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DURING THE YEARS 1788 & 1789= 












THE great number of important and intereftincr 
facts, the rich ilorc of anecdotes, but particularly 
the enlarged details, and judicious reflexions on the 
laws, policy, learning, commerce, cuftoms Sec. of 
the Kuilians, have induced the Editors to prefcnt 
thefe two Volumes of Travels to the public. By tl\c 
contemplative and philanthropic mind, the molt fo- 
lid and rational entertainment muft be derived from 
viewing the progreis of a mighty people, emerging 
from barbarifm, and rapidly advancing in the know- 
ledge of thofe arts, which are not only the genuine 
and inconteilible evidences or civilization, and hafty 
approaches towards refinement, but the foundation 
of all public and private comfort r.nd happinefs. 
To readers of this defcription, what nation on the 
globe can furnifh iuch variety, as the Ruffians., 
\vho from being little better than a collection of 
formidable barbarous hordes, fcattercd over the 
iiv.mcnl'j regions of Mufcovy and Siberia, have re- 
cently alFumcd the form of a people united and con- 
fblidated by common la\vs, enlightened by fcience, 
improved by the arts, and riimg f.iit to opu!cnr,\ 
by an extcnilve and lucrative commerce, of which 
tiie nature and lltuation cr io vale a teriltory gi\v. 
them the excluiive right. On the imprvtaucc and 
iniiucncc of this people in the balrace of the Euro- 
pean Scale no remarks are neceftiry. But o:\: iing'e 
ardent wifli may be cxpreilcd, the mighty arm 
of -in empire fo po\vcr:ul, nv.iy be irr/iforKily gu'deJ 



Ly the maxims of juftice, moderation and found po- 
licy, and thus rendered fubfervient to the beft inte- 
refts of the hum in race, for whofe improvement 
and happinefs the over- ruling hand of Providence 
exalts one nation and humbles another. 

IN the traiiiiation, the grcateft attention has been 
paid to the genuine meaning of the original by a 
Gentleman on whom the Editors can rely with ab- 
folute confidence ; but in a talk fo nice and difficult 
as that of transfufing the icnfc and fpirit of one lan- 
guage into another, it will not be refufed, that the 
learmd and prying eye of the Critic may difcover 
icv :rai ovcrfight.s and ciefccb, for which the mo ft 
intelligent readers will be the iirft to make a fair and 
reasonable allowance. In the courfe of the Verfion, 
fevcral things peculiar to the Ruffians, as well as the 
Author's flyle, have required a little more than ordi- 
nary inveftigation. Tor the names of many of the 
.Ahatic Tribes iubjc^ to the Ruffian Empire, there is 
yet no fixed authority, and her.ce it is, that the fame 
people arc r.o\v and then mentioned under names 
\vi(:h terminations a little varied, but not fo much 
us to occafu-n any obiVurky or doubt. Upon the 
\vliosc, it i.; hoped, that the rich materials contained 
in thcfe Travels, and tlu: \\.-rygreat pain?, that have 
been bellowed on trmlhtbg, priming, and embel- 
liliing liicin, so a: 5 to roller then; acceptable, will 
;m a favourable reception by every clais of 
s ; ar 1 that fliarc of Public favour and pa- 
r?, winch they will ever be iur 
r;n\;ou,; a T :J prouc! to enjoy. 



CHAP. I. P. i. F.ntry into Ruffia by Swcdifh 

Fredericfham. Wihurg, capital of Ruffian Finland. Re- 
marks on this province and the Finns. Journey from Wi- 
burg to St Peterfburg. Roads. Rufiian Inns. Sledges. 
Defcription of this vehicle. 

CHAP. II. P. 9. Arrival at St Feterfburg. Si- nation of 
this city. Motives that determined Peter I. to tranfport 
thither the feat of Empire. The iortrefs. The ifland of 
St Peteriburg, which gives its name to the city. Streets. 
Houfes. Palace. Superb banks of the Neva. 

CHAP. III. P. 20. Equeftrian ftatuo of Peter I. Tempe- 
rature of St Petersburg. Long and fhort davs. Evils oc- 

O O J 

cafioned by the cold. Means of guarding againft it. Siri- 

. gulr.r amufements on the Neva during Winter. Famous 

market held at Chriftmafs. Provifions brought thither. 

CHAP. IV. P. 30. Court of theEmprefs. Guards of thr 
apartment. Hall of audience. Retinue of the Etnprci'j 
when ihe goes to the chapel. Pier drei.s on Gala days. 
Remark on the Royal Family. Riches of the Pruirian 
Lords in their drefs. Their pafilon for diamonds. The 
different orders with which they are decorated. Hiftcri- 
cal remarks. Winter balls. Palace of the IjLrmitage.. 
Ceremony baniihed from it. Is that true or pcnlble i:r 
Ruiiia ? Collection of pictures in this pdace. Winter 
garden, like an enchanted fpot. Diftribution ^!:icii L>. ^ 
Empreis makes oi' her time. Court Play.'-;. 

CHAP. V. P. 43. The fortrcfs of St Peterfourg. The ca- 
thedral. Tomb of Peter I. rhi^/fspViieal remarks on 
tir; prince. His way of lite. I IK daily ernplovmcnts;, 
knowledge. Particulars of hi c . private lire. His a- 


rr.:>i;r-;. Sad couiequenees thereof. H:s death. Acro;:r.t : 
ot the celebrated baron Leiort, his iniiru-:i;or and irie:;.!. 
AM anecdote. 

CHAT. VI. P. 6r. Tomb of Catharine T. of AL'x'a ler; 
t o Pe'cer I. an;l of ihr.T Ann,- Pctrownn. D:icr;--. 
ti< v i'i ( r this prince's. Her character. Anecdote en this 
h-j-.i>.!. Particulars rcfpccling her. Tomb c: the E*.:ipve:s 



Anne Iwancv.-na. Her beauty. On what terms The was 
called to the throne of Ruffia. How ilie fulfilled them,' 
when fhe was proclaimed. Interefting particulars of this 
princely of her weaknelTcSj and of hv,r favourite Erncft 
jean cle Bircn. 

CHAP. VII. P. ~2. Monument containing the afhes of 
the Ernprefs Elizabeth. Defcription of this princefs. Her 
linguiar takes. Her devotion ftill more iinguhr. She 
take,; no huiband. Opinion believed in Rnffia, refpe&ing 
a fee ret marriage contracted by this princeis. Particulars 
and anecdotes on this head. Summary of the revolution, 
that placed her on the throne. Eeftocq, fon to a French 
refugee, the foul of this revolution. Particulars refpect- 
ing this a d venturer. Refpecling SchuwalorF, another fa- 
vouri.e of i'.Ir/abeth's. Anecdotes of the hiftory of Rv.l- 
11 a, publiilied by Voltaire. Reflexions on Elizabeth's go- 

CHAP. VIII. P. 8.5. Mint at St Peter/bur^. Money coin- 
ed there. The Czar Peter the Firlt's houfe an object of 
curioiity. Church and canonization of Alexander-Newfki. 

CHAP. IX. P. 01. Pop;:: -ion of St Pcterfburg-of ail 
RuHIr.. Tiu Pvufir-.ns divided into four conftitutional 

iloard what is underftood b this ti- 

'1'lie Clergy, the fecond cl-.iis. The Burceiies and 

the fourth chis. 

Unfortunate fituation of the la 

Ai'.niinijtration, civil and 


mals. Who t 

vucate'-. Abullrs in judicial proceeding:;. The code ;>i 

:,.:';v: If. P-en^i kws. Puni(h;;u:i;t of the Knoi:'-. 

] ' :.r. >;:on oi th^ infrrunicnt uied in tiiis pu:iilh:nenv. 

ler i^rt o Tur.riihment. Abolition of 

rou.'itrr. buperit!- 
li'ius prachcee. Bened;cion of waters. Abftinenccs and 
Ci-remcuic? of AihAVednefJay. Eailer. Pen- 
t,-..vjii. iM:u:ner of celebrating divine ferstce. Sin^inr- 
C',inmunion. Chur:h diicipline, Auecdots on thisiub- 



}ect. The Patriarch of Ruffia. Other fmgular forms of 
fuperftition. Veneration for the ringing of Bells for 
Bogs. What a Bog is. For the number forty. Ri/kil- 
;.'//(;, a fort of heretics. Punifhment of one of them. Re- 
flexions on this fubject. 

CHAP. Xil. P. 149. Revenues of Ruffia. Of what they 
coniilt. Their amount. A\ r hat it was in the time of Pe- 
tt?r I. Their application. Bank of affignatiori. Difcre- 
dit of the bills of this bank. National debt. 
CHAP. XIII. P. 1^7. Particulars of the military forces of 
Ruffia. Hiftorical note on the Strelitz. Abolition of 
this militia. With what troops Peter replaced them. 
Actual conftitution of the Ruffian army. The Emprefs' 
houihold troops. Infantry of the army. Regular caval- 
ry. Irregular cavalry. i'he Coflacs. The Kalmucs. 
The National militia. Method, of recruiting the Ruffian 

CHAP. XIV. P. i8> Ruffian Navy. Cronftadt its prin- 
cipal fcation. Description of this town and the ifle, on 
which it is fituated. Its dock-yards. Peter I. founder of 
the Ruffian Navy. Reftored by Catharine II. Number 
of the Ihips which compcie the maritime force of Ruffia. 
Obftacles that mar the progrefs of this force. 
CHAP. XV. P. 19-. Commerc:-.?, which the European na- 
tions carry on with Ruilia. What are the frequent- 
ed ports of that empire. Archangel. Riga. Allracan. 
Gurjef. Derbent. Baku. Enzelii. Navigation and 
commerce of the Black fca of the fe.i of AzoiF. Inland 
navigation of Rum.:. A plan of tiu Ruffians for carry- 
ing thr'ir comm-Tce into India. 

CHAP. XVI. P. 219. Mines hi Rufi'.;i. Thofe of Wo- 
ciik. O; "'erefefoka 01 koli.van or Nertfchinik. The 
1'tk pit 1 , of iStrcg.inoK of the licck ;md Siberia. 
CHAP. XVII. P. ?. ;r. Of the cirili/.ation of the Rufll.uis 
.;;:. 1 wli.'t I'lO'ilcl IK: L'HU:^!.: or it. ' ! 'hc houies of tii^ 
\\ayc i." li;e. r .!'!\ .': cf th.e common ptoplj. 
Tlieir drink. Manner of ialute among the 
Their haughty lock. Nation.'": pride. Anec- 
: lluili.m ladL-s. T'.jeir Jrefs. Marriage. Sia- 



CHAP. XVIII. P. 249. Learning of the Ruffians. Wo- 
lodimer, the firft Chriftian Grand Duke. His fon Jaro- 
flaws. Both endeavour to enlighten their fubjecb. Ig- 
norance of their age. Neftor, the firft hiftorian that 
Ruffia has had. His chronicle. Other hiftorians. Theo- 
phanes. Sherebatoff. Poets. Lomonofoff. SumolokofF. 
Ruffian theatres. What they were formerly. What 
they are at this day. National theatre. Catharine II. 
patronizes the fcienccs. Mafters of the French language. 
An anecdote. Foreign Works tranflated. 

CHAP. XIX. P. 267. The Ruffian language. The Scla- 

* o o 

vonian. Oaths of the Pvuilians Academy of fciences at 
$t Peterfburg. Its inftitution. Learned gentlemen, who 
travel at the expence of the Emprcfs. Dr Gmelin. Pal- 
las. Georgi. Falk. Rytfchkoff. Lepenin. Gmelin 
the nephew. Guldenftaedt. Particulars refpccting Prince 
Heraclius Refpecting the Czar Solomon. 

CHAP. XX. P. 292. Library belonging to the academy of 
Sciences. Cabinet of Natural Hiftory. Anatomical col- 
lection belonging to this cabinet. Mufeum. Collection 
af Medals. The Gottorp-Globe. 

CHAP. XXI P. 312. Academy of arts. Society of agri- 
culture. By whom founded. How patronised by Catha- 
rine II. The corps of Cadets. Account of this inllitu- 
tion. Convent for daughters of nobles. Obiervations 


oa this eftabliihment. 






DURING THE r&UtS 188 & 15. 

C 11 A P. I. 

E\rr into Ruff; a by S\vedifl} Finland. Tredericjhavi. 
[Yiburg, Capital of R.a//ian Finland. Remarks on 
this Province and the Finns. Journey from Wiburg 
io St Petcrjburg. Roads. Rx/jlan Inns. S .'edges. 
Defcription of ibis VcLicL'. 

r iniIE Commercial Motives, \vliich had led us in- 
to Sweden, determined us on a journey into 
?.. Mr Wiedcr, a Cofmopnlitan Pliilofopher, 
\vho i)i our different excurlions had been our tra- 
velling companion, received with tranfport the pro 
pofal of making a tour through Mufiia. 

" \Ve will ice," faid he, " a new People.I am 

*' weary of meeting none but Blazed nations, of 

VOL, I. A " drawino- 


" drawing none but worn out features, which bear 
;; a general refemblancc ; and like thefe mutilated 
" antiques difcovcred in Greece, exhibit only vefti- 
44 ges waded by time, hardly recalling the idea of 
4(1 their primitive beauties. In Rufiia the features 
" will be better exprclled, o'r at leaf: ruder than in 
" any other country. We will not find them co- 
4C vered by the mafk of artifice, and we will engrave 
*' them according to Nature. Beiidcs I am curious 
a to fee, if the modern Lcgifiator, Peter, has really 
" defervcd the name of Grext, a title fo eaiily pro- 
" ftituted ; and his nation that of Civilized) 2. ch-U 
" racier fo ftrr.ncrelv abufed." 

v-/ ^ 

WE very ibon let out on our journey, which 
held out to us plans cf eftablifhincr an advantageous 

A O O 

Commerce ; and to Mr Vviedcr the hopes of making 
obfeFvatrons nev/ and useful to the hiuory of T\lan- 
kind, for whofe improvement he was travelling. 

Ox leaving Finland, whicli is under the Swedifll 
dominion, you enter into Rutilan Finland. Frede- 
ricfnam is the fortrefs whicli 'jrotecls the trontiers. 
It was ceded to the Ruilinns by the peace of Abo. 
The town is imall, but regular. In the centre there 
is a fquare, v/hcre ail tiie icreets meet, which gives 
this place a fmguiar look. The houfes, one of brick 
exceptecl, are built of wood, but very neatly. The 
fortifications are relpecbabie, and in good repair. 
The garriibn and troops, which are quartered in 



the neighbouring villages, amount to near fix thou- 
f'and men. The inhabitants carry -on a little trade 
with the F.nglHh and Dutch. They fell wood and 
tallow, and receive fait and tobacco in return. 

IT was at Fredericfham, that his Swcdifli Majefty 
had an interview with the Emprefs'of Rufila in the 
year 1783. The plans of this Princcfs, respecting 
the Crimea and the navigation of the Black Sea, re- 
quired, that on the Swcdifh fide me fhould fecure 
a monarch, whofe lea force had become powerful ; 
belides, fhe was afraid of a neighbour, who, guided 
by his ambition, and the influence of the Cabinet 
of Verfailles, might raife obftruclions againft her 9 
by making inroads into a province, which he mud 
have been under the temptation of regaining by 
conqueil. The interview took place in the fine fea- 
fon. Their Majefties fpent three days at Frederic- 
fham, and thcfe three days were diitinguifhcd by 
continued fefiivals. The Err.prcfs had caufed a pa- 
lace be built of wood, which might have palled for 
a Fairy Cafrle, it was ornamented and furniflied 
with fo inucli tauc. French Piays were acted in it 
every night. The interview terminated with the 
nioft politivc affuraxcc; of the ftrictcil neutrality (;n 
the part of the King; whole Litter conduct has Ciown 
what the moft poiitive clearances of a King amount to. 
FROM Fredericiham you pals to AViburg, the ca- 
pital of Rufiian l r inland, and a place of itrength, ii- 

A r. tuatcd 


tuated on a peninfula, which renders it:; poiltion ad- 
vantageous. The ft ate of the Rampart^ of the Caf- 
tle, and the Fort, fhow that all the importance of this 
poft is fufficiently underftood. \Yiburg contains a- 
bout nine thoufancl^. Some brick hou- 
f'es defcrve attention ; the. left are of wood, but 
neat, and defended again ft the coM. It is r-.t Wi- 
burg that the principal trade of the province is car- 
ried on ; the Lnirliih have the nrent'/t iliare. They 

O * > 

come for cargoes of timber, tallow, Ditch, and tar, 
for which they bring wine:-, fpicerics, and fait. Of 
fifty or fixty vefiels, \vhich annually enter this port, 
four fifths are Britifh. 

Tins city Ivis preferred its courts of Juflice, both 
civil and criminal. Yet when it is necc.iL.ry to in- 
flict capital punifhment, the Judges are obliged to 
follow the Ruffian Cocle ; and in this are the Knout 
or baniiln.icnt into Siberi.i i.; liibiH'.uted for Death. 

THK bulineis in the tribunals .,[' this province is 
concluded in the Swedifh, Gcnnan, and Ruiiian 
Languages. But the Peai'.Mits fpe.ik only rhc ] <% in- 
laud, a l.ingu:i;-' p c which lias no ailijrity to cither the 
S \vc.diih or Ruffian, chough rii;land lies between 
Sweden am! Ruiiln. It is a dblcc! of that fpo- 
ken by th.e LapUruicrr-, but the Swedii'i or Gcr- is i[-.okcn in the towns. Mho religion of the 
country is Lutheran. The Ruffians found it in the 
country before them, and the toleration profeiled 



by I heir Sovereigns has led them to think it politic 
to introduce no change ; a conduct fo much the wi- 
fer, as in Uriel truth, the Conqueror, whom the 
fword or other means have made mutter of a coun- 
try, has power only over pcrfons and properties, 
not over opinions. Neverthelefs the Ruffians have 
introduced their worlhip. The clergy of this coun- 
try are modeil, and eafy, in confequence of the mo- 
derate price of proviiions ; the higheft living is fix- 
ed at four thoufancl French livrcs, and the loweft at 
fifteen hundred. * 

WHAT is now called RuiTian Finland belonged to 
the Swedes till the beginning of this century. This 
country was ceded to Ruflla, one part by the trea- 
ty in 1721, fo advantageous to the Ruffians, and 
the other in 1743, by that of ^4bo^ which was not 
Icf) in their favour. The nobles of this province 
have preserved their privileges, and the miferable 
peafants their fetters. This part of Finland is not 
i > cxtenilve as SwcdiOi Finland. It is remarkable 
that in both countries the productions of nature are 
ft-uncr ripe in the parts covered with forefts, than. 
on the fja-coait and on ii'lands. There the people 
breathe a more falubrious air. In the towns on the 
ija. oi' iy one of iixty dies annually, while there is 
born OiU' of iorly three. No country is better a- 
dapted co Botany. There are enumerated near 


* About/; 1 66 and/; 64 Sterling. 


thirteen hundred different kinds of plants, befides a 
great number of herbs fit for divers ufes. They 
raife alib feveral kinds of grain, fuch as wheat, rye, 
oats, barley, but all of them, efpecially wheat, in 
quantities too fcanty for the fupply of the inhabi- 
tants. The interval between feed-time and harvefl 
is from ten to twelve weeks. The Finns apply prin- 
cipally to the culture of tobacco, which thrives un- 
commonly in their country. As to trees, thofe 
which bear fruit, fuch as Cherry and Plumb-trees, 
arc almofl always deftroyed by the rigours of win- 
ter ; the Mulberry is planted and thrives only en 
the iflancis ; the Oak does not grow beyond 61, and 
the Afh bevond 62 decrees. 

< o 

THE Finns and Laplanders appear to have had 
the fame origin, and to be a colony of Huns, who 
after having patted the Danube, fpread over the 
northern regions, and preferved, it is faid, their 
manners, and the fame language without mixture, 
for near two thoufand years. This emigration ac- 
cording to the Ruffian annals was prior to the Chri- 
flian ara. 

THE pcafants of Finland differ almoft entirely 
from the Ruffians in their nature and drefs. Their 
hair is cither white or red, which they wear fhed 
on the crown and waving round the moulders j and 
they fliave their beards ; whereas the Ruffians gene- 
rally have black hair, which they cut very fliort, 



and wear their beards, which among them is a badge 
of religion, of which we mall have occafion to fpeak 
afterwards. The Finns, by the commerce which 
they have with foreigners, are alfo more civilized 
than thofe Ruffians, who do not refide in the capi- 
tal or are not their neighbours. In the fmalleft vil- 


lages in Finland, articles can be eafily procured, which 
it is difficult to find in the larffeil cities in Ruffia. 


FROM Wiburg to St Peterfburg it is a day and a 
half's journey, which in Ruffia is performed gene- 
rally in a fledge, a commodious and pleafant vehicle, 
partly open and partly clofe. It is of the form of a 
cradle. The fluff, which covers it, carried forward 
two feet in front, is open at the end, and furniflied 
with curtains, that can be drawn in bad weather. 
Thefe vehicles are defended on the outfide, by mats 
and oil-lkins. The iniides of hackney fledges arc 
lined with cloth ; but velvet or fbnie fluff full 
more coiily, even furs, are the ufual lining of 
private fledges, which generally fhut clofer than 
our carriages. They contain only one perfon, who 
may fit or ly in them. Every fledge is drawn by 
two hortes, which the narrowncfs of the roads often, 
oblige to voke the one before the oilier. In thefe 

O * 

carriages, you ufually go at the rate of t'cvcn or 
eight miles an hour ; and is invaluable, you 
not only feel no jolt, but fcurcely perceive the mo- 
tion of the iltJ-je, becauie you almoft always trave4 



on beaten fno\v j and befides in Ruffia, efpecially on 
the frontier.-, and the places near the capital, the 
roads arc generally iaiuly and excellent during the 
winter, which reigns there for two thirds of the 
year. This is the on]}" leafon when you can travel 
in this country, and \vhen tlie internal trade of the 
errnire is in full activity. 

A TRAViiLLJ.K. would find himfelf very cornior!:- 
able in thefe fledges, which are real ambulatory 
chambers, if lie were not obliged to fill them with 
whatever lie may need on the road ; for he would 
in vain feck to be fupplied in the inns, which are 
miferabie coLtagcs, juft like what is called in Sp.nn 
and Portugal una i-c^ta. The Ruffian inns differ 
from the latter only by their Warm-Rooms or 
Stove;, where you pais from extreme cold to heat 

frill more extreme: a transition dangerous to foreisrn- 


crs, but it lias, or fecms to have no effect upon the 
Iirr-fTiblc RuiTian. In tliefe country-inns, eggs and 
miik may be got, with which the fobriety of the 
people of the country is contented, and even enter- 
tained, by J'iinie method of drefnng ilicm, which 
the good KuHhns think excellent, but we thought 
det?fi::Ll-j'.'. " In coi^kery as in morality," fold Mr 
AVicdcr, v. -ho put up with every thing, " cuftom 
< rules iir,pcriufly, and works wonders." So as 
eafy travellers we icncwed our ftock of provifions 
in the principal towns we met on our road, where 



the inns arc very often excellent, by the care taken 
by the Governor to keep, or cauie them to be kept 
well provided. 

WE had been fo much intimidated by the reports 
of the cold, which we mull experience, that during 
this fir ft cxcun'ion in Rufib., which Lifted a few 
days, and was a kind of apprenticcfliip to us, we 
put * pe'.'nTe above pc!;!}':, and after the fccond jour- 
ney, we accoutred ourfelves like the people of the 
country, who know better than almoft any other 
neonle to fecure themfelves aerainil the moil intcnfe 

Ii O 


C II A P. II. 

7//'V//, at St Peterflwrg. Siliidlicn r,f f/ji s n'ry. 
Motives that determined Peter the 1'irjt to trar.fart 
thither the feat of Empire. Tbcfsrircfs. The ijhnid 
of St Peterjburg, e ^!jieb gi-rcs its nam-j to the city. 
-S/fCCfs. Ilovft's. Pdiaee. Si:p.rb ujaks ^f i/.c 

OT Petcrfburg, wh<?rc W; arrived ^.frer two chy; 
travelling, is in Latitude (o, !,); viiudo 
39, 54', reckoning from tb.j ir^i-iJliii r.f 1'erro. 
VOL. 1. I? Tins 

* A Cloai 


Tins city is built near the gulf of Finland, partly 
upon iilcs, and partly upon the banks of the Neva, 
a majeftic and deep river, which procures to this- 
city all the conveniences :i capital could v/iiii for. 
The principal diviiions of it are, the Admiralty 
Quarter, the iiland of St .Bafile, (Yafllli-ofirof) the 
Fortrefs, and the fuburbs of Livonia, of St Alexan- 
der-Neulki, of Mofcow. and "YViburcr. 

7 ' O 

POWERFUL motives, without doubt, determined 
Peter I. to tranfport the imperial reiidence from the 
centre of the empire to Ingria, a frontier province, 
of which the conqueft was fcarcely fecured to him, 
To exculpate him from the reproaches which on 
this account have'been cafl on him by his detractors, 
pigmies tint perceived not they calumniated a man 
of genius, whole ilicilit they could not reach; we 

O ' O J 

might fay in i f-ev/ words, that he was induced to 
this removal of the ioir.c-rul feat by the frcr.u-n" in- 
iurrections of the people of Mofcow, who are yet 
in a ftate or barbarifin, a:ul confider as facrilegious 
innovations, the advances tliey are dirccrcd to make 
towards riglit rcaion, if tlicy contrachvt their preju- 
dices. The opposition tliey fliev/ed agah^l the e^la- 
blifliments (,i ; Tcter, gave him an ablx)rre:ice to this- 
city, and iiuluced him to i'.y to tl;e banks of tin- 
Neva, v.'hotc filuation dialled him to cl; equate the 
two plans he h.iu formed, of rendering Ruiiia a ma- 
ritime pjv/cr, which could clifplay her force in the 


Baltic, and the fcas, which nature had placed for her 
convenience, and alfo of giving her influence in the 
balance of Europe. 

IT is true, it might be told him that he relinquifli- 
ed the climate of Mofcow, the mildeft of the em- 
pire, to ?-. ; to inhabit a marlhy and wild country 5 
that if the Neva proiirifee! conveniencies for naviga- 
tion, it prefentcd alfo an infinite number of obila- 
cles, that he was not ignorant that the ifles and 
rocks of the gulf of Fin'and rendered its navigation 
very dangerous, and that the Bar at its mouth would 
not allow larcrc fliips to come to St Peterfburcr. Pe- 

o i o 

ter fi\v and knew all thcfe inconveniencies, and 
built this capital, celebrated in our days, which in 
170?, was nothing but an extenlive fwamp, inhabit- 
ed by a few fifhermen. The philofopher, who with 
-forrow fees in conquerors and the great eft part of 
the infers of die earth, called Kings or Emperors, 
nothing but men, who have <'kTt roved rather than 
built, delights to trace the progress of this riling ci- 
ty. A.> fonn as Peter the Great iiad conc^ierccl In- 
gria againfl the Swedes, a ' Lended the bounda- 
ries oi Ins empire as far as the coaic (T the Baltic 
fea, he formed the refolution of railing a fortrefs on 
a final! iil'.ind at the mouth of the Neva, in order to 
fecure his conqueils, anh open a ne\v road to cf>m- 
mercc. The fir it beginning \vas the efrablifhmcnt 
of a trilling battery ^n another id and of the Neva, 

\\ " ( " 


now occupied by the academy of fcicnces. The 
officer \vho commanded there, was named Vajfili ; 
and as the orders he received from Peter came to 
him under the addrefs of V^'/Ul-na-oftrof. that is, 

, U -J J * 

Vt'jTill on the if. and ; this part of the city retained 
the r.arne of Vajjili-ojlrof. 

Ox the 1 6th of May 1705, this for trek was be- 
gun, and, in fpite of the obfcacks occafioned by a 
fwampy ground, the inexperience of the workmen, 
joined to the rigour of the feaion, and iiiii more to 
tlie wicked deiigns of fome malcontents, who fecret- 
ly wiflied to diicourage them, there was fccn rife, 
as by a kind of enchantment, a citadel fun-bunded 
by a very folid earthen rampart and fix billions., 
which were repaired fome time iv^cr. 

PERRY^ who has written or. Rnffiii, and was then 
in the country, tells us, that the workmen who 
built this fort, were even in want of the moil ne- 
cefTary tools, as mattocks, (hovels, and whc; . 1-bar- 
rows, and, to the aftonrfhiner.t (-\ bciu.klcrs, in the 
fpace of five months, a forrrcfs v/as ibtn riie from 
belo\v the ground, although the foil, adds he, was 
fo thin in this place, that the rcv/plo c;rpiv>ycd \\crc 
under the necefiity of carry ing it in the fkirts of 
their coats, or in bags m.u-e c;r n..its, the ufe of 
wheel- barrows being then unknown to them. 

SCARCI I.Y was this fortrcfs built, when Peter 
\viihed to hiive a fmall houfe for himfelf on the 



neighbouring ifland. From tliis houfe, and from 
his reading there, the ifland took the name of St 
Pctcrjlur^., which it afterwards gave to the capital. 
This houic, low and narrow, is full preferved in 
memory of a ioYereign, who was pleated to lodge 
in it. There is no doubt but this ought to be the 
moil auguil monument in St Peterfburg. Soon af- 
ter he caufed another wooden houic be built in the 
neighbourhood, larger and more convenient, in 
which Prince Mcnzikof lodged, and where he gave 
audience to foreign mimiicrs. At a moderate dif- 
tance from this, was a tavern very much frequent- 
ed by the couriers ; jvr Peter himJllf often went to 
it on Sunday after divine fervice, and it is a general 
rule, that courtiers follow their matters. There 
they not only drank at the fide of their monarch, 
who was very fond of parties of this kind, but they 
were bciides attracted thither by the exhibition of 
fire- works and other entertainments. 

ON the 3oth cf May 1706, Peter made the earth- 
en ramparts of the fV.-rtrd's be lifted, and founded a 
new one on the fame ground. In 1710, Count Gal- 
Ilizin built the firft brick houfc*. '1 'he year follow- 
ing, the Kmpcror railed a fecond on the fame plan ; 
and hard by it, another. His example was an or- 
der ror the Riu'lian lords ; Ib that thcfe buildings 
iucceedcd with afloniming rapidity ; and this fettlc- 
ir.ent, lliit announced not v. hat it v/as to be, in a 



few years became a flourifhing capital. After that 
can it be (aid, that kings are not magicians? But from 
the accounts we are going to give, fomc judgment 
may be formed of Peter's defpotic authority, and of 
his zeal to enlarge and embelliih this Capital, and make 
it equal to the other cities of the Courts of Europe. 
IN the year 1714, he ordered all the houfes on 
the iiland of St Pctcrfburg, and in the Admiralty- 
quartcr , particularly thofe on the banks of the Neva, 
to be built of bricks and wood, after the German 
falhion. Ke publifhed an order, enjoining every 
noble proprietor of five hundred peafants to build 
a certain extent of ground, and a proprietor of a 
thouiand peafants a double extent ; the former were 
obliged to build at leaft three houfcs, and the latter 
fix. The principal merchants were bound to have 
a houfe at St Feterfburg. Beficles, he ordered that 
every large fiiip, which entered the port, mould 
bring thirty {tones, every fmall one ten, and every 
peauint's waga-ri three ftone?, to be ufbd in the e- 
rcction of bridges and other public edifices; tliat 
the roofs of the houfes till that time covered with 
boards and bark, and consequently too much expo- 
fed to lire, mould be dene with tiles and turf. In 
1716, the Lrnpcror gave his approbation to a regu- 
lar plan for the new city, and made it be publifhed. 
The principal part was to be on the iiland of Vafliii 
'VaiTiii-oftrof) r.nJ it was to be intcrfecled, like the 



tities of Holland, by canals dug in the principal 
ftreets, and fkirted with trees, but this plan was not 
executed. The engineer entrusted with the direc- 
tion of thcfe canals, confined them fo, that it wa> 
impoflible to draw any advantage from them. 
Thofe which are yet remaining, do not anfwer the 
purpofe Peter had in view, viz. the clcanncis of the 
ftreets : befides, in the conftruction of the houfes, 
the gutters are fo clumlily executed, as to pour all 
the rain water upon them. There was alfo another 
nconvenience. The Emprcfs, Ann, wiihecl to reside 
in the Admiralty-quarter. The nobility, who fol- 
low and ape their maftcrs, imitated the example of 
the fovereign, fo that at this day, if you except fome 
public ediiices, and a row of houfes on the banks 
of the Neva, VafTiii-oftrof is the worft quarter of the 
town, and alone contains more wooden houfes than 
all the reft together. 

PLTER'S fucceflbrs h.ive continued to embellifli 
St Peterfburo;. but none has contributed more to 

O J 

this, th'.m the Fmprcfs Catharine II. who, without: 
any exaggeration may be called its fccond founder, 
for from the year 1762, : -. have '< 

bi'ik in St Pct-;rJl)urg, tlv.ui hvui r : > iuundatlon tr> 
that period. Yet in ipit-j oi -- p-enib works 

and crnbcilifhinents Diade !^y h^r, i: is cifily percei- 
ved tliat Di; Pctcriburg i-^ r i city yet in it,, cnJJle,, 
Its aipecl ho\vcvcr i-.i co'innanJino; -tnd very pic! 



cfque, High and ipacious edifices, the majefty of 
the Neva, its different arms, two fuperb quays, a 
multitude of fteeples, ibme guilt, others filvered, 
form the molt varied as well as the moil agreeable 
perfpeclive. The ftreets are generally broad, parti- 
cularly thofe with canals. Among others there are 
three, which fet off from the admiralty and extend 
to the extremity of the fuburbs, and are at leaft 
half a league in length. The moft part are paved 
and the reft are covered with planks after the old 
Ruffian cuftom. In thefe ftreets, which are never- 
thelefs dirty in winter and full of duft in fummer, 
there are foot-ways very convenient for perfons 
walking. At the corner of every ftreet there is a 
poft painted green, on which is written the 
of the ftreet in German and Ruffe. 

IN fome quarter?, but efpecially in Vailili-oftrof, 
there are wooden houfes, which arc hardly any 
thing but cottages, at the fide of magnificent pub- 
lic buildings, but this odd appearance is lei's com- 
mon there than in Mofcow, the only city, from 
which one can form an idea of what a Ruffian city 
formerly was. 

THL brick houfcs are overlaid wkh a kind of ituc- 
co oi" a whitiili colour, \vhich has made fevcral fo- 
rci;:;ncrs f.iy, they were built o[ ilone. There are 
only two hr,uics i:i St i'ctcriburcr, built of itone. 
One 1-5 the Mn^nreis' palace, on the banks of t]:-j. 



Neva, which is culled the marble-palace from a mag- 
nificent colonnade of Granate ; the other is the 
church of St Ifaac, which merits the attention of 

THE hotels of the nobles arc in g-encral vaft piles 

O A 

of building, although not fo great nor magnificent 
as mauy of thofe to be feen at Mofcow. They are 
richly furnifhed and \vith as much elegance as at 
Pans or London, They ftand chielly on the fouth 
bank of the Neva, in the Admiralty- quarter, or in 
the fuburbs of Livonia and Mofcow, which arc the 
mod bcavtiful oiv.irtei>: of the city. 

T;LJ: b;:;il:.] of the Neva furniih a finguhr pro- 
fpecb. Ihe water of tliLi deep rapid and broad ri- 
ver is as clear r.s cryfhi;. They bonfr. of it as th^ 
bell in Kuropc. Yet M.dd.:^ ?. celebrated .cliymift, 
who liril air.uyfed it, found it contained mineral 
particles, which may prove hurtful to a conftitutioa 
not acciTiiomcci to it. It is 3.110 at nri.t very un- 
wholeiome to foreigners, to wliom it gives diarr- 
heas and hemorrhoids. To avoid thcfe ?j,( idents, 
it muil at firft be boiled r.nd fofecned v.ith win;; 
:ind m-ad. I'his is the inctlrr ; sok, :incl wo 

found our!clvi.s much the better for it. 'j\hc t\vj 
banks of this river are ornarucr^jil \virh 
houfcs. On the north fide arc the citadel, 
buildings for the accomm< in t ion cf he a 
of kiences and arts, T.i'.cfc: ere :.:: ir.oft 

VOL. I. C 


objects. On the other bank (land the Imperial Pa- 
lace, the Admiralty, icveral hotels belonging to 
Nobles, and the houfed of the Britiih in one row, al- 
nioll all poileiied by mercliimts of this nation. Fa- 
cing tlicfc buildings and on the fouth fide, extend:; a 
quay, that is a league in length, and fullers no in- 
terruption but by the buildings uf the admiralty. 
Another quay as exteniive arid on the facie plan has 
been built at the expencc of the Eniprefr. The pa- 
iMpct, which is brcaft-high, is covered vith larg^ 
pieces of Granule, which produce the finei'l efiecl", 
and form a monument of the munificence of this 
Princcij, as beautiful as durable. 

ALTHOUGH the houfea in St Peterfburg are clofer 
to one another, th:m in other Ruilian cities, and 
though they are even contiguous in fever a! quar- 
ters, ye: this capital refembks them more in the ir-;r K;.irner, in which thefe houfes are fcattered. 

As tlu- RvtiTiitiis \vifli to be lodged in the Englifh 
flile, tha- is, octToy a whole hovvfe, although the in- 
ilivi iu.ii fovtiire of moil: of them c:i?rr.(^t bear fo 
h(.;.vv a rent, the confequence is, that the rents, 
l';:V.;d of tiisuinifhing in pr.-porlion to the number 
( i ];;/;:' . ing ever) day. on the C'.'-r.trary are 

uur'menicd cvu} } car, ..:ul .,: prclent a (imple in- 
til*. '. Juai car. . irdly i;c i;;d,..'.d ior a liundred roubles*. 



SOME years ago the Government furroundeJ the 
city with a rampart twenty one wrefts, or about 
five leagues in circumference, but this inclofure was 
executed with fo little attention and with material 
fo infufiicient, that it has need of ftrorig reparation 
in many plates. Built on a low marihy fituation, 
St Peterfburg is fubjcd to innundations, which have 
often caufed the greatcil ravages. Thefe accidents 
are occahoned bv the weft winds forcincr back the 

* O 

ftreams of the Neva. 

THE inhabitants of this city remember with ter- 
ror the inundation of 1777, when in the ifles oi 
Vafiili-oftrof and St Peterfburg, the waters rofe ten 
feet and a half above their level, overfet fever al hou- 
fes, and threw down the greateft number of the 
bridges. We fhall obferve in our way that the 
one part of St Pcterfburg is connected with the o- 
ther, only by a bridge of boats, that is drawn eve- 
ry time that the Neva begins to bring down fho:h 
of ice. Thefe dragged from the lake Ladoga by a 
rapid current, rufh with precipitation into the :i* 
ver, where by their enormous f;/c they woi:\! caufe 
the greateft dcftruclion, and overturn every lhi:,g 
thev mi-, ht meet in their couric duiiriT the innun- 

4 O O 

dation. Till the river be entirely frozen and aiibrd 
a fafe paflagc to even the licavieft carriages, the two 
parts of the city feparatcd by the river remain with- 
out any regular means of communication. To ob- 

C 2 viate 


viate this inconvenience, bccaufc it is itnpoffible to 
build a bridge on account of the depth of the river, 
the Government and the Colleges, which were for- 
merly at Vaffili-oftrof ne;tr the Exchange, have been 
removed into the difiricc, where the Imperial Pa- 
iace funds. 


EQUESTRIAN Jiaiv.e cf Piier 1. Temperature of &t 
Peierfburg. ~i-<tng and Jhort aj\ r s. Evils occafwned 
lr; the cold. Allans of guarding a gain ft it. Singu- 
lar amufements on the Neva during ]} inter. 1 amous 

J o 

market held at Chrijimafs. Provifans brought thither . 

JN OT far from the Neva, and near the bridge of 
boats ]u ft mentioned is a monument, that Gratitude 
and Adwirciicn have creeled io Peter ire Great. It is 
an equeflrJan itatue of this Prince, ot bronze, of 
Colofleau $7.':, and tlie work of the celebrated Mi- 
Falconet. It was railed at the expcnce or the Em- 
Dreis in honour of the memorv of a nrincc, whom 

4 * 

ihc has'.c it her duty to take ior her model, and 
we may add without ilattery, whole virtues and 
abilities flic polleiles without his vices. 

It is really a mafterly performance. Mr Falconet 
his completely hit the figure of the monarch. Mi;, 


leading features arc cxpreffed with wonderful art. 
r l hey lay this part is the work of his daughter-in- 
law. The Prince is represented fcrambling up a 

iteep rock, and almoft reaching the fummit. He is 
crowned with laurel and drcilcd after the manner 
of the Aiiatics. His right arm is ftretched with 
noblcncfs, and in his left hand he holds the reins of 
his courfer, whole beauty and attitude dcfcrvc to 
fix the attention of the bed critic. He is fupported 
only on the hind feet, and is in the movement of a 
vigorous courier darting on a height. What con- 
it! tutes the merit oi this monument is, that it was 
difficult to join ioHdity with perfection, considering 
the weight of the mais. Yet nothing has been ne- 

. ) O 

glcfTeu in tliis work. A brazen ferpent, which the 
horfe trcrulo on, has been iince, and very ingenioufly 
added as an ornaiiient, and to procure a more perfect 
balance to al! this mafs or which the point of reft 
i* : imperceptible, the courier's tail, long and flowing, 
falls (lightly on the ierrent. 

THE pedeilai is an enormous rock of Cranate ; 
the very rock, which i'otcr I. ai'crnded, when on 
iiio frontiers 01 l-inl;.i":.l and in the bccrinnins: of 

O O 

\var \vitii Sweden, !:e \\'i;lu^ to \ie\v the coun- 
where he was gr.hig t>) eng.ige in battle. It 
lath.irine t'ao iccoiul, v.iu> ihought on remo- 
ih:s heavy mais irt'iii its natural iituation to 

rlburg ; an undertaking which coft a hundred 


and eighty thoufand roubles, and immenfe labour- 
to the peafants employed in it. 

AN anecdote is told, highly defcriptive of Cour- 
tiers, but efpecially of favourites. When an attempt 
was made to dig up the rock entire, and put it in 
motion, the workmen employed for this purpofe, 
being either awkward or incapable, tried every me- 
thod, without fuccefs. Others were fent but they 
fucceeded no better. Then Mr Betzkoi, who was 
and ftill is fuperintendant of the buildings belong- 
ing to the Emprefs, publiflied a premium of feven 
hundred roubles to whoever would devife a method 
of tranfporting the rock to St Peterfburg. A poor 
Farrier, repairs to the houfe of Lafcaris, an adven- 
turer patronifed by Betzkoi and entrufted with this 
undertaking. He mentions a fimple way of lifting 
the rock. Lafcaris grafps at it, as well as the rou- 
bles it enfured A fcore was given to the Poor De- 
vil, the inventor, to keep him filent He was in mi- 
fery, he took the twenty roubles, kept filent, and at 
court nothing was talked for feveral days, and till the 
arrival of the rock, but the plan of the Engineer Laf- 
caris How many Lafcaris' have we fecn in other 
places and in all periods ! 

THE rock is of the mod beautiful crranate, and 

O 3 

every day is acquiring a better polifh. Many ladies 
get fragments of it for ear-ring?, neck-laces and 



other ornaments, with which they choofc to deck 

ON this fingular pedeftal is the following inicrip- 
tion, which, for its fimplicity, is worthy of Peter 
and of Catharine. 



An. 1782. 

IT was on the lyth Auguft 1782 that the inaugu- 
ration of this ftatue took place, to the folemnity 
of which Catharine efteemed it incumbent on her 
to add by diftinguifhing herfelf by feveral acts of 
beneficence. She pardoned all the criminals, who 
had incurred capital punifliment, the dcfertcrs that 
ihould join their regiments within a limited time, 
and all thofe who had been condemned to public 
works, provided they were not guilty of murder. 

PEOPLE, who have {laid long in RufTia, and have 
obferved the temperature of the air in that country, 
as well as the effects of the cold felt there, obfervc, 
that tov/ards the month of September the weather 
is very variable, that the rains of Autumn are very 
frequent and very heavy, that of thirty days at this 
feafon, there are twenty four rainy. It is very cold 
in the evenings and mornings, and even when it 
has not rained, the grafs and trees are covered with 



hoar froft. Winter and funmicr arc not, as they 
arc in our climates, ieparatcd by a Spring and an au- 
tumn of fome length. There they Iceni to fuccccd 
one another alniolt immediately. Fires arc ufed 
till the icth or 151]! of June; at this time, which 
is fummcr ibiflice, the fun riics at half an hour af- 
ter two in the morning, and docs not fct till half af- 
ter nine at niiyht ; a fpace, which with the morn- 

cj ' -I ? 

ing and evening twilight gives a day of 2 1 hours, 
but they pay dearly for it in winter, fmcc from the 
loth or 1 5th December, the fun riles at half paft 
nine o'clock in the morning, and fets half an hour 
after two afternoon, fo that their day is only live 
hours long, and the fog fometimes intercepts the 
grcatcft part of ir. 

FROM the month of November the Neva is com- 
monly entirely froxen, and a ihort time alter the 
Gulf of Finland is covered with ice, fo that fledges 
go with cafe from St PC ten burg to Cronitacit. The 
road is marked on the furhice by poles. In the 
months of December and January the weather is 
very variable. It p. rifles often from cold the mo ft 
piercing to th?.\v ;he mol: unexpected., and again 
becomes very cold. 

W:; 1 ^: the col:! ;s not in all its rigour, and Fa- 
rcr.hcit's thermometer is not below ten decrees, 
one may walk about in a iinglc cloak. But when 
the cold is more intcnfc, hatlc mull be made to 



put on the RinTun accoutrements, the fur-cap to 
five the curs, the politic or fur-cloak, the fur-boots 
and fhcK-s for the defence of the reit of the body. 
One is induced to adopt this cullom with the more 
reaf m, he has continually bjfore his eyes fright- 
ful dilaiiers and misfortunes without number, which 
the iiitcnienclj of: the cold produces in that coun- 
try. Nothing is more common than to meet every 
ftep, efpecially at the return of fpring, unfortunate 
people, one with a hole in his cheek, another a tat- 
ter of an car, &c. But it mult alfo be acknowledged, 
that the greatcft number of thefe accidents origin at?: 
HI the imprudence of thofe, who take the air after 
a debauch, and who in that iituation neglect the 
precautions they would take if they were in cool 
blood. To cure thefe evils the Ruflians rub the 
troll-bitten part ihow. This friclion perform- 
ed in thi-, way, or with flannel, is the ordinary re- 
medy, but ii they be imprudent enough to go near 
the lire, or !)lrnge the part sheeted, into hot \vat.er_, 
it immediately mortifies and decays. 

THE COLD mon people however, in foite of thf: il- 
^our of the icaion, \vork as 11(11,1! } i;ixi dri'/ers apj>rj:ir 
on their {k\i;-;c.-;, \\irhout being ailecied by the Lu'J, 
though both their beard;: and hair be covered whh 
icicles, 1 hefe people, it i:-> true, ai .:. clothed in a. \vuy 
to defy the rigour of the cold. Their .Vu.cip.ii at- 
tention is paid to the der-.-r^ce ci Lh" 

VOL. I. D 


their bodies. legs, hand and heads. All are under fur, 
and this Air is a iheep-lkin, whofe wool is turned 
inward. This coarfe pe'ilTe is fixed round their 
bodies, by a large leathern girdle; but yet thefe good 
people have their necks bare, and their breafts co- 
vered only with a fhirt. Indeed their drefs 
and lung beards defend th:fe parts fo, that they are 
never fo liable to be froit-bitten, as the extremities 
of iheir bodies. We obfcrved alfo, that notwith- 
ilanding the extreme cold, the women were warning 
their linen in the Neva, or in the canals. They open 
the ice with a hatchet, dip the linen in thefe holes 
with their hands bare, and while they rub it, the 
ice forms anew, fo that they are obliged to break it 
continually. There are ibmc who v/afli two hours 
together, when the thermometer is 60 degrees be- 
low the freezing point, which is a ftrong proof that 
our bodies may be accuilomcd to alinoft any thing, 
IT often happens, that drivers and fcrvants, wait- 
Ing on their mailers, die froft-bitten. To prevent 
thefe melancholy accidents as much as poflible, lar^c* 
fires of whole trees arc kindled in the area of the 
place, a:id "lie principal iquarcs. The foldiers, who 
c.iriTiOt. wear their beards, i ; > uieful for the defence 
of the t : ;!v it, commonly furround their necks with 
a handkerJil.-- ;.:id cover their cars wilh a larLre 

1 O 

bit of ihhiici, 



THERE is not a fpeclaclc in the world like that, 
which the Neva exhibits in winter. Carriages, 
fledges, an infinite number of people on foot, are 
continually eroding it, and thus form a fucceflion 
of objects always in action. Different parties of 
common people, difperfed or together, bufy or amu- 
iing themfelvcs, every one in his own way. Here 
are long fpaces furrounded with barriers, in favour 
of thofe who go a fcating. There is an inclofure in 
which horfes are exercifed, as in a riding fchool, 
and farther off the croud is attracted by a fledge 
race The fpace, in which they run, is circular and 
about a mile in length. 

THE artificial mountains made of ice are alfo ano- 
ther amufement, for the common people. They raife 
on the river a kind of mount, about thirty feet high, 
with a platform at the top, to which they go up by 
a ladder. From the top of this to the bottom, ex- 
tends an inclined plane, all the way covered with 
ice, which they contrive to make by planks, on 
which pieces of ice are laid, and fixed by throwing 
beneath them water, which inftantly freezes. From 
the place where this phne touches the ground, they 
draw a road, two hundred toifes in length and four 
in breadth ; they take off the mow, Ikirt it, as veil 
as the mount, with iir boards; Then fledges, which 
are placed at the top of the mount, let oil" like light- 
ning, and are let go on the inclined plane, with 

D 2 fuch 


fuch rapidity, that t.hefe Hedges advance dill more 
than an hundred toifes, on the ilat road drawn on 
the ice. Where this road ends there is commonly 
another mount of ice, in every refpect like that, 
which they had juft run over ; come down from 
one, they immediately get upon another, by the 
fame fpring. The greateft experience is ncccfi.vry 
for this exercife, and fkill too to prefervc the ba- 
lance, particular}' when they are hurling down the 
inclined plane, for the (mailed folle ft':p, would oc- 
cafion a dangerous fall. In thcfe kinds of (ports, it 
is more prudent to be a fpecb.tor, than an actor. 
Hie young people alfo amufe themfelves, with Hid- 
ing from the top to the foot of the mount, com- 
monly on one fcate, becaufc they find it eader to 
preferve their balance on one leg, than on both. 
Thefe fmall mounts when they arc multiplied, form 
a profpect very agreeable, by the verdure, with 
which they are ornamented, and which bears a lin- 
gubr con t raft to the fnow, 

THE market which is held on the Neva, merits alfo 
the attention of a traveller. Ihc Ruflians bcinci; ac- 
cuftomed to lay in their provifions for winter, at the 
end of Chridmafs-Lent, (we fhall (peak afterwards 
of the four louts of the Ruflians) tiirrc is held >n 
the river rnvi hard by the iortrris, a market for this 
purpofe, \vhich lads three days, and is /ingular iii 
:its kind. On the two lic'cs of a fircct a miic in 


length, there is cxpofccl to fale an immcnfe quantity 
of proviiions, fuilicient io iiipport all the inhabi- 
tants of the capital for three months. Thither are 
jurought many thouvhnd bullocks, iheep, hogs, pigs, 
gceie, fowls, ail fo full and frozen, that you would 
imagine the animals petrified. The Urgeft are ran- 
ged in circles, with the hind ICG;S fixed in the {"now, 

O O ' 

and the fore legs and the head turned towards one 
another : then follow feveral rows of f mailer ani- 
mals formed proportionally. The intervals a^c fill- 
ed up with fowls and game, arranged in form of 
jeicoons. The iiih and ecr^s, are alio in heaps. 

OO 7 A 

Game, whoie flue is free in Kufiia, is there in pro- 
iufion, cipecially partridges, pheaiants and the dif- 
ferent aquatic Lirds. While contemplating this 
icene r.e\v to us, we veritied this natural phenome- 
non, of which many people feem to doubt, namely, 
that the animals which live in the nor;h rrow white 


in winter. AVe la\v a number of them whofe moil 
common colour is bl.ick, that had become white; 
iome of tlie iovvjs catched before their change was 
completely ckc^Yci, were variogued \vith white 
aiid black feather:?. 

THS proviiions cxpofLti in lliis kind of fair, of 
which we have juft fpokcn, conic partly from pro- 
vince-; very diilant. T!K: belt veal is brought from 
Arcliangcl, which is more than t\vo hundred and 
iirty k\igucs from 8t Pgtcrfburg, yet jto price is ex- 



tremely moderate. Beef is fold at about two French 
fous a pound, of fourteen ounces and a half; Pork 
at * ten dcniers ; mutton at fomething below a fol j 
a gooie at twelve fous ; a pig at fifteen fous ; the 
reft in proportion. Before tiling thefe meats, they 
muft be thawed in cold water. 


COURT cf the Emprefs. Guards of the apartment. 

Hall of audience. Retinue of the Emprefs whenjhe 
goes to the chapel. Her drefs on Gala days. Re- 
mark on the Royal Family. Riches of the P ruffian 
Lords in their drefs. "Their pajjion for diamonds. 
The different orders with ^hich they are decora- 
ted. Hijiorical remarks. Whiter balls. Palace of 
the Hermitage. Ceremony banifhed from it. Is that 
true or pojjible in RuJJla? Collection of pictures in 
this palace. Winter garden, like an enchanted fpot. 
Dijiribution^ which the Emprefs makes of her time. 
Court Plays. 

AFTER having recovered from our fatigues, and 
gone the rounds our bufinefs required, we fhowed 
ourfclvcs at court. It is more brilliant than any in 


* TZ dealers in.ikc a fo!, \vhich is nearly equal to a haif-pw.iy 


the north, but to fee it in all its fplendour, a Gala- 
day muft be chofcn, fuch as the anniverfary of the 
F.mprcfs or the Grand Duke. What flruck us at firfl 
was the two centinels, that we found at the entry of 
the hall of audience. We were told they were two 
guards of the company, called Chevalier-Guards. - 
Their uniform was fuperb. We fhall mention it, 
when we fpcak of the Emprefs' houfhold troops, as 
we have feen nothing, any where, fo magnificent. 
In the infide of the hall, and at the door of that 
wherein the throne is, we faw other two. They 
are armed with carabines, and, when on duty, arc 
allowed to fit down. 

For feeing the Emprefs, the time when me goes 
to, or returns from the chapel, is commonly cho- 
fen, which is always a little before noon. She is 
preceded by the Great Oincers of her houfliold, 
twelve Chamberlains, twelve Gentlemen of the 
Chamber, four Aides-de-camp-Generals, the Offi- 
cers of her Guards, at the head of whom, is always 
he, that commands the Chevalier-Guards ; it was 
then Piincc Potemkin. Then come the Ladies. 
iirii: the Young Ladies of the Court, the Ladies or 
Maids of Honour, the Grand Govcrncfs, and then 
the Grand Duke and Duchefs The Ladies walk 
two by two, and form a long file, pleafant to be- 
hold. Her Majcfty, as flic pailcs, falutes every per- 
Ion on her way, both on the right and left hand. 



She commonly Hops a moment at the entry to the. 
hall of audience, and fpeaks with very great affabi- 
lity to the different members of the diplomatic body, 
who have then the honour of killing her hand. On 
days of ceremony, Ihe appears in the Ruffian drefs, 
and wears a go\vn with a very ihort train, and A 
kind of veil, with fleeves dole about the wrift, like 
a Polonefe. This veil is embroidered with gold. 
She wears a cap covered with diamonds, and ibme 
years ago applied no little rouge. -Her air is majef- 
tic, although {he is rather below than above middle 
fize ; and me has in the features of her countenance, 
efpccially when me fpeaks, much dignity and fvveet- 

WE fhall fay nothing of the external appearance 
of the Grand Duke and Duchcfs. They have been 
feen in Paris, and it is remembered, that the Grand 
Duchefs is one of the moft beautiful women in Eu- 

THE Court is compofed of the Emprcfs, who is 
fixty tliree years of age, but appears older ; of the 
Grand Duke, her fern, who is near forty, and of 
the Duchcfs, who looks younger; of tv/o young 
princes, of whom the oideft is iixtecn years of age, 
and exceedingly promiiinGC ; and or two vounr> - 

t j ' i O J O 

pnnccffc.s, of whom Alexandra, the oldcft, is ten, 
and Cathuv'ma is five years of age. 



EVERY funday, at noon, there is a drawing room 
at Court, for the ambaffadors and foreigners, who 
have been prefented ; and to be fo, no more is re- 
quillte than a decent appearance, and to be intro- 
duced by the ambafiador of your own nation. 
Such as have been introduced, are allowed to kifs 
the Emprcfs' hand in the audience-hall, while the 
Ruffian Lords kifs it witli one knee on the ground; 
a piece of humiliating homage, which they have not 
dared to demand of foreigners. No Ladies appear 
on thefe occalions, except thofe of her Majefty's 
houfhold, which makes the Court a little dull. It 
is alib cuftomary to go and pay compliments to the 
Grand Duke and Duchefsj in their lodgings, on cer- 
lain occafions, fuch as the birth-days of the Princefs, 
or of the Emprefs. 

ON the evening of the Court-days, there is a ball 
in the palace, which begins between five and fix 
o'clock. Then the foreign Ladies kifs the Emprefs' 
hand, who, on her turn, killes their forehead. Her 
Majefty, if not indifpofed, makes her appearance to- 
wards feven o'clock, and if the company is not very 
numerous, me makes her party at Macao, in the 
ball-room. The Grand Duke and Duchefs, after 
dancing, play a little at whilt, then they rife, ad- 
vance to the Emprefs, pay their compliments, and 
return to their game. If there be a 'croud in the 

VOL. I. E ball-room 


ball-room,, the Emprefs plays in a neighbouring 
room, which is open to all, who have been prcfentecL 
THE riches and fplendour of the Ruffian Court 
exceed all description. Divers articles of Afiatic 
magnificence, united to the ingenious inventions of 
European luxury, are there difplayecl. An immenfe 
retinue of Courtiers always precede and follow the 
Emprefs, whole rich and brilliant dreilcs are befides 
enriched with jewels in profufion, which produces 
an efFccl', of which the pomp of other courts can 
only give a feeble idea, The court-drcfs for a gen-, is a iuit in the French faftiion ; and that of 
a lady, a gown and hoop-petticoat. The gown has 
lone: haninnq; flecves, a court train, and is of a co- 

o o o 

lour different from the petticoat. The ladies follow 
the fafhions which prevail in Paris, but thefe never 
ret to RufTia, till they have crown old in France. 

v> J 3 

and have been handed about through all Europe. - 
Among the objects of luxury exhibited by the Ruf- 
iian Nobility, none is more apt to ftrike foreigners, 
than this quantity of diamonds and jewels itifl men- 
tioned ; and with Ib much the more juftice, that in 
all the other countries of Europe, diamonds feem 
almoft entirely refcrved for the ufe of the Ladies. 
In RufTia, the gentlemen and ladies iecin to vie in- 
loading thcmfelves moft ; and this exprdlion is not 
over-ftrained, for there are many noblemen, who- 
are almolt wholly covered with them. Their but- 


tons, their buckles, the hilts of their fvvords, their 
epaulets are of diamonds ; often their very hats are 
edged with feveral rows of Jewels. This paffion for 
.jewels has descended even to the common people, 
who ape the great, but are not commoners the lefs. 
There are families of this clals, who have as many 
as the nobility. The wife of a very rich Ruffian 
burgcls ruins her unfortunate hufband, in order to 
mow herielf with a head-drefs, or with a girdle oi 
pearls or jewels, to the value of fome tho.uiands of 
crowns. ---Thus from the one end of Europe to the 
other, the ridiculous is every where found. It on- 
ly differs in its kinds of extravagance, and if near 
the Pole, people wear girdles of jewels, in the foutli 
they have large rofaries of gold, on which hang 
fomc hundreds of little faints of the fame metal. 

ON davs of great ceremony the Emprefs dines in 
public, and commonly wears a crown of diamonds 
of imrnenie value. She aifo has the St Andrews' 
and St George's ribbon fufpended from the fame 
ihoukler, and collars of the order St Alexander- 
Neufki, St Citharine and St Y7olocli;r,er, which e- 
vidently leaves very little of her to The 
co,urtiers arc like their miilrcfs, and ic may be well 
alarmed, there is not a court in Europe better {peck- 
led, not even excepting Spain. 

BY the decoration of the Emprefs juil dcfcribcd, 
the reader mult obicrvc, there are live orders in Ruflia : 



namely, that of St Andrew, St Catharine, St Alexan- 
der-Neulki, St George and St Wolodimer, to which 
muft be added that of St Ann of Holftein, of which 
the Emprefs is not a member. It was lately efta- 
blifhed by the Grand Duke, and is fubject to his 
difpofal. The three firft were founded by Peter the 
Firft. That of St Andrew in the year 1698, with 
a view to animate the nobility in the war againft 
the Turks. He made choice of this faint for the 
patron of this order, becauie there is a tradition in, 
Ruflia, that it was St Andrew, who introduced 
Chriftianity into that country. The Knight of this 
order, among whom the Kings of Sweden and Po- 
land are diftinguifhed, have for a decoration, the 
effigy of St Andrew on an enamelled crofs, formed 
by the Imperial Eagle. 

THAT of St Catharine was founded in memory 
of the afliftance, which Peter received from his wife 
In the Camp of Pruth. We mail have occafion to 
recall to remembrance this memorable trait of Ca- 
tharine's life. Writers, who have advanced, that 
this order is common to both fexes, are miftaken. 
There are none but female knights. Their number 
is twenty-five, and they are of the higheft quality 
in Germany. They wear a large white ribbon, 
flung round them, at which hangs a medallion fet 



in diamonds, on which is a St Catharine with this 
motto : A more etfidditate.* 

THE order of St Alexandcr-Neufki, was con- 
firmed by Catharine I. in the year 1725, and comes 
in opinion and rank after that of St Andrew. It 
is conferred, fo to fpeak, on Rufiian noblemen only. 
The badge is a collar, at which hangs a gold-crofs 
with eio;ht branches, and in the middle of which is the 

O ' 

equeftrian reprefentation of St Alexander; a faint, of 
whom we fliall have occafion to fpeak afterwards. 

IT was Catharine the fecond, who infdtuted the 
orders of St George and St Wolodimer ; The firft 
created in the year 1768, is a military order, divid- 
ed into four dalles. It has, for a badge, a black 
ribbon bordered with yellow, whence hangs a me- 
dallion, on which is an effigy of St George, throw- 
ing down the dragon. The order of St Wolodimer, 
inftituted on the 3d of October 1782, is intended 
as a recompence to fuch as have diftinguifhed them- 
felves in the magistracy, or in the different branches 
of adminiftration, that have been entrufted to them. 
It too is divided into tour claiTes, whereof the laft 
is deftined for the counfellors of colleges, after thir- 

O ' 

ty five years fervice. 

THERE are every winter two or three mafked 
balls at the court of St Peterfburg, where perfons of 
every description are admitted. Sometimes near 


* By Love and Fidelity, 


eight thoufand cards are diilributed; which may 
make it be iuppofed, that thefe balls turn out a rab- 
ble ; but twenty magnificent halls, open and illu- 
minated, receive this multitude, who find enough 
of room. In the middle of one of the halls is a 
fpace formed and inclofed by a Baluftrade, a lit- 
tle elevated, and more ornamented than any other 
place, which is referved for the nobility, and all the 
variegated tribe of the court. As this is not the 
country of equality, but of great diftinclion of rank 
and of pride, the hall of Apollo, which is very ele- 
gant and of a circular form, is referved for the 
Burgeflbs, and fuch as have not been prefented at 
court. In the reft, where tea and refrefhments are 
taken, there are gaming tables, goers and comers. 
Every one has liberty to wear, or take of the mafk, 
at his pleafure- -The nobility in general drefs in a 

AT thefe balls the Ruffians of inferior rank, wear 
the ordinary drefs of their province, only with fome 
additional finery. The appearance of thefe different 
falhions, fomc of which are very whimiical, produces 
LI fingular mixture, and figures more diverfiiied, than 
the moil capricious imagination ever invented in 
the mafquerades of other countries. Yet, in this 
country, one fees none of thefe mafquerades in a. 
group, as in Italy, Spain, and Conflantinoplc, when 
the Group- figure is, for inftance a village marriage, 

a national 


si national hiftorical trait, or fome fcandalous ancc- 
dote of fome character diftin^uifliecl at court. 


HER Imperial Majefty generally appears at the 
balls about leven, and retires at eleven at night. 
To form a judgment of the tafte of this Princefs, in 
what is entertainment, amufement and decoration, 
the hermitage muft be feen. This is a building fe- 
parated from the palace, with which it communi- 
cates by a covered gallery. It is fo named, becaufe 
the Emprefs retires thither fometimes ; for in other 
refpecls, it has nothing of a hermitage but the 
name, the rooms being very fpacious, and decora- 
ted with a munificence truly royal. In this favour- 
ite retreat, Catharine ufually paiTes an hour or two 
every day. On Tuefday evening, Hie gives a private 
ball and a fupper, to the principal members, who 
form her court. The foreign minifters, and all not 

O * 

of this fmall felecl number, are feldom admitted, 
and from this kind of Orgies, it is faid, all ceremony 
Js as far as poffible banilhed, without any deficiency 
MI that refpecl due to an auguft fovereign ; that h 
to fay, there is no ceremonious etiouctte, but there 
Is a conftraint, though it is pretended, that the ier- 
vants eveji arc removed from the room where the 
guefts are, and on this account: the fupper I.-, fervesi 
up on fmall t:ibles, called tablco of confidence, \vhich 
by an ingenious mechanifm, riie up through the 
iloor by a trap. What precautions the Great take 



to be free and eafv from fervants ! and how much 

juftice there is in the remark of that Jean Jacques, 
who faid, that he alone is free, who has no occajion to 
put another's hand to the end of his own arm. This is 
a proof of what has been juft laid, that conftraint is 
only diflembled in this abode, becaufe in the diffe- 
rent rooms of this palace there are directions and 
rules for the behaviour of every member of this 
chofen party. They all feem to have a tendency to 
encourage the guefts in baniming form, and to im~ 
prefs their minds with this idea, that they are at 
their eafe. One of thefe rules is written in French, 
whereof this is the purport: Sit down where you wil', 
and where you plsafc, without it being a thoufand times 
repeated ; which would mean, that to make people 
fit down in prefence of their mailers, the invitation 
rnuft be repeated a thoufand times. But in fpite of 
fmile and grimace, the Courtier, and nbove all, the. 
Ruffian, refernbles the dog, mentioned by La Fon- 
taine in his fable of the dog and the wolf.* 

THE Palace of the Hermitage contains a nume- 
rous collections of pictures, chiefly purchafed by 
her jM'jjeuy, The finefr arc thole of Crofat's Cabi- 

* F-ih. 5. F.ook. i. \Vl.'?rc tl.e wolf* b a pretty dog, but with 

WOLF. What mean? that? Doc;. Nothing at all. VTor.F. YT'nt 
nothing. DOG. A tr;"c. V.'or.r. But tell me. Doc. Thv collar 

i\'ith which I am uour.J is perhaps the caufc of what you fee. 

Bound ! fayr the \volf, <xc. 


net, which the Emprcfs got from the heirs of Baron 
de '1 hicrs. Houghton's collection, whofe lofs all the 
Knglilh amateurs may deplore, have confiderably 

enriched that of the Czarina. 

A WIN TK R and ii dimmer garden contained with- 
in the boundaries of this building, is one of thefc 
objects of curioiity not to be feen in any other Eu- 
ropean palace. The fummer garden, wliich is in 
the true All.itic fafte, occupies all the top of the 
ediiice. The winter garden entirely covered and 
furrounded with glail> windows, is a high and fpa- 
cious green houfc, in which are gravel walks. Ic 
is ornamented with parterres, ilowers, orange trees', 
ihrubs, ir.ui ilored with an infinite number of bird:; 
from different climates, which fly from tree to 
tree at freedom. All this produces an cilccl, fo 
much the more agreeable, that it bears a fingu- 
lar con t raft to the gloomy feafon of the year. 
But are there feaions for King 1 , ? Is not nature, 
whom they manage as they will, compelled to ihow 
them a imiling countenance, while me is every 
where a prey to the gloomy hoar-frofts of winter. 
Tim-; the. Courtier, whom fecret fuilerings c.oniigr. 
to ibrrcnv, alleys before his prince the fmiie c;f 
g ; i i e i y a ! u 1 c o 1 1 1 e 1 1 1 ID e n t . 

ll will, it is preiume..!, be acceptable to our read- 
ers, to ( :;'ive an account: oi the manner, in whicli trie 
Emprcfi ciiilributcs the cir.ployment or lur time, 

VOL. i. E rl; 


for the mod minute circumftances are i 
when they have for their object, perfons on whom 
the bulk of mankind have their eye. Her Majefty 
ufually rifes at fix o'clock, and is engaged till eight 
or nine, in public bulinefs with her Secretary. At 
ten, flic begins her toilette, and it is during this in- 
terval that the minifters of ilate, and the aides-de- 
camp in waiting, pay their compliments, and re- 
ceive her orders. When (he is clrefled, at eleven- 
o'clock or thereabout, fhe lends for her gnmdfons, 
Alexander and Conftaritinc, or fhe goes to vifit 
them in their rooms. Before dinner, ihe receives 
the vifit of the Grand Duke and Duchefs, and fits- 
ilown at table before one o'clock P. M. She has 
always at dinner, ten or twelve perfons, who are 
Generals or OiTicers on duty, a Lady or Maid of 
Honour, and two or three Lords of the chamber, 
Their Imperial Highnefles dine; with her three or 
four times a week, and then the table contains eight 
covers. The Lord of the chamber, who is in wait- 
ing, fits always oppofite to the K morels. Some 
pcrfon gives him a plate, which he prefents t'o her 
Miijcfly. She receives it very politely, and after- 
wards difpenfcs witli his attention. Hjr Majefty 
r,bfervc:> the gre;iielt moderation, and continues fel- 
iiom longer than an nour at t:ible. She retires af- 
icrwards into Iier chamber, and about three o'clock, 
!hc goes into the library in the hermitage. At five 



o'clock, flic goes to the concert or the play. When 
there is no court, fhe plays at whift with fome lords, 
and the Grand Duchcfs, who is very fond of this 
kind of game. This party Lifts till half an hour af- 
ter ten o'clock, and at eleven the Emprefs is in 
bed. There is never any {'upper drafted. We (hall 
obiervc by the way, that we may not be obliged to 
come back, that there are at St Peterfburg, an Ita- 
lian opera, a Ruffian comedy, and a French comedy. 
The opera is above par, the Ruffian comedy is de- 
teilable, and the French comedy fometimes like the 
Ruffian, and never equal to the opera. 

THESE three entertainments arc at her Mejafty's 
expcncc, and fpectators arc admitted gratis. 

C II A P. V. 

fiiEfiitr<:fi cf St PctcrjliD-g. The Cathedral. Tomv 
of P'.'ltr L Pbilcfopbical remarks on ibis Prince. 
His r j:a\ cf life His daily employments. His know- 
ledge. Particulars of his private life. His amours. 
Sad conferences i hereof. His death. Accounts nf 
the celebrated Baron l.ef'jrl^ bis ivjlrutlsr and friend, 
An anecdote. 

AFTER having vicv.-cd the Emnrcfs, and the mac;- 

^ * * J o 

;iiftccncc of her court, we were easier to viiit the 


r " fortrci* 


fcrtrefs of St Peterfburg, and the different public 
edifices of the capital of the Ruilias. The manner, 
in which this fortrefs was built, and which gave 
occafion to the founding of fc>t Peterfburg, has al- 
ready been narrated in a part of the defcription gi- 
ven of this city. The walls of this kind of citadel 
are of brick, and fortified by live regular baitions. 
They encompafs a fmali ii'le, of half a mile in cir- 
cumference, formed by the arms of the Neva. 
There are in this inclofure caferns for a fmall gar- 
jrifon, fome ordinary prifons, and apartments for 
ftatc-prifoners; for the defpot who builds, never for- 
gets this article. 

TH;;RE is in the fortrefs, an arfenal, where among 
other articles, are obferved, fome old cannons, that 
were caft in the middle of the fixtcenth century., 
under the reign of .Iwan Bafllowitfcli II. They arc 
of \ 7 ery beautiful workmanfhip, and furpriihig, con- 
fidering the time when they were caft. 

IT is recorded ii, the Rullian annals, that the art 
of catting cannon, was brought into Rufiia under 
Iwan, by Ariitotie of Boulogne, and that Iwan II, 
to bring it to perfection, followed the example of 
his Grandfather, in employing none but foreign 
founders, and thus fucceeded in procuring a good 
artillery. It is to this piece of attention, that thcfe 
two mo^urchs, principally owed their iucceis in war, 



and the conqucfl of various provinces, which they 
annexed to the empire. 

IN the fbrtrefs of St Peterfburg, they alfo {how 
a boat with four oars, which is preferved with as 
much veneration as care, in a building conftrucled 
of bricks, for the purpofe of informing pofterity, 
on the feeble beginnings of the Ruffian navy. Pe- 
ter I. called this boat, the little grand Jlre^ and made 
it be tranfported to Si Peterfburg, whither it was 
carried in pomp, with a view to excite the admira- 
tion of the people, by making them compare the 
itate, in which the Czar found the navy, and the 
perfection to which he brought it. 

THIS boat had been built under the reign of A- 
lexander Michaelowitfch, by a Dutchman called 
Brant, whom this prince had brought into Ruffia, 
in the year i6Si. Peter having accidentally feen 
this boat in a village near Mofcow, a(ked why it 
had a form different from thofe he had been accuf- 
tomed to fee, till that clay. Timmermann, a Ger- 
man engineer, who was inflructing the Czar in for- 
tification, told him that this boat had been built fo 
as to druggie againfl the wind. 

THE curiofity of this prince was greatly raifed by 
thi^ explanation. He abandoned himfelf to the im- 
pulie or his imagination, and lent for Brant, who 
ivas full in Rufiia Brant was fcarcely arrived, when 
lie put to him queftion after queftion, and the boat 



provided with a maft and rigging, was launched on 
the river Yaoufa. Brant went on board, and fet 
fail to the great furprife of the Prince, who wimed 
to go on board alfo, and who conceived under the 
direction of Brant, an idea of working a vcflel. 

AFTER having often repeated thefe experiment* 
upon the Yaoufa and a neighbouring lake, Peter 
made a yacht be built on the banks of the Mofcowa, 
which was launched in the year 1691. He went 
aboard and failed as far as Columna. Encouraged 
by this fuccefs, he ordered Brant to conftrucr. for 
him, on the lake of Periilof, feveral fmall veflels to 
carry cannon, and it was in this little fquadron, that 
this prince returned to Mofcow, in the fpring of 
the following year. 

BRANT'S death, which happened fhort while af- 
ter, interrupted the progrefs of this little armament, 
but it had no influence on the genius of Peter, and 
did not hinder him from continuing his expeditions 
on the lake. This prince, who attributed to the 
boat we are talking of, the idea he had formed of 
creating a navy, made it to be tranfported to his 
new capital in the year 1723, and on this occation 
gave a grand entertainment, which he called the 
Confecrativn of ihe little grand fire. 

IN the middle of the ifland, ftands the cathedral 
of St Peter and St Paul, whofe architecture is of a 
tafte different from that of the other Greek churches. 



Inftead of a cupola, it has a gilt brazen fteeple, ele- 
vated two hundred and forty feet above the fur- 
face. The internal decorations are very fimple, and 
more elegant, than any to be feen in any church 
in any Ruffian city, not even excepting Mofcow. 
The paintings are in the modern tafte of the Italian 
fchools, and not in the barren ftyle of the Greek 
painters. In this church are buried Peter the Great, 
and all his fucceffors, except Peter II, who is inter- 
red at Mofcow, and the unfortunate Peter III, 
whofe remains are depciited in the monaftery of St 
Alexander Neufky. 

THESE tombs are all of marble, of the form of a 
fquare coffin, and bear an infcription in the Ruffian 
language, which is more chronological than anything 
tlfe. At the fig-ht of this monument, which contains 

o * 

the human fpoils of Peter I, fwho without flattery may 
be called Peter the Great, in fpits of his fault 1 -, evert 
in fpite of his vices) a fentiment of fear and of ve~ 
neraticn riles in the foul ; efpecially when we recall 
the inflexible charatfber of this legiilator, who ipared 
neither ag^, nor fex, nor the clofcil ties of blood, 
Doubtlefs this monarch was great, bccaufb ho ^ave 
laws to his country, but above jJl LVT.:.IU& hj knew 
his own weaknefles, ai-.d ack;vv.vkJ^ ; -I ihcni \virh 
ft)rrovr. / ccn reform r:\ pt^p'^ i-.ud Lc often, in. 
confequence of fume palTion, 01 v/hkh he was not 
miller, but I cannot reform nyfi'f. A crc" r ned hii- 



torian criticifed him too feverely, when he falcL 
Peter died leaving in the ii-orld the character of an ex- 

o J 

traordinary man, rather than cf a great man, by 
covering the crut'tic; of a tyrant^ ^:th the virtues of a 

THIS cruelty, this ferocity even, that cannot be 
difguifcd, and tarnifh his memory, his education 
and country had given him ; but his virtues, why 
pafs them over in filencc ? they were his own ; His 
errors even were thofc of the genius, which wander- 

o } 

ed for want of a guide. We are far from exculpa- 
ting the atrocities with which he is reproached; we 
content ourfelves with removing them from our me- 
mory, that we may behold only a prince, who fpenf. 
his life in reforming and civilizing his fubjeccs, who 
created a navy and an army, which he himfelf dii- 
ciplined: a prince, who introduced into his country 
the arts and fciences, agriculture and commerce ; 
and in fnort laid the foundations of the sreatnefs, 


to which Rullia has fmce rifen. But we will not 
ceafe to piry him, for not taking IciTons of huma- 
nity, while he travelled through Europe to acquire 
them. We regret above all that his impetuous and 
elevated genius, was not brought to perfection; that 
his favaic Jifhnfition was not iortcned, and correct- 
ed by ti:j. travels lie had made among kingdoms, 
whole mor.archs \vere not the executioners of their 
fubjeccs. \Vc will blame him beiidcs for having 



formed the impolitic as well as chimerical idea of 
introducing the arts and fciences by force, and of 
executing in a moment, what could only be the 
work of fevcral years ; cfpecially in whatever hurt 
the manners and opinions of his people, by requi- 
ring of them a ready facriiice oi the prejudices con- 
lecrated by many ages. 

Bhtrrowixr, a moment on the perfon of this cele- 
brated man, ;>nd the principal acts of his life, which 
may chanicrerizc him, \ve \vill fay that, Peter was 
of high ibture, tint he had a noble appearance, a 
fenfible cuimtenance and a Horn look; that he was 
fubjccc to a fort of convulfions, which fometimes 
changed the fc.uvres-o'r his face; that Ixe cxpref- 
led ilinucii with e;iie and i'poke with fire; that he 
wa.^ naturally eloquent., and harangued frequently , 
\Vhat diltinguifhes Itim particularly from tJ.cfe ino- 
narchs, who reflmbV: the animal- bearers of relics, 
of whom no Lice is take': by tl-e inimitable La loa- 
taine, (whom we dcliglit to cite) is, that this 
difdained and dcipii:;cl the pageantry., that onlv fur- 
rounded his peribn, with-.)ut atlording him any re- 
lief. It \vas TrincG MenzikolF, l.i 1 ; favourite, \vlioin 
he employed to repreicr.t: him, aru.l xvLo by hi^ n.jg- 
Tiilkence difcharged this cumciii::',M in the uh.:: 
complete manner; difplaying an Aiu;ic I/.iXury, 
while Peter aije^ed the iimpk-lt n^/Je of life. In 
his houfhold he had neither cluniiberlain^ r.or nnrrs, 

* O 5 

VOL. I. Cr nor 


nor lords of the bed-ehamber. Twelve Dcnfchfks 
or Valets iervcd him, and formed his retinue, with 
twelve grenadiers, who did the honours of the pa- 
lace inhabited, by Peter, who was as great an enemy 
to palaces, as to the etiquette which is generated and 
reigns there. On days of ceremony, he, according 
to cutloin, always preferred his uniform to the em- 
broidered clrels, with which his predeceffors had 
been accuftomed to cover themfelves. He fome- 
timcs drciTed himfelf in it in the courfc of his reign, 
and appeared much confined. He one day appear- 
ed clothed with a fuit of filvcr embroidery, but it 
was the day of Catharine the Tirft's coronation, and 
the embroidery was the Emprefs* own work. 

Ni'Vjiii was a man more vigourous, more labo- 
rious, more enterpriiing, more indefatigable, than 
Peter I. He had men eftahliflied to aiTift in quench- 
ing fires, which are well known to be very frequent 
in RufKa. He himfelf liad undertaken one of thefe 
dar.jrerous commiilions, and was feen mount lirft up- 
on the top of a liouf'c on lire, with a hatchet, but no 
\vav intimidated by the danger. He had not con- 
fined hirr;folf to a motive of emulation for remedy- 
]r. r s ti;i: ; calamity, as terrible in Ruilia as at Con- 
Rar.tiiioi .\<: ] fjr i:i i'^oth countries, the houfes arc 
hv.ilt of wood. lie had iiiued a great number of 
as well undcrftood, of which the 
boiition of the old ftovcs, whofc- 



defective conflruclion occahoncd .1 thoufand calami- 
ties ; and he himfelf, an artift equally fagacious and 
improved, had fubllituted others of a much better 
form. Another law obliged the proprietors of hou- 
fcs to place on the roofs, dole by the chimnies, 
large calks, that were to be always full of water. 
Infpeclors were appointed to overlook the execution 
of this law, and there was a very heavy penalty K-- 
vied on delinquents, of which the infpeclors recei- 
ved a third. After all thefe laws, to which Peter's 
iucceilbrs more or lets lent fupport, the inhabitants 
of St Pcterfburg cannot, without ihuddcring, re- 
collect the fire, which fome years ago, in the illc of 
St Bali!, confumed upwards of two thoufand hou- 
fes in Icfs tfyan three hours ; and among thefe, the 
library of the celebrated Euler, which was to the 
correct arts and fcienccs an irreparable lofs. 

PF.TP.R alfo diftinguiflied himfelf from other po- 
tentates of Euiope, by his method of travelling, 
which was that of a fimple individual. He went 
without retinue into the heart of Alia. He very of. 
ten run over the diftancc between St Pctcrfbv.rg 
and Mofcow, -which is upward of two hundred 
leagues, as another prince palles from his palace to 
liis pleafurc.houfe. In his fricndihip, in his hatred, 
in his vengeance, in his plcafures, lie was extreme. 
He was the belt fcholar in his empire, fpakc fevcral. 
lincruacres. \vas thoroughly acquainted v.'ith n.athe- 

O O ' O < x 

G ?. 


matics, efpecially \vith what regarded naval archi- 
tecture. At his death ho ieft a fhip on the Hocks, 
of which he alone had directed the con ('ruction, and 
now it is inoft carefully preferred in the aricnal. 
This prince had a perfect knowledge of geography 
and hiftory, which are, to a conquering prince, the 
fources, whence ambition draws pretexts for con- 
queft. No feience was ftrange to him. Me under- 
flood the principles of medicine, was iki'lcd in fur- 
gery, and give himfclf out for an excellent drawer 
of teeth ; a qualification, diiputed by thoic, whofe 
teeth he pulled. As to trades, a long lift, of thofe 
he had learned, might be made, in which he pre- 
tended to excel, or as it is reasonable to believe, in 
which he was only ordinary, turning excepted. Of 
this art there remain ionic maiteriy performances 
of his, efpecially a large lullrc, with fifty branches, 
carefully preierved in the cathedral o^ St Petcrifoiirg, 
xvlucli the KuiTians take delight in fhowing to fo- 
reieners. In viewing this hi lire, in v. liich there is 

O '- ' 

nothing, but what is very common, the phiiofopher 
is clifpoleu to make allowance tor tlr?ir cruhufiufni 
in f'lowinr this triiit. becauic it pro^/cs their fr rati^ 

<^} - O 

A? there is a certain delight received from the 
miniittii: drcumuances refpecting great men, we 
hnpe it: wiii b;- acceptable to enter into fome of thofe, 
v;}i!ch. regriid ills private life. lie had ciiftributed 



Ins engagements during every hour of the day, and 
attended to them with a punctuality, which nothing 
could derange. He role in all lealons at five o'clock 
in the morning, read till levcn, and turned till 
tight, lie then drelled himlelt to read, or hear read, 
the reports of his different miniilers, made remarks 
on their memorials with his own hands, and 
wrote on his pocket books the ideas and plans of 
regulations fuggeited in theic memorials. To this 
t'ufmels iucceeded what he called his walk, which 
oniitfcd commonly in a turn to the dock-yards, to 
the ordinance foundery, to the manufactures he had 
I'.rrangcd, or was going to arrange, or to the for- 
irefs, where he was carrying on buildings, for 
\vhich he gave dircaions with his pocket book in 
his hand. At eleven o'clock he returned home and 
iat down at table. Ilaif a,i hour icrved him at 
dinner, and as long lor his r'?p aKer it. At noon 
he". went out again to vii;; thole, whole names he 
had in the morna.?; infcribed in his pocket book, 
and then YOU would ire i-im fro from the lodein^ 

. kJ O O 

of a L v encr.!i to a carpenter'* \vork-lioufc, from this 
to the oiliLC of a magittrate, and from the latter to 
tiie lioiiie of a maibn, ^.c. v\c. Tiicre were days 
3M: hours ibr h'j-dir.^.; ol rcnmcil^. On the days, 
when tln:ie aikmblies did not lit, lie filled up the 
vacant time \vith vilits paid to the cib.bliihinents, 
; vhkh he had ior the education of youth; 



fucli as the fcliool of the Cadets, the academy of Pu- 
pils for the Navy, where he (laid fometimes for two 
whole hours. At fix o'clock at night, he amufed 
himfelf with the converfation of a friend, that is, a 
favourite courtier, for kinsrs have no other friends. 


Moft frequently he went into fome aflembly, where 
he played at chefs, and forgot, at the fide of an e- 
normous round bottle, the temperance, which in 
people of difpofitions naturally good, is more fre- 
quently a habit than a virtue, and inattention to 
which, in a legiflator, is a phenomenon, or rather 
a monftrofity. Peter, in thefe focieties, ceafed to 
be a great man. It was the low Commodus^ or the 
drunken Vitellius, abandoning himfelf to intoxicar 
tion, and the excefles, which are its confequen- 
ces. Peter recovered fhuddered at the excefles of 
Peter intoxicated. It was in thefe moments of in- 
toxication that he wanted to ftab Lefort, to whom 
he owed fo much. We mail fay a word of this fa- 
mous man. Peter's repentance, on this occafion, 
was not that of Alexander warning the body of the 
unfortunate Clitus with his tears ; it was not fo bitter. 
Peter was fatisfied with alking pardon of his friend. 
As a man however great he be, is always a man, 
Peter, after his excefles, took the oath of drunkards, 
to drink no more, and like them, he broke it fome- 
times the fame day. 



Tins prince went to bed commonly at nine 
o'clock, and then no Ruffian was daring enough to 
go into the ftreet, to which the Czar's apartment 
looked ; for to awaken him, was a frfece of inatten- 
tion, which he never pardoned, but punifhed with 
the fevereft caning, adminiftered with his own hand. 

LOVE, or rather paflion for women, was one of 
the weaknefies of this prince, as it has been and will 
be in al) periods, that of ib many great men, whom 
love feeins to delight in putting on a level with per- 
ibns of ordinary rank. But Peter made love not in 
the lead like them, for his gallantries had no influ- 
ence on his political affairs ; and on the reins of go- 
vernment, which he held, love durft never lay a 
hand. If his ferious employments felt no inconve- 
nience, his finances felt flill lefs. Lady Crofs, whom 
he loved, the Countefs Hamilton, and the beautiful 
Cramer, to whom he was fucceilively attached, had 
no reafon to extol his liberality. On the contrary, 
Anne Iwanowa Mons, who was in the higheft degree 
of favour, was obliged to complain of this prince, 
and experienced a treatment from him, which the 
ihabbieil revenue officer amon<r us would not crive 

o O 

his miilrefs. Difmiiled by the intrigues and calum- 
ny of MenzikorT, who, to hurt her, joined to the 
rcalbns of the courtier, motives of perfonal ven- 
geance, me law herfelf flript of the ccitiy jewels the 



prince had given her, and expelled fiom a fuperl 
houfe, which he find furnifhcd for her. 

THE princefs oT Cantimir, one of the moft beau- 
tiful women that Georgia has produced, and as full 
of underftanding as of charms, had made on Peter 
the ftrongcit irnprefiion ; and he would have placed 
her on the throne, even to the prejudice of Catha- 
rine I. but for the odious trick hatched by Menzi- 
koff, to fupplant this favourite, who had already 
born a ion to the Lmpcror, and was on the eve of 
bearing him another. In reality Peter intended to 
marry this princefs folemnly, and as me was preg- 
nant, he waited to fee if ihe would bring him a ion^ 
in order to determine him finally ; but fortune and 
intrigue extricated Catharine from thi:-> dilemma, 
The Perfian war fticceeded, and detached the Czar 
from this love adventure, which he foon forgot, be- 
eaufe Catharine accompanied him on the expedition, 
and the Princefs Canliiiiir had a mifcarriage : a rt> 
port was fpread that MenzikofT was the eanle of it. 

IN general, Peter was not nice in his amours, and 
did not co'.!ccitl them;' at leail if we may judg'i from 
a picture TO be fccn at Peterholf, in \vhiJi thi^ prince 
is reprcientcd as a Dutch pcaiant in a gin-iiiop, fit- 
ting on a cafk, embracing a iv/c fervant-girl. k is 
faid, that \n thi.s country a garde-ncr, who furprifed 
him with his d;iu;.;hver, ptniued him with a rake, 
It was in Ilull.nid too, that an unlucky gallantry 



taught him not to give himfclf up to the firfl object, 
This love- misfortune was the original caufe of an 
urinary retention and of the ftone, two cruel diiea- 
tes, that brought him to the grave. 

IN the year 1/23, the lirlt of theie difeafes brought 
on him the iharpeit pains, but was of fhort duration. 
In 1724, it fhowed hfelf in an alarming manner, 
and i j cler, wliofe activity admitted of no reft, left 
himielf to the management of Quacks, who pre- 
fcribed for him no regimen, and palliated inflead of 
curhv.r his complaint. "What is imrnilar, though he 

X O ' O 

v/as wirhin reach of the celebrated Boerhave, lie did 
not think on c\-ling him, or thought it was out of 
time. Afier icveral relipfes, Peter :U length funk 
under Ills complaint, and expired on the f^th J.i> 
nuary 17:^, \ v c lliall return back on the lait mo- 
in en t s or thif, prince, \vlicn we fpeak of the intrigues,, 
that let ("atlu.rine 1. on the throne, 

ONI-: of the principal ir.ilrumcnts of Peter's glo- 
fy, confidered a.; a regenerator of Iris country, \v -> 
ly.iron I.elort, for whom he always a particu- 
lar eiteem, and to whofc coiinfeld he always p.iM s. 
dutiiul deference. '1 Ms Lcrort v/as :>.: C'/ii : ^ 
}\Ic-:it.or in his r.irly y-uth^ aiivi i'j too f.i'iioi;^ i<>i' 
"as t> ' p.i!~ liim over in iilcric:. 

FRANCIS Lcfort, bcrn at C.encva, in tl;c yc. i r 
i6f'i^, and <!efceT\;!e.l from r- : ; e;"hible cili'/cns, 
left his native country, to toljov/ viie pror-jjlion of 

VOL. I. 1.1 ariy : o-, 


urms, for which he had a very ftrong inclination, and 
: very neceiTiry talent. With a good appearance, bold- 
ncfa and <;ood fortune, he foon diftinguiftied him- 

o 7 O 

j't". He entered into the Ruffian fervice, where 
fortune, that feerned to carry him thither to appear 
in a diftmguifhed character, introduced him to the 
acquaintance of Peter, who faw him firib in the 
houfe of the Damih ambailador at Mofcow, in the 
year 1695. ^ lc Czar was nineteen, and Lefort 
thirty nine years of age. The prince wab furprifed 
at the eafe, with which, this foreigner fpake the 
Ruffe, although he had been fcarcely one year iu 
Rurlia. Lefort pleafed him, was invited and ad- 
mitted into his fuite, and very foon into his mofl: 
intimate familiarity. There was between them a 
certain fympathy, which is often found in nature, 
but for which it is very difficult to account. There 
\vas alfo a conformity of inclination, for both oi' 
them h;-d acninj, and a fondncfs for plans, which 
in men of tlieir c.ift, are not vain dreams, that arc 
never, or but incompletely realized. Thus Lefort 
hid no di ; i;cul:y in making his young pupil under- 
iliiid, tiia'c there V.M-; anol'^r manner or living and 
r-ji.n'iing, lhan th it uhi-Ji Ins liupld prcdeccilbrs 
l;ad adople i, ar.d the docile i\ter, enlightened by 
tiic nc\v n;y:*, \v:ik.!i Lefort jy^urcd upon his eyc^, 
rcicued his country from ti;e bubarity, into which 
U was plunged, 



THIS celebrated man fwayed not only over the 
morals of his m.tiler, but had the grcateft afccn- 
dency over his natural temper. Peter, fubjcct to 
pallions, bordering on madnefs, had iritreated Lc- 
fort to bring him back to reafon in thefe tranfports 
of fury, which he himfelf could not moderate. To 
fucceed in this, Lefort employed means, as violent 
as the pafllon of the prince ; and Peter was always 
obliged to him. The Czar made him General of 
his forces, and was indebted to him for fome con- 
quefts; but it was principally in the regeneration or" 
the empire, in the reform of the Ruffian army 
and the creation of a navy, that Lefort afliftcd 
him by his councils. The Czar loft this Mentor 
and friend in the year 1699. Lefort was only 
fifty three years of age. After having performed 
the laft duties to his cold remains, the emperor if- 
fued an order, by which the oldeft of the family of 
Lefort, mould be always entertained at court, at 
the expence of Government, but this order of the 
Czir was not refpected by his fucccffbrs, and the 
laft of the Lcforts, not having been able to give an 
account of the lottery funds entrufted to him, was 
arreflcd and conducted to the frontiers of Polaad, 
with a mm of fifteen thoufaud roubles, and an 
injunction, that neither he nor any ot his C'cfcc-n- 
dants fhould appear in Kullia. It is ailinncd, thar. 
the deficiency found in his cafh-box, was only the 

It 2 p retell 


pretext of his difgrace, and that the true motive was 
his having difpleafed the cabal, which was in the 
pay of the King of Poland. 

AMONG the numerous anecdotes related of Peter 
I. the moil characteriftic is that of this prince be- 
ing in London, and running mrt of cam., which 
forne merchants came to offer him on condition, 
that he would allow them the privilege of felling 
tobacco in Ruffia, which they laid, would there 
meet with the mo it grateful reception, bccaulc the 
Ruffians being forbidden the uie of tobacco by a re- 
ligious precept, were uncommonly fond of the pipe. 
This prohibition was fo much the more felt by them, 
that the patriarch had excommunicated all who 
fmoked; for this reafon, that the Mahometans, ene- 
mies to the chrilHans, and more particularly to the 
Ruffians, ufed the pipe. Th'= pope 1 ; of Ruffia, in 
the pulpit, continually oppofed this pretended abo- 
mination ; and notwithstanding this prejudice, the 
Czar granted the privilege, and undertook to, make 
the popes themfelves finoke. This afiair was al- 
Tnott as ferious as the beards, whereof we {hall fpcak 
in another place. The people in Ruffia at this day 
fmokc without temple. Mow many abl'urd preju- 
dices Pettr made difappear in this country. But 
after his time they would have recovered force, if 
his fuccciiors had not fupported and governed after 
his principles. 


NEAP, Peter's tomb, arc feen fome Turkifh flags, 
taken in the battle of Tchdrne. They were difplay- 
c.d ibirif years ago in a folemnity, which was cele- 
brated in memory of the victory, in which they had 
been taken. The Emprcfs, after the ceremony, 
placed them with her own hand on the tomb of 
the founder of the Ruffian navy, to which {he at- 
tributed ail the fuccefs of Rufiia a^ainil the Ottomans. 


C IT A P. VI. 

vwB cf Catharine I. of /il:xl.\ fen to Peter I. and 
vf his f:jler Anne Pctrrrjjna, Dsfcriphon of this prin- 
ce/}. Her character. Anecdote on this head. Par- 
ticular* reflecting her. 'Tcrib r ,f the Emprcfs Anns 
hi'unrj-jjna. Her bmutv. Qu ii-hat terms foe 'was 
called to the throne of Ru/ji-.i. Hciv foe fulfilled 
them, ivhcn foe ivas proel^'ur.ed. bitere/llng parti- 
culars ofthisprinccfS) of her weakness , and of her 
our ik' Ernej't s ~/ean de Binn, 

NKAR the allies of Peter I. rdl thole of his iirft 
\vifc Catharine I. of this beautiful Livonian, whom 
fortune brought from a humble cottage and trorn 
{Livery, to let on the throne of: the Czars, which 
flic occupied with dignity At another place we mall 
enter upon the particulars rclpectmg this princefs. 



UNDER a vault of the fame church is interred 
without pomp or infcription, Alexis, fon to Peter 
I. who was the firft victim of the artifice of the am- 
bitious MenzikofF, and of the refentment of an in- 
human father, though perhaps juflly irritated. The 
remembrance of his fate cannot but flrongly affect 
all fenfible fouls, and that Peter may not be regard- 
ed with horror, it is alledged in his favour, that 
he only fought to exclude from the throne a fuc- 
peffor, who was unworthy of him, and who threat- 
ning to deftroy all his reforms, was going to plunge 
his country again into the Barbarity, from which 
he had refcued it with fo much difficulty. Never- 
thelefs the exclufion of Alexis, the decree which fol- 
lowed his death, Peter's uncertain and fluctuating 
ideas on the right of fucceflion, which his decree 
introduced into Ruflia, have lince caufed the fre- 
quent revolutions, which we have feen take place 
in the government of that empire. 

NOT far from the unfortunate Alexis, and under 
the fame vault, is interred Charlotte Chriftina So- 
phia of Brunfwic, his wife, whofc fate was harder 
than her hufoand's, becaufe me deferved it lefs. 
Born in the year 1694, me married in the year 
1711, the Czarowitch, who had feen her at her fa- 
ther's court. She died in the year 1715, partly of 
the grief her hufoand's bad treatment caufed her, 
and partly of the bad effects occafioned by the birth 



of Peter II. who was not more fortunate than thofe, 
from whom he had received exiilencc. 

THE aflies of Anne Petrowna," oldcft daughter to 
Peter and Catharine, are depoiited hard by her pa- 
rents. This princefs, lels known than her fitter, the 
Emprefs Catharine, dcferved to be more fo. She 
was perfectly beautiful, her laugh was agreeable, 
and her fmile that of the graces. To much pcne 
tration, me joined the candour and goodnefs ot a 
free and honeft foul. Peter had taken care, in the 
education of his daughter, to unite with the gifts 
of nature, the abilities, which arc the fruit of in- 
ftruction. With uncommon facility, me fpake the 
principal languages of Europe, cfpecially the French, 
for which me had a particular predilection. She 
was diftinguimed by a fingular prefence of mind, 
which, in whatever fituation flic was, made her al- 
ways act like the daughter of Peter. 

THE young count Apraxin, being bold enough 
one day to make to her a declaration of love, and 
me having anfwered it in a way to make him lofc 
all hopes of the fucccfs of his paffion, he watched 
the moments when (he was alone, threw himfelf ai: 
iier feet, prcfcntcd to her his i\vorJ, and intreatcd 
her to end his fufierin^s by plumnno; it into hi* 

O * A w O 

heart. G/'-ir, faid Petrowna to him, in the cooled. 
manner, Gi-rc it me, and you will fee the daughter 
of your Emperor wants neither courage nor refolu- 



tion to puniOi a forward fellow, who dares be de- 
ficient in rcfpect to her. Apraxin., taken at his 
word, mowed that he was a bragger, who deferred 
fo feverc a correction. With ihame he returned hh 
fword into the fheath, and intreatcd the princefs to 
pardon a delirium, which was the effect of her 
charms. Anne pardoned this inconfideratc man, 
but exuofed him to ridicule by publifhing his ad- 

IN the year 1725, (lie married Charles Frederic, 
Duke of Holfteen-Gottorp, to whom fhe had been 
betrothed for ibme time. She had pretenfions to two 
crowns, and obtained none. That of Sweden of 
right reverted to her by her hufband, only fon to 
Charles XII. but the Swedifb ftates preferred to her 
Ubrica E!cd;i',;\:, youngeit lifter to this monarch. 
Peter I. her father, deftined the crown of Ruilia 
for her, but his death, preceded by long delirium, 
prevented him from putting his laft will in execu- 
tion, lie even attempted to put it in writing, but 
none of the words, which his dying hand wrote, 

could be dccyphered, except theie Give all to . 

Catharine I. would have alib \viihed that her daugh- 
ter ihould iucccc.1 her, but fhe v/is afraid of the 
party \viii^h called for Peter Alcxiowitfch, a:j grand- 
Ion of the Kmpcror ; and reftcd contented with ad- 
mitting her into the council of regency, which was 

o o ' 

to rule during the minority of this prince. The 



fate which perfecuted Anne, allowed her to attend 
only once. She was excluded from it by the def- 
potit'm of this fame Menzikoff, who was indebted 
to her for a great part of his rile ; and as gratitude 
Is none of the virtues of courtiers, me was bammed 
from Rufua by this arrogant minifter, and with 
her hufband retired to Kiel, where Ihe died in 1728, 
in the twenty fccond year of her age, leaving a fon, 
the unfortunate Peter III, 

CLOSE by the tomb of this princcfs is the Emprcfs 
Anne's, fccond daughter 1 o I wan Alexiowitfch. She 
73 defcribed as a woman, who to beauty joined the 
affability, which conciliates hearts, that beauty does 
not always fecurc. Though timid, me knew how 
to fupport her rank, and herfelt be obeyed, 
She was the widow of Frederic William, Duke of 
Courland, with whom fhe lived only fifteen days ; 
and (he was ftayin^ at Mil taw, when (he was called 
to the throne of Kuliva, of which iii? never dream- 
ed. Peter had died r;f the fmaK pox, without LA- 
vino; had any children, and hid not taken the pro- 
cauv ion of naming a fuc-'hihr, llcredharv ri^/it 
having been iheu aboiiihed, the ci^lit members. 
n'!m rompoie t'vj iii'-'i council, t:; ik ad'/tintare o: 

. ) O 

this circumluinec, to r c :r:dcr t'.-:n ',; Ive-- all-power- 
ful; and formed the project r.f the unrc- 
itrained power of the Czars, by 1<_ uin^ tli?m cnlv 
the externals of royalty, 'i he '\:.vhre 1 tiiev \vouM 
VOL. I- 1 nd 


find in the feeble inftrument, to which they 
would cntnifr. the imperial coral, and that they 
would really be fovereiffns. Reckoning on every 

* O -) J 

tiling from the gentlenefs of this princefs, they chofe 
her in preference to her oldeft (ifter, the cluchefs of 
Mecklenburg, and to the defcendants of Peter the 
Great. They made her fee, that having a weaker 
right to the cro\vn than her fifter, (he owed them 
every thing, and confequently they dictated to her 
conditions, to which me fubfcribed without hefita- 
tion, pcrfuaded that it would be eafv to recede from 

' i * 

them. iSuch is the fincerity of the Anointed of the 
Lord, that they fwcar and perjure themfelves accor- 
ding- to circumftances. 


TIII: n: oft remarkable of the conditions prefcribed 
to Anne v/,:re f-rjl^ that the Czarina would exercife 
;:o ac't of ibvereignty, and inipofe no kind of tax 
without the content of the High Council ; fecondly* 
tliat ihc v/onld punifli no gentleman with death, till 
Alter the proof of a capital crime was taken, and in 
tlii-; cafe lac would never confiscate his goods; iblrd- 
.', that f'C conk! neither alienate nor dilpoic of the 
cro\vn (Kuna'.n.s in any way; fourthly ^ that f!ie could 
nc,t 17; irrv, IUT name a iuccrllor, without the advice 

;' iho 1 ligh Council, &:c. 
; .:' v,..-. irircely arrived at St Peterfburg, 
ir ; \ciied with the imperial badges, and 
!y f^l-cd llie reins of government, when 

w t 



her guards and the principal nobility, that is to fay, 
the greater part of the courtiers, \\ho alone profit 
by the abufe of arbitrary power, appeared indignant 
at feeing the authority of their fovereign thus re- 
ftricted, and came in a body to her to break 
the fetters, which had been forged for her, and to 
make her power as abiblute as that of her prcdecef- 
fors, by annulling an illufory act, which an illegal 
power had made her fubfcribe. Anne appeared at firit 
fcrupulous to reverfe an engagement, that ihc had 
contracted, but ibon me tore the act, that bound 
her, by appearing to yield to the wifhes of the na- 
tion ; and this nation compofed of nine or ten cour- 
tiers of the F.mprefs' guards, and thirty intriguer?, 
whom Ofterman and Biren had railed, and put in 
motion. It is not in France alone, that the word 
nation has been abufed, to exprefs the lov/cft mino- 
rity a handful of factious men. So true it is, that 
from the one pole to the other of our globe, we 
find intrigue and cabal continually in activity, for 
the purpofe of deceiving the honed portion of fo- 
ciety, who know not how to lay fecrct pi ins. 

THI: act in queftion bcin^ thus annihilated, the 

i O 7 

High Council was fupprclTed, and the Kmprcfs in- 
vcitcd a-ncw with a power as unlimited as that, 
\rhich her predcccflbrs had enjoyed. 

AN attentive education, a long abfencc from t lie- 
court of Rufiia, and a ftav as lonq; in a fmall court, 

* / O 

I 2 where 


little or no etiquette exifted, having contri- 
buted to foften her character, and diveft her of that 
P" : .;.?r,ial pride, which the fovereigns of Ruflia love tq 
boatt Oij Anne wa^ adored by her people more. 
tli.u. any other monarch had been, becaufe the Ruf- 
fi: _>s, like all oilier fubjea:s in Europe, think them- 
fe.v--.-s obliged to their rulers, not only for the 
gjod they do them, but alio for the evil they do 

ANNE, as we have faicl abo.e, pailcd for a pretty 
\, though me was too jolly ; bu! this defect 
was hid or leiTened, by a majefiic feature, which 
give her a magnificent air, fupported by a com- 
manding look, which impreffed reipecl on all that 
approached her. She had likes\ ife the uncommon 
and confequently precious faculty ot diilinguifliing 
the people, who were worthy of the favours they 
folicited ; which fuppofes the inoft penetrating faga- 
city, becauie none malic themfelves v/iih ib much 
art, or {\v)\\ tlicmfelves more to advantage, thaii 
the folicitors ot favours. Anne poilcilcd alio an in- 
valuable quality of obliging and rewarding, in fuch 
a war, as to augment the value ot the favour and 

- ' o 

tlu rccompcnce, by the eafe, with which they were 

SHI. had the rage of oflentation, and was fond of 
luxury, nor. in herfdf, but in her courtiers, to fnch 
y. degree, lliat they were looked closvn on, if they 



ih()\vc I thcmfclvcs at court twice in the fame drefs. 
The Ruffian Lord, who is exccffively fond of drcfs, 
outdid the wiihcs of the Empreis, by joining an A- 
fiatic magnificence to a. variety of fuits. In the 


midll of this croud of courtiers, covered with gold 
or jewels, Anne delighted in appearing in the fmi- 
pleil drefs. A filk handkerchief round her head, a 
fcarlet jacket and black petticoat were her ufual 
morning drefs ; and a long gown, of the Ruffian, 
fafhion, iniiead of a jacket, her drefs in the after- 
noon. Her greatefl pleafure was to fee affembled 
round her a great circle of nobles ; and her favour- 
ite converfation was that where epigram and ben mot 
prevailed, which produced Cakrnbi,:irs in Ruffia as 
well as at Vcrfailles. 

SOME who have written without indulgence to 
the lex, to which Anne belonged, have allowed 
ihemfelvcs to fay, that i'hc was car^lefs and averfe 
to bulincls, becaufe me was not capable of that un- 
remitting attention, which is not found even in men, 
ii they have not been accufcomed to labour from 
their early youth. The Ruffians were obliged to 
Anne for confiding, during trying conjunctures, 
in the ability and experience of old Count O Her- 
mann, whom Elizabeth condemned to die on the 
fcall'old, notwithstanding his capacity, and the obli- 
gations that IvuftLi wiib undr- to L. n. But Anne 
is reproached tor having given herfelf up (to fay 



nothing more exprcfTive) to Biren, who flrangely 
abufed his power. This blind confidence of the 
Emprefs, was, it is laid, one of the blunders of 
love, which has caufed the commiffion of fo many. 
ERNEST Jean de Biren, fo celebrated in the north, 
for his good and bad fortune, was born of obfcure 
parents, in Courland. His father, however, who 
had made his fortune by felling the forefts of the 
Dukes of Courland, had employed it in giving his 
fon a complete education, which, joined to the 
judgment and favourable appearance this young 
man had received from nature, made him be foon 
diftinguimed by Anne, then duchefs of Courland j 
who made him firft her fecretary, and foon after 
Jover. The favour Biren enjoyed with this prin- 
cefs, when fhe came to the empire, was fuch, that 
flie appeared to have feated herfelf on the throne, 
only to marc it with her lover. Biren, abfolute mi- 
niiter, then governed his miftrefs, as a Sultan ma- 
nages his feraglio. To the arrogance of a favour- 
ite, he joined the ferocity of a Coflac, and his cru- 
elty recoiled on his fovereign, who was accufed of 
feverity, and of having governed the Rufiiins with 
the Kmiit in her hand, while me was naturally hu- 
mane, and continually oppofed the fanguinary mea- 
fures of her favourite. She often employed even 
prayers and tears to foften this mercilefs man, and 
to obtain from him the pardon of the unfortunate 



victims, whom he facrificcd to his refentmcnt and 
caprice ; for to incur his difpleafure, the Ilighteft 
inattention was only necdlary, and the leaft effect 
of this diipleafure was banh'hinent into Siberia. 
Such was the iron fceptre with which this defpot 
governed, that it is averred, that during Anne's 
reign, more than thirty fix thoufand perfons were 
put to death or banifhed into Siberia. 

ALTHOUGH the Emprefs did not order thefe fen- 
tcnces of death or banifhments, fhe is not the Icfs 
accountable to pofterity for them, fmce me permit- 
ted thefe profcriptions to be made in her name. 
This princefs died in the year 1740, after having 
named Iwan her fucceffor. By this choice of an in- 
fant, fhe wiflied to prolong, even after her death, 
the reign of her lover, whom fhe declared Regent 
during the minority of the young Czar, which was 
not to end till he arrived at the age of fcventeen 
years ; and he was only fome months old at Anne's 
death. Biren having been as inflexible and arrogant 
in the regency as in the miniftry, raifcd againft him 
a croud of enemies, who hurled him from the fum~ 
init of greatnefs, into a cell at Bcrezowa in Siberia, 
on the banks of the Oby. 

Tin. v fay that Bircn, in this difinal dwelling, foft- 
cned the rigour of his fate by books, the Regent Anne 
laving allowed him to carry into his exile the iu- 
perb library, which he had collected at St Peter!'- 



burg, during the time he was in favour. Books 
produced in him philoibphicat reflexions, and phr- 
lofophy re-eftabliilied calmnefs in his foul, by pro- 
ving to him, that the exiftcnce af courtiers is only 
precarious and delufive, 


UMEXT containing the a foes of the En:pr:J- Eliza- 
beth. Dcfcription of -this Princefs. Her fingular 
tajhs, Her devotion ftill more fmgular. She takes 
no hujband. Opinion believed in RuJJia, re/peeling 
a fccret marriage contracted by this Prlncefs. Par- 
ticulars and anecdotes on this head- Summary of ths 
revolution^ that placed her on the throne. Leftocq^ 
fon to a French Refugee, the foul of this revolution, 
Particulars rcjpccllng this adventurer. Ref peeling 
Schuwaloff another favourite cf Elizabeth's. Anec- 
dotes of the hijtory of Rit/Jia, publijhed by Voltaire. * 
Rcj i c:\ions on Elizabeth's government, 

r ' J ~ > 
1. IIE i;gLt of Elizabeth's tomb recalled to our re- 

mcmbrancc another svcak woman. Anne was tern- 
p^riit'j. j-'.li/.Abcth \v-is indolent and volu-ptuous. 
Daughter to Pc'u r 1. and the beautiful CalkiriiK 1 . 
bcrn in tlie ---car 1/09. She was handfomer than 
her mother. She had a Roman figure, a maieftic 



mien, and a fh'ape you could not help admiring, 
which (lie preferved nil her life. She dreffed in the 
plain eft ilyle, and this plainnefs in her ordinary drefs 
was ore of her taftes. To thefe gifts of nature flic 
joined en rapine*; manners, and an air of freedom, 

O ?"> O * * 

which inspired confidence. She had a quality rare 
in monarchs, gratitude for fervices done her, and 
flic always rewarded them in the inoft generous 
manner. Her ailability had made her contract the 
habit of faying only agreeable tilings, but in return, 
ihe was very tond 01 hearing them faid of herfelf. 
Yet \vhen her fenfibility was offended, which was 
nor ill to do, (he armed herfelf with a difdainful 
pride, no*: eafily borne, 

Ki.r/.\r,F "H hid a very particular turn, namely, 
nmuiing herfelf with cooking. It is faid, me ex- 
celled in it, but that would not have been the cafe, 
if her courtiers had not made it a rule to think the 
dimes exquiiite, which were feafoned by the royal 
hand ; and with fo much the more reafon, that in 
this art, fhe pretended to have great knowledge ; 
nnd if, when the admitted any nobles to table, a 
dilh (if her drefTmg, had not been always prefented, 
Tipon which ihe took good cire to colk-r:! opini- 
ons, \vhieh, as may be well imagined, were never 

ANOTHLR whim of Elizabeth's devotion, 
which me carried the longl'h of childiflmefs. She 

VOL. I- dragged 


dragged it into great expences, and a multitude of 
religious inftitutions, which might have made the 
Ruffian nation retrograde, if a philofophical had not 
fucceedeci an enthtifiailic woman. It is affirmed 
that every year, pafling from devotion to pleafures, 
and from pleafures to devotion, me fcrupuloufly 
confeffed her errors, exprelled the fincereft repen- 
tance, grew weary of this fervour, and refumed 
her old habits. 

ELIZABETH had a noble paffion for immortalizing 
herfelf. by tlie publication of a new code. She had 
entruftcd the computation of it to two magiftrates, 
deeply verfed in the ftudy of the laws, who labour- 
ed inceilintly at this honourable attempt ; till re- 
monflranccs, arriving from all quarters, and fug- 
gefted by the prieits, forced Elizabeth to give up 
her plan. The glory, therefore, of giving a code 
to the nation, was referved for the illuftrious Ca- 

H::R beauty, her rank, and her pretenfions to 
the imperial throne, made Elizabeth be courted by 
fevrral princes, but none obtained her hand. There 
had been negociations for marrying her to Louii 
XV. but they 'had not hern feriou.s. r l"he Emprefs 
C^itharhiC !. v.'ifi'.eJ to unite ]\cr \vi.tli the King of 
Sweden's I)rolhcr 3 Ci'navlcs Augulrus dj Holflein- 
Gottorp ; but this prince died, while this negocia- 
tion \va:; pending Miilreis of hcrfclf, Elizabeth 



bnjnifiied every idea of marriage, and adopted her 
nephew Peter. 

AFTKR all there is an opinion generally believed, 
that fhe was privately married to Count Rafumow- 
(ki, with whom fhe lived in the greatcft intimacy, 
and the Counts of TarracanofF and their lifters, pal- 
fed for the fruit of this clandeiline union. The 
Ruffians, and Europe, were confirmed in this opini- 
on, by the adventure of the countefs of TarracanofF, 
who had retired into Italy, and fettled at Leghorn, 
where fhe lived not only as a fimple individual, but 
as an unfortunate woman, very near the horrors of 
indigence, after having fled from her native coun- 
try, and her life being threatened. The war in 
1770, brought Count OrlofF into the feaof Tufcany, 
and he formed acquaintance with her, feemed to 
pity her misfortunes, and was anxious to procure 
her relief, without humbling her. This way of 
proceeding procured him the confidence of the un- 
fortunate Countefs, who although brought up at 
court, had doubtlefs forgotten, what a perfidious 
courtier is capable of. She foon experienced it. 
She was invited to an entertainment in Dyk's the 
Britim coniul, where fhe was received with affec- 
tion. At table the confer verfat ion turned on the 
Ruffian fleet, and the magnificient fliow a fliip of 
the line prefents. The Countefs confeffed me had 
never enjoyed fuch a grand fight, and the Count 

K 2 engaged 


engaged to fatisfy her curiolity. During the del- 
fert, a fuperb floop appears on thn fhore, on board 
of which the Countefs is conducted, at the found 
of military mufic, and they (ail towards the iliip of 
the line. Here the fcene changes. Scarcely was 
the Countefs on board, when it is announced, that 
fhe is a prifoner, and fhe is loaded with irons. The 
unhappy woman with tears in vain wafiics the feet 
of the barbarous OrlofF. The fhip fails, arrives at 
St Petersburg, lodges her prey in the iortreis ; She 
is plunged into a dungeon, and from a dungeon in- 
to oblivion, for {he has never been heard of fince 
that event. 

ELIZABETH fucceeded to the empire on the 25th 
November 1741, by the carekfihefs of the regent 
Anne mother to Iwan 111. and by the intrigues of 
Leftocq, an adventurer, placed as a phyfician, at 
the fide of Elizabeth, whofe confidence he had, and 
who endowed with all the talents fuitable to an in- 
triguer, exercifed them all, for the purpofe of let- 
ting his miftrcfs on the throne of Ruiiia; and he 
law his undertaking, however rafii it might be 
thought, crowned with the mo ft fortunate i\:cccfs. 
Having been aide-de-camp to Wron^oif, and fornc 
noblemen, Leftocq had all prepared for accouiplifh- 
ing his purpoie, when an indifcretion of the regent 
Anne's induced him to haften the execution of his 



ELIZABETH, who was yet hcfitating about yield- 
ing to the intention of her friends, at laft complied 
with their importunity, on the evening of the 2jth 
November, and went with Leftocq and Wronzoff, 
to the Guards quarters, who had been already biaf- 
fcd and iccured. She was announced as the daugh- 
ter of Peter I. and his legitimate heirefs, No an- 
Iwer was made, but the cry, " Long live the Em- 
preis Elizabeth/' After the oath of fidelity was 
udminiltercd to her in this quality, two hundred 
grenadiers offered to conduct her to the Imperi- 
al palace, and make her be acknowledged there. 
Thefe are taken at their word, they advance to- 
wards the reiidence of the Regent, funk in fleep, as 
well as the Emperor her fon, who is to be hurled 
from the throne, on which his youthful years had 
not permitted him to lit. 

THE Guards of the palace, bribed or furprized^ 
join, initeacl of oppollng Elizabeth's retinue, and 
thirty grenadiers, who get without oppofition, as 
far as the Regent's bed, are the fir ft, who inform 
her of the revolution iuft eiiccted, and of her own 
fall. This princely was reduced to the humiliating 
itate of appearing half naked before this band of 
iukiicrs, who ionie hours before were throwing them- 
iclvcs at her toct. She is allowed icarcely time to 
put un her clothes. She and her huiband are drag- 
ged priibaers into Elizabeth's old palace, and thence 



tranfported to Riga. Afterwards we (hall have oo 
cafion to fpeak of this unfortunate family. 

WHEN Elizabeth was peaceably feated on thethrone 
of Ruffia, it muft be imagined, that Leflocq had great 
influence on the management of affairs. Indeed he 
enjoyed the greateft intereft, was loaded with rich- 
es and honours, but he had to do with a woman 
eafily prepoffeffed, who, in fpite of the affurances 
{he had given him, of always protecting him with 
her fhield of royalty, facriliced him to the Cabal, 
who would have war with Pruilia; a meafurc, which 
Lcftocq firmly oppofed. He was tried on a ground- 
lefs pretext, that he had maintained a fecret corref- 
pondence with the enemies of the {late. This ac- 
cufation was formed on fome letters from the Pruf- 
fian ambaffador, who was his friend, but they had 
no reference to bufinefs ; yet he was ftript of all his 
wealth, which was immenfe. Apraxin and fome 
grandees of the court, who had acted as Serjeants 
in this affair, bafely divided his jewels, which were 
prefents from the Emprefs. 

HE was tranfported to lifting- Weliki, a poor 
burgh in the government of Archangel. There 
with his family he breathed^ fubfifting on a very 
moderate penfion, which the officer to whofe ma- 
nagement it was entrufted, adminiftered to him at; 
pleafure. Peter lit, reftored to him his liberty, and 
fome of his dignities ; but only a very fmall part of 



his fortune, which had been embezzled, was reftor- 
ed to him. A fingular circumftance, which is very 
defcriptive of Ruffian juftice, is, that of forty thou- 
fand roubles found in his houfe in money, only ele- 
ven thoufand were returned to him ; the remainder 
was faid to have been expended on his account. Firft, 
fifteen thoufand roubles for his fupport during his ex- 
ile. Secondly, thirteen thoufand two hundred for 
improvements made on his houfes j and obferve, 
they had been occupied by the very enemies of Le- 
ftocq, who had not paid the rent. Thirdly, eight 
hundred roubles for the paper, pens and ink, and 
the cxpences neceffary in arranging the annual ac- 
counts of the management of his property, and no 
account was given him of his lands. 

LESTocQjvvas fon to a French refugee, a native of" 
Champagne. Peter I. had brought him to Ruflia, 
and Catharine I. had fixed him at court. After 
his return to St Peterfburg in the year 1762, being 
difgufted at the life of a courtier, in which he had 
experienced more bitternefs than favour, he lived 
retired with fome friends till the year 1767, and 
on his death bed he confelTed, that this period of 
of his life had been the moft happieft. This con- 
fellion a thoufand courtiers have made, but it wa* 
always after fome great reverie, that they thus re- 
turned to themfelves, for few or none of them have 
left the fcene, without being driven from it. 



ELIZABETH had another favourite, more fortu- 
nate than Lcftocq, though he lefs deferved to bn 
fo, Count de Schuwaloff, whom Voltaire has made 
known in France as a man of letters. We are go- 
ing to fee on what grounds, and from them to con- 
clude what value ought to be put on the precarious? 
reputations, which Voltaire took it into his head 
to create. Schuwaloff, by means of his wife, ha- 
ving acquired the entire confidence of Elizabeth. 
had corne at fortune by gigantic ftrides, with ft> 
much the more juftice, that he had applied himfelf 
to learn the character and tafte of his miftrefs. Af- 
ter me had been raifed to the throne, he had made 
a difcovcry precious for a courtier, which was, that 
by founding in the ears of Elizabeth, the words //- 
inanity, and the Go r .d of the People, every thing was 
obtained from her. More than one Monarch in 
Europe lias been deceived by this grofs ftratagem ; 
ignorant or ftupid, he has lent a hand to the com- 
miiTion of evil, by wifhing to do good ; whence it 
follows, that a Lv on the throne is the creatcft of 

' O O 

calamities, and a thoufand tinier worfe than that of 
being governed by a well informed Tyrant, whom 
men dare not deceive, becaufe he cannot be deceiv- 
ed with impunity. 

THL3 Schuwalofffilre of feducing the Emprefs, 
befet her in fuch a way, that in a ihort time and 
under the fpedous pretext of doing good, he ob- 


tained from her the exclufive property of fevcral 
brunches of commerce, which rendered him one of the 
richeft nobles of Ruflla, but ruined an infinite num- 
ber of families, and even whole towns. The felling 
or the fureils of Narva, on which alone the unfor- 
tunate inhabitants of this town fubluled, is given as 
an eminent infhncc. He had made the Emprefs 
unclerftand, that the inhabitants of Narva, for 
want of means, did not draw from the fale of thefc 
foreils all they could ; and that by giving the privi- 
lege to a rich mar,, he with his own funds, would 
funport this numerous body of poor people, who 
could hardly procure an exiilence; that thcie for efts, 
to become an excellent branch of commerce, want- 
ed only to be viviiied by the prefence of a man, 
who joined opulence to the clcfire of being uieful to 
fullering humanity. Elizabeth, perfuaded by thcie 
nerfidious mfmuations, f:irned the errant and the ru- 

1 7 O O 

in of eight hundred families. Schuwaloff insatiable, 
becaufe nothing can {atisfy the greedy avarice of n 
; ourtier, obtained alib the cxcluiivc right of icil- 
:ng whale and Ulh oil. and of all the tobacco nro- 
cluceJ in Ruilla. The barbarous man, at that one 
li'i^Ie t'.nyj, ruined a whole ppi)vince. \\'c ice in 
iheic- monopolies the model of the iiidiicrect donations 
ry Louis XVI. to thcinfatiablc i\}llgiv ; ic, ('ci:dc, &-.. 

ScHU\\*Ai.orv, \\-}\o with profit alib \vas dci'irous 
of becoming iliuilriouSj %v;'Ji a view to this, propo- 

Voi.. I. L led 


fed to Elizabeth," to employ ibme famous hiitoriaii 
to compofe the hiilory of Ruilhi. He gave her to 
undcrftand that this plan, long meditated by Peter I. 
was refervcd for her, and that it alone could im- 
mortalize both her name and her reign. He propo- 
led Voltaire, \vho had already written the romance, 
called, the hiilory of Charles X-lIj and he was ac- 
cepted of. 

WE were allured in Rufiia, that Voltaire had re- 
ceived correct extracts and memorials written by 
Peter the Fir it's own hand, \vitli whatever was 
found inoft remarkable in anecdotes, in the library 
of the academy of faiences in St Peterfburg ; yet 
notwithftandirrg thefe materials, and the capacity of 
the writer, this hiilory cf Ruffia was very incom- 
plete, and unworthy cf the hero it celebrated. The 
Rufiian academicians, in particular, maintained, that 
it contained aim oft none of the materials iurnifhcd 
to the author, who on the contrary had therein in- 
lertcci many things, which had not been communi- 
cated to him, and wherein tijs truth of facts had been 
changed j but thi;: accuiaiijn is not abio]u-_c!y weH 
.iov.ndcd. llov/evcr it be, at Pcterfburg- people were 
L;encra;iy discontented, beta ~.\ ith the author and the 
vork. Schuv/aloii clpecially expreilcd to Voltaire 
i.n ilron^ Venris, his own lurpriie, that he not only 
had not made u!e of the interefting anecdotes am\- 
municatcd to him, but alib (UJcd his memoirs with 



contradictions, and' mangled all the names 
of families and towns. Voltaire anfwcred, that he 
was not accuftomed to tranfcribe literally the mate- 
rials he was furnifhed with : that he had arranged 

7 O 

the plan, and directed the work in his own way ; 
that not having introduced the private life of the 
X.-zar into the hiilory of Rufiia, he had not been a. 
ble to benefit by the anecdotes, which only concern 
ed this prince ; that in many places he had been o- 
bliged to fupply the materials tranimitted him, by 
-other notes he had procured, of which Staniflaus, 
who had been Peter's cotcmporary, had warranted 
the authenticity. 

6 As to the reproach of having mangled the 
names ; a German," added he^ " fcems to bring 
it on me; I wifli more breath, and fewer confo- 
** nants." Schuwaloff was fo much the more pro- 
voked, as to encourage the compiler of this hif- 
r.ory, which he hirnielf had projected, he liad fent 
beforehand a rich box of furs, and a collection of 
all the Rufllan medals ft ruck in gold. The furs ar- 
rived at Forney, but the medals having been cn- 
truiled to a certain Ruffian gentleman, called Pufcii- 
kin, addicted to \vine and women, were diflipated 
in parties ol pleafurc. AVits at the court of St Pe- 
terfburg, on hearing this news, fliid, that Pufchkin 
had been fhipwrcckccl wi:h the rncdals, as Voltaire 
bad been with the RmTmn memoirs. 

f ?- Nor- 


NOTWITHSTANDING her favourites, and fomc 
weakneffes to be attributed to licr education, rather 
than to her fex, Elizabeth had great qualities, and 
all, who have fpoken of her, have pronounced high 
eulogiums on her humanity. When ihe mounted 
the throne, fhe made a vow to iniiicl no capital pu- 
nilhment during her reign. It is even added, that 
fhe flied tears when fhe received the news of fomc 
victory gained by her armies. Yet it is obforved, 
that though during her reign no criminal was exe- 
cuted publicly or formally, the rriibns were full of 
miferable people, fcveral ot whom perillied by the 
foul air they breathed ; a death undoubtedly more 
terrible than that inflicted by the fworcl of execu- 

, THE ftate inquifition, or the Secret C-mr.uitcc* who 
looked after perlons fufpecled of ftate- crimes, were 
perpetually active during Elizabeth's reign. Many 
people on the flight eft evidence, underwent torture 
within the boundaries of the prifons, where thev 
received the r^nouij and expired under the torments 
of this cruel punifhment. This juitice, executed 
\vithin four walls, is an atrocious vengeance, an un- 
profitable murder, becaufe the puniihmcnt of t'u, 
guilty ought to be exemplary and public. 13ut wi::i: 
reiiecls the greateft difhonour on ti;Is piincei"^' rci^:i 
is the punifhment fhe caufeci be iniiiclcd on tlie 
Cour.teflcs Bcjlucbcf and Lapi-cbri. By her orders 



each received thirty ftrokes of the knout, in a pu- 
blic fquare ; their tongues were cut out, and they 
were baniflied into Siberia. One of thefe ladies, 
the Countefs Lapuchin, efteemed the prettied wo- 
man in Rufiia, was acculed of having carried on a 
fecret correfpondence with the French ambaflador ; 
but the true crime was, having fpoken with too 
much freedom of Elizabeth's amours ; and ladies 
know no forgivenefs for this injury. The bare nar- 
ration of this cruel vengeance makes one fhud- 
der. Figure a delicate woman, diflinguimed by 
rank, publicly mangled by the hands of an execu- 
tioner. Horror and pity are then the only fenti- 
ments which affect us, and we throw off every fort 
of refpect for the memory of a princefs, who was 
barbarous enough to commit fiich an excefs of 

BUT, while lamenting thefe inhuman confequen- 
ces, and turning our eyes afide from the fcene we 
have been viewing, if we examine Elizabeth's cha- 

o * 

racier with lefs feverity, we will [be reconciled to 
her. We recollect all the good tint me did ; we fee 
that her heart, naturally inclined to kindnefs, had 
allowed itfelf to be corrupted by abfolute power, 
and hardened by fufpicion, but that it returned to 
the fentiments of pity and mercy, when her paffions 
and prejudices did not get the better of her. In fhort 3 
thofe, \vhc have been near her, affirm, that it was 



nnpofhble to obtain from her a conient to pnnii'h 
the moft atrocious crimes with death, except when 
the lieutenant of the Police conftrued this very cle- 
mency of their fovereign into the hurt of the un- 
happy pcrfons; and when he had fecret recourfe ( to 
the frightful expedient of inflicting the knout upon 
criminals of this clafs, till they expired under the 
ftrokes ; a death u.nqueftionably more cruel than 
capital punifhment ; fince in the latter cafe, they 
would have been only beheaded, and in the former 
they were ilowly cut to pieces. Elizabeth died in 
the year 1761, in the fifty-third year of her age, 
^ncl twenty-fecond of her reign. 


Mixr iil St P'-tcrJlurg. Morsy coined there. 27?* PcUr the Firjl's kwfc an object of curio/ity. 
Cb'jrd; <iud cancnizatitn of Alcxandcr-NeuJki* 

1 HE mint, which was the object of one of our 
cxcurfions, is alfo an edifice remarkable in the iflc 
of St Peterfburg. It is dcftitute of mo\v, and the 
architecture has nothing dcfcrving of praiic. but the 
order, that reigns in the work-houfcs, is admirable. 
AMOXC; ih.e remarkable thing--] to be iccn in theic 
-vovk-houics, is a machine ulcd for /tamping the 



Jiioncv. It attracts the neater attention from tra- 

' O 

vcllers, becaufe they are warned of it having been 
invented bv the rehniins: rrnnrcis, and the media- 

O O 1 ' 

mim is iimplc and ingenious. 

THE fir ft materials for the fabrication of money, 
arc brought from the mines -of Siberia, and the 
parting is made in a laboratory in the neigh- 
bourhood of the work-houies. For a long period, 
(and it is lull done at this day) a great number of 
Dutch crowns were recall at St Petersburg, to make 
roubles. Peter I. being in want of filver materials 
tor money, ordered all the duties to be paid in 
Dutch crowns ; but at prctent, no more than the 
half is paid in this money, and the Britifn, as well 
as the moil part of foreigners, are by treaties excu- 
-ed from this obligation. Yet as the gold and 11U 
ver brought from Siberia, and the Dutch crowns, ar^ 
v.ot ibflicijnt for the quantity of fnccie in circula- 
tion, through the vaft empire of the Ruilus, theic: 
precious metals arc imported every vear to I'Te.-tt a- 
iiiount. Notv.'itlillanding ihib importation, the mo- 
rev is or the ji'oy, and this !''.\tc of aduicera- 
rit,i:. in ->;:.i!. Ii; is at ihi:-, t::r.\ funufliei abiindini: 
iroiiv, liuce ihere i:; io mu-:.h .illi v in <?;oli, Jiat or> 
it t litre is .: |',a!n of jS per r^ni. and 37 pjr ce::i. 
on illver. hut ir -udtur- the dii'.'ircv^tblc dfirc: v-; : 


be made, and the greatcll difcredit thereby brought 
on the ftate. 

FROM the fcrtrcfs you go by \vater to the ifle 
next to St Petersburg, to do homage to an wooden 
cottage, famous for having ferved as an habitation 
to Peter the great, while he was building the for- 
trefs. It Ins been preferved in its original ft/ate by 
tneans of a brick building, that ferves it for a cover. 
This houfe has only one ground Hat, conftfting of 
three rooms, a large hall for receiving company, a. 
dining room and a bed chamber. Hard bv it is a 

O ' 

boat with four oars, built by Peter's own hand, 
which has been ibmetimes called the link Grand fir?, 
but improperly ; this honourable name being refer- 
ved for the boat already mentioned. 

A PINE fro ft and fome friends engaged us to pay 
a vifit to the iupcrb rnonaitery of S: Alexander 
Neuiki, which Hands at the extremity of the Mof- 
cow iuburbs. Its iituation, but efpecially that of 
the Gardens, is quite romantic. There are four 
cioiiters, among which are tlie cells of ilxty raouks 
who there renew the opulence of the old Trench 
Bcinar'Jine.s. Tlic-y have their jolly look> and want 
<;i care, t-ut tliv:y nrc more ignorant. The B;nnr- 
dines ai:u nioiil. ; in France \v\:re only fonJ: of goo-J 
eating, bi-t ti'.o'.r in Rufiia are drunken i'. t-, w!:o 
are lifted np every day in the public itrects. AVe 
\\ r ere received ny iv/o r.-l tl\cie monks, who were tlie 



higheft in the monaftcry. The dinner they give us 
was at iirit a monk's rcpaft, and afterwards a gre- 
nadier's debauch. 

'1 he rnonailery of Ncufid war. founded by Peter I, 
who m.u 1 : the Great Duke Alexander Neulki or, 
the Nrviar, be canonized, lie was fo named from 
the vid.o:->LS he gained over the Swedes on the banks 
of the Neva. The Rinnan cbr^y, and the people, 
in imita "on of their pridV;, tell of this Great Duke 
(who during his life lime hid no doubts of being- 
one da,- enrolled in 'he legend) a multitude of mi- 
rack'-;, every one more a;>furd than another. Tiiey 
teii amor.;/ tiu roll, in the city of \Vrbdimcr ; 
\vhifiicr Ms body had been transferred, when the? 
Metropolitan approached ni:n with the ordinary 
pahnort, the faint'., hand o;/cncd of its own rv.coiv. 
and took It. They attribute to him alio the win- 
jdn:^ of a battlv, that Demetrius Iwanowitfcli ^^in- 
cd over the i\:\n c-f the Tartars. But the miracle 
molt pvneraiiy believed, and which it would he iin - 
priulert to tlifpntc \vith the Rr.:iian3, is that of the 
conilai^rarion of \V<;'odi;rcr. The church, >n \vhic:i 
Alcxaiiii'.'r w;-i buried, "a]-.c:i fire, e 
Ivc.y.r.c i ! :-- prey of ;!,- j.Urr.cs, excep^ 
body, that appeared, they Oy, in in i::, 
H.i-u-:, iLll furrounclod in the fhcct, \% '>: 
bt-cn buried. The i I- cot a-, it;., -.- ly >,. 


VOL. I. 


IT was thcfe pretended prodigies, which indu- 
ced Peter I. to have Alexander the Nevian cano- 
nized, and to build, in honour of him, the fu- 
p^rb monaftery, which embellifhes the capital of the 
Ruffias, to contain the body of the Saint in a mag- 
nificent filver coffin, k was iirft, to accommodate 
matters with'his Clergy, whom his reforms had alie- 
nated from him ; Secondly, to honour the memory 
cf a warrior, who merited the gratitude of pofte- 
rity by his fignal victories ; and thirdly, the true 
motive was to introduce into his country a tafte for 
monuments and the arts. 

ELIZABETH entered into the views of her father, 
and cauicd a monument worthy of Italy be creeled 
to the memory 'of a warrior, beatified by her fa- 
ther. We there read a long latin infcription, breath- 
ing nothing of the auguftine age, which informed 
u, that Saint Alexander joined all the virtues of 3 
ehriuian to the abilities of a foldicr; and that the au~ 
gult Elizabeth, who poffeffed all the virtues of her 
father and mother, erected this monument. This 
ichoUiiic amplification, which begins with thcfe 
words, 2 ;;/ fee. Reader, bi-i* dear the afocs cf Sainfs. 

ar: ; G .. ; ; proves, that if t 
trodu-cd into R':i"!h, th.j Ian 

ic arts have been in- 
Jary ftyle has not yet 




N sf S/ Petersburg of all Rujfia. The 
Ruffians divided into four constitutional chijfcs. Tb? 
nobility r , the fir ft clafs, which contains fourteen other?. 
Boyard what is nndcrftood by ibis title. The 
Clergy, the fccond clap. The Burgeffcs and Fret- 
men, the third. The Peafant^ the fourth clnfs. 
Thofc^ who belong to the crown. Ihofe, who bciotig~ 
to individuals. Unfortunate fituaticn of the latter. 

oT Peterfburg contains about two hundred thou- 
land inhabitants, and Bufching who may be con- 
fulted with confidence refpefting Ruflia, rates the 
total population of this vaft empire at twenty mil- 
lions. According to Sulmifch it contains twenty 
four, and Monfieur Lcvcf<rue brings it to nineteen 
millions; but this calculation appears erroneous, for 
the inhabitants of L'knine, of Siberia, and the Cof- 
facs, areftated at only three hundred thoufand fouls. 
Here follow the returns, which we have procured on 
this fubjecl, according to the laft review and fur- 
veys, made in the year 1788. 

Table rf the Population cf Ritffm. 

Inhabitants liable to the Poll Tax 18,000,200 

in the conquered provinces 1,200,000 

Nobles 70,000 

M 2 Clergy, 


Clergy, Bimops, Popes, M:;iiii3, ?:;:. 60,00- 
Soldiers and Sailors 570. co- 
Employed in admin idratjon and tribunals 23 : ccc 
Ukraine, Siberia and the Ccfi.tcs Q-,O,OCC 
Crimea and Cuban Soc.o-: 

Total of the Population 

THIS population is divided by the coniutution in- 
to four dalles, fir ft, that o'c the great and fniall no- 
bility; fecondlv, the clergy: thirdly. the merchants, 
burgeffes and other free perfons ; and fourthly the 
peafhnts. In the three firft, are the free fubjecb of 
the empire, and in the fourth, the bondmen on 
ftaves ; and to the fe:uid;il of humanity, and the 
eulogiutns lavifhcd on Catharine II. as a Lcgiflatcr, 
this ciafs is the mod numerous. 

IN the firft order are comprehended the grandees 
and the nobility ; the only peiibns to whom, ac- 
cording to the true fpirit of icud.d defpotilm, lie- 
longs the righ.t of poilciiing iands ; a monilrous pri- 
vilege, which in our days Catharine, by r.a ir.jnf- 
t.icc, that iliould be charged rat::er upon her pre- 
iudiccs, than upon her heart, iMtiiiai in :\ /o'cmn 
manner, bv confirming the immunities of thi> no.. 
bility, and ordaining the ripdit of purri^ihrg CT fell- 
ing lands to be vefted in nobks aS(;ne, It is true., 
rhis prciog^'ivc rcg.irds only Rufua Fro])cr, for in 



Ukraine and the provinces conquered from Sweden 
(ingria excepted } lands may be poflencd by com- 
moners. (.Grandees are not obliged as in the days 
of Peter I. to arm, and head their vadals ; they arc 
only bound to fcrve in the army, and to furniih re- 
cruits in proportion to the extent of their pofieilions. 

IN Ruiii.i, as in aim oil all the caftern governments, 
there is almoit no diftinclion of rank among the 
nobles, except \vhat they derive from offices, and 
the degrees conferred by the:': Sc-vc reign. The old- 
tit ions of perior.s railed to the firir dignities have 
no prerogative attached to their birth. The great- 
iK'fs of a family, that unites immenfe riches with 
the moft eminent: dignities, is, as it were, annihi- 
lated at the death of its chLf, b:cau(e fortunes are 
equally divided arrv'ng the ions; ana the titles which 
are hereditary, without the fovereign's favour, in 
;;o vv-ay contribute to render thole great, who bear 
'hern. Be tlvjy Princes, Counts, or Barons, the 
diftinction is no'Jiing, ir i: be noL' fupported by fome. 
civ'l (A' military employment. In Ruilia, titles of 
anei'jnt nui;ili:yor iiiuitrious a:ic:jli)V6 do not prevent 
Lim. to whom his o:ilce ^ives only the rank of Lieu- 
tenant, iruin being, wliiie out t'-f military iervice, 
Inierior even to a Captain taken ii\,-:n llie LiLeit no- 
bility, (r even tro'ii the c.ii's <;r ireedmcn. 

IN ordc r to underiland tlii.i pire-eiVjinence well, it 
in nil be huov/i:, ilut in RuUi.i, people in office 



ought to be enrolled, in order that they may haw 
a certain exiftence in one of the fourteen claffes, call- 
ed Civil C/ajfcs, which all fuppofe a military grada- 
tion j for in Ruilia, as in all governments, where 
the head is a defpot, the government is altogether 
military. The Ruffian Courtiers are placed in the 
three firft of thefe claffes, or are fuppofed to make 
a part of them. The firft feven are always invited 
to the entertainments given by the Emprefs, while 
there are only fome privileged members of the fe- 
ven laft, that are admitted to them. It will help 
to give an idea of the arrangement of thefe claffes, 
to explain what fort of individuals are enrolled in 
the principal clafles. 

In the firft 

THE Field-Marfhal- General ; the Admiral-Gene- 
ral ; the Graqd-Chancellor of the Empire. 
In the fecond 

THE Chief- Generals of the Infantry and Cavalry, 
the Governors of Provinces, the Grand-mafter of 
Artillery ; the fecond Admiral of the Fleet ; the 
Grand Marfhal of Court, and all the Privy Coun- 
fellors compofing the Directing Senate. 
In the third 

THE Grand Equery ; the Attorney-General of 
the Directing Senate ; all the Lieutenant-Generals ; 
the Knights of the order of St Andrew; the Commif- 
faries* General of War j and the Vice- Admirals. 



In the fourth 

THE Grand Chamberlain ; the Preiidents of Col- 
leges ; the Counfellors of State the Provincial 
Counfellors of Livonia and Eftonia; the Major- Ge- 
nerals ; the Quarter-Mailers-General ; the Lieuten- 
ant Colonels of the Guards (there are no Colonels) 
and the Rear- Admirals. 

In the fifth 

THE Herald-at-arms ; the Mafter- General of Pe- 
titions; the Grand Mailer of Ceremonies; the Grand 
Mailer of Waters and Forefls ; the Grand Mailer- 
General of Police; The Vice-Prefidents of Colleges; 
the Director- General of Poils; the Grand- Mailer of 
the Court Stables ; the Secretary of the Emprefo' 
Cabinet; the firil CommiiTaries of War ; all the Co- 
lonels of the army, and all the Captains of the Navy. 

THE other clafies, whofe enumeration would b~ 
tedious, defcend always in degrees and reipeclabili- 
ty. In iliort the fourteenth contains, firil, the 
Court -Pages, who in every place wifli to have a 
rank, which is always given them. Secondly, tlir 
Subaltern-agents of litigation, a kind of vermin, 

O O 

which fwarm in Ruilia, as in every place ell'c, and 
join greed to the iniblence of preteniions. Thirdly, 
the Soldiers and Sailors of the inferior gradations, 
who form the moil corrupted part of this cLifs, an-.l 
confequently defpife whatever is not connected \viti. 
their profellion. 


NOTWITHSTANDING this ariftocratic clarification. j 

whatever is not noble or ennobled, has but a precari- 
ous cxiltcnce. To be perfuaded of this fad truth, 
it is only nccefury to read a pafuge from the cods 
of Catharine II. %4 Confirming the rights and pri- 
vileges, which Fetcr granted to the Fruffian nobili- 
ty, fays the hiiionan, who has tranfmitted to us 
this code, the Kmprefs acids four new privileges. 
Fir ft, me has commanded all the Colonels of regi- 
ments, in a fpeciai order, on every occafion, to pre- 
fer the nobles, to tiioi'e who are not noble, in the 
promotion of military rank. Secondly, me has or- 
dained, that the children of nobles, and alfo thole 
of General officers, fhall be received into' the eita- 
blifhments of military education, in preference to 
any other of her mbjecls. Thirdly, that the right 
of buying and felling lands, be the proper and pe- 
culiar right of nobles alone. Fourthly, that the 
nobles of her empire enjoy the cxdufive privilege 
of cro?iior;s for the dlftilbtion and file of brandies 
from grain." Since thele nobles poflefs the lands, 
poiVeft the poor people, who cultivate them, and 
tnjoy the rowers or iiuiulrry, \?hat is left to him. 
-vvhom tiiance I^L; not made be b(>rn :i noble? 

B; FOR;, the time of Peter the Great, the only 
he:odi':;ry vitl-j w;is tliat of A;.'^, wliicii was inter- 
preted by that of Prince. The title of tiovani, \\ hich 
ibme traveller^ have nude rtgniiy Prhy C^:>n;\:!hr. 



was given, and is iliil given, in the Ruffian provin- 
ces, to the po!]eilors c,f great eftates, or hereditary 
fiefs, which hold of the fovercuni. In the time of 


the Grand Dukes of RuiTi.i, tlie Bayards were con- 
voked in dier, to deliberate on tl-e important affairs 
of ib.te. They \vcre the Grand Barons of the coun- 
try. If a difference, arofe between t\vo Boyard:*, or 
between a lioy.ird and the Sovereign, the lioyards 
formed :i court, pronounced judgment, and th-.; 
Grand Puke was bound to to the ientence, 
which tills tribunal .'' given. In the Ruflian re- 
cords th;-- - e are in 4 l.mces o'f (irand Du!:cs bciiu" 1 ; ba- 
,ni'l:ed ; n confequcncc or ilie judgment (>i tii?. Hoy- 

TI-K) ;: \v!io too.k flic t:;Ie or AA;.V, \verc d'Jccnd- 
?d, or pretended to be djiccndcd from ionic c-Jla- 
teral bra:iclics of the reig nm!-;, cr iVoni IOITK- 

Lithnanian princes, wlir; had fettled in Ri:i!*a In t!i f ; 
f'ourteciiui or (iitcer^h century, c/r from .;'^; 
tar lords, \\lio l>cc::i v ::c Liibjecls or the c-iipir 
l\van VaiTiIowitich; or in fhort from ibt:: 
or foreign famine.;, who h;\d felllcu i.-i 
V. r itli rime, tiie nuniber c,l thcil: provinces 
^rrcat, lhat tlierc were Li.ree hur.dr^ . t;-,U 


^s common luidicrs in the imple regiment 
zikoff's dragoons. 

THOUGH Peicr ll;c Grc'.t, 1:1 :; ;-:\t'o;i ; 
flier courts cf Europe, i'-itroduc^-J. into Ki. 

VO. L V 


titles of Counts and Barons, and though his fuccef- 
ibrs have followed his example, none of thefe titles 

A. 7 

have fuiii'jicntly nattered the favourites of the Ruf- 
fian fovcrcigrns. They have often delired to be crea- 

v^ J 

ted Princes of the German empire, as Mcnzikoff 
\v\-s on the requeft of Pet.r I. and fince him., the 
Princes Orlofrs and Potemkins under the reign and 
at the felicitation of the Emorefs Catfiiarine II. 


Ac according- to the iyilcm eftabiiflied by Peter I. 
fbut it has been altered in proportion as it departed 
from its icurcc) every pcrfon takes rank only from 
the depree he lias in the arinv, thev make 2;reat 

O / 3 * o ' 

hade to get advancement, and yet they are on- 
ly regularly advanced, for it is neceiTary to have 
fervcd as a corporal or lerjcant, before any one can 
be made an officer. But favour eludes this rule. 
Infants at the breafl arc often made fcrjeants or cor- 
porals, and it i> not ahvays necefiary, to have made 
; a fmglc campaign to obtain rank, fince it can be 
cornc at by civil employments. Although the la\v 
made by Peter I. obliging every gentleman, under 
pain of degradation, to i'erve in the army, lias been 
-.ibolifhed by Peter III. the cficcts of it frill iubfift. 
>'o gentleman belovr the rank of IMajor, however 
rica lie ir.ri) be, can have more tliau two horics in 
his carriage ; and below the rank of Brigadier, he 
can hive only four ; and though lie fhouiu join the 
higbcft fortune to the Ligheit birth, if lie has never 



been in the fervice, he can have in the capital only 
a carriage with one horfe, unlefs by fpecial permif- 
ikm ; while a fimple merchant may have a coach 
with two horfes. Notwithftanding all this, there 
are different ways of procuring military degrees, 
and the privileges attached to them. For initance, 
a chamberlain to his Majeily has the rank of Major 
General ; the offices of fecrctary in the different de- 
partment's, gives the name of Officers ; and thole, 
\vlio contribute a certain fum for the fupport of the 
foundling hofpital at Mofcow, obtain the rank of 
Lieutenant ; and this way of rendering the vanity 
lubfervicnt to the utility of the human race, proves 
the crenius of the Lcsrifiator, who made this law. 

O O 7 

THE Nobles on their eftates, have an authority 
almoft unlimited, and difpofe of their flaves with- 
out any reftriclion, as will appear in the article^ 
wherein we treat of this unfortunate caft, called 
Pcaiants. The fecond order is the Clerc'v, and .1 

O * ' 

Patriarch is their chief. Peter the Great, finding 
that he who occupied this dignity, had too much 
authority, fuppreffed the Patriarchate in the venr 
J72i. But being a politician too dextrc^u., to de- 
clare himfelf the head of the Church, in what re- 
garded fpiritualitics, he prudently cor:>'utted the 
principal direction of eccleiiaftic ai^ii'b to a commif. 
fion, which he named the II'''}' Sync*.!, making it en- 
tlrely dependent on himfcli", by adminiftering to 


each of its members an oalh, that they would ac- 
knowledge him as their fupremc judge. Thi ( Sy- 
nod, which has the Kmperor for prehdent, is com- 
pofed of 1 vice-prelident, who is commonly the me- 
tropolitan arch-biOiop, and five conn felloe, who 
are the rjrft prelates of the empire ; iuch as the bi- 
ihr..p : ; oi Plcfcow, of Ripra, of Twer, and of Kachin. 
In our own remembrance, [ohn PaniilofF, cor.fefior 
to Catharine II. f : ;t among ih'jie prelates, with the 
inilucne.: of a pricit, that fee:, hio fuvereign at hh : , 

Tii?. Rnfiian clesry are compr-fed of regulars and 
feculars. r l'he former ure the );ionk>, the iecond., 
the pH'-ftS c;r curates of tiie pariihes. 

TiiiL f/ part of tlie nehes of the Ruffian 
church was formerly concentrai.ed in the rno naile- 
ries, whofe animal revenues amounted to more than 
forty millions of French livrc;:, or iixteen hundred 
thoufand p';iincls fterling. 

THK m^nbs, like other poil-jilors of fief;-;, excrei- 
fed an abfoiute power over their peaibnts, and tins 
voke was not the lighted on tl:e unfortunate (lave ; 
but under the reign of Catharine 11. this rule chan- 
r-.-\ She oranicd freed. orn to the pcafants, wlio 

O ' > 

depended --.'j ir.onaTterie^, and annexed the cftatcs 
of tie el; r, ; ; '- to crown, bui; paid pensions to the 
nionk-. a;ul {-; 1 Ucs. The Ruinans, however cn- 
vL-j^t'.i' \ cixed not for exccmmunicatioiij nor did 



they tliink their religion in danger, becaufe their 
Popes no more had fiaves and thoufands of roubles. 
1'he archbifhops and the bifhops have from iixtccn 
to eighteen thoufand livres a year, and the clergy 
oi interior rank in proportion. At the time of this 
change, feveral monailerics v/ere fupprefled. and the 
number of monks confiderably reduced; and in thofe 
prcferved, an oivicr was iilucd, proliibiting the ad- 
i;ii(iion of above a certain number, and the age was 
];xed, at which they could take vows. 

Tin, R.I; were however fome murmurs, and the 
friends of the monks maintained, that thi:; reform 
would ibon produce the great eft evils in Ruiila, be- 
c;iu!e the monasteries were the only feminaries for 
thole, who \\--cre deiiincd for the clerical order, and 
the monks being :Ii: only people acquainted with 
the icicnce, that \\\;s among the Ruffian clergy, ig- 
jioran-je wr.s from that rime to l:e the lot of the 
"Greek chur-..h. The governor did i:ot amuie him- 
iclf \vlLi ,-.juV i -.;rir.g thcfe vain allegations. He was 

erfeclin the 

:rn:ittcrics b.e :i:id left; fpund- 
rent places for the i);ih uclic-n 
thv ivience or t lie penfioned 
fiirr-ileJ. that ot the chrgy before en- 
;i rnay he imagined, could not be 
tor in R u ilia like other countries, the 
uV_ iiudics hiu- or roiic ut aii. 



THERE are thirty three archbifhoprics or bifhop- 
rics in Ruffia, whereof the principal are j Novogorod, 
Mofcow, St Peteiiburg, Kafan, Aftracan, Tobolik, 
Mohilef, Smolenlko, Archangel, Kiow, &c. , 

AT this day Ruffia contains a hundred and fifty 
monafteries, governed by fifty eight Archimandrites 
or Abbes ; and ninety nine Igownens or Priors, and 
fixty feven convents directed by abbeffes. The 
number of monks is fuppofed to be upwards of 
fix thoufand, and of nuns more than five thoufand. 
The other priefls or eccleliaftics belonging to monaf- 
teries and cathedrals, are to the number of two 

THE curates are defigned commonly by the title 
of Papa or pope, a Greek word fignifying father, 
and given indifcriminately, in the firfl ages of Chrif- 
tianity, to all ecclefiaftics, till Gregory VII. ordered 
it to be referved for the bifhop of Rome alone. 
The feparation, which has always exifted between 
the Latin and Greek church, did not allow the lat- 
ter to refpecT: this order, and therefore the name of 
Pope has remained to the Greek priefls. The vi- 
cars and priefls fettled in parifhes are called Proto- 
popes, or Firfl Popes. 

THESE Popes and Protopopes, who ought to be 
felect men, enjoying a certain refpeclability in foci- 
ety, are commonly the mofl contemptible part of 
the people in Ruffia j the greateft part not being 



able to read, in their own language, the gofpel they 
are commiflloned to preach, they accuftom them- 
felves to recite the fervicc by dint of memory. 
Their degradation and ignorance are attributed to 
the fmall falary attached to their functions, yet in 
a country, where provisions are at the lowed rate, 
they have about fifty crowns in the fmalleft living, 
and feven hundred and fifty livres in the bed. Be- 
iides they poflefs an wooden houfe, and a piece of 
ground, which they themfelves generally cultivate. 
The higheft dignity, at which the popes can arrive 
as long as they are married, for celibacy of prieils 
is not a precept among the Greeks, is that of firft 
prieft of a cathedral, whofc income is about eight 
hundred livres a-ycar. The archbifhops are chofeu 
from among the monks, who look on the popes as 
very far below them. The reigning Emprefs per- 
fuadcd, that the moft effectual means of civilizing a 


iuperftitious nation under abfolute fubjection to 
pricfts, was to attend to the education of fuch as 
were deilincd for the clerical order, has founded 
different fcminaries, wherein the children of primus 
are brought up. With the fame intention ihc lias 
by every mean encouraged the clergy in general to 
to improve themfelves, and emerge from the grcfs 
ignorance, into which they had funk; but the 


* ti. j.Stcriir.-. 


popes with difficulty and reluctance coir. ply witli 
their fovereign's liberal defigns. 

IN Ruilia monks arc not allowed to marry, while 
marriage is enjoined on the pricfts, as a preliminary 
indifpenfable for ordination, but they muit marry 
none but young women. If their wives die, they 
may enter into a rnonaftcry, and afterwards rife to 
the hig-hcil dignities of the church, which are grant- 
ed to monks alone. This is the very reverie of the 
Latin church, where the monks are nothing, and 
the fecular priells every thing. The Rufiian popes 
car. not engage in a fecond marriage, unlefs they 
become laymen, and as widowers, they cannot re- 
main pariih -priefts, without the fpecia4 permifilon 
of the bifhcps, All the children of priefts arc free and 
generally conk-crated to the fervice of the church. 

ALT, the ecclefiaftics wear long beards, and are 
diftinguilhcd from the laity by letting their hair 
grow long, and wearirig U about their fhoulders with- 
out being tied or curled. They believe their 
beards and long hair bring them to a nearer rcfeni- 
blance of Jems Chriit, who is ahva;-> rcprcfented 
with a long beard and long linir. r i'he popes wear 
a very liigh fquare cap, and a long black or brown 
gown reaching to their ankles. The dignitaries of 
the church are diftinguifhed by richer garments. 

LEAVING the clergy, the third conftuutiona! clafs 
m Runia is that, which is between the nobility and 



ipeafahts. The Kmprefs Catharine II. defigns it in 
her new code 

" THIS dafs of men, \vorthy to be mentioned, 
<i whole fituation may promife great advantages, 
<; when they ihall have received a (table form, whofe. 
" object i-; the encouragement of good, morals and 
" the love, of b.bour ; It i,s the middling iiate. , 

" Tins order compofed of Freemen., belongs not 
" to the cla.Gi of the nobles nor peafarits. We may 
et rank in it, all, who being neither geittlemcn, nor 
*' peafants, are engaged in the arts, Sciences, rravi-. 
fi; gallon, and commerce, or follow mechanical pro- 
" feiiions. 

" AMONG them arc aho to be placet! tliofe, who 
'* bom of commoners, ili.iii be brought out of fchools 
^ and religious houfes of education, eitablilhed by 
' us or our predecefTor-r, and alio the children ci 
" oilicers and clerks of chancery. But as the ihird- 
" ; citato admits of different degrees ci prerogative^ 
s ' oi which we wHh "o give <i particular del ail, ^ - c 
<c {hall content ourfclves with opening the field foi 
" a inc^re ample examination.'" 

Ai.THcvfGF! tlicrc \verc, b?torc tk : 
tb.e Great, cornp:uik3 oi ir.errlu.nt->, tl ; 
tain privileges, by me an:, of wliicli tk 
the order of peafan'i.-r, t:,cfe prlvik-g 
ous, and confined cither by t ! ic imnvenf;: mor.oDulieS 
cxercifed by the crov:n, ur by tke mean.-, whiJi \l^. 

VOL- I" O -ratid-^ 


grandees found out for opprefiing thefe focietres of 
merchants a thoufand ways. But Peter, whom no- 
thing efcaped, having obierved on his travels, the 
Utility, nay, neceiTity of a third eftate in his empire, 
to make commerce flounfli, with this view, publifh- 
cd feveral regulations, which, however excellent, 
did not anfwer the end the legiflator had propofed, 
becaufe they were not fuited to the nature of pro- 
perty, fuch as it is in Kufiia. One of the moil: ufefui 
of thefe regulations was that, by which the prince 
granted to force free cities certain privileges, which 
Elizabeth afterwards augmented ; but they were 

O 7 J 

confined to the cities of St Peterfburg, Mofcow, 
Aftracai), Twer, and ibme large provincial towns. 
In the reft, the inhabitants, the merchants not even 
cxcepted, remained in ccitain cafes on the fame 
level wilh the peafants. They were fubjeeted, for 
in dance, to the two principal kinds oi : dependence., 
Vviiich arc the indelible marks of fervitude, viz. ca- 
pitation, and ballot for going into the fervice of th<? 
army or navy. Catharine II. who uiuierftood how 
important it was fen- the prosperity of her empire, 
that commerce flioukl tiounih, not only exemptcd- 
.-.:!i;iii!s jTorn the two odious icrvitudes juft 
mentioiv Init a lib enlarged the number and im- 
mmivief) . rree tov.'ns. She allowed many pea- 
lints on crov/n buds, and every freeman, to enrol 
Inmidf on. conditions, in the clafs of mer- 


chants and burgelfes. Thefe were Subdivided into 
three claffes. The lirfl comprehends thole, who 
have a capital of abo:;t ilxty t.houfand Hvres; the fe- 
cond thole, who have one of fifty thoufand ; and 
the third comprehends thofe, who have the fmalleil 

BY the third article of the declaration of favour, 
which this princefs caufed be published at the peace 
1775, it * s k*id tnat a ^5 who may wiih to enter into 
any of thefe daffes, lhall be exempted from capita- 
tion, on condition of paying to the crown a per. 
centage of the capital they employ in trade. The 
merchant is not rigoroufiy ordered to declare the 
ium he is fuppofed to pofiefs. Thus he, who has 
more than fifty thoufand livres, may enrol himfelf 
in an inferior clafs. He may even enrol himfelf a 
fun pie burgefs, if he choofe rather to pay only the 
capitation of a per. centage of his capital, and then 
he enjoys only the privileges of this incorporation. 

THIS change in the manner of making merchants 
contribute, pofTeffes great advantages for the prince 
and the contributers. The rirrt, becaufe he collects 
without expence, and the fecond, becaulc they pay 
ealily a per. centage of their capitals, that exempts 
them from capitation, and qualifies them for beino- 
admitted to new privileges. It is belides, a tax equi- 
table in itfelf, lince the merchant pays only in pro- 
portion to what he pofTetTesj it grows with his pro- 

O 2 fits 


fits and in the fame proportions With 
regard to the intereit of the fiate, it is a mafterly 
flroke of policy and prudence, in as far as it excites 
the induftry and emulation of the merchant, and 
gives him Ccurity againd the fear of arbitrary ira- 
poii'ions, by engaging the good faith of government 
to protect h;s properly. 

THE ii in pie burgeffes form the fecond clafs of this 
order. This name is given to ail the inhabitants of 
iree towns, \vhatever be their profeflion, who de- 
clare themfelves worth a capital below three thou- 
find livres,* or \vho poiTefting this rum, ^viih not 
to have a more honourable enrolment. They enjoy 
feveral privilog'v, vhich pcaiar.^s have not, bu 
they are below the merchants, became they pay a 
capitation, and mav be enrolled for the army or navy. 

BELOW thefe laft mentioned are the other free 
fubjecb of the empire, fuch as the (Lives freed 
by their mafters j tlioie who have obtained their 
liberty irorn the army or navy ; the members 
of the academy of arts and other like eftablifliments; 
the orphans or the foundling- hofpitai, and in fhort 
the children of all freemen. All theie perfons have 
pcrmiiVion to fettle in any part oT the empire, there 
cany on trade or commerce, emrr among the hur- 
g ?:!';; of free tov/ns, and if th::y ha^/e a fufiicienc 
r,3];;.ta!, they are admitted into the orderof merchants. 



BY all thcfe wife regulations, which are accord- 
ing to nature and the laws of Humanity, the num- 
ber of free people will gradually increafe, and in 
time form a confiderable order, efpecially when it 
ihall acquire the right of poffeffing lands-; a right, 
which cannot be refufed to any individual in any 
country whatever, without the crime of the moft 
odious tyranny, for nothing attaches a man to his 

\ ^ * 7 

country, and verifies his itate of liberty, like terri- 
torial pofTeffion. 

SINCE we have employed fome time on the Ruf- 
fian merchants, we fhall make to our readers a 
iingular cbfervation reflecting them, namely ; that 
the greatefl number of them feldom keep account 
book 1 :, and very few of them can read or write. For 
counting, they ufe a machine with feveral rows of 
\vire, on v, hich are ranged fome glafs beads. Thofe 
of the firft row murk units, thofe of the fecond 
ten.-, thofe of the third, hundreds and ib on. By 
help of tills rn?.c! they work multiplication, fub- 
t r.u:tion aiul diviiion with great exaclnels. In the 
I'.'nv.ll itumbcr of cxccpvlons we mav diftinguiih the 
iMt'ints of Archangel, wl:o jc>ln uncommon in- 
tcl'I jencfi to the o;rcarr;r ^t^riour. Tlv.Te are few of 
the:-;; 'A'l'O c'o not un<ierfi.ind arithmetic thorough- 
ly, burg alfo t'ic I'lnguilx factory em- 
ploys -A ; number to manage the magazines, 



who have the character of clerks as faithful as in- 

THE fourth order of the (late in Ruffia compre- 
hends the peafants, who notwithstanding the cries 
of nature, are ail bondmen, or iiaves, in all the ex- 
tent of the term. Thoie of Finland, Carelia and 
"Ukraine muft however be excepted, and thofe alfo 
called Odnodwortzi 9 peafants who have no property 
but a fingle houfe, and form a fort of intermediary 
clafs between the nobles and iiaves. They are in- 
dependent of the nobility, and nobody is dependent 
on them, but many of them, by borrowing the 
name of fome Noble, have gradually purchafed fome 
peafants, and they are, it is laid, the worft matters 
in Ruffia. Under the reign of Anne, the greateft 
part of thefe Odnodwortzi were tranfported to the 
frontiers of Ukraine, to form a national militia in 
defence of this part of the empire. They were for- 
med into a battalion, and each battalion had itsyfo- 
bode, or village, in which a houfe or cottage was 
affumed to each of the Odnodwortzi fent thither. 
Between two ftabodes there is always a fortreis. 
Some of the Odnodwortzi fettled on the banks of the 
Occa, in the government of Mofcow, but more of 
them in thegovernmentsof BielgorodandWoronetz. 

THE other peafants may be divided into peafants 
belonging to the crown, and thofe belonging to in- 
(irviduals. Thcfc belonging to the crown dwell on 



the Emprefs domains, and form about a fixth part 
of the Ruffian peafants, inclufive of thofe on the 
church lands, who did not obtain their freedom, 
when thefe lands were transferred to the crown. 
The peaiants on the crown lands are immediately 
under the jurrifdiction of the Imperial officers or 
baillies. Although thefe officers may make them, 
fuffer many hardfliips, by abufing their power, the 
peafants are notwithftanding more fecure, where 
they are appointed, than thofe belonging to private 
perfons ; as they are under the protection of the fo- 
vereign. They may hope to obtain the royal in- 
terpolition more eafily, when they are violently 
oppreifed. In feveral diflricts they have been freed, 
and permitted to enter the clafs of burgeifes or mer- , 
chants. All the peafants will gradually obtain the 
greatest privileges, not only becaufe the fpirit of 
humanity and found policy is making progrefs in 
thefe regions, but likewife becaufe the Emprefs fe- 
rioufly applies herfelf to realize the generous fyftem 
of diffuftng more liberty and equality among the 
funjecb of this vafh empire. 

THE molt unfortunate of the peafmts are thofe, 
who belong to individuals, and are their pro- 
perty like their plow or their flocks ; and the va- 
lue of an eflate in Ruiiia is rated, not by the num- 
ber of acres, but of the peafants it contains. In 
Eiloraa and Livonia they reckon by Hjckcns, which 



iignifies feven men, and an eftate of tvv r enty hackeris; 
is a poffeilion, whereon there are a hundred and for- 
ty men, heads of families or batchelors. 

THE baron may demand from his unhappy pea- 
fan ts whatever rum he pleafes, and employ them as 
feems to him moil proper, without being controlled 
by any law in this refpect. He is abfolute m after 
of their time and their work. He employs them 
in agriculture, or as his houiliold fervants, but pays 
them no watjes, From fome he exacts an annual tax. 


which is impofed on the poor Have at the will of 
the arbitrary mailer. This practice of forcing the 
peafints ro p.ry an annual furn in fiiver, without ha- 
ving always the means of procuring it,~drives them 

often to dcfpuir or crimes ; and thefe are 
net uir~rifii:g ; it is only their patience in fupport- 
ing the yoke of their irufters that is inconceivable ! 

As thdc unhippy people cannot bring an action _ 
3gainft their lords, it often happens that peaiaiits, 
who have amn.lled n confiderable fum, cannot: pur- 
chafe tiieir liberty at any price, becaufe fa long as 
they continue fbvcs, they are liabie to be irript by 
their greedy maiters. Several Rufiian lords lend 
their Haves to luuieow, or to >St Pcterfburg to learn 
trades there. They afterwards employ them on 
their cftAte:, hire them out, fell them with profit, or 
make them pay an yearly fum for the periniiiibn of 
working on their own account. When the landlords 



Come to the refolution of felling them, they expofe 
them in the public market place, with their wives 
and children, and each of them has on his forehead 
a ticket telling his price and his (kill. 

O I 

WITH regard to the authority that belongs to 
the lord over the pcafants ; according to the old 
laws, he could try them by his own officers, and 
even puniili them without bringing them to trial. 
Except thelvnout, he could at his pleafure make them 
be beaten with rods, fhut them up in cells, fend 
them to a corrcclion-houfe, banifh them into Sibe- 
ria ; in a word, condemn them for every fault, 
winch did not amount to a public crime. Indeed 
he had no power over their lives, for if a (lave 
had been beaten by his mailer's order, and died 
within three days, the m after was profecuted as 
guilty of murder, unlefs he could plead other cnu- 
fes of the death of his Have. But this was only il- 
Jufory juftice, for a man may unquestionably be 
chaftifcd in a te-rrible manner, without dying' in 
three days : and fuppofe a Have chaftifcd to death, 
who would have dared to avenge the innocent vic- 
tim, by bringing the murderer to juftice, if he was 
powerful enough to cliiregard or elude it ? }}y the: 
new code this enormous power has been refirict'd. 
nreording to the principles of humanity; and the 
n?;ht of puniflung lias been lodged with the people 
only to whom it belongs that is, with magifirates. 

VOL. I. P Yet 


Yet there Hill exift many abufes, but theie will ifi 
time yield to the influence of the inftitutions of Pe= 
ter and his fueccflors. 

THE fj-aves, who labour for their mafters, are re- 
warded by a piece of ground, from which they 
draw the produce, and the moft neceffary articles 
ef life, a fmall number of which falls to the fhare of 
this unfortunate clafs. In order to drive from their 
minds their unhappy fituation, the RuiTian peafants 
fpend the little fums they have earned, on clothes- 
and fpiritous liquors. On the other hand, thofe, 
who fa,ve what they may have gained by labour or 
commerce, conceal as carefully as poflible, what they 
have acquired ; becaufe, as we have juft faid, their 
greedy mailers would tear from them their little 
Hock, if they knew of it. The wretched people of- 
ten bury their money, and die with the i'ecret. 
This cuftom of hiding- their money, is one of the 
caufes of the fcarcity of fpccie in Ruilia, for it is 
principally in filver that the peafants realize their 
ilivings. This practice, or rather, this dire noccffi- 
ty, prevails in all the eaftern countries, where pro^ 
pcrty is not fecured ; where the people are ftich 
Haves, that the fear of exactions allows them not to 
enjoy the wealth they have acquired. In ipire of 
the little enjoyment the Ru/Tun^ receive from theirs, 
they are neverthelefs fct on gain, and there are nc 
merchants afk fo much for their goods, and arc 



fatisficd with fo little ; a certain proof of continual 

THIS privation of the convcnicncics of life is n 
what makes the Ruillan peafants to be pitied. 
Cuftom eafily confoles them. But it is the clepcn- 
dance in which they live, that excites companion in 
their favour. Their wants have a tendency to make 
them hardy, patient, and eafily fatisfied ; but this 
ftate of {Livery, which they live in, makes them 
humble, cringing, obfiinate, negligent, and in fome 
degree unfeeling. 

A PEASANT may obtain his liberty, Firft, By the 
freedom frequently granted at the death of a mailer 
to thofe, who have been his ilril fervants. 

Secondly, By purchafmg his liberty. 

Thirdly, By ferving in the army or navy ; for a 
peafant is free from the moment he is enrolled, and 
continues to be fo, after he has obtained his dif- 
eharge. On every occaiion the Emprefs, who fees, 
not without forrow, the painful exiitence of tliis pre- 
cious branch of the human fpecics, has facilitated 
the mcai:s of obtaining liberty, by ceding to the 
pcafants many crown rights, which in ibme rdpects 
rendered this acquisition diliiciiit. 

ALTHOUGH the Czarina cannot aHccl the proper- 
ty of the nobles, by conferring on the peai'ams any 
important privileges, tint would attack thofe of their 
matters, yet fhc has not neglected their interells. 

P 2 


She has lightened their chains, and ibftened their 
lot, by different laws made in their favour. She 
has befides permitted them to fettle in any part of 
her ftates, and to enter or enrol themfelvea among 
the Burgeffes and Merchants according to their re- 
ipective funds. She has given to their liberty great- 
er (lability, and to their induitry powerful encou- 
ragement. In certain diftricls ihe has abolifhed the 
opprefTive laws, prohibiting peafants to marry with- 
out the confent of the governor of the province, 
or magiftrate of the city, to whom the hufbands 
were obliged to carry prefents. By fuppreiTmg this 
tax, that was an outrage to the mo ft facred rights 
of humanity, the Emprefs has wifely removed all 
the obftacles to a numerous population, and render- 
ed the marriages of peafants Ids difficult and more 




ADMINISTRATION^ civil and political. The directing 
frnatc'. Colleges or departments which depend on them. 
"Tribunals. Who prefede there. Advocates. A- 
hufcs in judicial proceedings. The code of Catha- 
rine II. Penal laws. Punifhment of the Knout. 
Defcription of the injlrument ujed in this punijhment. 
The Battoges, another fort of puniftimcnt. Abo- 
lition of torture. Management of prifons. 

1 HE Empire of Ruffia is politically divided into 
forty four military governments, entrufted to ge- 
neral officers invefted with the higheft authority, 
who very often rife fuperior to the civil adminiftra- 
tions, and put their own will or that of the prince, 
in room of the law ; and this in fpite of the codes 
of Peter I. and Catharine II. fo much extolled ; be- 
caufe codes of laws arc illufory, where defpotifm 

THE adminiftration of the empire is entrufted to 
the Dircding Senate^ and to the principal depart- 
ments, known under the name of Colleges. The fe- 
uate is of new inftitution, and has iucceeded in the 
room ot the courts of chancery, eilablifhed by Pe- 
ter I. This tribunal, under whofc jurifdiclion all 
vhe reft are v joias to the cognizance of every thing, 



the direction of the cilices of war, admiralty and 
domains. For this purpofe it is divided into fix 
departments, coinpofed each of one or more fenators, 
who prellde each in their turn ; of four privy coun- 
fellors, and a principal attorney. Under each of 
thefe departments, there is put, for the execution 
of the laws, one of the colleges juft mentioned, un- 
der the denomination of College for foreign affairs, 
College of war, College of the admiralty, College of 
juftice, and College of commerce. There is alfo a 
College of medicine ; an inftitution, which would 
be the moft falutary in a country, where pharmacy 
is yet in its infancy ; where a Routine exills, which . 
has produced no information about the quality and 
quantity of drugs. The College of medicine is par- 
ticularly charged with furniming the Imperial labo- 
ratories, which again furmfii the private laborato- 
ries, or are the only mops of the kind in moft of 
the towns of the fccond rank. The direction of this 
college is Peruvian bark for him, who is provided 
with ii, in fpirc of the reftraints, which Peter I. and 
his fucceilbrs have laid on the abuies, which this di- 
rection may produce. 

THE College of juftice is divided into cham- 
bers for the trial of criminal or civil cafes, and ac- 
cording to the privileges of forne provinces, they 
have prcfervccl a particular jurifdiftion, inch as that 
of Livonia,. Eilonia, and Finland. The iiril of 



thefe chambers fits at St Peterfburg, and the fecond 
at Koilroma. There is one for criminal trials at 
Catharinoliaw, another at Riga, a third at Kiow, 
and a fourth at Tobollk. 

IF any one fuppoied, agreeably to the fine phra- 
fes of the hiftorians, \vho have fpoken of the Ruf- 
fian Code, that profound lawyers prelidc over each of 
thefe tribunals, he would be in a very great miftakeo 
The Ruffian courts of juftice are almoft as badly fram- 
ed, as they were at the time, when the nation was ftili 
iunk in the darknefs of ignorance, when the fcience 
of the prielts turned only on fome Latin words, and 
u monotonous routine of pfalmody. Peter I. made 
fome meritorious efforts to bring his fubjects to the 
itudy of the laws, diftinguifhing by every fort of 
preference thofe, who appeared to apply to it ; cf- 
pecially by a regulation enjoining the heads of Di- 
cajUrts, or Chanceries to provide with a judicatori- 
:il appointment, and all the rights of a noble, the 
perfon who could prove a certain lime of iludy- 
But after the death of the legiflitor, this very re- 
gulation wa> art inexhauflible iburcc of abulV-.. l-'a- 
vour learned the way of proving ftudics tiut 
never bet' 11 [>rntrcat(.:d.. and fl.-r iilc'.i iii the room of 
merit, 'i'luiv is anr/'hrr abuf;: more inconceivable 
flill, which c:\itls oi^y in Ixuiii.i, of putti!i ; r >r 
the head ut tiibunui- 1 , ir^iicr.ils .unl olliccr-.. v.ho r-j- 
ceive ..>s a iotreat, thn ojj-.-j c"*" intcrprciin ia\\s. y 


which they neither underfland nor are careful to 

THE advocates are not better informed than the 
judges ; they equal them in greed and exceed them 
in effrontery. A peafant or a ilavc, whom an ill 
formed perfon would ieem to difqualify for oratc- 
rial labours, gets by heart a part of the code and 
laws, and becomes an advocate. One at St Pcterf- 
burg was pointed out to us, who having ruined his 
affairs by ignorance of trade, had taken to the pro- 
feffion of an advocate as a laft fhift, and had made 
in it a brilliant fortune. 

AFTT.II what has juft been rend, judge of the 
ftate of the jurifprudence in a country, where it is 
r.eccfiarv to have handled the fword, and grown 

' O 

old under military armour, before you can afpire 
at the delicate function of pronouncing on the for- 
tune and life of a citizen ; where birth, and intrigue 
full worie, by a thoufand low means, arc in this 
line; to military merit : where the places of 
fccretarlcs, advocates and other fubalterns, arc the 
prey of the rcruib o( the nation ; in fhort, where 
the p:\i5ticc of r'vir.g a difhoncft interpretation of 

tii-,; !,>xv, : j ine- iurcit \v.iy ci making a iortuiie. 

'in; u :; is not pjrh.ips a country in Europe, where 
litigation b! :rs :r; re paper th;in in RuflLi. In bu- 
iinco even the i\'.c(\ fumm'.\ry there arc papers, (.f 
which vou c.i'i hurulv iniaiiinc the fizc. /\il the 

* O 



Dicnficrcs or courts of jufticc arc full of writers, 
who in fpite of their great number find means of 
fubliilcnee. They are the rnoft intblcnt and moil 
unmannerly lit in all St Petcrfburg. What aug- 
ments the expo-aces of diligence and ths vexation 
of counfcllors, is, that all is written on damped pa- 
pv*r, \viiich varies or riles in proportion to the ac- 

NoT\viTiisT.\>7niNG this long (erics of inconvc- 
mendes, which proceeds more from man in gene- 
ral, when abandoned to the corruption of cities, 
than from a linglc nation, becaufe litigation and the 
vermin, that live by i<-, every where pollute thf. 
temple of Themis, we ih ill now fee, by what Ca- 
tharine has done to extirpate them, how far the 
Rnfiian nation V.MS from this Rate of civilization, in 
which it was iuppofccl, when this princefs fucceed- 
cd to the empire. Before her time the confufion of 
laxv.s \VP.S added to tb.c abu'e of litigation; the tri- 
bunals having no rules and ftatutcs, but thofe 06 
Alexis Michaelowitfch, which were utterly devoid 
oi order and precision : .ind 'lie Ul\i ; [s or imperial 
t:ccrc?.s, made by Peter I. and his fur'vlfors, whirli 
were too numerous, and oitcn contradictory on very 
important points. 

THEN tlic vaft emire c,f tho Rridlas, was divid- 

Lcntive, and Subdivided into provinces, and every 
VOL. 1. provii;.:;- 


province into circles and diitricts. There was # 
governor for the general government ; a lVo;'^ode 
and his okicers for each province, which formed 
what was called a chancery ; and a Woyvode or in- 
ferior judge for every diitriet. 

FROM this diftribution arofe abufes without num- 
ber, and the greateft was the enormous authority 
of the interior judges, who, as we have feen above, 
were people generally of low extraction, without 
any knowledge of the laws, and yet could not only 
punim fmall olFenccs, but condemn to the knout, 
and banifhment into Siberia. It often happened 
that pcrfons fufpecled of ibme crime, continued in 
priibn feveral years without being tried ; that they 
were put to the rack for want of fuillcient evidence, 
and this even more than ciice. Another abufe as 
great was this; the inferior judge often employed the 
iword of j.iilicc, for little perfonal acts of vengeance, " 
and then this iworcl was in his hand, no more than 
ihe iword of an aflailin. 

SEVERAL Empcn>rs iince the reign of Akxi.^ an-d 
.in particular, Peter I. ai;d the Emprei--, Elizabeth, 
had formed a plan of reforming the lav/s of the em- 
pire, but: ?.t had alwj ,\s remained without execution. 
Tliis undertaking as great as diilicult, was finally 
reiervcd ior Catharine 11. who in the year 1767, call- 
ed to iuofcow, deputies fyorn ail parts of the cm. 
pirc, named commiflioners to draw up nc\v rcgul-u 


lions, and delivered to them the inftrucHons {he 
had drawn up, or caufed be drawn up ; ail dictated 
by the true fpirit, that ought to animate a wife 

CONFORMABLY to thefe inilructions, the firft part 
-of the new code appeared in the year 1775, and the 
fecorid in 1780. It was received, applauded and 
followed in the new governments eftablifhed by the 
divilion, which the new conftitutiqn ordered. But 
thofe attached to the old, conformed to it, only 
flowly and with murmurs, becaufe the ignorant look 
on the moil fenfible improvement, as a pernicious 
innovation, and the man of bad principles, living 
by the abufes, which reformation deftroys, puts hiin- 
felf on a level with the ignorant, and exclaims loud- 
.er againic it . 

BY the new conftitution, the empire at firft di- 
vided by Peter I. into nine extenfive governments, 


was fubdividcd firft into thirty two, and afterwards 
into forty four, on account of the new province's 
added to the empire. Each of thcfc governments, 
at this day, contains from three to four hundred 
thouland fouls. An oliicer named Nameftnick, or 
Governor, is appointed to the adminiRration of one, 
and fometimes fcveral governments, and has under 
him, a Vice-governor, a council and court of iuf- 
tice, both civil and criminal, of whicli the court 
names feme members, and the red are elected by 

Q 2 the 


the nobility. Thus, by this inftitution, Catharine 
has in fome refpecls fet bounds to her able lute au- 
thority, by dimmiming the power of the tribunals, 
which depended folely on the crown ; by transfer- 
ring a part of it to' the nobility, and giving to this 
order feveral privileges, relative to the adminiftra- 
tion of juitice. Likewife by eflablilhing, in each go- 
vernment, fuperior tribunals to decide definitively, 
fhe has prevented the frequent appeals, -which \vere 
made to the Imperial colleges of St Peterfburg and 
Mofcovv, as well as the confidcrable expcnces and 
delays, which w :re the confluences of them. By 
forming diftincl departments for the finances, for 
the police and tlie different branches of adminilCra- 
tion, Hie has obviated the coiiiiion of juriiciictions, 
and the tribunals no more interfere with cue 
another, by meeting in the lame place. She has 
alfo facilitated the expedition of buiincfs, and of 
the adminiftratic i of juftice. She has augmented 
the falary of judges, v/hich \vas formerly too incon- 
iiderable, to p.rei^rve them from the aim oft irrelii- 
tible temptation of being bribed ; a iituation flie re- 
minds them of by tli : exprcluons ilie employs in 
the proclamation acklreilcci to them. " Formerly 
" your \vants might enga^;e you to be too attentive 
:c to your own private iiitereft, now your country 
c pays you for your labours, and \vliat formerly 
fc might receive fome fort of excufe, at preient b::- 



" comes a crime." She has conficlerably increafed 
the expences of the crown, without raifing the 
taxes, becaufe me has introduced better order into 
the finances. 

THE penal laws, in particular, have attracted the 
attention of Catharine. Elizabeth who firft planned 
this important part of legislation, and the edict, 
which abolilhed the punifhment of death, will make 
her revered for ever by the friends of humanity, 
who fee nothing in the fxvord of juflice, but thejrod 
pf an affectionate parent, with regret chaftifing his 

BEFORE Elizabeth's reign, travellers tell us only of 
frightful punifh merits, whofe feverity chills with 
horror. The Knout, a terrible inftrumenr, where- 
of all the defcriptions yet given, are falfe and ex- 
aggerated, was inflicted for the lead faults. But all 

OO 7 

was changed by the jufr Elizabeth ; and before 
fpeaking of this happy period, we mail give a de- 
fcription of the knout, having viewed the inftru 
ment of this punifhment with our own eyes. 

IT is a ft rap of the thickncfs of a crown, three 
quarters of an inch broad, and made extremely hard 
bv a s kind of preparation. It is tied to a very thick 
plaited whip, hanging by an iron ferrule, at a little 
bit of elaftic iron, and the whole is fixed to a very 
ihort flick. Th; length of the ftrap is two feet, its 
breadth r.t the upper part is TT inch, at the lower 



end rV ; and the thicknefs A. The whip is two 
feet long, the handle fourteen inches, the 'length 
of the instrument five feet five inches, and its weight 
eleven ounces. Some idea may be formed of the 
great force, which a dexterous executioner, (that is 
a barbarian, paid for being' fo) can give to this m- 
iirument, when it is known, that if he receive par- 
ticular orders, he can difpatch the criminal by gi- 
ving him only two or three ftrokes on the ribs. 
We were prelent, when a 'poor wretch underwent 
the punifliment of the knout for murder. The exe- 
cutioner (in that country called the Majlcr) before 
ftriking retired fome fteps, at fame time drawing 
back the hand, in which he held the inftrument, 
then he advanced and applied the fiat end of the 
ft rap, with great force on the back of the patient. 
Firft he ftru.k on the right ihoulder, then upon the 
left, till he gave him the three hundred and thirty 
three ftrokes contained in the fcntence. \Ve obfer- 
ved, or rather we were made obfcrve, that he was 
dexterous enough not to give two ftrokes on the 
fame place. After this terrible execution: of his ien- 
tcncc, the unhappy man, whofe back ftreamed with 
blood, had his noftrils torn off with pincers, his 
f;icc branded with a hot iron, and was led, or ra- 
ther carried back to prifon, whence he was to be 
tranfported to Siberia, but we iufpect he did not 
furvive his punifliment,, 



Itf Ruffia, the Battogcs is alfo inflicted. It is a 
kind of whipping performed with the branch of a 
tree, of the thicknefs of the little finger. The per- 
fon, who is to undergo this punifhraent is hid on 
his belly, and two men who hold him between their 
legs, one at the head, and another at the feet, give 
him alternately a ftroke on the back with the Bat-* 
toges and beat him till he, who directs tVc punifh- 
men't, deiire them to give over ; which orders are 
often not given, till the back of the unfortunate 
fulierer is mortally mangled. During the whip- 
ping, he is obliged to pronounce conftantly the word 
Wlnawat^ which means, / am guilty ; and at the end 
of the punimrnent, he muft go and kifs the feet of 
him-, who directed it, and thank him, that he did 
not make it more fevere. The higheft lords are 
xiot exempted from the Battogcs^ and take vengeance 
for it on their unhappy vaiials. This punifhment 
is particularly referved for the inferior orders, whom 
malversation or roguery, would any where die drive 
from their employments. In Ruffia it is reckoned 
snouq;h to bring 1 them dowr< to an inferior err-plov- 

O O J- 

ment, aftt;r the correction of the Bjttsges. 

Tin: peiKU ht\vs of Rullia v.-fie k>ng a 
of atrocitic;^., cfpeciilly uiidvi BaiU 
the moft ing-'jni;;iis lorm^iuor tha." ^ver i^. 
Ruifian throne. The enipaiing, which 
brought into i?r?.clice, ^xiibd till I'^rer': f?.r 


lords of the firft diftinction underwent this fright- 
ful punifhmeiit. We are told, but we can hardly 
believe it, that thefe poor men, in midft of their 
'.onnents, far from murmuring ngainit the Czar, 
put up prayers for the profperity of his reign, 

' Now a days thefe horrors have no exillence, and 
the penal code is reduced, for pcrfons guilty of High 
Treafon, to beheading and perpetual irfipriibnment. 
Criminals, who by the huv were formerly condemn- 
ed to a'.rlral puni(hment, have now their noles 
torn off with pincers, their faces marked with a hoc 
iron, bcarir.g the imprcili.:n of the fprcad eagle of the 
empire, and receive the knout, as has been alre.idy 
faid, and are fent aftcrwirco to work all tlicir lives 
in the mines oi" Siberia. '1 his i'ort of pun'i.'iment i? 
tmqueitionably more cruel than the puniihment of 
death, and yet has not the f.nne cllicacy ; becaufo 
the individual culprit iees not his hit diffolution. 

PERSONS convicted of leiT^r cnmcs, are cither 
whipped, or transported i:\ro the colonies of Sibe- 
ria, or j'entenccJ to tlie pub-ic \vcrks for a certain 
time. I 5 callinrs, whom tiiulr lords can baniih af 
pieafure, ar-; lent to the colonies cf Siberia, by lim- 
ply dccb:ing the rralurc of their .',-iTencc;. 

ALL the crin-imils tranfported thither, are ler!: 
to the place of ihcir exiic in Aut-jm:i or Spring. 
They are carried partly In water, and partly marcli- 
ed over hnd, chained tv/j and two. and bound to 

a Ion or 


a long rope. When this chain arrives at Tobolfk in 
Siberia, the governor diftributes thofe, who have 
learned trades, among the different mailers oi: the 
town, and fends others to work like ilaves in the 
country. The reft are conducted as far as Irkutft 9 
and the trover nor difbofes of them in the lame way. 

O A ^ 

Thofe condemned for capital crimes are fent to the 
iilver mines and founderies of Nerfchinck. 

NOTWITHSTANDING the clemency fb much ex- 
tolled in the Emprefs Elizabeth, fhe had prefervcd 
juit as llie had found, the barbarous practice of ex- 
torting confeilions from perfons accufed of trcafon. 
It was terrible. It was a kind of Eilrapado. Their 
hands were tied behind their back, they were lifted 
very high in this poiture, afterwards ihry were? 
dallied on the ground with fucli v:oienc;- ; that the 
concufiion diilocated their {boulders, and in this 
horrible fituation they received the knout. Eliza- 
beth, the compafiionate Elizabeth, without refer ve, 
and for her little vengeancies, employee! this terri- 
ble inftrument of barbarity and defpotifm. During 
all her reign it was cuflomary to employ it at the 
pleafure of the inferior judges. It wa> only at the 
time that Catharine II. mounted the throne, that 
this torture, and every kind of torture, was pro- 
fcribcd in the tribunals. 

ALTHOUGH the fovereigns of Rufiiji nre abfoluts 
in the rnoft extenfive feiiie of ihe wr-rcJ, yet the cre- 

VOL, I. U neral 


r.eral prejudice of the nation, in favour of torture, 
was io deeply rooted, that the Emprefs, who well 
knew, what indulgence is fometimes to be <nven to 

o o 

the in oft unreafonabie prejudices, wifely obierved 
the greateft circuinfpection, in order to avoid the 
grumbling, which the fuddcn and unexpected fup- 
prciilon of this inhuman practice had excited. The 
precaution fhc took for the purpofe of gradually 
brir:qm<r about the funprciuon, does no lefs honour 

O O * A f 

to her prudence, than to the goodnefs of her heart. 
In the year 1/62, at her accehlon to the throne, (lie 
lirft took from the Woyv-odcs^ or inferior judges, the 
right of ordering torture, which they had Ihame- 
fully abufcd. In 1707, a lecret order was given to 
the judges of diiierent provinces, bearing, that how- 
ever they inight think torture ncccflary to obtain 
the comelTion of the r.ceufed, they ought to fubmit 
the principal charges brought againfl him to the ex- 
amination of lac governor ot the province ; and 
thefe governors luv.i received inftrucKons, by which 
they were to c^termine the cafe?, where torture 
might be neceilary, I:ut thelc cafe;; cculd have no 
exiftence ; for the ir.dges v/ere ordered to take, as 
:\ rub of tivj-ir conduct., the principles laid down in 
the third qucfdon or the tenth chapter of her niaje- 
ily's munitions, for forming a new cone. In thcic 
articles it is tlciv.or.ftrated, that torture is not lets 
v.felcfs tlian cruel, for accomplifhing the purpofe the 



judges have in view, which is the confeflion of the 
crimes of the perfon fubjectcd to this pain ; for 
when the torture is over, he may retract, and inva- 
lidate or render null the confeffion extorted from 
him. By this precaution, which abridged many 
forms, torture was tacitly abolifhed, and was really 
ib forne time after, formally and publicly. This 
fupprellion may doubtle^ be reckoned a period 
morable in the annals of humanity, and along wiili 
it, may be placed the inftructions, which all the go- 
vernors of the Rufilan empire received, respecting 
the management of prifons. Firfl, 1 hey were not 
to be the fame for p-crfons charged with civil, and 
perfons charged with criminal offences. Secondly, 
The prifon for criminals was to be divided into 
three parts; the firft for criminals before and during 
their trials, where they were to be treated with the 
attention due to innocent perfons ; becaufe thofe 
charged with crimes ou-iht to be diftins;uiffied from 

O v^ O 

thofe condemned for crimes, and the iliue might; 
prove them innocent. The fccond was lor thole 
who were to remain a certain time in pri.'on ; trie 
third diviiion for fuch as were condemned to per- 
petual irnprifonment and the public works. With- 
out ceailng to be humane, the keepers were to be 
itricl with the unfortunate perfons, whom ilie ie- 
cond and third prifon contained, Evuiy apartment 
was to be fubdivided into two; one for mm, and 

R ? the 


the oilier for \von;cn. Thirdly, There was to be in 
every prilon an infirmary lor the Tick, who were 
ordered to be treated as in other hofpitals, and ne- 
ver put. again in irons, till after en: ire convalefcence. 
Fourthly, The priions were ordered to be built 
without the cities, in an airy p/Li-.e, and near water. 

c: n A p. :i. 

I T i -. f:.ri,:r::inp; very unconihi".n, and ahr.nft like a 
phenoiiicnon in a defporic pj'v^vcrnirn'nt, that the 
fp : rit of toleration ih^uiv.) animate tl;at or Ruflli. in 
fpite oi the rufucity and ignorance (;i its prelates 
a '.d pi'pes. \vho Jiave moved heaven and carlli to 
Hop tiie prop::2'-uion of it; but in vain, bccauie they 



have no influence but over the low people, who in 
Ruflia are reckoned .is nothing. Not only the con- 
quered provinces have been inpported in their reli- 
gion, and have obtained ininiitcrs and churches of 
their communion or faith, but the Lutherans, Cal- 
vinifts, Moravians, Mahometans, Pagans, <s:c. have 
afpired at offices, and all civil and military dignities, 
when they have really been, or only fuppofed, wor- 
thy of them. , 

INTO the provinces of Eftonia, Livonia, and Fin- 
land efpecially, the intolerant mould go to receive 
leifons of moderation and toleration. They will 
there fee frequently and aim oil every where, mar- 
riages contracted between Lutherans, Greeks, Ro- 
mans, and Caivinifts, without any of the two par- 
tics wifhir.g to draw the other from their feet. The 
education oi cl'.lldr-.'n, a matter of inch general de- 
licacy, where a divciihy of religious opinions pre- 
vails, caufcs in r-\it country no dilpute. The daugh- 
ters follow (}-.' cnmiKUi'ion oi' tlu- mother and the 
lbr,s that c f r'nir ilnhrr. Nothing is more common 
than the unirn <,i' Lutlu.T.m ininiitcrs with the 
J.iv.'.diUTs (M C-ilYi;;; ; ; :-.;it' tills 1 '.-;. ufe the Calvi- 
nilts ha\-i:' c : no ciiurcli .'.t M: , i .ind ^t Feterf- 

l-urg, \\5 ; . 'lout Ur^jM-j rr q-jjut thofc of tiie Luthc- 
r;;;is. The ianie h.^rii;! ;A jeigns between all the 
fcriN and Moravian bixt!'. ;vn, more vulgarly known 
ihj name oi /-' unk<,rs In fliort, dogmas and 



difcipline never occafion difputes among fo many 
communions, confounded with one another. When 
any perfon is at a diitance from his church, he ap- 
plies, for preffing reafons, to the firfl minifter of any 
worfhip whatever, and he aflifts the petitioner with- 
out any dogmatic reitriction or conditions. 

YET there is in Ruffia, to the difgrace of rea- 
fon, what is yet called a predominant or eftablijh- 
ed religion, which, as obfervcd by Jean-Jacques, is 
always the religion of the prince and the hangman. 
The religious fyftem adopted by the Czar, and thole 
properly called Ruffians, is that, which theologians 
call the Greek religion, which differs in fome dogma- 
tical points from the Latin. We fhall fave our 
readers the trouble of a particular account of 
thefe differences, all of them trifling, but ef- 
peciaily thofe which regard the Procc/fion of ihs 
Holy Gkojl, and the quality of bread ufed in facri- 
ces. We \viil content ourfelves with remarking 
that the Greeks deny the fupremacy of the bifhop 
of Rome, and condemn the worihip of carved ima- 
ges. On this account, there are no fiatues to be 
feen in their temples, but we found there a croud 
of paintings, rcprefenting thoufands of faints, to 
whom they pay a worfliip, aim oil equal to that due 
to the divinity. 

THE Greek church equals the Latin church in ce- 
remonies, and exceeds it in fuperftitious cuftoms, 



which is not to fay little. As thefe puerilities cha- 
racterife the nations addicted to them, we will run 
over the principal. At the beginning of the year, 
the king's day is a iingular feiiival, which the Ruf- 
fians call the benediction of waters. On the Neva 
then frozen, there is raifed for this ceremony, a kind 
of temple of an octagonal figure, on the top of 
which is a St John the Baptift, and the infide is de- 
corated with pictures, reprefenting the Baptifm of 
Jefus, his transfiguration, and fome other parts of 
his life. There your attention is drawn to an enor- 
mous Hcly-GhoJi, appearing to defcend from hea- 
ven, a decoration common to all the Greek churches, 
which introduce the Holy-Ghoft every where. In 
the middle of the fanctuary is a fquare fpace, where 
the broken ice leaves a communication with the wa- 
ters running below, and the reft is ornamented 
with rich tapeftry. Around this temple there is 
erected a kind of gallery, which communicates with 
one of the windows of the Imperial Palace, at which 
the Emprefs and her family come out to attend the 
ceremony, which begins as foon as the regiments 
of guards have taken poft on the river. Then the 
archbifhop at the found of the bells, and of the ar- 
tillery of the fortrefs, comes out of the palace and 
walks in proceffion, with all his clergy to the little 
temple we have juft mentioned. When arrived at 


the place where the ice is broken, he defcends, by 
means of a ladder, to the fide of the water. There 
he dips his crofs three or four times, afterwards 
fays foine prayers, an oriion to the great St Nicho- 
las, and the waters are then thought bleffed. The 
prelate fprinkles the water on the company around 
him, and on t!< j colours of all the regiments, that 
happen to be at St Pctcrlburg, After this benedic- 
tion the archbifliop retire.;, then the people croud 
toward the hole, by which this prelate has blefled 
the waters. They drink of them with a holy avi- 
dity. Notwithstanding the cold, the mothers plunge 
their infants, and the old men their heads, into 
them. Every body makes it a duty to carry away 
fornc for the purification of their houfes, and curing 
certain diitempers, again tl which the good Ruliians 
pretend this holy water is a powerful fpecific. While 
every one proceeds to this ufeful provifion, four 
popes, who are at the four corners of the fancluary, 
fing a kind of litany, in which they rehearfe all the 
titles of the Emprefs, and to which the people an- 
fsver by thele words ; Pc t m-:ljl-Do^ May God take 
pity on her. 

THE Rufiiar-.s have a great number of abftincncies 
or fails, and among die reft, four icnts. The iirit, 
which is their groat lent, commences eight weeks 
before Eailcr. T-ie fecond called the lent of St Pe- 


ter lafh five weeks and iive days. The third is the 
lent of the mother of God, which begins on the 
firfl of Auguir, and ends on the day of the affump- 
lion. The fourth is fixed for the fifteenth of No- 
vember, and ends on chriflmafs day. During the 
laft week of this fourth lent, the tables of rigid ob- 
ferver.-j are covered only with pots of a fmall iize, 
and not of a folii nature, becauie they fay, 
Jefu3, when he came into th.j world, could not ufe 
large pots, nor cligeft too iblid meat. In their great 
lent they make ufe of nothing but butter ?,ud milk 
during the hit week, which on that account is call- 
ed Mqflcniza, or butter week. Beficlcs their lents, 
the Wednefdays and Fridays of the whole year are 

THUSE good people think the abftinence broken., 
or at leaf! very much altered, when a plate of meat 
has touched their lent plates. On Afh-wednefd;-y, 
the popes don't blacken the brows of their congre- 
gations with aibes, but prefcnt them di'hes c'nnpo- 
fed of rice, iugar, honey and raifins, which is the 
iyrnbol c*f the abfrincnce to be oolcrvcd la great 
<c:i!:. The Iov;cr cb.fs of pcop'o, du.v'.n 1 '- 1 ,' -^i- 'ent ? 
uie nothing but linti : ..e-' oil, and fig'i fc-r Eafcjr day, 
ji-j a lliirih' i:aan for a ipring. They go to church 
on Holy Saturday at ten o'clock at ni^ht, Hay there 
till twelve, and return home to i:;derr.nify them- 
iclvcs for lent, in a debauch, \viuch coinmoruy lafts 

VOL. I- S till 


till next day at noon. At the court and among the 
rich, who ape it, they breakfaft on Eafter morning 
at ten o'clock, on brandy, chcefe, cake and butter. 
That day, which is a great day of drunkennefs for 
the Rufiians, the Haves prcfent eggs to their lords, 
who can refufe neither them, nor the embrace they 
give them, telling them ; C::rift is nfcn The per- 
fbn embraced anfv>*ers, Tcs, and accompanies his 
anfvver \vith tome copecs. 

DURING the fcaft of Pcntccoft, the Ruffian pea- 
iants plant maize, and ffrew llowcrs in their church- 
es in honour of the Holy Ghoit, and alib in honour 
of fpring. After mafs, the pricft preaches a kind 
of practical fermon, in which he mixes the gifts of 
the Holy Spirit, with thoie of Nature, which is go- 
ing to be renewed ; bledes the flowers which the 
women and girls gather up, to crown and ornament 
their houfes with them. 

ON other festivals, and unfortunately there arc 
many in R.uiTia, divine fervice is performed there 
with much more pomp than in the Latin church, 
Y\ r e were fjvcral times witneHes of this in the ca- 
thedral of St Petersburg, \\-herc \vc faw the arch- 
bifhop of ?rlolcou r oiilciate, \vlio bears the name of 
the celebrated Plate., and is almo't as illuftrious as 
he. He is a man of letters, and though brought up 
in a cloifter, has none of its prejudices Yv r e follow* 
ed him to the church on the Sunday of Pentecoft, 



where he performed the duties of Pontiff in his fined 
robes. When he appeared in the choir, thofe who 
occupied the lobby, thundered a hymn in the Greek 
language,* which -ended not till the prelate advan- 
ced towards the fanctuary, where he faid a fhort 
prayer, and went afterwards to place himfelf on a 
kind of throne, erected in the middle of the church, 
where the priefts were waiting for him, to inveft 
him with his pontifical robes. lie put oil his Man- 
dias, or ordinary coat, and as they put on him the 
different parts of the drefs he was to be decked with, 
he kiffcd them before they were laid on. They af- 
terwards put on his head s. crown enriched with 
jewels, and on his (boulders a cloak or robe not lefs 
rich. We were told that this drefs was the fame 
with the Imperial robe, which the Greek Emperors 
formerly ufed, and in which they allowed the pre- 
lates to drefs themfcives, when they officiated, 

IT was in this drefs, that the archbifhop palled, 
into the fancluary, and began fcrvice, a part of 
which was read by the prieils in the Sclavonian lan- 
guage, and the reft by the archbifhop in the Greek; 
but he pronounced it, as the ritual directs, with 
the accent of the modern Greeks, in winch there is 
nothing of the profody of tiie ancients. We heard 
neither organ nor any ir/tifical inilrument, bccaufe 

S 2 the 

* The fervice is yr.era^y p</"'on:^:d in the Gcl^vo;:!^;:. ;-r:c! Grtet 


the Greek liturgy does not allow them ; but the 
rhvme obferved in fin^iiifr the hymns produced a, 

* O O * JT 

melody, wich which the ear was very well entertain- 
ed. AVe noticed thai the luminary V.MS not leis than 
in the Latin church, and the comer was very much 
ufed. V\"hen the fervice was near a conclusion, the 
archbifhop and the clergy \venc into the extremity 
of the fanchiary to communique, which they did 
v.ith the two repreieiiiatior.s, and the bread lifted 
up. During tills ceremony, the doors cr" the ianc- 
tuary were ihut, no layman might participate. 
In the mein time, ;ia itrangers, we had permiilion to 
ftand 'here. A protopopc prevented to the commu- 
cants ftanding in tv.*:> ro\vs, a. cup, in v. hich v/a3 
\vine mixed witn lukev/arm water. F.very one 
drunk oi" it in his turn, tlie cup paili]^g fucceiiively 
from the right ro\v to the ieiV, and e\'ery commu- 
nicant was ferved \vitii a bit oi: bread, in a fpeoiij 
which had been U3:\ked in u'inc. 

THIS ceremony, with the hymns and prayers, 
which preceded and followed it, lafted a complete 
hour, and ended with a benediction, which the 
archbiihop gave the people. Tie then returned to 
put off his pontifical robes, on the ieat, on which 
he had been drefied in them. 

THE Greek Priefts have much more reverence and 
meditation in their way of going through divine fcr- 
vicCj th:m the Latin prlcrts; and the difcipline of their 



church directs, that when once a prieft is at the altar, 
he muft not remove from it, during the time he 
ought to Hand there, whatever may happen him. 
For inftance we were told, that the Prelate Gabriel, 
at prefent metropolitan of Novogorod, and Archi- 
mandrite to St Alexander Neuiki, being one day 
engaged in faying mafs at St Peterfburg, the houfe 
contiguous to the church took fire, and the flames 
reaching the fteeple, Gabriel was warned of the dan- 
ger he was in, and yet he ftirred not, even although 
he was told a fecond time, that the bells w r ould not 
be long in bruiiing him to atoms. As the cries of 
the multitude, conjuring him to remove from cer- 
tain death, made no impreliion on him, one of his 
relations leaped towards the altar and tore him from 
it. Scarcely was he twenty paces from it, when 
the iteeple fell with a great crafh upon the fanctuary. 
In relating this ftorv, the Ruffians thought there 

O J O 

was much courage in this prelate's conduct, but we 
law in it nothing but fanatical obflinacy. 

RUSSIA for a long time had a patriarch, and next 
to the Czar, he was the nioft eminent perfon of the 
empire, and a! moil always equalled the Czar by his 
pomp and influence, when he did not furpafs him ; 
ror the Ruilians before being regenerate, revered 
the patriarch and his pricfcs like derm-gods. This 
pontiff in order to be legally inftalled, required to 
be confirmed by the patriarchs of Couftantinoplc. 



Alexis Michaelowitfch affifted the ambitious Nikon, 
of whom we mall have occafion to fpeak afterwards, 
in making off this yoke, and by that did a great fer- 
vice to his country, from which the patriarch of 
Conftantinople, like a true prieft, v, r as in the prac- 
tice of exacting money not his due. 

WE have feen that Peter I. did ftill a greater fer- 
vice to RulTia, by abolifhing the dignity of patriarch; 
declaring himfelf the head of the Rufiian church, in 
fplte of the remonftrances of the clergy, who accu- 
fed him of laying his hand on the cenfer; but Peter 
\vas too great a philofopher, not to tranfaiit to his 
fucceffors the Imperial crown, difencumbered with 
the facerdotal chains, fo difficult to break in former 
times and fo weak at this day, becaufe reafon has 
pointed out the way of accomplifhing the attempt. 
IN fpite of the civilized ftate, in which we believe 
the Ruffians are, it would be difficult to find a nation 
more fuperftitious ; not even Spain nor Portugal 
exceeds it. The Ruffians eat no hares nor pigeons; 
the former becaufe they are reputed unclean, and 
the latter becaufe they are afraid of eating the Holy 
Ghoft in the form of a dove. The ringing of bells 
is for them an object of veneration, and they afcribe 
to it much efficacy for the faving of fouls. On days 
of great folemnity, there are no ears able to bear 
the noife of the bells, which are put in motion at 
break of day, and are never fullered to reft till fur. 


fet. They reckon it devotion to go and ring them/ 
and on this account the cords of the moft part reach 
to cottages before the churches, conftrucfced exprefs- 
Jy for the convenience of benevolent ringers. 

LIKE the Spaniards and Italians, the Ruffians 
have fmall chapels in their houfes in honour of the 
faint, for whom they have a particular devotion. 
This faint of predilection is in RufTia known under 
the name of Bog, and no expence is grudged to de- 
corate the chapel of a BO& which is always furnim- 
ed with the richeft luminary, when the proprietor 
is in ability. This childifhnefs is not the rage of 
the common people alone. Noblemen, people in 
oface, monafteries, all have their Bogs, and at the 
higheft price. What will be fcarcely believed, but 
we can atteft, becaufe we have feen it, is that Mr 
Scheremetoff, a member of the Directing Se-;:i:c lias 
a cabinet of Bogs worth more than a million of 
roubles. 222,222 : 4. Sterling, 

GENERALLY the Saint or Bog is painted on wood, 
and it is the diamonds, with which it is furround- 
ed, that conititute its value, A Ruffian entering 
an apartment Llutes nobody before he has made 
three crofs iigns before the Boj of the houfc. The 
Bogs moil in falhion are St Nicholas, St John the 
Baptittj Sc Serglus and St Alexander Neuiki ; yet 
the other flints are not without veneration, more 
or ie^ 3 v/]?.!*:?: is always Icrt'^d by the ^r.- 1 tended 



power attributed to them by ignorant fuperftitioru 
For example it is an opinion in this country that St 
George watches particularly over horned beafts, and 
that St Blaiie is with God the patron and interpre- 
ter of other animals. Horl'es have St Anthony, and 
St Jonas is for the fifties, St Aitippe is invoked for 
the toothach, St Klias againil thunder, and the Vir- 
gin for an infinite number of evils, and a very long 

THERE are feveral cities in Ruffia, in which there 
are particular markets for felling Bogs, and mer- 
chants when felling them avoid ufmg the word Buy,, 
A bargain may be always made at the price they fet 
on them, bccaufe it is a fin among them to afk too 
much, and we were alfo told, that it was one to 
cheapen them. The wax candles or tapers, which 
they burn before the Bogs, are the very reverie of 
our wax tapers ; they are thick at the top and di- 
minifh towards the bottom. The popes fay, that 
this form is jrivcn them, to imitate the vifual rav 

O ' 

of the faints, when they direct their eyes toward 
the earth. This folution, however infipid it may 
be thought, is not more fo than the anfwcrs often 
made by the catholic priefts to the indifcrect inter- 
rogatories o.f their devotees. 

AT a difcance from the capitals, the ftupid and 
creduloiv- arc moil ready to allow themfelves to be 
irnpofed on. by the fird: deceiver, that attempts it, 



They are perfuaded, for inftance, if they are huf- 
bandmcn or merchants, that in order to fucceed in 
planting or trading, fuch a Bog's favour is neceffa- 
ry ; that he will make their fortune, and muft be 
hired for a certain time, during which the borrow- 
ed Bog is grandly entertained and loaded will! of- 
ferings, which mull remain for the profit of the 

IN the worfiiip paid to the BogS, devotees confi- 
der it an abomination to take tobacco iri their pre- 
fence, or to turn your back to them, when you are 
in conversation in a room, where they have a cha- 
pel. There is alfo a certain time of year, when the 
wife mud refrain from going to church, and above 
all from touching the Bog ; and before the expira- 
tion of this critical time, me mud be bathed before 
flie prefent herfelf before the Bog. 

AMONG the Ruffians tha number Forty is facrcd, 
It is the term of their civil and religious ceremonies. 
They ftudy moft carefully to mow it in their ac- 
counts and converfations. Thus inftead of faying 
a rouble or twenty copecs, they fay, forty aitins. 
The tribute of Siberia in peltry is collected and put 
into packages of forty {kins. The Popes when 
reading the litany, are obliged at the concluiion tj 
fay forty times without Iwfing breath, God Lavs pity 
<*n us, Two of their lents are of forty c ays. 



IF you alk their theologians the reafon of their 
predilection for this numix-r, they anfwcr, that 
Mofes, Elias and Jefus failed forty days ; that the 
laft did not afccnd into heaven till forty days after 
his refurredion ; that in the old tcftament many 
things were divided by forty, and particularly the 
life of Mofes, in which are three remarkable periods 
of forty each. At the expiration of the iirii: he was 
obliged to ily from Egypt ; at the end of other for- 
ty years, he brought the children of Ifraei out of 
Egypt ; and they wandered lorty years in the \vil- 
dernefs. In fliort they obfcrve, that among the If- 
raelites, and till this day among the jews dclcend- 
ed from them, the tranfgreflbrs of the law received, 
and ftill receive, forty ladies with a whip. In con- 
formity to iuch powerful reafon s, it is ailonifhing 
they have not adopted the number yl-iv/;, which a- 
mong the Jews, was much more inyfterious than 
that of forty. 

WE faid at the beginning of this chanter, that to- 

O O i 7 

leration was one of the principles of the Ruffian go- 
vernment, yet it docs not tolerate the Jews : even 
under the reign of Cathrirc II. when the liberty of 
thinking is very philoiophical. it excludes from 
oiiiccs the Rcfidnik:, the only Sectaries, that have 
taken place in JvufFia. Tliev are the S tinkers or tint 

l ^^ 

country. Thefe fecbries, who among themfelvcs 
arc called Stj;-;i^crzi } orthodczv or believers in the 



ancient faith (bccaufe the word Rofk-olniki fignifics 
heretics) did not begin to make any noife in Ruf- 
fia, till towards the middle of the fixteenth cen- 
tury, and under the patriarch Nikon, who, they 
maintain, was Antichrift. They differ from the 
other Greeks, on fome obfcure points, the particu- 
lars of which we mail not fpeak of. We fliall no- 
tice limply, that they do not confider the civil go- 
vernment,which property, as a chriftian 
inftitution. They maintain that all ought to be di- 
vided as among brethren. They are horrified at the 
worfhip of images, which they confider as idolatry ; 
but what with juitice makes them very ridiculous, 
is, that in their eyes fmoking tobacco is an abomi- 
nable profanation. If any one is inconiiclerate e- 
nouoji to indulge himfelf with it in their houfes, as 

O <J J 

foon as he is gone, they open the doors and win- 
dows, fweep, rub, and clean all the houfe, but 
chiefly the place where this profane perfon fat or 

PETER. I. who ought not to have paid any atten- 
tion to them, gave them fome celebrity, by occupy- 
ing himfelf with them, and trying every method to 
bring them back to the Greek church. But in him, 
who affected toleration, and thought it ufeful to the 
population of his dominion, which flood fo much 
in need of population, it was unpardonable to have 
employed torture for convening them. Above all 

T 2 he 


he deferves to be feverely blamed for the punifK- 
inent of the unfortunate Toms, who ought to have 
been confined, not given up to the flames. 

THIS madman, who was prieft in his feel, and 
confequently muft have been the greater fanatic, 
took it into his head one day to preach openly in a 
church in Mofcow, againft the invocation of faints, 
and fome other dogmas of the religion called predo- 
minant. The popes, it is fiid, gently invited Tom a 
to retire, which he did, but it was only to return 
armed with a hatchet, with which he cut in pieces 
the images of St Alexis and the Virgin. This ac- 
tion unqueftionably fhowed him to be mad, and as 
being fuch, he ought to have been confined, and 
fome attempts made to cure him ; but the popes, 
who were a little ago fo moderate, made him be ar- 
refted, and Peter made him be burnt alive. Tom.u, 
after having heard his fentence read, with that ful- 
len indifference, infpired by the fanaticifm which 
purfues its death, fa\v his hand, which had carried 
the hatchet, cor.fumed by the fire without uttering 
a figh ; got upon the pile, and expired, declaiming 
againil the popes, and the abufes they had introdu- 
ced into religion. Peter, they fay, was fo ftruck 
with the manner, in which this poor man had fuf- 
fered his punimment, that he repented of having gi- 
ven his confent to it, and iflued an order forbid- 
ding the perfecution of the Ro/kolmkl^ but command- 


ed them to wear a fort of red hood, to diftinguifli 
them from his other fubjecb ; as if thefe poor crea- 
tures with this mark of profcription ought to have 
been lefs dear than thofe, with whom they differed 
in opinion. Like the reft of his fubjects, did not 
they pay taxes, and did not they go out to war, 
when the prince called them ? Catharine II. whom 
Voltaire has praifed fo highly for toleration, but on 
what grounds we know not ; Catharine II. has not 
luppreifed the hood of the P^qfkolniku Philofophers 
can flatter too ! 


REVENUES of Riifia. Of what they confift. Their a- 
mount. What it was in the time of Peter I. Their 
application. Bank of affignation. Difcredit of the 
bills cf this bank. National debt. 

1 HE finances cf Rufiia were befc re Peter I. and 
during the full years of his reign, in the greateit, 
confufion, fo that the Czars fcarcely knew what 
were their revenues. Peter, who needed great re- 
fources, becaufe he had great plans to execute, wifh- 
ing not to waver in this uncertainty, eftablifhed a 
fyftem of finance, by which this part of the admi- 
mftration was put into the gr^ateft order. 



BESIDES the taxes paid by the provinces conquer- 
ed from Sweden, and thofe which have been the 
confequence of the divifion of Poland, the revenues 
of RuiTia arife from the Capitation tax; The cuftom- 
houfe duties, which are very oppreffive ; Gabel, or 
the felling of fait, which is carried to the higheft 
monopoly ; the revenues of the Demefne lands, 
and the eftates of the church annexed to them ; the 
licences of inns ; the produce of the mines, and coi- 
nage of money ; the emifiion of bank-bills and du- 
ties on timber. The capitation was eftablifhed by 
Peter I. in the year 1721, with fome exception in 
favour of perfons engaged in cultivating land. 
But under Catharine II. every perfon was fubjccted 
to it, except the nobles and pricfts, who alone 
ought to have paid it. In this exemption are com- 
prehended alfo, the foldiers, failors of the royal na- 
vy, the Coffacs, and the conquered provinces which 
had their privileges. 

r o 

EVERY twenty years, a general enumeration is 
made of all the fubjects of the empire, according to 
which a tax is laid on all the males, comprehended 
in the claiics of burgefles and peafants, from the ve- 
ry moment of their birth to their death. The man- 
ner of affeffment is complicated. The maximum is 
thirty copecs and the minimum three a head ; but in 
a ratio repugnant to common fenfe, for it is the 
peafant that pays this maximum, and the rich or 



ennobled, the minimum. During the intervals be- 
tween the numbering, as they fay in Rufiia, of a 
Review for another, the fum at which every diftrict 
has been taxed, muft be paid without any variation. 
Let population increafe or diminifh, the proprietors 
of lands muft devife fome way of fupplying the^de- 
ficiency, if there be any, and of anfwering for their 

ACCORDING to the lad Review, the Capitation was 
to produce a furn of thirty four millions of French 
livres, or upwards of one million four hundred thou- 
fand pounds flerling; but after the war with the Turks 
again commenced, it was raifed to near forty two 
millions of livres, or near one million feven hun- 
dred thoufand pounds fterling. At the peace it was 
reftored to its former footing, as it has already- 
happened in fuch circumftances ; whence it may be 
concluded that the fum of thirty four millions may 
be coniidered as the ordinary produce of thlj tax. 

The conquered countries, and tlie government 
of Mohilef and Polotik, difmembered from Poland, 
are taxed at live millions, four hundred and iixty 
thoufand livres. 

THE cuilorn houfe dudes produce thirteen mil- 
lions, iix hundred and ievcnty live thoufand IUTCS, 

TUP. 1'ak works, of wh: 
her majefty's privy pun" 


nine millions, although fhe has twice lowered the 
price of fait near thirty per cent. 

THE mines, the inintj the duties on baths, and 
thofe, which .Catharine II. has laid on forged iron, 
produce fifteen millions, two hundred thoufand 
livres, exclufive of the profits on gold and filver 
imported from abroad, and converted into fpecie. 

THE church lands annexed to the crown produce 
about nine millions, whereof a part is appropriated 
for paying the falaries of prelates, popes and the re- 
gular clergy, and the penfions of officers and dif- 
banded foldiers. The remainder forming an object 
of more than a million, goes into the cam-box of 
the Czarina* 

THE licences to inns, Which comprehended alfo the 
right of diftilling, at prefent forms a third of the 
Ruffian revenues. They are eftablifhed in all the 
provinces except Ukraine and the conquered coun- 
tries. It is aftonifhing how highly this branch of 
the revenues has rifen. Subjoined is a view of its 


In 1752 the licences were farmed at 13,000,000 
In 1770 they were railed to 14,250,000 

In 1774 to 19,360,000 

In i/7^ to 37,000,000 

In 1783 to 39,600,000 

In 1788 laft leafe to 41,200,000 



THEY will be probably raifed higher at next leafe. 
The cities of Mofcow and St Peterfburg pay for 
their proportion about thirteen millions. 

THE duty on timber, the monopoly of different 
commodities, the tributes paid in kind, confirming 
of peltry, and the taxes we may have omitted, make 
a fum of twelve millions. 


Of the revenues of the Ruffian empire. 
Capitation 34,000,000 

Taxes paid by the conquered countries 
and the provinces difmembered from 
Poland 5,460,000 

The cuftoms 14,000,000 

Gabels 9,000,000 

Mines, Duties on forges and coinage 15,200,000 
Church-lands annexed to the crown 9,000,000 

Licences to Inns and Taverns 41 ,000.000 

Duties on timber and other articles 12,000,000 


N. B. The above firms reckoned in French livres, 
exchangcat i ocl iterling, amount to ub-out 5,700,000, 
pounds fterling. 

IT is a fimrular remark, but defervinsc of atteu- 

O vJ 

tion, that the gradual incrc'iie of civilization in Ruf- 

fia has been accompanied by a like incrcaie in the 

VOL, I, U revenues 


revenues. At the accedlon of Peter I. they amount- 
ed to only twenty four millions, and at his death 
to thirty fcvcn. Under Elizabeth they were brought 
1:0 eighty millions. Y/hen the reigning Emprefs 
mounted the throne, they were at -1 hundred and two 
millions, and at this day they come, to near a hund- 
red and forty millions, and will probably very foon 
rife higher. This revenue is fullicient in time of 
peace, when the army and the fleet coft only about 
i-xty nine millions, and the civil adminiftration fif- 
ty rniJUcns. The remainder, that is to fay, twenty 
million:-;, is appropriated to the Emprefs' caih box. 

IT is not eaiy to be under ftood, how this princefs 
with a fum i\> moderate, can fupport the magnifi- 
cence of her court ; the great number of cilablifh- 
meiV.s (he lias formed; the numerous buildings 
erected at her expence, tor which fhe has afligned 
in time of peace an annual funi of four millions , 
her afcs of generofity; the encouragement ILe gives 
to the arts and fciences ; the purchafes fhc is con- 
ihi'tlv making in different parts of Europe; the 
rich and numerous prcicnts received from her, by 
pcrfons, \vlio have rendered themfelves worthy of 

THE revenues of Rullii may be conliderably au^ 

J C> 

men ted in die of neceiiky, as has been feen in the 
different wars with the Porte; but this augmentation 
i> eiiecled by tlie incrcafe of the capitation, and the 



creation of new taxes, which exhauft a nation that 
ought to be fpared more than any other, became it 
is iituated in a rigorous climate,, where nature h?.s 
done aim oft nothing; for it. 


WHAT contributed molt of ail towards enabling 
the government to fupport the war with the Turks 
was, the llmk eltablifhed under the name of djjlg.- 
nation-bank, at a. time, when copper money could 
not be coined in fufficiency for the expences, bank 
-bills worth fifty, fixty, and a hundred roubles, were 
iffued, payable at the banks of St Petersburg and 
Mofcow. There was a circulation of thefe to the 
amount of forty five millions of roubles, or ten mil- 
lions fierling, nearly, 

WHEN thefe bills began to circulate, they were 
not taken without fome difficulty, and in the dif- 
tant provinces, there was a difcount on them oi 
three and a half, and in forne places fix per cent. 
But compared with the copper money, their advan- 
tages rendered them of general uie. They were 
found fo ufeful in commerce, that they were only 
one per cent, under iilver, and they were a half per 
cent, above copper money. But the laic war with 
Turkey, and fome extravagant plans, which muf; 
be imputed to the finking, cauiecl by the years of 
Catharine II. hiving drained the pede of R ufiln, 
the bank bills fell, into great diicrediu and in the 


year 1791 they loft thirty eight per cent, of their 
original value. 

AT the end of the war before the laft, the debts 
contracted by Ruilia with foreigners, amounted on- 
ly to about forty five millions of French livres, (near 
two millions flerling) and they were almoft all dif- 
charged. Since that time, however, near a hundred 
millions have been borrowed at two different times 
from the Dutch, who will not be fo foon repaid, if 
they will not take paper money, or charters to go 
and trade in the frozen countries of Ruffia, where 
the greedy avarice of their merchants will brave the 
exceffive cold, as in fcorching climates it does the 
exceflive heats. We mail remark, fmce we are u- 
pon the Dutch, who are the modern Crufitfcs of Eu- 
rope, that they have two debts very precarious, one 
in England, the other in Ruliia, without reckoning 
iixty millions, they have lent to ibme adventurers, 
who have nothing to pay them with, but a oreat 
name and romantic plans. 




PARTICULARS of the military forces of Rujfia. Hifto- 
rical note en the Strclitz. Abolition of ibis militia. 
-With what troops Peter replaced them. Aftual 
con/iitution of the Ruffian army. The Emprefs* 
boufhold troops, Infantry of the arm*-. Regular ca- 
valry. Irregular cavalry. The Co/jacs. The Kal- 
mucs. The National militia. Method of recruiting 
the Ruffian armies. 

r "l~^ 
JL HE rapid progrefs of RuiTia, her victories, the 

weight flie has acquired in the political balance of 
Europe, which flic afpires at increaiing ftill more, 
engaged us to call a curious eye on the means, by 
which me has been enabled to rife to the pitch, 
which {he has attained. It was affirmed to us at St 
Peterfburg, that thefe means were centered in the 
army and navy, created by Peter I. which his fuc- 
ceifors, but particularly Catharine II. have fo well 
orpmized. To appreciate this afiertion, which by 
letting afide a concoune of circumftances, approach- 
es very near the truth, we procured the following 
particulars refpecting the army and navy, the per- 
lii'.-il of which, we hope, will yield complete fatis- 
f action to our readers. We were fuppiied with 
them by one of the principal members of the college 
of war, 



WE fhall not enlarge on the old Ruffian Militia 
or Mufcovites, of whom not a veftige remains, not 
even in the Odncdwortzi^ whom \ve have taken a 
little notice of; nor in the Strelzis, (known in Eu- 
rope under the name of Streliiz, a word fignifying 
police officers), whofe fame induces us to mention 
them. This militia as formidable in Ruflla, as tlie 
Pretorians were in Rome, or the Janiffaries in Con- 
ftantinople, had been created by Iwan Baiilowitfch, 
and ferved on foot. It was not by their exploits 
againft the enemies of the ftate, that they gained a 
name, but by their want of difcipline, and frequent 
infurrections againfc the fovereigns, who kept them 
in pay ; and that, as judiciouily remarked by Vol- 
taire, becaufe they were Mofcow burgeffes and not 

THE ambitious and cruel Sophia, who concealed 
her vices with the mafk of devotion, and to her in- 
tereft fecurcd the priefts, who are fatislied with this 
difcruife, having by means of intrigue come at the 

O J O * O 

management of the reins of government, during 
the infancy of her brothers Iwan and Peter, had 
this militia at her nod, and made them inhumanly 
butcher the unfortunate Boyards, that fell under 
her difplcafure, and among vJiom were the rrreateft 
number oi Peter's relations j he \\ r.uied to the 
empire took vengeance on this uiiliiii by abclifhinf* 

- O 



*Ir is true the Strelitz had provoked this venge- 
ance. The Czar Peter, in order to inform himfelf 
of what was going on in foreign countries, had left 
Ruffia, and fome Boyards, ailiited by the greateft 
number of the popes, who viewed the new efta- 
blifhments of this prince, as fo many acls of facri- 
lege, had taken advantage of his abfcnce to excite 
commotions, and drawn from the cloiiter, the prin- 
cefs Sophia, whom at the time of his mounting the 
throne, Peter had forced to take the veil. The 
Strelitz, who like the priefts, were attached to na- 
tional prejudices, had been the agents of this infur- 
reclion, which would have had ferious confequences, 
if the genius and activity of Peter had not fupport- 
ed him in quafhing it. 

HE was then at Vienna, from which he fet out 
incognito and arrived at Mofcow, when he was fup- 
pofed to be in the farther end of Germany. His pre- 
fence was a thunderbolt for the confpirators, againft 
whom he difplayed a feverity unexampled, but ir 
proved his falvation. The leaders of the Strelitz, 
and two thoufand foldicrs of this militia, alone; with 


the popes, who had brought them over to this re- 
volt, were delivered over to the executioners., and the 
whole body of the Strelitz, \vhon) none of Peter's 
predeceffors had even dared to dimmii'h, was ail-. 
peried and annihilated without refiftance. It Is true, 



Peter for fome time before had fecretly prepared 
this important fuppreilion. 

IN the room of this militia, undifciplined as all 
thofe are, that to numerous privileges, join a long 
rciidence at court, Peter fubiUtiued ibme regi- 
ments regulated in the lame \vav as other trojps in 

O ' 

Europe. At iirft the army was far from numerous, 
being a body compofed only of different hordes of 
nobles, who, at the rcquihtion of the prince, turn- 
ed out to ierve with their valTals. The latter form- 
ed the infantry, and their mafters the cavalry. But 
Peter, who had to fight with enemies, that had other 
refources, in order to be able to face them, fet about 
replacing thefe bands of nobles, from whom he drew 
only a momentary fervice, by permanent armies, 
whom he could difpofe of according to his pleafure, 
and at all times. Confequently he ordered the for- 
mation of the Podufcbnoioklad or General rc^ijhr, in 
which were entered all the heads of families of the. 
order of burgefles and peafants. Every ten fami- 
lies were obliged to furniih a man, and as the re- 
view reported, feven hundred and fifty thouiand, 
four hundred and feventy nine families in the two 
orders, the confequence was, the Czar had an ar- 
my of about feventy thoufand men, who were im- 
mediately ordered to St Peterlburg and other pla- 
ces, to be instructed in the ufe of arms. The Czar's 
fucccfibr? followed thii mod:, adapted more or Ids 



to circumflances, and their own wants. But Ca- 
tharine II. in the year 1764, new modelled the mi- 
litary eftablilhment of the empire: In the 1784, it 
again underwent fbme other changes, and received 
a very considerable augmentation in the year of the 
commencement of the lad war with the Turks. 

THE Ruffian army is compofed of regular troops, 
and light or irregular troops ; the former aim oft all 
in infantry and the latter almoit all in cavalry. The 
regular troops form a body of more than three 
hundred thoufand men, which according to cir- 

J O 

cumflances, is augmented to more than four hund- 
red thoufand; :or in thefc three hundred thoufhnd, 
are not included the houfhcld troops of the Emprefs, 
nor the national militia, which they call the LantL* 

THESE troops, when well commanded, are capable 
of performing the greateft feats. Fir ft, bccaufe the 
Ruflian ibldiers are Beings entirely paflive, and their 
obedience goes the length of felf-dcnial. It is found- 
ed upon a fort of opinion, that would make them 
rather let tlierniclves be cut to pieces on the carri- 
age of a cannon, than abandon it. This opinion* 
which their prieits have taken great care to incul- 
cate on them, at the inftigation ol ih:ne ambitious 
Emperor, confifts in believing, I'vit they will go to 
paradite, if they die *.vith tlielr face turned to the 
enemy, and they will b; reprobated if they 

VOL. L rerilh 


perifii %ing. This article of faith, that might have 
mn.dc the Ruffians fanatical heroes, is unluckily be- 
ginning to lofe its influence among them. Not- 
withftanding this, they will not be lefs excellent 
fvkuers, becaufe they are indefatigable, obedient* 
and completely fober, An anecdote is told of 
a regiment in the army commanded by General 
Fermor, in the feven-years war, which having 
mounted guard in a certain place, was forgotten 
by a counter-march, which the Ruffian army was 
obliged to make, and when the army returned to 
the fame ground five days after, this regiment was 
found in the fame place by the very officer, who 
had poftcd it, and who affirmed, that the poor fol- 
cliers forgotten by him, having only one day's pro- 
vilions, had lived on herbs and roots for other four* 
THE Emprds' houmold troops arc compofed of 
four regiments, properly called regiments of Guards; 
of" two battalions, one of Huilars, and the other of 
CoSacs, and of the fuperb company of Cbmatier- 
Guards. There is nothing more beautiful, or more 
magnificent, than thefe regiments of Guards, and 
they arc never filled up but with the flower of the ar- 
my, for fhturc and fixe. The fir ft is a regiment of 
Cavalry, called Horfe-Guards. The other three are 
Infantry, and bear the names of Preobafchenjkoiy Se- 
rnenowfkoii and I/h?nailow/koi. 1 hcle form a body of 



ten thoufand men, whereof the firft have four thou- 
iand, and the other two, three thoufand c.ich. 

TIM. firft, Preobafchcnfkoi, were formed, and took 
their name from the company of fifty young people, 
whomPeter 1. then a young man, trained in his coun- 
try hou-il- . cnlled Prcobafcbcnjfoi. lie enrolled himlclf 
in it, and icrved in it, firft as a drummer, and then as 
a io'dicT, and leijcant, and afterwards received the 
ran!: of Lieutenant. Lefort was captain of it ; and 
this company, which at firft caufed no une:iiir.el : to 
the ambitious Sophia, bccaufe me ccnfidered it only 
the amufement of a young man, whom me wiiiicd 
to keep at diftance from buiineiL; t!ii-> company was 
tlie balis, on which foon afterwards the army was 
organized, which was bold enough to engage with 
that of Charles Xll. which learned of him to con- 
quer, and by which he was at lad overcome. 

THE regiment of Preobafcbenjkoi^ whole military 
origin we have now related, is compoied of two 
Grenadier companies, of fix hundred and fifty men 
each ; of fixteen companies of Fufilecrs, of a hun- 
dred and forty four each ; of one company of Bom- 
bardiers, of two hundred men, and one of Cadets, 
of the iamc number. Thcle Cadets are fens of fol- 
uiers, put there tor initruction. They take their 
o flic ITS Irnm their ov;n body, wliicii is a nurlery 
for excellent foldiers. The oilier two regiment-^ of 
foot ^uard-:, liave ca^h a companv of c r rc-n^:.i:er-, and 

O 1 < * 


twelve fufilcers, with this difference, that the regi- 
ment of Ifmailowfkoi, has befides a company of 
Chaffeurs and one of Cadets ; whereas that of Se- 
inenowiki, has only a corps oi Teventy ChafTeurs and 
no Cadets, and has only a fchccl for the children of 

THE Emprefs is Colonel of t.liefe i hree regiments, 
of the horie guards and chevalier guards. He, who 
commands next to her Mjjdty, is commonly a Ge- 
neral of one of the fir It families uf the empire. He 
has the rank of Lieutenant Colonel, and the two 
fir it reariments have two. During our ftav in Ruf- 

O O f 

fia, it was Prince Poteiukin Marihal- General of the 
empire, and Prince Georcre Dolgorouiki, iirfl Gene- 
ral of the army, who were Lieutenant Colonels of 
Preobafchenfki ; and the -Lieutenant Colonels of the 
other regiments were nobles equally diftinguifhed. 

IN general the officers of thefe corps, and it is the 
fame in all courts, are advanced above thofe of the 
fame degree in the army. A Captain of Guards 
has the rank of Colonel, and retires Math that of 
Brevet-Brigadier. The Serjeants in thefe regiments 
have the rank of Lieutenants, &c. 

EVER.Y company has five officers, viz. two Cap- 
tains, two Lieutenants and an Enfign. It has thir- 
ty low or non-commiilloned officers, whereof iix 
are Serjeants, and twenty four are Corporals. There 
are always two Serjeants doing duty at the door of 



the hall, called the hall of the throne. The efta- 
blifhmcnt of the troop of horfe guards is the fame. 
THE pay of thefe forces is reduced to French and 
F.ngHfli money exchange tod a livre. 

Firft Captain per ann. 
Second Captain 
Firft Lieutenant 
Second Lieutenant 

Quarter- Matter 

Firft Captain 
Second Captain 
Firft Lieutenant 
Second Lieutenant 

Veteran Soldier Ji7iolbus4 17 11 

Grenadier 11710 4 17 n 

Fufileer 52 10 3 17 i 



THIS pay, as the reader may fee, is very mode- 
rate, and it really is fo for all the troops of Ruffia ; 
but befides this pay, the officer has a certain num- 
ber of rations, and the foldier has provifions, wood, 
candle, and a number of advantages, which much 
increafe the value of his pay, if not double it. 

THE Guards, both infantry and cavalry,, do du- 
ty only in the winter and fummer palaces and plea- 
lure houfes belonsdngr to the Emnrefs. In the re2:i- 

O O i o 

ment of Preobafchenfkoi, each foldier is on duty 
one day out of four, and in the other two, three 
nights out of four. The horfe guards always do 
duty on foot, except when the Emprefs lodges in 
the fummer palace. 

THE chevalier guards were eftablimed by Catha- 
rine II. to fupply the place of the Leib-company which 
{he reduced, and which Elizabeth had formed of 
the grenadiers, who helped her to mount the throne. 
They form only one company of fixty men, who 
have all the rank and pay of Lieutenants, with pre- 
fents for their table, and the fupport of a carnage, 
which in Ruflia is not an object of great expence. 
They rnuft all be defcended of noble families, and 
of high ftature ; but with the advantage of the lat- 
ter, and intereft, they contrive ways of eluding the 

THIS brilliant Cohort, the mod fuperbly clothed 
of any in Europe, and worthy of figuring on the 



lleps of the throne of the moil powerful monarch, 
has two uniforms. The uniform worn every day 
confills of a blue coat, with fcarlet facings, a yel- 
low waiftcoat and breeches, and a Soubrevefte (a kind 
of upper coat without fleeves) trimmed with double 
lace, and enriched on the two fronts before and be- 
hind, with the imperial eade embroidered in iilver. 
The parade uniform is a fcarlet coat, with a Soub- 
rrccjlc of blue velvet, almofl all covered with filver 
fcutcheons, fixed with links of the fame metal. For 
the officers, thefe links are ornamented with jewels. 
On ordinary days the chevalier-guards wear a hat 
bound with broad lace, and fet off with a black 
plume, for the white is appropriated to the General 
Officers. On days of ceremony they have a gilt hel- 
met, with a creft of large feathers. 

THE fervice, which the chevalier-guards perform 
at court, requires twelve men a day, who furnifh 
two fentineis, in the infide of the hall of the throne, 
who have liberty to lit down, but fitting or {land- 
ing, always reft on their arms, which are Cara- 
bines. Every time the Emprefs goes in or out of 
the hall, the chevalier-guards on duty, arc permit- 
ted to kifs her hand. They arc relieved every three 

THE eitabiifhmcnt of HufTiirs and Coiilic body- 
guards, is alfo the work of Catharine II. Theft; 
two corps who are very well laced, ride excellent: 



horfes, and confift of the handfomeft men of their 
nations; efpecially the Colfacs, who are armed with 
gilt lances, and clothed with the moft coftly furs. 
This body of cavalry, alternately form the Em- 
prefs' retinue when fhe goes out of the capital, that 
is, the Huffars a<fompany her to the iirffc ftage, 
where they are relieved by the Coffacs, who finiih 
the journey. In return, each corps goes over the 
fame road. 

ALTHOUGH the pay of the Emprefs' guards be 
not in proportion to their rich equipment, their fi- 
tuation is neverthelefs much better, than that of 
the other troops of the army. The guards are con- 
tinually under the fovereign's eye, and this is enough 
to obtain favours from her. Befides other advan- 
tages, which we mail not enumerate, every regiment 
of guards has its feftival, and on this day every fol- 
dier receives a prefent from the Em prefs. Peter I. 
alfo introduced a cuftom, which is very expenfive for 
the Czarina, and which the guards have taken care 
to perpetuate. They folicit her to ftand God-mo- 
ther for their children, and (he cannot refufe. Pe- 
ter, Catharine I. and Ann performed this duty in 
perfon, but Elizabeth and Catharine II. never did 
fo. The reigning Emprefs fends her procuration to 
an oflicer of the company, and five * roubles to the 
child's father, if a common foldier, ten roubles 


* A Rouble 40 6d and a Ducat 9? dd Su-nir^. 


if a fevjeant, a hundred ducats if an officer, and 
three hundred ducats if he be of a rank above a 

PASSING from the Emprefs' houfliold troops, to 
the different military corps thac corapofe the Ruffian 
army, we find the infantry of this empire coniifts of 

Firil Four regiments of Grenadiers of 

2100 men each 8,400 

Secondly Seventy one regiments of Fuii- 

f / O 

leers of 2093 mcn I -|S 3 ^o3 

N. B. Each regiment has t\vo com- 
panies of Grenadiers. 
Thirdly Kkait battalions of Chaflcurs of 

990 men 7;9-^> 

Fourthly Six battalions of Independent 

companies of 7-0 men 4,200 

Finhlv Ki.'rlrv four irarrifon battalions of 

^ O * vJ 

10,15 men 87,780 

Sixthly Soldiers employed in mines, and 
in the gardens of the Imperial lioulcs 

Total ^70,003 

A R.I-OIMENT of infantry in Ruilia confifis of two 

battalions, which together form t \vclvc companies, 
and e.'ich company contains a hundred ar..l iirly four 
men in time ot war, and and :i hundred and thirty 
four in time oi peAce. in'r'iuivo of coir-mijiiuned and 
VOL 1. V none 


non-comrnillioned officers, of \vhofe pay the follow- 
ing is a ftatement. 

Roubles Servants Rations 

A Captain has annually ioo 2 5 

A Lieutenant 120 i 4 

A Sub-Lieutenant 100 i 3 

An Enfign 200 i 
A Serjeant Major 36 

Two Serjeants each 15 o o 

A Captain of arms 12 o o 

A Flag Bearer 12 o o 

A Harbinger 1 2 o 

Four Corporals each 1 1 o o 

A Barber or Journeyman Barber 71- o o 

Two Drummears each 7^ o o 

One Fifer 7^ o 

A hundred and thirty fix Fufileers yt o o 

ACarpenteer and 2 Waggoners, each 7-1- o 

VAIUPING the rouble at 43 6d, the pay of a Ruf- 
fian foldier is but a fmall fraction above a penny 
fterling a day, but with this the Ruffian foldier is 
lodged, warmed, clothed, and almoft fed. 

THE Ruffian Colonels furnifh their regiments 
with neceflaries, and no imposition appears to them 
illegal. r i he Farriers, Lockfmiths and Armourers, 
joiiowing the regiments, are dependent on them, 
and receive fixty roubles of wages. All thefe 
artificer:: are Germans and do not wear uniforms. 



The pope appointed as Almoner to a regiment, has 
fixty roubles a year, like the lockfmiths arid armour. 
ers, and is fcarcely more reipected. 

THERE are twelve muiicians in each regiment, 
who receive from the Emprefs the pay and clothing 
of a foldier, but they are always better paid and 
ciothed by the Colonel, and Officers in proportion 
to their abilities. 

THE cavalry, which fince the days of Peter I. has 
undergone many changes in their uniform, number 
and eftablimment, confifts at prefent of regular and 
irregular cavalry. 

OF regular cavalry, there are fixty one regiments, 
viz. firft. Five regiments of Cuiraffiers, of iix fqua- 
drons each ; the fquadron conlifting of two troops s 
and the troop of thirty men, whereof three are 
Officers, four non-commiffioned Officers, and twen- 
ty three privates. In each regiment the liorfes are 
of the fame colour, all black or brown. Secondly--- 
Nine regiments of .Carabinicrs, arranged like the 
the Cuiraffiers, but having horfes of all colours. 
ThirdlyNine regiments of dragoons, including 
the Kafan regiment, which is armed in the light 
manner ; every regiment contains Iix fquadrons , 
the fquadron and the company double the ftrcngth 

I A tf O 

nf the cavalry. 

FourthlyTwenty regiments of Huffars, whereof 
contain a thounnd three hundred and fifty iix 
Y j 


men, inciufive of Officers, and the other ten ton- 
tain feven hundred and fifty men. The ten fir ft 
have tht-ir quarters in Ukr.iir.c, and are aim oft all 
compofed of ilullians, Throe of thefe regiments 
bear the name r,f Kompancifti-Pciki, regiments of 
brothers. The other ten Cantoned at St Elizabeth, 
and in the neighbourhood, are compofed of Hun- 
garians, Moldavian;, and (/thu*r forr-gn -nations. Bc- 
iides a pay much better than what tl e reft recei\ 7 e, 
the Lmprcfs has made ?. rrn.nt of lands to the ofH- 
cers and ioidicrs. B\ -his donation the part of the 
frontier, which they d-fcrid, beinp; their own pro- 
perty, thefe men fought a^ air. ft the Turks Lift war 
like men, who wgre fighting on their properties, 
ami for their properties. 

Fifthly Eight regim-nt of Lancers, fix of which 
contain fix hundred and thirty men each, and two, 
five hundred and iorty. They are Coflacs rcjiment- 

' O 

ed, to wuorn lands have bec:i riven, and they have 
defended them a^ainft the Tiijk^., as a Tiger cic* 
fends hia den. They are armed \vhh a very flicit 
Carabine, wkh two piiio^?, and a Ubre. iuch as the 
liuii^rs carry, and a lincc, \vluch li\:> a ih;;lt eight 
feet long. 

ALL thlci !;ody of cavalry ri;nour;t= to thirty fovcii 
thouiand, lour hundred, ar.d forty men, to whom 
mnft b.e ad.:!ecl, ^hat ;.n Ur>li.i;i 5^ called Irregular 
Cavalry. It cor-ilils ci Coffics and Kaimucs ; barba- 

ror. c 


rous nations, who in war furniih rather armed hordes 
than regiments, but excellent for fighting the Turks 
and tlu> Aliatic powers, which border with Rufiia, 
and do not oppofe her with troops better disciplined. 
THK Coilacs, whofe name we lee fo often repeat- 
ed in gazettes and by hiftorians, who are alfo gazet- 
teers or their echoes; the Coflacs, who form among 
them feveral nations, all having nearly the fame 
manners, are generally of middle ilature, wear very 
fliort whifkers, and fhave the head, all except the 
crown, on which they leave a little hair. Their 
drcfs is a fur cloak, a long gown after the cuftom 
of the Afiatics, large pantaloons, boots, Ibmetimes 
ianje, fomeiimes fmali, without fpurs, and a whip, 
which they always fallen round the right wrift. 
Their arms are a lance about twelve feet long, a pzir 
of piftols, which they hang at their girdle on the left 
iiJe, becav.fe on their light is a fin all bag, which 
contains about twelve cartridges : in addition to all 
thij they have a f:\bre very much curved, which 
Ins no other hilt than a pkiin bit of iron in form of 
a crate. Their horfcs are in:xl1, bur ilrong and met- 
tleforne. Tliey ufe a kind of Huilar-faddfc, a frnall 
cord initci'd of a bridle, which is lied to the faddle, 
and fer v es for a halter. They never ride their hor- 
ft;s in a ftraight line ; but when gallopping, drive 
them in difierent direclious, which make:, their attack 
dangerous, efpecially when they are engaged with 



cavalry of the line ; their inarch is alfo like that of 
the Hufiars. When they are at reft, they hold their 
lances refting on their foot j in light they prefent it 
to the enemy, holding it by the middle, and fecur- 
ing it below the arm. Continual exercife qualifies 
them for ufing it with much dexterity. In their 
retreat, which is to them never a flight, but a kind 
of battle, they reft their lance on their moulder, 
with the point turned towards the enemy, whofc 
ftroke it ferves to parry, and it fometimes becomes 
fatal to him, when he incautioufly purfues a man, 
whofe flight is a itratagem. 

THE averfion of the Coffees, for all kind of dif- 
cipline, has not allowed them to be taught how to 
manoeuvre in a fquadron. They do nothing but 
Ikirmifh, but they excel in this way of fighting. 
They are let loofe on the enemy, when flying, and 
then they become terrible by the quicknefs and 
manner of their affault. A corps with fuch men at 
their heels, is utterly incapable of rallying, however 
much inclined to it. 

THE Coilacs are excellent alfo for fcouring a coun- 
try, and clearing a wood, and in all kinds of patroles. 
Their fagacity in this refpect, the effect of long cuftom, 
is fomething aftonifhing. Examining the grounds, 
recently traverfed by the enemy's troops in the great- 
eft diforder, they can difcover very exactly the num- 
Ler of horfes, which have paffed. Some can ob- 



jferve the movements of a corps' at an extraordinary 
diflance; others by applying their ears to the ground, 
can diftinguifti very far off, the march of men and 
horfes. They are capable of refting under arms a 
whole day without murmuring. In ihort, as inde- 
fatigable in harrailing an enemy, efpecially if they 
have no hope of plunder, as temperate, when it is 
neceffary to be fo, which often occurs in war, they 
have learned to be fatisfied with little; and they 
have no. need to provide themfelves with forage for 
their horfes, becaufe like themfelves, they have accuf- 
tomed them to bear hunger and thirft. But if they 
have a moment's refpite, they employ it in feeding 
2nd dreiTmg their horfes, and when they make ex- 
curfions in queft of provifions, they load themfelves 
with a bunch of grafs, rather than with a quarter 
of meat. 

AMONG this kind of men, on whom we (hall re- 
turn, when we fpeak of the nations that are barba- 
rous or little known, and fubjecl to the empire of 
Rufihj among thefe nations, the Coflacs of the 
Don, diilinguHh themfelves in the RufiTian armies, 
and form the molt confiderable body in them. Their 
chief bears the name of ILitthman. He enjoys an 
authority ib much the more cxtenfive, that it is 
founded only on opinion, which is one of the moft 
efficacious means of ruling the multitude. Jewre- 
wff, one of the Hdithmnn did the greateft Cervices 



to Ruilia, and under this title, figures with glory 
in the annals of that nation. He joined riches to 
bravery. He had a revenue of a hundred roubles a 
year, which, it is Jf.iid, he took n plcafure in divid- 
ing with his companions in arms. 

THI: following; arc the different contingents of 

o u 

men, furnifhed by the Coluc nations in time of war. 
Coffacs of the Don 24,976 Tv'en 

of Oremburg 9>93 2 

of Aftracan 4:34 

of Tcbollh audits neighbourhood 9,553 

Total - 48.801 

WE canr.ot compute what the Kalmucs furnifh. 
Sometimes there arc hordes without number, that 
come to deluge the army, and clog lather thin 
ferve It : at other times there are only {mali bodies 
of them, which hardly Tooncr rrivc than difappear, 
when tiie county where they L.uft ^ght and the ene- 
my they have to oppoie, prefent no hopes of plunder. 

ALTHOUGH they cannot be much depended on, 
they arc of or.fidern.ble uie, wlicn they arc on ier- 
vice. Their vipfihnce is much luperior to that of 
the Cofkics, ::nti tiielr activity adiv/irs of no compa- 
rifon. Beficlcs they coll the Kmpreis only one co- 
pec per day. Tliey never fail to aftonifli the ene- 
my, before whom they fho\v thcmfelves for the fir ft 



time, for there is no fight more remarkable than a 
warrior of this nation. Suppofe a man on horfe- 
back, almoft or entirely naked, armed with a bow, 
a quiver, a lance, and a fcymitar, having on the 
pommel of the faddle, or rather a fhabby pack fad- 
die, a bit of frefti or corrupted horfe flefli. 

THE artillery of the Ruffian army forms a body 
very refpectable, and confifts of 
One regiment of Bombadiers of 2510 Men 

Two ditto of Gunners, of 2497 each 4994 
Two ditto of Fufileer- Servants of ditto 4994 
A corps of Miners, Pioneers, Engineers 

forming fix brigades of 420 men each 2520 
Two brigades of Waggoners, amounting 

to 3 82 3 

Different brigades of Artificers, cliftribu- 
ted through the works at St Peterf- 
burg, Mofcow, and the principal arfe- 
nals of the Empire, amounting to 9913 

Total, exclufive of Officers 28,754 

THE national or land Militia is divided, like the 
reft of the army, into infantry and cavalry, with 
nearly the fame conftitution, and the fame pay, but 
the cavalry is more numerous than the infantry. 
This militia is only employed during war. 

No regiment in Ruffia bears the name of its .Co- 
lonel. They generally have that of the cities, whofe 

VOL. I. Z arms 


arms they carry, or in which they were firft quar- 
tered ; and this defignation continues with them, 
without variation, or at leaft is not changed, but for 
reafons of the greateft importance. 

As to the uniform of the Ruffian army,, the ge- 
neral colour is green, particularly that of the infan- 
try, but many regiments of cavalry have adopted a 
fawn colour, efpecially for vefts, capes, and facings. 
All the KuiTars have green cloaks. 

THE uniform of the General Officers of Infantry 
Is green and red, and that of the Cavalry, blue and 
red. The Field- Marfhals and Generals, who com- 
mand Cavalry and Infantry at the fame time, may 
wear either of thefe uniforms, and the white plume, 
which, we have faid, is the diftinguifhing badge of 
General Officers. There are fome of them diftin- 
im'.ilied bv their lace, which on the drefs of a Field- 

O ' 

Marfhal or General-in-chief is triple, but the latter 
has no embroidery on the feams. The Staff-officers 
of the army are diftinguifhed by lace on their waiil- 

IN fever;.] regiments, the Colonels have introdu- 
ced a cheap uniform, which is a kind of Surtout, or 
threat coat of very coarfc cloth, and proves a great 
convenience to oiEccrs of fin all fortune, who can 
hardly attain the grand uniform. The army is 
clothed a- new every two years, but the Cavalry gets 
doaks only every four years, There is only one 



kind of cloth for foldiers and non-commiffioned of- 
ficers, but the latter are obliged to procure fome fi- 
ner. Their colonel makes them an allowance for 
furnifhing this and the lace, which diftinguifhes 
them from the common foldiers. During fummer 
the whole army wears no coats, but in Ruffia the 
fummer is fo fhort, that the coat is in the portman- 
teau only a few weeks, and the ceconomy that put 
it there, amounts to almoft nothing. 

FOR the fervice and defence of the frontiers, 
winch are immenfe and expofed to frequent inroads, 
the Ruffian army is diftributed into twelve divifions, 
which take the names of the government in which 
they are Rationed. A Field- Marfhal or General-in- 
chief is at the head of every divifion, and thefe di- 
vifions differ from one another in the number of 
troops, of which they confift ; but all have cavalry 
and infantry. The Huffars and the Coffacs are (la- 
tioned only in the divifibns on the frontiers, fo that 
the firft divifion, which is that of St Peterfburg, has 
only one regiment of Huffars, and no Coffees; whereas 
the tenth and the eleventh, which are the divi lions of 
Ukraine and AzoiT, and of the countries newly con- 
quered, have each five regiments of. Huffars, and five 
regiments of Coffees. In all thcfe divifions, when 
the place where they are quartered is not a town, 
the S tail- officers refide in the chief-manor-hoiife, and 



the reft of the troops are difperfed through the 
country. The peafant is ftrictly obliged to furnrfh 
his guefis only with ftraw to ilcep on ; but in a go- 
vernment, whereof the adminiftration is military, 
and the foldiers belong rather to the Emprefs than 
to the empire, they force the unfortunate peafant to 
give up a part of his neceffary provifions, to put it 
into their kettle. This reproach is due to the go- 
vernment rather than to the foldier, becaufe the 
defpot, wiihing to have a numerous army, pays the 
man poorly, whom he has torn from the plough 
to make a foldier of him. The Ruffian foldier, as 
already noticed, has only feven roubles and* a half, 
yearly, and it is added, that he is almoft boarded ; 
but his provifions confift of three tons of meal, 
weighing fifty pounds each, and of forty- four pounds 
of fait, which he receives from government. 

THE Ruffian dcfpots have given an additional 
proof of their (economy, in the mode they have 
preicribed for the recruiting of the army. The re- 
cruits abfolutely coft the crown nothing. When 
the time of furnifhing them to the army is arrived, 
and it returns every year at the firft of March, one 
man is taken for each four hundred ; but he is cho- 
fen only from the order of peafants, for in every 
quarter, and on all occafions, this unhappy clafs is 
obliged to bear every burden. This recruiting is 
made fo much the more expeditioufly, as every no- 



ble, by the Review, knows what is to be his con- 
tingent, and no excufe can exempt him from i 
niftiing it. When the population of his eftateis b 
low four hundred, but above two hundred, he i 
nifhes a man every fecond time. When the popu- 
lation is below two hundred, feveral nobles equal 
in property, unite in furnifhing a man at the 
pence of their refpective peafants, whom they com- 
pel to affefs themfelves for this purpofe, and 
Jmn is found without difficulty. Firft, becaufe e- 
very lord, who is difpleafed with one of his pe; 
fants, makes him be entered among the recruits. 
Secondly, becaufe the peafant, or moil of the pea- 
fants, confidering the lot of a foldier better than his 
own, comes to offer himfelf as a volunteer ; then 
thofe, for whom he is to go, furnifh him with fix 
roubles for the expence of his march, if it be lefs 
than two hundred leagues, and with ten roubles, if 
it be above that number. 

CERTAIN parts of Rufiia are exempted from thefe 
contributions of Recruits. The peafants of Ruffia- 
proper and, of Finland, who fettled in Ingria are 
not fubjected to them. None are demanded from 
the Coflacs, becaufe they have enough to do with 
covering the frontiers and marching as an Army- 
corps, when need requires them. Livonia and Ef- 
tonia pay a quitrent equivalent to a contribution ; 


and fome diftant countries, wild or yet unfubdued, 
furnifh recruits only when they pleafe. 

ACCORDING to the regulations of Peter I. and of 
Catharine II. (who has made many of them, and 
flie has equalled this legiflator in the wifdom of 
fome and furpaffed him in others), the recruits muft 
be treated with the greateft mildnefs during the fir ft 
year of their admiffion into the fervice, and fpend 
the three firft months in complete reft. But cir- 
cumftances and the officers, impatient to fill up the 
numbers wanting, with men fit for fervice, always 
fhorten this term of grace. 

WE were aflured that the number of recruits, loft 
by Ruffia during the two laft wars with the Turks, 
was immenfe. She will not be expofed to this ca- 
lamity in wars with the Turks alone. She will ex- 
perience the fame diiadvantages in wars (he may 
have with any power whatever, by the long and 
forced marches, which muft be made by her re- 
cruits, who are fubjected to one great evil, namely, 
the fudden and repeated tranfition from the moft 
intenfe cold to the moft fcorching heats. 



RUSSIAN Navy.CronJladt its principal Jlatiorr. D- 
fcription of this town, and the ijle on which it isji- 
tuated. Its dock-yards. Peter I. founder of the Ruf- 
fian Navy.ReJlored by Catharine II Number of 
thejhips which compofe the maritime force of Rujta. 
Obftacles that mar the progrefs of this force. 

THE ftation of the navy and admiralty was for- 
merly on the fouth bank of the Neva, oppofite to 
the fortrefs of St Peterfburg, but every thing con- 
nected with the Imperial navy has been tranfported 
to Cronftadt, which is about twenty-nine werfts 
(nearly twenty one Englifli miles) from St Peterf- 
burg, three werfts from the coafts of Ingria, and 
fourteen from the coails of Carelia. 

THE harbour of this town is in the ifle of Ritzkar, 
called alfo, and more commonly, the ifle of Retoiv- 
Zari. Peter I. chofe it as the molt fecure on this 
fea, and as being the moft proper, by its fitua- 
tion, to ferve as a bulwark to the capital he had 
juii founded. In fact, the only paifage, by which 
fluns of a certain lize can approach St Peterfburg, 
is M limit canal to the fouth of this ale, whereof one 



fide is commanded by Cronftadt, and the other by 
Kronfchlot and the citadel. 

KRONSCHLOT Hands on a fmall fandy ifle, and is 
only an wooden building of a circular form, fur- 
rounded by wooden fortifications, that advance into 
the fea A garrifon of a hundred men is kept there. 
The citadel is another fmall wooden fort, built u- 
pon a neighbouring fand bank, and may contain 
thirty ioldiers. 

EVERY fliip muft pafs between Cronftadt and thefe 
two fmall fortreffes, where they are expofed to the 
fire of the oppofite batteries. In the other pafiages, 
there is not more than eleven feet of water. When 
thefe works were conftructed, they might pafs for 
good fortifications, but at prefent they are weak 
fcare- crows, that would be infulted by any power- 
ful fleet, that would attempt the paffage. 

THE ifle of Reton-Zari is a point of land, or rather 
fand, in the middle of which there is a range of 
granate rocks. By fea it is about twenty fix werfts 
from St Peterfburg, fix from the coafts of Ingria, 
and twelve from the coafts of Carelia. It is about 
a league in length, and half a league in breadth. 
When Peter I. conquered it from the Swedes, it 
was quite wafte, prefenting nothing to the eye but 
fome old pines blacked by the weather, and now 
there are on it about thirty thoufand inhabitants, 



inclufive of about twelve thoufand failors, and fif- 
teen hundred men in the garrifon. In this ifle there 
are pafture, vegetables, and the fruits that thrive 
in northern climates ; fuch as apples, pears, goofe- 
berries and ftrawberries. 

CRONSTADT is built on the eaftern extremity o 
the ifle. It is defended towards the fea by a ftrong 
mole, and towards the land by ramparts, which 
could not (land a ferious attack, but fortunately 
there is none to be feared from this fide. The town 
is very irregularly built, and like all in Ruilia, oc- 
cupies more ground than necefiary for its inhabi- 
tants. The houfes are chiefly of wood, only thofe 
facing thcr harbour arc of brick covered with plait- 
ter. Among the latter we diftinguiihed tiie Marine 
Hofpital, the Caferns, the Marine Academy, a School, 
wherein more than three hundred and fixty Cadets 
are inftrucied and fnpported at the expence of the 
crown. They are admitted at the age of five, and 
may fcay till they are feventeen years old. They 
are taught drawing and mathematics, principally 
thofe branches applicable to {hip building and navi- 
o-ation. Thofe far theft advanced, make a cruife 
every year on the Baltic ; but thefe fliort voyages 
are not fudlcient for making -a feaman, Alfo with- 
out foreigners to fill the places of pilots and officers,, 
the Ruffian navy would not have made fuch rapid 
progrcft, for Thefifes and Theory only reafon, and 
V OL> I. A a examinations 


examinations before admirals, which are their con- 
iequcnceS; cannot make a failor, who with all his 
theory knows not what he is about, when practice 
is necellary. 

CRONSTADT lias one port for (hips of war, and 
another for merchantmen. Hard by the port for 
mordiart men, there is a canal, and feveral dry 
docks for rc-riirinj; men of war. This work, be- 

A O ' 

gun by IV.tcr the Great, and ncglcfted under his 
fuccellbrs, was not fmiihed till Elizabeth's time. 
But Catharine II. who was fc ruble of its utility, was 
earcr to cr/'ir^e aufl comolete it. Before the rei^n 

. > . ") i O 

of this prii:ccfs, fliips of a certain burden only could 
be repaired there, and now it ferves for building as 
well as careening of the line. 

AT the extremity of thefc docks, there is a large 
rcfervoir, which contains enough of water to fill them 
all. This v/ater is afterwards pumped out by a fire- 
engine, \vith a cylinder fix feet in diameter. It 
were to be wi(hed, that they had imitated the docks 
at Breil or Portfmouth, and inflead of the fire- 
pu!r:p, they had fublliturcd fluiees. From the head 
c;f the canal to the extremity of the laft, it is four 
tho'jfjnd two Irantlred and twenty one feet. The 
bridges of thcfe docks arc faced \vith ftone, and the 
bottom 1-jid with granate ; they arc forty feet deep, 
ana a hundred and five wide, and capable of re- 
ceiving nine ihi;:.s of war, 



NOTHING can give a higher idea of the ability, 
genius and perfeverance of Peter I. than the flate, 
in which he found, and that in which he left the 
Ruffian navy. At the beginning of his reign, he 
had not a tingle fhip on the Baltic fea. We have 
feen him employed on the lake near Taoufa and there 
fuperintending the building of fmail vefiels. It was 
his genius trying its powers, and what at firfl feem- 
ed only the amuiement of a young man, afterwards 
produced the moft glorious event of this prince, for 
which hiftory and poilerity already begin to ac- 
knowledge their obligations to him. 

IN the year 1695 ne nac ^ ku^ fcege to AzofT, but 
In fpite of his own efforts, and the courage of liis 
troops, this enterprize was not crowned with fuc- 
cefs, bccaufe it was impoflible to take this town, 
without blocking up the harbour. Peter, wlio then 
had not a fingle fhip, difcovered his wants, and 
xvas obliged not to raife the llcgc but to fufpcnd it; for 
he did not give up his plan, and his courage was ra- 
ther excited than difcuuraged by this kind of re~ 
vcrfe. i'o iiuike it up, iie with ir;jrc..Ublj t;i r ;> acli 
conilrucled i.:vc.ral flii"s. S'jriio \verc bcjua at Go 
ca, then tr^riiprir^cd over I;-"id to the .Hon, but at 
Voronetz, and aM ouicr ports, tLe g-'-^i-o^t pan was 
built in leis than a \ uir. 

HE then renewc.i the ilege cf AzofT, and to the 
extreme furpriib of the Turk^, kid bcK-rc thij citv, 

-- t\'/O 


two fhips of war, twenty three galleys, two galiots 
and four lire fhips With this fmall fquadron, 
which had come down the Don as far as the Black 
Sea, he blocked up the port, difperfed the Turkifli 
galleys and took the city. He iignalized this afto- 
nifhing event by entering Mofcow in triumph, and 
by caufing a medal be iVruck with an infcription in 
the Ruflian Language to this effect; Victorious by 
thunder and the uavcs. This fucceis was only the 
prelude to greater exploits. As the fecurity of his 
new conquefts on the jbiick Sea required a power- 
ful r.avy, he brought ikiiful mip-buiiders from eve- 
ry quarter, it was after he had iixed and let them 
to work at Voronetz, Azof]' and Taganrok, that he 
let out on his travels, witiiout his own dominions. 
On his retvrn in the year i6qq he reaped the ad- 
vantages of u'ie attention he had paici. He took a 
general review of his naval iorce on the Black Sea, 
and v'.;h inexpreflible plcafure counted ten frigates, 
the largeit of which carried fifty gun.>, and the 
Imallcft twenty fix ; but in three years afterwards 
this fame licet was tripled, and. had fhips of fixtyguns. 
This rapid incrcafe, which looks like fomething 
magical, would appear incredible, if it were not at- 
teited at great length by every hiftorian. To thefe 
^reat exertions, thofe of the Romans on a fimilar 

^j * 

occafion after the firil Punic war, can fcarcely be 


PETER did not ftop there. He no fooner faw 
himfelf in poffeffion of Cronftadt, than he began to 
do things as aftonii'hing on the Baltic, as thofe 
which he had executed on the Black Sea, and the 
equipment of the fleet on that fea, is an event fq 
remarkable, that it forms a kind of sera in the Chro- 
nology of the Ruffian Nation. But at Peter's death 
every thing changed appearance. His genius, his 
activity were not transferred to his fucceffors. The 
navy was neglected, and was in fo bad a ftate at the 
time of Catharine the Second's acceilion to the 
throne, that it may be faid of this princets, that fhe 
created it a new. Like Peter, me invited to Ruffia 
feveral Endim (hip builders, and in particular Ad- 
miral Knowles, who acquired fame by his know- 
ledge of naval architecture. She likewife invited 
from Britain fr.ilors, who taught the Ruffian iai- 
lors, yet raw *nd awkward, the art of manoeuvring. 
Under her, Europe, with aftonimment has 
ieen the Ruiliaa 1'hf- displayed in Archipelago, and 
the Turkiih Fleet deiiroved at Tcbeftne, by a fqua- 
dron cooje from the north. 

\y a iltet confuted of hulls and rigging alone, 

RuiVvt might have her's more formidable than any 

other nation, for me has within herielf whatever i* 

n-xiiury for the building and equipment of mips. 

The principal places for building are Cronftadt arid 

*rrhan-el. Thofe of Cronftadt are built of oak, 



but thofe of Archangel of larch, a kind of fir that 
is not at all durable, efpecially in an engagement. 
The oak they life at Cronftadt is fcarcely of better 
quality. It comes from the provinces of Kafan and 
Ailracan, but it is tender and porous, and iocs not 
receive the fame preparation, that is given in the 
dirTcrent parts of Europe, to ihip timber, which is 
aliov/ed ro lie ieverai year^> in fait, in order 
to iiKike it harder and litter for building. In Rufiia 
it is no fooner arrived in the dock yards than it is 
wrought up. The confequence is, a Ruffian ihip 
muil be repaired in lix years, and in fifteen is to- 
tally unfit for fcrvice. 

UKRAINE and the province of Mofcow furnifh 
hemp, and mails are found in the extenfive forefts 
between Novogorod and the Gulf of Finland, or 
irf the provinces difmembered from Poland. Wi- 
burg furnifhes pitch and tar. There are manufac- 
tures of Sail-cloth and ropes in different pro\ iri- 
ces. In fhort the magazines of St Peterfburg and 
Archangel are always abundantly fiored wiih thele 
various articles. 

AT the end of the war 1788, the Ruffian Na- 
vy in the ports on the Baltic conliiled of, fony 
eight (hips oi" the line, eighteen frigates, t\\xlve 
praiRf.rj and a hundred and 'twenty p;allevs. '] ills 
fleet is commanded rim by the Grand-Admiral 
of the fleet, who Is the Grand Duiie of Rutua him- 

felf. Secondly, by the Commander-in-chief of the 
Galleys and an Admiral of the fleet. Thirdly by 
fix Vice-Admirals and eight Rear-Admirals, who 
do the duty of Commodores. The Prince of Naffau- 
Siegen was the only Vice-Admiral, and Mr Spiritow 
the only Rear- Admiral, that were employed during 
our fray in Ruffia. There are three orders of Cap- 
tains. Thofe of the firft have the rank of Briga- 
diers, thofe of the fecond of Colonels, and thofe of 
the third order, have the rank of Lieutenant Co- 
lonels. - They are all decorated with the military 
badge of St George, but they are knights only of 
the ' fourth clafs. A navy officer, that paffes into 
the land fervice, is advanced two fteps. In the or- 
ganization of this body, Peter has mown the value 
he affixed to it, and the preference he gave it over 
the army. The failors reap the advantages of this 
preference. They have" more proviQons than the 
foldiers, and almoft double pay. 

IN times of urgent danger Ruliia could nuke 
confiderable addition to her navy, but ffie. would 
bring on board only an awkward multitude, 
fpiteof all the advances this empire Las mad- in naval 
affairs; although (lie has in a very inert time become 
more powerful on fea, than any northern fhte ; it 
m*y well be laid, that her navy is many degrc 
hind thole belonging to the different dates of Europe, 
on a level with which ihe to place it. The 



Ruffian navy would ftill be in a more incomplete 
ftate, but for the Britifti and Dutch, to whom it 
is indebted for a part of \vhat it is, with regard to 
building, manoeuvring and difcipling the fleet. But 
feveral obftacles are in the way of the fartiier pro- 
grcfs, of which it is fufceptible. Of thefe the chief 
are; a want of ports in the ocean, the limited extent 
of coafts belonging to Ruflia, and what fhe has, be- 
ing obftructed with ice the grcateft part of the year, 
and the fin all number of experienced feamen me 
could furnifh, if me wanted to man her fleet with 
her own fubjects only. Ruilia has no port on the 
ocean, but Arch, njjel, and even it can be ufeful only 
to commerce, bccaufe of its great diftance from the 
European leas, and the neceflity there is for doub- 
ling the north cauc, iituatcd in the fcventy fecond 

O * J ' 

degree, and only in the middle of fummer, open 
for a communication with the reft of the globe. 

IT is a fact afcertained, that a power, which pof- 
feiles only a fmall extent of coait, cannot have a 
great force at fea, without very great difficulty. 
Now Runia has no coaft but that from Riga and 
"Wiburg to the head of the Gulf of Finland, which 
is only a fpan for an empire fo extcoiive, and of fo 
much the lefs value, becaufc the Gulf being confin- 
ed between two lands, without tides, and inaccef- 
fible for at lead five months of the year, is not much 
fupciior to a lake, when compared with the ocean. 



Here we do not reckon what Ruilia has acquired 
on the black lea, nor the coafts of the white and 
frozen fea, which are aim oft a defart, ncr the inha- 
bitable countries of Kamfchatka. 

IN fhort Rufila wants experienced failors, and will 
not have them foon, becaufe the conftitution of her 

Government ftar.ds in the wav. The flave, who is 

* i 

the only man in Rufiia, fit for the fatigues of the 
fea, is chained to the foil, on which he has been 
born, and the fea is the element only of freemen. 
During the iirft war that the Ruffians had with the 
Turks, chance ieemed to fcrve them in the diftance 
between Cronftadt and the Archipelago by the ex- 
perience, which the officers and failors acquired in 
this paff.ige. The Government, it is true, keeps 
eighteen thoufand iVilors in pay, but the moil part 
of them, have never ferved. A fnrall number in 
time of peace make foinc cruifes in the Baltic, or at 
fartheft within view of the Britifh coaft. The reft 
are in fummer employed in navigating feme ihips 
from Cronftadt to St Peterfburg, which is not an 
apprenticeship fuilicient to breed a number cf fill- 
ers, who in time of war cannot be procured from 
merchant {hips; for Ruffia has aim oft none, and ths 
principal caufe cf this deficiency is, the fevere pro- 
hibitions again?t leaving the country without a paiT- 
port : ,i the admiralty form, A merchant, who 
dears a veffcl, is at iirft obliged to obtain leave from 
VOL, T. B b 


the admiralty to take on board a certain number 
of Ruffian fubjecb, for returning whom he is obli- 
ged to 11 nd caution for a hundred and forty roubles 
for e?c:h f'.llor. Hence it follows, that without in- 
fringing the fundamental laws of the empire, and 
the brazen code of ilavery, it is not poffible to pro- 
cure a fufiicient number of feamen, to arm a fleet 
on an urgent occafion. In fhort, a ffote that has 
no diitarit colonies, no conliderable fifherics, no ex- 
tenfive coa-ls, that can accuftom its inhabitants to 
the dangers of the fca, cannot procure a navy capa- 
ble of being formidable to the maritime powers of 

Tun navy of RuHIa, however, with all its de- 
fccls :s very fufhcient for the defence of her coafts, 
for convoying her merchant men, for command- 
ing rdpccl on the Baltic, and for overawing the 
Turks oil the Archipelago, who have not a better, 
or rat';-:r have an inferior navy to that of Ruffia, 
bccau.'e the navies of thcie two po\vers are in an in- 
vcrfe r.irlo to one another. The Ruffian is growing 
better and better, while the Turkifli navy is grow- 
ing v/orfe a,.d vorfe every day. It is an efleft, 
and an ad-'int'ige of the good policy of the cabinet 
of SL Pctcrlburg, th?t it keeps up a good under- 
Handing \\irh tlic grjatcft maritime powers, whom 
RulTia iu.npii :.s \vith naval (lores, and who are there- 
tore latereikd in keeping fair with her and in cul- 


tivating her friendfhip ; but me muft not expect to 
rival them for a long time to come. 


COMMERCE, 'which the European nations carry en ivith 
RuJJla. What are the bcjl frequented ports cf that 
empire. Archangel. Riga. Ajlracan.Gurjef.- 
Derbent. Baku. -Enzelh. Navigation and Com- 
merce of the Black Sea of the Sea of Ar.cff. In- 
land Navigation of RuJjTia. A Plan of the Ruffians 
for carrying their commerce into India. 

JL HE commerce of RuiTia in Europe, that is, in 
the northern parts of this diviiion of the globe, has 
been for a long time in the hands of the merchants 
of the Hanfe Towns. But the Britlfh, who vilit 
every quarter, having under the reign of Iwan IV. 
call anchor for the firft time in the harbour of Arch- 
angel, were invited by this prince to erect factories 
in his ftates. Queen Mary upon the report of the 
navigators, who had been received in Ruffia, fettled 
a company in the year 1555, for the purpofe of tra- 
ding there. Iwan granted it confidcrable privi- 
leges, which the Britifh, according to their fyftem, 
found means of rendering cxcluiive, 




Tins opening foon became to them a fourcc of 
advantageous (peculations ; breaufc the trade rifing 
out of it, was hnmer.fe and lucr.uive beyond all ex- 
pectation. It confided chiefly in exporting from 
Ruiiia to tlie diuercnt countries of Europe, furs, 
hides, maiis, flux, hemp, tallow, whale-oil, tar, 
pitch and leal her, and in importing from thcfe 
countries into iviifha, woollen doths, fluffs, modes, 
cotton, cuiiibeu < ..(1, 5:c. 'I his branch of trade in 
tlie* of thj Brit i Hi, foon e '.'envied into the vail 
prov'U.' s, which IV. a.-, limuus fur hi.- c-:n- 
qucit as lor his cruelties, fubjected to his empire. 
But t h:b j^riiKC \vis nut ii~!!U:i>rt.i!, ai:d his death 
cl'.ar.^cd tlif- Lice of ever 1 , th'. n^. I'Ord(;r, ln\ iuc- 
ee:ior, i: ' i.'om proteaing tl'.e B: - itifii, fuppreiTed 
or redrced the : i privileges ahiVvift tonotliing. Thi; 
prii 1 ' j jealoin and hvftile t> every tiling not 
Rufuan. hi '.ii mean tiiiic, a.? ' .. av.;n-jj (,i the rner- 
cl.'iit 5s ai caviling, and .: ' cip: /:o oi' importunity 
;v-> t!:,it of tiiL rc'urue 1 -. tlu i.^- i'\ !.y rr.can: of :\ib- 
mirfu n i ;:eciea in recove'-'u'^ .1 part of their pri- 
vileges, but Boris Goduno\v, \vl:o;ifter wards came 
to the throne, not only would not hear of granting 
privileges, but even eftabliilied a irce tracie in hi,; 
itates ; io that the Ilanfo towns recovered their an- 
cient privileges, and rivalled th j Britifli with all their 
advantage, oi Lr:al fituatir.n. 'i he Dutch ah r o came, 
iy: \vh?rcY''T the Britidi i! 17 ]iies 3 ycu loon fee il:i, 



Batavian, which in the latitudes, where there are no 
guns to face, foon becomes the ruling flag ; becaufe 
the Dutch navigator equals the Britifh in avarice, 
but is inferior to him in courage, and ft ill more in 

THE troubles, which dcfolatcd RufTia at the time 
of the appearance of the falfe Demetrius, did much 
hurt to the trade of thcfe different nations, cfbeci- 
ally to that of the Britifh, which neverthelefs re- 
covered itfelf under Michael Foederowitfch. It 
was annihilated under his fon Alexis, who banifhed 
the Britifh merchants, being provoked, they fay, 
at mcdding the blood of King Charles the Firft, 
with whom Alexis hod bands of friendfhip, and 
treaties of alliance. This allegation is. not ilriclly 
true, f.r tin- cx^uliion of the Britiih from Turkey, 
took pi. ice an year before Charles' death. The real 
caufe of it : l s the oilers made by the Dutch to pay 
a duly of lit; ;i per cent, on their goods, if the 
Czar would mil them in room of the Britifh. This 
took placc s but dl I not prevent the Czar from re- 
ceiving an agent trom Cromwell, fome time after 
at \rJijng',-!, arul allowing the Britifh to trade in port 0:1 the old footing:, yet neither they, nor 
any other nation, could oblai:? of Alexis, liberty tu 
ti\ule in any other port of his empire. 

CHARLKS the Second tried to procure for the 
Britifh nation, the rc-clUblifhment of a commerce 



entirely free, but the Earl of Carlifle, commiiTioned 
to Ruifia for this very purpofe, alienated rather than 
conciliated the affection of the Czar, in favour of 
the Britifh j becaufe to the haughtinefs of the cour- 
tier, he joined complete ignorance of negociations ; 
Ib he obtained nothing from the Czar, but what 
he could not be refufed, namely, permifilon to trade 
in all parts of Ruffia, by paying, like other nations, 
the cuftoin houfe duties. 

ARCHANGEL, which had been under the Great 
Dukes and Czars, the only port belonging to Ruf- 
iia, in which there was any commerce, afterwards 
divided this advantage with St Pcterfburg, and the 
ports on the Baltic. When Peter I. came to the 
Empire, he even took from Archangel its privileges 
and ancient immunities, as being hurtful to the 
freedom of commerce. Elizabeth, more eafy and 
lefs acquainted with her true interefls, again efta- 
blifhed them all. At prefent this city carries on a 
considerable trade. It pours into the provinces of 
Archangel, of Lower Novogorod andKai'an, the com- 
modities of Europe, and exports grain, hemp, flax, 
coarfe ftuffs, mafts, and tallow, which come down 
the Dwina. It is likewife the mart for the produc- 
tions of a part of Siberia, fuch as peltry and iron. 

AT prefent, commerce is carried on with the 
greateit fpirit in the ports of Riga, Revel, Narva, 
and Wiburg. Frqm the firft a great quantity of 



grain, brought down the Dwina from the provin- 
ces of Plefkow, of Smolenfko and Novogorod, is 
exported by the Britifh, Swedes and Dutch, and 
alfo a fmall number of mafls. The commodities 
exported from other ports are the fame with thofe 
brought from St Peterfburg, namely, hemp, flax, 
leather, wax, tallow, tar, hair, ropes, rhubarb, 
coarfe cloths, all forts of fkins and peltry, caviare, 
pot-afhes, grain, &c. 

ARCHANGEL, which takes its name from a con- 
vent fituated near the place, where the city was 
built, Hands on the banks of the Dwina ninety werfls 
from the white fea. It is five fourth's of a league 
long, half a league broad, and is built entirely of 
wood, except the Goftinoi-Dwor, or houle of com- 
merce, which is built of bricks. The citadel, where 
the governor reiides, is only an wooden inclofure 
with fortifications of as combuftible materials. In 
this city there are more than two thoufand traders, 
and what is uncommon in a commercial place, li- 
ving there is very cheap. 

IN the 1 6th century the Ruffians carried on a 

confiderable trade on the Cafpian fea. For a long 

* o 

time indeed it fuffered, becaufe the caravans were 
often plundered by the Coflacs, on their way to 
Aftracan. But Alexis Michaelowitfch, having fub- 
dued thefe vagabond hordes, the roads became fafe, 
and the commerce of Feriia revived and centered in 



Aftracan. Merchants from Bulgaria, Crimea, Ar- 
menia, Perfia, even India came thither to traffic } 
and as the Ruffian fhips were then coarfely built,, 
and fubject to fhipwrcck, the prince brought fhip- 
buildcrs from Amftcrdam, in order to have {hips 
more fit for refilling the ternpefb of this ftormy fea=, 
THE rebellion of tlie Coffacs on the Don, and 
Its confequent deviations, annihilated this trade, 
which, after the difperiion of the rebels, was never 
re-eftablifhed ; notwithstanding the conqueils of 
Peter the firft, the factories he creeled, the compa- 
pany, to which he granted an exclufive privilege, 
and the treaties of the Emprefs Anne with the king 
of Perila to favour this company. It recovered new 
vigour only in the year 1/62, the period, when the 
Emprefs Catharine II. fuppreffed the exclufive pri- 
vilege of the com pan v, and allowed all her fubiects 

O l > -' tj 

to trade with Fcriia. Two Ruffian confuls were 
fettled at Baku and Enzclli. After all, this princefs 
has not yet fuccccdccl in putting a itop to the con- 
traband trade, carried on in Shamakia and other 
inland towns in Peril a, by the Armenian merchants j 
who knowing the country and the lanQ-uap-e, have 

O * O ^5 J 

a configurable ad vantage over the Rufl^ant;. 

A s T R A r \N , 1 1 1 e d 1 ii e r e n t n u ar t e r s of \v 1 1 i c i i are 
fcattered < n the hills within its circumference, i? 
built on an ifland, formed by the Wolga at its dif- 
charge into the Cafpian fea. This city, inhabited 


by Ruflians, Armenians, Pcrfians, Tartars and Jews, 
may be; coniidered one of the moft confiderable 
marts of the irlobe ; becaufe by means of the Wol- 

o < 

ga, con i.iodities are eafily carried thither from the 
Baltic ports. It is remarkable that in this city, 
though (ituated in latitude 47 the cold is extremely 
feverc during winter, and that for two months the 
Wolga is frozen to fuch a degree, that the heavieft 
loaded fledges can be driven over it. On one of 
thole hills, which Aftracan encompaflcs, Hands the 
Imperial Garden-Counting- Hcmfe, whole principal 
bulintfs is, to encourage the culture of the vine 
and to iurnifh fruits to the table of the Emprefs or 
her courtiers, who make more demands than her 
Majcfty, and reckon as nothing the labour, which 
a melon of Aftracan cofts the poor gardeners, be- 
fore it arrive at maturity lit for their table. 

UPON the banks of the Wolga there are great fo- 
refls belonging to the province of Kafan, which fur- 
nifh mafts and all forts of timber, neceilary for the 
conftruclion of mips deftined for the navigation of 
the Cafpian fea, which is known to be one of the 
moll ftormy of the globe. 

Tins fea, on which the ancients and th:' moderns 
have formed fo many theories, is rc.iiiy a phenome- 
non. Its length from Gurjef to Mv .. ictizar is a- 
bout three hundred and eighty fix \vcrfts, and its 
breadth is at no part greater than a hundred and fe- 

VOL. I. C c vcntv 


venty five. This fea, whofe waters are of an ochre- 
colour, has neither flow nor ebb, and is full of Ihal- 
lows, that prevent the navigation of hips, which 
draw more than nine or ten feet water. 

THE fimeries there, which are very valuable, oc- 
cupy and train many feamen. The Coffacs of Ural 
poffefs thefe fifheries on their coafts for the fpace of 
thirty two werfts, on both banks of the river Uralj 
?.nd the inhabitants of Aftracan poflefs all the reft 
belonging to Rufiia. There are caught the fturgeon 
and beluga, whofe eggs furnidi abundance of what 
the Ruffians call Caviare ; a kind of difli, of which 
they are very fond, and we mall have occafion 
lo foeak. The dry and fait fim alfo form- a very 
important article in the diet of the Ruffians. The 
Cafpian fea in particular abounds with fea-dogs, 
whofe flelh the Coflacs are very fond of, and from 
which they extract oil in considerable quantities. 

THE coafts are divided among the Ruffians, Per- 
fans, and Tartars. Gurjef and KiflLir are Ruffian 
ports. Gurjef is at the mouth of the Jaik. It is a 
fortrefs, and the leaft of thofe raifed along the Jaik, 
but its works are the moft regular and the beft con- 
flructed. It has only a fingle gate, v/hich leads to- 
wirds the river. The houfcs are a hundred and 
forty in number, all of wood, except the governor's 
and powder magazine. The population conlifts of 
the garriibn, compofed of two companies of fuli- 



leers, a fquadron of CofTacs, and foms Aftracau 
merchants, who carry on a little trade with the 
Kirghis-Tartars, who border on that country. 

KISLIAR is on the call coaft, and covers the fron- 
tiers towards Pcrfia. Formerly ihips could enter 
into the arms of the Terek, which runs fouth ; but 
at prefent it is fliut up by fands, and goods are un- 
loaded more than twenty five werfls from the for- 
trefs, that is on Terek, and about fevcnty werfts 
from its mouth. It is inhabited by the Collies, and 
fbme Tartars, whofe houfes are made of clay or 
bricks not burnt. From Aftracan this city receives 
European goods, befides a quantity of grain for the 
ufe of the colonies, which the Ruffians have on the 
banks of the Terek, and the inhabitants of Cauca- 
fus, who are not far diftant. The merchants in 
Kifliar carry on commerce with the ports of Periia, 
and befides have a contraband trade with Shamakia, 
Derbent, and even Tefflis in Georgia ; but this 
trade is liable to be annoyed, and even pillaged by 
the numerous hordes of robbers, that wander in 
thefe countries. 

AMONG the principal ports of the Cafpian fea be- 
longing to Perfia, the firft is Derbent in Shirvan, 
which, they maintain, was built by Alexander the 
Great, and called l/kdiidir. This city is fituated at 
the foot of a mountain, which is a continuation of 
the. Ui'menian mountains. It ii important, on ac* 

r c 2 


count of the fortrefs, which defends it, and which 
nature and art have contributed to render impreg- 
nable, or at lead fufceptible of the longeft defence. 
The bulk of the inhabitants of this city are Arme- 
nians, and they alone poflefs its trade, which con- 
lifts of fait, filks, both raw and wrought, that ^.re 
brought from Shamakia, which is only about forty- 
four werfts from Baku, the moft commodious port 
en all this fea. Baku is fhuated on the north at the 
foot of Bifchbarmak, a mountain famous for its 
fprings of Naphta, a kind of bitumcnous oil, very 
inflammable, of which they carry on a great trade 
in that country. The Gaurs, known under the 
name of Guebers, and worfiiippers of fire, come in- 
to this canton to pay worfhip to God, whom they 
adore under the emblem of fire : From this city, 
(of which alfo the Armenians have the trade), filk, 
fait, but efpecially plenty of naphta are exported. 
An exteniive trade with Perfia is alfo carried on at 
Enzelli, or Sinfili, a city built of bulrufhes, with a 
grand gulph on the fouth-weft coaft. This city is 
only ten werfts from Rafcht, the capital of Ghilan, 
which ftands in the centre of this province. The 
Ruffians have preferved their right of having a con- 
ful at Rafcht, with thirty foldiers, and a church of 
their own. They carry thither European goods, 
which they fell at great advantage, and bring from 



it filks and fluffs manufactured at Ghilan, which are 
elteemed the beft in Perfia. 

THE Bucharians, a people very much given to 

trade, inhabiting the fouth-weft part of Independent 

1'artary, go in numerous caravans into Ruilia. 

'icre are in that empire, feveral colonies of thofe 

rtars, that maintain a correfpondence with the 

rchants in their own country. The principal 

..irkeis they frequent are Tomfk, Kiatka, and O- 

ii-mrg, of which the laft is the moft confiderable, 

J has its chief trade with Kafkar, Taflhent, and 

ii.rva. Thei'e caravans carry into Ruilia, gold and 

_-r, in Perfian money and Indian rupees. They 

:r alfo gold duft, which is found in the rivers of 

i uiria, jewels, lapis-lazuli, fpun and unfpun cot- 

U-.ii.. nitre, fal amoniac, rhubarb, larnb-fkins ; and 

drive thither numerous flocks of fhecp and horfes. 

The articles they export from Ruffia, are cloth. 

Ruffian leather, beads, jewels, iron ware, indigo, 

cochenil, &c. &c. 

THE Ruffians alfo trade with China, and this 
branch of their commerce is the moft important of 
all they carry on with Alia. The principal mart at 
prefent is Kiaika, a place fituatcd on the frontiers 
of the two empires. It is always provided abun- 
dantly with every kind of goods that can be got, 
which the Chineic buy up very keenly. The total 
value of this trade, in exports and imports, is for 



Ruffia an object of about four millions of roubles ; 
that is upwards of feven hundred thoufand pounds 

PETER the Great was the firft fovereign of Ruf- 
fia, who attempted to open the navigation of the 
fea of Azoff, and of the Black Sea, and export the 
produce of his own ftates by this channel. This fa- 
vourite plan feemed to be on the point of being real- 
ifed by the conqueft of Azoff, and the erection of 
the fortrefs of Taganrok, when all thefe grand de- 
figns were annihilated by the unfortunate campaign 
in the year 1711, that ended in the peace of Pruth ; 
a peace bought by the ceffion of Azoff, of Taganrok 
and by abandoning the commerce of the Black Sea. 
From that time the Ruffians have been conftantly re- 
jected by the Turks with that haughtinefs, which 
is the confequence of an* invidious jealoufy of divi- 
ding with them the navigation of their feas ; and 
this prohibition has been between the Turks and 
Catharine II. the fource of a feries of wars, in which 
both fides, rather exhaufted than reconciled, laid 
down their arms, only to take them up again with 
more fury. At laft Catharine has proved victorious, 
and her victories have procured to the Ruffians the 
free navigation of all the feas of Turkey ; the right 
of paffing through the Dardanelles, with all the 
franchifes relating to commerce, granted by the 
Turks to the nations they favour moft j the poffef- 



lion of AzofF, of Taganzok, of the fortrefles of Kin- 
burn, Kertfh, and Yenicale, and a very extenfive 
territory between the Bog and the Dnieper. With 
the command of the mouth of the Borifthenes, 
Ruflia has built the city Cherfon in the Crimea, 
with the intention of making it a free port, to pre- 
pare for the two empires the means of a more ex^ 
tenfive trade ; but thefe plans had to combat every 
obftacle at firft, and had not acquired any confif- 
tency, when war again broke out in the year 1787. 
Notwithstanding the frefh fucceffes of the Ruffians, 
it is probable that this extremity of Europe will be 
capable of extenfive commerce, only in proportion 
as the neighbouring regions mall become civilized. 
A communication better eftablifhed between the 
Black fea and the eaftern part of Europe, and be- 
tween that fame fea and the center of Ada, by its 
vicinity to the Cafpian fea, might give to the ex* 
changes of Europe greater eafe and refources ; buc 
it is only in a long fuccefllon of years that one can 
difcover this revolution, in which Ruflia will not 
engage, or will not be able to engage, till me lhall 
have acquired in Europe a greater degree of influ- 
ence, at which me will doubtlefs arrive, if the iuc- 
ccffors of Catharine II. rcfemble her ; for in an ar- 
bitrary government, the fate of the empire depends 
wholly on the will of the prince. One or many ge- 
niufcs fucceeding one another, make it fkmrifli; but 



if one or more weak men come after thefe, all is 
loft, all is deftroyed ; like a field which the arm of 
labour has cultivated, and that of idlenefs fuffers to 
be again over-run with brambles. According to the 
activity of Catharine, and the hopes that the Grand 
Duke furnifhes, many fpeculations have been made 
on the extent and the value of the commerce, which 
Ruflia will be able to carry on in the Black fea, and 
upon the revolution, which will be the confequence 
of this removal of a part of the Baltic commerce to 
the ports of the Mediterranean. It is looked on as 
a thing certain, that the fouthern provinces of Ruf- 
fia, will by thefe means procure an outlet for ex- 
porting their fuperfluous productions ; that the Ruf- 
fian mips will open to themfelves, a very advanta- 
geous trade with the Crimea, and the Auftrian pro- 
vinces through Kilia Nova, with the Turks at Con- 
flantinople, and with the Greeks of the Levant ; 
That the iron of Siberia, the grain, hemp and flax 
of Ukraine will be brought into the ports of 
the Black fea, and through the Dardanelles into 
the ports of the Mediterranean ; and that thus 
France and Spain will provide thernfcives with na- 
val (lores, much more eaflly and at a cheaper rate 
than from the Baltic fca, and the northern ocean. 
Thefe plans, which have appeared only chimerical 
dreams to thofe, who do not reflect on the won- 
ders, which a perfeverance io indefatigable as that 



of the Ruffians is capable of producing ; thcfe plans 
are already rcalifed in a great degree, and it is pro- 
bable that circum fiances and Ruffian patience, which 
nothing difcourages, will one day accomplifh th^ni 

EQUALLY indefatigable and greedy of gain, the 
Ruffians carry to Conftantinople and Gallipoli, 
which are the principal ports on the fea of the Mar- 
mora, peltry, leather, fail-cloth, cordage, anchors, 
tar, pitch, ueel, iron, flit-Mi, caviare, butter, fea- 
horfe-tceth, wax, tea, muik, caftor oil, colours, pa- 
per, coarfe ilu'I' and corn. There they buy raw and 
wrought lilk, cotton ftuHs, muilins, turkey fluffs, 
carpets, Angora goats hair, Greek wines, oil, and all 
forts of fruits, tobacco, pipes, fpiceries, iaffron, opi- 
um, and other drugs, pearls, precious ftones, gold, 
filver, &LC. 

IT is fmcc the ccffions, that the Turks have been 
obliged to make to Ruffia, that this trade, and that 
carried on upon the fea of AzolT, has really been 
able to take the name of commerce. The objects 
granted are confiderable, and of the great eft impor- 
tance to Rufiia. r'irft fiie obtained the country 
round the lea oi Azoff. Secondly, all the Crimea; 
thirdly, the iortrd^ of Kinburn, and fourthly, the 
country ' et\veen the Dnieper and the Bog. We 
are going 10 give an idea of the importance of thcfe 
different (.eiiions. 

VOL. I. D d 


THE diilricb lltuated along the fea of Azoff, com- 
prehends, befides a great extent of country to the 
eaft and weft, the fortreffes of Azoff, of Taganrok 
and of Peterofik. The firft is no more of the fame 
importance that it was under Peter I. The branch 
of the Don, on which it is built, is at prefent fo 
gorged with fand, that the fmalleft mips have much 
difficulty in entering it. The goods which were 
formerly carried to Azoff, are now commonly 
landed at Taganrok and at Peterofik. Merchant 
veflels are built at St Demetri or Roftof, whence 
they come down the Don by another branch of this 
river. In the harbour of Taganrok there is only 
feven feet of water, fo that vefTcls defigned for this 
harbour mud draw only five or fix. Catharine, 
whofe eye extends every where, has made this city 
much more convenient by feveral magazines and 
other buildings, which me caufed be erecled du- 
ring the war before laft. Befides the failors, who 
frequent thefe paffages, put a particular value on 
the falubrity of the air, they breathe at Taganrok, 

PXTLROI-SK, built during the fccond war, which 
Ruflia has had with the Turks, (lands at the mouth 
of the Bro^i, ami commands the frontiers of Tur- 
key. The iituation of its harbour is moil advanta- 
geous, becaufe it has a direcl communication with 

o ' 

the ports of the Crimea, and it is deeper than that: 
of Taganrok. Before the Ruffians became matters 



of the Crimea, thefe fortreffes had full command 
of the navigation of the lea of Azoff, and the coun- 
try fir ft ceded by the Turks was guarded by a chain 
of little forts, which ftill extends from Peteroflk to 
the Dnieper. 

THE forts of Kertfch and Yenicale on the eaft 
coaft of the Crimea, and near the north entry of 
the canal of Caffa, were of the grcateil importance 
before the lail war, becaufe they commanded the 
paflige of the north lea to the fen. of AzolF. 

KINBURN fituatcd at the mouth of the Dnieper, 
and oppofite to Oczakow, was the only harbour, 
that the Ruffians pofleffed on the black fea. I'eforc 
they had feized on Oczakow, it bordered with the 
frontiers of the territory of the Turks and made 
them refpecl thofe of Rufiia. It might yet hamper 
their navigation on the Dnieper. This place was 
dcftined to be the principal mart for the com- 
modities ient from the provinces, through which 
this river runs ; but the port furnifliing'no fafe an- 
chorage, becaufe ot the fhihing land:-, the new city 
of Cherion is become the real market of the trade. 
carried on in that latitude. 

Tin; no He ili on of the territory, between the Bo^ 

' 7 G 

and the Dnieper, likewlio open--, a f.iic communica- 
tion between the Bhck lea and the beautiful pro- 
vinces, through which "he Dniopor runs. 1'liis im- 
portant territory, fo cffenti:il o the exiftcncc of tlii>' 
D d " nc.w 


new trade, was principally inhabited by hordes of 
wandering Tartars, and by S iporovian Coflacs, who 
dwelt in the Dnieper, and rendered its navigation 
very dangerous by their piracies. 

THE Ruffian provinces inoft interefted in this 
trade, becaufe they lie on the Dnieper and the Don, 
are thofe of Smolenfko, Mohilof, Ukraine, New 
Ruflia, Bielogorod, Woronetz, Slobodfkai, and 
AzofT. This vaft country abounds with all forts of 
grain, hemp, flax, leather, mafts, logs, honey, w r ax, 
and tobacco. The Emprefs has already caufed fe- 
veral cities be built in the countries which have been 
ceded to her by the Turks, of which the principal 
are Cherfon, Catharinenflaf and Marianopoli. 

CHERSON ftands on the Dnieper, about twelve 
werfts below the mouth of the Ingul, and is built 
chiefly of hewn fione. It is defigned to be the prin- 
cipal market of thefe provinces, but if this commerce 
become extenfive, this market will be better placed 
in fome other place, below the bar of the Dnieper, 
that is about fifteen werfts to the fouth of Chcribn. 
There is in this city a Dockyard for the conftruc- 
tion of large fhips, and feveral men of war and fri- 
gates, ss well as merchant mips, have been already 

CATHARINENSLAF, or the Glory of Catharine, 
is built not far from the place where the little river 
of Liltzin runs into the Samara, and is to be the 



capital of the government of Azoff. Here is a co- 
lony of Greeks and Armenians come from the Cri- 
mea. Here are alfo other fettlers come from diffe- 
rent nations, \vho have done material fervice to 
Rufiia, in the different wars they have had with the 

MARIANOPOLI was built on the coaft of the fea 
of Azoff, between the rivers Mius and Calmius. 
Thelc three cities, as well as the numerous villages, 
that have been creeled in a country, which was in- 
habited only by vagabond hordes, are at this day 
full of Ruffians, Armenians, Greeks and Tartars, 
who have forfaken their wandering life. 

THI-: eye of a traveller, who in Germany and 
Hungary has admired the majeftic courfe of the 
Rhine and the Danttbe, is very differently furprifed, 
when he arrives and runs over the banks of the Don 
and Dnieper, which form the communication be- 
tween the provinces, which we have juft mentioned, 
and the feas of Turkey. 

Ttu; Don has its fourcc in the little lake of St 
John, near to Tula, in the government of Mofcow, 
and after having traverfed a part ot the provinces 
of \Yoronctz, Ukraine, Slobodfkai, and all the pro- 
vince of Azoff, it divides into three branches, near 
Tcherfkafk, which loie themfelvcs in the fea of A- 
soff. This river has io many windings, and is fo 
lull of {hallows, that it can icarcely be navigated but 



in fpring, .and when the fnows melt. Its mouth is 
alfo fo gorged with fands, that, except during this 
feafon, flat bottomed boats only can pafs into the 
fea of Azoff. The countries, through which the 
Don runs, are covered with vaft forefts, of which 
the wood is floated as far as St Demetri and Roftof, 


where frigates are constructed for the fea of AzofF. 

THE navigation of the Don will become very ad- 
vantageous, if fuccefs attend the attempts to tran- 
fport the iron of Siberia, and the commodities of 
China and Perfia, by this river, into the Black fea. 
It was by this channel that they, as well as the pro- 
ductions of India, formerly arrived. 

SOMETIMES the iron of Siberia, and the commo- 
dities of China, are fent by means of different ca- 
nals, as far as the Wolga. The commodities of Per- 
fia are alfo tranfported as far as the Don acrofs the 
Cafpian fea, and from the Wolga to the Don there 
is a paffage of no more than eighteen werfts. 

SINCE the Ruffians acquired a part of Lithuania, 
and the country between the Don and the Dnieper ; 
and fmce the Saporovian CoiTacs have been wholly 
clifperfcd or kept under ; the navigation of the 
Dnieper has become lefs dangerous. '1 he river has 
been freed from various obftructions, and now it 
runs freely from its fource to its mouth in the pro- 
vinces of the Ruffian empire. 



ALTHOUGH the courfe of this river be more than 
five hundred and thirty werfts, its navigation is in- 
terrupted only once by a feries of cataracts, which 
begin below the place, where this river receives the 
Samara, and extend the length of thirty werfts. 
They are however not fo dangerous as reprefented., 
and may in the fpring be palled by loaded barks, 
even without much danger. At other feafons, 
goods are unloaded at Kameufk, oppofite the mouth 
of the Samara. Thence they are carried over land 
to Kitchafk, v/liich is only ibout thirty werfts off. 
There they are embarked anew' to be carried down 
to Cheribn. without interruption. If this trade re- 
ceive much addition, this river by laying out fome 
millions of roubles, might be made navigable in all 
feafons of the year, in fpite of thcfc cataracts. 

THE eftablifliment of a trade between the ports 
of the Black fca and thofe of the Mediterranean., 
has been encouraged by the Kmprefs. She has di- 
minifhed the duties on exports and imports, and 
helped to form a company for carrying on the com- 
merce of the Black fca. 

Ai'Tr.R the peace in 178^. fcur Chips for the firft 
time failed for St lYVen'biirg, with a cirgo ccnnTt- 
ing of iron, flax, hcnip, fail chvJi, ikiri>, &c. This 
fquadron was fitted our at the rxpcnce of the Km- 
prcls, who gave up all the pr-ai^ to the new com- 
pany. But the jcaloufy of the Turks, ruined this 



entcrprize, Under different pretences, they pre- 
vented the {hips from palling the Dardanelles. The 
cargoes were fold in the Levant, and Mediterranean, 
and the vcflels returned, without having gained 
their principal object. Frefh troubles, which rofe 
refpecting the Crimea prevented the formation of 
new adventures of this kind till the year 1779, 
but fince the peace, which was concluded at that 
period between the Ruffians and Turks, feveral 
Greek vefiels under the Ruffian flap, cominz from 

O ? O 

Azoff, and the BLick fea, have with freedom, paf- 
fed the Dardanelles. This paffage is only difputed 
with the Ruffians, when the Turk for^ettin^ his 

O O 

laft defeat, and his forces not engaged with thofe of 
Europe, once more to try the fate of arms; and 
he never wiflies to do this, till he be ftirred up by 
the Imans, Opium, or fome foreign power, that 
wants to produce a diverfion, in order to draw ad- 
vantage from it. 

THIS is the way by which the Ruffians attempted 
to free this famous pafTige, which to them now is 
no more an obltacle. A fhip of tueir nation, be- 
longing to government, and lo.icled with f.ilt beef, 
in tiie ynir 1780, failed from Chc-rfon for the port, 
of Toulon. She was allowed to pafs as far as the 
Dardanelles, and was foon followed by other five, 
loaded with iron, which got fortunately into the 
ports of the Archipelago. In the month of Novem- 


bcr 1781, a like number of {hips failed from Cher- 
fon for the ports of France, with cargoes of hemp 
and tobacco, and their voyages had the fame fuc- 
cefs. In fhort, in the year 1784, fome other 
veflels made the fame voyage, but the'laft war in- 
terrupted this rifing commerce, which fome writers 
have reprefented as capable of caufing a fpeedy revo- 
lution, in the general commerce of Europe, and 
Vet it is nothing, or almoft nothing. 

* O 7 O 

WE fhall add to the details juft now given, and 
for the honour of the Sovereigns of Rufiia, that there 
is no ftate on earth, where inland navigation is fo 
exteniive as that of the Ruflian Empire. In fhort, 
goods may be tranfported by water to the diftance 
of near three thoufand werfts, that is to fay, from 
the frontiers of China to St Peterfburg without any 
interruption, but that of a fpace of about forty 
werfts. They may alfo be tranfported, without 
beinsr difembarked even a fineie time, from Aftra- 

o o * 

can to St Peterfburgj an extent of nine hundred 
and fifty werils. 

THE communication by water from St Peterfburg 
to Aitracan, or what is the lame thing, from the 
Baltic to the Cafpian fc; 1 , is formed by the famous 
canal from Wimnei-Wolofhok, wliich is worthy of 
the reign of Catharine II, and in refpecl of the la- 
bours it. has cauied, exceeds the immortal works of 
the Romans,- and ecm.Js their folidity. 



RUSSIA, which is the country for plans, where- 
of the execution of feveral has aftonifhed Europe, 
formed one of the moft gigantic in the year 1783. It 
rs true, it was upon an extraordinary occalion. Driven 
from their ordinary road by the war, which Hyder 
Ally and the Britifh were making on one another, 
fome merchants to the north of Bengal, after ha- 
ving traverfed immenfe countries, had come with 
their goods to the frontiers of Siberia, where they 
had been received with tranfport, and they had 
promifed to return, The board of trade at St Pe- 
terfburg, being informed of this novelty, had im- 
mediately projected a branch of commerce with the 
Indians, aad to forward it, they had fitted out a 
fleet at Aftracan, to feize upon Aftrabad, which is 
the moft foutherly port of the Cafpian fea, and the 
ipot whither the Indians could moft conveniently 
come to trade. But the Kadfchares, an invincible 
people, who abhor flavery, and can defend them- 
felves againft it, difperfed the fleet, and the enter- 
prife had the moft miferable fuccefs. In the mean 
time, the court of Rufiia was not difcouraged by 
that, and till a. more favourable opportunity delay- 
ed a fecond attempt, on which ihe entered with fo 
much the more propriety, as the inland navigation- 
eftablifhed between St Peterfburg and Aftracan > 
muft extend the views of Rufiia to the trade of In- 
dia y becaufc by dlablifhing this commumcation 7 



flic removed the obftacle the moft difficult to be 
furmounted, by the commerce that may be carried 
on in this quarter. But if ever Ruflia fucceed in 
this attempt, the India trade will be annihilated in 
England, which flouriihes only by means of it, and 
in France, which has the moft powerful motives for 
re-eftablifliins: the commerce there, which (he had 

O ' 

from the time of the famous Duplex. Thefe two 
powers, which have long been rivals and will at laft 
be friends, will doubtlefs oppofe the plans of Ruf- 
fia, that not many years ago was in the balance of 
Europe only a fuperfluous weight, of little account, 
but either is or pretends to be, at this moment, a 
preponderating weight, which will foon make thofe 
of greater influence than herfelf vanifh in this chi- 
merical balance, which fortune lifts or deprefles at 
her pleafure. 

C H A P. XVI. 

XES in Riijpa. Tbcfe cfWoetft.OfBerefofcka. 
Of Koliwan.OfNerifchirft. The fait pits cf Stro- 
ganoff. Of the Heck and Siberia. 

of the moft extenflve branches cf commerce 
.hi Ruflia, is that, which ariies from the mines; they 
form an important article in the revenues of the 
E e ? Emprefs 


Emprefs. As a prerogative of the crown, {he pof- 
feffes all thofe mines, which yield gold and filver, that 
have been, or may be difcovered on all the lands of 
her dominions. As for the brafs and iron mines, 
fhe works fome on her own account, and thefe are 
the moft valuable. Others are^iven up to the pro- 
prietors of the eftates, in which they are lituated, 
or to the perfon who has difcovered them, on con- 
dition of a certain confideration being paid to the 
crown, and an indemnity annually, or at once, be- 
ing paid to the proprietors of the eilates. 

THE mines of Woetfk, fituated near Olonetz, be- 
tween the lake of Onega and the White fea, are the 
firfl which the Ruffians had. Gold has been dug 
in them, but at fo great expence, that they have been 
given up feveral times. Catharine II. ordered the 
works to be refurned in 1772, on plans lefs expen- 
five. But the undertaking is far from being lucra- 
tive, for the mines do not furnifh annually more 
than ninety five hundred weight of copper, and 
nine pounds of gold duft. 

THE mines difcovered in the neighbourhood of 
Catharineburg, between the Pifchma and the Bere- 
fofoka, and pofterior to thofe juft mentioned, al- 
though pcinpoufly named Gold-Mines by the Ruf- 
fians, are only copper-mines ; becaule the gold 
wrought in them is to copper, as one to thirty, 
and the annual produce of this precious metal never 



exceeds two hundred and fixty fix, and is often 
below two hundred and thirty three pounds; which 
would nuc pay the expence of working, if manual 
labour were not at a low rate in thefe countries, 
and if in addition to all that, for the misfortune of 
humanity, the defpot did not employ the unjuit re- 
fource of averages, which are fo fatal to the unfor- 
tunate peafant, who would perifh undur the knout, 
if he dared to conceal the fmallefl quantity of the 
mineral, which is watered with his fweat. 

THE mines of Riulia, the moft famous and which 
make the beft return for the labours of the unfortu- 
nate people employed in them, are thofe of Koliwan, 
between the Oby and the Irtifch, on the frontiers 
of Siberia, and towards the country, which the 
Chinefe Kalmucs inhabit. Thefe mines were difco- 
vered in the year 1725, by Jakins Nikitifch Demi- 
doff, a merchant in Mofcow, as famous for his fin- 
gularities as his riches. Some Peafants in the neigh- 
bourhood of the Oby had loft fome cattle, and were 
traverfmg the country in fearch of them, when 
fome considerable bits or minerals \vere noticed a- 
mong their feet. They brou.:':i: f implex of them 
to Demidoff, who had foimderi.-s in their country, 
and told him the place whence they had taken theni. 
Being better informed than theie countrymen, De- 
midoii'knew the value of the article they had found, 
:ii} d ilew to Mofcow to fclicit letters pitcnt, to per- 


mit him to work the rich treafure, contained in the 
mountains of Koliwan. What is fingular, and proves 
the ignorance of the Ruffians is, that the college of 
mines, who faw thefe famples, granted a patent on- 
ly for copper mines, whilft Demidoff extracted two 
fifths of filver from his minerals. In filence and fe- 
crecy he continued this gainful work for near twen- 
ty years. Then rich enough, or afraid of being be- 
trayed, and it is aftonifhing he was not, he deliver- 
ed up his grant to the Emprefs, and received from 
her under the name of indemnity, an annuity of 
three thoufand roubles. The filver dug from thefe 
mines is mixed with the proportion of three to an 
hundred parts of gold, and is fent to St Peterfburg. 
From the accounts of the board of mines, thofe of 
Koliwan produced, fince they were difcovered in 
1725 till 1786, about three millions five hundred 
and twenty thoufand pounds of filver, and forty 
eight thoufand pounds of gold, which yields at an 
average, a produce of fifty nine thoufand pounds 
of filver, and fixteen hundred pounds of gold per 

THE mines and founderies of Koliwan employ 
near forty thoufand men, exclufive of the peafants 
in the neighbourhood of Tomfk and Kufnetz, who 
redeem their capitation tax by cutting wood, fur- 
rafhing charcoal, and tranfporting the mineral to the 



SINCE the year 1765 the board of mines have dif- 
covered a way of paying the expences of working 
thofe of Koliwan, by coining, the copper drawn 
from them, which was in a manner thrown away, 
on account of the carriage, which was abfolutely 
neceifary to make it an advantageous concern. Now 
it is carried to Suzunfkoi, which is fome werfts 
from thence, where it-is coined into pieces of two 
copeks, with which the workmen are paid. The 
filver caft into ingots in the fame city, is tranfport- 
ed to St Peterfburg by convoy, when the feafon 

NEXT to the mines of Koliwan, the Ruffians 
place thofe of Nertfchinfk, fituated on the Nertfcha, 
towards the frontiers of China, to the fouth eaft of 
Siberia ; and thofe of Argunfkoi on the banks o 
Argun, fituated almoft in the fame country. They 
are even thought more productive than thofe of 
Koliwan, although lefs abundant, becauie they re- 
quire lefs manual labour, and bcfides thofe of Koli- 
wan want the lead neceiTary for working them, and 
to remedy this deficiency, it mult be brought from 
England. The mines of Argun and Nertfchinfk. 
produced from the year 1741 till 1786, upwards 
of forty eight thoufand two hundred and lixty fix 
pounds of filver, and eight hundred pounds of gold. 

IT is principally in the mines of Nertfchinlk, that 
the criminals transported into Siberia arc employed, 



Never iefs than two thoufand of them are there, 
and yet they conftitute no more than a fifth of the 
hands employed in working thefe mines. 

THE other mines in Ruffia are not fo important, 
and Iefs valuable than thefe. The crown has given 
them for the working, or has ceded the property 
for a compenfation. Many of them belong to the 
houfe of Schuwalow, and to the different families 
of Demidoff. 

IN fpite of the ignorance in mineralogy, with 
which foine travellers have reproached the Ruffians, 
it has been remarked that thefe people work their 
mines with much more advantage than ever the 
Spaniards did thofe of Potofi or Peru, and that the 
difference in favour of the Ruffians was eighty per 
cent, on gold, and fifty per cent, on filver. The 
advantage, it is faid, depends on this ; the Spani- 
ards ufe quick- Hi ver inftead of lead, and the for- 
mer is not only more hurtful to the health of the 
workmen l.i^.n '.V-e latter is, but ; j .ifo caufes a great- 
er evaporation in the parts of the gold. 

IN a country where vegetation is aim oft in every 
qii.:rter ;:;pped by the rigour of the climate, the 
ri'jiies, which rv.ineo yield, arc doubtlefs an inefti- 
ri ibh: rciburce. But if the Sovereigns of Ruffia, 
iiua.uu of thinking on peopling their dominions, 
which have io r:uch need of population, prefcrve 
this warlike fpiii;, which not only dcftroys popu- 


htion, but makes defarts of the fineft countries ; 
the immeiifc treafurcs that Siberia contains, and 
cannot be torn from the earth, but by force of arms, 
v/ill become an ufelefs gift, which nature feems to 
Lave lent them, as an indemnification for thofj me 
denies, in a country, where fb : appears, only bar- 
ren or a rurfh ftep- mother. Gmclin, Pallas, and 
Abbe Chapprr, who have trivciled over Siberia, un- 
animoufly agree 5 thr.c the. mine; of ths country are 
inexhaiifi'Me in t:>" ftrk'te! knJl 01 the expredion, 
but the greater part, < r r>crhaps the bc'ucr pait ftill 
want hnnjs to work Uieui. It is iherefore, a 
long reign of peace that the Rufihns need, in order to 
enjoy thefe bleffings; if g<tld be at all times a bleiling. 
I'HI inexprcfb'jie advantage, that Ruiiia may draw 
from her miiies, had not efcaped the fagacity of Pe- 
ter I. and to be convinced of this, it is only neceiTary 
to read the multitude of regulations on this head. 
He granted not only in his own name, but in that of 
his fucccffors, the pretcrvation of the privileges o 
thofe, who iJioukl undertake the \vorking of mines. 
His pleafure was, that every perfon who clifcovered 
:\ mine on the eftatc ot another, flxo-jl-.i receive from. 
the proprietor a great recompence ; that if iuch 
mine was not begun to be wrought \v:t:hni ihe year, 
the perfon who difcovered the i^ii-.e., Ihould have a 
right to work it, and tlr.U the i.mcl Ihott'd bcfoncr 

o ; 

to him, within the circumference ,>1 a circle <>f two 
VOL. 1. ]' i" Iiuriaied 


hundred fathoms diameter, for making to the pro- 
prietor, an annual payment of two per cent, for the 
favour, and as much to the crown for every mine 
not producing gold nor filver, Thofe of the laft 
clafs, adds the law of Peter I. fliall belong to the 
difcoverer, wherever they be iituated, and on the 
iingle condition, that he fell the produce to the crown 
only. The bowels of the earth were not however 
opened, even after all theje encouragements. Either 
timid or defective in calculation, the Ruffians then 
averfe to induftry, were at firil afraid of the even- 
tual expence, and they remained in a date of inac- 
tion. But Peter, who {peculated alone, better than 
all the Ruffians together, undertook the mines al- 
ready difcovered, on his ov/n account, and made 
of them immenie profit. The courtiers then imita- 
ted their matter, and thence the mines of Schuna- 
low and Demidoff. 

FOR. the purpofe of improving this branch of ad- 
miniftration, the fchool of mines was militated at 
St Peterfburg, where the young people, who are 
admitted, fhidy all the parts of mineralogy. When 
they are inftrucled they are fcnt into Siberia, where 
they direct ihe principal mines. It is faiti, that this 
fchool has produced fome excellent fcholars, who 
by proceedings as fimple as ingenious, have faved,, 
in the mines under their direction, the fweat of 



the miferable, and augmented the produce' of the 

THE fait pits would be an object of as much im- 
portance to the Ruffians, as the mines are, if they 
were wrought with fkill and fidelity, but the eye 
of the mafter cannot be extended to the extremities 
of fo vaft a horizon as that, under which the im- 
menfe regions of Rufiia lie. He fees only what is 
around himfelf, and thofe interefled in cheating 
him contract this horizon as much as poflible, and 
prefent it to him always under flattering appearances. 

PETER I. made in this department of govern- 
ment fome wife laws, which have been improved 
by his fucceflbrs, and by Catharine II. in particular, 
who has profited by the experience, which is the 
refult of time, a*hd by the abufes, which it difcovers. 
Yet, in fpite of thefe precautions, the inhabitants 
of that empire arc obliged to fetch fait from Spain, 
while magazines eftabliihed with wifdom, in dif- 
ferent parts of the empire, would not only provide 
Rufiia and the adjacent provinces, but alfo the coun- 
tries lying on the Baltic, and thofe lying towards 
the north, which are deprived of this mineral, of 
the firfl necefiity ; for there are falt-pits in almoft 
all Rufiia. One of the moil famous is in the go- 
vernment of Kafan, and belongs to the family of 
Stroganoff, who have been in pofleflion of it, fmce 
ever it was wrought. That fituated near Orenburg, 

F f 2 op 


on the border? of: the Heck, is the rn -ft productive, 
and furnifhes the largeil field jc^r obfe; /tion 1 o the 
naturalift, whu runs over it. The bit of this pit 
is moft beautiful, and of the beft quality. It is 
taken from 2. iuad of reck p.bout four weriis from 
the river. The lei; -th of the rock is eight hand- 
red fathoms., and the breadth ... JOUL five hundred. 
It is fb fond, chat it has not yet been pofiible to 
found it. With a miner's wimble, however, they 
have penetrated to the depth of twenty feven fa- 
thoms ; but time, fweat, and inftruments, have 
not afcertained a complete knowledge of the depth 
of this mafs. 

FROM the year 1784 till 1787, more than a mil- 
lion of pouds* of fait, were taken from this rock, 
and tranfported into different parts of the empire, 
by the Wolga, the Biela and the Kama. The work- 
men in this mine, who amount to two hundred, 
, receive half a i.opci?. for every ; of Ut. thc.y 
prepare for traiiiportation, and u, do tin-;, i.;cy have 
only to cut tiie roc -., wuich rulf::. tae pick- axe, like 
the moft (olid rock, but in a certain direction, it 
fpli'ts with the loir- of a pin. " hjy ^< fix >pcks 
for trar.ipnrtin;., d poud fr :;j -..he mine th-j little 
river of Afchkater, \\here It i; iliip >cd .)r Oren- 
burg, and the neighbouring i.-.u^cto. This fall: is 


* A poud ! ! a Ru.T.iri weight of forty pouucls about thirty fevca 


ibid in the country at twenty five or thirty copcks 
the poud, which is about a half-penny the Englifti 
pound. It is calculated that this pit may yet fur- 
nifh fait for near two centuries, fuppofmg the depth 
to be no greater than it is already known to be. 
In order that the working may be more productive, 
and lefs expeniive, the government has lately made 
an agreement with fome Coflacs, who are to dig 
fifty thoufand pouds a year, and tranfport them 
to the magazines of Orenburg. There are in the 

O O 

neighbourhood of this pit, fome very deep lakes of 
fait water, to which great virtue is afligric'd by the 
Kirghis, and in which they bathe of their own ac- 
cord, when afflicted with the leaft difcafe. The 
phyficians, who have i-nd an opportunity of judging 
of thcfe baths, all agrcr, that they are good for all 
pedicular difeafes. There is one aftonifhing circum- 
ftance attending thefe v aters, namely, their furface 
is as cold as ice, while the deeper you plunge, the 
warmer you become, and at die bottom, no perfon 
can flay more than two c;f three minutes. To the in- 
vcftigators of the fecrets of nature, we leave the cilice 
of explaining this phenomenon, which is attributed 
to the action of the rays of the fun on the fait par- 
ticles, with which thefe waters are impregnated. 

TIIF.RE are alfo fome confidcrable fait pits in the 
neighbourhood of Baclurmt, near Donetz, which 
is an arm of the Don. They belong to the crown, 


and do not yield it more than fifty five thoufand 
roubles a year. This is owing to the avarice of the 
managers, who are too far diftant, for their con- 
dud: to be inquired into ; and no people have more 
need of being called to account than the Ruffians, 
when they poffefs any truft. Every nation, that 
like them lives under the yoke of defpotifm, re- 
fembles them in this point. This refemblance ought 
not to aftonifti us, iince it is inherent in human na- 
ture. The flave, who watches the moment, when 
bis matter turns away his eyes, to fteal fomething 
from him, is the image of the Ruffian, of the Turk, 
of almoft all the unhappy Haves of Germany, and 
perhaps alfo of the folemn Spaniard, who is this 
day as near a ftate of flavery as the Turk. 

NEXT to the fait pits juft defcribed, thofe of Si- 
beria would be the molt important, and would ex- 
ceed them even in produce, if they were attend- 
ed to, and received the working, of which they 
are fufceptible. But the want of hands, the dif- 
tance, which renders carriage very coftly, and the 
rigour of the climate are obllacles, which oppofe the 
revival of thefe fait pits, which any other where, 
would be a treafure, for which nature would be 
thankfully acknowledged. 



OF the civilization of the Ruffians, and whatjhould be 
thought of it. The houfes of the Great* Their. way 
of life. That of the common people. Their food*- 
Their drink. Manner of fa! ut e among the Ruffians. 

Their haughty look. National pride. Anecdote. 

The RuJ/ian ladies. Their drsfs. Marriage. 
Singular cvjloms. Funerals. Manners and citftoms. 

Ruffian baths. How built Ho-w and by whom 

(CATHARINE II. who in all parts of adminiftra- 
tion, has fhowed herfelf the rival of Peter I. and 
furpafTed him in many refpecb, by having had the 
advantage of circumftances, and the leflbns of time; 
Catharine II. it is faid, applied herfelf chiefly to the 
means of foftening the rude manners of the Ruffi 
ans, whom climate, education and prejudices kept 
in a kind of roughnefs, which was found even in 
the capital, and on the fteps of the throne, in fpite of 
thofe pompous defcriptions c/f a total change in 
their manners, and cuftoms, which Voltaire and 
the Panegyrifts of Peter I. have attributed to "him 
in exaggerated ftrains, and at the expence of truth, 
at leaft of probability ; for even the manners of Pe- 
ter were not mild, and a thoufand fads atteft, that 



during his whole life he was affected by the rufti- 
city of his lirft education. 

IT is true, that a nation may appear to have made 
great progrefs, if it be compared only to what* it 
was in former times, when it lived far from in- 
flruciion, and that intercourfe with foreigners, 
which procures it. But this progrefs is reduced to 
almoft nothing, when it is compared with other 
nations truly civilized. When a perfon arrives in 
Ruilia, he expects, after what he has read, to find 
the mind of the nation generally cultivated, enlight- 
ened and mild, and he is aftonilhed at the degree 
of barbarity, into which the majority of that nation 
is plunged. It muft be acknowledged that the firft 
nobility, have in their intercourfe with one ano- 
ther, in their marr>er of living, and the reception 
they give to vifhants, adopted the tone of our 
fouthern courts ; they have ever, carried politenefs 
and elegance as far as any other nar'-m, but there 
is a great difference between civli". '.ing a nation, and 
only a f;w individuals. Although n^ich may be 
iaid on tills pret^nued civiii/ lli ;-.op. >f :hc Great, we 
will nor difpi tc it with, hut we will afk, if 
what are m Rania culled burbles, merchants, free- 
men, bear any refemblance to us in any point of ci- 
vilization, especially witncut the : mits of St Peter- 
iburg. As to the ^crtlani-, th'.y f;ill prrferve their 
beard, their national drd^, -'\pir old manners, and 



in their external appearance and way of life, yet 
refemble our anceftors. They have perhaps a iew 
more vices, and an infinite number of wants, that 
they had not formerly. 

THE houfes of the Lords and principal nobility 
are furnifhed with much elegance. They have fa- 
loons, boudoirs, cabinets of natural hiftory, in which 
nothing is contained, and libraries into which no- 
body enters. All thefe apartments are moft magni- 
ficent, divided and furnimed like thofe of France or 
Britain thirty or forty years ago ; for the new im- 
provements of thefe two countries do not reach 
Ruflia, till they are old fafhioned and disfigured. 

THE tables of the great, and of thofe who live in 
the fame ilyle with the great, are ferved with pro- 
fufion, and in the French manner, but they affect 
not to defpife the dimes of their own country. 
Common viands, and thofe of the daintieft kind, are 
in that country equally efleemed, and yet fafhion and 
pride induces them to imitate the ancient Romans, 
who on their tables collected the productions of the 
molt remote countries. So on the table of a Ruf- 
lim nobleman, and in the fame entertainment, the 
&.':".''. ' of the \Yoiga, the veal of Arch.m^cl, the mut- 
ton rf Ai:n;c:m, an,' the beer' of Ukraine, are fet at 
the li'le of t lie pneafknt of Hungary or Bohemia; 
and along with the wines of Bourdcaux, Burgundv, 
or Cli n:v?.ic:nc, it in not unufual to fee thefe of Hun- 

_J - 

VOL. L G gary 


gary and Greece. It is the practice alfo in great 
houfes after dinner to prefent dried or pickled her- 
rings, neats tongues, bread, butter, cheefe, with 
different forts of liquors, efpecially Caviare, a diili 
peculiar to the Ruffians, made of the eggs of a flur- 
geon, pickled or dried. 

IN great houfes, dinner is fet on the table gene- 
rally at three o'clock afternoon. The French way 
cf fervice is obfervecl, and after dinner is over, the 
guefts withdraw into another room, where coffee is 
handed about. Falhionable houfes have generally a 
circle of company at night, where much politenefs 
and eafe prevail. They fit down to play at feven 
o'clock. Some play, fome converfe, and fome dance. 
Among other things, tea is as regularly filled out as 
in Britain. They fup at ten o'clock, and generally 
retire about eleven or twelve at night. 

THE common people live very pariimonioufly, 
A Ruffian of the lower clafs breakfafts on a piece of 
bread and bit of garlic, clove by clove, and he 
quenches the thirft which this repait muft give him, 
by a lar: r e draught of Spiltin^ which is a mixture of 
He.i and mead. In the ftrcots of St Peterfburg and 
M~oic')\v there are foil tin-merchants, as there are 
ptiftin-merchants in "Paris. They wear the fame 
drcfs, a:;d carry the lame kind of ciftern, and like 
them toe. ftrdl about, and fell at a cheap rate. 



The Ruffian's dinner is not better than his break- 
laft. It is commonly dried or pickled Mi, on fefti- 
val days Caviare, and very feldom flefli. He fups 
as he dines. 

AMONG the different kinds of drink, which he 
ufes, and relinquifhes readily for-brandy, which he 
is paffionately fond of, and drinks to excefs, we re- 
marked J^uajs, a kind of beer made by the fermen- 
tation of a portion of barley, rye, and oat-meal mix- 
ed together, and brought the length of fermentation 
by the heat of an oven. This beverage when one is 
accuftomed to it, is agreeable, refrefliing, and, ac- 
cording to the proverb of the Ruffians, good for 
fattening. Another beverage, which he prefers to 
uafs, and with a propriety not to be difputcd, is a 
kind of mead, wherein there is a part of the juice 
extracted from birch-trees, when the feafon permits. 
The Ruffian thinks this liquor wholefome and deli- 
cious, and we have fccn people, who preferred it to 
French wines. It fparkles and frothes like Cham- 
pagne, but although the Ruffians wiilied to perfuade 
us fo, we found in this beverage, neither the colour 
nor taile of Champagne. 

AMONG the different cuftoms that are peculiar to 
them, and by which they continue as firmly as by 
their religious dogmas, their manner of falute is re- 
markable. The gentlemen make a low bow, and 
the ladies, inilcad Of a curtfcy, give a nod with 
^ g 2 tin 


the head. Sometimes the gentlemen, as a mark of 
great refpect, kifs the hand of the ladies. When 
two people are of equal rank, or when the lady 
wifhes to be very polite, fhe kiifes the gentleman's 
cheek, while he kiffes her hand. Often when me 
is {looping to give this kifs, the gentleman prevents 
her, without any refentment being mown him. If 
he be a man of very high rank, while the lady is at- 
tempting to kifs his hand, he prevents her by giving 
her a kifs on the cheek. The gentlemen, and par- 
ticularly relations, falute one another, by killing 
the hand firft, and then embracing. When a Ruf- 
fian enters into a room, before faluting any perfon, 
he turns towards the Bog^ makes three figns with 
the crofs, fays a fliort prayer, and then falutes the 

THE Ruffians, when they addrefs one another, 
never join to their names any title of honour, of 
whatever rank they be, even of the firft diftinctkm. 
They call one another by their chriftian nnmes, and 
by a name proceeding from the family, which is 
formed by the addition of the particle Witfch to the 
chriftian name of the father ; fometimes by that of 
O/, or Ef. The firft form is ufed by people of rank 
the fecond is for thofe of all other clafTes, - Iva?i, I- 
wanowitfchy or Ivan, Ivanof, mcansyow of Ivan. Pe- 
ter Alexiowitfcb, or Peter Alexeof, means Peter fon of 



FOR the ladies, the particle Efna or Ofna is em- 
ployed ; as Sophia Alexefna, Sophia, daughter of 
Alexis; Maria Ivanofna, Maria, daughter of Ivan. 

THERE are fome great families who are diftin- 
guiihed by a iirname, fuch as Roma?wf, Galitzin, 

THE manners, the focieties, and the amufements 
of the Ruffian nobility, have all the external forms 
of politencfs, but of that Teutonic Pditenefs, that is 
always ftiffand overftrained. Befides there are few 
people that have fo much haughtinefs in their man- 
ner as the grandees of that country, and fo much 
national pride as the Ruffians r Afk them for what 
reafon They think themfelves the moft warlike 
people on earth. It was proceeding on this opinion 
that a Ruffian admiral, who had got the command 
of a fquadron for the firft time, in the year 1788, 
wrote to Catherine II. that the Swedifh fleet, on his 
firft appearance, had run into port, becaufe it ivas 
fcnfible of the danger of having to do with Ruffians. 
And obfcrve, when this Braggart wrote fo, the 
Swedes, onlv a few days before, although \vith an 

' ' O 

inferior force, had proved to the Ruffians in a way 
not a little ipirited, that they were not afraid of ha- 
ving to do with RuJJiar.s. 

IF the Ruffian nobleman affect to be courteous 
ind affable, the common people, (and we rank them 
after thofe, who form the body of courtiers), the 



common people, we fay, are not at all communica- 
tive, and apt to undervalue every thing not Ruf- 
fian, or not done in the Ruffian manner. As to the 
women, the cafe is quite different. They are infi- 
nitely more complaifant than their hufbands. Long 
black hair, an eye-brow nicely arched, a fine eye 
full of fire, a ftature tall and well proportioned, a 
neck like that of Venus de Medicis, and a complex- 
ion fuch as imagination would give to Flora, dif- 
tinguifh the Ruffian women in general. To thefe 
beauties they join almoft all the gentlenefs of the 
dove, and the open look of freedom. When edu- 
cation is given them, they feldom fail to improve 
greatly by it, without diminifhing the precious qua- 
lities of attentive wives, and careful mothers. 

THEIR drefs is very like that of the Germans, ex- 
cept the peliffe, which the climate and cuftom render 
of general ufe in Ruffia. We noticed that the head 
drefs of the married women is not the fame with 
that of the unmarried. The wives wear a cap of an 
oval form, and above a filk handkerchief, neatly 
put on, fuch as our ladies fomctimcs wear now-a- 
d-ays ; and it adds to their natural graces. The un- 
married women, inftead of a cap, have a crown of 
ribbons, to which they fix their beautiful hair, or- 
namenting it with pearls and jewels, if they have 
any. When we faw them, we thought we faw thofc 



ancient Grecian ladies, whofe drefs has been tranf- 
mitted to us on medals. 

BEFORE the days of Peter I. marriages were pre- 
ceded or followed by fcveral iuperftitious and ridi- 
culous cuftoms and ceremonies, which this prince 
and his fucceffors banifhed far from the capital and 
principal cities of the empire. But neither St Pe- 
terfburg nor the chief cities conferred to abolifli 
the Drufchka or Bridegroom's afiiftant. There are 
men at St Peterfburg and other places, who follow 
no other profeilion, but that of Drufchka. In order 
to difcharge the oilice well, a man muft be of a cer* 
tain age, of a clumfy make, wear a long bumy 
beard, and poflefs gay and lively humour j for at 
marriages the Drufchka is to ferve as the buffoon of 
the cmefts. 


ON the day, that the marriare is to be celebrated, 
the Drufchka, early in the morning, muffled in a 
cap of a conical ihape, preilnts himfelf at the door 
of the bride, and proclaims her marriage with a 
loud voice, inviting all within hearing of him to 
the nuptials. The form of the proclamation is in 

thefe words. 1 be wwr pr:-:cc cf and tbs 

/'-lurtg pnnaj} of irsjitc you amicably and 

icith 'rr.portui'itv, to cc-vie fy their /::/// iials^ and to 
i at th: j bread of alliance, and drink the mead, -ivhich 
'he future fpoi'fcs ha-uc prepared, and they iui/1 pour 
:t out is y:u in tb-: cap cf frisr.dfnip. This form 


which is every where and for all claffes the fame, is 
fo much the more laughable, as the titles of prince 
and princefs are never omitted, even in the mar- 
riages of the moft miferable flaves ; and as any per- 
fon that on this invitation of the Drufchka mould 
come to the marriage, would be hooted and not 
admitted, becaufe thofe wifhed to be guefts, are in- 
vited in another way, and are warned that they are 
not invited by the Drufchka, in order to perfuade 
them, that they are fincerely expected. 

WHEN the young couple fet out for the church, 
it is he who begins the proceffion, and till he arrives 
at the temple, he repeats his invitation, and fpeaks 
an infinite number of foolilh things, that keep the 
party in good humour. 

PETES, like wife fupprefled the formula ufed by 
the pope, when the bride and bridegroom were at 
the foot of the altar. Brother, alked he at the 
bridegroom, do you think yourf elf capable of becoming 
the hujbaxd of this young woman ? Tes Will you beat 
her, when rczfon requires it? Tes. I forbid you in 
the name of God, to leave her, wbenjhe /hall be Jick, 
or forfak: her, inker. Jh? fhall grciu old. This was 
fonrurlv a practice the Kuilians. 

THE, or rather the obligation of the pre- 
cept for a man to beat his wife lubiifts ftill in Ruf- 
fii, and we can atteft it, as we have been witnelfes 
of it, a thouiiind times every where. We will add 



alfo, that this cuftom is in force, not only among the 
populace, where the huiband fcldom fails in his du- 
ty, but among the firft claffes of the empire. 

BEFORE we were afiured by experience, we ima- 
gined it a "traveller's flory, \vhen we were told that 
a Ruffian wife, who is not beaten by her huiband, 
thinks herfelf defpifed by him. But it is a real 
truth, and we heard the young wife of a counfel- 
lor, enter a complaint to her mother, who miirply 
reproved her fon-in-law ; and he to pleafe his dear 
half, and her family, drubbed her heartily three or 
four times a month. 

IT was a practice in Ruilia, which might have 
the moft fatal consequences, and Peter I. and Ca- 
tharine II. have endeavoured to remedy it, namely, 
that of burying a peribn io foon as he had uttered 
the lait figh. One cannot, without fhuduering, 
think on the prodigious number of thofe, who may 
have been victims of this precipitate burial ; but a 
later law of Catharine's, ordained the fpace of three 
days between the moment of the death, and the in- 
terment. This cuftom among the Ruffians, aroie 
from the horror they have at death, and whatever 
can recall the remembrance of it. It I:, among them 
more or Ids expreficd, according as they are more 
or lefs ignorant ; and there are fome of them, who 
in liupid fuperflition, are equal to the favage hordes, 
that border with the frontiers of Ruilia, of \vhom 

VOL, I, H h thcfc 


thefe very Ruffians fpeak only with difdain, al- 
though they are not more enlightened. 

WHEN a perfon in Ruilia has breathed his laft, 
his relations, his neighbours, though they may have 
been his enemies, form a circle at the foot of his 
bed, and make the air refound with their lamenta- 
ble cries. They tear their hair, rend their clothes, 
and exprefs all the ligns of the moft poignant 
grief. They add to this fcene, which is only a farce, 
of which nobody is the dupe, another more ridicu- 
lous flill ; They remind the dead, as if he were ca- 
pable of hearing them, of all the injuries he has 
done them during his life, and this is accompanied 
with the bittereft reproaches. After the dead has 
been lamented, and called to account, they fet about 
burying him. For this purpofe, the popes and 
mourners are engaged. The latter are women, who 
make a trade of following funeral proceffions, ut- 
tering cries of grief, as if they were really affected. 
This fort of mourners is to be found araons; a creat 

O O 

number of nations, but particularly among all thofe 
of Afia. 

THE funerals in Rufiia are conducted with all the 
porr.p, that the circumftances of the deceaft, or his 
friends can admit of; and the man, who would have 
denied himfelf a rouble for his moft prcfiing wants, 
would order twenty to be expended on his oftenta- 
tious funeral j fo true is the maxim, that of ail the 



paffions, vanity is doubtlefs one of the moft foolifh. 
There is yet one remark to be made on funeral pro- 
ceilions in tlut country, namely, the addrels of the 
pricfls, who brought them into ufe, and that thcfe 
Kcvercnd Gentlemen, are every where equally in- 

BESIDES the fums, which the popes receive for 
maiTcs, that mud be faid for the happinefs of the 
fouls of the dead, they are likewife invited, and ne- 
ver fail to attend the dinners, that are called Com* 
wetticraiicxs ; orgies kept up for nine days after the 
dcccafed relation has been committed to the duft, 
and at certain periods, fucli as the day of his birth, 
:md that of his annual feftival. Thefe entertain- 
ments are given at the foot of the ;, who was 
the objccl of the veneration of the deccafed. Mead 
and ilrong licjuors are not fparcd, but as they drink 
in prefence of the Bog, the popes get drunk with- 
out fhame and without remorfe, and the relations 
imitate them out of gratitude to the deceafed, and 
to lunifli the forrow, which his death has brought 

' O 

upon them. 

WK li.\J a! moft forgot one thing fcrupulcufly 
obfvirvcd at interments in RuiTia. A pnifport from 
the pope is put into the hand of the corpfe, cx- 
preilcd in thefti terms. I fj.bfcrwln^ certify tbjt 
the b^a'-cr cf ikcfc prefsnis has basn covfcljed, a 'id has 
had tkt' facrancnt adminijlered according to t-:e ru!is 
H h 2 prcfcrlbcd 


prefer ibed by the church", and that he has on bis death 
bed, fnown thcfigns of the fmccrcft repentance of the 
faults he way have committed while he was in life. He 
is therefore recommended very Jlrcngly to Saint Peter^ 
to whom God has entrufted the exclufroe right of grant- 
ing an cntrv into paradife ; whs is intreated to open il 
to him without any difficulty, when he Jhall prefent him- 
fclf, in the faith of which, :c. 

THE Ruffians are not the only people, whom 
their priefts have perfuaded that fuch paiTports are 
indifpenfible. In Europe no Spaniard, nor Portu- 
guefe is laid in the duft, till he have in his breaft a 
bull from the Pope. The Mahometans, in their vaft 
empire, never go to their prophet, without a Bon 
du Mel! ah; and in the greater part of the colonies of 
Africa, people never pafs from this life to the other, 
without being furnifticd with it. Whence it fol- 
lows, that from one extremity of the globe to the 
other, men are the dupes of their priefts, who dif- 
fer from one another, only by more or lefs impu- 

IT was the pricus, who in Ruffia had annexed a 
religious opinion to the prefervation of the beard, 
the iupprciTion of which, Peter I. made a matter of 
too much importance, and infilled upon it with too 
much icvcrity ; for during his life time, a man was 
obliged to be fliavcn, or calhiercd, or at Icaft heavi- 
ly fined. It is reported, that he had barbers ftation- 



ed at the gates of Mofcow, who without pity fha- 
ved all that came in their way, or made them pay 
without delay, the fine prefcrihcd by the law, which 
was from a ccpek to a hundred roubles, according 
to the circumftances of him, who wifhed to fave 
his beard. Now a days long beards are lefs fre- 
quent. Knowledge, time, the example of the great, 
and ridicule, have driven them out of fafhion, more 
than the fine, which Peter had let on thofe, who 
were attached to them. 

IN the provinces diftant from the capital, there is 
yet a number of people, that have for their beard 
u. religious rcfpect, to fuch a degree, that they would 
rather fuller themfelves to be cut to pieces, than 
a hair of their beards to be touched ; for when 
one by chance drops, they carefully pick it up, 
that it may be buried along with themfelves, and 
prefented to St Nicolas, who will acknowledge none 
for a good Ruffian, or a good chriftian, who ihall 
not prcfent a beard untouched. 

IN Rufiia the fovereign and aim oft only remedy 
for all forts of clifeafcs is the ft earn bath. They can 
be got every where, and at a cheap rate. It is ge- 
nerally taken in a houic built ol" wood, as near a. 
river as pofiible. This honk: ccT.liils of a f ingle 
room, with a i'mail window hermetically {hut. Old 
women furnifh and heat: it; by :I:CA:;S of a lire 
kindle, vn> .1 viuk oi' gran ate itcnc;'., ?.bout four 



feet high. When thefe flones are made fufficiently 
hot, water is thrown upon them feveral times, which 
inftantly produces an abundant fleam. Then feve- 
ral fmall flint ftones, red hot, arc taken from the 
fire, . and thrown into troughs full of water, which 
is warmed to different degrees. Half an hour after, 
the perfons who are to ufe the bath, go in and remain 
in it, while a woman continues to throw warm wa- 
ter on the ftones, which operation heats the room 
prodigioufly. Then thofe in the baths lie down on 
a kind of table, and the woman lays them over with 
foap, and rubs them flightly with a bunch of bran- 
ches, covered with leaves, or with flannel j and 
when their bodies are covered with a bright crim- 


fon froth, which is the effect of the fleam, they 
pafs, if they are rich people into apartments adja- 
cent to the bath, and gradually warmed ; if com- 
mon pocplc, they are at lefs ceremony, and go 
very deliberately and duck themfelves in the ri- 
ver near the houfe, or roll among the fnow, where 
feveral perfons have aifured us they receive the moil 
delightful fenfations. The women married and un- 


married, go through the fame proccis, without be- 
ing uneafy at being lecn, in the drefs worn by our 
^rcat mother before the full. 

NIC; n Nuvogorod we faw a bath, a little different 
from that we have juft mentioned. It was a houfe 
wider and more convenient than the laft, and we 



c:)uld continue in it for fome time. The room was 
furnifhed with a row of broad forms, placed like 
fteps above one another, almoil as high as the deling. 
There were in this room about twenty naked peo- 
ple. Some were lying on the forms, fome were 
fitting, and others ftanding ; Some were rubbing 
their bodies with foap, or with fmall branches of oak, 
whofe leaves were tied together like a fwitch: fome 

O ' 

were pouring warm water on their heads, and others 
cold water ; a fmall number exhaufted by the heat, 
were {landing in the open air, or plunging feveral 
times into the Wolkof, which was running at the 
foot of the bath. 

IT is with juflice, that the ftrength of the confti- 
tution of the Ruffians has been generally afcribed 
to this practice of palling fuddenly from exceflive 
heat to extreme cold, when they bathe ; but other 
caufes concur to produce this efted. The peaiants 
change their clothes, without paying any attention 
to the change in the temperature of the air. Du- 
ring the fame day they are to be fee a covered with 
a Jingle fliirt, and a pair of drawers, or wrapped up 
in the warmelt dothe-j. Beds are to them a luxury 
nbfilutcly unknown. They flee;; fbmetimes on the 
height of their ftove, ion. climes on the floor, clo- 
thed, or almoft naked. Their cottages are excel- 
lively warm, bec.iutc of the great number of people 
collected into a fmall fpacc, and becaufe they are 



continually heating their floves, even in the middle 
of fummer, fo that when they go out, it is almoft 
like paffing from a hot bath to the open air. Their 
children are hardily brought up, and from their ear- 
1-y years, accuftomed to oppofite extremes. They 
are to be feen running in the ftreets, or {landing at 
the doors of their houfes, without any clothing, 
but their fhirt, even when it rains or freezes. 

THE rigour of the climate has been affigned as 
the caufe of the little progrefs which the Ruffians 
have made in the arts and fciences, compared with 
the other nations of Europe. But if the climate 
produce a neceffary effect on the human mind, 
where muft bounds be fet to intellectual capacity. 
Shall we fuppofe a point, at which it is at the great- 
eft perfection, after which it is enfeebled in propor- 
tion as we remove from this point. Is this influ- 
ence conftant, or is it accidental ? If it is conftant, 
why is modern Greece no more the country of 
knowledge and fine arts ? Why was Iceland, which 
is fo near the pole, formerly the only country of 
letters in the north ? Why are the Swedes more en- 
lightened than the Ruffians ? Why are not the Ruf- 
fians of Aftracan, more civilized than thofe of St 
Peterfburg and Archangel ? 

SEVERAL obftacles ariiing from the nature of the 
government, from the religion, but chiefly from 
the abfolute flavery of the peaiants, have hitherto 



oppofed the eafy diflufion of knowledge through 
this empire ; and thefe caufes alone explain this 
fact, without any ncccflity exilting for recurring 
to the inlluencc of the climate, or to the harfli- 
Viefs of nature towards the Ruflians. A (hort fketch. 
or the liiilory of their learning, and of its actual 
Hate, is betides fufficient to refute all thcfc allcrtions 
founded or. a theory contradicted by lads. 

C H A P. Xyill. 

LEARNING G/lbe Ruffians. Wohdimer, lb; firft Chrif- 

.fijii Grand D/<'/xV. His fon 'Jarojlaivs. Both en- 

dca\onr to cnliglii-.'n their fubjeSis. Ignorance of their 

a?-:. Ncft'jr. the fir ft hi /lor tan tL\it Raffia has had. 

O - -' * *- ^O 

His chronicle. Otbcr hljlonans *I bcspbanes. 

Sh:r:buttf.P^;..Lomon<j' : i } '.--Su>no!ok':f. 

Ruffhin th^n res. What they were formerly. What 
the-: arc at this day. National theatre. Catharine 
II. paircnlz-s ihc. fewness. \LiftZrs c-f the tr.aJj 
Inn ru.;^. ,l,i an^J'.-te.Forci^n vorki t>:rij'\ii-jJ. 

00 , O 

.! i v\'oiil'.l l A e tlie height o[ vviiaknci 1 -, >o prctonJ, as 
ioii:e wrhcrs have done, th:U ih-j Ruiu.'.v^ \\xrc in- 
forineJ, c\en eiiligKt-jr.eJ, v, hen t..i,y embraced 
chrifuanity, abc.ut r!io t^uili ceuiury, unJ:r thj 
reiirn c>i tlicir Grand Duke YVolodimer, v- h:;.'ii the 

O * 

VOL.!, li i:i-j:;ks 


monks have called theGreat^ becaufe he affected their 
childiih ways, and loaded them with wealth. This 
was, without a doubt, the way to procure from 
heaven the pardon of his fins, which were nume- 
rous and heinous. His predominant paflion was for 
women, and he carried it the length of brutality, 
yet he was canonized, lie deferved to be fo, fay 
the Ruffian monks, for whom Wolodimer was a 
fort of divinity, becaufe, by his repentance, he made 
expiation for his fins, which were the errors of 
youth. Of what avail are repentance and expiation, 
reafon and philofophy anfwer, when we confider 
rape and adultery, two crimes whole injuries can- 
not be repaired ? In confequcnce of thefe crimes, 
and the penitence of Wolodimer, every reafonable 
man mult regard this pretended faint as a crowned 
robber, on whom deification Iras been conferred, as 
it was on Nero or Caligula, on Clovis or Charle- 
magne ; characters, that differ from one another 
only by the crimes wherewith they are ftained. 

WOI.OUIMER'.S fon, Jaroilaws, who afcended the 
throne in the year 1018, brought feveral priefts 
fnr.n Conftantinople, who were reported to him to 
be fcAoLirs and philofophers, but they confined their 
iitiiru.ftions to tranf.hiting ionic hymns and pfalms 
from the Greek into the Rulhan language, for the 
mufic cf tl:c churches. This prince alfo founded a 
(but of icir/inary at Novogorod, for three hundred 



Students, and gave this city, what the Ruffians call, 
its firil code of laws. This is faid to have been the 
date of learning in Rullia, and it would have made 
greater progrefs perhaps, if, for three centuries, it 
had not been almoft extinguifhed by the Tartars, 
who brought the nation under the moil opprefilve 
yoke, and kept the little knowledge it had begun, 
to acqui e, ihut up in a fmall number of cloifters. 

ABOUT the fifteenth century, when thefe barba- 
rous matters had been conquered and expelled by 
this Iwan, who was the Alexander of his country, 
the RuiTians gradually emerged from that profound 
ignorance, in which they had been fo long funk. 
They were not civilized, as fome would make us 
believe, but they became lefs favage, and more hu- 
mane to the foreigners, who under the Czars, Iwan's 
fucceilbrs, landed in Ruflla, as in our days, Cook 
did on the iiland of Otaheite. Yet it may be pre- 
fumed, that under the made of a cloifter, fome 
monks cultivated letters, for while Poland, Sweden, 
and Denmark were yet in ignorance, the Ruffian 
nation had already a writer efleemed in his day, 
who employed himfclf in compiling the hifcory of 
his own country. This hiitorian was Neftor, a 
monk, who was born at Bielozcro, in the year 1056. 
lie had learned Greek at ICiow, and had formed his 
tafte, by reading the authors ot the Byzantian hii- 
tory. ills chronology, which has been fer vilely 

I i 2 cooifd 


copied by LomonofofF and the Germans, begins in 
the year 860, in the reign of Rurik, regarded as 
the founder of the Ruffian monarchy, and ends at 
the death of jaroflaws, which happened in the year 
1054. It is preceded by an introduction, in which 
Neftor ddcribes Ruiiia, and (he neighbouring coun- 
tries, as well as the hiftory of the emigration of the 
Sclavonics, their manners., their eilablifliments, &c. 
His ftyle favours flrongly of the age in which he 
wrote, and his chronological exadnefs is at once 
difguitiitg and valuable for its u(e in fixing the date 
of events. 

Tins work continued in obfcurity for more, than 
fix hundred years, and is ftill fcarcely known to the, 
Ruffians of modern times, the origin and exploits 
of wliofe anceftors he unfolds with a description ve- 
ry often minute. Prince Radzivil gave a manu- 
fcript copy of it to the library of Koninfberg, and - 
it remained there unknown, till Peter I on his way 
through that city, caufed it be tranflated and fent to 
St Pcterfburp*. This work was aft rwards tranila- 
tC'.l into German, and published by IMuller, who 
Ivas not improved its ilyie. Tins chronology has 
become a cl.iil'Cil book in RuiT;a. It has been con- 
tinual by three other annalifts till the year 120^5; 
and the tranfiator, i\lr Muller, obicrves, that Nef- 
tor and his three continuators, form fuch a long 
and ancient furies, as few nations can boaft of being- 


able to mow. What a number of books Mr Muller 
did not know, when he rifked this affertion ! He 
adds, that much fewer monkifh miracles and le- 
gends are to be found in this work than in the fyi- 
tems of chronology compofed in cloiiters during 
thole ages of ignorance. This is not little praife to 
a philofopher, who is often obliged to make re- 
icarches, which framers of legends render fo difguft- 
ing. Since the year 1203, this fucceffion of annal- 
ifts in Ruilia has been interrupted. It can produce 
none but ibtne obfolete books of chronology, con- 
taining the account of the principal events, that have 
taken place in the different principalities, into which 
Ruflia was then divided, Cyprian, a Ruffian me- 
tropolitan, was the iirft who began in the fourteenth 
century, to write the general hiilory of the nation. 
The chronology of Nikon, which may be ranked 
with Nefcor's, contains all the annals of Ruilia, 
from the date when the laft ends, and comes down 
to the reign of Alexis Michaelowitich, which a- 
bounded with events, and feemed to announce the 
reign of Peter, which was Hill more prolific. 

1\; XT to Ncftor and Nikon, he who merits to 
Lc difdnguifhed in the literature of the Ruffians, is 
r .i hcuphaneb Procopowitfch, archbifliop of Novogo- 
rod, who V.MS very active in introducing into Rut- 
iia a nfte for literature, and encouraged the fcienccj 
by ],;.- example and protection. lie was bor.i at 



Kiow in the year 1681, commenced his ftudies 
in this city, and fmiftied them at Rome, where 
he fpent three years. At his return, he made him- 
fclf be noticed by Peter, who charmed with his a- 
bilities, knowledge, and politenefs, was at great 
pains to attach him to himfelf. He followed the 
prince into Perfia, and accompanied him in the war 
againft the Turks. Peter employed him ia the re- 
formation of the Greek church, and placed him at 
the head of the fynod, which this prince eftablifh- 
ed after the fuppreilion of the Patriarchal dignity. 
His favour fupported him under Catharine I. and 
in the year 1736 he died archbiftiop of Novogorod, 
and metropolitan of all Ruflia. His principal work 
is the life of Peter the Great, which he has not 
brought down farther than the battle of Pultowa, 
and which is better worth coniulting than that writ- 
ten by Voltaire. It is generally efteemed, in fpite 
of the partiality remarkable in it, as often as the hif- 
torian ipeak.i of his benefaclor. This error of his 
mind does honour to his heart. 

jMoN.7ii.UR Le Cicrc, in his hiflory of Rufiia, 
maintains that Theophanes had perfuaded Peter to 
intro-Juce the protefunt religion into his dominion, 
and that thl.: prince was diipofed to follow his Lid- 
vice. Yvheii death prevented him ; but he quotes not 
the authoniy on which lie founds this important af- 
icrtion. li this change had taken place, it would 



have proved the genius of Peter, more than any o- 
ther ; for to fpeak as a politician, there is no wor-. 
fhip more fui table to Rufiia than the proteftant form, 
and the legillator, in matters of religion, ought to 
prefer that only, which is perfectly adapted to the 
country, to which he gives laws. 

AFTER Theophanes, nobody had thought on wri- 
ting a hiftory of Ruilii, which had any method. 
Prince Kilkof, who was long ambaiTador at the court 
of Charles XII. was the full who planned this un- 
dertaking:. The Swedifh monarch in.idc him be 


arrefted, in defiance of the laws of nations, and Kil- 
kof, in order to divert the fullering ( f eighteen 

O O 

years' captivity, wrote an abridgment of the hiflory 
of Ruffia, which has been publiflied by Muller, with, 
remarks, in which he rectifies tlic errors, into which 
Kilkof had been necefiarily led, by the want of 

VASSILI-TATISSICHEF, another RuChn liiftori- 
an, who from the year 1720 till 17-70, was enga- 
ged in collecting materials f T a hiitorv of his conn- 

O O ^ 

try, made a rich collection, part of which V/LIS 
burnt by accident, and ihe fr.i^'.r.cnt puhliilied by 
Mul'icr, in three voluirit.-;, 410. IVat th-.-: honour of 
writing a complete hiitory c-: Rui;;\ wa; [-rob biy 
reiervcd ior prince ShcrebatorT. it is he, who, alorg 
with Muller, has contril-uied niof; to clear up iheRuf- 
fi'.\n ai::iiL. He was atruni^-.d by the Govjnni!'j::t; 


and obtained free accefs to the archives of the em- 
pire ; an advantage, without which, no man can 
write the hiftory of a country. Thus Prince Shere- 
batoff is enabled to cite authorities fcrupuloufly, 
Juftice has been done to his exaclnefs and love of 
truth, which the general run of hiftorians feldom 
make walk hand in hand. 

WITH regard to the poetry of the Ruffians; they 
formerly had only a few fongs, and a collection of 
pfalms compofcd by a monk ; and as faid by Sche- 
rafkof the poet, who celebrated Peter as Boileau 
did Louis XIV ; the mufes waited for the reign of 
this celebrated man to make their appearance iii 
Ruffia. LomonofofT and SumorokofF were the firft 
that diftinguifhed themfelves. The former brought 
the Ruffian language to a confidcrable ftate of per- 
fecli '>n, and enjoyed the greater! advantage from this 
attention. He was born of poor parents in the year 
1711. His father was a fiih merchant at llolmo^o- 

/ o 

ry. Chance gave him education. His natural abi- 
lity, it is iid, difcovered itfelf, by reading the Song 
of Solomon, which, though ill-tranflated, infpired 
him with fuch a paflion for poetry, that he run a- 
way from his father, and took refuge in 3. monafte- 
ry, where he had an opportunity of ftudying the 
Greek and Latin, arid profecuting fome ftudies. 
The academy of fcicnces, who were witnciTes of his 



iirft fufecefs, adopted him, if we may ufe the expref- 
fion, and fent him at their own cxpence to the 
univcrlity of Marburg, where he ftudied four years 
under the celebrated Wolf. While in that country 
he applied to a fcience, which iuits but ill with poe- 
try. It was chymiftry, in which he fucceeded fo 
well, that at his return to Ruflla in 1741, he was 
admitted into the academy, and made profefTor of 
thymiliry. The Emprefs Catharine II. honoured 
hiri!, in the year 1764, \villi the title of a counfel- 
lor of itate, which he enjoyed but a lliort time, for 
lie died the fame year. 

Lo.MoxosoiT diflinguimed himfelf in various 
kinds ot literature, but his poems in particular have 
railed him to the fir ft rank among Ruffian authors. 
The mod eileemed are his odes, in which he lias 
taken Pindar for his model. In them, if you be- 
lieve the Ruffians and Germans, you will find the 
force and fublimity of the Greek poet, and the ener- 
gy \vhi(.h he had not. The Count of SchuwalofF, 
whom Voltaire introduced into notice in France, 
has tranilated into French, one of the be ft pieces of 
\crfe, Lonionofoff has compoiL-d. It is his 
c./u.le upon glafs. wherein there arc many very in- 
Ojcnicjus thoughts, vvhidi tiic Ci.unt of Schuwalofi", 
or i.ither Voltaire in Iii-: 11:1:110, lias rendered much 
more ingvnioub in hia trj.niut.5- u, 

VOL J. K. k ALEX- 


ALEXANDER Sumorokof, who is the Cornerlic 
of the Ruffians, and the founder of their theatre, 
has not contributed lefs to the improvement of the 
poetry of his country, and in order to form a pro- 
per eftimate of his dramatic merit, it is proper to 
tell in what ftate, he found the ftage of his own na- 
tion, when he embarked on this enterprize, 

BLIORE the time of Peter the Great, a few flu- 
dents in the monafteries of Kiow and Mofcow, fome- 
times acted dramatic pieces drawn from fcripture, 
in which confifted the excellence of our ftage, when 
it was in its infancy. Demetrius Tooptalo, Arch- 
bifhop of Roftof, had diftinguifhed himfelf particu- 
larly in this kind of Drama. He was the author of, 
the Sinner, Eft her , and Ahafuerus, the birth of Chrijl 
and his refurrcfiion; and all thefe pieces were thought 
excellent by the Ruffians, who ftrove to load their 
memories with them. They were acicd with the 
greateft fuccefs, till the reign of Elizabeth, who had 
a decided taftc for thefe pious farces, efpecrally when 
fhe was in her fits of devotion. 

THE ftudents of iurgevy in the hofpital of Mofcow 
were ,he fn ft laymen, thai: mounted a ftage. They 
employed the great hofpital hall for their exhibitions, 
and fcrccns iiippiicd the place of decorations. Stael- 
hin (<uv a piece aclcd, whereof Tamerlane was the 
hero. According to his report, nothing could be 
more ridiculous than the whole of this how, where 



the mod indecent fcenes were often tacked to events 
borrowed from fcripture. He fays, that he has 
feen the Emprefs' maids act a comedy in a hay- 
loft, about the court (tables, or in unfurnifhed hou- 
ies. Other flrolling companies acted in the public 
fquares, but every where it was only the rough 
waggon of Thefpis, and burlefque obfcenities, equal- 
ly oflenfive to good fenfe and decency, the mofi 
unaffected. Such was the Ruffian ftage, when Su- 
morokof brought forward his tragedy of Koref. An 
excellent actor at fame time appeared on a ftage at 
Jaroflaws, His name was Fedor Wolkof ; He was 
born in the year 1729 at Kaitroma. His father, 
who was a merchant in eafy circumftances, charm- 
ed with the forward abilities of his fon, inftead of 
burying them in a dull counting-houfe, lent him to 
ftudy at Mofcow, and young Wolkof became the 
Carrie k of Rufiia. After having exhibited pious 
dramas to his countrymen for ibme time, he intro- 
duced upon his ftage the plays of Lomonofoff and 
Sumorokof, and they were well received. It is re- 
ported that Wolkof, as induftrious, as pafhonately 
fond of the ftage, painted the decom'ions of his 
theatre with his cwn hands, worked at making 
dreilcs, and very frequently gave a play gratis, in 
order to Ir.fpire his countrymen with a tafte for 
theatrical entertainments. 13ut they, notwithiland- 
in<; this encouragement, for a lone; time preferred 

O *-* O i 



the riotous anmfements of the tavern, to thofe of 
the theatre. 

IN the year 17^2 the Emprefs Elizabeth having 
heard of Wolkof's fame, brought him and his com- 
pany to St Peterfburg, and there upon the Court- 
ft age, he played the tragedies of Sumorokof. - For, 
the purpofe of improving this company, Elizabeth 
fent four of the principal actors to the fchool of Ca- 
dets, where they ftaid four years, were inftructed 
in the accurate pronunciation of the language, and 
again appeared on the ftage with that urbanity, that 
is only to be acquired in the capital. Scon after 
this, Elizabeth eftablifhed a national theatre, of 
which Wolkof was the chief actor. In order to ex- 
cite emulation, flie appropriated a fum of four thou- 
fand five hundred roubles, (about a thouiand pounds 
iterling) ro be divided among the actors according 
to their abilities ; and allowed them befides to act 
once a \vctk for the public, and their own bene- 
fit. As in addition to all, the court bore th" 
whole expence of the play, this theatre got inro the 
bell ftate, and along with the productions of Su- 
morokof, tranflations of Moiicre, and ibrne other 
French comic writers were played. In a fhort time, 
the players, who poffeffed ability, without having 
the ftately looL of the aclor, who know? his own 
confequencc and reckons on it, were fuccefsful in 
gaining the public favour^ along with that of the 



Emprefs Catharine, which they have always enjoy- 
ed ; She has augmented the fum appropriated by 
Elizabeth, for the falary of the comedians, to a 
thouiand roubles, nearly four thoufand pounds 
ftcninsr. Two celebrated actors Wolkof and his 


brother were ennobled, and the Einprefs gave 
them eftates and peafants ; for the former are of no 
value without the latter in Ruffia ; fb that in the 
north as well as in the fouth of Europe, players are 
found manorial lords ! Talents ought to be reward- 
ed, but to afiimilate the artift to the hero, who 
iheds his blood for his country, is the height of ex- 
travagance ; and when Catharine gave lands tc: 
Wolkof, what did (he referve for brave Potemkin, 
ihe conqueror of the Turks? The eldcfl of the Wol- 
kofs acted for the laft Lime at Mofcow, in the tra 
gcdy of Zemira, and died fhortly after, at the age 
of thirty five. He acted tragedy and comedy equal- 
ly well, was a little of a muiician, and a very goou 

As to Sumorokof, to whom the Ruffian ftase is 

? ^j 

fo much indebted, lie was of the caft of no- 
bles, and was born at Moicow in the year 1/72. 
Me had a regular courfe of ftudy in the houfe 
')f cailcts at St Peterfburg, and had given ear- 
ly proofs of his abilities and poetical genius. At 
that time he dedicated his whole time to the ftudy 
of the belt Latin and French authors. ' His firfi 

production : 


productions were fome love fongs, which the Ruf- 
iians admired and got by heart. Count Schuwaloff 
took him under his protection, and procured him 
that of the Emprefs Elizabeth, from whom he ob- 
tained every thing he wifhed to have. 

WHEN Sumorokof had brought on the gout by 
age and ftudy, he gave himfelf up wholly to trage- 
dy, and cultivated it with the enthufiafm he had 
imbibed from Racine, of whofe works he was paf- 
fionately fond. He then exhibited his tragedy of 
Koref, which was in fome degree the firft Ruffian 
play, that was not a compound of ridicule and 
impertinence. , 

THIS literary phenomenon attracted the attention 
of Elizabeth. Koref at firft had been played only 
by the friends of Sumorokof. She wifhed it to be 
acted in her prefente on a little court theatre. The 
applaufes beftowed on the author encouraged him 
to indulge his genius. He in fuccemon exhibited 
Hamlet, Arifcona, Sinafet, Truvok, Zcmira, Di- 
mifia, Vit.zelaf, the Faife Demetrius, and Miciflaf. 
Ills Comic Mufe was not Icfs prolific. She Ins pro- 
c'i;:cd fevers! comedies, TrifiVmus, the Jud^e, the 
.Divorced Couple, the Tutor, the 111 Gotten For- 
tune, the Envious Man, the Hypocrite, the Imagi- 
nary Cuckold, the Rival Mother, the Goflip and 
the Three Ri\;il Brothers j lie acted alfo the Operas 
of Alceftc--j and of Ccphales and Procris. 


SUMOROKOF had no room to complain of his age 
and country. Elizabeth raifcd him to the rank of 
Brigadier, made him director of her theatre, and 
fettled on him a penfion of eighteen hundred roubles, 
Catharine II. made him a couniellor of rtate, gave 
him the order of St Anne, and loaded him with 
honours and favours till his death, which happened 
at Mofcow, in the year 1777, and in the fifty firft 
year of his age. 

WITH fo many advantages Sumorokof had it not 
in his power to be happy. He had the character, 
as he had the ability of a poet, tenilble of it in the 
extreme, fpoilt by fuccefs and the inlipid praifcs 
that accompany it, he could not bear criticlfm, even 
when it was well founded ; and he had formed ot : 
himfelf and his art an idea, bordering on extra- 

IT was not by patronizing men of agreeable ta- 
lents only, that Catharine II. made herfelf com- 
mendable. The fchoob, which flie founded through 
all the provinces ol this vail empire, furniflied all 
dalles of people vvith the inear.j c:f intimation; and 
encouraement iven to thole, \vh 

tuemiclves, ipreaci a general ei;iuii ; : 



. JXvjt\vii';- 

iianding the grounds of complaint, that loine indi- 
viduals may have againit this princeis, the impart U 
ality, which we proL-ls, coniirains u_; to allow, tlia: 
Catharine has done all in lur power to en;i^hr-!: 


her country ; flic has favoured the fciences, and 
contributed to their progrefs with fo much zeal, 
that if an author receive not from her fome mark 
of diftincHon or liberality, his work muft appear dcf- 
titute of merit. 

SHE has taken particular care to eftablifh fchools 
for the French lan^uap-e, which had become one of 

O O 7 

the parts of education little regarded in that coun- 
try ; and after all you can hardly conceive any 
thing more ridiculous than the French taught by 
the generality of the teachers, to be found in 
the capital ; but yet they were worfe fome years 
ago. A Prufiian officer told us an anecdote on this 
fubject, which he had from Mcniieur Burning, the 
celebrated Geographer, who was for feveral years 
reficicnt in St Peteriburg, fuperintending fome 
young nobles at a boarding fchool. The Emprcfs 
having been informed that there was in her ftates a 
great master of French tutors, who not only did 
not undcrftand Latin, but were even ignorant of the 
fhnplefl elements of their own language, limed an 
order, that all t : ie mailers of the French language, 
and tutors In private families, mould preient them- 
iclves berore a co mrr.! f;lon, wliieh me named for 
the purpo.'j ( f examination. ^iTiong the thoufands 
of (;;;;:/-/.;;:/v,v. > th;i.t appeared before this tribunal, 
tlierc \\-erc two that aftoniihed the commiflioners 
by tlicir grufs uupidity. One of thefc two having 



been examined on the modes of the verbs, anfwer- 
ed that, as b: left Paris fifteen years ago, he could fay 
nothing about the actual modes of bis country, where 
they were changing from day to day. The other was 
a Livcnian, who had never been in France, and for 
two years had, inftead of French, taught the gibbe- 
rilh of his country, to the daughters of a nobleman, 

* J O * 

who lived in a fouthern province of Rufiia. 

IN confequence of a delire to communicate to her 
fubjects the learning diftufcd through the reft of Eu- 
rope, Catharine II. alib appointed a comml^ee for 
the purpofe of tranflating the bed bocks, ancient 
and modern, into tlie Ruffian language, ai\d flie ap- 
propriated an annual fum of four thnufind ens 
hundred roubles, (about nine hundred and forty 
pounds fterling,) to defray the expence. 

Tag following are the titles of the principal books 
that have been tranflated. The Characters of Thco- 
phraiius, Elian, lierodian, Diodorus Siculus, Te- 
rence, Cicero dc fi'iibus, C:~efar, Ovid's Metamor- 
phofes, Tacitus on the Germans, Montefquieu on 
the Grandeur of the Romans, La Cluiotais on E- 
Jucaiion, A Part of Bufching's Gcogt^phy, Vol- 
taire's Candidas, St Fvremond's Di.'.l' ;LTCS., L>llre- 
rent Article';, from the Encyclopedia, 'i'allo, Gulli- 
ver, jofeph Andre\vs, Jonathan Wild the Great, 
Amelia, Rollin's Treadle on Study, The French 
Academy's Dictionary, The lienriade, The Devil 

VOL, L LI on 


on Two Slicks, Gelert's T \Vorks, Anderfon's Hifto- 
ry of Commerce, Robcrtfon's Hiftory of Charles V. 
Fillip on the Mongol Nations, An Englifh Grammar, 
The Iliad and OdyiTey, Luchirs Dialogues, Milton, 
ITftory of Sohiclki by Abbe Coyer, Spirit of Laws, 
Millefo Hiliory of Denmark, Hiftory of Voyages, 
Virgil's Eclogues and Georgies, Cicero de Natura 
Di'tntm, Phto, Ilcilnd, Difcovcries of the Ruffians 
by Co:::, MarmorUei's mcas, Blelfield's Political In- 
fiitutirns, Hiftory of the Koufe of Bradenburg, Sul- 
ky's ]\ T t't;:i)irs, Blackuone's Coininentaries, Writers 
of the Hidory of" Auguftus, Pope's Eiliiy on Man, 
T.ocko or- Ediiaiticn, Titus Livy, A Part of Ho- 
i ace. Travels of Anacharils tlie Younger, BufFon's 
'.Vork';, t ; :e. Doclor Young's Travels in Ireland 
have been trr.nlhited by cxprefs orders from the 
Kmprefr, v\-ith a view of dilFuiing the knowledge of 
practical agriculture through Ruilia. 

A GREAT number of clailic authors have been 
t, \aiflarcd :ii Ru:Tn, :ind thole in hig'ieit repute 
hive hern printed in the original at Mofcow and St 
iVerihurL". '1'he editors indeed arc ^enc rally fo- 

o / 

^ cne^urngeci by Ruf.Lin nobles, v, ho culti* 

;-..; c-jiiehide this article of the literature of 

Ian?, v.-iui 2. word on Mr !\erail:oill, brother 

tc; the c ;i:nfc]ior of itate, and viee-prelident of the 

college cr iiiincs. This ce!':brp,t'.:d man (peaks aimed 



*il the languages of Europe, and this any holds the 
firil rank union?- the^Ruillan poets. Ills -jcnius is 

O i _; 

for Epic poetry. He has written a poern upon the 
iciences, and one much better knov.'n, and more ex- 
tolled, upon a Journey to Telieime. This poem u- 
in five cantos. The hero ot this i.s il.itter- 
ed bey or. d nil bounds, even to diiguil, and Cathe- 
rine II. as reaibnablcj has a good iluire. 1'he Orlf.rri 
have publiilied a fplendid edition of Uiis poen:, und 
it is one or the bed. Lc Clerc has inlerted it \i\ 
hiftory of Rniiia, v. here the re;ulcr is I'arpr'led to 
find it. But wliat u it tJnt Lc Clcrc hs not iuicit- 
ed in his iiiftorv ^ 

THE RK/UU: language. Tbs Sciawiifin.Qjihs </ 
ibe Ru >'.(>}:.<:. Academy f ,f Cclcnccs at 'Si Pciirfuur^. 
Its inftitirtkn. Learned giKtlcm-n, w.v; travel . ! 
f, ; .j cxenci o the rmres.Ds&r Gr,:-:!;r t . 7\;/- 

1 HE Ruilian language, v.hieh i, a dialjd of the 
ScUvonian, althou:":i it hai a Ci'eek ;ilph,ii;et, i.- 
very rich and very harmonious, ]t v/.w never cui 



vated till the reign of P^ter the Great, and had no 
grammar till that of Elizabeth in the year 1754. 
It was Lomonofoff who digefted it, for the educa- 
tion of Catharine's new born fon. This book is 
very far fhort of the perfection, that fhouid exift in 
fuch works, as ought to be elementary, and within 
the reach of every body. But Ruilia is not the on- 
ly nation, where a national grammar has yet to ap- 
. .ir. Except Spain, we know of no nation in Eu- 
rope, that can boaft of poflelHng one. The Spanifli 
academy in a body compofed it, and in it produced 
a book truly claflical, which in refpect of the branch 
called Univcrfal Grammar, ought to be trannated in- 
to all languages. 

THE Ruffian language, or rather the Sclavonian, 
is one of thofe moil abundant in proverbs. A fmall 
work that came from the prefs of the univerfity of 
Mofcow, contains a collection of more than four 
thoufand, and the greateft number moft ftriking, 
both by the truth that characterifc:; them, and the 
epigrammatic wit, which they contain. Sancho Pan- 
Li in the KufTian trjnilation recently made, is as en- 
tertaining as he is in the Spaniih language, which is 
one of the rnoft proverbial in Europe. 

THE Greek lari'maue is taught only in a very few 

O >_> O < J 

of the Ruffian fchools. Men of the world are al- 
moft as ignorant ot it there as am on a; us, and to be 
acquainted with it is a mark of diftinction among the 



ccclefiaftics. So that thole perfons in Britain, who 
think the Greek is the language of the Ruiiians, arc 
widely miftakcn, for Latin is more common among 
them than Greek. There are really none who ftu- 
dy it but the monks, among whom it becomes in- 
difpenfable, becaufe of their connection with the 
church of Conftantinople. 

THERE is no language, which a merchant, who 
intends to travel far into the north, oucrht to learn 

7 O 

with more attention than tiie Sclavonian, becaufe 
with its different dialects, it is ipoken through a 
greater extent of territory, than any other language 
of the world. It is the language of Bohemia, of 
Moravia, Croatia, Cannthia, Carniola, Sclavonic, 
Bofnia, Servia, Albania, Dalmatia, the greater part 
of Hungary, Bulgaria, Poland, and in fhort oi all 
the Ruftias ; io that a traveller, who has it, can 
make himielf IK. underftood from the frontiers ot 
Germany to the fca of Kamfchutka. 

THE kind of Sclavonian fnokc-n by tlio Ruiirnio, 
is not fo pleafant a--; that ipoken b-' ilu 1 Hungarians. 
It alfo abounds with O<?//>.,-, ion;;? of wHi'li are. im- 
precatory and fo ftn~HT.rly forbidden, tliat v/I'ocvei 
utters Miitj-j^'Qj a wo. -1 not capabjc ot being tran- 
Hated, is declared guilty of high trcaion, it it be ipo- 
ken againft the prince. 

THK Ruffians have alfo very frequently in their 
inouths, the words, Curcin-Jin, Bltdkin-Jin. \vliicii 



iignify, Son or Daughter of a W re ; and Sabats-^ meaning, Son or a B ch ; Roman, a Pagan, 
Nemlfcbhii a German, becauie they reckon it a dii- 
honour to be a German ; yet it ii to the Germans 
that the Kuflians are indebted for what they are at 
this day : It is from the Germans that they have 
the fciences, the art?, and the induftry that are to 
be found in Rufiia. When a German arrives there, 
though the Ruiiians know his name, they take de- 
light in calling him faan-Ivianowitfch, John fon of 
John, an exprefiion that anfwcrs nearly to the 
French f '/can-Lai'inc, and tlie Engliih Silly-Booby* 
The good German bears the banter without diftrefs- 
ing himfclf, picks up tlie roubles of the Ruffians, 
who h;;ve no iiuiuiLry, then returns to his own 
country, teiiirL-; h'rnfclf he is not iuch a Silly-Boo- 
by ns tlie fools. \\\.$ have enriched him at their ex- 

A :-:-'- 1 lie foundations, \vhofe objeclistheprogrefs 
.:T the artf] :\\\d fcience:?, our attention was drawn to 
the Imperial acadeniy oi fciences in St Peteriljurg, 
\vhicli was inidtuted ij} 1 Peter I. This prince, ha- 
ving obi', rvcd, durii:g ilir- courfe (;i his travels, how 
much learned locicties contributed to the proc:refs 
of knowledge, formed the dcnVn of erectinr one at 

o o 

ot {\tviiburg. He confulted the celebrated Leib- 
nitz, who g:ive him inft;riiiatic:n rcfpccting the ciii- 
ferentkarned nicn 3 whom he fhould invite to Rul- 


iia, and rules for the fociety lie wifiied to form.- 
On thefc directions Peter inflitutccl the academy of 
St Peterfburg, and on the tenth day of February 
1724, figned the edict of its creation, and the tla- 
tutcs for its regulation. But death furprifed this 

O A 

prince foon after, and allowed him not to execute 
the plan he had ^formed. It \vas Catharine !. who 
had the glory of completing what Peter I. had be- 
gun. On the fir II of Airfoil 17:6, this princefs 
was prefcnt at one of the meetings, \vlien Profeilbr 
Buliinger, a German natural!:!; of great merit, de- 
livered a difcourfe on the irili^v of the loadftone 
and compafs in difcoverir.g longitudes. 

THE EmpreA anpr<jpri:Urd a iuiid of twenty 
thoufand roubles, (about 1 live thoufand fix liundred 
and twenty five pounds iterlin;!;,') feu' the iunport ci' 
this academy, and penfior.s \v:rc ?;iven to fiftcor/ 
members, under the title of Pi\;fefi-jrs of the dille- 
rent branches of Learning and Science. The moir. 
cliftinGCuiflied were the two D 


and Geography; Ileniiann a 
'.'Nicholas and Danie'O for nu 
from Yv r urt:emberg for nh;io! 

ry and antiq-iities ; Be'r.c.i 
tions ; Lcuf.iv.iirn for c.x;?i 
vcrnois lor aritomy : 
tine for eloquence : C: 
Utcrat'.ive. 1"'ie 


known to mathematicians and to the Emprefs, had 
been invited to fill a place fuitable to his abilities ; 
but the fordid intereft which he difcovered, and which 
vexed Leibnitz, who had extolled him to the Em- 
prefs, made the court of St Peterfburg averfe to the 
folicitation, which his abilities, his pride, and love 
of money feemed to challenge. He received an in- 
vitation, itickled about terms, and no anfwer was 
made him. 

DURING the fhort reign of Peter II. the penfions 
of the members were not paid, and the court abfo- 
lutely neglected the academy ; but the Emprefs 
Anne reftored it her protection, and the roubles 
appropriated for its fupport. She alfo added a fe- 
minary for the education of the youth, under the 
infpection of the profeilbrs. Thefe two eftablifh- 
rncnts profpered for fome time under the direction 
of Baron KorfT, but at his death, that is to fay, to- 
wards the end of Anne's reign, an illiterate man 
was appointed prelident of the academy, and the a- 
bleft among the academicians left Ruilia. At the 
acccfikm of Elizabeth, this illiterate prefident retired, 
the learned members were recalled, and the acade- 
my recovered ircfii vigour. The fir ft plan of its in- 
uitulH/R was extended and completed, and to the 
twenty five thoufand roubles of original foundation 

' o 

Elizabeth added four thoufand eight hundred, 
which railed the whole endowment to fix thoufand 



feven hundred and five pounds flerling. At this 
very period Lomonofoffwas admitted into the num. 
ber of the Academicians. 

CATHARINE II. always animated with the defire 
of diifuling inilruclion through her empire, has ta- 
ken the academy more particularly under her own 
protection. Among the Directors ilie has made 
changes very ufeful to the \\hole body. At this 
prefent time it is a inufe, very generally known in 
the north, who is invefted with the title of Director 
ot this academy ; the Princefs Dakhkaw, v/ho is a 
member of the academics of Stockholm and Ber- 
lin, and might if {he wiihecl for the honour, be a 
member of all fuch inftitutions in Europe ; for oil 
the banks of the Thames, as well as on thoie of the 
Seine, it affords the greatcic pleafure to fee abilities 
united with the graces of the Fair fex. 

THE Princefs Dafchkaw enjoys the favour of Ca- 
tharine II. and is well entitled to it, becaufe it is 
ilic, who along with Count Paniu, fir ft the 
plan of the famous revolution, that let Catharine 
on the throne ; and the Princcfs was fo much the 
more defer viny; of the Czarina's oTatirui'e, as (he 

O *- * 

happened to be fitter to the miitivis oF Pel or 111. 
\>'e ihuli have occailon to ii;cak more at lar..;\: on this 
revolution, which ibrpri:-:ed Europe, and ov\vd its 
Aiccefs fultly to the pufilbnimity cf hiro_, t'l.u pro- 
voked it. 

VOL, I. M in THK 


THE Frincefs Dafchkaw has advifed the Emprefs 
to reform a number of abufes, which had flipped in- 
to the academy, as they do into all inflitutions of 
this kind. Catharine too has cail a fevere eye on 
thofe men, who are academicians only for the emo- 
luments. She wifhed to have, and he has found 
laborious men, becaufe with money people may get 
whatever they wifh to have. She has alfo infpired 
then:: with a new ardour for undertaking and con- 

-:! ucllri % reieareiies. 


O:s her recommendation, the moft intelligent 
:;;urs have travelled through the different pro- 
5 of the Empire, and as the funds of the aca- 
/:rny would not have been fufficient for the expen- 
e> of thcfe diiT^rcrit tours, the Emprefs has made 
it a prefent of nine thoufand roubles, (two them- 
fand and twenty five pounds fterling) an act of mu- 
nificence, which (he has renewed as often as occafi- 
on required. 

THE objects of thefc travels have been explained 
in the inr,ru-:>ions delivered by the academy to the 
different pcrfor.s, who Ivive undertaken them. Or- 
t!crs \verc given to n^-'Jce enquiries into the different 
kinds of water and Li! ; the heft methods of culti- 
v?.tincj dcicrt and barren ^ro'-nds; the local difeaies 
or i.icn and hvu':es 5 and the belt mode of treating 
the;;. - th^ beft \vay of rcarin.., cattle, and particularly 
ihcep, bees, and fiik worms ; the fituation beft adapt- 



d to filming and hunting; minerals, commerce and 
other objects of induftry ; in fliort into the forma- 
tion of a collection of indigenous plants. It was al- 
ib recommended to them to rectify with care, the 
longitude and latitude of the principal cities ; to 
make agronomical, geographical, and meteorologi- 
cal obfervations ; to mark the courfes of rivers ; to 
draw exact maps ; to explore and defcribc carefully 
the manners and ufages of different people, their 
cuitoms, and dialects ; the antiquities and tradi- 
tions believed amon^ them : their civil and relm- 

o 7 O 

ous hiitory, with the prejudices connected or flow- 
ing from it : In a word, they were to inveftig;itc 
and remark whatever could contribute to the dif- 
covery of the real ftate of the empire, in all thefe 

BY means of thefe philofophical excurfions, which 
have been made with equal exactnefs and judgment, 
we may affert, without fear of being contradicted, 
that there is perhaps no country, which can boail 
of having, limultaneouily, produced fo great a num- 
ber of excellent works, on its internal ihite, its na- 
tural productions, its topography, its civil and mo- 
ral hiftory, and on the ufages, manners, languages 
and cuitoms of its different tribes. 

THE Gentlemen, to whom this laborious but ho- 
nourable talk was committed, were, firft Doctor 
John George Gmclin, then Meflieurs Palhi, Ge- 
3M in 2 or.^ij 


orgi, Falk, Rytfchkoff, Lepechin, Samuel George 
Gmelin, nephew to the Doctor, and Guldenftaedt, 
to whom we b^g leave to draw the attention of our 
readers for a moment, 

DOCTOR John George Gmelin was a German 
phyfician, and profeflor of Botany in the academy 
of Sciences of St Peterfburg, from the day of his 
admifTion. In the year 1733, he was commiffioned 
by the Emprefs Anne to travel over Siberia and, 
Kamfchatka. The companions on his journey 
were M. de Lille de la Cloyere for drawing 
maps, and Ivlr Muller for other particulars ; he 
himfelf took charge of the natural hiitory. The 
refult of the journey of thcfc three academicians 
was a volume of travels in Siberia, which, as 
foon as publimed, were translated into all the 
lano-ua^es of Europe, becaufe they contained the 
mod exact accounts of Siueria ; an iminenfe coun- 
try, of more than twelve hundred leagues in length, 
from eaft to weft, and live hundred in breadth from 
north to f'outlf. Mr Gmelin has alfo publimed 
his l ? k-ra Sibcrut, which amon^ BotaniiU is in erreat 

*--< C 


M?v Pa'las, fo juilly celebrated for his great know- 
ledge in natural hiitory, is ion to Simon Pallas, who 
was profcfior of Anatomy at Berlin, and firft phyfi- 
cian to the charity liofpital of that city. He was 
born in the year 174.1, and went through his firft 

a ft* ^3 



ftudies, partly at Berlin, and partly at Gottingen. 
He profecuted them afterwards in Holland, and in 
the year 1760 paffed as Doctor in medicine at Ley- 
den. The value fet on his abilities by the celebrat- 
ed Gaubius, procured him an eftabliihment at the 
Hague, where he applied chiefly to his Refearches 
on Zoophytes ; a work, which difcovcred as much 
genius as method. The reputation he had acquir- 
ed by his different writings, induced Catharine II. 
to invite him into RulTia, as ProfeiTor and Infpector 
of the Cabinet of Natural HHtory. He arrived at 
St Peteriburg in the year 1767, and left it in [une 
1768, to travel for the purpofe of making obferva- 
tions on all the provinces fubjccl to Ruflia, in com- 
pany with the learned gentlemen before mention- 
ed. He vilited Mofcow, Wolomer, Kaiimof, Mu- 
rom, Arfamas and K.afan, and after having travel- 
led a great part of the hit province, he fpent the 
winter at Simbirfk. In the month of March the 
following year, he let out again, and taking his 
route by Samara and Orenburg, he went as far as 
Gurief, a little Ruilian fortrcfs, lituated at the mouth 
of the river Jaik or Ural: There he examined the 
countries that border* on Kalmuc Tartary, and 
thofe, which lie on the Cafpian iea, and returning 
by the province of Orenburg, he palled a fa:ond 
winter at Ufa. After having made ievcrai cxcurfi- 
ons into the neighbouring countries, he left Ufa on 



the i yth of May 1770, continued his route acrofs 
the mountains of Ural as far as Catharineburg, in- 
fpected the mines of this diftrict, from thence pro- 
ceeded to Tcheliabinfk, a fortrefs in the Govern- 
ment of Orenburg, and in December advanced as far 
as Tobolfk. He employed the year 1771 in croffing 
the Altaik mountains, and tracing the courfe of 
the Irtifch, as far as Omfk and Kolyvan, whofe fa- 
mous filver mines he vifited. He then went to 
Tomfk, and concluded the travels of this year at 
Kramoyarfk, a town fituated on the Jenifei, where 
he fpent the winter. There the cold was moft in- 
tenfe, for the town is fituated in the fixty feventh 
degree of north latitude. So great was its feverity, 
that he obferved the mercury freeze ; a very fingu- 
1-ar phenomenon, of which he has given a very exact 

HE left Krafnoyarfk on the 7th of March 1772, 
and directed his courfe towards Irkutfck, croiling 
the lake Baikal on his road to Udinik, Seligenlkoi 
and Kiakta, where we have remarked the commerce 
between Ruflia and China is principally carried on. 
Having penetrated into the part of Dauria, that lies 
on the fouth eaft of Siberia, he advanced between 
the rivers of Ingoda and Argoun, as far as the 
neighbourhood of the river Amour, and following 
I he limits, which feparate the Ruffian empire from 
the countries inhabited by the Mongol hordes, that 



are dependent on China, he returned to Selingen- 
Ikoi, and fpent a fecond winter at Krafnoyarfk. 

DURING the fummer 1773, he villted Tara, Jailk 
and Aftracan, and finifhed his travels of this year 
at Tzaritzin, a town ftandin< T on the Wolo;a. From 

<r> o 

thence .he fet out on new travels the following 


fpring, and was on his return to Petersburg, on 
the 3oth of July 1774, after an abfence of iix years 
and one month. 

THE academicians cr artiils, who accompanied 
Mr Pallas in thefe travels, were firft Mr John Ame 
Georgi, a member of the natural fociety at Berlin, 
who had the charge of the expedition into Oren- 
burg, along with profeffor Faik, of whom we are 
going to fpeak immediately. Mr Georgi who tra- 
velled over Dauria, and paffed through Irkutik, 
Tomfk, Tara, Tobolfk, Ifetkoi, Ilina, Catharine- 
burg, Ufa and the country of the Barfchkires, ha* 
drawn very exact and valuable maps of all theft: 
countries. Beins; as complete an artift as an excel- 

O - 

lent phyfician, he has deligncd and executed a col- 
lection of prints, reprefenting the different nation? 
of the Ruffian empire, with t' :;r drefies, whicU 
are as fantaitical as various. Secondly, Mr I-'alk, 
born in the year 1725, in well Gothland, a pro- 
vince of Sweden, a Doctor in medicine in the uni- 
veriity of Upfal, a Botanift trained by Linn.rui, 
j.ncl by the recommendation of this celebrated man, 



placed as director of the garden of plants at St Pe- 
terfburg. After having, in company with Mr 
Georgi, traverfed and explored the countries juft 
now mentioned, his principal attention was direct- 
ed to the Kirghis, and the colonies adjacent to them; 
but carrying about with him the feeds of a fright- 
ful difcafe, which affects the intellectual more than 
the natural faculties, Mr Falk was forced to dif- 
continue his obfervations and travels in order to 
recover his health. 

MR Talk's complaint was an hypocondriac affec- 
tion, which the folitudes of the deferts, through 
which he was travelling, augmented inftead of di- 
minifhing; and when Mr Georgi got back to Kafan, 
in the year 1774, he was a prey to all the violence 
of his difeafe. From the month of December pro- 
ceeding he had left his bed, and had taken no nou- 
rimtnent, but a little bread dried in the Swedifh 
way, called Knacko Breed. Fvery day at noon he 
took fame dices of this foaked in a little tea, in 
which there was no ilrength. At this time he ftill 
admitted a fe\v friends, but foon after refufed to 
lee them, and re^accd himfclf to the mo ft auilere 
iblitude, it we except Mr Georgi, to whom he en- 
iruiicd liis real and imaginary farrows. 

v.> J 

ON the 3 ift of March 1774 at five o'clock in the 
morning, Mr r.ilk's liuntfaum, came all trembling 
io awaken Mr Georgi, who run to his friend's 


o i3 ' 


lodgings, and found him lying dead at the foot of 
his bed. He had blown out his brains. At his 
fide there was a note, which marked the diforder 
of his mind, but nothing of the difrnal refolution 
he hud formed of taking away his life. His papers, 
which were carefully collected, contained remarks 
dictated by philofophy, and the love of mankind, 
and only ferved on this occaiion to make him be re- 
gretted by his friends, and thofe who knew him, for 
in his laft moments he was gentlenefs itfelf. He; 
carried his beneficence the length of prodigality, 
and in order to indulge it, he limited his perfonal 
wants to the narrowed bounds. 

THIRDLY, Mr Rytfchkoff, fon to Counfellor 
RytfchkofF, who has made himfelf fo well known 
by his topography of Orenburg, has given the moft 
circumitantial accounts of the countries, which ex- 
tend along the Bielaja, as far as Kama, and thence 
as far as Kunsrur. Mr Pallas was particularly delight- 

o * * o 

ed with the remarks this young man made on the 
Steppe, a defert inhabited by the Kirghiz. 

FOURTHLY, Mr Lepechin, a Ruiiian by birth, 
but educated at Siralburg ?.r.d ;uLong foreigners, 
kr't Lt Pcttiriburg in the y-jiir 1768. along with Mr 
Pallia, who had a particular eilcc;in for Iiim. Their 
cbiervntions were made ia company \vith one ano- 
ther, till their arrival at Simbirik, \vhcnce Mr Le- 
pech'm Vv r ent by himiclf to travel over llie province 

Vm. I. N a of 


of Stawropol, then vifited the Steppe, which is be- 
tween the Wolga and the Jaik, and in 1771 afcend- 
ed the moft elevated fummit of the Ural. In 17723 
he was employed by Mr Pallas i-n examining the 
coafts of the white fea, and difcharged the duties of 
this appointment in the moil fatisfaclory manner. 
In 1773 he linilhed his travels by Plefskoff, Mohiloff, 
the brinks of the Dwina, palled through Riga, and 
returned by the coail to St Peterlburg. 

MR Pallas has revifed all thefe travels, and narra- 
ted them in five volumes quarto. They are very 
laterelting, and have added greatly to the reputation 
lie had acquired by his knowledge and character, 
This wcrk has been tranflated into I^'reneh and met 
v/ith much fuccefs.. 

EXPEDITIONS of this kind, in wild countries, and 
among roving nations, more or lefs barbarous, have 
not been made without expofmg the adventurers to 
a thou&nd dangers, and if Mr Pallas has concluded 
IAS fortunately, it is not without having had much 
to fulTjr, and without having been expofed to the 
oTcateft dinners. " 1 return," f^id he when con- 
cluding his rotation, " with an enfeebled body and 
4 ' ; prcv liAirj. r-lthough I am only thirty three years 
' : ol" age ; yet I am much ftronger than'wlicn I was 
^ in :vii)eri.i, and I am indebted to providence, for 
''- rttvh :' prefcrved me from innumerable danzers." 

O i O 


AFTER having diftinsruiflied himfelf as a natura- 

o o 

lift of the ftrft rank, Mr Pallas deferved to be placed 
among critics the moil judicious, by tracing the very 
complicated hiflory of the tribes, that wander ii; 
thefe vaft regions, which extend from the northern 
coafts to the boundaries of India. This he has done 
in a book publifhcd under the title of " A colleffior,. 
for the Political, Natural and Civil Hifiory of the Mon- 
gol tribes " He throws a new light on the annals 
of this people, whofe anceftors conquered Rudia, 
China, Periia and Indoftan, and at different periods 
founded the mod extenfive empire, that ever be- 
longed to a fingle people. At the end of tlic-ie tra- 
vels, we fhail lay a few words on this ilibjerl. in 
the mean time we fhall remark, that the general de- 


nomination of Tartars, which hitherto the moft part 
of authors have given to the differ em Aiiatic horde.-, 
lias been only a iniftake. Mr Pallas proves that the 
Mongols are undoubtedly a people diltincl from the 
Tartars, by their figure, language, kira or go vein - 
ment, and that they only reiemblc them in a tjftr; 
for a wandering life, \\hkii is ccnr,i::on to them 

THE primitive nation of Alia, whole origin, hu- 
tory, and prefcnt ftatc, are the fubjecc of this intc- 
rciling work, is indebted for all its celebrity to its 
founder Gengis-Kan. "\Vlien his Vaft empire w^: 
diimeiiibcrcd wnder his Aicceiibr3, in the Sixteenth 

N n 2 r.T.turv, 


century, the Tartar and the Mongol hordes, who 
had formed only one and the fime ftate, {pparated 
anew, and from that time have remained diitinct 
and independent of one another. Mr Pallas divides 
the Mongol horde into three principal tribes, Mon- 
gols, Oerats or Kalmucs, and Burats, and defcribes 
each of them with that precifion, which characteri- 
zes his works. The laft volume efpccially. which 
appeared pofterior to the other three, contains a very- 
particular account of the religion of thefe ftates. It 
is the religion of the Dalai Lama, of Thibet and of 
the Sovereigns Manfouck, who at prefent fit on the 
throne of China. So that this work communicates 
things as new as interesting, which, Mr Pallas af- 
firms, are not the refult of fome hear- fays, like 
moft of the accounts given of countries far diftant 
or little known. 

IN June 1777, this illuftrious fcholar read at a 
meeting of the academy of St Peterfburg, at which 
the King of Sweden was prefent, a diiiertation on 
the formation of mountains, and the changes, which 
our globe has undergone, efpecially in Ruilia. This 
work has been, and it well ciefervcd to be, tranfla- 
ted into French. What he lias written of the Tar- 
tars lias met with the fame favourable reception. 

SiN^r- Mr Pallas completed his travels, he has 
been occupied with publishing fome very curious 
memoris on different objects of natural hiftory, on 



the nations of that part of Afia, through which he 
travelled, and other fubjects equally interefting. 
He has been engaged with the publication of a mag- 
nificent work, which the Emprefs has ordered to be 
printed at her own expence, containing a complete 
defcription of ail the vegetables, that grow in the 
Ruffian Empire. This work has been rendered very 
valuable, and at lame time very dear, by the great 
number of engravings pubiimed along with it, and 
reprefenting the rareit and moft ufeful plants. In 
a word, Mr Pallas has been charged with arrang- 
ing, and publishing the inanufcripts left by Samuel 
George Gmelin and Guldenftaedt, two men of 


learning, who, like himfelf, have by their labours 
contributed to the difcovery of the different parts 
of the Rufiian Empire. 

DOCTOR Samuel- George Gmelin, nephew to the 
Gentleman, who travelled by the orders of the Em- 
prefs Anne, was at fir ft profeffor of natural hiitory 
at Tubingen, where he was born in the year 1715. 
He was afterwards brought to Rufiia, and admitted 
a member of the academy of St Petcrfburg. In 
func 1768, he left this city and viilrcd JMoicow, 
Woronetz, AzofF, Kafan, and Ailracan. In the 
years 1770 and 1771, he took a furvey of the ports 
on the Caipian lea. lie examined with particular 
attention the provinces of Perfia, that are contigu- 
ous to this lea, and las iriveii a minute defcription 


of them, in four volumes of his travels, which have 
already appeared. An ardent thirft, and flattering 
hope of making frcih dilcoveries, induced him to 
attempt a like expedition in the weftern parts of 
Perfia, which are conftantly infeiled with numerous 
gangs of banditti. With this intention, in the 
month of April 1772, he fet out from Enzelli, a 
fmall town in the province of Ghilan, on the fouth 
coaft of the Cafpian fea, furrounded as he was with 
difficulties and dangers. Till December 1773, it 
was not in his power to reach Sallian, a town fitu- 
atcd at. the mouth of the Kur. Thence he penetra- 
ted as far as Baku and Kuba in the Shirvan, where 
he was gracioufly received by Aly Feth, Kan of that 
countrv. Having been ioined by twentv Cofiacs 

* O J < 

belonging to Ural, lie continued his route, and was 
only four days journey from Klfliar, when he and 
his companions were arrciled on the <;th of Febru- 
ary, by the order of TJH'mei, Kan of a very fmall 
territory, which he h.:a been advifod to go round, 
imftciul of crofling it, bcojufe this Kan's neighbours 
kivvv- TJihiti'o bad intentions. The Kan'j pretence 
for this fliLimeful pi:'cc (;f conduct was, that the 
KuMlans hac.1 given nn alylum to icveral families of 
his iulrcr!:;, \viio had dcicrtcd from his cicminioii.", 
ubout tiiirty years ago, and lie was confcqucntly 
enl'ukd lo cicLrin Gniclin and his coninanions, till 
vlu'le fugitives \vcrc reuored to Li in. Tims the un- 


fortunate Gmelin was given up to all the horrors 
of the moil cruel captivity. Fatigue, uneafincfs, 
unwholeibme diet, arid the inclemency of the cli- 
mate completely ruined a confutation, already re- 
duced by pleafure, to which Le was exceilivcly ad- 
dieted, and undermined by the toils of ieveral long 

IN the month of July of the fame year, in which 
he was arrefted, he died at Achmeikent, a poor 
village of Caucafus. It is laid that vexation at ha- 
ving loft a part of his papers or his collections, 
which were very rare, haftencd his death. At the 
time he was taken priibner, f >me of his manufcripts 
were lent to Killiar, and it aitcrxv.ird.s proved a 
work of inlinitc difficulty to extort the reft from 
the hands of the barbarian, who kept him in con- 
finement. The care o: arranging them, for the 
purpofe of making a ioiirih volume, was at iirli; 
committed to Guldenfhiedt: ; but death prevented 
him from ever putting a h rad to the work, an.! 
Mr Pal 1 . as was en mi '::-.! with this precious lalk. 

JUIIN ANTHONY GL~ .>:;*" ; -, r. r- ; r:i at '-I'ti 
in the year 17-*. ?, VMS aJ:. .!.;. ! i',;j t ; .c r:e ' 
college at Berlin in 1703. : ;" -\- : ; '':_ .k^rers (: 
Doctor in the Univ-riicy ;_ /'r '.TikL-rt on the ( Vicr, 
in tiie year i ;&;-. Tae diif',r.:nt i^i.g-u i :;ej he know, 
and liis acquaintance \vu!i iii'iura.1 !n'(.o''y, m.'.ae hir.i 
be choien as a coadjutor in tiie ^h;i of triveilii: j 

J o ' 



pofed by the academy of fciences. He was invited 
to St Peterfburg, and arrived there in the year 
1768. At firft he was named aiTiftant, then a mem- 
ber of tins academy, and profeilor of natural hifto- 
ry. In the year 1768, he fet out on the projected 
travels, and was abfent for feven years. 

Ev way of Mofcow, \vhere he continued till the 
year 1769, r.nd of Woronetz, Tzaritzin and Aftra- 
can, he proceeded to Kiiliar, a fortrefs fituated on 
the weft coaft of the Cafpian fea, near the frontiers 
of Perfia. In the year 1770, he vifited the country 
watered by the Tereck and Alfkai, to the eafteru 
extremity of Caucafus. The following year he pe- 
netrated into the diftricl of OlTet, which forms the 
uighcft part of this range of mountains, and travel- 
led over this country, protected by a guard of Of- 
fetians, furnifhcd by Prince Heraclius, from whom 
he received afilftance of all kinds. As he flaid forne 
time at his cafe among the Ofletians, there lie coinpo- 
fod Vocabularies of the language fpokcn by tliat peo- 
pic, made reiV-ircnes intf> their liiilory, and difcover- 
<\1 tl;ci:i iome rerm'ns of chriiHanity. He 
r.urli:cd t::e northern ridge of Caucafus, and 
CCJ.U Gcorg;,i, \vhere iic was admitted to 
' Oi Piince Heraclius, v;!:o w:is then en- 
ed, abc-.ut. ten v/erfts from Tcfilis. 
IXCL 1-k.raeiius, or as he is C'liicd in that coun- 
C~:ir hdci:> who defended himiclf fo boldly 

again ft 


againft the Turks in the war 1770, and at prcfent 
reigns over all Georgia, Kaket, &c. is a man of fix- 
ty years ard more. His fiature is ordinary, his 
complexion fwarthy, eyes large, vifjge long and 
his beard but fmall. He fpent his youth at the 
court , and in the armies of the famous Nadir Shach, 
\vhere lie formed a great attachment to the Perfian 
inannetb and cuftoms, which lie introduced into his 
own Mates. He has feven fons and fix daughters. 
The Kans of Ferfia rcfpccl: him, fear him, and of- 
ten take him for mediator in their diherences. He 
is looked on as a prince of oreat courage, as an able 

1 O O ' 

general, and his Georgians are eftccmed the beffc 
ioluicrs in th'jfe countries. Although he has only 
a revenue of little more than a hundred thoufand 
pounds ftcrling, he keens an army of fix thoufand 
men. He is f'or.d of mow and exnencc. Gulden- 
flaedt accompanied him on an expedition along the 
river Kur, eighty miles into the lieart of Georgia, ancj 
recurned LI!C ig with him to Teflis, which is the capital 
of i.'us prince's don/uuors. He pafTcd the winter 
there, and ';i the fc'iiowing ipring he examined tlio 
country, followed the prince into the province of 
K.i'-.ot, ard advanced to thoi'e on the fouth, inhabi- 
ted by T^L/lar Turcomans, who are iubjccl to He- 
racl:u:r. 1'c was in the fuite or a Georgian noble- 
n;an, v\li^m i:c cured of a dangerous diieafe. 

VOL, I. O o IN 


Lv July he tr.i veiled over ;.he country of Imret y 
which lies between the Cafpian and the Black fea y 
and is hounded by Georgia on the eaft, by the 
country of OiFet on the north, by Mingrelia on the 
weft, and -by Turkey on the fouth. 

THE ihvereign of Imfet, ftyled the Prince, or 
Czar Solomon, having prohibited, when he fucceed- 
ed to the regency, the fcandalous traffic which the 
nobles of his dominions made of their peafants, 
d rev/ on himfelf the refentment of th.c Turks, inte- 
r cited in this branch of commerce. They got him 
Jepoied by their intrigues, and forced him to fly to 
the mountains, v/herc he lived for iixtcen years, 
wandering and living like a favage, concealing him- 
felf in woods, c^vc ( ;, and the thicken: forefts, where 
oitcn his valour alone was not able to defend him 
againft the aiX-tlms, who \\-cre fearching for him. 
At lait in the war 1770, he was again fet on the 
throne by the RuHians, Tills prince generally wears 
a plain brown coat, and carries a mufket. On 
oreat occailons he appears in a robe of rich opld em- 

O * * O 

broidery, with a filver chain about his neck. He 
rales c-n an afs, \vhieh is perhaps the only crea- 
ture c! ; its ipecies in his dominions. 1'his afs, and 
;i p;ir c-f boots, whi ;h are a rarity in that country, 
diilir.guifii lilin from his iubjects, with whom he 
delirrhts to be iurroundcd. He has no regular 

>? o 

troop;, nor artillery, but he can afiemble, when 



need requires, .in army of about lix thousand men, 
by the found c-f a fort of horn. He c'"V*cs his edicts 
be published in the markets, which are held ,-:i Fri- 
day, by a man, who Climbs a tr,r>. and thence de- 
livers them to the tradefincr., v. ho on thcr return, 
communicate th^.n to their neighbours, in their re- 
fpective dwellings. 

His fu ejects profefs the Greek religion, or nuher 
connect it with fome fnperlHtious practices, drawn 
from neither Chriftianity nor Mahometanifm, but 
from a credulous ignorance, that kneels before eve- 
ry object. 

FULL of gratitude for Ruilia, the Czar Solomon 
gave a very kind reception to Guidenflaedt, and ai- 
fifted him to the utmoft of his power. This inqui- 
iltive traveller afterwards penetrated into the ridi~e 

J. o 

in the middle of Caucafus, travcrfed the interior of 
Georgia, the confines of Minc;rclia, the lower ar.J 

o J o 

eaitern Imrct. After having made a fortunate e- 
icape from the banditti, who ramble through theic 
wild regions, he returned to Kifliar to nafs the win- 
ter, and there procured a variety of information i"t> 

fpectin2f the neiofhbourin^ tribes of iartars on 

1 O O 

mount Caucafus, and particularly relpectng uie 
Lefgees. During the fu miner following iic travel- 
led into the greater Cgbardia, the length of mount 
Befhtan, which is the lofticit fumihit of the iirlt 
rid^e of Caucafus. lie then viiltcd the rnincj of 

O Q 2 ?,Iddihar. 


Madfbar, and arrived ?t Tcherfkafk on the Don, 
Thence he directed his way to Azoffand Tuganrok, 
and ended his travels of the year 1774 at Kr~nl>nt- 
fhuk, in the government of ]>Jew Ruffia. He was 
preparing for entering the Crimea the rext year, 
but having been recalled, he returned by Ukraine 
to Mofcovv and St Petersburg, where he arrived in 
March 1775. 

HE was bufily en^ag-ed with arraneinsr his manu- 

J O o O O 

fcripts, but before he was able to complete their or- 
der, a violent fever carried him off in March 1781. 
He has publifhed feveral treatifes and diilertations 
on fubjecls relating to medicine, natural hiftory, 
geography, and the commerce of Ruflia. In Gal- 
denftaedt the Ruffians have loft a man, whom they 
not be able to replace for a long time to came. 


LIBRARY belonging to the academy of fdcnccs. Cablnci 
of Natural Hijlory. Anatomical colidlicn belonging 
to this cabinet. Mufeum. Colkclkn of Medals. 
The Gottorp-Glcbs* 

JL HE accounts of the eftabliihment of the Academy 
of Sciences at St Peterfburg, and of the advantages 
refulting from it, will be very naturally sccompa^ 



nied with a defcription of the library and cabinet of 
natural hiftory. 

A LEARNED gentleman, long connected with this 
library, has remarked very jullly, that war, which 
in moft countries hurts the progrefs of the fciences, 
has been of fervice to them in RuiTia ; becaufe this 
library owes its origin to two thoufand five hundred 
volumes, feized by Peter I. at Mittau, in the war 
againft the Swedes. It was afterwards augmented 
by the liberal donations, of this Emperor and his 
fucceffors, and a few years ago there was added to 
it the curious collection of book?, which Pnnce 
Radzivil had at Newit;:, and ;he Ruffians ic'zcd 
upon, in the year 1772, during the troubles in Po- 
land. It has received, and is daily receiving addi- 
tions from the uninterrupted donations of Catha- 
rine II. who is book-?!';^^ in every icnic ot the word. 

THE number of books in this library amount:, to 
about thirty fix thoufand. The moft ancient n; i- 
nufcripts are the lives of the faints, v/ritten in thf 
year 1298, and Ncftors chronicle, of which we 
have already fpoken. This chronicle, witli thrfe o( 
Novcgorod, of PlefkofT, Ukraine, Kaian, and Af- 
tracan, the genealogical tables of the ancient Grand 
Dukes, from Wolodimer to I \ran-Baffiliowiricli, 
compofed in the twelfth, thirteenth, and fourteenth 
centuries, may make it be reasonably preiumed, 
that Ruilia is very rich m documents rcluing to it.-, 



ancient and modern hiftory. Thefe ancient rrfanu- 
fcripts are all in the Sclavonian language. 

RUSSIA fuftained an irreparable lofs by the burn- 
ing of the celebrated library of Kiow, which hap- 
pened under the reign of Peter I. and made him 
flied tears, becaufe it contained the moil precious 
materials for hiftory, of which the manufcripts kept 
at St James' de Waidai, and in the cathedral of 
Wolodimer, have not fupplied the place. 

IN the library of the academy there are fixteen 
volumes in folio, which contain the negociations of 
the minifters of Peter I. from the year 1711 till 
1716; and thirty volumes of Prince MenzikofPs 
correfpondence on public affairs, from 1703 till 
1717. Thefe collections would be good documents 
for compofmg an authentic hiftory of Peter I ; a 
work, which is ftill wanted, notwithstanding thole 
publifhecl by Theophanes and Voltaire. 

A MANUSCRIPT, modern indeed, but highly va- 
lued on account of the augiift perfonage, who wrote 
it, is the fat of inflmcUons, which the Emprefs fent 
to the committee chofcn to compile a new code. 
They were drawn up and written with her own 
hand, and are kept in a beautiful vafe of bronze, al- 
ways fct on the table, at the public meetings of the 
academy : a compliment not more academical than 



AMONG other books in this literary repofitory, 
the attention of vifitants is drawn to a volume, 
which contains the acts and cpiftles of the apoilles, 
preferved not for. what it contains, but becaufe it 
was the firft book printed in RufTia. Mr Nichols, 
in his treatife on the origin of printing, tells us, 
that this fame book was ten years under the prefd. 
It bears the date of the year 1564, and was printed 
at Mofcow. 

THIS library contains perhaps a greater, number 
of Chinefe books than any other, that we know of, 
in Europe. There are about twenty eight thoufand 
feparate numbers. Mr Leontief, who fpent feveral 
years at Pekin, where is a Ruffian church, and 
where fome Ruffian ftudents are kept, for the pur- 
pofe of learning the Chinefe language, has made out. 
an exact catalogue of them. 

HITHERTO Europe lias flood indebted to the 
French for almoil all that is known with any cer- 
tainty of the inland {late of China, but the Ruffians, 
their neighbours, are endeavouring to avail them- 

O 7 O 

felvcs of their fituation, for procuring' the informa- 
tion refpecting this country, which we have not ; 
or does not appear authentic, akhough certiiicii 
by feveral authors, with the ton?, with which 
truth is fupported. But thole, who auirrn aro 
monks, and thofc monks, Jeiuits; this is a powerful 
reafon for confiding onlv in t'i-: RuiTunr, 


THE bonds of friendship, which have for fome 
time connected the courts of St Peterfburg and Pe- 
kin, have facilitated the acquifition of Chinefe books 
and the ellablifliment of a ferninary at Pekin, and 
thus enabled the Ruffians to obtain a more complete 
and accurate knowledge of this country. In confe- 
cjuence of tlicfe advantages there have been lately 
publiihed at Peterlburg, fever^l irterefiing works 
upon the laws, hiftory, and geography of China, 
which have been extracted or translated from the 
original publications at Pekin. 

THE di.Sercnt articles, which coir.pofe the cabinet 
of natural hiftorv. are difcribiited with s;reat iudsre-. 

* " O J O 

ment through uiilercnt jp.irtments, and conititute 
-<i collection ;>f the producl ; ons of the country, which 
h ;is rich is it i? curi^.-us, ar.d !:as been considerably 
au;rir,rntcd by tbc c^llcftion of Pallas, Gnielia, Gv\- 
c!eiili:iv.dr, and o^cr Icnrnfd men- \vho have travel- 
led tiirov.g! 1 . tin: provinces of the empire. 

"Wi. were dcu'ii dilT^rent f. ! rn pics of rhubarb, ga- 
thi red .->\ 1 J'.e provinc'. of Sc.hkl^iu, on the fron- 
tier; of ' liini, aii<i ;;]ir'-fl el^;lit hundred werits 
fiorn lauktii. r f his precious vegetable is found on 
a fin i'l \\.\\. c'JV; led by tlie lor; S.:ho!ic:cy, in the 
neighboiirhcpd oi a rich ;;o;,l IT. inc. It is not pro- 
due,, d on T .':J luiT.niit of iliC hill, which is continu- 
ally cover..'.! with lr;cvr. It is at tlie foot, where 
the earth ; ; > ii.rc, keel v.ith red, refernblins: broad 


fir:' , 


ftrata of good ore, that the rhubarb of bcil quality 
grows. It lias long ilcms, large oval leaves, and 
grows without any culture. The feed is broad, 
round and thick. The Tungufi are the people who 
gather it. After having pulled it from the earth, 
they i-t.r.g it iv on ropes made of herbs, and then 
fell it to the Buchanans, who dry it a fecond time 
an'd tranf;'-.:/- '. on their camel, into RuMia. 

We had alib (hewn us fraie virgin Edrcd-d, that 
is Edrcdon unmixed^ 'he greatcll part of which comes 
from Archangel, 'i'his is a fort oi very fort down, 
which a kind of gecle, very common in Iceland, 
caft in the moulting feafon. They rub themfelves 
in their neit?. to whicii tlieie light feathers adhere. 
When the moulting is over, the country people 
feize upon their neits, and pile them up in large iron. 
machines, fault above, and covered with a grate of 
a very few bars. They dry them at the fun, aiu! 
after they have been brought to a very great degree 
of dryncG 1 , they bca'; the fe.uhers \\\ the cage, ni! th-* 
de/wu bein:; feparated from the cartli, Vvith \vliich it. 
w.i> impregnated, itick.s to the grate, v. hence they 
"t, f r tl.c purpc^'c of ir.ikinp; th:::e bciis or 
..:, on \vhich tlie S) b.irit.j* e:..!. .v. uurs to pro- 

j\ tlu l:.boriou.s man in ever} quarter of tl.c 
, I. Pp T:ia 


THE word Edredon^ which is written alfo 
don^ comes from the German word Eyder-dunen, 
E'jdcr or Auer, is the name, which the Icelanders 
give to the goofe, that furniihes the Edrcdon ; and 
Duncn iignines feathers ; w r hence it follows that Ed- 
rcdon is the plumage of a gooie, not of the Eaglet, 
as vulgarly fuppofed. 

IN this cabnet, we raw the largcft piece of mag- 
r.ct perhaps in Europe. It weighs fix pouds, that 
is, about two hundred and fourteen pounds Englifh 9 
arid attracts or can attract a block of iron of near 
live hundred and fifty pounds. It was taken from 
the magnet mountain, near the river Wcrchnei-Kifil y 
towards the upper Jaik. None are found on the 
top of the mountain, but within a conipafs of two 
or three werfts round the foot. The part of thefe 
ftones expofed to the ais is endued with the great- 
eft magnetic povver, but it is at fame time tenderer 
and not fo fit to be enchafed, as the part below 

TKF anatomical collection of this cabinet is very 
highly valued, becaufe it was made by the celebrated 
Ruyicli, Anutomift at the li^guc, who fold it to Peter 
I. in the year 1717, for thirl y thoufand Dutch florins, 
or t'>.v;) thouiand icven hundred pounds lterlin rr . 


The moft valuible part of it is, a feries of fetu(es 5 
from the fu-ft formation to the birth of the child, 
Dill prcki^cd In {pints of wine. There are likewifc 



injections of the brain, and of the eye, done with 
much art; and in the eye efpecially, there are mem- 
branes, fo fine and delicate, that none but the ableit 
practitioners in anatomy, fuceeed in thefe injections. 
FROM this cabinet you pafs into the Mufeum, 
called by the Ruilians, the Chamber of Rarities, and 
well does it deferve this name. The ornaments 
found in the tombs in Siberia, fevcral of which arc 
of gjeat value, firft engage the attention of foreign- 
ers. Thefe curioiities confift of bracelets, fonic of 
them weighing a pound ; of necklaces in the lorin 
of ferpcnts ; of vales, crowns, bucklers, and figures 
of animals, all of (liver and gold; fabres with aiit> 
ornamented with jewels ; Tartar idols and other 
antiquities. This quantity of gold work would not 
appear credible, if we had not ieen it with our own 
eyes, and if ibine authentic documents did not 
prove it to be, as we have advanced ; and by it we 
are induced to believe, that the people, who buried 
fo many valuable articles, muft have been very rich. 
But what idea can be formed of a civilized ii.uion, 
capable of producing fudi works of art, and fettled 
in ancient times on the banks of the Irtiich, Tobol 
and [enifji ? Mr Mulier who has inveiiigaied this 
fubject, and during his travels in Siberia examined 
Several places, where iucli toir.:>> were opened, ha 
formed fevcral vry prujabie conjeaures on this 
people, The generality of v, :i:crs on this jr>int, 

T p ~ luivr 


have reafoned only after his plan. The following 
is a fpecimen of his conjecture.-,. 

AFTER having described the feveral foits of tombs 


discovered in the fouth part of Siberia, he adds ; 
44 As in many of thefe tombs, there have been found 
" bones of men, women, hories, and alfo lances, 
" bows, arrows, and other arms, it appears evident 
" that the i'ame fuperflitious notions, itill prevailing 
" in India, were in former times received in thefe 
" countries, and that it was believed among th^m, 
44 the fouls of men continued to lead in the other 
" world, the fame kind of life, which please! 'hem 
" in this. In confequence of this opinion, tne fa- 
*- 4 vourite wiTe, fervants and horfss of :i man of dif- 
" tinction, were, at his death, burnt on his tomb, 
<c and interred along with him ; Ills arms too, his 
4e clothes, and every thing he valued moil highly, 
44 went the fame way. It is alfo, in confequence of 
*' this opinion, that the Indian wives, at this day, 
* 4 burn thcmfelves on the fame funeral piles, on 
* { which the dead bodies of their bufbands arc con- 
" fumed to aihes." 

MR Muller alfo remarks, that in examining the 
ancient archives of Yakutfk, he found, that the 
fame practice prevailed among the inhabitants of 
that country, at the time the firft made a 
conqueft of it ; and that the only method, that 
could be devifed for extirpating it, was to punifli 



as murderers, all fuch perfons, as made fuch facri- 
flces of wives or domcitics for the pretended fervice 

of their dead. 
AFTLR having thus accounted for the quantity 

of gold and iilver found in thefe tomb?, Mr IVIuilcr 
attempts to determine, who the p -oph v ere, to 
whom it might have belonged, and he rdoives trno 
difficult queltion with the fame fagacity. lie be- 
gins with affirming, that the richeit of thefe tombs 
were erected in the time of Gengis-Kan, and his 
immediate fucceflbrs, and are to be found on the 
banks of the Wolga, Toboi and Irtifth; that tne 
richeft next to thefe are in the defers of the Jejiifei, 
and the leaft rieh of all, ftand in the country fur- 
rounding the lake Baikal. He fuppoics that all of 
them have been conftrucled by the Mongol hordes, 
and at different periods ; and that this {ingle peo- 
ple at different times inhabited the countries, where 
thefe monuments have been difcovercd. lie founds 
on the following facts. Gengis-Kan laid the foui;.. 
dation of this extenfive empire in the beginning r.f 
the thirteenth century. The wandering lh)riiis rt 
Mongols, \\ ho were firil under his dominion, poi- 
ieiiecl the banks of the Selong.i, Tola, Ookou and 
Anon, from the river Amour, to the Mongol de- 
fert, which terminates with the Chincfe wall, 'i hefe 
horde? were very poor, and confcquently tlie tombs 



found in thofe countries contain nothing, but what 
is of little value. 

As foon as Gengis had reduced them to a date 
of fubjeclion, he turned his arms to another quar- 
ter, and with the afliitance of thefe warlike people, 
he and !ns fucceffors conquered a great part of 
China, Independent Tartary, Perfia, and all the 
country, which extends to the Black fea. They 
even kept Kuftia for fome time under their yoke. 
The fpoil, they had got in this immenfe extent of 
country, was almoft all collected and concentrated in 
the places, where they had fixed the refidence of the 
principal Kan, of whom all the reft held ; for at the 
death of Gengis this empire was divided into feve- 
ral principalities. Towards the middle of the thir- 
teenth century, the ^refidence of the chief or fu- 
preme Kan, was at a fhort diftancc from the banks 
of the Irtifch, as may be feeu in the travels of Rub- 
ruqvis the nnffionary, who on his way to the court 
of tjie Kan Magnu, fpeaks of the river Jaik, as the 
laft he crofTcd. So it is probable that the refidence 
of this Kan was iituated between thefe two rivers, 
rind this hypothecs receives confirmation from this 
fad, that the richeft tombs have been difcovered 
between the Jaik and Irtifch. 

BUT as it was towards the beoinijin^ of the fif- 

O O 

tccnth century, that this empire of the Mongols 
was diimemberedj it mufl have been during the 



thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, ihat thefe peo- 
ple colic, r'.-cl tlic immenfc fpoils, wh'. h the magnifi- 
cent ornaments found in their tombs' give loom to 
luppofe. It has too been remarked that feveral ut 
theie ornaments are executed with as much tafte. a.> 
elegance. Where then could they have been made.' 
For the flate of the arts in the eaft, at that time, 
will not allovv- us to fuppofe them the work of the 
people reiiding in the eaft. They mult therefore be 
unqueftionably the work of European artiits, whom 
the magnificence of Gcngis and his fucccffors invit- 
erl to tlieir courts ; and it is a fa 61, that Rubniqws., 
at the court of Magnu, met with a Goldfmith from 
France, called Guiilaume Boucher, wiio was em- 
ployed bv this Kan. 

MR Muller however, with his ufual candour- 
makes an exception to this .general proportion, 
" that all the tombs of Siberia in luh'^h ^r/.v., and pre- 
cious ej/ctfs ha-vs been dif covered, hckngcd to th: Mo.n- 
go/s." He defcribes ibme, that appear ot a mucl? 
more ancient date, and com?.'.:! arms .,),! urcnfils 
of copper. 'I'he lat'er are :;]!'.) p^cierv -\ in die 
chamber of rattles. The hA;i;.;crr:, th? lances, aiul 
the i\vor;ib hcin.--^ conftantly ; i C-^^.T, fjrm 10 prove 
that the people, to v/]i'..>n:. t.Uc :c-n.i 'v. i:^/:-', knew 
not the ulc oi iron, and coiik'.jU' ;it.iy \vcre i^rif;r t;_: 
the Mongol hordes, and nach more 3ncii;r.E. I\Ir 
Muller, v;ho in -ill Ms rd'eard , has lifplayed won- 



derful fagacity, fuppofes thefe people to have been 
the Iv'trs, or Uigurs, or Hungurs, who are believed 
ro have been the anccftors of the rnqdcrn Hungari- 
ans, and at a very remote period inhabited a part 
of Siberia. This is the more readily conjectured, 
that one of the n.rcklac-ts found in thefe tombs bears 
;i per feel rc/ombl-nK-c to thole worn by the Hunga- 
rian ladies :\t this very day. It h alfo faid that 
Gengis Kan and his fubjects, the Mongols, borrow- 
ed Iron: thufe people the alphabet and art of printing, 
both of which they were utterly ignorant of. But 
Mr Mulicr gives this only as a conjecture, and ad- 
mits the diiliculty of deciding polkively, by what 
people thefe corpcr arms and hulruments were ufed, 
or at what precifc period the were erected. 

WITH much pleafurc and minute attention did 
we iurvey a long gallery, dcilincd to collect the dif- 
ferent: drcf&s of the rribc-j fubjert to the Ruffian 
empire, of the nations of the call, and of the Chi- 
;ieie in particular: and a> r o -.mother room filled with 
the diY.'K-:.}, ariT.^ and inilrumcnts brought from 
the '(iaiiJs litcly difcovercd !>c-r \rccn Asia and Ame- 
!ici, :'.nd iroin th<j pi ices next to the continent, 

r rhere 

,- :",;:;: caps ormnsctited \viih long rrdibs of 

lr, in th-j t.;it:: of the ancient helmets; dreffes of 

-(,tter and re! :-decr Ikins. and of fearJyjrs dyed 

d, orr.amcnred \vilh leather fringes, luir and fi- 

ne ws ; 


news 5 fome wooden mafks reprefenting the head of 
a large fifh, or of an amphibious animal, which the 
inhabitants life in their great entertainments. 

IN this gallery there are alto different idols, pro- 
cured by Mr Palhs, which belonged to the Kalmucs 
or Mongol hordes, that wander in Siberia, of whom 
the greatcd number are yet idolater;:, and attached 
to the religion of the Dalai L,una. Gome of thefe 
divinities arc rcprefcntcd on coarfc cloth ; others 
are made of burnt clay, painted or gilt ; a very few 
of bronze are brought from Tibet. Thefe are ge- 
nerally grotefque figures with feveral hands and 
arms, fitting with their legs acrofs. They refera- 
ble thole, which are the objects of wo r. (hip among; 
lever al feels cf the eaft : they are hollow, and ge- 
nerally full of relics, maxims, and prayers. Prints 
of the mod remarkable among them arc to be found 
in Mr Pallas' travels. 

FROM the hall of rarities and curioutics our 
guides led us to that of medals. The collecTion of 
Ruilian coins, which thrcnv great light on the an- 
cient hiftory of this country, merit 
amination. In former time^. iii;aU ! 
nun tin (kins fupplicd the p., ice el 
circulated among the inhabitants cf thde c:.iiiitri/;- 
but in commerce v/itl; foreigners, the jvuii:;:n.-; bar- 
tered tlu ; ir commodities v. iili g^'l 1 and ;:!vcr in in- 
gots, as the Chinefe lull do at tJis c; -y. 

VOL, I. Q ci T r 


IT is not certainly known when money began to 
be coined in Ruffia, but it is very probable that the 
Tartars -introduced the practice. The Ruffian coins 
are divided into nine clafies. 

'YuLzfirJl confifts of all thofe, which have no le- 
gend, and they are doubtlefs the moft ancient. On 
them you fee fometimes a man on horfeback, hold- 
ing a fword, but moft frequently a coarfe reprefen- 
tation of certain animals ; which circumftance, ac- 
cording to the ingenious conjecture of a Ruffian hif- 
torian, proves the Tartar origin of thefe coins. 

TiiEfccond clafs comprehends the coins, that have 
a Tartar .legend, and represent men on foot, on horfe- 
back, with fcymitars, lances, or falchions in their 
hands: fometimes griffins, goats, birds, and fwans. 

IN the third are to be ranked the coins, which 
have both Tartar and Ruffian legends. 

IN the fourth, thofe which have only Ruffian let- 
ters without a date. 

IT may be remarked on thefe three laft claffes, 
that, fince the Ruffian coins bore a legend, Tartar or 
Rv.iilan characters, frequently both the two, are to 
be found on thefe coins, in proportion as the fove- 
rclgntj of Rujia were more or lefs under the Tartar 

IN the fftb clafs we rank the coins under the 
Grand Dukes, from Baflili-Demetriowitfch down 
to Iwanowitfch. 



IN thejixtb, the coins of the princes of the blood, 
who pofferTed independent principalities, fuch as 
thofe of Galitz, Svenigorod, Mofhailk, Bielozero, 
Sufdal, Rezan, Twer, &c. 

IN thefeventh we rank thofe of the principal ci- 
ties, which had the right of coining money : as No- 
vogorod, Plefkoff, Mofcow, Twer, &c. The coins 
of Novogorod are the oldeft. There the Tartar mo. 
ney had no circulation, though commerce rendered 
the Lithuania^ and Swedilh very current. 

To the eighth clafs belong the monies coined 
from the time of Iwan-Baffiliowitfch II. till the ma- 
jority of Peter I. The firft piece of gold was coin- 
ed under the reign of Iwan, under whom the art 
of coining was brought to confiderable perfection. 
This prince was the firft, without doubt, who made 
his money be imprefled with the figure of a fpread 
eagle ; but hiftory is filent on what occjfion. The 
firft rouble was coined under Alexis Michaelowitfch. 
Till his time it was only a fictitious denomination, 
iuited to accompts. In this cbts is a RuiTtan clue. 1 ; 

bearing the heads of the two Czars, I wan and PC- 

ter, on one fide; and on the reverfe, their filler So- 
plria, with the crown, the fccptre, ind the royal 

THE ninth and laft clafs contains all the coins of 
Peter I. and his fuccefibrs. By them may be judged 
to what perfection Peter brought the coins of Ruf- 

Qq 2 fl.l, 


fia, at his return from his travels, for fince that pe- 
riod they have not been in a more complete ftate in 
any refpect. 

THIS collection abounds with eaftern coins. A- 
rnong them are a great number of the Califs of A- 
rabia and Samarcand, of the Kans of Bulgaria, Cri- 
mea, and AzofF, of the Mongol tribe, by the Ruf- 
fians called ike Gilded Horde. Among the Indian 
pieces, there b one or" twelve rupees, reprefenting 
the twelve iigns. of the Zodiac. It is one of the 
queen of Nourma%II's, whofe hiftory, related in the 
travels of Tavernier, has more the look of an old 
woman's (lory, than a true hiftory. Thefe rupees 
are fo fcarce, that the firft proprietor of this collec- 
tion, it is faid, paid a thoujfand crowns for it. 

L\ T a room adjoining that of the coins, is a wax 
figure *;f Peter I. as large as the life. He is fitting 
in an elbow chair, and his likencJs is perfectly ex- 
act, for the face was moulded on Peter's own after 
his death. Ihc colours have been applied with 
great juftnefs. He has black hair, eyvs, and eye- 
brows, a brown complexion, a fierce look, and his 
head, according to his cuiiom, leans to one fide. 
He is very tall, and, as far as the attitude allows 
him to be meafured, he muft be upwards of fix feet, 
lie is d relied in the only Gala fuit he ever wore, 
which is the fame he had on the day, when, with 
his own hand, he placed the crown on his beloved 



Catharine- This fuit is of blue filk, richly embroi- 
dered with filver ; the ftockings are of a rlefh co- 
lour, with (ilver cloaks. It would have been more 
defirable to have feen this great man in a green uni- 
form, with the copper-hiked fword, which is pre- 
ferved in the fame room, and which he wore at the 
battle of Pultowa. There we faw alfo the hat he 
wore that fame day, which is pierced with a ball in 
the crown. They keep in the fame room, the fai- 
lor's trowfers, the woollen ftockings, the fhoes and 
hat, which he wore at Sardam, when he wrought 
in the dock-yards there under the name of Mr Pe- 

THE academy have carried their refpecl: for the 
memory of their illuftrious founder the length of 
preferving in their cabinet, the horfe, on which he 
rode at the battle of Pultowa, his two favourite 
dogs, his turning-wheel, his tools, and feveral of 
his works, with a bar of iron, on which lie engra- 
ved this infcription : On Thurfday, 2 \jl February, 
1724, his Majcfty Peter L having gone to Olonetz, for- 
ged this bar iviih his o\vn hand. 

WITH the fame refpecl are mown the three iilver 
goblets, which were prefentcd to him on the occa- 
fion of launching the three mips of the line, which 
had been built under his immediate direction. One 
of thefe goblets, containing fixty five medals of the 
Kings of France, was a prcfent from the Emprefs Ca- 


tharine, who knew equally well how to make ufe 
of the virtues and vices of her hufband, in order to 
conciliate his affection. The attention of ilrangers 
is alfo attracted by the model of a hundred and 
twenty gun ihip, which William III. gave to Peter, 
during his flay in England. The Emperor, who 
had been very kindly received by the King, prefent- 
ed William, at the time of his leaving England, 
with a diamond of great value, wrapped up in a 
piece of common paper ; a very expreilive emblem 
of himfelf, and of his nation, whofe qualities were 
ftill under a coarfe covering. 

BEFORE we conclude this article, we lhall fay a 
little of the celeftial fphere, known under the name 
of the Globe of Gottorp, which is at prefent kept in a 
feparate building, in order to fecure it from fire. 
It is a large concave fphere, eleven feet in diameter, 
and contains a table and chairs for twelve people. 
The infide reprefents the vault of heaven, as it ap- 
pears to us. The ftars and conftellations are mark- 
ed on it by gilt nails. It is on the meridian of St 
Peterfburg, and when put in motion, by means of 
a curious mechamfm, it exhibits the real pofition of 
the ftars. The outfide is a terreftrial globe. This 
machine is called the Globe of Gottorp, becaufe it 
was made after a like fphere, which Frederick III. 
Duke of Hoiftein made be conftructed at Gottorp 
by Andrew Bufching, under the direction of Adam 

Olearius ? 


Oleanus, who in the conftruction of it had been 
guided by a plan, found among the papers of the 
famous Tycho Brache. Frederick IV. King of Den- 
mark, made a prefent of it to Peter the Great, who 
had feen it in the year 1713, and had exprefifed 
much furprife at its conftruction and mechanifin. 
The tranfportation of it from Gottorp to St Peterf- 
burg was not only very expenfive, but even after it 
arrived there, it met with injuries, and in the year 
1747 it was accidentally burnt. By means of the 
irons, that had efcaped the fire, the actual fphere 
was conilructcd, with confiderable additions made 
to it; and in the year 1751, it was lodged in the 
room, where it is at this prefent time. It is exact- 
ly of the fame fize with the original fphere, but 
much fuperior to it ; becaufe it is marked with all 
the new difcoveries of geography and aftronomy, 
which the former wanted. The meridian and ho- 
rizon were made by Mr So f , nn Englifh mechanic 
very juftly famed. 




cf arts. Society of agriculture. -By 'whom 
founded. Hozv patronised by Catharine II. The 
corps of Cadets. Account of this inftitution. Con- 
vent for daughters of nobles. Obfervdtions on this 

1 HE accademy of arts founded by the advice of 
Count Schuwaloff, under the Emprefs Elizabeth, 
ivas annexed to the academy of fciences, and had 
at that time a revenue of eighteen thoufand roubles 
about four thoufand pounds fterling. Forty ftu- 
dents only were admitted, but Catharine II. has 
made a feparate foundation of it, and afligned it a 
revenue of thirty four thoufand roubles, and in- 
creafcd the number of ftudents to three hundred. 
For the accommodation of this academy, fhe has 
erected a large circular building on the banks of the 
Neva. .Students are admitted into it at the age of 
fix, and continue till they are eighteen. They are 
clothed, boarded and lodged at the cxpcnce of the 
_rown. They are taught rending, writing, arith- 
metic, "French, Dutch, and drawing. At the ap^e 

*J O 

',i fourteen they arc allowed to ehouie one of the 
arts Mu^ht in the academy, which arc divided into 



j -s 

Firfl. Painting in its different kinds, as hiftori- 
cal pieces, portraits, battles, hndicapqs, architecture, 
mofaic, enamelling, &c. 

Secondly. Engraving on copper and ftones. 

Thirdly. Sculpture on marble, wood, ivory and 

Fourthly. Clock and watch making, the art of 
turning, of" making inftruinents, of calling itatue.s 
of bronze or other metals, of imitating fine ftones, 
and medals of gilding, varnifhing, Sec. Prizes are 
annually diilributed among thofe, who excel, and 
twelve of thofe, who have gained tour prizes, are 
felccted to travel at the Emprefs* expence. When 
they fettle afterwards in any of the inland tmvns, 
they alfo enjoy a penfion of: two hundred and ieven- 
ty rouble:-, or fixty pounds ilerling, for four years 

YET hitherto great advantages have not been 
reaped from an inilitution to laudable, and fo well 
calculated to make th? fine arts ilourifh. The moil 
part of the iiudents make great progrefs, while they 
continue in the academy ; feveral even c-.-.npleiu 
themfelves in foreign countries, but the moll emi- 
nent often fettle abroad, or if they return home, 
they foon fall into that indolence, which Icems 
characleriftic of the nation. The caufe perhaps de- 
pends on the little encouragement they receive in 
Ruflia. The fovereign may form artiits, and rear 
diem by force of expence, like foreign plants, but 
VOL, L Rr 'mJcQ 


unlefs the fame kindly care be taken of thefe plants 
till they cprne to maturity, they languiih for want 
of culture. But it is impoiubie for the bed difpofed 
monarch, or any nobleman., who may be eager to 
imitate fo good an example, to, difiufe a tafte for 
the arts in a nation, which is not yet capable of 
judging, or forming a jufl eitimaticn of them. 
From the moment that artiils of merit are not dif~ 
tinguifhed nor employed, they not oniy cmnot pof- 
fefs that emulation, which it, the foul of their pro- 
feiikms, but even cannot acquire the neceffary means 
of fubfiilence. 

THE free Oeconomical fock-ty, eftabiiflied at Si 
Peterfbursr for the advancement or agriculture, is an 


mftitution too important, and too uk;ful to be pal'- 
fed over in iilencc. The following was the occaiicm 
of its foundation. 

O^-F. day at table, the prefer; t Kinprcfs exprefTeti 
lierielf, v/ilh great : force, on the advantages, thav 
would rcfult from a fociety of this kind. Count 
Alexis Orloff, firnamed Tchefmcniki, from his vic- 
tory over the Turks at Tchefme, like an attentive 
courtier, who considers tlie wifnes of Maiefty, as fo 
many rriandatcs ; Count Orion", who was among; 
the giieiis, from that moment formed the refolu- 
tion of executing what his augufl iniitrefs wiihccl 
for ; and in conceit with fourteen pcrlbns of rank 
und knowledge, convened an aflfembly in June 176^ 


which drew up the regulations and fixed on tike 
form of a regular and permanent agricultural fo- 

i O 

ciety. This plan was prcfented to Catharine II. 

who made tliii ani\ver, written with her own hand. 

' T>i defign, that you have formed for the cn- 

'" couragement oi: Sericulture and Oeconomv is 

O O * J 

? extremely agreeable to us, and your exertions 

^ are a proot of your zeal and love ror your conn- 

" try. V, r e co.rtidfT your olari and rv;icb as worthy 

' or our approbation, an-1 we allosv your focicty to 

" aflume the title of. Tl:: Free Occonanhal Society. 

( ' i Vv r e not only confcnt tlvat you fhould life our 

" anns, l?.:jt to cxprc!- our good wi'/.ies in the moil 

~" exj:licit manner, we allow you to take for a leal, 

:{ a hive in tlu middle of our Imperial jrrns, to 

c which bce-j are carrying honry, witii thcfe word;j 

fl for a motto. i\r viiiiiy. IMoreover we grant to 

ki yoarfocicty, fix thoui'and roubles (/," 133;: 6: 8.) 

" to enable y.-.u to purchau; a ho'ite, either for hold- 

r " ing your meetings, o 1 ' making a collecliuu of 

* !x ok.; on agriculture. You) 1 lab:;u.r i ; will prove 

c exu:em-,;y advantageous to son a- d vour lu.licii- 

" LV, and vill e'.iiiance our r-'-g'tici for y-,-"j In pro- 

v portion TO the z<:al, y(/u -ii ';: 'y."' J 

Ti-ii' ib-jiety is compc-.'U.-d cf a piciidenr, \vho is 
,ha!y.;fd evci y tour rnoru't-s, md -^ au uiiioi.'icJ 
numl-ei f.*f member j. 'J lie canJi Ij:-.-^ for jJliniJi 

'!'. ; v 


are propofed by three members, and rejected or ad- 
mitted by a plurality of voices. It is fupported 
chiefiy by the voluntary ccr.trir.utions of its mem- 
bers, many of whom are diflinguifhed equally by 
fortune and rank. In the year 1789 the total num- 
ber was two hundred and eiinit. 


THE affembly fits once a week and hears effays 
fead on agriculture and the fubjects connected with 
it. Such as are judged worthy of being published, 
^re printed at the expence of the Emprefs, and the 
profits of the fale revert to the focicty. But the 
work is fold at a very cheap rate. Twelve copies 
;tre fent to the Governors of each province for dif- 
tribution. Thcie efiays are written in the Ruffian 
language, and appeared at firft under the title of 
Treatifes if the Oeconomical Society., in ten volumes, 
from the yczr 1765 till the 1775. This title has 
; ince been changed into, Continuance of Treat if es, &c. 
nnd inflead cf being publimed three times a year, a 
few volumes only arc occafionally publimed. Since 
thefc ciiav.c^.s, the fir ft volume appeared in 17/9, 
;uid the fcccnd in 1780. In 1789 there \vere ele- 
ven. The focictv difeributes premiums annually _ n 
conuilir.g of gold and Liver medals ^ or a fum of 
monfy roii'.c-t.iniCr> equivalent to fix hundred rouble., 
:.'. i;,-; : 0: S.) to thofc, who have moft ably dif- 
'i:fiv\'.l t'ii r^-iVIons. \vliichth-efociety has propofed. 



THERE arc at St Peterfburg two foundations for 
the education of the nobility. One called the Corps 
of Cadets, the other named the Convent of Your. 2 

O 1 


THE building occupied hy the Land Cadets, was 
in former times the palace of Prince Menzikoff. It 
now ftands in Vaffili-Oftrof, and is one of the mod 
beautiful edifices in St Pctcriburg. The number 
of perfons lodged there, including cadets, is at lead 
two thoufand. This inftitution is indebted to the 
Emprefs Anne and to the cour.fels of Marlhal Mu- 
nich, for its fir ft foundation : but it his been much 
improved, and its funds hive been considerably aug- 
mented by Catharine II. who may be coniidered as 
its founder. Its annual revenue is a hundred and 
thirty five thoufand roubles ( ' 50,030 ilerling) and 
has accommodation for fix hui-idi-ed, ibns of noble fa- 
milies, amono; whom, there arc lixtv bovs of inie- 

o ' 

rior rank, deftined to be the tutors of children of 
family, and here receive an education iuitable to 
their deftination. 1 he Ions of noblemen mull en- 
ter into the national icrvicc, and are ahnoic all in 
uniform; iome ot tiicni are Lkiigued ior a civil 
Sine. They are admitted at the age ci iix, 
teen years, and arc arranged hi i;vc claillis. 
are taught French, Engliili, Duich, Arhhi^^tic. 
Fortification, Taaics, Hi.'cory, Geography, l)ai.- 



ing and Muiic. Thofe, who {how a difpofition for 
ftudy, learn the Latin and Tartar languages. 

THEY are divided into a certain number of com- 
panies, and arc regularly exerciicd. In fummer 
they are encamped tor fix weeks in the neighbour- 
hood of the city. Premiums are diiiributed among 
thofe, \vho excel, either in their cxerclfes or in their 
fhidies:. Theie premiums confift of books, gold and 
{liver medals, ribbons, fears, \'c. Whoever has 
v/ori a prize r.:: tinier, travels into foreign coun- 
tries, with LI pcnfl: -n cr fix hundred roubles. 

THI-.Y are broMgh': i:p in :i very hardy manner. 
No rur cloarliing is allowed them, even in winter., 
They uie ilovcs very moderately, and are accuftom- 
nd to all kind:; cf exerciic, efpecially running and 
ieav;':ig. IvJ.r Betf^oi, \vho is the director of this 
infdriirior,, for the cdv.cation of thefe young peo- 
ple hus adopted the gyrnnaftic fvitem Lud down by 
Roullvjau in Iris Kir.ilius ; and they are fo nimblcj 
that it is a pic;- (lire to ice them perform the feats, 
which oiu* rone-dancers \vou!d no'; do better than 

' ~ 1 

f which the highcf: part is at lead 
tix icct, ;-:;cI perorni c^n this niaciiir.c every tiling, 
tli'.it we have ice;.; dene by the Afhlcys in their rid- 
.\i:g ichnol. d'iicic excrcifes give them ihe free uie 
of their bocL-s, open the cheir, and make them 
xtrorg ana active. !u the cMcrent departments of 



this houfe great attention is paid to neatncfs, and 
the young people enjoy excellent health. 

ONCH or twice every winter the cadets me per- 
nutted to give <i inrfquerade and a bail to the prin- 
cipal nobility. O t this occafion fome of the young 
ladies, at the fchool lor the daughters cf the nobles, 
are invited to dance, with the cadets of the higher 
dalles. We were preient at one cf thefe entertain- 
ments, where we remarked as much elegance and 
order as decorum. 

THE cadets alfo act a play, and fometimcs with 
more fuccefs, than the comedians of the palace. They 
fupply the female characters in a manner quite gro- 
tefque, when it is not ridiculous. Tickets for thefe 
kind of plays, are not cafiiy procured., becaufe a 
crowd always reforts thither, and the palace gentry 
engrofs them. 

THE convent for the daughters of nobles (lands 
at the extremity of the fuburbs of Alexander Noui- 
ki. The houfe is a large fquare building, which 
the Emprefs cauiecl be raifcd for a convent. Ca- 
tharine II. lus wifely employed it for the prcfent 
inftitutioii, to which flic has alTignccl an annual re- 
venue or feventy thouiar-d four 1 rand red roubles 
(/ i ^,644 iterlir:g.) It was opened in the year 
1764, for the admiilion of t\vo hundred young la- 
dies of quality, and two hundred ana tarty daugh- 
ters of cornvRoners, 


THE Emprefs ha?, fince added fifty fupernumera- 
ries, who are all daughters of nobles and called 
boarders ; and Mr Bctfkoi, the director of ail thefe 
ufeful inftitutions for education, who was at St Pe- 
terfburg during our ftay there, generoufly fupports 
forty commoners' daughters at his own expence. 
The young ladies are admitted at the age of five or 
fix, and leave fchool at eighteen. Madam Lafond 


is the manager of this houfe. She is the widow of 
an old military gentleman, born in France, and 
brought into Ruflia in the hope of making a for- 
tune there. The appointment of Madam Lafond is a 
proof that her hufband has not been difappointed of 
his expectation. It is faid this lady has many ene- 
mies, and that flie brings them on herfelf by her 

IN former times the youncr ladies, whether nobles 

* O 

or commoners, received the fame education, without 
any difference, relating to their rank and fortune. 
This plan has been very prudently changed, and 
they are now brought up in a way more fuitable to 
the lituation, they may expect in life. This is a 
wife meafure ; for furely it is a very bad prefcnt 
made to a merchant, or any other per/on of the 
clafs of burgefTes ; that of a wife brought up with 
the airs of a fine lady, who muft have a numerous 
fuite of fervants, and difdains to (loop to the do- 
sneftic affairs of her family. Whether of noble or 



plebeian birth, thefe boarders are divided into four 
elafles, diftinguifhed by the colour of their dreilss, 
whereof that of the nobles is of finer quality, than 
that of the reft. If we approved of the difference 
in the education of thefe young ladies, \vc difap- 
proved very much of the diftinclion of drefs. It is 
an infult to thofe, to whom accident has not given 
noble birth, and it may have the worft of confe- 

ALL without diftinclion are taught to read, to 
write, to cypher, and the different kinds of needle- 
work ; but the daughters of nobles by themfelves 
get lefibns of hiftory, geography, Ruflian grammar, 
and have matters for the French, German, F.nglifb. 
and Italian languages. They are alfo taught muiic, 
drawing and dancing. Inilead of thefe leilbns oif 

o o 

amufement, the commoners are trained to the care: 
of a family. They themfelves few and \vafh their 
linen, and what our youncr citizen's daughters \vi]i 

4 \^t O 

not believe, or pretend not to believe ; they arc 
taught to bake and cook. This part of educati'.;ii 
qualifies them, at their return home, f;>r the ma- 
nagement of cverv minute circumfunce connected 

O * 

with farms, where a ieniiblc \vite is io indiipenuL.'', 

END Of Til r.R^T VOLU.M . 





DURING THE YEARS 1788 & !7?<-. 

X ' - 











CHAP. I. Page t. Environs of St Petersburg. C/i-.rko-iV.- . 
jyUv.aiincnts erected, in the gardens of the p. dace in Ivi- 
nour of the Counts Oidoiis and Mr.rfhal RonunzotV. 
OraTiienlvui n, bnilt by I'.knrdkoff. Particulars rcipecd- 
irg thi.-, celebrated ni.:n, the companion and favourite i.f 
Peter I. Irnmenic influence, which he podliicd. An- 
ecdote?. MenzikofTs fail under the Peter H. 

CHAP. II. P. T -. Continuation or" part'.ctihirs rerpecl'ng 
Menzikoft". He is arreued.. Sn-ipt of die ord..rr, \vitix 
\vii'eh he is decorated. Snddn:ii cjian^e that is nr/idnictxl 
on his pe"ion. He is baniil;ed to Renneburg, and them 
to Yakon!];!, in the cxiremiiy of Siberia, lie. !> ihv 
months on tlie road. Lol'.s Ids u-ite. C'h^r.H't.'i- (.j" t'\'; 
Ludv. Mon;:ikolr \vith, i;is cv/ii ( : i:s the tjravc, iu 
which fix- is !-.;!:!. His arrival ;it l'o:-'':.h. Aiih?:;:.,. 
Huiiiiliutiun. Intereiting Ap.erdote. uh-i-dk:'! 1 - !:*"e in 
hii exi! '.. He lofes h!.- daughter. H<- dies. ii : s chil- 
dren recalli. d. "\Vii:ii becomes cd Oranienbauni aiier hij 

CHAP. I: f. P. 3;. PeterlhoiT. His gv.-dens. Me n;d id-, 
or the Dutch ikonfe. The monntnin of Hedges. Vr'-r. . 
Naritzkia's honie. Sch'.uilelburg. lliitoried ch:.d'-. 
Anecdote,. Scite of the eity. 'I hat of t]ve r^itie. !: 

M;ir:i, lifter to Peter I. "! h: C::.v':..; Y.'.:.l -: : >, ! '- . : 

CIIAr. IV. ?. j.o. Or;,;n of C.dnrh- !. Ti. 


wifh to exclude her. MenzikofPs party prevails, and Ca- 
tharine is proclaimed. Menzikoff reigns under her name.. 
Death of this princefs. Her character. Anecdotes of 
her brother. 

CHAP. VI. P. 7?. Particulars refpecling Alexis Petro- 
teitfch, fon to Eudoxia. Education of this prince'. Cha- 
racter given of him by Bruce. His manners. Imprudent 
acts. Flight to Naples. Return to Ruffia. His trial. 
Condemned to death by Peter. Tragical end of his con- 
fidents. Punifhment of Gleboff. Particulars reflecting 
Princefs Sophia, wife to the Czarowitich. Her misfor- 
tunes, and death. A fabulous itory made on her. 

CHAP. VII. P. 90. Peter III. His marriage with Ca- 
tharine. Children born of them. .Difiike at one ano- 
ther. Dependarice, in which Elizabeth keeps young Pe- 
ter. He fixes his reildence at Oranisnbaum. Regiment 


that he forms there. He prefers foreigners to Ruffians. 
Attempts to alienate Elizabeth's affection from him. Eli- 
zabeth dies. Peter afcends the throne. Exiles recalled 
from Siberia, liiren. Munich. Particulars and anecdotes 
;f this General. Leftocq. Count de Hordt. Particulars 
. pitting the latter. 

vJHAP. VUI. P. 105. Adminiffration of Peter III. He 
makes peace with the king of Prufiia. His reform. Mur- 
murs excited by them. His imprudence. Particulars of 
this Czar's priv-te life. Of Catharine his wife. Of the 
Countefs of AVer or. 7.0 ft", Peter's miftrefj. 

CHAP. IX. P. 120. Peter III. forms the plan of confining 
Catharine. A party is formed to fave this princefs, and 
raife her to the throne. She contents. The revolution 
effected. 1 he troops and ienate d< .dare in her favour. 
She is proclaimed Empixls of the Ruiiias. Irrefolution 
and pulilkinimity c-f Peter III. He wiihe;, to enter into an. 
Ills propofa's are not liftened to. He 
O'.nluuit. He is refilled admittance, 
'icates the crown, and delivers him- 
He is carried to 

; themfelves out 

He rune:, a commotion among the 



Coffacs of the Jaik. Why they are difiatisfieu. An a- 
necdote. Pugatfchew's fucceis. His hypocrify. His atro- 
cities. His marriage, lie is defeated by Prince Galitzin. 
He appears again in the country. New ravages. Death 
of the unfortunate Lowitz. Count Panin marches againft 
Pugatfchew, who is defeated. He is abandoned by his 
own men. He is executed at Mofcow. Catharine II. re- 
pairs the mifchiefs he had done. 

CHAP. XI. P. 162. Details refpecting the unfortunate 
Iwan III. He is dethroned by Elizabeth. Anecdotes. 
He is brought up in a fortrefs, and transferred from pri- 
iba to priion. At the age of fixtcen he is confined in 
SchlulTelburg. How he is treated. Elizabeth fees him, 
and converfes with him. Effect, which this interview 
has on this princefs. How Iwan is guarded at Schluffel- 
burg. Perfon of this prince. His intellectual faculties. 1 
His character. Vifit paid him by Peter III. Particulars 
of this interview. Peter mitigates his lot. He wiihes to 
reftore him his liberty. The courtiers diiTuadc him from 
this intention. 

CHAP. XII. P. 175. Mirowitfch, a Ruffian officer, form* 
the extraordinary project of delivering Iwan III. His 
motives. Means of accomplishing his clefign. He briber 
ieveral foldiers of the prince's guard. He employs force 
to win at his room. The officers cntruftecl with thr 
charge of Iwan refolve to mailacre him, rather than de- 
liver him to Mirowitfch. Imnrellion, which Iwan's corpfe 
make upon him. He furrenders himfelf a prifoner. Is 
tried and executed. Accounts refpecting Ivan's iu- 
miiy. Character and defcription of Anne, Iw.uTs mo- 
ther. Fortreffes, to which this family is fu 
ferred. Treatment, which they cxjxrk 
death. That of her hufband. Catharine 
of their children. 

CHAP XIII. P. 191. Departure from St Poterfburg on 
our way to Molcow. Preparations f^r tins jouiney. 
Highways. Villages. I'eai'.uit:)' hut.-;. Accounts ui t'r.e. 
people in the country. Their wav ot living. Poil-houle>. 
Diiliculty in procuring frelh IiorlV-s. What is the craiic 
of it. Way of obviating this inconvenience. 

CHAP. XIV. P. 2cc. Arrival ^ Novogorod. Hifrorical 
accounts of this city, It becomes u democratic republic. 


How it lofes its liberty. Defcription of this- city. Bo * 
nitza-Gorod. Views. Monaftery of Iwerfkoi. Viflmei 
Volofchok. Canal, to which this city gives its name. 
Twer. Defcriptions. Humane inftitution,s of Catharine 
II. Commodities and commerce of Twer. 

CHAP. XV. P. 217. Mofcow. Hiftory of this city. Its 
iltuation. Its population. Contrafts it prefents. Its di- 
vifions. The Kremlin. Khitai-Gorod. Beloi-Gorod. 
Zemlionoi-Gorod. The floboda or fuburbs. The Mol- 
cowa. The palace. Particular defcriptions. The churches. 
Infidc of a Greek church. Enormous bells. 

CHAP. XVI. P. 232. Religious houfes, fituatcd in the 
Kremlin. Viefnowitfhoi. St Michael the Archangel's 
cathedral. Burying place of the Czars. Grave of Iwan 
Bafilowitfch I. That of Iwan Baillowitfch II. Sove- 
reignty of the Romanoffs. Michael Federowitfch. Fc- 
clor his fon. Alexis Federowitfch, father to Peter I. 
Particulars of this prince. His clemency. His marrinoe; 

J } 

with the beautiful Natalia Cyrillowna. 

CHAP. XVII. P 247. Church of the AfTumption. Mo- 
rofoiF, Governor and Miriifter to Alexis. He receives a 
terrible lefTon from the people. Its confequences. Bu- 
rial of the Patriarchs. J:;b. Philarethes. Hiftory cf 

CHAP. XVIII. P. 257- Commerce carried on at Mellow. 
Market of houfes. Foundling holpital. Account of this 
inftitution. Monaftery of Troitikoi. Saint Sergiiis it.; 
founder. Account of this Monk. Defcription of the 
Monaftery. Tomb of Mary, Qjucen of Livonia. That 
of Boris Godonow. Account of this Prince. 

CHAP. XIX. P. 271. Departure from Mofcovi . Forefc 
of V/olkonfki. Villages. Peafants- Their cottage^." 
Roads. Polls. Vialma. Dogorobuich. ,Smolenlko. 
Defcription of this town. Lady. Tolitzin. Entrv in- 
to Poland. 

CHAP. XX. P. 280. Philofoplmal accounts of the Tart:;r 
tribes 1 abject to Ruflia, but little known. The Barfchki- 
nans. 'ITie Burattians. The C/uwachians. The Kal- 
inucs. The CofTacs. The Mongols. The Mordwans. 
The Oftiaci. The Samoietlcs. The Tunpufiar.s. 





C II A P. I, 

ixriRcxs cf Si Pcterjlurg.Czarkofelc. - Mo;;:, 
t vents i'rccL'J /;.' the gardens of tbe palace in bsilcui 
'/the Counts OH-.ffs and Murjbai Romanz^if. Ora- 
mciibaum^ built by M>sn~ik r .Jf. Particulars rcfpic'i- 
iirf this celebrated , ; /.'L7, ; ?, the companion and fj--v':;ri!e: 
if Peter 1. liiimcnfe influence ^ luhicb be p-:jj~!]'.\L 
Aiiccdoti.s.MGnziks'sall ur.der the Czar Peter IL 

'^E^"TT, iiavc, in tlic lornici vc'lurno, laid bofbrr 
v' our rea-'crs all tiic nic^l uni-orr 'i;t f.icts 
re hiujOcci v. ith the govcrnn^nt of iluiiLi, aii'l the 
diilvrv.:i)t iniatuiio:;s, \vliic :\ o\vc exiitcncc 
'to rue Peter 1. and to ihc ^.lebritcd l^ni- 
pi'Liics, \vliofuccccdcdhiin, and appeared tr. lr.\c 
.(at on the throne, iu!e!y lor t.l:j rurroie or cx- 



rcndiiig and improving the piann, which Peter had 
raily been allosved to fkctch; for the legislator, who 
hr.s rcicue.1 his country from barbarifm, and given 
it laws, with the vie\v or ciiluiing knowledge and 
civilization through ail' its parts, has been engaged 
in nothing hut a beautiful dream, if time and cir- 
cunikniiccs rcnr not a {lately and iblid edifice on the 
foundation he had laid. 

\VE arc now going to give an account of the dif- 
ferent excursions we made in the neighbourhood of 


St Petcriburg, before we took final leave of this ca- 
pita!. The places we vkked. independent of what 
has been already narrated, would be capable of gi- 
ving an advantageous idea ot the Ruffian monarchs; 
tiicfc were Czarko-felo. Oranienbaum, Peterflioff, 
and SchluiTclburg, which are fo many palaces, or 
country-houfes, whither the Czars retire to enjoy 
t \ Hi tie refpite from the toils of government, or 
fnrow off the yoke of court etiquette, equally heavy 
and fatiguing; a yoke, which in inltc of ail that 
en clone by Peter, by Catharine I. Anne, and 
rine II. to banilh it, continues yet at St Pe^ 
irilrarg what it was at the court of the proud 
( lories V. and his haughty iucccffors, who at this 
ii.iv iiavo even the arrog..uicc to make their donief- 
:::, k'.icc', w ; -.ile tiny lervc tlien:. It is not rule^- 
that cleftroy etiquette ; it is opinion, which is in- 
:''-.: n;c:k or coi:fents to be informed by reaibn. 



CZARKO-SCI o is an Imperial abr/at '. .verity 
werfts from ttt Peteriburg, and the fivouriie v II- 
dcnce of the Empreis in fummer. There ih'j lives 
in a more retired manner, than when at Pcterflioil ; 
another houfc, of which we ihall take notice in a 
little. This palace, built by Elizabeth, is of brie!; 
done over with plaifter and white ttucco. Its ion?;',!; 
is out of proportion, and its architecture is as hu.ivy 
as taftelefs. The principal pihllcrs, the front orna- 
ments, the IT allies, which fupport the cornice, ire 
of wood, as well as thofe intended to ornament ih<, 
roof. This is all guilt, and the iinin^nf: g',iiidin:.r 
jnves to the whole, not a iTrand, but dull and awk- 

O - * , 

ward appearance, \ he rooms, which ase lui'c and 
magnificent, arc furnifhcd in the old iafhion, ' 
their mapraiiccRce is equally tafrelcfs and inli^niii- 
cant. Thofe, which are more modern, and have 
been furnifhecl by the prefent r.inpnls, arc le- . 
fumptuous and clone \\-iih more taile ; l~u' ih -y di;- 
covcr the age of tlic royal proprietor, b\ i!i.- 'a/I 
of the furniture, v/Iiich has been at Icaii. thirty years 
out of date. Yx T c were fhown a \ r er\ ha:uiiomc 
B'jii<l'/:r. 1'lierc is a room richly incruiied wit'; am- 
ber, font in a prefent iroin lli-j Min;^ of Pru-i^ that: 
generally excites udminitio:i. 

O i 

Tin-: gardens of Cx/irko-felo arc in the En;.,!'!. 1 ! 
ftyle, and agreeably divv.riiH-jd b'V mca !u\vs, v.\} d 3 
and waters. Amon t , ic-vcral bridges, whicn you 

A : ircMuntb/ 


frequently meet with, you are ftruck in particular 
with the view of one built on the model of the 
bridge of Palladio, which is fo much admired in 
England, at a country feat belonging to the 1/arl of 
Pembroke. That of Czarko-felo is ftill more mag- 
nificent, becaufe the lower part is of granate, and 
the colonnades of marble. M his marble was cut and 
carved in Siberia, by an Italian artift, who wrought 
there nine years. From Siberia it was brought by 
water to St Peterfburg, and thence to Czarko-felo 
by land. 

THIS marble has then been placed in its prefent 
fituation only by force of roubles ; but this expence, 
which wouM be foolifh in a private individual, is not 
fo in an Emprefs j becaufe me difplays her munifi- 
cence, and makes money circulate among thofe, 
who acquire it oriy by the fweat of their brows, and 
furely this is much preferable to the gorging of felf- 
Ifii courtiers. 

DIVERS monuments are intcrfpcrfed through the 
gardens of Czarko-felo, and fome of them ddip-ned 

O O 

to do honour to perfons, who have diftinguHhed 
their, (elves in the fcrvice of her Majd'ty. The fuft 
of this kind is the arch erected in honour of Prince 
Orion, for havinc: cfonc to M.oico\v to check th^ 

J ^J \.j 

pi ogrcis of rLc plague, which v as then defolating 
that city j an action truly heroic, and more meri- 
Voriou::. than that of having been engaged in con- 



qucring a province. The fecond is an obJ.Hl: creel- 
ed to the glory of IVlarmal Romanzoff to perpetuate 
the memory of his victories over the Turks. The 
third is a monument dedicated to Count Alexis Or- 
Ioil,\vnh a Latir. and Ruffian engraving on brais of Jus 
celebrated victory at Tcbcfmc^ in the year i 769, which 
proved the ruin of the Ottoman fleet, committed 
to the flames by the victorious Orion 1 , to whom the 
Eniprtf-- av^ the of Tck<.fm<.njk>^ (Conquer- 
or at Tchcfme) as in ancient Rome of Africa- 
ns was ojiven to Scipio. 

Tin palace of Oranicnbaum, wlii:h \ve faw after 
Czarko irk), is fitmued on the fca coift, ll'iiily fix: 
wcrfts frt)in St Peter fourfj. Ir vva-, livll ; by "Men/i- 
kofT, when lie ei. joyed a decree r>r grandeur, at 
which a lubject ICJCKUU arrives. The origin ot tiiis 
favourite is differcntiy reported. S^nie l.iy tint lie 
was an apnreir.ue to a p.iitry cc-)];. O'Jic!^ make of 
liim a fniall-pj e-mc: ciuu .!"., t!i it \ralkcd the itrcets of 
Moicow ; ar.d tlil:i i;, tl;. 1 moil probable opinion, and 
adopted bv YvcLcr, Maftein, aiul I^ruee. According 

^ O 

to t}-.i;ie amhcirs, Peter having it^jit ro prattle with 
ycv^ing "- ci i ,zikoH', was I'D i'truck with hi, vi\ acity 
ar.d ;'-.. r.partees, that lie took him into hi, Icr- 
vicc, ;J ' .iclc him rife c'liickh to the fummit oi 
lio: ;_:-. (\i-crs ailirm that lie was 1'on tn a fer- abouL ct^urt, and tlial: accident pl:'.ccd iilm near 
the pcvfcn of tli-: .i'limcror- Pint :-\\ tlv.le tak'.-; arc 


unworthy of credit, and it was Baron" Lefort, who 
placed him with Peter. This foreigner, who had 
to combat the hatred of the Ruffian lords, who 
could not forgive him for enjoying the prince's fa- 
vour to their exciufion, and alib charged him with 
the innovations he fuggefted ; this very Lefort was 
well pleafed to have a man near the Czar, at hi* de- 
votion, who giving no offence to his enemies, could 
ferve him as a fpy, as often as his own engagements 
removed him from the Emperor. Young IVknzi- 
koff was lo much the fitter for this character, as he 
poilelled an inexhauftible fund of humour, and was 
admitted into the higheft families of Mofcow, like 
:\ fort ot buffoon, amufmg companies with burlefque 
fongs, which the courtiers were weak eneugh to re- 
peat in the very antlchambcrs of the palace. Peter 
alfo was entertained with the humour of young 
Akxafc'uka % repeated his fongs, and was accuitom- 
cd to lee him, becaufe Lefort was continually point- 
ing him out. At length he took him into his ier- 
vice, admitted him into his moft intimate confi- 
dence, which he fhareu with Lefort, till the death 
of this officer, and poiieiled alone during the life of 
the prince. 

THE fir ft date of MenzikofPs fortune was the rai- 
ling of that company of fiftv vouns; Ruffians, which 

* J * O 5 


' Als.n/-;kojT was cuilrd AU ;'.!?, cf \vhich the diminutive is Alex- 


after Lefort's plan, Peter clothed, armed, and diicu 
plined after the German manner, and which after- 
wards became the regiment of guards, called Prco- 
bafchcnfkoi. Lefort, who was colonel of this com- 
pany, made Menzikoff be admitted into it, and fooij 
after his admiillon, made him go through his excr- 
cife under the prince's windows, who was charmed 
with him, and from that moment f \vore he would 
attach him to himfelf. It rnuft be remarked, that 
the prince, who formed this resolution, was only 
fifteen years of age, and cxprcilcd no wiihcs, but 
thofe inipircd by Lefort, who for the happinefs ot 
the Ruffians, was a man endowed with the rareii 
qualities, and worthy of modelling the prince, after 
whom fo many other- ought to copy. AY hat tend- 
ed moil to confirm Peter's attachment to Mcn/.i- 
koil", was the conformity of age, and the pallive de- 
votion of the latter for his mailer; for McnzikotV 
then and ever after, diitinguifhcd himfelf always in 
the zeal, with which he proceeded to whatever 
could plcafc the Czar. In his plans of reform ci 
pccially, he itlibrdcd him tlie grcateft ailiftar.ce, eitlic; 
by taking the execution upon himtelr, or removing 
mcli obRaclcs, as might thwart them, which thr 
.Covards, attached to tlicir oli prqudicc>, ton; . 
means to raife up; or by kindly receiving aiki e 
refiing, cfpccially under tiic eyes of his, :. ; i 


foreigners, whom this had drawn to his court, 
and Menzikoff had the addrefs to fix there. 

FROM the moment that he had been placed by 
Peter, MenzikofT, by the advice of Lefort, had ap- 
plied himiUf to itudy his mailer's character, to bend 
himfelf to it \vithcut referve, and to bear without a 
murmur, not only the diiagreeabie {allies of Peter's 
violent and impetuous temper, but even patiently 
endure the word: of treatment. Ills obcd'ence there- 
fore w:i.5 always that of a devoted Have, who joins 
the DiOi'i ripid punctuality to the moft literal execu- 
tion of the orders he receive:. Even the oiiice of 
lian^ he did not decline, when Peter ordered 
him to ciifcliarge it. at the time of the rebellion of 
the Strclitz, in the year 1608. In Peter's prefencc, 
JVLr.'>:ikoil cut off the heads of twenty of the prin- 
cipal confpirators, and reckoned it an honourable 
oillce. Peter quoted him, as an example worthy 
of imitation, to the Bayards, who refilled to afiiit at 
thcfe executions. 

MENZIKOFF by his ability as a (htcfnvm and war- 
ricur ; 5 l!c, won the confidence and eileem of Pe= 
ter. jjuniig the campaign 1695, he was always ':-.t. 
I-- li ;; : ".r.d ;:{Iifial the prince ^rcatiy in the con- 
f[u-ju oi' Axofr'. In the }'car 16^7 lie fivcd his life. 
>ome Rufiian 'C^rJs and hm;uic prieftj had formed 
a confpiricy r^.unft tiie Czar. Tvlenzikoff in dif^ 
^uifc ii.'.cl ir.iroduccd hi mi elf ainon^ the ccnipira- 


tors. He finds means of withdrawing hiinfclf with- 


out beingr noticed, o'oes and calls on Peter, \vho is 

v 3 7 O ' 

at Lefort's, amufing him '.elf, informs him of the 
irifk he runs, ami of the place where the confpira- 
tors are ailembied Peter goes th'ther in force and 
furpriies them, caufes them be executed, and returns 
to his amufement. 

MENZII:CH-F accompanied Peter on tliefe travels, on 
which ib manx truths and ialiehoods have been writ- 
ten, and was made a prince of the Holy Empire in the 
year 1706: from that time he rcfe rapidly to the 
iirft dignities of the civil and Military orders. On 
ibme occallons lie was even permitted to rcprefent 
his Sovereign, by giving public audiences to 
iadors, whiUt Peter, di.fdaining the pageantry of 
royalty, appeared, in his train 3ike a plain individu- 
al. In fliort the afcendancy, which this iavouritc 
l.iad acquired over the Emperor, which Catliarine fup- 
ported wivh all her influence, was carried ib far., 
that it was believed among- the weak, credulous 
Ruffians, that r.lenzlkoff had tiirowii a ipeil over 
the mind of his nr.iil-r. 

IT is a Kiel th^.t this iavoiul^c incurred; thr Cbcar':^ 
rofentmr.nt twenty time:., and. as or en cibiiod it 
wiih a i).n;j;le \vord. He ie' ;:o I:c M in \\\^ h.inJ*: 
t!ie fprinu's, which mov,--l this lie''y but elevated 
ioul. One da Lite Czar ;h;v- h -i.:,l to ruin him. 

Yen ';'//, Fztt'r, v'.ut ;. '- }'--- -- : ^ - -'- te inniier 
VOL. II B ty 


to him. Ten will dcftro-j yciir own work, and thfo 
expreilion appeafed the Czar. Yet when Peter 
re turned from his campaign in Perfia, MenzikofF 7 
who was riot ignorant of the juft grounds of 
complaint::, that had been formed againft him, fell 
from an exccfs of boldncfs and fecurity, into def- 
ipondency and delpair, and., for this once, he thought 
himfelf undone. He did not fhow himfelf before 
the Kmpercr at the time of his arrival at St Peterf- 
buig; He continued in his palace on the banks of 
the Neva, pretending bad health; and either to fup- 
port his excufes, or becaufe fear and unealmeis had 
really made him ilck, he was in- bed, when the 
Czar's vifit was announced to him, and this re- 
doubled his fears. The Prince had croiTed the Neva, 
had come without any attendants and without gi- 
ving MenzikofF any notice of his coming. He fat 
down on the bollljr of his bed. MenzikofF did 
not diflcmble that his real diftrefs was the mortal 
j.nruifh, into which his mafter's refentment, which 


he had dcferved, was throwing him. He did not 
attempt to excuic Iiinii-jif, he confcficd himfelf cri- 
jninr.l, and appeared only to wait for the fevereil 
du l.ilenient. This confcllion aiTeclcd Peter, who 
bclitics had undoubtedly taken Lis refolution, when 
r.e ucicrmincd to viiit liiin, whom he might have 
puniiiic-l. Alexafcbka^ iaid he to him in a friendly 
tone, r.:ke courage, )-oti have committed a great 



fault, you have almoft ruined my country ; but i 
cannot forget that you have laved it, and that 1 am 
indebted to you for my life and my empire. 

NOTWITHSTANDING all this, after the affair of 
Stettin, Menzikoff thought he was on the point of 
receiving the chaftifement. which hi* conduct on 

O ~ 

that occalion had juftly merited j but th-e danger he 
had then brought kimfelf into was a ground of hu- 
miliation for his enemies. The following is the 
fact. In the year 171; he was befieging Stettin, 
the capital of Pomeriana, and was on the eve of ta- 
king it, when feduced by the intrigues of Baron. 
Goerts, particularly by * four hundred thouf.tud 
livres which he received, lie confented to deliver 
up this place to the King of PrulTia, Frederick Wil- 
liam I. upon fome vain promifcs, that were never re- 
alifed. Stettin fmce that time, has remained in the 
poffeflion of PruiTia, and the country,, which it com- 
mands, is the moft beautiful part of Pomcriani 
Peter was irritated, and PvIenzikofF, who was not 
ignorant of this, but knew the character of" his mat- 
ter, formed a very lingular plan of defence, and 
when he came home obferved a line of con dud itiij 
more extraordinary. He retired to hi.; pal ice, ;md 
went not to court. The C/.ir made him be nike I, 
why he came not thither; lie anfwered proudly, 
that it was not the practice for perfons, who return- 
ed home, to make the fir it vilit. Peter more pro- 

B 2 voked 


voked than ever, collected fome Ruffian Lords known 
to be enemies to Menzikoff, bid them follow him, 
telling tlrjm that they were now to fee. if he knew 
how to humble a guilty and infolent fubject. He 
goes to iMonzikofPs houfe, loads him with reproach- 
es, behaving with all the violence of which he was 
mailer, being ah n oft ready to beat him. MenzikofF 
intreats him to be kind enough to hear him in pri- 
vate; and wiih great difficulty obtains a hearing. He 
paffes into a in. all room, and then afFurnes a ilrmer 
tone. Tov. love ^lory^ fays he, and 1 thought Ivuasfcr- 
'uing you. Char'ea^ yittr rival has given kingdoms ; I 
ii-amzd ycu to do greater thing.'; than Claries, and cm 
of your fubjecfs to give aicay provinces an honour, 
which nciitr happened to ar.y prin<:<^ but you- Is not 
this much more 'valuable than a poflcjfionfe d-flant from 
your dominion,^ uhicb you -uould hot have bc^,i able to 
keep? Peter, naturally ilruck v\iih whatever was 
great, (yet this v/as only 'c) was very much 
aflonifhed at ar.fwer, and after the fir 11: impref- 
frm, JMenzikofl hid no difficulty in perfuading him 
of whatever he ciiofe. The Cznr went out, hold- 
ing him by tac hand, in the fight of all thofe, who 
were cxpeel'np- a very different fpectade. Mcnzi- 
k^ff. ti-iurr:p]iant, accompanied his mafter to the 
-% Vvhich was waiting for him on the Neva, 
vnt on board alone. Then Menzikoff gave 
_or^, thit all thofc-j who had come to be witnci- 


fes of his humiliation, mould attend him back to 
Iiisl edging; an honour they owed to tho man, who 
was the fir ft in the empire next to the Czar. None 
durft refute, bccaule they were afraid of his power, 
and ftill more of his vengeance, which was terrible. 
It was that of a courtier, who durit aitempt any- 
thing whatever. 

AT the death of Peter I. IMenzikofPs power be- 
came flill more unlimited. Catharine I. who owed 
her elevation to the throne, to the intrigues, and 
activity of this minillcr, out of gratitude gave up 
to him the reins of her empire, and was only oiten- 
fible fovcreign, while it was Menzikoif alone, who 
reigned in reality, and at his plcaiure. His authori- 
ty therefore continued good till the death of Catha- 
rine, who with a view to confirm it more, ;ave or- 

' " O 

ders in her will that Peter II. her iucceilor, (hould 
marry MenzikofF's daughter. Is not this cl.iuie a 
complete r,roo: of the favourite's aicendant over his 
miflrels, art! alib of her gratitude? 

BUT hc;:\ j ?n ordered tb.irgs quite otherwiie. The 
intrigues, ckij:ori;Vn, arrogarcj, and difreipecttul 
conclud of IMenzikofTtowards Pctt-r II. changed the 
.fare ot uda-rs, and hurled la'ounie irom tn^ 
funimit of greatnefs into tiie molt abject humilia- 
tion. The clrcuinfianccs ot hia dilgrace are rc'Lited 
in Mar.liein's memoirs, a \\trk ot ionie character, 
to Vv'liic.h its accuracy and impartiality will entitle 



it. Yet we think we will do an office acceptable to 
our readers if we lay before them a particular ac- 
count of the different caufes, which operated the 
downfal of this celebrated man, and of the engines, 
which his enemies put into motion, in order to ac- 
complifh it. 

PRINCE Dolgorouki and Count Oflermann were 
the implacable enemies of Menzikoff. Both of them 
employed all the manoeuvres of intrigue for the pur- 
pofe of ruining him, and their fuccefs was the great- 
er, as Menzikoff did not at all fufpect them. Dol- 
gorouki, in particular, to much cunning joined a 
degree of diffimulation, of which Menzikoff did 
not think him capable; and Count Oftermann, from 
the time that he quarrelled with this minifter in 
council, affected to wifh to live retired, from pub- 
lic affairs. Menzikoff had taken young Peter to Pe- 
terfhoff, to give him a few days amufement in hunt- 
ing, or rather to keep him entirely in his power. 
Count Oftermann being informed of this excurfion, 
confidered it the mod favourable conjuncture, he 
could wifh, for the execution of the plot he had 
laid for overthrowing Menzikoff. He waited on all 
the fenators and principal officers of the Guards, 
difclofed to them his intentions, and found them 
animated with fentiments exactly correfpondent to 
his own. Every one of them faid, he was ready to 
facrifice his fortune and life to rid his country of 



fuch an odious tyrant, as MenzikofF. He then pre- 
fcribed the rule of conduct they were to obferve. 
He had taken care to advife Prince Dolgrouki of 
his meafures, and fuccefs. He had given him to 
underftand that if he and his fon were fuccefsful in 
preventing the marriage, which the Emperor was 
on the way of being forced to conclude, the lead 
recompenfe Dolgorouki might expect: was, to fee 
his own daughter occupy the place of Menzikoff's. 
Ofterman added, " that he knew it was the object of 
his ambition, and it only depended on himfelf, to fee it 
fuccefsful with fo much the more eafc, as it -~jjas the iuijl> 
of the nation, and as his illujlrious birth rendered his 
prctcnfions as legitimate as renfonable." The Dolgo- 
rouki are one of the firft families of the Empire, 
and are fprung from that Wolodimer, who invited 
the followers of Chrift into his country. 

WHETHER Count Oftermann fpokc fmcerely or 
not to Prince Dolgorouki, his words had the eilecr 
he wifhed and expected. The hitter flattered with 
the hopes of feeing his daughter railed to the throne 
of Ruflia, promifed to do every thing required cf 
him. The fole difficulty now coniiiled in engaging 
the Czar to efcape from the vigilance d Menzikoir, 
who did not allow him to remain i moment ei:<: 
of his fight. Youno; Dolcrorouki was iixcJ on 

o o u 

to make the propofai to Peter. lie was thv 
Czar's cnly companion in his amufement-, the 01;. 



ly confident of his forrows, and flept every night 
in the fame room with him. This intimacy gave 
him an opportunity of knowing the young mo- 
narch's difpolit;cn towards MenzikofF. Young 
Dolgorouki promifecl to deliver the prince into the 
hands of the Senate, and in the execution of this 
plan difplayed the prudence, which is generally the 
fruit only of age matured by experience. He con- 
certed mcafures with Oftermann, who on his part 
acted with fo much addrefs, that the ienate was to 
be ailembled, as it were by accident, at fome dif- 
tance from Petermoff. When the night appointed 
for putting the plot in execution was come, young 
Dolgorcuki feeing that all was quiet, came to the 
Emperor's bed fide, and propofcd to him to deliver 
hitm'<:ji, by a ioeedy flight, from the flavery, in 
which ivLcr.zlkGiI kept him. Peter, who was un- 
doubtedly already prepared to take this ftep, dreffed 
himf ;i; in liaile, went out at a window aloncr with 

J O 

his favourite, and fiey together eroded the garden 
by favour oi the daikiicU. <So foon as they got on 
the outjidc of the wall, tney \^'erc received by a great 
r.uiiiber of liobicinen, \vlio were v/.iiling for them, 
an-. I by v. horn they were conducted to the place, 
v.-1-ere the fer.ute WAS a^icinbled. Without topping 
to cL-ibcr^ve, they let out flrj.ight for St Peterf- 
hurj:, \:\ ;;r,':- ;.o be at the greater^ diltance from 



C li A P. II. 

CONTINUATION of particulars rcfpccl'mg Menzikoff. 

He is arrejhd. -Jlript cf the orders ivith ivbich he is 
'decorated. Sr.dden change that is produced on his 
per/In. PL' is banifoed to Renneburg, and thence 
to Takou/ha^ in the cx1 remit] 1 of Siberia. He isjii'j 
vnnths on the read. Lofts his i-'tfe. Character of 
this Lady.MuxzHtifr' with bis our. bands di^s ib* 
"rave, in luhieb f!:-e is laid. His arrival at Tcboifi. 

c - ^ 

4 ft" j 77 ' ' ' ' " ' ' 'l ' /* 3 / 

AJfronts.~Humhiatkn.--lnterfling Anecdote. 
MenziLo>rs Hfc In bis eulc.He lofcs his daughter- 

JLJ J ^ O 

!& dies. His children recalled. What Isumc* 
of OranicnbaiU'i afdr his dll^rua\ 

NEXT cliy, Vv'hcii the iLi'vants enU.rcd into tlic: 
chamber oF the piince, ui:d f.i\\- lie h.ul in.iJe !:i: 
'jfcapc, they MHI to inlonn \\\c niiniilcr, v.'lio V.M-? 
yet bv.ricd in iLcp, P.y I 1 . is piece of i>:\v-, he 
(earned tlic danger, \vh:ch liire.itcncd him, anl con- 
tinued fometimc, a^ it \verc, ovcrpo\vcr.:d \vit!i 
he blow he had received. Fii; hop^s !>.o\vever li3 :-ix 
revived., beautie he thought !-.c ilill h ij ii;:r,c iricnds. 
llo\v eouniers iii)p;>:e c"n tlic.ntllvj.s ' !le roij 
vnd let out irnuicd.iauJ;. ior St IV . t..j i!,'i;i -7. Inia^i- 
!;in^ t'ic power w-; yet in his h.inJ-. lie v/.i ir..;JI- 
tAtin-- the moO: crud venrreur-cs j'T-iiuft tlioic. \\-lio 

o , '- 

had Buried o?F the meinerJ: ; l?ei r^cilurcs \vcrc 
Voi , H- C toe 


too well taken, and his ruin too Cure. Wien he 
wiihed to go to the palace, he faw the guard was 
thungcd, and the gamibn \vas under arms. He 
continued to advance, but was repulfed with me- 
r.ace^. Then allured of his deftruction, he turned 
towards his own palace, but no more found on his 
\v.\y that crowd of courtiers, who had been accuf- 
1'cr.ied to furrounu him. The ftorm had already 
difperfed them, as it difperfes timid doves ; and 
icarcdy had he entered his hotel, when he faw hirn- 
iu /rounded with grenadiers. The officer, who 
coin in uncled them, advanced, and ordered him to 
!;; -irrelted in the name of the Emperor. He ima- 
gined, what is cuifomary with all difcarded favour- 
ites, that if he faw his fovereign, he might again 
get into favour, and recover his authority ; but 
the anfv.'er he received, was an order to depart. 
for Renrebu/'jC- This \^ r as a confiderable cflate that 
b-*l'vjged to iii-nfclf. This order deprived him of 
all hopej, and {l\v r cc' the certainty of his ruin. He 
in "lie mid it of his grief, exclaimed : / havs commit- 
i'jd grcii crimes. _ ////.' i.<, It t'.ic Emperor's part to punijh 
?rrj fir tl.'tm? TL r -fe words were remarked by all who 
v, .'re prefer t, :inc! conjoined the fafbicioiis he was un- 
der re r 'rcti ig r he de uh : f CJ'.tharlne I. Some refpecl 
w;is {j'ov.-n to hi;r, that day. The ofliccr who was 
ap/rnj eu to r<v<\ lii;n, tol.l him that the Emperor 
give hi::i periniilion to curry with him his moft va- 


In-able effects, and to be attended by as great a num- 
ber of fervants as he chofe. He was imprudent e- 
nough to wilh to difplay before the public eye, a 
pomp, which was unbecoming his prefent, and would 
have been unlupportable in every other iituation. 
He fpent the reft of the day in making preparations 
for his journey. He was carried off next day at 
noon, in order to gratify the people with the fight 
of his humiliation. Some even fay, that he himfelf 
wiflied to fet out at this hour, bcc.uife he thought 
the fympathy of the fpeclators would reach the mo- 
narch. His outfet refembled a pompous procefiion, 
rather than the departure of a man c'iJgraced. lie 
and his family were in one of the moll fplendid car- 
riages. His other carriages, of which the number 
was confiderable, followed him. His baggage, fer- 
vants, and horfes formed a numerous train. 11: 
affected to falute all, who were in the windows, on 
the right and left hand. If, in the croud of people, 
that flocked about him, he noticed any perkm whom, 
he had occafion to know, he named him, and b.n.L- 
him farcwel. 

Tins pompoufnefs which Mcnzikofi had aiiectcd 
even in his difgrace, gave too great a, {vantage to 
his enemies, for them not to profit by it. To the 
view of the young monarch, they repreicnred him 
as an ambitious man, whom nothing could humble; 
who, when proftratc on the ground, defied the arm 

C : thai 


that had but overthrown him. They provoked the 
refentment of a young man, and it will be eafily be- 
lieved, they had little difficulty in raifmg it. Be- 
fides, Peter hated Menzikoff too bitterly, not to lif- 
ten to and follow the counfels, which tended to ruin 
him. lie difpatched a fecond detachment of grena- 
diers after him, and ordered the commanding offi- 
cer to ftrip him of the badges of the orders of Ruf- 
fia, and even of thofe which he had received from 
foreign powers* At this act of degradation, Men- 
zikofF became a new man. His ambition and vani- 
ty left him. He appeared to be ftript of thefe as if 
he had been relieved from cords, with which he 
had been bound ; and becoming all at once as hum- 
ble as firm, he appeared only a philofopher, ready 
to brave the vicifTitudes of tortune. He anfwcred 

tbat tbc firji ad of ;;/>' 

IJoould have had the 

\vhich the officer had received, did not re it there. 
lie told him, he mu ft alight from, iiis co-vch, wiih 
his wife and cliiidren, and in waggons \\hich 
he had brought for the purpofe. 7 c.m prepared for 
C'ccry ibingj Menzikoff again replied ; execute the or- 
ders ihat hai-c bien given you. c i be more you take from 
'>!:?, the f:i : :cr cauf>:s of uncafincfs you will leave me. I 



only pity ibofe, <who are to profit by tbcfef polls. He a- 
lighted from his coach, and mounted into a little 
waggon, with a tranquillity, wliich equally attonifli- 
ed and affected all prefent. His wife and children 
mounted into other waggons. His equipage and 
fervants were taken back to St Peteriburg, and 
Menzikoff continued his route, without having the 
confolation of converting with his wife and children. 
When accident gave him an opportunity of (being 
them, he exhorted them to yield to the ftorm with- 
out defponding. The refignation infpired by philo- 
fophy and ioiind religious morality, which differ 
very little from one another, is of the greateit fer- 
vice in clifgraces, and furnifhed him with fentiments 
calculated to confirm the courage of thefe unfortu- 
nate companions of his fuffering. 

IN this way did Menzikoff arrive at Renneburg, 
which was rather a city than a village. The caftle 
was magnificent. He had built fortifications, which 
rendered it capable of defence, and he had eftablifh- 
ed n market or fair, which was held every year in 
the month of June. r i hither the Turtars, the C'of- 
facs, &C. brought commodities of 3,11 kinds. Men- 
zikoff, in his dignity, feaftcd himfelf with the plea- 
lure of i>:;ui'rig there a philoibphical life. Although 
removed iroci court the diltance of a thoufand 
xvcr'ts, ]\>". Hill appeared to his enemies, to be too 
near. They apprehended every thnng from his in- 




trigucs, and the creatures he had made. Their jea- 
loufy rofe fo high, that they advifed the Czar to 
banifh him to Yakoufka, which is in the extremity 
of Siberia, and more than fix hundred wentb from 
the capital. He was allowed to take with him only 
eight fervants. Before his departure, he was itnpt 
of his clothes, and equipped in fuch a di-efs as the 
Ruffian peafants wear. His wife and his children 
were not treated with more delicacy. They were 
obliged to aflume the fame drefs. Their gowns 
were of coarfe fluff, covered with a pcliiTe. For a 
head-drefs they had caps of meep-fkin. Princefs 
Menzikoff, born with a delicate constitution, and 
accuftomcd to all the conveniencies and advantages 
of opulence, ibon funk under trouble and fatigue. 
She died on the road in the neighbourhood of Ka- 
fan. Her hufoand had the courage and refolution 
to exhort her to meet death, and fhe expired in his 
arms. This Separation plunged him into the bitter- 
eft forrow. In a beloved wife, for whom he had al- 
ways poffeffed a friendfhip mixed with efteem, he 
loft his fwceteft confolation. Natalia Arfenieff (this 
was her name) was defcended of an illuftrious fami- 
ly in Ruflia. Her beauty attracted the eyes of 
all, and her virtue, which had prefervcd itlelf un- 
fullied by the corruption of courts, and from the 
pride, which the {plendor of her fortune might in- 
fpirc, procured her the efteem of all who knew her. 



Her memory is revered by the Ruffians. Her filler 
Barbara Arfenieff, who was us arrogant as Natalia 
was modeft, contributed not a little to the difgrace 
of her brother-in-law, by offending fome of the beft 
families of St Peterfburg by her haughtinefs and in- 
folence. Far from reproving her, the imprudent 
Men zikofl" applauded her pride. He even anfwered 
Catharine I. who fometimes complained of her, 
that his fifter-in-law was a model of greatnefs of 
foul. How grofsly was he miftaken ? Let us re- 
turn to his unfortunate wife. 

MENZIKOFF himfelf was obliged to perform the lad 
offices to her. With his own hinds he dug the grave, 
in which he hid her. It was in the very phcc, where 
flie died. Scarcely did they give him time to fhed 
tears over the grave of his unfortunate wife ; they 
forced liim to continue his route to Tobolik, the 
capital of Siberia. The news of his approach had 
arrived before him, and the people there were wait- 
ing with impatience for the light of a man in chains 
and degradation, under whole nod all RuiTia treni- 


bled but a fliort time before. On his arrival at this 
city, he was ftruck with the appearance ot t\vo Rul- 
lir.n lords, who had been baniilied thi-iv during hi> 
adminiftration. They had cc-me out to meet iiin., 
and loaded him with abuie, while he \\-as cro;:ir:c; 
the city on his way to the prlion. Far f:\un ex- 
urefiinsr anv rcfcntracnt, he i'.iid fo one or them : 

r o 


Tour reproaches are juji I have deferred them. Gra* 
tify yourfd'jcs, Jince you can get no other revenge on me 
in the flat 'e, in which I am. I facrificed you to my poli- 
cy, only becaufe your virtue and character 'were offen- 
five to me. Turning to the other, he faid to him \ 
I was altogether ignorant of you being in thcfe places, 
Do not impute to me your misfortune. Doubtlefs you 
have hadfomc enemies about me, who have taken me 
unawares, and obtained the order for your banifhment, 
I have often afked why I did not fee you. I received e~ 
vafive anfwers, and I was too much occupied with pu- 
blic bufincfs to think on the affairs of individuals. 
However if you think that names will in any degree al~ 
leviatc your fujfering, you may load me with them. 

A THIRD exile burft through the croud, and by 
n. refinement of vengeance, covered the faces of 
Menzikoff and his daughters with mud. Ah! it is 
at me, cried the father, overcome with forrow, // is 
at me you ought to throw it, not at thefc unfortunate 
creatures, who have done you no harm. 

THE Governor, by Peter's orders, lent to him in 
his prifon, five hundred roubles, to anfsver the de- 
mands of himfelf and his family. The unfortunate 
Menxikoff obtained leave to expend them in the 
purcluifc of whatever might be moil neceflary for 
him in the place of his banifhment, to enable h'm 
to iupport the frightful mifery, which was await- 
ing him, This precaution wns t;\ken for the com- 



fort of his children alone. For his own part, he was 
entirely rcfigned to the will of the Supreme Being, 
who fupports in his difgracc, the man, who is capable 
of forgetting it, fo far as it refpeds his fortune; but 
he could not, without fhuddenng, look at the de- 
plorable hue of the unhappy victims of his faults. He 
bought f.i\vr, hatchets, and implements for cultiva- 
ting the Ground. He provided crrain of all kinds, 

w> ^J i. O 

and lilt meats, for the fubfiricnce of his family, till 
the habitation lie \vas going to poilcfs, mould be 
brought into a ik nation fit for fupplying their 
wants. lie alfo furniflicd himfclf with nets foe 
Miing, and when all thefe purchafes were made, 
he begged that the remainder of the money might 
be distributed among the poor people of that quarter, 

THE ipacc allowed him for ftaying at Tobolfk be- > 
iiiir expired, he \vas ordered to let out with his un- 

O * 

fortunate family. They were put into a waggon 
without a cover, which was drawn only by one 
horie. fornetimes by dogs. They were fix months 
on their way from Tobolilv to Yak^uika, and du- 
ring this long and paintui journey, tiuy were ex- 
pou-u to all the inclomci^'ics of thj external air, 
which is cxtr-jmely coid iu tlu'll 1 climates; yet the 
heahh of none of liiem relieved ar/v i;v,ury. 

SOME davs before he arrived at 21.v'..v/^/, he met 
with an occurrence which produced in him the 
higlieit emotion, and ivca'lcd llic bitter rcmem- 

VOL. 11. D brancf 


br.mcc of his J.iigrace. ] le and his family had alight- 
ed at the cottage of a Siberian pcafant to take fome 
rcpofc, when lie obfcrvcd an officer of his acquain- 
tance come in. lie was returning from Kamfchatka, 
where lie had been lent under the reign of Peter I 
with a commiflion relative to the difcoveries, which 
Captain Bering had been fent to make on the fea of 
Amur. This officer had ferved under MenzikofF, 
Vvho recollected him at once, and ialuted him by 
his name. The officer furprifed to hear himfelf na- 
vued in a country fo diflant, afked how he knew 
him, and who he was himfelf. lam Alxandcr, re% 
plied he, / Tcv/.r <Lvry h'tcly Prince Mcnzikoff. The 
oflicer had left him at the court of Ruilla, in fucli 
n elevated and brilliant fituation, that it appeared 
tv> him beyond all probability that it really was 
MenzikofF, whom he met in fuch a ftate of abjec- 
tion. It fecmed more natural to think, that it was 
"ome pcaihnt deprived of his reaibn. To undeceive 
Mii: 1 , r\lenzikofi ; took him to a kind of window, which 
let in 3 little: light into the cottage. The ofiicer 
c ondcVrcd him for ibme time with an attention 
rvix-.V- wit'; aftoniihment ; and at lail thinking he 
recoiieaed ii'nr, exclaimed quite confounded; Ah~. 
my D.:;;- Prince, l'i ishiit fcriis if misfortunes has 
^i>r tlighnefs fallen, inlo tl:e deplorable flate^ in which 
I fee you* Lei us fupcrjldc ////V,r, interrupted Menzi* 
,//"' 1 b.ive already told you mj name is Alexander. 



The officer, quite uncertain ftill, obferving in the 
corner a young man tying the fole of his boots with 
cords, faid to him in a low tone, and pointing to 
Mcnzikoit'j ir/.w -s that cxir.mrJifiary wi ? his A- 
le zander, /v/y father, replied tiie young man aloud ; 
Jhould you, iuhi arc under fo many oLH^ti'.ns /-, ;?<> not 
kno\n hj in our misfortune? Menzikofi, umv.iy to hear 
his fon cinfwer with ib much pride, ordered him to 
be ii.!cnt. Excufi) laid he, ib>: rudcn-:ft r f ibis *;oung 
man's humour : it is be, whom in bis infancy \^u ifjfgi:- 
cd to carcfs and dandle in your arms ; tbcfe are /.'/. 
jlflers, tbcfc arc my daughters. \Vhilc uttering tliele 
words he mowed the oilicer two vouucr women. 

* O 

drciled like country girls, fitting at a table, and 
loaking ibaie cruils of black coirib bread with milk 
in a wooden bowl. 7/vV one, adJ.e.l be, Jjad tin* 
honour t,f being bclrclbcd to Pcler II. cur Emperor. 

Tins conversation and Iccnc you may w*.!l be- 
lieve, produced great aflonimment in the oiiice: 
\vho heard and fiw them, but tlic name or T'^rcr i! 
excited in him new iurprho. Having been i',rari:- 
cd from Rufjf!i l;-y >n imnienie ciittanee for !our \ ear- , 
he was in the moil abfolute c-i all the e- 
vents, Vvliich had clianged the face ot tl^; ei;;rhv 
Menzikofi vlated them .J:, begini.inp; \vith t;j; 
death of Peter I. and end ing with \'e.^ own ! \mlih 
ment. He announced to him, that he woui-.l fi;\! 
Dolgor.ouki and Oftcrmann it the head of the 


vernment. You may tell them, added he, in what 
aftatc you met me. Their hatred wilt be flaitered with 
it. But a (Jure them^ that my foul is more free and calm 
ihqn their;, and than it ever was in the time of my pro* 
fp.erity. Perhaps he faid nothing, which was not very 
true, atleaft his external appearance did not contradict 
his fentiments. The officer could not fee nor hear 
him without being much affected. With his tears he 
watered the hands of his old General, who was 
not a little moved with them, but fhed none. He 
faw Menzikoff again mount his dull waggon, in the 
rnoft deliberate manner, and for a long time, follow- 
ed him with his eyes, uncertain whether he mould 
pity or admire him moft. 

WHEN arrived at the place of his exile, Menzi- 
koff occupied himfelf with the cares of providing 
for the wants of his children, and taking the pre- 
cautions neceflary to diminifh the horror of their 
banifliment. He began with clearing a pretty large 
fpace of ground, affifted by the eight fervants, who 
had accompanied him. He fowed fome feeds, which 
gradually furniilied his family with pulfe, thought 
on enlarging the cottage deftined for him, and fell- 
ed trees for building. His example encouraged his 
domcflics, and in a mort time he had constructed a 
houfe, large enough to lodge his children and atten- 
dants. This houfe confifted of an oratory and four 
rooms, of which he vook the lirft to himfelf ar;4 



liis fon, the fecond was occupied by his daughters, 
the third was allotted for his fervants, and the 
fourth was kept as a (lore- room. His daughter who 
had been betrothed to Peter II. who was to have 
been the Czarina, and reign over all the Ruflias, 
undertook the charge of the kitchen; and the other 

O ' 

daughter that of in ending the clothes and warning 
the linen. Each of them was afiifted by two fcrvants, 
who did the hardeft part of the work. Soon after his 
arrival, there were brought him a bull, four cows big 
with calf, a ram, and fome ewes, top-ether with "Teat 

* * O O 

number of fowls to form a poultry yard. Menzikoff 
could not imagine to whom he was indebted for this 
favour, for during his profperity he had not had the 
prudence to make a friend, who could relieve him 
in his diftrels. His children enquired when they 
returned to bt Peterfburg, but in vain. They learn- 
ed only that this preient had come acrofs the deferts 
from Tobolik, 

EVERY morning the family repaired to the ora- 
tory, where Menzikoff faid prayers, lie renewed 
them at noon, evening and midnight. Misfortunes 
had made him devout, and hi.s example, more thun 
liis orders, attracted every body to this pious exercife. 
Tiie iweets of (olitudc had driven pallions from his 
mind, and efhblimed tranquillity there, but it wa> 
fomctim.cs diibrderod by remorle, and the for row 



of feeing his children involved in misfortunes, of 
which he was the caufe. 

SCARCELY fix months had elapfed fmce he came 
into this defert, when his oldeft daughter was at- 
tacked with the fmall pox. He aclcd to her as 
nurfe and phyfician. He had recourfe to all the re- 
medies he thought would prove falutary, but thefe, 
as w r ell as all his cares were unavailing. His daughter 
every day was drawing nearer and nearer her end. 
He then quitted the oflice of phyfician, to aflume 
that of priclt, and encouraged her to meet death 
with fortitude. She fubmitted to it with that firm- 
nefs, which fufferings and religion impart, and ex- 
pired in the arms of her father. As foon as fhe was 
dead, he fixed his countenance ftedfaftly on her's, 
and watered it with his tears ; then mowing him- 
felf fuperior to grief, he faid to his two remaining 
children; learn df your ffter bo-iv to die. Afterwards 
in the middle of his fervants he chanted the pray- 
ers, which the Greek Ritual has appointed for the 
dead, repeated them feveral times during the twen- 
ty four hours, caufcd her be buried in the oratory, 
which he built, and marked to his children the 
place, where he himfelf wiflicd to be interred. It 
was at her fide. His fon and his furviving daugh- 
ter were leizcd with the fame difeafe, and at the 
fame time. He was multiplied, fo to fpeak, gave 
them the fame affiftance, he had given to her, whom 



he had fo recently loft, but with more fucccfs, and 
they both foon recovered their health. 

AT laft forrows, {till more than fatigue gradually 
undermined the health of Mcnzikoil". They were 
the more poignant, that he confined them all with- 
in himfelf, and mowed nothing but iirmncfs before 
his children, to prevent them from difcovering all 
the horror of their fituation. He funk under his 
fufTerings, was feizcd with a flow fever, which be- 
came the more dangerous, that he braved it tor 
fome time with a view to conceal from his fon and 
daughter the ftate, in which he was. His ftrength 
was exhaufted and he was obliged to keep in bed. 
Seeing himfelf near the moment, when lie was 
to be for ever ieparatcd from his children, he 
called them to his bcd-lide, and acldrelfed them in 
thefe words. It was his daughter, who repeated 
them, and adding that (lie has often had occalion 
to recall them to remembrance. My c!.>ildt\r.^ I 
am birdcrm on n\y luj! hour. Dent 
thought j.ias b:cn /u/ni'ijr iu m>:,Jincc . 

Lad to give an nrc-:;tn! tc, t!:c 5, . 
thtimCivbU-bll':^ />..;.' :.;;.:-. / 
Hitherto, my fac. t 

/t rvcd frvn cij! rii'->i 


return thither, only recall to mind the examples / have 
given you here. 

THE firm tone, the calm manner, with which he 
delivered thcfe words, made them think him yet far 
from his end. But to bid them his laft adieu, he 
had fummoned up all his llrength, which forfook 
him, as foon as he had done fpeaking. He ftretch- 
ed out his hand to give his bleding to his children, 
and a flight convullion carried him off. 

THIS unfortunate family perimed not in this hor- 
rible defert, which the recent lofs they had fuftain- 
ed, muft have rendered ilill more horrible. At the 
time of Anne's acceffion to the throne they were 
recalled to St Peterfburg. The daughter was mar- 
ried to Guihvus Biren, brother to the Duke of 
Courland, and never forgot her relidence at Ya- 
koufka. The fon was promoted in the army by the 
fame Lmprcfs, and mowed himfclf worthy of her 
favour. MenzikofPs grandfon is at preient a mem- 
ber of the Directing Senate, a Lieutenant General, 
a Knisht of the Order of St George, and Aide-de- 
camp to Catherine II. We were allured that his 
behaviour :,-, fiich. ;-s will i^ver compel him to end 
his cl;iy- .it Y.ikouik,',. 

ArTLR Menzikofi's difgrace Or.inienbaum was 
converted into ;i Mirir.s; but Peter III. took 
it ag:iin into his pofictuciu and made it his f'.ivourite 
rclulonce. The middle of this cdilice is the iiiine 



with that built by the favourite ; and confifls of 
two ftories, which contain a number of fmall apart- 
ments, of which' the mod remarkable is that, which 
to this day is called MenzikofPs chamber. It is the 
lame in 'which he flept. The wainfcotting is painted 
black, and ingeniotifly executed. It is ornamented 
with cyphers of his names, and emblems of die or- 
ders, wiih which he was decorated. Hard by it is 
a hall with baths after the Turkifh mode, which re- 
ceives no light, but through a Ibrt of garden-mat, 
which makes it more like a dungeon, than the baths 
of a ereat lord. The (love for warmincr this bathinjr 

o ( o o 

houfe is placed with as much awkwardnefs as dan- 
ger, ?.nd i'.as not been repaired by any ot thefe pa- 
ralircs, whom Cathari'.c fupports as artiils, ar.d who 
poffcis no other art but that of deceiving. 

To the. old edifice, Peter II!, added win^s which 

O J 

are long buildings of one ftory, and more fait able 
to a farm than a palace. Fro in this fir ft part of t tie 
building, you go to the fortrcf>, and en your way 
obfcrve, with no IViK-.ll picaiur-, \\ frnal] model of JL 
citadel, which Pclcr 111. cauled be made, when he 
wai Icived v/ith a pafiion fur mi'.iLiry itudies. I_ 
\\\is to illuilratc thi lclToi:s of for. iicatio 
he received. Tins kind of f ?rt, v/I; .-h is 
tle of cards, is furroundcd wit 1 ; ;i i juY, a'.id a ram- 
part defended by baftions. i'e^r III. made it. be 
coniinicled w]i:?n he was only Grand Duke. In it 
VOL. II - there 


there Is a building, that he called the Governor^ 
houfe, but he pofTeffed it commonly himfelf, and 
received in it only his officers and favourites, while 
the reft of his court was in the palace. At the fide 
of triis houfe were the caferns for a fmall garrifon, 
which ferved as an amufement to the prince, and 
ibme wooden houfes for the principal officers, with 
a 'fm all Lutheran chapel, where divine fervice was 
performed to the foldiers of Holftein, for whom the 
prince had a predilection. The Governor's houfe is 
a brick building, with feven or eight windows in 
front, and contains about eight fmall rooms. It re- 
mains exactly in the fame Hate, in which Peter III, 
inhabited it. We were fliown the furniture he had 
collected, and the bed in which he flept the night 
of his deposition. It was furnifhed with a white 
fatin cover, and curtains of crimfon and filver bro- 
cade ;" the teller was ornamented with red and 
white feathers. Adjoining to this room is a hand- 
fomc clofct, hung with light brown filk, on which 
are dif:lrent figures embroidered by Catharine II, 
when {he wa-> only Grand Duchefs. 

FROM the for'irefs we were conducted to a larsre 


p-allerv of pictures, collected by Peter III. Amone: 

t ' * ' O 

ievcral portraits of this unfortunate prince, thev 
fliow one, where the refcmblance is linking. He is 
dr?ur. in his Holftein uniform, his complexion is 
fair, ar.d hi 1 - hair is white, but there is no exprci- 



lion in his features^ and in his looks and face Co me. 
thing effeminate is obfervable. 

IN the garden there is a very elegant fquare build- 
Ing, erected by the Empreis' orders, when ihe was 
Grand Dnchefs. It contains eighteen apartments, 
of which each is furnifhcd in a different ftyle in the 
Greek, Turkim, Chinefe, &c. It Hinds in the 
middle of a very thick wood, and as the road to it 
is of a ferpentine form, ftrangers do not obferve 
it, till they are clofe upon it. The furprife, occa- 
fioned by this unexpected fight, has made the build- 

nir ^ct the name of Ah ! Ah ! 

O o 


PETLRXHOFF. Hi* gardens. Monp'ijif.r, or tbc Dutib 
PLytfe. The mountain rf j/cd^cs. Prince Nnri1~,~ 
kin's boufe.ScMu/dbiirg.Wlhrifal detail A- 
needles. Scitc cf the city. Thai <f t'.-c cj/tlc.-*It 
is the bajlik of the Cxjrs. Per fin * of rank c^r. fined 
there. Maria, fijlcr to Peter LTh C:^r:;?a l'.-<- 
doxia, his firjl ivifi. - C r .:o:l Pir-ii^ mlnijh'r to 
Charles \H.~Bira;.-..Prhii<: fowl. 

is ten wcifts from Oranienbaum, 
and twenty fix from the capital. This pabce was 
begun by Petw I, in the year 1712, and iinifhoJ 

JB 2 under 


under the reign of Elizabeth. It ftands on an emi- 
nence, and commands a grand and extenfive prof- 
peel, comprehending Cronftadt, St Peterfburg, the 
gulf and oppofite coaft of Carelia. It is . fplendidly 
furnifhed, and has a fuite of rooms worthy of a 
fovereign. The hall of audience is ornamented with 
the portraits of the fovereigns of the houfe of Ro- 
inanof. The moft ftriking of them all, arid juflly 
fo, is that of Catharine II. entering in triumph into 
the capital, on the night of the revolution, that pla- 
ced her upon the throne. She is in a man's drefs, 
the uniform of the guards, with a branch of oak in 
her hat. She rides a white horfb, and has a drawn 
{word in her htfnd. This drefs becomes her very 
well, becaufe Catharine has always had a very maf- 
cuiine figure. 

THE taftc and beauty of the gardens of PeterfhofF, 
their numerous Jct-d'caux, their wells, bafons, caf- 
cades, parterres, &c. have often been extolled. 
They have been often compared to thole of Yer- 
faiJles, and in certain rejects they are very much 
fupcrior ; for at Verfaiiies the \\-atcrs p-lay only on 
certain occafior.s, whereas nt PetcrihorY they ncx'er 
have done. Thcfe gardens in their novelty, were 
very much addiired in RaHia, where they were a 
kind of cnclnstcd fpot, which bore a fingular con- 
traft to ther: \vild (>rchards. Although thefe gar- 
dens are not to the tafte of Catharine II. who pof- 



feiles a rage for Knglim gardens, me his reflected 
the work of i'c:cr, and Ins allowed them to remain 
as thc\ were origiraily planned. Bciidc.;, her Ma- 
jefty ufually refides in rummer at (>/a;-ko-felo, where 
the foil is managed in a manner more modern, and 
more to her tafte. 

IN the middle of a large bafon at Peterfhnff. the 
eye is attracted by two gladiators, who arc nor arm- 
ed in the ancient ir.yle, with a fword and buckler, 
but with a pair of piltols, which they are ready to 

difcharsce at one another. Their attitude is threat- 

ening, but it is not fire, but water, that iilues im- 
petuoufly from their niftols. 

A PART ot the garden lies between the pdace and 
the fea, and among other buildings there is one en 
the more, which merits particular attention, bec.rafe 
it was the favourite retreat cf Peter I. '1 his houlc 
and the furniture it contains, having been ferupu- 
loufly preferred, iuch as they were, may ferve to 
c^ive fomc idea of the fimplicity in which tliis rrirux* 


cliofc to live. Very i'-on after his return troiii Hol- 
land, he caufcd this hc^ute be builr, and directed ir 
not only to be in tho L-utfh ih'le, but belides, thai 
it mould bear t'ic name (if the Durc'i houfe, al- 
though he fometimes gave it c>t M^:^'.r':f, 
which lias remained with it. 

PETER was fubject to fever-, and had pcriurulAi 
liiuiielf, that the fea air fuitcd his confutation. 



When he refided in furnmer at Petermoff, the air 
of thefe extenfive gardens appeared to him to be too 
clofe, and for that reafon he wifhed to have a houfe, 
whofe walls the waves of the fea mould wafh. This 
houfe is of bricks, of only one ftorey, and has an 
iron roof. The windows reach from the foot to the 
top of the houfe, which, joined to its long and low 
figure, gives it the appearance of a green-houfe. 
The habitable part confifts of a falcon, and fix fmall 
rooms, neatly and limply furnimed. The chimney 
is ornamented \v,ith vafes of curious porcelain, 
which Peter valued highly, becaufe they were 
brought from China, at the time when the commu- 
nication between that empire and Ruffta was firft 
opened. The bed-chamber is fmall. A painted fail- 
cloth ferves for a carpet. A camp bed without cur- 
tains, has nothing to diftinguim it, but the bed- 
clothes. Two galleries and two rooms are ornament- 
ed with pictures from the Dutch and Flemiih fchools. 
There are feveral portraits of Peter himfelf, in the 
drefs of M after Peters., working in the dock yard of 
Sardam, and alib a portrait of his favourite miftrefs, 
the Pretty Dutch Girl. 

IN the gardens of Pe term off there is alfo another 
very extraordinary building, called the Mountain of 
Sledge 's, or the Flying Mountain. 

THE Flying Mountain is in the middle of an ob- 
long fquare, formed by an open colonnade, with a 



flat roof, and a baluftrade defigned for fpechtors. 
This colonnade is at lead half a mile in circumfe- 
rence, and in the centre is the flying mountain, 
which extends almoft from one fide to the other. 
It is an wooden building, iupporred on pilailers, in 
its figure refembling an unequal furface, or a moun- 
tain with three tops of different heights, which, di- 
minifhing by degrees, form an intermediary fpace, 
like a valley. From the principal fummit to the 
foot of the mountain is a road covered with planks, 
on which three parallel grooves are drawn for the 
following purpofe. In the centre groove is fet a lit- 
tle fledge or carriage with a feat for one pcrfon. 
This carriage defcends from the fir ft fumipit to the 
bottom with great rapidity. f lhe velocity it ac- 
quires while defcending, makes it afcend the Iccond 
height, and in this way it continues, till it has 
reached the foot of the mountain, and the large 
fquarc, on which it runs for tome time on an even 
furface, and flops not till near the barrier at the ex- 
tremity. Then it is again let on one of the iLIe 
grooves, and drawn up by means or a cipihn. A 
pcrfon, who lias not been accuttomed to tins nv- 
chanical motion, thinks flu amu' T.icnt J mgcrous ; 
but as the groove* are m i-.le in iu-:h a V.MV as to 
keep the carriage in a proper direction, there i^ no 
danger of being overturned, On tiie top ( : tlio 
mountain there is HIT clc^:>t rcom "or the cc 


ence of the people about court. There is alib in the 
colonnade and on the roof, a place, that can ac- 
commodate feveral thoufands of fpectators. Near 

the Flying Mountain is a fpacious amphitheatre for 
exhibitions of tilting. 

ON the road from Peterflioff to St Peteriburg at 
every flcp you meet with fuperb country-houfes, 
among which Count Nmtzkin's makes a diftin- 
guifhcd appearance. It has extenfive Englifh gar- 
dens, and an infinite number of Chinefe pavilions 
of the '.ricft genuine kind. They are entrufted to 


the care of federal natives of China, whom their 
features render it impoffible to miftake. We went 
throui; i theib gardens with inexprefiible pleafure. 

AVe m _t\vith nothing, that itirp.niied their own native 
beauty, but the politen^fi of the owner, who welco- 
me. I U-, \vithout itats, and led us into his gardens, 
;is one of his lervants v/onld have done, and with- 
out \ iiig u;s with "minute relations and details,, 
as all the proprietors of En^Hfli gardens are accuf- 
tomc\l to do. 

ScHLUi-sifi.GURG is forty werfts from St Peteri^- 
bvrcr. TI.-J r(\id is on the hinks of tlie Neva s 
-\vl.i- - ] i rui^ i^piJly in a bi\-;uj channel of a fcrpen- 
th'e form. Its b;ii;ks, \viiich are high and fteep, are 
adeemed with viliaires and vil'as. built here and 
there, n.t;d,, as 5.t \verc ; fufrcndcd en i)ie banks of 



the river. Schlufielburg {lands on both, the banks, 
3nd contains about three hundred wooden houfes, 
and two them land eight hundred inhabitants. The 
fortrefs is built on a final! ifbnd, farmed by the ri- 
ver, whr-re it iijfues from (he lake Ladoga. Its 
bivadrh at this phce is a'x)ut fix hundred, fathoms, 
ami us (.p.rr'"nt very rapid. 

Tin- RuK'.an liidorians give tl:e follo\ving ac- 
counts or fortrefs. In the year i ^24, the (rreaf 
Piiiicc i'.r.iri Daniiowittch bri ! t a fortrei.- in ihe. 
middle of tin's iiland, at the time of his - \p-\li Jon 
a'jjfiinfl \YibnrT If; v. a^ r.dhd Or, J/v,< , f--r)ni the 


form of th<; iiiand. v:h'u : > : ; like t ha f of a nut. 'i'his 
iort vas r.ik'.n !>y Ma.gnu-; King of ?u '. >, ard its 
name being tran fiatcil i T :,': ; ': 8v-:difh hn; ri u^c, 
was called N'n'cbiirg. Sonic ';::: ifter tlu-y iiKiolc.l 
the whole idand vi-i.t.h a wall and battlement?, v,*hici. 
ire dill remaining. 

Jx the ycir i 7-2, Peter havii^g appr--.i:\,.\l ths 

jiiad? iop.i^ imfhccci^tMi attempt-^ r : ; --. nris 

1 ciit Pr;:;cc G''l;t:--in, ( J. (.luir.l 

a iclc' r t d " f a; li'ncnl", t'j UM.I p'.uv, 

1 ',: . , '] - - r ]]-' (I ; v ; r H " ^ '' ' p >, pM " i " 

j^iif'ed near that (jiiarter oi. tl:-.. /'ir 'i : c r, \\ in. U 

prnjo.:s fjver '.h 1 . 1 b-'^k of ''', 'r. ... -. i ';, u he \ :; 
vcc'.-'i^ ''d by th.e Swedr--, W. h. ^ v r.:'.!i rou :.'_?;.', :i. I 
hi-; trf-or- were lo iev.'ivlv hand/.eil. vK.u <','.> i T 
Vn . IL ' kd 


eluded the affault was impoflible, and fent orders 
tor his men to retire. Thcfe orders Galitzin re- 
fufcd to obey, and animating his troops by his 
voice and example, led them on again to the affault, 
icalccl the walls, and took the fortrefs. Peter was 
fo ilruck with this brilliant action, that when he faw 
Galitzin, he faid to him ; Ajk of me any thing you 
p/cafc, but Mo/cow and Catharine. The prince with 
a magnanimity, which does the greateft honour to 
his character, afked the pardon of Prince Rcpuin, 
of whom he thought he had ibme room to com- 
plain; but Repuin's greateft fault was rivalling him 
In military merit. Repuin had difpleafed Peter I. 
had been degraded, and from beins: Marfhal had 

o o 

become a private foldier. Galitzin obtained what 
he had rcquefted, and by this generous action, ac~ 
quired the confidence cf his fovereign, the applaufe 
of the public, and the friendfhip of Rcpuin. 

PETLR gave the fortrefs the name of Schluilel- 
burg, which it itill bears. It comes from Schluffcl^ 
a German word, which iignifies Key ; for he confi- 
dcred it, in confequence ot its fituation, as the key 
of his conquers. But iincc the frontiers of the Em- 
pire ha\e been confiderably enlarged, it can be no 
longer oi that importance, of which it was when it 
was ahnoil on tlie borders ot Sweden. The rain- 
part raifcd by the Swedes yet remains. It is built 
of Hones and is of an ait o nulling thicknefs. The 



tower, which defends the principal entry h:v; A ke\ 
for a vane, and is called Zarkaja, or the tower ui 
the Czarina. There are two other gates ; one call- 
ed the prince's gate, became during the iicge car 

ried on bv Peter, it was at this gate, tint Mcn/.i. 
u ' 

kofFwas polled. The tower is called the Admiral's 
tower, bec<infe it was guarded by the Admiral o/ 
Peter the Tirft's ilect ; for a vane it ius a balance, 
which was this Admiral's arms. The fituation of 
SchlufTelburg on an iiland, and the refpcclful il.ue 
of its fortifications, as well as its proximity to the 
capital, determined the fovereigns of Ruffra, to con- 
vert it into a flate priibn ; a receptacle, which IXf- 
pots every where find it indiipenfibly necellary to 
have the command of. Hence at Berlin ; 
Neuftadt at Vienna; the Baftilc and Vincenncs for- 
merly at Paris ; Pignerol at Turin ; the (.laille ot 
the Holy Angel at Rome; 'I hat i)i St Klinus .it 
Naples; The T.' vvcr or' Segovia at ?.Lidrid : arul th.. 
Gallic of bt J Lilian ?.r IJiljon. 

THK iiland, on which Schluileiburg iia:id>, is o: 
an elliptical form., and luay be .il'oiit a iiundrevl .uul 
ieventy live farhoms in length, and l^\vnt\ eiglit at 
its broadcit part, '.i'lie w.-.lls wiii-jh lurround it, ir. 
almoft all its extent, are built of iionc. and brick. 
They are iifty feet higli, tiom eleven to twenty 
thick, and fortified in the old falhion, with l.\ittic 
ments and eiht rontid t.)wer:\ The p^il.i-j.j into 


the ifland is by a draw bridge, but ftrangers are not 
aliowd to enter ail) of the rooms where the pri- 
loners arc. They are only permitted to go into 
ioine corridors, that inclofe a large court. The 
\\vs of the prifons are \v ailed up, except at the 
top. where a feu* i'qirire inches are left, by which 
fo little light is admitted, thar tlie miferable inhabi- 
tants of thcfe cells, mult enjoy nothing but a kind 
of twilight, which ierves only to enlighten their 

IN the mid ft of the court (hinds the Governor's 
lioufe, with an \vooden cottage, in which there is a 
flate priioncr confined. This court leads into the 
in fide of the -for ire ft, which is about a hundred and 
forty itx iv'cc fquiirc, and furrounded by ftono walls 
ot a ,>Yeuc hei o f iL A brick-houie ot a hnp;]^ ilorcy, 
cx'cii'Js fioiii one iiJe to the o..her, and contaii;.~> 
ei.vht ro.iiiu ofieyemeca feet by v\\civc. '1 iii.i l-ouu: 
lia^ jk.f btca ilnillie.l. !t h:\:- r. f :> c./Jing atu'l has .,L- 
ver been irjhL'.biled. itv. as Peier 11!.. \\ho c.ndcd 
it b-j reared with iv;ch',ion, that in ieid ihan 
iix weckv, it was begun and Drought to the u,;<c, 
in ,\iich, i 1 .' is i!L pieicJiL, UUL at liic tiinc o- h!s GL.- 
p:>Mt( ii the \vor.k -.vas given up, The cor.iti uctio/i 
oi io i uge a bii.ifhng, ir. the nuclJk c-i' a rort, and 
in LO .lio.t time, hits ai\vav a been looked on as ibrne- 
thk:g nrvttcr.iou.-i ; but there i< every reaion to iun- 
ooi'-, tint . ; dtJ^ned it for his wile, ::o\v Catharine 


II. whom he \vifhed to divorce and afterward; 
line in this cafde. Very loon we ihall ice, how Ca- 
tharine prevented him, and how precarious the ii- 
tuation of- Kings mull be, when they have not the 
public opinion on their fide. 

AMO>;<, the itate priibners of the fir it rank, who 
have been confined in this fortrei^, the following: 

? , O 

delerve particular notice. 

FiRvr, Mtiria., filter to Peter I. lulpcJied of cor- 
refponding v.itli the Czarowitch. According to 
fome authors, (lie underwent the Ivitto^es in pre- 
ience of the court, before (he was carr 
fell urg U i' IVter, who was fond of 
C'ot i 1 '. r ii; 

duccd, bui 
3vad made 
plans of r' r 
\virh his it-, 
voiced her 
take the ve 
forced. If 
jVter in 

.Peter wa , afLcTted wi:li t ;"-. letter, h\:t did i.i.: 
r.hange 1 .ndo:.ii': ; Lite. Slk ; .::;d tc;. k :he 

veil under the nai^e ot ' ''i 1 ; h- 1 1 '' .y in 



the convent of Sutelfki, he was accufed and con- 
victed of having formed a connection with General 
Gleboff, and of having promifed him her hand. We 
{hall very foon fee this unfortunate man pay dearly for 
Eudoxia's favours. This weak, credulous woman it 
is faid, returned to the world, and refumed the fecu- 
lar drefs, with the title of Emprcls, on the affurance 
of a pricft, who had predicted to her the approach- 
ing death of the Emperor. She was carried to Mof 
cow ? where her cruel hufband, after having made 
her be examined, ordered her to be whipped by two 
nuns, and again carried to her convent, where flic 
was treated with the utmoft rigour. At this prince's 
death, and under the reign of Catharine I. fhe was 
transferred to Schluflelburg, where Count Tolftoe, 
to whofe care me was cntrufted, made her experi- 
ence all the horrors of the moil rigorous captivity. 
He took away the male and female iervants, who 
had till then been the companions of her misfor- 
tunes, air.1 gave her only an old female dwarf, 
whom Eudoxia was obliged to ferve, inftead of be- 
ing ferved by her. 

THIS fe verity exercifcd on this princefs, which. 
\ve relate only from hcar-fay, has doubtlcfs been ex- 
aggerated by the enemies of Catharine I. who have 
hid them to her charge ; for mch atrocity was not 
in her character, 



EUDOXIA obtained her liberty at the uccdiiim of 
her grandfon Peter II. and cither abufal this liber- 
ty, or gave oilence to Men/ikoH', who made her be 
again carried back into ihc convent of IVvit/., 
where file died in the year 17 u. 

THIROLY, Ccu>;t Pipcr, the minidcr and hioi.c 1 
o( Charles XII. to whom he gave none but will 
couniels, which the impetuous character of Charle- 
made him cither overlook or dhd'ur.. Piper wa- 
made prifoncr after the terrible battle of Pukuwa., 
which laded two days, and wrcfted h-orn Charle.-- 
<fie fruit of ei< T i\t \cars' victories He was treated 

*^ * 

rigoroufly by Peter, only hecaufe ini> )>rince impu- 
ted to him tlie war he had with Sweden. Piper 
luid a year at Schluflelburg. lie wa- i\ venty years 
old. His age and misfortune-; brou^hl him to the 
grave. A long time aitcr tills, tlic body of thi- ce- 
lebrated man was tranfportccl to Stockholm, v/hei' 
Charles XII. honoured it v. :th magnificent o!;i'e 

l'\irR'iH[.Y, The tarn our, /../\ . , \vuorn \ve \i-\\ < 
leen under the reign of tbc L'mpreb Anne, mana- 
ging' the reins ot govcrnmen l ' i- ple-ilure, ;.n ! 
dcfccnding from the llironc, ('^- v. ' , \ v . e ni.iy fa 
lie-was let, to be hinlcd into a priii n. 

LASTLY, '1 he iinfortui:'ile Pi nice /;.... b /rn : . 
the throne, unei irt u; Li- cradL. 
tune, Thib o;;;': 1 : ir-:r :, / 


ycurs that lie lived, nd dice! at SchlufTclburg in the 
iknvcr of lii.-s youn?., a tcr having been dragged from 
priih-n to prifon. AVe iliall have )et occafion to 
fpc.i.k oi th : s prince. 

1'tii gloomy ideas, infpired by this abode of for- 
rov -, pui'cr new force from the dull obfcurity, 
which reigns in thefc places, and from the menacing 
.upcct of the .Satellites, polled at the doors of thefe 
black dungeons. A man of feeling imagines he 
hears the rattling of chains, and the groans of the 
victims, \\hom dcfpottfm calls into theie abodes of 
mifcry ; laughing at their fufterings, applauding it- 
f?if on the gratification, and meditating new forms 

4 ; J O 

of vengeance ; he figures the atrocious calmnefe, 
*vith \vhich it commands the torture, and its en 
i'iy\r.rnt In contemplating v.hc ftrcams of blood it 
\\\.-- c ui^-d to run. 

I' 1 r ; >:-;. on the difmal fate of Peter III, 
svho -Jiii.- LM in this place of horror, \vhere he 
t\\\- the .. iiivhil:;; i of the fcene, which iiurled him 
fVtvr, the IT-: \v.\c, \vc fh h 1 L=y before the reader fome 

ccs rc;ccnr, Chivharine L 



C II A P. IV. 

tiGix cf Catherine I. Tbc various fcenes through 
which- j::c p;i:] L d y before fhe became known to ihc Czar. 
Sbf :s //.vviV bis li'ife. J[/itc <f this union. Prc- 
mature death of young Peter. T!:-c Czar's farrow. 

An A;-iccJj't. The afccnd^nt C:iiL\ir:;ie gains 

litary expeditions. Her bcbircic'jr on ib-e b<u:.(\; of 
the Pruib. 6V'r isfitfpcflcd cf being partial to Chair.' 
her lain Moens. Tragical end of this young man. 

ATHARINE was the natural daughter of a coun- 
try girl, and born at Ringen, a Irnall viHagc on the 
lake of Witzerwe, ncur Dcrpt in Livor.ia. The 
}ear of her birth is uncertain, but according to 
what (he related hcrfelf, flic inuit have be:n born 
on the 5th of April 1609, which ought to be fixed 
as the date of her birth, though forne writers hive 
advanced, that fhe was born in the year 16^7. The 
record of her death, which we have coniuhed, bears 
that fhe died at the age or" thirty ei.-;!ir, wliith fup- 
pnies her to have been born in the year i6Sj. 

AT firil ihe was known under i'ie rrimc or Mar- 
tha, which {lie changed inio Catharine, when fae 
embraced the Greek religion. 

COUNT Rolen, Lieutenant C -lonel in the Svre- 
difh iervice, and proprietor oi the village or Uin 

VOL. II. G cfor., 


gen, for loine time fupparted the mother and daugh- 
ter, becaufe the cuilom of the country is, that the 
Lord of the Manor (hould take charjre of widows and 


their cliildrcn ; and this circumftance Ins led many 
to iuppoie that the Count was Catharine's father. 
This young girl', when only three years of age, loft her 
mother, and Count Rolen dvins; at fame time, me 

O J 

was left fo clelUtute. that theparifh Clerk took her in- 


to his Iioule. A fhort time after, Gluck, a Lutheran 
rainifteratMaricnburo-, travelling through this coun- 

i_J 7 O O 

try, law this orphan, was much aiietfted with her 
iituation, took her under his protection, brought 
her up, and fixed her with his children. In the 
year 1705, Catharine was near ieventcen years of 
:irc, when a vouncr Dragoon of the Swediih garri- 

O ' < O O O 

ion law her at church, and fell defperately in love 
with her. He made a difcovery of his paffion to 
lier, who was the object, and received for anfwer 
that (lie depended on Gluck, from whom alone her 
hand could be obtained. The mmiiter having in 
(juircd into the character of the Dragoon, married 
him with Catharine. The hiftory of this marriage 
ih dilVc-fcntly reported. Weber affirms, that the 
voun-jr couple lived together for ei'jht davs aftci 

. O O ^ 

tht/ir union. E>ruce on Hie other hand maintains 
that the marriage was never consummated., becaufe 
the Dragoon tlie very morning he was married. 
S-V43 feD.i in a detachment to Riga. One thing is . 


certain, lie was not in Maricnburg, when this city 
lubmittcd to the Ruffians, and Catherine deftined 
to a more elevated fortune, never fa\v him more, and 
never could learn any certain account* of him. 

MR Richer is then wrong in having advance^, 
that this huiband being in the number of prifoncn 
taken at the battle of Pultowa, and having learned 
the fituation of Catharine, was anxious to let him- 
felf be known, in hopes of being railed to foinethir.g 
grand; but that far from mitigating the rigouib o! his 
Jot, the Czar inilantly ordered him to be lent to the 
deferts of Siberia, where lie died, three months be- 
fore the peace, which rcflorcd the Swediili pri^);j- 
ers. On this occafion Mr Richer obierves, that Pe- 
ter then had two wives, and Catharine had two huf- 
bands alive. There is no woman, on whom more 
flories have been forged, and yet fne lived in oar 
own times. Afrer this, can we be reproached, ii : 

we orive no credit to what has been written arx;ut Se- 

miramis, Cleopatra, Zcnobhi, and io many orh/r 
women, of whom we have inch,g>- hiltonjs. 

GKNERAI. Rcnn, otiiers lay Cencrai H.rj^r ,'this 
is the common opinion) who li id found C.i'h.irir.e 
in Marienburg among the prifoners, v,\is ltru^:k 
\vith her youth and beaut}-, took her home wi:h 
him and entruftcd her with the mmagement of ];i> 
houie, of which he had no reaion to reper/,, lor 
il\c made herielf equally beloved by mafter and 

G 2 il-i-viiiu 


fervants. Soon after me went into Prince Menzi- 
kofF's fervice, who was captivated with her beauty, 
and charmed with the agreeable difpofttions of her 
mind. She lived with him till the year 1704, when 
fhe became the miftrefs of Peter I. whom ihe foon 
captivated fo completely, that he determined to 
marry her on the 29th of May 1711. The marri- 
age ceremony was performed fccretly at Jarawof in 
Poland, in prefence of General Bruce, and on the 
22nd of February 1712 it was publicly celebrated at 
St Peterfburg. 

ANNE, who married the Duke of Holftein, and 
was mother to Peter III. of whom we have already 
made mention ; Natalia Petrowna, who died before 
her father; Paul and Peter, who died in infancy, were 
the fruit of this union. The Czar was particularly 
afflicted with the death of young Peter. His for- 
row was fuch, that he (hut himfelf up at Petermoff, 
intending to ftarvc himfelf to death, and fbrbid 
every perfon, of whatever defcription, under pain 
of death to difturb his retirement, liie fcnate af- 
fembles on this defpsrate refolution of the prince, 
and Dolgorouki undertook to drive him from it, 
He \vent and knocked at the door of the room, 

\yhere Peter had {hut himfelf up. -Whoever you be, 

cried the Czar with a terrible voice, Jly off", or I will 
open the door and knock out your brains Opoi, I fay, 
replied Dolgorouki in a firm tone, // is a deputy from 



the Senate, conic to aft you, whom you wjh to lave na- 
med as Emperor in your room, fince you hai-c rcfigncd. 
Peter, ftnick with the courageous zeal of Dolgorouki, 
opened, embraced this faithful courtier, yielded to 
his counfels, and re fumed the reins of the empire. 

CATHARINE gained over the mind of Peter that 
afcendant, which nature gives a pretty woman, and 
which, from its furprifing c fleets, looks like magic 
to credulous minds. In order to fucceed in acquir- 
ing this, Catharine joined to the advantages (he had 
received from nature, a conflant attention to dif- 
covcr whatever could pleafc her huiband ; always 
conducting hcrfelf with that fsveetnefs and complai- 
fance which diftinoruifhed her character, and with 


that vivacity, which in her was like the lire of Pro. 
metheus, and electrified Peter. This qualification 
in women is doubtlefs one of die greateft powers of 
leduction, with which nature has endowed them. 
Catharine's gaiety was equal to her vivacity, and 
(he employed it with as much art. Peter had fome- 
times fits of dullncfs and terror which rendered him 
cxceflively fuipicious, and thiew him into lo Kid a 
humour, tint he appeared bciide himfdt and in a 
itate bordering on maclneis. In tlnic dreadful mo- 
ments, the young Catharine was the only perfon, 
who durit approach him. As if flic had cxcrcikci 
over the temper of this prince an enchantment fu- 
perior to that, which deprived him of his wits, at 



the found of her voice he leaped for joy, recovered 
his fenes, and his tranfports were calmed. It was 
therefore with great juftice, that he confidered her 
neceflary, not only to his happinefs, but even to his 
very exiftence, and that fhe became his infeparable 
companion, in all his travels and military expe- 

THE peace of Pruth, which faved the Ruffian ar- 
my from inevitable destruction, was wholly attri- 
buted to the ability of Catharine ; and with great 
juftice, not\vithftanding what has been faid arid 
written of this princefs by her detractors and all 
who have followed their fentiments. The follow- 
ing is a ftate of the fact. 

IN the campaign of the year 1711, the Czar be- 
ing deceived by the pompous promifes of Cantimer, 
and ill fupported by fome of his Generals, had fuf- 
fered himfelf to be furrounded by a numerous army of 
the Turks; and no refource was left him, if he wifh- 
ed to avoid the fate of his rival Charles XII. but to 
cut his way through the hoftile arcny during the 
night. After having come to this defperate refolu- 
tion, he had retired to his rent, with his foul a prey 
to the mod violent chagrin, aud had forbidden any 
perfon to enter it under pain of death. In this cri- 
tical moment, Catharine rifing fuperior to her fex, 
had reanimated the courage of the Generals, whom 
the Czar's dtipair had collected round the tent of 



the vice-chancellor Shfafirof, and there fucr^cftcd 

' O O 

to them the propofal of terms to Baltagi Meheinet, 
who to pacific inclinations united the avarice of a 
Turk, railed to this eminent rank. She collected 
gold enough to dazzle him, and deputies were dif- 
patchcd without Peter's knowledge. As gocxl luck 
would have it, Baltagi Mehcmct, who had full pow- 
ers from his inafter to continue the war, or make 
peace, was really dazzled by the pre Cents, which 
Catharine had made be offered him, and contented 
to an accommodation on much better terms, than 
could have been expected. Then in initc of the 
Czar's orders, this princefs repairs to his tent, 
throws herfclf at his knees, bathes them with her 
tears, in energetic term's uefcribcs the horror of 
their fituation, his army more reduced by want and 
fatigue, than encouraged by his generous grief, 
then flic relates to him wh:;t itcps ihe had taker 
with Baltagi Mehcmet, and the fortunate lucce;- 
with which they had been crowi.e,'. Peter ait<<- 
nimcd, lifts her up, embraces her, and afuires 
that me has f.ivcd R\illia. 

IT is iid that the Grand Viiir wliile rre.itiiig wir> 
her, not being able to fu[ipoic 'J'.ai lo 1 . couu 
a woman courage cnougii u; ihare v. nh l>cr hut- 
band the dangers of uar, an 
to be of tervice to him in th 
which he was reduced, k-nf .1 Tonfiucnt 


into the Ruffian camp, to fee this heroine, and ve- 
rify with his own eyes, what fame, which magni- 
fies every thing, had been pleafed to publifh. 

PETER was fo grateful for Catharine's generous 
aclion, that on his return into the capital, he in- 
fHtuted in remembrance of it, the Order of St Ca- 
tharine already mentioned, with which the Czarina 
was adorned the firil in the year 1711= He gave 
her an additional proof of his gratitude for this 
meritorious fervice, when in the year 1724, he 
caufed her be folemnly crowned at Mofcow. In the 
orders iffued for this ceremony were thefe words 
The Einprcfs, my dear wife, having accompanied me 
conftantly in my military expeditions^ of which notwith- 
Jh'tndlng the weaknefs of her fex, floe has jhared the 
dangers, and in the mojl critical circumjlances^ has 
ajjlftcd me by her counfeh, particularly on the banks of 
ihc Pruth, where the R.u/Jian army reduced to twenty 
two thoufand men, had to fght two hundred thoufand 
of the /?;;/ v, or die. It was on ibis desperate fanatic 
thztfoeftgnaii'zed l^cr r^al by a coitrag? above her y?'.v. 

]uftice to let her on the throne oi: thij empire, who 
hud fivcd it. 

NoTwinoTANDiNG all this, Catharine's influence 
over the mirui of the Czar, feeiiied to be on the ck- 
dine for ionic tirr.o previous to his death, and if fhe 
had not been crowned at IMofcov/, a rupture be- 


tween them would hive been unavoidable. Their 
mifunderftanding aroic from the following cir- 
cumftance. Catharine had a young chamberlain 
called Moens de la Croix, born in Ruiliaof a Flemifh 
family, He \vas of a very handibme figure, and 

* ^ _J * 

aided by Inn filter Madam Bilks, waiting maid to 
this princeis, ruled the Emprefs' houfhold, and per- 
haps her heart ; at leaft this \viii the idea which Pe- 
ter hud conceived, or had been induftriouHy fu<r-. 

* * o 

geftcd to him by Jagufchiniky, who then enjoyed 
his confidence., and \va,, Catharine's mo/tal enemy. 
hi order to conic at the certainty of tins fata! truth, 
which the \viie Fonuiae advlies never to invelli- 
gatc, he preten'.led to \t;i\c St: Petersburg, to 
i'pend feme days at Duplia, a pl;.afure houle of 
his Majefty's, and immediately returned incc.gnito 
to the winter palace, whence lie diipatched to the 
Kmprefs, a pa^e in whom lie confided, to carry his 
compliment'j to her, ;^ if he had been ibme leagues 
from the capital. The page had orders to obierve 
every thin::;, and it v.'iib in cnniequence ol tlie in- 
formation given by iliis Argus, thai Peter lurpri- 
led CatUaiine and her lover, Li a tender .V-V..:-/, 
in one of the arbours cr the gar.icn. I lie cliain- 
berhh;':: Gitcr, along witii a p.'.V-S o v/atching at 
a d'iiance. iron; ihi> arbour, ai:d the chat:e iriend ot 
Er.dcmi:-n !nd hc-r eye on tiie IGVCI ;, Peter, ni.u- 
VOL. 1L li rally 


rally violent, was tranfported with rage at this light. 
He beat Catharine with his cane, and did not treat 
]'efs feverely the page, who had attempted to flop 
him in his entrance. After that he retired, without 
faying a word to Moens or his lifter. Next day, 
going into Catharine's room, he broke a fuperb Ve- 
nice mirror placed over the chimney. -Ton fee, faid 
he to her, that 'with ajiroke of my hand, I have re- 
duced this mirror to the duft, from whence it came. 
"Thai is true, anfvvered Catharine with mildnefs, for 
ihe comprehended the allufion, that is true, but by 
having dcftroycd the mcfi beautiful ornament cf the pa^ 
lace, do you think it becomes more beautiful. Peter had 
too much penetration not to underftand in his turn 
what this ingenious anfwer fignified. It calmed 
him, but a few days after, he made Moens and his 
lifter be arrefted. Moens was carried to the winter 
palace, into a room, which nobody entered but the 
Emperor, who carried him his victuals. At fame 
time a report was fpread, that the brother and fifter 
had been imprifoned for having let themfelves be 
corrupted by prcfents, and for having employed 
their influence with the Emprefs from motives of 
Inter eft. 

MOENS having been examined by the Emperor 3 
in prcfence of General Ufchakof, and threatened 
with torture, confeiled himfelf guilty of the pre- 
tended venality, of which he was accufed, and had 


his head cut off. His fitter was condemned to re- 
ceive eleven ftrokes with the knout, but got only- 
five, and fome fay it was the Emperor himfelf, who 
gave her them. She was afterwards banifhed into 
Siberia. Two of his fons, who were chamberlains, 
were degraded, and lent as private foldiers to the 
army., which was on the frontiers of Peril a. The 
day a:tcr the execution of the fcnter.ce, the Czar 
had the cruelty to carry Catharine in an open car- 
riage near to the poft, to which they had nailed the 
head of Mocns. But the Empreis, without chan- 
ging countenance at this horrible fpcctable, exclaim- 
ed j What a pity there ft}&uld be fc tr.ucb corrupt:'.}! ^ 
mong courtiers ! 

THIS happened about the end of the year 1724. 
Peter's death happened loon after ; and as Catha- 
rine, at her acccilion to the throne, recalled tin lif- 
ter of the unfortunate jNIocns, flic has been fufpeo.- 
ed of having fhortcned her huiband's d.ivs bv no;- 

O , * \ 

fon. This imputation is an atrocious calumny, and 
in fpite of Catharine's iituation duriiv; ihe : pe- 
riod of the Czar's lite, the circumilanco . o: hi.i com- 
plaints, as we have already narrated I'u-rn, Jdi.roy 
all the fuipictons, which the C/arina'a cneii'ics !\r. c 
fought to bring her under. But every t!u;, ^ r.\.y 
be expected from the bl.Kk envy ot court:,.;>. 
They know well how to give fii.idcs of tiuth to i; t 


calumnies they hatch, as they auecl its language 
when they teii them. 


INTRIGUES, ivhich raife Catharine I. to the throne, af- 
ter the death of her hitjlmnd. Faction that v:\fh to 
exclude her. Menzikoff's party prevails, and Ca- 
iharine is proclaimed. Menzikoff reigns under her 
KCirr.c. Death cf this princefs. Her character, A- 
ti's c her brother. 

JL ETER was yet ftruggling with death, when dif- 
ferent parties were and caballing for difpo- 
fmg of the crown. In a numerous ailembly of the 
principal nobP.ity, at the head of whom were the 
Princes Galitzin, Dolgorouki, Rcpuin, Kurakin, 
Lapucjiin, and Soltikoit, it was fecretiy rcfolvcd to 
Jhave Ca'charine arrcftcd, fo foon as Peter was dead, 
r.nci to place Peter his grandfon on the throne. 
This pr.rty would have been dangerous, if the lead- 
ers hud been united. But feme widicd the re-efta- 
blifnment, and others only a modification, of the 
old government. Baffewitz, informed or their de- 
fi !;n, went to the Emprefs at tae middle of the 
" ;iu, and informed her of what was plotting a- 
Bailie her. f.fy rr:cf and confternation* fhc replied 



to him, deprive n:e of p^i'cr to aft ; fee Z-Itnzikcff, 
con, n't iogrtbcr ,- I have ;/. 7 v fate in yr bar.ds^ and 
ic/.Y ajo^t li-bah'-vcr ir^'afurcs you fojil think tnq/r pro- 
per. Mei./.ikoiT, funk in deep, \vas far from fuf- 
p< 'ting the irpriiincnt danger, whieh threatened Ca- 
t; irine ar.d her prry. Although at iirit furprifed 
r . \vhnt B;: u:\vit7 told Jiini, he loft no time in dcii- 
. .-rating, bat run immediately to I'LIZC on the trea- 
j.'ry and fo/rrtis ; fccured, l)y prcfents and pvomi- 
io, the commanders ot tiie regiments ot Preobaf- 
c! "iiikoi and Scmenofi^koi, :;s v,-;-,il as ail the ruimi- 
ra s of the ;'ioet. and had an intcrvic\v \v;;h the 
Di' ; ;e of Ljoifixui. General Btitterlin, "n\i\ the Arch- 
bilhop of Kovogovod, all th.voled to Catharine. 
Tiiia party aflcmbled in the palat c, r.rul the Cizarini 
appcai - Cvl before them, claiming the li'vht of fuececd- 
ing her liufband, as tl;c of her folemn 
coronation at Mofcow. She deleribed tlie^^- 
rous confcquences of a nnnority. and allured them, 
that, very far from wifhing to 
Iiis crown, flic \voi:'d rccrive 
pledge to be reftored. to him. t', mom 
be re-united hi iie.ivca to 
iiie ha - 

ipcecii, t!ie tnr.i v.iih wiv. n ^ x > .is accornpaM^i, 
die rich pre;e.:r- of money arci i- -\\\1>. \vhier, r,..i 



from it. The affembly promifed to do every thing 
for her, and feparated. The reft of the night was 
fpent in making the preparations neceffary for en- 
furing the fuccefs of this plan. 

NEXT day, fo foo.n as the death of the Czar had 
been announced, the Senate, the Generals, the princi- 
pal Nobility, and Clergy hurried to the palace for the 
declaration of the new fovereign. The partifans of 
Prince Peter Alexiowitfch feemed certain of fuccefs, 
and prefumptuous as mofl part of courtiers are, 
who calculate events according to their defires, they 
fhumied the friends of Catharine, as people, whofe 
ruin was certain. In this conjuncture, the dexterous 
Baffewitz whifpered in the ear of one of the prin- 
ce's party. The Emprefs ban got poffe/fion of the trea- 
fury and the forirefs ; foe has fc cured the Guards, the 
Holy Synod, and many cf the principal Nobility. She 
has more friends than you think. Therefore warn your 
friends to make no rejijlance to her,Jince they would cx~ 
fofs their heads for nought, by oppoftng the public opi- 
nion, which concurs with Fcfer's i&ifb to raifc Catha- 
rine to the throne. This advice circulated rapidly. 
BafTewitz gave the fignal agreed on, and the two 
regiments of Guards, who had been won over by 
bribes to proclaim Catharine, had already mrround- 
ed the palace, and were beating the general. Whi, 
has been fo b-Ad, cried Prince Repuin, commander- 
in- chief, as give this order without my knowledge? 



It was 7, replied General Buttcrlin, wit/jcut intend* 
ing to dijputc y-',iir authority, but to obey the orders :f 
my gracicus J^crcign, the F.nynfs. To this laconic 
reply, a iullen filence fuccccded, and for ibinc mo- 
ments, every body was in the rack of expectation 
and anxiety, when Mcnzikoff entered, followed by 
Catharine, leaning on the Duke of Holftein. She 
attempted to fpeak, but her lighs and tear.-, tor fome 
time ftifled her voice. At hit, recovering her (pi- 
nts, Hie delivered a pathetic fpccch, in which (he 
painted the true or pretended forrow, which the 
Czar's death caufed to her. If the Gr\u:J /J..v.% 
added fhe, rf//l/te my injtrncr. .- r, / /,'.;/; have far- 
/'.<?/>.,-, during my vuidzwbcod, the : >;/;//:/. \ 
an Err.perci, worthy rf ilK b!c:J <.:t:u ..":.' 
ivhofe recent death y::-. , 
She was interrupted bv INIcn/i'kon', who obicrved, 
that in ib critical a juncture, i: \\M^ proper tli.u tl\c 
affembly fhould have liberty :ind time to deliberate- 
on this afiair, fo as not to draw upon themlelvc 
the reproaches either or cote;:ipo r ari 
rity. To tliis cbieclion agreed <-n !>etw 
rine and her favourite, Lhe C'/ \\-'-n\ i-:! n 

formed bv the allcinbU v !;;) 

'.'-.,. > ,,,,,! 


A I ;.v / i i." r-> :: " '1:1 i r I ^ T i i '" '. \ V 

, i. ..: ;, , i 

tied that C.U 



Guards, who had been drawn up, by their orders, 
around the palace, found means of commanding 
Catharine's enemies, in fuch a way, that they durft 
net at firil exprds their fentiments, nor make any 
oppofition. Then nothing more remained, but to 
give the belt poliible colour to what they were a- 
bout to do, bv pcrfuadinor the aiiembly, that Peter 

3 J i O 

had deflined his crown for his wife. With this 
view, Mcnzikoff font for the Emperor's fecretary, 
and afkcd him, if his m after left any writing, that 
could difcover his intentions. The fecretary replied 

* A 

that a fhort time before his hft journey to Mofcow, 
he had cancelled his will ; and that he had frequent- 
ly exprclicd a defire of making another, but had al- 
v/ays been prevented by the reflexion, that if his 
{ubjiich, after lie had railed them from altueof 
barbarity to the higheft pirch of glory, were capa- 
ble of ingratitude, he ought not to expofe his laft 
will to 'he aHiont of a refufd to coniply with it ; 
that if, on the contrary, his fu^ecis recollected 
what they owed to him. they would regulate their 
conduct by the intentions, \vhich he had already 
in:iri : .fjiie:l more folemnly, thai: lie could do by any 
writii.g. IT.OII tliis there arofc a difpute between 
the men.bcrs of the niLml^y and fome Lords, who, 
notwithftanding tlie preience of the foldiers, had 
the courage to oppofe Catharine's friend?. But 
Iheophancs, Arclibifliop of Pld'koff, recalled to 



Uieir remembrance the oath they had taken in the 
year 1722, Th:ii tb-:y wottld acknowledge as Ssvenign, 
the p erf MI, ibatjlmildbc named by the Enpcrcr, andtbii 
prince, added be, made a forma! avowal cf his fenti- 

f Ke>,'!s, en the evening on which !:: ,\r;~cd C,:i;:ar:;ij bz 

ryiunsd. The ceremony of to-wrrow, be r./J ,vj ,?.'/, 

rv 1 :// be ?u,:: i.-nportant, iban people iblnk. J'.s ri'tci is 

ibc coronation of Catbxrhic^ for ib-: p;<rp>ife r.f ::i\-c!ti::^ 

'::r with /,:; j&ficvr of 7V. ; ;;: /;;;;. S/v, vh 0:1 the 

banks of tbj Fr-jib, il^:d t',:: l.,\r,:i,:. /.- :;.'/ c>:!:t^t 

io ibis hon-'iir. l^f-Ji.s I d;:i ^/v- /. .1. p-ai ^-.-''b .?// b?r 

power jhe T;77 niair.laln cur ufcf:ii c_/l\?bb.;!:;:i:i:i;, w.v./.a 

ald'ic can rcncL-r i!:: /:. ,'/:;' bj--'-\ and /..';//. ; .::': :; .?. 

Tin-: prcLirc ii^nccl thi:i d-.-c: ir.itiou, vhich '.!.- 
majoriry of the auenii-Iy c:)ni; Lreii as ;i;rj-.cj:ii-, 
adding however, that ti'.e Luc Miiipcror'siv:ntiuiv;:'.t5, 
fuch as his fecretiiryliiid juil explained rhcm, i^io 1 !!!' - 
cd to a fornicil drii^nation r[ Catharine. The or>- 
polite party denied tiiat \\\c bullr.cis V.T.S f.) cici: 
and conch;i?.ve as Thcr?phancs pretended and main- 
tained, t'rar as L'-.-ler nanird n; 1 irjce:!.):", tiie ::;V 
M l elc^ilr' one reverted te, i;u u.V.e. , ^ru 


iitlute Catharine with the title of Emprefs, and iirft 
Y?id his compliments to her by kifling her hand. 
The whole aHembly followed his exemplc, fo that 
v-heiY this princcfs fhowed herfelf at a Balcony, the 
Guards and populace made the air rcfound with ac- 
clamations oi ; Lcn-g ik-c Catharine ; and in order to 
. encourage them, Menzikoil" threw money among 
them more proiufely a lure way of commanding 
t heir r.ppr obation , 

THIS couriicr did right in being lavifh. It was 
tor himfclf that he was labouring, for Catharine's 
r*ign was his. She had neither application nor ca- 
pacity for managing the reins of flic empire, and 
fhc gave hcrfelf up w'th blind confidence to the man., 
v;lio had been the iirit author of her fortune in her 
youth, and to whom flic owed, the crown in a more 

3- Vi\ till *-C CI L* U. vs 

1") jr. TNG the time uie iat on tlie throne, her life 
v> as noi: one of tlic moft regular. During her wi- 
dowhood Hie liad two lovers, the Counts of Lcwen- 
rok'en and Sapieha. The affection Ihe had for the 
i'.-rmj-r w;;:; oi-ly momentary, but her love for him. 
changed friendship, and ilie prefervcd it ail 
her i;f<:. As for Sapicha I:e poffefled Catharine's 
],t Ht even to. tiie kit period or her life. Menzikoil 
c!: ; oyc.i all her confidence, and was at the greatcir 
rriirh to krc;:- her at a dilbnce from bulinefs, if ever 
ihc willed tc h-:tcrfiTe Vi'ith it, Her life was that 



of an Epicurean. Her detractors charge her v.-irh 
frequently exceeding in Tokay wine, \\i.\J\ al.;:^ 
with a career and a dropfy loon put a pori:xl to he- 
life. She died on the i6;h of Muy 1727, ai'ier a 
reign of two years and fome da\.s, when jui: ent.r- 
ing into the thirty ninth year of her age. 

CATHARINE was above middle ii/:e. In her youth 
fhe had had very delicate and acrrcoMe fe:iiui . 

* O 

and had been very handfomc, but as iiie advanced 
in years, flic became rather too jolly. Her com- 
plexion was fire, here eyes were bhc.L, her li.iir 
was fair, and ihc dyed it black. 1'L-r enen.JL:., 
ipread a report, that ilie could r.eH.'::.r re id uc-r 
write, and the prince! , Kii:-'.aX-'..h or O'unc 
Ollcrmann fig'ncrl fo;- her. \Ve in.uiircJ into the J r.iet 
and found tins report gn.i's calumny. l>ut it max 
be allowed, that it on one iide, tlielj ulii: were un- 
favourable to Cath.mne, hive i\id mucli iil ol her, 
on the other her p, -aegyriivs liav-j gr-j.itl) exaggera- 
ted her charaeli '; and abilities. 

TIIK following anecdotes \\1!I prove v. ;.a uh;r 
moderation Cat!',arine bore her elevaU.T., asi 
far ihc was ire, in torg,-Mi:v; Jier origin. 
Wurmb, who had been preceptor, \v,ii!k lirJuiriric 
was only a lerx'ant in C/luck the miniuer's i innly, 
waited on her, alter iiie been marriL>a to 
the Czar, il\e received him with muJi a[ 
and kindneis. /r/X;/, my &;-d ':'-,: '*:.'/, liif laid 

i .- to 


to him, Are you fall alive ? Very well, I joali lake 
care of you ; and flic fettled a penfion on him. She 
was not lefs attentive to the family of her benefactor, 
who died at Mofcow. She gave his widow a pen- 
iion, made his fon a page, portioned his two oldeft 
daughters, and brought the youngeft to court, where 
ihe was made one of the maids of honour. If cre- 
dit is to be given to Weber, fhc made fever al at- 
tempts to difcover her former hufband. and not 
without fuccefs. While ihe lived with Menzikoff, 
Ihe was every now and then fecretly fending him 
farm of money, till the year 1705, when fhe learn- 
ed that he had loft his life in a feu file. But this was 
only a vague report, as we have already itated. 

SOME writers have advanced, and at Si Peteri- 
burg it 13 affirmed as a faclr, tint Catharine Iiad a 
brother, whom the Czar accidently diuovered, and 
amufed himfclf with introducing to Catharine for 
the fir ft time. The {lory Is told in the following way. 

AN envoy extraordinary from the King of Po- 
land at the Ruffian court, on his return to Dr^fJen y 
Iiacl flopped at an inn in Courland, and had witnef- 
fed ?, ferious quarrel between one of the liable boys 
and feme of his comrades, who were all drunk. One 
of t.l:e:n i"\vore in a high one, while lie laid thcfc 
\vorci3 in a io\v tone, By a jingle ivord I could mak* 
my adverfaries repent of their infoknce^ ftr / have re- 
lations powerful enough to fiunijh them. 


UPON this, the minifter furprifed at his clecifivc 
milliner of expr< iling liimfelf, enquired after his 
name and former Rate of life. The ir.iniiler was 
anR ered, that he was an unfortunate Pole, called 
Charles Shusrcii/ki, that his father was ir.pprfeel to 
hive been a ocm'icman in Lithuania, \\ho d.ied ear- 
ly, to the great lois of this unfortunate young, 
and a liiLer t;t his, whom he hnd loft long a^o. 

THIS aniwer engaged tlic attention or this tra- 
veller, who at 8t Petersburg had l.eard lo ma- 
ny itorics about Catharine, lie examined th-e figure 
at the lad, that was iv/earing, nnd tl.ouglit he per- 
ceived in his coarfe features ibi^e rcieri.l/lancj- to 
tiu;te of Catharine's, vvhich \veri; fo noi)!y call, 2. 
one of her own hifiomns had t'jid, tlut no painter 
could be fuccef-^iul in hitting the expreilion oi her 
beautiful countenance- 

THIS incident, ve!::c-; would have all the appear- 
ance of a romantic fcene, if it were not |Mo\e<l 
to be a fact , ilruck King /luguilu^' ir.i:-.: 
who even indulged hiuiieli: in iiKiking :\ ritiiculous 
ib^ry of if, in ;i letter to .. r i^r'.:, 
the court t^i i-Uiuh. How \: , 
hands of the Czar. i not \vcli 
tiiin, that he touk :i note 

book, and afterwards feiu to P'i; : Kepnm, 
Tcrnor of Rivii, an order to diicovt-r Chai'e 
v/oronfki, to apprehend v.-Ithout any ir.i-j t--> 


his perfon, and to bring him to Riga on fome ho- 
nourable pretence ; and to fend him under a fuffi- 
cient guard, to the chamber of Police at St Peterf- 
burg, whom the Czar had directed to revife a fen- 
tence paffed againft faid prifoner. 

THIS order, which was incomprehenfible to the 
Governor, was punctually obeyed. Charles Scho- 
woronfki was brought to Riga, where the peace of- 
ficers pretended to proceed in the ordinary forms 
againfi him, as a dangerous quarrcller. He was 
then fent under a guard to St Peterfburg, with the 
counterfeit evidence, which proved the charge 
brought atrainft him. 

o o 

CHARLES uneafy at his fituation, although he 
thought himfelf quite innocent, was brought be- 
fore the Judge, who protracted the procefs, in or- 
der to examine the prifoner more at his eafe, for he 
had received orders to found him. To fucceed in 
this the more effectually, he had placed fpies about 
him, and they noted down all his expreilions. A- 
greeably to the information collectedfromhim, which 
was fo much the lefs fufpecccd, that it was given by 
an ingenuous man of no great preteniions, proper 
perfons were appointed to make inquiry in Cour- 
land, and the difcoveries they macie, proved evi- 
dently, that this lad was really brother to the Em- 
prefs Catharine. 



WHEN the Czar got aflurancc of this, he made 
it be hinted to Skoworonfki, that the Judge not be- 
ing difpofed to treat him favourably, he could not 
do better than prefent, with his own hand, a petition 
to the Sovereign; and that means would be deviled 
not only of reaching the throne, but of fecuring pa- 
trons powerful enough, to fupport him ellbctually, 
in his application for rcdreis. 

THE Czar, who had ordered every thing for a 
fcene, with which he propofed to amuib himielf 
greatly, by the furpriib, he would give Catharine, 
made it be told the prifoner, that on a certain day, 
he would go, incognito, and dine with Chapelow, 
the fteward of his houfnola, and when dinner wa< 
over, he would hear Skoworonlki. 

THE Majefty of the monarch appeared not tr- 
intimidate him. He prefentcd his petition n^bl: , 
but it was read wkh'ieis attention, than his liguiv 
was examined. The C/.ar put to him a number (^\ 
cjueftions, which, notwithstanding his embarrail- 
ment, he aufwered fo diitinctly, t! ;t appiu;\ 
evidently, that he was to (iitlnrir.c. 

HOWEVER to remove all i'. ; '-.i ,v!^, tl'.e ( '/'. 
eft him abruptly, orderii:g hhu to \"\ ci.iy 

at the fame hour, ar.d th'u ordci was : .iteiicj o::l\ 
by the promiie of a icntence, wit! 
Tirobablv have re:>(or. to be J Ati.Ue J 


THE fame night while at fupper with Catharine 
the Czar (aid to her ; To-day I dined in Chapeloiv'*- 
where I icxs rn:fl agreeably entertained : I mujl takj 
you there fj/ne dx\. Why not to morrow? But, ad- 
ded he, evading the Czarina's confent, we mujl do 
as I did to day, ibat is to fir, 1 , furprize him, wken b? 
is ivfi rs/H? to t doivn /; table, and ive rui/i ^ tbilber 

J <L/ O O *.-' * */ O 


NEXT e..-;y while Feter and Catliarine Avere din 
Ir.'2T with the flewarcl of the houOiold, Skoworonfki 

O ' 

was introduced and approached the Emperor with a 
look a little more timid, than the preceding day. 
The O/ar then pretending not to recollect the fub- 
] :ct of his petition ; renewed the queftions, which 
he had already put to him, and received from Sko- 
wororiiki the farnc anfvverfi. 

'J'HIS conference was held at. the fide of a win- 
dow, and under Catharine's eye, who fitting in an 
arm-chair, loft not a word ot it. Every fentence 
from Skoworonfki ilruck her car and her foul, and 
the hcildes roufed her attenrice 1 ., l>y faying to 

;.-., /-..,, ,^ { ,,.i\ rr , -;. f/ :i > if n. ..,,, -;Kdcr/Lir.d i:ofbh:? 

if ;:,r L.'V'":; 1 ' ' The ]:',n>prci> who was in tlie greai- 
:.ft .urpriir, could hardly anfwcr for ilanirneririg, . 
But, aJ.J.ed the Czar brifiily, do -f w fes that this 



COME, faid he to Charles, immediately kifs the 
hern of her petticoat and her hand, in quality 
of the Emprefs, and then falute her as your fitter. 
The feeling Catharine could not bear this fccne 
without fwooning. This affected the Czar deeply 
When me \vas recovered, he faid to her in a tender 
tone ; / did not imagine tJ.\rt this fcene i^culd hai^ 
wads juch a ftrong imprcjficn on -;cu. Take courage, 
embrace my lroibcr-in-Li^. If be be a man of Integrity 
and a little abi'it}'. f a-e a'/// make pji-ietJjlng of hi'-: Let 
us go this fccne bjs fu!i?;>.:d you. Catharine \vith 
tears in her eyes, embraced her brother, inireatcd 
the C.xar to continue his favours, both to the bro- 
ther and filler, and left Chapei-.nv's houfe. 

IT is not. exactly kno\vn, by what fingular acci- 
dent Skoworonfki had fufpjclcd or difcovered, that 
his filler had been railed to the throne, tor he did 
not know her, \vhen lie appeared in lier prefence- 
He had rot ventured to difcloio bis fufpicions to 
the Emperor, who r.ivc him a luva!l: T ai'd ici;!ed 
on him a penfion, iiVipofin^ 0:1 I::::i no ot!::r re- 
iiraint, than that of not nuxin^ \vilh nuich com- 
pany, and Of C!;j: 

I-AE has been the head o \\ ii^ur 

prefent amoivy rise irofi il'icd in Ku.-n. 

Count Sko\vc:\.'iilki, Irs 
ment cli.iirJ 



order of St Wolodimer, and Plenipotentiary at Na- 
ples. His two lifters, Mary and Catharine, are 
Maids of Honour to the mprefs. 

WE {hall conclude this head with obferving, that 
the greateft honour is due to the memory of Catha- 
rine, for her humanity, and the companion (he PX- 
prefled at the fight of poor people. But all com- 
mendation is inferior to the noble art, which fhe 
poiTelled, of tranfmitting thefe fentirnents from her 
own heart into that of her hufband, to whom na- 
ture feemed to have denied them. She made it a 
ftudy to be a mediator between the prince and his 
fubjccls. She acted in this capacity always with dig- 
nity, and the courtier, who knew to what degree 

* ' ' O 

flie was jealous of the Czar's glory, never durft em- 
ploy her mediation for the purpofe of obtaining any 
thins- which would make her afterwards blum. 


The entire confidence, which Peter repofed in her., 
\vas douhtlefs to him a fource of precious enjoyment; 
for on the throne as in private life, unbounded con- 
fidence in a wife affords the greateft pleafure to 2 
hufband, while any degree of diflldcncc becomes 
the '- Tr Cti'"cfl G^ misfortunes* 



C H A P. VI. 

PARTICULARS ref peeling Alexis Petrcvjitfcb. fan to .v- 
doxia. Education of this prince. Cbaracler given cf 
htm by Bruce. His manners. Imprudent acls. 
Flight to Naples. Return to Ru/Jla.His trial.- 
Condemned to death by Peter. Tragical end of bis 
confidents. Punijhment of Gleboff.^Particuian rc- 
fpefting Princefs Sophia, wife to the C^ro^itfb. 
Her misfortunes, and death. A fabulous Jlory nude 
on her. 

IN the two former chapters, \ve have traced the 
outlines of the hiftory of a woman, whom fortune 
loaded with her favours, and drew from the n:o:l 
obfcure fituation, to fet her on a throne, to wh;c"\ 
her birth could not furnifh the molt remote preien- 
fions. We are now to contemplate this funo f.;r'ui:e 
burl a prince from a throne, to \viii' h hid birth. 
gave him a hereditary title. 

ALFXIS, the only child whom IVter 1. hid by 
Eudoxia Federowna Lapuchini was born the K>:h c-f 
February 1690; and never was a prince burn under 
more fortunate aufpices, both in relpoct to hinu" If, 
and thofe attached to him by blood and iriemifhip. 

THE circumftances ot his exclufion Irom thr 
throne, and his death, which iollowed as 2. r.-jcc-ff.i- 

K i rv 


ry confequence, arc generally known, but with in- 
terpretations fo different, that the reader, drawn 
far from the road of truth, is reduced to a ftate of 
uncertsinty, or to give credit to facts, difguifed by 
hireling historians, who have found it their intereft 
to calumniate or flatter the memory of this unfor- 


tunate prince. We ftiall now attempt to reftore the 
real ftate of facts. 

IT is a circumftance incontrovertible, that the e- 
ducation of the young Czarowitfch had been unac- 
countably and grofsly neglected, and that he had 
never received the correction neceffary for his age, 
till it was out of all time to infpire him with pro- 
per fentiments, and fix in him good habits. He 
had been entrufted to the care of women, and his 
education left to Ruffian prieits, the moft ignorant 
and contemptible of men. who ftudied to cram him 
with the abfurd prejudices of religion, rather than 
inftruct him in its principles and moral precepts, 
which constitute its chief excellence and utility to 
human fociety. It was thefe priefts, who ruined 
him, by their inceffant and perfidious declamations 
ngainft the Czar, whom they reprefented as a facri- 
le?ious innovator, becaufe he had abolimcd feveral 
barbarous cuftoms, the object of their fuperftitious 
reverence, by which they pretended to fkve their 
credulous flocks* 



AT the age of eleven years, Alexis was taken 
from the management of this contemptible fpccics 
of governors, to intrufl him to Baron Van-huyfTen, 
counfeilor of war, who, along with great merit , 
poffefled the valuable talents, which are rarely 
found in the inftruclors of young princes, though 
all bo:ift of being endowed with them. It is laid, 
that Van-huyffen difcovercd in his pupil tlie moil 
happy ciiipofitions, in fpite of all that the priefts had 
done to choke them ; and that lie did not defpair of 
ridding him of the prejudices they had railed in 
him, when MenzikofF thought proper to remove 
him from the only pcrfon, who was ib cnpaHe of 
infpiring him with fenTiments fuitablc to his rank, 
and the throne, to which he was dcUined. Ihe 
miniftcr took upon himfelf the charge ot Alexis' e- 
ducation, but as McnzikofF feldom iaw him, lie was 
put under the direction of fuhftitnres, not only dcf- 
titute of every kind of capacity, but even worfc 
than the priefts, to whom the early year; of the 
Czarowitfch had been abandoned. It is prefumed, 
that by this conduct, Isi/!i:dkoiT's cxprds int;M!fion 
was to give unreitrained innuV^'nce to the vicic'iis 
inclinations of the prince, aisJ to allow him to aflo- 
ciatc with the moit depraveti companions. In real- 
ity, he paiTed his life in contiii'iH dnsnkiT.ncfs ar.i 
debauchery of every kind. Yet tins fame l\Te-n^J 
koiT. whc IvH Ms own views, afterwards found 


means to extort from this prince, a confefiion, that 
it was Menzikoff only, who had concluded his edu- 
cation, and that he was under the greateft obliga- 
tions to the minifter in this refpect. In addition to 
all this, feveral fads prove that Peter had early con- 
ceived great prejudices againft his fon, and had in- 
fpired him with terror to fuch a degree, that to a. 
void being obliged to draw in the prefence of his 
father, the young prince difcharged a piftol at his 
right hand. When he was not indulging in his vi- 
cious exceffes, his predominant tafte was reading of 
myfticil books, and his favourite anmfement was 
theological difputes, wherein he employed, it is faid, 
his fifts with as much advantage, as he did his lungs. 
To make him attend the council, and to fpeak to 
him of war, the navy or finances, was to him the 
mod difagreeable thing in the world. The impru- 
dence and obftinacy, which he mowed, when oppo- 
fed in his humour, were not only unjuftifiable, but 
feemed to rife to fuch a height, that his paflions 
fometime? deprived him of reaion, and brought on 
him fits of madnefs. Bruce, who knew him well, 
has drawn the following character, in a letter to one 
of his friends in 1714. 

" THE Czarowitfch is come to Mofcow this win- 
" ter, where I have fe'en him for the firft time. He 
" keeps a low bred girl, a native of Finland, who 
f ' might be very agreeable, if a woman could be a- 

" greeable 


tl greeable without modefly. I have often gone a- 
" long with the general, to pay my refpects to this 
" prince, and he has often come to the general's, 
" attended by very bad company. His drefs is ra- 
" ther flovenly than carelefs. He is tall, and well 
** made ; his complexion is brown, his look ftcrn, 
" and voice ftrong. He has often clone me the ho- 
" nour to fpeak German to me, and he underftands 
" it well. He is adored by the populace, whofc ig- 
" norance and vices he affects. By people of a more 
" elevated rank, he is little refpccled, and he him- 
" felf refpecls nobody. He is aKvays furrounded by 
" a multitude of ftupid and debauched priciis, and 
" other individuals of no better defcription. In fo- 
" ciety of this kind he conftantly arraigns the ccn- 
" dud of his father, for having aboliihcd the ancient 
'" cuftoms. He declares, that as fix i as he fucc 
" him, he will re-eftabliili RuiTu in her original i 
" He even threatens to cut o:T every favourlt 
" of the Czar's, but particularly Menz 
" exprefled himicl: la this way ib often, ant 
" fo little circu^fpcalGn, that it could i 
" reach the ear of the, z 
" lieved, this young man has hkl 
* e his own ruin." 

HEATED by the continue: 
and exafperated by the perie 
!y haraflbd with, Alexis fell 


and then into defpair, fo that in the year 1716, he 
all at once renounced his right of fucceilion in fa- 
vour of the fon, whom Peter had by Catharine, and 
requefted permiffion to retire into a cloifter. Pre- 
ferring the advice given by his principal confidenfs, 
he very foon after made his efcape, left the Hates of 
the Czar, and took refuge at Vienna, where he put 
himfelf under the protection of the Emperor Charles 
VI. This prince, wifhing to Taye him from the re- 
ientment of his father, fent- him firtl to Infpruck, 
and afterwards, for more fecurity, to the Caftle of 
St Elmus at Naples, where he was betrayed by his 
miftrefs, to whom he was faid to be married, and 
who was directed to hint to him the propriety of 
having recourfe to his father's clemency. Being af- 
terwards mifled by the folemn promifes of an abfo- 
lute pardon, he hearkened to the advice of the" offi- 
cers font by Peter to Naples for the purpofe of 
bringing him back to Mofcow, and threw himfelf 
on paternal indulgence. It is true, the court of 
Vienna, rot wiuiing to come to "a rupture with the 
C/:ar, vas very iriftrumenta! in making him adopt 
tliis rcfoluiion, or, to cxprds it more properly, laid 
him under the ncce-ilitv of taking a Hep, which he 

rf -J X ' 

coi;l i.i no i avoid. 

AI ; TAR this rcfolution, he folernnly renounced e- 
\ cry tills of ib.:ccillon to the crown, and being car- 
ried to Moicov/, and afterwards to Si Peterfburg, 

- he 


he was confined in the fortrcf; of SchluiTeiburgh, 
tried by comniijllouers, and condemned to death. 
The proceedings of his trial are known. They were 
published by the's order; in the form, 
and appeared in feveral works, with the air of truth, 
which it was attempted to give them. HiiV>ri- 
ans were bold enough to boa;: of teHir.~ not.h-r.^ 
but truth, and Pnilofophers laughed at rlvir pre- 
tended veracity. However matters ii.ind, no:hir~ 
can furnifli greater room ior cor.i- rlure, than tins 
itrange trial, in which a notori^u-, diTerence ex-n:^ 
between 4-he confefions n^iade hv Alexis on his ilrfr. 
examination at ?.Ioic;)w, v.'hi/hi wi" in fome de- 
gree public, and the exammrui >n he underv/ent at 
St I > el;erlJ)U r!.'', vl;icli ha^oeneJ to 1% ': ino.i iV;":;:e!'.t- 
ly in private, iKiore th,e (.'//. ir and ir.s rno ; i:.ti;;;a: 
and confidential iriends. Tiiei, c'u'cuniliance-* rein- 
ed t(; prove that he v^/as put to torture. 

RpspKOTixo the circuiniTance:: << li'^ death, there 
?.re two opinions, v.hicb have been :uhip;ed :M 
preference to the re.'r. O:;e oi t|-e:.'i, 
by tiic Char's ov,?i pi\: 
p'jrfuade, that Aiey.i.s : ;t1 

Dlexy, and cli-d h; co 

1'he other wor-ld ?r.c 

credible. IHJ 
VOL. 15 


and the apology of his panegyrifts. Bufching ha? 
given it as the moft probable and authentic, poli- 
tively averting that Alexis was beheaded by the 
Czar's orders, and that Marfbal Weyde did the office 
of executioner This is a fact, which he fays, he 
had from the woman, who was employed to ftitch 
the prince's head to his body, before it could be ex- 
pofed on the ftate bed. 

ALL, who had advifed the Czarowitfch, who had 
been the companions of his flight, or afllfted him 
in it ; all in fhort, who had any lhare in his confi- 
dence, or in the plots imputed to him, were tortu- 
red to death. The execution of GlebofF, who was 
alfo accufed of a criminal" connexion with Kudoxia, 
and a confpiracy ajrainft the Czar, was atrocious 

I y O * 

-and highly diihonourable to Peter, The unfortu- 
nate Gleboffwas not only empaled alive, but Peter, 
before delivering him up to this cruel punimment, 
took a pleafure in torturing him for the fpace of 
x weeks, all with a view to extort from him a con- 
feflion of the commerce he was accufed of having; 


had -with Eudoxh. GlebotT, during this tedious 
r.v-irtyrdnm, was a model to lovers, and conftantly that Eudoxia luid granted him no favours, 
and that ihc v.\;s more iaithful as a wife, than Peter 
as a hufbur.c!. It 13 reported that Peter advanced to 
this unfortunate man, when ready to expire under 
ihc empaling, and advifed him in the name of reli- 


gion to make a confefiion of Eudoxia's crimes. 
Barbarian ! faid GlebofF to him with a feeble voice, 
What is your folly ? For fever al day* yw ba-i-t. ;; i.z:>: 
removed me from one cruel punijbrr tut to c.n'jthtr jini 
more cruel, and you think that at this wi/.Y;?;/, iji.-.n 
death is juji going to end my torments, I x:.iy bij,: :'.-. 
innocence and honour of a uife, u'ho hjs cMhtnitt^l nt 
other fault, but that of having loved you tw it-til. A- 
ivay with you and let me die in pcac:. \Viii!e fii.iiii- 
ing thefe words, fays the hiftorian, from v.ln;;-i we 
have borrowed thcfe particulars, Glcboff c( llcacd 
the little ftrength that remained in him, lltied u;, 
his head, fpit in Peter's face and expired. 

ALEXANDER KIKIN, Commiilioncr oi tiie .-\dn^- 
ralty, Alexis' favourite, and companion in his lli^ht ; 
Abraham Lepuchin Eudoxia's brot.hcr, KT h.ivir.g 
advifed him to it ; the Bilhop of Noitott, who v.-.i 
Gleboff's brother, and PouUionoi the monk, aa uxd 
of having mitigated him to conlpire asrai:;:: 
Czar, and his regulations, were all bn ken un t!.e 
wheel, around the (pot where Gleboii v. a 
Count Romanzoff and Toiitoe v.xix 
ly rewarded for having brought : 
from Naples, and for aiiaa;^ in dr.iv.-r.g up t 
charge. Romanzoffgot the rank ^ ^ 
and the pay of Lieutenant-general 
Kikiu's property, v/hkh wua conblcj 

L ; *U 


who was already a fenator, received new honours, 
and Gleborr's property, which was immenfe. 

CATHARINE I. was fufpecled of having, along 
with MenzikorT, irritated the father againit the fon, 
and of having caufed the death of this unfortunate 


young man, who was rather imprudent than crimi- 
nal. This fufpicion arofe from thcfe circumitances, 
becaufe Peter, Catharine's fon was declared fuccef- 
for to the Czar, and bccaui'e Toliloe, one ol the 
principal comrmflioners on Alexis' trial, to whom 
the particular examination of this prince was en- 
trufted, was known to be the creature of Ivlenzi- 
korF, whofe interefts and thofe of the Emprefs, were 
the fame. But Peter himfelf has jufiified Catharine, 
by declaring publicly, that fne had interceded in or- 
der to Live the life of his fon, and requeued, that 
inftead of putting him to death, lie ihouki be fhut 
up in a monaftery. Is this decuration a piece of 
condefccnlion of Peter's in favour or I. is beloved 
wife? This we know not, but fume hiilomns have 
given us to under Hand fo. 

Ox the 2 fth of October 1711, at Fonrau in Sax- 
ony, Alexis the Czarowitfch had rnarriea Charlotte 
Chriitina Sop-hia, daughter to Rodolphus of Brun- 
fwick-Blakenburg, filter to Elizabeth Chriilina, wire 
to Charle.3 VI. She was born on liie 2oth of Auguic 
1694, and made her public entry into St Peterfburg, 
in comar with h^r huil;and in ul 112. 


union, which was the cairfe of puMlc rejoici :::, in 
the capital for more than a week, ha. I or,'- a irw 
'happy days ; for although Sophia was a ver; 1 
tiiul woman, and had In!! more virtue than he u;ry; 
although fne itemed to have been the choke or" 
Alexis, who had ft en IHT ru !'< r Li'Iiei'i court : 
treated her always with the ^rtiteft contempt, 
lived with that Finlandcr, called Kur-hroiyne, wh. in 
we have already mentioned. This \vi"',:i.r.i \\.'s 
born in obfcuriiy, as ail proftitutcs are, :ir.J. !:.d 
thcii* qualtfications, which proved more iuit:iVse to 
A:exib' manner of ii'. i:v;-, ihan : r.i 1 ier.' .r.rr.r ; i !> .-. . r 
the iHV)deil Sophi*. Ir rnuU n( ; ho-.u k -er . 
ed, that this pritiec treated Iv.r v.lih i.i n u-Ji in 
inanity as feme hiitorians have g,i\ci n "i ; , t (N : 
fiance, tint he he-it her frequcnil) : tor thoup.M !;- 
might ha\e had feroe!':y enouc.h to hav; 
ted fuch an ouirj^e, he vv-;.>uld 
by his dread of the Cz:ir, who, as wi-ll a. ( .: 
cxpreiled always the crr^atj.a co.r.c 
happy fituaUon ol tite Prince..- H-.pii;a. 


wards reined unckr t 

as attcr tiir- birth oi 



of the forrow, which had been for a long time 
preying on her fpirits. She was only in her 
twenty- firft year, and her death, with which every 
other perfon was deeply affected, was a matter of 
indifference only to herfelf and her unfeeling huf- 

THE evening before her death, fhe fent a long 
petition to the Czar, which drew tears from his 
eyes, and in which fhe recommended to his atten- 
tion her children and domeftics, but did not once 
name Alexis, which proves the mifunderftanding, 
that prevailed between them, and how much the 
unhappy creature's heart was wounded. The moft 
fervent wifh that Sophia expreffed, was to fee the 
Emperor before fhe died, and it was gratified. Pe- 
ter, who was at Schluffelburg at the time of her de- 
livery, let out as foon as he received the news. 
When he got to the capital, he found himfelf very 
m>ch indifpofed, and was obliged to go to bed, 
without feeing the princefs ; but when he read the 
affectionate and dutiful expreffions of his daughter- 
in-law, he ordered hhnfelf to be carried into her 
bed-chamber. Their interview was moft affecting. 
She bid him a forrowful and laft adieu in language 
moft moving, and again recommended her chil- 
dren to his care, and her domeftics to his protection. 
She received from him every confolation, which 
her fituation could admit of, and the ftrongeft af- 



furance, that every requeft of hcr's fhould be com- 
plied with. After having killed the Coir's hind, ihe 
made a fign for her children to approach, and ha- 
ving bathed them with her tears, Ihe delivered them 
into the hands of her hufband, without (peaking to 
him a word. He had come to the toot ot the bed 
of his dying wife, becaufc the C/ had intimated 
to him this order. He appeared indifferent and 
conftrained. When Peter went out, he retired, 
and the unfortunate Sophia expired about midnight, 
after having differed all the pangs of the molt cruel 

SHE had been educated and me died in the Lfl- 
theran religion, to which Ihe was attac! cd In m 
considerations of philofophy. Tins Alexis du 
excufe, becaufe by the infliction of the popes. 
had in vain folicited her to embrace the Ore. 
of worfhip. Notwithftanding this difference 
opinion, which was no wife regarded ^ by 
Sophia was buried by his orders, 
the murmurs cf the Popes, in .1 
in the cathedral cf St Peter an 
her corpie was carrie 1, on t 
1714, with all the honours 

WE have entered into th, 
the death of this prir.c fs, not 
muft affect all fenfible fouls 
a work entitled Intcnflii-z 


there appeared an account, which, if true, is widely 
different from what has been juft now related. 

ACCORDING to this account, the Emperor vyas 
abfent from St. Petersburg at the time of Princefs 
Sophia's delivery, and loon after (he perfuadccl forne 
people, who were attached to her, to fpread a re- 
port of her death, llcr hufband, who had paid no 
attention to her during her illnef;, ordered her to 
be interred without any kind of pomp, and inftead 
of her corpie, they buried a bit of wood in the ca- 
thedral. She afterwards fled into France, it is add- 
ed in the fune work, and fearing to be difcovered, 
ihe thence embarked for Louifiana. There (lie mar- 
ried a military man, who was only a ferjeant. He 
war, a Frenchman, and had been formerly at St Pe- 
ter{b:ir^. He had one daughter by her in the year 
i/'v'. She afterwards returned to Paris with her 
huiband, and one diy as ihc was walking in the 
Tlmillenes, 3 he was difcovered by Marfhal. Saxe s 
who pronnfrd her fecrccy, and gave employment to 
her imiband on the iilc o(- i'io'urb-on, \vliither Sophia 
ar/.-.omparik-d him ; and foon after their arrival, (lie 
!i;J the misfortune to loic not only hiinfetf, but the 
d.vL'.r^htcr ilic liad bo;- to iiini. After this double 
loK Sr-phia returned ro ^ninco in the year 17^4, 
iicconipanii'd by one negro-giri, and without any 
tlung to iupport her, but iou\e bills on die India- 


company, drawn in the name of her huflnnd, and 
not paid her, bccaufe (he could not prove hcrfelf to 
be his wife. A gentleman, who had been acquaint- 
ed with her in the illc of Bourbon, offered her his 
ierviccs, \vhidifhc accepted of, after having lon^ rc _ 
fufed tlie:;i, and at fame time acknowledged who 
fhe was. It is from him thac-thc author of thefe in- 
terefting memoirs, or rather fables, prctcndi to have 
learned them ; and he add;, that (}\c dilarpcarcd 
fbon after, and there is room to fupnoie, that fhe 
retired to the court of BruhKvkk, In thU marvel- 
lous account it is aiib faid, tiiat the J-v'ing h;.l iocrct- 
!y difcovered her, and had ouier.\! ih<: governor of 
the iile of Bourbon to pay l:cr the honour-; i!'j-.- !>> 
her birth : that in a letter wi i.ten by iiis own 1: :nJ, 
this prince communicated the difeovery to tlie l.:a- 
prefs Queen of Hungary, and wrote immediately to 
the princefs, as to her aunt, adviim;.;- her to leave 
her hufbaiKl and her ;bn, wiior.i the Kinr or Fr.iiicc 
)iad proiiiifcd to take care oi, :I:K! piviar.; ];.;r to 
come to Vienna. 

THE editor of this extraordinary r.arraJ: 
djr to give nyore weight lo !ii. 
from the papers of ti-.e de 
ry to the Fivncii aeademy, 
France. I'.u: \ve will . .^ 
there, or 

the trutli of :ii- taJ:, an, 
VOL. II, -'i 


act information, that the Princefs Sophia's death, 
with ail its circurn (lances, was unqueftionable, and 
agreeable to what has been now related. A Ruffian 
nobleman, of the firft diftinction, has befides allu- 
red us, that his mother attended the Princefs du- 
ring her Hinds, was witnefs of her lafl moments. 
and law her body on the Hate-bed, when, according 
to ciiiiom, people of quality were admitted to kifs 
her ha-nd. After this, can we believe the compilers 
of anecdotes, who tell us barefacedly, that they have 
rnnfacked the moft. iccret records, and the moil au- 
thentic memoirs ? 

C H A P. VII. 

'Eri-.a 111. his wftrrlaj ^iih Catharine. Children 

in \vhich Elizabeth keeps yo:i"g Peter. He fixes hh 
rcj]Jcncc at Oranienbair/ii, Regiment that he forms 
ihcrc. lie prefers forcig/^rs to Ruffians. Attempt* 
in alienee Elizabeth^ s affection from him. Elizabeth 
ilics. Peter ajccxds the thrwc* Exiles recalled 
id. Biro:. Ivlunlch. Particulars and 

l\ ]:y '.h:: r.avvtion or the circumftances, that con- 
r-.lut--u to tV.c- elevation of Catharine I. and to the 



misfortunes of Alexis, we h.ivc been abl: to eMg.'^e 
the attention, and excite the iyinpathy oi our re.ul- 
ers, we think they \vili not be lei's aliened \\itli the 
famous revolution, which let Catharine 11. on the 
throne of the Rufiias, which ihc occupies in A way, 
that mufl attract the notice of pollcrky. \\'e Live 
leen, that the f-rlt revolution in 1-41 had ::;'\en ;'.. 
fceptre to lT:'ibc:h, daughter to ?. icr tiuMi;. 
and Catharine I. The year i : ollo\u:.;;-, ini ,\'.\ 
for her fuceeilor, fixed on her ncp:u\v ( '.!:../!.- \\- 
ter-Ulric, iou to Charles-Frederick Duke or liol- 
flein-Gottorp, and to Ai-r.e, d;;uglu,r to i'.ur 1. 
This younc 1 " prince, tuen tourteen years c*'. .1 -e. i:>- 

r O 1 

braced the Greek religion, which he de;phcJ in In 
heart, and had the in^prudence to ridicule il\ 
times. In cor.i'equence of this,:.;: ironi one re- 
ligion to another, which the pr;eit> i.ill .ib|Ui uu :., 
tliouofh its true name ou::ht to he .IJV-U.UA, t!i- 


young Peter wns procl.iimed C'.raiul IV, 

with all the cuiloimn forjnalitie , and to. 

tie of Peter Vc^Lr,- :,''-. h ^ }^ ' 

out any previous aap..iin!J 

Sophia- AuguftJ. Prince 

Again baptised according to t. 

church, and received the name ot t:.ii!:.u-ii,c Ale 

efria. She was born on the 2, ih of April 17 

was fixtecn years of age at die lime OJ her mau: : 

Two cJulcircn only \\;;re tiu- cor.leijuei 


nion; the Grand Duke Paul, born in the year 1754; 
and Anne Petrowna, who was born in the year 
1757, and died in 1759. 

FOPV feveral years, the moft perfect undcrltanding 
fubfifted between this royal pair, at leaft in appear- 
ance ; but as they were of an oppofite character, 
their affections w T ere foon mutually alienated, and 
the difguft and averfion, which they had conceived 
for one another, mowed itfelf openly. Peter, whofe 
education had not been that of a prince ; Peter, who 
had been induftrioufly kept at z diitance from affairs, 
and by Elizabeth always in a childiih dependancc, 
had conceived a fondnefs for an indolent life, and 
for a long fpace of time, had been incapable of re- 
liming rational amufements, and of occupying hirn- 
felf with ftucly. He fought only to divert his mind 
with ufdefL fubjccts or difgraceful pleafurco. lie 
\vas conftantly furrounded with fpies, \vho made to 
the Ei;iprcfo the moft unfavourable reports on his 
conduce; and me being but too much difpofcd to 
fufpect his intentions, was always afraid of fome re- 
volutionary plot, fuch as that, which had let hcrfelf 
on the throne. 

WHEN Peter was at St Pctcrfourg, he lodged in 
the palace, and lived there rather as a ftate prifcnsr 
than as the heir of the empire. "When the Emprefs 
went to PetcrfhorT, he w:.s permitted to rcfide at his 



favourite retreat at Oranicnb.-uim, \\lurc ]: tViLw- 
ed out liis taltc tor military excuiks, \\hi.!i u,- ; - 
his fole amufement during the la ft yeirs it 1 Ir.'.>- 
beth's reign. He began with formm;.; a c.-n.j\iny 
pf his domeftics, whom he exricikd ami ui-th.-d in 
the Pruflian mode, and re^ulirly attended the cx- 
erciic every day iiimlelt. '1'he Kmpri-l> apprn\\-ii -it" 
this innocent amufement, wliich inij;i>t dei.uh iur 
nephew from intrigues in jH)liiii>, love, < r t. me- 
thing ftill worfe. Slie therefore c^.\!ered .1 Cvrrain 
number of foldiers to be dratted tnun k\\ !>,".- 
ments, and added to the eomp.iny a: < >!>bra:n. 
and garrifoncd in tin's palace, 
company or regiment was m..t c v.p, \ 
mans, but principally ot l'ruiii.ii:>. 
an oliic-jr in it, who wa^ i 
bra^e to the Ruiiian nobility, v>'.o. 
did not wiili to be admitted int, 
jealous of tlic prince's predilection !->r |., 
and this predilection prove* 

THE Grand Duke er.g.iged k. 
employment. In ins i;::ru;n i 
iniall ieale. Ir was feve 
i'ui to his ftudie.; in tl:e art ot 
vitli tills firft attempt, 
flructcd near the p.,1 ice > 
hrplan. Of this ' 


like appearance in this court, which made the Grand 
Duke happy, the Emprefs laugh, and the Ruffians 
murmur. In the morning, at night, and at the 
hour of parade, the guns were drawn out. The 
fentinels* were numerous, and the rounds as fre- 
quent, as in a city with an enemy at its gates. In 
this houfe in particular Peter gave entertainments, 
and got drunk, it is faid, with his Germans, when 
he was not employed in exercifing or iffuing orders 
to what he called his army. 

NOTWITHSTANDING this kind of liberty, which 
the Czarina appeared to give him, he was not the lefs 
fenfible of the conftraint, in which her fufpicion al- 
ways kept him, and often even in public he broke 
out agr.inft her into violent invectives, w r hich fome 
were buiy enough to repeat to Elizabeth, not without 
xnuch malicious exaggeration. His enemies, and they 
were not few, reprefented him, to the Emprefs, as 
ungrateful for her kindnefs, complaining that he 
was invited into Ruflia only to be confined as a ftate 
prifoner, exprefling the greateft delire to return to 
Holftein, and reiling all his hope and confolation 
on the death of his benefactor. Elizabeth, credu- 
lous like all women, liflened to thefe reports, which 
were almoil always malevolently interpreted, and 
they made fuch a deep impreffion on her, that her 
jealoufy growing with her age, he was once on 
the point of following the advice of Chancellor Bef- 



tuchefif, who was really of opinion, that (lie fliouLt 
exclude Peter from the right of fucccfiion to the 
throne, and name her grand nephew Paul 
in his room, and Catharine as Regent in c:\fj of .1 
minority. Such was the c of ail'iirs, when I'.li- 
zabcth died on the 25th of December 1761. 

ON the 5th of January 1767, the ('/.ir P<ter ill 
mounted the throne, with all the. joy, r-juM 
be felt by a man, who was eN.Jiv.atcd, irom L-ii.:; 
flavery, to be inverted with fuprcii'..' power. 11!- 
firft attention was directed to the relief of the lute 
prifoners, whom the jcaloufly, or \ve.iknefs ot II:- 
zabeth had thrown into the cells or ^I!KTLI. Bin >: 
the favourite and prime minitler rr (}\c ;.;npi\; 
Anne, whofc arrogance and misfortune., \ve hi\ t; 
defcribed, was the firfl, \vhom Peter releafcd. 
reflored to him the Duchy of Courlar.d, and Hire: 
at Mittau remembered tlie 
at Berezowa. At Mittau lu: 
had received leilbns troni ad- 
by them. His death was ;h 
the grief it occafioncrl to tli. 
is affectionate ions exper 

MARSHAL Munir.h wv, ti 
recalled, and whole return 
Chriltopher Burclnra, kiv 
^Munich, w^5 ion to 211 oi 1 


King of Denmark. After receiving a good educ&> 
tion he at the age of feventeen entered into the fer- 
vice of the Landgrave of Heffe Darmftadt. He had 
fpent the early part of his life under Marlborough 
and Eugene, and had fecured their efteem. After- 
wards he had gone into the fervice of the King of 
Poland, and at laft into the Ruffian ; where after 
having ferved with equal honour and fuccefs, he 
had arrived-at the rank of Field Marlhal. In the 
different enterprizes in which he was employed, and 
v/hich he executed with a degree of judgment, on- 
ly to be equalled by that minute punctuality, which 
i.s to be found in Germans alone, Munich had made 
himfelf be feared rather than loved, becaufe he was 
irafcible beyond all defcription, and ftill more im- 
placable, when he thought himfelf offended, which 
lie ofren imagined himfelf to be on the flighted 
grounds. In his family he was particularly fubjecl: 
to fits of pafiion, f'o that it was only the neceffity of 
gaining a livelihood, or the hope of riling to fome 
good appointment, that kept fervants with him ; 
for it \vii$ necedary to watch him continually, to 
gviefs liis wifhes, to be a perpetual Have to his whims 
?JK! oddities, and to bo more than literally exact in 
the cxccinion of his orders. He has often been 
known to change colour, to gnafh his teeth, ancl to 
drive A kcKLu-y from his cabinet, becaufe he had 



Bot folded a letter to his n.ind, or 1>. cr:lc in < 
ing it he had omitted a comma. }\ut h: 
nutcs after, Munich \v>s aihamed o! his pafiuv 
called the frcrctary, and u -/T! a kind ' 

ration. This was the moment u> c>ht.iin a t 
from him; and. k-rvinu, who arc cap.'h!;. 1 IM v >/ ;. 
insr and difcoverinsr the \vc>knc^ ^1 tlni; 

o o 

uev 7 C2' let an oppcrturiify el<*ip . Mu'iu 1 ) 
?v rnoit zealous patron to his, and in. 1 
of them all. Hu\v man v mailer; iii; Mui'i J ' 1: -\v 
many ierv:n)fs lik: lus ! And hov/ m ,- Ur;i;:. 
do we find made like theirs ' 

MUNICH poiTelVed tli- coid'dciir, o! I ;: ^ 

Anne, and employed it tor rcndcnr.. 1 , 
vices to Ruilia, \viio v/iil never : 
indebted to him for the inflitution of th- 
Cadets, and for the canal. 
to the "YV'oIpu , a \voi-k, * 
traniportaticn of provifu-io t: 
fcrvcs the capital iY->;:; !'-ir.-!ry 
it \v;'s cxooi -'-' t ( N " r : 


lovers, gave him up to commiilioners appointed iQ 
examine the ftate-prifoners. As thefe commiffioners 
were fuch, as all defpots take care to choofe, when 
they have any perfonal refemtment to gratify, Mu- 
nich YV as of courfe found guilty. 

IN the firft examination, which he underwent, 
it is reported that Prince Trubetzkoi, who was pre- 
lident of the ccmmiilion, alked him if he was able 
to exculpate hirnfelf for the untimely deftruction, 
of fo many men in the Dantzic affair? Munich re- 
plied , that the papers depoiited in the war office 
would juftify him, but that he had fomething great- 
er to reproach himfelf with, for which he would 
never forgive himfelf What is that afked Trubet- 


ikoi ? It is, replied Munich, that I did not make 
you be hanged, when you was accufed, and con- 
victed of having pillaged the military cheft, during 
the war with Turkey. Trubetlkoi remained for 
fome time confounded at this rebuke, which he did 
not in the leaft expect, and put an end to the exa- 
mination the fconer, becauie he knew the Emprefs 
was attending concealed behind a fcreen. 

THE next day at a feccnd examination, Munich 
xvearicd out with the captious queftions, that were 
put to him, and convinced of the plot formed to 
find him guiity, rofe up in a pailion, and faid to the 
commiilioners. Vibai is the ufe of fo many artful 
Jhifts? I know y cur intention ; Let us Jhorten this fede- 



Timt. Diftate the anfwcrs you -ivijh m: to .r ; , ir. / / 
'willjtgn them. They took him at his word, wrote 
a long ferious of confeffiom of crimes, which Mu- 
nich iigned, and thus thcfe flrange proc^dir.;;s wci- 
concluded. He was immediately convicted, and 
without any other formality condemned to \:c I 
in pieces by horfes ; a dreadful punifhment, which 
he heard pronounced without the leait emotion. 

HE fhowed no lefs courage on the cl ;y they were. 
carrying him out for execution. lie walk,, I be- 
tween two rows of ibldiers, with a fie.idy iii p, a 
rnodeft countenance, and a ferene look, wlii/ii e-x- 
prefTed the tranquillity of his loul arid hi-> - 
innocence. On his way he took notice 01 everv . 
dy, and if he recogniied any ofiicer, lie Lilutu 
afFeclionately. When he arrived at the place 
ecution, he fiiid to the olllcer, who was at the ! 
of the corps, Sir, command with that iirmnet, 
which you have teen me in battle. / ,j 
favour only. Gkv asfeon us {//;> 
delivering me from a life, <:ct 
I would have tj/t mart /;r:< 
entreated him to accept or hi. je\vc!>, \ 
of very great value ; 'L '/Mi )"^> 
fortunate Munich, laid he to him, N 
them into his hand. 

Oiat energy which was natural to him, 


\vas alib fupported in the part he had to act, by that 
immoderate vanity, which marked every moment 
of his life, and by that pafiion for fame, which 
made him view future generations publifhing the 
memorable actions of a life, crowned bv a tragical 

' O 

death, and \vorthy of their commiferation. 

BUT this tragedy did not end as he expected. 
Scarcely had one of the Judges read the fentence, 
xvhen the place refounded with cries of Pardon. 
Elizabeth, who was not fanguinary, had fhuddered 
\vith horror, when me finned a fentence, which 

O J 

condemned one of her fubjecb to be torn in pieces ^ 
and a mbied, whom in her heart me knew ro be 
innocent, or guilty only oi" having difpleafed her. 
Hemorfe prevailed in thL awakened foul, and death 
was changed into banilhment ro Siberia. At this 


news, inftead of being tranfported with joy, Munich 
feemed to lofe courage. His radiant brow was over- 
caft with clouds, and fome people, who were prcfent, 
have affureci us, that they beheld him returning 
to the fortrefs, ihedding a torrent of tears. 

DURING the reign of Elizabeth, that is, more 
than twenty years, he continued an exile at Pelim 
in Siberia, in a kind of fort, which, according to 
Jvlaniiein, he himfelf had caufed be built, for Biren, 
\vl-.oiTi he v. lined to deftroy. It \\-as a fquare ipace, 
of -about a h.nidrecl and feveniy fccr a fide, incloicd 
try high pCi'ifades, wherein there was a woodei:. 



houfe, In which he lodged \\ith hi:, wire u..! loi 
fervants, and a little garden, which he cu 
with his own hands. He was allowed a luin ^ 
to fix-pence fterling a day, for the luppori ot ! 
felf, his wife and fervants. But i.e inrrLiiol : 
poor allowance by keeping cow>, of \vlu)i ir.'nk 
fold a part, and by giving f mc young people <! 
nius lefTons of geometry . During his long c.ipti 

ty his behiiviour was that: of a man. p 

ed, calm, and even conrer,'.-ed. Kvcry d.iy 

ner he gave his wife a to:; 

py return to Sf Pcierfjvr^ ;ir.d fl^L^r 

from eleven i.ill no< n, ai d 

nidit, to the daily cxerc ; ic ot pra>er. 

, . i 
. HE was always tupp; ru 

ter III. would let lum '.- 
the Uirci-.c ; but io 1- 
evenc, being iil^'d 
in the litration, in v. :. 
that his cxp- 1 
ccl feveral \vt cl-:i u; ' 

twcen tear 

Athftonthe nth of I 
, peaedncwsaimc. AYhenthe 


His wife made figns not to interrupt him. When 
he heared the news of his recall he fainted, and 
when recovered he fell on his knees, and thanked 
God with the greateft fervour. 

ON the i pth he fet out from Pelim, and arrived 
at St Peterfburg on the 24th of March, clothed in 
the fheep-fkin he Ir.d worn in his prifon. All his 
relations had advanced to meet him. He watered 
them with the tears, which joy drew from his eyes, 
and with thefe were mingled the tears of the offi- 
cers and foldiers, whom he had in former times 
led on to victory, and who on this occalion fen ed 
as a retinue to him, while he walked in proceiTion 
to his houfe. From the character now given of 
Munich, we may well judge, that this was the moil 
delightful day of his life. 

ON the 31(1 of fame month he was introduced to 
the Emperor, who after having inverted him with 
the badges of the Order of St Andrew, and re-efta- 
blifhed him in his former rank, faid to him, 

" I HOPE your advanced age will not prevent you 
" from ferving me Hill." " Since your Majefty, 
" replied the Count, has made me pafs from dark- 
*' neis to light, and recalled me from the wilds of 
" Siberia to admit me to the foot of your throne, 
64 you fhall find me always ready to rifk my life in 
cc your fcrvke. Neither my long banifiiment, nor 

" the 


<s the rigours of the climate of Siberia, have been in 
" any degree able to extinguifli that ardour, \vhi-. h I 
" formerly difplayed for ihe intcrefls of Ruftii, av.J 
" the glory of my Sovereign." 

MUNICH enjoyed the favour of Peter III. (' 
the fhort period, this prince iat on the thnme, and 
the protection of Catharine II. till the) car i::.;, 
when he finifhed his career at the age ot eighty ii\e 
years. But his faculties' had failed him, and he 
had outlived his glory, like all old men, who have 
acted a confpicuous part in the world, and have not 
had the prudence to retire from the icene, \vhcn 
intellectual powers were forfaking them. 
time of his death Munich was Governor or l.iici 
and Livonia. He had taken it into hi> head to in ik> 
a fea port of Rocherwick; apian, which he onb 
did not think abfurd, and Catharine II. was g K 
enough not to oppofe, from motives of indulge 
to thelaft moments of this worthy old man, !mi 
fo foon as his eyes w-ere doled, the rort n 
more thought of. 

THE unfortunate Leftocq r 
zabeth in mounting the thr v 
facrificcd to a cabal, covetous 
adventurer, wa^ not forgottei 
another place we have obierv 
ilored him to liberty, bur that 
from him for ever, lh.^ 


leanif d to live on little in the deferts of Siberia ; 
and this art is much more conducive to happinefs, 
than immenie riches, which glitter but do not 

AMONG thefe reflored to liberty by Peter III. one 
of the molt considerable was the Count de Hordt. 
a Swedifh nobleman cf the mod illuilrious birth, 
who had left his country, in confequence of being 
concerned in a plot, formed by Count de Brahe, 
in favour of the court, to iupprefs the Diet, and 
render the King':; authority again fupreme. Count 
de Herat, of h'gh reputation with the moil celebra- 
ted Generals in Furopc, entered the Pruffian fer> 
vice, after his cfcape from Sweden, and after ha- 
ving rifcn to the rank of Lieutenant-general, and 
gained the eucem of Frederick the Great, was made 
priforu-T by the Ruffians feme clays after the battle 
of Cuilrin: where Frederick was completely beaten. 

INSTEAD of being treated with the rctpecl: due 
to hi.-! rank and reputation, Count de Hordt un- 
cl-:r\\ en;: the rl. r ours cf die Ir.'rdeiL captivity for 
near ihree yen's. This captivity did not terminate 
tii. tiic i:-.:--i of ] r .li;:abcthj who oil this prisoner. 
took vei::i;'ja!ice for a ibrt <>t i;ut;',ige, whicli flic 
itii. ;...v. ilic haii rcc-ivcd iron; ii:e r,-iiiL: oi" Fruilia. 


becau! he had broken on the \vlieei a Ruiiian Licu- 
tenaiu 3 con\lacd ol: !ia\:ng ioraicd a plot to afialli 


Jiate the garrifon, to which he and hi, companion 
had been committed, 

PETER III. who adopted a good fyftem ot policy 
direclly oppofitc to Elizabeth's, lott'no time in mi 
king reparation for the injuries done to Count vie 
Hordt, not only by fetting him at liberty, I JU c ! 
'-vife by giving him the kindcii reception, ;md adrr.i^ 
ting him into his confidence, 


rxisruAriON '/Peter III II: .<.;/.,- ,- .:., 
the King cf Prujfia.Hh r-.f.rn.M^--:,- 

cited bv tb:m. His imprudcr. :. l\in: - 

* / 

Czar's private life.Of Cathjnr-c bh :.: .. 
Counter's cflVci;nz.>\ Peter's ::.['! i\f:. 

j\ T .1 r .1 -r /' i 

jTll tne tmyj or tn^ Liprti: i.iirabcth \s <:_ 
Ruilia was at v.-ar with the Kii:^ of IVu'ii L, i-. ^ 
cert v.-ith the courts of Vtriiiil3e:i ar.;i \ : .;: . 
had reiibn to look for th.. molt g!orL>,- !L.\ 
Frederick's reiources were ilmoit 
'us vJirorous arjd r.Kxd -J'.ii i'.,'iit:'.'c. .:::: i , :i ; 
verge cf being overcome bv J nu::.L\ 

T7 r i ,, ,. ,. ( , ; , , i j . t ,. ..,',,.;, 

adn'iirer of Frederick., h;'<J r.-j i ' :i r.\ -:\;:\ 
throne, thaxi he diipaU'lied 

VOL. If, 


to Berlin, with inftructions to propofe to him z 
f'peedy reconciliation. This oiler was joyfully ac- 
cepted by Frederick, \vlio immediately came to an 
advantageous ;i;.;reement. He had to do with a 
young man, whole weak fide he knew, and profit- 
ed by ir. Frederick poflefled the qualicy of turning 
the character of thofe, with \vhorn he negociated to 
Iris advantage, and a truce was inftantly concluded. 
Peter not only recalled the Ruilian troops, that were 
fcrving in the Auiirian army, but alfo lent, a fhort 
time after, twenty thoufand men to the afliftance of 
his hero. Thus in the fpace of four months, the 
Rirflb.ns joined the army to drive from Si- 
IjiLi the fame Auilrians, to whom a fhort time be~ 
i'cre tliev had cuencd a calTije into thii fame pro- 

i i O * 


FOLLOWING his o\vn inclination, without con- 
fuki;:.g cither the allies, or the intered and honour 
of his empire, Peter afpired at no more than regain- 
ing' what he called the inheritance of his fathers. 
'Ihis was the fnare of the duchy of Slefwick, pof- 
i'c'Ted bv them, which he claimed in quality oi 
Duke of Holftein. 'I'he object of his claim had been 
ceded to Denmark by a treaty in the year 1752, 
ilc wa.s tiierei-. ;re en the eve of dragging his fubjecH 
I, no -:.\\ expeniive svar with the King of Denmark, 
by means oi: thefe pretenfions, which many recrard- 
';d as cLirncTk-tl or ill fuur;dca. It is a fad that the 


iame courier brought orders for the Ru." : u 
to join the King of Pruilia, and for railing .in .irni) 
for advancing to the frontiers of Hulibjin, \v!,il- 
Peter propofed to command in pofon. 

WITH regard to ihc ir.iairr government "f l.i 
ftates, he turned al! his attention to different ; 
of reform, and it cannot be denied, wh itever h i'r 
may' have been raifed againfl:, i; 
ftanding his precipitation and imprudence, Kr. 
Indebted to him for many ult;;il and im;- 
changes. Me abclifiicd the Serrct C;/,v.'?::/: 
Inquifiticn, invented by Alexis Mirhaelowitkh. i 
committee, which we noticed, when IpcAirv; 
iizabeth, and ihe, not^-iuut .mding all her c!e;i 
did not fupprefs, was eftabliihed t,,r Irving : 
who were fufpccled oi liigh treatoi-!, i 
fuch by the prince, that i.s by hi> minittei 
moil improbable fufpicion, the nioic a;;iurd 
tion, was fufiicient tor this tribunal t.i 
of every rank and lex, ai:d to nn.- 
the moil cruel torture: "i" 1 

fuch tribunals ahvay- 
and in fome (nlicr counl 
of liberty is the rallying; and the Dcipn 
not the only monarch, wl 
the unforttiiiale man, that his 




BUT Peter III. who has been often calumniated, 
was perfectly fenuble of the abfolute neceflity of ju- 
dicial forms for the condemnation and punifhment 
of criminals, and that any other procedure was a 
cowardly aiTaffination. In this fpirit he abolifhed 
the tribunal which we juft mentioned, as well as fe- 
verai privileges, which the nobility gloried in, for 
the opprefiion of the poor flaves, that belonged to 
them. But, while he deprived the nobility of fuch 
rights as were an outrage to nature, he exempted 
them from the indifpenfible necefiity, under which 
they were, of ferving in the army, and granted 
them liberty to travel out of the empire, which they 
could not do in former times, without exprefs per- 
rnifiion from the fovereign. It was alfo a part of 
his plan to reform the numerous abufes, which had 
crept into the administration of juftice, and to efta- 
blifli a more regular and ieis vitiated fyftern of ju- 
rifprucknce. Waiting for this reform, he kept a 
watchful eye on the tribunals, went in perfon to 
the fenate, which he found almoft abandoned, and 
in a ftrong but noble manner, mowed the fenators, 
how feniibie he was of their negligence. This ha- 
rangue againft prevailing ahufc?, had its effect, but 
in laded only for a day. The fenators of St Peterf- 
burg are courtiers, and it is well known, what is to 
be expected from this clafs of men., 



DURING the nrft days of his reign, wli'iai fiinr.c 
in brightnefs, like thofe of the tyrants, whole names 
have appeared on the page of hiftory, for no purpofc 
vat to ftain it, Peter III. propofed io many uierul 
Nations, and accompanied them with lo many 
judicious reflections, that fevcral people conieiuJ. 
:!:.' mfelves wrong in having defpifed him. They 
i /en imagined, that during Elizabeth's reign, he 
had affected to appear a weak man from pditi- 
cal motives ; but his fubfequent behaviour lout un- 
deceived them. It mowed them that this prince: 
had always acted in character, and was ,i ; weik r, 
Jfnprudent ; that if he had enough ot ienie to a> ; t 
the plans, which others fu^gdted t him, he 
not enough to execute them at a proper time ; 
he was mad :n wiihing to rctorm every tliin ;, v ;;,:- 
out having any {hare or thai genii 
neceflary to a reformer. In Ihort, the r-e: 
juft menrionui were accompanied with id 
qually ridieuiou - 
even ruinous ; ana 
felves were uierui ar. 
which could with ':.'- 

nc or a rcv.,i 
rcp\:~nant to tiie uvan; 
fians. For initance, 
\vho are nev r er irritate 
izing the property of the me. 


to the monks, penfions, inferior to the revcnnes he 
had feized on, but fuflicient to make them live in 
eafe and comfort. He alfo prohibited any novices 
from being received into monafteries, before the 
age ot thirty years. He added greatly to the grie- 
vances charged to his account, by cauiing be remo- 
ved from the churches, a number of images of 

* O 

faints, which were really objects of idolatry to the 
Ruffians. But the enthufiafts raifed the loucieft 
cries again ft him, becaufe he banifhed the archbifhop 
of Novogorod, for having refilled to fu'.-fcribe what 
the prelate termed facrilegious innovations ; and in- 
deed they were imprudent, becaufe the Ruffians 
were not yet enlightened enough to adopt regula- 
tions, which almoft all the governments of Europe, 
not groaning under the rod of fanaticifm, have 
made hafte to efnblim. In Ihort, a general difcon- 
tent broke out among thefe fuperftitious people, and 
Peter was obliged to recall the archbifhop of Novo- 
gorod. This prince's enemies, that is, the clergy, 
gave out ; that, being brought up in the Lutheran 
principles, he had embraced the Greek religion, on- 
ly to raife himfelf to the throne, and when he found 
himfelf, as he imagined, properly and fecurely 
feated, he pcrfuaded himfelf that diflimulation was 
unneceffary. This appeared plain from the con- 
tempt he publicly difcovered for the rites and cere- 


monies, which were tlu: ob; ui the n 
found reverence among his fubjecK 

HE could not be forgiven for luving built .1 I.r.. 
theran chapel in the fortrefs of ()ranienbau:n, ' 
having been prefent at its dedication, :uui I 
ving diftributcd books of (bugs im : 
his German foldiers, who followed t! i 
their fathers. It cannot be denial tin; lYkr I!!. 
violated the rules of propriety too openly, \ i 
notice would have been taken ot fiich mi: . 
parts of his conduct, if he had not abfjnted hi:-::, !: 
from the confecration of a Ru: : Mn cliurcli a 
fame time and place. The eye of an er.i'rj:! 
feldom impofed on. Not'.ir:i; ci;:;\- !:ini, . 
what would be to any other pcrf r. 
difference, is to him an unpardoiM'- 1 ^ 

IT will hardly be credited, that i: \ 
to him as a criminal ad", that of two (hips 
were launched in hi.s rei^n, 
Prince George, and the oth-.r, J'r. 
uncle, and tlic King of Prui:;i. 
that he had inilihcj the Uir.r^ 
of men to thefe fhip. 7 . 
nough to clrav/ do\vn t;. 
Ruilian navy ; ;in-J corii..-;.. 
Catharine H. thar fa v.v-'J ! 
new. Being a better pohr; 
or cnthufiaft, tli/m uer i 



their intreaties. The {hips were chriilened anew, 
received the names of St Nicholas and St Alexander, 
and were the only mips taken by the Turks during 
the war 1768. 

ONE of Peter's moil heinous crimes, which 
brought on him the heavieft load of prejudice, and 
gave great offence to the arrr^y, was the preference 
he gave in public to the Holftein- guards, by the in- 
troduction of the Pruffian difcipline, and the new 
uniforms, which he gave ieveral regiments. The 
Guards accuftomed to remain in the capital, openly 
expreffed their murmurs, when this prince fent a 
part cf them into Pomeriana, where the army was 
collecting, which was deilined to act againft Den- 
mark. He difaftected the nobility, by appointing. 
his uncle, Prince Holftein, generaliffimo of his ar- 
mies, and by repofmg his principal confidence in fo- 
reigners. He raifed a general hatred againft him- 
felf, by publicly expreiling his contempt for the 
Ruffian nation, bv his manners and religion. In 

* f O 

ihort, his admiration, or rather enthufiaim for Fre- 
derick the Great, with whom the Ruiiians had been 
io recently at war, wa? a n^.w grievance itated a- 
i^ainfi lilni, \\itli the heavier aggravations, that na= 
tioniil nr-de and fanaticifm, when ofrended, take a 
pleaiurc in irritating thei'c grievances. 

IT was repeated with a iort of malignity, that 
during EiizLibdh's lite tiriic, lie had one day ex- 

p relied 


preffed his forrow to a foreign m'miftcr, ever 
the Empreis had invited him to Rullu. 
tf continued Duke of Holftein, he had added, I 
" would have at prefent been commanding a regi- 
" ment in the fervice of the King of Pruni.i, and 
" have had the honour of krviug under the Hand. 
" of that monarchy an honour, \vhiJi 1 value ir.uc.: 
'" more highly than that of being Grand Di 

After having aicended the throne, 

nued to call the King of Prufiia im ni: 

clay converfing on this fubjcct with 

vourites, You know," he laid to I 

have always been a faithful fervanl 

and you ought to remember, th. 

e ' informed him of the iecrd 

The per^n to whom he addreile, 

pearing iurpriicd, and hei 

64 are vou afraid of,"' -ie 

" lend you to Sibcrirs. 

IT is well known, 
Prufiian army, i>nd 
frt^.faction, when he had h 
vice. Immediately on r- 
Litutenant-ffencral, ;> 

i 1 VT ' - r\ '' "' ' V> 

led hirnteii m A - 

di'oiir^e oi '-'-^c a^ tlil '- 


did entertainment, and drank to the health of hs's 
mailer, till he got completely intoxicated. 

DURING the fliort period of his reign, he kept 
up a confbnt correfpondence with this prince, from 
whom, he ah\ays received the beft counfels. Fre- 
derick like an able politician at firft difluaded him 
from the war with Denmark, but finding him ob- 
ftinafely determined on it, he advifed him firft to 
get himfelf crowned at Mofcow with the ufual fo- 
kmnitics, and when he fhould fet out for Holflein, 
i.o take with him the foreign minrfters, and the 
Ruflians whofe friendly difpofitions towards him he 
had reafon to fufpect. The fame prince, who was 
any thing lefs than an enthufiaft, but knew priefts, 
whofe art cannot impofe on philofophers ; he ex- 
horted Peter to take good care not to alienate the 
church lands, and not ta interfere with any thing 
connected with the drefs of the clergy, and to pay 
every kind of attention to his wife. This monarch, 
iiccompHihed in the fcience of government, already' 
forefaw the difagreeable confequences, to which the 
F.mperor would expofe himfelf by his imprudent 
conduct. He alib ordered his ambaffador at St Pe- 
^cii'bur^, to {hew the Emprefs every mark of re- 

NOTHING can better exhibit the character of Pe- 
ter III. than his foolifli behaviour to Catharine. At 
his acceilion to the throne, he very frequently ex- 



prefled the deference, which he owed to her fupe- 
rior genius, and at fame' time he let the public ice, 
that he had for her the moft deep rooted averfion. 
By an imprudence, that admits of no explanation, 
he even ordered her to be dreffed in prefcncc of all 
the court, with all the external badges of fovereign 
power, while he himfelf in the character of a limp!^ 
colonel, prefented to her the oilkers of his regiment. 
At the Benediction of Waters, he made the Kmj rel. 
take charge of the whole exhibition, while he 
mounted guard like a colonel, and ialuted her %u r .h 
the pike. On thefe occaiions Catharine's di.;n::;c 
air (truck all the fpcctators, and it i:r,;>o 
for them not to commit it \vith the ur.prh'.ceiy Ap- 
pearance of her hufband. In this \\ay did Pcrcr in- 
form every body, that his wife was better qu.ihi.c ! 
than himielf, for governing the empire. Even a 
the very moment, that lie had iirmly reiolve, 
divorce and confine her, he fecured to her 
eftecm of the whole nation, by announcing puliiid) 
that flic had ruined his own. It is laid, lie ot- 
ten behaved to her in the moft brutal manner, and 
that once, when he was giving an entertainment in 
honour of the King of Pruflia, he inliilted her to 
iuch a degree, that {he burit into tears, and ctp 

the table. 

ShVERAL hiftorians have controverted this fact, 
which others affirm to be very authentic, but there 


is one well known and difputed by nobody ; that 
Peter more than once difcovered his delign of arreft- 
ing Catharine, and her Ion the Grand Duke, of ex- 
cluding them from the throne, and of marrying his 
rniftrcfs, Elizabeth Countefs of \VoronzolF. He had 
hardly formed this plan, when Catharine was in- 
formed of it, by the imprudence of the Countefs 
herfelf. There is one thing certain, that by this 
channel, by her agents, but efpecially by Peter's 
own indifcretion, die .always got timeous intelli- 
gence of every mcafure taken againft her. This 
enabled her to choofe the fitteft moments for action, 
and to provide for her own fafety, by preventing 
her hufband's plots. 

THE following particulars refpeding this Coun- 
tefs of WoronzofF, and the internal order of Peter 
Ill's palace, are furnifhed from Count de IJordt's 
memoirs, which cannot be read without feeling. 

" THE Emperor," writes the Count, " had bid 
'' me return to fup with him, in his little room. 
" There I found a company very different from 
6C that at dinner, where the Emprefs was. The 
" Countefs of Woronzofr was one, whom he had 
" made choice of for a miftrcfs. She was neither 
tc beautiful, nor pretty ; {he had neither wit, nor 
Ci knowledge of the world. But in thi.-;, as in all 
ic other things of the kind, tafte muft not be dilpu- 
c - ted. and. every one has his own. This lady pleafed 

" me 


me the lefs, as there were fcvcral great beauties 
" of the party. Some courtiers were at this lup- 
" per, but there were no foreigners, but the 
lifh Envoy, and I. The fuppcr was very chce 
ful } and lafted moft of the night, for the 
ror, was fond of fuch parties j but they du 
prevent him from employing all the morning 

" butinefs. 

" THE Emprefs alib had her focicty ( 
<> ing. 1 went regularly to pay my court 
She received every body with as mud. jr; 
"affability. Yet in fpite of all her eti 
cheerful, it was ly to ducovcr u, 1, 
preffion of farrow. She is better aaju. 
any other perfon with the impetuo. 
character of her huiband, and pcrlui 
then prefeging, what .-a, foortly going to l^ 

u place. 

EVERY night there wis an affein 

- lace, and flic never miffed 
..perfons, who attended, to iupwii 

"ten of the number ottlid 

. .. i:,, ...... {hare ot uiulerlt.uitiu*.,, 

^ ceis has an c 

and has always bad a ta c tor r 


" blethat the was adm- 
nour of approaching her. 


? one of her party, Prince 



e Ufher, and the Emperor's favourite, came in and 
" whifpered in my ear, that they had been fearch- 
- l ing for me through all the city, to come and fup 
" with his Majefty in the Countefs's lodgings. Wo- 
cl ronzoff was no otherwife defigned, but fome- 
" times the courtiers called her Pompadour, a nick- 
" name given her by the Emprefs Elizabeth. I in- 
" treated Naritfkin to ad fo, as I might be over,. 
" looked that evening, for it was not in my power 
" to difpenfe with fupping with the Emprefs. At 
" firft he knew not how to manage matters, but as 
" he was a polite well bred man, and my own 
" friend, I told him ingenuoufly and without re- 
" referve. That is your affair. It is impoffible for 
" me to tell the Emprefs what we are talking of, and 
" IJlay where I am. It is your bu/inefs to get out of 
" this dif agreeable f crape, and to extricate me the beft 
" way you can. He retired and I entertained no 
" doubts of him fulfilling my wifhes; but all at once 
" we heard a noife, the two leaves of the door open- 
" ed, the Emperor came in, and after having very 
" politely faluted the Emprefs and all her circle, he 
" called me with a fmiling and graceful look, which 
" he always had, took me by the arm, and faid to 
" the Emprefs. Madam, excufe me if I fo night car- 
:t ry off' one of your gue/ls* It is this PruJJian, whom 
c ' / have made be fought for through all the city. The 

" Emprefs 


fi Emprefs fmiled, I made a low bow, and vent 
" out with my conductor." 

" AT the Countefs of WoronzoiPs we found, as 
" ufual, all the ladies, who compofed the focicty, 
s< or if you pleafe, the court of this favourite. 

" NEXT day I returned to the Emprefs' palace, 
" who without fpeaking to me of what had parted 
* 6 the preceding evening, faid to me v, ith a fmile, 
" Come always tofup with me, when there is no objiacie 

" in your way 1 availed myfelf of this liberty. 

" NEXT day there was a public entertainment, and 
" I dined at court. At table I was fct oppofite to 
" the Emperor, who fpoke of nothing but his friend 
" the King of Pruffia. He was acquainted with the 
" minuteft particulars of his campaigns. He was i 
formed of all his military arrangements, and knc 
the uniform and ftrength of all Ins regiments 
" In a word his enthufiafm was iuch, that he Jc 
{ clared aloud, that he would very foon put all 
troops on the fame footing, and really did 
mort time after. All the old uniroi n 
"changed, and the Emperor hi'.mll 
** changing In^' 1 



PETER III. form.'; the plan of confining Catharine. A 
party is formed tofave this princefs, and raife her to 
the throne. She confents. The revolution effected. 
The troops and fenate declare in her favour. She 
is proclaimed Emprefe of the Ruffians. Irrefolution 
and pufiil annuity of Peter III. lie ivijhes to enter in- 
fo an accommodation. His propofdls are not liftenedto. 
He ivifncs to fly to Cronftadt. He is refufed ad- 
mittance. His defpair. He abdicates the crown^ 
and delivers himfelf up into the hands of Catharine. > 
He is carried to Robfcha where he dies. 


1 HE danger, which threatened Catharine, was dai- 
ly growing more imminent. H'er friends, as well as 
thofe, who formed Peter's court, were all perfuad- 
cd, that this princefs was on the verge of lofing her 
liberty. The houfe building at SchluiTelburg by 
the Emperor'^ orders, for a perfon of the firft rank., 
\vas rifmg fo rapidly, that it was fuppofed, it would 
be finifhed in the fpace of fix weeks. Peter had 
pr/.-.c i.-. pcrfini to examine it, and no great pene- 
ir;nio;; v;\us ncccliarv to ciiicov'cr, that it was de~ 
ii^ncu for ;hc Ernprcfs. In tliis critical moment thoic 
of f liis prh'iCcfo' party alfemblcd at St Peteriburg, to 
watch over her fifety. Except the princefs Dafch- 
kovv and her piuticular fnend^. there %vas a very 



Imal! number of the iirft nobility on ihe V;,, 
fide. v Her prnielpal partix.ins xvcn Pri: 
konfki, Count IVini-n, the Huh/ 
Count Razomoufki, Ilctmnn of L'kninc, ;ui ! ; 
Counts Orlcfo, Alexis and Gregory, !<i this n- 
leinbly it \v?.s proposed to fcllov/ ;hc pi.'.:: Y t!-. 
Chancellor Beiluchcfi; \vhic!i UM.S to J :.!.: 
Grand Duke, Kinpcror, and I'.itiurhic, iw ;e::t .!-.:- 

ring his miuoriry ; :i;i-J i; \vlnt \\ v.i.l !;:. 

been done in any iV.itc, \vl\a\- llic < -:\!.-r , ; ;;. 

fion is better rc;ru!:.ited ih;-n i-i Rui'i.i. h v. : 

a few days belore the revolution, th.i; -li: 

niencies iiu'cparablc frcin ;: n,::::;:-!: 1 . ;!. 

bf the people for ('Ath-tii'.JC, :;:,d ';,, .-'.',!:/, ^ 

gcd her partv to fo-rtn tl:c :\ liilu'ion > :' ',;;: 

upon the throne, and S>r -..: r y:':;; * : . ; 

execution it \vaj decree',! ;h . \ 

time <Y Peter 5 ,-: dv~pr.rti 1 r-e : ::. 

ALTI-IOU^II only ,i fe'.v !:.'. 

this d.i!!'j[-crcu.-j piv i,.. : , it could r.oi ! 

ironi thcELnjKror's p.irii 1 i!;. 1 -, \vh K".: 

him to have tlii:; matter i;.\\. 

poling the n:oit unbouiiLie 

Vi'lio:ii Jic appointed t< : 

ver could refolvc on p.i-.h 

^ i. -/-. ,^,..,.,.<- - 1 1 .- i. 
Liicie r^po. .5. i-i'- --- i- - 

their falfchvood, th.:t eve: 
tcncc ut h'n: ?.-.) :' r: 


revolution at two o'clock in the morning, an ofE- 
cer in whom Peter confided, arrived at Oranien- 
baum, and aiked to fpeak wich him on bufmefs of 
the greatefl importance. Having got admiffion with 
fome difficulty, he informed the Emperor of the 
different circumftances, that indicated a confpiracy 
ready to break forth. But this prince, always 
blinded by prejudice, far from paying any attention 
to this advice, ordered the officer to be put imme- 
diately under arreft, for having dared to interrupt 
his flcep, at fo early an hour. It was at this very 
moment that preparations were making for dethro- 
ning him ; for a circumftance, which was no way 
connected with the plan of conduct adopted by the. 
Emperor, had obliged his enemies to haften the mo- 
ment of executing their defigns. 

A LIEUTENANT of the Guards in the Emprefs" 
faction, had juft been arrefted. His friends were 
alarmed at this incident, and concluded that the 
Emperor had difcovered their plot. Though they 
were not long in learning that this officer had been 
arrefted only for fomc irregularity in the fervice,, 
yet the confirmation fpread among them, was fo 
great, that they thought it fafeft not to delay the 
execution of their enterprife. 

THE Empreis, who hud remained at Peterfhoff, 
under f^ndmg that the decifive moment was rapid- 
lv advancing, when Hie was to be placed either on 



the throne, or in a cloiiler, became a prey to tb 
mod excruciating reflexions. For fomc moment i 
fhe even appeared to want the refolution fo necefia- 
ry at a crifis, of which inftant decifion or ruin i 
the confequence. She heiitated whether to give h;r 
confent to the meafures, which had been to recent- 
ly adopted ; but her party being convinced tlut th 
leaft delay might prove fatal to them, fent an emp- 
ty coach from St Petersburg to Peterflv.if on tin 
vening of the syth of June 1762. This < 
nal agreed on to inform her of the neccf.ity ri 
pairing to the capital. Catharine, who, durir 
interval, had recovered her coura-. 
ilrength of mind, went out of her ro< 
o'clock of the morning, and alone civ- 
den, as far as the fpot, where the coach v 
ing for her. In the coachiinn the recogi 
Alexis Orloff, who only ipoke two N 
Courage and DI [patch, and let oil 
It had been fettled, that Count Panin (1 
pointed to watch over the pcrfon c 
Duke, that Gregory Orloff fuould r, 

capital to gain over fomc officer, and 
Guards, and that Count Razoumov 
his regiment in readinefc to rcc 
In coniequcnce of theie arrangement, 
on her arrival at St Peterfburg, we 
quarters of the Guards limailo 


J it 

O 2 


early, that Count Razoumowiki, their lieutenant- 
colonel, had not yet arrived ; a circumftance, which 
might have alarmed Catharine, if {he had not been 
poileilcd of as much courage as prefence of mind. 
Without being difconcertcd, me called to the fer- 
leant, who was devoted to her, becaufc (he had been 
god- mother to one of his children, and commanded 
him to go in queft of Razoumowlki. During this 
irrerval, and to profit by the moments, which were 
precious, fhe ailemblcd around her, the officers and 
fildiers, who immediately came running, fome 
urelkd, others half naked. She confirms the cou- 
rage of thofe who were afhamed of appearing be- 
fore her in this iiate, by praifing their prompt obe- 
dience or orders. Then addrefiing the \vhole regi- 
ment, flic defcribed to them, in an energetic man- 
ner, the improper conduct of the Emperor, his pu- 
blic; for the Ruilians, his averii'ni for their 
cuiloms, arid his attachment to foreigners. She e- 
numcratcd the dangers, to which her perfon, as 
veil as her ion, and the pi -nopal nobility, had been 
cxpoild. She expatiated on that, which threaten- 
ed their religion and government, and exhorted all, 
who vaCied to five their country, and her fon, to 
join her. This harangue, every r.ovv and then in- 
terrupted by ligfis and fobs, was fhort, but affect- 
ing, and the graces of the auguft pcrfonagc, who 
delivered, lending it new force, 11: c made an inita- 



neous impreiTion upon the greatei;: pair or the :. 1- 
diers, who -ani'vcred her by loud :icLl.i;i,.i;ur,-, . 
Some oiliccrs appeared to hcfuate, but the arrival 

of Razoumowfiu diipelied their tear.-, and ;.!! th.. 
regiment promifed to her, to make .1 facriikv < t e- 
very thing for the lupport of" her own, and !i,r 
yoipr.g fon'o cauie. Then (Tth.iri, :e iv-\i!r--il 
to St Mary's C:hureh at K.iiin, and 0:1 t!:: 
road was joined by ibine detach.mer.t.. cr : .{>, 
and ievcral or the principal nobi;i'\. Scrvi. 
performed by the arciibiili.;-:) of Novo.- .;\ ,!. 1;. :o:. 
whom the Kitiprer; took the uii;;U o. = : ;i ,,: ; r\ :: 
inviolate the privileges ar-d reii^ior. -; ;'..' ill. ".: 
Immediately -.he peop: <_.; to !:er, .:: 

turn took the ca'Ji ( 

When this ccre;v;oay \va.i conelud? d, i,.i:... kl i;.v 
to the Senate, the ;ers oi \vhivh ack;i.-.\\! 

her for rheir Ki: prcis a;id only ib\ .rJ.;:i. \ r ;- T: 
had been fprs:u! 7 Teter, ti.e evening be!. ; 
been killed Uy a fai! from hU horle, and ;!. 
been not a little ui.-.^il to tlie 1::.. 
tion. r l\\c Kmprc !:>' reiir.ue inuv.t!; 
ment. r \'vo regiment ; til Cit; i:\! 
ly leit St PeU-rinui-;.-; tu j.iin :! -in.-,; 

; ' .V. '. 

I i ' 

were infta::th recalled; 
irritated the ; i : . p. 
leave the capit iL t!-,-. 
dismiclvcs the 


SUCH was the hatred, that Peter III. had brought 
on himfelf, that fo foon as intelligence was received 
of his depofhion, and Catharine's elevation to the 
throne, the manifefto, whichfhe publifhedin juftifi- 
cation of her conducl, was read with univerfal joy. 

ALL the Emperor's partifans were arrefled, and 
among others Prince George of Holftein, who had 
come to St Peterfburg on the 26th inft. under pre- 
tence of the preparations neceffary for the Empe- 
ror's departure, but in fact to watch the movements 
of the cppoiite party. It was he, who had put the 
officer of the Guards under arreft, and thus fpread 
the alarm among the Emprefs' adherents, and, con- 
trary to his intention, haftened the revolution, 
which dethroned his nephew. Catharine met with 
oppolition in no quarter, and though the ftreets of 
St Peterfburg were filled with foldiers, who in thefe 
terrible convuliions, ufually give a loofe to every 
fort of excefs with impunity, the greateft order and 
ilricteft difcipline were always maintained, and no 
perfon received the leaft infult. 

AT fix o'clock in the evening, the Emprefs 
mounted on a beautiful horfe, in a man's drefs, the 
uniform of the Guards, a branch of oak on her head 
and a drawn fword in her hand, repaired to Peter- 
ihoff, accompanied by the Princefles Dafchkow, Ra- 
zoumowfki, Orloff, her principal partifans, and fol- 
lowed by ten thoufand of the troops. Scarcely was 



fhe gone four wcrfts from the capital, when Prince 
Gallitzin, vice-chancellor, met her \vith a letter 
from the Emperor, but he was prevailed on to join 
the Emprefs' iirite, and took the oath ot allegiance 
at Crafnoe-Kapak, a fmall village only twelve mile 
from St Peterlburg. Count WoronzoiT, prime nu- 
nifter, alfo prefented himfelf before the Kmprds. 
come, faid he, in name of the Emt>:r;r, my .-;;.;/.vr, / , 
know what your intentions arc. Some perion oble 
ved to him, that Catharine had taken poilelliou <-f 
the throne, and that he was addrelling himiel: t 
his fovereign. He offered to take the oath ot alk 
giance, but having generoutty refuted to abind 

his matter, they took his iword iroin hi 

fent him prifoner to St Pcterfburg. 

AT Crafnoe-Kapak there \vas a luiier.ib! 

into which the Emprefs went, and continued th; 

fome time employing lierfclf with burning a - 

number of papers. She there appeared, i 

overwhelmed with grief, and flicJ i ilo 

yet me ilept fomc hours upon i be. 

tendants had formed with their 

of day, having recovered her eo 

countenance, fhc again niou 

went to the monastery of 

halted a fecond time. 

neral Ifmailoff delivered 

Emperor, whoib Utuation wa 


,1., !- 


more critical. But before we proceed fartker, let 
us fee with whan this prince occupied himfelf. 

WHILE the revolution was coming to maturity 
at St Peterfburg, he had remained at Oranienbaum 
in an unaccountable fecurity. Even the night pre- 
ceding the day fo fatal to him, he had fpent in com- 
pany with fome of his favourites in sxcefs and riot, 
and had retired at a very late hour aim oft intoxica- 
ted. In the morning, after having vifited the ca- 

O ' O 

ferns, he had fet out, drciled in his uniform of the 
Ruffian fafliion, to go to Petermoff, where lie had 
agreed with the Emprefs to give a pompous anni- 
verfary entertainment in honour of his birch day, 
it is affirmed, that he intended to have Catharine 
arreftcd in the mid ft of this entertainment. He had 
not pone half the road, when a gentleman, devoted 
to his intcrcft, who had made his efcape from St 
Petcnnurcr, afked to ipeak with him in private. 
Peter i'aid to him in a bantering way; ]Yhat ha-jf. 
yoifjl urgent ? I fc-f none but pcrfcns, ivbo have mat- 
ners cf importance 'o ccm/n^nlcaic /',' K:C. ]YLcn you re- 
turn h P-.t::rfh- f .'^-\ you i:;l!l have irnie enough to [peak t* 
r-ic. I>ut il-iC gentleman earnef'.iy repeating his ib- 
iic.i'idlions, the Err-pcrr-r at hil alighted from liis 
coach ^.lici Icarnfd what h?.d palled at St Feterfburg. 
1 ;':..-; ;>n-[u<Jivcs and obftiracy \vcre dill fo great, that 
he d:/uLicd of thr reality of this news, and till he 
i.'Tit -i UK-- n"'.;-;".te detail o>: -11 the circumilances, 



)k did not feem to awake from the lethargy, into 
v, hich his immoderate fecurity had thrown him. 
Av. hit he gave way to indignation and terror. He 
was at firft damped and confounded, but recover- 
ing from this fit of defpair, he lent an aid-de-camp 
to Oranienbaum with orders to the garriton to imrch 
immediately to PeterfhoiT. When he arrived at the 
palace he found the Emprefs had left it, but c-mld 
learn no more. Marfhal Munich advilVd him to 
put himfelf at the head of his lloliiein troops and 
to march immediately for St Peteriburg. / 
before you, faid the brave warrior to him, ,; 
body Jball reach your Uajejt^ till, 
body. If this advice had been followed, 
would have been as infallible as glorious ; t 
thouo-h the lloliiein troops fcarccly amount 
thoufand men, they were firmly attach- 
Sovereign, and Munich commanded the; 
doubled their number. Befides Peter 1 
friends in St Peteriburg, and the guards 
policed of no rcfolution, would l-.av, 
over by his prefcncc, to rank un 
lours But Peter was defective in c 
very moment, when courage was to Jc 
of the contending parties. ^ 
THE perplexity, in whicl 
fidcrable addition from the 

had accompanied him from Ora .^ 



him at Pctcrfhoff. Nothing was to be heard, but 
tac lamentations of women, who furrounded him, 
venting the bitfcreft ibrro\v at the apprehensions of 
their approaching fate. All \vcre crying, all wifli- 
ed to give advice, and fcvcral of the ErnpreiVs par- 
rinnj, \vlio were prefenr, were wilfully augmenting 
the confufion. 

EVERY moment added to the Prince's danger and 
cleipair. He had fucceffive intelligence, that the 
Kmrrefs had received the oath of allegiance from 

i O 

..'. great number oi' people of ail ranks, that fhe had 
i^ot polTeiiion of the capital, and was advancing at: 
the head of ten thoufand men. Then difcouraged 
i~y news fo alHicling, he difpatched courier alter 
ourier to propole an accommodation, but none re- 
rrirne.'l with an anhver. In this extremity he re- 
iolved to take refuge in Cronftadt : a courfe he 
'-.ught to h:;ve purfued more early, and it would 
iiave undoubtedly and effectually baulked his wife':; 
atteir.pts. Munich, who was feniible of the impor- 
tance cf this itep, had adviled him to it, on the iirit 
runurar of the revolution. He difcovered his mil- 
take, and io ioon as he arrived at PeterilioiT, he 
ciipatclied (-enerai l.ievcrs, and Prince Baratiniki 
to take poiuhion (^f this place, witli orders to ex- its it ate. General Lievers with ibme diHi- 
cuhv f;;imd admifiion info Cronftadt, and Prince 
li.iiMthillii returned to Pctcrfh-fl", to ailure the Czar.. 


that no intelligence of the revolution h, 1 Ni- 
l-cached that place ; that the General was i:uki:j 
every preparation for receiving his ML;. 
would there find a fafe afylum, which I 
troops could not enter, and whence h- 
imperious necefiity required, go bv iea : 
llcin dominions; but that ihe qrcitcll d. : 
neceflary to prevent anticipation. On t!ii> ivn< 
the Emperor ordered the liolftein troops, wh.o v. 
already on their inarch to Pctcrfh^u to reUn;i 
Oranienbaum ; but by an incoinpreheniiin .- fat.-.: 
thetr march was delayed till midnight. \Vh :; 
prcfentcd liirnfelf a 1 : the harbour, the i : ::' 
fed entrance to tlie Yaclit, in which !:e v/.i-, t;:: 
pretence, tliat it \vas too late. 1 !i- aftoniihinen: v 
inexprciliblc. It was vaitly aupjmentt 
name was fent in, and anlwer \> as i\ tm 
name was a;< additional iva!on for reining 
mittance into ihe harbour ; anei as he 
watchmen tlireatened to lire t! 1 ., 
yacht, if lie did not immediately dcpar 
Tni' following wa.i tlie eauiv. of tin- 
very diiTcreiH f;om what he had 'xp..\ 
ral Lievers on his arrival a! (,'nniha 
the command of the. fort, bi;i perceivi 
oarrifon hid no knowledg: of the r 


did not \viili to give tl:-. al.inn b) ' 
nev.o, and a^ he \va:-> cveiy moir. 


fee the Emperor, he had thought it moft proper"to 
\vait for his arrival to fecure the attachment of the 
garrifon, and give orders hoftile to the Emprefs* 
party. In the mean time Admiral Talyfm arrived 
at Cronftadt. He had been difpatched thither 
by the Emprefs, who in the confufion and dif- 
order of the firft movements, had forgotten to fe- 
cure this important fortrefs. He was received 
without hcfitation, and confidering the Rate of af- 
fairs, he thought it proper to arreft General Liev'ers 
without lofs of time. He was quickly obeyed, for 
failors more willingly execute the orders of an Ad- 
miral, than of a General. After having fecured the 
perfon of the latter, he informed the garrifon of 
the revolution, which had taken place at St Peterf- 
burg. He told them, that the Emperor was depo- 
fed, that the army and the fenate had declared for 
Catharine, that all oppofition was ufelefs, nay dan- 
gerous. Thefe arguments accompanied by an abun- 
dant diflribution of brandy and roubles, among 
thofc, who required more than brandy, produced 
the ckiircd effect. Catharine was proclaimed fole 
Emprefs, and Talyfm without oppofition fiw him- 
ielf mafter of a fortified place, the poficflion of 
which, would have rendered the fuccefs of the re- 
volution at kail doubtful if not prevented it. 

THE heart of Peter III. was wounded with for- 
row, when he iaw hirnfelf driven from the har- 


hour of Cronftadt. '1 he only rcfource'kft to MM 
in this woeful conjuncture, was to f.iil imn.r iirvly 
and feek an afylum in Sweden, whence he 
ly join his army in Pomcru::a, or pil". over i:: 1 . ', 
llolftein Dominions. But it wa . the fare <! ;:.'. 
monarch to be incapable of raking ar.v dccilive p. 
He always flattered himlelf that loir.c rc\>!i.i- 
tion might be effected between liiin uv.l the !'.;r.- 
prefs ; and this notion joined to the te.'.r- .i::;l : 
portunity of the women, wlio were <u b'urd ! i . 
yacht, determined him to return to Orinicr.lnr.:;., 
where he arrived at four oMock ii: th r.:< ; 
We have noticed that when he let our > :i :;.- 
ceding day, he wore the Pruffnn uniform. < '--. !. > 

o * 7 

return he was drciled in 'die uniionn, 

he ought never to have quitted. 

much he had erred in hurting th< 

judiccs of his fubjccl-. Ihek 

merit attention, bcciui: 

great events, and ierve to ch.irac 

actors of the Drama. 

AT Orar.icnbaum, whci 
with diiordcr and fear, lie ii 

him. At ten 

iiein guard, no former ilxed 
their mailer, th.m tiiev r.m in 


him. Then a mod affecting fcene took place. Some 
endeavoured to kifs his hand, others raifed them- 
felves up to fee him, fume fell on their knees, or 
proftrated themfelves before him j all med tears of 
afieclion, and conjured him with affurances of the 
iirmeft attachment to lead them againft the army 
of the Emprefs, promifing not to abandon him, 
whatever mould happen, and to facrifice their lives 
for the defence of his. Thefe affectionate expreilions 
of zeal and fidelity inflamed him fo, that he appear- 
ed for a moment animated with their fpirit, and 
cried To Arms ; But this ftart was, if we may ufe 
the expreflion, only the laft figh of the fmall fharc 
of couracre, with which his heart was warmed. The 

O 7 

reflexion that refinance would be ufelefs, and his 
own irrefolution, ag.iin induced him to think of fub- 
miflion. In this criiis there was need of a firm foul, 
and Peter had it not. lie was therefore ruined be- 
vond recovery. This happened to a prince in our 
own times, who was brought into a fimilar fituation, 
whence magnanimity alone could extricate him, but 
this lie poflcfled not. The confequences are too 
well known. 

WE have left Catharine in the monaflery of St 
Scrgius, where General Ifmailoff had delivered her a 
ir.eflage from her hufband. The weak and daftardly 
Czar offered to reiign the crown into her hand>, on 
condition that (lie would allow him to retire into Hol- 



ilein with the Countcfs of Woroir/.otl, arid Goud. 
witch, who was attached t-> him. Hut t'.ulurinc 
intereft on this occafion being to icvurc the C /.i; 
perfon without effufion of blood, endeavoured to 
amufe the prince, in order to prevent him trotn .my 
defperale Rep. She knew \vcil that lie might put 
himfelf at the head of his Ilolikin troops 
fend his life to the laft extremity, lie might 
efcape, and plunge the empire into all th, 
of a civil war. The ability, with \vl 
dueled an undertaking as diiiicult as dan 3 
monitratcd that ihe had alio the addrcis ne 
enfure its fuccefs. 

WITH much calmneis and mdm 
prcfented to Iimailoff, how foolifli it 
oppofe her, Imce live was put in iull ri 

vercign authority by the content 
bodies, and different 

him the troops enc imped around 
the efforts of Peter would I.T; 
draw upon himfelf and hi- p.i 
irritated army. ^\-< 
fnoukl ofhib own accr.r 1 
the terms oi his abdic 
flic cffcclually convinced 
iubmimon was lett him- 
ting eloquence, and cr.g 
and above all by t 


Ifmailoff took upon him to perfuade his matter to 
prevent the efTuiion of blood, by giving way to 

ON his return to Oranienbaum, he found the 
Emperor, with Munich, the Countefs of Woronzoff, 
Goudowitch, and feme courtiers, who were waiting 
for him with the greateft anxiety. The Emperor 
and he went into another room, and the refult of 
their conference was ; that Peter III. the Countefs, 
Goudowitch, and IfmailofFgot into the fame coach, 
which had brought the latter back, and went to 
Peterfhoff without attendants or guards. They ar- 
rived there at half 'in hour after noon, and the Em- 
peror was immediately feparated from thofe, who 
had accompanied him. The Emprefs declined feeing 
him, but (lie fent Count Panin, who was received 
by himfelf. The public is ignorant, and doubtlefs 
will be for ever ignorant of what palled in this con- 
ference, between this nobleman and his dethroned 
Emperor ; but the wcaknefs and pufillanimity of 
the latter cannot be expreffed in a. more ftrikino- 

* O 

manner, than he himfelf exhibited them in the aft 
of his abdication, by winch the interview ter- 

Hi: was carried to Robfcha the fume day, where 
he wa;, nude a prifontr. Ihis is a finall imperial pa- 
lace, about twenty werfts from Peterlhoif. The 
Emprefb too returned the fame day to St Peterfour^, 


1 :h , .!,:. 

and entered the capital amid;! the 
applaufes of the people, She rode on !. 
The flrects were filled with ;i n rtn ;i_,; ()ll . muN-udi, 
who croudcd about Jicr on her \v.iv, ..::J. !;i.i- .1 her 
hand, which {he held out to every pcribn th.u .; 
proached. A great nun.lKr of prieits h.ul asiVm- 
bled around the avenues of the \Vhcn ih* 
came to the place where they were, (he uY-pprd r-i 
kifs the molt dignified amoiv^ them on t!;e eli.-'k, 
while they kiffed her liand ; a manner of filut iti-tn, 
. which, as we have obferved, i- : cmpl<.\\\l in I\-: 
to exprefa the higheft degree of r< ipe't. 

As foon as men's niincl.-j, which -ir^ al-v.iy- \.\\- i- 
ted at the beginning of a revoluti"r. .': . i ; 
a little calmneft, and as li.-on -s tii. 
thought they had got vengeance 
intrigue, and rear their head-, 
feen to repent of Laving a!>andaive. 
The populace, always re.\J\- tj i . 
treme to another, took pity 
narch. He was no mr.rc an u . 
a bad governor, ar. undervalue!' i ; 


moil acceptable to tl;.~ nation. 
nate prince, wlio, in fpUe oi 
capacity, had qualities prop.: 
beloved by the pcopl-N ^ i:! r - Vl ' ; ' 
himfelf to all around him. 


WHILE the Emprefs was on her way to Peterfhoff 
with her army, fever al foldicrs had given ftrong 
proofs of difcontent ; and it has been fince known, 
that if, at the fir ft news of the revolution, Peter III. 
had appeared in perfon, a part of the troops would 
have come over to his fioe. His friends had percei- 
ved tliis difcontent, and fecretly fomented it. But 
thefe murmurs caufed only a very Alight fermenta- 
tion, and the accidental death of Peter reftored peace 
to the Empire, and delivered it from the horrors 
of a civil v/ar, which were threatening it. On the 

* O 

feventh day of his confinement at Robfcha, this 
prince died on the 6th of July, old ftyle, and in the 
thirty fourth year of his age. His body was tran- 
Iported to St Alexander Newfki, and expofcd on a 
ftate bed, where, according to the cuiiom of the 
RufTuns, people of all ranks were admitted to kifs 
his hand. It was afterwards interred in the church 
of this rncnaftery, without monument or infcription 
to recall his name to the remembrance of pofterity, 
who now fcarcely recollect him. Such is the fate 
of thefe infignificant characters, whom their birth 
r.iifcs to thrones, from which their incapacity hurls 
them, if, under their reign, the weakeft exertion is 
nvide to (hake clT the yoke. 

PETER'S death was followed by none of thofe tra- 
C'.ical events, with which revolutions had till then 
been ft aiiicd. Nobody \v*s even font into Siberia; 



there was neither pubhc nor private rxccut,,,n. | |, 
Empms pardoned even her perf.,ml enerni . Mi, . 
fhal Munich, who had given, ;n we have fcon! the 
keft advice to the Emperor, and haj oiTercd f' dj 
fend him at the hazard of his own hrr, wi , si> ! ,,-. 
garded with an evil eye. On the contrai \ , th 
prefs was charmed with the attachment, which <! ; 
foreigner had fhovvn for him, who li id brought hi- - 
back from Siberia; and when fho fpoke to him o:' 
it, Munich replied ; It /r /;?, A/,?^?;.v, /-\;/ / - 

/m/y, I owed to him my /7iV/-/r, ( ?;.\/ f -;wA/ / d, I 
Was not I bound by ihc ftr'.r.zcfi tics of Jut-; .?;;./ / - 
tltude to devote my fr If to bis fen-ice? Nc:c y;,vr .',/. 
is my fovereign, a;;J v^n Ihill jinj in ;r,- . /; '. /"< ;: 
ty. The Empreis, iiruek wirh this Lc;ld ar.iA 
fiiovved no lefs greatnefs of foul on her iu'.c. 
repoicd in him the moft unboiinded cor.ili! : 
which was well juftiHcd by thj Marfli.! 1 .'.; heh.r. : 
Whenever a nc\v infum'aion w.i> no m rc ur -. ' 
Count \Voron-/ ; oiT, who !nd heen 
at liberty, nnd he v, ;s aft^r'.'^- ::ipl- 
niiriftratioii. A> ior f 'i'j Counfef?, ih" ..\,\ 
^either jcaloufy nor rclentiiunt frm C'i f :: 
Her perfon was rcfpcc';. -1, nnd i'i- j\ i ,ii;; ( 
enjoy, without any reihiclion, all lii' v 
ceived from Peter's libcrili f y. Cathirinr* i;ui. J 
by a (entiment of magn.ininnrv p-culiir ^ 


rafter, forgot the arrogance of this favourite, and 
the unealinefs me had brought upon her. But what 
completed this greatnefs of foul was, me alfo forgot 
the plot hatched by this ambitious woman, to ftrip 
her of the Imperial dignity, that me might inveft 
herfelf with it. She was allowed to marry a private 
fubjecl, and me was ftill vegetating at St Peterfburg 
during our reiidence there. Goudowitch, who had 
been the Emperor's counfellor and favourite, and 
had given particular offence to the Emprefs, recei- 
ved pcrmiflion to retire into his own country, and 
the Emprefs had the greatnefs of mind to forget the 
offence of the father, for the good of the fon. 
Youno' Goudowitfch was recalled into Ruilia, where 


he is now a Lieutenant General, Governor of the 
province of Rjazan, and a Knight of the Order of 
St Alexander Ncwfk-i. The Holftein Guards, who 
had offered to the Emperor to march againft Catha- 
rine, and even prefTed him to give them orders to 
this effect ; they received not the lead mark of re- 
fentment. Such, as chofe, were incorporated with 
other regiments, and the reft were left at full liber- 
ty to withdraw from RuiTia. Prince George of 
Holftein, uncle to the Emperor, who was privy to 
the prince's defign of confining the Emprefs, was 
put under arreft, in his own palace, during the re- 
volution ; but as foon as it was terminated, me rai- 
fed him to the rank of Field Marfhal, and named 


him Governor of Holftein, during the Grind Duke'; 

THE Fmprcfs was thirty four years cf age, wh-n 
fhe pfcended the throne, .ind the fucrets of thr re- 
volution was not lefs indebted to her courage and 
ability, than to the zeal of her party, and. the favour 
of the people, who law their intereit in the c.iuie, 
which fhe maintained. 

WE mail conclude this narntive \\ith an anec- 
dote, which was told us at bt Petcrllmr^, .in { i, 
very defcriptive of courtiers Some years after t!i- 
revolution, Prince Potcmkin, who has been always 
in the oreateft favour with Catharine II. \vent ur.- 


day to the palace, to pay his court to this pir.r.-s. 
In the middle of the (lair-cafe he met Prince ( \ ilit /,in , 
who had been Peter's intimate friend, and th t f h 
might not appear out ot countenance, he tint iddr; 
ed him. Vl'bat f:c:c.; at f . 
None, Galitzin anfwered 
you are going i<p, and I am $ 

C'i \P 


C II A P. X. 

IMPOSTORS, iuho give themfelves out for Peter HI. Pit- 

gatfchew is the moji famous among them. -His rebel- 
lion. He ralfes a commotion among the Coffacs of the 
Jaik. Why they are diffatisfied. An anecdote. Pu- 
gatfche-w^s fucccfs. His hypocrify. His atrocities. 
His marriage. He is defeated by Prince Galitzin. 
He appears again in the country. -New ravages. 

Death of the unfortunate Lozvitz. Count Panin 

marches agalnjl Pugatfcheiu, who is defeated. He 
is abandoned by his own men. He is executed at 
M of cow. Catharine II. repairs the mifchicfs he bad 

ALTHOUGH the death of Peter III. had been no- 
torious ; although his body had been expofed on a 
itate bed, in the church of St Alexander Newfki ; 
yet in the remote provinces of the empire, feveral 
impoftors ftarted up, who had effrontery enough to 
pafa themielves for this unfortunate Emperor. 

THE firft was a ihoemaker of Woronetz, who 
took the name of Peter III. in this city, fome years 
before the revolt of Pugatfchew the Cofiac, of whom 
we will ipeik immediately. This fhoemaker was 
Toon apprehended and executed, 



THE fecond was Zfcherniichef, a defertcr from Or- 
loff's regiment. He ma^e his appearance in 177,, in 
the fmall villag- of Kopenka, on the borders of the 
Crimea, while a body of Ruffian troops were p.ihm : .j 
through this place. Some fccbrian priefts, who 
fupported him, had fuborned a certain number oi- 
perfons, who lifted him upon the altar of their 
church, and were preparing to proclaim him Km- 
peror, at the very inftant, when the Colonel of the 
regiment, informed of their defign, entered the 
church at the head of a numerous guard, and car- 
ried off his fpurious majefty from the altar, and con- 
dueled him to execution. 

THE third was a peafant, who belonged to th:* 
WoronzofPs, from whofe eftates he had defer ted, 
and he had engaged with the Coff.ics fettled at Du- 
bofska, on the Wolga. A detachment of thcte Col 
facshadfet out from Czaritzin,in theipring 177-, t<> 
join the Ruffian army ; he aflembled them in a poll- 
houfe in the middle of a defart, between the Don an ! 
the Wolga, and there he aflured them he \v.ij Peer I ! ! 
This band, compofed of wild andcrcdulor.s people, u .. 
eafily perfuaded. He wus proclaimed Emperor, .niJ 
every one of the CoiTacs haftened to t.-.kc t\c ot:h 
of alleLfiance to him. He nominated otliccrs .u i 


minifters of ftatc ; but his reign was as liio:-t- > 
that of the other two. Two regiment, . : Cuir.i; 
ers CRITIC un, ind their ccmir/.ii.'.cr :r. .1 j; 


ceived Coffacs fenfible, how widely they were mil- 
taken. They were fo much ftruck with the impoi- 
ture,.that they not only made no oppofition to this 
officer, when he fcized the pretended Peter III. but 
they even affifted in carrying him to prifon at Cza- 
ritzin. There, during his trial, the inhabitants of 
the fort, furred up by the falfe reports of this pre- 
tended fovereign's partifans, made an infurrection 
for delivering him, and Colonel Zipletof, command- 
er of the cjarrifon, found no fmall difficulty in dif- 

O ' ' 

periing them. The impoftor was then carried to an 
ifle of the Wolga, where he received the knout, and 
died of the effects of this punifhment. Some time 
after a malefactor, who had been tranfported to Ir- 
kutfk, made a like attempt. He had already gained 
an officer, who enjoyed a peniion from the court, 
and had engaged him to get himfelf acknowledged, 
But this protection did not fave his fifth majefly 
from the gibbet. 

AT laft appeared Jtmelka Pugatfchew, whofe im- 
poilure had the moft ferious confequences, and gave 
the court of St Peterfburg the greateft uneafmefs, 
Thofe impoflures, which we have juft now men- 
tioned, were only ridiculous, but this proved not 
only ridiculous, but terrible. Pugatfchew, born a- 
mong the Coffacs of the Don at Simoveilk, a fmal! 
village on the banks of this river, had made his firft 
ciTay in arms in the war 1756, and had ferved in 



that, which the Ruffians waged with the Turk-, in 
1769. After the f-ege of Bender, he had ibliched 
his difcharge, and not being able to obtain it, he had 
taken refuge in Poland, where he had. been wel- 
comed by ibme hermits of th^ Greek religion, v.\io 
kept hiir coivcealcdj but as he could not put up wiili 
their \\ ay of living, he left them. Aher thi> !. 
went into Little R.fTa, a;. d fettled for ibme time 
among the Roikohuk', who are there very nume- 
rous, and very ho!;:itab!c -, but, afraid of being dif- 
covered, he reared into the prindpil fettlement, 
which the Coffacs have on the banks of the IV.I, 
which was called Jaik before the rebellion. II : 
o-ao-ed feveral of thcie Coilacs to iollow him into 
Cuban, where he made them believe a bettei 
waited them. He had not then affumed amt.i;/ 
them the name of Peter III. In the mean time th 
ieditious fpeechcs had made be arrrerie 
birlk, whence he was lent to Kalan t i ! 
The indolence of the governor, his 
vering him up to juilice, furnifned 
time and means of efieciing his el ipe 
prieft, who had provided him with ir.< 
the guards drunk, lie again joinc 
nions in arms, and with them went d 
*r a went up the river Irghis : 
fert, where be declared himfelr J 



This country was inhabited by thefe fame Rofkol- 
riiki, whoa: Peter I had perfecuted, and as may be 
well expected from fanaticifm, the fpirit had palled 
iroin the fathers to the fons. Thus Pugatfchew had 
tiie uddreft to draw together a great party by means 
of 1'idr discontents and their religious prejudices, 
which he profeffed to adopt and protect. 

Tjir< rebellion of a numerous body of Coffacs was 
alfo one of the caufes, which operated powerfully 
in favour of this adventurer. They inhabited one 
<;f the banks of the Jaik, were descended of the 
CofTacs on the Don, and formed a race of men, va- 
liant and full of enthufiafm, for their ancient faith 
and cuftoiTis. They valued their beards as highly 
as their lives. During the war with the Turks they 
had been alked for a certain number of recruits to 
form a body of huflars ; they had furnifhed them 
without hefitation, but as the hufTars wore no beards, 
their officers wanted to compel thcfe recruits to fhave. 
As they and their relations opnofcd this attemptj 
which tliey laid, was aimed at their liberty and 
ruitoins, Gcr.cral Traubcnbcrg, a Livonian, who 
li.ici been fent with a frnal! detachment to Jaik to 
raife ilicie recruits, had the imprudence to quell 
tills kind of tumult, by making them be maven in 
public, ond cvrn in the middle of the fortrefs. The 
other their relations, were fo provoked at 
*his infuh , t'^t they flew to uruis, wounded feveral 



of the officers, maflacred the General, hi, 
and the chief of the Coi'lacs, who had cu:ii 
this outrage, which they called facrilr-;: ; a 
was at firft only a riot, became a :;.:;: J.M! i; 
tion through the whole coun'rv. 'i 'hi-; cv^ni, \vhhh 
may ferve as a leilon to ihoie mconjidenUe n 
who know not with what precaution p'vulai pi . i :- 
dices ihould be oppofed, happened tovvards th: 1 < t; ,1 
of the year 1771. 

THE fpring following General Trey man tv>ok pr,i- 
feffion of [aik, made ieveral r-ngLaders anuiiig th- 
mutineers prifoners, and. put a part of hi-, 
In garrifon in the to\vn. Several of the ini 
however efcaped, and retired into the dcl'.v 
cularly into the mari'hes in the neigh! )ou: !. 
the Lake of Kamyfh-Samara, \vhere tl:ey li 
iiiliing, hunting, and. forne provilions, v. iii 
brethren convened to them fecrctly untl 1 r 
Notwithllandirg thcfe fuccours, they 1 d 
ble life, and were reduced to the gre. 
when Pugatfchew cam- 1 , ainoii:-; ' 
calily fuppcfed ho\v he wa-, re-", ir-: by '. 
cially when he told them that lie w.ia tlu-ir 1 
Peter 111. ; tlrat ho had efeapetl from p:i, ; 
the report of his d:alh was .MI iir.poiiure i.r 
by the ufurpcr Catharir.e , and th; 
himiclt in their hands, to imp! >ro their pr 
and by the r-HUVna: he c\\^ 


nihihte thofe abfurd innovations, which h?d been 
fubftituted in the room of the ancient and rdpecla- 
ble cuftoms, they had received from their ancestors* 
He was welcomed with enthufiafm. The Coifacs 
might have been undeceived, for there was not the 
leaft refemblance between Pugatfchew and Peter III. 
but he refted his impofture on the great diftancc 
from the capital, on the ignorance of this people, 
and above all, on the fanatic zeal of thofe, whom he 
addrefTed. In fhort, there was no need of many ar- 
guments to bring over to his intereft this horde, al- 
ready openly in a ftate of infurrection. They there- 
fore made the air refound with fhouts of Long live 
Peter III. Long I he cur Empcrcr. 

AFTER this kind of proclamation, the leaders of 
ihefe Coffacs, in name of the reft, fwore allegiance 
to him, and promifed to facrifice their lives in his 
defence. With this body, and many other perfons, 
whom he found equally difpofed to fide with him, 
Pugatfchew at fir ft proceeded to attack the new Po- 
lifh fettlements, which the Emprefs had formed on 
the banks of the Irghis. For this once he contented 
himfelf with carrying off their horfes and arms, with- 
out giving a loofe to that ferocity, of which he foon 
after exhibited fo many inftances. He then fhcwed 
himfeif before Jaik, the governor of which he in 
vain {ummoned tofurrender in the name of Peter III. 
He ordered an affault, but he was repulfed by the 



intrepid courage of the garrifon, and, feeing he 
would gain nothing by a nc\v attempt, he Mocked 
up the place in hopes of reducing it by famine. 
This plan had no better fucccfs. The resolution of 
the garrifon was equal to its courage ; it n fmed to 
capitulate, although reduced to live on bork-ilcili 
and boiled leather. This \\-oi Jeifi.l n tip vice pro- 
traded the liege of Jaik, till it was relieved by i 
body of Ruffians. 

PUGATSCHEW was more fortur.ntc in other entcr- 
prifes. He marched towards the Coil'ics of llct/, 
and without rruch difliculty took by aiV.uiit the for- 
treiles of Rafypnais and Oicrnay;!. lie atncked 
that of Katifchewa, which \va> better defended ; but 
the fortifications being only oi wood, he I:" lire to 
them, and made hirnicli' liiafirr of it. A detach- 
ment fent againft him i^om ( 'renbur:;, under the 
command of Colonel Bu'of, f,:-il into hi. hand;, for 
want of prudence and rcfol'it'or,. Ar.other corps, 
commanded by General Zchcrnichcf, arrived t^o 
late to join the firft ; fo ill were opciMtiinis lonccrt- 

Di-rr: TVFD by parties from the ar:nv 
chew, J'.i'i cnijasjcd ir. j-l-jiiu 
uncrrpcG:;. Hy attacked, tliat tb?; t uld v. :k,- r.o re- 
iiO-ancc. In all the engagement;-., ri;c c flic r,, \vh 
fell into the hands oi Pug.itfchcw, v.vre niailacrcd, 
.13 \vcil as the iuldicrs, who rcfuicd to enrcl them- 


felves in his army. Augmented by thefe recruits, 
and feveral bodies of Coflacs, which had arrived, 
his army became formidable, and enabled him to 
undertake the liege of Orenburg, which, having no 
force fufficient to oppofe him, would have been o- 
bliged to furrender, if the garrifon of Krafcoyarfk 
had not thrown itfelf into it, by cutting their way 
through the allailants. 

So foon as the news of Pugatlchew's fuccefles were 
fpread, numerous bodies of Barfchkires, a barbarous 
people, who hate the Ruffians, and obey them only 
with reluctance, flocked to the ftandard of this re- 
bel. Their example was followed by feveral Ruffian 
colonies, efpecially by the peafants, that work in the 
mines and founderies on the mountains of Ural. He 
employed a part of his forces in the liege of Orenburg, 
the reft in carrying off the filver found in the mines, 
and in cafting brafs cannon and bullets, which he 
ufed in battering the walls of Orenburg. He fpent 
n. part of the winter before this city, and with equal 
madnefs gave way to all the exceiTes of the moft dif- 
gufting debauchery, and the moil atrocious cruelty. 

Hi'- army was now become fo ftrong, that all the af- 
iiftance received from Kafan was fcarcely fufficient for 
the defence of the paiTaee of the mountains between 


this city and Orenburg. The fame winter he recei- 
ved a powerful reinforcement of about ten thoufand 
Kalmucs, who came from the neighbourhood of 



Stauropol, and had revolted, after killing their com- 
mander. With all thefe united forces, he overnr 
the mountains of the province of Orenburg, dcfoh- 
ting them with (ire and fword. The fimll town of 
Ufa alone refifted, and he did not force it. He 
made a circuitous march, and was already advancing 
towards Catharineburg, where he would have found 
copper money to the extent of more than nine hun- 
dred thoufand roubles, (202,500) when on the re- 
port of the approach of a Ruffian army, liipcrior to 
his own, he flackened his march, and fo allowed 
time for the forces, which were on the frontiers ot 

Siberia to advance, and cover this fort. 
IN the beginning of the rebellion, icliew 

had affected irreproachable manners, and great tie 
votion. He dreffed like a bifhop, g-ive hi, 
tion to the people, and renounced all ambiuoi 
views for himfelf. He allured them hi* only aim 

was to place his fon, the Grand Duke, on 

throne, and then retire into a monailcry 

he had found an alylum, when 

ped from prifun. Then uniting coung: 

tivity, he was ready to fciz. 1 oppo 

fignalizing his arms, and profiting 

ges, which the country, where 1 

war, and the iituadon of his end 

but his good fortune dazzled him. 

his rnpid iucceis ta became < 


tuous. Leaving chance to operate, where he ought 
to have overruled it, he loft the precious moments, 
which fortune prefents in war, and which are never 
to be found again, when they are not laid hold of, 
and improved. It was attended with the greateft 
injury to his caufe among his friends, and thofe, who 
thought on becoming his friends, that at the very 
moment, when fome had arrived, he perfuaded him- 
felf it was no more neceffary to diffemble ; and con- 
fequently he mowed himfelf fuch as he really was, 
refumed his ferocious and depraved difpofition, and 
abandoned himfelf to the excefles, which it prompt 
ed him to. 

ONE of the moft palpable miftakes, for which he 
has been reproached, was having delayed marching 
to Moicow, when the fpirit of rebellion, which had 
already reached that city, might have delivered it 
into his hands. This opportunity was fo much 
the more favourable, as it was then defended by 
only fix hundred regular troops ; and as the war 
with Turkey did not allow Marfhal Romanzow 
to fend great affiftance from the army, then on the 
banks of the Danube, where the Ruffians were car- 
rying on a hard, and almoft a defenfive war. In- 
ilead of purfuing thefe advantages with vigour, Pu- 
gatfchew loft the greateft part of the winter before 
the cities of Jaik and Orenburg. During the liege 
of the latter, he made the officers and nobles, who 



were brought to him, be mafiacred with the moft 
fliocking barbarity. On this occafion he gave oul> 
that his deiign was to exterminate the Ruilian no- 
bility ; and to reconcile his actions with his words, 
he fparcd neither fex nor age among the nobles > 
who were conducted to his quarters, or whom the 
fortune 1 of battle brought into his power. In his 
army there was no perfon of rank or importance ; 
but to over-awe his fubjects, he had made thofe of 
his partizans, of whom he was bell allured, take the 
names of the principal Ruffian Lords, and inveft 
themfelvcs with the badges of the different ordeis 
of Knighthood. It is reported, that he at once, and. 
on a fignal given, ma'de all the German officers, who 
were brought to him, be mafTacred, for fear it 
mould be bbferved, that lie was ignorant of a lan- 
guage, which Peter III. muft have known. 

His conduct was not lefs imprudent than barba- 
rous. Although he was already married to Sophia, 
daughter to a Coilac, by whom he Lad three chiL 
dren, he manied another wife publicly at jaik, and 
fuipenued his military operations, to celebrate this 
marriage, with the pomp due to fo auguir a cere- 
mony. But he brought it under public ciiiLonour, 

/ or 

by indulging in every fpecies of cleUiuchcry. In the 
midtl of tills entertainment, when he wa:: bealilv ir- 
toxicated, he received l?ie accjiniis of GCH;.T:I ! i^ ; 
biko::' bei::g on hi.-; -.vay with :i ccniidcriib! 2 body c f 
VOL. H, U loirr. 


iorojs to give him battle ; and thefe accounts onljT 
reached him,- when the enemy was almoil clofe u- 
j'on him. BibikofT had already detached Prince Ga- 
lit/Jn, major-general in his army, who furprifed Pu- 
gMtfchew's advanced pofts, and cut them in pieces 
rear the fortrefs of Katifchewa. But BibikofF, lefs 
iortisiiate than Prince Gaiitzin, fell into an ambuf- 
cade fome days after, ar.d was mafTacred by Pugatf- 
ciiew's Cofil^cs. Being again attacked and beaten 
bv Prince Gulhzin, whom Bibikoff's misfortunes not tlifcouragsd, Pugatfchew was forcer to fly 
io far as Kargula, \vhere-fce was overtaken by Prince 
Gaiitzin, who defeated him totally a third time, and 
difperied his army ; which it was indeed caiy to dif- 
peri'e, for it was rather a multitude in ar...s, than 
:vn army. This day Pugatfchew efcaped with great 
difficulty. He however reached the mountains of: 
Ural \v : uh a imall ivamber of his faithful partizans, 
:md, in fpiLC of this defeat, he iiiil collected enough 
of iroops to appear again with a refpeclable force on 
the e:\ii: of thefs mr.uatains. He made himfelf m af- 
ter of fbrtreii-js, and burnt Troitfk ; but be- 
Inf?' attacked anev/ by General Colin, he was worft- 
rj-d, and fc;rced to retire again into the mountains. 
j id-come furious by rcj-cated defeats, and bent on 
jio-i .iii^in.n" his 2nns by icmc brilliant exploit, Pu- 
'.citkiiCw at or.ce dirjci-jd his march upon Kafan, 
- .iiMmit! .in?; in every qiurtcr the ravages of a rob- 


ber, who feems to make war only for deftruction- 
He burnt the fuburbs of Kafan, and laid fiege to the 
citadel, where Major-General Paul Fotemkin, go- 
vernor of the province, had taken refuge with all 
his force ; but, according to the opinion of the mi- 
litary men of this nation, he mould have kept the 
plain, and might have kept it with glory. It is faid 
that this conduct did no honour to the General, 
who avoided the Emprefs' difplealure, only becaufe 
his uncle was in the greateft favour with her. 

THE arrival of Michelforn at the gates of Kafan, 
changed the face of affair* Pugatfchew railed the 
fiege with precipitation, nnd unrft rot try his 
flrength with Michelfon, who wao an oificcr or tl-.c 
firft abilities. After refti^g his army two day.-, the 
General went in purfuit of the rebel, rime up wiih 
him before he reached the mountains, and d^f'ated 
him utterly, after feveral obftinate battles, which 
lailed near three cbys. On this occallon, Fug;i!f- 
chew's route was fo general and complete, that he 
him felf was forced to fvvim acrofs the Wolga, and 
fled with three hundred Coffacs belonging to Jaik, 
who were the moft completely ai med, and the mo ft 
obftinate of the rebels, in whom he repofed the 
greateft confidence. Notwithstanding this defeat^ 
which might be fuppofed to have difcouraged thofe, 
who had declared for him, there came to his ailif- 
tince feveral large bodies of Barfchkires, Coflkcs, and 

U 2 peafants., 


peafants, badly armed, who had fled from the mines 
or the moft remote countries, and were flocking 
to him as to their deliverer ; as to one, who was 
to make them pafs from flavery to freedom. This 
at leaft was the hope held out to them by this im- 
poftor, who feemed to derive n<ew force from his 
very difafters. In fhort, the number of his troops 
then infpired him with fuch confidence, that he 
made preparations for marching to Mofcow, where 
his emhTaries had already fpread a fpirit of fedition 
among the people ; but on the news of peace with 
the Turks being juft concluded, he was afraid that 
a part of the army of the Danube would be employ- 
ed againft him, and changed the plan of his opera- 
tions. He came down the Wolga, at Dubof ka de- 
feated a corps of Ruffians, commanded by Baron de 
Diez, and took Penza and Saratoff by aflault. The 
Governor of the laft fort reft, along with the garri- 
fon, which con filled only of fifty men, efcaped from 
the cruelty of Pugatfchew, only by cutting their 
way through the victorious Ccflacs, who thought 
more on plundering the town, than purfuing their 
enemies. The atrocious Pugatfchew made a wilder- 
nefs of SaratolF. lie maflacred every perfon in it s 
without diflinclion of age cr lex. From thence he 
proceeded down to Demiftreik, which he furprifed, 
and made the Governor be empalled. 



) an afh onomer, and a member of the a- 
caden.y o f {licncns ac St Peterfburg, was in the 
neighbourhood of this fcrtrefs, employed in t 'iking 
lev- is for the canal projected between the Don and 
the Wolga. Pugatfchew commanded his Collacs to 
bring Lowitz to him, and, by a refinement of infult 
and cruelty, ordered him to be elevated on pikes, 
that he might be nearer the ftars. In this horrible 
Situation he made him be maffacred in his prefence. 
What could be expected from a robber as ignorant 
as cruel, who, but for the grofs ignorance of the 
people, to whom he had applied, would have perifh- 
ed in the fir ft moments of his enterprife ? But very 
foon we will fee him receive the recompenfe of his 

THE court, when difengaged from the war with 
Turkey, had ferioufly attended to the means of re- 
ducing Pugatfchew. Count Peter Iwanowitfch Pa- 
nin, brother to the gentleman, who had been go- 
vernor to the Grand Duke, had received orders to 
march againft this rebel. The, Genera!, whole repu- 
tation was very high among military people, had 
diftinn-uiihed himfelf particularly at the taking of 

O * O 

Bender. He had been afterwards reduced to a ftate 
of inaction, bccaufe he had offended Potemkin, who 
directed the Emprefs in the choice of her Generals. 
Undeceived or better informed with regard to Count 
Panin, ihe employed him in oppofition to Potem- 


kin, and gave him a force a : le to fubdue Pugatf- 
chew. In all pake's, and \\ith all princes, the in- 
trigues of cour^n- hav-; ge* Tali/ pixy 'ired the em- 
ployment or dilmiflion ot Generals, and they have 
never been deterred by the fatal confequences, 
which might refult from their intrigues. So true it 
is, that Egotifm is the greateft of evils that iffued 
from the Box of Pandora. 

COUNT Panin, united to Michelfon, would have 
foon reduced Pugatfchew, who was advancing to 
Czaritzin, to make it experience the fate of Saratoff. 
But he was obliged to raife the fiege. His convoys 
were cut off, and whilft he was marching with his 
half famifhed army, in cumbered with a multitude 
of waggons loaded with heavy baggage, and wo- 
men, who followed it in every direction, he was fur- 
prifed in a defile, between two ridges of mountains, 
which ftretch towards the Wolga. There he was 
completely defeated, and a great number of the re- 
bels killed on the fpot. A greater number pcriflied 
by throwing themfelves headlong into the fteco and 
narrow paffages of thefe mountains, where they in 
vain foiip-lit for refuse. The reft furrendered at 

*_> * 

difcretion. After having made a ddjperate aefencc, 
Pugatfchew efcaped with a body of the principal 
accomplices. They croflcd the Wo 7 .ga, fwimming, 
and afterwards traverfed the dcferts Between this ri- 
ver and the Talk, where the rebellion had begun, 



and his royalty, or rather robbery, had an end. 
There he was fucceffively abandoned by almoit the 
whole of the Coffacs, overpowered by fatigue, and 
exhaufted by hunger, and he was at laft betrayed by 
thofe in whom he had the greateft confidence. A 
Coffac of Iletz, called Twogoroff, and two belong- 
ing to Jaik, Tfchumakoff and Tedulef, his mofl 
faithful friends, were induced to commit this act 
of treachery, by the promife made them of obtain- 
ing a pardon. Twogoroff was the firft, who repre. 
fented to him, that furrounded as he was by his e- 
nemies, and unable to efcape from them, the bed 
courfe that remained for him, was to fubmit of hb 
own accord to advantageous terms. Enraged at 
this proportion, Pugatfchew drew his poignard, and 
was going to ftab him, who gave him fo cowardly 
an advice, when the three Coffacs fell upon him, 
difarmed him, bound him, and carried him to a bo_ 
dy of Ruffians encamped on the banks of the Jaik, 
commanded by General SamarofF, who made him 
be transported to Simbirfk, whence he was lent by 
Count Panin's orders to Moicow, alor.Lj with hh 
principal accomplices. Pugatfchew arrived there, 
confined in an iron cage, like that iiiVJ for tranl' 
porting tigers. This wretch, who had all tlie fero- 
city of this animal, well deferved to make l-!s entry 
into Moicow in this plight. Commiflioners, U, 
whom the fenate was added; trud hirc. and prcpi- 


rations were making for extortinsr from him the 

O O 

confe/Tion of his crimes, by making him under- 
go the mod painful tortures ; when Catharine IL 
countermanded this barbarous defisrn. Not wifli- 


ing her reign fhould be ftained by any atrocity 3 
fiie gave orders that Pugatfchew mould ,be on- 
ly beheaded, inftead of being torn to pieces 
by horfes, which was the punifhment to which 
the Coinmirlioners had fentenced him, agreeably to 
the law againft High Treafon. He was executed on 
the 23d of January 1775. His body was quartered, 
and expofed in different parts of the city. Five of 
his accomplices, who had proclaimed him Emperor, 
under the name of Peter III. alfo fuffered death. 
Thofe who had circulated his manifeftoes, received 
the knout, and were banifhcd. In this way this fa- 
mous rebellion ended. It had not the moil remote 
tendency to deprive Catharine f the crown, and 
furely never could have let Pugatfchew on the 
throne. His part in the political drama was abfurcl, 
and fome ambitious man had taken the advantage 
of it. 

IT would be difficult to calculate the lofTes of e- 
very kind brought on RufTia by the rebellion of Pu- 
gatfchcw ; cities reduced to afhes ; more than two 
hundred villages deftroycd without a veftige left be- 
hind j thousands of prifoners maflacred in cold blood, 
and among them fome of the firft rank j a great 



number of mines pillaged and deftroyed ; fuch wers 
he traces which Pugatfchew left on his way. Ca- 
tharine II. with a view to enife from the annals of 
her reign, the remembrance of thefe atrocities, iffued 
an order for fuppreilmg the name of the river Jaik? 
which has its fource in the mountains of Ural, and 
gave it the name of Uralfcaja-Reka, River of Ural^ 
It was alfo her plcafure, that the town of Jaik 
ihould in future be called Vraljk^ and that the Cof- 
lacs of the Jaik iliould take the name of Uralfkin-i 
Co/fcics. Catharine did not confine herfelf to thefe 
topographical changes. She flu died alfo how to 
wipe the tears from the checks of the unfortunate 
people, whom the ravages of Pugatfchew had redu- 
ced to the inoft dreadful inifery. They have been 
relieved, and have recovered fpirit, while they have 
bleffed the hand, which fent them thefe fuccours. 




DETAILS refueling the unfortunate Iwan III. He is de- 
throned by Elizabeth. Anecdotes. He is brought up 
in afortrefs, and transferred from prlfon to prifon. 
At the age of fifteen be is confined in SchluJJclburg. 
How be is treated. Elizabeth fees him, and con- 
I'erfcs with him. Effect , ^hich this interview has on 
ibis princcfs. Ph-iv hcan is guarded at Schlufftlburg* 
P erf GII of this prince. His intellectual faculties. 
His character. Vifit paid hir/i by Peter III. Parti- 
culars of this interview. Peter mitigates his lot. - 
He ii'ij7jcs to re/tore him his liberty. The courtiers 
dijfiiade him fr cm this intention, 

r jp 

.1 HERE is yet one unfortunate victim of ambi- 
tion, whofe misfortunes are, in the Ruffian annals, 
an article, from which injured humanity would wifli 
to turn away the eyes of poflerity. We mean 
Iwan III. This prince, by his mother, was defcend- 
ed from uvan Alexiowitfch, one of the brothers of 
Peter I. He was born on the 4th of Augufl 1740, 
His parents were Anthony Ulric, prince of Brunf- 
wick, and Anne of Mecklenburg, daughter to Ca- 
tharine Alexiowna. He was created Grand Duke, 
.by his aunt, Emprefs Anne, whom he loft almoft 
as Toon as he was born, and fucceeded on the 28th 


of October, fame year, though only an infant of two 
months. He did not occupy the throne, or rather 
it was not occupied for him, longer than the 6th of 
December 1741, when he was depofed by theEmprefs 
Elizabeth. In the firft volume, the accounts of this 
revolution were given ; now fome anecdotes mail 
only be added. 

THE foldiers, fent to apprehend the young Empe- 
ror, had received orders to enter his apartment 
without the leaft noife, and not to awake him if he 
was afleep. Having found him ileeping at the fide 
of his nurfe, they flood around his cradle in refpect- 
ful filence, for an hour at leall, till he opened his 
eyes. Then they fell a difputing who mould carry 
liim off. The infant was frightened, and began 
to cry. The foldiers had pity on him, and allow- 
ed the nurfe to approach him ; and me, covering 
him with her cloak, carried him to Elizabeth's pa- 
'lace. This Emprefs took the child, and killed him. 
While he was in her arms, fome foldiers, who were 
in the antichambers, having made the air reibund 
with the cry of Hura Elizabeth, (long live Elizabeth) 
the child, who was pleafed with theib acclamations, 
ftretched out his little hands, and, finning, anpea 1 '- 
ed to imitate the foldiers. Elizabeth, affected wiih 
this innocent gefture, could not forbear prefiing him 
to her bread j Unfortunate < rcatnrc^ me cried, nhis ! 
you perceive not that thefejhouts burl you from ibi throne* 

X -v IT 


IT is no eafy t:ifk to follow Iwan from the time 
of his depofition, till he was transferred to Schluf- 
felburg, but. we are going to relate what is moft 
probable and interefting in the fate of this prince, 
who knew only the misfortunes of life. It is noto- 
rious, that he and his parents were firft con^cT^d 
to the fortrefs of Riga, where this family continued 
prifoners for eighteen months. Thence tL>3y were 
removed to Dunamunde, and afterwards to Orarien* 
burg, a fmall town in the province oi Woror.ef z, built 
by Mcnzikoff, when he was in favour. It is not exact- 
ly known, how long this family redded there, and if 
the young prince Iwan was removed along wii.Ii his 
parents to Kolmogorod, where they ended their days, 
as (hall be related afterwards. Bufching, w.hom we 
lhall follov.' in theic accounts, relates, that when the 
Regent Anne and her hufband were transferred to 
Kolmogorod, I\van, then eight years of age, was 
left at Oranienburg, and tint, fome time after, a 
ir.onk found means to IT feu e him from his nrifon, 
;;r.d carried him to Smolenlko, where the monk and 
tlie prince were arreited ; that, to prevent a like at- 
tempt fcr the future, it was refolved to confine him 
in a place of d'illcult accefs and that, for this pur- 
pofe, die monailery of Waldai was fixed on, which 
ftands on an iile of the fame name, at no great dif- 
tance from the highway between St Peterfburg and 



Mofcow. How long he continued and lived in this 
monaftery, is not faid : till the time that he was 
transferred to Schluflelburg, nothing is known a 
bout him. It is not aftonifhing that this unfortu 
nate prince cannot be exactly traced, lie was a pri- 
ioner from his earliell years, and always fiddly 
guarded. It is certain, that during the laft eight 
ye^rs of his life, he was confined in the fortrefs of 
SchJnffelburg, whither he had been efcorted for the 
firft time in the year 1756. He was then fixteen 
years old. It was at this period that Elizabeth had 
the curioiity to fee him. For this purpofe me was 
carried to St Pe^eriburg in a very clofe coach. The 
interview took place in the houfe of Count Pe- 
ter Iwanowitfch SchuwalofF, coufin to the Emprefs' 
favourite. Elizabeth queftioned him, and converfed 
with him for a long time, without making herfelf 
known. It is faid, fhe could not bear the fight of this 
young man without melting into tears, efpecially 
when the prince, who had the fofteft organs, afkecl 
her, why me wept. Elizabeth was io much moved 
with this fcene, that me again never faw him, all 
whofc misfortunes fhe knew. But ambition fpokc, 
and rerunrfc iilcnt. 

Tut day after this interview, the 'unfortunate 
I wan was carried back to lib priJon, which Eliza- 
beth intended to render more comfortable, but yet 
her fears ceufed not to vender it rigorous. The 



room, which this prince occupied, was lituated at 
the end of a corridor. It was about twenty five feet 
fquare, and arched. The walls were of ftone, the 
iloor was paved with bricks, and the windows were 
not built up, like the neighbouring rooms, as 
ibrne writers have advanced. There were windows 
but the glafs was done over with a kind of gum, 
which allowed the light to enter, without it being 
pcffible to perceive any thing through it. The whole 
furniture confifted of a bed with callers, a table, and 
fome chairs. Two officers were continually confi- 
ned with him ; there was a centinel on the outfide, 
and a guird of ten foldiers at the end of the corri- 
dor. The officers and foldiers were forbidden to 
anfwer his queftions, or to put any to him ; and un- 
der the reign of Elizabeth, none of his guards durft 
tranfgrefs this command. Yet fhe give orders that 
lie fliould be made take the air, but that this mould 
be done with great precaution. In confequence of 
this order, he was allowed to go into the inner 
court of the fortrefs for fome moments, during 
which he could at leaft difcover the firmament ; 
which feemed not to have been created for him ; 
but the fears of the Ruffian foldicr, who thinks he 
is always deficient in his duty, when he overfteps it 
not, fhortened this enjoyment, which, on the day 
it was granted, proved to Iwan a fort of feaft. 



PORTRAITS of this prince have been drawn, which 
referable one another fo little, that they cannot an- 
fwer to the fame individual. People, who have had 
occafion to fee him often, affert, that his look was 
moft engaging, his ftature tall and well proportion- 
ed, his Ikin of the pureft whitenefs, his eyes large, 
and his hair moft beautiful. As for his intellectual 
powers, fome have maintained they were very li- 
mited, and nothing is more probable from the man- 
ner of life, to which he was configned. Others 
have gone further, and affirmed, that he bordered 
on weaknefs, and fomeiimes mowed figns of folly. 
It was certain he could neither read nor write, and 
it is not to be doubted, that he had no opportuni- 
ties of learning to do either. He fpoke the Ruffian. 
and fome words of the German language, which he 
had learned from his father and mother during his 
childhood; but he articulated ill, and, when he was 
any way agitated, he ftammered much. He was 
not ignorant of his origin, and knew he had been 
Emperor for fome months. Full of hopes of enjoy- 
ing liberty once more, and of afcending the throne 
fome day or other, he fpoke often of the conduct he- 
would then cbferve ; and when he was provoked, 
he threatened to punifli, when he was reftorec!, all 
thofe who offended him during his captivity. Tic 
was very irafcible, and carried his refcntment th-~- 
lenth of imdnd's, efpecially \vhcn. in a -fb.te o 


toxicatfon, which, during a certain period happen- 
ed only too often, becaufe every thing he afked for 
hij table, was granted j but after he grofsly abufed 
this indulgence, lib allowance of wine and liquors 
was retrenched, in order to prevent fuch frequent 
cxceffes. Yet ninety roubles, (.20. 5.) per month, 
were allowed him for his fupport ; a fum moderate 
enough, but fufficient in a country, where provi- 
fions arc to be had at the cheapeft rate. 

SOME writers have aflerted, that his whole ward- 
robe confided of a very coarfe long woollen gown 
for fummer, and a peliffe cf fheepfkin for winter ; 
but this afTertion is far wide of the truth. Several 
perfons, who have had an opportunity of convin- 
cing themfelves of the contrary, have told us, that 
this prince had always at his command a great num- 
ber of fuits, which were to him a conftant fource of 
amufement. He often changed them twenty times 
a-day, and walked about in his room, admiring 
himfelf, like a child, with the look of the greateft 
fatisfacUon. They added, that Elizabeth, who knew 
this paffion for drefs, took a pleafure in gratifying 

As to his religions opinions, it was difficult to 
appreciate them, lie had fome notion of the Greek 
religion, prayed often to God with much fervour, 
but he. preferred and obfcrved the worfhip and com- 
niunion of his father and mother, who were both 



brought up in the proteRant religion. It is report- 
ed, but we cannot affirm it as a truth, that this 
prince was vifionary, and boafted of having had 
converfations with the angel Gabriel. There is no- 
thing in his life to prove this aflertion. 

His parents had told him that Elizabeth filled the 
throne, from which he had been thruft, but it does 
not appear, that he was inflrucled of the date of 
this princefs' death, and ilill lefs of the events, 
which followed it. Yet Peter III, had fcarccly 
mounted the throne, when he propofcd to pay a vi* 
fit to the unfortunate Iwan, and to make him for- 
get the fufferings of his youth. He executed his 
dei'ign, and in this vifit took for his companions, 
Alexander Naritfkin, his Grand Uflier, his Aid- 
de-camp- General, Baron d'Ungern Stcrnberg, and 
Baron de Korf, who was then mailer of the police 
of St Peterfburg. As he wifiied this vifit fhould be 
made with the greateft fecrecy, he had provided 
himielf with his own orders, which bore ; that the 
commandant mould be bound to open all the gitii 
of the fortrefs to thofe, who were the bearers of 
them ; that he mould put no quciiion to thchi, and 
ihould fufier them to go through the whole boun- 
daries of the fortrefs, without even excepting the 
room occupied by Prince Iwan; tkit they Ihoulu 
have liberty to couverfc wit!: him, in ;ibicn-c of the 
commandant, and the ofliccr ci the guaril, \vlio 
VOL, 11. Y ihoulJ 


fhould be obliged to retire, fo foon as thofe gentle^ 
men, who \vcrc the bearers of the orders, fhould be 
introduced into the prince's chamber. 

PETE* III. chatted a long time with Iwan, with- 
out making hi:iifelf known. Hr even drunk a lit- 
tle coffee \vitli him. The following is the fubilance 
of th-jir converfation, as taken from the notes ot 
B.u\>r de Korf. 


TELL me, Prince, do you remember the fuffer- 
in~s that aflriled your earlieft years ? 


I HAVE only a faint idea of them. But fo foon 
as I be^an to feel my misfortunes, I mingled my \vith thole of my father and mother, who were 
uvmcippy on my account ; and I was deeply af- 
ilictcd only \vldi the harm treatment, which they 
;uJ to be r :.r, \vhcn they were transferred from one 
frrirci'h to iirorh^r. 

V.'IJEKCE proceeded this harfh treatment? 


FROM the emcers, to whom we were entruited. 
ar;cl who almulc all . >ined inhumanity to the rigo- 
. ons orders, which they rad received. 

Do you r?r; I'cfr their names r 

I WAN", 



No, and we even avoided learning them. We 
contented ourfelves with thanking heaven, when it 
fent us any, who were lefs cruel. 

WHAT, did you never find any humane ? 


ONE deferved to be diftinguifhed from this flock 
of tigers, and he carried with him our efteem and 
regret. How much he alleviated our mifcry by his 
attention, which was equally affiduous and generous ! 


Do you remember the name of this worthy man : 

IWAN. * 

AH ! do I remember it ? I will never forget it. 
It was Baron cle Korf. 

IT has been jufl now noticed, that Baron de Korf. 
was in the Emperor's fuite. He could not hear 
thefe accounts without being fenfibly affected. Pe- 
ter III. who was as much moved as he, took him 
by the arm, and faid to him in a low tone ; Baron, 
you fee a favour is never loft. While the Czar and 
the Baron were recovering from this fccne, Urgern 
Stcrnberg, who had remained alone with Iwan, afk- 
cd him, if he had loft the hope of afcending the 
throne. " This hope," anfwered Iwan, " fupports 
'-' me in this difmal abode." " But if thefe hopes 
<< were realized, how would you acl towards the reign- 

" imr 


" ing Emperor, and his wife r" " I would make 
44 them be executed," faid Iwan, " as two ufurpers." 

Peter III. who returned with Korf, heard 

this anfvver, and was at firfl offended at it. But 
confidering the Hate of the prince's mind, and his 
lituation, he not only pardoned him, but alfo made 
himfelf known, and allured him, he would ufe every 
mean in his power to mitigate his lot, and procure 
him every fort of confolation. In the mean time, 
he enjoined the commandant to mow the greateft 
refpect to his prifoner, and above all to allow him 
liberty to breathe the air, and walk round all the 

AFTER Peter left Iwan's apartment, he vilited the 
iniide of Schluffelburg, and flopped at a fpot of 
ground, which appeared to him a proper fituation 
for creeling a houfe, in which the unfortunate Iwan 
might be more commodiouily lodged than he was. 
" I will," fdid the prince, " have it a fquare build- 
" ing, with nine windows on the fame floor for the 
" prifoner, and the reft of the ground made into a 
" garden, where he may take the air, and beguile 
" the wearinefs of the folitude, wherein the misfor- 
* tune of the times oblige him to live." 

WE were allured, that next day there were work- 
men on this piece of ground to execute this plan of 
Peter's, which would have been carried into effect, if 



his death had not prevented. This building is not 
yet finimed. 

WHEN Peter had returned from Schluffelburg, 
his uncle, Louis Auguftus, Duke of Holftein, advi- 
fed him to lend Iwan into Germany, with his fa- 
ther, Anthony Ulric, Duke of Brunfwick, and his 
children, and to afiign them a pen (ion fuitable to 
their birth. Peter, they fay, was not averfe to this 
advice ; but his miniftcrs, whom he confulted, were 
of a contrary opinion, and facrificing humanity to 
policy, the fyftem of minifters in all courts and in 
all periods, they pointed out the dangers of every 
kind, that would attend the difmifiion of this prince. 
Prevailed upon by their arguments, the Czar confi- 
ned hirnfelf to the promife, which he had made to 
Iwan, of rendering his prifon as comfortable as pof- 
fible. He even granted permiflion, with a view to 
give him fome amufement, that he mould be car- 
ried by water to Kexholm, a fortrefs built on a lit- 
tle ifland of the Lake Ladoga, and much nearer the 
court than Schluflelburg. 

FOR this purpofe he was put in a fmall covered 
boat, in which lie was to be carried to a finall gal- 
liot, that was waiting him ; but, on the paffage, the 
wind became fo violent, and the waves fo ftrong, 
that Iwan was dreadfully frightened. Some mo- 
ments after, he recovered his ordinary tranquillity, 
although the florin increafed to fuch a degree, that 



the failors, notwithftanding ail their efforts, could 
not prevent the boat from being overfet near the 
fliore, and the prince was faved with the greateil 
difficulty. Misfortune feemed to purfue him every 
where, of which the following is an additional proof. 
BEIN-G carried back from the fortrefs of Kexholm 
to that cf Schluffelburg, by order of the Emprefs 
Catharine, who had but juft mounted the throne, 
Iwan again was in the greateft danger. Some werfts 
from Schluffelburg, the horfes yoked to the coach, 
in which he was, took fright, and run off. The 
carriage could not be ftopped, till the fore-wheels 
broke. There was a village to go through before 
they arrived at Schluffelburg, and to conceal the 
prince from the eyes of the curious, he was wrap- 
ped in a cloak, till he got into the room, which he 
formerly occupied. This flruck him fo forcibly, 
that when he entered the fortrefs, he faid to Un- 
gern, who accompanied him, " Baron, embrace the 
" unfortunate Iwan, for you will never fee him 
4 more." He faid true ; and we are now going to 
fee him terminate his career by a frightful death. 



MiROWirscH, a Ruffian officer, forms the extraordinary 
projcft of delivering Iwan III. His motives. Means 
of accompli/king his dcfign* He bribes federal foldiers 
of the princess guard. He employs force to win at his 
room. The officers entrufted with the charge of Iwan 
refohe to maffacre him, rather than deliver him to 
Mirowitfch. Imprejfion, which Iwan 's corpfe make 
upon him. He furrenders himfclf a prifoner. Is 
tried and executed-. Accounts ref peeling Iwan^s fa- 
mily. Character and defcription of Anne, Iwan*s 
mother. FortreJJes, to which this family is fucceffi-ve- 
/y transferred. Treatment, which they experience. - 
Anne's death. That of her hufband. Catharine IL 
takes care of their children. 

1 WO officers, one called Ulafief, a captain, the o- 
ther Tchekin, a lieutenant, had been appointed to 
guard Iwan, and confequently it behoved them to 
be in his apartment. A company of about a hundred 
men were in the fortrefs. Six foldiers were detached 
to guard the corridor, which led to the door of the 
prince's room, and the pailages, which met there. 
The reft were in the main body of the guard, at the 
gate, and in different other parts or" the fortrcfs un- 
der the command of the governor. It was tli'.-n the 



regiment of Smolenfko, quartered in the village of 
SchlufTelburg, who furnilhed this guard, which was 
relieved every week. Such was the ftate of matters 
when a fub-lieutenant, called Vaffili-Mirovuitfch, 
formed the wild plan of delivering Iwan, expecting 
to make his fortune, if this prince mould be refto- 
red to the throne. This ibldier was grandfon to the 
rebel of the fame name, who had taken the lide of 
Mazeppa, Hatman of the Coffacs, who revolted a- 
gainft Peter the Great, and joined Charles XII. in 
the war, which thefe princes waged againft each o- 
ther in Ukraine. Mirowitfch had petitioned 
for the reftitution of his grandfather's fortune, 
which had been conlifcated after the battle of Pul- 
towa ; and becaufe the Emprefs had refufed his re- 
peated folicitations, he formed the plan, which we 
have juft now mentioned. To this he was inftiga- 
ted both by ambition and vengeance ; two pailions, 
which may well give courage to hatch plots, but 
cannot furniih the means of putting them in execu- 
tion. Therefore thofe of Mirowitfch, a man with- 
out fortune and fupport, werfe not in any fhape pro- 
portioned to the boldncfs of his enterprife. 

SOME months before he put it in execution, be- 
ing at Kafan, he imparted it to a lieutenant in the 
regiment: of Veliki- lacki, whofe name was Apollo 
Ufchakoflf. Thefe two confpirators went to the 
church of the Virgin, there took an oath on the al 



tar to be fecret and faithful to one another, and 
joining fanaticifrii to treafon, they indicated the 
Almighty to protect their deigns. They alfo pre- 
pared a manifefto, which they propofed to publiih 
fo foon as Iwan mould be fet at liberty. But in this 
plot, it was not the manifefto, that was moil diflL. 
cult to compofe and circulate; it was the execution, 
which was the height of madnefs, while the manifefto 
was nothing but childifh fluff. The execution was 
delayed till the fine feafon, becaufe it was imagined 
the Emprefs v/ould then make an excurfion to Li- 
vonia. Very icon after Mirowitfch joined his re- 
giment at Schluilclburg, but his confident Ufchakoff 
was drowned by accident on the aoth of March as 
he was going to Srcolenfko. 

DEPRIVED of his aiTiftance, Mirowitfch, could find 
no body, as is fuppoied, in whom he could place 
the lame confidence, He however founded a court 
domeftic, called Tiknn Cafatkin, and ui'c.d no fin all 
artifice to infpire him gradually \vith the notions^ 
with which his own head V.MS crainrned. He want- 
ed to employ him 3 if need rc-quircu, as a tool ull> 
ful for forwarding iiis pli!is. He ?.lio difclofcd* him- 
felf to Semen TchevaritSef, a Lieutenant cf Artil- 
lery. He communicated to the latter, in anibip-u- 

j ' \-> 

ous and indirect terms, his plan ci delivering Iwarj 7 

and committing to him the charge of tiic 

in garrifon at 3t Pctcrfburg, but he ipokc of it on- 

VOL, !, Z 1y 


Iy as a plan, the execution of which was deferred 
till an indeterminate period, and without difcovering 
Himfelf as the author. 

IT was with fo much attention and precaution in 
cafe of bad fuccefs, that Mirowitfch prepared to exe- 
cute this perilous enterprise. He did duty in the 
fortrcfs for a week without finding a lingle oppor- 
tunity favourable to his views. He obftrved how- 
ever, and made a mark on the Prince's room door, 
that he might know it again. He ihowed it to his 
friend Semen Tchevaridef, who had come from St 
Petersburg to pay him a viilt. At the end of the week 
his duty in the fortrefs was to end, according to the- 
eftablifhed rule, but he folicited, and obtained under 
fome fair pretext, permiiilon to continue there, and 
thought he had found the moment of action on 
the evening of the 4th or cth of Tuly old ft vie. He 

O > * / 

had imagined that the fokiiers on ^uard with him 

o o 

that day, would be more eafily feduced, than thofe, 
who had been relieved; but it did not appear, that he 
was Cure of any of them, ezcept Jacob Pilkoff. It was 
only at ten o'clock at night he made the firft com- 
munication of his defign to three corporals, and 
two iblcliers, who at firf: refufed abfolutely to join 
him. However being aided by Pifkoff, he was by 
his infmuations at laft fuccefsful in perfuading them 
to favour his fcheme. They engaged to fecond him, 
but he could not get them to act with that refolu- 



tion and courage, which the circumfiances requi- 
red. On the contrary they continued a long time 
irrefolute, and the fear of danger affected them fo 
ftrongly, that they propofed to delay it till a more 
favourable moment. Mirowitfch appeared at firft to 
yield to their arguments, and carefully concealed 
what he thought of their fears; but about two o'clock- 
next morning, he renewed his importunity, and 
by arguments and money, which he distributed 
among them, and which acts more efficacioufly than 
reafoning ; by promifes of the greateft rewards, and 
of a coniiderablc promotion ; and in fhort by the 
authority, which his rank of commanding officer 
gave him over them, he fo effectually wrought upon 
them, that they recovered courage, and determi- 
ned irifiantly to fupport him with all their might. 

WITH the aillftance of thefe fix men, and with- 
out loling a moment, he ordered about forty fol- 
diers, who were on guard in this part of the for- 
trefs, fome on watch, others half alleep, to load 
their fufees and follow him. He met with the more 
ready obedience, that he faid he had received orders 
from the Emprefs, and before they could dive into 
his dcfign 9 he conducted them to Iwan's apart- 
ment. He approached the paiTage, which com- 
municates with it, when he met with Berednikoff, 
commandant of the fort, who was going to bed, 
but upon receiving advice from a foldier, in whom 

Z 2 li C 


he had confidence, he had quickly drefled himfelf 
and come to oppoie Mirowitfch. He fummoned 
him to declare the caufe of the difturbance he ob- 
ierved. Mirowitfch anfwered him only by a blow on 
the bead with a fufee, which ftunned him. He gave 
him in charge to two ftrong trufty men, and conti- 
nued his way with the reft of his party. He then ap- 
peared in the pailage, that led to the room, where the 
prince fleeping, ordered the two fentinels, whom 
];e round there to mire, and on their refufal com- 
rnandvjd hh followers to fire upon them. The fen- 
tmels hemp: fupported by fix of their companions 
made a {mart ret.uin to Mirowitfch's party, who 
were executing nis orders. Tlien the action was 
p-oiiiF to take place in this corridor, when the fol- 

o o * 

ciiers, led on by Mirowitfch, aftoniihed at this re- 
iifUnce, which they did not expect, perceived they 
were deceived, and retired with precipitation, in 
fpit.e of the erforts of leader, whom they told 
they would not. obey, uniefs he produced the order, 
which, he faid, he had received irom the Ernpreis. 
Mirowitfch then read them a paper prepared by 
himfelf, at the foot of which was a. counterfeit fig- 
juiture of the Emprefs', and as it was not JiiTicuk to 
deceive men fo ignorant, the greatcfi: part of whom 
could not read, he again got them perfuaded by 
means cf prayers, promifes, and threats to a fc- 
c-ond attempt immediately. During this fliort in- 



terval, they brought to him a cannon from the bat* 
tion, which he himfelf pointed againft the paflage> 
which led to the prince's chamber. At the fight of 
this the door was inftantly opened, and all his men 
entered without oppofition. 

ULASIEF and Tchekin, the two officers, who as 
Already mentioned, were guarding the prince in the 
infide of his apartment, had repulfed the firft attack 
of the affailants, by making the fentinels fire upon 
them ; but when the confpirators returned to the 
charge with cannon, they knew that rcfiftance was 
impoilible, and therefore adopted the cruel refolu- 
tion of maflacring the unfortunate prince, whom 
Mirowitfch wifhed to take from them. There are 
ibme writers, who have maintained, that thefe of- 
ficers had only followed their initruclions Alas! 
If it was fo, it muft be acknowledged that ambition 
is \ny cruel. 

THE unhappy Iwan had awaked at the noife of 
the cries, a.-id reports of the fufees. Me had ftarted 
out o f bed. and although naked and without any 
arms, but dcfpair nnd a vigorous confritution, he 
had opnoied his guards with great refohition. Se- 
vtird iiacs lie parried the ilrokes aimed .it him, and 
with his own Irj.nd, though wounded, had broken 
one of their f words, with which lie had defended 
himfdi", till overpowered by numbers, and covered 
with wounds, he was at laii: killed by a wound or; 



the back. Then the two officers opening the door 
with violence, and fliowing the prince's bloody bo- 
dy to Mirowitfch's party, exclaimed, There is your 

AT this fpedacle Mirowitfch drew back with hor- 
ror and furprife, but very foon recovering his fpi- 
rits, he attempted no new effort for his defence, 
but returned with the moft perfect tranquillity to 
the Governor, whom he had given in charge to his 
adherents, and delivering up his fword to him, he 
faid coolly j / am now your prifoner. 

THE following day, the body of Iwan, covered 
only with a Ihirt and a pair of drawers, was expo- 
fed to the view of the garrifon. An immenfe con- 


courfe of people went thither from all parts. It was 
impofliblfc to defcribe the indignation and forrow, 
which appeared in the geflures, countenances and 
language of thofe, whofe eyes beheld this unfortu- 
nate prince, who after having fat on a throne, from 
which his misfortune, not his fault had pulled him 
down, had fpent his miferable days in a gloomy 
prifon, from which he got out, only to conclude 
them by a death as tragical as premature. As the 
the croud was increafing, and might occafion fome 
difturbance, it was wifely judged to put an end to 
this horrible fight. Iwan's corpfe was wrapped in 
a fheep-fkin, laid in a coffin, and buried in an old 
chapel. "which was deftroyed fome years ago. 



COUNT Panin, who commanded at St Peterfburg, 
In abfence of the Emprefs then in Livonia, dif- 
patched a meflenger to inform her of this event, 
and at fame time fent her a copy of the foolifh ma- 
nifefto, which Mirowitfch propofed to circulate af- 
ter the fuccefs of his enterprife, and which they 
found upon him. It reprefented Catharine as a 
twofold ufurper, and Iwan as the only lawful fove- 
reign, which the Ruffians ought to choofe for them- 
felves. Catharine difdained to look at this libel, but 
fhe gave orders for punifhing Mirowitfch's wicked 
attempt according to the rigour of the laws, and 
Weymar, Lieutenant-general, was named to go to 
Schluffelburg to examine the traitor and his accom- 
plices, and to procure fuch information, as might 
help to difcover the circumftances of this plot. Du- 
ring the precognition, which was not long, Miro~ 
witfch behaved with fo much audacity, that he at- 
toniflied the Judges. He was condemned to be be- 
headed and his body to be burned along with the 
fcaffold, on which he was to die. This fentence 
was executed at St Peterfburg on the 26th day of 
September. An immenfe multitude attended at the 
death of this man, who was rather mad than wicked, 
and to the place of execution preferved an undaunt- 
ed countenance, and the courage of a man, who 
died in a good caufe ; and indeed he continued to 
repeat that he was a martyr, When he arrived at 



the place of punifhment, he furveyed the apparatus 
with coolneis, caft at the executioner a difdainful 
look, crolfcd himfelf, without uttering a linglc 
word, prcfented his neck to the axe, and received 
the deadly blow. He was the only one among the 
confpirators, who fuffered death. His accomplices 
were condemned to different punifhments accord- 
ing to the degree of their guilt. Pifkoff who was 
the moft criminal, run twelve times under the rods 
of a line of a thoufand foldiers, and five of the moft 
guilty after him, run ten times along the fame line. 
They were afterwards fent to the public works ; n 
fentcnce fcarcely lefs cruel than death itfelf. We 
lhall obferve without entering more minutely into 
thefe executions, that more than fifty perfons were 
implicated in Mirowitfch's plot ; that Carafldn and 
Tchevaridef were found guilty of having had crimi- 
nal converfations with him, and Nikita Lebedef 
was punifhed for not having undeceived the foldiers 
by making them underftand the falfity of the Impe- 
rial orders forged by Mirowitfch. 

WE confider It our duty not to conclude the hii- 
tory of Prince I wan, without faying a word of hij 
family. Anthony Ulric of Brunfwick, his father 
v/au the (on of Ferdinand Albert, and of Antoniettc 
liller U> the unfortunate Charlotte Chriftina, who 
had married the Czarowitfch Alexis. lie was bro- 
ther to the: 1 iil Duke Charles of Brunfwick, and to 



the celebrated General Prince Ferdinand. Anthony 
Ulric was born in the year 1714. On his arrival at 
St Petcrfburg in 1738 he was allowed to marry 
Anne, Princcls of Meek! en burgh, prefumptive heir- 
efs of the Empire, and in 1739 this marriage was 
celebrated with great pomp, Who would have ima- 
gined, fays Manflein, that this union would one 
day bring upon them the greateft inifery, and that 
this prince, whom they invited to fill the throne of 
Ruflia, would find on it nothing but exile and cap- 
tivity for himfelf and his wife. 

THIS princefs, boni in the year 171?, and invit- 
ed to RUHKI in 1731, by her aunt, the Emprefs 
Anne, had embraced the Creek religion, and ha- 
ving been a rain baptized, me had changed her name 

O o i ' O 

from Klizabelh Chriilina, into that of Anne, under 
which llie is known in hlilory. In 1739, ihe mar- 
ried, as been juR row fiid, prince Anthony Ul- 
ric of Briinfwick, from which marriage prince hvan. 
fprung. Vv r e have lern the nature, of the revo- 
lution, which took from her, along with liberty, 
the adminift ration of afiairs during the rnmority of 
her ibn. It is laid, fhe was not fbrry at {being the 
reins of empire taken from her, and would not have 
regretted it, if me had been fcnt back into her own 
native country; lor flic had been often heard to fay, 
that flie longed only for die nirjority of her ion, to 
VOL. I-, A a throw 


throw off a burden, which had been laid on her 
Ihoulders, without her own con fen t. 

INDEED nobody could be worfe calculated for bu- 
finefs than this princefs. Buiineft was to her a pu- 
Fiimment, and me hated even the very name of it. 
She therefore never appeared in council, and gave 
lierfelf up wholly to her miniflers. It was General 
Munich who had over her the greateft afcendancy, 
Rurfed her in this criminal indolence, by telling her, 
that as (lie was the greateil princefs in Europe, file 
had only to give orders, and her minifters would 
rid her of every uneafmefs. This language, in the 
mouths of all ambitious minifters, has delivered 
more than one prince ever to a fecurlty, equally fa- 
tal to his own glory, and to the happinefs of his 

THE prince, her hufband, who was impatient un- 
der his misfortune, perpetually reproached her with 
it, and never could forgive her for having vo- 
luntarily accelerated the ruin of her family, by con- 
cealing from him the alarming accounts me was 
from time to time receiving <tbout Elizabeth's plans, 
which he would have opj-olL-d at the rifk of his life. 
Anne's apathy enabled her to bear thefe reproaches 
without re(entir. f x them, :;nd (he ingenuouily main- 
tained, that all lucl happened for the belt, and that 
{he was happy at having prevented the effufion of 



As to her perfon, the Regent Anne was of 
good flature, and of a charming figure. Nothing 
could be more pleafant than her look, nothing more 
harmonious than her voice. She had got a complete 
education, fpoke feveral languages with eafe, and 
poiTeffed a variety of agreeable accompliihments, 
which, it muft be owned, were more fuitable to a 
woman fond of the liberal arts, than to an Emprefs, 
er to her, who was fo difcharge the duties of a So- 
vereign. She repofed a blind conlidence, which 
degenerated into obieffion, in Baronefs Julianne de 
Mengden, an ambitious woman, to whom every 
mean of accomplMhing her purpofe, appeared law- 
ful. She herfelf was governed by her brother, and 
her hufband, two infatiable courtiers, who would 
have fvvallowed up the revenues of Ruffia, if Anne's 
regency, had continued any longer. After having 
removed Anne and her family from court, Elizabeth 
made her be alked, if fhe had any favour to folicit. 
Inftead of afking liberty or permifllon for herfelf and 
relations to pafs into Germany, Anne begged me 
might be allowed to take the Baronefs de Mengden 
along with her. Elizabeth granted this requeit, at 
xvhich fhe was more aftonimed than fatisfied ; but 
the favourite, who had no more favours to obtain, 
and laboured under the faults of all her kind, re- 
paid her miftrefs with ingratitude, and feigned fick- 
nefs that ilie might not be obliged to attend her. 

A a 2 AFTII--. 


AFTER having languifhed more than eighteen 
months in the fortrefs of Riga, where fhe had a 
mifcarriage, Anne and her family were removed to 
Dunamunde, as we have already obferved. In this 
pailagc the common foldiers, who accompanied 
them, plundered the greateit part of their effects, 
nnd this unfortunate family arrived at Dunamunde 
In the moil cieilitute iituation. Anne there bore a 
princefs, who received the name of Elizabeth. At 
that time (lie was in want of nothing, for the Em- 
prefs, who had been informed of her Iituation, had 
given orders for furnifhing the illuitrious prifoners, 
with whatever they ihould afk. She even carried 
her attention the length of procuring to them all 
the conveniencies and pleafures, that can be enjoy- 
ed by perfons deprived of liberty. 

FROM Dunamunde they were transferred to Ora-- 
menburg, afterwards to Smolenikoi-Oftrof, and at. 
iait to Kolmogorod, foliated on one of the iilcs of 
the D \vina, about eighty wcrfu from Archangel, 
They were lodged in the monafiery, from which 
the Archimandrite, and the monks li;d been expel- 
led, and for greater iccurity, it w;is f:irrourulcd 
\vhh two rows of paliiade:-;. No fennncl appeared 
without; the guard was Rationed within, and the 
ibkliers, inKc^ci of an uniform, v/ere clothed like 
reaf.iPt? ; fo that unlefs you had Icen warned, you 



not have fufpecled that there were in this mo- 
naltery any prifoncrs of fo great confequence. 

FOR the fupport of thcfe unfortunate perfons ia 
this abode, as frightful for its fituation as for the 
inclemency of the climate, the Emprefs had affigned 
a mm more than fuillcient, but it was entrufted to 
faithlefs hands. The benevolent intentions of Eli- 
zabeth were therefore defeated, and thefe illuflrious 
prifoners, who ought to have had every thing in 
abundance, were almoft in want of the neceflaries 
of life. The Prince of Brunfwick, notwithstanding 
the diftance, and his guards, found means of ma- 
king his complaints reach the throne, and the Em- 
prefs, indignant, bammed the faithlefs adminiftrators 
into Siberia, changed the guard, and gave peremp- 
tory orders, to provide this family with whatever 
could afford any mitigation of their fuSc-rings. * 
Thefe orders were punctually obeyed. 

NOTWITHSTANDING this change, and this kind 
of profperity, Anne could not bear the climate, and 
t-xJiuuilod by the effects of 3. delivery, which the bad 
ft.; To of her health rendered unfavourable, me died 
on ti.ic ic'tli of 'March 1746, at the age of twenty 
c;^l: ycnr?. Her hulband in whofc arms flic cx- 
j-'ivd, in v:r.n v/ilhcd to accompany her to the 
grave, but the cruel fates, which deprived him of 
ail that w^s dear to him in the world, denied him 
onfolation. r rhc body cf this unfortunate 



princefs was carried to St Peterfburg, and buried ia 
the church of St Alexander Newfld. The prince, 
her hufband had the misfortune to furvive her thir- 
ty five years. He died at Kolmogorod in the year 
3781, after thirty nine years confinement, and in 
the fixty feventh year of his age. 

CATHARINE II, who had nothing more to fear 
from this family, wiftied not to infult humanity 
without a caufe, and the children of this unfortu- 
nate couple have been fet at liberty. In the very 
year of their father's death, two princes, and prin- 
cefies, of whom the oldeft was more than forty 
years of age, were conveyed from Kolmogorod to 
Archangel, and thence tranfported in a vefTel to 
Bergen in Norway, where they were embarked 
for Horfens fituated in Jutland, in the diocefe of 
Arhuus, a port on the Baltic fea. There they 
are now under the protection, and care of their 
aunt the queen dowager of Denmark, and the Em- 
prefs of Ruifia has fettled on them a confiderable 
penfion for their fupport, 




DEPARTURE fro?n St Peter/burg on our way to M of cow. 
Preparations for this journey. Highways, Vil- 
lages. Peafants* huts. Accounts of the people in the 
country. Their way of living. Poft-houfes. Diffi- 
culty in procuring frejh horfes. What is the caufe of 
it. Way of obviating this inconvenience. 

JL HE feafon and our bufmefs determined us to go 
from St Peterfburg to Mofcow, and we took leave 
of the different perfons, with whom we had formed 
acquaintance during our flay in the capital. They 
advifed us to make provifion for this journey, and 
to attend to the moft minute articles, if we wimed 
to avoid not only the inconvenience of fatigue, but 
the abfolute want of thofe things, which make it be 
forgotten, or at leaft enable travellers to bear it with 
patience. We profited by this advice, not like peo- 
ple, who wim to make theinfelves eafy every where, 
but who wim to be ill accommodated no where on. 
the road. Confequently the fledges, which we en- 
gaged, were in the bed {late, and extremely clofe, 
Our pelifTcs might have fupplied the place of ixids 
for canons, and our provifions might have decora- 
ted their fide boards. 

ON our way out of St Peterfburg we found an 
excellent caufcway, Ikirted with trees on both fides,, 



and provided with foot-paths. At every werft a 
fmall column of granate or marble announces to the 
traveller his diiiance from the metropolis. This 
road, which is kept in repair like all in the vicinity 
of the refidence of fovereigns, is mod beautiful, but 
extends no farther than Inchora, which is only thir- 
ty five werfts from the cipital. and the laft village 
you fee, before you enter into an immenfe forefc, 
through which you have to pafs, to the extent of 
more than a hundred and thirty werfts. This leads 
to the neighbourhood of Novogorod, where that 
called the Mofcow-highway begins. As it runs in a 
ftraight line through an exteniive fcries of woods, 
the length of more than fix hundred and eighty 
werfts, there is not in the world a more wearifome 
road, not even excepting thofe in Spain, and Por- 
tugal. As the fledge is a carriage that admits of 
reading, books deceived the dullnefs of the road. 
The velocity of the fledge however renders the ufr 
of them painful to the eyes, for the reft of which 
we found one expedient. From reading we palled 
to meditation, and from this to ileep. Durino 
thcfe alternate amufements the fledges continued to 
n::t, we added werft to werft, and arrived at the 
end oi our journey. In this tedious road, you ne- 
ver get out of the fore ft, except when you nicer 
with villages, around which there are fome hun- 
dreds of acres in culture*, It is too obfervable that 



the pcafant has cleared them only for what was bare- 
ly neceffary for his fubfiilence, and that he has been 
forced to this bv the ftate of fervitude, in which he 


lives, for his time is rather his lord's than 'his own, 
This road -prefer ves always the fame breadth, and 
is formed in a way quite lingular. Trunks of trees 
parallel to one another, are laid acrofs. Thefe are 
bound in the middle, and at die ends, by long thick 
fpars or rafters, fixed to the ground by ftrong flakes. 
They are tlirn covered with a bed of branches of 
trees, on which is laid a thick coat of land and 
earth. Thcfe roads are very fine, when newly made 
or repaired, but when the trunks are damaged, or 
entangled in the orround : when the fancl, which co- 

O v.J ' J 

vers them, is carried olf by the rains ; in this cafe, 
which occurs ortcn in a few werfts, trie road pre- 
ierils only a (cries of holes and f loughs, which ren- 
der the iLdge, the moil unfupportable of all carri- 
ages. Where tlic roiu! is not entirely iinoothed. 

lion, of furrows, like a cultivated f-eld, and t!:e mo- 
tion of the carriage is a c^^iclcls ll;;ike, worle to 
bear, than that occ:ulor.ed by the 1^0^ unequal 
pavement. To ride in a Qccge vvi.liout ur-jailnois, 
it is abfolutel}' neceflary tl:at tlie road l:e entire, or 
that the ino\v r be frozen, nr.d have iillcd up all tha 
holes, and made the furfajc c.ri.ii. \\t had this 
advantage on aliih ft ;tl3 our V.MV, The Er.iprci: 
VOL. 1L B U iV5 


pays well, the peafants are much tormented and 
fqueezed for the fupport of the roads ; but the un- 
dertakers are more defirous of filling their purfes s 
than the tracks. 

THE villages to be met with every now and then 
upon the road, bear an uniform refemblance to one 
another. They have a fmgle ilreet formed by cot- 
tages of wood, hardly to be diftinguimed from hou- 
fes of brick, Thefe are good dwellings, though 
confirucled in the coarfeft manner. They are built 
fo as to refift the rigour of the climate. This is the 
principal aim of all who build. We noticed that 
the figure of them all was an oblong fquare, incto- 
ling a court, having the look of a large barn, on the 
outfide. In one of the corners of this inclofed fpace 
5s the part of the houfe inhabited by the family, fa- 
cing the ftreet of the village, with an outfide-ftair. 
This contains one, or at moil two apartments. Beds 
are unknown in this- country. In ail the houfes of 
the Rullian peafants, there are never more than two 
for the heads of the family, in which they fleep with 
their clothes on, one at the head, another at the 
foot. The reft of the family lie on benches, on the 
ground, or more readily on the ftove j a kind of 
brick- o T * 7 en, which occupies almoft a quarter of the 
room, and is flat on the tcp. Often the men, wo- 
rn e ., and children iieep promifcuouily, without any 
to icx or condition, and frequently in ailate 



o nature. In fome cottages we perceived a fort of 
frame, fix or feven feet high, which they fhift at 
pleafure from one end of the room to the other. In 
the centre of this, there are feveral planks fixed ho- 
rizontally above one another, upon which the mem- 
bers of the family fleep, often with their feet and 
head hanging ; a pofture very draining for flrangers 
not accuftomed to this kind of bed. 

THE great number of people, fometirnes twenty, 
contained in this fmall fpace, added to the heat of 
theftove, renders the room, for the greater part of 
the time, inhabitable by none but the Rufilan pea- 
fants. It too emits a fuffocating fmell, which cuf- 
tom alone makes fupporta-bie. This inconvenience 
is ft ill preater in the -koiifes, in which there are no 


chimneys, and no outlet for the fmoke. "If during 
the night you wifh to'open the mutters for relief, and 
for reftoring the air, a iliarp frofty wind from with- 
out, foon forces you to prefer the heat and ftrong 
fmell of the room, along with the fmoke collected 
there. But, as we only went upon thefe ovens 
without continuing,, and as we had to refrefh our- 
felves after the fatigues of the day, a profound fleep 
fpared us all thefe difagreeable circumftances. 

IN the middle of each room was fufpended to the 
deling, a vefTel full of holy water, and a lamp, 
which is lighted only on grand occafions. It gives, 
cr rather is intended to give light to a bog\, coarfely 

B b 2 painted, 


painted, and exactly like the village images that are 
to be found in Catholic countries. But, the honeft 
Ruflians, when they rile and go to bed, dp not for 
this omit to ftand up before this bedaubed figure, 
for feveral minutes, performing numerous acts of 
worfhip, and the moil devout, proftra.ting them- 
felves on the ground. We noticed that the Bogs in 
almoft all the tillages, were a St l\icholas, or a St 
Alexander Newfki. 

THE Ruffian peafants are very polite to one ano- 
ther. They lift there hats when they meet, bow 
frequently, and with much ceremony. In common 
converfation they fpeak with much aciicn. never 
give ever making geftures, and in particular cxprefs 
refpect for their iuperiors in the moil fervile way. 
The German*, and almoii ail the peafants 'of the 
North, referable the Ruffians in this refpecl. 

TITE country people in Rufiia are well clothed, 
\veli lodged, and appear to have a wholefome and 
plentiful diet. Their rye bread at fir ft offends the 
eye, but is a nourishing food, and when people are 
accuftomed to it, there is nothing difagreeable in it. 
If they be hungry, they think it excellent, if they 
have travelled forty werfls, without getting any 
thing, they think it delicious. The p^iianrs il\i- 
fon it, by a mixture of onions, oat-meal, carrots, 
oreen wheat and oil. At fome other time, we (hull 


fpeak of their other aliments. Here we lhail only 


obferve, that muflirooms are fo common in this 
country, that they make a very confiderable part 
of the diet of the inhabitants. The variety of this 
vegetable is furprifing. It is of feveral colours, 
white, black, brown, yellow, and deep red. The 
common drink of the peafants is quafs, a fermented 
liquor, which tailes like new-wort, of which we 
have already made mention. It is adminiftered as 
an excellent anti-fcorbutic. A French phyfician, 
iettled at St Peterfburg, confirmed us in this opi- 
nion, and had lent the receipt to Paris. 

IN Ruilia, frefh horfcs arc only to be had at the 
intervals of fifty wcrils, (upwards of thirty fix miles 
Britiih,) This is not too long a {Liqc, when the 
froft has made the roads fmooth, and except in, 
time of froft, there is no travelling in Ruilia. At 
leaft no body will attempt it, if he be not compelled 
by imperious neceility. The peafants, who furrufh 
poft horfes, are called Jamjhics, and are obliged to 
iind them to couriers and travellers at a very mo- 
derate rate. But as an indemnification, they are 
exempted from the capitation tax, and military fer- 
vlcc, and even enjoy certain privileges. But as 
they are fo poorly paid for their horics, they give 
them only with reluctance. As foon as any perfon 
presents himfelf lor a changr of horics, they collect 
and difputc in a way, that would arnufe any one, 
but a traveller bent on getting forward. An I'.ng- 



lifh man, called Chancellery has committed a divert- 
ing blunder on this point. He has faid in his tra. 
vels, that the Ruffian peafants difputed, who fhould 
have the honour of fupplying him with horfes, while, 
on the contrary they were difputing who ihould 
not fupply him with horfes. When a man writes 
on a country without underilandir.g its language, 
he is liable on every occaiion to fall into fuck 

AN hour is often net fufRcient to fettle the dif- 
putes of thefe peafants. The Pott mailer muft of- 
ten interfere, and compel them to call lots. When 
a traveller is under the a'-folute neceflity of u-ak'ng 
ilifpacch, beiides his paffport, he must be accoi-.ipa- 
rr.fd by a Ruffian -ibldier. Then the disputes airiong 
the Jamfhics become lefs frequent, for it cap be 
hardly imagined how much the foldier's cane ihort. 
ens their controverts, how fummarily it determines 
their debates, and how it brings out the horfes the 
moment they are afked for. In thefe travels the 
paflion of the Ruffians for fmging may be noticed. 
The poflilions fing the whole ftage, the foldiers ling 
while on their march, and the pealants fing while 
engaged in their work ; the taverns refcund with 
fpiritual fongs, and at night a traveller arrives in 
the midft of fongs, from all the neighbouring villages. 

THE moil confiderable, that we found on our 
\vay from Inchora to Novogorod, was Tfchoudovo, 

^ t*- 



it ftands at the loot of a hill, on the top of which 
is a men .ft cry very picturefquely fituated. The lake 
Irez wafteb the walls of the Monks' inclofure, and 
furrounds the village. The houfe, in which thefe 
pious coenobites dwell, is of brick, and by its height 
bears a finguiar contraft, to the peafants* humble 
cottages, with which it is furrounded. 

WHILE the Poft-mafter was fettling the difputes of 
the Jarofhics, we amufed ourfelves with examining a 
plough and a harrow at his door. We could not 
enough admire the workmanfliip. The plough was 
the fimpleft thing imaginable, and the harrow was 
nothing but a rough collection of trunks of young 
iir trees. If thefe inftruments be attended with the 
leaft pofiible expence, it muft be acknowledged at 
fame time, that they are weak and infufficient for 
tearing from the earth the fruits demanded of it ; 
for they reach only the furface, and in this climate 
the earth muft be tormented, not carefled. 



ARRIVAL at Novogorod. Hi/lorical accounts of this city. 
// becomes a democratic republic.-* How it lofes its 
liberty. Dcfcripiion cf -this city. Bonitza-Gorod. 
Views . Mono/I cry of IwcrfkoL Vijlmei Volofcb ok . 
Canal, to which this city gives' its name. Twer. 
Defcriptions. -Humane inftituiions cf Catharine II, 
Commodities and commerce of Twer. 

NOVOGOROD, at which w<> arrived the third 
day after our departure from the capital, is the firft 
on the road from St Peterfburg to MoTco\v. It is 
a hundred and eighty fix werfts diirant from the 
former, and five hundred and forty eight fiom the 
latter. As you go in, you are ftr^ck with the fad 
fpectacle of tne ruii;:> or its ancient grandeur. It is 
one of the mo ft ancient cities in RuiTia. In former 
limes it \va< called Great Novosjorod, to diftins;uiih 

O * -O 

it from all towns or the fame name. According to 
Neftor. bi:th it and Ki,;\v were built in the middle 
of the fifth ce:i'ury, by a horde of Sclavonians, who, 
if credit be due to Procope, came from the b^nks 
of tl:r \v~clga. A pailage in Jornandes, who wrote 
the h-rtcry of the Goths, leaves no doubt about the 
antr ju'.'y of Novogorod. lie fpeaks of it under the 
iKune of the New- City, wluch is of the fame mean- 
ing with Novofforod. No more mention is made 

O tJ 



of it till the ninth century, the cera when Rurick 
the Firft, Grand Duke of Ruflia, made a conqueft 
of it, and chofe it for the capital of his extenfive 
dominions. He died in the year 879. The year 
following his fon Igor, or rather Oleg, who was 
this princes' tutor, took poflefilon of Kiow, and 
made it the capital of the dominions belonging to 
the Grand Dukes of Ruflia. From that period No- 
vogorod was governed, fir ft by officers fent by the 
Grand Dukes, then by the younger princes of their 
houfe, who granted it fo great privileges, that it 
became aim oft a free, and independent city. It even, 
obtained the right of electing its own fovereigns, 
who no more depended on the Grand Dukes of 

THE controul, which the inhabitants of Novogo- 
rod aimmed over their princes, was fuch, that the 
latter enjoyed only the femblance of fovereignty, and 
the government degenerated into a pure democra- 
cy ; a kind of government, which cannot make a 
people happy, but when the laws command the 
multitude, and not the multitude the laws. 

NovoGoiuH) had the happinefs of good laws, and 
and of refpecting them. Then it enjoyed liberty, 
and its ineftimable advantages. It extended its 
commerce, became the mart of whatever fupplies 
the Aiiatic cities got from Ruilla. Its opulence, its 
population, its conqucfb, or rather its colonies, 

VOL. II. C c made 


made it Co powerful and formidable, that it became 
a pnr crb ; Who i\:.n oppo/l ibe Gods, and Great No- 

I'l-Jis ilate of profperity, which may be always 

e \petlca by a free people, who behave fuitably to 

t.xir fituation. Novogorod preferved till the Great 

L.V.L ; 3 oi' Rvdlia, (who had come to rcfide at JMof- 

r -v. whole anceftors had poiTefied Novogorod and 

c.-in it the title of Grand-Dukes) fummoned 

Ixens to acknowledge them anew for their fc- 

. ;;. n k rds. After a lor, 3 rriUtarce. fuch as might 
be c:: peered from n,^r., \vlio knew the vaiue of li- 
ber: v, tlie inhabiuii.ts cf Novogorod were forced to 
fubriiii. to th-: l;rv of rhe firongelt. I wan, who had 
iuhducd ilic T^rtari antl feveral neighbouring itates, 
ac-vRr.ccd toward;; Novogorod with a formidable ar- 


:nv 5 v,-]n v ]i cninp:^tJy defeated that of the repub- 
lic, v/hidi \\-:.r> bokl eronc'-h to contcrd with the 


tyrii t j .-, not-V.-itl-ftrmding the difprcportion 
in tl>:ir nurnbers. The courage this litile arn;y dif- 
rla\ed v,-;:s {\;ch, as iecnred the cilecm of Iwan, 
jii;d an lior;oi;rab-e c^pitulalion. Tic give it a go- 

he rrcufcr part of its laws > or at 
rivii<gcs. I; retaiiied the mofr va- 
it.> franc hllc:^, that of nominating 
iu< ( v-Ti Uinc^itra*"^; art! th^ Ruilirin Governor takes 
no concern in pui:iic ai;,urj 3 except the cognizance 

A tj 

'be iuir-r.ittcd to hi:n, 



BUT I\van, who had been generous only from en- 
thufiafm, when returned to himfelf, foon repented, 
and little fatisfied with a government fo limited, as 
that, to which he had reftricled himfelf, watched a 
favourable opportunity for renewing his attacks, 
and making himfelf abfolute mailer of Novogorod. 
Like an able tyrant, he .found means to provoke it 
by the diflenfions, \vhich he ftirred up among the 
citizens, whofe interefts, the mixt government, new- 
ly eftablimed, had divided, by making them Czariils 
and Republicans. It is well known how favourable 
internal dinenfions are to tyrants, and with what 
uddrefs they foment them. 1 hole among the inha- 
bitants of Novogorod came to a height. Then Iwan 
lent them word, that fince they could not agree, 
and only proftituted their liberty to the vile purpofe 
of traring one another to pieces, he took upon him 
the tafk of reftoring peace among then;. Confor- 
mably to this declaration, he again entered their ci- 
ty in the year 14/7, wirh a formidable army, level- 

led its g-ates, made the oath of al'ejfi.uice be f-.vcni 
*.) ' <- 

to him as to a fovcreign, and robbed it of iLs liber- 
ty and privileges. Wifiiing to Icive no veiu'gc of 
. ?t, lie c:infed be feized and earned to Mofcow, an 
enormous bell, which the inhabitants called Vctrhc- 
wi'KcLjkoli ihc Bell of Voter*, \vhich they revered as 
the Palladium of their liberty. It ".as fulpended in 
fiie market .place, and fo ibon as it rung, the people 

C c 2 ro^' 


rofe and ran to arms en all fides. Iwan, who, accor- 
ding to the language of tyrants, called this Bell the 
iocjin of /edition, thought he was firengthening bis 
authority by deftroying it, and the inhabitants of 
Novogorod imagined they faw their liberty faU 
with it. 

FROM that period the Grand Duke became abfo- 
lute matter of their city. He left only the phantom 
of their ancient government, and in order to enfure 
their obedience, he gave orders for the immediate 
removal of a thoufand of the principal citizens to 
Mcfcow, and to furround the Kremlin, or citadel 
with a very ftrong wall of brick. Novogorod, ne- 
verthelefs, continued for a long time the greateft 
and chief commercial city. But, in the year 1508, 
an epidemical difeafe carried off more than fifteen 
thoufand people, winch is more than double the 
number of its prefent inhabitants. It is (aid, that 
in its greateft profperity, it contained four hundred 
thoufand inhabitants ; at prefent it does not exceed 
feven thoufand. The moft fatal blow was given 
to it by Iwan II. In 1570, he difcovered that Pi^ien 
archbifhcp of Novogorod, and the leading men of 
the city were carrying on a treacherous correfpon- 
dence with Sigifmund Auguflus, king of Poland. 

~n Iwan went in perfon to Novogorod, in the 

< when they leafl expected him, and in or- 

-al his march, it is reported, he caufed 



the unfortunate travellers, who came in his way, be 
maffacred. When arrived at Novogorod, this prince 
of cruel character, made blood run in {breams, and 
facrificed to bis vengeance, twenty five thoufand 
victims, according to fome, and thirty thoufand, 
according to others. Thefe accounts are doubtlefs 
exaggerated ; but, to believe none but the hiftorians 
favourable to this Czar, it will always remain a 
truth, that on this occaiion he fliowed himfelf a fan- 
guinary prince, whofe ferocity exceeds even that, 
which Chriftiern exercifed in Sweden almoft at the 
fame time. 

IF this maflacre had haftened the ruin of this un- 
fortunate city, the foundation of St Peterfburg gave 
it the finiihing blow ; for Peter I. tranfported into 
this favourite city all the commerce of the Baltic lea, 
which was formerly carried on at Novogorod. 

THE city is ftiil furrouncled with an earthen ram- 
part, and a fet of old towers at equal diilances. The 
ground on which the city fhnds, is not above two 
werfts long, and is not all occupied with habitable 
houfes. It is faid, that, in its fplendor, it contain- 
ed feveral ether divifions, which were all of a circu- 
lar form, and that then it had fuburbs, which ex- 
tended to the diftance of eiorht wcrfts, including: rno- 

o o 

outcries, churches, the palaces of the ancient Dukes 
and other public buildings, whereof there are yet 
ionic old remains, 



THE city ftands on the two banks of the Wolga s 
where it iiTues from the Lake llmen. This fiver is 
beautiful, deep, rapid, and much broader than the 
Thames is at London. The divifion ftariuing -n the 
right bank of the river is inhabited by mercii-tnts, 
and that on the left is called the iic.'e of 6 ii< i -So- 
phia, after the name of the cathedra*, which, as well 
as the archbifhop's palace, has be.m converted into a 
Krc7iilln or Caftle. Theie divniuns of the town are 
joined by a bridge, of which the arches are of vood, 
p.nd the reft of brick. The merchant's quarter, if 
you except the Governor's houfe, is nothing but a a 
Jigly mafs of wood houfes, which would be very 
like an ordinary village, if it were not for 3 rcat 
number of churches and monafteries buiit of bi'ck, 
v/hich are flill (landing, like fo rr.anv racl-in-jholy 

O ' - t 

monuments of its ancient greatncfs. Y-t. :;j iJiis 
quarter, there are upwards of three irops, 
but they are fo ill provided, that tli-.y '^^^ (,'.-i] iC e 
the prefent mifery of the cify. AL o^.c -,f tic ex- 
tremities of this quarter, the Ernpreis has made 
jfome brick buildings be creeled, in which fhe has 
eftabliflied a factory for ropes and fail-cloth. Thcfe 
buildings, which are very beautiful, bear a fmgular 
contrail to the cottages, which furround them. 

THE Kremlin, of which we have fpoken, and 
where the cathedral once was, has been built to con- 
tain the inhabitants, and to prr/eiir the frequent in- 



furreclions, to which the regret of having loft their 
liberty inclined them. This fortrefs is of an ova! 
form, is irregular, and furrounded by a brick wall, 
on which there are fome round and fquare towers, 
It was buiit in the year 1490, under the direction 
of the architect Solarius of Milan, by order of Iwan 
after the conoueft of Novo^orod. 

J. O 

W* thought it not worth our while to vifit the 
archbifhop's refidence, which is divided into the old 
and new palace. The cathedral deferves attention 
only, becauie it is one of the moil ancient churches in 
RuiTia. It was begun in the year 1044 ky Wolodi- 
mcr, Duke of Novogorod, and fimfhed in 1051, 
This was the period when the chriftian reli^icm be- 

i O 

gan to be propagated in Rufiia, by the diligence of the 
Greeks, who gave to this church the name of Saint- 
Sophia, after that of Conftantinople. It is a building 
railed in form of a fquare with a gilt cupola, and four 
domes covered with pewter The entry into this 
venerable mafs of ftones, is by gates of bronze, or- 
namented with different figures in relievo, repre- 
fsnting the paiTion, and other fcenes of the hittory 
of Chriil. 

SEVERAL princes of the family of the Czars are 
buried in this church. The firft is Wolodimer, 
who founded it, and died in the year 1051, alrnoft 
as foon as he had nnifhed the building of it The 
snoft ancient of thcfe tombs are of wood, gilt, or 



fiivcredj and furrounded with an iron gate. Some 
are built of bricks, the walls of the fancluary in the 
infide are covered with a curious Mofaic ; the work 
is coarie, b.ut it appears ancient. 

As you leave Novogorod, you come to a plain, 
where there is a vaft extent of pafture ground. Af- 
terwards you pafs into the arms of the Wolchowia, 
and fome werfts diftant ffom Bonitza-Gorod, where 
you crofs the Mfta on a fort of float, fcarcejy large 
enough for a carriage and two horfes. Hard by 
Bonitza-Gorod there are two fprings, which form 
a very romantic iituation to which the people of 
the country, without any good grounds attribute a 
number of medicinal virtues. '1 he popes, who have 
caufed a chapel to be creeled there, in which there 
is a famous Saint Nicolas, maintain that an offering 
to their Saint cures thofe difeafes, which the waters 
do not cure. Yet it is remarkable that the inhabi- 
tants of that neighbourhood, though they have two 
inch in r allible receipts, are fubject to the itch, of 
which tiiey are not eaiiiy cured. 

THIC country is a little wild, but becomes more 
pl^rliuu, when you arrive at Waldai, a fma.ll city, 
which gives its name to the Lke and hills in its 
neighbourhood. It is iitiuced on the fide of an 
agreeable hill, whence it lias a mofc beautiful prof- 
peel. It has the entire command of the lake, whofe 
appearance is pictureique. The hills of Waldai, 



though of no great elevation, are the higheft in this 
country, and fcparatc the waters, which run into the 
Cafpian lea, from thole which arc dilchargcd into 
the Baltic. 

As far as Zemagor, which is on the fide of the 
lake of Walchi, the country, through which the road 
runs, is mod agreeably variegated. It is interfperfed 
with a number of charming liitle hills, and differ- 
ent arms of the lake, froiii the uoiom of which fe- 
veral ifles rife, niantlM with wood. In the back- 
ground is a mixture of iorefls, fields and meads, 
which would be to a painter of laadlcapes an object 
of inexhauftible ftudy. The lake may be about 
twenty eight or thirty werits in circumference. In 
the centre is an ifle, from which the monaftery of 
iwerkoi rifes to vLv.\ It v/as founded by the ce- 
lebrated Nikon, and dedicated to the Virgin. Out: 

' O 

of the capital the Czrrs Lave not a more beau- 
tiful palace. The edifice is rnn.puic, Jir.d the nu- 
inerous fteeples, winch rife in the middle of thick: 
"rove^, and overt on the hi- eil tree , iix ths eve ol ; 

O ' 1- .' J 

the traveller, and nake hiru iihagine thit a a opulent: 
city, which is only the rciiJenru or IHUM* <-lirr;t;;licu:; 
monks, who have rcore t\i:\\\ iiileeii t.'ajuiai'iu peu- 
fants for their iLives. 

FROM Zenv:.gor, you go to K:,:;!]]:)^ a fmsll vil- 
lage, which \va:> reduced to afhe.^ ibnie years ago, 
Fires in t!\L- coui>iry \vi;l not appear fiirprii;i:g to 

VOL. j'l. D ci any 


?.ny pcrfon, who reflects, _ that the houfes of the 
peafants are all of wood, and that inftead of can- 
dles they ufe long fplinters of fir wood, which they 
light, and carry through all the houfe, and often 
into the hay -loft, without the leaft precaution. 

You onno: reach Viftmei-Volofchok fituated on 
the banks of the Mfta, till after having travelled 
over a rt) ; id covered with beams, through very ex- 
ten five morailes, where there arc a great many 
bridges, \vkhout railings, and the moft part of 
them in very bad (late. But the eye is at once 
pleated and diverted by the windings formed by the 
j.u!i fades, with which every village, garden and 
iield is furrounded. As thefe intrenchments gene- 
rally confnt of growing hedges, or trees extremely 
clofe, vou imagine you ice in every peafants' houfe 

' / O * <r * 

t!-.e habitation of Robinfbn Crufoe on his folitary 
iiTuul. This cuftom of furrounding villages with 
paliiades in Ruin a. is very ancient, for among the 
II; it laws of the country there is one, which orders 
the peafants under paifi of the k-iout, to fortify the 
town> and villages in this \vriy. 'i^eir deiign doubt- 
cfs was to defend them againil the fly ing excurfions 
of the Tartars, beic;re they had lire arms to oppofe 
rher.i. Ai':uou"a tl.:s practice be ufelefs now a days, 
it l;->n:s (liU :i^H)ng a people, whole attachment to 
their old cuftnriis, is yuc of the Icuft equivocal parts 


VisHNEi-VoLOSCHOK, where we halted, is one of 
the largeft villages in Ruflla. It is one of thofe, 
which depend on the crown, and have been freed 
by the Emprefs, with the grant of feveral confide- 
rable privileges. It has already reaped the advan- 
tage of this. The inhabitants palling from the ft ate 
of flaves to that of freemen, teem to have loft their 
old indolence. A new fpirit of emulation and in- 
duftry is diffufed among them. They have applied 
to commerce, and have underftood all the advanta- 
ges, to be derived from the fituation of the place, 
which they inhabit. Several cities of the Empire, 
which are puffed up with the vain title of metropo- 
lis, have not fuch a lively afpecl as this village, 
which lias regular ftreets, a long row of mops, and 
ware-houfes, which ikirt the two fides of the fa- 
mous canal, which begins fomc werfts above the 
village, to which it has gfivcn its name. It was be- 

O ' O 

gun and finifhed under the reign of Peter I. with 
the defign of joining the Mfta to the Tvvertza, and 
by this eftablilh. a communication between the Ca{- 
pun and Baltic feas, which was no fooner ac- 
coinplifhed, than a great number of veficls from 
Aftracan, SaratofF and Czaritzin, were f'ecn come 
down to St Peterfburg. But the frequent tolls they 
were obliged lo pay, and the inconveniencies brought 
on this navigation by the cataracts of the Mfta, 
\vould have undoubtedly reduced it to alrnoft no- 
D d 3 thins:. 


thing, if Catharine II. h:id not made it her ftudy to 
apply a remedy. She diminiilicd the tolls, and 
erected three iluiccs to obviate the inconvcnicncies 
of the cataracts. This inRance, among many others, 
proves, that what Peter I. had done, \vould have 
been entirely loft, if his fucceiibrs had not adopted 
liis plans. Among thofe, who guide the reins of 
sn empire, they who invent and inltitute do a great 
deal, but do not they, who complete thefb inven- 
tions, do more r 

ON the road from Vifhriei-Volofchok to Twer 

nothing remarkable is to be found, but the iirfl 

iluice on the Twcrtza, and the remains of the ob- 
iiacles, that were to be furmounted in conflrucling 
the canal The view from Twer i.s magnificent 
Hill. It ftands on the hhrh banks of the T \Volo;a, 

O O ' 

and for its origin is indebted to the Grand Dukes 
of Ruffia. At iiru; it was only a (mail fcrtrcis con- 
ftrucled in the }e:ir 1 182 by UK: orders of the Grand 
13uke Wolodimer, for the purpofe of checking the 
incurlions of t:ie inhabitants or Novogorod. In 
1*720 the Grand Duke ] \roiiaf II. made be built in 

the fame place another citadel, and a city, which 
increase! to iuch a degree-, that it loon became the 
capital of an independent fovcreignty, known under 
the principality of Twer. For a long time it be- 
longed to the voimgcr prinTC? in th:~ f.nniiies of the 

O ^ - ' - 

O r 3, ii d I) u k c r 5 

?. J 7 ;' '- ' 


MICHAEL Borifawitfcb was the laft prince of Twer. 
I wan I. although his brother, in -law attacked him., 
and obliged him to take refuse in Lithuania, where 

*--* O 

lie died in the greatcft mifery. Ambition laughs at 
the ties of blood. A fhort time alter, this princi- 
pality was annexed to the empire, and never again 
ieparated from it. 

TWER is divided into an old and new town. The 
firft, fituatcd on the riglit bank of the Wolga, con- 
iifts of poor wooden houfes. The iccond, which 
was hardly any better built, about twenty years a- 
go became a pivy to the flames; and this misfortune 
opcraved in Lwours ol this city, ior out of its allies 
it roi'e ipiciulor, by the kindneL, of Catha- 
'rinc IL who made it be ivbuilt on a more modern 
plan, hi CGiiiequeiKc of this, we law elegant ftreets 
interfeciing one anotlier at right angles : the houfes 
are chiefly of ftcne, at Icall of brick. Surh as are 
of wood arc done off in the oulfide with fo much 
art. that they exceed the ilone honfes in beauty., 
Carharinc II. at her own expence, built the Gover- 
nor's lioufe, the Bifliop's palace, the hall where juf- 
t.k is adminiflered, the exclian^c, the prifons, and 
;llc edifices. To all, who were willino: to 

* C5 

l:v.\ld a h'-'U'd- of l>ilck, fiie oFcrcri to lend the j\uu 

;i> St.) i(;t 5welv<" 

-fmtercfr. i'Jv:, \\'h:c!i ijic , ! v,!n- 

three hun- 


dred thoufand roubles (67,50) and flie afterwards 
withdrew a third of this Aim. At prefent the new 
town confifts of two octagonal areas, where the fine 
ftreets juil mentioned, terminate. The houies of 
thefe t\vo areas, and of the principal ftrcets, are 
built of brick, and overlaid with Vv'lnte iiucco, 
which gives them a magnificent appearance ; and 
new Twer may be confidered as one of the fineft ci- 
ties in the world, even among nations the longcit 
civilized and moft opulent. There is a feminary 
under the infpection of the Bifhop, which admits 
fix hundred ftudents. 

IN the year 1776, the Emprefs founded there a 
-fchool for 1,he inftrucrion of two hundred burgefics* 
children, who are taught to read, write, and cypher^ 
and iiich as {how a turn, are bred to mechanical 

IN June 1779, an academy alfo was opened in 
this city, for the education of the young nobiiity. 
This eftablifiiment is alfo indebted to the munificence 
of her Majefty. It was intended for a hundred and 
twenty young gentlemen, who are taught foreign 
languages, arithmetic, geography, fortification, 
ta&ics, natural philofophy, muiic, riding, and dan- 

Ais extenfive trade is carried on at Twer by means 
of the Wolga and the Twertza, which are continu- 
ally covered with boats. Thefe two rivers, by join- 


Ing near the city, give it great advantages in tranf- 
porting by water, the productions of Siberia, and of 
the fouthern provinces to St Peterfburg. We mull 
remark, that the Wolga is the greateft river in Eu- 
rope. It has its fource in the foreft of Wolkon- 
Iki, about a hundred and ten werfts from Twer. 
It begins to be navigable at a little diftance above 
this city, and it is there much broader than the 
Thames in any part of its courfe, but it is very mal- 
low. Very foon after, it is augmented confiderably 
by the Twertza, which is broader, deeper, and mo-re 
rapid. It is by means of this lafl river, that the fa- 
mous communication has been eftablimed between 
the Wolga and the Neva, or in other words, be- 
tween the Cafpian and Baltic feas, which we have 

THE neighbourhood of Twer produces abundance 
of wheat, rye, barley, oats, buck wheat, hemp, flax,, 
and all kinds of vegetables. In the forefts are to be 
found oaks, birches, alders, poplars, ames, pines/ 
&c. At fome diftance there are elks, bears, wolvc^., 
foxes, wild goats, martens, ermines, fquirrels, and 
rmrrnots. There is alfo plenty of eagles, hawks ? 
cranes, herons, fwans, and all kinds of fmall game^ 
The Wolga at this place contains numbers of excel- 
lent limes, fuch as falmon, iieiiet, tench, pike, &c. 

The Sterlet in particular is fought after by people 
of nice taftes, as an excel 'ait difli, It is an un, 



common kind of fifh, and probably found only in 
northern countries. It is fomething of the nature 
of the fturgeon, from which it differs in colour, 
It is alfo much fmaller, its length being feldom more 
than three feet. As the Luatllufcs of St Petersburg 
with their tables to be ^amimcd with them, there 


ure to be feen at all times on the banks of the Wol- 
ga, numbers of chcfts with holes in tiiem, in which 
the flerlct and fillies of equal quality, are carried a- 
livc to St Peterfburg, and by the Okka as far as 
Mofcow. Thcfe chcfts float on the furface of the 
water, and are fattened, to the boats, which conducl 

FROM Twer to Mofcow, the road runs acrofs a 
country interfpcrfed with agreeable hills, fometimes 

* A O 

n iked, and foinctimcs covered with wood, and on 
the banks of the Wolga, i\s far as Goroduj-i. Sawi- 
dowo and Kiin, wliich you. find on the road, are 
two miferablc vilLues. In the Utter there is a SiT^c- 


Mill ; a thing too rare in this country not to attracl 
the attention of travellers. In fnort, after having 
pailed Ariki, you defcry Mcfcow and its numerous 


C H A P. XV, 

Moscow. Hiftory cf ibis city. Its fituation. Its pi* 
pulatiGii, Contra/is it prcfents, Its d'rjifions* 
The Kremlin. Khitai- Gorod. Reloi-Gorod. Zc'm- 
lianoi-Gorod. The Jloboda or fuburbs.Tbe Mof- 
co-iva. The palace. Particular defer iptlons. - < 
Tjjc chitrciics. - -Infidc of a Greek church, Encr* 
wo us bells. 

MOSCOW, called by the Ruflians Mofiua, is not 
ib ancient ar> Novogorod, Kiow, Wolodimer, or 
Twer, where t).ic fovereiirns of Ruflia rcfided before 

* O 

this city cxiiccd, about the origin and foundation 
of which, the learned of this country are not agreed, 
To throw light upon it, they have in vain dived in- 
to tin; ob.fcunty of t::nc, whither pride goes for its 
fables and titles. Sul-joined is what the chronicles 
have advanced as moil probable reflecting this city,, 

Kiov had, as we have fa Id, become the capital of 
KulTia, and the Grand JDu'-es never thought on 
charging thoir reiuicnce, rill George inn of \VoIo- 
dimer MononiAka, \v!io rcl^aed in t;:e year 1/47=, 
being iniulted by a rich noble called Etiennc Kutfch- 
ka, took vcnireiincc by pultiii^ him to death, and 
CorJifcidnp; li'hi cihxtes, of whicl: the iite of Mofcow 
ana its environs are a part. The t\vo rivers, Tvlof. 

VOL, II. L G k 


kowa and Neglina, uniting at this place, rende? 
the fituation pichirefque. It pleafed Wolodimer, 
who built a city there, which he named Mofkua, af- 
ter the name of the principal river. At George's 
death, his fon Andrew did not neglect Mofcow, but 
under his fuccefibrs this city fell into fuch decay, 
that in the yrar 1205, when the empire was divi- 
ded, and Daniel received as his fhare, the Duchy of 
Mofcow; the city which Wolodimer had raifed, was 
obliged to be founded a fecond time. Daniel not 


only reared it again, but fixed his refidence in it. 

THE ground occupied by the Kremlin, was no- 
thing but wood and morafs, in the middle of which 
there was one imall wooden cottage. In the mid- 
dle of this wild ipot, Daniel fir ft creeled churches and 
monafteries, for churches and monafteries then prece- 
ded every oilier thing. He added fome other build- 
ings, which he iurrounded with palifades. He was alia 
the fir ft, who took the title of the Duke of Mofcow 
or Mofcovy. Ue V.MS fo much attached to this refi- 
dence, that when he lliccceded in the year 1300 to 
the Duchy of Wc! r .tHjr.'?r bv tlui death of his brother, 
he did not go to ieitle at :T;'/;c:V;/Vo-r, which was the, V.-ut rt?;n,ii:,cd nt A! ko\ju, which in this way 
became the <...r:-;:al of all Rufiia. His fucceflbrs fol- 
In---c(l l;i^ cxaii'pie, av,d his fon hvnn enlarged this 
city coniidcraV;y, \\\ tlu- year i ^67 his great-grand- 


ion Demetrius, firnamed Donfki, inclofed the Krem- 
lin with a brick wall, whic- was not fufficient to flop 
Tamerlane from taking poffeffion of it in the year 
1382, after a very fhort fiege. But this conqueror, 
who was continually in queft of new victories, very 
foon abandoned it. This fortrefs was retaken by 
the Ruffians, and afterwards again retaken by the 
Tartars, who in the fourteenth and fifteenth centu- 
ries fubdued the greateft part of Ruffia, and were 
iinally expelled from Mofcow only under the reign, 
of Ivvan Baiilowitfch. To this conqueror it is in- 
debted for all its fplendor, and under his govern- 
ment, it was the moft corifiderable city of all the 
Ruffian empire, 

NOTWITHSTANDING the predilection , which Peter 
[. had for St Feterfburg, and that all his fucceffors, 
except Peter II. have almoft continually refided 
there, Mofcow is ftill the molt populous city in Ruf- 
iia. There the great people, who are not by offices 
ronnected with court, have fixed their refldence. 
rhere they fupport a rank, and expend confidcrable 
"urns. Their pride and tafte incline them to this 
A.Gatic magnificence, which recalls to their ininds the 
indent grandeur of the nobility ; and befidcs they 
ire not edipfed there as at St Petersburg, by the 
plcndor of the court, 

Moscow is lituated in 50 degrees, 45 minutes, 30 
eccndsj of North Latitude, and 55 degrees, 6 mi- 

E c 2 degrees, 


nutes, of Eaft Longitude, reckoning from the meri- 
dian of Ferro. It is certainly the moft extenfive city 
in Europe. Its circumference within the ramparts, 
svhich furround the fuburbs, is thirty werfts, (near 
thirty Engliih miles,) but it is built in a manner fo 
irregular, and there arc fo many vacancies, that the 
population does not arifwcr to its extent. Some 
Ruffian authors have railed it to the number of five 
hundred thouiand fouls, but this is certainly exagge- 
rated. Bufching) who refidcd long in Ruflia, fays, 
that in the year 1770 Mofcow contained feven hun- 
dred and eight houfes of brick, eleven thoufand, 
eiofht hundred and fortv of wood, eighty five thou- 

O ^ ' O J 

land, feven hundred and thirty one male's, fix- 
ty feven thoufand and fifty nine females, in ail a 
hundred and fifty two thoufand, fcvcn hundred and 
ninety fouls, a calculation, which fejms to err on 
the other extreme. The police oilicer appointed by 
the Emprefs in the year 1780 to take the numbers 
of Mofcow, made a return, by which the inhabi- 
tants within the boundaries of this city amounted 
to two hundred and fihy thoufand fouls, and in the 
adjacent villages to lifty thouund. A later account- 
taken in the year 1 789 gives out the total number 
to be, two hundred and forty thouiand fuL>. 'iliis 
iafc is moil deferring of credit, oceanic it has been 
taken \vitli the greateft precaution. 



IF the traveller on his arrival at Mofcow is flruck 
vith the immenfe extent of this city, he is not lefs 
urprtfed vvirh the variety, which prevails there; for 
here is not a city in Europe fo irregular, fo extra- 
>rdinary, and which prefents fo many contrails, 
rhere are fonie quarters which have the appearance 
>f a wild delert, and others that of a populous and 
iourifhing city. Here, you fee a miferable village, 
,nd at a greater diftance you are entertained with 
he profpect of a Great Capital. The ilrcets arc in 
general long and broad. The greateft part of them 
ire paved, iome arc laid with trunks of trees, and 
Blanks like the highways, which we travelled over 


m our road. Thefe fmifhed in the latter manner 
ire more common in the fuburbs. Within thcfe 
evv years the ftrcets have all been lighted. There 
a one light, to which the eye of a ftranger is not 
iccuitorncd, namely that: of niifci.ihle huts, at the 
ide of large Brick honks covered with 
Boards, and wooden houils painted with a great: 
.leal of art, but their coat would prove very dange- 
rous in cafe of fire. We rail) noti:cd foinc houils 
vvirh doors and roofs of iron. A great number of 
rhurches, built with firiguhr tulle, L<ppc;irin all quar- 
ters. Of th.fc tiicrc are no icfs three hundred 
and iori\ one, including ch.r t ^:!s and monafteries. 
r^omc IIAVC tloiiiC:; covered \vith copper, ibme witii 


pewter, others are painted green or gilt, feveral are 
only of wood. 

THE principal divilions of Mofcow are firft the 
Kremlin, 2dly the Khitai-gorod, 3dly the Beloi-gorod 9 
4thly the Zemlianoi-gorod, 5thly the Sloboda, a kind 
of fuburbs. 

ift THE Kremlin It is probable that it got this 
name, under the dominion of the Tartars, from the 
word Krcm or Krin, which fignifies fortref>. It is 
fituated in the centre and highetl part of Mofcow, 
at the confluence of the Mofkowa^ and the Neglina 9 
which waflies its two fides. Its form is triangular, 
and the circumference about three werfts. It is 
furrounded as we have faid with high brick walls, 
and is not disfigured like the other quarters, by- 
wooden houfes becaufe none are allowed to be built 
there. It contains the old palace of the Cznrs, 
(which is called Krafnoie-Kribzo, or the Red Bal- 
cony, becaufe this is what is moft remarkable on 
the outfide) and the palace of granate built by Boris 
Godonow. There we alfo noticed feveral churches, 
two monafteries, the Patriarch's palace, and the ar- 
fenal at prefent in ruins. We fliall mention thefe 
buildings feparately. 

THE fecond divifion is the Kbit a! -gored, a word 
which feveral authors have tranllated bv the Chinefe 

city, but which we believe to be of Tartar origin, 
and with fo much the more propriety, that in U- 



kraine and Podolia, there are two cities of the fame 
name, which have been known by the Tartars, and 
have never had any connexion with China. Be- 
fides, Khitai is a Tartar word, which fignifies Mid- 
dle, and has been applied to this part of Mofcow, 
becaufe it ftands between the Kremlin and Beloi- 

THIS quarter larger than the Kremlin contains 
the Royal Printing Office, and feveral other public 
edifices, among which, twenty churches, and five mo- 
nafteries are confpicuous. It was from one of thefe 
churches that formerly the proceffion went on Palm- 
f Sunday, to recall to the remembrance of believers, 
the entry, which according to Scripture, Jems 
Chrift made into Jeruialem on the fame day. The 
Patriarch of the Ruffias, like the' Saviour of the 
world advanced in proceffion featec! upon an :ifs, mag- 
nificently decorated, of which the Czar on foot held 
the reins. The ilreets were hung, and ftrewed with 
branches of trees, and fhouts of Hofanna filled the 
air. Peter I. fupprelTed this puerile ceremony, which 
was humiliating for the fovereign, and ilattering to 
the pride of the pried, who on this cccaiion enjoy- 
ed a kind of triumph. 

Tiii-: family of Romanoff, now In poficilion of the 
throne of Rufiia, inhabited the Khitai in ancient 
times. The mint is built on the ground, where their 
palace flood. In this quarter ilill remain the college 



of mines.; and the Goitenoi D\vor, which confifts 
of fix thoufand {hops built of brick with vaults. 
This erection, which has been executed in the moil 
lolid ftylc, is indebted to the munificence of Catha- 
rine II. The Khitai is iurrounded by walls defend- 
ed by twelve large fquare towers raifed by hvan Ba- 
iilowhich II. 

THE Beloi-gorod, or the white city, furrounds 
the two quarters juft now mentioned, and takes its 
name fioin the white walls, which encompafs it, 
and terminate in the t\vo fides on the Mofcowa. 
They were raifed by Fedor Iwanowitfch in the 
year 1587. The Neglina runs through this quarter 
from fouth to north, and on its way receives three 
Hone bridges which are narrow, and of Gothic ft rue- 

O 7 

ture. In the Beloi-gorod there are feventy three 
churches, and eleven monafteries, the built 
by Jacob Sch;>umaker, the Ordinance FounSery, the 
Imperial Laboratory, and ihe University founded 
by Elizabeth in the year 1755; at the Solicitation of 
her favourite Schu\\v.]o;T. who wa> its firft curator, 
It ha* t\vo fchools, one for tiu nol.:i-iiy, iiie oihcr 
for inch r,s are not or r:,blj biood ; calls, wliich 
pride never joins toge'.hcr. In both Schools arc 
taught tlie ancient and iv.o.lern languages, mathe- 
matics, wh.;t in rcllcg^ is called philoiophy, medi- 
cine, and law. rhe univcriity contains a foundery 
for types ot the Rulilai) and rureign characters, a 



printing office, a library, a hall for natural philofo- 
phy, a cabinet of natural hiftory, an amphitheatre 
for fur.gery and anatomy, a chymical laboratory. 
From this univeriity profeffors are felecled for the 
academy at Kafan. in which there are often more 
profeffors than ftudents. 

THE Zemlianoi-Gorod, or city of earth, furrounds 
other three, from which it is feparated by an earth- 
en rampart, which Fedor Iwanowitfch caufcd be 
call up in the year 1591. Formerly it had thirty 
wooden gates, which are all deilroyed, and now it 
has only two of {lone, namely, the gates of Ser- 
poulkoff and of Kalouga. This city contains two 
rnonafleries, and a hundred and three churches. 
A police cilice, a tribunal for criminal affairs, a 
great number of manufactures, the Imperial ftables, 
caferns for the cannoneers, a magazine for provi- 
lions and ammunition. Clofe by the old gate of 
Varvafki, is the celebrated Foundling hofpital, of 
which we mail make a feparate article, 

THE Sloboda, that is the fuburbs, form the laft 
and extenfive circle round all the quarters already 
mentioned. They amount to upwards of thirty, of 
which the moil considerable h that called Nemcrz- 
kaia-Sloboda, or the German iuburbs. They (land 
upon the jaoufa, and beiidcs iixty Greek churches, 
and ten monaileries, contain one Calviniilic, one 
Roman, and two Lutheran churches, and the houfe 

VOL. II, F f occupied 


occupied by the Directing Senate, when the court 
is at Mofcow. In thefe fuburbs too ftands the houfe 
built by Lefort, in which Peter II. lodged and died, 
and the Hofpital General, founded by Peter I. who 
joined to it fchools for medicine, furgery and bo- 
tany ; fciences in which the Ruffians had the great- 
eft need to be inftructed. 

BESIDES this hofpital, another was built in the year 
1762, about two werfts from Mofcow, where the 
patients of every nation are admitted, and taken 
care of at the expence of the Grand Duke Paul Pe- 
trowitfch, who from the age of twelve years has 
conilantly dedicated a part of the money, deftined 
for his pleafures, to this eftablifhment, which does 
honour to humanity, and to him, who founded it. 

THE Mofcowa, which has lent its name to Mof- 
cow, takes feveral turns on its way through this ci- 
ty. It is navigable only for rafts, except in the 
fpring, \vhen for a few days the melting of the 
fnows gives it the look and deepnefs of a river. As 
for the Neglina and Jaoufa, which run into it, they 
are nothing but two ft ream 3, that are almoft dry in 
fummer. % 

THE palace, in which the Emprefs lodges, when 
it is her plcafurc to go to ?,Ioicow, is not a fingle 
building, but conformably to the ideas of Afiatic 
grandeur, h a large mafc of feveral buildings, form- 


ing different ftreets, and refembling a city of mid-, 
ling fize. 

THE gardens have been preferved, which belong- 
ed to the old palace built by Elizabeth, near the 
place where the new palace has been erected. They 
are very extenfive, and abound with long gravel 
walks. In fome places the ground is laid out in a way 
both natural and agreeable ; yet it muft be owned^ 
the ancient tafte has been too much followed, in 
drawing long rows of yews, dreffed with flieers, 
and long canals very ftrait, and all of the fame form- 
Some years ago, the walks, groves and bafons were 
ridiculoufly encumbered with flatues of the poorefl 
tafte ; but Catharine II. who is a lover and patro- 
nefs of jthe arts, has removed this crowd of man- 
m'kins, whofe places fhe has filled up with equal 
tafte and judgment, by pieces, which do honour to 
iier choice. This palace and the gardens connected 
with it, are at the extremity of the fuburbs, but 
within the compafs of the rampart, which furrounds 
the city. 

THE Ruffians are uncommonly fond of greens, 
and walks in the field during the fine feafon. Eve- 
ry body rides in a carriage at Mofcow, where you 
meet with coaches drawn by fix horfes, which the 
nobility ufe without even going out of the city. 
There are alfo a great number of hackney coaches, 
r.vhich have commonly four wheels, but are open 
F f 2 above. 


above, and have a long bench, or feveral feats on 
the fides. They are to be got at fo cheap a rate s 
that fervants often ufe them when going about their 
matter's bufinefs. Thefe carriages generally go at 
the rate of two leagues and a half in the hour. There 


are other carriages, which hold a mean between the 
citizen's and the hackney coach juft now mention- 
ed. Thefe have four horfes, often of different co- 
lours. The coachman and poftilion are dreffed like 
peafants. An enormous ha:- of a cylindric form, a 
long beard, and a pelifle of meep-lkin make up their 
uniform. Behind the carriage is an enormous bag 
of hay ; a precaution, which becomes extremely 
neceflary, for the horfes return not to the ftabie till 
night or midnight, like thofe belonging to our hack- 
ney coaches. 

WHEN a perfon vifits the public buildings of Mof- 
cow, he is led firft through the churches and cha- 
pels, which are extremely numerous. Only a hun- 
dred and ninety nine are of brick, the reft are built 
of wood. The former are generally ornamented 
with plafter or ftucco, and painted black; the latter- 
are painted red. 

THE oldeft churches of Mofcow are generally 
fquare buildings, with a cupola and four fmalldomes. 
That of the Holy Trinity, called fomeumes the 
church of Jerufalem, which funds in Khitai-Gorod 5 
Jias the length of ten, lliefe domes are of. copper 



or gilt iron, and fome are of pewter, either retain- 
ing its original colour, or painted green. The 
greateft part of them are ornamented with crofles, 
wrapped roun :'. with metal chains or wire. Each 
crofs has two traverfe bars, which is, if we are to 
believe fome Ruffians, the form of the true crofs^ 
On many of thefe crofles we obferved a crefcent be- 
low the inferior bar. Doctor King very ingeniouf- 
ly explains the origin of thefe crefcents, about which 
it is idle to queftion the people of the country. 
* 6 When the Tartars," fays the Englifh doctor, 
'* who were matters of Ruffia for two centuries, 
66 changed the chriflian churches into mofques, they 
" fixed on them the crefcent, which is the fymbol 
" of Mahometifm. The Grand Duke Iwan Balilo- 
" witfch, having on his turn expelled the Tartars, 
" reftored the churches to the Chriftians, and pla- 
" ced a crofs above the crefcent as a trophy of his 
" victory." 

THE infide of a church is moft frequently made 
up of three parts. The firft is what the Greeks call 
Pronaos, and the Ruffians Trape-za ; the fecond is 
the nave or body of the church, and the third is the 
fanctuary. In the nave there are ufually four hea- 
vy pillars for the purpofe of fupporting the cupola. 
Thefe pillars, as well as the walls and arch or ceiling 
of the church, are painted with an infinite number 
of images of the Saviour, the Virgin, and different 



faints, efpecially St Nicholas, and St Alexander 
Newiki. Many of thefe images are of an enormous 
iize, very coarfely painted, and moft frequently 
daubed quite fimply on the wall ; others upon large 
ma fly plates of filver or copper, and framed with 
the fame metal. The head of each fio-ure is invaria- 


bly ornamented with a crown, which coniifts of a 
mafTy femicircle of copper, filver, or gold, in form 
of a horfe moe, and fometimes it is almoft wholly 
made up of pearls and precious ftones. Almoft all 
the images of St Nicholas, and thofe, which are 
moft worshipped, are ornamented with iiik drapery, 
fixed to the wall with jewels. Some are painted on 
a gold ground, others are gilt from head to foot, 
except the face and hands. The extremity of the 
mve is a baluftrade, which leads to the fanctuary, 
and at the top of this baluftrade is a platform, on 
which the prieft ftands, when he performs a part of 
the fervice. 

THE fanctuary is feparated from the nave by what 
is called the Iconaftus^ a fort of large fcreen, which 
is generally the part of the church moft richly orna- 
mented, on which the moft revered images are 
painted or fufpended. In the centre is a folding 
doer, called the holy and royal door, by which they 
enter into the fanctuary. 

IN moft part of the churches our attention was 
drawn to the enormous fizs and number of the bells, 



but this fight did not furprife us, becaufe we knew 
that ringing of bells is an effential part of worfhip 
among the Ruffians ; more childiih flill in their 
manner of addreffing the Divinity, than the fuper- 
ititious Spaniards, who are in the higheft degree of 
comparifon in point of fuperfuVlon. To the accounts 
refpecling bells already given in the former volume 
we fhall add here, that they are not maken to and 
fro as among us ; on the contrary the bell is always 
immoveable, and it is never founded but by a knock- 
er, fixed at its fide, which is put in action by means 
of a cord tied to it. As in tlicfe countries it has 
been always regarded as a meritorious action to give 
bells to a church, and as the piety of the donor 1m 
been valued in proportion to the iize of the bell gi- 
ven, Boris Godonoiv, the ufurper of a throne, to 
which he had paved the way only by a fucceillon of 
crimes, doubtlefs believed he would expiate them 
all by giving to the cathedral of Mofcow a bell of 
312,48 pounds weight. The Emprefs Anne, who 
had no crimes to expiate, but wiihed in point oi 
piety to excel all the fovereigns of Rufila, made this 
bell be recaft, and ordered two thoufand pouJs of 
metal to be added to the original, fo that this beii, 
which now weighs 400,200 Ib. averdupois, is the 
Iar2;eft in the world. Its fize is fo enormous, thar 


it is hardly pofiible to be perfuaded, that the dimen- 
fions are not exaggerated, But it is in confequence oi : 



having taken tfyem ourfelves, that we affirm it to be 
nineteen feet high, and that its circumference is 
thirty feven fathoms and fome feet. It is twenty 
one inches and a half thick. The tower where it 
was hung, was reduced to ames, the bell fell, and 
being much encumbered with the ground, it has 
not been lifted up again. In this fall a bit was bro- 
ken out of it towards the lower part, which has left 
an opening large enough to admit two perfons with- 
out ftooping. 


RELIGIOUS houfes^fituated in the Kremlin. Viefnowif- 

fool. St Michael the Archangel* s cathedral. Bu- 
rying place of the Czars. Grave of Iwan Bafilo- 
ivitfch I. That of fa an Bafikwitfch II. Sovereign- 
ty of the Romanoffs. Michael Feder&witfch. Fe- 
dor his fan. Alexis Federowitfch, father to Peter L 
Particulars of this prince. His clemency. Ills 
carriage with the beautiful Natalia Cyrilloivna. 

IN the Kremlin there are two religious houfes, one 
for nuns, and another for monks. The latter me- 
rits no particular defcription. The Nunnery called 
VielfiKJUjliJk-ji was founded in the year 1393 by Eu- 
doxia, wife to the Grand Duke Demetrius Donlki, 



and contains the principal chapel, in which are the 
tombs of many Czarinas and Princeffes of the Im- 
perial family. They are of ftone, and ranged in 
two lines vcrv near one another. Some are fur- 


rounded by a baluftracle of copper or iron, but thefe 
arc not moft numerous. On every tomb there is a 
pail of crimiim or biack velvet, ornamented with an 
embroidered crofs, and edged with gold or fllver 
lace, fet ofF with pearls and precious ftones. The 
foundrefs of the convent is a faint, as almoft all the 
foundrcilflj of religious houfes are. She is buried 


under the altar. 

i'u.;: young women in this convent are generally 
einp'.GYcd in embroidering the facerdotal robes of the 
archbiihop of Mofcow. They are drcfled wholly in 
black, which makes them generally look pale and 
ugly. They are allowed to eat no Hem, but they 
live on excellent ilih. The order is not rigid. They 
are allowed 1 to pay vifits, which they do frequently, 

TiiMiK arc eight churches in the Kremlip, and 
within io narrow bounds that they really touch, or 
ahv.oit touch one another, a proof of the ignorance 
and credulous devotion oi: the Ruffians. In thele 
eight churches vhcre are three cathedra!;;, dedicated 
to St Michael the Arch.iiigd, the Ailumption, and 
the Virgin. The 
HiCrly tlu: burying 
iia Hie ibcoud iv^r bji; 1 ^ the church, where they 

Vo-. I!. O were 


were crowned and married ; and the third is re^ 
imarkable for its flrucbure and the riches it con- 
tains. The architecture of theie churches is com- 
pletely ridiculous. It is of the vvorft Gothic kind, 
and probably the work of that Solarius of Milan, 
who built the walls of the Kremlin, and was only a 
rough mafon, 

IN the cathedral of St Michael the Archangel, you 
fee the graves of the Sovereigns, who. are depofited 
there, not as among us in fubterraneous vaults, but 
in tombs built, generally of brick in form of a coffin 5 
and about two feet high. The moil ancient are co- 
vered whh palls of red cloth, and fome with velvet. 
That wherein Peter II. is laid, is covered svith gold 
{lull' trimmed with fringes and ermine. At the time 
of the grand fellivals, they are all covered with rich 
rrciu and (liver ituiTs, ornamented with pearls and 
jewels. At the foot of each torr:b there is a plate of 
iiivcr, bearing the name of the Sovereign and the 
year of his death. 

So long as Mofcow was the Imperial re(idence 3 
und till the end of the hul century, all the Czars 
were buried in this cathedral, except Boris Gcdc- 
now, whole body lies in the Trinity monaftery, and 
the Czar, who bore the name of Demetrius and loft 
Lis life in a ri-jt, and Bailie Shuifk.', who died in 
pnfon at V;ir ! bvh. 


THE tomb of Iwan Bafilowitfch I. principally 
attracts attention, becaufe this prince is celebra- 
ted in the Ruffian annals. At his acceffion to 
the throne in the year 1462, RufHa was divid- 
ed into feveral fmall principalities, which were 
perpetually at war with, or yielding an imperfect 
fubmiffion, to the Grand Duke of Mofcow; and all 
of them, even the Grand Duke himfclf, were tri- 
butary to the Tartars. Iwan changed the face of 
this Empire. Pie united thcfe different principali- 
ties to his ftate, (hook off the yoke of the Tartars, 
formed connections with feveral European nations, 
and opened a communication with them. lie fa- 
voured commerce, encouraged the moft necenary 
arts, and in feveral rcfpects, merited the name of 
Great, which was given him notwithftanding his 
manners, which were of a piece with his age, and 
which his wife, a Grecian Pnncefs of diftinguimed 
merit, could not altogether {'often. 

IWAN Bafilowitfch II. his fen and fucceffor, lies in 
a fmall chapel adjoining. This prince has been re- 
prefented by feveral writers, as the moft cruel ty- 
rant, that ever afflicted or difgraced the human 
race. This character given him by the monks is 
doubtleis exaggerated. We fhall acknowledge he 
had the ferocity of his age, and of the climate, in 
which he was born, and which, as yet produced 
none but ferocious men. We mall confefs he had 
G sr 2 vice;;. 


vices, but will fay he did great things/ and yet 
would have been nothing but a celebrated robber, 


if he had confined himfelf to arming and difciplin- 
ing the Ruffians, and conquering the kingdoms of 
Kafan and Aftracan. But he gave his fubjecls a 
code of written laws, he brought feveral artiils to 
Mofcow, where he eftabliihed printing, encouraged 
commerce, fixed certain regulations reflecting the 
cuftom-houfe duties, allowed the Britifii merchants 
to trade in his dominions, and granted them the 
free exerciie of their religion, lie died in the year 
1584, of grief for the death of his eldcft fon, whom 
he killed by accident. He was lucceeded by Fedor, 
a weak (hallow prince, and only a crowned rnanni- 
kin. With him ended the male line of the houfe of 
Ruric, who had reicrned more than fevcn hundred 

J O 

years in Ruflia. 

To this race of princes facceeded that of the Ro- 
manoff's, of whom Michael Federowitfch was the 
lirft Czar. Brought up in a cloiftcr he was called 
to the throne by the choice of the Boyards on the 
c i ft of February 1613. For tins advancement he 
was indebted to his iiluftrious birth, and ft ill more, 
to the feductive arts of Fedor Nikitiz, liis father, 
better known under the name of Pliilarethes, of 
\vhom we mail aftewards m;:kc parncular mention. 
Arfenia, mother of the young Fedorowitfch, who 
liad lived at court and ot'le \>.\ the throne, far from 


rejoicing at the elevation of her fon, reprefented, it 
is faid, to the deputies, who came to announce to him 
the choice, which had been made of him, that a young 
man brought up in a cioifter, without experience of 
men and things, was ill calculated to manage the 
empire in its very difficult circumftances. The mo- 
deit Fedorovvitfch was of his mother's opinion. 
Charmed with their moderation, the deputies en- 
couraged them, and the wifdom of Philarethes made 
up for the inexperience of his fon. 

THIS prince occupied the throne with glory du- 
ring a reign of thirty two years, which the Ruffians 
thought too ihort, and reckoned among their hap- 
pieft clays. 

ALEXIS, MichaeloiL'itfch, his fon, who is interred 
at his fide, is known to foreigners for almoil no o- 
ther reafon, than that he was the father of Peter I. 
Yet RuiTn ilands indebted to this prince for ufeful 
eftablifhments. Tie reformed the laws, difciplined 
the army, caufed fome liender barks be built on the 
Cafpian fea, which the Ruffian hiitorians called mips. 
lie conquered Smoleniko, and a great part of U- 
krjluo from the Poles. In fhort, he drew the firit 
oiit'iines of the plan, which Teter I. enlarged and 

AI.I., who mentioned this prince, have a- 
crrecd in praifnig him, and t.;y, he was a good huf- 
hand, a rr cud htlicr, ar.d a c'ood lovereif;n. It is 

J ,j ~^ O 



true, he was exceffively hot, bu^ his natural mild, 
nefs very foon calmed his impatience. When i cr .i^n- 
ed to himfelf, he was afhamed of his paffioi), and 
made amends for it by favours, which exceeded the 
injuries he imagined he had done thole, whom his 
impetuolity might have offended. He was a friend 
to memorials, like Louis XIV. his cotemponiry, a- 
bout whom he was fond of converfing. His heart 
was humane and compafiionate, fo that he never put 
his name to the foot of a fentencc of death, with- 
out watering it with his tears. / am not a Czar to 
dsftroy ?ny fubjefls, (aid he one day to Naritlkin, who 
wafc his prime minifter, and enjoyed his confidence, 
t,n the contrary ', it h my duty to preferve them, and to 
grant pardcn to all thofe, who are not convicted cf ha- 
ving dyed their hands in the blood of their brethren. 
At this very moment, the minifter prefented to him 
a fentence of death to fign againft a defcrter, but he 
wrote below, I grant par don ^ and fubfcribed his name. 
Notwithftanding this clemency, equal to that of Ti- 
tus, who is quoted as a model to all princes, Alexis 
was the Czar, who eftablifhed the Inquidtion of/ 
State, known in Ruflia under the name of the 5V- 
r.rct Com-iiihice^ of which we have hid occalion to 
fpeak feveral times. Has the erection of this tribu- 
nal been a flain on his reign and the nation : This 
is the problem propofed by Leclcrc in his hiilory of 


Ruflia. In this quefuon there is nothing (mgular, 
except that it is thought the fubject admits of a 

THE circumftances of Alexis' marriage with Na- 
talia Cyrillowna, mother to Peter I. are too defcrip- 
dve of this prince, and the manners of his times, 
not to be laid before the reader. 

ARTEMIN Matwejeff, who was grandfather tc* 
Count RoinanzofF Zadounaifki, now marmal-gene- 
al, and lieutenant-colonel of the Emprefs' 1 Horfe 
Guards, was mmifter of foreign affairs under Alex- 
s' reign, and particularly honoured with the friend- 
hip of this prince, who, fetting all etiquette afide, 
;ame often to eat with his miniiler, and talk of bu- 
inefs in an eafy way. Coming in one night very 
ate, and without being expected, he found the co- 
/er laid. " This table feems to invite me," laid her, 
4 to Matwejeff, and I will let myfelf down at it, ii : 
1 I conflrain nobody." The miniiler auurcs hin:., 
:hat he cannot confer on him an higher honour, and 
)rdcrs flipper immediately. Bis wife enters, accom- 
panied by his fon and a young lady, They iup, and 
luring the repail Alexis had often, fixed his eye en 
iu: young fair gucft fitting dircdly oppoiite to him ? 
,vhoib beauty war, equalled by her ir-odefty, 
1 I always thought," faid the Czar to his minifter.. 
'- thut you had only a ion, and it is only to ciay 
' that ! learn you have a daughter; ! am not a lit- 

^ tic 


" tie difpleafed with you for having kept this a fl> 
" cret from me." " Your Majefty is wrong inbla- 
" ming me for this," anfwered MatwejefF. " I have 
" really an only fon, and the young lady, whom 
" you take for my daughter, is the daughter of one 
" of my friends, Cyrilie Naritlkin, who lives re- 
" tired in the country, on a moderate fortune, 
<: which his oeconomy alone renders fuflicient for his 
" wants, and thofe of his family. My wife has taken 
" this young lady to bring her up, and procure her, 
" if poiliblc, a fettlement. We owe thefe cares to 
" fricndmip, and will make it our duty to attend 
" to them." " I am perfuaded of it," fays his Ma- 
jefty. " I know your heart." The cloth was drawn, 
the minifler's wife, his fon, and the young lady re- 
tired, bccaufj they kne\v, when fupper was over, 
lib Majefty liked to converfe alone with Matwejeff. 
My friend," fays the prince to him, c ' this young 
Natalia appears to me poildTed of an excellent 
mind, the is full of charms, me is of an age fui ti- 
ed to make a hufb.ind happy. We mull look out 
for one to her, and think ilrriouily of this buii- 
jiei : -,-" " Your Mujdly is very good, and 1 thank 
you in Natalia's name, for the attention you 
dci-rn LO pay her, but the unfortunate voum* ladv 

V.J 1 ' . O only her beauty and virtues for her fortune, 
and 1:1. v; hulbands of the chy willi to have fome- 

' { thing 


<c thing elfe." " There is one way ; we rnuft feek 
" out a rich hufband, who will not regard fortune, 
" which-, is nothing wlien one meets with a wife 
" like Natalia/' (the prince pronounced thefe words 
with Torce) :t It is not at court, that this kind of 
" huiband's is to be found," laid tlic minifler, 
cs Courtiers, hcnvcver rich,, always calculate." > 
kC You are prejudiced/' interrupted the Czar, Ci and 
i5 I undertake to find one out that will not calcu- 
"" ; late in the lenil." Some days after this inter- 
vic\v, the Czar returned to JMaUvejeLPs, converfed 
at fir it about the alTiirs of the Empire, and after, 
wards invited hhivfelf to dinner. lie ia\v the beauti- 
ful NjtAlia, paid her fome attention, but with the 
c::'eitelt reierve. When the entertainment was over., 
and the prince and MatwejefF engaged in familiar 
coriverution. ^ llav? yoi'. thought," faid the Czar 
to him, " on providing Natalia? Have you cait: 
ct your eye on any perion ? " cc No, Sire, it is nor 
* c <;hat I do not ciciire it m^fh e;.rii'_it!y, bu: an:oi:^; 
fc " tue crrcut r.uiiiDer of \c\~.r.~ pcopie. wl/o rrcnucnt. 

\~j * LJ i ' -'- 

*" our home, none lus is vet appeared to have the 
kC lead iiffeclion for her," Very well," fays the 
Czar, '" I am farther forward than you, i have 
^ found out ahuiband capabl.; oi nukuu' her Iv.;ppy 9 
" and rich enough not to ennulre il":er her fortune, 
' She is ac^a.un'cd \vl : :h -ilin, but lie has been able 
* to keep ah iciitia;::its aproiv/uuJ fxi'v:", anJ with- 
VOL, II, II h out 


ft out having the pride of lovers, he is bold to prs- 
'' imr.c that, when lie (hall declare himfelf, he \vili 
: '' noi be rtjtfhd." cc Ah! Sire, I did not expect 
; kfs fr^ni your good:, els, you crown my willies 
'' under what obligations iny friend Cyrille will 
l ' be under to you. Might I be bold to afk your 
" >\:<...j *'S .y t lic name of the young man f Un doubt - 
cc cdiy, I know him too, and I could give your Ma- 
" jeiiy infgrmation . . . " :" I do r^t alk any, I 
" kno\v him \veli enough to need none ; only learn 
cc if Natalia has no averlion for marriao-e." " When 


^ ever \ve hsve fpuken to her of a feulement, fl"ie 
Ci has ahvays anfvvercd \vith equal grace and rnodef- 
ct ty, that ilie would fcudy to make the hufband 
' happy, u'hom we would clioofe for her. She will 
u be quite otherwiie iLittcrcu, when flie knows that 
>!: ir !> frr.rn your IvI ijefty, tliftt ii.e will receive this 
Ci hiubind." " A!) ; my dear IMatwejcff," inter- 
rnrtecl the Czur v.ith eager r.cfs, " yes, go tell hei 
' ; that it i:; I, who iiave choien this hufband, and 

, i 11 r .-;/'> 

* i- nut lie is sii'ixii uimietj. 

jM-VTTvi'jF.i-T iliiecl \vith iiuonifliment at a declara- 
tion fo 1-ncMpeclcJ, fa'lb at tiic Czar's feet, and con- 
ii:ies Iiiiii to ^ivc u;> thl- 1 rcfblution, or at icait to- 
forbeur imparting it to Ivualia. " I am already en- 
" vied," Lidtk-d M:u\!'f, ' Ljcauie lam lionourecl 
^ with your favcur, bvt to v/i-at height will this en. 
' l vy r:^b, when ii: ilirl be Iccn, thril }our Majefty 

f< difdaiiu- 


*' difdains the daughters of the principal Boyards, 
" to unite yourfelf with a young unfortunate girl, 
c brought up in my houfe. It will be thought that 
c motives of ambition have induced me to advife 
( your Majefty to this fkp." " Your fears are ima- 
;c ginary," replied the Czar, ci difrnifs them, and 
" think only on obeying me. My refolution is form- 
" ed, and Natalia is neceflary to the exiftence of your 
" maRer." " There is one way, by which your 
" Majefty can reconcile all./' faid the minifler. 
'* Give orders for brinrrino: to court theyoun^dauo;n~ 

\^r O * O *. * 

' ters of all the Boyards, from among whom the 
ct cuftoin of the country authorilcs you to choofe a 
" wife. Natalia Cyriliowna's beauty and birth en- 
" title her to be of the number of thefe young la- 
Ci dies, and your Majefty by choofmg her, will ap- 
64 pear to adjudge the prize to beauty only, and thus 
put envy to iilence." 

ALFXIS approved of this expedient, and ufcd the 
greateft precaution not to expofe the minifter. Na- 
talia was informed of her happy deftiny, and proved 
2.S difcreet as her lover. Some days after, the Czar 
collected the heads of the clergy, communicated to 
them his intention of marrying again (Mary Ilinitf- 
cliora Moloflawiky, was his former wife) and he or- 
dered them to publifh it in his dominions. After 
this publication the principj! Boyards of the Empire 
v:~re obliged to fend their marriageable daughter.-; 

11 ! :. to 


to court, where, when they appeared in prefence 
of the Czar, he prefented a crown of rofes to her, 
whom he chofe for a bride. Till the time of Peter 
.(. the moft of the Czars had not been married other- 
wife. There was even a law, which forbid them to 
take a wife from the houfe of a foreigner, and which 
the prince durft not infringe, when he was not pof- 
leiTed of intereft or force enough to enable him to 
oppofe the public opinion. 

THE proclamation juft now mentioned, being made 
jn all the provinces of the Empire, more than fixty 
young ladies arrived at the Kremlin of Mofcow, on 
the firft day of September 1670. Cuftom bore that 
they mould all wear the fame drefs and veil, which 
they dropped not, till the prince appeared to make 
his choice. This was made at noon in one of the 
principal halls of the palace. The company of youiir; 
virgins arranged themfelves in two rows, the amo- 
rous Czar appeared, the veils dropped, and every 
perfon's eyes were dazzled with the appearance of io 
much beauty. Modefty Lit on the brows of taoie 
youno- ladies, and anxiety was working in their 

JO ' -J 

hearts; but never did beauties difplay their attractions 
jnore idly, nor ever conceive vainer hopes. They lit- 
tle knew the trick love had played them, and tlut the 
choice was already made. The diicreet Alexis, inlreaci 
of going all at once to throw Imnfelf at the feet of Na- 
C?J1* 3 pretended to appear fur ibnie time cmb:;rr:ii- 




fed about .making a choice, and when he thought Ije 
had deceived the fpectators, he advanced to his be- 
loved, who modeftly waited her triumph without 
appearing to doubt it ; Beautiful Natalia, faid he to 
her, fetting oa her head the crown of rofes, which 
declared her to be his wife, Beautiful Natalia, receive 
ibis crown from your bitfband, and may the throne of 
the Rufflas be proud to fee you fit on it. The humble 
Natalia fell at the feet of the Czar, who haflened to 
lift her up, and lead her to the temple. 

PETER I. and a princefs named after her mother 
were the fruit of this marriage. Natalia's fortune 
inade her father Naritfkin's, who deferved it. He 
became Alexis' prime minifter, and made his reign 
illuftrious. They were Peter's harbingers. The 
young Czarina did not live with her hnfband with- 
out meeting with fome unea'iinefs. Alexis was in- 
ecnftant, but he knew what he owed to his wife. 
He had a miftrefs, who dared to behave difrefpecl- 
fully to her Emprefs, and Alexis punillied her. She 
difappeared at court. This prince died in the year 
16:6, regretted by all his fubjects and fidly lament- 
ed by thofc, who had the happinefs to be near him. 
FKDOR, the oldcll of his ions, \vhoin he defigned 
for l:ls fucceilbr, was equally feeble in body and 
Hund.; and incapable of governing, but he had the 
prurience to leave the adi^lniflnition of affairs to 
3^p-r.:i Ins filler j whole avn.bil'on \\'Q have -already 



defcribed. In the name of Fedor {he did fome glo- 
rious and ufeful things. We muft own, it was Ga- 
litzin, her prime .minifter, and according to fome 
hiftorians, her lover, who adviied her to them, in 
the year 1682, Fedor died and left the throne 
to his brother Iwan, who was not more capable 
than himfelf to fill it, but yet he thought hi nil elf 
very deferving of the auguft honour. Igno- 
rance is prefumptuous, efpecially in princes, to 
whom the flattering courtier afcribes fictitious ta- 
lents, which the defpot, whether crowned, or ex. 
peeling to be crowned, at lead imagines he really 

As frequent fits of the epilepfy, which feized Hrn 
almoft daily, deprived Iwan of the ufc of his fenles, 
he was advifed to give a Lhare of the government to 
his brother Peter, who was only ten years of a^e, 
but all his intellectual powers were as vigorous and 
forward, as thofe of his brother were feeble and 
backward. For the happinefs of his fubjecls, and 
in fpite of Sophia and Galitzin, before many years 
elapfed Peter alone got the reins of government, 
arid became Peter the Great. This Prince and his 
fucceflbrs, all exept Peter I!, were buried at St Pe- 




CHURCH of the Affumption. Mora/of, Governor and 
M-ini/ier to Alexis. Pie receives a terrible teflon 
from the people. Its conferences. Burial of the 
Patriarchs. Job.-*-Phi!arethes. Hi/lory of Nikon. 


T ROM the church of Mcfcow we pafs into that of 

the Afiumption, which has long been the place, 
where the Czars have been crowned. It is the moll- 
magnificent in all Mofcow. The fanchiary is part- 
ly covered with plates of gold and iilver, works of 
great value. From the centre of the vault hangs an 
enormous mafTy chandelier, which weighs near 
three thoufand two hundred pounds averdupois, 
It was made in England and was given in a prefenl; 
to the church by Morofoff, who was at firft gover- 
nor to Alexis Michaelowitfch, and then made him - 
ielf his prime minifter, as it were, in fpite of him, 
Alexis, yet a young man, being conftantly befet, 
allowed himfelf to be wen, and Morofofr commen- 
ced a ir.iniiter equally arrogant and ripacious, and 
in the end became as affable as jufr, A ftrange me- 
tamorphofis, whereof in hiii.ory he alone furnimes 
an The Ruffian memoirs report that he 
Cvved it to a terrible leffcn given him by the pec- 
pie 9 \vho were cpprcued by his inquitous condncl. 


THE facred vefiels in the church of the AfTump- 
tian, the ornaments of the altars, the pontifical 
robes, even the garments' worn by the fimple popes, 
are overloaded with gold with rich embroidery, and 
jewels. Bat in general the tafte is coarfe, and cor- 
refponds not with the richnefs of the materials. 
The greateft part of the paintings on the walls in the 
Iniide, have coloifean proportions. Some are very 
ancient, and were drawn about the end of the fif- 
teenth cpntury. Among others there is a head of the 
Virgin, believed to have been painted by St Luke ; 
an opinion, which gives it much celebrity, as well 
as the gift of working miracles. The face is aim oil 
black, and the head is ornamented with a crown of 
jewels. The hands and body are gilt, which pro- 
duces one of the moft extraordinary effects. This 
painting is feen within the boundaries of the fanclu- 
ary, and is kept locked up in a large filver prcfs, 
which is opened only on grand feiiivab, or to ia- 
tisfy t-u curioiity of religious ftrangers. Amateurs 
pafs without afking a light of this refpecl.ible -Higy, 
and yet it is the moft ancient image to be fecn hi 
that country. According to tradition, it was 
brought from Greece to Kiow, when the foverei^n "> 

O O 

of Rufiia rciided there. Thence it was tranfported 
to Wolodimcr and afterwards to Mofcow. It is evi- 
dently a work of the Greeks, and more undent than 


the revival of the arts in Italy, which it is not diili- 
cult to believe. 

IN this very ci.-urcii the bodies of the patriarchs 
of RuiTia are d.-poHteJ. The iirft is Job, before 
whom there \vas in xufTu only a primate fuifragan 
of the patriarch of Conilantinople. He was iinlali- 
nd in the \ car 158;), in 'nn;ity of Patriarch of Ruf- 
fia, by the patriarch of Conllantinople, with all the 
reqiiifite folernnities. He \rc.i tl:e patriarchal fbafF 
into his hand, \vith a deed ceni r yin;^ the farrenc'er 1 
lie made him of his r'^uts over hi..v., and his church. 
'1 he accounts are net the lame reflecting tlic i::o- 
iiver", which induced hlui to ii"ia]:e this facrifice to 
the RiiUian church. Son-c lild(^ri.ins even call in 
quellion the iurrendcr ju-t r.ovvr mentioned, and 
with fome juilice, for tr.e iaccrdotal fnirit is not on- 
ly averfe to part with any of its prerogatives, but h 
rlfo inclined to in . :ide thofj, which it has not. 

THE moil refpe-fcable of job's iuecciiors was Phi- 
L-ircibcs, whole name b \> b:^:n mentioned already, 
It is iroin idm that the princes or f.iu ia:7:ily or Ko- 
rnanoff are dvdcendr.'d. r \\' ; - A> the n.i;:.e ol- :ii.> 
grandfather, and the praclicc in Rn.d.i bcinq-, tliat 
the fandiy : yjukl adopt tlic n_in;e of his grand- 
father, i .: added it io his CAVII, \v]iicii \va-s 1 
dor j^kiliz. .- : \v:is c'ed: nd \>:u Andircw, 

who v.\vj born of iy, wuich c:ni- 

gra:cd frou; Prufli i:u\: e;:!;:i [\van 

- T T T t I r* ' 

\ OL. II. j- i Lvaiiov. r. ii. 


Iwanowitfch, and their defendants rofe to the Crfi 
dignities of the empire. Fedor Nikitiz himfelf wan 
one of the principal Boyards at court, under the 
reign of Fedor Iwar.owitfch, v/ith whom he ferved 
in the campaign againft the Swedes, which procu- 
red to RulIU the cities of Koporie, Jamborg, and 
Iwangorod. In the war 1596, he commanded the 
army fent again it- the Tartars. In 1589, he accom- 
panied Boris Godonow to Serpukoif, to guard the 
frontiers aop.inft an approaching invalion. But Bo- 
ris Godonow, who was an adventurer, and owed 
the throne, which he took poffeffion of, folely to his 
audacity and crime?, took umbrage at the birth and 
military abilities of Fedor Nikitiz, and compelled 
him to turn monk in the monaftery of Sitzkoi, un- 
der the name of Philarethcs. He was drawn from 
the cloifter by Demetrius the impoilor, who had 
been a monk himfelf, and wi&ing to make a tool of 
Philarethcs, he named him metropolitan of Roftofl 
*nd jnroflaw. In the year 1610, he was fent on ar. 
rrnbaffy to Sigifmund, who was befieging Smolen- 
;ko. This prince was ofi^nded at the tone of firm- 
aelis widi wlii:.h Philarethes had addreffed him, and 
violated tii -2 l.:\vi> of nations by cafting him into pri- 
; ; ./n. In i6\ v, h- recovered his liberty, at the foli- 
citation cf his fon, wJio, during his own capitivity 
had b-'jen clccued Czar. Ills abilities, and the wifh- 
'.- of the ;:-j'ipie. mads }\ur> be elected patriarch of: 



Mofcow, the very year of his return. In this capa- 
city he edified the Ruffians by his virtues, and made 
them happy by governing them with wifdom under 
the name of his fon. 

IN another place we have obferved, that Peter I. 
had fuppreffed the dignity of Patriarch, and \ve then 
mentioned the motives, that induced him to do 
fo. Adrian was the laft of thcfe prelates. The Ruf- 
fians enumerate eleven between Job arid Adrian, a- 
mong whom was the famous Nikon, the only patri- 
arch buried in the church of the Afiumption. 

THE Ruflians are divided in opinion with regard 

I O 

to him. Some confider Nikon as Antichrift, and 
abhor him, while others revere him as a faint. 
This extraordinary man was born of obfcure parents 
in the year 1*613. His firft name was Nikita, and 
ftudy was his earlkft turn. He applied to theology, 
efpecially to the holy fcripture. lie ftudied among; 
the monks, who infpired him with a liking for the 
cloiiter, and he was going to bury him / there, when 
his father, who wifked to make his fon ufeful to the 
world and his family, tore him from it, and made 
him acquainted with a charming woman, wlio be- 
c;m:c his wife, and made him the father of three: 

chiich-cn, who all died in infancy. The grief ecca- 
fioned by the lofs of them, the iirit affections which 
{.peak ftrongly to the foul, induced Nikita to pro- 
r;ofe to his \viit: to ieparate in order to enter both 

I i intc 


into a monaftery. The feparation took place, and 
Nikita entered into that of Angerlkoi, which is fi- 
xated on an ifland of the white fea, where twelve 
monks lead a folitary life, fee and fpeak to one ano- 
ther only once in the week. At his entry he took 
the name of Nikon. 

AFTER a fhort flay in this modern Thebais, Ni- 
kon, who was of a crofs temper 1 , which foliiude had 
not fweetencd, took a journey to lucfcow, with tlie 
fuperior of the monaftery, for the purpofe of ma- 
king a collection for building u. church, and on this 
journey quarrelled with this fuperior, who on his 
return to the monaftery, put Nil-con into a frail ca- 
noe, managed by a flngle man, which the barbarous 
monk, glutting a perfonal vengeance, knew could 
not re lift the ftorm. In fhort, at the mouth of the 
Onega thcfe unhappy men were a5!ii!cd by n violent 
tenypeft, and by a kind ot niiracic only i:.n<!cd on a iflc, which Nikon called the ilie of the Cro&, 
and vowed to build a rnonaiierv on it. 

ON this ille, N-k(,-n readied the monafrcry of 
Kofe-Ozcrkoi, where he was received with that bro- 
therly affection, whi'Ji the Goipcl prcicribcs, but is 
fjldoin found a:nong monks. r j'he auileruy of Ni- 
kon's manner^ atiri-.ctcd the vcneraiion of tlie mer.k:; 
to inch a degree, tliat at the civ'.u'i of their u:::er:or 
they unanimoufiy cieclcd l-i:-.i in his room. He 
ihycd there for three VCLIFS, ? : . tli;; cr,;l cf \vhich, 



buiinefs having called him to iMofcow, lie was pre- 
fcnted to Alexis ivlichaelowitfch, who, filled with 
admiration of his piety, abilities, and eloquence, 
kept him with himfelf, and, in the fpace of five 
years, raifed him, through a fiicceflion of dignities, 
to the patriarchal feat of Mofcow. He was promo- 
ted to this in the year 1652, and in this ftation he 
increafed the reputation he had already acquired of 
being a man ot irreproachable manners, endowed 
\viih a fervent charity, uncommon knowledge and 
eloquence. He founded feminaries for the inftruc- 
tion of prices in the Latin and Greek languages. 
He enriched the patriarchal library with fa- 
cred and profane manufcripts, which he brought 
from the monafcery of Mount Athos. By the au- 
thority of the Czar, he aflembled a council general 
of the Greek church to review and correct the ver- 
iion of the bible and the liturgy. U \vas he, who 
cm-fed the old verfipn in the Sclavonian language 
be adopted, and made a new edition of it be print- 
ed under his own eye. This ok! vciiion was fo 
fjarcc, that it could not be got at any price. lie 
cr-JcTcd to be taken from the churches, the picture; 
if the c'.e.ui, which their rclalion.s hid placed there, 
and to which the Ignorant vu;gar C.KV.TJ paid religi- 
ous lu>ir.age. He abolilhed fupei ccremonie.-;. 
h; a v/c^ra, he a!c;ne cc-r.trlhutcrl :r.^rc th-in ?}\ I ' 
:; . '.hrcC'". .vs together, to L!I: ixfcriiralion of ki.; 



church, and to render its form of worfhip lefs ridi- 
culous. He diftinguiflied himfelf no lefs in the ma- 
nagement of public affairs. The Czar confulted 
him on all occafions. He became the foul of his 
counfels, from which there iffued nothing but what 
was wife, fo long as he influenced them. 

BUT, after having rifen to the higheft pinnacle of 
greatnefs, to which a fubjecl can attain, Nikon faw 
himfelf hurled from his lofty feat by a vile cabal. 
He had offended the priefts by his reforms, and the 
courtiers by his aufterity of manners. Priefts and 
courtiers are not offended with impunity, and Ni- 
kon was facrificed. They defcribed him to the peo- 
ple as a dangerous, irreligious man. In fhort, the 
people fuperftitioufly attached to thefe facred abfur- 
dities adopted by their anceftors, which Nikon had 
juft done away, were extremely vexed to fee the i- 
mages taken from the churches, the changes made 
in the liturgy, and the veriion of the bible, and the 
final fuppreilion of forne ceremonies. Ignorance im- 
puted thefe different grievances to Nikon as a crime, 
imd pardoned him not. It ftirred up againft this ce- 
lebrated man both the capital and the provinces, 
and the afcendant he had gained over the Czar, 
which ought to have defended him againft fo many 
attacks, only ferved to -haften his fall, by exciting 
the jealoufy of minifters, efpecially of Natalia and 
2icr father, who wifhed to reign alone over the 



mind of Alexis. In fhort, Nikon's haughtinefs and 
inflexibility completely deprived him of the fupport 
which his virtue and good intentions ought to have 
preferved to him. His enemies fucceeded in aliena- 
ting the Czar from this great man, and removing 
him from his perfon. Nikon, incapable of bending, 
refolved to prevent his difgrace by voluntarily re- 
iigning the patriarchal dignity in the year 1658, af- 
ter having enjoyed it fix years. He retired into the 
monaftery of Jerusalem, which he himfelf had built 
and endowed, at the diftance of forty werfts from 
Mofcow. Some writers have advanced, that this 
retreat of Nikon's was forced, and that it was the 
Emperor himfelf, who confined him in the monaf- 
tery of jerufalem. We are not backward to em- 
brace this opinion, which is Voltaire's, who did not 
write hiftory like many, who feem to have underta- 
ken the tafk, only to disfigure it. 

NIKON, who had been a hermit at court, when 
returned to the cloifter, of which he had never loft 
the fpirit, gave himfelf up to childifh practices, to 
aufterities, and cruel mortifications, which are an 
ufelefs outrage to nature, and haiien its diflblution. 
It is reported, that he ihut himfelf up in a narrow 
cell, where he had no otL..r bed, but a flone on 
which he llept, covered with a. rufli mat. He wore on 
his bread a broad iron plate., on which \va:j an enor- 
mous copper-crois, to which was fixed a chain of 

Si ore 


more tl-nn twenty pounds weight. For more than 
twenty years he dragged this frightful badge in ho- 
nour of the divinity, who gave not man life for 
i'uch absurdities. Yet thefc devotional practices, - 
which in Nikon, discovered a debafement of the in- 
tciiechral powers, did not prevent him from makir.g 
the compbte collection of the annals of Ruflla, 
which we have mentioned in the former volume. 
But even in them you may difcover the ftate, in 
which his mind was, for in the fir ft lines of his 
book, he is extravagant enough to pronounce an a- 
nathcma agai^ft thofe, who mould dare to change 
u fing'c cxprcSiiGJi in Ids \vork. 

ALLXIJ, but efpecially Naritzkin, who did not 
wifii to make Nikon's Lift years unhappy, had lei't 
him the n .'.in title of Patriarch to Soothe his retire- 
ment. I'ut the Ruffian clersrv, wlio had their ver.~ 

O ' 

geanccs to gratify, importuned the Czar and Na- 
ritzkin i;i Such ii way, that they really made hirr, be 
depoled and degraded in one of tlioie adcmblii:^, 
which cv.irchmen call Council. It was licld at ivlci-- 
cow in. the year i6wo, and condemned Nikon fo 
abSolute f-TiuGon irom the \\~orld. He was tlicrc- 
iorc c<tr:;'ncd in the moiu.ilery of 'i"h:-rapont ir. the 
inoR ri"-Tous mannci', and there reduced to lead 
the lil.: of ar. obfcurc ir.crilc. At tiie death cA Alex- 
is, the C;;ar Fedor, by the pcrfuafion of Galitzrn, 



Nikon be removed to the monaftery of Saint- Cyrillaj 
where he enjoyed the greateft liberty. He lived fif- 
teen years after his depofition, and died on the i7th 
of Auguil 1681. His remains were carried to the 
monaftery of Jerufalem, and buried with all the ho- 
nours, ufually paid to the memory of Patriarchs, 


COMMERCE carried on at Mofeow. Market r ,f boilfes, 
-Foundling bcft'iicL Account of this in/liiuilon. = 

o J -L J J 

Mo, -/a fiery cf Trc-itfif'i. Sidf't Serv-jus its founder. - 

^ , ^ J o j 

Ace 'Mini. of this Monk. Difcri.Mion tf the Momi/ier". 
- Tomb of Mcirv^ ^jeen of Livonia." Thai of llori: 
Goduno-ii}> Account of ibis Prince. 

/\LL the retail trade cf Mofcovv is carried on in 
the Kbilai-Gtrcd) v/hcre is, as we have fiid, the 
Goftin'/i-Dwor,, or exchange, which bears an exacl re- 
iemblance to what the A hades call a I'a-ar. Tiie 
lliops, of which it is made v.p, occupy a conlidc-rable 
ipace. The merchants have no loilginpfs there; but 
dwell in another qunrtcr at a confiderablc diflance, 
They come to tlielc ih.ops in t!c n.'.OHiing, continue 
there till the afternoon, \vhen they return to their 
families. Every braucu of trade has its particular 
quarter, and thofc, wlio ill! the iaiiiv? anidcs, iiavd 
VOL, II, K. k fliopi 1 


ihops at the fide of one another. This retail trade 
agrees perfectly with thofe markets of the Levant, 
of which Tavernier and Pietro della Valle have gi- 
ven us defcriptions. The Ruffians referable the Afi> 
:itics in many other cuftoms. This obfervation is 
valuable to the philofopher and hiftorian. The prin- 
cipal articles of commerce at Mofcovv are peltry and 
furs. Thefe two alone occupy feveral ftreets. 

AMONG the number of curiofities in this city the 
market of houfes deferves to be ranked. It is held, 
in a large; fquare in one of the fuburbs, and prefcnts 
to file a great number of houfes, laid in pieces on 
the ground, and dole by one another. Whoever 
is in need of one goes to this place, tells Iiow many 
rooms he wants, examines the planks, which are all 
carefully numbered, and cheapens the houfe, which 
fiiits him, as with us one would a(k the price of a 
iingle piece of furniture. Sometimes the houfe is 
inilantly paid for, and the purchafer carries it with 
him ; at other times he makes his bargain on con- 
dition that it (hall be carried, and creeled on the 
fpot, on which he wifhcs to have it. It is a fact 
that a houfe is often bought, tranfported, erected 
and inhabited in the fpace of a week. The reafon 
of this uncommon circumftance is, that they are 
for moft part formed only of trunks of trees, 
with, tcnurcr- and incrtifcs at the ends, fo that there 


is nothing more to do, but colled and arrange 
them when need requires. 

THIS expeditious manner of building is not, as 
may be fuppofed, practlfed only in the conftruclion 
of cottages or fmall houfes. 1 here are fome of a large 
lize and handfome appearance, which are reared 
with a degree of difpatch, that looks like enchant" 
ment. There was a remarkable inftance of this at 
the time of the famous journey of Catharine II. to 
Mofcow. Her Majefty propofed to take pofleffion 
of Prince Galitzin's hotel, which is looked on as the 
largeft in this city ; but this not being fuiftcient, k 
was refolved to make a temporary addition of wood- 
en buildings ; and thefe buildings larger than the 
hotel itfelf, containing a great number of magnifi- 
cent apartments, were begu" and finiihed i^.the 
fpace of fix weeks. They were thought ib beauti- 
ful and convenient, that when they were taken 
down at the Emprefs' departure, they were built 
anew to make a pleafure houfe on a hill adjacent tc- 
the city. 

AT Mofcow an admirable police is eftablifhed ir, 
cafe of mobs or fires. The laft in particular are fiv- 
cuent and dangerous, efpecial'y in quarters, in which 
there are none but wooden houics, and where the. 
ftreets are covered with planks inftead of pavement, 
At the entry to every ftreet there is a gate, at which 
- fentmel is poftcd, when circumftances require. 
K k 2 Th-n 


Then the gate is Ihut, and is conftrucled in fuch a 
way, as Lot to be eafily forced. 

THE moft remarkable of public eftablifhments at 
Mofcow, deferving of honourable mention, is that 
of the Foundling Hofpital. It was endowed by the 
reigning Emprefs in tii.? year 1764, and is fupport- 
ed by voluntary contributions, by legacies and other 
charities. To encourage the Ruffians in thefe acts 
of generolity, her Majefty grants all the benefactors 
certain privileges, and a rank proportioned to the 
value of their contributions. One of the Demidoffs 
is among the contributors. He is a famous merchant, 
who to great riches, which he received in inheri- 
tance from his anceflors, has added immenfe fums, 
gained by fpeculations, which have been crowned 
with the moll fortunate fuccefs. But if he be one 
of the fpecuktors of Ruffia, he is a lib one of the 
moft zealous philanthropies. To the eftablimment 
juil now mentioned, lie has given more than four 
hundred and fifvy tiiouiand roubles ( 101,250) and 
beitowed a degree of attention of as much value as 
this fum. The houfe for foundlings (hinds in a fpa- 
cious place, and in the beft air, on a fiecp bank of 
Mofcowa. The builcing is exteufive and of a for* are 
form. At firii it contained three thoufand foun ti- 
lings, but was afterwards enlarged for the reception 
of eight thoufand. The ciiildren are carried to the 
Farter's lodge, where they are received without any 



recommendation, or any queftions being afked at 
thofe who bring them. The rooms are large and 
lofty. The fleeping rooms, feparated from the work 
houfes, have large windows, by which is produced a 
current of falubrious air, which is to children one of 
the iirft elements of their cxiftcnce. The beds are not 
too dole. Every child has his own mounted with iron 
rods, initead of wood. Their clothes are changed 
every eight days, and their linen three times a week. 
Going through the rooms, you are ftruck with the 
ne ."'."iid.}, that prevails in, them, not even excepting 
thoie o' die nurics, which for neatncfs and cleannels 
arc rw,i ink'nYr to any other apartments. Humani- 
ty tukei r-i picture in admiring the care beftowed on 

* o 

theie yoiu; objects (b worthy of it. In this hofpital 
no craclicL- art i-.if-d. Indeed the ufe of them is ex- 
prcisly iorl-i-jcien. They arc not fwaddied, but left 
quite i)'-::e in their clothes, and in every thing the 
fyirem of nature is adopted. The children in this 
hofpiraL are JlvkkJ into dalles diftinsruifhed in 

* O 

pix^p.r.-iioi - L ,j ilicir age. They continue two years 
un^Lr r.ui;> -, then they arc admitted into the lo\v- 
cil cliifs. . iic boys and girls arc kept together till 
the a;:;c r:f icvcn years, and tlica arc icparated. 
J'hcv arc all tauglit to read, write, cypher, and to 
knit iioc!,.i:;\ y '. '1 his hilt art even the boys learn, a^j 
;vdl 'i-j th:;t of cardinp; hemp, II ix, and wool, ^ v c. 


THE girls are taught fpinning and all kinds of 
needle work. They work lace, and are employed 
in cooking, baking and all forts of houmold duties. 

AT fourteen the children enter into the firft clafs. 
Then they have liberty to choofe a profeflion to 
their mind, and for this purpofe they have feveral 
manufactures eilablifhed in the hofpital itfelf, where 
they embroider, work lace, and filk (lockings, make 
gloves, buttons, and cabinet work. There are fe- 
parate work houfes for every trade, and the fpectacle 
they furnifh is not the leaft interefting about this 
houfe. You are delighted to fee young children in 
ruddy health giving fuch application, and eager to 
reduce their little induilry to practice. Content- 
ment and cheerfulnefs are painted in their counte- 
nances, and the way, in which they run in a croud 
to carefs the director, when he appears, mows, that 
they are happy and well treated ; that he behaves 
rather as a father than a mailer, for children trem- 
ble at the fight of a mailer, but fmile at the fight of 
a father. 

SOME boys and girls learn French and German. 
Of the firil a fmalj number are alfo taught Latin, 
rnuiic, drawing and dancing. 

AT the age of twenty or thereabout, they receive 
a fum of money, and arc entitled to fome advanta- 
ges, by which they can fettle in any part of the em- 
pire they choofe ; a privilege valuable in Ruilia, 



where the peafants are flaves, and cannot quit 
their village without the permiffion of their matters. 
Nobody fliould leave this houfe without feeing 
the refectories, and being prefent at the dinner 
of the children. The boys and girls dine fepa- 
rately. The halls in which they eat, are on the 
ground floor, large, vaulted, and diftinct from 
thofe in which they work. The firil clafs fit at ta- 
ble, the reft ftand, and the little children have peo- 
ple to ferve them. Thofe of the firft and fecond 
clafs ferve one another alternately. Beef, or boiled 
mutton with rice is their dinner. This difh looks 
well, and invites you to take a {hare. The bread 
which is all baked in the houfe, appears excellent. 
Every child has his own napkin, his own pewter 
plate, knife, fork, and fpoon. Napkins, tablecloths, 
and towels are all in the greateft order. The chil- 
dren rife at fix o'clock, dine at eleven, and fup at 
fix. The youngeft are allowed a bit of bread at ie- 
ven o'clock in the morning, and four in the after- 
noon. When they arc not employed with their 
talks, they are allowed the greateft freedom, and 
they are encouraged to be in the open air as much 
as pollible. This throng of gamefome youth, run, 
leap about, and form a fpectacle, with which huma- 
nity is fo affected, and fo pleafed, that words cannot 
fxprefs the fweet fenfations, 

THE p. s 


THIRE is a theatre in this hofpital, of which al[ 
the decorations are the work of the foundlings. 
They built the theatre, painted it, made the dreifes, 
acted with as much juftnefs as grace, feveral of our 
plays, and, among the reft, the charming opera of 
the Dc-vi?i (hi Village, (the village fortune-teller) 
Vv'hich has been tranflated into the Ruffian, and al- 
moft all the languages of Europe. The foreigner, 
who attends thefe plays, though he underftand not 
the language, cannot with-hold his approbation of 
the precifion, cafe, and elegance, with which thefe 
little innocents act. 

THE Emprefs encourages theatrical exhibitions in 
this houfe, as a means ot difiuiino- a tafte among: her 

* O O 

fubjecls ; a tafte, which fhe juftly thinks calculated 
to civilize them more and more, and by this efta- 
bliflnnent, the Ruffian theatres may eafily be provi- 
ded with good actors. The beft they have in this 
country come from this fchool. 

THE advantages refulting from the Foundling 
Hofpital are great and numerous. Firft, An infti- 
tutinn fo excellent cannot fail to propagate the 
knowledge of the arts, and of trades among the 
people, and increafe the number of free iubjccts. 
'ieconcly, Its chief and humane tendency is to di- 
riihnfh child murder, a horrible crime, formerly too 
ncqucut in lluilia, where it was fometimes the at- of defpair. whereas it is among us only the 



crime of opinion, and the imprudence of the Iegifu 

Yv r r; v. i(h not to leave iVTofcov/, without mention- 
in;:; the moiuuuTy of Tr^i-J^.-i^ or the Holy Trinity, 
fiunous in the :inna!s of Railia, for the afylum it luis 
often furnifiied to its fbvcrc'iijns m times of rebel. 


lion r.r.d. d:in~cr ; and lull better known to foreign- 
crs, bc::^;;fc Pct-.T I. tooli refuge there, when he re- 
covered ironi his filler SopL.i:i, the iidrniniftrationi 
of his do:':iiiions. This moiTJiftery is fixty \verfls 
:fro:"Ji ?.I:>feo\v. On the v/;ry to it, you pan througli, \\'' ! vrc 'kjiids ;i r/.iLice built by Aie'iis 

"Micli:te!o\v;tich, to \vh;ch this prince often retired- 
Not lr::g iigo, it \V:L; a hir^c buildin-T, pointed ycl- 
o\v, \vith only :i Ih^^'e ilorey, containing fonve low 
ihuill rooms. l r or a. lonp; thiiC, nobody inlnbi f :ed 
^i.i!>, :f in defcrvcs tliis n;imc ; bu': the I:r.i- 
;7reis, charn-ca \v'.':u the delightful lituation, ,ind 
refp,'C~Hn^ l-ic residence, v/hich Peter I. prefcrre;! to 
Jl otJicrs, buik ;i pahice or b?:k;i3, cu' vrliich the ii- 
lu.ition !.; tile ciiicr beauty. 

TIIF ir.onaLtery ot TroitiV.roi, c^.l-cd i;Iio the mo- 

founder, v : ;) \viis culled ,: ;;.'. ;, ?.:: 1 vis pnt i;> 
the nv.ivibcr r-i the f.unts, nt t.l:. li i: the monks 

tion. TIv:y c:- tlii.i n;;!it uili in the Grcek 

chu'vh, but t^ i.uake A *. ? :nt, ; : coriicnt or tlie r:o 

VOL. II, LI iy 


ly iynod, and perhaps that of the Czar, is neccfiary, 
Sergius, who was at the court of Demetrius Don- 
iki, when K.iint Bernard was at the court of Louis 
the Young, having advifed him to make war on 
the Turks, fent him two monks, to affitl him with 
their counfels ; Slid the Ruffian chronicles, like all 
iiifiories written by monks, affirm, that thefe two 
triars contributed to the victories, which Donlki 
gained. We are not avcrfe to believe i'o, not be- 
caufe thcfe monks had military talents, but bccaufe 
they ipoke to th^ foldiers, in the language of fuper- 
itition. and becaufe fanatics are capable of any thing 
In an engagement. 

O O 

THE extent of the monaftery of Troitzkoi is very 

J * 

great. You would imagine you were entering a ci- 
ty. It is furrounded with confiderable fortifications 
in the old ftyle, that is, with a brick wall, battle- 
ments, and towers. The parapet is covered with a 
timber roof. The walls and towers have embrafures 
for mufkets and cannon, and all the works are be- 
fides furrounded with a deep foll'e or ditch. This 
monaftery, or fortref?, has ftood more than one 
liege. Among the reft, it defied all the efforts of 
Ladiilas, a Poilia prince, who befieged it with a nu- 
merous army. 

BI^IDI:^ the habitation of the monks, there is 
within this wall an Imperial palace, and nine large 
churches built by different fovereigr.s. The nionai- 



tery, properly called fo, is formed of a fet ot : 
buildings, very fpacious, and furrounding a court* 
They are by much too large for the number of thole., 
\vho at prcfent inhabit them. Formerly there were 
three hundred monks, and ftudents in proportion. 
It was the beft endowed religious houfe in Ruflia : 


It poffeffcd lands fo extenfive, that at lead a hundred 
thoufand peatlmts reiided on them. Thcfe having been 
united to the crown, like all thofe lands, wliich be- 
jonged to the church, the monks now receive only a 
fmall penfion, and confequently their number has 
diminifhed along with their revenues. To IciTeu 
their number, the true plan is to reduce them to a 
peniion, but when they are thus reduced, the pen- 
flon mull be paid them for a man, who has been 
a monk for a certain time, becomes really a paraihe 
plant, that muft be nouriflied with tnc juice of others. 
There are at this clay only a hundred monks ?.i moll 
In Troitzkoi, who wear black clothes, and a hood oi 
the fame colour. They eat no meat, anci are fub- 
jed: to itrict regulations. In thi^ monailery there i-: 
alio a feminary, in which there are about two hun- 
dred iludents deftincd for the church. Thefe learn 
nothing but what is neceilary to qualify them for 
being priells, and it is well knov/n how little is nc- 
ccilar to be learned as .t qualification fur thij ofiice 



As to the palace, of which we have fpoken, -it 
is very fmall, and bears a flngular contrail to the 
3arc*'e buildings allotted for the monks. When the 


fovereigns relided in Muicow, they frequently lod- 
ged in it. In one of thefe apartments there arc iluc- 
co \vorks, rcprefenting the principal actions of Pe- 
ter 1. The churches, like a:i thole in RuHia, are fu- 
perbjy and fplendidly ornamented with gold and lil- 
ver work. The moft elegant drcrii's worn" by the 
prieits are there difphyed to view, Vat their chief 
excellence confifts in the inetul, lor the workrran- 
fhip is coarfe.> The principal church has a cupoh, 
and four domes. That on the front is of gilt cop. 
per, that on the back part is of pewter, or iron 
painted green. The fleenle, wlrich is r.e\v, wu~ 
built by order of the Krnprefb I'/lizabeth. It is a 
piece of architecture agreeable enough. The trou- 
ble c.f afcending it receives a liitisi-dctory recompenle 
in the profpccL of a country deliglitfully varied, \\ ell 
cultivated, extremely fertile in grain, and covered 
\vith a vaft number of villages. 

SOME of the tombs to be ieen i:i the principal 
Ci-.Lirch, attract attention. The fin: is tint cf :\kry 
viueen of Livonia, the only perioa, \vl;o ever be. re 
this title, which ihe purchaicd dear, IK! never deri- 
ved any adv.uunge from. S!:L- was ck-fcendcci i?ro!Ti 
L\van Bafilov/itfcli II. and rnaniird Magnus, feu to 
r.i'.nfdcrn lib kin?; of j.^crria'-k, in iV:vuiir of whom 


ivvan II. wifhed to make a kingdom of Livonia. 
He did fo, bur this new power hilled only four 
years. Magnus, for whofe advantage this kingdom 

* O O tJ 

had been formed, wanted to ihake off the depen- 
dence, in \vhich the Ruffians kept him. He tried 
the rate of arms, was vanqurflied and taken prifoncr 
by hvan, who never ferioully \\iilicd the happinefs 
of Magnus. After having recovered his liberty, 
tlris prince could never retrieve his fortune. In the 
year i ^83, he ended his unhappy days in Oourland, 
where he had taken refuge, iii; wire Mary was 
confined in a convent with Euuioxi.-u the only fruit 
of this marriage, She was buried .it fclic fide of her 

THE tornb of Bcris Go/donow is in the fame 
church, who, from bclna; an individual flibiect, be- 

? -* O J J 

came Czar of Ruilia, in the year i s'9/ 3 on the death of 
Fe."lor Iwanowitfch. tie \\'as of a noble family, and 
of Tartar origin. lie was born in the year 1522, 
and at the age of iwonty, Ivvan placed him wit!-. 
his ion Iwanowitfch. By degrees !;.:; arriv?".! at tbr 
highi-il: dignities, and a.;(|iiircd i;-ve.!t jiiirreir l>y hi.; 
iiiler Irene's marri;)\^c v/i-Ji <lu: C'l'-ir l'l\l.'>r Iwano- 
\vltich, unc'er who>n he veiy fi-on j: 'juired a po\\'- 
ur :o un'ii^.ited. that nothing remained tor him to 
de-ire, but tlie title of fovcreign. i/ven during tr-; 
C:'ir- lifetime, he had taken i": upon him to af:j\ 

v-.-c wjs 



enough, or weak enough to fuffer him to act fo dif- 

THIS oftenfible fovereign, Fedor, dying without 
children, and all parties having the higheft opinion 
of the ability of Boris, they fet the crown on his 
head. At firft he ihowed himfelf worthy of fove- 
reign power ; he was fo prudent, his manners were 
fo popular, and his integrity was fo great. But the 
fear of lofmg what he had thus unexpectedly arrived 
at, made him commit atrocious crimes. He cruelly 
perfccutcd fevenil powerful families, whole intereft 
he karcu, and cauiccl prince Demetrius be afTaflina- 
ted. An attempt, which did not continue long un- 
punifhed. All Ruiiia role at once to avenge him, 

JL o y 

and the tyrant in defpair at feeing himfelf abandon- 
ed, even by thofe, whom he had lifted from the 
dull, to make his accomplices, or the perpetrators 
of his crimes, took poifon, that he might not pafs 
directly from the throne to the fcaffbld, and expir- 
ed in the moft horrible convulfions. His death, 
which happened in the year 1605, after a reign of 
eight years, has been coniidcred by fome Ruilians, 
:as a misfortune to their country. It muft be own- 
ed, that if the crimes of Boris could be banifhed 
from the mind, he might be regarded as one of the 
greatcll princes, that ever governed Ru/Iia. The 
fame thing has happened to him, that happens to 
all tyrants. Crimes have been imputed to him, of 



which he never was guilty, and by experience he 
found it to be the fate of princes, that they cannot 
commit one crime, without being charged with 
many others. It would feem that heaven, who is 
the protector of the weak, intended thereby to im- 
pofe a check on the powerful, who are a fraidof this 
kind of difgrace. Thus Boris, who had brought 
on himfelf the hatred and dctcftation of poflerity by 
one crime, has been alfo condemned with the utmoft 
feverity, even for actions, dderving of the higheft 


DEPARTURE from Mcfcsiv. Tcrcjl of Wolkonfki, Vi:- 
/ages. Pcafants. Their cottages. RoaJ.s. Pofts, 
Vhifna. Ds^orobufch. Swlcvfio. De/'cripfhr 
of this twn.Lady. Tc!it-~hi. Entry int; Poland, 

W K left iMofcow with the defign of going into i'o- by Smolenfko. As we g'ot out ci' this city, we 
rr oiled the Mofco\va, upon a fort or rale, or boar. 
fixed to the two banks. The RulT-.ins call thef:- 
rafts, A/6i7//r bridges, bccauie they bend and move 

* O O - ' 

under the weight of a Carriage. Such bridges would 
rot be to the talic of our;. 

;< ROY?- 


FKO.M MofecAV to Malo Aviafma, the road is a 
broad avenue, cut in a ftraight line acrois a forcft, 
which you enter, almofl as foon as you leave Mof- 
ccnr. It takes the name of Wolkonfki (foreft,) is 
of immenic extent and contains the fcurcss of the 
principal rivers of Rufiia in Europe, the D\vina, 
Dnieper and \Yolg.i. The fource of the Dvvina is 
at a great diTtance from tlie high way, but thole of 
the Dnieper, and Vv'oiga are not. The ground in 
this country is very frequently interrupted by hills 
and valley?, but they are of little elevation and de- 
prcillon. The trees, which fkirt the roads, have 
bee;; planted by the hands of nature. They arc 
oak--, birches, allies, poplars, and pines, which, form 
a mixture of the greatefc variety. The majeitic uniform extent of tlie forc-fl, is occaiion.illy re- 
i'evcd by fields and rce.idows, \vlncli by varying 
the profpeci:, aniufe the traveller, whom the folituJ<: 
'..f the r^ad i: : -."nires \v;th a g:^o:r,y inelanchc-,] y. As 
in tlii.s forcii there ;re often long fpaccs of the road 
very g*'Od, w..: uad recourle to our books, Y,r:J) 
iavcd u.' wearilbine m.inient r . 

S: ; i O:\ARO a.n.i Gr;"i;:va, \vhien are in \]\c lYr,- :;!,, 
are poor viL;'.ges. \ laiiTia, \viicii you ccni^. io.i- \r,\i 
g-et cut oi ;:hc \rooa, ftands on an cir.incncc?. ard, 
\-.'it:i its dv^nies and ItvCples, 1:1. ikes a rcipccllul np- 
pearanee thrjugh tiie trees. 'lh;s city, irregularly 
buih on a great e:\iu:t cf ground., conlilts chicliy 



of wooden houfes. The fmall number of brick hou- 
ies, you notice there, is indebted to the munificence 
of the Emprcfs. The principal ftrect, like the Ruf- 
iian highways, is covered with planks. This city 
contains more than twenty churches, an aflonifliing 
number for a place fo thinly peopled. Perhaps it: 
would have been a flourishing city, if manufactures 
had been creeled inftead of there churches. But in- 
dufcry is none of ilic qualities of devotees. To the 
literal virtues they prefer a childilh abnegation, 
\vhic.i i:ic divinity reprobates. 

THE peaiants of the countries we travelled 
through, appeared to be race of tall men, very ftrong 
and inured to fatigue. Their drefo conlifb of a 
round hat, or very high cap, a coat of coarfe cloth, 
or in winter, a flieep-lkin, \vhich comes down be- 
low their knee, and is fixed to the veil by a girdle, 
a pair of breeches of cloth as itrong, as that of 
which our licks arc made, a piece of cloth or fhn- 
nel rolled round their leers inlcead. of ftockincrs, fan- 

o O ' 

dais of plaited burl:, tied with points of the fame 
ftuii'. \vhicli riung upon the Lg, fcrve for garter:;, 
In fummer a ilnrt and pair oi ciotn orcccncs are of- 
ten all their drcil;. 

THE form of their hculhi or rather cottages is 
f.juarc. They are built of u-liolc logs Iieapcd on 

as formerly deicribed ?twccn the 


logs are filled with mofs. In the infide they rc 
fuieothcd with a lutchct, and refemble, an wooden 
partition. On the outudc the bark is not covered. 
The roof has two fules, and connlh of the bark of 
frees, or of flnnglcs overlaid with potter's day or 
rurf. For executing all this the peaiknt ufes only 
the lutchct, which he handles with the greateft dex- 
terity. Y\ T ith this iingle inftrument he cuts the 
-.vood and does every thing elie, becauie the moft 
Dart of the llulllan peaiants, are yet unacquainted 
v.'itli the ia\v. 

THE windows r.r^ openings of fome inches fquare, 
Tvhich they fhut with a board, which Hides in a 
groove, and the doors are fo low, that a man of or- 
dinary future is obliged to ftoop before he can 
get jn. 

THL^E cottages felclom iiave t\vo uoreys. If they 

* i 

have, the loweil one is kept as a (lore houfe for 
provifions, and in the higheit tlie family lodges, 
The ftair-cafe is a kind of ladder fet on the outfide, 
but molt frccueiidy the cottages have only the 
Around floor and one roorn. 


Ti-ir furniture oi: tlieielmall rural dwellings COIN 

fifus of an wooden tabb, and benches fixed round 
the room. The I'teniils a few plates, bafonr, 
and fpcor.s, all made of \vccd, and fomctimcs an 
earthen pot,- uied ior cooking the coarie meats, of 
thcib fiinoie rcop^ 3 vvho generally live on rye bread. 


cggs, fait frill, bacon, and mufhroorns. Their moft 
efteemed dim is a ragout, made up of frefli or fait 
meat, oat meal feafoned with onions and garlic, for 
the Ruffian peaiants put garlic in every thing. The 
inhabitants of thefe provinces are very greedy ol 
money. They afk payment in advance, every time 
you cheapen or buy the lead article. ( They alfo ap- 
pear inclined' to theft, and it is one of the principal 
employments of a traveller to keep them at a dil- 
tance from his baggage. 

THE peafants are obliged to furnifh horfes at eve- 
ry poft, and at a fixed and moderate rate, which 
makes them very flow in bringing them out. Who- 
ever furnifhes them,, acts as podilion. They always 
put four horfes a bread, and commonly eight or 
ten are yoked in a carriage, that does not require 
half of the number. But the poib are like thofe 
of Mufcov/ and St Peterfburg, and the roads dctcf. 
table when the froft has not covered them with icn> 
At the time of a thaw, which often comes on fuci- 
denly, the method of yoking the horfe becomes an 
hindrance to the carnage, inftcad of forwarding its 
progrefs, for being yoked a bread, they embamdi 
rather than help one another. The drivers fcarcdy 
ever uic boots or fiddles. They have no dirrups, 
Lut a double cord laid over the; back oi the horic. 
Inftcad of a bridle they ufe a bit; of fmall cord for 
jrmnp; the horfcs, whicli have no re^i'.ir ilep, 
M m 2 The 


The drivers, either inexpert or carelefs, often make 
them gallop in the worft of the road, and let them 
go ilbwly where it is firm and level. The end of a 
cord ferves them for a whip, but they ufe it fel- 
dom. Their practice is to route their horfes by cry- 
ing and whittling, and when thefe good people arc 
net engaged in one of thefc exercifes, they make 
the air refound with their i'ongs, like the Jamfhics 
In the neighbourhood of Moicow. 

ON the road from Viaf'ma to Smolenfko, the 
woods and villages are fuch as we have been de- 
fcribing, except Dogorubufh, \vhich the people of the 
country call a city. This city then, lince they will 
have it fo, is built on a hill, and exhibits a group 
of churches, houfes, cottages, fields, and meadows. 
Several houfes have been built very lately at the 
Emprefs' expence. They are of brick, and covered 
with a fort of fiucco, and when compared with the 
cottages around them, look like palaces. Dcgwubufo 
was formerly a place of ftrength, and uoocl fevcral 
iieges in the war between Poland and Rirfiia. The 
remains of an old citadel are yet to be ieen, from 
which there is an exteniive proipccb of a champaign 
country, waihccl by rr.canders of the Dnieper, and 
bounded by ciiilant little hiilj. 

IF S'nolenfko is not the moll beautiful, it is cer- 
tainly the moil iingular city in Uuflia. It Hands on 
the banks of the Dnieper, in a valley between two 


h'lls. Its wal's are thirty feet high, and fifteen 
hr.oad. The lower part ci : them is of (lone, and the 
unpcr of brick, and they follovv the windings of 
the hilh;. At every corner there is a round or 
: InLv; 1 tower, of two or three floreys, much broad- 
' p man at bottom, and covered with an wood- 

:'"< _ a round form. The intervals between 
Avers are taken up with turrets, and on the 
i :de tiie wall is defended by a deep foffe, a co- 
way, a glacis, &c. Where the ground is 
L r there are al(o earthen redoubts conftruded 

lie niodern way. The cathedral is built on an 
e, .aience In the middle of the city. From the 
grcond, on which it ftands, the view is molt pictu- 
mcjuc. The city appears at a little diftance, and 
almoft un'ier the iame horizon, you fee all that the 
proipect contains, houies, Ueeples, gardens, groves, 
fields, and meadows. It is one oi thofe fcenes, 
which are feldoin to be met witn. The in oft part 
of the houies are built oi wood, anil oi one llorcy. 
1'iiey are hardly any thing but cottages' There i;; 
however a finall nuniber or Iioiiil.,, which U^ok neat- 
er, at leaft not ib poor, whicli the inli.ibit.ants of 
that country ieriouily call palacv.s. Scunc of the 
churches are built or brick and ornamented with 
ilucco. A long and broad pi\ed iireet cur^ the city 
In a ilra-glit line. The re II are in general irregular, 
and covered with planks, ihc \VL::: of the cliy ex- 



tends to the banks of the Dnieper. Beyond the ri- 
ver is a kind of fuburbs, confiding of draggling 
huts, which being joined to the city by an wooden 
bridge, alfo forms a landfcape worthy of the artids* 
pencil. It is faid that Smolenfko contains about 
four thoufand inhabitants. It has no manufaclures 5 
but it carries on fome trade with Ukraine, Dantzic, 
and Riga. It fells linen, hemp, honey, wax, lea- 
ther, hogs bridles, mads, planks, and Siberian furs. 
In the courfe of the continual wars between the 
Ruffians and Poles, Smoleniko was confidered as a 
very important place. Although its fortifications 
were, according to the fafhion of the times, only 
earthen works, foiTes, palifades, and a citadel built 
of wood, they were fufficient to fecure this city a- 
gaind the incurfions of an undifciplined force ; for 
the length of a regular fiege, would have foon dif- 
couraged troops, equally unacquainted with the 
art of forming and fupporting it. It was not till 
the fixteenth century, that the Czar Bafile Iwano- 
witfch made himfelf mafter of it by bribing the gar- 
rifon. The Ruffians kept it for about a century in 
the fame date, in which they took it. Afterwards 
its importance induced them to iurround it with a 
wall, which is dill lading. In the year 1611, the 
Poles retook it, but about the end of the century it 
fell again into the hands of the Ruffians, and has 
remained there, 



LADY, which you come to after palling Smolen- 
iko, was a frontier town before the difmemberment 
of Poland. From this town, which defervcs not 
the name, as far as Tolitzin, which is the laft vil- 
lage in KufTia, the country is unequal, and inter- 
fperfed with hills, and numerous forefts. It pro- 
duces wheat, millet, hemp, and flax. There are 
fome larger villages, in which there are fchools and 
other buildings, creeled at the Emprefs' expence, 
who extends her beneficent eye to the frontiers of 
the ftates, and is not like thofe Purblind monarchs, 
v/ho fee all their kingdom in their capital, and by 
the appearance cf it, judge of the provinces, which 
moil frequently have a very different afpscl. At 
Tolitzin too there are churches with domes, appro- 
priated to the Poliih. diffenters from the Greek form 
of wormip, and to the Ruffians, who wiih to fet- 
tle in this country, which is a part of the govern- 
ment of Mohilef. 

THE lines, which fepa-rate Ruilia from Poland, 
are drawn from the mouth of the Dwina to above 
Witeplk. Thence a line ftraight fouth to the head 
of the Drue:, near Tolitzin, thence alon^ -the Dni<~- 

C5 ' J CD 

to its junction with the Dnieper., and thence along 

the Dr.ieper till the point where it receives the Sotz, 

THIS vail territory is at prcfcnt divided into two 

Governments, I hole of Polotf:: und .'Mohilef. Its po- 

^^itiou Is ;ib rui ' '?, iniUicn f. v - hundred thcuilmd 


fouls. It produces abundance of grain, hemp, flait, 
and grafs. Its forefts furnifh a great number of 
mafts, planks, oak for the fliip building, pitch, tar, 
whereof the greateft part isfentto Riga by theDwina, 


PHILOSOPHICAL accounts of the Tartar tribes fubjccl to 
Rrtflja, but link known. The Barfchkiriam. The 
Bur a til a ns. The Cz uwachiam . The Kalui itcs. 
TheCofacs.The Morals. The Mtrdvans. T 1; 

JJ o 

Oftiacs* The Samoiedes. The Tungicfians* 

IN Italy and the countries once held by the ancient 
Greeks, where the philoibpher treads on the ruins of 
ancient cities, which arc now no more, but remind 
him of the haughty nations, who poffciled them, he 
fees nothing in nature, but decay and decripitude- 
But, if tranfported to the northern extremities of 
.Europe, lie travel over the imir.enfe frontiers of 
Rnflia. he finds nature in a ilate of infancy ; he ob- 
Jcrvcs nci.c but riling cities and nations, which have 
the manners of the men, who lived in the ilrft ages 
of the world, and like them have no wants but thole 
of tlic fir ft nccc/ilry, and know not the nvcet con- of luxury ; w]>o, like ihefe ancients, have 
no p^Gons but fucli ;is 2 rife from confutation, and 



know not even the names of fuch as criminate in de- 


praved and impure manners. 

OUR bufinefs and curiofity gave us frequent op- 
portunities of having communication with thefe 
people, and we have collected fome obfervations, u- 
pon their manners and cuftoms, which our readers 
will not per ufe without being interefted. In the 
catalogue of thefc nations, we have followed alphabe- 
tical order, tluU cur details may be more conciie and 
better arranged. 

THF. :!:/: res, more generally called Bxrftbkin- 
,f?//j , differ from wandering tribes in this , during win'- 
ter they iiv.? in hoiitcs, or huJ's, built in the Ruffian 
iai'hion. The principal parr, which the family com- 
monly poffeiles, i> furnillied with large benches, 
\vhich ferve for beds. The chimney, of a conical 
form, and of the height of an ordinary man, is in. 
the middle of this diviuon, and ib ill conftructedp 
dia'c they are very liable to fmoke ; consequently the 
Barfchkirians are very iubjecl: to various complaints 
of the eyes. 

THE principal furniture of their hut is ?. bottle of 
:-:i oblong ih.ipe, fufpenJcd nc^r the chisr.i'cy, and 
v iiited -every hour of the day, bec^uic it contains 
their favouiite drink, a mixture of f v >ur milk and 
mead, which they call Jrjan. S;) long as it Lifl^ 
they live merrily, ;ind there is nutting they will not 
do to procure it. A ilr:uinvr fmJs iorne diiEculty 

VOL, II, N n in 


m accuftominsj himfeli ; to this beverac^e. Yet wer 

o o 

have fecn Ruftlari fbldiers drink it as readily as the 
Barfchkirians. A little nicer than the foldiers, who ? 
provided they got one drink, were fathfied, we 
could net tafre it without reluctance, efpccially when 
v/o came near the bottle, which, never or very fel- 
don: being cleaned, emits a fmell difficult to be de- 

TN furnmer this people inhabit what the Ruffians 
c.ill juries. They are tents or cottages of felt, 
which, like the huts, have feveral diviiions, and a 
chimney in the centre. In the choice of a lituation. 
for a winter village, they pay more regard to fliel- 
tcr, and ncarncfs of forage for their cattle, than to 
water, becaufe they are accuftomed to the ufe of 
fnow water. A whiter village contains from ten to 
fifty huts, but the iuinmer encampment never ex- 
ceeds twenty Juries ; fo that the large winter villa- 
res are divided into fevcraJ mia!l lurnrner carnirs. 

\y A 

BOTH icxes xvear fhlrts of clotix made of nettles^ 
which have the fame il^^c. They alfb wear, with- 
cviit any diilinclion, v/idc drivers, vv'liich deicend to 
the ancle-bone, mid a lore of liinpers like people in 
t'ic c,ur. Both men and women wear a long gown. 
The men's go\vn is much larger, and generally of 
red cloth bordered with tur. They bind it round 
their middle with a girdle, or with the belt, to 



they fix their fcymitar. The poor have a 
winter pelilfe of fheepfkin, and the rich wear a 
horfelkin, ordered in fuch a way, that the mane co- 
vers their back, and ^-aves in the wind. The cap 
is of cloth, like the fruilrum-of a cone, and ten inch- 
es high. By ihe rich it h ufually ornamented with 
valuable furs. The gown of the wives is of line 
clotli or filk. It is buttoned before, as fir up as tho 
neck, and fattened by a broad girdle, which the richer 
claiies have made of !h:el. Their neck and throats 
are covered with a iort of ihav^, on which arc fever;.} 
rows of coins, or a firing of (hells. Their cap is a 
kind of monk's hoed, which would disfigure them, 
if they were not gainers by hiding themfelvcs. 
Their clrefs confiils in concealment, for which we 
thought curielres obliged to them. They all wear 
a bandeau on their forehead, to diftinguiHi them 
from girls and widows, 

TII;- Bartchkirianb are the molt negligent and Ho- 
venly of the Tartars, hi commerce tiiey are the 
leift intelligent ; bat. In return, ih:y are the moil 
hoipilable, the molt lively, and the moil brave, 
The\.' are allo the menidi, c(j>eci.;!ly if the) have no 
Uiic.ifmcfi about providing for to-moirow, and ie\v 
of theai calculate beyond thi.: term. 7vien and wo- 
liicn are paffionately tond (.1 horfes, tl;e \\-omen ci- 
;:cuulv. Tl.e moil acceptable p-\..L : nt th.;! can be 


made them, is a fine horfe-cloth. We have feer; 
forne of very valuable fur. 

TIIKIP, diverfions at any religious feftival, or at a 
marriage, confift in numerous libations of four milk, 
imging, dancing, wreftling, and horfe racing, in 
which they excel. In their fongs they enumerate 
the achievements of their anccftors, or their own, 
and fometimes their amorous torments. Thefe 
fongs are ahvays accompanied with geftures, which 
make them very theatrical. Among them, old age 
meets with the oreateft refpcct. In their entertain- 

O 4 

mcnts it occupies the place of honour, and the 
ftranger to whom compliments are paid, is always 
fet among the old men. 

ALTHOUGH the Barfchkirians, like moil; of the 
Tartars, are Mahometans ; though they have their 
, mofqucs, their molahs, and their fchoois ; they are 
not the Infr addicted to foine fupcrfutious practice^ 
originating in paganifm, or at Icafl in the ignorance 
of the time.T, when paganifm prevailed. 'Ihey have 
the:: forcevers, whole knavery can be equalled only 
by the (cupidity of thoie, who are t'ii.-ir dupes. 
They ci^tlknge the devil, aiid prc'cnd to light dt.-f- 
peratdy with iiim. If a crc-dulc/us Eaii^hkiri'in hns 
by dilcLifCj or the feverity or lh^ fc-.ifo!K loft one or 
two mares, he goes to confult the corrjuror, \\-ho 
perfaades him, that the devil h,is killed his mare-:, 
^.nd that next night he \viii go fight: liiin, and drive 


,iim from Ins lioufc. Next morning at break of 
day, the forcerer appears with fweat on his brow^ 
and all the external marks of a man, who has been 
fighting. He -affures him, for whom he has been 
lighting, that the enemy is conquered. The weak 
Tartar chips him round the neck, thanks and en- 
tertains him, pays him, and returns to bed, calm 
and fure of having no more enemies. How many 
Barfchkirians like him are to be found from pole to 

TUP: Barfchkirians have had no Kan or kincr, iince 

O * 

dicy became fubject to the Ruffians. Their nobility 
alfo, which was numerous formerly, has been almoit 
entirely deftroyed by inteftinc broils, and the wars 
hey have had with Rufiia. At prcfent, every tribe, 
M* /////!?, elects for chiefs \vithin itfdf, two or more 
old men, whom they call Sfarfchini from Starfch:ne t 
\viiich fignmes department., or dill rich The nation 
of the Barfchkirians is made up of thirty fixWoloftes, 
f which the total population is twenty eight thou- 
fmd families, or houfe.s. Their lanruaije is a Tar- 

*-J O dialect, which is very different iic/m that Ipokcu 
at !v-:il;ii. Tiic iniiitary lv.r\icc, which tiiev are 
h-ouivl to nr'rfnrn> ; ;\nd the only puint. in wliich the 
Huff; A:': yoi-:c ^a!!s them, cojifiih in furnifhing in 
w;ir times, three thouland cavalry, which form thir- 
ty troops (;{ a \hundred (.a:h, ufuully anr.rd 
^iih n bow, arrov/:-,, a l^niT. a coat of mai!, r.::u ;<, 



helmet. The greater part of them now have fabres. ? 
iufees, or piftols. There are even fome who are 
provided with thefe different arms at the fame time. 
They are well mounted, are excellent horfemen, 
and ftill better archers. A military corps belonging 
to this nation has a very fingular appearance. Eve- 
ry horfeman clrenes himfelf as he pleafes, and as he 
can. He has a led horfe, which he fpares for battle, 
and which carries his provilions, confifting of four 
milk, and dried corn, which is ground into meal, 
with hand-mills, always following the army. With 
this UKY.1 they make a ball, or bowl, which they 
fXvaltaw, arid which fcrves them for bread. Every 
troop of a hundred horfemen has a flandard of feve- 
nd colours, and thefe ftandards in the fame regi- 
ir.cnt, t:iiT:T as much from one another, as the arms 

oi the horfemen, who, on marches and battles, 

<= * 

know neither ranks nor files, and yet light not the 
v/orfr lor all this. 

TIIK Bur nil i ^ us ^ c;iik:d among thcmfelvcs Largo. 
Rurall^ but by the Rufiians Erai/hl^ poflefs the fouth 
j;art of the mountains of Irkuzk, from Jenifei to the 
frontiers of China, ;ind the banks of the Angara, of 
the Tunguika, of the Lena, the fouth bank of tlic 
Baikal, and of the Sclengi and Argun, rivers in 

THKY arc ilividcd into a grcnl number of tribes, 
c:illed K r /.l-LP.da^ \\ - hich are fubdivided into calls, or 



i.niaks) and each Aimak is compofed of a certain 
number of CboUcns, or villages, containing ten or 
twenty families. The olddl of the Chottons go- 
verns it, and fix of thefe Chottons arc liibject to :i 
Sc'/.'U/enga, or Judge, whom they choofe from among 
their chiefs; but he is confirmed in his oflice, along 
with all the chiefs of the higher order, by the go- 
vernor of the province. Twenty four Schulengas 
form a tribe, or KrAlonda, which is commanded by 
a common chief, chofen from among the families of 
their ancient princes. Ke \v, itches over the obier- 
vation cf the laws, decides and determines diiputes, 
diminiflies and augments the tribes, affcmbles and 
commands the proportion of recruits, which th^ 
nation mull furnilh in cale of war, till the time, 
that they are united to the i::a\n body oi the army, 
To give more fupport to thn chief, Catharine 11, 
has given order 5, that he fiiould \vear a girdle en; i- 
mented with filver, on which is infcribed the 
of the call he commands, and the DuraLt h.^ be- 
come proud of this decoration, wLic!. is oni)' a mark 
of his Haver}". 

Ac* ORDINO to the accounts taken r.i the year 
^7*2, tins nation ionns ilxiy live eaiis, coiitaiiun!'; 
thirty three thouiancl b.nvs, or l^eads ot i:i:iiilles, 
and as they i'pcak the Mongol language, prcuis t':e 
eligioii of tlie Kalmucs, Ladi t'le unve life, and m; 


kirians, we refer our readers to the heads, Kalmuc: 
.Mongols, and Barfchkirians, in order to avoid repe- 
tition. We fhall only mention ibine cuftoms pecu- 
liar to them. 

TiiEYjmay marry as many wives, as they are a- 
ble to pay for. Many have four or five, a number 
have only two, and the greatcft part, whether from 
poverty, affection, or conveniency, are contented 
with one. Thefe wives, be they one or many in 
one family, are in a more comfortable fituadon, 
than wives are among any other people in Siberia. 
The price of a bride is paid in cattle of different, 
kinds. A young girl, according to her beauty and 
character, may, among the rich, receive a hundred 
horfes, twenty camels, fifty horned cattle, two hun- 
dred fheep, and thirty goats. This proportion is 
not always the fame, but varies according to the 
Liws, and ibmetlmes according to circumftances. 
The nuptials are celebrated on the fame day that the 
cattle are delivered. For this purpofe they erecl a 
Jurt;: of felt, entirely new, of a white colour, and 
remarkably neat. The three firfl days are fpent in 
leading, finging, and dancing. The mufical inftru- 
ineni: uied at thefc rural balls is a guitar with t\vo 
ilringj, like that which the Ruffians call balalaika. 
The old, who are not amorous, and the rigid, who 
keep by iulc, find great fault, if the young couple 
V.ivc not wailed, till thefe three days of riot be ex- 


pircJ, for the confummation of the marriage. This 
h\v is not tmrfgr-iled, if the marriage be only a 
matter ot. convenience, I vat if the parties be fond of 
one another, and love his formed the union, they 
difol.-iige ihc oh! ;md tiie rigid the fir PC night. 

W:n x a hufband dies and leaves feveral wives, 
flie, \\ ho has born him children, or if they all have 
had children, the ohkil becomes iiiiiirds of the Jur- 
te. in the former cafe, thofe who have had no chil- 
dren., return-to their relation.} on line hones, and 
car:"'" with f eein the cioihes, and prefects, which 
th: y received from the hulband. In cafe they liave 
no j-Jacc to retire to, they continue in the jiuTe, 
fula:rv!i!iate u> the vilfe-niother, and are entitled to 
the ienth of the eat;] 1 'bind. 

by ti:e name 01 unj.n 

roulation uiuoun: 

K us. ' 

r.vitiier o v 

the ' - o chier '.'ace . ; 

it :.:: teir, te an re- 

;;0 te'' ' -h; ; , ai;vl '' 

-J ^ll-..'J Ci oivtS 


':hat Tor receives their homage, and facrifices, which' 
ion rift of black lambs, which in the lamb-feafon 
they daughter in r,s Great numbers, as their *fumah 

O * *J 

or high pricft has ordered. The Tumajki^ priefb 
fubordinate to the yiir.iah enjoy the greateft autho- 
rity among the T Irian Tartars. In difeafes, they 
are the only phyficians to whom they apply. In 
their disputes they are their only judges, and in 
their affairs they are their only counfellors. It is a 
Tu;iLi&: 9 who carries to the foreft the offering, 
v.liich liia iends to the Grand Jumak,.and 
the latter,, according to every appearance, divides 
after the facri-ice with the Yurnafki. Like the reft 
of the Tartars they abihin from hog's flefh, and re- 
frain from v/orkirig on the Friday, as the chriftian^ 
do on Sunday,, livery vcar celebrate a kind 
cFI'ailcr. of \v>;ich botfi the day and place of cele- 
bration ::.rc dern-ined only by 'the Grand Jumak. 
Kvcrv f:ur;iiv ro: airs thither in. the in oft profound 
medllav'on, carrying tb/ir laii'b, \vhich is lulled in 
the name of r V\ and after t;^: I'lrrifice it is cateri by 
thofe. v. !io l^r.TJ'.iht it. "i ]-ey all life nearly the iamc: 

oo:! and have the man- 

te .iri 

Kiumr.r:-:, v i o nre :\ brancli of the !\Iongols, 
are f-r.cii'Jly c-f mld(!ii:ig ftai nd Jiftingr.iilied 

from ,;; G V: : -.. 'ilicir c':::rac- 



; placed obliquely and defcending on the nofe, is a lit- 
tle open and full of flem ; black thin eyebrows, 
forming a very low arch ; a form of nofe quite par- 
ticular, generally flat towards the brow, high cheek 
bones, a very round head and face. Their eye- 

balls are generally of a dark brown, their lips thick 
and ilefhy, their chin is (hort, their teeth are very 
white, and continue beautiful and freih even till 
old age. In {hort their tars'are enormoufly large, 
and deta ched from their heads. By thefe accounts the 
reader may fee, that the figure of the KrJmcus bears 
a complete refemblance to that, which we have got 
detcribcd of the Chinefe, Naturalifts, who have 
examined the Kalmucs and the Mongols, hive ob- 
ferveu, tint the mixture of Ruffian and Tartar 
blood v ith lhat of th;- Kalmucs and Mongols, which 
very frequently takes place in the extenlive country 
.fituated ibuth GI the Baikal, generally produce 3 
children of the moll agreeable looks, whiift thof;! 

c) 7 

of Kalmuc or Mongol origin, are, as their figure 
'{hows, of a moil difgntting dcfoi'iiiiry. 

NATU-RE has bellowed on the Kalrnucs cue gifr, 
which they enjoy in common with many favage and 
jnfuliitCLi people, who live iblciy by hunting. Thev 
:uivc :-iu incredible acu tends c;i' jincll, which is of 
rre.u lcr\icc to thorn, by enabling them to perceive 
the fmoke of lire or of an enem}'s camp at a confi- 
dcrablc diitance, Their hearing too is very nice., 

O t ' 

(_) o i o.ri' 7 


and their fight extremely quick. By the fir ft of 
thefe two fcnfes, they c>n diftinguifh, at a great 
diftance, the noife of an enemy's horfc on march, 
and the place, \vhere they can find their ft ray- 
ed cattle. For this purpole they need only 
to ly down and apply their ears cloie to the 
ground. But the quicknefs of their fight farpaflcs 
even their hearing. At an amazing diilance thev 
perceive the fmalkft objects, and ciitinguifh the (or;: 
and number of troops., that niav be cornin^ ap-ainft 

I ' v_) O 


THE Kalmucs are aflable to all, and the mod hof- 
pitable of ail the wandering tribes, ib that a man ot 
this nation, provided with a horfe, clotlies, and 
amis, may *ro about amon^ them for tiiree \vl\o:c 

* * o *~J 

snonths, without carry i-ng witli him eiilier money 
or provifions. Wherever he goes, he is furc of find- 
ing fV'*-nds, with whom lie is connected by the 
boi.d-) of hofpitality, who c^iv 
ception, and entertain him \vit 
If, by accident, he find no i 
r,'herc he ftcpn, he goes arc! lodges ii: the ilrlt hut 
i;e meets v/itli on his read, ar.ii he has IiarJIy en- 
lered, wlien all his wants arc luppliod. Tlie itran- 
::ci-, too, who travels umorg L:ieie pcop:e, is as \vcll 
treated as if he had been l\-;rn among rliein ; but, 
:n order tc receive ( :h^ \vf;!'.:Qr.;c, he muit pur him- 


felf under the protection of a Kalmuc, and this can 
be procured- by fomc, I'm all prefents. 

Tin:; nation, fo hofpitable at home, becomes a 
nation oV rubbers, when they pa Is. into the territory 
of another ; but to the pillage they commit, they 
are more frequently igaled by motives of nation- 
al hatred than of greed, and in the execution they 
ciripicy ftratagem rather than open force.' 

THE men's dreis among the ivalmncs confifts in 
cm upper gov.-n, which dciccnds as a:, the h?m of 
the leg. it has long ilcevcs but very well fitted at 
the writes. Thele gowns are of cloth, or cotton, 
or HUM', according to the fortune of the in- 
dividual;-. The rich wear very fhort Hurts, but the 
poor put their pelhles next their (kin, and wear 
them winter and lumber. This drcfc is very difa- 
nrceable to the eye. 

BF.LECI-IES made in the form of pantaloons rire 
common, to both and v:. ;uan. The dreis of 
the latter diders from that ot UK: former, only by 
the faihion of the gov/n at the neck, and it is but- 
Coned before, irom top to borion" 1 .. ['he women al- 
i'b nut above their ::n\vn, partieularlv when tiicy gr> 
sbro^fl, a ;-:-vt of chvak, w/.i^h :> r.-v, eys of liner Huff 
ihan ihe p\.un. \Vhen they travel, and wo- 
ir; en wear this cloak above thj v.v/n and ndiile, 
erdbindi tb.e veliole with a girdle. The young wo- 


for which the drefs is a mixture of ribbands, and 
curls of hair, agreeably enough arranged. The men 
all fhave, and leave only a fmall tuft of hair on the 
crown. This cuftoin they have in common with 
the Chinefe and Tungufians. The young Kalmucs<> 
from infancy till the age of eighteen, go naked as 
far clown as the middle, but the girls are clothed 
as foon as they are ten ye^rs of age. 

THE caps of the Kalmucs have different forms, 
and there are fome, which are worn indifcriminately 
-by both fexes, and others, v/hich are appropriated 
cnly to one. Whatever the cap be, it is always c: 
yellow cloth, and ornamented on the front by feve- 
ral loops of red illk, which the young Kalmuc laffee 
place with much tafte. Thofe who cannot procure 
.loops of ink, ivpply their place with a bit of red 
cloth, or other ftuiT; but always of this colour, be- 
-cciufe it is the iign, by which thofe, who profefs the 
religion of La?r.a y are diftinguifhed, and this is thf 
-only religion in repute among thic people, and thr 


THE rnoveable .dwellings of the Kalmucs are the 
me with thofe huts of feir, which the Barfchki- 
rians ufe. as already mentioned. Tlie Kalmuc huts 
however appeared to us, to bs larger, and made 
\vith greater care. 

ALL the riches and means of, whicl: 
the Ki'lniucs have, condfc in their fiucks, whicl 

man 1 


many among them count by thoufands. Among 
'hem a man is confidered able to live on his income, 
he has ten cows and a bull, with eight mares and 
a flailion. Thefe two kinds cf animals conftitute 
the principal part of their flocks. As for camels, 
none but the wealthy, and the prieits, (who too are 
wealthy, or live as if they were io,) arc poiTeiTed of 
them. Their horfes are too wild, too i'avall, and 
too weak for drawing, but not to be ecuallcd in 

o 7 . 

fsviftnefs, and they are as hardy as fwift. Their 
hoofs are fb firm and hard, that the Kahnucs ride 
them without being obliged to ihoc them. 

THEY r.fualiy gold the colts, and when they pro- 
ceed to this operation, they Hit their noftrils, in or- 
der that they may breathe the more freely when 
they run. In no feafon of the yea* do they remove 
the ftallions from the milch- mares. Vor every ten, 
or at Icaic fifteen niarei-, tlicy keep a ftallion. TliclV. 
fl.illion-i are the leaders cf the herd, which th.y 
walk at the head of, and defend with undaunted 
courage ag.iinft wolves, and cv,: : thai: 

dares attack it. 

THE kalmuc faecp refembie rhoic nf Great Tar- 
iiry in rhc length and thickiicis of thj;. The" 
v-ield ta'lov,* cqi::\l to butter ir. iu;J 
HI iv.)iuui::. Ilie^e f;i2C',i ar^ inuch 


THE camels, as we have laid, are a mark of rich- 
es among the Kalmucs. 'Ihis animal is fo much the 
more valued, that bo fides irs utility, it multiplies 
flowly, and is fubjecf. to an infinite number of dii- 
tempers, under which it finks founer or later, bc- 
eaufe it is exti.-mely delicate. In winter, dpeci .'.by., 
the carnd hands in need of care, ami requires 10 b^ 
icrecned from hoar-froits, which prove mort-il to 
him. 1'Vu" ibis purpoie tbev cover him with j:b::c5 
of old feu, Lincl defi.nd him with thick F'at-. In 
lammer., while in ihe helds, he requires the protec- 
tion of 1m keepers., to dc-'^nd him train the attacks of 
wolves, bi-c.-iuh: in fpite ol his c:.;;r;r;ous fizc, be is 
t.:mi:i as tlu: dove, and weak as the lamb. The p-o- 
paga-'on of tliis creature, too, demands particular 
care. \VIi-:n in feaibn the f:male mu r t be forced to 

THE Kalmucs p;:t a value c.r. caniel-j v. id; two 
bunches, and think them more ufcfui, and more 
tracla'.dc, than the rcit. Tbis is prejudice in the 
jxalmucs. Both kinds are nicP. tra^able, and tr> 
d:r - a camel, notlnbig jnore ii necefbiry, thu't to 
pc-t r. cor..! round h's noie, \vhicl: wb/:i his ^uide 
V i by !ov,-crmg hi-; band, tbe camel kneebr L;> re- 
c\ ' ;c J-; 1 urdcn, and v.'hcn he vu\\> it upwards, 
tl: : came": rbes. 'Vavellers hive remarked one 


obferve fo minutely, namely, the camels with two. 
bunches have a much harder trot than the camels 
with one. 

THE Kaknucs liib the milk and wool of the camel. 
The rniik is thick, creamy and of a fait taftc, winch 
It lofcs by being boiled. It is excellent when mixed 
with coffee and tea. In cur exeurfions it was a 
treat, which we were very fond of. 

CAMEL'S hair is ufcd for the purpofe of making 
mattrclTes. excellent felt, and cloth of unequalled 
fmenefs. At Kafan \ve faw fome, which had the 
glois of fiik, and the rich pile of Satin. 

VV T H?-:N a horde or Kalmuc U/iff; change their rc~ 
fidence, \vhich in fumrner tliey do once a month, 
proper perform arc difp'Kchccl to choofe a fpot of 
-n-oii-ul. Thcie arc dlreclecl to relerve three of the 
bell (ItUAtions one for the K:r: or prince, another 
for the Lyra a or pru-ft, and a third for the huts, 
m which the idols are to be i:t, Tlie reft ot the 
ground is then divided among ihe lior.^e, according; 
to the anriq'-iity of t!-eir fTi.',l ! :c5. In this iort of 
tncampmcnts every articii :r,ufn ! : 

mel.s or ouiiocks. Inc hurdles wnlca iorm t!:c par- 
titions, and uH the app-vrjAUi oi Lac h>;t, can b: put 
into a hnaii package, and iruke up the load or one, 
fcklcm of two car-icbs.. '1 he !'d:s c( valuible furni- 
ture are covered wiih caparifor.s ot i>; f ; of dillereriC 
:o!r,ur?, and curloullly embroidered. 1'he ?.niin-.l 

Tf P P v. P : .-;-J 


tvhich carrier them, gees ?t the head of the convoy 
of c-ich indlvzdu.ii, ;ind Ins his neck ornamented 
'v";;'i a rnKi;ber of bcfih, \vbich render the march a 
Ihik noify. 1. he CCLITA;.? in ic-vens. are tied to one 
another's rails, v iih a G,i:kie iit their head. As for 
the !-u' ! --c.ks of burd.n, the Kalmucs drive them be- 
fere them. 

1:: thefe imrches, the vromcn, particularly the 
yo-jrg and ied, drefs thei^felves in their 
b-:.t c, ; ..ii!;c i >, e- fjlves carefully, ^nn charm 

vv ;--..- i.hc-v '; -.r r, r rh- f- ? ito of a vino;-/: acid, 


til it aifo, and from it make a kind of brandy, the 
life of which we \vili not prud^e them. 

ALL of them, men and women, are exceftlvely 
for.J of ic?. and finoLln^ tobacco. The lea molt in 
nic among them, is brought by the Kuilun^ from 
(Tiina, r under the name of T:;c-Tca. Of it the/ 
:-ik moil heartily, along; with camel's m:;k. !;i~ 
( .d of tea, \vhieh { very de:ir, becaufe or tiic e::- 
iii\ 7 2 carriage, the ccininoii pec^pls u'e a wild 
:nt, of nearly the fair.c cokjur and taile \\iui tea. 
I'riE Kahnucs are lc,ok...d on as c::cdi:/it iiorfe- 
j.i, ar.d nvacli loore expert tne Tartars. 
:*c v, :.;:.;-..n are equal to the men in dcxrcriry, and 
; ruhnir-g i;re bold enough t-> Jh;:ate viiii 11^1:1 
-t - prir-jn cr ;>ghifVo Their arm;:. v>hieh are or tne 
kind, eo::nir or lances, L.ov/s a:id arrov/S) 
;, a little bent, and \viih :or;^ hiiis. Ihe 
\ ; -y vife the kurore^ii arms, a; -.veil as thoie of country, and in hunting \vith as ii~.t:..ii 
ci. jrr / as any L i j;-o^e:>n. The hunting or \ : . j.'ith 
t r , ,^re fondeii:, and v/irli \vh:Ji rhey are much bet- 
1-^r acquainted than the r/, i-- laiv. ki^r. in 
xvliichj they ule iiavv'1:.^ ot the of-, and (.inner kh:;!. 
Tiih moil ufuai ruelJiod c;i huu'Jri^ ih^ \vo!f ic 
v 1::^ ib called, bunting ki;u do\i-i?, A cer;;-mi r.tvTt- 
;-jr of iv.en, riiounted. on p;ood lorils, pin-j j t'.e 
v,\;!f they have itarted, v/ith ikoi t", thi-.k \v!ji t v-, 
nd kill him v.ith tiie handle?, v. hen lie luj gi\er. 
Pp 2 " ;.:;, 


tip. The Barfchkirians have no other way of def- 
raying this animal fo formidable to their flocks. 

T HL Kalmucs fpend the moil of their time in dl- 
verfions, and however poor their manner of living 
may appear to us, k is to them the height of hap- 
ping, bccaufe they confider themfeives as happy, 
:.s^r e j confider them miferalle. They look on our 
houfes, and the palaces of the Great among us, as 
fo n;ar,y beaudful prifons, for which they entertain 
r. kind of horror, and in which they would not re- 
i:do longwitliout contracting the greateft melancholy. 

\Vn obferved vhat this people, \\hich ix^me tra- 
velers have defcrlbed as very phlegmatic, are very 
much inclined to love and *. cry prolific. The Bat- 
ch el or among rhe Kalmucs i.; only an imaginary be- 
ing, and the hut vyhich contains a barren wife, is a 
kind of phenomenon. A young girl I:, hardly mar- 
riageable, when iiie L provided with a liufband. 
and a }'oun^ widow" feared y finds time to lament 
her forrner hufband berore Hie the oiier of ano- 
ther. Thus providence;; a propcniuy to n;ar- 
ri.ige i:i a nation, which the hardihips arid fuffer- attached to human life would loon iinnilji'atCj 
if one generation did nor come af-er another in ra- 

, I c <~- 

pid and numerous iucceiuori, 


AMONG the Kalsiiv.cs, as ire TJongoIs, he 
%V;K> h tlic r.i'J.cft of a caft, and like :\ ffsvcreir^i 
rules over -5. c^rt.'ar, munbcr of prc^plc, \vli-i(Ji thcv 


call an Uktfs, bears the title of Taidfoi, and that of 
Najonn is given to his brethren and relations in the 
cnlhteral line. At his death the TaiJflx tranfmits 
his Uiuj's to his oldeft fon, and affigns a certain ter- 
ritory to his other fons, who become his vaffals, 
and the Najonn of the fir ft order exercifes an autho- 
rity like that of their father over the eftates, which 
have fallen to their {hare. In the whole Ulufs he is 
their prince, and they are his barons, but it fome- 
times happens that thefe barons banilli their princes 
2nd rule in their ftead. 

EVERY Tahi/hi^ or Nuionn, exercifes over his re- 
fpective fubjecls an unlimited power. He can, at 
his pkafure, fell them, give them away, difpofe oi 
them in his will, iniiicl on them corporal punilh- 
rnent, and even maim them. But the Najonn can- 
not put them to death, without the authority of the 
Tai-dihi, and the principal Lamas of the Uluts. 

FOP. the adminiftration of jaftice and internal po- 
iicc, evcrv I'dui;, is divided into Aiir.aks, each ot 
ilv contains fifty or ilxty families, 
'er-r.ed Sa'yariSi ( illccrs named by the 
ef-.' S-; \iIiiKj cietermine di {Terences, and 
ril ut'ions clue to the pvince. It is they 
iicin, a;yj iiuir impohtion is alvvayi; 
jcaufe they h:ive a clrasv h:ick on the 
, w'iich is allowed them in nurr.e of 
lys in rropor'.ion to the principal. 


THE Kalmucs have in their code laws bear- 
ing the ftamp of originality. Every man, furp riled 
in illicit commerce with the concubine of a prkft, is 
let off with a reprimand, and pays a goat or a kid, 
as a line, if he has been guilty of the fame of/en ce 
with the wife of a Najonn ; becaufe the law fuppo- 
fes, that a man of Common Ration would not rrj- 
furne to addrcfs a woman of rank, if ihe were not 
the fir ft to make advances. In cafe of ordinary a- 
dukery, the offender gives ,a horfe of foiir years old 
to the offended, and the unfaithful wife gives me 
or three years old to the judge. Whoever finds a 
Granger in bed with hi;-, flave, is allowed to itnp him, 
and fet him oat of his hut frark niked. Whoever 
fteals a horfe muft make refthution, but in a x iffe- 
rent proportion for uallions, mare-, and geldings. 
If the thief be not able to pay, he is ii>!d as a Have. 
The religious opinions of the Kalmucs are the Lmc 
with thoic of the Mongols, to which our rcad_rs 
are referred. 

OF the Ccfuics there arc feveral nations, wlio dif- 
fer little from one another, but the mo ft confidera- 
ble is that of the D ;?!. 'I'he ColTacs of this nation 
p-ivc out their anceilors for tiic firft, who peopled 


j&uilla. Their cour.tenaiices arc" no \v,\y di.Tcj'ent 
from thole of the Rulllan3, wru-fe l.DV;uage they 
fpeak, in all its purity. Among them the common. 
people wear a Icn^ bcird, far *.vhidi they have a 



great veneration ; the people of diftincHon cut 

it, and leave noiiiing but the whiskers. The fer- 
vants imitate people of rar.k ; but this ra^e prevails 
riot among the Collies alor.c. The pcrfons and 
drei-5 ui: tr>e C'^aes arc fiich as we have defcribed 
t.hcin in our firli vo/ume. Their women wear pan- 
taloons, eipec ; aiiy thoie of ordinary Nation. Their 
head cirefs is ridiculous, and di^iigure^ them. The 
youn:; go bareheaded, and look fo much, 
the be, On reltival days they i'urround the head 
wuli a broad bandeau, which they load v/kh toys,, 
nnti as t!-,e I'Yench macaronis formerly made them- 
fclvcs be announced at a difhmce bv the rso'.fe of 
their tr::.kjts, the Coiiac younp" vv;.>:iicri cLii^ht iu 

* i^j O 

in feruiir.rj before them the :und of the 3:x;;:ab 5 . 
with \vliich rheir heads are decked. 

THI'. Colfacs have no religion but th^ Greek. At 
marriage - :u\-.l funerals only they have fomc. particu- 
lar cuf::-tr.s, ^.vhieh their ru^ie lire and prejudices 
>i3ve rcrid:red facred. In nuirriacre, f-.T inilance, 
the bride^roo'.n cfoes to the liouie or hi.i iviendeJ 


v/ifc, rk'ir.g on *:. fine horie, all covered v/iih fiiv.ill. 

noun co to t!\c bride tr.e approach or hl:n. to whon.i 

'.''.[; to he uriired, ar.d raiie in her ibu>, t-i- 

ther tree f\vee" emotion, \vl-ich the arrival of her bc- 

Cjvc'J "vxi'ices, ci' tuit CGIC p.incTj v/ii.'.c.'.i l.icr i'e-irL 


rnuft feel, if he, \vlio is to have her, is not the ob- 
ject of her choice. After the marriage, thofe bells 
are carefully kept by the wife, who decks the nup- 
tial bed with them on feilival davs. Amon^ the 


Coffics, wives not only bring with them no portion, 
but the hufband is even obliged to furnifli them 


with a bundle of linen, of whirh the principal piece 
mint he made into a head-drefs for the marriage ce- 

THE confutation -of the Corlacs is altogether mi- 
litary, and their difpolition very warlike. In the 
iiril volume, their arms and warlike equipment 
have been described. We mall only obferve here, 
that all of them being born and trained to be fol- 
diers, the Colfics of the Don alone can fend out a 
hundred thouland infantry, and mufler, not an 
armed multitude, but a formidable body capable o 
linking terror into the bcft difciplined army by their 
way of righting. 

THE Coiiacs of the Don call their habitations Six- 
'/ut-Ziis. Thcfe were firft built by refugees from o- 
ther par's ct Ruilla, \vlio flying from an cpprefiive 
yoke, came to fettle on the banks of the Don. A- 
long tliis river there are upwards of an hundred of 
thefb Stanitzas, which arc large villages, whereof 
forne are fortified. T';e mo ft conliderable 
them is Kafanka. Ea::h Stanitza forms a parifli, 
r ihe cliurch is always in the centre, and the place, 




\vhere it is fituated, is that where the inhabitants of 
the parim aifemble to take up arms, or celebrate any 
tcftival. The houfes, which are all built of wood, 
are exceedingly neat, arid the Bog's apartment is al- 
ways! he beil iinifhed, and kept in the belt repair. 
EACH Stanitza is governed by an Ailzman, who is 
elected annually. It is an indifpenfable requifitc to 
have been born in the Stanitza, which he com- 
mands. Over the CoiLics of his diftricl he exercifes 
the function of Colonel and Judge, both in civil 
and criminal affairs. No merchants arc to be found 
even in the molt confiderable Stanitzas, becauic the 
Cofucs like valiant knights defpife commerce, and 
pride themiclves in the grofTeft ignorance. r \ heir 
priefts take good care to keep this prejudice in all its. 
vigour, becaufe they find it to be their intereft. 
They have as ftrong an averfion to agriculture as to 
commerce, fo that the lands thcv inhabit, thoucrh 

* O 

excellent, oitcn preient to view, wades to the ex- 
tent of more than fix hundred wcrus, where ab- 
folute ncceiTity alone has cleared lorne fields. And 
beiidcs, it is not the handi of the Collies, which 
have taken this trouble. It is the Maloroliaiif,, a cafe 
cf laborious people, who live among ihc Collies, 
and by their indolence. 

TSCHERKASK 15 the capital of ihe C'.jlLc.: of the 
Don, and ii:ualcd 10 as to be an important city, if 
it had citizens ii;ilc;id of ibldiers. The Colilics of 

VOL, II. C^q the 


the Jaik, no\v called the CoiTacs of Ural, have near- 
ly the fame mariners \vith thofe of the Don. They 
arc more civilized and much more induilrious, 
They r.rc besides a mixture of Kaimucs and Mongol 
Tartars, among whom the manners of thefe people 

::re more or lefs Ihaded, according to the cafts and 


'ocal circum fiances. 

MONGOLS Under this denomination is compre- 
hended a very ancient race of people in Afia, who, 
:ibout the end of the twelfth century laid the foun- 
dation of one cf the mofi powerful monarchies, that 
ever cxiitcd. They extended their conquefls over 
the creatcft part cf the ofiobe, i^ave kin^s to Perlia 

<./ i O ~ o O 

and Lmpcrors to China. The Mongols; who muft 
not be confounded with the Tartars, whom they 
rcfembb only in their paftoral life, were Tfchingis's 
companion:! in ?,rms, who ij knoxvn to Europeans 
under the name of Gc;-:?^- Kan. After the divilion 


or ddlruciion of the empire formed by Tfchingis, 
the I'Jonp;o!s were ilifperfed among different 1'artar 
c-iHo, and formed fo.'iic new calls, whence fpruncr 
tlie I 5 :u'fchl;i:-i;inj, Buratt: .ins, Kaimucs, and Tun- 

^or.ii-: hordes of Mongols, yet unmixed, ftili inha- 
l)!t the frontiers of China. They have the feature^ 
(f the ilalmucs, tl~e lame food, and ahncft ail their 
rufioir.s. T!:ey too profcfs the rciir.yion of Lanu. 
In -lie ?:'!or.^-;I !.;-,igwar;e, Lama iigr.i.'ica Prieft, and 


the head of their religion, who is faid to be alfo tl e 
object of their worfhip, is called the Dalai- Lama ; a 
name iignifying univerial prieft, or pricft of unlimi- 
ted authority. According to this definition the 

* o 

Roman Catholics are alfo of the religion of the 
Grear Lama. Their pope is a Dalai- Lama, an uni- 
verJ'il, (-rtf/jo/it prieft, whole authority has no bounds. 
On the top of a mountain, the Dalai-Lama of the 
Mongols inhabits a kind of temple, which, it is 
laid no \vcnian approaches, and of which the guard 
is cntruftcd to twenty thoufand fubikcrn Lamas j 
another refemblance of the Lama ot Rome. But 
there is one great difference between the Aliatic 
and European Lama. The former and his fubai- 
terns intcrdi iheinfelvcs only in ipiritual affairs, and 
it is an unpardonable crime for them to interfere in 
temporal matters, whereas the latter Lama and his 
inferiors, wifli to have to do with nothing but the 
temporalities. If what is faid of tlie fuperftition o; 
the I\,.s be true, they yet exceed the Catholics, 
which cne would think not eafily dene. Among 
them, that part of the Dalai- Lama, which, nature 
directs to be ufed only lor the melioration of the 
loll, is carefully collected, dried, and put into bcxcs 
of gold, or other precious material:-, and worn round 
the neck;? of the fimple Mongol, .o a pralrvaiive 
a^ainft -the natural and moral evils, which niui! inu 


manity. The Dalai-Lama, never dies, tint is, i-i* 
O n : pi ice 


place Is filled up by fome pious fraud. The Roman 
Lama dies, and his place too is filled up by a pious 
fraud, but it is notorious. 

YELLOW is the favourite colour of the Lamas, 
They {have the head and beard. Continence and 
chaftity are virtues, which their rules recommend, 
but are obferved as among; the Roman Lamas. They 


are obliged to be always praying, and they pray as 
mechanically our parifh clerks. 

" To fear God, offend nobody, and give every 
" one what belongs to him," are the three great 
precepts which the form the bafis of the doctrines 
of the Lamas. If they have no other dogmas, the 
boxes of iecretion fhould be toiled out at the win- 
dow, the Grand Lama fliould be laughed at for 
his pretended immortality, and then embraced as a 
brother for the foundnefs of his principles. Every 
honeft man ought to be of this religion. 

MORDWANS or MordiL-his Theie are a remnant 
of the Mongols, who dwell on the banks of the 
Pjana, and are diftinguilhed into two tribes, with 
whofe barbarous names we fhall not trouble our 
readers. Their manners are a little different from 
thofe of the generality of the Ruffians, and their 
drefs is like that worn by the Barfchkirians and o- 
ther Tartar tribes. The women in their drefs are 

cxceflivelv fond of finall bells, medals, branches of 


coral, and whatever can make a noife when they 


are on a march. The bands of their caps are trim- 
med with them ; their ftomachers are overloaded 
with them, and their girdles are made up of them. 
So that the preparations of a woman of this country 
for a feftival day, in its weight and the pieces of me- 
tal, which compofe it, are liker the harnefs of horfe, 
than the drefs of a woman. 

THE Morel wans are induftrious, they cultivate 
the ground, and are fonder of vegetables than of 
flefli or fifli. They arc Chriftians, at leaft fo the 
Ruffians affirm them to be. Thole, who are not, or 
ftill keep by the religious practices of their anceftors 
have no carved idols, nor intermediate divinities be- 
tween the Supreme Being and themfelves. Yet 
fuch a creed prevails among almofl all the nations 
of the world, in ipite of reafon and philofophy. 
Wifer far the Mordwans of ancient faith, who have 
neither Academy nor Lyceum, they acknowledge 
only the Being of Beings, and to IMIII alone addrefs 
their prayers. If this venerable religion really exifts 
in this nation, which we can fcarcely believe, it 
were to be wifhed they would fend miifionaries to 
the lefs enlightened quarters of the world. 

o j. 

OsriAcs Of this people and the Samoiedes "ve 
{hall lay little, as they have been fo fully cLfcribed 
by other travellers, particularly La Ilarpe. We (hull 
only obierve hero, that the Ghijcs poflcis the banks 
cf the Icnifci and Oby, and are cue of the urit Si- 


berian nations which the Ruffians fubdued. They 
are of middle ftature, and of a {lender make. Their 
complexion is livid, and their features inexpreffive 
They are dirty as hogs, cowardly as the timid dove, 
and fimple beyond what words can exprefs. They 
are much addicted to fuperftition, in which they are 
encouraged by their priefts, who give themfeives 
out for forcerers, capable of controlling the ele- 
ments, of diving into futurity, and of abfolving, by 
certain magic fpells, a man overwhelmed by iniqui- 
ties and crimes. Thefe Oftiacs, to whom nature ap- 
pears to have given only the form- of men, poflefs an 
ungrateful foil, are industrious, hofpitable, faithful to 
their engagements, and have a horror at theft. A- 
mong them the cares of the family devolve on the 
women, as does the labour of fifhing, from which 
they draw their only fupport. The drefs of both 
fexes is a kind of bag of the fkin of fiili or rein-deer 
prepared as our tanners prepare their hides. The 
women veil themfeives, and are right in doing fo. 
The Oftiacs live folely on filh, with which nature 
has ftocked their rivers in abundance, and of which 
they catch more than fufficient to f up ply their wants, 
Their utenfils, anr.s, and oils are made of the bones, 
fmews, and fat of filh. They are all pagans, and 
their worfhip correfponds with their intellectual fa- 
culties. The bear is for them the mod terrible e- 
nemv; hut his fkin is an object of adoration. Like 



the K ilmucs they have Juries, winter villages, and 

iu miner carnns. 


S.-Lwo!Ei)s They arc neighbours to the Oftiac.3, 
from whom they differ very little in manners, cui- 
toms and drefs, but much in their perfons. Their 
faces are round, and fometirnes agreeable. They 
are of a robuft conftitution, but they are lefs civi- 
lized than the Oftiacs, and are impatient under the 
yoke of the Ruffians, v/hich hangs very lightly u- 
pon them. Their women do not nib the veil, have 
no fhirts, but wear drawers both day and night, 
They are far from being beautiful, and in our opi- 
nion would he not a little improved by the nfe of 
the veil. The Samoiedcs arc as dirty ns the Oftiacs, 
and dill lefs nice in what they cat. Even an ani- 
mal in a fcate of putrefaction does not offend them, 
A Samoicde treats his wife woife than an Oftiar. 
does. The latter makes her labour, but condefcenus 
to make her a companion, whereas 'lie Samoiedc 
confidcrs her only a fervaru. Yet it ofrcn iuppcnF, 
that this wife his brought a portion, which is the 
only riches of her hulbind. It is laid, that ne\v 
married wives fomctirnes continue virgins iur a 
whole month, though lying every nig 1 :!: at the ildc 

muit be very coed, or the wives mud: pos ew 
tractions. Like the Oirhics they have forcerers, 
end tc he very kr.o'.ving. Th:le ibr;ereni 



ufe a tabor or an inftrument very like it, either to 
make his conjurations, or to affift him in the fongs, 
by which he fucceeds in turning; the heads of his 


credulous countrymen. The Samoiedes too have 
their Bog. Ihere is not a furte, where one may 
not be found, and not a feafon of the year, when 
a rein-deer is not facrificed to this fuppofed divinity. 
THE Tunvufi or Tungu/ians are another tribe of 

O */ o J 

Siberians, whom the arms of Ruflia have fubjuga- 
ted. The dtjfcrts or Si?ppss which they inhabit, ex- 
tend from well: to e:-\ft along the Jenifei, as far as the 
Lena and the river Amour. They are divided into 
the Hunting Tungufians, and the Fiihing Tungufi- 
ans. They are of Moncrol extraction, their language 

/ O *U O 

Is the fame- with that fpoken by the Burattians, 
and their features very iilre thofe of the Samoiedes. 
Their \vonjen pafs for the prcttieft in Siberia, where 
the fex is nor. ir.uch favoured by nature. Yet foms 
travellers ieen young Tungufian women, who 
might hnj pail'jd tor beauties in any quarter ot 
the world. But they mult be taksn at twenty 
vcirs of age, for the rofe fades not fooncr than the 
women of rills country. Toil, mifery and fmoke 
.r;e the. caufcs of them falling off fo early. Both 
men and women have the fvnies of hearing and fee- 
ing hi much greater perfection than the ?valinuc^, 
The Tungufians are fa'u.l to be free and open, to ab- 
hor lying, and to defplfj the oath, which the ira- 



poilor loves to make his fliield. They are fatisfied 
with the pooreft fare, and the want of food for fe- 
veral days cannot difpirit them. But they are fel- 
dom reduced to this extremity, becaufe to them 
every thing is good, as to the Oftiac, and they are 
never difgufted. Befides, along with the refources 
of fifhing, they have that of hunting, which is the 
furer to them, that the country abounds with game, 
and they are efteemed the beft archers of Siberia. 
It is faid that their courage is not inferior to their 
addrefs. Water is their only drink, and a Tungufi- 
an intoxicated is a phenomenon, in fpite of the 
ftrong liquors, for which the Ruflians have endea- 
voured to give him a tafte, They are ftill a dirtier 
fet of people than the Oiliacs and Samoiedes. They 
are fo much fo, that no idea can be attempted to be 
given of them without turning the heart of the man, 
the lead fufceptible of difguft. They are fubjecr. to 
epidemical attacks of the f in all pox, whole ravages 
are equal to thofc of .the plague. So foon as any 
perfon is attacked by this loathfome difeafe, they 
quickly fly from him, after having provided him 
with what food is necelfary. Left to nature, this 
poor man often recovers better and fooncr than if 
a hundred inoculators had attended him. The Tun- 
sjufians marry very young. Among them it is no- 
thing uncommon to fee hufbands of fifteen, and 
widows of twelve ye.irs of ago, Poligamy is allow- 
VOL, IL R r ed 


ed and practifed among them, efpecially by the rich ; 
fcr as a wife muft be bought, or procured by means 
of prefents, which comes to the fame thing, the 
poor man is contented with one wife, and lives not 
the ,lefs happy. When the parents and relations 
have agreed with regard to the reciprocal prefents, 
and conditions, the young couple are bedded toge- 
ther, without their union being preceded by any 
feaft or ceremony. Neither of thefe are ever mind- 
ed, except at taking poffeflion of the new Jurte. 

The Tungufians have a practice, which prevails in 
America, in Africa, and among many nations, of 
marking their faces with the figures of animals, and 
even trees and flowers. The operation is painful, 
but what will people not do to look beautiful ? 

THESE people wear no ihirts, their clothes are 
like thofe of the Samoiedes, but made with more 

proportion, and much more ornamented. The maoe 

is fometlung like ours. Men and women wear 
breeches ; or, to fpeak more properly, the women 
clrefs like the men, from whom they are diftinguifh- 
ed only by their neck- laces and the ornaments, with 
which they overload themfelves. 

THEIR religious opinions are as grofs as their 
manners. Their priefts, whom they call Cbamxnes, 
and who boaft of being infpired, act as intercefibrs 
with their divinities, of whom the number is confi- 
derable ; but they are all fubject to one, whom they 



adore under the name of Boa. They have the fol- 
lowing idea of Boa. He is the God of gods, dwells 
above the clouds, diftributes the various depart- 
ments in the adminiftration of the world among the 
fubaltern divinities, and watches over them. He 
knows every thing, but is very little taken up about 
individuals. He puniflies none, but does good to 
all. He is invifible, and confequently can be repre- 
fented by no image. We muft confefs this is a Boa, 
to whom a great number of Boas ought to bear re- 
fembhnce. They would then ceafe to be cruel, and 
the human race would become more happy. 





MICHAEL Fedorowitfch,_elecled Czar, ai February, i6ij,-di M 
12 July, 1645. 

Alexis Michaelowitfch, his fan,-crowned, 13 July, i6 45 ,-di, 8 Fe- 
bruary, 1676. 

Fedor Alexiowitfch, fecond fan to Alexis,-made emperor in 1676,- 
dies without iffiie in 1682. 

Ivvan and Peter Alexiowitfch, his brothers.-reign jointly till 9 Janu- 
ary, 1689, the date of Iwan's death. 

Peter I. nrnamed the Gr e at,-fucceeds,-dies, ^ January, i 7 z 5 . 

Catharine Alexiefna I. frcond wife to Peter I, fucceeds him, 29 J a - 
nuary, 1725, dies, 16 May, 1727. 

Peter II. fon to the unfortunate C.zarowitfch Alexis and Charlotte 
Chriftina Sophia of Brunfwick, fucceeds Catharine, 18 May, i 7 z 7 , 
dies of the fmall-pox, 31 January, 17^0. 

Anne Jwanowna, daughter to Iwan, brother to Peter I elefted 

i February, 1730, dies, 27 OAober, i 74O . 

Iwan III. nephew to the Emprefs Anne, grandfon to Catharine Iwan-' 
owna, by her daughter Anne of Mecklenburgh and Anthony Ulric 
of Brunfwick, fucceeds his aunt, 28 Oclober, 174, dethroned, 

6 December, 1741, murdered, 15 July, 1764. 

Elizabeth Petrowna, fecond daughter to Peter I. proclaimed Emprefs, 

7 December, 1741, dies, 5 January, 1762. 

Peter III. fon to Anne Petrowna, oldeft daughter to Peter I. married 
to Charles Frederick, Duke of Holftein-Gottorp,^.facceeds his aunt 
Elizabeth, 5 January, 1762, is depofed', dies, 15 July, fame year, 

Catharine Alexiefna II. fucceeds her hufband Peter III. whom (he 
caufes be dethroned, 9 July, 1762. She now fills the throne of the 
Ruffias. She is daughter to Chriftian Auguftus, Prince of Anhalt- 
Zerbft, and Jean Elizabeth of Holftein Eutin, filler to the late kirn* 
f Sweden. 

N. B. All the abote dates are in the Old Styb, 


Los Angeles 
I his book is DUE on the last date stamped below. 

JAN 7 iocs 

A 001452749