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Full text of "Philosophical experiments: containing useful, and necessary instructions for such as undertake long voyages at sea. Shewing how sea-water may be made fresh and wholsome: and how fresh water may be preserv'd sweet. How biscuit, corn, &c. may be secured from the weevel, meggots, and other insects. And flesh preserv'd in hot climates, by salting animals whole. To which is added, an account of several experiments and observations on chalybeate or steel-waters ... which were read before the Royal-society, at several of their meetings"

7 M75 



. 

March 29, 1739. " 



Imprimatur, 



HANSSLOANE, Pr. Reg. Soc. 



Reproduced b> DUOPAGE process 
in the United States of America 



MICRO PHOTO INC. 

Cleveland 12, Ohio 



PHILOSOPHICAL 

EXPERIMENTS: 

CONT AI NING 
Ufeful, and Neceffary INSTRUCTIONS forfuch 

as undertake long Voyages at Sea. 
Shewing how SEA-WATER may be made 
FRESH and WHOLSOME : And how FRESH- 
WATER may be preferv'd Sweet 

How BISCUIT CORN, 6fc. may be fecured from 
the Weevel, Meggots, and other Infefts. 

And FLESH preferv'd in hot Climates, by S A L T i NO 
ANIMALS whole. 

To which is added. 

An Account of feveral Experiments and ( 
on CHALYBEATE or STEEL- WATERS- wi 
Attempts to convey them to diftant Places 

Vincr f'npii* TTt>i>ii^ * -v ***( 



, Of. 



U u, 

, Harbours, and Refcrvoirs! 



e rea eore the ROYAL- 
fcveral of their Meetings 

STEPHEN HALES, D. D. P. R. S 

Reftor of Farringdon in Hampjbire, and 
Minifterofr. Middlefex. 



LONDON: 



ii The DEDICATION. 
thofe who are at the Head of, and 
have the Direction and Tranfafling 
of the maritime Affairs of far the 
moft numerous and Powerful Fleet 
in the World, 

It was to fome of Your Lordfhips 
to whom I had the Honour of firft 
communicating my Intentions of en- 
gaging in thefe Refearches, which 
you were pleafed to encourage me 
to purfue : That we might, if pofll- 
ble, find a never-failing Spring of 
frefh Waters in the midft of the 
Ocean. 

I muft confefs I was at firft much 
difcouraged, when I reflected on my 
Rafhnefs, in venturing on an Under- 
taking, which had baffled the repeat- 
ed Attempts of the ableft Philofo- 
phers and Chymifts, both Ancient 
and Modern: In fo much that they 
looked upon it as almoft impra&i- 

cable 



The DEDICATION. iii 
cable to find out any way to pro- 
cure a wholefome Drink from Sea- 
Water. In which yet I have fuc- 
ceeded far beyond what I could 
have expeded ; having found means 
not only to free diftilled Sea- Water, 
from its naufeous bitter Oily Bitu- 
men ; which made it mod difagree- 
able to drink ; but alfo from ano- 
ther very hurtful Quality, viz, the 
Spirit of Bittern Salt, which :> apt to 
arile in" great plenty in Diftillation ; 
but is now happily found to be de- 
tained from riiing up by the fame 
means, that the naufeous bitter Oily 
Bitumen is prevented from rifmg. 

I hope alfo that the Method here 
propofed to keep frefh Water fweet 
will be of fome fervice ; which tho' 
no new Difcovery, yet has hitherto, 
as far as I can learn, been but little 
put in pra&ice by the Englijh* from 
A 2 .a 



vi The DEDICATION. 
Publick, will be a farther Benefit to 
Mankind : efpecially to that impor- 
tant and valuable part of Mankind, 
who fee theWonders of the Lord in 
the Deep : And who are, under the 
guidance of Providence, not only 
our Chief Defence and Security ; but 
alfo the adventurous and induftrious 
Inftruments, by which the feveral 
and moft diftant Nations of the 
Earth carry on an extenflve Com- 
merce and Intercourfc with each 
other ; which tends not only to the 
greatly inriching, but alfo to inlarg- 
ing the Minds of Mankind, and to 
the Civilizing and Improving of 
them, by the Communication of mu- 
tual Benefits. 

I have here alfo added an Account 
of fome Experiments on Steel-Waters, 
which tho' it may not, in the main 
Defign of it, be thought fo proper 

to 



The DEDICATION. vu 
to join to a Treatife, which is chiefly 
intended for the ufe of Seafaring Per- 
fons,yet neither will it be wholly ufe- 
lefs to them ; fmce they may hereby 
be informed, how to preferve for 
their ufe in a Voyage, the Virtue of 
Steel-Waters, which they (hall any 
where meet with : And fuch Waters 
will doubtlefs, in many Cafes, be as 
ufeful to them, as they are to many 
of thofe at Land. 

As to the Propofal at the end of 

this Book, to cleanfe fome Rivers and 

Harbours of Mud ; it firft occurred 

to me many Years (ince, on feeing 

the flow and expenlive Method, of 

cleanfing the Yarmouth River near 

Yarmouth, by means of a large 

Wheel fix'd to a Barge, and turned 

by Horfes. The Wheel in turning 

round, takes up Mud in large Buckets^ 

which are fixed to it, and difcharge 

A 4 it 






viii The DEDICATION. 
it into another Barge. A Method 
which they are under a neceflity of 
ufing in Holland, where the Waters 
move with a very flow progreflive 
motion : But in Waters which have a 
greater velocity, I am perfuaded that 
it would be a much more effectual, 
and expeditious, and confequently a 
cheaper and better way, to cleanfe 
away Mud, by much ftirring of it 
thus with Horfe-Rakes. 

I fhall be very glad if what I have 
here offered, fhall prove of any fer- 
vice to the Publick, and be confe- 
quently acceptable to Your Lordfhipsu 

Being with all due Refpeft, 
MY LORDS, 

Tour Lord/hips 
Obedient humble Servant^ 

STEPHEN HALES. 



(ix) 

I 

THE 

PREFACE 

IDid not intend any other Preface 
to this Treat if e y than what is con- 
tained in the foregoing Dedica^ 
tory Epiftle : But being furnijhed, 
labile the fir ft part of this Book was 
printing^ by the Favor of Sir Hans 
Sloane, Bart, out of his Valuable Li- 
brary.) with feveral Treatifes on the 
SubjeEl ; I Jh a II from them give an 
Account of what has been formerly 
attempted for making Sea-Water 
drinkable, especially what wa* done 
by Mr. Walcot and Mr. Fitz-gerald 
in King Charles the Seconds Time. 

St. Bafil, in his Homilies, fays 
that when Men were caft on an 

IJland, 



x The PREFACE. 

Ijland y where there was no frejh Wa- 
ter > they boiled Sea-Wat er\ and 
catched the fapour with Sponges* 
which they fqueezed into another 
Boiler ; and having faffed thus^ four 
or Jive Times from Boiler: thro Spon- 
gesy it became drinkable. This tedi- 
ous way was ufed before the method of 
Dift tiling was known y which was an 
. Invention of the Arabs. 

Johannes a GadefdenyfW Johannes 
Anglicus, Anno 151 6>fays that Sea- 
Water may befweetened four ways % 
viz. by Jilt rat ing thro Sand : By 
clean Linnen laid over a Boiler^ and 
fqueefmgthe Moifture out > as from the 
Sponges : By Diftillation : As alfo 
by thin Bowls made of white Virgin 
Waxy which 'tis faid will free the 
Water from its Saltnefs, and from 
fome part of its naufeous Bitter. But 
this is only a matter of curiofity^ be- 

caufe 



The PREFACE. xi 

caufe but a very fmall Quantity can 
be thus prepared \ and in order to make 
thofe waxen Bowls fit for farther Fil- 
tration^ they mufl be cleanfed from 
the Salty by being wajhed in frejh 
Water. 

About thi Tear 1675, William 
Walcot, Brother to Sir Thomas Wai- 
cot, obtained a Patent for making Sea- 
Water freJJj : And the King, before 
the Grant of this Patent, had the 
curiojity to go and fee Mr. Walcot 
do it, which was by diftilling it in a 
very large Still ; into the Still he put 
fome Ingredient^ which was to cure 

the diftilled Water of any noxious 
/ j */ 

Duality : But what it was ^ he kept a 
great Jeer et. IfvfpeEl that the prin- 
cipal thing was only Diflillation^ be- 
caufe in all his printed Accounts of 
it) he purpofely avoids the calling it 
a Stilly but calh it a Machine or En- 
gine, 



xii The PREFACE. 

gine, and Diftilling he calls the work* 
ing of the Machine^ not Dijtilling. 

The Reverend Dr. Colbatch, Cafu- 
ijlical Profeffor at Cambridge, who 
fome Tears fince defer ed me to attempt ', 
to make Sea-Water whole fome^ informs 
me that he had good Reafon to believe 
that the Ingredient which Mr. Walcot 
put into Sea-Water ', in order to 
make it wholefome^ was fome Prepa- 
ration ef Antimony by Fire. 

In the Tear 1683 Mr. Fitz-gerald, 
Son of the Earl of Kildare, and a 
near Relation of the Famous Robert 
Boyle Efq ; having upon Mr. Boyle'j 
encouragement made a Difcovery of 
a new eafy and practicable way of 
making f ah Water frejh* obtained of 
the King the Grant of a Patent to 
himfelf) Theophilus Oglethorpe, Wil- 
liam Bridgman, Thomas Maule, and 
Patrick Trant Efq', Lord Faulkland 

being 



The PREFACE. xiii 
being afterwards brought in a Part- 
ner. 

In the Year 1 684 Mr. Walcot had 
Letters Patent granted him by the. 
States General, to make Sea-Water 
frejhy and put ride Water wholefome : 
Which Mr. Fitz-gerald endeavoured 
to obtain there alfo. 

After federal Try ah at Law be~ 
tween the Patentees Mr. WalcotV 
Patent wti$ fuperfeded and laid a- 
Jide\ againft which Mr. Walcot 
brought a Bill in Parliament in the 
Tear 1694, which paffed the Com- 
mons, but not the Houfe of Lords. 

Mr. Walcot afferted before the 
Houfe of Commons, that Mr. Fitz- 
geraldV Water was rough, harjhj 
yj corroding and tormenting the 
Eody when conftantly drcnk of. This 
Ifujpeff was the true Reafon why both 
their Methods of preparing frejh Sea- 
Water 



xiv The PREFACE. 

Water were difufed^ viz. becaufe 
when they had been ufed for a conft- 
derable time^ they were found to dif- 
agree with thofe who drank them. 

Mr. Wzlcotfays of bis Water > that 
it was fmooth)foft) cooling^ and would 
not decay or putrify in many Years* 
no not in f even Years y when kept at 
Conftantinople. But by its continu- 
ing/ I n g * n an unputrified State> I 
fufpeEl there was Spirit of Salt in /'/, 
that came over in Dift illation: For thd 
diftiiled common Water is known to 
keep longer without putrifying^ than 
undijlilled Water by reafon of its 
greater purity ; yet I found fome of 
the good diftiiled Sea-Water to putri- 
fy in fome time after Diftillation^ but 
that which had in it Spirit of Salt 
never putrified. ^4 Gudgeon died 
the fifth Day after it was put into a 
Pint of good diftiiled Sea-Water^ 

which 



The PREFACE. xv 
which after ft anding five Months in 
a Glafs Pejfelj was again become fo 
putrid as to be dif agreeable to the 
Tajle ; whereas another Gudgeon 
put into a like quantity of good di- 
ftilled Sea-Water^ lived many Days 
longer^ the Water being very frejh 
and fweet, it having been diftilled 
but three Days before. I find that a 
fmall Degree of Putrefaflion in Wa- 
ter ^ kills Fijh ; but //, in order to pre- 
vent that Putrefaiion, a few Drops 
of Spirit or Oil of Vitriol be dropped 
into the Water y then the Fijh will 
live many Days in that Water. 

The Patentees depojitedthe Receipt* 
of the CementSy and other metalline 
Compojitions which tkty ufcd> fealed 
up in a filver Box y in the Lord 
Mayor of London's hxnds. 

Mr. Boyle certified that the few 
Ingredients made ufe of by Mr. Fitz- 
gerald 



xvi The PREFACE. 
gerald, arefxed in the Fire> and give 
no noxious Duality to the Water. 

Sir Hans Sloane, whofawtheCe~ 
went which was ufed in Mr. Fitz- 
geraldV Method^ tells me that it look- 
ed like common Brick Clay. But 
whatever it wasj there was Jo 
fmail a quantity of it ufed ; that 
what was fufficient for producing 
Sixty Tuns of good Water y might be 
contained in two Bujhels. 

But Jince^as is Jhown in t he follow- 
ingTreatife on Sea-Water^ two uric es 
o/*Sal Tartar, whendiflilled with only 
a Pint of Sea-Water^ were not fuf- 
Jicient to detain the noxious parts of 
that Water from rijtng> therefore 
4320 Pounds weight of //, would 
not be enough to procure Sixty Tun$ 
of good diftilled Sea-Water : And 
face Salt of Tartar is the ftrongeft 
Imbiber offulphureousSubftances y and 

the 



The PREFACE. xvii 
the moft effectual Prevented of the ill 
EffeEts of Spirit of Salt that / j 
hitherto known ; it feems therefore 
very improbable, thatfofmall a Por- 
tion of a clayey Subftance jhould be 
more effectual for that purpofe : which 
makes me very much fu/pef, that 
thefe Cements, as they were called^ 
were only made ufe of as a Pretext. 

Were I to aim at a Patent for 
making dift tiled Sea-Water <wholfome y 
and in order to it would conceal the 
real eajy Method of doing it, viz. by 
jirji caufmg it to putrify and then 
growfweet again ; I might here have 
a fair opportunity of doing //, by 
putting in any Compound Mixture* 
which in order to have in good Effeft 
it might be pretended, that it muft 
be throughly digefted in the Sea-Wa- 
ter j whereby a fufficient time might 
a bz 



xviii The PREFACE* 

be plaufibly gained for in Putrefac- 

//'<?#, &c. 

Mr. Fitz-geraldV Method ihet 
with fuch great applaufe^ that a 
Poem 'was publijhed to celebrate his 
Praife y andjiher Medals were madfr 
reprefenting and illuftrating the Art 
of this new Inventor. 

One Jacob Kuffler affijled him ; 
who, the Kingfaid) had not the Art. 

A Still of his watfet up at Hull 
and Sheernefs : and by Order of the 
Council in the Year 1692, two of 
them were to be fet up in the IJlands 
of Jerfey and Guernfey ; but 'with no 
good Effefl : The dift tiled Water 'was 
jiery^ harjh and corroding. 

And in a little Time the Perfons 
'concerned with Mr. Fitz-gerald, find- 
ing themfehes extreamly difappointed 
in their expettation^ withdrew from 
any Partnerjlip with him : Info- 

much 



The PREFACE. xix 

much that his Injlruments^ 'which 
were dear enough before their Effett 
was known, were foon after fold for 
old Goods > for want of a vent for 
them at Sea. 

Upon the whole , it feems probable 
to me, that thefe Patentees might 
fome times have wholfome diftilled Sea* 
Water<> viz. when they either kept 
the firft part of any Dift illation of 
Sea-Water for a conjiderable Time 
after ; or if they Diftilled foine Sea- 
Water which had putrijled : and this 
they might probably do> finest is likely 
that they were provided with good 
Jlore of Sea-Water for their Experi- 
ments, Now I have jhoton in the fol- 
lowing Treatife, that in both thefe 
Cafesy good Water may be obtained 
from Sea^Water taken up near the 

Nore. 

- 

a 2 And 



xx The PREFACE. 

And 'tis probable that Mr. Boyle 
might happen to /ry, with a Solution 
of Silver > fome fuch good Water of 
Mr. Fitz-gcrald'j preparing^ who 
might likely bring him the heft Wa- 
ter he had. Fcr it is not to be fuf- 
petted thatfo worthy and good a Man 
as Mr. Boyle was, would impofe a 
Faljhood on the World^ for the fake 
of any one whatfoever. 

*fhe Solution of Silver in Aquafor- 
tis was at that time kept a great Se- 
cret, as to its Property of dif cover ing 
the leajl quantity of Salt or Spirit of 
Salt in Water. Had either Mr. 
Walcot or Mr. Fitz-gerald had the 
free ufe of it> and known how to have 
iffed it y they might thc?i probably have 
made a greater progrefs in what they 
were in purfuit of\ but for want of 
it) they could not well dijlinguijh^ 
when the Diftilled: Water was free 

from 



The PREFACE. xxi 
from Spirit of Salt^ and when not> 
and therefore^ failed in their Attempt. 

It was from the ufe of this Soluti- 
on of Silver ; and the happy Inci- 
dent of being furnijhed with 7 quan- 
tity of Mediterranean Water^ by 
Thomas Tower Efq\ Member of 
Parliament for Wallingford in Berk- 
fhire, that I got the injight into this 
Matter ; which I have given an Ac* 
count of in the Treatife en Sea-Water. 

"The great and only Difficulty that 
now remains in this Affair, is to con- 
trive how to diftil great quantities 
of Water on faip-board ; and that 
ivithfafcty to the Ship from Fire. 

It may therefore be of ufe to give 
here fome Account l , of what was done 
on foip-boardi in purfuance of the 
then current Opinion that Mr. Wai- 
cot, or Mr. Fitz-gerald, or both of em 
had made the happy difcovery. 

a 3 Thcv 



The PREFACE. 

They fay that they placed the Still 
in the Forecajlle before the Maft* in 
a very commodious manner^ fo that it 
took up little Room y and was out of 
Danger. 

And a chief Mafter-Builder of the 
Kings Tard at Deptford certified tie 
Lords Commiifioners of the Admiral- 
ty, that Mr. Walcot had taken great 
Painty and made many Contrivances, 
and good Provtfion fur fafety, and 
conveniency of Dijl tiling in Ships ; 
having brought the manner of placing 
his Furnaces to great Perfection ; af- 
furing their Lordjhips^ that he would 
undertake to Jet them up in the fame 
manner in any of his Majeftys Ships. 

In the Tear 1683, # Mafter of a 
Ship from Barbados certified^ that in 
that Voyage they could diftil not 
only in fair Weather, but alfo in 
foul Weather* 

They 



The PREFACE. xxiii 

that ninety Gallons may 
be dift tiled in 24 Hours, from a Still 
that is three Feet in Diameter , with 
lefs than three Pecks of Coals, and 
proportionally with any other FeweL 
And that the whole Room that will 
be taken up in the Fewe/, and in the 
few Casks to be employed in the pre- 
paring this Water y will be lefs than 
the tenth part of Stowage^ now em- 
ployed for Water only. That the In- 
gredients for too Gallons of this Wa- 
ter will not amount to above Twelve- 
Pence : And that the whole, viz,. 
Fewel and Ingredients, will come to a- 
bout a Farthing, a Gallon. 

Another makes the following <Cow- 

putation, viz. In a Voyage to Suratte, 

there is ordinarily allowed a Butt .or 

126 Gallons of fre/b Water tp a 

Man ; fome thing more than a Bu- 

jhelof Coah will dift if this in a 

a 4 Day 



The P R E F A c E. 

Day and a half> or no Bujbehfor 
i oo Butts. So that if one Butt con- 
tain fifteen Dujfjel^ 105 Bujheh 
will lie in the Rocm of f even Butts ; 
by which means thirteen in fourteen 
parts may befaved in Stowage^ except 
fome ftw Casks for receiving the 
Diftilled Water ; which will alfofave 
a great Charge of Butts. 

The Prices of the Patentees^ were 
as follows^ viz. 

foe Still coft eighteen Pounds^ 
which will dijlil abutt 90 Gallons 
in twenty four Hours. 

They are to buy as much of the In- 
gredientS) for this Operation, at 
will keep the Still going fix Months or 
tnore y at the rate of one Shilling va- 
lue to each go Gallons. 

dndfoall be obliged to ufe the In- 
gredients ^ * left the Water be preju- 
dicial to the Health of the Sailor s> and 

-con- 



The PREFACE. xxv 
confequently bring a difrepute on the 
Invention. 

Three-Pence the Tun to be paid 
Yearly by fuch Ships as ufe the Still. 

They propofe hereby to fave nine 
Parts in ten of the Stowage for 
Water. 

But tbefe feveral Eftitnates are 

fet too high ; they are founded on a 

fuppofal) that all the Water thro 

the ^hole Voyages of Ships, is to be 

diftilled\ which will hardly ever be. 

I find upon inquiry^ that it is ufu- 
al for the Eaft- India Ships> to have 
Copper Still-Heads fitted to their 
Kitchen-Boilers^ with (Form-Tubs 
proper for Dift illation. But it feems 
the Ships-Boilers are not tinned with- 
in fide) and yet they find no Incon- 
venience in conjiantly boiling their 
Meat in them : whence there isfotne 
Hopes, that provided they are kept 

clean 






xxvi The P * E F A c e. 

clean from the grew Rufty which is 
very apt to be cauf ed by fait Water ^ 
they may then alfo be ufed in Di ft il- 
lation* But. if any Inconvenience 
Jhall be found to arife by Dift tiling in 
untinned 'Copper-Boiler s, that Incon- 
venience would be prevented in a 
great mwfure^ by tinning thcm\ this 
at leaft while the tinning lafted\ 
in tnuch ufing 'will wear off^ 
muft then be new tinned. 
Mr. W^l.cot finding that Copper 
gtive an ill Quality of Vomit- 
ing to the Diftilled Water^ made ufe 
offmall Iron Boilers^ which if they 
could be had of a fize large enough^ 
would be wry proper for the Purpoje. 
But whafever Fejfe/s are ufed in 
Diftillation) great Care muft be taken 
that they are made as clean as pojffi- 
i>le ; fince it is fully proved in the 
following Treatife* the mort impure 

the 



The PREFACE. xxvii 
the Water is which is to be diftilled y 
the Tafte of the diftilled Water will 
be proportionally the more dif agree- 
able. 

The Common Boilers in Ships^ are 
of Copper j not . round, but Jlat-Jided 
like a Box ; and are called double 
Kettles^ being divided by a Partition 
into two ; the larger of which has a 
round Mouth ^ the leffer an Oval one: 
To the round one, the Copper Still- Head 
is fix d) to the Crown of which is 
foldered a large Pewter-Pipe called 
the Swan Neck, on account of its 
crooked Shape, and to this the Worm- 
Tub is fixed for Diftillation. 

Thefe Boilers are of fever al foes > 
containing from 15 to 60 Gallons, 
in proportion to the different fmall- 
nefs or largenefs of the Ships. J7je 
largejl in Eaft-India Ships contain 
about 80 Gallons % and in firft-Rate 

Meu 



xxviii The PREFACE. 

Men of War they are much more 

capacious. 

Since good and wholfomefrejh Wc- 
ter can now be obtained from Sea- 
it greatly behoves Seafaring 
y to contrive and find out the 
and moft commodious Methods of 
Dijt tiling it. 

To conclude, As the Water which 
is procured from Sea-Water^ in 
the Method I am going to give an 
Account of) Jeems to he in every re- 
fpeEl as good) as that which is dijlil- 
led from common Heater, fo it is rea~ 
fonalle to conclude that it is as whol- 
feme. And that common diftilled 
Water is wholfome, there is goodrea- 
fon to think) from the Experience of 
many. Mr. Boyle f<tjs y that the 
great Duke of Tufcany, who much 
confuted bis Health, conjlantly drank 
Water : And they are f aid 

in 



The PREFACE. xxix 
in Italy to drink it as a Delicacy. 
A Phyfician at Breft drank it con- 
Jlantlvj and enjoyed fine Health. 

This good Diftilled Sea -Water 
will therefore not only be of life in 
the Days of Diftrefs, but there may 
be this further Benefit from ;V, viz, 
that it being thereby made very pure^ 
it will not be fo apt toftink as other 
Water \ and may therefore be of ufe 
when the Shifts Store of Water ft inks 
and is very dif agreeable ; for the 
longer good Dijlilled Sea-Wattr if 
kept, the better tafted it />, it being 
thereby freed from Empyreum. 



TH* 



( xxx ) 
THE 

CONTENTS, 



AN Account of fame 
to make Diftilled Sea-Water 
wholfome. page i. 

Some Confederations about Means to 
preferveFreJh-Waterfweet. p. 57. 

Directions to preferve Ship-Bifcuit 
and Corn from being eaten by 
Weeveh) Meggots, or Worms, p. 6 9. 

DireSt ions for Salting Animals whole, 

in order to make the F/e/b keep 

fweet in hot Climates. p. 81. 

An Account of fome Experiments on 
Chalybeate or Steel-Waters* p. 97. 

APropofal for clean/ing away Mud, 
&c. where Waters have a Stream 
or Current. p. 158. 



E R R A T A. 

P. 9 line 28. r. where. P. 17. 1. 7, r.artfnfW*** bt. 
I. 27. for more, r. mojl. P. 24. I. ij.'r. Sal Tartar. 1. 16. 
T. Oil of Tartar. P. 28. 1. l6.r. with which. P. 98.!. J. 
dele M*y. P. 142. 1. 27. for ntvtr, r. wr. 



A N 

ACCOUNT 



Some ATTEMPTS, to make 
Diftilled Sea* Water whol- 
fome* 

I. 

IT is well known that feafaring Peo^ 
pie, efpecially in long Voyages, fre- 
quently fuffer great inconvenien- 
cies~~ when their Provifion of frefh Water, 
either falls fhort or fails them ; either by long 
Calms, contrary Winds, Storms which dife- 
ble the Rigging of their Ships; or other un- 
forefeen Accidents; which obliges them to come 
often to a very fliort Allowance; and fome- 
times to lofe the Benefit of their Voyage, 
by changing their Courfe to get at frefli Water : 
Or if they happen to be provided with a ////, 
then, by drinking unwholfome Diftilled Sea- 
Water, their Healths are greatly indangered 
by the moft obftinate and incureabk Obftruc- 
Scirrhous Tumors, Cachexies, Off. as 
B I 




2 On Drilled 

I have been affured, by thofe who have known 
by experience, the ill effe&s of it. 

There have both in England, Germany^ 
France, and Holland, been feveral Attempts 
made, to make Sea- Water more wholfpme. 
I am informed that the Lapis Mexicanus, 
or a foft filtrating Stone in the fhape of a 
large Mortar or boiling Copper, is very much 
in ufe among the Hollanders \ but will not 
anfwer the end. It clears the Water from 
Mud, but will not quite clear it from the fait 
and bitter Tafte. And Mr. Boyle Godfrey 
the Chymifl fays, in his Mifeellancous ExperL 
ments and Obfervatiom, that Sea- Water be- 
ing filtrated through Stone Cifterns, the firft 
Pint that runs through will be like pure Wa- 
ter, having no Tafte of the Salt, but the next 
Pint will be as fait as ufual. The Comte de 
Marfilli in his Hiftoire Pbyfique de la Mere 
fays, he filtrated Sea- Water, through fifteen 
earthen Pots, placed over each other ; which 
were filled and tried firft with Garden Earth, 
and then with Sand ; but it had very little 
efteft, tho' the fum of the Depth of all the Pots 
was fixty five Inches ; the Sand did beft. It 
has alfo been attempted by feveral ways of 
Diftillation, as alfo by Precipitation, both with 
and without Diftillation, which was attempted 
J with 



Sea-Water* 3 

with Alkaline Powders, as Coral, Crabs- 
Eyes, &c . with Salt and Oil of Tartar 5 and 
alfo with acid vegetables and mineral Sub- 
ftances ; but all hitherto to no purpofe. Yet this 
fhould not difcourage us from further Attempts* 
efpeciallyin a Cafe of fo great Concern, to the 
welfare of fo numerous, fo confiderable and 
important a part of Mankind as thofe are ivbo 
occupy tbeir Bufoie/s in great Waters : And 
whofc numbers as they havie within little more 
than a Century, greatly increafec), by a more 
inlarged Commerce through the World ; fo are 
they like to iircreafe more and more in future 
Generations j and That efpecially on the vaft 
Atlantick Ocean* in proportion as the European 
Colonies in America ', may more and more ill- 
create in number of Inhabitants. 

But notwithftandirig there have been many 
Inftances of Peoples preferring their Lives in 
times of Diftrefs, by the ufe of very unwhol- 
fome Sea- Water ; yet I find the mention of 
any Endeavour, to make it more wholfome, 
fpoke of with Scorn and Contempt by fome, 
as a ufelels Attempt. Some who belong to 
large Ships with numerous Crews on board 
them, are apt to fay, where can we have or 
(lore fufficient Fewel, to Diftill, for the fup- 
pptt of fuch Numbers. Yet we find, that 
B 2 in 



4 On 

in Queen Elizabeth's time, Sir Ricbdtct 
Hawkins, who then commanded a Fleet in 
the Indies, did, when Water had failed them, 
for many Days, even in the Admiral's Ship, 
procure by Diftillation a fufficient quantity of 
frefh Water to fuftain the People. See Dr. 
Shaw's Abridgment of Mr. Boy Us Work, Vol. 

III. p. 220. 

And a Perfon told me, that on board an 
Eaft-India Ship, in which he was j for want 
of frefh Water, the Ship's Crew was fuftain- 
ed fourteen Days, with diftilled Sea- Water, 
which they diftilled off at the rate of ten Gal- 
lons in a Day. The Inftances of being brought 
to a very fhort Allowance of Water, are, as 
I find upon Inquiry, very frequent : I am in- 
formed alfo that many perifh at Sea for want 
of frefh Water to drink. 

An experienced Diftiller informs me, that 
with a Still that holds thirty Gallons, Water 
will diftill at the rate of fifteen Gallons in fe- 
ven Hours, which will take up half a Bufhel 
ofNewca/ileCozls \ but in a larger Still more 
will be diftilled in equal times, with lefs Few- 
el, in proportion to the quantity diftilled. 
Therefore thirty-fix Bufhels or a Chaldron of 
Coals will diftill 1080 Gallons, Wine Mea- 
fure, that is, above four Tuns ; or near three 

Tuns 



Sea-Water. 5 

Tuns Beer Meafure. And as a Chaldron of 
Coals, weighs about a Tun and half, and a 
Tun of Water, Wincbejler Meafure 2816 
Pounds; hence it appears that Coals will dif- 
till about three times their quantity or weight 
of Water. And if fifteen Gallons can be di 
tilled in feven hours, then fifty-one Gallons 
may be diftilled in twenty-four hours, a quan- 
tity fufficient for a great number of Men ; 
which might alfo be much increafed, by be- 
ginning the Diftillation fome days before frefli 
Water is wanted. 

And as a Scarcity of Water, can in moft cafes 
be forefeen, for fome time before ; fo the ; Dif- 
tillation of Sea- Water may be begun fome 
time before it is wanted; fuppofe but a Week 
before, then in that time, a great quantity 
might be provided by Diftillation. Suppofe 
but ten Gallons were diftilled in a Day and 
Night, as in the cafe of the Eaft-India Ship 
above mentioned, that would come to feventy 
Gallons in a Week : And fuppofe it be four- 
teen Days more before there be an oppor- 
tunity to provide frefli Water at Land ; 
then by keeping the Still going there will be 
two hundred and ten Gallons diftilled in thofe 
three Weeks. A Provifion of frefli Water, 
which will be fuflicient to fupply a confider- 
83 able 



6 On DiJliHed 

able number of Men, for that Time. And 
where the Ships are larger, and the Crews 
more numerous, a proportionably larger Pro- 
vifion may be made for a fufficient quantity 
of diftilled Water for their ufe. But as the 
much greater part of Merchants Ships, have 
not many. Men on board them, fo it will be 
the more eafy to find means to fupply them 
with diftilled Sea- Water, in cafes of Diftrels. 

I have made thefe Eftimates, of the quan- 
tities of Water, thit may be diilillcd, only as 
a Foundation for thofc concerned in Shipping 
and long Voyages, to nuke their Eftimates 
from : For as the Grcumllar.ccs of the diffe- 
rent Sizes of Ships, and number of Men, and 
different kinds of loading, and different lengths 
and natures of Voyages, are very various, fo 
thofe concerned can beft judge, what provificn 
of Fewel, and what fize of Stills and Worm- 
Tubs will be requifite. 

If the Kitchen Boiler, when not ufed for 
Cookery, can be made ufe of for a Still, it 
would be very commodious, as not requiring 
a feparate Fire-place, and Still. This I have 
feen put in practice in private Families : by 
having a feparate Cover which fitted the Boi- 
ler well, with a clofe Joining ; In the midft 
of which Cover, was a Hole of a due propor- 
tion 



Sea-tPattr. 7 

tion to the fize of the Boiler ; to which Hole 
the Pewter-head of the Still was aptly fitted ; 
and the Joinings clofed with aftiff Pafte made 
of Bean or Wheat-flower, with Whiting or 
Chalk wetted with lalt Water. And thefe 
Ship Boilers being made narrower above than 
at their middle, a Still Head may the more ea- 
fily te adapted to them. And there being two 
Boilers in the Kitchens of feveral Ships; for grea- 
ter difpatch, they might either ufe them both 
in diftillingat the lame time, or might, if need 
require, provide hot Water in one, while not 
ufed in Cookery, wherewith to fill the diftil- 
ling Pot when wanted ; which would much 
forward the Work. If there be room but for 
a fmall Worm-Tub, the Water in it may be 
changed the oftner, as it grows warm j it being 
eafy to pump it out, and to pour in cold Wa- 
ter. As to Mr. Haitian's contrivance to fave 
the having a Worm-Tub, by caufing the dif- 
tilled Water to pafs by a leaden Pipe through 
the fide of the Ship into the Sea, and then be- 
ing cooled, to return into the Ship ; this Me- 
thod feems liable to too many Objections, to be 
put in practice. See Lvwthorp's Abridgment 
of the Pbilefophical Tranfaflions. Vol. II. 
p. 297. 

If a S//7/ is purpofely bought for this ufe, 
B 4 I 



8 On DiJlilleJ 

I believe it would be moft advifeable to have 
the Pot or Boiler of Caft Iron, but efpecially 
the Head of Pewter : becaufe I fufpeft that 
when Salt- Water is boiling in a Copper Vefr 
fel, the heat may make the Salt more corro- 
five, and thereby more apt to produce, and 
bring offPerJigreece from the Copper j which 
would make the diftilled Water apt to caufe 
naufeating of Food, and fometimes Vomiting , 
which as I have been informed, has happened 
to the Inhabitants oSAntcgoa ; where being in 
great diftrefs for freih Water, of which they 
have none but Rain- Water, they had drank 
for fome time diftilled Sea- Water ; which ob- 
liged them to difufe their Sti/ls. 1 hope 
the following Method of preparing diftilled 
Sea- Water, will be of ufc to them in long 
Droughts, when Rain-W^ter fails them. 

For the fame Reafon alfo it is advifeable 
to have the Still Head of Pewter, and not of 
Copper, which may probably contraft a green 
Ruft, in laying long by, in the ialt Air at Sea. 
This is what a Perfon told me, had happened 
to him at Sea j the Water which was boiled 
in his Tea-Kettle, caufing him and feveral o- 
thers who drank of it to vomit; which was cc- 
cafioned by a green Ruft in the Neck of the 
Kettle ; And I have heard of feverai other 

the 



Sea-Water. 9 

the like Inftances. In anfwer to this, it may 
be faid, that Salt Meat is frequently boiled in 
Copper Veflels, without any fuch ill effeVs< 
But then, the Salt is fomewhat fheathed in th$ 
unftuous Fat of the Meat, whereby its corro-r 
five Acrimony is much rebated. I mention 
the providing Iron and Pewter Stills^ rather 
than thofe made of Copper, only by way of 
precaution, being not certain whether thofe of 
Copper will have any ill effedl, provided they 
are made very clean. For it is found by Ex- 
perience, that if Sea- Water ftandany time it 
3 Copper Veflel, it will much fooner caufe a 
greater Ruft than Rain- Water will. 

I am informed, that Wood Fewel is chief- 
ly ufed in Ships, which in many Ports abroad, 
cods nothing but the labour of cutting and 
fetching. A greater bulk of this will be want- 
ing to diftill any quantity of Water, than ther e 
will of Coal to diftill the like quantity. Coals 
might well be laid in Ballaft, in a little com^ 
pals, but when Ships are full freighted they 
have little or no Ballaft, which is then not to 
be come at. 

But might it not be advifeable in fome 
kinds of Voyages, by way of precaution, to 
have aTun, or other quantity of Coals, in fome 
proper place^ when it would take up but little 

ufeful 



jo On Dift tiled 

ufeful Room, e/pccially fince fo many Tuns of 
Water may be (Milled with one Tun of Coak 

I found by filling a Cafk with Coals ftrike 
Meafure, which held twenty-fevcn/f///r^y?tr 
Gallons of Water, that though the Coals arc 
about one fourth part fpcciucally heavier than 
Water, yet the Water weighed one eleventh 
part heavier than the Coals. 

I have been told, that where there has been 
occafion to keep a Fire for many Days and 
Nights continuance, on fliipboard, for diftil- 
ling of Water, they have by way of prccau- 
tion from danger of Fire, laid a quantity of 
Salt on the Planks about the Fire-place. 

Here will be no danger of firing the Ship, 
if the Still Head fhould fly off, bccauic Water 
will not flame, as diftillcd Spirits will do. 

II. 

THE particular occafion of my ingaging 
in this Attempt to make diililled Sea- Water 
wholfome, was from a Converfation I had 
with fome feafaring Pcrfons, who were giving 
an account of the very bad ft inking Water, 
they were obliged often to make ufc of at Sea. 
and of the great hardihips they ibme times un- 
derwent for want of enough of that bad 
Water. Whence it occurred to me, that pro- 
bably 



Sea-Water. 1 1 

bably (Milled Sea- Water might be made 
more wholfome by Clarification^ concluding 
that it abounded with a naufeous bitter Bitu- 
men, as I remembred fome Authors had find 
it did : And being fully poffeffed with an opi- 
nion that it was fo, I refolved to make the 
trial, being provided with a Hogfhead of Sea- 
Water, which was taken up near the Buoy 
at the Ncrc, at the mouth of the Thames , by 
the favour and procurement of the Right Hon^ 
the Lord Fere Bcauckrc y one of the Lords of 
the Admiralty. 

I diftilled fevcral Gallons of it in large Glafs 
Rctorts y pouring what came over into the 
Receiver, from time to time, into Icparate Glafi 
Veflcls; beginning the firft pouring off, when 
it firft began to boil, that I might the better 
know, whether it grew worfe and worfe, the 
farther the Diftillation was carried on, which 

was fometimcs done till the Salt in the Water 
became dry. 

I found, the little which was diftilled off 
with a more gentle heat, viz. till it began to 
boil, was pretty well tailed- but the feven next 
fcparate Portions of diftilled Water, had a 
flat, unfalt, naufeous, dry, aduft Tafte ; and 
the laft and ninth Portion, was more harfli 
and difagreeable, it tafting more of a kind of 

Spirit 



12 On Difi tiled 

Spirit of Salt j for what came over till all was 
diftilled to a dry Salt, was in this ninth Por- 
tion : But did not find any Tafte like Bitter- 
nefs or Bitumen. And Comte Marfilli obfer- 
ved the fame, w's.'that the bitter bituminous 
Tafte of diftilled Mediterranean Sea- Water, 
was fcarcely difcernible, when taken up from 
the Sea, within four or five Inches of its Sur- 
face ; but if taken up at greater Depths, for 
the deeper the more bituminous ; then he fays, 
there is a bitter Tafte, which it is difficult to 
free it from : For after moft exa<5l and repeat- 
ed Diftillations, the Water, tho' freed from 
its Salt, yet retained a kind of vifcous glewy 
Matter; which is to be perceived flicking to 
the fides of the Bottles, when the Water is 
fhaken, and which (lowly precipitates to the 
bottom, when the Water is not fliaken, which 
is not found in diftilled Fountain Water. But 
tho* I could not perceive any thing bitumi- 
nous in this diftilled Nore Water, yet how- 
ever, I clarified feveral Portions of it, with dif- 
ferent Degrees of Clarification, both with 
Whiter, of Eggs and Ifmglafs, but all to no 
purpofe; it was indeed of a more mild, and Ids 
naufeous Tafte : But that,I found,was owing to 
the foft mucilaginous quality of the Subitai ices, 
with which I clarified ; which only covered 

the 



Sea-Water. 1 3 

the naufeous noxious quality of the Water, 
but did not free the Water from it. 

But having once begun, I refolved to make 
farther Enquiry, by what probable means I 
could, at firft think of, or fhould during the 
procefs, get any hint of, from fuch Experiment 
as fhould be made. For it is by making va- 
riety of Experiments, and the light which we 
get, by comparing the Events of them toge- 
ther, that we get hints for farther and farther 
refearches : Following thereby as near as we 
can, the Clue by which Nature leads us, into 
her more fecret recefles. And tho* this Trea- 
tife is principally intended for the ufe of lea- 
faring Perfons, yet I hope, thofeofthem, who 
are not ufed to Philofophical Refearches and 
Reafonings,willexcufeme, while I firft give a 
fhort account of fome previous Experiments> 
which tho* they do not dire&ly defcribe the 
beft Method of preparing good diftilled Sea- 
Water ; yet may be of fervice, to explain the 
nature, aixl noxious quality of common diftil- 
led Sea- Water. 

Having therefore Reafon to fufpedl, from 
the Tafte of this diftilled Water ; but efpeci- 
ally from the laft Portion of the Diftillation, 
that there was a Spirit of Salt raifed by the 
beat of the Fire, and mixed with the diftilled 

Water; 



14 On Dijl Hied 

Water; I diflbWcd fome Silver in double j%- 
quafortis> according to Mr. Beyle's Diredion, 
Vol. 1.^.54. of Dr, Shaw's Abridgment > and 
dropped fixty Drops of this Solution into an 
Ounce of pure diftilled Spring- Water. Then 
putting about half a Jpoonful of the fcveral Por- 
tions of the diftilled Water into different Wine 
Glafles ; I dropped into each of the Glaffes two 
Drops of the Solution of Silver, diluted in di- 
ftilled Spring Water ; which immediately cau- 
fed white Clouds in the clear diftilled Sea- 
Water ; which were leaft in the firft Portion, 
and nearly the fame in all the other Glafles, 
except the laft, which had much whiter and 
thicker Clouds. Whence it was evident, that 
there was fome Spirit of Salt in all the diftilled 
Water. For as Mr. Boyle oblerves, if there 
be any common Salt, or its Spirit, in the Wa- 
ter into which the Solution of Silver is drop- 
ped ; that Salt or Spirit immediately ieizing 
on the Aquafortis^ it lets go the Silver which 
it had diflblved, which is thereby precipitated 
to the bottom, in the form of a white Calx ; 
whereby the leaft quantity of Salt, or of its 
Spirit, is difcovered in any Water \ but it will 
not difcover Nitre, Alum, or Borax. 

And that there is fome Spirit of Salt in this 
diftilled Sea- Water, is further probable from 

the 



Sea-Water. 15 

the following Obfervations, viz. That this 
diflilled Water does not putrifie and Aink, as 
common Water does ; and even Sea- Water, 
which will putrifie and ftink much tho' it has 
Salt in it. Now I have found by often re- 
peated Experiments, that three Drops of Oil 
of Sulphur, which is an acid Spirit, will pre- 
ferve a Qjiiart of common Water, from pu- 
trifying, for many Months : And doubtlefs 
Spirit of Salt, which is an acid Spirit too, has 
the lame effed. Fioravanti, 1. I. Ply/ices^ 
0.95. mentions as a great Secret, that a little 
diftilled Sea- Water, mixed with common . 
Water, will preferve it long from Putrefac- 
tion. Du Hamel Regia Scientiarum Aca- 
demia Hijloria. And it is probable this, or 
Oil of Sulphur, or Spirit of Vitriol, was the 
Mixture with frefh Water, to preferve it 
from Putrefaction, which the French were 
(aid, not long fince in the Ne ws- Papers, to 
fend to Sea. 

The following Experiment, is a further 
Confirmation, that there is Spirit of Salt in 
diftilledSca- Water, viz. I put into two Ounces 
of the laft Portion, of the Diftillation to Dryl 
nefs, of Sea- water j a fmall piece of frefh Beef: 
And put Beef alfo into the like quantities of 
well-cured, diftilled Sea- Water, and alfo of 

Rain* 



46 OnDlJIllted 

Ilain-Water. In fcven days, the two laft werfc 
become very foetid and putrid, and the Waters 
thick and cloudy ; whereas the Beef in the very 
bad diftilled Sea- Water, did not putrifie,nOr was 
the Water turbid, but clear as at firft, though 
kept feven or eight Weeks with the Flefh in 
it: And it was obfervable, that the reftrin- 
gent Quality of the bad diftilled Sea-water, 
was fo great, that it contracted the Fibres 
and Blood- Vefiels of the Beef, fo that no 
Blood could iffueout of it ; as it did from the 
firft day, from the Beef in the other Glafles, 
which had good wholfome diftilled Sea- Wa- 
ter, or Rain- Water in them. 

Now it is not likely, that an oily bitumi- 
nous Subftance fhould have this effedl in har- 
dening and preferving Flefh ; the Effect of 
fuch Subftances is rather to foften and pro- 
mote PutrefadHon. In order therefore to 
make feme Eftimate of the Quantity of Spi- 
rit of Salt that was requifite to have this Effedl 
on Flefli ; I put fome Pieces of freih Beef in- 
to feveral Portions of common Water, with 
different Quantities of Spirit of Salt, and 
found that the Proportion of three Drops to 
an Ounce of Water, would preferve Flefh 
from ftinking for a confiderable time. 

The 



Sea-Water. 17 

The Adion of Fire gives thpfe diftill'd Salts, 
what is called a Polarity, fuch as the Filings 
of Iron have; for when attracted by aLoad- 
ftone, they ftand an end, and thereby form 
rough (harp Points, like little Briftles : And 
'tis in fome fuch like manner, that the Par- 
ticles of Spirit of Salt are to be formed j 
whereby they acquire a great degree of Aci- 
dity, and a reftringent auftere Roughnefs. 

From this Experiment, we may plainly fee* 
how common diftilled Sea-water works its 
moft pernicious Effeds, on thofe who drink 
it, viz t By contracting and purling up the 
fine Veficls and Fibres of the Body : where- 
by it brings on thofe inveterate and moft incu- 
rable Obftru&ions and fcirrhous Tumours, 
which are obferved to be theEffedtof drinking 
thofe unwholfome Waters. 

And it is almoft in the fame manner, tho' 
by flower Degrees, that Brandy, Rum, Ar* 
rack, and other diftilled fpirituous Liquors, 
do fo efteftually deftroy multitudes of thofe, 
who indulge themfelves in drinking them 4 
For I have found, by putting raw Flefli, into 
the feveral forts of them, that they all in like 
manner harden Flefli, by theirperniciousburn- 
ing, cauftick Salts, which are more hurtful, 
tho' of another kind, than thofe of Spirit of Salt. 
C And 



. 

i8 QnDijitthd 

And hence it is that Brandy \ Rum,&c. de- 
ftroy fuch Multitudes, efpccially in hot C7f- 
wates, by adding Oil and Frwel to the Fire. 
The Phyiicians of the fick and wounded Sai- 
lors, have affured me, that the Effefts of thefe 
Liquors on human Bodies, are fo pernicious, 
that their Medicines, have little or no Effed 
in curing thofe who have indulged much in 
Brandy or Rum. 

Thus the Still> which makes good Drink, 
out of unwholfome Sea- Water, procures alfo 
from wholfome Wine or Malt-drink, a mod 
pernicious Liquor, which yearly deftroys, all 
over the World, innumerably more, than the 
three great Plagues of War^ Pejlilence, or 
Famine ever did. It would therefore be 
fomething worfe than ftraining at a Gnat, 
and fwallowing a Camel \ for me to be labour, 
ing to cure the ill Effe&s of common diftill'd 
Sea- Water ; which may be of fervice to fome 
few, in cafes of Diftrefs ; few indeed in com- 
parifon of the vaft numbers that are deftroy'd 
by diftilled fpirituous Liquors ; and yet at the 
fame time not to caution againft the ufe of 
thofe peftilent Liquors, which may truly be 
called the Bane of Mankind: And which 
every one, who has any Bowels of Pity for 
his Fellow-Creatures, fliould do his beft to 
deter them from. But 



Sea-Water. 19 

But notwithftanding it fliortens the Lives 
of, and deftroys vaftly more, than Storms^ 
Shipwrecks and other Accidents, to which 
Navigators are fubjeft; yet how fond are 
they of this inchanting Syren, which be- 
witches and infatuates the Nations of the 
Earth with its Sorceries? Infomuch, that 
were k put to their choke, whether they 
would chufe to carry to Sea with them, a 
Still that would draw wholfome Water from 
the Sea, or one that could extraft Rum and 
Brandy fiom Sea- Water ; one needs not the 
Skill of an CW//W, to know which they 
would prefer. 

They pretend that it comforts, warms and 
defends them, from the ievere Colds, to 
which they are (bmetimes expofed, without 
which, they fay, they fhould perifli with Cold : 
which is probably in a great meafure true, 
of thofe who are much habituated to drink 
it, the Blood offuch, being thereby fo much 
impoverifhed, that it is well known, that 
many of the habitual Drinkers of Brandy, &c. 
are cold and lifele(s, even in the midft of 
Summer,. without frequent frefli Draughts 
of it. But on the other hand, how much 
better able, to endure the Cold and Hard* 
C 2 fliips 



20 On Dijtilled 

fliips at Sea, are the fober feafaring Pcrfons, 
who arc generally of a more fine, hail, ro- 
buft Conftitution, than mod other Men. 
Their vital Heat, not being extinguifhed with 
Intemperance, does by its kindly genial 
Warmth, more effedtually fecure them from 
the Inclemency of the Weather, than the 
falfe momentary Flufli of Heat which a Dram 
gives. Befides, it is well known, that Sai- 
lors did not perifli with cold, in former A- 
ges, for want of Drams, when they were 
not to be had. 

Dr. Short, in bis Rational Difcourfe of 
the inward Ufes of Water y obferves, " That 
" it is no rarity, to find among the High- 
*' landers of Scotland, People of eighty, 
" ninety, yea a hundred years old, as 
" healthy, as ftrong and nimble, as Drinkers 
" of ftrong Liquors are at thirty- fix, or forty 
" years of Age." And this Difparity is doubt- 
lefs much greater, when apply 'd to the Drin- 
kers of enervating Drains. 

It may not be improper here, to infert 
a Panegyrick on Temperance from Dr. 
Short* s Hi/lory of Mineral Waters, p. 9. A 
Panegyrick worthy to be recorded in every 
one's memory. " O! Temperance! thou 
" Support, and Attendant of other Virtues ! 

" thou 



Sea-Water. 21 

" Thou Pieferver and Reflorer of Health, 
" and Protradlor of Life ! Thou Maintainer 
c< of the Dignity and Liberty of rational 
" Beings from the wretched inhuman Slavery 
c< of Senfuality, Tafle y Ciiflom and Example I 
" Thou Brightner of the Underftanding and 
" Memory! Thou Sweetner of Life and all 
" its Comforts ! Thou Companion of Reafom 
" and Guard of the Pafilons ! Thou bounti- 
" ful Rewarder of thy Admirers and Fol- 
" lowers ! how do thine Excellencies extort 
" the unwilling Commendations of thine E- 
" nemies! and with what rapturous Plea- 
" fures can thy Friends raife up a Panegy- 
" rick in thy Praife !" 

The Dodtor farther obferves in his Ratio- 
nal Difcourfe of the inward UJes of Water ^ 
<c What great Succefs, Victories, and valiant 
<c Atchievements, a pitiful and defpicable 
" People, have attained over other Nations, 
" while they were Temperate : but when 
<c they have taken themfelves to fwiU 
" down ftrbng Liquors, how have they fud- 
<r denly become the Prey, and Contempt 
<c of fuch as they formerly had trodden down. 
<c They conquered People and over-ran 
" Nations, till their Armies began to drink 
" Strong Liquors, and then they neither could 
C-3 <c conquer 



22 On Dijl tiled 

" conquer nor defend, what they had brought 

" under their Yoke." 

J hope this fhort Digreflion will be excu- 
fed, and taken in good part, by thofe for 
whofe fervice and welfare it was really in- 
tended, by him, who has been labouring to 
do them the belt Service he can, and who 
has ever had a great value and cfteem for 
Seafaring Perfous, on account of that open^ 
brave^ generous and manly Spirit ', which is 
obfervable in them 5 and which 'tis a great 
Pity to have dcbafcd and broken down, by 
fuch pernicious falfe Spirits. 

How praife-worthy and glorious an Ac- 
tion would it be, for the Legiilators and Go- 
vernors of the Nations of the Earth ; to ufe 
their beft endeavours, to deliver their Sub- 
jefts from fo deftruclive a Pert, and from that 
worft of Slaveries, which it is not in their Sub- 
jeffs power to deliver thewjehcsjrow. This 
would be a furer means to increafe the real 
Strength and Riches of a Nation ; ar.d a more 
glorious Achievement to gain true folid Ho- 
nour and Applaufe, than to inlarge their Do- 
minions by Ccnqueft. On the other hand, how 
inhuman, how difhonourable, and how grofs 
a breach of Truft committed to them by Pro- 
vidence, is it, fupinely to fuffer fo deftruclive 



Sea-Water* 23 

a Pert, to rage amongft thofe committed to 
their charge ; a Peft that fo greatly debafes 
human Nature. It is the peculiar happinefs 
of this Nation, that the Legiflature have ta- 
ken Cognizance of it, fo as to lay Reftraints 
on, and will doubtlefs proceed, to provide an 
effectual Remedy for fo great an Evil. 

But to return to the Subjedl of this Spirit 
of Salt-, it does not probably rife from thePerfeft 
Salt which is in the Sea- Water, but feems rather 
to be the Spirit of a more imperfeft Salt, which 
abounds in Sea- Water, and is called Bittern. 
Now the Spirit of this Salt, may probably be 
raifed with a much lefs degree of Fire, than 
the Spirit of common Salt : Becaufe, as the 
Chymifts obferve, it wants a central Earth, 
which makes true perfect Salt of fo fixt a 
nature, that its Spirit cannot be raifed, with- 
out being mixed with powdered Bole orBrick- 
duft, and diftilled in a Retort with a ftrong 
melting Fire ; whereas the Spirit of imperfeft 
Bittern Salt t is moreeafily raifed with a much 
lefs degree of Heat, viz. that of boiling Water. 

Finding therefore fo great Reafon to con- 
clude, that it was a Spirit of Salt, which, 
principally made diftilled Sea- Water fo un. 
wholfome ; and it being a known tiling, in 
the Books of Chymifts, that Oil of Tartar^ 
C 4 being 



24 On DiJlilleJ 

being mixed with Spirit of Salt, will 
true common Salt, as well as ftrongly imbibe 
the rancid Sulphur of any Liquor it is put 
into 5 J dropped fixty Drops of ftrong Oil of 
Tartar into an Ounce of diftilled Sea- Wa- 
ter, and diftilled it a fecond time ; it was well 
tafted, and gave no white Clouds with Solu- 
tion of Silver. A probable Argument, that 
the Oil of Tartar had feized on and fixed 
the Spirit of Salt, as perhaps alfo fome of 
the naufeous Bituminous Sulphur, and there- 
by hundred them from diftilling over into the 
Receiver. It was alfb the fame, when \ diftil- 
led half a Pint of diftilled Sea- Water, with 
a quarter of an Ounce of Tartar, or with 
Sal Tartar, And with Pot-afli it gave no 
white Clouds with the Solution of Silver, but 
jt had a very naufeous foapy Tafte ; which 
continued long after. 

But two Ounces pf Sal Tartar , had no 
fenfibly good eflfedt, when diftilled with a 
Pint of Sea- Water $ and it was the fame 
when either Sea-Water, or diftilled Sea- Wa- 
ter, were diftilled with decrepitated Salt, 
that is Salt burnt in a Pot till it has done 
fnapping. 

Haifa Pint of diftilled Sea-Water, diftilled 
again with half an Qunce of Calx of Bones 

burnt 



Sea-Water. 25 

burnt to a white Powder, was well tafted r 
and gave no white Clouds with Solution of 
Silver. But if it be not thus diftill'd a fe- 
cond time, the Calx of Bones by (landing 
fome Days in the diftilled Water, takes off 
much of its aduft Tafte, but does not pre- 
vent its giving white Clouds with the Solu*- 
tion of Silver \ and whereas, had it been di- 
ftilled a fecond time, there would have been 
no fuch Clouds, this fhews that the Calx of 
Bones feizes on the Spirit of Salt and pre- 
vents its rifmg : it was very good three Months 
after. 

Diftilling a fecond time with calcined Oy- 
fter Shells, has the fame good effedt, but taftes 
fomewhat more Aduft, but after long ftanding 
is good. 

Diftilling a fecond time with Chalk, pre- 
vents the white Clouds, with Solution of Sil- 
ver ; as alfo with Brick-duft, which gives a 
very naufeous Tafte. 

With Burnt Alum, there are very fmall 
whitifh Clouds, and it has a fmart dryifh Tafte, 
but is otherwife well tailed j and continues 
fo long. 

Thefe Diftillations- were made with great 
cafe, in final! Pint and Half-Pint Retorts ; 

which 



26 On Dijl tiled 

which were placed in common Pipkins filled 
with Sand \ and then placed on a Trivet over 
the Kitchen Fire, for half an Hour, to be 
gently warmed; and then, the Trivet 
being taken away, the Pipkin was fet on a 
hot place on the Fire. It was eafy to fit 
Receivers of any Sizes to thefe fmall Re- 
torts, by means of Corks which filled the 
Mouths of the Receivers, and had a fmall Hole 
in them, fit for the Neck of the Retort to 
enter. 

. Thus we fee that Oil and Salt of Tartar y 
Calx of Bones, Oyfter-S bells, C/w/tand Brick- 
<////?, have a good effedt in curing the noxi- 
ous quality of diftillcd Sea- Water : But this^ 
not without a fecond Diftillation, which fo 
greatly incrcufes the difficulty of coming a^ 
good Water ; that nothing but the mod ur- 
gent neceifity, could have prevailed with any 
to make ufe of either of thefe means. 

III. 

THERE was another Method, which I 
had thought on, to try as icon as opportuni- 
ty offered : and that was to fee what could be 
done by Putrefaction. But this, I had as 
yet no opportunity of trying, becaufe my Hogs- 
head 



Sea-Water. 27 

head of Sea-Water, having hitherto had its 
Bung-hole open, did not ftink. But I was 
happily fupplied by a Friend with twenty-two 
Flafks of Mediterranean Sea- Water taken up 
nineteen Months before, thirty Leagues North 
of the Ifle of Malta. The greateft part of 
this Sea- Water was fweet, and in Tafte I 
found no difference between that, and the 
Nore Water. 

I cut off the Necks of two Florence Flafk* 
to a wide mouth, and then, having weighed 
them both, I put into one of them, half 
a Pound Avoirdupoife of Mediterranean Wa- 
ter ; and into the other, the like quantity 
of Nore Water: And then evaporated them 
both to drynefs. I found by weighing them 
again, that there were two Drams or 120 
Grains of Salt in the Nore Water, viz.-} 
part of the Sea- Water : And in the Medi- 
terranean Water 128 Grains of Salt, viz. 
^- part of the Sea- Water, it having one 
fifteenth part, more of Salt in it. 

I diftilled in a large Glals Retort, fifteen 
Flafks of the Mediterranean Water, which 
did not ftink: And I obfcrved that during 
the Diftillation, its fmell was not fo Aduft 
and difagrecable, as that of diftilling Nore 
Water : The fincll of this diftilling Mediterra* 

nean 



2 8 On Dijiilled 

nean Water, being mild and fomewhat urinous. 
Hence it feems probable that by Putrefaction, 
its Bittern Aduft Salts, are changed in fome 
Degree into a kind of Sal Ammoniac):. For 
doubtlefs this Sea- Water had putrified in 
nineteen Months keeping in Flafks. 

I carried this Diftillation on, till the Salt 
was dry at the bottom of the Retort ; and 
pouring it off from time to time .as it was di- 
ftilled, into feparate Veffels; I, to my great 
Satisfaction found, that the firft four Parts 
in five of this diftilled Water, gave no white 
Clouds with Solution of Silver; had very 
little more of the Aduft Taftc, than my 
Pump- Water, Rain- Water, or the very pure 
Combe Spring- Water, with with Hampton- 
Court is ferved ; all which acquired an Aduft 
Tafte by Diftillation ; and the more impure 
the Water, the more diiagrecable was the 
Aduft Taftc, even after it had putrified and 
was grown fweet, which was the Cafe of my 
Pump- Water, which is hard, and has five 
Grains of Sediment in a Pound of it, eva- 
porated to drynefs, whereas Hampton-Court 
and Rain- Water have but one Grain and 
a half. But if thefe diftilled frefh Waters, 
or Sea- Water, ftand for fome time, either 
expofcd to the Air, in open Veffcls, or 

in 



Sea-Water. 29 

in Bottles, this Aduft Tafte is much abated ; 
and at length goes quite off. 

It is obfervable, that though diftilled Rain- 
Water, Spring or Well- Water, have an A- 
duft difagreeable Tafte, yet the Waters which 
remain in the Retorts, have only the Taftc 
of common boiled Water : which fliows that 
the Aduft Empireumatick Tafte, is owing 
to the Adtion of Fire on the afcending diftil- 
led Vapours. The Sun indeed can raife Va- 
pours from Water, with a very gentle Warmth, 
and thereby give no ill Tafte to thofe Va- 
pours, but this cannot be done by diftilling. 

And as a farther Proof of the goodnefe of 
this diftilled Mediterranean Water j I find 
it putrifies and ftinks by {landing fome Days, 
in a Glafs Veflfel covered only with Paper, 
not tied down. And when expofed to the 
free open Air, foon came fweet again : where- 
as none of the Nore Water has flunk, which 
was diftilled before it had putrified, and gave 
white Clouds with a Solution of Silver $ not- 
withftanding it has flood feveral Months in 
Glafs Veflels covered with Paper. And raw 
Beef, as I obferved before, putrifies and ftinks 
in this diftilled Water, as foon as in Rain 
Water $ whereas the like B^ef put into the 
latter part of this Diftillation, with which a 

Spirit 



30 On DiftilUd 

Spirit of Salt was raifed, continued hard and 
did not putrify in (landing feveral Months. 

IV. 

I N order, further to examine into the 
goodnefs of this diftilled Mediterranean Wa- 
ter ; I boiled for two hours, fome common 
yellow boiling Pcafe, in fome of it $ alfo in 
diftilled Nore Water, in Rain Water -, and in 
undiftilledNor^ Water. ThePeafe which were 
boiled in the undihjlled Sea- Water, were dulky 
coloured and very hard ; and fuch arc found 
indigeftible, by thofe who have been obli. 
ged to eat them for want of other Food. 
Thofe which were boiled in the diftilled Me- 
diterranean Water, were very foft and mel- 
low to a Mafh ; thofe which were boiled in 
the diftilled Nore Water, were foft, but not 
to the feme degree as the other. Thole 
boiled in Rain Water were foft too, but in 
a lefs degree than the two diftilled Waters ; 
which fhows that Diftillation has more ef- 
fedt in preparing Water to foften Peaie boiled 
in it y than the fmall quantity of Spirit of 
Salt, in the diftilled Nore Water had, to dif- 
qualify it for that purpofe : But I found that 
Peafe boiled in the laft part of a Diftilla- 
tion of Sea- Water to dryneis, in which there 

is 



3 1 

is much Spirit of Salt, were far from being fo 
mellow and foft. 

I obferved, that when the good diftilled 
Mediterranean Water had flood fome Weeks, 
if two or three Drops of Solution of* Silver 
were dropped into a fpoonfull of it ; tho' it 
did not caufe White Clouds, yet in (land- 
ing fome Hours, the Water turned brownifh, 
with fome fediment ; and I found it the fame 
with my diftilled Pump- Water : alfo in 
Rain-Water when tending towards Putre- 
faftion. So that we cannot hence infer any 
bad quality in the diftilled Sea- Water. I 
found it the fame alfo in the beft of the 
fwcet diftilled Nore Water, but not in that 
which was the latter part of the Diftillation 
to drynefs, which abounded more with Spirit 
of Salt. 

I obfcrve further on this Diftillation, that 
when about two thirds of the Sea- Water 
was diftilled off, there appeared, about an 
. Inch above the Surface of the diftilling Wa- 
ter, a Circle of whitifh Salt, flicking to the 
fides of the Retort, which incrcafed more 
and more, as the* Water decreafed by Di- 
itillation, yet no Spirit arofc from this Salt, 
till about four Parts in five was diftilled 
off. Hence we may oblervc, that this Spi- 
rit 



32 

rit of Salt, is not fo apt to rife in Diftil- 
lation, from the incrufted Salt, whofe Wa- 
ter had putrified and grown fweet, as from 
the incrufted Salt of Sea- Water that was 
never putrid* 

The way to know, when enough Wa- 
ter is drawn off any one Diftillation, is, from 
time to time, to try a little of it in a 
Glafs, by dropping two or three Drops* 
of Solution of Silver, as above mentioned. 

I purpofely chofe to make ufe of Glafs 
Veflels, rather than Metalline ones, both that 
I might the better obferve what occurred 
in the Diftillations, and alib that I might 
be fecure that no ill Tafte was given to 
the diftilled Liquors by the VclTels. In the 
ftrongeft boilings the Ebullition rifes three 
or four Inches above the Surface of the Wa- 
ter, fo that care muft be taken, not to fill 
the Stilh fo full, as to endanger the Wa- 
ter's boiling over into the Neck of the Still: 
And that efpecially on Ship-board, where 
there is more danger of the Water's rifing 
too high, by the heeling to and fro of 
the Ship ; to prevent whith, the upper part 
of the Ship-Boilers are made narrower than 
the middle parts. I never obferved any Scum 
on the Surface of the boiling Sea- Water. 

Some 



Std-W&ttr. 33 

Some of the Flafks of this Mediterranean 
Water, being very putrid and ftinking much, 
I put the Water of none of them into the 
great Retort, with the fifteen Flafks of Wa- 
ter. But diftilled half the Water of one of 
the moft putrid of them in a lefler Retort : 
The diftilled Water of this, ftank intolera- 
bly ; hence the putrid Particles the moft 
volatile, in Diftillatfon : But what remained 
in the Retort, was the next Day fweet and 
clear, and had dcpofited a dirty Sediment. 
And putrid Sea- Water does the fame, as 
it grows fweet and clear. And common Salt 
alfo, as it melts in a moift Air, is obferved to 
depofitc much Earth, with an undluous, (harp, 
auftere Liquor. 

The diftilled Water gave brownifh Clouds 
with a Solution of Silver while putrid ; and 
when grown fweet again, gave white Clouds, 
and did not ftink again in long keeping, an 
argument that there was fome Spirit of Salt 
in it. Whence we fee how requifite it is to 
let Sea- Water not only ftink, but alfo be- 
come fweet again, in order to procure by 
Diftillation, wholfome Water from it. 

Sea-Salt is obferved by Chymifts,, to be 
made up of an Acid of a peculiar kind, and 
of a mineral Alkali, the Acid Portion being 

D fo 



34 OnDiJIilled 

fo far intangled, and involved in the other, 
as hardly to be able to exert its proper 
Virtues, in a concrete Form : But Putre- 
fadtion, that moil fubtile of all Diflblvents, 
effectually disjoins and fepq^ates all the com- 
ponent Parts of putrifying Bodies, except 
commo:i Salt, which is of fo fixt a Na- 
ture, as not to yield to Putrefadion : which 
is the Reafon that it is fo- effectual a pre- 
fcrver of other Bodies, where there is a fuf- 
ficient quantity of it ufed. But there being 
in St a- Water not only per fed Sea-Salt, but 
alfo a more imperfed Bittern Salt and Sul- 
phureous Bittern, which laft Principles pro- 
mote Putrefadion, and are thereby disjoin- 
ed ; and after the Putrefadion ceafcs, are 
formed into new Combinations : The grofler 
of which precipitate to the Bottom ; where- 
by it falls out, that the Spirit of the Bit- 
tern Salt, requiring now more heat to raife 
it, than before Putrefaction ; a confiderable 
quantity of the Sea- Water is diftilled over, 
before this Spirit of Salt begins to rife. But 
when the Diftillation is made during the pu- 
trid State of the Water, its putrifying Par- 
ticles being then difunited, the Spirit of Salt 
more eafily rifcs in Diftillation. 

I 



Sea-Water. 3 5 

I think it therefore a happy event, that 
foine of this Mediterranean Water, had pu- 
trified and was fweet again ; and that 'fome 
of it (tank j otherwife if it had all flank, 
and by diftilling it in that putrid State, I 
had found it no better than Norc unputrid 
Water, I might probably have been there* 
by fo difcouraged from any further purfuits, 
as not to think of diftilling fome of it, af- 
ter it was grown fwcet again. By fuch un- 
forefcen Incidents is Providence fometimes 
pleafed, to give Succefs to our Refearches; 
and fo little Reafon have we to facrifice 
1o our own Ntf ; as if the difcovery were 
owing to our great Sagacity and Penetration. 

If we will confefs the Truth, we muft 
needs acknowledge our (hort-fightednefs ; that 
we fee but as through a Glafs darkly. And 
hardly do ivegucfs aright y at things that are 
upon Earth 9 and with labour do <wc find the 
things that are' before us. Wtfdom ix. 1 6. Yet 
how common is it to ice Men led into 
the prophane abfurdities of Deifm> from a 
conceited Opinion of their great Skill, in 
their feveral Crafts and Profeflions? Thus 
have I known low Artizans, look upon them- 
felves, as compleatly qualified for Dei/is^ frcm 
a high conceit they had of their Skill in their 
D 2 Craft. 



36 On Dijlilled 

Crafts. And the cafe is but too often the 
feme in other Profeflions, where, in reality, 
the very much they are ignorant of, fhould 
rather make them humble, than the little 
they know, exalt them. 

It is to be feared, that the Spirit of ZW/w, 
which is but too prevailing in our unhap- 
py Days, owes its Rife, in a great meafure, 
among other caufes, to an over-weaning con* 
ceited Opinion Men have, of the great Strength 
of their Reafon and Underftanding ; where- 
by they are led to make themfelves, fo far 
the Standard of Infallibility, as even to re- 
jedl the Counfcl of the Alwife and Almigh- 
ty Being, in the Conduft and Government 
of his own Creation. For by the Divine 
Counfel, as the Wife-man obferves, The ways of 
them which lived on Earth were reformed \ and 
Men were taught the things that are pleafmg 
unto tbee y and were Javed through Wifdom. 
Wifdom of Solomon ix. 17, 18. Had they 
therefore but Humility enough to make a 
juft Eftimate of human Abilities, for Hu- 
mility is a Virtue full of good Stafe, that 
would neither have us under, nor over-va- 
lue ourfelves ; they would then perceive, how 
great Reafon they had to be thankful, for 
whatever further Affiftance, beyond natural 

Abili- 



Sea-Water. 3 7 

Abilities, God would vouchfafe to give us, in 
order the better to conduct ourfelves. 

It is obfervable that the Deiftical Spirit 
is plainly feen in many of them, under die 
Air of great Self-fufficiency ; as if they, by the 
dint of their fuperior Underftanding, had dif- 
covered the Cheat, which held Mankind 
under the Reftraint and Bondage of Reve- 
lation. Yet thefe profefled Enemies to Faith* 
muft needs own, if they will but obferve 
it, that in almoft every other part of Life, 
in which our Underftandings are employed, 
we find inceflant Occafion, to act on the 
fidelity and report of others ; for no one 
Man can himfelf try all things. If there- 
fore they would give things Spiritual, but 
an equal treatment, with the common Oc- 
currences of Life, they might then bid fair for 
a full Enjoyment of the gracious Promifes 
of the Gofpel, which they now mofl fenfe- 
lefily reject: with fcorn. Thus profejfing tbem- 
Jehes Wife> they become Fools. Rom. i. 22. 

But to return to the Subject of -this di- 
ftilled Mediterranean Water : I found that the 
fifth Part of it, which was diftilled to drynefs, 
turned Syrup of Violets Red ; which Spirit 
of Salt alfo does : An Argument, that there is 
D 3 Spirit 



38 On Dialled 

Spirit of Salt, in this laft diftilled Sea- Water j 
the Acidity of which is alfd very manifeft 
to the Tafle. 

But good diftilled Mediterranean Water 
does not change the colour of Syrup of Vio- 
lets ; whence there does not appear to be any 
prevailing Acid in it. 

But neither did the laft part but one of 
the Diftillation of this Mediterranean Wa- 
ter change the colour of the Syrup of Vio- 
lets, notwithstanding it gives White Clouds, 
with Solution of Silver ; which therefore dif- 
covers to us fmaller degrees of Spirit of Salt, 
than Syrup of Violets will do. Hence we 
have a hint to be careful not to diftill off 
any quantity of Sea- Water, too near to the 
bottom, beouifc it will thereby, the more 
abound with Spirit of Salt, and be confequent- 
ly fo much the more unwholfome. 

And that the quantity of this Spirit of 
Salt increafes more and more, in proportion 
as the Diftillation is carried on farther and 
farther, I was convinced by the following 
Obfervation, viz. Jan. 2 9th I examined a 
large Diftillation of Nore Water which had 
not putrified, which was kept in eight fe- 
parate Flafks according to the order of its 
being diftilled off, which was done the pre- 
ceding Oftober 1 3th, It 



Sea-Water. 39 

It had all loft its a duft Empyrume : And a- 
bout one third of it gave no white Clcuds 
with Solution of Silver, but the other latter 
parts of this Diflillation, gave very manifeft 
Clouds, and tafted fomewhat more tart and 
rough than the other : Now this whole Di- 
ftillation from firft to laft, gave white Clouds 
at firft, and for fome Weeks after ; when 
I firft perceived that the quality of giving 
White Clouds fenfibly abated. This fhows, 
that there is not much Spirit of Salt raifed 
in the firft third Part of a Diftillation of un- 
putrified Sea- Water ; and that the little of 
it there is, is fo incorporated in the Water 
by long ftanding, that the Solution of Silver 
has no effect upon it. In like manner as I 
have frequently found that a fmall quantity 
of Oil of Sulphur, or Spirit of Vitriol, would 
on long ftanding be incorporated into Cha- 
lybeate Waters. 

Hence we fee that there is much Spirit 
of Salt in the latter part of this Diftillation. 

Hence alfo we may draw this ufcful In- 
ference, that in cafes of diftrefs, if there 
ihould be no Water in the Ship that has 
ftank and become fweet again ; we may with 
fcfety make ufe of diftilled Sea- Water that 
is juft taken out of the Sea > provided on- 
D 4 ly 



40 On 

ly one third Part of it be diftilled offj for 
'tis probable that the ill effects of diftilled 
Sea- Water have principally arifen, from Men's 
not being enough aware of the ill Confe- 
quences, of carrying the Diftillation on too 
far. 

V. 

Jan. 2Qth,I diftilled 22 Cubick Indies of 

the Nore Water out of the Hogfhead, which 

was well clofed up December the fecond, 

in order to caufe it to putrify. Some time 

after the Water in the Hogfhead had a dif- 

agreeable Smell, and then grew fweet, and 

continued fo to this Day. It is remarkable 

that with fo finall a degree of Putrefaction, 

the Water which was diftilled over was good, 

till the Salt which adhered to the Retort had 

appeared for fome time, whence its Spirit a-. 

rofe as ufual. There were fixtcen Cubick 

Inches diftilled over, which were good, which 

is full three fourths of the whole. 

Both the fmell of this during the Diftil- 
lation, and alib its tafte were much better 
than that of unputrified Sea- Water. 

December the fecond I put fome Nore 
Water into a Kilderkin and bunged it up clojfe, 
where after fome time, it contracted a pu- 
trid 



Sea-Water. 41 

trid Smell, and Tafle, and then became 
fweet again. Some of it being diflilled Jan. 
agth, it gave no White Clouds with Solu- 
tion of Silver, though above two thirds were 
diflilled off: Hence again we fee that this 
fmall degree of Putrefadiori will fuffice, for 
the producing of good diflilled Sea- Water. 

But this diflilled Sea- Water, was much 
more naufeous, than that out of the Hogf- 
head, fo that fome of the impurity came 
over in diftilling, which the Water had 
contracted from the Kilderkin ; which had for 
many Years pail had Beer in it; yet it was 
waih'd with hot Water. Thus I have con- 
flantly found diflilled Water the more naufe- 
ous, in proportion to thefoulnefs of the Water 
it was diflilled from. 

Hence the Empyreumatick tafle, 4^ not 
feem to depend on Fire Particles inherent 
in the Water, but rather from a new difa- 
greeable Combination of the more impure 
parts of the Water ; whereas were it owing 
to Fire Particles, that aduft Tafle fhould be 
more nearly the fame, whether the Water 
were pure or impure. 

Nov. 28th, I put fome Ilinglafs into fome 
fweet Nore Water, in order to make it pu- 
trify, which it foon did in fome degree, 

and 



42 On Drilled 

and continued to do fo more and more till 
Jan. 29th, when I diflilled fome of it in 
that ftinking State. It, to my furprize, gave 
no Clouds with a Solution of Silver > and 
when fweet, which it foon became, it tailed 
as well as the good di (tilled Mediterranean 
Water. Hence we lee that, notwithftand- 
ing the Mediterranean Water which flank 
when diflilled, gave white Clouds, and con- 
tinued to do fo for feveral Months after it 
was diftilled j yet that this Nore Water tho' 
diflilled in a putrid State proves very good ; 
as it does alfo, when diftilled after it is grown 
fweet again. I cannot guefs at any other 
Reafon for the different event of thcfe two 
putrid Waters, unlefs it be that the Afo//- 
terrancan Water was in a more highly pu- 
trid State, fo as to be turbid, whereas the 
Nore Water feemed to be putrid in a Ids de- 
gree, and was pretty clear. 

It feems probable, that it will be more 
requifite, to have Sea- Water putrify and grow 
fweet again in the warmer Climates, and 
where it abounds mull with Bitumen; be- 
caufe thereby the Bitumen will be rendered 
lels volatile, and be in a great meafure precipi- 
tated to the Bottom of the Cafks, before it 

be 



Sea-Water. 43 

be put into the Still, whereby what is diftilled 
will be the purer. 

VI. 

Comte Marftlli fays, this Bitumen is in 
fuch plenty in the Mediterranean Sea- 
Water, particularly on the Thracian 9ea, 
when calm ; and in fuch abundance on the 
Eaft-Indian Sea, that it is fometimes feen 
fwimming on the Surface of the Water, which 
he believes to come in a good meafure from 
Coal Mines , fome of it may alfo come from 
'Petroleum which is in many Parts of the 
Earth. He diftilled fome Mineral Coals, and 
found that forty Grains of the oily volatile 
Spirit of Coals, put into a Quart of frefh Wa- 
ter, which was made as fait as Sea- Water, 
made it as bitter as the furface Sea-Water : 
and that fifty Grains of that Spirit, put into 
a quantity of Artificial Salt-Water, made it 
as bitter as the deep Sea- Water. 

He fays alfo, that the Sea-Salt which is 
made at Pefcais near the Mouth of the Ri- 
ver Rhone, is fo bitter and difagreeablc, that 
it can't be ufed the firft Year, and fcarcely 
the fecond ; that it is tolerable the third J , 
and the fourth Year its Bitter is fcarce to 

be 

i 



44- On Dtjiilled 

be tafled $ and this, whether the Salt be made 
by Art or the Sun. 

That the Tafte of the Salt made by the 
Diftillatioii of the furface Water, is of a 
biting Saltnefs, with an almoft intenfe bit- 
ternefs : But that the Tafte of the Salt of 
diftilled deep Water is of a greater degree of 
Saltnels, and a more difagreeable Bitter. 

He fays that diftilled Sea- Water is ib dif- 
agreeable, that it is impollible to drink it, 
viz. on account of the great quantity of its 
Bitumen^ which is more difagreeable than 
the fdine Part. But this is happily cured by 
Putrefaction. 

If Bread is made with Sea- Water, he fays 
it gives a good Colour, and makes it light ; 
but that the Bitter which is tailed the next 
day, makes it intolerable. And that Mutton 
boiled in Sea-Water ^ is more Salt and Bitter 
than mjreflj Water. 

He obferves, that there is fomething loft 
in Diftillation; for though the Salt thereby 
taken out, be reftored to the Water, yet 
there wants an addition of more Salt, to bring 
it to its former Specifick Gravity, viz. forty 
Grains in two Pounds. 

That there are in two Pounds of Sea* 
Water, eight Drams nnd fix Grains of Salt ; 

and 



Sea-Water. 45 

and in .an hundred Pounds, 402 Drams thir- 
ty Grains, yet in the Diftillation there were 
found in two Pounds of Sea- Water, but fix 
Drams thirty Grains : And in an hundred 
Pounds 325 Drams. And it is the fame, 
when common Water is made as fait as Sea- 
Water and then diftilled. 

He found alfo, that two Pounds of Foun- 
tain Water will diflblve half a Dram of 
Salt more than diftilled Sea- Water, though 
their Specifick Gravities are the fame ; this 
he thinks is owing to the Unttuofity of the 
diftilled Sea- Water. 

He laying the Salt of fuperficial Sea- Water, 
taken within fix Inches of the Surface, and 
the Salt of deep Sea- Water on blue Paper, 
the firft Salt turned the Paper Red as Nitre 
will do, but the other Salt had no fuch effeft. 

I dipped fome Blue Paper in the melted 
Brine of the Salt, both of the diftilled M-- 
dlterranean and Nore Water, and then dry- 
ed the Papers, which both gave a rcddifh caft : 
But a like Paper dipped in a ftrong Brine 
of common Houftiold Salt, had not fuch a 
reddifh Colour, which (hows that the Bittern 
Salt of Sea- Water is partly Nitrous. And 
fince Chymifts obferve that Nitre confifts of 

an 



46 On Dijlilled 

an Oily Saline, and Volatile Subftancc, no 
wonder that Nitrous Salt (hould be formed 
in the Bittern Salt and oily Bitumen of Sea- 
Water : And it is fuppofed to be owing to 
the great plenty of this Nitrous Salt, that 
Sea- Water is obferved to be more unapt to 
extinguish Ships on fire, than frefh Water. 
It was obfervable that the Papers which were 
dipped, in the Colliquation of the Refidue 
of the Diftillations, melted again much fooner, 
and in a greater Degree, than the Paper dip- 
ped in the Brine of common Salt, viz. be- 
caufe of the imperfedt bittern Salt which 
was in them. 

This Bittern &?//, of which there is great 
ftore in the Sea, is thought to enter much 
into the Compofition of the Nourifliment of 
Plants and Animals. 

It is from this probably, that that J7n/- 
vcrfal Salt arifes, which as it happens to fall 
on different Earths, concretes, and corrodes 
them, and thereby produces different kinds of 
Salts ; the more common whereof, and fuch 
as are found Natural, are Vitriol^ Alum^ Ni- 
ire i common Salt and Sal Ammoniac. 

And 'tis probable that from the fulphu- 
reous Bitumen of the Sea, is raifed by the 

warmth 



Sea-Water. 47 

Wiirmth of the Sun, that fubtile Sulphur, 
h with which the Air, and its Waters, viz. 
Dew and Rain are impregnated; which 
makes them fo kindly and congenial for the 
Nourifhment of the Products of the Earth: 
And when the Air is much impregnated 
with thefe fulphureous Vapours ; they caufe 
violent Ferments with purer Air, whence the 
ExphfiGHS of Lightening ; as I have fliown 
in my Analyfis of the Air. 

VII. 

I conclude there will be little or no dif- 
ficulty in being provided with Sea- Water that 
has putrified and grown fweet again; fince 
as foon as any Frefli-Water Cafk is emp- 
tied, it may be filled with Sea- Water ; which 
I am told is the conftant Practice in many 
Ships, in order to preferve a due Proportion 
of Ballaft, GV. And when the Cafk isclofc 
bunged down, this will promote Putrefaction ; 
as will alfo the Filth and Sediment, of what 
remained of the frefh Water. But the Pu- 

. trefaftion may be haftened, by throwing in 
a few Scraps of any animal Subftance, whc- 
ttar it be of Filh or other Animals. This 

, I found, that Ifnglafs, which is a fiftry Sub- 
ftance, foon caufcd it to putrify. And in 

warm 



48 QnDiJWhd 

warm Climates where the Sea- Water abounds 
moil with Bitumen, it will, both on ac- . 
count of the greater quantity of Bitumen^ 
as well as of warmth, be the more difpofed 
to putrify. 

When the Sea-Water is well putrified, it 
will be convenient to ufe means to make 
it grow fwcet again, viz. by opening the 
Bung-Holes, as alfo by throwing in a little 
clean Sand, which will help to fine down 
the Water, by precipitating its turbid Filth. 
But I have not found Sand to haften the 
fweetening of {linking Sea- Water that was 
clear ; but when turbid and thick, the Sand 
will then have a good effedt, in carrying all 
foulnefs down with it ; as it is well known 
to do when mixed with flimy Ifinglafs in 
fining of Wines. 

As new diftilled Sea- Water, though freed 
both from Spirit of Salt and Bitumen, has 
but an indifferent flat aduft Tafle ; this may 
in fome degree be helped, by expofing it 
as much as the Time will permit, to the 
Air, and pouring it often to and fro : Mr. 
Boyle Godfrey, in his Mijcellaneous Expert* 
ments and Objervations, advifes the putting 
in a few Grains of Salt, or a little Sugar, 

to 



Sea-Water. 49 

to give it a Tafte. Powder of well-burnt 
Bones will much take off the aduft Tafte. 

Some are of Opinion that diftilled Water 
cannot be wholfome, becaufe they fufpedt 
that it is thereby deprived of its nourishing 
Quality. As new diftilled Water is lefs pa- 
latable than the undiftilled, fo it may not 
probably be fo congenial to our Bodies, oji 
account of that new Texture that is given 
to fome of its Parts ; to which its difagree- 
ablenefs feems principally to be owing, and 
not to its being deprived of its nutritive Parts: 
For when I had fet by; for a confiderable 
Time, fome good diftilled Mediterranean 
Water, it became very well tailed, like o- 
ther common Water, notwithftanding it was 
all that Time in a well corked Bottle ; fo 
that it could not have any frefti Pabulum 
or nourifhing Quality communicated to it 
out of the Air; which was excluded by the 
Cork of the Bottle. And when diftilled Nore 
Water, which had a difagreeable Empyreuma, 
was diftilled over again with Salt or Oil 
of Tartar thrown into it, which detained 
the heterogeneous Parts of the Water from 
rifing in Diftiilation, the diftilling Water was 
then free from Empyreuma, notwithftanding 
it had undergone the Aftion of Fire now, 

E as 



50 On Difiilled 

as much as in the firft Diftillation. Water is to 
be locked on chiefly as a Vehicle of Nourifli- 
mentj and if that Vehicle be deprived of 
its former noxious Qualities by Diftillation, 
we may then reafonably hope, that it may 
be tolerably good, for conveying Nourifh- 
ment, the being blended with which may 
alfo much amend it, tho* it be not fo agree- 
able to the Tafte, nor altogether fo congenial 
to our Bodies as other freih Water. 

VIII. 

i ft. Upon the whole, we may obferve, as 
far as appears from thefe Experiments and 
Obfervations, that the beft Method to procure 
wholfome Water from the Sea, is firft to let 
it putrify well, and then become fweet be- 
fore it be diftilled, by which means the great- 
eft proportion of good Water may be pro- 
cured from any one Diftillation. 

2dly. That as appears by the ftinking Nore 
Water, a fmaller degree of Putrefa&ion, and 
then turning fweet, will fuffice to procure 
about three fourths of good Water from a 
Diftillation, at leaft in thefe Northern Seas, 
where there is a lefs quantity of Bitumen : 
Whether this fmall degree of Putrefaction, 

will 



Sea-Water. 5 1 

will be fufficient, in warmer Climates, muft 
be left to Experience to determine. 

3dly. Nore Water diftilled even in a pu- 
trid State, yielded good well tafted Water, 
as foon as it grew fweet, which it foon did after 
Diftillation. 

4thly. That Water kept in a Beer-Cafk, 
gives a much more naufeous Tafte, when di- 
ftilled, than from a Water-Cafk. 

jthly. That when on account of a fud- 

den unforefeen Exigency and Diftrefs, there 

is not time to have Sea- Water ftink, and 

grow fweet again : Then, if only one third 

of each Still full of Water be diftilled off, 

but a fmall quantity of Spirit of Salt will a- 

rife : And if they will have the precaution 

to be provided with two or three Pounds of 

Salt of Tartar, kept dry in Bottles, a very 

little of this will change the acid Spirit of 

Salt in the Water, into a more wholfonue 

neutral Salt : But then there will remain the 

very naufeous oily Bitumen ; the moft effe&ual 

way to be fecured againft which, will be, to be 

well provided with putrid Water if poflible. 

6thly. It will be requifite alfo to be pro. 

vided wjth a fmall Vial full of a Solution of 

Silver in Aquafortis. A fmall Bit of Silver, 

'viz. no bigger than 'a Silver Threc-Pertce, 

E 2 diflblved 



. 



52 

diflblved in the quantity of a middling Ipoort- 
full of Aquafortis ; and fixty Drops of this 
dropped in an Ounce of diftilled frefh Water, 
will fuffice. But the Water muft be diftil- 
led, elfe, there being fome degree of Salt in 
mod Waters, the Solution of Silver will caufe 
white Clouds in them, which will make them 
unfit for the Purpofc. The purer the Sil- 
ver the better. I diflblved a Link of a Watch- 
Chain, which having Copper in it to make 
it the ftifter, the Solution was green ; yet 
when fixty Drops of this were dropped on 
an Ounce, or about three fpoonsfull of di- 
ftilled Spring Water, it was clear, and did 
very well for my purpofe. I mention this, to 
put thofe, who {hall have occafion for it, in an 
eafy way of procuring it, when they have 
not an opportunity, either to get very pure 
Silver, or to purcliafe the Solution of Chy- 
mifts. Two Drops of this Solution dropped 
into a Glafs with half a fpoonful of the di- 
itilling Water, will prefently difcover, by the 
white Clouds it caufes, if there be any Spirit 
of Salt rifen with the Water. 

7thly. It will be of ufe alfo to obferve, 
when a Diftillation is over, in what degree 
of the Diftillation, the dry Salt begins to in- 
cruft on the fides of the Still j as alfo how 

fur 



Sea-Water* 5 3 

far the Diftillation may be carried on with- 
out danger of raifing Spirit of Salt, after this 
dry Salt firft appears. For the Mediterra- 
nean Sea-Water came over good, a confider- 
able time after the Salt appeared on the fides 
of the Retort. 

Further Experience and Obfervations from 
Skilful Perfons may hereafter give more light 
into this matter, which they will do well 
to communicate, in order to have them made 
known, for the publick Benefit ; towards the 
promoting of which, I (hall be very glad if 
thefe Endeavours of mine fhall prove of any 
fervice : which would give me fuch a Satis- 
fadlion, as would be an ample Reward, for 
the Labour and Pains, I have taken herein,, 
even tho' they had been much greater, 



3 SOME 



SOME 

CONSIDERATIONS 

ABOUT 

Means to preferve FRESH 
WATER fweet. 



E 4 



( 57 ) 
SOME 

CONSIDERATIONS, 

ABOUT 

Means to preferve FRESH 
WATER fweet. 



AS it is well known by common Ex- 
perience, that frefli Water, preferved 
in Calks is apt to putrify and ftink 
to fuch a degree, that the Drinkers are obli- 
ged to hold their Nofes while they drink it ; 
it may not therefore be improper to add fome 
Confiderations on that Subjedl. 

Water when it ftands ftagnant for fomc 
time, efpecially in clofe Vefifels, is apt to form 
a thin clammy flimy Subftance, to change 
its Colour, Tafte and Smell, and to become 
very naufeous, as it grows more and more 
putrid. To prevent this Inconvenience as 
much as poflible, great care is taken to have 
the Water Cafks very clean. I am informed 
that if the Cafks have had Wine, Beer, or 
Brandy in them, the Water will ftink fo, 
as never to come fweet again, while in the 
Crfk. Thq 



58 To preferve 

The T&zOTtf.and feverd other Waters will 
ftink in fcven or eight Days, and fometimes 
fooner, efpecially in unfeafoned Calks, and 
come fweet again : By opening the Bung- 
Hole, Waters often become fweet in twenty 
four Hours, and fooner, when much lhaken, 
or poured to and fro. The Water would 
ftink more, if the Bung-Holes were not left 
partly open. But putrid Water, tho' naufe- 
ous, is not obferved to be hurtful to human 
Bodies. 

Dr. Boerhaave in bis Chymiftry y Vol. L 
p. 598, fays that when Rain Water ftinks, 
if it be juft boiled, all the living Creatures 
in it will be killed j and on Handing to fettle 
a while, they will fubfide with other Sedi- 
ment, to the Bottom : Then being acidula- 
ted with fome pure acid Spirit, the Water 
is obferved to become moil: wholfome : And 
that by the fame means, viz. by adding a 
little Spirit of Vitriol, Water may be pre- 
ferved from putrifying, or breeding Infedts, 
and yet be withal very healthful : But as 
he has not mentioned what proportion of 
this acid Spirit ihould be put in, and as a 
fmall Error in excefs of the quantity of this 
very acid Spirit, may render it far from whol- 
fome, even very hurtful and noxious j I will 

here 



Water fweet. 59 

here give an Account of what Experiments 
and Obfervations, I have made on this Sub- 
ject, in endeavouring to preferve the Virtue 
of Chalybeate Waters. 

I have found that three Drops of Oil of 
Sulphur in a Wine Quart of Water, have 
preserved the Water from (linking for many 
Months, and even two Drops to a Quart of 
very pure Spring Water, which came from 
a gravelly Hill, which was all Gravel to its 
Surface, have prefer vcd it fweet for more than 
fix Months: I have obferved the Water 
of fuch Springs as came from Gravel, to be 
the pureft of any Spring Water, it being fil- 
trated through the finer Sand of that Gra- 
vel, which confining of innumerable fmall 
flinty Stones, give no Tinfture to the Water, 
but purify it as it glides through its fine Me- 
anders. Snow and Hail Waters are the pureft 
of any : But Rain Water abounding with 
Sulphur, efpecially in hot Weather, is apt 
to putrify j the purer the Water, fo much 
the leflcr quantity of acid Spirit will pre- 
ferve it. 

I have from my own Experience, and 
that of others, known Steel Waters drank 
with three Drops of Oil of Sulphur to a Wine 
, not only with much fafety, but with 

great 



60 To preferve 

great benefit, when drank only in the quan- 
tity of a Quart, or Pint, or Pint and half, 
in a Morning, for a few Weeks, and for a 
much longer continuance, in the fmall quan- 
tity of half, or a quarter of a Pint. 

But I (hall not take upon me to recom- 
mend the ufe of this Proportion of Oil of 
Sulphur, or Spirit of Vitriol, in the much 
larger quantity of Water which is duly drank 
on Sliip-board, left while I am endeavour- 
ing to do what Service I can to Seafaring 
Perfons, I fhould imprudently do them harm, 
Yet fince the Trial may be made with fafe- 
ty, in the lefler quantities of Water above- 
mentioned ; and fince it is well known that 
Phyficians frequently prefcribe, to the great 
benefit of their Patients, twenty four Drops 
of Elixir of Vitriol, to be drank in a Draft 
of Spaw Water, or other Liquor, for fome 
Days continuance;' in which twenty four 
Drops there are no lefs than eight Drops of 
Oil of Vitriol, according to the London Dif- 
fenjhtory ; which fuppofing the Draft of Spaw 
Water to be half a Pint, is above ten tirnes 
more acid Spirit, than thefe three Drops to 
a Quart: There can therefore be no danger 
in making the Trial firft in fmall quanti- 
ties of Water ; which may from time to time 

be 



Water fweet. 6r 

be encreafed, as from Experience fhall be 
judged proper. Neither would I propofe to 
have the greateft part of the Ship's Water- 
Cafks thus acidulated with Oil of Sulphur 
or Spirit of Vitriol, but only fome few of 
them, to be made ufe of where the Ship's 
Water is extremely naufeous, arid till feme 
of it can be made more drinkable by expofing 
it to the Air, Gfc. 

If any one (hall therefore care to make 
the Trial, and without Trials, few ufeful 
Improvements are made ; they may take their 
Eftimate from hence, without being at the 
trouble of counting every Drop they put into 
a large Cafk of Water, viz. 1 found that 
twenty Drops of Oil of Sulphur, which drop- 
ped flowly from a Bottle, weighed twelve 
Grains : Therefore an Ounce Troy, or 480 
Grains weight of Drops, will be in Number 
eight hundred : And there being in a Beer 
Hogftiead feventy two Gallons or 288 Quarts, 
thefe at three Drops to a Quart, will take 
up 864 Drops, that is one Ounce, and fixty 
four Drops, or thirty eight Grains weight. 

And as I have, as above-mentioned, found 
that a Quart of very pure Water was pre- 
ferved long fweet, with only two Drops pf 
Oil of Sulphur, it will be advifeable to try 

that 



- 



62 To preferve 

thafflefler quantity too, which may be ufed 
with much greater fafety, if it will be ef- 
feftual to prevent the (linking of the Water, 
which I believe it will do in purer Waters, 
in a great meafure. 

I have frequently obferved, that when three 
Drops of Oil of Sulphur have continued in 
a Quart of Water for fome time, that the 
little acidity it gives, has gone quite off, fo 
as not to be tafted, the acid Spirit being 
then more intimately incorporated with the 
v Water. 
^ v That two or three Drops of true Oil of 

I , Sulphur to a Quart, will prevent the breed- 
ing of Infefts in Water, is probable from 
'</ the following Experiments and Obferva- 
tions; viz. 'July 5th, four Drops of Oil 
: of Sulphur to a Winchejler Quart and half a 
Pint of Rain Water; killed the little Infefts 
in it, in twenty-four Hours ; a lefs quantity 
will therefore probably prevent their growth, 
in their minuted Origin, when they are of 
.;'. ) a much tenderer Conflitution. But as the 
Infedsgrewftronger, viz. Auguji loth, eight 
V Drops of Oil of Sulphur, to a like quantity 
of Water, did not kill them in three or four 
/ , Days. But ten Drops killed them in two 
. ' or 



. 
.? < . ^ 



Water fweet. 63 

or three Hours, in the fame quantit)Fof 
Water. 

I have chiefly mentioned Oil of Sulphur, 
becaufe it is looked upon, as fomewhat more 
kindly to Animal Bodies, than Spirit of Vi- 
triol, tho' the difference between them is 
but little: But as it is more difficult and 
coftly to make Oil of Sulphur by the Bell, 
than to diftill Spirit or Oil of Vitriol, there- 
fore they are, as I am informed, frequently 
fold, the one for the other. 

Mr. Boyle Godfrey the Chymifl, in his 
Mifcellancous Experiments and Obfervations, 
c< advifes the putting in an Ounce of 
<c true Spirit of Vitriol to every forty Gal- 
Ions of Water, which is at the rate of 
" three Drops to a Quart; he fays true Spi- 
" rit, becaufe the Spirit of Vitriol ufually 
" to be met with, is only Oil of Vitriol 
" mixed with Water, which Oil he would 
<e not advife to be ufed, becaufe it is a more 
" metallick Acid than the Spirit, which is die 
" more Phlegmatick, or lighter Part that 
" comes up firft in Diftillation : If the Oil 
" is ever ufed, a third part of the Weight 
" of it does, that is one Ounce of it for three 
" of Spirit. This Spirit or Oil will be 
" very proper for Seamen in hot Climates, 

" by 



64* To prtferve 

" by hindering a too great Perforation. ^ 
" It is fuppofed there are not many confump- 
" tive Men in a Ship, for whom Mine- 
" ral or other Acids are not good. Page 

" 136, 137- 

Agreeably to what Mr. Godfrey obfervcs 

of the different Degrees of Strength of Spi- 
rit and Oil of Vitriol, I have found that one 
Drop of true Oil of Vitriol has preferved a 
fmall degree of the tinging Virtue with Galls, 
of the Steel Water near Claremont in Surrey ; 
whereas none of the tinging Virtue of that 
Water was preferved, with three Drops of 
true Spirit of Vitriol. I obferved alfo that the 
efficacy, and confequently the acidity of three 
Drops of true Oil of Sulphur, was nearly 
equivalent to that of one Drop of Oil of 
Vitriol, it having almoft the fame effedl on 
Claremont Water. So that three Drops of 
this Oil of Sulphur were fomewhat ftronger 
than three Drops of the Spirit of Vitriol. It 
is therefore very requifite to obferve Mr. God- 
frey's Rule, viz. to put but one third of Oil 
of Vitriol, fmce it is comparatively fo much 
ftronger. And fmce Oil of Vitriol is ufcd in 
making Elixir of Vitriol, which is frequently 
prefcribed, with fafety ; we may thence rea- 
fonably infer, that there is little danger in 

ufing- 



Water Jweeh 65 

tifing Oil of Vitriol, provided the above men- 
tion'd Rule be obferved. 

I am informed, that the Dutch in long 
Voyages, to prevent the Water from ftink- 
ing ; always put into it, before they fet out, 
a quantity of Spirit of VitrioK 

In the Hi/lory of the Academy of Science s> 
Ann, 1722, it is faid, that frefh Water has 
been preferved from putrifying or breeding 
Infefts for fix Weeks, by fuming the Cafk 
with burning Brimftone, as is frequently done 
to preferve Wine and Cyder. And if when 
a few Gallons of Water are put into the fumed 
Cafk, the Bung be put in, and it be rolled to 
and fro; this will make the Fumes more ef- 
feftually incorporate with the Water j as it doei 
by the fiune means with Wine and Cyden 



F DIREC* 



DIRECTIONS 

To prefenre 

Ship-Bifcuit and Corn 

From being 

Eaten by Weevels, Meggots^ 
or Worms. 



F a 



(69) 

DIRECTIONS 


Topreferve 

SHIP-BISCUIT and CORN from being 
Eaten by Weevels, Meggots, or 

Worms. 

THERE is another great Inconve- 
nience to which Seafaring Perfons 
are frequently expofed, by having their 
Provifion of Bifcuit and Corn much fpoiled, 
by being eaten by Worms, Meggpts, or 
Weevels, efpecially in long Voyages; which 
Inconvenience might probably be in a great 
meafure preventedbythefollowingMeans, < W2?. 
It is well known that the Fumes of burn- 
ing Brimftone, are mod definitive of 
animal Life ; and will therefore, not only deftroy 
living Animals, but will alfo prevent the 
growth of them in Bread or Corn, which is 
packed up in clofe Veffels, in which the Air 
is ftrongly impregnated with thefe Fumes ; 
which it is well known by repeated Experience, 
have a Power of deftroying, or reducing to a 
fixt unaierial State, the more wholefomc vital 
part of the Air. 

F 3 Hiving 



70 * Sea-Btfcuity &c. 

Having therefore filled tl^eCaflcs with Bread 
QT Cocn, or any other vegetable Subftance 
which is liable to be worm-eaten ; bore fix or 
eight Holes in one head of the Calks, and 
two Holes in the other Head, more or kfs, 
as Experience fhall prove to be beft, all of 
them about the fize of common Quart Corks, 

And that the Corn may not drop thro* 
thefe Holes, nor the Bread flop them up; it 
will be convenient to nail within fide of each 
Head of the Cafks, three or four flicks, about 
an Inch thick, thefe flicks having a piece of 
Hair-cloath, or vcrycuarfe Sack-cloath, laid on 
them, will prevent the falling thro* of the 
Corn ; and yet give room for the Fumes of 
the Earning Brimftone to afcend : And the 
fKcks, without a Hair-cloath, will prevent the 
Bifcuit from immediately covering the Holes. 

Having therefore provided a fufficient 
quantity of pieces of Tow, or Linnen Rags 
dipped in melted Brimftone : If the Cafks are 
to be fumed on fhore, then, having dug a 
Hole in the Ground about a YJird deep, and 
eighteen Inches wide j throw into the Hole, 
more or lefs, as Experience fhall fhow befl, 
about a quarter of a Pound of the Brimfloned 
Tow or Rags, fet on Fire : Immediately 
placing over the Hole, the Cafk, with that 

end 



topreferve. 71 

end which hatft moft Holes in it, undermoft, 
for the Fumes to afcend thro* them, into the 
Cafk j which yet they would not do, if there 
were not fome Holes in the upper Head of the 
Cafk, to give vent for the Air. to afcend thro*. 
When you guefs the Brimftone is burnt out, 
and that the Cafk is full of Fumes all over ; 
which it will be, when they have afcended 
for fome time thro 1 the upper Holes, then drive 
Corks into the upper Holes, and turning the 
. Cafk fide-ways on its Bouge, immediately 
cork up the lower Holes. The tighter the 
Cafk is, the better and the longer it will keep 
the Fumes in j and prevent the entrance of 
frefh Air, which would promote the breeding 
of Infedts. 

But if by reafon of the too great clofenefr 
of the Hole in the Earth, it (hall by experience 
be found, that the great fmother of the Fume, 
extinguifhes the burning Brimftone j then a 
lefs deep Hole may be made ufeof, on which a 
Cafk may be fet with both its Heads out $ 
the Bread or Corn Cafk being fet on this, at 
fuch a height from the burning Brimftone, 
as to prevent the Bread or Corn, being (torched 
by it ; for which purpofe about a Yard will 
be high enough : If need require, there may 
be two or three Holes beared in the fides of 
F 4 the 



7 a Sbip-Bifcuit> &c. 

the headlefe Under Caflc, or (bme (pace left 
at the bottom, in the Earth, to give vent 
enough to keep the Brimftone burning. 

'Tis probable that by this means, Bifcuit, 
Corn, G?c. may be long preferved from being 
worm-eaten. But in cafe it fhall by experi- 
ence be found needfull to renew this Fumi- 
gation, efpecially in fome long Voyages ; it 
may be done with great fafety on (hip-board 
in calm Weather, viz. by placing a Cafk 
on Deck with its upper Head out ; in the 
bottom of which let there be near a Foot depth 
ofBallaft, preffed hard down, with a kind of 
hollow Bafin in its middle, wherein to lay the 
burning Brimftone. 

Net only Bread and Corn Cafks maybe thus 

fumed again, if need require : Butalfo die Bread 
in the Bread-Room, if infe&ed with Weevels or 
Worms, may by being thus fumed in Caiks f 
have all the Vermin deftroyed v which will 
conduce much to the prefervingof the Bread, 
by leffening their number, tho' they cannot 
thus be wholly extirpated : Becaufe the Bread- 
Room it felf cannot well be fumed at Sea, 
while the Ship is full of People : Tho' it may 
(afely be done, when in Harbour ; by burn- 
ing then fome Brimftone in it, on a thick 
Ecd of Ballaftj in a (hallow open Tub: 

which 

! 



* to preferve. 73 

which would for a long time preferve the 
Room from being infedted with this Vermin. 
I am told, that it is by fome fuch means, 
that all the Rats in Ships are deftroyed when 
in Harbour. But I muft again, and again, 
caution againft ufing any Fumes of burning 
Brimftone under Deck, while any Perfbns 
are there j for they will inftantly be fuffbcated 
before they are aware of it. 

When the Weevels are got into the Malt or 
Corn in a Grainery, they might eafily be 
deftroyed ; by putting the Weevelly Corn into 
Cafks or Chefts, or large Cafes made of Boards, 
which being placed over Holes in the Ground, 
with burning Brin\ftone in them, would foon 
d^ftroy all living Animals in the Corn, and a 
great deal of Corn may be thus cured of 
Weevels, &c. in a little time. 

The Weevels in a Grainery full of Corn, 
may alfo be deftroyed in the following man- 
ner, viz. Let there be many Holes boared 
in the Boards of the Grainery of fuch a fize* 
that the Corn cannot fall thro', or elfe let 
there be in feveral parts of the Floor, large 
.Holes cover'd with Laths, on which Hair- 
cloaths are to be laid, as in Malt-Kilns. And 
having provided a large quantity of Tow 
dipped in melted Brimftone; if the Ground- 
Floor 



74 Sea-Bifcuit) &e. 

Floor of the Grainery be of Earth, lay fcvc- 
sal heaps of this brimftoned Tow, as big as 
a Man's Head, in the proportion of about four 
heaps to every twelve Feet fquare ; taking care, 
not to place them near the Walls. But if the 
lower Floor be covered with Boards, then lay 
the parcels of Brimftone on heaps of Sand or 
Earth, eight or twelve Inches thick, and laid 
on Tiles or Bricks, and hard preft down, to 
prevent the melted Brimftone's getting thro* it : 
And for greater fecurity, I ufed to 'put the 
Earth into common Wafh-Tuhs. If the Floor 
on which the Corn lays, be fix Feet diftant 
above the burning Brimftone, there will be 
no danger of its catching Fire : Yet for fear 
of mifchief, great care muft be taken. All 
Doors and Windows muft be clofcd as much 
as ppffible. If there are feveral Graineries 
over one another, the Fumes, will pals thro* 
aU with great velocity and acrimony. 

The Fumes of burning Brimftone placed 
thus under the Corn, will afcend through it, 
with great velocity and acrimony : But if the 
burning Brimftone is placed above the Corn, 
tho' confined in a clofe Place, the Fumes will 
npt then defcend into the Corn, as I have 
found by experience, having put in a Muflin 
Rag Ants, at the bottom of fuch fumed Corn, 
but they were not killed thereby, J 



-to preferue. 75 

I have fumed whole Malt thus very 
ftronglyj and then being ground, brewed 
with it ; it gave no Tafte to Beer, that I 
could perceive. The probable effedt of fu- 
ming it will be, that it may prevent the Beer's 
working too faft : For this is well known to 
be the effed: of fuch Fumes on Wine and 
Cyder. 

I fumed thus allb fome Sea-Bifcuit, Peafe and 
Wheat, irtalarge glafs Veflel, which was re- 
peated again after ten Days ; yet they had no 
ill Tafte : And expofing them for fome time to 
the open Air, would probably free them from 
the very little Tafte it gives. I fowed the 
Peafe, which 'grew, fo that the vegetative 
quality of them was not fpoiled; but the 
vegetative quality of the Wheat was thereby 
wholly deftroyed, for none of it grew, tho' 
fown three feveral Times, at fome Weeks 
diftance. It will not therefore be advifeable 
to fume Corn thus, which is intended to be 
fown. Tho* it will probably prove an effec- 
tual means to preferve Corn that is to be 
eaten : Which will be of great ufe, efpccially 
in hot Climates, where, I am informed, that 
the Corn is in great quantities fpoikd by this 
Vermin, 

When 



76 Sea-Bifcuit, &c. 

When the Weevel, &c. have got into a 
Caflc of Bread or Corn, there is no doubt but 
that thus fuming will deft roy them : But it 
is doubtful whether their Eggs will thereby 
be (poiled : If therefore on experience it (hall 
be found, that young ones are hatched from 
thofe fumed Eggs, in fome little time j then, 
if thefe laft hatched Weevels arc deftroyed 
by 'another Fumigation, before they live long 
enough to lay Eggs ; this will be a means to 
prevent their increafe for a long Time : But 
I think it probable, that if the filmed 'Calks 
are fo clofe as to admit no frefh Air, that the 
Eggs will fcarcely hatch ; or if they do, that 
the very tender young ones cannot live and 
tlirive, in fuch an Air. 

Since the vegetative Quality of Wheat, is 
deftroyed by the Fumes of burning Brimftonc, 
a Hint may hence be taken, for an improve- 
ment in making of Malt, viz. By thus de. 
ftroying the vegetative Power of Barley; 
which may probably be done, by laying it 
on the Kilns, and burning a good quantity of 
Brimftone under it, for half an Hour, or an 
Hour ; the Fumes of which will afcend thro* 
it, tho* laid to any degree of thicknefi. And 
if they fhall be found to have the fame effeA 
on Barley as on the Wheat, then the Root of 

the 



to preferve. 

the Barley will not (hoot j and confequently 
fo much lefs of the Subftance of the Grain will 
be exhaufted in Malting, on which account, the 
Malt will be proportionally better. This may 
firftbe tryed by fuming only a handful^ of 
Barley well, and then feeing if it will grow 
when fown in the Earth, or put in Water. 
Great care muft be taken, not to come near 
the upper part of the Kiln while the Brim- 
ftone is burning, left they (hould be inftant- 
ly fuffocated. 



D I R E O 



DIRECTIONS 

FOR 

Salting ANIMALS whole, 

IN ORDER 

To make the FLESH keep Sweet 
in hot CJL IM ATES. 





- 



. 



(8, ) 

DIRECTIONS 

FOR 

Salting ANIMALS whole, 

IN ORDER 

To make the FLESH keep Sweet 
in hot CLIMATES. 

AS the Difficulties and Hardfhips which 
fea-faring People labour under are 
many and great; not only on ac- 
count of their being reduced to the great 
ftraits of a very fliort and fcanty Allowance, 
of whokfome frefli Water \ and fomctimes 
perilling for want of fome to drink : So are 
they alfo oftentimes put to great Difficulties 
and Hardfhips, for want of wholefome Pro* 
Vifions to eat, efpecially in long Voyages, 
and in hot Climates, which often occafions 
thefpoRing of their falted Flefh, by the c- 
vaporating away of the Pickle, wheneby it 
either becomes putrid and (links, or is exceed- 
ing hard and dry, with little or QO nourifh- 
ing Virtue in ft, caufing thereby dangerous 
Scurveys. I hope therefore, the following Di* 
regions, for making FkQittkc-Salt very well, 

G in 



82 How to fait 

in the hottcft Climates, will be of great fcr. 
vice, by fhowing them how to provide them- 
felves with it there, when they have occa- 
fion, either thro* the badnels or want of fuch 
Provifion. 

I have met with feveral who not under- 
Handing Anatomy, have looked on the Ope- 
ration, as too difficult to be brought into 
common ufe: But on the contrary it will 
be found on Trial, moft eafy to do. I have 
by once fhowing, directed a common But T 
cher how to do it ; and the Surgeons on Ship- 
board can foon inftrudl any one, how it is 
to be done. And Neceffity, which is laid 
to be the Mother of Invention it felf, will 
foon, doubtlefs make Men expert, in perform- 
ing a thing already invented. And I am in- 
formed, that it has already been put in praftice 
in a hot Climate with fuccefs. 

A Sufficient quantity of Brine or Pickle muft 
be made with common Salt, in the propor- 
tion of two Pounds and a half of Salt, to 
a Gallon of Water, which when boiled and 
fcumm'd, will be nearly in the proportion 
of three Pounds of Salt to a Gallon of Wa- 
ter j which is the moft that, that quantity 
of Water can diflblve ; fo that if there were 
more Salt in the Water, there, alight be. dan- 
ger 



Animals whole. 83 

gcr of its not entering fa an undiflblved ftate, 
into the fine Blood- Veilek 

The quantity of Salt, in half a Pound of 
Mediterranean Sea- Water being 128 Grains, 
7. e. ~ of the whole, and a Gallon of Wa- 
ter weighing ten Pounds and three Ounces, 
there is in a Gallon of Sea- Water, five Oun- 
ces, three Drams, and twenty-eight Grains 
of Salt ; which is about the ninth part of 
the Salt, which a Gallon of Water can diffolve. 
Hence we fee, to how great a degree, a very 
fait piece of Beef, may be frefhened, by being 
laid to foak in Sea- Water. 

In order to fait an Ox whole, it will be 
convenient to provide forty or fifty Gallons 
of Brine or Pickle : For what is not injedled 
into the Arteries, will ferve to put the pieces 
of Flcfh in, being firft made ftronger than 
with only three Pounds of Salt to a Gallon, 
as is done at the ViStuaHing-Qffice. 

For a Hog, Sheep, or Deer, provide five 
or fix Gallons of Pickle ; when you intend 
to u(e the Pickle, let it be made pretty warm, 
and have fome cold by you, to bring it at 
once to a due Temper, vix. fomething more 
than blood- warm. If it were cold, by con- 
trading the Blood- Veffels, it would probably 

pafs with more difficulty : An4 for the fame 
G 2 Reafon 



84 How to fait 

Reafbn it is advifeabte to infofc the Brine as 
foon as the Animal is dead, left when cold 
and ftiff, it fhould not be able to penetrate 
thro* the rigid and contracted Veflels. 

Let the Animal bleed to death by cutting 
the yuguhr Veins, whereby more Blood will 
be evacuated, than in the common way of 
knocking them on the Head, and then cut- 
ting their Throats, and theFlefh having by 
this means lefs Blood in it, it will the better 
keep on being falted. If you happen to cut 
a large Artery, tye it up, by drawing a Pack- 
thread round it with a crooked needle, elfe 
much of the Pickle will be wafted thro' it. 
If the Creature has done bleeding before it 
be quite dead, as will fometimes happen, then 
haften its death by a blow on the Head. 

Then laying the Animal on its Back, a little 

inclining to its right fide, open its Belly, and 

turning the Caul and Bowels from the left Side > 

find the great Artery where it lays clofe to the 

left Side of the Back-Bone, at the fmall of the 

Back, below the Kidneys. And having cleared 

'the Artery of the Fat, and thin loofe Skin that 

covers it cut it half afunder a-crofs ; and then 

flit it, with a pair of Sciflbrs, length-ways, 

a little more than the length of the fhort 

end of the brafsCock . D. [Fig. I.] ; then 

i thruft 



Animals whole, 85 

thruft into the Artery, towards the Heart> 
the longeft end of the Cock B. E. fo far 
that the ihorter end E. D. may enter the 
other part of the Artery : Then having with 
a crooked Needle pafled pieces of Packthreads 
under the Artery between B. E. and E. D. 
tye the Artery fart to each end of die Cock 
B. D. If in an Ox the Share-Bone, be 
opened carefully with a Cleaver, juft over the 
Bladder, it will be eafier to come at the Arte- 
ry, the Belly being thereby opened the wider. 

For an Ox, the Diameter of the Brafs- 
Pipe B. JD. may be near half an Inch ; and 
the length of the end B. E, four Inches, of 
E. D. two Inches ; For if both ends were 
of an equal length, it would be difficult to 
. faften each end of the Artery, becaufe the 
Hit of the^Artery muft be fo much the lon- 
ger to give room for die end E, D. to 
enter it. 

For Sheep^ Hogs, or Deer, the Diameter 
of the bore of the Brafs-Pipe E. D. may be 
almoft two tenths of an Inch; the longeft end 
B.E. two Inches and a Quarter >and thefliorteft 
end E. D. one Inch and half, each end running 
taper, thereby the better to enter the Ar- 
teries j with a fwelling and nitch at r. r. 
as in die Figure here referred tp. There- 
G 3 - by 



86 How to fait 

by to prevent the tied Arteries from flippii>g 
off at either end. 

Then having a linnen Rag twifted and 
tied round the upright end of the Cock A. 
thruft it faft into the end of a Spanifli-Reed 
or hollow Cane, tying it faft. The Cane to be 
eight or ten feet high for an Ox, and five or fix 
Feet for a Hog, Sheep or Deer, thefe heights 
being nearly equal, to the height to which 
the Blood is raifed in thefe refpedtive Ani- 
mals, by the force of the Heart, as I have 
ihown in my Second I'ohune of Statical JEx- 
periments : I have therefore chofe herein to 
imitate Nature, by making ufe of a Force 
nearly equal to that with which, the Blood 
is by the Contraction of the Heart, drove thro* 
all the Blood- Vefiels of the Body; but per- 
haps a much lefs force may do, which thofe 
who have opportunity will do well to try. 

When I refledl on the great Number of 
Experiments of this kind, which I had made 
feveral Years before on Animals, it feems very 
natural thence to have fallen on this Me- 
thod of falling Animals whole ; yet I did 
not think of it, till feveral Years after 5 when 
upon a fca-faring Man's telling me, of the very 
bad (linking Flefli, they were fbmetimes 
obliged to eat at Sea j it prefently occurred 

to 



Animals whole. 8 7 ' 

to my thoughts, that Flefli might be made 
to take Salt in hot Climates, by thus infufing 
Salt Pickle through their whole Subftance. 

Care muft be taken in tying the Cane 
above, to fome proper fupport, that it hang 
fo true as not to dift6rt the Arteiy, by too 
much raifing or depreffing either end of the 
Brafs Cock 5. or D. whereby the fmall 
branching Arteries, which go from the great 
one, to each Rib may be over-ftrained or 
broken, which would diforder the Experi- 
ment, and caufe a great wafte of the Brine 
thro* the broken Arteries. 

The long Reed or Cane being thus fixed 
to a proper fupport, with a Tunnel in the 
top : Firft flopping the Cock, fill the Tun- 
nel and Cane with blood-warm Brine, then 
open the Cock, and the Brine will flow free- 
ly thro* the whole Subftance of the Ani- 
mal; the Tunnel 'muft be kept conftantly 
filled as the Brine fubfides. And if by any 
Accident the Tunnel and Cane are empty, 
then ftop the Cock again, till they are re- 
filled, otherwife Air will be drove into the 
Arteries with the Brine, which will hinder 
the entrance of the Brine into the finer Vef- 
fcls : by this means you will find the Brine 
flow and infinuate itfelf into every part of - 
G 4 the 



88 How to fait 

the Animal's Body in the fame manner as 
the Blood does, it being conveyed by the 
fame Veflels ; and this yoq \vill foon be con- 
vinced of, by making a fmall cut, in any 
of the extremities of the Body, as theNofe, 
Tail, Ears, or Feet, at any of which Places 
the fait Brine may be tafted. 

I have obferved that during the Operation, 
the Brine flows to walle too freely, thro* the 
Windpipe, and cut Jugular Feint of Sheep, 
and probably it may be the fame in Deer, 
tho' it does not flp.w there fo faft in Oxer> 
or I logs. But this may be prevented by 
putting a Cork into the Windpipe, and by 
tying a Cord hard round the Neck, to flop 
the Veins, 

I have let the Brine flow thus, into the 
Arteries of an Ox for half an hour, and 
into Hogs and Sheep for a quarter of an 
Hour ; which is doubdefs a due time, when 
the Flefh is intended to be throughly faked 
afterwards with dry Salt, when cut in fmall 
pieces, in order to keep it long for Sea-Ser-? 
vice ; and probably Experience may (how, 
that a muchlefs time will fufficej for if once 
the Fleih be throughly foaked with Brine, 
it will doubtlefs imbibe dry Salt, faft enough, 
to preferve its inmpft Parts from putrify- 

ing> 



Animals whole. 89 

ing, even in the hotteft Climates: For 
Flefli thus prepared, is obfcrved, to imbibe 
Salt, much faftcr than other Flefh. 

But I believe, the flowing in of the Brine 
for a much fhorter time, may be fufficient, 
to make FJ.efh keep a few days, for the ufe 
of a Family at Land, or for a Ship during 
the firft part of its Voyage, putting it into 
a ftrong Pickle ; But if it be to be kept many 
days, it muft be rubbed firft with dry Salt, 
and layed to drain a few days, as is done at 
the Victualling-Office , where they cure the 
Flefh in the following manner, viz. they 
firft rub it with white Salt only ; then put 
it into Brine for five days to drain the bloody 
part out, for 'tis the Blood that is moft apt 
to putrify : Then they pack it in Calks, ftrew- 
ing white and Bay Salt between each lay- 
ing ; then fill the Caflc up with Pickle made 
of Water and Salt boiled fb ftrong as to bear 
an Egg : They put three Pounds and half 
of Salt to a Gallon of Water. The propor- 
tion of Salt, Pickle included, is, to an hun- 
dred Weight of Flefli, four Gallons and a 
half of white, and one and a quarter of 
Bay Salt. 

The Pieces thus fclted with dry Salt, after 
tl^e infufion of the Brine or Pickle, muft be 

laid 



go How to fait 

laid to foak for fome time in Water, before 
they be ufed $ elfe they will be apt to be too 
fait : The dry Salt, as before obferved, foak- 
ing very faft, into the thus brined Flefh ; fb 
that there is not the leaft danger, of its not 
keeping fweet ; there feeming rather, to be 
more danger of its being by this means too 
Hilt : Which may doubtlefs by further Expe- 
rience be better regulated and proportioned, 
to the longer or fliorter time it is intended to 
keep it. 

I will here give an Account of the event of 
fome Trials which I made, having faked 
whole in this manner, four Hogs, three Sheep* 
and two Oxen. 

I find that Flefh falted in this manner re- 
quires much boiling, it being very moiit and 
full of Gravy, tho' well tafted. Tt is too fait 
to Broil or Roaft, with only the infufion of Brine. 

I have found a piece of it, which had only 
the Brine injeded thro' the Arteries, keep 
fweet ten Days, tho' hung up in the Chimney- 
corner, yet fometimes it would not keep fweet 
fo long. An argument that it may probably 
be good in hot Climates for a few Days, with- 
out the addition of dry Salt, and fome Days 
longer with a fmall fprinkling of fome dry 
Salt, especially if put into ftrong Brine. 

When 



Animals whole. 91 

When faked well with dry Salt, which 
the Flefli imbibes mod freely, it will keep 
long, even tho' heated much with hunting, 
iuft before it is killed : As I found by the Flefli 
of a Sheep, which was purpofely hunted by a 
muzzel'd Dog for twenty-five Minutes. From 
whence we may reafonably conclude, that 
Flefli thus falted, will take Salt, jjid be prefer- 
ved good, even in the hotted Climates. 

Beef and Mutton thus falted, eat very well, 
as alfo Pork. 

The Ox which was thus falted, the ijth of 
April 1736, at the Viftualling-Office on 
Tower-Hill, before fevcral of the Lords of the 
Admiralty, and CommiJJioners of the Viftual- 
ling-Office ; having its jugular Veins cut af- 
funder, there flowed out eighteen Quarts and 
* Pint of Blood Winchefler meafure, in forty- 
one Minutes, which Blood weighed forty-fix 
Pounds and a quarter. 

After the Brine had flowed freely for fome 
time, with die force of a Column of Brine 
eleven feet high j fome of it came frothy thro* 
the Windpipe, from the Lungs, but what 
c ame from the Noftrils was clear. 

The Brine flowing in thus, freely, for about 
half an Hour, the Body of the Ox was great- 
ly fwelled all over, There was about forty 

Gallons 



92 How to fait 

Gallons of Brine ufed, lAuch of which was 
wafted, tho* a great deal of it had leaked into 
the Fleih and Fat, the quantity of which 
would have been greatly increased, in propor- 
tion as the Operation had continued longer. 
Some of the Brine ouzed into the Stomach and 
Bowels, 

The Ox by eftimation of experienced 
Butchers, who are well known to guefs pretty 
nearly to the Truth, weighed five hundred 
and a half. But with the Brine in it, it was 
found to weigh eight hundred, one quarter 
and eighteen Pounds : So that it increaied ia 
weight, on account of the Brine, two hun- 
dred, three quarters and eighteen Pounds. 

The Carcafs had not wafted above two 
Quarts, in hanging whole two Nights : But 
in cutting into fmall four-Pounds pieces, it 
wafted fifty tvvd Pounds more, by draining 
ofF of the Bi inc. 

I procured from the Vi&ualling-Office, an 
Account of the event of this Experiment on 
the Ox, viz. Two Cafks of this Flefli, which 
was not felted with dry Salt, foon ftank to 
a very great Degree ; as I alib found in feve- 
ral Inilancep, that Flefh thus faked with 
Pickle only, would not keep many Days, 
without being alfo further falted with dry Salt. 

The 



Animals whole. 93 

The Flefh of t\v other Calks of the fame 
Ox, which was faked with dry Salt before it 
was packed in the Cafk, being examined 
eighteen Months after, and a Piece of it be- 
ing boiled, it was judged not fit for Men 
to eat, as its Juices were entirely eat up by 
the Salt, and it fell in Pieces like rotten 
Wood. 

Whence we fee that it was over-falted: 
It will therefore require further Experience 
to adjuft the Degree of faking for the ufe 
of Ships, in hot Climates. I kept fome of 
the Mutton of the Sheep that was hunted, 
and thus faked full fix Months, which proved 
good, and was not too lalt, when layed firft 
to frefhen a due time in Water. 

It has been fufpedted, that faking the 
Flefh thus, while hot, may be fome dif- 
advantage to it, as to long keeping. It may 
therefore be well to try whether Flefli can 
be thus faltfcd when cold : But 'tis to be fear- 
'ed, that in hot Climates, where only this Me- 
thod is like to be of ufe, Flefli will funk be- 
fore it is cold. 

If any in hot Climates, (hall defire only 
to fait one half of an Animal, it may ea- 
fily be done, by flopping one end of the 
Brafs Cock, and fixing only the other end 

of 



94 How to fait Animals whole. 
'of it into the Artery 5 fo as to have Brine 
flow only through the Artery, that leads ei- 
ther to the fore or hinder half j by which 
means, part may be eat frefh, and the falted 
part, the following Days. 

If any fhould defire to keep, a part of hunted 
Venflbn a few days, or to fend unhunted 
Venifon to a great diftance in hot Weather, 
it might probably be done, by only thus in- 
jeding into the Arteries a little Brine ; which 
might not difqualify it for Parties or Boiling. 

I have been told, that in order to preferve 
Flefh, in the hot Parts of America, they dip 
thin Cutlets of it, in Sea- Water, and lay it on 
Rocks to dry, which makes it look like Glevv* 
Cakes; and is called Jerked Flefli. 



AN 



A N 

ACCOUNT 



O F 



Some Experiments and Obfervations 
on CHALYBEATE WATERS. 



AS ALSO OF 

Some ATTEMPTS to find out Means to 
have them Conveyed to diftant Places, with 
a greater degree of MINERAL VIRTUE 
than has hitherto been done. 



He will Blefs thy Waters. Exod. xxiiu 



(9?) 

A N 

ACCOUNT 

O F 

Some Experiments On CHALYBEATE 
or STEEL- WATERS, 



MAnkind are bleflcd with innumera- 
ble of thefe genuine falutary Cor- 
dials of Nature, in almoft all parts 
of the World j which have been found fp 
very beneficial in many Cafes, for procuring 
and eftablilhing of Health, that much inqui- 
ry has been made into the nature of them 
by Phyficians, who have from lime to time, 
written many Books on this Subject ; and given 
Directions how, and in what cafes they are 
to be ufed. I am only adting herein the 
part of a Naturalift ; it were preemption in 
me, to attempt to invade their Province, for 
which I am in no degree qualified. 

Did I indeed hereby feek only popular ap- 

plaufe, and not the real benefit of M ankind ; 

the more ignorant I was in Phy lick, the bet- 

H ter 



98 % Experiments on 

ter chance I fhould have, to be much crycd 
up by the unknowing Many : The Truth of 
this,, we may have had full proof of, of late 
Years, in the Inftances of feveral moft igno- 
rant Quacks ; who have in their turns had a 
more general Cry of Applaufe given them, 
than has come to the {hare of the moft emi- 
nent and fkilful Phyficians, with many of 
which that Faculty abounds. But the Phy- 
ficians may well be content to take this con- 
tempt the more patiently, when they reflect 
that a petulant fondnefs for Quackery is the 
epidemical Difeafe of this Age 5 not only in. 
oppofition to theirs, but alfb to other Profef- 
fions. Did I therefore thirft after fuch kind 
of popular applaufe - 9 I (hould have a fair op- 
portunity to obtain it ; by crying down, under 
the Cover of a few new Experiments, the an- 
tient Sages and Eftablifhers of the Science of 
Phyfick as Importers, and the modern ones 
as ignorant Cheats. Tis in the like bale 
difingenuous and profane manner, that the 
daring conceited Denyers of the Lord that 
bought them, thofe Quacks in Religion, 
treat the great and important Truths of it. 
And thus every Wifeacre State-Quack takes 
upon him to cenfure the moft prudent and 
unexceptionable Condudt in State-Affairs. 

The 



Steel-Waters, &c. 99 

The particular Occafion of my ingaging in 
the following Experiments, notwithftanding I 
had for fome Years before purpofed not to 
meddle any farther in Philojbphical Rtjearches, 
was owing to a dangerous Fit of Sicknefs, a- 
bout five Years fmce j for the recovery of 
which, my Phyfician very judicioufly fent me, 
to drink the Chalybeate Waters of Sunning- 
Hill in Berk/hire ; where I, as well as feve- 
ral others whom he advifed to drink thofe 
Waters, found great benefit, by recovery 
from dangerous Difeafes, And in order to 
fill up, and amufe away a few of the many 
vacant Hours, which fuch Places both occa- 
fion and require 5 I refolved, by fuch proper 
Experiments as fhould occur to my Thoughts, 
to try if I could find, the fubtile fulphureous 
Spirit, in which I concluded, as it has been 
generally thought, that the principal Virtue 
of Chalybeate Waters refided. 

And in order to it, I filled feveral Florence 
Flafks, which contained about three Pints, 
with the Steel Water, and inverted their 
Nofes when full, into earthen Mugs full of 
the fame Water j and fet feveral of them in 
a Boiler full of that Water, in the fahie man- 
ner as in Exper. LXVI. vol. ift. of my Sfa* 
tied EJ/ays, I had got the quantity of elaftick 
H 2 Matter 



ico Experiments on 

Matter out of feveral Waters. I fet the Boil- 
ler on the Fire, and having given the Water 
afcalding heat; an elaftick Aerial Air-Bubble 
was by this means formed in the upper part 
of the inverted Flaik, which was nearly 
equal to T |T P* 1 * f ^e bulk of the whole 
Water, and near double the fize of an Air- 
Bubble, which arofc at the fame time, from 
a like quantity of common Water. The 
yellow Ocry Mineral adhered very fail to 
the infides of the earthen Mugs; as is ufual 
when Steel- Waters are heated in them, 

I poured the Air, or elaftick Spirit, of one 
of the abovementioned heated Flalks, up into 
an inverted Half-Pint full of common Water 
which had been boiled, to clear it of its Air ; 
and then (hook it to and fro* to make the elaf- 
tick Matter incorporate with the Water, to 
which, yet, it communicated no mineral 
Virtue, nor would it tinge with Galls. A 
probable Argument, that there is little or no 
Virtue, as has been thought, in this fubtile 
elaftick Spirit. 

Being defirous to fee what quantity of this 
Elaftick Aerial Matter would rife from this 
Water, without Heat> I filled an inverted 
Flafk with it ; and let it ftand thus, nine 
Days ; in which time a few Air-Bubbles a- 



Steel-Water*) &c. i o i 

rofe to the upper part as big as half Tares, 
which were in (landing longer, reforbed again 
into the Water. I found this Water tinged 
very well with Galls; nor had it depofited any 
Sediment or Flocky Thrumbs, as this, and 
mod other Chalybeate Waters are apt to do, 
in (landing one, two, or three Days, in any 
Veflel or Bottle corked in the common way. 
But if in firft inverting the Flafk, an Air- 
Bubble of about half an Inch Diameter were 
left in the upper part, then the mineral Water 
foon loft its Virtue of tinging with Galls * 
and depofited a Sediment, which was fooner 
or later, according as the Diameter of the 
Bubble was lefs or' greater. And accordingly 
Dr. Burton of Wind/or^ who joined with me, 
in feveral Experiments on Sunning-Hill Wa- 
ter, obferved at the feme time, that the 
narrower the neck of the Fla(k was, in which 
he kept thefe Waters with the neck uppermoft, 
they would accordingly retain their mineral 
Virtue, fomewhat the longer: I found alfo that 
the Virtue of many other Chalybeate Waters, 
might be thus long retained in inverted Flaflcs 
viz. Thofe of Qakingham in Berkfoirt> 
Cobbam and Cbobham in Surry> Midhurft in 
Sujex % Bramjhot and Southampton^ in Hamp- 

irc % Ttunbridge and Ifiington. But the 
H 3 Chalybeate 



102 Experiments on 

Chalybeate Waters of Hampjled, Middlefex, 
and Frenjham in Surrey, did not retain their 
tinging Virtue by this means. Tho* with tubu- 
lated Corks, the tinging Virtue of the Hamp- 
Jted Waters was long preferved at Hampfled. 

Galls are commonly made ufe of to prove, 
whether any Waters have, or retain their vitri- 
olick Mineral, becaufe it is a Quality peculiar 
to vitriolick Salts, thus to tinge with Galls, or 
other aftringent vegetable fubftances. Not 
that Chalybeate Waters have any true ma- 
ture Vitriol in them ; for that is formed 
only, from the metallick Chalybeate Salts, in 
the open Air ; and cannot therefore be gene- 
rated under Water. 

Finding therefore the manifeft effeft, that 
the contadl of the Air, on the furface of the 
mineral Water, had in precipitating the Vir- 
tue of the Water, by promoting a piitrefa&ive 
agitation in the Water ; I thought of the 
following Method to prevent the Air's touch- 
ing the Water in common Bottles \ and yet 
without any danger of buriting the Bottles, viz. 
I provided fcveral glafs Tubes, about (even 
or eight Inches long, and about one tenth of 
an Inch Diameter in Bore : I chofe fome of 
the beft and leaft porous Corks I could get; 
and having burnt Holes thro 1 them from end 

to 



&c. 103 

to end, with a round-pointed hot Iron ; then 
with a round File I filed the Holes to fuch a 
fize as fitted each glafs Tube. Then having 
provided fome melted Cement, made of e- 
qual quantities of Whiting, Bees- Wax, and 
white Rofin, which will give no ill Tafte to 
the Water; the Tube having the Polifh 
rubbed off at one end, for an Inch and half* 
on a wet Brick, that the Cement might ftick 
the better ; it being firft warmed, was a- 
nointed with Cement, and then immediately 
thruft into the Hole in the Cork, fo as to 
(land out full half an Inch above the Cork 
at F, fig. 2. whereby hold might be taken of 
it, with a wet piece of Pack-thread, tyed 
round it, to pull the Cork out of the Bottle, 
if need required, for it cannot be done with 
a Bottle-fcrew. 

Then having filled the Bottle brim full at 
the Spring-Head, and the tubulated Cork be- 
ing well wetted, and rubbed under Water 
with the Fingers ; to clear it of any finall ad- 
hering .Air-Bubbles, thrull the Cork into the 
Bottle ; yet fo that the glafs Tube may not 
touch the bottom of the Bottle at H, left it 
fhould thereby be broke, or hinder the en- 
trance of the Cork, to its due degree. And 
thus all accefs of Air, to the Water in the 
H 4 Bottle 



IO4 Experiments M 

Bottle, is intercepted, except that the Air 
touches the V/ater, on it$ fmall furfkce in the 
upper end of the Tube at /'. And the glafe 
Tube being open at both ends, the Water can 
eaiily rife and fall in it, in proportion as the 
Water in the Bottle dilates and contracts, by 
the different Temperature, as to the warmth 
or coolnefs of the Air $ whereby the danger 
of burfting the Bottle is prevented, which it 
would do by the dilatation of the Water, if a 
common Cork, which immediately touched 
the Water in the Bottle, were tyed faft down. 
But the Diameter of the Infide of the glafs 
Tubes, muft not be very fmall and fine ; be- 
caufe it could not then contain Water enough, 
in proportion to the fumof the Cbntradion of 
the Water in the Bottle, and coniequently 
lome Air would rufh in thro* the Tube, and 
fpread itfelf between the Water and the Cork. 
When the Water in thefe Bottles with tu- 
bulated Corks, is to be carried to fome diftitnt 
Place, the Corks fhould be tycd down, ellc if 
they be loofen'd at all, the Air is apt to get in 
thro* the Tube, And when they are packed up 
for Carriage, they ought not to be put with 
their Nofes downwards, but upright, or not 
above half reclining. 

I found that by this means, the mineral 
Virtue of feveral Chalybeate Waters might 

be 



&c. 105 

be preferved for many Weeks, without its 
precipitating to the bottom and fides of the 
Bottles. But if any Air got between the 
Cork and the Water, then, that Air by its 
inceflant elaftick Aftion, promoting fome de- 
gree of agitation or ferment in the Water ; 
caufing the Mineral Particles thereby to dif- 
intangle themfelves from the Water, and to 
coalefce into new Combinations, of fo much 
larger fize, as difqualifies them to be any lon- 
ger fqfpended in the Water j they then pre- 
cipitating to the bottom and fides of the Bot- 
tles, partly in the form of a yellowifh Ocre, 
and partly in cloudy Flocks or Thrumbs j 
the Water thereby becoming effcete and vapid. 
But I obferved in the Inftances of many 
Chalybeate Waters, that if after they had thus 
precipitated their Mineral Virtue, they flood 
till they had putrified throughly, for fmall 
degrees of Putrefaction will not do, it muft 
be fo great, as to have attenuated their de- 
pofited ocry Sediment, by that mod fubtite 
diflblvent Putrefadlion, to that degree of fine- 
nefs, as to be fit to be taken up, and be 
intimately incorporated with the Water ; that 
then the Water gave as good a Tindhire with 
Galls, as when firft taken from the Spring : 
And as this w^s obfervablc in many Cha- 
lybeate 



106 Experiments on 

lybeate Waters, fb it is a probable Argument, 
that the principal Virtue of thefe Waters 
confifts in their Mineral Particles being in 
a fine attenuated State ; and not in a fub- 
tile volatile Spirit, as has been thought. If 
there were fuch a Spirit, it could not fly 
off from the Water, which was confined 
in the Florence Flafks turned upfide down, 
unlefi we can abfurdly fuppofe it to pene- 
trate and efcape thro* the Glafi. Now a 
Chalybeate Water lofes its Virtue in an in- 
verted Flafk, as foon as in a common corked 
Bottle, provided a fmall Air-Bubble be left in 
the Flafk. 

The late Dr. James Keill of Northampton 
told me, that notwithftanding he hermeti- 
cally fealcd up, or melted clofe up, theNofe of 
a Florence Flafk, full of a Chalybeate Water 
from a Spring near Northampton^ yet it foon 
depolited its Sediment, and would not tinge 
with Galls, viz. becaufe there was an Air- 
Bubble left in the Neck of the Flalk ; for 
he could not feal it up without leaving an 
Air-Bubble. But if the Virtue of this Wa- 
ter confifted in a volatile Spirit, which was 
apt to fly off; it had in this cafe, no way 
of efcaping, but thro' the Subftancc of the 
Flaik, which is very unlikely. 

To 



Steel-Waters^ &c. 107 

To conclude that the principal Virtue of 
Steel- Waters confifts in a volatile Spirit, be- 
caufe they have a Chalybeate Sulphureous 
Smell, feems as unreafonable,as toconclude that 
the Virtue of many Medicines confifts prin- 
cipally, in their volatile odoriferous Vapour, 
rather than in their other manifeft Quali- 
ties. It is well known that feveral medi- 
cinal Preparations of Steel, have nearly a like 
effeft, with that of Chalybeate Waters, on 
thofe who ufe them ; and yet it is not thought 
that their efficacy lays in a fubtile Spirit; but 
in more manifeft Qualities. 

I will here infert an Obfervation, viz. that 
the Scales which fly off red-hot hammered 
Iron, when put into Water, will give no 
Tinfture with Galls to that Water, as Filings 
of Iron will do. An Argument that thevi- 
triolick Virtue of thofe Scales is deftroyed by 
the grofs Sulphur in the burning Coals, in 
the fame manner as common Brimftone'de- 
ftroys or demetallizes Iron, when melted by 
it in a red-hot ftate. 

The above-mentioned Dr. Burton carri- 
ed fome Bottles of the Sunning-HillVfXtt 
with fuch tubulated Corks to Windfor, which 
is about five Miles diftancc; where they re- 
tained 






io8 Experiments on 

tained their tinging Virtue with Galls for 
feveral Weeks. 

And the Rev. Mr. Archdeacon Bridtoake 
fent by Water at my defire a Steel Water, in 
Bottles with tubulated Corks, from a Spring 
near Southampton* to Dr. Bateman at Win- 
cbefter, which is twelve Miles diftance, which 
Water, as theDodtor wrote me word, retained 
its Virtue of tinging with Galls, and its fer- 
rugineous Smell, for feveral Weeks. 

Dr. Langrijh of Petersfeld in Hampjhire 
told me that the Steel- Water at Coffe's-MM* 
near Midhurjl in Sujjex> being fent him thence 
by his Brother to Petenfield> which is fe- 
ven Miles diftance ; did by means of thefe 
tubulated Corks, retain its Virtue of tinging 
with Galls a Year after. But 'tis probable, 
that this Water in fo long keeping, had pu- 
trifled and become fwcet again. When Wa- 
ter begins to putrify, it tinges lefs and lefs with 
Galls, and at laft not at all : But when the 
Putrefaction proceeds to a greater Degree, then 
the mineral Particles are fo attenuated, as to 
be fit to be reforbed and re- incorporated with 
the Water, in the fame manner as when iu 
the Spring, as was before obferved ; and the 
tubulated Cork contributes to keep it in that 
(late, by excluding the Air. 

3 I* 



Steel-Waters^ &c. 1 09 

Dr. Nesbif alfo preferved Iflington Steel- 
Water clear, and with a tinging Virtue, for 
feveral Weeks, with thefe tubulated Corks, 
at his Houfe in Bafrngball-ftreet; whereas it 
is well known, that this Water fbon turn$ 
foul, when carried but a little way from the 
Spring. He obferved alfo that a Bottle with 
Oil on the Water, but without a Cork, ting- 
ed well, after {landing eleven Days at IJling- 
ton Wells. 

As to Bath Water, one whom I defired 
to try how long its tinging Virtue might be 
preferved in inverted Flafks at Bath> wrote 
me word, that after (landing thus thirty- 
eight Days, it gave a purple Tinfture with 
Galls j perhaps it had putrified, which re- 
generates its tinging Quality j Bath Water 
gave a much ftronger Tinfture when it had 
been in an inverted Flaflt only three Days. 
Yet others fay, they found no fuch eflfcdl og 
the like Trial. 

Dr. Harrington found that Bath Water, 
after being preferved two Months in Bottlqs 
with tubulated Corks gave a fenfible Tinfture 
xvith Galls. And fome Bath Water, which 
the Doftor fent me to TeMngton, in Bottles 
with tubulated Corks, with a little Linfeed 
Oil in the Tubes, to prevent the Air's touching 

the 



no Experiments on 

the Water, gave a faint blufli with Galls, 
and after fourteen Months keeping, this Wa- 
ter immediately gave a whitifli Colour; where- 
as Bath Water, tho* after fome Days it be- 
comes greenifh with Galls, yet when kept in 
Bottles corked in the common way, it gives 
no more Tindhire with Galls than common 
Water : A probable Argument that thefe tu- 
bulated Corks are of ufe in preferving that 
Water, with at leaft fome fmall Degree of 
Virtue, more than in the common way. 

And it is further obfervable, that when 
I opened one of thefe tubulated Bottles, the 
Water would not only give this milky co- 
lour with Galls, when firft opened, but alfo 
for many Days after, tho' the Bottle wanted 
of being full. And Dr. Nesbit obferved the 
fame of IJlington Water. Hence we have a 
good Hint to try whether it would not be 
better, that Bath and other Steel- Waters 
fhould (land in a cool Cellar, in Bottles with 
tubulated Corks, for fome Days, before they 
be convey 'd todiftant Places. For fince the 
mineral Principles of 'IJlington Waters, by thus 
ftanding for a confiderable time, acquire lo 
great a Degree of Stability, as not to be pre- 
cipitated in feveral Days, by theAdlion of the 
Air on the Surface of the Water, in Bottles 

which 



, &C. lit 

which are in part emptied : It fhould there- 
fore feem probable, that they will be lefs 
apt alfo to be precipitated, by the Agitation 
of long Carriage, than if carried away im- 
mediately after the Water is bottled. 

I have had alfo feveral other Parcels of 
Water from Bath, with tubulated Corks; the 
Water of fome of which, was as good as that 
fent me by Dr. Harrington, and fome no 
better than that which is brought in com- 
mon corked Bottles, tho* no Air-Bubbles got 
into the Bottles, which they are but too apt to 
do in fo long a Journey. Yet notwithftanding 
this uncertainty ofSuccefs, it may fure be worth 
the while, for fome curious Perfons, when they 
ihall have occafion for Bath Water at diftant 

. Places, to make ufe of thefe tubulated Corks, 
which will not much increafe the Trouble or 
Expence ; and yet may poflibly be the means 
of farther improving the Method of conveying 
Steel- Waters, fomewhat better conditioned, to 
diftant Places. And Linfeed Oil was preferred 
before Oil of Olives, becaufe it will not har- 

I , den with cold as the other Oil will ; which, 
by flopping thereby the Orifice of the Glafe 
Tube, might indanger the burfting of the 
Bottles. 'Tis probable that thefe tubulated 
Corks might be of fome fervice in carry- 

I ing 



i 1 2 Experiment* on 

ing *//> Water, by water to Briftol\ and 
I intended to have had ibmc brought by 
Sea to London. The way to fucceed in ufe- 
ful Improvements, is to perfevere, and not 
to be difcouraged at a few difappointments 
But as Zfa/&-Water when once cold, lofes 
a principal part of its Efficacy, which can- 
not be recovered by warming again, fo it 
were vain ever to hope, to have it convey- 
ed to diftant Places, with any degree of that 
Efficacy thus loft. 

I could not fucceed in feveral Attempts 
to bring Sunning-Hill Water in tubulated 
Bottles on horfcback to Ttddington, which 
is twelve Miles; nor Midhurft Steel- Water 
to Farringdon in HampJ}rire> which is twelve 
or fourteen Miles. Nor could I fucceed in 
feveral Attempts to bring Tunbridge-Wellt 
Water good to London, by means of tubu- 
lated Corks ; tho* very carefully fecured by 
John Hooker Efq; of Tunbridge Town, to 
whom I am obliged for communicating to 
me many Experiments and Obfervations which 
he made on thofe Waters. But though we 
could not convey them thus to London good 
conditioned in the Summer part of the Year \ 
yet fince in the Winter part of the Year, 

he obferved thefe Waters to keep pretty good 

for 



&c. 1 1 3 

for Months, even in Bottles uncorked, and lon- 
ger when corked, but not when they were half 
full : Hence in the Winter part of the Year, we 
might hope for fome better Succefs, in carrying 
them to diftant Places with tubulated Corks.' 

The Steel Water at Frenfiam near Farti~ 
bam in Surrey, which prefently gives a fine 
Tindture with Galls at the Spring, did not 
retain its tingiog Virtue, with a tubulated Cork, 
tho' the Bottle was not removed to a diftant 
Place, but flood in a Houfe near the Spring. As 
this Water comes out of a very foft Sand, ib I 
fufpeft that its great pronenefs to precipitate 
its Mineral Virtue, is owing to the finer part 
of this fine dufty Sand, which by its weight 
precipitates it, in the fame manner, as it is well 
known to fine down Wine or Cyder. 

The Steel- Water near Claremont^ in the 
Parifli of Cobham in Surrey, which fprings out 
of a pure white Sand, retains its tinging Virtue 
well for Months in tubulated Bottles, kept in the 
adjoining Houfe ; but it lofes much of its ting- 
ing Virtue, and proportionably precipitates its 
Mineral Sediment, in carrying no farther than 
to Hampton-Court tr Teddingdon, which are 
but four and five Miles diftant. So that not- 
withftanding the Air is intercepted from adt- 
ing on the Water in the Bottles, by wans 

I of 



H4 Experiments on 

of the tubulated Corks, yet the Agitations 
in fo few Miles carriage, gives the Mine- 
ral Particles fo much 'Motion, as to caufe 
them to combine and precipitate; and the 
warmer the Weather, the more apt they will 
be to do fo. 

This Spring -in Cobham Parifti, is lately 
opened by James Fox Efq; the Lord of 
the Manor, and made commodious with fome 
Buildings, for the ufe of fuch as come to 
drink of its Waters. 

Thefe tubulated Gorks can be of no fer- 
vice in preferving the Mineral Virtue of 
Pyrcmonty Spa, or the like Waters, which 
abound with an elaftick Aerial Spirit ; and 
which rifing in great quantities from fuch 
Waters, will foon form an Air Bubble, be- 
tween the Cork and the Water ; which to- 
tally defeats the ufe of thefe tubulated Corks. 

Thus have I given a fhort account of what 
thefe tubulate Corks can, and cannot do; 
as well in order to explain what Influence 
the contadt of the Air, on the Surface of 
the Water, has towards promoting the Pre- 
cipitation of the Mineral Virtue of thefe Wa- 
ters ; as alfo in hopes, that they may in 
fome Cafes be of ufe, at lead for Perfons who 
live at fmall diftances from fuch Waters. 

For 



&c. 115 

For tho* Mineral Waters muft ever be beft 
when drank at the Spring-Head, when their 
Mineral Particles are in the moft fubtile and 
attenuated date ; and confequently fitted to 
enter the capillary Veflels of the Body * yet 
when in cafes of Sicknefs, bad Weather, or 
other Incidents, a Perfon cannot go to the 
Spring, it may at lead be of fome advan- 
tage, towards preferving fome farther degree 
of Virtue than can be done without fuch 
means : For it is a common Obfervation, that 
Bath and Tunbridge Waters fenfibly abate 
fomething of their Virtue, by being drank 
at a little didance from the Spring. The 
Truth of which may be further confirmed 
. by the following Obfervation, viz, it is found 
by Trials on Spa and many other Steel- Waters, 
that a quantity of it, which has ftood about 
half an Hour in a Glafs, will tinge Purple 
with Galls fooner, than fome of the fame 
Water juft taken from the Spring. A pro- 
bable Argument, that the action of the open 
Air, on the Surface of the Water, has in 
fo fhort a time, difpofed the Mineral Parti- 
cles to be in fome degree difintangled from 
the Water, fo as to be tending towards u- 
niting themfelves into larger" Combinations : 
Which is agreeable to Monfieur Geoff roy's 
1 2 Obfervation, 



1 1 6 Experiments M 

* 

Obfervation, viz. that the Tinfture with Galls 
will be flower, the mere intimately the Steel 
is diflblved in and blended with the other 
Mineral Principles of the Waters ; which 
feems to be the Cafe of the Steel- Water near 
Claremont) which is flower in coming to its 
full Tincture with Galls than moft Steel- 
Waters that I have obferved. Hence we 
may fee how wrong a thing it is to have 
the Refervoir of Water at the Spring Head, 
I mean the Refervoir under the Stone Ba- 
fons, too large, in proportion to the Quan- 
tity of Water, that flows from the Spring. 
A fault which I have obferved in the open- 
ing of fome Steel-Springs. For when the 
Stream is fmall and the Refervoir large, too 
great a Quantity of Water will ftand tlrere, 
ftagnating and confequently lofing its Virtue. 

As to Bath Water, the tendency of it to- 
wards cooling, may ofitsfelf probably caufe 
a proportionable tendency of the Mineral Par- 
ticles, which abound in that Water, towards 
a coalefcence into Particles of a fomewhat 
larger fize : And this Coalefcence of the Mi- 
neral Particles, which is qccafioned by the 
cooling of Bath Water, cannot probably be 
diffolved again, by reducing the Water to 
its firft degree of Heat 5 and accordingly it 

is 



Steel-IP ater*) &c 117 

is found, that Batb Water when once cold, 
tho' heated again, will not have the good 
effeft, that warm Water frefli from the Spring 
has : Its more fubtile Mineral Particles being 
probably abfbrbed by and incorporated into 
the calcarious matter which abounds in that 
Water. 

Yet fince, according to Dr. Guidotfs y and 
other Obfervations, there are found about 
eleven Grains and a Quarter, of Mineral Se- 
diment in a Pound of Batb Water evapora- 
ted to drynefs ; and fince the Quantity of 
Sediment in a Quart of Batb Water, after 
it has flood long, is very final), fo finall 
as to make it be difputed, whether there 
be any Sediment ; and fince notwithftand- 
ing this great Quantity of calcarious, laline, 
nitrous and fulphureous Matter in this Water, 
it yet continues clear tho* long kept in Bottles, 
a probable Argument that its Mineral Par- 
ticles are not combined in very grols Com- 
binations: Since, I fay, this is the Cafe, it 
fhould feem probable, that this Water, tho' 
kept for a confiderable time in Bottles, (hould 
be better than common Water; which yet 
fome are of Opinion that it is not. 

But when by throwing in fome Salt or 
OU of Tartar, the Salt of Tartar feizcs on 

I3 the 



1 1 8 Experiments on 

the nitrous and common Salt ; then the 

pious calcarious Matter, being deferted by the 

nitrous and other Salt, which held it fufpended 

and attenuated in the Water, immediately 

precipitates to the bottom, in the vifible Form 

of a white Calx. The quantity of Sediment 

in one Hogfhead of the Water of the King's 

Bath, taken from the Pump, in wet weather, 

and evaporated to diynefs, was found to be, 

according to Dr. Guidott's Obfervation, ten 

Ounces five Drams and half; whereof five 

Ounces three Drams were Grit, two Ounces 

one Dram and half, a blue fulphureous Earth 

or Marie ; two Ounces leven and a half Drams 

Salt. Of which more than two parts in three 

were common Salt, the reft Nitre. Objer- 

vation. LXI, LXIV. 

II. 

1 tryed alfo whether the tinging Virtue ok 
Sleel- Waters could be preierved, by corking 
Bottles with tubulated Corks, whole Tubes 
flood upright above the Corks ; by which 
means alfo, the Air could touch the Water 
only in the narrow Tube: This method iiic- 
ceeded very well with ibme Waters, but not 
With others; which I fufpeft was owing to 
the Bottles not being clean enough. Fcj 

when 



Steel-Watery &c. 119 

when the Bottles are not perfectly clean, and 
free from the Tartar of Wine, or Ocry Sedi- 
ment of mineral Waters which have been in 
them, thofe Incruflations foon attract the mi- 
neral Virtue out of Chalybeate Waters, as 
alfo they are well known to fpoil Wine, 
Cyder or Beer, put into fuch foul Bottles. 
The moft effectual way to clean fuch Bot- 
tles, is to boil them in a Lye of Wood-afhes, 
as is done (by thofe who are careful) in bot- 
tling Wine, &c. I obferved that the Water 
fubfided very flowly in thefe Tubes, tho* they 
flood fome Months; a proof that good Corks 
imbibe very little of any Liquor that touches 
them. 

And fince the Virtue of Chalybeate Wa- 
ters may by this means be preferved, for fe- 
veral Days near the Spring Head, this method 
may perhaps be of fome ufe at Pyremont and 
Spa. Which we have the more encourage- 
ment to attempt, becaufe a eonfiderable quan^ 
tity of the Virtue of thefe Waters, is long re- 
tained in Bottles, when carried to very diftant 
Places : Which may perhaps be owing in the 
Pyremont Water, especially to the great quan- 
tity of mineral and calcarious Matter which it 
contains, there being on evaporation of a 
Pound of it, no lefs than twenty-two Grains 
1 4 of 



I2O Experiments on 

of dry Sediment: And accordingly it has 
been obferved of feveral Chalybeate Waters, 
that their Chalybeate Virtue is detained from 
precipitating, for fome Days, by feveral things 
that infpiffatc the Waters. Yet I am rather 
apt to fuipeft, that a principal rcafon why 
Pyremont and Spa Waters retain their Virtue 
longer than any of our Steel- Waters in Eng- 
land will do, may be owing to the large 
quantity of faline matter in them, for. Dr. 
Seip found in the dry Sediment of Pyremont 
Water, no lefs than feven Grains in twenty^ 
two to be a white bitter Salt. And in Spa- 
Water the white alkaline Salt is in the pro- 
portion of eight Grains to ten, to the reft of the 
Ocry Sediment ; fo that as was above obferved 
in Bath- Water, this proportion of faline 
matter, which is ftrongly attracted by the 
Water, contributes probably towards* the keep- 
ing the mineral Virtue of thcfe Waters the 
longer futpended in them. But if the mineral 
Virtue of Pyremont and Spa- Waters is fuf- 
tained longer in thefc than other Waters, by 
means of the little invifible Air-Bubbles 
that abound in thefe Waters ; then this 
method of Tubes, would do more harm 
than good, by depriving them of thofe Air- 
Bubbles : Which Air Bubbles being enlarged 
by warmth, may be the reafon why Pyre- 
wont- 



Steel-Waters. 8cc. 121 

?;//j;//-Waters bear heating longer than other 
Waters, without precipitating their mineral 
Particles, tho' the great proportion of faline 
matter ieems -to me to be the principal caufe. 

I could wifli therefore that fome curious 
Experimenter and Obferver would make the 
tryul ; not with tubulated Corks, as above- 
nientioned; becaufe it would be a difficult 
matter and endlefs trouble, to fit fuch Corks 
in a proper manner to every Bottle ; and to 
cut the bottom of each Cork hollow like 3 
Cone, to prevent the afcending Air-Bubbles 
from lodging there. 

But in the following manner, viz. with 
a glafs Tube which is formed at each end like 
a Tunnel : which Tunnels being of a fuf- 
hcient fizc to cover the outfide of the Nofe 
nf every Bottle ; to which they muft be fixed 
by means of fome proper loft Wax, wrapped 
round the Nofe of the Bottles, which are firft 
to be filled with Water, before the Tube be 
fixed, which when fixed, mud alfo be filled 
up as high as the narrow part goes, but no 
higher. The Diameter of the glaft Tube 
which is between each Tunnel, muft be full 
half an Inch j elfeif it be narrower, the Tube 
will be filled with the afcending Air-Bubbles, 
infteadof Water, which will, defeat the ufe 
pf it. And as the Diameter of die Tube muft 

be 



122 Experiments on 

be thus large, it will be advifeable to have it 
fo much the longer, viz. about fixteen or 
twenty Inches ; that the influence of the Air 
on the furface of the Water in the Tube may 
be the longer before it reach to the Water in the 
Bottle: Befides, the longer the Tube is, the 
more difficult it will be for the fubtile ful- 
phureous Vapour to efcape, which Vapour is 
obferved to give a kind of vinous Tafte to 
Pyremont Waters j and is a different tiling 
from the fparkling Air-Bubbles, in which 
many are apt to think, the Virtue of thefe Wa- 
ters does principally confift : Which fulphure- 
ous Vapour afcends in fuch quantity, that it 
not only fometimes intoxicates the Walter^ 
but in a dry ConAitution of the Air, it kills 
Ducks which fwim on that Water in a fhort 
time ; but does not incommode them in the 
Icaft. in a moid Air. Whence it has been falfe- 
ly concluded that Pyremont Water abounds 
more with this iulphurcous Vapour, in dry than 
a moift Air ; whereas the true Reafon of its 
not killing Ducks when the Air is moift, is 
owing to the great quantity of Watry Vapour 
with which the fulphureous arc then diluted 
and blended, which much abates their noxious 
Quality j as I have fully proved in my Ana- 
ly/is of the Air\ fee my Statical Evfwyncnt* 
Vol.' I. Bottles 



Steel- Waters^ 8cc. 123 

Bottles filled with the Water thus prepared, 
would not be fo apt to burft, as the Dealers 
in thofe Waters complain they are too apt tq 
do in the common method, notwithftanding 
they let them ftand for fome time open, for 
the claftick Air to fly off before they cork 
them; by this means, they might alfo with 
the more fafety, be corked with a lefs quanti T 
ty of Air under the Cork, which would con- 
tribute to the better preferving the Water. 

I am fenfible, that thofe who believe the 
Virtue of thefe Waters confifts chiefly in their 
volatile elaftick Air, or Spirit, as it is called, 
\vill think them vapid and fpoiled by this 
management. But on the other hand it is 
not eafy to conceive how fuch elaftick Aerial 
Vapours fhould enter the finer Veflels of the 
Body, or if they did, they feem to be more 
likely to do harm than good: For thefe Wa- 
ters which abound with fuch elaftick Airey 
Vapours, are found to difcompofe the Head 
by filling the Stojnach with Wind, more than 
other Chalybeate- Waters do: Thofe who arc 
fond of drinking much Wind with their Wa- 
ter, need not be at the expence of buying Pyre- 
mont or iS/^- Waters; 'tis eafy to put into 
common Water a mixture, that will produce 
plenty of Iparkling Air. If therefore t on try- 



1 24 Experiments on 

al, this method of preferving thefe Waters 
(hall be found of any ufe , it will I hope com-t 
pcnfate for the imagined lofs, in the want of 
the briik Air, which flies off the Water in a 
fparkling manner. 

Several who are curious Obfervers, have 
found that a confiderable number of the Bot- 
tles of Pyremwt Water, which they have 
uied, tho* they have been very briik and 
fparkling, yet have given no manner of Tinc- 
ture with Galls or green Tea ; nor have they 
found any Benefit in drinking fuch efface 
Water. And I have my fclf frequently ob- 
ferved the fame thing. It would therefore 
be a good way to try every Bottle with Galls 
or green Tea, before any of it is drank. But 
it were unreafonable and unjuft to lay any 
blame on the Dealers in thole Waters, when 
in truth it ought to be imputed rather to the 
great difficulty there is in carrying Chalybeate 
Waters to very diftant Places, with any de- 
gree of their mineral Virtue. The cooler 
the Weather, the more likelihood there is of 
fucccfs. I (hall be glad if the method I have 
here propofed, may contribute any thing to- 
wards it. 

I have found the fize of the Bubble of Air, 
which has rifen from a common inverted 

Pyremont 



&c. 1 25 

Pyremwt Bottle of that Water heated to be 
i +| cubick Inch, being tryed here in Eng- 
litnJ-, there would doubt lefs much more have 
rtlen from a like quantity of freih Water at 
Pyremont'. Some of the thus generated Air 
was again reforbed by the V/ater, in (landing 
lome Days. And Mr. Ed. Warkman a 
Gentleman of Leyden, to whom a Friend of 
mine gave a Paper of fome Experiments, 
which I defined to have tryed on Spa Water f 
found on tryal, that there arofe in feven Days, 
from a Flafk of the Geronfterre-Watcr, whole 
Nofe was inverted into a Glafs of the fame 
Water, more than a cubick Inch and half of 
elaftkk Air. And that the Water retained 
its tinging Virtue with Galls very well ; but 
that it intirety loft that peculiar Smell and 
Tafte, which it has when firft taken from the 
Fountain ; and retains only the Tafte of the 
Pohon- Waters, but a little flatter: For which 
rcafon 'tis thought that it will anfwer no other 
end, when tranfported to diftant places, than 
what the Pohon does much better. And Dr. 
Cbrowt an antrent eminent Phyfician at Sfa, 
lays in his printed Declaration, of the Geron- 
fterre- Water, that its mctallick Sulphur, in 
which its principal Virtue confifts, is fo very 
fubtile, that it flies away, notwithstanding all 

pre- 



1 26 t Experiments ort 

precautions that can be ufed, in Bottling 
to prevent it. But it could not efcape thro* 
the above mentioned inverted Glafs Bottle j 
it muft therefore be either raifed and mixed 
with the elaftick Air-Bubble, at the upper 
part of the Glafs Bottle, or be reduced to 
a more fixed ftate, by uniting and combin- 
ing with the other Mineral Principles in the 
ftagnant ftate of the Water ; which feems 
to me the more probable, for the tinging 
Virtue of the Water with Galls continued, 
notwithftanding what was raifed from the 
Water, in that large Air-Bubble. And Dr. 
Seip of Pyremont wrote me word, that that 
Water retained its tinging Virtue, notwith- 
ftanding he had poured fome of it, many 
times to and fro, to free it from its elaftick 
Air, and fubtile volatile fulphureous Vapour. 
He fays that that Water keeps the better for 
having Oil on it in the Neck of the Bottle. 

III. 

I have made alfo fome Attempts to pre- 
ferve Chalybeate Waters with Glafs Tubes, 
about fix Inches long, which were open at 
one end, and had a fmall Bubble at the 
other end, of fuch a fize that it could well 
enter a common Quart Bottle which had a 

large 



Steel-Watery Sec. 127 

large Mouth. When the Bottle was filled 
with Water, the Tube was put into the 
Bottle with the Bubble uppermoft j and the 
Bottle being brim-full of Water, a Cork of 
the beft fort being firft wetted to clear it 
of fmall Air- Bubbles, was prefled hard into 
the Mouth of the Bottle, and tied faft down : 
By which means the Air in the Glafs Bub- 
ble was proportionably comprefled by the 
Water which rofe above half way up the 
Bubble: The remaining fpace in the upper 
part of the Glafs Bubble, being left for fome 
of the Water to afcend into, in cafe it fliould 
dilate, by any greater degree of Heat, than 
it had at firft, which would otherwife in- 
ilanger the burfting of the Bottle, 

Dr. Burton found the tinging virtue of 
Sunning-Hill Water well preferved by this 
means at Windfor. And Mr. Hooker found 
that TiUnbridge-Welh Water thus preferved 
at TuftbriJge Town, which is fix Miles di- 
llant, did fometimes fucceed very well, and 
gave as fine a Tincture as at the Spring Head, 
after feveral Months keeping, and fometimes 
he had not the like fuccefs ; and others as 
well as my felf found the fame uncertainty 
as to the Event : Which may lie attribu- 
ted to two Caufes, v/z. either the diffe- 
rent 






128 Experiments on 

renf degree of warmth or coldncfc of the 
Weather, when the Water was taken up i 
Or elfc to the different degree of clean- 
nefe of the Bottles, which were made ufe 
of; for I met with many difappointments, 
before I was diffidently aware of the im- 
portance of having the Bottles, as perfoftly 
clean as if they were new. For if there 
be any Tartarine Sediment, adhering to the 
bottom of them, that is very apt to draw 
to it the Mineral Virtue of the Water ; in 
the fame manner as the calculous matter of 
Urine will be attracted in greater quantity 
by a foul than by a clean Urinal, as alfo the 
Stones in the Kidneys or Bladder attract fi- 
milar Particles from the Urine. 

IV. 

There is another way alfo which I made 
ufe of, by which the Air was abfolutely fe- 
el uded from touching the Water in the Bot- 
tles, in any the leaft part, viz. 1 chofe foinc 
of the fofteft velvet Corks that I could pro- 
cure ; and .thruft five or fix of them, into 
a Quart Bottle, they being firft well wetted 
to clear them of adhering Air-Bubbles. Then 
filled the Bottles brim-full of Water, and 
thruft hard into the Mouth of it, a very 

good 



Steel-Watery &c. 129 

good Cork, tying it down firm. By this 
means no Air could touch the Water ; and 
at the fame time the Bottle was fecured from 
burfting ; becaufe, as the Water dilated at 
any time with more warmth, the foft yield- 
ing Corks were proportionally comprefled, 
to make room : for I found that by putting 
fach Corks under Water in a Glafs Veflel, 
and placing it in a Glafs-condenfing Engine, 
that on compreffing the Air, it made the 
Water fubfide in which the Corks were im- 
merfed, by their yielding to the greater pref- 
iure of the Water. 

I have by this means fucceeded in pre- 
fcrving the Virtue of Steel- Waters, for fix 
Weeks near the Spring : And fometimes not 
fo long. I was at firft apprehenfive that the 
Corks might contribute, in fome degree, to 
the fpoiling of the Mineral Virtue of the 
Waters, they being turned black by it. But 
Dr. Seip aflured me of the contrary, he ha- 
ving put an hundred new Vfol Corks, into 
a three-pint Bottle ofPyremont Water, which 
being tried with Galls, after it flood a Month 
in his Study, it gave a very good Tinclure : 
And Mr. JVarkman found the fame Event 
with Sfa Water. 

K Thus 



130 Experiments on 

Thus have I given an Account of the 
feveral means which I made ufe of, for pre- 
ferving the Mineral Virtue of Steel-Waters, 
hoping they may all be of fome life, in dif- 
ferent Circumflances ; at lead to convey fome 
of thcfe Waters a little way. Thofe who 
have not the convenience of Glafs Tubes, 
may perhaps find fome Benefit in the ufe of 
foft Corks. 

As Heat is apt to fpoil the Virtue of thefe 
Waters ; it feems probable that it would be 
of fome ufe, to cover the Bottles with Salt 
in a Baflcet in very hot Weather; this might 
be of ufe for carrying Bottles of thefe Waters 
to fmall dirtances, as from IJlington to any 
part of London, &c. 

When it is advifeable to drink Chalybeate 
Waters warm, I find it is better to warm 
them in a Bottle, with its Nofe downwards 
than upwards : For I found by Trial at Sun- 
ning-Hill that when I put two Vials full 
of cold Water, into a Vcflel of the lame 
Water, and wanned it; the Water in the 
inverted Vial gave a better Tindure, than 
that in the other Vial which was not in- 
verted : And only one Draft fliould be warm- 
ed at a time, for when warm, it foon grows 
foul and lofes its Virtue. 

A 



Steel-Water s> &c. 131 

As the Mineral Particles of Chalybeate Wa- 
ters, are doubtlefs in their mod fubtile and 
attenuated date, and therefore moft efficacious 
at the Fountains 5 (b it will ever be bcft to 
drink them there : But as this-cannot in many 
Cafes and Circumftanccs be done, it is there- 
fore a Matter of great Importance for the 
Benefit of Mankind, to try if any means can 
be found out, to convey them to diftant 
Places, with a good degree of their Virtue j 
that ir^ with their fine Mineral Particles as 
little combined into larger ones as may be. 

V. 

I have hitherto given an Account of the 
good and bad fuccefs, I have had, in attempt- 
ing to preferve the Virtue of Chalybeate 
Waters, by Mechanical Contrivances, with- 
out putting any ingredient into them. I 
(hall now mention other means which I 
made ufe of, which proved more effectual, 
'viz. by dropping in of Acid Spirits, which 
are frequently prefcribed by Phyficians, to 
be taken with Chalybeate Waters, in fuch 
Forms and Proportions as they think pro- 
per ; and that often to the great Benefit of 
their Patients. They are alfo frequently ufed 
to check the too great Ferment of Wine or 
K 2 Cyder, 



i 3 2 Experiments on 

Cyder, by burning Brimftonc In the Caflcs, 
whereby they are impregnated with true Oil 
of Sulphur. 

But as I have no Intention to intrude into 
the Phyficians Province for which I am no 
ways qualified $ ib my prefent purpofe is only, 
to give an Account of the Effefts, which 
different numbers of Drops ofthefe acid Spi- 
rits hid on different Chalybeate Waters ; in 
order thereby to find out the leaft num- 
ber of Drops, that will fuffice to keep their 
Mineral Particles, in fo attenuated a ftate, as 
will prevent their precipitating to the Bottom 
and Sides of Vcffels : leaving it to Phyficians 
to determine as to the wholclbmnefs of them, 
as alib in what Cafes and Proportions fuch aci- 
dulated Waters are to be drank. 

I am obliged to Sir Conrad Sfrenge/l for 
the following Obfervation on Steel- Watery 
as alfo for fbme other Improvements and A- 
mcndments which he niude on the pcru- 
il of thcfe Papers, viz. " Steel- Waters con- 
" tain a fubtilc Acid, by which as a Me- 
" dium the Iron Ore is made foluble and 
" united with the Waters. Alcalies by de- 
l ftroying that fubtile Acid, dcflroy the Bond 
" of Union betwixt the Waters and their 
" Ingredients. Now the Queftion is, how 

to 



It 



St eel-Water s<> &c. 133 

to prefer ve this vitriol ick Acid, no doubt 
4< by an Addition of fomething like it, and 
" yet the Acid fhould not prevail, becaufe 
<c then the Galls and other Aflringcnts will 
" give no Colour to the Waters ; in the 
" manner as any inky Writing may be ef- 
" faced by Lemon Juice, Spirit of Vitriol, 
" Off. Hence no black Tindture can be 
" produced with Galls, but when the Iron 
" is predominant. Green Vitriol makes Ink 
" only by its Iron, hence the Colours in Steel- 
" Waters, and from no other parts of the 
u Vitriol, for blue Vitriol makes no Ink. 
" Oil and Spirit of Vitriol change Iron into 
c< Vitriol ; but with this Difference that Oil 
" put upon Filings of Iron, changes them 
" into white, and Spirit into green Vitriol. 
" Vitriol is a Sal Medium fonn'd of an acid 
u and ferrugincDUS Subftance which makes 
" green Vitriol, but the blue is compounded 
" of Copper." 

|. As the acid Spirits here made ufe of, 
were not always the fame, but bought at 
different Places, by my felf and others, who 
made Experiments with them ; fo thofe who 
ihall think fit to repeat any of thefe Ex- 
periments hereafter, may perhaps find fomc 
little varation, of a Drop or fo, of the quan- x 
K-3 tity 



134 Experiments on 

tity that will do. What I here often men* 
tion as Oil of Sulphur, and which was 
bought for fuch 5 was not probably true 
Oil of Sulphur, but what is commonly fold 
for fuch, viz. fometimes Oil of Vitriol mixed 
with Water, or fometimes Spirit of Vitriol, it 
being difficult to procure true Oil of Sulphur. 

Mr. Boyle Godfrey, the Chymift in his Mif- 
fellaneous Experiments and Objeroations y p. 1 3 6 . 
cautions agsinft theufe of Oil of Vitriol, as being 
a more metallick Acid thar^ the true Spirit of 
Vitriol : But as what is commonly fold for 
Spirit of Vitriol, is, he fays, Oil of Vitriol mixed 
with Water 3 and that if Oil of Vitriol is 
ever ufed,one third lefs of it, than of the Spirit 
of Vitriol will do ; hence we fee the great 
uncertainty there is, as to the Strength of 
thefe acid Spirits. 

Gas Sulphuris might be ufcd for this 
purpofe, which is Water ilrongly impreg- 
nated with the Fumes of burning Bi undone, 
yi a large Receiver ; but fome look on this 
as a poor four Water, and as the quantity 
of Spirit of Sulphur, in each Preparation of 
it, would probably be very different j accor- 
dingly different quantities of the Gas would 
al/b be requiiite, in order to adjuft the due 
proportion that would fufilce to prelerve thfi 
Viitue of Steel- Water wkh it. I 



&c. 135 

I was obliged to Mr. Hooker ofTunbridge 
for putting me on the refearch, to find out the 
fmalleft number of Drops of Oil of Sulphur, 
that would effectually preferve the mineral 
Particles of Chalybeate Waters from precipitat- 
ing ; in which he had made fome progrefs, and 
recommended to me the farther purfuit of it. 
For, as he obferves, if fome of thefe Waters 
ihall require fo many of thefe acid Drops, 
as (hall be thought to make Water too acid 
to be drank in any quantity ; that Acidity may 
eafily be wholly taken away, by dropping 
in, a little time before the Water is drank, a 
few Drops of Oil of Tartar, which by feiz- 
ing on and combining with the acid Spirit, 
will form a wholefome neutral Salt. And 
the Mineral Particles of the Water, being 
thereby difieized of the acid Spirit, are fet 
at liberty, to aft almoft as effectually, as 
before the acid Spirit was dropped in, as ap- 
pears by the fine Tinfture it will then give 
with Galls, if the Galls are firft put in. 

July 22d, Mr, Hooker fet two Florence 
Flafks full of funbridge-Welh Water on n 
Gravel Walk in very hot Sun-fhine, from 
ten in the Morning till feven in the Even- 
big, having firft put three Drops of Oil of 
Sulphur into one of the Flaflcs. At three 
K 4 in 



Experiments an 

in the Afternoon, he found the Water heated 
to that degree, that he could icarce bear 
to hold the Flafks in his Hands: The Air- 
Bubbles were continually rifing. The Wa- 
ter without any acid Spirit in it, was tur r 
bid, and had depofited much Ocre, and gave 
no tindlure with Galls. The other with the 
Oil of Sulphur was tranfparcnt, and had a 
mineral ferrugineous Smell : Upon putting one 
eighth of a Grain of Galls to a Pint of it, 
it very flowly changed to a pale Purple j but 
on dropping in one Drop of Oil of Tartar, 
it inftantly gave as deep a colour as frdh Wa- 
ter at the Spring, and with one Drop morc ? 
a deeper Purple than he ever law in freih 
Water with the fame quantity of Galls. 

In order tp find out the Icaft number of 
Drops of acid Spirit that would prcfcrve un- 
precipitated the mineral Particles of this Wa- 
ter, I dciircd the Reverend Mr. Wiljon Rcdtor 
of Walbrook Church in London , to provide fix 
very clean Quart Bottles j into which as fooi) 
as filled at ^funbridgc-Wtlh^ he dropped into 
Numb. i. two drops of Oil "of Sulphur. 
Nun.b. 2. thiej Drops. Numb. 3. four 
Drops. Numb. 4. five Drops, Numb. 5. fix 
Drops. And Numb. 6. eight Drops. After 
thefe Bottles being corked, had ftcxxl an 

Hour, 



Steel- ff at ersy &c. 137 

Hour, to give time for the acid Spirit to dif- 
fufe it fclf uniformly thro' the whole Water, 
he then filled fix equally fized Vials, with 
Water out of each Quart Bottle, and put e- 
.qual quantities of powdered Gall into each 
Vial, and corked them: After ftanding an 
Hour, Number i. was tinged of a light blue 
Colour ; but none of the ether five were in the 
Jeaft tinged. 

Hence we fee that three Drops of Oil of 
Sulphur in Numb. 2. fo effectually feize on and 
lock up the mineral Particles of this Water, 
that they cannot be fo adted on by Galls as to 
produce any Tinfture : But when a little Oil of 
Tartar is added, which ieizes on the acid Spirit, 
fo as to caufe it to let go its hold of the mineral 
Particles, which it kept attenuated and fufpend- 
ed, then they are at liberty to tinge with Galls, 
or to unite intofo grofs Combinations, as caufes 
them to precipitate in the form of Ocre. 

Thefe Experiments were made the begin- 
ning of Auguft, and the feventh of Auguft in 
the next Year, the Weather Temperate, I 
procured by the favour of a Friend, three 
wine Quarts of Tunbridgc-Wdk Water. The 
Bottle Numb. i. had three Drops of Oil of 
Sulphur. Numb. 2. had four Drops. And 
Numb. 3. had five Drops. Thefe I received 

at 



138 Experiments on 

at Tedding ton> Auguft the fifteenth: When 
Numb. i. gave with Galls, only a ftrong 
blue Tindturc, which was heightened with 
Oil of Tartar, to a reddiih Tindture ; it had a 
manifeft Sediment at the bottom, but no 
cloudy Flocks or Thrumbs* hence three Drops 
of Oil of Sulphur are not fufficient to pre- 
ferve it good, for fo fhort a time; notwith- 
ftanding that number of Drops was found 
fufficient, fo effectually to lock up the mine- 
ral Particles, as totally to extinguiih the ting- 
ing Virtue of this Water with Galls. 

Neither will four Drops be fufficient to 
keep it good long \ for tho* Aitgujl the i $th 
it had little or no Sediment, and gave a 
ftronger blue Tindure than Numb. i. which 
was heightened with Oil of Tartar to a goal 
reddiih Purple, at which time I poured off a 
Pint of it, the better to preferve it ; yet Augujl 
the twenty-firf}, there was fome Sediment iu 
the Pint, and it gave a fomcwhat weaker 
Tindture, than it did Augujl the fifteenth. 
And Augujl the thirtieth there was much 
more Sediment, and alfo a proportionally 
weaker Tindlure. 

But the Water of the Bottle Numb. 3. 
which had five acid Drops in it, gave Augitft 
the fifteenth a much Wronger blue Tinclure 

with 



Steel-Waters^ &c. 139 

.with Galls than Numb. 2. which was heigh- 
tened with Oil of Tartar, to fo deep a reddifh 
Purple, that was hardly tranfparent. Augujl 
the twenty-firft the remainder of the Bottle 
gave alfo a deep Tindture. A Pint of this 
bottled, which was filled from it Augujl the 
fifteenth had no Sediment Augujl the thir- 
tieth, and gave as ftrong a Purple as at firft ; 
it gave alfo a good Tinfture September the 
twenty-fifth : And tho' this Pint flood not 
full from that time to January the eleventh, 
yet there was no Sediment, and it gave a blue 
with Gulls, and with the addition of Oil of 
Tartar a fine reddifli Tindture ; which rednefs 
is increafed by the Salt in the Oil of Tartar, 
in the fame manner as the Salt of Aquafortis 
heightens the colour ofCochineel in the fcarlet 
Dye, and as Nitre alfo heightens the rednefe 
of Blood. Hence we fee that five Drops of 
Oil of Sulphur to a Quart, are fufficient to 
prelerve the Virtue of this Water long. But 
as this number of Drops make it confiderably 
acidulated, tho' not (b much as to be difagree- 
able, yet, if more than (hould be, in drinking 
any confiderable quantity of this Water, this 
Acidity may be abated by adding any propor- 
tion of fair Water ; or may be wholly taken 
away, by two or three Drops of Oil of Tartar. 

It 



1 40 Experiments on 

It is obfctyable that in keeping this Water fo 
long as to January -, its Acidity was fo much 
abated tliat it was fcarccly to be tafied. 

It feems probable, that if tubulated Corks 
were ufed with Bottles of this thus acidulated 
Water, they would not only contribute to 
preferve the Water the better 5 but there 
might alfo be this further convenience, 'that 
the Virtue of fome of thefe Waters, might 
alfb be thus preferred with fewer Drops. For 
I often obferved, on the G>Afe//w-Wat:r thus 
acidulated with the fewdt Drop that would 
do ; that it kept much longer and better wbeit 
the Bottles were full, than when, by being 
but half full, a broader furface of the Water 
was expofed to the influence of the Air. 

Whereas Tunbridgc-Welh Water required 
three Drops of Oil of Sulphur, totally to ex- 
tinguifli its tinging Virtue with Galls. One 
Drop of that acid Spirit will have the fame 
effect on the abovementioned Steel- Water of 
Cobbam near Claremont in Surrey. And three 
.Drops will as effectually preferve the mineral 
Virtue of that Water for two or three Months, 
when carried to dittant Places to be drank, as 
that of Tunbndge is preferved with five Drops. 
This difference feems to be principally owing 
to the different quantities of Chalybeate, and 

other 



Steel-Water S) &c. 141 

other calcarious matter which thefe Waters 
contain For Bath Water, which is found to 
contain, on evaporation to drynefs, eleven and 
a quarter Grains weight of {aline, nitrous, 
fulphureous, and principally calcarious matter 
to a Pint ; by abforbing much of the acid 
Spirit of Sulphur, requires eight Drops of 
Oil of Sulphur to extinguifh its tinging qua- 
lity with Galls. 

And even this number of Drops does not 
make it fenfibly acid, after (landing ibme time, 
tho' fomewhat hariher ; the Acid being abfor- 
bed by the great quantity of calcarious. matter: 
And a fewer number of Drops as four or five, 
are not in the lead to be perceived, after a 
few Days. I have alfo obferved of feveral 
other Chalybeate Waters, which have had 
no more than an agreeable degree of acidity 
given them, that it has in a good meafurc 
upne off after fome Weeks (landing. 

Otfobcr the fifth, I received at Teddlngton^ 
ibme Bottles of Bath Water, which had fe- 
vcr;\liy in them from one to eight Drops of 
Oil of Sulphur, when I put powdered Galls 
into Vials full of the Water of each Bottle. 
They all gave a blufl), except that with one 
Drop, and another with no Drop in it, both 
which were not fenfibly altered in Colour. 

The 



142 Experiments oft 

The Blufh of the other fevcn was ftronger 
and ftrongcr, in proportion to the number of 
Drops of Oil of Sulphur, which was in the 
refpedtive Water. But it did not exhibit this 
Bluih fcven Days after, which was fourteen 
Days from the time the Bottles were filled at 
Bath. 

And whereas fuch acid Drops do effectually 
prevent the precipitation of the mineral Parti- 
cles, which in other Steel Waters are apt to 
precipitate ; I could perceive no fenfible dif- 
ference at the bottom of thofe Bottles, which 
had eight Drops in them, and thofe which 
had none : Whence it is probable that this 
Water depofites no Sediment, unleft by Aand- 
ing very long. The fmall quantity of Sulphur 
which is in it, feems to be prevented from 
precipitating, by its uniting its felf with the 
great quantity of calcarious matter in that 
Water jas is probable from Dr. Gui dolt's Ex- 
periments and Obfervations. 

The Chalybeate Water near the Corn-Mil! 
at Bramflott in Hampjhire^ has its tinging 
Virtue cxtinguifhed with three Drops. The 
Chalybeate Water at C^s-Mill near Mid- 
hurft, SuJJcXy requires five Drops* 

Sunning-Hill Water has never four Grains 
of dry Refiduum in a Pound 5 and with four 

Drops 



Steel Waters^ &c. -143 

Drops of Oil of Vitriol to a quart, retained its 
Virtue of tinging with Galls, for fifty Days 
at the Spring-Head. This Sediment does not 
melt in (landing many Days, an Argument 
that there is little falinc in it. 

But the Sediment of the Steel- Water near 
Sir William Abdys in the Parifli of Chobham 
in Surrey, \vhich is near equal in quantity 
with that of Sunning-Hill, rifes in drying, in 
broad Alum-like Blifters j which had a mild 
(aline Tafte. Native Nitre is known to be 
alkaline and to rife in Blifters like Alum, and 
has no fign of acidity before it is expofed to the . 
Fire, and has always a mixture of common 
S^lt. Moft Chalybeate Waters have fome ni- 
trous Salt, and thofe which have moft of it, 
;ire efteemed the bed, 

1 found on two different Trials, little 
more than a Grain of yellow Ocry Sediment, 
in a Pound Avoirdupoife of Cobbam Steel- 
Water, when evaporated to drynefs ; nor did 
it melt in (landing many Days, a fign that 
there is little (aline in it; yet this Water, as 
moft Spring Waters do, gives white Clouds 
with a fplution of Silver j a fign of fomc 

Salt. 

This 



144 Experiments on 

This Water feems to have little elfe in it 
befides the Chalybeate Matter. Its great pu- 
rity feems to be owing to its fpringing out of 
a pure whitifli Sand, from a Hill which is 
all Gravel to its'furface ; in which circumftan- 
ces the Springs of pureft Water are obferved 
to rife ; four i'nftances of which I have given, 
in my Statical Effays> Vol. II. p. 240, &c. 

Mr. Hooker^ having at Tunbridge Town, 
ait two clean Florence Flalks to a wide Ori- 
fice, and then weighed them, he poured into 
each of them a Pound Avoirdupoife of Tun- 
bridge mineral Water: which being very 
carefully and flowly evaporated away in ten 
Hours, he weighed the Flafks the next morn- 
ing, and found they were incrcafed in weight 
two Grains and a quarter ; which being there- 
fore the weight of the Sediment in that quan- 
tity of Water, (hows it to be a very pure Wa- 
ter : This was done the 26 th of January in a. 
very rainy Seafon ; and yet the Water gave 
as good a Tindure with Galls as in a dryer 
Seafon, This Sediment did not melt into 
a Liquor, but was foft in {landing fome Days 
in the inverted Flalks, an Argument that 
there is fome Degree of Salt in it ; which 
might alfo probably be difcovered, by drop- 
ping a few Drops of Solution of Silver in that 

Water. 



Steel-Watery &c. 145 

Water. The Reverend Mr. Wilfon found 
but a Grain and half of Sediment, on evapo- 
rating away a like Quantity of it, at Tunbridge*- 
Wdh in the beginning of Auguji. 

Philippus LuJov 'cus de Preffeux, in his Dif* 
fcrtatio Me die a Inaugurals 1736, fays that he 
procured by evaporation to drynefs, from feven 
Pounds of the Geronfterre Water at Spa, eight 
Grains of an Alkaline Salt, and ten Grains 
of Ocre. If this be the whole Sediment in 
fo large a quantity of this Water, then its mi- 
neral Virtue might probably be preferved from 
precipitating, with very few Drops of acid 
Spirit. 

And that the greater or lefler quantity of 
Oil of Sulphur, requifite to extinguifh the 
tinging Virtue of any Steel* Water, depends 
on the proportion of the quantity and quality 
of the calcarious or other mineral matter in 
the Water, is further evident from hence, viz. 
That upon having put a little powdered Whi- 
ting into the Cobham Water, it then required 
no lefs than eight Drops of Oil of Sulphur, to 
extinguifh its tinging Virtue: And then gave 
a very deep untranfpirent Tinfture. 

Hence alfo we may fee, that the ftrength 
and goodnefs of a Chalybeate Water, cannot 
be judged of by the deepnefs of its Tunflure 

L with 



146 Experiments on 

\vith Galls, as fome are apt to imagine. Thus 
the Water at Co^'s-Mill gives a deeper Tinc- 
ture, than any I ever fuw, but withal requires 
more Oil of Sulphur, than the very pure Cob- 
ham Water > viz. Five Drops to extinguifh 
its tinging Virtue, whence it is probable that it 
would have more Sediment on evaporation, 
which I omitted doing. 

Dr. Ncsbit found that IJlington Water re- 
quired nine or ten Drops of Oil of Sulphur to 
extinguiih its tinging Virtue, a probable Argu- 
ment that it has a good deal of Sediment on 
evaporation. 

And as Pyrcmont Water has twenty two 
Grains of Sediment, in a Pound of it evapo- 
rated to drynefs ; and the Water of the Caro- 
line Baths in Germany no lefs than thirty 
Grains \ they would probably require many 
Dcops of this acid Spirit to extinguifli their 
tinging Virtue. And it is obfervable both in 
Pyrcmont and Bath Waters, that the Tinc- 
ture of them with Galls foon precipitates 
much Sediment, the ailrihgent quality of the 
Gulls combining their mineral Particles into (b 
large a fize, as caufis them to precipitate ; 
whereas the Tindlures of purer Steel-Waters 
very long without precipitating. 

It 



Steel-Water S) &c. 1 47 

It feems therefore reafonable, in order to 
judge of the comparative ftrcngth of Chaly- 
beate Waters, not only to compare the diffe- 
rent ftrength of their feveral Tindhircs, but 
alfo their refpedtive quantity of Sediment on 
evaporation to drynefs : Thefe Circumftances 
added to what may be learnt, by Experience 
of die effcfts they have on thofe who drink 
them, may ferve the better to judge of their 
different flrengths. 

There is another ingenious method, to find 
the comparative ftrcngth of Chalybeate Wa- 
ters, propofed by Mr. Alexander Monrc^ Pro-* 
ft/fir of Anatomy in the Univerftty of Eden* 
burgh) which is mentioned in the medical E / 
fays and Obfervations, publifhed by a Society 
hi Edenburgh. Vol. III. 1735. viz. 

" He obferves that Writers on this fub- 
" jedt have contented themfelves with telling 

us, that fuch Waters ftrike red, purple, . 
c< violet or black Colours, when Galls or 

fuch other Aftringents are mixed with them; 

and fome have faid that the deepeft Colour 
IC fliews the greateft proportion of Steel. 

" To fatisfy himfelf of the truth of this, 

" he diflblved artificial Sal Marfis, in a fmall 

" quantity of Fountain Water ; then drop- 

ri F n g few or more Drops of the Solution, in. 

T. * " to 



148 Experiments on 

u to a given quantity of common Watery 
" he found that by the mixture of the Tine-* 
" tureof Galls, he could form all the diffe- 
" rent Colours mentioned j the larger quanti- 
" ty of the Solution always requiring the 
" greater number of the Drops of the Tinc- 
* ture to bring it to all the Colour it would 
** take ; and that being as conflantly deeper 
" than the others, where fewer Drops of 
" each had been employed. 

" Sal Marth being made with four Ounces 
" of Spirit of Wine, to two Ounces of Oil 
<c of Vitrid, kept together in an Iron Pan till 
" they (hoot into Cryftals the proportion of 
" Steel, in the artificial Salt or Vitriol of Iron, 
" is very little more than one third part. 
" One hundred and forty two Drops of the 
" Solution of Sal Martii in common Water, 
** weighed two Drams, therefore every fuch 
" Drop contained T 'T f a Grain of Salt, or 
<c ^ r of a Grain of Steel. 

<c Let theGlafles be nearly of the fame fize 
< and thickncfs , to make a comparifbn then 
"' of any Chalybeate Water with this Solution 
" into a determinate quantity of fuch Water, 
<* pour Drop after Drop of a ftrong clear 
' llndure of Galls, allowing a fufficient time 

between each Drop, for its having its full ef- 

feft, 



U\.\, \* WH VUV.il JU/lV/k.', IV/t 110 11UVUI" ilC 

N 



St eel-Water s> &c, 149 
" fed, till it is obferved, that the addition of 
" more Tin&ure makes no change in the 
" colour of the Water : And to make fore 
" of the number of Drops of the Tindture 
" that are requifite, let the Experiment be re- 
" peated feveral times. 

" Then having the {ame quantity of com- 
' mon Water in a like Glafs, drop into it 
<c the above difcovered number of Drops of 
" the fame Tinfture of Galls, and mix them 
" well ; after which in the lame cautious 
** manner, drop in the Solution Drop by Drop, 
<c till their Colour is die fame, with that of 
u the mineral Water. 

" When once the quantity of Solution, e- 
* ' qual to the Contents of the Spa is known, 
" pour a due proportion of it, into common 
" Water ; and let feveral People examine, 
" whether the Tafte of it is not the fame, 
" with what the mineral Water has. He 
" has made, he fays, Fountain Water fo like 
" to feveral Chalybeate Waters, that none 
4< could diftinguifh them/ f 

The purer the Watry Vehicle of any Steel- 
Water is, doubtlels fo much the better, provided 
there be enough of the Chalybeate Virtue. I 
have not obferved this Steel- Water of Cob- 
Iwm to be the weaker for much Rain. 
L 3 



1 50 Experiments on 

I am .credibly inform'd that an eminent 
fician, who had made many Obfervations on 
Tunbridge Waters, thought them ftronger in 
wet than dry Weather j which may be occa- 
fioned by the Waters paffing thro* fome Cha- 
lybeate Strata in wet Weather, which they 
do not rife to in dry Weather. 

Some who have come dire&ly from drinkr 
ing the *Tunbridge Waters to thofe near Clare- 
inont y thought the former considerably the 
Aronger. Yet feveral who have drank thefe, 
during the few Years they have been opened, 
have found much Benefit by them. Half a 
Pint of them, has in January given me a fine 
glowing warmth all over \ on the motion of 
trotting my Horfe foon after, as alfo feveral 
other Times on walking, not flow. And they 
have been found to heat fome Conftitutions 
too much. There is doubtlefs a great diffe- 
rence in the Qualities and Strength of mineral 
Waters, for fome of them are more Chaly- 
beate than others : Some approach nearer to 
Vitriol, and many of them have much nitrous 
Salt mixed with them ; whence the great dif- 
ference of thefe Waters. 

And as there are doubtlefs a great variety 
of Degrees of Strength, among the many dif- 
ferent Steel-Springs ; fome of \yhich are, as I 

have 



Steel-lPatcrs, &c. 151 

have heard, abfolutcly too flrong to be drank; 
and others of various different degrees of 
rtrength ; fo are there likcwife variety of 
Cafes in our Conftitutions, which require very 
different degrees of ftrength, in the Steel- 
Waters which are drank. Of which, Phy- 
ficians are the proper and beft Judges. 

I cannot think, that the number of thefe 
falutary Springs is confined only to three or 
four, of the innumerable Many that kind Pro- 
vidence has blefled us with. But where there is 
a Be/I, Mankind are apt by a Foibje obiervable 
in this as well as many other inftances in 
Life, to (light all others as good for nothing. 

I have my felf found all the Benefit from 
this Water, that I think my Conftitution is 
capable of, from any Regimen whatfoever. 

I fliall here infert a Letter on this Sub- 
led, which Dr. Jurin . favoured me with, 
while thefe Papers were printing, viz. 

REVEREND SIR, 

T TAD I either known fooncr of your 
JLjL " Defign, or been a little more at 
<c Leifure fincc I was apprised of it, I (hould 
f< readily have communicated to you fuch 
" Obfervations of mine upon Chalybeate Wa- 
<c ters, as might have been of any fcrvioe. 



152 Experiments on 

i$ But I am now fo ftraitned for time, that 
" I (hall fend you nothing more than what 
" relates immediately to the Subjedt of thofe 
Papers you gave me the perufal of. 
" I have often obfervcd, as you have done, 
that when the tinging quality of 7V/- 
bridge^ or other Chalybeate Waters, has 
been fufpended by putting a little of an 
acid Spirit into them, their tinge has been 
immediately reftored upon the addition of 
Sal Tartari> or any like Alkalious Salt. But 
then the Tinge has been fo different from 
that bright blewifh purple, that arifes from 
" the Waters in their natural ftatc upon 
putting in Galls, green Thea, or any of 
the like aftringent Subftances, being ra- 
ther of a foul, dark reddiih purple, than 
a bright blewifh one ; That I have never 
ventur'd to recommend fuch a Compofition 
" of the natural Water, the Acid and Alkali 
" join'd together, to be drunk in the room 
" of the Waters alone; fuch a manifeft dif- 
" ference in their tinging qualities giving 
*' reafon to fufpeft that their effedts upon a 
" human Body might alfo be very different. 
" However, if any one ihould think proper 
" to recommend, or to drink them in the 
manner you propofe, as thofe two Salts 

*< added 



St eel-Water s> &c. 153 

" added together will compofe a neutral Salt, 
" I (hall not condemn the Practice, this be- 
4< ing a Matter which Experience alone can 
" juftly decide. 

u But when the Acid alone is propofed 
" to be added to the Waters, the Cafe is 
<c greatly different. There are many dif- 
" eafes, in which an Acid is diredled by 
" Phyficians, to be taken with Chalybeate 
" Waters, either as an addition to their Ef- 
" ficacy, or to make them pafs off more rea- 
" dily by Urine. And the quantity of A- 
cc cid Spirit directed to be taken in a (ingle 
" Olafs of Water, is generally more than 
" what will fuffice to preferve a Quart of 
" them almoft for any length of time, and 
" in carriage to any diflance. 

" In this Cafe therefore we need not be 
" follicitous about finding the leaftquanti- 
<{ ty of Acid that will preferve the Wa- 
" ter, which, as you obferve, is extremely 
" difficult, by reafon of the different Strength 
" of thbfe Acid Spirits which go under the 
" fame Denomination ; but fuch a quantity 
" of Acid may be put into the Bottle be- 
" fore it be fill'd, as for inftance, 20 or 30 
< Drops of Elixir Vitrioli Mynjicbti, as will 
M bcfufficient to keep the Water clear, and 

4c not 



154 Experiments on 

" not be too much for the Patient to take. 
" After this panner I have for many Years 
direfted the JJlington Waters to be taken 
by fuch Patients, as could not convenient- 
ly drink them at the Well, particularly 
" the poor People in Mr. G///S Hofpital, 
" for whofe life I obtained leave of the 
" Proprietor of the Well to fill as many Bot- 
44 ties as J h^d occafion for, which I lent for 
" once or twice a Week, and they con- 
" ftantly kept good from one time of fcnd- 
44 ing to the next ; though, without the A- 
" cid, thofe Waters fill'd in the Morning 
" and brought to Town, will be foul in an 
" Hour or two, and good for nothing. 

44 Ampng the Difeafcs in which the Cha- 
" lybeate Waters thus acidulated arc highly 
44 beneficial, I cannot, for publick good, -for- 
* 4 bear mentioning that obftinatc Diilcmper 
44 the Diabetes, in which they fuccccd to 
41 admiration, when ufcd for common Drink 
44 to about three Pints or two Qiiarts a 
44 day. They take ofT the Third, abate 
<c the fcvcriih Heat, and after a few days 
44 the Urine begins to return to its natural 
44 quantity, fmell and tafte, though for two 
M or three days, upon firft drinking them, 
44 the quantity of Urine will fomcthing in- 

4< crealc, 



&c. 

" creafe, as might naturally be expefted ftqn\ 
" fo diuretick a Liquor before its ailringency 
" has begun to take place. But before the 
" Patient enters upon this courfe he ought to 
" be gently purged with Epfom or Strr* 
" tbam Water, with the addition of Man* 
' na and SalMiraMk Gfauberi, two or three 
" times at fuch intervals as his wcaknefs may 
c< require. 

J am, 
Sir, 

Aujtin-Fryars, jT our woft Obedient, 

M^ ff i7SB-9- Humble Servant, 

JAMES JURIN. 

To conclude, we are not to depend whol- 
ly on natural Caufes, as if the Mineral Wa- 
ters, which Nature has produced in Plenty 
and Profufion every where, would by their 
mere natural Efficacy cure us. We muft alfo 
carneftly apply our felves to the great Author 
and Fountain of Life. For Man doth not 
live by Bread only, but by every Word that 
prcceedeth out of the Mouth of the Lord doth 
Man live. Deut. viii. 3. Excellent is the Advice 
of the Son of Syracb : Honour a Phyfician 
/'/# the Honour due unto him, for the .ujes 
which you may have of him ; for the Lord 

hath 



156 Experiments, c. 

bath created him ; the Lord bath created Me* 
dicines out of the Earth, and he that it wife 
will not abhor them, and withfuch doth be 
heal Men, andtaketh away their Pains. My 
Son, fays he, in thy Sicknefs be not negli- 
gent, but pray unto the Lord, and be will 
make thee whole. Leave off from Sin, and 
order thy Hands aright, and cleanfe thy Heart 
from all Wickednefs \ give afweet Savor and 
Memorial of fine Flower ; then give place to 
the Pbyjician. There is a time when in their 
bands there is good Succefs ; for they aljb 
flail pray unto the Lord, that he would prof- 
fer that which they give for Eafe and Re- 
medy to prolong Life. Ecclus. xxxviii. i,GV. 



PROPOSAL 

FOR 

Cleanfing away 

WHERE 

Waters have a Stream or Current 



. ii : s ) i -: 







- .... ; 



( "59 ) 

PROPOSAL 

FOR 

Ckanfing away Mud, &c. 

WHE RE 

Waters have a Stream or Current 

IT is well known that foul Muddy Waters 
carry along with them a considerable 
quantity of Mud, &c. which they are 
apt to depofite in great quantities, efpecially 
in places, where by reafon of the frequent 
return of Tides, it has more time to depo- 
iite its Sediment ; by reafon of its fometimes 
fhignant, ibmetinies (low and contrary Mo- 
tion ; as in the Mouths of Rivers, that are 
not rapid, in Harbours, and Refervoirs, which 
are filled by the Tides. 

Now, if Water can by any means be made 
con fiderably more Muddy, in flawing out of, 
tlian into fuch places ; thofc places muft con- 
fequently be gradually cleanfed of fome of 
their Mud, in proportion to the greater de- 
gree df muddindis'of the Water when they 
flow oat, than when they flow in. 

And 



160 Riven, &c. 

And this I think may be effected in a 
good meafure by the following Means, viz. 
by keeping the Mud well ftirred, while the 
Stream is flowing out of the place ; by means 
of large Rakes, linked at the ends to each 
other, and drawn by Horfes : Which Rakes 
muft have one, two, or three Rows of Teeth, 
nearer or further off from each other, ac- 
cording to the different degree of ftiffnefs or 
foftnefs of the Mud. And if thefe. Teeth 
ftand as high out, on the upper as on the 
lower Side of the Rakes ; then when the 
Horfes turn to go back along the fame Stream, 
the Rakes being thereby turned over, the 
Teeth which were uppermoft, being then be- 
come the lowed, will take place and ftir up 
the Mud. 

And thefe Rakes may be drawn, either 
farther from or nearer to the Shores, as (hall 
be required, by various means, viz. By the 
Horfes on either fide going for fome fpace, 
before or behind the others, or when the 
Horfes can only go on one fide; by ha- 
ving them fixed to different Ropes of dif- 
ferent lengths, as occafion (hall require. And 
fometimes by fixing, either before or behind, 
or both before and behind, as occafion {hall 
require, broad pieces of Wood edge wife, which 

by 






to cleanfe. 161 

by running obliquely into the Mud, might 
turn the Rakes, in the lame manner as Rud- 
ders do Ships ; whereby their progreflive Mo- 
tions would be, not according, to the direc- 
tion of the drawing Rope, but in the defircd 
courfe. 

By thefe and the like means, great quan- 
tities of Mud might be ftirred up, and car- 
ried off by the Water; and that, without 
any great Expence : confidering the Advan- 
tage, it might in many cafes be of, in clean- 
fing off of Mud. 

Trials might at leaft be made, in fbme 
of the more commodious Places for the pur- 
pofe ; whence a better Judgment might be 
made, as to the probability of fuccefs. Nei- 
ther fhould we be difcouraged, if Matters 
do not at firft anfwer our Expectation : It 
is from repeated Trials and Obfervations, 
that we are to hope to make fuccefsfi.il Im- 
provements, in new Attempts ; which arc of- 
ten baffled and laughed out of countenance, 
by incompetent Judges j who fancy they fliow 
their deep Judgment and Penetration, in (light- 
ing and rejecting Attempts, which at firft 
may prove unfuccefsful : But which an un- 
wearied Diligence and Perfeverance might 
M make 



162 Rwtrt) &c, 

make effectual, to ths great Benefit and Ad- 
vantage of Mankind, 

There would be no great Expencc in mak-. 
in a few Tryals of this fort, in commodious 
places for the purpofcj which I am per- 
fwaded would be found to carry off fuch 
Quantities of Mud, as would encourage tho 
farther Profecution of it. 

And we have good Encouragement to make 
fome Attempts in this way, from the Sue- 
cefs that the Inhabitants of Damafcus find 
in cleanfing their many muddy Rivulets, viz, 
by putting a great Bough of a Tree into the 
Water, and fattening to it a Yoke of Oxen : 
Upon the Bough there fits a good weighty 
Fellow, to prefs it down to the Bottom, and 
to drive the Oxen : in this manner the Bough 
is dragged all along the Channels, which 
are thereby cleanfed. See Mr. MaundrelFs 
Journey from Aleppo to ^erufakm. Now 
a well-contrived Rake would not only re- 
quire lefs force to draw it than large Boughs 
of Trees, but would alfo more effectually rails 
and ftir up the Mud than Boughs could do. 
And poflibly there may be fome Cafes, in 
which it might be of fervice, to have either 
very long or broad Harrow-like Rakes, moved 
to and fro, by the large Cranks of 

Water. 



to cleanfe. 163 

Water-Wheels, fixed in fteddily-anchored 
or moored Barges, or elfewhere as occafion 
may require. 

I have here only given a general Hint, 
which may poflibly be farther improved, by 
fame of the many ingenious Matters in Mecha- 
nicks, with which this Age abounds. 



THE END. 



A GENERAL 

I N D E X 

O F 
The Matters contained in this Book* 



The Numeral Letters denote the PREFACE* 
The Figures the reft of the Boo K. 

A 

AIR, itseffefton Water, 102, 165, 115 
Animals, to fait whole, , 81 

Antimony, a Preparation of it to cure Sea- Wa- 
ter, xii 
Arteries in Sheep, have a free paflage for inje&ed 
Liquors to the Veins, 88 

B 

Bath Water, 109, no, lit, 112, 115 

Lofe3 its Virtue on cooling, 1 16 

Its quantity of Sediment, 117, 118, 146 

With drops of acid Spirit, 141 

Bifcuit to preferve, 69 

Bitumen bitter, in Sea* Water; 12, 43, 44 

Lead near the Surface, 1 2 

Bloody its quantity in.an Ox, 9 1 

Rones burnt, cure diftillcd Sea- Water, 25 

Bramjhot Water, 101,142 

With acid Spiritf, 142 

M I Brandy 



Brandy, unwholfome 17, iS, 19 

Bubbles^ of Glafs, to pftferve mineral Waters 

withi 126 

c 

Cbobbam Water, i o i , 113 

Tinges (lowly, 116 

Its quantity of Sediment, . 143 

Not weaker for much Ram, 1 50 

Corks* Tubulated, 102 

Upwards, 1 1 8 

To preferve the Virtue of Waters, 1 2 8 

Corn, to preferve, 69 

D 

Deifm, its Abfurdity, 35, 36, 98 

Diabetes i to cure, 154 

Diftillationi gives an aduft Tafte to the pureft 

Water, 28 

Safe on (hip-board, xxii 

The quantities that have been diftilled, xxiii, 

xxiv 

E 

matuk Tafte not caufed by inherent 
ire-Particles, 41 

F 

Fijh, Putrefaction of Water kills them, xv 

Preferyed alive by Oil of Vitriol, xv 

Ftejh^ to pickle in hot Climates, 8 1 

Fr en/ham Water, 102,113 



Gas Sulpburis 9 

H 



The INDEX. 
H 

102 

I 

JJlington- Water, 10^109,110,146 

To preferve cool in fait, 130 

L 

Lightening whence, 41 

M 

Malt, a Propofal for the making it hotter, 76 
Mediterranean Sea* Water diftilled, 27* fcfr. 
jV//W*fy?-Water, 101, 108, 112 

A/W, to cleanfe away, 160 

N 
Northampton- Water, 106 

O 

Oakingham- Water, 101 

whole, 90 

Its quantity of Blood, 90 

P 

Peafe boil well in diftilled Sea- Water, 30 

Pufrefafiion, curesdiftilled Sea-Water, 28, #.4.2 

Attenuates the mineral Particles of Steel- 

Waters, 105 

Pyremont- Water, 114, 1 19 

Why it retains its Virtue, 120 

, Its Virtue to preferve. 122 

.Its fulphureoug Vapour, 122 

. Its Virtue not in the elaftkk Spirit, 123, 126 

Its quantity of Sediment, 146 



ftigmatized, 



The I ** D E x. 
R 

* in Ships, how deflroycd, 
Rivers t to cleanfe, 
Rum* unwholfome 



too 
17, 18, 19 



, its quantity in Sea- Water, 2 7, 44, 45, 83 
Incrufted on the fides of the Still, to obferve, 

3 2 
Bittern, other Salts generated from it, 46 

&a-Water diftilled* unwholfome, i, 8 

Filtrated, , a 

Clarified, 1 2 

Diftilled, does not putrify, 15, 29 

Diftilled, cured by feveral things > 24, 25, 48 

Not cured when putrid, 33, 34 

By Putrefaction, 2 8 , fc? r. 42 

To putrify, 47 

To fweeten, 48, 50 

Sheep y have a free paflage for injefted Liquors 

from Arteries to Veins, 88 

Silver, its Solution, difcovcrs if any Salt or its 

Spirit in Water, 14, 32, 51 

Spa-Water* 114,119,120,121 

Its Quantity of Sediment, 145 

Spirit ot Salt, in diftilled Sea- Water, 16, 37 

Whence noxious, 1 7 

Rifes from Bittern Salts, 23 

How much, 1 6 

Spirits acid, their different quantities to prefer ve 

different Waters, 1401 fcfr. 152 

Stills, of Copper, muft be very clean, : 9 

Tinned, xxvi 

Their Sizes, xxvii 

101, 108 
Sulphur 



The I N p E x, 

Sulphur nutritive of Vegetables, &c . from the 

Sea, 47 

Its Oil keeps Water fwcet, 59 
Sunning- Hill Water, 99, 107,112,127 

Preferved with Tubulated Corks, 101 

with Glafs Bubbles, 126 

with acid Sprits, 142 

T 

tartar ; its Salt or Oil, cures diftilled Sea- Water, 

24 

temperance ; its Praife, 20, 21 

TtmMdge Water, 101, 112, 115, 127, 135 

With feveral quantities of acid Drops, 136, 

137, '38 

Its quantity of Sediment, 144 

Not weaker for Rain, 1 50 

y 

r/'/nV, its Spirit or Oil, prevents the Putrefaflion 

of Water, 58,^. 

Its Spirit its Oil, 133, 134 

W 

Water \ an Eftimate of the quantities which may 

be diftilled, 4, 5, 6 

Of Sea, not fo apt to quench Fires, as 

common Water, 46 

Cured by a Preparation of Antimony, xii 

By a Clay- like Cement, xvi 

Diftilled wholfome, 49 

Wholfome, fummary Rules for procuring it, 

by Diftillation 50 

Freih, to keep it fweet, 57 

Putrid, not un wholfome, 58 

Diftilled whoifome, xxviit 

TO prcferve from breeding Infeds, 62* 65 

Waters, 



The INDEX. 



Watm* 

Have no true mature Vitriol, 102 

To preferve, 59, 103 

Wherein their mineral Virtue confifts, 106, 

1-23, 132 

Tinge fafteft after taken fome time from the 

Spring, 115 

To preferve with acid Spirits, 132 

The pureft prefer vcd, with fe weft Spirits, 145 

How to judge of their Strength, 146, 147 

Weeveh^ to dcftroy, 69 

Wheat, fumed, will not grow, 57 



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1