglicum, as the rendering of * sterre-slyme, ' the star-jelly 
supposed to be deposited by falling stars : see Way's note, 
P. P., p. 474. 

superborum et sublimium] This, the reading of the 
better MSS., may also be supported by John of Salisbury, 
Pol. iv. 6, ad Jin. But cp. i Pet. v. 5. 


coram Deo nostra iam ab olim vigilavit intentio 
indefessa. Hie amor ecstaticus tam potenter nos 
rapuit ut, terrenis aliis abdicatis ab animo, acquiren- 
dorum librorum solummodo flagraremus affectu. 

12 Vt igitur nostri finis intentio tam posteris pateat 5 
quam modernis, et ora loquentium perversa quan- 
tum ad nos pertinet obstruamus perpetuo, tractatum 
parvulinum edidimus stilo quidem levissimo moder- 
norum — est enim ridiculosum rhetoricis quando le- 
vis materia grandi describitur stilo ; qui tractatus lo 
amorem quem ad libros habuimus ab excessu purga- 
bit, devotionis intentae propositum propalabit et cir- 
cumstantias facti nostri, per viginti divisus capitula, 

1 3 luce clarius enarrabit. Quia vero de amore librorum 
principaliter disserit, placuit nobis more veterum 15 
Latinorum ipsum Graeco vocabulo Philobiblon 
amabiliter nuncupare. 

Explicit Prologus. Inciplunt Capitula. 

2 excitiis Z> II 4 jiagremus i effedu Z> ]| 8 parvtihim D Ja. i| 
9 ridiculum edd. 1| 10 scribitur edd. || 13 divisi edd. || 16 ipso 
E a greco B philobiblon ^ H 17 amicabiliter edd. || 

luce clarius] Cp. ch. vi. 85, xv. 196. The phrase may 
have been derived from Augustine, De Civ. Dei, v. 13. 

more Latinorum] Cp. what is said of Vergil in Macrobius, 
Saturn. V. xiii, "Omnia carmina sua Graece maluit inscri- 
bere, Bucolica, Georgica, Aeneis," 

Philobiblon] This is De Bury's word, though some of the 
editors have altered it to Philobiblion without sufficient 
authority. The phrase " de amore librorum" probably re- 
presents nearly enough what he intended it to mean. 


Capltulum I. 

Quod thesaurus saplentiae potissime 
sit In llbris. 

14 Thesaurus desiderabilis sapientiae et scientlae, 
quern omnes homines per instinctum naturae desi- 
derant, cunctas mundi transcendit divitias infinite : 
cuius respectu lapides pretiosi vilescunt; cuius 
comparatione argentum lutescit et aurum obryzum 5 
exigua fit arena; cuius splendore tenebrescunt 
visui sol et luna ; cuius dulcore mirabili amarescunt 

15 gustui mel et manna. O valor sapientiae non mar- 
cescens ex tempore, virtus virens assidue, omne 

2 n. scire d. Ja. || 6ftnt E\\^ omne . . . habente om. Ja. || 

Thesauras desiderabilis] Cp. Prov. xxi. 20. 

omnes . . . desiderant] From Aristotle, Metaphysics, i. i : 
TiavTiq dv9p(i)7roi tov dSh'ai op'tyovTai (pvtxti. 

transcendit divitias] Cp. Wisdom, vii. 8, 9 : " divitias nihil 
esse duxi in comparatione illius ; nee comparavi illi lapidem 
pretiosum, quoniam omne aurum in comparatione illius arena 
est exigua, et tanquam lutum aestimabitur argentum in con- 
spectu illius." 

tenebrescunt visui sol et luna] Cp. Wisdom, vii. 29: "Est 
enim haec speciosior sole et super omnem dispositionem 

amarescunt] Cp. Wisdom, viii. 16: "non enim habet 
amaritudinem conversatio illius." 

non marcescens] Cp. Wisdom, vi. 13: "quae nunquam 
marcescit sapientia." 


virus evacuans abhabente ! O munus caeleste libera- 
litatis divinae, descendens a Patre luminum, ut men- 
tern rationalem provehas usque in caelum ! Tu es 
intellectus caelestis alimonia, quam qui edunt adhuc 
esurient, quam qui bibunt adhuc sitient, et langu- 5 
entis animae harmonia laetificans, quam qui audit 

16 nuUatenus confundetur. Tu es morum modera- 
trix et regula, secundum quam operans non pecca- 
bit. Per te reges regnant et legum conditores 
iusta decernunt. Per te deposita ruditate nativa, 10 
elimatis ingeniis atque Unguis, vitiorum sentibus 
coeffossis radicitus, apices consequuntur honoris, 
fiuntque patres patriae et comites principum, qui 
sine te conflassent lanceas in ligones et vomeres, 
vel cum filio prodigo pascerent forte sues. 15 

1 7 Quo lates potissime, praeelecte thesaure ! et ubi 
te reperient animae sitibundae? 

In libris proculdubio posuisti tabernaculum tuum, 
ubi te fundavit Altisbimus, lumen luminum, liber 

3 in om. A B E ad edd. || 5 esurhint A languenthim 
animas edd. || 11 signis A dentibtis D \\ 12 confossis B 1| 
13 comitum D || 16 pi'eeffecie A \\ 18 t. desiderabilc t. edd. 1| 

Patre luminum] From James, i. 17. 

adhuc esurient] From Eccl. xxiv. 29 : cp. John, vi. 35. 

languentis animae] Cp. Wisdom, xvii. 8. 

nullatenus confundetur] Cp. Ps. xxxvi. 20 ; Phil. i. 20. 

Per te reges] Prov. viii. 15. 

in ligones] Cp. Joel, iii. 10. Cocheris thinks the copyists 
have blundered and absurdly proposes to read ligones et 
vo?neres in lanceas. The point is that those who might have 
become rustics are soldiers of the Church. 


vitae. Ibi te omnis qui petit accipit, et qui quae- 
rit invenit, et pulsantibus improbe citius aperitur. 
,In his cherubin alas suas extendunt ut intellectus 
studentis ascendat, et a polo usque ad polum 
prospiciat, a solis ortu et occasu, ab aquilone et 5 
18 mari. In his incomprehensibilis ipse Deus altissi- 
mus apprehensibiliter continetur et colitur ; in his 
patet natura caelestium, terrestrium et infernorum ; 
in his cernuntur iura quibus omnis regitur politia, 
hierarchiae caelestis distinguuntur officia et daemo- 10 
num tyrannides describuntur, quos nee ideae Pla- 
tonis exsuperant nee Cratonis cathedra continebat. 

3 et studeiitium ascendunt — prospichmt edd. |1 5 comprehen- 
sibilis A E edd. || II giiasja.. H 12 Caionis A £ ]a.. in mg. 
Crathonis B || 

qui petit] The source is of course Matt. vii. 7, not, as 
Cocheris suggests, Prov. viii. 17. 

cherubin] Cp. Exod. xxv. 20; I Kings, vi. 27. 

a solis ortu, etc.] Schmidt unnecessarily alters "a mari" 
to "ad meridiem." The quotation is from Ps. cvi. 3. 

incomprehensibilis] Cp. Jer. xxxii. 19. 

caelestium terrestrium et infernorum] From Phil. ii. 10. 

Cratonis] The name occurs also in c. xiii. s. 182, where it 
is clearly the true reading. Here the sense would rather re- 
quire Catonis, as more worthy to be coupled with Plato : cp. 
S. Augustine, De Civ. Dei, ii. 7 ; " quid docuerit Plato vel 
censuerit Cato." The Crato of the Golden Legend, ed. 
Graesse, p. 56, and Vincent of Beauvais, Spec. hist. xi. 39, 
or the fictitious Crato of the Pseudo-Boetius (s. 182 noie) seems 
too obscure for this distinction. But the phrase Cratonis 
cathedra is perhaps conclusive ; and very possibly De Bury 
thought they were the same person. Crato is mentioned in 
several liturgical hymns : cp. York Missal, ii. 212 j Daniel, 
Thesaur. Hymnol. i. 93. 


19 In libris mortuos quasi vivos invenio ; in libris 
futura praevideo ; in libris res bellicae disponuntur ; 
de libris prodeunt iura pads. Omnia corrumpuntur 
et intabescunt in tempore ; Saturnus quos generat 
devorarenoncessat: omnem mundi gloriam operiret 5 
oblivio, nisi Deus mortalibus librorum remedia pro- 

20 vidisset. Alexander, orbis domitor, lulius et urbis et 
orbis invasor, qui et Marte et arte primus in unitate 
personae assumpsit imperium, fidelis Fabricius et 
Cato rigidus hodie caruissent memoria, si librorum 10 
suffragia defuissent. Turres ad terram sunt dirutae ; 
civitates eversae ; putredine perierunt fornices tri- 
umphales ; nee quicquam reperiet vel Papa vel Rex 
quo perennitatis privilegium conferatur commodius 

21 quam per libros. Reddit auctori vicissitudinem 15 
liber factus, ut quamdiu liber supererit auctor 
manens athanatos nequeat interire, teste Ptolemaeo 
in prologo Almagesti : non fuit, inquit, mortuus qui 
scientiam. vivificavit. 

4 tahescunt A B E \\ 6 obUvioni ^9 || 8 in arce et arte edd. 
deiectae ]di. \\ 12 fornices om. edd. || 13 reperij'et D 2 reperit 
Ja. II 14 perhenniter edd. || 15 auctori om. edd. actori 2 |i 16 
actor edd. 1| 

omnia corrumpuntur] Cp. Arist. Phys. iv. 12 : Karar^Kti 
6 xfjovoQ Kai yi)pdaKSi iravQ^ vTrb rov ■)(p6vov. The quotation 
occurs also in Holkot, Super Sap., f. 317. 

Fabricius et Cato] Cp. Boet. De Cons. Phil., ii. m. 7 : 
Ubi nunc f delis ossa Fabricii iacent ? Quid Brutus aut 
rigidtis Cato ? 

Ahnagesti] The Astronomy, or MtyaX?/ ^vvratiq, was pro 
bably so called to distinguish it from the MaOrjuariKi) Swrra^iCj 
or Mathematics of Ptolemy. It was preserved and communi- 


2 2 Quis igitur infinite thesauro librorum, de quo 
scriba doctus profert nova et vetera, per quodcun- 
que alterius speciei pretium limitabit ? Veritas 
vincens super omnia, quae regem, vinum et mulierem 
supergreditur, quam amicis praehonorare officium 5 
obtinet sanctitatis, quae est et via sine devio et vita 
sine termino, cui sacer Boetius attribuit triplex 
esse, in mente, voce et scripto, in libris videtur 
manere utilius et fructificare fecundius ad profectum. 

23 Nam virtus vocis perit cum sonitu ; Veritas mente 10 
latens est sapientia absconsa et thesaurus invisus ; 
Veritas vero quae lucet in libris omni se discipli- 
nabili sensui manifestare desiderat. Visui dum 
legitur, auditui dum auditur, amplius et tactui se 
commendat quodammodo, dum transcribi se sus- 15 

24 tinet, colligari, corrigi et servari. Veritas mentis 
clausa, licet sit possessio nobilis animi, quia tamen 

2 et quodcunqzte D i| 5 stiperare dicitur Ja. [| 9 effectum 
D II 10 Veritas vocis edd. |1 1 1 abscondita Ja. || 12 discipli- 
nali edd. \\ 14 tactu A || 16 collocari 2 || 17 animi tamen cum 
caret edd. || 

cated to Europe by the Arabs, and the name Almagest is 
formed of the Arabic article and the Greek /teyicrrj;. 

nova et vetera] From Matt. xiii. 52. 

Veritas vincens] Cp. 3 Esdras, iii. and iv. 

amicis praehonorare] This seems to refer to Aristotle, 
Eth. i. 6. I : afKpolv yap ovtoiv (piXoiv ocriov irporijiav ti)v 

Boetius] On the De Interpret., Migne, Ixiv. p. 297. 

virtus vocis] Cp. I Cor. xiv. 11 ; though we should, per- 
haps, rather have expected Veritas. 

sapientia absconsa et thesaurus invisus] Cp. Eccl. xx. 32. 


caret socio, non constat esse iociinda, de qua nee 
visus iudicat nee auditus. Veritas vero vocis 
soli patet auditui, visum latens, qui plures nobis 
differentias rerum monstrat, affixaque subtilissimo 

25 motui incipit et desinit quasi simul. Sed Veritas 5 
scripta libri, non successiva sed permanens, palam 
se praebet aspectui et per sphaerulas pervias ocu- 
lorum, vestibula sensus communis et imaginationis 
atria transiens, thalamum intellectus ingreditur, in 
cubili memoriae se recondens, ubi aeternam men- 10 
tis congenerat veritatem. 

26 Postremo pensandum, quanta doctrinae com- 
moditas sit in libris, quam facilis, quam arcana. 
Quam tuto libris humanae ignorantiae pauperta- 
tem sine verecundia denudamus ! Hi sunt magistri 15 
qui nos instruunt sine virgis et ferula, sine verbis 
et cholera, sine pannis et pecunia. Si accedis, 

\jocundam vulgo || 4 osiendit edd. afflixaxjiie A\\^ siiuiliter 
Ja. II 7 spirituales vias ociilorutn edd. speculia pervia 2 ll 8 ac 
sensiis edd. !l 10 cubile vulgo || 11 cognoverat 2|| 15 libH 
hi E Hi libri ]2>.. i| 16 et ferula sine verbis om. Ja. || 

sensus communis] See Roger Bacon's account of Scientia 
perspeciiva, Op. Maj., pars, v, for the part played in percep- 
tion by " imaginatio et sensus communis" (p. 192). John 
de Garlandia says in his Dictionarius : " In cerebro sub 
craneo tres sunt cellulae. Prima est ymaginaria, secunda 
rationalis, tertia memorialis," ed. vScheler, p. 22. 

pannis] There may be some reference to the distribution of 
robes, which was expected in mediaeval times from an in- 
cepting master at the Universities : cp. Maxwell Lyte, Hist. 
Univ. Oxford, 215 ; Anstey, Mun. Acad.,/aw/w. 


non dormiunt ; si inquirens interrogas, non abs- 
condunt ; non remurmurant, si oberres ; cachin- 

27 nos nesciunt, si ignores. O libri soli liberales et 
liberi, qui omni petenti tribuitis et omnes manu- 
mittitis vobis sedulo servientes, quot rerum millibus 5 
typice viris doctis recommendamini in scriptura 
nobis divinitus inspirata ! Vos enim estis profun- 
dissimae sophiae fodinae, ad quas sapiens filium 
suum mittit ut inde thesauros effodiat : Proverbio- 
rum 2° ; vos putei aquarum viventium, quos pater 10 
Abraham primo fodit, Isaac eruderavit, quosque 

28 nituntur obstruere Palestini : Genesis 26°. Vos estis 
revera spicae gratissimae, plenae granis, solis apos- 
tolicis manibus confricandae, ut egrediatur cibus 
suavissimus famelicis animabus : Matt. 12^^. Vos 15 
estis urnae aureae, in qiiibus manna reconditur, 
atque petrae mellifluae, immo potius favi mellis, 
ubera uberrima lactis vitae, promptuaria semper 
plena ; vos lignum et quadripartitus fluvius para- 

I se abscondtmt edd. || 4 omnipotenti i || 7 modo edd. H 10 
quinto edd. || 15 sanissimics A B gratisswms edd. fidelibus 
codd. dett. |1 16 in om. A B E\\ i"] favi om. D\\ 19 atque q. 
edd. II 

divinitus inspirata] Cp. 2 Tim. iii. 16. 

urnae aureae] Cp. Heb. ix : 4, " urnaaurea habens manna." 

petrae mellifluae] Cp. Deut. xxxii. 13 ; Ps. Ixxx. 17. 

promptuaria plena] Cp. Ps, cxliii. 13. 

lignum vitae] Cp. Gen. ii. 9 ; Rev. xxii. 2. 

quadripartitus fluvius] Cp. Gen. ii. lo. Cocheris notes in 
this an allusion to the Quadrivium and quotes Godefroi de 
Saint- Victor : 

** Hujus quoque fluminis partes sunt bis binae, 
Quas vulgus quadrivium nominat Latine." 


disi, quo mens humana pascitur et aridus in- 
29 tellectus imbuitur et rigatur ; vos area Noae et 
scala lacob, canalesque quibus foetus intuentium 
colorantur; vos lapides testimonii et lagenae ser- 
vantes lampadas Gedeonis, pera David, de qua lim- 5 
pidissimi lapides extrahuntur ut Goliath prosterna- 
tur. Vos estis aurea vasa templi, arma militiae 
clericorum, quibus tela nequissimi hostis destniun- 
tur, olivae fecundae, vineae Engadi, ficus sterilescere 
nescientes, lucernae ardentes, semper in manibus 10 
praetendendae, — et optima quaeque scripturae 
libris adaptare poterimus, si loqui libeat figurate. 

Capitulum 2. 
Quails amor libris rationabiliter debeatur. 

30 Si quidlibet iuxta gradum valoris gradum merea- 
tur amoris, valorem vero librorum ineffabilem 
persuadet praecedens capitulum ; palam liquet 15 
lectori quid sit inde probabiliter concludendum. 

3 canaksveja.. || 5 lampades A B £ ]z.\\S hosiis om. ABE 
Ja. II 10 semper in m. p. om. edd. || 

canalesque] Cp. Gen. xxx. 38. 

lapides testimonii] Cp. Joshua, iv. 7. 

lagenae servantes lampadas] Cp. Judges, vii. 16. 

limpidissimi lapides] From I Kings, xvii. 40. 

anna militiae] Cp. 2 Cor. x. 4, and s. 129 note. 

tela nequissimi] Cp. Eph. vi. 16. 

lucernae ardentes] Cp. Luke, xii. 35. 


Non enim demonstrationibus in morali materia 
nitimur, recordantes quoniam disciplinati hominis 
est certitudinem quaerere, sicut rei naturam per- 
spexerit tolerare, archiphilosopho attestante,i°Ethi- 
corum. Quoniam nee TuUius requirit Euclidem, 5 
nee Euclidi Tullius facit fidem ; hoc revera sive 
logice sive rhetorice suadere conamur, quod quae* 
cunque divitiae vel deliciae cedere debent libris in 
anima spiritali, ubi spiritus, qui est caritas, ordinat 
31 caritatem. Primo quidem quia in libris sapientia 10 
continetur potissime, plus quam omnes mortales 
naturaliter comprehendunt ; sapientia vero divitias 
parvipendit, sicut capitulum antecedens allegat. 
Praeterea Aristoteles, De problematibus, particula 
3% problemate 10°, istam determinat quaestionem 15 
propter quid antiqui, qui pro gymnasticis et corpo- 
ralibus agoniis praemia statuerunt potioribus, nullum 
unquam praemium sapientiae decreverun^. Hanc 
quaestionem responsione tertia ita solvit : in 
gymnasticis exercitiis praemium est melius et eli- 20 

2 utimur B E intimur Z> || 3 prospexerit ^ || 4 archipres- 
bitero D testante B\(i hec Z> || 9 spirituali \\x\go || 18 Hac 
respoitsione tertia A Hanc rnone tertia D E\2.q melius et om. 


disciplinati] The Treiraidev^Evov of Aristotle: Eth. i. 3, 4. 

ordinat caritatem] Cp. Cant. ii. 4, " ordinavit in me 
caritatem. " 

spiritali] The early ecclesiastical writers appear to have 
used spiriiualis and spiritalis indifferently. The Catholicon 
Anglicum (p. 355) makes a distinction : "spiritualis pertinet 
ad bonum vel ad malum, spiritalis pertinet ad bonum tantum." 

Aristoteles] Probl., ed. Bekker, iii, 10, p. 956. 


gibilius illo, pro quo datur ; sapientia autem nihil 
melius esse potest ; quamobrem sapientiae nullum 
potuit praemium assignari. Ergo nee divitiae nee 
32 deliciae sapientiam antecellunt. Rursus amicitiam 
divitiis praeponendam solus negabit insipiens, cum 5 
sapientissimus hoc testetur; amicitiae vero veri- 
tatem hierophilosophus praehonorat et verus Zoro- 
babel omnibus anteponit. Subsunt igitur divitiae 
veritati. Veritatem vero potissime et tuentur et 
continent sacri libri, immo sunt Veritas ipsa scripta; 10 
quoniam pro nunc librorum asseres librorum non 
asserimus esse partes. Quamobrem divitiae sub- 
sunt libris, praesertim cum pretiosissimum genus 
divitiarum omnium sint amici, sicut secundo 
de Consolatione testatur Boetius, quibus tamen 15 
librorum Veritas est per Aristotelem praeferenda. 

5 esse preponendam Ja, || 7 ieraphus A B D reraphus E 
arciphilosophns I hierophilosophus Ja. || lO scriptura Z> [J 14 
sicut et de D^ 1$ attestatur B || 

sapientissimus] No doubt Solomon : cp. Eccli. vi. 15, 
" Amico fideli nulla est comparatio, et non est digna 
ponderatio auri contra bonitatem fidei illius." Whether 
Solomon is also meant by the " hierophilosophus " is not 
quite so clear. The sentiment that truth is to be honoured 
before friendship is more like Aristotle's oaiov Trporificiv ti)v 
aXrjOtiav (Eth. i. 6, 5). The word "hierophilosophus" I 
have not found elsewhere. 

Zorobabel] The reference is of course to the story told in 
3 Esdras, iii. 10-12, iv, 13 ; and also in Josephus, xi. 3. 

amici] De Cons. Phil., ii. pr. 8 : " Desine nunc et amissas 
opes quaerere ; quod pretiosissimum divitiarum genus est, 
amicos invenisti." 


33 Araplius cum divitiae ad solius corporis subsidia 
primo et principaliter pertinere noscantur, virtus 
vero librorum sit perfectio rationis, quae bonum 
humanum proprie nominatur, apparet quod libri 
sunt homini ratione utenti divitiis cariores. Prae- 5 
terea illud quo fides defenderetur commodius, dila- 
taretur diffasius, praedicaretur lucidius, diligibilius 

34 debet esse fideli. Hoc autem est Veritas libris in- 
scripta, quod evidentius figuravit Salvator, quando 
contra tentatorem praeliaturus viriliter scuto se cir- lo 
cumdedit veritatis, non cuiuslibet immo scripturae, 
scriptum esse praemittens quod vivae vocis oraculo 
erat prolaturus : Matth. 4°. 

35 Rursus autem felicitatem nemo dubitat divitiis 
praeponendam. Consistit autem felicitas in opera- 15 
tione nobilissimae et divinioris potentiae quam habe- 
mus, dum videlicet intellectus vacat totaliter veritatis 
sapientiae contemplandae, quae est delectabilissima 
omnium operationum secundum virtutem, sicut 
princeps philosophorum determinat 10°. Ethi- 20 
corum, propter quod et philosophia videtur habere 
admirabiles delectationes puritate et firmitate, ut 

36 scribitur consequenter. Contemplatio autem veri- 
tatis nunquam est perfectior quam per libros, dum 

2 Veritas A edd. H 11 script e A B E\*j est ^H 13 proba- 
turiis i? II 16 nobilioris Z^ H 17 veritati edd. [| 19 vcritatem Ja. I| 

secundum virtutem] James writes " veritatem," but it is of 
course the fcar' a.pET>)v of Aristotle. 

puritate et firmitate] Ar. Eth. x. 7, 3 : ^okh yovv r) <pi\o- 
ao(p[a OavfiaaTag ijdoi'ug Ix^iv Ka£api6TT]Tt Kui Ti-J (3ej3aio}. 


actualis imaginatio continuata per librum actum 
intellectus super visas veritates non sustinet inter- 
rumpi. Quamobrem libri videntur esse felicitatis 
speculativae immediatissima instrumenta,unde Aris- 
toteles, sol philosophicae veritatis, ubi de eligendis 5 
distribuit methodos, docet quod philosophari est 
simpliciter eligibilius quam ditari, quamvis in casu 
ex circumstantia, puta necessariis indigenti, ditari 
quam philosophari sit potius eligendum : 3°. 
Topicorum. 10 

37 Adhuc cum libri sint nobis commodissimi mads- 


tri, ut praecedens assumit capitulum, eisdem non 
immerito tam honorem quam amorem tribuere 
convenit magistralem. Tandem cum omnes homi- 
nes natura scire desiderent ac per libros scientiam 15 
veterum praeoptandam divitiis omnibus adipisci 
possimus, quis homo secundum naturam vivens 

38 librorum non habeat appetitum? Quamvis vero 
porcos margaritas spernere sciamus, nihil in hoc 
prudentis laedetur opinio, quominus oblatas com- 2c 
paret margaritas. Pretiosior est igitur cunctis opibus 
sapientiae libraria, et omnia quae desiderantur huic 

5 physicae edd. || 8 circumstajttiis A edd. || 1 1 sint om. B || 
16 omnibus om.B \\ 20 leditiir D Ja. 1| 21 enini B jj 

philosophari] Ar., Top. iii. 2, 22 : To -^ovv ^CKorso'^HV 
ftiXTiov Tou xp^l^aTiL,ta9ai, aW ovx aipiriL'Tepov ti^j iicu~i tCju 

scire desiderent] See ch. i. s. 19, note. 

margaritas] Cp. Matt. vii. 6, 

pretiosior cunctis opibus] Cp. Prov. viii, ii. 


non valent comparari : Proverbiorum 3^ Quis- 
quis igitur se fatetur veritatis, felicitatis, sapientiae 
vel scientiae, seu etiam fidei zelatorem, librorum 
necesse est se faciat amatorem. 


Capitulum 3. 

Quallter In llbrls emendis sit pretlum 

39 Corollarium nobis gratum de praedictis elicimus, 5 
paucis tamen (ut credimus) acceptandum : nullam 
videlicet debere caristiam hominem impedire ab 
emptione librorum, cum sibi suppetat quod petitur 
pro eisdem, nisi ut obsistatur malitiae venditoris, 
vel tempus emendi opportunius expectetur. Quo- '° 
niam, si sola sapientia pretium facit libris, quae est 
infinitus thesaurus hominibus, et si valor librorum 
est ineffabilis, ut praemissa supponunt, qualiter pro- 
babitur carum esse commercium, ubi bonum emitur 
infinitum ? Quapropter libros libenter emendos et »5 
invite vendendos sol hominum Salomon noshortatur, 

4 est ut se Ja. fateatur edd. || 5 corelarium D corrolariuvi 

jg" II 9 suppetatur obsistatur A \ 

infinitus thesaurus] From Wisdom, vii. 14 ; Eccl"«. xx. 32. 

Sol hominum Salomon] This phrase occurs in Walter 
Map, De Nugis Curialium, iv. 3 ; the reference is perhaps to 
Eccli. xxvii. 12. 

CAPITULUM 111. 21 

Prov. 23°: veritatem, inquit, erne et noli vendere 

40 Sed quod rhetorice suademus vel logice, adstrua- 
mus historiis rei gestae. Archiphilosophus Aris- 
toteles, quern Averroes datum putat quasi regulam 5 
in natura, paucos libros Speusippi post ipsius deces- 
sum pro septuaginta duobus millibus sestertiis sta- 
tim emit. Plato, prior tempore sed doctrinis pos- 
terior, Philolai Pythagorici librum emit pro decern 
millibus denariorum, de quo dicitur Timaei dialo- 10 
gum excerpsisse, sicut refert A. Gellius, Noctium 

41 Atticarum libro tertio, capitulo ly*'. Haec autem 
narrat A. Gellius, ut perpendat insipiens quam 
nihilipendant sapientes pecuniam comparatione 
librorum. Et e contrario, ut omni superbiae stulti- 15 
tiam cognoscamus annexam, libet hie Tarquinii 
Superbi stultitiam recensere in parvipensione libro- 
rum, quam refert idem A. Gellius, Noctium Atti- 

42 carum libro primo, cap, 19'^. Vetula quaedam om- 
nino incognita ad Tarquinium Superbum, regem 20 

\i A. Gellius om. A A. Gellius . . . tiarrat om. B \ 12 17" 
om. B c° i^" codd. |1 IS ^ contrane D \\ l^ inpcnsione E 
impensione Ja. |1 

regulam in natura] On the De Anima, iii. ed. 1550, f. 169. 
The passage is quoted by Albertus Magnus, 0pp. iii. 135 and 
Aegidius Colonna, Quodlibeta, iii. qu. 13, and is referred to 
by Roger Bacon, Op. Maj., p. 27 : see Renan, Averroes, 

I P- 55 f. 

prior tempore] Cp. Aristot. Met. i. 3 of Empedokles and 

Anaxagoras : ry fikv yXiKKf rrportpog Cjv tovtqv TOig d'ipyoig 

n vaTSpog. 


Romanum septimiim, dicitur accessisse, venales 
offerens novem libros, in quibus (ut asseruit) divina 
coRtinebantur oracula, sed immensam pro eisdem 
poposcit pecuniam, in lantum ut rex earn diceret 
delirare. Ilia commota tres libros in ignem proiecit 5 
et pro residuis summam quam prius exegit. Rege 
negante, rursus tres alios in ignem proiecit et adhuc 
pro tribus residuis primam summam poposcit. 
Tandem stupefactus supra modum, Tarquinius sum- 
mam pro tribus gaudet exsolvere, pro qua novem 10 
poterat redemisse. Vetula statim disparuit, quae 
43 nee prius, nee postea visa fuit. Hi sunt libri 
Sibyllini, quos quasi quoddam divinum oraculum 
per aliquem de quindecim viris consulebant Ro- 
man!, et quindecimviratus creditur officium ori- 15 
ginem habuisse. Quid aliud haec Sibylla prophe- 
tissa tam vafro facto superbum regem edocuit, nisi 
quod vasa sapientiae, sacri libri, omnem humanam 
aestimationem excedunt, et sicut de regno cae- 
lorum dicit Gregorius : Tantum valent, quantum ^o 

6 exigit E 11 iipoUierat B\ 15 ongincyn om. edd. origihes D 
II 17 vario B edd. |1 19 sic E || 20 valent A B || 

Tantum valet] Gregory, XL. Homiliarum in Evangelia, 
lib. i. Horn. 5: "Aestimationem quippe pretii non habet, 
sed tamen regnum Dei tantum valet, quantum habes." The 
phrase may remind us of Cordelia's answer to King Lear in 
Gervase of Tilbury, Otia Imper., ii. 17 : " Quantum habes, 
tantum valet et tantum te diligo." 


Capltulum 4. 

Ouerimonia llbrorum contra clericos iam 


44 Progenies viperamm parentes proprios perimens 
atque semen nequam ingratissimi cuculi, qui, cum 
vires acceperit, virium largitricem nutriculam suam 
necat, sunt clerici degeneres erga libros. Redite 
praevaricatores ad cor et quid per libros recipitis 5 
fideliter computetis et invenietis libros totius nobi- 
lis status vestri quodammodo creatores, sine quibus 
proculdubio defecissent caeteri promotores. 

45 Ad nos nempe rudes penitus et inertes reptastis, 

ut parvuli loquebamini, ut parvuli sapiebatis, ut 10 
parvuli eiulantes implorastis participes fieri lactis 
nostri. Nos vero protinus lacrimis vestris tacti 

3 acceperint — necant A mdricein D \ if circa ^ || 6 corn- 
put ate J a. II 8 promotores. Ex persona libroruin vulgo i| 

Progenies viperarum] Cp. Matt. xii. 34. 

nutricem suam necat] Cp. Pliny, H. N. x. II, who says 
that the young cuckoo robs the other young birds of their 
food, and growing fat engrosses the affection of his nurse, in se 
nutricem cojivertit, until after she has seen him devour her own 
young, at last when he is able to fly he makes her his prey. 

Redite praevaricatores ad cor] From Is. xlvi. 8. 

ut parvuh] Cp. I Cor. xiii. ii. 

participes lactis] Cp. Heb. v. 13. 



mamillam grammaticae porreximus exsugendam, 
quam dentibus atque lingua contrectastis assidue, 
donee dempta nativa barbaric nostris Unguis 

46 ineiperetis magnalia Dei fari. Post haec philoso- 
phiae vestibus valde bonis, rhetorica et dialectica, 5 
quas apud nos habuimus et habemus, vos indui- 
mus, cum essetis nudi, quasi tabula depingenda. 
Omnes enim philosophiae domestici sunt vestiti 
duplicibus, ut tegatur tarn nuditas quam ruditas 

47 intellectus. Post haec, ut alati more seraphico 10 
super cherubin scanderetis, quadrivialium pennas 
vobis quatuor adiungentes, transmisimus ad ami- 
cum, ad cuius ostium, dum tamen improbe pul- 

3 nahira B D direpta nota edd. 1| 5 vestra Ja. vestris sec. 
manu A Ja. || 10 seraphin -£ 11 1 1 scandentes transmisimus edd.H 

magnalia Dei] Cp. Eccl. xviii. 5 ; Acts ii. il. 

vestibus valde bonis] From Gen. xxvii. 15. For the 
*'vestes philosophiae" cp. Boetius, De Cons. Phil. i. pr. I ; 
Holkotin Sap. 153 b. foil., explains these to be the seven 
liberal arts. 

tabula depingenda] The phrase reminds us of the familiar 
" tabula rasa," which, according to Prantl, G. der Logik, iii. 
261, is first found in Aegidius Colonna, and goes back of 
course to Aristotle, De Anima, iii. 4. 

domestici sunt vestiti duplicibus] From Prov. xxxi. 21. 

more seraphico] Cp. Is. vi. 2 ; 2 Sam. 22. ii ; Ps. xvii. II. 

quadrivialium] The Trivium included Grammar, Dialectic 
and Rhetoric— the introductoiy arts ; the Quadrivium, the 
four sciences— " quatuor pennas"— of Music, Arithmetic, 
Geometry, and Astronomy. 

ad amicum] Cp. Luke xi. 4, '* Amice, commoda mihi tres 


improbe pulsaretis] ib. 8 : "Si ille perseveraverit pulsans 
. . . propter improbitatem tamen ejus surget." 


saretis, tres panes commodarentur intelligentiae 
Trinitatis, in qua consistit finalis felicitas cuiuslibet 
viatoris. Quod si vos haec munera non habere 
dixeritis, confidenter asserimus, quod vel ea per 
incuriam perdidistis coUata, vel in principio desides 5 
48 respuistis oblata. Si huiusmodi videantur ingratis 
pusilla, adicimus his maiora. Vos estis genus elec- 
tum, regale sacerdotium, gens sancta, vos populus 
peculiaris in sortem Domini computati, vos sacer- 
dotes et ministri Dei, immo vos antonomatice ipsa 

3 nos A II 8 gens sancta et populus acquisitionis vos Ja. || 
10 do mini D ipsiiis D || 

viatoris] " Viator " was a common mediceval term for a 
Christian, especially frequent in Wiclif. It dates back to 

5. Augustine : cp. Sermones, clxix. 18 ( I Cor. viii. 2). 
genus electum] Cp. i Pet. ii. 9 : " Vos autem genus elec- 

tum, regale sacerdotium, gens sancta, populus acquisitionis," 

populus peculiaris] Cp. Deut. vii. 6 ; Exod. xix. 6. 

sortem Domini] With reference to the derivation of clericus. 
Cp. S. Jerome, Ad Nepotianum, Ep. 3 : *' Igitur clericus, 
qui Chri^ti servit Ecclesiae, interpretetur primo vocabulum 
suum, et nominis definitione prolata nitatur esse quod dicitur. 
Si enim Kkripog Graece sors Latine appellatur, propterea vo- 
cantur clerici, vel quia de sorte sunt Domini, vel quia ipse 
Dominus sors, id est, pars clericorum est;" Gerv. Tilb., 
Otia Imperialia, prolog. : " Rex ille summus simul et sacer- 
dos Christus secundum ordinem Melchisedech suo sacerdo- 
tium consecravit imperio, sortem suam in clero constituens, 
cuius merito clerici velut in sortem Domini vocati nuncu- 

antonomatice] Formed from dvTOvofiaaia (cp. Quintil. viii. 

6. 29), though often written antonomatice, and supposed to be 
connected with avrovofi'JJg. Whether the latter form is any- 


Ecclesia Dei dicimini, quasi laici non sint ecclesi- 
astici nuncupandi. Vos, laicis postpositis, psalmos 
et hymnos concinitis in cancellis et altari deser- 
vientes, cum altario participantes, verum con- | 
ficitis corpus Christi, in quo Deus ipse vos non 5 j 
solum laicis, immo paulo magis angelis honoravit. | 

49 Cui enim aliquando angelorum dixit : Tu es sacer- | 
dos in aeternum secundum ordinem Melchisedech? j 
Vos crucifixi patrimonium dispensatis pauperibus, { 
ubi iam quaeritur inter dispensatores ut fidelis quis lo ; 
inveniatur. Vos estis pastores gregis dominici 
tarn exemplo vitae quam verbo doctrinae, qui 
vobis tenentur rependere lac et lanam. 

50 Qui sunt istorum omnium largitores, O clerici, 
nonne libri ? Reminisci libeat, supplicamus, quot 15 
per nos clericis sint concessa egregia privilegia ' 
libertatum. Per nos siquidem vasa sapientiae et 

I ipsi etiam dii 2 || 2 postponitis A Z> \\ ^ nos ^ || 1 1 diversi 
edd. II 12 vitae om. edd. i| 13 nobis A tenet ur Z? || 16 sunt 
ABE sint scripsi cum J a. egregia om. Z? || 17 sacerdotum A || 

thing but a clerical error is, perhaps, doubtful ; but Mr. 
Lumby's article, in his glossary to Higden, is certainly wrong. 
Cp. Adam Murimuth of Edward III. " dictus antonomatice 
gloriosus," though Hog (p. 225) alters the text to " autono- 
matice. " 

altari deservientes] From i Cor. ix. 13 : qui altari deser- 
viunt cum altari participant ; cp. Heb. xiii. lO. 

corpus Christi] Cp. S. Jerome, Ad Heliodoriivi^ Ep. I ; 
* Apostolico gradui succedentes, Christi corpus sacro ore con- 

paulo magis angelis] From Heb. ii. 7, with a difference. 

Tu es sacerdos] From Ps. cix. 4. 

ubi iam quaeritur] Cp. I Cor. iv. 2 : " Hie iam quaeritur 
inter dispensatores ut fidelis quis inveniatur." 


intellectus imbuti cathedras scanditis magistrales, 
vocati ab hominibus Rabbi. Per nos, in oculis 
laicorum mirabiles velut magna mundi luminaria, 
I dignitates ecclesiae secundum sortes varias possi- 
'51 detis. Per nos, cum adhuc careatis genarum lanu- 5 
gine, in aetate tenera constituti tonsuram portatis 
in vertice, prohibente statim ecclesiastica sententia 
formidanda : Nolite tangere Christos meos et in 
prophetis meis nolite malignari ; et qui eos teti- 
gerit temere violenter anatheraatis vulnere ictu 10 
proprio protinus feriatur. 
2 Tandem aetate succumbente malitiae, figurae 
Pythagoricae bivium attingentes ramum laevum 
eligitis et retrorsum abeuntes sortem Domini prae- 
assumptam dimittitis, socii facti furum; sicque 15 
semper proficientes in peius, latrociniis, homicidiis 
et multigenis impudicitiis maculati, tam fama quam 
conscientia tabefacta sceleribus,compellente iustitia, 
in manicis et compedibus coarctati, servamini morte 

I itidnti Ja. II 3 himma Z? 1| 5 carebatis edd. I, 7 statuin E || 

vocati ab hominibus Rabbi] From Matt, xxiii. 7. 

luminaria] Cp. Phil. ii. 15 : '* Lucetis sicut luminaria in 
mundo;" and Gen. i. 16. 

nolite tangere] From Ps. civ. 15. 

figurae Pythag.] The letter Y as emblematic of the broad 
and nanow paths of vice and virtue. Cp. Gervas. Tilb., Otia 
Imper., i. 20 : " Y litteram Pythagoras invenit, ad exemplum 
humanae vitae, cuius prior virgula primam significat aeta- 
tem incertam : bivium, quod su^Derest, ab adolescentia incipit, 
cuius dextera pars ardua, sed ad beatam vitam tendit ; sinistra 
facilior a luce ad interitum ducens." 

retrorsum abeuntes] Cf. Jer. xv. 6 ; socii furum j Is. i. 23. 


53 turpissima puniendi. Tunc elongatur amicus et 
proximus, nee est qui doleat vicem vestram. 
Petrus iurat se hominem non novisse : vulgus 
clamat iusticiario : Crucifige, crucifige eum ! quoni- 
am si hunc dimittis, Caesaris amicus non eris. 5 
lam periit omnis fuga, nam ante tribunal oportet 
assisti, nee locus suppetit appellandi sed solum 

54 suspendium exspectatur. Dum sic tristitia com- 
plevit cor miseri et solae Camenae lacerae fletibus 
ora rigant, fit balatus angustiis undique memor 10 
nostri et ut evitet mortis propinquae periculum 
antiquatae tonsurae, quam dedimus, parvum prae- 
fert signaculum, supplicans ut vocemur in medium 
et eollati muneris testes simus. Tunc misericordia 
statim moti oecurrimus filio prodigo et a portis 15 

55 mortis servum eripimus fugitivum. Legendus liber 

7 appetit D |1 9 lachrymae Ja. H 10 valatus A B vallatiis D E\\ 

morte turpissima] From Wisd. ii. 20. 

elongatur amicus] From Ps. Ixxxvii. 19 : * elongasti a me 
amicum : ' cp. elongati^ s. 88. It would seem difficult to 
doubt the meaning of the word, but Mr. Lumby, in his 
glossary to Higden's Polychronicon, explains elongati to 
mean ' encouraged by persuasive language, cheered. ' 

Petrus iurat] Cp. Matt. xxii. 72 : *' non novi hominem." 

Crucifige] Cp. John xix. 6, 12. 

periit omnis fuga] Cp. Ps. cxli. 5 : periit a me fuga. 

ante tribunal] Cp. 2 Cor. v. 10. 

Camenae] FromBoetius, De Cons. Phil., i. metr. I : *'Ecce 
mihi lacerae dictant scribenda Camenae Et veris elegi fletibus 
ora rigant." 

a portis mortis] Cp. Ps. cvi. 18. 

legendus liber] The claim to the privilegium dencale^ or 


porrigitur non ignotus et ad modicam balbutientis 
prae timore lecturam iudicis potestas dissolvitur, 
accusator subtrahitur, mors fugatur. O carminis 
empirici mira virtus ! O dirae cladis antidotum 
salutare ! O lectio pretiosa psalterii, quod meretur 5 
56 hoc ipso liber vitae deinceps appellari ! Sustineant 
laici saeculare iudicium, ut vel insuti cuUeis 
enatent ad Neptunum, vel in terra plantati Plutoni 
fructificent, aut Vulcano per incendia holocaustum 
se offerant medullatum, vel certe suspensi victima 10 
sint lunoni ; dum noster alumnus ad lectionem 
unicam libri vitae pontificis commendatur custodiae 
et rigor in favorem convertitur, ac dum forum 
transfertur a laico, a librorum alumno clerico mors 
differtur. '5 

7 Caeterum iam de clericis, qui sunt vasa virtutis, 
loquamur. Quis de vobis pulpitum seu scabellum 
praedicaturus ascendit nobis penitus inconsultis? 
Quis scholas lecturus vel disputaturus ingreditur, 
qui nostris conatibus non fulcitur? Primum 20 

4 imperiti E !1 5 qtiae \ailgo || 7 inscti B in fidis Z> i| 9 holO' 
camta—medullata edd. H 18 ascendet Ja. 1| 20 cofnatibus edd. 1| 

benefit of clergy, was established by the reading of a verse 
from the Bible by the prisoner. From Piers Plowman, xv. 
127, it seems already to have been usual to set one particular 

insuti] The classical phrase is insuere aliqueni in cttieum 
(Cic. Rose. Am. 25). All these punishments were used in 
medieval times : cp. Archaeologia, xxxviii. 54. 

holocaustum] Cp. Ps. Ixv. 15: " Holocausta medullata 
offeram tibi." 


oportet volumen cum Ezechiele comedere, quo 
venter memoriae dulcescat intrinsecus et sic more 
pantherae refectae redoleat extrinsecus concep- 
torum aromatum odor suavis, ad cuius anhelitum 
coanhelent accedere omnes bestiae et iumenta. 5 

58 Sic nostra natura in nostris familiaribus operante 
latenter, auditores accurrunt benevoli, sicut adamas 
trahit ferrum nequaquam invite. O virtus infinita 
librorum iacent Parisius vel Athenis simulque 
resonant in Britannia et in Roma ! Quiescentes 10 
quippe moventur, dum ipsis loca sua tenentibus, 
auditorum intellectibus circumquaque feruntur. 

59 Nos denique sacerdotes, pontifices, cardinales 
et papam, ut cuncta in hierarchia ecclesiastica 
collocentur in ordine, litterarum scientia stabilimus. 1 5 
A libris namque sumit originem quicquid boni 
provenit statui clericali. Sed haec hactenus : 

3 refertae vulgo || ^fanus A samis B E \\ <, homines A B 
II 7 occurrant Z) || 9 librorum quinimmo multitudo jacet edd. 
jacet E similiterque Ja. || 14 in om. A || 

cum Ezechiele] Cp. Ezech. iii. 1-3. 

pantherae] Cp. Pliny, H. N. viii. 23, who says that the 
smell of the panther attracts all quadrupeds : ' ' quadrupedes 
cunctas." I have corrected the text accordingly. 

virtus] For virtus in the sense of a host, cp. the Vulgate, 
e.g. I Mace. i. 4 ; Judith iii. 7. 

Parisius] The mediaeval Latin name of Paris, which was 
treated as indeclinable; cp. Barthius, Advers. 21 ii. 

dum ipsis] This sentence looks like a grammatical slip, and 
the only bad one in the book, unless "cernitur" vii. 103, 
is another. 



piget enim reminisci quae dedimus populo cleri- 
corum degeneri, quia magis videntur perdita quam 
collata, quaecumque munera tribuuntur ingratis. 

60 Deinceps insistemus parumper recitandis iniuriis 
quas rependunt, vilipensionibus et iacturis, de quibus 5 
nee singula generum recitare sufficimus, immo vix 
proxima genera singulorum. Inprimis de domi- 
ciliis clericorum nobis iure haereditario debitis vi 
et armis expellimur, qui quondam in interiori cubi- 
culo cellulas habebamus quietis, sed proh dolor ! 10 
his nefandis temporibus penitus exsulantes im- 

61 properium patimur extra portas. Occupant etenim 
loca nostra nunc canes, nunc aves, nunc bestia 
bipedalis, cuius cohabitatio cum clericis vetabatur 
antiquitus, a qua semper super aspidem et basil- 15 
iscum alumnos nostros docuimus esse fugiendum ; 

4 delude D \\ 5 rependere A \\ 6 genera edd. |1 7 singularum 
edd. 11 9 cojnpellirmir Z) || lO qinetas edd. |1 11 teviporibtts om. 
A II 14 bipedalis scilicet imdicr edd. vltabatur a c. edd. 1| 16 
esse om. A B ]d.. fugere ]3.. \\ 

ii-nproperium extra portas] Cp. Heb. xiii. 13. 

nunc aves] Probably hawks, the monks of medieval times 
being greatly addicted to hunting and hawking. Cp. 
Chaucer's Monk, and see John of Salisbury's Policrat. i. 4. 

bestia bipedalis] This sufficiently contemptuous reference 
to the fair sex was accentuated by some scribe, who added the 
words scilicet mulla-, which the editors have printed in the 
text. We must remember that the Bishop is referring to the 
focaHae, whose association with the clergy was forbidden by 
a long series of ecclesiastical prohibitions ne clerlci in sacrls 
ordinibus constltiiti focarlas habeant : cp. Ilallam, Middle 
Ages, ii. 1 76 foil. 

super aspidem et basiliscum] From Ps. xc. 13. 



quamobrem ista nostris semper studiis aemula, 
nuUo die placanda, finaliter nos conspectos in 
aimulo iam defunctae araneae sola tela protectos, in 
rugam fronte coUecta, virulentis sermonibus detra- 
hit et subsannat, ac nos in tota domus suppel- 5 
lectili supervacaneos hospitari demonstrat et ad 
unumquodque oeconomiae servitium conqueritur 
otiosos, mox in capitegia pretiosa, sindonem et 
sericum et coccum bis tinctum, vestes et varias 
furraturas, linum et lanam, nos consulit commu- 10 
tandos: et quidem merito, si videret intrinseca 
cordis nostri, si nostris privatis interfuisset consiliis, 
si Theophrasti vel Valerii perlegisset volumen, vel 
saltern 25 capitulum Ecclesiastici auribus intel- 
lectus audisset. 

I istius E istis Ja H 3 defundo armae Ja. are7ie E\\6 super- 
vacuos L I semper vaciios Coch. et oeconomiae D \ 8 capitogia 
E II g fulraturas B \\it, volumen . . . audisset om. D jl 

sindonem] Sindon^ sendal or cendal, appears to have been 
used for a rich thin fabric, whether of silk or linen : cp. 
Catholicon Angl., p. 329 n. 

coccum bis tinctum] Cp. Vulgate, e.g. Ex. xxvi. i. 

furraturas] Perhaps the word here means furs, but see 

Ducange under the various forms of the word : in this passage 

I notice the forms farraturas, folraturas, ferraturas and 

fodcraturas. Originally it does not seem to have meant any 

particular stuff, but stuffing or lining of any sort. 

Theophrasti] This does not refer to the Characters^ as 
Cocheris supposes, but to a book against marriage attributed 
to him by S. Jerome, who quotes it at some length, Adv. 
Jovinian, i. 28 : "fertur aureolus Theophrasti liber denuptiis, 
in quo quaerit an vir sapiens ducat uxorem." John of Salis- 
bury, Policrat. viii. II, quotes the passage. 

Valerii] This refers not to Valerius Maximus, as Cocheris 


62 Quapropter conquerimur de hos])itiis nobis in- 
iuste ablatis, de vestibus, non qiiidem non dalis 
sed de datis antiquitus, violentis manibus laceratis. 
Adhaesit pavimento anima nostra, conglutinatus 
est in terra venter noster, et gloria nostra in 5 
pulverem est deducta. Morbis variis laboramus, 
dorsa dolentes et latera, et iacemiis membratim 
paralysi dissoluti, nee est qui recogitet, nee est 

63 ullus qui malagma procuret. Candor nativus 

et luce perspicuus iam in fuscum et croceum est 10 
conversus, ut nemo medicus dubitet ictericia 

3 laceratis in tantiim quod edd. '] 6 redacta est edd. |1 15 be- 
7iigne malagma edd. |! \oa luce A \\ 11 medicus qui nos reperiat 
edd. II 

says, but to the Valerius ad Rufimim de tixoj'e non dzccenda, 
which was one of the most popular of medieval books, and 
seems even to have been printed as S. Jerome's. It is claimed 
by Walter Map as his own, and incorporated in the De Nugis 
Curialium, iv. 3, where he explains that he wrote it to a 
love-sick friend : " me, qui Walterus sum, Valerium vocans, 
ipsum, qui Johannes est et rufus, Rufinum. " It must not be 
confounded with the poem Golias de conjuge non ducenda, 
which was, perhaps, also written by Map : see Wright's 
edition of his Poems, p. 77. There is some confusion in 
Wright's references to the Valerius^ and also in the notices 
in Warton, ed. Hazlitt, i. 250, ii. 353. Cp. Chaucer in the 
Wife of Bath's prologue. 

adhaesit pavimento anima nostra] From Ps.cxviii. 25. 

conglutinatus est in terra venter noster] Ps. xliii. 25. 

gloria nostra in pulverem est deducta] Ps. vii. 6. 

nee est qui recogitet] From Jer. xii. II. 

luce perspicuum] Cp. Durh. Ritual, p. 64: "luce con- 
spicuum. " 

ictericia] The jaundice, said to be so called from the belief 



nos infectos. Arthriticam patiuntur nontiulli de 
nobis, sicut extremitates retortae insinuant evi- 
denter. Fumus et pulvis, quibus infestamur 
assidue, radiorum visualium aciem hebetarunt et 
iam lippientibus oculis ophthalmiam superducunt. 5 
64 Ventres nostri duris torsionibus viscerum, quae 
vermes edaces non cessant corrodere, consumun- 
tur et utriusque Lazari sustinemus putredinem, 
nee invenitur quisquam, qui cedri resina nos 
liniat vel qui quatriduano iam putrido damans 10 
dicat, Lazare veni foras ! Nullo circumligantur 
medicamine vulnera nostra saeva, quae nobis in- 
noxiis inferuntur atrociter, nee est ullus qui super 

I archeticam A artheticam B D E\\2, Funms aut fifnus ac 
pulvis L edd. || 8 lazari 2 et viritisque B lateris edd. || lO qtia- 
triduario A \\ 12 ligamine edd. || 13 inseruntur edd. || 

that it was cured by the sight of the icterus, a bird mentioned 
by Pliny, H. N. xxx. ii, 29 : cp. xx. 9, 34. In classical 
Latin only the adjective ictericus is found. 

utriusque Lazari] Most of the printed texts read utriusque 
lateris, which Cocheris translates, 'nous portons la corruption 
dans nos fiancs,' and Inglis, * we suffer corruption inside and 
out.' But the true reading is undoubtedly Lazari, referring 
to the Lazarus ulceribus plenus of Luke (xvi. 20) and the 
Lazartis viortuus of John (xi. 14), the one suffering the cor- 
ruption of disease, the other that of death. 

quatriduano] Cp. John xi. 39 : * jam faetet, quatriduanus 
est enim.' 

cedri resina] Holkot, Super Sap. 1. cxci, quotes Isidorus, 
Etym. xvii. 8 : " de cedro, quod resinam quandam habet 
quae cedria dicitur, quae in servandis libris adeo est utilis ut 
perliniti ex ea nee tineas patiantur nee tempore senescant." 

Lazare veni foras !] From John xi. 43. 


nostra ulcera cataplasmet ; sed pannosi et algidi in 
angulos tenebrosos abicimur, in lacrimis cum 
sancto lob in sterquilinio collocamur, vel, quod 
nefas videtur effatu, in abyssis abscondimur 

65 cloacarum. Pulvinar subtrahitur evangelicis sup- 5 
ponendum lateribus, quibus primo deberent de 
sortibus clericorum provenire subsidia et sic ad 
nos suo famulatui deputandos pro semper com- 
munis victus necessarius derivari. 

66 Rursus de alio genere calamitatis conquerimur, 10 
quae personis nostris crebrius irrogatur iniuste. 
Nam in servos vendimur et ancillas et obsides in 
tabernis absque redemptore iacemus. Macellariis 
crudelibus subdimur, ubi mactari tarn pecora 
quam iumenta sine piis lacrimis non videmus et 15 
ubi millesies morimur ipso metu, qui cadere posset 

in constantem. ludaeis committimur, Sarracenis, 
haereticis et paganis, quorum super omnia toxi- 
cum formidamus, per quos nonnullos de nostris 
parentibus per venenum pestiferum constat esse 20 

I vulnera edd. 1| 2 laternis L vel cum edd. |1 4 affatu B 
mihi effari tdd. \\ 12 nos D \\ 12 venjindanmr edd. || 13 re- 
detnptwne edd. in cellariis vulgo || 1 7 co?islantem virum A 
viru7n om. B D E ]^. in virtim posset vulgo |] 

lob in sterquilinio] Cp. Job ii. 8. 

in servos vendimur et ancillas] From Deut. xxviii. 68. 

in constantem] Referring to the legal maxim which, de- 
rived no doubt through Azo from the Digest, is in Bracton, 
ii. 5. 14 : " Debemus accipere metum non . . . vani vel 
meticulosi hominis sed talem qui cadere possit in virum con- 
stanteiJi." In the Digest, iv. 2, it is cited from Gaius. 


67 corruptos. Sane nos, qui architectonici reputari 
debemus in scientiis et subiectis nobis omnibus 
mechanicis imperamus, subalternatomm regimini 
vice versa committimur, tanquam si monarcha 
summe nobilis rusticanis calcaneis substernatur. 5 
Sartor et sutor et scissor quicunque ac cuiuslibet 
artifex operis inclusos nos custodit in carcere pro 
superfluis et lascivis deliciis clericorum. 

dZ lam volumus prosequi novum genus iniuriae, quo 
tam in nostris personis laedimur quam in fama, qua 10 
nihil carius possidemus. Generositati nostrae omni 
die detrahitur, dum per pravos compilatores, trans- 
latores et transformatores nova nobis auctorum no- 
mina imponuntur et, antiqua nobilitate mutata, 
regeneratione multiplici renascentes degeneramus 15 
omnino. Sicque vilium vitricorum nobis nolenti- 
bus affiguntur vocabula et verorum patrum nomina 

69 filiis subducuntur. Versus Vergilii, adhuc ipso 
vivente quidam pseudoversificus usurpavit, et Mar- 
tial is Coci libellos Fidentinus quidam sibi menda- 20 
citer arrogavit, quem idem Martialis redarguit 
merito sub his verbis : 

3 i}nperavivius1z..snhaltern(yruv2 D edd || 6 salt or "^2^. \\ 7 car- 
eens D II 10 quia A II 16 vidricorzim D vidritiortivi Ja. aitc- 
to nun in mg. || 19 qiddem A B \\ 21 arrogavit merito D Ij 

Martialis Cocus] Cocus or Coquus appears to have been 
long regarded as a cognomen of Martial, and in the middle 
ages he was constantly referred to as Martialis Cocus, or 
merely as Cocus, e.g. by John of Salisbury, Policrat. vii. 12 
et al. The origin of the mistake was probably a misreading 
of Martialis totus : but see Smith's Diet. Biogr., s, v. 


Quern recitas, meus est, O Fidentine ! libellus ; 
Sed male quum recitas, incipit esse tuus. 

Quid ergo mirum, si defunctis nostris auctoribus 
suas per nos fimbrias simiae clericorum magnificant, 
cum eisdem superstitibus nos recenter editos rapere 

yo moliantur. Ah, quoties nos antiquos fingitis nuper 
natos, et qui patres sumus filios nominare conamini, 5 
quique vos ad esse clericale creavimus studiorum 
vestrorum fabricas appellatis ! Revera de Adienis 
exstitimus oriundi, qui fingimur nunc de Roma, 
semper namque Carmentis latruncula fuit Cadmi, 
et qui nuper nascebamur in Anglia eras Parisius 10 
renascemur, et inde delati Bononiam Italicam 
sortiemur originem, nulla consanguinitate suffultam. 

71 Heu, quam falsis scriptoribus nos exarandos com- 
mittitis ; quam corrupte nos legitis et medicando 
necatis, quos pro zelo corrigere credebatis ! Inter- '5 

8 extitnus D II lo contra A 14 meditando E edd. Ja || \^ pio 
A E debebatis edd. || 

Quern recitas] Mart., i. 39; cp. i. 30. The epigram is 
quoted by Holkot, Super Sap., 1. ccxii., in a passage not 
unlike the present. 

Carmentis latruncula fuit Cadmi] See viii. 128 note. 

Bononiam] Bologna was one of the great universities of 
the middle ages. 

falsis scriptoribus] We may comp. Petrarch's complaint of 
copyists, De Remed. Utr. Fortunae, i. 43 : " Ut ad plenum 
auctorum constet integritas, quis scriptorum inscitiae in- 
ertiaeque medebitur, corrumpenti omnia miscentique? .... 
An si redeat Cicero aut Livius multique alii veterum illus- 
trium, ante omnes Plinius secundus, sua scripta relegentes 


pretes barbaros sustinemus multotiens et qui lingu- 
arum idiomata nesciunt nos de lingua ad linguam 
transferre praesumunt ; sicque proprietate sermonis 
ablata fit sententia contra sensum auctoris turpiter 
mutilata. Bene gratiosa fuisset librorum conditio, 5 
si turris Babel nuUatenus obfuisset praesumptio, si 
totius humani generis unica descendisset sermonis 
species propagata. 

7 2 Ultimam nostrae prolixae querelae, sed pro materia 
quam habemus brevissimae, clausulam subiungemus. 10 
In nobis etenim commutatur naturalis usus in eum 
usum qui est contra naturam, dum passim pictoribus 
subdimur litterarum ignaris et aurifabris, proh dolor ! 
commendamur nos, qui sumus lumen fidelium ani- 
marum, ut fiamus, ac si non essemus sapientiae 15 
sacra vasa, repositoria bractearum. Devolvimur in- 
debite in laicorum dominium, quod est nobis 
amarius omni morte, quoniam hi vendiderunt 
populum nostrum sine pretio et inimici nostri 
iudices nostri sunt. 20 

73 Liquet omnibus ex praedictis quam infinita pos- 
semus in clericos invectiva conicere, si non hones- 

5 mactdata edd. || 9 Jiostrae om. A\\ii etiivi D \ 22 cojit- 
miscere A convertere i conimitiere 2 convitiari edd. |1 

intelligent et non passim haesitantes nunc aliena credent 
esse, nunc barbara ?" 

usum qui est contra naturam] From Rom. i. 25, 26. 

amarius omni morte] Cp. Eccl. vii. 27. 

vendiderunt populum nostruin sine pretio] Ps. xliii. 13. 

inimici nostri iudices] From Deut. xxxii. 31. 

miles emeritus] This seems to be a hexameter, but I can- 
not find it elsewhere. 


tati propriae parceremus. Nam miles emeritus 
clipeum veneratur et arma gratusque Corydon 
aratro tabescenti, bigae, trahae, tribulae ac ligoni, 
etiam omnis artifex manualis hyperduliam propriam 
suis exhibet instrumentis. Solus ingratus clericus 5 
parvipendit et negligit ea, per quae sui honoris 
auspicia semper sumit. 

Capltulum 5. 

Ouerlmonia librorum contra rell^^Iosos 

74 Rello;lonum veneranda devotio in librorum cultu 
solet esse sollicita et in eorum eloquiis sicut in 
omnibus divitiis delectari. Scribebant namque non- 10 
nuUi manibus propriis inter horas canonicas ; inter- 

3 tepescenti edd. Il 4 hypoduliaf/i edd. !| 6 ea om. per om. 
B !l Tit. ia/n possessionatos B \ % et libronini ^ 1| 1 1 inter- 
vallis captatis A B E ]2.. edd. i| 

hyperduliam] HypodnUain would certainly seem to be a 
more suitable term, but the MSS. are unanimous, and James 
also reads hyperdoidiavi. 

possessionatos] ' Possessioners,' as it is sometimes trans- 
lated, as opposed to the fratres memiicantes ; cp. Anstey, 
Mun. Acad., pp. 400, 480. 

Religionum] The word occurs in this sense, i.e. a religious 
order, in Innocent III. 's prohibition of the founding of new 
religious orders in 1215 : *'ne quis de caetero novam re- 
ligionem inveniat." 

horas canonicas] The horae canonicae are due to S. Bene- 


valla captata et tempora pro quiete corporis com- 
modata fabricandis codicibus concesserunt. De 
quorum laboribus hodie in plerisque splendent 
monasteriis ilia sacra gazophylacia, cherubicis libris 
plena, ad dandam scientiam salutis studentibus 5 
75 atque lumen delectabile semitis laicorum. O labor 
manualis, felicior omni cura georgica ! O devota 
soUicitudo, ubi nee meretur Martha corripi nee 
Maria ! O domus iocunda, in qua Racheli formosae 
Lya fecunda non invidet, sed contemplatio actione i^ 
gaudia sua miscet. Felix providentia pro futuro 

7 O devota . . . Maria om. ^ || 8 corrwnpi edd. || lo actione 
om. A cum activa B E Ja. edd. || 1 1 sua om. Ja. || 

diet, who divided the twenty-four hours into eight periods of 
three hours, marked by as many acts of devotion. 

cherubicis libris] The epithet may perhaps refer to the 
brilHant miniation of monastic books : so the Sompnour in 
Chaucer "hadde a fire-red cherubinnes face." (Prol. v. 626.) 

lumen delectabile] Cp. Eccl. xi. 7, 

cura georgica] Cp. Peter the Venerable : " Pro aratro con- 
vertatur manus ad pennam, pro exarandis agris divinis litteris 
paginae exarentui", seratur in cartula verbi Dei seminarium :" 
Bibl. Clun. 647. 

devota sollicitudo] The copying of books is regarded as a 
union of the active and contemplative life, of which Martha 
and Mary, and Rachel and Leah were treated as types. The 
distinction is sometimes said to be based on James i. 27, 
but is more likely to have been derived from Aristotle. See 
Thomas Aquinas, Summa II. ii., qu. 179 ff. 

Martha corripi] Coch. reads corriifupi ^ndi translates "O 
sollicitude devotieuse par laquelle Marthe et Marie sent k 
peine dignes d'etre seduites !" Inglis : " O devout solicitude 
from which neither Martha nor Mary would have earned the 
wages of corruption ! " 


infinitis posteris valitura, cui nulla virgultonim 
plantatio, nulla seminum satio comparatur, nulla 
bucolica curiositas quorumlibet armentorum, nulla 

76 castrorum constructio munitorum ! Quamobrem 
immortalis debet esse patrum illorum memoria, 5 
quos solius sapientiae delectabat thesaurus, qui 
contra futuras caligines luminosas lucernas artificio- 
sissime providerunt et contra famem audiendi 
verbum Dei panes non subcinericeos necpe hor- 
deaceos nee muscidos, sed panes azymos de puris- 10 
sima simila sacrae sophiae confectos accuratissime 
paraverunt, quibus esurientes animae feliciter ciba- 

77 rentur. Hi fuerunt probissimi pugiles Christianae 
militiae, qui nostram infirmitatem armis fortissimis 
munierunt. Hi fuerunt suis temporibus vulpium 15 
venatores cautissimi, qui iam nobis sua retia re- 
liquerunt, ut parvulas caperemus vulpeculas, quae 
non cessant florentes vineas demoliri. Vere, patres 
egregii, benedictione perpetua recolendi, felices 

10 neque ^ il 16 veneratores 3 Ja. Gold. Schm. Coch. || 

virgultorum plantatio] Cp. Alcuin in the lines Admusaewn: 
*' Fodere quam vites melius est scribere libros :" Migne, ci. 


subcinericeos] From Ezech. iv. 1 2 : " Et quasi subcmericmm 

hordeaceum comedes illud ;" cp. Judges, vii. 13. 

venatores] Coch. leaves "veneratores" in the text, and 
though he remarks " il faut certainement venatores,''^ he has 
not observed that it is found not only in a// his MSS., but 
in the ed. princeps, which he professes to follow. 

vulpeculas] From Cant. ii. 15 : *' capite nobis vulpes par- 
vulas quae demoliuntur vineas." 


merito fuissetis, si vobis similem sobolem genuisse, 
si prolem non degenerem nee aequivocam reliquisse 
ad sequentis temporis subsidium licuisset. 

78 Sed, quod dolentes referimus, iam Thersites igna- 
vus arma contrectat Achillis et dextrariorum pha- 5 
lerae praeelectae pigritantibus asinis substernuntur, 
aquilarum nidis caecutientes noctuae dominantur 
et in accipitris pertica residet vecors miluus. Liber 
Bacchus respicitur et in ventrem traicitur nocte 
dieque ; Liber codex despicitur et a manu reicitur 10 

79 longelateque. Tanquam si cuiusdam aequivocationis 
multiplicitate fallatur simplex monachica plebs 
moderna, dum Liber pater praeponitur libro patrum, 
calicibus epotandis non codicibus emendandis in- 

2 non om. edd. || 7 dominantur . . . nocfe om. B D \\ 12 
pies D proles Ja. || 13 Liber potacionum D || 

dextrariorum] Dextrarius, Fr. destrier, was a warhorse ; 
palafridus, a riding-horse, runcinus, a packhorse : v. Du- 

Liber Bacchus respicitur] This appears to be the first verse 
of a piece of rhyming doggerel. The repetition of the verbal 
play in " Liber pater — Liber patrum" might suggest that the 
lines were scribbled in the margin by a copyist or reader and 
then found their way into the text. The middle ages were 
very fond of these word-plays : cp. post, s. 123 ; and the 
complaint of Giraldus Cambrensis, of his too philoprogenitive 
clergy : " Non libris intendunt sed liberis, non foliis sed 
filiis, non librorum lectioni sed liberorum dilectioni ; " ed. 
Brewer, ii. 329. 

monachica plebs] So Bacon, Op. Maj., p. 114, speaks of j 
** plebs studentium." 


dulget hodie studium monachorum ; quibus lasci- 
viam musicam Timothei pudicis moribus aemulam 
non verentur adiungere, sicque cantus ludentis non 
planctus lugentis officium efficitur monachale. 

So Greges et vellera, fruges et horrea, porri et olera 5 
potus et patera, lectiones sunt hodie et studia 
monachorum, exceptis quibusdam paucis electis, 
in quibus patrum praecedentium non imago sed 
vestigium remanet aHquale. Rursus nulla nobis 
materia ministratur omnino, qua de nostro cultu 10 
vel studio commendentur hodie canonici regu- 
lares, qui licet a geminata regula nomen portent 
eximium, Augustini tamen regulae notabilem neg- 
lexere versiculum, quo sub his verbis suis clericis 
commendamur: Codices certa hora singulis diebus 15 

81 petantur; extra horam qui petierit, non accipiat. 

I lascivam E edd. || 3 cansaius E || 

lasciviam] The form lascivins was probably that used by 
the writer ; it is found several times in Holkot, Super Sap., 
e.g. ff. 93c, 151b. The reference to the voluptuous music 
of Timotheus may be taken, as Coch. suggests, from Boetius, 
De Musica, lib. i. c. 10. 

planctus lugentis] Cp. S. Jerome, contra Vigilantium, 15 : 
'* Monachus non doctoris %Qd plangentis habet officium." 

canonici regulares] Opposed to canonici saeculares. The 
former observed not only the 'canones' or rules imposed 
upon all the clergy, but also the 'regulae' of St. Augustine 
(' geminata regula') : see Ducange in v. 

codices] See S. Augustine's 109th letter, to his sister : 
" Codices certa hora singulis diebus petantur ; extra horam 
quae petiverint, non accipiant." 


Hunc devotum studii canonem vix observat ali- 
quis post ecclesiastica cantica repetita, sed sapere 
quae sunt saeculi et relictum aratrum intueri 
summa pmdentia reputatur. Tollunt pharetram 
et arcum, apprehendunt arma et scutum, eleemo- 5 
synarum tributum canibus tribuunt non egenis, 
inserviunt aleis et taxillis et his quae nos saecu- 
laribus inhibere solemus, ut non miremur, si nos 
non dignentur respicere, quos sic suis cernerent 
moribus contraire. 10 

82 Patres igitur reverendi, patrum vestrorum digne- 
mini reminisci et librorum propensius indulgete 
studio, sine quibus quaelibet vacillabit religio, sine 
quibus ut testa virtus devotionis arescet, sine qui- 
bus nullum lumen poteritis mundo praebere. 15 

I canonem . . . post om. ^^ 1| 9 cermint A sec. manu suis 
om. A B \^ 13 sine . . . religio om. A vacillat B || 

sapere quae sunt saeculi] Cp. Phil. iii. 19 ; Gratian, De- 
cret. i. 88 : " Episcopus aut sacerdos aut diaconus nequa- 
quam saeculi curas assumat." 

relictum aratrum] Inglis refers to Eccli. xxxviii. 25: "Qua 
sapientia replebitur, qui tenet aratrum," etc., but it is perhaps 
better to take aratrtmi as typical of the secular pursuits, which 
have been abandoned, but not forgotten. 

aleis et taxillis] Cp. ch. xviii. s. 235, and John of Salisbury, 
Policrat. i, 5. The clergy were forbidden these games at the 
Council of Worcester in 1240: " Ne ludant ad aleas vel 
taxillos ;" Wilkins, Concilia, i. 673. 

vacillabit] Cp. Job, iv. 4 ; Is. xxix. 9. 

ut testa] Inglis tr. "as a watering-pot," but the reference is 
clearly to Ps. xxi. 16 : " aruit tanquam testa virtus mea," 

lumen . . praebere] Cp. Wisdom, xvii. 5. 



Capltulum 6. 

Querlmonia librorum contra rellgiosos 

S3 Pauperes spiritu sed in fide ditissimi,mundi perip- 
sema et sal terrae, saeculi contemptores et hominum 
piscatores, quam beati estis, si penuriam patieiites 
pro Christo animas vestras scitis in patientia possi- 
dere. Non enim vos ultrix iniquitatis inopia, nee 5 
parentum ad versa fortuna, nee uUa violenta neces- 
sitas sic oppressit inedia, sed devota voluntas et 
electio Christiformis, qua vitam illam optimam aesti- 
mastis, quam Deus omnipotens factus homo tam 

84 verbo quam exemplo optimam praedicavit. Sane 10 
vos estis semper parientis ecclesiae novus fetus, pro 
patribus et prophetis noviter substituti divinitus, ut 

2 sol E '\6 ncc ulla violenta nee parent lun adiursa fortuna 
nee ulla vwlenta necessitas D ulla ova. B || 7 voluptas B \\ 
8 aestimastis . . . optimam om. D I \\ semper post parentes 
turoi foetus edd. !| 

Pauperes spiritu] From Matt. v. 3 : " pauperes spiritu ;'" and 
James, ii. 5 : " divites in fide." 

mundi peripsema] From I Cor. iv. 13. 

sal terrae] Cp. Matt. v. 13. 

hominum piscatores] From Matt. iv. 19. 

patientia] Luke, xxi. 19 : "in patientia vestra possidebitis 
animas vestras." 


in omnem terram exeat sonus vester, et nostris 
instituti salutaribus doctrinis coram gentibus et 
regibus promulgetis inexpugnabilem fidem Christi. 

S5 Porro fidem patrum potissime libris esse inclusam 
secundum capitulum supra satis asseruit, quo con- 5 
Stat luce clarius quod librorum deberetis esse 
zelotypi prae caeteris Christianis. Seminare iube- 
mini super omnes aquas, quoniam non est per- 
sonarum acceptor Altissimus nee vult mortem pec- 
catorum Piissimus, qui occidi voluit pro eisdem, 10 
sed contritos corde mederi desiderat atque lapsos 

86 erigi et perversos corrigi spiritu lenitatis. Ad 
quem effectum saluberrimum alma mater Ecclesia 
vos plantavit gratuito, plantatosque rigavit favori- 
bus, et rigatos privilegiis suffulcivit, ut cum pasto- 15 
ribus et curatis coadiutores essetis ad procuran- 
dum salutem fidelium animarum. Unde et 
Praedicatorum ordinem propter sacrae scripturae 

6dcbetis]^. edd. || \'}^ gratuite B grattiitos edd. || id procu- 
randam edd, || i^j fidelnun om. Ja. || 

exeat sonus] Cp. Ps. xviii. 5; Rom. x. 18. 
zelotypi] The word occurs Eccli. xxvi. 9. 
omnes aquas] From Is. xxxii. 20 : " Beati qui seminatis super 
omnes aquas." 

personarum acceptor] Cp. Acts, x. 34. 

nee vult] Cp. Ezech. xxxiii. 11 : "Nolo mortem impii." 

spiritu lenitatis] From Gal. vi. I. 

gratuito] Cp. Dan. xi. 39 ; Mai. i, 10. 

plantatosque rigavit] Cp. I Cor. iii 6. 

salutem animarum] Cp. I. Pet. i. 9. 

Praedicatorum] The order of Fratres Praedicantes was 


studium et proximorum salutem principaliter insti- 
tutum constitutiones pronunciant eorundem, ut 
non solum ex regula reverend! praesulis Augustini, 
quae codices singulis diebus iubet esse petendos, 
verum mox cum earundem constitutionum pro- 5 
logum legerint ex ipsius libri capite ad amorem 
librorum se noverint obligatos. 

Sed proh dolor ! tarn hos quam alios istorum 
sectantes effigiem a paterna cultura librorum et 
studio subtrahit triplex cura superflua, ventris vide- 10 
licet, vestium et domorum. Sunt enim, neglecta 
Salvatoris prondentia, quern psalmista circa pau- 
perem et mendicum promittit esse sollicitum, circa 
labentis corporis indigentias occupati, ut sint epulae 

3 regula presulis heat is si mi Augustini B 1| 

founded by S. Dominic, who obtained the Papal sanction from 
Honorius III. in 1216, on condition of adopting the Rule of 
S. Augustine. He prescribed other ordinances in his Con- 
stitutiones, where in the Prologue, c. 5, we find the words here 
reff rred to : " Ordo noster specialiter ob praedicationem et ani- 
marum salutem ab initio noscitur institutus fuisse, et studium 
nostrum ad hoc debet principaliter intendere ut proximorum 
animabus possimus utiles esse." Holstenius, Codex Regu- 
lamm, iv. 10. 

codices] Cp. s. 80, note. 

cura superflua] Cp. Eccli. ii. 26. '* Divers Acts of Parlia- 
ment have been made against the excess of Apparell in the 
reign of E. 3," says Lord Coke : and he goes on, " Three 
costly things there are that do much impoverish the subjects 
of England, viz. Costly apparell, costly diet, and costly 
building :" 3 Inst. 199. 

paupercm et mendicum] From Ps. xxxix. iS. 


splendidae, vestesque contra regulam delicatae, nec- 
non aedificiorum fabricae et castrorum propugna- 
cula tali proceritatCj quae paupertati non convenit, 

88 exaltatae. Propter haec tria nos libri, qui semper 
eos proveximus ad profectum, et inter potentes et 5 
nobiles sedes honoris concessimus, elongati a cordis 
affectibus quasi inter supervacanea reputamur, ex- 
cepto quod quibusdam quaternis parvi valoris insis- 
tunt, de quibus Hiberas naenias et apocrypha delira- 
menta producunt, non ad refocillativum animarum 10 
eduHum, sed ad pruritum potius aurium auditorum. 

89 Sacra scriptura non exponitur, sed omnino seponi- 
tur; quasi trita per vicos et omnibus divulgata 
supponitur, cuius tamen fimbrias vix paucissimi 
tetigerunt ; cuius etiam tanta est litterarum pro- 15 
funditas, ut ab humano intellectu, quantumcunque 
invigilet, summo otio et maximo studio nequeat 

I necnon et E Ja. || 2 ?// -^ ^ Ja. || 7 siipo'na creanea A 
stiperna catiea B stipemacanes D siipervaaia Ja. || 9 Hiberas 
om. edd. venias D Ja. || 10 refocillationein Ja. || 12 deponitm' 
D Ja. II 16 Jutmano intellectu om. A ^ i*] invigilet om. D 
vigilet B II 

Hiberas naenias] The phrase, which has puzzled the editors, 
comes from S. Jerome's preface to the Pentateuch : " Quod 
multi ignorantes, apocryphoinim deliramenta sectantur et 
Hiberas naenias libris authenticis praeferunt ?" It isafavourite 
phrase with Jerome, and is usually explained to refer to the 
errors of certain heretics in Spain. 

refocillativum] Cp. Judith, vii. 7: "ad refocil'andum 
potius quam ad potandum," and Jer. i. il : "ad refocil- 
landam animam." 

fimbrias] Cp. Matt. xiv. 36. 


comprehendi, sicut sanctus asserit Augustinus. De 
hac mille moralis disciplinae sententias enucleare 
poterit qui indulget assidue, si tamen ostium 
aperire dignetur Illc, (jui condidit spiritum pietatis, 
quae et recentissima novitate poUebunt et sapidis- 5 
sima suavitate auditorum intelligentias refovcbunt. 
90 Quamobrem paupertatis evangelicae professores 
primarii, post utcunque salutatas scicntias saecu- 
lares, toto mentis iugenio recollecto, huius se 
scripturae laboribus devoverunt, nocte dieque in 10 
lege Domini meditantcs. Quicquid vero poterant 
a famescente ventre furari, vel corpori semitecto 
surripere, illud lucrum praecipuum arbitrantes, vel 


2 inortalis E H 3 turn Ja. || 5 sapientissima Coch. || ^ p, 
pertatis om. E \\ 8 utrumqtic edd. || 10 devcnerwit edd. || 

asserit Augustinus] The reference is not, as Coch. says, to 
the Conf. xii. 14, but rather to Epp. cxxxvii. i, 3 : "Tania 
est enim Christianarum profunditas litterarum, ut in eis 
quotidie proficerem, si eas solas ab ineunte pueritia usque ad 
dccrepitam senectutem maximo otio, summo studio, meliore 
ingenio conarer addiscere. " 

salutatas scientias] Cp. the Constitution of the Praedica- 
tores, ii. 14 : " In libris gentilium philosophorum non studeat, 
et si ad horam suscipiat saeculares scientias, non addiscat, 
nee artes quas liberales vocant . . . sed tantum libros 
theologicos tarn iuvenes quam alii legant. Ipsi vero in 
studio taliter sint intenti, ut de die, de nocte, in domo, in 
itinere legant aliquid vel aliquid meditentur." So Abelard 
declared of secular learning : " non debemus in eis consenes- 
cere sed potius a liminibus salutare :'' cited in Denifle, Univ. 
des Mittelalters, p. 99. 

nocte dieque] Cp. Ps. i. 2 : and previous note. 



emendis vel edendis codicibus adscripserunt. Quo- 
rum contemporanei saeculares, tarn officium intu- 
entes quam studium, libros eis, quos in diversis 
mundi partibus sumptuose collegerant, ad totius 
aedificationem ecclesiae contulerunt. 5 

91 Sane diebus istis, cum sitis tota diligentia circa 
quaestus intenti, praesumptione probabili credi 
potest, si per anthropospatos sermo fiat, Deum 
circa vos minorem sollicitudinem gerere, quos de 
sua promissione perpendit diffidere, in humanis 10 
providentiis spem habentes. Corvum non conside- 
ratis nee lilia, quos pascit et vestit Altissimus ; 
Danielem et Habacuc cocti pulmenti discophorum 
non pensatis, nee Eliam recolitis nunc in torrente 
per corvos, nunc in deserto per angelum, nunc in 15 
Sarepta per viduam, largitate divina, quae dat 
escam omni carni tempore opportuno, a famis 

92 inedia liberatum. Climate miserabili, ut timetur, 
descenditis, dum divinae pietatis diffidentia pru- 

8 antropospatos codii\. cb'^pwrroTra^etav Ja. Dezja.. || 15 an^'e- 
htm in ^ 11 19 cum edd. 1| 

anthropospatos] The word occurs in this form in Petrus 
Gomestor, Hist. Schol., in Gen. c. xxxi., who explains it : 
"scilicet humana propassio, quando attribuitur Deo quod 
hominis est." 

spem habentes] Gp. 2 Gor. iii. 12 ; x. 15. 

corvum] Gp. Luke, xii. 24, 27. 

cocti pulmenti] Gp. Dan. xiv. 32. The word discophorus 
comes from S. Jerome's preface to Daniel. 

Eliam] I Kings, xvii. 4, 9. 

dat escam] From Ps. cxxxv. 25 and cxlv. 15. 


dentiae propriae producit innisum, innisus veio 
prudentiae propriae sollicitudinem generat terreno- 
rum, nimiaque terrenorum sollicitudo librorum 
adimit tarn amorem quam studium, et sic cedit 
paupertas hodie per abusum in verbi Dei dispen- 5 
dium, quam propter ipsius solum adminiculum 

93 Vncinis pomorum, ut populus fabulatur, puerulos 
ad religionem attrahitis, quos professos doctrinis 
non instruitis vi et metu, sicut exigit aetas ilia, sed 10 
mendicativis discursibus sustinetis intendere atque 
tempus quo possent addiscere, in captandis favori- 
bus amicorum consumere sinitis, in offensam paren- 
tum, puerorum periculum et ordinis detrimentum. 

94 Sicque nimirum contingit quod qui parvuli discere 15 
minime cogebantur inviti, grandiores efFecti docere 

I innisum innisus A E in visum inuisus B in visum In- 
nisus D invistif?i invisus Ja. propriae .... propriae om. 
edd. II 4 studiorum edd. || 5 usum A \\ 6 ipsius om. D 
II viedicativis A D mendicaturis ^z.. |1 12 in ^uo Ja.. \\ 

innisum] This word seems not to occur elsewhere, and the 
editors have left the passage in great confusion : even James, 
though he observes in the margin " legendum arbitror 
innisum," leaves the text unaltered, which he would hardly 
have done, if he had seen that the reference is to Prov. iii. 
5: " Habe fiduciam in Domino ex toto corde tuo et ne 
innitaris prudentiae tuae." For dij/ideniia cp. Ephes. ii. 2. 

uncinis pomorum] From Amos, viii. i. The phrase is 
translated in the A.V. "a basket of summer fruit," in the 
Douay V. "a hook to draw down fruit." 

sustinetis] Cp. 2 Cor. xi 20. 


praesumunt, indigni penitus et indocti, et parvus 
error in principio maximus fit in fine. Succrescit 
namque in grege vestro promiscuo laicorum qiiae- 
dam multitudo plurimum onerosa, qui tamen se ad 
praedicationis officium tanto improbius ingerunt, 5 
quanto minus ea quae loquuntur intelligunt, in con- 
temptum sermonis divini et in perniciem animarum. 
95 Sane contra legem in bove aratis et asino, cum 
indoctis et doctis culturam agri dominici com- 
mittitis pari passu. Scriptum est : Boves arabant et lo 
asinae pascebantur iuxta eos ; quoniam discretorum 
interest praedicare, simplicium vero per auditum 
sacri eloquii sub silentio se cibare. Quot lapides 
mittitis in acervum Mercurii his diebus ! quot 

2 Est sic namque edd. H 4 plurimis edd. i| 

praesumunt] Cp. Jerome's letter to Paulinus, Epp, 50. 
parvus error] From Aristot. , De Caelo, i. 5 : to i.vap\ij [xiKpbv 
kv ry TeXevry yivETanrafxixfyeOeg. Cp. Bacon, Op. M., p. 40. 
in bove] Cp. Deut. xxii. 10 : " Non arabis in bove simul et 


Boves arabant] From Job, i. 14. 

acervum Mercurii] From Prov. xxii. 8. The meaning of 
this phrase is very uncertain, but we may perhaps assume 
that De Bury had in his mind the explanation which we firKi 
in Holkot, Super Sap., f. 133 b: " Mercurius est deus 
mercatorum. Acervus computi vel ratiocinii vocatur acervus 
Mercurii. Computatur autem quandoque cum lapidibus. 
Sicut igitur ibi ponitur unus lapilkis pro decem libris, ita 
ponitur in ecclesia quandoque unus idiota vel insipiens loco 
praelati et loco Dei." It would mean, therefore, that they 
are merely worthless counters. 


euniichis Svipientiae nuptias procuratis ! quot caecos 
speculatores super Ecclesiae muros circumire prae- 
cipitis ! 

96 O piscatorcs incites ! solis retibus alienis utentes, 
qui rupta vix imperite reficitis, nova vero nulla- 5 
tenus connodatis, aliorum labores intratis, alioruni 
studia recitatis, aliorum sapientiam superficialiter 
repetitam theatrali strepitu labiatis. Quemadmo- 
duni psittacus idiota auditas voces effigiat, sic tales 
recitatores fiunt omnium sed nullius auctores, asinam 10 
Balaam imitantes, quae licet esset intrinsecus insen- 
sata, lingua taraen diserta facta est, tam domini 

97 quam prophetae magistra. Resipiscite pauperes 
Christi et nos libros inspicite studiose, sine quibus 
in praeparatione evangelii pacis nunquam poteritis 15 
debite calceari. Paulus apostolus, praedicator veri- 
tatis et doctor eximius gentium, ista sibi per 
Timotheum pro omni supellectile tria iussit afferri, 
paenulam, libros et membranas, 2^ ad Tim. ul°., viris 
evangelicis formam praebens, ut habitum deferant 20 

5 quae 2 resuitis A Ja. !| 6 connoditatis B commodatis 
edd. ;i 13 respicite A B D ]a. pauperes , . . inspicite om. B || 
15 praeparationem A B £ ]a.. \\ 20 ecclesiasticis D Ja. et B || 

caecos speculatores] Cp. Is. Ivi. 10, 

aliorum studia] Cp. Holkot in Sap., f. 328 b. 

tam domini] The meaning seems plain enough ; yet Coch. 

prints ' Dumini. ' 

resipiscite] Cp. 2 Tim. ii. 26 : * * resipiscant a diaboli laqueis. " 
in praeparatione] Cp. Eph. vi. 15: " calceati pedes in 

praeparatione evangelii pacis." 


ordinatiim, libros habeant ad studendi subsidium et 
membranas, quas apostolus maxime ponderat, ad 

98 scribendum : maxime, inquit, membranas. Revera 
mancus est clericus et ad multorum iacturam 
turpiter mutilatus, qui artis scribendi totaliter est 5 
ignarus. Aerem vocibus verberat et praesentes 
tantum aedificat, absentibus et posteris nihil parat. 
Atramentarium scriptoris gestabat in renibus vir qui 
frontes gementium Tau signabat, Ezechiel. 9°; in- 
sinuans figurate quod, siquis scribendi peritiacareat, 10 
praedicandi paenitentiam officium non praesumat. 

99 Tandem in praesentis calce capituli supplicant 
vobis libri : luvenes vestros aptos ingenio studiis 
applicate, necessaria ministrantes, quos non solum - 
modo bonitatem verum etiam disciplinam et scien- 15 
tiam doceatis, verberibus terreatis, attrahatis blan- 
ditiis, molliatis munusculis et poenosis rigoribus 
urgeatis, ut et Socratici moribus et doctrinis Peri- 

100 patetici simul fiant. Heri quasi hora xi* vos dis- 
cretus paterfamilias introduxit in vineam ; ante sero so 
penitus pigeat otiari. Utinam cum prudenti villico 
mendicandi tam improbe verecundiam haberetis ! 
Tunc enim proculdubio libris et studio propensius 

4 ille clericus D^2l. || 13 apto Z^ || 15 veritatem edd. || 22 m- 
probo D II 23 enim om. D nobis libris E edd. || 

aerem vocibus verberat] From I Cor. ix. 26. 
paterfamilias] Cp. Matt. xx. I, 6. 
prudenti villico] Cp. Luke, xvi. 3, 8. 


Capltulum 7. 
Querimonia librorum contra bella. 

loi Pacis auctor ct amator Altissime ! dissipa gentes 
bella volentes, quae super omnes pestilentias libris 
nocent. Bella namque carentia rationis iudicio 
furiosos efficiunt impetus in adversa et dum rationis 
moderamine non utuntur, sine differentia discreti- 5 

1 02 onis progressa, vasa destruunt rationis. Tunc pru- 
dens Apollo Pythoni subicitur et tunc Phronesis 
pia mater in phrenesis redigitur potestatem. Tunc 
pennatus Pegasus stabulo Cor}'donis includitur et 
facundus Mercurius suffocatur. Tunc Pallas pru- ^0 
dens erroris mucrone conciditur et iocundae 
Pierides truculenta furoris tyrannide supprimuntur. 

2 quia Ja. \\ 7 Phiioni edd. || 9 pennatus om. A stacublo 
coiTidcns ^ II 1 1 tunditur edd. || 

dissipa gentes] Ps. Ixvii. 31 : "Dissipa gentes quae bella 

Pythoni] In reference to the classical myth of Apollo and 
the Python: we may note also the use of Python in tht 
Vulgate ; thus the witch of Endor is described as "mulier 
pythonem habens," i Sam. xxviii. 7 ; cp. Lev. xx. 27, Deut. 
xviii. II, Acts, xvi. 16. 

Phronesis] Phronesis is personified in Martianus Capella, 
De Nuptiis Philoiogiae et Mercurii (ii. 27), which was a 
familiar book of instruction in the middle ages, as the mother 
of Philology. 


103 O crudele spectaculum ! ubi Phoebum philoso- 
phorum, archisophum Aristotelem, cui in orbis 
dominum Deus ipse commisit dominium, scelerosis 
manibus vinculatum, ferramentis infamibus com- 
peditum lanistarum humeris a sacratis aedibus 5 
asportari, et qui in mundi magistratum magis- 
terium atque super imperatorem imperium meruit 
obtinere, iniustissimo belli iure videres subici vili 

104 scuiTae. O potestas iniquissima tenebrarum ! quae 
Platonis non vereturpessumdare deitatem probatam, 10 
qui solus conspectui Creatoris prius quam bellantis 
chaos placaret litigium, et ante quam hylen ente- 

2 archisophum E om. edd. cid in omnibus edd. cui omni 
dominii Schm. Coch. || 5 Socratis D E edd. || 6 cerniiur 
aspoi'tari edd. viagistratu edd. || 8 initistissime B || lO divini- 
tatcm edd. app7'obata77i Z> || ii aspectui edd. || 12 endelechia 
codd. hylcn entelechiam Coch. || 

orbis dominum] Alexander, whose tutor and adviser he 
was. Roger Bacon professes to show, " quomodo per vias 
sapientiae potuit Aristoteles mundum tradere Alexandro : " 
Op. Maj., p. 361. 

sacratis] Coch. prints Socratis and reports this to be the 
reading of the Paris MSS. and of James : but they all have 
sacratis. There seems to be a reference to some legendaiy 
story, which I have not been able to find ; and Socratis may 
be right. But it is perhaps safer to assume that De Bury 
was thinking of the phrase sacratis aedibus in 2 Mace. vi. 4. 

potestas tenebrarum] Cp. Luke, xxii. 53 ; Coloss. i. 13. 

deitatem probatam] Cp. the De disciplina Scholarium^ c. 
iv : "Platonis probata divinitas." 

hylen entelechia] Cp. Arist. Met. xi. 8, 13: to t'i1\v iivai 
oi'K ex^i vXrjv to irpSjTOV ' tvriXfx^'" 7"P- This is the famous 
word which so puzzled Hermolaus Barbarus that he is said to 


lechia induisset, species ideales obicere digniis fuit, 
ut mundum archetypum demonstraret auctori, quo 
de superno exemplo mundus sensibilis duceretur. 
O lacrimosus intuitus I quo moralis Socrates, cuius 
actus virtus et sermo doctrina, cfui dc naturae 5 
principiis politiae produxit iustitiam, vitiosi vispi- 
105 lionis addictus cernitur servituti. P3'thagoram 
planginius, harmoniae parentem, bellorum incentri- 
cibus furiis Hagellatum atrociter vice cantus gemitus 
edere columbinos. Miseremur Zenonis, principis 10 
Stoicorum, qui ne consilium proderet linguam 

5 sermo est doctrina E \\ 7 vidctur edd. Ii 8 bclloriim om. edd. 
libcUomm B cum cantricilnts furiis edd. || 1 1 perdcret Ja. || 

have summoned the devil to his assistance, who thereupon 
" voce praetenui et paene subsibilante . . . responsilavit." 

vispilionis] The account of this word in Ducange is not 
very satisfactory. It occurs in the forms vespilio, vispilio, 
vispilhis and vispiliator {inspiliatory which Ducange also 
gives, is doubtless a mis-reading). It is no doubt connected 
with the classical vespilio, a pauper's undertaker. The word 
is common in Matthew Paris, and appears to have passed 
from the sense of "fossarius mortuos sepeliens," as it is 
glossed in L, into that of a robber. 

incentricibus furiis] Cocheris and Inglis translate "flagelle 
par les furies irritees," *' scourged by furious female singers," 
as though Pythagoras had shared the fate of Orpheus. The 
mistake is due to the corruption of the text ; the reference is 
to the death of Pythagoras in consequence of political distur- 
bances at Crotona. 

gemitus columbinos] Cp. Is. Ix. S ; Nahum ii. 7. 

Zenonis] De Bury has confounded Zeno the Stoic, who died 
of old age, with Zeno of Elea, of whom the story mentioned 


morsu secuit et exspuit in tyrannum intrepide, 
Heu, iam rursus a Diomedonte tritus in mortario 
pistillatur ! 

1 06 Certe non sufficimus singulos libros luctu lamen- 
tari condigno, qui in diversis mundi partibus bel- 5 
lorum discrimine perierunt. Horribilem tamen 
stragem, quae per auxiliares milites secundo bello 
Alexandrino contigit in Aegypto, stilo flebili 
memoramus, ubi septinginta millia voluminum 
ignibus conflagrarunt, quae sub regibus Ptolemaeis 10 
per multa curricula temporum sunt collecta, sicut 
recitat Aulus Gellius, Noctium Atticarum lib. 6"*, 

107 cap. 16°. Quanta proles Atlantica tunc occubuisse 

2 nam D || adiomedonta A 2 a diomedonta B E a dyometita 
L Adiomerita edd. Adiomeritatritus Schm. Anaxarchus Ja. || 
tortario A || 8 Aegypto om. A || 9 decern millia edd. septuaginta 
codd. mil. il 12 retract at A £ \\ 

in the text is told. But the confusion is not peculiar to 
De Bury: cp. Haureau, Philosophic Scol., ii. 56. 

a Diomedonte] The reading Adionierita has caused the 
editors much trouble, and James boldly changes it to Anaxar- 
chus, of whom a similar story is told {e.g. Cic. Tusc. ii. 22). 
De Bury, however, is clearly referring to the story of Zeno's 
death told by Hermippus (quoted in Diog. L. ix. 27), who 
says that he was brayed in a mortar by the tyrant Diomedon, 
of whom no mention is found elsewhere. The MSS. point 
plainly enough to the true reading, which I have restored. 

secundo bello] Aulus Gellius (vi. 17) says "bello priore 
Alexandrino," and speaks of the number of volumes as 
** millia ferme septinginta," and I have corrected it. 

proles Atlantica] Cp. S. August., De Civ. Dei, xviii. 8 : 
**Atlans magnus fuisse astrologus dicitur, unde occasionem 


putabitur, orbium motus omnes, coniunctiones pla- 
netarum, galaxiae naturam et generationes pro- 
gnosticas cometarum ac quaecunque in caelo fiunt 
vel aethere, comprehendens ! Quis tarn infaustum 
holocaustum, ubi loco criioris incaiistum offertur, 5 
non exhorreat ? ubi prunae candentes pergameni 
crepitantis sanguine vernabantur, ubi tot innocen- 
tium millia, in ciuorum ore non est inventum men- 
dacium, flamma vorax consumpsit, ubi tot scrinia 
veritatis aeternae ignis parcere nesciens in faetentem 10 
loS cinerem commutavit. Minoris facinoris aestimatur 
tarn Jeptae quam Agamemnonis victima, ubi pia 
filia virgo patris gladio iugulatur. Quot labores 
Celebris Herculis tunc periisse putabimus, qui ob 
astronomiae peritiam collo irreflexo caelum descri- 15 
bitur sustulisse, cum iam secundo flammis Her- 
cules sit iniectus. 

I ptitahatiir Ja. '! 2 iiahira Ja. prognosticae Ja. || 4 compre- 
hcndimtur Ja. comprehtudmtes edd. || 6 primiim 2 prime 
3 pruin<u edd. caJentes I i| i^ pidamiis edd. 1| 15 rejiexo D 
JUxo edd. II 

fabula invenit, ut eum caelum portare confingerit," a passage 
cited by Bacon, Op. Maj., p. 24. 

generationes] Cp. Gen ii. 4 : " generationes caeli et terrae." 

mendacium] From Rev. xiv. 5. 

filia virgo] Filia looks like a gloss transferred to the text, 
but cp. Is. xlvii. I. 

collo irreflexo] The reading ineflexo is supported by 
Boetius, De Cons. Phil., iv. metr. 7 : *' Uhimus caelum labore 
irreflexo Sustulit collo," which again is derived from Seneca, 
Here. Fur., 71 : " Nee flexit humerosmolis immensus labor." 

secundo flammis] The first time being, of course, when 


109 Arcana caelorum, quae lonithus non ab homine 
neque per hominem didicit sed divinitus inspiratus 
accepit; quaeque Zoroastes germanus eiusdem, im- 
mundorum servitor spirituum, Bactrianis disseruit ; 
quae etiam sanctus Enoch Paradisi praefectus prius 5 
quam transferretur de saeculo prophetavit ; immo 
quae primus Adam filios docuit, sicut raptus in ec- 
stasi in libro aeternitatis praeviderat, flammis illis 

1 10 nefandis probabiliter aestimantur destructa. Aegyp- 
tiorum religio, quam liber Logostilios sic commendat 10 

I ioni et thus ab A lonathas Ja. lonancJms edd. |i 3 quern 
Rosoastes A qiiem Zoroastres Ja. || 4 Bachianis B D Brach- 
?nannis Ja. || 6 deferretur edd. || 10 Logostilius Ja. Logos- 
talios sic L i Logos taliosiae edd. || 

Hercules, poisoned by the shirt of Nessns, ascended a pile 
of wood, and ordered it to be set on fire. 

lonithus] According to Methodius, a fourth son of Noah, 
who was supposed to have invented astronomy : cp. Fabri- 
cius. Codex pseudepigraphus Vet. Test., i. 271. 

non ab homine] From Gal. i. 12. 

Zoroastes] Cp. Gervas. Tilb., Otia Imper., i. 20: "Zoro- 
aster alio nomine Cham filius Noae vocabatur." 

immundorum servitor spirituum] Cp. Matt. x. i. 

sanctus Enoch] Cp. Eccli. xh'v. 16 : " Enoch . . . trans- 
latus est in Paradisum ut det gentibus poenitentiam." 

raptus in ecstasi] Cp. 2 Cor. xii. 4. 

liber Logostilios] Inglis supposed this to refer to the lost 
Logistorictis of Varro. Cocheris has made hopeless confusion 
throughout the passage and confesses his inability to under- 
stand this phrase, which he proposes to explain as Logos Tales 
(sic) "c'est a dire le traite de Thales." But the reference is 
clearly to the lost treatise of the quasi-mythical Hermes Tris- 
megistus, extant only in the Latin translation of Apuleius, 

CAriTULUM VI I. 6 1 

egregie, politia vetenim Athenarum, quae novem 
minibus annorum Athenas Graeciac praeccsserunt ; 
carmina Chaldacorum ; considerationes Arabum et 
Indorum ; caerimoniae ludaeorum; architectura 
Babyloniorum ; Noe georgica ; Moysis praestigia ; 5 
losuae planimetria ; Samsonis aenigmata ; Salo- 
monis problemata, a cedro Libani usque ad hys- 
sopum planissime disputata ; Aesculapii antidota ; 
Cadmi grammatica ; Parnasi poemata ; Apollinis 
oracula; Argonautica lasonis ; strategematon Pala- 10 

\ polios edd. qtu cum edd. il 4 Medoruni cerimonie Indorum 
^ il 5 praesapgia L presagia edd. || 10 strategemata edd. Ja. || 

which was entitled Aoyo^ riXaor, or as S. Augustine renders 
it, Verbiim Pcrfcctutn: Adv. qiimqiie hcurcses, c. viii. The 
title was written as one word in medieval times, e.g. Jo. Sarisb. 
De Septem Stptenis, c. vii. 

sic commendat] In the Asclepiiis, the translation of the 
Aoyoc TtXttog by Apuleius, Ilermes says of Egypt, c. 24, 
*' Terra nostra mundi totius est templum," and again speaks 
of it as "sedes religionum ; " ed. Hildebrand, pp. 307, 308. 

veterum Athenarum] See the Timaetis and Crito of Plato 
for the account of the Egyptiaii Athens supposed to be given 
to Solon by a priest of Sais. 

Noe georgica] James remarks, *' Ilic Episcopus non tene- 
tur, nisi sano modo intelligantur verba eius. " The remark may 
be extended to the whole passage, though in the last century 
several learned Germans wrote treatises on science and learn- 
ing before the flood. It would be easy to accumulate refe- 
rences to these mythical writers from medieval literature, if it 
were worth while to do so. Cp. Fabricius, Codex Pscudcpi- 
graphus Vet. Testamenti, I7U-33- 

Salomonis problemata] Cp. 3 Kings, iv. 33. 


medis ; et alia infinita scientiarum secreta huius 
incendii tempestate creduntur sublata. 

111 Numquid Aristotelem de circuli quadratura 
syllogismus apodicticon latuisset, si libros veterum 
methodos naturae totius habentium permisissent 5 
nefanda praelia superesse? Nee enim de mundi 
aeternitate problema neutrum fecisset, nee de in- 
tellectuum humanorum pluralitate eorundemque 
perpetuitate, ut verisimiliter creditur, dubitasset 
uUatenus, si perfectae scientiae veterum invisorum 10 

112 bellorum pressuris obnoxiae non fuissent. Per 
bella namque ad patrias peregrinas distrahimur, 
obtruncamur, vulneramur et enormiter mutilamur^ 
sub terra suffodimur, in mari submergimur, flammis 
exurimur et omni necis genere trucidamur. Quan- 15 
turn sanguinis nostri fudit Scipio bellicosus, cum 
eversioni Carthaginis, Romani imperii impugna- 

113 tricis et aemulae, anxius incumbebat ! Quot millia 

4 apodiciicus Ja. || 5 promisissent D || 8 eorwnque edd. || 

II ohnixe ^ || 16 effudit edd. || i8 quot transmisit 

om. D II 

syllogismus apodicticon] This is the reading of the MSS., 
which I have retained ; for the apodeictic syllogism cp. 
Ueberweg, Hist, of Phil., E. T. i, 155. 

Aristotelem] Cp. Bacon, Op. Maj., p. 7 : *' Ad haec repre- 
henditur de mundi aeternitate, quam nimis inexpressam reli- 
quit, nee mirum, cum ipsemet dicit se non omnia scivisse. 
Nam quadraturam circuli se ignorasse confitetur, quod his 
diebus scitur veraciter." 

problema neutrum] Neutral, apparently, in the sense of 
doubtful, rather than * open ' in the Catholic sense. Cp. 
Lange, Hist, of Materialism, i. 228 of my translation. 


millium praelium decennale Troianum ab hac luce 
transmisit ! Quot per Antonium,Tullio iam occiso, 
externaruni provinciarum latcbras adicrunt ! Quot 
de nobis per Thcodoricum, cxulante 13oetio, in 
diversa mundi climata, sicut oves pastore percusso, 5 
sunt disi)ersi ! Quot Seneca succumbente Neronis 
malitiae, cum et volens ct nolens portas mortis 
adiret, ab eo divisi retrocessimus lacrimantes et 
in quibus partibus hosi)itari posscmus penitus 
ignorantes ! ,0 

1 14 Felix fuit ilia librorum translatio, quam in Persas 
de Athenis Xerxes fecisse describitur, quos rursus 
de Persis in Athenas Seleucus reduxit. O post- 
liminium gratiosum ! O mira laetitia ! quam 
tunc cerneres in Athenis, cum proli suae genitrix 15 
obviaret tripudians matricemque thalamum senes- 
centi iam soboli denuo demonstraret. Reassignatis 
hospitiis veteribus inquilinis, mox tabulata ce- 

7 vialitia D nohtis et volens &^^. |1 13 gauJittm graciosurn 
edd. postliminium saliitare et gratiosum Jx || i6 matrisque 
edd. demonstrasset D J/ Ja. resignatis il/Ja. || 

sicut oves] Cp. Ezech. xxxiv. 5 ; Zach. xiii. 7. 

portas mortis] From Ps. cvi. 18. 

librorum translatio] This is awkwardly expressed, as though 
the felicity of the * translation ' was in the carrying away, and 
not in the return. The story is taken from A. Gellius, N.A., 
vi. 17, I. 

postliminium] A technical term of Roman law, which Co- 
cheris appears to have found so unintelligible, that he could 
not even read it in his MSS., but prints it as post li/ninuni. 
The MSS. are quite clear. 


drina cum lignis et trabibus levigatis aptissime 
complanantur ; auro et ebore epigrammata de- 
signantur camerulis singulis, quibus ipsa volumina 
reverenter illata suavissime collocantur sic, ut nul- 
lum alterius ingressum impediat vel propinquitate 5 
nimia fratrem laedat. 
115 Caeterum infinita sunt dispendia quae per 
seditiones bellorum librorum generi sunt illata. 
Et quoniam infinita nullatenus pertransire con- 
tingit, hie statuemus finaliter querimoniae nostrae 10 
Gades, et ad preces a quibus incepimus regiramus 
habenas, rogantes suppliciter ut rector Olympi ac 
mundi totius dispensator altissimus firmet pacem 
et bella removeat ac tempora faciat sua protec- 
tione tranquilla. 15 

3 singulis om. edd. li 7 ceterum qiiidem edd. || 8 librorum 
om. E II quippe sunt I sunt om. Coch. jl 9 qiconiam qtcidem 
edd. contigit A\\li gaiides B a om. edd. || 

tabulata cedrina] From I Kings, vi. 15. 

lignis levigatis] From Gen. vi. 14. 

propinquitate nimia] In the statutes of S. Victor, it is directed 
that the books in the library should be arranged " ne vel ni- 
mia compressio ipsis libris noceat : " Martene, De ant. eccl. 
ritt., iii. 733. 

Gades] This word, originally from the Punic word gadir, a 
boundary, is familiar in classical Latin as the name of a 
Phoenician colony on the site of the modern Cadiz, By a re- 
version to its original sense, it was used in mediosval Latin for 
a fence or boundary, of which see numerous instances in Du- 
cange. Cp. Geoffrey Vinesauf, in the Epilogue to his Poetria 
Nova : " lam mare transcurri, Gades in littore fixi." 

rector Olympi] From Ovid, Met. ix. 498. 


Capitulum S. 

De multlplici opportunltate qiiam hal^ui- 
mus librorum copiain conquirendi. 

116 Cum omni ncgotio tempus sit et opportunitas, ut 
testatur sapiens Ecclesiastes, 8°, iam progrcdimur 
enarrare multiplices opportunitates, quibus in adc^ui- 
sitione librorum, nostris propositis divinitate pro- 
pitia, iuvabamur. 5 

J J ^ Quamvis enim ab adolescentia nostra semper 
socialem communionem cum viris litteratis et libro- 
rum dilectoribus delectaremur habere, succeden- 
tibus tamen prosperis, regiae maiestatis consecuti 
notitiam et in ipsius acceptati familia, facultatem 10 
accepimus ampliorem ubilibet visitandi pro libito et 
venandi quasi saltus quosdam delicatissimos, turn 
privatas, tum communes, tum regularium, turn sae- 

iiScularium librarias. Sane dum invictissimi prin- 
cipis ac semper magnifice triumphantis regis Angliae 15 
Eduardi Tertii post conquestum, cuius tempora 

I sit ut B \\ Uhitu E edd. H 14 priiicipis . . . inum- 
phantts om. J a. li 16 Edoiiardi A EJwarJi E ]o.. \\ 

succedentibus tamen prosperis] From Gen. xl. 23. 
magnifice triumphantis] Cp. Durham Ritual, p, 122, et a!.: 
*' Deus . . . rex ac semper magnificus triumpliator." 



serenare dignetur Altissimus diutine et tranquille, 
primo quidem suam concernentibus curiam, deinde 
vero rempublicam regni siii, cancellarii videlicet ac 
thesaurarii, fungeremur officiis, patescebat nobis 
aditus facilis, regalis favoris intuitu, ad librorum 5 

119 latebras libere perscmtandas. Amoris quippe nostri 
fama volatilis iam ubique percrebuit, tantumque 
librorum et maxima veterum ferebamur cupiditate 
languescere, posse vero quemlibet nostrum per 
quaternos facilius quam per pecuniam adipisci ^o 
favorem. Quamobrem cum supra dicti principis 
recolendae memoriae bonitate suffulti possemus 
obesse et prodesse, officere et proficere vehe- 
menter tam maioribus quam pusillis, affluxerunt 
loco xeniorum et munerum locoque donorum et 15 
iocalium caenulenti quaterni ac decrepiti codices, 
nostris tam aspectibus quam aifectibus pretiosi. 

120 Tunc nobilissimorum monasteriorum aperiebantur 
armaria, reserabantur scrinia et cistulae solveban- 

I seruare A B consej'vare edd. H 3 regni om. D H Z ferebattir 
Z) II 9 quilibct D \\ 12 bo7iitati Z> |1 15 encenioruin B exennio- 
rum D exeniorum A exhtiioi-iim E\},\6 temulenti]zi.\\ 11 nostris 
tamen tatfi £ \\ i<) referebantur Coch. || 

tam maioribus] Cp. Ps. cxiii. 13: "pusillis cum majori- 

xeniorum] The Greek ^evia: cp. Eccli. xx. 31 ; "Sceniaet 
dona." The word is exceedingly common in medieval Lalin 
and is written in various forms. 

armaria] Armarium was a monastic term for a library, 
and the was called armarijis. Cp. the well-known 


tur, et per longa saecula in scpulcris soporata 
volumina expergiscunt attonita, cjuaeque in locis 
tenebrosis latuerant novae liicis radiis pcrfunduntur. 
Delicatissimi quondam libri, corrupti et abomina- 
biles iam effecti, murium (juidem foctibus cooperti et 5 
vermium morsibus terebrati, iacebant exanimes ; et 
quiolim purpura vestiebanturet bysso, nunc in cinere 
et cilicio recubantes oblivioni traditi videbantur do- 

121 micilia tinearum. Inter haec nihilominus, captatis 
temporibus, magis volui)tuose consedimus cjuam fe- 10 
cisset medicus delicatus inter aromatum apothecas, 
ubi amoris nostri obiectum reperimus et fomcntum. 
Sic sacra vasa scientiae ad nostrae dispensationis pro- 
venerunt arbitrium, quaedam data, quaedam vendita 

I 2 2 ac nonnulla pro tempore commodata. Nimirum cum 1 5 
nos plerique de huiusmodi donariis cernerent con- 

2 expergiscunt ur A Ja. Coch. attouuita edd. lucis ^ || 3 
siatueraut -^ || 5 qiiidevi om. E || lO concedimtis E edd. i| 
13 peti'c'ticntnt BE edd. !! 15 accomodata edd. |i 

saying of Geoffrey, the Sub-prior of St. Barbara in Normandy 
in the I2lh century: "Claustrum sine armario, castrum 
sine armamentario. " 

corrupti et aboniinabiles] From Ps. xiii. I (cp. lii. 2). 

murium quidem foetibus] Coch. translates this '* couverts 
de la liente des souris " and Inglis agrees with him ! Walten- 
bach suggests quidam or qttippc^ instead of quidem^ but no 
change seems to be required : Schriftwesen im Mittelalter, 


purpura et bysso] Cp. Ex, xxxv. 6 ; Luke, xvi. 20. 
cinere et ciHcio] Cp. Matt. xi. 21. 
obUvioni traditi] Cp. Ps. xxx. 13. 
aromatum apothec.xi;] Cp. Is. xxxix. 2. 


tentatos, ea sponte nostris usibus studuemnt tribuere, 
quibiis ipsi libentius caruerunt, quam ea quae nos- 
tris assistentes servitiis abstulerunt. Quorum tamen 
negotia sic expedire curavimus gratiose, ut et eisdem 
emolumentum accresceret, nullum tamen detrimen- 5 
123 tum iustitia sentiret. Porro, si scyphos aureos et 
argenteos, si equos egregios, si nummorum summas 
non modicas amassemus, tunc temporis dives nobis 
aerarium instaurasse possemus. Sed revera libros 
non libras maluimus, codicesque plus dileximus 10 
quam florenos, ac panfietos exiguos incrassatis 

I contentos E [] 2 quae om. A B D E quam . . . abstulerunt 
om. Ja. II 4 et om. B edd. || ii panjlettos D phaleratis edd. || 

amassemus] Inglis translates, "if we would have 
amassed ; " but the word is from amare, not amassarc. 

libros non libras] Cp. Alanus, De Arte praedicatoria, c. 36 : 
*' Potius dediti gulae quam glossae, potius colligunt libras 
quam legunt libros, libentius intuentur Martham quam Mar- 
cum, malunt legere in salmone quam in Salomone. " 

florenos] The first gold florins were issued at Florence in 
1252. In 1343, Edward III. issued a gold florin to be cur- 
rent at bs. It is an extremely scarce coin, only two speci- 
mens being known, which were found together in the Tyne ; 
it was replaced by a noble of the value of 6s. Sd. in 1344: 
see Kenyon, Gold Coins of England, pp. 14, 15. The 
Continental florins were extensively used in international 

panfletos] This appears to be the earliest instance yet 
noticed of this word, which is apparently the origin of our 
'pamphlet.' It is not in Ducange : but see Mr. Skeat's 
account of the word in his Dictionary. 

incrassatis] Cp. Deut. xxxii. 15. 


124 praetulimus palefridis. Ad haec eiusdem i)rincipis 
illustrissimi sempiternae memoriae legationibus cre- 
bris functi, et ob multiplicia regni negotia nunc ad 
sedem Romanam, nunc ad curiam P>anciae, nunc 
ad mundi diversa dominia, taediosis ambassiatibus 5 
ac periculosis temporibus mittebamur, circumferentes 
tamen ubique illam, quam aquae plurimae nequi- 

125 verunt exstinguere, caritatem librorum. Haec 
omnium peregrinationum absinthia quasi quaedam 
pigmentaria potio dulcoravit. Haec post peri)lexas 10 
intricationes et scrupulosos causarum anfractus ac 
vix egressibiles rei publicae labyrinthos ad respi- 
randum parumper temperiem aurae lenis aperuit. 

126 O beate Deus Deorum in Sion, quantus fluminis 
impetus voluptatis laetificavit cor nostrum, quotiens 15 
paradisum mundi Parisius visitare vacavimus mora- 
turi, ubi nobis semper dies pauci prae amoris mag- 

5 sediciosis E i, 7 turn uhique Ja. !| 9 ovinia peregr'niarum 
iiatiomim Ja, || 13 levis ]si. |i 16 ilfi moraturi ]di. [\ 

circumferentes] Cp. 2 Cor. iv. 10. 

exstinguere caritatem] Cp. Cant. viii. 7. 

pigmentaria potio] Pignientiim or piment was a mixture of 
wine, honey, and spices, much affected in medieval times : 
see Ducange. The word dulcoravit is said to be peculiar to 
S. Jerome : cp. Prov. xxvii. 9. 

aurae lenis] John of Salisbury says in one of his letters 
on returning to France : "Ex quo partes attigi cismarinas, 
visus sum mihi sensisse lenioris aurae temperiem :" Ep. 134. 

Deus Deorum in Sion] This phrase occurs twice in Petrarch, 
De Otio Religios., sig. c. iii., verso. 

fluminis impetus] From Ps. xlv. 5. 


nitudine videbantur ! Ibi bibliothecae iocundae 
super cellas aromatum redolentes, ibi virens viri- 
darium universorum voluminum, ibi prata acade- 
mica terrae motu trementia, Athenarum diverticula, 
Peripateticorum itinera, Parnasi promontoria et 5 
127 porticus Stoicorum. Ibi cernitur tarn artis quam 
scientiae mensurator Aristoteles, cuius est totum 
quod est optimum in doctrinis, in region e dum- 
taxat transmutabili sublunari ; ibi Ptolemaeus epi- 
cyclos et eccentricos auges atque geuzahar plane- '^^ 
tarum figuris et numeris emetitur ; ibi Paulus arcana 

4 diver siciila A \\ g S2thli7nari A B i 2 \\ 10 aoges 3 Gold. 
Schni. Genzachar edd. Ja. || ii einitur emetatur D 1| 

cellas aromatum] From Is. xxxix. 2. 

diverticula] This word seems to be an attempt to render 
the Xf (T^at, of which we hear so much in Greek literature. 

sublunari] I have noticed this word, which has not yet 
found its way into Ducange, in Jo. Sarisb., Policrat. ii. 19 ; 
Gerv. Tilb., Otia Imp., i. i. Cp. Bacon, Op. M., p. 84: 
" Dicit enim Avicenna inix. Metaphysicae quod ea quae sunt 
sub circulo lunae sunt fere nihil in comparatione eorum, quae 
sunt supra." 

auges] Cp. Neckam, De N. R., p. 311 : " Non eris philo- 
sophiae laribus educatus nisi scias quid horoscopus, quid 
decanus, quid augis solis." Bacon, Op. M., p. 62, yxs>t% aux 
as the nominative; cp. pp. 89, 90, 109, 138, 144. The word 
was long used in English : see the new English Dictionary 
s, V. Auge. 

geuzahar] This word has been treated by the editors and 
translators as a proper name, though in that case the order of 
the words would be obviously wrong. It is a Perso-Arabic 
astronomical term meaning dragon, and refers to the re- 


revelat ; ibi Dionysius convicinus hierarchias coor- 

128 dinat et distinguit ; ibi tiuiajuid Cadmus gram- 
mate recolligit Phoeniceo, totum virgo Carmenta 
charactere repracsentat Latino ; ibi revera, apertis 
thes:iuris et sacculorum corrigiis resolutis, pecuniam 5 
laeto corde dispersimus, atque libros imi)rctiabiles 

129 Into redemimus et arena. Nequaquam malum est, 
malum est, insonuit omnis emptor ; sed ecce (luam 
bonum et quam iocundum arma clericalis militiae 

I comituinns om. Coch. corinthios codd, dett. I| 2 gram- 
mate A E pr. manu gramniaticiis B grammatice Z? Ja. H 
3 recollegit A Ja. grammaiice recoUegit et phcnices edd. U 
6 libros om, Ja. i| 7 redimiviiis Ja. nequaquam ?nahf>u est edd. 

lation between the equator and tlie ecliptic, their points of 
intersection, or nodes, being respectively called the head and 
tail of the dragon. The word was written genzahar or 
geuzahar, with the common confusion of n and u in medieval 
MSS. See Dr. Moritz Steinschneider in the Zeitsch. d. d. 
morgenl. Ges., xviii. 195 ; xxv. 418. 

Dionysius] To Dionysius the Areopagite (Acts xvii. 34) 
were attributed a number of treatises, now believed to be the 
much later productions of some Christian Neo-Platonist, which 
had a high reputation in the middle ages. 

virgo Carmenta] Cadmus the Phoenician is supposed to 
have introduced the alphabet into Greece, whence it was 
carried into Italy by Evandcr, the Arcadian- His mother 
Carmenta accompanied him, and she is said to have turned 
the Greek into Roman characters. 

apertis thesauris] From Matt. ii. ii. 

malum est, malum est] From Prov. xx. 14. 

quam bonum] From Ps. cxxxi. I. 

arma clericalis militiae] See s. 29 nvte. The phrase is used 
of the books of the Greek fathers by the Dominican Hum- 
bert in 1274 : Mart and Durand, ^Vmpl. Coll. vii. 194. 


congregare in unum, ut suppetat nobis, unde 
130 haereticorum bella conterere, si insurgant ! Amplius 
opportunitatem maximam nos captasse cognoscimus 
per hoc, quod ab aetate tenera magistrorum et 
scholarium ac diversarum artium professorum quos 5 
ingenii perspicacitas ac doctrinae celebritas clariores 
effecerant, relegato quolibet partiali favore, exquisi- 
tissima sollicitudine nostrae semper coniunximus 
comitivae, quorum consolativis colloquiis confortati, 
nunc argumentorum ostensivis investigationibus, 10 
nunc physicorum processuum ac catholicorum doc- 
torum tractatuum recitationibus, nunc moralitatum 

5 professores A B D E Ja. |i 7 qtwinodolibet Ja. |i 8 nostra 
se»iper co7iuiiixi7nus commercia]^.. || w phtconmi codtd. philo- 
sophicoru7n Ja. || 

professorum] Coch. saw that this was required, and I have 
made the correction with several MSS. 

ostensivis] A word not recorded in the dictionaries. 

physicorum processuum] If we read philosophicorufn with 
James, the phrase would merely repeat " argumentorum in- 
vestigationibus ; " physicorum is probably right and refers to 
treatises on science. Roger Bacon, Op. Maj., p. 116, men- 
tions catholici doctores in a similar connexion : ' ' postquam 
in ecclesia fuit evacuata falsitas magicae mathematicae, venit 
in usum catholicorum doctorum consideratio mathematicae 
verae." By 77iathematica he means, of course, astronomy and 

moralitatum] This perhaps refers to the moralizations 
not merely of sacred and secular histories and naratives, but 
even of science and philosophical subjects, which were so 
common in medieval times ; see Hazlitt's Warton, i. 297, sqq. 
That a knowledge of these allegorical meanings was con- 
sidered necessary for theologians, we may gather from 

CAPiTULUM riir. 73 

excitativis collationibus, velut alternatis et multipli- 

131 catis ingenii ferculis, dulcius fovebamur. 'I'ales in 
nostro tirocinio commilitones elegimus, tales in tha- 
lamo collaterales habuimus, tales in itinera comites, 
tales in hospitio commensales, et tales penitus in 5 
omni fortuna sodales. Verum quia nulla felicitas 
diu durare permittitur, privabamur nonnunquam 
luminum aliquorum ])raesentia corj)orali, cum eis- 
dem promotiones ecclesiasticae ac dignitates debi- 
tae, prospiciente de caelo iustitia, provenerunt. 10 
Quo fiebat, ut incumbentes sicut oportuit curae 
propriae se a nostris cogerentur obsequiis absentare. 

132 Rursus compendiosissimam semitam subiunge- 
mus, per quam ad manus nostras pervenit librorum 
tarn veterum quam novorum plurima multitude. Re- 1 5 
ligiosonim siquidem mendicantium paupertatem sus- 
ceptam proChristonunquam indignanteshorruimus, 
verum ipsos ubiqueterrarum in nostrae compassionis 
ulnas admisimus mansuetas, affabilitate familiaris- 
sima in personae nostrae devotionem alleximus, 20 
allectosque beneficiorum liberalitate munifica fovi- 
mus propter Deum ; quorum sic eramus omnium 
benefactores communes, ut nihilominus videremur 

16 viendicantitim om. edd. || 21 alUctasqtie E \\ 23 bene- 
factor communis E || 

Bacon, Op. Maj., pp. 104, 112, where he says that they should 
know all about arithmetic and music : propter sensus mysticos 
infinites pr cuter lite rales. 

prospiciente de caelo] Cp. Ps. xiii. 2. 


quadam paternitatis proprietate singulos adoptasse. 

^ZZ Istis in statu quolibet facti sumus refugium, istis 
nunquam clausimus gratiae nostrae sinum ; quam- 
obrem istos votorum nostrorum peculiarissimos zela- 
tores meruimus habere, et tarn opere quam opera 5 
promotores. Qui circueuntes mare et aridam ac 
orbis ambitum perlustrantes, universitates quoque 
diversarumque provinciarum generalia studia per- 
scrutantes, nostris desideriis militare studebant cer- 

134 tissima spe mercedis. Quis inter tot argutissimos 10 
venatores lepusculus delitesceret ? Quis pisciculus 
istorum nunc hamos, nunc retia, nunc sagenas 
evaderet? A corpore sacrae legis divinae usque 
ad quaternum sophismatum hesternorum, nihil istos 
praeterire potuit scrutatores. Si in fonte fidei 15 
Christianae, curia sacrosancta Romana, sermo de- 
votus insonuit, vel si pro novis causis quaestio 
ventilabatur extranea, si Parisiensis soliditas, quae 

6 circuentes ^ 1|8 dhtersariim Z> || 1 1 deliteret -£" || 13 do?ninice 
D S. Legis Dominicae Ja. || 14 esternorian B externortim edd.|| 

facti sumus refugium] Cp. Ps. ix. 10. 

mare et aridam] Cp. Ps. Ixv. 6. 

generalia studia] Studitim generale was a medieval term for 
a University, and is said by Mr. Maxwell Lyte to be of 
English origin : Hist. Univ. Oxford, p. 5. But Denifle 
shows that it was first used of Vercelli ; Univ. des M. p. 2 if. 

nunc retia, nunc sagenas] Cp. Ezech. xii. 13. 

extranea] The word which originally meant, of course, 
outside or foreign, passed into the sense of strange or novel : 
see Ducange. 

Parisiensis soliditas] Cp. c. ix, s. 157. 


plus antiquitati discendae quam veritati subtilitcr 
producendae iam studet, si Anglicana pcrspicacitas, 
quae anticiuis perfusa luminaribus novos semper 
radios emitlit veritatis, (juicquam ad augmentuni 
scientiae vel declarationcm fidei proniulgabat, hoc 5 
statim nostris recens infundebatur auditibus nullo 
denigratum seminiverbio nulloque nugace corrup- 
tum, sed de praelo purissimi torcularis in nostrae 
memoriae dolia defaecandum transibat. 
135 Cum vero nos ad civitates et loca contingeret 10 
declinare, ubi praefati pauperes conventus habe- 
bant, eorum armaria ac quaecunque librorum re- 
positoria visitare non piguit ; immo ibi in altissima 

I quam om. Z> li 4 qia'cquid^z.. Coch. 1, 6 aiinbus edd. |1 7 de 
virgiatum B dcuirginatiini E semiverbo edd. seniimvcrbo Ja. 
semiverbio Gold, seuii verbio Coch. nugacitate edd. || 9 doliion 
J a. dcfercndtim A defacandiim B 1| 

auditibus] Cp. Ps. 1. 10. 

seminiverbio] Even James appears not to have seen that 
this is simply the Vulgate rendering of (rntpfivXoyoi: in the 
Acts, xvii. 1 8. Coch. and Inglis make a great mess of the 

eorum armaria] One of the chief complaints made against 
the mendicant orders by Abp. Fitzralph, at Avignon in 1357, 
was that they monopolized books : " omnes emuntur a Fratri- 
bus, ita ut in singulis conventibus sit una grandis ac nobilis 
libraria ; " see the Dt-fcnsoriiim Curatotnm, printed in 
Brown's Fasciculus, iii. 474. 

altissima paupertate] From 2 Cor. viii. 2. Cp. the Rule 
of S. Francis, c. 6: "Haec est ilia celsitudo aUissima 
paupertatis quae vos carissimos fratres meos haeredes et 
reges rcgni caelorum instituit." (Ilolstenius, Codex Kegg. iii. 


paupertate altissimas divitias sapientiae thesauriza- 
tas invenimus, et non solum in eorum sarcinulis et 
sportellis micas de mensa dominorum cadentes 
repperimus pro catellis, verum panes propositionis 
absque fermento panemque angelorum omne 5 
delectamentum in se habentem, immo horrea Joseph 
plena frumentis totamque Aegypti supellectilem 
atque dona ditissima, quae regina Saba detulit 
136 Hi sicut formicae continue congregantes in 10 
messem et apes argumentosae fabricantes iugiter 
cellas mellis. Hi successores Bezeleel ad excogitan- 
dum quicquid fabrefieri poterit in argento et auro ac 
gemmis, quibus templum Ecclesiae decoretur. Hi 
prudentes polymitarii, qui superhumerale et rationale 15 
pontificis sed et vestes varias efficiunt sacerdotum. 
Hi cortinas, saga pellesque arietum rubricatas resar- 

I sapientiae om. edd. I| 8 datissima D altissima Ja. Sibilla 
D E \\ 10 sutit edd. quotidie Ja. in messe edd. || 13 affrabe fieri 
Ja. II 14 decoraretur E || 

micas de mensa] Cp. Matt. xv. 27. 

omne delectamentum] Cp. Wisd. xvi. 20. 

congregantes in messe] Cp. Prov. vi. 8 ; xxx. 25. 

apes argumentosae] Cp. the office of S. Caecilia : 
" Caecilia, famula tua, Domine ! quasi apis tibi argumentosa 
deservit." Argumentosae thus became a standing epithet of 
apes : see passages cited in Ducange. 

quicquid fabrefieri] Cp. Ex. xxxi. 4. 

polymitarii] Cp. Ex. xxxv. 35. 

superhumerale et rationale] Cp. Ex. xxviii. 4. 

cortinas, saga] Cp. Ex. xxvi. i, 7. 

pellesque arietum r.] Cp. Ex. xxvi. 14. 


ciunt, quibus Ecclesiae militantis tabernaculum con- 
tegatur. Hi agricolae seminantes, boves triturantes, 
tubae buccinantes, pleiades emicantcs ct stellae 
manentes in ordine suo, (juae Sisaram exinignare 

37 non cessant. Et ut Veritas honoretur, salvo prae- 5 
iudicio cuiuscunque, licet hi nuper hora undecima 
vineam sint ingressi dominicani, sicut amantissimi 
nobis libri cap°. 6". supra anxius allegabant, ])lus 
tamen in hac hora brevissima sacratorum librorum 
adiecerunt propagini quam omnes residui vinitorcs ; 10 
Pauli sectantes vestigia, qui vocatione novissimus 
praedicatione primus, multo latius aliis evangelium 

38 Christi sparsit. De istis ad statum pontificalem 
assumpti nonnullos habuimus de duobus ordinibus, 
Praedicatorum videlicet et IMinorum, nostris assis- 15 
tentes lateribus nostraeque familiae commensales, 
viros utique tarn moribus insignitos quam litteris, 
qui diversorum voluminum correctionibus, exposi- 

2 Hi sunt edd. om. A B D E Ja. |1 4 qui Z> 1| 5 iiuiicio 
edd. II 9 hac om. A ;i 10 pagini D pa^iuae ]^. 14 assumptis 
Coch. .17 moribus quam scientia quam litteris B 1| 

boves triturantes] Cp. i Cor. ix. 9. 

stellae manentes] Cp. Judges v. 20. 

undecima hora] Cp. Matt. xx. 

hora brevissima] Cp. I Jo. ii. 18. For Roger Bacon's 
opinion of their biblical labours, see Op. Maj., p. 37. 

Minorum] For the Pra^dicatores see note on c. vi. s. S6. 
The Fratres Minores were founded by S. Francis in 12 10 
and were a mendicant order : cp. his Regula, c. 6 : "Nullus 
vocetur prior, sed gcneraliter omnes vocentur Fratres Mi- 
nores." (llolstenius, Codex Regularum, iii. 24). 


tionibus, tabulationibus ac compilationibus inde- 
^39 fessis studiis incumbebant. Sanequamvis omnium 
religiosorum communicatione multipliciplurimorum 
operum copiam tarn novorum quam veterum asse- 
cuti fuerimus, Praedicatores tamenextollimus merito 5 
special! praeconio in hac parte, quod eos prae cunc- 
tis religiosis suorum sine invidia gratissime commu- 
nicativos invenimus, ac divina quadam liberalitate 
perfusos sapientiae luminosae probavimus non 
avaros sed idoneos possessores. lo 

140 Praeter has omnes opportunitates praetactas, 
stationariorum ac librariorum notitiam, non solum 
infra natalis soli provinciam, sed per regnum 
Franciae, Teutoniae et Italiae dispersorum com- 
paravimus, faciliter pecunia praevolante, nee eos 15 
ullatenus impedivit distantia, neque furor maris 
absterruit, nee aes eis pro expensa defecit, quin ad 
nos optatos libros transmitterent vel afferrent. 
Sciebant profecto quod spes eorum in sinu nostro 
reposita defraudari non poterat, sed restabat apud :;o 
nos copiosa redemptio cum usuris. 

5 merito om. Z) || 7 g7'atissimae coimnwiicationis Ja., 
vulgo II 13 intra edd. || 14 co?npajiif?i7is D \\ l^ eos eis D || 
19 sciebant enint pro certo edd. || 

tabulationibus] The word is not found in the dictionaries, 
but it means probably indexes or summaries. 

stationariorum] For the stationarii of the middle ages, who 
were originally rather lenders than sellers of books, cp. 
Wattenbach, Schriftwesen im Mittelalter, 294, 307. 

copiosa redemptio] From Ps. cxxix. 7. 

cum usuris] Cp. Luke xix. 23. 

'CAPITULUM Vlir. 79 

141 neniijue nee rcctores scholarum ruraliiim puero- 
rumque rudium paedagogos nostra neglexit com- 
munio, singulorum ca})tatrix amoris ; sed potiiis 
cum vacaret, eorum hortulos et agellos ingressi, flores 
superficietenus redolentes collcgimus ac radices 5 
eiTodimusobsolctas, studiosis tamen accommodas et 
quae possent, digesta barbaric rancida, pectorales 

142 arterias eloquentiae munere medicari. Inter 
huiusmodi pleraque comperimus renovari dignis- 
sima quae, solerter elimata robigine turpi, larva 10 
vetustatis deposita, merebantur venustis vultibus 
denuo reformari. Quae nos, adhibita necessari- 
orum sufticientia, in futurae resurrectionis ex- 
emplum resuscitata quodammodo redivivae red- 
didimus sospitati. 15 

143 Caeterum apud nos in nostris maneriis multitudo 
non modica semper erat antiquariorum, scriptorum, 

I scholarhim edd. || 6 accomodatas Ja. Coch. |; 8 vieditari 
Ta. medicare edd. H 10 rohipne om. edd. || i"^ futuriim B D 
Juturus £■ 1; 16 atriis edd. || 

paedagogos] The schoolmasters of the fourteenth century 
were much looked down upon ; the degree of master of 
j;rammar was the lowest at the universities, requiring only a 
three years' course, instead of the seven needed for the study 
of the trivium and quadrivium. The degree was conferred 
by the delivery of a rod and birch, after which the incepting 
master proceeded to flog a boy publicly : see liass Mullinger, 
Univ. Cam., 344; Maxwell Lyte, Hist. Univ. Oxf., 235. 

sospitati] Cp. Job, v. II. 

anticjuariorum] Cp. .Sueton., De Viris illust., ed. Rciffer- 
schcid, p. 134 : "Librarii sunt, qui nova et vetera scribunt. 


correctorum, colligatorum, illuminatorum et genera- 
liter omnium, qui poterant librorum servitiis utiliter 
insudare. Postremo omnis utriusque sexus omnis- 
que status vel dignitatis conditio, cuius erat cum 
libris aliquale commercium, cordis nostri ianuas 5 
pulsu poterat aperire facillime et in nostrae gratiae 
144 gremio commodosum reperire cubile. Sic omnes 
admisimus codices afferentes, ut nunquam praece- 
dentium multitudo fastidium posterorum efficeret, 
vel hesternum beneficium praecollatum praeiudi- 10 
cium pareret hodierno. Quapropter cum omnibus 
memoratis personis quasi quibusdam adamantibus 
attractivis librorum iugiter uteremur, fiebat ad nos 
desideratus accessus vasorum scientiae et volatus 
multifarius voluminum optimorum. Et hoc est 15 
quod praesenti capitulo sumpsimus enarrare. 

3 omnes Ja. Coch. |1 d pnlsi D poterant Ja. Coch. W^ et D \\ 
^ posteriortun edd. 1| 

Antiquarii qui tantummodo Vetera." In practice, however, 
the two terms had come to be synonymous, according to 
Wattenbach, Schriftwesen im Mittelalter, 244. But see c. 
xvi. s. 20"/ post. 

adamantibus] Adamas, the Greek aMiiag, which in classi- 
cal Latin meant (i) steel, (2) the diamond, was used in 
medieval Latin for the loadstone, being erroneously connected 
with adamare ; cp. c. iv. s. 58. 


Capltiiluin 9. 

Quod licet opera vcterum amplius ama- 

remus non tamen damnavinius 

studia modernorum. 

145 Licet nostris desideriis novitas modernorum nun- 
quam fuerit odiosa, qui vacantes studiis ac priorum 
patrum sententiis quicquam vel subtiliter vel utiliter 
adicientes grata semper affectione coluimus, anti- 
quorum tamen examinatos labores securiori avidi- 5 
tate cupivimus perscrutari. Sive enim naturaliter 
viguerunt perspicaciori mentis ingenio, sive in- 
stantiori studio forsitan indulserunt, sive utriusque 
sufTulti subsidio profecerunt, hoc unum comperi- 
mus evidenter, quod vix sufficiunt successores 10 

Tit. dainnamtts B iniddimus studiis ^ || 3 senntis]:^. qiiic- 
quid'l'x. li 5 lihros vel labores D Ja. || 6 ajtididitate A B cupi- 
nius D Ja. i; 8 sive . . . indidseruiitoxw. Z> Ja. adidscritnt E 1| 
() pcrfeceruut]d,. Ij 

vix sufficiunt] Roger Bacon takes a view more favouraLle 
to the moderns. Thout^h he admits that "sapientissimi et 
maxime experti multotiens maximam difllcultatem in libris 
reperiunt antiquorum " (Op. Maj. i. 4); he adds "semper 
posteriorcs addiderunt ad opera priorum et multa correxe- 
runl," and quotes Seneca wiih approval, "quanto iuniores 
tanto perspicaciores, quia iuniores posteriores successionc 
temporum ingrediuntur labores priorum " (i. 6). 



priorum comperta discutere, atque ea per doc- 
trinae captare compendium, quae antiqui anfractu- 

1 46 osis adinventionibus effoderunt. Sicut enim in 
corporis probitate praestantiores legimus praeces- 
sisse, quam moderna tempora exhibere noscantur, 5 
ita luculentioribus sensibus praefulsisse plerosque 
veterum opinari nuUatenus est absurdum, cum 
utrosque opera quae gesserunt, inattingibiles pos- 
teris aeque probent. Unde Phocas in prologo 
Grammaticae suae scribit : 10 

Omnia cum veterum sint explorala libellis, 
Multa loqui breviter sit novitatis opus. 

147 Nempe si de fervore discendi ac diligentia studii fiat 
sermo, illi philosophiae vitam totam integre devove- 
runt ; nostri vero saeculi contemporanei paucos 15 
annos fervidae iuventutis, aestuantis vicissim incen- 
diis vitiorum, segniter applicant, et cum, sedatis 
passionibus, discernendae ambiguae veritatis acu- 
men attigerint, mox externis implicati negotiis 

2 dispetidiian Ja. |1 7 veterum om. add. nitimur Coch. ex 
digitis suis suxit || ^ posteros E |I g praebeni edd. || 16 estuantes 
E edd. li 19 externis E \\ 

inattingibiles] Ducange quotes this word from Gervase of 
Tilbury: "caelum Trinitatis, ubi sola Trinitas habitat non 
localiter sed incircumscripte et inenarrabili et inattingihili 

Phocas] One of the favourite grammatical text books of the 
middle ages : see Keil, Gramm. Lat., v. 410. 

implicati negotiis] Cp. 2 Tim. ii. 4. 


retrocedunt et philosoi)hiae gymnasiis valedicunt. 
148 Mustum fiimosum iuvenilis ingcnii philosophicae 
difticultati delibant, vinumque maturius defaecatum 
oeconomicae sollicitudini largiuntur. Amplius 
sicut Ovidius, primo Dc Vetula, mcrito lamentalur : 5 

C)nines declinant ad ea, quae lucra ministrant, 

Utque sciant discunt pauci, plures ut abundent ; 

Sic te prostituunt, O virgo Scientia ! sic te 

Venalcm faciunt castis amplexibus aptam, 

Xon te propter te quaerentes, sed lucra per te, i'^ 

Ditarique volunt polius, quam pliilosophari ; 

et infra : 

sic Philosopliia 
Exilimn patitur, et Philopecunia regnat, 

quam constat esse violentissimum toxicum dis- 15 
149 Qualiter vero non alium terminum studio pos- 

7. fhiL^sophiae edd. i! 8 om. E '\ 12 et om. D \\ 

gj'mnasiis] One of the commonest of medieval words, 
though there is a mistaken notion that it came into use with 
the Renascence. The medieval spelling was, of course, 
gignasium ; and Mr. Lumby, in his glossary to Iligden, in- 
nocently observes " gignasia, perhaps an error for gymnasia !" 

De Vetula] This poem, in three books of wretched hexa- 
meters, was regarded in medieval times as the genuine work 
of Ovid. It is cited, for instance, by Bacon, Burley, Brad- 
wardine, and Hclkot, though the last-named observes : 
"An sit liber Ovidii, Deus novit " (Super Sap., f. 103a). 
Warton attributes it on the authority of Leyser to Leo I'ro- 
tonotarius (H. E. P. iii. 107 n. : cp., however, il>. 136 n., 
where it is assigned to Pamphilus Maurilianus). Cocheris, 


uerunt antiqui quam vitae, declarat Valerius ad 
Tiberium, lib. 8, cap. 7, per exempla multorum. 
Carneades, inquit, laboriosus ac diutinus sapientiae 
miles fait ; siquidem expletis nonaginta annis idem 
illi Vivendi ac philosophandi finis fuit. Isocrates 5 
94"\ annum agens nobilissimum librum scripsit; 
Sophocles prope centesimum annum agens; Simo- 
nides 80. anno carmina scripsit. A. Gellius non 
aftectavit diutius vivere, quam esset idoneus ad 
scribendum, teste seipso in prologo Noctium 10 
150 Fervorem vero studii, quem habebat Euclides 
Socraticus, recitare solebat Taurus philosophus, ut 
iuvenes ad studium animaret, sicut refert A. Gellius 
lib. 6, cap. 10 voluminis memorati. Athenienses 15 
namque cum Megarenses odirent, decreverunt quod 
si quis de Megarensibus Athenas intraret, capite 

5 Isocratas A consocrates B D et Socrates Ja., vulgo || 
7 agetis edypodeaon id est librum de gestis edypodis scripsit 
L I 11 Oedipodem, etc. edd. 

who has edited Jean Lefevre's French version of the poem, 
attributes it to Richard Furnivalle, the author of the Biblio- 
nomia, and Chancellor of Amiens in the thirteenth century. 

Isocrates] The editors, including James, have printed Et 
Socrates, though of course Socrates wrote no books and did 
not live to be ninety-four. It does not seem to have occurred 
to them even to look at the passage in Valerius Maximus. 
This is also quoted by Holkot, Super Sap., f. 93a, where the 
same mistake of Socrates for Isocrates is found. Walter Bur- 
ley, in his Vitae, tells the story of " Ysocrates," c. 27, and 
also of Socrates, c. 30. 


l)lecteretur. Tunc Euclidcs, qui Mcgarcnsis erat 
et ante illud decretum Socratcm audierat, mulicbri 
ornamcnto contectus dc nocte, ut Socratcm audirct, 
ibat dc Mcgaris ad Athenas viginti millia passuum 

151 ct redibat. Imjirudcns et nimius fuit fervor Archi- 5 
mcdis, qui gcometricac facultatis amator nomen 
edissercrc noluit ncc a figura protracta caput erigcre, 
quo vitae mortalis fatum poterat prolongasse, sed 
indulgens studio plus quam vitae studiosam 
figuram vitali sanguine cruentavit. 'o 

153 Quam plurima huius nostri propositi sunt ex- 
empla, nee ea quidem transcurrere brevitas affec- 
tata permittit. Sed, quod dolentes referimus, iter 
prorsus diversuminceduntclerici celebres his diebus. 
Ambitione siquidem in actate tenera laborantes, ac 15 

I Mcgaris ^ i| 3 contcntus D coutenctus MS. Dunelm. 
contcntiis est J a. 5 Architnenidis A B Athivienides D ll 6 geo- 
metriae Schm. Coch. |1 7 edissere ^ || 15 in om. Z^Ja. i| 

ArchimedLs] The story is told by Valerius Maximus, viii. 
7, Ext. 7. 

Ambitione siquidem] The passage beginning with these 
words and ending with the words " vix faucibus humectatis," 
preceded by the passage beginning " Uncinis pomorum " 
(c. vi. s. 93) — which words, however, are altered to " pomis et 
potu " — to " perniciem animarum," and the passage (s, 96) 
'* Quemadmodum psittacus " to " prophetae magistra,"' 
appear, though in a very corrupt form, in a curious memo- 
randum in the Oxford Chancellor's and Proctors' book, under 
the year 1358. The memorandum is directed against the 
cerei dociorcs^ that is, persons who secured a degree by 
influence, and it is noted that such doctors were always of the 
mendicant orders. .See Anstey, Mun. Acad, i. 207, who has 


praesumptionis pennas Icarias inexpertis lacertis 
fragiliter coaptantes, pileum magistralem immaturi 
praeripiunt, fiuntque pueruli facultatum plurium 
professores immeriti, quas nequaquam pedetentim 
pertranseunt, sed ad instar caprearum saltuatim 5 
ascendunt ; cumque parum de grandi torrente 
gustaverint, arbitrantur se totum funditus sorbuisse, 

153 vix faucibus humectatis ; et quia in primis rudi- 
mentis tempore congruo non fundantur, super debile 
fuiidamentum opus aedificant ruinosum. lamque 10 
l^rovectos pudet addiscere, quae tenellos decuerat 
didicisse, et sic profecto coguntur perpetuo lucre 
quod ad fasces indebitos praepropere salierunt. 

154 Propter haec et his similia, tirones scholastici soli- 
ditatem doctrinae, quam veteres habuerunt, tarn 15 

I ineptis et inexpertis edd. H 3 proripiunt Ja. || 5 saltuatim 
A saltatim edd. || 12 decuerat A E doetterat D 1| 13 salierint 
Ja. II 14 aliis D alia Ja. || 

not observed the quotation. It may be, perhaps, that it is a 
quotation in De Bury, the sentiments occurring in many 
medieval writers : cp. Holkot, Super Sap. 1. ccix, ccxii. 

pileum magistralem] See ch. vi. s. 94 ; and cp. Petrarch, 
De Vera Sap., i. : *' luvenis . . . cathedram ascendit cuncta 
iam ex alto despiciens et nescio quid confusum murmurans. 
Tunc maiores certatim ceu divina locutum laudibus ad caelum 
tollunt ; tinniunt interim campanae, strepunt tubae, volant 
annuli, figuntur oscula, vertici rotundus ac magistralis bonne- 
tus apponitur ; his peractis descendit sapiens qui stultus as- 
cenderat, mira prorsus transformatio nee Ovidio cognita !" 

debile fundamentum] " Debile fundamentum fallit opus " 
is a well-known legal maxim : Broom, Legal Maxims, 174. 


paucis lucubratiunculis non attingunt, quantum- 
cuncjue fungantur honoribus, censeantur noniinibus, 
auctorizentur habitibus, loccntur(|ue solcmniter in 
cathedris seniorum. Prisciani rcgulas ct 13onati 
statim de cunis crepti et cclcrilcr ablactati per- 5 
lingunt ; Categorias, Perihermenias, in cuius scrip- 
tura sunimus Aristoteles calamum in corde tinxisse 
confingitur, infantili balbutie resonant impuberes et 
155 imberbes. Quarum facultatum itinera dispendioso 
compendio damnosoque diplomate transmeantes, 10 

I quamcutiquc A \\ 5 sic ccJcriter edd. " 6 cathcgoricas E || 
7 in . . . infantili om, A tinxit infantidi edd. infantuli 
Ja. II impibcns B inpubcs D \\ 9 quoitim E || 

cathedris senionim] Cp. Ps. cvi. 32. 

Perihermenias] ^\iQ De Intcrpretationeoi kx\'-Xo\\t, usually 
called in the middle ages by the name here given. 

in corde] Cp. Isid. Etymol. ii. 27, Aristoteles, " quando 
perihermenias scriptitabat, calamum in mente tingebat." 
Suidas applies it to all his writings : 'AfjirrroTiXijc tFic (pvTiioQ 
yfjanfiaTtvc t/J', top KaXafioi' UTrojipixujy tig I'ovp. According 
to Plutarch, Phocion, p. 743, the phrase was applied by Zeno 
to philosophers generally. 

dispendioso compendio] Compendia sunt dispendia is a 
maxim cited by Lord Coke, 3 Inst. 133. 

diplomate] The phrase usiis diplomate came to mean 
merely " post-haste," and is so used in R. de Diceto, ed. 
Stubbs, i. 351, 433, ii. 21- Originally no doubt it referred 
to the written authority enabling the bearer to make use of 
the government system of communication under the empire : 
see the passages collected in Brissonius, s. v. including Venu- 
leius, Dig. xlv. i, 137. Here perliai)s there is a further play 
intended upon the university diploma or license to teach. 
Ducange cites also passages from John of Salisbury and Tcter 


in sacrum Moysen manus iniciunt violentas, ac se 
tenebrosis aquis in nubibus aeris facialiter asper- 
gentes, ad pontificatus infulam caput parant, nulla 
decoratum canitie senectutis. Promovent pluri- 
mum istam pestem iuvantque ad istum phantasticum 5 
clericatum tarn pernicibus passibus attingendum 
papalis provisio seductivis precibus impetrata nec- 
non et preces, quae repelli non possunt, cardinalium 
et potentum, amicorum cupiditas et parentum, 
qui aedificantes Sion in sanguinibus, prius suis 10 

2faciliter A feraliter ^^l. || 7 se duct oris Ja. |i 

of Blois : he says duploma is the only correct form, but all my 
MSS. here read dipl ornate. 

In INIoysen] The reference seems to be to the sedition of 
Corah, Dathan, and Abiram (Num. xvi.), and the passage may 
be a reminiscence of Jo. Sarisb., PoHcrat., vii. 17: " AHus 
. . . seditionem concitabit in Moysen :" and 20: " Irruunt 
in Moysen . . . nisi ad sacerdotium permittantur accedere." 
Cp. Matt, xxiii. 2: " Super cathedram Moysi sederunt scribae 
et pharisaei." Petrus Blesensis, Ep. 175, compares a gram- 
mar master to Moses : "de tenebrosis et confusis Prisciani 
tractatibus educens hicem . . . et quasi de caHgine montis 
Sinai alter Moyses legifer a Deo et non ab homine sibi 
scriptam grammaticam reportavit." 

tenebrosis aquis] From Ps. xvii. 12, *' tenebrosa aqua in 
nubibus aeris," 

papalis provisio] One of the abuses of the Church in the 
middle ages was the practice of obtaining from the Pope the 
promise of a bishopric or some other ecclesiastical dignity 
on the next vacancy. The Statute of Provisors was directed 
against the practice in 1 350, and was followed shortly after- 
v/ards by the first Statute of Praemunire. De Bury was 
himself provided to the See of Durham. See the Introduction. 

aedificantes Sion in sanguinibus] From Micah iii. 10. 


nepotibus et alumnis ecclcsiasticas dignilatcs anti- 
cipant, (juam naturae succcssu vcl doctrinac tem- 
perie niaturcscant. 

15^ Isto, pro dolor! paroxysmo, quern i)langin-ius, 
Parisiense palladium nostris macstis tcmporibus 5 
cernimus iam sublatum, ubi tepuit, immo fere 
friguit zelus scholae tarn nobilis, cuius olim radii 
luceni dabant universis angulis orbis tcrrae. 
Quiescit ibidem iam calamus omnis scribae, ncc 
librorum generatio propagatur ulterius, nee est qui 10 
incipiat novus auctor haberi. Involvunt sententias 
sermonibus imperitis, et omnis logicae proprietate 
privantur; nisi quod Anglicanas subtilitates, quibus 
palam detrahunt, vigiliis furtivis addiscunt. 

157 Minerva mirabilis nationes hominum circuire »5 
videtur, et a fme usque ad fmem attingit fortiter, 

I aiiciipant edd. || 2 sjiccessus doctrine tempore in rasura E || 
4 iste D I 6 i)iniio ubi fere friguit edd. li 15 miraliUs edd. || 

incipiat novus auctor haberi] The phrase is from Cato, Dis- 
ticha, i. 1 2 : " Rumores fuge, ne incipias novus auctor haberi " ; 
it is quoted by Bonaventura, Speculum Disciplinae, i. 36. 

Anglicanas subtilitates] Cp. c. viii. s. 134, for ' Anglicana 
perspicacitas ' as opposed to ' Parisiensis soliditas.' Wood 
says '* that the most subtle arguing in school divinity did 
take its beginning in England and from Englishmen ; and 
that also from thence it went to Paris:" Hist. Oxf. i. 159. 
The remark comes from Alexander Minutianus, quoted in 
Pits, p. 341. 

palam detrahunt] Cp. St. Jerome, praef. in ParalijK, " in 
publico delrahentes et legentes in angulo." 

attingit] From Wisd. viii. i: " attingit ergo a fine usque ad 
finem fortiter (sapienlia)." 


ut se ipsam communicet universis. Indos, Baby- 
ionios, Aegyptios atque Graecos, Arabes et Latinos 
earn pertransisse iam cernimus. lam Athenas 
deseruit, iam a Roma recessit, iam Parisius prae- 
terivit, iam ad Britanniam, insulanim insignissimam 5 
quin potius microcosmum, accessit feliciter, ut se 
Graecis et barbaris debitricem ostendat. Quo 
miraculo perfect©, conicitur a plerisque quod, sicut 
Galliae iam sophia tepescit, sic eiusdem militia 
penitus evirata languescit. 10 

Capitulum 10. 
De successlva perfectlone librorum. 

15S Saplentlam veterum exquirentes assidue, iuxta 
sapientis consilium, Ecclesiastici 39*^ : Sapientiam 
inquit, omnium antiquorum exquiret sapiens, non 
in illam opinionem dignum duximus declinandum, 
ut primos artium fundatores omnem ruditatem eli- 15 
masse dicamus, scientes adinventionem cuiusque 

7 g^'^gi^ E, II 8 profecto A B D E perfecte Ja. edd. || 
1 5 prinnim D || 

debitricem] Cp. Rom. i. 14: " Graecis ac barbaris, sapien- 
tibus et insipientibus debitor sum." 

militia languescit] This, it may be noticed, was written not 
long after the naval victory of Sluys, and only a year or two 
before the Battle of Cressy. 


fideli canonio ponderatam pusillam efficere scientiae 
porlionem. Scd per plurimorum investigationcs sol- 
licitas, quasi datis symbolis singillatim, scientiarum 
ingentia corpora ad immensas, (juas cernimus, 
quantitates successivis augmentationibus succrcve- 5 
runt. Semper namque discipuli, niagistrorum sen- 
tentias iterata fornace liquantes, praeneglectam 
scoriam excoxerunt, donee fieret aurum electum 
probatum terrae purgatum septuplum et perfecte, 
nuUius erronei vel dubii admixtione fucatum. 10 

159 Neque enim Aristoteles, quamvis ingenio giganteo 
floreret, in quo naturae complacuit experiri quantum 
mortalitati rationis posset annectere, quemque paulo 
minus minoravit ab angelis Altissimus, ilia mira 
volumina, quae totus vix capit orbis, ex digitis suis 15 

I fidilis canonio ult. litt. deleta A canonico E canone Ja. 
conamine edd. I| 4 quas om. E \\ 6 semperqiu Z> I! 9 probatum 
terras om. Ja. i' () perfecte om. edd. !| 12 pgantis ]di. \\ 13 JW- 
mortalitcUi Ja. adtnittere A edd. cotnmittcre Ja. i| 

canonio] Nearly all the best MSS. read canonio^ although 
I find no trace of the word elsewhere. 

datis symbolis] Symbolain dare'xs, a classical phrase for con- 
tribuiions to a joint entertainment ; for its metaphorical use 
we may compare A. Gellius, vi. 13, and (n'^j^aXkoiTox in the 
passage quoted below from Aristotle. 

electum] Cp. Ps. xi. 7 : " Argentum igne examinatum pro- 
batum terrae purgatum septuplum." 

paulo minus ab angelis] From Ileb. ii. 7, 9. 

vix capit orbis] Cp. a sequence in the York Missal, ii. 80 : 
•* Virgo Dei genetrix, quam totus non capit orbis"— and the 
well-known hyperbole of S. John in the last ver^e of his 


suxit. Quinimmo Hebraeorum, Babyloniorum, Ae- 
gyptiorum, Chaldaeorum, Persarum etiam et Me- 
dorum, quos omnes diserta Graecia in thesauros 
suos transtulerat, sacros libros oculis lynceis pene- 
i6o trando perviderat. Quorum recte dicta recipiens, s 
aspera complanavit, superflua resecavit, diminuta 
supplevit et errata delevit ; ac non solum sincere 
docentibus sed etiam oberrantibus regratiandum 
censuit, quasi viam praebentibus veritatem facilius 
inquirendi, sicut ipsemet 2". Metaphysicae clare 10 
docet. Sic multi iurisperiti condidere Pandectam, 

I Hebraeo7'tim om. Coch. || 6 rcseciiit edd. || 7 erronea 
edd. II 8 et Ja. || 

Gospel : " nee ipsum arbitror mundura capere posse eos qui 
scribendi sunt libros." 

oculis lynceis] This phrase, which is used by Aristotle {e.g. 
De General, et Corrupt., i. 10) and is not uncommon in classi- 
cal Latin, originally referred to Lynceus, the Argonaut, who 
was famed for the keenness of his vision. But it was then 
transferred to the lynx, and gave rise to the fable that it could 
see through a wall. Cp. Boet., De Cons. Phil., iii, pr. 8 ; 
Bacon, Op. M., f. 223,'/' de lynce, qui videt per mediamparie- 
tem ;" Holkot, Super Sap., f. 151c, 247a. 

oberrantibus regratiandum] Lib. i. brev., I: Oh \ibvov dk 
Xtf-pf-v tx^iv diKaiov TOVTOiQ u/v dv rig Koivu)vi]aai tolq do^aiQj 
aXXd Kal Tolg en tTrnroXaLOTspov aTTO(pi]vaiikvoiQ. Koi yap Kai 
ol'TOi avixj3aXKovTaL tl' ti)v yape'^iv Ttpoijaicriaav r)ixu>i'. 

Pandectam] The term Pandects from the Greek JlavoiKrai 
was applied to encyclopedic works, and the term is used by 
Justinian in referring to the digest of Roman law made by his 
orders from the writings of the Roman jurists. In medieval 
times it was also applied to the Bible. 


sic medici multi Tegni, sic Avicenna Canonem, 
sic Plinius molem illam Historiae Naturalis, sic 
Ptolemaeus edidit Almagesti. 

i6 1 Qiiemadmodum namque in scriptoribus annalium 
considerare non est difficile quod semper posterior 5 
praesupponit priorem, sine quo praelapsa tempora 
nullatenus enarrare valeret, sic est in scientiarum 
auctoribus aestimandum. Nemo namque solus 
quamcunque scientiam generavit, cum inter vetus- 
tissimos et novellos intermedios reperimus, antiquos 10 
quidem si nostris aetatibus comparentur, novos vero 
si ad studiorum fundamenta referantur, et istos 

162 doctissimos arbitramur. Quid fecisset Vergilius, 
Latinorum poeta praecipuus, si Theocritum, Lu- 
cretium et Homerum minime spoliasset et in 15 

2 violani illaui D Ja. |i 3 Abnagesttim Ja. || 9 qua?nque Ja. 
gena-avit tamen infer A £ ]3.. ve f e7-rzmos edd. || \2. studiorum 
in rasura B studiosonim D fundamina A E Ja. edd. ii 

Tegni] The writings of Galen were known in the middle 
ages through the Arabian physicians, and the title of his 
lix^i] 'larpiKi), the best-known of his works, was corrupted 
into Tegni or Tegne. 

Avicenna Canonem] Avicenna or Ibn-Sina, the famous 
Arabian philosopher and physician of the eleventh century, 
drew largely from the writings of the Greeks. 

molem illam] Violatn may, perhaps, be due to a mis- 
reading of volumina ilia, a veiy common way of referring to 
Pliny's work {e.g. Holkot, Super Sap., f. cxviii.), and the 
phrase he himself uses in speaking of Aristotle, H. N. viii. 
16 : " quinquaginta ferme volumina ilia praeclara de anima- 
libus condidit." 

Almagesti] See ch. i. s. 21, note. 


eorum vitula non arasset? quid nisi Parthenium 
Pindarumque, cuius eloquentiam nullo modo potuit 
imitari, aliquatenus lectitasset? Quid Sallustius, 
TuUius, Boetius, Macrobius, Lactantius, Martianus, 
immo tota cohors generaliter Latinorum, si Athe- 5 
narum studia vel Graecorum volumina non vidis- 
163 sent? Parum certe in scripturae gazophylacium 
Hieronymus, trium linguarum peritus, Ambrosius, 
Augustinus, qui tamen Graecas litteras se fatetur 
odisse, immo Gregorius, qui prorsus eas se 10 

I vincula E errasset Sch. Coch. 1| 10 se om. ^edd. describi- 
tur edd. |1 

non arasset] From Judges, xiv. 1 8. 

Parthenium] A Greek poet, of whom a single line has come 
down to us in consequence of its adoption by Virgil into the 
Georgics (i. 437). He was Virgil's tutor in Greek. De Bury 
probably owed his knowledge of him either to Macrobius (v. 
17) or Aulus Gellius (xiii. 26). 

Pindarumque] Cp. Quintil., Inst. Orator., x. i. 61 : *' Ho- 
ratius eum merito credidit nemini imitabilem,''* referring to 
Hor. Carm. iv. 2. Inglis suggests that we should read ** Quid 
Horatiics nisi Parthenium Pindarumque," which is ingenious 
but not convincing, though we might certainly have expected 
to find some mention of Horace. 

gazophylacium] Cp. Luke, xxi. i. So Peter Lombard 
begins the Liber Sententiariim : "Cupiens aliquid , . . cum 
paupercula in gazophylacium Domini mittere." 

Hieronymus] Cp. Aug., De Civ. Dei, xviii. 44': "Hierony- 
mus homo doctissimus et omnium trium linguarum peritus." 

Augustinus] Conf. i. 13, 14. : "Quid autem erat causae 
cur Graecas litteras oderam, quibus puerulus induebar, ne 
nunc quidem mihi satis exploratum est." 

Gregorius] Epp. vii. 32., "quamvis Graecae linguae 
nescius ;" xi. 74 : "nam nos nee Graece novimus, nee aliquod 


nescisse describit, ad doctrinam ecclesiae contulis- 
sent, si nihil eisdem doctior Graecia commodasset ? 
Cuius rivulis Roma rigata, sicut prius generavit 
philosophos ad Graecorum effigiem, pari forma 
postea protulit orthodoxae fidei tractatores. Sudores 5 
sunt Graecorum symbola quae cantamus, eorun- 
dem declarata consiliis et multorum martyrio con- 

164 Cedit tamen ad gloriam Latinorum per accidens 
hebetudo nativa, quoniam sicut fuerunt in studiis 10 
minus docti, sic in erroribus minus mali. Ariana 
nempe malitia fere totam eclipsarat ecclesiam, 
Nestoriana nequitia, quae blasphema rabie debac- 
chari praesumpsit in virginem, tam nomen quam 
definitionem Theotokos abstulisset reginae non 15 
pugnando sed disputando, nisi miles invictus Cyril- 

I 7tescire Ja. 1| 3 rivuli D \\ 12 ecHpsaret B ecUpserat R 
eclipsavit edd. || 15 Theochotos codd. 0£or6/coi^ Ja. || 16 non 
pugnando sed disputando om. A insimiles E i| 

opus aliquando Graece conscripsimus." The story of the 
burning of the Palatine Library by Gregory rests upon the 
statement of John of Salisbury, Policrat. ii. 26, and viii. 19, 
and is now discredited. Buckle has pointed to the fact that 
De Bury does not mention it : Misc. Works, ii. 314. 

Theotokos] Nestorius, the Bishop of Constantinople, re- 
fused to apply the name GeoroKoc, '* the Mother of God," to 
the Virgin Mary, and this heresy led to his deposition and to 
the separation of the Eastern and Western churches, 
reginae] Cp. Jer. xliv. 17 : " reginae caeli." 
Cyrillus] A great part of the life of S. Cyril, the bishop of 
Alexandria, was devoted to a vehement and unscrupulous 


lus, ad monomachiae congressum paratus, earn 
favente consilio Ephesino in spiritu vehementi 

165 penitus exsufflasset. Innumerabiles nobis sunt 
Graecorum haeresium tarn species quam auctores; 
nam sicut fuerunt sacrosanctae fidei priinitivi cul- 5 
tores, ita et primi zizaniorum satores produntur 
historiis fide dignis. Sicque posterius profecerunt 
in peius quod, dum Domini inconsutilem tuni- 
cam scindere molirentur, claritatem doctrinae prae- 
habitam perdiderunt totaliter ac no vis tenebris 10 
excaecati decidunt in abyssum, nisi ille sua 
occulta dispenset potentia, cuius sapientiam nu- 
merus non metitur. 

166 Haec hactenus ; nam hie nobis subducitur iudi- 
candi facultas. Unum tamen elicimus ex praedictis, 15 
quod damnosa nimis est hodie studio Latinorum 
Graeci sermonis inscitia, sine quo scriptorum vete- 
rum dogmata sive Christianorum sive gentilium 
nequeunt comprehendi. Idemque de Arabico in 
plerisque tractatibus astronomicis, ac de Hebraico -o 
pro textu sacrae bibliae, verisimiliter est censendum, 

5 fueriint om. D Ja. 1| 6 protit dicitur et prodttctintur 
edd. I! 8 dumhienttir claritatem A inconsiilnlem B || g proha- 
bitam prodiderimt Z> Ja. || ii ceciderunt E\\ I'j inscientia D 
Ja. II 19 apprehendi ^z., || 

contest with Nestorius, wliose deposition he finally effected at 
the Council of Ephesus in 431. 

inconsutilem tunicam] From Jo. xix. 23. 

sapientiam numerus] Cp. Ps. cxlvi. 5: " Sapientiae eius 
non est numerus." 


quibus defectibus proinde Clemens quintus occurrit, 
si tamen praelati quae faciliter statuunt, lideliter 
1^7 observarent. Quamobrem gramraaticam, tarn He- 
braeam quam Graecam, nostris scholaribus pro- 
videre curavimus cum quibusdam adiunctis, quorum 
adminiculo studiosi lectores in dictarum linguarum 
scriptura, lectura necnon etiam intellectu, plurimum 
poterunt informari, licet proprietatem idiomatis 
solus auditus aurium animae repraesentet. 

7 scriptura necnon intellectu D scriptura imnio et intellectu 
Ja. etiam om, edd. Ij 9 auris anijno edd. || 

Clemens quintus] At the Council of Vienne in 1312, Ray- 
mond Lully obtained from the Council a decree for the estab- 
lishment of professorships of Greek, Hebrew, Arabic, and 
Chaldee in Rome, Paris, Oxford, Bologna, and Salamanca, 
at the expense of the Pope and the prelates : Rohrbacher, 
Hist. Univ. de I'Eglise Calh., x. 356. Roger Bacon had 
urged Clement IV. to cause Greek, Hebrew, and Arabic 
to be taught in the Universities : see preface to the Op. 
Majus, ed. 1750, xxxi. 

grammaticam] These grammars have unfortunately not 
been preserved : it need not be assumed from the phrase 
providere curavifnus that De Bury wrote them himself. It 
is more likely that he did not. But it is pretty obvious that 
Hallam has under- estimated his knowledge of Greek: 
Lit. of Europe, i. ^t,. The adjiincia were probably the 
glossaries of exotic words and technical terms referred to in 
ch. xii. s. 176. 



Capitulum II. 

Quare llbros liberallum lltterarum prae- 
tulimus libris iuris. 

1 68 Iuris positivi lucrativa peritia dispensandis terrenis 
accommoda, quanto huius saeculi filiis famulatur 
utilius, tanto minus ad capescenda sacrae scripturae 
mysteria et arcana fidei sacramenta filiis lucis con- 
fert, utpote quae disponit peculiariter ad amicitiam 5 
huius mundi, perquam homo, lacobo attestante, Dei 
constituitur inimicus. Haec nimirum Utes hu- 
manas, quas infinita producit cupiditas, intricatis 

I In lihris iuris codd. dett. positiva lucra A \\ 2 accomodata 
D 11 7 Hinc Ja. || 8 tepiditas Ja. || 

lucrativa peritia] Cp. Wiclif, De Septem Donis, c. vi. : 
" Monachi dicuntur artibus humanis, iuri civili atque cano- 
nico patenter vel private intendere. Cuius causa videtur, 
quia ipsa est sciencia lucrativa." With De Bury's opinion 
of law w^e may cp. Petrarch's " reason for abandoning the 
study" in his letter to Posterity : "quiaearum (sc. legum)usus 
nequitia hominum depravatur ; itaque piguit perdiscere, quo 
inhoneste uti nollem et honeste vix possem, et si vellem, 
puritas inscitiae tribuenda esset" (Ep., ed. Fracassetti, i. 5). 

huius saeculi filiis] From Luke, xii. 8 : "filii huius saeculi 
prudentiores filiis lucis in generatione sua sunt." 

lacobo attestante] James, i v. 4: "quicumque ergo voluerit 
amicus esse saeculi huius inimicus Dei constituitur." 


legibus, quae ad utrumlibet duci possunt, extendit 
crebrius quam exstinguit ; ad quas tamen sedandas 
a iurisconsultis et piis principibus noscitur emanasse. 

169 Sane cum contrariorum sit eadem disciplina po- 
tentiaque rationalis ad opposita valeat, simulque 5 
sensus humanus proclivior sit ad malum, huius 
facultatis exercitatoribus accidit, ut plerum.que litibus 
intendendis indulgeant plus quam pad, et iura non 
ad legislatoris intentum referant sed ad suae ma- 
chinationis effectum verba retorqueant violenter. ^° 

170 Quamobrem, licet mentem nostram librorum 
amor *hereos possideret a puero, quorum zelo 

I utrnmqiie D did Ja. || 2 sedendas Z) || 3 propriis Ja. || 
5 si77iilisqiie D Ja. |1 6 Jmiiis aute77i D \\ 12 hero7is MS. 
Bas L in mg. ei'etis 2 haeres Ja. om. edd. 1| 12 zelus D || 

eadem disciplina] A commonplace in Aristotle : cj^. Eth. v. 
I : Svvafiig fiiv yap Kai i,TtiC)Tt]iii] doKei tmv tvavTtwv 1) avn) 

amor hereos] Nearly all the MSS. read hereos^ a word of 
which no trace is to be found in the dictionaries. The read- 
ing of one MS. herous would make sense, but the M-eight of 
authority is so overwhelming that it is not safe to adopt it. 
The phrase ai7ior heroicus indeed occurs in an ecclesiastical 
sequence: York Missal, ii. 217. Haerois, which would 
appear in the MSS. as herefis, might be supported by the 
common use of haereo in Cicero : cp. ad Att. xiii. 40, 2 : "in 
libris haereo." Inglis translates "master love," as though 
it were herus ; Cocheris takes absolutely no notice of the 
word. The difficulty seems to be in the termination oc, and 
I am inclined to suggest that De Bury may have written 
hivbc. The passage would then be a nearly verbatim repro- 


languere vice voluptatis accepimus, minus tamen 
librorum civilium appetitus nostris adhaesit affec- 
tibus minusque hiiiusmodi voluminibus adquirendis 
concessimus tarn operae quam impensae. Sunt 
enim utilia, sicut scorpio in theriaca, quemadmo- 5 
dum libro de Porno Aristoteles, sol doctrinae, de 
1 7 r logica definivit. Cemebamus etiam inter leges 
et scientias quamdam naturae differentiam mani- 
festam, dum omnis scientia iocundatur et appetit 
quod suorum principiorum praecordia, intro- 10 
spectis visceribus, pateant et radices suae pul- 
lulationis emineant suaeque scaturiginis emanatio 
luceat evidenter; sic enim ex cognato et consono 
lumine veritatis conclusionis ad principia ipsum 

I languescere D Ja. |I 4 opera qtiam ivipensis Ja. i| 5 scor- 
pioni tiriaca A scorpio et tiriaca D Ja. || 7 diffinit D i| 7 in- 
ter sc leges D Ja. || 8 differentiam habere D Ja. || 9 oclusionis E |1 

duction of a sentence in the letter of the Emperor Julian to 
Ecdikios, Ep. 9 : tjitoi /3t/3/\(a»v KTi'icreiog Ik Trai^afjiov dHibg 
IvreDjKs TToQoQ. Whether the Bishop can be supposed to 
have heard of this passage or not, he doubtless knew the 
word SeivuQ ; the word teii'Mmg occurs in Quintilian, Macro- 
bius and Martianus Capella. 

languere] Cp. i Tim. vi. 4 : ''languens circa quaestiones." 
scorpio in theriaca] Aristot., 0pp. Lat., 1496, f. 373 : 
" Haec scientia utilis est, ut est utilis scorpio in tyriaca ; 
quae licet sit toxicum tamen si datur patienti dolorem minuit 
et praestat remedium." The Ve Po7iio, a treatise on the 
immortality of the soul, was falsely attributed to Aristotle, 
being really translated from the Hebrew by Manfred, son of 
the emperor Frederick II. The quotation occurs in Holkot, 
Super Sap., f. 154c. 


corpus scientiae lucidum fiet totum, non habens 

172 aliquam partem tenebrarum. At vero leges, cum 
sint pacta et humana statuta ad civiliter conviven- 
dum vel iuga principum superiecta cervicibus subdi- 
torum recusant reduci ad ipsam synteresim, aequi- 5 
tatis originem, eo quod plus habere se timeant de 
voluntatis imperio quam de rationis arbitrio. Qua- 
propter causas legura discutiendas non esse suadet 

173 in pluribus sententia sapientum. Nerape consuetu- 
dine sola leges raultae vigorem adquirunt non neces- 10 
sitate syllogistica, sicut artes, prout 2°. Politicorum 
adstruit Aristoteles, Phoebus scholae, ubi politiam 

2 leges om. ^ !1 3 et fortasse secludendum |1 5 syndei'esim 
codd. veritatis ac eqidtatis edd. equitatls exiguc Z? H 6 eoquc 
Ja. tijnent]2i. \\ ii artes p?-oz'e7iire 2°. ]2i. \\ 

lucidum fiet] From Luke xi. 34, 36. 

convivendum] Cp. Wisd. viii. 9. 

synteresim] The correct spelling of this word, though it is 
frequently written synderesis (cp. endelechia for entelechia). 
IvvrrjpTjniQ was used by the early Christian moralists, and 
adopted into scholastic ethics. In the Doctor and Student, 
dialog, i. c. 13, it is explained : "a naturall power of ye soule, 
set in the highest part thereof mooving and stirring it to good, 
and abhorring euil." Sanderson explains it : " Habet enim 
se synteresis ad conscientiam proprie dictam, sicut se habet 
habitus intellectus ad scientiam. " Jeremy Taylor distinguishes 
conscience into synteresis and syneidesis, of which Whewell, 
Elem. of Moral,, i. 235, observes: "We may term the 
former, conscience as law ; the latter, conscience as witness." 
Cp. Stephanus, s.v., and Ueberweg, Hist, of Phil. E. T. i. 
440, 474. 

adstruit] Cp. s. 40. Here the word is used in the sense of 


redarguit Hippodami, quae novamm legum inven- 
toribus praemia pollicetur, quia leges veteres abro- 
gare et novellas statuere est ipsarum, quae fiunt, 
valitudinem infirmare. Quae enim sola consuetu- 
dine stabilitatem accipiunt, haec necesse est de- 5 
suetudine dirimantur. 
174 Ex quibus liquido satis constat quod, sicut leges 
nee artes sunt nee scientiae, sic nee libri legum libri 
scientiarum vel artium proprie dici possunt. Nee 
est haec facultas inter scientias recensenda, quam jc 
licet geologiam appropriato vocabulo nominare. 
Libri vero liberalium litterarum tarn utiles sunt 
scripturae divinae, quod sine ipsorum subsidio 
frustra ad ipsius notitiam intellectus aspiret. 

3 sunt edd. i| 5 est tit E sec. manu, Ja. tl 6 dimittantur 
Ja. II <^ p'oprie om. -£" || il a propriato D || 

affirmare, which is rejected in the lexicons ; see, however, 
De Vit's Forcellini. 

Hippodami] Pol. ii. 8, 24 : to paSiojg jLtera/SaXXfir Ik tu>v 
vTrapxoPTCov j^ojuwv elg tTcpovg vojjlcvq kcuvovc dcrOti'ij iroitiv 
icTi T)]v Tov Tojjiov cvi'tt^iv. Holkot also refers to this pas- 
sage, Super Sap., f. 310, s^. 

geologia] A curious anticipation of this modem word, of 
course in a very different and merely metaphorical sense. 


Capitulum 12. 

Quare libros grammaticales curavimus 
tanta diligentia renovare. 

175 Cum librorum lectionibus foveremur assidue, quos 
moris erat cotidie legere vel audire, perpendimus 
evidenter quantum impediat intellectus officium 
vel unius vocabuli semiplena notitia, dum nullius 
enuntiationis sententia capitur, cuius pars quanta- s 

176 libet ignoratur. Quapropter exoticorum verborum 
interpretationes mira sedulitate iussimus annotari 
antiquorumque grammaticorum orthographiam, pro- 
sodiam, etymologiam ac diasyntheticam incon- 
cussa curiositate consideravimus terminosque vetus- 10 
tate nimia caligantes descriptionibus congruis 
lucidare curavimus, quatenus iter planum nostris 
studentibus pararemus. 

177 Haec est sane summa totalis quare tot gram- 
Tit. cura?)ius B\\ 2 impetidhmis Z> || 5 capiatur D || 7 siihtili- 

tate Ja. || 9 diasintasacam A et dyasenteticavi B diasintasim 
D E^\Q consideramtis D || 

diasyntheticam] The Greek Ziaavv^z.TiKr]v = syntax. The 
word is not in Ducange, but Diefenbach in his Supplementum 
has diasenteticiis. The form diaseiiieiica is found in For- 
tescue, De Laud. Legum AngHae, c. vii. (ed. Clermont, p. 


maticorum antiquata volumina emendatis codicibus 
renovare studuimus, ut stratas regias sterneremus, 
quibus ad artes quascunque nostri futuri scholares 
incederent inoffense. 

Capitiilum 13. 

Qiiare non omnino negleximus fabulas 


178 Omnia genera machinarum quibus contra poetas 5 
solius nudae veritatis amatores obiciunt duplici 
refelluntur umbone, quia vel in obscena materia 
gratus cultus sermonis addiscitur vel, ubi ficta sed 
honesta tractatur sententia, naturalis vel historialis 
Veritas indagatur sub eloquio typicae fictionis. i<^ 

179 Quamvis nimirum omnes homines natura scire 
desiderent, non tamen omnes aequaliter delectantur 

7 obscena mgratns Ja. || lo tepise ^ || ii naturaliter D Ja, 

stratas regias] In the later Latin the feminine strata was 
commonly used — strata regia, the regular term for what we still 
call the ' ' king's highway." Via regia occurs in the Vulgate, 
Num. xxi. 22. Cp. Jo. Sarisb., Metalog., i. i8 : "Ars 
itaque est quasi strata publica qua ire, ambulare . . . omni- 
bus ius est." 

Cap. 13] With this chap. cp. Jo. Sarisb., Policrat., vii. 10. 

scire desiderent] Cp. ch. i. s. 14, note.^ 


f addiscere, quinimmo studii labore gustato et sen- 
suum fatigatione percepta plerique nucem abiciunt 
inconsulte prius quam testa soluta nucleus attin- 
gatur. Innatus est enim homini duplex amor, vide- 
licet propriae libertatis in regimine et aliquantae 5 
voluptatis in opere ; unde nullus sine causa alieno 
se subdit imperio vel opus quodcunque exercet 

180 cum taedio sua sponte. Delectatio namque per- 
ficit operationem, sicut pulcritudo iuventutem : 
sicut Aristoteles verissime dogmatizat 10° Ethi- 10 
corum. Idcirco prudentia veterum adinvenit reme- 
dium, quo lascivium humanum caperetur ingenium 
quodammodo pio dolo, dum sub voluptatis iconio 

181 delicata Minerva delitesceret in occulto. Muneribus 
parvulos assolemus allicere ut ilia gratis velint ad- 15 
discere, quibus eos vel invitos intendimus applicare. 
Non enim natura corrupta eo impetu, quo prona se 
pellit ad vitia, transmigrat ad virtutes. Hoc 

2 iiuiicem M Ja. || 4 honiinum 2^ annorum M hominum 
24 annortci)i'^2L. \\ lo verisiviile -£" || II Incirco E\\l2 lascumfii 
A B E \\ \\mnnera AI ]a. delitescerent Ja. || 15 pandaUos 
A parvos B ^ 17 eo impetitttr edd. i| 18 hoc enim edd. || 

duplex amor] James, who seems to have relied mainly 
upon the MS. M, has here been strangely misled by it into 
his extraordinary reading, as though the love of liberty and 
pleasure were confined to men of twenty-four. The copyist 
of M appears to have read 2^, representing duplex^ as 
standing for 24. See libt-aiy Chronicle, vol. ii. p. 132 f. 

lascivium] See the note on ch. v. s. 79- 

delicata] Cp. Is. xlvii. 8. 


in brevi versiculo nobis declarat Horatius, ubi 
artem tradit poeticam, ita dicens : 

Aut prodesse volunt aut delectare poetae. 

Hoc idem in alio versu eiusdem libri patenter in- 
sinuat, ita scribens : 5 

Omne tulit punctum qui miscuit utile dulci. 

182 Quot Euclidis discipulos retroiecit Elefuga, quasi 
scopulus eminens et abruptus, qui nullo scalarum 
suffragio scandi posset ! Durus, inquiunt, est hie 

7 eliftiga D Ehofjiga Ja. EUefuga edd. i| 8 scalarum A Ja. 
scolarhim B scolartun D || 

Horatius] A. P., 333 and 343. These two lines quoted just 
in the same connexion, were hackneyed even before De Bury. 

Euclidis] Cocheris takes this to be Euclid the philosopher, 
but as the following note sho\vs, there is no doubt that the 
reference is to the geometer. 

Elefuga] A barbarous name for what we call the pons 
asi)iorwu, which is explained by Roger Bacon, Op. Tert., 
ii. 21 : " Quinta propositio geometriae Euclidis dicitur 
Elefuga, id est fuga miserorum." This would point to its 
derivation from the Greek 'iktog and fuga, but it may perhaps 
be from the Arabic, just as Dulcarnon, a similar term for the 
47th prop., was usually but incorrectly explained as SovXia 
carnis (cp. Neckam, De N. R., p. 295), but is really Arabic 
(see Selden, Opp., iii. 1730). Ducange, s.v. Eletifuga^ cites a 
passage from Alanus, Anticlaudianus, iii. 6, but without offer- 
ing any explanation of the word : " Iluius tyrones cur artis 
Eleufuga terret, Atque prius cogit illos exire, profundum 
Quam littus subeant, labiquequam in arte laborent." 

Durus est hie sermo] From Jo. vi. 61. 


sermo ; quis potest eum audire ? Filius incon- 
stantiae, qui tandem in asinum transformari vole- 
bat, philosophiae studium nullatenus forsitan dimi- 
sisset, si eidem contecta voluptatis velamine fami- 
liariter occurrisset. Sed mox Cratonis cathedra 5 
stupefactus et quaestionibus infinitis, quasi quodam 
fulmine subito repercussus, nullum prorsus videbat 
refugium nisi fugam. 
1S3 Haec in excusationem adduximus poetarum; 
iam studentes intentione debita in eisdem osten- 10 
dimus inculpandos. Ignorantia quidem solius 

2 taiihim Z> II 4 co72tenta D ij 

Filius inconstantiae] This passage, and particularly the 
name Crato, have been an^ insoluble puzzle to the editors. 
But I believe that the source is the De disciplina sckolariufn, 
which was long attributed to Boetius. The writer says 
(c. \\\.) oi the Jilms inconstantiae: "Cratonis studiis tutius 
inhiabat, cuius semicirculi capacitas multis formidabat quaes- 
tionibus," so that at length the unhappy listener exclaims : 
"Miserum me esse hominem ! utinam humanitatem exuere 
possem et asinitatem induere ! " Gervaise tried to show that 
the book was written by a certain Boece Epo, a professor at 
Douai in the i6th centuiy (see Tvligne, vol. Ixiv. p. 1554). 
But the work is quoted not only by De Buiy, but also by 
Holkot (Super. Sap., 1. li.), and earlier still by Roger Bacon 
(Op. Maj., i. 7); and is recorded in the Biblionomia of 
Richard de Furnivalle (f. 18 v.). Thomasius has shown that 
it was written by Thomas Cantimpratensis {n. 1201, in. 
1263). Thomas Aquinas wrote a commentary upon it. Cp. 
c. i. s. 15. 

inculpandos] The sense requires non inculpandos, or, per- 
haps we should read non ctilpandos. But inculpare is found 
in a letter cited in Ralph de Diceto, Imag. Histor., ii. 127. 

io8 rniLOBIBLON 

iinius vocabuli praegrandis sententiae impedit intel- 
lectum, sicut proximo capitulo est assumptum. Cum 
igitur dicta sanctorum poetarum figmentis fre- 
quenter alludant, evenire necesse est ut nescito poe- 
mate introducto tota ipsius auctoris intentio peni- 5 
tus obstruatur. Et certe, sicut dicit Cassiodorus 
libro suo, De institutione divinarum litterarum, non 
sunt parva censenda sine q^jibus magna constare 
non possunt. Restat igitur ut ignoratis poesibus 
ignoretur Hieronymus, Augustinus, Boetius, Lac- ro 
tantius, Sidonius et plerique alii, quorum litaniam 
prolixum capitulum non teneret. 
184 Venerabilis vero Beda huius dubitationis articu- 
lum distinctione declaravit dilucida, sicut recitat 
compilator egregius Gratianus, plurium repetitor 15 
auctorum, qui sicut fuit avarus in compilationis 
materia, sic confusus reperitur in forma. Scribit 
tamcn sic distinctione 37, Turbat acumen : saeculares 

3 ergo B saepe E || 4 eveiiict codd, evenire scrips! cum Ja. 
II 13 ^"'^11 

proximo capitulo] See nnfe, ch. xii. s. 175. 

Cassiodoras] The passage quoted by De Bury from Cas- 
siodorus is in S. Jerome's letter to Laela on the education of 
her daughter, Ep. 7 : "Non sunt contemnenda quasi parva, 
sine quibus magna constare non possunt." 

Gratianus] Gratian collected the decrees and constitutions 
of the Popes into a body of canon law. 

Turbat acumen^ Before books were paged the usual method 
of citing was to give two or three words, as here, to indicate 
the reference more exactly. 


litteras quidam legunt ad voluptatem, poetarum 
figmentis et verborum ornatu delectati ; quidam 
vero ad eruditionem eas addiscunt, ut errores gen- 
tium legendo detestentur et utilia, quae in eis inve- 
nerint, ad usum sacrae eruditionis devoti conver- 5 
tant : tales laudabiliter saeculares litteras addis- 
cunt. Haec Beda. 

185 Hac institutione salutifera moniti sileant detra- 
hentes studentibus in poetis ad tempus, nee ignor- 
antes huiusmodi connescientes desiderent, quia hoc ^o 

j|c est simile solatio miserorum. Statuat igitur sibi 
quisque piae intentionis affectum et de quacunque 
materia, observatis virtutis circumstantiis, faciet stu- 
dium Deo gratum ; et si in poeta profecerit, quemad- 
modum magnus Maro se fatetur in Ennio, non ^5 

3 gentilhiin edd. |I 4 crrendo B || 5 imiertmit B E innec- 
tant edd. || 10 qtiaestiones Ja. quod D || II igihtr om. AB edd. 
sibi om. £ || 12 qualiauiqite Ja. || 13 virtutiwi Ja. fiet D 
faciat edd. || 15 Man-o B Varro in mg. Ja. studiiun non 3 |1 

solatio miserorum] The well-known proverbial phrase, 
which is first found versified in Marlowe's Faust as " Solamen 
miseris socios habuisse doloris," may have been derived from 
Seneca, De Consol. , 31. 

in Ennio] Referring to the story told in Donatus' life of 
Vergil, c. xviii : " Cum is aliquando Ennium in manu 
haberet, rogareturque quidnam faceret, respondit se aurum 
colligere de stercore Ennii." 


Capitulum 14. 

Qui debent esse librorum potissimi 

:86 Recolllgentl praedicta palam est et perspicuum 
qui deberent esse librorum praecipui dilectores. 
Qui namque sapientia magis egent ad sui status 
officium utiliter exsequendum, hi potissimum sacris 
vasis sapientiae propensiorem proculdubio exhi- s 
bere tenentur sollicitum grati cordis affectum. Est 
autem sapientis officium bene ordinare et alios 
et seipsum : secundum Phoebum philosophorum, 
Aristotelem, primo Metaphysicae, qui nee fallit 
nee fallitur in humanis. Quapropter principes et 10 
praelati, indices et doctores et quicunque rei pub- 
licae directores, sicut prae aliis sapientia opus 
habent, ita prae aliis vasis sapientiae zelum debent. 

I et om. Cocli. [| if potissimi Z> |I 9 prooemio edd. Ja. E || 
12 aliis vasis sapientiae ^z. || 13 debent habere vulgo || 

Aristotelem] Met. i. 2: ov ynp ^tiv eTrirdTr^crOai top (TO(ph>, 
aXA' iiTirdTTUV, Koi ov tovtov £rtfj<i) TvdOecrOai, dWd TOvr(^ rbv 

rjTTOV (T0<p6v. 

nee fallit] Cp. Macrobius, C. in Somn. Scip., i. 6. 64, of 
Hippocrates : " qui tarn fallere quam falli nescit." The 
phrase occurs again, post, s. 195 : " quae nee fallit nee fallitur 



187 Philosophiam nimirum conspexit Boetius in 
sinistra quidem sceptrum et in dextra libros ges- 
tantem, per quod universis evidenter ostenditur nul- 
lum posse rempublicam debite regere sine libris. 
Tu, inquit Boetius loquens Philosophiae, banc sen- 5 
tentiam Platonis ore sanxisti beatas fore respublicas 
si eas vel studiosi sapientiae regerent vel earum 
rectores studere sapientiae contigisset. Rursus hoc 
nobis insinuat ipse gestus imaginis, quod quanto 
dextra sinistram praecellit, tanto contemplativa ^o 
dignior est activa, simulque sapientis interesse 
raonstratur nunc studio veritatis, nunc dispensationi 
temporalium indulgere vicissim. 

188 Philippum legimus diis regratiatum devote, quod 
Alexandrum concesserant temporibus Aristotelis *5 
esse natum, cuius instructionibus educatus regni 
paterni moderamine dignus esset. Dum Phaethon 
ignarus regiminis fit currus auriga paterni, nunc 

I respexit Ja. |1 siqtc.idc77i D Ja. || 8 hoc nomen D || lo contem- 
plativa vita edd. !| II sapientissime D Ja. || 13 temporibus 
A B \\ 15 Alexandro E \ 

conspexit Boetius] See the De Cons. Phil., i. pr. 4. 

sententiam Platonis] Referring to the well-kno^^^l passage 
in the 5th book of the Republic, p. 473 D, cited by Boetius, 
loc. cit. 

contemplativa dignior] The editors have inserted vita, but 
conteniplativa and activa are used, as here, without the sub- 
stantive by S. Bonaventura in a letter quoted in Gieseler, 
Eccl. Hist., iii. 247, note. 

Philippum] The story is told in Jo. Sarisb., Pollcrat., iv. 6 ; 
and the letter is given in Burley's Vitae, c. 53. 

currus auriga] From the epitaph on Phaethon in Ovid, Met. 


vicinitate nimia nunc remota distantia infeliciter 
administrat mortalibus aestum Phoebi ac, ne omnes 
periclitarentur subiecti propinquo regimine, iuste 
meruit fulminari. 

189 Referunt tarn Graecomm quam Latinorum his- 5 
toriae, quod nobiles inter eos principes non fuerunt, 
qui litterarum peritia caruerunt. Sacra lex Mosaica, 
praescribens regi regulam, per quam regat, librum 
legis divinae sibi praecipit habere descriptum, 
Deut. 17°, secundum exemplar a sacerdotibus exhi- 10 
bendum, in quo sibi legendum esset omnibus diebus 
vitae suae. Sane labilitatem humanae memoriae et 
instabilitatem virtuosae voluntatis in homine satis 
noverat Deus ipse, qui condidit et qui fingit cotidie 

190 corda hominum singillatim. Quamobrem quasi 15 
omnium malorum antidotum voluit esse librum, 
cuius lectionem et usum tanquam saluberrimum 

2 administret E ac om. ^9 || 3 pro iniqiio ^ || 4 siihlimari A 
pr. manu, B E \\<) doininice D || 13 virtuosa E || 

ii. 327: " Hie situs est Phaethon, currus auriga paterni, Quem 
si non tenuit, magnis tanien excidit ausis." 

litterarum peritia] This phrase and the reference to Deutero- 
nomy are taken from John of Salisbury, Policrat. iv. 6. 

librum legis] Deut. xvii. 18, 19 : " describet sibi Deutero- 
nomium legis huius in volumine, accipiens exemplar a sacer- 
dotibus Leviticae tribus . . . legetque illud omnibus diebus 
vitae suae." 

instabilitatem] Cp. Thomas a Kempis, Doctrinale luvenum, 
iv. I : " cor hominis est instabile et memoria multum vaga et 

qui fingit] From Ps. xxxii. 15. 


spiritus alimentum cotidianum iugiter esse iussit, 
quo refocillatus intellectus nee enervis nee dubius 
trepidaret ullatenus in agendis. Istud eleganter 
loannes Saresberiensis pertractat in suo Poliera- 
ticon, libro 4^ Caetemm omne genus hominum, 5 
qui tonsura vel signo clericali praefulgent, contra 
quos libri 4° 5° et 6" capitulis querebantur, libris 
tenentur veneratione perpetua famulari. 

Capitulum 15. 
Quot commoda confert amor Hbrorum. 

191 Humanumtranscenditingenium, quantumcunque 
de fonte fuerit Pegaseo potatum, instantis capituli 10 
titulum explicare perfecte. Si linguis angelorum et 
hominum quis loquatur, si in Mercurium transfor- 
meturautTuUium, si dulcescat Titi Livii eloquentia 
lactea, si Demosthenis suavitate peroret, aut Moysi 
balbutiem allegabit, vel cum leremia se puerum 15 

2 duhiis D |i 6 nomine c. E\^ excedit viilgo quodcunqne 
^z.. fuerit om. edd. || ii si ova. Ja. 1| 12 transforjnaretur edd. i| 

linguis angelorum] From i Cor. xiii. i. 

eloquentia lactea] Cp. Quint. Inst. Orator., x. 132: "ilia 
Livii lactea ubertas." So S. Jerome describes him as 
" lacteo eloquentiae fonte manantem : " 0pp. i. 269. 

cum leremia] Jer. i. 6 : "A, a, a, Domine Deus, ecce nes- 
cio loqui, quia puer ego sum." 




nescientem fatebitur adhuc loqui, vel imitabitur 
resonantem in montibus altis echo. Amorem nam- 
que libromm amorem sapientiae constat esse, sicut 

192 2". cap**, est probatum. Hie autem amor philoso- 
phia Graeco vocabulo nuncupatur, cuius virtutem 5 
nulla creata intelligentia comprehendit, quoniam 
verecrediturbonorum omnium esse mater: Sap. 7°. 
Aestus quippe carnalium vitiorum quasi caelicus 
ros extinguit, dum motus intensus virtutum ani- 
malium vires naturalium virtutum remittit, otio 10 
penitus efi'ugato,quo sublato periere Cupidinis arcus 

193 Hinc Plato in Phaedone : In hoc, inquit, mani- 
festus est philosophus, si absolvit animam a corporis 

1 confitebitur edd. |1 4 comperhim Ja. || 5 appellatur B |I 
6 crentura Ja. || 7 vere om. edd. || ii artes A onirics om. M 
Ja. II 12 fcd?-one codd. || 

montibus altis echo] Cp. Wisd. xvii. 18: " resonans de 
altissimis montibus Echo." 

esse mater] Wisd. vii. 12 : " laetatus sum in omnibus, quo- 
niam antecedebat me ista sapientia, et ignoiabam quoniam 
horum omnium mater est. " 

vires remittit] Apparently from Avicenna : cp. Holkot, 
Super Sap., f. 155c. Animalis = quod animani spectat : see 

arcus omnes] From Ovid, Remed. Am., 139 : " Otia si tollas 
periere Cupidinis arcus Contemtaequejacent et sine luce faces." 
The reading in Ovid was uncertain. See Robinson Ellis, in 
Journ., of Phil. xv. 246, who notes that it is cited in Neckam 
as 'artes.' I find it quoted in Holkot, Super Sap., f. 174a, 
with arms, and f. 208b with artes. 

in Phaedone] 64E : o^Xo^ tcnv 6 ^iXocofog dwoXviov on 


communione differentius aliis hominibus. Ama, 
inquit Hieronymus, scientiam scripturarum et 
carnis vitia non amabis. Demonstravit hoc Xeno- 
crates, deiformis in constantia rationis, quem nobile 
scortum, Phryne nomine, statuam definivit non 5 
hominem, cum nullus eum valeret illecebris evirare, 
quemadmodum Valerius li^. 4°., c°. 3°. plene refert. 
Hoc ipsum noster Origenes ostendit, qui ne eum ab 
omnipotenti femina effeminaricontingeret,utnusque 
sexus medium per abnegationem extremorum elegit : 10 
animosum quippe remedium, nee naturae tamen 
consentaneum nee virtuti, cuius est hominem non 
insensibilem facere passionum sed subortas a 
fomite rationis enecare mucrone. 
194 Rursus mundanas pecunias parvipendunt ex 15 
animo, quotquot amor affecit librorum, dicente 
Hieronymo contra Vigilantium, epistola 54 : non 

I diffet-entiis edd. || 6 nullis edd. || 9 omni petenti E || 
15 mundana et edd. ex animo om. edd. |i 16 officii Ja. Coch. jj 

fiaXiara Trjv -^^vxhv airb ttjqtov trw/xaror KoivioviaQ Siacpspovrug 
Toiv dXXujv di'OpojTTojv. The passage is quoted by Holkot, 
Super Sap., f. 300 d. 

Hieronymus] Epp. 125 and again Epp. 130. The saying 
is quoted by Jo. Sarisb., Policrat., vii. 10, and Holkot, Super 
Sap., f. 155a. It rests of course on Gal. v. 16. 

Xenocrates] Coch. makes the thoroughly French remark: 
" Richard oublie d'aj outer que son heros etait pris de vin, et 
que s'il ne succomba pas a la tentation, ce fut probablement 
plus par caducite que par chastete." 

dicente Hieronymo] Loc. cit. "Non est eiusdem hominis 
et aureos nummos et scripturas probare, et degustare vina et 
prophetas vel apostolos intelligere." 


est eiusdem hominis aureos nummos et scripturas 
probare. Unde a quodam metrice sic dictum est : 

Nulla libris erit apta manus ferrugine tincta, 
Nee nummata queunt corda vacare libris. 

Non est eiusdem nummos librosque probare ; 5 

Persequitur libros grex, Epicure, tuus. 

Nummipetae cum libricolis nequeunt simul esse ; 
Ambos, crede mihi, non tenet una domus. 

Nulliis igitur potest libris et Mammonae deservire. 
195 Vitiorum deformitasin libris maxirae reprobatur, 10 
lit inducatur omnimode vitia detestari, qui libros 
dilexerit perscutari. Daemon, qui a scientia nomen 
habet, per librorum scientiam potissime triumpha- 
tur, cuius fraudes multipliciter flexuosae milleque 
perniciosi maeandri per libros panduntur legenti- 15 

2 dictiun est om. ^5" |j 5 non . . . tuus om. Coch. 1| 
7 nummico/ae ]a. || 9 ergo E edd. servire edd. 1| 11 et induca- 
tur B ut inde dicatur edd. || 

Nulla libris] The lines are from the Eutheticus, or intro- 
ductory verses to the Policraticon of John of Salisbury, 269- 
272, 281, 282. This work must be distinguished from the 
Entheticus, De dogniate philosophorutn, though they are con- 
founded by Hardy in his Descriptive Catalogue, ii. 418. Both 
occur in the volume described in the mtroduction as once 
belonging to De Bury. 

Mammonae] Cp. Matt. vi. 24. 

a scientia] Cp. Aug. De Civ. Dei, ix. 20 : "Aalfjiovsg enim 
dicuntur, quoniam vocabukim Graecum est, ob scientiam 

maeandri] Cp. Wiclif, De Septem Donis, ed. Buddensieg, 
p. 556 • " I'^ii^^indri mille anticristi." 


bus, ne se transfigurans in angelum lucis dolis 
circumveniat innocentes. Divina nobis per 
libros reverentia revelatur, virtutes quibus colitur 
propalantur expressius, atque merces describitur, 
quam quae nee fallit nee fallitur Veritas pollicetur. 5 

196 Imago siraillima futurae beatitudinis est sacrarum 
contemplatio litterarum, in quibus nunc Creator 
nunc creatura conspicitur, ac de torrente perpetuae 
iocunditatis hauritur. Fides fundatur potentia 
litterarum ; spes librorum solatio confirmatur, ut 10 
per patientiam et consolationem scripturarum spem 
habeamus. Caritas non inflatur sed aedificatur per 
veram notitiam litterarum; immo super libros sacros 
constat luce clarius Ecclesiam stabilitam. 

197 Delectantlibri. prosperitatefeliciterarridente,con- 15 
solantur individue, nubila fortuna terrente : pactis 
humanis robur attribuunt, nee feruntur senten- 
tiae graves sine libris. Artes et scientiae in libris 
consistunt, quarum emolumenta nulla mens suffi- 
ceret enarrare. Quanti pendenda est mira librorum ao 

5 quaeqtie Ja. || 7 scripfttrarum litei'aruni E || 16 «?/- 
bilia B nubula E torrente Ja. 1| 19 qiiorzun edd. |! 20 quanta 
Ja. II 

se transfigurans] From 2 Cor. xi. 14. 

nunc Creator, nunc creatura] Cp. Wisd. xiii. 5 ; Rom. i. 25. 
According to Avicenna, the perfection of the rational soul is 
to become the mirror of the universe : Renan, Averroes, 

P- 95- 

iocunditatis hauritur] Cp. Prov. xviii. 22. 

caritas non inflatur] From i Cor. xiii. 4. 


potentia, dum per eos fines tarn orbis quam 
temporis cernimus, et ea quae non sunt, sicut ea 
quae sunt, quasi in quodam aeternitatis speculo 

198 contemplamur. Montes scandimus, abyssorum vo- 
ragines perscrutamur, species piscium quos com- 5 
munis aer nequaquam similiter continet, intuemur 
codicibus ; fiuviorum et fontium diversarum ter- 
rarum proprietates distinguimus ; metallorum atque 
gemmarum genera et minerae cuiusque materias 
de libris effodimus, herbarumque vires, arborum 10 
et plantarum addiscimus, prolemque totam pro 
libito cernimus Neptuni, Cereris et Plutonis. 

199 Quod si nos caelicolas visitare delectat, suppedi- 
tantes Taurum, Caucasum et Olympum, lunonis 
regna transcendimus, ac septena territoria planeta- 15 
rum funiculis et circulis emetimur. Ipsum tandem 
firmamentum supremum, signis, gradibus et imagini- 

I eos potentes fines D \\2 tei-mhiiwi Ja. || 4 s. et a. edd. 1| 
6 aej' . . . continet om. A saluhriter B E edd. || *] f. ct d. 
edd. II 9 iminera -£' || 11 planet ariwi Ja. || 12 libitu E edd. || 
14 lovis E in rasurar edd. || 15 et sept em edd. |1 


fines tarn orbis] Cp. Job, xxviii. 24. 

ea quae non sunt] From Rom. iv. 1 7. 

aeternitatis speculo] In the Anti- Clandiamts of Alanus, 
Faith gives Phronesis a mirror : " Hie videt ingenitas species, 
speculatur ideas Caelestes, hominum formas, primordia rerum, 
Causarum causas, rationum semina, leges Parcarum, fati 
seriem, mentemque Tonantis." 

similiter] It is not easy to say whether similiter or salnbriter 
gives the feebler sense. The remark recalls the burlesque lines 
of the Anti-Jacobin : " The feather'd race with pinions skim 


bus varietate maxima decoratum, lustramus. Ibi 
polum antarcticmii, quern nee oculus vidit nee 
auris audivit, inspicimus; luminosum iter galaxiae 
et animalibus caelestibus picturatum zodiacum de- 
200 lectabili iocunditate miramur. Hinc per libros ad 5 
separatas transimus substantias, ut cognatas in- 
telligentias intellectus salutet primamque causam 
omnium ac motorem immobilem infinitae virtutis 
oculo mentis cernat et amore inhaereat sine fine. 
Ecce per libros adiuti beatitudinis nostrae merce- 10 
dem attingimus, dum adhuc existimus viatores. 

2 articum E\(i ut om. D et E et tit edd. || 9 £■/ . . . dum 
om. E 11 10 addudi edd. || 

the air ; Not so the mackerel and still less the bear" (Progress 
of Man, 34). Holkot, however, has something not unlike it. 
Super Sap., f. 327d. 

varietate decoratum] Cp. Esther, i. 6, 

nee oculus vidit nee auris audivit] From i Cor. ii. 9. 

separatas substantias] This probably means the angels ; cp. 
S. Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologiae, i. 79 : "In quibus- 
dam libris de Arabico translatis substantiae separatae, quas 
nos angelos dicimus, intelligentiae vocantur ;" or it may 
mean the super-sensible essences, v^^hich according to S. 
Thomas are the proper study of the angels : ibid, i. 84 : 
" Intellectus angelici, qui est totaliter a corpore separa- 
tus, obiectum proprium est substantia intelligibilis a corpore 
separata, et per huiusmodi intelligibile materialia cognoscit ; 
intellectus autem humani, qui est coniunctus corpori, pro- 
prium obiectum est quidditas sive natura in materia cor- 
porali existens." 

mercedem attingimus] Cp. Hugo de S. Victor, Erudit. 
didasc, i. 9, speaking of co7ite?fiplatio, *' in qua ... in hac 
vita etiam quae sit boni operis merces futura praegustatur. " 


201 Quid plura? proculdubio, sicut Seneca docente 
didicimus, otium sine litteris mors est et vivi 
hominis sepultura, ita revera a sensu contrario 
litterarum seu librorum negotium concludimus 
hominis esse vitam. 5 

202 Rursus per libros tarn arnicis quam hostibus 
intimamus, quae nequaquam secure nuntiis com- 
mendamus : quoniam libro plerumque ad principum 
thalaraos ingressus conceditur, quo repelleretur 
penitus vox auctoris, sicut Tertullianus in principio lo 
Apologetici sui dicit. Carceribus et vinculis custo- 
diti, ademptaque penitus corporis libertate, librorum 
legationibus utimur ad amicos, eisque causas nostras 
expediendas committimus, atque illuc transmitti- 
raus, quo nobis fieret causa mortis accessus. Per 15 
libros praeteritorum reminiscimur, de futuris quo- 
dammodo prophetamus, praesentia quae labuntur 
et fluunt scripturae memoria stabilimus. 

203 Felix studiositas et studiosa felicitas praepotentis 

I docente octogesima quarta epistola qtice incipit Desii iam 
de te esse sollicitus edd. || 2 didiscimus A E addiscimus B 
om. edd. dicinius Coch. |i 5 hominis om. edd. vita E || *] prin- 
cipizmi E || loprimo Ja. || 1 1 ciistoditionibus titivnir ^ || 14 atqtie 
illiic trans mi/ tiffins om. edd. || 19 preponentis D || 

Seneca docente didicimus] See Epp. 82. 3. 

Tertullianus] Apol. c. i. : ". . . liceat veritati vel occulta 
via tacitarum litterarum ad aures vestras pei"venire" (Romani 
imperii antistites). 

studiosa felicitas] The phrase reminds us of the curiosa 
felicitas of Petronius (c. 118). 


eunuchi, de quo Actuum 8^ narratur, quern amor 
propheticae lectionis succenderat tam ardenter, quod 
nee ratione itineris a legendo cessaret, reginae Can- 
dacis regiam populosam oblivioni tradiderat, gazas 
quibus praeerat a cura cordis semoverat, et tam 5 
iter quam currum quo ferebatur neglexerat. Solus 
amor libri totum sibi vindicaverat domicilium 
castitatis, quo disponente mox fidei ianuam meruit 
introire. O gratiosus amor librorum, qui Gehen- 
nae filium et alumnum Tartari per gratiam baptis- 10 
malem filium fecit regni ! 
204 Cesset iam stilus impotens infiniti negotii con- 
summare tenorem, ne videatur aggredi temere, quod 
in principio fatebatur impossibile cuiquam esse. 

I quoniam Ja. || 4 r. speciosafn A rcgiia popiilosa L pro- 
plasam I palathtin edd. oblivioni om. E. Gazasqiie Ja. Coch. || 
7 vemncarat ABE". \o gloriostcs E geturosus Ja. || 

reginae Candacis] Roger Eacon, Op. Maj., p. 146, cites 
Pliny to show that the name Candax was a name of dignity 
like Caesar : H. N., vi. 35. 

gazas] Cp. Acts, viii. 27. 

domicilium castitatis] Cp. Walter Map, De Nug. Cur., iv. 
3, who calls Solomon " sapientiae singulare domicilium.' 


Capltulum 1 6. 

Quam sit merltorlum libros novos scrl- 
bere et veteres renovare. 

205 Sicut necessarium est reipublicae pugnaturis mili- 
tibus arma providere Vulcania et congestas victu- 
alium copias praeparare, sic Ecclesiae militant! 
contra paganorum et haereticorum insultus operae 
pretium constat esse sanorum librorum multitudine 5 

206 Verum quia omne quod servit mortalibus, per 
prolapsum temporis mortalitatis dispendium patitur, 
necesse est vetustate tabefacta volumina innovatis 
successoribus instaurari,ut perpetuitas, quae naturae 10 
repugnat individui, concedatur privilegio speciei. 
Hinc est, quod signanter dicitur (Ecclesiastes, 12) : 
faciendi plures libros nullus est finis, Sicut enim 
librorum corpora, ex contrariorum commixtione 
compacta, suae compositionis continuum sentiunt 15 

I proptignaturis Ja. || 2 Volcana B Vnlcana D militaria 
edd. II 5 seniortun -£" Ja. |j 7 omne om. A || 8 lapstnn]^.. \\ 

arma Vulcania] The phrase occurs in Cic. Tusc. ii. 14, 33 ; 
"si tectus Vulcaniis amiis, id est fortitudine, resiste." The 
reference hei'e is doubtless to arms forged by the armourer, 
and not to fire-arms. 



detrimentum, sic per prudentiam clericorum reperiri 
debet remedium, per quod liber sacer, solvens naturae 
debitum, haereditarium obtineat substitutum et 
simile semen fratri mortuo suscitetur verificeturque 
statim illud Ecclesiastici 30 : Mortuus est pater 5 
illius et quasi non est mortuus, similem enim sibi 
207 reliquit post se. Sunt igitur transcriptiones veterum 
quasi quaedam propagationes recentium filiorum, ad 
quos paternum devolvatur officium, ne librorum 
municipium minuatur. Sane huiusmodi transcrip- 10 
tores antiquarii nominantur, quorum studia inter 
ea quae complentur labore corporeo plus sibi 
placere Cassiodorus confitetur, De institutione 
divinarum litterarum, capitulo 30, ita subdens : 
Felix, inquit, intentio, laudanda sedulitas, manu 15 
hominibus praedicare, linguas digitis aperire, salu- 
tem mortalibus tacitam dare, et contra diaboli sur- 
reptiones illicitas calamo et atramento pugnare. 

4 suscitet Ja. || 7 relinqidt Ja. transcriptores A edd. || 8 
propagatores edd. || 9 patrum Ja. || lO sde B huius D \\ 
12 phis om. edd. plinius i i| 14 scribens Ja. i| 15 scientia edd. || 
17 taciturn A E tacit B tactu M]sl. || 

naturae debitum] The phrase is quite classical, though it 
does not seem to be found in Cicero. It occurs in inscrip- 
tions : Orelli, nn. 3453, 4482. 

semen fratri] Cp. Deut. xxv. 5 ; Matt. xxii. 24. 

antiquarii] See c. viii. s. 143, note. 

plus sibi placere Cassiodorus] The editor of the ed. pr. 
took pitis for a contraction of Plinius, and omitted Cassio- 
dorus, which was restored in the Paris edition, omitting 


Haec ille. Porro scriptoris officiumSalvator exercuit, 
dum inclinans se deorsum digito scribebat in terra, 
loh. 8°,, ut nullus quantumcunque nobilis dedigne- 
tur hoc facere, quod sapientiam Dei patris intue- 
tur fecisse. 5 

208 O scripturae serenitas singularis, ad cuius fabricam 
inclinatur artifex orbis terrae, in cuius tremendo 
nomine flectitur omne genu ! O venerandum arti- 
ficium singulariter prae cunctis praxibus, quae 
hominis manu fiunt, cui pectus Dominicum incur- 10 
vatur humiliter, cui digitus Dei applicatur vice 
calami functus ! Sevisse Dei filium vel arasse, 
texuisse vel fodisse non legimus; nee quicquam 
aliud de mechanicis divinam decebat sapientiam 
humanatam, nisi scribendo litteras exarare, ut 15 
discat quilibet generosus aut sciolus, quod homini- 
bus digiti tribuuntur divinitus ad scribendi negotium 
potius quam ad bellum. Unde librorum sententiam 
plurimum approbamus, qua clericum inertem scrip- 
turae censuerunt quodammodo fore mancum, 20 
cap". 6*^. supra. 

209 Scribit iustos in libro viventium Deus ipse; 
lapideas quidem tabulas digito Dei scriptas Moyses 
accepit. Scribat librum ipse qui iudicat, lob pro- 

3 indignetiir A E Ja. |I 9 fr'axibus D practicihus E || 
12 ceteru77i edd. || 14 dicebat E || 23 qziidem om. E |I 

omne genu] From Rom. xiv. Ii ; Phil. ii. 10 (cp. Is. 

xlv. 24). 

scribit iustos] Cp. Exod. xxxii. 32. 
lob proclamat] Job, xxxi. 35. 


clamat ; digitos scribentis in pariete Mane TJiecel 
Phares Nabuchodonosor tremens vidit, Danielis 5°. 
Ego, inquit leremias, scribebam in volumine 
atramento, leremiae 36". Quod vides, scribe in 
libro, Christus loanni praecipit caro suo : Apoc. 5 
primo. Sic Isaiae, sic losuae officium scriptoris 
iniungitur, ut tarn actus quam peritia futuris in 
posterum commendetur. In vestimento et in femore 
scriptum habet Rex region et Dominus domtnafitmm 
Christus ipse, ut sine scriptura nequeat apparere 10 
210 perfectum -Omnipotentis regium ornamentum. De- 
functi docere non desinunt, qui sacrae scientiae libros 
scribunt. Plus Paulus scribendo sacras epistolas 
Ecclesiae profuit fabricandae quam gentibus et 
ludaeis evangelizando sermone. per libros 15 
cotidie continuat comprehensor, quod olim in terra 
positus inchoavit viator; sicqueverificaturdedoctori- 
bus libros scribentibus sermo propheticus Danielis 
1 2 : qui ad iustitiam erudiunt multos, quasi stellae 
in perpetuas aeternitates. 

I scrikentes D Ja. || 2 Balthasar edd. |I 5 praecepit edd. || 
7 lit tantae artis peritia edd. || 

inquit leremias] Jer. xxxvi. (not xxx., as James prints), 18. 
Coch. translates " dans un livre noir !" 

Rex regum] From Rev. xix. 16 : cp. i, Tim. ii. 15. 

defuncti docere non desinunt] Cp. Heb. xi. 4. 

comprehensor] This word, which I do not find elsewhere, 
is no doubt derived from such passages as i Cor. ix. 24 : 
" Sic currite ut comprehendatis" and Phil. iii. 12, 13. 

viator] See ante, ch. iv. s. 47, note. 


2 1 1 Porro polychronitudinem antiquorum, prius 
quam Deusoriginalem mundumcataclysmodilueret, 
adscribendam miraculo, non naturae catholici de- 
crevere doctores, ut Deus ipse tantum eis vitae 
concederet, quantum reperiendis et in libris scriben- 5 
dis scientiis conveniret : inter quas astronomiae 
miranda diversitas, ut experimentaliter visui sub- 
deretur, sexcentorum annorum periodum secundum 

212 losephum requirebat. Verumtamen non abnuunt, 
quin terrae nascentia illius temporis primitivi 10 
utilius alimentum praestarent mortalibus quam 
moderni, quo dabatur non solum hilarior corporis 

I ppolicritudinem A poIic7'otudi7tem B E piilcritudinem 
D 2 Ja. sollicitiidinem edd. |] 4 eis om. Ja. || 7 experiniento 
Ja. 11 8 videretur y^ || 10 terrcna scientia ^ ll li prestaret E || 

polychronitudinem] The MSS. and the context point to 
this barbarous word, which is found in Petrus Comestor, 
Hist. Scolastica, Esther, c. vii., where in narrating the story 
of the Septuagint translators, he says : "dihiculo egredieban- 
tur ad optandum regi bona et polichronitudinem. " A gloss on 
the passage explains that "polichronitudo dicitur oratio, quae 
fit ab ecclesia pro regibus, pontificibus, principibus terrae et 
optat eis bona . . . et temporis longitudinem. " The word 
is incorporated in the new Ducange from Diefenbach, but in 
the incorrect form poliirotiiiudo, and simply with the tX' 
planation/rtV6'j/r(j magnatibiis. Polychronitudinem should 
no doubt be restored {ox piilcritudinein in Gervase of Tilbury, 
Otia Imper., iii. 106. For the subject matter, cp. S. 
August. De Civ. Dei, xv. 9, and 23. 

secundum losephum] Cp. Anliq. Jud., i. 3, 9 : u-Kf-o ovk 
r)v a(T<pa\ijj(j avToXg Trpoenrtip fi)) ^t/aacnv e^aicocriovg IviavrCvr' 
iia TOCovTQv yap fityag iinavrbg TrXtjpovTai. 


energia sed et diuturnior florens aetas; ad quam 
non modicum contulit, quod virtuti vivebant 
omnimode, resecato superfluo voluptatis. Igitur 
quisquis Dei munere scientia est dotatus iuxta 
consilium spiritus sancti, Ecclesiastici 38 : sapien- 5 
tiam scribe in tempore vacuitatisj ut et praemium 
cum beatis et spatium in praesenti augeatur aetatis. 
Caeterum, si ad mundi principes divertamus ser- 
monem, imperatores egregios invenimus non solum 
artis scribendi peritia floruisse, sed et ipsius operi 10 
plurimum indulsisse. lulius Caesar, primus omnium 
et tempore et virtute, Commentaries reliquit tam 
belli Gallici quam civilis a semetipso conscriptos ; 
item de Analogia duos libros, et Anticatones 
totidem, et poema quod inscribitur Iter, et opuscula 15 

I enchia A enechia B uenethia D enethia E endelechia 
vulgo iv{^ia Ja. aiergia scrips! |j 4 ditatiis Coch. 1| 14 idem 
Ja. II 

energia] It is not easy to make anything of the readings of 
the better MSS. ; the reading of the inferior MSS. and the 
printed texts is obviously an attempt at correction. James 
conjectured e/e^/a ; but energia is perhaps more likely, and 
we may compare S. Jerome, Praef. ad Genes. : " Habet 
nescio quid latentis energiae viva vox." It may indeed be 
in favour of James's suggestion that Galen wrote a treatise 
Ilepi Eue^Var, which is mentioned among his works in Walter 
Burley's account of Galen in the Vitae (c. 113). 

sapientiam scribe] Eccli. xxxviii. 25, where the words are : 
*' Sapientia scribae in tempore vacuitatis, etqui minoratur actu 
sapientiam percipiet." Scribit ox scribal seems to be required 
to complete the sentence. 


alia multa fecit. Tarn lulius quam Augustus 
cautelas scribendi litteram pro littera adinvenit, ut 

214 quae scriberent occultarent. Nam lulius quartam 
litteram proposuit loco primae, et sic deinceps 
alphabetum expendit ; Augustus vero secunda 5 
pro prima, et pro secunda tertia, et ita deinceps 
usus fuit. Hie in Mutinensi bello, in maxima mole 
rerum, cotidie et legisse et scripsisse traditur ac 
etiam declamasse. Tiberius lyricum carmen 

215 scripsit, et poemata quaedam Graeca. Claudius 10 
similiter, tam Graeci quam Latini sermonis peritus, 
varios libros fecit. Sed prae his et aliis Titus in 
scribendi peritia floruit, qui cuiuscunque volebat 
litteram imitabatur facillime, unde se profitebatur 
falsarium maximum, si libuisset, fieri potuisse. Haec 15 
omnia Suetonius, De vita duodecim Caesarum, 

I injinita Ja. || 4 praeposuit Ja. I| 5 alphahettim exphabe- 
ttim E secundafu vulgo |1 6 tertiam vulgo || 14 nmtuavit edd. || 

Suetonius] Cp. Julius Caesar, c. 56 ; Octavianus, c. 84 ; 
Tiberius, c. 70; Claudius, c. 41, 42; Titus, c. 3. 


Capitulum 17. 

De debita honestate circa llbrorum 
custodiam adhlbenda. 

216 Non solum Deo praestamus obsequium novorum 
librorum praeparando volumina, sed sacratae 
pietatis exercemus officium, si eosdem nunc illaese 
tractemus, nunc locis idoneis redditos illibatae 
custodiae commendemus; ut gaudeant puritate, 5 
dum habentur in manibus, et quiescant secure, dum 
in suis cubilibus reconduntur. Nimirum post vestes 
et vascula corpori dedicata dominico, sacri libri 
merentur a clericis honestius contrectari, quibus 
totiens irrogatur iniuria, quotiens eos praesumit 10 
attingere manus foeda. Quamobrem exhortari 
studentes super negligentiis variis reputamus ex- 
pediens, quae vitari faciliter semper possent et 
mirabiliter libris nocent. 

217 In primis quidem circa claudenda et aperienda 15 
volumina sit matura modestia. ut nee praecipiti 
festinatione solvantur, nee inspectione finita sine 
clausura debita dimittantur. Longe namque diligen- 
tius librum quam calceum convenit conservari. 

qui exstant B requiescant edd. |] lO presinmmt attinge}\ 
iitfeda edd. 1| 13 t7Uitari I imilaris\x\gQ || 




218 Est enim gens scholarium perperam educata com- 
muniter et, nisi maiorum regulis refraenetur, 
infinitis infantiis insolescit. Aguntur petulantia, 
praesumptione tumescunt ; de singulis iudicant 
tanquam certi, cum sint in omnibus inexperti. 5 

219 Videbis fortassis iuvenem cervicosum, studio 
segniter residentem, et dum hiberno tempore hiems 
alget, nasus irriguus frigore comprimente distillat, 
nee prius se dignatur emunctorio tergere, quam 
subiectum librum madefecerit turpi rore ; cui 10 
utinam loco codicis corium subderetur sutoris ! 
Unguem habet fimo fetente refertum, gagati simil- 
limum, quo placentis materiae signat locum. Paleas 
dispertitur innumeras, quas diversis in locis collocat 
evidentur, ut festuca reducat quod memoria non 15 

3 infrunitis inscitiis edd. instantiis A \\ 4 tumescunt om. D || 
6 fortasse edd. || 8 opprimente Ja. || 9 emunctorie L j| 
1 2 cacati 2 gigatiti vulgo Gagatisijuillimum Ja. || 13 figurant B 1| 

infrunitis] The reading of * infninitis ' is tempting, and is 
found in most of the printed texts : cp. Eccli. xxxi. 23. 
Holkot, Super. Sap., f. 319a, discusses the meaning of the 
word, but his etymology is of course absurd. 

emunctorio] This word, which is found in the dictionaries 
only in the sense of 'snuffers,' is here obviously a pocket- 

gagati] This word has puzzled the editors, but it is a per- 
fectly good Plinian word (H. N. , 36, 34) for jet, with which 
as a product of Whitby the Bishop was no doubt familiar. 
Beda (i. i) mentions it as one of the products of Britain : 
*'gignit et lapidem gagatem." In his glossary to Higden's 
Polychronicon, Mr. Lumby explains it to mean agate, but the 
Latin for agate is achates. 


] retentat. Hae paleae, quia nee venter libri digerit 
nee quisquam eas extrahit, piimo quidem librum a 
solita iunetura distendunt, et tandem negligenter 

220 oblivioni eommissae putreseunt. Fruetuset easeum 
super librum expansum non veretur comedere, 5 
atque seyphum hine inde dissolute transferre ; et 
quia non habet eleemosynarium praeparatum, in 
libris dimittit reliquias fragmentorum. Garrulitate 
eontinua sociis oblatrare non desinit, et dum multi- 
tudinem rationum adducit a sensu physieo vacua- 10 
rum, librum in gremio subexpansum humectat 
aspergine salivarum. Quid plura? statim duplicatis 
eubitis reeiinatur in eodicem et per breve studium 
soporem invitat prolixum, ae reparandis rugis limbos 
replieat foliorum, ad libri non modicum detrimen- 15 

221 lum. Jam imber abiit et recessit et flores apparuerunt 
in terra nostra. Tunc scholaris quem describimus, 
librorum neglector potius quam inspector, viola, 
primula atque rosa necnon et quadrifolio farciet 
librum suum. Tunc manus aquosas et scatentes 20 

6 sollicite E \*] eleemosinaru?7i sacculum edd. || 10 philo- 
sophico Ja. || 14 repatidis A B \\ 18 viclata Ja. quadrifoliis Ja. || 
20 scatentc E || 

eleemosynarium] The alms-bag, which "in those days 
answered the purpose of what we call a pocket : " Maitland, 
Dark Ages, p. 425. In this sense the feminine form was 
generally used (see Ducange, s. v.), and hence perhaps the 
reading sacculum. 

reliquias fragmentorum] From Ps. xvi. 14. 

imber abiit] From Cant. ii. ii, 12. 


sudore volvendis voluminibus applicabit. Tunc 
pulverulentis undique chirothecis in candidam mem- 
branam impinget et indice veteri pelle vestito vena- 
bitur paginam lineatim. Tunc ad pulicis mordentis 
aculeum sacer liber abicitur, qui tamen vix clauditur 5 
infra mensem, sed sic pulveribus introiectis tumescit 
quod claudentis instantiae non obedit. 
222 Sunt autem specialiter coercendi a contrecta- 
tione librorum iuvenes impudentes, qui cum litte- 
rarum figuras effigiare didicerint, mox pulcherrimo- 10 
rum voluminum, si copia concedatur, incipiunt 
fieri glossatores incongrui et ubi largiorem marginem 
circa textum perspexerint, monstruosis apparitant 
alphabetisj vel aliud frivolum qualecunque quod 

4 lineatam vulgo ailicis M ]a. |[ 5 i7(f7i Ja. j| 10 didicerunt 
Ja. II \'^ prospexerint B 7nonstruose appareant alphabeium tdiA, 
vionstrosis Ja. || 14 al'iqtnd Ja. || 

chirothecis] Gloves were forbidden by the constitutions of 
the Friar Preachers and of the Premonstratensians } see 
Denifle and Ehrle's Archiv, i. 205. 

lineatim] No doubt the true reading. Wattenbach takes 
the common reading lineatam to refer to the practice of going 
through the text line by line, and putting in the colours : 
Schriftwesen in Mittelalter, p. 207. But the meaning is 
surely that the reader runs his finger along the lines in reading. 

pulicis] A word which, like scabies and ptistulae in s. 225, 
speaks volumes. It is curious to note how at least one MS. 
tones the word down to culicis, while another (T) adds the 
words " taceo pediculi." 

frivolum] Cp. Alcuin's lines Ad musaeum: "Hie inler- 
serere caveant sua frivola verbis ; Frivola nee propter erret 
et ipsa manus ; " Migne, ci. 745. 


imaginationi occurrit celerius, incastigatus calamus 
protinus exarare praesumit. Ibi Latinista, ibi so- 

Iphista, ibi quilibet scriba indoctus aptitudinem pen- 
nae probat, quod formosissimis codicibus quo ad 
usum et pretium creberrime vidimus obfuisse. 5 

223 Sunt iterum fures quidam libros enormiter de- 
truncantes, qui pro epistolarum chartulis schedulas 
laterales abscindunt, littera sola salva; vel finalia 
folia, quae ad libri custodiam dimittuntur, ad varios 
abusus assumunt; quod genus sacrilegii sub in- 10 
terminatione anathematis prohiberi deberet. 

224 Convenit autem prorsus scholarium honestati ut, 
quotiens ad studium a refectione reditur, praecedat 
omnino lotio lectionem, nee digitus sagimine 

I celerius om. edd. H ^Jirmissimis]^. !! 6 qiddem E || 7 cedillas 
A EscdidasB Z> || 14 lectioiiem om. D Ja. digitis — delibiitis edd. 
sanguine B D Ja. i| 

exarare praesumit] Cp. Boccaccio's complaint to Ben- 
venuto da Imola, quoted in Symonds' Revival of Learning, 

p. 153- 

Latinista, ibi sophista] The students of the early colleges at 
Oxford were enjoined to use Latin in ordinary conversation, 
and might therefore be called latinistat. In the third year 
of his residence the student of the liberal arts was allowed to 
become a ' sophister,' and to take part in logical disputations. 
See Maxw'ell Lyte, Hist. Univ. Oxford, 86, 205. 

lotio lectionem] Forks, of course, were not yet invented. 
The Bishop may have had in his mind the maxim of the 
Schola Salernitana : " Lotio post mensam tibi confert munera 
bina ; Mundificat palmas et lumina reddit acuta." 

sagimine] Sagimen was fat of any kind, which the monks 
of some orders wei-e allowed, but in others forbidden, to eat : 
see Ducange in v. 


delibutus aut folia prius volvat, aut signacula libri 
solvat. Pueruliis lacrimosus capitalium litterarum 
non admiretur imagines, ne manu fluida polluat 
pergamenum ; tangit enim illico quicquid videt. 
Porro laid, qui librum aeque respiciunt resupine 5 
transversum sicut serie naturali expansum, omni 

225 librorum commiinione penitus sunt indigni. Hoc 
etiam clericus disponat, ut olens ab ollis lixa 
cinereus librorum lilia non contingat illotus, sed 
qui ingreditur sine macula pretiosis codicibus minis- 10 
trabit. Conferret autem plurimum tarn libris 
quam scholaribus manuum honestarum munditia, si 
non essent scabies et pustulae characteres clericales. 

226 Librorum defectibus, quoties advertuntur, est 
otius occurrendum ; quoniam nihil grandescit citius 15 

I singnacula ^ || 5 librum e converso respiciunt Ja. || 
6 sic B omnium Ja. |1 7 penitus ora. Ja. || 9 folia edd. |1 
10 quia -£' II 1 1 confert D Ja. || 

signacula libri solvat] From Rev. v. 2. It is here no 
doubt used to mean the clasps of a book. 

librorum lilia] This is the reading of the better MSS., and 
though I do not find any other instance of the word in this 
sense, it is perfectly intelligible. 

ingreditur sine macula] From Ps. xiv. 2. 

scabies et pustulae] These words convey a lively idea of 
the habits of the time. So Petrarch in the De Remed. Utri. 
Fortunae, ii. 85, has a chapter, • De Scabie. ' It is signifi- 
cantly said of Abelard in his life : ^^ phis solito scabie et qui- 
busdam corporis infirmitatibus gravabatur." 

charactereres clericales] Character clericalis was used for 
ton sura : see Ducange. 


iquam scissura, et fractura, quae ad tempus negligi- 
tur, reparabitur postea cum usura. 

227 De librorum armariis mundissime fabricandis, 
ubi ab omni laesione salventur securi, Moyses mitis- 
simus nos informat, Deuteron. 31°: Tollite, in- 5 
quit, librum istum et ponite ilium in latere arcae 
foederis Domini Dei vestri. O locus idoneus et 
bibliothecae conveniens, quae de lignis sethim 
imputribilibus facta fuit auroque per totum in- 
terius et exterius circumtecta ! Sed omnem in- 10 
honestatis negligentiam circa libros tractandos suo 
Salvator exclusit exemplo, sicut legitur Lucae 4°. 

228 Cum enim scripturam propheticam de se scriptam 
in libro tradito perlegisset, non prius librum 
ministro restituit, quam eundem suis sacratissimis 15 
manibus plicuisset. Quo facto studentes docentur 
clarissime circa librorum custodiam quantum- 
cunque minima negligi non debere. 

7 nostri Ja. 1| 8 bibliotheca E Unguis E \ 14 tradita?n D Ja. . 
libro E II 

Moyses mitissimus] From Num. xii. 3. 
lignis sethim] Cp. Ex. xxv. 10, li ; iovi/npuiribilis, cp. Is. 
xl. 20 ; ciraimtecta is perhaps from Heb. ix. 4. 


Capitulum 1 8. 

Quod tantam librorum collegimus copiam 
ad communem profectum scholarium 
et non solum ad propriam voluptatem. 

229 Nihil iniquius in humanis perpenditur quam quod 
ea quae geruntur iustissime malignorum obloquiis 
pervertuntur, et inde quisreportat infamiam criminis, 
unde magis meruit spem honoris. Oculo simplici 
perpetrantur quam plurima, nee sinistra dextrae se 5 
commiscet, nullo fermento massa corrumpitur, neque 
ex lino vestis lanaque contexitur. Perversorum 
tamen praestigiis opus pium mendaciter transforma- 
tur in monstrum. Haec est nimirum peccatricis 
naturae reprobanda conditio, quod non solum in 10 
factis moraliter dubiis pro peiore parte sententiat, 

Tit. voluntatem A Ja. || 2 eloquiis ^ II 3 pervertanhtr D Ja. 
reportet D reperiat Ja. || 4 speciem edd. || 6 nullo D || 9 Hec 
ctiam nimirum B || lo animae vulgo || 

Nihil iniquius] Cp. Eccli. x. 10. 

oculo simplici] Cp. Matt. vi. 22. 

sinistra dextrae] Cp. Matt. vi. 3. 

massa corrumpitur] From i Cor. v. 6; cp. Gal. v. 9. 

lino lanaque] Cp. Deut. xxii. 11. 


immo frequenter ilia, quae speciem boni habent, ne- 
quitiosa subversione depravat. 

230 Quamvis enim amor librorum in clerico ex 
obiecti natura praeferat honestatem, miro tamen 
modo obnoxios nos effecit iudiciis plurimorum, 5 
quorum admirationibus obtrectati, nunc de curiosi- 
tate superfiua, nunc de cupiditate in ilia dumtaxat 
materia, nunc de vanitatis apparentia, nunc de 
voluptatis intemperantia circa litteras notabamur, 
quorum revera vituperiis non plus quam canicu- ,0 
lorum latratibus movebamur, illius solius testimonio 
contentati, ad quem renes et corda pertinet per- 

:3i scrutari. Cum enim voluntatis secretae finalis in- 
tentio homines lateat unicoque Deo pateat, cordium 
inspectori, perniciosae temeritatis merentur redargui, , ^ 
qui humanis actibus, quorum fontale non vident 
principium, epigramma tam faciliter superscribunt 
sinistrum. Finis enim se habet in operabilibus, 
sicut principia in speculativis vel suppositiones in 

5 ejjicit Ja., edd. || 6 curiosa supcrjiiiitate Ja. |I 13 voluptatis 
^ II 19 suppone7is E^ 

curiositate] Cp. i Tim. v. 13. 

renes et corda] From Ps. vii. 10. 

fontale] The word is used by Roger Bacon, Op. M., p. 12, 
in the account of his wonderful boy : "sisano etefficaci consilio 
iuxta fontalem plenitudinem quam habet dirigeretur, nullus 
seniorum consequeretur eum in sapientialium profluviis rivo- 
rum;" et saepitis. The phrase *' virtutis et sapientiae fontale 
principium " is used of the University of Paris by the 
Cistercians in 1322 : Martene, Anecdot., iv. 1509. 


matbematicis, teste Aristotele, 7° Ethicorum. Qua- 
propter, sicut ex principiorum evidentia conclu- 
sionis Veritas declaratur, ita plerumque in agibilibus 
ex honesti finis intentione bonitas moralis in opera 
sigillatur, ubi alias opus ipsum iudicari deberet in- 5 
differens quo ad mores. 
232 Nos autem ab olim in praecordiis mentis nostrae 
propositum gessimus radicatum, quatenus oppor- 
tunis temporibus exspectatis divinitus aulam quam- 
dam in reverenda universitate Oxoniensi, omnium 10 
liberalium artium nutrice praecipua, in perpetuam 
eleemosynam fundaremus, necessariisque redditibus 
dotaremus ; quam numerosis scholaribus occu- 
patam, nostrorum librorum iocalibus ditaremus, 
ut ipsi libri et singuli eorundem communes fierent, 15 
quantum ad usum et studium, non solum scholaribus 
aulae tactae, sed per eos omnibus universitatis 
praedictae studentibus in aeternum, secundum 

I philosophoriim principe E edd. || 4 insigiUatur opere E H 
5 in differentiis Z> 1| 13 ditat'emus Ja. edd. qitam . . . ut om. 
A II 14 Iocalibus superditare7)nis i || 17 otnnihus om. E || 

teste Aristotele] vii. 8, 4 : iv Ss ratg Trpa^ecri to Sv eVeJca 
dpxV} wcTTTfjO tv Toig [AaOrjfiaTiKolg at viroBkauQ. 

artium nutrice] S. Augustine, De Civ. Dei, xviii. 9, calls 
Athens "mater aut nutrix liberalium doctrinarum." In 
1254 Pope Innocent IV. spoke of the conwitinio of masters 
and scholars at Oxford as ** foecunda mater." Denifle shows 
that the epithet alma with universitas is not found before the 
fourteenth century, and the term Alma mater seems to have 
been first applied to Paris in the Statutes of Vienna in 1389 : 
Universifaten im Mittelalter, p. 33. 


formam et modum, quern sequens capitulum declara- 

233 bit. Quapropter sincerus amor studii zelusque 
orthodoxae fidei ad aedificationem ecclesiae con- 
firmandae pepeperunt in nobis sollicitudinem hanc 
stupendam nummicolis, ut collectos codices unde- 5 
cunque venales neglectis sumptibus emeremus, et 
qui venumdari non debebant, transcribi honestius 

234 Cum enim delectationes hominum ex disposi- 
tione caelestium corporum, cui mixtorum com- 10 
plexio frequenter obedit, diversimode distinguan- 
tur ; ut hi in architectura, illi in agricultura, hi in 
venationibus, illi in navigationibus, hi in bellis, 
illi in ludis eligant conversari ; cecidit circa libros 
nostrae Mercurialis species voluptatis honestae, 15 
quam ex rectae rationis arbitrio, cuius nulla sidera 

3 confinnandam Ja. 1| 7 dcbcant Ja. || 1 1 tit frequenter E || 

nummicolis] Cp. c. xv. s. 194. 

mixtorum complexio] Cp. Holkot, Super Sap., f. 310b: 
*' Dixerunt enim quidam quod homines liunt boniper naturam, 
puta ex naturali complexione cum impressione corporum 
supercaelestium." See Roger Bacon, Op. Maj., p. 112, sqq.^ 
for a defence of the ti-ue astrology and the opinions of the 
Fathers. At p. 117 he says : " astronomus, cum videt homi- 
nes sequisuascomplexiones, quae oriuntura caelestiopevatione, 
sicut et tota generatio, non est mirum si se extendat ad con- 
siderationem actuum humanonam." 

Mercurialis] Cp.Roger Bacon, Op. Maj., p. 121 : **Mercu- 
rius est significator scripturae et scriptorum et profunditatis 

nulla sidera] Bacon, op. cii., p 113, sqq., says that the chief 
authorities in astrology admit that it cannot be a science of 


dominantur imperio, in honorem ordinavimus maies- 
tatis supremae ut, unde mens nostra tranquillitatem 
reperit requiei, inde devotissimus cresceret cul- 
235 tus Dei. Quamobrem desinant obtrectantes, sicut 
caeci de coloribus iudicare; vespertiliones de lumini- 5 
bus disceptare non audeant, atque trabes gestantes in 
oculis propriis alienas festucas eruere non prae- 
sumant. Cessent commentis satiricis sugillare quae 
nesciunt et occulta discutere, quae humanis experi- 
entiis non patescunt ; qui nos fortassis affectu com- 10 
mend assent benevolo, si ferarum venatui, alearum 
lusui, dominarum applausui vacassemus. 

4 ohircdatores Ja. || 5 vespertiliones om. D || 6 deceptare D 1| 
8 satiricoriim Ja. || 

certainties, because this would be inconsistent with free will. 
Yet this does not exclude the influence of the stars : " quamvis 
enim anima rationahs non cogitur ad actus suos, tamen fortiter 
induci potest et excitari, ut gratis vclit ea, ad quae virtus cae- 
lestis incHnat." 

alienas festucas] Cp. Jylatt. vii. 3, 4. 


Capitulum 19. 

De modo communlcandi studentlbus 
omnibus llbros nostros. 

236 Difficile semper fuit sic homines limitare legibus 
honestatis, quin astutia successorum terminos niter- 
etur praecedentium transilire et statutas infringere 
regulas insolentia libertatis. Quamobrem de pru- 
dentum consilio certum modum praefiximus, per 5 
quern ad utilitatem studentium librorum nostrorum 
comraunicationem et usum volumus devenire. 
3 7 In primis enim libros omnes et singulos, de quibus 
catalogum fecimus specialem, concedimus et do- 
namus intuitu caritatis comm.unitati scholarium in 10 
aula • N • Oxoniensi degentium, in perpetuam elee- 
mosynam pro anima nostra et parentum nostrorum 

Tit. omnes D \\ 3 prudentum A B \\ ^ donamtis om. D 
donavimus edd. comitati edd. || 1 1 'N' codd. mil. nostra Ja. 
om. edd. Oxon. D Ja. \ 

-N-] The best T^ISS. read -N-, which probably stands for 
Nomen and signifies that some name was intended to be filled 
in. The ed. pr. omits it, but the Spires and Oxford editors 
print nostra^ of which Hearne approves: Leland, Collectt., 
iii. 385, vi. 299. On the question raised by the reading of 
the text, see the Introduction. 


necnon pro animabus illustrissimi regis Angliae 
Edvvardi teriii post conquestum ac devotissimae 
dominae rcginae Philippac consortis eiusdem, ut 
iidem libri omnibus et singulis universitatis dictae 
villae scholaribus et magistris tarn regularibus quam 5 
saecularibus commodcntur pro tempore ad pro- 
fectum et usum studendi, iuxta modum quem im- 
mediate subiungimus, qui est talis. 

2 38 Quinque de scholaribus in aula praefata commo- 
rantibus assignentur per eiusdem aulae magistrum, 10 
quibus omnium librorum custodia deputetur, de 
quibus quinque personis tres et nullatenus pauciores 
librum vellibros ad inspectionem et usum dumtaxat 
studii valeant commodare ; ad copiandum vero vel 
transcribendum nullum librum volumus extra saepta 15 
domus concedi. 

239 Igitur cum scholaris quicunque saecularis vel 
religiosus, quos in pracsenti favore ad paria iudi- 

2 Ediiardi vulgo ll 

qui est talis] Cocheris suggests that the following rules 
were borrowed by De Bury from the Regulations issued for 
the library of the Sorbonne in 1 321, some years before the 
Bishop visited Paris ; but they were quite as probably 
derived from Oxford : see Introduction. 

de scholaribus] " The term 'scholar' may be regarded as 
nearly equivalent to 'fellow' in our early college statutes, 
indicating a student entirely supported by the revenues of the 
foundation and participating in the general govei'nment : " 
Mullinger, Univ. of Cambridge, i. 167. This applies equally 
to Oxford : iNIaxwell Lyte, ilist. Univ, Oxford, 77. 

ad paria] Cp. Bracton, De L"gibus, ii. 37, 2 : " Foemina 


camus, librum aliquem commodandiim petiverit, 
considerent diligenter custodes an librum talem ha- 
buerint duplicatum ; et si sic, commodent ei librum 
cautione recepta, quae librum traditum in valore 
transcendat iudicio eorundem, fiatque statim tam de 5 
cautione quam de libro commodate memorialis 
scriptura, continens nominapersonarum quae librum 
tradunt et illius qui recipit, cum die et anno 
Domini quo continget fieri commodatum. 

240 Si vero custodes invenerint, quod ille liber qui 10 
petitur duplicatus non fuerit, talem librum nulla- 
tenus commodent cuicunque, nisi fuerit de comi- 
tiva scholarium dictae aulae, nisi forte ad inspec- 
tionem et usum infra saepta domus vel aulae prae- 
dictae, sed non ad ulterius deferendum. 15 

241 Scholar! vero cuilibet praedictae aulae liber qui- 

6 de om. ^ || 9 contirtgit A Ja. |i 1 1 librtun non codd. 
dett. 11 13 inspectioneni et A B inspectionem ad D Ja. et usum 
scrips! II 15 scolaHum Ja. || 

vero haeres et masculus secundum quosdam ad paria iu- 
dicantur. " 

cautione recepta] The practice of taking a pledge or bond 
on lending MSS. was extremely common throughout medieval 
times. Thus the Prior and Convent of Durham made an 
order in 1235 : " statutum est . . . ut nullus liber accom- 
modetur alicui per Librarium vel per alium, nisi receperit 
memoriale aequipollens, nisi fuerit ad instanciam Domini 
Episcopi." Durham Catalogues, p. 121 ; cp. p. 122 for the 
form of such a bond. 

inspectioneni et usum] The inspectioncm et of the MSS. 
points to an omission and I have supplied iLsiim : cp. s. 238. 


cunque per tres de praedictis custodibus valeat 
commodari, nomine tamen suo cum die quo librum 
recipit prius annotato. Nee tamen ipse possit librum 
sibi traditum alteri commodare, nisi de assensu 
trium de custodibus supradictis, et tunc delete 5 
nomine primi nomen secundi cum tempore tradi- 
tionis scribatur. 

242 Ad haec omnia observandum custodes singuli 
fidem praestent, quando eis custodia huiusmodi 
deputatur. Recipientes autem librum vel libros 10 
ibidem iurabunt quod eum vel eos ad alium usum 
nisi ad inspectionem et studium nullatenus ap- 
plicabunt, quodque ilium et illos extra villam 
Oxoniensem cum suburbio nee deferent nee deferri 
permittent. 15 

243 Singulis autem annis computum reddent prae- 
dicti custodes magistro domus et duobus quos 
secum duxerit de suis scholaribus assumendos, vel 
si eidem non vacaverit, tres deputet inspectores 
alios a custodibus, qui librorum catalogum perle- 7-0 
gentes videant quod omnes habeant vel in volumi- 
nibus propriis vel saltem per cautiones praesentes. 
Ad hunc autem computum persolvendum tempus 
credimus opportunum a kalendis lulii usque ad 

2,pri?nitus E edd. || 8 observanda Ja. I| 9 eis om. -£" || 12 vel 
edd. II 13 ipsum vel ipsos Ja. || 14 7ion deferent D Ja. i| 
i^ pertiiiltunt £ \\ 17 ducibzis ]o.. || 18 duxil J&. assumendos 
om. 2 II 24 oppoiiunms Ja. hinii A E a mense lulii B || 

kal. lulii] Apart from the question of authority, this is 
clearly the more probable reading. The feast of the Trans- 


festura sequens translationis gloriosi martyris sancti 
244 Hoc autem omnino adicimus quod quilibet, 
cui liber aliquis fuerit commodatus, semel in 
anno librum praesentet custodibus et suam si 5 
voluerit videat cautionem. Porro si contingat for- 
tuito per mortem, furtum, fraudem vel incuriam 
librum perdi, ille qui perdidit vel eiusdem procu- 
rator seu etiam executor pretium libri solvat et 
eiusdem recipiat cautionem. Quod si qualiter- 10 
cunque custodibus ipsis lucrum evenerit, in nihil 
aliud quam in librorum reparationem et subsidium 

dfortuiiii A B E\\S perdliiim esse^^L. || 1 1 eveniat nihil^z. \\ 
14 Hie in lilt as librorum conditiones circam libroruvi custodiam 
praetermitto eo quod mihi pro praesenti videatur inutile talia 
recitare M Ja. 

lation of S. Thomas was on July 7, and a period of seven 
days is much more likely for such an inspection than one 
of five weeks. 

Hie multas] The concluding words of the chapter in James 
are taken from J/, where they were doubtless written by the 
copyist, who stopped at deferendu7?t (see 240 ante), omitting 
the rest of the chapter, to explain his doing so. Cocheris is 
quite wrong in saying that they occur in A. 


Capitulum 20. 

Exhortatio scholarlum ad rependendum 
pro nobis suffragia debltae pietatis. 

245 Tempus iam efflagitat terminare tractatum, quern 
de amore librorum compegimus, in quo contem- 
poraneorum nostrorum admirationibus de eo quod 
tantum libros dileximus rationem reddere nisi 
sumus. Verum quia vix datur aliquid operari mor- 5 
talibus, quod nullius respergatur pulvere vanitatis, 
studiosum amorem, quem ita diuturnum ad libros 
habuimus iustificare penitus non audemus, quin 
fuerit forsan nobis quandoque occasio alicuius negli- 
gentiae venialis, quamvis amoris materia sit honesta 10 

246 at intentio regulata. Si nam que cum omnia fece- 
rimus, servos nos inutiles dicere teneamur ; si lob 
sanctissimus sua opera omnia verebatur; si iuxta 
Isaiam quasi pannus menstruatae omnes sunt iustitiae 
nostrae ; quis se de perfectione cuiuscunque virtutis 15 

Tit. repetendum D E die pietati D pietatis etc. B || *] jam 
dititurmcm Ja. diicrnum D \\() forsitan D forsan nobis in- 
ierdum Ja. || 14 smit om. E || 

pulvere vanitatis] Cp. Mich. i. 10. 
servos inutiles] Cp. Luke xvii. 10. 
opera verebatur] From Job ix. 28. 
pannus menstruatae] From Is. Ixiv. 6. 


\ praesumet iactare, quin ex aliqua circumstantia 
valeat reprehendi, quae forsitan a seipso non poterit 
deprehendi ? Bonum enim ex integris causis, malum 
autem omnifarie : sicut Dionysius^ De divinis nomi- 

247 nibus, nos informat. Quamobrem in nostrarum 5 
iniquitatum remedium, quibus nos omnium Crea- 
torem crebrius offendisse cognoscimus, orationum 
suffragia petituri, studentes nostros futuros dignum 
duximus exbortari, quatenus sic tam nobis quam aliis 
eorundem futuris benefactoribus fiant grati, quod 10 
beneficiorum nostrorum providentiam spiritalibus 
recompensent retributionibus. Vivamus in eorum 
memoiriis funerati, qui in nostris vixerunt benevo- 
lentiis nondum nati nostrisque nunc vivunt bene- 
ficiis sustentati. ClementiamRedemptorisimplorent 15 
instantiis indefessis, quatenus negligentiis nostris 
parcat, peccatorum nostrorum reatibus pius index 
indulgeat, lapsus nostrae fragilitatis pallio pietatis 
operiat et offensas, quas et pudet et paenitet com- 
misisse, divina benignitate remittat. Conservet in 20 
nobis ad sufficiens spatium paenitendi suarum 
muneragratiarum,fideilirmitatem, spei sublimitatem 
et ad omnes homines latissimam caritatem. Flectat 
superbum arbitrium ad culparum suarum lamentum, 

2 semetipso D Ja. || 1 7 pius iudex indulgeat om. ^ || l8 nosiri 
fragiliiate?n Ja. || 22 spci suavitatem Ja. || 

Dionysius] Op. cit., iv. 30: 'ZvvtXovri de (pdpai to dyaObv 
£K Ttig fxidg Koi tijq oXtjq cuTiaQ, to dt icatcov Ik ttoXXwi' /cat 
fiEpiKuiv l\\dipeu}v. 


ut deploret transactas elationes vanissimas et re- 
tractet indignationes amarissimas ac delectationes 
insanissimas detestetar. Vigeat sua virtus in nobis, 
cum nostra defecerit, et qui nostrum ingressum sacro 
baptismate consecravit gratuito, nostrum pro- 5 
gressum ad statum apostolicum sublimavit immerito, 
nostrum dignetur egressum sacramentis idoneis 
249 communire. Laxetur a nostro spiritu amor carnis, 
evanescat penitus metus mortis, desideret dissolvi 
et esse cum Christo, et in terris solo corpore con- 10 
stituti cogitatione et aviditate in aeterna patria con- 
versemur. Pater misericordiarum etDeus totiuscon- 
solationis filio prodigo de siliquis revertenti benignus 
occurrat, drachmam denuo repertam recipiat et in 

I ct deplores D \\ 2 insuavissimas E Ja. || 3 urgent Ja. || 

5 sacrarnento baptismatis D Ja. || 6 iitwierito communire 

om. edd. || 10 ut in ^ || 1 1 conserucmur A D E\\ 

sublimavit] Cp. Ezech, xxxi. 10. The words from im- 
merito to commtmire inclusive were accidentally omitted by 
the scribe of Z, and added by him in the margin. The 
copyist of L took the marginal addition for a gloss or note 
and omitted it, and hence it is wanting in the edit. pr. 
Cocheris also omits them, though they are absolutely neces- 
sary to complete the sense. 

desideret dissolvi] From Phil. i. 23. 

corpore constituti] Cp. Jerome contra Vigil., c. 6 ; August., 
De Civ. Dei, xxi. 24. 

conversemur] Phil. iii. 20: "Nostra autem conversatio in 
caclis est." 

de siliquis] Cp. Luke xv. 1 6- 1 7. 
drachmam repertam] Cp. Luke xv. 8-9. 


thesauros aeternos per angelos sanctos transmittal 
Castigetvultu terrifico exitusnostri horaspiritus tene- 
brarum, ne latens in limine portae mortis Leviathan, 
serpens vetus, insidias improvisas calcaneo nostro 

250 paret. Cum vero ad terrendum tribunal fuerimus 5 
advocati, ut cuncta quae corpore gessimus attes- 
tante conscientia referamus, consideret humanitas 
iuncta Deo effusi sui sancti sanguinis pretium 
et advertat divinitas humanata carnalis naturae 
figmentum, ut ibi transeat fragilitas impunita ubi 10 
Clemens pietas cernitur infinita, et ibi respiret spiritus 

25 1 miseri ubi exstat proprium iudicis misereri. Amplius 
refugium spei nostrae post Deum virginem et 
reginam Theotokon benedictam nostri semper stu- 
dentes salutationibus satagant frequentare devotis, 15 
ut qui per nostra facinorareplicatameruimus iudicem 
invenire turbatum, per ipsius suffragia semper grata 
mereamur eundem reperire placatum. Deprimat pia 
manus brachium aequilibre, qua nostra tam parva 
quam pauca merita pensabuntur ne, quod absit, 20 
praeponderet gravitas criminum et nos damnandos 

252 deiciat in abyssum. Clarissimum meritis confes- 

3 portarum Ja. || 5 tremendum in rasura A Ja. || 6 in 
corpore Ja. || 14 theochoton A B tJiothccon D theothecon E \\ 
15 satagimt D |[ 18 reperire om. E || 19 aequae librae vulgo 
p7-ava A \\ 21 nos om. E \\ 

serpens vetus] Cp. Rev. xii. 9. 

ad terrendum tribunal] Cp. 2 Cor. v. 10, il. 

figmentum] Cp. Ps. cii. 14. 

in abyssum] Cp. Luke viii. 31 ; Rev. xx. 3. 


soremCuthbertum, cuius gregem indigni pascendum 
suscepimus, omni cultu studeant venerari devote, 
rogantes assidue, ut suum licet indignum vicarium 
precibus excusare dignetur et quern successorem 
admisit in terris, procuret effici consessorem in 5 
caelis. Puris denique tarn mentis quam corporis 
precibus regent Deum, ut spiritum ad imaginem 
Trinitatis creatum post praesentis miseriae incola- 
tum ad suum reducat primordiale prototypum ac 
eiusdem concedat perpetuum fruibilis faciei con- 10 
spectum : Amen. 

253 Explicit Philobiblon domini Ricardi de Aunger- 
vile,cognominati de Bury, quondam episcopi Dunel- 
mensis. Completus est autem tractatus iste in 

2 conwmni cultu ^ || 5 amisit B confessorem ABE 
Schm. Coch. || 

12 Explicit etc. om. A Explicit Philobiblon B || 

Cuthbertum] Cuthbert, the patron saint of the cathedral at 
Durham. He reluctantly left his seclusion to become Bishop 
of Lindisfarne in 685, but in less than two years returned to 
his hermitage, where he practised great austerity, and was so 
constantly engaged in prayer that a long callosity extended 
from his knees downwards. After his death his body was 
removed from place to place, until it finally rested at 
Dunholme, which thus became the seat of the Palatine See. 

consessorem] No doubt the true reading : cp. Eph. ii. 6 : 
"consedere fecit in caelestibus." The word consessor occurs 
several times in Cicero. 

Explicit Philobiblon] For the questions arising in con- 
nexion with the concluding note, which is not found in any 


manerio nostro de x\ukeland xxiiij" die lanuarii 
anno Domini millesimo trecentesimo quadragesimo 
quarto, aetatis nostrae quinquagesimo octavo 
praecise completo, pontificatus vero nostri anno 
undecimo finiente. Ad laudem Dei feliciter et 5 

of the printed texts, see the Introduction. From the phrase 
praecise completo it would appear that the book was finished 
on the Bishop's birthday. 

feliciter] Cp. S. Jerome, ad Marcellam, Ep. 28 : *'Sole- 
mus completis opusculis ad distinctionem rei alterius se- 
quentis medium interponere explicit z.^x\. feliciter aut aliquid 

The Philobiblon 
newly translated 

L 2 


1 To all the faithful of Christ to whom the tenor of 
these presents may come, Richard de Bury, by the 
divine mercy Bishop of Durham, wisheth everlast- 
ing salvation in the Lord and to present continually 
a pious memorial of himself before God, alike in 
his lifetime and after his death. 

2 What shall I render unto the Lord for all his 
benefits toward me ? asks the most devout psalmist, 
an invincible king and first among the prophets : 
in which most grateful question he approves him- 
self a willing thank-offerer, a multifarious debtor, and 
one who wishes for a holier counsellor than him- 
self : agreeing with Aristotle, the chief of philoso- 
phers, who shows (in the 3rd and 6th books of his 
Ethics) that all action depends upon counsel. 

3 And indeed if so wonderful a prophet, having a 
foreknowledge of divine secrets, wished so anxiously 
to consider how he might gratefully repay the 
blessings graciously bestowed, what can we fitly 
do, who are but rude thanksgivers and most greedy 
receivers, laden with infinite divine benefits ? As- 
suredly we ought with anxious deliberation and 
abundant consideration, having first invoked the 
Sevenfold Spirit, that it may burn in our musings 



as an illuminating fire, fervently to prepare a 
way without hinderance, that the bestower of all 
things may be cheerfully worshipped in return for 
the gifts that he has bestowed, that our neigh- 
bour may be reheved of his burden, and that the 
guilt contracted by sinners every day may be re- 
deemed by the atonement of almsgiving. 

4 Forewarned therefore through the admonition of 
the psalmist's devotion by Him who alone prevents 
and perfects the goodwill of man, without Whom 
we have no power even so much as to think, and 
Whose gift Ave doubt not it is, if we have done any- 
thing good, v/e have diligently inquired and con- 
sidered in our own heart as well as with others, 
what among the good offices of various works of 
piety would most please the Almighty and would 

5 be more beneficial to the Church MiHtant. And 
lo ! there soon occurred to our contemplation a host 
of unhappy, nay rather of elect scholars, in whom 
God the Creator and Nature his handmaid planted 
the roots of excellent morals and of famous sciences, 
but whom the poverty of their circumstances so op- 
pressed that before the frown of adverse fortune the 
seeds of excellence, so fruitful in the cultivated field 
of youth, not being watered by the rain that they 

6 require, are forced to wither away. Thus it hap- 
pens that " bright virtue lurks buried in obscurity," 
to use the words of Boethius, and burning lights 
are not put under a bushel, but for want of oil are 
utterly extinguished. Thus the field, so full of 


flower in spring, has withered up before harvest- 
time ; thus wheat degenerates to tares, and vines 
into the wild vine, and thus olives run into the wild 
olive ; the tender stems rot away altogether, and 
those who might have grown up into strong pillars 
of the Church, being endowed with the capacity of 
a subtle intellect, abandon the schools of learning. 

7 With poverty only as their stepmother, they are 
repelled violently iVom the nectared cup of philo- 
sophy, as soon as they have tasted of it and have 
become more fiercely thirsty by the very taste. 
Though fit for the liberal arts and disposed to study 
the sacred writings alone, being deprived of the aid 
of their friends, by a kind of apostasy they return to 
the mechanical arts solely to gain a livelihood, to 
the loss of the Church and the degradation of the 

S whole clergy. Thus Mother Church conceiving 
sons is compelled to miscarry, nay some misshapen 
monster is born untimely from her womb, and for 
lack of that little with which nature is contented, 
she loses excellent pupils, who might afterwards 
become champions and athletes of the faith. Alas, 
how suddenly the woof is cut, while the hand of the 
weaver is beginning his work ! Alas, how the sun 
is ecHpsed in the brightness of the dawn, and the 
planet in its course is hurled backwards, and while 
it bears the nature and likeness of a star suddenly 

9 drops and becomes a meteor ! What more piteous 
sight can the pious man behold ? What can more 
sharply stir the bowels of his pity ? What can more 


easily melt a heart hard as an anvil into hot tears ? 
On the other hand, let us recall from past experience 
how much it has profited the whole Christian com- 
monwealth, not indeed to enervate students with 
the delights of a Sardanapalus or the riches of a 
Croesus, but rather to support them in their poverty 
with the frugal means that become the scholar. 

10 How many have we seen with our eyes, how many 
have we read of in books, who distinguished 
by no pride of birth, and rejoicing in no rich in- 
heritance, but supported only by the piety of the 
good, have made their way to apostolic chairs, have 
most worthily presided over faithful subjects, have 
bent the necks of the proud and lofty to the eccle- 
siastical yoke and have extended further the liberties 
of the Church ? 

11 Accordingly, having taken a survey of human 
necessities in every direction, with a V\Q.\y to bestow 
our charity upon them, our compassionate inclina- 
tions have chosen to bear pious aid to this calamitous 
class of men, in whom there is nevertheless such 
hope of advantage to the Church, and to provide 
for them not only in respect of things necessary to 
their support, but much more in respect of the books 
so useful to their studies. To this end, most accept- 
able in the sight of God, our attention has long been 
unweariedly devoted. This ecstatic love has carried 
us away so powerfully, that we have resigned all 
thoughts of other earthly things, and have given 
ourselves up to a passion for acquiring books. 


12 That our intent and purpose, therefore, may be 
known to posterity as well as to our contemporaries, 
and that we may for ever stop the perverse tongues 
of gossipers as far as we are concerned, we have 
published a little treatise written in the lightest style 
of the moderns ; for it is ridiculous to find a slight 
matter treated of in a pompous style. And this 
treatise (divided into twenty chapters) will clear the 
love we have had for books from the charge of 
excess, will expound the purpose of our intense de- 
votion, and will narrate more clearly than light all 

13 the circumstances of our undertaking. And because 
it principally treats of the love of books, we have 
chosen after the fashion of the ancient Romans 
fondly to name it by a Greek word, Philobiblon. 


Chapter i. 

That the Treasure of Wisdom is chiefly 
contained in Books. 

14 The desirable treasure of wisdom and science, 
which all men desire by an instinct of nature, 
infinitely surpasses all the riches of the world ; in 
respect of which precious stones are worthless ; 
in comparison with which silver is as clay and 
pure gold is as a little sand ; at whose splendour 
the sun and moon are dark to look upon ; com- 
pared with whose marvellous sweetness honey and 

15 manna are bitter to the taste. O value of wisdom 
that fadeth not away with time, virtue ever flourish- 
ing, that cleanseth its possessor from all venom ! 
O heavenly gift of the divine bounty, descending 
from the Father of lights, that thou mayest exalt the 
rational soul to the very heavens ! Thou art the 
celestial nourishment of the intellect, which those 
who eat shall still hunger and those who drink 
shall still thirst, and the gladdening harmony of the 
languishing soul, which he that hears shall never 

16 be confounded. Thou art the moderator and 
rule of morals, which he who follows shall not sin. 
By thee kings reign and princes decree justice. 
By thee, rid of their native rudeness, their minds 
and tongues being polished, the thorns of vice 


being torn up by the roots, those men attain high 
places of honour and become fathers of their 
country and companions of princes, v>'ho without 
thee would have melted their spears into pruning- 
hooks and ploughshares, or would perhaps be feed- 
ing swine with the prodigal. 
I y Where dost thou chiefly lie hidden, O most elect 
treasure ! and where shall thirsting souls discover 

Certes, thou hast placed thy tabernacle in books, 
where the Most High, the Light of lights, the Book 
of Life, has established thee. There everyone who 
asks receiveth thee, and everyone who seeks finds 
thee, and to everyone that knocketh boldly it is 

1 8 speedily opened. Therein the cherubim spread 
out their wings, that the intellect of the students 
may ascend and look from pole to pole, from the 
east and west, from the north and from the south. 
Therein the mighty and incomprehensible God 
himself is apprehensibly contained and worshipped; 
therein is revealed the nature of things celestial, 
terrestrial, and infernal ; therein are discerned the 
laws by which every state is administered, the 
offices of the celestial hierarchy are distinguished 
and the tyrannies of demons described, such as 
neither the ideas of Plato transcend nor the chair 

19 of Crato contained. In books I find the dead as 
if they were alive; in books I foresee things to come; 
in books warlike affairs are set forth ; from books 
come forth the laws of peace. All things are 


corrupted and decay in time ; Saturn ceases not 
to devour the children that he generates : all the 
glory of the world would be buried in oblivion, unless 
God had provided mortals with the remedy of 

20 books. Alexander, the conqueror of the earth, 
Julius the invader of Rome and of the world, who, 
the first in war and arts, assumed universal empire 
under his single rule, faithful Fabricius and stern 
Cato, would now have been unknown to fame, if the 

21 aid of books had been wanting. Towers have 
been razed to the ground ; cities have been over- 
thrown ; triumphal arches have perished from 
decay; nor can either pope or king find any 
means of more easily conferring the privilege of per- 
petuity than by books. The book that he has made 
renders its author this service in return, that so 
long as the book survives its author remains 
immortal and cannot die, as Ptolemy declares in 
the Prologue to his Almagest : He is not dead, he 
says, who has given life to science. 

22 Who therefore will limit by anything of another 
kind the price of the infinite treasure of books, 
from which the scribe who is instructed bringeth 
forth things new and old ? Truth that triumphs 
over all things, which overcomes the king, wine, 
and women, which it is reckoned holy to honour 
before friendship, which is the way without turning 
and the life without end, which holy Boethius 
considers to be threefold in thought, speech, and 
writing, seems to remain more usefully and to 


23 fructify to greater profit in books. For the mean- 
ing of the voice perishes with the sound; truth 
latent in the mind is wisdom that is hid and 
treasure that is not seen ; but truth which shines 
forth in books desires to manifest itself to every 
impressionable sense. It commends itself to the 
sight when it is read, to the hearing Avhen it is 
heard, and moreover in a manner to the touch, 
when it suffers itself to be transcribed, bound, 

24 corrected, and preserved. The undisclosed truth 
of the mind, although it is the possession of the 
noble soul, yet because it lacks a companion, is not 
certainly known to be delightful, while neither sight 
nor hearing takes account of it. Further, the truth 
of the voice is patent only to the ear and eludes 
the sight, which reveals to us more of the qualities 
of things, and linked with the subtlest of motions 

25 begins and perishes as it were in a breath. But the 
written truth of books, not transient but permanent, 
plainly offers itself to be obsen^ed, and by means of 
the pervious spherules of the eyes, passing through 
the vestibule of perception and the courts of 
imagination, enters the chamber of intellect, taking 
its place in the couch of memory, where it engenders 
the eternal truth of the mind. 

26 Finally, we must consider what pleasantness of 
teaching there is in books, how easy, how secret ! 
How safely we lay bare the poverty of human 
ignorance to books without feeling any shame ! 
They are masters who instruct us without rod or 


ferule, without angry words, without clothes or 
money. If you come to them they are not asleep ; 
if you ask and inquire of them, they do not with- 
draw themselves ; they do not chide if you make 
mistakes ; they do not laugh at you if you are 

27 ignorant. O books who alone are liberal and free, 
who give to all who ask of you and enfranchise all 
who serve you faithfully ! by how many thousand 
types are ye commended to learned men in the 
scriptures given us by inspiration of God ! For 
ye are the mines of profoundest wisdom, to which 
the wise man sends his son that he may dig out 
treasures : Prov. 2. Ye are the wells of living 
waters, which father Abraham first digged, Isaac 
digged again, and which the Philistines strive to fill 

28 up: Gen. 26. Ye are indeed the most delightful 
ears of corn, full of grain, to be rubbed only by 
apostolic hands, that the sweetest food may be 
produced for hungry souls : Matt. 12. Ye are 
the golden pots in which manna is stored, and 
rocks flowing with honey, nay combs of honey, 
most plenteous udders of the milk of life, garners 
ever full ; ye are the tree of life and the fourfold 
river of Paradise, by which the human mind is 
nourished and the thirsty intellect is watered and 

29 refreshed. Ye are the ark of Noah and the ladder 
of Jacob, and the troughs by which the young of 
those who look therein are coloured; ye are the 
stones of testimony and the pitchers holding the 
lamps of Gideon, the scrip of David, from which 

CHAPTER 11. i6: 

the smoothest stones are taken for the slaying of 
Goliath. Ye are the golden vessels of the temple, 
the arms of the soldiers of the Church, with which 
to quench all the fiery darts of the wicked, fruitful 
olives, vines of Engadi, figtrees that are never 
barren, burning lamps always to be held in readi- 
ness — and all the noblest comparisons of scripture 
may be applied to books, if we choose to speak 
in figures. 

Chapter 2. 

The degree of Affection that is properly 

due to Books. 

30 Since the degree of affection a thing deserves 
depends upon the degree of its value, and the 
previous chapter shows that the value of books is 
unspeakable, it is quite clear to the reader what is 
the probable conclusion from this. I say probable, 
for in moral science we do not insist upon demon- 
stration, remembering that the educated man seeks 
such degree of certainty as he perceives the subject- 
matter will bear, as Aristotle testifies in the first 
book of his Ethics. For TuUy does not appeal to 
Euclid, nor does Euclid rely upon Tully. This at 
all events we endeavour to prove whether by logic 


or rhetoric, that all riches and all delights what- 
soever yield place to books in the spiritual mind, 
wherein the Spirit which is charity ordereth charity. 

31 Now in the first place, because wisdom is con- 
tained in books more than all mortals understand, 
and wisdom thinks lightly of riches, as the foregoing 
chapter declares. Furthermore, Aristotle in his 
Problems determines the question, why the 
ancients proposed prizes to the stronger in gym- 
nastic and corporeal contests, but never awarded 
any prize for wisdom. This question he solves as 
follows ; In gymnastic exercises the prize is better 
and more desirable than that for which it is be- 
stowed ; but it is certain that nothing is better 
than wisdom : wherefore no prize could be as- 
signed for wisdom. And therefore neither riches 
nor delights are more excellent than wisdom. 

32 Again, only the fool will deny that friendship is 
to be preferred to riches, since the wisest of men 
testifies this ; but the chief of philosophers honours 
truth before friendship, and the truthful Zorobabel 
prefers it to all things. Riches then are less than 
truth. Now truth is chiefly maintained and con- 
tained in holy books — nay they are written truth 
itself, since by books we do not now mean the 
materials of which they are made. Wherefore 
riches are less than books, especially as the most 
precious of all riches are friends, as Boethius testifies 
in the second book of his Consolation ; to whom 
the truth of books according to Aristotle is to be 

CHAPTER 11. 167 

33 preferred. Moreover, since we know that riches 
first and chiefly appertain to the support of the 
body only, while the virtue of books is the perfec- 
tion of reason, which is properly speaking the hap- 
piness of man, it appears that books to the man 
who uses his reason are dearer than riches. 
Furthermore, that by which the faith is more 
easily defended, more widely spread, more clearly 
preached, ought to be more desirable to the faith- 

34 ful. But this is the truth written in books, which 
our Saviour plainly shovred, when he was about 
to contend stoutly against the Tempter, girding him- 
self with the shield of truth and indeed of written 
truth, declaring " it is written " of what he was about 
to utter with his voice. 

35 And, again, no one doubts that happiness is 
to be preferred to riches. But happiness con- 
sists in the operation of the noblest and diviner 
of the faculties that we possess — when the whole 
mind is occupied in contemplating the truth 
of wisdom, which is the most delectable of all 
our virtuous activities, as the prince of philoso- 
phers declares in the tenth book of the Ethics, 
on which account it is that philosophy is held to 
have wondrous pleasures in respect of purity and 

36 solidity, as he goes on to say. But the contempla- 
tion of truth is never more perfect than in books, 
where the act of imagination perpetuated by books 
does not suffer the operation of the intellect upon 
the truths that it has seen to suffer interruption. 


Wherefore books appear to be the most immediate 
instruments of speculative delight, and therefore 
Aristotle, the sun of philosophic truth, in consider- 
ing the principles of choice, teaches that in itself to 
philosophize is more desirable than to be rich, 
although in certain cases, as where for instance one 
is in need of necessaries, it may be more desirable 
to be rich than to philosophize. 

37 Moreover, since books are the aptest teachers, as 
the previous chapter assumes, it is fitting to bestow 
on them the honour and the affection that we owe 
to our teachers. In fine, since all men naturally 
desire to know, and since by means of books we 
can attain the knowledge of the ancients, w-hich is to 
be desired beyond all riches, what man living ac- 
cording to nature would not feel the desire of books? 

38 And although we know that swine trample pearls 
under foot, the wise man will not therefore be de- 
terred from gathering the pearls that lie before him. 
A library of wisdom, then, is more precious than all 
wealth, and all things that are desirable cannot be 
compared to it. Whoever therefore claims to be 
zealous of truth, of happiness, of wisdom or know- 
ledge, aye even of the faith, must needs become a 
lover of books. 


Chapter 3. 

What we are to think of the price In the 
buying of books. 

39 From what has been said we draw this corollary 
welcome to us, but (as we believe) acceptable to 
few: namely, that no dearness of price ought to 
hinder a man from the buying of books, if he has 
the money that is demanded for them, unless it be 
to withstand the malice of the seller or to await a 
more favourable opportunity of buying. For if it is 
wisdom only that makes the price of books, which 
is an infinite treasure to mankind, and if the value 
of books is unspeakable, as the premises show, how 
shall the bargain be shov/n to be dear where an 
infinite good is being bought ? Wherefore, that 
books are to be gladly bought and unwillingly sold, 
Solomon, the sun of men, exhorts us in the Proverbs : 

40 Buy the h-^iith, he says, and sell not wisdom. But 
what we are trying to show by rhetoric or logic, let 
us prove by examples from history. The arch- 
philosopher Aristotle, whom Averroes regards as 
the law of Nature, bought a few books of Speu- 
sippus straightway after his death for seventy-two 
thousand sesterces. Plato, before him in time, 


but after him in learning, bought the book of 
Philolaus the Pythagorean, from which he is said 
to have taken the Thnceus, for ten thousand denaries, 

41 as Aulus Gellius relates in the Nodes Atticc^. Now 
Aulus Gellius relates this that the foolish may con- 
sider how wise men despise money in comparison 
with books. And on the other hand, that we may 
know that folly and pride go together, let us here 
relate the folly of Tarquin the Proud in despising 

42 books, as also related by Aulus Gellius. An old 
woman, utterly unknown, is said to have come to 
Tarquin the Proud, the seventh king of PvOme, 
offering to sell nine books, in which (as she declared) 
sacred oracles were contained, but she asked an 
immense sum for them, insomuch that the king said 
she was mad. In anger she flung three books into 
the fire, and still asked the same sum for the rest. 
When the king refused it, again she flung three 
others into the fire and still asked the same price 
for the three that were left. At last, astonied 
beyond measure, Tarquin was glad to pay for three 
books the same price for which he might have 
bought nine. The old woman straightway disap- 

43 peared, and was never seen before or after. These 
were the Sibylline books, which the Romans con- 
sulted as a divine oracle by some one of the Quin- 
decemvirs, and this is believed to have been the 
origin of the Quindecemvirate. What did this 
Sibyl teach the proud king by this bold deed, 
except that the vessels of wisdom, holy books, ex- 


ceed all human estimation ; and as Gregory says of 
the kingdom of Heaven : They are worth all that 
thou hast ? 

Chapter 4. 

The Complaint of Books against the 
Clergy already promoted. 

44 A generation of vipers destroying their own 
parents and base offspring of the ungrateful cuckoo, 
who when he has grown strong slays his nurse, 
the giver of his strength, are degenerate clerks 
with regard to books. Bring it again to mind and 
consider faithfully what ye receive through books, 
and ye will find that books are as it were the 
creators of your distinction, without which other 
favourers would have been wanting. 

45 In sooth, while still untrained and helpless ye 
crept up to us, ye spake as children, ye thought as 
children, ye cried as children and begged to be 
made partakers of our milk. But we being straight- 
way moved by your tears gave you the breast of 
grammar to suck, which ye plied continually with 
teeth and tongue, until ye lost your native bar- 
barousness and learned to speak with our tongues 

45 the mighty things of God. And next we clad you 
with the goodly garments of philosophy, rhetoric 
and dialectic, of which v/e had and have a store, 



while ye were naked as a tablet to be painted on. 
For all the household of philosophy are clothed 
with garments, that the nakedness and rawness 

47 of the intellect may be covered. After this, pro- 
viding you with the fourfold wings of the quad- 
rivials that ye might be winged like the seraphs 
and so mount above the cherubim, we sent you to 
a friend at whose door, if only ye importunately 
knocked, ye might borrow the three loaves of the 
Knowledge of the Trinity, in which consists the 
final felicity of every sojourner below. Nay, if ye 
deny that ye had these privileges, we boldly declare 
that ye either lost them by your carelessness, or 
that through your sloth ye spurned them when 

48 offered to you. If these things seem but a light 
matter to you, we will add yet greater things. Ye 
are a chosen people, a royal priesthood, a holy 
race, ye are a peculiar people chosen into the lot 
of God, ye are priests and ministers of God, nay, 
ye are called the very Church of God, as though 
the laity were not to be called churchmen. Ye, 
being preferred to the laity, sing psalms and hymns 
in the chancel, and serving the altar and living by 
the altar, make the true body of Christ, wherein 
God himself has honoured you not only above the 

49 laity, but even a little higher than the angels. For 
to whom of his angels has he said at any time : 
Thou art a priest for ever after the order of 
Melchisedech ? Ye dispense the patrimony of 
the crucified one to the poor, wherein it is required 


of stewards that a man be found faithful. Ye are 
shepherds of the Lord's flock, as well in example 
of life as in the word of doctrine, which is bound 
to repay you with milk and wool. 

50 Who are the givers of all these things, O clerks? 
Is it not books? Do ye remember therefore, 
we pray, how many and how great liberties and 
privileges are bestowed upon the clergy through 
us. In truth, taught by us who are the vessels of 
^^sdom and intellect, ye ascend the teacher's chair 

5 1 and are called of men Rabbi. By us ye become 
marvellous in the eyes of the laity, like great lights 
in the world, and possess the dignities of the 
Church according to your various stations. By 
us, while ye still lack the first down upon your 
cheeks, ye are established in your early years 
and bear the tonsure on your heads, while the 
dread sentence of the Church is heard : Touch not 
7nijie anoitited a?id do my prophets no harm^ and he 
who has rashly touched them let him forthwith 
by his own blow be smitten violently with the 

2 2 wound of an anathema. At length yielding your 
lives to wickedness, reaching the two paths of 
Pythagoras, ye choose the left branch, and going 
backward ye let got he lot of God which ye had 
first assumed, becoming companions of thieves. 
And thus ever going from bad to worse, dyed with 
theft and murder and manifold impurities, your 
fame and conscience stained by sins, at the bidding 
of justice ye are confined in manacles and fetters, 


and are kept to be punished by a most shameful 

53 death. Then your friend is put far away, nor is 
there any to mourn your lot. Peter swears that he 
knows not the man : the people cry to the judge : 
C7-udfy, crucify him ! if thou let this man go, thou 
art 7iot Ccesar'sfrie7id. Now all refuge has perished, 
for ye must stand before the judgment-seat, and 
there is no appeal, but only hanging is in store 

54 for you. While the wretched man's heart is thus 
filled with woe and only the sorrowing Muses 
bedew their cheeks with tears, in his strait is heard 
on every side the wailing appeal to us, and to avoid 
the danger of impending death he shows the slight 
sign of the ancient tonsure which we bestowed 
upon him, begging that we may be called to his aid 
and bear witness to the privilege bestowed upon 
him. Then straightway touched with pity we run 
to meet the prodigal son and snatch the fugitive 

55 slave from the gates of death. The book he has 
not forgotten is handed to him to be read, and 
while with lips stammering with fear he reads a few 
words the power of the judge is loosed, the accuser 
is withdrawn, and death is put to flight. O mar- 
vellous virtue of an empiric verse ! O saving 
antidote of dreadful ruin ! O precious reading of 
the psalter, which for this alone deserves to be 

q6 called the book of life ! Let the laity undergo 
the judgment of the secular arm, that either sewn 
up in sacks they may be carried out to Neptune, or 
planted in the earth may fructify for Pluto, or may 


be offered amid the flames as a fattened holocaust 
to Vulcan, or at least may be hung up as a victim 
to Juno ; while our nursling at a single reading of 
the book of life is handed over to the custody of 
the Bishop, and rigour is changed to favour, and 
the forum being transferred from the laity, death is 
routed by the clerk who is the nursling of books. 

57 But now let us speak of the clerks who are 
vessels of virtue. Which of you about to preach 
ascends the pulpit or the rostrum without in 
some way consulting us ? Which of you enters 
the schools to teach or to dispute without relying 
upon our support ? First of all it behoves you to 
eat the book with Ezechiel, that the belly of your 
memory may be sweetened within, and thus as with 
the panther refreshed, to whose breath all beasts 
and cattle long to approach, the sweet savour 
of the spices it has eaten may shed a perfume 

58 without. Thus our nature secretly working in 
our own, listeners hasten up gladly, as the load- 
stone draws the iron nothing loth. What an 
infinite host of books lie at Paris or Athens, 
and at the same time resound in Britain and in 
Rome ! In truth, while resting they yet move, 
and while retaining their own places they are 
carried about every way to the minds of listeners. 

59 Finally, by the knowledge of literature, we establish 
priests, bishops, cardinals, and the Pope, that all 
things in the ecclesiastical hierarchy may be fitly 
disposed. For it is from books that everything of 


good that befalls the clerical condition takes its 
origin. But let this suffice : for it pains us to 
recall what we have bestowed upon the degenerate 
clergy, because whatever gifts are distributed to 
the ungrateful seem to be lost rather than be- 

60 Let us next dwell a little on the recital of the 
wrongs with which they requite us, the contempts 
and cruelties of which we cannot recite an example 
in each kind, nay, scarcely the main classes of the 
several wrongs. In the first place, we are expelled 
by force and arms from the homes of the clergy, 
which are ours by hereditary right, who were used 
to have cells of quietness in the inner chamber, 
but alas ! in these unhappy times we are altogether 

61 exiled, suffering poverty without the gates. For 
our places are seized now by dogs, now by hawks, 
now by that biped beast whose cohabitation with 
the clergy was forbidden of old, from which we 
have always taught our nurslings to flee more than 
from the asp and cockatrice ; wherefore she, always 
jealous of the love of us, and never to be appeased, 
at length seeing us in some corner protected only 
by the web of some dead spider, with a frown 
abuses and reviles us with bitter words, declaring 
us alone of all the furniture in the house to be 
unnecessary, and complaining that we are useless 
for any household purpose, and advises that we 
should speedily be converted into rich caps, sendal 
and silk and twice-dyed purple, robes and furs, 


wool and linen : and, indeed, not without reason, 
if she could see our inmost hearts, if she had 
listened to our secret counsels, if she had read the 
book of Theophrastus or Valerius, or only heard 
the twenty - fifth chapter of Ecclesiasticus with 
understanding ears. 

62 And hence it is that we have to mourn for the 
homes of which we have been unjustly robbed ; 
and as to our coverings, not that they have not 
been given to us, but that the coverings anciently 
given to us have been torn by violent hands, inso- 
much that our soul is bowed down to the dust, 
our belly cleaveth unto the earth. We suffer from 
various diseases, enduring pains in our backs and 
sides ; we lie with our limbs unstrung by pals)^, 
and there is no man who layeth it to heart, and no 

63 man who provides a mollifying plaster. Our native 
whiteness that was clear with light has turned to 
dun and yellow, so that no leech who should see 
us would doubt that we are diseased with jaundice. 
Some of us are suffering from gout, as our twisted 
extremities plainly show. The smoke and dust by 
which we are continuously plagued have dulled 
the keenness of our visual rays, and are now in- 

64 fecting our bleared eyes with ophthalmia. Within 
we are devoured by the fierce gripings of our 
entrails, which hungry worms cease not to gnaw, 
and we undergo the corruption of the two Laza- 
ruses, nor is there anyone to anoint us with balm 
of cedar, nor to cry to us who have been four days 


dead and already stink, Lazarus come forth ! 
No healing drug is hound around our cruel 
wounds, which are so atrociously inflicted upon 
the innocent, and there is none to put a plaster 
upon our ulcers ; but ragged and shivering we are 
flung away into dark corners, or in tears take our 
place with holy Job upon his dunghill, or — too 
horrible to relate — are buried in the depths of the 

65 common sewers. The cushion is withdrawn that 
should support our evangelical sides, which ought 
to have the first claim upon the incomes of the 
clergy, and the common necessaries of life thus be 
for ever provided for us, who are entrusted to their 

66 Again, we complain of another sort of injury which 
is too often unjustly inflicted upon our persons. We 
are sold for bondmen and bondwomen, and lie as 
hostages in taverns with no one to redeem us. We 
fall a prey to the cruel shambles, where we see 
sheep and cattle slaughtered not without pious 
tears, and where we die a thousand times from 
such terrors as might frighten even the brave. We 
are handed over to Jews, Saracens, heretics and 
infidels, whose poison we always dread above every- 
thing, and by whom it is well known that some of 
our parents have been infected with pestiferous 

67 venom. In sooth, we who should be treated as 
masters in the sciences, and bear rule over the 
mechanics who should be subject to us, are instead 
handed over to the government of subordinates, as 


though some supremely noble monarch should be 
trodden under foot by rustic heels. Any seamster 
or cobbler or tailor or artificer of any trade keeps 
us shut up in prison for the luxurious and wanton 
pleasures of the clergy. 

68 Now we would pursue a new kind of injury by 
which we suffer alike in person and in fame, the 
dearest thing we have. Our purity of race is 
diminished every day, while new authors' names 
are imposed upon us by worthless compilers, trans- 
lators, and transformers, and losing our ancient 
nobility, while we are reborn in successive gene- 
rations, we become wholly degenerate ; and thus 
against our will the name of some wretched step- 
father is affixed to us, and the sons are robbed of 

69 the names of their true fathers. The verses of 

Virgil, while he was yet living, were claimed by an 

impostor; and a certain Fidentinus mendaciously 

usurped the works of Martial, whom Martial thus 

deservedly rebuked : 

" The book you read is, Fidentinus ! mine, 
Though read so badly, 't well may pass for thine !" 

What marvel, then, if when our authors are dead 
clerical apes use us to make broad their phylac- 
teries, since even while they are alive they try to 

70 seize us as soon as we are published? Ah ! how 
often ye pretend that we who are ancient are but 
lately born, and try to pass us off as sons who are 
really fathers, calling us who have made you clerks 
the production of your studies. Indeed, we de- 


rived our origin from Athens, though we are now 
supposed to be from Rome ; for Carmentis was 
always the pilferer of Cadmus, and we who were 
but lately born in England, will to-morrow be 
born again in Paris ; and thence being carried 
to Bologna, will obtain an Italian origin, based 

7 1 upon no affinity of blood. Alas ! how ye commit 
us to treacherous copyists to be written, how cor- 
ruptly ye read us and kill us by medication, while 
ye supposed ye were correcting us with pious zeal. 
Oftentimes we have to endure barbarous inter- 
preters, and those who are ignorant of foreign 
idioms presume to translate us from one language 
into another ; and thus all propriety of speech is 
lost and our sense is shamefully mutilated contrary 
to the meaning of the author ! Truly noble would 
have been the condition of books, if it had not 
been for the presumption of the tower of Babel, if 
but one kind of speech had been transmitted by 
the whole human race. 

72 We will add the last clause of our long lament, 
though far too short for the materials that we have. 
For in us the natural use is changed to that which 
is against nature, while we who are the light of 
faithful souls everywhere fall a prey to painters 
knowing nought of letters, and are entrusted to 
goldsmiths to become, as though we were not 
sacred vessels of wisdom, repositories of gold-leaf. 
We fall undeservedly into the power of laymen, 
which is more bitter to us than any death, since 


they have sold our people for nought, and our 
enemies themselves are our judges. 
73 It is clear from what we have said what infinite 
invectives we could hurl against the clergy, if we 
did not think of our own reputation. For the 
soldier whose campaigns are over venerates his 
shield and arms, and grateful Corydon shows 
regard for his decaying team, harrow, flail and 
mattock, and every manual artificer for the in- 
struments of his craft ; it is only the ungrateful 
cleric who despises and neglects those things which 
have ever been the foundation of his honours. 

Chapter 5. 

The Complaint of Books against the 

74 The venerable devotion of the religious orders is 
wont to be solicitous in the care of books and to 
delight in their society, as if they were the only 
riches. For some used to write them with their 
own hands between the hours of prayer, and gave 
to the making of books such intervals as they could 
secure and the times appointed for the recreation of 
the body. By whose labours there are resplendent 
to-day in most monasteries these sacred treasuries 


full of cherubic letters, for giving the knowledge of 
salvation to the student and a delectable light to 

75 the paths of the laity. O manual toil, happier 
than any agricultural task ! O devout solicitude, 
where neither Martha nor Mary deserves to be 
rebuked ! O joyful house, in which the fruitful 
Leah does not envy the beauteous Rachel, but 
action and contemplation share each other's joys ! 
O happy charge, destined to benefit endless gene- 
rations of posterity, with which no planting of trees, 
no sowing of seeds, no pastoral delight in herds, 
no building of fortified camps can be compared ! 

76 Wherefore the memory of those fathers should be 
immortal, who delighted only in the treasures of 
wisdom, who most laboriously provided shining 
lamps against future darkness, and against hunger 
of hearing the word of God most carefully prepared 
not bread baked in the ashes, nor of barley, nor 
musty, but unleavened loaves made of the finest 
wheat of divine wisdom, with which hungry souls 

77 might be joyfully fed. These men were the 
stoutest champions of the Christian army, who 
defended our weakness by their most valiant arms ; 
they were in their time the most cunning takers 
of foxes, who have left us their nets, that we might 
catch the young foxes, who cease not to devour the 
growing vines. Of a truth, noble fathers, worthy 
of perpetual benediction, ye would have been 
deservedly happy, if ye had been allowed to 
beget offspring like yourselves, and to leave no 


degenerate or doubtful progeny for the benefit of 
future times. 
yS But, painful to relate, now slothful Thersites 
handles the arms of Achilles and the choice trap- 
pings of war-horses are spread upon lazy asses, 
winking owls lord it in the eagle's nest, and the 
cowardly kite sits upon the perch of the hawk. 

Liber Bacchus is ever loved, 
And is into their bellies shoved, 

By day and by night ; 
Liber Codex is neglected, 
And with scornful hand rejected. 

Far out of their sight. 

79 And as if the simple monastic folk of modern 
times were deceived by a confusion of names, 
while Liber Fater is preferred to Liber Fatrum^ 
the study of the monks nowadays is in the 
emptying of cups and not the emending of books ; 
to which they do not hesitate to add the wanton 
music of Timotheus, jealous of chastity, and thus 
the song of the merrymaker and not the chant of the 

80 mourner is become the office of the monks. Flocks 
and fleeces, crops and granaries, leeks and pot- 
herbs, drink and goblets, are nowadays the 
reading and study of the monks, except a few 
elect ones, in whom lingers not the image but 
some slight vestige of the fathers that preceded 
them. And again, no materials at all are furnished 
us to commend the canons regular for their care 
or study of us, who though they bear their name 


of honour from their twofold rule, yet have 
neglected the notable clause of Augustine's rule, 
in which we are commended to his clergy in these 
words : Let hooks be asked for each day at a gtvefi 
hour ; he who asks for them after the hour is not to 

81 receive the?n. Scarcely anyone observes this devout 
rule of study after saying the prayers of the Church, 
but to care for the things of this world and to look 
at the plough that has been left is reckoned the 
highest wisdom. They take up bow and quiver, 
embrace arms and shield, devote the tribute of 
alms to dogs and not to the poor, become the 
slaves of dice and draughts, and of all such things 
as we are wont to forbid even to the secular clergy, 
so that we need not marvel if they disdain to look 
upon us, whom they see so much opposed to their 
mode of life. 

82 Come then, reverend fathers, deign to recall 
your fathers and devote yourselves more faithfully 
to the study of holy books, without which all 
religion will stagger, without which the virtue of 
devotion will dry up like a sherd, and without 
which ye can afford no light to the world. 


Chapter 6. 

The Complaint of Books against the 

^Z Poor in spirit but most rich in faith, offscourings 
of the world and salt of the earth, despisers of the 
world and fishers of men, how happy are ye, if 
suffering penury for Christ ye know how to possess 
your souls in patience ! For it is not want the 
avenger of iniquity, nor the adverse fortune of 
your parents, nor violent necessity that has thus 
oppressed you with beggary, but a devout will and 
Christ-like election, by which ye have chosen 
that life as the best, which God Almighty made 
man as well by word as by example declared to be 

84 the best. In truth, ye are the latest offspring of 
the ever-fruitful Church, of late divinely substituted 
for the Fathers and the Prophets, that your sound 
may go forth into all the earth, and that instructed 
by our healthful doctrines ye may preach before 
all kings and nations the invincible faith of Christ. 

85 Moreover, that the faith of the Fathers is chiefly 
enshrined in books the second chapter has suffi- 
ciently shown, from which it is clearer than light 
that ye ought to be zealous lovers of books above 
all other Christians. Ye are commanded to sow 


upon all waters, because the Most High is no 
respecter of persons, nor does the Most Holy de- 
sire the death of sinners, who offered himself to 
die for them, but desires to heal the contrite in 
heart, to raise the fallen, and to correct the perverse 

86 in the spirit of lenity. For which most salutary 
purpose our kindly Mother Church has planted 
you freely, and having planted has watered you 
with favours, and having watered you has estab- 
lished you with privileges, that ye may be co- 
workers with pastors and curates in procuring the 
salvation of faithful souls. Wherefore, that the 
order of Preachers was principally instituted for 
the study of the Holy Scriptures and the salvation 
of their neighbours, is declared by their constitutions, 
so that not only from the rule of Bishop Augustine, 
which directs books to be asked for every day, but 
as soon as they have read the prologue of the said 
constitutions they may know from the very title of 
the same that they are pledged to the love of 

87 But alas ! a threefold care of superfluities, viz., 
of the stomach, of dress, and of houses, has seduced 
these men and others following their example from 
the paternal care of books, and from their study. 
For forgetting the providence of the Saviour (who 
is declared by the Psalmist to think upon the poor 
and needy), they are occupied with the wants of the 
perishing body, that their feasts may be splendid 
and their garments luxurious, against the rule, 


and the fabrics of their buildings, Hke the battle- 
ments of castles, carried to a height incompatible 

88 with poverty. Because of these three things, we 
books, who have ever procured their advancement 
and have granted them to sit among the powerful 
and noble, are put far from their heart's affection 
and are reckoned as superfluities ; except that they 
rely upon some treatises of small value, from 
which they derive strange heresies and apocryphal 
imbecilities, not for the refreshment of souls, but 

80 rather for tickling the ears of the listeners. The 
holy scripture is not expounded, but is neglected 
and treated as though it were commonplace and 
known to all, though very few have touched its hem, 
and though its depth is such, as Holy Augustine de- 
clares, that it cannot be understood by the human 
intellect, however long it may toil with the utmost 
intensity of study. From this he who devotes 
himself to it assiduously, if only He will vouch- 
safe to open the door who has established the 
spirit of piety, may unfold a thousand lessons of 
moral teaching, which will flourish with the 
freshest novelty and will cherish the intelligence 
of the listeners with the most delightful savours. 
no Wherefore the first professors of evangelical poverty, 
after some slight homage paid to secular science, 
collecting all their force of intellect, devoted them- 
selves to labours upon the sacred scripture, medi- 
tating day and night on the law of the Lord. And 
whatever they could steal from their famishing 



beily, or intercept from their half-covered body, 
they thought it the highest gain to spend in buying 
or correcting books. Whose worldly contemporaries 
observing their devotion and study, bestowed upon 
them for the edification of the whole Church the 
books which they had collected at great expense in 
the various parts of the world. 

91 In truth, in these days as ye are engaged with 
all diligence in pursuit of gain, it may be reasonably 
believed, if we speak according to human notions, 
that God thinks less upon those whom he per- 
ceives to distrust his promises, putting their hope 
in human providence, not considering the raven, 
nor the lilies, whom the Most High feeds and 
arrays. Ye do not think upon Daniel and the 
bearer of the mess of boiled pottage, nor recollect 
Elijah who was delivered from hunger once in the 
desert by angels, again in the torrent by ravens, 
and again in Sarepta by the widow, through the 
divine bounty, which gives to all flesh their meat 

92 in due season. Ye descend (as we fear) by a 
wretched anticlimax, distrust of the divine goodness 
producing reliance upon your own prudence, and 
reliance upon your own prudence begetting anxiety 
about worldly things, and excessive anxiety about 
worldly things taking away the love as well as the 
study of books ; and thus poverty in these days is 
abused to the injury of the word of God, which ye 
have chosen only for profit's sake. 

93 With summer fruit, as the people gossip, ye 


attract boys to religion, whom when they have 
taken the vows ye do not instruct by fear and 
force, as their age requires, but allow them to devote 
themselves to begging expeditions, and suffer them 
to spend the time, in which they might be learning, 
in procuring the favour of friends, to the annoyance 
of their parents, the danger of the boys, and the 
detriment of the order. And thus no doubt it 
happens that those who were not compelled to 
learn as unwilling boys, when they grow up pre- 
sume to teach though utterly unworthy and un- 
learned, and a small error in the beginning becomes 

94 a very great one in the end. For there grows up 
among your promiscuous flock of laity a pestilent 
multitude of creatures, who nevertheless the more 
shamelessly force themselves into the office of 
preaching, the less they understand what they are 
saying, to the contempt of the Divine word and 

95 the injury of souls. In truth against the law ye 
plough with an ox and an ass together, in com- 
mitting the cultivation of the Lord's field to learned 
and unlearned. Side by side, it is written, the 
oxen were ploughing and the asses feeding beside 
them : since it is the duty of the discreet to preach, 
but of the simple to feed themselves in silence by 
the hearing of sacred eloquence. How many 
stones ye fling upon the heap of Mercury nowa- 
days ! How many marriages ye procure for the 
eunuchs of wisdom ! How many blind watchmen 
ye bid go round about the walls of the Church ! 


96 O idle fishermen, using only the nets of others, 
which when torn it is all ye can do to clumsily 
repair, but can net no new ones of your own ! ye 
enter on the labours of others, ye repeat the 
lessons of others, ye mouth with theatric effort 
the superficially repeated wisdom of others. As 
the silly parrot imitates the words that he has 
heard, so such men are mere reciters of all, 
but authors of nothing, imitating Balaam's ass, 
which, though senseless of itself, yet became elo- 
quent of speech and the teacher of its master 

97 though a prophet. Recover yourselves, O poor in 
Christ, and studiously regard us books, without 
which ye can never be properly shod in the pre- 
paration of the gospel of peace. 

Paul the Apostle, preacher of the truth and 
excellent teacher of the nations, for all his gear 
bade three things to be brought to him by Timothy, 
his cloak, books and parchments, affording an 
example to ecclesiastics that they should w^ar 
dress in moderation, and should have books for 
aid in study, and parchments, which the Apostle 
especially esteems, for writing : and especially, he 

98 says, the parchments. And truly that clerk is 
crippled and maimed to his disablement in many 
v/ays, who is entirely ignorant of the art of writing. 
He beats the air with words and edifies only those 
who are present, but does nothing for the absent 
and for posterity. The man bore a writer's ink- 
horn upon his loins, who set a mark Tau upon the 


foreheads of the men that sigh and cry, Ezechiel 9 ; 
teaching in a figure that if any lack skill in writing, 
he shall not undertake the task of preaching re- 

99 Finally, in conclusion of the present chapter, 
books implore of you : make your young men who 
though ignorant are apt of intellect apply them- 
selves to study, furnishing them with necessaries, 
that )'e may teach them not only goodness but 
discipline and science, may terrify them by blows, 
charm them by blandishments, mollify them by 
gifts, and urge them on by painful rigour, so that they 
may become at once Socratics in morals and Peri- 

100 patetics in learning. Yesterday, as it were at the 
eleventh hour, the prudent householder introduced 
you into his vineyard. Repent of idleness before 
it is too late : would that with the cunning steward 
ye might be ashamed of begging so shamelessly ; 
for then no doubt ye would devote yourselves 
more assiduously to us books and to study. 

Chapter 7. 

The Complaint of Books against Wars. 

1 01 Almighty Author and Lover of peace, scatter the 
nations that delight in war, which is above all 
plagues injurious to books. For wars being without 


the control of reason make a wild assault on every- 
thing they comes across, and lacking the check 
of reason they push on without discretion or dis- 

102 tinction to destroy the vessels of reason. Then 
the wise Apollo becomes the Python's prey, and 
Phronesis, the pious mother, becomes subject to 
the power of Phrenzy. Then winged Pegasus is 
shut up in the stall of Corydon, and eloquent 
Mercury is strangled. Then wise Pallas is struck 
down by the dagger of error, and the charming 
Pierides are smitten by the truculent tyranny of 

103 madness. O cruel spectacle ! where you may see 
the Phoebus of philosophers, the all-wise Aristotle, 
whom God himself made master of the master of 
the v/orld, enchained by wicked hands and borne 
in shameful irons on the shoulders of gladiators 
from his sacred home. There you may see him who 
was worthy to be lawgiver to the lawgiver of the 
world and to hold empire over its emperor made 
the slave of vile buffoons by the most unrighteous 

104 laws of war. O most wicked power of darkness, 
which does not fear to undo the approved divinity 
of Plato, who alone was worthy to submit to the 
view of the Creator, before he assuaged the strife 
of warring chaos, and before form had put on its 
garb of matter, the ideal types, in order to de- 
monstrate the archetypal universe to its author, so 
that the world of sense might be modelled after 
the supernal pattern. O tearful sight ! where the 
moral Socrates, whose acts were virtue and whose 


discourse was science, who deduced political jus- 
tice from the principles of nature, is seen enslaved 

105 to some rascal robber. We bemoan Pythagoras, 
the parent of harmony, as, brutally scourged by the 
harrying furies of war, he utters not a song but 
the wailings of a dove. We mourn, too, for Zeno, 
who lest he should betray his secret bit off his 
tongue and fearlessly spat it out at the tyrant, and 
now, alas ! is brayed and crushed to death in a 
mortar by Diomedon. 

106 In sooth we cannot mourn with the grief that 
they deserve all the various books that have perished 
by the fate of war in various parts of the world. 
Yet we must tearfully recount the dreadful ruin 
which was caused in Egypt by the auxiliaries in the 
Alexandrian war, w^hen seven hundred thousand 
volumes were consumed by fire. These volumes 
had been collected by the royal Ptolemies through 
long periods of time, as Aulus Gellius relates. 

107 What an Atlantean progeny must be supposed to 
have then perished : including the motions of the 
spheres, all the conjunctions of the planets, the 
nature of the galaxy, and the prognostic genera- 
tions of comets, and all that exists in the heavens 
or in the ether ! Who would not shudder at such 
a hapless holocaust, where ink is offered up instead 
of blood, where the glowing ashes of crackHng 
parchment were encarnadined with blood, where 
the devouring flames consumed so many thousands 
of innocents in whose mouth was no guile, where 


the unsparing fire turned into stinking ashes so 
icS many shrines of eternal truth ? A lesser crime than 
this is the sacrifice of Jephthah or Agamemnon, 
where a pious daughter is slain by a father's sword. 
How many labours of the famous Hercules shall we 
suppose then perished, who because of his know- 
ledge of astronomy is said to have sustained the 
heaven on his unyielding neck, when Hercules 
was now for the second time cast into the flames. 
109 The secrets of the heavens, which Jonithus learnt 
not from man or through man but received by 
divine inspiration ; what his brother Zoroaster, 
the servant of unclean spirits, taught the Bactrians ; 
what holy Enoch, the prefect of Paradise, pro- 
phesied before he was taken from the world, and 
finally, what the first Adam taught his children of 
the things to come, which he had seen when caught 
up in an ecstasy in the book of eternity, are 
believed to have perished in those horrid flames, 
no The religion of the Egyptians, which the book 
of the Perfect Word so commends ; the excellent 
polity of the older Athens, which preceded by 
nine thousand years the Athens of Greece ; the 
charms of the Chaldceans ; the observations of the 
Arabs and Indians ; the ceremonies of the Jews ; 
the architecture of the Babylonians ; the agricul- 
ture of Noah ; the magic arts of Moses ; the 
geometry of Joshua; the enigmas of Samson ; the 
problems of Solomon from the cedar of Lebanon 
to the hyssop ; the antidotes of Aesculapius ; the 


grammar of Cadmus ; the poems of Parnassus; the 
oracles of Apollo ; the argonautics of Jason ; the 
stratagems of Palamedes, and infinite other secrets 
of science are believed to have perished at the 
time of this conflagration. 

111 Nay, Aristotle would not have missed the 
quadrature of the circle, if only baleful conflicts 
had spared the books of the ancients, who knew 
all the methods of nature. He would not have 
left the problem of the eternity of the world an 
open question, nor, as is credibly conceived, would 
he have had any doubts of the plurality of 
human intellects and of their eternity, if the 
perfect sciences of the ancients had not been 

112 exposed to the calamities of hateful wars. For 
by wars we are scattered into foreign lands, are 
mutilated, wounded, and shamefully disfigured, are 
buried under the earth and overwhelmed in the 
sea, are devoured by the flames and destroyed by 
every kind of death. How much of our blood was 
shed by warlike Scipio, when he was eagerly com- 
passing the overthrow of Carthage, the opponent 

113 and rival of the Roman empire! How many 
thousands of thousands of us did the ten years' 
war of Troy dismiss from the light of day ! How 
many were driven by Antony, after the murder of 
Tully, to seek hiding places in foreign provinces ! 
How many of us were scattered by Thcodoric, 
while Boethius was in exile, into the different 
quarters of the world, Uke sheep whose shepherd 


has been struck down ! How many, when Seneca 
fell a victim to the cruelty of Nero, and willing yet 
unwilling passed the gates of death, took leave of 
him and retired in tears, not even knowing in what 
quarter to seek for shelter ! 

114 Happy was that translation of books which 
Xerxes is said to have made to Persia from 
Athens, and which Seleucus brought back again 
from Persia to Athens. O glad and joyful return ! 
O wondrous joy, which you might then see in 
Athens, when the mother went in triumph to meet 
her progeny, and again showed the chambers in 
which they had been nursed to her now aging 
children ! Their old homes were restored to their 
former inmates, and forthwith boards of cedar with 
shelves and beams of gopher wood are most 
skilfully planed; inscriptions of gold and ivory 
are designed for the several compartments, to 
which the volumes themselves are reverently 
brought and pleasantly arranged, so that no one 
hinders the entrance of another or injures its 
brother by excessive crowding. 

115 But in truth infinite are the losses which have 
been inflicted upon the race of books by wars and 
tumults. And as it is by no means possible to 
enumerate and survey infinity, we will here finally 
set up the Gades of our complaint, and turn again 
to the prayers with which we began, humbly im- 
ploring that the Ruler of Olympus and the Most 
High Governor of all the world will establish 


peace and dispel wars and make our days tranquil 
under his protection. 

Chapter 8. 

Of the numerous Opportunities we have 
had of collecting a store of Books. 

1 16 Since to everything there is a season and an 
opportunity, as the wise Ecclesiastes witnesseth, 
let us now proceed to relate the manifold oppor- 
tunities through which we have been assisted by 
the divine goodness in the acquisition of books. 

117 Although from our youth upwards we had always 
delighted in holding social commune with learned 
men and lovers of books, yet when we prospered 
in the world and made acquaintance with the 
King's majesty and were received into his house- 
hold, we obtained ampler facilities for visiting 

. everywhere as we would, and of hunting as it were 
certain most choice preserves, libraries private as 
well as public and of the regular as well as of the 

118 secular clergy. And indeed while we filled various 
offices to the victorious Prince and splendidly 
triumphant King of England, Edward the Third 
from the Conquest — whose reign may the Almighty 
long and peacefully continue — first those about 
his court, but then those concerning the public 


affairs of his kingdom, namely the offices of 
Chancellor and Treasurer, there was afforded to 
us, in consideration of the royal favour, easy access 
for the purpose of freely searching the retreats of 

119 books. In fact, the fame of our love of them had 
been soon winged abroad everywhere, and we were 
reported to burn with such desire for books, 
and especially old ones, that it was more easy for 
any man to gain our favour by means of books 
than of money. Wherefore, since supported by the 
goodness of the aforesaid prince of worthy memory, 
we were able to requite a man well or ill, to benefit 
or injure mightily great as well as small, there 
flowed in, instead of presents and guerdons, and 
instead of gifts and jewels, soiled tracts and 
battered codices, gladsome alike to our eye 

120 and heart. Then the aumbries of the most 
famous monasteries were thrown open, cases were 
unlocked and caskets were undone, and volumes 
that had slumbered through long ages in their 
tombs wake up and are astonished, and those that 
had lain hidden in dark places are bathed in the 
ray of unwonted light. These long lifeless books, 
once most dainty, but now become corrupt and 
loathsome, covered with litters of mice and pierced 
with the gnawings of the worms, and who were 
once clothed in purple and fine linen, now lying 
in sackcloth and ashes, given up to oblivion, 
seemed to have become habitations of the moth. 

121 Natheless among these, seizing the opportunity, 


we would sit down with more delight than a fasti- 
dious j)hysician among his stores of gums and 
spices, and there we found the object and the stimu- 
lus of our affections. Thus the sacred vessels of 
learning came into our control and stewardship ; 
some by gift, others by purchase, and some lent to 
us for a season. 

122 No wonder that when people saw that we were 
contented with gifts of this kind, they were anxious 
of their o\\ti accord to minister to our needs 
with those things that they were more willing to 
dispense with than the things they secured by 
ministering to our service. And in good will v/e 
strove so to forward their affairs that gain accrued 
to them, while justice suffered no disparagement. 

123 Indeed, if we had loved gold an d silver goblets, high- 
bred horses, or no small sums of money, we might 
in those days have furnished forth a rich treasury. 
But in truth we wanted manuscripts not money- 
scripts ; we loved codices more than florins, and 
preferred slender pamphlets to pampered palfreys. 

124 Besides all this, we v/ere frequently made ambas- 
sador of this most illustrious Prince of everlasting 
memory, and were sent on the most various affairs 
of state, now to the Holy See, now to the Court of 
France, and again to various powers of the world, 
on tedious embassies and in times of danger, 
always carrying with us, however, that love of books 

125 which many waters could not quench. For this 
like a delicious draught sweetened the bitterness of 


our journey ings and after the perplexing intricacies 
and troublesome difficulties of causes and the all 
but inextricable labyrinths of public affairs afforded 
us a little breathing space to enjoy a balmier 

126 O Holy God of Gods in Sion, what a mighty 
stream of pleasure made glad our hearts whenever 
we had leisure to visit Paris, the Paradise of the 
world, and to linger there; where the days seemed 
ever few for the greatness of our love ! There are 
delightful libraries, more aromatic than stores of 
spicery ; there are luxuriant parks of all manner of 
volumes ; there are Academic meads shaken by 
the tramp of scholars ; there are lounges of Athens ; 
walks of the Peripatetics ; peaks of Parnassus ; and 

127 porches of the Stoics. There is seen the surveyor 
of all arts and sciences Aristotle, to whom belongs 
all that is most excellent in doctrine, so far as re- 
lates to this passing sublunary world ; there Ptolemy 
measures epicycles and eccentric apogees and the 
nodes of the planets by figures and numbers ; there 
Paul reveals the mysteries ; there his neighbour 
Dionysius arranges and distinguishes the hierarchies; 

128 there the virgin Carmentis reproduces in Latin 
characters all that Cadmus collected in Phoenician 
letters; there indeed opening our treasuries and 
unfastening our purse-strings we scattered money 
with joyous heart and purchased inestimable books 

129 with mud and sand. It is naught, it is naught, 
saith every buyer. But in vain ; for behold how 


good and how pleasant it is to gather together the 
arms of the clerical warfare, that we may have the 
means to crush the attacks of heretics, if they arise. 

130 Further, we are aware that we obtained most 
excellent opportunities of collecting in the following 
way. From our early years we attached to our 
society with the most exquisite solicitude and 
discarding all partiality all such masters and 
scholars and professors in the several faculties 
as had become most distinguished by their 
subtlety of mind and the fame of their learning. 
Deriving consolation from their sympathetic con- 
versation, we were delightfully entertained, now by 
demonstrative chains of reasoning, now by the 
recital of physical processes and the treatises of 
the doctors of the Church, now by stimulating 
discourses on the allegorical meanings of things, as 

131 by a rich and well-varied intellectual feast. Such 
men we chose as comrades in our years of learning, 
as companions in our chamber, as associates on 
our journeys, as guests at our table, and, in short, 
as helpmates in all the vicissitudes of life. But as 
no happiness is permitted to endure for long, we were 
sometimes deprived of the bodily companionship of 
some of these shining lights, when justice looking 
down from heaven, the ecclesiastical preferments 
and dignities that they deserved fell to their portion. 
And thus it happened, as was only right, that in 
attending to their own cures they were obliged 
to absent themselves from attendance upon us. 


132 We will add yet another very convenient way by 
which a great multitude of books old as well as new 
came into our hands. For we never regarded with 
disdain or disgust the poverty of the mendicant 
orders, adopted for the sake of Christ ; but in all 
parts of the world took them into the kindly arms 
of our compassion, allured them by the most 
friendly familiarity into devotion to ourselves, and 
having so allured them cherished them with muni- 
ficent liberality of beneficence for the sake of God, 
becoming benefactors of all of them in general in 
such wise that we seemed none the less to have 
adopted certain individuals with a special fatherly 

133 affection. To these men we were as a refuge in 
every case of need, and never refused to them the 
shelter of our favour, wherefore we deserved to find 
them most special furtherers of our wishes and 
promoters thereof in act and deed, who compass- 
ing land and sea, traversing the circuit of the 
world, and ransacking the universities and high 
schools of various provinces, were zealous in 
combatting for our desires, in the sure and 

134 certain hope of reward. What leveret could 
escape amidst so many keen-sighted hunters ? 
What little fish could evade in turn their hooks 
and nets and snares ? From the body of the 
Sacred Law down to the booklet containing the 
fallacies of yesterday, nothing could escape these 
searchers. Was some devout discourse uttered 
at the fountain-head of Christian faith, the holy 

CHAPTER VI 11, 203 

Roman Curia, or was some strange question 
ventilated with novel arguments ; did the solidity 
of Paris, which is now more zealous in the study of 
antiquity than in the subtle investigation of truth, 
did English subtlety, which illumined by the lights 
of former times i's always sending forth fresh rays 
of truth, produce anything to the advancement of 
science or the declaration of the faith, this was 
instantly poured still fresh into our ears, ungarbled 
by any babbler, unmutilated by any trifler, but 
passing straight from the purest of vvune-presses 
into the vats of our memory to be clarified. 

135 But whenever it happened that we turned aside 
to the cities and places where the mendicants v/e 
have mentioned had their convents, we did not 
disdain to visit their libraries and any other re- 
positories of books ; nay, there we found heaped up 
amid the utmost poverty the utmost riches of 
wisdom. We discovered in their fardels and baskets 
not only crumbs falling from the masters' table for 
the dogs, but the shevvbread without leaven and 
the bread of angels having in it all that is delicious ; 
and indeed the garners of Joseph full of corn, 
and all the spoil of the Egyptians and the very pre- 
cious gifts which Queen Sheba brought to Solomon. 

136 These men are as ants ever preparing their meat 
in the summer, and ingenious bees continually 
fabricating cells of honey. They are successors 
of Bezeleel in devising all manner of work- 
manship in silver and gold and precious stones 



for decorating the temple of the Church. They 
are cunning embroiderers, who fashion the breast- 
plate and ephod of the high priest and all the 
various vestments of the priests. They fashion 
the curtains of linen and hair and coverings of 
ram's skins dyed red with which to adorn the 
tabernacle of the Church militant. They are 
husbandmen that sow, oxen treading out corn, 
sounding trumpets, shining Pleiades and stars 
remaining in their courses, which cease not to fight 

137 against Sisera. And to pay due regard to truth, 
without prejudice to the judgment of any, although 
they lately at the eleventh hour have entered the 
lord's vineyard, as the books that are so fond of 
us eagerly declared in our sixth chapter, they have 
added more in this brief hour to the stock of 
the sacred books than all the other vine-dressers ; 
following in the footsteps of Paul, the last to be 
called but the first in preaching, who spread the 

138 gospel of Christ more widely than all others. Of 
these men, when we were raised to the episcopate 
we had several of both orders, viz. the Preachers 
and Minors, as personal attendants and com- 
panions at our board, men distinguished no less 
in letters than in morals, who devoted themselves 
with unwearied zeal to the correction, exposition, 
tabulation and compilation of various volumes. 

139 But although we have acquired a very numerous 
store of ancient as well as modern works by the 
manifold intermediation of the religious, yet we 


must laud the Preachers with special praise, in that 
we have found them above all the religious most 
freelycommunicativeof their stores without jealousy, 
and proved them to be imbued with an almost 
divine liberality, not greedy but fitting possessors of 
luminous wisdom. 

Besides all the opportunities mentioned above, 
we secured the acquaintance of stationers and 
booksellers, not only within our own country, but of 
those spread over the realms of France, Germany, 
and Italy, money flying forth in abundance to an- 
ticipate their demands ; nor were they hindered by 
any distance or by the fury of the seas, or by the 
lack of means for their expenses, from sending or 
bringing to us the books that we required. For 
they well knew that their expectations of our 
bounty would not be defrauded, but that ample 
repayment with usury was to be found with us. 

Nor, finally, did our good-fellowship, which aimed 
to captivate the afl'ection of all, overlook the rectors 
of schools and the instructors of rude boys. But 
rather, when we had an opportunity, we entered 
their little plots and gardens and gathered sweet- 
smelling flowers from the surface and dug up their 
roots, obsolete indeed, but still useful to the student, 
which might when their rank barbarism was di- 
gested heal the pectoral arteries with the gift of elo- 
quence. Amongst the mass of these things we found 
some greatly meriting to be restored, which when 
skilfully cleansed and freed from the disfiguring 


rust of age, deserved to be renovated into comeli- 
ness of aspect. And applying in full measure the 
necessary means, as a type of the resurrection to 
come, we resuscitated them and restored them 
again to new life and health. 

143 Moreover, we had always in our different manors 
no small multitude of copyists and scribes, of 
binders, correctors, illuminators, and generally of 
all who could usefully labour in the service of 
books. Finally, all of both sexes and of every rank 
or position who had any kind of association with 
books, could most easily open by their knocking 
the door of our heart, and find a fit resting-place in 

144 our affection and favour. In so much did we 
receive those who brought books, that the multitude 
of those who had preceded them did not lessen 
the welcome of the after-comers, nor were the 
favours we had awarded yesterday prejudicial to 
those of to-day. Wherefore, ever using all the 
persons we have named as a kind of magnets to 
attract books, we had the desired accession of 
the vessels of science and a multitudinous flight of 
the finest volumes. 

And this is what we undertook to narrate in the 
present chapter. 


Chapter 9. 

How although we preferred the Works of 

the Ancients we have not condemned 

the Studies of the Moderns. 

145 Although the novelties of the moderns were 
never disagreeable to our desires, who have always 
cherished with grateful affection those who devote 
themselves to study and who add anything either 
ingenious or useful to the opinions of our fore- 
fathers, yet we have always desired with more 
undoubting avidity to investigate the well-tested 
labours of the ancients. For whether they had 
by nature a greater vigour of mental sagacity, or 
whether they perhaps indulged in closer application 
to study, or whether they were assisted in their 
progress by both these things, one thing we are 
perfectly clear about, that their successors are 
barely capable of discussing the discoveries of their 
forerunners, and of acquiring those things as pupils 
which the ancients dug out by difficult efforts of 

146 discovery. For as we read that the men of old 
were of a more excellent degree of bodily develop- 
ment than modern times are found to produce, it 
is by no means absurd to suppose that most of the 
ancients were distinguished by brighter faculties, 


seeing that in the labours they accomphshed of 
both kinds they are inimitable by posterity. And 
so Phocas writes in the prologue to his Grammar ; 

Since all things have been said by men of sense, 
The only novelty is — to condense. 

147 But in truth, if we speak of fervour of learning 
and diligence in study, they gave up all their lives 
to philosophy ; while nowadays our contemporaries 
carelessly spend a few years of hot youth, alternating 
with the excesses of vice, and when the passions 
have been calmed, and they have attained the 
capacity of discerning truth so difficult to discover, 
they soon become involved in worldly affairs and 
retire, bidding farewell to the schools of philosophy, 

148 They offer the fuming must of their youthful 
intellect to the difficulties of philosophy, and 
bestow the clearer wine upon the money-making 
business of Hfe. Further, as Ovid in the first book 
of the De Vetula justly complains : 

The hearts of all men after gold asph^e ; 
Few study to be wise, more to acquire : 
Thus, Science ! all thy virgin charms are sold. 
Whose chaste embraces should disdain their gold. 
Who seek not thee thyself, but pelf through thee. 
Longing for riches, not philosophy. 

And further on i 

Thus Philosophy is seers 
Exiled, and Philopecuny is queen. 



which is known to be the most violent poison of 

149 How the ancients indeed regarded life as the 
only limit of study, is shown by Valerius, in his 
book addressed to Tiberius, by many examples. 
Carneades, he says, was a laborious and lifelong 
soldier of wisdom : after he had lived ninety years, 
the same day put an end to his life and his philo- 
sophizing. Isocrates in his ninety- fourth year 
wrote a most noble work. Sophocles did the 
same when nearly a hundred years old. Simonides 
wrote poems in his eightieth year. Aulus Gellius 
did not desire to live longer than he should be able 
to write, as he says himself in the prologue to the 
Nodes Atticce. 

150 The fervour of study which possessed Euclid the 
Socratic, Taurus the philosopher used to relate to 
incite young men to study, as GeUius tells in the 
book we have mentioned. For the Athenians, 
hating the people of IMegara, decreed that if any 
of the Megarensians entered Athens, he should be 
put to death. Then Euclid, who was a Megaren- 
sian, and had attended the lectures of Socrates 
before this decree, disguising himself in a woman's 
dress, used to go from IMegara to Athens by night 
to hear Socrates, a distance of twenty miles and 

151 back. Imprudent and excessive was the fervour 
of Archimedes, a lover of geometry, who would 
not declare his name, nor lift his head from the 
diagram he had drawn, by which he might have 


prolonged his life, but thinking more of study than 
of life dyed with his life-blood the figure he was 

152 There are very many such examples of our 
proposition, but the brevity we aim at does not 
allow us to recall them. But, painful to relate, 
the clerks who are famous in these days pursue a 
very different course. Afflicted with ambition in 
their tender years, and slightly fastening to their 
untried arms the Icarian wings of presumption, 
they prematurely snatch the master's cap; and mere 
boys become unworthy professors of the several 
faculties, through which they do not make their 
way step by step, but like goats ascend by leaps 
and bounds ; and having slightly tasted of the 
mighty stream, they think that they have drunk 
it dry, though their throats are hardly moistened. 

153 And because they are not grounded in the first 
rudiments at the fitting time, they build a tottering 
edifice on an unstable foundation, and now that 
they have grown up, they are ashamed to learn 
what they ought to have learned while young, and 
thus they are compelled to suffer for ever for too 
hastily jumping at dignities they have not deserved. 

154 For these and the like reasons the tyros in the 
schools do not attain to the solid learning of the 
ancients in a few short hours of study, although 
they may enjoy distinctions, may be accorded titles, 
be authorized by official robes, and solemnly in- 
stalled in the chairs of the elders. Just snatched 


from the cradle and hastily weaned, they mouth the 
rules of Priscian and Donatus ; while still beardless 
boys they gabble with childish stammering the 
Categories and Peri Hermeneias, in the writing of 
which the great Aristotle is said to have dipped 

155 his pen in his heart's blood. Passing through 
these faculties with baneful haste and a harmful 
diploma, they lay violent hands upon Moses, and 
sprinkling about their faces dark waters and thick 
clouds of the skies, they offer their heads, un- 
honoured by the snows of age, for the mitre of 
the pontificate. This pest is greatly encouraged, 
and they are helped to attain this fantastic clericate 
with such nimble steps, by Papal provisions ob- 
tained by insidious prayers, and also by the prayers, 
which may not be rejected, of cardinals and great 
men, by the cupidity of friends and relatives, who 
building up Sion in blood, secure ecclesiastical 
dignities for their nephews and pupils, before they 
are seasoned by the course of nature or ripeness of 

156 Alas! by the same disease which we are de- 
ploring, we see that the Palladium of Paris has 
been carried off in these sad times of ours, wherein 
the zeal of that noble university, whose rays once 
shed light into every corner of the world, has 
grown lukewarm, nay, is all but frozen. There 
the pen of every scribe is now at rest, generations 
of books no longer succeed each other, and there is 
none who begins to take place as a new author. 


They wrap up their doctrines in unskilled discourse, 
and are losing all propriety of logic, except that 
our English subtleties, which they denounce in 
public, are the subject of their furtive vigils. 
157 Admirable Minerva seems to bend her course to 
all the nations of the earth, and reacheth from end 
to end mightily, that she may reveal herself to all 
mankind. We see that she has already visited the 
Indians, the Babylonians, the Egyptians and Greeks, 
the Arabs and the Romans, Now she has passed 
by Paris, and now has happily come to Britain, the 
most noble of islands, nay, rather a microcosm in 
itself, that she may show herself a debtor both to 
the Greeks and to the Barbarians. At which 
wondrous sight it is conceived by most men, that 
as philosophy is now lukewarm in France, so her 
soldiery are unmanned and languishing. 

Chapter 10. 

Of the Gradual Perfecting of Books. 

28 While assiduously seeking out the wisdom of the 
men of old, according to the counsel of the Wise 
Man (Eccli. 39) : The wise man, he says, will seek 
out the wisdom of all the ancients, we have not 
thought fit to be misled into the opinion that the 


first founders of the arts have purged away all 
crudeness, knowing that the discoveries of each of 
the faithful, when weighed in a faithful balance, 
makes a tiny portion of science, but that by the 
anxious investigations of a multitude of scholars, 
each as it were contributing his share, the 
mighty bodies of the sciences have grown by 
successive augmentations to the immense bulk 
that we now behold. For the disciples continually 
melting down the doctrines of their masters, and 
passing them again through the furnace, drove off 
the dross that had been previously overlooked, 
until there came out refined gold tried in a fur- 
nace of earth, purified seven times to perfection, 
and stained by no admixture of error or doubt. 

159 For not even Aristotle, although a man of 
gigantic intellect, in whom it pleased Nature to 
try how much of reason she could bestow upon 
mortahty, and whom the Most High made only a 
little lower than the angels, sucked from his own 
fingers those wonderful volumes which the whole 
world can hardly contain. But, on the contrary, 
with lynx-eyed penetration he had seen through 
the sacred books of the Hebrews, the Babylonians, 
the Egyptians, the Chaldcxans, the Persians and 
the Medes, all of which learned Greece had trans- 

i6oferred into her treasuries. Whose true sayings 
he received, but smoothed away their crudities, 
pruned their superfluities, supplied their deficiencies, 
and removed their errors. And he held that we 


should give thanks not only to those who teach 
rightly, but even to those who err, as affording the 
way of more easily investigating truth, as he plainly 
declares in the second book of his Metaphysics. 
Thus many learned lawyers contributed to the 
Pandects, many physicians to the Tegni, and it 
was by this means that Avicenna edited his Canon, 
and Pliny his great work on Natural History, and 
Ptolemy the Almagest. 
i6i For as in the writers of annals it is not difficult 
to see that the later writer always presupposes the 
earlier, without whom he could by no means relate 
the former times, so too we are to think of the 
authors of the sciences. For no man by himself 
has brought forth any science, since between the 
earhest students and those of the latter time we 
find intermediaries, ancient if they be compared 
with our own age, but modern if we think of the 
foundations of learning, and these men we consider 

162 the most learned. What would Vergil, the chief 
poet among the Latins, have achieved, if he had 
not despoiled Theocritus, Lucretius, and Homer, 
and had not ploughed with their heifer ? What, 
unless again and again he had read somewhat of 
Parthenius and Pindar, whose eloquence he could 
by no means imitate ? What could Sallust, TuUy, 
Boethius, Macrobius, Lactantius, Martianus, and in 
short the whole troop of Latin writers, have done, 
if they had not seen the productions of Athens or 

163 the volumes of the Greeks? Certes, Httle would 


Jerome, master of three languages, Ambrosius, 
Augustine, though he confesses that he hated 
Greek, or even Gregory, who is said to have been 
wholly ignorant of it, have contributed to the 
doctrine of the Church, if more learned Greece had 
not furnished them from its stores. As Rome, 
watered by the streams of Greece, had earlier 
brought forth philosophers in the image of the 
Greeks, in like fashion afterwards it produced 
doctors of the orthodox faith. The creeds we 
chant are the sweat of Grecian brows, pro- 
mulgated by their Councils, and established by 
the martyrdom of many. 

164 Yet their natural slowness, as it happens, turns 
to the glory of the Latins, since as they \vere 
less learned in their studies, so they were less per- 
verse in their errors. In truth, the Arian heresy 
had all but eclipsed the whole Church; the 
Nestorian wickedness presumed to rave with 
blasphemous rage against the Virgin, for it would 
have robbed the Queen of Heaven, not in open 
fight but in disputation, of her name and cha- 
racter as Mother of God, unless the invincible 
champion Cyril, ready to do single battle, with 
the help of the Council of Ephesus, had in ve- 

165 hemence of spirit utterly extinguished it. Innu- 
merable are the forms as well as the authors of 
Greek heresies ; for as they were the original cul- 
tivators of our holy faith, so too they were the first 
sowers of tares, as is shown by veracious history. 


And thus they went on from bad to worse, because 
in endeavouring to part the seamless vesture of 
the Lord, they totally destroyed primitive sim- 
plicity of doctrine, and blinded by the darkness of 
novelty would fall into the bottomless pit, unless 
He provide for them in his inscrutable prerogative, 
whose wisdom is past reckoning. 

1 66 Let this suffice; for here we reach the limit of 
our power of judgment. One thing, however, we 
conclude from the premises, that the ignorance of 
the Greek tongue is now a great hindrance to the 
study of the Latin writers, since without it the 
doctrines of the ancient authors, whether Christian 
or Gentile, cannot be understood. And we must 
come to a like judgment as to Arabic in numerous 
astronomical treatises, and as to Hebrew as regards 
the text of the Holy Bible, which deficiencies indeed 
Clement V. provides for, if only the bishops would 
faithfully observe what they so lightly decree. 

167 Wherefore we have taken care to provide a Greek 
as well as a Hebrew grammar for our scholars, 
with certain other aids, by the help of which 
studious readers may greatly inform themselves in 
the writing, reading, and understanding of the said 
tongues, although only the hearing of them can 
teach correctness of idiom. 



Chapter ii. 

Why we have preferred Books of Liberal 
Learning to Books of Law, 

168 That lucrative practice of positive law, designed 
for the dispensation of earthly things, the more 
useful it is found by the children of this world, 
so much the less does it aid the children of 
light in comprehending the mysteries of holy writ 
and the secret sacraments of the faith, seeing that 
it disposes us peculiarly to the friendship of the 
world, by which man, as S. James testifies, is 
made the enemy of God. Law indeed encourages 
rather than extinguishes the contentions of man- 
kind, which are the result of unbounded greed, 
by complicated laws, which can be turned either 
way ; though we know that it was created by 
jurisconsults and pious princes for the purpose 

160 of assuaging these contentions. But in truth, as 
the same science deals with contraries, and the 
power of reason can be used to opposite ends, 
and at the same time the human mind is more 
inclined to evil, it happens with the practisers of 
this science that they usually devote themselves 
to promoting contention rather than peace, and 
instead of quoting laws according to the intent of 


the legislator, violently strain the language thereof 
to effect their own purposes. 

170 Wherefore, although the over-mastering love of 
books has possessed our mind from boyhood, and 
to rejoice in their delights has been our only 
pleasure, yet the appetite for the books of the 
civil law took less hold of our affections, and we 
have spent but little labour and expense in 
acquiring volumes of this kind. For they are 
useful only as the scorpion in treacle, as Aristotle, 
the sun of science, has said of logic in his book 

171 DePomo. We have noticed a certain manifest dif- 
ference of nature between law and science, in that 
every science is delighted and desires to open its 
inward parts and display the very heart of its 
principles, and to show forth the roots from which 
it buds and flourishes, and that the emanation of 
its springs may be seen of all men ; for thus from 
the cognate and harmonious light of the truth of 
conclusion to principles, the whole body of science 

172 will be full of light, having no part dark. But laws, 
on the contrary, since they are only human enact- 
ments for the regulation of social life, or the yokes 
of princes thrown over the necks of their subjects, re- 
fuse to be brought to the standard of synteresis, the 
origin of equity, because they feel that they possess 
more of arbitrary will than rational judgment. 
Wherefore the judgment of the wise for the most 
part is that the causes of laws are not a fit subject 

1 73 of discussion. In truth, many laws acquire force by 


mere custom, not by syllogistic necessity, like 
the arts : as Aristotle, the Phcebus of the Schools, 
urges in the second book of the Politics, where 
he confutes the policy of Hippodamus, which 
holds out rewards to the inventors of new laws, 
because to abrogate old laws and establish new 
ones is to vv'eaken the force of those which exist. 
For whatever receives its stability from use 
alone must necessarily be brought to nought by 
174 From which it is seen clearly enough, that as 
laws are neither arts nor sciences, so books of law 
cannot properly be called books of art or science. 
Nor is this faculty which we may call by a special 
term geologia^ or the earthly science, to be properly 
numbered among the sciences. Now the books of 
the liberal arts are so useful to the divine writings, 
that without their aid the intellect would vainly 
aspire to understand them. 

Chapter 12. 

Why we have caused Books of Grammar 
to be so diligently prepared. 

175 While we were constantly delighting ourselves with 
the reading of books, which it was our custom to read 
or have read to us every day, we noticed plainly 



how much the defective knowledge even of a single 
word hinders the understanding, as the meaning 
of no sentence can be apprehended, if any part of 

176 it be not understood. "Wherefore we ordered the 
meanings of foreign words to be noted -with 
particular care, and studied the orthography, 
prosody, etymology, and syntax in ancient gram- 
marians with unrelaxing carefulness, and took 
pains to elucidate terms that had grown too obscure 
by age with suitable explanations, in order to make 
a smooth path for our students. 

177 This is the whole reason why we took care to re- 
place the antiquated volumes of the grammarians 
by improved codices, that we might make royal 
roads, by which our scholars in time to come might 
attain without stumbling to any science. 

Chapter 13. 

Why we have not wholly neglected the 
Fables of the Poets. 

178 All the varieties of attack directed against the 
poets by the lovers of naked truth may be repelled 
by a two-fold defence : either that even in an 
unseemly subject-matter we may learn a charming 
fashion of speech, or that where a fictitious but 
becoming subject is handled, natural or historical 


truth is pursued under the guise of allegorical 

179 Although it is true that all men naturally desire 
knowledge, yet they do not all take the same 
pleasure in learning. On the contrary, when they 
have experienced the labour of study and find 
their senses wearied, most men inconsiderately fling 
away the nut, before they have broken the shell 
and reached the kernel. For man is naturally fond 
of two things, namely, freedom from control and 
some pleasure in his activity ; for which reason no 
one without reason submits himself to the control 
of others, or willingly engages in any tedious task. 

180 For pleasure crowns activity, as beauty is a crown 
to youth, as Aristotle truly asserts in the tenth 
book of the Ethics. Accordingly the wisdom of the 
ancients devised a remedy by which to entice the 
wanton minds of men by a kind of pious fraud, 
the delicate Minerva secretly lurking beneath the 

181 mask of pleasure. We are wont to allure chil- 
dren by rewards, that they may cheerfully learn 
what we force them to study even though they 
are unwilling. For our fallen nature does not 
tend to virtue with the same enthusiasm with 
which it rushes into vice. Horace has expressed 
this for us in a brief verse of the Ars Poetica, where 
he says : 

All poets sing to profit or delight. 
And he has plainly intimated the same thing 


in another verse of the same book, where he 

says : 

He hits the mark, who mingles joy with use. 

182 How many students of Euclid have been repelled 
by the Pons Asinonifn, as by a lofty and preci- 
pitous rock, which no help of ladders could enable 
them to scale ! This is a hard saying, they exclaim, 
and who can receive it. The child of inconstancy, who 
ended by wishing to be transformed into an ass, 
would perhaps never have given up the study of 
philosophy, if she had met him in friendly guise 
veiled under the cloak of pleasure ; but anon, 
astonished by Crato's chair and struck dumb by 
his endless questions, as by a sudden thunderbolt, 
he saw no refuge but in flight. 

183 So much we have alleged in defence of the 
poets ; and now we proceed to show that those who 
study them with proper intent are not to be con- 
demned in regard to them. For our ignorance of 
one single word prevents the understanding of a 
whole long sentence, as was assumed in the pre- 
vious chapter. As now the sayings of the saints 
frequently allude to the inventions of the poets, it 
must needs happen that through our not knowing 
the poem referred to, the whole meaning of the 
author is completely obscured, and assuredly, as 
Cassiodorus says in his book Of the Institutes of 
Sacred Literature: Those things are not to be 
considered trifles without which great things cannot 
come to pass. It follows therefore that through 



ignorance of poetry we do not understand Jerome, 
Augustine, Boethius, Lactantius, Sidonius, and very- 
many others, a catalogue of whom would more than 
fill a long chapter. 

184 The Venerable Bede has very clearly discussed 
and determined this doubtful point, as is related 
by that great compiler Gratian, the repeater of 
numerous authors, who is as confused in form as 
he was eager in collecting matter for his compilation. 
Now he writes in his 37th section: Some read 
secular literature for pleasure, taking delight in the 
inventions and elegant language of the poets ; but 
others study this literature for the sake of scholar- 
ship, that by their reading they may learn to detest 
the errors of the Gentiles and may devoutly apply 
what they find useful in them to the use of sacred 
learning. Such men study secular literature in a 
laudable manner. So far Bede. 

185 Taking this salutary instruction to heart, let the 
detractors of those v»^ho study the poets henceforth 
hold their peace, and let not those who are igno- 
rant of these things require that others should be 
as ignorant as themselves, for this is the consolation 
of the wretched. And therefore let every man see 
that his own intentions are upright, and he may thus 
make of any subject, observing the Hmitations of 
virtue, a study acceptable to God. And if he have 
found profit in poetry, as the great Virgil relates 
that he had done in Ennius, he will not have done 


Chapter 14. 

Who ought to be special Lovers of 


186 To him who recollects what has been said before, 
it is plain and evident who ought to be the chief 
lovers of books. For those who have most need 
of wusdom in order to perform usefully the duties 
of their position, they are without doubt most 
especially bound to show more abundantly to the 
sacred vessels of wisdom the anxious affection of a 
grateful heart. Now it is the office of the wise 
man to order rightly both himself and others, ac- 
cording to the Phcebus of philosophers, Aristotle, 
who deceives not nor is deceived in human things. 
^Vherefore princes and prelates, judges and doctors, 
and all other leaders of the commonwealth, as 
more than others they have need of wisdom, so 
more than others ought they to show zeal for the 
vessels of wisdom. 

187 Boethius indeed beheld Philosophy bearing a 
sceptre in her left hand and books in her right, by 
which it is evidently shown to all men that no one 
can rightly rule a commonwealth without books. 
Thou, says Boethius, speaking to Philosophy, hast 
sanctioned this saying by the mouth of Plato, that 


states would be happy, if they were ruled by 
students of philosophy, or if their rulers would 
study philosophy. And again, we are taught by the 
very gesture of the figure that in so far as the right 
hand is better than the left, so far the contempla- 
tive life is more worthy than the active life ; and at 
the same time we are shown that the business of 
the wise man is to devote himself by turns ; now to 
the study of truth, and now to the dispensation of 
temporal things. 

188 We read that Philip thanked the Gods devoutly 
for having granted that Alexander should be born 
in the time of Aristotle, so that educated under his 
instruction he might be worthy to rule his father's 
empire. While Phaeton unskilled in driving becomes 
the charioteer of his father's car, he unhappily 
distributes to mankind the heat of Phoebus, now 
by excessive nearness, and now by withdrawing it 
too far, and so, lest all beneath him should be im- 
perilled by the closeness of his driving, justly de- 
served to be struck by the thunderbolt. 

189 The history of the Greeks as well as Romans 
shows that there were no famous princes among 
them who were devoid of literature. The sacred 
law of Moses in prescribing to the king a rule of 
government, enjoins him to have a copy made of 
the book of Divine law (Deut. xvii.) according to 
the copy shown by the priests, in which he was to 
read all the days of his life. Certes, God himself, 
who hath made and who fashioneth every day the 


hearts of everyone of us, knows the feebleness of 
human memory and the instability of virtuous in- 
190 tentions in mankind. Wherefore he has willed that 
books should be as it were an antidote to all evil, 
the reading and use of which he has commanded 
to be the healthful daily nourishment of the soul, 
so that by them the intellect being refreshed and 
neither weak nor doubtful should never hesitate in 
action. This subject is elegantly handled by John 
of Salisbury in his Polkraticon. In conclusion, all 
classes of men who are conspicuous by the tonsure 
or the sign of clerkship, against whom books lifted 
up their voices in the fourth, fifth, and sixth chap- 
ters, are bound to serve books with perpetual 

Chapter 15. 
Of the advantages of the love of Books. 

191 It transcends the power of human intellect, how- 
ever deeply it may have drunk of the Pegasean 
fount, to develop fully the title of the present 
chapter. Though one should speak with the 
tongue of men and angels, though he should be- 
come a Mercury or Tully, though he should grow 
sweet with the milky eloquence of Livy, yet he will 
plead the stammering of Moses, or with Jeremiah 
will confess that he is but a boy and cannot speak, 


or will imitate Echo rebounding from the moun- 
tains. For we know that the love of books is the 
same thing as the love of wisdom, as was proved in 

192 the second chapter. Now this love is called by 
the Greek word philosophy^ the whole virtue of 
which no created intelligence can comprehend ; for 
she is believed to be the mother of all good things : 
Wisdom, 7. She as a heavenly dew extinguishes 
the heats of fleshly vices, the intense activity of 
the mental forces relaxing the vigour of the animal 
forces, and slothfulness being wholly put to flight, 
which being gone all the bows of Cupid are un- 

1 93 Hence Plato says in the Phaedo : The philosopher 
is manifest in this, that he dissevers the soul from 
communion with the body. Love, says Jerome, 
the knowledge of the scriptures and thou wilt not 
love the vices of the flesh. The godlike Xeno- 
crates showed this by the firmness of his reason, 
who was declared by the famous hetaera Phryne to 
be a statue and not a man, when all her blandish- 
ments could not shake his resolve, as Valerius 
Maximus relates at length. Our own Origen 
showed this also, who chose rather to be unsexed 
by the mutilation of himself, than to be made 
effeminate by the omnipotence of woman — though 
it was a hasty remedy, repugnant alike to nature 
and to virtue, whose place it is not to make men 
insensible to passion, but to slay with the dagger 
of reason the passions that spring from instinct. 


194 Again, all who are smitten with the love of books 
think cheaply of the world and wealth ; as Jerome 
says to Vigilantius : The same man cannot love 
both gold and books. And thus it has been said 
in verse : 

No iron-stained hand is fit to handle books, 
Nor he whose heart on gold so gladly looks ; 
The same men love not books and money both, 
And books thy herd, O Epicurus, loathe ; 
Misers and bookmen make poor company. 
Nor dwell in peace beneath the same roof-tree. 

No man, therefore, can serve both books and 

195 The hideousness of vice is greatly reprobated in 
books, so that he who loves to commune with 
books is led to detest all manner of vice. The 
demon, who derives his name from knowledge, 
is most effectually defeated by the knowledge of 
books, and through books his multitudinous deceits 
and the endless labyrinths of his guile are laid bare 
to those who read, lest he be transformed into an 
angel of light and circumvent the innocent by his 
wiles. The reverence of God is revealed to us by 
books, the virtues by which He is worshipped are 
more expressly manifested, and the rewards are 
described that are promised by the truth, which 

196 deceives not, neither is deceived. The truest 
likeness of the beatitude to come is the con- 
templation of the sacred writings, in which we 
behold in turn the Creator and the creature, and 


draw from streams of perpetual gladness. Faith 
is established by the power of books ; hope is 
strengthened by their solace, insomuch that by 
patience and the consolation of scripture we are 
in good hope. Charity is not puffed up, but is 
edified by the knowledge of true learning, and 
indeed it is clearer than light that the Church is 
established upon the sacred writings. 

197 Books delight us, when prosperity smiles upon 
us ; they comfort us inseparably when stormy 
fortune frowns on us. They lend validity to 
human compacts, and no serious judgments are 
propounded without their help. Arts and sciences, 
all the advantages of which no mind can enume- 
rate, consist in books. How highly must we 
estimate the wondrous power of books, since 
through them we survey the utmost bounds of 
the world and time, and contemplate the things 
that are as well as those that are not, ^s it were in 

198 the mirror of eternity. In books we climb moun- 
tains and scan the deepest gulfs of the abyss ; in 
books we behold the finny tribes that may not 
exist outside their native waters, distinguish the 
properties of streams and springs and of various 
lands; from books we dig out gems and metals 
and the materials of every kind of mineral, 
and learn the virtues of herbs and trees and 
plants, and survey at will the whole progeny of 
Neptune, Ceres, and Pluto. 

199 But if we please to visit the heavenly inhabi- 


tants, Taurus, Caucasus, and Olympus are at hand, 
from which we pass beyond the realms of Juno and 
mark out the territories of the seven planets by 
lines and circles. And finally we traverse the 
loftiest firmament of all, adorned with signs, de- 
grees, and figures in the utmost variety. There 
we inspect the antarctic pole, which eye hath not 
seen, nor ear heard; we admire the luminous 
Milky way and the Zodiac, marvellously and 

200 delightfully pictured with celestial animals. Thence 
by books we pass on to separate substances, that 
the intellect may greet kindred intelligences, and 
with the mind's eye may discern the First Cause 
of all things and the Unmoved Mover of infinite 
virtue, and may immerse itself in love without 
end. See how with the aid of books we attain 
the reward of our beatitude, while we are yet 
sojourners below. 

201 Why need we say more? Certes, just as we 
have learnt on the authority of Seneca, leisure 
without letters is death and the sepulture of the 
living, so contrariwise we conclude that occupa- 
tion with letters or books is the life of man. 

202 Again, by means of books we communicate to 
friends as well as foes what we cannot safely en- 
trust to messengers ; since the book is generally 
allowed access to the chambers of princes, from 
which the voice of its author would be rigidly 
excluded, as Tertullian observes at the beginning 
of his Aj?ologeiicus. "When shut up in prison and 


in bonds, and utterly deprived of bodily liberty, 
we use books as ambassadors to our friends, and 
entrust them with the conduct of our cause, and 
send them where to go ourselves would incur the 
penalty of death. By the aid of books we re- 
member things that are past, and even prophesy 
as to the future ; and things present, which shift 
and flow, we perpetuate by committing them to 

203 The felicitous studiousness and the studious 
felicity of the all-powerful eunuch, of whom we are 
told in the Acts, who had been so mightily kindled 
by the love of the prophetic writings, that he ceased 
not from his reading by reason of his journey, had 
banished all thought of the populous palace of 
Queen Candace, and had forgotten even the 
treasures of which he was the keeper, and had 
neglected alike his journey and the chariot in 
which he rode. Love of his book alone had 
wholly engrossed this domicile of chastity, under 
whose guidance he soon deserved to enter the gate 
of faith. O gracious love of books, which by 
the grace of baptism transformed the child of 
Gehenna and nursling of Tartarus into a Son of 
the Kingdom ! 

204 Let the feeble pen now cease from the tenor of 
an infinite task, lest it seem foolishly to undertake 
what in the beginning it confessed to be impossible 
to any. 


Chapter i6. 

That it Is meritorious to write new books 
and to renew the old. 

205 Just as it is necessary for the state to prepare arm 
and to provide abundant stores of victuals for the 
soldiers who are to fight for it, so it is fitting for 
the Church Militant to fortify itself against the 
assaults of pagans and heretics with a multitude of 
sound writings. 

206 But because all the appliances of mortal men 
with the lapse of time suffer the decay of mortality, 
it is needful to replace the volumes that are worn 
out with age by fresh successors, that the perpetuity 
of which the individual is by its nature incapable 
may be secured to the species ; and hence it is that 
the Preacher says : Of making many books there is no 
end. For as the bodies of books, seeing that they 
are formed of a combination of contrary elements, 
undergo a continual dissolution of their structure, 
so by the forethought of the clergy a remedy should 
be found, by means of which the sacred book paying 
the debt of nature may obtain a natural heir and 
may raise up like seed to its dead brother, and thus 
may be verified that saying of Ecclesiasticus : His 
father is dead, and he is as if he were not dead ; 


for he hath left one behind him that is Uke himself. 

207 And thus the transcription of ancient books is as 
it were the begetting of fresh sons, on whom the 
office of the father may devolve, lest it suffer detri- 
ment. Now such transcribers are called antiqiiarii^ 
whose occupations Cassiodorus confesses please 
him above all the tasks of bodily labour, adding : 
"Happy effort," he says, "laudable industry, to 
preach to men with the hand, to let loose tongues 
\nth the fingers, silently to give salvation to mortals, 
and to fight with pen and ink against the illicit wiles 
of the Evil One." So far Cassiodorus. Moreover, 
our Saviour exercised the office of the scribe 
when He stooped down and with his finger wrote 
on the ground (John viii.), that no one, however 
exalted, may think it unworthy of him to do what 
he sees the wisdom of God the Father did. 

208 O singular serenity of writing, to practise which 
the x\rtificer of the world stoops down, at whose 
dread name every knee doth bow ! O venerable 
handicraft pre-eminent above all other crafts that 
are practised by the hand of man, to which our 
Lord humbly inclines his breast, to which the 
finger of God is applied, performing the office of a 
pen ! We do not read of the Son of God that He 
sowed or ploughed, wove or digged \ nor did any 
other of the mechanic arts befit the divine wisdom 
incarnate except to trace letters in writing, that 
every gentleman and sciolist may know that fingers 
are given by God to men for the task of writing 


rather than for war. Wherefore we entirely 
approve the judgment of books, wherein they de- 
clared in our sixth chapter the clerk who cannot 
write to be as it were disabled. 

209 God himself inscribes the just in the book of the 
living ; Moses received the tables of stone written 
with the finger of God. Job desires that he himself 
that judgeth would write a book. Belshazzar 
trembled when he saw the fingers of a man's hand 
writing upon the wall, Mene tekel phaixs. I 
wrote, says Jeremiah, with ink in the book. Christ 
bids his beloved disciple John, What thou seest write 
in a book. So the office of the writer is enjoined 
on Isaiah and on Joshua, that the act and skill of 
WTiting may be commended to future genera- 
tions. Christ himself has written on his vesture 
and on his thigh King of Ki?igs and Lord of Lords^ 
so that without writing the royal ornaments of the 

210 Omnipotent cannot be made perfect. Being dead 
they cease not to teach, who write books of sacred 
learning. Paul did more for building up the fabric 
of the Church by writing his holy epistles, than by 
preaching by word of mouth to Jews and Gentiles. 
He who has attained the prize continues daily by 
books, what he long ago began while a sojourner 
upon the earth ; and thus is fulfilled in the doctors 
writing books the saying of the prophet : They 
that turn many to righteousness shall be as the 
stars for ever and ever. 

211 Moreover, it has been determined by the doctors 


of the Church that the longevity of the ancients, 
before God destroyed the original world by the 
Deluge, is to be ascribed to a miracle and not to 
nature ; as though God granted to them such length 
of days as was required for finding out the sciences 
and writing them in books ; amongst which the 
wonderful variety of astronomy required, accord- 
ing to Josephus, a period of six hundred years, to 

212 submit it to ocular observation. Nor, indeed, do 
they deny that the fruits of the earth in that primi- 
tive age afforded a more nutritious aliment to men 
than in our modern times, and thus they had not 
only a livelier energy of body, but also a more 
lengthened period of vigour ; to which it contributed 
not a little that they Uved according to virtue and 
denied themselves all luxurious delights. Who- 
ever therefore is by the good gift of God endowed 
with the gift of science, let him, according to the 
counsel of the Holy Spirit, write wisdom in his time 
of leisure (Eccli. 38), that his reward may be v/ith 
the blessed and his days may be lengthened in this 
present world. 

213 And further, if we turn our discourse to the 
princes of the world, we find that famous emperors 
not only attained excellent skill in the art of 
writing, but indulged greatly in its practice. 
Julius Caesar, the first and greatest of them all, has 
left us Commentaries on the Gallic and the Civil 
Wars written by himself; he wrote also two books 
De Aiialogia^ and two books of Anticatones, and a 



214 poem called Iter^ and many other works. Julius 
and Augustus devised means of writing one letter 
for another, and so concealing what they wrote. 
For Julius put the fourth letter for the first, and 
so on through the alphabet ; while Augustus used 
the second for the first, the third for the second, 
and so throughout. He is said in the greatest 
difficulties of affairs during the Mutinensian War 
to have read and written' and even declaimed 
every day. Tiberius wrote a lyric poem and some 

215 Greek verses. Claudius likewise was skilled in 
both Greek and Latin, and wrote several books. 
But Titus w^as skilled above all men in the art 
of writing, and easily imitated any hand he chose ; 
so that he used to say that if he had wished it 
he might have become a most skilful forger. All 
these things are noted by Suetonius in his Lives of 
the XII Caesars. 

Chapter 17. 

Of showing due propriety in the custody 

of Books. 

16 W e are not only rendering service to God in pre- 
paring volumes of new books, but also exercising 
an office of sacred piety when we treat books 


carefully, and again when we restore them to their 
proper places and commend them to inviolable 
custody; that they may rejoice in purity while we 
have them in our hands, and rest securely when 
they are put back in their repositories. And 
surely next to the vestments and vessels dedicated 
to the Lord's body, holy books deserve to be 
rightly-treated by the clergy, to which great injury 
is done so often as they are touched by unclean 
hands. Wherefore we deem it expedient to warn 
our students of various negligences, which might 
always be easily avoided and do wonderful harm 
to books. 

217 And in the first place as to the opening and 
closing of books, let there be due moderation, that 
they be not unclasped in precipitate haste, nor 
when we have finished our inspection be put away 
without being duly closed. For it behoves us to 
guard a book much more carefully than a boot. 

218 But the race of scholars is commonly badly 
brought up, and unless they are bridled in by 
the rules of their elders they indulge in infinite 
puerihties. They behave with petulance, and are 
puffed up with presumption, judging of everything 
as if they were certain, though they are altogether 

219 You may happen to see some headstrong youth 
lazily lounging over his studies, and when the winter's 
frost is sharp, his nose running from the nipping 
cold drips down, nor does he think of wiping it 


with his pocket-handkerchief until he has bedewed 
the book before him with the ugly moisture. 
Would that he had before him no book, but a 
cobbler's apron ! His nails are stuffed with fetid 
filth as black as jet, with which he marks any 
passage that pleases him. He distributes a multitude 
of straws, which he inserts to stick out in different 
places, so that the halm may remind him of what 
his memory cannot retain. These straws, because 
the book has no stomach to digest them, and no 
one takes them out, first distend the book from its 
wonted closing, and at length, being carelessly 

220 abandoned to oblivion, go to decay. He does not 
fear to eat fruit or cheese over an open book, or 
carelessly to carry a cup to and from his mouth \ 
and because he has no wallet at hand he drops 
into books the fragments that are left. Continually 
chattering, he is never weary of disputing with his 
companions, and while he alleges a crowd of 
senseless arguments, he wets the book lying half 
open in his lap with sputtering showers. Aye, and 
then hastily folding his arms he leans forward on 
the book, and by a brief spell of study invites a 
prolonged nap; and then, by way of mending 
the wrinkles, he folds back the margin of the 

22 1 leaves, to the no small injury of the book. Now 
the rain is over and gone, and the flowers have 
appeared in our land. Then the scholar we 
are speaking of, a neglecter rather than an in- 
spector of books, will stuff his volume with violets. 


and primroses, with roses and quatrefoil. Then he 
will use his wet and perspiring hands to turn over 
the volumes ; then he will thump the white vellum 
with gloves covered with all kinds of dust, and 
with his finger clad in long-used leather will hunt 
line by line through the page ; then at the sting of 
the biting flea the sacred book is flung aside, and 
is hardly shut for another month, until it is so full 
of the dust that has found its way within, that it 
resists the effort to close it. 

222 But the handling of books is specially to be 
forbidden to those shameless youths, who as soon 
as they have learned to form the shapes of letters, 
straightway, if they have the opportunity, become 
unhappy commentators, and wherever they find an 
extra margin about the text, furnish it with mon- 
strous alphabets, or if any other frivolity strikes 
their fancy, at once their pen begins to write it. 
There the Latinist and sophister and every un- 
learned writer tries the fitness of his pen, a practice 
that we have frequently seen injuring the usefulness 
and value of the most beautiful books. 

223 Again, there is a class of thieves shamefully 
mutilating books, who cut away the margins from 
the sides to use as material for letters, leaving only 
the text, or employ the leaves from the ends, 
inserted for the protection of the book, for various 
uses and abuses — a kind of sacrilege which should 
be prohibited by the threat of anathema. 

224 Again, it is part of the decency of scholars that 


whenever they return from meals to their study, 
washing should invariably precede reading, and 
that no grease-stained finger should unfasten the 
clasps, or turn the leaves of a book. Nor let a 
crying child admire the pictures in the capital 
letters, lest he soil the parchment with wet fingers : 
for a child instantly touches whatever he sees. 
Moreover, the laity, who look at a book turned 
upside down just as if it were open in the right 
way, are utterly unworthy of any communion with 

225 books. Let the clerk take care also that the 
smutty scullion reeking from his stewpots does not 
touch the lily leaves of books, all unwashed, but 
he who walketh without blemish shall minister to 
the precious volumes. And, again, the cleanliness 
of decent hands would be of great benefit to books 
as well as scholars, if it were not that the itch and 
pimples are characteristic of the clergy. 

226 Whenever defects are noticed in books they 
should be promptly repaired, since nothing 
spreads more quickly than a tear and a rent 
which is neglected at the time will have to be 
repaired afterwards with usury. 

227 Moses, the gentlest of men, teaches us to make 
bookcases most neatly, wherein they may be pro- 
tected from any injury : Take^ he says, this book of 
the law, and put it in the side of the ark of the 
covetiant of the Lord your God. O fitting place 
and appropriate for a library, which was made of 
imperishable shittim-wood, and was all covered 


within and without with gold ! But the Saviour 
also has warned us by his example against all 
unbecoming carelessness in the handling of books, 
228 as we read in S. Luke. For when He had read the 
scriptural prophecy of himself in the book that 
was delivered to him, He did not give it again to 
the minister, until He had closed it with his own 
most sacred hands. By which students are most 
clearly taught that in the care of books the merest 
trifles ought not to be neglected. 

Chapter i8. 

Showeth that we have collected so great 

store of books for the common benefit 

of scholars and not only for our 

own pleasure. 

229 Nothing in human affairs is more unjust than that 
those things which are most righteously done, should 
be perverted by the slanders of malicious men, and 
that one should bear the reproach of sin where 
he has rather deserved the hope of honour. 
Many things are done with singleness of eye, 
the right hand knoweth not what the left hand 
doth, the lump is uncorrupted by leaven, nor is 
the garment woven of wool and linen ; and yet 



by the trickery of perverse men a pious work 
is mendaciously transformed into some monstrous 
act. Certes, such is the unhappy condition of 
sinful nature, that not merely in acts that are 
morally doubtful it adopts the worse conclusion ; 
but often it depraves by iniquitous subversion 
those which have the appearance of rectitude. 

230 For although the love of books from the 
nature of its object bears the aspect of good- 
ness, yet, wonderful to say, it has rendered us 
obnoxious to the censures of many, by whose 
astonishment we were disparaged and censured, 
now for excess of curiosity, now for the exhibition 
of vanity, now for intemperance of delight in 
literature ; though indeed we were no more dis- 
turbed by their vituperation than by the barking 
of so many dogs, satisfied with the testimony of 
Him to whom it appertaineth to try the hearts 

231 and reins. For as the aim and purpose of our 
inmost will is inscrutable to men and is seen of 
God alone, the searcher of hearts, they deserve 
to be rebuked for their pernicious temerity, who 
so eagerly set a mark of condemnation upon 
human acts, the ultimate springs of which they 
cannot see. For the final end in matters of 
conduct holds the same position as first principles 
in speculative science or axioms in mathematics, 
as the chief of philosophers, Aristotle, points out 
in the seventh book of the Ethics. And therefore, 
just as the truth of our conclusions depends upon 


the correctness of our premisses, so in matters of 
action the stamp of moral rectitude is given by 
the honesty of aim and purpose, in cases where 
the act itself would otherwise be held to be 
morally indifferent. 

232 Now we have long cherished in our heart of 
hearts the fixed resolve, when Providence should 
grant a favourable opportunity, to found in per- 
petual charity a Hall in the reverend university of 
Oxford, the chief nursing mother of all liberal 
arts, and to endow it with the necessary re- 
venues, for the maintenance of a number of 
scholars ; and moreover to enrich the Hall with the 
treasures of our books, that all and every of them 
should be in common as regards their use and 
study, not only to the scholars of the said hall, 
but by their means to all the students of the 
before-named university for ever, in the form 
and manner which the following chapter shall 

233 declare. Wherefore the sincere love of study and 
zeal for the strengthening of the orthodox faith to 
the edifying of the Church, have begotten in us 
that solicitude so marvellous to the lovers of pelf, 
of collecting books wherever they were to be 
purchased, regardless of expense, and of having 
those that could not be bought fairly transcribed. 

234 For as the favourite occupations of men are 
variously distinguished according to the disposi- 
tion of the heavenly bodies, which frequently 
control our natural composition, so that some 


men choose to devote themselves to architecture, 
others to agriculture, others to hunting, others to 
navigation, others to war, others to games, we 
have under the aspect of Mercury entertained a 
blameless pleasure in books, which under the 
rule of right reason, over which no stars are 
dominant, we have ordered to the glory of the 
Supreme Being, that where our minds found 
tranquilUty and peace, thence also might spring a 
235 most devout service of God. And therefore let 
our detractors cease, v/ho are as blind men 
judging of colours ; let not bats venture to speak 
of light ; and let not those who carry beams in 
their own eyes presume to pull the mote out of 
their brother's eye. Let them cease to jeer with 
satirical taunts at things of which they are igno- 
rant, and to discuss hidden things that are not 
revealed to the eyes of men ; who perchance 
would have praised and commended us, if we 
had spent our time in hunting, dice-playing, or 
courting the smiles of ladies. 


Chapter 19. 

Of the manner of lending all our books 

to students. 

236 It has ever been difficult so to restrain men by the 
laws of rectitude, that the astuteness of successors 
might not strive to transgress the bounds of their 
predecessors, and to infringe established rules in 
insolence of licence. Accordingly, with the advice 
of prudent men, we have prescribed the manner in 
which we desire that the communication and use 
of our books should be permitted for the benefit of 

237 Imprimis^ we give and grant all and singular the 
books, of which we have made a special catalogue, 
in consideration of affection, to the community of 

scholars living in Hall at Oxford, as 

a perpetual gift, for our soul and the souls of our 
parents, and also for the soul of the most illustrious 
King Edward the Third from the Conquest, and 
of the most pious Queen Philippa, his consort : to 
the intent that the same books may be lent from 
time to time to all and singular the scholars and 
masters of the said place, as well regular as secular, 
for the advancement and use of study, in the 
manner immediately following, that is to say : 



238 Five of the scholars sojourning in the Hall afore- 
said shall be appointed by the Master thereof, who 
shall have the charge of all the books, of which 
five persons three and not fewer may lend any 
book or books for inspection and study ; but for 
copying or transcribing we direct that no book 
shall be allowed outside the walls of the house. 

239 Therefore, when any scholar secular or religious, 
whom for this purpose we regard with equal favour, 
shall seek to borrow any book, let the keepers 
diligently consider if they have a duplicate of the 
said book, and if so, let them lend him the book, 
taking such pledge as in their judgment exceeds 
the value of the book deHvered, and let a record 
be made forthwith of the pledge and of the book 
lent, containing the names of the persons delivering 
the book and of the person who receives it, to- 
gether with the day and year when the loan is 

240 But if the keepers find that the book asked for 
is not in duplicate, they shall not lend such book 
to anyone whomsoever, unless he shall belong to 
the community of scholars of the said Hall, unless 
perhaps for inspection within the walls of the 
aforesaid house or Hall, but not to be carried 
beyond it. 

241 But to any of the scholars of the said Hall, any 
book may be lent by three of the aforesaid keepers, 
after first recording, however, his name, with the 
day on which he receives the book. Nevertheless, 


the borrower may not lend the book entrusted to 
him to another, except with the permission of three 
of the aforesaid keepers, and then the name of the 
first borrower being erased, the name of the second 
with the time of deUvery is to be recorded. 

242 Each keeper shall take an oath to observe all 
these regulations when they enter upon the charge 
of the books. And the recipients of any book or 
books shall thereupon swear that they will not use 
the book or books for any other purpose but that 
of inspection or study, and that they will not take 
or permit to be taken it or them beyond the town 
and suburbs of Oxford. 

243 Moreover, every year the aforesaid keepers shall 
render an account to the Master of the House and 
two of his scholars whom he shall associate with 
himself, or if he shall not be at leisure, he shall 
appoint three inspectors, other than the keepers, 
who shall peruse the catalogue of books, and see 
that they have them all, either in the volumes 
themselves or at least as represented by deposits. 
And the more fitting season for rendering this 
account we believe to be from the First of July 
until the festival of the Translation of the Glorious 
Martyr S. Thomas next following. 

244 We add this further provision, that anyone to 
whom a book has been lent, shall once a year 
exhibit it to' the keepers, and shall, if he wishes 
it, see his pledge. Moreover, if it chances that 
a book is lost by death, theft, fraud, or carelessness, 


he who has lost it or his representative or executor 
shall pay the value of the book and receive back 
his deposit. But if in any wise any profit shall 
accrue to the keepers, it shall not be applied to 
any purpose but the repair and maintenance of 
the books. 

Chapter 20. 

An exhortation to scholars to requite us 
by pious prayers. 

245 Time now clamours for us to terminate this trea- 
tise which we have composed concerning the love 
of books ; in which we have endeavoured to give 
the astonishment of our contemporaries the reason 
why we have loved books so greatly. But because it 
is hardly granted to mortals to accomplish aught that 
is not rolled in the dust of vanity, we do not venture 
entirely to justify the zealous love which we have so 
long had for books, or to deny that it may perchance 
sometimes have been the occasion of some venial 
negligence, albeit the object of our love is honour- 

246 able and our intention upright. For if when we 
have done everything, we are bound to call our- 
selves unprofitable servants ; if the most holy Job 
was afraid of all his works ; if according to Isaiah 


all our righteousness is as filthy rags, who shall 
presume to boast himself of the perfection of any 
virtue, or deny that from some circumstance a thing 
may deserve to be reprehended, which in itself 
perchance was not reprehensible. For good springs 
from one selfsame source, but evil arises in many 

247 ways, as Dionysius informs us. Wherefore to make 
amends for our iniquities, by which we acknowledge 
ourselves to have frequently offended the Creator 
of all things, in asking the assistance of their prayers, 
we have thought fit to exhort our future students 
to show their gratitude as well to us as to their 
other benefactors in time to come by requiting our 
forethought for their benefit by spiritual retribu- 
tion. Let us live when dead in their memories, 
who have lived in our benevolence before they 
were born, and live now sustained by our bene- 

248 ficence. Let them implore the mercy of the 
Redeemer with unwearied prayer, that the pious 
Judge may excuse our negligences, may pardon the 
wickedness of our sins, may cover the lapses of our 
feebleness with the cloak of piety, and remit by his 
divine goodness the offences of which we are 
ashamed and penitent. That He may preserve to us 
for a due season of repentance the gifts of his good 
grace, steadfastness of faiih, loftiness of hope, and 
the widest charity to all men. That He may turn 
our haughty will to lament its faults, that it may 
deplore its past most vain elations, may retract its 
most bitter indignations, and detest its most insane 


delectations. That his virtue may abound in us, 
when our own is found wanting, and that He who 
freely consecrated our beginning by the sacrament 
of baptism, and advanced our progress to the seat of 
the Apostles without any desert of ours, may deign 
to fortify our outgoing by the fitting sacraments. 

249 That we may be delivered from the lust of the 
flesh, that the fear of death may utterly vanish 
and our spirit may desire to be dissolved and be 
with Christ, and existing upon earth in body only, 
in thought and longing our conversation may be in 
Heaven. That the Father of mercies and the God 
of all consolation may graciously come to meet the 
prodigal returning from the husks ; that He may 
receive the piece of silver that has been lately 
found and transmit it by his holy angels into his 
eternal treasury. That He may rebuke with his 
terrible countenance, at the hour of our departure, 
the spirits of darkness, lest Leviathan, that old 
serpent, lying hid at the gate of death, should 

250 spread unforeseen snares for our feet. But when 
we shall be summoned to the awful judgment-seat 
to give an account on the testimony of conscience 
of all things we have done in the body, the God- 
Man may consider the price of the holy blood that 
He has shed, and that the Incarnate Deity may note 
the frame of our carnal nature, that our weakness 
may pass unpunished where infinite loving-kind- 
ness is to be found, and that the soul of the 
wretched sinner may breathe again where the peculiar 


251 office of the Judge is to show mercy. And further 
let our students be ahvays diligent in invoking the 
refuge of our hope after God, the Virgin Mother 
of God and Blessed Queen of Heaven, that we 
who for our manifold sins and wickednesses have 
deserved the anger of the Judge, by the aid of her 
ever-acceptable supplications may merit his for- 
giveness ; that her pious hand may depress the 
scale of the balance in which our small and few 
good deeds shall be v;eighed, lest the heaviness of 
our sins preponderate and cast us down to the 

252 bottomless pit of perdition. Moreover, let them 
ever venerate with due observance the most de- 
serving Confessor Cuthbert, the care of whose flock 
we have unworthily undertaken, ever devoutly 
praying that he may deign to excuse by his prayers 
his all-unworthy vicar, and may procure him whom 
he hath admitted as his successor upon earth to 
be made his assessor in heaven. Finally, let them 
pray God with holy prayers as well of body as of 
soul, that He will restore the spirit created in the 
image of the Trinity, after its sojourn in this miser- 
able world, to its primordial prototype, and grant to 
it for ever to enjoy the sight of his countenance : 
through our Lord Jesus Christ. Amen. 

253 The end of the Philobiblon of Master Richard 
de Aungervile, surnamed de Bury, late Bishop of 
Durham. This treatise was finished in our manor- 
house of Auckland on the 24th day of January in 
the year of our Lord one thousand three hundred 



and forty-four, the fifty-eighth year of our age 
being exactly completed and the eleventh year of 
our pontificate drawing to an end ; to the glory of 
God. Amen. 

I ndex. 


The references are to sections. 

Abraham 27 
acervus IMercurii 95 
Achilles- 78 
activa 1S7 
Adam 109 
adamas 58, 144 
adstruit 173 
Aesculapii no 
aeternitatis speculum 197 
Agamemnonis 108 
aleis 81 

Alexander 20, 188 
Almagest! 21, 160 
Ambrosius 163 
anlhropospatos 91 
aiitiquarii 143, 207 
antonomatice 48 
Antonium 113 
apodicticon ill 
Apollo 102, no 
Archhuedis 151 
argumentosae 136 
Ariana malitia 164 
aridam 133 
Aristoteles 40, 103, iir, 127, 

154, 159 

De Caelo 94 

Aristoteles De porno 170 

Eth. 2, 30, 35, 180, 231 

Met. 14, 160, r86 

Polit. 173 

Probl. 31 

Topic. 36 
arm.aria 120, 135 
assub 8 

athletas fidei 8 
attingit 157 
auges 127 
Augustinus 80, 86, 89, 163, 

Augustus 214 
Aulus Gellius 40, 41. loo, 

149, 150 
' Aver roes 40 
Avicenna 160 

Babel 71 
Balaam 96 
Beda 184 
bestia bipedalis 61 
Bezeleel 136 
Boetius 22, 113 

De Con sol. Phil 6, 32, 
54, 187 

S 2 



Bononiam 70 
Britannia 58, 157 

Cadmus no, 128 
Camenae 54 
Candacis 203 
Canonem 160 
canonici regulates 80 
canonio 158 
Carmenta 70, 128 
Carneades 149 
Carthaginis 112 
Cassiodorus 183, 207 
Categorias 154 
Cato 20 
cherubicis 74 
chirothecis 221 
Claudius 215 
Clemens V. 1C6 
Cocus 69 
compendio 155 
comprehensor 210 
consessorem 252 
consilium 2 
contemplativa 187 
Corydon 'Ji, 102 
Cratonis 18, 182 
Croesus 9 
Cuthbertum 252 
Cyrillus 164 

Daniel 91, 210 
David 2, 29, 87 
De VeHila 148 
debitricem 157 
Demosthenis 191 
dextrariorum 78 

diasyntheticam 176 
Diomedon 105 
Dionysius 128, 246 
diplomate 155 
discophorum 91 
diverticula 126 
Donatus 154 
dulcoravit 125 

Ecclesiastes.ii6, 206 
Ecclesiasticus 206, 212 
Eduardus III. 118, 237 
eleemosynariura 220 
Elefuga 182 
elegorum 5 
Eliam 91 
elongatur 53 
emunctorio 219 
energia 212 
Engadi 29 
Ennio 185 
Enoch 109 
entelechia 104 
Euclides 30, 182 
Socraticus 150 
exardescat 3 
extranea 134 
Ezechiel 98 

fabrefieri 136 
Fabricius 20 
figura Pythagorica 52 
filius inconstantiae 182 
florenos 123 
fontale 231 
Franciae 124, 140 
furraturas 61 



Gades 115 
gagati 219 
Galliae 157 
Gedeonis 29 
geologia 174 
geuzahar 127 
Goliath 29 
Gratianus 184 
Gregorius 43, 163 
gymnasia 6, 147 

Habacuc 91 
Hercules 108 
hereos 170 
Hiberas naenias 88 
Hieronymus 163, 183, 

hierophilosophus 32 
Hippodami 173 
holocaustum 56 
Homerum 162 
horae canonicae 74 
Horatius 18 1 
hyperduliam 73 

lacob 29 
lasonis iio 
ictericia 63 
leptae 108 
leremias 191, 209 
impedibilem 3 
improperium 60 
inattingibilis 146 
incomprehensibilis iS 
inconsutilem 165 
inculpandos 183 
innisus 92 

loannes Saresberiensis 190, 

lob 64, 246 
lonithus 109 
loseph 135 
losephus 211 
losua no 
Isaac 27 
Isaias 210, 246 
Isocrates 149 
Italiae 140 
lulius Ceasar 20, 213-4 


Lactantius 162, 183 
lascivius 79, 180 
Latinista 222 
Lazarus 64 
Liber Bacchus 78 
lilia 224 
Livii 191 
Lo^ostilios no 
Lucretium 162 
luminaria 50 
Lya 75 

Macrobius 162 
maeandri 195 
magnalia Dei 46 
Matnmonae 194 
]Maria 75 
Maro 185 
]Martha 75 
]\Iartialis 69 
]\Iartianus 162 
Melchizedech 49 
merces 195, 200 
Mercurialis 234 



Mercurius 102, 191 
Minerva 157, 180 
moralitatum 130 
Moyses no, 155, 191, 209, 

N, 237 

Nabuchodonosor 209 
naenias 88 
Neutrum iii 
Neronis 113 
Nestoriana nequitia 164 
Noe 29, 1 10 

Origenes 193 
ostensivis 130 
Ovidius 192 
De Vetiila 148 

paedagogos 141 

Palamedis no 

Pallas 102 

Pandectam 160 

panfietos 123 

pannis 26 

panthera 57 

Parisius 58, 70, 126, 157 

Parnasus no, 126 

Partheninm 162 

Paulus 97, 127, 137, 210 

Pegaseo 191 

Pegasus 102 

Perihermenias 154 

Petnis 53 

Philippa 237 

Philippum 186 

Philobiblon 13, 253 

Philolaus 40 
Phocas 146 
Phronesis 102 
Phryne 193 
Pierides 102 
pignientaria potio 125 
pileum 152 
Pindarum 162 
Plato 18, 40, 104, 193 
Plinius 160 

polychronitudinem 211 
polymitarii 136 
possessionatos 73 
postliminium 114 
Praedicatores 86, 138 
praehonorare 23, 52 
Priscianus 154 
provisio 155 

Ptolemaeus 21, 127, r6o 
Pythagoras 105 
Pythoni 102 

quadratura circuli Hi 
quadrivialium 47 
quatriduano 64 

Racheli 75 
rationale 136 
rcfocillativum 88 
religionum 74 

Saba 135 
saga 136 
sagimine 224 
Sallustius 162 
Salomon 39, no, 135 
Samsonis no 



Sardanapalus 9 

scholares 238 

Scipio 112 

Seleucus 114 

Seneca 113, 201 

sensus communis 25 

septiformi 3 

sethim 227 

Sibylla 43 

Sidonius 183 

signacula 224 

Simonides 149 

sindonem 61 

Sion 126, 155 

Sisaram 136 

Socrates 104, 150 

sophista 222 

Sophocles 149 

sortem Domini 48 

Speusippus 40 

spiritalis 30 

stationariorum 140 

stratas regias 177 

studia generalia 133 

subcinericeos 76 

sublunari 127 

subtilitates 156 

Suetonius 213, sqq, 

superhumerale 136 

syllogismus apodicticon III 

synteresim 172 

tabula depingenda 46 
tabulationibus 138 

j Tarquinius Superbus 41 
I Taurus 150 
! taxillis 81 
I Tegni 160 

Tertullianus 202 

Teutoniae 140 

Theocritum 162 

Theodoricum 113 

Theophrastus 61 

Theotokos 164 

Tiberius 215 

Timoihei, 79. 

Timotheum, 97. 

Tullius, 30, 113, 162, 191. 

uncinis pomorum, 93. 

Valerius (Map) 61 

Maximus 149, 193 
Vergilius 69, 162, 185 
De Vdula 148 
viator 47, 200, 210 
virtus 58 
vispilionis 104 
Vulcania 205 

xeniorum 119 
Xenocrates 193 
Xerxes 114 

zelotypi 85 
Zenonis 105 
Zoroastes 109 
Zorobabel 32