(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The Philosophical Transactions and Collections, to the End of the Year 1700"

This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 
to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 
publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 

We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 



at |http : //books . google . com/ 








MifJ'T0jf. 



JtS^^f^^^ 



THE 

PHILOSOPHICAL 

TRANSACTIONS 

(From the Year 1719, to the Year 1733) 
ABRIDGED, 

AND 

Difpoled undeir General Heads. 



By Mr John Eames, F. i?. S. 

AND 

John Martyn, K R. S, Profeffor of Botany 
in the Univerfity of CAMBRIDGE, 



VOL. VI. Part 11. 



Containing the Physio logical Papers. 



■LONDON: 

Printed for J. Brotherton, J. Hazard, W. Meadows, 
T.Cox, W. HiN CHLiFPE, W. Bickerton, T.Astley, 
S. Austen, L, Gillxver, and R. Willock. 1734. 







UNi .{ 

L;'....ARY 






i - 




THE 

Philofophical Tranfa^lions 

ABRIDGED. 
PART II. 

CONTAINING THE 

fhyfwlogical V A P E R S. 

CHAP. L 

Physiology^ Meteorology, Pnevmatics. 



I H E Account we have of the Univerfal Delu^ 
is no where fo exprefs as in the Holy Scrip 
tures \ and the exa£b Circumftances as to point 
of Time, do fliew that fome Records had been 
kept thereof tnore particularly than is wont in 
thofe things derived from remote Tradition, 
wherein the Hiftorical Minutia are loft by length 
of Time. But the fame feem much too imperfe^^ to be the Refult of 
a full Revelation from the Author of this dreadful Execution upon 
Mahkind, who would have fpoken more amply as to the Manner there- 
of, had He thought fit to lay open the Secrets of Nature to tho fuc- 
ceeding Race of Men; and I doubt not but to all that coafider the 
7th Chapter of Gemfis impartially, it will pafs for the Reoiains of a 
much fuller Account of the Fhod left by the Patriarch? to their Po- 
fterity, and derived' from the Rebtion of l^^b and hh Sons, Ic muft 
^ VOL. VI. Partii. . ' ^ A be 




Somi Conjidei 
rations about 
the Caufi of 
the VnivirJAt 
Delugey laid 
before the Roy^ 
al Society, en 
the iztb of 
Dec. 1694. 
kyDr Ed- 
xnond Hallcy,' 
J^,^.5. No. 
383. p. 118. 



be granted, chat there are ibme Difficulties as to the Conftru^lion of 
the Arky the Reception and Agreement of the Animals among them^ 
felves, and Prefcrvation of it in fo immenfe and boundlefs an Ocean^ 
during thsxlVind which God fent to dry the Waters, away^ efpecially 
when it firft came on Ground : But it muft alfo be allowed, that lengtO: 
of Time may have added, as well as taken away many notable Cir* 
cumftances, as in roofl: other Ca&softhe Story o£ remote Times and: 
Actions. 
Certainty of xhis we may, however, be fully affured of, th^ fuch a Ddugeha*^ 
^nUmver^al \y^^^.^ ^j^^ ^y the many Signs of marine B^dips found far from and a^ 
'^^^ bove the Sea, 'tis evident,, that thofe Parts have been once under Wa- 

ter : or,, either that the Sea has rifen to them, or they have been raifed 
from the Sea ;, to explicate either of which is a Matter of no fmall! 
Difficulty^ not does the iacred Scripture afford any Light thereto. All: 
that it fays to help us is^ that all the Fountain^ of the great Deep», 
7n> carrn were burft,, or broken up ; that the Windows, or Ca- 
tarads, of Heaven where opened, and that it rained incefiantly forty 
Bays and Nights. Now the Rain of forty Days and Nights will b«- 
found to be a very fmall Part of the Caufe of fuch a Deluge ; for fup* 
pofing itto rain all over the Globe as much in each Day, as it is now 
found to do in one of die moft rainy Counties of En^nd in^the whole 
Year, viz., about for^ Inches of Water per Diemv forty fuch Days^. 
could cover the whole rlarth.with but about twenty two. Fathom Wa« 
,ter, which would only drown the low Lands next the Sea, but the 
much greater Part would efcape. What is meant by the Fountains of 
ilkt/7.. the Ab-jfs being broken up,, and. the opening of the Windows of Hea- 
ven, ieems notfo eafy to be underftood, but is intended to indicate 
the Modus of the Deluge,, which was, according to the Mofak Pbib^ 
fopbyj from the letting in of the Waters above the Firmament, men- 
tioned Genefisu 7. by the Windows of Heaven j and the rifingup 
out of the Ground of the Waters, under the Earth, fpoken of in the 
fecond Commandment: Or, (if you will underftand that by the 
^y 0>nri is meant the great Ocean ) by the overflowing of the Sea< 
ri(ing upon the Land^. which is txprefs'd by the breaking up of the 
Fountains of the great Deep. So diat we may reafoaably conclude, 
that by the one of thofe E^Kpreffions h meant an extraordinary Fall of 
Waters from t-he Heavens, not as Rain, but in one great Body ^. 
ms if the Firmament, fuppofed by Mofes to fuftanb z.Suprihai'rial Sea^^ 
had been broken in, and at the&me Time the Ocean did flow in tip*, 
en the Land, fo>as to cover all with Water* 

By an extraordinary Encreafe of the Waters this could not be effe&« 
ed, for that at this Time there is not Water fuffietent of itielf to cover 
any more of the Earth than now it doth ; and to fuppofe a Creation 
■and Annihilation of Water on purpofc to deftfoji the Earth, is by 
much the moft difficult HypotJiefis that oat be thought of to tSh^ 
tr. A change of the Ctnter of Grmty^ «boitt yriakh Center the Seau 

" " k 



CimJ^dfrathns en the ۤufe of the Vmvtrfat ^ihgT. | 

Is formed, feemed not an improbable Conjedurc» till k aopeared that 
ihis Center of Gravity was the neccflary Rcf^lt of the MatcriaUof 
which our Globe copfifts, and not alterable whilft the Part$ thereof 
remained in the fame Pofition ; And befides this Suppofition could 
Dot drown the whole Globe, but only that Fart thereof towards which 
the Center of Gravity was tranflaced, leaving the other Hemifpherc 
all dry. 

I (hall fay nothing of Dr Burnetts Hypothefis, nor of the many 
InfufEciencies thereof, asjarringasmuch with the Phyfical Principles 
«f Nature, as with the Holy Scriptures, which he has undertaken to 
reconcile. Dr/aTi^^/^'s Solution of this Problem, as he has not fully 
difcovered himfelf, I cannot underuke to judge of; but his Com* 
prefllon of a Shell of Earth into a prolate Spheroid^ thereby pre fling 
out the Waters of an Abyfs under the Earth, may very well account 
for drowning two extream oppofite Zones of the Globe : but the mid- 
dle Zone, being by much the greater Part of the Earth's Surface^ 
moft by this means be raifed higher from the Center, and confequent^ 
]y arife more out of the Water than before; and befides, fuch a Sup- 
pofition cannot well be accounted for from Phyfical Caufes, but re* 
quire a preternatural Jigitus DH^ both to comprefs^ and afcewards rc« 
fiore the Figure c^the Globe. 

• But the Almi^ty generally making ufe of Natural Means to bring 
ftbout his Will, 1 thought it not amifs to give this Honourable Society 
an Account of fome Thoughts that occurred to me on this Subjed i 
wherein, if I err, Ifhall find myfelf in very good Company. 

In Num. 190. of thefeTranfadlions. I havepropofed thecafual Cboc cboe9f4 Cft 
t>fa Cornet^ or other tranfient Body, as an Expedient to change inftant- 11^- 
ly the Poles and Diurnal Rotation of the Globe; at that Time only 
aiming to fhew how the ^A^Vof the Earth being changed, would occa- 
fion the Sea to recede from thpfe Parts towards which the Poles did 
approach, . and to encreafe upon and overflow thofe Parts wherefrom 
the Poles were departed ; but at that Time I did not confider the great 
Agitation fuch a tboc muft neceflarily occafion in the Sea, fufficient to 
amwerforall thofe firange Appearances of heaping .vaft Quantities of 
Earth and high Cliffs upon Beds of Shells, which once were the Bottom 
of the Sea ; and raifing up Mountains where none were before, mix* 
ingthe Elements into fuch a Heap as the Poets defcribe the old Chaos \ 
for iv^z Choc impelling the folid Parts would occafion the Waters, 
and all fluid Sul^ances that were unconfined, as the Sea is, with one 
Impetus to run violently towards that Part of the Globe were the Blow 
was received ; and that with Force fufficient to rake with it the whole 
Bottom of the Ocean, and to carry it upon the Land ; heaping up in« 
to Mountains thofe earthy Parts it had born away with it,^ in thofe 
Places where the oppofite Waves balance each other, mifcens ima fum^ 
WW, which may account for thofe long continued Ridges of Moun- 
uins. And again, the Recoil of this Heap of Waters would return 
' A 2 ^ towards 



4 Conjiderations tm the Caufe $f the Univerjal deluge. 

towards the oppofice Parts of the Earth, withalefler Impetus than the 
firft, and fo reciprocating many times, would at laft come to< fettle 
in fuch a Manner as we now obferve in the Strufkure of the fuper« 
ficial Parts of the Globe. 

In this Cafe it will be much more difficult to (hew how Uoah and 
the Animals fhould be preferved, than that all things in which was the 
Breath of Life» ihould hereby be deftroyed. Such a Cboc would aU 
fo occadon a differing Length of the Day and Year, and change the 
Axis of the Globe, according to the Obliqity of the Incidence of the 
Stroak, and the Diredion thereof, in relation to the former Axis^ 
That fome fuch thing has happened, may be guefled, for that the 
Earth feems as if it were new made out of the Ruins of an old World, 
wherein appear fuch Animal Bodies as were before the Deluge, but 
by their own Nature and Defences from the Weather, have endured 
ever fince, either petrified, or elfe tntirtin ftatu naturali. Such a Cboe 
may have occafioned that vaft Deprefflon of the Cafpian Sea^j ando* 
ther great Lakes in the Work! ; and 'tis not unlikely, but that ex* 
f ream Cold felt in the North- Weft of Afnerica^ aboAit Hudfon*%-Bay^ 
may be occafioned by thofe Parts of the World having once beea 
much more Northerly, or nearer the Pole than now they are ; where- 
by there are immenfe Quantities of Ice yet unthawM in thofe Parts^ 
which chin the Air to that degree, that the Sun's Warmth feems hard- 
Iv to be feh there, and of which the Poet might juftly fay, Frigusiners 
illic habitat paUorque tremorque — Ac jejuna fames. 
Somt farther 2. 1 have been advifed unce the laft Day, by a Perfon whofe Judg>- 
^IJamesS! ^^^ ' '^^^^ 8^^^ Reafon to rcfpeft, that what I then advanced, 
jeai delivered ought rather to be underftood of thofe Changes which might have 
fiHtbe igtb of happened to the Earth in Times before the Creation, and which m^t 
^taJ^\ poflibly have reduced a former World to 9 Chaos^ out of whofe Ruins 
Jhm li\± ^^^ prefent might be formed, than ctf the Deluge whereby Mankind 
f. 123. was in a manner extinguilhed about 4000 Years fmce; that being 
much more gradually brought to pafs, and with fome Circumftances 
that this Hypothefis cannot admit of, which abler Pens, perhaps, 
may account for : What I have advanced, I defire may be takea 
for no more than the Contemplation of the EfFefts of fuch a Choc as 
might poflibly, and not improbably, have befallen this Lump of 
Earth and Water in Times whereof we have no manner of Tradition^ 
as being before the firft Produflion of Man, and therefore not to be 
known but by Revelation, or elfe a pojieriori by Indudion from a con- 
venient Number of Experiments or Obfervations, arguing fuch an 
Agitation once, or oftner, to have befallen the Materials of this 
Globe. And perhaps in due Periods of Time, fuch a Cataftrophe 
may not be unneccflary for the well-being of the future World ;. to 
bury deep from the Surface thofe Parts, which by length of time arc 
indurated into ftony Subftances, and become unapt for vegetable Pro- 
iludion, by which all Animak are eithev immediately or mediately 

iuft^eo. 



I 



The Caufe dfCoheJton ff the Tarts bf Matter] j 

ibftained: the ponderous Matter in fuch a Mixture fubfiding iirft, and 
the l^hter and finer Mould remaining for the latter Settling, to inveft 
die exterior Surface of the New World. This may^ perhaps, be 
thought bard, to deftroy the whole Race for the Benefit of thofe that 
are to fucceed But if we confider Death fimply, and how that the 
Life of each Individual is but of a very fmall Duration, it will be 
found chat as to thofe diat die, it is indifferent whether they die in a 
Peftilence out of looooo^^ Ann. ox ordinarily out of 25000 in this 
great Ctty, the Peftilence only appearing terrible to thofe thatfurvive 
CO contemplate the Danger they have elcaped. Befide$» as Seneca^ has 

Vitm ejlavidus quifquis nonvnlt 
Mu$ido fecum fercunte moru. 

. N, B. ^e foregoing Papers having Been readhefore the Society thirty Tears 
fincej were, then depoftted by the Author in their Archives^ and not pub^ 
UJhed \ he being finfible that he might have adventured ultra crepidam r 
und apprebenfiue leafi by fome unguarded Exprejfwn he might incur the 
Cenfure of the Sacred Order. Nor had they now been printed but at the 
Defire of a late Committee of the Society ^ who were pleafedto think them not 
unworthy oft be Prefu 

Here the Reader is deftred to obferve^ that Mr William Whifton's 
Book^ entituledj A New Theory of the Earth, was not publifhed till a^ 
lout a Tear and a half after the I>(^e hereof^ and was not prefented before 
June 24, 1696. to the Royal Society. 

II. ^eryl. Does not the firong Cohefion of two Balls of Lead ^ueru^s con^ 
prove the Doftrine of Attraftion, worthy its great Author, Sir Ifaae cerning the 
Newton yzndi that there is an univcrfal Attraftion between the Parts f /^^^^' 
of Matter in Nature, though fbme at fuch fmalL Diftanccs as to efcape p-^^^, ofmu 
our Obfervations, fince we cannot make their Parts touch one ano- uvy by Fr. 
thcr clofe enough, fo as to come within their Sphere of AAivity ? TricwaW, 
Which I prefume to be the Reafon why I never have been able to ?/''Cf ^'^ ^( . 
make Balls of any other Metals to cohere: Nor do I befieve that the thl^ing^^^^ 
Parts of any other Metal can come to fuch a clofe Contadt, except of Swcdea. 
by Fufion, as the Particles of Lead may, by being fo many Degrees N<>. 408. ^ 
Ibftcr than thofe of any other Metal. 39* 

Siuery 11. I have often fo6nd the touching Surfaces of fuch Leaden 
Balls, as near as I could meafure, much alike; yet the Force of Co- 
hefion very different: Nay, I have found the touching Surfaces very 
linall, yet fometimes 1 1 4 to. 1 26 ife Weight has not been fufficient to 
feparate them ; when- at other times a far lefs Weight (though the 
. Mcafiire of touching Surfaces far exceeded thofe mentioned) was more 
than fufficient to caufe their Separation. Does it not prove that the 
Cohefion is ftrongeft according to the clofenefs of the Contadb, but 
Aot as. the touching Surfaces? For which Reafon I always have foundi 

thft 



Thf Caufe ofOhefion of the Vartnf Mstter 

the Cohefion ftrongeft, when i gave a little cwift in joining thenji 
fince by this Means the Particles muft come clofer together, than by 
fqueezing the Balls barely on one another, diough it was done with % 
far greater Force than I codd apply with my bare Hands. And fince 
the Force, Twifl:, and touching Surfaces can never be alike and 
menfurable when joined by Hand, I think it will be very difficult, if 
not impoflible, to afcertain the Forces of this Cohefion, which ig in^ 
credible, and far exceeds Magnetical Attra&ions. 

That the Prefiure of the Atmofphere contributes little, and next 
to nothing in this Cohefion, I have fully proved and experienced laft 
Winter, before a great and noble Affemblyi The Cohefion of tw» 
JLeaden Balls, which 126 lb could iiot feparate, proved as ftrong in 
Vacuo J as in the open Air. 

^erj III. Does not this Experiment fairly account for the Cohe<** 
fion of the Parts of Matter; and that this firm Cohefion cannot be de- 
rived from any Glue or Cement, any imaginary Hooks and FuniculuSy 
^or de gravitate JEtberis: but that the Particles of all folid and fluid 
Bodies do attraft one another by a certain Force (whatever be the Caufe 
of the fame) which a£ts mofl: intenfely the nearer they touch one a* 
xiothcn 

lam confirmed in this Opinion by an Experiment I made this Sum- 
mer at Bannemora^ one of the moft confiderable Iron Mines, and 
where I have eredbed the firft and largeft Fire- Engine for drawing 
Water and Oar in this Kingdom ; the Cylinder being two Lines more 
<han thirty-fix Inches in Diameter. 

Our Dablkarlians have. Time out of Mind, praAifed the faid Ex- 
periment, when they have had Occafion to remove any unweildly 
Stones of the hardeft Rocks, and fo big as not to be moved intire by 
any Strength they could apply. They praftife the following Means, 
not only to cleave and fplit them in as many Parts and Pieces as they 
pleafe, but to obtain Stones with one or more fmooth Sides, fit for 
Ufe in Buildings. 

They take Tallow, Greefe, Train Oil, or any other fat Subftan- 
ces, and draw Lines on fuch large Stones, according as they would 
have them fplit, and think proper ; then they lay either Charcoal or 
Wood at Top, and round the Sides of the Stone, fo that it is all over 
covered, and then kindle the Fuel ; which when burned out, they 
find the Stone divided according to the Lines they have drawn on it, 
with fome of the before- mentioned fat Subftances, which feldom or 
never fails. 

May one not account for this odd Pbcenomenon thus? That as the 
Aftion of Heat and Fire expands the Parts of all hard and folid Bo- 
dies and Metals themfelves, fo when the Aftion of the Fire about the 
Stone has made the Particles of the fame recede farther from one a- 
nochcr, than when in their natural State, the oily Subftances infinuate 

thcmfclvcs 



Knut EleHrical Expiritnents. f 

tliemfclves more and more between the Particles of the Stone 5 by 
which Means, when the Stone cools again, and fhrinks, they lecm to 
prevent thefc Particles from coming as dofe, and within their Sphere 
of A<Stivity, as the remaining Particles may, where no fuch foreiga 
Matter has been applied Su by which. Means they alfo cannot actradt 
one another fo Ilrongly as the refi:, and muft therefore remain fepa* 
tated. 

Fat and oily Subftances feem to be moil fit for this Purpofe, fmce 
they are endued with, a repelling Force. 

I cannot but admire, that notwithftanding fa many, Phcsnomena. itk* 
Nature prove a Tendency and a ftrong mutual Attraftion of the Parts 
of Matter, whatever be the Caufe, yet moft learned Men, of feveral 
Nations, would rather charge fuch manifeft Qualities and Operations, 
of Nature with, the Nick-Name of occult Qualities,, than give the 
Honour to the great Difcover€r\wbo is no more) of thofe manifieft Qua- 
lities and Principles of Motion. However, I am confident, that as 
Nature is very uniform and agreeable to herfelf,. fhe will evince the 
Truth of her Operations. 

IIL I. Having often, obferved in the Electrical Experiments made Ntw Ekari- 
with a glafs Tube, and a down Feather tied to the end of a fmall ^^^ ^^^^' 
Sdck^ that after it's Fibres had been drawn towards the Tube, when M^Stcphen 
ifaat hat been withdrawn^ mod of them would be drawn to the Stick, Gray, No 
as if it had been an Ele&rick Body, or as if there had been fome £- 366U p, 104. 
k&ricity communicated to the Stick or Feather ; this put me upon. 
thinking, whether if a Feather were drawn thro* my Fingers, it might 
not produce the fame effeA, by acquiring fome degree of Eledlricicy. 
This fucceeded accordingly upon my firft trial, the fmall downy 
Fibres of the Feather next the Quill being drawn by my Finger when 
held near it: and fometimes the upper part of the Feather, with it's 
Stem, would be attracted alfo \ but not always with the fame Succefs.. 
I then, proceeded to try whether Hair might not have the fame pro* 
perty, by takiog one from my Wig, and drawing it 3 or 4 times 
throogh.fsy Fingers, or rather between my Thumb and Forefinger, 
and foon found it would come to my Finger at the diftance of half an 
inch ; and fijon after I found that the fine Hair of a Dog's Ear was 
ftrongly Eleftrical; for upon taking the Ear and drawing it thro' my 
Fingers; great numbers of them would be attra6ted to my Fingers at 
once. The next thing which I thought of, was threads of Silk of 
feveral Colours, and of feveral fineneffes, which I found to ba all Eledrii^ 
oaJ, but femietisDes I could not fucceed; the reafon of which I after- 
wards found, as will appear in the fequel of this Drfcourfe. 

Having fucceeded fo well in thefe, I proceeded to larger quantities of 
rive fame Materials, as pieces of Ribband both of coarfe and fine Silk. 
of feveral colours, and round that by taking a piece of either of thefe 
of abeut.half a yard long,, and by holding the end in one haod, and^ 

drawing;. 



New Ele^rtcal Experimentf. 

drawing it thro* my other Hand between my Thumb and FlngerffJ 
it would acquire an Elcftricity, fo that if the Hand were held near 
the lower end of it, it would be attrafted by it at the diftance of 5 or 
6 Inches ; but at fome times the Eleftricity would be much weaker than 
at others, the reafon of which I conjeftured to be, that the Ribband 
might have imbib'd fome aqueous Particles from the moift Air, which 
I found to be upon trial the occafion of it ; for when I had well warm- 
ed the Ribband by the Fire, it never failed to be ftrongly Eleftrical. 

After this I made trial of feveral other Bodies, as Linnen of feveral 
forts, viz. Holland, Muflin, ^c. And Woollen, as of feveral fcM-ts 
of Cloth and other Stuffs of the fame Materials. From thefe I pro- 
ceeded to Paper, both white and brown, finding them, after they 
had been^ well heated before rubbing, to emit copioufly their Elec- 
tric Effluvia. The next Body in which I found the fame Property, 
was thin Shavings of Wood; I have only as yet tried the firft Shavings, 
which are ftrongly Eledtrical. The three laft fubftances which I found 
to have the fame property, are Leather, Parchment, and thofc thia 
Guts wherein Leaf- Gold is beaten. 

All thefe Bodies will not only by their Eleftricity be drawn to the 
Hand, or any other folid Body that is near them; but they will, a$ 
other EleArick Bodies do, draw all fmall Bodies to them, and that 
to the diftance of fometimesS or 10 Inches. Heatbg them by the 
Fire before rubbing very much increafes their Force. There is another 
property in fome of thefe bodies, which is common to Glafs, that when 
they are rubbed in the dark, there is a Light follows the Fingers 
through which they are drawn, this holds both in Silk and Linnen, 
but is ftrongeft in Pieces of white prefling Papers, which are much the 
fame with Card- Paper ; this not only yields a Light as above, but when 
the Fingers are held near it, there proceeds a Light from them with a 
crackling Noife, like that produced by a Glafs Tube, though not at fo 
great a diftance from the Fingers; to perform this, the Paper before 
rubbing muft be heated as hot as the Fingers can well bean 

A Down Feather being tied to the end of a fine Thread of raw Silk, 
and the other end to a fmall ftick, which was fixed to a Foot, that ic 
might ftand Dpright on the Table; there was taken a piece of brown 
Paper, which by the abovementioned Method was made to be ftrongly 
Eleftrical, which being held near the Feather, it came to the Paper^ 
and I carried it with the fame till it came near the Perpendicular ot the 
Stick ; then lifting up my Hand till the Paper was got beyond the 
Feather, the Thread was extended and ftood upright in the Air, as 
if it had been a piece of Wire, tho* the Feather was diftant from the 
Paper near an Inch. If the Finger were held near the Feather in this 
Pofition, the grcareft part of the Fibres next the Paper would be 
repelled, when at the fame time if a Finger were held to the Fibres 
that were more remote from thePaper, they would be drawn by it. 

I then 



M&re Eicperiaeuts vmcermpg EleHricitjil f 

1 then repeated this Experiment without the Feather, viz. by a 
litigle thread of Silk only of about 5 or 6 Inches long, which was 
made to ftand extended upright as abovementioned, without touch* 
ing the Paper 5 then placing my Finger near the end, it would avoids 
or was repelled by it, but when I had placed my Finger at about the 
fame diftaticd from > part of the Thread, that was about' two Inches 
from the end, it was then attraftcd by it. 

An Enumeration of the feveral Bodies mentioned herein, that are 
found to be Electrical. 

1. Feathers, 2. Hair, 3. Silk, 4. Linnen, 5. Woollen, 6. Paper, 
7. Leather, 8. Wood, 9. Parchment, 10. Ox-guts, wherein Leaf- 
Gold is beaten. 

2. In Febuary 1725, 1 repeated fome of the Experiments I had for- ji/,^^ Expfri- 
merly made, m the fitft Difcovery of an Eleftrical Attraflion in m^-, ments concern- 
ny Bodies, not before known to have that Property, I made feveral ^^s Eleftrici. 
Attempts on the Metals, to fee whether they might not be made at- §^^5 hcn^Grar. 
tradive by the fame Method as other Bodies were, viz. by heating,, ^o 41^7. p, i$! 
rubbing and hammering, but without any Succefs : I then refolved to: 
procure me a large Flint-Glafs Tube, to fee If I could make any far- 
ther Difcovery with it, having called to Mind a Sufpicion which fome 

Years ago I had, that as the Tube communicated a Light to Bodies, 
when it was rubbed in the Dark, whether it might not at the fame 
Time communicate an Eledkricity to them, though I never till now' 
tried the Experiment, not imagining the Tube could havQ fo great; 
and wonderful an Influence, as to caufe them to attraft with fo much 
Force, or that the Attradtion would be carried to fuch prodigious 
Diftances, as will be found in the Sequel of this Difcourfe. 

Before I proceed to the Experiments, it may be neceflary to give a 
Defcription of the Tube: It's Length is three Feet five Inches,* and 
near one Inch two Tenths in Diameter: I give the mean Dimenfions, 
the Tube being lal;gei: at each End than in the Middle, the Bore a*, 
bout one Inch. To each End I fitted a Cork, to keep the Duft out 
when the Tube was not in ufe. 

The firft Experiment I made, was to fee if I could find any Diffe- 
rence in it's AttraAion, when the Tube was (lopped at both Ends by the 
Corfcs, or when left open, but could perceive no fenfible DifFererice; 
but upon holding a Down-Feather over againft the upper End of the . 
Tube, I found that it would go to the Cork, being attrafted and re- • 
pelled by it, as by the Tube when k had been excited by rubbing. I ^ 
then held the Feather over againft the' flat End of the Cork, which. 
attradbed and repelled many Times. together; atjwhichlwas much 
iurprizecl, and concluded that there was certaihly an attraftive Virtue- 
communicated to the Cork by the excited Tube. 

I fixed an Ivory Ball of about one Inch three Tenths Diameter, 
with a Hole through it, upon a Fir Stick about^four. Inches long, 
thnifting the other End into the Cork, and upon rqbbing the Tpo^^, 

B ' ^ foiind^ 



Id Mtne Experiments concerning Eleffricitf. 

found that the Ball attrafted and repelled the Feather with mort 
Vigour than the Cork had done, repeating its Attractions and Repul* 
fions for many Times together: I then fixed the Ball on longo^ Sticks^ 
firft upon one of eight Inches, and afterwards upon one of twenty- four 
Inches long, and found the EfFeft the fame. Then I made ufc 
firft of Iron, and then Brafs Wire, to fix the Ball on, inferting the o- 
therEnd of the Wire in the Cork, as before, and foMnd thattfce At- 
tra6Hon was the fame as when the Fir-Sticks were made ufe of, and 
that when the Feather was heki over againft any Part of the Wire, 
it was attrafted by it ; but though it was then nearer the Tube, yet 
its Attraftion wa-s not fo ftrong as that oPthe Ball. When the Wire 
of two or three Feet long was ufed, its Vibrations caufed by rubbing 
the Tube, made it Tome what troublefome to be n^anaged : This put 
me upon thinking, whether if the Ball was hung by a Packthread^ 
and fufpended by a Loop on the Tube, the Elcdricity would not be 
carried down the Line to the £^11: I found it to fucceed accordingly ; 
for upon fufpending the Ball on the Tube by a Packthread about three 
Feet long, when the Tube had been excited by rubbing, the Ivory 
Ball attracted and repelled the Leaf-B^rafs, over which it was held, as 
freely as it had done, when it was lufpended on Sticks or Wire ; as did 
alfo a Ball of Cork, and another of Lead that weighed one Pound 
and a quarter. 

After I had found that the feveral Bodies abovementioned had aa 
Ele(Stricity communicated to them, I then went on tp fee upon what 
other Bodies the Tube would have the fame ESeA, beginning with 
the Metals, fufpending them on the Tube by the Methoa abovemen- 
tioned; firft in fmall Pieces, as with a Guinea, a Shilling, a Half- 
penny, a Piece of Block- Tin, a Piece of Lead i then with larger 
Quantities of Metal, fufpending them on the Tube by • Packthread.' 
Here I made ufe of a Fire-Shovel, Tongs, andiron Poker, a Copper 
Tea-Ketde, which fuccecded the fajme, whether emoty^ ^r full of 
cither cold or hot Water ; a Silver Pint Pot.j all whicn were ftrongly 
Eledrical, a<ttra6bijig the Leaf-Bra{s to the Height of feveral Inches. 
After I had. found that the Metols were Uiufi Zledbrijcal, J went on to 
make Trials on other Bodies, as Flint-Stone, Sarid-Stont, Load-Snine, 
Bricks, Tiles, Chalk % and then on feveral Vegetable Subilances, as 
well green as dry, and found that they had all of them an £le(^ic 
Virtue communicated to them, either by being fufi>ended on the 
Tube by a Line, or fixed on the. End of it by the Method above- 
mentioned. 

1 next, proceeded to! try at what greater Diftances- the Eleiflric 
Virtue might be carried, and having by me Part of a hoUow walking 
Cane, whSch I fuppofe was Part of a Fitbing-Rod, two Feet fcvcn 
Inches long y I cuwthe great End of it^ to fit it into the Bore of the 
Tube, into which it w^flt about five Inches; then when the Caxic was 
put into the Bad of the Tube, and this ezcited> the Cane drew the 

Lea£ 



M4re Eseperimentf CMciming EhElricitf. i i 

XiCaf-Braft to the Height of more than two Inches, ts did alHb the Ivory 
Ba}I» when by a Cork and Stick it had been fixed to the End of cha 
Cane* A fotid Cade had the iame £ffc<%» when inferted in the. Tube 
after diB fiiHie Adamier as the hollow, one had been, i then took the 
two upper Joints of a large Fifhing-Rod, the one of Spanijh Cane, the 
other partly Wood aod the upper End Whale-bone, which, together 
with the Tube, made a Length of noore than fourteen Feet. Upon 
the kfler End of the Whale- bone was fixed a Bail of Cork of about an 
Inch and quarter Diameter; then the great End of the Rod being in^ 
fenedm die T^ibd, the Leaf-Brxfs iaid on the Table, and the Tube 
escrced,: dre Ball actraAed the Lea£^Brais to the freight of about three 
bcbel by Eftimation^ With feveral Pieces of Spanijb Cane and Fir- 
Sticks I afterwards made a Rod, whkh together with the Tube, was 
fooiewhat tMrt than eighteen Feet long, which was the greatefi: 
Lcngdi I could conteniemly nfe in my Clianjber, and found the At« 
tradk>n ^ery iiiearly^ ifnotahog^chergsftrong, a$wben the Ball was 
placed im ihorter Rods* 

Afay 14 1729, between fix and feven o*C)ock in the Evening. Ha* 
vii^ provided a Rod of abo^^twenty four Feet, that confifted of a Fir- 
Pole, of Cane, and che Top of Reed, upon the End of which the 
Ball of Cork w;s(a fiac^ and the gt^eat.End of the Rod put if»to ch& 
Tube about feven or eight Inches; then the Leaf-Bfafs being laiA 
down, and the Tobe rubbed, the Ball iterated and repelled the 
Leaf-Brals with Vigour ; fo that it was not at all to be doubted, but 
with a k>ager Pole the Eteftricrty would have been carried much far- 
ther. . , r . , . 

Maftiat r6th> I made a Rod thirty-f^*o Feet long, Jncldding the 
Tube; the bigger Part of it was a Fir-Stafi^dbotit fix Feet AnA a hal'f 
tetf^, the r^ was of Cane, and Reed for the top Part of it: AD 
Things being prepared, as before, the EfieA wad the fame as in this 
laft Experiment, only the Pole bending fo much, and vibrating by 
rubbing the Tube,- made it more troublefome to maftage theExperi- 
menr. Thkl pattM up6n making the fallowing Experiments. 
• Aiay the i9tfc, about fix in the Morning, the Ivory Ball being fuf- 
pended on the Tube, by a Line of Packthread twenty- fix Feet long,- 
which was the Height, I ftood at in the Balcony, from the Court where 
he ftood, that held the Board with the Leaf.Brafs on it ; then the 
Tub* bein^ r^edi attradled the Leaf-^Brafs to the- Height of nea* 
two Inches, a§ 4i'e that! adlftid iriformed me. This was repeated with 
the Corfc'Jtell #ith the fame SuteeTs. : > 

May the 31ft, in the Morning, to a Pole of eighteen Feet thcrd 
was tied a Linb of thirty-four Feet in Length; fo that the Pole^nd 
LiAe'togethcr were fifty-two Feet- Widi the Pole and Tube I ftood 
in the BalcJony, tbe AflHtant below in the Court, where he held thi 
Board with the Leaf-Brafs on it ; then the Tpbe being excited a^ 
itfuai; the Eleftrfc Virtue' piiflcd from the Tube up the Pofe, and 

B 2 down 



>i More Experiments emcefning Eleffricit/l 

dawn the Line to the Ivory Ball, which atcrafted the Leaf-BralS, andS 
as the Ball paifed. over it in ic*s Vibrations, the Leaf'Brafs would fol- 
low it, till it was carried off the Board : But thefe Experiments are- 
difficult to make in the open Air, the le^ Wind that is ilirring^ car* 
rying away the LeafBrafs* 

Some Time after I made ieveral Attenspts -to^ carry the EleAric > 
Virtue in a Line horizontally, fince I had noe the Opportunity here- 
of carrying it from.greateK Heights perpendicularly, but without Sue* 
cefs, for wane of then making ufe of proper Materials^ as will appear, 
from what follows. The firft Method I made Trial of, was by mak- 
ing a Loop, at each End of a Line, and hanging iton a Naildriveoi 
into a Beam,, the other End hanging downwards^ through the Loop- 
ac this End the Line widi the Ivorv Ball was put;, the other End of 
this Line was by a Loop hung on the Tube ; lo that that Part of the- 
Line next the Ball hung perpendicular,, the reft of the Line Horizoa* 
tal: Then the Leaf.Bra& being laid under the Ball, and the Tubes 
rubbed, not the leaft Sign of Attraction was perceived. Upon .this I 
concluded, that when the Eleftric Virtue came to the Loop ttut 
was fufpended on the Beam, it went up the fame to the Beam ; fo that' 
none, or very little, of it at le^ft, came down to the Ball, which was 
afterwards, verified, as will appear by the Experiments that.will be 
men tioned: hereafter. 

Jutu the 30th, 1729, I wentio Ouerden-Place^, t& wai& on^ Mr 
IVbeler^ defigning only to give him a Specimen of my Experiments*. 
The firft was from the Window in the Long Gallery that opemed in* 
to the Hall, the Height about fixteen Feet-, the next from theBattle« 
ments of the Houfe down into the fore Court, twenty-nine Fcfet j thea 
from the Clock- Turret to the Ground, which was thirty-four Feeti 
this being the greateft Height we could come at;, and notwith^ndingi 
the Smallneis of the Cane, the Leaf-Brafs was attraded and repelled 
beyond what I expcfted. As we had no greater Heights here, Mr 
Tvheler was defirous to try whether we could not carry the Elcdlric 
Virtue horizontally. I then told him of the AtMropt I had made. 
with that Defign,. but without Succefs, telling him the Method apd 
Materials made ufe of, as mentioned above.. He thenpropofed a Silk. 
Line to fupport the Line, by. which the Elcdkric Virtue was to pafs. 
X told him it might do better upon the Account of it's Smallnefs \ (o 
that there would be lefs Virtue carried from the Line of Communica* 
lion, with which, together with the apt Method Mr tVbeler con- 
trived, and with the great Pains he took himfelf, axid the Affiftanct: 
of his Servants, we fucceeded far. beyond our Expeftadoiv. 

The firft Experiment was made in the matted Gallery 7«/y 2, 1729^ 
about Ten in the Morning. About four Feet from the End of the 
Gallery there was.a crofs Line that was fixed by it's Ends to each Sid^ 
of the Gallery by two Nails i. the middle Part of the Lino was Silk^ 
the reft at each End Packxhread > then the Line to which the IvoiV 

BaU, 



Mfre ExperifHiHts cwcefning EleBriciff. ly 

Bsil! waai hung, snd by which the Eleftric Virtue was to be conveyed 
to it from the Tube, being eighty Feet and a half in Length, was 
laid oil the cro($ Silk Line, io as that the Ball hung about nine Feet 
below ir» Then the other End of the Line was by a Loop fufpended 
on the Glafs Cane, and the Leaf Brafs held under the Ball on a Piece 
of white Paper ; when the Tube being rubbed, the Ballattra&cd the 
Leaf-Brafs, and kept it fufpended on it for ibme Time. 

This Experiment fucceeding fo well, and the Gallery not permit- 
ung us to go any farther in one Length,. Mr mder thought of another 
£iq>edient, by whkh we might encreafe the Length of our Line^. 
which was by putting tq> another crofs Line near the other End of the 
Gallerv ; and over die Silk Past of both the Lines there was laid a 
Line that was long enough to be returned to the oth6r End, where 
the Ball hung ; and though now both Ends of the Line were at the 
fame End of the Gallery ,> yet Care was taken that the Tube w^s far 
enough off from having any Influence upon the Leaf-Brafs> except! 
what pafifed by the Line of Communication : Then the Cane being, 
robbed and the Leaf-Brafs held under the Ivosy Ball, the Eledric 
Virtue pafled by the Line of Communication to the other End of the / 

Gallery^^^d returned back a^tn to the Ivory: BitU, which attraAed 
the Leaf-Brafs, aqdfufjpvnded it as faefose.. The whole Length of the 
Line was 147 Feet. 

We then thought of trying whether the Attraftion would not be- 
ftfonger without doubling or returning the Line, which we found 
Means of doing in the Barn, where we had a Line of 124 F^t long, 
ibufteen Feet: of which hung perpendicular from the; Silk Line} and. 
now tbe Attra&ton was,!as we then concluded,: ftronger than when the. 
Line was returned, asiatfaematced Gallery. 

July 3, between Ten and Eleven in the Morning: we went?^g^ininto.i 
the Bai-n, and repeated the laft mentioned Experiment with both the 
Tube am) Cane ; but the AttraAion was not fo ftrong as in the pre- 
ctdiofi Evenmg, nor ik^s there fo great a Piffer^rnce in the At^: 
tra&ion communicated by /the fblid^Cane^nd- GUtfs Tube, as. pQe> 
would, have expe&ed, ebnfiderieg the Difference of their Lengths> 
and Diametet^. 

We then proceeded farther, by adding fo much more Line as woulds 
make a Return to the other End of the Bam, the whole Length of the 
Line being now 293 Feet ; and thou^ the Line was (b much length-, 
ened, we found no perceivable Difference in the Attrad^ion,. the Ball, 
attra&iog as ftrdngly as before* This encouraged us to add another 
Return ;. but upon beginning to rub the Tube, our Silk Lines broke 
being not ftrong enough to bear the Weight of the Line, when* 
fhaken by the Motion given ii by rijbbing the Tube. Upon this, ha- 
ving broi^ht wkh; me both Brafs and Iron Wire, infteadofthe Silk. 
we put up.fmall Iron Wires but this was too^weak to bearrhe Weightt 
of the JLine^. We then took Brafa^ Wire, of, a fomcwhat- larger Size 

thanv 



^> 



li Mitt Expermentf nncermt^ Ekffrkst/^ 

than that of Ixea; Tfais fupported our Line of . Communication i. 
but thcugh the Tube was wdl rubbed^ yet there wi^ not the Jeaft* 
Mocfon ov Attraftkni given bf cheBaJi, neither mtk th« gretft T$ib<^. 
whicti we made iife of when we fbond <he fi»aJlioH4 Cane cp- lie ih«i 
eifei^ual: Bf whkb we wcreinow aSbtiocfcd^:that,ithe Sujcccd^we ha4> 
before^ depefidedl opoa the Lims that fupported (he Lme of Cofri^ 
munication, beings SiUc, and not. opon their being fmaU, as before 
Trial I iihagined it mi^t be ; the fnme ESedk happening hereai it 
did when th* Line that is to convey the Ekdtric Virtt^ ist fupported' 
hf Packchrfeadv viz. that when: the. Efl3ima ittxoc "to th^ Wire or 
Packf hiieadi tteit fuppoi^tsdie Eiae^ itpafib bji them to ^ Ttndbnr^ 
to wl^Fch eHch Ead of them ia fixed, and {b goes no £i[ither forward) 
in the LiM thift is to carry it to the Ivory BaU. 

Finding that our ^Ik Threads wtre too weak to bear many Re-- 
tuf ns of LhifCj Mr ff^b^ dtoughc v£ another Way of naanagbg thaaa». 
ib tbarfr^i^Retimismigbc'beiipoiiciachSilJi linet which. waaby> 
placing two othefr ^itofs lines fiDne Fctet! bdor^ tfae upfier ones ; for 
that every other Turn of Line waafafpcnded by the lower crofs Liric 
By this Means there was bnc hadf the We^ht of Line npoo each Stik 
of what ^here was- when only two crofs Li;nes were made nfefiof as be-^ 
fore. By thii CMcri vance, .^e could jadd a mtkh gceater. Length 06 
Line, without Danger of breaking our Silk. We thin pu|: lap zi hiad 
that wa)s 666 F^ei in Lengthy by eig^c Returns : Then the Leaf-Br&fs 
beii^ held on a Piece of white Paper under the Ivory Ball^ and the 
Tube, with the Other End of the Line fuQpended on it, being rubbed 
for fome time, the Leaf-Braft was attracted as manifeftly; as ttJhad boem 
with nVucrh. (horeer Lines* We then i»^ea«ed the EaperknoA wjch the 
little fhort folid Cane, and foonid there was ftnnewhatxaf an Attrafiaon^ 
but ftot near fo great as with die large Tiibe- 

Though the going and returning of die £le&ric Effluvia was very 
furpri&ng, yet we were willing to try how iar the attraAive Viitue 
might be carried in a continwd rigm II;ine;< the Metiiod of doings 
which was thus: That' End of>the Liwe^where the Acoraflion was tor 
be made, was fufpmdcrd on a Silk Lh)e that was fixed crofs the Garret 
Window on the North-fide of the Houfe, which was by Eftiniadon 
about forty Feet high j at abont an hundred Feet from hence. two Rods 
of Poles of about ten Feet long, and at two Feet diftancc from cadr 
other, were driven into the Ground,- fo as that they ftood nearly p«- 
pendictriar. Thefe were in ^:he great Garden, beyond thefe, in -die 
great Field, that is feparated from the Garden by a deep Fofs, about 
the fame Diftance from the (irft, were anodier Fair of Poles fixed f 
then four others at a like Diftance . Upon the Ends of thefe Poles 
were tied the crofs Linies bf Silk, td ftspportthe Line of Commonica- 
tion, which bein^laid on the Silk Lines, the Ivory Ball hanging in 
the Garret Window; -and the other Ehd of the: Line being hung by % 
Loop on the Tube,- the L^af-Brafs^was^ heldnnder the Ball, and after 

the 



ftit Tube had been rubbed for fome Time, they called to me to fet 
me know that diei^was aiiAtti^ad^bh eif t^e Leaf Btufi. ThU waft. 
ievceral Times it|>eated wifeb Sutcefe ; then Mr WMer came into die 
Field, ami rubbM the Tube jiimfelf, that I might fee there was an 
Aturaiftiw \ which Ifa^w, though 1 perceived it not to be To ftropg as 
when the At(ra&ion waa jctriried.bf ionger Lin^, by reluriiii^ it, as 
iQ ijbbe Eirperinacnta atK^^nn^wti^ed* ;T^e i-ei^th of the Line. was 
^50 Feet. Tt^ «a3. feveral^io^* r^ep^Fpd, but the -JExperiment 
being nv^k m t|ic £voiuitt;» . at le^pgdh . lihe I>ew began to fQl. We 
began about feven o'Clgckf or Jfome jctje Time after, but before 
Eight the AtQai£^t9iioeafed: Sfitiiiihf^ iM^ w^ caufed by the Dew 
&Uii^ or ^ m/4>etng verf jion, ..we covild; 9PC poQtiyeiy >y, but 
I rather idip^te it tp.ihe latf»r> . This £sperffiwt wa^niade jilf i4> 

A&r/<, That thoiigh wecaUthe arr^uig <he J&le^c Virtoe by the 
Lines in this Pofickxi HoriwocaJ, you aie not co uoderiftaAd it in a 
Arid Senfe, .as may be eafilly perceived by the Dcfcription of the Me^ 
thod; iind That as the Line fwaggtid dowo muohi below the 3ilk Lines 
ihac fui^ported it, in the middls i\ut between thofe Likicf> it was 
ibine Feet longer than ehe Diftance ioCthe Foles^ ; 

Some Dars after this Experiment was refcatod from the Turret 
Clofet Window, when die Line was 765 Feet, and the Attraction was 
no leis percetTafale than in the £]q»:imaitabofttflKfiUOned. 

Mori Exfirimats ffntdest Mr Whekr^i, fig^ibig that large Surfacextnay 
be imfngnattd vaib Eie&ric J^mda. 

A large Map of the World, that had twenty-feven fquareFeat in it 
a Table-Oolb «»ntainiiig^f^iiine ^^wi^ Feeti thefe fiifpended on 
Ihe T«be by FackdbircadB, bccamr^JSkdriod. An UAshneUo^ fuf* 
Mnded bf a Aurkdbfflid tied Ao ^ Handle of it^ became ftrone^y 

Jn Experiment fropofed hy Mr Wheler, to fee whether tbi EieStrk Vtr^ 
hie mMld^iguMifyiFaj IMrddiy tbi J^^ 4 .a iMad^ 

fiem. • ' • ■. ...i .; • ' 

TAas had ra fmaU Key hmg by one of itsacosing Imns, and the 
Stofte, together with the- Key hong to it, werefiffpenSxl on the Tube 
by a. Patikllimd \ dienthe Tii>e behig rjubbod, the Key and StoM 
b#th attraftedtfaBLeaf-Bods^ she Atuq^ioabdngflhcfiuneastfaatof 
•tbferfiqdks. 



4n 



14 Mm Experments cmming Ek&rieUf- 

An Experiment made to/hem fkiii the M^^m yWtetf k temfjed fiveral 
ff^ays at the fame Ttme^ and may be<onvefe44o confider^k Difiancts. 

There were made thtce Stands, each compofed^f two upright Kcccs 
of Fir, fixed perpendicular, near the Ends of a long fquare Boards 
drftant from each ofther near a Foot and a half. * Upon the Tops of 
riiefe *rere tied Threads of Silk to fuppoitthe Lines of Commtmrca^ 
tion wrth the Tube and tfieattfading Bodies* Onfc of thefc Stands 
was placed in the great Parlour, near the farther End i another in the 
litde Parlour, and a third in ^e HaN, which was between die two 
Parlours r As the other two were one df Aem to the ri^ht, the other to 
the left Hand, this laft was placed Atear the Halt-Window forwards } 
tlie two firft were about fifty, Fdety Ae Odier abduc twenty. Feet from 
the Place where the Tube was held 5 then there were taken three fmall 
fi}uare Pfcces of Wood, that were tied to three Lines of Packthread : 
Thcfe were of about the Lengths above-mentioned. They were laid 
on the Silk Lines, and by -Loops at the other Ends were fufpendedon 
the T^vibe % then the Leaf-Bi^afs being held under the Pieces of Wood, 
and the i^ttbe rtrbbedj they alt (^ them attraded the Leaf- Brafs atthe 
fame Time. Some Time after, in my Abfence, Mr JVheUr tried % 
red iiot Poker, and found ^at the Attradion was the fame as when 
cold; He alfofufpended a live Chick upon the Tube, by the Legs, 
and found that the fireaft of the Chick was ftrongly EleftricaK . 

At Mr Godfrcy^i I made the folUmng Experiments\ Jhemng thai the £• 
leftric Virtue may be carried from the Tube^ without^ touching the 
Line of Communication^ by only being held near it. 

The firft of thefe Experiments was made the 5th of Augufi^ 1729* 
I (hall here mention fome of the>moft confiderable ones; but as I did 
Bot always fet down the Day 6f 4;ke Month; fome of them mav noc 
be related in the Order of Time they were made ; nor did I alwaya 
mention the Length of the Lines, thefe not being thought to be ab- 
foltttely necefiSiry. / . / ' " 

I took a Piec^.of aH^ifvLine, fuch as Linnen-Cloathsare dried 
on^ of about eleven Feet in Length; which, by a Loop at the upp^r 
End of it, was fufpendedon a Nail, that was driven into one of the 
Rafters in the Garret, and had ac it*s lower End a leaden .Weight of 
fourteen Pounds hung to it by an Iron Ring: then the Leaf Brais- 
Was laid under the Weight, and the Tube rubbed, and being held 
near the Line withpuit tbuching ity the Lead<* Weight ;attra£ted andre^ 
pelled the Leaf Brafs for feveral times together, to the Height of at^ 
leaft three, if not four Inches. If the Tube was held three or four 
Feet above the Weight, there would be an Attraftion ; but if it were 
held higher up, fo as to be near the Raftor where the Weight was 
hmg by the Hair-Line^ t}iere would be no AttraAion. 

An 



M^e Experiments concernir^g Eledricit/. if 

'Jin Experiment^ Jhemng that the Eledric Virtue i»tfy he earned federal 
ff^ays at the fame Ttme^ by a Dne of Communication^ without touching 
tbefaid Line. 

There were taken two Hair-Lines, of between four and five Feet 
long; to each of thefc was tied a fquare Piece of Cork, by Pack- 
thread ; the Lines were fufpendcd by Loops at their upper Ends, up- 
on two Nails ; near the lower Ends there was tied to the Hair-Lines a 
Piece of Packthread, by which there was a Communicacion between 
the two Hair-Lines ; then the Leaf-Brais being laid under the Corks, 
and the Tube being rubbed, and held near one of the Lines, both the 
Corks attracted ; but that which was fartheft, much ftronger than that, 
near which the Tube was held. About the Middle of the Line of 
Communication they both drew with equal Force. 

Some Time after ^ at Mr WheJer*/, we made the following Experiment^ 
in order to try whether the Electric Attradtion be proportional to the 
^antity of Matter in Bodies 

There were made two Cubes of Oak, of about fix Inches fquare, 
the one iblid, the other hollow : Thefe were fufpended by two Hair- 
Lines, nczrly after the fame Manner as in the Experiment abovemen- 
tioned; the Diftanceof the Cubes from each other, was by Eftima- 
tion, about fourteen or fifteen Feet; the Line of Communication 
being tied to each Hair- Line and the Leaf-Brafs placed under the 
Cubes, the Tube was rubbed and held over the Middle of the Line, 
and as near as could be guefled, at equal Diftances from the Cubes, 
when both of them attracted and repelled the Leaf-Brafs at the fame 
Time, and to the fame Height; fo that there feemed to be no more. 
Attraction in the folid than in the hollow Cube ; yet I am apt to think 
that the Electric Effluvia pafs through all the interior Parts of the 
folid Cube, though no Part but the Surface attrafts ; for fromfeveral 
Experiments it appears, that if any other Body touches that which at- 
tra^s, it's Attradtion ceafes till that Body be removed, and the other 
be again excited by the Tube. 

ji Continuation of the Experiments made at Mr Godfrey V. 

I next went on with an Experiment, to fee if the Eleftric Virtue 
might not be conveyed to a Rod, without inferting it into the Bore of 
the Tube, or without touching the Rod, which I found to fucceed, 
by fufbcnding the Rod either by Lines of Silk, or by Pieces of Horfe- 
Hair Fifhing- Lines, placing a Ball of Cork on the lefTer End of the 
Rod. 

Auguji 13, 1 took a large Pole that was twenty-feven Feet long, 
two Inches and a half Diameter at the great End, and at the lefier 

VOL. VX Parr. ii. C about 



%t M^re Experiments ccnaming EleBridtf. 

about half an Inch : It was that Sort of Wood thev call Horfe-B^ech,' 
with the Rind on. This was fufpendcdby two Fiair-Lines of about 
four Feet and a half in Length •, the firft I-ine was about two Feet 
from the gre^^t End of the Pole, the other about eight Feet from the 
kflfer End \ fo that the pole hung horizontal. At the Hede End of 
the Pole was hung a Ball of Cork about an Inch and a half Diasneceff 
by a Packthread about a Foot long, and a fmall leaden Ball upon the 
Cork to keep the Packthread extended : Then the Leaf-Brais beioff 
kid under the Cork, the Tube rubbed and held near the great End oF 
the Pole, the Cork Ball drew theLeaf-Brafsftrongly to the Hdght of 
an Inch, if not more : Then the Leaf-Brafs being held under feveral 
Parts of the Pole, it was attrafted by it, as Mr. Godfrey obfenred, but 
not near fo ftrongly as by the Cork. 

Jhout the Beginmngof Sti^ttmhtT I made the following Experiment^ which 
Jhews that the EleAric EfSuvia will be carried in a Circle, and be 
communicated from one Circle to another. 

There was taken a Hoop of about two Feet two Inches Diameter;, 
this I fufpended by a Hair-Line upon a Nail driven inix) a Bean> \ the 
Line was about four Feet Ions \ then the Leaf-Brafe being laid under 
i^e Hoop, the Tube was rubbed, and held within the Hoop» near 
the upper Side of it, witboue touching- it by feveral Inches : Then the 
lower Part of the Hoopattra^ed andrepell^ the Leaf- Brafs- ftrongly.;.. 
but when h<:ld near the lower Part^ there was^ very Hule, if any At* 
traftion; If the Tube was held near the oucfide of the Hoop, \t 
attra^d ; but ftrongeft, when at the £une Time it was held near the 
Knot of the Hair*Line by which the Moop was fufpended. To thie- 
Hoop there was tied a \tGkv Hoop of about a Soot and a. half Diame- 
ter : It was tied to it by Packthread, (b as to hang below it about 
two kohes. They were fufpended together by the Hair-Line ; then the 
Leaf-Braft and the Tube being prepared,, as* hath b^eo men^sioned be^ 
fore, the Tube being h^Id near thq uppers Hoop, tjiie lovioer Part of 
the lower Hoop attra^ed ftrongly, and- when' held' ni&ar the upper 
Part of the lower Hoop, but very weakly. But when^held near. the. 
lower Part of the lower Hoop, there was no Attraftion. 

On the 1 5 /£>^/ September I made the following Experiment which Jhews^^ 
that the Eleftric Effluvia A^w the fame Ef^^ w- a Cirole, when^ it^s 
PofUion is horizontal. 

I took a: large Hoop, of fomewhat nK>re than three- Feet Diameter,, 
and Breadth of about two Inches and a half j to tWs wae tied at near 
equal Diftances, four Lines : They were what they call Twine, which 
is of three Threads of Packthread twifted together each about two 
Feet eight Inches long. Thefe were tied with their Ends together 

to 



More Expifmmts concrtning lE^UBriciff. i^ 

fo a Hair-Hnc of about two Feet and a half long, by which the Hoop 
was hung on a Nail, as in the other Experiments, fo that the Hoop 
hiing now in an horizontal Pofition : Then the Leaf-Brafs being laid 

^ under the Edge of the Hoop, at between two and three Inches below 

it, the Tube being rubbed, and held between the Cords without 

I couching them, the Leaf-Brafs was attracted and repelled for feveral 

times together; but when held near the outfideof the Hoop, oppo- 
fne to that Part where the LeafBrafs lay, the Attraction was mudi 
ftronger. 

About the latter End of Autumn, and die Beginning of the Winter 
in 17^^, I refumed my Enquiry after other Eleftric Bodies, to fe6 
what AxMitKHv I could make to the Catalogue of chofe mentioned 
above, and found maivy more that have the fame Property, and may 
be excited to attraft by the fame Method. As for Inftancd, the dry 

i widbcred Leaves of Reed& and Flags, Grafs and Corn, both Leave* 

i and Straw -, the Leaves of Tiees, as thofe of the Laurel, the Oak, 

the Walnut, the ChefmJt, Hazld-nm:, Apple and Pear-tree Leaves; 
fo that we may conclude^ thait ther Leaves of all Vegetablea( have thi^ 
Attraftive Virtue, , • 

IJhaU ntym ya;e an Account of the Experiments made at my Chamber in the 

Tear 1730. 

March the 23d, I diffolved Soap in the ^a/w/j-Wate*, then I fuf- 
pended a Tobacco- Pipe by a Hofir-fmv, fo as that it hung nearly hori- - 
zontal, with the Mouth or the Bow! downwards; dicn having dipped 
it ia the Soapr-Liquor^ and bfewn a Bkrbble, the Leaf-Brafs laid on a 
Stand under it, the Tube being rubbed, the Brafs was attrafted by 
the BubWe, when the Tube was held near rhe Hair-Kne. Then I re- 
peated the Experiment with another Bubble, holding the Tube near 
the little End of the PrpE» and the 'Attraftron was now much greater, 
the Leaf-Brafi being attracted to the Height of near two Inches. 
' ^iarcb the. 25th, I repeated this Experiment after a fomewhat dif- 
ferent Manner : The Pipe was now fufpended by two Lines of white 
fewing Silk, of about five Feet and a half long; thefe were hung up- 
on two Nails driven into the Beam of my Chamber, diftant from each 
other about a Foot, by Loops at the other End of the Lines, by' 
which the Pipe was fufpended ; then die Bubble being blown, by 
holding the Tube to the Kttle End of the Kpe, the Bubble attrafted 
the Leaf Brafs to the Height of near four Inches, This Experiment 
was made to fee whether fluid Bodies would not have an Eleftricity 
communicated to them. ' 

April 8, 1730, r madevthe following Experiment on a Boy be- 
tween eight and nine Years of Age. His Weight, with his Cloaths 
on, was. forty-feven Pounds ten Ounces. I fufpended him in a hori- 
zontal Pofition,. by two Hair-Lincs, fuch as Cloaths are dried on : 
They were about thirteen Feet long; with- Loops at' cich End. ^ 

C 2 There 



ao M(^e Experimints concerning Ekffricity*. 

There was driven into the Beam bf my Chamber, which was a Fa 
thick, a Pair of Hooks oppofite to each other, and two Fccc froi 
thefe another Pair in the fame manner. Upon thefe Hooks the Lini 
were hung by their Loops, fo as to be in the Manner of two Swing 
the lower Parts hanging within about two Feet of the Floor of 3 
Room : Then the Boy was laid on thefe Lines with his Face dowi 
wards, one of the Lines being put under his Breaft, the other und< 
his Thighs: Then the Leaf-Brafs was laid on a Stand, which was 
round Board of a Foot Diameter, with white Paper pafted on it, fuj 
ported on a Pedeftal of a Foot in Height, which I often made ufe ( 
in other Experiments, though not till now mentioned: Upon tl 
Tube's being rubbed, and held near his Feet, without touching then 
the Leaf-Brafs was attraded by the Boy's Face with much Vigou 
fo as to rife to the Height of eight, and fometimes ten Inches. I pi 
a great many Pieces on the Board t(^ether, and almofl: all of thei 
came up together at the fame Time. Then the Boy was laid wit 
his Face upwards, and the hind Part of his Head, which had fho 
Hair on, attradled, but not at quite fo great a Height as his Fac 
did. Then the Leaf-Bra& was placed under his Feet, his Shoes an 
Stockings being on, and the Tube held near his Head, his Feet a 
trafted, but not altogether at fo great a Height as his Head: The 
the Leaf Brafs was again laid under his Head, and the Tube he) 
over it, but t(}ere was then no Attraction, nor was there any whe 
the Leaf-Brafs was laid under his Feet, and the Tube held over then 

Jpril the i6th, I repeated the Experiment with the Boy, but no 
the Attraftion was not quite fo ftrong as at the firft, the Brafs n< 
rifmg higher than to about fix Inches. His Hands being ftretchc 
nearly horizontal, I placed a fmall Stand with Leaf-Brafs under eac 
Hand, and under his Face the great one, furniihed as the others 
when the excited Tube being held near his Feet, there was an A 
tradlion by his Hands and Face at the fame Time. I then gave hij 
the Top of a Fifhing-Rod to hold in his Hands there was a Ball i 
Cork ftuck on the little End of it, under which the Leaf-Brafs bein 
laid, and the Tube rubbed and held near his Feet, the Ball attraCte 
the Leaf-Brafs to the Height of two Inches, and repelled it, and a 
traded for feveral Times together with great Vigour. 

Jpril 21,1 again repeated the Experiment on the Boy ; and now I 
attracted much ftronger than at the firft: The Leaf Brais rofe to h 
Face at the Height of more than twelve Inches. Then I gave tl 
Boy to hold in each Hand the Tops of two Filhing-Rods, with a Ba 
of Cork on each of their leffer Ends; then a fmall Stand being f 
under each Ball, with the Leaf-Brals on it, the Tube being rubbc 
and held near his Feet, both the Corks attracted and repelled togethi 
ilrongly. The Length of the Poles were each of them about fevc 
Feet. Then the Boy was laid on his left Side,, and a Fifhing-Rod, c 
near twelve Feet in Length, given him to hold with both his Hanc 

thci 



M&re Experiments concerning Ehifricity. ajf 

tiMrewtf ft finall Ball of Cork at the End of the Rod, that was an Inch 
and three quarters Diameter : Then all Things being prepared, the 
Tube held near the Boy's Feet, the Cork Ball attraftea and repelled 
the Leaf-Brafs with Force to the Height of at lead two Inches. 

NoU^ That when I fpeakof holding the Tube near the Boy's Feet, 
I mean over asainft the Soles of his Feet ; and when near his Head, 
is to be underftood the Crown of his Head for when the Tube is held 
above, or over his Legs, the AttraAion is not fo ftrongly communis 
cated to the other Parts of his Body. 

By thefe Experiments we fee that Animals receive a greater 
Qismtity of Eledric Effluvia, and that they may be conveyed from 
them feveral Wa^s at the fame Time to confiderable Diftances, wher- 
ever they meet with a Paflage proper for their Conveyance, and there 
exert their Attrading Power. 

In thefq Experiments, befides the large Stand abovementioned, I 
made ufe of two fmall ones, which, as I found them very ufeful, it 
may not be improper to defcribe them. The Tops of them were three 
Inches Diameter ; they were fupported by a Column of about a Foot 
in Height, their Bafes of about four Inches and a half: They were 
turned of li^Mf^m vitcs\ their Tops and Bafes made to fkrew on for 
Convenience of Carriage. Upon the Tops were pafted white Paper. 
When the Leaf-Brafs is laid on any of thefe Stands, I find it is attra- 
Aed to a much greater Height than when laid on a Table, and atleaft 
three Times higher than when laid on the Floor of a Room. 

June 20, I made the following Experiment ^ Jhewing that the Attraftion 
and, Repulfion U as ftrong^ if not Jlronger^ and that the Effluvia may 
be carried to great Lengths^ wilbout touching the line by the Tube. 

There was taken a Line of Packthread 23 1 Feet in Length ; it was 
fupported on two crofs Lines of blue Silk ;^the Diftance of thefe Lines 
was near eighteen Feet. About four Feet below one of thefe Lines, 
was put up another Silk Line of the fame Colour: To this was tied one 
End of the Packthread; at the other End the Ivory Ball hung; the 
Line was returned over the crofs Lines thirteen times; than the Leaf^ 
Brafs being laid under the Ball, upon one of the fmall Stands and the 
Tube excited, the Ball attracted and repelled to the Height of one of 
it's Diameters, which was about an Inch and a quarter. 

I have, by feveral Trials lately made, found that rubbing the Tube 
and putting it up between the Returns of the Line in feveral Places^ 
before I go with the Tube to the End of the Line, much facilitates, and 
caufes the Attra6i:ion much fooner than when one ftands with the Tube 
and applies it to the End of the Line only. 

Auguft I, at ikfr Wheler'j, we made the following Experiment ^ being 
an Attempt to fee bow far the Eleftric Virtue might be carried forward 
in a Lincy without touching the fame. 

This 



\zi Concerning the Ele&rrdty (f Water I 

This Experiment was made by carrying the Line out of the Gre^ 

Parlour Window into the Garden, and down the great Field befor 

it. The Line was fupported by fifteen Pair of Poles; each Pair ha 

a Line of blue Silk tied from one Pole to the other, the Length, c 

about four Feet, equal to the Diftance of the two Poles: About te 

Feet from the Window there was a Silk Line put up crofs the Roor 

upon which that Part of the Line hung that had the Ivory Ball upon i 

Below the crofs Line of the fartheft Pair of Poles was placed anothe 

crofs Line, four Feet from the Ground, to which was fattened th 

other End of the Comrnunicating Line, as mentioned in the Exper 

mcnt above: Theatbe Leaf-Brafs and Tube being prepared as ufua 

die Tube being hel3 oyer the Line at feveral Diftances, beginnin 

towards that End where the Ball hung, and fo proceeding towards tt 

farther End of the Line, the Leaf-Brafs was attraftcd at the Statioi 

not exceeding two pr three hundred Feet, pretty ftrongly j but fti 

grew weaker as we came towards the farther End of the Line: Y< 

even at the End of the Line, the Leaf-Brafs would be lifted by t\ 

Ball, when the Tube touched the Line, whofe Length was 886 Fee 

I fliouldnow have given fomc Account of the Difcovery I made th 

laft Year conqerning Sae Attraftion of coloured Bodies, fhewing thj 

th^y attraft more or lefs, according to what Colours they are o 

though the fubftaiKe be the fame, and of equal Weight and Bignefi 

only I fhall obferve, that I find the Red, Orange or Yellow, attra( 

at leaft three or four times ftronger than Green, Blue or Purple : Bo 

halving very lately found out a new and more ac<:urate Method < 

msjkking thefe Experiments, I muft b^g Leave to proceed farther wit 

them, before I communicate them- 

Concnntngihe ^^ pirfij In the former Account of my Experiments, I defcribc 

wtter^^TlL ^^^ manner of communicating an Attraftion to a Bubble of foape 

Jame, No 422. Water; but I have now found, that even a Body of Water receivis c 

p. m;. AttraSlive Ftrtucy and alfi a Repelling one^ by af flying the excited Tta 

fiear it^ after the fame manntr asf&Kd Bo^es da. To perform this Ej 

perimcnt, I caufed a wooden Difh to be turned, with a Screw-hole \ 

the Bottom, but not fo far as to come through the Wood : This wi 

fcrewed on to th^ upper End of one of the Stands 1 have memioned i 

the other Experiments, the other Top' being taken off: The Dil 

wa^ abput four Inches Diameter, and one In<ih deep. Then th 

Stand was fet on a Cake pf Rofin, or a Phitc of Glafe, or the Brinr 

of a Drinking-Glafs, or of a Cylindric one, fuch as are ufed fc 

Water Glaffcs. th'c Glafs muft be firft warmed, then the Difh bein 

filled with Water, the Tube rubbed, and moved both under the Dil 

and over the Water three or four times, without touching thenu Ai 

ter it has b$cn excited, not. only the Difhj^ but the Water alfo, become 

jElectricaTi and if a fmall Piece of Thread, or a narrow Slip ofthi 

reaper, ora Piece of SheetBrafs', comrhonly called Tinfel, be hel 

qstr the Water in an horizontal Pofition, within about an Inch q 

fomc 



Concmung the Ekancity of WaUr. . i| 

Ibmetimes more, ^tiy of the faid Bodies will be attraded to the Sur- 
face of the Water, and be repelled, but not fo often as by Solids. 
If a pendulous Thread be held at fome Diftance from the outfide of 
tj}e Difh, it will be attracted and repelled by it many times together 
with a very quick Motion, but not at fo great a Diftance as when the 
Diih is.empty« 

II- An Experiment Jbewing^ thai fFater is at traced by the Tube^ and that 
the AttraHionis aUended witb feveral remarkable andfurprifmg Phseno- 
mena. 

This Experiment being, to be made with fmall Quantities of Water, 
^at firft made ufe of fome of the Brafs Concave little Di(hes in which 
I formerly ground Mitcrofcopes -, but have fmce caufed to be made a 
more convenient Apparatus, which confifts of a fmall Pedeftal of 
about four Inches and a half long, the Bafe of Ivory about two Inches 
Diameter. Upon the upper End, as in the larger Staaid,. there is a. 
Screw, upon which is fcrewed on one of the little Diihes, which are- 
made of Ivory: Ofrhefe I h^ve feveral Sizes^ from three Quartern 
to one Tench of an Inch Diameter. When any one of thefe little 
Veflels is filled with Water, Uy a» that it may ftand above the Brims 
ef the Cup, and has acquired a Spherieal Surface (as it will do in the 
finalleft* Cups; let it be fe( on the Table with the little Stand to which 
it had before been fcrewed^ or which is better, upon the large Stand 
mentioned above, the great Diih being tuken off, and the fm^Il plain 
Top fcrewed on *,< being, thus prepared, let the Tube be excited, and 
held over the Water at the Diftanee of about an Inch or more. If 
it be a large Tube, there will firft arife a little Mountain of Water 
from the Top of the Drop, of a conical Form, from the Vertex of 
which there proceeds a* Light (very viflble when the Experiment is 
performed in^ dark Room^ and a fnapping Noife, almoft like that 
when^ the Fingers are held near the Tube, but not quite fo loud^ and 
ef a more flat Sound: Upon this immediately the Mountain, if I n»ay 
ib call it, falls into the reft of the Water, and pots it int<>atr<fn>ulous 
and waving M):>cion. I have naw a few Days fince' repeated this Ex* 
periofient in die Day-time, where the Sun fhined: I perceived that 
there were fmall Particles of Water thrown out of the Top of the 
Mount, and that fometimes there would arlfe a very fine Stream of 
Water from the Vertex of the Cone, in the manner of a Fountain, froo^ 
whichthere iflhed afineStream^. or Vapour, whofe Particles were fa> 
iaiallas noito befeen; yet it^is certain that it ipraift be fo, fince the 
underside of the Tube was wet; as I found when I came to rub the 
Tubeag^in; and I have iince found, that though there. does not; 
always arife that Cylinder of Water, yet there is always a Sceam of- 
invilible Particles thrown on the Tube, and fometimcsto that Degree 
aato bft vJfibJe on it. When fome of the larger Cup^ are made- ufe of 

they 



14 Farther Experiments amcerning Ehiirkityl 

they are to be filled as high as may be wichouc running over: The 
Surface will be flat about the middle Part, but when the Tube is held 
over it, the middle Part will be dcpreffed into a Concave, and the 
Parts towards the Edge be raifed ; and when the Tube is held over 
againft the Side of the Water, the little conical Protuberance of Wa- 
ter iffues out with its Axis horizontally, and after the crackling Noife^ 
returns to the reft of the Water, and fometimes there will be thrown 
out of it fmall Particles of the fame, as from the fmaller Portions of 
Water abovementioned. 

The laft Experiment was repeated with hot Water; when the Wa- 
ter was attracted much ftronger, and at a much grdater Diftance: 
The Steam arifing from the Vertex was in this Cafe vifible, and the 
Tube was fprinkled with large Drops of Water. I tried the Experi- 
ment in the fame Manner upon Quickfilver, which was likewife raifed 
up ; but by reafon of it's great Weight, not to fo great an Height as 
the Water: The fnapping Noife was louder, and lafted much longer 
than in the Water. 
Farthir Ex- 4. Since my laft wherein I gave an Account of my Experi- 
periments con- ments, flicwing Water will beattraded by Eleftric Bodies, and that 
^trUi7 ^b"'th ^^ ^^^ ^*^^ ^" Ele6lric Virtue communicated to it, fo as to attraft 
fame^)s^\zx. ^^'^^ ovits^ I have been upon another Enquiry ; Whether there might 
p. 285. not be a Way found to make this Property of Eleftrical Attraftion 
more permanent in Bodies ? How far I have fucceeded in this At- 
tempt, will appear by the Experiments I have made on the feveral 
Bodies mentioned in the following Catalogue ; and as they were all 
of them prepared after the fame manner, excepting Numb. 1 8 and 
19, which fliall be defcribed afterwards, a general Defcription of the 
Method of preparing and preferving them in a State of Attra<5Uon^ 
may fuffice. 

The Bodies on which the Experiments were made, were Rofin 
both black and white, Stone-Pitch, Shell or Gum-Lac, Bees- Wax, 
and Sulphur. I procured three Iron Ladles of feveral Sizes, in which 
I melted thefe Subftances, making ufe of that which I thought moft 
convenient for the Quantity I deligned to melt. When any of thefe 
Bodies were melted, they were taken off the Fire, and fet by in the 
Ladle to cool and harden ; then it was returned to the Fire, where it 
remained till it was melted about the Bottom and Sides of the Ladle, 
fo as to be moveable ; fo that by inverting the Ladle, it might be 
taken out; having the Form of nearly the Seftion of a Sphere, the 
Convex Surface, as alfo the Plain one, being naturally (if I may fo 
fay) poliihed, excepting the Sulphur, which cools without retaining 
its Poli/h, except when caft in Glafs Veflels, as fball be (hewed here- 
after. I fliall now proceed to the Experiments and Obfervations made 
en thefe Eleftric Bodies. 

When any of them were taken out of the Ladle, and their Convex 
Surface hardened, they would nor at firft attraft, *cill the Heat was 

abated^ 



Fat t her Experimefits concernifig EleSiticity. 25 

labatcd, or 'till they came to a certain Degree of Warmth, and then 
there was a fmall Attraftion which Warmth I eftimated to be nearly 
that of a Hen's Egg when juft laid: The Attradlion cncreafing fo, 
as when cold, toattraft at Jeaft ten times farther than at firft. 

The manner of preferving them in a State of Attraftion, was by 
wrapping them up in any thing that would keep them from the ex* 
ternal Air; as at 6rft for the fmalJer Bodies I ufed white Paper, but 
for the larger oqcs white Flannel ; but afterwards found that black 
Worfted Stockings would do as well. Being thus cloathed, they 
were put uito a large Fir Box, there to remain 'till I had Occafion 
to make ufe of them. 

The Cylinder of Sulphur, Numb. 18, was made by melting the Sul- 
phur, and pouring itintoaCylindricGlafs Veffel, whichhad firft been 
heated, to prevent it's cracking* When the Sulphur was hardened, it 
was fomcwhat left than the Glafs ; fo that by inverting the Glafs, it came 
out eafily, and had a poliflied Surface almoft as fmooth as the Glafs in 
which it wascaft. The large Cone of Sulphur, ^umb. 19, was made 
after the fame manner; viz. by being caft in a large Drinking- Glafs* 

I am now to give an Account of the, Obfervations made on the 
feveral Bodies mentioned in the Catalogue, but muft firft give a De- 
fcription of the Catalogue. The firft Column contains the Number, 
which in a fmall Piece of Paper is fixed on each of the feveral Bodies \ 
the Name of which is given in the fecond Column, whether they are 
lingle or compound Subftanccs. The third Column (hews what 
Weight they were of when melted, in Ounces and Drachms oi Aver- 
dupeis Weight. In the fourth Column you have the Days of the 
Month when the Body was melted and received it's Form, and con- 
fequently when it firft began toattraA. 

1 did for thirty Days continue to obferve every one of thefe Bodies, 
and found that at the End of the faid Time they attraded as vigorouQy 
as at the firft or fecond Day, as they do now at the writing hereof. 
By the Times mentioned in the Catalogue, being fubftradedfrom any 
Time after, will be ftiewn how lon^ any of the Bodies have continued 
their Attradive Virtue i by which it will appear, that fome of them 
have not loft their Attradion for more than tour Months : So that we 
have fome Reafon to believe, that we have now difcovered that there 
is a perpetual atlraffive Power in all Ele&ric Bodies, without exciting 
by either rubbing, heating, C^c. orany other Attrition. But this will 
farther appear by the Account! am now to give of the two laft Bodies 
mentioned in the Catalogue. The Cone of Sulphur, Numb. 19, 
that was caft in a large Drinking-Glafs, in about two Hours after it 
was taken out of the Glafs, attraded, and the Glafs attradled too, 
but at a fmall Diftance. Next Day the Sulphur was taken out of the 
Glafs, and then it attraded ftrongly, but there was now no perceivar 
ble Attraftion of the Glafs. Then the Cone of Sulphur was fet with 
it's Bafc upon the Lid of the Fir Box, wherein the other Elcftric Bo- 

VOL. VI. Part. ii. D dies 



24 Farther Exferimnts cMCirning Electricity. 

dies lay, and the Glafs whelmed over ic. I examined it every Day^ 
after, and ftill found it to attraft •, but finding the Place not fo con- 
venicnt, having Occafion to look into the Box often, I removed it to 
the Table that ftands between the two Windows of my Chamber, 
where it has continued to this Time, and whenever the Glafs is taken 
oflT, attra£^s at near as great a Diftance as the Sulphur that is clothed 
and fhut up in the Box abovementioned. And though at firft there 
was no Attraftion, when the Glafs was taken off, yet 1 now find, that 
in fair Weather the Glafs alfo attrafts, but not at fo great a Diftance 
as the Sulphur, which never fails to attrad, let the Wind or Weather 
be never fo variable, as do all the other Bodies mentioned in the Ca- 
talogue; only in wet Weather the Attractions are not made at fo great 
a Diftance as in fair Weather. 

Number 20 is a Cake of Sulphur that was melted ; and as the other 
Bodies have taken the Form of a Convex Seftfon of a Sphere, this 
when cold, was laid with it's flat Side downwards, on the fame Table with 
riie Cone of Sulphur: They were bodi placed fo near the Wall, as 
to prevent the Sun fhining on them. This was, as the Catalogue 
fliews, on the iSth of Aprils and, though it had no manner t>f Cloth- 
ing or Covering, has attracted ever fince. And in this, as in the 
other Bodies, the Atcra^?H>n will be according to the Weather •, but 
when it attrads the ftrongeft, it is not nrare than the tenth Part of 
what the Cone of Sulphur, that b covered, attrafts. 

The manner of obferving thefe Attraftions is beft performed by 
holding the Attrafting Body in one Hand, and a fine white Thread 
tied to the End of a Stick, in the other; by this means far lefs De- 
grees of Attraction will be perceived, than by making nfe of Leaf*> 
Brafs. When the Thread is held at the utmoft Diftance, it may be 
attracted; the Motion of it is at firft very flow, bnt ftill accelerating, 
as it approaches nearer to the attrafting Body. 

I am now on the SubjcG of permanent Attraftion in Glafs, than- 
ki the other Bodies, feiit have not yet com pleated thofe Experiments^ 
meeting with more Interruption by the Weather. 

With a fmall Hand Air- Pomp, I have made Experiments on feveral 
Bodies, and find that they will attraft t« vaarOf and that at very near- 
ly the fame Diftance as in pleno^ provided that the Experiment be 
made in the fa^mc Receiver Wled with Air; as -will appear by the fol- 
lowing Experiments. 

There was taken a hollow <Tlafs Sphere, of fbme^hat mt>re than 
e i Inches Diameter, being firft excited. It was fufpended by a Looj)^ 
of Silk that went through a fmall Cork, with which the Hole in the 
Glafs Ball, hy which it was blown, was ftopped, and ty the Loop 
fafpcnded on a fmall Hodfc that was ikrcwed on to the Brafs Wire that 
came through the CoUarof Leather in theBraft-Phte that covci^d the. 
Top of the open Receiver j as in the Experhxrent of lettmgfall the* 
<3«ineaand feather t/i tw<»^. Then the Ball was drawn tip to the- 

Top 



Farther Experitmnti eoncernhg Ele5fricity'. 

Top of the Receiver, and the Top of the fmall Stand, covered with 
Paper, was laid on the wet Leather on the Plate of the Pump, and 
Leaf-Brafs laid on the fame « Then the Air was ezhaufted, when the 
Glafs Ball was let down to about an Inch, or fomewhat more, to- 
wards the Pieces of LeafBrafs: Many of them were attrafted by it. 
Then the Air was Jet into the Receiver, and the Leaf-Brafs laid on 
the Stand, the Ball being, as before, fufpended, was let down to 
about the £ime Diftance from the Leaf-Brafs as before, and there 
fcemed to be very litde Difference in the Attraction . 

I have made the fame Experiments with Sulphur, Shell-Lac, 
Rofin, and white Bees- Wax. Thefe would be attraftcd to the 
Height of ati Inch and a half by Eftimation; and when cfee Experi- 
ment was made with the Receiver full of Air, there was very little, if 
atoy Differance in the Height of the Attraftion, when there was the 
fame Time fpent before the Attradlion was begun in fletid^ as there 
was required to exhauft the Receiver. 

A C ANALOGUE of tU fever^l Eleftric Bodies mentioned in the 

firegfing Difcaurfi. 



ir 



No Names of the Several Bodies. 

I Fine black Rofin -— * 

a Scone Fkch and black Ro&n 

3 Fine Rofin and Btes-Wax • ^— ^ 

4 Stone Pitch — — 

5 Stone Sulphur — ■ — — 

6 ShcU^Lac — — 

7 Fine black Rofin 

8 Bees- Wax and Rofin r^ 

9 Rofin 4 paHs^ and Gum-Lac i psrt 



Weight. 

5 3 



lo Sdphor -— -* 



Stone Pitch — — — • -— 

Black Rofin — 

White Rofin — 

Gum-Lac — — — 



II 

12 

>4 

15 Gum-Lac and black Rofin ana 

16 Gum- Lac ^parts^ Rofin i part 

17 Shell-Lac, fine black Rofin ana — -^ 

18 A Cylinder of Stone Sulphur 

19 A laree Cone of Stone Sulfdiur — ^ 

20 A Cake of Sulphur — — ; ■ ■ ■ 1 . ' 



2 

2 
2 

I 

3 

10 
10 

9 

10 

18 

10 12 

23 o 

7 xa 

> M 14 



9 
17 
28 
19 
30 

XI 



a 

2 

X 

I 

o 

4 
o 
o 
o 



12 

8 

4 
4 
o 

4 



Months Days. 

January 3 1 

January 3 1 

Feiruarf i 

February 1 

February 4 

February 10 

February 1 1 

February 12 

February 12 

February 15 

February 16 

February 23 

February 25 

February 26 

February 26 

February 28 

March 2 

March 20 

March 29 

April 29 



D 2 



iV. Cylindro 



z8 A New BAROMETER, &c. 

A nrji Baro' IV. Cylindro AB anncftitur tubus BC, cui additur globulus oblongtts 

«^//r,^j^^ CD, & huic tubulus gracillimo foramine praeditus DE. Cylindrus 

Fahrenheit. Jiquore quodam, qui calorcm aquas ebuUientis pcrfcrre poceft, rc- 

F. R. S, No. plebitur. In tabulo B C, gradus caloris in aerc obvii menfurabuncur 

385. p. 179. ope fcalas affixas b c. Si aucem thermometruni hocce aquas bullientt 

imponacur, liquor thermometri non folum globulumCD iaiplebit. 

Fig. I. fg^j etiam ufque ad terminos varios tubuli D E aflurgec, fecunduin 

gradum caloris, quern aqua tempore experimenti a gravitate atmof- 

phaerae acquintura ell. Ita, fi, exempli gratia, tempore experimenti 

alcitudo mercurii in barometro (it 28 pollicum Londinenlium, liquor 

in hocce thermometro attinget infimum locum in tubulo DE; Si 

vero gravicas atmofphaerae aequipolleat altitudini mercurii triginta & 

unius pollicum, liquor a calore aquas ebuUientis ufque ad locum fu- 

premum tubuli DE attolletur, termini varii autem caloris aquae 

ebuUientis non gradibus, fed illorum loco numeris digitorum, quibus 

altitudo mercurii in barometris vulgo menfuratur, ope nempe fcala^ 

additas d e denotabuntur. 

Obfervatms ^' Upon Tburfday the 21ft of December 172 1, obferving the Ba*. 

cfan extraor- rometer much higher than ufual ; (hat Evening, between Seven and 

iiinary Height Eight a Clock, I fill'd a Tube with very clean Quick.filver, and 

^^^^^iST^ found the Height a little to exceed 30,7 i Inches. By Eight the 

George Gra- ^^^^ Morning, a Wheel-Barometer, which hung in the fame Room, 

ham, F. R.S, had rifen One tenth of an Inch higher than it was the Night before^ 

No. 369. p. when the Experiment was made i at Ten a Clocks One fifth of an loch 

**^' more: At which Time it was at the hi^ft, being a little above 

30,8 7 Inches ; for about Twelve at Noon it was fendbly lower, and 

continued falling all the reft of the Day. 

When the lower End of the Tube was firft iinmers'd in the Cittern, 

the Quick- filver for fome Time adher'dto thr Crown of the Gl^ls, 

but upon (baking, it fell to the Height abovemdntion'd. . 

J Prcfo/s/fir VI. Since Torricelli firft found the Mercury in an inverted Tube was 

meafuring the in aquilibrio with the whole Columaof Air that was over it ; and that 

P^^'^ the Weight of the incumbent Column was various, according to the 

^^/^^ji^Pa- difi^crent Difpofitions of the. Air, in refpeA of ferenefair Weather, 

triQV.'s Baro' and of rainy, windy, or otberwifctempeftuous Wither: tbiere liave 

meter, in bceii fevcral Attempts ^nd Contrivances to make the minuitc Vacia- 

IclleiTgreat- "°^^ thcrcof more fcnfible. And firft the Wheel- Barometer was 

^^inlargedy by thopght of, which Certainly ihews thefe Variations with great ex- 

Edtn. Halley, adnefs, but IS only, proper for a fixt ftation, and not eafy to be removed ; 

^- -^- ^' which Circumftance is required for the principal ufc to which this In- 

FRS^li^. ftrument is applicable and for. which I would recommend it. 

366. p. 1 16. ! The next Thought for this-purpofc wasxhait Of Mf Hubin^ defcribcd 

in PbiLTranf. N^ 184, who returning the Tube of the Barometer, 

as an inverted Syphon, made a large dilatation in the afcending leg 

thereof, wherein the Mercury afcended, as it's Altitude in the other 

part thcrcof abated, and i centra^ o\¥r this he drew out a narrow 

Glafs 



'A Tropofal for meafilring the Height cfThces. ip 

GlafsCane, which he filled with a tinged Spirit, and which being about 
fifteen times lighter than Mercury^ would afcend about 15 times as 
much as the Mercury in the Barometer fell. This, befides that the 
Spirit would dilate andcontraditfelf with Heat and Cold, had the in- 
convenience of the former, not to be eafily. removed without great 
danger of diforder and breaking, by reafon of the fmallnefs of the 
Tube in which the Spirit was to rife and fall. 

This was fucceeded by Dr Hookas Maripe Barometer, made of two 
Thermometers, the one the common feal'd weather Glafs, having no 
communication with the outward Air, wherein the temper as to heat 
and cold was (hewn by the fweiling or fhrinkingof the included Spirit; 
the other the old Thermometer made with an inverted Bolt-head, in 
whofe globular Part was included Air fomewhat rarer than the am- 
bient, fo as to make the Liquor which was to rife and fall in the fhank 
of the Bolt-head, always to ftand above the furface of the Stagnum^ 
into which it's end was Immerfed. This ihew'd the heat of the Air 
by it's own dilatation ; but at the fame time, the different preflure 
of the AtnMfpbere mixed with it, fo that the graduation of thefe two 
Thermometers be adjufted to any given Height of the Mercury^ they 
would at all times when the Mercury w2ls at that Height, both ihew 
the lame degree of Heat : But at otner times when the weight of the 
Air was different, that difference would ihew itfelf by the difagree- 
ment of the di^gree of Heat fhewed by them. This will be better 
underftood from N^. 269^ of the Tranfaliions^ wherein I have def- 
cribed this Inftruo^ent at large. This, tho' of admirable ufe at Sea, 
to ^ive timely notice of approaching bad Weather, labours under the 
Objedion that it fuppofes the Concave of theTubes of the Thermome- 
ters to be Cylinders, or df equal Diameters throughout ^ and alfo that 
on account of Heat and fold the Air and Spirit have a. proportional 
piVtttiiion and Contraaiop; the firftof which ][ take to be very hard 
to be found . in ordinary Glafs-Canes, and the other I fear ftill wants 
to be made out by authentic. Experiments. 

The laft contrivance for this purpofe is that of Mr Patrick^ who 
Mcs him(tl( ihoSin-rkelUan Operator^ by filling a fmall Glafs-Cane 
abqut five foot-lQng, andifomewhatj but as little as may bje, tapering 
Mpwarda^ toward the clqfe end. ^ the Cane ^ then inverting it, 
without a ftagiia^t Ciftem of.Merxuryl (ojxuxch of tHjiQ Mercury as ex- 
ceeds the Length of the Column the Atmofphere can then fupport, 
wUl drop off, and leave it's length equal to the then prefent Height 
of the common Barometer: qow; when the Bafpmeter rifes, this: 
lff!!gdi; h the (^ci)lxcqmcp grcafKrt by the Merctiry^^s being preft 
«f) into ^hp -upRpr and ^ narroweij ^^rt of the Tube i and when it falls, 
on the coqtrar]ii> . k fettles dowainio the wider part thereof, and be«^ 
comes fhorter, being always the fame In quamity. By this means, 
as the Angle of the Concave Cone, of Glafs, of which this Tube con- 
fifts, is fmaller, the different Situation of the Mercury^ will, upon 
. '.: the 



30 The Barometrical Method of meafuring Sec: 

^>ie Alteration of che Air's prcflure be nicely fliewn by very large an 
diftinft Divifions. 

Now the Ufe to which I would apply this contrivance of the Bare 

meter, is to meafureby it the different Levelsof Places too remote t( 

be come at by theordinary Inftruments for levelling, with the certainr 

one would defire. For this purpofe let there be provided two fma 

Glafs'Canes, as near as can be fimilar, growing^ very little taper c 

fmallerat the clofed end, fo that being mverted, the Mercury mz 

be fufpended in them at the Height it ought to have at the time c 

the Experiment. Let that Height be duly noted, and then afcendin 

the Monument, or fomc fuch Edifice where the Afcent may beexaftl 

meafured, let the Scales annexed be divided into parts by the defter 

of the Mercury at every ten feet, in both the pendent Bartfrneten 

which I conceive may be fo chofen as to make the Divifions ver 

diftinA and fenfible. Thefe thus prepared, when it is defired t 

take the Level of two diftant places, let one of them be placed in th 

lower place, at the time when the Mercury has the fame Height s 

when they were firft inverted and^ graduated; and let the other b 

carried to the higher place, where rt wiU be found to ftand at that di 

vifion which anfwcrs the Elevation of that place above the other, di 

which had before been found by meafure in afcending the Monumen 

Thus may 90 foot Afcent, which makes but one tenth of an Inch < 

Mercury^ be reprefentcd by two or three Inches, or a fpacc ctpabl 

of being divided into 90 parts: wheteas, if the diftancc of the cw 

places be 20 Miles, a Minute of a Degree is equal to above 30 foot 

and by the uftial Sights, whether Tclefcope or otherwife of your wa£< 

Levels, I fear it will be very hard to convey a true Level without 

greater Error than one Minute ir^ the whole. This Propofal I hun: 

bly fubmit to the Examination of this Hoholirable Soeiety. 

^^'^fV/i'j ^'^- "^^ Height 6f Mountams;* and tticir- Elevation above *h 

ym£in^^ Level of the Sea, hath been ^ aH Thncs thought worthy the A«ej^ 

the Height of tion of inquifitive Philofpphcrs. We fincHn Puny *, that Dicttarebui 

Mountains, One of the old Geographers, a Difciplc of -^rr^^/fe, arid, as PUn 

Z^f; '*A "^ himfelf ftiles him, a B^o of great Learning, had by particular Oi 

i^tbelMzbt ^^^ ^ ^^^^ PrinceJT rrre^fured the * Heights trf fcvcral Moiintaini 

eftbeAtmf- and that the highcft of them. Mount PekusiriTbeJI^liay Was found b 

fbere at given his Obfcrvations 1250 Paces high perpendicnlnrir- Cleemedts alfo, 

^^itudes of Grecian Aftronomer and Geographer, who lived fonw tinie before 01a 

J^'^'^^heuS^- Saviour's Nativity, afferts f, that the higheft Mountain cannM b 

zer, M. D. above 15 Stadia, or 9375 Roman Feet high. 

R, S, S. No. But P&Zjrtri^'il fixes the perpendicular Height of tlic higheft Moiir 

405- p- 537- tains, as aMb thejgreateft Depth of the 5ea, dniy to 10 Stadia, € 

6250 Roman Feet. It ^ill appear by the Sequel pf this Paper, thi 

» Hift. N»t L. xi. c. 65, t Cyclic* Thcor. Cap. x. I la vita .CmiUj. 

tfc 



The Barometrical Method of meafuring ^cJ l^ 

the Height of Mountains, as determined by thefe early Writers, doth 
not fo very much deviate from Truth, as one would be apt to fufpett 
from the infant State of Arts and Sciences in thofe Times. Particu- 
larly the 15 Stadia of CUomedes^ which make out 9375 Roman^ or 
10,214 Paris Feety will be found by the following Obfervations to 
come very near the Height of the Mountains of Swijferland^ which, 
although the higheft of Europe^ do not rife above 10,000 Paris Feet 
above the Level of the Seas and it may feem furprizing, that fub* 
fequent Writers, even fuch as were otherwife deeply fkill'd in mathe- 
matical Learning, have run them up to an extravagant, and altoge- 
dier unnatural Height. 

At firft, it is not improbable, they went only upon bare Conje^Stures 1 
but afterwards, when Geometry came to be more and more improved. 
Quadrants, Semicircles, and other Geometrical Inftruments were 
cail'd in Ufe, by the Means of which, and by a Trigonometrical Cal- 
culation, the Heights of Places could be determined in a more fatis- 
£idory Manner. And yet, however true the Principles be, upon 
which this Method is founded, however nice the Inftruments, and 
however carious the Obfcrver, the Method itfclf muft be owned, and 
hath been found by undoubted Experiments, to fell far Ihort of that 
Accuracy, which it fcems to promifc 5 and < the more confiderablc the 
Heights are, the more uncertain it will be. For, in the firft Place, 
ts the State of the Air is very different in different Seafons and diffe- 
rent Wcatlier, it's Refraftion alio becomes thereby greatly altered, 
which occafions the Tops of Mountains to appear higher at fomc 
Times than diey do at others, and at all Times higher than they 
a^ually are. Btit befidcs, there is another Inconveniency, of which 
whoever h acquainted with the true State of mountainous Countries^ 
mud fieeds be fenfible, and that is the cxtreatn Difficulty of meeting 
at the Bottom of high Mountains with Plains laige enough for a pro- 

Er horizontal Stand, orEafis, to fuch ~a Triangle, as an^ accurate and 
owin^ Obferver would think fatisfa^ory to determine a confidera* 
blc Height, making even proper Allowances for the Air's Refrac- 
Qon. 

Among the many Improvements in Natural Philofophy, wfiich are 
QFwing to Ae Torricellian Tube, one of the moft confidcrable Inven- 
tions ofthelaft Ccntwry, it hath been thereby enriched with anew 
Method of mcafiirifig die reljpedive Heights of Places, and their E- 
lev^ttofl above the Level of the Sea; a Method, which, although it 
moft be owned, diat it hath not as yet, and perhaps, confidering 
die Iflcoftftuncy of the Air, hardly ever will be brought to an abfolute 
Degree cf Certai«y, is yet in many Rcfpedts preferable to the Tri- 
gonometrical one, as rt hatn alfo been found by Experience to come 
nearar the Truth, and leads us, by a new and fingular Scale, from 
the v»ery Horizon of the Sea to the Tops of the higheft Mountains,, 
aDiftance far "beyond {he Reach of Geometrical biftruments. This 

new 



) 1 The Barometrital Method of meafuriHg &C. 

neW Method is grounded upon that chat eiTential Quality of the Air, 
it's Gravity or Prcffure. As the Column of Mercury in thcBaromc* 
ler is counterpoifed by a Cokimn of Air of equal Weight, fo what- 
ever Caufes will make the Air heavier or lighter, it's PreiTure will be 
thereby increafed, or leflfened, and confequently the Mercury rife 
or fall. Again the Air is more or lefs condenfed, or expanded, in 
Proportion to th^ Weight, or Force, which prellesit: Hence jt is, 
that; in England^ Holland^ the maritime Province^ of. Fr/x»^f, andia 
general all thofe Countries which border upon the S^a, the Mercury 
Itands higheft, that the higher you remove from the Sea into the 
midland Countries, the lower the Mercury will defcend, becaufe the 
Airalfo becomes more rarified and lighter, and that upon the Tops 
of the higheft Mountains it falls loweft, and thefe Heights of the 
Mercury in different Places are reciprocally, as the Expanfions of the 
Ain ' From thefe Principles, fupported by a competent Number of 
Obfervations, it hath been attempted by feveral learned Men, to de- 
rive proper Tables, whereby the Height of any Place may be deter- 
mined, if the Height of the Barometer be given, or the Height of 
the Barometer determined from the given Altitude of the Place, and 
likewife the Expanfions of the Air fettled, as they anfwer to every 
Inch, or Part of an Inch, in^ the Barometer. 

M, Mariotte^ a celebrated Member of the Royd Academy of Sciences 
at Paris^ was one of the firft that laid down certain Rules for the 
Conitrudion of fuch Tables, a$ might ferve to determine both the 
Elevation of Places abov^ the Level of the Sea from given Altitudes of 
Mercury, and the Heights of the Air, anfwering to every Line <tf 
Mercury in the Barometer, from 28'', where the Mercury was fup* 
pofed to Hand at a Medium near the Sea. The Principles he went 
upon, and the Method he followed, he difcourfed of at large, in his 
Second EJfay de la Nature de VAir. 

Sometime after, in 16S6, Dr Halk'^ went about another Calcula* 
tion, which he derived {>artly from Principles agreeing with thofe oi 
M. Marioiie^ partly from thp fpecifick Weight of Air and Mercury 
which were found by Experiments to be as i to 10,800; Air bein] 
to Water as i to 800, and Watjcr to Mercury as i to 13 i, or ver 
near it. If fo, as the Column of Mercury in the Barometer is couc 
terpoifed by a Column of Air of equal Weight, a Cylinder of Air i 
10,800 Inches or" 900 Feet will be equal to one Inch of Mercury, ai 
90 Feet to i^ of an Inch, or 75 to h Part of it. The Height of tl 
Air, as it anfwers to one Inch of Mercury, being thus determine 
and the Expanfions of the Air being reciprocally as the Heights 
Mercury, Dr Halley^ by the Help of the Hyperbola and its Afyir 
totes, calculated two Tables, one fhewing the Altitude to giv 
Heights of Mercury, the other the Heights of Mercury at %\\ 
Altitudes. Thefe Tables, the firft thai ever were calculated, 
gether with the Doctor's whole Method of proceeding, and an 

gcni 



The Barometrical Method of meafurtng &c. 3 j 

genious Attempt of his to difcover the true Reafon of the Rife and 
Fall of Mercury upon Change of Weather, were printed in the Fbi^ 
lofophical Tranfa£lions *, and the Tables themfelves were very lately 
xe.printed, with fomc Obfervacions upon them, by Dr Defaguliers f • 

In the Year 1703, when the Aleridian Line, fir ft begun by M. 
Picard in 1669, afterwards continued in 1683, was farther purfued, 
feveral Ohfcrvations of this Kind were made, and the Heights of feveral 
confiderable Mountains, particularly in the Southern Parts of France^ 
determined as well by Trigonometrical as Barometrical Obfervation^. 
Monfieur Cafwi the Younger took that Opportunity to compare thefe 
Obfervations with the Rules laid down by Af. Mariotte ||, in order to 
one which, and conformable to the faid Rules, he calculated twoTables, 
Jhewing the Height of the Atmofphere, as it anfwers to every Line 
of Mercury in the Barometer, the other determining the Height of 
the Atmofphere above the Level of the Sea at given Altitudes of 
Mercury. But having afterwards, upon Comparifon, found that the 
Obfervations made in 1703, did not in the main agree with the Rultes 
oi M. Mariotte^ and that the Heights of Places, as they appeared by 
tbofe Obfervations, exceeded, generally fpeaking, the Numbers re« 
fulting from the Tables made by him according to the faid Rules, 
Jie thought it neceflary to calculate two new ones, wherein indeed the 
Refults are confiderably greater than in the Tables framed according 
to the Rules of M. Mariotte ; infomuch, that for Inftance, a Place, 
where the Mercury falls to 22 Inches, rifcs above the Level of the 
Sea, according to Mariotte^ 852 Toifes, or 51 12 P^zr/i Feet; and, 
according to Cajftnij 1158 Toifes, or 6948 Feet, which makes a Dif- 
ference of 1836 Paris Feet, or 306 Toifes. Dr Defaguliers^ in his Dif- 
ierution concerning the Figure of the Earth •*, hath already fhewn 
how far the Obfervations made by the Gentlemen, that drew the Me- 
ridian a-crofs the Kingdom of France, differ from each other; info- 
much, that there are not two in nine, where the Number of Toifes, 
faid to correfpond to the Heights of the Barometer, agree together 5 
and that confequendy the Heights of Mountains, as determined by 
thefe Obfervations, are litde to be depended on. 

My Father, Dr J. J. Scbeucbzer^ in his Journies over the Moun- 
tains of Swifferland^ at ihey were more particularly calculated for the 
Improvement of Ns^tural Philofophy in it's feveral Branches, negleft- 
ed no Opportunity, along with his other Obfervations, to make fuch 
Experiments with the Barometer, as might ferve to illuftrate the 
Qualities of the Air, to fettle the refpe6live Heights of Places, and 
particularly to fhew, how much our Mountains rife, as well above the 
Level of the Sea, as above other neighbouring Mountains in France^ 

• No. 181. pag, io6. + Phil. Tranfaa. No. 386. || Mcmoires de T Acad. 

Royalc, ifO'5. pag. 61. & fcq. ** Phil. Tranf. No. 386. pag, zii. 

VOL. VI. Part. ii. E Ital^, 



34 TB^ Barometrical Method of meafurtng &c: 

//^/y, Spain^ &c. Many of thefe Obfcrvations are fcattcrcd up and 
down in his Writings, particularly his Itinera Alpina^ and the fcvcral 
Parts of his Natural Htftory of Swtfferlandy which laft Work was pub* 
lifhed in High German. It would be too tedious to mention all the 
Experiments he made at different Times, and upon different Moun« 
tains. But my Defign in this Paper requires me to be particular in 
one, which for the Height meafured both with the Line and Barome- 
ter is, I believe, the moft confidcrable that ever was made, and 
which enabled him more particularly to examine the two Tables made 
by Cajfm the Younger, according to the Rules of Af. Mariotte^ and 
the Obfervations made by him and others, when the Meri£an Line 
was perfefted in 1703. 

This curious Experiment was made in the Year 1709, at Pfeffers^ 
a celebrated Mineral Water in the County of SarganSj at the Bottom 
and Top of a Mountain, which rifes from a fmall Brook, called the 
Tamnnay to the Height of 714 P^rij Feet, as appeared by letting a 
Line drop down perpendicularly from a Tree at Top, full to the Bot« 
tom. At the Bottom of this Mountain, near the Tatfiinna^ the Mer- 
cury was by repeated Experiments obfervedat 25'', 9! ''', and at 
the Top it dcfcended to 24''^ 11 i''^ fo that it fcM juft 10 Lines, for 
714 Feet, which gives about 71 Paris Feet for a Line, if the Heights 
anfwering to every Line were fuppofed to be equal. 

I muft here once for all defire the Reader to take Notice, that I 
have made ufe in this Paper of Paris Meafure, namely, of Toifes (^) 
Feet (0 Inches ('0 and Lines ('//;, Every Toife is reckoned at fix 
Foot, the Foot is divided into twelve Inches, and the Inch into twelve 
Lines. 

The Heights of the Barometer at the Bottotn and Top of the Moun- 
tain being thus given, the Height of it (hould be, according to M. 
Mariotte, 1 16^, o', 8'', ii'/^ or 696 Paw Feet, Sn, n///, which 
falls 17', i'\ ifffy fhort of the true Height, and according to* C4/^i 
1 53^ 3'i 8'/, that is, 921 Paris Feet, 8^^, which exceeds the true 
Height by 207 Paw Feet, 8 Inches; whereby it appears, that the Table 
made according to the Rules of Mariotte is much preferable to that 
of CaJJini the Younger. The fame was likewifc confirmed by another 
Experiment made in June 17 15, upon the Steeple of our Cathedral at 
Zurich. At the Foot of the Steeple the Barometer ftood at a6l/, 10'/^, 
and at the Top at 26'', 7 i'^', and the Height of the Steeple was 
found by the Line of 241 Paris Feet, 4 Inches, which gives very near 
69 Paris Feet for one Line. According to the Table of Mariotte^ the 
Hcij^ht of the Steeple Ibould have been of 237 P4ris Feet, according 
10 Cajftm, 265, and according to the new Calculation (of which by 
and by) made purfuant to the Experiments above, it comes to. 243^, 
16", 2''', or about two Foot more than the true Height. 

It appearing by the Experiments made at Pfeffers^ that from 25'/, 
9j''' the Barometer dcfcends la 24'V n i''^ that is, juft 10 Lines, 

for 



Remarks on the Height of Mountains, fuel 

for the Height of 714 Feet, and the Expanfions of the Air being re- 
ciprocally as the Heights of Mercury, my Uncle, Dr John Scheuch- 
T^er, undertook, purfuant to thefc Principles, and the Properties of 
the Hyperbola, to calculate a new Table, after the following Me- 
thod. 



35 



As the Difference 
of the Logarithms 
of the two given 
Heights of the Ba- 
rometer 25^/91^1 
and24''ii^nfjthat 
is 3097 and 299 f, 
or 



Is to Foot, 



928 -*- 898 
1427 17 



7H 



So the Difference 
of the Logarithms 
of the Height of 
Mercury near the 
Sea, 28II liM to 
any leffer Height, 
astorInftance28'' 
o^n, that is 337 
—336, or 

loii — 1008 
12906 



To the Height of 
the Atmo^here 
above the Level 
of the Sea, as it 
anfwers to one 
Line of Mercury, 
is 



64', 6ir, 9 



fff 



A\ 



Thus the Height of the Atmofphefe at 28^ appears to be of 10^, 



or 



6^', 9''', but, according to Mariotte^ k is only of 10 
63 Feet, and Cqffini fuppofes it only at 10^, or 60 Feet. 

In like Manner the Height of the Atmofphere, from 28 n, o^^', 
1027'', III" is found to be 64*, 9", 2"?. According to the fame 
Rule half the Height of the Atmofphere, that is, the Height of the 
p}ace, where the Mercury in the Sktrometer would defcend to 14 In- 
ches, appears to be, 15060^, 3'', o"', or 2510®, o', 3'', o'". 
Still upon the fame Principle the Mercury will defcend to one Line 
ac the Height of 133,397 Paris Feet above the Level of the Sea, 
which makes 22,232 Toifes, 5 Feet, or 11 Paris Miles (at 2000 
Toifes the Mile) 232 Toilcs, 5 Foot. But as in order to determine 
die whole Height of the Atmofphere, the Logarithm of i^t' ought to 
be dedufted from the Logarithm of 3361^1 or 28^1 o^r, and as that 
Lc^;^itbm is 00000, it follows froca thence, that beyond the Place, 
where the Mercury would defcend to x'<', the Air is expanded into 
an Indefinite Space. . 

. Vlil. In a wnmv Paper, I took Notice that Dicaarcbus found 
Mount Pelius in tbefalia^ to be 1250 Paces high, which nuke 6250 
RamoM^ or 6822 Paris Feet, a Het^t which we may well pronounce 
too great even for the abfolute Height of Mount Pelius^ I mean it's 
Rife above the Lievel of the Sea. Conforoiable to the Determination 
of Dicsarcbus^ I mentioaed, that Pluiarcb fixes the Height of the 
higheft Mountain$, and thegreateft Depth of the Sea to 10 Sudia, 
and Cleomedes affirms, that they cannot exceed 16 Stadia. The cele- 
brated Gidikus dc GaSlHs is one of the moft modeft among the modern 

E 2 Writers 



Remarks qm 
the Height of 
"Mountains in 
general^ and 
ofthofeof 
SwiiTerland in 
f articular^ iy 
the fame. 
No. 406. p. 
577- 



J 6 Remarks on the Height $f Mountains, &c 

Writers on this Head: For he fays, * that the highcft Mountains do 
not rile above a Mile, or 8 Stadia, or 5000 old Roman Vefpaftan Feet, 
which make 5458 Paris Feet above the Level of the Spa, which we 
.ihall find by and by to agree pretty well with fome of the higheft 
Mountains in France^ and may conjcfture to do fo with thofe in Italy. 
Kepler went rather too far f when he aflignedthe Mountains of Rbatia 
(thought the higheft in Swifferland) a Height of ^6 Stadia, or loooo 
old Roman Vefpaftan Feet, which make 109 16 Paris Feet. The O- 
pinions of fome other Antient and Modern Geographers and Mathc* 
maticians, will appear better by the Table annexed. 

A Table fiewing the Height of Mountains according to fever al Antient and 

Modern IVriters. 



hr. P. II. 1 



Strdbo {Lib. II. Geog.) fays, that the higheft"^ 
Mountain, called by him Petra Sogdiana, > 

Pererius {Lib. XII. in G^»tf/J» ; determines the T 

higheft Mountains to -J 

Leo Bapt. Albertus {ArcbiteSi. Lib. X. Cap. l) to 
Atb. Kircber. (Ars magn. luc. &f umbr. 

Probl 5,) brings them to - 
Fromond. (Lib. I. Meteor. Cap. 2. Art. i.) 
Gilbertus de magnete. L. IV. C. i. - - - - - 
Pliny (Lib. III. Cap. Ixiv.) according to the 1 

Explanation of Fortunius Licetus (de Luna > 

Luce fubobfcura, Ub. \\.p. 306.) to - - J 
RiccioluSj Geopbr. {Lib. VL; is of Opinion, in 

Purfuance of what he imagines to have de 

monftrated of the Mountains Athos and 

Caucafusj thatpoffibly there may be Moun 

tains of ---------- 

Now, in Oppofition to this Table, wherein the Heights muft 
needs, upon firft View, appear romantic and unnattrral, let us con- 
fider the Height offuch Mountains, as have been meafured, either 
by Trigonometrical or Barometrical Obfervations. 

In England^ the Height of Snowdon-bill, one of the higheft Moun- 
tains in fValeSj was meafured Trigonometrically, by Mr J. Cafwett of 
Oxford J and found to be of 1240 Yards, or 3720 Englifh Feet, which 
make 3488 Paris Feet. At the Top of this Mountain, the Mercury 
fubfided to 25'* 6^H, which being reduced to PiinV Meafure, make 
jttft 24W. Now in the Tables above, the Height of the Place where 
the Mercury fubfides to 24II, is, according to Mariotte, of 544 



Sta- 
dia. 

30 

32 

43 

64 

128 

400 



Old Rom 
Vejpafian 
Feet. 
18750 

20000 
22500 

26875 

40000 
80000 

250000 



5'^ 



320000 



Paris 
Feet. 

20468 

21832 
23661 

29337 

43664 
87328 

272900 



3493" 



* NuntiQS SidfircttSjt p. 14.^ 
Kb. L p^g. 29. 



t Aflronom. Optic, p. 129, 135. & EpUom, Aftronom, 

Toifcs,, 



Remarks o» the Height of Mountains, &c. 37 

T|ifips, two Foot, or 3266 Foot above the Level of the Sea^ according 
i^mffim^ 676 Toifes, or 4056 Feet, and according to my Uncle's 
Calculation 559^ 2', or 3356', fo that Mariotte comes 222 Feet 
Ihort of it's Height, as it was determined Trigonometrically, Dr 
Scbeucbzer but 13 2^ but Cajftnl exceeds this Height by 568 Feet, 
which confirms again, as I have fhewn in a former Paper, that the 
Maruittian Table is preferable to that ofCaffiniy though pretended to 
have been correAed upon the former, and that that df Dr Scbeucbzer ' 
is an Improvement upon both. According to the Obfervations made 
by Dr Halley^ May 26, 1697, the Mercury flood at the Top of 
Snowdon-billj ar 26^' i^" Engltjh^ which, if reduced as above, would 
give the Height of the Mountain fomething lefs. 

In France^ when the Meridian Line, firft begun in 1669, was 
continued in 1703, the Heights of fever al Mountains, particularly in 
the South of France^ wei^e determined Trigonometrically by the 
Members of the Rosal Academy of Sciences: And I find up and down 
in their Memoirs, the Heights of the following. 

Height in 
Toifes. Feet* 

Mont Clairei \n Provence ■ — — . 277 or 1662 

Ija Majfane in RouJftUon ■ — - — — ' ^^y — •* 2382 
The fame according to another Obfervacioh ' 408 — 2448^ 

Bugaracb a Mountain in Languedoc — — — — 648 — 38 8S 

Mountains in Auvergne. 

Le Puy de Domme, near Clermont « — — 810 — 4860 

La Courlande — ^— ■■ •*— * s 838 — 5028 

La Coftc — — — ' 851 — 5106 

Le Puy de Vklent 853—5118 

Le Cantal — - — ■ ' — 984 — 5904 

Le Mont f or '•- — r - — — *^ — 1030 — 618a 

In the County of Aviffum. 

l£ M(na VentouM ■ ■ *— — ■ ■ 1036 — 6216 

. . Pyrenean Mountains. 

5. BartbeUmy dans le paiM de foix • 11 85 — 71 lo 

Ij^ Montane du Moujfet ' • 1258^ — =• 7548 

Le Canigou -^ } » ■ 1440 — 8640 

^Before I prdceed farther, I muft beg Leave to obferye,. that the 
Heights of thefe Mountains, in^he main^ feem rather too great. 
This indeed is eafily accounted for, as they were meafured by Tri- 
gonometrical Obfervations^ which will> as I have taken Notice above,, 

becaufe: 



^ J IRemarls on tie Height of Mountains, &c. 

becaufc of the Rcfraftion of the Air, give the Heights greater An 
they adlually are. But what confirms it ftiU more, is, that accordmg 
to the Tables above, the Numbers which anfwcr to the Heights of 
the Mercury, as they were obferved at the Top of fome ofthofe 
Mountains, are confiderably lefs, and that even Monf. Caffin?% own 
Numbers, which yet we have by fomc undoubted Experiments (hewn 
to be too great, fall often Ihort. It will be^ongh to mention two 
or three Inftances At the Tower of Majfane in Roufftlhn^ die Mcr- 
>cury ftood at 25^^ s"'', and the Height of that Place was determined 

Trigonometrically, of ■■ ' 397 Toifcs. 

Now 25'' 5^" anfwer according MarioHe^ to 34^ 

According to Cqffini^ 39^ 4 

According to Dr Scheucbzer ■ — — 35^ ^ 

At the Top of the Mountain called la Cojle in Auverpiej the Mer- 
cury ftood, O^f?. 9, 1700, at 23'' 4''', and the Height of this Moun* 
tain was determined TrigonometricaHy of . -851^ Toifes. 

Now 23^/ 4'// anfwcr according to I5..Q1O C^^^q .f 
Mariottej to ' ■ J ^^ C/i;ff 3 ' 

CaJ/ini 826 I P^*"- 1 24 5 

Dr Sc'beuchzer — - -. — 661 5 j ^189 i 

The Difference is ftill more confidera- 
ble with Regard to the high Moun- 
tain Mont ^Or in JtiVergne^ theS — — — 1040 Toifes, 
Height whereof was determiaedf 
Trigonometrically to ■ - 

At the Top of this Mountain the Mercury felU according to an 
Obfervaiion made by F. Sehaftien Trucbet^ June 8, 1705, to 22'' 
12 '^'^ which anfwer according to 

Maria$te, to . -^~ 707^ 5.^ 

CaJ/im to — — ■ 925 i 

Dr Scbeucbzer ■'■' 727 3 



./ If 33^0 ,, 
[ >diff.^ 114 5 



I eomenow to the Mountains of Swijffirf and. The Barometrka] 
Obfervations made by my Father upon feveral of the higheft will 
convince us, that they rife aloft, above all the neighbouring ones ii 
France J Spain^ I^aly^ and Germany. And that it muft be fo appeal 
farther, becaufe from their elevated Tops, they difpenfe their W atei 
to all die European Kingdoms and Provinces around them. I^ay, 
doubt not, but that they may vye m Height with the mod conliders 
ble Mountains in any other Part of the^ known Globe. Smjperland 
fclf, I mean it's Valleys and lower Parts, as they are confiderably Jr 
mote from the Sea, rife aMb in Proportion above the Level of it. *x 
true, the Afcent diithcr is but gradual^ in Proportion to the Remot 

nc; 



Remarks m the Height cf Mountainr, Sic: j^ 

#efs. At Zurkb^ for Inftance, which lies cowards the Northern Bbr- 
dcrs of Szvijfferland, the mean Height of the Barometer hath been ob- 
fcrvcd of 26'' 5''', which give the Elevation of that Town, above 
the Level of the Sea, according to Marmte^ 205 Toifes, 4 Foot, or 
1234', ^ccovd\xi^xo Dv Scbeuchzer^ 210** 4', or 1264', and accord- 
ing to Cafmij 221^ 4', or i33of. This Town isdiftant from the 
Mouth of the iSi^^, which is the nearcft Part of the Ocean, at leaft 
375 EHgUJb Miles, or an hundred marine Fre?tcb Leagues, and from^ 
Genoa which is nearefl: upon the Medicerranean, 225 Englijh Miles, 
ar 62 French marine Ltagues. So chat going down from Zurich North* 
wards towards the Sea, the Defcent, or Fall, is but fomething morc^ 
dian 12 Foot, for a marine League oi France j if we fuppofe affreight 
Line to be drawn from Zurich to the Sea-ihore in Holland^ but it is 
such greater going Southward towards the Mediterranean, where it 
comes at Icaft to 20 Foot for onp League. Nay, if we confider thac^ 
the higheft Mountains of Swijferland lie almoft dire£kly between Zurick 
and the Mediterranean Shores, we muft allow fo much more in Pro* 
portion, as thofe Mountains are elevated nbove the Horizon of Z«nVi&, 
and how great and fudden this Elevation be, will appear by the foK 
lowing Obfervations. 

At Ennen Sewen gen Jweren in the Afcent of the high Mountain- 
Freyberg^ in the Canton of Glarus^ which lies South Eaft of Zurich^ the- 
Mercury wasobferved Sept. 11, 1710, at 23" 10''', which gives the 
Height of that Place above the Level of the Sea, according to 

Mariotte ..— . —— 569^ 2' or 3416^ 

Dr Scheucbzer ^ ■ ■ ■ 584 4 — 3508 

CaJJini • — -. 712 3 — 4^75 

Upon Scberf^ one of the Branches of the Freyherg^ the Mercury felK 
Sept. 12, 1710, to 21^^ 8 '^', i^ifhich gives the Height of that Part of 
the Mountain according to - . . 

Mariotte - — 906^ i'^^ or 5437^' 

Dr Scheucbzer i i i. 93^ ^ er 5588 

Cajini ^ 1247 4 or 7486 

^till higher upon Biatte^fiock^ another Part of the fame Mountain^ 
the Mercury feUon the^ikme Day to 21'^ 6'W, which anfwer accoKi- 
ingto 

Mariottey to ■ ■■■ ' . ■ . . 933^ 2' or 5600'' 

lit Scheucbzer ■ •.— ,-*— ^ ^-^959 ^ ^^ 575^ 
Ce^ui —....-— ^..^ 11^93 3 or 7761 

Hence from Zurich to the Blattenpck near the Top of the Preyberg^ 
jthereis, in lefs than three Days Journey, a Rife of 4366 Feet, ac* 
Qmdmg to MariottCy and. 4492^ according taDr Scbeucbxer, that is^ 

moie^ 



40 Remarks on the Height of Mountains^ &c. 

more than three times the Elevation of Zurich above the Level of the 
Sea. 

At Guppen oh Scbwanden^ in the fame Canton of GlaruSj the Mer- 
cury was obfervedi Auguft s^ 1705, at 23^' 4''^ which give, accord- 
ing to 

Mariotte -— — - -— — 644^? i' or 3865^ 

Dr Scheucbzer — — 661 5 or J971 

(I oniit giving the Numbers according to the Tables of Mr Caftni^ 
having already Ihewn, that they are too great) The Height of this 
Mountain is nearly the fame with the celebrated Puy de Dommej where 
Monf. Pm^r obfe^ved the Mercury, Sept. 19, 1648, at 23'' 2'''. 

Upon Jocb^ a high Mountain in the Territory of Engelberg^ where 
it confines upon the Canton of Bern^ full South of Zurich^ the Mercury 
flood, June 23, 1706, at 21'' 4"', which gives the Height ofthac 
Mountain according to 

MarioiU -*-— r ~— -*— 961® o^ or ^j6S 

Dr SchuabTSfiry -~ . — — — — 987 4 or 5926 

This Mountain, though very high, is far from being the highefl: 
. in that Neighbourhood, for next to it there rifes another called the 
^lijhergj covered with everlafting Snow, which we may, upon a 
moderate Computation, pronounce at leaft 1000 Foot higher than the 
Top of the, Jocb, and confequentlyoneof the higheft in the Country. 
Upon the Avicula^ by the Italians called Monte' del* Uccello^ and by 
Ibme S, Bernbard's Mountain, from a Chapel built in Honour of 
that Saint, a high Mountain in Rhatiaj towards Italy^ the Mercury 
was obferved, July 30, 1707, at 22" 11''', which give according to 

Mariotte -^-^ -i— 707^ 5' or 4247' 

Dr Scheucbzer - — •— 727 3 4365 

This Height m aft be undcrftood only of that Part of the Moun- 
tain which is paffed over by Travellers, the Mountain itfelf rifing 
confiderably above it, and the Adula^ oy ^ictM».Ai of Strabo^ Geog. 
Lib. III. or which the Avicula is only a Part, being ftill higher. The 
Rbenus pofterior^ or Hinter Rhein^ and the Moiifs^ which at laft lofes 
itfelf in the Tejin^ near Bellenzone^ not much above the Entry of the 
^efm into the Lake of Locarno^ arife upon this Mountain. 

At Santa Maria^ upon the Luckmamner Berg^ by fome S. Barndbfs 
Mountain, which is hkewife a Branch of the Adula^ the Mercury 
flood, Aug. 9, 1725, as upon the Avicula^ at 22'' 11''', which 
-^Ihews the Height of thefe two Places to be equal. 

In the Alp San Porta^ mzv the Source of the Hinter Rhdn^ Rbenus 
pofteriorj five Hours and a half from Speluga^ SplUgen in Rbcetia^ the 
Mercury was obferved, Julj 29, 1707, at 21'' 4.''', where it flood 

likewife 



Remarks on the Height ef Mountains^ &c. ^i 

likewife upon the above-nienuonqd Mountain Joclp^ whither the 
Reader is referred for the Height of this Alp. At Sp%^a icfclf, the 
Mercury ftood the fame Morning early, at 23 ''4''', which give the 
Elevation of S;f^^«i .according 10 Manottf .6 j^^ ^i^ or ^^6$^ and 
according to Dr Scbeucbzer^ 66 x^ 5^-Qr 3971^ So that the Fall of 
die Rhine from the Alp aforefaid to SpUigen^ in five Hours and a 
balf^ .comes,! accordwg io MavioUe^ to 1901, and according to 
Dr^rArtifte^^, 'to » 955 Parw Feet perpendicular. • : , 

At the CapuAbim^ upon the high Mountain S..Gothard^ a celebra* 
ted Paflageout of Swi^rland into //<i/v, the Mercury (lopd, June 30, 
1705, ac .22'/ o,. which gives the HeighjC of thac Pafiage, which 
with Regard to the higheft Tops of S. Gotbard^ lies but as it were at 
the Foot of a high Mounuin, according to Mariotte 852^, or 51 12', 
and according to Dr Scbeucbzer^ 875? 5^.or 52g4!!^^bove the JLjcvel 
ofcheSea. • ^ - 

Upon the Furca^ a high Mountain between die Urferen ^al^ Ur^ 
faria t^aUis^ and the upper VulUfta^ and one of the Branches of the 
S. Gotbardy the Height ot the Mercury in the Barometer, was ob&ryed, 
7^h^ 3 If l707^ ^t 21'' 5''^, which give the Height of this Moun* 
tain above the Level <»f the Seft^ aceei;ding--to MawtUy 947^ i^ or 
5683', and according to Dr Stbeu^k&ep^ 973-^ 3^^r 5841. Near this 
Mountain there are others^ which cannot be lefs than 800 or 900 Foot 
higher. . 

Thefe Mountains, I mean die jMcula^ the Ijukmantder Berg^ the 
S. Gotbardy aUd the Ft/rr/i, ' tbgeilicr. with the Griffifiil0y''thtCri^^^\ 
the Seinpftftttir^ Cf Smpromus Adb»i, th6 ^Adubk^ . and ai Chain pf o^^ert^ 
arc the tepmia Alpes ^f'^PImy * and the SunuiaJlpndQafar f*;; 
They begin in the upper Vallefta^ traverfe the Canton of I7H, and fo 
run on Eaftwards, ar-crofs the Country t^ the Gn)^r towsu^s TSr^/. 
Their greateft He^hr above riie'Le¥el of the-SM| may be fixed in 
round Numbers to 7500, or 8pop Paris Feet. 

Gemmius Mdns^ the Gemmi^ \s a very high and fteep A^buntain in 
Vdlefia^ over which there is a Paf&ge, but only in Summer-dme^ 
from the Fruttin^er Valle'j^ in the Canton of Bern^ to the Mineral 
Waters at Leiik m VaUeftd. The Defcent, on the South-fide of this 
Mountain, js fte^p a|id frightfijil, ,. even to the Afpe&, beyond what 
can be imagined, being 'a narrow il^ath, ciit'oh the Side of almoft , 
perpendicular Precipices, fomeunies with trembling Wooden Bridges, 
or rlanks over the (^efts in the Mountain, and ,here:and there mp- 
ported with low Walls. 'Having been geometrically meafured, it 
was found of loiio Feet'in Lengd), or rather Height, it's many 
Windings and Turnings iticluded. At a fmall Cottage, called Zur 
DaubeHy a poorVefting Place for weary TrayieUerSj belAg the higheft. 

* Lib. iH. cap. «. ./fDeBenddaBico;ia?.fiL '^ 

VOL, VI. Part W. V ' Part 



Remarks m the Height rf Metmiahs, &c. 

Part of the Mountaip which is paffftble» the Mercury fubfided Jufy i^ 
1709^ to ^ I ^/ 3''^ which gives the He^t of that Place, according to 

Marioite — ■ ' ■■ 974^ 5' or 5849' 

AnA'Dt Scbeucbzer ■ ■ ^ » ■ i looa o or 6012 

' Not hv from this Cottage, is a foiall mooMainoiis Lake, called 
the Dauben $ea^ or the Pidgeons Lske^ encompaflcd on all Sides with 
high Mountains, the Tops whereof, for their Steepneis, it would be 
impoffible to reach. At Kdndeljiag^ the firft Village in the PrtUtin^ 
Fakey^ in the Territpry of Berny goii^ up to the Gimmi^ the Mer- 
CU17 rofe on the fame Day to 24'' 2''% whichgtve according to 

Mariofte ■ ■ ■ 1 ' -^— — — 520^ i^or^iai' 

Dr Scb^cbzcr ■ — — 534 i or 3205 

And at MBUetun^ at the Foot of the Gumi^ k flood at 25^ 7''^ 
wUch anfwer according to 

Mariofte — r*- — -^-r ^^^ — *— — ^ 3x8^ 5/ or 1913' 
DtScbeucbxpf «-*-^ -^^ --ip-^ -^-^ •«— - ^27 o or 1962 

On the other Side of the GemM^ at LeSck^ a celebrated Place for 
itfs Afineral Waters, the Mflxoff waiobferved Jttly 2» aofd julyi 5, 
1709, at 23^^^ Qff\ which aofwersi according ta MmotUt. to 58 1^ 4^ 
<3ir 3490^ aaiLacoMduw taOr ^ci)CitfA2s«r, to 597^ 3', or 3585 '• 
So that the Cottage Ztm Daubtn^ rifes above LeSck^ according to 

Marioite^ -p^^. u wh m --^ ' m — ^359^ 

lir Sibatcbsfit ibhu miu n » ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ 2427 

Ab»!if«:iM)|/^«iWVi iftth^iritfaa^ according to 

Mamttfi, . "" ■ ■ ■ ■ " ' ■ 3936^ 

l)r, ScJkHcb^ff -.,.— Ill ■ ■ ' - ■' ■ 4050 

A|vd,tfteRcr^wdjqi|l^r Hjiight.o^the Gtmmi^ zboyfc the Level of the 
Sca^ QQi^fJe^^bljJ <«cpeqs 6ooq Paris Feet, 

Qi^t h?gk^bpyq.all ths Mountains of StmJferlaHd rifts the SteOa^ Ptn 
StmU a.^ep NlpUtiKiln.ia the Scbamfer Valley, in RJtuetia^ or the 
Gri/QUff the Hftig^ whixreof was by my Uncle Dr John StBeucbzer^ 
by fomc Qbfcrvafjoo^ madejaithe xear 1709, dfccermined to 9511:5. 
Paris, Fcf^u ^t)oye tjie Levetof the Sea, according to his own Calcu^ 
lation, or 9441 according to Marktfe^ and 12 196 according to Caffimz 
A Height, which the KJi^ieAprm^ or Sbamoys themfclvesfcarce ven- 
rare to afcend. And 'tis to thefe only, and the fike Heights die fol* 
ivmg Verfes of SiBus ItoTscus oi#t to be applied. 

t Cunffa 



Cuttilagelu^ candque Merftdm grM£ne till4^ 
Atqui avi glackm cMintS : riget uriua nwmis 
^tberrifaciesy furgerUique $bvia Pbab9 
Duratas nefiU flammis molSn Prnmas. 
NuUum verufyuam^ mllUsu afi4tu bon9re$^ 
Solajuffs bdbitBt Sksy fidifytu tuetur 
Perpetuas deftrmh hyms -^^ 

The Mounuins are much more abrupt, and fteep, and thd Preci- 
pices greater to the South, than to the North, and Weftwards than 
£aftward8« Many Inftances of this might be given in particular 
Mountains m Smfferknd^ as the Gemm^ the Monsffd^^ and h forth i 
but it is aUb evidently true with Rq;ard to the whole. Thtofe are th6 
higheft Mountains, widch feparate VMfia^ the Canton of Uri^ mA 
the feveial leagues of the Orifbm^ from Sav9j^ PUmmti and the Tlr^/; 
which lie te the Sooth, or Sooch-Eaft. Thofe very Coootritti are^ 
as k were, one continued Sec of high Moonvains, qvhfe to the MgJIU. 
urranam S§a^ and A^ Kke Sorufture feetna co be oMciJlued faithef oA 
iMo that Sea icfelf. The Pjrenem Mouacaitiaalfo are but a Conti^ 
naacion of that vaft Chain, which begins in the Lepomim jt^^ or the 
Mowieains in the iipptr F^dkji^f, the Canton of Uri and RbtfOaf and 
hom thence ipreads itfelf chiefty Wefk and Soudi. On the contrary 
to tlie Eaft and* North they break off by Degrees inio gentle Plains, 
which appears evidently by tlie vafb Trafts of Oroand,' whicA the 
HAiM for Inftance, and the Damibe compaC^ before they lofe themr 
felves, the one into the Germam Ocean, the other into the black Sea» 
whereas the RB9fne^ on the other Side, qoickly, and a with propordon* 
able Velocity, reached the Mgdiurranean. The 6Mlie Obiervacion| 
with Regard to the aiKupt Sceepnefs of Monntaias to the South ami 
Weft, holds true in other Parta oi Ennpe^ remarkably in JEag/aml 
and Norwayj more or leis in other Countries. And fo far as* onl' 
Maps, and the Accounts of Travellers go, the fame Thing is oMs^^ 
vable in other Parts of the World, but moft evidently in the high 
Moanfiains of Peru and Cbili in South Amerim^ which terminate very 
abrwdy Weftwards into the Pacifick Sea, but gradually declme to 
the Eaft mto immenfe Plains, watered by fome of iJie moft confide* 
raUe Rivers in the known Worid, particularly the River ef JhmsxoM^ 
and the Rio delta PUUa^ which arife in the faid Mountains. 

To conclude, from what hath been hitherto faid, it appears evi« 
dendy, diat the Mountains oiSwiffirland are the hiffheft of £«fi0!^^, 
they are alfo the great Store-houfe, whence all the G>untries around 
them are (applied with) Water ; conformable to what the learned LarUus 
Glareanus hath long fince elegandy exprefled in the following Verfes* 

Praierea caput Europes bam effe probahunt : 
jEtemis Alpes nivibus^ juga Otympica^ quorum 

F a Porgitur 



44> Obfervatms cMcemhig the Height of the Baronieter, &c» 

PorgUur in calum caputs (^ Jub Tartara venier : 
Et quod ad Auroram^ Boream^ Solemque cadeniem 
Flumina ferpetuo non defictentiacurfu 
Parturit^ ilia volaHt & in omnia membra redundant^ 
Ad Zepbyrum fcf Libyen Rbodanus^ Rbenatfa furentem 
Unda citat Boream^ gelidus. rotat Ifter ad Eurum 
Dims aquas^ Getico novus Hofpes &f advena Ponto. 
Afialios ftUo quos Italia accipit amneis 
Alpibus i noftrisj quaque aUo d vertiee monies 
Agfmna SJparibus Jundunl latijjima Sultis. 

Ohfervatiens IX. Being curious to learn by Obfervacions, how far the Mercury 
meeming the yfi\\\ defcend.in the Tube at any given Elevation, for which there is 
Height of the fufficient Opportunity hereabouts, I propofed to take the Altitude of 
d^ent^EU- fo«ncofourhifl;heft Hills; but, when we attempted it, we found our 
vations ahive Obfervations fo difturbed by Refraftions, that we cou'd come to no 
the Suffue of Certainty. Having, meafur*d one Hill of a confiderable Height, in a 
2r nS«o^ ^'^^ ^^^^ ^^ obferved the Mercury at the Bottom and at the Top, 
N<». 388.^ p°' ^^ fdand, according to that Eftimation, that about 90 Feet, or up* 
308. wards, were required to make the Mercury faH one Tenth of an 

Inch; but coming afterwards to repeat the Experiment on a cloudy 
Day, when the Air was fomewhat grofs and hazy, we found the 
fmall Angles fo much augmented by Refradlion, as to make the Hill 
much hiehpr than before, tho* they were taken carefully with very 
good Inftruments, both at that Time and before. I afterwards fre* 
fluently obferved at home, by pointing the Quadrant to the Tops of 
iome of our neighbouring Mountains, that they would appear higher 
in the Morning before Sun-xife, and alfo late in the Evening, than a^ 
Noon, in a clear Day, by feveral Minutes : Particularly, one Morn- 
ing in December laft, when the Vapours l^y condensed in^ the Vallies, 
and the Air above was very pure, tho Top of a Mountain, at fome 
Diftance from hence, appear'd more elevated, by above 30 Minutes, 
than it had done in the Beginning of September about Noon, on a 
very clear Day. From whence it appears, that the Refraction is at 
ibme times greater than at others; but prolxibly 'tis always very con«> 
fiderabk, and^ as there is no certain Rule to make Allowance for it, 
it feems likely, that all Obfervations made on very high Hills, efpe- 
cially when view'd at a Diftance, and under fmall Angles, as^ they 
commonly are, are uncertain, and fcarce to be depended on, gene- 
ally erring in making the Heights greater than they really are. 

I then proceeded to obferve, 4s near as I was able, the Alteration* 
€f the Mercury in fome fmaller perpendicular Elevations, which we 
could meafure with a Line, and alfo on the Tops of fome Hills of a^ 
moderate Height, whofe Altitude we could obferve moft commo- 
dtoufly, and, by taking the Angles large, avoid the Danger of any 
conficlerable Refraflion, 

I At 



OlfervatiMS concerning the Height of the Barometer, Stc. 45 

At the Bottom of the Tower of Halifax Church, the Mercury flood 
at 29 Inch. 78 Dec. At the Top it fubfided to 29. 66. The Height 
of the Place, where the Obfervation was made, was found to be 102 
Feet. 

At the Bottom of a C6al-Mine, near this Place, the Mercury ftood 
at 29. 48. At the Top, it fell to 29. 32. The Depth of the Mine, 
being meafured, was found to be 140 Feet. 

At the Bottom of another Mine, the Mercury was obferved to 
ftand at 29. 50. At the Top, it fell to 29. 23. The Depth of tUs 
Mine was 236 Feet. 

At the Foot of a fmall Hill, whofe Height we cou'd meafure very 
exa&ly, the Mercury ftood at 29. 81. At the Top it fell to 29. 45. 
The Height of the Hill was 312 Feet. 

At the Bottom of Halifax Hill, commonly called the Bank; the 
Mercury was obferved to ftand at ^o. oo. At the Top, it fell to 29. 
41. The Height of this Hill was found to be 507 Feet. 

Our Mathematicians demonftrate, that the Denfity of the Air 
decreafes in a Geometrical Progreffion, as the Elevation encreafes 
in an Arithmetical one, and confequently, that the Logarithms c£ 
the Denfities are as the Elevations reciprocally. But the Weight 
of the Air being as its Denfity, and the Hei^t of the Mercury, in 
the Barometer being always proportional to the Air's Weight, ic 
follows, that the Logarithms of the Heights of the Mercury are». 
reciprocally, as the Elevations : Whence having found by Ohfer* 
vadon^ what Elevation is rcquir'd to make the Mercury ftand at any 
given Height, it will be eafy to determine, how much is requifite 
to reduce it to any other Height proposed. If we make 30 In«* 
ches the Standard Height of the Mercury, equal to Unity, and 
fiippofe an Elevauon of 85 Feet be required to make it fall one 
Tenth of an Inch from that Height, as by thefe Obfervations it is 

very nearly.; then as the Logarithm of ^^iS is to 85, fo is the Log. 

3Q>Q to the Number of Feet required to make it fall Half; an Inch, , 

^9*5 

and fo of the reft. When the Mercury ftands above 30 Inches,. 

the Numbers will be negative, and fhew the Spaces defcending ^.. 

by which Method I computed the following Tables. 

The latter, wJiich contains the Differences of the Numbers in thcr 

former, was of very great Ufe to me, when, in thefe Experiments,, 

the Mercury ftood at any other Height in the Tube, befides 30 -. 

Inches, and fell any Number of Tenths, or Parts of a Tenths by 

adding the Numbers anfwerbg thereto, or proportionable Parts of . 

them, to find the Elevation required in the Table, to make the 

Mercury fall fo much, and thereby readily to compare the Heights - 

^und by Obfervation therewith. And though fome imall Errors, . 

mt 



4tf Ohfervstima eoiuenufig the Hiigbt of tbi Barpmiierl &c 

-in thf ObfervatioqSy do make them vary a little from each other^ 
y^% in the main they agree as near aa poflible with the Numbert 
of the Table ; aa did aUo feveral other Experiment too long to 
mention, which makes me believe thofe Numbers are not far from 
^ Truth ; but of that you will be beft abk to judge, by com« 
paring duefe Eje|«riments with others of the fame Kind. 

That the Air is colder, as well as more liahc and rare, in Places 
diat ave fituated high^ than it is in the VaUies and low Grounds, 
is generally kne^wn ; and in order to learn, how much it might be 
fo, I got a Friend of mine, who lives higher than we do here, to 
^ll^rve the Portable Baromeier and Thermomeier,. at his Houfe, 
toi fome Day$» being piacM as near aa poffible in the lame Ch*- 
cumftances with mine; and we found his aarometer flood at a Me- 
4Jsim itnr 2a Days^ 3 Tentha kswer than min^ and the Thermome- 
ter $• 4^ a. lower i aUawina foe die Difference of the Inftmments, 
which hM been obferved before. 

At another Place the Barometer, at a Medium for 14 Days, 
ftood lower by 4. 46. and the Thermomeeor was lower hj ^deg. j^ 
At anothiy Place, which, was very high upon the Moors, the Ba- 
fOfldeter, at a Medium for ten Day^ ftood lawer by c. 65. and 
the Thermometer fell y"*. 



A TABLE 



Ohfervstms eineirnhg the ffe^ht 0/ the Barotiutier, dec 



♦7 



A TABLE fliewbg tbe Nam- 




A 


TABLE ikewhig the 1 


ber of Feet afcending, reqiured 






Number of Feet requirM to | 


to Bake 


the MerciHy ftll (o 






make the Meitrufy M ofte 




any pvcBHeigkt in the Tobc, 






Tctt A of «A iBeh homttf 




from 40 to a6 Inchet. A*«Ub 
the Nomber of Feet defcend- 






dven Height is 
from 31 to 16 ] 


the Tab*, 








[nchct. 




ing, leqairM to make tlw Mer* 












cttfriUt 


fiom 30 to 31 lachc*. 




3> 








fa Dee. 

31 


Feet Dee. 


27 9 


1>ImOm« 





TietDec. 
S2 a6 


In. Dec. 
27 9 


fttfOW. 


, 


«34 


79 


•847 55 


91 42 




50 9 


7S* 


53 


27 8 


1938 97 




30 


9 


82 53 


27 




l^li 


30 8 


670 


01 


27 7 


aojo 72 




30 




82 79 


a? 






JO 7 


587 


ai 


27 6 


2121 80 




30 




,^S 06 


»7 




9* 4« 




30 6 


504 


•5 


«7 5 


2215 21 




30 




2^ |5 


'7 




9* 74 




30 5 


420 


82 


*7 4 


2307 95 




30 




93 61 


«7 




93 07 




30 4 


337 


21 


*7 3 


2401 02 




3« 




!^ ^ 


«7 




93 4> 




JO J 


«|3 


32 


27 2 


'♦?♦ ♦* 




30 




84 16 


»7 




93 76 




JO z 


l^ 


to 


27 1 


2$88 ao 




30 




^ ♦♦ 


»7 




^ 12 




JO 1 


84 


7* 


27 


2682 J3 




30 




84 72 


a? 




94 47 
94 82 




30 


00 


00 


26 9 


2776 80 




30 




85 €k> 


26 


1 




29 
129 8 


85 


00 


26 8 


'287f 6t 




»9 




In 

8g 16 


2* 


95 «7 




170 


fP 


26 7 


3966 79 




*9 




26 


7 


9^5 53 




«9 7 


»55 


87 


26 6 


,306a 3a 




29 




a6 


6 


9| «9 
96 1$ 


29 6 


34« 


73 


26 5 


3158 «« 




29 




a6 




.«9 5 


4«7 


89 


26 4 


3*54 46 




«9 




!! +5 


.26 




.96 61 




'»9 4 


5«4 


34 


«fr 3 


J3ii 07 




«9 




•86 74 


36 




96 98 


f 


>9 3 


6or 


08 


'■z* 2 


344» 05 




« 




«7 03. 


a6 




97 36 


1 


[»9 » 


688 


II 


26 t 


35« 4« 

3«43 14 


: 


.«9 


-» 


r,n 


4« 




^7 79 




29 I 


775 


S 


s6 




«9 




a6 




:9a 10 


' 


29 


863 








>n 




!Z 9' 










2« 9 


95» 


«i 










S *♦ 






' 


I: 


9» 1 


iO» 


*5 






( 


28 


S 


srg 










28- 7 


ii»7 


90 


t 


t 




h*« 








1 




«« i 


.1216 


66 








.28 


6 


89 17 










28 5 


130J 


»5 






* 


28 




89- 8^ 
l9» *» 


r 








(8 9 


•^ 


3« 

•1 


' 


t 


1 


•29 

a8 


4 
9 






\ 




28 1 


',m 


a6 
70 


t 


' 




?! 


I 


f9® 4| 
90 76 






J 




28 1756 


47 1 1 


ta8 


091 091^ 




. ^.^ 





X Ad 



4» A Banmetrical Experiment, &c. 

A Barometri' ^* ^^ variationctn columnsB mercurial Is obfervandatn, pro cfivcrCi 
cal Exferi' altitudine regionum acmofphsers, fodinas noilrae profundiores in pri* 
ment by And. mis idonea ccnferi dcbent. Harum enim profundicatem non modo 
^A^ft ^?^ omni exaditudine metiri •, fed & hrevi ccmporis fpacio obfervationecn 
Sued« Ann. ^otam abfolvere licet. 'Quo fane commodo haud raro deftituuntur, 
1724.. Tri- quibus circa akiores monces hsec talia experiri animus eil. Si icaque 
meftr. IV. quampkirima in variis fedinis infticuerencur experimenca ; nulli du« 
N». 388. p. bitamus, quin vera progreflio, qua dcnficatcs aeris decrefcant, tan- 
^^^' dem fua Iponte fe proderet. 

In magna fodina Cuprimontana argenci vivi afcenfum a viro am* 
pliffimo G^^r^'^/^tf//^^ dudumobfervacumelTe, exlicceris ipQus ad CI. 
De La THre d. ig julii, A. 1711. Fahlunse dads, cerciores red- 
dimur.* 

Imafgenii Ytro fodina Salana, feptem fere milliaribus ab Upfalia 
verfus occidemem difllca, hujus rei periculum a me fadum m die 
28 Aug. cui^rencis anni. Scilicet juxca Hmen putei Regime Cbriftina^ 
(Drowning Cbrifiina Scbatcbt,) hydrai^yri alticudinem 30 digit. &38 
center, leu —g pedis Suecani obfervavi. Cum Barometro dcinde in 
tonna, quaefuni adpenfa machina hydraulica trahicur, ad profundi- 
tatem 636 pedum me demifi ; ubi mercurius ad 30 dig. 98 centef. 
^afcendifle deprehenfus eft. Inde iterum eveAus ad orificiam putei, 
kieadem ac anteai altitudine, nempe 30 dig. 38. cent, columnam 
mercurialem notavi. Adeo ut hydrargyrum 636 ped. in aere elatum 
6 iineas feu ^ ped. defcenderit ; & fie confequenter, fi ^er sque 
denfus ubique'fu{)poneretur, unius linese in cylindro mtfrcuriali varia- 
tion 106 ped altitudini perpendiculari correfponderer. Hor^ illius 
intervalio, quo Integra perficiebatur obfervatio, coelum erat pluvium 
nonnihil & ventofum ; nulla tamen fenfibilis mutatio, columnar mer- 
curialis in alio Barometro fupra fodinam parieti affixo, ifto tempore 
videri poeuit. 

Poftero die, acre fereno & tranquillo, ad bafia templi urbis Sala^ 
haud procul la fodina diftantis, argentum vivum 30 dig. 36 cent, al- 
tum befit, alcitudinem vero 145 {)ed. in turri ejufdem templi fcan- 
dens, mercdrium ad 30 dig. 13 cent, fubftitiile deprehendi, ut tnius 
lines nn Barometn3 defcenfui, altiliudo 1 11^ ped. refpondeat. Bafis 
templi 60 fere pedes infra fuperjBciem foainas deprimitur, Ipfius 
autem fodioas elevationem Aipra jmare Batticum' explorare nondum 
licuit.. i ' i. t I I i i 

Ut haec xioftra bbfervatio cum exterorum. hujus generis e^tperi- 
mentis rite conferri queat, notandum eft inter pedem Suecanum 8c 
Parifinum Regium eam rationem intercedere, quae eft inter 1000 & 
ioq6, feu 125 & 137 proxime ; quam ex pede Gallico orichalceo, 
ii)Ugnis artificis Cbapotot manu iniculpto, cum pede Stiernbielmiano^ 
'dui iii^Bibliotheca publica Upfal fervatur, coUato, exa£tiflime ob- 
lervavi. 

* FiJ. McmolresderAcacL R«desSc. Tann. 1712. p. loS, 

XI. Ic 



Experiments eaneemh^ the Heat of boiting Liquors. 49 

XL It has, I believe, been generally fuppofcd, tho* not proved, ^ ExpeH- 
iStiZi the Ezpanlion of the Liquor in the Thermometer, is proportio- ^f*^)^^^!* 
aal to the Increafe of Heat. To determine this Matter with Cer- Proportion of 
tainty, I made the following Experiment. tbt Expanfion 

I provided a good Linfeed Oil Thermometer, which I marked ^/ ^l^^^^ 
with fmall Divifions, not equal in Length, but equal according to ^^/^,^^^^ 
the Capacity of the Tube in the feveral Parts of it, as all Thermo- Regard to the 
meters ought to be graduated. I likewife provided two Veffels of Degrees of 
thin Tin, of the fame Shape, and equal in Capacity, containing each S^^^:,^^, 
about a Gallon. Then robfcrving in every Trial, that the Veffels iTd rr's. 
were cold, before the Water was put in them, as alfo that the Vef- n^. 376. pat. 
fel I meafured the hot Water with, was well heated with it^ I fuc- 291. 
ceflively filled the Veffels with one, two, three, fcfr. Parts of 
hot boiling Water, and the reft cold ; and at laft with all the Water 
boiling hot ; and in every Cafe I immerfed the Thermometer into 
die Water, and obferved to what Mark it rofe, making each Trial 
in both Veffels for the greater Accuracy. And having firft obferved 
where the Thermometer ftood in cold Water, I found that its ri* 
fing from that Mark, or the Expanfion of the Oil, was accurately 
proportional to the Quantity of hot Water in the Mucture, that is, 
CO the Degree of Heat. 

XJL Cum elapGs abhinc circitur decem annis in Hiftoria Scientia- Experiments 
ram Societatis Regiae Parifienfis legiffem quod celeberrimus Amonto^ ^H^^^ffr^ 
mus^ ope alici^us mermometri ab eo inventi, detexiffet, aquam fixo LiaLfs^iy^- 
caloris gradu ebullire; ftatim magno accendebar defiderlo^ thermo* g. Fahrenheit 
metrum ejufmodi mihimet ipfi prasparare, ut pulchrum hocce naturae F,R.$. N: 
phaenomenon mihi oculis perluftrare liceret, & de veritate experi* 381. pag. i. 
aenti convi&us ctkm. 

<^ propter Thermometri ftrufturam quidem tentabam, fedob ha« 
bitudinis fufficientis in elaboratione illius defe£lum, vana erant cona« 
mina, licet faepius iterata ; & quoniam etiam alia negotia prohibe* 
bant thernM>metri elabarationi magis infiftere, opportuniori repetition 
nem illius dedicabam tempori. Cum defe&u virium atque tempo- 
ris ardor non languefcebat, asque avidus enim experiment! exitum 
videndi manebam. In mentem autem mihi veniebant ea, quae foler- 
tiffimus ille rerum naturalium fcrutator de re£tificatione barometro- 
rum fcripferat ; obfervaverat enim altitudinem columnar mercurialis 
in barometro a vario temperamento mercurii aliquantulum (fatis lenfi- 
biliter tamen) turbari. £x his rebar, quod thermometron fortaffe e 
mercurio conftrui poffet, cujus ftrudura non adeo difficilis foret, & 
cujus tamen ope experimentum nuxime a me delideratum explorare 
Jiceret. 

Praeparato ejufmodi thermometro ("licet in multis adhuc imperfeftoj 
voto tamen meo eventus refpondebat magna enim animi voluptate 
rei veriutem contemplabar. 

VOL. IV. Part ii. G Exitus 



} 



825o 


175 


lOOOO 


212 


"935 


242 


15634 


"240 


18775 


546 



56 Experiments concerning the Heat wf hnRng Liqmrs. 

Exitus experimentorum fecjuenti continetar tabula, cujus prima 
columna exhibec liquores adhibicos 1 fecunda illorum gravitatem fpe- 
cificam ; tertia gradum caloris, ad quern unufquifque liquor ebulli- 
cndo periigic. 

Graivitas fpeciiict Gradus 
Liquotam ad 48 cbullicone 
LiquorCS. * Gr. calidorum. acx^uifiti. 

Spiritus vel Al 

cobol vinu 
jlqua'Pluvia. 
Spiritus Nitri. 
'Lixroium eineris 1 

clavellati. 3 
Ol.rtirUfli. 

Gravitatem fpecificam cujufcunque liquorls addendam necefle ju- 
dicavi, ut fi aliorum experimenta jam inftituta, vet adhuc inftituen- 
da, a memoratis diflferrent, colligi poflit, an e variatione gravitatis 
fpecifiCas, vel ex aliis differentia petenda (it caufis. Experimenta 
prasterea non eodem tempore funt fadta, & inde «tiam liquores va- 
rio tcmperamenti vel caloris gradu erant affedi, fed quoniam illo- 
rum gra vitas diverfimode & insqoaliter turfoatur, calculo illorum gra- 
vitatem ad 48 gradum f qui in thermometris meis medium jtenct lo- 
cum inter terminum intenfifflmi frigoris arte comnnixtioae aquse, 
^laciei, faLTque Ammohiaci, vel etiam maritimi, confedi, & inter 
teitninUm caloris, qui in fanguine hominis fani reperitur) revocavi. 

Olea Volatilia aliquo gradu quidem incipiunt ebullire, fed eorom 
calor ebulliendo femper augetur. Cujus rei caufa foreafleerit^.quod 
hempe volatillofes particular avpknt^ dtim refinofse majori attraAione 
pradiOKTeftant, 

Oka fixa autem tanto cabre afEciuntur, ut Mercunus In thermo- 
metro fimul cum illis ebuMire incipiat, *& Mde eonim ctlor niemorato 
modo vix cert^ e^plorari poterit, Scd alium excogitavi modum, cu- 
jus in aliafchedula cdr^m lUuftri Societate Regiameminiflfe me ho- 
hprem h^biturum effc fpfero. 

' Exceptb fpf rittf Vini & -aqua, • fortaffe etiam gradus cseterorum li- 
'qudriini hie c6mmerttroratorum'variabit, * precipucfi' magna fatis quan^ 
titate adhibeantui" & longiua 'ebuUiant. 



Xm, Inter 



Experiments cmeemhig the Pnei^fmg ef Wster. 5 1 

XIH.1 Inter pluriaia admirandft Nacufs PboBnomeaa aqua^uoi coQ<r ^^ctirimms 
geladonem non mmosis cnomeiiti eflefemperjudicavi; hiiu; ia^pc^exr^ and Oi/ervati" 
periundl cupidus fui, qumam efiej^us frigoris futuri ei)fen(» fi aqu^ <fns concerning 
in fpatio ab acre vacuo dauderetur. Et quoniam dies fecundus, ter- ^^fif^^^ng of 
tius & quartus Mtfr/«, (Styli V.) Anni 172 1. ejufmodi ^^^^^^^^^ZTlj^be^* 
tis favebat, hinc fequences obfervationes & cxperimenta a mc funt>^ N«. 382. 

Antequam autem experimencorum recenfionem aggrediar^ necefle 
eric ut paucis quasdam de thermoroecris, quas a tne conftruuntur, eo« 
rumque fcalac divifione, uc & de methodo evacuandi, qua ufus fum, 
mentionem faciam. Duo pociffimum genera thermomecrorum a me 
conficiuncor, quorum unum fpritu vini & alterum argcnco vivo eft 
lepletum : Longicudo eorum varia eft, pro ufu, cui infervire debent : 
Omnia autem in eo conveniunt, quod in omnibus fcalac gradibus con*r 
cordeat, interque limices &cos variationes fuas abfolvant. Thermor 
metrorum fcala, quas meceorologicis obfervationibus folummodo in^ 
ferviunt, infra a Zero incipit & 96^ gradu finitun Hujus fcalas dir 
Tifio cribus nidtur termims fixds, qui arce fequenci modo parari poG- 
font; primus iilorum in infima parte vel initio fcalas reperitur, 8f^ 
commixcione glaciei, aquas, & faiia Ammoniaci vel etiam mafidmi 
acquiricur; koic nrixcuras ft thermometron impooitur, fluiduqa cjuft 
vfque adgradum, qui zero notatur, defcendic. Melius aucem h^me, 
quam a^ftate hoc experimentum fuccedit. Secundui tenninus ofadaer 
cor, fi acpafii giacies abfijue memcaratis falibus commifQentur^ impo^ 
fito cfaerinonttcro buic .mcxtsnB, floidmn ejus tricefimum fecondun^ 
occupat gnbdom^ & terminus initii coogdadonis a ine vocaUir \ zef^m 
enim ftagnantes cenuifllma jam gUcie obducuntur, qyando byeixw lij> 
quor cfaennomeiTi iuincce gnudum atdngic. Terminus terdiB in itona« 
gefitno fexto gnada repericur > & fpiritus ufique ad hunc gradum dfr- 
lacatur, dam. tbcrmonccTum \A ore vel fub akillis.hominis tnftacu &no 
vhrciiiis tarn diii tenet uc donee perfe^liffime calorem corporis ia«qii^&- 
vit. Si verb icalor hcnittnis.: fiabri vel: alio mpfbb ferveniie laboibntts 
invefttgandas eft, alio thermometro iitendum, pujus. fcala ufque aa 
128 vel 132 gradum prolongata eft. An autem hi gradus fervenf 
dffimo calori alicujus febnb fufficiackt nbndum expertus fum, vix cab- 
men credendum, quod cujulddm febris fervor gradus memcorajtos ex- 
cedene debekt. Tkenrnometcorunlfcala, quortim ope ehuiliendum 11- 
quorum gradus caloris invcftigatur, edam a zero . incipit 9c 6qo cbnd** 
net gradus, hoc enim circiter gradu Mercurius ipfe (quo thermome- 
tron replecam eft j incipit ebullire. 

Ut auteoiquoque thermometra ab omnibus mutadonibus caloris ce- 
initcr alfidaniaar, J»co globulonum ^c^^^ vitueis funt praedita, eo 

^^im modo ob majoris fiiperficicix^uanticacsm cidus a yariadoae c^o- 
lis penetramur. 

Boftquam Inevlter tsnentioncm feci de conftrudione tbei!mometra- 
rum meorum, adhuc defcribendus erit modus evacuandi, quoin ex- 

G 2 . perimentis 



52 Experiments concerning the Freezing of fVater 

^i' '* perimentis initio memoratis ufus fum. Globulus vicreus A tubulo 

B C duorum vel trium poUicum longo in ^ztremitace C atceno* 
ato prsditus fupra ignem calefic, quo h&o tubuli extretnicas aquae 




nas ope forcipis parvae Cenetur, donee aqua in globo concenca 
incipit ebuUire, & vapor aquae impetu inftar iEolipilas erumpit : 
Haec ebullicio aquas aliquantulum continuatur, quo fado globu- 
lus ab igne removecur, & extremicati ejus flamma candelas appro- 
pinquatur. Refrigerefcence globulo vapor ab igne rarefaAus 
etiam fucceflive condenfacur, vaporumque egrefTus paulacim diminui- 
tur,qui poftquamplene cefiavic, in ipfo etiam momentoextremitas tubuli 
colliquefcit, globulufquehermeticeugiUatus& ab aereevacuatus reddi** 
tun An vero hoc modo probe ab aere evacuatus fit, experici po^ 
teft, fi nempe extremitas tubuli fub Mercurio diffringitur, totus e« 
nim globulus Mercurio replebitur, fi diffradio caute fine introitu 
aeris externi fuerit perafta. DiffraAio extremitatis etiam fiib aqua 
perfici poteft, fed licet fumma cura peragatur, globus tamen non 
tarn perfede aqua replebitur ^ dum enim aqua globum evacuatum 
imrat, aer, qui femper ii> aliqua quantifiate aqua&^commixtuseft^ ab 
iUa in minutiflimis bullulis feparatur, quae poftquam coiverunt fiib 
Ipecie buUulae majoris in globulo apparent. Eodem modo elobus ab 
aere evacuari poteft, fi tertia, dimidia vel major pars globi aqua re« 
pleta defideratur ; defiderata enim quantitate aquae prius impletur & 
deinde poft ebuUitionem aquae hermetice clauditur. His explicatis ad 
recenfionem experimentorum pervenio. 

Globulum vitreum, cujus diameter uni circiter pollici aequabat, 
memorato modo ab aere evacuatum, & aqua pluviatili fere ad dimi- 
diam partem repletum, die fecundo Afiir/fiAnni'i72i, frigoris rigori 
cxponebam. Aeris temperics in thennometro appofito quindecimo 
gt*ad» notabatUF. Elapfo horae fpatio^ aquank adhuc fluidam in glo* 
bulo reperiebam, cujus rei caufam efle arbitrabar, quod nempe aqua 
nondum bene a frigore efiet penetrata, ut autem dubii omnis tollere- 
turfcrupulus, globum per totam nodem aeriexpofitum relinquebam. 
Sequenti die tertio Martii ad horam matutinam quintam aquam ad- 
huc fluidam inveniebam & liquor thermometri eundem adhuc notabac 
gradum, cujus improvifi phaenomeni caulam aeris abfentiae attribue- 
bam. Ut autem hujus conjedurae Veritas mihi innotefceret, difTrin^r 
gebam tubuli extremitatem, ut fpatium vacuum glbbuli iterum aere 
repleretur, quo fafto tota aquae mafia celerrime tenuiflimis glaciei la- 
•mellis permifcebatur. Placebat mihi autem amequam experimend 
repetitio fieret, alio experimento explorare, an hae lamellae glaciales 
aquae innataturae efient, quapropter globum diffringebam partemque 
aliquam glaciei aquae vitreo pocula contentae injiciebam, &. illam 
aquae innatare con4>iciebam. 

I DuB^ 



Experimmts CMceming the Freezing of Water. 5j 

Dum autem forte oculos admodum brevi temporia intervallo in 
alium quendam direxeram locum, afpiciendo icerum poculum, totam 
aqoam glacialibus lamellis permixtam cernebam, manente tamen ad- 
huc in interftkiis lamellarum plurima aqusp parte fluida. Tbermome« 
tron hoic mixtura? impoficutn, trigefimum fecundum notabatgradum. 
Atcentiori aucem animo & oculo hasc phenomena contempiari cu* 
pidus^ experitnentum duobus aliis globulis repetere rcfol vebam : poftr 
quam igicur priori mode praeparati erant, illos per hors fpatium aeri 
excerno exponebam, liquor aucem thermomecri interea jam vigefir 
mum attigerat gradum. Elapfa hora aquam in ambobus globulis ad- 
hue fluidam inveniebam, poftquam autem fpatium vacuum globuli 
acre iterum repletum erat, ciciflime etiam aqua (ut in priori expert- 
mento) lamellis glacialibus permifcebatur^ illarumque generado tarn 
fubitanea erat uc vix oculis aflequi poierat. £t quoniam lamellarum 
generatio, quas in poculo vitpeo erat fafla, obfervationem meam 
efTugerat, hinc adhuc maxime curiofus eram, illarum generacionem 
paulo attentius contempiari. Priufquam autem globulorum alterum. 
diifring^bam, aquam memorato poculo contentam a lamellis glaciali- 
bus feparabam quo fa£to globulum diffringebam, glaciem in globo 
generatam aquae injiciebam. Glacies injeda quideni aquae. innatabat, 
fed lamellarum generatio in poculo fruftra a me expedabatun Qb 
oegotiorum quorundam necemcatem, experimentorum continuationem: 
advenienti dedicabam nodi. Qua; poftquam advenerat, iterum h6f,a 
undecima tres globulos fasvienii gelu exponebam. Horum duo ad> 
dimidiain circiter partem^ iterum aqua eranc repleti,. manente refidua 
parte globulorum vacua, in tertio vero folummodio quarta circiter 
pars globuli erat vacua. Aeris temperies in tbermometro appolitb* 
vigefimo fexto notabatur gradu. Hora quarta matutina eundem fta« 
tum cemperiei aeri adefle tbermometro deprehendebam». & aquam ia, 
duobus globulis, qui tantum pro dimidia {^arte aqua modo erant re- 
pleti) adhuc fluidam inveniebamr in tertio autem. aqua congelata,, 
atque globus difiradus erat. Glacies minutiflimis fed admodum paa- 
cis permixta erat bullulis, pellucidicafque ejus maxime pterturbata 
apparebat & confufae cryftalHzationi alicujus falls fimillima eraL 
Hujus experiment! contrarium fucceflum invifibili cuidam. fiflbrae atr 
tribuebam, qua aer externus tntroitum invenerat atque ita congelar- 
tionem aquae procreaverat. 

Quoniam autem magno adbuc flagrabar defiderio, lamellarum g^^- 
nerationem in poculo vitrco attcnte concemplari, idcirco vas vitreum^ 
c cubiculo in illam afferebam cameram ubL haec experimenti fiebant, . 
dum autem fcalas paucas, quae ad illam ducebant cameram^ afcen- 
dere volebam, deficiebam fcalam aliquam pede bene attingere, quo^ 
fefto aqua vitro contenta ruditer commovebatur, atque co ipfo mo- 
mento tota ejus mafTa plurimis permixta apparebat glacialibus la- 
mellis. Hoc autem cafu infortuito edocebar, glaciem in aqua fatis^ 
^igida agitatione produci poi&i curiofus inde cram experimento ex- 

plorarftr 



s4 'An MraordinAry Infiartce &f FreesHng. 

plol-at^c^ ah congelatio aqu£ eciath in fpatio vatuo agitattone futura 

eflet. Poftquam iglt'ur gwbulum aliquantum agitarrerftiH) magna a- 

iiimf voluptate euhcldm phceiiohicni eventum cernebam, fimulque 

judicii errofrcm agnofceWm, quod nempe abfentkb aeris fluidicatem 

aquse atcribuiiiifem. Incerea e chermometro agnofcebam, gelu mul- 

turii lahguefcere, liquor enirti jam ad vigefimum odavum afcenderac 

gridom, cito igitur manu diflbtVebam glaciett, glebttlum^oe unum 

iterum acVf cxpohebarfi (crit autdrtn akelr cafu inibrtuico diffraftus). 

Reli6fo glibo-pcr dimidiutfi circitfcr horas? fp^tium, gelu adhuc magis 

rctpitrcre' obftrvabam; th'ermortetri enim liquor jam ad gradum tri- 

g^'fimurri fecund am perveherat. Et quonianfi ver^bar, nc remiflione 

mgotis exjperimcnti repctitrb va'na fucura eflkc, fi diutius globulus 

am r|(ilinqQefefar ejrpofitus: hine ijifo tcmport, agitations globuli a- 

qii^ ddngcUtibhem ptofcrcire t^ntibatn 5 fed licet fdrtiter agitaretur, 

hbn miriim'a tkmen cdngelatibriis apparebattt indicia. Cum' vero hoc 

modo omnis congelationis fpes evanuerat, adhuc ckperiri tolebam, 

an co^elatio fuccelTura efltt,* fi fpatium vactium globuli iterum aer6 

reblerfetur. Diifrafta igitur ejttremicatc tubuli, minuciflimje glaciei 

i^!(^af p^'tbtatti iqiix ttiaflkm' diffufsfe generdbatitar, (Cfuft crrciim- 

rdratibA'^ aqutb fiiperficieih' pfrtbahtj amcinifllniafni^ue fpcftaculum 

t^fledtibHfc'ltttTrtiHii ab eaiHiAi pBficli ftiperfititbiis pMSb^baftt. Quom- 

itti; aurem haj^s' hyemTs gelu hot die finiebatur & ciim illo experirtjen* 

tohim contintidtioni finis imponebatui*, quam v6ro tempori 6pport€»^ 

Hfbi^l iVixi tJitcbfeitatis cipcrfrfiehlii mfticueit Hnihi pr^poncbaih. Hyetm 

'iM ijH: m m\i^ ih flhUMh tefdt, ut p6r tbtAm hyem^tn vix a- 

^\i^ ftagriyrtt^s W^cle a^iqui obducebahtur. ' Et lictt hyem^ miti* 

lanni kyi^.'mult^'fevefidrerati atcamen negotiorum copia, alionnn^ue 

exp^riAle'rttbrtim major rieceffitlii continnatibhem eorum prbhiBebiht 

An extraordi' XIV. Tfle i^th of HecemW laft coming into the Hall, Where ffi]^ 

*jfq^»A»^' Jhtiurdtus 'M blaWd; in the Palace of the Nobility at Stpckh)hH, t^ 

iillttli ^^1^^,^^ If^at^dthattheOla^^^^^^^^ 

freezing of jpetirtlfcht with.rht: Carte/tan DH^ls (oV- thofe gfafi Figortt m Waftr, 

Water; iy ^hlch by thfe Preffurc 6f the Air oil tlie Surface off the Water, are 

P'r^'Tno ^^^^ ^^ ch^rtge theii- PFaces, and fink to the Bottofm of the Glafs) 

418. p. 79.*" w^u'd be in Danger, if tht Water ftiould freeze in the fafme. I took 

' * it do^^n from the Shelf j and ^as ^cll pleafed to fee thfc Water in k 

fluid State •, but before I would empty the Glifs, as fome Friends thtfc 

were prcfenc had not fe^n that Experiment, I placed my Hand on'the 

Bladder t?cd bn the Top of this Gylmdrical Glafs, which wasof fe 

pretty large Si2e, fixteen Inches high, and threte Inches and a hatf 

Diameter, containing three glafs Figures : In that very Iriftant, and 

in thfe Space of a Second of Time, I fourid all the Water changed 

Into Ice ;• when in that Time two of the Figures had reached vtry 

near the Bottom, but the Third, as well as they, fixed in the Mifl- 

'dle of the Glafs, furrounded with Ice as tranfparcnt as the Watier 

liiclf before it congealed, 

I June 



Okfifrvations^ljie 0^e4tber, &c. 



ii 



D. M 


il 




N/rth. 


Long. 
Weft. 


Vamt. 
Welt. 


Obf. 


wind. ' 


Wcitiier, 


I 


XV. 

Obfervations 
9n the Wea- 




eo < 


■^< 




4^ 44 


170 oc 


'>bt; 






. ther-, in a 


June 4 


27 


25 


>-90|2' 


^W. 


Clofc. ----- - 


Voyage to 


5 


22 


25 


59 38 


5 I" 


16 oc 


Jbf. 


SWmNW. 


Rain, ond fiormy Windf. 


•Hudfon's Bay 


6 


21 


24 


?9 58 


5 57 


17 oc 




wsw. 


R^m, and frcfli Gales. 


in North- A- 


7 


22 


23 


59 22 


7 06 


17 20 




NWtoSSW. 


flam aad fqually, witli Fogs, 


merica, in the 


8 


22 


22 


59 38 


8 39 


18 od 


Dbf. 


iWtoSE. 


Mucli Rain all Night, fairac Noon, fear 1730. B^ 


9 


23 


22 


59 54 


8 47 


18 OC 




lNJE. 


yer>' doudy. 


Capt, Chrifto- 


lO 


20 


22 


>9 14 


10 14 


18 cc 




^^o^tIl. 


Ftrft Part iqually, latter fair. 


pher Middle- 


XI 


22 


22 


>8 35 


II 23 


18 oc 




NW, 


Squally withRiLin. 
Cloudy, with fmsdl Ram. 


ton. N«4i8. 
page 76. 


12 


22 


25 


57 21 


12 20 


i8 00 




N VV, 


»3 


22 
25 


24 
25 


56 ^i 
96 00 


13 13 

14 22 


18 00 
18 00 




NWtoS. 


Squally. 

Firft Part fqually, latter hazy. 

ScualJyj and {jr^h Gales* 

Cloudy. 




15 


24 


25^ 


55 53 


17 02 


28 00 


Obf, 


,E ££> N. 




16 


20 


23 


^$ 42 


18 16 


18 00 




NEtoSW. 




»7 


«9 


23 


56 21 


»8 47 


18 00 




SWtoNW. 


R^iM and llorgiy. 




IS 


18 


22 


55 22 


*9 34 


18 30 




NW. 


Squally, with Rain. 

C! ud y with. Rain ,■ u ncti^un. 




^9 


20 


23 


55 4^ 


21 14 


19 0^ 




NNEtoWbS. 




20 


21 


24 


56 51 


zi 31 


19 30 




NW. 


Frefh Gales, and foggy. 




21 


21 


24- 


57 23 


21 54 


20 00 




WN|Wto.WbS. 


An hari Rain, and lWnri7. 




22 


21 


24 


57 OD 


22 Q^ 


20 00 




KEfo W. 


Hifd Galci for the, moft Part. 




17 


21 


24 


57 56 


23 52 


21 00 




wsw. 


Frefh Gale*, buc cloudy. 




24 


23 


24 


98 16 


24 09 


22 00 




W to WNW, 


Hard Galea, cloudy. 
Cloudy, Iktlc.Wi^d. 




25 


24 


23 


57 40 


24 3« 


22 ooObfj 


WNWtQSW. 




26 


23 


^i 


57 S7 


25 S3 


22 00 




S.W, 


Little Wipd, ai^d foggy. 




27 


2Z 


Z2 


58 47 


28 »5 


23 00 




^WtoW, 1 


Foggy, and fqually. 




28 


23 


22 


58 .59 


29 3« 


23 00 




^toNN,W. 


F;-efh Galcs>.Biain. 




*9 


24 


21 


58 2& 


29 45 


23 ^0 




>J W to W, 


Moderate .a n<i qilm. 




30 


25 


22 


98 00 


30 ^ 


24 00 




w to sw, ; 


Moderate, clouidy. 




July I 


22 


22 


58 25 


31 29 


24 00 


Obf 


v¥SW, * 


Moderate and clear- 




2 


20 


22 


19 13 


32 54 


25 Oc 




nvtow. 


Frequent Squalli, fome kiiiu 
Moderate and cloudy, 




3 


24 


21 


59 03 


33 H 


25 oc 


Obf, 


WNW. 




4 


2S 


22 


)8 54 


33 Jci 


25 oc 




^^NW, 


Fiir, foincti^es c4nt> , 




5 


26 


22 


53 43 


35 44 


26 cc 


Obf, 


SSE- 


Soiuctiinef calm. \ Fain * 




6 


20 


22 


S8 .26 


37 -25 


26 y. 




SSEtoW. 


Stormy, and Rfin/ /^ 




7 


21 


20 


>8 06 


39 30 


27 3^ 


Obf. 


WNWtoSE. 


Moderate. Little Wiiidi 




« 


22 


20 


58 .03 


42 38 


27 , oc 


-.; 


StQSW. 


Foggy. 




9 


24 


22 


>7 34 


43 23 


27 oc 




NNW. 


Foggy, Little Wind. 




10 
11 


24 
28 


241 
28 


57 43 
,"8' XI 


45 2j 

46 47 


27 or 
27 GO 


QbC 


NNW, 1 

WbStoNNwJ 


Ff efli G^^ and ^Icar* ,1 w> 
ClouJy, with fmall Raiiu ^ "^ 




12 


29 


26 


>7 34 


48 17 


28 QC 


Obf. 


NNWtoSSW, 


Fair* 




»3 


29 


26 


>8 0050 48 


29 DC 




sw. 


HAzy. 




H 


28 


26 


58 53 53 »0 


31 OC 




5WtoWbS. 


A thick Fog. ^ 




»5 


33 


35 


58 .5655 f8 


32 OC 


■ 


WNWt<>NW, 


^iTuN Rjin, an^ fqiially. 
Sevcril^Jllesi.oricc. 




16 


38 


37- 


59 0655 33 


34 <^<^ 




NbWio,l!lW.. 




>7 


40 


38 


58 50 


56 04, 


35 ^"^ 




NI^W. 


Fair,andf]e^r. Vef7 cpld- 
Very ccild .Atuct Ice,"^ , 




18 


4» 


39 


^8' 53 


56 43 


37 Q^ 


Obf. 


NW toW$W/' 




>9 


40 


38 


59 . 45 


58 03 


36 00 


ObC 


NVi^ioWSW. 


F.iir and plearr 


1 




20 


40 


38 


60 01 


58 27 


37 <^^ 




NNW. 


Fair and oio^cxate 


1 




21 


4* 


.38 


59 5» 


59 59 


17 c^ 




NMWtoSEbS. 


fair. 






22 


43 3S 


61 «6 


62 09 


38 CO 




SSE. : 


Hazy. 




as 


43 39 


61 50 


63 34 


40 tc 




.SE. 


In fiudm'j ^rfigkts. 




24 


42 38 


62 II 


72 32 


42 00 


Obf. 


SE. 


Foggy.' 




25I 


40 


35 1 


63 II 


76 22 


40 oc 




SE. 


Raisy and coId« 







$6 



Ohfervations on tbi fTeather, &c. 









r^*^ 


D. M. 


b *«3 




»< 


Jul/ 26 


4" 


27 


39 


28 


37 


29 


35 


30 


38 


. 3i 


40 


Aug. I 


43 


2 


4« 


3 


40 


4 


38 


5 


38 


6 


40 


7 


40 


8 


38 


9 


38 


10 


34 


II 


34 


I? 


3« 


«3 


27 


14 


26 


>5 


26 


16 


29 


17 


26 


18 


*S 


19 


*s 


20 


28 


21 


28 



§1 

^■< 

37 
39 
38 

36 
38 
39 
38 

36, 
3S 
37 

36 
36 

3' 
32 
30 
30 
30 

27 
27 

27 
«S 

2^ 
^5 



Lat. 
North. 



630 

63 

62 
60 

56 

ss 

55 

55 
55 
55 
55 
55 
55 

;4 

54 
S3 
53 
53 
53 
52 



Long, 
Weft. 



. k^ari 



anat 
eft. 



Obf. 



1278 
0978 



er4 40» 



8t 
82 
84 
84 
83 



43 



42 



2084 
2783 
^3 



83 
0082 



1240 

21 

09 

2' 

16 



32 
32 



l6'}2 
22182 

06 ^ 
34 



44 
01 

24 
46 

43 
43 
43 



»5 

20 

44 
28 

54' 84 

5684 



36 
52 



84 
84 



84 

!5 



34 
34 
34 
56 
S« 
57 



3185 3c 



4024 
2024 



24 
H 

24 

H 
24 
H 

0024 



"5o Obf. 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 

00 Obf. 
00 Obf. 
00 
00 
00 
00 

OG 
00 
00 
00 
00 
CO 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 

23 ooObf. 



36 

13 
28 

24 

24 
H 
H 
H 

H 



Wind. 


Weather. 


sli. 


Litile Wind, and dear. 


Baft. 


Little Winds, fometimes calm. 


SEtoWbN. 


Squally, with much Rain. 


WbNtoNE. 


Gentle Rain. A frefh Gale. 


N to NN W. 


Much Ice all round. 


NW. 


Fair and dear. Ice ftiU. 


NWtoWSW. 


Fair. Ice as before. 


SbW. 


MercT. indofed in Ice. Fair. 


South* 


Still in Ice. Fre(h Galei. 


SW. 


Foggy, and much Ice. 


ESB. 


Much Rain, and foggy. 


WSW. 


Fair and moderate. 


ENE. 


Lightning with fome Rain. 


NtoNNW. 


Fog. Freih Gales. Jambed in Ice. 


NNW. 


Froft and calm. 


South. 


Fair and pleafant. 


SWtoNW. 


Moderate. 


NNWtoSbE. 


Moderate and &ir. 


StoSSW. 


A frefli Gale. Much Ice. 


SbW. 


Hard Gale. Thunder and Rail. 


WNWtoNW. 


Frelh Gales. In Ice. 


NWtoN. 


Moderate and fair. 


NEtoSbE. 


Clear of Ice. Fair. 


WbNtoWSW. 


A frefli Gale. Clear of Ice. 


WSWtoWbN. 


Moderate and fiur. 


WbStoSEbS. 


Moderate and fiiir. 


EtoNE. 


Moderate. 



Im Ax b a n y Road 



2| 27 1 25 koo 29185®: 



22 

^31 

24 



20'|23®00 



EWtoSE. 
W. 
^NW. 



Moderate and fair. 

Dry. Somewhat cloudy. 

Merer, at a Stand. 



The Time I was on Shore not obferved. From Albany. 



Sep. 2| 25 I 20 |53» 56^100 30^ |E240 00I |S S W. IHazy, but (ball Gales. 

From the B E A R Iflands. 



'Sept. 3 
4 

5 



7 
8 

9 
ic 
11 

42 



3J 
40 

37 
37 
37 
38 
36 



32 

37 
36 

35 
36 



36 I 38 
3$ i 38 
34 i 37 



54«22'p* 

55 450 

56 35* 
56 573 

56 45 « 

57 063 

58 083 

60 252 

61 490 

62 33(0 



7 'Wi 240 00' 
49W.25 00 
26W26 
04WJ26 
W26 



22 

26W 

02W 

02W 

42E 



51E42 



26 
28 

33 
38 



00 
00 
00 
00 
00 



00 

00'* 
00 Obf. 



SWtoNEbN. 

MNE to WSW. 

BbNtoNE. 

NE. 

i>fE. 

VEbN. 

N b E to W. 

WSWtoNWbN. 

NbWtoNbE. 

NbEtoNNW. 



Mercy, fuddenly falls to freezing. 

Hard Froft. Fair. 

Cold Air. Squally* and foggy. 

A wet Fog. 

Moderate Gales. 

Frefh Gales. 

Foggy. 

Frefh Gales. Wet Fog. 

Nioderate, but cold Air. 

Frefh Gales, fqually, with R.-ub^ 



OhfervaiimsM the fTeMtbtr, &c, 

From Di o s. 



57 



D. m: 

Sep«3 
M 



it 



n 



33 
3^ 
5* 



i6 

«7 

t8 

«9 
zo 

21 
221 



oa 



23 

II 

27 
28 

*9 

30 

1 



3 

4 

I 

7 

8 

9 
id 



33 

JO 

30 
30 
30 
3« 
30 
30 

«9 
3' 
33 

33 
3* 
30 

32 

3$ 

30 
*S 
«S 
25 
*9 
3' 
32 
3» 
33 



34 



36 



Lat. 
North. 



Long. 
Weft. 



63» ao' 



35 53 03 



Sz 



099 



I9E 



Vtfiat 



Obf. 



|0 20^£430 oopbl. 



4^ 
4^ 



00 
00 



Wiad. 



A^ round. 

SbEtoNRW. 

NWtoNNW. 



Weather. . 



Somecinies cairn. 

SquaUsy Showers of Snov^ and HalJ. 

Stormy, frequent Shovers of Snow 



From Bu T T o N*s Iflandi. 



35 
34 

34 
35 
34 
33 

II 

36 

35 
34 
34 
34 
33 
3* 
3« 
33 



30 +9 



30 



29 H9 

28 

*7 



29 

30 
28 



6|0 io/jO» a9'Ej39» 06' 



JO 

>8 
S7 
$7 

|i 

54 
53 
53 
5* 
5* 
50 
5* 
5« 
49 
49 



35 
52 
54'+ 



10 



09 
39 



16 
18 



49 



5° 
+9 



49 
49 
49 



22 



28 

38 

'9 

4<!»7 

2832 

4636 
2139 

3542 
4' 46 

0749 
2651 

30 J3 
5654 
'954 
4753 
JO 53 
5853 
2155 

S6"6i 



34 
H 



0632 



24 

27 
43 
28 
16 

.27 
II 



<7 
10 16 



23 



34 
le 

26 

48 

49H3 



37 



30 
28 

25 
22 
21 

*9 
18 



*5 



09H4 

57 
45 



3 



oc 
00 
oc 
00 
oc 
00 

50 

oc 
oc 
00 
00 
-00 
oc 

00 

00 
66 
oc 
00 

00 

00 
00 
oc 
oc 
oc 



INbWtoNNW. 

NWtoN. 

NNWtoNNE. 

N W 

NWtoSbW. 

SbWtoWSW. 

WSWtoNW. 

NW. 

WNWtoSSW. 

BtoWSW. 

WtoSW. 

sswtoNw: 

N.toWbS. 

SWbWt^SSW. 

SW. 

SWtoNNW. 

NE. 

SE.- 

StoB. 

EbS. 

ESfi. 

Eaft. 

EcoSSW. 

W-SWto&bW. 

StoSSW. 



Many Iflea of Ice and Sinow. 
FreihGahs, and Ae(^uent Squalls. 
Squally, With Showers of SnoW* 
Squally, with Hail. 



Squally* with Hail and Ram. 
HardSquallSf fome Rain. 
Stormy, with fome Hail. 
An hard Storm, with Hall. 
High Winds, with HaU. 
A Storm. Wind and Rain* 
More moderate. FrefliGaleSyRata. 
Squalls of Rain. 
Frequeiht Showers of Rain. 
Very fqtially, with Lightnings 
An hard Gale, with Rain. 
Moro moderate and £ur. 
Moderate and fair. Little Wind. 
P^edk Gales, with Rain. 
A Storm. Wind and Rain. 
An hard Storm, with Rain. 
Stormy, with Thunder. 
More moderate. Cloud^.Some Rain. 
Foggy» with fome Ram. 
iFreA Qales, with Rain. 
Obf. S to S S W. (Fair and moderate for the moft Fart. 

OSPlymutb, 

Thefe Obfervations were made by Mr Jobn PatricVt new Quickfilrct Marine Barometer. 
Notit The Altitude of the Barometer and Thermometer were laken at Noon. The Account 
of Wind and Weather at Sea is from Noon to Noon. 



XVI. The weighing the Water and reducing it from Weight to jn Account of 
Depth feemed pretty troublefome, even when done in the eafieft Me- tM Depth of 
thod : To remedy this Inconvenience (befides a Funnel and proper ^^'^A^^^J^ 
Receptacle for the Rain) I ufc a cylindrical Meafure and Gage. The^^^z, /1"a-'' 
Funnel is 30 Inches diameter, and the cylindrical Meafure exa£tly 3 ; pHl t', 1723. 
the Depth of the Meafure is 10 Inches, and the Gage of the fame Okfirvedat ' 
Length, with each Inch divided into 10 equal parts; or, inft«ad<>f ]J^Northum^ 
a Gage, the Inches and DiviGons may be mark'd on th<i Side of thflf berjanj^ ^' 
cyiin^ical Meafure. The Apparatus is fimple and plain, and it is the Rev. Mr 
cafy to apprehend, the DcCgn and Rcafon of the Contrivance j for Horflcy. N^. 

VOL. VI. Part ii. H the 377- P- S^S- 



51 Ab AtcmA if the T^ifib 9f Mn, 8cc. 

the Diameter of the cylindrical Meafure being juft 77 of that of the 
Funnel, and the Meafure exa&ly 10 Inches deep, 'tis plain that 10 
Meafures of Rain make an Inch in Depth ; one MeaUire, ^ ; one 
Inch on the Gage» j^i and -^ of an Inch on the Ga^e, .y^, &fr. 
By this Means the Depth of ^y- panicuUr QuaiKiiy which falls, 
may be fet down with Eafe and £xa£bnefs, and the whole at the End 
of each Month, or every Year^ may be fummed up without any 
Trouble. 

By the following Account you'll fee, that fome of the Summer 
Months, particularly A&y and y«/y, were very wet, and fome of the 
Winter ones very dry % fo that, one with another, this Year's Rain, 
as far as can well be conjectured) may be looked upon as a Medium. 
And if To, it differs not above two or three Inches, from the mean 
Quantity of Rain which falls at Upmin/ter^ Paris^ and UJky being lels 
than at Uficy and more than at the other two Places. 

Jn. 4c(:fitmt of the Diptb of Rckin fallen from Ai^r\\ i, 1722, /^ April i, 

1723. 

Inch* 

In jfyril ■ — -r— 1,015 

hi May -r- —^ — — 3,532 

Jajune — — -»— ^i — ^j57o 

UJuiy -T— 4,350 

In jiuguft -*— — -f*— 2,132 

r In Septjsmber m -^^ -»— 1,155 

UO^er -rr— -^ — ,600 

la November ^ ~r- — — •?'-'— 2,205 

In Dec^ber ' .' .. — — % ■■ 1,780 

In Janf^ary ^ — r- » i 1,225 ^ 

In February ■ .. .. ■ ■ *— f- ,485 

InMar^cb — — -»— • — - ,195 



In the whole Year . ■ . ■ ■ — r. 21,244 



ffii Bfeffs of XVII. The Effeds of a violent Shower of Ram at Riponden^ near 
A<?^'«i9^*Kfc^ ^¥^s. WQi^$3 fui^prisui^g^ that I wiiote to a GentlemaD in tbofe 
^ ^iv*'^* ^^^^ ^ ^ Account ^ ttHght be dfspended, upon ; and particularly 
iSk folph^ ^' ^^ftj^d to knowf, whether t;herc was not an Eruption of Waters out 
Thf>r^ ofi tihe Hills, as.tbe late ingenioi^ Mr Townl^yofTownley wrote me there 
R H, ;?. fi<\ was 0»t of PeinM^-biUt in, thV. an Star-bottom^ mentioned in the Pbilof. 
37^ yt^ Ml. Xr^.lff^ 1^45. but ajl; ^ Accoiint I c^ le^rn of this is, that what 

^f call thQ' Da/h^p$ of two great warery Clouds upon the Hills,. 

««4afipiMd. tbo UkmAWQni wh»6$yei^ was the oiore immediate 

Caa&> 



The Effi^i ifi viokkt Shdwer •/ Rdh$. 5^ 

Ciufe, the Effe^s w«m diftnal, and fo fudden^ that tho' ic tkras u|). 
on the Day-tim«> th* p66f CrMturai fcdiild not faVe their Livei.^ 
This Calamity haptoeftfed thd tSth x^i Maji iytt. bet*ri*c the HcfiirS' 
of 3 and 5, when by the fflbdefteft Ai^cowit the Beck was itifed iWe 
Yards at leaft in perpendleukr Height above what Was eter knewii 
before I which tnay be eafily cohceired by the Situation bf the Place 
implied in the Termination den, which flgoifiis a deep Valley bitwe*ll 
pretty fteep Hills on each Side. Femes in convdllibtis^ is in the Saxon 
Vcrfion rendered fHiar on Wnum Pf* cWj. 1. arid ^*/Ay af^tafs^ (M 
this now; Pf. Ixxxiij. 6. oene ceopa. Sevefal Houfes, four MHU CfdttiiS 
fay fix;, nine Stone-Bridges, and tih 6r elevta of Wood, are tfilken 
down, and the Wheels, Dams, and Sluicesi {Ebotaeenfthus Goits^ 
from the verba! Noun -^totan fundiri) of moft of the Mills that are 
left Handing, broken and damaged ^ arid a great diA\ of Cldth gone. 
Fifteen Pei'fons were drQfvned, otf" whom jMa$ Ldnghl^m Md \{i^ 
Servant are not yet found; Seven 6ilf df eight ifi oii6 Hdtift Wei'e 
either flain by the Fall of it, or drowned. A ybung Man efea^d by 
help of a piece of Timber, Was turned ovrir ^nd chref again, inptiffing 
two ot three Dams, but at laft taken dut alive, tho* diftfaAed fot the 
prefent; but it's hoped he m*y rttover. > 

The Rapidntfi df the Tdrr erit Was fo violent, that it todk dSWft' 
the Ndrtb-fide of RippOnden Cbapelj alnl tarHfcd dff tfioft of th€ 
Seats. A Man of Dew/bury told me, thit b« faW f6tit of tltCtfi tl«^^ 
were driven to that Town ; ahd the Reftdr df Cajilefardi wh« tlfited 
me the Day after, • }nfofrt**d file, thrfc miHy Gdod# Weftf Catf ltd" 
down fo far, tho' above 20 Miles off. It tore dj) th£ Dei^ 6ut tf^ 
their Gfave^i a< firft I wiswniing ro believe it bnU df^ to Aid Wo- 
man that had been bufkd that AfK^rnobli, Ak! fo the Edrth Aot 
fully fetded again ; but atti fiAte informed, by a fare Kdhd, 1^ 
two corrupted Cdrpfesf W^e^i1^efti^t>h dne Gifttkn^'s^ Land^ iu«l 
as man[y upon andthef's. It fwept away all the Com-Lilnd, ai de^ 
as the Plow had gone. Some Perfons faved themfelves by fore^hg' 
a Way out of the Roofs of their Houfes, and rutiAg^u|)«^ thtf ^td^es 
tm the Flodds abated- 

I Was tksK Day feized by a ftiart TRunderSh<yw<!r, upon thtf 
Moor, as I was coming, home. 

XVIII. On the cjombf January W^, ' ibmething pferft Nine inl the obfervatms 
Mornirig, Weather cold, ' Whid S«otTiwdftefly, but hot ve*y' iigh, *» the Figures 
Baro^yietev ibove Air<y Inches, I fe# that pretty Phenomenon of the ^^^^^'^^l 
5tar-Iike Snow, and tKo% upon tortiparmg my Obfervatiofls after- Bcnj^^L^g. 
ivards with thofe of Defcartes^ Dr Grew^ and Mr Mortortj I find I with) D. />. 
have but Ktlle to add upon thd Subjeft ; yet, a!S i obferVerf the Pro- No. 376. p. 
grcfe of Nature fefthfe fort of Cryft^Hzation, witR a grttt ^'il of *98- 
Plcafure, I hope it will not be difagrccable to you to receive an 
Account of it. 

H 2 lihall 



tf o Obfervations on the Figures of Snowl 

I ihall begin with the tnoft iimple Figures A and B^ of which the 
former is a roundifh Pellet of Ice; the fecond, a (mall obioog Body^ 
Fig 3. with parallel Sides, which is often as fine as a Hain Of this latter 

kind the Flakes of Snow chiefly confift ; and tho* they look white ta 
the Eye, yet when viewed with a fmall Magnifier of a MicFofcope, 
they appear like fo many tranfparent Needles of Ice thrown together^ 
without any Manner of Order, 

The next Figure is C, in which the Pellet has (hot out fix of thoft: 
fmall Bodies of equal Length, and fet at equalAngels : Of this 
kind I faw a confiderable Number. 

. The next Seep in the Cryftallization is D, in which thofe Bodies are 
lengthened, and have (hoc out a great many more from their Sides, 
^^ at equal Angles, but unequal Lengths, as growing continually (hort* 
er and (horter, till they terminate in a Point : I meafured fome of 
thefe, and found them to be about one quarter of an Inch in Breadth. 
I faw but very few of them in PerfeAion, for the collateral Shoots 
were fo exquifitely fine, as to be liable to be broken in their Fall, 
or confounded together by the leaft Degree of Heat. 

Of the next kind, £, I faw a very great number, which being 
examined by the Microfcope, plainly appeared to be nothing but the 
former in Diforder. The Edges of thefe were in general very irre- 
gular, but fome of them happened to be fo indented, as to look like 
the jagged Leaves of Plants. 

The next Kind, F, had twelve points regularly difpofed, and pro- 
bably might confift of two of the former fo joined together^ as to cut 
their Angles equally « 

Perhaps alfo tho(eJ4r Morton defcribes^ as confifting of Radii^ 
which, inftead of terminating in a Point, grow bigger, as they ad- 
▼ani;e from the Centre, might be formed from two of the Kind, C^ 
iibi jojned at the Centre, as to cut each other's Angles unequally ;. 
fbr m the Progrefs of the Cryftallization^ thefe Ra^i would quickly 
unite* 

; Laftly, that Sort, which Defcarks compares to Rofes, and o£ 
which he has given a Figure in his Treatife of Meteors, may be nOr 
shing but the Kind £, when the Points are rounded ofi^, by behig;^ 
gently thawed. 

I propofe thefe things, only by way of Conjecture v becaufe, as the 
fmaU Drops of Water may be impregnated with very different Par- 
ticles in the Air, it is not eafy to determine^ whether thefe Figures 
may not be the Refult of a Cryftallization quite different from tho. 
former 

I had almoft forgot to tell you, that I faw but very few Figures of 
twelve Poipts, and thoie moftly imperfcA. in one refpedt or other. 

XIX. Ds 



Of the Rife of Vapours^ &c, 6v 

XIX^ Dr Niewentyt and fome others fay That Particles of Pke-^/r Attempt 

feparated from .the Sun-Beams, by adhering to Particles of Water,^ ^^fi^^ ^^^ 
make up MoUculte. or fmall Bodies, fpeciHcally lighter than Air,™'j^^^ 
which therefore, by hydroftaticai Laws, muft rife and form Clouds rapours, For- 
thac remain fufpended when they are rifen up to fuch an Height that mathn rf 
the Air about them is of the fame fpecifick Gravity with thcmfclvcs. — ^^/^' ^^ 

That Rain is produced by the Separation of the Particles of Fnt^^'Jj^^^^^ 
from thofe of Water, which laft being then reftored to their former x. Dcfag«i*- 
fpecifick Gravity, can no longer ^e fuftained by the Air, but muft ers^ L. L. J>^ 
fall in Drops. Sec Niewentyt^s Religious Plnlofopber^ Contemplation ^- ^- ^* ^•• 
19. From Sed. xiii- to Sea:, xxv. +^7- P*& 6.. 

Now this is liable to feveral Objedbions, Ftrft^ It is buik upon a. 
Suppofition that Fire is a particuhr Subftance, or diftindb Element,, 
which has never yet been proved by convincing Experiments and fuffi- 
cient Obfervations ; and which the Reverend Mr Hales has in his late 
excellent Book of Vegetable Statics ihewn to be an ill grounded Opi- 
nion, making it very plain, that in Chymical Operations thofe BodieSt 
which had been thought to become heavier by Particles of Fire adhe- 
ring to them, were only fo by Adhefion of Partides of Air, Csfr.. 
which he has fhewn to be i^^/or^^^ in great Quantities, by fome Bodies, 
whilft it is generated (or reduced from a fixt co an elaftic State) by> 
others; nay, that it may be ahforbed and generated fuccelTively by the. 
fanae Body, under different Circumftances. 

Secondly y If we fliould allow the above-mentioned Suppofition,. th» 
Difficulty will ftill remain about the Produdioo of Rain-by. the Va- 
cation of the Fire from the Water $. For Dr Ntetuentyt afcribes this^ 
Efieft CO two different Caufes» Firft^ to Condenfation {Sell. xxiii.> 
feying, ^^ That when contrary Winds blow againft the fame Cloud 
«« and drive the watery Particles together, the Fire that adhered tO: 
^^^ them gets loofe, and thejr (becoming then fpecifically heavierX 
^ precipitate and fall down in Rain.'* Then in the yecy next SelR: 
be afcribes it to Rarefaction, when he fays, ^* That wiien^. a^Wind 
^^ blowing obliquely upwards caufes a Cloud to rife into a thinner Air 
^^ {i. e. fpecifically lighter than it felO the Fire which by fticking tx> 
^ the Particles of Water rendered them lighter, extricates itfclf from 
** them, and afcending by it's Lightnefs, the Water will become tooi 
*^ heavy, not only to remain in this thia and l^ht Air, but even in 
^^ a- thicker and heavier sear the Eaitb, and (b^wiU be turned into a. 
*^ defcending Dew, Mift, or Rain^ or Snow,, or the like, according 
*♦ as the watery Vapours arc either rarefied or comprefled." 

The firft of thefe Caufes of Rain is contrary to Experience ; . for 
when two contrary Winds blow againft each other over any Place ^ of 
the Earth, the Barometer always rifes, and we have fair Weather. 
For then fas Dr Halley fays, in Pbilo/opbical Tranf. N*^ 183 J the Air 
lieing accumulated above, becomes fpecifically heavier, about the 

1/ Clouds,, 



,6z Of thi Rife of J^apows^ &c. 

Clouds, which (inftead of falling into Rain^ as DrNtiWenSyi fuppofes) 
afcend up into fuch a Pare of the Acraofphere^ as hu che Air of the 
fame fpecifick Gravity widi themfelves. 

If the falling of Rain might be attributed to the iecond of thefe 
Caufes, then every dme a Uoud is encompafled wrch Air fpectflcaily 
lighter thftn itfelf (whether it be when by the blowing away fome of 
the fuperioir Air, that whkh is ab6ut the Clood becomes rarer as it is 
lefs comprcfled, or by the Cloud being driven upwards) Rain muft 
necefTarily follow; whereas one may often fee the Clouds rife and fail 
without Rain, even when the Barometer fliews the Weight of the Air 
to be altered. For that happens only when by the great diminution of 
the fpecifick Gravity of the Air about the Cloud, it has a great Way 
to fall i in which Cafe, theRefiftance of the Air, which increafes as 
the Square of the Velocity of the descending Cloud, caufei the float* 
ing Particles of Water to come within the Power of each others At- 
tra&ion, and form fuch big Drops, as being fpecifically heavier than 
any Air, muft fall in Rain. 

No gentle Defcent of a Cloud, but only an accelerated Motion 
downwards, produces Rain. 

N. B. Idoh'f mean that the quick l>ef€ent of a Cloud is the only Caufe 
of Rain \ hecaufe the Sbnk from a Plajh of Ugbtmng, and the fuaden re^ 
turn of tbi Jtir^ after the Vacuum made by the Flafb^ will amdenfe the 
floating Vapour into Water \ and alfo the fame Chud iebicb in the free Air^ 
might he earried borizontallj nriiboui being turned into Rainy meeting Kcitb 
an high Hill in it^s fVay^ mil he condenfed and fall in Drops ; efpedallj if^ 
in t^ Day-time^ it he driven hy the Wind out of the Sun-ftnne^ againfi the 
Jbadid Side of the Mountain. 

Befides all this, if Particles of Fire were joined with thofe Of Water 
to raife them tip, thofe igneous Panicles muft be at leaft looo Thnes 

freater in Bulk than the watery ones; (b that a Perfon, who 4t the 
'em of a Hill, has his Hands and Face in a Cloud, muft fee) a Very 
ienuble Warmth, by touching a much greater Surface of Fire than- 
Water in the Cloud, afid afterwards fif>d che Rain produced from that 
Vapour fcnfibly colder j whereas the contrary is proved by our 
Scnfes ; the Tops of Hilb, though in the Clouds, being much colder 
than the Rain at Bottom. 

There is anotlier Opinion concerning the Rife of V^pottrs, name- 
. ly, that tho* Water be fpecifically heavier than Air, yet if it's Sur- 
face be increafed by very much diminifhing the Bolk df it's Particles, 
when once raifed, it cannot eafily fell; bccaufe the Weight of each 
Particle diminiOies as the Cube Roof of it's Diameter, and the Sur- 
face to which the Air refifts, only as the Square Root ofthefaicf 
Diameter: That we fee this in the Duft in Summer, and in Men- 
ftruums that fuftaia Metals diflWved, which are fpecifically heavier 
than the Menftruums.. i 

But 



Of tht Rife $f Vapoms, &c. 6} 

But this will not explain the Pbandmettmi bedLufe thoagh the En- 
creafe of Surface Ccbe We^c remaining the £tfDe). will in a great 
Meafure hinder (or rather retard) the Pefcenc of fmall Bodies moving 
in the Air, by reafon of it's great Refinance to To large a Sarface ^ it 
will for the fame Rqafon alfo hinder the Afcent. For the Rife of 
Duft i$ owing to the Motion of Animals Feet in it, or to the Wind : 
"Whereas Vapours rife in calm Weather, as well as windy; neither 
do they, lilge the Quft^ always fall to the Ground wh^ the Wind 
ceafes Qo blow. 

The third Opinioiit and which is moft eoouBoniy received, 15^ 
that by the A<^ioo of die Smoa the Water» fmall Partideft of Water 
are formed into bcdlow Spherules filkd wid» an Jmto^ or finer Air 
highly rairelied, fb as; to bea>me ^ecifically lighter than cocnmoff Air, 
and coofo^uemly that they mufl: rife ioie by hydroftatical Lawn, As 
for Exankple^ If a Paptide of Watei, mis beoMnes a hollow Sfdiere, 
be only encrcafed teo Times im Diameter, ii*a Bvtt: wtU be ejKreafcd 
a thouiiuid Timea) therefore it will then be fpcdficaJhr fighter than 
common Water^ whofe fyeci6ck. Gravity is to thar ot Air, at (50 
to i ; then if the Deskfity of the Juria^ or Spirit .witMb the link 
Shelly be fiipqpofed 9 Tiooa lei^ than that of Air, or as: 50 » 950^ 
tbajt fpeci&ck Gravity of ihe Shell,, and it^& Corneals wjtt be to dhae 
of Air, a& 900 to 1000;. therefore fuch an aqueous Babble nmtt rife 
till It comes to an Equilibrium io Aie, whofe Dcnficy is ti>tbe Den- 
fity of that i^ which jt bcgia to sifis^. tt §50 tor 945 ncari^. Bui it 
appeus 1^ E«perimeiM$> that Air rartiikik by an^ Heat which^ m^ei 
a Retort red hot, is only.ebCKeafed laBuik, ordiiaftd 3 Timeiii by 
the Heat of boiling Water only 7^ or near two Thirds; and by the 
Heat of the HusDan Bftdy (fiiek aa wall raife Vapours pleiiriMly} 
oaly ^ or ahoM?. I awa aiy Otye&ian poatf be mttw€ttd^ by fep^ 
pofing the Spherule of Wafifet ta he moee encaenfat ia Diutneter, ay 
for Example 20 times ; becaufe then i£ & ha filial wieh Air onJy i 
rarer than common Air, it will be fpecifically lighter, and capable of 
tiling to a confiderable Height. 

To give this Solution all it^ Force, let us exprefs it in Numbers. 
Let A and W KefrefieiK a Eaceii:le (i£ Air,^ aad om of Water of equal % 4- 
Bulk, then will the Weight of A be to the Weight of W as 1 to 850, 
their BnUis beingt equaL If the: Par tick of Waoer b^ biow» up^ into a^ 
Bubble (w) of to Timesr ic^ Diaoieter, tdien will ic^d Bulk be to i<V. 
Weighty aa 800a to 850,. whilft a Sphere of Air^jJ a£ the* fame Big^ 
neis,, has it's. Weight.a» weU ae.Bulk equal to* 800a : Now if an Air er^ 
Aura i. rareii tkm ^ofcroon £kk be fbppded wicbin: she waotry BbbMb^ 
tp keep^ it. blown,, k ^iU- be" the fame aa rf i aK the'Aih of f^) was^caN 
rted into (flv) and then tbe Weigiha o£ fas) wooid he emsraaii^' by' the 
Number 6000 v fo thai the SihelL of Waeeir beings in Bulk 8oocr, 
would be in Wdjghc 850 --{-^coos 6^850 v whilft an equal Bulk of 
Air weighedi 8oop, and confequenijyr the aMcry Bubble would rife 

tiH 



^i Of tbi Rife of Fapours^ &c. 

till it came to an Air, whofe Denfity is to theDenfity ofthe AirDext 
tto the Surface of the exhaling Water as 6850 to 8ooo. 

This is the ftrongeft Way of ftating the Hypothefis. But to fup- 
fon it, the following Queries muft be anfwered. 

^ery ift. How comes the jtura^ or Air in the Bubbles, to be fpe- 
<:ifically lighter than the Air without them, fince the Sun's Rays« 
which aft upon the Water, are equally denfe all over it's Surface? 

^ery '2d, If it could be poffible for a rarer Air to be fcparated 
from the denfer ambient Air, to blow up the Bubbles (as Bubbles of 
foaped Water are blown up by warm Air from the Lungs, whilft the 
ambient Air is colder and denier; what would hinder that cold Air by 
4t's greater Preflure, from reducing the Bubbles to a lefs Bulk, and 
greater fpecifick Gravity than the Air, efpecially fince cold can be 
communicated through fuch thin Shells, and the Tenacity of common 
Water is very fmall when compared to that of foaped Water (whofe 
Bubbles, notwithftanding that Tenacity) are foon deftroyed by the 
Prefliire of the outward Air, as the Air within them cools? 

^ery 3d, If we ihouM grant all the reft of the Suppofition, yet 
this iDifficttlty will remain. If Clouds are made up of hollow Shells 
of Wacer filled with Air, why do not thofe Clouds always expand 
when the ambient Air is rarefied, and preifeslefs than it did before, 
and alfo fufier a Condenfation, as the ambient Air is condenfed by 
«he Accumulation of the fuperior Air ? s 

If this Condenfation and Karefaftton (hould happen to the Clouds, 
they would always continue at the fame Height, contrary to Obfer- 
^ation^ and we ihould never have any Rain. 

From all this it follows^ that the Condet{fatwn and RarefaSlion tf the 
yapours^ which make Clauds^ mufi depend upon another Principle than tbt 
Condenfation and RartfaSHon eftbe Air: And that there is fuch a Prm^. 
ciple^ JJball endeavour to Jbew. 

LEMMA. 

"The Particles of all Fluids have a repellent Force. 

Fluids are elaftic or unelaftic; The elaftic Fluids have theit 
3>enfity proportionable to their Compreflion, and Sir Ifaae Newton 
has dcmonftrated (Princip. Lib. ii. Se£l. v.) that they confift of Parts 
that repel each other from their refpeftive Centers. Unelaftic Fluids, 
like Mercury, Water, and other Liquors, are by Experiments found 
to be incompreflible ; for Water in the Florentine Experiment could 
not by any Force be comprefied into lefs Room, but oozed like 
Dew through the Pores of the hollow golden Ball in which it was 
confined, when a Force was applied to prefs the Ball out of it*s fphe- 
•rical, intQ.a lefs capacious Figure. Now this Property of Water and- 

other 



Of the Rife of Vaponri, &c* <f 

ether Liqaors muft be intirely owing to the centrifugal ForciB of it*l 
Farts, and not it^s want of Vacuity ; fmce Salts may be imbibed by 
Water without encreafing it's Bulk, as appears by the Encreafe of it's 
fpecific Gravity. So Metals, which (fingly) hare a certain fpecific 
Gravity beyond which they cannot be condenfed, will yet receive 
each other in their Interftices fo as to make a Compound fpecifically 
heavier than the heavieft of them \ as is experienced in the Mixture 
of Copper and Tin. 

SCHOLIUM. 

By encreafing the repellent Force of the Particles, an unelaftic or 
kicompreiffible Fluid may become elaftic, or a Solid (at lesdd a creac 
Part of it) may be changed into an elaftic Fluid ; and, vice verja^ by 
diminiihii^ the repellent Force, an elaftic Fluid may be reduced to 
an unelaftic Fluids or to a Solid. That the Particles of Quickfilver, 
Water, and other Liquors, are likewife endued with an attractive Force, 
is evident from thoie Subftances running into Drops in an exhaufted 
Receiver, as well as in the Air, and likewife their adhering to other 
Bodies. The Attraftion and Repulfion exert their Forces differently : 
The Attraftion only a&s upon the Particles, which are in Contaa, 
or very near it; in which Cafe it overcomes the Repulfion fo far, as 
to render that Fluid unelaftic, which otherwife would be elaftic \ but ic 
does not wholly deftroy the Repulfion of the Pares of the Fluid, becaufe 
it is on Account of that Repulfion that the Fluid is then incompref- 
fiblc. When by Heat or Fermenution Cor any other Caufe, if there 
be any) the Particles are feparated from their ContaA, the Repulfion 
grows ftronger, and the Particles exert that Force at great Diftances^ 
K> that the fame Body (hall be expanded into a very large Space by 
becoming fluid, and may fometimes take up more than a Million of 
Times more Room than it did in a folid or incompreffible Fluid. 
(See the ^eries at the End of Sir Ifaac Newton's Optics.) Thus is 
Water by boiling, and lefs Degrees of Heat, changed into an elaftic 
Vapour rare enough to rife in Air, Oils and Quickfilver in Diftilla- 
tion made to rife in a very rare Medium, fuch as remains in the red- 
hoc Retort, and fulphureous Steams will rife even in an exhaufted 
Receiver, as the Matter of the Aurora Borealis does in the thinner 
Part of our Atmofphere. If Aqua-fortis be poured on Quickfilver, 
a reddifh Fume will rife much lighter than common Air; to alfo will 
Fumes rife from Filings of Metals, from Vegetables when they fer- 
ment by Putrefadion ; and (as the Reverend Mr Hales has ftiewn) 
feveral folid Subftances by diftilling, as well as Fermentation, will 
generate permanent Air. 

That Heat will add Elafticity to Fluids is evident from numberlefs 
Experiments, efpecially from Diftilling and Chymiftry : But what is 
needful to conuder here is only, that it a£ts more powerfully on 

VOL. VI. Partii. I Water 



«« Of the Rife of Fap$urs, &c; 

Water thM c6cnmon Ah-) far the fame Heat which rarefies Air onlf 

f will rarefy Water very near 14000 times, changing it into Steam 
or Vapour as it boils it : And in Winter, that fmall Degree of Heat, 
which in Refpe^t to our Bodies appears cold, will raife a Steam or 
Vapour from Water at the fame Time that it condenfcs Air. 

By a great many Obfervations made by Mr Henry Beightgn^ F.R.S; 
and myStf, upon the Engine to raife Wafer by Fire, according to» 
Mr Newcomen^s Improvement of it ; we found that <hc Water in boiI»> 
ing is expanded 14000 times to generate a Steam as ftrong (i. e. as 
elaftic) as common Air, which therefore muft be near i6\ times fpe- 
cifically lighter. And that this Steam is not made of the Air extrica* 
ted out of the Water is {dain, becaufe it is condenfed again into Wa- 
tfer by a Jet of cold Water ijpouting in it; and the little Quantity of 
Air that comes out of the injefted Water muft be difchar^H at e?ery 
Stroke, otherwife the Engine will not work well. There is alfo ano- 
ther Experiment to confirm this. 

EXPERIMENT. 

Tig^ 5. A B C D is a pretty large Veffcl of Water, which muft be fee upon 

the Fire to boil. In this Veffel muft be fuffiendcd die glafs Bell E, 
made heavy enough to fink in Water ; but put in, in fuch a Man- 
ner that it be filled with Water when upright, without any Bubbles of 
Air at it's Crown withb, the Ctx>wn being all tinder Water. As the 
Water bbil^, the Bell Will by Degrees be emptied of it's Water, being 
preffed down by the Steam which rifes above the Water in Ae Bell \ 
but as that Steam has the Appearance of Air, in wder to know 
whether it be Air or not, take the Veffel off the Fire> and draw up 
the Bell by a StriYig faftene4 to it's Knob at Top, till only the Mouth 
remains under Water ; then, as the Steam condenfes by the cold Air 
on the outfide of the Bell, the Water will rife up into the Bell at F 
cfuit« to the Top, Without any Bubble a^ove it, which fttews that the 
Steam which kept out the Water was not Air. 

N, B. This Experiment fucceeds beft when tie Water has been firft pur- 
ged of Air by boiUng^ and the Atr-ftmp 

We know by feveral Experiments made on the Fire-Engine {m 
Captain Savery^s Way, where the Steam is made to prefs immediately 
on the Water) that Steam will drive away Air, and that in Propor- 
tion to it's H^at; though in the open Air it floats and rifes in it like 
Smoak. 

Now if the Particles of Water turned into Steam or Vapour repel 
each other ftrongly, and repel Air more than they repel each other; 
Aggregates of fuch Particles made up of Vapoor and Vacuity may 
rife in Air of different Denfities, according to their own Denuty de- 
pendant on their Degree of Heat, without having Recourfe to imagi- 
nary Bubbles formed in a Manner only fuppofed^ and not proved^ as 

we 



Qf tht Rifi of Vap9UfS, &c- 67 

we hftve alreidy ftewij. / own indeed^ that iftb^ waUry Panicles bad no 
npfil^t P^rec^ they pm/i precijdMc in the fame Manner that Duji will 
d$ e^fier it bat heen rdfeji uf ; lia we have toQ many Obfervations and Ex^ 
feriments to ifove any Doubt of the Exiftence of the repellent Force above^ 
mentioned. Neither can Ifhezp by any Experiment^ how big the Moleculae 
of Vapour m$ffi be ^obicb exclude Air from their Interjlices^ and whether 
tbofe MoSecutfls da vary in Proportion to the Degree of Heat by an Increafe 
of repellent Porcein eacbwat^y Particle^ or by a farther Di^fion oftbq 
Particles into other Particlft fliU lefs ; but in general v^e may reafonably 
aJSirm^ thai iht Rarity efibe Vapowr is proportionable to the Pegree ofitU 
Beat^ as it happens in other Flmds (See Phil TranfaiJl. Numb. 270.) and 
that 9 tbou^ the diffisr^rtt Degrees of the 4irU EUrefaSion are (ilfi proporr 
tionakk to Ute Heat^ the fame Di^ree of Heat rarefies Vapour much morf 
tbart Air. 

a^m to Acw^ diet wkut has hccn fyid will accounc for c|ie Rife ojf 
Va^^urs and F#raiai»>n of Clouds^ we louft Ofilf coafider^ whe- 
ther chat Degree of Hefutt which is knowii to rarefy Water 14000 * 
Tildes, being cofnpared with feveral of chofe Degrees of Heat 19 
fiunmier, Autufoo, and Wincer, which aj-e capable of raifingExhalar 
tioiis from Waiter w fee^ the Rarity of the Vapours (eftimaced by 
the Degree of Heat) will a«>ear to be fuch» that the Vftpour will rife 
hjgk enovigh in Wjoter, and not too high in Summer, to agree with 
ihe knomi Pbenmmana. 

fhat tie EJiSs are adaquate io the Caufes in this Cafe^ I think 1 can 
ifiedcafiiam&efdio%migMattwar^ viz. 

The Heat of boUiog Water, according to Sir Ifaac Newton^s Table 
(Pinl ^r^^faS. Numb. 270; is 34, the siean Heat of Summer 5, the 
snean Heat of Spring or Autumn g, and tjie leaft Degree of Heat» 
at which Vapoors rife in Winter, (alias (he mean Hoat of Winter) 
ss 7.. The iRarity of Vapour proportioaable to thefe four Degrees 
^Heac, is s 4000, 2058, 1235, and 823. The Rarity of iUr is, 
in Summer 900, in Spring or Autumn 850, and in Winter 800, the 
Deftfity of Water oompaf ed with the above-mentioned Denfities, be- 
ing inveriUy taOne to the &id foretmentiQiied four Numbers. The 
mights above the Earth to which the Vapours will rife, and at whidi 
they will be in mpdlibrio^ in «n Air of the fame Denfity with them. 
fdvtts^ will ittry aocooding to the Rarity of die Vapour depending on 
the iiokt of the Seafon. ror the V^our which Js raifed by the Win* 
^er's Heat, catpreflfed by the Number 2» when the Air's Rarity 

. * As th^ Digteffion wp^ld be too long to mention here thofe Obfiervations on the Fire- 
Engme» which ihew that the Vapour frpm boiling Water u expanded 14000 Times more 
'than cold Water; I refer the Reader to the 6th SiBion of 25th ContempUtion of Nietoen- 
iTf/V R^Hgious Fbilrfopber^ where he proves by an Experiment made with an ^olipiIe» 
(uatone Inch of Water prodiices 13565 Inches of: Vapour 1 which, confideriog the great 
JlUowaaoea made ag^inft.lhe A$er|ion^ may well be called 14000. 

I 2 is 



6% Of the Rife of Vapours^ &c. 

IS 800, will rife to (and fettle 2X) a Heighc of about the Sixth of a 
Mile, when the Barometer is above 30 Inches high. But if the Hear 
be greater then, the Vapours will rife higher, and pretty much higher 
if the Sun (hines, though in frofty Weather, the Barometer being 
then very high. If the Barometer falls, and thereby brings the Place 
of jEquilibrium ^for Vapours faifed by the Heat 2) nearer the Earth, 
then alfo will the Heat be encreafed, the Vapour more rarefied, and 
confequently the new Place of ^Equilibrium fufficiently high. It is to be 
obferved, that in Winter, when the Heat is only equal to 2, the Air 
isdenfeft clofe to the Earth, which has not any Heat fufficient to 
rarefy it near the Ground, as happens nn warm Weather ; therefore 
the Vapour will rife gradually in an Air whofe Denfity decreafes con- 
tinually from the Earth upwards; neither will the Vapour be hindered 
of it*s full Rife, by any Condenfation from a greater Cold of the 
ambient Air, the Air being then as cold next to the Ground where 
the Vapour begins to rife, as it is at any Heighth from the Earth. 

The Vapour which is raifed by the Heat of Spring or Autumnl 
cxprefled by Number 3, will rife to the Height of 31 Miles, when 
the Barometer is at 30, and the Air's Rarity is 850. But then, as 
the Air is hotter nearer the Ground than at the Height of half a Mile 
or a Mile, the Vapour will condenfe as it rifes ; and as the Air, 
when the Earth is heated, is rarer near the Ground than at fome 
Height from it, the Place of jEquilibrium for Vapour will, upon thefe 
two Accounts, be brought much lower than otnerwife it would be; 
as for Example, to the Height of about a Mile, which will agree 
with Pbcsnomena. 

In Summer, the two Caufes above-mentioned encreafing, the Va* 
pour raifed by the Heat 5 ("whofe Place of ^Equilibrium would be 
5? Miles high, if the Vapour after it began to rife was not condenfed 
by cooling, and the Air was denfeft clofe to the Earthy will fettle 
at the Height of about li or 2 Miles, which is alfo agreeable to Pba-- 
momena. 

Laftly^ As the Denfity and Rarity of the Vapour is chiefly owing 
to it*s Degree of Heat, and in a fmall Meafure to the encreafed or 
diminifhed PreiTure of the circumambient Air, when it is not confin* 
ed ; and the Denfity and Rarity of the Air is chiefly owing to the 
increafed or diminifhed Pr^flure, by the Accumulation or Ezhau- 
ilion of fuperior Air, whilft Heat and Cold alter it's Denfity in a 
much lefs Proportion i the Clouds made of the Vapours above-me»- 
tioned, inftead of conforming themfelves to the altered Denfity of the 
ambient Air, will rife when it is condenfed, aad fink when it is rare- 
fied ; and alfo rife or fink ('when the Preflure of the Air is not al- 
tered, and it*s Denfity very little changed) by their own Dilatation, 
owing to Heat or Cold ; as may be obferved often, by feeing them 
change their Height confiderably, whilft the Barometer continues 
2 cxaSly 



Of the Rife of Vapours^ &c. 69 

cxaftly at ths fame Degree, and the Thermometer's Liquor rifcs or 
falls very little, and fometimes not at alL 

As for the Manner how Clouds are changed into Rain, I have 
hinted it in the Beginning of. this Paper ; but for farther Satisfadion, 
I refer the Reader to Dr HalUf^ Account of it, in the Philofopbical 
TranfaSions {^\Jimh. 183.; in which I entirely acquicfce, having al- 
ways found it agreeable to the Pbcenomena, 

If by publifliing thefe Thoughts, I have explamed the Rife of Va- 
pours, in a more fatisfaftory Way than has been done before ; or if 
I have only given ufeful Hints to others more capable of doing it, 
I have my End. 

P. S. Since I have, for Brevity fake, only mentioned at what 
Heights from the Surface of the Earth, Vapours of different Den fi- 
des will come to an ^Equilibrium^ without giving a Reafon for fettling 
the Place of yEquiUbriumj at thofe Heights ; I think proper to give 
the Method here by which they are to be found, viz. As the Va- 
pours will fettle and rife where the Air is of the fame Denfity with 
themfelves ; it is only required to find the Denfity of the Air at 
any Diftance from the Earth, at feveral Heights of the Barometer, 
.which may be deduced from Dr Halley's two Tables, Pbilofopb. Tran^ 
faff. Numb. 386. (the Firft fhewing the Altitude to given Heights of 
the Mercury ; and the Second, the Heights T)f the Mercury at given 
Altitudes^ and knowing the Degree of Heat by the Thermometer, 
becaufe the Denfity of the Vapour depends upon the Degree of 
Heat of the Seafon; provided that proper Allowances be made for 
the great Rarefaction of the Air near the Earth in hot and dry Wea- 
ther, and the Condenfation of the Vapours in their Rife, by reafon of 
the Air being colder at a little Height above the Earth than juft at 
the Surface of it. 

XX. In the Pbilojbpbical 7ranfa£lion$ for November znd December^ fpoTt* 
1709, N. 324, 1 have given an Account of fome of the rooft remark- January Tti^ 
able Frofts that I comd find any Relation of; and particularly of if^ z^^je^,.* 
that great and, I had almoft faid, univerfal one in 1708, which the William Der- 
jSociety had very good Hiftoriesof from divers Parts, and which, in ^^' ^' ^• 
thzzTranfaffiofij I have given an Account of from the Original Papers, ^g' ^*^' ^^^ 
which the Society was pleafed to do me the Honour to entruft me 
with. 

In that 7ranfa£iion I have made it very probable, that the greateft 
Defcent of the Spirits in the Thermometer, was on Decem. 30, 1708, 
when my Glafs was within ^ of an Inch as low as it is with artificial 
Freezing with Snow or Ice and Salt : And in the late Froft it was 
almoft, if not altogether, as low. 

The Freezinz-Poini of my Thermometer is 10 Inches ^which I call 
100 Degrees) jS>ove the Globe of Spirits ; and the moft intenfe Freez- 
ing ("according to the Methods I have mentioned in that TranfalHon) 
isjuft at, or very little within, the Ball. And on January 30^ about 

Suft* 



70 EffeEts of Lightening] 

Sun-rifing, the Thermometer was but an Inch, or to Degrees abovt» 
the Ppint of extreme Freezing; and on February 3, at only half an 
Inch, or 5 Degrees. And confidering that the Thermometer I ob- 
ferved with in 1708, was kfs accurate, and differently graduated 
from that which I now have, I am apt to think, that the Froft on 
February 3 laft, was altogether as intenfe as that on December 30, 
1708. For although a frigorifick Mixture funk the Spirits but one 
Tenth lower in the old Thermometer, and about 5 or 6 Tenths in 
that I now obferve with, yet I take the DifFcrencc to be little, or 
none at all, by rcafon of the Tenderndi of the new aborc the old 
Glafs. 

And this Degree of Cold I take to be as exceffive as in any of the 

Years mentioned in the faid TretnfaSHon ; yea, any of the Years, 

when the Thames at London was frozen over : I am furc colder than 

in the Year 17 16, when that River was frozen over for fcveral Miles, 

and Booths and Streets were made on the Ice, an Ox roafted tjiereon; 

Gff. For the loweft Point of Freezing in 17 16, was on January 7, 

when the Spirits fell to 35 Degrees only of the Oafs I now make ufc : 

But the true Caufe of the freezing of the Thames that Year was not 

barely the Excefe of the Cold, but the long Continuance of it: WhkA 

was alfo the principal Caufe of thofe remarkable Congelations of -chac 

River in 1683, and 1708, vrfien I faw Coaches driven over the Ice, 

large Fires made on it, Gfr. 

Effe^s of XXI. I • We are told by Mr Jefop^ in the Tranfa£lions^ that what the 

lightening, conuxion People call Fairy Circles^ are occaGoned by Lightening ; but 

by the Rrv. I think it has not yet been obferved, diat they continue vrfiMe 50 

Mr Jof. Waffe, Years, and that no Compolition of Ufe in Fire-woits will produce 

*gg 390- pag- ^gj^f fQ lafting an EflTeft, as I have experienced. There fccms to be 

• ' fomethii^ here, which Sdjphur and Nitre will hardly account for. 

Does it depend upon the^reat Quantity of the Matter dtfcharged, or 

the Violence with which it is impelled f The Ground is no way torn 

up, and the Grafs is only a little blafted ; which would make one 

think it's Force well ni^h fpent : Whereas, idien the Burft is near 

us, the Effeft is like that of a Petard, as appears from the follow* 

ing Inftance. 

On Saturday July 3, at Mixiury^ three Miles Eajl of this Place^ 
about tjfo in the Afternoon, ^ William Hall^ aged above Sixty, was 
.found dead in a hard gravelly Field, together wiili five Sheep, which 
lay round him about 30 Yards Diftance : of the five, that only, 
which lay nearefl: him, had a vifible Wound through the Head. 
The Shepherd lay partly upon his Side ; tlfe upper Part of his Head 
^as terribly fra&ured, and his right Knee was out of joint. He had 
a Wound in the Sole of his Fo6t, towards the Heel ; his right Ear 
was cut off, and beaten into his Skull, and Blood flow'd out of thit 
Part upon the Ground. He is fuppofed to have been driving thofe 

Sheep* 



EffeEts 0f Lightening. 71 

Sheep. All his Cloaths and Shire were torn into fmall Pieces, and 
hung about him ; but from the Girdle down^iards were carried away 
intireiy, and fcattered up and down ^he Field : Particularly, the 
Soles of a new (Irong Pair of Shoes were rent off. His Hat was 
driven to Pieces : 1 have a Hand breadth of it full of irregular Slits, 
and, in fome few Places^ cut as with a very, (harp Penknife, and a 
little finged in the upper Part. His Beard, and the Hair of his 
Head were, for the moft Part, clofe burnt off. The Iron Buckle of 
his Belt was thrown 40 Yards off, and a Knife in the right fide Pocket 
of his Breeches was broken in Pieces, not melted, and the Haft fplit. 
Near each Foot appear two round Holes about a Yard deep, and five 
Inches Diameter, which ihews the Force of the Blow. I have feea 
ao Iron Ball ihot out of a Mortar almoft perpendicular, which, upon 
a like gravelly Soil, made not a greater Imprelfion. About the Time 
this Accident happened, a Tradefman of the fame Town obferved a 
Sort of Fire-ball, as large as a Man's Head, to burfi: in four Pieces 
sear the Church. TheStormbegan here at i^' 50', and lafted, with 
intertniflioQs, to 2^ 30^ and we faw the Lightening towards A'jUfbu- 
ry all the Evening. Two Perfons at jiynbo were a little hurt at the 
fame Tinae, and one of them firuck down to the Ground, and fays, 
be tfaooffht he was felled with a Beetle. I my felf heard the Hifs of 
a Ball of Fire, almoft as big as the Moon, which flew over my Gar- 
den, from S. E. to N. fV. 

2. I thou^t I had been impertinently circumftantial in the hc^ a farther at- 
count of the late Sa>rm ; but there fiill remains a Particular or two ^««»^ h^ ^^' 
to complete it. I ordered my Nephew, a Student of M^^(>j», a pretty ^'?l'- ^^^' ^ 
good Philofopher, to fearch the Holes made by the Blaft. Both of ^ 
them at fiiit, were almoft perpendioular for half a Yard, and after 
that grew narrower ; in both of the^, the Matter divided into two 
Parts, and ibrmed horizontal Cavities about tliree Inches Diameter; 
in one he found a n^try hard glazed Stone, of about 10. Inches long, 
€ wiidc, and 4 in Thidcnefs, crackM in two : Others it. could not 
pierce, but was turned here and there out of its Courfe, but left not 
the leaft Biacknefs, or other Difcolouring any where. As to the 
Knife, it was not the Blade, but the Haft, and the Hinge that goes 
into it, which was ihivcrcd in Pieces. Near the Sheep that was 
wounded, the Ground was torn up near two Yards round. It was 
very furprizing, that the Man's Body was not beaten to Pieces, or 
Bones broken at leaft. 

To make a grofs Eftimate .of the Force, I took a Coborn charged 
with three Quarters of a Pound of very good Powder, wadded .with 
thick Paper, and iircd it againft a Stone of the fame Dimenfions, but 
not fo hard, which it fhattered to Pieces at half an Inch Diftance.' 
But, in the other Blow, we have above treble the Effeft, withoirt 
any difcovcrable Particles at all ; and yet it feems to fly like fmall 
Shot J pierces only here and there, and leaves agood many Places 

2 q^itc 



71 Ejfeffs of Lightening. 

quite untouched, as is evident from the Hat which I have by me. 
To confirm this, James Marjhal of this Town aflures me, that in the 
Middle of the fame Storm, he received a Blow upon his Hat, which 
rattled like Shot through the Branches of a Tree : It beat in the Crown 
a little without penetrating it: He ftaggered, and was giddy for two 
Days afterwards. Two of his Sons were, at the fame Inftant, both 
knocked down to the Ground, and ftunned a little, but prefently came 
to themfclves, and have no Wound : They arc about 20, and 23 
Years old. ^. Whether this may not be accounted for, by fuppofing 
the Flame to rarify the Air, and make a Sort of Vacuum about one} 
into which when it returns again, it gives the Likcnefs of a Stroke 
with a Beetle, as he expreffcs it. I fancy a Wind- Gun, with com- 
preffed Air, would have the fame Eflfeft, and might cafily be tryed 
upon a Dog, or fuch like Animal. 
^fWorccftcr, 3. Wc had on the loth continued Lightening in the Eaji from 
Jane 11, Eight of the Clock at Night to Twelve ; the Weather for fome time 
muXated'h before having been very fultry, the Wind at N. E. and the Barometer 
R. Beard, at fettled Fair. The next Morning the Mercury funk, and the Sky 
M,D. F.R.S. became more cloudy and temperate, except a few hot Gleams; at 
N^- 394- P*S- Two in the Afternoon, feveral fierce Showers fell, attended with 
Flalhes of Lightening and Claps of Thunder, that ftill approached 
nearer us : Between Two and Three, a Flalh came fo violently up- 
on me, fucceeded fo very quick by a low, unufual, dreadful Sound, 
that I immediately went to the door, fearing fome Mifchief near. I 
was foon caird to an Officer's Lady (aged about 18, and breeding) 
kiird by it in the adjoining Street. I found her yet warm, and that 
Ihe had furvived the Stroke for 6 or 7 Minutes. The Fire-Marks 
they fhewed me were Streaks of a Copper-Colour branched from the 
Left Shoulder all-over the Thorax^ and interfperfed here and there 
with irregular Spots, which gave occafion for that Conceit publifh*d 
in our News, that curious Plants were drawn on ber Bofom^ as with the 
fneft Pencil. This fad Accident happened in a Parlour. Window nexc 
the Street, that could contain about two Perfons. The Lady, it 
feems, terrified with the repeated Lightening and Thunder, (ithaving 
formerly been fatal to her Brother) defir'd an Officer to change Places 
with her, that ihe might be near her Hufband ; but (he was no fooner 
feated by his fide, than fhe inclined fide^ways, and fpoke fome 
Words ; after ihe was carried to another Room, (he faid, fiie was 
gone, and then, that (he was blind, and a(ked for Water. The Huf- 
band was thrown along, together with the fortunate Gentleman that 
hadjuft refigned his Seat; and a lai^e Looking-Glafs was lifted off 
the Heoks. The Landlord's Daughter, at work near the Lady, 
perceived fuch an Impulfe on the fide of her Head, that her Hearing 
was much impaired, and upon every Peal of Sunder ftnce fie is affeSed 
in like manner y tbo* not fo firongly. The Gentleman complained, that 
Ihey were ftupified, forced down they did not know why, unlefs it 

were 



Mffeas of Lightening: ^ j] 

were for want of Breath ; and of Pains and Numbnefs in thdr Limbs. 
They had likewife on different Parts of their Bodies fuch reddifh 
Wheals as were feen on the Lady's Bfeaft: But thefe Symptoms va- 
nifhed the next Day. The other two Perfons at the further End of 
the Room were untouched ; they were all fenfible of a fulphurous 
SmelL The Pane of Glafs exaftly behind the Lady's Waft, was 
perforated by a round Hole of an Inch and half Diameter, as if done 
with a Diamond, or rather a Wind-Gun ; but no where thereabouts 
could I difccrn the Icaft Traces of Fire, or Heat, nor on the Lady's 
Clothes (having no Stays on) the Signs of any Violence. On a more 
nice Examination of the Body, in the Prefence of the Friends, that 
Evening, I difcovered on the left Loin, taking in part of the Spine 
of the Qi Ilium^ which was fomewhat fwoln, a deep Contufion of the 
fame Dimenfion with the Breach in the Glafs: The Skin was neither 
indurated, nor pierced : The Blood in the Capillaries all round, but 
chiefly up the Back, fettled, the Colour of which was eafily diftin- 
guiflied from that of the Streaks, and the circular Impreflion. 

The Pbd^nomenoriy that caufed this Misfortune, rofe from the N. E. 
firft Aid off^ the Gabel-Beam, and the Bricks on the back part of the 
next Houfe, filled a little Court with Flame and Smoak, then turned 
a Leaden Spouc contrary to it's former Direction, mounted over the 
Roof, and, cracking a Stack of Chimneys, dropt down at the Win* 
dow where the Hufband and Wife fate. Some credible People that 
faw it, to their great Terror, aflure me, that it was a Ball of Fire, 
and that it burft with the loudeft Report they ever heard ; and then, 
with a hiding Noife, pafled about a Yard from the Ground through 
an adjacent Street, and rolled oflf to the S. W. Some Workmen 
there, and on a neighbouring Hill, obferved-the fame. 

In my Opinion, the Mortality of this Blow may be accounted for 
from the known Effefts of imprifoned Air only, when fet at liberty, 
as the Appearances on the Skin may, from other adive Particles h|ir^ 
ried along with it at the time of the Explofion. The Impetus being 
firft received on the Parts defcribed, occafioned her Death to be lefs 
fudden than ufual in fuch Cafes. 

4. We have had more Lightening and Thunder lately in one week, j farther ac^ 
than ever has been known in that fpace of time : And what was more ex- count ty the 
traordinary, the Continuance of it for 9 or 10 Hours together, with A^^- N^- 394- 
little or no Intermiffion, and at fuch a Height above us. So far has ^^" *^^* 
this been from doing any great Damage near us, that in the Opi- 
nion of the Country-Farmers, it had very good Effedts, efpecially at 
the beginning during the Heat: For the little Infefts, that in fome 
Places threatened the Deftruftion of the Hops and fome other Plants, 
fell off like Bees by the Steam of a lighted Match. 

VOL. VI. Partii. K 5. Oa 



74: EffeBs 0f Liightenhg: 

jn Cattnar- '5. Otijyecmhr 5, 1 729, in the Afternoon, there happened terribfe 
^MrEvznDA' '^^^^^^^ ^^^ Lightening, which alarmed the whole Neighbourhood ^. 
vies. No. * and about four <rf the Clock or thereabouts, as the Wife ot one tViUiam 
4i6!pag!444. Griff. Morgan of Pencarreg^ was carrying a Pail of Water into the 
Houfe, fhe was no fooner come over the Threfhold into a fmall 
Entry that leads towards the Fire, than there broke fuch a violent 
Clap of Thunder, after its Forerunner (Lightening^ that (he and three 
of her Children were inftantly bereaved of their Senfes, and lay ("they 
know not how long) miferable and ghaftly Monuments of the terrible 
Shock ; and (if my Memory fails me not) they lay weltring in their 
Blood, before they recovered, and were able to creep to the Bed, 
*till the next Neighbour happened to come in (the Hufband being 
then abroad at his Day- Labour) to aflift them. The Caufe, what* 
ever it was, whether Thunder-Boh:, Thunder-Ball, Lightening, £^r. 
Aruck ('tis imagined) at the Eaft End, near the Foundation, into the 
Hearth, and cleaved in two a thick Stone of about half a Yard ia 
Breadth beyond the Fire (which we commonly call in IVelJh Pentany 
one Part whereof ftill remains, and that cleft, but the other is Ihac- 
tered into fmall Particles and Splinters, and thofe (hot into their 
Flclh, which {*tis prefumed) did the moft Hurt. About twenty-four 
ck* more of thofe Stones were ftom Time to Time taken out of their 
Wounds ; two of thofe, being all I could get,. I have fcnt for an In* 
ftanee. It appears, that afterwards it forced it*s Way out through, 
the Wall on the Southftde within the Compaft of the Hearth, when it 
nwde a terrible Breach from Top to Bottom, and removed the Scones. 
ftom the Foundation, and ni^h thereto made a deep Hole perpendi- 
culftf in the Earth, that one might thruft in a Staff to the Wrift, as-. 
the Woman herfelf infortned me. That part of the Wall was made 
up before I viewed the Spot. By the Violence of it, the Brand-Irons 
and Legs thereof were ftrained, and when they endeavoured to put 
them to their true Pofition as before, they found them fo burnt up, 
that they fell a-funder like rufty Iron, or Wormcaten Timber, and 
fo became of no further Ufc. The Partitions in the Houfe, which., 
were of no ftrong Subftance. (being watled, foch as they have in Country - 
Houfes^ were moved out of place, and a Cheft full of Corn forced- 
down cowards the Etoor, fome Yards from the Place where it ftood. 
The Bucket the Woman had in her Hand, and other wooden Veffels . 
in the Houfe, were all or moft of them fhattered, EHfhes and Spoons, 
t?f . blown off, and after fome Days, found and gathered in the Gar- 
den, on the Nortb-fidt of the Houfe, iplit and broken, with fome 
Yarn that was hanging in the Top of the Houfe, found out of Doors 
a while after •, and many more Difordcrs than I am able to account. 
for at prefent. 

The Woman has quite loft her left Eye, fhe was fpeechlefs foe a 
Week or nine Days, and could not fwallow. She has lately had a, 
few Stones come out of her Mouth, under the Tongue, and Of- 

ther 



Effe^s 9f Lightening. jr'| 

fhcr Pam ihWardly: The Tip of her Tongue is tak^n off, as far 
as I can gucfs^ for flic \t ftill lifping} three of the fore Teeth of 
the under Jaw are broken, and the lower Lip is flic, but is now 
pretty well healed ; the fecond and third Fingers of the Right-hand 
are quite off, and the Colour of that Hand is ftill like a Flame of 
Fire, as if there were yet remaining fome igneous Particles in it. She 
has fuch a terrible Gafli upon that Shoulder between the Joints, that 
once one might cover an Egg in it, very painful ; befides three or more 
Bruifes upon the Arm down to the Wrift, that flie is not able to heave 
or lift it up, without the Help of the other Hand, befides fcveral 
other Wounds and Bruifes over great Part of her Body. A Boy (an 
Ideot) had his Hair all findged, his Face and Breaft all fcorched 
with Blifters like Bladders running from the raw Flefli, with feverai 
Stones taken out from his Body and Legs, and two other fmall Chil- 
dren fuffered greatly ; fo that the Wounds are reckoned by the Wo- 
man that ufed to drefs them, to be Thirty at leaft between the Mo- 
ther and Children : only one Girl about ten Years old, or thereabouts, 
that ftood at a Diftance next the Doors efcaped, having her Cloaths 
only findged, and no Hurt done hen I had almoft forsot to mention 
the feverai Splinters of Bones taken out in drefllng their Wounds, that 
I could not get It is worth obferving alfo, that they did fmell fo 
ftrong of the Sulphur and bituminous Matter for fome Days, that one 
could hardly go near them. They are now, free from any grievous 
Pain fo that they go about. 

This Account was fent me by Mr Jenkin Jenkins a Clergyman, who 
• lives in that Neighbourhood : About half a Year after I was that 
Way, and viewed the Breach made in the Houfe, and the Woundi 
which the Woman and her Children had received by the Stones lodged 
m their Bodies, fome of which were not then healed. The Woman 
then gave me the little Piece of a Stone, wrapped up in the brown 
Paper, which flie faid flie had taken out of her Tongue, above five 
Months after this Difafter had happened. 

XXII. I. The 26th of O£lober^ being on the River coming up to ^p^^j^^.^^ 
London, about half an Hour paft Ten, the Sun being then about Sy Edmund' 
twenty Degrees high, I obferved a Circle about the Sun, which is HaiieyLLD. 
by no means unufual, when the Air in chilly Weather, fuch as it is ^^' ^- N*- 
now, is replete with fnowy Particles ; which Circle was of the \^^' ^^' 
Size in which it always appears about 23 Degrees from the Sun, 
and faintly ting'd with the Colours of the Iris. When this Circle 
liappcns, I always look out, to fee whether any other of the 
Phenomena that fometimes attend it do at that Time appear, fuch 
as Parhelia^ and other coloured Circles, concentric with the Sun, and 
fometimes, as once I faw it, excentric ; as alfo a white Circle round the 
Zenitb, in equal Altitude with the Sun : But this Time, the Air being 
thickned with a hazy Vapour, and the Smoke of the Town, I could 
^>nly fee to the Eaftwara a luminous white Patch, which for about 

K 2 twenty" 



Tivo Parhelia, 
and an Arc of 
a Rainbow 
inverted, toitb 
a HalOy anJ 
it's hrigbteft 
Jrcy by the 
Rev, Mt 
William 
Whifton. 
M. A. N*, 
369. pag. 

2I2« 



yt p A R H E L 1 a: 

twenty Minutes flione through the thick Air very confpicuoufly, of 
about two Degrees Diameter, as near as I could eftimace it, and a* 
bout the fame Altitude with the Sun : and from it, towards the Sun^ 
there feemed to proceed a long white Tail, much narrower than the 
Mock-Sun, but which I took to be a Segment of the white Circle 
which I once faw entire in London. Had the Air been clear, I doubt 
not but much more of the Phenomena of the Parhelia might thb Time 
have been obferved : and I hope, that from our Neighbourhood fome 
Member of the Societ'j may furnifh us with a fuller Relation. But 
how to explain thefe Appearances, and account for the Magnitude 
of thefe Circles, is what feems dill wanting. 

2. About Ten of the Clock in the Morning, on Sunday OSlober 
22. 1722. being at the Houfe of Samuel Barker^ £fq; oi Lyndon m 
the County of Rutland^ after an Aurora Borealis the Night before 
(Wind W. S. W.) I faw an Attempt towards two Meek-Suns, as L 
had done fometimes formerly, of which I immediately informed 
Mr Barker^ though without any great Expectations of what followed. 
About 4 or i of an Hour after, I went to view the Heavens, and 
then found the Appearance compleat \ and when Mr Barker and o« 
thers of the Family were called, we all faw it, and all faw indeed^ 
what we had^none of us feen before ; I mean two phin Parhelia^ or 
Mock-Suns, tolerably bright and diftindi:; and that in the ufual 
Places,, viz. in i^e two Interfe&ions of a (Irong and large Portion of 
Fig 6j an Hah^ with an imaginary Circle, parallel to the Horizon, paffing 

through the true Sun. I call this Circle here imaginary^ becaufe ic 
was not it felf vilible, as it fometimes has been at fucK Appearances* 
Each Parhelion had it's Tail, of a white Colour, and in dire£b Oppo- 
£tion to the true Sun ; that towards the Eaji was 20 or 25 Degrees 
]ong ; towards the ff^ejt about 10 or 12 Degrees ; but both narroweib 
at the remote Ends. The Mock-Suns were evidently red towards 
the Suii, but pale or whitifli at the oppofite Sides, as was the Hah 
alfo. Upon calling our Eyes upward, we faw an Arc of a curious 
inverted KainboWj about the Middle of the Diftance between the Top 
of the Halo and our Vertex. \ mean this, when Allowance is made 
for the ufual Inequality, that appears between the fanie Number of 
Degrees, nearer to and renK)ter from that Vertex. This Arc was 
as diftin^ in it's Colours as the common Rainbow ; and, with the like 
Allowance as before, of the fame Breadth. The red Colour was on 
the Convex, and the blue on the Concave of the Arc; which feemed 
to be about 90 Degrees long : It's Center in or near our Vertex. On 
the Top of the Halo was a kind of inverted bright Arc, though it's 
Bend was not plain. The lower Part of the Halo was among the 
Vapours of the Horizon, and not vifible. The Angles, efpecially 
93 more exaftly meafured on Monday ^ near Noon, when the fame 
Appearance returned again^ but more faintly, were as follows, Sua^is 
Altitude aa^'h perpendicular Scmidianaeter of the Hak 23^7; Di- 

fiance 



parhelia; 7t^ 

ftance of the Rainbow from the Top of the Hah 23® J ; Semidiameter 
of the Arc of the Rainbow^ if our Vertex be fuppofed it's Center, 12^. 
The Pbanomtncn lafted each Day for an Hour and an half, or two 
Hours. What was moft remarkable on Monday was that the Wind^ 
which on Sunday had been almoft infenfible, was now become fenfi- 
ble, and changed to N. Nt E. that the Halo was fenfibly htcomc ovah 
it's (horter Axis parallel to the Horizon ; and the two Mock.Suns^ 
which were then but juft vifible, efpecially that on the Eajij were 
not in the Haloy but a Degree or two without it, which I afcribe to 
the unufual Shortnefs of the Horizontal Diameter; which Pofition 
of the Mock-Suns, does not appear to have been hitherto taken No«^ 
tice of by any, though it was now very fenfible. 

On Thurfday Morning, OSlob. 26. as I was coming in the Norths 
ampton Coach towards London^ about 9 of the Clock, the Halo tt-^ 
turned larger and clearer than before; and the two Mock-Suns ju(b 
attempted an Appearance therein, as on Sunday ; but the Air becoming . 
thicker and thicker towards Rain, L faw them no more. I add no- 
thing to this Account, butonly^ that ^iigi 30. before, I faw at the 
kme Place {Rutland) a remarkable Halo^ whofe upper Part had it's in* 
verted Arc reddifh within, and pale without, but brighter and more* 
vivid than ever I faw in my Life: That we had there, Sept. 11. in- 
^e Evening, the ligbteft and moft remarkable Aurora BonaUs^ with 
it's unaccountable Motions and Removals, that ever I faw ; excepting 
that original one. March 6, 17 li: Tha^it was feen in Northampton^ 
Jhirei at the Bath^ and elfewhere: That the Vertex of the Columns 
which (hot upwards, was not our Vertex j but evidently 15 or 20 De- 
grees diftant towards the South ; and that the Wind was in Rutland 
North, as I obferved myfelf ; at the Bathj Weft^ as Mr MolyneuxoMcr- 
ved ; and, as I am informed by Sir Robert Clarke^ in Northamptonjhire 
Souths at^ all the fame Time, which deferves particular Reflexion. . 

3. March 22. 1721, about half an Hour after gin the Afternoon i.,.^jy^l^^^. 
nearly, I faw a diftinguifhable Parhelion^ the Sun near JVeft^ about by Arthur 
an Hour high, the Wind and Carry of the Clouds^ about .N. and by Dobbs Efqi 
E. the Sky in feveral Places obfcured with light Clouds, and^ the Siin J^* 37^- I»gv 
entring into one fomewhat more watery, yet fo as to diftinguilh it's ^* 
Dilk. At firft appeared below the Sun*, breaking out of the Cloud, 
fuch Rays as are ufually feen in an Evening, in a Sky interfperfed wkh 
Clouds. In a little Time appeared at the fame Height wkh the Sun^ 
as near as I could guefs, having no Inftrument^ a luminons Spot^ be- 
ing about four Times the. largenefs of the Sun's Diik, and about 30 
Deg. diftant from the Sun to the Southward, which was covered with 
the lively Shades of red and yellow on the Side next the Sun, and' 
encreafed in Splendor (fo as icaree to be born by the naked Eye> tiU 
It exceeded the Brightnefs of the Sun, which was then under a thin 
Cloud, fo as eaGly to perceive his Difk. After this had appeared a- 
iKWt 3 or 4 Minutes, 1 finding^ it to be a real ParbeUon^ be^an to look 

about 



7j parhelia: 

aboat for the Hah they gtnttitty zpf^^r in; and at I obfefved feme 
]^ay6 refeoibling a Glory co point upwards from the Sun, I faw ia 
tbofe Rays ac ((h^ fame Diftance {beiag, as near as I could guefs, a- 
bout 30 Deg. perpendicularly above the Sun; the Colours of the Hal9 
appearing as in the luminous Spot ; but inftead of findinjg it, as I 
Qxpe^d, in a Circle furrounding the Sun, it was inverted, yet not 
circular, but making an obtufe Angle, the point towards the Sun. I 
then looked to the Northward of the Sun, and as the Cloud, which 
was thicker on that fide, moved fouthwardly, a luminous Spot began 
to appear at the fame Diftance from the Sun as the other, -and in the 
fame jParallel of Altitude, which had the fame Colours towards the 
Sun, and Increafed in Brightnefs, but did not come up to the Bright- 
ne(s df the other Spot, yet was as luminous as the Sun then appeared : 
this Spot was very little bigger than the Sun's Diik. As the Cloud 
mov^ on, till it came to about 60 Deg. to the Southward of the Sun 
and 30 Deg. from the Spot, at an equal Height there appeared another 
Spot tinged with the Colours of the Rainbow. The whole Appear- 
ance la£d at^aruer of an Hour. The Reafon of my not feeing the 
Halo\ which generally appear with them, was, that there was a good 
deal of clear -Sky above ^he Sun» and the Qoud was too thick be* 
lowic« 

^^' ^' A* The Place of the Sun, being nearly JVeft about 1 2 or 1 3 Deg. above 

the Horizon, being about an Hour before Sim-fet. 
S. The luminous Spot, being about 30 Deg. to the Southward, of the 
Sun, as near as I could compute, having no Inftrument to take 
the Angle, and in the fame Parallel of Altitude; the Spot was not 
tfo well defined as in the Scheme, being more imperceptibly fiiaded 
<oflr in the Cloud, the two femicircular Lines next the Sun were thofe 
tinged with the Colours; the neareft the Sun being of a deep fcar- 
iet, the inner one a deep yellow, both the Colours being foftned 
as they fell oBFfrom the Sun, all ihe reft of the Spot being an in* 
tenfe I%ht, fo as the naked Eye could fcarce bear it. 

C. The other Spot to the Northward, which appeared fome time after 
that marked B, being not quite io large, nor the Colours fo intenfe, 
but the fame way difpofed, thofe next the Sua being red, the nexc 
yellow, and the reft white. 

D. A Spot in the Cloud, as it moved fouthwardly, till it came to a- 
bout 60 Deg. Diftance from the Sun, which had the Colours as in the 
other Spots, that next the Sun being red, the next yellow, but 
much fainter than in the Parhelia. 

£. The Appearance of two Segments of Circles, at about the fame 
Diftance from the Sun, as the Parhelia^ being perpendicularly a* 
bove it, the Colours being fainter than in the Parhelia^ but the 
iame Way difpofed, the lower Lines next the Sun exprefling the 
i-ed, and the upper 4he yellow^ 

< The 



parhelia: 7^ 

The Colours at D, and E, as they were not fo rntcnfe, neithcrr 
were they quite fo broad as thofe at B and C ; the two Colours b^- 
kig added together were about i of the Difk at B, and the Colours 
in the fame Proportion at C » the Diameter of the Parhelion at B, be- 
ing about doable the apparent Diameter of the Sun, as near as I 
could compute, as tn the Schema is expreffed. 

The Centre* of the Segments of the Haloes marked E, if not in the 
Parhelia^ were very little below 'em. 

Bdow the Sun and ParbeRa the Clotrd was too thick to difcova* a- 
ny thing thro^ it;, and above them, till near the Segments marked 
E, the Sky was ferene and nothmg obfcured 5 but at E, where the 
Rays, which pointed upwards from the Sun, terminated, it appeared 
hazy, and fo thick as to reflefl the Colours. 

4. On JVhdnefifay^ March ift, 17!^, walkmg m a Garden zt Keff- Four ken ar 
fington^ about a quarter after Ten I happened to obfervc the following Kenfington B^ 
Appearance. Sn %^^k 

r at firft took notice of the Hah about the Sun, V. M. with its pag,* 257. "^ 
ttfoal Circumftanccs, which arc pretty frequent ; the upper part of ili 
was very luminous, having a confufed mixture of the Rainfaow-Coi 
lours in it, and being touched at the Vertex with the two other Cur- 
vatures, OVR, NVT, in the Situation which the Scheme fliews; tho*>?^. s. 
the latter Arch NVT, did not appear till fbme time after. The Bot- 
tom part of ic alfo at M, which appeared a little above the Horizon, 
had fomething of the fame nature, but not in fo great a degree. 

I perceived, prefently likewifc, the two Farbeliay A, B4 whole - 
Diameters were pretty large, and whofe Brightncfs and Colour wa^ 
pretty much as the upper part of the Hah. 

As the Hah^zB at that time not quite pcrftft, but had fome parts » 
interrupted, I thought that the two Parhelia were iit the Circumfe- 
rence of its Circle,, as ofual ^ but after about a quarter of an Hour, 
I dircftly obfcrvcd the Hah to pafs between the ParbeHon A, and 
the true Sun ; and I have no reafbn to doubt the fame of the other, F, . 
alfo, tho* I do not remember that I direftJy obfcrved that. 

The Parhelia A, B; therefore, which were but a little diftant from^ 
the Circumference of the Hah^ began now to appear with narrow, pale^, 
wfaiti(h Streaks of Light, in the nature of Tails, proceeding; from: 
them; but foon extended themfelvcs fo far, that mey met m the 
Point oppofite to the Sun, and fbrmcd the Great Circle, A BCD, 
parallel to the Horizon, whole Breadth was about half that of the 
Halo. 

Upon viewing it carefully all round, T foon difcovercd a third - 
Mock-Sun, C, of a plain whit i(h Light, without any mixture of Co- 
lours, (which was alfo the Cafe of. the great Circle,) and prefently 
aMb a fourth, D, both of them pretty exaftly refcmbling each other,, 
fas the two firft did themfclves likewife,) very much inferior to the 
ParkfliaAy B> in Brightnefs^ tho' not fo much in magnitude; for II 

cftimaift: 



JO P A R H E L I A. 

cftimate their Diameters to have been to the two firft ParbeUa^ as 4 
to 5. 

As I had no opportunity of meafuring the feveral Angles, I have 
placed the Mock-Suns, C, D, in the Scheme, rather in Agreement 
>with former Obfcrvations, than my own Gueffes \ for they appeared 
to me to be at a greater diftance from each other, and nearer refpec- 
tivcly to the two firft Parhelia^ which Difference M. Huygem attri- 
butes to the different Altitude of the Sun. 

The Arch, NVT, not being very vifible while the Great Circle 
was, and indeed not extending icfelf at any time near fo far as to the 
Parhelia^ or the Circumference of the great Circle, I could not deter- 
mine by a direft Obfcrvation, whether the Parhelia A, B, appeared 
in the Interfedion of that Circle produced, with the great Circle ; but 
the Curvature appeared to me fo{>lasnly different from that, it's Cen- 
ter not being, I reckon, above M, that I cannot but believe the Par- 
belia^ A, B, were neither in the Interfeftion of NV O, with the great 
Circle, A BCD, nor of the ^^/^ with the fame Circle, in one of 
which Circumftances they Imve hitherto appeared « but between thofe 
two Points, and muchnearer to the Circumference of the Hah. 

I thought I faw plainly at one time likewife, a fmall Portion of a 
Secondary HUo^ if I may fo call it, as in the Scheme at P. It feem- 
ed evidently xo be an Arch of a Circle concentrical with the Halo^ and 
tti)ged with die Rainbow-Colours, whofe Diameters might perhaps 
be to that of the Halo^ as 4 to 3 ; but as Jt appeared but for a little 
time, I would not be thought pofitive^bout it. 

I don't at all remember, that during the time I watched it, leverob- 
fwvcdthegreatCircleABCp, to be vifible within the fliafo, between 
A and £, tho* all the other part of it was fometimes very perfeA. 

This Face of the Heavens continued, tho* with an Interruption of 
ibmej>arts now and .then, till about a quarter after eleven, when I 
left it, and could not return till about twelve, at which time the Sky 
was clouded over, (which had been before only hazy, a fure Criterion 
of thefe Appearances) and this Phenomenon no longer vifible. 

XXIIL On the 7th of September laft, about Nine in the Morning, 
ARaitikw ^ ^^ riding with fome Friends over Port- Mead neai* Oxford. The 
/eenontbf Morning had been mifty, and the Grafs was very wet with the Dew. 
Ground by tbi We had not been long out, before the Air cleared up, and the Sun 
Rw. Bcnj. began to fliine very bright. We foon after had the Satisfaftion of 
D. BTNi feeing a. Rainbow upon the Ground, whofe Colours were very near 
369. paif/ .as lively as thofe of the common Iris : This was extended upon the 
j5f9. t Ground for fome Hundreds of Yards, and the Colours were fo ftrong, 

»that it might have been feen much farther, had it not been terminat- 
ed by the Bank, and Hedge of the Field. It is hardly worth while 
to obferve, that it continually changed it's Place as we moved along, 
fince this is no more than happens in other Rainbows. The more re- 
^'inarkable Particulars were thefe : 

I I. That 



^LateL /W. lI.Faj^ILP^^' ^^ • 




1 BuJkziz 



Z^^ujA 



yc 



o 




/i^./f. 



.8c 




£ a/tern. § -. % 



1 /^^^25rV^ 








^. 






A Lwmlntms Appekranei. si. 

"1. That the Figure of it was ndt round, but oblong ; being as I 
conceive^ a Portion of an Nyperhla. 

2. That the Conrez Part of ic was turned towards the Eye» and 
ihe Vertex was at a fmall Diftance before us. 

3. That the Colours took up Ith Space, and were much more live«' 
)y in thofe Parts of the Iris that were near us, than in tfaofe at a 
Diftaoce. 

Thefe Pbanotnena may eafily be accounted for, by comparbg this Fs^. ^ 
Iris D C£, with the common Iris kiEe formed by Drops falling in 
the Air at a fmall Diftance from the Eye of the %e£tator H, and 
touching the Ground with the lower Part of it's Arch in E, the ver- 
tical Point of the Iris DCE. Produce the Cone HitiE^ : It^s Inter- 
fedion with the Plane of the Horizon will give the Figure of the Iris 
D C£. Hence it follows, 

!• That as the Angle r HG happens to be greater, equal to, or 
kfs, than 90 deg. the Figuro will be a Hyperboh^ ParsMs^ OC 
Eiapjis. 

2. That as the Sun was about 30 deg. high, when we viewed the 
Pbisnmnena^ the his was a Hyperbola. 

3. That the Arches of the fame Iris^ confifting of Griours of dif- 
ferent Re&angibility, may alio in fome Cafis be different SeAions of 
the Cone. 

4. That fince the Angle <HF is always given; fnom the Hei^ 
of die Point of View H G, and the Sun*s Altitude SLA, the Di- 
menfions of thefe /ru's are ealily determined. 

XXIV. It began about 10 a Clock on January 12th 174^, but had J Umhms 
Bothh^ very remarkable till about half an Hour afser Eleven, when ^V!^^ '* 
I was calPd out to fee it, by the Servants, who had been looking at DluWin,% 
it about half a quarter of an Hour, and told me it looked juft Tike phiiip Perd- 
Fire. But it appeared firft to me in long Streams of Light, of aval, Efqi N*. 
round Body, as at A, and very bright, tho* fome were cotoured, sH- Pfr *"i 
as at A a. They came before the Wind, which was then ff^^ftf pu j^ 
as near as I could guefi, there not being a Cloud in the Sky, ' 

and the brighteft Moon I have known. We had Rain about 
Five, but at 6 a Ck)ck the Night was tlean The Streams of Light 
A A, moved very flow, (there being but little Wind; but as they 
moved they joined, and, fwelling out in the middle, formed them- 
felycs into the Figure ^^B, continuing to advance flowly in that 
ihape for about a Minute, when the two Ends bb^ approaching near 
each other, asdefcribed by the pricked Lines, the advanced partB» 
fuddenly, and with great Swifmefs, ran back, andjoiningit felf with 
the Ends bb^ formed it felf into the Figure C, quivering in the upper 
part, and dardng down perpendicularly in fliarp Points, as at D D D ^ 
and it's Cdour from a bright Light chained into the Colours of a 
Rainbow, but much fainter. It cootinued thia way abolit a Mioute» 

VOL. VI. Partii. L " Ntnd 



iz ^ A great Meteor dt Cambridge^ 

and then the fharp points DDD, gathering themfelves up ihto^C^ 
it changed again into a fquare Sheet of Light, as at £» and fwell*d 
out at F, as before at B \ and advancing leifurely, repeated the fame 
Scene as before, 'till it feemed at a great diftance to difperfe it felF 
ioto fmall thin tight Clouds ; tho* 'tis probable that to thofe who faw 
k in a like Situation, as it travelled, it might make the fame appear* 
ance as it did to me. I was very particular in obferving it, and the 
next Morning drew it, and I think very exaftJy. I Ihould have con- 
tinued longer to look at iiy ("which I did for above a quarter of an 
Hour^ but that it was exceflive cold ; the beginning of it was very 
like the Autota BoreaUs^ which has been very frequent this Winter 
here. 
'JgriAt ISe- XXV. I am fold that fome Streams were feen to Ihoot forth im-^ 
U9rat Cam- mediately aft^r Sun-fet, and that they did not perfedly ceafe till a- 
^^^(^t^ bout 3 or 4 in the Morning. It was after 7 before I had Notice of 
F^M^ ic. At firfti fawonlv two or three of the Triangular Streams to- 
y^r,No.365. wards the North and North- Weft : Thefe were not of long Duration, 
p. 66. but were fiicceeded by others which appeared and vanifhed again by 

turns, arifing from, and afcending up to Places in the Heavens, of 
very different Altitudes above the Horizon. From the Time I be- 
gan to view them, they continued to afcend more and more copi«^ 
oufly, being propagated ftill further and further from the North to« 
wards the Weft and Eaft, and direfted always to the Head of Ge* 
minii till at length, when they feemed almoft to meet at the Point 
of Convergence, they began to afcend up towards it from the South- 
ern Parts alfo, and all around it ; infomuch, that at a quarter after 
Seven, we had a perfed Canopy of Rays over us : The bottom of 
this Canopy did no where reach down to the Horizon ; for near the 
North, where it defcendtd the moft, it's Altitude was about 10 or 
15 Degrees } and near the South, where it defcended the leaft, it's 
Altitude was about 40 Degrees. It remained in this State about^ 
a Minutes, during which time, we faw feveral Colours, fome 
Winter, and fome more permanent, others brighter, but quickly, 
vanishing. Thus in the Weft I obferved the Rays to be tinged for 
fome considerable time with an obfcure and heavy red ; and in one 
of the brighteft Streams at another time, there fuddenly broke out a 
very vivid red, which was inftantly and gradually fucceeded by 
the other prtfmatick Colours, all vanifhing in about a fecond of time. 
Thiefe Colours affeded the Senfe fo ftrongly, that I thought them to 
be more intenfe than thofe of the brighteft Rainbow I had ever feen* 
A fmall time before the Appearance loft it's Perfcftion, we were fur- 
prized to obferve a fliaking and trembling of the Streams, chiefly in 
their upper Parts, during which, their Convergence was confound- 
ed, and the whole Heaven feemed to be in a Convulfion. At the 
iame time I could perceive Waves of Light towards the Nopth, 
which moxred upwards, and in their Motion crofled the Streams, )y^ 
» ing 



'A gfHtt Meteor at Cambridge. 85 

ing parallel to the Horizon. Thefe Waves were different from thofe 
broad ones« which you mention, and which I alfo took notice of i 
their breadth feemed to be about a Degree, their length about .90 
Degrees ; and I can compare them to nothing better than thofe 
flender Waves upon the furface of ftagnant Water, which arc made 
by calling in a fmall Stone. 

About fcven or eight Years ago, I happened to fee a Meteor which Kg. tti 
k will be of ufe to defcribe to you. Along the Horizon in the Nordi, 
there lay a white and luminous, and feemingly denfe Matter in the 
form of a Cloud, reprefented by a b cd -^ the length of it, a h was 
about 10 or 15 Degrees. From this there arofc dircftly upwards, 
pointed Streams of the like luminous and white Matter, which yec 
did not appear in any part of it to be fo denfe as the former; and 
grew gradually more and more rare in it's upper Parts, fo as to va- 
nifli almoft infenfibly at the Points. There was fome little Diffe- 
rence in the Height of thefe Streams ; but they generally afcended 
up to about 4 Degrees above the Horizon. They were very 
numerous and contiguous to each other, and feemed to be compofed 
of very flender parallel Filaments or Rays. This was the commoa 
Appearance, and the only remarkable Thing that I farther obferved 
was, that fometimes a Fire or Flame would break out in the Cloud, 
abc d^ and move along it in in a diredion parallel to the Horizon : 
And during this Motion, a pointed Stream diredly over the Fire 
feemed to run along with it, and to pafs by the other more fixed 
Streams, to which it always kept itfelf parallel. 

I am perfuaded that the late Appearance was of the fame kind with 
this, which I have now been defcribing. For let AB, reprefent the 
Plane of the Horizon^ C the place of the Speftator, £F a fund of 
Vapours, or Exhalations at a confiderable Height above us, diffused 
every way into a large and fpacious Plane, parallel to the Horizon. 
This fund of mixt Matter by Fermentation will emit Streams from it 
felf, fuch as EG, F H, (sfc. which, if the Wind be perfedUy 
ftill, will afceod perpendicularly j if it be boifterous and irregu- 
lar, they wUl be blended and confoilllded together ; but if it be very 
gentle and uniform, as it was at the Time of our Appearance, they 
will be indined towards the Point of the Horizon^ which is oppofite 
^o that from which the Wind blows. Now if ADB reprelcnt the 
Concave of the Heavens, and a Line C D, be drawn parallel to the 
Columns EG, F H, C^c. 'tis certain by the Rules of Pcrfpeftive, 
that thefe Columns will appear upon that Concave to converge all 
around towards the Point U : Thus the Column, £ G, will feem to 
arife from the Point ^, to afcend up to g^ and to take up the foace 
^g ; and in like manner the Arch fb will be the Projeftion of the 
Column F H. From hence it is evident, that the Reafon why the 
Triangular Streams afcended at firft only from the Northern Parts 
of the Heavens was this : The Fund of Matter j E F^ wa? not yet 

L 2 arrived 



84 '^ Akr^ra B^iaUsi 

arrtfed b^ k^s Motion to the Line C D^ after it had pafled that 
Line, it is plain they muft appear to^aicend from all Quarters. A 
great number of C&iumns being therefore difpofed toenut Light ac 
the fame time, cafifed that perfe^ Conopy^ which I defcibed above* 
The reafon why that Canopy dcfcendcd lower in the North than \tk 
the South, was this : The ihitting Columns, wliich had not yet pafied 
the Line C D^ were more numerous and more remote from it thaa 
ehofe which had pafled it ; for if the Point E, be farther diftant from 
C D than the Point F, the Arch A e^ mufl: needs be lefs than the^ 
Arch B/. An irregular Gull: of Wind blowing upon and (haking the 
Columns^ was ^I fuppofc) the Caufe of that trembling, which 
appeared in the Triangular Streams, and the Caufe alfo which At^ 
ftroycd that fine Appearance of the Canopy. The (lender ctrcu* 
lar Waves feen at the fame tinae might alfo be explained from the 
lame Caufe. I netA not detain you any lonsjer by endeavouring to 
make out fome other particulars of this unu^al Appearance : I fear 
I have been already too tedious* However I will not omit to men- 
tion a very eafy Contrivance by which the Thing may be tolerably 
well reprefented to view. Take a Hoop and roumi about it faften 
leverai ftreighc Sticks parallel to each other,, but all inclined to the 
Plane of the Hoop, hold thia Plane parallel to the Horizon^ and in^ 
that f ofture move it with Sticks over a Candle, die ihadpws of 
die Sticks upon the Ceiling of your Room^ will converge to a Points 
not dit'cftly over the Candle, fas they would have done, had the Sticks 
been perpendicular to the Plane of the Hoop) but to the Point ia< 
which a Line drawn from the Candle parallel to the Sticks, fhall in- 
terfeft the ]?lane of the Ceiling, 
J* Aff^a Chafmata, uti vocantur, coeli^ quas^ alias horizontal lunnen & au- 
JTir^tf/i/, Sept. fora fcptcntrionalis audiunt, Suethice I^rd-Jkjen^ Nord4jus^ Ncrdbljfs^ 
«^*^"ar J^ordbldfsy Ldtcrflkjen^ Ljjffkor^ i^c. illse, vulgi, judicio, acies, fca* 
I^IL j!^Burr. axercituum prseliorumque ide«j Metcoron in regiooibus noftris, ali- 
man;^. £//. ifque Polo* vicinioribus, illuftre fane & frequens Cfrequentius hodie 
^^-^•»7H» quam olira nobis atate provcftiores perfuadere volunt; jufta cum di- 
N^^?5c ^p Ijgcntia fafcpius obfcrvavimus. ^ommunicabimus unicum, quod A.. 
»7S' ^y^7* ^* ^^' Septerobris in nofturno itinere accuratius confiderare 

licuit, & cujus rarior planeque fingularis facies Gonje(5buram de natu^ 
ra phxnomenr paraQjatica eruditorum e»mfni accuratiori heic fubjici* 
endi an&m dedit. 

Erant folito plures phafbiatutiv horuncce trades, arcus nimirum* 
albicantes & rcliquo ccelb (fereno ucique ac tranqpillo) lucidiores». 

Suatuor ad minimum* aut tres^. raediocribus tenebrarum intervallis di- 
indi, & unus fupra akerum pofiti. C^tod autem rariflimum ad* 
Ipedtuquc jucundum, didborum areuum d5ftanti« fub ipfa Cynofura. 
maximsB (infra quam fiipremus quidem ultra viginti &* fcx gradus 
noft confiftebat,. quippe per quern ftella Urfse majoris Dubbe levker 
&hiade tian^arebat^ venus borizontemutrinque fenfim decrefcebanc,.. 

donea 



d^ec 91i OtadMn ia Ipigs cxrievtis qcci^entilqae cfnJmibus motUQ fefe- 
ipttf-fpoaKiir, %w^ ^o}^ qM4t9 io ^rtifici^li gloJbp Meridipij^ ad PoIm. 
£qiiaiim» cflnv«r£^rc C^roun^u'. Qiiididi ifti s^r^us feu femicirculi 
nuucttntm partem ex itrra dktia&U h ad horizoiupm Q6npalil?u$ 
cMiftabaac, prseferciim in Auns^kate, vcl fub ipfo ieptemrioiie ; id 
kttera lux ddbiltor eoofpici^hatur ac fubobtcuFa. 

Scriarum gemiiftiM erai KnQl:^at borizonca^s unut^i ^Iciear perpendjl- 
cahffis : hie miBM Ipi^ 1^ tardior^ uc vjx circuiarem arcuuim for- 
■latn torbaret ; tile variu$ ficaul atque celerrinm^r ab oriente in oc- 
cidenceoiy & retro, Quaiie$ autem ftriar plures (quod facias acci-* 
dcbat) a coDtrariia iFfnie^ce^ plagis fibi invicem occurrebant^, fiVe 
id in medio arcu, five alibi fierec ;. toties, quafi esp ill^ jradiorum 
mizcura leu mtiltipli^i imerfc^tione ptoveniesis golorum pulcherrima 
apparefaat varietaA, & quidem ordine prprfus eodem atq^ae in prifms^. 
te vttreo, espUcati$ folique obvecQs avium minQrum peonia^ aliifve 
corpcd'ibiis imiJibua colores produci folent. 

HiQC veradari occafio potent adhucde Opdciaptononftem ratio*- 
aibus, cum Cartefifi in de M^tioris Cap. VII. §^ iS« cogitandi; fed 
aeque Uisren ideo fubciliori materi^B f^bureae in regiooe aeris infe- 
fiori acceoilp omMm deaegari pqfle Iqcum exiftimamua*. Ipfi enifxi 
alias iaopiuji, prseferdm in chafinate A. 1716. d. 17. Martii heic longie 
Hluftriori quam in A^glia, Gallia, Geraiania, alibi, per totam noc- 
lem vifo, codores multo plure9> necaon fufiirrqa $s fibilos, auales ex- 
ciuri a focali flamma fplent, objervavimusw For&n autem d^o divef- 
£1 ftatucre luminis boreali^ genera oportet : unum meteoron i^Beum- 
abeffluviis^ exhalationibusi akerum mere paraftaticum, exdiverfi- 
aK>da folarium radiorum nefra&ione 6e reBexH>ne, five in glaciajibus- 
qutbufdam kmellts, fteliuKlVc atmofph^ara? regionem e^eltiorem oc- 
eupantibus ia^a, five etiam in maribus quibufdam ad ieptentrionem, . 
indeq^ue nobis ex nubibus communicata, ortuok Certe pofteriu^fin* 
gular^' experimento illuftrarr poflfe vidttvr, quod occafione Jatp de- 
fcripti phafmaiis (cui tamen fimrle vidimus A. 1716. inFebruario* 
hora vefpertina 9* ex duob^s ejufmodi arcubus femicircularibus, fed: 
minus ftriatis ^ fupra boirealem horiaontis plagam elevatiopilMiSy , 
conftamj toventum faiftumque, hucredit. 

Si lamina fijmatpr ftannea longitudinis latitudinifque arbitrarife,. 
•ademoue acuco ii fortiori cultro, uno duAu fecundum longitudineni 
oniver&m, donee tj^a ftriata fadb fuerit, rafa, manu ica teneatur^.. 
at ejus pkiaum cum lucente caodela firobfcuro pariete tabulavc' 
«qaales faciat angulos ; dcinde a^utem variis modis incurvetur & tor- 
qoeatur, ipfiim nunc coacavam nunc convexam parieti vel tabula^ 
obvertendoi tardius ad lubitum aut celerios : pbafmata fupra recent 
fitis admodum fimilia fpedlacalo non injucundoTeptasfentabi^tur. 

Quid G utriufque geperis lunien forte aliquando una exiftere, ac- 
fuc unum cuyn altero coincidere dicamus, ut neutrum alterius cau-^ 
4 fit aut efFe.£t»i9, fed.ambo^d no^tem illuminandam terroremque 

fpedatoriousz^ , 



8^ An Aurora Btfftnlis. 

fpeftatoribus incutien dumconcurrant ? (^emadmodum enim ftepifll-* 
me cjuidem lumen horizoncale, Zonas videlicet candentes, nuncira* 
das (imo per ipfum fere Zenith tranfetintes, qaas cum Gakotia utut 
non parum lacrori, ob fimilicudinem vulgus confundere folet) nunc 
columnis, pyramidibus inverfis aliifque figuris variis ftipacas, fed ci^ 
tra omne aeris, ut ica dicam, incendium 9 ita nee raro hoc fine illi« 
vel antecedcntibus vel concomitantibus, apparentiis diftinde noracis, 
vidimus: c^uamrvis etiam^ regiorie quadam coeli, nude primum can* 
dente, tandem fervemiffimas faces, five per folis radios In glacialibus 
Oceani partibus, ecu in fpeculisquibufdam cauftrcis, reflexos, fiveaKo 
quocunque niodo accenfas, ad Zenith & fuper tocum nonnunquam 
hemifphaerium evolaffe'fatendum fit. 

Sed quia genuinas versifque phasnomeni hujus admirandi cauflas vix 
cuiquam certo invenire priiis licet, quam plurimarum in diverfis terra: 
locis una -faabitaram obfervationum rite inftitui queat comparatio s 
unde ante omnia conftet, num lumen iftud in remotioribus etiam locts 
Tub eodem altitudinis angulo confpiciatur ; num quod heic horizonti 
-parallelum, 4ilibi vcrticaTe fit, & id genus alia ; verbo, utrum unus 
idemque fit arcus qui in diverfis locis confpicitur, an quemadmodum 
in Iride, ita quoque heic, quot in terra fpeftatores, tot arcus in 
coelo: i£nixe ^romde omnes in univerfum atque fingulos rogamus, 
quibus rerum naturalium in aliquo pretio eft fcientia, velint ubicunque 
terrarum, maxime vero in regionibus borealioribus, boreali huie lumi- 
ni quoad omnes circumftancias obfervando quam diligentiflime invi- 
gilare, fuaque obfervata quantocyus cum publico vel faltem nobifcum 
communicare, gratiam ab erudito orbe fane maximam merituri. Nos 
alia occafione qu^fdam regulas feu harum obfervationum normam & 
exemplar dabimus, parati interim & ipfi aliorum monita graco exci«> 
pere animo, '& quaenam judtcaverit quifque potiora hujus n^otii 
momenta, fieri cerciores, 
— afT>ublin, XXVII. I. The Air was all that Day, as it had been for fome 
B*^ ^w^No ^^^^ before, vey clear and fharp j abouthalf an Hour paft four in the 
368. pag. Evening, fomer flying Clouds appeared, and the Sky was tinged with 
a io. a very unufual yellowifh Colour, which perhaps might be reflefted from 

a great Quantity of Snow, that foon after fell for near a quarter of an 
Hour. However that might be, Tm willing to date the beginning of 
the enfuing Pbanomena from the firft appearance of this uncommon 
Light. About a quarter paft fix, a thin Vapour, which was as yet 
very ill defined, and in all appearance refembled an exceeding black 
Cloud, had fixed itfelf in the Northern HemifpbBre\ it*s Edges were 
tinged with a rediih Yellow, that by degrees^ as it approac-hed the 
Vertex^ grew more dilute, till at laft it ended in a faint Whitcnefs. 
That in reality it was no Cloud, but only a Vapour exceeding pure 
and limpid, was manifeft, beeaufe feveral of the fixed ^Stars fhone 
chro* it, without having their Light in any degree eflfaced. In the 
^dft of xhis dark Bafts^ about half an Hour paft fiic^ a lucid Area 

fhewed 



Jin Aurora Bi^ealisl %j 

Aeweditfelf due N. £. about 35 deg. above the Horizon, and in 
lefs than a Minute from the time I firft difcovered it, emitted a very 
large Pyramidal Stream of (hining Vapour, which with an incredible 
Swiftne^ afcended obliquely towards S. S. W. fo as to leave the Ze^ 
nitb confiderably to the Weftward, and very foon after, about the 
faaie Place, fix others arofe ac the fame inftant almoft to the ZenUb. 
From this time till 48 Minutes paft fix, we had repeated ProjeAions 
of chefe lucid Rays, without any order as to Time, Place, or Mag- 
nitude. They did not only arife from behind the dark Bajis^ but 
fbmetimes as it were out of the pure Sky % and tho' fome of them 
continued vifible more than a Minute, yet the greater part of them 
onlyjuft Ihewed themfelves and died away. I had now got to the 
Top of a convenient Obfervatory, where (though deftitute of Inftru- 
mentsj I had a free Profpef): of the Horizon ; and in company of ano- 
ther Gentleman, fixed myfelf with great Attention, to exped: the 
enfning Pbajis of this Pbanomenon. 

About 6 h. 55 m. between N. W. by N. and W, Nv W. wo 
found the Reprefentation of a very bright Crepufcubitny fuch as that 
which appears about 20 Minuttes^ after Sun-fet \ from which arofe 
feveral very large Beams of Light, not exactly ereA. towards the 
VerteXy but fomewhat declining to the South; among thefe, one 
which arofe about N. W. and in^ three or four fecond .Minutes* pafled 
over 50 or 60 degrees of a great. Circle, was above all. others that 
had preceded, the mod fplendid:. It*s fides were inclined to each o<f 
ther with an Angle of about 8 or 10 Degrees^ and were tinged with > 
abriik lively Red, which by degrees, as it approached the AxiSy be* 
came more intenfe and dirty: On the other hand, receding from the 
Axisy it's Colour was a: pale Yellow, that foon lofl: itfeltin a faint. 
Whitenels. 

From this time no Moment pafled without fuch Variety of cjifferent 
PbafeSy that it was impoflible for the Eye of any fingle Perfon to 
purfue it thro' the fuddennefs of it's Alteration. While fome of the 
lucid Beams feemed to fi:and fixed, as it were, among the Stars,^ 
others moved flowly from Eafi to IVeJiy by which they feemed to 
meet each other, fometimesto recede from each other, and fome-t 
times by a kind of apppfition, great ones were produced from others. 
of an inferior order. 

The lucid Area^ which I firft difcovered in therN. E. had now 
formed itfelf into a Parallellogram^ whofe upper and lower Edgqs were, 
5. or 6 Degrees diftant from each other, and nearly parallel, to the. 
Horizon: In this, as if behind a Curtain, vaft: Waves of Light, whofe. 
Extremities did not reach the Periphery of the dank Bafis^ feemed to. 
meet and'^vade each other; ac other times, while fome of them,. 
with a remarkable Velocity, moved Eaftward i others, as if behind 
them, would fly towards the IVeJl \ by which variety of different. 
Motions, as ofteo.aa anyjnterval pafled between the Collifion of thefe* 

erc^ : 



^ttCiSi^irtij a b^utifdt tJndulatiDn Wa» prodbcdd, and it"^ Palfi^ 
l3y the adjoyAing Para of the Fluid, were propagated to a vztt di« 
ftance. 

While #e flood amazed at this Airprizing Sight, the Jxis of the 
coSotired PjrafHiJj which irtSfft in the N. W, had moved confiderably 
toward the H^tft^ and at ;^h. ^sm. Was aboat 73 w ±5 Degrees ra 
thTJ North of Venus. The d^rk Bafts of this Meteor had now extended 
almoft to the Eaft Pomt of the Horizon^ and at half an Hour paft 
fcven, between E. N. E. and E. by N. feteral large Columns afcend- 
ed in an inftant t^ the Zenkb 1 the moft Eaftward whereof was remar- 
kably convex toward the S^ib^ and tinged with a pale Red, as were 
^oft of tliofe which afcended with it. They wwe met by others, 
that arofe at the fame time between the North and tVeft^ and in the 
Zmtb farmed a vaft ColleAion of Vapour, that pretty OMSch refem- 
bled Smoke inltghtned by the Sun's Beams $ it's Waves reBe&ed a 
brifk^ livehr red Colour, and in fome places a pale Yellow; they 
rolled indifierently any way ; ahd in little more than a Minute, when 
the firft Efforts of their Congreft were ipent^ and all feemed fixed and 
ferene, the Corcm j>rojcaed feveral fmall Rays, which with a flow 
uniform Velocity defcended between W, by N. and N. W. foon after 
which it died away. 

We luid not much time to lament die Afofence of our Spearum^ for 
at 7 h. 40 m. feveral ^>ther Stria were difcharged from behind the 
daiic Bafis^ which inteffeAing with others, that ac the fame time arofe 
about tli^ Eaft and Wefi Points, formed in the Zemib^ or rather 6 or 
8 Degrees to the ^outb thereof, a fecond much more elegant and fur* 
prizing than the former, and indeed than any thing that had yet ap* 

J>eared; it was not only tinged with diffen;nt Orders of red and yel- 
ow^ but alfo with blue and violet, the laft of which, by a Mixture 
with the white Light, appeared faint and inclined to Purple. Tho' 
the Vapour, trf* which this and the preceding Carotia were formed, was 
fo exceeding thin and pure, that feveral of the fixed Stars were v^- 
ble thro* it, yet it reflefted a Light fo copious, that I could diereby 
perfeftly diftinguifli the time ot night by a fmall Watch. While 
thus delighted, our Pianamenon ejeded four or five large Colutnns 
toward the N. W. fbefides others toward the South) whidi appeared 
pointed at the Top, and their Sides inclined to each otlier with an 
Angle of 5 or 6 Degrees. When their Bafes were extended about 30 
or 35 Degrees from the Vertex^ the lower Parts of two or three of 
them broke, as ic were, by the meer Weight of the Vapour, fcpa- 
rated from the upper, and defcended with a flow Motion, in the Form 
of truncate Cones : they were gradually followed by their upper Parts, 
and in about a Minute were loft in a large Body of Light that was 
fettled between the N. W. by N. and W. N. W. The Corona, as if 
exhaufted by thefe great Difcharges, became immediately more di- 
lute and languid, it's lively Colours faded, and were fucceeded by a 
1 whici/h 



An Aurora Borealis. 8^ 

whitifh vibrating Light, that in Icfs than two Minutes intirely difap- 
peared. 

The dark Vapour, which continued to poffefe the Polar Regions, 
bad now extended itfelf from the Eaft to the N. W. by N. point of 
the Horizon^ and was formed in a large Segment of a Circle, whofe 
Center was about 20 Degrees below the Horizon: it's upper Edge 
was tinged With a pale Red, which was foon loft in a florid Yellow, 
afid this again, as it approached the Zenith^ became more efibete and 
languid. In this dark Segment feveral lucid Areas frequently dif< 
covered themfelves, with a vibrating Light, which inftantly difappcar- 
cd, as if a Curtain were drawn over them 5 and from it's Rays of very dif- 
ferent Magnitudes continued to afcend without any Uniformity as to 
time and place, till 48 or 49 minutes paft feven, when a third Coro^ 
na^ very little, if at all, inferior to the preceding ones, either in the 
Variety of it's Colours, or in the quantity of Light it emitted, was 
formed in the Zenith. As the preceding were both produced by the 
Northern Strusy fo this was augmented by two or three large oneSy 
that arofe due Soutb^ out of the pure Sky, and were, in all probabi- 
lity, part of the Vapour, which had been projeded beyond the 2^- 
ftttby or which had fubfided from the two former: thevcaufed the 
Vapour, of which this Image was compofed, to move with great Vio* 
lence, in diflPerent Diredtions, not unlike Waves of Smoke, confin'd 
in a reverberating Furnace ; this Motion being abated, the Vapour 
acquired a kind of Stagnation, in which State it continued but a 
vef7 ihort time, before it projed^ed feveral lucid Beams, an inefita- 
ble Fore-runner of it's approaching Diffolution, between the North 
and fVefty and foon after, pardon the levity of the Expreffion, NoBi 
fe immifcuit atra. 

About this time, the great Beam, which arofe in the N. W. and 
had preferved it's Colours in their original Beauty, for more than three 
quarters of an hour, began to fade, and at yh. 53m. was abforbed in 
a vaft body of Light, which feemed fixed in that part of the Horizon : 
it had moved in that time 15 or 20 degrees to the fFeJiward of the 
Place from whence it arofe. The Impetus of the Vapour being now 

Eretty much abated, we had nothing extraordinary but fuccefTive 
Hfcharges of pointed Rays between the N, Weft, and E. N, Eaft ; 
without any order or Uni/ormity as to time or place ; ^ettin^ afide 
thefe, there was very litde diflference in the general face of a^irs for 
20 minutes ; neither had we much reafon to hope for any, becaufe 
the feverity of the Cold was fuch, that it obliged us to remove to a — at Gr«^ 
better Climate, and by that means we unfortunately loft the enfuing wys More. 
Pbajes of our dyinc Meteor. tm^^ 

2. Monday the 6th of Fib. 17I7, a litde before 7 in the Evening, there Samud Cru7 
arofe out of the Nortb^ or a litde towards the Eaji^ a bright Crejm/^ wyt. Kjfi 
culum^ which foon fpread itfelf a great way through the Northern part ^-R- S- N< 
of the Hemifphere. About 7 (when I fim (aw it) it began to leave f^^* 
yOL.VL Partii. M behind'*^ 



90 An Aurora Barealis. 

behind it, at due Nortb^ or a few Degrees to the Eafi^ part of a Tery 
clear Sky f which looked like a black Cloud, but the Star fhone in ic 
clearly) being a Segment of a Circle, into which Figure, the Crepuf- 
cnlum (OT expanded Body of lucid Vapour) had now formed it's upper 
Limb alfo, making a kind of broad /n'j, terminated at each end by 
the Horizon. 

All this while the ftreaming Lights appeared in great Variety as to 
Figure, Place, Magnitude, and Colour, but for the moft part of a 
' redder Colour (efpecially towards the fVeft) than the Crepufculum itfelf, 
out of which they feemed to be formed, and tho* for tfie moft part 
the greateft Appearances had been within 20 Degrees of the Nortb on 
each fide, yet at due N. W, there were very many confiderable ones. 

About 8, this Crepufculum^ ("which had been conftantly, though 
flowly, carried further from the Nortb) had, with the upper part of 
it's outer Limb, reached to about 10 or 12 Degrees beyond the 
Pole-Star towards the Zenith, being now above 30 deg. broad, with 
^ circular Segment of black clear Sky to the Norths ofabout 25 deg. 
wJien the whole Crepufculum^ or Vapour, was all fuddenly formed into 
a^regate Bodies like Vapours, and gave one of the moft pleafing 
Appearances, that perhaps has been feen of this kind. The Safes of 
the Cones feemed to reft on the upper Limb of the Segment of dear 
Sky (which was extended near 60 deg. on each fide the N.^ and the 
Vertices of the Cones, pointing all towards the Zenith, approached. 
within a few Degrees 0/ it, and terminating there, formed rne great- 
eft pft-t of a Semicircle inclofed, as it were, with Golden Pallif^o^^ 
wJiich fhining all at once as bright almoft as Flame, and being of a- 
prodigious Length and Niunber,. exhibited a moft agreeable Spec* 
tacle. 

This laft Pbe^nomeudH conyinct^ us, that thtk Cones were CoUec* 
tions of the very fame Particles, whereof the Crtpufiulum had confift* 
ed : becaufe when it appeared every where alike and equal, the great 
Stars Ihined through it but very faintly ; whereas afterwards, thofe 
* Stars, that remained between the Cones, fuddenly appeared very 
bright, whilft thofe, that were covered by them, could hardly be 
perceived : and indeed all the ftreaming Li^ts this Evening feemed 
to flow from this Crepufcubim downwards, as from a Fountain or 
Store, and not to arife from the Horizon, few approaching it nearer 
than 10 Degrees, and many not within 20 or 30 deg. 

After this fine Appearance had continued about 2 Minutes, the 
Matter feemed to be exhaufted, and the Scene almoft at an end, the 
ftreaming fhining Lights being moftly extinguifhed, and the reimin* 
ing Parts of Vapour left, like broken Clouds; when the flafhing 
Lights began to appear of a nfioft prodigio<}s Swiftnefs, both from 
N. E. and N. W. pointing to the Zenith, or a little more to the 
Soutb, *Twa& obfervable, that over the TnuSbs, where thcfe flafhing 
Lights pafied^ the remaining parts of Vapour (which now lay fcatter- 

ed 



Obfervaticnf m the Aurora Boreatts\ ft 

cd every where, like white broken Clouds) pointed, or Teemed to 
have a Tendency, conformable to the fame Motion j whereas, to- 
wards the due Horib^ where no Fkflies appeared, thefe whitilh Clouds 
lay confufed and irregular as before. 

This continued about 20 or 25 Minutes, when the Wind began to 
arifc a little at N. E. and the Scene was quite at an end, dark Clouds 
fucceeding all 01 er the liortb^ and by nine a Clock we had a fcvcre 
Storm of Snow. 

N. B. that all the time of thefe Appearances^ many broken parts of the 
extinguijbed Vapours^ like white Clouds^ were carried beyond the Zenith^ 
fame 50 9r 60 deg. and others j even to the Horizon itfelf^ at 5: S. W. 

During the whole Continuance, there feemed to be a fmall, eafy 
breath of Wind, fcarce perceivable, at N. N. E. which the Motion 
of the Clouds abovementioned alfo confirms, but asfoon as it began to 
blow a little briflcer, the remaining parts of the Vapour were all 
diffipated. 

An Account of the Weather both before and after this Phaenomenon. 

January 30. Hard Snow in the Morning, and Froft all Night. 

31. and Feb. i, 2, 3, 4* Pleafant Sun-fhine Days, very calm, 
but the Snow ftill lying, and at Nights very hard Frofts. 
February 5. Very violent Snow in the Morning, and fomc Thaw in 
the Afternoon, hard Froft at Night. 

6. Hard Froft in the Morning, and the Wind exceeding 
cold and fliarp, but not hard ; the afternoon pleafant, 
Sun-fliine and calm, but it froze all Day out of the Sun, 
and continued to do fo all the Evening, and the Ground 
was ftill covered with Snow. 

7. Very hard Froft in the Morning, and Froft and Storms 
ofSnowallDay. Wind N. N. W. 

8,9,i09ii. Plea(ant calm Pays, but hardFroft» and very hard 
Froft at Night. 
1 2. Hard Froft. Exceeding cold Wind at S. E. 

The 1 2th at Nigh^t thefe Lights are faid to have appear* 
ed s^ain, as alfo on Saturday ^t i^t\i^ to a very great 
degree, but I faw them not; the Weather ftill frofty 
with little Snow. 
22. At Night, hard Snow. 
23, 27. A Thaw and fome Rain, and but little Froft afterwards, 
only dry-cold Winds, till the 27th, when the Froft re- 
turned 'Very fliarp, with exceeding cold Winds, at N. E. 
and S. E. for a Fortnight or more, without any Snow, 
and did a great deal of hurt. 

M z XXVIIL 



pz Obfervations on the Juror 4 Borealis. 

Ohfervnthns XXVIIL Mirutn illud Phenomenon fcxto Martii lyif. non Hcuk 
€n the AwroTi ,^jj^j infcienti videre, quod infortunium haud exiguum in me peperic 
fw7nln^ ftudium fubfequentibus Phaenomenis invigilandi. Priorem obfcrvatu 
"Lyn, in a Lei- onem, quam hie fubjeci, fumma cura dclineavi, ftacim atque vidi, 
ter to Martin ideoque, ni fallor, a vcro parum difcrepat. Reliquas etiam defcrip- 
^Ikes Efq; rfones pro ccrto habeas accuratas efle, Quasnam lit caufa harum co. 
IV«f. No'. ' rufcationum, nondum, ut opinor, fads exploratum eft. 
376. pag. Die Veneris 5tf/A 5. 1718. circa hor. x. Phaenomenpn hoc, intabiH 

300. la delinenatum obfervatum fuit Lennae Regis, in pundo boreali. 

Die Saturni Sept. 6. circa horas viii & x. perplures Luminis co. 
P^' 1^- lumna?, (imiles fupradefcriptis (aa) obfervabantur, non acque lucidas 
ac pyramides node prascedente obfervata^, qus ferebantur verfus o« 
rientem, has vero ad occidentem. 

Die JovisSfp. 11. perplures iftiufmodi columns itenim confpici- 
untur cum mocu occidencali. 

Die Saturni Sept. 13. circa horam xi. Aurora Borealis lucidior ac 
altior fuit, longioribufque pyrami4ibus adornata, quam adhuc obfer- 
vata fueraL Adeo lucebat hac node, ut charaderes in libro lege- 
rcntur. 

Die Saturni vcro O£iob. ix. circa horas x.&xi. Aurora Borealis 
lucidior quam unquam fuit, ac corufcationibus pyramidalibus inter- 
0)erfis, haud multum abfimilis Pbacnomeno prius obfervato, Sept. 5. 
Lumine iterum ita fplendente, ut legere liceret. 

Die Veneris Dec. 19. circa horas yiu & ix. Hac node vifi funt 
cum Aurora Boreali perplures lucis radii, e nubc vcluti nignl exori- 
entes; rcvera autem non fuifle nubem exinde patet, quia ftellse per 
illam clare videbantur. Quid vero aliud fuerit, haud facile eft didu. 
Sed quod pra?cipue notavimus, fuic motus horum luminum fane mira- 
bilis. Hos radios obfervavimus in ftatu femper mobili, pofitiones 
fuas, feu loca, perpetuo mutantes ; curfum fuum modo hSc, mode 
iliac, rurfum, prorfum dirigebanf, & interdum alii ex aliis eadem via 
fingulatim progrefli funt, & aliquandiu fibi invicem collifione mutual 
impingebant cum tremulo ac vibrante motu, & celeritate fere incrc« 
dibili. Radii quidam obfervati funt ufque ad Zenith fe potrigentrs^ 
Vifa eft faspe lux fe in acervum collegifle, atque ita mirum cxhibuifle 
fulgorem coloribus Iridis tindum, & iterum viik eft ie dilatafle. Luna 
bac node lucide fplendebat. 

Die Jovis Martii 12. lyl^. circa horas x & xi. Aurora Borealis rur- 
fus obfervabatur. 
^ Die Veneris Martii 27. iterum vifa eft Aurora Borealis cum radia* 

^' '3' tionibus variis obliquis, fecundiim hanc Figuram. 

Die Lunas Qciob. 26. 1719* bac node etiam vila eft. circa horas 
vn & VIII. 

Item die Lunas Nov. 9. 17 19. 

Die Domin. Jan. ult. lyih. Hac node, ab hora fcptima ufque ad 

decimam^ Aurora Borealis viia eft altior, quam unquam antehac ob- 

2 &rvau 



An Aurora B»realis:, 93 

fervata fuir, per dtmidium cceli ab ortence ufque ad occldentem, fere 
obduAa corufcationibus variis interfperfis, adeoque lucebac, uc cha^ 
rafteres in libro pcrquam diftindc videri poffcnr. 

Die Sacurni Sept. 17. 1720. 

Die LunsB Jan. 6. i yVt. circa horas vii & vni. vifa eft iterum Air- 
rora Borealis cum corufcationibus pyramidalibus, undique a Zenith, 
veluci centro, obdudlis, imagtnem exhibentibus pcene inftar Umbellse; 

Die Domin. Jan. 12. 172^. . 

Die Luns Sepl. x 1. 1721. circa hor. ix. 

Die Mercurii Sept. 5. 1722. ab hora decima ad fefquidecimam. 

Die Mercurii O£lob. 3 . circa hor. ix. 

Die Jovis O£lob, 4. circa hor. x. 

Die Domin. Dec. 23. 1722. circa hon viir. 

XXIX. I obferved, that the Theatre of Light forming an irregu — Sept. 24^ 
lar variable Curve, was, as at moft times formerly, from E. N. E, to ^s* ^^- i" ^^^ 
W.N.W. the Horizon and whole Hemifphere ferene, little or no J^°J; ^^*5^ 
Wind, what there was, feenied Northerly. The feeming Dawn, or i^obbs, Effi. 
Stage of Light generally continued in an irregular Curve ; the one N«>. 395. 
Point in the two firft Nights whilft I obferved it, began near the Ho- p^g* i^^ 
rizon, near N. N.E. the other Point was at W. N. W. the Height of 
the iy^ch not exceeding 20 Degrees, in which there feemed to be a 
continual Dawn : Under that Field of Light feemed to be a dark 
Cloud, which, however, was a clear Sky, not filled with that luminous 
Vapour ; becaufe all the Stars appeared diftinAly and twinkling thro* \ 

it. Whenever that Light- rofe about to Degrees higher, to abouc 
30 Degrees, then Flaihes, or Corufcations followed alternately, and 
feemed to be Pillars or Beams of Light, which followed or fucceeded 
one another, and by that means feemed to move and change whh one 
another, by the Succeflion of Light and Darknefs, according to the 
Fia(hes. When the lighted Vapour rofe higher to about 40 or 45 
Degrees, then the Appearance altered ; and inftead of Beams, or 
Pillars of LJght, as when lower, there were Flafhes like thofe attend* 
ing Explofions, wherein faint Colours of Red, Green and Yellow ap- 
peared, but not very vivid ; and upon each Explofion it would fpread 
upwards towards the Zenith, in the Appearance of thin enlightned 
Clouds, and immediately difappear. On the 26th, about 9 at Nighty 
one of thefe irregular Arches of Light had got up to the Zenith, the 
lower Points being near E. N. E. and W. S. W, Lthen faw it for a 
confiderable time, at lead a quarter of an hour, and it had been 
there for fome time before I faw it. I could diftin^ly obferve all'the 
different Appearances, according to it's Altitude in the Hemifphere^ 
viT^ the lower part (being within 12 or 14 Etegrees, as near as I 
could compute) was a conllant fixed Light, equal to the Light of the 
Edge of a white Cloud in the Day-time^ when the Sun fhines oa iu 
As it rofe higher, I could obferve it fomewhat weaker, and could 
perceive the Motion of the Pillar& or Bc3n)s of Light afcer eachFlafh^ 

vhiidi 



PH, An Aurora Bor^alis. 

srKldi ieemid by that means to move» Somewhat higher again, at 
about 40 Degrees, taC F.Ulhes were like Explofions of great Guns, 
with the faint Colours obfcrved as before j but the Corufcations or 
Flalhes from thence to the Zenith, expanded at every Flaih, like a 
broad, thin, white Cloud, of which fome faint ^View could be fcen 
after each Explofion for fome time: And after all the Explofions were 
over, there remained a thin dulkifh Vapour in and near the Zenidiy 
and all along the Arch from Eaft to ff^eftj from 14 to 20 Degrees 
broad, which undulated and moved like a (tormy Sea, the Motion 
coming from the S. S. E. and fo leflened till it appeared no brighter 
than the Milky Way, but more like a very thin Cloud or Mift, 
thro' which I could perceive the Stars. At the fame time I faw ano« 
ther thin Cloud, having the fame Appearance, Arch-ways, to the 
Southward; at about the Height of 40 Degrees, which I fuppofe had 
been another, which had been over, and had moved thither from the 
Northward before I went out : And during the whole time there were 
lefier Lights towards the Nartb^ but difperfed here and there, and not 
forming any large Body of Light. During the whole time, the He« 
mifphere was clear, except a few very fmall Clouds niar the Hori- 
zon ; and when any moved into the enlightened Arch, they broke 
die Connexion, fo that the Light was above them : At the fame time 
it froze hard each Night. 
SoUttiofi of From thefe Obfervations, I fuppofe that the Aurora Borealis is a 
^^L^}^^^' thin Nitro-fulphureous Vapour raifed in our Atmofphere confiderably 
"""*'" higher than the Clonds, which is difcontinued in feveral Places by the 

interfperfed Air, and which by Prefliire and Motion is kindled ; and 
perhaps the Explofion of one may by it's Shock and Motion contri- 
bute to kindle the next ; by which means they go ofF one after ano- 
ther, till the whole Vapour within their influence is difcharged, and 
then the Light difappears, and the thin Smoak appears, and undu- 
lates, according to the Motion in that part of the Atmofphere. And 
hence I think, moft of the Appearailces may be folved : For ift» As 
to the continued Light near the Horizon, they being at a great di- 
ftance from us, and nearly in a Line, all thefe Explofions may feem 
as a continued Light : When thefe approach nearer to us, and by 
confequence appear higher in our Hemifphere, we obferve the Mo- 
tion in each Flafh, and ftill feeing them laterally, yet fomewhac 
breaking the Continuity of the Light ; they (by the Reflexion of the 
Vapour floating in the Atmofphere, and being not reflefled, where 
the Air betwixt them is free of thofe Vapours) may apj)ear as Pillars: 
And as the Flalh below and beyond them moves (as it kindles and 
expands) fo they feem to move, and perhaps are fhocked at the fame 
time by the Motioh ; but afterwards, when they are nearer, and raifed 
to the Altitude of 40 Degreics, we get fomewhat under them, and fee 
the Expanlion of thtf Explofion, which appearing fomewhat globular, 
gives the faint ColotH-s obferved above» the Light not being intenfe 
% enough 



mitton. 



An Aurofd B^eaHs. p^ 

enoisgh to make them vivid i and afcerward^ when rbey' riA^ bf^ ori 
near, the Zenich, they are nigheft to us^ and then expand very wid^ 
at each Flafli, like little Clouds : And, I think, the great Objeftion 
of their appearing in the Northern Part of the Hemifphere, and fcl* 
dom or never in the Southern is in fome meafure anfwered by the Ap- 
pearance on the 26th; fince at leaft half of the Arch was in the South* 
ern Part of the Hemifphere ; and perhaps the* Reafon why the 
Light is not feen near the Horizon, in the Southern Part of the He- 
mifphere, may be this, that in clear ferene Weather, the Wind being 
generally near the Nor$h^ Objefts from thence are much morcdiftinfl:- 
ly viewed, and at a greater diftance than from the South; and 'tis 
gienerally known, that Lands at a great diftance are moft diStinStly 
feen, when the Winds blow from them. 

And perhaps a cold Northerly freezing Air may be needful to kin- 
dle the Vapours, when a contrary Motion above (higher in the Acmof- 
pherej may carry the fulphureous Vapour, which falling down from 
the Nitrous Vapour may be kindled. Which^ I fuppofe, form the 
Undulations of the Smoak after the Explofion, whicn feemed, as a- 
bove, like a ftormy Sea moving from the 6. S, E. Note^ The Baro- 
meter was tow for fome Days before and after it. 

^XX. I. The Lights began about Sun-fet ; but I heard nothing ~/if Pet- 
of them till between 7 and 8, When I went out, I obfcrved a Stream ^^^^^ ^°^ 
of Light almoft due fFeJlj which was» about feven or eight Degrees ^^'^^^ 4i 
broad, and extended itfelf upwards about 35 or 40 Degrees. I had j^^. 2>7 
not a free Profpeift of the Weftern Horizon, and fo cannot tell what Langwith^ 
i|*s Apji^earance was below. It was not perpendicular to the Horizon, N**. 395. > 
but inclined a few Degrees towards the Sou$b. This Stream was of a '^** 
doiky red towards the Mrib^ but pale on the other fide^ and feemed 
tp have a faint Mixture of the Prifmutic Colours in it. 

At the fame time there appeared a pale lum'mous Arch, whofe. 
Middle* was nearly N, W. by N. The Altitude of it's inner Edge 
was about 18 or 20 Degrees. This Edge was very diftindk and re- 
gular all above, but a little confufed towards the Horizon, where it 
extended itfelf beyond the North- Point : How it terminated to the 
Weft, I cannot inform you. From the upper Side of this Arch» 
which was waving, and ill defined, there (hot up continually fuch 
Streams of Light as have often been feen and defcrib'd, fince the 
Great Meteor of March tht 6th, 171!:. The Sky under this Arch 
looked exceeding dark, but was in reality clear ^ for we could fee 
the fmalleft Stars in it. 

Nearly. N. E. there waa another Stream of pale-coloured Lights 
which was about 7 or 8 Degrees diftant from the Horizon, and was 
about as many in Breadth : It*s Heighth was various, and ill de* 
fined. Towards the bottom of it, was an irregular black Cloudy 
which in fome parts was near a Degree in breadth^ in others hardly 



€f6 An Aurora Bortalis. 

h&lf fo much : This Cloud was almoft parallel to the Horizon. The 
Stream moved with a flow regular Motion towards the Eaft. 

In theS. E. was another Arch, like that in the N. W. by N. but 
not quite fo high, or of fo great an Extent. Between this Arch and 
the North- Eaftcrly Stream the Sky was of an odd pale coloured Light, 
with a mixture of Red in it. 

From the South towards the Weft were gloomy irregular Clouds, 
which now and then fent out Flalhes of Light. 

About 8, the North-Eafterly Stream fuddenly expanded itfelf 
every way : All its Parts began to be in a violent Commotion, and 
its Brightnefs increafed to fuch a degree, that I remember nothing 
like it in the former great Meteor of this Kind. All abov6 it was 
of a bright Same-colour; but below, it was edged with tht Prifma* 
tic Colours, which were full as ftrong as I have ever feen them in 
the brighteft Rainbow : They were not indeed fo diftinft ; for, tho* 
I obferved them as exactly as the ftrange variety of their Motion 
would permit, I could only diftuigufli the Red, tne Yellow, and a 
dulky bluiih- Green. 

This furprizing Sight did noclaft above a Minute or two; but 
when the Colours vaniffied here, they began to appear in the North- 
wefterly Arch, which was now become a Portion of a lareer Cii» 
cle than before, and was not elevated fo high above the Horizon. 
The Colours extended themfelves from the North towards the Weft 
for about 15 or 20 Degrees ; and tho* they were not fo bright as in 
the other Place, yet they were more fteady, and fo as eafily obferved. 
Their Order was the fame as before, the Red lowermoft, and fo on: 
Their Duration much longer. 

In the mean time the Streaming Lights began to appear in all 
Parts of the Heavens, and to form a Corona and Canopy, i;vhicli 
were in all refpeds like thofe of the Great Meteor of 171^ In- 
ftead therefore of troubling you with a long detail of the Particu- 
lars of thefe, I ihall refer you to the curious Defcriptions of the 
other by the Aftronomer-Royal, and my late worthy Friend Mr 
Cotes. I fhall only take notice that the Colours of the Corona were 
neither fo ftrong nor fo lafting as thofe before defcribed, and thac 
the Top of the Canopy was fometimes over-lpread with a deep fuUen 
red. 

The Streams continued their Direftion upward towards a point of 
Concourfe for a long time after, and formed by fits imperfedt Cir- 
cles of pale Light about it : This Point, however was not fixed ; 
for at firft it feemed to be in, or very near our Zenidi ; but when I 
obferved it fome time after, it' lay between the Stars in Andromeda*% 
Right-hand, and thofe at the end of her Chain. The fame Obfer- 
vation was made by a curious Gentleman of this place, who alio 
informed me that there was another luminous Arch which paft auite 

thro* 



'An AufWA Bwealis. fj 

chro^ the Pole-Star : It's Continuance was (hort, and I liad not the > 

good Fortune to fee it myfelf. 

Thefe Appearances held on in fonae Degree till about i u when 
the Air began to grow mifty, and fo put an End to any farther Ob* 
fervations. 

I cannot fend you the exaft Point of the Wind : It was fo calm 
below, that I could not be ceruin which way it ftood ; but fome 
that were making their Obfervations from a high open Place, aflured 
me, that it was North- Wefterly, as it was in the Afternoon before, 
and the Morning after. 

The Mercury was up at 30 : The Weather mild and tempe- 
rate. 

I ihall venture to add, the following Obfervations, ohfir^^ihm 

9n this Ph^ 

1. That it plainly appears from the Pofition of the Arches, that*^«^*«^ 
they could not owe their Figures to the Sun: They feem to have 

been partly Optica], and partly to have depended ujpon the different 
Heigho of the luminous Vapours % but for want ot fufficient Data^ 
it will be no eafy matter to determine how far each of thefe Caufes 
concurred. 

2. The Prifmatic Colours, wherever they appeared, feem to 
have been caufed by the Sun. 

3. None of the Streams, as far as I could obferve proceeded di* 
redly from the Horizon. They were neareft it towards the North, 
where there were fome weak irregular Lights in the confufed Parts 
of the Arch before defcribed. 

4. I find by fome of my Papers, that during the Meteor of ijjj. 
the Mercury ftood at 30.2 ; fo that the two Meteors agree, as in 
many other Particulars, fo in the following, vix. That the Air was 
calm, the Wind North- Wcftcrly and the Mercury high. 

I fhall only add farther, that luminous Vapours in the Air are 
much more common than they are generally taken to be ; for the 
Nights are very often lighter when the Sky is over-caft, than in 
the brighteft Star light, though the Crepufculum be quite gone oflF 
and there be no Moon. 

2. About half an hour paft Six, perceiving Jupiter (hone very ^at Pfy- 
bright I was applying my Tclefcope to obferve him, when on a mouth, By 
fudden feveral luminous Streaks appeared about 10 Degrees above gj;^"***^"'* 
die Horizon in die N. E. and the Hemifphere feemed much enlight- J^'.^^^' ^^' 
ned. Imagining this to be the beginning of a Lumen Boreakj I caft 
my Eye carefully along the Northern Horizon from E. to W. and 
very nearly in the W. Point I perceived, as it were, a vaft red 
fiery coloured Obelisk (hot itfclf up to the Height of 30 or 40 
Degrees, which feemed perpendicular to the Horizon, and it's Bafc 
feemed to infift on it. It's Point almoft touchecj the bright Star in the 
Northern Crown ; a fmalicr Column or two ftood near it, of the 

VOUVI. Partii. N fame 



9t An Aurora Boredtf. 

fame Colour and Shlpe. The Light, in the mean time, to the Eaft« 
ward increafed confiderably, and became more vivid ; as when the 
Moon is behind a very bright Cloud. It alfo formed itfelf into Co- 
lumns, which were projcftcd to no great Height, and would foon va- 
nilh, then foon return, and appeared not only in the N» E. but alfo 
more Northerly. 

In about a quarter of an hour from my firft Obfervation, as from 
an Arch, or black Bafis (IJcnow not better how to exprefs it) 
extended all over the Northern Horizon, which feemed to inter- 
fcft it nearly in the W. and E. N. E. Points, arofe abundance 
of pyramidal Columns of Light on all parts ofiti nowhere, now 
there, of unequal Bignefs, Height, and Luftre; now fuddenly gleam- 
ing forth, then as ^ddenly difappearing ; but thofe Columns, that 
were to the Eaftward of the N. were more bright and lucid than thofe 
to the Weftward, which were of a more fiery, rutilant Colour. The 
great Column in the tf^ejl ftill remained in the fame Pofition, Height^ 
and Shape \ as I obferved, by applying my Eye to a Wall very near 
E. and W. 

Between the Arch and the Horizon, appeared as it had been a 
black, dulky Fog, from whence the Streams of Light feemed every 
where darted forth : Yet however black this appeared, we could dif- 
cem the Stars very clearly thro' it. This Arch at it*s firft Appear- 
ance feemed not to be above 15 or 20 Degrees (at it's higheft part) 
above the Horizon *, but it continually grew higher, and from all 

girts of it Cones of Light were every Moment fliot up, which all 
emed to tend to a Point near the Zenith ( as the Vertical Circles or 
Arches on a Globe tend to k*s Poles) cho* as yet none reached it by 
feveral Degrees. 

After 7 a clock the Columns to the Weftward appeared bright and 
vivid as thofe in the E. except thofe very near the W. The* the Limb 
of the Arch wou^Id feem fometimes very regular and well defined ^ 
yet at other times k would feem to fink, now in the middle, then at 
one part, then at another ; and fometi'mes it would rife with the fame 
Irregularity: But it was certain, that during the whole tittie of the 
Pbesnomenofij no Light, or flaflies of Light did appear in the black 
Area included between the Arch and the Horizon j even When it was 
at it'sgreateft Height,, which was about 10 or 12 Minutes before 8^ 
when 1 judged k to be at leaft 40 Degrees above the Horizon. Then 
from all parts of the Arch, but firft from the Northern or higheft 
parts of it, were Rays, or lucid Columns of a furpriztng Brightnefs 
a^d Luflre, darted wirh incredible Velocity towards the Vertex^, 
where the Ciifps of the converging Columns feemed nearly to centre ; 
and fuddehly from every Quarter of the Heaven, bright, fhining 
Streams t>f Light were (hot towards the Zenith ; which meeting a* 
bout 6 or 8 Degrees to the Southward of it, formed a fmall Circle of 
two or three Degrees JD^iameter, whofe Border was nuich mote liicid 

than 



'An Amtra BtnaHsl 

Aan near it's Centre: This Circle feemed formed between CauS^ 
Cygni and the Uzard^ then nearly upon the Meridian. 

This beautiful SpeHrum might be likened to the Star worn by the 
rooft Noble Order of the Garter, but the pyramidal Radii were here 
rcvcrfcd j and from the Southward the Rays or Stria were not near 
fo long as thofe from the N. efpecially thofe from the due S. not 
reaching above lo or 15 Decrees from the Centre or Circle; whereas 
diofe from the Eaftern and Weftern Quarters were very long, and 
reached almoft down to the Horkon j efpecially in the E. and W, 
Points. The Radii were in a continual and exceedingly fwifcUnduIa- 
Cion, and appeared of feveral very bright Colours, as white, red, 
green, yellow, for feveral Seconds; but the moft permanent and pre- 
dominant Colours were a fiery red, with an Eye of Crimfon, and a 
bright Pearl Colour: The red Rays came moftly from the Weft ward; 
and that Colour continued till the entire Dimpation of this radiant 
Canopy ; the others dying away and leaving, as it had been, a thin 
Smoak. The Vibrations of thefe radiant Columns were as fwift as 
Flafhes of Lightening, and inceflant. 

This furprizing Sight remained over us in it's full Glory 3 or 4 Mi- 
notes, during which time the Rays were darted towards the Centre 
with prodigious Swiftnefs, and did not feem to be fliot from it« Some- 
times they undulated like the Vapours arifing from a Lime-Kiln, or 
from the Earth in very hoc Weather, and all the upper part of the 
Hemifphere feemed to be, as it were, in a Convulfion. 

In a ihort Time thb agreeable Scene vanifhed, and was broken into 
fmall flitting bright Clouds, which ftill retained an undulating Mo- 
tion ; and Coruications would every now and then break forth from 
them. Ac this time alfo I obferved feveral Star-like Meteors fall, as 
is frequently obferved in a bright ferene Night. 

Tho' our glorious Cupola difappeared a very few Minutes after 8, 
yet very vivid Corufcations were fhot continually from the N. E. and 
N. W. Parts of the Heaven, which dafhing againft one another near 
the Zenith, formed by their CoUifion momentary Arches of a Circle, 
nearly in the fame Place and of the fame Diameter with that above- 
mentioned. None now proceeded from the Soutb^ and very rarely 
from the true North. ^ The Corufcations were always more red and 
fiery from the Weftward than from the Eaft^ which were always more 
bright and luminous. 

We were loft in the Contemplation of the beautiful Pbcsnomenon 
over our Hi^ad, ^rni did opt obferve the Formation of a lucid Arch 
projeAed over all the Northern Horizon, which feemed like the Arch 
of a Rainbow, of one vivid, bright, yellowifh Colour, and all under 
was as it were, a very dark Cloud \ tho* by viewing it with a Telef- 
cope, we CQuld difcern the minuteft Stars: So that the Darknefsonly 
proceeded from the greatnefs of the Light juft above it. From this, 
as from the former, aro^e very lucid, bright Columns on all parts of 

N 2 at. 



»i 



too ^An Aurora Borealifl 

it. No Corufcations appeared under ic. Ifs greateft Height might 
be 20 or 30 Degrees. Some of the Columns feemed to radiate ereii' 
to the Zenith from this Arch. 

About 9, this lucid Arch vanilhed infenfibly, with moft of die la« 
minous RadUj 'or Columns ; but, as it were, a vtry bright Crepufiu^ - 
lum ftill remained all along the Northern Horizon, and feveral verjr 
bright Corufcations would fecm to be fhot out of the pure Sky : This» 
more efpccially, was obfcrved in the N. E. About 11, I obferved 
feveral Corufcations ftill breaking forth, and here and there a lumi^ 
nous Column ; and feveral little bright Clouds feemed irregularly fcat-^ 
tered up and down the Hemifphere, which ftilh retained their darting 
and quivering Motion. The Northern Crepufculum remained as bright 
as ever, and fo continued till paft Two in the Morning. 

There were but very few, and thole very fmall. Clouds to be obfer- 
ved during the whole time of this Pbi^nomenony and the Air was- 
clear \ yet all around, and between the lucid Columns, whenever^ 
or in what part foever, they appeared, the Air would feem very 
thick and hazy ; tho* immediately upon the difappearing of thofe 
gleaming Lights, the Sky would in the fame Place appear very clear 
and ferene. Nay, even thro* fome of the very Columns we could 
plainly difcern the Stars. Some GentTemen thought they (aw th« 
bright Stars of the Swan thro** the Corona itfelf. 

As to the Weather preceding and following this Pbanomenon^ X 
need not be very particular, feeing you will foon have it in my Me« 
teorolbgic Obfervations. The Morning was fair, tho* the Air was 
thick, and we had a great Dew: The Mercury was at 30 Inch» 
Hawkjbee^s Thermometer at 50, little, or no Wind. The Day was 
pleafant and warm, and the Air grew much thinner. The Evening 
was ferene i^ a very foft Breeze from N. and by W. About Five the 
next Morning, there were feveral Clouds formed, and the Air was 
very thick and hazy, at Seven it was all Cloudy, and a few Drops 
fell. 

Tho* I had before feen feveral faint Appearances of the Aurora Bo^ 

nalis ; yet this,, for Beauty, Luftre, and Duration, vaftly exceeded 

any thing of that nature I had ever feen. Indeed, I faw not that of 

March 6th, 1716, being not then in England: 

— 4/Erctcr, 3. Offober ^^ 1726, at Nine in the Evening, I faw an yfor^r^ Bo^ 

h^^ ^*^^^^» realu {as 'tis commonly called,^) in which there was nothing different 

,*:^9S-P- ftom former Appearances, excepting that from the luminous Arch 

which appeared in the Noribj were frequently (hot oflf Parts of Arches 

towards the Zenith, which vanifhed there. 

03ob. 8, Coming from the Country near Seven in the Evenings I 
obfcrved a great Light in the Eajl and JVieftj which foon extended ic»- 
felf over our Head^, the Norib and Soutb appearing dark at the fame 
time. No Cloud was feen all that Day. A great Dew fell on a fud- 
den, with which the Streets were wet, as by a fmalUlaiB. Half 
^ * an 



^9 Awwa E^eaRsl im 

tn Hour after Seven many Sueams appeared in the Nortb^ whidl^ 

Srew very bright, and darted frequently up to the Zenith. A Line 
rawn through the Bafes of them, made an Arch of a Circle, extend* 
ing from the N. E. to the W. or S. W. But the Streams feemed to^ 
proceed from a clear Sky being diftindb from one another at the Bafes, 
and not united by a luminous Arch or Cloud, as in the more ufual 
Aurora^%. The Streams at the two Extremities of the Arch were 
brighter, wider and longer when they did not fhoot, than thofe on 
the Top of it. There was at the fame time a luminous Arch extend- Ftg. 14; 
ing itfclf from the two Extremities of the above-mentioned Aurora 
through the Scutb^ at a conliderable Altitude. About Eight o'clock 
the Streams began to have a Horizontal Motion^, propagating them- 
felves on both fides towards the South ; and in a Minute or two the. 
whole Heaven was furrounded with thenK Immediately they all ex- 
tended themfelves up to a Point near the Zenith (I think, a little to- 
wards the Eaft) where their Points were blended together in a confuf- 
ed manner. At the fame time, every Stream, which before was 
white, appeared ftriped with all the Colours of the Rainbow ; but the 
moft prevailing Cok>ur was a deep Red. It is impoflibie to exprefs 
the Beauty of this glorious Umbrella^ which covered the whole Hemif- 
phcrc with it*s variegated Rays, the Colours of which fucceeded one 
another in a regular Order. In the Center of thefe Rays was a con- 
fufed Rolling, Agitation or Ebullitionr of a kuninous* Cloud, appear- 
ing like Smoak. In about ten Minutes (as I imagine) the Colours 
diiappeared, and the Streams began to retire from the Zenith ; pre- 
fcntly after which, they would frequently dart and (hoot with great 
Celerity up to the fame Point. This Darting and Flafliing, together 
with a tremulous Motion from all fides of the Horizon, I ob^rved 
til! 12. AnA I am informed by others, that k continued till Four in 
the Morning; The moft confiderable Rays came froni the Eajl and 
Weft. Next Morning we had a Fog. 

The beft Account which I can give of this PhtsfiomtMn is this : I Caufi cfthii 
imagine a thin Cloud compofed of a Sulphureous Exhalation, hang- ^hanmemju 
fngover us in the Air, at a confiderable Height, parallel to the Ho- 
rizon; the Length of it being very great from Eaft- to Weft nearly v 
the Breadth of it (at firft) not fo great, but that we might fee the 
Stars from under it to the liortb and South. The North-Side of it, I 
fuppofe, firft took Fire, and fhot it's Streams or Flames perpendicu* 
larly upwards, which being undiftui4)ed by Winds, muft appear 
ftreightand pointed at the Top. The Bales muft^make an Arch by 
the Rules of Perfpeftive: For, I think, an Horizontal Right Line^ 
of a vaft Length, and at a great diftance from us (fuch as I take the 
Northern Edge of this luminous Cloud to have been,} feen at a con- 
fiderable Height in the Air, muft appear- bent down into an Arch. 
On a fudden the Fire propagated itfelf to all parts of this Vapoup. 
The whole Heaven muft then appear covered with the fame Streams 
I which. 



pfra An Aw»A Barealisi 

which tho^ really p^Uel to one another, muft appear bentintid a 
Cmpvla. The Ihootiag and darciog of tbefe Flames, and their Con* 
courfe, together wich a Smoak proceeding from them, muft give that 
confufed dloud which was obferved in the Center of this Canopy. 
The regular Difpofition of the Cdburs in every Stream, perhaps, you 
may account for. I think, the red appeared at the right hand in all 
of them. Somewhere in the Pbilof. TrM/a£l. I have met wich an Ob- 
fervation of an Jbtrorx^ in which the Screams were coloured only 
where they met, or croiled one aoedicr. Whether the Lighc of one 
Stream paffi^ thro* another, may not be feparated inco Colours by 
Refradtion, fwill noc determine. You may think of a better Solu< 
tion. If the Altitude of the Top of the Arch in the North had been 
tak^en here, and at die fame time at another Pla(^e upon the fame 
Meridian, wbofe diftance is ^knowii, from thence I imagine, the 
Height of the Ck)ud (as I call it;) migiit have been calciilatejd. 
^%^^^\f. 4- Tht Royal SacUty hath necetved fo many and ib full Account9 
F.^r7s. N^^ of thefreqtient Northern Lights, which of late Years have been fecn in 
395- P- H^- Europe^ and particulaA-Iy of that remarkable one of the 8th of 0£lo* 
her laft, that it '(eems needlefs a.t prefent to give a minute Defcriptioa 
of the whole Appeanmce. I (hall therefore only takp notice of a few 
Particulars, which either have been omitted by others, or by fome re- 
markable Circumftances attending them, feem moft likely to be of 
tife to thefe who ^employ their Thoughts in attempting to difcover 
the Nature and Caufes of thefe Phenomena. 

The firft 3ighc I had of this Appearance, was about half an Hourafr 
ter Seven of the Clock ; at which time it had nothing remarkable to dif- 
tinguifh it from thofe others which had been obferved almoft every 
Evening for fome time, except a duiky rednefs arifing from the We- 
ilern Extremity of the luminous Arch ; and that at the fame time 
there was feen another like hazy Arch low to the Southward, fainter^ 
but more fteady than that to the North. I judged the higheft 
Point of it to be fomething more elevated than the Sun at Noon a- 
bout the Winter Solftiie. 

In a fhdrt time after, the Northern Arch was rifen considerably 
higher from the Horizon, and continued to advance .towards "the 
Zenith, till 8 ; when in one parx it pafled among the uppermoft 
Stars of Caffiopeiay and in another clofe below the bright $tar in the 
Harp. The Heavens underneath looked clear, and of a dark Blue, 
having no refemblance either of Dawn or du(ky Cloud, and the Pyra- 
mids of Light fcemed to fpring immediately out of the .pure ^kj?- 
The Arch itfelf was very irregular, being full of Notches, fomf; 
greater, fomelcfs. The dulky red on the JVeft was changed to a 
light Crimfon, and was anfwcred by the like Colour on the. £4^. 
The Rays ifluing from both Extremities, were thick and bright, ap- 
pearing as if there were feveral, one behind another. They were alio 
generally longer than the reft, and pointed confiderably to the South 
a of 



:f.© 



l^lateKyH,l7,PartE.Pa^.jcz. 



y^ 








icr,. 



•f the Zenith* After 8, the Northern Arch retired agadn dbwnr<i 
wardsy till it canoe among the Stan of the Great Bear: when the 
whole Scene was changed on a fudden^ and Rap were darted up from 
all fides, and formed that Cn>wn*Iike, or Star like. Figure which has 
been fufficiently defcribed. 

The intermediate Area (\tft between the innermofr Extremities of 
the Rays coming from different Quarters, which Tery rarely, if ever, 
joined) was of an irregular Figure, commonly incUning to an Oval, 
whofe longeft Diameter lay Eaji and Vf^eft. Sometimes it appeared 
as clear Sky, at other times was filled wich a thin white Qoud, and 
that Cloud was often divided into two Parts, by an uneven crooked 
Line, running likewife Eaft and fVeft. 

The Rays which immediately furrounded dm void Space, were of 
no great Length, and very unuable : Yet two or three times, when 
they continued fteady enough to: aflbrd an Opportunity of confidering 
them attentively, their outermoft Excvemities were ieofibly carried 
Southwards, the Center if lelf remaining, to appearance, fixed.. 

The Southern Quarter was filled with continual Flafltingi of Light- 
Tfaefe followed one another rery quick^ and were propagated i^ 
wards from the afore- mentioned Arch with great Swiftnefs^ each of 
them leavmg in fome parts of the Space it pafl^d through, a faint, and 
very tranfient Whitenefs, which prefently vaniflied, and was qmickly 
renewed, ufually in the very fame Track, by the next fucceedisg, 
Flafb. Yet none of thofe Tracks were in any degree dired and xatkr 
form ; but alf very irregolar and broken^. 

The Central Figure fometimeft dtfappeared for a while, and therr 
returned again. Whether it always retained the fame Situatbn with 
refpeft to our Horizon, I cannot depend oci the Exadtoefs of my 
Obfcrvations enough to determine. They were as folfow : 

About half an hour paft Eight, the Center, as well as I could 
judge by my Eye, was vcrv nea# it Star of the fifth MagAitude, 

8 laced by Htveiius at the Ena of the Lizard^s Tail, whofe prefent: 
light Alccnfion is about 331^, and Dec!. 36^ and an half N. At 
Nine, it was at the Northern Point of an IfofceUs Triangle^ whole^ 
Bafe was a Line joyning the Star in Pegafits Moulder, called Scbeat^, 
and the brighteft of thofe in his Knee; the Perpendicular from the^ 
Center being mproportion to the Bafe, about as 3 to 2. Atp b. 15^' 
the Triangje made between that and the two forenMntioned Smrs was- 
become right-angled at Scheaty the Diftance being not much altered*. 
At Ten, it was direftly between the Zenith and Andromeda^i Head 
at a Difbnce from this Star not fenGMy different from wha« it had: 
kept from the Northermoft of the two forementiooed. 

According to the firft of tbcfe Obfervations, the Central* Point 
muft have been very near the Meridian, and about 15^ South of the 
Zenith of the Place where I was ; which is a few Minutes direftly 
North from London. The three lalik agree pretty well with one 

another,, 



^04 ^0 'Aurora Bwealn. 

another, to carry it4)etween 2 and 3 Degrees further Southward, and 
to give it a perpendicular Diftance of 3 or 4 Degrees of a great Cir« 
cle from the Meridian Eaftward. 

Jn the remarkable Appearance of this kind which happened the 6di 

o^ March i7f^f t obferved the like Center at near half an hour after 

7 o'clock, to be fomething nearer the Zenith, than the bright Star 

in the Northern Head of the TVtiVri, and to be more Eafterly by a- 

bout half the Diftance between that and the Star in P^lhtx^s Head. 

By comparing this Obfervation with the Situation of the Star at thaC 

time, the Center appears to have been about 16 or 17 Degrees from 

the Zenith, and about 2 or 3 diftant from the Meridian Qrde towards 

the Eafi. 

V- J/ Geneva, 5* Die Satuwii "/ Menfis Oftobris, hora fcxta & dimidil vcfper- 

^ Joh. Lud. tina, Aurora Borealis fulgere coepit, Phasnomenon vobis quidem latis 

Calandrini, familiarc, Aobis ver6 ex fenbrum fententia plane novum, fed tarn ii« 

Ordinar No luftrc, & circun>ftantiis i vulgaribus in Tranfa£lionibus faspc dcfcrip- 

395"ps«- ^^ ^^ diverfum, ut de co audiifle fortafle non pi^ebit. 

4fo. S^rimo quidem, qua hora dixi, Arcus lucidus vifus eft, cujus me-' 

dium ftabat in Horizontis Septentrione, extremitates ad Ardnirum tp 

Occafu, & ad Pleiades in Ortu, 40^ altus ; lucidus fatis, ut Solen). 

e Septentrione jamjam ortum ire diceres; fed hie nihil eft novi, 

Poft horam feptimam, quafi violenti incendii flammas, vel conti- 
nua futgura totum albicantis arcus locum occupaverunt. Serpebant ex 
Horizonte ad coeli fornicem baud abfimiles veri furni flammis, extre- 
mitates arcus rubicundo atrove fulgore vulgum cerrebant, ipfa: flam- 
mss in atrum fumum definere videbantur, ita ut diem Domini inftare 
snulierculse non dubitarent. Coelefte hoc incendium plufquam horam 
duravit; Scenaque mutatsi, ex Horizonte exilire columnas, qua? ad 
2enith pertingerent, vifum eft : Ex eadem fupradida bad, corona in 
extremitate Phasnomeni tum occidente & cornu Tauri inferiore ab al- 
tera parte furgente, columnas plus minufve latas, 60 aut 70^ f^^^ 
tria yel quatuer minuta durantes, paulatim evanefcentes, vel prius in 
igneum colorem verfce ; poft aHquod tempus ceflarunt columns : tum 
Aurora Borealis ut primum fulfit, cui ante decimam fuccefTerunc 
^flamma? vehementiores quam prius, quibus ceftantibus columnar circa 
undecimam vifa^ funt, magis diucinae, & 120^ plerumquealtas: Rur- 
fus Aurora, mox Hanunae, poftea columns, atque ita ad tertiam uf*- 
>que, qua videbantur adhuc Phacnomeni relliquiae. 

Ultra luculam, qus femper Septentrionalem, auam dixi, coeli 
partem illuftrabat, majoris Urfae ftelte parum fulgebanL E Vcfon- 
tio, quod 90 milliaribus hinc diftat, eodem modo vifum fuifle Phas* 
nomenon acccpimus, 

Arfit interea unum ex illis Meteoris, fiellae cadentes di£tum, quod 
ukra Phasnomenon arfifle vifum eft. 

Ex reflexione Solaris luminis a partibus Atmofphsras Borealibus 
xongelacis Auroras Boreales formari dictum eft: Sed flammas adeo 

notabilcs 



'An Aurora B&realis. 105 

notabilcs quo pafto cxplicentur non video. Si ab cxhalationum in- 
j ccndiis ortum hoc Phaenomenon cenfeatur ; • Aurora Borealis Phasno- 

I meni comes, columnar, duratio Phasnomeni, & ipfius in eodem loco 

I ftacio, negocium faceflent. 

6. For the clearer proceeding in my Relation, I Ihall obferve, that — 3j tbt Rev. 
there are two forts of Streamings^ which I have taken notice of j one, ^^^^^X^; 
by way of Explofion from the Horizon ; the other, by opening and fgf * 245'] 
JhuUing^ without Shootings up, and fwift Dartings. 

Of the latter fort chiefly, was that of 051. 8 : in which, alcho* the 
Streams^ or Spires^ or Lances^ or Cones Cor, what fhall I call them ? ) 
were as large and remarkable as in that of the Year ly^s* yet they 
exhibited themfclves principally by the vaporous Matter opening 
and fhutting, as if a Curtain had been drawn and withdrawn before 
them. 

The firft View I had of this Pbanomenon^ was prccifcly at Eight 
o'clock in the Evening: At which time, all I faw, was a long nar* 
row Fafciay like a white ragged Cloud, extended crofs the Heavens, 
from W. b S. to E. b N. which in a few Minutes began to emit fomc 
Streams, and then difappeared ; Which was fucceeded by much 
Streaming in the Northerly Parts; and in a quarter of an Hour it 
began to reach other Points alfo ; and foon after that, it ftreamed all 
j round in the Southerly, Eafterly and Wefterly Parts as much, or 

nearly as much as in the North. Which was a thing I never had feen 
before in thefe Phsenomena. 

Thefe Streams^ or Cones j were for the moft part pointed, fo as to Fig> 15. 
make the Appc?Lr2Lncto{ flamingSpireSy or Pyamids ; and fome others 
were truncated, and reach'd but half way : Some alfo were longer, 
and fome fhorter ; fome of which had their Points reaching up to the 
Zenith, or near it, where they formed a fort of Canopy ^ or thin Cloud, 
fometimes red, fbmetimes brownifh, fometimes blazing as if fired, 
and fometimes emitting Streams all round it, which at that time gave 
it the Appearance of fuch a Star as our Knights of the Garter wear 
on their Breads. 

This Canopy was manifeftly formed by the Matter carried up by Solution of this 
the Streaming on all parts of the Horizon : Which Matter fomc- Phaenomenon. 
"times fecm'd to afcend with fome force, as if impelled by the Impe- 
tus of fome explofive Agent below, as I have faid it was in the 
Streaming of March 17!^^, and which I gave the Society a large 
and particular Account of foon after. This forcible Afcent of the 
fireaming Matter, gave a Motion to the Canopy, fometimes a Gyra- 
tion, like that of a Whirlwind j which was manifeftly caufed by 
the Streams ftriking the outfide Parts of the Canopy, as in the Fi- 
gure :' But when me ftreaming Matter hit the Canopy in the Mid- 
dle, all was then in Confufion. 

Thefe two Particulars, namely, the Streaming all rounds in all 

Points of the Horizon \ and the Canopy In and near the Zenith, are 

VOL. VI. Partii. O what 



106 An Aurora Boreatis. 

what were taken notice of in all Parts of England^ that I have met 
with any Accounts from -, particularly, in Northampton/hire ^ Stafford- 
Jhirey Oxfordjhire^ Wiltjhire^ Berk/hire^ Middle/ex^ Somerfetjhire^ and 
Effex^ and in divers Parts beyond Sea. 
Mr WaiTeV The Reverend and Learned Mr JVaffe gives me this Account of 
AccQunu from it*s Appearance at A'jitbo in Nortbampionpire^ That at 7 h. 20' p. 
Aynho/>rNor- M. he faw an Arch fomewhac curved, like a Rainbow at firft, and 
lumptonihuc. ^^outhalf the Breadth of the Rainbow, and yellow 5 which in about 
ten Minutes began to twi(t, and make an Angle at the Zenith : 
That one End of it was pretty much to the Eaft, and not direftly 
to the North ; and the Weftern End defledked as much to the South : 
That it remained after the Twift, at the Zenith, without any great 
Motion, not a quarter of an Hour. After which, the Rods arofe on 
all fides, from the Horizon to the Zenith, the upper Points feeming 
to move thro* a fort of Vortex quite out of our Atmofphere : 
Which Rods, he thinks, rofe perpendicularly from the Horizon, 
but feemed to converge towards the Zenith, according to the Rules 
of Perfpcftive, by their Angle then being lefs than their Bafis at the 
Horizon: That a Rednefs was perceived, which, he thinks, was 
ftrongeft towards the Weft ; which Colour did not appear till the 
Arch brake into feveral Pieces, and overfpread the Heavens with a 
thin faintilh Fire, thro* which they faw Jupiter very clearly. 

This Account of Mr IVaJfe^s may (hew, how the Phaenomenon was 
in England ; by reafon moft of the Accounts I have met with con- 
cur in the main with his. But in the more Southerly Parts of Europe^ 
I take it to have been fomewhat different. The News- Papers tell us 
'ActouHtfrom ^om Scbaffbaufen^ " That on the 19th of OSlober there was a great 
Scaffhaufen. " Alarm in many Parts of Switzerland^ on Account of a great Ugbt 
" feen in the Air, from 7 o*Clock till Midnight \ which was fup- 
•* pofed to be the Refleftion of fome great Conflagration. At Bern^ 
•' every body thought there was a Fire in fome part or other of 
•* the City or Neighbourhood. At Neafcbately the Alarm-Bells were 
•* rung, and the Governour feveral Hours on Horfeback, to give 
•* Orders, Csfr. as in Cafes of Diftrefs. All which they heard after- 
** wards, was only an Aurora Borealis". And from Florence^ my in- 
"-^Flmnu geniousand curious Friend, Sir Tbo. Derebam^ fcnt me this Accounts 
hySirnQ/naf cc ^g ^q the Lumen Boreale^ which appeared in thefe Parts oh OSfober 
Derbam. ^^ ^^^ g^j^ j^^^ j ^^^ j^ ^^ ^-^jj- j^ ^j^^ following manner : ft was one 

** Hour and half after Sun-fer, when t was paffing thro* a Piazza ia 
** this Town, that I difcovered the Phaenomenon, that feem*d one 
** MiFe long, and three quarters of a Mife broad, of an almoft per- 
** feft Oval Figure, hanging North and North- Eaft to us : The 
" Edges of it were of a pale light Colour, like the firft Dawn of the 
** Morning ; and towards the Center, it encrcafed it*8 fiery Colour \ 
*< fo that in fome Places it looked as the Fire of a Furnace ; but 
^< in the very Center, and many adjacent Part$> it was like a red-hoc 

^'Irott 



'An Aurora Borealis. i©7 

^ Iron growing cold, that fcems bloody. For a good whHc I could 
•« perceive no Motion in it ; but after a quarter of an Hour, I dif- 
«' covered a general flow Motion backwards and forwards, like that 
<< one fees of the Circulation of the Blood in the Tails of Fiflies, 
«< by the help of the Microfcope, but no manner of darting -, in- 
•* fomuch that in another quarter of an Hour it vanifhed impercep- 
«« tibly, juft as a Rainbow, and the Air grew dark again, that was 
** fo luminous before, that one might read a Manufcript by the fame. 
•* It is very remarkable, that at Fufole^ 3l Town within a fliort Mile 
^^ of this, the Phasnomenon feemed to thofe Inhabitants, to be be- 
«* tween them and us, and they thought our Town was burning : 
** Whereby it appears not to have been very deep, nor very high ; 
<« Fiefole ftanding upon a Hill half a Mile high, and to the Nc^* 
«* North-£aft of this Town. 

To thefe Ohfervations of myfclf, and fome of my Correfpon^ Some farther 
dents, 1 ihall add two or three things more, before I enquire into ^¥^^^^^^^* 
the Caufe of the Phacnomena. 

One thing tbat was taken notice of in moft Places, was. That 
ia ibme part of the greareft Streaming, the Vapours between 
the Spires, or Lances, were of a Blood-red Colour. That 
which I obfervcd, was. That about half an Hour after Eight 
o'clock, the Vapours towards the South- Weft were very denfe, and 
for fome time red. And not long after, the like Rednefs arofe in 
the North* £aft, and the odier gradually went off. Both which gave 
thofe Parts of the Atmofphere the Appearance of blazing Lances, 
and bloody-coloured Pillars. 

Another thing I took notice of, was, a ftrange Commotion, and 
working among the Streams, as if fome large Cloud, or other 
Body was moving behind them, and difturbed them. 

In the Northerly and Southerly Parts the Streams were perpendicu- 
lar to the Horizon % but in the intermediate Points they feemed to 
decline more or lefs one way or other ; or rather to incline towards 
the Meridian. 

As for the Weather, the preceding Day was cloudy, with an 
Hoar-Froft in the Mornings but it cleared up, and grew warmer 
afterwards; but towards the Horizon, very vaporous. And the 
next Morning (after the Screaming) before Sunrifing, the Air was 
full of Vapours, with divers thin vaporous Clouds, fome of a lucid 
l>rown, fome reddifli, which I took to be Remains of ^ the Stream* 
Ing, which, I was informed, continued all Night. 

As for the Caufe of thefe Phaenomena, I take it to be from the Caufe rf theft 
fame Matter, or Vapours, which produce Earthquakes : And that fhamtMna. 
for thefe Reafons : Ftrfi^ Becaufe fome of thefe rheetiomena bav^ 
been followed by Earthquakes. As that which Ziow gives an Ac- 
count of in his Annals, in the Year 1574) on Nwemher 14, in which 
ht faith, Wirrfeen in the Airftrunge Impnfftfms cfFtre atti Smoak 40 fn- 
Sied firtb of a black Cloud in the North towards the South. That the 

O 2 nact 



loi An Aunt A Borealis. 

next Night following^ the Heavens from all farts Mfeem to hum marvel' 
lous ragingly^ and over our Heads the Flames from the Horizon round n- 
bout riftng did meetj and there double and roU one in another^ as if it bad 
been in a clear Furnace. 

And after this (he tells ms) followed on the 26tb <?/ February, great 
Earthquakes in the Cities of York, Worcefter, Glouceftcr, Briftol^ 
Hereford, and in the Countries about ^ which caufedthe People to run out 
of their Houfes^ for fear they fhould have fallen on their Heads. In Tewkf- 
bury, Breedon, fcf r. the Difhes fell from the Cupboards^ and the Books in 
Mens Studies from the Shelves: With more to the fame purpofe. 

So this laft Cin 05iober) was preceded by that fatal Earthquake at 
Palermo in ftVi/y, and fucceeded by one in England^ on Tuefdajj OSlo^ 
ber 25., following. This, I hear, was perceived in London^ and was 
very confiderable at Dorchejler^ Weymouth^ Portland^ Portfmoutb^ Pur- 
beck^ and divers other Places in Dorfetjhire^ that it caufed the Doors 
to fly open, (hook down Pewter off the Shelves, and was felt in fome 
Ships that lay in the Harbours. 

2. Another Reafon is. That I am afTured by an ingenious fenlible 
Gentleman of my Acquaintance, that as he was viewing this Appear* 
ance, 00 the Top of his Houfe at Little Chelfeyy he plainly perceived 
a fulphureous Smell in the Air ; and that aootder Perfon did the fame^ 
on the Top of another Houfe near him. 

3. Another thing which concurs with what hath been faid, is. 
That I am afliired from fevcral Perfons, that an hiffing, and in fomc 
Places a crackling Noife was heard in the time of the Streaming, like 
CO what is reported to be often heard in Earthquakes. 

And now, for a Conclufion, I fhall remark two things upon what 
hath been faid. 

1. That it may help the fagactous Meteorolc^ift to refblve feveral 

.Difficulties relating to thefe Northern Ugbts^ to obferve, that what 

was Streaming or Darting in our Northern Parts, was only a remarka* 

ble Light, or Blaze in //o/^, and the Southern Parts, if I take Sir 

y. Dereham^ % and the News- Papers Accounts right. 

2. If thofe Pha&nomena have the fame Origin that Earthquakes 
have, that then they are, doubtlefs, of great ufe to the Peace and 
Safety of the Earth, by venting fome of that pernicions Vapoirr and 
Ferment that is the Caufe of thofe terrible Convuifions^ which Earthr 
quakes are accompanied with. 

I forgot Cwhen I defcribed the Canopy or Corona) to fay, that k did 
not reft in one place ; but changed it*s Pofition, fomctimcs higher 
Bear the Zenith, and then towards the Eaft, and South-Eaft, 16 or 
15 Degrees, and then back again nearer the Zenith, according as the 
^artiQg Matter directed ic: But I do not remember, that this Canopy 
was at any time diredled towards the Weftern Points. 

la moftof the Northern Lights that I have feen, there generally 
was a dark Bank of Vapours, circular on the Top; but whether this 

a of 



An Auffira BareMlh, xo^ 

of OH. 8, had any fuch Arch, I could not fee at XJpwmficr^ where I 
was furrounded with Trees. 

7. OSlob. 8, 10, r Barom. Alt. T f rherm. 1 T Wind. 1 Weather fair _^ Souths 

Morn. \ 29. 90. J 't 54* J 1 ^- ^- J ^^^ ^^^^.x. wick /» 
This Evening appeared an Aurora BorealiSj I think, full as remark- Northamp- 
able as that in March 17 16, iho* varying in Form: It began about ^^^^^^^' h 
Sue at Night to be light in the North, with Screaks proceeding from Lynnf*£/^ 
it, and fpread gradually both towards the Eaft and Weft, the South No. 398. p. 
being ftill very clear j but before Seven it leftall the Northern Parts(ex. 25s. 
cept towards the Zenith^ and covered all the Southern. Soon after 
which, there appeared a white Arch proceeding from Eaft to Wcft> 
pafllng near the Zenith, but more South, which feemed fixed for 
a time^ but about 10 Minutes paft Seven was difperfed, and inime- 
diacely fucceeded by a kind of Glory of an Oval Form, the longer 
Axis from Eaft to Weft, fomething South of the Zenith, with Rays 
Ihooting up from all parts, and interchanging fwiftly, for about 15 
or 20 Degrees from it j the reft of the Heavens (except the Norths 
which ftill continued very clear) affording various Phasnomena. In 
the Eaft there was a qiuck Succefllon of Columns of the Iris Colours^ 
inclinable to White, the Weft to Purple, and about the South-Weft, 
for a good fpace, appeared almoft a blood red Corufcation, which 
continued 5 or 6 Minutes. 

Thefe Appearances in a quarter of an Hour became lefs remarka- 
ble \ though the Aurora continued moft of the Night, and afforded a 
Light generally equal to the Moon in it's Quadratures. Looking 
with my Telefcope at JupiLer^ I found both his Satellites and Belts ap- 
pear as plain thro' the Aurora^ as if the Sky had been perfedly clear. 

8. Monf. Gaudin^ in a Letter from the Obfervatory at Paris^ da- -—Byfii^erar 
ted OEloher 20. N. S. 1726. writes, that he faw it firft at half an Hour ^^f^^ ^''- 
paftfeven in the Evening, forming at that Time a luminous Arch^!." ^^' " 
(with another fomewbat darker under it) which extended itfelf almoft 
from Sun-fel to Moon^rife^ and v»as raifed above the Horizon about —M^y/ Gan-^ 
twenty live Degrees ; from whence fhot out from Time to Time lu- din at Pari*, 
minous Streams about ten Degrees above it. At half an Hour paft 
eight, the Number of thefe Streams vaftly encrcafed, covering all 
the Heaven, excepting the Height of twenty Degrees oppofite to itr 
But towards the Zenith there remained a circular Space which was ne^ 
ver covered by them, tRb' there wanted not a conftant Succcffion. 
Thefe Appearances continued very ftrong till half an Hour after ten ; 
when they beg^n to decline, and difappeared totally about two fiv 
the Morning. 

Monf. Maraldij in a Letter dated at Thiers^ OSl. 20,. 1726. N. S» _^ i/t^j^T- 
two Leagues to the South of Paris ^ fays, it began there- about j^ alThifa* 
half an Hour paft fix with a conftant uniform Light in the North; 
foon after which appeared three or four luminous Arches one over 

another,, 



up An AufWA B^realif. 

another, from whcnte iffued a great Number of Rays, which fliot 
up a conGderable Height above the Horizon. At eight o*Clock thefe 
Rays darted quite up to the Zenith ; half an Hour after which they 
very much encreafed, fpreading with ttrong Undulations all over the 
Sky, and all terminating in the Zenith formed a Sort oi Cupola there* 
The Conclufion he has not obferved, 
^S/^. <iua- Sign. Francefco ^aranbotti vfnit^ fvom ^reggiaiay Oif. 20. 1716. 
nnboni, j^ g ^^^^ he firft obferved it a little before eight in the Evening, 
ghbu ^*^ ^^^^ ^^ extended itfelf along the North Horizon about eighty De- 
grees, and reached above it about eight. After fome time, the lumi« 
nous Emiflions began to rife perpendicularly, and continued from 
time to time fo to do, from nine till eleven. About ten it enlarged 
itfelf fifteen Degrees farther Eaft, and (Iretched under the laft Star in 
Ur/a major. At eleven it vanilhed. 
^anonymous An anonymous Account in Latin from Florence informs us, that it 
Jccwnt, from was firft fecn there at half an Hour paft fix in the Evening, with a 
Florence. clear expanded Light, occupying all the Space betwixt the North- 
Eaft and North- Weft. At feven it divided itfelf into feveral fpheri- 
cal Triangles near the Horizon, which half an Hour afterwards united 
into one large Triangle, whofe Bafe was near the Horizon, and extended 
twenty Degrees to the Weft firom the North-Pole, and whofe Vertex 
reached up to Urfa nrinor. This continued about half an Hour, and 
then difappeared ; but at ten o'Clock it returned much more confpi- 
cuoufly, forming about the Pole^ a large Column which was raifed 
thirty Degrees above the Horizon. From this Time it emitted lu- 
cid Undulations till Midnight, when it entirely difperfed. He after- 
wards takes Notice that the fame was feen at ASlan and Bologna ; the 
Accounts from whence agree, that none of the Streams reached be- 
yond the Zenith. 
— 5if. Man- Sign. Manfredi writes from Bologna^ Jan. 3. i7|^, that he did not 
frcdi, /rem obfcrve this Phenomenon hhnfelf, but was informed that it was feen 
Bologna. every where in the Campa^a di Rotna^ as far as Pefard and Fano. 

To thefe Accounts, which were communicated to the Society by 
their worthy Affociate Sir ^omas Dereham^ and moft of them tranfla- 
ted from the llaKan by the ingenious Dr Scbeucbzetj it will not be im- 
.-Dr Barman, proper to fubjoin, that T)r Ericus Burman in the AB. Ulerar. Suec^ 
from Upfil. ^rimeji. prim. 1727. takes Notice, that altho* this ^feteor was feen \ti 
Germany J Pdland^ Smfferland^ France^ and England^ yet at Upfal they 
could obferve nothing but the whole Sky bcifet thick with Clouds, of 
a Colour like that of the Moon in a total Eclipfe, and varioufly agi- 
tated as by % Wind, bat this chiefly towards the South ; which conti- 
nued till nine o'Clock at Night, a little after which it grew quite 
cloudy. 

XXXI. Jan. 



Lumen BoreaU. m 

XXXI. Jan. 4. A Luminous Arch which extended itfelf from ^n Account 
R E. to Weft, The Screams all moved Weftward. Wind N. W. f ^^^^^umcn 

l^jf JDoreaie, as 

Jan, 5. We had fomething of the fame Nature, but hardly enough Ttmesy by tbt 
for Obfervation ; and yet, this very Night the Appearances were more ^^^' ^f 
remarkable in fome parts of the Kingdom than thofe of Oliober the ^^"g^"^» 
eighth. This I was informed of by a Perfon of Quality in Lancajhire. 301.^^'* ^ 
who was pleafed alfo to fend me the annexed Defcription and 
Draught, communicated to him by a curious Obfcrver at Liverpool. 

March 2d. Between 7 and 8, there was an Arch upon a black Balis 
as before, extending itfelf from N. E. to W. It's heigjit variable^ 
pyramidal Streams ofGreeniih Light moving weftward. About a 
quarter paft 8, there (hot up from the Weft a Stream of pale Flame- 
colour about 6 or 7 Degrees broad : It paifed over the Pleiades^ and 
croiling the Meridian about 19 Degrees to the North of our Zenith^ 
defcended as low as the Tail of Urfa Major which it left a little to the 
South. It continued thus for fome Minutes and then gradually va- 
niihed. Wind North, Merc, about 30. 

March 3d. The Appearances this Night were fo extraordinary, 
that they would require a long defcription : But I (hall chiefly take 
Notice of fuch particulars as ditfered from thofe of Oifober 8. 

I. That inftead of one luminous Arch in the North, here were 
two and fometimes three one above another. They were diftindt c- 
nough from each other in their upper parts, but blended together to- 
wards the Horizon, which they generally cut about N. £• and 
N. W. but fometimes varied confiderably from thefe Points. 

The fame Obfervation may be applied to the Heights, for they 
were alfo variable ; and in particular, the inner edge of the lower- 
moft Arch was at fometimes about 6 Degrees above the Horizon, at 
others, confiderably more or lefs. 

I fuppofe this extraordinary Appearance was owing to Icveral di* 
ftind Colleftions of luminous Vapours, which were either at diffe- 
rent Heights from the Earth, or different Diftanccs from the Eye. 

2dly, Several of the more permanent Streams were bent, at times, 
into irregular Arches of different Curvatures and Pofitions, 

Some of them held pretty near the fame fhape till they raniflied, 
others went off moft commonly m Tangents to fome part of the former 
Curves. 

3dly, The fiafliing Streams from the Eaft fometimes met with 
thofe from the Weft, and fo formed continued Arches, of a pale 
Colour, which quickly broke and vanifhcd. No colouring followed 
upon the mixture of thefe Streams. 

4thly, The Streams of this kind moved moftly Southward, hut 

not to any certain Point ; for they were inclined to the Horizon ^t 

all Degrees between 5, or Icfs, and 90. There was fometimes fuch 

a ftrange irregularity in their Motions as can hardly be defcribed ^ 

a for 



XI2 Lumen Boresle. 

for the Places from whence the Flalhings were dire&edfeemed to vary 
every Moment. 

As to the more fteady pyramidal Streams, they generally moved 
Weftward ; and tho* fome of them, at times, fcemed to ftand ftill, 
or even move backward j yet I am apt to believe, this irregularity 
was only apparent. 

5thly, A little after the beginni|jg of this Meteor there was a faiat 
ruddinefs in the Sky towards N. £. and N. W. but when it was in it's 
greateft perfection, towards 12 o'Clock, I faw none of the Prifma- 
tic Colours, tho* the Air was then full as Light as I have ever known 
it upon thefe Occafions. This helps to confirm me in the Opinion 
that the Prihnatic Colours in thefe Meteors were owing to the Sun. 

Thefe Appearances began early in the Evening, and held, as I am 
informed, for a good part of the Night. Wind N. Weftcrly, Merc, 
above 30. 

I am told that thefe Meteors are much more common in the North 
of England than here, and that they go by the Name of Streamers^ 
Merry Dancers^ or Pettj Dancers. They alfo pretend to forccel the 
Weather by them, and fay, that when the Streamers are green, they 
betoken wet ftormy Weather j but when they are yellow, it will be 
clear and dry. 
P. S. I don't know whether it is worth while to acquaint you, that 
jiriftotle has given an imperfect Account of fome of thefe Me- 
teors. 
He Defcrtp' XXXII. About Seven o'Clock at Night I was told that the Me- 
/iVwr ^tf/f Au- teor called by our Sailors, Merry Dancers, was vifible, and very 
m^fi^Tin ^"S^^* Having feen feveral before, but had no opportunity of bc- 
Ihi foregoing ^^% particular in my Obfervation, I went out into the open Air, clear 
Letter, No. of Houfes, that I might have a better View all round the Horizon ; 
399. pag. from whofe Northern part arofe feveral Streams of Light, as if from 
^^^ behind a black Cloud. They were very many, and I believe, there 

was no poflibility of numbering them, their Motion being fo quick, 
Ihooting upwards to the Zenith with a Motion not to be followed by the 
Eye. They had alfo another Motion which feemed to be fide-ways, 
their higher Ends terminating fometimes in a (harp Point, fometimes 
in two or three Points \ they appeared from the North- Weft to North- 
Eaft 5 but were brighteft. in the North. Their Colour was pale like 
that oi Jupiter through a Telefcope, but not near fo bright. Moll of 
them reached the Zenith, where mixing with one another, they 
whilked round and formed an Appearance like the curling Flame of a 
Glafs-Houfe-Fire ; they had a very irregular Motion, fometimes turn- 
ing inwards, fometimes outwards, like the Pendulum^Spring of a 
. Watch. This circular Light, was the brighteft, and feemed to occupy 
near ten Degrees of the higheft part of the Hemifphere \ Several 
Strokes of Light feemed to dart from it to the South 5 but died be- 
fore they got any confiderablc diftance. In the Weft, I faw two 

fmall 



Lumen Boreale. m 

foiall long Clouds, which incerpofedbecwixtmeand the light Streams} 
which I faw above the Clouds, and betwixt them, which convinced 
oie that this Light fwhacever it be) is far above them. I have drawn 
a Scheme of the whole Horizon, as it appeared to me. That bright Fig. i6. 
Star is Jupiter^ whofe Place then was 17^ in Aries i and was about 
South' Weft, I gucfs about 20^ high. Some of the brighteft Stars in 
Taurus^ OnofL, and Aries^ appearedSouth and South- Eaft ; but I have 
not placed thofe but by guels. In this ftate I left it : But was told by 
one that faw it after Ten o'Clock, that the whirling Light in the Ze- 
nith appeared of feveral Colours, as, blue, green, yellow, and red* 
difti. But that I did not fee. 

XXXIII. Die Martis, Feb. ig^ iJ^U hora fcfquidecima. JRfgijlerof 

Die Veneris, Martii 15, 17^1, ab hpra odava, ad mediam ufque Obfervations 

Die Martis, Aug. 20, 1723. four rears, at 

Die Dominica, 0£l. 20, 1723, ab hora fexta, ad mediam nodlem. Lynn, i; Mr 
Die Dominica, Sept, 26, 1725, Aurora Borealis vifa eft ab hora ^. Raftrick, 
feptima, ad horam decimam, ci^m Radiationibus variis. ^!l ^' ^ 

Die Lunse, Ocl. 3, 1726, per totam noftcm. 
Item Die Martis, Oii. 4, 1726. 

Jtemque Die Saturni, 0£l, 8, 1726, per totam nb(5tem. - Miruni 
fane Phsenomenon, de quo nihil duci, qui tam accurate defcribitur a 
Dominis Langwitb^ Huxbam^ Hallet^ Hadley^ & Joban. Ludov. Calan* 
drino^ in Aais Londinenftbus^ N^. 395. 

DieMercurii, 0£h 26, 1726, circa horam decimam. 
Die Veneris, Martii 3, 177^, ab hora oftava, ad mediam nodem. 
Aurora hac node (ut mihi videbatur^ longe mirabilior fuit ilia 0£i. 
8 ; & credo equidem, nuUatenus difcrepavit (fecundum defcriptiones 
quas habemus) ab illo memorabili Phaenomeno, kxio Mariii^ lyVt. 
Item Die Domin. Martii 5, 17!^. 

XXXIV. About 8 in the Evening of that Day, my Family and Ah Aurora 
others at Windfir^ faw a confiderable Streaming in the North, with Borea/is oa. 
fuch bright Lances and Columns as ufual. But at Redbridge none '3. 1728* ^f 
fuch appeared, only in the North, I obferved a great thick, black f^^^^sQ^fi^ 
Bank of Vapours ; the Top reaching about 20^ above the Horizon, ampton"V 
without any Convexity or Curvature, as is ufual in moft of the Stream- the Rev. Mr 
ings I have feen ; but inftead of that, the upper Part was indented in ^erham, 
many Parts, with long black Pyramids, fomewhat refembHng the ^j^' ^' ^^' 
Streams of the Lumen Bareale^ the Edges of which were gilded with ' ^' ''* 
lucid Rays, of the Streaming Colour: And all over the Clouds, or 
Vaporous Bank, I difcovered a great Commotion or Difturbance be- 
hind them, as if fomething was rolling, or tumbling behind them. 
The End of all thefe Appearances I expefted would have been Stream^ 
uig: But in lefs than an Hour, the Clouds (which had been pretty 
ftill; began to move to the S. W. and at laft obfcured the whole He- 
mifphcre-, which before was all clear enough (except towards the 
VOI-. VI. Partii. P North; 



114 An Aur&ra BdreaHs. 

North ) to fliew the Stars, although befpread with Viapditn^ like a 
thin Fog, a litdc inclining to red. 

Feb. 15. XXXV. The Aurora it fclf had nothing cKtraordinary ; it wai a 

1730. N. S. quiet one, that is, without any fenfible Motion, excepc, perhaps^ 

at Geneva, ify ^n alternative Increafe and Ditninution of apparent Altitude. Wbc- 

No aITT ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^'^ Reafon, or becaufe the Light had it's Edge imper- 

279. ceptibly confounded with the Colour of Heaven, feveral People 

judged of that Altitude feverally. There are fome that pretend txy 

have fecn it to the very Zenith : I was not fo happy, and could not 

fee it higher than the Girdle (^) ofCej^hus^ which was about 30 Dcg, 

high. The greateft Part did fix it to the Polar Star, which is about 

46 Deg. It's Bafc reached from the Head of Andrcmeiaxtid further^ 

ro the Shoulder {y) of Bootes^ and further, and fo itdid infift i^on 

an Arch of 140 or 150 Deg. of the Horizon. This Meafore was 

taken half an Hour after Eight. It*s Middle declined from North to. 

Weft about 15 Deg. The Light was ftill, and deai" enough to read 

a Charafter no bigger than that of this Letter. The Bafe has fcemed 

. obfcure to fome People. 

But what was chiefly to be confidered, was a great Meridional 
Zone pretty like a Rainbow in it^s Figure, but broader. It was ter- 
tninatcd by two parallel Arches. The fuperior infiftied wkh one 
Side upon the true Point of Eaft,, and with the other upon the Poini: 
of South-weft, or Weft-fouth-weft: Whence you fee it's Middle de- 
clined about 1 5 Deg. from South Co Eaft, and was diametrically op^ 
pofed to the Middle of the Aurora Bcrealis. It's Altitude did vary 
a little, but never reached higher than the Head of Orio/r,. which was. 
54 Deg. high, and never was feen lower than a little under Frw^f^n^ 
which is an Altitude of 45 or 46 D^. The inferior Arch was eaatifllf 
parallel to the fuperior, and the Bre«drfnof the Zone varied frona 14 
or 15 Deg. to 18 or 20 Deg. 

The Colour of this. Zone was Red, Starlet, inclined to Porple, 
pretty lively and changeable by ImeTval^s. It was lefs vivid near the- 
Horizon, and alfo to the Meridian, where it fcenncd now and thea 
interrupted. Some Standers by did imagine two j^rcat Arches Tilings 
one from the Eaft, the other from the South-Eaft, juid meeciMg to- 
gether near the Meridian, b»t immediatdy afterwards parting one- 
with another, and drawing back, which they repeated very o£ten« 

Under this Zone then was to be feen, but »« cosKft^ntly, one or 
two Arches lucid and interrupted, which coff)prehmd widxihe HoTi«^ 
zcm 2L dark Segment very like a Mift. 

The Phsenc.Ticnon did laft till Fouro*Clock in the Morning. The 
Weather was calm, fcrene, and cold, the Barometer very high^ no.. 
Cloud in the Heaven. 

It was remarkable, and I thinfc extraordinary, that this Aurora con-^ 
fidcrably darkened the Light of tboie Stars which were feen through!^ 
it \ and that was much more true of the fed meridional Zone,, whictv 

^ycdk 



An AuroTi^ Barealis. ti5 

dyed with it*s reddifli Colour the Stars that appeared behind When 
that Zone was the highcft, it covered Jupiter ^ and fome Gentlemen^ 
which at that Time had not yet remarked the Aurora^ looking at Ju- 
piter through a Tclcfcope, affirm they could hardly fee it, but that it 
leemed as intercepted by fome dark Cloud ; and indeed it looked at 
that Time as if it had be«i feen through a red Glafs, 

This Obfervatron conBrms what is moreover very probable, that 
this Zone was produced by the Light of the oppofite Aurora^ cither 
by Reflexion or Refraiftion. But the Manner of it's Produftion feems 
difficult to be accounted for. There may be fuppofed Icy Particles 
fwtmming in the Air, and of fuch Figure as to exhibit a great Zone, 
by the Reflexion andRefraftian of the Light of Ac Aurora^ almoft 
m the fam.e Manner as the Drops of Rain produce the Appearance of 
the Rainbow. But this being meer Conjedlure, I fliali pafe it over. 

The Aurora and Zone feemed a great deal nearer one another in 
the Horizon than in the Top. If we could fuppofe this Difference 
to be entirely Optic, and thefc two Circles really Parallels, that 
would be enough to compute the DiftaAce of the PhsenomenoR from 
the Earth. But the Suppofition, though it feemed, at firft, pretty 
aflowable, is by no means to be admitted \ for it would follow, that 
the Phaenomenon was at leaft diftant from us one twenty-fourth Part 
of the Diameter of the Earth, which is too great an Altitude to be 
believed. 

XXXVI. I. The Aurora Borealis has been very frequent with us —o^. 22, 
of late; but none either for Brightnefs, Variety, or Duration, fo con- 1730- '» 
fiderable as what occurred on the laft Tburfday Night, which was the ^^^'^^ j^ 
22d ofOSober. This Meteor has been obferved in New-England^ at f^^^ brecn-^ 
different Tiihes, ever fince it's firft Plantation ; but I think at much wood. Prof. 
longer Intervals than of late Years, and never to fo great a Degree as Math. N». 
the prefent Inftance: Nor indeed is there any recorded in the Pbilof. +*^' P^S- SS- 
^ranfiiSI. that I could think, by their Defcription, equal to it ; ex* 
ceptingonly that celebrated one of the 6th of Marcb^ 17 16, obferved 
by the moft judicious and learned Dr HaUejy and in many Refpeds 
that ^Ifo muft give the Preference to it. And on this Account I 
have thought the moft particular Defcription of this Meteor would 
not be unacceptable to you ; and have therefore fent all my Notes 
relating thereunto, which are very numerous, almoft to every Change 
and Circumftance of the Appearance. I am perfwaded there is no 
better Way to arrive at the true Caufe of this extraordinary Phasno- 
menon, than by attending to the minuteft Particulars and Circumftan- 
ces thereof; and if what I have done contributes thereunto, I ftiall 
cftcem it a fufficient Excufe for the Number and Particularity of my 
Notes. 

Off. 22, 1730, 6^ 30' P. M, There lay near the Horizon an ex-'Odf,lFii.if. 
tended du(ki(h Vapour reaching from N W by N. to NE by E. The 
upper Edge was the Scgmrcnt of a Circle, whoife greateft Height 

P 2 ' • from 



II 6 An Juror a Borealis. 

from the Horizon was about 15^ bearing nearly N, by E. Adjoin** 
ing to this was a concentric Segment of a very light Azure, of z. 
greenifh Caft, ftrongly illuminated, a few Degrees in Breadth, and 
then dilated more and more till it became blended with an extenfive 
Brightnefs, or Aurora^ which lay every where above it for about 45 
Degrees. There was in fcveral Places a faint Caft of Red. The 
Heavens were every where clfe perfeftly ferene ; a fmall Wcftcrly 
Wind, and the Moon above 80^ below the Eaftern Horizon. 
O// II. t\ Two Striae rifing perpendicularly from different Parts of the illu- 
35- minated Edge of the Vapour fwhich I all along fuppofe to continue 

it's Figure, when there is no particular Note to the contrary)^ Thcfe 
were of a faint Red, and to the Height of 45^ at leaft. 
Obf, III. 6K The Striae were very numerous to the Left, each about 45^ ; and 
40'. one in the Middle fby which I fhall always mean the Middle of the 

Northern dulky Vapour^ rofe to a furprifing Height. It was 8° or 
jo^ in Breadth; of a light Azure tinged with Green, and in feveral 
Places ftreaked vertically with a bright Flame- Colour. There was 
alfo N W by N. a large Area or Body of a very intenfe Red. 
04/: IV. 6k. The whole extraordinarily luminous. The Red diffufed in all 
45'. Tig^ 18. Parts above the greenifla Light, which now bounded the dulkilh Va- 
^ pour in the North \ and mdeed feveral Parts of this were tinged 

^ therewith alfo. But the moft intenfe Red was towards the N W. and 
NE. by E, between which were various pyramidical Streams of dif- 
ferent Colours, fome Blue, fome Green, others Flame-coloured, fcfr. 
many tinAured with, and all terminated by, the diffulive Rofinefs, 
One Stria was of a furprifing Ljuftre, of a light Azure turned upoa 
Green, appearing N W. by N. This Scene was very beautiful, the 
Height of each Column about 45^, and many of them well defined. 
Ohf.V. 6K The enlightened Part of the Hemifphere was every where tinged 
y>'. with Red ; it's horizontal Bounds the fame as before, but it's Alti- 

tude about 70^. Whence it appears rhe y^^r^r^ i^confiderably ex- 
tended upwards. The rcddifli Caft on the right Hand from North to 
Eaft was beautifully diftinguifhed into perpendicular Striae, which 
generally obferved the following Order of Colours, beginning from 
the Eaft 5 viz. a deep Azure, which fucceffively proceeded to the 
lighteft Blues (^though each Column was of fuch IntenGty as to be 
diftinguilhed from the neighbouring Columns) after which followed 
feveral Degrees of Green, and then of Red, the decpeft being an in- 
tenfe Scarlet. And this Order was repeated feveral times, filling up 
the whole Space from NE. to N by W. The Weftem Regions were 
at the fame Time of gn undiflinguillied Red. Many of the rifing 
Columns were very exactly terminated. 
04/: VI. tK The Red, which in the laft lay towards the Zenith, became very 
55- ^'i:* »9- intenfe; darting to the horizontal- Vapour, throughout the interme- 
fJiate Space, innumerable Striae differently coloured. The horizontal 
dufkiib Cloud was fomewhat raifedj an apparent Stratum of Blue 
2 jift 



An jfurora Borealis. iij 

juft under it, which towards the Horizon was of a fainter Caft, a» 
the Colour of the Sky is when over- charged with Vapours. I Ihould 
not forget that the upper Surface of Red jutted out, irncgularly, in 
feveral Places, though in general well terminated i as Lnave obferved 
the Cafe has been in fome rifing Clouds. / 

The diftinguifhed Red towards the Zenith, approaching nearer qj^j, vii. jK 
thereunto.; it is about 20^ broad upon our Meridian, and thence ta- o . 
pering to the Eaftern and Weftern Horizon. The whole Appear- • 
ance is of a reddifh Hue, 'tis in fome Places faintly ftreaked. At 
this Jundure appeared ESE confiderably removed from the other 
Phaenomena, a remarkable Oval, the tranfverfe Diameter ereft, a- 
bout zo^ in Length, and of a very bright Azure. The whole Scene 
was very beautiful. ' ^ \ 

The Phsenomena much'the fame, excepting that the reddifh Caft Obf. Vlir. 
has rifen, and is now diifufed to the Southward of the Zenith. The 7**- 2' i- ^it- 
other Parts of the Northern Hemifphere much like the genuine Au- ^^' 
rora^ interfperfed with various fmall Clouds. There are two diftin- 
guifhed parallellogramic Areas of an intenfe Red, nearly 30^ in Dia- 
meter, the one to E by N. the other to N W. which was of the deep- 
eft Colour, and crofled in the Middle with a black Bar, The bright 
azure Oval ftill remains towards the ESE. 

The whole Appearance feemingly vani/hed, excepting that the q^^ ix. 7";. 
Northern Regions retained the Aurora^ which was as bright as about 5^ 
half an Hour after Sun- fct. The Eaftern Area of Red was diftin* 
guifhable, though very faint, reaching from 30^ to 50^ hfgh ; alfa 
the former Area to the N W. fomewhat more intenfe. This was the 
• fame as in thelaft Article; and the black Bar mentioned then, ap- 
peared now to be a Cloud moving Eaftward, Part whereof was feea 
on this red Area, and Pare to the North. And in this View the red 
Vapour appeared vaftly more diftantthan the Cloud. There were 
feveral fmall Spaces of Light interfperfed throughout the Scene. 

The Appearance fomewhat changed. The Area of Red NW, o^/X. 7»»i 
was the moft intenfe. Several rifing Columns of a faint red and blue >5'- 
between Weft and North. A deep Red E by N. I have all along 
obferved, that fome of the fixed Stars could be (een through all the 
Colours that have fucceflively laid upon them, though with confider- • 
able Differences as to Obfcurity and Clearnefs, according to the Inr 
tenfities of the Colours. No Clouds in the Southern Regions. 

It is now necefTary for me to obferve, that the Wind has been all obf. XI. 7^1 
along Weft and W by N. and if the ftrongeft Winds be expreffed 20'. 
by 10, thi3 was fomctimes 2, and, I think, never lefs than Unity. 
I am informed that at Bojlofty which lies about three Miles Eaftward,. 
it was all the while to the Eaftward of the South. The Aurora ftill 
of the fame Dimenfions, but the Edge of the dufkifh horizontal Cloud 
much abated of it's Brightnefs and Colour. There are four remark- 
able SpotSj^ or Arese of Red,, one E by N. one NE. by N. very 

intenfe,, 



ii» An Aurora Boreallsl 

intenre, as alfo was another nearly North 5 and the laft bore N W by 
N, which, with the E by* N, has been offome confiderablc Dura- 
tion. 

There were feveral confiderable Striae intermixed with red, and a 
Flame- colour rifing about N N W. 
Ohf. XII. 7^. The Rednefs about the North incr^afed in it*s Dimenfions and In- 
28 . tcnfity very much. It reaches from the North Star to about 20^ up- 

wards, and for about 12^ is exceedingly bright. 

It is diftinguifhed into feveral perpendicular Columns of various 
Degrees of Red, and many well terminated. 
Obf XIII. 7h. The. Rednefs NE by N. moves Weftward,' and is conGderably. al- 
3^'- tered in that refpcdl fince the firft Obfervation thereof. That about 

the North Star is now divided in the Middle' by a perpendicular Co- 
lumn, very broad, and of a very intenfe yellow Light. It appears 
now that this alfo has a flow Motion Weftward: But the Weftcrn 
Rednefs has all along advanced Eaftward at a confiderable Rate. 
Ohf. XTV. 7^. The three red Areas juft mentioned are now united, and nearly 
j7'. Fig. ai. confounded with one another. The Diftinftion is only as to the De- 
gree of Rednefs. Tht Aurora which lies partly under thefe is confi- 
derably abated of it's Luftre ; and the horizontal Bounds contrafted 
to about 80^, though the Altitude is rather increafed. The Eaftern 
and Weftern Limits feem ftill to approach one another very flowly* 
There was one Stria very confiderable, horizontally pofited, and a- 
bout 5^ broad, of a bright Flame-colour, reaching from the horizon- 
tal Bounds throughout the whole Meteor Arch-wife, whofe greateft 
Height was about 15®. 
04/: XV. y\ The Flame- coloured Arch much diminifhed. The Rednefs very e- 
45'- vident, and contiguous ; though in fome Places of different Intenfi- 

ties, and vifibly increafing about N by W. On each fide of which 
there was a diftinguifhed Ruddinefs. 
Ohf. XVI. The Diftinftion of Rednefs about N by W. changed to a more in- 

7^- S»'* tenfe uniform Rednefs, which feemed to be by the Union of the a- 

forefaid diftinguifhed Areas ; and the greateft Intenfity was in the 
middle Space that was between them ; viz. N by W, At this Junc- 
ture I was not a little furprized with an extraordinary Flafh of Light- 
ening very bright, which began about the midft o& this congregated 
Vapour, and ran with an oblique ^undulatory Motion for 20^ towards 
the Horizon. 
Ohf XVIL '^^^ Rednefs ftill continues, but much abated. 
8^. r. The Meteor fcarce to be diftinguifhed but by the Aurora^ which 

Ohf XVIII. reaches from N W to E, in fuch Sort of Curve that the higheft Part 
^^' 9- is due North about 40*^ of Altitude. There is ftill a reddifli Caft 

NNW. 

Ohf XIX. gh. ^^^ Colours not very confiderable ; but the Form entirely new. 

30'. The Breadth of the Re'dnefs was from the Pole Star downwards about 

20^* i and from thence it run tapering on the left Hand to W by N. 

.2 and 



/ 



An Aurora BweaUt. u^ 

tnd on ch€ Right to the Eaft. In which Points it was ofno difcern* 
able Breadth. It's upper Edge was of the dcepeft Red, which dilat- 
ed by Degrees to a Flame-colour, and could fcarce be diftinguiihed 
from the neighbouring Aurora. However, there were two Spots, 
one to the Right, and the other to the Left, in the extenlivc Arch of 
a remarkable Sadnefs. 

This was an extraordinary beautiful Appearance. From the Zenith a- ohf. XX. 9^:. 
boiK 20^ Southward, an uncominon Rednefs was fornoed, as it were 25'. J%. 22^. 
into a Knot cw Canopy, very diftindly terminated (efpecially on the 
South Parts; about 20^ in Length, which lay Eaft and Weft, and 
Kttle lefs in it's Dimenflons North and South. From^ys iiTued in- 
Bumerablc Striae throughout the Northern Hemifpherc^md farther^ 
the horizontal Bounds being WSW. toESE. Thefe Striae were^ 
difperfed in an exad Order, proceedir^ from the aforefaid Knot, as 
Folds equally diverging, and each of the fame Colour and Brightne& 
throughout the whole Space to the Horizon* The Order of the Co*^ 
lours was very agreeable, interchangeably blue, red, and then Flame - 
colour^ each of which was alfo diftinguiihed into Stris of various^ 
loiGenfities, from the deepeft blue to the ligbfieft ; from the Bounds^ 
of Violet, 10 a Tii>&i»re of Orange \ and laftly, from the Colour of 
die Aurora to the bnghteft Flames. AxkI this Order was repeated 
innumerable Tinges throughoot the whole Scene. The whole was as* 
bright, and ki many RefpeAs refembled a Serie^of Rainbows verti- 
cally poftced \ and in this View the Generality of People will always. 
remember it. And indeed were the Heavens lx> be difpofed into ionu* 
meraUe Raiiibom (excepting only ohe greater Number of Primitive^ 
Colours) t€ would licaroe exceed this Phasnon^enon in Beauty : And the 
Knot from whence it fcemed to proceed, far furpaflcs any of the- 
Redne& of fbat Meteor, and eiaen Blood itfelf. It may not be amifs 
tt> obferve here, that the Weftcrn Breeze has been for feme time 
fince perfedly toUcd \ n4r is there the feaft Motion in any Part of 
the Heavens. 

The Northern Bsaik of Vapours has all along continued, and now^ 
reaches from W to E by S^ it*s greateft Height about 8^. 

The bloody Knot wholly nraniflied; though ii*veral of the defcend- Ohf.^XL^^. 
ing Stme reuDain endne, and it^ many Places Parts of others, all o£3S^ 
the fame D^ineAion, and a fainter Colour than i^eforc. The Sky ia. 
perfeAly cahn and ferene. 

Tiie ^fo^therll Regiofis retain a bright Am^a^ iotcrfperfed with a^ obf, XXii:. 
nddifii Caft. From the Zenith is diffufed a very eKtenfivc red Va- 9**- 42-'- 
pour, reaching to the Southward near 30^ from the Zenith, and 
from thence converging towards ^ Easftern and Weftern Horizon,. 
where it meets, the one E by S, and the other WSW. The South- 
ern Edge was of ihe d«cpeft R^; ^d the moft diftinguifhed Rednefs 
WS W. There asppopcd aiallflng Star S W: of a.con(kkrable Du- 
ttjtnn^ 

Thfc 



f 20 

obr XXIII. 

i©V z'. 



OH^ XXIV. 
loh. i3'. 



Ohf. XXV. 

lOh. 25'. 

F/f. 23. in 
tobicb Z de- 
notes the Ze- 
nith, and 
N. E. S. W. 
the Horizon. 



Ohf. XXVI. 
loK 35'. 

oiy: XXVII. 

ti*. 35'. 



Oi^/ XXVIII 

iih. 45'. /v;?. 
24. 



j^» Aurora Boreatis. 

The Meteor much advanced to the Southward, it*s greateft Height 
being not above 40° from the Horizon: It's horizontal Bounds ESE 
and W by S. It's Rednefs much abated ; but the Aurora diffufed 
every where throughout the Scene, as confpicuous to the South as 
towards the North Parts of the Zenith ; which was an uncommon 
Sight. The Sky was now remarkably hazy, and full of Vapours. 

The Aurora advanced confiderably to the Southward of the red Va* 
pour, which now is much diluted, about 20^ in Breadth, a Part of it 
at Icaft 50^ to the Southward of the Zenith, and tapering towards the 
Eaftern and Wcftern Horizon, where the Bounds are much the fame 
as before. ^^ 

The Aurora feparated from the reddifh Vapour confiderably, in 
the upper Parts, though joined in the horizontal, and not above 25^ 
from the South Horizon. Not any dlftinguiftiable red to the North- 
ward, but an Arch of the Aurora of much the fame Height, though 
much inferior in it's horizontal Meafure. The Southern and Northern 
Aurora each very bright. There were feveral temporary Flaihes in 
many Parts of the red Vapour. At this Junfturc the Aurora feemed 
to appertain as much to the Southern as Northern Horizon ; and the 
Rednefs confiderably more: But there was a great Difference juft to* 
wards the Horizons ; the one being covered with the dufkrih Vapour 
fo often mentioned, and the other appearing of it's natural blue. 

The Appearance over, excepting a reddifh Caft to the Eaftward^ 
and a faint Aurora in the Northern Regions, of but fmall Extent 
from the dulkifh horizontal Vapour. 

There have not been any remarkable Phaenomena fince the lad'. 
The Northern Aurora^ with the duflcifli Vapour, ftill continue, and I 
think as evident as at any of the foregoing Periods. 

Here I ended my Obfervations. I am informed by others, who 
were occafionally on the Water, that it's beginning was juft after 
Sun-fet, in the^ Form of an extended darkifli Cloud rifing North- 
ward 5 a few Minutes after the Appearance of which, there was, to- 
wards the Eaftern and Weftern Regions, a very diftinguifliable Tinc- 
ture of red. And the next Change was my firft Obfervation. 

It appeared in anew and very furprizing Form. The Edge of the 
horizontal Vapour was ftrongly illuminated, as though it had been 
fired ; and this was in Height about 8^. From hence arofe up con- 
tinually, following one another, very extenfive horizontal Columns 
of a bright Flame-colour, which in fcarce a fecondof Time reached 
forae to 40^, others above 60^ of Altitude, and many to the 
intermediate Altitudes. Each of thefe Columns were as though 
a horizontal Train of Gunpowder had been fuddenly fired, and 
the Flafhes regularly propagated to fuch enormous Heights in a 
horizontal Pofture. And there were innumerable Succefliions of thefc 
rifing Flaihes, the Phasnomenon continuing nearly a quarter of an 
Hour. This Comparifon will alfo illuftrate feveral other Particuhirs 

at 



*An Awt9f4 BareaUs. 121 

tt diis JuoAnre. Sometimes there were feveral of thefe Flafhes 
afcending together, at a little Diftance from one another, as though 
there had been feveral horizontal Trains fuccelfively and almoft inftan* 
taneoufly kindled after one another. Sometimes the rifing Line of 
Light would be continued horizontally throughout the whole Scene, 
in other Places three quarters, an half, one third, a quarter, Csfr. 
of the fame Length, as though thefe Trains had been unequally ex- 
tended. Sometimes the Flafh would begin in the Middle, and run 
kindling to the Extreams: Then, at one Extream, moving towards 
the other; and at other Times in more Places than one: But in all 
thefe Varieties, the horizontal Motions ceafed, and the whole became 
ohe uniform Line before it had paflTed the enkindled i^dge of the 
Cloud, which was not above 8^, as I obfervcd before. All which 
may be well reprefented by the aforefaid Trains of inflamable Matter, 
fometitnes enkindled in one Place, fometimes in another, but always 
propagated through the whole Train, with fo fwift a Motion, that 
there could be no confiderable Difference as to the Height of one Part 
above another. The greatelt Extent of thefe horizontal Flafhes was 
from N W to N E. After thefe Phenomena the Meteor affumed 
it's ufual Form-, viz. a btx^x, Aurora fettled upon a dufkilh horizon- 
tal Vapour. 

The Meteor was again formed into much the fame Shape as was Ohf. XXIX. 
defcribed in Obfervation the twentieth, but of fainter Colours confi- 2^- 
derably. It vailifhed alfo again in the fame manner. 

The Aurora continued till Day-light; and the Phasnomena, at dif- O^/XXX. 
ferent Times, and without any certain Periods, were much the fame ^^' ^^ • 
as I have defcribed in one or another of the foregoing Articles. 

I ihall conclude thefe Notes, by obferving, that the Day before 
this Meteor was very warm for the Seafon, though early in the Morn- 
ing there was a very confiderable Hoar-Froft. The Morning follow. 
ing was remarkable for an abundant Dew. The Temper of the Air 
much the fame as the preceding Day. About Eight o'Clock the 
Heavens fair and calm. Barom. 30.1. Therm. ^. 

You may obferve, that in the Figures I have attempted the Ste^ 
reegrapbic ProjeSiion of the moft confiderable Scenes, which may be a 
confiderable Afilftance to the Imagination ; though I think the Ex; 
pfeflions do not abfolutely require any Schemes^ 

I have compared thefe Obfervations with what I could find relating 
to the Aurora Borealis in the Pbilof. Tranfail. &f^. and think there arc 
few Particulars mentioned there, but what occurred in this wonderful 
Inftance; fome that are rare confirmed, and a few altogether new ^ 
but the chief Advantage, I fuppofe, in thefe Notes, in the Procefs, 
Crifis, and Decay, which is fo obvious in many of the moft remark- 
able Scenes. 

VOL. VI. Partii. Q^ As 



--by Mr 2. Aboot Sijc at Night At North Part of the HcmflJftefe-apprjaS'fSl 

Rich Lewis; cfafaincTed, the Horizon was very duflcy, and tbo Redaefe was 
NJ. 418- P^g- bounded abovt; by a very dark Cload. 

As the Night axivanced this Meteor reddcntd, till it was of « deep 
a Colour as Blood; and it fpread rtfelf to the North Eaft. It conti- 
nued ajl Night, but about Two in the Morning, I obfervcd that it 
fcnt forth two and three Streams from it*s North Part, of a iwrhjtiflx 
Colour, which fhot up to the Zenith. Thefe Emanations looked' 
tnuch like the Rays of the San, when they pais thi'ough a dark Cloud, 
when it*s faid to be drawing Water. I tookit to be an Aurora B^* 
realisj but it appeared much fainter than thofe i have feen in Eng- 
land. 

Dr Sanausl Chew at Maidftouey tells me, that he has fbr fofne Days 
paft, at Morning and Evenmg, obferved feveral Spots in the San^ 
Very plainly with his naked Eye, fome of which feemed very large. 
An Invitation AXXVII. Coeli&Aeris, quem fpirh:u ducimus, conditiones varias^ 
to an Ajfocia- frigoris, puta, & caloris, fudi, vcl homidi commqtationes &vid(n^ 
^'^^ Nlfrorolo- ^"^^^^^> magnas prasfertim atque fabitaneas, ad Hymani Generis va. 
jf^ftf/ ^>L? l^^dinem pcrtjnere merito cenfetur. Oper^m itaque & labdrjctti in. 
by James Ju- iifdem obfervandis minime contemnendam pofuerqnt non MedicS. fo- 
rin, M. D. Jum, fed & alii ouoquc ab omni geyo Nature rerum contemplafndas 
R^^..Sec. ftudiofi. Sqperiore tandem fseculo Inftrumenta etiam & MaclrinaB 
422.^^^ Phiiofophorufn ingenio & dili^tiS reperta? funt, quibu^ ponderis, 
caloris, humiditatis^ & elateris a^rii momenu & titcrtatiopes fimul 
oculis repra^fentantur, frmul ad itienfotam ac trutiham, 8c qmdem 
fubtilcm admodum illam atque atcuratam, cxigufttnr. 

Nee hie etiann fufefiftendum jirdicarunt Eximftitti Viri, fed0:iidio, 
fe fciendi amore incitati ad caufa3 hVom motatrortutti, tjui licnlt, ii)- 
dAgandas c^otitcnderunt. Quem in finem OWferiatiortes Irti(hnjm.tntx>k 
Yatn recens invctitcorum ope faftas de pondere, huini^dicate, ' & titlore 
ambientiS dilijgetiter in Diatlh rtopfeant; iiftnife fnuka aWa adjhnebant 
kd Tetfipeftatem acCoeli facicm, Ventos, & Pjuv^ar cqpianii J)eTti- 
nexitia, quod in ASi^ Phllofophicis & alibi. fparfim vjdere eft. 

Methodp ifli fe obfcrvapdi ratiohe meliorem fkcile npn re(>trias. 
t^bd fl fuiHtnt Obfervatores fe num^rO idoneo, ^ comtpodis Jocis 
p^r magna terranitn fpatia dUpoIki ; ac tandem lihlis aliquis omphxm 
Piaria, quid inter fc convenirent aut difcrej>arBnt, tonrulifTet ; pto? 
fcfto jam a multis annis eatti habcremus A^is Hiftodsun,. qualem hoc 
lemporis vix animo & votis f^.s eft concipere. 

Id eteolm compertum habemus, ut quod maxime, fu^ttas Tem* 
J)ettaturfi rommutationcs Vcnrife pra*dpue acccptas tfl^ 'r^erfcndasj. 
quumque Ifcirfe liceitt per tafem'ofcferyahdi ratixmtih, tjuateni fypta 
e^p^fbitnui, quifcus ih Itich t)ni, quetrt cuffufn, q^o ttriipore fifc 
per quanta terrarum fpatia Venti tenerent -, his cognitis; fbdan ad'. 
Originem etiam & Caufas Ventorum aflequendas via patui0^t. IJAUm . 
hoc fal&cm, quod ipfum noni^Ve momentuaiad hais dif^uifttioties ac* 

tuliffct^^ 



Mete&Tdlogical ^ariA. 1 1 s 

toliffits qoodquejam, ut plusipumn, pro. Coojefbara im^ntiK k^be- 
tor, pocoiffeiQtift oeitiffinnB obfervacionttMis five veri, fi^e falfi argu- 
trc* Opimontfoi dfco ^gaciflimi Viru Edmandi Hdim *^ qui Hy^ 
drargjriHn ideo ceofet in Baromctro* afcendere^ quod Venri ex con-, 
trariis rcojonibus ticrinqae eodem fpirances Aeretn coganc & quafi ia 
ctumiliBii attoUants* uc conora Hychrar^ri defcenfom Vcncis^ ex eo- 
dem loco verfus oppoficas partes Aerem deferencibus, & quafi exhau- 
nendbm^ attrrbosc' 

Kogantur tCMfoe Erudici, qui ad* excolendam haoc parcem Hiftoris 
Natuialis opeiBin (aam confierre voluerint^ ut quocidte fcmel minU 
muni, vel ucoonque fspius libucric, nouure dignencur in.Diario Baro- 
meiri & Tfaecmoni^eri aJtittidiaera, Venti Plagam cum aliqua virium 
sftimatione, Coeli faciem, & Pluvias vel Nivis quancicaiem, quse 
tempoipe' poft obferiotionem iuperiorem elapfo decideric. Quod (i 
qais Obfenratioiiea Hygrdfcopii cujuQibec, five Acus Magnccicas ope 
fxAas-adjiceEevolueric^t uoii eric ingralsim. 

Quoties ingrueric Procella vehemendor, utile fuerit ortum ejufdem, 
iacreiDfntiim, iommam violentiam, remiffionem & exitum notatis 
temporilMis accuratiof defignare, uti & altitudines Barometri, quas 
diftis ooaiporibus. refpondeant. 

MooMdum ccnfemas,, m qui Baromecri replendi & confidendi mo- 
dum caJIenr, BarometPO Tulgari, five aperto, quod vocant, utantur. 
Sic autem Tabus quartam, ut minimum, vel etiam tertiam digici par- 
tem latus , quum m Tubis anguftioribus Hydrargyrus infra juftam ai« 
cicudinemTubfidere deprebendatur -f. Cifiiernse vero^ fiire Vafi Hy- 
drargyrum excipieoti tribuecur diameter o£tonis falcem, vel decern 
psrtibus major Tubi diapietro, Jdque eum m finem, ut afcendentc, 
v<el fubfidente Hydrargyro in Tubo^ alticudo Hydrargyri in Ciftcrni 
invariaca permanaat, aut eerie qoam paululum immutata. 

Qui vero Barometro claufo, five portatili mi malunt, gufmodi Ba- 
romecra magn^ diiigcnti&fabricata comparare poteruncapud Laudatum 
Arcificem FrMnafcutn HMwkJb^m^ in Area vulgo didla Cra^-Court^ 
Lon£ni degentem } qui Thermometra etiam fubminiftrabic ad etm 
Scalam, five graduum notai;ion6m exaffca, quas jam per multosannos, 
exquifitis ejus Thermometris infculpta, innotuit Eruditis. 

Qui Thermoniecro utuntur alia quacooqoe ratione conftruAo, ro** 
gacos voluitiusv ut in Diario Thermomctri fitum, fabricam^ difpofi-' 
tionem graduum in Scala, & nomen etiam Opificis, ex cujas Officina 
prodiit, apponere ne graventur. Sicum Thermometro commodifli- 
mum cenfemus in conclavi ad Sepcencriones obverfo, ubi focus auc 
mmquam accenditur, aut faltem quam rariflime. 

Quo facilius inter fe conferri pofiSnc Diaria, commodum fuerit om« 
ina in hujufrnodi formam difponere« \ 

Columna prima indicet diem & horam obfervationis ; ftylo autem- 
ut omncs Juliano, five Vctere, in Diariis utantur,- Obfcrvatores ro-' 
gamus. 

• Fid. Philof. Tranfaa. N. i8i. f ^i^- P^lof. Tran&ft. N. 363 

Q^2 Secunda 



1 24 Meteorologies T)iaries. 

Secunda aldcudinem exhibeat, ad quaih attollltur Hydraigynis » 
Tubo Barotnecri fupra fuperJBdem Hydrargyri in YzSe^ per digicos^ 
five partes duodecimas Pedis Londinenjis^ & per partes decimales co« 
rundem digicorum nocatam. Habec autem Pes Londinenfis ad Parifi^ 
cnfem eam racionem» quas eft inter 15 & 16 proxime, 

Columna tertia gradum monftret, & partes gradus decimales, 9^^ 
Spiricus in Thermotnetro attingit. 

Quanta Venti Plagam & fpirandi vires reprsefentec ; quas viresi 
femper denotari poterunt per aiiqueni ex numeris fequentiDus, i, 2, 
3, 4: ex quibus i fignificet leniffimum Aeris mocum vix arborum. 
folia agitantem, 4 vero fummam Venti violentiam ; numeris 2 & 3 in^ 
termedias inter hafce Ventorum vires exponentibuSy & denotame cy^-. 
phra, five o, perfeAam Malaciam. 

Quintam occupet Coeli facies, & fuccinAa Tempeftatis htftorta. 

Sexta & ultima altitudinem pluvias, vel nivis in aquam refolutei 
qu£ poft fuperiorem obfervationem deciderit, per digitos Lofldifunfes. 
if eorum partes decimales metiatur. 

Hsec facile seftimari poterit ope Infundibuir duos circiter^ veltrest 
pedes ampli, Vafis alterius aquam ex Infundibulo defluentem cxci*. 
pientis, & Menfurse Cylindrical cum Regula in digitos & partes deci-. 
males divisa. Infundibulum ita fitum fit, ut, quicunque ventus fla- 
yerit, nulla tamen plu viae pars five aedificiiinterventu, five, quocunque'. 
alio impedimenta intercipi queat. Sit autem vas aquam cootinens 
undique probe claufijm, ne quid in vapores attollatur, anguftofolum:, 
foramine, ad aquam defiiper ex Infundibulo excipiendam, rellAo. 
Menfurae porro Cylindrical Diameter decem partibiis minor Diame-> 
tro Infundibuli tribuetur: quo fiet, ut aqua digitum unum alta^. 
in menfuras ad altitudinem centefimae partis digici in Infundibulum^ 
acque adeo in reliquam terram, ceddifle intelIigat^r ; & fimiliter prO:. 
partibus digiti decimalibus. 

Ad finem vero Menfis &' An^i cujufque apponatur media altitudo* 
menftrua, vel annua, Barometri & Thermometri, uti etiam. fumma 
omnium altitudinum Pluvis, qua& Menfc, vel anno, integro deciderir.. 
Habebitur autem dida media altitudo, redigendo^in uni^m fumjptiam,. 
omnes Barometri altitudinum obfervationes mane fa&as, Thermomer. 
tri veto five matutinas, five totius diei maximas, ("quae nempe circa 
horam eertiam, vel quartam pomeridianam contingunt) & fummam. 
iftam per numerum dierum dividendo. 

Omnes rogamus, qui fuprafcriptas Obfervationes, vel univerfas«, 
vel aliqua ex parte volent inftituere, ut Diariorum Exempla,. ad ft-- 
nem anni cujufque continuata, ad Secretarios Regiae.Societatis tranf-- 
nvittere dignentur; uti .cum Diario, quod LondimjuSix Societatis Re- 
gisB conficitur, conferri pofllnt. Confilium vero eft, ut quicquid cx» 
Diariorum iftorum. coljatione colligi potent, fingulisjinjiis in Aftis 
Philofophicis cum Publico commuoicetur. 





Miti^ohgkd 


*DUrUs, 




Diarii Forma. 1 




JI9U10IIQ* 

al^ 


Therm. 

alt. 


Vejtf, 


Tempefta*. 


fiuvu. 


Nov. St. V; 


dis-dec 


gr. dec. 






dig.dcc. 


I. 8 i2r. ^' ' 


«9- 75 


49. 6 


S. W. I 


.Coelum nubibiu obdud. 
Imbres interrapd. ") 


0.03S 


4 /• «• 


19. 56 


+7. 3 


S. W. 2 


Sol pervices intercut- > 


0.043 


\z. 7 Jrf. i». 


«9- «4 


48. 5 


S. 1 


JcuS ^ 

•Pluvia fere pcrpt tn» 


0-7*5 


3. 9 tf. j». 


29. 9j 


49- 7 


^F. I 


Calum fudupi 


0.032 


S A ^• 


.30. 4 


49- 2 


N. I 


Cesium fudmn 


0.000 


4. 7 ii. «r. 


f9. 9 


47- 


S. W. I 


Nobcs fparfae 


0.000 


10 


:i9. 7 


46. 2 


S. Wl 2 


imbres intercurrentet 
5 Coplum nabibui no- 


0103 


12,, 


29. 4 


45. 


\ diaue fer« tedium 
Nubes rpa^rfae 


0.050 


3- A»- 


;8. 8 


46. 


S- 4 


0.000 


5 


28. 6 


47. * 


S.W. 4 


Eadem Cceli &ciet . 


0000 


. 7 


28. 9 


48. 


S. W. 2 


Pluit 


0.000 


9 


28. 9 


48. 2 





PIuvu fere perpetua 


0.305 
0.250 


i- 7. A|«-, 


».9- Z 


ii;., -f: 


N.. E. 1 Sudum. Gelo. ■ 



IAJ> 



XXXVni. This Method in general is^ that in .Additidn-to fiicH^^^iP jl^ 
Obfervations as fhpuld be made on Land^ there might be fome Ac- thodforcom- 
count taken of thofe alfo. that were made at Sea ; which already are t^fiHf- ^^^'t- 
by far more numerous than wJiat were ever made afhore,. or indeed Cj'^^'^/-^^ 
what can. be.expe^ed thence forjome Ages ftillto come. This Me- jif^^i^ac ^^ 
thod occurred to me, as I was looking over various jQurnah of Foy agf sGreenwooi^^ 
in my Pallage from England^ in which I was not a little furprized toi^^'e/- -Msi/^* 
find the following Particulars, conftantly obferved%. ' brW^^New- 

Firftj There was a general Account of the Weather for every Day,'.EDgUai N?. 
during the Paflage of the Ship on the Voyage, which though not 401. p. 330^1. 
quite fo exaft as the Obfcrvatioo$,o£.the fkme Kind that have been^ 
made on Land, particularly what were publiihed by the Rev. Mr Der-^ 
bamy yttfot all that IJ&now, are fumcient for the Defign^ How* 
evcRf if there is any Defed in this Article, it is^abundancly made up 
in another Column}- which is a far more exa^^-Regifter of the Direc- 
tion of the Winds^ than was ever kept afhore, being, an Account? 
thereof to every two Hours in ^thc Day. This Article- may perhaps, 
be of very gre^t Importance ; fmce, as JDr.Jutin obferves, ! Gomper^^ 
turn babemufj ut quodimaximiy fulntas tempeJiaiumcommuMwui.Ytnthu 
prmiifui ac^eptds effi refir4nda^ As for the Degree or :Strength«of the 
Wind there ^re alft) fufficient D^ta in all Sea Journals to determine it,. 
as I Ihali particularly fhew in the Sequel of this Paptr. ; Lafily^ there ^ 
is a. daily Account - inferted oAthe Latitude and Longitude of the- 
Ship, .that there will be no Difficulty in>computing what Pate of^chev 
Globe each Obfcrvafioh tcl(Jngs to. * 

And now fince there 4s iathc World a great Variety- of tbcfc^M'i- 
rine ObfervauoQs.^l|:^a4y piade^ . (foe inalTVoy^gesrWhacfo^ifer •rh.iD, 
2^ haw 



:I2« 



A naturdl Uiflwj rf MeUorsl 
hatve been per fottned for many. Years paft, ic has been ctfftomaryi to 
keep^aa exadt Journal. of. the aforefaid Arcrclc$»X ^ ^^QUfthL it might 
be no difficulc Matter to colledt therefrom the. Htftory (l^fae Wiqds, 
and Weather in moft Farts of the Ocean. . ♦ 

In order to this, I imagined that if the Royal Soqieties of London 
and Paris fhould encourage fuch a Defign, chey migt^t eafily procure 
Extrafts from moft of the. Journals kept in their refpcdive Nations: 
For certainly fuch Gentlemen as would be at t^e Paink to keep a cpi»- 
ftapc Diary of the Weather, would not fafl.alfo to conmiuQicate ff ch 
Marine Obfervations, as they Ihould be able to obtaiii. 

The Seamen like wife thenifcfves, (among nfhom lihere are a cpn- 
fidpable Number of fuch as h^ve aTafte for Phyfipil Knowle4ge) as 
they are under a Kind of Neceflity toobferveexaftly the Wind?, 6?r. 
would not be backward in tranfmitting their Obfcrvatlons -, cfpecii^Hy 
when they were informed of what Icn^ortance ap4 Advantage it might 
be to themfelves, and the Caufe of Navigation. 
^ I proceeded farther to thrnk^ that if die aforefaid Sociedes fhould 
judge it improper, to be.at.fo great an Expence as would be requilite 
in prindng fo many Extrafts from fuch Journals as. ihould befent.to 
ihem, that they might notwithftanding keep in Manufcript a Bool^ 
of Tables of fuch Marine Obfervations, as they (houJd think fit td 
coUcfl: therefrom ; and that the Secretaries of the Society (who for 
the moft Part are fuch Gentlemen as have in a particular Manner dif- 
covered a generous Principfe of promoting Natural Knowledge) fhould 
take Care, that all fuch Obfervations were tranfcribed in their proper 
Places. 

The Form of thefc Tables I thought might be in the following 
Manner, 



Janttor'j the Firft^ 1726; ' 



Longitude 20 ( 



2r, 



22. 



H.l W. iDJWcadicr. 



"WT 



1>. Weather* 



50i 



?li 



12. 

6. 
12. 

6. 

12. 

6 
12 

6. 



N. 



NbE 



Fair. 



Fair. 



U 



Weather. 



W. 



Sb£ 



S 
SbE 



■ I I I I ' ii j I 



2. Cloudy. 

3- 
2. 



Rain. 

Stonn oflUiii. 

Rain. 



In which the Tttk fhews the Tear^ Montb^ and Day \ the horizontal 
^/ii^^juft below it, ^tLon^tudes\ tktvertiu^l Space without the double 

2 LineS) 



LtbeUt lS^lariH6ic^^ itmi zvitirin tbt dwkk linss, ih^'mur '6f .eli« 
Day I and the bmz9ntal Sjp/uss . imder xht Longkudcsi the iVlni^ 
\t^% Degri€^ wSireMitby and due U^^atber^ which are accordingly 
aark^d wid^ W. D. Weather. 

lo this Specimen I have noted every Degree of Latitude 
and LoBgicude, ihu die Work niighc be the more per- 
fect. I have only taken Notice of Four Hours in the Day, 
wc. m m Kooi^, 6xvi the Aft^nnoon^ 12 kt Night, and 6 in the 
Morning. However, if there ht Tcquired a £rc:^cer Exaftnefe in. 
this Article, it will be eafy enough to frame Tables accordingly. 
I. began the Hdurs with. 12 at Noon, becaufe all Journals are 
l^ept from that Period, the Marine Day being always counted' 
from NofMi to HoQfi. Tnere may be other Columns inferted,^ 
7^ I ftail mention in the Ciofe of this Paper, though what I havis. 
^readf tekcn Notice of is fufiicient to our prefent Defign. 

Of cfacfe Sort of Tables there muft be at leaft Four Vokmes ;; 
One ^ for thac Part; of the Adantic Ocean, which fuch Ships gene- 
sally paft i)Ver, which Trade between Gnat Britain and the Wtfi- 
hdies ; another for thole Skrcaof the Ocean, that lie in the Paf* 
fikffi of foch Ships as are engaged in the Mediterranean, or. Hur^ 
by Trade: to. which moby. be added a Table for the African^ and/- 
ln£a Commesce. A cbtrd may be framcid for that Part of the Ocean,, 
thac lies between: the l^rtliMra Provinces jn America and tdie- 
W^ iffdvi;..aqd j^ifouixh foir the Ships that pafs betw^n- iVke^ 
Ewi^MdyVai JM^-.ibfj. :aAd dBm/oyr, Iwhkh oh the Northera Parft: 
my.be made ib wlide m^ to tiikesn fhe Neiufoundland Trade,. iSs. 

k nsbit be cmfefled, that the Work wrU be very much pro- 
tmftdd^ juid roaiiiici jbme icoii6dferiLbIe Application and Care, in i 
emraAing fdeh C)fa£cvf[aciooi,: as iholl 4xe of Uie, from^ ^uitia^s*. 
TJiei-e witt^aJSo le Jdine difficulty in :p{^(kca!!ing any x^pfidetrable 
NumbKc of ^wek lauAuds; and lafiUy^ there vb but a v^y^'ifhiaN 
N|p4ier of Gk&hdaikm imaxie in Compaiffon ti^the Spaces that 
Mft be attow'd< ih the TaUcs far thsm,. by which Means Asrf.- 
muft ttcnArily he? a fpreak Wafte. 

. Jn Ahfif«r't» shdei Objcfliims, it may ibe &id: hi ^nlerat,. Hi^f . 
4Kre wiU be «nich lefs Afqpilicacron and Xxire required i!han^ in * 
kbeping a Diary of tb« Weather^ &r. on the Land. (By this Means^. 
atfo, thepe inay be more Obfervasion^ colledled in a few^ Years, 
tfaaik cab ibe eaopedbed frtun the other >Method in fome Ag^s *> and wb 
Man may be iaibfe li> a ftnr.Moocbs, hereby to compile a larger. 
Hiftory.qf sbe Weather^ th^ wibdt has hitherto b«teR. done by 
the uiuQKd lObfecwttoB. of>aU f^ch^as iiave undertaken tJiis Pro- 
Tiikce. • ' I • 

Thfeugk ti^re lasight be &ipe , BiffituJty it^s to paiticular Perfof^s 
in procuring a great Number of.|oiimQ]s, it cannot be fuppofed, 
that fgt illuftrious a Body of Men. as the Royd, Societies at. London^ 

and; 



t2 1 A -natural Hifiary of Meteml 

and IPans^ Ihould meet with the fame. It is obfervaUe alfo, chalt 
in the Rn'^al Nafoy of Great Britain^ the Mafters of the MatbemaiUci 
are oUiged to keep fuch a Journal by an A& in the late Reign^ 
on Board every Ship, which without Doubt might be eafily ob^ 
rained on this Occalion : Nor can we imagine any in the trading 
Incerell would refufe a Thing, that tended ta muck to «helr owa 
Advantage and Benefit. 

It is true, there can be <io Remedy for the many empty Spaces 
in the Tables ( if that Method be followed which I have pro** 
pofed ) ; however this will be looked upon as a trifling Objedion^ 
by. fuch as confult the Improvement of Natural Knowledge, ra» 
tbcr than the Wafte of Paper. 

I fhall conclude thefe general Remarlcs, by obferving, that «s 
the Hiftory of -^the Winds and Weather is capable of a morefpeedy 
and expeditious Improvement from Marine Obfervations than from 
Diaries from the Land, fo aHb it is capable hereby of a moce large 
and extenftve Improvement. Without Doubt it will require many 
Years ^before Obf^rvatories of the Weather, &?r. will be trt&eA ac 
all the Univerjities and Capital 7iw»i/of the Provinces, Shires, &fr. in 
Europe^ ( if ever fuch fhould be ) not to mention Afncay Afia^ 
•and America^ from which little can be expeded in this Affair -( 
and yet upon that Suppofition, bow few would the Diaries be, in 
Comparison of the great Number of Journals that are annually 
kept at B^al bdSdcs many Thoufands that .might, perhaps be ob- 
tained, relating to the Courfe of the Winds and Weather, fuccef- 
fively for many Years lafl paft. It is beyond my Abilities, ia« 
deed, to calculate with any Exadnefs, how many VeSeis there 
may be upon the Seas which I have named, in the Space of one 
Year, and confbquently how many.diftin& Journals there are an« 
nually kept; however, if I may judge from the Trade of the little 
Town, where this Letter is dated, there oouft be many Thonfknds: 
For there are feldom kis than eight or nine Hundred Voyages 
made te and from this Port in a Year. I &all only add in this 
Place, that the Method here propofed feems to Jiave the Advaa. 
tage of the common Metlu>a heretofore ufed in compofing the 
Natural Hiftory of Meteors ; inafmuch as that recuiires ^ particcH 
lar Application and Attention without any other views and Ad« 
vantages; whereas in our Cafe there is a Kind of Necefiity of 
making fuch Obfervations, in order to conduA a Ship fafely thro' 
the Ocean, whether the Philofoplncal Part of Mankind Ihall think 
fit to improve them in their Interefl, or no : However, I would 
not be underftood, by any Thins; that has been faid upon diis 
Head, to derogate from the Deugn of obferving on Land, for 
that likewife lus many Advanuges, that we can by no Means 
pcetend to an the New Method. 

We 



A natural Hiftory of Meteors. 129 

We may be able from this Method to define with a great deal 
of £xaAneis» the Bounds and Limits of all confiderable Winds i 
for as diere are at all Times in the Year fome Hundreds of Veflels 
at Sea, it b of the fame Importance in our Cafe, as though there 
were fo many diftant Obfenratories there ; and that the Knowledge 
of diefe more eztenfive and general Winds would be ofconfider* 
able Ufe, none will deny, that fhall attentively confider it; for 
hereby we may be able to judge, in what Place fuch a Wind has 
it's Origin, how long a Time it continues, with what Velocity, 
it moves, where it's greateft Strength is, and how great a Pare 
of the Earth it paflb over. Perhaps alfo, in Procefs of Time 
by this Means, we may arrive to fo much Skill, as to judge with 
fome confiderable Certainty, from the Rife or Beginning of a 
Wind, what it's Effeft and Iflue fiiall be; which will be of as 
great Importance in Navigation, as any Thing ftill wanting. Again, 
from fuch Marine Obfervadons of the more extenfive and lafting 
Winds, it is not impoflible, that we fiiould be able to make a 
probable Judgment of the Effeft and Influence of the Wind 
upon the Weather ; which, for what Caufe I know not, I have 
freauently obferved at Sea, to change and alter, according as that 
doth. 

From ooUeAing all fuch Meteorological Obfervations as are made 
at Sea^ we may reafonably expeft to come to the Knowledge of 
fuch Winds, as prevail moft in particular Latitudes. Though the 
Wind is a very uncertain Meteor, there is no Doubt, but uiat in 
fome Places, it has a very different Courfe from what it has in 
others. If I miftake not alfo, it has been frequently obferved, 
in fome particular Places, that the Cburfe of tne Wind in one 
Year has been much the fame as in others \ and though there 
has been no particular Order or Ezaftnefs yet difcovered, yet 
the prevalent Winds, or the greater Number of Winds have been 
in both Cafes, according to the fame Diredion : In thefe Parts of 
the World it is remarkably fo. We cannot, indeed, expeft to dif- 
cover die Reignine or Prevalent Winds of fuch Latitudes, as are 
very diftant from the Tropics, by as eafy an Obfervation, as the 
Trade- Winds and MonfoonSj which are in the Torrid ZotUj were 
firft found out. However as it has been after many Obfervations, 
that the Courfe of thofe Fixed Winds was determmed, we may 
alfo hope, that Time and Induftry may bring us to a much better 
Knowledge than what we have at prefent, of thefe which are more 
Variable. I need not fay of how much Importance it would be 
to the Trading Part of the World, were we able to define the 
more frequent and reigning Winds of every Climate ; for as the 
Probability of Voyages might then be calculated in the fame 
Manner a3 that of other Chances, the Sailor might then better know 

VOL. VI. Partii. R how 



[L 



1 JO A natural Hiftory of Meteort, 

how to order his Courfe fo, as to arrive with the moft probable 
Difpatch to his Port. 

It may not be impoffible alfo, from a protrafted Series of Sea-Ob- 
fcrvations, not only to know the general Courfe of the Winds in 
every Climate in the whole Year, but alfo to make a very probable 
Judgment of the reigning Winds of the feveral Seafons of the Year, 
and perhaps of every Month too: Which if it could once be ob* 
tained, we Ihould have nothing more uncertain in Navigation, than 
that it was a Dodrine of Chances, which might be mathematically 
calculated. 

I Ihall mention under this Head but one thing more, which we 
may with all the Probability imaginable cxpcdt to arrive to, vi2j. 
the particular Seafons, Signs, and Places of the Tornados and Harris 
canes. The EfFcdt of thcfe are in many Cafes fo fatal, that they calt 
for all our Skill and Obfervation : And could the Hiftpry hereof be 
fo fuccelfively known, as that we mi^ht be able to draw any certaia 
Conlufions from it relating hereunto, it might perhaps be a fufBcient 
Recorapence for all the Care, that is required, in the whole Collec- 
tion of Marine Obfervations. ' p 

I might add in common to the two foregoing Heads^ that the 
Marine Obfervations have nuich the Advantage of fuch as are made 
on Land, (which notwithftanding are of very great Service,) inaC- 
much as they are not obnoxious to any external Accidents, as thefe 
are i the Winds afliore bei'^g frequently interrupted in their Courfe^ 
and often diverted tkerefron;]i, by. intervening Mounuins, Vallies. 
or Promontories. 

Were I allowed to reckon among the Advantages of this New^ 
Method of obferving on the Winds and Weather, thofe incidental 
Obfervations,, that might be found in Journals^ of general Benefit 
to Mankind, they are perhaps alone fufKcient to engage us in the- 
Work. \ (hall only hint here^ that if it tfiould be thought proper ta 
prafUfe our Defign, it may perhaps be worth the while to inferc 
vito the Meteorological Tables,, fuch ObfeFvatkxis as rekte to the 
Variaiion of the Compafs and Currents ^ the true Knowledge of 
which would be of no inconfiderabie Service to Navigation.. 

If likewife there was a Column left for fuch remarkable Ac- 
cidents as did occdr, it might pot be afflifs ; particularly, any. 
uncommon Difcoverics of Lands> Rocks, or Soundings ; exceflivc 
Thunder and Lightening, &fr. Luminous Appearances in the Sky ;. 
what Remarks may be Ibund relating to the Water^Spout, whicK 
though perhaps one of the moft curious Phsen6mena of Nature 
is as little known as an^ whatfoever ; fubmarine Niatus or WirL 
pools, if any fuch there be \ and laflly, any extraorcHnaiy Ren^ 
dezvous of Fifli, £sf f. that are ufed in the Afl&irs of Life, noe 
io mention fuch Defcriptions> as may relate to. Matters of meet 
Speculation and Curiofit^. 

%, But 



A ndturdl Hifiory of Meters. 13$ 

But chde Sort of accidental Advantages, in fuch a CoUed^ion of 
Journals of Voyages, as is neceflary to our Defign, are toonume^y 
rous CO be infifted on : I fhall therefore only add one more, whict^ 
is the great laiprovemcnt there would hereby be given to Geography ^ 
a Science of the greateft Ufe and Importance in the Affairs of Life. 
Not only all Hydrografbical Charts might be by this Means cor- 
refbeid, and brought to the Truth, which is of fo much Concern, 
that, the Lives of a great Part of fuch as go to Sea depend upon 
it ; but alfo, the Diftances and Situation of all Sea-Poris^ and many 
other Things, which are uncertain, or wanting in that Science, de* 
cermined with the greateft £xa&ne(s. In a Word, Geography may, 
by fuch an Expedient, arrive^ in a very expeditious Manner, to as 
great a Degree of Perfection, as it is capable of. 

I fhall have finilhed my Defign, when I have uken Notice of 
the Method of determining the Degree and Strength of the Wind 
from fuch Daia relating thereunto, as are to be found in Sea* Jour, 
nals ; which in general is, from obferving how many Knots the Vef- 
fel goes at the time of Obfervation ; which is always inferted in 
the Day- Book or Journal ; or, in other Words, what Velocity fhe 
then has ; for the Strength of the Wind may, with Exadnefs enough 
in this Affair, be judged of from the Effedt it produces, or the Mo- 
tion it communicates to the Ship. It is true, there will be fome 
confiderable Difference in this RefpeCt, arifing from the Shape and 
Burthen of the Veffel : However, as iftre do not expert a mathema* 
tical Exa6thefs in this Article, after a little Ufe and Experience^ 
together with comparing the greatest Velocities of different Ships 
together, a Perfon may feldom fail of judging of the Strength of 
the Wind, at leaft to a fourth Part ; that is, if according to the 
Method propofed in the foregoing Paper, the greateft Winds be 
I exprefTed by 4, and the lighteft by Unity. 

I In Oblique IVinds^ the Strength or Degree thereof will not be 

dire^ly proportional to the Velocity of the Veffel, but muft be 
correded a litde^ however, there will.be no Di^culty in this 
Matter. For fuch as are acquainted with the Method of refolving 
Oblique P^foers into Direff ones^ may eafily compofe a Table of Pro^ 
portional Parts fuited thereunto. I did intend to have inferted fuch 
a Table ; but lim afraid I have already trefpafTed in the Length 
of this Epiftle, 

XXXIX In primis animadvertam, in tempore connotando, n\e MetHroUgUai 
diei cujufque initium a meridi^, ut Aftronomi confuevere, fuppu- Obfervatms^ 
tavifle: Obferyatipnefque in Ephemcridum meteorologicarum zd- ^^'^^ f^^ fi^ 
yer&ria: cfftreiKljw paulo poft meridiem inftituifTe 5 nifi .quidpiam^'^^^'j^^^^^ 
xne aliqiia^do iiopedivit, aut tieoipeflas aliqua apropofito me illo nes Marchio 

ahduxit« Polcnus. No. 

Veteri autem Stylo in temporibus defignandis, & in menfuris4^*'P*8'*^'^ 
Anglico Pede ejulque Partibus, me ufum fuifle, Inftitutum meum 

R 2 facis 



U^ Metearohgical Obfervathns. 

fatis declarac. Si qua erunc, enarrationucn proKfeflb, ad tempus 
conveniens Novo Stylo, atque ad Gallicam meniuram refereada i 
de Styli atque menfurae mutatione admonebb. 

In menfura nivis, banc liquefieri curavi ; liquatamque racime 
c^dem, ac pluviam aquam mecitus fum. 

Barometri mei tubulus facis amplus eft, & Vafi$, quo ftagnans 
mercurius continetur, diameter eft ferme vigecupla diametri tubuli : 
quamobrem afcendente intra cundem tubulum, & defcendente mer* 
curioy alticudo mercurij eo in vafe tuto poteft ceu mvariata repa* 
tari. 

Thermometrum meum ex genere illorum eft» quorum inventio 
Gulielmo Amontonio, ornamento illuftri Gallicas Acadeniia^, adtri* 
buitur. Tubulus eft recurvus definens in phialam, cujus phialas 
pars inferior vivo argento, fuperior repletur aere i hujufque dilata- 
tione vel majore, vel minore, pro varia caloris vi, mercurius in tubulo 
vt\ magis vel minus attollitur. Quoniam vero tubuli excremitas 
patula eft % idcirco opportuit veram Thermometri Altitudinem ex 
Alcitudine mercurij obfervata in Thermometri tubulo, Altitudine* 
que mercurij in Barometro, colleftis in unam fummam, compo- 
nere ; inque Ephemerides referre Altitudinem eadem plane ratione 
compofitam. Eft autem Thermomi^trum meum appenfum ad parietem 
cubiculi ( in quo vix unquam ignis accenditur^ facie uni ad meridiem 
alter& ad orientem folem obvers^: neque enim aptum tocum ad 
feptentriones refpicientem habeo. Thermometri mei phiala intra 
glaciem immersa fubfidit mercurius in altitudine Dig. 47. Dec. 30. 
intra vero ebullientem aquam, afcendit mercurius ad altitudinem 
Dig. 63. Dec. 10. Porro iifdem femper Inftrumentis, &ad eandem 
jugiter plagam conftitutis ufus fum. 

Perfpicuum autem, (i opus efTet, ex modo relata & fuperioribus 
obfervationibus fieri poflet ; Hyemali rigidiore tempore aerem noftrum 
ad frigus aquse glacialis quamproxime accedere ( ut afias in Com- 
mentariis Regiae Scientlarum Gallicas Academias An. 1711. pag. 
2. obfervatum fuit, ab aere fufcipi eundem frigoris gradum, qui 
nivi con venit ) asftivo autem tempore, aeris noftri teporem ab aquas 
ebullientis calore diftare plurimum : at id vel naturae lumine notum 
eft, atque manifeftum. 

Ventorum dirediones fingults diebus adfcripfi \ eorum autem 
vires dumcaxat cum facis pacentes, majores, vel maximal fiiere, nu-* 
meris 2, aut 21, aut4, pro magnitudine eorum fignavi *, prastermiflb 
zero, five malaciae figno -, & unitate, venti lenilfimi indicio. Ce* 
terum, etiam me filente, nemo in hifce rebus vel mediocriter ver- 
fatus non animadvertit; in infima bac prope nos aeris regione ubi 
Ancmometrorum fcdes eft, faepc unum aliquem ventum obfervarr, 
dum in fuperioribus aeris regionibus alii diverfique venti domtnai>- 
tur. 

Poft 



Metewological Obfervationf. 
Poft hacc vero monica, actingendo rem ipfam^ ut aqtias pluvke, 
nee oon ex fufa nive colle&as, quaocitaces ("ut ferunc fummse ex 
obfervationibus defumue, fingulis Menfibus conveniences) confiderari 
queanc ; eas in fubje£bm TabeUam conjeci. 



»«: 



^ns' I 


1726. 


1 1727. 


1728. 


1729. 


1730. 


Dig. Dec.Dijt. Dec.lMg. Dec 


Dig. Dec. 


Dig. Dec 


Mg. Dec. 


o 521 


« 355 


5 955 


4 278 


I 085 


112 




I 460 


« 073 


I 050 


I «45 


2 905 


889 


3 i68 


I 878 


4 832 


2 902 


4 59* 


4 019 


3 998 


498 


I 419 


2 768 


I 638 


3 625 


I 368 


3 530 


3 .403 


2 634 


4 467 


030 


2 608 


2 476 


2 103 


3 134 


6 205 


2 297 


2 357 


2 930 


4 016 


4 526 


2 339 


5 185 


I 268 


5 067 


5 186 


578 


4 269 


2 647 


2 900 


4 164 


6 948 


3 267 


1 090 


7 104 


179 


6 576 


5 163 


6 294 


5 «54 


3 636 


2 277 


5 091 


6 836 


4 186 


534 


030 


2 390 


7 169 


7 599 


2 804 


894 


29 989 


25 328 


46 407 


52 833 


35 423 


34 300 



Jan. 
Feb. 
Mar 
Apr. 
Mai. 

JUN. 

Jul. 

Aug. 

Sbp. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 

Sam. 
todus 
anni. 

Si lidem Menfesitlorum fexannorum coUigantur in unam fumaiaiD» 
comperiecttr ex Tabella n^inimam aquas qnantitatem decidifie Mend* 
bus Februariis; quippe quas non excefleric Dig. 7. Dec. 734. 
Maximam vero Odtobribus Menfibus, quas Dig. 30 .Dec. 570, sequa- 
verit Pneterea ex Tabelli elldem facile apparet, ficciorem annis 
aliis fuifle annum 1726, qui dedit aquae Dig. 25. Dec. 328: aliisau- 
tern annis liumidiorem fuifle Annum 1728^ quo coll^i aquae Dig. 
52. Dec. 833. 

Numeros praeterea quanticatum aquae, fingulis qus anni Tempe- 
ftacibus decidic, feorfum collegt % Tempeftates ica parciens pro quo- 
conque propofico anno; ut Hyemis inicium referrem ad decimam di- 
em Decembris anni prsecedentis, & fie porro ad diem decimam Mar- 
tij, Junij, atque Septembris Tempeftatum reliquarum initia confti- 
tuerem. Invencae: fununs, in Tabella, notataCi tub oculis poficse fc- 
quuncur. 



17^5 



114 



Meteorological ObfervattMsl 



1725 
1726 
1727 
1728 
1729 

1730 
Sum* 



Hyems. | 

Dig. Dec 1 




2 

8 


912 
815 
181 


II 

7 
8 


419 
470 

6?3 


39" 


490 



Vcr. 


.Sftas. 1 


AatumnusJ 


Dig. Dec. Dig. 


Dec 


Dig. Dec. 


8 1671 7 


584 


13 3^7 


9 6| r 


355 


4 999 


5 9»6|ii 


^75 


15 497 


10 752 12 


83 


20 S5^ 


9 430 


6 


310 


13 617 


8 817 


12 


818 


6 562 


52 88 


5* 


H 


74 55^ 



Ex qua Tabella proclive eft nofcere quanticatem aquae pertinends 
ad iSftacem & Autumnutn, fingulis annis majorem fuiiTe quanticace 
aquas percinentisad Hyemem & Vcr. 

Quod (i quancitates ad quamlibet Tempeftatem pertinences colli- 
gancur in unam fummam; & deinde has fummae conferancur inter 
lefe» facile liquebit, incrementa progredi eodem ordine ac Tempe- 
ftates ; ordiendo ad Hyeme \ hoc eft ; Quanticatem minimam aquse 
Hyemis tempore haberi, tempore aucem Veris majorem, hanc vero 
fuperari ab ^ftacis tempore, demum Autumnali tempore maximam 
reperiri. 

Notum autem eft & pervulgacum, pluviam a decrefcence Barome- 
tri alcitudine, ferenitatem vero a crefcente altitudine indicari. Uc 
igitur aliquo raodo explorarem, quantum pofluit indicia iiU, uC ex 
Baromecro futuras pluvias anticipaca cognicio aliqua habeacurs dies, 
quibus pluic fex illis propofitis annis coUegi in varias fummas pro 
Vencorum variecate, acque pro incremenco auc decremento altitudtnis 
Barometria Meridie pra^cedentisDiei ad Meridiem Diei ejus quopluic 
Tabellam autem ipfam fnbjeci. 



Decrefcente Barotnetro a Me- 


ridie Diei pnccedendsad Me- 


ridiepi Diei, 


quo ploir. 


Numenu Dieram, 


Ventas qualis erat 


quibus pluit. 


Meridie Dieram, 




quibus pluit. 


86 


N. 


61 


NE. 


33 


E. 


28 


SE. 


44 


S. 


42 


SW. 


49 


W- 


35 


NW. 


378 


Sumtna. 



Crefcente Barometro a Meridie 


Diei praccedencis ad Meridi. 


em Diei, quo pluit. 


Numerus Dierum, 


Ventus quali$ eraC 


quibus pluit. 


Meridie Dierum, 




quibus pluit. 


64 


N. 


41 


NE. 


16 


E. 


17 


SE. 


21 


S. 


15 


SW. 


20 


W. 


17 


NW. 


211 


Summa. 



Qua 



Mete^oJdgical ObfervattMs. 

Qui abfaluti TabellS, miratus profefto fum inter mimeros incre- 
menti dccrcmcntiquc altitudinis Barometri non majorem difFcrenciam 
interefTe quam ea, quae inter 378 & 211 intercedit. 

Fateor equidem ; aliquoties crefcente Barometri alcitudine a pras- 
cedente Meridie ad Meridiem Diei, quo pluit, coepifle tamen alcitu- 
dinem earn decrefcere poft Meridiem Diei ejufdem, quo pluifle con- 
tigit: prasterea vero incrementum illud aliquoties fumi pofle, tan« 
quam indicium futuras, poft baud longam p^iiviam^ fereniutis: ratio- 
Bern etiam quantitatis pi u vis efle habendam. 

Sa^pe tamen nulla ex hifce (ut ita dicam^ excufacio prasfto efle po» 
teft, ut fervetur conftantia legis illius paulo fupra indtcatas ; qua a 
aonnuUis fancitur, decrementa altitudinis Barometri efle pluvial indi- 
cia, increnienta vero ferenitatis ihdicia efle reputanda. Aiiquid aliud 
dctegendum ad hue eft ad prsenofcenda phaenomena haec. Quod fl 
tamen deerit Obfervatorum induftria, atque afliduitas, fortaflis varia- 
tionum hujufcemodi leges aliquando detegentur 5 ic venieUempus^ qua 
ifta^ qua nunc latent ^ in lucem extrabat dieSy & hngioris avi dilkentia :- 
& fbrtaflis non erunt difficilia, ac Ppfieri neftri nos aferta nefcijff^mira^ 
htntur. 

Nivalium. poftca Dierum, pr<»ofitis fey illis ann« contentoriwn 
comparationem i^iftitui fuperioris Olius fimilem ; atque illud animad^ 
Tcrti, quod Nix magis, quam pluria, Barometri' decremeatiB refpon^ 
dcat: ut in fubjcfti Tabclia viderc eft. 



Decrefccnte Barometri a Me 
ridie Diei praecedentts ad 
Mcttdiem Diei, quo ninxit 



Numerufl Dieruniy 
quibus nhudt. 



4 
6 

I 
I 
% 

I 



|Ventus qaalis erat 
Meridie Dierum, 
quibus ninxit. 

— n: — 



NE, 
E. 

SW. 
W. 

NW. 



14 



I ikimma. 



Crefcente feromctro a Meridie 
Diei prarcedents ad Meridie 
cm Diei, quo ninxit. 



Numenu Dierum, 
quibus nixait 



Ventus qaalis erat 
Meridie Dierum^. 
quibus ninxit. 

fl — 



■SJ 



mma*. 



Prxterea vero, pro fingulis annis fummas attitudinum B^ronretrii 
ac Thermometry confeci ; ex quibus deinde altitudines n>edias conveni-^ 
entes fingulis Diebus eoiundem. Annorum elicui ^ uc in. fubje&a Tat- 
hella. apparet. 



»J5 



•7^55 



13* 



Mettirologtcal Obferottions', 





tudinam 
Barometri. 


Sumnu Aid- Aldtodo Media 
tadinam' Barometri 


AltUado MedU 

Thermometri 

ad iinguloa dies« 




i-^ig. JUcc- 


Dig. Dec. 


big. l>ec. 


XHg. Dec. 


1725 

1726 

1727 

1728 
1729 

1730 


10854 26 

10823 8 
10831 17 
10864 72 
10842 23 
10853 75 


18287 66 29 74 50 10 

18268 93 29 65 50 5 

18325 96 29 67 50 ^I 

18419 81 29 68 50 33 
18326 62 29 70 50 21 
18264 18 29 74 50 4 



Porro fi Alcicudines Barometri, non fingulorum Annorum, fed 
omnium fex Annorum in unatn tantum fununam coliigancur, inve* 
niecur, media Barometri Alcitudo, fingulis Diebus eorundem omnium 
annorum conveniens, efle Dig. 29. Dec. 70. 

Ac fi Thermometri Altitudines, non fingulorum Annorum, fed 
itidem fex Annorum omnium coUigantur in unam tantum fumnum, 
comperietur media Thermometri Altitudo fingulis diebus eorundem 
omnium Annorum conveniens, efle Dig. 50. Dec. 16. 

Quamobrem, infped4 Tabelll, hdlc dft intelligere, Dialea Me* 
dias Altitudines tum Barometri turn Thermometri, pertinentes ad an- 
nos fingulos, pauciflimis partibus diflFerrea Dialibus Mediis Altitudi- 
nibus, cjuae ex fex illis coiledim fumtis proficifcuntun 

Maximam deinde Barometri Altitudinem Minimamque, itidem 
Thermometri Maximam ac Minimam Altitudinem in oppofitam Ta« 
bellam redegi : ut uno afpe&u conferri inter fcfe poilent atque com- 
pararl 



Anni 



Metm9ltiiesl Okjhvgikiu. 



ur 




Ttaiptftai. 



Goilttm nubtbui fot obdoAttm. 

Colum fudum. 

CcDlum nublbaiftrt obdttftum* 

vttlum fttdumi 

CcBlum nabibui obdoJlum* 

Muba rario« 

Pluvia tcnuif , 

Cgelum nuUbtti fere obdaftum* 

Pluvia. 

CfiBlom fudom. 

Sol Sb nubti altcraatiiii. 



Coeltun ladum. 

Sol & nubes alternatiio. 

Coelum fttdom* 

Qelmn mubibai fere obdndum. 

Sol paucsque nnbei. 

Aer nebulofus. 

Sol paucsaue nubei. 

Coelum nubibos fere obdafinm^ 

CoBlum fadum. 

Ceelnin fudnm. 

Sol & nubet altematisu 

Coclum Aidam. 

Uc vera aqt», quas decidic, Quanticates confcrri poflent cum 
Quantiutibus iis, quas in Regise Scienciarum Academias Commenu- 
riis regeruntur 9 Menfuras Anglicas in Gallicas tranftuli, illas ad Re- 
gium rarifienfem Pedem (in PoUices acque Lineas divifum^ refe- 
rendo. Ac fummas ad Annum quemlibet Novo Scilo computatum 
confcci, ut in fubjcfta Tabclla vidcre eft. 



Anni 


IPolPcdi 


Lin. 


Stilo N0V0.I Parif. 


'7^5 


28 


A 


1726 


23 


2i 


1727 


42 


II 


1728 


49 


9^ 


1729 


34 


If 


1730 


3» 


li 


Summa. 


1 210 


3* 



VOL. VI. Partii. 



Quare^ 



Quare, fi Pol. 210. & tin. \^. diiridaiitur in kniK^ fek } Menfura 
Media Quanticatis aquaj, qi^sc decidic,^ jconvcsiifins fiogulis aodis 
prodic Pol: 35. Lin. ~, Mepfqra fiutem^ Med{a s^uaa quas cadit 
Lutetiae Parifiorum (uc habdcur in Acacjemia^ Connmentariis Ann. 
171 19 1 7 149 1 7 159 & alibi ^ Medift, prq uniu$ Anai curriculo Pol- 
Itctim 19 ede computatijir. Quaniobrem- Patatina Media Menfu- 
ra, Mediam Parifienfem cxcedic Pollicibua 16. Lin. n. Aur, fi affn- 
niamus pro Media Men fura Pa/i fiend t'oU 18. Li|). 84 Cquemad- 
modum ex obfervacionibus triennio habicis coUigitur in Commen- 
Cariis Ann. 17 19) eric differentia Pol. 16. Lin. 4;^. Icaque plane 
liquet aquas copiam hie decidere mulco majorem, , quam Lutetiae 
Parifiorum. 

Praeftat etiam animadvertere, a Meridic Diei 23. CST. Vet.) 
Avj^ufti Anni 1727. fvento boreali ) ad Meridiem: fequemk diei, 
nimirum intra horas 24, decidifle pluvise P0I.3. Lini i. hoc eft Lin. 
361. 'Quas fane pluviae copia multo major repericup ca, quas* intra 
horas 24. unquam decidac Luteti$e Parifiorum : ut ex Commenta- 
riis Regias Scientiarum Acadcmia^ coUigere eft. 

Si maxima Barometri Alcitudo Die 20 Dec, 1730. hie obferva- 
t^ i^igatur ad Gallicam Menfuraqi, compe»etur t\h PoHicuin 28. 
Lin. .6. minima vero 9aromeiri Alticudo, quas perfinuit ad Diem 
8 Dec. 1725, invenietur PoUicum 26. Lin. 9! Quamobrem Mer- 
curij in Barometro differentia inter Maxiaiam Altitudinem, Mini- 
mamque colligetur PoUicum i. Lin. Si. 

Affumto itidem fexenio Ot^fervaiionuni, quas in ^egio Obferva- 
torio habuic Lucetias Parifioriim Philippus Hirius (nimirum ab 
Anno 1699 ad annum 1705) inveni Maximam Baiometri Altitii- 
dinem extitiflfe Die 10 t^c. 1704. Pol. 28. Lin. 4^, Minimam ve- 
ro Die 20 Dec 1703. pol. 26. Lin. 5: atque idpo Mwcvfij in 
Baromet{0 diifcrcntiam inter NJ^xiniam Alticqdinj;.m.. Mip^ipaaviuc 
fuifle Poi- 1. 'Lip. lii. t)ifiereBtia itaque inter Mij^irnaip atquj? M^- 
nimam Mercurij in Barometro Altitudinem ( attwtis phftrV^ifinibMS 

?uas propofuimus^ Lutetian Parifiorum invcnta ful^ majorj, quaqi 
atavij Lin. 27^. Et quidem jamdudum ponnulli fqcre, qui pbjCet- 
varent, illiufmodi diffbrentias eo minores .reperiri, quo magiii lopi^, 
in quibus Obfervationcs infticuuntur, funt ffiquatori circulo Vicina. 

Reliquum nunc eft i^t ad aliud QbfeiivatJonunfi genus in Invita- 
fione indicatum, hoc eft ad Obfer\4atiMes Declinationum Magne- 
tics Acus, gradum f^iciam : ab hac tamon parte me paucis expedi- 
am. Notum hoc temporp eft^ atque inter hujuTccmodi rerum Pe- 
Fitos pervulgatum, variis uniu3 ejufdemque Diei horis exiguas non- 
nullas mutationes in Acui M^^ietica; Dedinatione ita contingere, 
ut fingulis integris Diebi^ eadem omnioo conftantiflima Declina* 
tio non obfervetur ; fed paucis varietur aiiquando Gradus fexagefi- 
mis : praeterca vero compcrtuq[i eft, npn a.b pmhibus Acubus (prac- 
iertim ad varios Magnetos afiridtis/ eandem prorfus penitufque ex- 

'i\ . ^ . . iiiberi 



MeMr^kd OifiMfatkns. 

hiberi t>eclkationtiii, fed Miqutoc (^^o^iffimarutti tiimen cum ab ti* 
cellentibus Artificibtis iAcm fuhc tlaborat^ ) facagefimarum differed* 
das tliqaando comparefe; 'Vafiaeto6es itaqiie perexigua$ ab hifce 
dafia facile promafiantes, fi eitdpias^ c^cis hifce fex folidie annis, 
Magnetis Declinattoiiein verfm Occafum Graduum credecim obfer- 
vavi. Pyxis Magneckp^ qua preefertim utor, 8t cujus (uc ica dicam) 
fidei plurimum tribuo, eft Opus Bernardi Pacini fcientia ArtiAds, 
maxime harum rerum periti, maxitneque induftrij : cujus Pyxidis 
Acus longa eft Pcllices fex, granorum triginca duorum pondo. Hoc 
vnum adjiciam^ me fufpicaxi Coeque enim de cam exigua mutacione 
quidpiam fecure afllrmandum eft) Declinationem Acus intra illud 
tempus, decreviiTe decern fexa^cHmis potius, quam crevifie. 

Part h Contatntn^ MiEr€t>it(n.acicAi» OassRVATioNsmade at 

^tABLEJbewni the Htigbt of the Mercory in the Barometer^ the 
CoaSi and Strength of the Winds ^ and the Weather^ on tbefirft Day of 
eight Montbi mthe Tears 1707 and \j^. Ob/erved at Covtmry in 
Warwickshire by Mr H. Beighton, F. It S4 ^nd $t Uftoinfter in 
EBtx, by W. Derham, F.R.S. 



liV 



Coventry. 



Mont)). 



jDlf. 




Bait>ni. 



29. 



Winds. I Weather. 



1- 



J 




r<hr. 






• b|w^. 



^ 



\1 



05 



' 05 



2 



$w^ 



8f w *. . _ 



W' 



E^ 



L'louay 
with Sun- 
Aine. 

KIT 

SatiUnD 
Dav, 

High 

Winds. 



Maob 
Rain. 



Cloudy. 

Rain. 
Wann. 



'lempc- 
late and 



ticar. • 
Cold with 
Snow. 



Upminst^r. 

Earonl. [Winds. » Clou*. 



Weather. 



XL. 
jftt Abftr^R 9f 
/ifrrMeteorolo- 
^cal Diaries 
commaonc^tii 
to tbi Royal 
Society, with 
Remarks ufm 
them by W. 
Derham, 
DD.F.R.S. 
N« 423. p. 
26U 



W7 



*9- 39 
36 

58 ^^S 



33 
29 

Jl 
'3 
H 

84 



"^T^ 



B2 



01, 

1^2 

59 
5* 



SWbW 



fBW^ SSW 
WhS« 



WSW^ 



J— 



f«WbWi 



nnP 



iTnet 



SKoWers 

and 
Stofitiy. 
l^air gnd 
fomd 
Clauds. 



btorms" 
witli 
Showers. 



Stormy 
Day. 



ClouBy. 



Uoiidy 
djrrW 

Day] - 

Frolft and 
Snow wt^ 
Fair. 

^ TABLE 



;i4c Metnnli^csi 7)Uritt/ 

A TjtBLSjk0wlnth CMfiing 0nd Strength 9fthi WMi ^thi JTesi 

tbir ivery firft Day of the Month in the Tear 1715, and tie Quantity 
of Rain in that Montb, ohferved at Harvard^Collegc in Cambridgo 
iVf New-England, iy A4r Tho, Robic i and tbe Height of tbeMtrcmf^ 
in the Barometer^ the Crafting and Strength of the Winds and Clouds^ 
the Weather and Rain, at the fame Tme at Vprninftcr, by W. Dcr- 
ham, D. D. P.R.S, 



Harvard-Col LECH. 



Month. Winds I Rain. 



Jan. 



WNW 

WbN 

S 

Fcbn PW3 
W^ 



13^ 



March. 



W 
5W 

SWbWi 



April. 

May. 

June. 

July. 

Augttft. 

Sept. 

OAob. 

Nov. 

Pec. 



NWbWs 



5- 17 



12. 92 



12. 71 



Calm. 

SW» 
WNWc 

sw 



»3- 



Weather. 



irLmzy. 
Sno^. 
Cloudy. 



.Hazy. 

'^Qoudy. 



Snow. 



Froft. 
14 Serene. 



NWbWs 



NW^ 



E» 

o 



13. 63 



Sept. 
and 



30. II 
10 
14 



I^T^WSW 



^. ^ J Showery. 



Serene 

9. 64 and ^ 
^ ^Pleafant. 



Upminstbr. 



Barom 



Wind*. 



Fair. 



Oaob. 
30. 781 



|NW» 



WT 
WNW3 

W' 



5- 83 



Fair with 
7' *4 Cloudy. 



Pair and 
Cbld. 



60 
46 



Gouds 







653bW* 



E5 



39 sw> 
30 . 



"6q|NNW' 
69NW ' 



7 A 

651 W' 
71N W ' 
771 



3o;n w 



ssssw 



7s;wsw 
so! 



s. 



Rain. iWeather. 



4. 31 



Hard 
Prod and 
Cloody. 



3. 7 Stormy. 



SW. 



SW. 



54. SW 

S4WbN' 

38 



12. 53 



Cloudy. 
Mifliag. 
Rain. 



4. 66 



6. 34 



.^ .^Fairwitfi 
'3- '9 Cloudy. 



Rain. 
Fiirer. 



Pair whh 
Cloudy. 



Cloudy. 
20. 00 Thunder 
ind Rain. 



Fog. 
20. 49 Rain. 
Fairer. 



9. 17 



8. 



Fair. 
Rain. 





I iHoarFxoft. 

14. 08 Fair. 



Rain. 



Rain. 



53 Cloudy. 



2- 55 



A TABLE 



MrtimUigicsi 7>isriit, 
'd TABLE •ffhBh ObfiTMtim kt the Tesr i9i«, MthJikOe 
prHtedMg tahkt tuctft the Bam in New-England wbkb Mr Robte 
pmitted. 



H A rV A K O-CO I. L S Q 1. 

Month Wind. I - fV^eather. 



Jan. 

Fcbr. 

March. 

Apiil. 

Maf. 

June. 

July, 

Aug. 

Sept. 









E ** 



E' 
S » 



N W*' 



Cold 

and 

Clear. 



Cold 
hard 
Froft. 



W 

oaob.|sw* 
w * 

IWNWi 



Nov. 



Dec. 



Rain^ 
Fairer. 



Ctottd/. 
Fair. 



Fair. 



Rain. 



Pair and 
Cool. 



Fair and 

fome 

Clouds. 



NE» 



Fair. 
Hoar- 

Froft. 



Fair and 
Plearant. 



tJrilINSTBlt. 

Batom.|Winds. Clood. Rain. Weather. 



29. 62 



WmT 



SQNbW 
76 _ 



30. I 

I 
21 



:i 



NN£ 



29. 42 



Cold and 

Raw. 

Sn«w, 



j^Q. 00 



8g 



*9- 9» 



WbN 



SsEbT" 
85ESE 



"N^ 



8. 



^9' 97 

9iNbE*NNW|8. 2. 
30. ot 



ill! 



T 



Thaw w«k 
8. 6iMifliDg& 
Cloady. 



^ ou 
76ci< 



Bkck 
ouds. 



I. 93 



Fair. 



5. 04 



Fair and 
Pleafant. 



9. 52 



Fair warm 
Day. 



4- 47 



88IWNWi| N W 
g^N W ♦, 

9 



2. II 



9. 87 



5.,WbS;. 
50 \ 



,»5- 75 



4. 41 



"SlNbW *■ 

87I 



7. .6 



Cloudy. 
4 Rain. 
Fairer. 



Fair 

Plealant 

Day. 



Cloady. 

Fairer. 

Cloudy. 



Clofe 
iark Day. 
Rain. 



Froft and 

Fair. 



I4« 



L 1 obfcrvc 



14^ I4ite«rohgical ^faries. 

MMARKS ' 1 1 obferve there is a great Agreement between thi B^mnttirs zi - 

^^ 'Jf^?!^ C&v^Wfy and Upmnfier^ in their /6>fw and Falling neai the fame Time, 

'"^ at'Icaft not many Hours before or after one another, and for the moft 

In that fir Part in the fame Proportion. Alfo when one is Stationary^ the other is 

the Tmr 1707 fo too, efpecially if of any Continuance : But at Ctroentrj the Mercury 

is lower than at Upmnjifr about a tenth of an Inch, the Situation at 

Cavenirj being, I fuppofe, higher than that df Upmnfttr about 82 

Feet, according to my Experiments in Philof. ^Anf. N^. 23<f. 

II. I obfcrte alfd a greater Conformity bet^^en tie Wihds, than 
(confidering the Caufes of their perpetual Change) would be imagined. 
For although they may vary a Point or two, yet generally through 
all the eight Months, they tended nearly toiirards the A^me Poim: 
of the Cpmpafs, and changed in one Place as they did in tlie other ; 
efpecially when they blew ftronglyj or were of ibmc Continjiiance. I 
Jiave obferved, that a Storm in one Place fe fo in the dther ;i ofwhtch 
<the Diaries at larse give many Examples ; and ih this Tabid of 17079 
in the Months ofS^ptcmbir aq^ OHobir^ where Mr BeigbtoA hath noted 
the Wind's Strength to be three and four^ it is about the fame Strength 
with mine of five, 4x, fcven and eight, I taking in more Degrees of 
the Strength of the Winds than he. ; 

III. I obfcrYe alfo, that the Weather in €ach Place is for the ^moft 
Part nearly the fame, 

IV. I have often obferved, that the Falling of the Qjncklilver in 
^ark and cloudy Weather betokeneth Rain ; but the Rain^is always 
preceeded with Fair Weather :- A^idwhea the Fair comes, thcJFoul 
is not far od; And this chiefly happens^ when the Wind isfin any of 
the Eafterly Points. 

V. In January iy6% many were troubled with cuticular Eruptions, 
which itched much. After this the Meafles were epimedical *dli the 
latter «od<>fJl4^. . 

VI. The Beginning of this Year being very dry, and often the 
Weather cold fas appears by my Tables at large; Hay was firaree, 
^nd became very dear. 

VIL July 8, commonly called the Hol-Tburfday^ was the hotteft 
Day that hath happened fince I^ began my Meteorological Obferva- 
tions. A young Man working In H^veft harderthan ordinary, was 
overcome with the Heat, and died : Ahd divens Horfes on the Road 
that Day, d i dpped tfawit, -aiid died alfo. 

VIIL In November and December the Air being moift, and freqjient- 
Jy cold. Coughs were epidemical with us. 

IX. I hope I (hall be excufed if I go out of the Bounds of this 
Table, and obferve that the unfeafonable Frofts in Jpril 1708 (parti- 
cularly jipril 25th and 26th; blafted the tender young Leaves and 
Catkins of the Oak, Wallnut-Tree, (^c. which I tdce to be the 
Eeafon that few Acorns and Wallnuts were that Year. From whence 
' it 



ft a t juft Condofion^ That the Qukins are of greateft aft to the ^^^.^ ^^.^-^ 
•Feitilky: of fiich Trees that bear them s bat whether as a MalenSperm /« the Fertdrj 
I (hall not iktertQine. e/^fm/. 

X. This MoDCh of ^pril alfo Horfes were every where fcizcd with 
daagerous Coughs; <rf' which many died in Londony and other Places^ 
/efpecially fuch as laboured on the Roads. I have great Reafon to 
^think thcfe Colds were catching, becaufe my Horfes that went well 
ao JLondofij returned with great and fudden Colds. 

XL Jum 1 1 ^although it was the Day of the Summer Solftice) was 
enfued with a very cold Night, my Thermometer defcending nearly 
to the Point of an Hoar-Froft. 

The late ingenious Mr RohUy at my Requeft, was pleafed to makt^HEMARta' 
in NeW'tEttgland, Meteorological Ob/ervationsy Mornins, Noon, and ^^fi%^^' 
Night, to correfpctfid with mine at the fame Time at Upmmfter. • S jt^/'^ 

Theie Obfervations he made in 17 15 C^c. to the End of 1722, 
and ordered them to be fent to our Royal Society ; and accordingly. 
I received them, not long fince, from his ingenious Succeflbr at i%ir- 
fhori-CoUegfiy Mr If. Gre^woodj and now profent them, withmyown^. 
mhe Society. 

But by reafon they are too long to be read at the ^^^f/^ Meetings 
or to be inferted in the ^ramfa^ionsj I have therefore n>ade the fore- 
going £aECfa& from them, together with fome Obfervations of my 
own, which .tally- with them. 

But I am forry .that Mr RoM% Obfervations want thofe of the Ba- 
jooflsftcer and Thernjbmeter : ^Nieither of which' Inftruments was to be 
gotten in New-England. Couid we have bad thoife Obfervations, 
they would have been of great Ufe in feveral Phenomena of thofe di<* 
iUnt Places^ wh(ch'now I can only gu^fs at: And, 

L I goefs, that notwithftandiog HaruandJCollege is ten Degrees 
jBione Sooth shan Vjomi^f/fer: ("it beiiig, a» Mr R^ie fays, in Lat. 42 
Deg, z$^ HoftB^ Md Limgifikd^fr-omLA^ii^n 4^ 44' as corre^ed by the 
' Jf^' ObfetrvMJionsj (hat I fay) they havoas cvi/,' if not colder Seafoiis> 
i^n we have here. . ■ 

il. Although the ordinary Agreement or Difagreement of die- 
Winds, deferves no Reniark, ye^ it may defe4*ve Obfervation, Tha.t 
schea the Winds haieo concidued^^in-one Point, they have nearly 
agreed in both Places, and eflj^ully when they have been high,. 
aadftrong ftv (ofntwn^i la wKRSi Qife t h^ve obferved, that there 
Jiove iMen fome Dayia Di&renae in the coming of thofe Winds, as if - 
they were fo many Days in their Paflagc from Place to Place. 

And this Agreemebc of she Win<£, together with that of the 
Afcxni: and iMfoent of the l^ickfilver befope-mentioned, divers 
cud0U8 Ghferverslhave taken Koccce ef^ as- weU as my feff, ' betiveen • 
diftant Places^ though not fo far as New- England; as Zurich, Pdri^^ . 
iMncafiar^ and VpeMfier\ as may be^feen in the FUlof. tranfaEl. par- 
«ciUari¥Nwib« 208 12£^, 2971 and 32}, 



t44 Mittwltgicd 7)i»iit. 

m. I obfenre» diat they have in Niw^EiigUni mtny nore PmtU^ 
Hgh% iMMf Rmhwi^ and fuch like Appearances : Alfo mora 
Earibquakis\u9mjkal MtMrs^ fhtnder and Lkbtinbig^ than we ham 

IV. The Rm in 1715 ('which waa the only Year in which Mr iS#- 
Hi obferved it; in the different MonthSi amounted to different Quan- 
tities 1 but in the whole Year, it wai nearly the Tameai at Uj>mh^it% 
that at Harvard^CoUige beins 130,64 ib» that at Upmkftir 118,9a ibf 
But confidering that Mr fbHe's Tuftml that received his Rain, waa 
but II i Inches in Diameter, and mine exaAly 12, therefore the 
Proportion of the NevhEngUnd Rain may be accounted fomewhat the 
greater. 

V. I obferved at Upmnjier^ that in January the Contagion which 
was very fatal among the Blaek Cattle about London the latter End of 
the laft Year, came amongft us, and deftroycd many. 

In March many were afiiided with Head-acbes ; and the Small-Pox 
was epidemical: And the Earth being very dry, the Ponds empty, 
and the Springs low, in that and the next Month there fell good 
Store of feafonable Rain, as the Table for that Year fhews, but not 
fufBcicnt to fill the Ponds, But in Juncj July and Auguji^ more Rain 
fell than was Welcome & which filled the Ponds, but hurt the Hay, 
and Corn, and made the Ways as dirty as in Winter. 

In the Summer this Year I had many Confirmations of fome former 
Obfervations in my Pbyfico-fbeology Db. I. Cb. 3. viz. ^at a coU 
Summer is commonly a wet one. Which this Summer was, the Spirits 
in the Thermometer being often low, particularly near the Point of 
Hoar-Frofi on Auguft 12. 

hi January^ the following Year 17 16, the River of Thames waa 
frozen for feveral Miles, and particularly fo intenfely at London^ that 
whole Streets of Booths were ere<5bed on the Ice, Oxen roafted. 
Coaches driven, and many Diverfions, ezercifed above Bridge. 
And fo ftrong was the Ice below Bridge, as to allow People to walk 
and fkate at their Pleafure thereon. But yet the Spirits in the Ther* * 
mometer defcended not all the while near fo low, as on December 30, 
1708. 

In Scotland alfo (which in 170I felt but little of that Year's fevere 
Froft) the Ice was ftrong enough to bear the Horfe and Foot of the 
Armies. 

And beyond Sea they fuffered much ; particularly in Spain^ much 
Mifchief was done by the wild Beafts, which were forced by the Froft 
out of the Woods. 

Among Birds I find the Goldfinches to have fuffered much, having 
fcarce feen one of them all the following Part of the Year i they 
^ being killed by the hard Weather, or driven to feek Food in other 
Parts. 

On the Day of ■ >, the Wind was fo violent, diat 

the Barnes was emptied from London- Bridge as far as » fo 

thatpnly a fmall Rivulet of Water, no bigger than a Brook of 10 

or 



MetiorologUal ^Diatks. X4j 

or i2Poot over, remained; iofomucbg. that People walked on the 
Bottom, and found Treafure ther^. 

In November and December PJeurifies were frequent, and mortal in 
our Parts of EJfex. The Weather was mild, open, dark, and damp 
for the mod Part, with now and then a cold Day or two. 

On February xis 171^, he notes an Earthquake to hare been %l Farther t§- 
Salem Village \ and on OSab. 21 following the Day was fo dark^ thai mdrksfym 
People were forced to light Candles to eat their Dinners by. Which could ^'' ^***' 
DOC be from an Eclipfe, the Solar Eclipfe being the 4eh of that ^^'* 
Month* 

On Feb. 13, 17 if, he obferved an Imtnerfion of the firft Sa- 
tellite of Jupiter J at 10^ 48' 17''} and on Feb. 8. I obferved an 
Emerfion at 8»> 7' 30" j according to which the Difference of Longi- 
tude between Harvard-College and Upminjier is 4** 45 ', and Mr. RoHe 
fays, that it is 4^ 44' from London^ by the lateft and belt Ob- 
fervations. 
Sept. 23, 1 7 17, Mr. Robie obferv6i the Solar Eclipfe. 
The Spinning at 12^ 23' 
The Middle at i^^ 47 or thereabout. 
The End at s^ 5' loffp.M. 

About 9 Digits were edipfed. 
O£iob. 5, following he obferved tht Southing (^the Moon, at 9^ 32t 
p. M. 

On Feb. 25, 171 J, Mr. Robie &w the Moon cover Aldebaran at 
about 9^ 18I ^. Af. and the Sur to emerge at lo*^ 20' p. Af. 
then by his Meridian Inftrument (fuch as I have defcribed in Phi- 
lof. Tranf. Numb. 291 ) being 2' too How, fo that 2^ are to be 
added to the Time mentioned. 

March 10, 1713, Mr Robie obferved an Emerfion of the firft Cir- 
cutnjovial at ro** 45' 35''. 

Sept. 24, 1 71 8, Mr /2(?«^ obferved the Moon to South at 9** 38', 
or thereabout : On the 25di at lo** 22' 32^' p. M. On the 26th at 
1 1 h 26' />. M. 

Decemb. 5, a great fiery Meteor was feen in the Morning about 
Break of Day. And on the 9th, about half an Hour after Ten» 
in the S S W, he faw another which made a Light like the Moon. 

Dec. 19, the Moon fouthed at 6^ 45' 45'' p. M. On the 20th 
at 7«» 30^ s^^^*^ On die 23d «t 9^ 54' 5^'. On the 25th at ii** 47' 

33"'. 

On Jan. 13, 171}, the firft Circumjovial immerged at 10^ 35'^. Af. 

Jan. 17, The Moon fouthed zi 5^52' i". Onthe I9that7^33' 
1^'. On the 22d at it)** 21I 40'' p. M. 

Feb. 16, Moon fouthed at 6^ 15' 15H: On the I9diat8^59' 
40^': On the 21ft at 10^ 54' 30";). M. 

On Dec. 1 1, 1719, a very unafaal Meteor was feen in the Evening 

On Jan. 8, 17^^, Mr Robie fays there was an Earthquake. 

VOL. VI. Partii. T On 



1 46 Metear^agicMl 7)i£ries. . 

On Ncv. 24, 1720, Mr RobU obferved a StriMmng from the Nor^ 
them Horizon ; as I did on Nov. %i^ before. 

On Dec. 10, 1720, about 8^^. M. Mr Richie firft faw the Light 
that ftrikes up toward the Pleiades % and on Jan. 6, following, he 
found it was increafed, and almofl: reached to the Pleiades. And 
Dec. 7, 1721, he obferved the fame 1 and on the 25th he hath 
Fig. 1$. ^^^^ ^^^ Figure of it : i& is the Part next the Horizon ^ V the 
roint toward the Pleiades. 

This Glade of Ugbt is the fame that Dr CbUdrey mentions in 
his Briton. Bacon, under the Name of Semita lutninofa\ and which. 
I faw, and gave a Figure of in Pbilof. 7rtf»/ Numb. 305. 
Ohfervations About Two in the Moming Mr Roite viewed the Moon with. 
0/ibe Eciipfe his eight Foot Telefcope, and fhe was untouched^ 

rftbe Moon 

^ June 28, Time Correft. 

'?"• fj / It 

2 10 GO A thin Penumbra. 

2 12 GO Shadow is plainly entered. 

2 18 xo Palus Mareotis covered. 

2 31 40 Mons Porpbyritis touched* 

2 34 20 — - covered. 

2 47 10 Mobn eclipfed about fix Digits* 

2 49 05 Bejbicus jnA touched. 

2 50 30 ■■ — covered wholly* 

2 53 40 BjzaMium touched. 

2 54 10 — — covered. 

3 05 40 Palus Metotis touched. 
3 18 30 Moon wholly covered. 

There remained a Light on the Wcftcrn Side of the Moon fof 
fome Time. 

About 3 ^ 50' in the Morning the Moon was wholly hid hf 
the Haze, and coming on of Day-Light, that nothing could be 
fecn of her \ although from the Immerfion ^iU now Ihe was vi- 
fible. 

neOhfirva- H. ' " 

//MnilirRobie j 27 CO He faw the SiiQ rife eclipfed aboift fbuf IKgits oit 
msditmtbe hjj fupreme Vertex \ to the S W the greatcft Part 

N^^Sf^'' of the Shade lay. 

1722, wtrtM Then we could obferve no more *dU 

f»Ums. 8 30 00 The Sun began to appear, and fix Digits, or thefe- 

aboou, were ecUpfed. 
t 55 15 The Sun was eclipfed 4i neareft} nd thea the 
Son's Diameter was to tiie Moon's, as looo to 

9^ 60 15 



9 00 15 Were hid 4^ nearly; and the Sun^s Diameter was to 

the Moon's as 1000 to 975. 
9 19 45 A little Spot on the Sun emerged. 
9 25 45 I faw the Moon go off the Sun, and Mr Danfirtb at 

the fame Time : And Mr Appkton at 
9 25 20 

XLI. It being the Opinion of divers fkillful Naturalifts (particular- off^g ig^ 
ly Mr Fr. JVUlugbb'j and Mr Ra'j) that the Ignes Fatui are only the teor ulkd th 
Shining of a great Number of the MaU-Gloworms in England, or ofl&aBFMnM, 
the Pyraujla in Italy , flying together, I was minded to confult ^y^^^^^w awA 
curious and ingenious Friend, Sir Tbo. Dereham^ about the Pbanome- i„ Engluid* 
non^ being informed, that thofe Ignes Fatui are common in all the by the R^. 
Italian Parts. But of the Pyraufta^ or Fire-flies^ he faith. He never ¥^^'J^'^ 
ohferved any fucb EffeSs^ althougb there is an immenfe Number oftbem in ^^\f^Jrsim 
June and July. He faith moreover, that thefc Pyraufta are called itaiy, com- 
Lucdokj i. e. Small Lights^ and that they are not the Farfalls (as municatedhf 
Mr Ray thought) which are Butter-flies. ri^'^i^' 

But I have good reafon to think, that Infefts are not concerned in ^^Ji^^lJ. S. 
the Ignes Fatui, from the following Obfervations ; the Firft of which ^o^ \i\. 
I made my felf, and the others I received from Italy^ by the Favour pag. 204% 
of Sir Tbo. Derebam. 

My own Obfcrvation I made at a Place that lay in a Valley be- 
tween Rocky Hills, which I fufpe£t might contain Minerals^ in fome 
boggy Ground near the Bottom of thofe Hills. Where, foeing one 
in a calm, dark Night» with gentle Approaches I got up by Degrees 
within two or three Yards of it, and viewed it with all the Care X 
poffibly could. I found it frifking about a dead Thiftk growing in 
the Field, until a fmall Motion of the Air (even fuch as was caufed 
only by the Approximation of my felf) made it (kip to another Place^ 
and thence to another, and another. 

It is now about fifty-five Years fince I faw this Phasnomenon, but 
I have as frefh and perfeft an Idea of it, as if it was but of a few 
Days. And as I took it then, fo I am of the fame Opinion now, 
that it was 2^ fired Vapour. 

The Male-Gloworms 1 know emit their fhining Light, as they fly; 
by which Means they difcover and woo the Females : but I never 
obferved them to fly together in fo great Numbers, as to make a 
Light equal to an Ignis Fatuus. And 1 was fo near, that had it been 
the Shining of Gloworms, I muft have feen it in little diftind Spots of 
Light ; but it was one continuous Body of Light. 

Having thus related my own Obfervations of the Ignes Fatui, I 
(hall next give an Account of the Obfervations which Sir Tbo. Dere- 
bam procured for me in Italy^ in the following Letter of Dr Giacomo 
Bartbolomeo Beccari, F. R. & to Sir Tbo. Derebam^ F. R. S. dated at 
Bologna^ Olfob. 23, 1728. 

T 2 IT 



I4S Ignis Fatuus. 

IT is purely in Obedience to your Commands, by Dr Eujiacbio Man* 
fredi^ I fend you the following Obfervations on the Ignes FaluL 
What I am now eoing to offer to you concerning thefc ficrjr Appear* 
ances, is the ReUilt of feveral Converfations I had upon this Subject 
with feveral experienced Travellers, Men of Learning and Reputar 
tion, whofe Sincerity I had no Reafon to miftruft.. For my own 
farther Satisfadtion, ever (ince I received your Commands,.. I have 
made it my Bufinefs to fpeak with as many as I could light of, with 
fuch as travelled much in the Mountains, and with others that obferv- 
ed them in Plains, on Purpofe to fee whether or no the Difference 
of the Place made any fenfible Difference in the Appearance. I find 
upon the Whole, that they arc pretty common in all the Territory of 
Bologna. To begin with the Plains, they are very frequently obfcr^ 
ved there; the Country People call them Cularfiy perhaps from fomc 
fancied Similitude to thofe Birds, and becaufe they look upon themi 
as Birds, the Belly and other Parts of which are refpjendent like our 
ihining Flies. They are moft frequent in watery and morafly Ground, 
and there are fome fuch. Places, where one may be almoft fure of 
feeing them every Night, if it be dark. In the Fields near the Bridge 
Delia Calcarata^ in a Common belonging to the Parifh of S. Maria in 
dono^ 'HoTtli oi Bolognay one of thefe fiery Appearances is very often 
obferved to move a-crofs the Fields, coming from another Bridge, 
calted lyella Fojfd quadta. There is another of them in the Fields of 
Bagnaraj almoft Eaft of Bologna^ which fcarce ever fails to appear ia 
dark Nights^ particularly when it rains, or fnows, as alfo in cold 
and frofty Weather. Both thefe, I mean that near the Bridge of CaU 
carata^ and that in the Fields of Bugnara^ are very large -, and lam 
afTured; that fometimes their Light is equal to that of one of our or- 
dinary Faggots or Bundles made of Branches of Vines, and that it is 
fcarce ever lefs than that of the Links which our Country People 
make of Hegip-ftalks, and which they light themfelves withal, when 
they travel at Night. That at Bagnara appeared, not long.fihce, to 
a Gentleman of my Acquaintance, as he was travelling that Way ; 
it kept him Company for a Mile or better, conftantly moving before 
him, and cafting a ftronger Light on the Road, than the Link he had 
with hrm. 

I believe there may be many. more in other Plains as large as thefe 
two, though at prefent I have not been able to get certain Information 
of any others. Leffer ones there appear a good many, fome of then» 
giving as much Light as a lighted Torch, and fome there are no 
bigger than the Flame of a common Candle. Of thefe, I have been 
af&red, a good many were feen in the Fields of Barifella. All of 
them have the fame Property in refembling both in Colour and Light, 
a Flame ftrong enough to refleft a Luftre upon Neighbouring Ob- 



Ignis Fatuus. H9 

Jefbs ail round. They are continually in Motion, but this Motion is 
various and uncertain. Sometimes they rife up, at others they fink. 
Sometimes they difappear of a fudden, and appear again in an Inftant 
in fome other Place. Commonly they keep hovering about fix Foot 
from the Ground. As they differ in Largcnefs, fo they do in Figure, 
foreading ibmetimes pretty wide, and then again concradins them^ 
felves. Sometimes breaking to all Appearance into two, and a very, 
little while after meeting again into one Body ; fometimes floating 
like Waves, and letting drop fome Parts like Sparks out of a Fire. 
I have been afiured, that there is no dark Night all the Year round, 
when they do not appear.. And in the very Middle of the Winter, 
when the Weather is very cold, and the Ground covered with Snow,, 
they arc obferved more frequently than in the hotteft Summer. The 
Gentleman who obliged me with an Account o^ t}^2X^t Bdgnara^ told 
me, that if I had a Mind to fee it my Ifelf, I might be fure of find- 
ing it if I went thither in very cold Weather,, and' in a (harp Froft., 
Nor doth cither Rain or Snow, in any wife prevent or hinder their 
Appearance; on the contrary, they are more frequently obferv- 
ed,. and ca(L a ftronger Light in rainy and wet Weather. This laft. 
Circumftance indeed hath been taken Notice of by fome Writers,. 
and among the reft, if I remember right, by the learned Gajfendi. 
Neither doth the Wind much hurt them, though one fhould think,, 
that if it was a burning Subftance,, like common Fire, it (hould either 
be diffipated in windy Weather, or extinguilhed by' Rain; But fince* 
they do not receive any Damage from wet Weather, and fiitce, on 
the other Hand, it hath never been obferved, that any thing was * 
thereby fet on Fire, though they muft needs in their moving to and 
fro, meet with a.gQod many combuilible Subftances, it may from 
thence be very reafonably inferred, that they have fome Refcmblance 
to that Sort of Phofphorus which doth indeed fhine in the dark^ but 
doth not burn any thing as common Fire doth. Nor is there any 
thing extraordinary in this, any more than in other fiery Appear- 
ances> which I am informed are likewife pretty common, and agree- 
with the Ignes Fatuu in having only the Splfendor and Appearance of 
Fire, without the Quality of Burning, but differ from them in a good 
many other Particulars. Such a Phaenomenon was obferved by a* 
noted Clergyman of this City, one Summer's Evening, near fome 
Country Peoples Houfes. The Flame feemed to him fo ftrong, that 
he called to them to put it out, for fear it (hould reach a Hay-loft, 
and a Heap of Hemp that lay not far from it; but when he came- 
to the very place where he had firft feen the Flame, he perceived 
that it was only an Appearance, obfcrving not the leaft Footftep of 
Fire, though he aflured me there lay a good deal of combuftible 
Stuff aJI thereabouts, which would have eafily took Fire, if there had^ 
been any thing of an aftual Flame upon the Spot. The fame Gen- 
tleman told me, that in a very dry Summer (I do not know whether 



ijo T^nis Fatuus. 

the fame with che foregoing) he obfcrvcd, in the Middle of fome 
other Fields of his own, for feveral Evenings together, a pretty con- 
fiderable Flame on the Ground^ nearly in the fame Place, and that 
having refol ved to go and take a nearer View of it the next Even- 
ing, it did not appear for that Time ; that, however, he went to the 
Place were he had before feen it, and fat himfelf down on the 
Ground, but could not obferve the leaft Mark of anv Fire or Flame 
having been in that Spot, nor feel any Heat in the Ground any more 
than in other Places ; only he faw fome flight Flames arifing out of 
the Ground hard by, which difappeared as foon as they came into 
the open Air. It is well known to People that travel on Horfeback 
at the Beginning of the Night, in the Heat of the Summer, when 
they traverfe the dry Beds of Rivers, and break with their Horfes 
Feet thofe fandy Grounds that have been all f)ay long ftrongly heat- 
ed by the Sun, there rife up fome bluifti Flames, which very often 
fright the Horfes. This Phaenomenon is moft common in thofe 
Places where the Water hath left behind a kind of a chalky Sedi- 
ment, «T fat Earth, which drying, afterwards forms a thick hard 
Cruft. So likewife if in the Heat of the Summer you travel in dark 
Nights, either on Horfeback, or on Foot, over the burnt-up Ground 
of fome Fields, you fhall fee Flames break out of the Ground almoft 
at every Step. AU thefc Fires and Flames have indeed the Light 
and Shining, but not the Burning Quality of J?ire, whether from the 
cxtream Smallnefs and Rarity of their Parts, as fome apprehend, or 
for fome other Reafon, I will not attempt to determine. And this 
is the only thing they have in common with the Ignes Fatui^ differing 
very much in other Refpefts, particularly in not appearing at au 
Seafons of the Year, and moft frequently in the Winter, as the o- 
thers do. Thus far, what I could learn concerning the IVtllwitb a 
SVifp^ as it hath been obfervcd in the Plains. As to the Appear- 
ance of this Phaenomenon in mountainous Parts, by what I have 
hitherto been able to learn, thev differ in nothing elfe but in Large- 
nefs; and all thofe I converfea with, that faw them in the Moun- 
tains, agree in that they never obfcrved any larger than the Flame of 
an ordinary Candle. Nor do thofe that live in the Mountains call 
them Cularfi^ which Name is perhaps ufed only by the Country Peo- 
f)le in the Plains for thofe large ones above defcribed. I will make it 
:my BuGnefs to enquire a little farther into this Matter, if perhaps the 
large ones are feen in the Plains only, and thofe in the Mountains are 
always fmall. The Difference of the Air, and that of the Soil may, 
for ought I know, contribute a sreat deal towards the different Size 
of thefe Appearances ; at leaft all that I can offer material at prefenr 
towards folving this particular Circumftance, with Regard to their 
Laiigenefs, is, that thofe Grounds, where we obferve the largeft 
Fires, as at Bagnaruy are what they here call ftrong Ground (terrem 
jS^Xii) being a hard chalky and clayey Soil, which wiU harbotn- the 
X Water 



r 




D7 

tier 



I^nis FatuMt. i^r 

Water a long while, and is afterwards, in hot Weather, very apt 
to break into large Cracks and Fiflfures ; whereas on the contrary, 
ch<Mre Soils in the Mountains, where they obferve the fmall Fires, 
are what they call foft, oxfwcet Ground (Jerrtm dolci) being generally 
fandy» and of a more loofe Contexture, which do not keep the Water 
fo long as the others. Of that Sort, alfo is the Soil in the above- 
mentioned Plains of Barifella^ where, about feven or eight Years 
fince, they obferved a good Number of the fmalleft Jgnes Fatui in the 
Fields, within the Compafs of about three Miles. One Thing I will 
beg Leave to add, that according to the beft Informations I have hi- 
therto been able to procure, theie Lights are great Friends to Brooks^ 
and Rivers, being frequently obferved along the Banks of them,. 
perhaps becaufe the Air carries them thither more eafily than any 
where elfe. In all other Particulars, as in theis Motion,^ the Manner 
of their Appearance, their difappearing fomedmes very fuddenly^. 
their Light, the Height they rife to, and their not being effcAed either 
by rainy or Cold Weather, they are the very fame with the Cularfi. 
above defaibed^ or the large WiU uiUb a Wbifp^ as obferved in xh/^. 
Plains. 

I intended here to have clofed this Account, but I cannot forbear 
adding the following Obfervation, which in my Opinion is very cu« 
lious and lingular. I am indebted for it to a young Gentleman, a 
very accurate and knowing Obferver of natural Appearances. Tra- 
velling fome time in March laft, between eight and nine in the Even^ 
ing, in a mountainous Road not far from our Lady del Surfi^ about 
ten Miles South of Bologna^ as he approached a certain River called 
Riaverdey he perceived a Light, which (hone very ftrongly upon 
fome Stones uiat lay upon the Banks. It feemed to be about two 
Foot above the Stones, and not far from the Water of the River: 
In Figure and Largenefs it had the Appearance of a Paralklopiped^ 
fomewhat above a Bohgnefe Foot in Length, and about half a F00& 
high, it's longeft Side lying parallel to the Horizon ; It's Light was 
very ftrong, infomuch that he could very plainly diflinguifh by it 
Part of a neighbouring Hedge, and the Water in the River ; only in 
the Eaft Corner of it the Light was pretty faint, and the fquare Ft- 
gure lefs perfedk, as if cut off, or darkened by the Segment of a Or- 
cle. The Gentleman's Curiofity tempted him to examine it a lirde 
nearer; in order to which he advanced gently towards the Place, but 
was furprized to find, that infenfibfy it changed from a bright Red 
(o a yellowifh, and then to a pale Colour, in Proportion as he drew, 
nearer, and that when he came to the Place itfelf, it was quite va- 
niihed. Upon this he ftepped back, and not only faw it again, but 
found that the farther he went from it, the ftronger and brighter it 
grew ; nor could he upon narrowly viewing the Place where this fiery 
Appearance was, perceive the leaft Blacknels, or Smell, or any Mark 
of an aftual Fire. The fame Obfervation was confirmed to me by 

another 



^52 Ignis Fatuus. 

another Gentleman, who frequently travels that Way, and who af- 
'fured nie, that he had feen the very fame Light five or fix different 
Times, in Spring and AutumHj and that he had always obferved it in 
the very fame Shape and the fame Place, which to me feems verv 
difficult to be accounted for. He told me farther, that once he took 
particular Notice of it's coming out of a neighbouring Place, and 
then fettling itfelf into the Figure above defcribed. How it comes to 
pafs, that the nearer one approaches to thefe, or the like fiery Ap- 
pearances, the fainter they grow, till at laft they difappeair totally^ 
I very freely own my felf at a Lofs, but yet I cannot help thinking, 
that there is fomething in it analogous to what we obferve in Fogs 
and Clouds, which at a Diftance have indeed the Appearance of very 
thick Bodies, but are found more -rare as one gets into them. Nor 
is it improbable, as they muft be fomething very thin and fubtle, 
that upon the Approadi of grofler fiodies with iheir Atmofpheres, 
they are adually driven away. 

This is the Subftance off what I havel^een able to gather from feve- 
veral Accounts relating to the Ignes Fatui ; but as to the Caufes ofthera 
I will not pretend to affign any: I will only add, that all that everfaw 
any of thefe fiery Appearances agree, and you may aflbre Mr Der- 
bam of it, that they caft a Light quite different from that of the,/&fji- 
ing Flies ; and if you pleafe to reflect on the feveral Circumftances 
above related, I believe you will find, that they are not eafily, if ac 
all, to be folved by that Hypothefis. I intend in another Letter to 
trouble you with fome Queftions, and likewife ibme Obfervations of 
my owiiOtiJbe/eFUes. 



BAROMETRUM. 



Oifervatimu m the Barmeter^ Thermmeter^ &c. 



153 




BAROMETRUM. 



Hie pono P0tdus Ath- 
mofphseraB incumbentis , 
in plamm pedis quadrati 
Rbenpldndiei^' vix\ut Ath- 
moil pondos 1^47 libras 
Amftdcdamcn^s pendet, 
qnasdo ^^ in barame- 
tro aldtudo eft ZTfell.n 
Bn* pendet 20Q4 ft. Amft. 
qnando altitacfo fuit ^ in 
baromctro 2^ fpiL 8 Hn* 
hxc enim fait jnaxima & 
mininui ^«i in barometro 
obfenracaaltitttdo intra pin- 
ret j«ni tnnot* 



Januar, 

Februar. 

Marda 

Aprili 

n£uo 

Junto 

JuUo 

Augufto 

Septemb. 

Oaobri 

Noveinb« 

Deccmb. 




Summa ^7f 
Medium 2048 



THERMOM. HYGROMETRUM. 



Hie calorem At 
mofphasras in loco 
obfervationis de* 
ftinavi ez rarefcen- 
te Aere ita at 
fammum frigua 
obfervatom fit nbi 
notabatur gradua 
1000^ aqna para 
gelafeeretadgrad. 
1070 9 ebuJiixet 
veto ad grad. 
1510. 



Menfuravi hie aquae 
copiam in Achmofpaera 
in loco obfervationis ; 
jaxta accrefcens decref- 
cenfve pondus fpongiae 
ad bilancem appen& > 
qaam Ipon^m prius 
Maria Salis Anunoniaci 
hume&veram* 




Qaantitas a- 
^aar» quae to- 
tius hujus an- 
ni dectirfu 
menfe quoli- 
bet ezhalave- 
raty in Aere 
aperto» & ven- 
tis perflato. 




Un. 

— 7 

— 14 

— 33 

— Z6 

— . 58 

— 57 

— 37 

— 39 

— 24 

— H 

— 15 

— .12 

— 9^7 

toto anno. 

2%poi, II //>. 



XLir. 

Ohfirvations 
on tbi middle 
Height of the 
Barometer^ 
the middle 
EievatUmoftbt 
Tbermmeier^ 
the imddle Va- 
riation of the 
iifgfvntetefp 
tGqnsntity 
ofRMUfDewi 
SnoWf Mnd 
Hail, the 
pumtitj of 
Wtter that 
has exhaliit 
the Height ^ 
the Water tM 
aWelh •tit 4 
which none 
was drawn 
for a whole 
rear, and tha 
monthly Van: 
ation of s 
Watch, hy 
Nicholaua 
Croquios, 
F. R.S.N«b 
381.pag.4- 



VOL. VI. PirtiK 



U 



Aqutfi 



*H 



OiJef^jMiMtm the BiTdmUtt TkeTmmenr» Ac 



Aquae Coftlo ^e]a|>re, 
niolinim 

Nivij, Grktidlbtfl)ae 
Altktodo ) 

Cu« enttti cura, ne tX- 
halacione, auc alio tno- 
do vel tmnimum pe- 
ricrit. 



Delpbis. 

— 17.^ 

— 55.1 

— 18.^ 

- :5-| 

-■ 3.* 

— ■ -gs-tf 

— 41.^ 

— 15'* 

— • 8.k 

— 5o-t 

— 30.6 

• 



kbemburgi. 

Hh. dec. 

-» 21.2 

— 23.8 

— - 28.. 

— 7-5 

^; 2.7 
-=- 4.8 

— Ti8.. 
— * 40.2 

— 14.B 

— 1 1.3 

■^ ^9-1 

— 40.- 

anno] 21 /^//. 



Aquse alcitudo 
puccalis, in pu- 
ceo, meniurata 
a fumtD6 ejus 
margine, ad a- 
qua; fimetfici- 
etfti in fine cu- 
jufi^Ue menfis. 
Fait vera put«i 
prdfttAditas ima 
iiA|iit ad fabu^ 
lum fcacuricns 
vel cuf fciis, nl* 
h\lq\kt aquss in-; 
de eduftum to- 
co bbfervationis 
cem^re. 



pid. pi. 



5 
A- 



ri 



5 



7 

iO 
i' 

3" 
7 
7 

2 



-^ fS : — 



Med. 8 />^</. 



I 



Obfenratio accelerati, 
yd recardad Carfus, in i 
Horoldgio portatili ac 
citratiffimo. 

Ut pAteat 
quoc ininuu» in quo- 
que Menfe, pluim vel 
p&ttctoni,- abfblvertc. 
riic (-J-) augmcMi, 
C4-; dect^menci noca 
eft. 

Ratio rebta ad SoKs 
decdi-fuitt. 



»— "t- 151 1|M». 

— -f- ar F«»r. 

-*• "r t€8 Mtr. 

*-• -T* t23 MaMk 

*-. -h iJ8 A^. 

*-- '+• 24 Sept. 

I— ^ 4i) Oft. 

:— -f* 252 Dec. 

-|-e66j & --631 



in quoque menf. 
so' accelerat. 



OkJirvHimM m the tiarmeTer, fhermmtt^t &c. 



«55 





1^ M eof , O •^ d ctH 


•H d col ^VD r^oo CK O «• d rtfil 


c 


d d d d 




d d d d 




d d df 


HMMMMDiddd 




c 


t^ iN^ r^r^ 




r^ r^ t^ rv 




.^-^^^1=^-^;^^ 




< 


M « M M 


I 


M M »-« M 




M M M 








00 0\ '^00 

eo CO -^ ^ 


4r 


^ 


^ O "^ *^ 


5/: 




^ CO 

5^ 


=^ "*"!!? r!*^*^c^ 


Its 

• • 


o 

M 


1^9 


It 


^ 


S( 


^ M M H*. 


a. 


eg COM Ci d >^ POc^d CI 


% 




. d 


« ♦ep »H^ 




^ ^ ^ *^ 




N. 4^ H* 




a, tS| M #r^ fv «V ^ ^ <*^ 01 


*i 


d 


S *^ 


«^ IV •( »V 




^^ c^ r^ C^ 




'^%& 






^ 


1 


•V •* 1*1 •¥ 


1 










, <y> ON O M^l *^ 


0\i "^ ^ O MD i **H 


o 


oo oo C\ ^ 


ir.i *AdoowodOooco*« 


•«|0 





d d CO t<r) 


•¥ 


d 


^oo o\ 0^ 


^ 


a^ 


op OO t^ >H' 


30 


hicodddd^iOco 


Klco 


Q 




i* 






^ 






«H 






<t 




^ 


op d t>s <V5 


£ 


o 


M O M H^ 


^ 


a\ 


ON •^ In* 
cj 9^ ts. 


K 


d 


^*.Ma\M^vno•^►t 


5; 


DO 


^ 


or> eo CO ^ 


^ 


^ 


OsO o o 


<*^ 


o% 


i* 


DO 


"^ d d d d d CO d cr. 


d 




H» 




H4 M- N^ 


^ 






*\ 






<1 




i^ 


d a\Vfj 


* 


o> 


t^ O frv « 


^ 


^ 


VOVp M 


<^ 


^ 


C)0 *0 CO ^ ft M^ V> 


«v ^ 


1*- T|-l^^ 


«^ 


^ 


O »-l M CJ 


*. 


M 


fj'- 


<t 


CO 


(So 


•^1 




M M M M %j 


•^ 






<tN 





c < 

c 

u 

u 

7! 



S,i^« 



§jsr 






O CO O ^\t^ 
VO ^ vo vn «(tv 



2; oo ^ CO ^ 



3i «n i-«\o ^ 

^ ift CO ^ 



o^ 



2 c' <o u^ coi *c 

^ ^ ^ S^ 

j; CO d '^ *n 



\0 0\ MVO 
CO d ^ ^ 



M CO »ri d •*• 
d CO CO cTj n 



^oo d Q « 
3 CO ^ '^ '^ 



t] xh coco d' 

^ -IN M M M 



^ d CO CO ^ 

^ M >H !■< M 



^:xi 



d M d d 

■«H IH M <^ M 

d d ON ON 
O M o Oi 



fet 



d 



se o •-* 



5 03 oo o 

^sovovo 

a; 

CO COOO 












^ 



'^ 



co^d iHd '^dd H» 



d Ovoo t>^ Tf- ifi M CO d 
^voMddcou^^u>4 



;^ ifioo ON UN d CO in Oh Oi^ 
QO\^0lCO»*Cihi^df 



^ d t^l tr 



;5 o^d rv 



' O CO O 

OO VO ^ 



o 

CO 



o 



oo 

CO 



uj oo '^oo r-% ^ Q ^ « c^ 
** d *^ d CO d 

d CO *^ d tn d 



5J t^ 



00 



c 
c 



ooNO d Vi 

CO CO CO CO *% 



CO ^ ih ^>i| 



• ^ d VO *-♦ 
|0 ^ ^ ^^u% 

O *< d CO 
d d d c^ 
rv t>^ r^ t>^ 



Hi 



CO 



\o \n tN. d ^^ 
o« ^%o\0 *< 

oo X^ CNOO ^^ 



^. ^N O onvo 
»«h3 oo CN r>» t^ 



S o 



if 



oo 



O M d CO 
d d d d 



covo O 
t%rs.oo 






d vn 

00 oo 00 




rJ 
^ 


. ONOO M 

-^ oo oo CO 

^ M d CO 
d d d 

M M M 




■O 

X) 


< 


*r 



VO -^ onvo O •*• IV ^r> on 
co»HCi iHdddM^ 



O O V^op O ^ >H o 
ddMMMcicod 



O d 

fO 01 CO CO CI 



^ « 0\ M w coVO 
^i ^* *^ 



v>vo «s^o© On O « d 
M>i4MHiMddd 



00 



^ 

•¥ 

i 



d 



d 



W 2 



t5« 



Obfervations on the Bar meter. Thermometer, &c. 



C) 

^ 



O "H N CO 

e5 N N N 
r^ i-^ r^ i-^ 

l-l M M M 




*^ ON '^ (5p 


ir> 


O Tt- •-< M K. 
ro CO CO <S "^ 


ON 


fv K ^ *l 

*fv ^ ^ «\ 





;0 "^ C^ CO 

CI c< ci ca ' 

1^ !>. r^ r-H 

tmi ^^ ^ r^ 



^ O O O oo 

<^CO CO ^ c^ 

N. >^ >«^ <* 
ifN ^'K r^ ^f^ 



O «-« c^ ^^ 
C? C^ N N 

r>H r^ r>. rv, 



« eo| 



CO M 



*^ ,. .. •• « 



^ ^ ^ "^^ 






St 



1 1 

1% 






OS c« M O 

CO CO « CO 

O « O « 



<^ CO 



•& 



vn cj c< M 



op IV -^ O 



5 ^ ^j-vo 

3 



$ 






M O CO « , 

>H M M IM 1 <|C 



O c< CO Vi § 

M d "^ •H j'C! 

O O '^ v^^ 

CO CI *H M ' ^ 






vfi 



& O r-. ^ -t 

C u> oj CO d 

I 

g in ^ u> CO ^ 



U-j ^VO CO 



-^ M d « 
ft* 

OSIAOO CO 
C* CO CI 

xf- ON ONt^ 

d ^n d 



On 



•I 
is 

^^ Th r>* xhoo 

U^ "^00 vo 

d ^ d CO 



^Ico 



OO vo CO CO 

• • «• ** **( 

M CO Onoo 

vo vo t^ o\ 



OO 






No 
in 






vn 








■¥ 


CO r^ ^ ^ 


* 


00 tN» r^ On 


its 


OnO t>. 


M 


** 






ONt^r^ ON 


* 




*rv 


•H M ^ 




- •• .. .. 


f^ 


oooooo o^ 


5; 



CO 
OO 



^£) d 
•^ to 
cj d 



4-h-l- 



^ d 

00 



Op I ON 

r>. CO 

* d 



t-H- 



I 



§ 



OO 



00 rxt^ o^ 
vo ts. O M 



Of vo invo 00 

ts. d M o 

M 
• • ■• •• •• 

VO xhvo vo 



00 
ON 



U^ 



00 CO 

at ON a 

^ <» c 

% -I- 1 



I 






■H- 

o\ 

I- 



^ 



I 






S^oo A 
:a -I- -I 

i>n "^ 

cr; 



IN \ 
O 

i 

On 












rooo r»^oo !>^ 
r* d d d j ft^ 



vo ON O -* ^ 

w d d d ^op 



in M CO JH ^ 

-• CO d d lip 



O M. d> po 
d d d d 
r^ r>* r^ IN. 



;§ 



O vn O CO 
»H M d en 


do 


o 

d 


O O^t^ ^ 


% 


O 


o 00 vnt^ 

^4 


Q 

^ 


00 
91 


O. M d eo 
d d d d 

•H »H ^ « 







^VO M *^ 

VO ^ vn u^ 
covo tv. 1^ 

vo in »o ^ 

^ vo ir^VO L^ 

O M d CO 
d d d c» 
t^ t^ t-N r^ 



l4^ 



OO 



■I- -I «. 

ON "^h* 

•!• + 



I-- 



•1- 



d CO 
d d 
1^ l^ 



i 
^ 

«: 

A 



'fa/'f//,t\ . . • /• • ■ 

, , It i/^iur/u 17 3 J Jtf//ff Vf-tert cii^ttij^ 







T^mi/ru, ti^tfam Mi/nhu i^/a%€Mm. 



An Experiment &c. 157 

XLIII. I took three pound of Mercury^ which by meafure filled ^» Experi- 
three times a fmall glals Jar exafily fulJ, and poured it into a thin ^^* ^^^^ ^^ 
Florence Flalk : then having poured the fame quantity <>f Water -{[^j^^^^ 
fthat is, three of the fame Jars full) into another fuch FJa(k, I 30, 1720, /# 
iet both the Flaflcs, in a Pail, and poured boiling Water about them, prove that Bq^ 
keepipg the Flalk that had the Warer down by Force that it might f*^ ^^f^ * 
be as low in the hot Water as the Mercury. After the Fluids inf^Tri^lL t 
the Flafks had received a fufficient degree of Heat from the Water, qual quanUtiei 
which was round the Flaiks, for the Space of five Minutes, I took of Matter, and 
the Flafks out of the hot Water, and putting that which held the ^^""^f ' ^^^ 
Water into a Cylindric Vcflcl, that had three Pints of cold Water \^l^cavt 
in it, I did at the fame time plunge the Flafk with Mercury into ano- cuum; ^ the 
ther Cylindric VelTel containing alfo three pints of cold Water, and ^^ J-T.Do« 
bbferved which of the cold Waters was moft heated in the following ^i?"^^" ,-^ 
manner. -^- p g^ 

A little Thermometer being held in die firft Veflfel of cold Wa- 
ter, fo as to have it's Ball covered with the Waters, upon the putting 
in the Fiaik of warm Water, the foirit rofe two degrees.; then put- 
ting the Thermometer into the Water where the Flafk that had 
the Mercury was, the Spirit rofe three degrees higher. The Ther- 
mometer being again put into the firft VefTel fell four degrees, and 
afterwards again into the laft it arofe almofl three degrees; 

This fhews that more heat is communicated by warm Mercury 
than by an equal Bulk of Water equally waimed ; and therefore 
that there is more Matter in the Mercury *,. but how much more 
Matter there is in the Mercury is not determined by this Experiment 
alone. 

N. B. The warm Mercury and the warm Water were not poured 
into the cold$ but only communicated their Heat through the Flafks^ 

XLIV. I . The incomparable Sir Ifaae Newton has not only Ihortened Jn Atmntef 
the Geometrician's Work, by his wonderful Difcovcries in abftraft ^^^* '«''/«• 
Mathematics 5 but has alfo taught us, bv his owo Praftice,. how statici?^^^ 
to make, and judge of. Experiments and Obfervations with the ut- a/t Actount of 
moft Accuracy: And as he avoided making Hypothefes; he wasy^/^^Statica 
fo cautious as to dclivier only by way of Queries, fevcral Truths Exj^rimcnt* 
whkh he wa3 coftvioced of ; becaufe he wanted a fufficient Numbc» y^^^^^^ 
of Experimenu to make them as. evident as thofe others, whereby he SeinganEffsiy 
has fo far improved and advanced Natural Knowledge. Our A\y fowanis ^Na^ 
tbor has followed his fleps, alTerting nothing but what is evidently tuwlHifi©iy 
deduced from thofe Experiments, which he has carefully made, and ^j/fi^^^lpu!^ 
faithfully related ; given an exafb Account of the Weigh{s, Mea^ menQfanhC 
fure$, Pov^ers ahd-Y^kcicies,. and other Circuraftances of the Thikigs tempt to ana- 
he obfervcd ; with fo plain a Defcription of his Apparatus^ and maa- ^^'^^Air, fy^ 
ner of making every Experiment and Obfervation, that as his Confe- ^yifChymk^ 
quen^es aifc juftly and eafily drawn, fo his Premifes or FaAs may be Statical IQcgc- 

judgpd 



i3« An Accauftt of a Bdok mthukd Vegetable Statics. 

f iments; wbicb judged of by any Bpdy that will be at the Pains Co make Experiments^' 
mre read at w^ich are moft of them very eafy and fimple* j 

^r'^^btfir%i ^^^ Accouac of every Thing is written in fach an intelb'gibfe I 

^yal Society! "lanner, that the inquifitive Reader as capable of underftanding ic, 
&r. Bj Ste- ' wiciiouc being puzzled with perplexed Calcolationa and complex £k^ 
phen Hales, periments ; which Authors have fometimcs contrived » in order to be 
f ^n A- ^ ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^it Things, which they theoifelves found out either by i 

tount h *hi "^''^ chance, or with very little Labour. He has illuftratcd, and 
j^fc/.j.T.Defa- putpaft all Doubt, feveral Tmdts mentioned \ji^\Tlfaac NewtonH 
galier3,LL.D. Queries ; which though believed by ibsie of our Eminent Phtlofo* 
R.S.S. N«. phcrs, were called in queftion by others of an inferior Clafs, who 
264. ^and ^"^^^ '^^ acquainted with thofe Fads and Experiments upon which 
N*. 399. jwg^&r Ifaac Niwttm\izd built thofe Queries. 

923. Chap. 1. Enpirimentu fiuwhig Ae ^aniUj. of Mukjtun iaiSbei oMd 

perfpired by Plants and Trees. 

II. Experiments whereby to jimi the Ftrce Vfkb which I'rees 

imtibc Mmfture. 

III. Expmmenis^ fiewixg the Fsree if the Mife of the Sap ai 

theVine^ iM the Bleeding Seafon. 

IV. Experimeuts^ fiemng the reaHh lateral Motion of the Sap^ 

sxd confequently S^e latere Commumcatiem if the &ap- 
Veffds: The free «P«^ •f it from the fmaU Branches io^ 
wards the Stem^ as wSl as from the Stem to the Branches. 
With am Acconut of fame Experiments relating to the Gr^ 
eulationy or Non-Cireniation of the Si^ 
y. Experiments^ wherehy /» jrM^ tha u groat ^jtantity of 

Air is infpired by Plants. 
yi. A specimen cfan Attempt to attaipie the Air^ hy a great 
Variety of Chynuo-Staticai Enpenmonti, which Jhew^ i$^ 
how great a proportim Air is wronght into the Compofi^ 
fion^Ammalj VegetMcj 4ini Mmered SeebfUmces \ ani 
withal bow readily it flumes ifs former dt^ StntOf 
whentntbeDifotiaimo of thofs Sttbftamceo it io dofingttgeJt 
from them. 
Vn. Of Vegetation. Our Author in this Cb«pter appltes his 
feveral Experiments, and Oonckifions <Sranw«i fironi them, to Vegeta- 
tion ; and (hews diiefly the following Things, viz. Thac Vegetables' 
are oompofed of Sulphur, volatile Sarlt, Water, Earth and Air. 

Thatm NutritiM, tke Sum of the attrafting Powers «f thofe Subfttn- 
ces is Superior to the Sum ijt the repellent ; and as the watery Vehicle 
flies off, the Paris harden. 

Tliat Oil, winch is made up of Sulphur and Air, aboaods in Seeds 
for their better prefervation. 

That in cold Countries, where thofe Prindf^ are not ib firmly 
tAited, fmall Wines, fuch as Rbonifi^ moft eafily yield their Tartar 
^^which by Experiments appears to conuin Oil and Air ;) but gene- 
rous 



Jb^ Account $fd Bwk fntituUd, ObTcr^tioncs Krcteororogtde;. vf9^ 
^ root Wioei, fuch as Maderc^^ having thofc Principles more firniJy 
Qoicedi will bear % great degree of Heat before they part with, 
them. 

That the ufe of the Leases of Trees is to bring up Nourifhment 
Within reach of the Attra&ion of the Fruit, to carry off the redun- 
dant watery Fluid ; to imbibe Rains and Dews which are impregnated 
with Salt and Sulphur ; as likcwife to imbibe Air, and to be of the 
fiune ufe to Plants as the Lungs are to AnimalB. 

That Planes which are overfliaded^ or too replete with Moifture^ 
eannot fo weU imbibe Air : Therefore, though they will ihooc out 
bSt^ and have much Wood, they will be more barren in proportion* 

Mr H^ks^ by a. very irigenious Coocriyance, found the Degrees 
of growing in every part of young Shoots, which in their growing, 
citend chemfelv<8 moft.in the middle^, and leaft towards the top and 
the bottom \ the dudbile Matter Sot their growth being drawn out ixk 
length like melted Glaf)-Tubcs, which retain a UoUownefs, thougb. 
dmwn out to the fmalieft Thread. N«B. In fme Animals there is 
fucb a tough dulKl^ ^Mhfimce^ wbkb bar dins iwben ftnpifidi$ tbijSst i»c 
fmalL, Threads^ as in Spiders' and SUk-Wfstm. 

He fliew<^ dMt the Pith ib^vts to fuppJy the dilating Moifture for 
the tender Shoots , but that their Figure may be obloag, and not: 
MMnd, As^ die Fnik commonly is, thefe are tMgh Diaphragms in^ 
the E^tfa at iteall diftance from each other, whkih check rbc hte^ 
tal Ej^AfiGoQi as Alfo borizontal Fibnosi; wihk:h fenre foBtbeiameMr-^ 
pofe,: And of she fiynt ibrt is thci Pith ta the large growing; Fea« 
tbeia of fiilds \ which is made up of Veficles that cao be diaendedi 
lengchwifei bM have Sphin6tert. at the ends, to preveoc coo large- 

a ktiertl Dihtati0o> ^ ■ ■■ Thac che SBones cT Animals do nor 

Mww at the Jfoiitts (^rtiiidi Would {mvtnt thdr free Motions) but u 
the Sytnpbjfis^ viz. where the Heads join to the Shanks df the Bmea^ 
■ ■ r i » ■ TJhet Ifcere arc ptrucahtt^Vief^ in Vemtabies^ ui widK as; 
Animik, tppropririted fof^iooteying different wiib of Nutriment % 
attd cifttt wtere a vifkkl Sttbftaoce is to be fitmUied, the VefldsaYe 
ki^hcatd, «ndolt(si foGthacoetipaTsco retard the Velocity of the- 
flMri^ w^i&h( is toibe io^ilhsed IMO aa.baixl Suhftaoce. Thin ia 
hard SMaetdFtakb th$ ^Uiohilkal YidTel goes ticoad the Owcave of^ 
the Stone» and then enters the Kernel near it'r Cone. 

At Utft^ ^mr Author tcates the Vegeeaaion of a £bnt, from a Seed) 
so a Tree ag^ili produciag Seed \ for whaok Account, asit cannoC; 
well be loMtisiAtdt w« ouft refer to the Aiithor'sidwn Woids. 

H. The Aatho^ aAer dcdtcatil^ his Trafin to the Royai Society^ M J^emttyfj 
mftntt a De{cbipdeB of the particular Son of iBaronwter, ^Ehermome^ ^ f ^^/'^T. 
Ser^-Hfgcoiiiofier, andHy«t«sieter, which fae made ufe ofmdiefobfe^ def Wdd"^' 
^ww <abferv4tians:. "Zhefiift of ehefib ia a Dtaiy of *the. WeatheMeriobfervA^ 
i»aa the VeMal Bauksoi^of the Year £7i£> to that ttf the Year tiones Me- 
xy^Q \ conuining ue daily Stale i9f xhe fiaroneter^. Xheiwometer, teorologLc»? 
^ ^ Windi 



i6o An Accottrttofa Beck intituled Obfervationes Meteorologies^ 
& Aftrono- Wind and Weather, together with the Quantity of Rain during that 
micas. Anno- Ximc. To this he annexes feme felcft Meteorological and Aftrono* 
'vtzqJ&c. ^Jc^l Obfervations, which he defcribes more at large. 
Wittcmbcr- . The firft he takes Notice of is a remarkable Halo round the Moon, 
gae. Anno on February 20, 1728, at forty-five Minutes paft Seven in the Even- 
1729. N*. ii^g^ when the Moon was not far diftant from the Meridian, and a« 
4^2. pag. ^^^ 1^^^ g^jj Quarter. The Diameter of the Hah occupied about 
47 Degrees, being extended from C in Procyon to Capdfa towards 
^e Weft. It's Arch was 4 i Deg. broad, as far, for Inftance, as 
* and C in Procyon are from each other. Within it was red, and 
towards the Extremity was pale ; exhibiting entire a beautiful Spefta- 
cle for about four Minutes, but he did not know when it began. Be- 
fore it difperfed, foroe thin white Clouds began to pafs over it tran- 
Overfly, and then it was broke towards the Weft, the Rednefs of the 
difperfing Vapours greatly encreafing: After which the Sky became 
clear again. The fame Day at Noon, he oblerved thirteen Spots on 
the Sun, the largeft equalling A of the Sun's Diameter j and the 
Spirit fell to 90 Degrees of the Engli/b Thermometer. 
jipril 4, 1728, he obferved an Aurora Borealis. 
On Juni 20, another, which is defcribed in the ji£l, Emdit. Upf. 
Ann. 1728. p. 375. 

October 7, a very remarkable one appeared in the N. E. A fnUe 
Arcb^ extended between the W. and N. E. quickly aflumed a black 
Colour, and then divided into three other concentrical Arches equal- 
ly black. From thefe fome Radiations arofe as ufual, but (horter. 
A litde afterwards thefe likewife ces^fed and the black Arches were 
converted into luminous Tra&s, only one remained till eleven 
o'clock: And whereas atflrft the lowermoft Arch was raifcd fevcn 
Degrees above the Horizon, it was now deprefled towards it, bdng 
fcarcdly two Degrees above it. 

The Author next proceeds, and gives fourteen Aftronomical Ob* 
iervations, ten of which are of the Eclipfes of Jupiter's Saul&tes at 
different Times. In making thefe he was guided by CaJJim'% Tables 
for the Meridian of Paris^ and by compring the Time when they 
ihould happen, as therein fpecified, with the Time he obferved them 
zt Wiitemherg^ he colleds die Difference of Meridians of that City 
and Paris to be 41 Minutes. 

The eighth Obfervation contains his Calculus for the total EcHpfe 
of the Moon which happened February 13, 1729, N. S. but the Hea- 
vens being very cloudy, he could not obferve the Eclipfe itfelf. 

The ninth is an Obfervation of Mercury^ March 4, 1729 ; at which 
Time the Planet was fartheft from the Sun, and remained lome Time 
above the Horizon. Making ufe therfore of a twenty-two Fooc 
Telefcope, be obferved it's Phafe almoft bifleAed, and it's Diameter 
appeared equal to a third part of the Diameter of yenus^ this Planet 
being above the Horizon, and feen at the lame Time. 

The 



An Aeeount of a Book intituled^ Obfervationes Mcteorologicx. 1 6 1 

The thirteen^ is a Conjun&idn of Venus and the Moon, viz. A- 
frU 2, 1729* At 7 K 13^ he obferved Venus placed in fuch man- 
ner near the Mocui, that the Horns of the Moon were in the fame 
right I«ine with Venus^ which was then diftant from the Southern 
Cufp of the Moon i Deg. 10'. At 7 K 30'. he meafured the Di- 
ftance of Venus from the Eaftem Cufp of the Pleiades to be 2 Deg. 
15 \ and the Horn of the Moon at the lame Time was. diflant from 
the fame Cufp i Deg. 53 ^ 45'' ; the intermediate Diftance of the 
Horns of the Moon was 29' 30 '^ 

His laft Qbfervation is on the* Declination of the MagneticaF 
Needle in this and the former Year, which he defines to be 12 Deg. 
o' 55'' Weft at IVittemherg^ at this Time. , : . \ 

Thefe Obfervations are followed by the Authcx**s Account of the 
laft hard Winter, This fee in fooner than ufual^ the Rivers being 
frozen the 19th of September^ thoueh thiey ufed not to^-befo. till the. 
Winter Solfiice^ and th^ Spirit of Wiae in the Rn^ifli Thermometer, 
on September 21, fell to the 66th Degree: At which Time a N. £. 
Wind blew very ftrong. ; Afterwards, on October 3^ the Spirit fell to 
72 Deg. and the Ice was half an Inch thick on ftanding . Watetis in 
the Fields^ fo that even then it might be judgedt that .the Cold 
would be more fevere than is ufual in thdr Parts. Froni this Time 
the Froft did not at all abate, but contiuued much in the fame State 
the Month of Offober^ except on the 20th Day, aftef a S; W. Wind 
had blowed pretty hard for fome Days^ the Cold was obferved to - 
encreafe remarkably. The Beginning, of November :a ftrong Eaft * 
Wind continuing to blow for fix Days, the Spirit funk to 86 Deg. on 
the 5th, and the Ice was much thicker. On the 28th it fell to 96 
Deg. after which they had no Rain* but all Vapours were congealed 
into Ice and Hoac. On December the 2d, the Spirit of Wine ftood 
at 96 Deg. Jbut.on.the 4ih'at 99 Deg. ib that it not a little exceeded 
the Limit of intenfe Cold. Hence a S. W. Wind Intervening now . 
and then, the Cold feemed toabatea litde; but that, and fometiroes 
a N. E. Wind blowing ftronger on the 21 ft, 22d, and 23d Days, » 
it fo prepared the Air, that on Cbrifimas Day the Spirit in the Ther- 
mometer ftood at ^6 Deg. and the Cold was intenfe^ Hence the 
Winter greif immediately more fevere. . The Wind almoft always 
blew from the E. or N. lb that on January 20, the Cold was almoft 
intolerable, on which Day the Spirit defcended to the 1 26th Deg. 
very little remaining above the Ball of the Tube > and this was the 
greateft Degree of Cold at IVutemberg. After, this the Winter fome- 
what declined, A S. W. Wind blew freCb. fometimesj but after- 
wards a N. and E. Wind reftored the Cold on February 3, when the . 
Spirit ftood again at 86 Degi On the 4th it fell to 95 Deg. and 
from this Time, barring a few Days, always in a Morning it reci- 
procated beitween 80 Deg. and loo Deg. to Mar^b the 8 th, on • 
which it exceeded 106 Deg..vid on the 9th it was forced down by a . 
VPUVL Partii- X N. E 



2 62 An Account of a Book intituled OhCctvitioncs MetcoiDlogics^ 

N. £• Wind to no Des. Boc akhoo^ tbte Spriog wak at Hand» 
ytt the Severity of the Weather did not oeafe, as appears in that the 
Spixic of Wine^ in the Englijb Thermometer^ in. a Morning alimys 
ftoodac, or under the 8oth De^ of the Thermolcopic Scale; nay, 
even on^ March the 2ift^ on which Da^ithe Equinox preciMy fell; 
it, was a^8 1 -Deg. At length, oa the laft Day of Marcb^ die Wea*- 
therigreW' milder, froni whence tmy be^akeni the true Beguming of 
the Sprmg ; not but that all April was much colder than ufuaL 

Thus far from Thermofcopical Obfervations. After this, the cu* 

rious Obierver proceeds to fhew it's Severity from fome of the more 

remarkable Effefts the Cold hadon the Rivers, Plants, and Animals. 

As to the firft, he fays, that the. Elbe^ both at Wittimierg and othei 

Places, was covered on December 29, with a perfed Bridge of Ice, 

which bore both Men and all Sorts of Carriages. This remained till 

February 28^ when it grew thinner, and .broke confiderably ; but the 

Cold returning on March 8, it re-united, and was as firm as before, 

till March 29. The Water wi(;hin the Houles^ and in the Bed-cham^ 

bers, where were good Fires, was wholly congealed and the Rind 

within on thie Windows ftuck for .many Days, when this Wind wa![ 

either £. or N« though the Rpom wai welt warmcdi Emmples of 

the other Kinds were feveral. Many Ferfons perilhed in their Jour* 

nies, and more loft their Limbi in a very fhort Time: So that near 

the £/^^ they cofild not work abroad. It killed alfo many Animals. 

immediately. The Crows, which^ can bear intenfe Cold, fell dead 

from the Treei: Stags, Goats, and Hj^res, perifhed in great Numbers.* 

The Plants likewife felt it's Violence^ and the more tender Treea^ 

were damaged. The Lim^s were every whene injured The greater' 

Branches of the Plumb* trees, A pricocks, and Peaches, were dried 

u^( but the Vines fuSered moft^ the morerobuft being, fhriveled 

to the very Ibweft part of their T.rurik,vUnlefs guarded by a WiiU, or* 

foltne other Covering. : 

•From thefe Obfervations the Author compares this Winter with 
the memorable one' of 1709, and proves both from Thermofcopical 
Obfervadons i from it's E^sdts upon the Earth .and Anima;ls; from 
it's longer Continuance, and from the greater Extent of the Cold io. 
to the more Southern Parts, that this laft much exceeded the^lbrmier, 
at leaft in Germany. * 

Having thus finiffaed the Hiftpry, he laftly enquires intOr thepro^ 
baUe Caufesof it. He takes Notice, that the Winter foregoing was 
moderately cold' and dry ; and as a cold Summer fucceeded, and a« 
like dry, in which the North Winds blew moft frequently, and 
during'thehotteft Months of July and Auguft the Sky was coveted 
with dark and black Clouds^ the Earth was{)repared f€» Fro(t; to 
which the remarkable Drinefs of the Seafon did not< conmbuce a 
litde^ as Barometrical Experiments fheWy that a dry Air cools foo- 
ner than a moift^ and is both heavier^ and-^ retains bbld longer;- 
I A . .1 .: Ntiiher 



An AccMMt dfaMdcbme fit mafrnt^ Deftbs^ &c; i6| 

Keiiher does be think ic altogether foreign to Trudi, to reckon ther 
remarkable Frequency of the Aurora BoreaUs to be a Prelaj^e of « 
colder Winter than ordinary^ which has been obferved to be rollowed 
by cool and ferene AVeather: As alfo the unufual Number and Large* 
nefs of the Spots on theSuifs Difk, for alnx)ft two Years together $ 
by which Means, in fuch a li^gth of Time, the Force of it's Rayii 
might be obftrudbed in fome Degree,* and the colder Winds' thereby 
have Liberty to prevail. The Air by thcfe concurrent Caufes being 
rendered very cold, the Encrcafe, and extreme Degree of it pro- 
ceeded from the great Cloudinefs of the Sky ; and the blowing of the 
N. E. or C Wind fo remarkably obfervable for the moft part <^ the 
Froft. 



CHAP. II. 
HYEXROLOGY. 

I. TpHere have been feveral Machines contrived for meafuring the jf„ jcccuntcf 
X different Depths of the Sea, efpecially fuch as could not be a Machine for 
determined by the Lead and Line ; but as thofe Machines confided meafwring any 
of two Bodies ( the one fpecilically lighter, and die other fpccifically Jj^^jjf ' 
heavier than Water) fo joined together, that as foon as the heavy ont gr^dt^Exfedi- 
came to the Bottom, die lighter fhould get loofe from it, zxid tian and Cet- 
emerge 5 and the Depth was to be eftimated by the Time of the Fall '^'^9* fi^^ 
of die compound Body from the Top to the Bottom of the Water, J^f' W^" 
together with the Time of the Emerfion of the lighter Body, reckon- DeJagiSSos* 
ed from the difappearing of the Machine, till the emergent Body L. L. D. and 
was fecn again, na certain Ccxifequence could be drawn from fo pre- ^'.^'f:'^?' 
carious and complex an Experiment. ^R^ Mr Stc- 

For even in ftill Water, and in the fame Place, the Time will phcn Hales," 
hardly be the fame in two Experiments^ Much lefs will this Machine PR- s. and 
anfwer in the Sea, on Account of Waves and Currents, and many ^J^fi^f- 
other Hindrances. mg^7g 

But as the Prefliire of Fluids in all Direftions is always the feme at 
thefitme Depth, a Gage which exa£Uy difcovers what the Preffure is 
at the Bottom of the Sea, will fhew what is the true Depth of the 
Sea in that Ptece, whether the Time of the Defcent of the Machine 
be but a Minottor two, or twenty Times as long. 

The Reverend Mr Hales^ in his Vegttabli Stattes^ defcribes hts 
Gage for^eftimatingthe Preflure made in opake Veflels; where Ho- 
ney being poured over the Surface of Mercury in an open Veflel,' 
flies 4]pon «e Surface of the Mercury as it is prefled up into a Tube 

X 2 whofe 



1 64 An- AcaiuM of a Mathk^ f9f mi^flifing '^ny Depths ^ &c 

whofe lower Orifice is imnieifed into Itbe Hooey! aiid Mercuiy, ixki. 
whofc Top is herinetically fealed. Now as, by the PrcflTure, the 
Air in the Tube is condenfed, and the Mjcrcury rifesy fo the Mercury 
comes down agaio when the Prefliure is taken off, and would leave 
90 Mark of the Height to which \v teul nfen ; but the Honey ( or 
Treacle, which does be;tter j; which is upOa the Mefcpry, fticking to 
the Infide of ti]re Tube, leaves a Mark, which ihews the Height to 
which the Mercury had rifen, and confequencly makes appear what 
was the greateft Prcffure. 

My Contrivance therefore is a Machine which will carry down 
Tig. 26. Mr HaW% Gage to the. Bottom of the Sea, and immediately bring it 
up again. 

A B, is the Gage Bottle. 

F/, the Gage Tube cemented to the Brafs Cap of the Bottle at G, 
with it's open End/immerfed in the Mercury C, which by the Pref- 
furc of 32 Foot of Water is carried up to d with a little Treacle or 
Honey d upon it, raifed up from D, a fmall Thicknefs of Treacle 
poured on upon the Mercury. 

When the Prcffure of Water is from a Depth of 64 Foot, the 
Mercury and Treacle rife up to E, f of the Height of the Tube 5 and 
fo higher proportionably to the Depth. 

N. B. il Scale may be marked on the Tube wiib a Diamond. 

K, is a Weight hanging by it's Shank I^ in a Socket m^ fixed to 
the Ring M B cemented at the Bottom of the Bottle. When the 
Hole L of the Shank is (hoved up to m, the Catch / of the Spring 
S holds it from falling out of the Socket, whilft the Machine is de- 
fcending. Bat as foon as K touches the Ground at the Bottom of 
the Sea, the Hole L rifing, the Catch flies back and lets go the 
Weight, as {it is feen in the. Figure. Then the empty Glafs Ball I 
(which at Sea may be a Hog's Bladder^ rifes up to the Surface of the. 
Water with the Machine, in which obferving how high the InGde 
of the Tube is daubed, the Preflure, and confequently the Depth, of 
the Sea, is known. 

H G, is a Brafs Tube to guard the Top of the Gage Tube. 

There are Holes at F, G and E, to admk the Water to paft freely 
every where. ^ . , 

' To confirm the Ufe of this Sea.Gage, fhewn before to the So* 
ciety, I made another Experimefit in the following Maiden Ha« 
vjng poured fome Quickdlver into the JBottle of the Gage, I poured 
upon it Treacle to the Depth of half an Inch, then fcrewed. on the 
Brafs Cap of the Bottle to which the Glafs Gag^Tub>e was cen^afed ; 
by which Means the open. End of the Tube was broi^ht tinder the 
Surface of the Mercury, the fealed Eqd being, upwards. The Ma- 
chine, thus fitted, was immerfed in a cyhndric Yeflel of Water^ 
which with a Plate at Top was preffed between 1 two Pillafs, in fuch 
Manner that Air might be condenfed Qver the Water without efca* 

ping 



Of the Tijhig Md falling of footer. i6y 

ping. ' Then having forced in fo much Air with a Svringe, as to lay 
on a Preflure equal to what would be in a Depth of 40 Foot of Wa« 
ter» I opened the Cock of the upper Plate, let out the Air, and, 
upon taking out the Machine, it appeared how high the Quickfilver 
had rifen in the Gage-Tube, by the greafy Mark which the Treacle 
left within. 

II. Hero Alexandrinus^ and other Hydraulic Writers, have defcri- ji^ Attempt 
bed a Cup (called a Tantalus^ from k*s EffedJ which will hold any /« Accmufir 
Liquor very well, when it is not filled above a certain Height roar- the rifingand^ 
ked in the Cup; but if it be filled higher, not only the Liquor above-^^^*^ "iffomi 
the Mark will run out, but the whole Liquor that was. in the Cup^ Ponds near ^ 
This is performed by a Syphon in the Cup. which is ibmetimes con* Sea, or ebbing 
oealed to make the Effcft the more furprizing. and flowing 

The Cup, AB (Fig. 27.) has a vifible Syphon CED in it; the J^JJ/i^^^f' 
Cup, {Fig. 28 J has the fame, concealed by the Figure of a ^^n^imeflin tb§ 
to reprefent tantalus in the Fable \ and the Cup of ( Ftg. 29. ) has Pond, at the 
it's Syphon more concealed, as it is carried up into the Handle; Any^ ^ of high 
of thefe Cups will hold Water very well, provided they are not ^^^^ZTo^Rilo^'. 
up above the Line F G; for then not only the Liquor that is ^hovc and bigbeft in 
FG wiU run out, but all the Liquor in the Cup as low as D, the the Pond, at 
Orifice of the fliort Leg of the Syphon* '*' ^' ^f 

Experim. l.'](Ftg. 30.; In the Vcffcl abcdi% placed an oi^tn'^j^^^f^/^^ 
wooden Box ABC D filled with Water as high as the Line L M Ano- pgr. Js alfth 
ther Box or Plug EFGH made tight, and containing Weights ta/»r thiincrea^ 
fink it, is made to let down into the Water between the Partition \YslfiH ^rdHrea^ 
and the End A B of the Box above mentioned ; but when itj is not ^o-^^jf^^^.^^ 
prefs the Water up to I O, ( as it does when let down ) ic is drawn our Po^h aid 
of ihe Water by the Weight m^ which- puUs it up by the Bar i^ fa- Brooks as are 
ftened. to aiLeaver moving round the Center /. ' ^i^^fi /* ^^' 

. When, by means of the Plug,, the Water in the Space ABKI '^Zi^fi'in 
pyih<sd up to I O, by pafllng under K ;, it runs out thro' the Spout the rainy Sea^ 
PQ^ (whofe Paflfase is gaged by a little Sluce P/^) and falls into xht-fom: mtb 
Veflcl .R,S made of an oblong Figure like a Fifli-Pood^ and having'^* ^^^.: 
a Sj5ph9n at^S, fo as to make it a "tantahisy or in, the Natupc of the-J^J^^J/f J\ 
Cop* above-mentioned. iutionoftbe* 

Let the Weight m pull pp the Plog EFGH, and the Water, ha* Phenomena." 
viflg filled R&, will run down below the Orifice P to M. ?t^^' 

The Tantalus RS^ beginping to run out as foon as full, will for g;^^* £7^^^^ 
the Reafons above given, continue to run till it is all emptied; and-and Vs.s. 
as it difcharges itfelf into sviother Tantalus TV C whofc Syphon is N«. 3S4. p« 
at V) ; this lafi: Tantalus will alfo, when full, beg'u> coiuii out;, and^ss- 
k's Water go down to^^Y^. 

If the Plug be let down gradually, as ibon as the Water begins to* 
run out of the laft Tantalus TV, (and the firft Tantalus RS be cove- 
red (o as to be concealed from Sight) it will appear to the Lookers 
on. That the Cavity TV, reprefenting a Pond near an ebbing and 
I flowing 



i^ Of the ri/ifig and fdUt^ of UTstef. 

flowing River (as I am credibly informed there is fuch an one ae 
Greenbitb in Kent^ between London and Grave/end) always rifes, wbilft 
the Water at NO (^or the Tide) falls to LM^ and always finJks whilft 
the Water at LM (or the Tide) rifcs to OL. 
Bxfifrim. II. ^^^ ^^^ Water in the Box AB CD not be made ufc of; only the 
VeflTel Z be filled every half Hour: It will empty itfelf inthe Space 
. of a Quarter of an Hour, falling like Rain, and dropping alfo thro' 
the Leaden Platform ^/into the hidden Tantalus RS, which will not 
begin to run till this artificial Rain is over: Then in a Quarter of an 
Hour more, the Tantalus RS will have emptied it felf into the vifible 
Tintdus T V, which will be filling all the Time after Z has done 
running; (or in the dry Seafon; and as foon as TV is full, it will be- 
gin to run out thro' it's Syphon V, at the End of the half Hour, 
when the Veflel Z or Sieve runs again \ tiiat is, at the Return of the 
rainy Seafon« 

This laft Experiment may eafily be applied to thofe Pondr, or 
diofe Brooks, that are high in drv Weather, and low in wet Wea- 
ther ; of which Kind» I am tola, there is a Brobk at Lamboum \n 
BirkfiArt. 

If it be obfeded, that fuch Ponds are full for fome time, which a 
^antahs cannocbe, becaufe it begins to run out as foon as full \ that may 
be eaiilv folved, by fuppofins the hidden Tantaim^ (or intermediate 
Cavity oetween the River andPond^ to contain more Water dhan the 
▼ifible one, provided it does not contain fo much as not to be empti- 
ed, before the Return of the Tide. 

The&me Solution will ferve for wet and dry Seafons, only fuppo« 
fing the Cavities larger. 

If it be a$ted, where the Water of the vifible TantaUis^ near a 
River^ can run ; it may be anfwered, that all this may happen, tho' 
the feoAd, or lawefl: Tantalus ihould have it's Bottom htghtt dian 
low Water-Mark in the River. And for the Syphons, which are <rf 
a particular Make in the Cup ; tho' fuch be not fuppofed in the 
Earth, yet any long Pafiage, rifing in the Middle, will anfwef 
^P 31- the End. A B C D reprefents the Channel of a River^ AD 
high Water-Mark, and GH low Water-Mark; ZI a Paflkge frtom 
the River to the Cavity IKLMN, or firft, or hidden Tantalus i 
LMQ^ the Syphon of the firft Tantalus^ running into the fecond 
Tantalus:, or vifible Pond OQJRP, which by it's Syphon RS V runs 
out into low Grounds that m^y be abpve the low Water-Mark GH; 
and the Bottom KL of the firft Tantalus niay be above the Top of 
the lafti whofe Level is the Line WtW.' 

ABCDYOQJIPVH 13 the SedKon of the Surface of the 
Earth. 

m Mdrek 



A» Extr4»rdmary bigb Tide in the River Thatms: igj 

UL March the 8th, 1725.5, The Ttde in the River Thames^ at An Bxtrd9r- 
New Crqm in SbadweU^ flowed twenty. Foot, five Inches and a half, ^'narjbigh 
token by a Level, from that High- water Mark, ity Low- water die^'^'^il''^*' 
next Morning, and was four Inches higher than has been known thefe ^^ervedh^ 
forty Year?. Capt, Tho. 

IV. That the Ufe of my Inftrument called the * Marine Surveyor h^^ No. 
mav yet farther appear, I fhall here give fome Experiments I made ^^' ^ ^** 
witn it on the Rtvtr "Thames^ in order to determine thie Strength of obfewation^ 
the Tides of Fhod and Ebb. Were the lame^td be done in the Cbai»- upon the Ttdep 
nel, and on the Sea Coaft of Great Britain^ and marked in our i^^^^^ver 
Charts, I am humbly of Opinion, it would be of no fmail advantage ^*Hcnr^e 
to our Coomierce, and of confequence a fufficient Recommendation Saamvez^N^ 
of the Marine Surveyor^ if that alone were the Ufe of it. 393. ptg. 68; 

I anl induced the rather to be of this Opinion, in regard I am not 
infeniible of the Dangers on the Cafquets^ in the Race of jUderney^ 
&c. where rapid Tides and Currents have occafioned but too many 
to mourn the Lofs of Friends and Fortunes : As J dwell in the^ 
Neighbourhood of thefe Dangers^ I have (in manifeft [hazard of my 
Life) furveyed and taken cqrrcfib Draughts not. only, of^ them, bbt of 
the IQands of Guernfeyy Sarcky &c. And as J perfuade!mx felf ithey 
areascorrefi:, as any thing that has hitherto fippeared or this kind« 
k iamy intent to publiik them for the Good of the Public^ 

• rid. Philof. Tnrafaft. Na/ 391K 



jf^ABillLAR 



16Z 



Obfervatms vpm the Ttdes in th River Thames: 



A TABULAR Account^ fiemng the Strength and gradual Increafi 
and Decreafe of the Ttdes of Flood and Ebb in the River Thames, as 
obferved in Lambeth Reacb^ off of Manchcfter Stairs^ and in tbi 
Middle of the River^ with a new Injirument called the Marine Sur- 
veyor, on the 9ih ^/Jfunc, 1720 i It being then Full Moon^ and con^ 
fequentlj a Spring Tide. The Movement of the Machine 14 Lubes un^ 
der Water. 



FLOOD. 



The 
Time of 
Flo«d. 



H. M 



«5 
451 



3<^ 
45 



The 
Depth 
of the 
River. 



Peet inc h. 

I 

6 

7 



8 

9 

10 

II 



"5 

30 

45 



«3 
H 

'4 



'5 

30 

45 

50 



«4 
H 
«4 
»3 9 



9 



The 
Run of the 
Current in 
every 1 c 
Min. 



Feet. 



The w^bolc 
Run of the 
Current to the 
Times expref 
fed in the ' 
Column. 



Sta- tiop 
of El 






riie lame re- 
duced to 

tute Miler 
528oFeet,or 
z8 Revolu- 
tions of the 
Machine. 



Feet. 



no 

590 
1 100 
1400 



110 

700 
1800 
3290 



1870 
2230 
2500 
2660 J 



2730 

«740 
2720 

2220 
1820 
.990 
.130 



5160 
7390 
9390 

15280 
18020 
20740 

_i33'o 
25530 

^7350 
28340 

28470 



Vhe F(educ- 
into 
ngliih ma- 
ritime Miles 
of 6000 feet, 
or6ooReTO> 
lutions. 



M. Pt» Rev 



II 

70 
48 

J5 



120 




I li 




u 



4i 

5 i 62 
S I 75 



M P". Kew. 



i 

1 
s 



II 

70 

30 
29 



i 



66 

« . »39 

« \ «9 

J 55 



2 i 28 

3 * 
3 i "4 
3 i 81 



II 



3 

4 4 134 
4 4 147 



The 



Ohfervations upon the Tides in the River Thames. 



169 









EBB. 








The ^Jl', „ 
Run of "ih^'*^"" 
.L- oftheCur 


The fame re- 


- The Re- 


The The 


duced to Sta. 


du6lion into 


time 


Depth 


Current 
in 

every 
15 Min. 

1 J*eet. 


rent to the 


rute. Miles of 


Engliflj ma-. 


erf 


of the 


Times ex 


52 


80 i^^u or 


ritime Miles 


Ebb. 


River. 


preffed in 


528 Revolu- 


of 6000 feet, 






the firft 


tions of the 


or 600 Re- 






Column. 


Machine. 


volutions. 


H. M. 


Ft. Jn. 


Keet. 


.vl 


Pts Rev. 


M. Pts Rev. 


'5 


iz 9 


280 


280 




28 


28 


30 


iz 3 


1 140 


1420 




i "o 


142 


45 


II 10 


1900 


3320 




i 68 


i 32 


I 


II 4 
II z 


2080 


5400 
7520 




12 


i 90 


« 'S 


2120 




4 92 

4 40 


I ± 2 


30 


10 9 


2120 


9640 




i i 64 


45 


10 4 


2170 


11810 




125 


1 i 131 

2 i 44 


z 


10 


2130 


13940 
1 6000 " 




4 74 


z 15 


9 6 


2060 




16 


2 4 100 


30 


9 4 


2040 


18040 




4 88 


3 4 


45 


9 • 


2020 


20060 




i 26 


3 i J6 


3 


8 9 


1910 


21970 




85 


3 4 97 


3 15 


» 6 


1900 


23870 




2 II 


3 i 137 

4 1 28 
4 1 64 


30 


« 3 


1910 


25780 




i 70 


45 


8 


i860 


27640 




124 


4 


7 T 


1810 

1780 
1690 
1626 


29450 




i 41 


4 i 95 


4 '5 


31230 


5 


i 87 


5 •*3 


30 


7 


32920 


6 


124 


5 i '42 


45 


6 6 


34540 


6 


i 2I 


5 i 4 


5 


6 3 


• 1570 


361 10 

37680 


6 


i 47 


6 II 


5 '5 


6 3 


1570 


7 


72 


6 i- 18 


30 


6 


«57Q 
1560 
1550 

1500 


39250 


7 


i 97 


6 i 25 


6 '' 


6 
5 9 


40810 
42360 


7 
8 


i 12. 
12 


6 i 3, 

7 36 


6 .5 


5 6 


43860 


8 


s 30 
i 44 


7 a 36 
7 I 32 


30 


5 3 


1460 


45320 


8 


45 




1450 


46770 


8 


i S7 


7 i *7 


7 


4 9 


1430 


48200 


9 


68 


8 zo 


7 15 


4 6 


1400 


49600 


9 


4 76 
1 82 


S i 10 


30 


4 3 


1380 


50983 


9 


8 ^ .48 
3 1 Z3Z 


+5 


4 3 


1340 


52320 


9 


i 84 


8 




1270 


5H90 


10 


79 


? i 109 


8 5 


3 10 


420 


54010 


(O 


121 


9 I 


10 


3 II 


410 


54420 


CO 


:^. 30 


9 42 


>5 




400 


54820 


10 


4 70 


9 8z 


zo 




380 


55200 


10 


4 108 


9 120 


*5 


4 ' 


300 


55500 


10 


i 6 


9 i 

9 i 27 
9 « 40 


30 


4 * 


270 


55770 


10 


4 33 


35 


4 3 


130 


55900 


10 


i 46 


40 1 


Stagnt. Stagnant. | 









VOL. VI. Partii. 



170 Qi^valthm uf£9k tin Tide uk thi^ Rimn Tbmcn 

A TABULAR Account^ Jbemngtbe. Strength and gradual Increafe of 
ibc 3ia^ op Flffovr antr Eotr irt th^ Rivtr rnamcsv cpt ovftrved in L^m- 
beth Reacb^ eyf (?/fManchcfl:tr StcdrSy, and in the MiddU of She River ^ 
with a\ new Inftrument called ^b^ Marine Surveyor, on: Phe i8th of 
June, 1720; h being then the laft SiuarUr of the Mtfon^ andconfe- 
quently.a Noaf Ttde^ ibt- Mbvtemint of the Machine 14 Imbes under 
Water^ 



• 






ff L 


, 


O' E>. 






» 1- 




• . 






t 








The. 




, 


f 




H. 




whole 




1 


\ 




s 


The 


RUQ/lf 


Hho-Obneic- 


^rhrHednai- 


j? 




G^' 


Run of 


ItheCm? 


dfticodtoSai- 


oniktt) En- 




*5 


\He 


rent ta- 


'tute Adiks oftglH&nKiri' t 


. d 




ar 


Cur- 


cho. 


5^ao>fwt,or 


^timaNiiles of 


' §• 




a> 


rant im 


Tini^ 


5;8a'a«foUi- 


6oo«»fect, 


s^ 




i-- 


every 


ez|^«fr 


.lionaofthf 


K)r 600 Re- 


► 


tr 


fed- in 


'HtuJlfJtte^ 


'vnitttioin: 


i f 




1 


Min. 


the firft 
Co- 


■ 


1 


»• 








lumn. 


: 


> 


«• 


- 




• 




" 


• 


[ft: M- 


Ff 


nir 


Feet. 


Feet. 


M. Pt» R«. 


•M. Pt*^ Rev. 


> »^ 


4fl 




220* 


2JBO 


Z2 


4 22 


I 30 


41. 


s 


520, 


J.^ 


74 


t 74 


a 45- 


*4^. 


9r 


"" guo 


r6^p^ 


■ f- 3^ 


* J5 rr 
» 1 n? 




1. 
5. 


■^ 
9 


1030 


2670 


.i 3 


1020. 


3690 


4 105 


ii 69 


:• 30 


6> 


1. 


1 160. 


4^ 


i. 89 


» i 3? 


• 41 


T 




-''Wr 


' 63(00' 


"I rijr 


r- 3^ 


■ 2 
^2 '5 


7 


..2;, 


164.0 
1830 


7940^ 


I 4 2 


!' 44 


8. 


I. 


9770 


.1 i S3 


■» i 


77 


'■: 3c 


9 




1920^ 


11690 


.2 IKJ 


I* i 


119 


4? 


-9" 


fr 


^2070 


137^^ 


-i i S6r 


t^ 1 


. ze 


r ^ 


10 




2170 


1593a 


3 9 


f ^ 




1 3: >5 


10 


M 


2070 


igcoo 


3. i 84 

3: i- 16 


? 


3C 


II: 


> 


196a 


19960 


1 1 46 


J 4y 


•M- 


4r 


-1^90^ 


21350 


*+^ . 7S 


i* 


II* 


. 9" 


1700' 
1^00 


_2j55o 


4. i I iti 


S i 105 


r4 'S 


II* 


b. 


4. h '09 


\ 85 


;; 30 


II. 




730 


25^5^0 


i' i ^ 

4' ir 97 


j^l 4 


a.y 


•ir 




- 7^ 


^s^so^ 


t- ^ 






otfl^rrc 


Sfignt. 




*5 


LO 


It 


dtt. 


du. 




1 


SO 


10 


9 


■dit 


dit. 

1 


i 


■ 



Obfervatims agMt tie Titie in itle JUiver XHames. 



r7* 



EBB. J 


1 


• 


The 


( 


■ 

1 


a ' 


• 


•whole * 




1 


1' 


« 




&imof 


Thecfiuneie- 


tPheRe- [ 


s* 


The 


^hoCur-; 


>ducod4D Stt-, 


du Atoft iato 


H , 




Awn of 


rent to 


•tute Miles of 


£ngli(h ma- , 


w 


»* 


theCur- 


the 


5280 feet. 


ritimc Milcb 


; ' 


«» 


rcBtia ' 


1 lines 


or 528 Re- * 


of 6000 feet/ 


f 




■evear 


eKprdT-* 
foddn 1 


volntioBs of i 


Qr'6<ff»fte- 1 
wolutioM. 1 


;; 




theifirfl, 


1 




. 


:? 


( 


Co. ' 


i 


• 

• 


1 

*t. In. 


« 


hunn. 




' 


a M. 


l-'cct. 1 


iedt. 


M. f^tsRcv 


M. Pts Rev.l 


*5 


10 6 1 


610 < 


610 


6ii 


61! 


i! 


10 


iHO ' 


«V5o 


I ^3 


i a 


45 


9 9 . 


1520 


3i70< 


1 f. 




? 3 

9 
8 6 


1650 


5 120; 

6870 

«6oo 


;: 116 


I »5 

jo: 


1750 
1730 


: i g 


I 87 
I i ii«' 

I f i3«l 


45 


8 


1700 


10300 


I i 106 
* 1 13 




7 <> 

7 S 


1710 


1 2010; 


2 f ! 


e IS 


1710 


1I720 


t i $* 




30 


7 I 


i7i'0 , 


J 5430 


a 4 9' 


45 


6. 9 


1710 


17140 


3 »3c 




«> 7 


16S0 


i8«2o 


3 4 34 


3 82 


3 «S 

30 


t * 


1670 
1570 


20400 

»2060 


3 i 69 

4 94 


I i .H 


45 


5 9 


1500 


«}56o 


4 1 «« 

4 I I3S 


3 $ 106 




5 8 


1480 


25040 


4 104 


4 15 


5 3 


1440 


^^480 


5 8 


4 i 98 


30 


5 2 


1430 


117910 


5 i «9 


4 i 91 


45 


5 


1420 


29330 


5 f 29 


4 i «3 


5 . 
S «S 


5 


1430 


30760 


5 t 40 


5 76 


4 «o 


1420 


32180 


6 ?o 


S i 68 


30 


4 6 


«430 


33610 


6 i 61 
6 1 71 


5 i 61 


6 ^^ 


4 4 


1420 , 


35030 


i ^ " 


+ I 


1380 


35410 


6 i 77 


6 41 

6 i 27, 
6 1 n 


6 15 


3 " 


1360 


37770 


7 81 


30 


3 II 


1340 


391 10 


7 4 83 

7 * 74 


45 


3 10 


1230 


40340 


6 4 134 


y 


3 10 


1070 


41410 


7 i 49 


6 J 91 


7 '5 


1 n 


530 


41940 


7 4 102 
7 i •04 


6 i .44 
6 ^i ,46 


20 


4 


20 


41960 


25 


Stagnt. 


Stagnt. 






J5 


4 3 dit. 









V. Cape Spartelf and Cape Trafalgar^ from the wcftem Ocean, 
are known to make the Str eights Moutb, from whence a Current, in 
the middle of the Channel (which is about fire Leagues broad) be- 
twixt the Barbary and Spanifit Land, runs, at leaft, two Miles each 
HQur» as far as Ctut^ Point ; and there the two Cbafts opening about 

Y a eighteen 



Of the Cur- 
rents at tb$ 
Streigbts 
Moutb. By 
Capt' — Cm" 
municated by 
Dr. Hudfon* 
No. 385- pag. 
191. 



172 Of CURRENTS. 

eighteen Leagues diftant from each other, the Current does not run 
^bove one Mile an Hour, and fo continues as far as Cape de Gat^ 
which is feventy Leagues up the Mediterranean. Our Mariners ob- 
fervc a Current to fet to the weftern Sea, or the great Ocean from 
Ceuta^ along the Barbary Shore; and from Gibraltar along the 
Sptinijh Shore; but that on the Barbary Shore is generally their 
common Rout, not only as being the freeft from Rocks and 
lefs dangerous, but by reafon that the Tide is much ftronger, 
than it is on the other Side, which the fooner helps the Ships 
out of the StreigbtSy which are the narroweft betwixt the Points of 
Gibraltar and Ceuta \ at which laft Place, a Neck of Land extends 
icfelf a confiderable Way into the Sea ; and it's my Opinion, and 
that of others, that whereas the Current runs, as abovefaid, two 
Miles an Hour againfl: this Neck of Land, the Water there meets 
with fo violent an Oppofition in it's Courfe, as occafions it to re- 
bound with fo much Force, that Part of it returns back along the 
fame Coaft, and fo out of th€ Streigbts Mouth ; which, with the fmalt 
Tide that fets out on the Spanijh Shore, 'tis believed, may exhauft 
a confiderable jPart of that Current, which continually fets in, to the 
Eaftward, at the Rate I have already mentionetl. What I look up. 
on to be very remarkable, is that in the Year 1712, Monfieur du 
UAigle^ that fortunate and generous Commander of the Privateer 
called the Pbanix of Marfeilles^ giving Chafe, near Ceuta Point, to a 
Dutcb Ship bound for Holland^ he came up with her in the middle of 
th^Gut, or Streigbts^ betwixt Tariffa and Tangier^ and there gave her 
one Broad- fide, which direftly funk her, all her Men being faved 
by the Meansof Monf. //« L'-^/g/^; and a few Days after, the funk 
Ship, with her Cargo of Brandy and Oil^ arofe on the Shore near 
Tangier^ which is, at leaft, four Leagues to the Weftward of the 
Place werc^lhe funk, and diredlly againft the Strength of the Current ; 
which has pcrfuaded many Men, that there is a Recurceacy in the 
deep Water in the middle of the Gut< that ftts outwards to the grand 
Ocean, which, 1 think, this Accident very much demonftrates; and 
poffibly, a great Part of the Water, which runs into the Streigbts^ 
docs return that Way, and along the two Coafts which I have al- 
ready mentioned ; otherwife, this Ship of Courfe, muft have been- 
drove towards Ceuta^ and fo upwards. I was at Gibraltar when this 
happened, where 1 faw above 100 of the Butts of that Cargo of 
Brandy, which were fent thither from Tangier \ I likewife fpoke with 
the Captain of th€iD«/^/> Ship, who told the Governor, myfelf, and 
many others, where his Vcffel funk; and her rifing afterwards ac 
Tangier^ appeared very unaccountable to us, as it does to me to this 
Day ; for there's no Doubt but the Ship funh where the Dutcbman 
tald us, fince the Spaniards from the Land, who faw i^, confirmed it 
to us. The Water in the Gut muft be very deep, .feveral of the 
Commanders of our Ships of War having attempted to found it with the 
longeft Lines they could contrive, but could never find any Bottom. 

VL The 



An Account of the Falls of the River Niagara. 17 j 

•VI. The Falls of Niagara are a mighty Ledge or Precipice of folid ^^f^^^ountof 
Rock, that lies acrofs the whole breadth of the River (a little before %efilhit^ 
it empties it felf into or forms the Lake OtUario) and very deep. ra taken at ' 

Monfieur Borajfaw never meafured the Falls himfelf, though he AJbany, 
! has been there at feven different Times: But what he fays is, ^^^b. 10. 

That, - . M^nfie{7'^- 

This laft Spring the Governour of Canada^ Monfieur Vaudreil^ Bonffiw, a 
ordered his own Son, . with three other Officers, viz, Meffieurs Ffcnch Native 
I Longue IJkj St FilUj wA Laubineau^ tofurvey Niagara^ and take ^^^€^^^^' 

exact height of the Catarad, which they accordingly did with a pf^j jy^^^ 
Stone of half an hundred Weight, and a large Cod-line, and found £/^; F.R.& 
it upon a Perpendicular no more than twenty Ox Fathom ; his Word^ N<>. ^71. 
were Vingt £<f Six Bras. P>g- ^• 

This differs very much from the Account Father Hennepin has 

fiven the World of that Cataradt, for he makes it an hundred 
athom \ and our Modern Maps from him, as I fuppofe, mark it at 
I fix hundred Feet $ but I believe Hennepin never meafured it, and 

there is no gueffing at fuch Things. 

When I objected Hennepin*^ Account of thofe Falls,, to Monfieur B<h 
rajfaw^ he replied -, That accordingly every Body had depended upon 
! itas right until the late Survey. Upon further Difcourfe he acknowledg- 

ed. That below the Cataraft for a great way, there were numbers of 
fmall Ledges, or Stairs crofs the River, that lowered it ilill nK)re 
and more, till you come to a Level ; fo that if all the Defcents be 
put together, he does not know but the Difference of the Water 
above the Falls, and the Level below, may come up to Father 
Hennepin^ but the ftrid and proper Cataract upon a perpendicular, is 
no more than twenty fix Fathom, or an hundred and fifty fix Foot» 
I which yet is a prodigious Thing, and what the World I fuppofe can- 

! not parallel, confidering the greatnefs of the River, for it is near a 

Quarter of an Englifi Mile broad, and very deep Water. 

Several other 1 hings Monfieur Borajfaw fet me right in^ as to the 
Falls of Niagara. Particularly it has been (aid. That the Cataradt 
makes fuch a prodigious noife, that People cannot hear one another 
fpeak, at fome Miles diftance whereas he affims, you may converfe 
together clofe by. 

I have alfo heard it pofitively afferted. That the Shoot of the River 
when it comes to the Precipice, was with fuch a mighty force^ that 
Men and Horfe might march under the Body of the River without 
being wet. This alfo he utterly denies, and fays the Water falls ia 
a manner right down. What he obfcrved farther to me was,. 

That the Mift or Shower Chis Word was La. Brume) which the 
FalU make, is fo extraordinary, as to be feen at five Leagues diftance^ 
and rifes as high as the common Clouds. In this Brume or Cloudy 
when the Sun fixiaes, you have always a glorious Rainbow. 

Of 



174 ^^ Account of the Falls of the River Kiagti^ 

Ofthe River it felf, which is there called the River Niagara^ he 
tells me it is much narrower at the Falls, than either above or be- 
low, and that from below there is no coming nearer the Falls bf 
Water, than about Cix Englijh Miles, the Torrent is fo rapid, and 
withal fuch terrible Whirl-pools. 

He confirms Father Hennepin's and Mr Kellu^s Account of the 
large Trouts of thofe Lakes, and folemnly affirmed there was one 
taken lately, that weighed eighty fix Pounds i which I am the rather 
inclined to believe upon the general Rule that Fifli are according €o 
their Waters. To confirm which, a very worthy MinMler, now alive 
in iV^ffc; Englsnd^ affimed to me *, That while he was a Prifener ac 
M^H-reaiy in Canada River, he faw a Pike brought up one Day from 
the River to the Governour's Houfe, and carried upon a Pole be- 
tween two Men, that sieafured Five Foot, and Ten Inches long, 
and proportionably large. 

I my (elf this laft Summer, iaw a Catara^, three Leagues above 
Aftana^ in the Province of N^w Tork^ upon SebmeHada River called 
the Cohoes^ which they count much or there*, and yet that is not 
above 40 or 50 Foot perpendicular. From tbefe Falls alio there 
fifes a m\^Y €io^> which defcends like fmall Rain, that when the 
Sun fliines, gives a handibme fmall Rainbow chat moves as you 
move, according to the Angle of Vifion. The River at the Cob$ei 
is to 40 or 50 Rods broad, but then it is very (hallow Water, for 
I was told that in a dry Time, the whole River runs in a Channel 
of not more than fifteen Foot wide. 

In my Journey to Athany^ 10 Miles to the Eaftward of Huifoft^ 
River, near the middle of a long rifing Hill, I met with a briflc 
noify Brook fufficient to ferve a Water-Mill, and having ob(erved 
nothing of it at the beginning ofthe Hill, I turned about and fol- 
lowed the Courfe of the Brook, till at length I found it come to 
an End, being abforbed, and finking into the Ground, either paf- 
fing through Subterraneous Paflages, or foaked up widi die Sand 1 
and though it be common in other Parts of the World for Brooks 
and even Rivers thus to be loft % yet this is the firfi; of the Sort, I 
have heard of, or met with in this Country. 
Jin Account 0/ VII. The Rbofne^ Rbodanus^ by MarceUinus called, maximi mmtms 
the Rife of jlumen^ and by Varrdj Fluvius intertres Europe^ maximus^ arifesfrom 
^Z^^^cLtdera- ^^^ GUlcbers^ as we call them, or Monies glaeialeSy huge M9untam$ 
^URiviri'in' rf ^^^^ "^^^ the Purea^ whofe Height hath been above determined, 
Europe, Sy and thcncc runs wich great Impctuofity down VaUefia^ the ff^aWffer* 
J.G. Schcuch- z^;^^^ forming a long Valley, furrounded on both Sides with huge 
f\^S ^o Mounuins, till it lofes it's Waters and Name in the Laeus Lemannus^ 
406. p. 587. or Lake of Geneva^ but refum^ it again near the Town ofGeneXHi^ 
whence it flows wich a more gentle Defcent through fome Provinces 
neRhi^ni. q{ France into the Mediterranean Sea. 

The 



Of the Rife effeveral Rivets, Sec ifs 

Tkf Tkefitii T$anus, by Ctaudian^ in his Panegyric upon iht Con- ^ 'n^ejm. 
JEblac af the Eao^ror HoMorius^ called Pulcbery tht hamgofn^ takes itf*:^ 
ficlt Rife from cwa fnati Lakes upon the 5. Gotbari^ aad fome late- 
ral Sources from the Lap fopra la Cima di Pettine^ upoo a Mountains 
called Pitdne^ the i^^ J^//^ S^^^, the Lake of RoUom upon the 
Lucknkmmer Berg, the Lake of Tivi^y zmd tht Lake of BeJrett^, upon i 
MouDCain of this Name. It defcedds' the Lavima ValJis, or Uvinar 
VdUy, «ad>ia it's way to the Lake of Locafno^ recewbs many Brook< 
and Rfviulets frona the adjoining Mouataim: k unites* icfs Waters with 
/ the Pos Btfap Panfia>, and lofes^kfelf jointly with that KiVtfr iMO thtf 
Adviacic Gulf. 

ThoRhuie^ Rhenm, h$ C^ardeBelhGalBctyfmmtdyUf^f^ 
MffimMS^ airi(«s k> three femal Branches, which are called Abenui' 
oMtrier, feftmar, &f metSas^ AefurthiTj the binder r Md mJiJiri^ i{/&>^w 
The bimUr Rhine tafees it's Rifir upon the high Moontia^in Atk^iU^ 
€0lmeH>MOe^li9, Pkre of the AMa, hk tlm Alp &in PefMy from » 
Clauher^ 01^ Ice-Momttwn^ whidi twm&i in Length' foil cwo l^ouVsi 
Xbe middURbin^ RbenM»medm^ arifes^O)x» tiM Luchmmmer Befg^ 
which ia likavii^i Fait of the jeMa^. m the op^r Parr of a Valley, 
ialktd £m- MariM^f o]^poice i»^oiie o<[ thtr SoweeS' oi? the TbeJH Th6 
firfhernujfi' Rbine, Menm anierhr, arifts upon* tHar Bt^Mioh: of thi^ Cn* 
j^ly. iMdk'f^caAhd Cimo'detBaiikiy Baddas, andfoOAi^c^ives-fevei^af 
kteralBranehesi&Om' the AlpsMapit Md €efnefai Vft^ the M6* 
naftbF^of P^^i/,. ^n-furtber aitd MiA/& iU^Ur join togitfthei^^ aAdf 
tho QMed S^ieam^ fatts jiitb thr i&M^ fiMw;. Tte» A^beMu. KloV 
ia2w<^dft;. the Rbim faUo intti the liMwr' BtdMnmnsy or Sodim S^^ an<l 
Gomesfoiit ^ it nea» &Mvi whtfne wiaffiiiig^for fiMrritm tift lSo1^«t» 
afSioijg^Umd^ itt dlenr tiwveties^^eM Bart of Gtirift^iii^ in* a* \%ry ii^^ 
regular Courfe, till at laft, in Holland^. kio6a^ itfel# ill tSSe gjrdAt 

Ther Jbi^Sr R^fai. arife» ftom a* ItamU Lii4e aOkdl^ La^»lAi^m-'ne WH^ 
d^ upotf the & Gordimdi but focD^ rmervw ^ confiyer^te* Inf^rce-- 
mtne mun« the Furcate artd ntear Urfekn^ attmtrer. f^ow ar otountfaidou^* 
Lake in Oberalf. Near ^SUifXr^ not fsir fi^OM l^ff; it eHtiet% tlie V^. 

Goiirfe and Name ao jEt^e^v Md' a£ laA Mtt imo* thef J^' Bdbii^ 

The^ .^r, yfro/b^ jsfrM^,. arifes upon theWif^M^nti^'GriMfiirtty cf^eJbtr. 
iat dwiupper FaUt^. JkbeUt thres' Hour^ beldw^ that, it^ fklls into* 
the Lakr oit Btiemt^ and! our ^ ch^, nitft for fh^^m tlie Mori^^erf* 
Inietiatimyi ieto therLaferof^Tlbefr^ Whidi i^^lea^i^^ lOs^t tho To^iftlof- 
i3m$y and AaUccrrtmrnt^gibyr Befn^ Sohtbmn,. awd^/b do^ifti; fells' at 
Ifcft^ aAfar n)oiij» Windingi aadHumit^ inffilthel Rme Ae^tHJeKhtffi,, 
Cm^emm. prebdbly-ftt Cddl«d»fr(»m.Gte OOirlil^ 0$^^ tUi^o* CCslfid^- 

leHltf RiflicssL 



176 Of the Rife of feveral Rivers, &c. 

The Afccnt of the Mountains of Swif^rland being fo very fodden 
and quick, that as I have fliewn, the Elevation of the Mountains in 
the Canton of Gtarus above the Horizon of Zurich, though not quite 
three Days diftant, is more than three Times as great, as the Ele- 
vation of Zurich itfelf above the Level of the Ocean, of which it is 
upwards of 375 Englijh Miles diftant in a ftreight Line } and fo in 
Proportion of others i and the Rivers, which arife in thcfe Moun- 
tains, rufhing down, in Confequence of fo quick a Defcent, with 
great Force and Impetuoficy, it was to be feared, they would often 
overflow their Banks, and caufe frequent Inundations in the flat 
Countries, (of which there are too many Inftances in our own Val- 
lies and Plains,) if this Force and Impetuofity was not in great Mea- 
fure broke, and their - Waters difpofed to a more gentle Defcenti 
And this is effectually done by thofe great Receptacles of Water, the 
Lakes, which are befides of infinite Ufe to the Inhabitants around 
them, fupplying them with Plenty of Fifti for their Suftenance, and 
enriching them by the Facility with which Commerce may be carried 
on over them. Thus the Rhine falls into the Lacus Bodamicus, Boden-^ 
Sea, tht Rhofne into the Lacus Lemannus, or Lake of Geneva, the 
Muefa and Thefin into the Lake of Locarno, the Reiis into the Lake of 
Lucern, the Adda and Maira into the Lake of Como, the Lint, or U- 
mat, into the Lake of Zurich, xht Jar, into the Lakes of 5n>;fr2 and 
Tbun. And it feems, that the more conflderable the Rivers are, and 
the more impetuous their Courfe, fo much the greater rouft the Re- 
ceptacles be, wherein they are to lofe then* Force and Rapidity. 
The Lake of Geneva, and the Boden-Sea, the two largeft in Swijferland^ 
evidently evince what I here aflert, and the others above-named gra- 
dually decreafe in Largenefs, in proportion as the Rivers, which fall 
into them, are lefs and lef$ rapid. 
An Account ^Hl* Experience has proved them of admirable Efiicacy in Scor« 
rftbiNature butic and Scrophulous Cafes: wherein they have done fuch Wonders, 
andVirtues of that a fliort Account which was publilhed of their Cures in that Kind, 
the ^^^'^^' above five Years ago, was looked upon by fome, rather as a roman* 
Rev. Mr J. ^^ Tale, than a true Narrative of real Fafts. 

Lewis, Ficar They are of an attenuating, aftringent, and drying Nature : And 
of the Place, by thefe Qualities; I imagine, ^they perform their Cures. The firft 
No. 408. jg ^hg known Property of all Watetv^ to dilute the Blood, and thin 
P*& 43* ji^g Juices, and thereby to fit them t^ pafs the fine Strainers, and be 
carried out of the Body by their propter Drains. In the Second con- 
fifts the great Excellence of Holt-Heater, which, by it's notable A- 
ftringency, braces the Solids, ftimulates the Fibres, and quickens 
their contra£tile Power, and thereby enables them to (hake off, pro- 
trude and fqueeze out fuch Feculencies, as may adhere to, clog and 
ftulFthcm up. And this Quality, it is probable, they derive from 
the Allom and Iron that are fuppofed to impregnate them. The 
Ingredients, which give them their drying, abforbing and healing 

Quality, 



Of the Nature and Virtues of Holt- Waters., 177 

Quality, are the Sulphur and Ochre; by which they imbibe the 
peccant Humburrs, and fheath the fharp Salts, that lance and tear 
the finer Glands, and caufe Blotches, and Ulcerations. As they at- 
tenuate and aftringe, they are a noble Diuretic, removing Obllru- 
dions from the Kidnies, and caufing the Renal Glands to make 
their due Secretions, and at the fame Time diflblving the grofler 
Salts, and fitting them to be carried ofi^ through the Urinary Paf* 
fages. 

Thefe Waters have been found of excellent Avail in many other 
IllnelTes, befides the Scurvy and Evil. 

IX. The following Conjeflrures upon the Subjeft of intermitting Conjeauns 
and reciprocating Springs, were fuggefted to me by the V\i^TiomtXiz: upon the Na- 
of a particular Fountain, fcen by my felf this laft Winter. I am ^^f^yinter- 
fenfible that my Obfervations made on it are very imperfedt, '^^^^^^^^^^^ 
Comparifon of what the Sodei'j may expeft, and I my felf hope here- Spr^wg^.^'jgf/ 
after to give them : And as the Conjeftures were framed chiefly for Mr Jofcph 
my own ufe, againft another Opportunity of obferving this Foun- ^"^^^^^ F^R^B. 
tain more carefully ; fo they are now communicated only for the ufe ^L^oi 
of others, who may perchance find fuch an Opportunity before me. 
Thefe Obfervations will however difcover fomething of the Nature of 
this Spring not yet imparted to the Societ^j^ nor taken notice of by the 
Naturalifts, fo far as I know, in any other Spring whatfoeven But 
fince they are few, and imperfed, I fhall be more particular in my 
Relation of them, that no greater Strefs may be laid on them than 
they deferve.. 

The Spring is fituated at one End of the Town of Brixam near 
Torbay in Devon/hire^ and is known by the Name of Lajwell. It is a 
long Mile diftant from the Sea, upon the North and North-Eaft Side 
of a Ridge of Hills lying between it and the Sea, and making a Turn 
or Angle near this Spring. It is fituated in the Side of thofe Hills, 
near the Bottom, and feems to have it's Courfe from the South- Weft 
towards the North-Eaft. There is a conftantly running Stream 
which difcharges itfelf near one Corner into a Bafon about eight Foot 
in Length, and four Foot and a half in Breadth ; the Outlet of which " 
is at the fartheft End from the Entrance of- the Stream, about three 
Foot wide, and of a fufficient Height. This I mention, that a better 
Judgment may be made of the perpendicular Rife of the Water in 
the Bafon, at the time of the Flux or Increafe of the Stream* Upon 
the outfide of the Bafon are three other Springs, which always run, 
but with Streams fubjeftto a like regular Increafe and Decreafe with 
the former. They fecm indeed only Branches of the former, or ra- 
ther Channels difcharging fome Parts of the conftantly running Wa- 
ter, which could not empty itfelf all into the Bafon ; and therefore 
when by means of the Seafon, or Weather, Springs are large and 
high, upon the Flux or Increafe of this Fountain feveral other little 
Springs are faid to break forth, both in the Bottom of the Bafon, 
VOL. VI. Parcii. Z and 



X 78 0/ In^mitttii^ 4Md' Reciprccatiog SpringjSs 

and without it, which difappear a^in upon the Ebb or Decreafe of 
the Fountaiq. Jk\i the cpnioUatly run;;iing Screams put together, at 
the time tl^at I few them, were, I believe, mpre than fufficient to. 
drive an Ov^-ihut Mill; aad the Stjream ru^inin^ into the Bafon^ 
might b^ about one half of t|ie whole. 

1 had made a Journey purpofely to fee it* in Company With a 
Friend. When wp cami? to x^^ Fountaii?, we w^re infqriped' by a 
Man, working juft by the Bafon, that the Spring had flowed anq 
ebbed abopt twenty tim^s that Morning s but ha4 ceafed, doing fo, 
about half an Hour before we can[ie- I opferved the Streaqi rux^nina 
into the Bafon^ for n>ore than an Hour by my Watch, without pe^ 
eeiving the leail Variation in it, or thp leaft Alteration in the Height; 
of the Surface pf the Wsfter in the Bafoo \ which we cojuld obferye 
with great Nicety, by means of a broad Stpne laid, in a fhelying Po- 
ikion in the Water. Thus difappointed, we w^re obliged i;o go an^ 
take fpme little Refrefliment at our Ipn 5 after which we intended to, 
come back and fpend the reft of pujr Time by the Fountain, before 
we returned Home. They tpld u^ in the Town, that many had; 
been difappQip;ed ip thi^ manncjc ; and the cpjpmpn People (uperi^il 
tioufly impute^ it tp I know npt w;hat Influence which the Prefencc 
^f fome Peppli^ had oyer/ the Fpu^taia; for whi^l} reafon they ^dvi|- 
fed, tbw in cafi2 it did npt floiy ^nd (?bb,wh,en we wqre both prefeat,^ 
one of us (hould abfent bi^felf, to uy whe.ll>6r it wpulf) dp fo in thq 
l^rfifencc pf the other. 

Upon our Return to it, the Man, who was ftill at work, told u$^ 
that, it beWP tp flp.i^i; aojl elpjl? jjbpm: Ijajf j^rv^Qur after we wcm a- 
W^y, and had done fo ten pr tWJ^lyc; tiiijp?.. In lefe tnap a Minute, 
we faw the Stream copying into t^ ^afgp, an^ li^^wife the qthprs on 
the putfid^ pif thp 3:afon^ begin to cncr^afe and, to flpw with great 
Yiqlence^i uppn. w,hich the Stjff^c qf the W^terin tjie Bafqn rofe an 
Inch and ^ quarter, perpendicularly^ in near the Space of/ two Mi- 
nutes.: Iraroc^iatlv after which, the Stream began, to abate again tp- 
it's, ordinary Courw ; and in neaj t^o Minutes time the Surface was . 
fwnk down to ijc*« ufual Height, where it remained neiar two Minutes 
more. Thcn^ i? began to flow again as before j and in the Space of. 
twenty- fu Minutes flowed and ebbed five times: Sp that an Incrcafc,. 
Decreafe, aqd Paufe, taken togetl^er, were ma,de in about five Mi-r ' 
^utcs, or a little more. 

I cp^ld obferve by the Mark upon the Srpnes, that the Surface of.- 
the Water in the Bafon had rifen bcfpre we came at leaft three Quar- 
ters pf an Inch perpendicularly higher than when we faw it j and I 
thought that 1, could perccivje fpme very little Abatement each Turn, 
both in the Height, and in the Time of-the rifing of the iSurface, 
and confequently in the Time of it's finking; but the Time 
of the Paufe, or ftanding of the Surface at ic*s ufual Height, or. 
efluabje runnii)^ qC the Stream^ w^s lengthened > yet io^ as to leav« 

fi?m^5 



Of lotcrmittiog and Reciprocating Springs. 179 

fome Abatement in the time of ihe rifing* finking, and paufe uken 
together. This is all whjich my fhort Time wouid allow oie to 
obferve \ m^ny more things Ihould have been taken notice of, as 
will appear from the Hypothefis propofed to explain thefe Fhseno- 
'mena. 

But before I enter upon explainit^ that Hypothefis, I muft re« 
mark what Difference or Agreemei^t is to be found between this Ad- 
count of the Fountain, and anothar publifhed in the. FbHof, Tranf* 
Numb. 204, p, 909, 9io„ in two Letters from Dt Oliver to fFaU 
ier MoyJe^ Efqs The Do£tor places it a Mile and half frwn Bri- 
xam: I fuppofe he means Brixam-^ay^ which is more than a Mile 
off from the Town. He gives .«he. Dimenfions of the Bafon a btdc 
different from mine, making this ;Si|r&ce of it thirty Foot fquare^ 
whereas I make it thirty^ fix Foot. He fays,: that it ebbs and flows 
very often every Hour ; . whiph i« fiertainly falfe^ as appears both by 
common Report, and by my own- Obfcrvation. When k once be- 
gins indeed to flow and ebb, it continues to do fo feveral times in an 
Hour; but then there is after. thiS; again a certain Space of Timd, 
perhaps two Hours or more, wh^n it runs witti an equable Stream, 
without any the leaft VariatioQ : And this is a particular Circumftance 
not oblerved in any Spring whatfoever that I have heard of. When 
the Do£lor firfi: faw it, viz. in 7^/^1693, he favs that he judged the 
Flux and Reflux, as he calls them, to be performed in about two 
Minutes: If he means two Mintnes each, it agrees very well with 
niy own Obfervations -, but as ,be had neither Glafs nor Minute- 
Watch with him, this Obfervatioo cannot be depended on. When 
he faw it again, viz. in yluguji the fame Year, be judged it to flow 
flower than before ; which he explains by faying, that though it per- 
formed it's Flux and Reflux in little more than a Minute ("which by 
the way is quicker than before^ yet it would fl:and at the Low- Water 
Mark two or three Minutes ; which I fuppofe he calls flowing flower 
than before, becaufe the Space of Time between the End of the 
Ebb and the Beginning of the fucceeding Flux was longer. I had 
never read this Account *till lately •, lone fince my own Obfervations 
were made s but, if we fuppofe the DoSpr to have made his Obfer- 
vations fomewhat nearer the Time when the Fountain was to ceafe 
ebbing and flowing, than I made mine, our Obfervations will per- 
haps exactly agree: The Time of the Flux and Reflux bei^ fliorter, 
the Time of the Paufe longer, but the whole Time of the Flux, Re- 
flux, and Paufe taken together, being fliorterby his Account than by 
my own. He fays, that he found it by his Watch to flow and ebb 
fixteeh Times in an Hour : I do not fuppofe that he made a whole 
Hour's Obfervations, which muft have fliewn him a Difierence in the 
Times of the" Reciprocations that he did not perceive; but having 
obferved, that one Reciprocation, or a Flux, Reflux, and Paufe, 
took up about the Space of four Minutesy he from chc&ce computed, 

Z 2 as 



180 ' ^/ Intermitting and Reciprocating Springs. 

as I imagine^ that therie would be fixceen in an Hour, prcfuming^ that 
'there was no Alteration in the Tinies. In this fcnfe I wouW under- 
^ftandhim, when he adds, that he was informed it fometifnes flowed 
twenty Times in an Hour. For, according to his ObfervatioiH it 
flowed at the rate of fixteen Times in. an Hour, according Co my 
own Obfcrvations, at the rate of twelve Times in an Hour 5 perhaps 
before my Obfervations at alefs Rate, and after his at a greater: So 
that in the whole Hour, according to the feveral Rates taken toge- 
ther, it may flow and ebb about nine or ten Times, according to 
another Account which I have received \ but of this I can aflert no- 
thing certain, or upon my own Obfcrvations. The Doflor adds,, 
that when the Water in the Bafon began to rife, he obfcrved a 
Bubbling in the Bottom of the Bafon, which ceafed when the Water 
b^an to fink. This I did not fee^ becaufe the Springs were fmall 
and low, by means of a dry Seafon \ but it was confirmed to me by 
the Report of Eye-witnefles, as is before obferved. 

Having thus compared the two Accounts given of this Fountain^ 
I come now to my Hypothefis, for explaining the Ph^snomeha ob- 
ferved by me \ and I imagine them to be occafioned by two Streams 
or Springs, one of which pafling through two Caverns or natural 
Refervoirs with Syphons, meets with the other Stream in a third Re- 
fer voir without ft Syphon ; where being joined, they come out of 
the Earth together. This complicated Piece of Machinery will be 
beft underftood by beginning with an Explanation of the more Am- 
ple Parts firft \ in doing of which, we Ihallr have an Opportunity 
of confidcfing fome other Sorts of Fountains, which have already 
been obferved, or may hereafter be found to be in Nature. 

The Fetitio Principii^ or Suppofition of Refervoirs and Syphons in 
the Bowels of the Earth, has been made by others: Pere Regnauh^ 
in his Pbil. ConverfaHonSj Vol. 2. Con v. 6. p. 125, &c. Ertg. Edit. 
has mentioned it in general, and Dr Defaguliers^ in Phil. Tranf. 
Numb. 3^4, has attempted to apply it to two Cafes in particular ; 
zsD€cbales^ Trail, xvii. de Fontibus Naturalibus^ &c. Prop- xv. had 
done in two other Cafes before him. Nor is it unnatural or hard to 
be granted. Wholoever has feen the Peak of Dtrh^jfiire^ the Hilly 
Pans of ff^aleSj or other Countries, muft be (atisfied that they abound 
-with Caverns of many forts. Some of them are dry, others ferve 
,only for Paffages, or Channels to Streams, which run through them ; 
and a third Sort collect and hold Water, 'till they are full. They 
muft likwife have obferved, that there are fometimes narrow Paf- 
fages runn^ing between the Rocks which compofe the Sides, and going 
from one Cavern co another. Such a Paflagc, of whatfoever Shape 
or Dimenfions, how crooked and winding foever in it's Courfc, if 
.ic be but tight, and runs from the lower* Part of the Cavern firft up- 
wards to a Icfs Height than of the Cavern, and then downwards be- 
low the Mouth of the faid Paftage, will be a natural Syphon. 

A aatural 



Of Intermitting and Reciprocating Springs. iti 

A natural Refcrvoir then, ABCD, with fuch a natural Syphon, Fig. 32. 
MNP may be fuppofcd. Let a Stream, which 1 fliall call the Feeding- 
Stream, enter it, near the Top at O. The faid Cavern muft contain 
all the Water which comes in at O, 'till it is filled to the Top of 
the Syphon at N. Then the Syphon beginning to play, and being 
fuppofed always to difcharge more Water than comes in by the 
Feeding-Stream at O, will empty the Cavern, 'till the Water is funk 
in it below the Mouth of the Syphon at M, when it muft ftop, 'till 
the Cavern is filled, and the Syphon runs again as before. If the 
Water difcharged by fuch a Syphon, M P be brought out of the 
Earth by a Channel P Q^, the Water will flow out of the Earth, and 
ftop alternately, making an intermitting Fountain at Q^. - 

By this plain and eafy Contrivance, feveral of the flowing and 
ebbing Springs obferved by the Nacuralifts, may probably be ex- 
plained \ and even a much greater Variety of them than is hitherto 
known. For if the Feeding-Stream at O fhould arife only from thfe 
Rains in Winter, or from the'melting of the Snow in Suriimer, the 
intermitting Fountain would become a temporary Spring, as Dr Plo^ 
calls fuch Springs which ar« confined to a Seafon. Or if the Feed- 
ing-Stream at O Ihould be conftant, but yet liable with other Springs 
to an Encreafe and Decreafe arifing from the Seafons, Weather, or 
other Caufes, the Conftrudion of the Syphon would make a great 
Alteration. For when the Syphon is fo made that it*s Difcharge 
( which is continually decreafing, as the Surface of the Water fub- 
fides in the Cavernj (hall at any Time be equal to the Feeding-Scream 
entering at O, in fuch a Cafe, the Syphon muft coniinuaJly run, and 
yet not empty the Cavern, 'till the Feeding- Stream at O is fufficient- 
ly diminiflied. But, when the EXiameter of the Syphon at N, accord- 
ing to the Height of lh€ Cavern, is fo great, and the Feeding- Stream 
at O fo fmall, that the Syphon can carry off (in the Manner of aWafte- 
PipeJ all the Water which comes- in, and yet not run with a full 
Stream ; the S)(phoia muft then continue to ruh without emptying 
the Cavern, *tiH the Feeding-Stream at O is fuffieiently enlarged. 
So that by thefe different Conftrudions of the Syphon, tliere may be 
fome Fountains which fhall flow conftantly in the Winter, or a wet 
Seafon^ and intermit in the Summer, or a dry Seafon 5 and on the 
contrary, others which fliall flaw continually in the Summer, or i^ 
dry Seafon, and intermit iiv the Winter, os a wet Seafon. There \% 
a third Variety, which may arife from the Make of the Syphon, and 
will occalion luch Irregularities as admit* of no certain Explanation. 
This happens, when the Difcharge of the Syphon at the very laft is juft 
equal to the Feeding-Scream, and the Cavity of the Syphon at N is 
large; for in this Cafe, the Air-Bubbles, made by the F'all of the 
Feeding-Stream from Oto the Bottom of the Cavern, will fometimcs 
accidently get into the Mouth of the Syphon at M, and lodging ai 
Njt will fo choak it as to render li*s running and flopping, as well as 



itz *0/ Intermitting W BLcciprocatiag Spring 

the Quantity of its Difcharge, entirely uncertain 5 fo that thcfe fort 
of Fountains will admic of no farther Confideration. 

But before I leave the Confideration of Fountains explicable by 
one Refervoir and Syphon, it may not be amifs to obferve, that thofii 
which intermit regularly will hav« their Flux always longer, and 
their Paufe or Intermiflion fliorter in Winter and iA wet Wcsiher^ 
than in Summer or in a dry Seafon ; which is a Confe^uence cf this 
Hypochefls, by which it aiay be -examined, whether it be applicable 
to any particular intermitting Fountain, or nor. 

■^^' 33- '^ ^^^ finglc Refervoir and Syphon has another Outlet at R, ficu- 

^ted between the Bottom CD of the Cavern, and the Top of cht 
Syphon N, we Ihall have another kind of Fountains. For if the 
Feeding. Stream at O, is capable of being difcharged by the Out-let 
fit R, a Fountain derived from R will continually run, whilft the 
Feeding- Stream can be difcharged that Way, and will encreafe and 
•^lecrcafe with any little Alteration happening to the Feeding-Stream 
at O, provided that the faid Stream does not grow too large for the 
Out-let at R. But in that Cafe the Cavern muft be filled up 00 N> 
and the Syphon may begin to play $ which, together with the Out-let 
at R, may difcharge fo much as to make the Surface of the Warer ia 
the Cavern fink below R, and confequently the Fountain proceeding 
from R muft ftop. If the Difcharge of the Syphon is fo great as to 
empty the Cavern, then the Fountain derived from R will, after 
fome time, begin to run again, and encreafe 'till the Water rifes in 
the Cavern to N ; after which it will decreafe, and at length ftop. 
But if the Difcharge of the Syphon only keeps the Surface of the 
Wat^r below R, without emptying the Cavern, then the Fountain 
"derived from R Ihall be dried up, fo long as the Stream at O con- 
tinues encreafed ; and fiiall run again when the iaid Feeding-Stream is 
lelTened. Thus we may have a Spring which fhall run all Summer, and 
be dry all Winter : Such a Spring will encreafe juft before it begins 
to fail, i. e. whilft the Water in the Cavern is rifing to N, will be 
tiried up fooner in a wet Summer, and break out later in a wet 
Winter, contrary to the Nature of other Springs. Which Particu- 
lars are worthy of Obfervation in foch fort of Springs C of which it is 
faid we have fome in England) and will ferve to difcover, whether 
•they are occafioned by this kind of Machinery, or not. 

^i* 34- ^^ ^^^ Syphon M N P, of the Refervoir A B C D^ having no Out* 

let at R, fhould difcharge itfeif into a fecond Refervoir EFGH of 
a fmaller Capacity, but furni(hed with a Syphon STV, which dif- 
charges the Water more plentifully than it comes in 5 a Fountain de- 
rived from this fecond Syphon S T V would flow and intermit, whilft 
the firft Syphon MNP continued running ; i.e. *till the great Re- 
fervoir A BCD fhould be emptied. After which it would entirely 
ftop^ 'till the faid Refervoir A B C D wa^ filled again by the 
2 Fcediflg- 



Of Ifttccinittiag a«^ Reciprocating Spriagr t«"l 

Feeding- Strqatn at O^ and then it would flow and intcrnUt u before; 

Such a Sore of coai pound Fountain would be liable to all the Va- 
riations of the former Fountains derived from a fingle Refcrvoir, if 
we take the Fits of flowiog and intermitting of this for the Flux of 
thci Former, and the long Scop in. this, whilft the great Refervoir. 
]s filling, for the Paufe or Injtermidioo of the former. Befides^ 
which,, we muft remark^ tha£ as the Flux in the former Foun- 
tains may. be changed, and be made longer or ihorter ; fo in this 
the Number of Interm^flions during one Fit of flowing and intermit- 
ting may not always be the lame, becaufe of the different Capacities 
of the two Refervbirs, and a Difference or Change occafioned in the 
Feeding- Stream at O. For if, whilft the greafr Refervoir A BC D is^ 
emptying, (he little Refervoir EFGH fliould empty itfelf ninetimes^^ 
for Infta^ce, and b& half full again, the Fountain derived from it's 
Syphon STV n;}uft have nine Intermifllons in one Fit, and ten in. 
another, alternately, whilft the Feeding-Stream at CX remains the 
fame. But the Feeding-Streaod at O being lefiened or enlarged, with*- 
out making the Syphon MNP run continually, the. Number of Ixtt- 
termiflions in each Fit will be diminifhied or augrnented accordingly. 
But 'tis peculiar to this laft Sort of Fountains, that in each Fie. of/ 
flowing and intermitting t^e firljt Flux will be larger andJonjger thaji 
the fecond, and. thQ fecond tbska the thJrd; bpi the firjft Indermiflion will: 
be fliprtcr tljiajg the.. fc<?ond*. apd t-bp fcwnd: thai? t;hc thir4 : becauih • 
the Sypbpn MN Prui^ning faft^r at iEJrft than at laft* th^ Refervetir' 
EEXjH n>uft.bipa,(hprfer Time in being fijlpd, andalQijg^ Time.- 
W bfein^ernptied the firft. Timetjian the ftcond \ the fecond than the. 
third^ and fp on. As to the whole Time of the. firft Flupe, an4 In* 
terniiffion,, in Comparifgn of the wholp Tifla^ of tbo fecond I^lujt and 
Intermiffion, it is a Particula;*, requiring fo nuny Thjngjs to be- 
taken into Confideration for determining it in each Cafe^ tj).ai-l: ihall. 
wave it here, and content myfelf with (hewing that it may be. longer, . 
by an Experiment tha,t will prefently be niade. Ano.ther Variety ia. 
this iSort of Fountains might be made by a fecond Feeding-Stream- 
Z, corning into the fecond Refervoir EFGH;. but the bsjre nienn 
tioning of that will at prefent be fufficient. 

If in the Contrivance of a fingle Refervoir -and Syphony thtc Strean> 
derived. from the Syphon fbould fall into another Refervoir IKK.L, ^'^' ^^ 
h;i.ving no Syphon, but only a common Out-let X, and fliould in this- 
Refcrvoir meet and join with another Stream conftantly runnings a 
Eoiuitaii^ derived from the faid Out-let X would be a Reciprocating 
Spring ; by which Name I call thofe Springs which flpw conftantly,. 
but with a Stream fubjcft to encreafe and decreafe, to diftinguifti 
tbem from Intermitting-Springs, which flow and flop alternately. 
And if the Outlet X be too fmall tocarry off all the Water brought 
ioto the Refervoir IKK L, by the. Syphon, over and abov^ what i« 
b/ojLightJn.* by th^. corjftantjy^ running Stream W.-,* tbea tl;e. Surface. 



18+ Of latcrmitting and Reciprocating Springs. 

of the Water in thefaid Refcrvoir IKKL muft continually rife, *tin 
the Velocity of the Stream going out at X, is fufficiently encreafcd 
to carry off the Water coming in : Upon which, the Difcharge of 
the Syphon being contin^^ally leflcned, the faid Surface will again 
fubfide, and the Velocity of the Stream at X will diminilh ; fo that 
both the Encreafe and Decreafe in this Reciprocating Fountain will 
be gradual. Befides, if the Refcrvoir I KK L, or the Channel deri- 
ved from it, fliould have any Leaks, Crevices, or other Out-lets, 
the Water will iffue through them upon the RiGng of the Surface in 
the faid Refcrvoir, and occafion Springs, which will ceafe again 
when the Surface fubfides. 

Jig, 36. Let us now fuppoie fuch a Refcrvoir IKKL, with a conftantly 

running Stream W, and an Out-let X, to receive the Water of a 
Syphon S T V, coming through two Rcfervoirs AB C D and E F G H, 
as before dcfcribed. A Fountain derived from X in this Cafe, would 
be an intermitting Reciprocating Springs whofe Stream would reci- 
procate, but whofe Reciprocations would fomctimes flop, and have 
Fits of Intermiflion. 

Such, in all probability, is the Fountain called Lajwell^ before 
dcfcribed, whofe Phacnomena gave occafion to thefe Thoughts, and 
feem capable of being accounted for by fuch a Contrivance. And 
for the better Difcovery of the Nature of this Fountain, whether it is 
owing to fuch a Piece of Natural Machinery, or otherwife, it would 
be proper to obferve the length of Time of each Increafe, Decreafe, 
and Paufe in every Reciprocation, together with the Number of Re- 
ciprocations in every Reciprocating-Fit, and likewifc the length of 
the Intermiflions of the faid Fits. 1 hefe Obfervations (hould be con- 
tinued for fome Time, both in a fettled Seafon, when the Feeding- 
Scream at O cannot change, and in Variety of Scafons, when the 
faid Stream may be altered. 

Having now brought thefe Thoughts to the End propofed, viz, 
an Explanation of fuch a Fountain as Laywell^ I fhall carry them no 
farther*, but conckide, by prcfenting to the View, an artificial Foun- 
tain of this kind, which being very,eafily made, may be buried in 
the Bottom or Slope of a Terrafs, where a conftant Stream of Water 
can be brought, and will furnifli us with a new fort of Water- Works 
in Gardens. The two Rcfervoirs ABCD, EFGH, with their Sy- 
phons MNP, STV, and the third Refcrvoir IKKL, with it's 

f' g Out-let X, are included in a Box Y Y YY. Into this Box at a enters 
a Funnel Fat divided within the Box into two Pipes, viz. >^0, which 
ferves for a Feeding-Stream to the great Refcrvoir, and a W, which 
fcrvcs for a conftant Stream to the third Refcrvoir. A Stream of 
Water being let into the Funnel TaF, will difcharge itfelf like fuch 
an intermitting Reciprccating-Fountain at X, where there is a Bafon 
YZZZ without the Box to receive it; with an Out-let «t, and a 
Diagonal Gage Z Y, to mark the Rife and Fall of the Water in the 
Bafon. CHAP. 



C Its ] 

CHAP. III. 
MINERALOGY. 



I. i.np'HE following Obfenrations arc the Particulars of what I SomeOher- 
X obfcrved during a Year's Stay in the Wcftern Part oivatmn^ 
Cornwall^ concerning Mines^ &c. ^n^^lNati^ 

AGnes in general are Veins or Cavities within the Earth, whofe Sides nffttrj ef^ 
receding from, or approaching nearer to, each other, make them of Mines Mnd 
unequal Breadths in different Places; fometimes forming large Spaces, Metals, h 
which are called Holes. They are filled with Subftances, which, ^^j^^*^' ^Jj 
whether metallic, or of any other Nature, are termed the £otfif. !oK*pafr * 
When the Subftances forming thefe Loads are reducible to Metal, 402. 
the Loads are by the Miners fald to be alive ; otherwife they are 
termed dead Loads. 

In Cornwall and Devon the Loads always hold their Courfe from 
Eafiward to Weftward •, tho' in other Parts of England they frequent- 
Iv run from North to South. The Miners report, that the Sides of 
the Load never bear in a Perpendicular, but conftantly underlay ei* 
thcr CO the North or South. 

The Mines feem to be, or to have been, the Channels thro* which 
the Waters pafs within the Earth ; and, like Rivers, have their fmall 
Branches opening hito them in all Directions ; which are by the Mi« 
ners termed, the Feeders of the Load. 

Moft Mines have Streams of Water running thro' them, and when 
chey are found dry, it feems to be owing to the Waters having 
changed their Courfe, as compelled to it, either becaufe the Load 
had ftopped up the ancient Paflages, or that fome new and more 
eafy ones are made. 

The Load is frequently intercepted by the crofling of a Vein of 
Earth, or Stone, or fome different metallick Subftance. In which 
Cafe it generally happens, that one Part of the Load is moved a 
confiderable Diftance to one Side. This tranfient Load is by the 
Miners termed a Flooking ; and the Part of the Load which is 
moved, is, in their Terms, faid to be heaved. This heaving the 
Load would be an inexpreflible Lofs to the Miner, did not Expe* 
rience teach him, that, as the Loads always run on the Sides of the 
Hills, fo the Part heaved is always moved towards the Defcent of 
the Hill. So that the Miner working towards the Afcent of the 
Hill, and meeting a Flooking, confiders himfelf as working in the 
Part heaved % wherefore cutting thro* the Flooking, he works upon 

VOL. VI. Partii, A a it's 



186 A Natural Hijidrj of Mines and Metals. 

it's Back towards the Afccnt of the Hill, till he recovers the Load, 
and vice versa. 
Fig. 37. AD fliews a Load running in the Side of a Hill, Bthe Feeders, 

C the Flocking, D is the Part heaved. 

Sometimes, tho* not conftantly, the Mine is lined with an interme- 
diate Subftance betyeen the Load and itfelf. This is { properly 
fpcaking; the Wall of the Load: Though, in the common Accepta- 
tion of that Term, it fignifies cither fuch intermediate Subftance, or 
the Side of the Mine, where the Load immediately unites itfelf to ic 
Fig. 38, A is the Side of the Mine, B the intermediate Wall of white Mun- 
jig, 39. die, C the Load of Copper. D E two Walls of Spar-Stone, F 
afmall VeinofTinOre. 

The Springs in thefe Parts arc always hard, as abounding very 
much, either in ftony, or fulphureo-faline Particles. 

From this Water thus faturated with ftony Particles, we frequent- 
ly find the Paflages of the Water under Ground, either partly, or 
totally flopped up; the ftony Matter gradually concreting round the 
Sides of the Mine, and forming thereby a confufed Load of Spac- 
Stone. 

At other Times this ftony Matter concretes more diftinAly: In 
which Cafe the ftony Matter feems to be governed in it's Concretion 
by a Plaftic Power.^ 

N. B. When I fpcak of a plaftic Power, I would be underftood as 
meaning only a Modus of Attradtion, by which the attraded Particle* 
are ranged in this or that determined Form. This Power then (b 
exerts it's Adlion, as to range the concreting Matter into the Forna* 
of a hexagonal Prifm, whofc Head goes off in a hexagonal Pyramid* 
Where this plaftic Power happens to be fingle and uncontrouled, it 
prcferves the Form of the Cryftal to very confiderable Magnitudes. 

In thefe fingle Cryftals we may obfervc, that they are of different 
Tranfparencies and Colours^ as the ftony Matter is more 6r lefs dif- 
^ngaged from other Subftances, or as thofe other Subftances are ca- 
pable of imparting different Tinftures to thenu And that they 
feem formed laminatim \ tho* the Lamina are only diftinguifliable^ 
^hcn the Matters from whence the Cryftal 'is fuocefively forn?>ed, 
j^ liappen to differ in Purity. The Cryftal A was at firft formed from. 

Matter intangled with a foul yellow Subftance; after which, a pirre 
Matter advening, the Cryftal ^as in it's future Lamination formed 
more pure and tranfparcnt. 

But where the plaftic Particles are more numerous, there feems. 
Reafon to believe, that thefe very plaftic Particles, before they are 
fixed, are fubjeft to the Controul and DireAion of any fixed plaftic 
particle, within the Verge of whofe Aftivity they happen to move : 
notwithftanding which, after they are once fixed, they exert their 
own plaftic Powers, and, in Conjuniftion with the firft plaftic Par- 
•liclc, govern the future Concretion,, in fuch Manner as to form a 

fcemingly 



Pial£. VJ^W-PartlfPaj^i^i 




de and MeuU, 

of 



VCJ 



A Natural Hiftory of Mines and MctaU. \%j 

feemingly irregular Cryftal, tho* compofed of two or more reeufar 
Cryftals. Thus A and C fccm to have attrafted amongft the ftony Tig, 41, and 
Particles, two plaftic Particles, which afterwards exerting their own 42. 
Powers, form the additional Cryftals B and D. 

There are many Phaenomena obfervable in thefe Cryftals, which, 
at prefent, I may pafs over, as lefs relating to the Afiair of Metals ; 
wherefore I fhall only add, that thefe cryftalline Concretions exert a 
ftrong Attra£tion on many metallic Subftances. As the Spar A has Fig. 43. 
attracted the three Portions of Lead B. and the Cryftals C have at- 
traded the Copper D, and are attrafted by the Lead E. Fig. 44. 

The fulphureo-faline Particles, with which, as I obferved, the 
Waters are frequently faturated, are found to be either of a vitriolic 
or an arfenical Nature: The firft conftantly, if pure, concreting into 
white Cubes refembling Grains of Silver, while the arfenical Sulphur 
concretes into yellow Cubes like Grains of pure Gold. Both thefe 
are by the Miners termed Mundic. 

Thefe fulphureo-faline Subftances feem direded in their Concre- 
tions by a plaftic Particle, m the fame Manner as the Cryftals above- 
mentioned ; and, like them, upon the fame Principles, are found 
fimple or compound. In their Sides you may obferve the Concretion 
forms itfelf like Threads, which in three Sides run in different Di- 
reftions, but are always ftmilar in the oppoflte Sides. 

Ftg. 45. Ihews one of thefe Cubes, A the parallel Threads. Fig. 45. 

Tig. 46. lhew» another of thefe Cubes, from whofe Sides arife ^^g^ 46* 
fmall Segments of Cubes C. 

But this plaftic Power feems to be weakened or deftroyed, in Pro- 
portion, as this fulphureous Matter is more or lefs intangled widi 
metallic Subftances. 

Thus in Fxg. 47. the plaftk Particle feems for a while to have ex- Fig. 47; 
erted it's Power in the ufual Manner, till the advening Matter grew 
intangled with a fmall Quantity of Copper, after which it feems only 
to have exerted it's attra^ive but not it's plaftic Power. 

And in Fig. 48. the white Mundic being infected with Iron, feems /^f* \l\ 
fo far from being affeded by a plaftic Power, that it concreted in the 
Form of Icicles from the Fluid which tranfuded thro* the Top of the 
Mine. 

Fig. 49. reprefents fome fmall Cubes of white or vitriolic Mun- %. 49; \ 
die. 

But to return to the Mines : They are found to contain Iron, Tin, 
Lead, Copper, and a pfeudometallic Subftance, by the Miners ter- 
med Glift. 

2. Of all the Subftances concurring to form the terreftrial Globe, Bome farther 
Iron probably bears the greateft Share ; as it not only abounds in moft Obfervations 
Kinds of Stone, fliewing it felf in Varieties of Crocus, all which gain S^'J jj^ 
a more intenfe Colour by Fire; but enters likewife greatly into the^^^^j^^ct 
Compofition of common Clay \ as may be judged from the Similitude and Metals, 

A a 2 of 



^8« A Natural Hiji^ry of Mines 4»^ Metals. 

hj^^fifnf of Colour between Clay and dry Iron Ore-, from the eafy Vitrifica- 
pae ^^80 ^^^^ of Clay ; from the Rcfcmblancc between Clay fo vitrifyed and 
«^*^' ^ ' the Clinkers of Iron ; from it's deep red Colour after Calcination } 
Of IRON. ^^^ iaftly, from it's yielding pure Iron, by being burned with Oih 

But while Iron is thus entangled with other Bodies, it rarely em« 
ploys the Care of the Miner ; who finds the Eatpence of reducing it 
to Metal too feldom ballanced by the Price it yields : For which 
Reafon though we frequently meet with large and rich Loads of Iron, 
yet ( the Woods having been applied to more advantageous Ufes) 
they are there entirely negleded. 

When it is moft pure, i find the Ore under three different Appear- 
ances. 

Paper the firft contains a Piece of rich dry Iron Ore, whofe Scra- 
pings exadly refemble an Jlkobol Mariis : This Kind of Iron Ore hat 
very nearly the Colour of common Clay. 

Paper the fecond contains a Piece of rich Iron Ore, with Part of 
the Wall of the Load formed by a Concretion of yellow CryftaJs. 
In this Stone the Iron radiates from Points forming Segments of 
Spheres, and where thefe Spheres leave any Interftices, you will find 
a Crocus, or Oken 

Paper the third contains a Stone of Iron of the Kind ufed for 
bumifliing Plate } it is of the Species of the Hamatites. 

Both thefe laft Stones fcrape into a deep Crocus. 

From the fecond Inftance we may conje&ure, that the yellow 
Colour in Cryftals arifes from a Crocus entangled with the ftony 
Salts. 

- Though the Want of Wood in Cornwall deprives it of the Advan- 
tages it might otherways reap from Iron as a Metal, we (hall never- 
thelefs find it far from being an ufelefs Ore, when we confider it as 
fometimes impregnating the Waters with vitriolic Salts, thereby 
making them a proper Menftruuth for difiblving the difleminated 
Particles of Metals ; fometimes deftroying the fulphureous Menftrua, 
which ('though they diflblve the difleminated Metals) do neverthe- 
lefs obftrudb their new Concretions ; and fometimes as being itfelf 
the Magnet by which the metallic Particles are attracted into new 
Concretions. 
Cf TIN. The next metallick Subftance found in Cornwall and from which 

thefe Iflands are fuppofcd to take their Name, is Tw. It is neve? 
found but as an Ore ; whereas Gold is never found but as a Me- 
tal, at leaft it's Ore is unknown, and all other Metals are found 
fometimes as a Metal, and fometimes as an Ore. 

Tie always /hoots into Cryftals which are of different Magnitudes 
from two Ounces in a fingle Cryftal to fuch as efcape our Sight. 
Thefe Cryftals are for the moft Part interfperfed in Loads of other 
Subftances 

z Paper 



A Nat'ural Htftary ^ Mines and Metals. 189 

Paper the fourth contains Tin Cryftak interfperfed in a Load of 
a Kind of Clay, in which is obfervable a coniiderable Quantity of 
Red-oker. 

Paper the fifth contains a Stone of hard Iron Stone, in which are 
exceeding fmall Cryftals of Tin. 

Paper the fixth contains fomewhat larger Cryftals, interfperfed ina 
dry Red-oken 

Paper the feventh contains Tin Cryftals, interfperfed with Spar- 
ftone and a Sort of Marl. 

Paper the eighth contains larger Cryftals, interfperfed in a kind 
of Clay and Red-oker, as in Paper the fourth. 

When a hundred Sacks of the Load (each containing more than a 
Winchefier Bufhel; yield oi\e Gallon of dean Ore, the Load is efteem- 
cd very well worth working. 

Sometimes thefe Cryftais are fo coUefted into one Mafs, as to form 
Loads of pare Tin Ore, and fo large as to yield to the Value of looib. 
every twenty -four Hours. 

Paper the ninth contains two Stones of fuch pure Loads> in whic& 
obferve the one is black, and the other nearly white. 

Thefe Cryftais concrete fometimes into the Form of a Parallelopi- 
pedon, whofe Summit is covered by a Pyramid ; fomtimes the An- 
gles formed by the Sides of the Pyramid, and fometimes the Suoi- 
mit of the Pyramid are as it were plained away. 

Paper the tenth contains feveral of thefe Cryftais, of which Num^ 
ber the firft contains a whole CryftaU which has none of it's Angles ftg, 50k 
offl The fecond contains a Cryftal which has only two of it's Angles 
plained away. The third contains a Cryftal which has all it'a Angles %. 5f. 
plained away. The fourth contains a Cryftal which has all it^s An- %. 52;. 
gles and it's Summit plained away. %. 5I^ 

Sometimes the Cryftais represent two equal pentelateral Pyramida 
joined at their Bafe. 

As in Paper the eleventh, which contains two Clufters of CryftaTs, 
which confidered feparately are of that Form. 

Under whatfoever Form thefe Cryftais (hoot, they always carry 
an exceeding fine Surface ; which, when rubbed off, can be renew- 
ed by no Art. In Paper the fourth one Side of the Parallelopipedon 
is rubbed away to fliew it's Appearance after lofing it's natural Sui^ 
face. 

Thefe Cryftais are of different Colours from the White (Jike 
white Sugar, candyed ) to the deep Black. Thus Paper the twclftl^ 
contains a group of fnull white Tin Cryftais, which are very uncom- 
mon. Thefe white Cryftais feem to me to carry a finer Luftre thaa 
any other I ^ver faw, and are perfeftly tVanfparem ;. fo that were they 
found of equal Size with the black Cryftais, and of a white Water 
(which I imagine may be") their Hardnefs and Weight { in both whrch 
they eKeed any other FoftU) would probably make them prefexabk 



ipo A Naturdl Hifiary of lAxat% and MctalsJ 

toihe Diamond. Howcvef, as the deeper Cobur^ of thefe Cryilals 
feem to arifc from a greater Proportion of Iron in cheir Compofi- 
tion, which they throw off in an Iron Slag upon Fufion, and which 
changes by proper Degrees 6f Heat into a Crocus, thereby changing 
the Colour of the Cryftal to a bright*r Red 5 fo the whice Tin Ore 
is certainly to be efteemed both richeft and beft, as moft free from 
Iron. 

Paper the thirteenth contains a- Piece ofthtf Load cointained in 
Paper the feventh, in which the Cryftals are of a brighter red, from 
it's being heated red-hot. {TBefe Specimens were all produced before 
the Society, and are fince prefented to Sir Hans Sloane, Preftdent.) 

Thefe Cryftals feem to be the heivieft Bodies the Earth produces, 
except Quickfilver and aftual Metab. Their fpecific Gravity is to 
Water as 90 i to 10 ; to Rock, Cryftal in Water as 90! to 26 ; co 
Diamond as 90 i to 34; and to pure rtialleable Tin, as found by re- 
peated Trials, as 90 i to 78 ; from whence appears the Poffibility of 
what fome Miners affirm, viz. That a cubical Inch of fonie Tin Ores 
will yidld more than a cubical Inch of Metal. 

Having already taken Ndtice that the Cryflrals^ of Tin are fome- 
times fo fmall as to efcape the Eye, and fo difleminated in the I^oad 
as not to make above sioth, or ionE>o Part of the Load, one would 
naturally imagine it an endlefs Labour to cleanfe the Ore from fuch 
a vaft Difproportion of Rubbifh. But the great fpecific Gravity of 
thefe Cryftals renders the cleaning it lefs troublefome, and lefs ex- 
penfive, than in any other Ore whatever. It requires no more, 
than that the whole Stuff be ftamped to a fine Powder, after which 
it is waflied by a Water, whofe Force is fo moderated as to wafti 
away only the lighteft Parts. This Stamping and Wafliing is repea- 
ted till the Ore is left exceedingly clean, and yields in Metal from 
i*-to 1§, according as it is cleanfcd from the Load, and as it is in it's 
own Nature more or lefs free from Iron. 

I Beg Leave to defer the Account of Lead and Copper. 

^omeX)bferva' ^^' ^he Peak is famous for feven Places, which have beeti dignifi- 

tionsonthe cd by our Anceftors, with the Name of Wonders: 1. Cbatjivortbj a 

Pcak/ffDer- magnificent Seat of his Grace the Duke of Dev$njhire\ 2. Mam-tori 

ffi Mar? n 3" ^Iden-bok', 4. The ebbing and flowing Welh 5. BuKton-lVelh, 6. PeaJ^i 

FR. ^/iSK^' ^^^^^ and 7. Pool*s Hole. The Ftrft being a Work, not of Nature, 

407. p. 22. but Art, does not come within the Defign of this Account. Mam-M 

is a huge Precipice facing the Eaft, or South-Eaft; which is faid to 

Mam-tor. y^ perpetually fhivering and throwing down great Scones on a fmal* 

ler Mountain below it ; and that neverthelefs, neith^ the one in« 

creafes, nor the other decreafes in Bignefs. This Mountain is com- 

pofed chiefly of a Sort of Slate-Stone (called in that Country Black 

Shale) and great Stone. The Nature of the Black Shale is known to 

be, that notwithftanding it is very hard before it is expofed to the 

Air, yet it is afterwards very eafily crumbled to Duft. Thus on 

any 



Obfervatidns m the Peak « Dcrbyfhirc. ipy 

any Storm, or melting of Snow, this Shale is confiderably wafted ; 
and as the great Stones are gradually difengaged, they muft neceflTa- 
rily fall down. That ic is only at thefe Times that the Mountain 
waftes, is affirmed by the moft intelligent of the neighbouring Inha- 
bitants: And that this Decay is not perpetual, I can affirm myfelf ; 
having not only taken a dofe Survey of it, but alfo climbed up the 
very Precipice, without feeing any other fhivering in the Mountain^ 
than what the treading of my own ^^j^ in the loofe crumbled Earth 
occafioned. That the Mountain does not decreafe in the mean Time» 
is a Tale too frivolous to need any Confiderati(»i. 

Elden-hole^ is a huge perpendicular Chafm. The Depth of it is Elden-hQli^ 
not known. Mr Cotton tells us, chat he founded 884 Yards, and yec 
the Plummet drew. But he might eafily be deceived, unlefs his 
Plummet was of a very great Weight ; for otherwife, I imagine the 
Weight of a Rope of that Length, would be fo great as to make the 
Landing of the Plummet fcarce perceivable. Be that as it will, the 
Depth of it is to be fure very confiderable ; and fince have no^ 
where in England fo good an Opportunity of iearching the Bowels of 
Ae Earth to fo great a Depth \ I wonder no curious Perfon has ever 
had the Courage to venter down. It is faid indeed, that a poor FeU 
low was hired to be kt down with a Rope about his Middle, two^ 
hundred Yards ; and that he was drawn up again, out of his Senfes>. 
and died a few Days after : And no Wonder, for the poor Wretciv 
having nothrngelfe to refleA on in that difmal Place, but the Danger 
he bad put hin>felf into for the SiVfi of a little Money, might pro* 
bably be frightened out of his Senfes. Or indeed the very Fatigue 
itfelf might put him int^ that Condition \ as any one will eafily ima* 
gtne, who has been kt down but a quarter of die Way, and drawn 
up again in that Marnier. - But I conceive^: tliat if any intelligent and: 
prudent Perfon was to be let down in a proper Machine ; he would 
not be mudh in Dangcfr^ and his Fatigue would be very incoitfider*^ 
able. 

The ebbing Md flowing Well is <ar from being regular, as fome have Ebbing twd 
pretended. It is very feldom feen by the Neighbours themfelves \.fi^^i ^^^* 
and, ^or my Part, I waited a good while at it to no Purpofe. 

BuKton-lVdl has been eftcemed a Winder on account of ^^^^ Buxttn-WeiL 
Springs, one warm and the otfh^r cold, rifing near each other. But 
rfie Wonder is tiow loft, both being blended together. The Springs 
which is now ufcd for bathing, appears tp be 32* Degrees of one 
of Mr Hawkjbee^% Thermometers warmer than the common Springr 
Water there *. 

P.eaJ^s Hole and Fool^s Hole are two remarkable horizontal Openings p/^i';.^/^ 
updcr Mountains, the one near Caftlettfn^ the other juft by Buxton. Pooti-b^lu. 
They fcem to me to have owed their Original to the Springs whiahi 

* The SpringWaicr kcjt the .Split of Wio« at 41,. Ae Bath Wawrraifed it to 8i. 

hay^r 



19 z\ Obfervations on the Peak in Derby (hire. 

have their Current through them. It is cafy to imagine that when, 
the Water had forced it's Way through the horizontal Fiffures of the 
StratUy and had carried the loofe Earth away with it, the loofe 
Stones rauft of Courfe fall down ; and that where the Strata had few 
or no Fiffures, they remained entire, and fo formed thofe very irre- 
gular Arches which are fo much wondered at in thefe Places. Whe- 
ther this be the true Origin of thefe Caves or not, I fubmit to thofe 
who ihall hereafter have the Curiofity to examine. It feems more 
probable to me, than what others have hitherto propofed. The 
three Rivers, as they are commonly called, in Peak^s ItoU arc only 
fome Parts of the Cave deeper than the reft, and receiving all their 
Water from the Spring which comes from the farther End of the 
Cave. The Water which paffes through PopPs-bole is impregnated 
with Particles of Limeftone, and fo has incrufted almoft the whole 
Cave in fuch a Manner, that it ajppears like one folid Rock. 

tiadrn'mes. ^^^ Lead-mines in Derbyjhire are very various with regard to their 
Courfes. One into which I went down had two Branches \ one run- 
ning to the N. E. the other to the N. W. and as I was informed, 
one of the beft they ever difcovered ran due North. Their Breadth 
and Depth are full as irregular. The Bodies through which they 
dig to come at the Vein are generally Umeftone and Black Shale. But 
ic is uncertain which of the two is uppemoft. Of two Mines into 
which I went down, in one they had digged firft through 26 Yards of 
• limeftone^ then through one oi Black Shale : In the other firft through 
42 Yards of Shaky and then through 28 of Umefione. The Subftances 
which they find mixt with the Ore^ are. 

Chert. I. Chert. This is a kind of Flinty which Dr. Woodward"^ fays is 

called fo, when it is found in thin Strata. But in the Peak the 
Strata of Chert are oft:en four Yards thick, or thicker. They arc 
found in Limeftone^ and not always difpofed 10 Strata. Thofe which 
I took notice of were generally either black,, or of fuch a Colour as 
the infpiflated Juice of the Buckthorn Berries, which the Painters 
call by the Name of Sap-green : Whence they are called Green Cherts 
and Black Cherts. 

Spar. 2. Spar. This is compofed of Cryjial mixt with other Bodies. Thofe 

which they call Sugar-Spars, are thofe whofe Cryftallizations arc very 
fmall, and fo on crumbling to Pilcces have the Appearance of pow*» 
dered Sugar. I have two forts of thefe; white and blue. Dog-tootb 
Spar is a white pointed Spar, in Form and Colour fomething refem* 
bling Teeth. 

Cauk. 3. Cauk. T\i\% Hr. Woodward -^fzy^ is a coarfe talky Spar. But 

in that Subftance which I met with in this Country under the name 
of Cauk ; I could not difcover any Flexibility or Elafticity, which 
that learned Writer has fet down as Charadterifticks of Talk and Talkj 

* Method of Foinis^ pag. 21. f Ibid. pag. 18. 

Bo£es. 



Obfervations m the Peak in Derby (hire* 193 

Bo£i5. * It fetms to me ta be nothing but Spar incorporated with a 
coarfe earthy Matter; When this Cauk is mixt with pellucid Cryftal- 
lizations of Spar^ it is called Baftard Cauk. 

There* arc feveral other Bodies mixt in the Mines with Lead-ore: 
But as they did not occur in thofe Mines which I examined, I (hall 
omit the Mention of them. 

When the Ore is brought up from the Mine it is broken to Pieces Working 9/ 
that the Spar^ Cauk^ or other Bodies whidf iadhcredto it, may be the ^^^^On. 
more eafily feparated. It is then thrown into a large Sieve and wa(h. 
ed, and fo farther purified from extraneous Bodies. After this, it is 
carried to the Furnace in order to be fmelted. The Furnace, which 
I faw near IVorkfwortbj was very rude and fimple, confining only of 
fonie large rough Stones, placed in fuch a Manner as to form a fquare 
Cavity, into which the Ore and Coals are thrown Jiratum fuper fira-- 
turn \ two great Bellows continually blowing the Fire, bein^ moved 
alternately by Water. I faw no other Fuel ufed on this Occafion but 
dried Sticks, which they call white Coal, f Mr Ra'j informs us^ 
that they ufe both white and black Coal or Charcoal in Cardiganjhire. 
1 fuppole becaufe that Ore is harder to flux ; the Charcoal inaking a 
more vehement Fire. They generally throw in fome Spar along 
with the Ore, which is thought by imbibing the Sulphur to make ic 
flux more eafily. They frequently throw in alfo fome Cowke for 
Cinders of Pit-coal^ becaufe they think it attrads the Drofs, and fo 
makes an eafier Separation of it from the Lead. When the Ore is 
melted, it runs out at an Opening in the Bottom Patt of the Front 
of the Furnace, through a fmall Channel made for that Purpofe, 
into a cylindrical Veilel, out of which it is laded into the Mould, 
The Drofs of the Ore on fmelting is called Slag. This Slag is after- 
wards fmelted again with Cowke only, and the Lead obtained from 
it is called Slag-lead. Their Way of making Red-lead is the fame RedieAi* 
with II Mr Raf% Account ^ only they ufe three Parts of Lead, and 
one o( Slag- lead y and think that the Red- lead made thus is better than 
if made without SlagJead. iafS 

III. The Engine confifts of a Triple Crank working three Pumps^ which %l Royal So- 
both fuck and force Air, by Meansof thvte Regulators j and are alternate- cicty, tcjbeta 
ly applied to drive Air into, or draw it from any Place afligned, l^^^ Damps, 
thro' fquare wooden Trunks ; which being mad^ of flit Deal, and ^^^j^,!^ 
10 Inches wide in the Infide, are eafily portable, and joined to ont'^ulo/any 
another without any Trouble. Sort of Mines, 

Experim. I.] I filled a tall cylindric Glafs with the Steams of a &c- ,h *"' 

burning Candle and burning Brimftone Matches, in fuch Manner ^"^j^^^^^ 

that a lighted Candle would go out almoft as foon as it was let down j^^. j t. 

•into that foul Air. Then fixing the Trunks (or fquare Pipes) to the Dcfagulicrs, 

LL D. anil 

• Catalogue of Foffib, Vol. i. part i. p. 57. + CoIle«5lion8 of EngM Words, ^ ^* ^' ^^'^ 

Ed. 2. p. 174. II IWd. p. 200. }J^- P^fr 

VOL. VI. Partii. Bb forcing'"' 



194 Experiments concerning H)amps. 

forcing Hole of the Engine, I drove frclh Air into the Bottom of the 
above-mentioned Receiver \ fo that the foul Steam came out at the 
Top of the Receiver, which was open. 

Experim. IL Having filled another Receiver (clofe at Top) with foul Steams, 
as before, I placed it in a Poficion almoft horizontal, only with the 
clofe End fomething above the open End, that the foul Steam might 
not go out of itfelf, when fpecifically lighter than common Air. I 
fixed the Trunks to the Sucking hole of the Engine; and by working 
the Engine, drew out the foul Steams from every Part of the Re- 
ceiver, as the Trunks were applied to them fucccflively. 

Experim. III. Having filled with foul Steams, and fct upright fas in the firft 
Experiment) the cylindric open Receiver, I applied the Trunks ta 
the fucking Part of the Engine, with their open End near the Botton[> 
of the Receiver Then, by pumping, the Steams were all drawa 
downwards, and fo out at the Top of the Trunks at the Engine ; 
whereas, in the firft Experiment, they were driven out at the Top oF 
the Receiver. 

JSxpirim. IV. Having fet a Candle in the cylindric Receiver above-mentioned, 
without having filled it with Steams, and let down the Trunks into 
the Receiver, below the Flame of the Candle, I laid the wet Leather 
over the Mouth of the Receiver, leaving about Half an Inch open, 
for the Air to come in , notwithftanding which the Candle began to> 
dwindle, and be ready to go out; but working the Engine with the 
Trunks joined to the forcing Part, the Candle revived, and burned, 
at iaft, as well as in the open Air. When I had left oflT Pumping, 
the Flame of the Candle diminifhed a^ain ; but when it was ready 
to go out, it revived again, upon forcing in more Air with the En- 
gine. 

Jbm^ris upon When Damps in Mines arc fpecifically lighter than common Air, 

the Expert' they will be driven out of the Mine by the firft Experiment. 

mnf^' When Damps are fpecifically heavier than common Air, they may 

be fucked out by the Second or Third Experiment. 

When a Sought or Adit^ is carried from a Mine to any diftant Val- 
ley, to difcharge the Water, or favc the Trouble of raifing it quite 
to the Top of the Pit, SbafiSy or perpendicular Pits are generally 
funk from the Surface of the Earth to^ the faid Sough, to prevent 
the Workmen from being fuflTocated as they dig the Sough, and that 
at a great Expence ; but, by the fourth Experiment, frcfh Air may be 
driven down to the Workmen, to continue their breadiing free and 
fefe, and to keep in their Candles ; by which Means the Expence of 
perpendicular Shafts will be faved. 

It has been found by feveral Experiments, that a Man may breath, 
a Gallon of Air in One Minute, and a Candle of Six in the Pound: 
will burn nearly as long in the fame Quantity of Air; therefore the: 
Modql ODijr is capable of fupplying fcelh. Air taQne Man 5 and conr 

fcquemly>, 

i 7t 



Of the Efeeis ani Properties of ^amps. I95 

fcquently, a large Engine will abundantly fuppljr Air for the burning 
of Candles, and the Working of a great Number of Men in a 
Mine. 

One Man may work an Engine like the Model, and bigger every 
way in the Proportion of a Foot to an Inch, 

As at every Stroke, 14 cylindrtc (or 1 1 cubic) Feet of Air are dri- 
ven in, or as many cubic Feet of Damp fucked our, if the Axis of 
the Cranks be turned round 60 Times in a Minute, one Man, in 
that Time, may change the whole Air in a cubic Space, whofc 
Side is 8 Feet; and one Horfe, by working 24 Pumps with 
Half the Velocity, will eafily do four Times the Work of one 
Man. 

The Engines work with a great deal of Eafe, becaufe no Preffure 
of Atmofphcre is to be removed ; only a Velocity to be given to one 
Sort of Air, to change it for another. 

Fire will not do in all Cafes, though in fome, it will draw foul Air 
out of Mines with fuccefs ; becaufe feveral Sorts of Damps extinguifli 
Fire, and fome fulminate, and are dangerous, when Fire comes 
near them ; and even in common ftagnant Air, Fire will not keep in 
long. 

I am fenilble, that large Bellows have fometimes been made Ufe 
of- for this Purpofe ; but they require a much greater Power to pro- 
duce the fame EfFe<St, and cannot have the Advantage of being im- 
mediately changed from Forcing to Sucking -, neither are they fo cheap 
as the propofed Engine, which may be all made of Wood except the 
Cranky which muft be of Iron, and the Barrels of very thin Copn 
per. 

Bofton, July 19. 1729. 
IV. TV i^R Adams and his Servant being employed to repair a Pump jn Acmnt 9/ 
XyX, ^^ *is Place, about fix o'Clock this Afternoon uncowtrtd Me of tbeEf-, 
the Well; upon which he immediately attempted to go down, hy -^^^^ .^"^ ^^^^ 
Means only of a fingle Rope ; but had not defcended above five or ^Ifampyh 
fix Feet, before he was rendered incapable of fuftaining his Weight, MrUuLC 
and without fpeaking, or any Signals of Diftrefs flipped down fud- Greenwood^ 
denly to the upper Part of the Joint of the Pump ; where being fup- ^''^ ^'''^• 
ported about a Minute, fetching his Breath in a very diftrefled bridg^ New- 
Manner, he fell to the Bottom, which was about eight or ten Feet England. N©; 
lower, and covered with but a very few Inches of Water, without 4»»' P- ^^^ 
difcovering any Signs of Life. Hereupon his Servant (Thomas Reardon) 
with great Precipitation took the Rope in his Hand, in order to de- 
fcend to the Relief of his Matter; but at the fame Diftance from the 
Top, met with the fame fatal Interruption ; and without difcovering 
any Signs of Diftrefs, was heard to fall to the Bottom. 

The Workmen above prepared a Third with a Tackle about his 
Wafte. Upon his Defcent he was rendered Speechlcfs, and made no 

B b 2 Signs 



195 Of the Effects and properties of l^atnfs. 

Signs at all, chough he had agreed to it; whereupon being raifed from 
the Well, he was thought to have the Image of Death impreffed upon 
him 5 but upon the Ufe of proper Means was foon recovered with- 
out remembring any thing particularly that had paiTed. 

Some Hours after this the other Bodies were taken up; but, as 
we had before been well alTured it would be, with all the Marks of 
a violent Death upon them. 

There was nothing particular relating to this Well, excepting 
that it was nearly fituated to the Town-Dock, the Refervoir of all 
the Dregs of the Neighbouring Streets ; and is about 30 Feet deep, 
which in this Place is fo confiderable, that it is lower than the Sur« 
face of the Water at the greateft Ebb, There had not been an Air* 
Tube J or PafTage for the external Air to communicate with it for fome 
confiderable Time* 

This Evening feveral Trials were made on defcending Lights ; parti- 
cularly, by letting down Ugbted CandUs uncovered, others inclofed 
in Lanthorns, and others with the Lanthorn placed in a Pail ; but 
in all thefe Endeavours it was obferved, that whatfoever the Cir- 
cumftances of the defcending Light were, it never reached above fix 
Fcec 

July 20. I repeated this Evening fuch Experiments in the Damp as 
related to Flame^ and found the Effedi: much the fame as before ; viz. 
in about 6 Feet below the Top of the Well, the Flame would grow 
dim, and if not immediately raifed, would change to a bluifh Colour, 
and become more and more contradted or diminiihed, till in about a 
Minute's Time it would be totally extinguilhed, without any Re- 
mains or Stench accompanying the Wick, In thefe Experiments I 
particularly obferved, that the Flame in all it's Changes ftill conti- 
nued it*s pyramidical Figure ; nor did a quicker or flower Defcent 
make any Alteration in thefe Circumftances. One Experiment was 
very particular, relating to the Flame of a Candle. We took a 
common Pail, and having fixed a Candte to the Bottom thereof, ereA 
about 8 Inches long, we poured as much hot Water into the Pail 
as reached within a quarter of an Inch of the Blaze of the Candle. 
Then having carefully lowered the Pail down the Well, the Flame, 
notwithftanding it was defended by the reeking Steams of the hot 
Water, went out at the fame I>epth, and in the fanae Tin>e as it did 
before. After this we immerfed burning Coals, flaming Brimftone, 
and lighted Matches, all which were cxtinguiJhed with very little 
Difference as to the Time, or other Circumftance. 

Two Experiments were made relating to Animal Ufe. A large 
Kitting was very much affcfted in about a Minute's Time ; and after 
three Minutes was rendered fo weak, that after Ihe was taken out, Ihc 
could not fuftain her Weight on her Legs. Being at length pretrv 
well recovered, we carefully bound her up in a Silk Handkerchief 
that Ihe might be the more eafily fufpended \ and having let h^ 

dowa 



Of the Efe£is and Tr^erties ef "Damps. i^^ 

down about i6 or i8 Feet, in three Minutes flie was afFeded in the 
like Manner as before, making a vcry^diftrcffcd Noife, and in about 
five Minutes was in fuch extraordinary Convulfions as rendered the 
Sight not a little difagreeable ; but in thefe Throws flie difengaged 
herfclf from the Handkerchief, falling to the Bottom, without 
making any Efforts to fwim ; whence we concluded they were the laft 
Struggles for Life, in which ihe broke loofe. 

We tried the fame fatal Experiment upon a fmall Bird, which be- 
ing fufpended in the Damp about three Minutes, was found entirely 
fenfelels, and according to all Appearance pad Recovery. Upon 
taking it in my Hand, I found it was very cold, nor had it the leaft " 
Motion that I could difcover ; however, keeping of it clofe between 
my Hands, which were pretty warm, in about a Minute I felt a fmall 
Palpitation, which prefcntly increafed to a ftronger Pulfe, till in 
about fix or feven Minutes the Bird was rcftored to a perfeft and 
uninterrupted Refpiration. About half and Hour after this, we again 
put the Bird into the Dampy and continued it there about five Mi- 
nutes, after which we found it paft Recovery. 

July 21. I repeated feveral of the Experiments relating to Lights 
and Flame, which fucceeded with very little, if any Alteration, as be- 
fore } which we looked upon as an undoubted Confirmation of the 
Continuance of the Damp. Whereupon we proceeded ; firft, to exa- 
mine the Elafticity of the Air in the Well, by letting down a fmall 
Bell, the Sound of which was as diftind and loud, as in any ordinary* 
Well of the fame Depth 

Then to difcover the Degree of Moifture, we took a large 
Spunge a little wet, which with the Silk Strings whereby we let it 
down, weighed 278 Grains. This being fufpended in the Dampj up- 
wards of five Minutes, and then raifed, was carefully weighed, and 
found to be of the fanae Weight precifely. After this we dried the 
Spufigiy which then weighed but 261 Grains, and having applied it to» 
thtDamp for the Space of ten Minutes, we found alfo, that it had 
not gained the leaft Part that could be perceived in it*s Weight. AL 
fo, a large Bundle of Calguiy weighing two Ounces fifteen Penny- 
weight ten Grains, acquired not the leaft Augmentation thereto^ bf 
being fufpended for a very confidcrable Time. 

To thefe Experiments we added one upon the Hydrofiatical BalancCj. 
in order to determine whether there was any extraordinary Difference 
as to the Denfity, or Specific Gravity of common, and this vitiated' 
Air. The Balance we made ufe of was very large, and accurately 
poized, and the Solids which was a Globe, was four Inches eight 
tenths in Diameter. This with its String ¥»eighed in the Air fevea 
Ounces fix Penny-weight. And after we had immerfed it in the 
Dampy it foft nothing of it*s Weight, being then in jEquilibrio to fo 
great a Degree of Exaftnefs that half a Grain would over- ponderate 
oa either Side. 

Thia 



I9S 0/ the EffeBs And properties of Tramps. 

This Damp abated more and more by being expofed to the Air, 
till on Ju^ the 25th, Perfons were let down to the Bottom without 
any Inconvenience. 

The other Inftance is of a very fudden Subterraneous Vapour, on 
Md^ 9, 1729, in a Well in ScbooUboufe-Street^ Bojlon. 

This Well had been opened for fome confiderable Time ; and 
not only enlarged in it's Diameter, but funk fourteen or Bfteen Feet 
deeper. Hereupon Mr Renniefy and a young Man whofe Name was 
Rujfely undertook to lay the Stones. They had been employed all 
the Day, till about fix o'Clock in the Afternoon, when Renntef per- 
ceived a very unufual Stench, of which he firft upbraided his Partner 
as an A6t of Indecency, till by the extraordinary Increafe thereof, he 
was apprehenfive of fome greater Danger. Rujfel was hitherto unfen- 
fible thereof, but perceiving his Partner's Vifage to change to a very 
uncommon Degree, called up for Relief; at which Inftant, as he 
afterwards expreffed himfelf. He firft perceived a very ftrong noifome 
Smelly refemhhng rotten Fijhj which on a fudden feized his SenfeSj and 
rendered him unable to fuftain his Weight. Rennief had immediately 
clofed his Mouth and Noftrils with his Hand ; and when the Bucket 
was lowered with a third Perfon for their Relief, aflifted in getting 
Rujfel into it. As the Bucket was raifing, Rujfel was taken with very 
unufual and extraordinary Fits; and when he was laid upon the 
Ground, till Renmef was taken out» could fcarce be kept ftill by the 
united Strength of three or four Perfons ; but bounding and writhing 
his Body, like a Fifli newly taken from the Water. Renmef was 
aEFedted only with fainting Fits. After three Hours Rujfel recovered 
of thefe extraordinary Convulfions, but was difordered in his Brain 
during the whole Night ; and though Rennief was fooner relieved of 
his Fits, he continued extreamly difordered for a longer Time. It 
was thought remarkable, that neither of them was affeded with ei- 
ther Vomiting or Purging. 

This Accident happened on Friday ^ and on the Monday they were 
both reftored to perfeft Health. The Well continued infefted for a 
very little whilCj and when on the Monday following fome other 
Workmen renewed the Work, there was nothing Noifome that could 
be perceived. 

I cannot call to Mind, that there is any Inftance of fuch a tranfient 
Vapour or Damp recorded in the Pbilofopbical TranfaSHons % and 
muft confefs I am at a Lofs how to account for it. Should there be 
Subterraneous Exhalations which, like the Clouds or Wind in the 
Atmofphere, fhifted from one Place to another, it might be of great 
Importance to obferve the Particulars thereof, efpecially fuch as arc 
Malignantj as this was. The Paffage of this Vapour was about 25 
Feet below the Surface ; a Depth too great for it to affeffc Cellars 
or Vaults. 

1 had 



A Subterraneous Fire. t^^ 

I bad forgot to note, that this Part of the Town lies, rery Hfgh \ 
and the Ground for about ten Feet, hard Clay, and the reft a coarfc 
Sand and Gravel 

V. It was firft taken notice of on the fecond of Augufi laft, in a ^ Subtemnc- 
MarJbyFteld ficuated in the Pariih oi Flinx-Hill^ about ten or twelve otu Fire, «^ 
Miles South Weft of Canterbury. f^ed in 

It began on the fide of a little Brook near the Water, and con- ^^^ N«bkt^ 
tinued to burn along it's Bank, without fpreading much for fome mI^d.^v** 
Days. Afterwards it appeared on the other fide, and extended itfelf 399. pag^ 
the fpace of fome Acres over the Field, confuming all the Earth, 3^7" 
where it burnt> into red Alhes quite down to the Springs ; which in 
moft places lay four Feet or more deep. On the Twenty fourth of 
September I went to fee it, and found it had confumed, as well as I 
could guefs by my Eye, about three Acres of Ground. 

It then burnt in many Places, and fent forth a great Smoak and 
firong Smell, very like to that of a Brick Kiln. It never flamed but 
when the Earth was turned and ftirred. For fome fpace round where 
it was burnings the Ground felt hot, tho' the Grafs feemed no more 

erched than might reafonably be expelled from the Drynefs and 
eat of the Seafon. I caufed it to be turned up in feveral Places,, 
and found the Earth hot and wet near lour Feet deep^ and muchh 
hotter about two Feet than near the Surface. 

When this Earth was expofed to the Air, tho* it wa9 very tnoift 
and not hotter than you might eafily bear with your Hand, the Heat 
increafed So faft, that in a few Minutes it was all over oi> Fire>. like 
Pbofpborui made with Alom and Flower. 

The Soil of the Field is of the fame nature with that they make 
the Turf of in HollMid 9 the Surface of it is always wet, except in ex- 
tream dry Seafons.. This Year it was fomewhat more parched and 
hard than ufual. 

I believe, fr<»n what has been related, it is net more difficult ta 
account for this Fire, than for thofe which often happen in Hay-ricks 
when Hay is ftacked before it is thoroughly made. 

VI. The Thermometer ufed in this Diar^y was made by Mr HaukJ^ ^ Eroprion 
hee^ in which the Freezing- Point is markea at 65 Degrees under ^h^e/m^tWt^ 
Point extreme Hot ; but the Doftor obferves, that, at Napks^ Wa- fuvius, extras 
fcr will freeze when this Thermometer ftands at 55 Degrees on\^\^d from the 
Which^ he is of Opinion, fcems to argue, that there is foniething ^^^^*'^** 
elfe befides an intenfc Degree of CoW required for freezing Water v Na^ieT^/w- 
riaat the Air of Naples abounds in it, nx>re than the Air of London vmunicMtAd by 
and that this may probably be of a faline Nature v becaufe when we ^«^^°^5^. 
turn Water into Ice by the Help of Snow, it is ftcccflary tQ mix Salt 'jj"^ ^}aL 
witbiiL. ^ 424. pKv 

Msarckf 



zoo A Shock of an Earthquake &c. 

March Ther. Winds. 

8. 40: o. S. 3 Cloudy Weather; ftrong South Wind, Vefu^ 
1730. vius fent forth a great Smoak and Stream 

of Fire with hollow Rumbling. 

9. 38 : o. W. 1 The Weather cloudy. The following Night 

Vefuvius thundred as it were twice. In the 
Day the Windows trembled a little. 
^^> I^»o/>.n Q T Cloudy; Rain now and then: The Clouds 
,2. i9' o- ^- ' hide the Smoak and Fire. 

13. 41 : I. NW. I Weather rather clear. The Smoak is 

leflened. 

14. 47: o. N. 2 A little Rain in the Night, in the Mom* 

ing Snow in the Mountains. In the 
Forenoon the Snow increafed again. In 
the Evening after Eight o'Clock the Fire arofe to a vaft Height, and 
threw huge Stones to almoft half the perpendicular Height of the 
Mountain. Pumice Stones red hot of two or more Ounces Weight, 
were driven fevcral Miles like a Shower of Hail, and frightned a- 
way the Birds. In about an Hour's time the Height of the Flame 
was fomewhac lefifened ; and through the middle of the thick Smoak 
Flalhes of Lightning were often fee. 
March Ther. Winds. 

15. 30. o NE. I Clear Weather. Thick Smoak fcattercd the 

Afhe$ many Miles over the Sea. 
i6. 48 : o« S. I Clear in the Morning ; about noon doudy, 

fmall Rain and cold. By Change of the 
Winds the Smoak and Alhcs were carried 
towards the N. Clouds hide the Mountain. 

17. 40:1. S. I A few thin Clouds. The Smoak turned 

with the Wind. 

18. 40. S. SW. I Clmr. The City was fprinkled over with 

fmall Afhcs, like Kitchen Allies, which 
were attracted by the Loadftone. 

19. 42. o W. I A few thin Clouds. 

20. 37. o o Almoft clear. Vefuvius became entirely 

• quiet. 
ji Shock of an ^^^' ^ ^^^ ^^ Information brought to me ycfterday, that the 
Earthqmkt Earthquake was felt very fenfibly at a Farm on a Hill called Skcat- 
felt near Hillj which is at the Weft End of LullingSlone-Park^ belonging to 
Dartford//r Percival Hart, Efq; about 8 Miles South- Weft from Dartford : And 
^^^^' Mr Ed' ^^^ ^^^^ Morning a Piece of Ground, in a Meadow in Farmngham^ 
mmid Barrel, about fivcMilcs South of Dartford, fell in, fo as to leave a Pit about 8 
. ReffffT o/Sat' or lo I\gpt over and near as deep ; and being on the fame level with 
ton. No. 399. the River, it was (when feen that Morning) filled with Water, with- 
P- 305- in 3 or 4 Feet of the Top -, though that Spot of Ground, was fuppofed 

to 



An Ai^^ifMt of an Earthquake. 201 

to have been as found as any about it. Cares having many tin)ei 
gone over that very Place. 

VIII. The Earthquake came fuddcnly upon us in the Night after the A Account ^ 
Lord's- Day, Ollob. 29, 1727, between ten and eleven, in a very ^^^ jf^l^^^l^' 
Hill and fair Evening ; the Stars fo bright and glittering, that many ffp/^^/at 
had taken great Notice of them, and one or two Perlons that had Bofton in 
been in Places fubjeft to Earthquakes, had faid tranfiently, that if we New-Englaad 
had been ufed to have them, they Ihould cxpcdl one. This only ^'g^^^iu. 
general Symptom of it's Approach I have heard of, namely, the moft Colinaa?N*»- 
ferene Sky and calm Air that was ever known, not a Cloud in the ^09. p. i»f- 
Sky, nor fcarce a Breath of Wind, And though this is not univer- 
fally a Symptom when Earthquakes are coming on Places, yet fo far 
as I can inform my fclf, it has often and for the moft Part been ob- 
fcrved. It was fo in the dreadful Shake at Jamaica thirty odd Years 
ago I and a moft ingenious and obferving Friend of mine who had 
his Leg broke on the Point when it funk, and is ftill living, tells me^ 
That after that Shock, which was followed with many Tremblings 
and lefler Shakes while his Leg was healing, he could from Day to 
Day judge by the Face of the Sky and Air, whether there would be 
any Tremor or Jar of the Earth, If there was any Cloud hanging 
over the mountainous Part of the Ifland, there was no Shake that Day j 
but if all was ferene and fair, he expcfted one, and it feldom failed. 
Yet it has not been found fo with us, in our After-rumbles and 
Tremblings, which returned often for fome Months after the great 
Shake, and at Times for nine Months after it. 

The Town of Newbury^ at the Mouth of Merrimack River, about 
forty Miles North Eaft from Boftonj is the Place that feems to have 
been the Center of the Shock and Shakes felt by us. There the 
Earth opened and threw up many Cart-loads of a fine Sand and Alhes, 
mixed with fome fmall Remains of Sulphur ; but fo fmall, that tak- 
ing up fome of it in my Fingers, and dropping it into a Chafing-difix 
of bright Coals, in a dark Place, once in three Times the blue Flame 
of the Sulphur would plainly arife, and give a fmall Scent, and but a 
fmall one. By this it feems evident that it was a fulphureous Blaft 
which burfi open the Ground, and threw up the calcined bituminous 
Earth. The Family nearcft to this Eruption, it being in that Part 
of the Town where the Houfes lie at a Diftance ftom each other, 
were in the Terrors of^Death i the Roar and Shock being much 
more terrible upon them than upon others: And yet upon us at 
forty Miles Diftance, and upon others at forty and forty more, it was 
very terrifying and aftonifliing. 

. Five or feven fmall Shakes were felt by us, after the firft and great 
one, that Night and in the Morning following •, but thefc and other 
following Rumbles and Tremblings, were louder and greater at iV>te^ 
hury and the adjacent Places than with us j and they felt and heard 
many Times when our Parts did not ; but yet ftom Week to Week, 

VOL.VL Partii- Cc we 



20Z An Account of an Edrthifuaki^ 

we aftd the I^faces about tis felr and heard fame of the greater Tre* 
mors, both by Day and Night. 

I have received from a Reverend Minifter m Newhury ♦ the follow- 
ing Account. 

As to any previous Notices of the Approach of the Earthquake, I 
, cannot find any thing to be depended on. Tiie PrognofticationsthsMt 

have been among us have z\\ failed ; fnch as the ]^fghtne(< of the 
Sky beyond what was common ; the twinkliAg of the Scars, and the 
like. X certainly know that we have heard the RtmiWes in all Wea- 
thers, cloudy, foggy, rainy, fnowy, clear, coW, hot, riMd^raie^ 
windy, calm, (^ indifferently ; and at ^11 Hours of Day anui 
Night ; Cthough by the way, we heard thefc Rumbles cfftnet in zh^ 
Night during fVintef^ as I think, and fince more ufuaHy in che Day ) 
Alfo when the Wind has been at any Point of the Cotnpafs, and at att 
Times of Tide 5 and as to the Moon equally when (he Was nearer ot 
further from her Change or Full : Neither in any parcrcc^far Weadicr^, 
jlor on any obfervable Occafion were the Shocks greater, or R^Avbl^ 
fouder. 

As to any Alterations in the Arr or Water ^L^tt a Shock, I ceaU' 
never difcern any thing ; particularly as ta the Wind being raifed after 
d Shock, when ic was calm before, which fome reported, I could rri^ 
Ver perceive the leaft Difference. 

One Thing f may add here, very remarkable, and which mkf be 
depended on. About the Middle or Aprils that fine Sand whkh was, 
thrown up in feveral Places in this Parifft at the fifft great Shocks 
OSfob. 29, did aftually ftink to a very great Degree, even foas to be 
more naufeous than a putrefying Corpfe; yet in a very fittfc wh»e 
after it did not fmell at all. How long it wafs before h btpm t6 
ftink I am not certain ; I know ir did noc at firft, and 1 believe it- 
wa3 covered with Snow tiJl a little while before : There is nothing of 
Smell now. There has been no Openmg of the Ground, throwing 
up Sand, flopping or breaking out of Springs, fefr, as at firft. It 
there had continued any fenfible Evacuating of Air, or other Mat^ 
ter pent up in the Earth, from the Surface of the Sea or Land ac^* 
cent to us, at the Timesof our many Rumbles and Ti^emblirtgs, we 
flio.uld have difcerned ic before now. Newbury is a Spot of Groufrtd; 
and fo the adjacent Towns, very much inhabited and continually tra^ 
vefled over ; and as to the Sea contiguous to thefc Parts, it ish fuH 
of our Coafters by Day and Night; but neither on Land or Water 
have any fenfible Eruptions Or Evacuations been dbfervedthat Ihear 
of. 
^. S. Bofion fP^cekly News Letter^ Sept. 5, 172?. We hear from Mt»» 

bury and Rawley^ That they felt the Shake of the Earth on *thufdaf 

laft about Four in the Morning, the Noife much like Thunder, 

* Mr LoKtlt. 

Eg. It 



An uncMmnm Sh^hfg cf the Ground in Kent. to; 

IX. h, vafc th« Coflifequence of a very wet Seafon^ when the ^ uncomm&d 
Waters, that bad fallen on the Up- lands, and were not carried ofF^^^'^e/^^^^ 
by Drains, Ibaked into the Ground in fuch Quantities as to form. a Ly^nl% 
<)uick Saod at fome confiderable Depth in the Earth (at leaft this is Kent, cw- 
what we look on to have caufcd the Phaenomenon ) which not being municated in 
aWc CO bear the Weight upon it, broke out at the Side of the Hill, ll/'^p^'' ^^ 
and raifed the lower Parts of it 5 letting the Brow fink 40 or 50 Coilfnfon 
Foot, as 1 guefs. lam but a rude Defigner, but can trull you fo No. 405/ p. 
far as to give fuch a Sketch as I can draw; for, perhaps, you may 55^* 
uoderftand me the better for it. 

The Ground funk in a Night, and was not perceived by the Far- 
mer's Family till they found the Change in the Morning, by their 
Doorcafes. oo£ fufiering the Doors to open. The Houfe is ftrangely 
rent by this Accident, and, had it not been Timber builr, mud have 
fell, (as a mighty ftrong Barn near it did, which was built of Scone) 
for one great Crack of the Earth went through the Middle of it, and 
fplit a large Kitchen Chimney from Top to Bottom. 
abc dt\xt Profile of the Land. p^ 

a the flat Land at Bottom s or 4 Miles from the Sea. . 

i^tfae flat Land at Top, AifFXjround and rocky. 
* The Place of the Farm at prefent, which not only funk down 
from J 40 or 50 Foot, but was alfo moved fome what towards j. 
b the lower Part raifed to d • 

X. John Rotinfon^ being Mafl:er of a fmall Pink-Snow, called the jfu account rf 
Richard and Eiizabetb from Pifcataqua in New^England^ arrived at a new ijUnd 
Tercera^ Decemb. 10. 1720. near which Ifland he faw a Fire break out ^^^^^y ^l^f^^ 
t)f the Sea. The Governor hired him to go with the faid Veflfel to Z^/^l'^l^ 
view it, and fent on Board fixteen Sailors, and two Priefts. On by Thomas 
Sunday J the i8th of Decemb. we got under Sail at 12 o'Clock at Night, Forftcr, E/qi 
and ftood from AngraSy S. E. The next Day at two o'Clock in the N^- 372- p- 
Afternoon, we made an Ifland all Fire and Smoak: we continued our '^^* 
Courfe tiil the Aflies fell on our Deck like Hail or Snow all Night. 
We bore from it, the Fire and Smoak roared like Thunder, or 
great Guns. At Break of Day we ftood towards it again: at 12 
^*Clock we had a good Obfervation, two Leagues South from it. 
Wc finled round it, and fo near, that the Fire and Matter it threw 
out, had like to have done us Damage : In which Confternation wc 
all betook ourfelves to Prayers, being in danger of driving a flioar: 
then a fmall Gale, at S. £. fprung up, and carried us clear to our 
great Joy. The Breeze was accompanied with a fmall Shower of 
Kain, which caufed a great Duft to fall on our Deck ; with the faid 
Breeze wc ftood away for Terccra. The Governor informed us that 
the Fire broke out the 20th of iVw. 1720. in the Night, and that 
the prodigious Noife it made, caufed an Earthquake, which fliattered 
down many Houfes in the Town of Angra^ and Places adjacent, to 

C c 2 the 



204 ^^^ Account $f a new IJland. 

^* SS' 5*> the great Terror of the Inhabitants. We took fcveral Draughts of 

57» 5^ 59» the llland at fcveral Bearings in our laHfng round. Prodigious Quan* 

tities of Pumice- Scones anu half broiled Fi(h were found floating on 

the Sea^ for many Leagues round the Iflartd, and abundance of Sea* 

Birds hovering about it. So far the Captain^ 

An Acquaintance of mine informed me, that in his Pailage from 
Ca^z to Lmdon (the latter end of April was 12 Months) he obferved 
the Sea from Cape Finijlerre^ almoft to the Chops of the Channel, 10 
be covered with Pumice-Stones, fonie of which he gave me. 
An Account of XI. Anni 1719. menfe Decembri, in Wrediano puteo 82 orgyias 
the Body of a profundo, in rupis ipfius confinip, fub aqua & 5 orgyiarum ruina^ 
Many found in dcfunfti hominis corpus in confpe&um venit. Utrumque crus, cum 
Mii^iT^Adam '^^^^^ avulfapetrac moles contuderat: facies ve- 

Lcycl/Rcg. ''o> corpufque reliquum cum vefte, integra plane & intadba cerneban- 
CoUeg. Me- cur \ habitufque totus viri, coUarise fafcia? ora excrema, finiftrse ma- 
toll. Allciior. pys ope, OS obturantis, is erat, quern Lit. A. cxhibet ac demonftrat, 
Th'^A^t^ll^ Crumcra, quam gerebat, pyxis ex orichalco oblonga, pyxide vera 
terariaSuc- tabaci condebatur fruftulum, utroque ill«fo & integro; dudlitium 
ciaB, Ann. autem ferrum, quo ad pyxidem anned^i operculum volvique folec, 
17*2. Tri- aqua cinfta edaci vitriolo totum abfumferat. Caro hominis cutifque^ 
^8*^0 6 ^^P^"*® licet & duras palpantibus viderentur, non tamen lapidis ca 
3 4- P* »3 • cratdurities, fed cornese aut ungulinae, etiam fpecie, fuppar, quippe 
l^t. ti. quas cultro cederet fcindique poffet. 

Poll extraftum tumulo, fodinaque corpus, diligent! examinatione 
qusefitum eft, ecquis eiTet, qui agnofcere poflet defun£tum, auc 
quando periiilet, fcire ? cum Magnus Johcmnis^ mctallicus in Korfgdr^ 
den^ probe ilium a fe de facie, quippe qua? lineamenta omnia iilibata 
fcrvct, agnofci, idque coram confcffu Metallico, profireretur; fijb- 
jungens etiam nomen, vocatum eum aiebat Matlhiam IfraelU^ alias, 
ob proceriorem paulo ftaturam, Mattbiam Magnum feu Procerum^ 
qui in Boda Swerdfiocnfis paroecis pago ediius, opcram JoncB Petri 
in Dijkarebacken locafiet. Succurrit porro Mtktthiam hunc Ifraelis^ 
poftquam anno 1670, & tempore quidem autumnali, folus capfula 
vedlus dcfcendiflfet in fodinam, defideratum, dubioque procul ruina 
fuffbcatum fuifle. Didtis fidem fccerc idem affirmantes Ericus Micba^ 
lis Prastor Metallicus, & Ericus Petri Reftiarius. His accedebat vetw- 
Ja, quacum vivus adhuc Matthias fponfalia contraxerat, quas, veteris 
& jam revivifccntis amoris jure, exanime corpus fibi concedendum, 
aut terras fakem mandandum poftulabac. Aderant & alii plures, il- 
ium qui agnofcerent, & narrationis hujiis veritatem confirmarent. 

Quadraginta novem adeo annorum fpaiio, ab dnno videlicet 1670. 
ad annum 1719. fub terra deli tuerat Aii//i&wihicce Pr^^^rw, c qua 
in lucem protraAum, in perpetuam rei memoriam, vetus a;des fodi- 
nae publica excepir: in qua hodieque integer, & tarn quod ad vefti- 
mencum & lincea, quam carnem, cutem, capillum, & ungues, ia- 
corruptus, foetorifque omnis expers, oculia intuentium fiftitur; Tola 
2 aquft 




I>Ut.^.7ttU£c 



I>i/h,%,mU*J 






Of two Human Skeletons. 205 

aquas vitriolo abundantis mioifterio exficcatus, & contra putredinis 
vim munitus. 

£x fideli hac certaqne, quantum quidem ex loci ipfius incolis hau« 
riri potuic, nocicia haudquaquam pecriticacum cadaver hoc, auc in la- 
ptdem mutatum, fed aquae tantum vitriolo fcatencis beneficio indura- 
turn eile liquet. Quid quod vitrioli nacuras & ingenio magis nil, 
quam ejufmodi petrificaodi vis repugnat: quippe quod nil unquam in 
faxum convertat *, tenuiffimi v^rp vaporis vegeto motu omnia perrum- 
pat, Aringat, ac a putredine intericuque tueatur. 

XII. Ex hominum diluvio fubmerforum genere paucas fuperfunt An Account cf 
reliquiae. Neque ego haftenus in numerofa fatis colledlionc plures^^'''e^^«'<' 
habui qciam binas dorfi vertebras, atronitentis fplcndoris, pecrefa- ^^^V'f^r^} 
&as. Nunc autem, Mufcolo meo illatum, lapidi fiflili Oemngenfi ini- ^\oL he! * 
merfum Ku-^AvoVy omni attentione dignifiimum, in quo diftinde cer- Scheucsser^ 
nerclicct, non vagx imaginationis fimulacra, fed capitis humani zM. D.RR.S^ 
quovis alio animantium genere diftindivi partes bene multas, reapfe ^^ 3|** 
refiduas, cranii ambitum, os frontis, olTa fincipitis^ occipitis, orbi- ^ 
tarn oculi, bafeos cerebri & medullas oblongata^ Ku-^AVAy promineh- 
tiam interiorem oflk occipitalis, quas cerebelli lobos feparat, colfi 
vertebras numero 7, partim denudatas, partim lapideo cortice tedtas^ 
& eft hasc vcluti orthographica fedio pofterioris capitis partis. 

Sed inde ex quo Monumenti hujus fui potitus, novum ex di6ta la- 
picidina adfertur prius vincens & magnitudine, & astate, & curiofitate. 
Adfunt nempe in di6lo fiffili Japide demerfa, ex hominis adulci fceleto^ 
ejufve ftruftura antcriore, peripheria offis frontalis, osjugale, orbitae^ 
ocuiorum, cranii tabulae cum diploe, veftigia foraminis infraorbitalia 
deflinati pro traniitu nervorum quinti paris, reliquiae vel ipfius cerer 
bri, vel durae matris, ofTa cribrofa & fpongiofa, os vomerls nafum 
dtfterminans, oifis quarti maxillaris portio^ quae genas conftituit nalx 
reliquiae, maflfeceFis portio, fe£tio orthographica trandens per apa- 
phyfin condyloidem maxillae inferioris ad angulum ufque hujufdem' 
maxillae, vertebrae in continua ferie numero 16, pleraeque cum pro- 
ceiiibus tranfverfis, claviculae dextrae extrema portio, quae fcapuTae^ 
neditur, fmiftrae media portio lapide tedla. Ex qua fcelcti propor- 
tione judico, integram hominis ftaturam fuifle eandem^ quae incirca 
meaeft, 587. pollicum Parifienfium. 

XMI. I. It is obferved, that among the vaft Variety of extrane- ^ j^wjwwp-^ 
ous Subftances lodged and found in fcveral Layers of the Earthy at Elephants 
confiderable Depths, where it is impoffible that they Ihould ^avej^*^^^^ 
been bred, there are not fo many Produdions of the Earth, as ^tai^Groundi 
the Sea. And again, among thofe which mud have originaHy be- By Sir Haiu. 
longed to the Earth, there are many more remains of Vegetables,, Sloanc, Bartu. 
than of Land Animals. It appears, however, by the Hiftoriesof paft N*- 4oj- 
Times, and the Accounts of many, both antient and modern Au- ^^^' ^^^" 
thors, that Bones, Teeth, nay fometimes very near entire Skeletons 
of Men and Animals have been dug up in all Ages of which we have 

Hiftociei 



206 Elephants Tcttli and Boms found under Ground. 

Hiftoria, anaulTTioff in all Parts iyftJve World, whereof diofe, ivhtch 
were the moft remarkable for their unufal Size, have .hceo alfo tbe 
mod: taken Notice of. Thus, for Irt^ftance, they have found in Ire^ 
landj the Horns, Bones, and almoft entire Skeletons of a very lai^c 
Sort of Deer, which is commonly believed to have been tbe Moufe- 
Deer, an Animal of an uncommon Size, forwe of.wfhich Kind are 
thought to be ilill ialtv^ in fame rem<)tc and onfrequcntcd i^arts of the 
Continent of America. I fhall in this Paptr confine nsy iclf chiefly to 
the Elephant, and fuch Bones, denus ^xnii^ Tulks xtid Teeth of tl:^s 
Animal, as are either in my own PolTeffion, or have been mentioned 
by Authors I have met with, w have been found under Ground. 
And firft, as to tbofe FolTiIe Teeth in my own CoUedioo, •which, ud- 
queftionably once belonged to Elephants, I fliall here pr/oduce the 
following. 

N^ i\6 of my Catalogue of Quadrupeds and their Parts, is the 
dens exerlus of an Elephant, which was taken up, 12 Foot deep, from 
among Sand, or Loom, as they were digging for Gravel by the End 
of Graf ^' Inn- Lane ^ near London. 

As the greateft Part of this Tooth was fallen to Pieces, ooching 
could be determined about it's Length, when entire. The largcft 
Piece, and alfo the moft entire, hath five Inches and ^ in Length, 
and 9 Inches and yo in Circumference, confequently fomething more 
than 3 Inches in Diameter. This Piece belonged to the BaGs, or 
Bottom of the Tooth 5 I mean, that Part by which it is articulated 
with the Head, as appears by a Cavity in form of a Cone, which all 
thefe Tuiks have at Bottom, and which was filled, in this, with die 
Sand of the Gravel pit wherein it was found. 

The Condition this Tooth was found in, fuggefts the two following 
Remarks. It fliews in the firft Place, how far the fubterraneous 
Steams are apt to calcine Subftances of this Kind, which was done in 
this Tooth to fuch a Degree, that it was grown extream brittle, and 
ready to fall to Pieces, and had moreover acquired an aftringent Qua- 
lity common to calcined Subftances of this Kind, which makes them 
ftick pretty clofe, when held to the Tongue. They had altogether 
the fame effedl on the very large Skeleton, found near Drapani in 
Sicily^ and mentioned by Boccatius^ on that remarkable one found 
near Tonna^ which hath been defcribed by Tentzelius % as aMb on two 
Teeth found in Nortbamptunjhire^ which I (hall next take into confi- 
deration. However it doth by no means follow them thence, that 
all Teeth and Subftances of this Kind undergo the like Calcination 
by lying long under Ground, forafm.tfch as there are others, as thofc 
. found in IJland^ and fent to Thomas Bartholin^ which were turned to 
a pcrfcdl hard, flinty Subftance. It ferves, in the fecond Place, to 
afcertain the Strufture of thefe Teeth, and confequently of Ivory in 
general, to be Coat upon Coat, like the Skins in an Onion, or rather 
the annual Circles, or Rings in Trunks of Trees. That this Tooth 

2 is 



Efcpbanrs Teerh and ^otit% fivnd mder Gtaunii 107 

is compafed 6f drflferent CoatS; (Wrouflding arid placed upon each 
other, IS very apparent by the lar^eft Pfece Remaining. I kart already Tig, 62. 
obferved that this Piece belonged eo the Bafis of the Tooch^ and 
there appear m it very vifiWe marks of nine Goats^ fome whereof havei 
ahotrc one Tench of an Inch Iq thickncfs. To\vards ihe farther End 
of the Tooth, where it tapers almdft into a Point, tbefe feverai Coats 
alfo join together into two or three, and chofe prccty confidcrably 
thick. Whh fome Care thefe Coats might be fti«hcr fttb-'dlvided in- /y^. 63, 
toaconfiderable Number of other fmaller ones, perhaps 00 thicker 
than a common Parchment. Farther, the very manner of it's failing 
ro pieces is afi evident Proof of it's SfruAure, all the Fragmwjnu be-» 
ing concave within, and cortve* without; and the Lines of CoftreHity 
and Concavity, Fragments of concentric Circfes, which the feverai; 
Coats compofed, when entire. Th<mas BarthBlin^ in his Treairfe Bi 
Vnicurm *, fakes Notice, that Part of a foflit Unicorrfs Horn havings 
been (rafciAed by Order of Cbriftian IV, King of Denmark^ it wasl 
fotmtl' to be compofcd, after the fome manner, of thin Layers upon 
Layers; wbetice^he irtfers*, that it wa« no« the Horn of an Animal, 
^ *r^s commonfy pretended, bcrt a Tooph, and rtamefly the Tooth of 
i Sort of Whale in the Northern- Sea^, calfed Narvhal, as he had 
afterwards art excellent Opportuffity to verify by o»ie of chefe Uni- 
torti*s Horns ftifl fKcking m th^ SkuH of the Cr^cature, which was fent 
to tt^ormhiS by ^borlacus Scutoftitts^ Bfifhop of IJUnd. Nor is this 
Strtnfhireby a:riy nTcans to be looked upon a^ an Effe<5t of tha Calci* 
ftatiOrt, whether brought about by the fubtenranean Steams^ or by a. 
chynticaf Trial, but is natural to the Tooth, as appears in fome mear 
fare by a Pidc^ of Ivory, marked 1 1 81 ; biK ftill mopc plain in ano* ^. ^ 
ther marked 7^1, where fcveral of thefe Coats are by ftrrtW Difcafe ^ 
1^ the Tooth aftuaHy feparated from each othdr, like the Leaves of 
* Parchment Book, the Ivory on the other Side being ftiU firm and. 
thft. Thij Strufture appears likewife from the Teeth of the vcrjr pj g-. 
yoQiig Elephant which died at Lrmdon^ where the oppermcifl Cdat^ 
being very^moift, cracked upon drying, and broke at the Topt Ftg. 66« 

N* Js^i is Part of another dens exetius^ which I had from the 
Rexrercnd Mr Morton^ who in his Nati/ral Hiftory of 7Vi>r/i&<^w;)/i?/i. 
Jtire f , gives art Accouttt of it : That Partof Chi5 Tooth, which is now 
fii my H^nds, bears again very vifiblc Marks both of the Calckia* 
fron it undtrrweflt by lying in the Earth, and of it*s laminated Stru- /r^v %j 
arur<f. 

N*^ tii^y \^ t}^tdcns ex'ertus, or Tu-fk of rfft Etepha^r, remai4cabl« 
for it*s large Hxtt^ antf for it's bemg fo very entire. It was Fig^ 68^ 
found ortder Ground m Siberia. It is very erttire, of ^ bvoamilh 
Colour, and hollow at Bottom like other Elephants Teeth, one 
of which it plainly appears to be. From the Bafis, meafu- 
ling along the outward Circumference, to the fmall" End,.. 
* Dc Unicorxui obfcrvadopes nova:, />w^. 102. ^ ^^g- 2.5 z. 

it 



2o8 Elephants Teeth and Bones found under Ground. 

k is 5 Foot 7 Inches long, and along the inward Cirqumference 4* 
Foot 10 Inches. Meafuring from the Iniide of chelBafis to the fmall 
End in a ftreight Line, the Diftance is of 3 Foot. 10 Inches and a 
Half. At the Bafis, where chickeft, it meafures one Foot fix Inches 
round, and is there fix Inches in Diameter : It weighs 42 Pound. 
The HkeTufks, and other Bones of the fame Animal, chat is, of the 
Elephant, are found in fundry Parts of Siberia to a confidcrable 
Quantity, and the Tuflcs and Teeth in particular, when Icfs corrup- 
ted, are ufcd all over Rujfia for Ivory, Henricus fVilbelmus Ludolfus^ 
in the Appendix to his Ruffian Grammar *, mentions them among the 
Minerals of Ruffia^ by the Name Mammoiavoikojiy and takes Notice, 
that the Ruffians believe them to be the Teeth and Bones of an Ani- 
mal living under Ground, larger than any one of thofe above 
Ground. They ufe it in Phyfick in Lieu of, and for the fame Pur- 
pofes with, the Unicorn's Horn.; and Ludolfus himfelf having been 
prefented with a Piece by one of his Friends, who faid. He had it 
from a Ruffian, of grea,t Quality, . lately returned from Siberia^ found 
it to be true Ivory.. He adds,. That the moft fenfible among the 
Ruffians affirm them to be Elephants Teeth brought thither at the 
Time of the Deluge. The Defcription of thefe Teeth and Bones 
given by £. TJbrants Ides f , is ftill more extenfive. What he obferves 
of thofe Teeth that are black and broken, may ferve as a Comment to 
the following Paflage of Plin'j \\: 'Theopbraftus autor eft^ fcf ebur f affile 
Candida l£ nigro colore inveniri^ fc? offu e terra nafci^ invenirique lapides 
offeos. Lawrence Lang^ in the Journal of his Travels to Cbtna^ 
whither he went with Difpatches from His Czarijh Majefty in 17 15^ 
takes Notice of thefe Bones **, as being found about the River Jeni^ 
fei^ and towards Mangafea^ along the Banks, and in the Hollows oc- 
cafioned by the Fall of the Earth. He calls them Maman-hones^ and 
informs us, that fome.of the Inhabitants are of Opinion, that they 
are no real Bones, Teeth, fc?r. but a Sort of Cornu Foffitle^ that grows 
in the Earth, and chat others will have them to be the Bones of the 
Behemoth mentioned in the fortieth Chapter of Job^ the Defcription 
whereof they pretend fits the Nature oftheBeaft, whofe Bones and 
Teeth they are imagined to be, thofe fuppofed Words, in particular, 
that he is caught with bis own Eyes^ agreeing with the Siberian Tradi- 
tion, that the Maman Beaft dies upon coming to Light. The fame 
Author affirms, from the Report, as he fays, of credible Peoplet 
That there have been fometimes found Horns, Jaw- bones and Ribs, 
with freih Flefli and Blood (licking to them. The iimt is confirmed 
by John Bernard MuUer^ in his Account of the OJliacks f f , who adds^ 
That the Horns in particular have been found fometimes all bloody ai 

* ^ag- 92. t In his Travels from Mofco to China. |) Lib. xxxyL cap. i8. 

** Prcfcnt Sutc of RuJ/ia, Vol. II. pag. 14. ff Ibid. pag. 52. 

the 



I*taU.. W.l'^ Pl.PartJT.joa^. 2cS 



JT=f iV- ^^- 







CJcphants Teeth and Bont$ fmnJ under Ground. aojr 

t^ troken End^ wbicb is generally hollow^ and filled fvitb a Matter Uke ^ ' 

e^ncreted Bhodi that they. find» together with thefe Teeth, or Horns; 

ts lie calls them, the Skuil and Jaw-bones with the Grinders (till 

flicking in them, all of a monftrous Size i and chat he himfelfy witk 

fome of his Friends, hath feen a Grinder weighing four arid twenty 

Pounds, and better i that the Inhabitants make divers Sort of Works 

of thefe Teeth, and that they are moftly to be met with in the coldeft 

Places of Siberia^ as for Inftance, Jakutjky^ Berefimd^ Mangafea^ and 

Obder^ He likewife gives the Defcription of one of thefe Animals, 

from the Accounts of feveral Perfons, who afiured him. That they 

had fccn them in the Caverns of the high Mountains b^bnd Bere-- 

fiwa : But as this Defcription hath very much the Face of a Fable, 

I forbear infcrting it here. The Author of the Prefent State ^Ruffia* 

* obfcrvcs, that fome of the Swedi/b Prifoners banilhed into Siberia; 

^ot their Livefihood by turning Snuff-boxes out of thefe Teeth ; and 

in another Place f he mentions thetfi among the Siberian Commodt** 

ties, of which the Czar hath the Monopoly. 

The Accounts which I have hitherto given of thefe M(!i;iia»-bones 
and Teeth, or at lead their moft eflential Parts, are confirmed by a 
Letter of Bafiftus Tattfibow^ Diredor General of the Mines in Sibeka^ 
and Counfellor of the Czar's Metallic Council, written to the Learned 
Ericus BenzeliuSy now Biihop of Gotbenburg^ and printed inthe^ifi?^ 
Literaria Suecia (m. dcc. xxv. Trimejlre fecundum^ pag. 36.) wherein he 
mentions the following Pieces he had in his own Poflefllon: A large 
Horn, as he calls it, or Tooth, weighing 183 Pounds, which* he 
had the Honour to prefent to his Czarijb Majefty, and ir now kept 
in the Czar's CoUeAion of Curiofities zt reterjburg\ another larg6 
Horn, which he prefented to the Imperial Academy at Peterjburgi 
another ftill larger than either of thefe two, which he caufed to be 
cut, and carved himfclf feveral Things of it, the Ivory being verv» 
good-, Part of the Skull, corrupted by having lain in the Grounoj} 
and fo large, that it feemed to him to be of tt^ fame Size, with th6 
Skull of a great Elephant; the Forehead in particular was very thickv 
and had an £xcrefcence on each Side, where the Horns ufually ftick 
to it, which Excrefcence however, as the Author obfcrves. Was fa 
fmall, as to make him doubtful, whether or no there waseVer any 
Horns ftiick tdthfcm. The Cavity, wherein the Brain was lodged, 
was exceedingly fmall in Proportion to the Bulk of the Skull. He 
liad found alfo a fpungy Bone of a Foot and a Half in Length, and 
three Inches in Breadth, ftickihg to the Skull, iind of a conicalFi^ 
gore, whence * he conjefkured, that itferved tofupport one of the 
MtM-ns, which is obferv^d alfo in other Antmalstiut. bear Hora^ 
Laftly a Grinder, whith hzA ten Inches in Length; andfixin^teadthi 
befides feveral of the Ribs, Shank-bones, and other Bones found fronti 
Time to Time, which the Author forboi'e mentioning. The fame 
• Vol. I. wg. it* t ^H* 78- * ' 

VOUVL Paitii- ; Dd - Author 



119 



tkofc Pitt{«od»Hi»llQW^;'#vbiflb jth/^jPaigMi ilnfebijffpts q^dSi^frk uy^ 

tfareyrwerernocUog b^.Qiyeriis^.rAieh.r^ are ^jcpipia^^ia^t^gr mo^^ 
takiou^ Gountries^Aod a^^ QW:iog;to{h^. Fqrc^ pf rujbjC^craaesMi Rikftr% 
and' Cacara^,:i.whick'aC) W(l CM (tt^i^gbaqdjUnd^xm^nciihe P^^ 

iuiMn. .'/iUik»lWiftt'ifei»v4jrea9fifkab)fi ig^^isJI^W.o/Mr J^/j/^^ 
ckom. < I cannot.forbear udding, ^tli^t ^c^ghi ttt^.Au(bpr^Mii Icf^ 
the g^hdX^e(bionarbot«t the Qrigi* ofth^fe-fiopea jui^deceffninqj^ ye^ 
his ObTervlcicms ftrem to tne \ to CjEMitrijb^m;^ v^ry miiph tp jeftai^Ufh the 
Qpiiiioni:abov£vreIated>. chut.thArQ.Bcfnes airc^rthe Boi^es^, aad the 
Noms^ ashecallstfaQmit-sthCiTpflcsQCEl^ph^ ip t^ui)i* 

verfal Deltigeai It is to be^h^td,: tbac.ihui ^^a^ter.r^JLlXpne TTifpe p^ 
etbc(.;be fit into a^iliUjcl^acei: Lights 4>ar.ticylfrly ajfter ^he^Oridcr hi^ 
late Czarijh Majefty was pl^fed tp gi^^.itQ ChOi.Q^ver^qpG^nexai.of 
Ar^^rioy'.tarpare iwjCarcinop, Co^ito find a whole Skeleton of this 
Amiitiab' andato fimd Uj!ttT4/s^4^w, ,. . ,,vi, j..; ,,, .. r ,. ^^ .. 
.»BefereiI»protoedfar(fihisiV; (?nriU >b^(Lea«e.tP<acM Qftc Obd^rvatioQ 
6SMmulim UBrum^ whcr jorhi^ Tm.yeUj trough., ^S^^a to ihe JS^fi^ 
Miesi tblbi us^iThatfiii .the Neighbourhood ofif^erpm^z they had foung 
feveaahElphaiita Teethoo (h'e^rface of thq GrouiyJ^ wb^jchoo^odi 
CcaM tdl howx theyjcaiae ibithec,. gnd,that ti)e Czax^s Ppinipri>about 
them »a«^ that Lrl/^tf^r> the <Qreat,.{.«^hen he pa(r<|d the.^oirjfi^, ,pf 
JD^if^ adwiKedias f^rasjJ^^^iVi^iif a) fniajlij Xwn^ ^jght, :\yerfts./rpnf 
ditiice(>aml ahait probalily fonae of his Elephants died there, of which 
thofe'TdcthncerethefianiAins^.'ni : ' rj t: i- x. ^;,, . 

diiNP ;ili4:Q6m]i GollfcftiQn,.is pno^C the Qri^eris: of |in ^Ifl^K^t^ 
wktcfh >wm' likewrife .- fouBdirin^ /^i^ikafapionjbif^i ap4 ttsJJQf^riJbied ^ by 
MruUMr^mfl nltri&vfiry*/vi(6ble^ fiha( ihia) C^in4«r alfpi 3ii>yiiy.l{^ 
tfal9Bbrth,dhBthjindecgpae;ihe&me Ak with the T.ufk above 

de&AbtA found in Mowhfhparff a ^Md, .j j.^. » V! , .,. ^ umr.is 
> iN^viJ9;iand.i(20i o£ lOiy/ QtaJpgMe^^) «e^ tt59^o ^km pJF iinpih^ 
large Grinder,; jrer^iprohabiy of ai^JSJbpibAnt too, turned. to a very 
kwtd; ftonyir^and almoftioiQiAlliciSubftan^e. '. r.:;.] .1 i (^ ^n ,1 i/.i, 
«C4^(^ctai'M9^».tBiecb ot-tfce.vAW^rii,. J oc (5riiideri pf jafl^JElephant, 
wUere 4be (Ekidiilaisd rLattielli^ AreifctTveryi il^i tp rea9h>pth^iv , - ^ 
i''aN^.fM«isiarPiecex>£anAtI«XjGrftnd0r, pc^bapo pf «i\)l^eph»pt.(,,;Ic 
tethiv^r^appaicnt Marks o£ being fpflUc«. AS,we]UsUthee:pnQ6(qedj{^ 
luM is>fs0thcf mi)atkaA>k9 fwjchati.a p6tf>£yiQgu<Subl(laDfic;rb9inft«« 
bNiiPdei)iht(l.a«ellft JBcKvenyccoofid^cablyif^ ^lyi^ 

itUMi^firbniieadirttther^ infuch a Manner^ that tiiey dippear to have 
bMA l«CPVeryiih)olh o ons r^j )d ^,r..slui ,fec:<;i .;.j *> iti.* >l ^m. u 
ei42>|Od4a7, ^uny^ €UIeAktouDfdQiia^r«f(pct» 4lKl<t)»ir Sji»Ss> iM 
PartofanElephant^l SlMlltwhlchs^wtH fOMO^at Ghmceftcr after the 
• Nia. Hift. of NdfdUmpt. C. iii. J. czzxv.^ p«. ^s«' ^ V 

Year 




ICUCV9 



£Iephants Teeth and Bones f&nn4 ^nder Gr&md. tii 

Year 1630, together with fome large Teeth, fome five, others feveji 
Irichek'in C6Art)ars,''att(Jl-dff)g to a ihHrt*IttfcHrtiort^yrrittcfriJp6hthts 
^ferv*P!ecei *'^"'" '^ *^"^ ^'*' ^' • *""* '*•' *** ^'--^ ^' •^••* '••• *• * * *'*^ 

• .i. f ^ -j-|jYoceed now to the Second Part of this Difcourfe^ wherein I 0/Poffile 
pfopofe' td'dfier' fbhie^'Rettayks 'tti ^di^/eri^•AecolJnttf^of BonessarM J««^^»' 

^Tc^th found* ilndi^Grciund; Vhlfch I-mcrwfth in fcvcraf ihtjcnt and ^„^^JJ; 

modern Authors, and which will give me an Opportunitf ofexamfi- tbiSeeaid, 
\n\ng into "thit Skeletons, Jtrfd PiCftS of Skrictons,^ which arcihewn ifr r^yjr/w/, 
' up| and down aS undeiiiablfe 'Mbhilftiehts of thc'Exiftencc* of -Siintf ;•' ^** 404- P- 

And fitft, as mart/ bf thofe Bohes and Teeth, -which acr^Tccpc.and ♦^^^ 
^Ihewn about for Bones and Tiieth'df Giartts;* have'bcenfound;" tip<J!n 

a more accurate Infpedlion,' ttt fee only the Bones and Tcedr of *B1t- 
' pKants br'WHaics, it toay (r6tii ' thchce vtry probably -Be infcrtvd, 
^that bthers'alfdi wKichVfor w'^t df a'ftffJciertt befcrj^tibnr cannot 3>c 

* accurately enough acc6uhted for; tn\i(t^h'ave belonged^ either tovthtfe, 
*or elfe'fome other'large Ahtmal: ''Thlisthe Foreiin^of a While, 
;^ftnppcdofit*i5Webba[nd Skirt, wa^* tlOt'lon^'agorpuWickiy ttbf^n 
' for tne Bones o^a'G^ant's Hand j and I 'have jn" nw.owa Poffeffion 




'4 Computation had been made froirt the Pl-bportlOA'or this , Vertebra 
; to that of the otherParts of the-Skdcton"; ' ^ndalf hadbeen Tuppo^d 
'to have belonged to ' i Man, Tuch aSke^cfon'woutd;h^^ve excee4ed 

* in Meafurc, alT thofc fibulous Skeletons of Giants teen tronefl by''4^- 
^ -thors. ' ■' -' •"' -''•'•*•* ^-^ • - ' ^* •'. *• . - , ■■ • • ./ - 

"" I cannot forbear on this Occafion to obferve, that it would be ^n 
Obje££ well worthy tdd Iiiiquiries of ingenious Anatomifts; to. exa- 
mine, with nribi-e Acturacy than hath befell hitherto dorte*, what Pro- 
"^'portidhs'the Skeletons and Parts of SkddtOhs anti Aitimali 

'' bear to each other, 'with Regard "cither to the Shre, or 'Figure, l^*or 
I 8tru<5fure,' or any other (Quality. ' This 'would' doubtlpfs^l^ad. us irtto 
*'many;Difc6veriesi' and isEefides'bne bf'tliCifc'Tbirtg^s/whicihfeeinfto 
"'bi wanting to' make Ahatbiiiy a Science' ft'ill more" perftd ind com- 
;pTeat.'*'Tne vcrv Vertel)fa I fpeak df rftiy ferve to Ihew the' Ufeful- 
.' ncfs of lu'ch Dbicrvatioris,^^; 'It diflt'rs ih;m4n^ Thiligs. from "the Ver- 

* tcbrae of Men a^ridXarid-anirfial's; as do" the vertfebrai of Whales and 
'"thi; FTfliesofthe cctacebuVilv^nd* ih gcnerirj :irtd ft'Mi*^aVery ekfy 
'^'^iattef tQ^d^itein^uilh'tKerii fro each other. The Body oftheyertc- 

'bra is confiderabty larger* in Pfoport'to^ and allb tighter add^mOre 

''porous. ; The tranfyerfeTfoijcffcs arifc Jf^^^^ Middle of it on each 

''Side. The oWique^defcending Pf6Celfe are altd-g^thcf Wanthig -, and 

the Arch, or Foramen, which the fpinal Mai;row pafles. thtoggji, is 

made 9)p by the jrpnialpF0cefs'an4 the oblique ^fcendiog oa^ o^y : 

* The Body of the 'Verteblair very ^rMgh andruMvaoion eacJ;ii£od» 

^ full of fmall Holes and Eminences, which receive the Holes and 

••-^* "* Dd2 Eminences 



Ill HepHants Teeth and Bones found undft Ground. 

^Eminences of a round Bone* or Plate^ wKich ^i^fwers to the Epiphy- 

fis in a' human Vertebra, w>iereof there arc two between each Vertc- 

•bra, joined together by an intermediate ftrongand pretty^ thick Car* 

tilage, probably to facUitate the Motion, and particularly the 

Fig' 7^' 7^\ Flexion of thefe Animals in the Sea, But to return from this (bore 

Pigre(Bon« 

. I'here are many Skeletons, that were from Time to Time found 
. / under Ground, arid are .mqmioned by the Authors, who fpeak. of 

\ • I . them, as Skeletons of 6iants, and undeniable Monuments of their 
Exiftence, which, as I have already obferved, I Ihould rather take to 
be the Skeletons of Elephants, Whales, or fome other huge Land or 
Sea- Animal. Of this JCind fcem to be the pretended Skeletons of 
, Qiants of iwelvcv .tvyency, arid xhirty Cubits in Height mentioned by 
'PbUoJlraius *; The Skeleton of fix and forty Cubits in Heijght, which 
accor<ding to Pliny i* was found in the Cavity of a Mountain in Crefa^ 
iipon the overthrowing of that Mountain by an Earthquake: The 
Skeleton lixty Cubits high, which Sirabo || fays, was found near Tin- 
gis (no^ Tangier) in Mauriianid^ and was fuppofed to have been the 
' skeleton of -/f/i/^tf J : The Skeleton of P<i//^, as pretended, found ac 

Rome 'mt}\c Year/ 1500, . which was higher than the Walls of that 
^ City: And likewife that, which Simon Majolus fays was f6und in 
England in the Year 1171: Longi ante Pulgoft faculum (arc his 
Words **) annis.plus treeentis^ anno fcilicet 1171. in Jnglia^ illuvione 
Jlumims^ reteSia funt bumati olim Ilominis ojfa adbuc or dine compoftta: 
Lon^itudo tonus Corporis inventa eft longa ad pedes qutnquaginta. 
, There are others, the Defcription whereof concludes more clearly 
for their having once belonged to Elephants, though it could not be 
politiTely aflerted, that they did. S. Auftin f +, difcourfing of the 
/ fexiftence and great Feats of the Giants before the Deluge, mentions 
^ in Proof of what he Jidvancqs, That he himfelf, with fcveral others, 
^, few at J7/i^ii, upon the Sea (hare, the drinder of a Man fo large, 
that if it had been cut into Teeth of an ordinary Size, at leaft an 
Hundred might have been made of it. ' Hieronymus Magiuy g Q, al- 
though himfelf very much prejudiced in Favour of the Exiftence of 
Giants, yet fufpe6ls this Tooth, mentioned by S. Auftin^ to have 
been rather the Tooth of an Elephant, or elfe lome huge Creature of 
, the Sca,\than;that of a Man. Biit IJidoviciiS VheSy in his Commcn- 
taries upon that JPaifage ofS: Auftin^ takes Notice, that in the Church 
of ^* Cbriftopber at mfpella^ he was (hewn a Tooth bigger than his 
Fift, which they pretended was one of the Teeth of thachuse Saint, 
no Doubt, upon as good Ground, as that very large Shoulder-bone, 

* In fuis Hcroicis. f Hlft. Nat Lib, vii. caD. xvi. | lab. xvii. •• Dienim 
CanicnWrum Colloq^. ti. pag. 36. ff De CWit. Dei. Lib. zr. cap. tz. ciutuaper 
/ 'OiDuiionem & Lambecmm. || MircdlancpnunLib, i cap. ii pag. 17, 

which 



Elephtntf TMth Mnd Bones f9Md mJkt Ground. %i$ 

which Hienmjnm Mof^ lays *, iras fliewn iiv a. Church at ^^nic^, 
was cht Shoulder-iM>ne of Jl Cbrifiopbir. 

The pretended Skeleton of a Giant, which was found' near JDD-^^am 
a Caftie in Skilj^ upon digging the Foundation of a Hoofe, and is 
defcribed by Job. Boccaiius f^ is again not unlikely to have been the 
Skeleton of a large Elephant. For although the gceateft Part of the 
Bones, through the Length of Time, and the Force of the fubterra- 
neal Sceams, were fo rotten, that after their being expofed to the 
Air, they fell to Pieces alnioft upon touching,, yet three of the Teethe 
were found entire, which weighed an hundred Clunoes,. and were by/ 
€he Inhabitants of Drtf/am hung up in one of their Churches,, to per* 
petuate the Memory of this FaA. They, likewife found Part o^ the* 
Skull' capacious enough to hold feme Bufliels of; Corn^ and one oft 
(he Shank- bones, which was fo large, that ui)on. comparing, it withi 
the Shank-bone of an ordinacy Nfan, it was judged,, that this Gianti 
whom fome took to. be Ericki others £L&r//ii;, others. one of the- 
Cyclops J and again others the renowned Polyphemus hin)felf,vmuft haver 
been 200 Cubits high ;. according to which Calculation, he is figuFedi 
and reprefented by F. IQrcber || ^ by far the largeft ofia whole Gra^ 
dation of Giants,, whom, after this, he Places in the. fblkxwing^.Or-'- 
der :. 

Cubits^. 
The Giant of Strabo^ whofe Skeleton ^"^^^^A^P ^^^X^Q^^igh, 

S[hgis in Mauritania^ and was found to^be. — — y ^ *' 
P/i»y?s Giant, . found in^ Mountain in Creta : -— — — 4d> 

The Skclecon of Afierius^ Son of Jnalles • to > 

The Skeleton of Oif^^;, dug. up by fpecial Command of) 

the Oracle jl ^ 

The Giants whofe Bones were found under a Urge Oak, 7 

nor«far from the Convent of Reyden in the Canton of > 94 

Lucern m SwiJferloHd. ■ .i _— — ■ - J 

Goliath^ as defcribed in Sacred Writs > — ;'di: 

The Cafe is ftilUefs doubtful with regard ta thofe Bones, which ^ 
were found Jft Fri}»^^ in 1456, in the Reign oi Charles Vll^ by , thcr 
Side of a River in the Barony of Cr«^i^. (afterwards ere^ed ihtp^at 
County not far from Valence. Johannes Marius in Jjibris di GaUiaimm< 
lUujtratiomhus^.CaUfmam injuis de BUurigibus CommenSarijSi . Eulgofusi 
in bis ^Annak^ &f Joh. CaJJ/mio of Monjiroeuil^ . ia bis TreatUe of Giants ^ 
**, feyerally take Notice of tbefe Bones. which were fo large, that' 
the whole Height of the Giant, to whom it was thought they belong* 
ed, and who was fuppofed to have being the Giant BridtuSj rWas con- 
jcAuced to^aytf l^fceft of 15 Cubits. 'Hie Skull aloiic was t#o Cubits > 

* L. C /^ 20. 6. f Geaealo^ de^ J>et. L. iv. ad fin. | Miiiul..Sttbt€iw 
laa. L.. viii. &a. 2* ^ Pag. 57. ftfej- . 

thickk 



thick, and the'Shottldtr^bone iix,CutM£s Jbroad. >&^i»e«tjne.j(^t 
other .Bones of this Kind w6i« fo^^ lii tbe'riaine)JS?iSWnriiPiir^i^e 
fameHPfece, irPart- <# ^p^hichi^tfJjWoJajriliimjM ..ftnd.giy^;r¥K:KAP^- 
cicular^Diercription ^f ^ne-of^ the* Tee€h9.^as'Jfavp^iJittle KotA^ p 
dotrbt, but that it was'ihe^Orindpr, .an4 coiirequend^^ 
the Bones of an-Elepbant. -His Words^aret* iMir^ jmag^lf^Pfs .^^ 
iem muUailndem €onfpeMmus^hngtuiime.uniuijtidh^ fiojidfr^Mta^^.iS^i 

gingiva inbartbat. Vifa eftif^uper^€0^fars^\ jWtf . jptbus Jfr)diatHr^ .P%¥fiP' 

tulum conc0va^ laiitiidifie -iBgUcrttm fnatum^. .He ^ddSi/ajtWt-iThat 

fuch another Tooth - was 4tept at Qbatmes^ a neighbouring: -Caftlc^ 

that he meafurcd-.the.Lcngtli -of cheiPJacc, whence. tbcfosBouoc^srcfc 

'dug, arid fourtd it- to- be «ine i-l^aces v tliat ,Ibaic:iTjtnc.i|fittr..n?are 

Bones <were idifcover^ at-^he iame^ Place^ and that the; Country . »11 

thereaboDts was arery, mountainoos, <and .fuch^ as the.d^judnjtsjn. nil 

^Probability dcUghced todwcll and commandin. Lhaveifcen fonxc joS 

theft Bones brought by a very curious Frmcb yMtrs^zni: frftm. . this 

' ]aft mentioned 'Place, which I took toiuve bdqngedioJtitElephiaj^c, 

• by fome largeCclls between the Tables - of the ^ull,..whidt Arc ^in 

th^Skull Of that Animal. * 

. HUronymus Magius f gives an Account of a very large SkulU clc- 

veri Spans in Circumference, and fome other Bones, probably bc- 

.;jonging to thabSkrtiJl, which-were dug up near fW«i in dfrica by t«^o 

SpaniJh^ShvtSf as they were ploughing in a Field. He was informed 

of this Matter hy^Melcbior' Guilandinus^ ^9fho .fawvthc Skull I^imfclf, 

whin he.had the Mts/ortunc to be taken by • thc^ Rjwersy .and. carried 

inter Slavery to thatPlacc in the Y^r 1559. ^ I am the mbre.indiAed 

to believe, that this Skull and Bones was Part of the Skeleton: jof an 

Elephsint; becaufe, as I (hall (hew hereafter, a like Urge cSkelcton 

waJ dug up near the fame Place (bme Time -after, whidi .by one of 

the Tcteth Tent tSrPeireJk was made out to have been the Skelett>n of 

an Elephant. " . .^ 

, I now come tQ thofq Bones, Teeth and Tu(ks, for Horns, as (bme 

' .<all,thepi) which^are mentioned by Authors to have .beea dug up 

Intliveri Parts of the' World, and have, been made, out Iby ti^m,- or 

'^ do btherwife appear bv their Defcription- and' Figures,! indiQwcably 

'\ to befong to thfe ^jE^lepn^int. ^ ^ 

^^^Jtibannei' Goiopioi peffmus ||, ^notwithftafiding he liy<ed in. an^ Age, 
\\ rWheiithft Stones bfCiants were. very nMicH^credited,, and had.foiind 
* ' thdr^ Advocates,., even among Perfons eminent foe 'their Learning and 
[^ jfudgtheni;^ yet vennrfe^ td'ffiert,' that Itho'l^ootbtt which was kept 
" .'^itnit ihfewn.ar-^»/;tt^^;),- a?* the*. Tooth-' of j;hay«nmera(bll' Qiant, 
" Vfibte Diefeac, brought ^bout as th^ pretended^' bj^SraBo/aL.So^ of 

^Pag. 62.. -. f^]Vlirce)Ia]^Lib.'k Gtp. ii. pag. 19. 6. \ Qi^ginaiB Antwer* 
pumarum 'Litvd.' ii. quern Gigaatooitchiam «pp41afit# ^. 178. 

I JuBmi 



VXi K'^f* Qcca^fion to the building of chxt'O^li and City^,. ^a» 
jftmii^' b(i!ir tm Grifrdar df aM' J^e^haHt. However* difj^esfiiiK dtis 
Ad^ititfif d^jiHHSiC a^G^0^/fiO-tbei'1^9i','M dfofe'wlto^M^ ddighcedi 
ifibf fuch'idKrahtf AdicuJottSi SVoi'mv ytt ed the JudieiduB itf will ap< 
paP thi^ ftfit^ l\ir^i2ing, dii A'ctobKt of wha^pttflM dOc lidta^f b«A>re 
he wrote this Book» when the almoft entire Skeletons of two Eto- 
p%aht^ liith ^tQ^nOikfii iHd hlEeWlft-th^ ^fflei ixmt^ &t Tu(ks^ W*re 
fgaiid n'c^r VP^lUSofid\ VilbA-detii tH thie^ Wlf^'tf dlg^iig C GaiMi f|p»ift 
Brufels td tfl^e Riv^r /i»M to del^hd thtfe Towa aud Country froi» 
the liicurfioW 6f thbfe of Mrri&iM. G^efit/s tonjeifhirdi, th^e ditf($: 
^eph'ahW had been brought (hither by Che RtMSls, » fht Time ei>- 
ihcr of the Eiiiperor OMiffii far Pdjibims. 

, A verjr htj^ Slfeletdn, lifeevjrife of a Gistii^, tA pf^httdtA^ was. 
dug up nea^ TiMvA li/rikH Sbotit thfe tcii i6ja^ Whdrtfof «M Tba* 
mal (^Arcos^ Whd wics then at that Platici fiiht ah Accdudti itifguCMte 
ifith one of tKfc Tectfi, to the Ifearrigd PHti^i Th« Skatl wa« to 
iSrge, chac ic coiitaiti^ eight AfeilSrvlh (i Mtdfdre df WiM; in Pn- 
verjce) or one MdJhii; as Gifemi bilH it *i df 3 jftet llrtd a Half 
P^jfi Meaftire. Sbdie tihie ifter i liVe £ie{>hslnt hafhig bMn ft*wn 
at Toulon Pnrejky Ordered thit he uoukl hh brdoghe t6 his Coantry 
Seat, on Purpofe to take that Opj)orturiity to ikafhfhe th« T«eth of 
tlie Creature, tlie trnprefBohs whereof h6 cSuftd to be takta xtt Wax* 
4n'd thereby foi'nd; that the pretfehddd Giaflt^ TWith fent hihi fro«' 
Tums;^ was ortly the GHnd^r of an Eliep^iaht. Tht^ is th« Second la^gft 
^eleton dug up near TUms in ^/^rkit^ and it zpptiiihi^ plainly by tht 
Xooch lent CO Petnjki thac U was the Skeleton of an Etef^ntj, lb 
may from thence Very probablv be cpnjedhired, fttatife otfcir Gir- 
cumftances concuring, that the o&tr alfd, ^hfdi GuiHwi^s &1tb 
there, muft have been rather of ah Elephant, than of a Gtant. 

Thomas Bartholin f mentions thc'Orihder, or Makillttr-iidbth ^ ih 
Elephant, which *as dug up in TjtMnii^ ind fAt >«) hftn t>y 'PiltVt 
kefenitts. Ic was tui^ned to a pJeJ-feft ftdrfy SfiBftaSiee, llkfc Flirit,, «> 
was alfb the Tiifk of a iRtf/wfarw *6bg iip ih fhfe faii^I^nfd. 

A large Tooth, which by it*8 SHSbe iijijlftlai^ filWinlyko^tiAe^Infc 
^erofan iEIephant, is dercrib(»l 'ahd IBguneB ^ EtuhhOlks }[, >Wh«; 
had it'oiit of tht Emti(ir6r*s Library, di6tii^h7fe'cMiiafiftc%e-fiifbfifiii> 
Jd where It wis fourid, br hdw it fedt thitftfer. ItVdgHed '*3 ^0«»i«Si 
Md was Cbmmonly taken to be the Todth 6f-a Oftint. ilffe/WiiWi i*' 
ppzMi, chief Phyfician tt» the ^rh^erdr, in a Letter tb Bi^mMs^ 
"affirms it to be ah'Eftfpliah6 mtb,=Siid<<«yfiftaftfs,Ttet^«WII^ 
diiQupuBad(», about four I<il!fes1ltJth J>7A»A}> AfiAeVe»'BacPa'fi^> 

With. Tom. I. ObC xlvi fsf. 83. |Kblioth. Ccfar. Vindob. L, VL f^. 31U 

Tea* 



zit Elephants Teeth mtd Bonci fiimd under Gmmi. 

Years before he wrote this Letter^ they had foinid dfo die Os fiK# 
& femaris of an Elephant* 

. Another Tooth, probably of an Elcf^anc too, is defcribed and 
figured by Lambecius *, who kad it out of the Emperor^ Library. 
Ic weighed 23 Ounces, and was found in the Year 1644 at Kr&mbs^ in 
the lower Aujina^ as they; were increafing the Fortifications of chat 
Place. : : 

The Year following-, when the Swedes came to befiege the Town 
of Krembs^ a whole Skeleton of a Giant, as was pretended, was found 
at the Top of a neighbouring Mountain, near an old Tower. The 
Befiegers, in their Intrenchmencs there, being very much incommod* 
^ by the Water that came down from Mountains, dug^a Ditch 
three or four i<*athoms deep, to lead it another Way. It was in dig- 
tging diis Ditch they found the Skelton aforefaidj which was very 
imuch admired for it's unufual Size. Many of the Bones, chiefly thofe 
<of the Head, fell to Pieces upon being expofed to the Air, others 
were broke by the Careleilhe^ of the Workmen ; fome efcaped en- 
tire, and were fent to learned Men in Poland and Sweden. Among 
thefe was.a Shoulder- bone, with an. Acetabulum in it large enough to 
hold a Cannon-ball. The Head, with Regard to it*s Bulk, was com- 
pared to a round Table, and the Bones of the Arms' (or Forelegs) 
as thick as a Man of an ordinary Size. One of the Grinders, weigh- 
ing five Pounds, was given to the Jefuits at Krembs: Another is figu- 
red by Happelius (in his Relationes Curiofa^ Tom. iv. pag. 47, 48.) to 
whom I am indebted for this Account, and it appears plainly by the 
Figure of it, that it is an Elephant's Tooth. It weighed four Pounds 
chree Ounces Nuremburg Weight. 

Again, in Lambecius his Bibliolbeca C a/area Vindohonenfis f, are 
two Figures, and the Defcription of a very large Elephant's Tooth 
"Which weighed 4 i Pounds. It was fent from Conjlantinople to Vienna 
in i]678, and offered to be fold to the Emperor for 2ocxj Rixdollars^ 
having been before, for it's unufual Size, and pretended great Anti- 
quity, valued at 10,000 Rixdollars. They pretended that it was found 
ocar Jerufedensy in a fatious fubterranean Cavern, in the Grave of a 
<jiant, which had the folk>wing Infcription upon it in the Cbaldakk 
Language and Charadersi Here lies ibe Giant OGi whence it was 
conjedkured to have been the Tooth of Og, King of Bafan^ who was 
defeated by Mo/eSy and who only remained 0/ the Remnants of Giants ; 
wbo/e Bedjlead was oflron^ nine Cubits was tbe Lengtb tbereof^ and four 
Cubits the Br^adtb ofit^ after tbe Cubit of a Man J|. As the whole Story 
. jooked very like an Impofition, the Emperor ordered, (hat the Tooth 
ihould ^0 fent back again to Conjlantinople. 

Hieronymus Ambrofius Langenmantel^ a Member of the Imperial 
Academf of Sciences, . inferted into the Epbemmdes of that Academy 

* lb. Lib. vl >7. 313. t Lik viiL /«/. 65s. | Deiitergaoiii. Ck iU. t. s. 



r 



Elephants Teeth and Bones found under Ground. Z17 

an Abftraft of a Letter to himfelf *, from Johannes Cxampina in Rome 
concerning fome very large Bones, to wit, the Shank- bone, the Shoul- 
der, bone, and five Vertebrae, of the Number whereof was one of 
the Vertebras of the Neck, which were, dug up nezr Fitorcbianyj in 
the Bifhoprick of Viler bo j in the Year 1687. They weighed altoge- 
ther upwards of 180 Roman Pounds, and having been compared with 
other the like Bones in feveral Colleftions at Rome, particularly the 
Cbijian one, they appeared to be by far the largeft. Moft People 
took them to be the Bohes of a Giant, but Ciampina, and fome others, 
taking them, with more Probability, for the Bones of an Elephant, 
or fome other large Animal, and knowing that there was in the Me- 
dicean Colleftion at Florences compleat Skeleton of an Elephant, 
they procured a Copy of ity and found upon Comparifon, the above- 
mentioned Bones fo exactly to correfpond with it, as to leave no 
Room to doubt, but that- they had been Part of an Elephant's 
Skeletonf. 

The Skeleton of an Elef)hant'whicli was'dugup in a Sand-pit' near 
fonna in Tburengen, in 1695, is one of the moft curious and alfo the 
moft compleat in it's Kind, forafmuch as they found the whole Head, 
with four Grinders, and the two dente$ exerti, or Tufks, the Bones 
of the fore and Hind-legs, one of the ShoiJldcr- bones, the Back- 
bones, with the Ribs, and feveral of the Vertebra; of the Neck. But 
the whole hath bi^en (6 accurately defcribed by WilhelmUs^Earneftus 
Tentzelius Hiftoriographer to the Dukes of Saxony, in a Letter to the 
learned MagUahecbi, printed in the Pbilofopbical franfalfions f, that 
it is needlefs to add any thing, the radier, as that Gentleman was 
pleafed to oblige the Royal Sodity with ibfne Pieces of the Bones of 
this Elephant, with Part of the Skull, wherein appeared it's Cells, 
fome of the Grinders, and Part of the denies exertii all which being 
produced at a Meeting of the ^yal Society, were found exaiftly agree* 
able to his Defcription, and ordered to be carefully pi^ferved in 
their Repofitory. From the Surface of the Ground down to the Place 
where thefe Bones were fpund, the Difpofition of the Strata, or Lay- 
ers,* was as follows : A black Soil four Foot deep, Gravel two Foot 
and a Half, the Middle whereof was made up of OfteocoUa, and 
Stones to the Depth of two Foot, OfteocoUa and Stones half a Foot, a 
fandy Clay fix Foot, with about two Inches of OfteocoUa in the 
Middle, OfteocoUa and Pebbles one Foot, Gravel fix Foot, a white 
and fine Sand, the Depth whereof was unknown, and in this the 
Bones were found. 

In the Second Volume of Count Marjil?s Danuhius, where he treats 
of the Antiquides he obferved alohg. this River^ there is Mention 
made of fevefat Bones and Teeth of Elephants, which that inquifitive 
Nobleman met with in Hungary and Tranfylvania, and which are now 

* Decar. ii. Annas vii. a, i688. Obf. cexxziY« f^g* 446. f >[o 334. fug. iij. 

VOL.VL Partii. Ee in 



2ti Elephants Tath 4«^ Bones found undir Gttmni. 

in his valuable CoUe^ion of Natural apd Artificial Curiofities at 
Bologna. According to the beft Informjition, the People of whom 
he kid thent) could give him, they were foui^d in Rivers, Lakes, and 
Pools. One of the Vertebrae, a Qrinder, ajid a cojnfiidcrable Part of 
the dens ex^rtus^ or Tufk, were found in the jLal^e^ or Pool of ISulca. 
Two Fragments of the Os T^bia^ a li(de corroded on the Inlide, 
were taken out of a Pool near Fogberas m Tranfylvania, onpe the Scaf 
of the Princes of that Country ; and the whole lower Jaw, with twp 
Grinders as yet (ticking in ip, he had from fotne Filhermen, who 
found it in the ftanding Waters by the River Tibifm^ a little abovf 
Die Romerjkantz^ or the Roman Fort. AH thefe the Author caufed tp 
be figured as big as the Life. I have above related the Opinion of 
Goropius about the Antiquity of thpfe two jBlephants, the Skeleton^ 
whereof were found near Pilvordenj which he traces no higher than 
the Time of\htRoman$j and their £xpedi|dpn$ jntoriiofi; Couiitriea. 
particularly under Galian and Poftbumus. Count Marfili is of th^ 
lame Opinion vith Regard to thofe Bones and Teeth fpund by h|m in, 
Tranfylvama. He takes Notice, that whofoever is acquaint^ with, 
the va(t Ufe the Romans made of Elephants in d^pir military Expe^ 
didons, oyght not to be furprized that there ^re Bones and Teethes 
found of th^m in thofe Northern Coiintrles, wl^re o(herwife sherf 
cannot have beea any ; and he urges, as a faFther Prp^ pf this AiV 
fertion. That they are found in Pools ^nA L^l^fs^ it having b«ea cht 
Cuflom of the Romans^ to throw the Carcfiife^ of dead ElephaPO in«*. 
to thp Water, as it is ftill pradifed tp this Pay with the Carc^fif s of? 
Horfes and other beafts, to prevent the Diftemp^rs aad otb^r Ificon'r 
veniences, which their Putrefa€kioi| might otherwife o^ca&pz). Qtkr 
the other Hand, there are many Arguments, %%\tsi (r-onv fh? \iV%^^ 
nefi of the Beafts, the Skeletofis whereof are \\m foimd MPd^ 
Ground^ which fomedmes far exceeds any |ha( wa^, or ^oujd b^V? 
been brought ^live into Europe^ from the Condition they a^Q fopa^ 
in, and from the particular Difpofilioo of lh$ S(r^ia abQ¥e thi) 
Places where they are found, whereby it appears, alinpft to a Pe^ 
moiifiration, that they muft he of much greater Antiquity,, and thai 
they cannot have been buried at the Places where fhey ar^ fognd 
or brought thither any othepwife, b\it by the F<;^e of th4 Wa^^tfra 
of anuniverfal Deluge. To infift only uppa one pf thefe Argum^n^s 
If the Skeletons bf £Iephai\ts, which are thuys fouQc) under Qround», 
and at confideiable Depths too, had been, bti^ied ch^r? either by the 
Romans^ or any other Nadon, the Strata above thei9P( wuft Becfffik-i 
sUy have beeil broken through and altered i w^hereas M (be contrary » 
jfeveral Obfervation^ inform us, that tbey were fomid entires whence- 
k evidoitliy. appeaj^s, that what is found underneatl^ lAuft haye becoi^ 
Ipdged there, if not before, at leaft at the ve^i^y: Titnf^ wbU: theft) 
Strata were formed ; confequently long before the Romans, But. 
there is another Argument, which feen^ ta^ me oo bear %try hard- 
^ . againit. 



Elephants Teeth and Bottcs fbund mder Gromd. 

againft the Conjeftures of Gotdpius aftd Cotint MarfiH. TentzeBtis 
ha[h already mentioned it, and it is urged from tite great Value of^ 
Ivory at all Times, and prticuhrly among the Romans^ whieh ap- 
pears by many Pafiages in antient Authors ; as for Inftance, by ^ 
very remarkable one in Pliny *, who takes Notice, Tha:t among thd 
valuable Preients, which the Ethiopians were obliged to make to thef 
Kings of Perjia^ by Way of a Tribute, there wer^ twenty large 
Teeth (unqueftionably the denies exerli) of Elephants, and then adds, 
Tanta ebori au£loritas erat. Now it is to be prefumed, that the Ro^ 
mans would not have neglefted to take away the Teeth, and par- 
ticularly the denies exerii of dead Elephants, before they flung their 
Carcafles into the Water, whereas there hath fcarce been any Skele- 
ton, or any Part of the Skeleton of an Elephant dug up any where,- 
but the Teeth were found along with them, and even among thofe 
figured by Count MarfiH^ there are three Grinders, and a confidera- 
blc Part of one of the denies, exerii. 

Dr Roberi Ploii in his Naiural Rijtory (?/Staffordlhirc f, fays. That 
he was prefented by William Levefon Gower of Trenibam^ Efq; with 
the lower Jaw of fome Animal, with large Teeth flicking in it, dug 
up in a Marie-pit in his Ground, and which upon Comparifbn he 
found exadUy agreeable to th)e lower Jaw of the Elephanfs^ Skull in 
Mr AJhmol^s Mufeum at Oxford. ' 

In the Mufeum of the Rjoyal Society there arc two Foflil-boncs of E- 
lephants: One was given by Sir Thomas Brown of Norwich^ the other 
was brought from Syria for the Os fibia of a Giant, but Dr Grew j 
proves by an exaft Computation, that it can nevfer have been the 
Os 7^> of a human Skeleton, by being full twenty times as thick, 
and but three times as long. It is an Engiijh Yard and half a Foot 
long, and hath a Foot in Circumference, where it is thinneflr. 
Dr Grew obferves, that by the Figure it appears to have belonged 
to the Leg, and not to the Thidi, and he conjectures the whole & 
lephant to have been about five Yards hig|h. 

Before I difmifs this Subjeft, I rtiuft beg Leave to mention a few^ 
more. Gefner •* takes Notice, that he was prefented by a Poli/b No-^ 
bleman with a Tooth four times' as large as that, which he figured 
under the Title of Hippopotamus in his Book de Aquaiilibus. It was 
found under Ground, as they Wiere digging for the Foundation of a 
Houfe, together with a very large Horn, as they called it, which 
many took to be an Unicorns*s rfom, but wrongly, as he^ Gef^ 
nerj thought, becaufe of it's being too thkrk aiid too crooked. It is 
very probable, that this pretended Horn was the dttis exertus of an • 
Elephant. The fame Author mentions a fubtetraneous Cavern near 
Elbingeroda^ wherein were found the Bones and Teeth of Men and 

• Lib. xii. cap. 4. f ^h. viL J. 78. pag. 78. J MufaeOm Reg. Soc. p. ^2. 
** Dc Figuris Lapidum, pag. 157. 

£ e 2 Animals 



zi9 



220^ Elephants, Teeth and Bones found under Ground. 

Animals fo large, thatit^i^as fcarce aedible, that ever any of chat 
Jbulky Size (hould have exifted. 

The Grinder of an Elephant, petrified, is kept in the King of 
Deftmark*$ Cabinet at Copenhagen^ as appears by the Catalogue *, 
but there is no Mention made hovir ic came thither, or where it was 
found. 

. They fhew in the fame Colleftion a large Thigh-bone, which 
weighs about ^twenty Danijh Pounds, and is above three Foot in 
Length f. It is fo old, according to the Author of the Catalogue, 
that it is almoft become ftony. The fame Author takes Notice of 
another large Bone, then in the Colleftion of Olbo Sperlings which 
weighed 25 Pounds, and was four Foot long. It was, as Sperling 
told him, found in the Year 1643 at Bruges in Flanders^ near the 
public Prifon, in Prefence of Bernard de Arauda^ and Sperlings Fa- 
ther, who faw the whole Skeleton there, which was of twenty Yards 
of Brabant in Length, 

A Piece of Ivory was dug up in a Field on the River Vijlulaj about 
iix Miles from IVarfa/w^ which having been (hewn at Danizic to Ga^ 
hriel Rzaczynjiiy Author of the Natural Hi/lory ^/Poland, ic fecmed 
to him to be the dens exertus of an Elephant ||. 

In the Notes upon the laft Edition of Dr Hermanns Cynofura Medica^ 
publilhed by Dr Boeder of Strajburg **, under the Title of Umcornu 
FoJJile^ there is Mention made of a remarkable Piece of Foffil Ivory, 
or rather of an Elephant's Tooth, in the Hands of Jaques Samfon dt 
Ratbfambaufen de Ebenweyer^ an Alfatian Nobleman. It was found in 
the Rhine xM^on one of his Eftates near Nonneville^ and was three 
P^rii Foot, three Inches and a Half long: It. had n^ar a Foot at 
the Bafis in Circumference, where thickeft,. and about eight laches 
and a Half at the other Extremity. It was filled within with a Sort 
of Marie, but the outward Surface was ftony in fome Places^ and 
bony in others. The bony Part fcraped, or burnt, fmelled like Ivo- 
ry. The Scrapings boiled made a Sort of Gelly. The Author of 
the Notes adds, , That they find Foflil lyory ia feveral Parts of £«- 
rope9 particulaf ly iix the Scbwartzv^ali {Sylva Hercynia) in Moravia^ in 
Saxony^ and near Canjlad in the D\xtchy of TFirtemberg^ 
M^rmt XIV. I went tatht Fullers- Earth Vits ^t IVavenZn near Wobern^ 

9f the Pits fir ynh^xtihtit are feveral Pits, now Open > but, as Men were th.cn at 
•Bedford-^ woT;k Only in oni^j.^and I underftoqd the Earth was dilpofed in much 
Siirc; htbe ^ ^^^^ Manner in all, I did hot trouble my .felf to go down into 
Rev! Mr more than that -wherein they were thpn diggings in which I found 
B. HoUoway, Things difpofed thus. ' 

F. R. S. No. From the Surface, for about fix Yards Depth, thete are feveral 
979* P- 4"9* x^aycrs of Sands, all reddifh, but fome lighter coloured than others, 

• Muf. RcgiBvn. Parti. J. vii. N©. 109. + Ibid. Parti. J. i. N«. 73. 

I Rtaczynski Hift. Nat. Reg. Polon. pag. z. f* 1726. V» P. iii. pag. ^35. 

2 under 



An Account of the P/// y^r Jullcrs-Earth. 221 

under which there is a thin Stratum of red Sand-ftone, which they 
break through \ and then for the Depth of about feven or eight Yards 
more, you have Sand again, and after that come to the Fullers-Earth \ 
the upper Layer of which, being about a Foot deep, they call the 
Cledge\ and this is by the Diggers thrbwn by as ufelcfs, by reafon of 
it's too great Mixture with the neighbouring Sand, which covers, 
and has infinuated itfelf among it: After which they dig up Earth 
for Ufe, to the Depth of about eight Feet more, the Matter whereof 
is diftinguiflied into feveral Layers, there being commonly about a 
Foot and an half between one horizontal Fiflure and another. Of 
thefe Layers of fullers- Earth, the upper Half, ' where the Earth 
breaks itfelf, is tinged red, as it feems by the running of Water from 
the fandy Strata above •, and this Part they ca^Il the Crop 5 betwixc 
which and the Cledge above mentioned, is a thin Layer of Matter not 
an Inch in Depth, in Tafte, Colour, and Confiflency, not unlike to 
Terra Japonica. The lower half of the Layers of Fullers- Earth j they 
call the Jf^alL Earth i this is untinged with that red above-mentioned, 
and feems to be the more pure and fitter for Fulling ; and underneath 
all is a Stratum of white rough Stone, of about two Foot thick, 
which, if they dig through, as they very feldom do, they find Sand 
again, and then is an End of their Works* 

Onei Thing is obfervable in the Site of this Earth, which is, that 
it feeriis to have every where a pretty equal horizontal Level ; be- 
caufe they fay, that when the Sand-Ridges at the Surface are higher^ 
the Fullers- Earth lies proportionably deeper. 

In thefe Works they feldom undermine the Ground, but as they 
dig away the Earth below, others are employed to dig and carry off 
the Surface, otherwife, the Mattel^ above, being of fo light arid 
flitting a Nature, would fall in and endanger the Workmen : For, 
as was obferved before, that Stratum of Sand-Stone, which occurs be- 
fore they come to the Fullers- Earth, does not lie, as in Coal-Pits, 
immediately over the Matter they dig for, like a Cieling, but even 
in the midft of ^he fuperjacent Strata of Sand, and therefore qin be 
no Security to them if they undermine. 

The perpendicular Fiffures afe frequent, and the Earth in the Stra-^^ 
ia, befides it*s apparent Diftindtion into Layers, like all other Kinds 
of Matter, by reafon of it's peculiar Unftuoufnefs, or the running 
of the adjacent Sand imperceptibly among it, breaks itfelf into Pieces . 
of all Angles and Sizes. " '^, 

For the Geographical Situation of thefe Pits, they are d?^ed' h> 
that Ridge of' Sand-Hills by Woburn \ which near Oxford i? called 
Shotover\ on vi}^\c\i'\\t% 'Newmhrkit-lieatb by Cambridge, arid/whadi 
extends itfelf from Eaft to Weft, every where, at about the Diftanee 
of eight or ten Miles from the Chiltern Hills, which in Cambridgcfinrt 
^re called Gog-Mago^\ in Buch^ and Oxon, iht Cbiltern HiHs„ froqi 
the chalky Matter, of which they chiefly confift: which t*fO' Ridges 

••■"'• ^ ' '1 ' yew 



^22 Of the Strata in CoalMineSy &c. 

you alwayspafs, in going from London into die North, North- Eaft,' 

or North- Weft Counties in the Manner I before-mentioned: After 

which you come into that vaft Vale, which makes the greater Part of 

the Midland Counties of Cambridge^ Bedford^ Bucks^ Northampton^ 

Oxfordy and Gloucepr:, and in which are the Rivers Cam, Onfi, Nen^ 

Avon^ Ifts^ and others ; which I take Notice of, becaufe it confirms 

what you fay of the regular Difpofition of the Earth into like Strata^ 

or Layers of Matter, commonly through vaft Trafts, and from 

whence I make a Qucftion, whether Fullers-Earth may not probably 

be found in other Parts of the fame Ridge of Sand-Hills, among o- 

ther like Matter. • 

AnAcmnt XV. It was fome Time fincc, that in a Letter to one of the Mem- 

rfthe Strata .fcers of this Society, I gave an Account of the fevcral Strata of Earths 

^Cw/- ^qJ Minerals, found in fome of the Coal- Works in Somerfetjinre^ 

£7ohnStV^ N^36o.^ But there is one 

chcy, Efqi great Error in the Print ; for whereas I faid, that in thofe Parts they 

.« R. $. No. never meet with Freeftone over the Coal •, the Printer, by miftake, 

J9I. p. 395. c2l\\% It FtreJione\ whereas FtreJtone\% always found in thofe Mines, 

contrary to the Works in Staffbrdjhire^ Newcaftle^ and Scotland, where 

Freeftone does, indeed, lie over the Coal. I have farther obferred 

the Strata of Stone, Clay, and Marie,- of the interjacent Hills, 

where, under the black Marie, lies a fponey yellowifti Earth ; all 

this lies above the red Soil, which I have faid is generally the Surface 

of the Vallles, where the Coal is found. And as this red Mould on 

the Surface degenerates into Marie or Loom, fo, towards the Nordu 

Weft, beyond or without the Veins of Coal, about JVinford^ in the 

lame County, it turns to Ruddle, or Red-Okre, ufed chieQy for 

marking of Sheep, and for ground Colours or Priming, inftead of 

^pam/hBvown ; and often counterfeits Bole Armoniac. 

But as I never heard any Coal was found to the Weft or South of 
MendipMlls\ {o Cot/wold, to the North-Eaft, and the Chalk-Hills of 
Marlborough^Downs ^nd SaUJiury Plains^ feem to fet Bounds to the 
JKg.yx, Coal Country, to the Eaft and South-Eaft of which Ftg. 72.. may be 
fuppofed a Seftion from South-Eaft to North- Weft, viz. from the 
Wig, 7^ ^ip to the Rife*, and Fii. 73. at right Angles, from South- Weft to 
Korth-Eaft, on the Drin or Level. 

I mention this by way of Corredion and Addition to my former 
Obfervations of the Coal- Works \ti Somerfetjhire. I have fince had 
Opportunities to be underground, and view feveral Coal- Works in 
Scotland. znd Northumberiandi and to obferve the feveral Strata^ there. 
At Widdrington they have four Fathom Clay, then a Seam of Coal, 
abouQ fix Inches chick, not worth working; then a white Freeftone ; 
then an hard Stone^ which they call a Whin; then two Fathom of 
Clay ; then a white foft Stone ; and under diat a Vein of Coal three 
^eet nine laches thick. This is a fmall Coal of the fame Nature, but 
^tfo good as the Newcdftk-Coal which comes to London Market. 

Thcfe 



Of the Strata in CmI Mines, &C. ^it,. 

Thefc Veins dip to tiie Swth-Eaft, one Yard in twontf. Near 
Tranenf^ in Eaft^Lotbian in Scotland, the Coal dips alfo to the South- 
£aft, in the fame Proportion ; but at Baldoe^ in the Parifh of Camp- 
fy, three Miles from Kjlfith, it dips to the North-Eaft \ and ac 
Madeftone^ near Falkirk^ to the fame Point, and in the fame Propor- 
tion. The Strata of Earths and Minerals, at thefe Places, agree ve- 
ry near : They have, as the Ground rifes or falls, one^ two, or three, 
fathomof Clay .; then eleven Fathom of Slate, or Coal-Clivesi one 
Fathom of Limeftone; under that two Fathom of Slate, Earth and 
Stone; and then Coal. And all thefe agree in this; that the Pits 
generally need no Timber, and have a good Roof, which isfuppor. 
ted by Pillars of Coal, which they leave in the working. At Bal- 
doe, the Coal is commonly forty-five Inches thick ; and all along'; 
§or fome Miles Eaftward thence, on the Sides of the Hills, are 
Crops of Coal and Limeftone; and oftentimes the Tenants /pit up* 
as. much as will ferve their Turn for a Winter's burning, juft under 
the Surface ; for thcrfi wants a Market, and it is fcarce worth work- 
ing for Sale. And to the North- Weft and North, in the Drift of the 
Coal in higher Ground, and, confequently,. lying over it, there ap- 
pear, in the Sides of the Hills, Seams of Spar and Lead, the Drift: 
cf which is North-Eaft, and lies almoft perpendicular; but what 
Obliquity there is, pitches to. the South<.£aft: At Aucbenclaugb^ fix: 
Miles Eaft from Kyljitb^ there is a Coal eighteen Feet thicks thit 
dips one Foot in three, and is not purfued by reafofi of Water ; and : 
for want of a Market, will not quil the Coft of draining. At Made^ 
Pone, the Coal is four Feet and a half thick, above three Fathom^ 
^nda half deep r They, land it (^as at iviany Coalhews in the Coun- 
ty) on Gjrls. Backs, ll^^r Tranent are three different Veins wrought 
the* vndermoft is about Qigh&een FathMi from the Surface, called the 
menij Cdd^ four Feet and a Half thick ; i( is a hard but not large 
Coal, makes a clear and firong Fire ; lies ten Fathom under the mam 
Coal, which is nine or ten Feet thick, and come»out very larger h\. 
Roof is of Freeftone under which I walked backward and fotrward . 
two Hours; but had no Opportunity to make any other Obftrvatton < 
emr the upper Vein, than that it is about four Feet thick, and neithes; 
i^ hard or large aa the odoien 

^ As I have, in-Rg, 7a and 7 J. drawn the different 5/r^» (which have i^g. 72 & 75;. 
eome to my^ Obfervatton; on a fuppofcd Plane, as they there lie ; in 
Fig, 74 and 75. I protrafl: the feme in a globular Projcftion,. fui)po- jSf^. y^ &75.^ 
fing the Ma^ of the Terraqueous Globe toconfifl of the fbre^tng,.^ 
^.perhaps, of tea dioufend other different Minerals, alt onginally,;. 
wbilft in a fi>ft and fioid State, tendmg cowards the Center*: it SHift: 
nlechanicaUy^ a;nd almoft neccflarily, follow, hy the^contioual Revo- 
liition of the crude Ma^from Weft to £a^ like dfie winding up e£^ 
a J[ack^ or rolling up the Leaves of a Paper-Book, that every, oner 
of thefe. Strafa^ tbaugh. thcv each reach dje. Center, muft,.in^ibmaT- 
i ' " EJacOiL; 



224 Of Strata in Mark Tits, &c. 

Place or other, appear to the Day ; in which Cafe there needs n<} 

fpecific Gravitation to caufe the lightefl: to be uppcrmoft, Gfr. for 

every one in it's Turn, in fomc Place of the Globe or other, will be 

uppermoft ; and, were it pradticablc to fink to the Center of the 

Earth, all the 5/r^/^, that are, would be found in every Part, and 

according to the Poet, Ponderibus librata fuis. Add to this, that in all 

Places within my Knowledge, the Obfervation of* another Member 

of the Society has held good, that the Precipices of all Hills are to 

the Weftward, whereas the Afcent to the Eaft is more gradual. The 

farther Enquiry into which I oflFer to the Curious, who have better 

Opportunity. 

An Acmnt XVI. Our Marie is found no where but in the Bottoms of low 

9ftbe Strata Boggs, where we fearch for it with Augres, and find it at the depth 

mt with in offeven, eight, or nine Foot: This in many Places occafion great 

^rlt^d of^^^V^^^ in draining off the^ Water. When we think to dig for jc 

Homs found we chufe out fix able Labourers and a Supernumerary ; then we cut 

under Ground tip a Hole twelve Foot fquare i becaiife we judge that this Number 

*r A^hmc ^^ ^^" ^^'' manage that Pit in one Day, vi%. two Men to dig, two 

Kelly. No?" Men to throw it up, and two Men to throw it by. The Supemu- 

394* P» «22« i^erary fupplies Defefts in every part, as will be found neceflary. 

For the firft three Foot, we meet with a fuzzy fort of Earth, that 

we call MofSi proper to make Turf for Fudl \ then we find a Stra^ 

turn of Gravel about half a Poet % under which, for about three 

Foot more, we find a more kindly Mofs, that would make a more 

excellent Fuel : This is altogether mfxt with Timber, but fo rotten, 

that the Spade cuts it as eafily as it doth the Earth : Under this, for 

the depth of three Inches, w6 find Leaves, for the moft part Oaken, 

that appear fair to the Eye, but will not bear a Touch. This Stra^ 

turn we find fometimes interrupted with Heaps of Seed, that fcem to 

be Broom or Furze-Seed : Nay, in one Place I faw, what#appeared 

to me to be Goofeberries and Currants : In other Places in the fame 

Stratum we find Sea- weed, and other things as odd to be at that depth : 

Under this appears a Stratum of blue Clay, of half a Foot thick» 

fully mixt with Shells ; this we look upon to be good Marie, and 

throw it it up as fuch : Then appear^ the right Marie, commonly 

2, 3, or 4 Foot deep, and in.fome Places much deeper, which look^ 

like buried Lime, or the Lime that Tanners throw out of their 

Lime- Pits, only that it is full mixt with Shells : Thefe arc fmall Pcff 

riwinkles, fuch as the Scots call Frejh fVater^JVilks \ though there ar^ 

among them abundance of round red Perriwinkles, fuch as I havj 

often feen thrown out on the Sea-Shore. Among this Marie, and 

often at the bottom of it, we find very great Horns, which we for 

want of another Name, call Elk-Horm Where they join the Head, 

they are thick and round \ and at that Joining there grows out a 

• Dr. Stukiij 

Branch 



Strats of Earths and FoJJils^ &c. %z^ 

Branch of about a Foot long, chat feems to have hung juft over the 
Bead's Eyes : It grows round above this for about a' root and fbme 
odds ; then fpreads broad, which ends in Branches, long and round 
turning with a fmall Bend. The Labourers are commonly fo bufy, 
that they rarely bring them up whole \ yet I have one pretty well, 
of which I fend you an Icon^ done as well as I could, but not fo nice ^^^ 7^ 
as I could wifh. We have alfo found Shanks and other Bones of thefe 
Beafts^ in the fame Place. 

XVII. After they had paflcd the upper Turf, they came to a blue AnAawnttf 
Clay, which held about 3 Foot ; then they met with a yellow, brittle tbefeveral 
Clay, very much like Ochre, ufed by Painters, about two Foot in ^'''^^'f ^ , 
Thicknefs 5 and next with a Loam of a loofer Texture, which fpark- ^mis^fi^dw 
led with a kind of Talc, called by the Naturalifts Selenites, znA finking tb^ 
was intermixed with yellow Ochre. Thefe Selenites, which vrttt MtnerallVtlb 
plentifullv found (hot m the Clay, were Cryftals confiding of tranf- ^1^^^' §^ 
parent, mining, brittle Flakes, fome of a Rhomboidal,' oriiers of a LewirV/V^r 
Conical Figure, but all Hcxacdra or Columns of 6 Sicfcs. They 9ftht?Uu. 
had no fenfiblc Tafte of Sair, and the Clay in which they were found N*. 403. 
was interfperfed with Veins of coloured Earth, of the Colour of Sul- P-489* 
phur and Iron Ruft. 

Below this, at about 10 Foot deep, they came to a Bed of Stones^ 
of a lar^e Size and very hard Texture, coatcfd ^ith Flakes of Gypfum 
of a white and yellowim Colour, which run through and divide them 
a$ it were by various Membranes into different Cells, all filled with 
hardened Loam of a grey Colour. Thefe Stones, which were all of 
an oval Figure, in Shape refembling Pebbles, weighed from 10 to 
60 Pound Weight, and lay all oh a Level one by another in the Bed 
of Clay. Here the Springs come in, and below this the Clay was 
darker coloured, and interlaid with Small Shells of the Oyfter, Ef- 
callop, and Mufcle, Kind, and Svith a few Belemnites curioufly fhap- 
cd. Here they met with Stones of a very clofe Texture, which when 
wafhed feemed to be nothing but a Mafs of Shells jumbled and em- 
bodied together. And a little lower the Clay produced fome Lumps 
of a black, bituminous Sulphur, interlaid with fome fmall thin La- 
mina, fecming to be metalline and bright like the pureft Silver : 
Upon firing this fulphuerous Bitumen on a red-hot Iron, it emitted 
a blue Flame, and urong Smell like Brimftone, but the Metal was 
lod. From this Account of the different Strata found in finking thefe 
Wells, their Impregnation feems u> be from Alum, Vitriol of Steel, 
Ochre and Sulphur, and from an accurate Mixture of all thefe, 
which no Art can imitate, it feems to derive thofe admirable Quali* 
ties with which it is endued. 

Some Conjecture may be made of it's Nature and Qualities from 
the Tinftures it gives upon chymical Experiments : With aftringent 
Drugs, as Galls, Oak- Leaves and Balaufiines, it fometimes tihges 
Red, inclining to Purple, and fometimes will not tingeat all : With 

VOL. VL Partii. Ff volatile 



iiti . Ofthi Tarticlfs and StruSure of "Diamonds. 

volatile Alkalies, as Spirit of Urine, and Sal Ammon. it turns mit- 
ky, with lixiviate Salts, as Oil of Tartar, per Dcliq. ^c. it rifci 
in a white Curdle: But acid faline Liquors, as Spirit of Salt, Nitre, 
fcfr. caufe no Alteration. 

A Gallon and Half of this Water being evaporated ad Siccitaiem^ 
iiiZ Reliquiae wfei^hed 3 Drams, i Scruple and 19 Grains, fomc 
Part ot which were white, and ihot into Striae like Needles, and 
others into Prifms. 

The neighbouring Country is chiefly a ftrong Clay ; the Quarries 
produce ^ very hard Stone, which feems to be a Compofiuon of 
Shells clofely cemepted and ehibodied together, and fome Matcha- 
fitcs which abound with Sulphur : In finking deep Pits they throw 
up Stones like Iron Oar, and covered with a fhining metallic Sub* 
ilancc and fcrpentine Stonci, i^c. and the ploughed Fields abound 
with Stones refembling Shells of the Efcallop and Cockle Kind, 
ftriateid with fomc Aflirpices, which are ailflrong Alkalies, and with 
Aqua-fortis, or Spirit of Nitre, raife a violent Ebullition. 
JDefcription ^ ^YW- ^ fummis Gn;»/«/^ jugjs paucis abhinc annis detefta eft» 
§ffimi rare nuiic exhaufta, in faxo medio, cryftaJlorum vena, quibus nee majorcs 
Crjfialsnew' ne<i Roripres, vidjt fiOTte orbis. Maxima ear umj)ars, ad 60 circker 
h^^fi^^'^* eentenareos, in mahilDus eft 1). iT:^Ai>jg paftoris i^^ venales om- 
^^hcuchzcT^ nes, fed pretio, quod ex fcquentibus patebit, baud vulgari, quad 
M. D. F.R.S. forte, praeter puritatem, excufat rara magnicudo. Praecipuarum en, 
N<». 398. p. qu^m nuper ab ipfp expetii poflcitore feriem ! 
*6o. Num. I. puqrum vel 2i centcnarioruni^ longa 2^ped. gh dig. Pe- 

ripheria 3 ped 7 1 dig. limpidiflima, hexagona^ rretium librae 1% 
Ludov. aur. 

N. 2 Pondus t36ib, longit. 2 ped. 3 dig Peripheria 2 ped. 9. 
dig. Purpuras quafdem habet ad marginem, puHlTima ca^tierikmt 
Fretium librae i Ludov. aur. 

N, 3. Pondus i3sibj.longit. 2 ped. 4 dig. I^efjpheria 3 ped. 2 
dig. iimpjidiflima, excepto apice ; pretiuni librse 4 Floren. . 

N. 4. iPondus.96 j^ longit. 2 ped. Peripheria. 2 ped. 9 dig. pre- 
tium idem. / 

Ita defcendendo pergit ad 10 librarum pondus, qualitatis, propor- 

tioniSji prctii varii. 

Of the Parti- XIX. Ppftquam inveftigando compercram Metalla qusedam, & 

(lis andStruc' Jpfas etiam Arenas ex^perexiguis ejufdem materiae parti(:ulis compofi- 

^''^^f^^M |ias efle, meditatjoncrn meam convcrti ad Adamaliteftn 5 fcilicet num 

Lceuwcnhock iJlc cpam ex iftiufmodi conftet particulis, quae qddem ope micro ^cor 

F.R.S. N*>. pii confpici poflint. , 

374. p. 199. Igitur exigfuum quendam Adamantem per micrbrcbpfum contcm- 

platus, in el Adamantis parte quas poliia non erat, & fplendore 

carebat, compluresparcicuias oculis obfervavi}& Adamantem ex par. 

vis ' particulis compoiitum cffe compcri. Vcruxn cum haec nonduna 

milu 



0/ the ^articles ^ Stru£iure of ^iamondi. zij 

mihi fatisfacerept i Adainantjsininfru^acQDfringeredecrevi, utillom 
so fragmcncis fui$ confideraretn. 

Ergo Adatnancem, mallco impofitum, alio malleo fetnel iterum« 
que percufli, qui fie percuflTus in quacuor aut quinque fruftadiiTiliebiat, 
Quod cum nondum mihi faci^facerec, & Adamancem in exi^uifTimas 
cniculas comnunuere vellem \ fruftum» quod cseceris majus erac» 
duplici charca circumvQlvij ne qua; Adamantis miculas difiiliendo 
perirent. 

. Hie ego duricieip Adamantis fK^^ratus fumr qui mulca vi aliquo« 
ties i£bu8, io quacuor uutumauc. quiqque frufta fine ullis miculis 
difiiUebat 

Pofteciora ifta Adamantis fruili^Ia microfcopio eclam admovi : quae 
cum perfpecularer, pene omni^ e^ iji^^^ucilfimis particulis compofica 
efie coa^xri. Cimi dPteuA fruftqU flja radiis iolaribus objicerem: 
quandam quafi Aammulam eK^iis,em^?re vidcbam^ ^ quidem m^Jo* 
cem, Guam unquam vldifiTenp. 

FruKulum uaum oculis ncff^b^m,, quod Ip^um fra&urs fu^, pla^ 
nas quidem ac ^uadrat^, foli dire&e pppofitum habcbac : qui Jocus, 
quantum vifu dijudicabam^ tribus aut quatuor pilis menci virilis laci- 
cudine refpondcbat 

. Ex hoc Adamantis frH(lKlp t^p^a afoepdet^at copia ardelbentiuqi 
flammularum, ut plur^$ ^ITe puppero quaip quadringcnt^ judic^^^i 
Flammularum if^ajrum nopnuU^, fed nuptiero pauc^, fibi eranc vici^ 
jiius junftae, & reliqyis m^Qrjs : ^nde copclu^ebam, ipfas Adanpan- 
tis particulas iUic eciam aliis p^rticiilis ipajof es e^e, vel ordinatius ^ 
difpofitas. 

Exinde oculos cpnyerti ;t4 ^|iyd Adam^nt^s fruftplum, paris circi- 
ter magnitudinis cuq) priori^ qtjpd radios (blares icidem dire<5ie exci- 
.piebat ; & baud paucipribi^^ jE^^iiffimas molis partigi^lis conftare 
comperiebam. Ex una frqftuli i^lUus parte eaque circiter dimidiata, 
fpecies ills ardefcentium flanunul^rum etiam exoriebantur, fed piolp 
minores: in altera medictate flam mula quacdam cernebatur, afiidue 
fe mobilitans, cum coptiopl quadaqi cor^fc^tlone, quas fpeciem habe- 
.bat debiliqris fulgetri. 

Caeterum, pqftquam ifta Adamantis fruftula radiis iolaribus fubr 
duxeram, adhuc multiformes rerum fpecies oculis n^ds objiciebantur. 
Inter alia ex fingulis Adamantis particulis flanimula quasdam in altum 
emicare videbatur. 

Porro, novem prasterea Adamantis fru(tu\a microfcopio applicata 
habeham : & in eorum fepteni parciculas ill^s agnovi, quas fpeciem 
flammularum ejaculari dixi. In duobus aliis eciam particulas illas 
agnofcere poteram, ex quibus Adamantem cpmpoficum effe ftatui : 
fed illae planitiem fuam ita foli obverfani habebant, uc plureseodem 
tempore parciculas dignofcerem. 

Mihi aucem peramasnum erac fpe^taculum, tot incueri imagines 
flammularum, quas omnes colofem pra^ferebant corufcum, * & pleras- 

"Ff 2 que 



12 S Of the Tarticles and StruSiure of Diamonds. 

que viridentem. Iftud autem infolens mihi vifum eft, ^aod ad flam* 
mularum quarundam excremicacem talis perciperetur in aere mocus ac 
vibratio ; tanquam fi flammula adeo illic debilicaca forec, ut confpicua 
eflfe delineret. Prss cacceris aucem admirabar, quod ex tali Adaman- 
tis parcicula circucnquaque ignis exirer, debiliter rutilans, ficuti cum 
fulmen e longinquo corufcare videmus. Quod quidem tarn crebro 
intuente me accidebat, ut oculos avertere non polfem, nifi jam fati- 
gatos. 

Verum tarn jucundo fpeAaculo faepius frui decrevi, & fruftulum 
iftud Adatnantis, donee fponte a vitro : decidat, microfcopio appli- 
catum relinquere. Neque enim ope glutinofse alicujus materiae affix> 
um eft vitro: nifi quod vitrum, anteouamilli fruftum Adamantis 
affigerem, humore anhelitus mei irroraffem. 

Cum t^m grato fpedaculo folus frui non vellem *, quae modo relata 
funt, legenda tradidi cuidam N cui & microfcopium in manus tradidi« 
Cumque poft aiiquantum. morae requirerem*, nonne omnia defcri* 
ptioni mese convenire comperirent ; ille prorfus convenire refpon- 
dit, & admirationem fuam fuper fpeffcaculi infolentia confefliis 
eft. . 

Porro, cum fruftulum quoddam Adamantis adbuc microfcopio ap- 
plicatum eflet, cujus particulas, lamellarum modo fibi incumbentes, 
vifu dignofcere poteram ; baud abs re me fadturum putavi, (i iameU 
«v y las iftas delineari curarem, qua; denotantur per ABC. 

Deinde & aliud Adamantis fragmentum microfcopio applicaveram, 
cuius lamella;, invicem fuperftratse, fefe oculis meis diftindifiime 
Fig. 78. otterebant ; qua; defigqantur per DEFGHIKLM. In hac autem 
figura particulae ilia; five lamella;, per FG, FH, FI, FK, & L de- 
notata; funt, reliquis aliquanto crafliores efie videntur : verum ifta; 
particula; ex pluribus lamellis, invicem fuperftratis, funt compofitac. 
In ifti vero fragmenti parte, quam inter DEFM exprimendam cura- 
vi, diftindifiime apparent tenuifiimx lamella;, ex quarum congerie 
totum Adamantem concrctum eflc pro ccrto habendum eft. 
' Priufquam fecundam iconem in chartl exprimendam curaveram 
forte Celebris Gcmmarius, N. Verbrugge^ a;des mcas pra;teribac; 
quem ego ad convifendum Adamantis fragmen, ficut microfcopio ap« 
plicatum erat, invitavi. Ille fragmen iftud non fine admiratione con- 
templatus, quafdam fe Adamantum glebulas, qua; fibi inutiles eflent, 
mihi miflbram reccpit. 

Nee multo poft bina mihi mittit Adamantum fragmenta : item 
txiguum Adamantem, ex arte quidem politum, fed fordidum, uti 
vocant, feu vitiofum. 

Cum fingula fingulis microfcopiis applicaflem, primo fragmentum 

iftud, quod per NOPQR denotatum eft, delineandum curavi. 

Mf-JP- Lineolae, qua; per totum hoc fragmentum cxcurrent, revera non 

funt nifi lamella;, ex quibus Adamantes'conftare modo dixi: & 

apertius confpiciendas fe pra;bent ad PQ^ 

a Ca;terum 



Of the ^articles and Structure of Diamonds. 229 

CflBteruoi ut eorum, quas de hac Adamantis glebul^, five fru(luIo> 
jam dixi, clarior atque diftindtior fie perceptio ; fruftuium iftud e^- 
dcm prorfus magnicudine exprimi jufli, quatn nudo delineatoris ocu- 
lo, fine microfcopii ope^ otferebac: quas vera fruftuli magnicudo, 
exhibecur inter ST. Ulud aucem canciilum fruftuium ex tarn mulcts Fig. b<k 
tamque e xiguis particulis compofitum eft ; uc qui non videric^ capere 
haud pofiic. 

^ In altero Adamantis fragmento, quod ejufdem propemodum mag* 
nitudinis erat^ lamellas dignofci poterant : & pars illius circicer quin* 
ta conftabat quinquangulo tarn poiito, tamquam fi ex arte lacvigatum 
fuifiTet, nifi quod illi affixus eflet perexiguus Adamas, qui circiter 
quartam quinquanguli partem obtegebac i & uti clare vifu agnofce- 
bam» etiam ex lamellis, five particulis lamellarum formam habenti- 
bus, concretus erat. 

Quantum ad perexiguum iftum Adamantem; ilium quidem a^ 
arte politum, fed fordidum feu vitiofum efle dixi: fordidos enim vo- 
camus, dum vel fubflavi funt, vel rimis aut lineolis deformes: quam^ 
▼is nonnullse hujus Adamantis rimse atque lineolae nudis oculis confpt- 
ci non poflent; imo, adhibito etiam microfcopio, vifum pene cfiu- 
gerent. 

Exiguus hie Adamas erat quadrangulus: prope unum iftorum an- 
gulorum, intra ipfum Adamantem, varias vidi parciculas ab invi- 
cem fejunAas ; nifi quod aliquantulum fefe attingere viderentur, auod 
initio infolens mihi vifum eft, Particularum iftarum maxima coloris 
erat fubfiavi^ & altero circiter latior quam craflior: nee fplendore 
cedebat vitro. Reliquis particulis varias erant figurae; nonnullis e- 
tiam par fplendor ac primas : nee pauciores efle judicabam quam vi- 
ginti: licec delineator tantum numerum non exprefierit. 

Ifte confpeAus hanc mihi perfuafionem induxit; quo tempore 
materia, Adamantum produdrix* vagabatur in acre; exiguas illas 
particulas, qua; itidem Adamantes erant, priori quem dixi Ada- 
manti adjacuifle : materiam autem adamantinam, quamdiu talis ma* 
teria aeri infedit, iftam Adamantum congeriem paulatim circumTc- 
ftiifle, & minores Adamantes inclufifle majori. 

Qua occafione recordor complures me habuifle Cryftallos montanas 
figuras fexangulae : in quarum nonnullis quafi inclufs jacebant fi* 
gurae qusdam perexiguae & oblongas, coloris fubeoerulci; fed tarn 
exiles ut, adhibito etiam optimas noca; microfcopio, vix agnofci pof* 
fcnt. 

Porro iftius Adamantis, quem vitiofum appellavi, veram mag- 
nitudinem dclineari curavi : quam expreflam habes inter V & W. jf^, gi, 

Deindc & percxiguos iftos Adamantes, qui in majorem Adaman- 
tem inclufi exhibentur in icone 8 1 feorfum delineandos curavi ; quos 
dcfignatos vides per X Y Z A B C. Ubi per X Y Z dcnotatur extc- f/^. ta. 
rlus Adamantis latus, quod licet ex arte politum^ ope tamen microf- 
copii confpcAum, colorem tarn fufcum praeferebat. 

Per 



2 JO Of the Tarficks and StruSture ofT^iamonds. 

Per Z A B C D £ ifti denotantur exiliflimi Adamantes \ quQS ia ma3 
jufculo Adamante veluc inclufos latuifTe prxmonui. 

Cum poflea lacus Adamantis in icone 8 1 exprefli, cui longe tnino^ 
res Adamantes inclufos fuilTe mox dicebam^ ad microfcopium admo* 
yiflem, Adamancem iftum yariis foraminibus percufum efle comperi; 
quas ego foramina tunc fa^ efle cenfui, quando latus illud policba« 
tur. Ita nimirum ut exiguiflimi, quos dixi, Adamantes loca ilU. 
prius infederint, fed poliendo delapfi foramina ilia five puteolqi pro- 
fig. 83. duxcrint, quas foramina ccHifpicua funt inter FGH. 

Porro exiguum ilium Adamancem, inter V W in icone 8 1 expreC* 
fum» in latus fuum verterani ; & ubi crafliufculus erat, novaculum 
illi apcaveram, ut Adamantem ipfum iAu mallei diffinderem : quod 
4;amen» licet iterato tentanti, non fuccelfit. 

Quare Adamantem chart^ munda circumvolutum, imponebam 
•malleo; & alio malleo, crebriu$ jtameo feriendo, diipTregi. Poft- 
quam omnes diSra6ti Adamantis glebulgis diverfis microfcopiis appli« 
xraveram ; unam, qua^ plurea quitm reliquas lamellas oculis txki* 
«N g bere videbatur, delineatori effingendam tradidi, quae denotatur per 

^' ^* IKLM. Haud tamen poflibile deliiieatori fuit eadem perfe£lione 
glebulanr illam exprimere, qusl fefe oculis confpiciendam offere- 
bat. 

Cum autem microfcopium, cui fruftulum illud iconis S4 applicataoi 

erat, diverfum eflet ab iis micrpfcopii3, quorum ope ^lia Adamantis 

frufia delineari curaveram ; Delineator poftrepium hoc fruftulum e^ 

magnitudine expreflit, quam fin^ mici^icopb confpe<flum oculis of-* 

fh. 8c. ierebat: quas -veto fruftuli illius magnitu^ exhibetur inter NO. 

Qusedam ex his Adamintutn fra^menti$, ope microfcopia confide- 
rata, jucundos praebebant qoiifpedus : quois etiam nonnuUis, talium 
f erum ftudiofis, exhibui. lUis aui(Qm jucimdiillmum erac, in uno A- 
damantis fruftulp tam mulciplio^ pigoofcere partes: imprimis etiam 
quod lamelle, ex quibus Adamanti^is CQOPreci Aint, in duobus Ada- 
mantum fruftulis valde dlftin<^e po^ei^t iat^npfci; nempe dum la- 
aeikc iibe juxta dti^ym longitudims oculi? objiciebantur. 

Exinde ftudium meum conver (i ad ejcamen Cryftalli cujufdam mQUr 
tans, fex latertbus pra^ditas, cujus Iqngitudo circit^r refpondehat la* 
titudini duorum digitorum, craflitudo vero mi^ori digito, 

Gryftallum iftam in complura frufta cbnfregi, $r frufta microfco- 
piis applicavi; difquirere volens num & ilia ex fuperftratis fibi lamel- 
lis compofua eflent : qua ratione Adamantes magnicudinem fuatn a-* 
deptos efie dixi. Sed, tametfi perquifittonetn iftam faepius iterave- 
rim, ne tantillam quidem lamellam in iis depreh(;ndi. Iftud autem in 
Cryftallis, quas quidem pras manibus habebam, plerumque animad 
verti, in omnibus earum lateribus, quae numero fena erant, tranfverf- 
as 4}rotendi lineolas, alias aliisfitualiquantulumfuperiores; tatnquam 
£ illic, incneibentibus Cryftallis, ortas produdaeque fuiflent: qua fu- 

pec 



Of l^Ummds Utetf f^nd in BraziF. a jr 

per re^ quantumcumque Cryftallorum numerom ante confiderave* 
rim, atoue confregcrim, numquam ipfc mrhi fatisfacerc potui. 

XX. HaTing an Opportunity of difcourfing with a Gentleman recom- Concerning 
mended to me, that came from the Gold Mines in Brazil belonging Diamonds 
to theKingof P(?f/afgtf/, and brought many Diamonds of confidera- jJ'^J^^'/'''^ 
ble Value, lately found in thofe Places, I thought proper to defire ^ jacob'de 
of him an Account of the fame, being the fitteft Perfon to defcribe Cattro Sar- 



every minute Circumftance of it, as one that has lived, and digged °*«*^» ^-^^ 
Gold there for thefe fifteen Years laft pad ; and he having obliged ^''^ ^'^f; ^^ 
tae with the faid Acount, in the P^r/irg^^z^ Tongue I think it willpag. i^^ 



not be unacceptable to the Society, to offer the Tranflation of it» 
which is as follows : 

In the Prince's Town, Capital of the County do Serro do Fm, be- 
longing to the Government of the Gold Mines, there is a Place near 
the laid Town called by the Natives Ca^ the Merin^ where they ufed 
to dig Gold for many Years, as alfo from a fmall River called do 
'MUbo Verde. The Miners that digged Gold in thofe Places did turn 
vp the Ground and Sands of the l^nks of the faid River, to extra^fe 
the Gold therefrom, and by fo doing found feveral Diamonds, which 
then they did not prize as fuch ; for fome of the Miners kept 
feveral Stones for their Figure and Curioficy, which Stones ("though 
fo Valuable) by Length of Time they negleffced and loft, and did the 
fame till die Year 172*^ at which Time one of the Miners lateljr 
toming to W6rk there, and better acquainted, deemed them to be 
Dtamotids, made Experiments trpon them, and finding them really 
fo, began to feek for them in the fame Ground and Sand, where the 
^orrtrfcr Miners had ignorantly left them,fo did the reft of the People 
fcrllow his Example. 

After they had thoroughly examined the Places aforefaid, they 
•began 'to fearch for them in the River itfelf, and do «aftuadly find 
Diamonds there, but with more Trouble and Difficulty 4 for in the 
Tormcr Places they found them together anFVong the Earth and Sand,^ 
as'thfey lay ; but in <he River, as the Sand is more difperfed, they 
He farther from one 'another. 

fexperidncc 'and comrtion Reafon teac^hes xht People chere, that 
thefe Diamonds came from another Place by the Current of the Wa- 
ters, and ate not the natural Produft ef the Situation where they 
new are found. 

They are ufing all f>dflible Diligence to' find out the Pfcice ^here 
ttcy grow. They have not yet difcovered it ; but their great Hopes, 
are very mucih' ertcouragcd upon the Account of having near the faid 
•SituatianfevcralTVlountains, where nothing is to be feen but fine {olid 
Cryftal Rocks. 

The Diamonds that have been found, are commonly from one 
<jrain to fixCarrats, fome larger, and among thefe one of forty-five 
Carracs. The -Colour, Solidity, and reft ^f their JProportiesare-tbe 

fiune 



232 A Leaf impreffed in Amber. 

fame as the Oriental ones; only it wasobfervcd, that thofc Diamonds 

^ that lay more fuperficially, and cxpofed to the Air and Sun were 

more fcurfy, and by Confequcnce loft more by polilhing than the 

other. 

Jn Account of XXI. Inter Corpora Naturalia Succinis a Natura inclufa, ilia Ion- 

m Uafofa g^ rariffima effc, qua Vcgetabili Regno fuam debent originem, con- 

i^^7£^*^^^*^^^"'^"^^^""*» opinor, quicunquc Naturae Curioforum Pinacothe- 

Ambcrf^^joh. cas, inquc iis Succineas Gazas, non Icvem ipfis conciliantes fplendo* 

Philip Brcy- rem, accuratius infpexerit, Authorefque de his rebus traitantcs dili- 

f"» ^n^* gentius cxcuflcrit. Haec inter autem caeteris Plantarum pcrfeaiorum 

395- P- i^i- P^^^^> ^^ ^^**^ femmum rcccptacula, florcs, fi qui inveniuntur, &c. 

raritatis palmam prasripiunt. 

Hujus rei ratio proculdubio eft:, quod ex recentiorum mente. Sue* 
cinorum officina naturalis, loca fint fubtcrranea, quorfum partes Vc- 
getabilium, utpote terras fuperficiem inhabitantium, aegre be non ni(i 
cafu, eoque rariOimo pertingere pofTunt ; cum Infe&a, quamvis etiam 
in acre viventia, tamen, ut Ic i frigore, aliifque aeris injuriis defendant 
vel alia etiam de caufa, fponte faepius rimas, hiatus & cryptas quad- 
rant & fubeant fubtcrraneas, & ad fcpuJchrum propercnt, ubi a Suc- 
cino adhuc liquido irretiuntur, involvuntur, fuSbcantur, cumque 
codem in aevum duratura rigefcunt. 

Ejufmodi glebam, quae folium hujus notae in finu fuo fovebat, nu* 
per Menfe Odobri praeterito mihi exhibuit & examini fubjecit meohic 
G^^^«i Mercator quidam nationc Brittannus^ Philippus BenlowSy qui 
eandem, inter alia Succina naftus, maximi, imo pluris quam triginta 
aureorum asftimabat. 

Haec ovalis ferme, fed compreflas erat figuras & magnitudinis quas 
Ftg. 86. in Icone exprimitur, quartam Unciae partem craflicie asquans, illius 
generis, quod falernum, a fimilitudine vini, falutatur Succinum, & 
quidem fatis perfpicua.& pura, neque velleviflima fraudis macula 
confpurcata. Includebat per totam ejus mediam longitudinem expor- 
re&um Folium aliquod Bocanicis pennatum, quibufdam etiam alatum 
quamvis minus re£te, di£tum i q^od eleganci fane fpedtaculo, ob- 
fcurum quidem, fed aureo colore corufcans, a refleftione & refrac- 
tione radiorum luminis, oculis fpedlantium clare fefe oSerebac. Fo- 
lium hoc non integrum, fed utraque extremicate mucilatum erat, ut 
ipfa indicat figura, quinque conftans foliolorum oblongorum, utrin- 
que non nihil acuminatorum paribus f. conjugationibus, quorum quas- 
damerantex parte exefa & niucila, in cofta communi asque fere a 
fe invicem diftantibus. Sicum erat in piano horizontal!, quod in eo 
foliorum genere familiare eft, praeccrquam, quod foliola obliquitate 
aliquanculum ab eo defle(5lerent ; nequaquam vero conjugationes 
foliolorum decuflfacim poficas vel ullo modo videbantur, quod in foliis, 
qu£ conjugata Botanicis dicuntur, femper obtinent ; uc adeo folium 
hoc ex compofitorum pcnnatorum genere cfle, nullum mihi amplius 
reftet dubium. Cujus autem exadte Plancas fpcciei fit determinare 

vix 



An Acctmnt of the Salt -works of Soowar. 233 

vix licet 5 quia multae fpccies hujus familiae, foliis veftiuntur fibi adeo 
iimilibus, ut etiatnii recentia, difficile fic a fe invicem diftinguere ; 
accedic, quod nee venula: foliolorum, vel oculis Microfcopio armacis 
appareanc, utpoce quas a Succino olim Ijquido obliteratac & quafi in- 
cruftacac erant. Quam proxime autem accedit ad Securidacae fecund^, 
Clufiij f. Coronillas herbaceae, &c. Tournefortii^ quas in dume- 
tis Pruffia fads famiHaris eft. Ab altera parte, inter bina foliola, 
aranea fatis clare confpicicur ; ab altera vero parvula mufca, fed hacc 
Don niG oculo lente armato. 

Non tnemini me apud ullum Authoi'eni folii hujufmodi in Succino 
pennati invenifle mentionem, praeterquam apud Michai'letn Mercatum 
m nobili ifto opere Metallothecae Vaticanae titulo infcripto, & im- 
mortalibus Archiatri Pontificii Jobannis Maries Lancifii meritis a Gtu, 
oblivione & interitu liberato. Ubi, pag. 89. inter alias elegancium 
glebarum Ranam, Pifciculum, Lacertulam variaque Infefta continen* 
tium Icones, una etiam reperitur, quas folium ejufmodi pennacum 
paulo minus, fed ob integritatem rarius & elegancius, o£to conjuga- 
cionum, *foliolo extremo imparl coftam claudente, includit; quod 
parvum & tenellum Coronillae herbaceae, flore vario, Tourneforiii^ 
folium ^regie exprimit, quamvis etiam non male ad Onobrychidem 
fecundam, Clufiij quae pariter PruJJia indigena eft, referri poflfet. 

Idem Mercatus zWzmihidtm delineat glebam parvo in tenuifegmen- 
ta difledlo folio, plantar cujufdam, forte umbelliferae, imprasgna- 
tarn. 

Interim tamen cum glebas memoratas, in laudato Mercati libro fal- 
tem, fummo licet ftudio delineatas, non vero ipfas viderim, praete- 
rea figuras Ranas majoris, Lacertulae & Pifciculi, non levem mi hi 
arcificiofae fraudis excirent fufpicionem, ego equidem pro genuitate 
earum vadium in me fufcipere nollem ; quia notum eft afFatim, Ar- 
tifices, ejufmodi res adeo artiGciofe Succinis poffe includere, iifque 
non nimium Curiofis imponere, ut non nifi ab expertiflimis &:ocu- 
latiffimis poffit detegi fucus. 

XXIL Soowar \^ an Hungarian Word (which fignifies in German jfn Account of 
Salc-Burg) compofed of 5<7, which is to fay Salt, and Wa^ which the impenal 
iignifiech Burg or Town. It is a large Village, about a Quarter of a ^''Z' ^^'"^^ ^f 
Mile from Eper^ a City of the County of Sadr entirely peopled with u!^^r h^^- 
Officers of the Excife, and Miners or Wood-cutters, and is fituated g^rvj tranjl^- 
on the Summit of a little Hill, with an agreeable Profpeft. ted from the 

The i6thof7«/y 1724, we came from Rofenaw to Soowar ^\i)x^'^%^-^^^^ of 
Dr PoUkin, Phyfician to the City and County, to view this celebra-' ^TntV/^? 
ted Salt-work, which furnilhes the fineft and moft pure Salt of the Academj of 
whole Kingdom, We communicated our Intention to an Officer of Brunfwick, 
the Salt-works, and having afked his Leave to go into the Cuts, he ^^ D.eomfnu^ 
gave us two Guards for Guides. We firft defcended with them into HanTsitnr 
the Well by a Rope, feated on Leathern Dogs (as they term ii) about jj.^r. Pr^f. 
forty Fathom deep; after which we again defcended one hundred /?. .9 N0.415. 

VOL. VI. Part ii. G g Fathom P^s ^60, 



zto^ Elephants. Teeth and Hones found under Ground. 

Animals fo large,' that it was fcarce credible, that ever any of chat 
■bulky Size fliould have exifted. 

The Grinder of an Elephant, petrified, is kept in the King of 
Denmark*s Cabinet at Copenhagen^ as appears by the Catalogue *, 
but there is no Mention made how it came thither, or where it was 
found. 

. They fliew in the fame Colleftion a large Thigh-bone, which 
weighs about *twenty Danijh Pounds, and is above three Foot in 
Length f. It is fo old, according to the Author of the Catalogue, 
that it is almoft become ftony. The fame Author takes Notice of 
another large Bone, then in the Colleftion of Otbo Sperlingy which 
weighed 25 Pounds, and was four Foot long. It was, as Sperling 
told him, found in the Year 1643 at Bruges in Flanders^ near the 
public Prifon, in Prefence of Bernard de Arauda^ and Sperlings Fa- 
ther, who faw the whole Skeleton there, which was of twenty Yards 
of Brabant in Length. 

A Piece of Ivory was dug up in a Field on the River Vijlula^ about 
fix Miles from Warfaw^ which having been (hewn at Danizic to Ga^ 
briel Rzaczjnjki^ Author of the Natural Hi/lory ^/Poland, it fecmed 
to him to be the dens exertus of an Elephant ||. 

In the Notes upon the laft Edition of Dr Hermanns Cynofura Medica^ 
publifhed by Dr Boeder of Strajburg **, under the Title of Umcornu 
FoJJile^ there is Mention made of a remarkable Piece of Foflil Ivory, 
or rather of an Elephant's Tooth, in the Hands of Jaques Samfon de 
Ratbfambaufen de Ebenweyer^ an Alfatian Nobleman. It was found in 
the RJme \x^Qn one of his Eftates near Nonneville^ and was three 
P^rii Foot, three Inches and a Half long: It. had n^ar a Foot at 
the Bafis in Circumference, where thickeft, and about eig.ht Inches 
and a Half at the other Extremity. It was filled within with a Sort 
of Marie, but the outward Surface was ftony in fome Places,, and 
bony in others. The bony Part fcraped, or bqrnt,^ fmelled like Ivo- 
ry. The Scrapings boiled made a Sort of Gelly.. The Author of 
the Notes adds,, That they find Foflil Ivory io feveral Parts of Eu- 
rope^ particularly, iri the Scbwartzix;ali (Sylva Hercynid) in Moravia^ ia 
Saxony^ and near Canjiadiix the Dixtchy of JVirtemberg, 
M Acnunt XIV. 1 went to the Fulters-Eartb Pits at fVavendon near Wobern^ 
g^/^rP/>/yJr where there are feveral Pits, now open 5 but, as Men were th.en at 
•Bedford^ work Only in oni?,.,and I underftoqa the Earth was difpofed in much 
Sire; by the ^ ^^^^ Manner in all, I did hot trouble my .felf to go down into 
Riv. Mr more than that wherein they were tbpn diggings in which I found 
B. HoUoway, Things difpofed thus. ' 

Ttq^p 41Q From the Surface, for about fix Yards Depth, thete are feveral 
579- P- 4 9- layers of Sands, all reddifh, but fome lighter coloured than others, 

• Muf. RcgiaifTi. Part I. J. vii. N®. 109. f ^^' Part I. §. i. No. 73. 

I Raaczynski Hill, Nat. Reg. Pol6n. pag. z^ f» 1726. V*. P. iii. pag. 133. 

2 under 



An Account of the Tits for -Fullers-Earth. 221 

under which there is a thin Stratum of red Sand-ftone, which they 
break through \ and then for the Depth of about fcven or eight Yards 
more, you have Sand again, and after that come to the Fullers-Earth ^ 
the upper Layer of which, being about a Foot deep, they call the 
Cledge i and this is by the Diggers thrbwn by as ufelcfs, by reafon of 
it's too great Mixture with the neighbouring Sand, which covers, 
and has infinuated itfcif among it: After which they dig up Earth 
for Ufe, to the Depth of about eight Feet more, the Matter whereof 
is diftinguilhed into feveral Layers, there being commonly about a 
Foot and an half between one horizontal Fiffure and another. Of 
thefe ^yers of Fullers^ Earthy the upper Half, where the Earth 
breaks itfelf, is tinged red, as it feems by the running of Water from 
the fandy Strata above ; and this Part they ca^ll the Crop ; betwixt 
which and the Cledge above mentioned, is a thin Layer of Matter not 
an Inch in Depth, in Tafte, Colour, and Coniiftency, not unlike to 
Terra Japonica. The lower half of the Layers of Fullers- Earthy they 
call the IValU Earthy this is untinged with that red above-mentioned, 
and feems to be the more pure and fitter for Fulling \ and underneath 
all is a Stratum of white rough Stone, of about two Foot thick, 
which, if they dig through, as they very feldom do, they find Sand 
again, and then is an End of their Works* 

One, Thing is obfervable in the Site of this Earth, which is, that 
it fceriis to have every where a pretty equal horizontal Level ; be- 
caufe they fay, that when the Sand-Ridges at the Surface are higher, 
the Fullers- Earth lies proportionably deepen 

In thefe Works they feldom undermine the Ground, but as they 
dig away the Earth below, others are employed to dig and carry off* 
the Surface, otherwifc, the Mattel^ 3;boye, being of fo light arid 
flitting a Nature, would fall in and endanger the Workmen : For, 
as was obferved before, that Stratum of Sand-Stone, which otcurs be- 
fore they come to the Fullers- Earthy does not lie, as in Coal-Pits, 
immediately over the Matter they dig for, like a Cieling, but even 
in the midft of (he fuperjacent Strata of San4, and therefore cati be 
no Security to them if they undermine. ' ' 

The perpendicular Fiflures afe frequent, and the Earth in the Stra-^ 
ia^ befides it's apparent DiftinAion into Layers, like all other Kindf 
of Matter, by reafon of it's peculiar Undtuoufnefs, or the running 
of the adjacent Sand imperceptibly among it, breaks itfelf into Pieces . 
of all Angles and Sizes. 

For the Gepgraphickl Situation of thefe Pits, they are digged' n> 
that Ridge of' Sand-Hills by tVoburn ; which near Oicford is called 
Sbotover\ on vf hich Iks 'I^ewmhrket-I^eatb by Cambridge^ arid/whSA 
extends itfelf from Eaft to Weft, every where, at about the Diftance 
bfeightorten Miles from the CbilternHillSy which in Cambridgeflnrt 
^Tt called Gog-Mago^ ; in Bucks^ and Oxofiy the Cbiltern Hills^ frool 
the chalky Matter, of which they chiefly ronfift: ' which t*ro' Ridges 



-211 Of the Strata in Coat- Mines, &c. 

you always pafs, in going from London into the North, North- Eaft,' 
or North- Weft Counties in the Manner I before-mentioned: After 
which you come into that vaft Vale, which makes the greater Part of 
the Midland Counties of Camhridgey Bedford^ Bucks^ Northampton^ 
Oiifordy and Gloucejler^ and in which are the Rivers Cam^ Onfi^ Nen^ 
Avon^ IftSy and others 5 which I take Notice of, bccaufe it confirms 
what you fay of the regular Difpofition of the Earth into like Strata^ 
or Layers of Matter, commonly through vaft Trafts, and from 
whence I make a Queftion, whether FulUrs-Eartb may not probably 
be found in other Parts of the fame Ridge of Sand-Hills, among o- 
ther like Matter. • 

AnAceaunt XV. It was fome Time fince^ that in a Letter to one of the Mem- 
^ftbi Strata fccrs of this Society, I gave an Account of the fevcral Strata of Earths 
Mhlef &c ^^^ Minerals, found in fome of the Coal- Works in Somerfetjhire^ 
Bj^John Stra- which was printed in Pbilof. Tranfailions^ N^ 360. But there is one 
chcy, E/qi great Error in the Print ; for whereas I faid, that in thofe Parts they 
.* R. s. No. never meet with Freejlone over the Coal j the Printer, by miftake, 
J91. p. 395. C9\h It Fireftone\ whereas Firejione is always found in thofe Mines, 
contrary to the Works in Staffordjhire^ Newcaftle^ and Scotland^ where 
Freejlone does, indeed, lie over the Coal. I have farther obferved 
the Strata of Stone, Clay, and Marie,* of the interjacent Hills, 
where, under the black Marie, lies a fpongjr yellowilh Eardi ; all 
this lies above die red Soil, which I have faid is generally the Surface 
of the Vallies, where the Coal is found. And as this red Mould oa 
the Surface degenerates into Marie or Loom, fo, towards the North- 
Weft, beyond or without the Veins of Coal, about ff^tftfordj in the 
Tame County, ic turns to Ruddle, or Red-Okre, ufed chiefly for 
marking of Sheep, and for ground Colours or Priming, inftead of 
^pani/hBvowa ; and often counterfeits Bole Armoniac. 

But as I never heard any Coal was found to the Weft or South of 
Mendip-Ullsi fo Cotftvold, to the North-Eaft, and the Chalk-Hills of 
Marlborougb-Dowm and Salijkury Plains^ feem to fet Bounds to the 
**• 7^ ^^^' Country, to the Eaft and South-Eaft of which Ftg. 72. may be 
fuppofed a Sedion from South-Eaft to North- Weft, viz. from the 
T/^. 7j« Dip to the Rife;, and Fi^. 73. at right Angles, from South- Weft to 
Korth-Eaft, on the Drift or Level. 

I mention this by way of CorreAion and Addition to my former 
Obfervations of the Coal- Works in Somerfetjhire. I have fince had 
Opportunities to be underground, and view feveral Coal- Works in 
ScQiumd. znd Nortbumherlandi and to obferve the feveral Strata^ there, 
At M^ddrington they have four Fathom Clay, then a Seam of Coal, 
about fix Inches thick, not worth working ; then a white Freeftone i 
then an hard Stone^ which they call a Whin; then two Fathom of 
Clay ; then a white fofc Stone ; and under diat a Vein of Coal three 
Feec nine iQches thick. This is a fmall Coal of the fame Nature, but 
Wtfo good as the NewcdJUe-Coal which comes to London Market. 

Thcfe 



Of the Strata in C^l Mines, &c. 22^. 

Thefc Vein* dip to the South-Eaft, one Yard in twentjr. Near 
Tranent^ in EaJi.Lotbian in Scotland^ the Coal dips alfo to the South- 
Eaft, in the fame Proportion 5 but at Baldoe, in the Parifti of Camp- 
fyy three Miles from Kjlftthy it dips to the North-Eaft 5 and at ' 
Madefionu near Falkirk^ to the fame Point, and in the fame Propor- 
tion. The Strata of Earths and Minerals, at thefe Places, agree ve- 
ry near : They have, as the Ground rifes or falls, one^ two, or three. 
Fathom of Clay .; then eleven Fathom of Slate, or Coal-Clives ; one 
Fathom of Limeftone ; under that two Fathom of Slate, Earth and 
Stone; and then Coal. And all thefe agree in this; that the Pits 
generally need no Timber, and have a good Roof, which is fuppor. 
ted by Pillars of Coal, which they leave in the working. At Bal- 
ioe^ the Coal is commonly forty-five Inches thick ; and all along'; 
ioT fome Miles Eaftward thence, on the Sides of the Hills, are 
Crops of Coal and Limeftone; and oftentimes the Tenants ^fpit up. 
as. much as will ferve their Turn for a Winter's burning, juft. under 
the Surface ; for therf^ wants a Market, and it is fcarce worth work- 
ing for Sale. And to the North* Weft and North, in the Drift of the 
Coal in higher Ground, and, confequently,. lying over it, there ap- 
pear, in the Sides of dbte Hills, Seams of Spar and Lead, the Drift: 
cf which is Norths Eaft, and lies almoft perpendicular; but what 
OhUqisity there is, pitchc9 to. the South-Eaft: At Aucbenclaugby fix; 
Miles Baft from Kylfitb^ there is a Coal eighteen Feet thicks tki$ 
dips one Foot in thvee^ and isnot purfued by reafon of Water ; and . 
for want of a Market, will not quii the Coft of draining^ At Made^ 
jione^ the Coal is four Feet and a half thick, above three Fathom > 
and a half deep i They land it ("as a£ imny Coalhews in the Coun- 
ty) oa QirlsJBacks. ^^xSranent are three different Veins wroughr 
the vndermoft is about qigbtaeen Fathim from the Surface, called the 
aplenty Cmh four Feet and a Half thick ; itis a hard but not large 
Coal, makes a clear and ftrong Fire i lies ten Fathom under the mam 
Coaly which is nine or ten Feet thick, and comes out very larger It's . 
Roof is of Freeftone under which I walked backward and forward, 
two Hours ; but had na Opportunity to make any other Observation 
^jk the upper Vein, than that it is about four Feet thick, and neitheCi 
fo hard or large aathe odier. 

^ As 1 have, in Fig. 7^ and 73. drawn the diflfercnt 5/r^a (which have /if^. 72^ 73; 
eome to mv Obfervation^ on a fuppoftd Plane, as they there lie; in 
F^t;, 74 ana 75. I protraa the £ime in a globular Projections fui>po-%, 74 ^75.^ 
fingthe Ma& of the Terraqueous Globe tocmrfifl; of the forepoing,., 
iv'p^&aps, of ten tlMayu£ind other (Afferent Minerals, alt oeigvially,;. 
whilfb in a foft aad fluid State, undmg towards the Center.: it iDuft: 
BlecbanicaUy^ Sind almoft neeef&rily, foflow, by thecontinoai Revo- 
ktion of the cnide Ma& from Weft to Eaft,. like the winding upe^c 
a Jack^ or rolling up the Leaves of a Paper-Book, . that every, oner? 
«f/thefe 5/ra/tf, though they each reach tbcXenter, muft, >;. fomor 
.i ' EJacfeL' 



224 Of Strata in Mark Tits, &c. 

Place or other, appear to the Day \ in which Cafe there needs nd 

fpecific Gravitation to caufe the lighteft to be uppermoft, fc?r. for 

every one in it's Turn, in fome Place of the Globe or other, will be 

uppermoft ; and, were it pradticablc to fink to the Center of the 

Earth, all the Strata, that are, would be found in every Part, and 

according to the Poet, Ponderikus libratafuis. Add to this, that in all 

Places within my Knowledge, the Obfervation of * another Member 

of the Society has held good, that the Precipices of all Hills are to 

the Weftward, whereas the Afcent to the Eaft is more gradual. The 

farther Enquiry into which I oflFer to the Curious, who have better 

Opportunity. 

An Jcmnt XVI. Our Marie is found no where but in the Bottoms of low 

of the Strata Boggs, where we fearch for it with Augres, and find it at the depth 

mt with in ^f feven, eight, or nine Foot : This in many Places occafion great 

^It^dof^^?^^^ in draining off the^ Water. When we think to dig for i€ 

Horns found we chufe out fix able Labourers and a Supernumerary ; then we cut 

under Ground tip a Hole twelve Foot fquare i becaufe we judge that this Number 

1* iSlT^ ' ^^ ^^^ ^''' manage that Pit in one Day, viz. two Men to dig, two 

i,^^,^^^ Men to throw it up, and two Men- to throw it by. The Supernu- 

394. p. 122. merary fupplies Defefts in every part, as will be found neceflary. 

For the firft three Foot, we meet with a fuzzy fort of Earth, that 

wc call Mofs, proper to make Turf for ¥\xt\ % then we find a &rii- 

tum of Gravel about half a Foot ; under which, for about three 

Foot more, we find a more kitidly Mofs, that would make a more 

excellent Fuel : This is altogether roixt with Timber, but fo rotten^ 

that the Spade cuts it as eafily as it doth the Earth : Under this, for 

the depth of three Inches, w^ find Leaves, for the moft part OaJceo, 

that appear fair to the Eye, but will not bear a Touch. This Strih^ 

turn we find fometimes interrupted with Heaps of Seed, that feem to 

be Broom or Furze-Seed : Nay', in one Place I faw, what#appeared 

to me to be Goofeberries and CuErrants : In other Places in the fame 

Stratum we find Sea*weed, and other things as odd to be at that depth : 

Under this appears a Stratum of blue Clay, of half a Foot thick» 

fully mixt with Shells ; this we look upon to be good Marie, and 

throw it it up as fuch : Then appear^ the right Marie, commonly 

2, 3, or 4 Foot deep, and in.fome Places much deeper, which looki 

like buried Lime, or the Lime that Tanners throw out of their 

Lime- Pits, only that it is full mixt with Shells : Thefe arc fmall Pcrf 

riwinkles, fuch as the Scots call Frejh tVater^lVilks ; though there ari 

among them abundance of round red Perriwinkles, fuch. as I hav^ 

often Teen thrown out on the Sea-Shore. Among this Marie, and 

often at the bottom of it, we find very great Horns, which wc for 

want of another Name, call Elk-Horm Where they join the Head, 

they are thick and round \ and at that Joining there grows out a 



Dr. Stukeiy 



Branch 



Strata of Earths and Fojfils^ &c. 225 

Branch of about a Foot long, chat feems to have hung juft over the 
Beaft's Eyes : It grows round above this for about a Foot and Ibme 
odds ; then fpreads broad, which ends in Branches, long and round 
turning with a fmall Bend. The Labourers are commonly fo bufy, 
that they rarely bring them up whole 5 yet I have one pretty well, 
of which I fend you an Icon^ done as well as I could, but not fo nice ^^' 7** 
as I could wi(h. We have alfo found Shanks and other Bones of thefe 
Beads' in the fame Place. 

XVII. After they had paffed the upper Turf, they came to a blue An Amunt$f 
Clay, which held about 3 Foot ; then they met with a yellow, brittle tbefiveral 
Clay, very much like Ochre, ufed by Painters, about two Foot in %^^^1 ^ ^ 
Thicknefs \ and next with a Loam of a loofer Texture, which fpark- ^miif^ndin 
led with a kind of Talc, called by the Naturalifls Selenites, znd jinking the 
was intermixed with yellow Ochre. Thefe Selenites, which yftvt Mineral fVelh 
plentifully found (hot in the Clay, were Cryftals confifting of tranf- Jj^^ll.' Mr 
parent, mining, brittle Flakes, fome of a Rhomboidal,' others of a LcwkTV/V^^ 
Conical Figure, but all Hcxaedra or Columns of 6 Sides. Thty of tbePlaa. 
had no fcnfible Tafte of Salt, and the Clay in which they were found N». 403. 
was interfperfed with Veins of coloured Earth, of the Colour of Sul- P'+^S- 
phur and iron Ruft. 

Below this, at about 10 Foot deep, they came to a Bed of Stones^ 
of a large Size and very hard Texture, coatdd ilrith Flakes of Gypfum 
of a white and yellowiin Colour, which run through and divide them 
as it were by various Membranes into different Cells, all filled with 
hardened I^o^m of a grey Colour. Thefe Stones, which were all of 
an oval Figure, in Shape refembling Pebbles, weighed from 10 to 
60 Pound Weight, and lay all oh a Level one by another in the Bed 
of Clay. Here the Springs come in, and below this the Clay was 
darker coloured, and interlaid with Small Shells of the Oyfter, Ef- 
callop, and Mufcle, Kind, and With a few Belemnites curioufly Ihap- 
cd. Here they met with Stones of a very clofe Texture, which when 
wafhed feemed to be nothing but a Mafs of Shells jumbled and em- 
bodied together. And a little lower the Clay produced fome Lumps 
of a black, bituminous Sulphur, interlaid with fome fmall thin La- 
minae, feeming to be metalline and bright like the pureft Silver : 
Upon firing this fulphuerous Bitumen on a red-hot Iron, it emitted 
a blue Flame, and urong Smell like Brimftone, but the Metal was 
loft. From this Account of the different Strata found in finking thefe 
"Wells, their Impregnation feems to be from Alum, Vitriol of Steel, 
Ochre and Sulphur, and from an accurate Mixture of all thefe, 
which no Art can imitate, it feems to derive thofe admirable Quali- 
ties with which it is endued. 

kome Conjefture may be made of it's Nature and Qualities from 

Tinftures it gives upon chymical Experiments : With aftringent 

jgs, as Galls, Oak- Leaves and Balauftines, it fometimes tir^ges 

", inclining to Purple, and fometimes will not tinge at all: With 

OL. VI. Partii. Ff volatile 



2+0 The Method of making Tin-Platcs. 

XX. Hoc non obftante, argentum nativum fuper Cobaltum non 

raro reperitur, quod verb non aliud, quam hoc arguic^ mineram iU 

lam argenci non incongruam efie matricem.. 

ne Methodof XXIV. The making of Tin-plates or Lacten, as it is called, being 

makingTm- pot cpmmonly pradifed in England^ though there is fo great a Con- 

ud^romThT^' f^mptiort^of it, either becaufc the Method is not fufficiently known, 

Memoin of the ov becaufe that in Ufc to make fmall Quantities for particular Pur- 

Jtademy of pofes is much too dear to anfwer the Artificer's Expeftation in making 

Sciences, for larger, whercby we are obliged to export our own Tin to Germany^ 

I'^wtmlm^' *^ receive it back again manufaStured ; I thought it not improper to 

Rutty, M. D, "iay before the Society the Method the Germans themfel ves make ufc 

R, s. Seer, of, as I have extracted it from a Diflertation of Mr De Reaumur^ 

N"!>. 406. p. printed in the laft Volume of the Memoirs of the Academy of 

^^^* Sciences of Paris ^ in which alfo he lays down fome Improvement, as 

he thinks, of his own.' 

He takes notice then that the making of Tin-plates, (which is 
called in France^ wbiu Iron) does not properly begin, till they go 
about to prepare the Leaves or Plates of Iron that are to be tinned^ 
which are fuppofed to be fufficiently thin and flat, and cut into 
Squares ; But there are only certain Sorts of Iron which can be re« 
duced into thefe Leaves, of which thofe are the moft: proper, that 
when ' hieated are eafleft extendible, and yet can be forged with a 
Hammer when cold •, the more foft and extremely flexible, as well 
as the more brittle being to be rejcfted. Thefe Leaves arc drawn 
from Bars of Iron, about an Inch fquare ; which being made a little 
flat, they cut into thin Pieces or Soles {femelles) which they fold toge- 
ther, and having made them into Parcels containing forty Leaves 
each, beat them all at once with a Hammer that weights from 600 
to 700 lfe« After this, the principal Part of the whole Arc 
is to prepare thefe Leaves; for the lighted Dud, or the lead Ruft 
upon their Surface will prevent the Tin from uniting with them. 
This may indeed be taken off by filling, but that being much too 
cxpenfive, the fame may be brought about by fteeping the Plates in 
acid Waters, for a certain Time, to what Number they pleafe, 
and when they are taken out, fcouring them with Sand, in order 
to fetch off any Thing that may remain upon the Surface: And by 
this Method a Woman may clean more Plates in an Hour, than the 
moft expeditious Workman can file in many Days. Of thefe Waters 
the Author mentions feveral ; but what the Germans rhemfelves ufcd, 
and which they make a mighty Secret of, he found to be only com- 
mon Water made eager with Rye, which requires very little Pains. 
For after they have ground the Grain grofly, and pounded it, they 
leave it to ferment in common Water for a certain Time, and with 
a little Patience they are fure to have an eager Menftruum. With 
this Menftruum they fill Troughs or Tuns, into which they put Piles 
of Iron Plates ; and to make it grow eager the better, and to have 

more 



The Mithod of making Tin*PIatcs. 241 

more Aftivity, tlicy keep thefe Veffcls in Vaults or Stoves which 
have little Air, and in which they keep lighted Charcoal. The 
Workmen go into thefe Vaults once or twice in a Day, cither to turn 
the Plates that they may be equally expofed to the A&ion of the acid 
Liquor, or to take out thofe that are fufficiently cleanfed, or to put 
others in their room : And as the Liquor is more acid, or the Heat 
of the Vault or Stove is more intcnfe, the Plates are fooner clcanfcd \ 
but it requires at lead two Days, and fometimes a great deal more. 
This is the Method which the Germans employed in the Tin- works in 
France^ conftantly made ufc of to prepare the Iron-Plates to receive 
the Coat of Tin: But as the Author obferved, that the conftant At- 
tendance upon them in the Stoves was very laborious, the Heat 
therein being almoft infupportable to thofe who are not ufed to it, 
he propofcs Ibme other Methods which are attended with very licde 
Trouble, and as fmall, if not a lefs, Expence; and which upon Trial 
fucceedcd full as^ well. Having therefore obferved that the Iron- 
Leaves or Plates are covered with a Scale or Layer, half vitrified by 
the Fire, on which Acids have none or very little Effed, he imagined 
that inftead oi dijfolving the Iron in thefe acid Waters, it would be 
better to make it rufi^ and thereby put it in a Condition to be eafier 
cleanfed from thefe Scales ; as Ruft is accompanied with a fort of 
Fermentation and RarefaAion, and the Matter which rufts takes up 
a greater Space, and raifes up whatever oppofes it. To this Purpofc 
he fteeped Iron Plates in different eager Menftruums, as in Water in 
which Alum, common Salt and Sal-ammoniac were feparately diffol- 
ved i and others of the fame Iron he only dipped into the fame Wa- 
ters, and inftantly taking them out expofed them to the Air. Thefe 
latter were rufted by all of them, but fooner by that in which the Sal- 
ammoniac was diflblvcd. After two Days, during which every Plate 
b%d been dipped into the Menftruum but twice or thrice, he fcoured 
them, and likewife thofe he had left to fteep for that Time -, and 
comparing them together, found that thofe, which had been only 
wetted at different Times, cleanfed better than thofe which were 
fteeped i the Ruft covering all the Surface of the latter without raif. 
tug the Scale ; whereas in the former, as foon as one Part of the Me- 
tal is detached, it is attrafted by the Menftruum, and the Surface 
is raifed into Blifters of Ruft. Thefe Diflblvents, the Author takes 
notice, tho* weak in themfelves, yet produce the EffeA as well as 
the ftronger, which are much dearer: But amongft the latter he 
prefers Vinegar, which being very plentiful in France^ may be ufed 
with little Coft. For you need only dip each Leaf into it, and take 
it out again immediately, leaving it afterwards in fome moift Place, 
and it will be fcaled in eight and forty Hours, if you take care to re- 
peat this 3 or 4 Times in a Day. The fcaling will ftill be more ex- 
peditious, if you diflblve a little Sal-ammoniac in the Vinegar, a 
Pound or two to a Puncheon j for as the Vinegar diffolves Iron well, 
VOL. VI. Partii. Hh fo 



2^ The Method of making Tin-Platcs. 

to Sal-ammoniac» as juft obferved, rufts it fooner than any odier 
Sale: But this mult be ufed very nioderately, and the Leaf muft be 
left to ftcep in clean Water to difToive any Particles of it that may 
ftick to ic*s Surface, which may otherwife make it ruft after it^ is 
tinned. If you fcale with Vinegar, and want to do it at a lefs Ex- 
pence, you need only plunge the Leaves once or twice at fartheft, 
and when the Vinegar is dried upon the Surface, fprinkle it with Wa- 
tery or dip them into it, and take them out immediately. There 
are feveral other Ways of making Iron ruft, as keeping it in a moift 
Cellar, expofing it to the Dew, fprinkling it with fimple Water, 
feveral Times in a Day, which will ftill adl quicker by dilTolving Sal- 
ammoniac in it. In thofc Countries where the Pyrites is common, 
the Vitriolic Waters will fcale them foon enough, which are almoft 
as cheap as common Water; You need only heap the Pyrites toge- 
ther, and leaving them to moulder in the Air, make afterwards a 
Lixivium with them and common Water, which Lie will have the 
dcfired Effed : But as the Leaves of Iron are fenfibly much eafier 
cleanfed on one Side than the other, the bad Side rarely taking the 
brilliant Poli(h in the tinning, but having always fome Spots, which 
proceeds in that in the beating ope Side is more expofed to. the 
Action of the Hammer, and is therefore better plained, the Author 
again advifes not to fteep them, but only to moiften them, in order 
to make them ruft, whereby you need moiften that Side only that 
wants it moft: Whereas if you fteep them, as the bad Side will take 
double or tripple the Time of the other, the acid Menftruum will dif- 
folve the Surface, and occafion a Lofs of Iron. He next gives two 
Cautions neceflary to be followed : the firft is in the Management of 
the Plates before they come to be prepared ; which is in the beating 
of them, to change the Place of each in it's Turn, that every one 
may receive the immediate Aftion of the Hammer, otherwife they 
will not extend equally : the fecond is to fteep them in Clay or Ful- 
ierV Earth tempered with Water before you heat them, to prevent 
their foldering with one another. He then clofes this Part of the O- 
peration with remarking that whatfoever of thefe Methods are pitched 
upon, whether the old one, of which he has learnt the Secret, or 
any of the new, which he has here ftiewn, it is abfolutely neceflary 
after the Plates are fufficiencly fcaled, to fcour them with Sand, and 
when there ^-emains no more black Spots upon their Surface, to 
throw them into Water to prevent their rufting again, and leave 
them in it till the Inftant you would tin them, or in the Term of 
Art, blanch them. This he obferves is the very Objeft of the whole 
Art, and is kept as much a Secret by the Bkncber^ as the acid ero- 
ding Menftruum is by the Scakr : But the Manner of <loing it is 
thus. They flux the Tin in a large iron Crucible, which has the 
Figure of a broken Pyramid with four Faces, of which the two op- 
pofite ones are lefs than the two others. This Crucible tbey'Eiest 
« only 



TUfe Method of making Tin-Platcs. 24 j 

only from below, it's upper Border being luted in the Furnace quite 
round. The Crucible is always deeper than the Plates which are to 
be tinned are long, which they always put in downright, and the Tin 
ought to fwim over them. For this Purpofe Artificers of different 
Trades prepare the Plates in difierent Manners, which are all excep- 
tionable: But: the G^r^»^;yj he perceived made ufc of no Preparation 
whatfoever, except putting the fcoured Plates into clean Water, as 
juft remarked 5 but when the Tin is melted in the Crucible, they 
cover it wich a Layer of a Sort of Suet, an Inch or two thick, 
through which the Plate muft pafs before it comes to the Tin : The 
firft Ufe of which is to keep the Tin from burning, and if any Part 
ihould take Fire, as the Suet will foon moiften it, to reduce it to it's 
natural State again. This Suet is compounded, as the Blanchers fay, 
and is of a black Colour, which the Author thought might be given 
it with Soot or the Smoak of a Chimney, only to fpread a Myftery 
over their Work ; but he found it true fo far, that common unpre- 
pared Suet was not fufficient : For after feveral Attempts, there was 
always fomething wanting to render the Succefs of the Operation 
certain. The whole Secret then of Blanching lies entirely in the Pre- 
paration of this Suet ; And this he at laft difcovered to confift only 
in firft frying and burning it; which not only gives it the Colour, 
but puts it into a Condition to give the Iron a Difpofition to be 
tinned, which it does furprizingly. The Tin itfelf ought to have a 
certain Degree of Heat; for if it is not hot enough it will not ftick 
to the Iron -, if it is too hot, it will cover it with too thin a Coat, 
and the Plates will have feveral Colours, as a Mixture of red, blue, 
and yellow, and the whole appear of a villainous yellow Caft. To 
prevent this, by knowing when the Tin has a proper Degree of Heat, 
they might firft make an EfTay with fmall Pieces of the fcaled Plates, 
and they would learn from them when the Tin is in proper Order :- 
But generally fpeaking, they dip the Plates into Tin that is more or 
lefs hot, according to the Thicknefs they would have the Coat to be 
of. Some Plates they only give one Layer to, and thefe they plunge 
into Tin, that has a lefler Degree of Heat than that into which they 
plunge thofe Plates which they would have take two Layers ; 
as alfo when they give thefe the fecond Layer, they put them 
into Tin that has not fo great a Degree of Heat, as that into 
which they were put the firft Time: Befides which, it is to be 
obferved, that the Tin, which is to give the fecond Coat, ought 
10 be frefli covered with Suet, but only with the common Sort 
without Preparation ; for melted Tin is fufficiently difpofed to attach 
it felf to folid Tin ; and in this Cafe it is to Tm itfelf, to which the 
new Tin is to be joined. As to the Choice of the Tin, the Manner 
of making it i& as bright as poflible, with a Number of little .Articles 
.^fleceflary to the Pradice, the Author refers them to another Time, 

H h 2 as 



244 ^» Account of d Well near Qaccnborough in Kent. 

ts more properly belonging to the Dcfcription of the whoic Art^ 
than to a Memoir in which he only gives the Principles of it. 

Chatham-Dock, O^ob. 9. 1725. 
Right Honourable^ 
J Letter fr^m^lLV. TN Obedience to your Honours Warrant of the i6th of 
the King's £ September laft, we met at the Well near ^leenborougb^ 

Shern'erf W ^^^^^ ^^^ Caftle formerly ftood, on Tuefday the 24th ditto^ and find- 
Chatham, to }^g but very little Water at the Bottom on our Sounding, and it ha- 
tbeKn. the ving a new Curb, lately fixed on the Top, we provided our felves 
Commiffioneri with Buckets and Ropes, and lowered down a Man, who acquainted 
^^ivin ^a^Ac- "^' ^^^ '^ ^^^ cleaned, and the Ground funk four Feet deeper than 
^counfofwhnt ^he Curb at the Bottom. We then meafured the Depth of it, and 
they met with found it 200 Foot, aqd artificially fteened the whole Depth with 
in opening an circular P(?r//^«^ Stone, which is all entire, and Hands fair, the mean 
^earQwn- diameter is four Foot eight Inches ; but obferving, that not one 
borough /» Drop of Water came into it, we refolved to try whether we could 
Kent, commu' find any by Boring ; in order thereunto, we applied ourfelvcs to 
nieatedbyMr make the neceflary Preparations, by getting a Piece of Timber of 
^fo^ ^F^R S ^bout feven Foot long, and boring it through with a three Inch and 
#ff January 8, ^ half Auger, which Trunk we fixed at the Bottom of the Well, and 
1729. N«. fattened it by Quarters to the Curb at the Bottom, to prevent it's- 
411. p. 191. raifing, and filled it all round three Foot deep with Clay, and on 
that laid four Courfe of Bricks for a Platform for the Men to ftand 
on in their boring, and got alfo an Auger of two Inches and a half 
10 bore throiigh the Clay, but could not get all the neceflary Appur- 
tenances till I'burfday the 26th of September^ when three Men at a 
Time began to bore, whom we fhifced every three Hours; the Bo- 
ring which they fent us up, was a very clofe blui/h Clay, -which con- 
tinuing the fame after three Days and a half boring, we began to 
defpair meeting with Water j but on Monday the 30th of September^ 
in the Evening, as they were boring, the Auger flipt down at once, 
and up came Water, to our great Satisfaction 5 and in an Hour's 
Time there was upward of four Foot Water which rofe fo faft, that 
at twelve o'Clock at Noon, 

On the firft of OSlober, we found - 
On the 2d, at 5 in the Afternoon, - 
On the 3d, at 3 in the Afternoon, - 
On the 4th, at 3 in the Afternoon, - 
On the 5th, at 4 in the Afternoon, - 
On the 6th, at loi in the Morning, - 167 
On the 7th, at 4 in the Afternoon, - - 174 00 
On the 8th, at 7 in the Morning, — 176 07 
and ftill increafes, though (lowly. The Reafon of it's not rifing fo 
much now as at firtt, we apprehended proceeded from the Weight of 
X Watar 



Feet. 


Inch. 


55 


10 


109 


08 


132 


06 


149 


06 


161 


03 


167 


08 



4n Account cf^ Bo6k &c a4f 

Water which the Spring throagh the Hole ^f the Trunk muft /prce 
up, and the Well being wider aloft than below. What we think ve- 
ry extraordinary is, that we bored 81 Feet below the Foot of the 
Trunk before we met with this Body of Water, which by Computa- 
tion is 166 Feet below the deepcft Place in the adjacent Seas. The 
Water proves excellent good, foft, fwcet and fine ; we compared it 
with the beft Spring Water brought from Miltofiy and in every Body's 
Opinion that tafted both, they declared the Well- Water the beft. 
We put fome Soap to ic, and it lathered finely, we boil'd old 
Peafe in it, which performed very well, and we have great Rcafon 
to believe, that the Spring will fufficiently fupply his. JMajcfty's. 
Ships, aspropofed. 

Signed by 
Richard Frojiy JatnesToung^ Edmond OxUy^ Benj. Rafwell, Richard. 

Slacey^ J. Hayward^ John IVard^ IVilliam Hogg^ J. Dod^ Charts- 

Fincby D. Dtverty fVilliam Jones^ 

King's Officers at Shernefs and Chatham^. 
XXVI. This Treatife contains an accurate hiftorical Account o( AnAaountof 
the fcveral violent Earthquakes, which happened in the Kingdoni of.aBooientituJ-' 
Sicily, in the Years 1693, 1694, and 1717. interfperfed with ^^^^q^^^^^So^^^ 
Philofophical Digreffions concerning the Caufcsand Effcfts of Earch4..in>mani' Tri- 

quakes in general. nacriaj-Tcrraa 

The Summer Scafon, in 1692, was exceedingly hot and tempeftu* M^^".!^*^* 
ous, with frequent Thunders, Lightnings and Rains. About the mid- ^jj^^^^*^^ 
die of September fell fuch profufe Showers, that all the Rivers and qui nan lo- 
Torrents increafed to fuch a Degree, as to overflow their Banks in lum Teliiirit 
feveral Places, and cover large Pieces of Ground with Water. Thisx^^"^*^^*^* 
joined to the continual blowing of Southerly Winds, during the i ^"^^T^^^* Tj 
Jutumtij put the Inhabitants under great Apprehenfion of future ,^oviirun».Aa- 
Mifchiefs. And indeed, the difaftrous Fate, which befel5/Vz/^ about, ni 1717. 
the Beginning of 1693, too manifeftly proved, that this ominous. ^^^*"* 
Fear was no way groundlefs. For on the 9th of January, about the Vq'sX^^' 
5th Hour (according to the Italian Way of counting) after a warm,, ch^r, m/j^]. 
ferene and calm Day, the Earth began trembling all of a fudden, R.S.S.ll^.. 
chiefly zboxxi Catania^ and in fome neighbouring Places, for theTim^ SH*. P? »S» 
required to fay the Lord's Prayer. This firft Shake was accompani- 
ed, as generally happens ia Earthquakes, by a hollow, thundering. 
Noife, and fucceeded by another fmall Trembling, obferved only by 
fome few People the next Day early in the Morning. Thefe two Suc-» 
cufllons, though violent enough, where but a Prelude of the third,, 
which happened the nth of the fame Month, by 4 of the Clock ia. 
the Afternoon, of which the Apprehenfion was fo much the greater,, 
becaufe all the 10th and nth, between the firft and third Shake,, the. 
Air was more than ufual dark and cloudy. It would be a Talk toa 
difficult even for the ableft Pen, to defcribe all the dreadful Efledts . 
of this laft \ the violent tolEng and dancing of the Earth s > the hoU 

low- 



rx45 ^^ AecMKUt »f a Book &cJ 

low, thuAderlifg Noife threatening the whole Ifland with i^s endre 
Difiblucion ; the fiery Eruption of the burning JStna throwing out a 
prodigious Quantity of Flames, Stones and Alhes ; the Terror and 
Confufion of the diltra£ted Inhabitants running up and down the 
Streets, uncertain where to provide for their Safety, or liow to efcape 
the Fury of all the raging Elements, which feemed to have confpi* 
red their Ruin. There was fcarce one Place all over the Kingdom 
left without fome particular Misfortune, Catania^ Syracufdy Agojia^ 
Meffina^ Noto, Ragufa^ Leontiniy Ibla^ Cbiarumontey Carleontinoy CaU 
tagirone^ SoSiino^ FrancofontCy Bontello^ Militello^ Occbialu AjdonOy Mo^ 
ticdy Mafcaliy were all, if not entirely deftroyed, at leaft mifcrably 
Ihattered, many Churches and (lately Buildings, up and down the 
Country, violently thrown down, and above 60000 Inhabitants buri- 
ed under the Ruins, of which about 16000 periflied only at Cata* 
ma. 

In many Places the Earth gap'd prodigioufly. Such an Opening 
was obfcrved near Mejfmay in the very Bottom of the Sea -, another 
4iear a Village called Botto d'Aceto^ 250 Paces long, and near 8 Palms 
broad ; another at Caltanjfetay near the Jefuits-Collge, 2000 Paces 
Jong and 2 Palms broad 4 another, at the Top of a Hill near Leon- 
tiniy full wide enoi^h to hold a Man; another u'pon the Road be- 
tween Catania and Leontiniy which fwallowed up fome Mule-keepers, 
then, to their great Misfortune, happening to travel that way, a- 
Jong with their Mules and whole Baggage, that not the leaft Foot- 
ilepofthem remained. Silently to pal's over a great many more, 
;but of JefsConfideration. 

Out of all thefe Openings fprung forth a great Quantity of Wa- 
ter, which drownM the neighbouring Places. This Water was in 
fome Places hot, with a ftrong fuiphur^ous Smell, which lafted, even 
after the Earthquakes were over, and induced fome of the Inhabi- 
cants, not without Succcfe, to make ufe of it in curing of Ulcers, 
and other cutaneous Difeafes, for which chiefly a hot Well near 
Lazaretto became very famous. Out of fome of thefe Gapings of the 
Earth HTued a thick Stench and Smoke, very troublefome to all the 
Neighbourhood. This happened, amongft: other Places, upon a 
Mountain called 5. Theodor^ as alfo near Mena. Near JgoJIa it was 
preceeded by a futphureous red Flame. 

Juft at the Time of the fecond Shock, the Sea retired from the 
L.and all along the Coafts, leaving it's Bottom dry'd up for a con- 
fidjihibre Diftance, and within few Minutes returned agam with great 
Fury^ and tivefflbwed the Shores. By this Accident the Maltefe 
GalKes, iyirig at Anchor in the Harbour of Agoftay were in danger 
of being loft ; for the Sea funk down all of a fudden, fo that they 
came to fit almoft upon the Ground, and immediately afte** bubbled 
andfweUedtip again with fo great an Emotion, that they run the 
Hauutttf cf hayiti^dietr Cables broke^ and bdng driven away. 

And 



^n Atamnt of s Baak Ice; ^2^ 

And it feetned chat the Earth kfetf vsaa in fame Pl^pjCf 0Qf)(t4enh 
biy lowered, and the Tops of the Mountains deprefled. Of this they 
had a remarkable Inftance at Paternione. The Hills^ between this 
Gey and the Shore, hindered it from having any View of the Sea» 
which fince the Earthquake difcovers itfelf towards the Eaft very 
plainly. 

In other Places the Earth a(5lually funk down, and inftead of it ap- 
peared great Lakes, fome of which were large enough to become 
navigable. By the breaking forth of fuch a Lake between Noto and 
Sjracufa^ a large Piece of Ground was tranfported for about 50 > 
Paces, where it now ftands as firm, as if it had always ftood 
there 

The Loofcning and Fall of two great Rocks between ferula and 
Gajfero is already fufficiently dcfcribed in S\%noT Bonajuti*%^ Account: 
Such Loofenings and throwing down of great Rocks happened every 
where up and down in the Country, to the great Terror of the aeigh 
bouring People. The fame was alfo obfervcd, according to Kircber 
and feveral other Authors, in fome Earthquakes in the Kingdom of 
Naples. Two very high Rocks near /Wa, with all the Trees grow- 
ing thereon, were by the Violence of the Fall quite inverted, thatc 
the Top came to (land upon the Ground. 

About two Miles otFfrom the City of Mena^ lies a Lake full of a^ 
bituminous, fulphureous and combuftible Matter, formerly famous^ 
tinder the Title 6f Lacus Palicorum. Upon this Lake there was ob» 
ferved, the very Day of the Earthquake, about a Quarter of ^n^ 
Hour before the fecond Shock, a great red FJame, like a fiery Co- 
lumn of above chree Yards perpendicular Height, which,' during thp: 
Earthquake itfelf, on a fuddcn difappeared. 

At ^gojidy the Misfortune was fo much the greater, becaufe be**- 
fides all the dreadful Eflfeds of the Earthquake itfelf, .the Powder- 
Magazine, in the Cattle, by fome iU Accident, and perhaps by the*, 
violent Fall over one another of the Stones pf fome ruined Buildings*, 
(or by the breaking out of fome fubterraneous Flame) unluqkily took. 
Fire, by which the whole Cattle was blown up with fuqh a Fury,., 
that fome of the Stones were carried as far as the lOands TbapfiiSy., 
which is near 8 Ilaftan Miles diftant from Jgofta. By ^this Accidence 
periflied 1840 Inhabitants. 

There remains ftill one thing worth obferving, and that is the ve- 
ry Rife and Progrefs of this terrible Succuflion. It arofe in the Sought 
and proceeded from thence towards the North. .'For it was firft ob- 
ferved in the Ifland of Malta ; then in the Sottchem Parts of Sidly ^^ 
and laft, always with fome Difference as to the Time, in the N5ir*- 
thern Parts of the fame Kingdom. Biat the Shakes weve jefs violent^ 
the more it approached to the North. For the reift). it extended it-> 

ftlfi 



24t An Account of a Book &e. 

fdf fo far, that not only the Ifland of MaUa^ but alfo CalahrUf and 
fome Parts in the Kingdom of Naples participated of it'9 Fury, 

Nor was this the End of all the Miferies which befel this noble 
Kingdom: for the Earth continued trembling for feveral Months 
after, during the whole Year of 1693. In the remaining Part of 
January J and from that Time to the Beginning of the Summer, the 
Skakes came ftrong and thick, with hollow terrible Noifes, and fre- 
quent Eruptions of yEtna. The moft confiderable were obfcrv'd F^- 
bruary the 15th in the Morning ; March the ift; March the i8th, 
by one of the Clock; May the 10th; May the 26ih in the Morning, 
Towards the End of the Summer, the Shakes were obfcrved to lofe 
a great deal of their Force, and JEtna to throw out Flames and 
A.flies in lefs Quantity, when on the fourth of September^ this ignivo- 
mous Mountain, having been fome Days before very quiet, trembled 
and cracked all of a fudden, with fo loud and thundering a Noife, as 
if fooie Thoufands of Guns were fired all at once. This was fuc- 
ceeded by a new Opening, about 1000 Paces diftant from the old 
Mouth, out of which immediately iflued a thick Stench and Smoke, 
followed by a great Flame. The fame Mountain opened itfelf in 
•two other Places, with the like Noife, and Eruption of Smoke and 
Fire, the 25th of September^ ^693, and the firft of yipril^ 1694, 
Since that Time the Shakes became vifibly weaker and weaker, and 
at laft entirely wafted. 

As to the Earthquake which happened April the 22d, 17 17. early 
in the Morning, and of which the Author hath given a Ihort Account 
by way of Appendix; I Ihall not infift upon it's EfFeft, being much 
the fame with the former, though far inferior as to the Degree of 
Violence. 

Thus far, what I could gather out of this Treatife, relating to 
the Hiftory of the Sicilian Earthquakes in 1693 and 171 7. I proceed 
now, with all poffible Brevity, to run over the feveral Obfervations, 
which our Author maketh about the Caufes and EfFefts of Earth- 
<juakes ki general: He obferveth. 

That fuch Countries as abound much with Foflil-coals, as England, 
fome Parts of Germany^ and even Sicily itfelf, are more fubjed: to 
Tremblings of the Earth, than any othen 

That peftilential and other Difeafes, which frequently foltow great 
Earthquakes, are rather to be afcribed to noxious and infe&ed mi- 
neral Effluvia, which upon fuch an Occafion iffue out of the Earth 
through the feveral Openings, than to the Putrefaction of dead Bo- 
dies^ which periQi'd in the Earthquake, and were buried under the 
Ruins of deftroyed Buildings. 

That amongft the Minerals hidden in the Entrails of the Earth, 
-fome are combuftible, fome not ; that of the combuftible Ones, as 
Sulphur, Bitumen, Alum, Vitriol, Salt-Petre, (sfr. fome take Fire 
;quic)Ler than others i that others, as Coals, are with greater Diffi- 
culty 



An Account of a Book &c. 249 

culty to be inflamed, butlcecp the Fire fo much the longer; that 
the Heat and fulphureous Smell of the Waters, which broke firft 
through the Openings of the Earth, probably depends upon the Mix- 
ture and Fermentation of fome of thefe Minerals. 

That Bacciusy Kircher^ and others, which draw the Origin of the 
above-mentioned fuIphureous^Lake near Mena^ and of fevcral others 
in other Places from the fubterraneous Cavities of the Mountain 
jEtna^ are much in the wrong, there being not the leaft Neceffi- 
ty of it's being derived fo far, fince the Country every where a- 
bounds with combuftible Minerals, which rather feem to entertain 
^nd nouriih the fiery Eruptions of Mtna^ than to be occafioned by 
them. 

That the Sea's retiring from the Shore, and finking down, is the 
lefs to be wondered at, fince there are many Examples iil Hiftories 
-of whole Towns and Iflands fwallowed up by it. This Misfor- 
tune befell according to Plinj^ Tyndarida^ formerly a famous City 
in SicUy. 

That in all probability Sicily itfelf, which, by the Tcftimonies of 
Diodorus Siculus^ Slrabo^ Pompomus Mela^ Pliniusy Solinus^ J^fi^-^ 
nusy Seneca^ and feveral others, both antient and modern Au- 
thors, appears to have been formerly annexed to the Continent 
x>f Itdyy by a fmall Neck of Land, between the Cape of MeJJina and 
the lower Parts of Calabria^ was feparated from it by fome violent 
Succuffion of the Earth. 

That the ignivomous ^tna^ far from being the Caufe, as fome 
imagine, of the Earthquakes, • which fo often c^efolate the Kingdom 
of Sicily y feems rather to have been created by the allwife Providence, 
in order to fecure this Ifland by it's fiery Eruptions from more fre- 
quent Misfortunes. 

That contrary to what Arifiotle and fome others aflert, folid and 
rocky Places receive infinitely more Damage by Earthquakes, than 
loofe, fandy Grounds. Thb appears by the Ruins of Catania^ Leon^ 
iiniy jigofta^ Syracufa^ and Noto^ which were all built upon a folid 
ftony Ground, whereas Mejftna^ though every where undermined by 
fubterranean Cavities, was abundantly lefs fliaken. 

The remaining Part of the Book is employed about examining the 
Opinions of all the antient and modern Philofophers about the Caufes 
of Earthquakes, and eftabliihing the Author's own, which is, that 
the Earth is fhaken by the Violence of fubterraneous Fires, occa* 
fioned by the Fermentation of the combuftible Minerals, hid in it's 
Entrails, and that the EfFe^ of the Earthquakes may in all Regards 
be compared to the EfTcfts of Mines. By the way, he obferveth, 
that the Caufes of Thunder, Lightening, and Winds may be derived 
from the fame Principle. 

V O L. VI. Part iL I i XXVIL The 



2 50 An Account of a Book intitule J, 

An Account XXVII. Thc Author of this Tfcatife takes notice in thfc Preface,. 

of a Book in- that it is o»ly a fmall Part of a larger Work, which he procnifed the. 

tituled. Pro- Public fome Years ago, under the Title of Cryjlallograpbta, and hath 

ftXgMphi*. ^^"^ almoft ready for the Prefs. This greater Work, as he intimates 

De Cryiiallis' at the Clofe of this Difcourfe, is to con f}ft of three Parts, the firft 

improprie fie of which contains the Definition of Cryftal, wiifr the Synonyms given 

mfnuHum- ^^ ^^ fevcral Authors both ancient and modern, and w. Account of 

iMau"iti^' it's Properties, Figure, Pcllucidity, fpecifix; Gravity, and Bignefs;. 

Antonio Cap- as alfo the Place of it's Growth, chiefly in regard to SwiJferUnd^ the 

pclcr, M. D. mod plentiful Country in Europe^ as to this Sort of natural Produc- 

^Luw^Jn ^^°"^' the Signs, whereby hidden Cryftal Mines may be difcovercd,. 

fi° Lucc"rn» ^^^ ^^^ ^^Y ^^ working thera. In the fecond Part will be exami- 

1723. 4to. ned the Opinions of feveral JMatural Hiftorians, about thc Origin of 

By J. G. Cryftal, and thc Author's own eftabliJhed and proved. In thc third 

M^d'^^R^s's ^^^^ ^'" ^^ *^^" '^^ ^^" ^^ Cryftal, both PhyGcal and Mc- 
N<i. 387. p, * chanical, and fome few Hints given, relating to the juft Value 
:^7i, ' ' the World has at all Times put upon, this beautiful ProduAion of 
Nature. 

The Author divides this prefent Effay into two Pacts, vtTu a (hoit 
Commentary upon the CryflalloSy as he calls them, impropii fie SSlos^ 
i;i the firft *,. and an Account of fuch as he found mentioned in feveral 
Authors, with a Reduftion of them under certain Heads, in the 
fecond. Cryjhlli improprie fie di£li^ according ta the Author's Defir 
nition, are fuch Bodies, either Stones, Metals, or Salts, as have any 
KefemWnce with tlie true Cryftal; ekher, as ta their nuiltaogular, 
regular, or irregular Figure,, or as to their Pellucidity^ : or any other 
of it*s effential Properties. As the Number of thefe Bodies is very 
extenfive, fo an exad Enquiry into them cannot hut be both ufeful 
and agreeable. I juft now obferved, that thc CryftaiU improprie fi( 
diSH are taken out of Stones, Metals, and Saks. To the firft belong 
amongft other Things fuch precious Stones, as, in all Probability,. 
have their certain, ' determined Cryftal like Figures, as Diamonds, 
Amcthyfts, (3c. To. thc fecond belong all Sorts of Pyrtta^y as alfo 
the Growth of Silver, and other Metals, in Form of Trees,, or o* 
rfier Things. By the third are ijnderftood ^11 Chymical Preparations 
of Salts, and faline Bodies, the Figure of which is, generally fpeak- 
ing, more accurate, than in any of the two former. Severat Au* 
thbrs of Note have endeavouf ed lq explain how, Cryftallization is. 
perfbrmedi or Kow it -com^s, 'that certain Subftances. Akkk ihto Cry- 
ftals. I>r Cappeler mentions the Hypothefis of the learbod GuUekrwrns^ 
and that of a late Swedijh Author, Swedenbergh% and though be feema 
more to favour the latter, than he doth the former j yet he thinks^. 
that they are both liable to Exceptions. But whatever die Caufe or 
Method of Cryftallization be, our Author takes it Tor granted, chat 
three Things are abfolutely required for it, T?i«. Sdt^, which muft al- 
ways be an Acid>, as is evident h^ Ch^micat ExgerUneni^^ and the 
7t^ «i^y* 



Prodrofti'us Cryftallographias, &c. 251 

very Tafte of faline Cryftals, Water and Earth. Cryftallizatfon, as 
far as can be gucfled by Chymical Obfervations, is performed thus : 
Particles of certain determined Shapes, fwimming in a Fluid of a 
certain Confiftcnce, are, either by the inteftinc Motion of this FJuid, 
or by the Motion of the Air, fuppofed to circulate perpetually 
through it's Pores, or by fome pther Caufc, brought together, fo as 
to form larger Bodies of a Figure proportionable both to the Degree 
oflmpulHon, and the primitive Shape of the conftituent Parts, or 
determined by thefc two Things. This AAofCryftallization, though 
uniform, as to the Union of Particles confidered in itfelf, is yet pb- 
ferved to be very different, and to have different Effedts, with re- 
fpedb to. the different Nature of the Fluid, in which Cryftals are form- 
ed, and the Degree of Perfedlion, to which they are brought. Our 
Author mentions fix differ^t Kinds of Cryftallization, eachof which^ 
be intends to explaiii more fuUy in his larger Work* The 6rft Sort 
of Cryftallization, ^hich hath been examined with a great deal of Ac* 
curacy by Gulielminusy is performed in an aqueous Fluid, wherein fa-» 
line Particles have been diflTolved, boiled to a certain Degree of Con- 
fiftence, commonly that of a thin Pellicula covering it^s Surface* This 
aqueous Fluid mu(t be afterwards repofed in a cool Place, that the 
faline Particles contained in it, may form themielves into Cryftals, ^ 

which is done in more or lefs Time, acording to the different Nature 
both of the Fluid and &ilts> iAH Chymical Preparations of Salts, the 
Origin of precious Stones, and of the Cryftal itfelf, belong to. this 
firft Kind. Our Author obferved^ that in- the Spiritus aperitivus 
Clauheriy (which is a Preparation of Ciner. Clavell, p. ii. fcf Sal Ammon^ 
p. i.^ after a Year's ftanding, formed themfelves artificial Cryftals, in 
Figure and Pellucidity exaSly like the true fexangular Cryftal, and 
pointed on both Sides. The fecbnd Kind of Cryftallitation differs 
from the firft only in this, that it is performed not in a thin, pellucid, 
aqueous Fluid, but between thick, mineral or metallical Mixtures, 
corroded by acid Salts in the Bowels of the Earth. The third Sort 
is of a middle Kind between the firft, and a Coagulation, viz. when 
the Fluid, in which Salts have been diifolved, is by degrees, entirely 
evaporated. This Way of Cryftallization is more proper for difco^ 
vering the primitive Shapes of faline Particles. Our Author hath exa- 
mined feveral Salts, both Mineral and Vegetable, and feveral Chymi- 
cal Preparations after this Manner, and hath given us their Figures 
as they appeared to him under a good Microfcope, in two Tables an- 
nexed to this Treatife. The fourth Sort of Cryftallization is perfor- 
med in a ftill thinner Fluid than Water is, or in the Air ; the Subli- 
mations of the Chymifts, the Diftillation of volatile Salts ; Snow, 
whofe wonderful Figures hath been thought worthy the Amufement 
of feveral eminent Men ; Hail, which is again of very different 
Shapes ; Froft and that admirable Variety of Trees, Landlkips, and 
other inimitable Figures, which, in very froftj Weather, appear 

I i 2 - upon 



t5^ An Account of a Bookj &c. 

upon Glafs-Windows, or other pellucid Bodies, muft be all reduced, 
CO this fourth Sort. The fifth Sort of Cryftallization is performed up- 
on the Surface of a thicker Fluid, as Water, between that and a thin- 
ner one, as Air; of this Kind is chiefly Ice. The fixth and lafl: Sore 
of Cryftallization, mentioned by our Author, differs from all the for- 
mer, in that it is performed neither by the Rife of Vapours, nor by 
the repofing of any Fluid, but on the contrary in a Fluid, which ii 
in a perpetual Motion, That Sort of icy Concretions, which is ob- 
ferved near fwift running Waters, and is commonly very porous, not. 
unlike the Tophus, and the ftony Concretions in fubterranean Cavi- 
ties, called SialaSita^ belong to this laft Sort*. Thus far what is. 
contained in the firft Part, 

The fccond gives an Account of fuch Cryfialli improprii fie diai^^ 
or Cryftalline Bodies, which are not properly Cryftals,^ as^havc; beea 
Bientioned by feveral Natural Hiftorians both ancient and roodcra.. 
The Author diftributed them into the foUawipg Claifes^ each oT 
which comprehends Stones, Metals, and Salts«. 

Corpora CryftaHifeta^ quae improprie CryftaUi.vocantM^. 

Claff. h Globofo, rotundata & fphaeroidea*. 
■ If. Conicay Conoidea & fufiformia... , 
- IH. Cyiindrica, folida aut tubulata.. ' • 
' — — IV; Pyramidal ia & cuneiformiaji 
~— V. Prifmatica, Parallelepipeda, Rhomboidea, Trape- 

zoidea. 
~— Vt Polyedrica^ & Polygona, regujari^ & minus regu^^ 

kria. 
■ VIL Racemofa, Arbufculorum in modum, &.filamentofa,, 

filorum, aut capillorum. inftar. nafcentia &. ftriatimf 

contexta. j 

.i.— « Vilh Cr^ftis, fquamis, lameUifqjue contexta, fine, veL 

cum figura propria. 
.,: .IX, Corpora, quorum cum Cryftallo affinitasin peUucidi? 

tate potiflimtim confiftit, figura. eorqm nativa, vel JAr. 

qertst vel .nandum.perfpc<3;a. 



C H A F^ 



t 2J} 5 

CHAP. IV. 
MAGNETICS. 

t A Ftcr having given an Account of an Experiment made "^li^ jn Account of 

Jr\ the large Magnet in the Repofitory of the Rojal Societ'jjfome Expert- 
(which Experiment is deTcribed in Phibfopb. TranfaEt. N.®. 344. Ar- ments nlating 

tide 4.) the Letter goes on with the fame Subjeft as follows. If '^ n^^p'^'^t* 

k were known what point within the Stone, and what point in the Taylor, No. 
Needle are the Centers of the Magnctical power, it would be eafy 3^68. p. zoir 
to find the true powers of the Magnet at all the diftances obferved^ 
For want of that Knowledge, I have computed the Forces from the 
Center of the Needle, and the Extremity of the Loadffone, and find 
that at the diftance of nine Feet, the Power alters fafter, than as the 
Cubes of the diftances, whereas at the diftances of one and two Feet», 
the Power alters nearly as their Squares, To try. whether the Law^ 
by which the Magnetifm alters, could be reduced at all diftances^ 
to any one certain power of thofe diftances, 1 fought thofe points in 
the Needle and Scone,, which being ufed as the Centers of the power 
might have that property. But in that cafe, I found: the Center of 
the. Stone muft be carried quite out of it^ Figure, to make the dif- 
tances large enough for this purpofe. From whence it feems to ap» 
pear, that the power of Magnetifm does not alter according to any 
particular power of the diftances, butdecreafes much, fafter io the- 
gre^ter diftances, than it does in the near ones. 

This feems to be confirmed by other Experiments I madt.. The- 
firft Experiment was thus; I made a Needle i of an Inch long, of 
rery fine Steel-wire (a Foot length of which weighed but a GrainJ: 
which riengthenM by fticlcing a light piece of Rufli to it, fa that, 
I could obfferve the Direftion of the Needle in all the trials with a. 
Radius of two Inches. Ihftead' of a Magnet I ufed a touched Needle 
of Stccl-wire, which I fct on a perpendicular to the Horizontal* Plane 
I made the Obfervations on, by means of a Frame I made to tranfport 
it from one place to another; the North end of the Ncedlt being, 
placed downwards, and made a. little (harp, that it might mark the- 
Paper it was fet upon in every pofition, by prefling the top, of the 
Needle gently with the Finger. The Obfervations were made in this 
manner; after having taking notice of the natural direftion of the 
fmallCpmpafs Needfc, I brought the perpendicular Needle as near 
to it as I conveniently could,, fetting it in fuch a nwnner, that a.. Line 
from the uptight Needle to the Center of the Compafs might be per- 
Beacli$:ular to the Comf als Needle*. Then obferving^the fame cautioa. 
2^ (whichi 



^54 Experiments relating to Magnetifm. 

(which was convenient to make the Center of the Compafe fervc fuf- 
ficiently well to be cftcem'd it's Center of Power) I placed the up- 
right Needle at feveral greater diftances, every time marking tlic 
place in the manner already defcribed, and obferving the Varia- 
tion of the Compafs. By this means I got a Curve pretty regularly 
and fairly drawn by points on the paper. And by examining this 
Curve, compared with the Variations of the Compafs correfponding 
to it's refpeftive points, I found that the Magnetical power decreafed 
fafter at the greater diftances than at the nearer. It is of little ufe 
to be very particular in the account of the feveral Obfervations. I 
fhall only take notice, that at about two Inches and a quarter diftance 
the Force did not alter fo faft as the Squares, and at ten Inches 
diftance Cwhere the Variation was one degree only) it altered fafter 
than the Cubes, the Index of the Power being about 3i. The 
Needle of the Compafs was fo fhorr, that to fuppofe it's Center of 
Force to be cither in the middle or at the extremity of it, would 
not alter the Index of the Powers of the diftances /a of an 
Unit. 

I made another Experiment to the fame purpofe, with a Compafs 
Needle made of a flight piece of Straw, with a fmall piece of Steel* 
wire faftened to one end of it, which was always kept in the fame 
pofition, being balanced between two perpendicular ^feedles, one of 
which was moveable, and the other fixed. The Event was much 
the fame as in the former Experiment. 

Endeavouring 16 find the true Poles, or Centers of the magnetical 
Power in touched Needles, I made a Needle of two Inches long, of 
the fine Steel-wire, which I touched with the South point of a fmall 
capt Loadftone, applying the point of the Cap only to the Extremi- 
ty of the Needle, without drawing it along. The Needle fo touch'd 
being laid gently on the Surface of a ftaRnant Water, floated. I then 
applied to it fucceflively the two ends of a touched Needle, as near 
as I could, without letting the Needles touch. The refult was, 
that the floating Needle refted under the refpedive Poles of the 
if/. 87. other Needle marked with the fmall Letters j, », j. So that by one 
Touch with the Loadftone, which gave the Needle a North-pole ac 
Ny where it was touched, it acquired three other Poles, j, », j, 
which we may not therefore improperly call it's confequential Poles. 
Having difcovered thefe confequential Poles, I made fome other 
Experiments to difcover more of the Nature of them, as they 
are defcribed in the Scheme. The Needles were all of them 
two Inches long, made of the fame fine Steel-wire, and the Letters 
i\r, or fly and 5, or s, denote Charader, of North or South belong- 
ing to the points marked •, the great Letters fignii^ing the points the 
Loadftone was applied to, and the fmall Letters Ihewing the confc 
quential Poles. 

There 



Of Magnet teal lowers. 25 S 

There are two other Experiments defcribed in the fame Letter, re- 
Jating to the Attraiftion of Fluids, one of which (viz. that of the 
Hyperbola^ made by the Surface of the Water between two Glafs* 
planes) being already defcribed in the TranfaSiions (N^. 336.^ we 
mall only tranfcribe the Account given of the other. 

I took feveral very thin pieces of Fir-board, and having hung 
them fucceffively in a convenient manner to a nice pair of Scales, I 
I tried what Weight was neceflary, ("over and above their own, after 
they had been well foaked in Water) to feparate them at once from 
the Surface of ftagnating Water. I found 50 Grains to feparate a 
Surface of one Inch fquare; and the Weight in every trial being ex- 
actly proportional to the Surface, I was encouraged to think the Ex- 
periment well made. The diftance of the under Surface of the Board 
from the Surface of the ftagnating Water, at the timcHhey fcparated 
I found to be 7^ of an Inch ; though I believe it would be found 
greater, if it could be meafured at a greater diftance from the Edge 
of the Board, than I could dp it, the Water rifing a little before i£ 
came quite under the Edge of the Board. 

II. Primum vofui experiri an magnetes in fe operarentur juxta certam Of Magnetic 
proportionem in divcrfis diftantiis, vidique in Adlis Britannicis^ ^V M^r* 

N^. 335. pag. 506. fimile veniffe in mentera experientiffimo /Aatt/tA ^^nbrock' 
hejo^ fed ij^um inftituiflc experimenta cum magncte & acu modo tali^ m. D. N"*! 
qui omnibus non fatisfaceret accuratis rerum fcrutatoribus undc con- 39^- P^& 
cludit tan>cn his verbis. I fee no Reafon to doubt y but the Proportiom of^^^ 
this Power will be regular ^ and agreeable to the feveral Dijiances. Quse- 
verba nan adco phcuiffe omnitms Eruditis colligo, cum Nobilifli- 
mus Taylor eadcm experimenta rcpetiit, N° 344. pag. 294. & ali^ 
reliquit obfcrvata. 

Rem eandem aggreflus fui methodo prorfus diverfa, ffc meditatus^ 
fi fumerem duos magnetes, & unum Sgfpendercm ex filo fupra ali-^ 
unn, ad divcrfas diftantias a fe inviccm, (ique fili extremum anncdte* 
rem bilanci, me ponderare pofle quantitatem virium, quibus mag- 
netes in fe agebant; neque (ucceflu caruic medttatiov SumpG accura- 
tifllmam bilancem, qua meiior nullibi fbrtie exftitit, & uni brachio. 
ftnnexui lancem, alteri fihim longiflSmum plurimorum pedum, cujus. 
parti inferior! adhserebar magnes nudus ; filum longiffimum feci, ne 
aftio magnetis ulla in ferrearn libram turbaretexperimentum; idcoq^ 
fefegi locum in quo ferri tarn parum, ac in sedibus unquam feligi po* 
teft. Sumpfi pr«ftantiffimos magnetes pcrfede fphsericos, terrellaa. 
vefter Gilbertus vocavir, horum poli erant accurate in extremo utroq;. 
axeos fphaerae, ira accuratiffime diftantias amborum polorum menfu-. 
rare potcram. Gravitatcm magnctis primo reduxiv)pe ponderis in 
akera lance in aequilibrium; dein^ambos magnetes pofui infra fe, & 
quia Itbra erat, ope funis, mobilis- (upra trochlcam^ earn dcmittcbam^ 
aiJ diverias diftantias pro lubieu,. & cuna magnes- fufpenfus ageretur 
dteorXuro aittaftua vi magnetic infcrioris^ fismpcB iroponebam. tantun- 



2j6 Of Magnetical "Pmers. 

dem ponderis alteri lanci, donee vis magnetis cum pondcrc faccrct 
sequifibriutn : hae tamen diftantiae menfurari non poffunt, niu intcr- 
poncndo corpus cuprcum tantae longitudinis ac eft diftantia inter ana- 
bos magnctes, ob ofcillationes librae, & quia in majoribus diftaniiis 
magnetes minus operantur, quam in minoribus diftantiis, acquilibri- 
um librae obtineri non poteft, nifi eo artificio. Ecce nunc tabulam 
continentem experimenta in diverfis diftantiis pollicum & lincarum, 
columna remotior continct grana quae aequipondcrant cum attraCtiom- 
bus in lis diftantiis. 

Diftantia Grana 

Poll. Lin. attraftionis. Lin. Gran^ 

13 — 6 — o 8 — 106. 

12 — o — oA. 7 — 114- 

II — o — o i. 6 — 131. 

10 — o — o t. 5 — 146. 

9 — o — oi, 4 — 172. 

7—6—14. 3 — 190. 

7 — o — 24, 2 — 215, 

12 — 70 4 • I — 250. 

II — 78 4. 4 — 290. 

10 — 87. In ipfo conta£lu, o — 340. 

9—94. fi^^ 

FoHIces fumfi Rhenolandicos, & grana funt pondera noftra medi- 
ca, qux etiam fumma acribeia prius eicaminavi, uc eflent vera & x- 
que gravia. 

Haec experimenta inftitueram die 24 Deeemb. 1724. & animo adeo 
ad onmia atcento ne hallucinarer, ut vix fperaverim melius fieri 
pofle. 

Sed an ex his coUigere poftumus uUo modo dari proportionem inter 
vires & diftantias? ego non video. 

Poftquam eo ufque perrexeram, fufpicabar an non forte fufpenfus 
magnes eflet heterogeneus utcunque, & an alius ejus fubfticutus loco 
eventum quoq ; non daret magis profperum, faltem ex quo plus lucis 
caperem, taediofa enim nimis fuerant haec experimenta quam ut inde 
tarn parum emolunoenti colligerem ; fed ecce quid cum alio magnete 
parvo, admodum praeftanti, obfervare datum fuit, dum magnes ro- 
tund us alius inferior idem maneret, firmiter in menfa pofitus: eodem 
autem modo experimenu infticuta fuerunt. 



Diftantia 



Of Magnetical Towers* i^j 



Diftantia 
!PolJ. Lin. 


Grana 
attraftionis. 


5 — 


lO 


li. 


4 — 


6 — 


2i. 


3 — 

2 — 
1 — 


9 — 
4 — 
9 — 


3- 
9- 

12. 


X — 


o — 


23- 




II — 


23 i. 
26 i. 




%- 


29. 
30 i 



2 

I 



I.ih. Graft, 

7 — 33- 

6 — 38 i. 

5 — 43 i. 

4 — 50 i* 

3 — 62. 

140. 
i — 186. 
O — 340- 



Sed irrcgularitates hie iterum adfunt maximsB, ex quibus conchidi 
poteft nihil: id folum eft mirandum, quod dum magnes pro hoc fe- 
cundo. experitnento fuerac minor, quam qui primo inferviverat, ca« 
inen in mucuo concaftu viribus sequalibus attrahebatur, nempe 340 
granorum; dum in aliis diftantiis longe minus tamen atcrada fuic» 
uci ex comparatis ambabus cabulis patet: fed praeterea hie minor 
magnes fecundi experimenti mulco generofior fuit & pra^ftancior ad 
elevandum ferrum, quam magnes primi experimenti. 

Hasc experimenta repetii cum aliis magnetibus & imprimis cum 
aliquo> cujus tanca vis ut acum magneticam infleftat, qu«e diftac ab 
jpfo 14 pedibus Rhenolandicis ; nefcio an fimilis defcripius ullibi ha- 
beacur: fed ex omnibus id modo concludere pofTum experimenris^ 
proportionem inter vires & diftantias dari nullam. 

Quum tam declinatio, quam inclinatio acus maghecicas variat fin- 
gulis annis fere, fubiic quoque defiderium videndi, an vis magnecis 
t)mni die eflet eadem, an minor vel major aeftate quam hyeme ; fed 
vim efle minorem seftate quam hyeme, me docuerunc experimenta 
multa faltem de hac aeftate loquor, an futuro anno idem obtinebit, 
explorandum erit. 

Sumfi igitur magnetes binos, qui primo experimento infervierant, 
& eodem prorfus modo inftitui experimenta cum iis, ac ante, dies 
vero fuit 11 Julii 1725. cum Barofcopium efTet devatum ad 
^9 'h poIHc. Thermofcopium Fabrenbeytii ad 62 grad, & Ventus 
Noordten fVeften five Septentrionalis verfus Occafum, caelum ficcum, 
iereoum & in eodem loco mearum aedium. 



VOL. VI. Partii. Kk Diftantia 



a 5 » Of MagnetUat *Powers, 



Diftanda Grana squalia 




Poll. Lin. attradtioni. 


Lin. Gran. 


12 — o — o 


7 — 106 


9—0 — I i. 


6 — iii; 


8 — — I i. 


5 — 132- 


7 — 6 — 2. 


4 — 149- 


7 — — 2 1. 


3 — 173. 


12 — 70 i. 


2 — 205. 


n — 75 i. 


I — 240* 


10 — 85. 


4 — 270. 


9 — 92. 


— 300. 


8 — loou 





Conftat quidem inter Philofophos, magnetb utrlurque polos noa a- 

Sere asque forciter, fed polos boreales efle fortiores viribus quam att- 
rala, fed hoc aflertum quidem, demonftratum accurate fuit nullip 
bi; quia vero noftra methodus ponderandi vires magnetis (atis facilit 
erat, at accurate ejus ope hoc determinari pofle videbam, copverti 
modo ambos polos amborutn magnetum ita, ut iterum duo poli ami- 
ci fibi efleot obverfi, & in magnetibus hujus ultimi experimeotl h»c 
obfervavi. 

Ad diftant.. Grana squat 

Lin. attraftionL Lin. Gran.. 

12 — 57- 5 — loi. 

II -— 63. 4 — 113. 

10 — ^6. 3 — 124. 

9 — 70. 2 — 148.. 

8 — ^^. \ — 168. 

7 — 83. G — 228. 

6 — 90i, 

Eit his patet manifefto non afirA>os polos magnetis agere viribus. 
iifdem, quanta autem tntercedat differentia, ex comparatione amba- 
fum tabularum videre poteris. 

Quum ab ineunte state, qua j^rimum operam Philofophise dare 
inceperam, in huDC ufque annum mihi perfuafcram adionem magne- 
tum ab efiuviis^ vel aHquo faltem fluido pellente extus magnetem>. 
pendere; neque videram pi>£eftantifEmos viros aliter fenfifle; experi- 
ri ^olui an uUo experimento hanc meam opinionem confirmare pof- 
fem, affirmare enim effluvia vel aliquod fluidum premens extus, 8i 
non demonftrare, mihi vifum fuit nimis temere conjefluris dare ope- 
ram. Dum igitup experimenta priora cum magnetibus inftituebam 
4i>d varias diftantias a fe mutuo, interpoitii frufta crafliffima pliimbi, 
ftanni, argenti, cupri^ mtrcurii ma^m inligqem^ vi£urus an hsc 
2 effluvia 



Of Magntthal ^awetf. 259 

effluvia tnagnetica non impedirencur, & fi non omnino, faltem aliquo. 
modoi vitrum pcUucidum eft, lucem tranfmittit, tamen non adeo 
copiofam, quam fi nullum vitrum adfuilTet; eodem credidi modo ef- 
fluvia magnetica, fi non prohiberentur omnino, faltem impediri ali. 
quo modo ne magnetes tam fortiter ad fe craherenc, fi plumbi fru- 
ftum I pedis cubici interpofitum foret, vel (1 plumbum craflitiei 2 
digitorum, & llannum ejufdem craflitiei, tum cuprum, tum maflam > 
magnam mercurii incerponeren[i ; fed vidi, ouscunque interpofue- 
ram corpora, femper vires magneticas efle eafdem, ac fi nullum cor- 
pus interlocaretur hoc profe£to mirandum eidftimo, neque intellec- 
tum credo ab uUo mortalium : non enim fingere licet haec corpora 
efle adeo porofa ut nihil folidi in fe habeant ; quod fi igitur folidum 
habent, uc habent plurimum, an hx partes non impedient quominus 
fluidum extraneum adveniat, vel ex magnete exeat ; non dico quod 
omne fluidum impedient, fed faltem aliquid, experimenta tamen om« 
nia docent, vires magneticas impediri nuUo modo: vel an hasc efllu- 
via erunt multo fubtiliora luce ? prseterquam quod hsc eflfet iterum 
hypothefis, difficultas fuperior non tollitur ^ Ignis impeditur a corpo* 
ribus, lux non penetrat illico per omnia corpora, & ita fe habent 
fluida omnia ut a folidis refiftentiam experiantur, fed eflluvia magne* 
tica ita fe non habebunt, immunia erunt refiftentias a folido corporeo ) 
hoc eft, ad quod mens noftra plane hebefcit. 

Sed argumentum fortiflimum ex viribus repel lentibus magnetum 
depromam, funt ha? longe debiliores, quam vires attrahentes uti 
mox experimentis confirmabo, adeoque oportebit ut fluidum acce« 
dat ab exterioribus verfus magnetem, quod dum occurrit alteri 
magneti, unum pellit ad aliud, quodque magnetem ingreditur, & 
quia attraftio magnetum eft longe fortior quam repulfio, copiofius 
fluidum ingredietur magnetem, quam egreditur: unde fieri non 
poteft quin brevi magnes adimpleatur hoc fluido, ut non amplius 
porofus maneat } nee ftatui poteft quafi undequaque ex magnete flui* 
dum hoc exiret, nam fit attra&io in omni pun£to magnetis, & fit tan* 
tum repulfio in locis polorum. Ut vero demonftrem repulfionem 
magnetum efle minorem attraftione eorundem, ecce tabulam con- 
tinentem experimenta cum niemoratis ultimis magnetibus fafta. 



Kk 2 Diftantia 



2 50 An Account of a Book intituled^ 

An Account XXVII. The Author of this Trcatife takes notice in thfe Preface,. 

of a Book in- that it Is only a fmall Part of a larger Work, which he promifcd the. 

iituled. Pro- Public fome Years ago, und*r the Title of Cryjlallograpbia, and hath 

JXgraphi*. '^ow almoft ready for the Prefs. This greater Work, as he intimates 

De Cryiiallis* at the Clofe of this Difcourfe, is to corif}ft of three Parts, the firft 

improprie ic of which contains the Definition of Cryftal, wiiJr the Synonyms given 

mfntaHu"^- *^ ^^ feveral Authors both ancient and modern, and an. Account of 

5*Mauri"b' it*s Properties, Figure, Pcllucidity, fpecifi^ Gravity, and Bigaefs;. 

Antonio Cap- as alfo the Place of it's Growth, chiefly in regard to SmJferUnd^ the 

pclcr, M. D. moft plentiful Country in Europe^ as to this ^rt of natural Produc- 

^L^wra^^^^^ tions; rhe Signs, whereby hidden Cryftal Mines may be difcovercd,. 

t Luccma ^^^ ^^^ ^^y ^^ working thera. In the fecond Part will be exami- 

1723. 4to, ned the Opinions of feveral JMatural Hiftorians, about the Origin of 

By J. G. Cryftal, and the Author's own eftablifbed and proved. In the third 

M^D^R^S^S ^^^ ^^" ^ ^^^" ^^^ ^^^^ of Cryftal, both Phyfical and Me- 
N9. 387.' « ' chanicaJ, and fome few Hints given, relating to the juft Value 
VI. ' ' the World has at all Times put upoa this beautiful Produdlkm of 
Nature. 

The Author divides this prefent Eflay into two Parts, viz. a (here 
Commentary upon the Cr^jftalloSy as he calls them, impropii fie di£los^ 
in the firft j. and an Account of fuch as he found mentioned in feveral 
Authors, with a Reduftion of them under certain Heads, in the 
fecond. CrjJUilli improprie fie di£li^ according td the Author's Defir 
oition, are fuch Bodies, either Scones, Metals, or Salts, as have any 
Kefeml>lance with the true Cryftat^ ekher, as ta their nwltaogular, 
regular, or irregular Figure,, or as to their Pellucidity^ : or any other 
of it's effential Properties. As th6 Number of thefc Bodies ia very 
extenfive, fo an exadt Enquiry into thdm cannoc but be both ufeful 
and agreeable* I j^ft now obferved, that the Cryftaiti improprie fif 
dim are taken out of Stones, Metals, and Salts. To the firft belong 
amongft other Things fuch precious Stones, as, in all Probability,. 
have their certain, determined Cryftal like Figures, as Diamonds, 
Amethyft^, i^c. To. the fecond belong all Sorts of Pyrita-y as alfo 
t-he Growth of Silver, and other Metals, in Form of Trees,, or o- 
iher Things. By the third are wnderftood tail Chymical Preparations 
of Salts, and faline Bodies, the Figure of which is, generally fpeak- 
ing, more accurate, than in any of the two former. Several Au* 
thbrs of Note have endeavoured lo explain how, Cryftallization is 
perfbrmedi brhow it -com^s,' 'that certain Subftancei ^ooc ibto Cry- 
ftals. Pr Cappeler mentions the Hypothefiis of the lean>ed Gy&AnMWX^^ 
and that of a late Swedifh Author, Swedenbergh ; and though be jCeemi 
more to favour the latter, than he doth the former; yet he thinks^. 
that they are both liable to Exceptions. But whatever the Caufe or 
Method of Cryftallization be, our Author takes it for granted, that 
three Thiogs. are abfoluxely required for it, 'vi^. Salty which* muftal- 
ma.^s be an Acid>, a3 is evident hj Chjrmical: £;x£eriix)ait»> ind the: 



Prodroflam Cryftallograpliia5, icC. 251 

very Tafte of faline Cryffals, Water and Earth. Cryftallization, as 
far as can be guefled by Chymical Obfcrvations, is performed thus : 
Particles of certain determined Shapes, fwimming in a Fluid of a 
certain Confiftence, are, either by the inteftinc Motion of this FJuid, 
or by the Motion of the Air, fuppofed to circulate perpetually 
through it's Pores, or by fomepther Caufe, brought together, fo as 
to form larger Bodies of a Figure proportionable both to the Degree 
oflmpulfion, and the primitive Shape of the conftituent Parts, or 
determined by thefc two Things. This Adt of Cryftallization, though 
uniform, as to the Union of Particles confidered in itfelf, is yet ob- 
fcrved to be very different, and to have different Effcfts, with re- 
fpeft to, the different Nature of the Fluid, in which Cryftals are form- 
ed, and the Degree of Perfe&ion, to which they are brought. Our 
Author mentions fix different Kinds of Cryftallization, eachof which^ 
be intends to explain more fully in his larger Work* The firft Sort 
of Cryftallization, which hath been examined with a great deal of Ac- 
curacy by GulielminuSj is performed in an aqueous Fluid, wherein fa^. 
line Particles have been diffolved, boiled to a certain Degree of Con- 
fiftence, commonly that of a thin Pellicula covering it's Surface* This 
aqueous Fluid muft be afterwards repofed in a cool Place, that the 
faline Particles contained in it, may form themfelves into Cryftals^ ^ 

which is done in more or lefs Time, acording to the different Nature 
both of the Fluid and Salts> iAll Chymical Preparations of Salts, the 
Origin of precious Stones, and of the Cryftal itfelf^ belong to. this 
firft Kind. Our Author obferved, that in- the Spiritus aperiHvus 
Clauberij (which is a Preparation of Ciner. Clavell, p. ii. £sf Sal Ammon^ 
p. \.) after a Year's ftanding, formed themfelves artificial Cryftals^ in 
Figure and Pellucidity exadly like the true fexangular Cryftal^ and 
pointed on both Sides. The fecbnd ■ Kind of CryflialHtaiion differs 
from the firft only in this, that it is performed not in a thin, pellucid, 
aqueous Fluid, but between thick, mineral or metallical Mi)ttures, 
corroded by acid Salts in the Bowels of the Earth, The third Sort 
is of a middle Kind between the firft, and a Coagulation, viz. when 
the Fluid, in which Salts have been diffolved, is by degrees, entirely 
evaporated. This Way of Cryftallization is more proper for difco- 
vering the primitive Shapes of faline Particles. Our Author hath exa- 
mined feveral Salts, both Mineral and Vegetable, and feveral Chymi- 
cal Preparations after this Manner, and hath given us their Figures 
as they appeared to him under a good Microfcope, in two Tables an- 
nexed to this Treatife. The fourth Sort of Cryftallization is perfor- 
med in a ftill thinner Fluid than Water is, or in the Air ; the Subli- 
mations of the Chymifts, the Diftillation of volatile Salts ; Snow, 
whofe wonderful Figures hath been thought worthy the Amufement 
of feveral eminent Men ; Hail, which is again of very different 
Shapes ; Froft and that admirable Variety of Trees, Landfkips, and 
other inimitable Figures, which, in very froftjr Weather, appear 

I i 2 - upon 



2 50 An Account of a Book intitule J, 

jn Account XXVII. Thc Author of this Trcaiife takes notice in thfc Preface^. 
of a Book in- that it is Only a fmall Part of a larger Work, which he promifcd the.- 
tituled. Pro- Public fome Years ago, under fhe Title of Cryjiallograpbia, and hath 
ftaUographi* ^^"^ almoft ready for the Prefs. This greater Work, as he intimates 
De CryiialJis* at the Clofe of this Difcourfe, is to corif^ft pf three Parts, thc firft 
improprie fc of which contains thq Definition of Cryftal, wiiJj che Synonyms given 
mfnurium* ^^ ^^ feveral Authors both ancient and modern, and an. Account of 
JMauritio* it's Properties, Figure, Pellucidity, fpecific Gravity, and Bignefs^ 
Antonio Cap- as alfo the Place of it's Growth, chiefly in regard to SmJferUnd^ the 
pclcr, M. D. moft plentiful Country in Europe^ as to this Sort of natural Produc- 
roLuwM^^ tions; rhe Signs, whereby hidden Cryftal Mines may be difcovercd,. 
t LucTrna ^°^ ^^^ ^^Y ^^ working thera. In the fecond Part will be exami- 
1723. 4to, ned the Opinions of feveral jMatural Hiftorians, about the Origin of 
By J. G. Cryftal, and the Author's own eftabliflied and proved. In thc third 
M^D^'^R^^S P^^^'" ^^ ^^^^ ^be Ufcs of Cryftal, both Phyfical and Mc- 
j^ii jg- ' ' ' chanicaJ, and fome few Hints given, relating to the juft Value 
V^. ' ' the World Iws at all Times put upon this beautiful Produftion of 
Nature. 

The Author divides this prefent Eflay into two Pacts, viz. a (hort 
Commentary upon the CryflallcSy as he calls them, impropii fie diSlos^ 
in the firft;. and an Account of fuch as he found mentioned in feveral 
Authors, with a Reduftion of them under certain Heads, in the 
fecond. Cryjlalli improprie fie diili^ according to the Author's De&- 
nition, are fuch Bodies, either Stones, Metals, or Salts, as have any 
KefemWnce with the true Cryftat; ekher, as to their nuikangular, 
regular, or irregular Figure,, or as to their Pellucidity^ : or any other 
of it*s effential Properties. As the Number of thefc Bodies is very 
extenfive, fo an exad Enquiry into them cannot hut be both ufeful 
and agreeable. I juft now obferved, that thc Cryftaiti impropriifif 
di£H are taken out ot Stones, Metals, and Saks. To thc firft belong 
amongft other Things fuch precious Stones, as, in all Probability,. 
have their certain, determined Cryftal like Figwes, as Diamonds^ 
Amcthyfts, ^c. To. the fecond belong all Sorts of Pyrita^y as alfo 
the Growth of Silver, and other Meuls, in Form of Trees,, or o» 
sher Things. By the third are underftood tall Chymical Preparations 
of Salts, and faline Bodies, the Figure of which is, generally fpeak- 
ing, more accurate, than in any of the two former. Several Au- 
thors *of Note have endeavoured to explain how, CryftaiiizatioQ is 
perfbrmedi orhpw it -comds, 'that certain Subftances. flKX>c itato Cfy- 
ftals. I)r Cappeler mentions the Hypothefis of the icarnod GuHekmuus^ 
and that of di hie Swedifif Author, Swedenbergb\ and though he leems 
more to favour the latter, than he doth the former j yet he thinks^ 
that they are both liable to Exceptions. But whatever the Caufe or 
Method of Cryftallization be, our Author takes it for granted, that 
threo Things are abfoluxely required for it, vi^. Salty which^muft al- 
ways be an Acid^>, as is evident bj Ch^niicaJt Ej^gerifaacjit^^ and the 



CHAP. IV. 
MAGNETICS- 

L A Ftcr having given an Account of an Experiment made "^'^^^^ j^n Accotint of 

Jt\ the large Magnet in the Repofitory of the Rojal Societ'jyfome Expert 
(which Experiment is deTcribed in Phihfopb. Tranf^St. N.^. 344. Kx^ ments relating 
tide 4.) the Letter goes on with the fame Subjeft as follows. - — ^^2^^Broot' 
it were known what point within the Stone, and what point in the f aylor, N^. 
Needle are the Centers of the Magnetical power, it would be eafy 3^68. p. ^04^ 
to find the true powers of the Magnet at all the diltances obfervcd^ 
For want of that Knowledge, I have computed the Forces from the 
Center of the Needle, and the Extremity of the Loadftone, and find 
that at the diftance of nine Feet, the Power alters fafter, than as the 
Cubes of the diftances, whereas at the diftances of one and two Feet,, 
the Power alters nearly as their Squares. To try, whether the Law^ 
by which the Magnetifm alters, coultl be reduced at all diftances^ 
to any one certain power of thofe diftances, 1 fought thofe points \xt 
the Needle and Stone, which being ufed as the Centers of the power 
might have that property. But in that cafe, I found: the Center of 
the. Stone muft be carried quite out of it*^ Figure, to make the dif- 
tances large enough for this purpofe. From whence it feems to ap- 
pear, that the power of Magnetifm does not alter according to any 
particoJar power of the diftances, butdecreafes much, fafter in the- 
grestter diftances, than it does in the near ones. 

This feems to be confirmed by other Experiments I madfe^ The- 
firft Experiment was thus; I made a Needle i of an Inch long, of 
Tery fine Steel- wire (a Foot tength of which weighed but a Grain^} 
which I" lengthen'd by fticking a light piece of Rufli to it, fa that: 
I could obferve the Diredtion of the Needle in all the trials with a. 
Radius of two Inches. Ihftead- of a Magnet I uftd a touched Needle 
of Steel-wire, which I fct on a perpendicular to the H'orizontaf Plane 
I mado the Obfervations on, by means of a Frame I made to tranfport: 
it from one place to another; the North end of the Needle being 
placed downwards, and made a. little fharp, that it might mark the- 
Papcr it was fct upon in every pofition, by grefling the top. of the 
Needle gently with the Finger. The Obfervations were made in this 
manner; after having taking notice of the natural direftion of the 
fmallCompafs Needle, I brought the perpendicular Needle as near 
to it as I conveniently could,, fetting it in fuch a manner, that a^ Line 
from the upright Needle to the Center of the Compaft might be per- 
jcndif ular to the Comgafe Needle*. Then obfcrvin^the fame cautioa. 
2t (wiiichi 



i54 Experiments relating to Magnet ifm. 

(which was convenient to make the Center of the Compafs fervc fuf- 
ficiently well to be cfteem'd it's Center of Power) I placed the up- 
right Needle at feveral greater diftances, every time marking the 
place in the manner already defcribed, and obferving the Varia- 
tion of the Compafs. By this means I got a Curve pretty regularly 
and fairly drawn by points on the paper. And by examining this 
Curve, compared with the Variations of the Compafs correfponding 
to it's refpedive points, I found that the Magnetical power decreafcd 
fafter at the greater diftances than at the nearer. It is of little ufe 
to be very particular in the account of the feveral Obfervations. I 
fliall only take notice, that at about two Inches and a quarter diftance 
the Force did not alter fo fall as the Squares, and at ten Inches 
diftance Cwhere the Variation was one degree only) it altered fafter 
than the Cubes, the Index of the Power being about 3*. The 
Needle of the Compafs was fo Ihorr, that to fuppofe it's Center of 
Force to be either in the middle or at the extremity of it, would 
not alter the Index of the Powers of the diftances ro of an 
Unit. 

I made another Experiment to the fame purpofe, with a Compafs 
Needle made of a flight piece of Straw, with a fmall piece of Steel- 
wire fattened to one end of it, which was always kept in the fame 
pofition, being balanced between two perpendicular Needles, one of 
which was moveable, and the other fixed. The Event was much 
the fame as in the former Experiment. 

Endeavouring to find the true Poles, or Centers of the magnetical 
Power in touched Needles, I made a Needle of two Inches long, of 
the fine Steel-wire, which I touched with the South point of a fmall 
capt Loadftone, applying the point of the Cap only to the Extremi- 
ty of the Needle, without drawing it along. The Needle fo touch'd 
being laid gently on the Surface of a ftagnant Water, floated. I then 
applied to it fucceflively the two ends of a touched Needle, as near 
as I could^ without letting the Needles touch. The refult was, 
that the floating Needle refted under the refpedive Poles of the 
i/^. 87. other Needle marked with the fmall Letters j, «, s. So that by one 
Touch with the Loadftone, which gave the Needle a North-pole at 
Ny where it was touched, it acquired three other Poles, j, », j, 
which we may not therefore improperly call it's confequential Poles. 
Having difcovered thefe confequential Poles, I made fome other 
Experiments to difcover more of the Nature of them, as they 
are defcribed in the Scheme. The Needles were all of them 
two Inches long, made of the fame fine Steel-wire, and the Letters 
iV; or n, and S^ or j, denote Charader, of North or South belong- 
ing to the points marked % the great Letters Agnizing the points the 
Loadftone was applied to, and the fmall Letters (hewing the confc 
^uencial Poles. 

There 



Of Magnetic aI Towers. %$$ 

There arc two other Experiments dcfcribed in the fame Letter, re- 
lating to the Attraftion of Fluids, one of which (viz. that of the 
Hyperbolaj made by the Surface of the Water between two Glafs- 

£ lanes) being already defcribed in the Tranfa£lions (N^. 336.^ we 
lall only tranfcribe the Account given of the other. 
I took feveral very thin pieces of Fir- board, and having hung 
them fucceffively in a convenient manner to a nice pair of Scales, I 
I tried what Weight was neceflary, Cover and above their own, after 
they had been well foaked in Water) to feparate them at once from 
the Surface of ftagnating Water. I found 50 Grains to feparate a 
Surface of one Inch fquare j and the Weight in every trial being ex- 
actly proportional to the Surface, I was encouraged to think the Ex- 
periment well made. The diftance of the under Surface of the Board 
from the Surface of the ftagnating Water, at the tirhe^they feparated 
I found to be 7^ of an Inch j though I believe it would be found 
greater, if it could be meafured at a greater diftance from the EdgjC 
of the Board, than I could dp it, the Water riftng a little before k. 
came quite under the Edge of the Board. 

II. Primum vofui experiri an magnetes in fe operarentur juxta certam Of Magnetic 
proportionem in diverfis diftantiis, vidique in Aftis Britannicis^ ^V* w^7* 
N^. 335. pag. 506. fimile veniffe in mentem experientiffimo //j«/t^ ^^^'ij^q^i^' 
bejo^ fed ipfum inftimiflc experimenta cum magncte & acu modo tali^ m, Z). N*\ 
qui omnibus non fatisfaceret accuratis rerum fcrutatoribus unde con- 390- P^& 
cludk tamcn his verbis. I fee no Reafon to doubt ^ but the Proportion of ^7^ 
ibis Power will be regular, and agreeable to the feveral Diftances. Quas- 
verba nen adeo placuiffe omnibus Eruditis colligo, cum Nobilifli- 
mus "Tajlor eadem experimenta rcpetiit,^ N*' 344. pag. 294. & aliat 
reliquit obfervata. 

Rem eandem aggreflus fui metbodo prorfus diverfa, ftc meditatus^ 
fi fumerem duos magnetes, &c unum Sgfpenderem ex filo fupra ali-^ 
urn, ad diverfas diftantias a fe invicem, nque fili extremumanncdte* 
rem bilanei, me ponderare pofle quantitatem virium, quibus mag- 
netes in fe agebant; neque lucceflu caruic meditation Sunfipfi accura- 
tiffimam bilancem, qua melior nullibi fortie exftitit, & uni brachio 
annexui lancem, alteri fihim longiflimum plurimorum pedum, cujus. 
parti infcriori adhasrebat magnes nudus ; filum longiflimum feci, ne 
aftio magnetts ulla in ferrearn lft)ram turbaret expermientum ; ideoq \ 
fefegilocum in quo ferri tarn parum, ac in scdibus unquam feligi po- 
left. Sumpfi prteftantiflimos magnetes pcrfede ifphaericos, terrellas. 
vefter Gilbertus vocavit, horum poll erant accurate in extremo utroq*,. 
axeos fphaerae, ira accuratifllme diftantias amborum polorum menfu- 
rare poteram. Gravitatem magnetis primo reduxiv)pe ponderis in 
akera lance in acquilibriumi deirtambos magnetes pofui infra fe, & 
quia Ubra crat, ope funis, mobilis- fupra trochleam^ earn demittcbam^ 
juJ diverfas diftantias pro lubieu^. & cum magnes- fufpenfus ageretur 
djcorXum aitraftusi vi magnetic inferioris,. fempefi iraponcbanx tantun- 

deat 



a54 Experiments relating to Magnetifm. 

(which was convenient to make the Center of the Compafs ferve fuf* 
ficiently well to be cfteem'd it's Center of Power) I placed the up- 
right Needle at feveral greater diftances, every time marking the 
place in the manner iilready defcribed, and obferving the Varia- 
tion of the Compafs. By this means I got a Curve pretty regularly 
and fairly drawn by points on the paper. And by examining this 
Curve, compared with the Variations of the Compafs correfponding 
to it's refpeftive points, I found that the Magnetical power decreafed 
fader at the greater diftances than at the nearer. It is of little ufe 
to be very particular in the account of the feveral Obfervations. I 
fhall only take notice, that at about two Inches and a quarter diftance 
the Force did not alter fo faft as the Squares, and at ten Inches 
diftance fwhere the Variation was one degree only) it altered fafter 
than the Cubes, the Index of the Power being about 3*. The 
Needle of the Compafs was fo fhort, that to fuppofe it's Center of 
Force to be cither in the middle or at the extremity of it, would 
not alter the Index of the Powers of the diftances ro of an 
Unit. 

I made another Experiment to the fame purpofe, with a Compafs 
Needle made of a flight piece of Straw, with a fmall piece of Steel* 
wire faftened to one end of it, which was always kept in the fame 
pofltion, being balanced between two perpendicular Needles, one of 
which was moveable, and the other fixed. The Event was much 
the fame as in the former Experiment. 

Endeavouring to find the true Poles, or Centers of the magnetical > 
Power in touched Needles, I made a Needle of two Inches long, of 
the fine Steel-wire, which I touched with the South point of a fmall 
capt Lx>adftone, applying the point of the Caponly to the Extremi- 
ty of the Needle, without drawing it along. The Needle fo touch'd 
being laid gently on the Surface of a ftagnant Water, floated. I then 
applied to it fucceflively the two ends of a touched Needle, as near 
as I could^ without letting the Needles touch. The refult was, 
that the floating Needle refted under the refpedive Poles of the 
tig. 87. other Needle marked with the fmall Letters j, «, s. So that by one 
Touch with the Loadftone, which gave the Needle a North-pole at 
Ny where it was touched, it acquired three other Poles, j, », j, 
which we may not therefore improperly call it's confequential Poles. 
Having difcovered thefe confequential Poles, I made fome other 
Experiments to difcover more of the Nature of them, as they 
are defcribed in the Schenoc. The Needles were all of them 
two Inches long, made of the fame fine Steel-wire, and the Letters 
iV, or », and 5, or j, denote Character, of North or South belong- 
ing to the points marked \ the great Letters fignifying the points the 
Loadftone was applied to, and the fmall Letters mewing the confc 
quential Poles. 

There 



Of Magnet ical Towers. a 5 j 

There are two other Experiments defcribed in the fame Letter, re- 
lating to the Attraftion of Fluids, one of which (viz. that of the 
Hyperbola^ made by the Surface of the Water between two Glafs* 

£ lanes) being already defcribed in the Tranfa£lions (N^. 336J we 
lall only tranfcribe the Account given of the other. 

I took feveral very thin pieces of Fir-board, and having hung 
them fucceffively in a convenient manner to a nice pair of Scales, I 
. 1 tried what Weight was neceflary, ("over and above their own, after 
they had been well foaked in Water) to feparate them at once from 
the Surface of ftagnating Water. I found 50 Grains to feparate a 
Surface of one Inch fquare; and the Weight in every trial being ex- 
aftly proportional to the Surface, I was encouraged to think the Ex- 
periment well made. The diftance of the under Surface of the Board 
from the Surface of the ftagnating Water, at the time^they feparated 
I found to be 7^ of an Inch j though I believe it would be found 
greater, if it could be meafured at a greater diftance from the Edge 
of the Board, than I could dp it, the Water riling a little before it 
came quite under the Edge of the Board. 

II. Primum\o\\x\ experiri an magnetes in fe operarentur juxta certam Of Magnetic 
proportionem in diverfis diftantiis, vidique in Aftis Britannicis^ A!V\f^7* 
N^. 335. pag. 506. fimile vcniffe in mentcm experientiflimo Haukf^ d^enbroX 
hejo^ fed ipfum inftituiflc experimenta cum magnete & acu modo tali^ m. D. N**! 
qui omnibus non fatisfacerec accuratis rerum fcrutatoribus unde con- 390- pa& 
cludit tanocn his verbis. I fee no Reafon to doubly hut the Proportiom <?/37o* 
this Pon»er will be regular^ and agreeable to the feveral Dijiances. Qusb- 
verba non adco placuiffe omnitms Eruditis colligo, cum Nobilifli- 
mus Taylor eadem experimenta repetiit,^ N° 344. pag. 294. & aliai 
reliquit obfcrvata. 

Rem candem aggreflus fui methodo prorfus diverfa, lie meditatus^ 
fi fumerem duos magnetes, & unum Sulpenderem ex filo fupra all-- 
um, ad divcrfas diftantias a fe inviccm, lique fili extremumanncdtc- 
rem bilanci, me ponderarepofle quantitatem virium, quibus mag- 
netes in fe agebant; neque lucceflu caruit meditatio* Sumpfi accura- 
tiflimam bilancem, qua melior nullibi fortie exftitit, & uni brachio 
annexui lancem, alteri filum longiffimum plurimorum pedum, cujus. 
parti inferiori adhasrebat magnes nudus ; filum longiffimum feci, ne 
aftio magnetis ulla in ferream Irbram turbarct experimentum ; ideoq j 
fefegi locum in quo ferri tarn parum, ac in sedibus unquam feligi pp- 
teft. Sumpfi praftantiflSmos magnetes pcrfefle fph^ricos, terrellas. 
vefter Gilbertus vocavit, horum poli erant accurate in extremo utroq-,. 
axeos fphaerae, ita accuratiffime diftantias amborum polorum menfu-. 
rare poteram. Gravicatcm magnetis primo reduxiv)pe ponderis in 
akcra lance in aequilibriums dein^ambos magnetes pofui infra fe, & 
quia Ubra crat, ope funis, mobilis. fiipra trocblcam^ earn demitteban> 
aU diverfas diftantias pro lubieu^ & cum magncs fufpenfus ageretur 
dteoxfura aittaftua vi magnetic infcrioris,. fcmper imponebamL tantun- 



^g5 Magnet icat" Ohfervations and Experiments. 

enough to affeft it at a confiderable Diftance^ will perform all that 
any Loadftone'can, though not with the fame Degree of Power : For 
either of them will attraft, keep one Piece of Iron fufpended to ano- 
ther, and communicate fome Degree of permanent Polarity to Steel 
well hardened, as I have experienced, and alfo to an Iron Wire. 

The Earth's central Loadftone, or Magnet, has all the fame Vir- 
tues which others have, and no difcovered ones befides j and though. 
we cannot approach it, yet it afts as others do at a proportionable 
Diftance. I have experienced, that it will keep a prepared Sixpenny 
(or with more Difficulty a Ten-penny^ Nail fufpended to a prepared 
Iron Bar about i of an Inch fquare, and 5 or 6 Feet long, in an crefl: 
Pofture with either of it's Ends downwards. 1 hung up the Bar in a 
Room by a Loop of fmall Cord fattened at the End which was upt- 
wards 5 I then carefully wiped the lower End of the Bar, and the 
/ Point of the Nail, that there might be no Duft, or Moifture, to pre- 
vent a good Contaft, taking Care not to touch either of them with 
my Finger, left Perfpiration (hould fully them. Then holding the 
Nail under the Bar very ereft, with it's Point upwards, I kept it 
clofe to the Bar, by only one Finger held under the Head of it, for 
the Space of 30 or 40 Seconds or more. Then I withdrew my Fin- 
ger very gently, and direftly downwards, that the Nail might not 
ofcillate ; and if it fell off, I wiped it's Point as before, and tried it 
again at fome other Part, of the Plain at the Bottom of the Bar ; for 
I always found it would more readily hang at one Place than another 
and uiually the Middle was. not fo well as towards one of the Edges 
or Corners, and the Succefs better nigh one Edge or Corner than 
another. If both Ends of the Bar are equal in Bignefs, and the 
Preparation of their Ends fimilar, it is indifferent which End is down- 
ward, if it has no permanent Virtue: But if it has no more than an 
inchoate or imperfedt Degree of fixed Polarity, one End will anfwer 
l^etter, and the other worfe, in Proportion to the Degree of imper- 
Tcft Polarity which it has. 

Of a foft Iron Bar void of fixed Polarity,- fo foon as it is in an 
ereft Pofition, the higher Part from the Middle upward becomes a 
North Pole in North, or a South Pole in South magnetic Latitude. 
And, e contra^ the lower Part from the Middle downward becomes 
a South Pole in North, and a North Pole in South Latitude : But fa 
foon as ever the Bar is inverted, the Polarity will be (hifted in it,, 
-and in North Latitude the End newly placed upwaixi becomes the 
North'Pole, though it was a South one immediately before, and the 
Other End the South Pole, though it was it's North one juft before 
The Cafe is the fame, if fuch a Bar is placed horizontally in or near 
ihe magnetical Meridian ; for the End diredled toward the North 
wiH coaftantly be a South Pole, and that Which is d i reft cd toward thet 
South, a North one ; and fo foon as ever the Ends ofthc Bar are fliif- 
ted^ the Polarity^ kx rcfpefl; of the Bar^^, k Ihifted alfa (bat not ia 



Magnet ical Obfervattons and Experiments. 267 

Tcfpcft of the Earth) for which Reafon this Virtue is called Tranlient, 
and is communicated by the Earth's central Magnet in fuch Manner 
as other Loadftoncs are faid to do. 

Since in North Latitude the North Pole of the Earth's central 
Magnet not only gives the Virtue of a South Pole to that End of a 
Bar which is neareft to it, but alfo helps it to lift Iron when neither 
the Bar nor Iron lifted has any permanent Virtue ; the faid Magnet 
muft therefore neceflarily help the South Pole of any Loadftone or 
Touched Steel in lifting Iron, but hinder it's North Pole. This a- 
grecs with common Experience, the North Pole of a Magnet being 
tmable to lift fo much as it's South one in North Latitude, but more 
in South Latitude. 

This plainly (hews the Reafon why an armed Magnet, when both 
t)f it's Poles are applied to a Piece of Iron, will lift feveral times as 
much as with either Pole fingle. For the North Pole of the Magnet 
"by fending it's Virtue through the attraded Iron, powerfully helps 
the South Pole of the faid Magnet in attrading. Again, the ftrength- 
ened South Pole muft more powerfully increafe the Attradion or the 
North Pole : And fince the Poles mutually affift one another's Attrac- 
tion, with a Power much greater than if they themfelves are not af- 
lifted, the conjunct Poles muft neceflarily lift at leaft twice as much 
as both of them can lift feparately. I once tried, and found the 
South Pole armed to lift 1 125 Grains, and both Poles united gySg 
with a little more Difficulty. The Ratio is about i to a little more 
than 5. 

If a Bar of Iron or Steel (not having the leaft Degree of fixed ViN 
tue) is placed in any Pofture (except at, or near to a right Angle 
with the magnetical Line^ it will not only for the prefent receive a 
tranfient Polarity thereby, but if it {o remains long enough, the faid 
Polarity will gradually become fixed or permanent, more or lefs, ac- 
cording to the Hardnefs or Softnefs of the Bar, Time it has remain* 
ed in that Pofition, Angle it's Length makes with the magnetical 
Line, and Proportion of the Lengh thereof to it's Bignefs, the long^ 
eft (ceteris paribus) ufually receiving moft Virtue: And fometimes 
when all thefe Advantages concur, the Polarity will be fenfibly per- 
manent in a little Time, and not require a very long Time to be 
rendered pretty ftrong. 

By placing the faid Bar afterwards in the fame Pofition, only with 
it's Ends fhifted, it will gradually lofe it's gained Magnetifm, an4 
at length have it's Polarity changed. 

Mr Boyle found one of his Loadftones much impaired by lying 
long in a wrong Pofture ; I fuppofe he meant a repelling one, with 
it's North Pole towards the North Pole of the Earth. Alfo by ap- 
plying one Pole of a very fmall Piece of Loadftone to the fame 
Pole of a large one, he foon changed the Polarity of the former, 
but could not effect it on a Piece of any confiderable Bignefs> though 

L 1 2 he 



26 1 Magnetical Obfefvations and Experiments. 

he tried fome Hours. I have changed the Polarity of a fmall Fru* 
ftum of Load-ftone fuddenly, and without a Contaft, by holding 
one of it's Poles nigh the fame Pole of a Piece of Touched Steel 
much lefs than a common Cafe-Knife, at above |f of an Inch diftant, 
which would make the Fruftum leap to it. I repeated thefe Changes 
frequently with the fame Fruftum. 

From this, and fome of the preceding Experiments, I con- 
clude, that if two parallelopiped Load-ftones equal in Magnitude 
and fimilar iji Subftance, Figure, and Virtue, are placed clofe 
together as in Ftg. 95 with the North Pole of the one direfted.a- 
gainft the fame Pole of the other, or with the South Pole of the 
one againft the South Pole of the other, and the Direftion of 
their Polarities magnetically Eaft and Weft, they will, by Repulfion, 
fas it were irv a Duel) reciprocally deftroy one another in an equal, 
though long Time : But if they are placed (in the fame Situation in 
refpedb of one another, viz. North Pole againft Norch Pole, or 
South Pole againft South Pole) with the Diredtion of their Polarities 
in or near to the magnetical Line, that Stone (in North Latitude) 
whofe South Pole ftands direfted to, or pretty much towards the at- 
traftive Point of the Earth's central Magnet receiving Affiftancc 
therefrom, will not lofe Virtue fo faft as the othcr^ and confequently 
never lofe all it's Virtue till it has perfeftly deftpoyed the- Polarity, of 
it's Antagpnift, which it will do in lefs Time, and afterward give it 
fome Polarity again contrary to what it had at firft. 

Though Fire deftroys fixed Magnetifm in Steel or Iron, yet if 
they are fct to cool in an ereft Pofture, or rather in the Direftion of 
the magnetical Line, they will gain more or lefs. fixed Virtue by the 
Time they are cold; but efpecially Steel heated to a fcafoning 
Height, and in that Pofition cooled fuddenly under Water, wiiich I 
have found to fix it's Polarity To thoroughly, as that with it's 
Nbrth Pole held downward, it would attradt ihie North, End of a 
Dial Needle. 

While a Piece of Iron of fome Magnitude is held at one Pole of a 
Load-ftone, it will increafe the Attradtion of the other Pole thereof^ 
and enable it to lift fo.mewhat more. 

If either Pole of a Magnet large enough, toucheth one End of an 
oblong Piece of Steel ("not too big and long for the Magnet eafily to 
aft on) it will tranfrait it's own Virtue to the other End of the Steel 
which is fartheft off, and make it a Pole of it's own Kind, whilft the 
End which touches the Stone has Virtue of the contrary Pole : But 
the Virtue ufually is not fo.ftrong in the End which is untouched, as 
in that which is; though I do not know but in fome Time it noay 
gain more, and the other lofe fome,, until the Vinuc in each End 13 
i^early equaJ. 

Not only a touched horizontal Needle, which has perraanjent Pola.- 
Wy, wilJ endeavour- to, conform itfclf tpthc qfiagncticaLMprjdian^ 
%. hufi: 



Magnet ical Obfervatians and Experiments. 269 

but alfo one that has no other .than tranfient Virtue, and is with the 
greaceft Care freed from fixed Magnetifm (if made and ufed as in the 
Pracogn.) will do fo too, though with this Difference, that which 
End focver happens to be placed neareft towards the magnetical 
North will faintly turn thither ; and if that End is not fuffercd to re- 
main fo too long, then the other End, placed neareft to the North, 
will turn thither as the fixft did. In trying this Experiment, I fome- 
tjmes found, that when the Needle had refted in the Meridian only a 
few Minutes, it gained a perceptible permanent Virtue, fo that it's 
other End would not be attrafted to the magnetical North, unlefs it 
was placed confiderably nearer thereto than I had placed the firft 
End J and having fo ftood fome Time, loft again the faid inchoate 
Permanency, and received Polarity, the contrary Way. Once,, 
while I dined, and fat but a little Time after, I could not make the 
End which I feft towards the South, to ftand towards the North,, 
unlefs 1 placed it very true in the Meridian ; fo that I was for- 
ced tp free it again from Magnedfm before I could ufe it to re- 
peat the fame, or try the following Experiment; for the lealt 
Fixedncfs of Polarity in the Needle would more or lefsobftrudb: 
both. 

At the magnetical Eaft or. Weft of the Needless Pin, fd nice as I 
could guefs k, I held at a great Diftance, either the South Pole of a 
Loadftone, or lower End fwhich is the South Pole) of an ereftcd Bir 
fboth of them anfwered alike) and gradually approached- ic nearer,, 
in a direft Line, toward the Pin, until it began to attradt the Needle,., 
which I obferved was as I expefted at the South End: I then changed' 
the Ends of the Needle, and gradually approached the South Pole of 
a Magnet as before, and conftantly found it to attraft that End 
which was toward the South v and the North Pole of the Magnet, 
after the fame manner, would attradt the North End of the. Needle 
when it had only transient Virtue. 

I remember, that in my younger Days I once diverted myfelf witKv 
making a horizontal Needle, and a Dial-Box for it, one of mv 
School- fellows having a Load-ftone. Biefore I could have the Ufe- 
of the Stone, I often held my Needle within it's Bpx, fometime3> 
with it's intended South End towards the Bottom of a Window Bar^ 
(having lately fcen one of my Companions try it with, his Pockec 
Needlo, which was tou.ched) and at other Times I would hold the 
Needle's North End at the Top of the Bar. I obferved the Needle^, 
which was hung very tender, to make Vibrations at either End of 
the Bar, I happened to fet it down in the Window at a good Di* 
fiance therefrom, and found the South End more inclined to vibrate 
to the Bar's Bottom than the North End, and feeing it to have fome 
Virtue, I thought of encreafing ft by taking the Needle out of the-^ 
Box, and applying it to touch the Bar with it's "proper Ends. By 
this. Method. alo^e ic gained iiuch a Degree of Polarity as would corx-. 

ftantly. 



^70 Magnetical Obfervations and Experiments. 

ftantly turn it's proper End to the North, if it was kept trembling; 
but if I placed it's contrary End to the Bar, the Polarity would be 
changed prefently. By this Way of Management I could give rt 
but a faint Verticity, which was foon more vigorous when I got the 
Ufe of the Stone, though it was fmall, and not of the beft, and the 
Needle foft Iron. And this was all, at that Time, I knew of Mag. 
netifm, having never read the particular Properties of the Stone, nor 
fcen one before, nor heard of the untouched Needle's Verticity, or 
it's vibrating to a Bar. 

Having within the Space of a few Years paft had a frefh Inclination 
to make fome magnetical Experiments, amongft other Thoughts the 
above-mentioned came into my Mind, That Iron, not having any 
fixed Polarity at all, might (if it moved tenderly enough^ conform 
it's Ends to the magnetical Meridian ; which at length put me on 
making fuch Needles as are defcribcd in the Beginning, of which 
either Sort anfwered my Expcftations above-mentioned. Afterwards 
I touched one of the firft Sort of Needles (defcribed Pr^Bcogn. ytb^ 
whofe Length was 2 f Inches, and Weight Bft and Gr. ij) on a Piece 
of tranfient Iron (made for Armour of a Magnet; which meafurcd in 
Inches each Side of the broad plated Part about i b, the parallele- 
piped Part in Length 2, and in Breadth ('equal to it's Thicknefs; j^. 
So it's whole Length was full three Inches and «. It's Weight Troy 
was f iij 3ij. This held with it's Length diredbed in the magnetical 
Line, gave the faid Needle Virtue enough to vibrate about four 
times in one Minute. I held the Needle, while touching, in a hori- 
zontal Situation, with it's North End direfted towards the North, 
and placing it's Middle about the Top of the Iron, drew it along 
Southward . Likewife placing it's Middle about the Bottom of the 
faid Iron, t drew it Northward, that the South End might be touch- 
ed as well as the North. I afterwards touched it my new Way (here- 
after mentioned) with the faid Piece of Armour, and a fmall Piece 
of tranfient Iron, which made it vibrate about fix times, and I be- 
lieve it would have made more Vibrations, had the Needle been har- 
dened Steel. 

Having no other than a fmall Load-done of a very irregular Shape, 
I was loth to diminiih it enough to bring it into ^ tolerable Figure 
to receive Armour, but did only grind a little Place plain at each 
Pole, where I bound it on with Thread when I had ground it. The 
Weight thereof naked was but 5vij 3ij Gr. vj \ it's armed South Pole 
would only lift 3vij 3fi> Gr. iij, which was a Key. They not know- 
iiig where to gee a better, made me think of improving what I had. 
I confidered, that fince a larger Stone of the fame fpecific Virtue 
would lift more, it might poflibly communicate more Virtue than 
mine could to the fame Piece of Steel, but could not fail of fo doing 
to a much greater Piece ; and having obferved that touched Steel 
would communicate fome Virtue as well as attrad, I got fome Steel 

Wire 



Magnet ical Obfervations and Experiments, 271 

Wire (the largeft in the Shop where I could meet with anyj which 
having cut into equal Pieces, and filed their Ends fo tranfverfly as I 
couU, and very plain, I made a Standard with a Piatdoflron, into 
which I could but juft thruft the Ihorteft ; and filing all the reft till 
they would but juft enter the faid Standard, I reduced them nicely 
to the fame Length. Then having marked one End of each of them 
with the Edge of a File, I fcafoned them very hard, and made them^ 
Ends and all, very bright. Each of them meafured in Length a- 
bout 2. 74 Inches, and weighed 36 Grains or more. I weighed one 
of them, and they were all of the fame Piece of Wire, therefore 
could not differ much in Weight. With my Loadftone I touched 
37 of them, one by one, making their marked Ends thefr South. 
Poles. I laid them Side by Side at about half an Inch Diftance 
from one another on a Board, with their marked Ends toward the 
fame Edge thereof, and took Care that they fliould not touch^ 
one another after they came from the Stone, before they were 
all of them touched thereon. Then having Thread and Armour 
made as in the Figure (one Piece marked, which I applied to the ^i- ^ 
marked Ends of the Wires) in a rcadinefs, I fpeedily thruft 
them together into a Bundle, and cafting the Thread 2 or 3 timcs^ 
round them with my Fingers I formed the Bundle into a regu- 
lar Hexagon as foon as I could, and then bound them faft from End 
to End, and bound faft the Armour. I took the Number 37, be- 
caufe that would form a regular Hexagon at each End, and fo wilt 
alfo 19 or 7. Finding this artificial Magnet exceed my natural one^, 
I held the Artificial in one Hand, and the Natural in the other, the 
North Pole of the one againft the South Pole of the other, and pla- 
cing their Armour on the Middle of one of my Wires, drew the 
'Magnets afunder, and fo touched both Ends of the Wire at the fame * 

Inftant. In that manner I touched one by one a fecond Set of Wires, 
which I managed like the firft^ and bound on the Armour of the firft 
Set to the fecond. The South Pole lifted a Key, Weight, 7r(?y 5ij 3ij 
'3ij Gr. v. Both Poles united would, with Difficulty, lift the faid 
Key with Weights fattened to it, the whole Ifej Troy. I next tried 
with 19 Wires, for which I made Armour of a proportionable Size ; 
.but that did not anfwer fo well, I thought, as 37, though I repeat- 
ed the Touch. Afterwards I took 7, which I thought performed 
according to it's Quantity as well as the 37. Therefore I ever after, 
ufed the' Number 7. v. 

In the next Place I thought of mending this Way of Toucliing^. 
by placing all the 7, or more of them, with their marked Ends to- 
ward the North in a long fmall Trench, whpfe Depth was juft fit for 
one of xhem, to keep it from rolling away while I was touching it 
and it's Fellows. The North End of one touching the South End of 
the other, and aijhering by their magnetic Virtue, I placed the twa 
Magnets, as before, at their conjurift Middle (not letting them re- 



272. Magnetical Obfervations and Experiments. 

main there a Moment) and then inftantly and fpeedily drew one 
Magnet to one End of the Wires, and the other Magnet to the other 
End of them \ by which Method I touched them, as it were all at 
once, and as if they had been but one entire long Wire. I found 
this Way not only more expeditious, but more advantageous, giving 
all of them a ftronger Touch : But the Wire at each End was not 
fo ftrongly touched as the reft ; therefore I placed more Wires in 
the Trench than I had Occafion for, and laid afidc thofe at each End, 
whofe Virtue was weaker. One of thefe Wires, when it was thus 
newly touched, would lift a prepared Nail 4. 75 Inches long, in 
Weight I'roy 3vij Gr. vj or vij (f. ^.) more than 426 Grains, The 
Weight of the Wire can be had in that of the Nail J i. 833 times. I 

E laced all the 7 feparately in the magnetical Line for about two 
>ays; in which Time all of them had loft fomc Virtue, yet one of 
them would with Difficully lift the Nail aforefaid, which it lifted 
fomewhat eafier juft after the Touch ; and that which had loft rooft 
Virtue, would eafily lift a Nail of 4^ Inches long, in Weight 306 
Grains. 

Having fuch Succefs, I gotfeven round Bars of Steel to be made, 
from End to End of one Size, fo that they would but juft go through 
a Hole made on Purpofc in a Plate of Iron, and tried their Lengths 
in a Standard as I did the others, and fiiarkedone End of each of them 
^«- 99. with the Corner of a File in this Manner, that I might be able to fee 
the Mark when they were bound together, left either of them Ihould 
be placed with it's End the wrong Way. Their Diameters were 
^bout « of an Inch, and their Lengths about 124 Inches good Mea- 
fure. I hardened and cleanfed them as I did the Wires, bi^t one of 
them happening to break by a Fall in touching, I got it fupplied, 
and, for Fear of fuch another Accident, reduced them to almoft a 
blue Colour. I laid them one after another in a Trench planed for 
them, in a long Piece of Wood about the Depth of half their Dia- 
meter, putting their marked Ends all one Way : I made a HoJe in 
the Trench a few Inches from one End of the Piece of Wood, and 
put a Pin in it to keep the Bars from Aiding to the Ground, and ele- 
vated the other End till it was, as I guefled, in the magnetical Line. 
I then touched them with two of my Magnets as before, and this I 
found the beft Way of all. When they were finifhed, and armed 
with proper Armour, the North Pole lifted above half a Year after 
Ibj Tro'j^ and the South Pole confiderably more. In making one of 
thefe, I met with an odd Accident *,. for after I had begun to touch it 
apprehending it was a fmall Matter bigger than the reft, I attemt- 
cd to mend it on a Grinding-ftone, whofe Axes were direfted about 
14 or 15 Degrees from Eaft towards North, and from Weft towards 
South. I was not careful to keep it's Poles the proper Way in 
grinding, but held the Bar fometimes a-crofs to the Stone, which 
.would make it jar, at other times, with the North Pole toward the 

North 



\ 



Magniticat Obfervatms and Experiments. 273 

North. Afterwards I touched it again with the reft, but could not 
give it an Attraftion equal to that of the others. I happened to try 
with my Dial-Needle whether the Change of Polarity was in the ve- 
ry MiddJe of the Bars, or nearer to one End than the other, and in 
this Bar found feveral Polarities contrary to my Expcftaiion, but 
how rhahy I am not certain, being feveral Years fince, and I not 
heeding it nicely. As I held it ered:, the Bottom was a South Pole, 
further up no Attraftion, the Pole changing a little higher (I think 
one third Part of the Bar's Length) a ftrong North Pole, and about 
f up a ilrong South Pole, and at the Top a ftrong North Pole, the 
Middle between each Pole not attrafting. Whether the jarring on 
the Grinding- ftone while held in a wrong Pofture was, as I fuppofc 
the Caufc of this irregular Virtue, or whether I might at firft, by 
Miftake touch it the contrary Way, I durft not pofitively aflert ; 
but all my Care and Labour would not help it by touching : For, as 
the Virtue became ftronger in the Ends, fo did alfo the Polarities in 
the other Parts of the Bar. I was fomewhat concerned at this Dif- 
appointment, doubting it muft have been new feafoned, which would 
have created the Trouble of cleanfing and polifliing it the fecond 
Time. I thought firft that I would try to cure it by puting it over 
frefh Wood-Coals in a horizontal Pofture, with it's intended South 
Pole diredled towards the magnetical North, which I did, and fo 
kept it until it was blue. Then I took it out of the Fire, and cool- 
ed it in almoft the fame Pofture, for I think the North Pole thereof 
was elevated. I tried it without retouching, and found it perfedly 
cured, the Polarity regular throughout, and (which I was furprized 
at) attrafted full as ftrongly as cither of tl\e reft. 

I next endeavoured to procure Magnetifm in Steel, without the 
Afliftance of any Magnet (except the Earth's central one.^ 

Finding my artificial Magnets, rightly ufed, would communicate 
more Virtue to other Steel than they themfelves had, and obferving 
that ereft Bars had fomc Virtue from the Earth's Magnet, and ha- 
ving alfo experienced that Iron, which had only tranfient Virtue, 
would, when in an eredl Pofture, or in the magnetical Line, give 
a fmall Degree of fixed Polarity, I ordered nine Steel Bars o. 75 of 
an Inch fquare. and 16 Inches long, to be made. Some of them 
through the Smith's Fault were a little lefsj the Weight of the hea- 
vieft was, after it was finifhed, 3 ib Avoirdupois, 1 made them mo- 
derately Isright by grinding, and filed their Ends as plain as I could, 
and tranfverfe to their Lengths, by help of a Carpenter's Square 5 
then marked one End of them, and, when hardened, Ifcowered them 
bright, and poliflied their Ends very well. I fitted a Piece of Ar- 
mour for each End of one Bar, and marked the Piece which was 
for the marked End of the Bar, and bound faft both Pieces of Ar- 
mour to the fame Bar, one at each End : Then ftanding with my 
Face toward the Weft, and hokiing the Palm of my Left Hand up* 
VOL. VI. Part ii. M m ward 



^7+ Msgnetical Objervathns and Experiments. 

^ard, I placed therein one of the Bars without Armour with it*s 
marked End Northward, and grafped it faft at it's Middle, with my 
Fingers on the Weft Side, and the Ball of my Thumb on the Eaft 
Side, where I alfo laid along my whole Thumb to keep it fteady : 
So the upper Part of the Bar was open from End to End. Thils 
lidding it, I elevated this South End thereof until I guefled it was 
in the magnetical Line ; and holding with my Right Hand the armed 
Bar, with the Poles of the Armour downward, and the marked 
End toward the North deprcffed to the magnetical Line, I placed 
the Pole of the upper Armour about 4 or 5 Inches from the Top of 
the unarmed Bar, and as foon as ever it touched the Bar, I began 
with the greateft Speed I could make, to draw it downward until I 
was paft the Middle, and from thence to the Bottom gradually flower 
When it was at the Bottom I permitted it to reft there about i 
or 2 Seconds. After the fame Manner applying the Pole of the lower 
Armour to the unarmed Bar about 4 or 5 Inches from it*s Bottom, 
I drew it upward, fpeedily at firft, flower when above the Middle 
letting it reft a little at the Top. Having upwards and down* 
wards alternately repeated the Touch on the fame Side of the Bar, 
I touched the oppofite Side thereof, which was next my Hand, in 
the fame Manner and afterwards the two other Sides. Then holding 
the unarmed Bar erecft, I ufed to fee if it had gained any fixed Po- 
larity by holding my fmall Needle at the Top and at the Bottom of 
the Bar ; for if it had gained any Virtue by the Touch, it would at- 
tract the Needle ftronger, at the fame Diftance, when the marked 
End of the Bar was held downward, than when it was held upward. 
If I found it had gained ^n^ fenfible Virtue I took off the Armour 
from the firft Bar, and bound it to the fecond which I had touched, 
and after the fame Manner touched the firft Bar with the fecond, as 
I had touched the fecond with the firft. And when by Trial with 
the Compafs- Needle I found the armed Bar had communicated to 
the other more Virtue than was in itfelf, I took off" the Armour and 
bound it to that which was newly touched, and therewith retouched 
that which I had difarmed. In a few Repetitions of changing the 
Armour from Bar to Bar, and touching the weakeft, I procured ia 
both of them (without the Afliftance of either of the other fcven) a 
fixed Polarity to fuch a Degree as that the Noth Pole, or unmarked 
End of either of them held downward, would attraft the North 
End of the Needle, though much fainter than if the North Pole of 
the Bar had been upward, and Pofition did not now change their Po- 
larities, but only weaken them : Therefore I now call their Virtue 
perfcftly permanent. Four or five Repetitions more encreafed their 
virtue to fuch a Degree as that the South Pole of one of them 
would lift a Ten- penny Nail prepared, and after 2 or 3 Repetitions 
more a common Door Key of an Iron Box- Lock, Weight Trey Jj 
and above 9ij, not by the Bow but by it's lower End, which wa< 
}: ^ wrought 



Magnetical Obfervations and Experiments. zj^ 

wrought fomewhat globular and poliflied. In the laft Place I got a 
Piece of Inch Deal above three Inches broad and 7 or 8 Feet long, 
in the Middle whereof, at about 5 or 6 Inches from one End, 1 
made a Hole through with a large Gimlet, into which I drove an 
Iron or Steel Pin, whofe Length Cbefides what went into the Wood) 
was a little Icfs than the Thickncfs of one of the Bars. Then I 
placed the biggeft Bar on the faid Board with it's marked End 
clofe to the Pin, and it's Length parallel to that of the Board, 
and with an Awl made four fmall Holes in the Board, one 
of them on each Side of the Bar about an Inch from the Bottom, 
and about the Thicknefs of a Six-pence, from it's Sides, and the 
other two afior the fame Manner, about an Inch from the Top. I 
drove into them Pins of large Wire half an Inch long, befides what 
was in the Board. The Pins were to keep the Bars from Aiding out 
of their Places in touching. Then removing that, and placing 
any other Bar between the faid Pins, with it's marked End clofe a- 
gainft the great Pin, I placed the marked End of the faid biggeft 
Bar clofe againft the unmarked End of the other, and made four Holes 
on it's Sides, and drove Pins in them as before, and fo continued to 
do, until the Board was full : It held half a Dozen Bars. I took 
Care to place the marked End of every Bar direfted towards the 
great Iron Pin which was to keep them from Aiding down to the 
Ground, when the other End of the Board was elevated, to ftand in 
the magnetical Line. The Board ftanding with one End on the 
Ground, and the other leaning againft the Wall, at the South End 
of the Room, i took the armed Bar, whjch had Virtue, and placed 
it*s North Pole's Armour about the Middle of the higheft Bar, whofe 
Middle I could reach to (keeping the Armour of the South Pole a 
little upon one Side of the Bars, juft fo far as I might be fure not to 
touch them with that End) and then immediately drew it from thence 
downward to the Bottom of the loweft Bar: After the fame Manner 
placing the Armour of the South Pole on the Middle of the loweft 
Bar (and holding the armed North Pole on one Side, that it might 
not touchy I drew it upward to the Top of the higheft Bar, whofe 
Top I could reach. And if the End of any Bar was a little under 
that which it refted againft, I ufed to put a fizeable Chip under it, 
that the Armour might not hitch in drawing it over the Places of 
their Contads. I ufually touched the Bars on all four of their 
Sides, then took out the loweft, and (^letting the reft gently Aide 
down to the Iron Pin^ placed it- at the Top, that thofe which were 
firft at the Top might in their Turns take their Places in the Middle, 
and be wcH touched. I commonly refted at the End of each Bar in 
drawing (as in the Angle Bar be fore- mentioned,) When 1 found thofe 
on the Board confiderably ftronger than my armed one, I took out 
that which I thought attraAed beft, and boemd the Armour to it, 
putting the other in it's Room. AfteV feveral repeated Touchings*, 

M m 2 the 



276 Magnet if al Obfervations and Experiments. 

the biggeft of thfem being Ibiij Avoirdupois^ would be fufpended by 
it's North Pole to the South Pole of one of the belt of the others. 
They did not lift one another, or attrafb fo well when their Ends 
were applied centrally, as when applied to one another ("as is ex* 
Ftg- loo. * prefled in the Figure) near to their oppofite Corners, The Line m 
in.the.End of each Bar reprefcnts the Manner I ufed to mark their 
intended South Poles. With one of thefe armed, 1 touched a fmall 
fquare Bar of Steel (placed betwixt two of the great ones) the Length 
whereof was 2.156 Inches, the Breadth of each Side 0.27 or fome* 
what more than 4 of an Inch) the Weight 3^ Gr. iv (i. e. 304 Grains^ 
it would lift afterwards an Iron 54 Inches long, weighing 5 iv 3j 3^ 
or, 2000 Gr. 304 can be had 6.578 times in 2000. So ic lifted above 

^ 64 times it's own Weight. With this little Bar naked I touched a 
fmall Dial-Needle made of Steel (the Socket in the Middle was alfo 
Steel, and not Brafs, as ufual) J feafoned it very hard, and cleanfed 
it well, and with much Care, not to break it, becaufe fo hard. Ic 
weighs not full 4 Grains, has lifted two prepared Six-penny Nails, 
one at each End, while it was held in an horizontal Pofture with it's 
South Pole towards the North. It alfo lifted a Key by the Bow, as it 
was held perpendicularly with it's South Pole downwards, the Weight 
whereof was 3j 3ij Gr. xv good Weight (i. e. 115 Grains or better^. 
Wherefore fince the Needle weighed lefs than 4 Gr. which is the 

^29th Part of 116, we may reckon ic lifted full 29 times it's own 
Weight by the Force of one Pole, the Key having no permanent Vir- 
tue before. 

I never faw this Con^munication of Magnetifm outdone by the 
Load-ftone itfelf, as it is commonly ufed ; but what a good one 
would do, ufed as I did the Steel, I know not for want thereof, but 
doubt, unlefs Steel could be made better than it ufually is, a ftronger 
Degree of Attraftipn therein is fcarce to be hoped for from the Ufc 
of the bed: of Load-ftones« 

I ufually find the attractive Power in fquare Bars cut plain over 
tranfverfe to their Lengths, to be ftrongcft, not in the Middle of 
their Ends, but much nearer to their Corners or Sides, and to be 
greater at one Corner or Side than another 5 and this not only in fuch 
as are of touched Steel, but in Iron ones having no Polarity, but 
from their Pofuion. The fame I obferved in round Bars, if their 
Ends are not convex. 

In fome of my large Steel Bars (as alfo in fome of the round Bars) 
I found the North Pole ftrongeft, in others the South. I know 
not the Caufe thereof; for though I touched the weaker End 
twice as often as the ftronger, ic would ftill continue to be fo, 
when the ftrongeft had been well touched before. I imagine ic 
muft be owing to fome Inequality of the Steel occafioned by the dif- 
ferent Degree of Heat taken at the Forging 9 different Degree of 
Heat when the Smith defifted hammerings different Degree of Heat 
^ in 



Of Magnittc^ualiifi 277 

in making the Iron into Steel, or Quantity of what is ufed in doing 
it ; Fincnefs of the Iron whereof chc Steel was made, ibtoc fmall Dif- 
iference in Magnitude, or Difference in feafoning, it being almoft im- 
poflible to make both Ends equally hard ; but that both Ends of 
mine migh^ be fo, I had a Fire made long enough to heat their whole 
Length at one and the fame Time. 

I left feveral of the Bars on the Board whereon they were touched, 
and in the fame Pofition to one another, as well as to the Earth, 
forfome Months, to fee whether they would lofe any of their ♦Vir- 
tue; but if they did, it was fo little, that I could not be fure there- 
of. 

I alfo tried whether what I mentioned above concerning Load- 
ftones would hold in 5 or 6 Bars regularly touched and placed to one 
another in the fame Manner ; and found that at fome of the Joinings ^, 

It anfwered pretty well, but not fo well at others, ufually belt at the 
two extream Joints, and worfe at the middle ones. When I held 
the Dial- Needle ac a good Diflance from the Bars f perhaps 6 or 8 
Inches) the Attradtion was more regular, and the different Poles. of 
the two Bars at their Contadl was not fo eafily difcemible ; but when 
I held it within 2 or 3 Inches Diftance, both the Poles difcovered 
themfelves more or lefs at every Joint. Perhaps the Caufe may be 
the Want of a better Contaft, the Ends of the Bars not being true 
Planes -, or it may be partly owing to their Conjunct Length ^though 
I cannot fee how that fhould caufe it) or fome Irregularity in the 
Virtue of each particular Bar. For it has been obfervcd, that very 
oblong Iron, as Wire, is capable of having a North Pole in both 
Ends, .and a South one in it^s Middle; or, as my round Bar before^ 
mentioned, feverai Polarities in no greater Length than about one 
Fool My Bars were not made of German^ but more ordinary Scecl, 
of about 4^/^r ib. 

IV. I. I take this Opportunity of informing you, that the IvoH'- of the mg- 
Crofs, which. is fuppofed to have flood upon the Steeple of the New- netu ^aiity 
Church here about two hundred Years> having been lately taken ^^^'"''^^^ 
down to be repaired, I was informed by a certain Foreign Gentle;- /^^^^^^^^^ ^ 
man, that a piece of Iron, that has flood for a long time in one Si- longtime in 
tuation, would thereby acquire a Magnetic Quality. Upon which I the fame ?o- 
defired a Workman to procure me a piece of that Crofs, who accor--^*'^'' h ^^ 
dingly brought me a bit of it, of about a Span long, and a quarter Leuwcnh^k 
of an Inch thick, which I applyed both to a working Needle,, and F.R, S, N®. 
the Needle of the Compafs, but without any EfFed upon one or the 37*- P*g- 74- 
other, . 

Some time after, the fame Workman brought me fome other 
pieces,, looking like rufty Iron, which he had broken off from the 
bottom of the Crofs, where it had been faftened by four crofs pieces 
bound down with Iron, to an eFeft piece of Timber nine Inches 
fquare, and covered with Lead in fuc)i a manner, that no wet could 
get to it. This^ 



iyi Magfutical Experiments. 

This feetning rufty Iron would take up feveral Needles hanging 

by one another, and appeared to have a ftronger Magnetic Virtue 

than two Loaditones, which I had then in the Houfe; and was fo 

hard, that no File would touch it. I gave one of the greateft pieces 

to a Knifegrinder, to grind it for me, who was a long time about it» 

and complained that it was harder than Steel. 

jiway to com- 2. In the Year 1722, I obferved that a long heavy Bar of Iron 

municate the jjgjng f^^j upright, and fome Filings of Iron, or a Bit of Iron Wire, 

'vfrtlTto Iron ^^*^ *^P^" ^^'^ Upper End, thofc Filings or Wire would ftick to ano- 

'and Steel, ther Picce of bright pointed Iron, and fuiFcr itfeif to be lifted up 

■without the from thc (landing Bar even to the Height of five Inches. 

^f^I^n*^ b ^^ ^^ ^^^^ i?'^6y making feveral further Obfervations about the 

ArnJid Mar-"^ magnetical Force, which I found in great Pieces of Iron, I made ufc 

eel (Nephew of a large Iron Vice, about 90 ife Weight, in which I fixed a fmall 

to the late Anvil of about 1 2 lb. Upon the bright Surface of this Anvil . I laid 

^n Leuwe'lf. *^ ^^^^*' ^^ ^'^^^^ ^ ^^"*^ ^^"^^ *^ Virtue, in a Pofuion of North 

hock/f!/j.5.) ^"^ South, which happened to be in a Diagonal of the fqiiare Sur- 

No. 423. face of the Anvil; then I took a Piece of Iron, i Inch Square, and 

pag. 294. 33 Inches long, of about 8 tb Weight, having at one End the Fi- 

p. ^^ gurc here reprefentcd brightly polifhed at J, and taper at the other 

^^' '' End : Then I held faft down the Piece of &eel upon thc Anvil with 

one Hand, and wich the other I held the Iron Bar aforefaid perpen* 

dicular wich it's Point a upon the Scee), and prefEng. hard, I rubbed 

thc Steel with the Iron Bar towards me, from North to South, 

feveral Strokes, always carrying the Bar far enough round about, to 

begin again at the North, to prevent the drawing back of the magnet 

deal Force : Having thus given 10 or 12 Strokes, I turned the Steel 

upfide down, leaving it in the fame Pofition as to North and South 

and after rubbing it and turning it, 'till I rubbed it about 400 times, 

it received by degrees more and more Strength, and at laft had as 

much as if it had been touched by a ilrong Load.ftone. The Place 

where I began to rub was always that which pointed to the North, 

when the Needle was hung, the End where I had ended the Stroke 

turning to the South. Sometimes it has happened, that in a few 

Strokes I gave the Steel it's Virtue \ nay even in the very firft 

Stroke one may give a great deal to a ihiail Needle. This- Way I 

have given the magnetical Virtue to Needles of Sea-Compafics 

Fig. 102. made of one Piece of Steel, as the Figure 10 1, fo ftrongly, that 

one of the Poles would take up i, and the other a. whole Ounce of 

Iron, although thefe Needles were anointed, with Linfeed Oil, which 

made a hard Coat, to keep them from rufting, yet they kept thc 

Virtue; but in Strengthniog theft Sort of Needles, I rubbed by 

turns- fipfl to the right and then to the left Side. 

The fame Way I brought the Virtue into thc Point of a Knife, 
ib that it would fuftain i i Ounce* 

I brought 



I broQght the faid Virtue into four fmali Pieces of Steel, each r 
Inch long and i^ Inch broad, as thin as the Spring of a Watch. 
Thefe four Pieces I joined together, as into an artificial Loadftone 
weighing them 18 Grains Troy, and then it did draw up and fuftain 
an Iron Nail, which weighed 144 Grains Troy : This artificial Load- 
ftone has now thefe fix Years been tumbled about, and been lying 
among Iron and Steel, and in any Pofition, and yet it has rather got 
more than lofl: any of it's Virtue. 

The magnetical Virtue being thus brought into Iron or Steel, I 
have farther obfervcd, that that End where the Stroke was begun, 
would draw to the North, and where the Stroke ended to the South 
in whatever Situation the Steel had been laid upon the Anvil to give 
it the Virtue. I took a Pi^ce of Steel and rubbed it from one End 
to the Middle, and then^ irbm the other End to the Middle, and 
found it had two North Poles, one at each End^ and the Middle a 
South Pole. 

Further beginning to rub from the Middle towards each End of 
another Piece of Steel, I found it to have at each End a South Pole, 
and in the Middle a North Pole. 

I have put a pretty heavy Compafs- Needle after I had given it it's 
Virtue, into the Fire, and made red hot three times one after ano- 
ther letting it grow cold every time : It loft fomc Virtue every Heat,, 
but at the third it had a great deal ft ill left, and making it for the 
fourth time white hot, it loft it all. 

When I covered the Anvil with a Piece of Woollen Cloth, and the . 
End of the Iron Bar with a Piece of Shamoy Leather, it gave no 
Virtue to the Steel ; then covering only the Bar, and leaving the 
Anvil uncovered, it gave not any Virtue that way neither : But co- 
vering the Anvil, and leaving the Bar uncovered, it gave the full 
Virtue. 

I have tried whether my Vice had any fixed Pole by ftanding 
long in one Pofition, but I found it had not. 

1 have tried to do this with an Anvil of about 30 ib Weight, being 
fixed in Wood ; but could not come up to the other Proofs. 

I believe if one took an Ifon Bar of three Inches fquare, and 10 
or more Feet long, or feveral of theiii upon each ether, and a fu^ 
table Piece or Bar of Iron to rub withal, and giving the under Part 
of the ftanding Bar the Figure aforefaid, reprefented by B, it might 
be brought to a vaft Strength. K B. The Steel for the Needles is 
always of a Spring Temper. 

I have made two Pieces of Iron, at one End i of an Inch, and fb 
Taper to i of an Inch fquare each (the Length was not mentioned] anti 
fixed thefe two Pieces of Iron to a Piece of Wood in the Shape 6f 
an armed Loadftone, at about 8 Inches one from the other, apply- 
ing to the under Par? of thefe Ifom, or Legs, a Piece of Iron with 
2 Hook to it, as to an armed Loadftone. 1 hung tbiy armed Piece 

of 



2 So Obfervatms of the Dipping-NcedleJ 

of Wood with each Leg over an Iron Bar (at a Diftance that (bme- 
thing might hang betv^een them) then placed the Piece of Iron with 
the Hook to it to the two Feet, and I found it to draw very ftrong- 
ly ; but my Trial was but with fmall Tools. I fuppofe if one did 
this in a larger Proportion, I doubt not but it would have a great 
Effeft. 

Having ground fome Loadftones with Emmery, I have faved the 
Grinders, and mixing them with Water, fo that they might eafily 
be moved, I put them into a Bottle to fink, placing on each Side a 
Loadftone, one with it's North, and the other with it*s South Pole 
towards the Bottle, and found, after the Matter was fettled and dried 
it formed itfelf into a Sort of Loadftone, which had a moderate 
Strength, and two regular Poles. 

Explanaiion of the Figures. 

Fig. loi. The End of the Irdn Bar, with which the Virtue is rubbed 

into the Steel or Iron. 
Fig. 102. The Needle of a Sea Compafs. 
Fig, 103. The Figure of the Point, on one Side. 
Fig. 104. The Figure on the Point, of the other Side. 
Fig. 105. A, The Needle of a Compafs. BB, The End or Edge of 
the Bar, with which the Needle is rubbed beginning at C C, and 
proceeding to D D. 
ObfervatUns V. About the Time I was obferving the Variation of the Ho- 
i?///&^ Dipping rizontal Needle, I made likewife fome Experiments with the Dipping 
Needle, made Needle, to try, if the Dip and Vibrations were conftant and regular. 
^in the^Bczin- The Needle 1 made for this Purpofe was 12 Inches and one Tenth 
ningoftht long, half an Inch broad in the Middle, but not above one Tenth 
Tar 1723. near the Ends; the Ends themfelves being filed to fine Edges; and 
iJvM" George j^ Thicknefs it was about one Third of a Tenth. The Ends of the 
w^tchmAker, Axis, upon which the Needle turned, were very fmooth, and not 
f. je 5. No/ bigger than was neceflary for the Support of the Needle, which 
389. p. 332. weighed nine Pennyweights twenty one Grains, or about half an. 
Ounce 7rc>y.. The Ends of the Axis were placed upon the Edges 
of two thin Plates of SteeU that were hard and well polifhed, and 
parallel to the Horizon, that the Needle, when vibrating, might roll, 
and not Aide upon the ^Edges of the Plates, to avoid the Friftion 
they would have been fubjeit tp, by moving in Holes. , A Brafs Se- 
micircle was provided, and from the lowelt Point graduated each 
Way and a few of the Degrees, about that Part of it which anfwered 
to the Dip, were divided into fix equal Parts. By the Help of 
Screws, the Semicircle could be brought to a due Situation ; and by 
two fpirit Levels, placed at right Angles to each other, any Change 
of Situation was eafily perceived, and by the Screws it could be rea- 
dily reftored to it's former Pofition \ all was indofed with Glafs.to 

fecure 



Obfervatitms on the Dipping- Needle 2tt 

fecure the Needle from being difturbed by the the Motion of the 
Air. I muft here take Notice of the great Difficulty there is of poi- 
fing the Needfe fo exadtl^, before it is touched witn the Loadftone 
as. to take any Pofition indifferently : for, when it is pretty near 
the Truth, it is extremely troublefome to jjlace it at reft in the Po- 
rtion defired, in order to try which Way it is inclined to move. It 
cannot be done in the open Air ; for the leaft Motion of it will di* 
fturb the Needle, and when it is (hut up, it is no eafy Matter to 
fettle it in the Place intended. ^ And that there will be a fenfibJe Dif- 
ference Gif the Dip, upon fhifting the Sides of the Needle, whatever 
Pains be taken to prevent it, I am fully facisfied from the follow- 
ing Experiments. 

I touched both Sides of that End of the Needle, which I defign* j^arcb xo, 
cd to point South, upon the North Pole of a fmall Terrellai after ijzz. 
which I caufed it to vibrate in an Arch of ten Degrees, and counted 
the Time by a Pendulum Clock, Ihewing Seconds, till the Needle ^^P^'"'^ *• 
had performed 50 Vibrations. 

It performed the firft 25 Vibrations in — 2 58 

The next 25 Vibrations in -— — — — . 2 27 

The 50 in — - __ 5 25 

Which gives for each Vibration at a Medium —— -— -^ 6, 5 
The Needle dipped 73^ 15' 

Then I Ihifted the Needle fo that the Side, which before refpefted ExperifmntU 
the Eaft, was now turned Weft, and cauling it to vibrate in the fame 
Arch, as before, it performed 

The firft 25 Vibrations in n 2 49 

The next 25 in — — - — 2 ^g 



The 50 Vibrations in . 5 ^8 

That is, each Vibration in ^ — — — ' ■ ■■ 6, $6 

The Dip — 73"^ 5o' 

I now touched the fame End of the Needle, a fecond Time, on Exfirim. III. 
both Sides, upon the fame Stone, and fuffering it to vibrate as be- 
fore, 

/ // 

It performed 25 Vibrations in — — 2 49 

That is, one Vibration in — — ■ ■■ 0, 76 

The Dip = — 73"^ 20' 

The Needle was now ihifted, and ftood as in the fecOnd Experi- Expmm. I v. 
ment. 
VOL. VI. Partii. Nn It 



jjj Obferoatims on the Dipping-Nccdic 

/ n 
It performed 25 Vibrations m — ' — — 2 4» 

That is, one Vibration in -^ — — — — . 6,44 

Dip 7 3*^ as' 

Sxptrim. V. The fame End of the Needle being now touched twice on each 
Side, with the Loadftone prcfented by the Lord Fdfky to the Royal 
Society, inUieArmour^ 

It performed the firft 25 Vibrations in 1 58 

The next 25 in < — i 46 

The 50 Vibrations in ■■ ■' " " — — —-3 44i 

That is, each Vibration in ■ ■ 4* 4^ 

The Dip IZ"* 55* 

E)ifirim.Vl. The Needle being turned,, and ftaiiding as in the fecond. and 
fourth Experiments, k performed 

The firft 25 Vibrations in. » -: — 2 oo 

The next 25 in -' — ■ '■ -' «• 57 

The 50 Vibrations in ^ ^ ' ' " — 3 57 

That is, each Vibratioh in. — -^^ ' ' ■ 4i 74 

The Pip -— — -^ 74*' iq' 

tMmm VII I now touched Ae Needle at both Ends with the (ame Stone, with 
* * which it was touched in the fifth. Experiment, after which itperfomjr 
cd 

The firft 25 Vibrations ia -—^ ■ i 35 

The next 25 ift -^ ■ ■ > 34 



The 5© in- -^ ■• ' — -"^ — "^ 3 9 

That is, each Vibration in - a. . . 3, 78: 

The Dip - — -— ^- — 74* 20' 

The Dip repeated with the Nieedic ©ken off \ ^^^ , 

3fid replaced j ' 

p^imVin. liJpontfhifting M Needle, it performed 

/ II 
■ The ftrft 25 Vibra«i«»9-in < — ' i 33 

The next 25 ia ' ■ — — •— »^ 34^ 

The 50 in -— — — — ' ■ ■ " 3 T 

The Dip ■ #— 74° '25'' ^,„ ^ 

The Dip repeated 74 03 N*L 2** 



Obfervdtttins ifn the 0ipping-Kccdle, 

N B. ne Needle bad the fame Side to the Eaft in the firft^ tbird^ Jifib^ 
andfeventb Experiments \ and bad tbai Side turned tVeJlwardin ibefe- 
cond^ fourth^ fixtb^ and eigbtb\ jind I began to count tbe Vibrations^ 
wben lohferved it to vibrate juji lo Degrees^ as near as I could guefs. 
All tbefe Experiments were made witb fufficient Care in every Particular 
excepting tbe ^antity of tbe Dip^ wbicb requires tbe Divijions of tbe 
Semicircle to be very equalj and tbe gotb Degree to be perpendicular un- 
der tbe Axis of tbe Needle j tbis laft I found was a little faulty^ tbe Dip 
being in Reality greater tban tbe Semicircle fhewed it. After I bad reSti- 
Jied tbis Error ^ and new toucbed tbe NeedU^ upon tbat Part of tbe 
Armour to wbicb Iron is applied^ wben it is to be lifted by tbe Stone^ 
it performed tbe fame Number of Vibrations in lefs Time tban in any of 
tbe former Trials, I now determined to obferve^ for fome Space of 
Time J botb tbe Dip and Vibrations^ witbout frefh toucbing tbe Needle. 

fbi Obfervations follow^ by wbicb it appears tbere is a very confiderable 
Difference^ botb in tbe ^antity of tbe Dip^ and in tbe ^uicknefs of tbe 
Vibrations. 

N B. In all tbefe Experiments^ tbe Needle was placed^ fo as to vibrate 
exactly in tbe Plane of tbe Magnetic Meridian % and fyfficiently dijiani 
from all Iron tbat could affeSt it^ as far as I could perceive^ till I bad 
Occafion to put up a very large Iron Rod in tbe Rome above it^ wbicb 
immedidtely altered tbe Dip of tbe Needle^ and tbereby put an End to 
tbefe Trials. 



zti 



1723. 

Mar. 29. 
30- 
31 



April I. 



2. 



Dip 

o . / 
75=00 



at 



74=:20-[- 

74=50 



Time of the 

Da 
h 
10=00. 

4=15 



T 



7^55-^ 
74=50— 


1=00 
'4=00 


74=50— 
74=50— 
74=50— 


IO=CO 

12=30 

2=15 


74=25 
74=25— 

74=20-h 


6=45 

7=15 
9=00 


74-20-h 
74=20-f-. 


7=3o.A.M. 
7=3o.P.M. 



Jpr 4. 



9=30 
12=30 

4=15 



€. 



Dip 

/ 

74=55-- 

74=50+ 

74=40 

74=35 


Time of the 
Day. 
h / 
10=00 

11=15 

12=45 

7=30 


74=40 
74=40 
74=40-4- 
74=30+ 


9=^5 
»=45 

5=30 
8=15 


74=35 


10=00 



8. 



74=35 



74=35+ 
74=35+ 
74=35 
74=35 



Nn 2 



74=40— 
74=40— 



I2=00 



10=20 

12=30 

4=00 

6=30 



12=15 
3=30 



April 



2S4 



Dip 



Obfirvatims of the Dipplng-Keedle. 



Jpril 9, 



10 

II. 

»3. 
14, 



>5- 
16. 

»7- 
18. 

»9. 
20. 



o / 

74=40— 
74=40— 



Time of the 
Day. 

IO=QO 
4=15 



74=40— 
74—30-1- 

74=35-f 



iot=oo 
8=00 
io=oo.A.M. 



74=40— 



26. 
27. 

28. 



74=40— 
74=40— 

74=35 
^74=35 



10=45 

11=15 

5=10 

8-17 



74=35 



9=io.A.M. 



74=35 
74=30+ 



ii=oo 
8=45 



74=45 



12=25 



74=40+ 
74=4-5 



9-^5 
5=00 



74=45 



9=oo.A.M. 



74=45 



May 



30. 
I. 

2. 



Dip 



74=50 



Time of the 
Day 

h / 

12=^0 



21474:^50 



10=30 



74-50+ 


2=30 


74=55 


75=OQ 
75=00 

74=58 


1=00. P.M. 

3=15 

5=^5 


74=40 


3=' 5 


74=45 


1=30 


74=45 

74=45+ 

74=40+ 


12=00 
1=00 
3=50 



The Weight of the dipping. 
Needle 9pt. 2igr. uroj. 

N.a The Mark-^/tgntfies 
fometbing more than u here 
fet down^ and — ftgnifies 
fometbing lefsy but the Dif- 
ference could fcarce amount 
to more than two Mmutes. 



Experiments of the Vibrations of the Dipping- Needle, beginning uilb an 
Arcb of 10 Degrees^ witb tbe Times in wbicb 100 Vibrations were performed: 



172 h / 

Jprit I. about 7=15 Afternoon, 

Firft 50 m 3= 2 

l>aft 50 in 2=45 

» _ 

The 100 in 5=47. Dip 74*^=25^- 



jtpril 2. in the Evening 
Firft 50. in 3= 3 
I.aft 50 in 2=43 

The 100 in 5=46. Dip 74=2 o-f- 



' April i, about 4 in. the Afternoon. 
Firft 50 in 2=52 
Laft 50 in 2=39 

The ICO in 5=3 1. Dip 74=501 

Repeated about an Hour after. 
Firft 50 in 2=53 
Laft 50 in 2=35 

The ioain5=z8. Dig 74=5Q-f- 



Jpr^ 



Obfervatims $f the Dipping-Nccdlc. 

1723 / h I . 

AjrU^. about 1 1=15 in the Morn. 4 Repeated again about an Hour after. 

/ // 



285. 



Firft 50 m 2=54 
Laft 50 in 2=30 

The 100 in 5=24, Dip 74=50-j- 



Firft 50 in 2=38 
Laft 50 in 2=20 



April 28. about 5=15 Afternoon. 
Firft 50 in 2=48 
Laft 50 in 2=16 

The 100 in 5= 4. Dip 74=5^ 

Repeated 
Firft 50 in 2=47 
Laft 50 in 2=16 

The 100 in 5= 3. Dip 74=58 

— '- 



Afoy 20. ' " 
Firft 50 in 3=1 1 
Laft 50 in 3= t 

Theiooin6'=x2 



The 1 00 in 4=5 8, Dip 74=30-^- 



Ma'j 2 1 • about Noon. 
Firft 50 in 2=41 
Laft 50 in 2=28 

The 100 in 5= 9. Dip 74=30 



Ma^j 23. about i2h=^45' 
Firft 50 in 2=40 
Laft 50 in 2=27 

The loain 5= 7 . Dip 74=4<> 

Ma'j 25. about 3=30 
Firft 50 in 2=41; 
Laft 50 in 2=30 

Th e lOo in 5=?! r. Dip 74=4^^ _ 
Ma'j 27. about 6=30 Afternoon*, 
Firft 50 in 2=41 
Laft 50 in 2=28 

The 100 in 5= 9* Dip 7^f>^ 



Repeated the Needle being, new 

tauched. 
Firft 50 in 2=3.8 
Lali 50 in 2=23 

The 106 in 5= i. Dip 74=35 ■ 

VI. I. Weinefia% June the isrft 1720, being at Anchor near Rt-^ 
veh in the Latitude of 58 » 58' North, the Magpcticat Amphtude J«^«;^/ .^ 

at Sun-fee wa» . ^x l **' Baidck, 

Weft — 64«» 30i' North ^Jii)-Wil- 

And the true was Weft —c -49 37 N orth. " ^^^^f"- 

Variation North 14 53 Weft. ■ 366. p»g.. 

Saturday July 23, at the I&c Gottfand in the Latitude of. 58" 21' 12Q. 
North* at San-fet, the Magnetical Amplitude . .,, . , . 

^asWeft 490 50' North, and the 

true Amplitude, Weft ■^, -j^oo_North», which. 

gives thi Variation North < — ■ I4 5© Weft.. 

The Difference of Longitudes of the two aforefaid Places by Bead 

ohobtr 24 at Bornbolmty, in the Latitude of 56® oo^ at Suo^rifingv 
the Magnetical Amplitude, was 

laa 



ttn 



The Fariaiiat 
Qfthi Magni" 
ticai Com- 
pafs^ ohjsrvtd 
by Caft. Ro- 
gers, Com- 
manier of the 
Ship Duke, 
in bis PaJJagi 
from Cape 
Se Lucar in 
Calefornia to 
tbi Ifle of 
Guam or Gu- 
ana, one of 
the Ladronesy 
toitbfime Ri- 
marks tbifion. 
Communicatid 
by Dr Hallcy, 
No. 368. p. 
»73- 



The Variation of the Magnet icdl Compafs. 

Eaft 43^ 15' South, and the true Was 
Eaft 28 31 which gives the Variation 

North 14 44 Weft. 

2. Having lately had the Opportunity of peruHng Capt. 
Woods Rogers's original Journal, who in 17^0, in eight Weeks time 
traverfcd the great Sontb^Sea^ or Pacific Ocean^ I was highly pleafed 
to find the Care he had taken to fct down the Variations of the M^g- 
netical Compafs in his Paflagc from the South Cape of Cak/orma to the 
Ifland of Guana^ being about feven Hours or 105 Degrees of Longi« 
tude. This might have been long Once expe£ted from Capt Dam* 
pier^ who had three times made the Tour of the Worlds and thrice 
gone this very fame Track. 

It were to be wiftied that the French^ who have had frequent Oppor- 
tunities to do it, would beftow upon us an Account of the Variations 
thev have lately found in their Voyages from P^r^-and Chili to China % 
and that the Spaniards would tell us how the Nee()le varies at this 
time in the North Part of that great Sea, through which they return 
from the Manilla's to New Spain. With thefe helps, having three 
Points in each Curve, we mi^t be enabled with a^olerable certain- 
ty to complete the Syftcm of the Magnetic Variations, which I was 
.forced to leave unfimihed, as to this part of the Ocean, in my Gene- 
ral Chart thereof, for want of the Obfervations requifite. 

In the mean time, pleafe to take the following Accounf^extra&ed 
from Capt. Roger^s Journal ; wherein the firft Column gives the cor- 
reA Latitude of the Place*, the fecond, the Longitude Weft from 
London^ Hs eftimated by Redkoning -, and the third the Variation, 
which in this whole Track is Eafterly. 



Variations obferved in the Great South Sea j from the South Cape of CalC" 
fornia to the Ifland of Guana or Guam, -^te a/the Ladrones. 



January 


Lit. N. 


correct. 


I«ng. 


Wett. 1 


Variation 


*7T5' 

12 


every 


Day. 


from Ltnitn. 


Eafterly. 


22 


16 


114 


09 


03 00 




21 


1% 


114 


42 


02 50 




30 


24 - 


1*5 


'5 


02 50 


15 


»9 


?5 


"5 


45 


02 50 




18 


56 


n6 


24 


02 45 




18 


00 


"7. 


06 


02 45 




17 


II 


ni 


30 


02 15 




16 


32 


118 


05 


02 00 


20 


»5 


44 


118 


54 


01 50 




»5 


00 


120 


15 


01 30 



yitriatiua 



Tbe^ Faristim tf the Magnetifdl Ctn^afK 
Fariatiens ohferved in the S O U T H-S E A. 



tt7 



1709-10. 


Lac 


. N. 


Long. 


Well 1 


VarUtkm 


January 
22 


correQ 


. daily 


from London. 


Bailerly. 


»4 


49 


122 


05 


01 10 




14 


36 


124 


*5 


00 50 




14 


*4 


126 


45 


00 40 


25 


»4 


>4 


129 


05 


00 45 


1 


»3 


50 


131 


23 


00 50 


: 


»3 


29 


132 


58 


01 00 




13 


29 


134 


41 


01 10 




«3 


22 


136 


48 


01 15 


30 


>3 


27 


139 


21 


01 25 




»3 


3* 


142 


07 


01. 3« 


Feb.! 


13 


32 


144 


37 


01 40 




*3 


36 


147 


3» 


Of .50 




'3 


26 


150 


18 


02 00 


5 


»3 


26 


»53 


02 


02 10 




'3 


26 


155 


»9 


02 25 




'3 


26 


157 


43 


- 02 30 


^ 


13 


25 


z6o 


31 


. 02 50 




/ "^^ 


4r 


163 


00 


03 00 


, 


' 13 


41 


1.65 


18 


< ©3 20 


i^ 


>3 


44 


167 


26 


^ ©3 30 




( '3 


36 


169 


56 


' «3 45 


' 


13 


33 


172 


27; 


■ 04 00 


.* 


. '3 


36 


^75 


00 


04. 30 




. 13 


32 


177 


21 


©5 20 


H 


13 


40 


179 


28 


, q6 30 




'3 


47 


181. 


a4 


07' ©0 


I 


\ '3 


54 


183 


22 


07- 30 




' »3 


5^ 


185 


3r 


©9 OQ 




13 


40, 


187 


42 


iQ 15 


'., ao 


. »3. 


28 


. 189 


49 


; 1 1 OO- 




13 


21. 


191. 


3Q 


u 3q 


:> 


H 


12 


193 


25 


12 00 


5 


'3 


07 


; 194 


37 


11 50 


^ 


13 


10 


»55 


51 


■ It 00 


as 


13 


03 


197 


51 


10 00 


i' 


13 


00 


199 


03 


09 50 


!■ 


12 


57 


200 


16 


09. 30 


, 


w 


54 


2Q2 


20. 


09 00 


March, ^ 


1.2 


5» 


204 


12 


08 40 


^ 
1 


»3 


«»4. 


2e.6< 


06 


Q8 20> 



Jfariattcum 



xtt 



Variatims of the Magnetic^ Cmpafs, 

Vamtipn^ ohfervti in the SOUTH-SEA. 





Lat. N. * 


Long. Weft 


Vifiation 


1709-10. 
March 3 


: corrcft. daily 


from Lmdon* 


Eafterl/i 


13 05 


207 33 


08 00 




13 05 


209 04 


07 50 


5 


13 02 


211 54 


07 30 




13 07 


2X2 42 


07 10 




13 07 


214 07 


07 00 




13 03 


215 28 


06 50 




13 08 


217 H 


06 30 


10 


13 16 


218 27 


05 40 




Idand of Guana in Sight. 





By this it appears, that at about 250 or 360 Leagues Weft from 
the South-head of Qal^ornia^ the Eafi Varxatuih^ diminiflies to about i 
of a Degree ; That for 1300 Leagues from thence^ the fame Eajlerlj 
Variation gradually increafes to about 12 Degrees, where it becomes 
greateft. And that zi the Ifle of Guam^ five hundred Leagues ftill 
more fVeJlerly^ it is again decreafed to 5 Degrees 40 Minutes. 

As far as this fingle Inftance can dtre£t us, I am inclinable to think 
that in all that fp^ce oJPSea which lies to the Northwards of our Track, 
between Japon and dalefornia^ there reigns an Eafterly Variation^ 
which is ftill greater and greater as the North Latitude increafes. 
But that to the Southward of oi^r Track, and efpecially to the South- 
ward of the Equinodial, a JVeJlerly Variation arifcs, of no great ex- 
tent or quantity, but > which is greateft about 1000 Leagues Weft 
from the Coafts of P^/f« and Ci&ifi, about the fame Meridians where 
Capt. Roieri found the Eaft Variation fmalleft.. This is agreeable to 
the neory of the Variation I laid down in N^. 148. of thefe Tranfac- 
tionsj about 4P Years fincc ; and. I then exprefly mentioned, in my 
feventh Remark on the Obfervations ; there cited, fhat there was un- 
doubtedly fych a jTraflt o£ JVeft Variation in the Southern Parts of the 
South-Sea^ it beiqg thd neceiTary Confeqqeiice qf the Site of the four 
Magnetical Pples there fuppofcd.j thqugh at that time I wanted Expe- 
riments to prove it, " , ; 



3 Obfer- 



r 



OhfirvMhnt •ftht V»iMti§nt &e. 

3. Obfervations of the Variation on lioard the R»iei 
Pacqoet, in 1731. ByCapt. Coniwatt. 
N. B. Tbt MM^onaiDtfiMCi is reckoned from St Jago. 



Month 

and 

Year. 


Latitudes. 


Meridional 
Diftance* 


Longitttd. 


Variatioa^ 


Auguft 24th 


9^ 


8' Sou. 


9» »3' 


W 


r «s' 


W 


2» 


.}' E 


1711 
Ditto 26 


II 


12 


s 


10 


46 


W 


10 


50 


W 


4 


30 E 


Ditto 27 


II 


34 


S II 


38 


w 


11 


4> 


w 


4 


29 E 


Ditto 28 


12 


\z 


s 


II 


3' 


w 


II 


43 


w 


J 


*7 I 


Ditto 31 


1$ 


46 


s 


to 


^3 


w 


ti 


6 


w 


10 E 


Stpumh. zd. 


ig 


l6 


s 


8 


«J 


w 


8 


30 


w 


7 


16 £ 


Ditto 5th 
Ditto 6th 


18 


49 


s 


9 


3' 


w 


9 


39 


w 


6 


'Z L 


iQ 


47 


s 


9 


10 


w 


10 





w 


8 


6 £ 


Ditto 17 


28 


43 


s 


I 


7 


w 


I 


9 


E 


5 


53 ^ 


Ditto 22 


3« 


33 


s 


3 


4' 


E 


3 


56 


E 


4 


10 £ 


Ditto 27 


^3 


30 


s 


II 


29 


E 


IS 


57 


E 





II w 


Ditto 30 


^* 


40 


s 


'9 


6 


E 


12 


I 


E 


3 


w 


Oaebtr ift. 


3* 


93 


s 


21 


18 


£ 


24 


59 


E 


5 


♦• "t 


Ditto 3 


^* 


30 


s 


2? 


33 


E 


30 





E 


7 


+7 W 


Ditto 5 


'^^ 


28 


s 


30 


37 


E 


35 


5* 


£ 


8 


^ S^ 


Ditto 6^31 


22 


s 


3« 


40 


E 


37 


7 


E 


10 


57 S 


Ditto 7 


.31 


II 


s 


3* 


4 


E 


37 


47 


E 


II 


20 w 



2g9 

African Oifervathnr 
•fthiFaria- 
tion 9n Surd 
ibi Rojal 
African Pae^ 
fuetpijtijzi. 
By C aft 
Cornwall. 
N^ 37,. p. 

SS- 



Ohfervations on the Coaft of Africa. 



Month 
and 
Year 



OSoberiitby 

1721. 

Ditto 19 

Ditto 21 

Ditto 25 

Ditto 7 

Ditto 29 



Latitudes. 



Meridional 
Diftance. 



26^ 1/ S 35'' 35' E 



19 41 

13 so 

10 57 

8 19 

S o 



Long^tud. 



41** 41' 



in Cabenda-Bay 



Variation. 



14*^30' W 

12 22 W 
14 29 W 

14 48 W 

13 II W 

15 14 W 

14 33 W 



From Cabenda to Undon, Meridional Diftance from thence. 



Dictmk. gtb. 
Ditto 14 
Ditto 20 
Jan. ift 

Ditto 6 



3 25 S 

3 30 S 

o 30 S 

10 s® ^ 

17 IS N 



II 3« w 

21 18 W 

30 41 w 

39 8 W 

43 " W 



II 


43 


-w 


II 


3* 


■W 


21 


H 


w 








30 


46 


w 


I 


s 


W 


39 


16 


w 


I 


I 


E 


43 


29 


w 


I 


4« 


E 



VOL. VI. Partii. 



Go 



4. The 



app Variation of the Horizontal Needle dt London^ 

Variation of 4 The Figure of the three Needles, with which the Experi- 
/Ai?HcWz<?ff/tf/inents were made, was prifmatic •, their Lengths were nearly i2,a 

l'^ d^ ^' • Inches ; their Ends, which pointed to the DiviGons, being filed to an 

the^ latter^ Edge, which made a fine Line perpendicular to the Horizon. The 

Part ofibe Caps of two were of Cryftal, the other of Glafs \ they were well po- 

Tear 1722, liflied oh the Infide, in that Part which touched the Pin they moved 

ojd beginning ^^^^^ -j-j^^ ^^^ ^^3 g^^^g^ ^^^ ^f ^ Breadth fufficient to admit of 

Mr George"^ 2o*^ on each Side the middle Line, and covered with a piece of 
Graham, ground Glafs. The circular Arches at the Ends were raifed fo much 
Watchmaker, above the Bottom of the Box, as to have their upper Surfaces, upon 
fsf ^ ^6 ^^^^^ ^^ DiviGons were cut, lie in the fame Plane with the Needle, 
^ ^* ^* ^ ' and at fuch a Diftance from each other, that the Needle might play 
freely between them. A few of the Degrees at the North End were 
divided into fix equal Parts, each Divifion being lo'. It was cafy, 
by the help of a Convex Glafs, to determine the pointing of the 
Needle to lefs than a Quarter of thefe Divifions, or to about 2' of a 
Degree. The Pin, upon which the Needle moved, was of Steel 
hardened, and ground to a fine Point ; and by a Spring placed in the 
Box, the Needle might be raifed from ofif the Point, and let down 
again at Pleafure, without removing the Glafs, or difturbing the Box. 
By this means both the fiiarpnefs of the Point, and polifh of the Cap 
were better preferved from injury, when there was occafion to move 
the Box. A fmall piece of Brafs was made to Aide upon that End 
of the Needle which pointed to the South, for readily bringing it to 
an horizontal Pofition ; for according to the different flrength of the 
Touch, the North End of the Needle will dip more or left. The 
bottom Plate of Brafs was a little broader and lon^r than the Box 
and it's Edges made Lines exaftly parallel to the middle Line of the 
Divifions; and for the greater fecurity of placing the Box in a right 
Situation, there was a Brafs Ruler of thirty Inches long, having it's 
Edges even and parallel, except part of that Edge which was applied 
to the Side of the Box which was a little filed away on the middle^ 
that the Side of the Box near it*s Ends only might touch the Ruler. 
By this Contrivance the two Points of Comafi were as far afunder as 
the length of the Box would admit of, and the other Edge of the 
Ruler making a longer Line than the Side of the Box^ afibrded a 
better Diredion for giving it the fame Situation. 

For determining the Quantity of the Variation, I got a Meridian 
Line ftretched upon the top of the Houfe, between the Rails of the 
Leads, which were above fifteen Foot afunder, and the Line was a 
little more than thirty-nine Inched above the Leads. As this Line 
was faftned to two Pieces of Brafs that were fixed in the Rails, and 
was above fifteen Foot long, no fenfible Error could arife in putting 
it up at any Time. The Compafs-Box was placed upon a 
Wooden- Stool, with three Feet, that had nothing of Iron about it, 
and it*s Top fet level by a Plumb-Rulc» But hiding that in the 
2 open 



Variatim of the Horix^ontal Needle at London. 

open Air the Wind gave fome Difturbancc, I put up another Line, 
after the fame manner, in a Room two pair of Stairs high 5 this Line 
was about the fame length with the other, and thirty-nine Inches 
above the Floor. Some time after I put up a third Line, of the fame 
Length, in the Room over this. By the Method made ufe of in fix- 
ing chefe Lines they could not differ above 2' of a Degree from 
the Meridian, or from one another. Before I had made any Trials, 
I imagined no other Difference would arife than what might be occa- 
fioned by the Fridlion of the Needle upon the Point it was to move 
upon, and having found that confiderable in all the Needles that I 
had taken notice of, I took more than ordinary Care to provide 
againft it, and fucceeded beyond my Expectation. For I have 
feveral times obferved all the three Needles return fo exadly to the 
fame Place, that I could not perceive the leaft Difference ; as like- 
wife all three to agree very nearly about the fame Time, when 
they have been placed in the fame Box immediately one after another, 
the Box remaining unmoved. The firft Needle I made, was a little 
above three tenths of an Inch broad, about ,06 in thicknefs, and 
weighed about an Ounce Troy, the Cap of CryftaK After fome 
Trials with this Needle, it was made narrower, not to exceed half a 
tenth of an Inch, and it then weighed five Penny Weight and five 
Grains. The fecond Needle was at firft about three tenths of an Inch 
broad, and ,04 thick, the Cap of Glafs } and after feveral Trials, 
it was made io much narrower, that it's Breadth was a little leis than 
it's Thicknefs, and it weighed two Penny Weight and five Grains. 
The third was nearly of the fame Dimentions with the fecond, and 
weighed two Penny Weight and three Grains. When the two firfl 
Needles were made narrower care was taken that the Files made ufc 
of for filing the North Ends, touched not the South Ends; and af- 
ter they were made lighter, I tried them both, before they were frelh 
touched upon the Stone, and found no fenfible Difference in their 
Diredion. The reafon of making the two firft Needles fo heavy, 
was to try whether, they would return more conftantly to the fame Si- 
tuation tnan lighter ones. But notwithftanding each of them would 
fettle very exaftly in the fame Place, for a great Number of Trials 
made immediately one after another, yet 1 found them at difierenc 
Times to differ confiderably from their former Direfkions. 

This occafioned my making them narrower, fearing their Breadth 
had been fome way concerned in this Irregularity. But after the Al-i 
teration, I found the fame thing happened, though I could find no- 
thing of it to proceed from any Fridion upon the Point. This made 
me prefer the lighter Needles, as kfs apt to injure the Point they 
moved upon, and, as exaA in returning to the fame Situation. After 
many Trials, I found all the Needles I made ufe of, would not 
only vary in their DireAion upon different Days, but frequently at 
different tunes of the fame Day; and this Difference would fom«- 

Oo a times 



^91 



292 Variatm of the Horizontal Needh 4t London. 

times amount to upwards of half a Degree in the fame Day, fome- 
times in a few Hours. And this Alteration I obfcrvcd, whether the 
Needles were drawn afide inimcdiately before the Obfervation, or 
fuffered to remain undifturb^. For I have left the Box (landing 
for feveral Days together, without ever difturbing the Needle, only 
have taken notice what it pointed at, and the Time of the Day, 
and I could fometimes perceive in a few Minutes a very fenGble Al- 
teration. But whether it flood near it's greateft or leaft Variation, 
or whether I drew the Needle to one Side with a Key a few Degreea 
or a greater Number, it would conftantly return to the fame Place it 
flood at immediately before. Sometimes I have taken the Needle 
out of the Box, and put it in again, and this I have repeated feveral 
times in the fpace of an Hour. At other times I have taken down 
the Box from off the Stool, and put it up again, but have found 
no Alteration in it's Diredlion*, fo that I found it of no Confequence, 
whether the Needle was drawn afide or let alone, the ihaking of the 
Floor by walking upon it, or the trembling of the Houfe by the 
Coaches in the Street, was fufficient to overcome the fmall FriAion 
uf on the Point. When I made the Obfervations, I was very care- 
ful to have no Keys, nor^Iron about me, that could affeft the 
Needle. 

The Box was placed in the Room above the Diftance of fix Foot 
from the neareft Wall, and above thirteen Foot from the Grate in 
the Chimney, and no Iron could at any time be brought near it 
without my Knowledge. Yet, after all, I am not fatisfied that it 
was out of the reach of Iron, and that the Variation fhewn by it is 
the true Quantity ; but I am very fure there was no Change of Cir* 
cumftances in the Room that could affeA it, for if there were any 
fuch Materials in the Wall, or Floor, their Diftances and Situations 
continued the fame. But for a farther Confirmation of this Irregula- 
rity, I put one of the Needles into a Wooden Box, with a few De- 
grees divided as the other, and placed it at the fame Meridian Line, 
at the Diftance of three Foot and a half from the other, and found 
both Needles nearly agreed in their Alterations. The Needles were 
all touched by that excellent Load- done prefented to the Society by 
the Lord PaiJUy. It may not be improper to take Notice, 
that the Needles were not torched upon the naked Stone, but 
with it*s Armour on, generally upon that Part of the Capping 
• neareft the Poles; but I could not find a Difference in the 
Direflion, by touching upon another Part. I may add, that when 
I have obferved the Needle increafing, or decreafing in it's Variation, 
I have very frequently, with a Key, drawn it the contrary Way 
leveral Degrees, and then, letting it return very gently, till it has 
been within a Degree, or lefs, of the Place it ftoodat immediately 
before, I have there ftopt it for fome time, by holding die Key at 
a proper Diftance } and withdrawing my Haad gradually^ have tried 
I to 



VkrUtim of thi Horizontdl Needle at London: 

to make k ftan'd fhort ofit*8 former Place, but could never fuc- 
ceed. By this Method^ and feveral others made ufe of, I am well 
affurcd thefc Changes in the Direftion are owing to fome other Caufe 
than the Friftion of the Needle upon the Pin \ but what that Caufe 
is I cannot fay, for it feems to depend ncidier upon Heat nor Cold, 
a dry or moift Air, clear or cloudy, windy or calm Weather, nor 
the Height of the Barometer, The only thing that has any 
appearance of Regularity, is, that the Variation has been gene, 
rally greateft, for the fame Day, between the Hours of Twelve 
and Four in the Afternoon, and the leaft about fix or fcven in the 
Evening. 

March 8. 1722. 

This Day a piece of Brafs was fixed to a Wooden Box, and a 
few Degrees were divided into 10' each, as in the Brafs Box, to try 
if both Needles would be alike affeded in the feveral Alterations. 
This Wooden Box was placed at the fame Meridian Line, and about 
the Diftance of 3 i Feet from the other. 



W3 



Brafs Box. 


Needle 2—5. 


h. 


Needle 
5^=5 


March 8. 


I4»= 50'— 


3—00' 


I4»= 2il-\- 




14 = 20 


3 = 15 


14 =: 20 




. 14 = 15 + 


4=00 


14 = 10 




14 = 20 


4=15 


14 - 15 




14 = 25 


5=00 


14 = 20 




14 = 25 


5 = 30 


14 = 20 




14 = 15 


5=45 


14 = 10 




14 = 00 


5=57 


14 — 




14 — 


6= 8 


13 = 55 




IJ = 50 


6=15 


IJ = 40 




14 = iO 


6=38 


14 = 15 i- 




14 + 


6=48 


14 = 00 




14 = 00 


6=54 


14 — 




14 = 5 


7— 5 


14 + 




14 = 10 


7 — IS 


14 = 5 




14 + 


12=00 


14 + 



Brafs 



2^94- Variatidn of the Horizontal Needle at London. 



Brafi Box. Needle 2=5. 

March 9. 14''= lof 

14 = io-|^ 
14 = 10 
14 = 10 -J- 

14 = 15 
14 = od 
14 = 00 



9*>= jof 
10 =: 00 
10 = 15 

10 = 30 

11 = 00 
8 = IJ 

II = 50 



Needle 

5=5^ 
14''= 10/ 

14 = 1,0-f 

14 = 10 

14 = 10 4* 
14 = 15 — 
14 = 00 
14 = 00 



Jdarcb 10. 


I4^= io'+ 


io'*= 00' 


14°= 10' 






14 = 15 


II = 00 


14 = 10- 


- 




14 = 15 


12 = 00 


14 = 10- 


- 




14 = ^5- 


- 


la = 45 


14 = 10- 


- 




I4 = 15- 


- 


I = Op 


14 = 10- 


- 




14 = 15- 


- 


I = 30 


14 = 10- 


- 




14 = 15- 


- 


I = 45 


14 = 10- 


- 




14 = 15- 


- 


2 = 00 


14 = 10- 


- 




14 = 15 


3 = 30 


14 = 10 




14= 15 + 


4 = 00 


14 = lo-f- 




14 = 15 — 


5 = 30 


14 = 10— : 




14 = lo 


6—00 


14 = 5 




14 = 00 


6 = 15 


14 = 00 




14 — 


6 = 30 


14 — 




i+-f 


f = 30 


14 -4- 




14 = s 


7 = 45 


14 -- 




'+ + 


12 = 00 


14 -- 



March 30. 

The Needle 2=5 which was in the Brafs Box, was this Day put 
into the Wooden Box, and a new Needle put into the Brafs Box, 
Weight 2=3. 

No remarkable Change happened to either Needle till Jpil the 
5tfa« 



Needle 



Varidtim of the Horizontal Htedie at Londoir; 



*95 



Needle 


2=3 in the Brafs Box^ 




Needle 






■ 


2=5. 


Afril 


5. I4"= 5' 


9*^= 00' 


f4 ■+- 00' 




14 = la 


I = 30 


H = 5 




14 =r lO — 


5 = 30 


14-4- 




14 — 


% = J5 


14 — 




13 = 50-- 

13 = 55 -f 


8 = 37 

9 = 45 


13 = 45 

13 = 45 + 




14 — 


10 = 25 


13 = 50 




14 = OO 


10 = 45 


13 = 55 




14 + 


II = 00 


14 = OO 



The firft Column fhcws the Variation of the Needle in the Braft 
Box. The third the Variation of that in the Wooden Box. The 
fecond Column ihews the Time, by the Clock, when the Obfervations 
were made. 



'^prU 15. 1723. 


■ 


April 


16. 

»h= 30' 


14"= 30'- 


- »•>= 00' 


14"= 


30^— 


14 =30- 


- 10 = ao 


14 = 


30 


11 = 00 


14 = 30 


11 = 30 


14 = 


30. 


12 = 00 


14 = 30- 


- la = JO 


1-4 5= 


30 4- 


I = 10 


J4 = 30- 


- 1 = 3<» 


14 = 


30 -f 


1 = 40 


14 = 30 


3 = 30 


14^ 


30 


2 = 4J 


14 = 30 


4 = 10 


14 ff= 


30 


5 = 90 


14 = 30- 


- 5 =?= 30 


14 = 


SO— 


. < =; pa 


14 = :jo 


6 == 18 


:14 !5= 


*s 


< = ?o 


14 4- 


7 = » 


14 = 


20 


6 = 30 


14 = 00 


7 = 50 


14 = 


15^ 


tf = J5 


14 = QQ 


8 ~ 15 


14 = 


10 


C = 40 


14 = 15- 


8 = 20 


14 = 


10 — 


<S=45 


14= 15- 


- 8 = 40 


14 = 


-* 


jfi —j^g. 


14 = 15 •- 


- 12 = Ij! 


14 = 


00 


<5= 57 


14= 00 


12 = 27 


14 = 


bo 


7 = 10 


14 = PO 


.12 = 32 


14 -h 




7-== *o 


14 = 00 


12 J^ 35 


14 = 


■ 5-b- . 


7 = .30 


,14 = 00 


ii-s= 43 


.14 = 


lO 


7 = 45 


Wind 


atS.W. 


14 = 


U 


8 = 00 



29tf 



Vsriitm •f the Horizontal Netdio st LondonJ 



H-= 


15'+ 


i>"a 20 


14 = 


20 — 


8 = 30 


14 = 


*5 4- 


9 = 00 


14 = 


25 


12 = 12 


14 = 


aj 


12 = 21 



Day warm, cloudy in the 
Morning, Evening clear. 



Jpril 19. 



14°= 

14 = 
14 = 
14 = 
14 = 

14 = 
14 = 
14 = 
14 = 

14 = 
14 = 
14 = 
14 = 
14 = 
14 = 
14 = 
14 = 



30'— 
30 — 
36 — 
30 — 
30 
30 
20 
25 

25-h 
30 — 
30 — 

25 

20 — 

20 

20 -j- 10 

25 II 

25 II 



8'' 

9 
I 
2 
3 
4 
5 
5 
5 

d 

7 
S 

9 



-35' 
CO 
JO 

00 
30 
00 
00 

38 

45 

00 

45 
00 
00 
00 
00 
CO 

15 



Day warm. Wind at Eaft, 
fome Thunder in the 
Afternoon. 



14* =s 25' 9*5= 30' 

14 = 30-|- 10 = 30 

14= 35— II = 30 

»4 = 55+ .1 =00 



14 = 35'-f !''=» 5* 

14 = 40 -f 2 ?= jof 

14 = 20 3 = 30 

14 = 15 3 = 45 

14 =3 30 — 4 = 00 

14 = 25-f- <i = 45 

14 =5 20 7 = CO 

14 = 30 — 7 = 35 

14 =: 20-j- 12 = 50 

Day cold. Wind at Eaft. 



Miy 3. 



4°= 10' 

4 = 15 

4 = 15 + 

4 = 15 + 
4 = 10 

4 = 10 
4 = 10 
4 = 10 — 
4=5 

4 = 00 

4 -i- 

4 + 
4 + 
4 4" 



9''= 30' 

11 = lO 

12 = 40 
2 = 20 

5 = 20 

6 = 5 

6 = 45 
7=5 

7 = IS 
7 = 30 

7 = 42 

8 = 00 

9 = 38 

10 = 15 

11 = 00 



Day cold. Wind Eafterly. 



14" 

14 

14 

14 

14 



May 4i 

S' 91.= 15' 

5 9 = 30 

lo4- 1 = 35 

10 -4- 5 = 17 

lo-f 3 = 50 

14 = 



ykriatim of the Horizontal Nee<tte at London. 



397 



!+•= lo' 
14 = 10 
14 = CO 
14 -f- 



4b= 55' 

« = CO 
8 = 15 
I = 00 





Windy at Eaft. 






May 


5. 




140= 


I0'+ 


9h= 


30' 


14 = 


15 


10 = 


45 



I4«= 15 -f- I2h= 30^ 
14 = 20 
1+ = 20 
14 = ZQ 

14 = zo 

14 = 15 
14 = 15 

14 = M 
Day clear, Wind at Eaft. 



r — 


57 


2 = 


45 


3 == 


25 


4 = 


35 


5 = 


30 


6 = 


10 


12 = 


7 



All thcfe Obfervacions are of the lighteft of the three Needles, the 
Compafs Box remaining unmoved the whole time. From February 6. 
1722. to the loth of May following, I made above a thoufand Ob- 
fervations in the fame Place 5 and the greateft Variation Weftward, 
was 14^=45', and the leaft — — I3^=50^ It was feldonl lefs than 
'4^* or greater than 14^=35'. 

5. A New and Exa^ TABLE, colleAed from feveral Obfervationa, 
Voytgea to HuJ/on'a Bay in f^orth America^ from London: Shewing the 
the Magnitica/ Nffdie, or Sea Compafs^ in the Path-way to the faid Bay, 
the feveral Latitmles and Longitudes, from the Year 1721, to 1725. 



taken in four A TABLE 
Variation of collided from 

according to feveral Obftr- 
vations, taken 
in four Voy- 



1 






I 1 






1 




ages to Hnd- 


Lat. 


Long. 


Vari. 




Lat. 


Long. 


Vari. 


fon'j Bay in 


























North Ame- 
rica, /rtf/» 
London, By 
Capt. Chrilb- 


TjTia 


2L 


_M. 


E! 


"m. 




^ 


M. 


IT 


"m. 


d" 


M- 


50 00 


12 


"00 


H 


00 




50 


00 


18 




>7 


"00 


51 00 


12 


00 


'4 


»5 




5« 


00 


18 




»7 


>5 


pher Middle- 


52 oc 


12 


00 


<4 


30 




52 


00 


18 




17 


30 


ton, No. 


53 00 


12 


00 


H 


45 




53 


00 


18 




>7 


45 


393- F»g- 73- 


54 00 


12 


00 


15 


00 




54 


00 


18 




18 


00 


55 oc 


12 


00 


15 


«5 




55 


00 


18 




18 


«5 




56 00 


12 


00 


'5 


30 




56 


00 


18 




18 


30 




57 00 


12 


00 15 


45 




57 


00 


18 




18 


45 




58 00 


12 


00 16 


00 




58 


00 


18 




>19 


00 


» 


5Q 00 


12 


00 16 


J^ 




12. 


00 


iL 


45 19 


^^5 




50 oo 


hT 




'5 


00 




50 


"00 


21 


00 18 


'00 




51 oO 


'4 




>5 


»5 




5« 


00 


21 


00 18 


»5 




52 ©0 


'4 




«5 


30 




52 


00 


21 


00 


18 


30 




53 oo 


«4 




>| 


45 




53 


00 


21 


00 


18 


45 




54 00 


»4 




16 


00 




54 


00 


21 


00 


»9 


00 




55 0^ 


«4 




16 


>5 




55 


00 


21 


00 


*9 


»5 




56 00 


'4 




16 


30 




56 


00 


21 


00 


«9 


30 




c7 00 


14 




16 


45 




57 


00 


21 


00 


"9 


45 




58 oc 


'4 


15 17 


00 




58 


.00 


21 


00 


20 


00 
'5 




%9 00 


«4 


15 17 


15 1 


59 


00 


21 


00 20 





VOL. VI. Part ii. 



^P 



L#t. 



29S 



Variation of the Compafi. 



Lat. 


Long. 


Vari. 


a^ 


M. 


i) M. 


D M 


50 


00 


16 30 


16 00 


5> 


00 


16 30 


16 15 


52 


00 


16 30 


i6 30 


53 


00 


16 30 


16 45 


54 


00 


16 30 


17 05 


55 


00 


16 3c 


17 IC 


56 


QO 


16 30 


17 30 


57 


CO 


16 30 


17 45 


58 


00 


16 3c 


18 oc 


12. 


00 


16 30 


i8 15 


50 


00 


25 30 


20 00 


5» 


00 


25 30 


20 15 


52 


00 


25 3^^ 


20 30 


53 


00 


25 30 


20 45 


54 


00 


25 30 


21 00 


55 


00 


25 30 


21 15 


56 


00 


25 30 


21 30 


57 


00 


25 30 


21 45 


58 


00 


25 30 


22 OQ 


59_ 


00 


25 30 


22 15 


50 


00 


27 45 


21 00 


5> 


00 


27 45 


21 15 


52 


00 


^7 45 


21 30 


53 


00 


27 45 


21 45 


54 


CO.. 


27 45: 


22 00 


55 


00 


27 45 


22 15 


^ 


oa 


^ 45" 


22 30 


S7 


00 


27 45 


22 45 


58 


00 


27 45 


23 00 


52- 


"OO 


27 -^ 


»3 !<; 


fo 


"00 


30 00 


22. 00 


5' 


00 


30 00 


22 15 


52 


00 


30 00 


22 30 


53 


00 


30 00 


22 45 


54 


00 


30 00 


23 00 


55 


00 


30 00 


23 15 


56 


bo 


30 00 


23 30 


57 


00 


30 00 


^ 45 


58 


00 


30 00 


24 00 


12- 


00 


fro 00 


24 15 


5<^ 


"co 


52 hs 


23 00 


5^ 


00 


32 15 


23 15 


52 


00 


32 15 


23 30 


53 


00 


32 15 


23 45 


54 


00 


32 15 


24 00 


55 


00 


32 15 


24 15 


56 


00 


32 15 


24 30 


57 


00 


32 15 


24 45 


58 


00 


53 15 


25 00 


59 


00 


32 15 25 15I 



D. M. D. M 



Vari. 





M. 


•9 


00 


«9 


'5 


«9 


30 


•9 


45 


zo 


00 


to 


«5 


20 


30 


20 


45 


21. 


00 


21 


•5 


24 


CO 


*4 


'5 


2+ 


30 


2+ 


45 


*S 


00 


25 


'5 


25 


30 


2J 


45 


26 


00 


26 


'5 


25 


00 


35 


«5 


25 


30 


*5 


45 


26 


00 


26 


15 


z6 


^0 


26 


45 


27 


00 


27 


»5 






26 


00 


26 


IJ 


26 


^0 


,26 


45 


127 


00 


;27 


»5 


:27 


30 


.27 


45 


28 


00 


.28 


'5 


27 


■06 


•27 


'5 


;27 


30 


.•27 


45" 


:28 


00- 


•28 


15 


28 


30 


28 


45 


.29 


05 



yariatim afth Gtmi^afs. 



199 



Lat. 



D M 



50 

53 

54 

56 
57 



5' 
S2 
53 
54 
55 
J6 
57 
58 
59 



00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 

"o5 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 



52 

53 

54 

II- 

57 

58 

IL 

53 

54 

11 

57 
5^ 



00 
00 
00 
00 

00* 

00 
00 
00 



00 
00 
00 
06 

00 
00 
00 
00 



54 

59 
60 
61 



00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
06 



Long, 



D. M 



43 

43 

43 

43 

43 

43 

43 

43- 

43 

46 

46 

48 
48 
48 
48 

Vir 
48 
48 
48. 

?" 

5« 

5« 

51 

5?' 

5^ 

5' 

5i, 

54 
54 
54 
54 
54 
54 
54 
54 



30 
30 
30 

30 
30 
30 
30 
30 

30 

00 
00. 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 

■30 
30 
30 
30 
?^ 

50 

30 

JO 

00 
00 
00 
00 
60 
00 
00 
00 



00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 



Vari. 



0. M. 



2^ 00 

23 15 

28 30 
zS 45 

29 00 
29 15 
29 30 

29 45 

30 00 

30 15 



29 CO 

29 15 

29 30 

29 45 

30 00 
30 15 
30 30 

30 45 

31 00 



30 CO 

30 15 

30 30 

30 45 

31 00 
31 15 
31^ 30 

3'. 45 



31 00 
31 15 

31 30 

3« 45 

32* otr 

32 . i^ 

32 30 

3f 45 



32 00 

32 15 

32 30 

32 45 

33 00 
33 >5 
33 30 
33 45 



Lat. 



{}. M. 



54 CO 

55- oc 

56 CO 

57 00 
53 00 

59 00 

60 00 

61 00 



55 00 

56 00 

57 00 

58 00 

59 00 

60 00 

61 00 



57 00 
$8 oa 
9 00 
00 

1 00 

2 QO 



^ 



59 00 

60 00 

61 00 

62 00 

63 00 



62 00 

63 00 
63 50 



Long. 



U. M 



57 
^7 
57 
57 
57 
57 
57 
57 

60 
60 
60 
60 
60 
60 
60 

¥ 

63 
63 
63- 



00 
00 
00 
00 

CO 

00 
00 

00 

00 
cc 

oc 
00 

00 

00 
oc 

00 
00 

00 
00 
00 

00 



66 
66 
66 

66 
66 



00 
00 
00 
00 
00 



* 

Si 


00 

OOj 


^9. 


00 
00 


62 


00 


69 

7* 


00 


60 


00 


00 


61 


00 


72 


00 


61 


40 


72 


00 



-78 
78 
78 



oo? 

00 

00 



Vari. 



U. M 



33 oc 

33 15 

33 30 

33 45 

34 00 
3.4, 30 

35 00 
35 30 

34 00 

34 3«= 

35 00 

35 30 

36 00 

36 30 

37 00 

35 00 

35 30 

36 00 

36 30 

37 00 
37 30 




40 00 
42 00 
42 4oj 



45^00 
44 00 
46 00 



T-p- 



30b 





Variation 4ff the Compafs. 


Lat. 


Long. 


Vari. 






O. M. 

6i oo 
62 00 
62 50 


D. M. 


D. M. 




75 00 
75 00 
75 00 


38 00 

43 00 

45 op 

.43 00 

46 00 

39 00 

44 00 




63 00 

64 00 


81 00 

81 00 

82 CO 

82 00 


From Long 68 
Degrees to 8i, is 
in Hudfon'i StraUs^ 
where is the greateft 
Variati^n^ and the 


62 00 

63 00 

61 00 

62 00 

63 00 


84 00 
84 00 
84 00 


33 45 
40 00 
42 00 
30 00 
33 00 
35 00 


60 00 

61 00 

62 00 


86 00 
86 00 
86 00 

88 00 
88 00 
88 00 

90 00 
90 00 
90 00 

94 00 

95 00 
95 00 


Compafs mU hardly 
I'raverfe. 


59 00 

60 00 

61 00 


28 00 

28 40 

29 20 
24 00 
24 30 
2; 00 




57 00 

58 00 

59 00 




57 06 

58 00 

59 00 


23 00 
22 30 
21 00 





Continutdhj 
the f ami t N*. 
418. p. 7»- 



6- A TJBZE colkQidfrom feveral Ohfervatjnu takiv from the Tear 1721 to 1729, 
in nine Voyages to Hadfon'/ Bay />r North- America, by Capt. Chr. Middleton; Jbew- 
ing the Variation of the Compafs according to the Latitudes and Longititdes uHdir-nun' 
tionedt accounting the Longitude from the Meridian of London. 



Obf. 



Ac. 

Obf. 

Obf. 

Obf. 

Obf. 

Obf. 

Ac. 



Ut. 


Long. 


Variat. 


D. 


M. 


D. 


M. 


D. M. 


50 


00 


2 


Kaft 


12 00 


49 


30 





00 


12 00 


50 


00 


2Weft 


13 00 


50 


00 


4 


00 


13 00 


50 


00 


6 


00 


13 00 


51 


00 


8 


00 


14 00 


51 


00 


H 


PO 


14 00 


'Ji 


00 


12 


00 


15 00 


e^ 


00 


12 


00 


ditto. 


54 


00 


12 


00 


ditto. 


55 


00 


12 


00 


16 00 


56 


00 


12 


00 


16 00 


57 


00 


12 


00 


17 00 


£8 


00 


12 


00 


17 -00 


59 


00 


12 


00 


18 00 



• 


Lat. 




b. M. 




50 OOj 


" 


51 op 


Obf. 


52 


ditto 


53 


ditto 


54 


ditto 


55 


ditto 


56 


Ac. 


57 


ditto 


58 


ditto 


59 


ditto 




Obf. 


. 


ditto 




ditto 




ditto 





Long. 


Vai 


iat. 


D, M. 


dT 


M. 


14 00 


»4 


00 


ditto 


»4 




ditto 


»5 




ditto 


'5 




ditto 


16 




dicto 


16 




ditto 


17 




ditto 


»7 




ditto 


18 




dicto 


18 





Lat. 



-.-J-- 



Fariathn of the Cm^s, 



301 



Iac. 


Long. 


Variat. 1 


dTm. 


D. M. D. M. 


50 00 


16 00,15. 00 


51 


ditto 


15 


5* 


ditto 


16 


53 


ditto 


16 


54 


ditto 


n 


55 


ditto ' 


18 


56 


ditto 


18 


57 


ditto 


19 


58 


ditto 


I19 



Obf. 
Obf. 

Ac. 

• 

Obf. 
Ac. 



Obf. 



5o 00 


18 00 


17 QO 


5i 


dit^o 


17 


52 


ditto 


17 


Si 


ditto 


»7 


54 


ditto 


ra 


55 


ditto 


18 


56 


ditto 


18 


57 


ditto 


19 


5^ 


ditto 


19 


59 


ditto 


19 



Ac. 



Obf 



50 00 

51 
$2 

53 
54 
55 
56 

57 
58 

59 



20 00 


18 00 


dicco 


18 


ditto 


18 


ditco 


^9 


dicco 


19 


dicto 


^9 


dicto 


19 


ditto 


'9 


ditto 


20 


ditto 


21 



50 00 

51 

52 

53 
54 
55 
56 
57 
58 
59 



22 00 


19 00 


ditto 


19 


ditto 


^9 


ditto 


20 


ditto 


20 


ditto 


20 


ditto 


20 


ditto 


20 


ditto 


21 


ditto 


21 







Ac. 
Obf. 

Ac. 

Obf 

Obf 
Ac. 

Obf 
Ac. 

Obf 



Lat. 1 


Long. 


Variat. 


a M, 


D. M. 


D. M. 


50 00 


24 00 


20 00 


51 


ditto 


20 


5« 


ditto 


20 


53 


ditto 


21 


54 


ditto 


21 


55 


di;to 


21 


56 


ditto 


21 


57 


ditto 


21 


58 


ditto 


22 


59 ' ditco 


22 1 



Ac. 



Obf 

Ac. 

Obf 



50 00 


26 00 


21 00 


51 


ditto 


21 


52 


ditto 


21 


53 


ditto 


21 


54 


ditto 


22 


55 


ditto 


22 


56 


ditto 


22 


57 


ditto 


23 


58 


ditto 


23 


59 • 


ditto 


23 " 



Obf. 

Ac. 

Obf 

Ac. 
Obf 



50 00 


28 00 


22 00 


51 


ditto 


22 


52 


ditto 


22 


53 


ditto 


23 


54 


ditto 


»3 


55 


ditto 


23 


56 


ditto 


23 


57 


ditto 


24 


58 


ditto 


24 


59 


ditto. 


24 



Ac. 

Obf 

Ac. 

Obf 



50 00 
51 

52 
53 
54 
55 
56 
57 
58 
59 



30 00 


23 00 


ditto 


23 


ditto 


23 


ditto 


24 


ditto 


24 


ditto 


24 


ditto 


24 


ditto 


25 


ditto. 


25 . 


dicto 


25 



Ac. 



Obf 
Ac. 



Obf. 
Ac. 



ibz 



Fsriafim &f the Compafs. 



\ 



Lat. 



D. M. 



50 00 

5' 

52 
53 
54 

56 
57 
58 
59 



Long. 



D. M. 



32 00 

ditto 

ditto 

ditto 

ditto 

ditto 

ditto 

ditto 

ditto 

ditto 



Vartai. | 



D. M. 



24 

24 

24 

24 

25 

25 

25 
26 

26 

26 



CO 



Ac. 
Obf. 

Ac. 

Obf. 

Ac. 

Obf. 



50 CO 


38 00 


27 


51 


ditto 


27 


52 


ditto 


27 


53 


ditto 


28 


54 


ditto 


28 


SS 


ditto 


28 


56 


ditto 


28 


57 


ditto 


29 


58 


ditto 


29 


59 


ditto 


30 



00 



Obf. 

Ac. 
Obf. 

Ac. 

Obf. 
Obf 



50 00 


34 00 


25 00 


Obf. 


51 


ditto 


25 


Ac. 


52 


djtto 


25 




53 


ditto 


25 




54 


ditto 


26 


Obf. 


55 


ditto 


26 


Obf. 


57 


ditto 


26 




58 


ditto 


27 


Ac. 


59 


ditto" 


27 





Lat. 


Long. 


Varfat. 




D. M. 


D. M. 


D. M. 




51 00 


42 00 


29 00 


Obf. 


52 


ditto 


29 




53 . 


ditto 


•30 




54 


ditto 


30 




55 


ditto 


30 


Ac. 


^6 


ditto 


30 


Obf. 


57 


ditto 


31. 




58 ditto 


31 




59 1 ditto 


31 1 




52 00 


44 00 


30 00 


Obf. 


5Z 


diuo 


31 




54 


ditto 


31 


Ac. 


55 


ditto 


31 




56 


ditto 


3* 




57 


ditto 


32 


Obf. 


58 


ditto 


32 




59 


ditto 


32 


Ac. 



50 00 

51 
52 

53 

54 
55 
5^ 
57 
58 
59 



40 00 


28 00 


ditto 


28 


ditto 


28 


ditto 


29 


ditto 


29 


ditto 


29 


ditto- 


29 


ditto 


30 


ditto 


30- 


ditto 


30 ' 



Ac. 
Obf. 



Ac. 
Obf. 



5Z 00 
54 
55 
56 

57 ,■ 

58 

59 



46 00 


\3t 00 


ditto 


32 


dttio 


32 


ditto 


32 


ditto 


33 


ditto 


33 


ditto 


33 



Ac. 
Obf. 

Ac. 
Obf. 



56 00 


48 00 


32 06 


Obf. 


57 


ditto 


32 




58 


ditto . 


32 ! 




59 


ditta 


34 




60 


ditto , 


34 




61 1 


ditto 


34 




57 00 


50 00 


33 00 


Obf. 


58- 


ditto 


3J 




59 • 


ditto 


33 




60 


ditto 


34 




61 


ditto 


35 ' 





Lat. 



Variation of the Compafs. 



joj 



Lat. 


Long. 


Variat. 


Obi. 


D. M. 


D. M. 


D. M. 


£8 oo 


52 00 


34 00 


59 


ditto 


34 




60 


ditto 


34 




61 


ditto 


35 




62 


ditto 


35 - 




58 00 


54 00 


34 00 


Obf. 


59 


ditto 


35 




60 


ditto 


36 




61 


ditto 


36 




62 


ditto 


36 




58 00 


56 00 


36 00 


Obf. 


59 


ditto 


36 




60 


ditto 


36 




61 


ditto 


37 




62 


ditto 


37 




58 00 


58 00 


36 00 


Obf. 


59 


ditto 


37 




60 


ditto 


37 




61 


ditto 


37 




6x 


ditto 


38 




63 


ilitto 


38 




58 00 


60 00 


37 00 


Obf. 


59 


ditto 


38 




60 


ditto 


38 




62 


ditto 


3^ 




63 


ditto 


39 




38 00 


62 00 


38 00 


Obf. 


59 


ditto 


39 




60 


ditto 


39 




61 


ditto 


39 


- 


6a 


ditto 


40 




59 00 
00 


64 0039 00 


Obf. 


ditto 


39 




61 


ditto 


39 


, 


62 


ditto 40 > 





60 
61 
62 



ool 66 00 

I ditto 

ditto 



40 
41 

43 



00 1 Obf. 



Lat. 


1 Long 

b. M. 

68 00 


Variat. 


D. M, 


U. M. 


59 00 


40 00 


60 


dicco 


43 


61 


dicro 


44 


62 


ditto !47 


60 00 


70 00 43 00 


6i 


ditto 44 


62 


ditto 47 


61 00 


72 0042 00 


62 


ditto 43 


63 1 


ditto 48 


62 00 


74 00 


41 00 


63 


ditto 


48 


62 00 


76 00 


41 00 


63 


dicto 


47 . 


64 


ditto 


49 


62 00 


78 00 


40 00 


63 


ditto 


42 


64 


ditto 


49 


63 00 


80 00 


40 00 


64 


ditto 


49 


60 00 


82 00 


38 00 


61 


ditto . 


39 


62 


ditto 


40 


63 


ditto 


42 


64 


ditto 44 


50 00 


84 00 


19 00 


51 


ditto 


20. 


51 


ditto 


21 


52 


ditto 


22 


53 


ditto 


23 


54 


ditto 


24 


55 - 


ditto 


25 - 


56 


ditto 


26 


57 


ditto 


27 


58 


ditto 


27 ~ 


59 


ditto 


28 


60 


ditto 


29 


61 


ditto 


30 


I62 


dicto 


40 



Obf. 



Obf. 






1 



Obf. 



g5 



.^ 



Lat. 



J04. 



Lat. , 


Long. 


"Variat. 


Obf. 


D. M.I 


D. M. 


D. M. 


55 oo 


86 00 


22 00 


56 . 


ditto 


23 




57 


ditto 


24 




58 


ditto 


25 


sr 


59 


ditto 


^e 


^ 
"t^ 


60 


ditto I27 


56 00 


88 00 


22 00 


« 


57 


ditto 


23 


bo 


^8 • 


ditto 


24 


^ 


59 


ditto 


25 




60 


ditto 


26 





Variatim of the Cmpafsl 
Lat. Long. 



D. M. 



57 00 

58 

60 • 



D. M. 



90 00 
ditto 
ditto 
ditto 



Variat. 



D. M. 



21 

22 
23 
24 



00 



ObC 



Note, The Letters Obf. are the 
ObfervationSj and the Letters 
Ac, are by EJHmation. 



An Vnufual 
Agitation in 
the Magneti- 
cal Needle, 
cbferved to 
laftforfotne 
Time, in a 
Voyaggfrom 
Maryland, 
hy Capt. Wal- 
ter Hoxton 
N». 417. p.; 
53- 



An Account 
of A freatife 
intituled. 
Calculations 
and Tables 
relating to the 
axtraflive Vir- 
tue of Load- 
ftones, i^c. 
Printed An- 
no 1729. No. 
412. pag/ 

»4S- 



VII. On xht kcon^ of September^ 1724, a little after Noon, being 
in Latitude 41*^ 10' N. and Difference of Longitude from Cape 
Henr'j in Virginia about 28^ 00' E. the Weather fair, a moderate 
Gale, and fmooth Sea, my Mate, who was on the Deck, came and 
told me, that the Compafs traverfed fo much that he could not pof- 
fibly fteer by it : Whereupon I went up, and after trying it in Icve^ 
ral Parts of the Ship, found what he faid to be true. I then had all 
my CompafTes brought up, and placed in different Parts of the 
Ship, and in Places mod remote from Iron, and, to my great Surprize 
found them all in the fame Condition ; fo that we could not fteer by 
any of them. J then new touched fome of them with a Loadftone, 
which I always carry with me ; and left that Ihould affed them, fent 
it out to the End of the Bowfpreet 5 but I did not perceive that 
the new touching was of any Service, for they all continued traverf- 
ing very fwiftly, for about an Hour after I came on the Deck, and 
then on a fudden every one of them ftood as well as ufual. During 
the whole Time, the Ship had very little Motion \ and I had an 
Azimuth Compafs, and four or five others. 

VIII. The Author, (the Hon. Lord Pai/fey) by feveral Experiments 
very carefully made, has obferved, that if two Loadftones are pcr- 
fcftly honfiogencous, that is, if their Matter be of the fame fpecific 
Gravity, and of the fame Virtue in all Parts of one Stone, as in the 
other, and that like Parts of their Surfaces are capped or armed with 
Iron, then the Weights they fuftain will be as the Squares of the 
Cube Roots of the Weights of the Loadftones; that is, as their 
Surfaces. Upon this Principle the Tables are formed. The firft 
Column of thefe Tables is in common to the four* following, 
and helps to (hew how many times it's Weight any Loadftone fu- 
ftains. 

In 



'An Account of a Book intituled^ Calculations and Tables &c. 305 

In the fecond, third, fourth and fifth Columns, are the Weights 
of Load-ftones in different Denominations. The fecond, intituled 
Grains, reaches Grain by Grain to 480 Grains, or one Ounce, and 
will ferve for any Load-ftone, whofe Weight does not exceed one 
Ounce. The third reaches, by Penny- weights, up to two Pounds, 
or 480 Penny-weights, and therefore fcrves for any Stone that 
weighs not lefs than one Penny-weight, nor more than two Pound. 
The fourth Column reaches, by Ounces, up to forty Pounds, or 
480 Ounces, and therefore will ferve for any Stone not exceeding 
that Weight. The fifth ferves from one to 480 Pounds, The fixth 
Column intituled. Weight fuftained, is in common to the four pre- 
ceeding ; and the Numbers in this Table, if they were divided by 
10, would be the Squares of the Cube Roots of the Numbers in 
natural Order, from i to 480, as they are found in the Column of 
Pounds. But thefe Squares of the Cube Roots are here multiplied 
by ten, becaufc a Load-ftone of the very worft Sort, if it weighs 
but one Grain, will fuftain ten Grains; and fo thefe Tables, by 
fimple Infpeftion, Ihew what Number, of Grains any Load-ftone of 
that worft Charader would fuftain, if the Stone weigh not more 
than 480 Grains, or one Ounce. The Numbers in the firft Column 
intituled. How often it's Weight, are proportional to the Recipro- 
cals of the Cube Roots of the natural Numbers, and are formed 
by dividing the Numbers of the fixth Column, by the corre- 
fponding natural Numbers, as they are found in the Column of 
Pounds. 

For the greater Convenience of Calculation, his Lordfliip has ad- 
ded Tables; firft of Decimal Parts for Penny- weights. Ounces, and 
Pounds, in order to lofe as little as poffible of the Fractions, in the 
feveral Calculations; The next are Tables of Grains, Penny- 
weights, Ounces, and Pounds, which readily ihew how many of 
each Denomination are contained in the others. The Tables intitu- 
led. From Grains to Penny- weights, i^c. and the others from the 
feveral Denominations to others, are of Ufe for carrying the Com- 
putation readily from any one Denomination to another : And laft- 
Jy, the Tables at the Bottom of thefe laft mentioned are of the like 
Ufe, for the ready finding the Value in Money of any Load-ftone, 
from the Numbers proper to Grains, to Penny-weights, to Ounces, 
and to Pounds. 

The Honourable Author then proceeds to explain the Ufe of 
thefe Tables, by Inftances under each Denomination. Thus, if a 
Load-ftone does not exceed one Ounce, or 480 Grains, the particu- 
lar Weight of the Stone, with the Weight it fuftains, being known, 
he reduces the Weight fuftained to Grains, by the Help of the Ta- 
ble of Grains. Then looking into the Column of Grains for the 
Weight of the Stone, againft it, in the Column of Weight fuftained, 

VOL. VL Partii. Q^q he 



308 An Account of the Toyfon Wood Tree in Ncw-Enghncf, 

not laft long ; the in fide of the Wood is yellow and very full of Juice, 
as glutinous as Honey or Turpentine; the Wood itfelfhas a very 
ftrong unfavory Smell, but the Juice (links as bad as Carrion. Ha- 
ving thus defcribcd the Tree, we (hall now proceed to give an ac- 
count of it's Poifonous Quality, fcfr. 

1. And firft, it muft be obfervedj that it poyfons two ways, ci- 
ther by touching or handling of it, or by the Smell ; for the Scene 
of it, when cut down in the Woods, or on the Fire, has poi(bned 
Perfons to a very great degree. One of my. Neighbours was blind 
for above a Week together, with only handling it. And a Gentle- 
man in the Country, fitting by his Fire-fide in the Winter, was 
fwelled for feveral Days with the Smoak or Flame of fomc Poyfon- 
Wood that was in the Fire. 

2. A fecond thing to be remarked of the Poyfon-Wood is, that it 
has this e(Feft only on fome particular Perfons and Conftitutions ; for 
I have feen my own Brother not only handle, but chew it without 
any harm at all. And fo by the fame Fire one (hall be poifoned and 
another not at all afTeffced. 

3. But then Thirdly, this fort of Poyfon is never Mortal, and will 
go off in a few Days of it felf, like the Sting of a Bee ; but general- 
ly the Perfon applies Plantain Water, or Sallet-Oyl and Cream. 

4. As to it's Operation, within a few Hours after the Perfon is 
poyfoned, he feels an itching Pain that provokes a Scratching, which 
is followed by an Inflammation andSwelling ; fometime a Man's Legs 
only have been poyfoned, and have run with Water. 

My Neighbour that was fo fadly poyibned with handling it, told 
me one thing very remarkable of the Wood, and that is, that when 
he touched it, he plainly perceived it to differ from the other Wood, 
that he was throwing up into his Cart ; for it was as cold as a piece 
of Ice ; and withal afTured me, he could diftinguifh it blindfold, or 
in the dark, from any other Wood in the World, by it's Coldnefs ; 
but the poor Man is as much afraid of it, when he goes into the 
Woods, as of a Rattle-Snake. He further tells me, that he felt an 
itching in a few Hours after he had handled the Wood, but the fwel- 
ling did not come on till in about three Days. 

2. The Account I had of the Poyfon-Tree from Mr More (which 
ATartler Ac- probably he had from Mr Dudkj) is as follows. 
ZTerrtsy ^he Poyfon-Tree grows to the^bignefs of Elder ; I never faw the 
WiJfiam She Leaf; the Wood is as cold as Ice. When laid on the Fire, of 5 or 
rard, I L. D. 6 PerfonS (itting by it^ fome will fall a fwooning, fainting, or yawn- 
hi^ ^6 ^"8> continuing fo for fome Days, others but a few Hours, and 

147.^ ^-^ others of the Company not at all. I handle, cut and burn it with im- 
. . punity ; and fo it is with feveral others, I fuppofe, according to their 
fevcr^ Conftitutions. It was never known to kill any Body, but 

2 only 



A Defcription of the Saffron. 309 

only to do Kurt to fome Perfons. I have fent you all the Seeds of 
it, I can get. • ' - • 

The Seeds he fent were but few, but I had a good quantity from 
Mr. Catejb^ in Carolina. He calls it a Water Shrub, of which he 
never faw Leaf or Flower. 'Tis a fpecies of Toxicodendron ^ tho* not 
nam*d by Dr Tournefort in his Inftitutions, p. 610. but I believe it to 
be Arbor Americana alatis foliis^ fucco laEleo^ venenata, Pluknet. Almag. 
45. Tab. 145. Fig. i. which is a Species of Toxicodendron Aat grew 
formerly at Cbelfey Garden. What makes me think it to be this, is 
Mr Dudley^s writing 'tis like a Sumach^ and that it is by fome called 
the Swamp Sumach 5 this in its manner of growing and alated Leaves, 
very much refcmbles the Sumach or Rhus ; the Fruit is a white roun- 
difli dry Berry, growing in Clufters, fo Ifke that of Toxicodendron 
tripbyllon folio JinuatOy pubefcente^ Inft. R. Herb. 611. Hedercs trifolic^ 
Canadenfi affinis planta : Arbor venenata quorundam H. R. Paris, as 
fcarce to be diftinguifhed from it. 

IL I. The Flower is of the Lilly Kind, monopetalous ^^fi*^^^^^^^* jDgf^ritti 
formSy without any Calyx or Perianthium^ it's long fiftulous Beginning oftbeFlw^ 
being afterwards expanded into fix beautiful oblong Segments. A.A. and Seedy$f- 

The Petalum is diftinguiflied into a long, hollow or fiftulous Part, ^^6/^'^^ 
which lies inclofed within the common and proper Involucra ^^ ^^^ q^q^^/^^/ 
Plant, arifing from the Top of the Ovarium^ or Seed-Veffel^ and fix tumnalisSaii- 
Segments. a. a. vus, that pro* 

While this narrow, tubulous Part runs between the Leaves and In- ^^^"J^J^^^ 
teguments that furround them, it is of a white Colour; but, ^s foon ^^"^ ^ 3^ 
as it is difenaged from thefe, it infenfibly acquires a Purple Colour, shops: ^« 
which, a little before it's Divifion, as it begins to be enlarged, and James 
grow more open, inclines to a Red. I>ougias, 

This narrow fiftulous Part of the Flower, about i or 2 Inches a- iSfo^'/^*^* 
bove the Tbeca Communis^ forms fix foliaceous Segments, or divides^!/ °' ^" 
into fo many oblong Purple- coloured Petala. b. c. 

Three of thefe Flower-Leaves are larger than the other three. Fig. 106. 
but in all other Refpefts, are much alike, c. c. c. Petalon. 

' The Length of the largeft is from i i, to 2 Inches ; the Breadth 
feldom above i Inch : The fhorter Leaves are from i, to i i Inch 
rn Length, their Breadth being fomething lefs in Proportion. 

The Infide of each Petalum is of a Violet Purple-Colour, vein*d 
with a few fmall Lines of a deeper Dye, running length-ways, inter- 
mixed with WhitCj or the whole is beautifully checqiiered with Blue ; 
and White Colours. 

The Outfide is of a whiter Blue, with feveral whitifli Rifings or 
Ridges, and juft at the Bottom of the Leaf it is of a deeper Blue ; 
the three fmall Leaves b.b.b. are much of the fame Colour, only 
the Purple fcems to be fomething deeper. 

The 



[a A ^efcriptidn of the Saffm. 

The Number of che Petala is, for the moft Part, 6; yet, in feme 

Flowers wc may obferve 7, or 8 j buc then they are not fo large as 

when they are fewer. 

mina. In every Flower there are three Stamina^ or Chives, ^d.d.d. properly 

fo called, arifing from the inner Surface of the tubular Pare of the 

Flower, juft before it's Divifion into the Petala^ where they make, 

for fome Space, an apparent Ridge, and then they Hand upright, 

oppofice to the three large Leaves ; they are of a whitifh Colour, 

inclining to a light Purple, being but liccle above i of an Inch in 

Length 

In thofe Plants that have 7 or more Petala^ the Number of the 
Stamina is likewifc encreafed to 5^, or more. 
.iV^j. Each of thefe Stamina has it*s propor ApeXy e. e. e. which is a pe- 

culiar longifh Subftance, ftanding upright, oppolite to the larger 
Flower- Leaves, of a Yellow Colour, forked, not unlike (he Tongue 
of a fmallBird, at the lower End, where it is fixed to the Stamen % 
here likewife it is broadeft, but as it afcends it becomes narrower, 
andat's upper Extremity is a little crooked, or turned to one Side : 
It feMom exceeds ^ inch in Length. 

It appears as if it was double, with a longitudinal Furrow in the 
middle, in which Hollow che Stamen feems to be faintly continued 
fox fotne Space. 

When the Plant is full grown, they are all loaded with that Kind, 
of ilnall Duft called Farina facundans. 
farium. Ovarium^ called likewife the Vafcukm SeminaU^ and Pijiillum by 

fome, //, 

Is a particular Body, which arifes from the' Top of the Peduncu* 
lusj g. about 4: of an Inch long, or a little more, of a deep White 
Colour, three cornered, and divided into three Loculamenta^ or Cap- 
fulaj in which the Seeds Cwhich however feldom come to Perfection 
with usj are formed, growing bigger and bigger after the Flower falls 
off', nay, even in this blooming State, if you cut this Veflelacrofs the 
middle, you may perceive the whitifh Rudiments of the Seeds. 
'^«^ From the upper Part, or JpeXj of the Ovarium^ arifes the Stylus^ 

b. which is a long (lender Tube, that lies enclofed within the tubu- 
lous or fiftular Portion of the Flower, being there of a whitifh Co- 
lour, but changing into a Yellow before it's Divifion. 

This Style ordinarily fplits into 3 Parts, juft oppofite to the Top 
of the Stamina^ where the Apices izkt their Rife, i. i. i. and thus far 
it ftands upright in the Middle of the Stamina ; for the fake of which 
only, this Plant is cultivated, and being prepared, (as ihall hereafter 
be defcribed) makes the true Saffron of the Shops, which we fo fre- 
quently ufe in Phyfic. 

I call thefe Parts of the Stylus^ from their Figure and Shape, Ca- 
pillamenta Tubiformia, or. Appendices Styli Salpingoetdes^ in as much as 
they very exactly reprefent a Trumpet, and are not unlike the Fal- 

lopan 



The Culture and Management of Saffron in England. 3 1 1 

hpian Tube in Women, being narrow at their Origin,, and growing 
gradually larger towards their other Extremity ; which like the com- 
mon Trumpet, is open and expanded; and, like the Tuba Fallopfti^ 
is jagged, or fringed at the Edge, Vid. Lit. *, *, k. 

It may alfo be very fitly named Crocus officinarum^ becaufe that is 
the Part only that is ufed in the Shops. 

^Thcy arc of a Yellow Colour, juft at their Beginning, continued 
from the upper Part of the Stylusy^ but afterward they are all of a 
deep Red Colour, only their jagged Extremities are tlpt with White 
inclining to a Yellow. 

Thefc Tuba^ or Capllamenta^ are from i, to i 1 Inch in 
Length. 

The Stylus^ while undivided, is ftrong enough to fupport itfelf, fee- 
ing enclofed within the tubular Part of the Flower ; but the Capillar 
menta being very weak and flender at their Beginning, this occafions 
them to hang down between the Petala. 

The Figure reprefents a Root of the Saffron- Plant, that has two 
Stalks enclofed in one common Vagina^ the whole Flower with the 
Stamina and Jpices in one, and the Stylus only in the other ; with the 
Leaves, Pedunculiy and Ovarium in both, being fairly delineated from 
the Life. 

jl.jf. The Flower expanded into Jix beautiful Segments, a. a. The 
Fiftulous Part of the Flower, b. c, Tbeftx Petala. c. c. c. The three lar- 
ger Fetzh. b.b.b. The three fmaller ones. d.d. The three Stamimy or 
Chives, e. e. e. The three Apices. /./. The Vafculum Seminale. g. g. 
The Pedunculi. h. h. The Stylus, i. i. i. The three Capillamenta Tubi- 
formia. k.k.k. The jagged Extremity of the Capillamenta. B. B. The 
Root. C. C. The Grajfy Leaves. 

2. As Saffron grows at prefent moft plentifully ii^ Camhridgr/hirfj The Culture 
and has grown formerly in fevcral other Counties of England^ thc^^^^^i^ 
Method of Culture docs not I believe, vary much in any of them, f^i{^ll 
and therefore I have judged it fufficient to fet down here the Obfer- gjand. by tbi 
vations which I employed proper Perfons, in different Seafons, to fame^^^ d^o^. 
make in the Years 1723, 24, 25, and 28, up and down all that P- 5^ 
large Traft of Ground that lies between Saffron-Walden and Cam- 
bridge^ in a Circle of about ten Miles Diameter. In that Country 
Saffron has been longeff; cultivated, and therefore it may reafonably 
be expeAed that the Inhabitants thereof are more throughly acquain- 
ted with it than they are any where clfe. 

I fhall begin with the Choice and Preparation of the Ground. 
The greateft Part of the Traft already mentioned is an open level 
Country with few Inclofures; and the Cuflom there is, as in molt 
other Places, to crop two Years, and lee the Land lie fallow the 
third. Saffron is always planted upon fallow Ground, and all other 
Things being alike, they prefer that which has born Barley the Year 
before. 

The 



3 1 z The Culture and Management of Saffron in England. 

The Saffron grounds arc feldom above three Acres, or left than 
one, and in choofing them, the principal Thing they have. Regard 
to is, that they be well expofed, the Soil not poor, nor a very ft iff 
Glay, but a temperate dry Mold, fuch as commonly lies upon Chalk, 
and is of a hazel Colour ; though if every Thing elfe anfwers, the 
Colour of the Mold is pretty much neglefted. 

The Ground being made choice of, about Lady-day, or the Be- 
ginning of Aprils it muft be carefully ploughed, the Furrows beirf|; 
drawn much clofer together and deeper, if the Soil will allow it, 
than is done for any Kind of Corn, and accordingly the Charge is 
greater. 

About five Weeks after, or during any Time in the Month of 
Ma^y they lay between twenty and thirty Loads of Dung upon each 
Acre, and having fpread it with great Care, they plough it in as 
before. The fhorteft rotten Dung is the beft; and the Farmers who 
have the Conveniencies of making it, fpare no Pains to make it good, 
being fure of a proportionable Price for it. About Midfummer, 
they plough a third Time, and between every fixteen Foot and an 
half, or Pole in Breadth, they leave a broad Furrow or Trench, 
which ferves both for a Boundary to the feveral Parcels, (when there 
are feveral Proprietors to one Enclofure) and to throw the Weeds in 
at the Proper Seafon. 

To this Head likewife belongs the Fencing of the Gro unds, be- 
/ caufe moft commonly, though not always, that is done before they 
plant. The Fences confift of what they call dead Hedges, or 
Hurdles to keep out not only Cattle of all Sorts, but e^ecially 
Hares, which would otherwife feed on the Saffron Leaves during the 
Winter. 

About the Weather we need only obferve, that the hotteft Sum- 
mers are certainly the beft, and if therewith there be gentle Showers 
from time to time, they can hardly mifs of a plentiful rich Crop, if 
the extream Cold, Snow, or Rain of the foregoing Winter have not 
prejudiced the Heads. 

The next general Part of the Culture of Saffron, is planting or fet- 
ting the Roots ; the only Inftrument ufed for which, is a narrow 
Spade, commonly termed a Spit-Jhovel. 

The Time of Planting is commonly in the Month ofjuly^ a little 
fooner or later, according as the Weather anfwers. The Method is 
this. One Man with his Spit- (hovel raife, between three and four 
Inches of Earth, and throws it before him about fix, or more Inches; 
twoPerfons, generally Women, following him with Saffron-heads, place 
them in the fartheft Edge of the Trench he makes at three Inches 
diftance from one another, or thereabouts. As foon as the Digger 
or Spicter has gone once the Breadth of the Ridge, he begins again at 
the other Side, and digging as before, covers the Roots laft fet, and 
makes the fame Room for the Setters to place a new Row, at the 

fame 



Tbe Culture and Management of Saffron in England. 3 1 j 

feme Dillance from the firft^ that they are from one another. Thus 
they go on till a whole Ridge, containing commonly one Rod, is 
planted, and the only Nicety in digging is to leave fome Part of the 
firft Stratum of Earth untouched to lie under the Roots; and in fct- 
ting, to place the Roots direftly upon their Bottoms. What Sort of 
Roots are to be preferred, fhall be fliown under the fourth Head \ 
but it muft be obferved in this Place, that formerly when Roots were 
very dear, they did not plant them fo thick as they do now ; and 
that they have always fome Regard to the Size of the Roots, placing> 
the largeft at a greater Diftance than the fmall ones. 

The Quantity of Roots planted in an Acre is generally about fix- 
tcen Quarters, or 128 Bufliels, which according to the Diftances 
left between them, as before affigned, and fuppofmg them all to be 
an Inch in Diameter one with another^ ought to amount to 392040 
in Number. ' , 

From the Time that the Roots are planted, till about the Begins 
ning of September J or fometimes later, there is no more Labour a^ 
bout them ; but as they then begin to fpire, and are ready to fhew 
themfelves above Ground, which is known by digging a fey out of 
the Earth, the Ground muft be carefully pared with a iharp Hough, 
and the Weeds, ^c. raked into the Furrows, becaufe otherwife they 
would hinder the Growth of the Plants. 

In fome Time after appear the Saffron Flowers, and this leads us 
to the third Branch of our prefent Method. The Flowers are ga- 
thered as well before, as after they are fult blown, and the moft 
proper Time for this, is early in the Morning. The Owners of the 
Saffron get together a fufficient Number of Hands, who place them- 
felves in different Parts of the Field, pull off* the whole Flowers, 
and throw them Handful by Handful into a Bafket ; and fo continue 
till all the Flowers are gathered, which happens commonly about ten 
or eleven o'Clock. 

Having then carried home all they have got, they immediately 
fpread them upon a large Table, and placing themfelves round it, 
they fall to picking out the Filamenta, Styli, or Chives, and together 
with them, a pretty long Portion of the Stylus itfelf, or String to 
which they are joined. The reft of the Flower they throw away as 
ufelefs. The next Morning they return into the Field again, whe* 
ther it be wet or dry Weather, and fo on daily, even on Sundays^ 
till the whole Crop be gathered. 

The Chives being all picked out of the Flowers, the next Labour 
about them is to dry them on the Kiln. The Kiln is built upon ^ 
thick Plank fthat it may be moveable from Place to Place) fuppor- 
ted by four fhort Legs. The Outfide confifts of eight Pieces of 
Wood, about three Inches thick, joined in Form of a quadrangular 
Frame, about twelve Inches fquare at Bottom on the Infide, and 
twenty-two Inches at Top^ which is likewife equal to the perpendicur 

VOL. VI. Partii. Rr lar 



314 ^^^ Culture and Management of Saffren in England. 

lar Hetghc of it. On the Forefide is left a Hole about eight Inches 
fquare, and four Inches above the Plank, through which the Fire 
is put in. Over all the reft. Laths are laid pretty clofc to one ano- 
ther, and nailed to the Frame already mentioned, and then are 
plaiftered over on both Sides, as is alfo the Plank at Bottom very 
thick, to fervc for a Hearth, Over the Mouth, or wideft Part, 
goes a Hair-C|oth fixed to two Sides of the Kiln, and likewife to two 
Rollers, or moveable Piedes of Wood, which are turned by Wedges 
or Screws, in order to ftretch the Cloth. Inftead of the Hair-Cloth 
many People now ufe a Net- work of Iron -wire, with which it is ob- 
ferved, that the Saffron dries fooner, and with a lefs Quantity of 
Fewel; but the Difficulty of preferving the Saffron from burn« 
ing, makes the Hair-Cloth be preferred by the niceft Judges ia 
drying. 

The Kiln is placed in a light part of the Houfe, and they begin by 
laying five or ux Sheets of white Paper on the HairXloth, upon 
which they fpread the wet Saffron, between two and three Inches 
thick. This they cover with other Sheets of Paper, and over thcfc 
lay a co^fe Blanket five or fix times doubled, or inftead thereof, a 
Canvas Pillow filled with Straw, and after the Fire has been lighted 
for fome time, the whole is covered with a Board, having a large 
Weight upon it. 

At firft they give it a pretty ftrong Heat, to make the Chives 
fweat, as their Expreflion is ; and in this, if they do not ufe a great 
deal of Care, they are in danger of fcorching, and fooffpoiling all 
that is on the Kiln. 

When it has been thus dryed for about an Hour, they take oflFthe 
Board, Blanket, and upper Papers, and take the Saffron off from 
that which lies next it, raifing at the fame time the Edges ofthe Cake 
with a Knife. Then laying on the Papers again, they Aide in ano- 
ther Board between the Hair- Cloth and under- Papers, and turn 
both Papers and Saffron upfide down, afterwards covering them as 
above. 

This fame Heat is continued for an Hour longer ; then they look 
to the Cake again, free it from the Papers^ and turn it ; then they 
cover it, and lay on the Weight as before. If nothing happens 
amifs, during thefe firft two Hours, they reckon the Danger to be 
over-, for they have nothing more to do, but to keep a gentle 
Fire, and turn their Cake every half Hour, 'till it be thoroughly 
dry -, for doing which as it ought, there are required full twenty- four 
Hours. 

In drying the large plump Chives they ufe nothing *, but towards 
the latter End of the Crop, when thefe come to b^ fmaller, they 
fprinkle the Cake with a little fmall Beer, to make it fweac as it 
ought; and they begin now to think, that ufing two linnen Cloths 
next the Cake» inftead of the two innermoft Papers, may be of 
* 2 fome 



The Culture and Management of Saffron in England. 315 

fome Advantage in drying i but this Pradice is followed as yet but 
by few. 

Their Fire may be made of any kind of Fewel ; but that which 
fmoaks the leaft is beft, and Charcoal for that Reafon is preferred to 
any other. 

What Quantity of Saffron a firft Crop will produce is very un- 
certain. Sometimes five or fix Pounds of wet Chives are got from 
one Rod ; fometimes not above one or two, and fometimes not e* 
nough to make it worth while to gather and dry it* But this is al- 
ways to be obferved, that about five Pounds of wet Saffron go to 
make one Pound of dry, for the firft three Weeks of the Crop, and 
fix Pounds during the laft Week -, and now the Heads are planted 
very thick, two Pounds of dryed Saffron may, at a Medium, be 
allowed to an Acre for a firft Crop, and four and twenty Pounds for 
the two remaining, the third being confiderably larger than the 
fecond. 

In order to obtain thefe, there is only a Repetition to be made 
every Year of the Labour of houghing, gathering, picking and dry- 
ing, in the fahie manner as before fet down, without the Addition of 
any thing new ; except that they let Cattle into the Fields, after the ^ 
Leaves are decayed, to feed upon the Weeds i or perhaps mow them 
for ^he fame Ufe. 

About the Mtdfummer after the third Crop is gathered, the Roots 
muft all be taken up and tranfplanted : The Management requifite 
for which is the fourth Thing to be treated of. To take up the Saf- 
fron Heads, or break up the Ground, as their Term is, they fome- 
times plough it, fometimes ufe a forked Kind of Hough called a 
Pattock, and then the Ground is harrowed once or twice over; du- 
ring all which Time of ploughing, or digging and harrowing, fif- 
teen or more People will find Work enough to follow and gather the 
Heads as they are turned up. 

They are next to be carried to the Houfe in Sacks, and there 
to be cleaned or raifed. This Labour confifts in clearing the Roots 
thoroughly from Earth, and from the Remains of old Roots, old \n* 
volucra, and Excrefcencies; and thus they become fit to be planted 
in new Ground immediately, or to be kept for fome Time without 
Danger of fpoiling. 

The Quantity of Roots taken up, in Proportion to thofc that were 
planted, is uncertain ; but at a Medium it may be faid, that allow, 
ing for all the Accidents that happen to them in the Ground, and in 
breaking up, from each Acre may be had twenty- four Quar- 
ters of clean Roots, all fit to be re-planted. The Owners 
arc fure to choofe for their own Ufe the largeft, plumpeft, and 
fatteft Roots, but above all, they rejeft the longifli pointed ones, 
which they call Spickets or Spickards j for very fmall round or flat 
iRoots are fometimes obferved to fiower. 

R r 2 This 



o 
O 10 o 

O 12 O 



,i5 The Culture and Managefnent of Saffrtm in England: 

This is the whole Culture of Saffron in the Country above-men- 
tioned ; and we have only now s> eonfidcr the Charges and Profits 
which may be fuppofcd, one Ycaftf ith another, to attend this Branch 
of Agriculture \ and of thcfe I have drawn up the following Compu- 
tation for one Acre of Ground, according to the Price of Labour in 
this County. ^- ^- ^• 

Rent for three Years ■ 3 <> o 

Ploughing three Times -^— o i8 o 

Dunging ■ 3 ^^ o 

Hedging i i6 o 

Spitting and fctting the Heads — i 12 o 

Weeding, or paring the Ground 140 

Gathering and picking the Flowers — 6 10 o 
Drying the Flowers ■■■ — ~- ^ 6 

Inftruments of Labour for three" 

Years with the Kiln, about 

Ploughing the Ground once and har- 
rowing twice — — —— ■ 
Gathering the Saffron Heads ■' 1 00 o 

Raifing the Heads i 12 o 

Total Charge 23 12 o 

This Calculation is made upon the Suppofition, that-an Acre of 
Ground yields twenty fix Pounds of neat Saffron in three Years, 
which I ftated only as a mean Quantity between the greateft and the 
Jcafl: 5 and therefore the Price of Saffron muft be adjufted accord* 
ingly, which I think cannot be done better than by fixing it at thirty 
Shillings per Pound ; fince in very plentiful Years it is fold for twen- 
ty, and is fometimes worth between three and four Pounds. At this 
Rate, twenty-fix Pounds of Saffron are worth thirty-nine Pounds, 
and the neat Profits of an Acre of Ground producing Saffron, will in 
three Years amount to fifteen Pounds thirteen Shillings, or to about 
five Pounds four Shillings yearly. This, I fay, may be reckoned 
the neat Profit of an Acre of Saffron, fuppofing that all the Labour 
were to be hired for ready Moneys but as the Planter and his Fa- 
mily do a confidcrable Part of the Work themfelves, fome of this 
Expence is faved : That is, by planting Saffron, he not only may 
reafonably expeft to clear about five Pounds yearly per Acre, but 
alfo to maintain himfclf and Family for fome Part of each Year ; and 
it is upon this Suppofition only, that the Refult of other Computa- 
tions which have been made of the Profits of Saffron, can be faid to 
have any tolerable Degree of Exadtnefs ; but the Calculations them* 
felves are undoubtedly very unaccurate. 

I have faid nothing here concerning the Charge in buying, or Pro- 
fits in felling the Saffron Heads, becaufe in any large Tra£t of Ground 
2 thefe 



A DiJferUtlon on the Scythian Lamb. 317 

^efe muft at length always ballance one another, while the Quantity 
of Ground planted yearly continues the fame, which has been pretty 
much the Cafe for feveral Years paft. 

III. Agnus diftus Vegetabilis Scythicus, Barbaro nomine Barametz a DifertaHon 
Borometz vel Boranetz inter Hiftorise Nac. Scriptores eft notus. ontheSQyiKi- 

Dc hoc imprimis egerunt Athanafius Kircherus in Operede Arte *" ^"^^' 
Magnetica, {a) qui cicat Sigifmundum L. B. ab Herberftcin, Hay- ^rl^'iJ,^'^ 
tonem Armenum, Surium & Jul. Caef. Scaligerum, Francifcus Baco jif.^i" Din- 
de Vcrulamio, {b) Fortunius Licetus, {c) Andreas Libavius, {d) Eu- tifc. F.R.S^ 
fcbius Nierenbergius, {e) Adamus Olearius (f) & Olaus Wormius, ^'*- 39®- 1«& 
{g) ut cseteros, quos inter multi Botanici, qui eandem fere canunt ^^^' 
cancilenam, nunc taceam. 

Hunc Julius Caef. Scaliger (A) titulo Agni Scythici, Borametz, 
lequentem in modum defcribit : *< Superiora ludum putes, prout eft: 
" admirabilis Tartaricus frutex. Tartarorum horda primaria Zau- 
** olha eft, vetuftiffimse nobilitatis commendatione. In eo agro fe* 
" runt femen feminis Melonis fimillimum, fed minus oblongum, 
" Ex eo fatu plantam exire, quam Borametz, id eft, agnum vocanc, 
•* Crefcit enim agni figura ad pedum fere ternum altitudinem : quem 
** pedibus, ungulis, auribus, toto capite, praeterquam cornibus, rc- 
** pracfentat. Pro cornibus prlos gerit, fingularis cornu fpecie. Ob- 
" duciturcorio tenuiffimo: cujus detrafti ufus ad capitum tegmina 
** incolis. Ferunt internam pulpam Gammari referre cames. Cae- 
" terum e vulnerc quoque fanguincm manare. Dulcore cffe admi- 
^^ rabili. Radicem humo exertam furrigere ad umbilicum ufque iHud 
*' miracgli fovet magnitudinem, Quandiu vicinis obfidetur herbu- 
«* lis, tamdiu vivere, quafi agnum in laeto pafcuo. Abfumptis illis^ 
** tabefcere> atque interire. Idque non folum vel cafu, vel traftu 
•* temporis, fed etiam experiundi gratia, fubtradlis, atque ablatis 
" evcriire. Quin illud auget admirationem : appcti i Lupis eam, 
" non item ab aliis beftiis, quse carne vefcantur. Hoc quafi coHr 
" dimentum, atque intritum, ad fabulae, & agni allufionem. Iliud. 
" fcire velim : Ab .uno ftirpite, quatuordiflita crura cum fuis pedi- 
*' bus qui poflint provenire, atque produci. 

** Hasc, quod non ignorarem haud ingrata fore tibi, ca^terifque 
** Philologiae ftudiofis, enarravi partim a nobiliffimis, partim ab ex- 
♦* ercitatiflimis in rcrum Natura viris non folum lefta, fed etiam 
<^ audita : quibus ingenii tui amplifllma fpatia implere aliqua expar- 
** te poffes." 

Pari ratione caeteri cum defcribunt, vel potius ex Scaligero cxfcri- 
bunt Autbores, quorum tamen nonnuIH in quibufdam circumftantiis 

(a) Pag. 504, & 505. {b) Hiftor. Natur. Cent. 7. N^. 609. {c) Dc Spon- 

tanco Viventium Ortu. C. 45, (d) Hiftoria Agni Scythiae. (e) Hiftor. Natural. 

f' 34- ("/jDeltincrc Ytx^ico. p. m. 155. {g) Muf. /. 190. (i^) De Sabtili- 
tace contra Cardanum Exerc. 181. }. 29, & 30. 

variants 



318 A ^ijfertation on the Scythian Lamb. 

variant, & Athanafius Kircherus ejufdem addit, vel ut redius dicam 
fingic figuram. Imo in nonnuUis Rerum Nat. MuHeis, ut in Wor- 
miano, Swammerdammiano^ i^c. ejus, uti volunt, quondam demon- 
ftrabatur detradta pellis. 

Antonius Deufingius (i) rem accuratiori rationis trutina ex- 
am inans, fabulofa efle, quas de Agno hoc traduntur, fubolfecit, & 
ipfum Julium<^2Bf. Scaligerum, qui inter primos Authores, ut fu- 
pra diftum, ejus meminit, eum ut fabulam traftafle evincere conatur. 
Quemadmodum & alii, minus creduli, eundem in dubium voca* 
runt. 

Et revera totam hanc de hoc Agno Hiftoriam, fi ab animo prae- 
judiciis vacuo accurate examinetur, fabulam fapere, imo efle, & 
Deufingium rede judicafle, fequences evincunt rationes. 

i^. Quia a nullo fide digno Authore Agnus ejufmodi Vegetabilis 
unquam vifus. Quae enim Olaus Wormius (k) narrat ex relatione 
D. Eovaldi de Kleifs, Eledoris Brandenburgici Legati, (ipfi fcilicet 
in confinibus Tartariae degenti a Tartaro quodam fuifle oblatam ejuf« 
modi plantam exficcatam, foliis Tabaci, cujus cauli adhxrebat 
frudus, agnellum figura plane referens, magnitudine pedali, vellere 
crifpo teftus) fufpefta funt, cum Vir ille Nobiliflimus, ab aftuto 
quodam Tartaro, ipfi fucum faciente facile feduci potuit^ Quid ve- 
rode pellibus, quae hoc nomine in Mufaela demonllrantur, fentiendum 
fit, ex infra dicendis apparebit. 

2^. Quia a Doftifl*. & RerumNat. ScientiflimoEngelberto Kaemp^ 
fero, M. D. (/) in fuppofita hujus Agni patria anxie licet quaefitus, 
tamen nihil huic fimile inventum ; haec enim ejus funt verba : " Quia 
^ de exiftentia Zoophyti gramina pafcentis, nullibi Tartariae apud 
<' vulgum, vel Botanicae pericos exeat notitia & memoria, prout ipfe 
*' ad rifum & naufeam exploravi, neque uUa res Borometz di&a, 
** praeterquam ovinum pecus ibidem poteft reperiri, meram efle, 
^^ quicquid de hac planta proditur, fi£tionem & fabulam afleri- 



«« rnus." 



3^. Denique quia tota de hoc Agno relatio fabulae adeo videtur 
fimilis, ac ovum ovo. 

Fabulae aucem hujus originem optime detexit diligentiflimus 
Naturae in Orientalibus Regionibus Scrutator, jam jahi laudatus 
Kaempferus loc. cit. ubi (praemiflis de Etymologia vocis Borometz, 
quod corruptum ait ex Mofcovitico Boranetz, Polonicc Baranek, 
quod diminutivum eft vocus Baran Sclavonicse originis, Polonis Ruf« 
fifque ovem fignificantis^ ait, in quibufdarfi Provinciis circa Cafpium 
Mare efle quoddam ovium genus, praeter vulgare nobis cognitum, 
quod ab eo in multis difcrepat, imprimis commendabile pellium 

(f) £e AgQo Vegetabili, quod extat in Fafciculo ejus Diflertationum felefbrum, f. 
^98. & feq. (k) /. r. (/} Obfervat. de Agno Scythico f. fru6la Borometz qujc extac 
la DiiTerc. fua inattgarali, nee non in Amoeniutum Bjcoticanun Fafciculo UL Obf. 1 . 

elegantia 



A Dijfertatian m the Scythian Lamb. 319 

elegantia, quas defcribic, & qua ratione ad ufus pro veftimentis ador- 
nandis Tartaris Perfifque familiares prseparentur, docec, & addic : 
^* Magnatumdivicumque faftum fupra vulgi forcem amiciri cupien- 
•• tern, pullorum pelliculas expcterc, qui annofis mulco tencriorcs 
•• & CO quidem cariores, quo juniorcs fuerunt agnelli, quibus dc- 
** tra£ls func ; horum enim pili a pellionibus cogi patiuntur in Tub- 
** tiiiores & denfiores cirros, qui toti pelliculsB pretium & vcnuftatcm 
^' Cribuunc Inde fit, uc tenericatis & lucri infidiatores non vercantur 
** ipfam anticipare, crudeli laniena, nativicacem, & matribus uterum 
*' gerencibus, diflTeAo ventre partum ante partum eximere, folius 
*^ gratia pellicular obtinendae. Hacc rite elaborata, tarn dubiam 
•* prorfus & dclicatiflimam teneritatem exhibet, ut rcfe£tis extremi- 
<^ tatibus, vix agninas cutis retineat fimilitudinem, fed ignaram cre- 
<^ dulicatem, fpecie quadam metnbranac cucurbitinas lanuginofas pof- 
*^ fit decipere. His fubjungit: Pretium pellicula, pro bonitatts 
** opinione, exfurgitad aureos tres, vel amplius*, fervit ea pro dupli- 
*< catione mitrarum, nee raro, ornatus gratia, togarum & amicu* 
** lorum Jimbum confticuit. Tandem concludit: Sive fabula haec 
<* hatales debeat conjedburas alicujus contemplatoris Philofophi, five 
^* infcitiae tribuenda fit primi relatoris, qui per linguae ignorantiam^ 
*' vel incuriam, in parergo rem auditam perperam intellexifie potuit, 
*^ five cuicunque acceptam referamus joccafioni alii, qua per longe 
** difiitas regiones paflim provedta, ambiguas teneritatis pellicula^ 
^* integritatem hiftoriae ac nominis fui amiferit: donee tandem appul- 
•* fa nobis cum prodigii lepore, in Virum illuftrem, curiofum & hu- 
<< jus peregrinas lanuginis admiratorem incidens, vegetabili vultu 
«* fiio fidem prodigii, ut folent mirabilia omnia, nullo negotio 
<< fecerir. Sic authoritate illuftratus error, mox fcriptis quoque 
^* firmatus, fapientiflimorum ingenia & vulgi opinionem ita occu- 
** pavit, ut hodie proZoophyti fpecie inter rariora Mufasorum ollen- 
^* tari foleat, quae verifllma Casfarei foetus pellicula eft". Haftenus 
iUe. 

Ex citatis patet pelles illas agninas Perficas quae a Pellionibus no- 
ftris l^erfiantTCfte "Bacanlten falutantur, hujus efle generis, quam- 
vis non optima? notae, illorum fcilicet agnorum, qui Casfarea fedione . 
ex Matrum uteris exfcinduntur, cum earum pretium, tefte Kasmp* 
fero ad aureos tres, vel amplius in ipfa eorum patria exfurgat, no« 
ftrae vero pretio longe minori apud nos, unico fcilicet aureo, ad fum« 
mum veneant. 

Interim ante triennium circiter Vir quidam eruditus & curiofus 
ex Mofcovia iter faciens & urbem noftram tranfiens, Mufseolum 
meum, inter alia quasdam Naturalia, Agno ejufmodi, ut vocabat» 
Scythico, quod pro genuino Borometz, ceu maghum Knfjii^iov ven- 
ditabat, ditavit. Hie fex pollicum praster propter erat longitudinis, 
capite cum auribus & quatuor cruribus inftru£tus, colons ferruginei 
& tocus lanugine quadam inftar pauni holofcrici villofi ^WXUUtt 

vulgo 



320 A T)iJfertation on the Scythian Lamb. 

vulgo di^li, tefbus, auribus & cruribus, qus glabra erant, coloris ad 
fufoum magis vergencis, excepcis. (*) ad examen vocatum cognovi 
non efle animalis naturae, ncque frudlum alicujus plantae, fed radicem 
cujufdam vegetabilis craffam, reptantem & villofam, vel pocius cau-i 
lem fcandencem plantas alicujus qui arte obftetricance figuram 
aliqualem animalis quadrupedis acquifiverat. Crura enim cfua^ 
cuor erant tot reliquiae caulium, vel (I mavis pediculorum al> 
fcifforum, qui folia fuftentaverant» quemadmodum & aures, qui 
tamen cornibus fimiliores; prseterea hinc inde emergentes fibra?, 
per quas more casterarum nutrimentum radix crafia, vel potius caulis 
& per hunc planta ceperat, nullum amplius relinquebant dubium. 
Quartum quoque crus anterius, non ut caetera corpori continua, fed 
arte erat intrufum, quemadmodum & ipfum cum colb capiit fubtili 
modo annexum, accuratiori examine deprehendi, Ut adeo hie Ag<» 
nus eodem artificio ex radice hac vel caule formatus fuerit, quo Ho- 
munciones ex Mandragoras & Bryonia^ radicibus qui dUCfiUtlCtt vul- 
go dicuntur ab Agyrtis. Remanfit mihi tamen dubium, ex qua 
planta hoc ludibrium artis & natura; effbrmatum fit, quanquam raox 
lubiit cogitatio illud plantae cuidam ex capillarium genere vulgo didto 
adfcribendum efle, cujus varia habebam indicia, ab analogia mihi 
cognitarum quarundam exoticarumfpecierum, nonnullarumque ab I1-* 
luftri D^ Hans Sloane & Rev. P. Carolo Plumier in fplendidiffimis 
fuis Operibus defcriptarum & delineatarum ; utpote, quarum diverfas 
caules fcandentes ejufmodi lanugine ferruginea / rufefcente mufco, 
ui: vocant, tedos emittunt. Interim tamen, ex qua fpecie praecifet 
determinare non volui, Peculiarem itaque forte nondum defcriptam 
fpeciem efle, quae in Tartaria reperitur, arbitror, donee cum tem- 
pore certiora edo£bus fuero. 

. Hanc meam fententiam confirmant, quae poftmodum legi in 
Tranfadionibus Fhilofophicis Anglicanis (m) ubi lUuftris Ds. Hans 
Sloaae, fimilem Agnum Scythicum fi£tum ex India Orientali nadus 
defcripflt & delineavit, qui tamen longe minus Agni figuram refertt 
quam meus membra tus. 

Credo autem ejufmodi Agnos ex certis radicibus vel caulibus in 
Mofcovia & Tartaria efiingi, ut aliquo modo Hifl;oriae Agni Scy« 
thici Vegetabilis adftruatur Veritas. Quis autem non videt hunc ab 
eo, qui a fupra citatis Authoribus defcribitur, plane diverfum, nee 
tanta admiratione dignum efle, cuni etiam hie ex variis radicibus 
varia portenta, qus rerum naturalium quarundam fimilitudinem ali- 
qualem habeant< eflingi poflint ; quemndmodxim fupra de Mandra- 
£orae radicibus retuli dum interim hie non magis agnus dicendus^ fed 

. (*). Fid Figuram natura dimcnfione exprcflam. (w) N'* 287. /861. qaodetiam 
reperitur in the Pbilofopbical Tranfa^ions abridged iy John Lowthorp, FoL 2. /.. 646. /. 
160. 

radix 



An Account of the Cinnamm Tree in Ceylon. ^n 

radix vel caulis revera eft & manec plantar cujufdam, ac Homunci- 
ones SUcaUltCn^ Belgice Pisse Dibfjbs (/r; didi, radices Man- 
dragorac. 

IV. I. The firft and beft Sort of Cinnamon, which grows in great ^ ^cenint rf 
Plenty in Ce^lon^ and is peculiar to that Ifland, is called by the Na- 5>'//^cr** 
tivcs RaJfeCorondej that is, (harp, fweet Cinnamon. *Tis this choice lon^ !^ J/v 
Sort, which is exported yearly by the Dutch Eaft- India-Company ^ by feverai Sorts. 
whom it hath been prohibited under fcvere Penalties, that no other Communicated 
Sort (hould be mixed with it. tfplS%bi 

The fecond Sort is called Canatte Coronde^ that is, bitter and ad- cinnamn 
ftringent Cinnamon \ for the Ceylonefe^ in their Language, call Cin- TradeandMM- 
namon in general Coronde^ and CanatU fignifies bitter and adftringent. *«/»^«^^ '» 
The Bark of this Tree comes off very eafilv, and fmells very agreea- JJ^'aCu? 
bly when frefli, but hath a bitter Tafte. It is an Advantage to us, scba, ^^ Am- 
that it doth not grow in great Plenty hereabouts, becaufe one might (lerd'ani. Trait* 
eafily miftake it for a better; as indeed, in general, it requires 2^ Jilted by the 
good deal of Skill and Attention fo to diftinguilh the Cinnamon ^^^^^j^^^^^ 
Trees from each other, as not to choofe now and then a worfe Sort n* 409. p. 
for the bcft. The Root of this fecond Tfee yields a very good fort 97, 
of Camphire. 

The third Sort is called Capperoe Coronde^ that is Camphorated Cin- 
namon, becaufe it hath a very ftrong Smell and Tafte of Camphire. 
It grows plentifully enough in the Ifland, but not in the Eaftern 
Parts of it : However, they find Means now and then to fend it o- 
ver privately, and fell it to the Danes and Englifh^ who come to 
Trade upon the Coafts of Cormandel \ for as long as there is but one 
Port in the Ifland left open, abundance of this fort of bad Merchan* 
dize'may be exported. Befides, there is fort of a Canella^ on the 
Continent of India^ about Goa^ which is very like this fort of Cin- 
namon Tree, though it hath nothing of the true Cinnamon. The 
fame fort of Canella agrees in many Things with the Canella Mala- 
harica Sylveftris^ a wild Cinnamon Tree, growing upon the Coafts 
of Malabar. And although with regard to the Shape of the Tree, 
and the outward Appearance of the Bark and Leaves, there is very 
little Difference to be obferved between thefe two forts of Canella^ and 
the beft fort of Cinnamon, yet the latter is vaftly fuperior inRichnefs, 
Virtue, and Sweetnefs. 

The fourth Sort, called WcUe Coronde^ that is, the Sandy Cinnamon^ 
becaufe upon chewing it, one feels as it were. Bits of Sand between 
the Teeth, though in Fafl there is nothing fandy in it. The Bark 
of this Tree comes off eafily enough, but is not 10 eafily rolled up 
into a fibular Form, as other forts of Cinnamon are, being apt to 

(ff) De qttibns vld. Denfingius de Nfandragorse Mangoniisy quod eztat in ejufdam 
Fafciculo Diffcrtationum, p, 586. ncc non MifccUan. Natar. Curlof. D. 1. A i. Obf. 48. 

VOL.VL Partii. Sa burft 



322 Ah Account of the Cinnamon Tree in Ceylon. 

burft open and unfold itfcJf. It is of a (harp atid bittcrifli Tafte 
and the Root of it yields but a fmall Quantity of Camphire. 

The fifth Sort is called SewelCoronde^ Sewel in the Ceylonefe Lan- 
guage fignifies mucilaginous, or glutinous. This fort acquires, in 
drying, a very confiderable Degree of Hardnefs, which upon chew- 
ing of ic fufficiently (hews itfelf. It hath otherwife but little Tafte» 
and an ungraceful Smell; but the Colour of it is very fine, and it is 
not many Years fince I firft took Notice, that the Natives, who are 
ail Blacks, mix a good deal of this mucilaginous Cinnamon with the 
beft Sort, the Colour of both being very much alike, excepting only, 
that in the good Sort there Uppear a few yellowifh Spots towards the 
Extremities. 

The Gxch Sort is called Nieke Coronde, the Tree which bears it, 
having a good deal of Refemblance to another Tree, which is by 
them called Nieke Gas^ and the Fruit it bears Nieke, The Bark of 
this fort, hath no manner of Tafte or Smell, when taken off, and ia 
ufed by the Natives only in Phyfic. For by roafting of it they ob- 
tain a Water and Oil, which they anoint themfelves withal, think- 
ing thereby to keep off all Torts of noxious Fumes, and Infedlions in 
the Air. They likewife exprefs a Juice out of the Leaves of it, 
which they fay cools and ftrengthens the Brainy if the Head be rub- 
bed with it. 

The feventh Sort is called DaweLCoronde^ that is, Drum- Cinna- 
mon, in Low Dutch Trommel-Caneel: The Reafon of this Appellation 
is, beCaufe the Wood of this Tree, when it is grown hard enough, 
is light and tough, and that Sort, of which the Natives make fome 
of their Veffels and Drums, which they call Dawel. The Bark is 
taken off, when the Tree is yet growing, and is of a pale 
Colour: The Natives ufe it in the fame Manner with the fixth 
Sort, 

The eighth Sort is called Catte^Corondey that is, the thorny or 
prickly Cinnamon ; Catte^ in the Ceylonefe Language, fignifying a 
Thorn, or Prickle ; for this Tree is very prickly. The Bark is in 
fome Meafure like Cinnamon, but the Leaves differ very much, 
and the Bark itfelf hath nothing either of the Tafte or Smell of 
Cinnamon. The Natives ufe the Root, Bark and Leaves of this 
Tree in Phyfic, applying them in Form of Cataplafms, to Tumours 
and Swellings from a thick corrupt Blood, which they fay it cures in 
a fhort Time. 

The ninth Sort is called Mael Coronde^ or the Flowering Cinna- 
mon, becaufe this Tree is always in Bloflbm. The Flowers come 
neareft^ to thofe of the firft Sort, but they bear no Fruit, which the 
other doth. The Subftance of the Wood becomes never fo folid and 
weighty in this, as in the other Cinnamon Trees above-mentioned, 
which have fometimes eight, nine, or ten Feet in Circumference. 
If this everflowering Cinnamon Tree be cut, or bored^ Or limpid 
I Water 



An Account of the CtnnitmoH "free in Ccyloh. 323 

Water will jflue out of the Wound, as it doth out of the Eu* 
ropedn Bircb-Tree^ but it is of no Ufc, any more than the Leaves and 
Bark. 

The Inhabitants of Ce-jlon fay, there is ftill another Sort of Cinni- ^ 
mon, which they call Toupat Coronde^ or the three Leaved Cinna- 
mon. It doth not grow in that Part of the Country which tht Dutch 
Eaft India Company is pofTefied of, but higher up towards Candia. 
Having never feen it myfelf, I will alfo, out of regard to Truth, 
fay nothing farther of it. 

All the feveral forts of Cinnamon Trees, the beft as well as the 
reft, muft grow a certain Number of Years, before the Bark is fit 
to be taken off: With this Difference however, that fome of the 
Trees of the fame fort, as for Inftance of the firft and beft, will 
ripen two or three Years fooner than others, which is owing to the 
Difference of the Soil they grow in ; thofe for Inftance, which grow 
in Vallies, where the Ground is a fine whitifli Sand fand there are 
many fuch Vallies in the Ifland of Ceylon) will in five Years Time be 
ready, whereas thofe, which ftand in a wet (limy Soil, muft have 
feven or eight Years Time to grow, before they are ripe enough. 
Again, thofe Trees are later, which grow in the Shade of other 
larger Trees, whereby the Sun is kept from their Roots : And hence 
alfo it is, that the Bark of fuch Trees hath not that Sweetnefs and 
agreeable Tafte obfervable in the Bark of thofe Trees which grow 
in a white Sandy Ground, where with little Wet they ftand full expo- 
fed to the Sun, but is rather of a bitterilh Tafte, fomething adftrin- 
gent, and fmells like Camphire. 

For by the Heat of the Sun's Rays the Camphire is made fo thin 
and volatile, that it rifes up and mixes with the Juices of the Tree, 
where it undergoes a fmall Fermentation, and then rifing ftill higher 
between the Subftance of the Wood, and the thin inner Membrane 
of the Bark, it is at laft fo effeAually difFufed through the Branches 
and Leaves, that there is not the leaft Footftep of it to be perceived 
any where. Mean while that thin and glutinous Membrane, which 
lines the Bark on the Infide between it and xthe Subftance of the 
Wood, attrafts and fucks in all the pureft, fweeteft, and moft agree- 
able Particles of the Juice, leaving the thick and grofs ones, which 
are pulhed forward, and ferve to nourifh the Branches, Leaves, and 
Fruit. 

^ What I here mention, is from my own Obfervations, and I have 
often had Occafion to prove this Fa6t to curious Pcrfons by the 
Things thcmfelves. For if the Bark be frefli taken off, that Juice 
which remains in the Tree hath a bitterifh Tafte, not unlike that of 
Cloves. On the contrary, if you tafte the inner Membrane of the 
Bark, when frclh taken off, you will find it moft exquifitely fwect, 
and extreamlv agreeable to the Tafte; whereas the outward Part of 

S s 2 *t 



^24 An Account of the Cinnamon Tree in Ceylon. 

the Bark diflFcrs but very little in Tafte from the common Trees i 
which fhews plainly that all the Sweetncfs of k is owing only to the 
inner Membrane, But when the Bark is laid in the Sun in order to 
be dried and wound up, this oily and agreeable Sweetncfs of the in- 
ner Membrane diffufes itfelf throughout the whole outward Part 
of it (^which however hath been firft ftripped, whilft yet upon the 
Tree, of it's outermoft greenifh Coat) and imbues it fo ftrongly, 
as to make the Bark ^ Commodity, which for the Fragrancy 
of it's Smell, and the Sweetncfs of it's Taftc, is coveted all over the 
World. 

The Bark may be taken off from Trees which have ftood four- 
teen, fifteen, or fixtecn Years, after they are come to Maturity, 
according to the Quality of the Soil they ftand in : But after that 
Time they lofe, by Degrees, their Tafte and agreeable Sweetncfs, 
which makes the Bark have more of the Tafte of Camphirc : 
Befides, the Bark is then grown fo thick, that if it be laid in 
the Sun, it will no longer fhrink and wind it felf up, but re- 
main flat. 

And here it may be thought a fit Subjeft of Enquiry, how it 
comes to pafs, that, confidering what vaft Quantities of Cinnamon 
have been exported from this Ifland, and fold all over the World, 
there are yet fuch Numbers of good Trees fit to be barked, remain- 
ing in the Iflaftd and erowing there every Year? Now in order to 
folvc this Queftion, ^veral Authors, who defcribcd the Ifland of 
CeyloTtj committed a cohfiderable Miftake, when they affured their 
Readers, that when the Bark hath been fttipped off the Tree, it 
grows again in four or five Years, and becomes fit to be ftripped a 
fecond Time. But this Affertion is entirely contrary to the Courfe 
of Nature and Obfervation : Nor do I believe that there is any one 
Tree whatever in any Part of the World, which, if it was entirely 
ftripped of it*s Bark, could fubfift and grow any longer : That Part 
at leaft^ where the Bark hath been taken off, will quickly grow dry, 
and fo die away } but the Root in the mean while remains entire and 
in good Condition -, and this fhews the Reafon why there is fuch a 
Number of Trees fit to be burked every Year. For although the 
Cinnamon Trees, after the Bark hath been once taken off, is cut 
down to the very Root, as they do in Europe Oaks, Birch-Trees, 
Alders and Willows, yet the Root will quickly pufli forth new 
Shoots, which will ripen in a fhort Time, I mean in five, fix, feven 
©r eight Years, fome fooner, fome later, and then yield their Quan> 
tity of the Bark. Hence it appears, how far the old Roots are in- 
ftrumental to the Growth and Plenty of Cinnamon Trees, but the 
Fruit which falls from the Trees, contributes very much towards the 
fancie End : And it is particularly owing to a certain kind of wild 
Doves, which from their feeding on the Fruit of the Cinnamon- 
Tree, they call Cinnamon-eaters ^ that thefe Trees grow fo plentifully 

J 10 



An Account of the Cinnamon Tree in Ceylon. us 

\n tWs Ifland 5 for the Doves, . when they fetch Food for their young 
ones, flying here and there, . difperfe vaft Quantities of the Fruit all 
over the Fields, which occaftons the Rife of many thoufand young 
Trees, which may be feen along the Roads in fuch Quantities toge- 
ther, that they look like a little Wood. 

The Oil drawn out of it by Fire is reckoned one of the ftrongeft 
Cordial Medicines: The Camphire which comes out of the Root, is 
likewife of great Ufe in feveral Diftempecs, as are alfo the Oil of 
Camphire, a very coftly Thing, the Leaves of the Tree, and the 
Oil diftilled out of them ; and laftly, the Fruits with their Oil. In 
fliort, there is no Part of the Cinnamon Tree, but what is of fomc 
Angular life in Phyfic. I purpofely avoid fpeaking of the large Gains 
the Company makes by the yearly Export of this precious Commodity. 

2. Having fome Years ago bought out of the Eaft- India Compa* Jdditi^s t^^ 
ny*s Warehoufcs at Amfterdam^ z confiderable Quantity of Cinnamon tbeforegoiitg 
Leaves, or Folia Malabaihri^ packed up in feveral large Chcfts, I ;J/2;.^ 
happened to find in one of them the Flowers of the Cinnamon, as No. 419. p. 
big as the Italian Bean-flowerS| and of a blue Colour; I chanced 106. 
likewife to meet with the Fruit. But I could not find either m any 
of the other Chcfts. 

In 1722 and 1723, I bought of the fame Company the Oil, which 
is exprefied out of the Fruit of the Cinnamon Tree, as alfo that 
which is boiled out of them, which is of a very good Confidence 
and white, and is by the Eajt-India Company called Cinnamon Wax, 
becaufe the King of Candia caufes Candles to be made out of it, 
which for their agreeable Scent, are burnt only by himfelf and at 
his Court. However he permits his Subjcfts to exprefs the Juice 
out of another Fruity not unlike the Fruit of the Cinnamon Tree 1 
but this being only a thin fat Subftance^ like Oil of Olives, they 
cannot burn it any othcrwife than in Lamps. 

The Indians ufe this Cinnamon Wax alfo in Phyfic, and give it 
inwardly in Luxations, Fradures, Falls, Contufions and Bruifes, 
that in cafe any inward Part be touched or bruifed, it may by it's 
Balfamic Virtues heal them. They give it alio in Bloody Fluxes to 
one Dram or a Dram and a half. Outwardly applied, it makes the 
Skin more beautiful, fmoother and iofter, than any one known fore 
of Pomade. 

The Leaves of the Cinnamon Tree yield alfo an Oil, which is of » 
biiterifli Tafte, refembling Oil of Cloves mixed with a little good 
Oil of Cinnamon. It is called Oleum Malahatbri^ or Oil of Cinna- 
mo(i Leaves. It is an Aromatic, and is reckoned an excellent 
Remedy in Headaches, Pains of the Stomach, and other Diftempers. 

The Oil of the Root of the Cinnamon Tree is, properly fpeaking, 
an Oil of Camphire, the Roots affording a good Quantity of Camphire. 
About two Years ago, I bought a Bottle of it of our Eaft-India Com- 
pany. There were feveral Bottles together in a Box, upon which was 

writteo 



jzij An Acttmnt of the Cifmamcn Tree M CcylonJ 

writttti in Low Dutch Jhft OliUyten/yn tot cm ge/cbenk nyt CanSdgef* 
cbikt ; that is, thefe Oils vjere fent as a Prefent out of. Candia, which 
ihews that chey are genuine, without any Adulteration ; If this Oil 
be diftilled in Glafs . Vcflels, there comes over along with it, that 
fort of Camphire which the Indians call Campbire BaroSj or Cam* 
phire of Borneoj which fhootsin thin tranfparent Cryftals, forming a 
beautiful Variety of Trees on the Recipient, not unlike thofe, which 
in very frofty Weather are to be feen upon Windows. This fort of 
Camphire. is of very great Efficacy in Phyfic, and is gathered and 
kept for the King of Candia^s own Ufe, who efteems it an excellent 
Cordial. But not only the Camphire of Baros^ but alfo the Oil of 
Camphire, which is drawn out of the Roots of the Cinnamon Tree, 
is a very great Cordial, if taken inwardly: It ftrengthcns the Sto- 
mach, expels Wind, and hath been found of great Ufe in arthritic 
* « and gouty Diforders; It is alfo a Diuretic. The Dofe is ten or 

twelve Drops upon a bit of Sugar, or in a proper Vehicle. Outward- 
ly it is applied in all arthritic Pains from Cold and Obftruflions, 
being rubbed on the afFefted Part with a warm Hand, and it will 
prefently leflen the Pain, and by Degrees take it off. About fix and 
thirty Years ago Mr Mcolas Dumbjidorff at Amjlerdam^ was fo cruelly 
afflidfced with arthritic Pains, that hecould have no Reft neither Night 
nor Day ; and although he called in the Afllftance of feveral noted 
Phyficians, and tried abundance of Medicines, yet he could find no 
Relief, till he was advifed to caufe himfclf to be anointed with the 
Oil of the Root of the Cinnamon Tree; of which he then happened 
to have a good Quantity by him. I anointed him myfelf, rubbing 
the Oil on all the affedled Parts with my Hand warmed by holding 
it to an Oven, and this I did twice every Day for an Hour together. 
And though, when this Cure was firft begun with him, his Hands 
and Feet were by the Convulfions and the Violence of his Pain, fo 
contraded, that they grew quite crooked, and were full of Nodes, 
yet in a Fortnight's Time he grew fo much better, that he could 
fleep well at Nights, feeling neither Paini nor Cramps. In about 
fix Weeks Time he could walk about his Room, whereas before the 
Anointing he. was not able to ftir either Hand or Foot. This Anoin- 
ting was continued for about three Months, when the Patient not on- 
ly recovered of that violent Indifpofition, but continued free from 
«he Gout ever after, and lived about fifteen Years in very good 
State of Health. And I can not only affirm this to be true of my 
own certain Knowledge; but alfo, that fince that Time I hav« advifed 
fisveral People in his Condition to do the fame with as good Succefs. 
Several Phyficians have written largely of the Virtues of common 
Camphire, but there are as yet many hidden Qualities in this ex- 
cellent Medicine. Thus, for Inftance, I can affirm, that in all 
Burnings^ by Fire or otherwire, and the Pains occafioned thereby, 
' I have 



Of the different Kinds ^Ipetacuanha; ^27 

I have not ycc met wiih any better and furcr Medicine tlian this 
following Sr 

ft. Spir. Lumbricor. ierreftr. cum Spir. Vint 
reHificat. 5xij. Camphor. §ji. M. 

No fooner is a Bandage, or Compreis, dipped into this Spirit ap- 
plied to the aSeded Pare, but it will give inftant Relief, and fo ef- 
fectually check the Inflammation, that it will creep no farther. But 
the Application of it mud be continued till the Pain is quite gone, 
and the Ulcus^ if there hath been any, is dried up. If the Exulcera- 
tion is got deeper, and the Wound muft be kept open, two Ounces 
of Camphire diffol ved in Oleum Hypericin mixed with a Pound of the com- 
mon Unguentum Cerujfa^ applied according to Art, will quickly and 
cffeftually heal it, as I have often experienced. 

V. The firft general Divifion of thefe Roots muft be, into inxt o/ the diffi^ 
and falfe i and each of thefe may be again fubdivided into itvtx2Xi rent- Kinds of 
Species, the diftindivc Note of which is principally taken from their {p«<^a<^"an^> 
Colour. g^r. 

Of the true Ipecacuanha I have four Kinds, Black, Brown, Grey, m D. FR S. 
and White; but I cannot pretend to determine whether they belong No. 410, 
to different Plants^ or are only Varieties of the fame Plant owing to P*8' 'S*- 
the Soil in which they grow, as is affirmed by Sir Hans Shane. And 
as thefe Roots are never imported to us entire, it is impol&ble to* 
give any certain Defcription of them in that State. 

However, by comparing the feveral dried Pieces as we have them, 
we may very probably conjefture that a fliort radical Trunk defcends 
from a Caulis^, and is afterwards divided into feveral large Branches, 
and thefe again into fmaller ones, in different Series, with minute 
Filaments, or Fibrillse, going out from them. 

Each Piece is made up of an Outer or Cortical part, and an Inner * 
or Fibrous one, which like a white Nerve, or fmooth compadl Fafcicu** 
lus of woody Filaments runs through the Center or Axis of the Roots,, 
and perhaps enclofes within it a fmall Pith, which however is hardly 
difcernible by the naked Eye. * 

The Cortical Part is corrugated by two Sorts of Wrinkles, one 
fuperficial, confifting either in circular Rings or little Knots which 
do not go quite round; the other penetrating into it's Subftance, 
being deep Incifures or Fiflures reaching all the Way to the 
Nerve. 

What Lengths thefe Roots are of when taken, out of the Ground,.: 
cannot be deterniified: I have met wkh.fome Pieces above nine 
Incbesi many above fix^ hue the gmateft Nbrnbci^ ar4 ftill fhorcen 

We 



jjg Of th€ diffitent Kinds ^/ Ipccacuanht: 

, We find them bent, wreathed, and contorted into all Manner of 
Figures -, and indeed few Pieces are altogether ftraighc for any con- 
liderable Length, 

What has been hitherto faid, agrees to all the true Tpeeacuanba* 
roots i but feveral other Things arc ftill to be taken Notice of, in 
which they differ. 

The Black Sort is the fmallcft of the four, very hard, and the 
Fiffurcs wide and numerous. The outward Colour of the Cortex 
is not equally black in all the Pieces of this Kind, and it's inner Sub* 
fiance, as well as the Nerve, is moftly white, tho* not always in the 
fame Degree. 

The Brown Sort is larger than the Black, the Fiffures at larger 
Diftances, the inner Subftance of the Cortex darker, and the exter* 
nal Colour has feveral Degrees of Redncfe in the feveral Pieces. 

The Third or Grey Sort is fometimes found of a darker, fome* 
times of a lighter Colour, and the Inner Subftance of the Cortex is 
Brown .ftreaked with White. It is much larger than the black Sort, 
many Pieces being above 4 of an Inch in Diameter, but the Nerve is 
fmaller in Proportion to the Cortical Part. I have met with few Pieces 
of this Species above five Inches in Length ; but, as I already obferved, 
nothing can be concluded from thence as to the Length of the whole 
Roots. The Fiffures are here ftill fewer than in the brown Sort, 
and in fome Pieces fcarce any are to be met with. The fuperficial 
Corrugations are various in different Roots, fome being almoft whol- 
ly fmooth, and in others the Wrinkles rather longitudinal than cir- 
cular. 

The white Kind, as far as I can judge by the fmall Sample which 
I have of it, is of very different Sizes, fome Pieces of it being lar- 
ger, than any of the grey Sort, and the reft much lefs. The whitifli 
Colour of the Cortex has a yellowifli Caft, and the nervous Part ia 
very large in Proportion to the reft. Very few Fiffures are to be 
obferved therein, and hardly any reach fo deep as the Nerve. The 
other Corrugations are likewife very (hallow, and moft of them lon- 
gitudinal ; but it feems to be more knotty than the other Kinds, 
and thcfe Knots I take to be owing chiefly to the Fibrille which go 
out from the larger Branches of the Roots. 

The Places of Growth of thefe different Species of Ipecacuanha 
have not as yet been fully fettled. 

The Black Sort is hitherto known to come only from Braftly by the 
Way of mbotij and fome of our Druggifts for that Reafon diftin- 
guifli it by the Name of the Bra/tl Root. 

About the Brown Sort, I am informed by Dr James Houjion^ 
vhofefided fer {tvtnl Ycats in New^Spain^ that it grows plentifully 
at fome Diftance from the City of Cartagena in the Kingdom of 
New Granada i from whence it is frequently fent in Saroons or Skins, 

containing 



Of the different Kinds ^Ipecacuanha. j^^ 

containing loo Weight, to Jamaica^ and fo to England \ where it is 
ceruin we have had it of late Years in great Abundance. 

The Grey Ipecacuanha is with us preferred to all the reft, and by 
far the moft generally ufed when it can be had. Ic is faid by Authors 
to grow in Peru^ from whence, it is brought to Porto-Bello^ and 
from thence into Europe^ by the Spanijb Galleons. Some Parcels 
thereof are likewife probably fent from Porto- Bello to Jamaica \ for 
we are certain that it has fometimes been imported hither from that 
Ifland. By fome Specimens that were brought me, from St "Thomij 
a Portuguefe Ifland under the Equino&ial, whither they were fent 
direftly from Braftl% it is evident that this Species is likewife a Na- 
tive of that Country, and therefore muft either have been included 
by Pifo under one of the two Species mentioned by him, or elfe dif- 
covered fince his Time, According to Father La Bat^ in his late 
Voyage to the Iflands of America^ this Species grows alfo plentifully 
in MariinicOf where for many Years paft it has been u&d by the ' 
Inhabitants. 

The White Soft, called by the Portuguefe^ Ipecacuanha Blanca^ is 
faid by Pifo to grow in Brajil^ and if we may believe Father La 
Batj it is likewife found in Martinico. 

Thefc are the four Kinds of true Ipecacuanha which have hitherto 
come to my Knowledge \ but I have met with two other Roots to 
which that Name has been falfely afcribed, which from their out- 
ward Colour I (hall call White and Reddifli Brown. 

The White Sort agrees pretty much both in Colour and Surface with 
the true White, but it is not near fo knotty. It is likewife confidera* 
bly larger in Size, ftraighter and fofter to the Touch. 

The Brown Sort is of a deeper Colour than the true Brown, and 
many Pieces thereof have fome Mixture of Red Cfrom whence it has 
been fometimes called Red Ipecacuanha) znd the inner Subftance of 
the Cortex inclines to a reddiOi Yellow. The Pieces thereof arc 
much longer than any of the former Sorts, fome of them meafuring 
fixteen Inches, and they are of a Size between the Black and Grey. 
The Fiffures are at greater Diftances from one another than in the true 
Brown, and the Spaces between them much fmoother. In a Word, 
though this Root when mixed with the true Brown, to which it bears 
the greateft Refemblance, may eafily be confounded therewith ; yet 
when they are attentively compared, their whole Appearance fufli- 
ciently diftinguiflies them. 

Both thefe falfe Kinds were brought me from Maryland in 1725, 
by a Surgeon, who informed me that they grow there in great Plen- 
ty, being called Ipecacuanha by the Inhabitants, and ufed as a Vomit 
by thofe of inferior Rank. I have fince that Time received a 
Sample of the Brown Sort, taken from a Parcel which lay in the Cu- 
ftom-houfe, above twelve Years ago, and called by the Name of 
wild Ipecacuanha. 

VOL. VI. Partii. Tt Sir 



3 30 A T)efcriptim of the Cereus Peruvianas. 

Sir Ham Shane informed me that this falfe Brown Kind was the 
feme that was formerly fent to him from Virginia for the true Ipeca^ 
cuanba^ and which he afterwards difcovcrcd to be the Root of a poi- 
fbnous Apocynum defcribed by him in his Natural Hiftory of Jamaica 5 
rn which Ifland it is very common, and likewifc in Ngw-Spain^ as ap- 
peared by the Specimens fent him by Dr Burnet. 
A Deftription VI. This Cereus^ is fix Foot three Inches high, and thirteen Inches 
^/i;^ Cereus thick. Ic has feven Angles at it's Balls, eight about the 
JbichT^lr- Middle, and nine near the Top. It's upper Part is of a Sea- 
^tf/Norim- Green, from the Powder with which it is covered; it's lower of 
berg /» 1730, a Grafs Green. The Down of it's Prickles is between Pale and 
tyDr Chrif- White about the Top, every where elfe it is Brown. Sept. 5, at the 
Trew'! i.'^.'^. Height of fix Foot two Inches from the Ground, it Ihot a round 
Tranjlaied Knot from it's Trunk, which fo encreafed and extended almoft ho- 
from tbihi- rizontally, that on the fourteenth of the fame Month, it was eight 
tin ^j^T. Stack, j|^^.[^gg Idg, and plainly (hewed a Flower, though as yet clofed, cm- 
1^^6^0.4.62. bcliflied with a beautiful Mixture of Green, Purple, and White. 
The fame Evening the Flower began to open, and continued tiH Mid- 
night ; when being entirely fpread, it was fix Inches in Diameter. Ic 
was of apretty ftrong, but not very pleafant, Smell. After Midnight 
it gradually contrafted about half an Inch, and remained thus till next-. 
Day at Noon. Then it began to contraft fafter, to half the Diame* 
terofthe expanded Flower; and the next Morning it was quite- 
clofed and withered, but hung on the Trunk till Sept. 30. The Be- 
ginning of the Flower was a lube three Inches long, not quite an Inch 
thick, between a yellow and a pale Green. It's Surface was channelled 
with fmall narrow Furrows, between which, blunt Protuberances were 
feen to run, in a parallel Order, along th^ Ridges. Where the Tube 
expanded itfelf, it divided into more than forty petaloid Segments^ 
ranked in fix feparate Series, the three inferior and exterior whereof 
here and there confounded their order, while the three fuperior and 
interior remained regular and unmixed. Thefe Series were diftin* 
guiflied by their Size and Colour. Thefirft, or exterior, was of the 
ume Colour with the Tube, viz. of a pale Green ; but it's upper 
Part gradually inclined to a Purple. The fecond and third had half 
the inner Part greenifh, the Edges of a more intenfe Purple. The 
fourth was between yellow and white, terminating in purple Tops. 
The Tops of the fifth were likewife purplifli. The petaloid Seg- 
ments of the fixth were very tender and white. The Segments arc 
of an oblong Figure, artd in the firft Series were terminated vith blunt, 
in the others, with more and more pointed Tops. The inner or fixth 
Series, which contained thirteen of thefe Segments, exhibited all the 
Edges finely and lightly, but irregularly cut and divided. The Pif- 
tillum of equal Height with the Surface of the Flower, and hollow 
like a fmall Tube, ran, at it's upper End, into as many fine pale Fi- 
laments, fpread in the Form of a Crown, as there were Segments 'ux 

the 



An Accmmt of the Contraycrva. 33 1 

the inmoft Row, the Day before the Flower dropped from the Ova^ 
rium^ the Place were it was to feparate was marked by a blackifli Cir- 
cle, at which the Tube feparaced fpontaneoufly from the Ovarium or 
Matrix^ that is, the Rudiments of the Fruit 5 t\\t Pijlillum &\\\ HtvcAj 
adhering to the Ovarium. The Flower now fallen, being differed 
longitudinally, the Origin of the Stamina lay open to the Eye ; and 
it very manifeftly appeared that the petaloid Segments of the Flower 
far from affording the lead Mark of a natural Partition, ftuck fo ve- 
ry clofe to the Tube, that not one of them would quit it without 
tearing it off by Violence. 

The Fruit, though it came not to it's full Growth, plainly evin- 
ced, by Infpeftion alone, that it is not prickly. Upon Diffe^iontt 
afforded a vifcous Juice, and within was a Cavity, the Sides where- 
of were every where, except at the Bottom, thick fet with an innu- 
merable Quantity of fmall Villiy to each one of which hung an ob- 
long white, pellucid Veficle, which is the Rudiment of the future 
Seed. 

VIL Contrayerva is a Spanijh Word, fignifying as much as Herba An Account of 
€onlra[Fenena\ or a Herb againft Poifons. And as there are in all ^^'^^^mw 
Countries different Plants to which that Virtue is afcribed, the Name Ho^oun^**"* 
of Contrayerva feems to have been given by the Spaniards to as many M. 2). N*. 
of them as have come under their Knowledge j for Hernando h^s de- 42»- P- 'W- 
fcribed a Species of Granadilla by that Name, and there are feveral 
'Other Roots that are commonly known by it : But far from pretend- 
ing to give a Hiftory of all thofe Roots, 1 only offer a fhort Account 
-otthat Plant whofe Root is called Contrayerva here in England^ and is 
fo well known to all that any way deal in Medicines. 

The Root itfelf being fo commonly known it would be fuperfluous 
to defcribe it, I fhall therefore confine myfelf to the Defcription of 
the Plant that produces it, which I have not hitherto met with to 
my Satisfadion in any Author. 

Father Plumier^ in his Book entituled. Nova Planiarum Americana- 
rum^ Genera^ defcribes a Genus which he calls Dorjlenia^ whereof I 
have found two Species in the ff^eji -Indies^ the Roots of which arc 
gathered and exported indifferently, as being very much alike, 
both in Appearance and Virtues. One of thefe I think may be 
called. 

Dorjienia Dentaria radice^ • Spbondylii foUo^ placenta ovali. And the fig los. 

Other 
Dorftenia Dent aria radice^ folio minus laciniatOj placenta quadrangula- ^^Z ^^ 

ri & undulata^ 

The firft Kind feems to be the "Tuzpatli of Hernandez^ pag. 147. 
It's Roots, which are perennial, put forth in the Month of May (ox 
as fbon as it happens to rain^ each fix or eight Leaves four or five 

T t 2 Inches 



ua 



An Account of the Contraycrva. 

Inches long, and as many broad, cut into feveral Segments almoft as 
deep as the middle Rib, fomewhat after the Manner of the Sphon^ 
dylium : They ft and upon Foocftalks Bve or fix Inches long ; and from 
the Middle of them come forth other Fooiftalks fomewhat longer, 
fuftaining each a ftrange Sort of Body, flat, and fituated vertically, 
or with one Edge uppermoft, which I have called Placenta. In this 
Species it is of an oval Figure, with it's longer Axis parallel to the 
Footftalk. One fide of it is fmooth and green like the outfide of the 
Calix in other Plants-, but from the other arife a great many fmall 
yellow Apices ; and after they are gone, many fmall roundilh Seeds 
begin to appear, which when ripe are fomewhat like thofe of Gromwell 
or Liibofpermon. It grows in the Kingdom of New-Spain^ near old 
Vera CruZj on the high Ground, by the Side of the River. 

The fecond Kind has much the fame Number of Leaves growing 
from each Root, as the former ; but of a different Figure, for fome 
of them are entire, and ihaped like thofe of a yioleiy others angular 
like Tvy^ and fome almoft as much divided as the Leaves of the com* 
mon Mapii* They are thro, and of a dark green Colour, and fmooth, 
or have only a few fcarce perceptible Hairs on the Back. The Pe- 
dicles that luftain the Flowers arife immediately from the Root as in 
the other Species, and attain to the fame Height of fix or eight 
Inches. ^\xii\vt Placenta which fuftains the Flowers, is in this Kind 
quadrangular, waved about the Edges, and broader tranfverfly 
than vertically. Yet the Flowers and Seeds themfelves are perfectly 
the fame as in the other. This fecond Kind grows plentifully on the 
high rocky Grounds about Campecbj^ where I gathered it in Per- 
feAion in the Beginning of November ^ 1730. 

I cannot guefs why Father Plumier has called this a monopetalous 
Plant *, for that which he calls the Petalum^ and I the Placenta^ is of 
a green Colour, and (which is of more Confequence) fuftains the 
Seeds when ripe, and never envelops the Organs of Generation when 
young *, fo that I think it can by no Means be called a Petalum^ nor 
even properly a Calix and therefore I have given it the NameofP/j« 
centay whofe Office it certainly performs. 

1 have not been able to obferve exaftly the Strudure of the Organs 
of Generation, becaufe of their exceffive Smalnefsj but they appear to 
the naked Eye as they are reprefented in the Figures I have given 
of them, and in P/«m. N,G. Tab. 8. The Dorflema Spbondjlii folio 
Dentaria radice^ of Plumiery differs from both of mine ; for in his 
Drawings done by Order of the late King of France^ whereof I have 
feen a Copy in the Colledlipn of the late Dr Sherard^ the Leaves arc 
reprefented ferrated, the Placenta quadrangular, and the Roots con- 
fifting of feveral Knobs tied together Lengthways. From which laft 
Particular, I am perfuaded that the Root of that Species is the 
Drakena Radix i mentioned by Clujus in his Exotics y pag. 83. 

VIIL I. 




73?T*fc' Scu^*. 



Rare Tlants in a Journey to tkeVc^k w Derby fliirc. 3^3 

VIII. I. In my Way thiiher, I took Notice of the following Plants ^/?r/ p^^^/j /> 
which I have not obfcrvcd to be common in other Parts of England^ ajourneytotht 
and are not takpn Notice of by the Bifliop of London^ in his Edition b^flji/*.^"^*^' 

of Cambden. john Martyn 

Stacbys Fucb/tij J. B. in the Road to Granlbam^ a little beyond /*• /J ^. N©. 
Colcfwortb. 407- P*g- 22. 

Scropbularia Scorodoniaj folio Mor. Ai JVolUrton^ under the Garden- 
wall. This does not owe it's Origme in this Place to Seeds, Mat- 
tered out of the Garden 5 as I am convinced, by the perufal of a Ma- 
nufcript Catalogue of the Plants cultivated in that Garden, in which 
there is no mention made of this Plant. 

The Lychnis^ which grows on NottingbamXaJikj is the Lycbnis 
fylveftris alba 9 Clufii^ and not the fame with Mr Ray^% Lycbnis major 
noiliflora Dubrenfis perennis^ as he fufpe^led. 

Feftuca bumilior panicula brevi beUromalla. Gramen paniculatum^ hro^ 
tnoides^ minus ^ paniculis arijlaiisj unam partem fpeSantibus Raii Syn. On 
Sherwood Foreji, 

Salix folio laureoy feu lato glabro odorato Pbyt. Brit. Common about 
Wingerwortb. 

Ladanum arvenfe^ fiore amplo luteo \ Idbro furpureo. Lamium canna* 
Jnnumy fiore amplo luteo^ labio purpurea Raii Syn. In the Corn in fevc- 
ral Places. 

Filix mas non ramofa^ pinnulis anguftis^ raris^ profunde dentatis Get. 
emac. Common about iVingerwortb. 

2. The more rare Plants which I obferved in the Peak are, , . . 

Srariola fylvejlris Jtiguillara. Lailucafylv. murorum fiore luteo J. B. Pcak/^/^ 
On old Walls, and about the Entrance into Peak^s-bole. It grows al./4/w//N<^ 
fo in Hertfordfbire. I choofe to take Notice of it on this Occafion, 4«7- P- »^ 
the rather becaufe M. Vaillant has evidently miftaken the Charadtera 
of it in his new Diftribution of the Cicboraceous Tribe in the Memoirs 
of tbe Royal Academy of Sciences for the Year 1721. He there makes 
it a Species of LaSluca^ from which it is very different on his own 
Principles. According to his Method, the Empalement of the LaSluca 
tsfquamous^ zndtht Down of the Seed fits upon a Pedicle. But thia 
Species has zftmple Empalement and a fiffile Down. Thefe Charadlers 
evidently diftinguifli it not only from Laciuca^ but from every Qe^ 
nus in his Method. I (hall take leave therefore to conftitute a new 
Genus : And as the Name of Scafiola^ by which Anguillara has cal- 
led ir, has not yet been appropriated to any other Genus^ I fhall ap^ 
propriate it to this, and define it, as follows. 

Scariolai^^ Cicboraceous Plants with 2l ftmple Empalement^ snaked 
Placenta^ and Seeds crowned with a hairy fe£ile Down. 

Rofafyhv. alba cum aliquo rubore foliis birfutis J. B. In feveral Hedges 
about Hatberfedge. 

Empetrum m$nlanum fruHu nigro Tourn. Common on the Moua- 
tains. 2 

Oxycotcus^ 



334 ^^^ Tlauts in a jMimey to the Peak in DerbyfhireT 

Oxycoccusj feu Vaccinia pabijiria^ J. B. On boggy Places, but not 
very common. 

Erica bumilis cortice cinereo Arbuti pre alho^ H. R. Par, On the 
Mountains near Hatberfedge. 

Rubus Idtsm fpinofus fruSlu ruiro^ J. B. In the Hedges. 
Geranium faxatile Ger. emac. About the Entrance into Peak^s^ 
bole, 

Cocbkaria rotun£folia minima Merr^ With the preceeding. 
TbaliElrum minus Ger. In the fame Place. 
• Ucbenoides faxatile^ fufcum^ plofum^ varie divifum. CoraVina fufca 
folio/a Doody Budd. Hort. ficc. On the Rocks. 

Licbentades faxatile tinSIorium foliis pilofts purpureis DillenH. On the 
Rocks. 

Ufnea faxatilis^ capillacea. Mufcus corallinuSy faxatilis^ faniculaceus 
Rait Syn. On the Rocks near DarwenL 

Lycopodium Sahince facie FL Jen. On the Mountains near DarwenP. 
Selagofoliis &f facie Abietis FL Jen, On the Mountains near Dar^ 
^ent. 

Bryum Hypntndes capHulis^ plurimis ereSis lanuffnofum Billemi. On 
the Mountains. 

Cardamine impatiens altera birjiitior Ran Syn. About the Mouth of 
PooVS'bole plentifully. 

A Variety of Mr Rafs Viola monlana lutea with a blue and yellow 
Flower. 
€>hfefvations IX. I have often turned my Thoughts to the obferving the fo called 
mp9/t the Seeds Membranes, in which the Subftancc of Meal, or Flower, is inclofed, 
^^^Mr^h - ^^^^ '^^^'^ Packets in Cells or Boxes, which is alfo the cafe of all 
wcnhock!^' kinds of Beans, Peafe, Wheat, Barley and other Grain, I at length, 
^ranjiatedby With Aftoniftimcnt, difcovercd very plainly, that what I call the 
John Cham- Membranes, were endued with an utifpeakable number of little 
^o^^^68 ^^^' Holes, thro' which, in many places, one might perceive the Light ; 
' ^ ' ^' which Holes we muft fuppofe to be nothing elfe but little Vcffcls, 
which had been torn or cut off, and partly compofe the Membranes, 
which I call little Cells, and partly ferve for the ProduAion of the 
Farina^ of which there are an infinite number of Particles in a Pea or 
Bean, I imagine that each of thofe mealy Pardcles receives it's in- 
creafe from a little Veflel, which proceeds from the Cell \ and is im* 
perceptible through it*s Smallnefs. 

Thefe Veffels, of which the little Cells, or Cafes moftly confift, 
are more eafy to be difcovered in Beans and Peafe* than in any fort 
Of Legumens or Grains ; but in Wheat the Veffels are difficultly tra- 
ced in the Cells, and I have been obliged to make very many Obfer- 
vatiohs and Experiments, before I could fully fatisfy myfelf, that I 
faw the torn or broken Veffels; the Reafon of which is, that the 
little Veffels, of which the Cells or Skins of the Grains of Wheat are 
compofedt are exceeding thin and brittle. 

More- 



209. 



Obfervathns upM the Seeds of T Until sjy 

Moreover, I have found, upon obferving the Veflels, of whicfc 
the Cells are compofed, chat feveral of the Globules in Wheat were 
broken in pieces in the Operation, and that in one of chofe fingle 
Globules, there were other fmall Globules enclofed. 

I have likcwife obferved that the Membranes, or little Cells, in 
Barley J in which the Globules, or Parcels, of the Meal are (hut up,, 
and receive their increafe, are thicker and ftronger than thofe of ~ 
l^eat. 

Although I conclude, that almpflr all Seeds and Grains^ as well as 
their Membranes, or Skins, are of one and the fame Texture and 
Configuration, yet for Experiment fake, I took a large Almond^ and 
cue off feveral thin Slices from it, and dug out of thofe Slices, as well 
as I could, the Subftance chat lay in the little Cells, and viewing, 
them, as nicely as poflible, with a Microfcope, I obferved that thofe 
Cells, in which the Oyl of the faid Almond was for the moft pare. 
contained, confifted alfo of nothing but little Veffels. 

Now when I perceived, that the before-mentioned little Cells 
proceeded from the Bark, or Skin, which furrounds the Kernel of 
the Seed, or Grain, I was thinking that, as the mealy Subftance re- 
ceives it's increafe from the Veffels, which are in the little Cells,, 
and as the Plant is formed between the Cells, during the time that 
the Seed lies in the Earth, and ais the little Orifices in the Skin of 
Animals and Fruits, are formed in order to difcharge thereby the 
Superfluity of their Moifture, and fliut in fuch a manner, that no 
Moifture,, nor common Air, can get into the fame, as I have for- 
merly advanced : So on the contrary, the Orifices of Seeds are fo 
formed, that many of their little Veffels admit Moifture to pafs in* 
wards, and accordingly Water is driven into them by the preffure of 
the Air, and caufes the Seed to fwell ; upon which, a Warmth 
and Fermentation fucceeding in the Seed, it requires a greater 
fpace, and by the particular Formation of the Particles, which 
lie in the Cells, and which have derived their Encreafe from: 
the Cells, the mealy Subftance, of which they confift, is partly dri- 
ven out of them into the body of the young Plant, which by this 
means encreafes fo much in bulk, that the Root is now able to fupply 
it with Nourifhment from the Earth, at which time th« Seed is found, 
to be diminifhed in it*s bignefs. 

X. . I happened to take up a boiled grey Pea, out of which I took O/tbi Fefeh. 
d little of the mealy Subftance, and laid it before a Microfcope, ^^ ^'"'j; ^'*' 
where it appeared to confift of fuch like Parts as are found in Rats jji; ^^^ 
Dung, every. one of which Parts confifted of a great number of very ,55, ' 
fmall Particles. But I could not difcoverany Membranes enveloping 
thofe Parts, from whence I concluded, that thofe Membranes were 
deftroyed and diffolved by the hot Water. 

Upon this, I took another Grey Pea, which had not been boiled, , 

and cut it into very thin Slices, when I not only faw the Membranes,, 

I in. 



il6 Obfervations upon the Vejfels in fever al forts of Wood. 

in which the Pares of the mealy Sobftance had been enclofed^ but 

found iikewife, that thofe Membranes confided of nothing elfe but a 

great number of very fmall Veffels, like the Membranes, as they arc 

commonly called, which furround the Mufcles and mufcular Fibres ia 

Beafts and Fifli. 

Obfervations XL I procured a piece of reddi(h Wood brought from Amhoina^ 

upontbe Vef- fawed ofFat the end of a Board, as likewife fomeof the Chips, in or- 

fi^^ ^^^^JZ^^J der to obfcrve the Veffels therein ; and, cutting the Wood through 

Vthefam, ' ^'^ manner of ways, I found that in one place it appeared whitilh. 

No. 367. p. at a fmall diftance red, and in another place blacki(h. Upon cutting 

134.. it tranfverfly, I faw the Orifices of the afccnding Veffels, which ran 

along the length of the Wood, and appeared of fuch a fize in the 

Microfcope, that one would have judged a Pea might pafs through 

them. Where the Wood looked reddifli, I found thcfe great Vcfleb 

.filled with a fubftance of a fine red colour, fo that I imagined, that 

thefe great Veffels carried a red Sap into the Horizontal Veffels, which 

appeared fo very numerous, and fo thick together, that they caufed 

the Wood to apppear of the fame colour with the red Subftance which 

was contained in them. 

I afterwards cut off fome very thin flices tranfverfly and putting 
them into a China Cup, [ poured hot Water upon them, and fuffe* 
red them to lie in it for fome time ; then viewing them with a Micro- 
fcope, I obferved that the red Subftance was extraded by the Water, 
and no red colour was now to be found in any of the Veffels. 

What feemed the ftrangeft to me in this Wood was, that cutting 
through it lengthways, as I frequently did, I obferved it to be of a 
fine red colour for one Hair*s breadth, and a Hair's breadth farther 
it appeared white s and the afcending Veffels feemed to be fmaller, 
where the Wood was red, than where it was white: which narrow- 
nefs of the red Veffels I judged to proceed from the Sap contained in 
them. 

In viewing the afcending Veffels in Oak, I found fome other Vef- 
fels which entered into their fides, and appeared to me like fo many 
fmall round holes, efpectally where the Horizontal Veffels lay, which 
I judged to be united to the afcending Veffels, by means of thofe 
fmall Orifices, and thereby to difcharge part of their Sap into them. 
Taking a fmall Twig of an Oak, which in feven Years growth 
was grown to about the thicknefs of one's Finger, I cut it through 
according to the length both of the afcending and horizontal Veflels 
which laft I faw lying in great Numbers very clofe together, and 
proceeding direftly from the Pith of the Twig. 

I have likewife made fome Obfervations upon Fir Wood, in which 
the afcending Veffels confift of fo very fine and thin a Subftance, that 
they exhibit a vtry delightful Spedtacle in the Microfcope. In thefe 
afcending Veffels I imagined that I faw fome Globules, with a fmall 

opening 



Of the ^ores of the Leaves of Box. ^j 

ppening in their middle, which feemed to be of a defer and denfer Sub* 
ftance than the reft of the Wood. But I afterwards found myfelf 
loiftaken, and that thefe fuppofed Globules were nothing elfe but the 
O) ifices, whereby the aicending and horizontal VefTels were united 
together, and through which the Sap was carried from the one to 
the other. 

XII. Ex Planta illius Buxi, quae Vulgo Palma Ceres appcllatur. Of the Pgm 
folium dccerpfi, & in partes divulfum ope Microfcopii contemplaius ^/'|^ ^^ 
fum. Turn vero partes illas, per quas Tranfpiratio vel Exhalatio %^)leJx^ 
fit, clarifTime vifu diftinxi. Adhaec complures percepi exiguiffimos^P/^^^z/jw/ 
Hiatus, qui lucem tranfmittebant : Quos tamen commpdius majori- ^/>r/y/> h 
que numero percepi, cum partes prsdidi folii aliquanto efTent fie- ^^I^^- ^* 
ciores. ^°9' "^ *^'* 

.£x alia Buxi Arbufcul& qua^dam Foliola, partim adhuc 
virentia, partim exficcata, mihi adferenda curavi, ut illorum Textu« 
ram, quantum poflibile eflet, inveftigarem : Quod eo Succefiu feci % 
lit iftiufmodi Olcuia, five Spiracula, in foliis ittis clarius Vifu perctf- 
perim, quam in ullis unquam Frudtibus ante percepiflem. Ut au« 
tern Multitudioem Ofculorum quas in uli Foliolo percepi, velut Ocu« 
lis expofium haberem ; Folium Buxeum Lineali impofui cupreo, 

Juod in varias partes diftin^um erat: Comperiqqe Xiongitudineih 
blii parem efie odonis partibus Pollicis, in aecem partes diftribtiti 
Folii vero Latitudinem cum medietate pollicis, five quinque decimis 
partibus exasquari. 

Jam vero ponamus tali Foliolo Figuram efle Ovatam ; adhasc La« 
titudinem ejus atque Lpngitudinem conjungamus: Tum exfurget oiu* 
merus 13, cujus dimidium fit 6\. Dein ponamus idem Foliolum, 
poft illam Ladtudinis arque Longitudinis conjunAionem, inftar Cir- 
culi efife rotundum ; illiufque Diametrum 6 % decimis Pollicis partibus 
ex fl^(}uo refpondere. 

Exmde juxta Foliolum ante diftum, locavi Pilum Porcinum ; quern 
adhibito Microfcopio contemplatus, judicavi duodecim Buxi Ofcula, 
/Q fibi contigua jacerent, cum Diametro Pili Porcini Longitudine exs- 
quari ; Scxaginta vero Pilos Porcinos judicabam Magnitudinis efle 
pollicaris. Sequitur decimam quan)que Pollicis partem fex Diame* 
tris Pilorum Porcinorum Longitudine parem efle ; dimidiatam vero 
Diametron Folioli Buxei cum 19 i Diametris Pitorum Porcinorum 
exa^quari. Quae 19 ^ Diametri, fi duodecies, id eft juxta numerum 
Ofculorum, multiplicentur ; efficitur numerus 234, quam Longitu- 
dinem dimidiatus rolioli Buxei circulus ex antediftis habet. 

Ut autem quid tali Circulo contineatur fupputemus, primo cum 
Geometris ftatuendum eft \ qus proportio eft numeri 14 ad numerum 
II, eandem Proportionem efle inter numerum quadratum Diametri 
cujufvis Circuli, & ea quae Circulo ipfo continentur. Sequitur unam 
Folii Buxei Superficiem Ofculis 172090 pracditam efle. Cum autem 
altera Superficies haud paucioribus inftru6ta fit; tandem exfurget 

VOL. VI. Partii. Uu numerus 



iit Of the Tores of the Leaves of Box. 

numcrus Ofculorum 344180, quorum Ope Perfpiratio & Exhalado 
iiac. 

Cum Lanuginem illam, qua: Mala Perfica, vulgo Montana con* 
veftit, nupcra iEitatc fine Microfcopio confiderarcm ; Fruftula qua:- 
dam Mali Perfici, ex cortice excifa, ante Microfcopium collocavi. 
Turn vero Judica^bam Floccos illo^ Laneos Mulctpidine pares eflfe Of- 
culis per cucem Mali Perfici diffuGs. £c quemadmodum Ofcula 
Fruduum veluc inter duo labiola patefcere, nee plane rotunda fed 
aliqaantulam oblonga cffty jam ante monui ; fie Flocci Lanei, ex 
Ofculis didtis efflorefcentes, non omnino rotundi funt, fed nonnihil 
plani. Sed & complures in medio Ruga quadam notacos efife vide* 
bam. 

- Ut autem Multitudinem Ofculorum halitus cxfpirantium palam 
proponam ; unaque ingentem numerum exhalantlum humorum, qui 
Aerem ingreffi in particulas oblongas, fed alias aliis longiores fpifef- 
cunt, Oculis fubjiciam ; exiguam Mali Perfici porcionem delineari 
J&, iioi A B F G pcrpuGllum eft Fruftum Mali & Corticis Perfici, B C D E F 
lanugo Malo adhaeref?ens defi^natur. 

Magnitudinem diflii FruftuJi, per Iconem defignati, fie seftimare 
ppteris: Tres VuUus mci Pilos Microfcopio applicatos habebam, 
quos Piftori poft Iconis modo diAas Delineationem intuendos exhi- 
bui Cum deinde ejufdem Iconis Longitudinem, a G ad A in 16 
Partes diftribuiflcm *, rogavi quot latorum pilorum Diametros in ilia 
Iconis Longitudine contineri judicaret ; qui, ne o£lo quidem refpondic« 
Quod fi verutp efiie. ftatuamus, quam incredibili Floccorum Lane- 
orum Multitudine neceffc eft. ^alum Perficum circumveftiri ! 

Cum poftea Mala Cydonia perhfiaturuifient, quafdam etiam Malt 

Cydonii particulas ad Microfcopium applicavi ; & Lanuginem, quse 

ex Malo Cydonio exhalatur, neque Lanugini Mali Perfici copia 

ftg. III. ccdit, delin^andam curavi -, HI NO perparva eft portio Mali Corti- 

cifqqo Cydonii, I K L M N Lanugo ex Malis Cydoniis exfudans. 

Quas Lanugo, licet in Cydoniis longior quam in Perficis, non tamen 

in illis crigitur,; ficutiniftis} fed crifpando fibi invicem impledli- 

tur. : . ; 

rciAnntomi' XIII. Thofc Leaves only of Plants, are fit for this Purpofe, whofc 

€d?refara' Jnward Struijlure is compofed of woody Fibres j and which are of a 

titm (fVegita- pj-ctty good thickocfs ^nd confiftence, as the Leaves of Oranges, 

bcrtus^iba Lemons, jfafmins. Bays,. Rofes, Cherried, Apricoc!ks, Peaches, 

/'je.^. N^ JPlumbs, App/cs, Pears, Poplirs, Pines, Oaks, Ivy, tiV.; 

416. pag. Tbexe'are feveraj other Leaves which havd ho woody Fibres or 

44'- /y^ins^ as.for Inftj^ce of Vines and Lime T*reesi but thefe difiblvc 

wiihoBl feparating, / , ' ' 

Thefe Leaves are to be gathered in ^une or 7«/y, when they arc 
full grown and have not been damaged by Worms or Caterpillars. 
Thry are 10 be put in^o an earthen Pot or large Gla6, with ^ good 
deal of Rain- Water, the Pot or Glafs being kept uncovered and fo 

expofed 



The Anatomical Preparation of Vegetables. j j9 

expofed to the Sun or open Air. The Leaves muft be quite covered ' 
with Water, and as it evaporates, afrelh quantity muft be poured in. 
In about a Month's time fome of the Leaves will begin to putrify,' ^ 

but, others muft be kept two Months or longer. When the two ex- 
ternal Membranes begin to feparate, and the green Subftance of the 
Leaf to grow liquid, then it is Time to perform the Operation. 
The Leaf is to be put into a white and flat earthen Plate or Difli 
filled with clear Water; then upon gently fqueezing it with the 
Finger, it will open on one fide and the grieen Subftance will run 
out. Immediately on that the two outer Membranes muft be ftript off 
chiefly in the middle and along the Nerves when they adhere clofeft : If 
there is once an Opening, they will go ofi^ very eafily. The Skele- 
ton that remains between is afterwards waftied in clear Water, and 
kept between the Leaves of a Book. 

The Method of preparing Fruits; as Apples, Pears, Plumbs, 
Cherries, Peaches and the like, is as follows. 

The fineft and largeft Pears that arc foft and not Stony, are fitteft 
for this Purpqfe, Firft, they are to be nicely pared without 
fqueezing them, and Care taken not to hurt the Stalk or the Crown. 
This done, put them into a Pot of Rain or frelh Spring- Water ; 
cover it, and let them boil gently till they grow throughly foft ; 
then take theoa out and put chem into a Bafon of cp^d Water : Then 
take out one of them and holding it by the Stalk with one Hand, 
and with one Finger and the Thumb of the other Hand, rub the 
Pulp gently ofi^, beginning near the Stalk and rubbing equally to. 
wards the Crown, and you will eafily fee in the Water how the Pulp 
feparates from the Fibres, which being moft tender towards the Ex- 
tremitics, it is there the greateft Care is to be taken. No Inftru- 
ment is of any ufe in this Operation, except laft of all a Pefiknife to 
feparate the Pulp fticking to the Core. In Order to fee how the 
Operation advances, you may fling away the muddy Water from 
Time to Time, and pour on clean: All being feparated, the Skele- 
ton is to be preferved in Spirits of Wine reftified. The fame to be 
obferved with relation to Apples, Plumbs, Peaches and the like. 

Carrots and other Roots, that have woody fibres muft b'e boiled 
without paring, till they grow foft, and the Pulp comes off. . Not 
only many forts of Roots, but alfo the Barks of feveral Tr6es may Be 
reduced after this Method into Skeletons, prefenting rare and curious 
Views of Vegetables. 

cS* This Paper is corre£ied from a TrahJIation oftb^ fame Original^ hy the 
late Dr SditwchztT. It was read before the Society Oft. 17. 1728. 
above two Tears before- the publication ^f Mr Zolmari*i[ franjationin 
the PbUofopbical TranfaSions. 

y u 2 XIV. By 



J40 

Of the Feint 

emi Arteries 
^Leaves. 
By Frank Ni- 
cholls. M. D. 
F. R. S. No. 
4»4- pag. 
57»- 



1^/;^. 112, II J- 



Oftbeebangi 
efCohur in 
Grapes and 

Jasmine, by 
Mr Henry 
Cane, N«. 
366. pag. 
t02. 



O/^ the Veins and Arteries $f Leaves. 

XIV. By a Letter from Dr Fuller in Holland to the Prcfident, and 
communicated about OSlober 1729, the Society was informed, that 
Profeflbr Rujfcb had obferved fomething in the differing of LeavfS 
analogous to the Veins and Arteries of Animals ; but without ex- 
plaining in what Manner thefe different Veflcls were difpofed, or by 
what Means they may be diftinguiflied from each other. 

When I examined the ColicftionS of Frederic Rttyfib znd Albert 
Seha at Amjlerdam^ in both which were great Variety of diflef^cd 
Leaves, they made no Mention of fuch a Difcovery ; although in a 
Leaf from the Colledion of Rwjfch I could (with a Glafs) obfcrvc the 
Fibres to be double towards the Edges of the Leaf; which at that 
Time I imagined to be an unnatural Divifion of the Fibres, as in de-* 
cayed Sticks. 

In the mean Time, Albert Seba having communicated the Method 
bf diOfe^tihg Leaves, to th6 Society, fieparated t^e pulpous from 
the fibrous Parts of fevefal Leavt^s after his Method ; when examine 
jng them by Glaflcs, and in' Water, I found that each Fibre was 
hacurally feparated into two diftmd Fibres by a thin Siratum of the 
pulpous Subftance ; artd that this Separation was continued through 
all the Fibres and Stem of the Leaf, fo as to form two diftindt Planes 
of fimilar Net- work. 

Though this Duplication of the Vefiek in Leatres feems to point 
put an Analogy between th^m and the Veins and Arteries of Aiii^ 
mals, yet I fee no probable Means of gueffing which are the arterial 
and which the veinal Fibres. 

That 1 might illuftrate this Mattel, as h appeared to me, I have 
prepared two Leaves, the one of an Apple (rig. 11 2. J the other of* 
Cherry {Ftg* 1 13.) in which, as well the Separation of the Fibres and 
Stem, as the pulpous Sabftance, by which they are naturally fepa*- 
rated, are very obvious. 

XV. About fix Years ago *, Iplanted a cutting of a Vine againit 
a Wall, on an Eaftern Afped, where it has the Sun from it*s Riling 
till lialf an Hour after twelve. The foil is a iliff Clay, but totnake it 
Work the better, 1 meliotated that, by mixing fome Rubbilh 6t 
the Foundation of an old Brick. Wall, where it now grows. !n Ja- 
huary laft was twelve Montli 1 pru tted It, and the Figure was thas, 

Left Hand ^ Right Hand Black 

At time of Year it fliot at both Hands about twenty two Inches of 
a fide, before it came to a Joint i that on the Right was a very luxu- 
rious exuberant Branch, as big as the body of the Tree, the other 
fide hot half fo thick or big, and the Leaves on the Right were as 
big again as the other on t1ie left Hand, and I fancy the largeft that 
were ever feen. The right Hand bears a very large and good black 



f fbiswaswriitinittCSLihtr, 1720. 



Grapes 



Of the thange ofCobwr in Grapes iwr^ JafmfncJ S4f 

Grape, and large Bunches ; the left hand very good white Grapes« 
and I had laft Year more Bunches of the white, than of the black % 
and whereas in all Vines bearing black and blue Grapes the Leaves 
die red, thefe died white on the black fide as well as t'other. Laft 
Jarmary I pruned the Tree again, but tacked up more of the right 
Hand (being black) than I did on the left, for which reafea I had 
this Year a great many more of the Black than I had of the white, 
and they ripened for the Seafon of the Year very well ; clivers Gen- 
tlemen of the Country both faw them laft Year and this Year, and 
tafted of them. I gathered the laft about eight days fince, and the 
Leaves die white this Year alfo, being the fecond Year that ever it 
bore. I think to prune it pretty clofe on both fides this Year» and to 
plant out divers cuttings of both forts of it. 

I will mention one thing more, which I have experienced about 
28 Years fince ; I do tt becaufe Mr Lawrmce in his firft Tra& of 
Gardening, makes mention of the Plant, but I take mine to be a 
much different cafe from his ; I mean the yellow and green ftriped 
Jeffamne. In the Month q^ April Ann. 1692, having a fmail Plane 
of our common white Jejfamine^ which ftood in the ground, and was 
no bigger than a Tobacco-pipe, Icutic off at two joints above the 
groum), and grafted it with a cutting of the yellow ftriped ; it took 
and flbot a fmall weak Shoot, and in a Month or five Weeks after, 
it was blighted, and I perceived it had killed the Graft, and fome 
part t>f the Stock below, and fo I took my knife and cut it to tlie 
quick, which was near the next knot or joint to the Ground, and let 
it ftatid, diinking to graft it again at %>riag, as before, but forgot 
it *riH the Seafon was paft. At length going that way I faw it had 
brc^e out at the next joint with fcveral Shoots of the yelk>w and 
green ftriped, and riot only there, but it had alio made a ftrong 
^oot ftom the Root, of yalow and greeii ftriped ; after a while I 
took it op with Mold to the Root, and put it in a Pot, and it flou- 
rished all the Summer. But afterwards having made a prefent of it, 
it flouriflied two or three Years, and then for want of (hifting the Pot 
in time, it was matted fo to the fides and bottom of the Pot, that it 
died i I alfo at that time gave if veral of my Acquaintance an ac- 
count of the Circulation and Defcent of the Sap in that Plant, and I^ 
have tried feveral other forts of variegated Plants, but do not find a* 
ny of them to tratifmute, as that J^^ffamine will do. 

XVL The Plants of England^ as well thofe of the Fields and Or- 0hfrvais$99 
chards, as of the Garden, that have been brought over hither, {\x\tfff^J<^rffi» 
mighty well with our Soil, and grow here to great Perfeftion. n^'^J 

Our Apples are, without Doubt, as good as thofc of England^ and ^^' ^% ^ 
much fairer to look to, and fo are the Pears \ but we have not got mariaS/g /«« 
of all the Sorts. ftimen$fth$ 

Our Peaches do rather excel thofc of England^ and then we have ^^^^ V!^ 
notcheTioubteor&pciice«f Walk f«r then} for out Pcftch 

arc 



385. p. 194- 



Fear Treis* 



54Z Inftances of the Nature and T^wer of Vegetatttms. 

the Hon. Paul are all Standard^, and I have had, in my own Garden, fcvcn or eight 
F "ft *^q' xff Hundred fine Peaches of the Rare-ripes, growing ac a Time on on^ 

Our People, of late Years, have run fo much upon Orchards, that 
in a Village near Bojion^ confiding of about forty Families, they made 
near three Thoufand Barrels of Cyder. This was in the Year 172 r. 
And, in another Town of two Hundred Families, in the fame Year, 
I am credibly informed, they made near ten Thoufand Barrels. Spme 
of our Apple Trees, will make fix, fomc have made feven Barrels 
of Cyder, but this is not common; and the Apples will yield from 
feven, to nine Bufliels for a Barrel of Cyder. A good Apple Tree, 
with us, will meafure from fix to ten Foot in Girt. I have feen a 
fine Pearmain, at a Foot from the Ground, meafure ten Feet, and 
four Inches round. This Tree, in one Year, has born thirty eight 
Bu(hels, (by Meafure^ of as fine Pearmains, as ever I faw in Eng' 
land. A Kentijh Pippin at three Foot from the Ground, fevco 
Foot in Girt; a Golden Rofletin fix Foot round. The largeft Ap- 
ple Tree, that I could find, was ten Foot and fix Inches round, but 
this was no Grafts 

An Orange Pear Tree grows the largeft, and yields the faireft Fruit. 
I know one of them near forty Foot high, that meafures fix Foot 
.and fix Inches in Girt, a Yard from the Ground, and has born thir- 
ty Bufhels at a Time ; and this Year I meafured an Orange Pear, that 
grew in my own Orchard, of eleven Inches round the Bulge. I have 
a Warden Pear Tree, that meafures five Foot fix Incheyround. One 
of my Neighbours has a Bergamot Pear Tree, that was brought from 
England in a Box, about the Year 1643, that now meafures fix Foot 
about, and has born twenty two Bulhcls of fine Pears in one Year. 
About twenty Years fince, the Owner took a Cyon, and grafted it 
upon a common Hedge Pear, but the Fruit does not prove altoge- 
ther fo good, and the Rind, or Skin, is thicker than that of the Ori- 
ginal. 
feacb Trees. Our Peach Trees are large and fruitful, and bear commonly in 
three Years from the Stone. I have one in my Garden of twelve 
Years Growth, that meafures two Foot and an Inch in Girt, a Yard 
from the Ground, which, two Years ago, bore me near a Bufhel of 
fine Peaches. Our common Cherries are not fo good as the Kentijb 
Cherries of England^ and we have no Dukes, or Heart Cherries, un- 
lefs in two or three Gardens. 
^rees of the Some Years fince, I meafured a Plat anus Occidentalism or Button 

Wo9i. Wood Tree (as they are called here) of nine Yards in Girt, and it held 

it's Bignefs a great Way up. This Tree, when it was cut down, I 
am informed, made twenty two Cord of Wood. A Gentleman 
tells me, that in the Foreft, he met with a ftreight A(h. that grew 
like a Pillar, of a great Height, and free from Limbs, that meauired 
fourteen Feet eight Inches found» near a Yard from the Ground ; 

add. 



f^ 



Inftances of the Nature and Tower of Vegetation. 343 

and, thfc other, Day, I met with a Sajfafras Tree, that meafured five 
Foot three Inches in Girt. I nneddle not here with our noble Pines 
and Cedars, becaufe I defign to treat of them in a Chapter of the E- 
vergreens of this Country. Among our Trees of quick and eafy 
Growth, the Button Wood before mentioned, and the Lr.cuft Tree, 
are the moft remarkable : As to the latter, by the Dcfcription Mr 
Moore^ while in New England^ gave me of the Manna Tree, our Lo* 
cuft Tree may be called the American Manna. I have known a Seed 
of it blown off from the Tree into my Garden, that took Root of it- 
felf, and, in lefs than two Years, was goc above (ix Foot high, and 
as big about, as a common walking Cane. The Platanus I have fre- 
quently propagated, by cutting off Sticks of five or fix Foot long, 
and fetting them a Foot deep into the Ground in the Spring of the 
Year, when the Seafon is wet j they thrive beft in a moift Soil. 

An Onion, fct out for Seed, will rife to four Foot nine Inches in GarJen. 
Height. A Parfnip will reach to eight Foot, red Orrice will mount 
nine Foot, white Orrice eight. In the Paftures, I meafured Seed 
Mullen nine Foot two Inches in Height, and one of the common 
Thiftles above eight Fo^t. 

Among the remarkable Inftances of the Power of Vegetation, I Vegetation. 
ihall begin with an Account of a Pompion Seed, which I have well 
attefted, from a worthy Divine * The Relation is as follows : That ^^'^P'^^^ 
in the Year 1699, a fingle Pompion Seed was accidentally dropped 
in a fmall Pafture where Cattle had been foddered for fome Time. 
This fingle Seed took Root of itfelf, and without any Manner of 
Care •, the Vine run along over feveral Fences, and fpread over a 
large Piece of Ground far and wide, and continued it's Progrefs till 
the Froft came and killed it. This Seed had no more than one Stalk, 
but a very large one ; for it meafured eight Inches round ; from this 
fingle Vine, they gathered two hundred and fixty Pompions ; and, 
one with another, as big as an half Peck ; enough in the Whole, to 
fill a large Tumbrel, befides a confiderable Number of fmall and un< 
ripe Pompions, that they made no Account of. The Pinlo/opbical 
Tranfaifions give an Account of a fingle Plant of Barley, that by ftee- 
ping and watering with Salt-Petre diffolved in Water, produced two 
hundred and forty nine Stalks, and eighteen thoufand Grains ; but 
then there was Art, and even Force in that Cafe ; whereas in ours, 
there was nothing but pure Nature and Accident. 

Our Jndian Corn is the moft prolific Grain that we have, and com- Indian Com, 
monly produces twelve hundred, and often two thoufand Grains 
from one ; but the faireft Computation is thus ; fix Quarts of this 
Grain will plant an Acre of Ground, and it is notunufual for an Acre 
of good Ground to produce fifty Bufiiels of Corn. Indian Corn is of feve- 
ral Colours, as blue, white, red, and yellow; and if they are planted 

• The Rev. Mr Edwaids of Windlbr. 

2 feparately. 



144 Infianets of the Natnn and Tower of Vegetstm. 

feparately, fo that no other Sore be near them, they will keep t« 
their own Colour. But if in the fame Field, you plant the blue Cor« 
in one Row of Hills (as we term chem) and the white^, or yellow, ia 
the next Row, they will mix and interchange their Colours ; that is* 
fome of the Ears of Corn, in the blue Corn Rows, (hall be whitej 
or yellow ; and fome again, in the white or yellow Rows, (hall be 
blue. Our Hills of Indian Corn are generally about four Foot afun- 
der, and io continued in a ftreight Line, as far as the Field will al« 
low i and then a fcLond Line, or Row of Hills, and fo on ; and yet 
this mixing and interchanging of Colours has been obferved, when 
the Diftance between the Rows of Hills, has been feveral Yards; and 
a worthy Clergyman *, of an IQand in this Province, a(rures me^ 
that the blue Corn has thus communicated, or exchanged, even at 
the Diilance of four or five Rods; and, particularly in one Place, 
where there was a broad Ditch of Water betwixt them« Some of our 
People, but elpecially xht Ab-Origines^ have been of Opinion, that 
this Commixtion, and Interchange, was owing to the Roots, and 
fmall Fibres reaching to and communicating with one another; but 
this muft certainly be a Miftake, confidering the great Diftance of 
the Communication, ef; ecially at fome Times, and crofs a Canal of 
Water ; for the fmalle(t Fibres of the Roots of our IndioM Corn, can« 
not extend above four or five Foot. I am therefore humbly of O- 
pinion, that the Stamina^ or Principles of this wonderful Copulation, 
or mixing of Colours, are carried by the Wind ; and that the Seafon 
of it is, when the Corn is in the Earing, and while the Milk is in the 
Grain, for at that Time, the Corn is in a Sort of Eftuation, and e- 
mits a ftrong Scent. One Thing, which confirms the Air's being the 
Medium of this Communication of Colours in the Corn, is an Obfer«- 
vation of one of my Neighbours, that a clofe, high board Fencet 
between two Fields of Com that were of a difierent Colour, endrelj 
prevented any Mixture or Alteration of Colour, from that they were 
planted with. 
jppU Tru. An Apple Tree in my own Town bears a confiderable Quantity 
witbmi Bhf' ^f Apples, efpecially everv odier Year, which never had a Blo(rQm ; 
•''*'' I had formerly heard the Owner fpeak of it: But for the three laft 

Years, I made it my Bufine(s, in the proper Sealbn, to go and ob- 
ferve it myfelf ; and when all the reft of the Orchard was in the 
Bloom, this Tree had not one Bloflbm. Not being contented with 
once ^oing, I went again, and again, till I found the young Apples 
perfectly formed. The laft Year, I went early, not knowing but 
that it might blow fooner than the other Trees, but I found no Blof«- 
Ibros i and the Owner, with many of his Neighbours, zSured me, 
Aej haye known the Tree thefe forty Years, and that it never had 
a Bloflbai. I opened feveral of the Apples^ and obferved but very 

• HiJUv.atr Majihsw, eTMsftluV KiMeyarJ. 

few 



Obfirv4tim$ upen the Qemratien tf TUntf. ^$ 

few Soed4 io tbetn } Mtd bny^ pf tbem lodged fingle in i^e $ide ^f 
the Apple* This Tree w«s^Qo Graft, and the Frqicl^w t^^m^y fpr 
Tdile. I cowld not per«iv:e., by my Obfervation, h^% that, in all 
other Refpeds, it frudified Jik^ mother Apple T^ees. 

XVJI. k is no fmall Satisfadion, tjiat what I advanced la my Bg- ObfervaHcns 
j0Hic Efayj is oow fo fully confirmed by Experiments mad? by fpnoe '^P^^ theGenf 
ioyaioiis Gardeners, anomg whom is Mr Philip Miller^ wlw wf ites p^^^^jj ^ p^ 
iue wDfd, Nwembcr: 1 1, 1 7^ i , trick Blafr, '" 

Thac in Purfuanoe of oany AdvJC(e be fep^i^aitcd »tbe M^ije PJanis Af. z>. FR^S. 
af the Spinage from the Female » the Cpn&jgipence of ^iiich y^^^ N«. 369. p. 
that the Seeds fwelled to the ufual BigiHeGi ; bu( ihat itibey did j^t g^row ^^^' 
whctt he fimed them. He fearched iiico the Seed, and (4mi tjiey want- 
ed che PunOrnn Vita^ which perhaps might iaY<e been the C^fe witfi 
Mr Ge^gro^ ; but if not, the female Emhrf^gnfii naigiht have b^n jm- 
prqgoaced another Way, ai3 be experimeoied with twelve Tulips 
^ich he fet by tkemfeives about fn^ or feven Yards ffom any other„ 
and as feon as they blew, he took o»t the Stamina fo very carefully^ 
chat he fcattered none of de Duft, and abput two Day^ aflterwards, 
fae {nm Bees worktog on Tiilips, in a Bed where he did not take o^t 
die SutnamA^ ^nd MrEen they came out, they wene joadied wjt;h the 
Daft 00 tfacdr Bodies and Logs : He faw theai Ay into rC^e T^vjipi, 
ivbere he had taken out the Stamnay and when they caic^ ovt^ kt 
jvent and found diey had left behind cfaeiD. Efficient tq iH>pr^Aace 
xiiefe Flosretsi, for they bore good ripe Seed; wdiioh perfuac^s him; 
ijiftt the Farms may be carried from Place tQ Pla^e by {nfeifts, anil 
when they happen* upon a Flower, ^ofi: Ui^rus is <apajb^ ^ \it^ 
impregnated by fudi a Doft^ k may rbe ^ihiis ,QffeftQd> * 

I am of Opinion, this wiU not fuic »witth Mr Moriaffd's $$hbm<. 
For tfao' we may fuppofe Ihe Statrnm ^f eirery Flower so be l4)ik^ 
mth a due Propordon of the Farina yet this accident^ Ciba^Yi^^ni^ 
of ittoaneighbounmgFlower, .may Ik rather tefs ijhw giReaiotr than 
is neceffirry: Sotbat, .if .wanting, thoo thok £^fy$nff.t which ba4 
not received it's determined Particle into their Bofom, m.ttft b$ 
defedivae hi Bulk, or barren In gcowing, ^butiiore all ^rene /Bguilly 
filkd. 

By another Letter, Oa$ber 19. 172'X, hi inforqgbs i»e> fihat 
be bougfht a Paccel <»f Savo^ Seeds of :a Neighbour, Ivbieh 'jstt 
Ibvfed, and planted out the Plants % but v^aa £irj^jped <o fee Ulfi 
Fk^odadbfocr : For be had half. of them nedCabbagf^* and fi^e whitt 
Cabbages, and fbme Savoys with red Hibs, and £c>a)ie. neither, pne 
Sort nor other, but a Mixture of aU $or(s togeifadr in one Plant. 
He went to the Gardener aad cold him his Tale, who ihewed hinfi 
that he was in the fanfie Condition, but did not know how it Hhould 
come to ^»li, for he was feae he. took fpeciftl iCare in feving of die 
Seed. fG^kig aftred how and whece he pbot^ tbi&Qi for Segd, b^\ 
ftevedhiai chetti tiodor a;&a/i?.^^^e(ige^ and LQld hifi) ihf^^an)^; 

VOL. VI. Partii. Xx ner 



346 Obfervations upon the Generation of Tlants. 

ner in which he planted then) : Firft, a Dozen of white Cd>fHi^ei^ 
then a Dozen of Savoys, and then a Dozen of Red, Then he loi* 
mediately thought how it came to pafs, by the Effluvia impregna* 
ting the Uterus of one another \ and it is very common for our Gar- 
deners to plant white and red Cabbages together for Seed, and they 
are as often difappointed by having a Degeneracy of both Kinds, 
which they attribute to the Soil, They fend to Holland for a freih Sup- 
ply of Seeds, and fay our Soil will not continue that Sqrt good. He 
told them his Opinion, and they laugh at him for ity and will not 
be turned out of their Road, although they fliould have never 
fo many Experiments (hewed them. 

This Experiment is a moft convincing Argument for the Effluvia ; 
for did each Grain of the Farina, enter the Pijlillum to it's proper 
Uterus J this mongrel Kind would never be produced. For if the 
individual Plant be in each Grain of the Male Farina, how can it 
be fo far difmembered, as that one Part (hall go to the making op 
of the Ribs of Red Cabbage, and another to compofe the reft of a 
Savoy Plant. Analogous to this, is what I lately obferved in a Spaniel 
Bitch, of fo good a Kind, that when (he became proud. Care was 
taken to let her have good Dogs. The Litter (he produced, coo* 
lifted of Puppies fome piebald, like one of the Dogs that had lined 
her, of the fame Shape, Colour, and Spots ^ others like another; 
and a third partaking of both, with fpots from the Bitch interfpcrfcd. 
This is a farther Con(irmation of what I have advanced, EJfay 4. 
where, pag. 310, I only a(rcrt, that feveral Foetus's partake equally 
of Male and Female ; but here two Males concur. with one Female 
in the Compofition of a fourth Body, made up of all the three: 
And one Seed produces a Cabbage confifting of three different 
Species, which could never happen, did thefe organized Animakula, 
or Granules bf the Farina, become a Fatus, or contain the Folia 
SenunaUa of a Plant. This methinks is fufficient to anfwer what 
Mr Bradley has fo ftrenuoufly contended- for, fTorks of Nature, f. 9. 
(^ fiq. ' . 

I could defcant yet more upon this Obfervation, and conGder 
how far this may lead us into the infinite Variegations and Stripes, 
in not only annual Flowers, fuch as Poppies, Confolida Regatis, and 
Bottles, but alfo in perennial Roots; fuch as Auricula's, Couflips, 
6fc. of aloWerSize, which is hinted by Mr Bradley ; he having received 
that Notion from Mr Du Bois, as I have been credibly infor- 
med ; and in Plants of larger Size, not of a Bulbous, but Carnous 
Root, fuch as Columbines \ where there is a vaft Variety : And 
in this Plant it is moft efpccially to be obferved, that though 
the indigenous one, from which all the other feem only to be Varia- 
tions, and not determinate Species, be of a blue Colour, confifting 
of ten alternate Petala, viz. five corniculate, and live plains yet into 
how many other Kinds of Flowers is it fabdivided i fuch as pale yel- 
low 



Obfervatms upon the Generation ofTldnts. i^y 

low, with bluifh red, purple, dark Scripes vaftty double, bluCf 
blackiOi red, i^c. Some with corniculate Peiala^ and fome only 
with plain, and how in (ingle Flowers it imitates all the Colours we 
fee Pigeons endowed with. I fay it is worthy of Confideration, 
whether the Farina may do this, fince I do not underftand there has 
been much Art ufed in making thefe Flowers break, as Tulips, or 
to cultivate a Set of Breeders ; but that a richer Soil may produce a . 
double flower ; and a fuitable Loam may produce the Variety^ of Co* 
lours 5 the Farina from feveral Flowers may occafion the Stripcs^^ 
and the Stamina arifing from the plain Petala^ rather than the Corni'^ 
cuUy pouring out the Farina^ may caufe the Flowers with the plain 
Petala. So that were I to extend this to a great many other Plants, 
and were there proper Obfervations made in them, confiderable 
Improvemei\(s might be made upon this Do<^rine of the Sexes of. 
Plants. For after the Flowers, we come next to the Variegation of, 
the Seed of fome Plants, particular the Pbafeolij whofe various Spots 
and Colours, and even the Bignefs too, may very much depend up* 
on the Effluvia from the Farina^ when feveral Kinds are fown together. 
For do but confider three plain Colours, a White, Red, and dark^ 
Blue, and you may obferve how many Defcendants, and what a Yzr\ 
riety of Spots may proceed from them, the Lupines alfo in fome 
Meafure may be brought in here, and I know not but that the Me* - 
Sea cocbkatafalcata lunata^ may be multiplied in it's Variations after 
the fame Manner. But it is Time to proceed to another Experiment 
of my Correfpondent Mr Miller. 

Being perfuaded to it by an ingenious Gardener, he pulled off all 
the Male- Flowers of fome Melon Plants fo foon as they appeared \ 
but inftead of finding, as his Friend informed him, that thefe 
Flowers exhaufted the Nourilhment from the Fruit ; he found that, 
without thefe Flowers, none of the Melons would grow. 

As this Experiment is a plain Indication of the Necefllty of the 
Farina^ fo it confirms the Ufe I have afligned tp the Leaves, v/z,, 
that by entring the Capillaries of the Leaves, and returning, the. nu- 
tritive Particles may be more attenuated : So here, the Petata of 
the Male* Flowers may ferve for the famp Purpofe ; for by the Large- 
nefs of the TuhuU in thefe Pomifere fcandentes^ a grofs vifcid Sap is 
received, which even the Leaves themfelves are not fufficient to at- . 
tenuate, fo as to be fit for compofing the more fubtile Part of the 
Fruit ; until by repeated Circulation through the Petala of the Male- 
Flowers, it may be rendered fit for fuch a Purpofe. Indeed, the 
Female-Flowers upon the Top of the Rudimentum FruSlus^ may in 
fome Meafure ferve for this Purpofe. But as the Male- Flowers are, 
generally fpeaking, more numerous than the Female, fo their being 
removed muft deprive the Embryones of a very great Afliftance to- 
wards it's being perfefted : I may add, that the Orifices of the Pe- 
dicles, when the^Flowers are pulled off, muft lofe fo much of the Sap, 

Xx 2 that 



348 The Propagation i^/Miflclto. 

thtt the whole Plant muft be thereby fo impoverished, as not to ht 
able to bring fo^th the defigncd Fruit 5 all this, bcfide the Want of 
the confidcraWe Supply of the Farina Facundans. 

I deflgned ro have given a ft^ Thoughts concerning the Vartega- 

tion of Leaves and Flowers, being unwilling to admit of Mr Bradlef% 

Sicknefs or Weaknefs of the Sap : But I (hall referve that to a more 

convenient Opportunity, being at prcfent intent upon making fome 

farther Improvements upon the Generation and Nouriftimeflt of 

Plants. 

The Propaga- XVIII. i. The Berfies of Miffelto have within their vifcid Pulp a 

tion e/'Miffel- Kernel covered with a thin whitifh Skin ; the inward SubAance whcrc- 

j&r^m'ontT ^'^ deeply green, and harder than the Subftance of a Piftacbio Nut's 

'Blutlj^Jaor Kernel. It is flattifli, and fhaped fometimes liKe a Heart, fometin^es 

j/^Sutton in oMong, both are as truly Seed,' as any Plant can have. Thofe of the 

Kent. N*'. oWong Shape put ddt but one Getmen\ thofe like an Heart, have 

397- P- 215. j^o^ ^ich prove two drftina Plants. 

Fig. 114. Sir John Calebatcb recommends the fowing this Seed by way of 

Inoculation r Accordingly in Feb. i7ff, I endeavoured to place the 
''if- "S- Berries, within the Bark of O^it, Afh^ Bieeby Pear^ and yf//>&- trees, 
by making feveral Cbts and Galhesr iri the upright Sides of the Trees. 
The Whole Berries w^ld not flay in any of them ; and wHen I broke 
them, the Seed aliCrays flipped out to the Edge of the Cbt, and then 
it ftuck to the Bark, by means of the flimy SubftarHie whftrewith it i« 
ericottipaffed. 1 alfo ftuck one Seed on the bare Bark, WfdiOtit any 
cutting at all: This fucceeded b^ft, and being the Heart- like fhape, 
gdve me two Plants. For about the ^9ib of March ifi^. thii with 
t*^o more on ihe Apple-xxtt^ and one on th6 P^ar-trttj began to- 
ffioot; and the Growth was in this manner: 

The vifeous Matter having tfuck the Seed on, and fas It drted) 
drawn the Seed ci6fe and flat down to the Bark of the Tree, there 
began, in March and Aprils to fpring out 0/ that end of the Seed 
which had been toward the Eye of the Berry, a fmall deep ttreen 
Shoot or Twf^,- Very lik^ a ftlort Kfece of a little Clafper « the 
Vitie. A\ fifft, it' atofe upw'ard from the Bark and' then turning 
agaiii, as it appfOaehed the Trety it f#ellfed 6Ut? fcmewhkt bigger 
round about ftie VMd ; yet teavkig the very Tip 'or Bbttem, ^urto 
ftaf, forming (as it were j a Fo6t to ftand opon'; not unlike the bot« 
torn of fortid Btaft Peftles. This Foot, when it cawe to the Ifcirk, 
which w^ abtmt M^y 6p June i^i^ fix*d itfelf ihcreott. Being 
tJiui faftenfcd at both £nd^, itmide a Yxtt\t Arch ^?»hofe 'Diameter 
^rts frs long as tAe Seed, Of afetetir 1^ tf an ftitft.' '■ 
• Irtr rhis CbrtditiofT, it remained ailt that 'Year, tiH aboiot March or 
Jpril 1720, arid then that part or ertd 6f ourfittlc Seed!iiig, whrch 
was joyncd to the Bark, at the place where the StcA flrft fti^ fbfffc, 
let go it's hoW, and rarfifng ftfcif upward, put forth Leaves, a?nd be- 
came tfre Head of the Mam r and the other tnd, whicil fprtmg out 
2 firft^ 



TAi Vropagatim of Miflelto. }49 

£rft, nod had taken footiisg in another Place, became the Root ^ 
Che Plant. 

'Tis no uncommon thing, for Seeds of Ever-^etm to be two Yean 
before they fpring ooc of the Ground. And the change of the 
Ends, firft om of them flioottng out, and then the other, was what 
furprized me nK)fl at firf^ -, bat on further refleftion I foond^ tlut Na- 
ture, in this Plant, is uniform to her other Productions \ in carrying 
the Sap firft one way to form the Root, and then turning the Gosrfe 
Of it back again to fend out the opfier parts c^ the Plant. The 
llrangeft and moft wonderful part is, that the rooting End (hould 
make it's firft fboot into the open Air, and then turn it felf down 
to find a proper Place to fix u^on. Who could have fiippofed, that 
a Plant, whofe Berry is the molt orbicular of any, and therefore 
the leaft likely to lie quiet in any Situation, and whofe proper place 
of growth is a round and wavering Bough, or upright fide of a Tree, 
ihould after it is once fixed^ leave it*s firft footing, and feek out a 
new point in the Bark to grow upon. 

This is indeed the great Secret of the matter, and feems to be the 
very thing that hath kept the World in Ignorance, about the grow- 
ing of this Seed. For by requiring a new fmooth Place of the Bark 
whereon to fix the rooting Part, ic hath fruftrated all attempts of 
fbwing it \n the ufual way of other SttA^. 

' Tbeopbrafius^ (about two Thoufand Years ago) feems to endeavour 
at a Reafon, why this Seed could not grow in the Earth : But all 
that he, Or any one fince, hath faid upon it, is only ta agree, that 
in Fa<a k doth not, and to wonder why fo perfefl: a Seed (hould not 
grow in the Eatth. That Antient Author rationally concluded, from 
it^s having a Seed, that thtf Plant muft come from diat Seed: Where- 
as latter Times have beeH fo fond of allowing Chance a fhare in 
the Produdllons of Nature, that Sealiger hath not only experimentally 
confuted the common Notion of Mijfdto*^ being fown in the Dung 
t>f tbe5T&ri5/iS; but argueth alfo, very ftenuoutly, againftthe Poflibility 
of this Plant's growing from it'^ Seed. Even the great Lord 5tfr^», 
Sir ThomaiBr&m^ Lohel^ and the inquHitiveMr /?/jy (fo late as*i673,) 
i!oall give into k, thac this Plant, hatb a fpontancous and ei^uivo- 
ca!, rather than a fatiinal and univocal Gerteratitirf. 

ScaUger*^ ftrongcft Objeftfen is, ^(fd i Rami ^uihufdam emt Vtfeus^ 
^uo in It^o nulRs tmdh vel ftercus confxjtere^ vel femen unqMam' poiuerit 
habere ^^L^^ Nilnlo enim cmmoSuf tbtififitre quam in rt protHvi Gkbnm. 
Ltibel objefts againft h, bccaufe of the Imperfeftron of the Berry 
Atirtuh illb pafRdo feUucido. Mr Ray% Argument i^ ^Vifcus innains 
etidrn in fmnd ramcTum pm'te. 

' If Nature had been well examined; it would have apmeaned; that 
this Seed is of a fubftance equal to other Kernels ; and that tlte Pulp 
of the Berry, wherewith the Seed is furronnded, is of a more clammy 
fticking nature than the Pulp of other Berries, for this very Purpofe 

that 



150: 'The Trapagation of Miflclto.' 

thacit might.be of ftrengtb fufficiienc to fix the Seed on any Tree, 
how moveable or upright foever the Bough or Twig fliouid be where- 
on it chanced to light. 

And doubtlefs the Birds are (tho* not by their Dung) Sowers of 
this, as they arc of many other Seeds, which they carry away for 
Food i but often drop in Places where they could othcrwife never 
have come. 

I went to gather fome MiJ/iUo-Bemts and found a Leaf with a Seed, 
(licking chercon % doubtlefs by a cafual Fall out of the Bill of fome 
Bird, that has broken the Berry a$ (he was eating it. There is both 
a dry firing of the Slime, and a dry fpot of the fame, upon the Leaf 
that fhow how the Seed was detained there, in this Cafe -, and how ic 
muft be done in like manner any where elie. 

1 have fown thcfe Seeds, on near thirty forts of Trees and flirubs, 
and yet never had above ten Plants, that held out the fecond Year 
fo that we need not wonder, at the little Succefs, that others have 
had, in their trials. This is alfo the Reafon^ why I have not been 
able to make many other Experiments about the growth of this PlanL 
However, fome Cafualties have fumilhed me with two or three} 
which fomewhat further explain the Nature of this Plant's growing. 

%. One of my little Plants fown in Jpr. 1724. which was fixed at 
both Ends in it's Arch like Form, had in Sepi. 1724, the middle part 
broken off; the two Ends keeping ft ill faft to the Tree. WhicH 
iQiews, how firmly the two Ends adhere, while it is inthatftate; 
and they both continued green fome time, and then withered 
away. 

2. That one Seed, which grew on a Pear-treCj in 171$, was the 
next Spring 174I, loofened from the Tree at one End, as the others 
were: Yet this feed ling Sprout, never put out any Leaves at all} 
but continued in the fame ftate, neither bigger nor leis, near fix Years i 
thsLt is, till it was broken oiF by chance in July 1725. This feems to 
^e a very ftrange thing: For, a feedling Plant (of any kind) is, but 
as it were an Embryo^ till it have put forth Leaves. 

3. My tnoft thriving ^pair of Plants, of the Year i7if, being a- 
bout three Inches in length, were on the 21^ of M^y 1722, ftruck 
off; by the falling gf a Rake- handle againft them. They took away 
with them, only the outmoft thin (kin of the Tree; and I could not 
fee any figns, of deeper Rooting. But as I looked, now and then, 
on the Place, where the Mijfelto had grown, I thought, I obferved 
the Bark to (well up a little ; and on the iitb of March lyit^ I per- 
ceived 3 or 4 little Buds, putting forth, and another Bud was 
put out by the i%tb of March. They all grew on, to have Leaves 
that Summer; and now Febr. 17!^, they are a Clufter of Boughs, 
of 4 or 5 Joints in heighth, and bore Berries this Winter; whereas 
two others on the fame Tree, apd which were alfo fowa at the fame 

time 



7Jbe Tropdgation of MHTclto. 35 1 

timc» in ifth and are 6 or 7 Joints in heighth, have not yet bom 
any Berries. 

The thriving of ihefe Plants, fo well again, after they were broken 
off; made me reflect, on the Druids way, of cutting MiJJelto from 
the Oak^ with a Golden Inftrument ; a Metal not apt to take a good 
Edge, and poi&bly, the bluntnefs of the Inftrument, might be a 
means, to prcfcrve> a future growth,^ of the fame Plants which 
doubtlefs, they as well as we, find to be very rarely upon the Oak. 
I might fuggeft fome Reafons for this Scarcity, from the Nature of 
that Bark ; and I might obferve many miftakes, into which both 
Modern and Ancient Writers run, when they mention this Plant. 
But I have been fo tedious already, that I (hall add only this^ one 
pbfesiation ; that there Is almoft every Year, on moft Mijelto- 
Bufhes, a vifible Proof, that the Kernel hath a vegetative Life in it : 
For when the Berries hang on till May or June^ the Seed will make 
it's fittte Shoot in the Berry, as the Kernels of Lemons, and you may 
fee it coming out at the Eye of the Berry. 

/ 2. The Birds dunoc often permit any Berries to be found fo late A germinating 
as in May^ but as I have formerly obfcrved this, fo I have met with Tr'l^^y '* 
fome this Year, whereof I have herewith fent you a Specimen ; where- %'efami!l^: 
in you will find both old ripe Berries and young green ones, on the 399. p. '306. 
fame Stalks ; and in the old you may fee (even through their Skin) 
the little Germen putting forth it's Head from the Seed or Kernel. 
I have likewife formerly had a Sufpicion that the Plants of Mijfeho 
are fome Mate^ fome Female. I am now further perfwaded, that it 
may be fo. 

3.1 have Cfrom my own fowing of the Berries) four thriving Plants -A Difference 
of Mtffelto growing on one Tree in my Garden, Thcfe, being ^/^^^ "'^* ^jr 
often in my View, gave me the firft Apprchcnfion, of there being ^^-^^^ 
any Difference of Sex, in this Shrub. They were not of Age to ^^^' ^' ^^'^* 
bear Flower or Fruit till 1726 ; when one of them bore a Berry or 
two ', and expeAing that they fliould all do fo the following Year, I 
frequently examined them, and found that two Plants had Berries, 
and two had none. I then went and examined the Mffelto on other 
Trees, which have Plants of above 20 Years Growth. And I find 
the Method of Nature to be thus. 

Dr Grew obferves, that many Plants make a vifible Preparation 
in the former Year for the Flower and Fruit of the next Seafon. 
This is done by MiJfeUo. At the latter End of Miy, the Male 
Plants put out little Knobs, at the Joints and Tops of their Boughs; 
which at firft are not very unlike the young green Berries ; but they 
foon appear evidendy diftinft from them, and being by the latter 
End of 7^/y, grown as large as the Berries, are then not at all like 
them -, fpreading wider upwards, and having 3, or 4, or 5 Buds, at 
the Top of each Knob. About June^ the Female Plant alfo makes 
a like Preparation \ putting out at the Joints and Tops ofthe Boughs^ 
I Knob8> 



352 Of Motion of the Saf instants. 

Knobs, which are more (harp, and ihorcer than chofe of the Males 
with I, or 2, but mod commonly with 3 Buds, or fmall Poincsac 
the Top of each Knob. I call them Buds, becaufe in their Seafoa 
they open into Flowers, both in the Male and Female Plants ; all^ 
the reft of the Knob fe'rving only for Footftalks to the Flowers, in 
the one Sort, and to both Flower and Fruit in the other. By the 
latter End of yfr^«/? the Berries arc grown much larger than the 
Knobs on the Male Plants. And from thence, till late in January^ 
tliere is little worth Remark in cither Plant; only the Berry grows' 
fpmewhat bigger, and becomes ripe \ and the Knobs on the Male grow 
more and more yellow ; fo that one may, at that Time, difcern a 
Male from a Female Plant, at a confidcrable Diftance. By the 20th 
of February MiJJeltd is in Bloom, both Male and Female. The 
Knobs of the Male are open at the Top with 3, or 4, or 5 Bloflbms ; 
which are very well defcribed (though in (horc^ in Bocrbaave*\fTt^oria 
Plantarum, 

The Female Plant flowereth alfo now, with a Bloflbm (which Boer- 
baave calls the Ovarium) exadlly like the Male Flower ; fave only, 
that the whole Female Flower is not bigger than one Leaf of the 
Male Flower. They both continue in fuU Bloom till the Middle of 
Marcb^ when the Male Bloflbms begin to wither and drop off! And 
by the 20th of M^r^ib the youns Berries begin to Ihew themfelves, 
fwelling forth, one under each Female Bloflbm \ which often adheres 
to the Top of the Berry ; and being carried up with it, prefendy 
withers,- and foon falls off again ; tho' fome continued on till the 
1 2 th of May^ when the Berries were of the Size of a great Pin's 
Head. 

This complcated the Year's Obfervation. And I think it is much 

ro be wondered at, that this Plant, which hath been the Admiration 

of all Ages, fliould (fcarce ever^ find one Obferver fo curious as to 

follow the Changes of it, through ojoe whole Year's Revolution, 

For if this had been done with any Accuracy, it muft have been very 

Evident, tliat one Sort of Aij^//(? was very different from the other: 

One Sort bearing very fmall Flowers with Berries fuccecdinc them: 

ffivf Expert' the Other bearing much larger Flowers, not fucceeded by any Berries ^ 

ments, relat- the very FootftaJk of the Male falling off with _ the Flower 5 where- 

ingtatbedif- ^^ ^^ Footfl:alk of the Female, becomes a "Footft^lk totheBer- 

fennt, and . 

traryl Motion XIX. Some Years ajg;o^ 1 flicwed fome Experiments before the 
of the Sap in 'Jloyal Society and they were picafcd to allow the Experiments to he 
Plants, by jjew and ufeful; which encouraged me to try further^ and bring 
^^ikT^ar'" ^^^^ Experiments, in order to fticw the Courfc of the Sap ; which I 
dcncr at Hox- ^^^t ^X Ej^pericnce, will be fo ufeful, that I can nwke barren Trees 
ton. No. 384. fruitful, and decaying Trees healthful, and render the Syftcm of 
pag. 127- Gaideftiqg ^ Plwtiqg jnore uJfeful to tbePjublic. 

I ihewcd 



A Method ofraijtng fome exotic Seeds. jjj 

I fbcwca the Laureola, grafted upon the Mezereon^ and the Ever^ 
green Oak of Virginia upon the common Englijh Oak \ both which hold 
their Leaves all the Winter, and are in good St^tc and flourifliing, 
though grafted on Plants that drop their Leaves in Winter ; which 
plainly proves that the Juices rife upwards, in Winter, in thofe Plants 
that drop their Leaves, otherwife the Evergreens that arc grafted on 
them would foon perifh. 

I believe by grafting the Variety of foreign Oaks on the Englijh^ 
we might make the Timber more firm and lading, chan it is in it's 
own Nature, when raifed from foreign Acorns : For as the Crab 
Stock maketh the Wood of the Apple-Tree more firm and lading, 
than that on the Apple-Stock, and the Peaches and Almonds, budded 
on Plums, are more lading than thofe on Peach-Stocks ; fo by the 
contrary Rule, all firm Timber, grafted on fpungy Stocks, would be 
made worfe than it would be on it's own Bottom. For Example, If 
that which is called the Englift> Elm^ fhould be grafted on that which 
is called the Dutcb^ it would partake of abundance of the fpungy 
Juices of the Stock, whereby the Timber would become unfit for the 
Purpofes it is now ufed for. 

The firft Experiment, I have now to oflFer is made on the New 
England Cedar^ or rather Juniper^ grafted on the Virginia \ and what 
is remarkable in it, is, That the Branch, which is grafted, is left fe* 
veral Inches below the Grafting, which Part continues growing as 
well as the upper Part above the Grafting. 

The fecond is on the Viburnum^ the Top of which being planted 
in the Ground, is become Roots ; and the Roots being turned up, 
are become Branches. I find the Plant in as good State of growing 
as it was in it's natural State. 

The third is on a Pear-Tree, which I enarched upon two Pear* 
Stocks, in March 17^. which is now in a good flouridiing State 
with a Branch in Bloflbm, and receiveth no Nouriihment but by the 
two enarched Branches, the Root being out of the Ground ; and 
though it was done above two Years ago, it is now ihooting Suckers 
out of the Root, which proveth that the Branches are as ufeful to 
fupport the Roots, as the Roots the Branches \ and it is therefore no 
Wonder that fo many Trees mifcarry in planting, when there are no 
Branches left on the Head. 

The fourth is on the Cedar of Ubanus^ grafted on the Laryx^ 
which drops it's Leaves in the Winter ; yet maintains the Cedar in 
as flourifhing a Condition, as if it had been on a Tree that held the 
Leaves all the Winter ; and the Part of the Graft, left below the 
Grafting, is in as good Health as the Part above it. 

XX. In 1724, Ihad a Parcel of frefh Coco-Nuts from Barhadoes : j Method of 
Part of thefe Nuts I diveded of their outer Coat, or Huflc, and the raifingfime 
other Part I left entire as I received them. Both thefe Parcels I plan- ^^^f^ |''^'* 
ted in laige Pocs^ filled with good frefli Earth, and plunged the Pots ZJnjuSj 
VOL. VL Partil Yy into 



3 54- ^ Method of faffing fome exotic Seeds. 

almofl impoJii- ifito a Hot-bcd made with banners-bark ; giving them gentle and frc- 
i>/g toieraifed quent Waterings as the Earth in the Pots feemed to require 5 but had 
^h ^/^PhMi* "^^ ^"^' ^"^ ^^ ^^^ whole Number, which made any Attempt to 
Miller nV^ flioot, as I could perccive j and upon taking them out of the Pots, 
403. p. 485. I found they were rotten. About four Months after, 1 received 
another frefti Parcel which I treated in another Manner : From part of 
thefe I cut off the outer Coat or Hufk, and the other Part I left intirc 
as before : But fuppofmg it was owing to my planting the other Par- 
cel in Pots^ that they did not fucceed, I made a frefh Hot- bed (with 
Horfe-dung) and covered it over with frejh Earthy about 18 Inches 
thick, in which I planted the Nuts : Obferving as before, to fupply 
it with convenient MoiJlurCy as alfo to keep the Hot-bed in an equal 
temper of Heat f which I was guided to do by a Thermometer gradua- 
ted for the Ufe of Hot-beds) j but with all my Care I had no better 
Succefs than before 5 not one of the Nuts making any Eflay towards 
Jboating. The Year following I had another Parcel of C^r^-JVa/j given 
me, which, confidering my former ill Succefs, I planted in a diffe- 
rent Manner. Having a Hot-bed, which had been lately made with 
Tanners'barkj and which was filled with Pots of exotic Plants, I re- 
moved two of the largeil Pots, which were placed in the Middle of 
the Bed, and opening the Tanners-bark under the Place where the 
two Pots ftood, I placed the two Coco-Nuts therein, laying them Side- 
ways, to prevent the Moijlure fwhich might defcend from the Pots) 
from entring the Hole at the Bafe of the Fruit, and thereby rot 
the feminal Plant upon it's firft germinating. I then covered the Nuts 
over with the Bark two or three Inches thick, and placed the two 
Pots over them in their former Statiop. In this Place I let the Nuts 
remain for fix Weeks \ when removing the two Poc3, and uncover- 
ing the Nuts, I found them both (hot from the Hole in the Bafe of 
the Fruit, an Inch in Length j and from the other End of the Fruit 
were feveral Fibres emitted two or three Inches in Length. Finding 
them in fuch a Forwardnefs, I took them out of the Bark^ and 
planted them in large Pots, filled with good frefh Earthy plunging the 
Pots down to their Rims in the Tanner s-bark^ and covering the Sur- 
face of the Earth in the Pots half an Inch thick with the fame: Soon 
after which the young Shoots were above two Inches long,, and con- 
tinued to thrive very well. I have communicated this Method fince 
to fome of my Acquaintance, who have tried it with the fame Succefs 
and if the Nuts are frefh, fcarce any of them mifcarry. This led 
me to try if the fame Method would fucceed as well with other bard- 
fhelledy exotic Seeds, which I could not, by any Method I had before 
tried, get to grow, as the Bonduc^ or Ntckar-Tree ; th? Abrus^ or 
Wild Liquorice ; the Phafeolus Braftlianus frutefcens lobis villofis pungenti- 
bus maximus Hermanniy or Horfe-eye Bean^ with feveral others i and 
I have found it both a fure and expeditious Way to raife any Sort 
of bard Jhelled Fruits^ or Seeds. For the Heat and Mtnfiure (which arc 

abfolutely 



Of the Flowering of Bulbous Plants. j ^ 5 

abfolutely neceflary to promote Vegetation) they here enjoy in an 
equal and reffilar Manner ; the Tanners-bark (if rightly managed) keep- 
ing to near an Equality of Heat for fix Months, and the IVater which 
defcends from the Pots, when they are watered, i& by the Bark de- 
tained from being too foon difllpated : which cannot be obtained in 
a common Hot-bed, the Earth in fuch being worked away by the 
Water, and thereby leaving the Seeds often deftitute of Moifture. 
Some of thefe Seeds I have had fhoot in a Fortnight's Time ; which 
I am informed, would not have fo done in a Month in their native 
Soil and Climate. I have alfo found this to be an excellent Method 
to reftore Orange (or any other exotic) Trees, which have fuflFercd 
by a tedious Paflage, in being too long out of the Ground : Infomuch 
that I recovered two Orange-trees which had been ten Months with- jn Account of 
out either Earth or Water. Bulbous 

XXI. I. In September laft I placed fome Bulbs of Tulips^ and o- ^l^ntsflower- 
ther Flowers, in Water as the Figures reprefcnt ; at which Time I ^erwb^n/hli'r 
put into each Glafs two Grains of Saltpetre. Thefe Glaffes I kept in Bulbs^lre ^'^ 
my Study, fometimes on a Shelf, at other times before the Window, placed upon 
In a Fortfrtght's Time I begun to find that they ftruck new Roots 5 -S^?///^/, filled 
the latter End of November they put forth Leaves, and in January ^^^^ ^jben^* 
they all flowered, as well as if they had been on a Garden-bed; planted in tU 
whereas in Gardens we feldom fee in Sweden^ Tulips^ before the htttr Ground, Ay Mr 
End of May J and this Year they are later, the Ground being yet "^^^^^^^^'^ 
covered with Abundance of Ice and Snow. 'flg^' ^''' 

Though thefe Experiments fcem to be calculated for nothing but ^ ' P* ^* 
Delight, yet I think they have furnifhcd me with fome Lights, as % 116, 117. 
to the Rife of the Sap in Plants. 

2. The Glaffes marked Numb, i, wereRootsof a fly^««/i&, com-^ Experiments, 
TOonly known by the Name of Pulcbra. Numb. 2. were Roots of the ^^^^^^'^i ^0 tbe 
common Oriental blue Hyacinth. The Flowers of thefe were not fo ^rib-?m 
large as they are commonly produced when planted in a Bed of Earth ; Miiier, F.R.S. 
but this was occafioned by the Bulbs dividing into feveral Off-fets, No. 418. p. 
each of which are as fo many different fmall Roots, fending forth ^'' 
Stems and Leaves. Numb. 3, was a Bulb of a ?"«///>, which though 
placed on the Glafs of Water at the fame Time as the Hyacinths^ 
yet was not likely to flower in a Month. Numb. 4, was a Root of 
NarciJJus. This was alfo as backward as the Tulips though put upon 
the Water at the fame Time with the Hyacinths. Thefe Roots were 
placed upon the Glaffes the Beginning of November laft ; at which 
Time I put them into a Green-Houfe, where the Air was kept con- 
ftantly in a temperate Warmth. The Glaffes were filled with com- 
mon Thames Water, fo near to the Top, that when the Bulbs were 
placed upon the Glaffes, it might be about a quarter of an Inch below 
the Bottom of the Bulbs. Into thofe Glaffes marked Numb. 5, I put 
a fmall Quantity of common Garden Mould, to try whether that 
would forward their Flowering, or encreafe their Strength : But I 

Yy 2 found 



iS6 Of the Smdlnefs pf the Alpine Tlantsl 

fpiind that all thf Roots which were placed on thofe Glafles, into 
which the Earth was put, were at leail a Fortnight later than the 
others before their Fibres were cmittedi and their Progrefs has been 
fince much flower. I alfo obfervcd that the Water, in thofe Glaflcs 
where the Earth was put, did not wafte above half fo fad, as it did 
in thofe Glaflcs where there was none ; which, I conceive, might be 
occaGoned by the terreftrial Matter mixing with the Water, and fo 
rendered it thicker, and lefs capable of being attrafted by the Plants 
/ or evaporating by the Heat. And from thofe Glaflfes, where the 
Bulbs did notexafbly cover their Necks, the Water evaporated much 
fafter than from thofe where the Bulbs did entirely cover the Tops of 
the Glafles, fo as to leave no Vacuities round them. 

Inabout a Month after the Roots were put upon the Glafles of 
Walcr they began to put out their Fibres into the Water ; but they 
did nqp begit) to put forth their Leaves, until their Fibres were ex- 
tended ail over the Glafles, and were almofl: as full grown as at pre^ 
fent. When their Leaves began to appear, the Buds of the Hyacinth* 
Flowers werefoon vifibje, and in about three WeeH(j Time were fully 
iilow^N Th\e. Tulipf and UarctffusU being much backwardoi than the 
Hjacintks (as they ajways jare when |4aiit)ed in a Gafden) thefe fliould 
alwi^s be phced upon %ht Glafles of Water fix Weeks or two 
Months earlier i4 the Seafon than the Hyacinibs, when they are de- 
flgned to flower at thefat^ie Time; and the Pracoces Cor early blow- 
ing) ^uUps fliould always be chofen ftit this Purpofe. 

By this Metkod a Perfoqi who has, not a Garden, may have fome of 
thefe Flowers growing in l^s Chambers, where, if they are not kept 
too clofe fromtbe Air, or m a Place too warm, they will flower aU 
tnofl; as well as in a Bed of Earth, provided the Roots ate good^ 
and are every Year renewed $ efpecially the ^uUps^ becaufe they 
every Year form hew Bulbs, the old ones being always exhaufted 
in nourifliing the Leaves and Flowers, a new Bulb is annually produ« 
ced by the Side of the Flower-ftem. The Hyacinths I have obferved 
to flower two Years fucceflively upon Glaflcs of Water } but their 
Flowers were very ^eak the fecond Year. So that it is much the bet- 
ter Way to have frefh Roots every Year. 
^tbe Small' XXII. They become lefs and lefs, in proportion as the Mountains, 
^fiiw 'plants ^^^^ which they grow, rife higher. Whether this be owmg to the 
Dr Schcu-* Sharpnefs and Purity of the Alpine Air, or the decr^aflng PreflTure of 
zer F.R.S. the Atmofphere, which is far lefs upon Mountains than in Valleys 
* 406. p. and lower Countries^ or to a Want of a fuflicient Quantity of fubter- 
3' raneous Heat, to pufli the Nourifliment into the Roots and Veflels of 

the Plants, or rather to a joint Concurrence of thefe and other Caufes» 
would require a more Icifurely CorMJderation. The Thing itfelf is 
an indiiputable Matter of Fa^, and it extends atfo to Trees and 
Shrubs, which become fmaller, as they grow higher. Nay, what is 
itill more remarkable, no Trees will grow beyond a ceruin Height, 
2 which 



[ 




A new Family of Tlants called Oxyoidcs. 3^7 

which is the Reafon why the Tops of Mountains appear fo bare and 
naked, if viewed at a Diftance, though a curious Traveller fhail not 
fail meeting upon their rich Failures with an agreeable Variety of 
beautiful Plants. The Height, where the Trees ceafe to grow, hath 
been found, by Barometrical Obfcrvations, nearly to be the fame in 
divers Parts of Swijferland. Other wife, the Smallnefs of the Alpine 
Plants is abundantly compenfated by the Richnefs of their Virtues, 
which are, as it were, purpofely centred there into fo narrow a 
Compafs. 

XXIII. I. T\it Oxyoides \% 2L Family of Plants, whofe Flower and AnemFam- 
Fruit are altogether like thofe of the Oxys i that is, the Flower is h of Plants 
compleat, regular, polypetalous and hermaphrodite ; containing the ^^^^^^O^y^i 
Ovary^ which afterwards becomes, as in Oxys^ a five-cornered Fruit, ^rcm.^r^- 
divided into five Cells, filled with fmall Seeds •, each of whkrh is co- jiatedfnm 
vered by a Membrane, like a Hood, which opens, when ripe \ and ^ht French, 
by an elaftic Motion, makes the Seed leap out. h J^^" Mar- 

. The true Charafters by which it is diftinguilhed from the Oxys^ Noli^.^wt. 
are, that the Leaves are difpofed by Pairs along a Rib, without be- 377. 
ing terminated by an odd one, which makes them entirely refemble 
thofe of the Tamarind. That thefe Leaves are all gathered together, 
in an Umbel, on the Top of a naked Stalk : That they are not in 
the lead Degree acid, and that they Ihew as great a Senfibility, oa 
being touched, as the Species of Mimofa. 

The Species of this Genus are^ 

I. Oxyosdes Javamca, fenfttha^ cauU ruhefcenU^ birfuto Jhre luteo^ Fig. nK 
mnare. 

II. Oxydides Male^arUa^ Jinfttiva^ casik viriS^ glatro aitiore, pre rig. 119. 

tnajore. 

The firft ufually grows to the Height of half a Foot* It is com* Dtfnipthm tf 
pofedof a naked Stalk, Ribs of Leaves, and Pedicles of Flowers, •f^^ff^fi 
jEach of thefe Parts is of equal Length, and ufually three Inches, ^^^"'' 
when they are at their full Growth \ and the whole is difpofed in an 
Umbel. 

The Root, whkh is almoft as k>ng as the Stalk, runs ftrafght down 
and fomettmes obliquely into the Ground. It grows taper from it*s 
Neck, which is of the fame Thicknefs with the Stalk. It is fet with 
fmall Fibres, a little waved and white, and giving Rife to other pret* 
ty ihort Filaments. The whole Root is whitifk. 

The Stalk arifes fonietimes ftraight, and fpmetimes crooked \ fome«* 
times wrinkled, and fometimes plain thro«ghout it's whole Lengtb> pret* 
ty downy, or rather hairy, and always reddiih inibme Places. It is trom 
a Line and a half to two Lines thick towards the Top, and ufually i^xs^^^ 
thing lefs towards tbeBottom« This Stalky which forms a kkuLof Bttttois 



gjg A new Family ofTlants called Oxyoides; 

or little Mead, at the Top, gives Rife at that Place to all the other 
Parts of the Plane; that is, to the Ribs of the Leaves, and the Pedi« 
cles of the Flowers ; which makes the whole Tuft refemblc an Umbel. 

The Ribs of the Leaves, which grow from the Top of this Stalk, 
go on encreafing till they equal the Length of the Stalk. They arc 
about the Thicknefs of the treble String of a Violin, and equal 
throughout their whole Length. They are a littie downy like the 
Stalk. . - 

The Leaves, which grow by Pairs, occupy two thirds of the Rib j 
that Part which is next the Stalk being naked. The firft Pair of 
Leaves is the leaft, and the laft Pair always the largeft, Thefe are 
commonly half an Inch long, and the fmalleft are not above half the 
Size of the largeft. Thefe Leaves grow fo near the Rib, that they 
feem ta have no Tail; Their Bafe is alwsiys the broadcft Part of the 
whole Rib, and always parallel to the Rib : The reft of the Leaf 
bends itfelf a little forwards. The Middle of their Length is ufually 
their narroweft Part, and from thence they are gradually^ enlarged, 
and rounded at their Extremities. The Bafes of all the Pairs are al- 
mofl: of the lame Bignefs, except the laft, which has the Breadth on 
one Side only of the little Nerve, which traverfes the Leaf, to avoid 
incommoding itfelf with it's Neighbour but to -make Amends, the 
licaves of this Pair are .broader than^the others, a little below their 
Extremities, efpecially outwards. They are.all traverfed lengthwife 
by a fine Nerve, or Thread, always bent like the Leaf on the Side 
of the laft Pair. They are of a lively Green on the