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THE 

PHILOSOPHICAL WORKS 

O F 

FRANCIS BACON, 

Baron of Ve r u l a m, Vifcount St. Albans, 



AND 



Lord High-Chancellor of England-, 

Methodized, and made EngliJJj^ from the ORIGINALS. 



WITH 



OCCASIONAL NOTES, 

To explain what is obfcure j and fhew how far the feveral PLANS 
of the Author, for the Advancement of all the Parts of Know- 
ledge, have been executed to the Prefent Time. 



In THREE VOLUMES. 




By PETER SHAW, M. D. 


VOL. L 


Moniti Meliora. 





L O N T> O N: 

Printed for J. J. and P. Knapton; D, Midwinter and A. Ward; 
A. Bettesworth and C. Hitchj J. Pemberton ; J. Oseorn and 
T. Longman ; C. Rivington 5 F. Clay ; J. Batley ; R. Hett > 
and T. Hatchett. 

M.DCC.XXXIII. 



Digitized by tine Internet Arciiive 

in 2009 witii funding from 

University of Toronto 



Iittp://www.arcliive.org/details/pliilosopliicalwor01baco 



( *i" ) 



T O 

THE RIGHT HONOURABLE 

HORATIO WALPOLE % 

One of his MAJESTY'S Moft 
Honourable Privy-Council, tfc. 



SIR, 

T^HE Philofophical Works of the 
-*• Lord Bacofty here laid before You, 
contain the nobleft Scheme that, polTi- 
bly, was ever advanced for the Good 
of Mankind: tho' it has the misfortune 
to remain unexecuted in moft of its Ar- 
ticles. 

[*A 2] Whether 



♦iv DEDICATION. 



Whether this proceeds from any 
Fault in the Thing itfelf ; or ratlier 
from a Want of being fufficiently un- 
derftood and regarded ; mufl: be left to 
Perfons of your approved Capacity and 
Judgment. 

To render the whole Plan more ea- 
fily intelligible, is the Defign of the 
prefent Edition ; and to procure it a 
proper Regard, the End of the prefent 

Addrefs. 

The Labour I have beflowed upon 
the Work, is humbly fubmitted to your 
Cenfure. And, if I might fpeak for my 
Author ; he likewife wou'd be pleafed 
with a Judge, who refembles him fo 
much in extenfive Knowledge, and 
great Application to Bufinefs. 

Might I alfo fpeak for the wifer and 
better Part of the Nation ; they wou'd 

1 unani- 



DEDICATION. *v 

unanimoufly wifh this great Scheme 
under the Confideration of fo able a 
Perfon ; who has already improved 
and executed very important Defigns 
for the Publick Good. I am 



S I R, 



Tour moft Obedient, 



Humble Servant, 



PETER SHAW. 



(iii) 



GENERAL PREFACE. 



TH E Lord BaconV Thilofophical Works ivere, by the Au- 
thor, all intended to be in Latin: accordingly he isnrote 
moft of them originally in that Language^-, and others^ 
firjt "jurote in Englifh, he after'-jnards put into Latin''; as 
he dejigned to have done the reft " ; with confiderable Improvements 
and Corre6iions. So that thoje Thilofophical 'Pieces of his, -ji-hich 
he left only in Engli{h, are not to be looked upon as perfect \ or as 
having received the degree of TerfeBion be purpofed to give 
them. 

This Obfervation may help to remove a light prejudice in thofe^ 
Vi'ho, from having read the Lord BaconV Englifh 'TieceSy conceive 
that he rjjas not the 'Philofopher he is reprefented by the Learned; 
and efpecially by Foreigner s^ vaho appear to extol him in a fuptrla- 
tive manner. For, fitch a difference in Opinion feems principally 
O'u^'ing to this, that one fide has read only the Englifh, and the 
other, only the Latin Works of the Author. 

It is true indeed, that fome of his beft Tieces have been tranf- 
lated into Englifh, by other hands. 'Dr. Wats has given a Tranf- 
lation of the de Augmentis Scientiarum ^ ; an anonymous Gentleman 
has given an Extra£i out of the Novum Organum^i another 

A 2 Gentle- 

* ^'''z,. the Novum Organum, the Uiflory of Wir.ds, the Hifiory of Life avd Dtath, the 
Hiflory of Condenfat!o?i and Rarifaffio», the Piece de Sapiejilia Veterum, the Animated 
Aftronomy, the Cenfure of Authors, &c. 

* As the Ad'uancement of Lear?ii/is, and the EJfays. 
' Such as the Nevj Atlantis, Syha Sylvarum, &c. 

* The Adi'a7icemevt and Proficiency of Learni?!g : or the Partitions of Sciences. Nine 
Books. Written in Latin by the Lord Vifcount St. A/baris, &c. Interpreted by Cil- 
b-'rtWats; London, 1674. 

■^ The Novum Orgajium of the Lord Vifcount St. Allans epitomized, for the clearer 
underll:anding of his Natural Hifiory. Tranflated, and taken out of the Latin, by 
M.D. B.D. Lo»^w/, 1676. 



IV 



GENERAL PREFACE. 

Gentleman has given a Tranflation of the Hiftory of Winds ^ ; an- 
other^ iz!ith the Ajjijiance «j/I)?-. Rawley, a Tranflation of the Hi- 
ftory of Life and Death \ after a much ijsjorfe had been given be" 
fore J Sir Arthur Gorges gave a Tranflation of the Tiece de Sapien- 
tia Veterum'i andT>r. Willymotr a Tranflation of the Eflays'^ : and 
hence it might be hoped, that Enghfh Readers, as vjell as the 
Learned, and Natives, as well as Foreigners^ fmild have farmed 
a true Judgment of the Lord Bacon'j Philofophical Works. But 
here the Fate of the Author, aiid the Englifh Reader^ may deferve 
to be pitied ; for among the fever al Tranflations above enumeratedy 
there are but fe'-jii that tolerably exprefs the Senfe and Meaning of 
the Author -, and none, that acquaint the Reader with the ivhole 
of his Uefigns. 'Dr. Wats'^y Tranflation of the de Augmcnris Scicn- 
tiarum, is by the Learned accounted low, flat, and incongruous ; 
fo as no way to give the Spirit, Vivacity, and Mind of the Author ; 
or fhew his Views in a tolerable Light. Whence, it were not eafy 
to imagine that the Original jhould be fo excellent, whilft the 
Copy was fo wretched. The 'Defers of this Performance ha- 
ving been obferved long fince, T>r. Rawley, the Author's Chaplain, 
was importii'iied lo give a better Englilh Verfion of that noble IVorky 
andrefcne the Honour of his F'atron". 

The EngUfh Extrali, or Epitome, of the Novum Organum, af- 
fords but a very faint, imperfect, and difadvantageous Idea of the 
"Plan, "Deflgn, and Difcoveries, of that extraordinary Tiece; 
yet the Epitomiz,er feems, by his Treface, acquainted with the 
Author s general Views in that Work } and has given a fbort Ac- 
count 

* The Natural and Experir/icnt.il Hiffory of Winds, &c. Tranflated into EngUfl) by 
R. G. Gent. Londov, i6i\. 

^ Hijfory, Natural and Experimental, of Life and Death: or of the Prolongation of 
Life. W'rinen by the Lord Vikount St. ^Ihafis. London, i67y. 

'The Wifdojn of the Anricnts, &C. Done mto\EngliJb by Sir Arthur Gorges, Knc. 
London, 1680. 

* Lord Bacons EJfays : or Counfels Moral and Civil. Tranflated from the Latin by 
William Willymott, LL.D. Feilow of King's College in Cambridge, and Mailer of a pri- 
vate School at IJIeiL-orth in Middlefex. In two Volumes ivo. London, 1 720. 

•^ " It is our humble Suit to you, and we do earneftly follicit you, to give yourfelf the 
" trouble to correft the too much defedtive Tranflation of the de Augmentis Scieniiarum, 
" which Dr. V/ats hath fet forth It is a thoufand pities, that fo worthy a Piece fhould 
" lofe its G race and Credit by an ill Expofuor j fince thofe Perfons who read that Tranf- 
" lation, taking it for genuine, and upon that Prefumption not regarding the Latin Edr- 
" tion, are thereby robbed of the Benefit, which fif vou would pleafe to undertake the 
" Bufinpfsi they mighr receive. This tendeih to the Difhonour of that Noble Lord, and 
" the Hindrance of \!cvt Advancement of LeartiingP D/. Tenifoa's Account of the Lord 
Sfcon'iW o:ks; p. 26,27. 



GENERAL PREFACE. 

count of them ' ; but vjhm he comes to trariflate and epitomize, 
he Jlrangely mayigks the fenfe, and defaces the lihole •■, fo that it 
cannot eajih be kno'u^n, or tolerably uyiderftood. bideed the T^efign 
'ivas i7nperfefl ; for the Novum Orgaaum being entirely apho- 
rijiical, its Nature will not admit of epitomizing to any advan- 
tage i but, as the Epitomizer himfclf obferved, rather requires a 

Comment. 

Thefe 

* " I need not recommend this ufefulTrcatife, feeing that it proceeds fiom fuch aGe- 
" nius, whole moft trivial Conceptions have obtained the Efteem ot his Age; not inferior 
" in Learning to anv of the former. He was a Peribn of a found Judgment, iharpWir, 
" vaft Comprehenlion, and of extraordinary Abilities, both natural and acquired. But I 
" need not run over the Praifes of a Perfon fo well kno'.vn amongft us, to gain a kind 
" Reception and favourable Interpretation of this obfcure, but ufeful Book : tor the things 
" therein contained are fo excellent in themfelves, and fo well deligned, that we may be 
" inclinable of our own accord to embrace and peiul'e them. 

" The Author's Purpole is, to cenfure the Limitations of Sciences to the Bounds pre- 
" fcribed to us by the fhallow Patesof fomc of former Ages j to difcover the Miflakes of 
" our Underftandings ; to point at the Sources from whence they proceed ; to rectify the 
" common Errors of Men, back'd by ill-grounded Axioms i todiredt us to a right Inter- 
" pretation of Nature's Myfteries; and to oblige us to fettle our Judgments upon better 
" and furer Principles than ordinary : his Purpofe is to open us a Gate to a greater Pro- 
" ficiency and Improvement in all kinds of Learning; to pull down the Walls of Par- 
" tition, and remove the 7/0« plus ultra ; that we might fail to thofe Ivdics full of Gold 
" and Jewels; I mean, the Sciences not yet difcover'd to our World; and fetch from 
" thence all the Rarities, the Knowledge, and Inventions, that may pleafure and benefit 
" our human Life. For that purpofe, he advifeth us not to take Things and Notions 
" too much upon truft ; but to ground our Belief upon Praclice, and well-order'd Expe- 
" rience. He lays down feveral Principles, which may feem ftrange and new; but if 
" they be rightly examined, wefhall find rhem naturally proceeding from the Nature of 
" Things. 

" I confefs, the moft excellent Conceptions are wrapped up in obfcure Terms; and 
" in fuch new-contrived Expreflions, that Y^rngJ^mes, at the firft perufal, judged this No- 
" luTn Organuvi to be paft all Mens Underftanding. But we may confider, that a new 
" Method, and new Things and Principles, deferve new Expreflions ; and that our learned 
" Author fpeaksnot to theWilgar, but the Learned ; to v/hom he difcovers other Lands 
" never found out before ,• and advifeth them to adventure to feek, and to proceed on, 
" without minding the Difcouragements and Prohibitions of our Predeceffors in Learning. 

'' This Treatife, therefore, was look'd upon as a feafonable Addition to his Natural 
" Hifiorjr; but becaufe the whole would have made it too voluminous, I have been de- 
" fired to gather out fuch Obfervations and Direftions, as might be anfwerable to that 
" Subjeft. I muft needs confefs, after a ferious Perufal, I did fcarce know what was to 
" befet afide: for all the Things therein contained, are fo material and feafonable, that 
" I have wondei'd that our Efigii/b Curtofi have not had the defire to ftudy and underftand 
" the Direftions that are there given, to undeceive their miftaken Judgments. In fuch 
-' a cafe, that this Novum Orgaiium might be the better intelligible, a meer Interpretation • 
" isnotfufficient, in regard of the Author's difficult and new-found Expreflions ; a Com-- 
" meiit would be required : which if it were well and judicioufly compofed, accordingf 
" to the Author's true Meaning and Intent, I am perfuaded every one would be of my 
" Judgment; that it is the beft and moft ufefulTreatife of our Davs, for the Purpofe de- 
" ligncd. I am perfuaded it might be of fmgular ufe to fuch Vsrtuofi amongft us, as 

« are.- 



VI 



GENERAL PREFACE. 

Thefe t-jjo Tieces^ therefore^ being fundamental, and leading to 
all the re(l\ if they have not hitherto been tolerably tranflated, the 
Englifn Reader could have no tolerable notion of "-^ hat the Author 
dejigned^ and executed, in the r^ft of his Thilofjphical (Vorks, which 
entirely depend upon thefe : and thus, tho the Hiliory of Winds, 
the Hiftory of Life and Death, &c. had been better tranflated thayi 
they are; yet the Readers thereof^ having never been let into the 
Scheme of the GKhtiv> Instauration, or the general ''Defign 
of the Author s Thilofophical Works, thefe fubfequent Tieces could 
not be feen in their true light; nor indeed be rightly tmderftood : 
Vi'hcnce it is certain, that they have to many appeared flrange and 
diforderly Things. 

It may here be added., that the Latin Works themfelves were not 
originally published in their true Order -, but in 'Parts, at diferent 
tirfieSy according as they happened to be wrote 5 or as the Author 
judged them fuitable to promote his general End, procure Affijiance^ 
or the like:, but chiefly to prevent Accident, or T>ifa(ler, and put at 
leaft fome 'Tortions of his general Scheme out of the danger of 
peripnng. And hence, the natural Order of his IVorks being often 
inverted, it was not eafy to form a true Judgment of the Whole ; 
or to perceive the ConncBiun and "Dependance of the feveral 
Tarts. 

The Author had feveral Reafons for publijhing his Works in Latin. 
For as kis T>ejigns were extenfive, and regarded the Benefit of Alan- 
kind in general; he thought it befl to deliver them in the moft 
gerieral Language, that they might be read by the Men of all Na- 
tions. Again., they have a more particular regard to Tojierity ; and 
Latin ferns the mofl fuitable Language for conveying things fafe 
and unalter'd to After- Ages. This alfo is the Language of the 
Learned-., and the Author's T)efire was to have the Learned for 
his firft Readers \ as jiippofing their Minds already open'd, and pre- 
pared to receive, and improve, what he delivers. But he was more 
particularly defirons of having the learned Men of foreign Coun- 
tries amongfl his early Readers ; that he might by this means antici- 
pate, or have fome for e-t aft e of the 'Judgment of T after it y. For T>if- 
tance of Tlace has here a fimilar Effe£l with "Diftance of Time. 
And laftlj, he was defirous of being read^ after fome Years were 

paffed, 

" are not perfedlly acquainted wirh the L<a!/;»Tone;uei and yet employ their Time and 
" Studies hi the Improvement of their Abilities, an'dfindinc^ out Inventions ufeful to the 
« Lite of Man : for it would Uipply them with fuch Principles, as their Leifure and Con- 
« tnvance might wonderfully improve in new Difcovcries, d^r." Pref. tothcEpit. of the 
Nov. Organ. 



GENERAL PREFACE. vii 

parted, by the Body of his o\vrt Countrvnten. Ho'U) prudently this 
Scheme ivas laid, and ho'JJ far he put it in the 'Uay of exccutio?i, the 
thing itfelf mu(i fpeak. 

The T)ejign of r^^'/^ Volumes, is to give a Methodical Ergliflj 
Edition of his Philofophical NA'orks, fitted for a commodious and 
ready 'Terufal--, fome'ujhat in the fame manner as the Philolb- 
phical Works of Mr. Boyle were, afeiv Tears fince, fitted^ iri three 
Qiiarto Volumes ^. 

All the Author's Pieces that VJere originally ivritteri in I.m'wi, 
or by himfelf tranjlated into Latin, are here ne-jo done from thofe 
Originals ; luith care all along to collate his own Englifli vi'ith the 
Latin, vi'here the Tieas ivere extant in both Languages. 

The Method obferved in thus rendrtng them into Englifh, is not 
that of a dire^i Tranfation\ {ivhich might have left them mo'e ob- 
fcure than they are 5 and no vDay fuited this 'Defign ;) but a kind of 
open Verfion, vi'hich endeavours to exprefs, in modern Englifh, the 
Senfe of the Author., clear, full, andflrong; tho vjithont d.viatir.g 
from him., and., if poffible., without lofing of his Spirit, Force, or 
Energy. And tho this Attempt may feeni vain, or bold, it vjas 
doubt lefs better to have had the Viesj, than vjtllinglj to have aimed 
at fecond 'Prizes. 

The Liberty fometimes taken, not of abridging, {for juft and per- 
fect Writings are incapable of Abridgment ;) but of dropping, or 
leaving out, fame 'Parts oj the Author s fVritings., may require 
greater Excufe. But this vi-as done in order to fkorten the Works., 
whofe Length has proved one T>ifcottragement to their being read. 
And regard has been had to omit none of the Philofophical Mat- 
ter; but only certain perfonal Addreffes, Coynpltments, Exordiums., 
and the like: for as the Reafons and Ends, for which thefewere ori- 
ginally made, fubfift no longer i it was thought fuperfluous to continue 
fuch 'Particularities, in a Work of this general nature. 

The philofophical Matter thusfeparated, is difpofednito that which 
appear' d to be the moji natural Order i or fuch as is indicated by the 
Author i and would, perhaps, have been, in great meafure, obferved 
by himfelf, had he given an Edition of all his Works. No Merit., 
therefore, can be claimed in this., fince the Order was pointed out by 
the Author -, who not only had the right to marfhal his own Works % 
but was concerned to place them in fuch a manner, as befi fuited. 
the 'Defign. 

After: 

' Printed at London, Ann. 1725. 



Vlll 



GENERAL PREFACE. 

After the generalT>ifpofd of the feparate "Pieces, fo as to follow 
one 'another in the pift eft Order ; the proper T>ivifions, or Sextons 
of each particular Tiece, come to be confider'd. And here, the Me- 
thod obfer^ed has been fuch, as might pre ferve an Uniformity in the 
irhole; and fit thefe Writings for general Ufe. Accordingly the fe- 
'veral Tieces are divided, and broke, into diftin^ Se£iions, and Pa- 
ragraphs ; this Contrivance having been found to help the Under- 
jlanding, ajjift the Memory, and eafe the Reader. 

To render the Work ft ill more familiar, and to put it in the way 
of being farther improved 5 particular Prefaces, and Notes, are added 
to explain, or illuftrate, the more obfcureTieces, Tajfages, andEx- 
preffions ; jloew vohere the Author's Schemes have been executed:, 
and refer the Reader from one part of the Work to another^ 
where the fame SubjeEi is treated; fo as in fome meafure^ to make 
the whole a Comment upon it [elf. And the better to fecure this 
End, there is added, at the beginning of the firft Volume, a fmall 
Glollary, or Explanation, of the more uncommon Philofophical 
Terms, made ufe of by the Author -, large explicit Tables of Con- 
tents to each Volume ; Appendixes to imperfeU Works ; and an Al- 
phabetical Index to the Whole. 

This Edition was not undcrtake?i of a fudden ; but intended many 
Tears fmce. The principal Inducement to it was, the Service it 
might pofftbly be of in promoting Knowledge, and exciting Philofo- 
phers to endeavour the farther 'Difcovery and Improvement of Arts, 
for there fcarce feems to be any natural Means more powerful 
to promote this End, than a general fpreading of the Lord Ba- 
con'j- Philofophical VVritings. The 'Defign was delay' d, for fome 
time, i'li expe^ation of a compleat Edition of all the Author's 
original Pieces ; which was lately publifl^ed, from *Dr. Mcad'j 
Colle&ion, in four Folio Volumes, ^^i i\/r. Blackbourne : of which 
Editioyi, confiderable IJ fe has here beeti made. And if too little 
Time, and too flender Abilities, have not been employ' d in methodi- 
zing, tra7i(lating, and illuftrating thefe Writings ; fome farther Im- 
provement of the Sciences might be juftly expe^ed from the prefent 
Labour. At leajl, fomething of the kind was thought necejfary j 
and the Whole is propofed but as an Attempt towards a more fer- 
viceable Englifh of the Lfjr^ Bacon'j Philofophical Works. 

IVhat thefe IVorks are, is not eafy to exprefs -, and their real 
Character, tho' not faff,: lently known, need not be here dwelt on, 
as they now lie open to an eafy Perufal. The principal Obftacle 

to 



GENERAL PREFACE. ix 

to their Currency appears to be this, that fame modern "Thilofo- 
pherSy and Men of Letters^ tho' they allow the Lord Bacon to 
have been a Great Alan, for his Time ; ^rt imagine that his Thi' 
lofophy is mvj almoft fuperfeded by later Improvements, and T>if- 
foveries. 

This, upon a careful Examination, voill perhaps be found a fatal 
Mifiake, that keeps fame of the mojl ferviceable T^hilofophical Wri- 
tings hitherto extant, from being duly Jlndied and improved. For 
it appears impofftble that the Lord Bacon'j T>ifcoveries poonldgrovu 
out of date, unlefs the Frame of Things vjas to alter : fince he con- 
flantly endeavours to copy Nature, vjhich is alvi'ays the fame -, fo that 
his dijlingui^ing Alerit lies in this, and in having every where 
opend the Springs of Knowledge and 'Pra^fice. 

As to the modern T)ifcoveries and Improvements, however great 
and numerous they may be ; yet they are, in general, no more than a 
part of what this Author fore faw in his Mind; and taught the 
ways of bringing to light : adding withal fuch farther T>ireflions, 
that if Alen are not wanting to themfelves, they may obtain fill 
greater Things. For he has fhewn us the An of iavcnting Arts; 
which many of the Ancients feem'd to defpair of; and which the 
Aloderns, perhaps, are not hitherto fufficiently verfed in. So that 
till no more 'Difcoveries remain to be made in Nature, it phould 
feem that this Author's Thilofophical Writings cannot be fuper- 
feded. 

If there are any other ObjeElions lying againft the Author ^ in 
his Thilofophical Capacity, it is probable they may arife from a 
want of thoroughly underjtanding his fForks ; and will therefore 
vanijh, upon becoming better acquainted with him : For his bejl 
"Defence is that of being well under food. 

And in order thereto, he may, in fame places^ require a careful 
Reader ; or one that has been a little broke, and praBifed in afci- 
entifical doubting ofhimfelf; and a prudent Sufpenfon of the Judg- 
ment : otherwije we (hall be fometimes apt, through Hafte, Inad- 
vertence, or an Opinion of the common Methods of Thinking, and 
Rtefoning, to attribute thofe Faults to the Author, that might be 
more juftly placed. 

'Perhaps, a fure Rule to know whether his Works are rightly 
underftood is this; that he who under ft and s them, will ufually 
find them the Refiilt of deep Thought, and well weigh d Experience \ 
fo as to prove not only fir ong andjuft, but, in an extraordinary manner. 

Vol. I. a itfeful; 



GENERAL PREFACE. 

ufeful'-, teaching more than they direBly exprefs--, and leading 
both the Mind and Hand to netv Arts^ and farther T>ifcove' 
ries. This certainly is the "Purport of his Writings i and tm- 
lefs the Reader, by converftng with them, fhall be inflru^led,. fame 
way or other, to improve Thilofophy, or the general State of Know- 
ledge i he may be affiired that he does not fully underftand the Au~ 
thor, who prof ejfes himfelf to have done nothings imlefs he has 
taught Tojlerity to do more. 




CON< 



(xi) 



CONTENTS 

O F T H E 

FIRST VOLUME. 



The Arrangement and General Survey of 
KNOWLEDGE, ^c. 

PRELIMINARIES. 

S E C T. L 
Containing a Plan for the Reftification of Knowledge in general. 

THE general Befign, Page 3 ^e experimental Pbilofopher 5, ib. 

Imperfe^ion of the Human Know- The Sitbverten of ancient Philofophiest 

ledge, ib. ib. 

Philofophy to behegun a-new, 4 TheSuccefs of the free PbilofopherSt ib. 

The Poverty of Human Knowledge, ib. The mechanical Philofophers, ib. 

The Greek Philofophy, ib. The Logicians, 7 

Mechanic Arts, 5 Infufficiency of the tinaJftjledUnderfian- 

The Sciences not recorded perfect, ib. ding, ib. 

General Confent of little weight in Phi- The Performance of the Ancients, ib. 

lofophies, ib. The Procedure of the Author, ib. 

The Procedure of thofe who teach the Admonitions to Mankind, 8 

Sciences, 6 Requefls, 9 

b 2 SECT. 



xu 



The CONTENTS. 



SECT. II. 

Exhibiting a {hort View of the Defign 
and Scope of the Inftauration. 

The Scope of the de Augmentis Scien- 
tiarum, lo 

The Defign of the Novum Organum, ib. 

Its E)!d, ib. 

lis manner of demonflrating, 1 1 

Its Grounds, ib. 

Endeavours to fupply the Imperfe^ions 
cftheSenfes, ib. 

yind to fubdue the Idols of the Mind, 1 2 

The Defign of the Sylva Sylvarum, 1 3 

Its Office, 

Colleilion, 

Stibtility, 

Choice, 

Its Appointment, 

The Defign of the Enquiries into Life 
and Death, Winds, Denfity and Ra- 
riiy, &c. ib. 

■Sfo/f o///!'t'Philofophia prima, ib. 



Whether Learning difpofes to Indolence, 



20 



Whether Learning mifemploys Time, ib. 

Cato'i jftfdgment of Learning, 21 

Learning defended from the Difcre- 
dit brought on it by the Learned, 

ib. 

The Poverty of the Learned, ib. 

Their Privacy of Life, 1 2 

Their Meannefs of Employ, ib. 

The Manners of the Learned, ib. 

Their preferring their Country's Good 
to their own, ib. 

Their Failure in point of particular Ap- 
plications, 22 

Their Failure in Decency, ib. 

Their Temporizing, Flattering, Sec. ib. 

Errors in the Studies of the Learned, 24 

Three principal Difeafes in Learning, ib. 

Luxuriency of Style, ib. 

The fecond Difeafe of Learning ; va'm 
Subtilty, 2 6 

The Method of the Schoolmen, ib. 

Nature of the Philofophia fecunda, 1 6 The third Difeafe of Learning ; viz. De- 
ceit, or Impoflure and Credulity, 2 7 



14 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
15 



SECT. III. 

The Objedions againft Learning 
confidered. 

Learning defended from the charge of 
Irreligion, 1 6 

Natural Knowledge not the Caufe of the 
Fall, 1 7 

^antity of Knowledge does not inflate, 

ib. 

Three Limitations of Knowledge, ib. 

That Knowledge does not incline to A- 
theifm, ib. 



Eafmefs of Belief of two kinds, viz. with 
regard to Hiflory, ib. 

And Opinions, 28 

Credulity, as to Authors, ib. 

Peccant Humours of Learning; viz. an 
Affectation of Antiquity and Novelty, 

29 

Diflruft of farther Difcoveries, ife. 

That the befl Opinions are not the mo/i 
prevalent, ib. 

Sudden ReduSlion of Knowledge into Me- 
thods, ib. 

The quitting ofUniverfality, 30 



Learning defended from the Charge of Too great Reverence of the Human Un- 



PoUticians, ib 

That Learning and Arms haveflourifhed 

in the fame Perfons, 19 

And in the fat?ie Times, ib. 

Learning of Service in Government, ib. 
How Learning affeofs the Mind, with 

regard to Politifks^ ib. 



derfianding, ib. 

Introducing particular-Conceits into Phi- 

lofophy, ib. 

Impatience of Doubting and Sufpenfion^ 

ib. 
Thi magijlerial Delivering of Knowledge, 

Afpiring 



The CONTENTS. 



xiil 



jifpirbig hut to btfericrSluaUfications,^ i 

Miftaking the End of Knowledge^ ib. 

The Dignity of Learning, /hewn from 
Divine Tejlimony, 32 

yf Difference betwixt Knowledge and 
Power, in the Creation., ib. 

In the Celeftial Hierarchy, ib. 

The Scripture Difpenfation, ib. 

/;; Paradife, ib. 

In Cain and A.ht\, 33 

The Age before the Flood, ib. 

In Mofes, Solomon, ^c. ib. 

The Gofpel Difpenfation, ib. 

In the Apoftles, ib. 

The Fathers of the Church, ib. 

Two capital Services of Phihfophy to 
Religion, 34 

The Dignity cf Learning fheivn from 
Human Tejlimofiy, ib. 

The EffeEls of Learning in Society, 25 

Effe^s of Leanmg upon Military Vir- 
tue, ib. 

EffeSls of Learning in private Virtue, 

36 

Learning conquers theFear of Death, ib. 

Remedies the Difeafes of the Mind, ib. 

Gives great Power over Merts Minds, 

27 



Raifes private Fortunes^ 
Affords great Delight. 
Renders Men immortal. 



ib. 
ib. 

38 



SECT. IV. 

The publick Obftacles to Learning 
confidered. 

Publick Endeavours neceffary to advance 
Learning, 3 9 

The publick Obje^s of Learning, ib. 

The JVorks regarding the Seals of Learn- 
ing, ib.. 

Books, ib. 

The Perfons of the Learned, 40 

The firft publick Defe5l, a want of Col' 
leges for Arts and Sciences at large, ib. 

The fecond, a want of proportionable 
Salaries, ib. 

The third, a want of Apparatus, and 
publick Allowances for Experiments, 

41 

The fourth, a want of Infpe^ion, and, 
Regulation of Univerfities, ib. 

The fifth, a want of Intelligence be- 
twixt the Univerfities o/Europe, 42 

^je Jixtb, a wattt of publick Writers 
and Enquirers^ ib. 



The Diftribution of Knowledge into particular Sciences. 

SECT. I. 
Of History. 



KNowledge, Divine and Human, 
ranged under Hijiory, Poetry, 
and Philofophy, 43 

Hiftory divided into Natural and Civil, 

44 
Natural Hifiory divided into the Hifory 

cf Generations, Pretergenerations, 
end ArtSy ib. 



The Hifiory of Arts, why ntade a Specie^ 

of Natural Hi/lory, ib. 

The Hijiory cf Creatures extant', but 

that of MoJiJiers deficient, 45 

The Hijiory cf Arts deficient, ib. 

Two Ufes of Natural Hijiory, 47 

/i pure and general Natural Hijiory 

•wanting, ib, 

Indn^ive^ 



MV 



The CONTENTS. 



InihBive Hijlory wanting. 47 

Lilerary Hijlory wanting^ ib. 

Its Defign, 48 

the Manner of writing it, 49 

Its Ufe, ib. 

Particular Civil Hijlory, what itjhould 
contain, 5° 

J'he Difficulty of writing it, ib. 

Is of three kinds, viz. ib. 

Memoirs, of two forts, ib. 

Regifters, of two forts, ib. 

/ind Antiquities, 5 ^ 

Epitomes the Bane of Civil Hijlory, ib. 

Juji Hijlory, of three kinds, viz. Chro- 
nicles, Lives, and Relations, ib. 

Biography defe^ive, 52 

Relations to be wrote with Care, ib. 

Hijlory of Times, is geiieral or particu- 
lar, 53 

Divifible into Anmls and Journals, ib. 

Civil Hijlory diviftble into pure and 
mix'd, 54 

Cofmographical Hijlory varioujly mix'd, 

ib. 

Ec cleft ajlical Hijlory divided into the 
Hijlory of the Church, ib. 

The Hijlory of Prophecy, which is wan- 
ting, 55 

And the Hi/lory of Providence, ib. 

The Appendages of Hijlory ; viz. 

Speeches, and Letters, ib. 

j^tld Apophthegms, 56 

SECT. II. 

J^ Of P O E T R V. 

Poetry is imaginary Hijlory, 56 

Divided, ib. 

Into Narrative Poetry, 57 

Dramatic Poetry, ib. 

And Allegorical Poetry, 5 8 

The two Ufes of Allegorical Poetry, ib. 
The Philofophy of the ancient Fables de- 
ficient, in Poetry, ib. 
^he Fable of Pan ex^laified of Natural 
Philofophy, 



The Fable of Pan traced. 


5§ 


His Portrait, 


ib. 


His OJJices, 


ib. 


His ABs, 


ib. 


His Amours^ 


60 


And IJfae, 


ib. 



The Fable explained in the Origin of 
Pan, ib. 

In the Dejlinies being his Sijlers, ib. 
His Horns, ib. 

His fhaggy Body, 6 1 

His Beard, ib. 

His bifor?n Body, ib. 

His Goats Feet, ib. 

His Enfigns ; viz, his Pipe and Crook, 

ib. 
His Mantle, ib. 

His OJfce as the God of Hunters, 62 
Rural Inhabitants, ib. 

And Meffenger of the Gods, ib. 

His ruling the Nymphs, ib. 

His Power ofjlriking Terrors, ib. 

His challenging Cupid, ib. 

His catching Typhon in a Net, 6^ 

His finding oj Ceres, ib. 

His contending with Apollo in Muftck, 

ib. 

His Amours, ib. 

His Offspring, ib. 

His fuppofed Daughter, 64 

The Fable of Perfeus deduced, ib. 

Affords three Precepts for War, ib. 

Explain' d of undertaking a War that 
fhall be remote, 65 

JuJl andfeafible, ib. 

Perkm Jetting out, ib. 

His Helmet, Shield, and Mirror, ib. 

His confulting the Grese, ib. 

HisfndingM.eduf3.aJleep, 66 

His Ufe of the Mirror, ib. 

The Origin o/Pegafus, and the Gorgon 
Shield, ib. 

The Fable o/Dionyfus, or Bacchus, eX' 
plained of the Paffions, ib. 

The Fable of Bacchus hifiorically de- 
duced, ib. 

Sets 



The CONTENTS. 



XV 



Sets forth the Nature of unlawful De- 
fire, 67 
The Moral o/Semele'j Requejl, ib. 
Bacchus carried in Jupiter'j Thigh., ib. 
Nurfed by Proferpina, ib. 
His effeminate Face, ib. 
His Death and Refurre5lion, ib. 
The Inventor of Wine, ib. 
His Conquefts, 68 
His Chariot drawn by Tygers, ib. 
The Demons about his Chariot, ib. 
The Mufes in his Train, ib. 
His Amour with Ariadne, ib. 
His Ivy, ib. 
His frantick Rites, ib. 
TbeConfiifton of his Story with Jupiter'^, 

SECT. m. 
Of Philosophy. 

Philofophy divided into the Do£lrine of 
the Deity, Nature, and Man, ib. 

Pritnary Philofophy, which is deficient, 

ib. 

Its Nature and Ufe, 70 

A fecond part of primary Philofophy, 
with regard to tranfcendental Condi- 
tions, ib. 

Divine Philofophy, its Nature and Ufe,. 

71 

The Do5lrine of Spirits, 72 

Natural Philofophy divided into fpecu- 

lative and practical, ib. 

Speculative Philofophy divided into Phy- 

ficks and Metapbyficks, 73 

Metaphyficks dijlinguifhed from primary 

Philofophy, and natural Theology, 74 

SECT. IV. 
Of Physicks. 

Phyficks divided, (1.) into the DoHrine 
of Principles ; (2.) the Stnlfure of 
the Univerfe j and (3.} the Variety of 
"^iiifgh 7.4 



The Dorfrine of Variety divided into 
Phyficks of Creatures, and Phyfieks 
of Natures, yg. 

Concrete Phyficks divided as natural 
Hiftory, ib. 

Phyfical JJironomy deficient, ib. 

Aftrology to be purged, y6 

Rules for its Amendment, 77 

A jufl Aftrology wanting, ib. 

How to be fuppUed, ib. 

//; Ufes in PrediSlion, 78 

And Elculion, yn 

The ways of arriving at Aftrology, ib. 

Celeftial Magick, abfurdly tack*d to 
Aftrology, 80 

Abftra£l Phyficks divided into the Doc- 
trine of the Schemes of Matter, ib,- 

And Appetites and Motions, ib. 

The Meafures of Motions, an Attendant 
on Phyficks, 8 1 

Two Appendages to Phyficks; viz. (i.) 
Natural Problems, ib. 

A Calendar whereof is deficient, ib. 

And (2.) the Opinions of the ancient 
Pkiilofophers, 82 

JVhich is a Work likewife deficient, ib, 

S E C T. V. 

Of Metaphysic K-^i- 

Metaphyficks made the Enquiry afiter 
Forms and final Caufes, 8 j 

Simple Forms to be firft enquired into, 84 
This part of Metaphyficks defe£fii;e, ib. 
Its Ufe to jljorienlhe way to Knowledge ^ 

«^ «5 

And fit free the human FTJtr, ib. 

The fecond part of Metaphyficks, isfival 

Caufes, ib. 

Their Office and Ufe^ 86 

SECT, vr 

Of N A T u R A L Magick; 

The PraElical DoSlrine of Nature di- 
vided ifu correfpondence to the Theo- 

ntifsl 3 



XVI 



The CONTENTS. 



fetkal; •mhence rational Mechanicks, 

And Magick, -which is defe^ive, ib. 
Maricky in what fenfe to be underjlood, 

88 
The IVealcnefs of the common Magick, 
Alchemy^ and JJlrology, ib. 

Two Appendages wanted to the pr apical 
Docfrine of Nature ; viz. (i .) an In- 
ventory of Knowledge, ^9 
And (2.) a Calendar of leading Experi- 
ments, ib. 
SECT. VII. 
Of Mathematicks. 

The Office and Ufe of Matbe7naticks, 90 
Divided into pure and 7nix'd, 9 1 

The Defers of pure Mathematicks, ib. 
The Defells of ?nix^d Mathematicks in- 
creafe as Phyficks improve, ib. 

SECT. VIII. 

The Dodrine of Man -, and firft, 
of the Human Perfon. 

Thejuji Bounds and Ufe of Divifwn in 
in the Sciences, 92 

The Do£irine of Man divided into Hu- 
man and Civil Piilofophy, ib. 

The DoHrine of the Human Perfon, ib. 

The Douirine of Union betwixt the Soul 
and Body, 93 

The DaiJrjne of Gefture deficient, ib. 

Interpretation of Dreams ; its befl Foun- 
dation, 94 

The Docfrine of Imprffiion, divided into 
the A^io%s of the Body upon the Soul, 

ib. 

And the Asians of the Soul upon the 
Body, 95 

An Enquiry after the Seat of the Soul 
recommended, ib. 

SECT. IX. 

Of the Doftrine of the Human Body. 

'^be Do5frine of the Body divided into 



Medicine, Beautifying, Gymnaflicks, 
and the Art of Elegance, 96 

Reafons of the Difficulties and Imper- 
fe£fion of Medicine, ib. 

The Means of removing the Difficulties, 
in advancing this Art, ib. 

Medicine divided into, ( i .) the Prefer- 
vation of Health, (2.) the Cure of 
Difeafes, and (3.) the Prolongation 
of Life, 98 

The Prefervation of Health not well 
treated of, ib. 

The Cure of Difeafesimperfe£fly bandied, 

ib. 

The Hippocratical Method of medicinal 
Reports difcontinued, ib. 

Comparative Anatomy deficient, 99 

The DefeSl of live Anatomy, how to he 
fupplied, 100 

A Work wanting upon incurable Dif- 
eafes, ib. 

The Office of a Phyfician to procure eafy 
Deaths, ib. 

An Enquiry into the Means of procuring 
Compofure in Death deficient, i o i 

A Work of approved Remedies wanting, 

102 

The Imitation of natural Baths and. 
Springs deficient, ib. 

The Phyfician's Clue deficient, 1 03 

But principally a Natural Philofophy 
fundamental to the Art, ib. 

The third part "/ Medicine, or the 
ways of prolonging Life, deficient^ 

104 

Admonitions, with regard to the Pro- 
longation of Life, ib. 

The Intentions and Indications for pro- 
longing Ufe, 1 05 

Rules for the ConduSl of the Work, ib. 

The drts of Decoration divided into Ci- 
vil and Effeminate, 1 06 

Gymnajiicks divided into the Arts of Ac- 
tivity, and the Arts of Suffering, ib. 

The Arts of Elegance divided, with re- 
lation to the Eye^ and the Ear, loy 

SECT. 



The CONTENT S. 



SECT. X. 

Of the Doctrine of the Human Soul. 

The Do5lrine of the Human Soid^ di- 
vided into the DoSJrine cf the infpired 
Subjiance, and that of the fenfitive 
SouU '08 

The Enquiry into the Suhflance of the 
rational Soul, referred to infpired 
Theology, ib. 

The Enquiry of the feiifttive Soul neglec- 
ted, 1 09 
The Do^rine of the Soul requires an En- 
quiry into the Origin of its Faculties, 

ib. 

Two Appendages of this Doclrine, viz. 

Divination and Fafcination, no 

Divination from the internal Po'wer of 

the Soul, divided into native, and 

that hy Influx, ib. 

Fafcination the Effetl of Imagination, 

ib. 
Ceremonial Magick not allowable, 1 1 1 
T1V0 other Do^rines of the fenfitive Soul, 
viz. that of voluntary Motion, and 
thai of Senfe and Senfibility, ib. 
The Dohrine of mufcular Motion de- 
ficient, ib. 
The DoSlrine of Senfe and Senfibility 
deficient, in /a-o parts, 1 1 2 
The Enquiry into the Origin and Form 
of Light, deficient, 113 

SECT. XI. 

The Doftrine of the Faculties of the 
Human Mind. 

The Docfrine of the mental Faculties, 
divided into Logicks and Et hicks, 1 14 

The Poiver of the Imagination over Rea- 
fan, 115 

Whence the difiike of many (0 Logick, 

ib. 

The four Logical Arts, ib. 

Invention, of two kinds, relating to Arts 
and Arguments^ 116 

Vol. I. 



The Art of inventing Arts deficient, ib. 

M(n hitherto more beholden to Brute: 
than Reafon, for Inventions, ' " ib. 

The Ufe of Induction perverted and neg- 
le^ed, ■ " ■ 117 

A genuine and CQrreH InduSliov. to be in- 
troduced, ' ■ ib. 

The want of genuine InduElion, the Caufe 
of Scepticifm, 118 

The Art of Indication, or DireBion, 
wanting, * ' ib. 

The two parts of this Art, 1 19 

SECT. XII. 
Of Learned Experience. 

The Defign of Learned Experience, 1 1$ 
The way of varying Experiments, (i.) 
in the Subje£f, ib. 

( 2 . ) In the Efficient, ,120 

(3.) In the ^luanlity, ib. 

(4.) By Repetition, ib. 

{5.) By Extenfion, 121 

(6.) By Tranfiation, three ways \ viz. 
from Nature into an Art, ib. 

From one Art to another, 122 

And from one part of an Art to an- 
other, ib. 
(7.) The Inverfion of Experiments, 123 
(8.) The Cofnpulfion of Experiments, 

ib. 
(9.) The Application of Experiments, 

ib. 
(ro.) The ConjunSiion of Experiments, 

124 
(11.) Chance , Experiments, ib. 

SECT. XIII. 

Of the Invention of Arguments; and 
Topical Invention. 

The Invention of Arguments, what, 125 

Two Methods of procuring Matter for 

Difcourfe ; viz. the Topical, and the 

Proinpiuary, ib. 



xvix 



Topical 



XVUl 



Topical Invention, divided into general 
and particular, 126 

'The particular Topical Invention de- 
ficient, 127 

An Example of the particular Topical 
Invention, in the Subjeli of Gravity 
and Levity, ib. 

SECT. XIV. 

Of the Art of J udgment. 

The Art of Judgment by Indu5fion, di- 
vided into corrupt and genuine, 130 

The Art of Judgment by Syllogifm, its 
Origin, ib. 

Its Office, 131 

The Art of Judgment, divided into Ana- ■ 
ly ticks, and theDo^rine of Confuta- 
tions, ib. 

The Do^rine of Confutations, divided 
(1.) into the Confutation ofSophifms, 

ib. 

(2 .) The Confutation of Interpretation, 

132 

C3.) And the Confutation of Idols, or 
falfe Notionsy ib. 

Idols divided, ib. 

( I.) Into Idols of the Tribe, 133 

(2.) Idols of the Den, ib. 

And (3.) Idols of the Market, 134 

The DoSlrine of Idols deficient, ib. 

An Appendix to the Art of Judgment 
deficient, ib. 

SECT. XV. 
Of the Art of Memory. 

T}:>e Art of Memory, divided into the 
Do5frine of Helps for the Memttry, 

135 
And the Doctrine of the Memory itfelf, 

ib. 

Two Intentions of the Art of Memory, 

viz. Pranotion^ 136 

And Emblem^ ib. 



The CONTENTS. 

SECT. XVI. 

Of theDoftrine of Delivery, and firft. 



of the Elements of Speech. 

Traditive DoSfrine, divided into Gram- 
mar, Method, and Ornament of 
Speech, 137 

Grammar, of two kinds, relative to 
fpeaking and writing, ib. 

The Signs of Things, divided i?ito con- 
gruous and arbitrary, viz. C i .) Hie- 
roglyphicks and Gefiures ; And, (2.) 
Real Characters, 138 

The Office and Ufe of Grammar, ib. 

Grammar, divided into Literary and 
Pbilofoph ical, 139 

A Philofophical Grammar deficient, ib. 

Directions for fupplying it, ib. 

The Accidents of Words belonging to 
Grammar, 140 

The Meafure of Words the Origin of 
Verfification, and Profodia, ib. 

Writing praolifed by Alphabet, or Cy- 
pher, 141 

The Dotlrine of Cyphers, ib. 

A Cypher to divert Examination, ib. 

A Cypher void of Sufpicion, ' 142 

Example of a hiiiieral Alphabet, ib. 

And capable of being made general, 1 43 

An Example of a double-faced Alpha- 
bet, ib. 

The firft, or Roman Alphabet, ib. 

The fecond, or Italick Alphabet, 144 

An Example of adjufting the two Let- 
ters, ib. 

The Art of decyphering may he eluded, 

145 
SECT. XVII. 

Of the Method of Speech. 

The Method of Speech, confidered as the 
Doctrine of tradilive Prudence, 145 

Method diftinguijhed into doElrinal and 
initiative, 1 46 

The initiative Method deficient^ ib. 

The 



The CONTENTS. 



XIX 



The concealed Method, 147 

The Advantages of Jphorifms over Me- 
thods, ib. 
The Method by ^ejlions and Answers, 
to he nfcd with Difcret'.on, 1 48 
The Method to fuit the Suhjeof, ib. 
The Method of conquering Prejudice, 

ib. 

Method divided, in refpe5l of the Whole, 

and the Limitation of Propofitions, 

149 

Three Limitations of Propofitions, ib. 

Superficial Methods, 1 5 o 

SECT. XVIII. 

Of Rhetorick, or Oratory. 

The Difference betwixt IVifdom and Elo- 
quence, 150 
The Cultivation of Eloquence carried to 
a great height, ib. 
The Office and life of Rhetorick, \ 5 1 
Its Power and EffeSfs, 152 
A Colle£lion of Sopkifms, or popular 
Colours of Good and Evil, deficient, 
as an Appendage to Rhetorick, 153 
Examples of the Method of fupplying 
this Deficiency, viz. ib. 

Sophism I. 
What Men praife and celebrate, is 
good ; what they difpraife and ccn- 
fure, evil. 



Its De 



f-l7i 



154 



eteii-ion. 

Sophism II. 

What is commended, even by an E- 

nemy, is a great Good ; but what 

is cenfured, even by a Friend, a 

great Evil. 

Its Foundation, 154 

//; Detection, ib. 

Sophism III. 
To be deprived of a Good, is an Evil ; 
and to be deprived of an Evil, a 
Good. 

Its Fallacies, 155 



Sophism IV. 
What approaches to Good, is good ; 
and what recedes from Good, is 
evil. 

Ohfervation, i55 

Its Fallacies, ib. 

Sophism V. 

As all Parties challenge the firft Place; 
that to which the reft unanimoudy 
give the fecond, feems the beft : 
Each taking the firft Place out of 
AfFeiSlion to itfelfi but giving the 
fecond where 'tis really due. 

Illuftration, 156 

DeteJIion, ib. 

Sophism VI. 

That is abfolutely beft, the Excellence 
whereof is greateft. 

Dete£iion, 156 

Soph ism VII. 

What keeps a Matter fafe and en- 
tire, is good; but what leaves no 
Retreat, is bad: for Inability to 
retire, is a kind of Impotency i but 
Power is a Good. 

I lluft ration, 157 

Foundation, 'b. 



Detection, 



ib. 



Sophism VIII. 

That Evil we bring upon ourfelves, is 
greater ; and that proceeding from 
without us, lefs. 

Illuflration, J 57 

De tea ion, 158 

Sophism IX. 

The Degree of Privation feems grea- 
ter than that of Diminution ; and 
the Degree of Inception greater 
than that of Increafe. 

Illuflration, 158 

The Fallacies of the firfl Part, i5g 

The fecond Pan of the Sophifin illufira- 

ted and dete^ed, ib. 

b 2 Soph I sif 



a 



Sophism X. 

What relates to Troth, is greater 
than what relates to Opinion : but 
the Meafure and Trial of what re- 
lates to Opinion, is what a Man 
would not do, if he thought he were 
fecret. 

Illu/iratm, 1 60 

Sophism XI. 
What is procured by our own Virtue 
and Induftry, is a greater Good ■, 
and what by another's, or by the 
Gift of Fortune, a lefs. 

niuflratmi, i 60 

Its Counter-Colours and Cvnfulatmi, 161 

Sophism XII. 

What confifts of many divifible Parts, 
is greater, and more one than what 
confifts of fewer ; for all things, 
when viewed in their Parts, feem 
greater •, Whence alfo a Plurality of 
Parts (hews bulky : but a Plurali- 
ty of Parts has the ftronger Effeifl, 
if they lie in no certain Order ; for 
thus they refemble Infinity, and 
prevent Comprehenfion. 

Explanation'^ 161 

Confutation, ,. 162 

A Colle^ion of'ftiidifd AniUhels wanting 

in Rhetoricky 163 

Examples for procuring this CoUeSiion, 

A'Colleilion of leffer Forms ■> wanting in 
Rhetorick, lb. 

Examples of leffer Forms. 

ACoMufion in the Deliberative, 178 
Corollary of an exa^ Divijion, ib. 

A'Tranfttion with a Caveat, ib. 

A Prepoffejfioii againft mi imielerate 
Opinion, ib. 



The CONTENTS. 

SECT. 



XIX. 



Criticifm and School- Learning. 

Criticifm and School-Learning, Appen- 
dages to the Dotfrine of Delivery, 

178 

Criticifm divided, as it regards, (1.) the 
correal publiffjing of Authors, ij^ 

(2.) The Ilhifiration of them by Notes, 
&c. ib. 

{l-) A Cenfure of them, ib. 

School-Learning to be taught in Col- 
leges, 180 

The ways of preparing the Genius, ib. 

Studies to fiiit the Genius, ib. 

The proper life of academical Exercifes, 

181 

The ASlion of the Stage recommended as 
a part of Difcipline, ib. 

SECT. XX. 

Of Echicks, or Morality. 

The SubjeSl and Office of Et hicks, 1 8 2 

The great Imperfi5lion of this Do^rine, 

ib. 

Ethicks divided into the DoHrine of the 
Image of Good ; and the Georgicks of 
the Mind, 183 

The Heathen Summum Bonum fupe'r- 
feded byChriJlianity, ib. 

The Heathen Treatment cf pofrtive and 
fmple Good, ib. 

And of comparative Good, 184 

Their Failure, ib. 

Two Appetites in all things ; viz. Self- 
Good, and Good of Communion, ib. 

Several ^eflicns in Morality determi- 
ned upon the preceding Foundation ; 
viz. (i.) that an a^ive, is preferable 
to a contemplative Life, 185 

{2.) Whether Felicity is placed in Vir- 
tue, or Pleafure, ib.- 

(.3.) Whether Felicity be. placed in things 
witbm our power, ib. 

MWhe- 



The CONTENTS. 



xxk 



C4.; TVhetber the Caufes of Difquiet are 

to be avoidedy or the Mind prepared 

agalnjl them^ 1 8 6 

(5-) Whether a Moralift fiould quitSo- 

cietyy ib. 

SECT. XXI. 

Of Self-Good, and the Good of 

Communion. 

Self-Good divided into alfive and paf- 
Jive, 187 

The active vioft predominant, ib. 

Individual ailive Good differs from the 
Good of Communion, 1 8 8 ■ 

Pajjive Good divided into perfective and 
conferviitive, ib. 

Whether Felicity conffli in Tranqtiility 
or Gratification, 1 89 

Whether the Mind be at once capable of 
Tranquility and Fruition, ib. 

The Good of Communion, how far trea- 
ted, and hew to be farther purfued, 

ib. 

The DoSrine of Frauds and Corruptions 
waiiting in Morality, 190 

The mutual Duties of Men belong to re- 
fpeCiive Duties, 191 

Comparative Good of Communion, ib. 

SECT. XXII. 

Of the Cukivation of the Mind. 

The Do^rine of the Cure of the Mind 
deficient, 192 

The Things in cur power to be d/Jiiri- 
guijhed, with regard to that Cure, 193 

A Work of the CharaUers, or Natures, of 
Perfons, deficient, ib. 

The Doolrine of the JffeSiions deficient, 

-194 
The Things within our pvjer that in- 
fluence the Mind, 195 
Examples hereof in Cuflotn and Habit, 

1^6 
(i.) That Taiks be duly proportioned^ 

ib. 



(2.) That the beft and 'Ofor/l State of 

Mind be ebferved, W), 

(3.) To endeavour ftrenuoufly agatnjt 

Nature, ib. 

(4.) That things be not direSly impofed^ 

ib. 
The ConduSI requifile in Studies, ii^y 
The Cure of the Mind depending upon 
its more and lefs perfeSl State, ib. 
Charity the Perfe^ion of Morality, 1 9 8 
Appendix to the Georgicks of the Mind, 

199 
SECT. XXIII. 
Of Civil Dodlrlne; and firft, of Cgn- 
verlation and Decorum. 

The Art of Silence, lb. 

The Do^rine of Civil Policy, in fame re- 

fpecfs hfs difficult than Ethicks, 200 
Civil Knowledge divided into Prudence 
(i.) of Converfaiion ; (2.) Bufinefs ; 
(3.) Government, ib. 

The EffeEl of Decorum^ 201 

The Rules of Decency. ib. 

SECT. XXIV. 

The Do(ftrzne of Bufinefs. 

The DoBrine of Bufinefs divided into 
that of ixariousOccafions, and rifiag 
in Life, 202 

No Books written upon th^ DoUrine of 
Bufinefs, ib;_ 

This DoSirine reducible to Rule, 2.03 

A Specimen of the Do<5lrine of vad- • 
ous Occafions in the common £ufi- " 
nefs of Life ; by way of Aphorifm 
and Explanation. 

Aphorism I. 

A foft Anfwer appeafes Anger. 

The way of excufing a Fault, ^04 

Apho- 



xxn 



The CONTENTS. 



Aphorism II. 
A prudent Servant fliall rule over a 
foolifliSon, and divide the Inheri- 
tance among the Brethren. 

1'he Conduil of azvife Servant^ 204 

Aphorism III. 
If a wife Man contends with a Fool, 
whether he be in Anger or in Jeft, 
there is no Quiet. 

The Folly of contending with the Obfii- 
nate, 205 

Aphorism IV. 

Liften not to all that is fpoke, left 
thou fhouldft hear thy Servant 
curfe thee. 

"The Treacher-j of ufelefs Curiofity, 205 

Aphorism V. 

Poverty comes as a Traveller, but 

Want as an armed Man. 

'the way offecuring an Eft ate, 205 

Aphorism VI. 
He who inftrufts a Scoffer, procures 
to himfelf Reproach •, and he who 
reproves a wicked Man, procures 
to himfelf a Stain. 

'The Danger of reproving the IVicked, 

206 

A P H O R I S M VII. 

A wife Son rejoices his Father, but a 
foolillx Son is a Sorrow to his Mo- 
ther. 

The Virtues and Vices of Children dif- 
ferently affe^ the Father from the 
Mother, 206 

Aphorism VIII. 
The Memory of the Juft is bleffed -, 

but the Name of the Wicked Ihall 

rot. 
The Difference between the Fame of good 

find had Men after death, 206 



Aphorism IX. 

He who troubles his own Houfe, fliall 

inherit the Wind. 

The Folly of changing Conditions, 207 

Aphorism X. 

The End of a Difcourfe is better than 

the Beginning. 

The Conclufions of Converfations to be 
agreeable, 207 

Aphorism XI. 
As dead Flies caufe the beft Oint- 
ment to yield an ill Odour -, fo does 
a little Folly to a Man in Repu- 
tation for Wifdom and Honour. 

hittle Faults readily cenfured in wife 
Men, 208 

Aphorism XII. 

Scornful Men enfnare a City •, but 
wife Men prevent Calamity. 

The Capable undermined by the lefs 
capable, 208 

Aphorism XIII. 

The Prince who willingly hearkens 

to Lyes, has all his Servants wicked. 

Credulity very pernicious in Princet, 

209 

A P H R ISM XIV. 

A juft Man is merciful to the Life of 
his Beaft -, but the Mercies of the 
Wicked are cruel. 

Compaffton to be limited, 209 

Aphorism XV. 
A Fool fpeaks all his Mind ; but a 
wife Man referves fomething lor 
hereafter. 

Broken Difcourfe preferred to continued, 

210 

A P H o- 



Aphorism XVI. 
If the Difpleafure of great Men rife 
up againft thee, forfake not thy 
Place -, for pliant Behaviour ex- 
tenuates great Offences. 
The Method of recovering a Princess 
Favour, 2 1 o 

Aphorism XVII. 
The firll in his own Caufe is jufl: : 
then comes the other Party, and en- 
quires into him. 
How to conquer Prepnjpjfion in a Judge, 

111 

Aphorism XVIII. 
He who brings up his Servant deli- 
cately, fliall find him ftubborn in 
the End. 
The J'Vay of managing SuhjeiJs and Ser- 
vants, 2 I 2 
Aphorism XIX. 
A Man diligent in his Bufinefs fliall 
ftand before Kings -, and not be 
ranked among the Vulgar. 
■ Difpatch the Salification moft required 
by Princes, ib. 
Aphorism XX. 
. I fiiw all tlic living which walk under 
theSiin ; with the fucceeding young 
Prince that fhall rife up in his 
ftead. 
The Folly of worfhiping the next Heir, 

ib. 

Aphorism XXI. 

There was a little City, mann'd but 

by a few •, and a mighty King drew 

his Army to it, eredted Bulwarks 

againft it, and entrenched it round : 

now there was found within the 

Walls a poor wife Man, and he 

by hisWifdom delivered the City; 

but none remembred the fame poor 

Man, 

The Rewards of the more deferving,2 1 3 



The CONTENTS. 

Aphorism XXII, 

The Way of the Slothful is a Hedge 



xxm 



of Thorns. 
The Advantage of contriving Bufinefs, 

214 
Aphorism XXIII. 
He who refpefts Perfons in Judg- 
ment, does ill ; and will forfake 
the Truth for a Piece of Bread. 
Facility of Temper pernicious in a Judge. 

ib. 

A p H o r ism XXIV. 

A poor Man that by Extortion op- 

prefles the Poor,is like aLand-fiood 

that caufes Famine. 

Rich Cover nours prefer' d to poor oneSy 

214 
Aphorism XXV. 
A juft Man filling before the 
wicked, is a troubled Fountain and 
a corrupted Spring. 

UnJHJi and publick Sentences worfe than 
private Injuries, ib. 

Aphorism XXVI. 

Contra<5l no Friendfhip with an an- 
gry Man, nor walk with a furious 
one. 

The Caution required in contra5fing 
Friendfdps, 2 1 5 

A P H O R I S M XXVII. 

He who conceals a Fault,feeks Friend- 
fliip -, but he who repeats a Mat- 
ter, feparates Friends. 
The Way of procuringReconciliation, ib. 

Aphorism XXVIII. 
In every good Work is Plenty -, but 
where Words abound, there is 
commonly a Want. 
The Difference betwixt an effe^lve and 
verbofe Perfon, ib. 

Aphorism XXIX. 
Open Reproof is better tlian fecret 
Affection, 

ThQ, 



fflor 



The CONTENTS 
216 



The Reproof due to Friends., 

Aphorism XXX. 
A prudent Man looks well to his 
Steps i but a Fool turns afide to 
Deceit. 
That Honeft'j is true Policy, ib; 

Aphorism XXXI. 
Be not over-righteous, nor make thy 
felf over-wife ; for v/hy fhould'll 
thou be fuddenly taken off ? 
The Danger of great Virtue in had 
Times, 2 1 7 

Aphorism XXXII. 
Give Occafion to a wife Man, and 

his Wifdom will be encreafed. 
The Difference betwixt Jhallow and 
found Knowledge, ib. 

Aphorism XXXIII. 
To praife one's Friend aloud, rifing 
early, has the fame Effect as curfing 
him. 
The Condu5i to he obferv'd in Praife, 

217 

Aphorism XXXIV. 
As the Face fliines in Water, fo are 
Men's Hearts manifeft to the wife. 
The Advantage of Knowledge, 1 1 8 
Further Direolions about the Method of 
treating this Subje5f, ib. 

The mojl commodious Method for the 
purpofe, ib. 

SECT. XXV. 

OFSelf-Policy i or the Doctrine 
of Rising in Life. 

Private Policy different from publick, 

219 

Js not to be profeffed, ib. 

The Do^frine of Rifmg in Life, defici- 
ent, 220 

jin Example of the way tofupply it, ib. 

Colle^ive Precepts, viz. The Informa- 
tion to be procured, firfl of others, 
next of ourfelveSf 221 



Six IVays of kngwing Men; viz. {i.)hy 
Countenance, ib, 

(2.) By Words. (3.) By FaSls. (4.) By 
jifling of Tempers. (5.) By difco- 
vering of Ends, 222 

(6.) By the Relation of others, 223 
A fummary Redu£iion of the fix prece- 
ding Rules, ib. 
The Knowledge to he procured of our- 
felveshy Self-examination, 224 
( I .) Whether the Temper fults theTimes, 

ib. 
ii.) Whether the reputable Kinds of 
Life are agreeable ib. 

(3.) Whether there be no Rivals, 225 
(4.) To regard one's ownTetiiper in the 
choice of Friends, ib. 

(5.) Not to follow Examples too clofe, 

ib. 
That a Man mufi learn tofheiv himfelf 
to advantage, ib. 

Keep up the EJteevi of Virtue, and con- 
ceal his own Defers, 226 
He mujl exprefs himfelf, 21 j 
He tnufl bend and form his Mind, 228 
Inflances of mifiellanecus Precepts for 
Rifing in Life ; viz. To ejlimate 
things jiiflly, 229 
To amend the Mind, ib. 
To procure Wealth, Fame, Honours, 

ib. 
Not to encounter great Difficulties, 230 
To make Opportunities, ib. 

To engage in no long Purfuits, ib. 

To a^ nothing in vain, ib. 

Not to he too flriSlly tied down to any 
thing, 231 

Not to be too flrcngly attached to Per- 
fons, ib. 

Good Fortune fometimes cpmes eafy, ib. 
The preceding Precepts not immoral, ib. 
No Immoralities to be praMifed in raif- 
ing a Fortune, 232 

The Goods of the Mind to he firfl pro- 
cured ^ ib. 

SECT. 



The CONTENTS. 



xxf 



SECT. XXVI. 

The Doftrine of Government; and 
firfl: of extending the Bounds of 
Empire. 

97j<? Jit of Empire, 234 

Divided inith regard to, ( i .) the Pre- 
fervalion^ (2.j The Happinefs, and^ 
(2-) The Enlargement of States-, 235 

The IMilitary Scatefman •, or, the Doc- 
trine of enlarging Empire, deficient, 

ib. 

The different Talents of Governors, ib. 

The Difference of States, 2^6 

The Greatnefs of States, how to be efii- 
mated, ib. 

yf People oppreffed with Taxes tinf.t 
for Rule, ib. 

That the Nobles he few, 2 3 7 

That the Natives be an Over-match for 
the Foreigners, ib. 

The fofier mechanick Arts to be left to 
Strangers, 238 

Arms to be fliidied, and profeffed, by a 
military Nation, ib. 

That the Laws and Cuflomsfhould af- 
ford Occafions of War, 239 

A Nation to be always ready for War, 

240 

The Advantage of being Mafiers at Sea, 

ib. 

The Soldiers to be honourably rewarded, 

ib. 

That Empires may be enlarged by Pru- 
dence, 241 

SECT. XXVII. 

The Doftrine of Univerfal Juftice ; 
or, the Fountains of Equity. 

Politicians befl qualif-ed to treat the 
Sub\etl of Juftice^ 242 

Three 'Fountains of Lijufice, ib. 

The Foundation of private Right, ib. 

Private Right to beproteoled by publick 
L'J'tc, 243 

Vol. I. 



Publick Laws exteftd toR e'tglcft. Arms, 
&c. ib. 

The End and Difference cf LawSy ib. 
A good Law what, 244 

Certainty Effential to a Law, ib. 

T'wo Uncertainties in Laws, ib. 

Three Remedies in Cafes emitted by the 
Law, ib. 

Reafon preferred to Cuflo7n, ib. 

Cafes omitted to be governed by publick 
Advantage, ib. 

The Laws not to be wrefled, 245 

Statutes of Repeal not to be extended to 
Cafes omitted, ib. 

No Precedent of a Precedent, ib. 

Extenftun more allowable in fiimmary 
Law St ib. 

Solemnity admits not of Extenfion, ib. 
Extenfion to After -Cafes eafy, ib. 

By Precedents under due Regulations, 

246 
Precedents to be derived from good 
Times, ib. 

Modern Precedents the fafefl, ih. 

Ancient Precedents to be cautioujly ad- 
mitted^ ib. 
Precedents to be limited, ib. 
Partial Precedents to be guarded againff, 

ib. 
The Tranfmiffion of Precedents to be 
regarded, ib. 

Precedents to be authentick, 247 

Should not eafdy be admitted, after once 
rejeHed, ib. 

Precedents are Matter of DireHion, 
not Rule, ib. 

Courts and Juries under their Regula- 
tions, ib. 
The Cenforial and PreBtorial Courtsfih, 
Courts of Juftice to have Power of pu- 
nifhing new Offences, ib. 
Courts of Equity to have Fewer offup- 
plying the Law, 248 
Both to be confined to extraordinary 
Cafes, ib. 

c Jurif- 



«XVI 



The CONTENTS. 



Jurifdi^tofts to he lodged in Supreme 

■ Courts, ib. 

Juries to confijl of fever ah ib. 

Sentence of Life and Death to proceed 
upon known Laws, ib. 

"that there he three Returns of the Jurv, 

ib. 

^he preparative Parts of great Crimes 
to he punifhed, ib. 

Cafes willingly omitted hy the Laws, 
not to be relieved, 249 

The Courts of Equity to he kept within 
Bounds ib- 

JVo Equity-Court to decree againft a Sta- 
tute, ib- 

The Courts of Equity and Juftice tofe 
kept diftinoJ, 'b- 



The Preambles of Laws to he Jhor 1,254. 

The full Purport cf the Law not al- 
ways derivable from the Preamble, 

ib. 

A faulty Method in drawing up the 
Laws, ib. 

The Ways of interpreting the Laws, and 
taking away the Ambiguity, ib. 

By recording Judgments, ib, 

Authentick Writers, 255 

Auxiliary Books, ib. 

Viz. Inflitutes, ib. 

Explanations cf Terms, and Rules of the 
Law, 256 

Antiquities of Laws, Abridgments, Plea- 
dings, Anfwers and Confultaiions, 

^57 



The Judges inEquity to pubUfJj their own Readings to he direned,fo as to terminate 

Rules, ib. ^lejtions, 258 

Retrofpeilive Laws to he ufed wilhBif- The Uncertainties of Judgments with 

cretion, ib- their Remedies, ib. 

Are proper in fraudulent and evafive Decrees to he reverfed zvith Solemnity^ 

Cafes, ^b- . . 259 

And for corroborating and confirming. The Courts to fnaintain Peace with one 

250 another, ib. 

Laws regarding Futurity may alfo he A general Retrofpe5iion, ib. 

RetrofpeSiive, ib. 



Declaratory Laws to he enabled where 
Retrofpetiion is jufl, ib. 

The Obfcurity of Laws from four Ori- 
gins, lb. 
Excejfive Accumulation of Laws , 

which may prove very pernicious, ib. 
Two Ways of making new Statutes, ib. 
The Contradiolories in Law to be exa- 

7nined at proper Intervals, 251 

Obfolete Laws to he cancelled. ib, 

Courts of Equity to have a Right ofde- The life of Human Reafon allowable in 



SECT. XXVII. 

The Dodtrine of Infpired Theology, 
or Divinity. 

The Divifion and Cultivation cf Divi- 

. nity, left to Divines, 261 

The Prerogative of Revelation over the 
Light of Nature, ib. 

Two Significations of the Light of Na- 
ture, 262 



creeing contrary to obfolete Laws, 

ib. 

New Digefts of Laws how to be under- 
taken and effeSled, 252 

A perplexed and obfiure Defcription of 
Laws, 253 

The Verhofity of the Law to he retrench- 
ed, ib. 



Religion, 263 

This Ufe of Reafon is of two Kinds ; re- 
garding,{i.)The Explanation of My- 
Jleries ; and, (2.) Inferences from 
thetn, lb. 

Two Excejfes of Huntan Reafon in Di- 
vinity., 2 64 

The 



The CONTENTS. 



xxvil 



Thi firj} Appendage to Theology "Man' 

titii^ ; viz. The Moderator, 264 

A Di,cour/e upon the Degrees of Unity 

among Chrijiidiu, defcient, ib. 

A fecond Appendage to Divinity vjan- 

•■ ting ; viz. a Difcourfe of Unity, 265 

Two J-'/ays of interpreting Sciipture ; 

viz. The methodical, and the loofe, \h. 

The loofe zvay fuhjeSt to two Exceffes, 

ib. 
A third Appendage to Divinity wan- 



ted; viz. Notes and Ohfervations 

upon particular Texts, 266 

Ccnclufion, ib. 

SECT. XXIX. 

The Coaft of the new Intelledual 
World : or, A Recapitulation of 
the Deficiencies of Knowledge j 
pointed out in the preceding Work, 
to befupplied by Pofterity, 267-- 

270 



GENERAL SUPPLEMENT 



TO THE 



De Augmentis Scientiarum. 

Supplement L The New Atlantis ; or, A Plan of en 

Society for the Promotion of Knowledge. 

Delivered in the Way of F i c t i on. 



AFtilitious Voyage, intimating the 
Difcovery of a new Country, 278 
The Ship's Arrival to an unknown 
Port. ib. 

Their Humane Reception, ib. 

The Offcers take no Fees, 279 

A Superioi'.r Officer examines them, ib. 
A Notary comes onhoard them, 280 
Part of their Nu7nber go on Shore, ib, 
A Defer ipt ion of the Hoiife of Strangers, 

ib. 
Tbs Strangers 7tot to go abroad for three 



Days, 281 

Their Meats and Drinks defcrihed, 281 
Their Medicines intimated, ib. 

The Speech of the Leader to the refi of 
the Strangers^ ib. 

Their Anfwer, 282 

The Recovery of their Sick, ib. 

The Company vifited by the Governor 
of the Houfe of Strangers, ib. 

His Difcourfe to them j and their An- 
fwer, ib, 
The Company revifted by the Governor^ 
c 2 wba 



XXVUl 



The CONTENTS. 



who entertains them with an Ac- 
count of the IJland, 283 

Its Convey/ion to Chrijiianity, ib. 

The Miracle whereby it was wrought, 

ib. 

The Prayer of a Fellow of Solomon'^ 
College, at the fight of the Miracle. 

ib. 

The Procefs of the Miracle \ and its 
Confummation, in the delivery of a 
Book containing the Old and New 
Tefl anient, 284 

The Epijlle of St.Bzx\.\io\omtw, ib. 

ji farther Miracle both in the Book 
and Letter, ib. 

The Converfation with the Governcur 
renewed, ib. 

The ^lefiioji pat, how this IJland be- 
came acquainted with all the TForld, 
whiljt itfelf remained unknown, 285 

T'he Governour's Anfwer. ib. 

The ancient Shipping, ib. 

Benfalem, anciently, much reforted to 
by all Nations, ib. 

The ancient State of America., 2^6 

Two grand Expeditions of the Mexicans 
and Peruvians, ib. 

Followed' by an Inundation of their 
CountrieSy ib. 

The Confequences thereof upon the In- 
habitants, 287 

The Decay of Navigation in fucc ceding 
Ages, ib. 

Why the Inhabita?its of Benfalem re- 
main at home, ib. 

,/^« Account of their Z/K^Solomona,ib. 

The Laws he ena^ed againjt the En- 
trance of Strangers, 2 S 8 

The Law regarding, the travellitig if 
the Natives, ib. 

The Inftitution o/Solomon'j Houfe, or, 
a Philofophical Society^ ib. 

The Mijfions of the Fellows of this So- 



ciety, 



2 89 



The Effect of this Nation's offering 
Conditions to Sir anger i^ 290 



S E c T. ir. 

A general Character of the Nation, ib;. 

The Company admitted into the Pre- 
feuce of a Father of Solomon's C'l- 
lege. ib. 

The Fa there's Difccurfe to the chief Man 
of the Company. 291 

The End of tbelnjlitution o/'Solomon'i 
College, ib. 

Its Apparatus of Caves, Burials, Towers 
and'ObfervatorieSy ib. 

Lakes, Pools, Rocks, Contrivances for 
IVind and Water -Engines, 292 

Artificial Springs, Wells for Infufions, 
Meteor -Houfes, and Chambers of 
Health, ib. 

Artificial Baths, Orchards and Gar- 
dens, for Experiments upon Vegeta- 
tion, 293 

Plants growingwithout Seeds, ib,. 

Pa-ks and Enclofures for Animals., 
and the Production of ncw Species,. 

ib. 

Ponds for Experiments, upon Fifo, and 
Breeding-places for Infects, 2945. 

Particular Brew-hotfes, Bake-houjes^ 
&c. ib. 

Bread of various Kinds, ib. 

Meats of various Kinds, Shops of Me- 
dicines, Manufactures, Furnaces ancf 
Chemical Apparatus, 295 

Optick-hcufes, Collections of Gems and 
Foffils, and Sound-houfes, 2^& 

Perfume-boufes, a Confe^ionary, and 
Engine-houfeily ■ 297 

A Mathematica Houfe, and Hoitfes of 
Deception, 29S 

The Employments andOffces of the Fel- 
lows, ib. 

Twelve Merchants of Light, three De- 
predators, three Myjlery-men, three 
Miners, ihfee Compilers^ ib. 

Three BenefaBors, three Lamps, three 
Inoculators, three Interprctersof Na- 
ture; Pupils and Servants ; Conful- 
tations,. 2991 

Their 



The CONTENTS. 

Their Rites and Ordinances, in fre- 'Tlelrreligioui CeremonisSi and ibeirVi- 
ferving Models of Inventions, and fitations, 300 

Statues cf Inventors, 299 Conc'.ufiony ib. 

Supplement II. 7he Begi?mi7?g of a Hijlory of 

Great Britain. 



xxix 



'T' U E Succ'Jfwn of the Croivn cf 

*• England devolves upon James VI. 

of Scotland, 303 

^he EfffB of this Succejfionas to the 
Peace cfEmope, ib, 

England and Scotland never united 
under one King before, ib. 

yf IFork of Providence^ accomplifhing 
certain Prophecies y 304 

The Reputation cf this Succejfon aug- 
mented by many extraordinary Cir- 
cumjlances, ib. 

The Unanimity and TranqinUiiy at the 



King's Entrance, ib. 

Tbefeditious Book of FM-fons //a' Jefuit, 

ib. 
j^il Difcourfe cf a Succeffor prohibited 

by ^teen Elizabeth, 305 

The great and univerfal Joy at this Suc- 

ceffion, ibo 

The Behaviour of thofe attached to the 

former Government, ib;. 

The Papijh. The Presbytery, ib. 

The King's Book publijh'd at his En- 



trance, 



506 



Supplement III. Containing the Lives, or Civil Cha-^ 
ra&ers, of Julius Csefar, Auguftus Ciefar, Kifig 
Henry VII. and ^een Elizabeth. 



I. 

A Civil Charafler of Julius C^far. 

'~jr H E general Fortune and Temper 

■* o/Cfefary 310 

His Vie^Ji)s felffh, ib. 

Favour'd by the People, hut not the 

Nobles, for his Haughlinefs, 3 1 1 
His Thirft cf Power, and the Means 

-whereby he obtained it, ib. 

Works on bothfides,mffembles and throws 

the Blame on others, ib. 

His great Talent In ?nilitary J/fajrs ; his 

Ccnduof in War, his Friendfhips,^ 1 2 
His Learning. His Pleafures. His End, 

313- 
A Civil Charaifer 0/ Auguftus C^far, 

ib. 



A Civil CharaBer of King Henry VII.. 

3 »4- 

This King a Mirror for the Wife, ib.. 
His Religion and Atfs of Charity, ib. 
His Love cf Peace. His great Succefs in' 

JFar. His Regard to the Laws, ib. 
The- Adminijlralion ofjuflice in his time,. 

His Mercy.- His Covetoufnefs and Op- 
prefp.ons. His Expences. His Tempev 
and Moral CharaHer. ib- 

His Alliances. His Behaviour in Bufi- 
nefs, and his CbaraHer abroad. His 
Intelligence. His Emi/faries, 316- 

His Doviejlick Character . His Condu^ 
in the Council, 3 i y 

Promoted t he Clergy and Lawyers, to 
the Negletl of the Nobility, ib. 

Hiss 



XXX 



The CONTENT S. 



His Choke of ahle Minijiers. His Con- 
pancy in prote^ing his Servants, 3 _i 7 

How refpeBed hy bis Subjecfs, ib. 

His exatl andfcrupidcus Diligence in 
taking Notes, &cc. ib. 

His Sufpicions. His Affalility and Per- 
fuafion ; his Learning, and Pleafttres, 

318 

How affect d by Royalty, ib. 

Hozu his Nature influenced his For- 
tune, _ 319 

Compared with his Contetnporaries, the 
Kings of France and Spain, ib. 

His Perfon, Death and Funeral, ib. 

An Account of the Felicities atten- 
ding the Life and Reign of Queen 

Elizabeth. 

this Siibje5l requires an able Statefman 

to write upon it, 320 

•The Felicity cf ^een Elizabeth, the 

prefent Subje^, ib. 

Thatjhe was raifedfrom a private Life 

to a Crown, ib. 

the Misfortune of her Mother, no Re- 

fletlionupon herfelf, ib. 

Her Reign extended to the full Prime of 

her Life, 32 1 

Her ruling a hfirdy warlike People, ib. 
Her Enjoyment of Peace, ib. 

the Aidsflde afforded to foreign Princes, 

322 
the Coiinfels fije gave them, ib. 



the Peace of her Reign owing to herfelf, 

ib. 

fler Succefs in difcovering and defeating 

Confpiracies, 323 

Ruled in a learned Age, over a blow- 
ing People, ib. 

Ruled without Confort, ib. 

Left no Children, ib. 

Her Perfon graceful, and her Death 
eafy, ib. 

Her Minifters able Men, 324 

Her poflhumous Felicities, viz. her next 
Succeffor, and her Fame, ib. 

thefe Felicities owing to herfelf, ib. 

Her Religion, ib. 

Net regardlefs of Mortality, 325 

Whether fhe were moderate in Religion, 

ib. 

the Alterations of her Meafures tq on 
the Spanifh Invafion, ib. 

And the hi{h Rebellion, 326 

Priefls, of nee effity, forbid the Kingdom 
on pain of Death, ib. 

this Law why continued, 2i'^j 

Farther Reafons of it, ib. 

Proofs of her fettled Affection for Reli- 
gion, ib. 

thePrudence fhevsn in bringing about the 
Reformation, 328 

Her Levities, ib. 

Her moral Virtues, ib. 

Her Defire of appeariug eminent, tho* 

fhe had lived private, ib. 

Her great talent for Government, ib. 



Supplement IV. SeleSf Speeches on particular Occajionst 
Civile yiidicial aftd Moral. 



SECT. I. 

Speeches on Civil Occafions. 

Speech I, 



Speech II. 

Upon /Zvg^B^rfl/ Naturalization of the 
Scotifh Nation, 336/0346 

Speech III. 



T T P N prefenting a Petition cf the Upon a Motion for uniting the Laws of 
*^ Houfe of Commons, to his Majefty ; England ij;;^ Scotland, 346/0349 



for regulating the Purveyors, 332 

to 2^6 



S P E E C H IV. 

For perfuading the Houfe of Commons 

to 



to receive the Kwg*s Mejfagei b^ their 
Speaker, and from the Body of the 
Council, 3A-9toS5i 

Speech V. 

Uj-on Occafion of the- Undertakers, or 
certain Perfons who were faid lo have 
undertaken, that the Kin^s Buftnefs 
Jhouldpafs in the Houfe of Coinmons, 

35iioss6 

Speech VI. 

M.ide in the St ir-Chamher, hefore the 

Summer Circuit ; the King being in 

Scotland, SB^to^sS 

Speech VII. 

Alade to the Speaker's exciife, and 0- 

ratwn, 35^10 3^3 

SECT. II. 

Speeches in Judicial Proceedings. 

Speech I. 
The Charge againfi the Lord Sanquhar, 
• for Murder, 3^3 to ^ 6j 

Speech II. 
The Charge againfi William Talbot, 
Counfellor at Law, upon an Infor- 
mation in the S tar-Chamber, for a 
TVruing under his Hand, whereby, 
when beinz demanded whether the 
DoSlrine o/Suarez, as to the depofing 
and killing of Kings excom?nunlcated, 
were true or no ? he anfwered. 
That be referred hijnfelf to what the 
Church of Rome fhould determine 
thereof, 365 to 370 

S P E E C H III. 

The Charge againfi Owen, indited for 

HlghTreafon in the King's- Bench, 

370/0374 



The CONTENTS. 

Speech IV. 
The Charge againfi M.'L. S. W. H.J 



XXXI 



for Scandal, and traducing the King's 
Juftice, in the Proceedings againfi 
Wefton f« the Star-Chamber, 374 

to 380 

S P E E C H V. 

The Charge againfi Frances, Countefs 

prSomerret,Kfo« the polfoningof Sir 

Thomas Ovcrbury, 380/0383 

S P E E c H VI. 

The Charge aga'nfi Robert, Earl of 

■ Somerfct, concerning the polfoning of 

Sir Thomas Overbury,384 to 392 

SECT. III. 
Speeches on Moral Occafions. 

Speech I. 
Againfi Duelling, 393 to i^% 

Speech II. 

Made by the Author upon taking his 
Place in Chancery, as Lord Keeper 
of the Great Seal of England ; in 
performance of the Charge his Ma- 
jeftygave him, when he received the 
Seal, in theTear iGiy, 398/0 405 
Speech III. 
Made in the Exchequer, by the Author 
asLord Keeper; to Sir John Denham, 
called to be one of the Barons of the 
Exchequer, 405 /0 407' 

Speech IV. 
Made in the Common Picas, to Juflice 
Hutton ; called to be one of the Jud- 
ges of the Common Pleas, 407» 

408 
Speech V. 

Made to Sir William Jones, called to 
be Lord Chief Juftice o/Ireland,4o8, 

409 



Supplement 



xxxii 



The CONTENTS. 



Supplement V. Seleci Letters upon various Occajions, 



SECT. I. 
Letters relating to the Author's Life* 

I. 

nn O the Lord 'Treafurer Burghley ; 
upon determiniiig his Courfe of 
Life, 4« 3 

II. 
To the Lord Treafurer Burghley, of- 
fering Service-, 414 
III. 
To the Lord Treafurer Burghley ; ex- 
ciifwg a Speech in Parliament, 4 1 5 
IV. 
To the Lord Treafurer'Q\iro^\\e.Y ; cra- 
ving his A£ifianc£, 4 1 6 
V. 
To the Lord Treafurer Burghley '; re- 
commending hisfirfi Suit for the Sol- 
Ucitor's Place, 41 7 
VI. 
To Sir Robert Cecil ; intimating Siif- 
picion of unfair Pra£iices, 4 1 8 
VII. 
<lo Sir Robert Cecil ; expoflidating 
upon his ConduB towards the Author, 

ib. 
VIII. 
To the Earl of EiTex ; reminding him 
of his Suit, 419 

IX. 
To the EarlofEffsx ; upon the Caen's 
Refufal of the Author's Service, ib. 
X. 
To the Earl of Efkx ; about his Lor d- 
Jbifs Condu^ with the ^leen, 420-- 

424 



XI. 

To the Earl of Eflex -, defiring he 
would exciife the Author'' s Defign to 
the Slueen, of going abroad, after his 
Refufal, 424 

XII. 
To the Earl of Eflex -, upon the Earl's 
Expedition into Ireland, ib. 427 
XIII. 
To the Lord Henry Howard ; clearing 
himfelf of Afperfion in the Cafe of the 
Earl of Effex, 427 

XIV. 
To Sir Fulke Greville -, complaining of 
Difappointinent in Preferment, 428 
XV. 
To the ^teen ; upon his keeping from 
Court, 429 

XVI. 
To the Earl of l^onhumhcrhnd; ten 
dring Service, ib. 

XVII. 
To the Earl of Devonfliire, Lord 
Lieutenant of Ireland ; apologizing 
for his Conduol, with relation to the 
Earl c/Eflex, 43 O- -444 

XVIII. 
To Mr. Robert Kempe ; upon the 
Death of the Slueen, 444 

XIX. 
To Sir Thomas Chaloner, /«Scotland, 
before the King's Entrance ; defiring 
Recommendation to his Majefly, ib. 
XX. 
To the King •, offering Service upon his 
Majejlfs coming in, 445 

XXI. 



The CONTENTS. 

kt-'i Skbiefs, 



xxxiu 



XXI. 

To fhi Earl of Northumberland ; re- 
commending a Proclamation to be 
made by the King at his Entrance, 

446 
XXII. 
To the Earl of Northumberland •, gi- 
ving fame CharaHer of the King at 
his Arrival, 447 

XXIII. 
To Mr. Matthews •, fgnifying the Pro- 
ceedings of the King, at his firft En- 
trance, 'b. 
XXIV. 
To the £ar/c/" Salisbury ; fuing for the 
Sollicitor's Place, 448 
XXV. 
To the Earl cf Salisbury again ; fuing 
for the Solicitor's Place, 449 
XXVI. 
To the Lord Chancellor ; fuing for the 
Sollicitor's Place, ib. 
XXVII. 
To the Kin% ; petitioning for the Solli- 
citor's Place, 450 
XXVIII. 
To Sir Edward Coke ; expofiulating 
upon Sir Edward'j Behaviour, 45 i 
XXIX. 
To the King ; upon Occafion of Mr. 
Sutton'j Eflate, 452 
XXX. 
To the King i petitioning for Promife 
of the Attorney s Place, 456 
XXXI. 

To the King ; petitioning for the Place 
of Attorney-General, 457 

XXXII. 
To the King ; upon the Lord Chancel- 
lor's Sicknefs, ib. 
XXXIII, 
To the King ; relating to the Cbancel- 

VOL. I. 



458 



XXXIV. 

To Sir George Villiers ■,folliciting to be 
fworn cf the Privy-Council, 459 
XXXV. 
To Sir George Villiers ; upon accep- 
ting a Place in Council, 460 
XXXVI, 
To the King ; propofing to regulate Z'« 
Majfllfs Finances, ib. 
XXXVII. 
To Mr. Matthews •, believing his Dan- 
ger lefs than he found it, 4^^ 
XXXVIII. 
To Mr. Matthews ; intimating his 
Apprehenfion of fame Banger, 462 
XXXIX. 
To Mr. Matthews, ib. 

XL. 
To the Right Honourable the Lords 
Spiritual and Temporal, in the Up- 
per Houfe of Parliament, 462 
XLI. 
To the King ; imploring Remittance of 
his Sentence, 4^3 
XLII. 
To the King-, imploring Favour, 464 

XLIII. 

To the Right Honourable the Lords of 

Parliament, in the Upper Houfe af- 

fembled ; the humble Submiffion and 

Supplication of the Lord Chancellor, 

465 — 46S . 
XLIV. 

To the King ; imploring AJ/iftance, 468, . 

469 

XLV. 

To the Marquifs 0/ Buckingham ; re- 
commending Mr. Matthews, 470 
XLVI. 
To the King ; petitioning for a total 
Remifhon of his Sentence, 47 ^ 

d XLVII. 



XXXIV 



The CONTENTS. 



472 



XLVII. 

To the Earl of Arundel, 

S E C T. II. 
Letters relating to the Author's Wri 



tings. 



I. 

To his Brother Mr. Anthony Bacon, 
dedicating his firjl Edition of his Eflays, 

473 
II. 

To the Earl ef Northampton ; deft- 
ring him to prefent the Advance- 
ment ofLearnini^ to the King, 474 
^III. 
To Sir Thomas Bodley ; upon pre- 
fenting him the Advancement of Lear- 
ning, 473 
IV. 
To the Earl of Salisbury ; upon pre- 
fenting him the Advancement of Lear- 
ning, 475 
V. 

To the Univerfit-j ij/ Cambridge ; upon 
prefenling his Advancement of Lear- 
ning to their publick Library, ib. 
VI. 
To Trinity - College, Cambridge i 
npon prefenting them the Advance- 
ment of Learning, 476 
VII. 

To the Umverfity of Oxford ; upon 
frefenting them the Advancement 
oC Leacning, ib. 

VIII. 

To Mr. Matthews -, with the Ativaiue- 

ment of Learning, ib. 

IX. 

To the Lord Chancellor Egerton \ 

prefenting him the Advatucment of 

Learning, 477 

X. 

To tke Lord Trcafurtt BuckKmft ; up- 



on prefenting bim the Advancement 

of Learning, 477 

XI. 

To Dr. Playfer •, dt firing him to tranf- 

late theAdvancement into Latin, 478 

XII. 

To the King ; with the Difcourfe oflht 

Plantation of Ireland, 479 

Of the Plantation of hthnd, 480— 

486 
XIII. 

To Sir Thomas Bodley ; defiring 

him to return the Author's Cogi- 

tata Gf Fifa, 486 

XIV. 

To the Bifhop of Ely, aion^ with the 

Cogitata & Vifa. 488 

XV. 

To Sir George Carew •, prefenting him 

the Memoir in felicem Memoriam 

Elizabethje, 49 1 

XVI. 

To Mr. Matthews ; along with apart 

cftbe Jnjlauration, 492 

XVII. 

To the Lord Chancellor ; with a Pro- 

pofalfor a complete Britifh Hijiory, 

49? 
XVIII. 

To the King ; relating to the Hiflory of 

his Majejlfs Times^, 494 

XIX. 

To the Univerfity of Cambridge ; upon 

prefenting them his Book De Sapi- 

cntia Veterum, 495 

XX. 

To the Earl of Salisbury j prefenting 

him the Book De Sapientia Vece- 

rum, 496 

XXI. 

To Mr. Matthews, along with the 

Book DeSapifiQtia Veterum, ib. 

XXH. 



The CONTENTS. 



XXXV 



xxn. 

To his Brother, Sir John Conftable ; 
dedicating a new Editio/f sf his Ef- 
fap, 497 

XXIII. 

To Mr. Matthews ; upon the Subje^ of 
bis IVrilings, ib- 

XXIV. 
To Mr. Matthews •, upon the Memo- 
rial of the Felicities of ^een Eliza- 
beth, and the Injiauration, 49 S 
XXV. 

Tt Sir Henry Saville ; csiicerning a 
Difcourfe upon the intelle^ualPou/ersy 

499 
Thefrjl Draught of a Dijcourfe upon 

Helps for the intelle^ual Powers, 

£00, 501 

XXVI. 

To Mr. Matthews •, entreating Judg- 
ment upon bis fVritings, 502 
XXVII. 
Dedication of the Novum Organunn to 
King James, ib. 
XXVIII. 
To the Univer/ity 0/ Cambridge v upon 



prefenting the Novum Organum to 
their publick Library, 50J 

XXIX. 
To the King ; prefentir.g the Hijlotj of 
Henry VII. and a Propofal for a. 
new Digejl of the La-njs 0/ England, 

504 
XXX. 

Dedication of the Hifory of Jf^mds to 

Prince Charles, 505 

XXXI. 

To the Duke of Buckingham, Lord 

High Admiral of England •, di- 

dicating the lafi Edition of his EJfap., 

ib. 
XXXII, 
To the Bifhop o/Winchefter -, coHcet- 
ning the Author's publifhed and in- 
tended fFritings, 506—508 

XXXIII: 
To Z>r. Williams, 5//?'(?/ 0/ Lincoln ; 
concerning the Author's Letters and 
Speeches, 508 

XXXIV. 
To Father Fulgentio ; giving fame Ac- 
count of his Views andDefigns in his 
fVritings. 509, aW 5 10 



Supplement VI. AColkEiim of ^pophthegfns^ 511 



'Ip H E Apophthegms of Agathocles. 

Alcibiades, 

Alexander the Great, ' 

Alexander the Pope, 

Alonfo, 

Anacharfis 

Anaxagoras, 

Ann Bullen, 

Anonymous, 

Antaclidas, 

Antigonus, 



cles. 


Antipater. 


5^i 


Antirthencs, 


ib. 


Apollonius, 


ib. 


Ariftippus, 


ib.. 


Bacon, 


514 


Bettenham, 


ib. 


Bias, 


ib. 


Bion, 


ik 


Brefquet, 


ib. 


Brown, 


5«9 


Burleigh, 


ib. 


Casfar, 



d2 



ib.- 
iK 
ib. 
iK 
520- 
523 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 
524 

ib. 
Car- 



XXX VI 



The CONTENTS. 



Carvaja], 


5^5 


Marbury, 


ib. 


Qffius, 


ib. 


Marius, 


ib. 


Cato, 


ib. 


Mendoza, 


ib. 


Catullus,' 


ib. 


More, 


ib. 


Charles, 


ib. 


Nero, 


532 


Chilon, 


ib. 


Pace, 


ib. 


Cineas, 


ib. 


Pawlet, 


ib. 


Cicero, 


526 


Philip, 


ib. 


Clearchus, 


ib. 


Phocion, 


ib. 


Clement, 


ib. 


Plato, 


ib. 


CralTus, 


ib. 


Plutarch, 


ib. 


D-mofthenes, 


ib. 


Pompey, 


ib. 


Diogenes, 


ib. 


Popham, 


533 


Dionyfius, 


5^7 


Pythagoras, 


ib. 


King Edward, 


ib. 


Quinftius, 


ib. 


^een Elizabeth, 


ib. 


Rabelais, 


ib. 


EJlefmere, 


528 


Raleigh, 


ib. 


Epaminondas, 


ib. 


Savil, 


ib. 


Epidtetus, 


ib. 


Sefa, 


ib. 


Ethelwold, 


ib. 


Simonides, 


534- 


Gardiner, 


ib. 


Sixtus, 


ib. 


Gondomar, 


ib. 


Socrates, 


ib. 


Gonfalvo, 


ib. 


Solon, 


ib. 


Grevil, 


ib. 


Stilpho, 


ib. 


Hannibal, 


ib. 


Sylvius, 


ib. 


Hanno, 


529 


Themiftocles, . 


535 


Hatton, 


ib. 


Theodofius, 


ib. 


Heraclitus, 


ib. 


Trajan, 


ib. 


Howland, 


ib. 


Vefpafian, 


ib. 


King James, 


ib. 


Weeks, 


ib. 


Jafon, 


530 


Welfhman, 


ib. 


Johnfon, 


ib. 


Whitehead, 


ib. 


Ifabella, 


ib. 


Wotton, 


ib. 


Judjeus, 


ib. 


Ximenes, 


53-6 


Latimer, 


ib. 


Zelim. 


ib. 


Lewis, 


ib. 


Appendix. 




Livia, 


lb. 


Containing jhort Sentences., and 


certain 


Lucullus, 


53 1 


Rules for Difcourfe, 


536 


Lycurgusj 


ib. 


Short Rules for Converfation, 


537 



Supplement 



The CONTENTS, 



xxxv'ii 



Supplement VII. ne Mythology or concealed K?iow!edge 
of the Ancie?its, Decypherd a?id Explain d, 539 



M 



Introduction. 
Containing a fhort Critique upon the 
Mythology of the Ancients, 545 

Tthology earlier than our prefent 
Hijfory, ib. 

Has been wrefted and abiifed, ib. 

But fict therefore to he rejeBed, ib. 

That certain Fables are defignedly 
Allegorical^ 546 

Shewn by the Structure of the Fable, ib. 

The Conformity of the Names employed, 

ib. 

The Abfurdity offome Fables, a Token 
of their being Allegorical, 5 Ay 

The Fables earlier than the Relators,\h. 

A double Ufe of Parables ; viz. Teach- 
ing and Concealing, 548 

The Mythology of the Ancients, great 
or happy, ib. 

Its Explanation attempted by ethers, 

■ ' 549 

SECT. I. 

The conceal'd phyfical Knowledge 

of the Ancients decypher'd. 



The Fable of Ccelum ; explain'd of 
the Creation, or Origin of all things. 
Coelum, his CharaSfer, 550 

Jupiter ufurps the Kingdom, ib. 

Two f Far s on ]up\ter, ib. 

The Fable a phyfical Account of the 
Origin of the World, ib. 

Coelum difmember''d, s^i 

Saturn devouring his Children, ib. 
The Reign of Saturn, ib. 

The Reig" c/Jipiter, ib. 

The Birth 0/ Venus, ib. 



Saturn, why nctkilled, ib- 

Sol aJ/ijJi/}g Jupiter, ib- 

The Fable involves Philofophy, 55 2 

IL 
The Fable of Prometheus ; explain'd 
of an over-ruling Providence, and 
of Human Nature. 

Prometheus creates Man, and fleals 
Fire from Heaven, 552 

Accufed to the Gods, ib. 

Perpetual Touth beflo-jved on Men, ib. 
The Gift laid upon an Afs, ib. 

And transferred to Serpents, ib. 

Prometheus offers a Mock-Sacrifice,\h. 
Pandora equipped with her Box. 55^ 
The Box opened, ib. 

Prometheus arraigned by Jupiter, ib. 
Condemned, ib. 

/v7/?fW(i /c Caucafus, ib. 

Released, ib. 

The Promethean Games, ib. 

Prometheus (Y('«5/« Providence, 554 
Man the Work of Providence, i b. 

An Account of cofmicdl Ends, ib. 

Man a Mixture of Clay, and the Par- 
ticles of all Animals, ib. 
The Invention of Fire, S55 
How fiole by Prometheus, ib. 
Jupiter pleas' d with the apparent In- 
gratitude of Men to Prometheus, ib. 
Explain'd of calling Men and Nature 
to account, ib. 
Perpetual Touth the Reward of accu- 
fing Prometheus, r^^6 
The Gift of perpetual Youth transferred 
to Serpents, 55^ 
The Reconciliation of Prometheus to 
Men, ib. 

The 



XXXVlll 



The CONTENTS. 



<f he Mock-Sacrifice^ 557 

Vulcan /orw^f';?»- Pandora, ib. 

"The Behaviour of Epimecheus to Pan- 
dora, 558 
That of Prometheus, ib. 
JJfifled by Hercules, ib. 
Hercules crojfing the Ocean in a Pit- 
cher, 559 
Promecheus attempting Pallas, ib. 
'The Games of the Torch, ib. 
The Fable may allude to Cbrijliafuty, 

ib. 
III. 
The Fable of Orpheus ; explain'd of 

Natural and Moral Philofophy. 
The Fable of Orpheus, bow to he ex- 
plain'd, 560 
Eurydice recover* d, ib. 
Jnd lofl again, ib, 
Orpheus, b-j his Mujick-, moves the 
Beajis, 561 
The Trees and Stones, ib. 
His Mufick drowned, ib. 
T'hings return to their cw» Natures, 

ib, 
Orpheus torn to pieces, ib. 

Helicony?«^i and rifes again, ib. 
Orpheus'j Mufick of two Kinds, ib. 
Regarding Morals and Phyfics, ib. 
Philofophy transferr'd to civil Affairs, 

562 
After finding that Death is unavoidable, 

ib. 

Orpheus averfe to B^omen and IVed- 

lock, ib. 

Orpheus torn, and Helicon hid, ib. 

IV. 
The Fable of Atalanta and Hippo- 
-menes ; explain'd of the Contcft 
betwixt Arc and Nature. 
Atalanta conquered by Stratagem, 563 
Atalanta denotes Nature, ib. 

And Hippomenes Art, ib. 

V. 
The Fable of Eri£ihonius ; explain'd 
• of the improper Ufe of Force in Reveals a Secret of Nature^ 



Natural Philofophy, 564 

VI. 

The Fable of Icarus, and that of 
Scylla and Charybdis ; explain'd of 
Mediocrity in Natural and Moral 
Philofophy, 

Mediocrity ufeful in the Sciences, S^S 

Icarus'; Flight and Fall, ib. 

The Difference betwixt Excefs and De- 
fied, 566 

The Allegory of Scylla and Charybdis, 

ib. 
VII. 

The Fable of Proteus *, explain'd of 
Matter and its Changes. 

Proteus, Neptune'j Herdfman and a 
Prophet, 566 

His Transformation, 567 

Proteus denotes Matter, ib. 

His Herd, what, ib. 

Counting them at Noon, ib. 

Proteus^e««^, ib. 

His Prophetic Gift, 568 

vni. 

The Fable of Cupid ; explain'd of 
the corpufcular Philofophy, 

The elder Cupid, 568 

The younger, ib. 

The moving Principle (f Matter, the 
EggofNox, 56g 

Confirmed frojn Solomon, ib. 

The Greek Philofophers, ib. 

Democritus, ib. 

And Epicurus, 570 

Cupid drawn a Child, ib. 

Naked, ib. 

Blind, ib. 

An Archer, ib. 

The younger Cupid, ib. 

IX. 

The Fable of Deucalion; explained 
of an ufeful Hint in Natural Phi- 
lofophy. 

The Oracle of Deucalion and Pyrrha, 

ib. 
XL 



The CONTENTS. 



XXXIX 



X. 

The Fable of Sphinx ; explain'd of 
the Sciences. 



Sphinx defcrib'd. 


5n 


Her Riddle, 


ib. 


Solved by CEdipus, 


ib. 


Sphinx, is Science., 


51i 


A Mojijier, 


ib. 


Her various Form., 


ib. 


Her Female Face and Voice, 


ib. 


mngs. 


ib. 


Talonsy 


ib. 


Reftding en bi^b. 


ib. 


Befeiting the HighwaySy 


ib. 


Propofmg Riddles., 


ib. 


Of two Kinds, 


574 



CEdipus jolves the Riddle relating to 

Man, ib. 

Sphinx'j Carcafs laid upon an Afs, ib. 
The Lamenefs (f CEdipus, ib. 

XI. 
The Fable of Proferpine ; explain'd 

of the Spirit included in Natural 

Bodies. 
Pluto carries awaj Proferpine, 575 
Gathering Narciffus, ib. 

Ceres goes out to feek her, ib. 

Recovers her upon Condition, ib. 

Thefeus and Ter'ithous attempt tofree 

Proferpine /rcTO Pluto, ib. 

Proferpine divides the Tear betwixt her 

Mother and Husband, ib. 

Receives the Prefent of the Golden 

Bough y gyS 

Proferpine, or jEiberiai Spirit, ib. 
Ravijhed, ib. 

JVhilft ^a/i)fr/«^ Narciffus, ib; 

Made the Lady of Dis, ib. 

Ceres, or the Efficacy of the celefiial 

Bodks, ib. 

fafiirig the Pomgranate, 577 

Living fix Months with her Husband, 

and fix with her Mother, 'h. 

ibe Jttem.pt of Thskus and Pcrirhous, 

ib. 
fi* Gilden Bough, ib. 



SECT. II. 

The concealed Moral Philofophy of 
the Ancients. 

I. 

The Fable of Memnon ; explained 
of the fatal Precipitancy of Youth. , 

Memnon' J Fate, 579 

the Son of the Morning, ib. 

Dies bewailed, 580 

II. 
The Fable of Tythonus ; explained of 

predominant Paffions. 
Tythonus made immortal, 580 

But at length turned to a Grafijepper,\h. 
Defcribes Pleafurey ib. 

And Satiety, ib. 

In old Agcy ib» 

m. 

The Fable of iV^rf/^jj explained of 

Self- Love. 
Narciffus graced by Nature,. 581 

A Self- Admirer, ib. 

And turned into a Flower,. ib. 

Reprefenis Self-Lovers, ib* 

fVho prove indolent, ib. 

And become as Flowers of Utile Value, 

ib. 

The Fable of 7'"fo'.!Courtfhip i ex- 
plained of Submiffion,andAbjeftion. 

Jupiter'i Transformation, 582 

Jnie a Cuckow, ib. 

The Moral, ib.. 

Y. 

The Fable of Caffandrav cxplai»*d 
of too free and unfeafonabk Ad- 
vice, 

Caffandra deceits Apollo, 583 

The Moral, ib. 

lUuflration.. ib. 

VI. 

The Fable of the Sirens ; explained 
of Men's Paiion for Pkafures. 

^i^f Sirens, whff, ^84 

Their Place of Refidence, ib. 

Their 



xl 



The CONTENTS. 



Their Muftc, ib. 

Remedies againjl their deluding Power, 

ib. 

The Sirens, or Pleafures, ancienlly 
iving'd, _ 585 

The Lofs of the Sirens fFings, an Ho- 
nour to the Mufes, ib. 

Terpfichore not plumed on the Head,'\b. 

The Sirens inhabit IJlands, 5^5 

White with the Bones of their Cap- 
tives, rb. 

The Remedies againfl the Sirens, 586 

The firjl Remedy, ib. 

The fcond, ib. 

The third, ib. 

VII. 

•The Fable of Z)/mfi/-, explained of 
Perfecucion, or Zeal for Religion. 

Diomed wounds Venus, 586 

Js honourably received by Daunus, s^j 

And murdered, ib. 

His Companions forbid to lament his 
Death, ib. 

Dif plays the Fate of a Zealot for Re- 
ligion, ib. 

Tihmiiiiflainby his Entertainer, 588 

SECT. HI. 

The fecret Political Knowledge of the 

Ancients. 

I. 

The Fables of Acleon and Pentheus ; 
explained of Curiofity, or prying 
into the Secrets of Princes, and 
divine Myfteries. 

Adleon'i Crime, 585 

iTf^rt^ 0/ Pentheus, ib. 

Afteon'j relates t» difcovering the Se- 
crets of Princes, 590 

That o/"Pentheus to divine Myfleries,\b. 

II. 

The Fable of the Gods, fwearingby 
the River Styx ; explain'd of Ne- 
ceffity, in the Oaths or folemn 
Leagues of Princes, 

2 



The Oath of Styx, 590 

The Puniftiment of its Violation, 59 1 
This OathfJjsws the Nature cf Princes 
Confederacies, ib. 

Neceffiiy the firongefl Security of Prin- 
ces Oaths, ib. 
III. 

The Fable oH Jupiter and Metis ; ex- 
plained of Princes, and their Coun- 
cil. 

Jupiter marries Metis, 592 

And brings forth Pallas, ib. 

So Kings ?narry their Council, ib. 

And decree as from themf elves, 592 

IV.. 
The Fable of Endymion ; explained 

of Court-Favourites. 
Luna'j Amour with Endymion, 

fleeping ; turns to his advantage, 593 
So Kings make choice of fleecing Fa- 
vourites, ib. 
Endymion'j Cave, ib. 

V. 
The Fable of Nemefis ; explained of 

the Reverfes of Fortune. 
Nemefis the Daughter ofNox and Oce- 
anus, 594 

Her Enfigns, ib. 

Nemefis denotes Retribution, ib. 

Her ParentSi ib. 

Her Wings, 595 

Her Crown, ib. 

Her Javelin, ib. 

Bottle 0/ Ethiopians, ib. 

Her riding upon a Stag, ib. 

VI. 

The Fable of the Cyclops Death -, ex- 
plained of bafe Court-Officers. 
The Cyclops imprifon'd, and releas'd, 

59^> 597 
Forge Thunderbolts, 597 

Mkuhpius rejiores A dead Man, ib. 

And is flain by the Cyclops, who are 

Jlatn by Apollo, ib. 

Tbi 



T'he CONTENTS. 



xli 



The Cy clops are the cruel Minijlers _ of 
Princes, ib. 

And releafed to ferve a Turn, and at 
length facrificed, ib. 

vir. 

The Fable of the Giant's Sifter ; ex- 
plained of publick Detraflion. 
the Giartti Earth-born, 597 

Denote the Vtdgar, apt to rebel, and 
fpread Rumours and Defamatms,ih. 

viir. 

The Fable of Typhon ; explained of 
Rebellion. 

Juno produces Typhon without Jupi- 
ter, _ 59^ 

Typhon /ate' Jupiter Prifoner, ib. 

Steals his Nerves, ib. 

Tbofe Nerves recovered, and Typhon 
fubdued, ib. 

This /hews the Fate of Kings, and the 
Rebellions of Subjects, ib. 

How thefe Rebellions are allafd and 
fupprefs'd, 599 



IX. 

The Fable of Achelous ; explained of 

War by Invafion. 
The CowZ'd/o/"Herculesa«J Achelous, 

599 
Reprefents War on the Offenftve and 

Defenftvet 600 

X. 
The Fable ofDtsdalus ; explained of 

Arts and Artifts, in Kingdoms and 

States. 
Daedalus murders hisBrother Artiji ,601 
Is banifhed, ib. 

Invents many mechanical Slru5lures,\b. 
His Labyrinth, and the Clue, ib. 

Is perfecuted by Minos, ib. 

Teaches Icarus to fly, ib. 

This fhews the Envy of Artifs, 602 
That Artifts are impolilicklj banijhed,ib. 
The Ufe of Arts, ib. 

The Labyrinth and Clue, ib. 

Arts perfecuted, ib. 

Unlawful, or vain Ars, bow beft ftp- 

frejfed. 603 



End of the Contents. 




Vol. r. 



ERRATA in VOL. T. 

In the General Preface, pag. viii. lin. 38. after EngliJJi infcrt edition. 
Pag. If. lin. penult, for Fourth read Fifih. 

18. lin. ult. for Seft. XVII. read Scft. XVIII. 
Jt . lin. I o. for non-appeamnce read appearance. 
If. lin. 34.. for Aexantter tad Alexander. 
6f. lin. 16. in the Margin, for fen/ible rezii fea/iilt. 

70. lin. 12. for Acauftkks read Acoufiicks. 

71. lin. 45^. for Nevyntit read Nieutntyt. 
7f. lin. 7. for Accedents read AccUents. 
87. lin. 9. after Metaphyftcks infert or. 

ij'S. l;n. 39. after would Adc only. 

I 7J-. lin. II. for /0 Secrets, read M /A? Secret. 

19}. lin. 6. for ca/c read c«/cj. 

199. lin. 1 7. inftead of fo are the four latter, ready» the four latter «ri. 

ibid. lin. j8. for WefenfelJs read Wefenfeld. 

100. lin. 3. dele thefirfWo. 

2J'9. lin. Jf. for turning read tuning. 

19J'. lin. 34. for hifolations read Infolations. 

303. lin. ult. (or Supplement V. Seel. 1. read Supplement V. Sf5. II. 

331. lin. II, read Jludied, full, ftrong, and dejinitive. 

414. lin. ult, for eighteen, read Jixteen. 

509. lin. 3f. for yefuil, read Friar. 

5-63. lin. 2. for V. read IV. and alter the following Numbers accordingly, 

j-86. lin. 30. for VIII. read VII. 

600. lin.uk. dele that. 



SUMMARY VIEW 



OF THE 



AUTHOR s LIFE 






(xlv) 



SUMMARY VIEW 

O F T H E 

AUTHOR'S LIFE. 



FRANCIS BACON was bom at London, in Tork-houfe 
in ttie Strand ■■, January 22,15 60. His Father was Sir Ni- 
cholas Bacon, a Counfellor of State to Queen Elizabeth, 
and Lord Keeper of the Great Seal of England: and his 
Mother, a Daughter of Sir Anthony Cook, of Giddy-Hall in Effex-, 
who had been Governor to King Edward VI». 

Being thus defcendcd, he was early initiated in a Court Life ; and, 
as himfelf exprefles it ^, both by Family and Education, tinged with 
Civil Affairs ; and biafs'd by Opinions. During his Childhood, he 
was taken notice of at Court for a more than ordinary Capacity ; 
whence the Queen delighted to talk with him; and would often, for 
his Gravity, term him the Tonng Lord-Keeper. 

He was early ^ fcnt to Trinity -College in Cambridge, where he 
(ludied under Dr. Whitgift, afterwards ArchbilTiop of Canterbury. 
His Genius fhew'd itfelf at the Univerfity, by the uncommon Progrefs 
he made in the Arts and Sciences : fo that, what feems almoft incredi- 
ble, he not only underflood Ariftotle'% Philofophy at about the Age 

of 

* Dr. Rjw/fy's Life of the Author, f. i. anJ Dk^ i/a/c's Baronage, f. 457. 

'' S-o the^friff/», publifhed by Gruter ; tie Inttr[retationeiititurA,Vroemmm, in inir. ,, 

*^ He was matriculated, Junexo. An. if/j. 



xivi A Summary View of 

of Sixteen $ but was even then come to a DiQikc thereof, upon find- 
ing it rather contentious than ufeful». 

His Father called him from the Univerfity, at this early Age, 
to attend the Ambaflador, Six J my as Ta'Ji'let, into France; who 
foon after charged him with feme particular Commiflion from 
thence to the Qiiccn : in which Commiflion, he acquitted himfclf 
with great Approbation 5 and returned to France again, in order to 
continue there for fome timct>. 

During his Stay in France his Father died "^, without making any 
fcparate Provifion, as he had intended, for him : fo that being the 
younger Brother of Five, he received no more than a fifth Share of a 
fnaaU pcrfonal Edate ; and therefore ftxuggled with Difficulties, in 
point of Fortune, for fome Part of his Life. 

Upon returning from abroad, he applied himfelf to the Study of the 
Co7mnon Ln-jv-, in the way of a Profefllon ; and for that purpofe 
featcd himfclf in Gray's-Inn--, where he foon became fo eminent, as 
at the age of Twenty-eight, to be chofe by that honourable Society 
for their Lent-Reader ^ ; and afterwards for their double Reader. 

And having always thought himfclf peculiarly indebted to his 
Country; he now bent his Endeavours to obtain ibme honourable 
Poft in the Government ; with a View, as himfelf declares*, to pro- 
cure the greater affiClance to his Capacity and Induftry, in perfefting 
his philofophical Defigns. And being already acquainted with the 
Civil ArtSf he recommended himfelf to fuch Friends, as he knew 
were able to ferve him f. 

But his Advancement in the Queen's Time was flow, and not very 
confidcrablc : for he had Ibme potent Enemies at Court, who did 
their utmort to keep him under g. He was, however, made one of 
the Clerks of the Council ; and fworn of the Council learned, ex- 
traordinary, to her Majcfly : but could not in her Reign obtain the 
Place of Sollicitor-Gencral, for which he earneftly ftrove; even by 
the Interceflion of his noble Patron the Earl of Ejfex h. 

Being now arrived at full maturity, whilft, as himfelf obferves', his 
Thoughts were bent upon Ambition ; an ill State of Health admo- 

niflied 

* See Raiv/fy's Life of the Author, p. f. Seealfo Temfon's Baceniasa, p. lo. 

*■ It lliould icem that during his Continuance abroad he made the Tour of Italy, and vifitcd 
Rome. See I'ol. II. p.ii-T. 
' See Vol. III. p. 231. 

* Dr.Rsa-.'f/sLife ofthe Author, p. j-, 6. and r>«^(/a/f's Baronage, /> 4.57, 438. 

* See the Script» in Vro'em. Je liilerpretatione Nutun. 
'See his Letters, Vol.1. /".+13 4)-p. 

g See Tc/. I. /1.418, 424. 

n See 1^.1.432. 

'■ In Proem, de Interpret . KatHr. 



the AUTHOR'x LIFE. xlvii 

nifhcd him that his Endeavours were unprofpcrous : whence fre- 
quently conllderin;; that he was not performing his Duty, whilft he 
left thole Studies unprolccuted by which he might do fervice to Man- 
kind ; and followed thofc that depended upon the Will of others ; he, 
for a time, broke off all further Thoughts of rifing in Life ; and more 
vigoroufly profecuted the Dcllgn of his Infiauration ^. 

But upon the Death of Qiieen Elizabeth, and the coming in of 
King "/rtw/fj, his former Views rcturn'd ; and he now made great 
Advances in Dignity and Preferment : being firft knighted, then cre- 
ated Baron of Verulam, and laflly Vifcount iS"/. y^/^^WJ". His Places 
were, Council learned extraordinary to the King, as he had before 
been to the Queen ; SoUicitor-Gencral ; Attorney-General ; Counfel- 
lor of State; Lord Keeper of the Great Seal ; and Lord High Chan- 
cellor of England. 

He was knighted by the King in perfon at Whitehall, in the Year 
1603 i he was fworn Sollicitor-General in 1607; made Attorney- 
General in 161 3 ; appointed Lord Keeper, and chofe of the Privy- 
Council in 1 7 1 6 ; made Lord High Chancellor in 1 6 1 8 ; created Ba- 
ron of ^£T«//2?;; the fame Year ; and Vifcount St. Albans \\\ 1620. 

Towards the beginning of thefe Promotions he married a Daugh- 
ter of Benedi^ Barnham, Alderman of London ; but died without 
lillie. 

He did not obtain his Pofts of Honour and Preferment without la- 
bour : they were generally the effecl of his own Schemes, contrived 
and executed with great Application and Addrefs k 

His Behaviour in the feveral Pofts he palled through, was fuch, as (not- 
withftanding the Efforts of fome powerful Enemies) procured him 
an almoft univerlal Efteem for Learning, Parts, and Probity ; till 
at length he was accufed of Bribery and Corruption in the Execution 
of his higheft Office, that of Lord Chancellor. 

Inftead of defending himfelf againft this Accufation, he made a 
full and ingenuous Confellion ^ to the Houfe of Peers i who, upon 
the 3d of Alay, 1 62 1 , gave judgment againft him ; " That he fhould 
" be fined 40,000 /. and remain Prilbner in the Tower during the 
" King's Pleafure 5 that he fhould for ever be incapable of any Office, 
" Place, or Employment, in the State or Commonwealth ; and that 
" he Ihould never fit in Parliament, or come within the Verge of the 
" Court." After 

* See the Place laft cited. 

'' See his Letters, Seel. I. pajjlm. Vol. I. p. 415, fj-f. 

' See Vol. I. This ConfefTion has been conftrued a Weaknefs by fome, who did not refled, 
that it is noble in an Offender to confefs; and that generous Minds are the apteft to accute 
themfdvcs. 



xlviii ^ Summary View of 

Afrcr this, he retired from Civil Aflfairs, and for five Years gave 
himfclf wholly up to Philofophy and Writing ; fo that, during this 
Time, he executed fcvcral Portions of his grand hift duration : but did 
not live to finifh the whole, fo far as he had hoped to do. 

He died y^prjl 9, 1626. at the Earl of Arundel's Houfe at High- 
gate, of a Fever, attended with a Dcfluxion upon his Breaft. 

He lies buried in St. Michael's Church at St. Albans ; a Monu- 
ment being there ereded for him, (with his full Portrait, in the pofture 
of (Uidying;) by Sir Thomas Meautys, once his Secretary, and after- 
wards Clerk of the Council ; with a Latin Infcription, by Sir Henry 
Wotton, to this effed. 

Francis Bacon, Baron of NtxvXzm, and Fifcount St. Alhans i 

or, in tnore eminent Titles^ 

The Light dfthe Sciences, and the La'-^ of Eloquence., 

fate thus : 
IFho, when he had explained all the Secrets of civil and natural 
Knoivledge, fulfilled that T>ecree of Nature -, let Compounds 
be Separated; in the Tear of our Lord 1626. 

Aged 66. 

This Monument 'was erected, to the Memory of fo great a Man., 

^j' Thomas Meautys j ijuho revered htm. when alive, 

and admires him now dead. 

To give a full Charafter of the Lord Bacon, requires a more than 
ordinary Skill ; the following are but fome faint Touches. 

The Faculties of his Mind were grcar, and happily united : for his 
Imagination, Memory, and Rcafon were all extraordinary. He knew 
v.Miat was in Books ; but had a Knowledge fupcriorto them. He was 
indefatigable in Study, and found himfelf better turned for that, 
than for any thing elfe -, as having a Mind quick and ready to perceive 
the Correfpondencics of things 5 fix'd and intent to difcover their ni- 
cer Differences ; and this joined with a Love of Enquiry ; a Patience 
of Doubting ; a Pleafure in Contemplation ; a Backwardnefs in Af- 
ferting ; a Rcadincfs in acknowledging an Error ; and a fcrupulous 
Exaftnefs in Difpofing and Methodizing: at the fame time neither 
affcding Novelty, nor adoring Antiquity; but hating all kinds of 
hnpofture and Delufion ^. 

To conHdcr him in his Philofophical Capacity, Hifloryfcarce affords 
us a fit Philofopher wherewith to compare him, T*lato and Arijiotle 

were 

* 5!:e Tntm. Je lottrpret. Sat, See alfo Fu/. II. /. 531 — 33/% 

1 



the AUTHOR'^ LIFE. xli 



IX 



Were Men of a different Cart : they paid not fo great a regard to Truth 
and Utihty ; nor inltruiled Mankind fo juftly 5 nor open'd the hid- 
den Veins of Science lb fuccelsfully ; nor taught the Art of philo- 
Ibphical Invention, lb happily as the "LoxA Bacon. 

He excelled no lelsni particular Sciences than in general Philofo- 
phy. The Law was his Profeflion ; whereof he was fo great a 
Mafter, as to ftand in competition with the celebrated Lord Coke : 
tho' Ibme good Judges arc of opinion, that the Comparilbn does too 
much honour to the latter ^. 

He was a great Mailer in all matters relating to the State ^j and 
as acceptable in the Houfe of Commons, as in the Council <^. 

His Failings were chiefly of the moral or oeconomical kind ; and 
feem owing to an Excefs of certain Virtuesi -viz. Gcncrofiiy bor- 
dering upon Profufcnels, and Good- nature approaching to Facility. 
For in his Ports of Profit, he laid up nothing , but was over-indul- 
gent to his Servants ; and luffcr'd them to make their own Advan- 
tages. And from no fouler an Origin feems to have proceeded the 
Bribery and Corruption of which he was guilty '^ : The Gifts he took 
being commonly by the Hands of his Servants, for interlocutory Or- 
ders ^ whilft all his Decrees were fo equitable, that not one of them 
was ever reverfcd as unjuft*. More might be faid to extenuate his 
Crime ; if a Crime of fuch a nature could be extenuated : The Cor- 
ruption of the Times ; the Inveteracy of his Enemies •-, and the King's 
withdrawing of his Favour, all confpircd to make him a Sacrifice f. 

Some have thought that he was reduced to extreme Poverty, and 
fhew'd an abjed Spirit, after his Fall 5 particularly in the fupplicating 
Letters he wrote to the King : but let his whole Behaviour, his Pen- 
fions, his Eftate, and thofe Letters be well confider'd ; and the Cafe 
will appear much otherwife S. Tis certain, that he had his Errors 
and his Frailties i and without them would have appcar'd more than 
human : but to take him as he was; we mufl: acknowledge him one 
of the Q;reateft Men that the World has known. 



0' 



* See Mr. Locker's Charafter of the LordBxcon ; in Mr. BUckbourns Edition Vo! I p. 178. 
*" See his Speeches, Letters, (^c. See alio Qsbom's Advice to a Son, fuge :jo. 

•■ See Ra-wley's Life, p. 12. and Vol. I. f. 

■^ Sec Rufliworth'% CoUeflions, Vol.L and Tenifon's Baconiana, p.ij'4. 

• See Baconiana. p. i^'f. 

f SeeBuflieii Extraft, f. 19. and Tenlfon'i Baconiana, p. 16. 

t See Tenifon's Baconiana, pag. if+j ij-j-. See alfo Rarpley's Life, pag.6, 7. 



VoL.L 



(li) 



' A S MALL 



GLOSSARY, 

OR 

EXPLANATION, 

O F 

Certain PHILOSOPHICAL TERMS, either 
Invented, or Ufed in a New Senle, by the Author. 



Abstraction. 

THIS Word the Author frequently ules, to e.xprels the man- abstrac- 
net oi forming Notions ; that is, not fimple Ideas, or Senfa-'^,'"'^' "/^"^ 
tions, which require no Aftion or Operation of the Mind'"""' 
befides bare Perception 5 but the Manner of deducing, taking, or 
abftra£iing juft Notions from Things, after a due confideration of all 
the Particulars that (hould go to conftitute fuch Notions. 

Thus Notions haftily abJiraHed from Things are faulty, flight, No/ww^^^'y 
fuperficial and imperfedt Notions, derived from confidering only a"'^'"*^^^ ' 
few obvious Particulars ; as the common Notion oiMoiJlure is hiftily 
abftracled or taken from confidering only Water : whereas fuch a 
'Thilofophical Notion of Moifturc fhould be formed, and introduced, 

f 2 as 



lli 



Thi du( Ah- 

TirnSion if 
Nolle»! . 



' Adventi- 
tious, Cta- 
tlitions. 



Ahticipa- 

XION, 



Aphorisms, 
a KinJ cf 
Writing. 



A Glossary, or Explanation, 

as might agree with all Injlances •■, viz. to Quickfilvcr, which is 
moift in refpecl of Gold 5 10 Oil, which ismoill, in refped of Lea- 
ther i &c. 

The due Abjlr action, therefore, or Formation of Notions, is a 
particular Operation, or Work, of the Underftanding; that requires 
the ufc oi Indiicfion, in the Author's Scnfc thereof; which fee, un- 
der the Word lndu6lion. And in this Operation of the Mind, the 
Perfedion of Thought, Language, and all Philofophy principally 
confifts. 

Adventitious. 

By Adventitious, or Tranfcendental Conditions of Thmgs^ the 
Author underftands the Ejcilicncc of Things in a determinate, or cer- 
tain Quantity, under certain invariable Differences ; or, to cxprefs it 
otherwife, the Laws, or neceflary Caufcs in Nature, whereby fome 
Things exift, and others do not ; why there are fuch large Quantities 
of fome Things, and lefs of others; why ibme Things are poflible, 
others impoffible; and the like. Thus to enquire into the phyfical, 
(not final) Caufes, why there is more Iron than Gold in the Worlds 
more Marble than Diamond ; why it is impodible for Men to prei'erve 
their own Bodies in a found State for ever ; and the like ; is enquiring 
intothe Adventitious, or Tranfcendental Conditions of Things 3 and a 
negleded part of Trimary Thilofophy : which fee. 

Anticipation. 

By Anticipation, the Author, in a particular Senfe, underflands 
the common Method of Reafoning, and judging of Things with a 
kindof naturallmpaticnce. Precipitancy, blind Fury, andhead-ftrong 
Appetite ; without a due regard to the real Merits of theCafe ; or with- 
out a proper Regulation and Government of the Mind, by the ufe of 
his new iVlachinc, orLogick. So that the Method of Anticipation is 
diredly oppofite to his Method of Indudion, or Interpretation of 
Nature; which fee. 

Aphorisms. 

The Author takes Aphorifms inafomewhat ftrider fenfe than the 
common ; and means by them, not loofe and fcatter'd Obfervations 
thrown together in a Heap -, but matter of well-weigh'd Obfervation 
and Experience, thoroughly digcfted in the Mind, and afterwards 
clearly and methodically fet down in Writing; with a fleady View 
to fome ufeful End : without admitting any foreign Ornament, 
Superfluity, or Exaggeration ; but keeping clofe to the Truth of Na- 
ture, and Reality. Af^ 



<?/' Philosophical Terms. I'm 

Approximations. 
By Approximations the Author underftands fiich Particulars as ap- Approxima- 
proach, or, in Ibme degree, come u^to Optatives, or the 'Defiiie-^^^^^' 
rata in Arts and Sciences : fo as, when thofe Optatives, or Defidc- 
rata, arc, for the prcfcnt, impofllble to be obtained ; \vc may ftill have 
Ibmething of the fame kind, witliin our power, tho' of an inferior 
degree. Sec Optatives. 

Art of Inventing. 

By the Art of Inventing Arts is meant rheUfc of a well-regula- ^rt gf In- 
ted and '^>:.xicQi.hidu6iion, applied toPhyflcks; being an Art, or ^8x7^^«^ fi« 
actual 'Dernonjlration, as juftly fuited to this purpolc, as Algebra mArtofzn^ui- 
Mathematicks : and may difcover Arts with as much Certainty, ^^"^Jr Direaun' 
that can form Equations. See Inclusion, Interpretation of Na- 
ture, zn^ Inv eft igat ion of Forms. See aUb InduCfive Hiftory, and 
Learned Experience. 

Assemblages, 
V>y greater Affemblages, or Colleges, of Alatter zrc\x'c\.d.ziciiood the Assemblages 
four Elements, as they are commonly called ; viz. Fire, Air, Wa- "-' *^''""'* 
ter, and Earth : and by the [mailer AJfemblages, all the otlier natu- 
ral Bodies ; as Animals ; Plants and Follils. 

Attraction. See Sympathy. 

Axioms. 
By Axioms the Author does not mean Mathematical Axioms, or Axioms, h-» 
felf-evident Propofitions ; but a very different Thing : viz. folid-^'"''""'' 
Portions of Trutii, duly railed from Enquiries conducted in the in- 
duftive Method ; or drawn, as rich Corollaries, from particular Hifto- 
ries of Nature and Art; fo as to be pregnant with the Matter of a 
juft Theory, and fure Diredions for Praftice. And thefe Axioms can 
be no otherwife formed, than by a careful and accurate Induction. In 
other Words, a perfeft Axiom is a fummary Expreflion of the Form, 
Laiv^ Nature, or Effence of a Thing difcover'd after a due Exclu- 
fion and Rcjcftion of every Nature, or Property, that is not cflential ; 
fo that \\\tT)ifcovery of Forms., and the raifing oi perfe& Axioms 
ate reciprocal, or one and the fame thing. Sec Forms. But bcfides 
ihcic perfefi Axioms, there are others of an inferior Nature, tending 
lo raife up tiie more perfect by degrees. 

z Canons. 



\iv 



A Glossary, or Explanation^ 



Canons. 



Civil Hi- 

STOBV. 



Confuta- 
tion, of De- 
titonftrations, 
Fhibfiphiei, 
and the N<t- 
turai Reafin 



COSMICAL, 

Motions and 
^mlities. 



Canons. 
Canons, in the Author's particular Senfe of the Word, arc the 
fame as Axioms ; unlefs we except that they more particularly regard 
Praftice ; as Jxioms^ if we make the difference, regard Theory, 
The Word Canons is aUb fometimes ufcd for ufeful Obfetvations of a 
general nature, or lar^e extent. 

Civil Histortt. 

By Civil Hiftory is meant an Account of the Works and Ads of 

Men -, as Natural Hiftory is an Account of the Works and Afts of 

Nature. ■ 

Confutation. 

This Word is ufed, not fo much in a new Senfe, as applied in a 

new Manner, or to a new Purpofe ; viz. the Confutation of 'De- 

monflratians -, the Confutation ofThilofophies ; and the Confutation 

of the natural Reafon j which may ieem harih and ftrange Expref- 

fions : but, as Sophifms are confuted in the vulgar Logic ; lb the 

Author confutes the vulgar Demonftrations, the vulgar Philofophies, 

and the common method of RealbninL', by fhewing them all to be 

unfit for promoting the Sciences j which requires the ufe of perfeft 

Induiiion. 

COSMICAL. 

Cofmical Motions, and Cofmical §lualities, are thofe Motions and 
Qualities which Things have, as they are Parts of the Univerfe, or 
general Syftem of Nature ; and would not have the fame, if they 
were not Parts of one great Whole. 



Elections, 
in Apology. 



Elections. 

By Elections, with regard to a found and ferviceabie Aftrology, is 
meant the choice of proper Times, or Seafons, for performuig certain 
Actions or Operations ^ fo as to procure the afliftance of the Ce- 
kftial Influeiices, when thefe may be ferviceabie. EleBions, thcre- 
forcj are one principal Ufe of Aftrology, and Tredi£ltons another. 



EXCLUS ION. 

Exclusion, By the Method ofjE.vr//</?tf«, or i?f'/>^/o«, is meant the throwing 

««^/KfjeiSiM- out of an Enquiry all the Subjcds that have not the Nature fought 5 

and belongs particularly to genuine lndu£iion, or the Art o^ Invefti-- 

gating Forms j where it conftantly makes a Tai?le by itlelf, called 

I che 



tf/" P H I L O S P H I C A L T E R M S. Iv 

the Table of 'Declination, AO fence in Approach, Exclujion, or Re- 
jedion. 

The Exprcllion has alio a lower, or more obvious Signification, 
denoting the rcfutal, or non-admittance, of dubious and uncertain 
Particulars, or Matters of llight Obfcrvation and Experience, into an 
Enquiry, or any particular Hiftory of Nature or Art ; asaUb the weed- 
ing of fuch Hiftorics, and throwing out fuch Particulars. 

For MS. 

By Forms, the Author underftands thofe real Appetites, 'Po'wers,^oRm firir$- 
Motions, or a^ive La'ivs of Nature, by 'in'hich all Things exifl, and^'^^^'*^' 
have their Effe£is. And to the Difcovery of thcfe Laws, his prin- 
cipal Endeavours arc dircfted ; as to a Thing that alone will conftitute 
a juft and univerfal Theory, and dired to an extenfive Pradice. So that 
his /«j'?<zar<«?w/, or Scheme for rebuilding Arts and Sciences, and bring- 
ing them to their Pcrfeftion, depends upon the "Difcovery of Forms ; 
or the finding of Natures convertible with any Natures alligned, 
that fhall limit, and reftrain, and conftitute the former. Thus by dif- 
Govering the Form of Gold, we fhould learn what conftitutes that 
Metal, or gives it the fpecific Differences which diftinguifh it from 
all other Things ; and, at the fame time, obtain a Rule for intro- 
ducing that Form, or the Nature of Gold, into Silver, or any other 
Body fufceptible thereof. But thcfe Forms are not yet difcover'd j 
and can be inveftigated no other way than by the Vic and Applica- 
tion of the Art of Indu£iion ; which, itfelf is not hitherto extant in 
all its Parrs. See InduBion. 

Befidcs this eminent Senfe of the Word, it is alfo ufed, in aF*r»»/ 
more common Acceptation, for the Figure, Shape, Fafhion, or Man- 
ner of Things. 

Generations. 

Generations are the ordinary Produdions of Nature, as diftin-GEM^"*- 
guifhed from the extraordinary, or monftrousi which the Author "°^'' 
calls Tret erzener at ions. 

Georgicks. 
This Exprcflron of Georgicks is transferr'd from Agriculture intoGEORcicKs,^ 
Ethicks; fo as to denote the Art of cultivating, or improving the'^^"'*'^""'" 
Mind in Moral Virtue. 

His TORY. 

By pure Hiflory, the Author means a Colledion, or faithful andHisromr. 

exaft Dcfcription of the Works, Fadts, or Appearances of Nature, 

without meddling with their Caufes 5 which is a Province that belongs 

to the Interpreter of Nature. Nar~ 



com- 
mon. 



Ivi ^ G L O S S A R Y j (Jr E X P L A N A T I O N, 

mrrathe Narrative Hiflory is diftinguiflied from InduEiive Hijlory ; the 

^'>7- former containing Dcfcriptions, or relating the Fads and Works of 

Nature, with no view to the founding a jufl: Philofophy ; which is 

the Dcfign of Indu^ive Hijiory. See Indu£iive and Natural Hi' 

Jlory. 

Idols, 

Idcls, of the By Idols of the Mind are denoted the various kinds of falfe Repre- 

fentations, Imaginations, Figments, and wrong Notions, which Men 

receive from Education, Party, particular Studies, &c. fo as to diftin- 

guifh thefe from true Notions, which are duly abftraded, and reprc- 



Mind. 



Induction. 



Inductive 
History. 



Inductive 
Method. 



Instances. 



fent Things as they are. 



Sec AbJiroEiion-. 



Induction. 

This Word is ufed, not in the common, but a much more noble 
Senfe, by the Author, to fignify an Art^ of which he was the In- 
ventor. This Art has a great rcfemblance with Algebra ; and is to 
the Invcftigation of Forms, what that is with regard to the forming 
of Equations. It confifts of fevcral Parts, and is extremely well 
fuitcd to natural Enquiries, and the Difcovery of new Arts, and 
Works : fo that it may well be called a Thilofophical Algebra, or 
the Art of Inventing Arts; a confiderable Branch whereof, is deli- 
ver'd in the Author's Piece called Novum Organum. See Art of In- 
venting Arts. 

Inductive History. 

InduEiive, Trimary^ or Mother-Hijlory, is a Natural and Expe- 
rimental Hiftory, colle'ded, not in the ordinary way of Natural Hifto- 
rics, for Amufement, Delight, or the fake of the dired Matters 
thcmfelves ; but with a View to the building up a folid and ferviceable 
Philofophy. InduBive Hifiory, therefore, was a Thing entirely- 
wanting, till the Author fet fomc Examples of it in his Hiftory of 
Winds^ Life and T>eath, &c. wherein he ufes his own Art of In- 
duifion. See InduBion. 

Inductive Method. 
InduEiive Method., is the Method laid down by the ^rrf^/Jwd^Wf- 
tion. Sec InduBion^ and Forms. 

Instances. 

By Infiances, the Author underftands Particulars, Fads, Obferva- 
tions. Experiments, Natural Bodies, Inftruments, or any thing fitted 
to afford Light and Information in Enquiries. But as it were cndlcfs 

to 



of Philosophical Terms. Ivii 

to purfue the Infinity of Things in particular Enquiries, the Author, 
under the Doctrine of Inllanccs, has fhcwa which are 'prerogative •-.^^""Z'"''^* 
that is, which areoffuch a nature .is that a few of them may do the ^"-'^'""^''" 
Office of many ; and thus greatly fhorrcn the Bufinefs of Enquiry. 

Instauration. 

The hijlaurat'ion is the Author's general Scheme or Plan, which Tnstaura-.J 
he Uys down for the improvement of Knowledge. This Scheme '^'"^" 
confifts of fix Parts i viz. (i.) A Survey of the prcfcnt Stock 
of Knowledge; with an account of its Deficiencies, and the ways 
of fupplying them. (2 ) A new Art of Indudion, Philofophical 
Algchra, Machine, or particular Logick, for dilcovcring Arts, and 
interpreting Nature. (5.) The Materials for InduQive Hiftor}'. (4.) 
The Induclive Hiftory itkif. (5.) The beft Philofophy that the Au- 
thor could raife without the afllftance oi Induction. And (6.) a 
genuine and found Philofophy raifcd by the Art of Indtidion. 

Interpretation. 

What the Author properly means by the Interpretation of Nature, i.sTERPRtrA- 
is the Exercifc of the laft Part of his Art of InduBion ■■> when the In^ ■^'O'* ofKa- 
terpreter having all his Tallies, and the requifitc Materials and Helps^'^^J . ^^^^^^ 
before him, examines what is the Refult of any particular Enquiry ^K-uHre. 
fo as at length to difcover the Form of the Nature fought; find the 
Caufes of Effects ; and draw out the Axioms that dired new Expe- 
riments and Works. It is therefore the Bufinefs of the Natural or 
rather InduEiive Hifiorian, to colledl the Matter or Inflances of 
an Enquiry ; range them into regular Tables, &c. and the Bufinefs 
of the Interpreter of Nature to examine and compare the whole, 
with a View to the Inveftigation of Forms, the Difcovcry oiCaiifes^ 
and the raifing of Axioms. 

But bcfides this limited Scnfe of the Term Interpretation of Na- 
ture, it has another, more general, and denotes the fober, artificial, 
juft and regular Procedure of the Mind in the Difcovcry of Truth, 
according to the patient and laborious Method oi Induction : in 
which light it is oppofcd to the vulgar Method of Anticipation ; 
which, when foberly confidcr'd, appears a kind of frantick, dcform'd 
and unruly Thing. 

Learned Experience. 

By Learned Experience the Author underftands the Art of Expe- Learned Ex- 
rimenting, or the proper Method of making and conducting Expc- 

VoL. i. g riments 



Literary 
HisTORif. 



Machike/Iw 
thi Mind. 



Magick. 



Ivlii ^ Glossary, or Explanation, 

rimenrs, fo as that they (hall afford Light, or lead to fome certain 
Difcoveries; and not remain cafual, fluftuating Things, tried in the 
way of Amufcnient, or fiuitlefs Curiofity. 

Literary History. 

By Literary Hiflorj is meant the Hiftory of Matters any way re- 
lating to Learning, tliro' all the Ages and over all the Countries of 
the World. 

Machine. 

What this is, fee explained under the Term Novum Organum. 

Magick. 

The Word Magick is ufed by the Author in its ancient honoura- 
ble Senfe ; or rather in one ftill more fublime and noble, for that prac- 
tical Dodrine, or Science, which, iYOxnzT>ifcovery of Forms, may 
produce very great Works and Effcdts, in the way of over-ruling, or 
commanding the general Laws of Nature. But as Forms are not hi- 
therto difcovcred. Natural Magick., which depends thereon, has at 
prefent no place among the Sciences. Otherwife, as Mechanicks is 
to Phyficks, fo is Magick to Metaphyficks, or the Difcovery of Forms. 

The 'Perfian Magick is a lublime kind of Wifdom, or Science, 
depending upon the Difcovery of the natural Relations betwixt the 
Parts of the Univcrfe ; and more particularly as applied to find out 
what Relations and Conformities Civil States, or the Art of Govern- 
ment, {hould bear to the Regulation and Government of the World. 

Mathematicks. 
Mathematicks, in the ftrid Senfe, is that part of Metaphyjieks 
(in the Author's acceptation) which confiders Quantity ; but is more 
advantagcoufly made an Appendage, or auxiliary Branch of Science, 
fubfervient to Thyjicks, Metaphyjieks ^ Mechanicks, and Magick. 

Mechanicks. 
Mechanickj. Mechanicks is of two kinds, empirical and rational. By empiri- 
cal Mechanicks ihc K\xx\\ox undcrftands that general Method of ope- 
rating in Arts, which has no Dcpendance upon T^hyjicks ; and pro- 
ceeds without any Knowledge of Caufcs. And by rational Mecha- 
nicks heunderftands that Method of operating, which is accompanied 
with a Knowledge of phyfical Caufes. 



terfim Ma- 
gick. 



Mathema- 
ticks. 



M E T A- 



of Philosophical Terms. lix 

Metaphystcks. 
This Word is afcd in a particular Scnfe by the Author, to denote ^"aphv- 
that contemplative Part of Natural Philofophy, which difcovcrs^"^'"'" 
Forms, ttnA final Can fes ; fo as tofhortcnthc Way to Knowledge; 
fct rhe hunran Power at liberty j and find out the true ultimate Caufcs 
of Things. See "Thjficks. 

Natural History. 
By Natural Hijlory the Author underftands a Dcfcription of Ge- Natural 
ncrations, Prxtergencrations, and Arts ; or ail the Produftions of ^'"°''^" 
Nature, as well the ordinary as extraordinary and monftrous; and 
alio of Experience, or human Arts, and Inventions. Sec Hijlory. 

Natural Theology. SizT)2vineThilofoph^ynn(^txThilofophy. 

Natures. 

The Author makes frequent uie of the word Nature ov Natures, Natvrh. 
to exprcfs what we often mean by Properties ; but the Term is ftill 
of greater extent, and more generally ufcful. Thus (i.) Natures 
are the fame as Things ; [z ) the Nature enquired i?ito, is the Sub- nattirt m- 
jcA fought, or the Objeft of Enquiry ; but (3.) to introduce a i"'''^'' '"'<'• 
given Nature, is to introduce the Forniy or eJJ'ential 'PropcrtieSy ofcivtn n<i- 
onc thing into another i fo as to convert the one into the other. '«'■?■ 
And (4.) Nature united, ov /uramed u/>, is the Difcovery of the ge-A'^«/«'-e 
neral Law, Uniformity, or Unity of Adion, employ 'd by Nature,""'"'^' 
or rather, the Author of Nature, in the production of all natural 
Works and Effeds. 

Novum Organum. 

Novum Organum is not only the Title of that Piece wherein the Novum Or- 
Autlior dcfcribcs \{\s New Logick, Art of InduElion, Thilofophical^^^'^^'^' 
Algebra, or new Machine for working with the Underftanding upon, 
all Subjects, to the grcatcft Advantage 5 but alfo denotes the Art itlelf, 
whereby, as by an Engine or artificial Help for the Alind^ Men 
may perform incomparably more than by their own natural Powers; 
and ordinary Capacities be thus enabled to profecute Enquiries, and 
promote general Knowledge, as effcdnally as Men of Genius : the Me- 
thod of working witli thjs Help being like the Method of working 
with /Algebra; or rather with a general Engine, or Inftrument, pro- 
portion'd to the Strength, and fitted to the Ufe of all Men. 

g 2 Opt A- 



Ix y^ Glossary, «>r Explanation, 

Optatives. 
Optativls. By Optatives the Author underftands 'Dejiderata, or fuch Particu- 
lars as might be wifhed for, in order to the Accommodation of Life, 
and the Enlargement of Arts ; as for Example, Power over the Wea- 
ther i the Longitude at Sea ; new mechanical Motions, &c. 

Perception. 

Perception. "Qy Terccption, applied to inanimate Bodics, weareto underftand 
the fame PalHon, or Suffering, as happens in animate Bodies; except- 
ing only the DifFercnce that depends upon the Spirit in Animals, or 
a want of the Senfes. 

Philosophy. 
Philosophy By 'philofophy in general, the Author underftands all Know- 
ingtnerai. j^^jg^,^ except Revclation, or infpired Theology ; i'o that Arts and 

Sciences are but other Words for Thtlofophy. 
vrim«ryvhi- Trmary Thilofophy, in the general Senfc, denotes a kind of 
hfofhy. common Science, or Colledion of neutral Axioms, belonging in- 
differently to all the Sciences ; together with the Doftrine of Ad- 
ventitious or Tranfcendental Conditions. See Adventitious Con- 
ditions. 
fJ'Y"^ Pfci- By Natural Thilofophy the Author underftands Philofophy ap- 
"'"''"''' plied to the Things of Nature (as diflinguiOied from the Dodrine 
of the Deity, and the Dodrine of Man) fo as to difcover Caufes, 
and produce Effeds. See Thyficks and Metaphyjicks. 
nivinevhi. '\Divine ThUofophf, ox Natural Theology, is a Science formed 
ujc^hy. jj^ jj^g Mind of Man, by means of the Light of Nature, and the 
Contemplation ofthe Works of God, and tends to confute Atheifm, 
anddctermine the Laws of Nature ; but not toeftablifh any Religion. 
phiiofophi» 'Philofophia Trima, has the fame fignification with Primary Phi- 
frtm». lofophy ; but in a more particular Senfe, denotes the Author's in- 
tended imperfe^ Thilofophy, to be raifed in the befl manner pofllblc, 
without the Afliftanceof the y^r/ <?/'7W//^/<?W5 as \\'\^ T^hilofophia 
Secunda was to have been a pure and pcrfcft axiomatical or univerfal 
Philofophy, tziCcd by the Art of Indu^/on. 

P HYS I CKS. 

Phyucks, »■« By Thyjicks the Author undcrflands that contemplative Part of 

generd. Natural TkUofophy ^ which difcovers the efficient Caulcs, and the 

Compoiition, Matter, and Structure of Things } z.%Mi.taphyfuksA\^. 

cover 



<?/* Philosophical Terms. Ixi 

cover their Forms and Ends. Thyjicks therefore, and Metaphyjicks^ 
arc the two contemplative, or theoretical Parts of Natural Philofophy ; 
to which anfwer the twopraftical ones of Mechanicks znd Alagick. 

By Thyjicks of Creatures, or Concrete Thyficks, we are to under- ^hl^^'" «f 
ftand that ?^n oi Thyjicks, which exhibits the Varieties and Icflcr^*'"^"" 
Aflcmblages, or CoUeftions of Things, purfued in the Concretes or 
Bodies thcmlelves. And this Part borders upon Natural Hiftory. 

Thyficks of Natures, or abftra£iThyfickSy is the fame Part pm- T/^fiksef 
fued, not in Concretes, or Individuals, but in their Accidents or^"""'"- 
Qualities ; fo as to approach the Nature of Metaphyficks. 

Pneumatical Bodies. 
By ^Pneumatical Bodies the Author means fuch as make no fcn-PNEOMATi- 
fibic Refiftancc to the Touch, or are not perceived, or found ponde-'^'*'" Bodies. 
rous upon the Balance in the open Air. 

Prater GENERATIONS. Pn^TE^c.- 

For the Meaning of this u ord, lee Generations. nerations. 

Primary History. See Indu£iive Hiflory. 
Primary Philosophy. Sec Thilofophy. 

Professor ial. 

By Trofefforial Learning, and Trofjforial Arts and Sciences, the Profisso- 
Author undcrftands the Arts and Sciences, as taught in the common!""^'- f^"'''»- 
Schools, and Univerfities; where he judges the Arts are not much^ff^/^'J/""' 
improved, but only retailed out in a lophiftical manner, or drefTed, 
adorned, and fafhioned into Syftems, that are apt to deceive by their 
beautiful Appearance. 

Promptuary. 

By 'Promptuary Method is meant the procuring a Fund of Matter Promptuar» 
for Difcourfe, by laying up, for ufe, Arguments ready compofed, with ^'^^"*"*' 
regard to fuch Subjeds as frequently occur. 

Reason. 

By Reafon the Author frequently underflands the raHi, andimpru-REAson. 
dent, ufe of the rational Faculty, in philofophical Subjcds, foaspre- 
fently to come at fome erroneous Conclufion, and proceed upon it 
as if it were true; without inuring this Faculty to the fame laborious 

Search, 



Ixii A Glossary, or Exp lan at io n, 

Search, SufpenfioxTj tnd Scrupuloufiiefs in Philofophy, asisprac- 
tilcd ill Matliematical Demonftrations. See Confutation. 

Reduction. 
.Reduction. By ReduEiion the Author undciftands a proper Contrivance, or 
artificial Means, for bringing thofe Things under the Judgment of 
the Scnfes which naturally cfcape them : or Means of ftrengthening, 
afiifting, and improving the Scnfes ; as by Telefcopcs, Microfcopes, 
Speaking-Trumpcts, Ear-Trumpets, &c. 

Rejection. See Exclujion. 



ScalaIntel 

L-ECTUS. 



Spirit. 



5llBSTlfrU- 
TION. 



Sylva Syl- 

VAROM. 



SCALA InTELLECTUS. 

By Scala IntelhUus the Author underftands the proper Applica- 
tion of the Art of Indu^ion., to the more interefting and important 
Subjeds of Philofophy 5 fo as duly to profecute a Set of capital En- 
quiries, that fhall lead, by degrees, to the moft fublime, noble, and 
general Axioms, pregnant with Dodrinc and Direclions for forming 
a juft Theory of Nature, and the pcrfcding of Arts. 

Spirit. 
By the Spirit in Bodies the Author means a more fubtifc and rati- 
fied Matter, of the fame Nature with the Bodies themfclves, refiding 
in all their tangible Parts, multiplying itfelf, or, as it were, feeding 
upon them 5 but, unlefs hindred, continually flying off into the Air 5 
fo as in time to wafte, exhauft, and confunie the Bodies. 

Substitution. 
By Subjiitution^z are tounderftand the Means of fubftituting, or 
ufing, one Obje£l for another, where the Scnfes fail us 5 and where In- 
ftruments for helping, or improving the Senfcs, are of no fervice. Thus, 
tho' we cannot diredlly examine Flame, we may fomctimes advan- 
tageoufly fubftitute its Pabulum, or the Matter whereof it conllfts ; 
viz. Oil, or Spirit of Wine i id'C. 

Sylva Sylvarum. 
By Sylva Sylvarum, is underftood, as its Name implies, a Wood 
of Experiments and Obicrvations ; or a Collection of Maccrials, 
ready procured, and laid up for forming particular Hiftories of Nature 
and Alt, in the Author's indudi\'e manner. 

Sym« 



<?/* Philosophical Terms. Ixiii 

S r M p A T H r. 
By Sympathy y Confent, Attra^fion, Sxlq. we are to undcrftand, Sympathy. 
not any imaginary Powers 5 but real Appetites, or Laws of Motion, 
or Nature, found in certain Things, whereby they have a Tendency 
towards, or operate upon, one another at a diftance. 

Tables, 

By Tables we are to undcrftand Sets of Papers, containing each Tables. 
its icparate Matter, or particular /»y?/7;/f(fj, Experiments, Obferva- 
tions, &c. for filling up the Heads of any Enquiry i and working upon 
any Subjctfl:, in the Method of Induftion ; fo as no way to trufl: or 
burthen the Memory, or confound the Underftanding ; but proceed 
as in Algebraical Operations ; or as with a certain Machine, or well- 
adapted mechanical Contrivance for the purpofe. Sec the Article 
Novum Organum. 

Topical Invention.' 

By Topical Invention we are to undcrftand a new Method, de--j.(jp,j,^j^j^.. 
pending upon a Mixture of Logic and Philofophy, of fetting downvENTioj<. 
the principal Heads, or leading Particulars, of .in Enquiry ; fo as that 
the who'e may be profecuted to the beft Advantage ; both with regard 
to the Operation of the Mind, and the Difcovery of the Thing 
fought. 

Traditive. 

By Traditive Tio&rine, we are to undcrftand all the Arts re-TRADixivF. 
lating to Words and Difcourfe ; as Grammar, Hieroglyphicks, VVri- Doctrine. 
ting, Cypher, &c. 

By Traditive Lamp, the Author denotes a new Method of Teach- Traditive 
ing ; or a fcientifical, initiative, leading, and improveable manner ''*"''■ 
of dehvering down the Sciences to Pofterity ; inftead of the Dodrinal 
or Dogmatical Method in ufc. 

By Traditive 'Prudence, the Author underftands the Dodlrine ofxRAo.TivF 
Method in Speech. Prodence 



Transcendental. See Adventitious Conditions. 

Union and Unity of Nature. See Nature. 

Works. 
By Works the Author underftands conftdcrable A<fts of the Human Wobks. 
Power, or Maftcrics over Nature j foasby foiid, and rational Means, 

to 



Ixiv /f Glossary, ^c, 

to fubduc and bend her to the more ufeful Purpofes; as u\ lengthen- 
ing the common Period of Life ; making the Wind do the Office 
of animal Strength; governing the Weather: with all other Things 
of the like ufeful kind, in refped to the Accommodation of Life. 



N.B. The Defign of this Glojfary is iiot to give cxacl Definitions of 
the Author's Philofophical Terms, but only fome general No- 
tions of them ; to prevent any Mifconftruftion, and facilitate 
the underftanding of his Works. In which View, it might 
not be amifs foi- thofe unacquainted with the Author, to 
go over the Glojjary once or tw4ce, before the whole Work 
is begun to be read : For as he had different Views, with re- 
gard to the Improvement of Philolbphy, from any of his Prcde- 
ccfTors i he was under a necclllty of coining new Terms, where 
none were extant to exprefs his Meaning. But when Words had 
already been appHcd, in a Senfe approaching to that he intended, he 
ufes them in a guarded manner, fo as to exprefs no other than Ac- 
tions, Fads, Phenomena, or Realities, as they are found in Na- 
ture. And under this Rcflriftion we are to underftand the Words 
Antipathy, AttraSiion, Fiiga Factti, Motion of Connexion, Sym- 
fathy^ &c. 




IN- 



INSTAURATION 



PART I. 



Vol, I. 



-i. 



( Ixvii ) 



PREFACE. 



THE l^ejign of this firfl ^art of the\-^sxh\3KhT\o-!^, is 
to gi've a fummary Account of that Stock of Knowledge 
"thereof Mankind are fojfeffed ; to lay this Knowledge down 
under fuch natural Branches^ or fcientifical T)ivifions, as may mojt 
commodioujly admit of jts farther Improvement -, to point out its 
'DefcienceSy or Dcfidcrata ; andy laflly, to fhew, by Examples, the 
direct JVays of fupplying thefe 'T>eficiences. 

In the Execution of this Tlan, the Author ranges all human 
Knowledge under the fever al Kits and Sciences, in the order of Na- 
ture 5 fo as to fhew how thefe are formed from the general Mafs 5 
and how they may be improved. Whence he is often obliged to de- 
part from the received Divifions of the Sciences •■, tho without abfo- 
lutely difapproving the Ufe ofthofe Divifions on other Occajions. 
For the Nature of his 'Defign laid him under a double neceffity of 
altering them ■■, filft, becaufe to clafs and fort Matters as they are 
related in Nature, is a quite different End and Intention from that 
of throwing them together in a Heap for ufe. Thus, a Secretary of 
State forts and dijiributes his Tapers in his general Office ^ fo as to 
lay thofe of like kind together 5 viz. Treaties along with Treaties, 
Inflruiiions along with InftruBions, Foreign Letters^ T)omeJlic 
Letters, &c. each in their fepar ate Cells ; tho' in forne particular 
Cabinet he may lay fuch together, as, however different in kind, are 
likely to be ufed together. After the fame manner the Author, in . 
/>&/> general Repofitory of Learning, was necefjitated to make his 
^Divifions according to the Natures^ not according to the common 
Ufes of Things: 'ivhereasy had he been to treat any particular 
Science, he would perhaps have followed the 'Divifions that are 
better accommodated to Ufe and TraHice. 

h z His 



Ixviii PREFACE. 

His fecond Reafon for altering the received T)iviJions is, 
that as he e'very ivhere fets dvji-n the Dcfidcrata in the Sciences ; 
and luorks up thefe Deiidcrata into one Body rjnith the reji ; he 
ij:)as, on this account alfOy obliged to alter, a-ad enlarge the former 
"Divijions^ to make room for ne'-joArts, andne'-jj Branches of Science. 

IVith regard to the Matter.^ or Things delivered in the follo-jving 
Tiece^ the Author fore f aw that the principal ObjeSfions iz-ould lie 
againft thofe fet down as deficient > thofe he propofes to be effected ; 
and thofe of an inferior, or fecondary Confideration. 

For, the Deficiences here pointed out, may be imagitied already 
fupplied by fame one or other of the Ancients or Moderns. But in 
this Particular., great T>tUgencs and Attention are required, to per- 
ceive., in a ft rong and pure Light, the feveralT>e(igns and Schemes 
of the Author, in their full Latitude, Scope., and Tendency : and, 
on the other hand, a fiber Examination of fuch fuppofed Ancients 
and Moderns mufi be undertaken., to fjew whether this be more 
than a light Sufptcion i or whether they have, in reality, had any 
fuch Views for the per feeing of Arts and Sciences ^. 

As to the fever al great Things pointed out to be performed; if 
they appear too difficult., or unfuitable to human Abilities, the Au- 
thor defires to be underfiood in this Light i that all thofe Things 
are to be efleemed poffible, and performable., which may be effected, 
(i.) by certain ^erfons, tho' not by every one; (2.) by many ift 
conjunction, tho' not by any file Hand-, (3.) by a Succeffionof Ages., 
tho' not in afingle Age \ and (4.) by publick Care, and a publick 
E'xpence., tho' not by private Induflry, and a private 'Purfe. 

But for thofe who had rather abide by that Saying of Solomon, 
there is a Lion in the Way ; than that ^y Virgil, poffunt quia pofle 
videntur ^ ; the Author is content they foould efieem his Labours 
only as Wifhes ; provided they be Wifhes of the better fort: becaufe, 
as it requires fome Skill to ask a proper ^eflion \ fo it requires fime 
Knowledge to make a reafinable PFijh. 

But as there are fome Particulars in the following Work., which 
may appear too great ; there are others., that may be thought too mi- 
nute and trivial. To this the Author anfwers., that his 'Defign was 
to make a general Map of the Sciences i without omitting the leffer^ 
or more remote IJlands : yet, not fo as to exhibit an oflentatious 
Mufier-Roll of Arts and Sciences ; but to give^ in a concifi, and 

lively 

• See the firft Part of the Novum Organum, pafTim. 

* To think Things poflible, will make them fo. 



PREFACE. Ixix 

lively manner, the Marrov:;, or Kernels of the Sciences, feleEied 
from a large Mafs of Matter. For tho' it be a common ^ra[iice 
ivith thofei£)hofeek a Character for general Learnings to deal in ■ 
Terms, a?id make ajpecious Sheiz^ of the Out [ides of Arts s thus 
raifing the Wonder of the Ignorant , but rendringthetnfelves ridicu- 
lous to the Maflers in Science -, the Author hopes^ on the contrary, 
that chiefly the -perfons befl skilled in the fever al Arts and Sciences 
he endeavours to improve, "uuill here find the mofl Exercife for their 
Judgments -, and thofe not fo ivellverfed therein^ lefs proportionably . 

Again y he would have it remembred, that as many private Gen- 
tlemen are eminent, and difiinguifoed at their Country-Seats ; but 
appear lefs confiderable, '■^hen they come to the Metropolis : fo the 
fecondary, or frnaller Arts, lofe of their T)ignity, vi^hen placed in the 
fame IFork among the nobler -, tho they ftill appear great, and ex- 
cellent., to fiich as have beflo-jjed their principal Time and Trains 
upon them. IVe are alfo required to remember., that the Author 
every -where prefers Uttlity, and Advantage, to Beauty, ElegancCy 
and Grandeur. 

This leads us to obferve his general manner of procedure, as it 
differs from that of ordinary IVr iters. For., inftead of praEiifing 
the common Artifices of Writing :, fo as to raife a Reputation by 
an fevering, or confuting, theT)o£irines andOpinions of others-, and 
fetting his ovsn in the ftrongefl Blaze, by borrovoed Ornaments ; 
he is content to ufe the lefs pompous Arts., and deliver found and 
ferviceable Matter in a clear Method., and eafy ExpreJJion. He no 
way ajfe£is to differ from others s nor innovates without necefjity •-, 
or for the fake of fome confiderable Advantage ; being firmly perfua- 
dedf that if what he delivers be juft and ufeful, the Voice of Na- 
ture will anfwer to it, tho' the Voice of Men pjould cry it down. 
Andy in this Senfe^ he applies to himfelf that Verfe in Virgil, Non 
canimus fui-dis, rcfpondent omnia Sylva; ^. 

In the fame manner ^ he often compares his own Procedure in in- 
telle^ual Matters, to that Expedition of the French againft Naples j 
whereof KXcxxwdiZi Borgia ufed to fay , that they came not With 
Sword, but Chalk, in hand 5 to mark out their Lodgings, rather 
than to fight ; for fo the Author s TDefign is to gain a peaceable En- 
trance for Truthy into thofe Minds that are capable of lodging fo great 
a Gueft i by finglingy and marking out fuch Minds , as it were with 
Chalk; and not forcing a Way for Truth by Controverfy, Confuta- 
tion^ and Contention. 

To 

* Our Lays ire heard ; the Woods spprave them s!I. ' 



Ixx PREFACE. 

To the fame pntpofe he adds^ that he fhould be conjidered as a 
Herald, whofe Office is not to fight, but to be^ as Homer exprejfes 
fty a Meflcnger of Gods and Men j and therefore, that it is againfi 
the Law of Arms y to attack or isjound fuch a Herald-^ efpec tally as 
he founds not the Alarm to Battle, or Altercation •■, but rather a Sur- 
ceafe: that Men being at Teace among themfelves^ may turn their 
united Forces againfi Nature, break doijjn herjlrong Holds, and^ as 
far as the Author of Nature allows ^ enlarge the Empire of Man. 

In this gentle manner of Trocedure, therefore^ the principal Arts 
employed by the Author are Order, Metaphor^ andy where the Sub- 
jeii would allow it^ Terfpicuity of Style. For when much new Mat- 
ter is to be delivered, new Expreffions, or a new ufe of the old ones 
mufi be introduced. And this latter Expedietity to avoid Oppofition 
andtoo fudden an Innovationy is frequently pra^ifed by the Author. 

There was a particular Re af on for the ufe of Metaphor, and a fi- 
gurative Style, in the following 'Piece; being written at a Time 
when Men's Minds were under afirong^rejudtcCyfrom the "Do^rine 
of Ariftorlc and the Schools. For it mufi be carefully obferved, that 
the only efi'eilualway of conquering TrejudiceSy and delivering new 
^oiirines to advantage, is artfully tofieal into the Mind under the 
Cover of Metaphor and Allufion. And hence it is, that the Style of 
the following 'Piece is defignedly more figurative than in other Parts 
o/'/i^^ Inftanration. 

Upon the whole, it appears that the Original of this Work has 
been greatly laboured; not only with regard to the Matter, but alfo 
to the Method, and the Style : fo that it may admit of a ^efiton, 
whether a more ufeful, more exa£i, and perfe£i Philofophical 
Writing can be any where found. This is mentioned the rather, 
that the Errors, and Infu^ciency of theTratifiator, may not be laid 
at the door of the Author. 

And as fo much pains has been taken on the fide of the Author ; 
fome alfo is doubt lefs required on the fide of the Reader ,• in order 
fully to enter into the Senfe and Energy of the Piece : fo that, at 
lengthy it may be generally underfiood, as it deferves > the 'T>irec- 
tions it delivers be more effeBually purfued -, and Arts and Sciences 
no longer remain thofe imperfe^i Things they are. 

We mufi particularly remember, that the Examples of Works, 
here left us by the Author, are but Examples, that fhew the way of 
improving the Sciences ; and fl^ould, by no means, be efieemed juft 
Treatifes : theutmofi he intended them for, being toferve as Speci- 
mens, 

» See hereafter f»s- 148. and Novum 0r^4num, Pare I. pafiim. 



( 



PREFACE. Ixxi 

vtens, Tatterns^ or Sketches, from -which fome "judgment might be 
formed^ or a jujt Expert at ion conceived^ of the r effective Tieces 
"juhen they ^otild be finite d. 

Tofum up all, the Reader has here a Work fundamental to the 
Improvement of the Sciences ; that firongly endeavours to enlarge 
the prefent Stock of human Knovsledge ; and raife it to the highefl 
'Pitch whereof it is capable. What a 'Pitch that is, mufi not be 
judged of from the mere natural Abilities of Men i but as they may 
be affifledby Art ; or by a new Method of Working with the Mind, 
which is delivered in the Novum Organum, or fecond V^iioi the 
Instauration. 




AK 



( Ixxii ) 



AN 

ANALYTICAL VIEW 

O F T H E 

SCHEME 

O F T H E 

DE AUGMENTIS S C 1 E NTI ARUM; 

O R, 

The Diviiion of Knowledge into proper Branches; 
in order to its farther Improvement. 

PRELIMINARIES. 

I. 

^he Difcredits of Learning. 

THE Objcflions to Learning confider'd, under {i) the Objeftions 
of Divines; (2) the Objeftions of Politicians; and (3) the Ob- 
jeftions to the Fortune, Behaviour, and Studies of Learned Men. 

1. Diww alledge, (i) that the Define of Knowledge was the Original Sin ; 
(2.J that it is infinite and anxious ; and ('3) that it caufes Herefics and 
Atheifm. 

2. Po/z7;Vza«i alledge, (i) that Learning unfits Men for Arms ; (2) inca- 
pacitates them for Civil Affairs ; and (3J proves dangerous to States. 

3. Learned Men objedled to, (i) as apt to negleft their private Affairs, 
and impoverifh themfelves -, (2) as not properly applying to Perfons in 
Power-, (3) as failing in point of Behaviour i and (4J fometimes, as giving 
into grofs Flattery^ 

2 II. 



An Analytical Viev.\ &c. Ixxiii 



ir. 

The Difeafes of Learning. 

viz. 

1. A Fondnefs for Style, or Words, rather tii.ia Matter. 

2. Idle Difputes, and Cavils, 

3. Credulity and Impofture. 

III. 

Tlje Peccant Humour i of Learning. 

viz. 

1. Affeftation of Antiquity, or Novelty. 

2. Diffidence of the PofTibility of new Difcoveries, 

3. Strong Prepoffenion that the beft Opinions and Philofophies have aF- 
ways prevailed. 

4. An unfeafonable and hafty Reducing of Knowledge to Methods and 
Syftems. 

5. The Negleft of general Philofbphy ; as a thing fuperior tathecom-- 
mon Arts and Sciences. 

6. Admiration of the contemplative Powers of the Underftanding ; ands 
an untimely Defertion of Obfervation and Experience. 

7. The tinging, infefting, or corrupting of General Phihfopby with par- 
ticular Arts and Studies. 

8. Impatience of Doubting •, or the want of a proper Sufpenfion of the. 
Judgment. 

9. A dogmatical and imperious manner of Teaching and Delivering the 
Sciences. 

10. Narrow Views in Learned Men ; regarding not the Advancement of 
the Sciences, but inferior Confiderations. 

11. A Miftaking of the true End of Knowledge, and turning afide to 
Curiofity, Amufement, Lucre, Promotion, i^c^ 

W. 

The Dignity of Learning argued from Divine Authority, 

(]) The Wifdom, or Knowledge of the Creator. (2) The Know- 
ledge of Angels. (3) The Produftion of Light. (4) The Employment in 
Paradife. (5) The Lite of Cain and Abel. (6) Inventors before the Flood, 
(7) The Confufion of Tongues. (8) The Learning of Mofes. (9J Job. 
(10) Solomon. (11) The Procedure of ChriJ}^ in fubduing Ignorance, 
working Miracles, and fending the Gift of Tongues. (12) The Learning' 
of St. Paul. (13J The Learning of many Fathers of the Church. (i4>* 
Learning raifes the Mind to glorify God. And, (15) is the Prefervativc 
againft Error and Infidelity. ., 

Vo L. r. I V. 



Ixxiv ^n Analytical Vieix> 

5161? Dignity of Learning /hewn from Hum An Tejlimony. 
(i) Inventors of Arts deified among the Heathens. (2) Civil Policy re- 
gulated, and States advanced, by Learning. {3) Learned Princes the beft 
Governours. (4) Learning has a great Influence upon military Virtue. 

VI. 

fhe Dignity of Learning argued from the Influence it has upon Moral Virtue. 

(i) That Learning is fovereign in curing the Diforders of the Mind. (2) 
Has a greater Dominion than any Temporal Power •, as ruling over Reafon 
and Belief. (3) Advances Private Men. (4) Affords great Delight to the 
Mind. (5) Gives Perpetuity and Fame ; and may remain after Death. 

VII. 

The Public Means of promoting Learning. 
viz. 

In general ; (i) Ample Rewards •, (2j Prudent Diredlion i and, (3) United 
Labours. 

\r\ pa^ ti(ulir ; (i) Seled Places for Study -, (2) Proper Books -, and, (3) 
Suitable Teachers. 

The Places muft have four Requifites; viz. (i) Convenient Buildings; 
(2) Anfwerable Endowments ; (3) Certain Privileges ; and, (4) Laws of 
DifcipHne. 

Books muft have two Requifites •, viz. Libraries; and good Editions. 

Teachers to bf of two forts 5 viz. Readers in the prefent Arts and Sciences; 
and Enquirers after new ones. 

Under thcf ■ Ads for advancing the Sciences, are found fix Defects -, viz,. 
(i ) The Want of a Foundation for Arts, and Philofophy at large. (2) The 
Want of comp"tent Salaries for Readers and ProfelTors. (3) The Want of a 
Stock to defray the Charge of Experiments. (4) A Want of Infpefting tlie 
Univerfities, to fee what Cuftoms, Readings, and Exercifes fhould be re- 
pealed or alter'd ; as Time alters, or Learning improves. (5) Want of mu- 
tual Correfpondence, and Intelligence, among the different Univerfities of 
Europe. And, (6) the Want of a public Inftitution for enquiring into the 
Arts hitherto undifcover'd. 

The Distribution of Knowledge. 

Knowliidge divided, with regard to the intclleftual Faculties of (1) 
the Memory, (2) the Imagination, and (3) the Reafon ; into L Hijlery., 
II. Poetr-^t and III. Philofophy. 

I. 

History divided into (i) Natural, and (2) Civil. 



of the De Augmentis Scicntiarum. Ixxv 

(i) Natural HtJior\ AWxAedi, with regard to the Sulj ft, into three Parts ; 
treating (i) of Generations ; (2) of Prjetergeneratioiis ; and (;)ofArts. 

Natural Hijlory again divided, with regard to its Ufes, into Narrative 
and Induclive. 

(2) Civil Hijlory, in the general, divided into three particular kinds ; viz. 
(i) Literary, (2) Civile znd{^) Sacred. 

1. Literary Hij7ory rehtts (i) what kinds of Learning and Artsflourifhed 
in what Ages, and Parts of the World ; (2j their Antiquities and Progrefs 
on the Globe, ^c. 

2. Part'uular Civil Hiflory divided into three kinds; viz. the nnfini/hed, 
the fnijbed, and defaced; and accordingly found in Memoirs, juji Hijloryy 
and Antiquities. 

JuJl Civil Hijlory divided into three kinds, with regard to its three Ob- 
jefls ; viz. a Portion of Time, a memorable Perfon, or an ilKiftrious Ac- 
tion ; and accordingly found under the Form oi Annals., or Chronicles, Lives, 
and Narratives, or Relations, 

Hijlory of Times divided into general and particular -, or as it relates the 
Tranfaftions of the whole World, or only of a particular Nation. 

Hijlory of Times is likewife divided into Annals and Journals ; the former to 
contain the Matters of greater, and the other the Matters of lefler confequence 
to a State. 

Particular Civil Hijlory is alfo divifible into pure and mixed: and of this 
mixed Hijlory there are two eminent kinds ; the one principally civil, the other 
principally natural. 

Cojhograpkical Hijlory is alfo a mixt Hijlory. 

3. Sacred or Eccleftajlical Hijlory m otntr^A, divided into (i) the general 
Hiftory of the Church ; (2) the Hiftory of Prophecy ; and (3) the Hiftory 
of Providence. 

The general Hiftory of the Church has three Parts ; and defcribes (1) the 
Perfecution, (2) the Migration, and (3) the Peace of the Church. 

TheHijlcry of Prophecy has two Parts ; viz.{\) the Prophecies themfelves, 
and (2j their Accomplifhments. 

The Hiflory cf Providence regards, (i) the revealed, and (2) thefecret Will 
of God ; fo as to Ihew die Agreement there fomctimes is betv/ixt them. 
Hijlory has three Appendages ; viz. Speeches, Letters, and Apophthegms. 

II. 
Poetry divided into (j) Narrative, or Heroic al ; (2) Dramatical ; 
and (j) Allegorical. 

III. 
Philosophy divided into three Branches ; viz. (i) Divine, (2) Natu- 
ral, and {},) Human. 

But the Trunk is a Primary or General Science, containing (i) the 
Axioms of all Sciences, capable of fupplying the Branches; and, (2} the 
Adventitious or Tranfcendental Conditions of Things. 

i 2 (i; 



Ixxvi An Afialytkal Visw 

(i) Divine Phllofophy, or Natural Theology, hascwo Parts ; the ons re- 
lating to the Being and Attributes of God •, the other, to the Nature of5pi- 
rits and Angels. 

(i) Natural Phllofophy d\v\A?A Into Speculative zn<^ PraflicaJ. 

Speculative Philojopby divided into Pbyfuks and Metapbyficks. 

Phyficki divided into (i) The Dotlr'me of Prmciplcs ; (2) The DoFlrine -cf 
the Struolure of the Univerje ; and, (3) The DoClrinecftbe Variet'y of Things. 

The Do5lrine of the Variety ef Things divided into Concrete Phyficks, and 
JhJlraB Phyficks ; or Phyficks of Creatures, and Phyficiis of Natures. 

Concrete Phyficks divided as Natural Hlftpry. 

Jbjlraul Phyficks divided into (i) the Doftrine of the Schemes of Matter, j 
and (2) the Doftrine of Appetites and Motions. 

To PhyfickshK.\or\g three appendages; viz. (i) the Meafure of Motions; 
(2) Natural Problems -, and, (:?) the Opinions of the ancient Philofophers. 

Metapbyficks divided into (i) the Inveftigation of Forms; and (2) the 
Enquiry after Final Caitfes. 

PraSlcal Phllofophy divided conformably to the Theoretical ; viz. into 
Mechanicks and Magic k. 

To Prafticiil Philofophy belong two Appendages ; viz. (i) an Inventory 
of human Knowledge ; and, (2) a Calendar of Leading Experiments. 

Mathematicks makes an Appendage to Phyficks, Metaphyficks, Mecha- 
nicks, and Magicks ; and is divided into /«rt" and ?/n'.\v^. 

Pure Mathematicks divided into Geometry and Arithmelick. 

Mixed AlatbemcHicks divided into Perfpeclive, Mufick, AJlronomy, CofmO' 
graphy^ Arcbiteclure, Mechanicks, &c. 

(3) Human Pbihfophy has two general Parts ; viz. Human, and Civil 
Doolrine. 

Human DoSfrine divided into the Dodrine of the human Body, and of the 
.human Soul. 

But here is mttv^o^td ^ general Science of the Nature and State of Man, 
wherein both Body and Soul participate. 

Th^is general Scienceh divided(i) into t\it Doctrine of the human Perfon ;and 
(2j the DoElrine of Union. 

( I ) The Do£frine of the human Perfon has two Parts ; and confiders ( i ) the 
Mileries, and (2^ the Prerogatives, or Excellencies of Mankind. 

{2) T'\e Doutrlne of Union has two Fa.ns, relating ho'v the Soul and Body 
mutually aft upon each other, (i; by Notices, or Indication; and, (2} by 
ImprefTion. 

The Doitrine of Notices regards Phyfiognomy, and the Interpetation of 
Dreams. ; 

The DouJrine of Imprefp.on confiders fi) how fir the Body may affeft the 
■Soul ; and (2) how, and to what degree, the Paflions of the Sou! may atFeft 
the Body. 

The Doctrine Of the Human Body divided into four Parts; viz. 
{i) Medicine; (2) Cofmeiicks; (3) Gynnajiicks; and, (4) the ^/ of 



Elegance. 



of the De Augmentis Scientiarum. Ixxvii 

1. Medinm divided into three Parts ; viz. ( i) the Pixfervation of Health ; 
(2) the Cure of Difeales ; and, (3) the Prolongation of Life. 

2. Thi Ari of Cofmeticks divided into civit s.ndeffemi>iale. 

3. Gymnafl'.cks divided into the ^/-/jc/AT/wVy, i^n^xhc Arts of EndtirMce 
or Sufferi)!^. 

4. The. Art of Elfs;aHce divided with regard to the £)'<? and the Ear; or 
into Pah/ti?ig, Mufick, &c. 

The Doctrine of the Human Soul divided into (i) the Di/f^nw 
cf the uifpired Subfta}icc \ and (2) the Doi'/riie of the fenJJtive Soul. 

Two Appendages to this Do^rine of the Soul; v'li.. Divination and Fafdnation. 

The Dsclrvie of the fenftiive Soul divided into (i) the Do^rine of voluntary 
Motion ; and (t) the DoBrine of Senfe and Senfibilit\. 

The Doctrine of the Mental Faculties divided into fi j Lo- 
GicKs, and (2) Ethicks. 

The Logical, or Rational, Arts, are four; viz. (i) the Art of Enquiry or 
Invention i (2) the Art of Examination, ov Judging; (2) the Art ofCitflodv, 
or Memory ; and (4) the Art of Elocution, or Delivery. 

[ I J The i\rt of Enquiry, or Invention, relates either to the difcovery of Arts, 
or Arguments ; 

The Art of Difcovery divided into two Parts •, as it proceeds (1) from Ex- 
periment to Experiment, which IS Learned Experience; or (2j from Experi- 
ments to Axioms, which is the Art of Induftion. 

The Art of difcovering Arguments divided into ( i ) the Topical ; and {2 ) the 
Promptuary Method. 

Topical Invention divided into general and particular. 

[2] The Art of Exatnination, or Judging, divided into corriij t :ind genuine; 
or Syllogifm and Induction. 

The Art of Judging again divided into Aaalyticks, and the Dolirine of Con- 
futations. 

The Doclrine of Confutations divided f 1) into the Confutation of Sophifms; 
(2) the Confutation of Interpretation ; and (3) the Confutation of Idols, or 
falfe Notions. 

The Doctrine of Idols divided (i) into Idols of the Tribe ; (2) Idols of the 
Den ; and (3) Idols of the Market. 

Appendix to the Art of Judging, fhewing what kind of Demonftration 
fhould be applied to each Subject. 

[3] The Art of Cujlody, or Atemory, divided ( i) into the DoCtrmeoi Helps 
for the Mefnory ; and (2) the Doftrine of the Memory itfclf. 

Artificial Memory, or the Doftrine of Helps for the Memory, has two 
Parts ; viz. Prczjiotidn and Emblem. 

[4] The Art of Elocution, or Dc^rine of Delivery, divided into (i) Gram- 
mar, {2) Method, and (3) Ornament of Speech. ; 

I. Grammar, divided into (i) the Art of Speaking; and (2) the Art of 
IVriting. 

A Traditive Doulrine has more Defendants befides Words and Letters; and 
may be divided into ("i) Hieroglyphicks and Geftures i and (2) Real Cha- 
racters. Grammar 



Ixxviii -An Analytical View 

Grammar again divided into Luerary and Philofophical ; or with regard to 
Words and Things. 

The /!rt of Speaking regards the Accidents of Words •, viz. (i) Sound, 
(2^ Meafure, and(3) Accent. 

The Jri of Writing has two Parts, with regard (i) to Alphabet, and (2) 
Cypher. 

The Art of Cypher has two Parts -, viz. Cyphering and Deciphering. 

2. The Ms:bcdof Spf:ecb, or Dc^Irine of 'Traditive Prudence, diftinguifh'd 

(1) mto Doc? rinai znd Initiative ; (2) into open and concealed ; (3) into Apbo- 
rijlical and Regular ; (4) into ^eftion and Anfwer ; and (5) the Method 0^ 
conquering Prejudice. 

The two Parts of Method ; viz. general and particular : the one regarding 
a Whole •, the other its Parts. 

3, The Doiirine of Ornament in Speech ; under which comes Rhetorick, or 
Oratory. 

Three Appendages to this Dodlrine; viz. (i) a Colleffion of Sophiftm; (2) a 
ColleSfion ofJiudiedAntitbets ; and (3) a Colletlionof leffer Forms of Speech. 

Two general Appendages to the Doctrine of Delivery ; viz. (ij the Art of 
Criticifm ; and (2) School-Learning. 

Criticifm divided with regard ( i ) to the giving Editions of Authors ; {2) the 
illufrating of Authors by Notes, i^c. and (3) the Judging or Cenfurii/g of Au- 
thors. 

S chool- Learning conMev'd under the Heads of fi) publick Schools and Col- 
leges; (2) of preparing the Genius; {^) oi' fuiling the Study to the Genius; 
(4) the Ufe oi Academical Exercfes; and (5) the Adion of the Stage, con- 
fider'd as a Part of Difcipline in Schools. 

Ethicks, or Morality, divided mto (i) the Do^rjne of the I/nage of Good; 
and (2) the Cultivation, or Georgicks, of the Mind. 

The Dodlrine of the Image of Good divided inco Simple and Compound. 

Good divided (i) into Individual or Self-Good; and (2) Good of Co7n- 
tnunion. 

Individual Good divided into ASIive and Paffive. 

Paffive Good divided into Perfe^ive and Confervaiive. 

The Good of Communion, or Duties, with regard to Society, divided (i) in- 
to the Duties of Man in common; (2) RefpeElive Duties ; and (3; the Doifrine 
of Frauds. 

The Cultivation of the Mind divided into ( i ) the Improvement of the M ind ; 
and, (2) the Cure of its Difeafes •, which regard fi) different Difpofitions •, 

(2) Affedlions-, and, 3 j Remedies: as the Art of Phyfick regards the Con- 
ftitution, the Diftemper, and the Cure. 

Appendix to the Cultivation of the Mind -, viz. the Relation betwixt the 
Good of the Mind, and the Good of the Body. 

Civil Knowledge divided into three k'wAs o( DoFfrine, or Prudence; 
viz. (i) Prudence in Converfation i (2) Prudence in Bufinefs j and, (3} Pru- 
dence in Government. 

The 



of the De Angmentis Scientiarum. Ixxix 

The "Dttlrim of Bufinefs divided into (i) the Do5frine of various Occafiom ; 
and, (2) the DoBrine of rififig in Lfc. 

The Doclrine of Government AW\dtA as it regards (i) the Prefervation, 
(i) the Happinefs, and (3) the Enlargement of a State. 

The Dotlnne of lav.vnfal Juflice, or Laws, divided ( i ) as to the Certainty 
of their Senfe ; (2) Juftnefs of Command •, (3) Commodioufnefs of Execu- 
tion -, (4) Agreement to the Form of Government ; and, (5) as they are 
produdlive of Virtue in theSubjeft. 

The Divifion of Infvired 'Theology, or Divinity., left to Divines. 

lt^xhrte.A[-pendt7ges; viz. (i) The Moderator, or the true Ufe of Hu- 
man Reafon in Theology -, (2) a Difcourfe upon the Degrees of Unity in- 
the City of God ; and, (3) the firft Flowings of the Scriptures : or a fhort, 
found, and judicious Colle<^ion of Notes, and Obfervations, upon particuLar. 
Texts of facred Writ. 



k 




I 



- D E 

AUG MENTIS SCIENTIARUM: 

OR, THE 

Arrangement, and General Survey, 

O F 

KNOWLEDGE; 

WITH 

//J particular Defects; and the Ways of fupplying 
the7n<i for the Advancement of Arts and Sciences. 



Vol. I. B 



(3) 

THE 

ARRANGEMENT, 

AND 

GENERAL SURVEY, 

O F 

K N IV L E D G E, See. 

PRELIMINARIES. 

SECT. I. 

Containing a Plan for the ReEiijication^ and Promotion^ of 
Knowledge in general. 

i.'jn^ Eing convinced, by a careful Obfervation, that the ^«wa« f7«i:/?r-T&»^«»<MZ 
1-^ y?(7W;«^ perplexes it felf-, or makes not a fober and advantageous ■^e/'j?''- 
\_J Ufe of the real Helps within its reach ; whence manifold ignorance 
and inconveniences arife ; we are determined to employ our ucmoft Endea- 
vours towards reftoring, or cultivating, a juft and legitimate Familiarity be- 
twixt the Mind and Things''. 

2. But as the Mind, haftily, and without choice, imbibes and treafuresrw;icr/«i3i«»e/ 
up the firft Notices of Things, from whence all the reft proceed •, Errors '''* human 
muft for ever prevail, and remain uncorrefted, either by the natural Powers °°^^ S^° 
of the Underftanding, or the Affiftance oi Logic : for the original Notions 
being vitiated, confufed, and inconfiderately taken from Things -, and the 
fecondary ones form'd no lefs raflily •, human Kno-wledge itf If, the Thing 
employ'd in all our Refearches, is not well put together, nor juftly formed; 
but like a magnificent Struftureon a bad Foundation \ 

B 2 3. 

' That is, as will appear hereafter, the raifing a nevArt, by joining Keafomni Experiment 
together, for the improvement of Fhilofofhy. See below, i8, ^^, and ij-. 

'' Human Knowledge is here confider'd in its common imperfe<3: ftate ; not according to what it 
may be brought to, wuhthe proper Conduft, and Regulation. See Seci. II. 14. 

S 



Preliminaries. 



SeaJ. 



The Poverty 
ef human 
KnowleJ^e. 



Fhilofophy to 3. And whilft Men agree to admire and magnify the falfe Powers of the 
be begun a- ]\^ifij^^ and ncgledl or dellroy chofe that might be rendered /r«^ ; there is 
"'"'■ no other courfe-left, but with better affiftances to begin the IVork a-new ; and 

raife or rebuild the Sciences, Arts^ and all human Kmtvletlge from a firm and 

folid bafis \ 

4. This may at firft feem an infinite Schefne, unequal to human Abilities ; 
yet 'twill be found more found and fober than the Schemes we have already ; 
as tending to fome iflue : whereas all hitherto done with regard to the Sciences, 
is vertiginous, or in the way of perpetual rotation. 

5. To fay the truth, Men do not appear to know their own flock and 
abilities, but fancy their PoflefTions greater, and their Faculties lefs, than they 
are; whence either valuing the r^f^'i y^r/^ above meafure, they look out 
no farther ; or elfe defpifing themfelves too much, they exercife their talents 
upon lighter matters ; without attempting the capital things of all "^. And 
hence the Sciences feem to ha.ve their Hercules' s Pillars, which bound thede- 
fires and hopes of mankind. 

6. But as a falfe imagination of Plenty comes among the principal caufes 
of Want ; and as too great a confidence in thing? prefenc leads to a negleft 
of future affiftance ; 'tis neceffary we fhould here admonirti Mankind that 
they do not too highly value and extol either the number or ufefulnefs of 
the Things hitherto difcovered. For, by clofely infpefting the multiplicity 
of Books upon Arts and Sciences, we find them to contain numberlefs repeti- 
tions of the lame things in point of invention ; but differing indeed as to 
the manner of treatment : fo that the real Difcoveries, tho' at firft blufh they 
might appear numerous, prove upon examination, but few''. And as to 

Tlie Greek the point of ufefulnefs, the Philofophy we principally receiv'd from the Greeks^ 
Wilofifhy. niuft be acknowledged puerile, or rather talkative, than genetative ; as being 
fruitful in controverfies, but barren of works*, 

7. And had this not been a lifelefs kind of P/j/Vfl/o/)^)!, 'twere fcarce pofli- 
ble it Ihould have made fo little progrefs in fo many ages •, infomuch that 
not only Pofitions now frequently remain Pofttions fiill, but ^lejiions remain 
^/eftions ; rather rivetted and cherifh'd, than determin'd, by Difputes ; Philo- 
fophy thus coming down to us in the perfons oi Majler and Scholar, inftead 
of Inventor and Improver, 

8. 

' For inftance, theoretical RexfoningtVixihom ^ fufficient Ground-work of Faft, and Obfer- 
vation ; thofe being here called y<»//< Towers of the Mind which lead to Error, and /«(/« CoTf/». 
fions. See Seft.III. 41. Sx. Novum Organum, Sedi.I. 9. 

*' Of the neceflity for this, every one is to be convinced from his own obfervation and expe- 
rience: but theReafons for the Undertaking are fully open'd hereafterj efpecially in theentrance 
of the Novum Organum. See alfo below, 18. 8c Seft.II. 14.. 

* Such, for inllance, as in moral Philofophy, a command of the Paflionsjand in natural Phi- 
lo'bphy, a command of the Winds, the Weather, &c. 

^ Nor are the Difcoveries ajid Improvements made fince this Author wrote, perhap; fo 
numerous or fo weighty as fome imagine: at beft they execute but a fmall part of his gene- 
ral Sch^-nie for the promotion of Knowledge. 

■^ All intimate knowledge both of the Greek Thilofofhy, and of the fubtilties of Nature, 
feems requilite, in order to form this judgment. We are generally fo prepolTels'd in favour of 
that Philolbphy, asfe'dom to fee its emptmefs. The way of being fa:isfi;d is to try its ftrength 
in conquering the difficulties of Nature, aud producing Ejj'ecij. 



Sed. I. Preliminaries. «; 

8. In the Mechamc Arts the cafe is orherwife ; thefe commonly advancing Mechanic 
towards pcrfuStion, in a courfe of daily improvement, from a rough unpo- ■^'■'^• 
lilh'd ilate, fometimes prejudicial co the firll: Inventors ; whilft Ph.icfo. hy and 

the inlelle£iual Sciences are, like Statues, celebrated and adored, but never pro- 
moted : niy they fometimes appear moft perfect in the original Autiior, and 
afterwards degenerate". For when once men take up with the opinions of 
others, they no longer improve the Sciences •■, but fcrvilely beftow their talents 
in adorning and defending fome particular authors. 

9. 'Tis a fatal miftake to fuppofe tliat the Sciences have gradually arrived at The Sciences 
a ftate of perfedion, and then been recorded by fome one Writer or other; '>" j'""'^'»' 
and that as nothing better can afterwards be invented, men need but cuiti- ' ^ 

vate and fet off what is tlius difcovered and compleated : whereas, in reality, 
this regiilring of the Sciences proceeds only from the aflurance of a few, and 
the floth and ignorance of many. For after the Sciences, might thus perhaps, 
in fevcral parts, be carefully cultivated ; a man of an undertaking genius 
rifing up, who by the concifenefs of his method renders himfelf acceptable 
and famous, he, in appearance, eredls an Art, but in reality corrupts the 
labours of his Predeceffors''. 

10. This however is ufually well received by Pofterity; as readily grati- 
fying their curiofity, and indulging their indolence. But he that refts up- 
on eftablifh'd Confent, as the judgment approved by Time, trufts to a very 
fallacious and weak foundation : for we have but an imperfeft knowledge of 
the difcoveries in Arts and Sciences, made public in different ages and coun- 
tries -, and ftill lefs of what has been done by particidar perfons, and tranfadl- 
ed in private. Whence neither the Births nor Mi/carriages cf Time ' are to 
be found in our Records. 

11. Nor is Conjeni, or the continuance thereof, a tiling of any great ac- General Con-- 
count : for however Governments may vary, there is but one ft ate of the Set n- /"'[ of little 
ces ; and that will for ever be Democratical or popular. Biit the Doftrines Z?^!'r!?- 

or greatelt vogue among the people, are either the contentious and quar- 
relfome, or the fhewy and empty ; that is, fuch as may either entrap the 
aflent, or lull the mind to reft : whence, of courfe, the greateft Genius's in 
all ages, have fuffer'd violence; whilft out of regard to their own character, 
they fubmitt-ed to xhe. judgment of the Times, and the Populace"^. And thus when 
any more fublime Speculations happen'd to appear, they were commonly 
tofs'd and extinguifh'dby the breath of popular opinion. Whence Time, like 
a River, has brought down to. us what is light and.tumid ; but funk what was. 
ponderous and Iblid ^. 

12. 

' As from the time of Arljlotle till the revival of Mathematical and Experimental Philofo- 
phy in Europe, particularly by our Author, GatiUi), Caffenili,&c. 

'■ By wrefting them, fuppofe, and faflioning them iiuo Methods and Syftems before the time.- 
See hereafter Seft. III. 40. 

^ That is, neither the Inventions, nor a Hiftory of the Attempts and Failures, of Antiquity. 

^ Viz.. in their aflenr, and public behaviour; tho' not in their private judgment. The 
Addrefs of our Author in this particular may deferve tobe obftrved thro' the whole Work. 

« For inllance. Time has thus brought down the Philofophies of Tlato and Arifiotle, but 
funk that oi Democritta, &c. See PancirollHS de Reim defer-ili/ii} ctim Hot. Hemic. Snlmnth,. 
^Supplement. Mich.Watfon. 



6 Preliminaries. Secfl. I. 

TheTracedure 12. As tO thofe who have fet up for Teachers of the Sciences; when they 
ofthofewha (jpQp ^\^^\^ Charadcrs, and at intervals fpeak their fentiments, they complain of 
Sciences.* the fubtilty of Nature, the concealment of Truth, the obfcurity of Things, 
the entanglement of Caufes, and the imperfeftion of the human Underftandr 
ing : thus rather chufing to accufc the common State of Men and Things, 
than make confefllon of themfelves. 'Tis alfo frequent with them to adjudge 
that impofTible in an Art, which they find that Art does not effeft ; by 
which means they skreen indolence and ignorance from the reproach they 
merit *. 
The experU I?,- And even thofe who by experience propofe to enlarge the bounds of 
mentMphilo- the Sciences, fcarce ever entirely quit the receiv'd opinions, and go to the 
jofhen. fountain-head; but think it enough to add fomewhat of their own: as pru- 
dentially confidering, that at the time they fhew their modefty in ajfenting^ 
they may have a liberty of adding. Bat whilft this regard is fhewn to Opi- 
niotis and moral Confiderations, the Sciences are greatly hurt by fuch a languid 
procedure; for 'tis fcarce poflible at once to admire and excel an author: 
as Water rifes no higher than the Refervoir it falls from. Such men therefore, 
tho' they improve fome things, yet advance the Sciences but little ; or rather 
amend than enlarge them. 
Thefubverters 14. There have been alfo bolder Spirits, and greater Genius's, who thought 
"■^^"".'"'^*'' themfelves at liberty to overturn and deftroy the ancient Do5irine, and make 
way for themfelves and their own Opinions : bur without any great advantage 
from the difturbance ; as they did not effeftively enlarge Pbilofophy and Jrts 
by pradlical Works ^ ; but only endeavour'd to alter men's Notions, and fet 
themfelves at the Head of Opinions". 
Thefuecefs of 1 5. As for thofe who, neither wedded to their own nor others Opinions, 
the free Philo- but continuing friends to liberty, made ufe of aj/ijiance m their Enquiries, the 
fifhers. fuccefsthey met with did not anfwcr toexpeftation ; the attempt, tho' lau- 

dable, being but feeble : for purfuing only the probable Reafns of things, they 
were carried about in a Circle of Arguments ; and taking a promifcuous liber- 
ty, preferv'd not the Rigour of true Enquirers ; whilft none of them duly 
convcrfed with experience and things themfelves. 
TheMechmi- 16. Others again, who commit themfelves to mechanical experience, yet 
calphilofe- make their experiments at random, without ^ny jnethod of Enquiry. And 
^ ^'^'' the greateft part of thefe have no confidv^rable Views ; but efteem it a great 

matter if they can make a fingle Difcovery : which is both a trifling and un- 
skilful Procedure ; as no one can juftly, or fuccefsRilly, difcover the nature 
of any one thing in that thing itfejf; or without numerous experiments which 
lead to farther Enquiries ^. 

* Nothing is more common than for men to repute Things imponTible, or imprafticaMe, 
for want or a fufficient compals of kno'.vledge to judge of them; and hence fl-veralof this Au- - 
thor's Plan? have been reputed imp'a£ticub!e-. particularly that of the nem Atlantis, for founding 
a Vhilofophical College ; tho' the Royal Society oi London (eems form'd upon that model. See 
Morhof.Polyhift. Tom. II. pag. 134. and Sprat's Hi/lory of the Royal Society. 

^ See the word IVorks explained i:i the Glossahy. 

' M.des Cartes is an eminent Inftince ot this procedure among the Moderns; tho' the in- 
telligent in Philofophical Hiftory find the traces of all his Doftrine among the Ancients. 

^ For the proper or Geometrical Method of enquiria^ 'nnoHiiate, and all Philofophical Subjeds, 
fee the Novum Organum. 



Sed:. I. Preliminaries. 7 

17. Laftly, thofe who recommend L^^/f asrhebeft and fu reft Inftrument xte Logicians: 
for improving the Sciences, very jullly obferve, that the Underftanding, left to 

itfelf, ought always to be fufpecied. But here the Remedy is neither equal 
to the Dileafe, nor approved ; for tho' the Logic in ufe may be properly ap- 
plied in civil affairs, and the j4'Is that are founded in Bifcowfe and Ojviion ; 
yet it by no means reaches the fubtiliy of Nature : and by catching at what ic 
cannot hold, rather ferves to eftablifh Errors, and fix them deeper, than open 
the fFay to Truth \ 

18. Upon the whole, Men do not hitherto appear to be happily turned infrffirieney of 
and fitted for the Sciences, either by their own induftry, or the authority of '^^ ^""f^^/ 
Authors; efpecially as there is little dependance to be had upon the common i„g_ 
Demojiflrations a.nd Experimefits : whilil the Strufture of the [//^zwr/^- renders 

it a Labyrinth to the Underftanding ; where the Pafbs are not only every 
where doubtful, but the appearances of things and their figns deceitful ; and 
the ff^reathes a.nd Knots of Na.ture intricately turn'd and twifted'': thro' all 
which we are only to be condufted by the uncertain Light of the Senfes, that 
fometimes fliines, and fometimes hides its head -, and by Co'le^iom of Expe- 
riments and particular Fails; in which no Guides can be trufted -, as wanting 
direftion themfelves, and adding to the Errors of the reft. In this melan- 
choly ftate of things, one might be apt to defpair both of the Under/landing 
left to itfelf, and of all fortuitous Helps ; as of a ftate irremediable by the 
utmoft efforts of the human Genius •, or the often-repeated chance of Trial. 
The only Clue and Method is to begin all a-new ; and direft our ftcps in a 
certain order, from the very firft perceptions of the Senfes "^. 

rg. This, however, is not to be underftood as if nothing had been ef- Theverfor- 
fefted by the immenfe Labours of fo many paft Ages: the Antimts have per- ^^","^"{'^' 
form'd furpriziiigly in SubjedV"; that required abftrad: Medication, and force 
of Genius. But as Navigation was imperfeft before the ufe of the Compafs ; 
io will many Secrets of Nature and Art remain undifcovered, without a 
more perfeft knowledge of the Underftanding, its ul'es, and ways of 
working''. 

20. For our own part, from an earneft defire of Truth, we have commit- T^he 'Procedure 
ted ourfelves to doubtful, difficult, and folitary ways; and relying on the ^/'/-"^ Author. 
Divine Affiftance, have fupported our Mind againft the vehemence of Opi- 
nions^ our own incernal Douhts and Scruples ; and theDarknefs, znd fantajlic 
Images of the Mind : that at length we might make more fure and certain 
Difcoveries for the benefit of Pofterity. And if we ftiall have eff'edled any 
thing to the purpofe •, what led us to it was a true and genuine humiliation 
of Mind. Thofe who br fore us applied themfelves to the difcovery of Arts, 
having juft gl.mced upon Things, Examples, and Experiments, immediately, 
as if Invention was but a kind of Contemplation, raifed up their own Spiirits 

to 

* Thofe who would fee this Hiftory of Fhilofophy more particularly deduced, may con- 
fult Morhof s Volyhiflor. and the other Writers upon Polymathy and Literary Hiftory. 

* By IVremhes and Knots, underftand the apparent complication of Caufes, and the fuperaddi- 
tion of Properties not effential to Things ; as Light to Heat, Yellownel's to Gold, Pellucidity 
to Glafs, ^c. 

* See above, Seft. I. 3. and the entrance of the Novum Organum. 

* Thefe lift particulars are the Subjeft of the HQvumOrgamtm, 



8 Preliminaries. Seft. I. 

to deliver Oracles^-, whereas our method is continually to dwell among 
things foberly ; without abftrading or fetting the Underftanding farther from 
them than makes their Images meet : which leaves but little work for Ge- 
nius and mental Abilities ''. 

2 1. And the fame humility that we praftife in learning, the fame we alfo 
obferve in teaching •, without endeavouring to (lamp a dignity on any of our 
Inventions, by the triumphs of Confutation, the citation of Antiquity, the 
producing of Authorities, or the mask of Obfcurity :. as any one might do, 
who had rather give luftre to his own Name, than light to the Minds of 
others. We offer no violence, and fpread no nets for the judgments of Men ; 
but lead them on to things themfelves, and their relations: that they may 
view their own ftores, what they have to reafon about, and what they may 
add, or procure, for the common good. 

22. And if at any time ourfelves have erred, miftook, or broke off" too 
foon, yet as we only propofe to exhibit things naked, and open, as they are, 
our Errors may be the readier obferved, and feparated, before they confide- 
rably infe<ft the Mafs of Knowledge ; and our labours be the eafier continued. 
And thus we hope to eftablifli a true and legitimate Union between the ex- 
perhnental and rational Faculty, for ever : the undue feparation whereof, has 
caufed the greateft difturbances in the family of Mankind "=. 

23. But as thefe things are not at our difpofal, we here, at the en- 
trance of our Work, with the utmoft Humility and Fervency, pour forth 
our Prayers to God, that remembring the Miferies of Mankind, and the 
Pilgrimage of this Life, where we pafs but few days and forrowful, he 
would vouchfafe, through our hands, and the hands of others, to whom he 
has given the like Mind, to relieve the human race by a new adt of 'i'" boun- 
ty. We, likewife, humbly befeech him, tharwh^r is hrimi.» may not clafh 
with what is divine ; and that when the ways of the Setifes are open'd, and 
a greater natural Light fet up in the mind, nothing of incredulity and 
blindnefs towards divine Myferies may arife : but rather that the Underftand- 
ing, now clear'd up, and purged of all vanity and fuperftition, may remain 
entirely fubjedl to the divine Oracles, and yield to Faith, the things that are 
FaitVs: and laftly, that expelling the foifomus Knowledge^, infufed by the 
Serpent, which puffs up and fwells the human Mind •, we may neither be wife 
above meafure, nor go beyond the bounds of fobriety ; but purfuethe Truth 
in charity. 

Admomtiom 24. We now turn ourfelves to Men, with a few wholefome Admonitions 

/«Mankind, and juft Requefts. And firft, we admonifh them to continue in a fenfe of 

their Duty, as to divine Matters ; for the Senfes are like the Sun, which dif- 

plays the fiice of the Earth, but fhuts up that of the Heavens: and again, 

that they run not into the contrary extreme ; which they certainly will do, 

if 

" That is, run into what we vulgarly call Theories o^ni Speculations, inftead of keeping to O^- 
fervations and Experiments. See Scft. III. 41. 

** AbJIraBion, and what we commonly call A/fM/>^_yy7ir/!/Kf<j/(i?!z«_f, any farther, than it it conduces 
to Aftion in Life is what this Author guards againft, as the Bane of Philofophy ; or a kind of 
Infatuation and Delufion. Seeabovc, Seci.l. 3. and Nov. Org. Sea.I.ji, 10. 

•^ See above, Scd:. I. i. 

^ See hereafter, SeB.lW. 34. 



I 



Sed. I. Preliminaries. g 

if they think an Enquiry into Nature any way forbid them by Religion *. 
, It was not that pure and unfpocted natural Knowledge, whereby Adam gave 
names to things, agreeable to their natures, which caufed his fall ; 'tis an 
ambitious and authoritative Defire of moral Knowledge, to judge of Good 
and Evil, that makes men revolt from God, and obey no laws but thofe of 
their own will ''. But for the Sciences, which contemplate Nature, the facred 
Philofopher declares, " 'tis the Glory of God to conceal a thing •, but the 
*' Glory of the King to find it out." As if the Di'-jine Being thus in- 
dulgently condefcended to exercife the human Mind by philolophical En- 
quiries. 

25. In the next place, we advife all Mankind to think of the true 
Ends of Knowledge ; and that they endeavour not after it for curiofity, con- 
tention, or the fake of defpifing others ; nor yet for profit, reputation, 
power, or any fuch inferior confideration ; but folely for the occafions 
and ufes of Life : all along conducting and perfefling it in the Spirit of 
Benevolence. 

26. Our Requefls are, (i.) That Men would not conceive we here de- R'^»'/'- 
liver an Opnion, but a IVork ; and afTure themfelves we attempt not to found 

any Secf, or particular Doclrine ; but to fix an extenfive Bafis for the fervice 
of human Nature. (2.) That, for their own fakes, they would lay afide the 
Zeal and Prejudices of Opinions, and endeavour the common Good •, and that 
being, by our affiflance, freed and kept clear from the Errors and Hindrances 
of the way, they would themfelves alfo take part of the Task, (j.) That 
they would not defpair, as imagining our Project for a grand Rejioration, or 
Promotion of all kinds of Knowledge, infinitely beyond the power of Mortals 
to execute ; whilft in reality, it is the genuine Stop and Prevention of infinite 
Error. Indeed, as our flate is mortal, and human, a full accomplifhment 
cannot be expefted in a fingle age ; and muft therefore be recommended to 
pofterity. Nor could we hope to fucceed, if we arrogantly fearch'd for the 
Sciences in the narrow cells of the human Underftanding, and not ilb- 
milTively in the wider World. (4.) In the laft place, to prevent ill efFecls 
from contention, we defire Mankind would confider how far they have a 
right of judging our Performance; upon the foundations here laid down : 
for we rejed all that Knowledge which is too haflily abftrafted from 
things, as vague, diforderly, and ill-tbrm'd : and we cannot be expected to 
abide by a judgement which is itfelf called in queftion =. 

' See Glanvil'i Philcfiphia pit, printed at London, in 1671. 

^" See hereafter, SeciAW. 3, 4 (°rc. 

'^ The Author has guarded againft any Mifinrerprets'ion of this laft Pajfa^e, which might 
ot.herwife feem fhock:ngi a= ir common Senfe ^ni Knoieu J^e con\A not judge of his Schemes 
wTiilft itlelf IS no more than KnovleJge and common Senfe at the bottom, though Knoraledge reftifivd, 
and common Senfe improved. See above, iS, 10, zi. and Se£t. II. 7-8,9, (^c. After what tnaa- 
cer the whole is propofcd to be effected, appears in the following Seftion. 



Vol. I. C ■ SECT 



10 Preliminaries. Se<n:. II. 



S E C T. II. 

Exhibiting a Jhort View of the Dejign and Scope of the 

Instauration. 

TheScofeof I. i.TTTE divide the whole of the Instauration into y? at Parts: 
mentis Sdfn- '^ ' '^^^ fi^J^ whereof gives the Subjlance, or general Defaiptlon of 

tiarum. t\\t Knowledge -which. Mankind at prefent poflefs ; as chufing to dwell a little 

upon things already received, that we may the eafier perfedl the old, and 
lead on to new : being equally inclin'd to cultivate the Difcoveries of Anti- 
quity, as to ftrike out frefli Paths of Science. 

2. Inclaffing the Sciences, we comprehend not only the Things already in- 
vented and known, but alfo thofe omitted and wanted : for the iutelleofual 
Globe, a.svfe\\ as the terrejlfial, has both its Forefts and Deferts. 'T is there- 
fore no wonder if we fometimes depart from the common Divifions: For an 
addition, whilft it alters the Whole, muft neceflariiy alter the Parts, and their 
Seftions ; whereas the received Divifions are only ficted to the recc ived 6'«;« 
cf the Sciences, as it now ftands. 

3. "With regard to the Things we fl^ali note as defeolivc; 'twill be our 
Method to give more than the bare Tttles, or fliort Heads of what we 
wou'd have done -, with particular care, where the Dignity or Difficulty of 
the Subjefl requires it, either to lay down the Rj/les for efteding the Work, 
or make an Attempt of our own, by way of Example, or Pattern, of the 
whole. 

TheVeftgnof \\_ ^_ When we have gone thro' the ajuient Arts, we fhall inftruft the 
human Undrrjlanding to difcover new ones ; by a more jjerfeft ufe of Reafon» 
and the true Helps of the intelleSfnal Faculties ; fo as to raife and enlarge the- 
Powers of the Mind ; and as fir as the condition of humanity allows, fit it 
to conquer the difficulties and obfcurities of Nature. The thing we mean, 
is a kind of L^^/f, byuscall'd The Art of interpreting Nature * : as differing 
widely from the common Logic ; which however pretends to afTifl: and diredV 
the Underftanding -, and in that they agree : But the difference betwixt them 
confifts in three things ; viz. the End, the ^r^^r of demonftrating, and the 
Grounds of Enquiry. 

ih EnJ. 5. The End of our new Logic is to find, not Arguments, but Arts ; not 

what agrees with Principles, but Principles themfelves ; not probable Rea- 
fons, but Plans and Befigns of Works: a different intention producing a dif- 
ferent effed. In one the Adverfary is conquer'd by Difpute 5 and in the 

other 

* The Art of Inter freting Nature depcncls on this Foundation; that Nature has a meaning in 
all (he does: whence, as ihe moral Philofofher, who converlcs familiarly with Mankind, can in- 
rerpret their Defigns from his Obfervationsj fo the nutural Fhih/ofher interprets the Defigns 
of Nature by the fteps he abierves her to take. 



the Novum 
Organum 



Sed.II. Preliminaries. ii 

other Nature hy IFcrks. And fuiwble to this difference ofdefign, is the 
nature and order of the Demonftrations. In the com»ion Logic, the labour is 
principally beftowed upon Syllngiftn : whilft the Logic'mn fcarce thinks oi 
Indunhi: ; but touching it (lightly, pafles on to X.\\&Forms of Difputation : where- 
as we rejeftthe Demonjl ration by Syllogi/m., as confufed, and letting Nature flip 
thro' the fingers -, whilft we take Induolion for x.\\3.t form of Deino>i(trnlion 
which guards the Senfes,prefies Nature clofe, and rules over Works. Whence 
the common order ofDemonJlrating is abfolutely inverted : for inftead of fly- 
ing immediately from the fenfcs, and particulars, to generals, as to certain 
fix^d Poles, about which Difputes always turn'd ; and deriving others from 
thefe, by intermediates; in a fhort indeed, but precipitate manner, fit for 
controverfy, but unfit to clofe with nature ; we continually raifeup Propoji- 
ticns by degrees, and in the laft place, come to the moft general Axioms " ; 
which are not notional, but well defined, and what Nature allows of, as en- 
tring the very e (fence of things ^ 

6. But the more difficult part of our Task confifts in the Form of Indue- Jt> manner of 
tiin, and the 7''^^^''^!?«^ to be made by it •, for th3.t forj?i of the Logicians which ^.^""'"■^'''*' 
proceeds by fimple enumeration, is a childifli thing, concludes unfafely, lies '"^' 

open to contradihory Inflances, and regards only common matters ; yet de- 
termines nothing : whilft the Sciences require fuch ii form of Induction, as can 
feparate, adjuft and verify Experience -, and come to a neceflary Determina- 
tion by proper exclufions and rejetflions". 

7. Nor is this all : for we likewife lay the foundations of the Sciences ftrong- Jts Grounds, 
er, and cloler ■, and begin our Enquiries deeper, than men have hitherto 

done ; bringing thofe things to the teft, which the common Logic has taken 
upon truft. The Lcgicians borrow the Principles of th^ Sciences from the Scien- 
ces themfelves, venerate the firjt Notions of the Mind, and acquiefce in the 
immedhte Inforfnations of the Senfes, when rightly difpofed : but we judge, 
that every province of the Sciences fhould enter a real Logic, with a greater 
authority than their own principles can give ; and that fuch fuppofed Princi- 
ples fhould be examin'd, till they become abfolutely clear and certain. As 
for firft notiors of the mind, we fufpedl all thofe that the underftanding, left 
to itfelf, procures i nor ever allow them till approved and authorized by a 
fecond judgment. And as to the Informations of the Senfes, we have many 
ways of examining them : for the Senfes are fellacious -, though they dilqover 
their own Errors : but thefe lie near, whilft the means of Difcovery are re- 
mote. 

8. The Senfes are faulty in two refpefts ; as they either /if/ or deceive us. EnJeavoun to 
For there are many things that efcape the Senfes, tho' ever fo rightly dif-y«f?(r the im- 
fofed ; as by the fubtilty of the whole body, or the minutenefs of its parts jf^^ gg'^e/^ 
the diftance of place •, the flownefs or velocity of motion ; the commonnefs of 

C 2 the 

* See the ff^ff/ explained in the Glossary. 

'' This alludes to the Difcovery oiYorrm, or the real and eflential natures of Things ; afub- 
jed largely prolecuted in the Nmum Organum. But for fuller Information in this Point, fee 
below, 15: the railing of a perfect fet of general Axioms in this way, being the completion of 
the Philofophia Secundn. 

■^ This cannot well be explained in few Words; but is made clear to an attentive Reader of 
the Kovum Organum; where thebufinefs of £;tr;>eriwM» is, by the alTiftanccof Reafon, reduced 
to an Art; and not left to accident and cafualtnal. 



12 Preliminaries. Sedl. 11. 

the objeft, t^c. Neither do the Senfes, when they lay hold of a thing, re- 
tain it ftrongly: for evidence, and the informations of ^f?;;/"?, are in propor- 
tion to Man, and not in proportion to the Univerfe". And 'tis a grand Er- 
ror to aflert thatSenfe is themeafure of Things*". 

9. To remedy this, we have from all quarters brought together, and fitted 
Helps for the Senfes; and that rather by Experitnents than by Infruments : 
apt Experiments being much more fubtile "^ than the Senfes themfelves, the*' 
affifted with the moft finifhed Inftruments, We, therefore, lay no great 
ftrefs upon the immediate and natural perceptions of the Senfes ; but would 
have the Senfes to judge only of Expemnents ; and Experiments to judge of 
'Things'^. On which foundation, we hope to be patrons of the 5^«yfi, and in- 
terpreters of their oracles. 

10. And thus we mean to procure the things relating to the Light of Nature, 
and the ferting it up in the Mind : which things might of themfelves fuffice,, 
if the Mind were as white paper. But fince the minds of men are fo ftrange- 
ly difpofed, as not to receive the true images of things., 'tis neceflary alfo that 
a Remedy be found for this Evil. 

Andtofiibdue jj. The /r/o/j, or f\lfe Notions* which pofiTefs the Mind, zxtt\i\\cr acquired 
'tf.^j°^^''^''" or innate. The acquired arife either from the Opinions and Sedls ofPhilofo* 
phers, or from prepofterous Laws of Demonftration : but the innate cleave 
to the nature of the U>idi'rft adding., which is found much more prone to error 
than the Senfes. For however men may amufe themfelves, and admire, or 
almoft adore the Mind f; 'tis certain, that like an irregular Glafs, it alters 
the rays of things, by its figure, and different intLrfeftions^. 

12. The two former kinds of iio/^ may be extirpated, tho' with difficul- 
ty i but this third is infuperable. All that can be done, is to point them out, 

antf' 

' This Pofuioa requires an attentive regard, as leading to a Knowledge of the Scantinefs of 
our own Underftanding, compared tothat difplaycd in theUniverie. 

^ TheDoftrine ot'the two laft Paragraphs may appear contradidlory to the Opinion of Tome 
Philofophers ; who maintain the infallibility of the Senfes, as well as of Reafon : but theDifpure 
perhaps turns rather upon Words than Things. Thus Vixhcr Malbranche is exprefe, that the Senfei 
neverdeetive us, yetasexprefs ihlX. they jliould never he trufted, without being verified : charging 
the Errors ariiing in tliis cafe, uf an human Liberty, which makes a wrong choice. See Recherche 
de la Verite; Livr. I. Chap. j-.<5, 7.8. The DilTerence may arife only from coniidering the 
Senies in two different Lights, vii.. Phyfically, or according to common ufe ; and metaphy- 
fically, or abftraBedly. The NovHtnOrgnnum dears the whole. See alfo A/<irin. Merfenniis de in- 
Verite des Sciences. 

" That is going deeper into the nature of Things, and manifefting their true State to the 
Senfes; which, unaiTilfed by Experiments, could make very little progrcfs \b natural Philofifhy. 
For Experiments are the medium by which we come to a knowledge of Nature's Works, fe> as 
to imitate, alter, or improve them by Art. 

■^ Thus, for example, the unaffifted Senfes could never difcoverthe Principles, Contents, and 
Virtues of mineral M^atcrs ; hut proper chemical and philofophical Experiments, exhibit their 
Principles and Contents to the Senfes: whence Experiments determme of the Thing, and the 
Senfes of the Experiments. And on this footing all experimental Fhilofophy proceeds. 

' The Docftrine of Idols is farther touched in the De Augmentlsi but fully profecuted and 
explained in the Novum Organum. 

^ That is, fet up Reafon, Speculation, and the mental Powers, far above Experience, and the 
converfing with Nature in her Works. See hereafter Se£t- III. 41, <(.j,44, &-c. 

t That IS, does not from within itfelf reprefent the Works of Nature, as they are in the ex- 
ternal World; but impofeson itftlf falfe Imaginations for Fadls; as isufual in Theories and Sft' 
iuluions, where Nature and Experience are not confuked. 



Seft. II. Preliminaries. 13 

and mark, and convkl that treacherous faculty of the Mind ♦, leil when the 
ancient errors are deftroy'd, new ones fhould fprout out from the r.uiknefs 
of the foil : and, on the other hand, to eftablifh this for ever, that the Under- 
ftanding can make no judgment but by hiduSt'wn^ and thejuft form tliercof. 
"Wliencd the DoSfrine of pwgifi^ the UnderJiandiKg requires three kinds of 
Cot?fiitatio>!S, to fit it for the inveftigation of Truth ; viz. the Confuta- 
tion of Philofophies, the Confutation rf Dcinonjirations, and the Confutation of 
the natural Reafon^. And when this is explain'd, and the real nature of 
Things, and of the Mind fet forth, we fhall then, by the divine afliltance, 
have prepared and deck'd the nuptial Chamber of the Mii:d and the Uni- 
verfe ^. 

III. 13. But as we propofe not only to pave and fhew the way, hut z\(oThe defgn ef 
to tread in it ourfelves, we fhall next exhibit the Phcenomena of the Univerfe \ '^' •'')''^* 
that is, fuch Experience of all kinds, and fuch a Natural Hiftory ', as may ^ "^^^ 
afford a Foundation to Philofophy. For as no fins method of Demonflra- 
tion, or form of explaining Nature, can prefcrve the mind from error, 
and fupport it from falling ; fo neither can it hence receive any matter 
of Science. Thofe, therefore, who determine not to conjecture and guefs, 
but to find out and know ; not to invent Fables and Romances of Worlds^ but 
to look into, and dilTedt the nature of this real Worlds mufl; confult only things 
themfelvcs. Nor can any force of Genius, Thought, or Argument, be fub- 
ftituted for this labour, fearch and infpeftion -, not even tho' all the wits of 
men were united : this therefore mult either be had, or the bufinefs be de- 
ferred for ever. 

14. But the conduft of mankind has hitherto been fuch, that 'tis no won- 
der Nature has not open'd herfelf to them. For the information of the Senfes 
is treacherous and deceitful; Obfer-vation cnTde{s, irregular, and accidental; 
Tradition idle, tumorous, and vain ; PraLlice narrow, and fervile ; Expe- 
rience blind, ftupid- vague and broken -, and «a/«rrt/////?or'y extremely light 
and empty : wretched materials for the Underflranding to faihion into Philo- 
fophyand Sciences ! Then comes in a prepoflrerous fubtilty of argumentation, 
and fifting, as a laft remedy, that mends not the matter one jot ; nor fepa- 
rates the errors '^. Whence there are abfolutely no hopes of enlarging and 
promoting the Sciences, without rebuilding them. 

15. The frft Materials for this purpofe muft be taken from a new kind of 
Natural Hijlory ; that the Underitandingmay have fit fubjefts to 'a:ork upon, 
as well as real Helps to work "ivitb. But our Hiftory, no lefs than our Logic, 
differs from the common in many refpefts ; particularly, (i.; in its end, or 

office, 

* See thefe Terms explained in the Glossary, under Confntutim. 

^ That is, has'e brought mapkind to an intimate acquaintance with Nature ; or to a fiate »» 
of difcovering new Manufadiurcs, Works, and Effefts. But all this is hereafter more fully and 
familiarly explained, in the Short analytical View of the Plan of the Novum Organura, prefix'd 
to that Work. 

•^ Or rather Hiftory of Nature; to diftinguilh it from the common acceptation of Kaniral 
Hiftory. 

t" Unlefs the Reader be verfed in the ways of the human MM, he may be apt to think this 
naked Defcription a (evere Cenfure. Ic muft, however, be remembred, that this Reprefentatioa 
regards the Philofophical ftate of Things a hundred years ago; and not as it is at prefcnt im- 
proved, upon the Schsme laid down by the Author, 



14 



Us Offict. 



Preliminaries. 



Sed.II. 



Celliciion. 



Subtilty. 



Choice. 



officS', (2.) its coliefiion, (3.) Its fubiilty, (4.) its choke, and (5.) its appo'mt- 
fnent for what is to follow. 

16. (i.) Our natural Hijl or J is not defign'd fo much to pleafe by its va- 
riety, or benefit by gainful Experiments, as to give light in the difcovery of 
Catifes ; and hold out the Breafl to Philofophy * ; for tho' we principally regard 
Works., Tind the atlive parts of the Sciences ; yet we wait lor the time of Har- 
veft ■, and would not reap the Blade for the Ear. We are well aware that 
Axioms, rightly framed*", will draw after them whole fheaves of Works: 
But for that untimely and childifh DL-fire of feeing fruits of new Works be- 
fore the feafon •, we abfolutely condemn and rejedl it, as the golden Apple that 
hinders the progrefs. 

1 7. (2.) With regard to its coUeoiion ; we propofe to fliew Nature not only 
m s. free fate, as in the H'lHory of Meteors, Minerals, Plants, and Animals; 
but more particularly as fhe isbound,and tortur'd, prcfs'd, form'd, andturn'd 
out of her courfe by Art and human Indufry. Hence we would fet down all 
appofite Experiments of the mechanic and liberal Arts ; with many others 
not yet form'd into Arts : for the nature of things is better difcover'd by the 
torturings of Art, than when they are left to themfelves. Nor is it only a 
Hiftory ofBodies that we would give -, but alfo of their cardinal Virtues, or 
fundamental Qualities, as Denfity, Rarity, Heat, Cold, &c. which Ihould be 
compriz'd in particular Hiftories^ 

18. {2.) The kind of Experiments tohe -procured for our Hiflory, are much 
more fublile and fwiple than the common : abundance of them muft be re- 
covered from darknefs, and are fuch as no one would have enquired after, 
that was not led by a conftant and certain track to the difcovery of Caufes -, as 
being themfelves of no great ufe, andconfequently not fought for their own 
fake ■, but with regard to Works : like the Letters of the Alphabet with re- 
gard to Difcourfe ''. 

19. (4.) In the Choice of our Narratives and Experiments we hope to have 
fliewn more care than the other Writers of iV/z/z/r^/ Hifory •, as receiving no- 
thing but upon ocular Demonftration, or the ftrideft fcrutiny of Examina- 
tion : and not heightening what is delivered, to increafe its miraculoufnefs, 
but thoroughly purging it of fupcrftition and fable. Befides this, *e rejedl, 
with a particular mark, all thole boafted and received filfehoods, which by 
a ftrange negle61: have prevailed for fo many ages ; tlut they may no longer 
moleft the Sciences. For as the idle tales of nurfes do really corrupt the 
minds of children, we cannot too carefully guard the infoncy of Philolb;. 
phy f)-om all vanity and fuperftition. And when any new or more curious 
Experiment is offer' d, tho' it may feem to us certain and well founded, yet 
we exprefly add the manner wherein it was made •, that, after it fhall be ua- 
derftood Jiow things appear to us, men may beware of any error adhering to 
them, and fearch after more infallible Proofs. We, likewife, all along inter- 

pofe 

* That is, afford the firft matter to it. 
^ St'c below, 15. 

<^ The Author's particular Hiftories oi Life mi Death, Winds, Scc.are Inftmices hereof. 
** The want ot attending to this Delign ot the Sylva Sytvamm, has occalion'd it to be much 
undervalued ; to thedifadvantage oi Experimental rhilofofhy. 

f 



Sedl. II. Preliminaries. 15 

pole ourDireftions, Scruples and Cautions; and religiouily guard againft 
Phantoms and lUufions ^. 

20. {5.) Lafi'y, having well ohfevved hov/ hr Experimefits and Hi/iory6i-it' 'ppoiat- 
ftracl the mind ; and how difficult it is, efpecially for tender or prciud iced '"'"'• 
perfons, to converfe with Nature from the beginning, we are continually fub- 
joining oiirObrervations, as lb many firft Glances oi Natural Hifiory ztPhi- 
lofophv: and this to give mankind fome Earneft, that they fhall not be kept 
perpetually floating upon the waves ofHiJiory ; and that when they come to 
the fFork of the Underjlanciing, and the Explanation of Nature, they may find 
all things in greater readinefs \ 

IV. 2 1 . And thus we fhall be prepared to enter upon Philofophy itfelf. Jf>e 'Difign of 
But in fo difficult a Task, there are certain things to be obferved, as well for '^^ ^'iT'"'^" 
inftruftion as for prefent ufe. Thefrft is to propofe Examples of Enquiry '^"^^..^f/r^'w; 
Invejligation, according to our own method, in certain SubjecSts of the nobleft uenfty anJ 
kind ; but greatly differing from each other, that a Specimen may be had of Rarity. &(^- 
every fort. By thefe Examples we mean not illuftrations ot R.ules and Pre- 
cepts, but perfeft Models, reprefenting, as it were to the eye, the whole 
progrefs of the Mind, and the continued ftrudlure and order of Invention, in 

the moft chofen fubjefts : after the fame manner as Globes and Machines 
facilitate the more abftrufe and fubtile Demonftrations in Mathematicks. 
Such a Set of £.v«;«/i/« will, therefore, be a particular application and explana- 
tion of the/>r(?«i /"^r; ofour Work^ 

V. 22. The fifth Part is only temporary, or of ufe but till the reft are Scopeof the 
finiflied ; whence we look upon it as Intereft till the Principal be paid : for Philofophi% 
we do not propofe to travel hood- winked, fo as to take no notice of what may^"""*" 
occur of ufe in the way. This parr, therefore, will confift of luch things as 

we have invented, experienced, or added, by the fame common ufe of the 
Underftanding that others employ. For as we have greater hopes from our 
conftant converfation with Nature, than from our force of Genius •, the dif- 
covcries we fhall thus make may ferve as Inns on the road, for the Mind to 
repofe in, during its progrefs to greater certainties. But this, without being 
at all di)'pofed to abide by anything that is not difcovered, or proved, by the 
true form of Induction. Nor need any one be fliock'd at this fufpenfion of 
the judgment, in a Doctrine which does not aflert that nothing is know- 
able ; but only that things cannot be known except in a certain order and 
method : whilft it allows particular degrees of certainty, for the fake of com^ 
modioulhefs and ufe, 'till the Mind fliall be enter'd into the explanation of 
Caufes. 

VI. 

* The Author mentions in other plices the uncommon degree of Pains and Care he be- 
ftow'd in coUeding this Hiftory; afluung us, that the rejeftion he ma.^.e ot Experiments laid 
before him was inhnite: lb that the' it m:;y have irs ErrorsanJ Imperfeftions ; elpccially as be- 
ing pubiidied after the Author's death; itmuti be allowed a wonderful Performance for a Ungle 
hand, before the Ice of £.vt>cr(«K« was broken. 

'' See the Nature and Dclign of this Hijlory more fully open'd in the IntrcduBion toihcSyh» 
Sylvarum itfelf. 

'^ This Partis what the Author elfewhere terms Sc.tia Ir.telleciiis; or the Vrogrtft of the 
Underjlandtng , and was intended tobe fupplud by him in the way oi monthly Vroduciions. See 
his Dedication of the Hijlory of the Hiitds to Vrince Gb.%rhi, in the Fourth Sufple.ment to the 
de Angmenth Scieniinriim, 



i6 

Nature of the 

Philofophia 

fecunda. 



Preliminaries. 



Sea. III. 



VI. 23. The /ij/? Part of our Work, to which all the reft are fubfervient, 
is to lay down that Philofophy which Ihall flow from the juft, pure, and ftrifl 
Enquiry hitherto propofed. But to perfeft this, is beyond both our abilities 
and our hopes: yet we fhall give die Foundations of it •, and recommend the 
finifhing to pofterity. And what a Work it would then be, is not perhaps 
eafy for men, in the prefent ftate of minds and things, to conceive*. The 
Point in View is not only the contemplative Happinefs, but the whole For- 
tunes, and Affairs, and Powers, and Works of Men. For Man being the 
Minifter and Interpreter of Nature, a6ls and underftands fo far as he has 
obferved of the order, the works and mind of Nature ; and can proceed no 
flxrther : for no Power is able to looi'e or break the Chain of Caufes ; nor is 
Nature to be conquer'd but by fubmiflion^: whence thofe twin Intentions, 
human Knowledge and human Power, are really coincident ■, and the greateft 
hindrance to Works is the ignorance of Caufes ■=. 

24. The capital Precept for the whole condud is this, that the eye of 
the mind be never taken off from things themfelves; but receive their ima- 
ges truly as they are. And GiPri forbid that ever we fliould offer t\\t Dreams 
of Fancy for a. }?iodel of the ff^orld ; but rather, thro' the divine fivour, write a 
Revelation, and real View of the Stamps and Signatures of the Creator upon 
the Creatures ''. 



« 



SECT. III. 

T6e Ohje&ions agai7tji Learning conjidered. 

I. I. TDEforewe come toclafsand range the 5aVw(f.c, 'tis proper we fhould 
XJ fift the merits of Knowledge ; or clear it of the Difgrace brought 
upon it by Ignorance, whether difguifed (1.) in the Zeal of Oil wj, (2.) the 
Arrogance of Politicians, or (3.) the Errors of yV/^« of Letters. 

2. Some Dm«ifj pretend, (i.) "that Knowledge is to be received with 
" great limitation, as the afpiring to it was the original Sin, and the caufe of 
the charge of a jj^g p^^]} . ^2.) that it has fomcwhat of the Serpent, and puffeth up-, (3.) that 
Solomon fays, " of making books there is no end ; much ftudy is wearinefs of 
" thefli'Jh ; for in much wifdom is fniich grief ; and he that increafeth knowledge, 
" increafeth forrow :" (4.) that St. Paid cautions againft " being fpoiled 
" through vain Philofophy ;" (5.) " that Experience fliews learned men 

have 



Learning de 
fended from 



* The Difcoveries of Mr. Biiy/c, Dr. Hook, Sir Ifaac Nervion, 8cc. may give us a nearer View of 
ihhWork, in its phylical parr; but the tt'ork it/elf, in its full extent, is far from being compleated 
to t!iis day ; ami mult ftiil be recommended to Poftenty. 

'' That is, by cond.-fcending to obferve her ways. 

"^ That human KnoTnledge and human Potver are coincident, will be fully !\iewn in the Novum 
Orgi\rium, where allbtiie nature and ufcsofthis lad Fart are more largely explained. 

'^ The two forejoingi'fff/o??^ being no more than the Out-lines of the Inflauration, they can- 
not give a full and diftindt View of the Scheme. But the Reader will findthe wholeopca tohim 
by degrees,- and be enabled at length to perform even an executive part m the Dejign. 



Sed:. III. Preliminaries. ly 

" have been Hercticks ; and learned times inclined to Athcifm ; and that 
" the contemplation of fecond Caules takes from our dependance upon God, 
'« who is the firft." 

3. To this we anfwer, (i.) it was not the ^\xrt Knowledge of Nature, hy Natuml 
the light whereof man gave names to all the creatures in Paradife, agree- ■'<^"''«''f"!?< »«* 
able to theirnatures, that occafion'd the Fall ; hutthc proud Knowledge of Good' f """fi ^ 
and Evil, with an intent in man to give law to himfelf, and depend no more' ^ ^"^ ' 
upon God *. 

4. (2.) Nor can any quantity o^ natural Knowledge pufF up the Mind ; {or^antlty of 
nothing fills, much lefs diftends the Soul, butGod. "Whence as Solomon decLires, f""^^"'-^'^^ 
that the eye is not fat'isfied withfeeingt nor the ear with hearing -, fo 9f Knowledge ""'"' ' *' 
itfelf, he fays, God hath made all things heautful in their J'eafons : alfo he bath 

placed the world in man's heart ; -jet cannot man find out the work which God 
worketh from the l?eg!?imfig to the end : hereby declaring plainly, that God has 
framed tlieMind like a Glafs, capable of the image of the Univerfe, and de- 
firous to receive it, as the eye to receive the Light -, and thus it is not only 
pleafed with the variety and viciffitudes of things, but alfo endeavours to 
find out the Laws they obferve in their changes and alterations. And if 
fuch be the extent of the Mind, there is no danger of filling it with any 
quantity of Knowledge. But it is merely from its quality, when taken 
without the true corredtive, that Knowledge has fomewhat of venom or ma- 
lignity. The corredive which renders it fovereign, is charity ; for accord- 
to St Paul, knowledge puffetb up, but charity buildeth up *". 

5. (3.) For the excefs of writing and reading books ; the anxiety of fpiritr&wZJw/V^- 
proceeding from Knowledge ; and the admonition, that we be not feduced^'^^^^/K-now- 
by vain Philofophy ; when the fe pafiages are rightly undcrftood, they mark ^^"^" 

out the boundaries of human Knowledge ; fo as to comprehend the univerfal 
nature of things. Thefe limitations are three; the firft, that we fhould not 
place our felicity in Knowledge, fo as to forget mortality •, the fecond ; that 
vv-e ufe Knowledge fo as to give ourfelves eafe and content, not diftafte and 
repining; and the //./irJ, that we prelum e not by the contemplation of A'a- 
ture, to attain to the myfteries of God. 

6. As to x.\it firft, Solomon excellently fays, Ifaw that wifdo7n excelleth folly, as 
far as light excslleth darknefs. ^e wife man's eyes are in his head, but the fool 
walketh in darknefs : and I myfdf perceived alfo that one event happeneth to them 
all. And for the fecond, it is rertain that no vexation or anxiety of mind re- 
fults from Knowledge, but merely by accident -, all Knowledge, and Admira- 
tion, which is the feed of Knowledge, being pleafant in itfelf: but when we 
frame conclufions fron. our knowledge, apply them to our own particu- 
lar, and thence minifter to ourfelves weak fears, or vaft defires •, then comes 
on that anxiety and trouble of mind which is here meant : when Knowledge 

' The Reader will ejfily perceive, that the Arguments here employed are Arguments ad ho- 
mlnetrti or popular Anfwcrs to the Ohjeftions, ufually brought againft Learning by particular 
fets of men ; rather than fuch Inftanccs as fhew the ufefulnefs and advantages of Vhilofofhy, or 
the improved ftate of the mind : with intention, that when fuch Objeciiom are anfwen;d in 
their kind, the Author may proceed unmoiefted in his way, to imprqve the general flate of 
Knowledge ; and let it above the teach of future OBjeHitns. 

•> See Sea. 1. i}.i+. 

Vol. I. D is 



i8 Preliminaries. Sedl.IIL 

is nolonger the dry Light of Heraclittts ; but the drenched one, fteepsd in the 
humours of the affeftions. 

7. (4.) The third point deferves to be more dwelt upon. For if any man 
fh.ill think, by Iiis enquiries after material things, to difcover the nature, or 
will, of God, h; is indeed fpoilsd by ■I'rt.'^Pfii/o/e/'/;)' ; for the contemplation 
of God's works produces Knowledge ; tho', with regard to him, not 
perfe<5l Knowledge, bu:Wonder, which is broken Knowledge. It may there- 
fore b^ properly faid, I'hat the Seiife refenibles tbe Sun, which fieivs the terre- 
Jlriiil Glebe ; but conceals the celejlial. For thus the Senfe difcovers natural 
things, whilft it fhuts up divine. And hence fome learned men have indeed 
been heretical ■, whilft they fought to feize the fecrets of the Deity, born on 
the waxen wings of the fenfes. 
Thitt Know 8. (5.) As to the point that too much Knowledge fhould incline to Aiheiftn, 
lectie does not ^^d the ignorance of fecond caufes make us more dependant upon God, we 
Aiheifm." ^^^ Jf^'s Q-.ieftion : ^'- TFill 'je lye for God, as one man will do for another ; to 
gratify him ?" For certainly God works nothing in Nature but by fecond 
CauLs ; and to affert the contrary is mere impofture, as it were in favour of 
God ; and offering up to the author of truth, the unclean facrifice of a lye. 
And tho' a fuperfi ial tinfture of Philofophy may incline the mind to Atheifm, 
yet a farther knowledge brings it back to Religion ' : for to reft in the en- 
trance of Philofophy, where fecond caufes appear, may induce fome obli- 
vion of the higheft c lufe •, but when we go deeper, and fee the dependance 
of cauf s, and the works of Providence, we fhall eafily perceive that the upper 
link of nature's chain is fnjlned to Jupiter' j throne. To conclude, let no one 
weakly imiigine, that men can fearch too far, or be too well ftudied in the 
Book of God's word, and works. Divinity and Philofophy ; but rather let 
them endeavour an endlefs progreffion in bothi only applying all to chari- 
ty, and not to pride ; to ufe, not oftentation ; without confounding the two 
different ftreams of Philofophy and Revelation together''. 
Learning de- 11. 9. The R .flf^ftions caft uponLearning by Politicians, are thefe, (i .) " that- 
fendedfromthe <■<■ it enervates mens minds, and unfits them for Arms -, (2.) that it perverts 
charge ofPo- n their difpofitions for Government and Politicksi (3.) that it makes them too 
*' curious and irrefolute, by variety of reading ; too peremptory or poficive 
" by ftridnrfs of rul s •, too immoderate and conceited by the greatnefs of 
" inftan:es; too unfociable and unfuitable for the times, by the difTimilitude 
" of examples ^ or ?.t leaft, (4.) that it diverts from adion and bufinefs, and 
" leads to a love of retirement ; (5.) that it introduces a relaxation in Govern- 
" ment, whilft every man is more ready to argue than obey ; (6.) that Caio 
" the Cenfor, wh n Carneades came Emballidor to Rome, and the young Ro- 
" »zfl«j flock'd about him, allured with his Eloquence, gave counfel in open 
" Senate, to grant him his difpatch immediately, left he fhould infcd the 
" minds of the youth, and infeniibly occafion an alteration in the State," 

10. 

^ See more upon this Head in the Author's 'Effty on Atheifm; and Mr. Bcyle'i 'EJfays upon 
the Ulefulnefs of Philofophy. 

'' The Dilpute betwixt i\m rational :inii fcriptural Divines is ftiU on foot: the former are 
for reconciling Rcalbn and Piiiloibphy \vit,i Fai^h a'ld R:ligion j and the latter for keeping th^m 
diftmil, as th'mgs incompitable ; or makmj; Rcalbn and K.nowlcdge fubjeft to Faith and Re- 
ligioi. The Author is clear, that they lliotild be kt-pt fcparatcj as will mo'-e fully appear here- 
after, when he com is to kick oi Theology. See tie Au^m. Sclent. Stci. XXVIl. 



Se(5>. III. Preliminaries. ig 

10. (i.) But thefe and the like Imputations have rathera fhew of gravity, TAafLMrnraj- 
than any jull: ground: for experience fliews l\\xz Le.-irning and y/rw,r, \xx-vQ''"<i ■^'"'"i 
flourilhed in tiie fame perlbns, and ages. As to perfons, there are no better f^,''^f/^^f^'' 
inftances than Alexander and Ceefar, the one yfri/?o//c's Scholar in Philorophy,ffr/o»j. 

and the other Cicero's rival in eloquence ■■, and again, Epaminondas and Xc- 
>ioph>!, the one whereof firft abated the power of ^/'«r/^?, and th;; other firft 
pav'd the way for fubverting the Perfian monarchy. 

11. This concurrence of Le.irning znd yirms, is yet more vifible in times ^nJ in the 
than in perfons, as an age exceeds a man. For in .'Egypt, AJfyria, PcrfiaJtmeTimei. 
Greece, wnARome, the times moft famous for Arms are likewife moft admired 

for Learning •, fo that the greateft Authors and Philofophers, the greatefl 
Leaders and Governours, have lived in the (iime ages. Nor can it well be 
otherwifc : for as the fulnefsof human ftrength, both in body and mind, comes 
nearly at an age •, fo Arms and Learning, one whereof correfponds to the 
body, the other to the foul, have a near concurrence in point of time. 

12. (2.) And that Learning fhould rather prove detrimental than fervice- rwr»;»^ «/ 
able in the Art of Government, feems very improbable : It is wrong to rriift/^'"^""''" ^^»- 
the natural body to Empiricks, who commonly have a few receipts whereon'^"'^'*'"*"'* 
they rely ; but know neither the caufes of difeafes, nor the conftiturions of pa- 
tients, nor the danger of accidents, nor the true methods of cure. And fo it 

muft needs be dangerous to have the civil Body of States managed by empiri- 
cal Statefmen, unlefswell mix'd with others who are grounded in Learning. 

13. On the contrary, it is almoft without inftance, that any government 
was unprofperous under learned Governours. For however common it has 
been with Politicians to diicredit learned men, by the name oi Pedants ; yec 
it appears from Hiftory, that the governments of princes in minority have ex- 
celled the governments of princes in maturity -, merely becauie the man^'ge- 
ment was in learned hands. The (late of Rome for the firft five years, fo 
much magnified, during the minority of Ntro, was in the hands of Seneca, a 
Pedant : fo it was for ten years, during the minority of Gordiavus the younger, 
with great applaufe in the hands of Mjitheus, a Pedant: and it was as hap- 
py before that, in xhs minority of Alexander Severus, under the rule of wo- 
men, afTifted by Preceptors. And to look into the government of the 
Bifliops of Rome, particularly that of Pius, and Sextus ^'inttis, who were 
both at their entrance efteemed but pedantical Friars, we fhull find that fuch 
Popes did greater things, and proceeded upon truer principles of State, than 
thofe who rofe to the Papacy from an education in civil affairs, and the Courts 
of Princes. For the' men bred to Learning are perhaps at a lofs in points of 
convenience, and prefent accommodations, caWed Renfons of State; yet they 
are perftd in the plain grounds of religion, juftice, honour and moral vir- 
tue, which if well purfued, there will be as little ufe of Reafons of State, as of 
Phyfick in a healthy conftitution. Nor can the experience of one man's life, 
furnifh Examples and Precedents for another's: prefent Occurrences frequently 
correfpond to ancient examples, better than to later. And laftly, the Ge- 
nius of any fingle man can no more equal Learning, than a private purfc 

hold way with the Exchequer. How Learn- 

14. (3.) As to the particular Indifpofitions of the Mind, for Politicks and'"g "/"^/'^^ 

Government., laid to the charge of Learning, if they are aliow'd of any force, itff''^,^7e p*- 

D 2 vciu^imdc,. 



20 



Preliminaries. 



Sea.III. 



Pfhether 
Learning Jif- 
fofes to Indo- 
tnce. 



muft be remembred, that Learning affords more Remedies, than it breeds Difea- 
fes : for if, by a fecret operation, it renders Men perplexed and irrefolute ; on the 
other hand, by plain precept, it teaches when, and upon what grounds to re- 
folve, and how to carry things in fufpence, without prejudice : if it makes Men 
pofitive and Riff, it fliews what things are in their nature demonllrative, what 
conjedlural ; and teaches theufe of DiftiniSlions and Exceptions, as well as the 
rigidnefs of Principles and Rules. If it mifleads, by the unfuitablenefs of 
Examples, itfhews the force of Circumftances, the Errors of Comparifons, 
and t\\t Cautions of Application ; fo that in all cafes, it rectifies more ef- 
fedtually than it perverts : And thefe Remedies it conveys into the Mind 
much more effeftually, by the force and variety of Examples. Let a Man 
look into the Errors of Clement the Seventh, fo livelily defcribed by Guic- 
ciardwe; or into thofe of Cicero, defcribed by himfelf in his Epiflles to Jt- 
iicus, and he will fly from being irrefolute : Let him look into the Errors of 
Phocion, and he will beware of Obflinacy, or Inflexibility : Let him read the 
Fable of Ixion, and it will keep him from Conceitednefs : Let him look in- 
to the Errors of Cato the Second, and he will never tread oppofice to the 
World. 

15. (4.) For the pretence that Learning difpoCes to Retirement, Privacy, 
and Sloth ; it were flrange if what accufloms the Mind to perpetual Motiorr, 
and Agiiation, fhould induce Indolence ; whereas no kind of Men love bufi- 
finefs, for its own fake, but the Learned ; whilfl others love it for profit, as 
Hirelings for the Wages ; others for honour •, others becaufe it bears them up 
in the eyes of men, and refrefhes their Reputations ; which would otherwile 
fade ; or becaufe it reminds them of their Fortune, and gives them oppor- 
tunities of revenging, and obliging •, or becaufe it exercifes fome faculty, 
wherein they delight, and fo keeps them in good-humour with themfelves, &c. 
Whence, as falfe Valour lies in the eyes of the Beholders, fuch Men's In- 
duftry lies in the eyes of others, or is exercifed with a view to their own De- 
figns ; whilfl the Learned love Bufinefs, as an Adlion according to Nature, 
and agreeable to the Health of the Mind, as Exercile is to that of the Body : 
Whence, of all Men, they are the mofc indefatigable in fuch bufmefs as 
may defervedly fill and employ the Mind. And if there are any laborious 
in Study, yet idle in Bufinefs ; this proceeds either from a Weaknefs of Body, 
or a Softnefs of Difpofition ; and not from Learning itfelf : The Confciouf- 
nefs of fuch a Difpofition may indeed incline a Man to Learning, but Learn- 
ing does not breed any fuch Temper in him. 
ivhtshrr 16. If it be objeded, that Learning takes up much time, which might be 

Learning »3//- better employ'd ; I anfwer, that the moft adlive or bufy Men have many 
ttn^^oys Tune. ^^^..^^^ hours, while they expedt the tides and returns of Bufinefs ; and thea 
the queftion is, how thofe Spaces of Leifure fliall be fill'd up, whether with 
PJeafure, or Study ? No fear, therefore, that Learning fhould diiplace Bufi- 
nefs ; for it rather keeps, and defends the Mind againft Idlenefs, and Plea- 
fure i which might othcrwife enter, to the prejudice both of Bufinefs and 
Learning. 

17. (5.) Again, for the Allegation that Learning fhould undermine the 
Reverence due to Laws and Government, it is a mere Calumny, without 
jfhadow of Truth. For to fay, that blind Cuftom of Obedience fliould be 



Sed. III. PRELIAilNARIES. 21 

a fafer Obligation, than Duty, taught and underftood •, is to fliy, that a blind 
Man may tread furer by a Guide, than a Man with his Eyes open can by a 
Light. And, doubtlefs. Learning makes the Mind gentle and pliable to Go- 
vernment ; whereas Ignorance renders it churlifh and mutinous: and 'tis al- 
ways found, tliat the moft barbarous, rude, and ignorant Times, have been 
moit tumultuous, changeable, and feditious. 

1 8. (6.) As to the Judgment of Caio the Cenfor, he was puniHi'd for his Caxo's^tidg- 
Contempt oi Learning., in the kind wherein he offended -, for when pall: three- mctofLeita- 
fcore, the humour took him to learn Greek: which fnews that his former '"^' 
Cenfure of the Grecian Learning was rather an affefted Gravity, than his in- 
ward Senfe. And indeed the Romans never arrived at their height of Em- 
pire, till they had arrived at their height of Arts, For in the time of the 
two fiifl Cirfars, when their Government was in its grcateil: perfeclion, there 
lived the bell Poet, Virgil; the beft Hiftoriographer, Livy ; the beft Anti- 
quary, Varro ; and the beft, or fecond beft Orator, Cicero, that the world 
has known. And let this ferve for an Anfwer to thofe Politicians, who, in 
a humorous Severity, or affefted Gravity, have thrown Imputations upoa 
Learning '. 

III. 19. We come now to that fort of Dzyirf ii/, which isbroughtuponLearn- Learning ^?- 
ing by learned Men themfelves: And this proceeds either (i.) from their -^^" ^^-{^^^ 
Fortune; (2.) their Manners; or (3.) the nature of their Studies. brought on 

(i.) The Difrepute of Learning from the Fortune, or Condition of xht it ty the 
Learned, regards either their Indigence, Retirement, or Meannefs of Employ. ■^*'"'"*''- 

20. As to the point, that learned Men grow not fo foon rich as others, be- The Poverty 
catife they convert not their Lahours to Profit ; we might turn it over to the oftheLearved.. 
Friars, of whom Machiavel {aid, " That the Kingdom of the Clergy had 
" been long fince at an end, if the Reputation and Reverence towards the 
" Poverty of the Monks and Mendicants had not born out the Exccffes of 
" Bifijops and Prelates :'* For fo the Splendor and Magnificence of the 
Great had long fince funk into Rudenefs and Barbarifm, if the Poverty of 
learned Men had not kept up Civility and Reputation. But to drop fuch 
Advantages, it is worth obferving, how reverend and facred, Poverty was 
efteemed for fome Ages in xht Roman Szitt ; fince, as Livy fays, There never 
was a Republic greater, more venerable, and more abounding in good Exam^lei, 
than the Roman ; nor one that fo long withjlood Avarice and Luxury •, or fo 
much honoured Poverty and Parcimony. And we fee, when Rotne degenerated, 
how Julius Cafar, after his Vidlory, was counfel'd to begin the Rcftoration 
of the State -, by abolifhing the Reputation of Wealth. And indeed, as we 
truly fay that Blufliing is the Livery of Virtue, tho' it may fometimes pro- 
ceed from Guilt ; fo it holds true of Poverty, that it is the Attendant of Vir- 
tue, tho' fometimes it may proceed from mifraanagement and accident ^ 

21. 

' Moft of the Exceptions made to Learning, may proceed from a mifunderftanding of the 
word, rather than from anydefedl in the thing. Lfar»('n^ is often taken for a difagreeable, prag- 
matical, or pedantick Temper and Behaviour, in many of thole called learned Men; but if 
Knowledge -weie fubftituted for the word Learning, mod Difputes of this kind are at an end: 
for who will fay of Knowledge, that is of the eflential part of acquired Learning, that it unfits 
Men for any Officeof Life ? So that if any Objetfion ftill remains, it fhould rather feem to he 
againft the accidental Attendants, or Concomitants, of Learning, than Learning itfelf. 

*• The principal Reaion why PhiiofophcrS; and learned Men, fail of railing Eftates, ieems-to. 

be 



22 Preliminaries. Secfl.III. 

Their Privacy 2 1. As for Retirement, it is a Theme fo common, to extol a private Life, 
ef Life. ^^j- taxed with S;nfualiry and Sloth, for the liberty, the pLnifure, and the free- 

dom from Indignity it affords, that every one touches it well : fuch an agree- 
ment it has to the Nature and Apprehenfions of Mankind. This may be 
added, that learned Men, forgotten in States, and not living in the eyes of 
the world, are like the Images of CaJJius and Brutus at the Funeral oijunia ; 
which not being reprefented, as many others were, Tacitus faid of them, that 
the-j out-jhone the rejl, becaufe not feen. 
Their Mean- 2 >. As for their Meannefs of Employ ; that moft expofed to contempt, is 
nefs of Employ, [he Education of Youth ; to which they are commonly allotted. But how 
unjuit this Reflcftion is, will appear to all who meafure things, ijot by po- 
pular Opinion, but by Reafon. And to fay the truth, how much foever 
the L.ives of Pedants have been ridicul'd upon the Stage, as the Emblem of 
Tyranny •, becaufe the modern Loofenefs, or Negligence, has not duly re- 
garded the choice of proper School-Mailers and Turors ; yet the Wifdom of 
the ancientefb and beft Times always complain'd, that States were too bufy 
with Laws, and too remifs in the point of Education. This excellent Part 
of ancient Difcipline, has, in fome meafure, been revived of late by the Col- 
lege of Jefuits abroad •, in which particular, they dcferve our Imitation ». 
The Manners 23. (2.) The Manners of learned Men, are perfonal, and of all kinds v as 
oftheLearneJ. Jq other Profeffions -, for particular Studies have their particular Influence up- 
on mens minds. But, to view the thing impartially, no Difgrace can be 
reflefted upon Learning from the Manners of learned Men, not inherent in 
them as learned ; unlefs it be a fault, that the Times they read of are com- 
monly better than the Times they live in ; and the Duties taught, better 
than the Duties pradlifed. 'Tis true, they fometimes over-earneftly endea- 
vour to bring things to perfeftion ; and to reduce Morality to Precepts, or 
Examples of too great height ; tho' they have Cautions enow in their Books 
againft fuch a Procedure, o 
Their prefer- 24. (3.) Another Fault .\?a<A to the charge of learned Men, and arifing 
ring their from the nature of their Studies ; is, " that they efleem the Prefervation, Good., 
^o"'he?r'own " ^nd Honour of their Country, before their czcn Fortunes or Safeties." De- 
mofthenes faid well to the Athenians ; " My Counfels are not fuch, as tend 
" to aggrandize me, and dimiftilh you ; but fometimes not expedient for 
" me to give, tho' always expedient for you to follow." So Seneca, after 
confecrating the five Years of Nero's Minority, to the immortal Glory of 
learned Governours, held on his honeft courfe of good Counfel, after his 
Mailer grew extremely corrupt. Nor can this be otherwife •, for Learning 
gives Men a true fer>fe of their Frailty, the Cafuaky of Fortune, and the 
Dignity of the SouLand its Office; whence they cannot think any Greatnefs of 
Fortune a v^orthy End of their Living-, and therefore live fo as to give a clear 
and acceptable Account to God, and their Superiors : whilft the corrupter 
fort of Politicians, who are not, by Learning, eftablifhed in a love of Duty, ■ 
nor ever look abroad into Univerfality, refer all things to themfelves -, and 

thruft 

be their regard to Univerftlity, or a great variety of Particulars; whereas a ftrong attachment 
and tixednefs to fome one Thing, with a difregaid of all others, is the diredl way of railing a 
Fortune. 

* The chief Reafon why the Jefuits make fuch excellent Tutors, is, p»rhap;, their. being 
verfed in civil, as well as collegiate Life : fo as to join the Gentleman with the Scholar. 



Se(5l.III. Preliminaries. 23' 

thriift into the Center of the World, as if all Lines fhould meet in them 
and their Fortunes ■, without regarding, in Storms, what becomes of the Ship 
of the State, if they can five themfelves in the Cockboat of their own 
Fortune. 

25. Another Charge brought againft learned Men, which may rather be i'^'"'' 'P^Hure 
defend..'d than denied, is, " that the) fomet'imes fad in maki>:g court to parti- '" f^"^ "f 

*' cidar Perfons." This want of application arifcs from two Caufes ; the ^ApflkiuLm, 
one, the largenefs of their Mind, which can hardly fubmit to dwell in the 
Examination and Obfervance of any one Perfon : tho' he who cannot con- 
tradt the fight of his Mind, as well as dilate it, wants a great Talent in Life. 
The fecond Caufe, is no Inability, but a Rejeftion upon Choice and Judg- 
ment, For the honeft and juft Limits of Obfervation in one Perfon upon 
another, extend no farther than to underftand him fufficiently -, (o as to give 
him no offence, or be able to counfcl him, or to (land upon reafonable guard 
and caution with refped to one's fclf : But to pry deep into another Man, to 
learn to work, wind, or govern him, proceeds from a double Heart ; which, 
in Friendfhip, is want of Integrity, and towards Princes or Superiors, wane 
of Duty. The Eajlern Cuftom, which forbids Subjeds to gaze upon Princes, 
tho' in the outward Ceremony barbarous, has a good Moral ; for Men ought 
not, by cunning and ftudied Obfervations, to penetrate and fearch into the 
Hearts of Kings ; which the Scripture declares infcrutabk. 

26. Another i-'i/^// noted in learned Men, is, " that they often fail in point Their Tallure- 
" of Difcretion and Decency of Behaviour ; and comtnit Errors in ordinary '" ^"^^'"J- 

" J^ions ; whence vulgar Capacities judge of them in greater matters, 
•' by what they find them in fmall." But this Confequence often deceives. 
For we may herejuftly apply the Saying of Themijlocles ; who being asked 
to touch a Lute, reply'd, " he could not fiddle •, but he could make a little 
" Village a great City." Accordingly many may be well skilled in Govern- 
ment and Policy, who are to feek in little Pundlilio's. So Plato compared 
his Mafter Socrates to the Shop- Pots of Apothecaries, painted on the out- 
fide with Apes and Owls, and Antiques ; but contain'd fovereign and pre- 
cious Remedies. 

27. But we have nothing to offer in excufe of thofe unworthy Prauf ices, ThehTempc- 
wherely fome Profejfors have dcbafed both tbefnfelves and Learning: as the '''^"'•^' ^^''•'" 
trencher PhUofophers, who, in the decline of the Roman State, were but a "^ '""^' 
kind of folemn Parafites. Ltician makes merry with this kind of Gentry, 

by defcribing a Philofopher riding in a Coach with a great Lady, who would 
needs have him carry her Lap-dog ; which he doing with an aukward Offici- 
oufnefs, the Page faid, " he feared the Stoick would turn Cxnick." But a- 
bove all, the grofs Flattery, wherein many abufe their "Wit, by turning He- 
cuba into Hellena, and Faujli:m into Lucretia, has moft diminifhed the Va- 
lue and Efleem of Learning. Neither is the modern Pfaftice of Dedications 
commendable : for Books f::ould have no Patrons, but Truth and Reafon. 
And the ancient Cuftom was, to dedicate them only to private and equal 
Friends ; or if to Kings and Great Perfons, it was to fuch as the Subjeft 
fuited. Thefe, and the like meafures, therefore, deferve rather to be cenfured 
than defended. Yet the SubmilTion of learned Men to thofe in power, cannot 
be condemned. Diogenes, to one who ask'd him, " how it happen'd that 

' '^ Philo- 



14 Preliminaries. Sed:.III. 

" Philofophers follow'd the Rich, and not the Rich the Philofophers ?'* 
anfwer'd, " becaufe the Philofophers know what they want, but the Rich 
" do not." And of the like nature was the Anfwer of Arijlippus, who ha- 
ving a Petition to Dionyfms, and no ear given him, fell down at his feet \ 
whereupon DioKyJius gave him the hearing, and granted the fuit : but when 
afterwards Anjlippus was reproved for offering fuch an Indignity to Philofo- 
phy, as to fall at a Tyrant's Feet, he reply'd, " it was not his fliult, if 
'• jDw;aV?«j's Ears were in his Feet." Nor was it accounted Weaknefj, but 
Difcretion in him that would not difpute his beft with the Emperor Adrian ; 
cxcufing himfelf, " that it was reafonable to yield to one that com- 
*' manded thirty Legions." Thefe, and the like Condefcenfions to points 
of Neceffity and Convenience, cannot be difallow'd : for tho' they may have 
fome fhew of external Meannefs •, yet, in a Judgment truly made, they are 
Submiffions to the Occafioi., and not to the Per/on *. 
Errersin the IV. 28, We proceed to the Errors and Fanities intermixed with the Studies 
Studies of the ^y ig^med Men ; wherein the Defign is not to countenance fuch Errors, but, 
by a Ccnfure and Separation thereof, to juilify what is found and good : 
For 'tis the manner of Men, efpecially the evil-minded, to depreciate what 
is excellent and virtuous, by taking advantage over what is corrupt and de- 
Three princi- generate. We reckon three principal Fanities, for which Learning has been 
falDifeafes in traduced. Tiiofe Things are ^'fl^«, which are either falfe or frivolous ; or de- 
Learning. ficient in Truth or Ufe: and thofe Perfons :\rcvain, who are either credulous 
of Falfities, or curious in things of little ufe. But Curiofity confifts either 
in Matter or JVords ; that is, either in taking pains about vain "Things-, or too 
much labour about the Delicacy of Language. There are therefore in reafon, 
as well as experience, three Diftempers of Learning ; viz. vain AffeBations, 
vain Difputes, and vain Imaginations ; or effeminate Learning ; contentious 
Learning ; and fantaftical Learning. 
Luxnrlancy of 29. The firft Difeafe, which confifts in a Luxuriancy of Style, has been an- 
style. ciently efteemed, at different times, but fbrangely prevail'd about the time 

of Luther ; who finding how great a Task he had undertaken againft the de- 
generate Traditions of the Church, and being unadifted by the Opinions of 
his own Age, was forced to awake Antiquity to make a Party for him. 
Whence the ancient Authors, both in Divinity, and the Humanities, that 
had long flept in Libraries, began to be generally read. This brought on 
a neceflity of greater application to the original Languages, wherein thofe 
Authors wrote •, for the better undcrftanding, and applying their Works, 
Hence alfo proceeded a delight in their manner of Style, and Phrafe, and an 
admiration of this kind of Writing, which was much increafed by the En- 
mity now grown up againft the School-men ; who were generally of the 
contrary Party -, and whofe Writings were in a very different Style and Form : 
as taking the liberty to coin new and ftrange Words, to avoid Circumlocu- 
tion, and exprels their Sentiments acutely -, without regard to Purity of 
Di6tion,and Juftnefs of Phrafe. And again, becaufe the great Labour then was 
to win and perfuade the People ; Eloquence and variety of Difcourfe grew 
I into 

* And hence the Author, in the original of this Piece, and leveral others, ufcd many Apo- 
ftrophes and Compliments to King 'fames the Fiift: but as neither the Occajion, nor the ttrfon 
lublill any longer, it was thought proper to drop fuch Digreflions in this Edition. 



Sed. III. Preliminaries. 

into requeft, as mofl: fuicable for the Pulpit, and beft adapted to the Capa- 
city of the Vulgar ; lb that theie four Caufes concurring, viz. (i.) Admi- 
ration of the Ancients ; (2.) Enmity to the School-men ; (3.) an exad: Study 
of Languages ; and (4.) a Define of powerful Preaching, introduced an af- 
feded iTudy of Eloquence, and copioufnefs of Speech ; which then began to 
flourifh. This foon grew to excefs ; infomuch, that Men ftudy'd more after 
Words than Matter -, more after the choicenefs of Phrafe, and the round and 
clean Compofition, fweet Cadence of Periods, the ufe of Tropes and Figures •, 
than after Weight of Matter, Dignity of Subjeft, Soundnefs of Argument, 
Life of Invention, or Depth of Judgment. Then grew into efteem, the 
flowing and watry Vein of Oj'oritis, the Portugal Bifhop ; then did Stiirmius 
bellow fuch infinite Pains upon Cicero and Hermcgenes ; then did Car and 
Jfcham, in their Leftures and Writings, almoft deify Cicero and Demoflhc- 
iies ; then grew the Learning of the School-men to be utterly defpifed, 
as barbarous ; and the whole bent of thofe Times, was rather upon Fulnefs 
than Weight. 

29. Here, therefore, is the firft Dijlemper of Learning ; uhen Menftudy 
fVords, and not Matter : and, though we have given an Example of it from 
later Times, yet fuch Levities have, and will be found, more or lefs, in all 
Ages. And this muft needs difcredit Learning, even with vulgar Capacities, 
when they fee learned Men's Works appear like the firft Letter of a Patent ; 
which, tho' finely flourifh'd, is Hill but a Letter. Pygmalion's Frenzy feems 
ii good Emblem of this Vatiit^ : for Words are but the Images of Matter ; 
and unlefs they have Life of Reafon and Invention, to fall in love with 
them is to fall in love with a Picture. 

30. Yet the illuftrating the obfcurities of Philofophy, with fenfible and 
plaiifible Elocution, is not haftily to be condemned : For hereof we have 
eminent examples in Xenophon, Cicero, Seneca, Plutarch, and Plalo^ ; and the 
thing itfelf is of great ufe : for altho' it be fome hindrance to the fevere 
Enquiry after Truth, and the farther progrefs in Philofophy, that it fhould 
too early prove fatisfaftory to the Mind, and quench the defire of tarther 
fearch ; before ajuft period is made: yet when we have occafion for Learn- 
ing and Knowledge in civil Life ; as for conference, counfel, perfuafion, dif- 
courfe, or the like ; we find it ready prepared to our hands in the Authors 
•who have wrote in this way. But the excefs herein is fo juftly contemp- 
tible, that as Hercules, when he faw the ftatue of Adonis, who was the 
delight of Venus, in the temple, laid with indignation, there is no divinity in 
thee; fo all the followers of ^^rrw/fj in Learning, that is, the more fevere 
and laborious enquirers after Truth, will uefpife thefe delicades and affec- 
tations, as trivial and effeminate. 

31. This luxuriant 6'/\/(f was fucceeded by another, wliich, the' more ehafte, 
has ftill its vanity ; as turning wholly upon pointed expreflions, and fhort 
periods, fo as to appear concile and round, rather than difilifive ; by which 
contrivance the whole looks more ingenious than it is. Seneca ufed this 

* M. Fmitenelle is an eminent modern Inftance in the fame way : thus particularly his Plu- 
rality of liirlJs renders the preJent Syftem of Aftronomy agreeably familiar j as his Hiftory of 
the Koyal Academy embcliiihes and ejiplains the abftrufe parts of Mathematicks, and Phi- 
iofophy. 

Vol. L £ kind 



^s 



26 Preliminaries. ScS:. III. 

kind of Style profafely •, but Tacitus and Pliny vvitli greater moderation. It 
has alfo begun to render itfelf acceptable in our time. But to fay the truth, 
its admirers are only the men of a middle Genius, who think it adds a Dig- 
nity to Learning ; whilft thofe of folid judgment juftly rejeft it, as a cer- 
tain Difeafe of Learning; fince it is no more than a jingle, or particular quaint 
affeftation of words ^. And fo much for the firjl Difeafe of Learning. 
The fecond V. ^2. The fecond Difeafe is worfe in its nature than the former: for as 

Difeafe of the Dignity of matter exceeds the Beauty of words, fo Vanity in Matter is worfe 
Learnmg,vMa ^^^^ Vanity in T-Fords : whence the Precept of St. Paul is at all times feafona- 
ble : Avoid prophane and vain babblings , and opfofttions offciencefalflyfo called. 
He afllgns two marks of fufpefted and falfified fcience: the one novelty and 
flrangenefs of terms ; the other /?rft7wyi of pofitions ; which neceffarily indu- 
ces oppofitions, and thence queftionsand altercations. And indeed, as ma- 
ny folid fubftances putrefy, and turn into worms ; fo does found Know- 
ledge often putrefy into a number of fubtle, idle, and vermicular Que- 
ftions, that have a certain quicknefs of life and fpirit, but no ftrength of 
matter, or excellence of quality. This kind of degenerate Learning chiefly 
reign'd among the Schoolmen ; who having fubtle and ftrong Capacities, abun- 
dance of leifure, and but fmall variety of reading, their minds b-iing fhut 
up in a few Authors, as their bodies were in the cells of their monafteries, 
and thus kept ignorant both oftheHiftory of Nature and Times i they» 
with infinite agitation of wit, fpun out of a fmall quantity of matter, 
thofe laborious webs of Learning, which are extant in their books. For the 
human Mind, if it afts upon matter, and contemplates the nature of Things, 
and the works of God, operates according to the (luff, and is limited there- 
by •, but if it works upon itfelf, as the fpider does, then it has no end : 
but produces cobwebs of learning, admirable indeed for the finenefs of the 
thread -, but of no fubftance or profit^. 
Tltemithoiof 33- 'This unprofitable fuhtilty is of two kinds; and appears either in the 
ihe Schoolmen. {ahjeA, when that is fruiflefs fpeculation or controverfy -, or in the manner 
of treating it, which amongft them was this: Upon every particular pof:- 
tioii they framed objections, and to thofe objeftions folutions •, which folu- 
tions were generally not confutations, but diftinftions ; whereas the ftrength 
of all Sciences, is like the ftrength of a faggot bound. For the harmony of 
a Science, when each part fupporcs the other, is the true and fhort confuta- 
tion ofall the fmaller objeftions ; on the contrary, to take out every axiom, 
as the fticks of the figgot, one by one, you may quarrel with them, and 
bend them, and break them at pleafure : whence, as it was faid of Seiieca^ that 
he weakned the weight of things by trivial expreffion ; we may truly fay of the 
School-men, that they broke the folidity of the Sciences, by the tninutenefs of 
their queftions. For, were it not better to fet up one large light in a noble 
room, than to go about with a fmall one, to illuminate every corner there- 
of ' ? Yet fuch is the method of the School-men i that refts not fo much 

upon 

* Since the eftablidiment of the Irench Actidemy, a ftudied plainnefs, and fimplicity of ftyle, 
begins to prevail in that Nation. 

* For the Literary Hijlory of the Schoolmen, fee Morhof'i Polyhifi. Tom. II. Lib. I. Cap. t^ 
CamiJen's Remains, Sec. 

« This is what the Author endeavours in his Novum Orgnnnm; which fets up z general Lisht. 
for. the improvement of all kinds of K.nowkdge.. 



Sed. III. Preliminaries. 27 

upon the evidence of truth from arguments, authorities and examples, as up- 
on particular confutations and folutions of every Icruple, and objedlion ; 
which breeds one queftion, as fafl as it folves another ; juft as in the above 
example, when the light is carried into one corner, it darkens the reft. 
Whence the fable of Scjlla feems a lively image of tliis kind of Philofo- 
phy ; who was transformed into a beautiful virgin upwards ; 'wbilji barking 
rnonilers furrounded her belcw. For fo the generalities of the Schoolmen are 
for a while fair and proportionable •, but to defcend into their diftindlions 
and deoifions, they end in monftrous altercations, and barking queftions. 
Whence this kind of knowledge mull neceliiirily f!ill under popular con- 
tempt : lor the people are ever apt to contemn truth, upon account of the 
conrroveriies railed about it ; and to think thole all in the wrong way, who 
never meet. And when they fee fuch Quarrels about fubtilities and matters 
of no ufe, they ufually give into the judgment of Dmisjius, " I'hat 'iis 
old jnen's idle talk." But if thole Schoolmen, to their great thirft of truth, 
and unwearied exercife of wit, had joined variety of reading, and contem- 
plation ; they would have proved excellent lights, to the great advancement 
of all kinds of Arts and Sciences. And thus much for the fecond Difeafs 
of Learning. 

VI. 34. The third Difeafe, which regards Deceit or Faljhood, is the fouleft ; The third Dif 
as deftroying the eflential form of Knowledge -, which is nothing but a re- ^."^^ "f ^^""""^ 
prefentation of Truth : for the Truth of Exiftence, and the Truth of Know- cm, or^/TOi«- 
ledge are the fame thing •, or differ no more than the diredt and reflefted jiur'e and 
ray. This vice therefore branches into two ; viz. delight in deceiving, and Credulity. 
aptnefs to be deceived ; impoflure and credulity -, which tho' apparently dif- 
ferent, the one feeming to proceed from cunning, and the other from fim- 
plicity ; yet they generally concur. For as an inquifuive man is a pratler ; 
io a credulous man is a deceiver ; for he who eafily believes rumours, will 
as eafily increafe them. 

35. This ea/inefs of belief , and admitting things upon weak authority, is of Eafmfs e/Be^ 
two kinds, according to the fubjefl : being either a belief of Hiftory, and ^'rf «/ '»» 
matter of Fact, or elfe matter of Art and Opinion. We fee the inconve- ^"1^' *''^' 
nience of the former in Ecclefuifliial Hijlory, which has too eafily received and tg HiftwT 
regiftred relations of miracles wrought by martyrs, hermits, monks, i^c. 
.and their relicks, fhrines, chapels, images, ^c. So'm Natural Hiflory, there 
has not been much judgment employed, as appears from the writings of 
Pliny, Cardan, Albertus, and many of the Arabians ; which are full of fa- 
bulous matters ; many of them not only untried, but notorioufly falfe : to 
the great difcred it of Natural Pbilofophy, with grave and fober minds. But 
the prudence and integrity of A riflo tie is here worthy our obfervation -, who 
having compiled an exadl Hi/lory ofAni?nals, dafh'd it very fparingly with 
fable or fiction ; throwing all Jlrange Reports, which he thought worth re- 
cording, into a book by themfelves " -, thus wifely intimating, that matter 
of Truth, which is the bafis offolid Experience, Philofophy, and the Scien- 
ces, fhould not be mix'd with matter of doubtful credit : and yet that cu- 

■E 2 riofities 

* The fame method was fince obferved by Mr. Scjle, who colleiied together fuch Relations 
cf Fails as feem'd lefs credible, under the Title oiStrangt Re^oris. 



28 Preliminaries. Sed. III. 

riofities or prodigies, the* feetningly incredible, are not to be fupprefs'd, 
or denied the regiftring. 
Andop'mions. 3 6. Credulity in y^ris and Op'^iions, is likewife of two kinds -, viz. when 
men give too much belief to Arts themfelves •, or to certain Authors in any 
Art. The Sciences that fway tl)e Imagination more than the Reafon, are 
principally three, viz. Aftrology\ Natural Magick, and Alchemy ; the ends or 
pretenfions whereof, are however noble. For AJirology pretends to difcover 
the influence of the fuperior upon the inferiorBodies : Natural Magick pretends 
to reduce Natural Philofophy from fpeculation to works : and Chemtftry pre- 
tends to feparate the diffimilar parts, incorporated in natural mixtures ; and 
to cleanfe fuch bodies as are impure, throw out the heterogeneous parts, and 
perfed: fuch as are immature. But the means fuppofed to produce tliefe Ef- 
fefts are, both in theory and pradlice, full of error and vanity : and be- 
fides are feldom delivered with candour ; but generally concealed by artifice 
and enigmatical ExprelTions ; referring to Traditions, and ufing other 
Devices to cloak Impofture. Yet Alchemy may be compared to the man 
who told his fons, he had left them Gold buried fomewhere in his vineyard -, 
where they by digging found no Gold, but by turning up the mould 
about the roots of their vines, procured a plentiful vintage. So the fearch 
and endeavours to tnake Gold, have brought many ufcful inventions and in- 
ftruftive experiments to light ^. 
Credulity as 37. Credulity in re[peEl of certain Authon., and making them Dilators in- 
ta Authors, ftead oi ConfiiU, is a principal caufe that the Sciences are no farther ad- 
vanced. For hence, tho' in mechanical Arts, the firft inventor fivlls fhorr, 
time adds perfedtion •, whilft in the Sciences, the firft Author goes farthefl% 
and time only abates or corrupts. Thus Artillery, Sailings Printing., &c. 
were grofsly managed at the firft ; but received improvement by time : 
on the contrary, the Philofophy and th?: Sciences of AriftolU; Plato, Democritus, 
Hippocrates, Euclid, Archimedes, &CQ.. flourifti'd moft in the original Authors, 
and degenerated with Time. The reafon is, that in the mechanick Arts, the 
Capacities and Induftry of many are colledted together ; whilft in the Sciences, 
the Capacities and Induftry of many have been fpent upon the Invention of 
fome one man ; who has commonly been thereby rather depraved than il- 
Juftrated. For as water afcends no higher than the level of the firft fpring, 
fo knowledge derived from Arijhtle, will at moft rife no higher again than the 
knowledge oCAriJiolle. And therefore tho' afcholar miijl have faith in his majler; 
yet a man well inJlruSfed mufl judge for himfelf: for Learners owe to their 
Mafters only a temporary belief, and a fufpenfion of their own judgment, till 
they are fully inftrufted ; and not an abfolute refignation, or perpetual cap- 
tivity. 

• As among the Mgyftians, the Chinefe, and the ArMitrts, if their Hijiories are to be cre- 
dited. In later times, they make Copper out of Iron, to profit, at Nevofohl in Germa?iy. 
See Agricol» tie reMetallica, Morhof.Fr. Hoffman, £cc. And thus whWA Brand oi Hambrough, 
was working upon Urine, in order to find the Philofopher's Stone, he (tumbled upon that 
called Kunckel's barning Phofphorus, in the year 1669. See Mem.de I' Academ. Royal dei Sciences, 
An. 1691. And Wl.Homberg opermng upon human Excrement, for an Oil to convert Quick- 
filver into Silver, accidentally produced that we now ciW the Black Phofphorus i 3. 'powdeivthich- 
readily takes fire, and burns like a coal in the open air. See Mem. de I' Acad. An. 1711. To: 
giyje all the Inftancesof this kind, were almoft endlefs. 



Sed. III. Preliminaries. 29 

tivity. Let great Authors therefore have their due ; but fo as not to de- 
fraud Time, which is the Author of Authors, and the Parent of Truth. 

VII. 38. Befides the three Difeafes of Learning above treated ; there z.YtTeecant Hu- 
fome ot\\tr peccant Humours, which fiilling under popular obfervation, and '"""". "/ . 
reprchenfion, require to be particularly mentioned. The/r/? i^ the affening J^'^Hl^^iii^^ 
of ttvo extre7nes ; Antiquity, and Novelty : wherein the children of Time feem of Anriquity 
to imitate their Father; for as he devours his children, fo they endeavour «"<' Novelty. 
to devour each other : \vhi\(\i Antiquity envies new Improvements; and No- 
velty is not content to add, without defacing. The advice of the Prophet 
is jurt in this cafe : Stand upon the old ways, and fee which is the good way, and 
•walk therein. For Antiquity deferves that men fliould fland a while upon it, 
to view around which is the befl way ; but when the difcovery is well made, 
they fhould (land no longer, but proceed with chearfulnefs. And to fpeak 
the truth, Antiquity, as we call it, is the young ftate of the world ; for 
thofe times are ancient when the world is ancient; and not thofe we 
vulgarly account ancient by computing backwards ; fo that the prefent time 
is the real Antiquity *. 

39. Another £r/-or, proceeding from the former, is, a diflrujl that any T>tflrnfl of far^ 
thing fhould be difccvered in later times, that was not hit upon before; as if Lu-'^"'^'/""""*" 
fM«'s objeftion againft the Gods, lay alfo againft Time. He pleafantly asks""' 

why the Gods begot fo many children in the firft ages, but none in his 
days ; and whether they were grown too old for generation, or were re- 
ftrained by the Pafian Law, which prohibited old men from marrying ? For 
thus we feem apprehenfive that Time is worn out ; and become unfit for 
generation. And here we have a remarkable inftance of the levity and 
inconflancy of man's humour ; which before a thing is eftefted, thinks it 
impoffible ; and as foon as it is done, wonders it was not done before. 
So the Expedition of Alexander into Afia, was at firft imagin'd a vaft and 
imprafticable enterprize ; yet Livy afterwards makes fo light of it, as to fay 
it was but bravely venturing to defpife vain Opinions ^. And the cafe was the 
fame in Columbus's Difcovery of the JVeJl Indies. But this happens much 
more frequently in intelledlual matters ; as we fee in moft of the Propofi- 
tions of Euclid ; which till demonftrated, feem ftrange ; but when demon- 
ftrated, the mind receives them by a kind of affinity ; as if we had known 
them before. 

40. Another iTrror of the fame nature, \% an Imagination that of all anc'ient'^^»' *f'i l"fi' 
Opinions cr Seels, the bejl has ever prevailed, and fuppreffed the reft ; fo ^^^^^^^"'^"'J^^ 
if a man begins a new fearch, he muft happen upon fomewhat formerly ^^- prevalent. 
jefted i and by rejedlion,^ brought into oblivion : as if the multitude, or the 

wiJer fort, to pleafe the multitude, would not often give way to what is 
light and popular, rather than maintain what is fubilantial and deep "=. 

4 1 . Another different Error is the over-early and peremptory reduSlion ofsuddtn Re- 
knowledge into Arts and Methods v from which time the Sciences are feldom Huahn of 

I improved. ^"'"^I'^s^ '"- 

to methods. 

* This is more particularly explained and illuftrated in the Novum Organum. 

* Nihil »liud quam bene aufus eft, vann contemnere. 

« The Author's own conduft in this particular may deferve obfervation ; as turning upon 
the artificiul ufe of rational means to overthrow Prejudice, and eftablifh Truth. See above 
SeA.I. 11. and hereafter in the prefent Piece, and the Novum Organum, paflim. 



3© 



R EL.IM I N A R I E S. SctH:.!!!. 



improved : For as young men rarely grow in flature, after their fhape and 
limbs are fully formed ; fo Knowledge, whilft it lies in Apborifms and Obfer- 
vations, remains in a growing ftate ; but when once fafhion'd into Methods, 
tho' it may be fiirther polilhed, illuftrated, and fitted for ufe, it no longer 
encreafes in bulk and fubftance *. 
The quiuing 42, Another Error is, that after the diftribution of particular Arts and Scien- 
of Univerfa- ^^^^ „^gjj generally abandon the Study of Nature, or umverfal Philofophy ; which 
'''■''■ flops all farther progrefs. For as no perfeft view of a Country can be ta- 

ken upon a flat ; fo it is iinpoffible to difcover the remote and deep parts 
of any Science, by {landing upon the level of the fame Science ; or without 
afcending to a higher ''. 
Too great Ke- 43. Another £rr.5r proceeds from too great a reverence, and a kind of 
■verenei to the g^^gration paid to the human underftanding " ; whence men have withdrawn 
^^jj^^" " ^*^' themfelves from the contemplation of nature, and experience, and fported 
with their own reafon and the fidions ot Fancy. Thefe Intelle^ualijls, tho' 
commonly taken for the moll fublime and divine Philofophers '^ ; are cenfured 
by Heraclltus, when he fays, " men feek for truth in their own little worlds, 
" and not in the great "world without them ;" and as they difdain to fpell, they 
can never come to read in the volume of God's works ■, but on the contrary, 
by continual thought and agitation of wit, they compel their own Genius, to 
divine, and deliver oracles, whereby they are defervedly deluded ". 
jntroJue'ing 44. Another Error is, that 7nen often infeR their Speculations and Do^rines, 
farticuUr ^///j fgr/ie particular Opinions they happen to be fond of, or the particular Sciences 
vh\"r^ h'" ''^^^^^^^° ^^^^ ^'^'^^ ^^"fl "■tP^i^'^ ■' '^""^ thence give all other things a tinfture that 
loop y. .^ utterly foreign to them. Thus Plato mixed Philofophy with Theology -, 
Ariftotle with Logick, Proclus with Mathematicks ^ ; as thefe Arts were a 
kind of elder and favourite children with them. So the Alchemifts have made 
a Philofophy from a few Experiments of the Furnace ; and Gilbert another 
out of the Loadflone. But of fuch Authors Arijlolle fays well : Thofewho take 
in but a few Confiderations, may eafily pronounce ^. 
jmfiitienee of 45. Another Error is an impatience of doubting, and a blind hurry of afferting 
Doubting and ^iifjout a mature fufpenfion of judgment. For the two ways of contemplation 
suf^enjon. ^^^ jjj^^ ^.j^^ ^^^ ^^y^ ofadlion, fo frequently mention'd by the ancients; 
the one plain and eafy at firft, but in the end impaffable ; the other rough 

and 

• Hence Mr. Boyle, and others, recommend and praftife 'EJfay -writing in Vhilofofhy, prefer- 
ably to the Syfiematical Method. 

^ Thus the Mathematical Philofophy of our times is not to be meafured by mere Mathema- 
ticians ; but by fuch as are acquainted with Nature and Univerfality, as well as Mathematicks ; 
fo as dearly to difcern how tiir this kind of Philofophy reaches, and where it errs, or falls 
fliorr. It may be proper to confult.upon this occafion, a late Performance, entitled, Mathema- 
ti^ue Unizer/elle. 

' See above, Seft. I. 10. 8c Seft. II. 1 1 . 

^ As Plato, for inflance, among the Ancients ; and Jej Cartes among the Moderns. 

« Thus feme of the Laws of motion, laid down by des Cartes, from Theory, are found falfe 
in Experience. 

^ How far univerial Philofophy Is at prefent difadvantageoufly wrefted into the Channel of 
Mathematicks, will perhaps be better perceived by Poflerity than ourfelves. See the Author 
on Mathematicks hereafter, Se£t. VII. and Morhof's, Polyhiji. Tom. II. pag. 149. 

B Hence the principal modern writers of {literary Hiflory juftly recommend Polymathy, or a 
general knowledge of Arts and Sciences, as neceflary to thole who would thoroughly under- 
ftand and improve any one in particular. SeeMorhof, Strh-uius, 5;«//;«;, Stc. i 



Secfl.lII. Preliminaries. 31 

and fiitiguiiig in the entrance, but loon after fliir and even : fo in contem- 
phtion, if we begin with certainties, we fliall end in doubts ; but if we begin 
with doubts, and are p.itient in them, we fliall end in certainties'. 

46. Another £rro;-l ies in the manner of delivering K/wwledge, which is ge- The magi(le- 
neral/y magifterial and peremptory, not ingenuous and open ; hut fuited to gain rialdeliynng 
belief without examination. And in compendious Treacifes for praftice, this "A ^''""»''^'v£^- 
form fhould not be difallowed : but in the true delivering of Knowledge both 
extremes are to be avoided ; viz. ihxi of Felleius ihe Epicurean, ^'■whofjared 

" nothing /0 much as the non-appearance of doubting ;" and that of Socrates, 
and the Academicks, who ironically doubted of all things : but the true way is 
to propofe things candidly, with more or lefs afleveration, as they ftand in 
a man's own judgment. 

47. There are other Errors in the fcope that men propofe to themfelves : Afplrmg but 
for whereas the more diligent Profejfors of any Science ought chiefly to endeavour "> '»ff/'or 
the making fame additions or improvements therein ; they afpire only to certain fe- p-"" '■'''*' 
cond prizes ; as to be a profound commentator •, a fharp difputant ; a me- 
thodical compiler, or abridger, (Jc. whence the Returns or Revenues of Know- 
ledge are fometimes increafed, but not the Inheritance and Stock \ 

48. But the greatcft Error of all, is, miftaking the ulti?nate End of Know- Mijlaklng the 
ledge ; for fome Men covet Knowledge, out of a natural Curiofity, and in- ^"^ "f •Kww- 
quifitive Temper ; fome to entertain the Mind with Variety and Delight ; ' ^^' 
fome for Ornament and Reputation ; fome for Vidory and Contention i 

many for Lucre and a Livelihood ; and but few for employing the Divine 
Gift of Reafon, to the ufe and benefit of Mankind. Thus fome appear to 
feek, in Knowledge, a Couch for a fearching Spirit ; others, a Walk for a 
wandring Mind ; others, a Tower of State •, others, a Fort, or commanding 
Ground ; and others, a Shop for profit, or fale -, inftead of a Store-houfe for the 
Glory of the Creator, and the endowment of human Life. But that which 
nuift dignify and exalt Knowledge, is the more intimate and ftridt conjunftion 
of Contemplation and Atlion ' ; a Conjunclion like that of Saturn, the Planet 
of Reft and Contemplation ; and Jupiter, the Planet of civil Society and 
Action. But here, by Ufe and A^ion, we do not mean the applying of 
Knowledge to lucre •, for that diverts the advancement of Knowledge ; as 
the golden Ball thrown before Atalanta ; which while fhe ftoops to take up, 
the race is hindred. Nor do we mean, as was faid of Socrates, to call Philo- 
fophy down from Heaven, to converfe upon Earth •, that is, to leave Natural 
Philofophy behind, and apply Knowledge only to Morality and Policy : 
But as both Heaven and Earth contribute to the ufe and benefit of Man •, fo 
the End ought to be, from both Philofophies, to feparate and rejedl vain and 
empty Speculations; and preferve and increafe all thatisfolid and fruitful. 
And thus we have opened the chief of thofe peccant Humours, which not only 

retard 

• Doubling, in Thilofofhy, appears to be the occaiional Spring of Examination and Trial ; or 
a principal motive to farther fearch and experiments, in order to latisfy the Scruples that arife 
in the Mind. To this purpofe, fee GlanvU's Seeffis Scitntific», printed at London, i66f i and 
hereafter under Thy/uks, Sedl.IV. z/. 

* That is, the prefent Syftem of Knowledge is thus fometimes fpread among the Body of a 
People; but no addition made to its total Sum. And thus the greateft part of Writers are but: 
Spreatkri; and the original InvwMM and Imfroven, a flendei Number, 

f See above, Sc£L L i. 



32 



Preliminaries. 



Sea. in. 



T'.'t Dignity of 
Learning 
flitvn from 
divine r^/?:- 
mony. 



A itifirence 
SetrvixtKnorv- 
leJgeanJPoTV- 
er in the Crea- 
tion. 



Jn the celejlial 
Hierarchy. 



The Scripturt 
Difpenfaiio». 



In Farad ife. 



retard the Progrefs of Learning ; but alfo occafion it to be traduced*. We 
have been free of our Cenfures, as not propofing a Panegyric upon Learning., 
or an Hymn to the Mufes ; but, without varnifh or amplification, to weigh 
the Dignity of Knowledge, and take its true Eftimate by Arguments and 
Teflimonies, human and divine. 

VIII. 49. Next, therefore, let us feek the Dignity of Knowledge in its ori- 
ginal ; that is, in the Attributes and Acls of God -, fo far as they are re- 
vealed to Man, and may be obferved with fobriety. But here we are not 
to feek it by the name of Learning : for all Learning is Knowledge ac- 
quired ; but all Knowledge in God is original : we muft therefore look for 
it under the name of Wiflom, or Sapience., as the Scriptures call it. 

50. In the work of Creation, we fee a double Emanation of Virtue from 
God -, the one relating more properly to Power, the other to IVifdom ; the 
one exprefb'd in making the Matter, and the other in difpofing the Form. 
This being fuppofed, we may obferve, that, for any thing mentioned in 
the Hiftory of the Creation, the confufed mafs of the Heavens and Earth 
was made in a moment ; whereas the Order and Difpofition of it was the 
work of fix days : fuch a mark of difference feems put betwixt the TVorks of 
Power, and the Works of IVifdom : whence it is not written that God faid. 
Let there be Heaven and Earth, as it is of the fubfequent Works ; but ac- 
tually, tiiat God ?uade Heaven and Earth : the one carrying the ftyle of a 
Manufifture, the other that of a Law, Decree, or Council. 

51. To proceed from God to Spirits: We find, as far as credit may be 
given to the celeflial Hierarchy, of the fuppofed Dionyfius, the Areopagite, 
the firll place is given to the Angels of Love, termed Seraphim ; the fecond, 
to the Angels of Light, called Cherubim ; and the third, and following places, 
to Thrones, Principalities, and the reft -, which are all Angels of Power and 
Miniftry : fo that the Angels of Knowledge and Illumination, are placed be- 
fore the Angels of Office and Domination. 

52. To defcend from Spirits, and intelleftual, to fenfible and material 
Forms : We read the firft created Form was Light; which, in nature and 
corporeal things, hath a relation and correfpondence to Knowledge in Spirits, 
and things incorporeal : fo, in the diftribution of Days, we find the Day 
xvherein God refted, and compleated his Works, was bleflTed above all the 
Days wherein he wrought them. 

53. After the Cr^rt/ww was finifhed, it is faid, that Man was placed in the 
Garden to work therein; which Work could only be Work of Contemplation ; 
that is, the end of his Work was but for Exercife and Delight, and not for 
Neceffity : for there being then no Reludlance of the Creature,nor Sweat of the 
Brow, Man's Employment was confequently matter of Pleafure, not La- 
bour. Again, the firft Afts which Man performed in Paradife, confilled of 
the two fummary parts of Knowledge ; a view of the Creatures, and the 
impofuion of Names. 54. 

* To this Catalogue of Errors incident to learned Men, may be added, the Frauds and Im- 
paftures of wliich they are fbmetimes guilty, to the icandal of Learning. Thus Plagiarifm, 
Pyracy, Fallification, Interpolation, Caftration, the pubhfhing of ipurious Books, the ftealing of 
Manufcriptsout of Libraries, (^c. have been frequent, e{pec\3\\y imong the Ecclefeajiical IVriters i 
^nd the Fratres Falfarii. For inftances of this kind, lee Struvius de DoBis Imfoftoribus, Mor- 
hof in Potyhift. de Pfeudonymis, Anonymis, dye. Le Clerc's Art Critic», Cave's Hijloria Littrarin 
Scriptorum Zcclejiafticornm, Father Simon, Maiilim, &c. 



Sed.III. Pr E L Of I N A RI ES. 33 

54. In the firft event after the Fall, wc find an Image of the two States, Tn Cain aiul 
the contemplative and the aftive, figured out in the perlbns of yibcl and Cain ; 

by the two fimplefl: and moft primitive Trades, that of the Shepherd, and 
that of the Husbandman ; where again, the favour of God went to the 
Shepherd, and not to the Tiller of the Ground. 

55. So in the Age before the Flood, the facred Records mention the name The Age be- 
of the Inventors of Mufick, and Workers in Metal. In the Age after the/'"'^'^-"'^''""'- 
Flood, the firft great Judgment of God upon the Ambition of Man, was 

the Confufion ofTongues ; whereby the open trade, and intercourfe of Learn- 
ing and Knowledge, was chiefly obftruded. 

^6. It is faid of Mofes, " T^bat he was fecn in all the Learning of the J" Mofes, So- 
" /Egyj-tians ■" which Nation w.is one of the moft ancien: Schools of the ^*^""'""' ^'• 
World: for Plato brings in the jEgyrticn Pritft ftying to Scion ; " llu Gre- 
" cians are ever Children, having no knowledge of Antiquity, nor antiquit-j of 
" Kno-ivledge." In the ceremonial Law of Mofes, we find, that befidcs the 
prefiguration of C/jr//?, the mark of the People of God to diftinguifh them 
from the Gentiles, the exercife of Obedience, and other divine Inftitutions, 
the moft learned of the Rabhies have obferved a natural, and fome of them 
a moral Senfe, in many of the Rites and Ceremonies. Thus in the Law of 
the Leprofy, where it is faid; " If theWbitcnefs have overfpread the Flefh, 
** the Patient may pafs abroad for clean ; but if there be any whole Flejh re- 
" maining, he is to be flna up for unclean'^ one of them notes a Principle of 
Nature ; viz. that Putrefadlion is more contagious before Maturity, than after. 
Another hereupon obferves a Pofition of moral Phikfophy ; or that Men aban- 
don'd to Vice, do not corrupt the Manners of others, fo much as 
thofe who are but half wicked. And in many other places of the JfiiiJJj 
Law, bcfides the Theologicrd Senfe, thsre are couched many Philofophical 
Matters. The Book of Job is likewife pregnant with the deep parts of Na- 
riral Philofophy : and in the perfon of King Solomon, we fee Knowledge pre- 
ferred to all t mporal Felicity. 

57. Nor did the Difpenfation of God vary in the times after our Saviour, The Cofpel- 
■who himf If firft /hewed his power to fubdue Ignorance, by conferring with ■D'//'w/""<'». 
the P' i -fts and Daclors of rhe Law ; before he fhewed his power to fubdue 
Nature by Miracles. And the coming of the Holy Spirit was chiefly ex- 

prcfied in the Gift of Tongues, which are but the conveyance of Knowledge. 

58. So in the elccflion of thofe Inftruments it pleafed God to ufe for plant in the A- 
ing tlie Faith, tho' at firft he employ'd Perfons altogether unlearned, po't'". 
otheiwife than by Infpiration, the more evid.ntly to declare his immediate 
working, and to humble all human Wifdom, or Knowledge -, yet, in the 

next fuccefTio.T, he fenc out his divine Truth into the world, attended widi 
other parts of Learning, as with Servants or Handmaids: Thus St. Paul, 
who was the only le.irne 1 amongft the Apofths, had his Pen moft employed 
in the writings of rhe NewTcftament. 

59. Ag.-,in, we find that mnny of the ancient Blfliops, ::nd Fathers of the JheFathencf 
Church, were well verfed in all the Learning of the Heathens; infomuch, '^'i (^'■■'"rch. 
that the Edift of the Emperor Julian, prohibiting Chriftians the Schools, 

and Exeiciics, v/as accounted a more pernicious Engine againft the Faith, 

than all the fanguinary Perfecutions of his Predecellors. Neither could 

Vol. I. F Gregory 



34 



Preliminaries. 



Sea. III. 



Tw» capital 

Ser-vices of 
Fhiiofophy to 
Reiigiofi. 



Tie Dignity 
of Learning 
Jljervn from 
human Xf/?i- 
mony. 



Gregory the Firft, Bilhop of Ro7ne., ever obtain the opinion of Devotion, 
even among the Pious ; for defigning, tho' otherwife an excellent Perfon, to 
exringuifh the memory of Heathen Antiquiry. But it was the Cbri/tian 
Church, which, amidft the Inundations of the j'i;)!/^^»^ from the Northweft, 
and the Saracens from the Eaft, preferved in her bofom the Relicks even of 
Heathen Learning ; which had otherwife been utterly extinguifhed. And of 
late years the Jefints, partly of themfelves, and partly provoked by ex- 
ample, have greatly enlivened and ftrengthened the State of Learning, and 
contributed to eftablifh the Roman See. 

60. There are, therefore, two principal Services, befides Ornament and 
Illuftration, which Philofopby and human Leariib;g perform to Fdiih and Re- 
ligion : the one effedually exciting to the exaltation to God's Glory ; and 
the other affording a fingular Prefervative againft Unbelief and Error ». 
Oar Saviour fiys, l^e err, not knowing the Scriptures, nor the power of God ; 
thus laying before us two Books to ftudy, if we will hz fecured from Error •, 
viz. the Scriptures, which reveal the Will of God ; and the Creation, which 
exprefles his Power : the latter whereof is a key to the former ; and not only 
opens our Underilanding, to conceive the true fenfe of the Scripture, by the 
general Notions of Reafon, and the Rules of Speech -, but chiefly opens our 
Faith, in drawing us to a due confideration of the Omnipotence of God, 
which is ftamped upon his Works. And thus much for c^ivine 'Tejiimony, con- 
cerning the Dignity and Merits of Learning"". 

IX. 61. Next, for human Proofs. Deification was the higheft Honour 
among the Heathens ; that is, to obtain Veneration as a God, was the fu- 
preme Refpeft which Man could pay to Man -, efpecially when given not 
by a formal Aft of State, as it uiually was to the Roman Emperors, but 
from a voluntary, internal Aflent, and Acknowledgment. This Honour be- 
ing fo high, there was alfo conftitued a middle kind : for human Honours 
were inferior to Honours heroical and divine. Antiquity obferved this diffe- 
rence in their diftribution •, that whereas Founders of States, Law-Givers, 
Extirpers of Tyrants, Fathers of the People, and other eminent perfons 
in civil merit, were honoured but with the titles of Heroes, or Demi-Gods ; 
fuch as Hercules, Tcefeus, Minos, Romulus, &c. Inventors, and Authors of 
new Arts, or Difcoveries, for the fervice of human Life, were ever advanced 
amongft the Gods ; as in the cafe of Ceres, Bacchus, Mercury, Apollo, &c. 
And this appears to have been donewithgreatjuftice and judgment ; for the 
Merits of the former being generally confined within the circle of one Age, 
or Nation ; are but like fruitful Showers, which ferve only for a feafon, and 
a fmall extent : vi'hilft the others are like the Benefits of the Sun, perma- 
nent and univerfal. Again, the former are mixed with Strife and Conten- 
tion •, whilft the latter have the true Charadler of the divine Preience, as 
coming in z gentle Gale, without noife or tumult. 

62, 

» See, upon thefe Heads, Mr.Bo^/e's High Veneration that Man's IntelleB owes to God; and his 
Chrijlian Virtiicfo. 

•> How tar the Defence of the Chrijlian Religion is owing to Learning, may appear from 
Spencer's Edition of Origen againft Celfui j Urotiui de Veriiate Religioms Chrijlian* ; Huet's 
Deraonftratio Evangelica, &C. 



Sed.III. Preliminaries. 35 

62. The Merit of Learning, in remedying the Inconveniences arifing from r/^^ij?;.- of 
Man to Man, is not much inferior to that of relieving human NecelTities. '-^'^"'"'g '» 
This Merit was livelily defcribed by the Ancients, in the Fiftion of Orpheus's °'^'' y- 
Theatre ; where ail the Beafts and Birds afiembled ; and forgetting their fevcral 
Appetites, flood fociably together, liftening to the Harp-, wliofe Sound no 
fooner ceaied, or was drown'd by a louder, but they all returned to their 
refpeiftive Natures. For thus Men arefullof favage and unreclaimed Dcfires; 
which, as long as we hearken to Precepts, Laws, and Religion, fwectly 
touch'd with Eloquence and Perfuafion, fo long is Society and Peace 
maintained : but if thefe Inftruments become filent, or Sedition and Tumult 
drown their Mufick, all chings fill back to Confufion and Anarchy \ 

6^. This appears more manifedly, when Princes, or Governours, are 
learned. For tho' he might be thought partial to his profefTion, who faid, 
'• Sfates "Would then be happy; when either Kings were Philofophers., or Phtto- 
" fophers Kingi ;" yet fo much is verified by experience, that the beft Times 
have happen'd under wife and learned Princes. For tho' Kings may have 
their Errors and Vices, like other Men ; yet if they are illuminated by Learn- 
ing, they conftantly retain fuch Notions of Religion, Policy, and Morality, 
as may preferve them from deftrudi\'e and irremediable Errors, or Exct (its : 
for thefe Notions will whifper to them, even whilft Counfellors and Servants 
(land mute. Such Senators likewife as are learned, proceed upon more f.ife 
and fubftantial Principles, than mere Men of experience: the former view 
Dangers afar off; whilft the latter difcover tiiem not tili they are at hand, 
and then truft to their "Wit to avoid them. This felicity of Times under 
learned Princes, appears eminent in the age between the death of Domi- 
tian, and the reign of Commodus ; comprehending a fuccefllon of fix Prin- 
ces -, all of them learned, or fingular Favourers and Promoters of Learn- 
ing. And this Age, for temporal refpefts, was the happieft and moft flourilh- 
ing, that ever the Roman State enjoyed. 

64. Nor has Learning an influence only over civil Society, and the Arts Efects of 
of Peace ; but likewife exerts its power over military Virtue : as eminently i-e^yms «/«« 
appears in the examples of Aexa7ider and Cafar. Alexander was bred un- "^''"^^y Vir- 
der Anftotle, who dedicated feveral Books of Philofophy to him. He was 
attended by Callijthenes, and other learned Perfons, in his Camp, and Con- 
quefts. In what efteem he held Learning, may appear by three particulars ; 
viz. (i.) The Envy he ufed toexprefs towards Achilles., in having fogood a 
Recorder of his Afts as //(JOT^r .• (2.) The affignment of that rich Cabinet 
of Darius, to contain Homer's Works : (3.) His Letter to Arijhtle, upon 
publifhing his Phyfcks ; expoftulating with him for divulging the Secrets 
of Philofophy -, and telling him he efteemed it nobler to excel other Men in 
Learning and Knowledge, than in Power and Empire. 

6^. The Learning of Julius Ccrfar need not be argued from his Educa- 
tion, his Company, or his Speeches •, as fully declaring itfelf in his Wri- 
tings, whereof fome are extant, and others unfortunately loft. We have 

F 2 left 

^ This fliews the necelTity of cultivating Eloquence, or keeping up the Power of Speech, in 
order to fubdue the Paffions, inculcate Morality and Religion, and influence civil Society; and 
that the lame Art may, in fome degree, be ufed in natural Ihiltfofh, was fliewn above, 
Seft III. 31. 



36 



Preliminaries. SeA.III. 



Icfc us that excellent Hijlory of his own Wars, which he barely entitled a 
Cofnmentary, or Memoir ; wherein all the fucceeding times have admired the 
folid Weight of Matter, and the lively Images of Aftions and Pcrfons, ex- 
prefled in the greateft propriety and perfpicuity of Language. Tnat this 
was not the effcd of a natural Gift, but of Learning», may appear by chat 
Work of his entitled tie Analogia ; which was a certain grammatical Pbilo- 
foihy, wherein he endeavoured to reduce the common ufe of Speech to Con- 
gruity and Correftnefs ; and to fuit Words to Things, noc by Cuftom, but 
Reafon ''. 
Tfe^! if 66, To proceed from imperial and military, to moral and private Vir- 

hearning tn tuc j it is Certain, that Learning foftens the barbarity and fi=rcenefs of 
private Vix- mei/s Minds : but then it muft not be fuperficial •, for this rather works a 
'"^' contrary efFett. Solid Learning prevents all Levity, Temerity, and Info- 

lence ; by fuggefting Doubts and Difficulties, and inuring the Mind to bal- 
lance the Reafons on both fides, and rejedt the firft otters of Things -, or 
to accept of nothing but what is firft examined and tried. It prevents 
vain Admiration, which is the root of all Weaknefs : things being admired, 
either becaufe they are ntw, or becaufe they 3.Ye. great. As for Nuvelt\, no 
Man can wade deep in Learning, without difcovering that he knows nothing 
thoroughly : nor can we wonder at a Puppef-fliew, W we look behind the Cur- 
tain. With regard to Greatnefs ; as Alexander, after having been ufed to 
great Armies, and the Conquefts of large Provinces in Afia ; when he re- 
ceived accounts of Battles from Greece, which were commonly for a pafs, 
a fort, or fomc walled town, imagined he was but reading Hcmer's Battle 
of the Frogs and the Mice: lb if a Manconfiders the univerfal Frame ; the 
Earth and its Inhabitants will feem to him but as an Ant-hill ; where fome 
carry Grain, fome their Young, fome go empty, and all march but upon 
a little heap of Duft. 
ttarntngeon- 67. Lfdr«j/7^ alfo conquers, or mitigates, the Fear of Death, and adverfe 
qsten theFear Fortune ; which is one of the greateft Impediments to Virtue and Morality : 
«/Death. j^q^ if a man's Mind be deeply feafon'd with the confideration of the Mor- 
tality and Corruptibility of things, he will be as little affefted as Epicletus ; 
who, one day, feeing a Woman weeping for her Pitcher that was broken ; 
and the next day, a Woman weeping for her Son that was dead ; fa id calm- 
ly, Tejlerday I [aw a brittle "Thing broken, and to-day a Mortal die. And 
hence Virgil excellently joined the Knowledge of Caufes, and the conquering 
of Fears, together, as Concomitants '. 
Remedies the 68. It were tedious to enumerate the particular Remedies which Learn- 
Difeafes^of Jng affords for all the Difeafes of the Mind ; fometimes by purging the mor- 
bific Humours ; fometimes by opening Obftrudlions, helping Digeftion, in- 

creafing 

* The diffufive Learning of this extraordiniry Perfonage, may farther appear homFairicius's 
Account of his Works. See Jo. Albert. Fxbricil Bihliotheca Latintt, Vol. I. cap. x. 

^" This Work of Julius Ctfar, written in two Books, is loft; but Ja.Operarius endeavours 
to fupply it in his AnalogU Lingui Latin*, printed at Paris, in the year 1698; and at Amjler' 
dam, m 1700. 

' Felix qui fotuit lerum cognofcere caufas, 
^urqite me us or/ines, cjf> inexorahile fatum, 
ihhjecit fediius j Jire^iiutnque Acherom'u avari. 



the Mind. 



Sed. III. Preliminaries. 37 

cre.ifing the Appetite ; and fometimes healing Exulcerations, tdc. Bat, to 
fum up -ill, it difpolls the Mind not to fix or fettle in Defects ; but to re- 
main ever fufceptible of Improvement and Reformation. For the illiterate 
perfon knows not what it is to defcend into himfclf, or call liimfelf to an 
account; nor the agrecabl nefs of that Life, which is daily fenfible of its 
own Improvement : He may, perhaps, learn to fhew, and employ his natural 
Tah-nLS ; but not increafe them ; he will L^arn to hide and colour his Faults, 
bu: not to amend them : like an unskilful Mower, who continues to mo-v on 
without whetting his Scythe. Tltc Man of 1, earning, on the contrary, al- 
ways joins the Corredion and Improvement of his Mind, with the ufc antl 
employment thereof. To conclude. Truth and Go:dnefs differ but as the 
Seal and the Impreffion: for Truth imprints Goodnefs •, whilft the Storms of 
Vice and Perturbation break from the Clouds of Error and Fal.l:ood ". 

X. 6q. From moral Virtue, we proceed to examine -wh-tber am Po'^x;er he '^'"•'^ S''^"^ 
equnt tn thai ajfrir-ini by Knozvlerge. Dignity or Command is always propor- men's Uimh. 
lionable to the Dignity of the Commanded. To have command ov.r Brutes, 
as a Herdfman, is a mean thing ; to have command over Children, as a School- 
mafter, is matter oi fmall honour \ and to have command ovcrSlavcs, is rather a 
Difgrace than an Honour. Nor is the command of a Tyrant much better, over 
a fervile and degenerate People •, whence Honours, in free Monarchies, and 
Republicks, have ever been more efteemed, than in tyrannical Govern- 
ments ; becaufe to rule a willing People, is more honourable than to compel. 
But the Command of Knowledge, is higher than the Command over a free 
People ; as being a Command over the Reafon, Opinion, and Underftanding 
of Men •, which are the nobleft Faculties of the Mind, that govern the "Will 
itielf : for there is no Power on earth that fets up a Throne in the Spirits of 
Men, but Knowledge and Learning. Whence the deteftable and extreme 
Pleafure wnerewith Arch-hereticks, falfe Prophets, and Impoftors, are'tranf- 
ported, upon finding they have a dominion in the Faith and Confciences 
of Men j a pJeafure lb great, that it once tailed, fcarce any Torture, or 
Perfecution, can make them forgo it. But as this is what the Apocalypfe 
calls /.6^ defths of Satan ; fo the juft and lawful Rule over men's Underftand- 
ing, by the evidence of Truth, and gentle Perfuafion, is what approaches 
neareft to the divine Sovereignty ^ 

70. With regard to Honours and private Fortune -, the benefit of Learn- B^mfa pivate 
i»g is not fo confined to States, as not likewife to reach particular Perfons. FortKues. 
For it is an old Obfervation, that Homer has given more Men their livings, 

than Sylla, Ca-far, or Augujtus, notwithftanding their great Largefles. An^ 
it is hard to fay, whether Arms or Learning have advanced the greater num- 
bers. In point of Sovereignty, if Arms, or Defcenr, have obtained the King- 
dom j yet Learning has obtained the Priejlbood, which was ever in compe- 
cition with Empire. 

71. Again, the pleafure and delight of Knowledge and Learning, {\ir- jiforJs ^rent 
pais all others: for if the Pleafures of the Affedlions exceed the Pleafures ^f''^'"- 

of 

' Mod feem to agree, that KnoifUdge will make Men virtuous ; at lead, that none are truly 
wife, it they are nor virtuous. 

*■ For the command which Knowledge gives Men ovr the Works of Nature, and over one 
another, fee Mr, Bv)k's ElTays on the U/efnlnefs of Zx^enmemcl Fhito/ofhy. Abridg. Vol. I. »» 
init. 



38 Preliminaries. Sedl. III. 

of rhe Siiiifes, as- much as the obtaining a Defire, or a Viflory, exceeds a 
Song, or a Treat •, fhall not the Pleafures of the Underftanding exceed the 
Pleafures of the AfTeftions ? In all other pleafures there is a Satiety, and 
after ufe, their Verdure fades ; which fliews they are but Deceits and Falla- 
cies ; and that it was the Novelty which pleafed, not the Quality : whence 
voluptuous Men frequently turn Friars, and ambitious Princes Melancho- 
licks. But of Knowledge there is no Satiety ; for here Gratification and 
Appetite are perpetually interchanging -, and confequently this is Good in it- 
felf, fimply, without fallacy or accident. Nor is that a fmall pleafure 
and fatisfiiftion to the Mind, which Lucretius defcribes to this ef- 
feft. " It is a Scene of Delight to be fife on fliore, and fee a Ship toflfed at 
" fea •, or to be in a Fortification, and fee two Armies join battle upon 
" a Plain: But it is a Pleafure incomparable, for the Mind to be feated by 
" Learning in the Fortrefs of Truth, and from thence to view the Errors 
" and Labours ot others." 
Hinders Men 1-' ^^ conclude ; the Dignity and Excellence of Knowledge and Learn- 
immortal. ing, is what human Nature mod afpires to, for the iecuring of Immortality : 
which is alfo endeavour'd after, by raifing and ennobling of Families •, by 
Buildings, Foundations, and Monuments of Fame •, and is, in efi^ed:, the 
bent of all other human Defires. But we fee how much more durable the 
Monuments of Genius and Learning are, than thofeof the Hand. The Verfes 
of Homer have continued above five and twenty hundred years, without lofs ; 
in which time, numberlefs Palaces, Temples, Caftles, and Cities, have been 
demoliflied, and are fallen to ruin. It is impolfible to have the true Pidures 
or Statues of Cyus, Alexander^ Ccefar, or the great Perfonages of much 
later date ■, for the Originals cannot lad, and the Copies muft lofe of the 
Life : But the Images of men's Knowledge remain in Books, exempt from 
the Injuries of Time, and capable of perpetual Renovation. Nor are thefe 
properly called Images, becaufe they generate (till, and fow their Seed in 
the minds of others •, fo as to caufe infinite Adlions and Opinions in fucceed- 
ing Ages. If, therefore, the Invention of a Ship was thought fo noble, 
which carries Commodities from place to place, and brings the remoteft 
Regions acquainted -, how much more are Letters to be valued, which, like 
Ships, pafs thro' the vaft Ocean of Time, and convey Knowledge and In- 
ventions to the remoteft Ages .' Nay, fome of the Philofophers, who were 
moit immerfed in the Senfes, and denied the Immortality of the Soul -, yet 
allowed, that whatever Motions the Spirit of Man could perform without 
6be Organs of the Body, might remain after death; which are only thofe 
of the Underftanding, and not of the AfFeftions : fo immortal and incor- 
ruptible a thing did Knowledge appear to them =*. And thus having endea- 
voured to do jullice to the Caufe of Knowledge, divine and human, we Ihall 
leave Wtflom to be juflified of her Children *". 

SEC T. 

^ This Seclion has but occafionally confidcr'd \.\tc genernl Merits of Learning; its particular 
Merits will app-.ar hereafter, when it comes to be branched into the Sciences: fo that a Judg- 
ment cannot julHy be form'd of it from this Examination. See below, Scft. V. VI. (^c. 

^ The Merits of Learniig have been occafionally fhewn by many, but exprefsly by few. A- 
mong the litter may be reckon'd Johannes Wouwerius de Tolymnthia, Gulielmus Budms de Phi- 
lologii, Morhof'm his Polyhificr, and StoUius in IntroduB. in Hiflorium Literariam, To thefe may 
be added, Baron Spanheim, M Perault, Sir IViUiam Temple, Sec. 

I 



Sed. IV. P 11 j: L T M IN A R I E s. 



39 



SECT. IV. 

The Public Obstacles /o Learning co}ifickrd. 

I. "\7^7'E come next to confider what fleps have hitherto been taken, and VubVxck ^n- 
V V what farther remains, for the promotion of Learnvig. TheFoun- '^^"'^'O'"' »^- 
dation we proceed upon is this, that all Works are conquered, (i.) ly Greatnep Zancluarn- 
cf Re-ivard; (z.) Jujlnefs of Direolion ; and (3.) imi ted Labours : The fir ft hg. 
multiplies Endeavours, the fecond prevents Error, and the third /bpplies the 
Imperfeftion of Mankind *. But the principal of thefe is DireBion ; for ac- 
cording to the Proverb, a lame Adan hi the right zva)\ may beat a Racer in 
the liirong. And Solomon excellently laid. If the Iron be blunt, it requireth 
more Jircngth ; but Wtfdotn is that ivhich prevailcth : fignifying that a pru- 
dent Choice of the Means, is more effeftual than joint Endeavours. Bu- the 
Acts of great Men rather regard Magnificence and Fame, than Progrefs and 
Proficiency •, and tend more to augment the Mafs of Learning in the multi- 
tude of Learned Men, than to redlify or advance the Sciences ^. 

2. The y^cls of Merit towards Learning, regard three Objefts ; viz. The publlck 
(i.) tht Places of Learning ; (2.) the Booh of Learning; and (3.) ihe Per- oijeas of 
fons of the Learned, For as Water, whether of the Dew of Htaven, or the ^^'"'"'"S- 
Springs of the Earth, fcatters, and is loft on the ground, unlefs colkfted in 

fome Receptacle, or Ciftern ; fo Knowledge, whether from divine Infpiriuion, 
or human Senfe, would foon be loft, if it were not prcfcrved in Books, Tra- 
ditions, Univerfities, Colleges and Schools. 

3. The Works regarding the Seats of Learning are four ; viz. (i.) Build- 1'^^ '"-^^•■^ re- 
ir.gs; (2.) Endowments; (3.) Privileges; (4.) Laws and Irfii'inions ; all |^^'^f "I'j^"^ 
tending to privacy, quiet, and exemption from Cares and Anxieties; like i«r/ ""^ 
the ftiil Stations, defcribed by Virgil, for the hiving of Bees. 

4. T\\e. Works ivith regard to Bocks, are principally two ; viz. (i.) Libra- Boih. 
ries", which are as Shrines that lodge the Relicks of the ancient Saints, 

full of Virtue, without Delufion and Impofture ; and (2.) new and more 

iorrcEt 

* This fundamental Obfervation fhould be kept in mind, throughout the whole Inflaurauon; 
otherwife many parts of the Author's Scheme will appear imprafticablc. T.njs the pariicular 
T>efideTHta of Learning, hereafter fet down, are iome of them too great to be fupplied by a 
private hand j but require a publick Purfe, an exaft Conduft, and united AlTiftance; as the 
Hiftory of Arts, the Literary Hiftory, the Fhitofophical College, &c. And, doubtlets, iome of the 
greateft Things that Mankind are capable of performing, remain unactempted, 01 unaccom- 
plifhed, for want of thefe main Springs of Aftion. 

'' The means of doing v/hich, are pointed out below. 

^ For the beftMethod^of colIe(9:in^and difpoling publick I./ir«r??/, and "-hdre who have wrote 
upon the Subjeft, iee Morhof'\n Polyhifl. de Meitih erigenJjrum Biiiifthecarum, Tom. I. Lib. L 
Cap. IV. V. VL and Stollii IntroJuH. in Hiftorium Litera'i.im de Hifloria Literaria generation 
fpeBata, p. 78, &c. But parricuhrly M.NmtdS's Avis four dre/fi'- line Bibiiotlietiue, firft printid 
at Paris, in 1617 ; and afte-^wirds tranflared into Latin jy ^cJ.^nidius, w^ith Additions, in i?^;. 
See alfo Hnude'i Cutulogtts Bibliothec* Cvrdefmn^; printed at i^nris, in i6.vj. 



y 



40 Preliminaries. SeS:. IV. 

corre^ Editions of Author !, with more exaft Tranflations, more ufeful Notes, 
Explanations, (^c. 
The Terfons of 5- Tlie ll^orks that regard the Pcfons of the Learned, befides the counte- 
r's Lfur»ev/. nancing of them in general, are alfo two: viz. (i.) the Reward and Infti- 
tution of Readers in the Sciences already known •, and (2.) the Reward and 
Inftitution of Writers, and Enquirers into the Parts of Learning not hitherto 
fufficiently profccuted. 
Tbefirflfub. 6. Thcfe ate the Works and Afts wherein the Merits of many Princes, 
lick Defect, « and Others, have appeared. But, to look unto that part of the Race which is 
want of Col- i^ffg^,, i^t^ we obferve, (i.) that, as there are fo many excellent Foundations of 
and Sciences Colleges in Europe, it is Jl range they fJjould be all dedicated to certain Proffftons, 
at Urge. and none left free to Arts and Scienca at large. For tho' all Learning fhould be 
referred to Aclion, yet we may here eafily flill into the error of fuppoJing 
the Stomach idl-f", bccaufe it neither performs the Office of Motion, as the 
Limbs •, nor of Scnfe, as the Head •, tho' it digtfts and diftributes to all the 
other Parts : in like manner, if a Man thinks Philoiophy and Univerfality 
but idle Studies, he does not confider that all ProfefTions are from thence 
fupplied. And this leems a principal Caufe of the flow advancement of 
Learning -, as thefe fundamental kinds of Knowledge have been ftudied only 
in paflage. For to make a Tree bear more Fruit, it Is not any thing done to 
the Boughs •, but llirring the Earth, and the putting new Mould about the 
Roots, that muft efFe<5l it". And this dedicating of Foundations to pro- 
fejfory Learning, has not only had a bad effeft upon the growth of the 
Sciences, h\il?A\om Governments. For hence Princes generally find a great want 
of able Men for their fervice ; as there is no collegiate Inftitution for Hiftory, 
modern Languages, Politicks, and the like means of qualifying fuch as are 
difpofed for the Service of the State ^ 
Thefccond. a 7- (^O And ws Founders cf Colleges plant, and Fourders of Lectures water, 
ii'«»f of pro- we muft next note a defed: in publick Le£fures, whether in Arts or Profcffions : 
formn.ible yjy^ jjjg fmallnefs cf the Salary generally ajfigred thetn. For 'tis nectffary to 
" """■ the progrefs of the Sciences, that Readers be of the abl;ft kind, as men 
intended for propagating the Sciences to future ages, and not for tranfi- 
tory ufe. And this cannot be, unk-fs the Profits may content the moft 
Eminent in every Art to appropriate their Lives and Labours to this fole 
purpofe ; who muft therefore have a competency allowed them, propor- 
tionable to what might be expcfted from the prndice of a Prof.-ftion. For 
to make the Sciences flourifli, D'^vid's military Law Ihould be obferved, 
and thofe who flay w'.th the Carriage, have equal with thofe who are in the 

A5fion ; 

* The thing here intendeil is 3 general College, fct apart for fundamental Learning, or Tjch 
as fhould be p epava'ory to all Aits Sciences, and Profcirions; that is, tur teachins' the Prin- 
ciples of imiverfal Philofofhy, or general Kncvledge : For want of fuch a general Ii.Jliliition, 
^leii the nioit cinintnt in lome one particular Profeflion, are commonly ignorant in ail the 
reft ; whereas, to make a Man complcat, and eminently ferviccable, 'tis neccfTiry he iTiould 
fi-(t underliand the Principle? of Morality, civil Society, natural Pl^Hofjphy. Lam, Di-iiniiy i:e- 
dicine !k>-. before he appli<;s himielt to the Praftice and Improvement of anv one Art, Scicnre, 
or Piof'cllion: luch a Connection all the Parts of Learning have with one another, as to'ctncr 
Ci'nn-ituting but one Corps of Science. 

^ From tcciing this ill Effetf, perhaps, the Academy of Potiticki wa? infiitutcd by Lewis the 
Fourteenth of France; and, lately, a Profeffor of modern Hijlory by KmgGeerge 'he Fait of 
England. 



Se£l. IV. Preliminaries. 41 

A£l'ion -, or otherwife the Carriages will be ill attended : fo LeBurers in the 
Sden:t's, as being the Guardians of the Stores and Provifions, whence Men 
in aftive Life arc furnifhed, ouglit to fliare equal Advantages with them : 
For if the Fathers of the Sciences be weak, or ill maintained, the Students 
will feel the effefts of it*. 

8. (3.) The next Defe^ may require the affiftance of the Chemifts ■, who The third, a. 
call upon Scholars to fell their Books, and build Furnaces ; quitting Minerva '»"'" c/ Ap- 
and riie Mufcs, as barren Virgins, and relying upon Vulcan. And indeed to Tir^.f'J'i'"' 
the deep, fruitful, and operative Study of many Sciences, efpecially Na/ural ii,„^„cesfjy 
Philofophy and Pbyfick, Books are not the only Inftruments required : and Experimem. 
accordingly Spheres, Globes, Maps, £?f. have, as well as Books, been pro- 
vided for the ftudy of Ajtrononiy and Geography. And fome Places deftined 

to Phv/ick, have alfo Gardens for Simples ; and the allowance of dead Bo- 
dies for Anatomy. Bui thefe are too /cant). In general, no great proficiency 
can well be made in thedifclofing of Nature, without fome Public Al- 
lowances FOR Experiments; whether of the Furnace, Engine, or any 
other kind : and therefore as the Secretaries and Spies of Princes are r.liowed 
to bring in Bills for Intelligence ; fo muft the Spies and Obfers'-ers of Nature 
bring in their Bills of Charges, or we fhall be ill informed. And if Alex- 
ander made fuch a liberal Allowance to Arijlotle, for Hunters, Fowlers, 
Firtiers, i^c. in order to a natural Hijlory of Animals ; much better do they 
deferve it, who labour in the Labyrinths of Art''. 

9. (4.) Another Defeat of great import ance, is a neglect in Governours of The fourth, 
Univerfities, with regard to Confultations ; and in Princes^ of Vifitations ; to oh- ^ ""•"" "/ 
ferve, with diligence^ whether the Readings, Exercifes, Difputations, and other „Jj^'l'„ia,. 
academical Cufioms, anciently inftituted, flxuld beflill continued, changed, or re- tion of Uni- 
formed. For, as in all Precedents, if the times wherein they began, were verjitiei. 
dark or ignorant, it derogates from their Authority ; and as moft Cufloms 

and Orders of Univerfities began in obfcure and ignorant Times ; it is the 
more requifite they fhould be re-examined. Thus, for inftance, Scholars 
in the Univerfities begin Logick and Rhetorick too foon ; thefe being Arts fitter 
for Graduates, than Children : and when rightly underflood, are the grav^efl 
of Sciences, and the Arts of Arts ; the one for Judgment, the other for 
Ornament •, as affording Rules and Direftions for fetting out, and diipofing 
of Matter : whence for Minds empty and unfraught to begin with thefe 
Arts, the Wifdom whereof is great and univerfal, renders them contemp- 
tible, and finks them into childifli Sophiftry, and ridiculous Affeftacion. 
Again, the Exercifes of Univerfities, make too great a feparation between In- 
vention and Memory ; for Speeches are here either premeditated, when no- 
thing is left to Invention, or merely extemporary, when little i- left to Me- 
mory ; whereas Bufinefs and Aftion require a mixture of Premeditation and 

' The Salaries allowed by Levnis the Fourteenth, procured very able Men for Members of 
the R(^'al Acitdemy of Sciences at Faris ; and if that Academy has out-ilripp'd moft others in 
Difcoveries and Improvements, this may be chiefly owing to the princely Munificence of its 
Founder; and the Prcfents extraordinary, wherewith he rewarded luch Members as merited ic 
by their Works. Sec Fontenelle's Hi/lory of the Ke-efiablifljtnent, An. 1699. 

'' That is, who profecute the Bufmel's of Experiments, as m the Ro;al Academy ef Sciences at 
taris; and the MetaUick College of the King ot Sweden: but the Royal Society of LonJon has no 
fuilick Allow aitce for Experiments. 

Vol. I. G Invention. 



42 Preliminaries. Sed. IV. 

Invention. Whence the Exercife anfwers not to Praftice, nor the Image the 
Life : whereas it is a conftant rule in Exercifes, to form them as near as 
poffible to Pradice -, otherwife they do not prepare, but pervert the natural 
Faculties of the Mind ; as appears when Students come to adt in civil Life 9 
for then this want is foon perceived by themfelves, and fooner by others. 
The fifth, X 10. (5.) The next DefeSf goes a little higher: for as the advanceytient of 
want of Intel- Learning greatly depends upon the Orders and Inftitutions of Univerfities in 
t'wh:7theUni- ^'^^ ^"^"^^ Kingdom -, it would be ftill better, if there were more of mutual In- 
verfities of telUgence between the Univerfities of Europe. There are many Orders and 
Europe. Foundations, which tho' lying under feveral Sovereignties, yet take them- 

felves to have a kind of Society, and Correfpondence, with one another j in- 
fomuch, that they have common Heads and Provincials': and, furely, as Na- 
ture creates Brotherhood in Families, and mechanical Arts make Brother- 
hood in Communities, as the Divine Undlion induces Brotherhood in Kings 
and Bifhops, and Vows and Rules make Brotherhood in Orders ; fo there 
cannot but be an illujlrious Fraternity in Learning and Illumination, relative 
to that Faterniry attributed to God, the Father oi Light s\ 
The fixth. a II. (6.) The laft D^ieii is, that there has rarely been any publick Inflitu- 
vantoffub- ([ „ of IFr iters or Enq'iir-rs, a''out fuch parts of Knowledge as are not already 
W^Qu^rers A//'^'^«'^V lubour-d. Wr.ence it were highly proper to examine what parts 
of Learning have been profccuted, and what neglefted : for the opinion of 
plenty is one cau'e of want; and our great quantity of Books, looks like 
fuperfl'iity ; which, however, is not to be remedied by deftroying thofe we 
have already, but by publifhing more good ones •, that, like the Serpent 
oi Mof's, might d.vour the Serpents of the Enchanters. 

1 2. The removal of the five preceding Dcftfts, and even the aftive part of the 
fixth and laft, viz. thelnftitution of fV' iters and Enquirers, are regnl (Vorks "^ i 
towards which, the Endeavours of a private Perfon are but as a Statue in a 
crofs Road, that may point the way it cannot go "^ : but the fpecuLuive part 
of the laft, viz. the Examination of Learning, may be promoted by private 
labour. We ftiall, therefore, next attempt a general Survey of Knowledge ; 
and enquire into what parts thereof lie wafte, or unimproved ; in order to 
furnifh out fuch a Plan, as may give light to p'.blick Defigns, and excite the 
private Endeavours of others '. 

* As the fefuits, for inftance, and other religious Orders abroad. 

* The ill Conrequcncesof this want of Correfpondence tUll continue, in feme degree: WeinE«^- 
lund irehxxt little acquainted with the Tranfaftions of foreign Vniverfties; and thence generally 
think but contemptibly of them; as particularly ot ihe Germans , perhaps for want of know- 
ing them better. 

' And therefore properly laid before croivn'd Heads, as they were, with great addrefs, by the 
Author, before King Jtmes the Firfi ; tho' without effift. \lux King Charles U. of EogU>,d, 
and Levis WV. of France, cnter'd into the Spirit of this giandDciign. The firft, upon infbituting 
xhe Rcyal Society ol London, was foon tollow'd by the other, in ciUWfhmg the Royal Academy of 
Sciences at Paris. And thepj two eminent Examples gave occalion to the eltablifhmeiit of 
many the like Societies in different parts of Europe: tho' fome of an inferiour kind were, be- 
fore this, formed m Italy 

^ Yet private Fortunes may be cmploy'd to procure thefe publick Advantagesj as appears 
bv the noble In'litation of Grejham College. ' 

' ' The DliCTii of this SeBion is heautifjliy exemplihed, and deduced, in the Nevo Atlantis, or 
Plan of a PhiJofophical Society, placed as the First Supplement to the prelim Piece. 

THE 



(43 ) 



THE 

DISTRIBUTION 

o F 

KNOWLE DGE, 

Into Particular Sciences. 



s E c T. I. 

Of H I S T O R V. 

I. f" ■ ^ H E jufteft Divifion of Human Learnings is that derived from the Knowledge, 
I three different Faculties of the Soul ; the Seat of Learning : '^''■"'"e "«'' 
i History being relative to the Memory, Poetry to the Ima- f/^J^fHifto^y, 
ginatm, and Philosophy to the Reafon. By Poetry, we underftand no Poetry,««i 
more x.h'xn feigri' d Hiftory, or Fable ; without regard, at prefent, to the/of/i- Philofophj. 
cal Style. 

2. History is properly concerned about Individuals, circumfcribed by 
Time and Place : fo likevvife is Poetry ; with this difference, that its Indivi- 
duals are feign'd, with a refemblance to true Hiftory ; yet, like Painting, fo \ 
as frequently to exceed it. But Philosophy, dropping Individuals, fixes 
upon Notions abftracled from them ; and is employ'd in compounding and 
feparating thefe Notions according to the Laws of Nature, and the Evidence 
of Things tbemfelves. Thus History, Poetry, and Philosophy flow 
from the three diftintfl Fountains of the Mind, viz. the Memor'j, tlie Ima- 
gination, and the Reafon ; without any poffibility of increafing their num- 
ber. For Hifo'-y and Experience are one and the fame thing •, fo are Philo- 
fojfhv and the Sciences. 

3. Nor does Divine Learning reqmrs any other Divif on : for tho* Revela- 
tion and Serfe may differ, both in matter and manner ; yet the Spirit of Man, 
and its Cells, are the fame •, and in this cafe receive, as it were, different Li- 
quors thro' different Conduits. Theology, therefore, confifts (i.) oi^ Sacred 
Ilijiory ; (2.) Parable, or Divine Poefy ; and (3.) Oi Holy Docfrim, or Preceft, 

G 2 as 



44 H I s T o R Y. Se6t. I. 

as its fixed P/j//o/o/)/6)'. As ^ox Prophecy , which feems a part redundant, 'tis 
no more than a Species of Hijlory -, Divine Hiftory having this prerogative 
over Human ; that the Narration may precede, as well as lucceed the FaB. 
H!ftory</roi- 4. HisTORY is either natural or civil: the 7wtural records the Works 
JeJinro natu- _^,^j ^^"^g of J^ature ; the cki/ the Works and A6i:s of Mru. Divine Interpo- 
ral »n civi . ^jj.jq|^ j^ unqueilionably feen in both, particularly in the Affairs of Men ; fo 
far as to conftitute a different fpecies oi Hijlory, which we call Sacred, or Ec- 
clefiajtical. But fuch is the dignity oi Letters and Arts, that they deferve a 
feparate HiJlory, which, as well as the Ecclefiajiical, we comprehend under 
Civil Hijlory. 
Natural Hi- 5. We form our Divifion of Natural Hijlory upon the threefold /«/(? and 
(toxy divided f-gfj^ifioji of Nature ; which is(i.) either free, and proceeding in her ordinary 
r'c/Gencra-'courfe, without molcftation •, or (2.) obftruded by fome ftubborn and lefs 
tions, PrKcer- common Matters; and thence put out of her courfc, as in the produdlion of 
generations Monfrers ; or (3.) bound and wrought upon by human means, for the pro- 
and kns. duftion of Things artificial. Let all iVrt/2/r«///(/?(?r)', therefore, be divided 
into the Hijlory of Generations, Prccter-generations, and Arts ; the firjl to con- 
fider Nature. At. Hbertyry. iht fecond. Nature in her errors; and the thirdy 
Nature in conjlraint. 
The Hijlory of g_ xhc Hi STORY OF Arts fhould the rather make a Species of Natural 
"^"deafmies^'ft^^y-» becaufe of that prevalent opinion, as ify^r^werea different thing 
c/Nituial from ature; and Things natural different from Things artificial -, whence 
Hiftory. many Writers of Natural Hijlory think they perform notably, if they give 
us the Hijlory of Animals, Plants, or Minerals^, without a word of the mecha- 
nic Arts. A farther mifchief is to have Art efteemed no more than an af- 
fiftant to Nature, fo as to help her forwards, correft or fet her free, and not 
to bend, change, and radically affe£l her ; whence an untimely Defpair has 
crept upon mankind ; who fhould rather be afllired that artificial Things daf- 
fer not from natural inform or ejfdnce, but only in the efficient : For Man 
has no power over Nature in any thing but Motion, whereby he either puts 
bodies together, or feparates them. And therefore, fo far as natural Bodies 
may be feparated or conjoin'd, man may do any thing \ Nor matters it, 
if things are put in order for producing effeds, whether it be done by hu- 
man means or otherwife. Gold is fometimes purged by the Fire, and tome- 
times found naturally pure : the Rain-bow is produced after a natural way, 
in a Cloud above •, or made artificially, by the fprinkling of Water below. 
AsNature, therefore, governs all things, by means ( i .) of her general Courfe, 
(2.} her Excurfion, and (3.) by means of human Affiitance : thefe three Parts 
mull be received into Natural Hijlory ; as in fome meafure they are by Pliny. 

7- 

' As Arijiotle, Diofcoridet, dfiilpinus, Cijius, Wormius, A'ldrovandus, &c. 

^ T^h fundamental Maxi>7> will be made great ufc of in the Courfe of the Work; and 
fliould therefore be well underflood and reniembred ; otherwife we fh.ili eafily miftake prafti- 
cable things for imprafticabie; when the Author comes to apply fo fimple a Principle, for 
producing uncommon Ejfeiis by liiiman Means, or merely by vhe feparation and combination of 
Matter. Thus a perfon unacquainted with Diftillation and Concentri;ion, would not conceive 
that Brandy fliould be feparated from Wtne by Fire; Water from Wine /y Cold, Sec. and many 
more confjderable Works be perform'd barely by human /ff.Jnw/cfj and cembinntion, applied in 
Muhanici, Optics, Mnaufr^trei and Arts. 



SeS:. I. History. 4^ 

7. The firft of thefe Parts, the Hiftcry of Creatures ^ is extant in tolerable The Hijlory of 
perfcdion » ; but the two others, tiie Hijlory of Monfien, and the Hiflory of^'^'^"*''^' '^• 
Art}, m.iy be noted as deficient. For I find no competent ColleBion of the 'T\i ^"n '^"^ 
works oj lyjtnre ciigrejjing jrctntbe ordinary coiirje oj generations., produolions deficient. 
cmd ructions ■■, whether fnigidarities of place and region, or flfange events of time 

and c'xiKCe ; e;ffe£is of unkn'^wn properties, or infiances of exceptions to gene- 
ral Rules. We have indeed many books of fabulous Experiments, Secrets 
and frivolous Impoftures, for pleafiire and ftrangenefs *• ; hut z.fiibjlantial and 
loell-purged Colleition of Heteroclitcs, or Irregularities of Nature, carefully exa- 
mined and defcrihed, efpecially with a due rejection of /able and popular error, is 
ivanting' : for as things now ftand, if falfe Fadls in Nature be once on foot; 
what thro' negleft of Examination, the countenance of Antiquity, and the 
ufe made of them in Difcourfe, they are fcarce ever retradted, 

8. The Defign of flich a Work, of which we have a precedent in Arijlo- 
tle, is not to content curious and vain minds •, but (i.) to corredl the depra- 
vity of Axioms and Opinions, founded upon common and familiar Examples ; 
and (2.) to fhew the IVonders of Nature, which give the fhorteft paflage to 
the f-Vonders of Art : for by carefully tracing Nature in her wandrings, ive may 
be enabled to lead or compel her to the fame again^. Nor would we in this 
Hifiory cflVondsrs have fuperftitious Narrations of Sorceries, Witchcrafts, 
Dreams, Divinations, (£c. totally excluded, where there is full evidence 
of the fact: becaufe it is not yet known in what cafes, and how far effefts 
attributed to fuperftition, depend upon natural caufes. And, therefore, tho' 
the practice of fuch things is to be condemned •, yet the confideration of them 
may afford light, not only in the judging of criminah, but in the firther 
difclofing of Nature. Nor fliould men fcruple examining into thefe things, 
in order to difcover Truth : the Sun tho' it palTcs thro' dirty places, yet re- 
mains as pure as before. Thofe narrations, however, which have a tinfture of 
fuperltition, fhould be kept feparate,ar.d unmix'd with others, that are merely 
natural. But the Relations of religious prodigies and miracles, as being 
either flilfe or fupernaturai, are unfic to enter a Hiflory of Nature". 

9. As for the History of Nature wrought or form'd ; we h:iYt The Hiflory of 
fome Colledions of Agriculture and manual Arts, but commonly with a Re- ■^''" deficient. 

jeftion 

* By Arifiotle, Diofcorides, Fliny, and others. 

'' As by Cardan, Faracelfiis, Alexis, Baptifla Porta, 8cc. 

' Nor fupplied to this day; tho' many particulars for ir may be collcftcj from Aldrovan- 
Jms, IVeiiirichius, Licetus, Bonaientttra, Schenkius, Laurenlius, Caflknius, and StengeUiis, who 
have all wrote, deMcnflris. To thefe may he added the Thyfiica ciiriopa of Schotlus, Kircher's 
Mundus fiibterntneus, the Vhilopofhical TranfuBlons, the French Memoirs, the Acta Ertidito- 
rum, the Germ.in Ephemerides, and H'tinlcf?. IVor.ders of the little World. 

^ Let this Fonnd.uion for acquiring a Comaiand over Nature be well obfervcd ; for many 
Particulars mention'd hereafter, flich as governing the Winds, the Weather, ©•<:. would fcera 
impofTibilities without it. 

' To this Hiftoiy might perhaps advantageoufly be added, the monfirous, or anomalous Tro- 
duciions in Arts j where things happsn in an eminent degree, contrary to the expedlation of 
the Artift : as the perverting or ftoppirg of vinous Fermentation, by the accidentalfalling in of 
a little Soap; the making of folid, or Loaf Sug.ir, from the accidental application of Tobacco- 
pipe Clay, the preventing of Sugar from boiling over, by the accidental dropping in of a Can- 
die; the difcharging of rfrf /rtfr by accidentally fpitting upon a red Writing, Qrc Inftances 
of which kind arc to be found in the Books of Chemifiry, and other praGical Arts. They 
dcferve the rather to be co'lcfted, becaufe all fuch Inftances give us the Power of doing the 
like again; and thus enlarge our command over Nature. ^ 



46 History. Secft. I. 

jedion of fixmiliar and vulgar Experiments, which yet are of more fervice 
in the Interpretation of Nature than the uncommon ones : an Enquiry into 
mechanical matters being reputed a difhonour to Learning ; unlefs luchas 
appear fecrets, rarities and fubtilties *. But the truth is, they are not the 
higheft Inftances that give the fecureft information ; for mean and fmall 
things often difcover great ones, better than great can difcover the fmall : 
and therefore yfn/o/Zf obferves, '■'■ That the nature of every thing is beft feen in 
its fmalleft portions." Whence he feeks the nature of a common-wealth, 
firft in a fvmily : and fo the nature of the world, and the policy thereof, 
muft be fought in mean relations and fmall portions. The magnetic virtue 
of Iron was not firft difcover'd in Bars, but in Needles. 

10. But in my judgment the ufe of mechanical Hijlory is, of all others, the 
moft fundamental towards fuch a Natural Pbilofophy as fhall not vanifli in 
the fume of fubtile, fublime, or pleafing fpeculations ; but be operative to the 
endowment and benefit of human life : as not only fuggefting, for the pre- 
fent, many ingenious practices in all trades, by connecting and transferring 
the obfervations of one Art to the ufes of another, when the Experience of 
feveral Arts fhall fall under the confideration of one man ; but as giving a 
more true and real illumination with regard to Caufes and Axicfns, than has 
hitherto appeared. For as a man's Temper is never well known till he is 
crofs'd •, in like manner, the Turns and Changes of Nature cannot appear fo 
fully, when fhe is left at her liberty, as in the Trials and Tortures of 
Art, 

11. We add, that the body of this Experimental Hiftory ftiould not only 
be formed from the mechanic Arts ; but alfo from the operative and effeftive 
part of the liberal Sciences, together with numerous pradtices, not hitherto 
brought into Arts : fo that nothing may be omitted which has a tendency to 
inform the Underftanding ''. 

12. 

* The Hiftory here intended is a thing of vail ex'cnt, thit requires great abilities, and fuita- 
ble alliftancc: to execute ; and perhaps is the Hijlory cf Arts, which the Royal Academy of 
Sciences at furis have been feveia! years engaged in. Sach a Wck is certainly worth/ oFthat 
illuftrious Society. What Particulars the Author would have this Hiftory include, may be (een 
in the Catalogue of Hi/Zoric; required for interpreting the H'orks of Nature ■, laid down in the 
Sylza Sylvarum, ot third Part cf the Inftnuratio», Su'tt.II. The Writings to be con.ul ed for it, 
are principally fuch as Agricoln de re Me:altica ; which dcfcribcs the common methods and 
ways of working Metals, from the Ore to their faleable ftate; Neri'i Art of Glafs, with the 
Motes and Improvements upon it by Merret and Knnckel; all Mr. Boyle's Experimental Pieces 
many of thofe in (he Ph'lolbphical Tranfaftions, and foreign Journals; Pomet and Lemery on 
Drugs; ^.ivary'i Didtionary of Commerce ; iTa^/ upon Dying, Metallurgy, Fermentation, and 
other Chemical Arts; Boerhaave'i Cheiniftryj de La>i.i\ Magifierium Naturt Q- Artis, Sec. 
But a capital thing wantmg to complcat this Hijlory of Am, is an Account of the particular 
Encheirefes, or fecrct ways of working, which make the myftery of every Art, and are com- 
moiily concealed, as lucrative, by Artifts. Thefe myftcrics may, however, be leai-nt by a ri^ht 
application; and 'tis pity but they were publillied tor the enrichment of Natural Philofifhy, 
and the farther improvement of Arts, i'ome Attempts alio have been made towards furnilh- 
ing out the Hijlory i lelf. Dr. Harris's Lexicon Technicum may pafs for a Specimen of the Work, 
in the Mathematical Part. But M(.Chiiml>ers has purfucd the D.-tign in all its extent: A fccond 
Edition of his Cyclopedia, we pvefuine, may go n.ar tocompleat the whale. 

'' And thereto. e not ihz Hiftory of Sophifiicatiorjs. or Adulter.uio>is and Frauds praciifed in 
Arts and Trades; which the learned A/iP''/i?c/ adds as a fourth p.trt of this Lxperimci.lal Hiftory; 

iho* 



Scd. I. History. 47 

12. As Natural History has three Parts, fo it has two principal Trro u/ei of 
Ufes ; and affords, (i.) a Knoivledgc' of the Things themfelves that are com- ^^'"""al Hi- 
mitted to Hljlory, and(2.) the/r// Matter of Philofophy. But the former, °'^' 
rho' it has its advantages, is of miicli more inferior confiJeration than the 

other-, which is a Colleftion of Materials for a juft and io\\l Induclio», 
whereon Philofophy is to be grounded. And in this view, we again divide 
Natural Hijlory into Narrative ^nd IndaSfive; the latter whereof is wanting, a fun and 
If the Natural fJi.fory extant, tho' apparently of great bulk and vari.ty,.?f«f''' Natu- 
were to be carefully weeded ot its Fables, Antiquhies, Quotations, frivolous'^' ^,''^°''y 
Difputes, Philology, Ornaments, and Table-talk -, it would fhrink to a nender"""" '"^' 
bulk. But befides, a Ilijl&ry of this kind is far from what we require ; as 
wanting the two abovemention'd Parts of a Natural Hiflory, viz. Procter- 
generations and y^rtsy on which we lay great ftrefs ; and only anfwers one 
Part in five of the /Z)/W, viz. tha.t of Generations. For the Hiitory ofGf^^- 
ra.'wwj has five fubordinate Parts; viz. (i.) The Celefiial Bodies, confidered 
in their naked Phisnomena, ftripp'd of Opinions. (2.) Meteors, Comets, and 
the Regions of the Air. (3.) The Earth and Sea, as integral parts of the 
Univerle, including Mountains,Rivers,Tides, Sands,Woods, and Idands; with 
a view to Natural Enquiries rather than Cofmography. (4.) The Elements, 
or greater JJfefnblages of matter, as I call them •, viz. Fire, Air, Water, and 
Earth. And (5.) The Species of Bodies ; or more exquiiite CollfoJions of 
Matter ; by us called the /mailer AJf^mhlages ; in which alone the induftry of 
Writers has appeared ; and that too rather in a luxurious than folid manner ; 
as rather abounding in things fuperfluous, v'z. the Reprefentations of Plants 
and Animals, (£c. than careful Obfervations, which fhould ever be fubjoined 
to Natural Hijiory*. In fine, all the Natural Hilary we have is abfolutely Induftive Hi- 
unfir for the end we propofe, viz. to build Phd'fophy upon •, and this both ftoryw/jo;;»^. 
in the manner and the matter thereof; whence we fet down Inductive 
History, asdeficient^ 

13. Civil History, in general, maybe divided into three particular Literary Hi. 
kinds, viz. Sacred, Civil, and Literary -, the latter whereof being wanting, J'^'^'""^* 
the Hljlory of the World appears like the Statue of Polypbeme, without its 

Eye; 

tho' it may feem fufficiently included under the Hiflory of Arts ; as bsin^ the fecret par: cITen- 
tial to every Art, and properly called the Myflery, or Craft thereof. Of thefc Impolirions, a 
large numbcrr may be readily collefted, and isrve, not only to quicken the underftanding, and 
enrich Experimental H'Jiory; but alio contribute to perfecSt the Science of Oeconomical Prudence. 
For conrraries lUuftrate each other, and to know the liniiler practices of an Art gives lij^ht to 
the Artitfelf; as well as puts men upon their guard againft being deceived. See Morhof'sPoly- 
hifi. Tom. 11. pag. ii8. 

* It appears to be the Dcfi^n of the Roy/j/ Society, in their PhilofophicalT'.infaclions, to colle£l 
Materials for tm^^uve Natural Hiflory ; whcre'O we may add the French Memoirs, the German 
Sphemerides, Sec. And perhaps a judicious Collection from the modern Writings of this kind, 
wou d come nearly up to the Thing here intended ; and lay the Foundation ot an Induilive 
Hifiory, jaftly noted by the Author as deficient. 

* What the Author underftands by InduBive Hiflory fully appears in his own particular Hijh- 
ries of Life an:! Death, IVinds, Sec. which ihew the Way of iadiicing or conlcqucntiaily dif- 
covering and drawing out the Defij^ns and Operations of Nature, by the tablina;. or orderly 
difpoling of 0.)fervat:ons and Experiments, or managing them fomewhat hke alget/raical Equa- 
tions. This method was obierved with lefs rigour by tvlr. BoyU, whoie Philofophical Peres are 
a mixture of natural ini iiiJu8ive Hiflory together ; but more ftrirtly by Sir Ifaac Neroton. Set- 
Morhof'i Volyhifl. Tom. II, p, 117, 118, i^'C. and the HovHmOrgannm, Part II. Sedi. I Cff» 



48 



History. Sed-. I. 



Eye-, the part that beft fhews the life and fpirit of the perfon*. In many- 
particular Sciences indeed, as the Law, Mathematicks, Rhetoric, &c. there 
are extant Ibme fliort Memoirs, and jejune Relations, of Seels, Schools, Books, 
Authors, and the fucceffions of this kind of Sciences ; as well as fome trivial 
Accounts of the Inventors of Things and Arts: but we fay, that a just 
AND UNIVERSAL LiTERARY HisTORY has not hithcrto been publiflied ^. 
Its Derisn ' ^- '^'^^ T^^fign of this Work fhould be, to relate from the earlieft Accounts 

of Time, (i.) what Particular kinds of L^rtr;7f«^ and yfr/j flourifhed in what 
Ages, and what Parts of the World ; (2.) their Antiquities, Progrefs, and 
Travels on the Globe ; (3.) their Dscline, Difappearance, and Reftoration. 
In each Artfliould be obferved, (4.) its origin and occafion of invention ; 
(5.) the manner and form of its delivery ; and (6.) the means of itsintro- 
dudlion, exercife and eftablifhment. Add to thefe, (7.) the moft famous 
Setts and Controverfies of learned Men ; (8.) the Calumnies they fuffer'd, 
and the Prail'es and Honours they receiv'd. (9.) All along let the beft Au- 
thors and Books be noted -, with (10.) the Schools, Succeffions, Academies, 
Societies, Colleges, Orders, and whatever regards the State cf Learning. 
But ( 1 1.) principally let Events be all along coupled with their Caufes; (which 
is the Soul, as it were, of CivilHiJlory ;) in relating the Nature of Countries and 
People i (12.) their difpofition and indifpofition to different kinds of Learn- 
ing-, (13.) the accidents of Time, whether flwourable or deftruftive to the 
Sciences i (14.) the Zealand mixture of Religion •, (15.) the feverity and 
lenity of Laws-, (16.) the remarkable Patronage, Efforts and Endowments 
of illuftrious Men, for the promotion of Learning, and the like. All which 
we would have handled, not in the manner of Critics, who barely praife 
and cenfure -, but hiftorically, or in the way of a naked delivery of Fadls, 
with but a fparing ufe of private judgment ^ 

15- 

* That is, an Account of the Origin, Progrefs, and Fate of Learning, human Inventions and 
the Sciences overall the Globe; is what gives Light, Life and Spiritto the body of Cii^i/ Hiftory. 

^ Notwithilanding Gefner's Bibliotheca, firll printed in the year lyj-i, and the Hermes Aca- 
demicus of ilyUtts, firft publiflied in the year ij'48. 

•= TheDelign here sketched out, appears too vaft for any finglehand, and fhould rather be the 
work of fome Society or College of learned Men. None of the V/rners u-pon Literary Hiftory 
feem to have taken in the whole Plan of the Author. Some parts thereof have, however, been 
attempted; particularly by Vetr. Lambsciiis, who in the year i6f9. publiflied his Prodromus 
HiftoriA Literaris.; or Preliminaries to a general Hifiory of the Rife, Progrefs, Resolutions, and 
Reftoraiions of all Languages, Sciences, Faculties, and liberal Arts, in the oider of Time, thro' 
all Ages: with a pinicuhr commemoration of the illuftrious perfons of both Sexes. Printed in Latin, 
by Liebez.eit of Hambourg, in Folio, and ag^iinwhh AdS'.uonsby fo. Albert. Fabricins, in 1710. This 
Perfoi-Hiance, tho' but a Specimen, of an uiiiverfal Literary History, was a Workof immei fe 
labour and erudition. The whole Defign conlifted of eight and thirty books; only the firll 
whereof, and four Chapters of the fccond, ending with the Argonautic Expedition, are heie 
publiflied; with Plans of the thirty two laft Chapters of the fame fecond Book. Nor if the 
whole were executed, would it fully anfwer either to the method, or fill up the Heads, sketched 
out by the Laid Bacon. The executionof fuch a grand Defign leemsa Royal IVork, and requires 
to be executed in Parts. SeeMorhof. Polyhijl. Tom. I. pag. 10. Ed. 1714- O'Stollii Introdiiciio in 
Hiftoriam Literariam, Fd.Jen&, An. 1718. Many particulars for this Literary Hiftory arc to be 
found in the Works of G. J. VoJJins de Hiftoricis' Gncis & Latinis, de Vhilologia, de Philojophin 
e^ Philofophorum Seilis, de Theologia Gentili. Phyfiologia Chriftlana, de Artibtis pofnlaribus, de 
Scientiis Mathematicis, &c. This Author in his Book de Vhilologia gives fome dircftions for 
the execution. He obferves, (1) that Literary Hiftory fhould contain tin account of the learned 
J Men, 



Sed. I. History. 49 

15. For the manner of writing this Hiflory^ we particiihrly advife that 7*« »»«»»«•«/ 
the materials of it be drawn, not only from Hiftories and Critical Works, """""«l "• 
but alfo that the principal Books of every Century be regularly confulted 
downwards ; fo fixr we mean, as that a Tafte may be had, or a Judgment 

formed, of the Subje<5t, Style, and Method thereof ; whence the literary Ge- 
nius of every Age, may at pleai'ure be raifed, as it were from the dead *. 

1 6. The ufe and end of this fFork is not to derive- honour and pomp to iti nft. 
Learning, nor to gratify an eager curiofity, and tondnefs, of knowing and 
preferving whatever may relate thereto ; buc chiefly to make learned Men 
wifv?, in the prudent and fober exercife and adminiftration of Learning ; 

and by marking out the Virtues a::d Vices cf in'elle^ual Things^ as well as the 
motions and perturbations of States, to fhew how the befl: Regulation, and 
Government, may be thence derived : for as the works of St. Aujlin., or 
St. Ambrofe^ will not make fo wife a Divine as a thorough reading of Ec- 
cleftajlical Hiftcrs ; the fame will hold true of learned Men with regard to 
particular Books, and a Literary Hijiory : for whoever is nor fupported by 
Examples and the remembrance of Things, mufl: always be expofed to con- 
tingencies and precipitancy '^. 

Men, and their Writings ; the improvement of the Sciences, the Inventors, and the progrefs of 
Arts, (i.) Thit Xenofhon is faid by Lacrtius and Suidas, to be the firft who wrote the Hiftory 
cr Lives of the Vhikfofhers ; but the Book is loft, (j.) That the ancient Hiftorians remaining 
upon this Subjeft are Laertins, fhilojlratus, Eunafius, Heiychius, and Suidas, among the Creeks} 
and Cicero, de Claris Oratoribus, and Suetonius de illujiriius Cramm/iticis, ac Rhetoribus, C3> ali- 
quot Poetis, among the Latins. (4.) That to this kind belong thole who have wrote upon the 
illujfricus Ecclejiaflicks ; as have done St. Jercm, Gennadius MaJJilienJis , ifidorus Hifpalenjis, Hilde- 
fhorifus Toletnnus, Si^eiertus, Honorius Augufiodunenjis, cy Henricus de Gandavo. (j-.) .Among 
the moderns he reckons Folydore Virgil, Lilius Gyraldus, and himfelf, upon the ancient Rheto- 
ricians, but particularly upon the Greek and Latin Hiftorians and Poets. {6.) To theft he adds 
many of the Eccieliiftical Writers, and fuch as have given the Lives of eminent Divines, Law- 
yers and Phylicians. See Vo/f. de Philolog. Ed. 165-0. pag.71,71. (7.) We may add, C^rj/?. 
Alylii Hermes Academicus, feu de Scribenda Vniverjitatis Rerum Hijloria ; Conringius de Antiqui- 
tatibus Acadetnicis ; Reineri Keineccii Methodus legendi cognojcer.dique Hiftoriam, tarn facram quam 
frofantm; Pancirollus de Rebus memorabilibus; Georg.Vafchius de novis In-ventis, quiius facem fr^tu- 
lit Antiquitas; Stanley's Lives of the Fhilofophers; Morhcf's Polyhijlor; Struvii Introiuclio in Not i- 
tiam Rei Littrarit, ^ Bihliotheca Philofophica ; Stollii IntroduBio in Hiftoriam Literarixm, See. 

* For the execution of this Deiign, Morhof, in his Polyhiflor, recommends the obfervance of 
the Direftion laid down by M. Naude for dil'pofing a Library, and ranging Books according to 
the Subjedi or Faculties they treat j or rather that propoftd by Lambecius, for a Philolbphical 
Library. See Morhof s Polyhiff. Tom. I. pig. 9 — if. Ed. 1714. See d.l[o Naudti Dijjertatio de in- 
ftruenda Bibliotheca ; publift'd in Latin, with Additions, by Schmidius. An. 1705. 

'' The ufes of fuch a Literary Hiftory, befides the capital one here mention'd, would be great 
and numerous; for inftance, it wouid ihew the Origins and Tranfmigrations of Religions, He- 
reUes, Phiiofophies, Doftrines and Opinions; the Antiquity of Arts, Sciences and Inventions; 
their introduction and reception in different Countries: luch a Hiftory would perhaps ftiewr 
that moft Phiiofophies, Herefies, Doftrines, and Inventions are originally ancient, and only re- 
vived or new drefs'd up in iater times; and help us to recover the ancient Arts and Secrets 
now fuppofed to be loft. Another principal uft of it would be to direft our Studies, for ac- 
quiring a Knowledge of univerfal Philofophy, or any particular Branch of it ; and lead to Praftice 
and farther Improvement. See Erafmus Bartholinus de Arcanis Scientiarum, Pancirollus de Re- 
6us deftrdiiis. Alex. Tajjoni Penfieri diverfi, (^ Pegelii Thefaurus Rerum feleBarum, &:c. But 
\vhat we find co.namonly pubiiftied under the Title of Literary Hiftories, contain little more 
than an Account of the Editions of Books, with biographical and critical Remarks on the 
Authors; and are by no means that uni-verfal hind of Litirar/ Hijiory here intended. 



Vol. I. H 



17. 



50 

Farticular 
Civil Hillory, 
what it Jliould 
(onta'm. 



History. 



Sea. I. 



The difficulty 
ef writing it. 



js of three 
kinds, viz.. 



Memoirs, of 
too fort I. 



Htgifiers, of 
two fort J. 



17. Civil History, particularly fo called, is of prime dignity and au- 
thority among human Writings ; as the Examples of Antiquity, the Revo- 
lutions of Things, the Foundations of civil Prudence, with the names and 
reputations of Men, are committed to its truft. But 'tis- attended with no 
lefs difficulty than dignity •, for it is a Work of great labour and judgment, 
to throw the mind back upon things pafled, and flora it with Antiquity ; 
diligently to fearch into, and with fidelity and freedom relate (i.) the Com- 
inotions of Times, (2.) the Cbar alters of Perfo>is ; (.^.) the Inftahilit-j of Coun- 
fels ; (4.) the Coiirfcs of ASions ; (5.) the Bottoms of Pretences ; (6.) the Secrets 
of State ; and (7.) to fetall this to view in proper and fuitable language: 
cfpecially as ancient Tranlaftions are uncertain, and late ones expofed to 
danger. Whence fuch a Civil Hifiorj is attended with numerous Defects v 
the greater part of Hifi:orians writing little more than empty and vulgar Nar- 
rations, and fuch as are really a difgrace to Hijlory -, while fome haftily draw 
up particular Relations, and trivial Memoirs -, fome only run over the general 
heads of Actions -, and others defcend to the minuted: particulars, which have 
no relation to the principal Aftions. Thefe in compliance with their Ge- 
nius, boldly invent many of the things they write ; whilft thofe ftamp the 
image of their own afFedtions upon what they deliver : thus preferving fideli- 
ty to their party •, but not to Things themfelves. Some are conftantly in- 
culcating Politicks, in which they take moft pleafure ; and feek all occafions 
of ftiewing themfelves •, thus childifhly interrupting the Thread of their Hi- 
fi ory : whilft others are too tedious, and fhew but little Judgment in the pro- 
lixity of their Speeches, Harangues, and Accounts of Adions : fo that 
in fhort, nothing is fo feldom found among the Writings of men, as true 
and perfe^ civil Hiflory *. 

18. This Civil Hijlory h of three kinds, and bears refemblance to three 
kinds of Piffures ; viz. the unfnijbfd, the- fnifl'ed, and the defaced: Thus 
Civil Hiflory, which is the Piflure of Times and Things, appears in Memoirs, 
jujl Hijlory, and Antiquities ; but Memoirs are Hijlory begun, or the firft- 
Strokes and Materials of it -, and Antiquities, are Hijlory defaced, or Remnants 
that have efcaped the Shipwreck of Time. 

19. Memoirs, or Memorials, are of two kinds -, whereof the one may 
be termed Commentaries, the other Regijlers. In Co?nmcntaries are fet down 
naked Events and Anions in fequence •, without the Motives, Defigns, 
Counfels, Speeches, Pretexts, Occafions, (3'c. for fuch is the true nature 
of a Commentary ; tho' Ccefar, in modefty mix'd with greatnefs, called the 
beft Hiftory in the world a Commentary. 

20. Registers are of two kinds; as either containing the Titles of 
Things and Perfons in order of Time, by way of Calendar and Chronicles, 
or elfe in the way of Journal, and preferving the Edifts of Princes, De- 
crees of Council, judicial Proceedings, Declarations and Letters of State, 
publick Orations, i3c. without continuing the thread of the Narration *•. 

21. 

• Thus perhaps mod of the Hijieries of Britain are partial Accounts of the fame publick 
Tranlaiflions, differently reprefentcd ; according to the Principles, or panicu'.ir \ c-w of the 
Writer. Whence xhoie of Buchanan. Baker, Clarendon, Kennet, Eachard, and Biirhet,.r,c often 
found partial; whilft that of a Foreigner, M. Thoyrai Rapm, is allow \.; the jullcic ^caeiai Hi- 
jlory of our Nation. ♦ 

^ Rhjhworih's CilUHions and Rymer'i loeder'a, aic eminent Inftances hereof. j 



Sed. I. History. 51 

21. Amtiquities are the TFrecks of HiJlory\ wherein the memory of ■^»''^»""3"«"- 
Things is almoft loft ; or fuch Particulars as induftrious Perfons, with exad: ""■ 

and fcrupulous diligence, can any way colled from Genealogies, Calendars, 
Titles, Infcripcions, Monuments, Coins, Names, Etymologies, Proverbs, Tra- 
ditions, Archives, Inftruments, Fragments of publick and private Hiftory, 
fcatter'd Paflages of Books no way hiftorical, idc. by which means fome- 
thing is recovered from the Deluge of Time. This is a laborious Work ; 
yet acceptable to Mankind, as carrying with it a kind of reverential awe ; 
and deferves to come in the place of thofe fabulous and ficlitious Origins of 
Nations we abound with : tho' it has the lefs authority, as but few have ex- 
amined and exercifed a liberty of thought about it *. 

22. In thefe kindsof Imperfect Hi storv, no Deficiency need be noted, Epiiomesthe 
they being of their own nature imperfeft : but Epitomes of Hifior^ are the ^^''■^ of Cixd 
Corruption and Moths, that have fretted and corroded many found and ex- '■' "'^' 
cellent bodies of Hijhry, and reduced them to bafe and unprofitable Dregs ; 

whence all Men of found Judgment declare, the ufe of them ought to be 
banifli'd. 

23. Just History is of three kinds, with regard to the three Ohje&is Juft Hi^ory of 
it defigns to reprefent •, which are either a Portion of Tune, a memorable Per- t^'jee^yrM, 
fon, or an illujlrious Aclion. The firft kind we call writing of Annals, or ^j'~' ^*"*'" 
Chronicles •, the fecond. Lives ; and the third. Narratives or Relations. Chro- 
nicles fhare the greateft Efteem and Reputation -, but Lives excel in A dvan- 

tage and Ufe ; as Relations do in Truth and Sincerity. For Chronicles repre- 
fent only grand publick Actions, and external Shews and Appearances to 
the People, and drop the fmaller Pafiiiges and Motions of Men and Things. 
But as the Divine Artificer hangs the greateft Weight upon the fmalleft 
Strings-, fo fuch /////(jnVi rather Ihew the Pomp of Aff^airs, than their true 
and inward Springs. And tho' it interfperfes Counfel ; yet delighting in 
Grandeur, it attributes more Gravity and Prudence to human Aftions, than 
really appears in them : fo that Satyr might be a truer Picture of human 
Life, than certain Hijiories of this kind : whereas Lives, if wrote with care Lives, 
and judgment, propofing to reprefent a Perfon, in whom Aftions, both great 
and fmall, publick and private, are blended together, muft of neceflity give 
a more genuine, native, and lively Reprefenration, and fuch as is fitter for 
imitation ^ 

24. ParticularRelations of Act 10^ s; 3.5 of the PeloponneJianfFar, AnJ Reli- 
the Expedition of Cyrus, &c. may, likewife, be made with greater truth and tions. 
exadnefs, than Hijiories of Tunes ; as their Subjedl is more level to the Enquiry 

and Capacity of the Writer : whilft they who undertake the Hijhry of any 
large portion of Time, muft needs meet with Blanks and empty Spaces, 
which they generally fill up out of their own Invention. 

H 2 25. 

' The Subjedl of Antiquities is now found confideiably cultivated, by the Labours of Camb- 
Jen, SelJtn, Lightfoot, VoJJius, Spanheim, GrevtHs, Gronovius, Dugdnle, Van Bale, Vitifcns, Stru- 
•vius, Montfancon, Totter, 2rideaux, Wood, and many other eminent Antiquaries. See Stolliiln- 
trtduciio in Hifioriam Liternriam. Ed, Jens, An. 1718. De Arte Critica, pag. ifi— itf/. ^ 
idorhcf. Foljfhijlor, Tom. I. lib.V. cap. 1. de Scriftoribus Antiquariis . 

^ Eminent Examples whereof we have in C»j[endi'% Livet of Feirefc, Tjcho Brahe, Sf*f^»cht 
Regiomom/tnus, and Copernicus, 



52 History. Se<9:. I. 

25. This exception, however, muft be made to the Sincerity of Relations, 
that if they be wrote near the times of the Aftions themfelves, they are, in 
that cafe, to be greatly fufpeded of Party or Prejudice. But as 'tis uiiial 
for oppofite Parties to publiih Relations of the fame Tranficlions ; they, by 
this means, open the way to truth ; which lies betwixt the two extremes : fo 
that after the heat of Contention is allay'd, a good and wife Hijiorian may 
hence be furnifhed with Matter for a more perfedl Hijtory. 

26. As to the Deficiencies in thefe three kinds 0/ History ; doubtlefs 
many particular Tranfa£tions have been left unrecorded, to the great pre- 
judice, in point of Honour and Glory, of thofe Kingdoms and States where 
they pafled. But to omit other Nations •, we have particular reafbn to com- 
plain of the ImperfecStion of the prefent Hiftory of England, in the main 
continuance of it ; and the Partiality and Obliquity of that of Scotland. Ic 
would be a very memorable Work, if this Ifland of Great Britain, now 
joined in Monarchy, were alfo joined in one Hijlory, after the manner of the 
facred Hijlory ; which draws down the account of the ten Tribes, and of the 

two Tribes, as twins, together*. 
Biography </e- 27. With regard to Lives ; we cannot but wonder that our own Times 
feUhii. have fo little value for what they enjoy, as not more frequently to write the 

Lives of eminent Men. For tho' Kings, Princes, and great Perfonages are 
few, yet there are many other excellent Men, who deferve better than vague 
Reports and barren Elogies. And altho' many, more mortal in their aflFeftions 
than their bodies, efteem the defire of Fame and Memory but a Vanity •, and 
defpife Praife, whilft they do nothing that is praife-worthy •, yet this alters 
not 5o/oMo«'s Judgment, '■'■ the immor-j of the Juft flmll he with praifes; but 
" the name of the Wicked J}mII rot i*' the one flourifliing, whilft the other 
confumes, or turns to corruption. So in that laudable way of fpeaking of 
the dead, " of happ-j memory ! of pious memory ! &c." we feem to acknow- 
ledge, with Cicero and Defnoflhenes, " that a good Name is the proper Inhe- 
" ritance of the deceafed." Which Inheritance, as lying waftc in our time, 
deferves to be noted as a Deficiency *". 
delations te 2 8. In the bufinels of Relations, it is alfo to be wifhed that greater dili- 
ie wrote with gence Were employ'd ; for there is no fignal Adlion, but has fome good Pen 
fUTi. J.Q defcribe it. But very few being qualified to write a. jujl Hijlory, fuitable 

to its dignity, a thing wherein fo many have failed ; if memorable A<5ts 
were but tolerably related as they pafs ; tliis might lay the Foundations,, 

and 

* The Author intended to write fuch a Hiftory himfelf, and accordingly begun it : what was 
ifinilhed of it, ftands as the Second Supplement to this Piece de Augmentis Scientiarum : 
but for the Continuation, we muft have recourle to Drake, Thuanus, Rapin, &c. 

^" It has been fo well cultivated fince, that a Library, might be coile£ted of the Lives of emi- 
nent Moderns. Whoever defires to fee the neceflary Rules for this kind of Writing, the great 
Utility, and more eminent Inftances of it, cannot, perhaps, do better than read the learned Mor- 
A«/upon the Subjedt, in his Tolyhifior, Tom. I. lib. 1. cap. 19. de Vitarum Serif toribus . As for 
Lives themfelves, among the mcft ufeful may be reckon'd that extraordinary one of Teirefr, 
written hy Gajjendii that ai MeUnBhon, hy Camerarius ; that oi Emfinut, by M. LeClirc; that 
©f Mr. Cowley, by Bifliop Sfrat ; that of the Lord Chief J-Aftice Hale, by Bifliop Burnet ; thofe of 
Learned Men, by Thuanus, in his Hiftory; thofe coUedcdby Bates; and thofe of the Members 
ciKhsRoyalAcademy of Sciences z^ ?aris, by M. Fontenelle. See Striiz,ii Introduffio in notitiam Rei- 
Literarid. Cap.Vlf. de Serif toribusVitarum. What the Lord irtfo» himfelf perform'd in this 
way, tpjearsby the THjro Svpflemenx to this Piecei d* Augmentis ScimtiarHm,. 



Sed.I. History. 



53 



and afford Materials for a compleat Htjlory of Times, wlien a Writer fhould 
arife equal to the Work. 

29. History of Times is either general or particular, as it relates the uijior-j ef 
Traniadlions of the whole World, or of a certain Kingdom, or Nation. Times, is ge- 
And there have been thofe, who would feem to give us the H'ijlor\ of the "f"' <"■ /""■- 
World from its Origin ; but, in reality, offer only a rude Collection of Things, "'^''''"'• 
and certain fhort Narratives inftead of a Hiftcry ' .• whilft others have nobly, 

and to good advantage, endeavour'd to delcribe, as in a juft Ilijlorv, the 7fie- 
morable TbiKgs, which in their time happened over all the Globe. For human 
Affairs are not fo far divided by Empires and Countries, but that in many 
cafes they rtill preferve a connexion : whence it is proper enough to view, 
as in one Pifture, the Fates of an Age. And fjch a general Hlflory as this, 
raay frequently contain particular Relations; which, the' of value, might 
otherwife cither be loft, or never again reprinted : at leaft, the heads of fuch 
Accounts may be thus preferved. But upon mature confideration, the Laws 
of juft Hijlory appear fo fevere, as fcarce to be obferved in fuch a large field 
of Matter: whence the bulkinefs of Hiflcry fhould rather be retrenched, than 
enlarged: otherwife, he who has fuch variety of Matter every whvzre fo col- 
left, if he preferve not conftantly the ftrideft watch upon his Informations^ 
will be apt to take up with Rumours, and popular Reports, and work fuch 
kind of fuperficial ^Iatter into his Hijlory. And then to retrench the whole, 
he will be obliged to pais over many things otherwife worthy of relation ;. 
and often to contract and fliorten his Style; wherein there lies no fmall dan- 
ger of frequently cutting off" ufeful Narrations, in order to oblige Man- 
kind in their favourite way of Compendium; whence fuch Accounts, which 
might otherwife live of themfelves, may come to be utterly loft \ 

30. History of Times is likewife divifible into Annals and Jour- DhifiiU mt9 
NALs, according to the obfervation of Tacitus; where, mentioning the Mag- ''^""^''^ 'jarf 
nificence of certain Strudlures, he adds, " 'twas found fuitable to the Roman i°^^^^- 

" dignity, that illuftrious Things fliouid be committed to Annals; but fuch 
" z% tbefe, to the publjc.k Journals of the City." Thus referring what related 
to the State of the Commonwealth to Annals ; andfmaller Matters to Jour- 
nals . And fo there fhould be a kind of Heraldry in regulating the dignities 
of Books, as well as P-erfons : for as nothing takes more from the Dignity of 
a State, tlian Confufion of Orders and Degrees •, fo it greatly takes from the 
Authority of Hijhry, to intermix Matters of Triumph, Ceremony, and No- 
velty, with Matters of State. And it were to be wifh'd that this Diftindlion 
prevail'd. But in our times. Journals are only ufed at Sea, and in military 
Expeditions: whereas, among the Ancients, 'twas a regal Honour to have 

the 

* Some Genriemen in England have lately publifhed Propolals, and a noble Attempr, towards 
an U/iiverfal Hiftory, from the earlieft Accamt of Time, to the present ; wherein rhe Flan appears 
fo juftly laid, and what is hitherto executed lb exact, that it is greatly to be wifhed they iray 
meet with luirable Encouragement. Among the belt genernl Hijiories wrote of late, are e- 
lleemed the following; -uiz. Celtarii Hijlorin univerfalis. Ed. Jenx 17 1 i. Jo. Uenric. Leodcrl 
IntroduBio in Hifloriam univerfam. Ed. Lipfia:, An. 1713. Johnn. Cleric. Compendium Hijlorii 
tiniverfatis. Amlfclodami 1697; C?" LipiiK 1713. (^ Burchard Gotthetf Striitii Kuitxer Begfijf 
der uai-verfal-Hiftorie. Jense 1716. See Stollii Introiluciio in Hij'foriam Liierariam, pag. 315-, &t. 

'' For the Rules of writing Hifiory, and the ^Salifications of an Hijlorian, fee VcJJms de yirta 
Bifiorica; and for the AlTiftances required in the Work, fee Morhof's Polyhifior, Tom. III. lib a^ 
it irudentU CnUis Scri^mibhs, f^ Tom. Ill, lib. 4. de Hi/lorii icri^torili^ni. 



54 



History. Sed. I. 



the daily Acts of the Palace recorded ; as we fee in the cafe o^ Ahajfuerus, 
King of Perfia. And the Journals of Alexander the Great contained even 
trivial Matters, Yet Journals are not deftined for trivial things alone, as 
Annals are for ferious ones ; but contain all things promifcuoufly, whether of 
greater or of lefs concern. 
Civil H'ljlory 31. The /rtV? Drj//?;/;? of CiviL Hi STORY, is into^?/ri?and wixV. Of the 
divijiblt into mix'd, there are two eminent kinds •, the one principally civile and the other 
pure and principally «rf/;/;77/; for a kind of Writing has been introduced, that does 
'"'^ ' not give particular Narrations in the continued thread of a H?/?(7ry, but where 

the Writer collefts and culls them, with choice, out of an Author; then 
reviewing, and, as it were, ruminating upon them, takes occafion to 
treat of political SubjeHs: And this kind of ruminated Hiftory we highly 
cfteem, provided the Writers keep clofc to it profelTedly : for 'tis both unfea- 
fonable, andirkfome, to hive an Author profefs he will writea;«y? Hijlcry, 
yet be at every turn introducing Poiiticks, and thereby breaking the thread 
of his Narration. All wife Hijhry is indeed pregnant with political Rules 
and Precepts -, but the Writer is not to take all opportunities of delivering 
himfelf of them. 
Cofmogra- 32. CosMOGR A PHic A L HisTORY IS alfo mix' d many ways-, as taking 

phical Hiftory the D.'fcriptions of Countries, their Situations and Fruits, from Natural Hijlo- 
•varioiify ^^ .^ j.|^g Accounts of Citics, Governments and Manners, from Civil Hiftor-j •, 
the Climates, and agronomical Phenomena, from Mathematicks : In which 
kind of Hi/lory, the prefcnt Age feems to excel, as having a full view of the 
World in this light. The Ancients had fome knowledge of the Zones and 
Antipodes ; tho' rather by abftraft demonftration than faft: but that little 
Vtffrls, like the celeftial Bodies, fliould fail round the whole Globe, is the 
happinefs of our Times. This great Improvement of Navigation, may give 
us great hopes of extending and improving the Sciences; efpecially as it 
feems agreeable to the Divine Will, that they fhould be coeval. Thus the 
Prophet Daniel foretells, that " many /hall go to and fro on the Earth, and 
" Knowledge Jhall he increafed;" as if the opennefs and thorough pafllige of 
the World, and the increafe of Knowledge, were allotted to the lame Age : 
which indeed we find already true in part ; for the Learning of thefe Times, 
fcarce yields to the former Periods or Returns of Learning ; the one among 
the Greeks, and the other among the Romans ; and in many particulars far 
exceeds them *. 
■Ecchjinfthal 23- ECCLESIASTICAL HiSTORY, in general, has nearly the fame Diui- 
Hijlory ili- finns with Civil Hijlory : thus there are Ecdeftajlical Chronicles, Lives of the 
lided into Fathers, Accounts of Synods, and other Ecclefiaftical Matters: but in pro- 
^/^^"^^jj"^ priety, it may be farther divided, (i.) into the general Hijlory of the Church -, 
(2.) the Hijlory of Prophecy ; and (3.) the Hijlory of Providence. The firjl 
defcribes the times of the Church militant, whether flu5luati7ig, as the Ark of 
Noah ; moveable, as the Ark in the Wildernefs ; or at rejl, as the Ark in the 
Temple ; that is, in the Itates of Perfecution, Migration, and Peace. And in 
this part, there is a Redundancy rather than a Deficiency ; but it were to be 
wilhed the goodnefs and fincerity of it were equal to the bulk ^ 

34- 

' See this Matter farther profecuted in the Novum Orgemum, Part I. 
*> See Morhof'i Polyhiftor, de Thtologic'u Scri(toribus,To\nA\\. lib. j. 



Sedl.I. History. 55 

34. The fecond part, viz. the History of Prophecy, confifts of two The Hlflory of 
Relatives •, the Prophecy, and the Accomphfiment : whence the nature of it re- ^|^°^^^-^^* 
quires, that every Scripture Prophecy be compared with the Evejit, thro' all granting. 
the Ages of the World ; for the better confirmation of the Faith., and the 

better information of the Church, with regard to the viterpretation of Pro- 
phecies not yet fulfilled. But here we mull allow that Latitude, which is pe- 
culiar and familiar to divine Prophecies ; which have their completion not only 
at ftated times, but in fuccelhon : as participating of the nature of their 
Author, " wilh whom a thoufand years are but as one day ;" and therefore are 
not fulfilled punftually at once •, but have a growing accomplijhment thro* 
many Ag;s: tho' the height or fulnefs of them may refer to a fingle age, or 
moment. And this is a Work whiih I find deficient: but it fhould either 
be undertaken with Wifdom, Sobriety, and Reverence, or not at all =>. 

35. The third part, the History of Providence, has been touched Andtheuifl»- 
by fome pious Pens-, but not without a mixture of Party. This Hijlory 7"/^^°^^" 
is employ'd in obferving that divive a^r cement which there fomelimes is betwixt 

the revealed and fecrct TFdl of God. For altho' the Counfels and Judgments 
of God are fo fecret, as to be abfolutely unfearchable to Man •, yet the Di- 
vine Goodnefs has fometimes thought fit, for the confirmarion of his own 
People, and the confutation of thofe who are as without God in the world, 
to write them in fuch Capital Letters, as ihev who run may read them. Such 
are the remarkable Events and Examples of God's Judgments, tho' late and 
unexpefted •, fudden and unhoped for Deliverances and Bleffings ; Divine 
Counfels dark and doubtful, at length opening and explaining themfelves,''£5f'r. 
All which have not only a power to confirm the Minds of the Faithful, but 
to awaken and convince the Confciences of the Wicked. 

36. And not only the Anions of Mankind, but alfo their Sayings ought J'^^ ^^tf'"- 
to be preferved : and may, doubtlefs, be fometimes inferted in FJijIorv, (q ^"Z^'ol ti'jio- 
far as they decently ferve to illuftrate the Narrations of Fafts. But Books 

of Orations, Epistles, and Apophthegms, are the proper Repo/i lories 
of human Difcourfe. The Speeches of wife Men, upon matter of Bufinefs, Speeclies. 
weighty Caufes, or difficult Points, are of great ufe, not only for Eloquence, 
but for the knowledge of Things themfelves''. But the Letters of wife Letters. 
Men upon ferious Affairs, are yet more ferviceable in points of' civil Pru- 
dence ; as of all human Speech, nothing is more iblid or excellent than fuch 
Epijlles : for they contain more of natural Senfe than Orations, and more 
Ripcnefs than occafional Difcourfes. So Letters of State-Affairs, 

written 

^ This is attempted by Grotlus, in his Comment ant s upon the B'Mt; by Father Simon, in his 
Critical Hijlory of the Old and Nero Teftament ; Dr. Hammond, upon the Old and New Tefiament i 
Dt.lfhitby, on the Ne-a Tefiament; Mr. H'hi/ion, in his Accomplif^ment of Scripture Vrophecies i 
M. Le Clerc, and Bifhop Sherlock, in his Difcourfe of the Ufe and Intent of Piophecy in the feveral 
Ages of the World. 

^ Dr. HackweU's Apology for Providence, Dv. Reynolds's Cod's Revenge againfl Murder, Beard's 
Theatre of Goii's Judgments, Fuller's Hiftory of Providence, Le Clerc's Dcfenfe de la Providence, 
and Bayte's Dictionary, contain many Particulars of this kind. 

• Thus the Speeches of the Author, which make the Fourth Supplement to this tVori; 
and many of thofe preferved in Ruflivoorth's ColleBions, arc highly valuable and inftruftive; as 
opening the Scene of publick Alfairsi (hewing the Genius and free Spirit of the EngUfli Nation i 
and feeming to contain the Form and Matter of many famous publick Speefhcs of later Times. 



56 



Poetry. Se£l. II. 



written, in the order of time, by thofe that manage them, with their Anfwers, 
afford the beft Materials for Civil Hifiory *. 
^«iApoph- 27- Nor do Afophtheoms only ferve for Ornament and Delight, but al- 
thegnjs. fo for A6i:ion and civil Ufe: as being the E-^ge-tools of Speech, which cut 

and penetrate the Knots of Bufinefs and Affairs. For Occafions have their 
Revolutions ; and what has once been advantageoufly ufed, may be fo again j 
either as an old thing or a new one. Nor c.n the ufefulnefs of thefe Say 
iiigi m Civil Affairs be queftion'd, when Co-jur himfelf wrote a Book upon 
the Subjed : which we wifh were extant ; for ill thofe we have yet feen of 
the kind, appear to be colledled with little choice and judgment ''. 



SECT. II. 
Of Poetry. 

Poetry jj ima- I. i.TQOetry is a kind of Learning generally confined to themeafureof 

ginary Hifto- J^ Words, but otherwife extremely licentious, and truly belonging to 

^^' thelmaginalioii ; which being unreftrained by Laws, may make what unnatural 

mixtures and feparations it pleafes. 'Tis taken in two Senfes •, or with refpedt 

to IVords and Matter. The firft is but a Charadler of Style, and a certain 

form of Speech, not relating to the Subjeft •, for a true Narration may be 

deliver'd in verfe, and a feign'd one in profe'^: but the fecond is a capital Part 

of Learning -, and no other xhzn feigii'd Hijlory. And here, as in our Di- 

vifions we endeavour to find and trace the true Sources of Learning, and this 

frequently without giving way to Cuftom, or the eftablilhed Order; we fhall 

take no particular notice of Satyr, Eleg-j, E/igram, OJt', &c. but turn them 

over to Philofophy, and the Arts of Speech: and under the name of P(?^/r>', 

treat nothing more than imaginary Hijlorv. 

Divided, 2. The julleft Drv'f/7o;z o/ Pof'/r)', except what it fiiares in common with 

Hijlory, (which has ks feign'd Chronicles, feign'' d Lives, and feign'd Relations) 

is 

* The Advantages to be reaped from Letters are largely (hewn in Morhof'% Volyh'tficr, Tom. I. 
Lib.l. Cap. 23, 24, ly- de Efiftolarum Serif toribtts ; and the judgment here made of them con- 
firmed; and extended to Fhilofofhical as well as Civil Purpofes. Thus, as the Latirt Letters of 
Mr. Milton to foreign States, beft (hew the .Spirit and Conduft of Oliver Cromwell ; fo the pri- 
vate Letters of des Curtes and lAt. Locke, are the beft Explanation of the Defigns and Views of 
tYienFhilofofhicdH'ritings: and therefore as the Letters of Ambafladors, and Secretaries of State, 
give the moft authentic and fatisfaftory Accounts of political Tranfaftions; fo the familiar Let- 
ters of learned Men difclof; their internal Sentiments, and fecrct Intentions, better than their 
formal Works, which are drefs'd out for the Puilick. And hence the Letters of eminent Men 
are generally read with great pleafure, and advantage j as thofe of Zr^jmus, Grotius, Patin, 
Sir IVilliam Temple, Mr. Ray, and even the fuppofcd Letters of the Tarkijh Spy, the Spec- 
tator, Sic. The felc<ft Letters of the Lord Bacon, therefore, defervedly make the Fifth Sup- 
plement to this Piece of the de Augmentis Scientiarum. 

* And therefore the Authorbegan a new Colle£tion of Apophthegms, which make the Sixth 
Supplement to the de Augmentis Scientiarum. 

<^ Thus Liican's Fharfalia, and Blackmore's Creation, are true Hifto.ies in verfci and Tele- 
ftiitchus, and the Travels 0/ Cyrus, feigned Hijiories in frefe. 



Sea.II. Poetry. 57 

i${ I.) into Narrative, (2,) Dramatic, and (3.) Allegorical Narrative Poetry 
is fuch an exaft imitation of Hiflors, as to deceive, did it not often carry 
things beyond probability. Dramatic Poetry is a kind of vijible Hijfoj ; 
giving the Images of things as if they were prefent ; whilfl; Hiftory repre- 
fents them as part. Bwt Allegorical Poetry h Hijlory- with its Tyje ; which 
reprefents intellectual Things to the Senfes. 

3. NarrativePoetry, otherwife caWedHcroic Poetry, feems,with regard i„i^ tjarm. 
to its matter, not the verfification, raifed upon a noble foundation ; as having we Poetry. 
a principal regard to the dignity of human Nature '. For as the adlive World 

is inferior to the rational Soul, fo Poetry gives that to mankind which Hi- 
ftory denies ; and in fome meafure f^tisfies the Mind with fliadows, when it 
cannot en ioy the fubftance''. For upon a narrow infpeclion, PotV^j ftrong- 
ly fliews, that a greater grandeur of things, a more perfedl order, and a 
more beautiful variety is pleafing to the Mind, than can any where be 
found in Nature, after the fall. So that as the Actions and Events, 
which are the S\i)oi]ed:% oi true Hijlory, have not that grandeur which fatis- 
fi::s the Mind, Poetry fteps in, ar«.l feigns more heroical aftions. And as 
real Hiftory gives us not the fuccefs of things, according to the deferts of 
virtue and vice ; Poetry correfts it, and prefents us with the Fates and For- 
tunes of perfons rewarded or puniflied according to merit. And as real Hi- 
ftory difgufts us with a familiar and conftant fimilitude of things ; Poetry 
relieves us by unexpected turns and changes ; and thus not only delights, 
but inculcates morality and noblenefs of Soul. Whence it may be juftly 
efteemed of a divine nature •, as it raifes the Mind, by accommodating the 
Images of things to ourDefires-, and not, like Hiftory ^nd Reafon, fubjeft- 
ing the Mind to Things ^ And by thefe its charms, and congruity to the 
Mind, with the affiftance alfo of Mufick, which conveys it the fweeter, it 
makes its own way -, fo as to have been in high efteem in the moft 
ignorant ages, and among the mofl barbarous people ; whilft other kinds of 
Learr.ing were utterly excluded''. 

4. Dramatic Poetry, which has the Theatre for its (Vorld, would hz Br/imath 
■of excellent ufe, if it were found : for the difcipline and corruiiion of the Thea- Poetry. 
tre is of very great confequence. And the corruptions of this kind are nu- 
merous in our times ; but the regulation quite neglefted ■■. The Atftion of 

the Tiieatre, tho' modern States efteem it but ludicrous, unlefs it be fatyrical 
and biting, was carefully watch'd by the ancients, that it. might improve 

* Upon this Head confult the judicious Trench Critic, BoJJit du Toeme £pique. 

^ Hence the extreme Pieafure we receive in reading the Origin of the World, the Revolu- 
tions and Tranfaftions of Heaven, Earth and Hell; the Hiftory and Fate of our firft Parents; 
the Deicription of Paradife, Sec. in Milton's Faradife tofl. 

' Which intimates another Species o\ Hiftorical Vcetry, viz. the J'hyfical ; as that of Lucre- 
tius, which defrribcs the Syjlem of the World, upon the Princifle.< of Epicurus i and that of Sir 
Richard Blaclanore upon the footing of the modern Vhilofofhy. j 

* Th'js in the Origins of Nations, we find the firft thing ftudicJ is generally language and 
Foeir) i for the fake, as it (hould ftem, of their great influence in governing the uncultivated 
minds of men; and the ufe they are of, in tranfmittingdown Hiftory and Antiquities to Pofterity. 

* }At. Collier has endeavour'd to (liew the immoralities, and reftify the abufes of the Stage, 
by weeding fcveral of our modern Plays. But the due profecution of this fubjedf, perhaps re- 
quires more Knowledge of human Nature, and civil Affairs, than ufually conics to ooe luan's 
(hare. This fubje<S is alfo touch'd upon in feveral of the Stectai-ors. " 

Vol. I. 1 nian- 



P o E T R V. Sea. II. 

innnkind in virtue : and indeed many wife men and great Philofophers 

have thought it to the Mind as the Bo"^ to the Fiddle^; and certain it is, 

tho' a great Secret in Nature, that//ji? minds of men in company, are more open 

to affe^ior.s and imprejfiuns, than when alone. 

AndAlUgori- ^_ Bui ALLEGORICAL PoETR V excels the Others •, and appears a folemu 

• Poetry- facred thing, which Religion itfelf generally makes ufe of, to preferve an 

intercourfe between divine and human Things. Yet this alfo is corrupted, 

by a levity and indulgence of Genius towards Allegory, Its ufe is ambiguous, 

and made to ferve contrary purpofcs; for it envelopes as well as illiillrates: 

the firft feeming to endeavour at an Art of Concealment-, and the other at a 

The tmXT/cs of Mel bod of hijlrutluig, much ufed by the Ancients. For when the Dilcove- 

Allegorical j-j^g 3^,^ Conclufions of Reafon,tho' now common, were new, and firft known, 

" °^"^^' the human Capacity could fcarce admit them in their iabtile ftate, or till they 

were brought nearer to fcnfe, by fuch kind of imagery and examples. Whence 

ancient times are full of their Fables, their Allegories, and their Similies.. 

Nay, the Apophthegms of the ancient Sages were ufually demonftrated by 

Similitudes. And as Hieroglyi-hicks preceded Letters, fo Parables preceded 

Arguments: And the force of ParaUes ever was and will he great; as being 

clearer than Arguments, a)id more appofite than real Examples. 

6. The other ufe oi' Allegorical Poetry is to envelope things, whofe digni- 
ty deferves a Veil; as when the Secrets and Mrferies of Religion, Policy 
and Philofophy, are wrapp'd up in Fables and Parables. But tho' fome 
may doubt whether there be any myftical Senfe concealed in the ancient Fa- 
bles of the Poets ; we cannot but think there is a latent Myftery intended in 
Ibme of them : for we do not therefore judge contemptibly of them, be- 
caufe they are commonly left to Children and Grammarians ; but as the 
TFritings that relate thefe Fables, are, next to the facred ones, the tnofl ancient -,. 
and the Fables themfelves much olJer ftill ; being not delivered as the Inven- 
„, ^, ., , , lions of the Writers, but as things before believed and received ; they ap- 

7i>e Thilolophy ... .^ , . ' . p ^ ,. . ^ •,717.''^ 

of the ancient P^^i" ^'kc a Joft wb'.Jper from the Traditions oj more ancient JSations, con- 
rablesdejicient vey'dtMo' the Flurcs oi iht Grecians. But all hitherto attempted towards 
w Poetry. the interpretation of thefe Pi^r^^Vj proving unfati=fa6lory to us; as having 
proceeded from Men of but common-place learning •, we fct down the 
Philosophy of ancient Fables, as the only Deficiency in Poe- 
try''; and fubjoin three Examples of the Work, fuch as we defign it ;. 
one in Natural, one in Political, and one in Moral Philofophy, 

The 

' That is, capable of working upon and influencing the Fenphi and hence we have in Eng- 
land 3 variety of State Vlays i and certainly the Stage has its ufe in Government and Morality, as 
well as the Pulpit i both which maybe called ihe Schmli of «Country. 

^ How far this Deficiency is fapplied by the Author, will appear in his Piece ileTSapientia Ve- 
terum ; which makes the Seventh Supplement to the ile Aitgmentis Scientiarum: and hov/ 
far the Delign has fince been carried, may be learnt from the Opufcula Mythologica, publifh'd by 
Cale; Vojpus de Theologia Gentili; Spunheim, in his Notes upon Callimachus ; Boeclerus's Meta- 
tnorphofis Ovidiiina i fehan. Conrad. Diirritis, de recondita Veterum Sapientia in Poetis; and 
ie CLrc's Bibliotheque U/ii-uerfelle, where he explains the Hiftories of Hercules, AJcnis, and Ceres. 
See more to this purpofe in Morhof'i Polyhiflor, under the Chapters de Scriptorlbus ad Artem 
Toeticim facientiius, de Vhilofophi^ Moralis Scriptorihus, (j> de Libris Pljyficis fcretioribus. See 
ilCj Stollii Introductio in Hi,hriam Literariam; Cap.V. de Arte Poeticx; ^- Stru-vii Eibtiothec» 
ThiUfophica, Cap. lil, de Scriptorlbus fJiJloru ihilo/olhiix; (^(.^zj^.Wl.de Scri^toriiHs Fhilofo^hiA 



Se<fl. ir, P o E T R V. 59 

TJ:)e Fable of Pan explained of '^atu'^al Philosophy. 

II. 7 ■''THE Ancients have., -with great exa^inefs^delineated \xn\- rha vabh nf 
•*■ verfal Nature, under the perfon of Pan. They have his'^^'^ "''*"''' 
Origin doubtful : fome averting him the fonof }sizx.oxx'^^ and others 
the common offspring of all Penelope'j Suitors {a). The latter flip' 
po fit ion doubt lefs occafion'd fame later Writers to entitle this an- 
cient Fable, Vcnclo'pc: a thing frequently pra&is'd, when the ear- 
lier relations are applied to more modern characters and perfons \ 
tho fometimes vjith great abfurdity and ignorance > as in the pre- 
fent cafe : for Pan was one of the ancicnteft Gods, and long before 
the time of Ulyfles : be fides ^ Penelope was venerated by antiquity 
for her matronal chaftity. A third fort will have him the Ijfue 
tf/ Jupiter ^;?^ Hybris, that is Reproach {b). But whatever his 
origin was, the Dcftinics are allowed his Sillers (r). 

8. He is defer ibed by antiquity , with pyramidal horns reachingup to «" Portrait, 
heaven {d)., a rough and frjaggy body {e), a very long beard {f\ of a. 
biform fgure, human above, half brute beloisu {g)y ending in 

Goats feet {IS). His arms, or enfigns of power, are, a Tipe in his 
left hand, compofed of fiven Reeds (;) -, in his right a Crook (k) j 
and he wore for his mantle a leopards skin (I). 

9. His Attributes <j«^ Titles, were, the God of Hunters, Shcp-Hh office; 
herds, and all the rural Inhabitants {m) ; Trejident of the Moun- 
tains {n); and after Mercury the next mcjfenger of the Gods {o). 

He was alfo held the leader and ruler of the Nymphs, who con- 
tinually danced and frisked about him, attended with the Satyrs, 
and their elders the Sileni [p). He had alfo tl^ power of Jlri- 
king terrors, efpecially fuch as were vain and fuperfiitious ; whence 
they came to be call'd ?zx\\c terrors {q). 

10. Few actions are recorded of him, only a principal one is,Hh a^. 
that he challenged Cupid at wrefiling, and was worfted{r). He 

alfo catched the Giant Typhon in a net, and held him f aft {s). 
They relate farther of him, that when Ceres growing difconfolate 
for the Rape of VroCcipinc, hid her felf, and all the Gods took thg 
utmoft pains to find her, by goi^ig out different ways for that 
purpofe. Pan only had the good fortune to meet her, as he was 
himting ■■, and difcovered her to the reft {t). He likewife had the 
djfurance to rival Apollo inMufick ; and in the judgment of Mi- 
das was prefer d: but the Judge had, tho with great privacy and, 
fecrecy, a pair of AJfes Ears f aft ned on him for his fentenceiti). 

I 2 II. There 



6o P a E T R V. Sed. 11. 

Wi Amoun: j i . There is very little faid of his kvc\o\xn ; which may feem grange 
among fuch a multitude of Gods, fo profufely amorous (l'). He 
is only reported to have been 'very fond of Echo, 'oi'ho "djas alfo 
efleemed his 'xife (oy) ; and one Nymph more called Syrinx, -'dJith the 
love of whom Cn'^xA inflamed him for his infolent challenge. 

12. Lajlly, Pan had no defcendant •■> which alfo is a wonder y 
when thetnale Gods were fo extremely prolifick--, only he was the 

'^iijpue. repeated father of a fer-vant Girl, called lambe, who ufedto divert 
fir angers with her ridiculous pratling floriesi^x). 

theVMe ex- 13. This Fable is perhaps the nobleft of all Antiquity; and pregnant 
fUhied in the ^\^]^ the Myfterics and Secrets of Nature. (;?) Pan, as the name imports, 
i^Moj s"- j.epi.pf(;pit;s tlie Univerfc, about whofe origin there are two opinions i viz. 
that it either fprung from Mercury, that is, the divine Word, according to 
the Scriptures, and Philofophica! Divines ; or from the cofifufed feeds of Things. 
For they who allow only one beginning of all things, either afcribe it to God ; 
or if they fuppofe a 7naterial beginning, acl<.nowledge it to be various in its 
powers ; fo that the whole difpute comes to thefe two points, viz. either that 
Nature proceeds from Mercury, or from confufed mixture, according to ths 
Fable *. 

14. (/<) The third origin of Pan ktm% borrow'd by the Greeks from the 
Hebrezu Mxferies, either by means of the Egyptians, or otherwife ; for it re- 
lates to the ftate of the world, not in its firft creation, but as made fubjeA 
to Death and Corruption after the Fall : and in this ftate it was, and remains 
the offspring of God and Sin, or Jupiter and Reproach. And therefore thefe 
three feveral Accounts oi^ Pan's birth may feem true, if duly diftinguilhed 
in refpe<5t of things and times. For this Pan, or the univerfal Nature rf things, 
which we view and contemplate, had its origin from the divine IFord, and 
confufed Matter, firil created by God himfelf ; with the fubfcquent lii- 
troduftion of Sin, and confequently Corruption. 
UntheUefil- 15. {c)ThQ Deflinies, or the Natures and Fates of things, are juftly made 
Tties iietnghls Pa//'s Sifters i as the chain of natural Caufes links together the rife, dura- 
sijiers. i\ox\, and corruption ; tlie exaltatign, degeneration, and workings; thcpro- 

cefles, the effedts, and changes, of all that can any way happen to Things. 
Bis Horns. \6. {d) Horns are given him, broad at the roots, but narrow and fharp 

a-top, becaufe the nature of all things kems-pyramidal : for individuals are 
infinite ; but being colledted into a variety of fpecies, they rife up into Kinds ; 
and thefe again afcend, and are contrafled into Generals ; till at length Na- 
ture may feem colleded to a point. And no wonder if Pan's horns reach 
to the Heavens, fmcethc Sublimities of Nature, or abftraft Ideas, reach in a 
manner to Things divine : for there is a fhort and ready paflage from Meta- 
jphvficks to Natural Theology. 

' Namque canebat uti magnum per inanj. coada 
Stmina terrarumque animxque mari{que fuilltntj 
Et liquid! fimul ignis ; Sc bis exordin frimis 
Omnia, 5c ipfe tener mundi concreverit orbis. 



Se(fl.II. PoETRV. 6f 

17. (f") Pali's bod)', Or the body oC IVaturr., is, with great propriety nnd tih pmsgjf 
eK'gance, painted flip.ggy and hairy -, as rcpre'.encing the ^^ir-^ vflhiiij^s: for ^"''y- 
Favs are as the /:air, or feece of Nature ; ::nd more or lels worn by 

all bodies. This evidently appears in vifion ■, nnd in all effects or opera- 
tions at adidance : for vvh..tcvcr operates thus, may be properly fiid to emit 
Rays'. ((')But particularly the heard of Pan is exceeding long-, bccaufe ^'^ Ef'"'*'- 
the Rays of the celeftial bodies penetrate, and acfl to a prodigious dillance: 
and the Sun himfelf, when clouded on its upper part, appears to the eye 
bearded. 

18. (^^) Again, the ^oiy o/iVrt/wif is juflly defcribed ^//br?;?, becaufe of the H/i ^//ir»»- 
difference between its fuperior and inferior parts ; as the former, for their ^'"{>- 
beauty, regularity of motion, and influence over the earth, may be properly 
repreiented by the human figure ; and the latter, becaufe of their diforder, 
irregularity, and lubjeiftion to the celeftial bodies, are by the bridal. This 
biform figure alfo rcpreknts the participation of one fpecies with another ; 

for there appear to be no fmple Natures ; but all participate or confift of two : 
thus Man has fomewhat of the Brute, the 5n^/f fomev/hat of the Plant, the 
P/rt;;/ fomewhat of the A//'«^;-(7/ i fo that all natural bodies have really two 
feces; or confift of a fuperior and an inferior Species. • 

19. (/>) There lies a curious Allegory in the making o^ Pan goat footed •■, HUGmfs 
on account of the motion of afcent which the terreftrial bodies have towards ^"'• 
the air and heavens : for the Gcal is a clambering creature, that delights in 
climbing up rocks and precipices : and in the fame manner, the matters 
dcftined to this lower globe ftrongly affedt to rife upwards ; as appears from 

the Clouds and Meteors. 

20. PanH Arms, or the Enfigns he bears in his hands, are of two kinds ; U'u i.nfgnfi 
the one an Emblem of Harmon'^, the other of Em fire, (i) His Pipe, com- viz.. ^/j Pipe; 
pofed of feven reeds, plainly denotes the confent and harmony, or the 
concords and difcords of things, produced by the motion of the feven Planets. 

(k) His Cro^^alfo contains a fine Reprefentation of the ways of Nature; which AnJCrook, 
are partly ftrait, and partly crooked: thus the ftaff having an extraordinary 
bend towards the top, denotes, that the Works of divine Providence are ge- 
nerally brought about by remote means, or in a circuit; as if fomewhat 
elfe were intended, rather than the effeft prodiKed, as in the fending of Jc- 
fepb into Egypt, &c. So likewife in human government, they who fit aC 
the helm, manage and wind the people more fticcefsfully, by Pretext and 
oblique Courfes, than they could by fuch as are direct and ftrait ; fo tha-c 
in efteft all Scepters are crocked a-t^p ^ 

21. (I) Pan^i Mantle, or Cloathing, is with great ingenuity made of a H/j Mantle; 
Leopard's Skin ; becaufe of the fpots it has : for, in like manner, the hea- 
vens 

*' This is always fuppofed the Cafe in Vifon ; fo that the Matheniatical Detftonflrations in 
Opticks, proceed upon u. Andhence we may the better undcrftandthe meaningof the Author, 
when he mentions, as he frequently docs, the Rays of Things. 

^ The Reader will find many uncommon Oblervations of thi; kind, with regard to civil 
ToUcy, in the third Seiiion of the Safientia Veterum j as if the Author intended to deliver the Se- 
crets of Government, m the lead exceptionable way; that of explaining the ^olidcul Mjthtlogy of; 
the Ancients, See alio the following Fable of TerfeHs, exj^lain'tl of ff^r, 



^2. Poetry. Seca.II; 

vens are fprinkled with Stars, the Sea with Iflands, the Earth with Flowers, 
and almoft each particular thing, is variegated, or wears a mottled coat. 
tfu Office, Hi 2 2. {in) The Office of P^;z could not be more livelily exprefled, than by 
the God of making him t\\t God of Hunter s: for every natural aftion, every motion and 
Himers. procefs, is no other than a chace : thus Arts and Sciences hunt out their works ; 
and human fchemes and counfels, their leveral ends : and all living creatures 
either hunt out their aliment, purfue their prey, or feek their pleafures ; and 
this in a skilful and fagacious manner *. He is alfo ftiled the God of the rii- 
Eural Inhah- ral hbahitants ; becaufe men in this fituation live more according to Nature, 
''"/■ than they do m Cities and Courts; which corrupt them with effeininate Arts. 

(«) He is likewife particularly ftiled Preftdent of the Mountains, becaufe in 
mountains and lofty places, the nature of things lies more open and expofed 
to the eye and the underftanding ''. 
AndMeffenger 23. {o) In his being called the mejfenger of the Gods, T\fx.tz.^\.ir Mercury, 
if the Gods. Jies a divine Allegory ; as, next after the Word vfGod, theimage of the World 
is the herald of the divine power and wifdom ; according to the Expreffion of 
the Pfahnift : The Heavens declare the Glory of God, and the Firmament /ht.w.th 
his handy-work. 
Jihr^llngthe 24. {p) Pan is delighted with the company of the Nymphs: that is, the 
^SjiK^hs. Souls of all living creatures are the delight of the ijvcrld ; and he is properly 
called their Gcvtrncur, becaufe each of them follows its ownNature as a Leader; 
and all dance about their own refpeftive Rings, with infinite variety, and 
never-ceafing motion. And with thefe continually join ihtSatyrs ■i.nd Silent, 
that is, 2'outh and Age ; for all things have a kind of young, chearful, and 
dancing time; and again their time of Jlownefs, tottering, and creeping. 
And whoever, in a true light, confiders the motions and endeavours of both 
thefe ages, like another Democritus, will perhaps Rnd them as odd and ftrange, 
as the gefticulations and antick motions of the Satyrs and Silent. 
Uh tower of 25. (q) The Power he had ofjlriking terrors, contains a very fcnfible Doc- 
jlrikmg Tet- trine •, for Nature has implanted/<fi^r in all living creatures ; as well to keep 
lors. them from rifquing their lives, as to guard againft injuries and violence: 

and yet this Nature, or Paffion, keeps not its bounds •, but wkh ji/Jl and pro- 
fitable fears always mixes fuch asaretvii;; and fenfelefs ; fo that all things, if 
we could fee their infides, would appear full of panic terrors. Thus mankind, 
particularly the vulgar, labour under a high degree of Superftition; which is 
nothing more than a Panic Dread that principally reigns in unfettled and 
troublefome Times. 
tSsch^Ueng- 26. (r) The PrefumptionofFd.n, in challenging Cupid /0 the conflin, denotes 
w^ Cupid, that Matter has an appetite, and tendency to a diffolution of the world ; 
and falling back to its firft Chaos again •, unlefs this depravity and inclina- 
tion were reftrained and fubdued by a more powerful concord and agree- 
ment of things, properly exprelfedby Love or Cupid: 'tis therefore well for 

mankind, 

' Torva Le£nx Ltipum fequHur, Lupus ipfe CapeUam i 

Florentem Cyiifum/equitur Ittfcivn Capella. 

See hcreatrer Sect. XII. of Learned Experience. 
•• Particularly the Meteors and Cclcfti.il Bodies i wheace Obfcrvatories for ylf-romm), Metet» 
rdogy, &c. See the Author's New Atlantis. 



Sed. II. P o E T R y. 63 

mankind, and the ftate of all things, that Ptf« was thrown, and conquered, 
in the (Iriigglj-''. 

27. ()) His catchhig and detaining Typhon/« the net, receives a fimilar ex-W/V catching 
planation v for whatever vaft and unufu.\l/iev?//j, which the word 7>/i^»« fig- ^,JP'"'°"""* 
nities, may fometimes be raifed in Nature, as in the fea, the clouds, the 

earrh, or the like; yet iVa/z/r? catches, entangles, and holds all fuch Outra- 
ges and Inrarre(5lions in her inextricable Net, wove as it were of adamant. 

28. (/) That part of the Fahle, 'which attributes the dlfcovery of loft Ceres to ^U fading of 
Pan, -whilft be was hu>;ting ; a happinefs denied the other Gods, tho' they dili-^-'"' 
gently and exprefsly fought her, contains an exceeding juft and prudent admo- 
nition; I'iz. that we are not to expedl the dilcovery of things ufeful in common 

life, as that of Corn denoted by Ceres, from abJlrnSi Phtlofophies ; as if thefe 
were the GoJs of the frjl Order; no, not tho' weufed our utmoft Endeavours 
this way •, but only from Pan, that is, a fagacisus Experience, and general 
knowledge of Nature; which is often found, even by accident, to ftumble up- 
on fuch Difcoveries, whilft the Purfuit was dircfted another way ^ 

29. (?<) The Event of bis contending with Apcllo in Mufick, affords \\s zn^'iscont-mding 
ufeful Infiruftion, that may help to humble the human Reafon and Judgment, *"^ Apol;o 
which is too apt to boafl, and glory in itfelf There feem to be two kinds'" "■'"^ " 

of Harmony, the one of divine Providence, the other of buman Reafon : but 
the government of the world, the adminiflration of its affairs, and the more 
fecret divi>:e Judgmer.ts, found harfla and diffonant to human Ears, or 
human Judgment •, and tho' this ignorance be juftly rewarded with AJfei 
Ears ; yet they are put on and wore, not openly, but with great fecrecj : nor 
is the deformity of the thing feen or obferved by the vulgar. 

30. (v) We muftnot find it ftrange if no Amours are related of Pan, \,z-^'ii ■AmoHr}.. 
fides his marriage with £f/&(7 : for Nature enjoys itfelf, and in itfelf all other 

things : he that loves, defires enjoyment ; but in profufion there is 
no room for defire r and therefore Pan, remaining content with himfelf, has 
no pafllon, unlefs it be for Difccurfc, which, is well fhadow'd out by Echo, 
or Tidk; or when it is more accurate, by Syrinx, or Writing ^ But 
Echo makes a moft excellent Wife for Pan, as being no other than genuine 
Philofophy, which faithfully repeats his words ; or only tranfcribes exaftly 
AS Nature diHatcs ; thus reprefenting the true image and refledion of the 
World, without adding a tittle''. 

31. (w) It tends alio to the fupport and perfeiflion of Pan or Nature, to nii of iprinr- 
be without offspring ; for the World generates in its parts, and not in the 

way of a whole ; as wanting a body external to itfelf^ wherewith to generate. 

32. 

' Thefe kind of Explanations may appear like forced Accommcdaticns, toliafiy and juvenile 
minds: but perhaps will have a greater effcft upon fober and philofophical Natures, verfed in 
the Knowledge of Men and Tilings. It certainly requires a knov^-Icdge of Hiftory, depth in Phi- 
lofophy, and a mature Judgniient, to difcover the Origin, the Intention, and Ule of the ancien: 
hlythology. See the Author's Critique upon the Subjcft, prefix'd to the Safitntin Veteritm. 

* See hereafter Se^.yill of Learned Experience. 

' Obfcrve tha: Syrir.x iigL'fiesa Reed, or the ancient Pm. 

* The Author always endeavours to place himlejfin this Situation, and accordingly calls him- 
felf, and is called by others, the Secretary cf Hatitre, See Sir henry Hotton'i Letter to the Lord 
Encon, in the Reli^itU fi^ottOinmU. 



Poetry. Seft. II. 

Hii/uppofeJ 32. (x) Laftly, foTthtfappofed or /purious prattling daughter of Pan, 'tis an 
Di^ttghier. excellent addition to the Fdhle ; and aptly reprefents the talkative Philofophies 
that have at all times been ftirring, and filled the world with idle Tales : be- 
ing ever barren, empty and fervile ; tho' Ibmetimes indeed diverting and en- 
tertaining J and fometimes again, troublefome and importunate '. 

The Fable of Perseus explai?ied of the Preparation 
and ConduSi necejfarj to War. 



The ral>!e of HI. 3 3 

Pcrfeu 

duced. 



THE Fable relates, that Pcrfcus was difpatch'd from the 
Eaft by rallas(<2), to vut off McdufaV Head; r^'ho had 
committed ^reat ravage upon theTeople of the Weft {b) : For this Me- 
dufa IV as Jo dire a Monjicr, as to turn into ft one all thofeivho but 
looked upon her (c). She ivas a Gorgon, and the only mortal one 
of the three •■, the other tis^o being invulnerable [d). Pcrfeus there- 
fore preparing himfclf for this grand Enterprize, had Trefents 
made him from three of the Gods : Mercury gave him Wings for 
his Heels s Pluto, a Helmet ; and Pallas, a Shield and a Mirror {e). 
But tho' he '•jvas iwjj fo well eqnipp'd, he pofted npt direBly to 
Alcdufa, but firft turned afide to the Grex, vaho were Half-Sifters 
to the Gorgons [f). Thefe Grca: were gray-headed, and like old 
IV^omen from their birth -^ having among them all three but one 
Eye, and one Tooth j which, as they had occafton to go out, they 
each wore by turns; and laid them down again upon coming 
back (g). This Eye and this Tooth the)' lent to Pcrfcus {h) ; who 
now judging himfelf fufticiently furnijhed^ he, without farther ftop, 
flies fwi ft ly away to Mcdufa; and finds her afteep (/'). But yiot 
'Venturing his Eyes, for fear fhe fhould wake, he turned his head 
afide, and viewed her in PallasV Mirror (k) : and thus direEiing 
his ftroke, cut off her Head: when immediately^ from the gufhing 
Blood, there darted Pegafus winged (J.). Pcrfcus now inferted^A.^- 
dufa'j Head into Pallas'j" Shield [m) ; which thence retained the fa- 
culty of aftoniflnng and benumbing all who look'd on it {n}. 



War. 



jlforJs three 3+. This Fable feems invented to fl-iew the prudent Method of chufmg, un- 
Vrece^ts fir dertaking, znA condueiing a War; and accordingly lays down three ufefjl 
Prtcepts about it, as if they were the Precepts of P^//ijj- (^J. 

(i.) The firft is, that no Prince fljould he over-follicitous to fuhdue a neigh' 
houring Nation : for the method of enlarging an Empire, is very different 

from 

* After reading the ExpUnathn, it may be proper to read the V.ible again ; which makes 
the Conformity appear lb great, that one can fcarce help believing, or at lead wifhing.the 
Tiiicgs drawn out of it by the Author, were originally intended by the Contriver. But oi" 
this, in general, fee more in the Critiaue prefLx'd to the Safientin VeterHin, 



Se6V.II. Poetry. 65 

from chat of increafing an Eftate. Regard is juftly had to Contiguity, or ^xpUineJ »f- 
Adjacency, in private Lands and Poncffions -, but in the extending of Em- ""'^irtaking « 
pire, the Occafion, the Facility, and Advantage of a War, are to be re- T"l!mt!'"'^ 
garded inftead of Vicinity. 'Tis certain that the Romans, at the time they 
ftretched but little beyond Lsguria to the Wfft, had by their Arms fubdued 
the Provinces as far as Mount Taurus to the Eajl (b). And thus Pcrfeus rea- 
dily undercook a very long Expedition, even from the Eafi to the extremi- 
ties of the IVeJl. 

(2.) The fecond Precept is, that the Caufe of the War he jujl and ho- Jufi. 
rourable ; for this adds Alacrity both to the Soldiers, and the People who 
find the Supplies ; procures Aids, Alliances, and numerous other Conve- 
niences, [c) Now there is no Caufe of IVar morejuft and laudable, than the 
fupprcffing of Tyrami\ \ by which a People are difpirited, benumbed, or 
left without Life and Vigour, as at the fight of MeJufa. 

(3.) {d) Laftly, it is prudently added, that as there were three of the AndfenfiiU. 
Gorgcns, who reprefent War, Perfeus fingled her out for his Expedition that 
was mortal : which affords this Precept, that fucb kind cf Wars fhould be 
chcfe, as may be brought to a conclufion, uithout ^urfutng vafl and infinite 
Hopes. 

34. [e) Again, Perfus's fetting-out is extremely well adapted to his Un- PerCeus's fet- 
dertaking ; and in a manner commands fuccefs : he received Difpatch from ting-'tt- 
Mercury, Secrecy from Pluto, and Forefight from Pallas. It alfo contains 

an excellent Allegory, that the Wings given him by Mercury were for his 
Heels, not for his Shoulders ; becaufe Expedition is not fo much required in 
the firft Preparations for War, as in the fubfequent JVIatters, that adminifler 
to the firfl : for there is no Error more frequent in War, than, after brisk 
Preparations, to halt for fubfidiary Forces, and effeftive Supplies. 

35. The Allegory of Pluto's Helmet, rendering Men invifible and fe- «isHelmt». 
cret, is fufBciently evident of itfelf ; but the My fiery of the Shield and the ^^f''''- """^ 
Mirror lies deeper: and denotes, that not only a prudent Caution mufl be '""'• 
had to defend, like the Shield ■, but alfo fuch an Addrefs and Penetration, 

as may difcover the Strength, the Motions, the Counfels, and Defigns of 
the Enemy ; like the Mirror of Pallas. 

36. (/) But tho' Perfeus may now feem extremely well prepared, there His eonfitUvtz 
flill remains the moft important thing of all : before he enters upon the War, theGnx. 

he mufl of necefTity coniult the Greff'. Thefe Crete a.Te Treafons ; half, but 
degenerate Siflers of the Ccrgons ; who are Reprefentatives of Wars : for 
M^'ars are generous and noble -, but Treafons bafe and vile, (g) The Crete 
are elegantly defcribed, as hoary-headed, and like old Women from their 
birth •, on account of the perpetual Cares, Fears, and Trepidations attending 
Traitors. Their force alio, before it breaks out into open revolt, confifls 
either in an Eye or a Tooth ; for all Fadtion alienated from a State, is both 
'watchful and biting: and this Eye and Tooth is, as it were, common to ali 
the difaffefted ; becaufe whatever they learn and know, is tranfmitted from 
one to another, as by the hands of Fa^lion. And for the Tooth, they all 
bite with the fame -, and clamour with one Throat i fo that each of them 
fingly expreifes the Multitude. 
. Vot. I. K 37, 



66 Poetry. Sea.II. 

5 7, (h) Thefe Gr^^, therefore, muft be prevail'd upon by Perfeus, to fend 

him their Eye and their Tooth ; the Eye to give him Indications, and make 

Difcoveries -, t\\t Tooth for fowing Rumours, raifing Envy, and ftirring up 

the Minds of the People. And when all thefe things arc thus difpofed and 

prepared, then follows xhe J^ionof the War. 

Ris finding 38. (/) He Bnds Medufa zficcp ', for whoever undertakes a War with pru- 

r^^'^^^^'P^- dtnce, generally falls upon the Enemy unprepared, and nearly in a ftate of 

fecurity ; and (k) here is the occafion for Pallas's Mirror: for 'tis common 

enough, before the Danger prefents, to fee exaftly into the ftate and pofture 

His ufe of the of the Enemy -, but the principal ufe of the Glafs is, in the very inftant of 

Miner. Danger, to difcover the manner thereof, and prevent Confternation ; which 

is the thing intended by Perfeia's turning his Head afide, and viewing the 

Enemy in the Glafs ^. 

The Origin cf ^9. Two Effefts here follow the Conqueft : (i.) (/) The darting forth of 

»/!f Gordon P'^J^fi^^' which evidently denotes F<z;«(', that flies abroad, proclaiming the 

Shield, Viftory far and near. (2.) (w)The bearing o'i Medufa'^Wt^d in the Shield ; 

which is the greateft poffible Defence and Safeguard : for («) one grand and 

memorable Enterprize, happily accomplifhed, bridles all the Motions and 

Attempts of the Enemy, ftupcfies DifaffeiSlion, and quells Commotions '\ 

7he Fable of Dionysus, or Bacchus, explamed 

of the Passions. 

7^, -BMeof iy_ ^o_ ^ ^^ p^bk runs, that Semele, Tupiter j MifireCs, having 

Bacchus htjto- ^ B j 1 1 ■ , t 1 A 1 -^ t 

ticMy tie- bound him by an inviolable Oath to grayit her an un- 

known Requcft, defer ed he -oaould etnbrace her in the fame form and 
manner he tifed to embrace ]\ino (a) : and the Tromtfe being irrevo- 
cable % p^e "jvas burnt to death 'with Lightning in the performance [b). 
The Embryo, however, was fewed up, and carried in Jupiter' j- 
Thigh; till the compleat time of its birth : but the burthen thus 
rendering the Father lame, and giving him pain, the Child was 
thence called Dionyfus (r)''. When born, he was committed, for 
fome years, to be ntirfed by Viofctpim; and when grown up, ap- 
peared with fuch an effeminate Face, that his Sex feemed fome- 
what doubtful {d). He alfo died, and was buried for a time ; but 
afterwards revived [e). IVhen a J'outh, he ferjt introduced the 

culti- 

* Thus it is the excellence of a General, tarly to difcover what turn the Battle is likely to 
lake; and looking prudently behind, as well as before, to puriue a Vidtory fo as not to be un- 
provided for a Retreat. 

'' It may, be obferved of the Explanation of this P<ii/«, and of moft of thoft contained in the 
Sapientia Veterum, that the Author does not explain them in the way of a Reclufti but as a iMan 
who had been converiant in Adlion, and knew the Nature, Secrets, and Springs of publick, 
as well as private Tranfaftions. 

' The Word has fcveral Significations, according to its different Derivations i but among the 
left, it denotes pungent Pain. 

f See the Bttiie ofstj/x, explained in the Sufimtia Vettrutrh 



diued. 



5e<ft. II. Poetry. €j> 

cultivation anddrejfing of Vines ; the method of preparing Wine {f) ; 
and taught the ufe thereof: 'whence becoming famous, he fubdued 
the JVorld, even to the utmoft bounds of the Indies {^. He rode 
in a Chariot drawn by Tygers {h). There danced about htm cer- 
tain deformed Demons called Cobali, i^c. (/'). The Mufcs alfo 
joined in his Train [k). He married Kxizdnz, who was deferted 
by Thcftus (/). The Ivy was facred to him [m). He was alfo held 
the Inventor and Infiitutor of religions Rites and Ceremonies ; but 
fuch as were wild /frantic k, and full of Corruption and Cruelty {n). 
He had alfo the power of /hiking Men with Frenzies [o). Pen- 
tlicus and Orpheus were torn to pieces by the frantick Women at 
his Orgies : the firfl for climbing a Tree, to behold their outrageous 
Ceremonies \ and the other for the Mufick of his Harp{p). But 
the Afls of this God are much entangled^ and confounded^ with 
thofe ^Jupiter {q), 

41. Tiiis FMe feems to contain a little Syftem of Morality ; fo that there stts forth the 
is fcarce any better Invention in all Etbicks. (a) Under the Hiftory of Bac- «"'ure ofun- 
chus is drawn the nature of unlawful De/ire, or Affe£lion, and Diforder -, for '"''/»' ^f/re. 
the appetite and thirft of apparent Good, is the Mother of all unlawful De- The Morale/ 
fires, tho' ever fo deftrudtive : and all unlawful Defires are conceived in un- Semele'j z^- 
lavvful Wiflies, or Requefts, rafhly indulged, or granted, before they are ^"^J** 

well underftood, or confidered. (/;) And wlien the Affeftion begins to grow 

warm, the Mother of it, the Nature of Good, is deftroyed and burnt up by 

the heat, (c) And whilft an unlawful Be fire lies in the Embryo, or unripen'd Bacchus «r^ 

in the Mind, which is its Father, and here reprefented hy Jupiter, 'tis che- '■«^ '» Jupi- 

rifli'd and conceal'd, efpecially in the hferiour part of the Mind, correfpond- '"' "^ ' 

ing to the Thi^h of the Body ; where Pain twitches and deprelTes the 

Mind fo far, as to render its Refolutions and Acftions imperfect and Jame. 

(d) And even after this Child of the Mind is confirm'd, and gains flrength 

by confent and habit, and comes forth into aftion -, it muft flill benurfed by Kurfid by 

Proferpina, for a time : that is, it skulks and hides its head in a clandeftine Proierpina. 

manner, as it were under ground^ ; till at length, when the checks of Shame 

and Fear are removed, and the requifite Boldnefs acquir'd, it either af- 

fumes the pretext of fome Virtue, or openly defpifes Infamy. And 'tis Histffemmait 

juftly obferved, that every vehement Paffion appears of a doubtful Sex; as Fact. 

having the Strength of a Man at firft, but at laft the Impotence of a JVomaii. * 

{e) 'Tis alfo excellently added, that B.iccbus died, and rofe again •, for the j^i^ jj^^^^ * 

Affections fometimes feem to die, and be no more ; but there is no trufting and Kefurrec{ 

them, even tho' they were buried •, being always apt and ready to rife again, '">"• 

whenever the Occafion, or Ohjeft, offers. 

42. (/) That Bacchus fliould be the Inventor of Wine, carries a fine Alle- The inventor 
gory with it-, for every Affeftion is cunning, and fubtile, in difcovering a "fli'ii^- 
proper Matter to nourilli and feed it -, and of all things known to Mortals, 

K 2 ff^ine 

* See the Faile of froferfiim, explained in the Sitfimt'm Vettruta, $ 



68 



Poetry. 



Sea. II. 



H'n Conquep 



His Chariot 
drawn by 
Tygers. 



The Bimons 
about his 

Chariot. 



The Miifes in 
his Traill. 



HU Amour 
«ith Ariadne. 



Mis Ivy. 



Mis frantiih 
Mitef. 



Wine is the moft powerful, and effedual, for exciting and inflaming 
Paffions of all kinds : being, indeed, like a common fewel to them all. 

43. (g-) 'Tis again, with great elegance, obferved of 5flcc/wj, that he fub- 
dtted Provinces., and undertook endlefs Expeditions : for the Affeftions never 
reft fatisfied with what they enjoy -, but, with an endlefs and infatiable Ap- 
petite, thirft after foraewhat further. And{b) Tygers are prettily feigned to 
draw the Chariot ; for as foon as any Affeftion fhall, from going on foot, be 
advanced to ride -, it triumphs over Reafon, and exerts its Cruelty, Fiercenefs, 
and Strength, againft all that oppofe it. 

44. (i) 'Tis alfo humoroufly imagined, that ridiculous Dirmons Jhould dance 
and frisk about this Chariot -, for every Paffion produces indecent, diforderly, 
interchangeable, and deformed Motions in the Eyes, Countenance, and 
Gefture i io that the Perfon under the impulfe, whether of Anger, Infult, 
Love, i^c. tho' to himfelf he may feem grand, lofty, or obliging ; yet in 
the eyes of others, appears mean, contemptible, or ridiculous. 

45. (k) The Mufes alfo are found in the Train of Bacchus; for there is 
fcarce any PafTion without its Art, Science, or Dodlrine, to court and flatter 
it ; but in this refpcft, the indulgence of Men of Genius has greatly detracted 
from tiie M.ajefly of the Mules, who ought to be the Leaders and Con- 
ductors of human Life, and not the Hand-maids of the Paffions. 

46. (/) The Allegory of 5.jfi:/6«j's falling in love with a cajl Mijlrefs., is 
extremely noble: for 'tis certain that the Aftedtions always court and covet 
what has been rejedled upon experience. And all thofe who by ferving and 
indulging their Paffions, immenfely raife the value of Enjoyment, fhould 
know, that wluitever they covet and purfue, whether Riches, Pleafure, Glory, 
Learning;, or any tiling clfe •, they only piirfue thofe things that have been 
forfikcn, and caft off with contempt, by great numbers in all ages, after 
poflTcffion and experience had of them. 

47. (wz) Nor is it without a myftery, that the Ivy was /acred to Bacchus -, 
and this for two reafons : firft, becaufe Ivy is an ever-green, or flouriflics in 
the Winter-, and fecondly, becaufe it winds and creeps about fo many 
things i as Trees, Walls, and Buildings •, and raifes itfelf above them. As 
to the/;;/?, every Paffion grows frefli, ftrong, and vigorous, by oppofition 
and prohibition ; as it were by a kind of Contraft, ox Anttperijlafis; like the 
Ivy in the Winter. And for the fecond, the predominant Paffion of the 
Mind throwi itfelf, like the Ivy, round all human Adlions, entwines all our 
Reiblurions, and perpetually adheres to, and mixes itfelf in among, or even 
over- tops them. 

48. \n) And no wonder, thazfuper/litious Riles and Ceremonies are attributed 
to Bacchus, when almoft every ungovernable Paffion grows wanton and 
luxuriant in corrupt Religions ; nor again, that (0) Fury and Frenzy fliould be 
fent and dealt out by him •, becauie every PiiJJlon is a ffiort Frenzy ; and if 
it be vehement, lifting, and take deep root, it terminates in Madnefi. 
(/)) And heiKe the A^legcry o/Pentheus and Orpheus being tire to pieces, is evi- 
dent ; for every headftrong Paffijn is extiemely bitter, itvere, inveterate, and 
revengful upon all curioui Enquiry, wholefome Admonition, free Coun- 
ic\ aad Perfuafion, 

49^ 



Sed.III. Philosophy. 69 

49. (q) Laftly, the Confufion between the Perfons p/ Jupiter aW Bacchus, n^Confrfan 
will juftly admit of an Allegory -, becaule noble and meritorious Actions may ^^,^'j^p|7cr'x. 
fometimes proceed from Virtue, found Reafon, and Magnanimity ; and 
fometimes again from a conccal'd Paffion, and fecret defire of 111 i however, 
they may be extoll'd and praifed : infomuch, that 'tis not eafy to diftinguifh 
betwixt the Afts of Bacchus and the Ad:s of Jupiter*. 

But perhaps we remain too long in the Theatre ; 'tis time we (hould advance 
to the Palace of the Mind. 



SECT. iir. 

Of Philosophy. 

I. ALL Knowledge may be divided into Philosophy, and Inspired Phitofophy 
X\ Theology. Philo/opby has three Objects, viz. God, Nature, 'ii^^ '''''' '"f 
and Man ; as alfo three kinds of Rays ; for (i.) Nature ftrikes the human In- [/ikeOeUy, 
tclkiSt with a direct Ray, (2.) God, with a refraSed Ray, from the Inequa- Nature.-'jn'i 
lity of the Medium betwixt the Creator and the Creatures ; and (3.) Man, Man, 
as exhibited to himfelf, with a reflc^ed Ray. Whence 'tis proper to divide 
Philofophy into the Doctrine of the Deity^ the Doctrine of Nature, and the 
Doctrine of Man. 

2. But as the Divisions of the Sciences are not like different Lines Primary Phi- 
that meet in one Angle, but rather like the Branches of Trees that join in '°l°'t''^ 'j,?. 
oneTrunk''-, 'tis firft neceffary that we conftituteanUNivERSALSciENCE, ^cffnt. 
as a Parent to the reft, and making a part of the common Read to the Sciences., 
before the ways feparate. And this Knowledge we call Philofofhia Prima, 
primitive or primary Philofophy. It has no other for its oppofue, and differs 
from other Sciences rather in the limits, whereby 'tis confined, than in the 
Subject ; as treating only the Summits of Thinz^s. And whether this fhould be 
noted as wanting, may feem doubtful •, tho' I rather incline to note it. For 
I find a certain Rhapfody of Natural Theology, Logicks, and Phyficks, delivered 
in a certain fublimity of Difcourle, by fuch as aim at being admired for 
ftanding on the Pinnacles of the Sciences ; but what we mean is, without am- 
bition, to deftgn fame GzNZRAL Science, for the reception of Axioms, not pecu- 
liar to any one Science ; but common to a number of them.. 

3' 

' The Author, in parfuance of his Dejign of giving Examples and Specimens of the Works he 
fets down as deficient, has thus deprived his Piece Je Safientia Veterum of three beautiful 
F,owers ; unleli the reader fnall pleale to fupply them in tnat t.-rtormance, by turning hither 
for them, m the order he will there perceive them indicated by th» Notes. 

This Oi^fcivation is the Foundation of Father Cajiets hcc Piece </c MaihematiiiHe uniier' 
fille, wherein, by the help of feiifible Reprefentatiuns and Divilions, he propofcs to leach the 
Si:tn:es readily, and even abftraiit Mathematicki, to common Capacities. 



70 Philosophy. Sed. III. 

jti nature 3 . Axioms of this kind are numerous : for example, {i.) If Equals be ad- 

gndUji. j^,j ig Ufjequals, the wholes will be unequal. This is a Rule in Mathematicks ; 
which holds alfo in Elhicks, with regard to dijlributii-. Juftice. (2.) Things 
agreeing to the fame third, agree alfo with one another. This jikewife is an 
Axiom in Mathematicks \ and, at the fame time, fo ferviceable in Logick, as to 
be the Foundation of Syllogifn. {:t,.) Nature fhews herfelf hejl in her fmallejl 
f^^orks. This is a Rule in Philofophy, that produced the Atoms of Democri- 
tus •, and was juftly employ'd by Arijlotle in Politicks, when he begins the 
Confidcration of a Commonweath in a Family. (4.) All things change, but 
nothing is loft. This is an Axiom in Phyficks, and holds in Natural Theology ; 
for as the fum of Matter neither diminifhes nor increafes ; fo it is equally the 
Work of Omnijotence to eremite, or to annihilate it. (5.} Things are preferved 
from De/truHion, by bringing them back to their Principles, This is an Axiom 
in Phyfcks, but holds equally in Politicks ; for the prefcrvation of States, as is 
well obferved by Aiachiavel, depends upon little more than reforming and 
bringing them back to their ancient Cuftoms. (6.) A Dfcord ending i?nme- 
diatdv in a Concord, fets off the Harmony. Tliis is a Rule in Mufick, that 
alfo holds true in Morals, (y.) A trembling Sound in Mufick gives the fame 
pleafure to the Ear, as the Corufcation of Water, or the fparkling of a Diamond 
to the Eye. (8.) The Organs of the Senfes refemble the Organs of Reflexion, 
as we fee in Opticks and Acaufticks ; where a concave Glafs refembles the Eye, 
and a founding Cavity the Ear. And of thefe Axioms an infinite number 
might be collcded. And thus the celebrated Perfian Magickwas, in effeH, 
m more than a notation of the correfpondence in the Structure and Fabrick of 
Things natural and civil''. Nor let any one underftand all this of mere Simili- 
tudes, as they might at firft appear ; for they really are one and the fame 
Footfteps, and Impreffions of Nature, made upon different Matters and Sub- 
jects. And in this light the thing has not hitherto been carefully treated. 
A few of thefe Axioms may indeed be found in the Writings of eminent Men, 
here and there iiuerfperfed occafionally ; but a coUccfed Body of them, -u.-hich 
Jhotdd have a primitive and fianmary tendency to /Z),- Sciences, is not hitherto 
extant ; tho' a thing of fo great moment, as reinarkably to Ihew Nature to 
be one and the fame : which is fuppofed the Office of a prvnary Philofnphy ^. 
'A ''teond Fart 4. There is another part of this Primary Philosophy, regarding the 
of primary adventitious OX tranfcendcntal Conditions of Things; as little, much, like, diffe- 
Philorophy, y^^i^ poflible, impcfjihle, entity, non-entity, &c. For as thefe things do not pro- 
t^"tra"fccn- perly come under PZ7v//f^-; •, and as their ^/civ/ Co;j//c/£>rrt/w« rather accommo- 
dental Con- dates them to Argumentation, than Exiftence ; 'tis proper that this Point be 
duions. not quite deferted, as being of confiderable Dignity and Ufe ; fo as to have 

fome place in the Arrangement of the Sciences. But this fliould be done in a 
iiianner very diiferent from the common. For example -, no Writer who 
has treated of much and little, endeavours to affign the caufe why fome 

things 

* The Autlior has given us a Sienmin of this Magick ; which we place as the Eighth Slt- 
Pl.EMtNT to this Piece, de Attprientis Scientiartim. 

l» I am not ienllble that any general CoUecTion of this kind has hitherto teen publifi.ed; moll 
Writers having contented theinlelves with fetting down the Axioms ferving to teach the fp.r- 
ticular Scie.ices they treat of. Thus many of them are found in Books of Law, Malhemaiicki, 
and Lo£ick. And a capital one oi this kind for Logick, is that of Dan. StM. 



Se(fl. in. Philosophy.' 7 i 

thino'S in nature are fo numerous and large, and others fo rare and fmall : 
for, doubdefs, 'tis impolTible in (he tjaiure of Things, that there fliould be as 
p-reat a quantity of Gi Was of Iron ; or Roj'cs as plenty as Gr.;,^, &c. fo Hke- 
wife no body that treats of like and different has fufficicntly explained, why 
betwixt particular Species there are almoft conftantly interpofed fome 
thino-s that partake of both ; as Mofs betwixt Corruption and a Plant ; mo-- 
tioyilefs Fiflj betwixt a Plant and an Animal ; Bats betwixt Birds and ^ta- 
drupeds, &c. Nor has any one hitherto difcovered why Iron does not at- 
tract Iron, as the Loadftone does ; and why Gold does not attraft Gold, as 
^ack/ilvcr does, U'c. But of thefe Particulars we find no mention in the 
Difcourfes of Tranfcendentals : for Men have rather pirfiied the ir^nrks of 
IFords, than the Subtilties of Things. And therefore we would introduce into 
primary Philofophy, a real and folid Enquiry into thefe Tranfcendentals, or ad- 
ventitious Conditions of Beings, according to the Laws of Nature, not of Speecli ". 
And thus having firft feated the common Parent of the Sciences ; we return to 
our Divifion of Philofophy, into divine, natural, and human. For natural 
Theology may be juftly called divine Philofophy. 

5. Divine Philosophy is z Science, or rather the Rudi?nents of a Sci- pivine Philo» 
ence, derivable from God by the Lit^ht of Nature, and the Contemplation '"F"^' "' 
ot his Creatures ; lo that with regard to its Object, tis truly divine ; but vfe, 
with regard to its Acquirement, natural. The Bounds of this Knowledge 
extend to the confutation of Atheifm, and the afcertaining the Laws of Na- 
ture j but not to the eftabliihing of Religion: And therefore Gcd never 
wrought a Miracle to convert an Atheift, becaufe the Light of Nature is 
fufficient to demonftrate a Deity; but Miracles were defigned for the Con- 
verfion of the Idolatrous and Superftitious, who acknowledged a God, but 
erred in their woriliip of him : the L:ght of Nature being unable to de- 
clare the Will of God, or afTign the iufl form of worfhipping him,. For as 
the Power and Skill of a Workman are feen in his Works, but not his Per- 
fon ; fo the Works of God exprefs the Wifdom and Omnipotence of the 
Creator, without the leafl reprefentation of his Image. And in this parti- 
cular, the Opinion of the Heathens differed from the iacred Verity ; as fup- 
pofing the World to be the Image of God ; and Man a little Image of the 
World. The Scripture never gives the World that honour ; but calls it the 
Work of his Hands ; making only Man the Image of God. And therefore 
the Being of a God ; that he Governs the PF'orld ; that he is All-powerful, Wife, 
Prefcient, Good, a jufi Kcwarcier and Punifl.er, and to he adored, may he fhsztni 
and enforced from his JForks : and many other wonderful Secrets, with regard 

to 

» This Dtjideratum is not, that I krtow of, fupplied : and as the defign is no lefs than to fet 
down the Lawt of Sanire, by which the Univeife and its Parts are govern'd , it can only be 
derived from Experiment, Obfervation, and Enquiry; in which light, the modem experimental 




»r more Crafi thx>. Kcjh, becaufe Grafs feeds more Animals tlmn Rofes ; and the likci is only to 
aflign the final Caufe, for v.hich fuch things were apparently created, and not the natural 
Caufes ; or by what phyfical means, or Law of Nature, it happens that Gold is not fo com- 
mon as Iron, &c, The vhilofofhy of Becher, as explained and illullrated by SMhl, gives con- 
fiderable Light to this Subjeil. 



?« 



Phi 



L o s o p H y. 



Sea. III. 



Tht Doar'me 
ffSfirif}. 



to his Attributes, and much more as to his Difpsrifition and Government 
over the Univerfe, may alfo be folidly deduced, and made appear, from the 
fame. And this Subjeft has been ufefuHy treated by fcveral ». 

6. But from the Contemplation of Nature., and the Principles of human Reajoft, 
to difpute or urge any thing with vehemence, as to the Myjleries of Faith ; 
or over-curiouQy to examine and fift them, by prying into the manner of 
ths Myftery, is no fafe thi>:g: "Give unto Faith the things that are Faith^s.'" 
And the Heathens grant as much, in that excellent and divine Fable of the 
Golden Chain ; where " Men and Gods are reprefented unable to draw Jupiter 
" to Earth ; but Jupiter able to draw them up to Heaven." So that 'tis a 
vain attempt to draw down the fublime Myfteries of Religion to our Reafon ; 
but we fhould rather raife our Minds to the adorable Throne of heavenly 
Truth. And in this part of Natural Theology, we find rather an excefs than 
any defect : which we have turned a little afide to note, on account of the 
extreme Prejudice and D.inger which both Religion and Philofopbv hence in- 
cur ; becaufe a mixture of thefe makes both an heretical Religion, and wfan- 
tajlick and fuperflitious Philofophy *>. 

7. 'Tis otherwife, as to the Nature of Spirits and Angels ; this being nei- 
ther unfearchable nor forbid; but in great part level to the human Mind, on 
account of their affinity. We are, indeed, forbid in Scripture to worfhip 
Angels, or to entertain fantaftical Opinions of them •, fo as to exalt them 
above the degree of Creatures, or to think of them higher than we have 
reafon : but the fober Enquiry about them, which either afcends to a 
knowledge of their Nature, by the Scale of corporeal Beings ; or views 
them in the Mind, as in a Glafs, is by no means forbid. The fame is to be 
undtrftood of revolted or unclean Spirits: Converfation with them, or ufing 
their affiftance, is unlawful ; and much more in any manner to worfhip or 
adore them : but the Contemplation and Knowledge of their Nature, Power, 
and Illufions, appears from Scripture, Reafon, and Experience, to be no 
fmall part of fpiritual IVifdom. And thus 'tis as lawful in Natural Theolog-j 
to inveftigate the Nature of evil Spirits, as the Nature of Poifons in Phy- 
ficks, or the Nature of Yict in Morality. But this part of Knowledge re- 
lating to Angels and Spirits, which we call the Appendage to Natu- 
ral Theology, cannot be noted for deficient ; as having been handled 
by many : but we may juftly tax no fmall part of the Writers in this way, 
either with Levity, Superjlition, or fruit lefs Speculation". 

8. But to leave Natural Theology, and proceed to Natural 
lofofhy divided PHILOSOPHY : as it was well fiid by Democritus, that " the Knowledge of 
into/ptcuU- ^^ ^aturc lies concealed in deep Mines and Caves-," and by the Chemiflst 

' Vulcan is a fecoud Nature, imitating concifely what the firjl takes 

time 



Nuturitl Vhl- 



tive and true- , 

tical. that 



" And more particularly fince, hy Cudroorih in hhlntelleclHulSyJlem of the Uaiverje ; Mr. Style, 
in his Chrijiian Virtuofo, &c. Mr. Ray, in his l^'ifdom of the Creation, Dr. Bentley, in his Dif- 
courfe of the Folly and XJnrenfonablenef! of Athiifm , X^t. Clarke, in bis Demonfiration tf the Being 
and Attributes of God; .Mr. Dcrhum, in his Phy/ico-Theology , Mr. Raphfon. de Deo; Dr. Nertyntif, 
in his Religious Philofopher ; Wlr.lVhiJlon, in his Ajircnomical Principles of Religion, Sec. 

^ See above, Prelimin. Seft. III. 8. and hereafter, of Theology. Sr<ft. uli. 

' What modern Wiirers have treated tirs Doctrine of Spirits, and to what purpofe, may be 
feen, at one view, in Stollii IntroduH. in HiJIorium Literarittm, Cap. III. de Pntumatologi». 



Se£l.III. Philosophy. 73 

time and circuit to cfieft ; fuppofe Natural Pbihfipby were divided, as 
it regards the Mine and the Furnace : thus inftituting two Offices of Philo- 
fopbers, Miners, and Smellers ? This, indeed, may appear jocular ; yet fuch 
a kind of Divifion we judge extremely ufeful, when propofcd in juft and 
familiar terms: fo that the D^^riw of Nature be d\w\6?d mto Steadative 
and PraHical, or the Search after Caufes, and the Prodii^ion cf EfeBs: 
The one entrin^ into the Bowels of Nature, and the other forming her upon 
the Ahi-il. Nor are we infenfible of the lirid union betwixt Caufes and Ef- 
fe51s ; To that the explanation of them muft, in fome mcafure, be coupled 
togeth-.T : but as all folid and fruitful Natural Philofoph^j hath both an 
afcending, and a defcending Scale of Parts, leading from Experience to Axi- 
oms, and fvom Axioms to new Dfoveries; ic feems moft advifeable here, in 
the Divifion cf the Sciences, to feparate Speculation irom Operation., and treat 
them diftin(a\ 

9. The fpeculative or theoretical Part of Natural Philosophy, vie speculative 
divide intoPnysicKS and Metaphysicks: taking the word Mett-phyficks ^^flff^^/'' 
in a fenfe different from that received. And here we muft, once for all, de- phyijcks-j*;-/ 
clare, as to our ufe of Words, that tho' our Conceptions and Notions are Metaphyficks. 
new, and different from the common-, yet we religioufly retain the ancient 
Forms of Speech : for as we hope that the Method, and clear Explanation, 
we endeavour at, will free us from any mifconftruftion that might arife 
from an ill choice of Words ; fo in every thing elfe, 'tis our define, as much 
as poffible, without prejudice to Truth and the Sciences, not to deviate from 
ancient Opinions and Forms of Speech. And here I cannot but wonder that 
Ariftotle fhould proceed in fuch zffirit of Co7itradi£fion, as he did to all An- 
tiquity ; not only coining new Terms of Science, at pleafure ; but endea- 
vouring to aboliih all the Knowledge of the Ancients •, fo that he never 
mentions any ancient Author but to reprove him, nor Opinion but to confute 
it : which is the ready way to procure Fame and Followers. For certainly it 
happens in philofophical, as it does in divine Truth : " / came in the name of 
" my Father, and ye received me not ; hut if one came in his oivn name, ye 
" would receive him." Which divine Aphorifm, as applied to Anticbrifl, the 
great Deceiver, plainly fhews us that a Man's coming in his own name, without 
regard to Antiquity or Paternity, is no good fign of Truth -, tho' joined with 
the fortune and fuccefs of beifig received. But for fo excellent and fublime a 
Genius as Ariftotle, one would think he catch'd this Ambition from his Scho- 
lar ; and affefted to fubdue all Opinions, as Alexander did all Nations : and 
thus eredl himfelf a Monarchy in his own Contemplation. Tho' for this, 
perhaps, he may not efcape the lafli of fome fevere Pen, no more than his 
Pupil •, and be called a fuccefsful Ravager of Learning, as the other was of 
Countries. But on the other hand, defiring, by all poffible means, to culti- 
vate, and eftablifti, a tree Commerce betwixt ancient and >ncdern Learning ; we 
judge it beft, religioufly to fide with Antiquity ', and therefore to retain the 
ancient Terms, tho' we frequently alter their Senfe, according to that mo- 

* They are hereafter confider'd together, in the Novum Organuin; where the Author comes 
to apply them in Bujinefs, or ^raHicnl Thilofofhy. 

Vol. I. JL, derate 



74 P H y s I c K s. Sed. IV. 

derate and laudable ufage in Politicks, of introducing a new ftate of Things, 
without changing the popular Terms of Government. 
Metaphyfcks lo. Thus then we diftinguifh Metaphysicks, as may appear by what 
difiinguiflied ^^^ above delivered, from pri?nary Philofophy '■, which has hitherto been taken 
■pMofophr!'^^ for it ; making this the common Parent of the Sciences, and thai a part of 
arj natural' Natural Philofophy. But to affign the proper Office of Metaphyficks, as con- 
Theology, trauiftinguifh'd from primai-y Philofophy, and natural Theology, we muil: 
note, that as Phyficks regards the tilings which are wholly immerfed in Mat' 
ter, and moveable •, io Metaphyficks regards what is more abftrafted, and 
fixed : that Phyficks fuppofes only Exiftence, Motion, and natural Neceflity ; 
whilft Melaphyjicks fuppofes alio Mind and Idea. But to be more exprefs : 
as we have divided Natural Philofophy into the Inveftigation of Caufes, and 
the Produflion of Effects ; and referred the Inveftigation of Caufes to Theory ^ 
which we again divide into pb^fical and metaphyfcal ; 'tis neceflary that the 
real difference of thefe two be drawn from the nature of the Caufes they 
enquire into: and therefore plainly, Physicks enquires into the Efficient, 
and the Matter; and Metaphysicks into the For»? and the End. Phy- 
sicks, therefore, is vague and inftable, z% to Caufes ; and treats moveable 
Bodies as its Subjefts, without difcovering a Conftancy of Caufes, in different 
Subjeds. Thus the fame Fire gives hardnefs to Clay, and foftnefs to Wax ; 
tho' it be no conjiant Caufe either of hardnefs or foftnefs ^ 



SECT. IV. 

Of Physicks. 

fhyftcksdivi- ^'TT^/^ divide Physicks into three parts -, for Nature is either colle^ed 
de'd{i:}intothe VV into one Total, or J(/f;^/^,/, and dijlribu led. Nature is colledled 
Doflrh.e of either by reaibn of the common Principles of all things, or one integral Fa- 
^he'stLa'ure ^'"''^ °^ ^^^ Univerfe. Whence this uh-ion of Nature produces two parts of 
cftheUniverfe, Ph^ficks j the oue relating to the Principles of Things, and the other to the 
and{i,.) the StruBure of the Univerfe ' •, whilft the third exhibits all th; pofnble varieties 
Variety of ^^^ leiTer colleftions of Things. And this latter is like a firit Glofs, or 
'"2'" Paraphrafe in the Interpretation of Nature *. None of the three are deficient 

entirely ; / 

^ Concerning Primary Philofophy, fee above, 2,3,4- 

'' Phyficks, therefore, may be defined that part of univerfal Philofophy which obferves and 
conliviers the Procedure of Nature in Bodies, Co as to difcover her Laws, Fovoers, and EffeSs ; 
and tlie material Orij;ins, and Caufes thereof, in different Subjefts; and thence form Rules 
for itr.iraring, controlling, or even excelling her Worics, in the Inllinces it confiders. 

•^ This Diviiion appears, in th". juJgment of the learned Mof^c/'", o have given Mr. Boyle the 
occalion of conliJeiin^ thcCofmical S)»alities of Things; or thof- Properties of them which 
rcfult from their being Parts of the general Frame of the Univerfe. See Boyle, Abridgm^ 
Vol I. pag.180 — 296. 

'' That is, the confideration of Nature's fmaller Works, every where diffafed in the Univerfe, 
leads to an Interpretation, or unravelling of the general Scheme of Things : for iti Philofophy 
we proceed from particulars to generals, as from the reading of pafTages to the uiiderilauding- 
e£a Cook. 



Se<fl. IV. P H Y S I C K s. 



75 



entirely ; but how jiiftly and folidly they have been treated, is another 
qucftion. 

2. This third part we again divide into two others, with regard to The DoSlrine 
Concrdes and Abjlraofs, or into Physicks of Creatures and Physicks "f variety di- 
OF Natures: the one enquiring into Subllances, and all the variety of phyfickrof 
their Accedents ; the other into Accidents thro' all the variety of Subllan- Creaiuresa^f/ 
ces. Thus if enquiry be made about a Lion or an Oak ; thefe fupport many Ph) licks of 
different Acciden':s: fo if the enquiry were about Heat or G?-avi!y ; thefe are Natures. 
found in many different Subflances. But as all Physicks lies in the mid- 
dle, betwixt Natural Hijlory and Metaphyjkks % fo the former part approaches 

nearer to Natural Hijlory, and the latter to Mctaphyfich. 

3. Concrete Physicks has the fame divifion with Natural H'.Jlorj ; CsncreteVhy- 
being converfant either about celeftial. Appearances, Meteors, and the ttr- -I";'' ''■''''■''^^'^.'" 
reftrial Globe: or about the larger Aflemblages of Matter, called the Ele- ^^^[^ ^''• 
ments -, and the Icfler or particular Bodies : as ajfo about Prastergenerations 

and Mechanicks. For in all thefe. Natural Bificry examines and relates 
the matters of fa£t; and Phyficks their inftable, or material and efficient cau- 
fes. And among thefe parts of Physicks, that is abfdutely lame and iacofn- 
fleat, zchich regards the ceiejhal Bodies ; tho' for the dignity of the fubjedl it 
claims the higheft regard, ^^rcwowj, indeed, is well founded in Pbfeiwmenai 
yet 'tis low and far from folid. But JJlrclogy is in many things deftitute of 
all foundation, / 

4. And to fay the truth, Aftronomy itfelf feems to offer Prometheus*^ Phyfical 
facrifice to the Underftanding ; for as he would have impos'd upon Jupi- Aftronomy 
ter a fair large Hide, ftuff''d with Straw, and Leaves, and Twigs, inftead '''/"«"'• 
of the Ox itfelf ; fo ^roKowv gives us the number, fituation, motion, and 
periods of the Stars, as a beautiful outfide of the Heavens ; whilft the 

Flefli and the Entrails are wanting: that is, a well- fabricated Syftem -, or 
the phyfical Reafons and Foundations for a juft Theory •, thatfhould not on- 
ly folve Phasnomena-, as almoft any ingenious Theory may do; but fljew the 
fubjiance, motions and influences cf the heavenly Bodies, as they really are. But 
fcarce any one has enquired into the phyfical Caufes of the fubflance of the 
Heavens, ftellar and interftcllar ; the different velocities of the celeftial Bo- 
dies with regard to one another ; the different accelerations of motion in 
the fame Planet •, the fequences of their motion from Eaft to Weft ; the 
progreffions, ftations and retrogradations of the Planets ; the ftoppage and 
accidents of their Motion, by the Perige and Apoge ; the obliquity of their 
Motions •, why the Poles of Rotation are principally in one quarter of the 
Heavens -, why certain Planets keep a fix'd diftance from the Sun, i^r. En- 
quiries of this kind have hitherto been fcarce touched upon -, but the pains 
has been chiefly beftowed in Mathematical Ohfervaiions and Demonftrations : 
^hich indeed may ffiew how to account for all thefe things ingenioi:fly ; but 
hot how they acluajly are in Nature ; how to reprefent the apparent Mo- 
tions of the heavenly Bodies, and machines of them, made according to 
particular fancies •, but not the real caufes and truth of things. And there- - 
fore AJlronomy, as it now ftands, lofes of its dignity, by being reckon'd a- 
mong the Mathematical Arts ; for it ought in juftice to make the moft noble 

L 2 part 

3 



,6 



H Y s I c K s. Sedl. IV. 



pa.Tto( Phyjicks. And whoever defpifes the imaginary reparation between 
terreftrial and celeftial things •, and well underftands the more general appe- 
tites and paffions of Matter, which are powerful in both ■■, may receive a 
clear information of what happens above, from that which happens below: 
y and from what pafTes in the heavens, he may become acquainted with fome 

inferior motions hitherto undifcovered •, not as thefe are governed by thofe, 
but as they both have the fame common paffions. We, therefore, report 
this PHYSicAr. PART OT Astronomy as wauling ; under the Title ©/"ani- 
mated Astronomy *. 
Adrolopy to 5- ^^^ for AsTROLOGV, 'tis fo full of fuperftition, that fcarce any thing 
St {urged, found can be difcovcred in it : tho' we judge it fliould rather be purged than 
abfolutely rejected. But if any one fliall pretend that t\\K Science is founded, 
not in Reafon and phyfical Conte7n]:lalions, but in the direft Experience and 
Obfervaticns of pafl: ages, and therefore not to be examined by phyfical Rea- 
fons, as the Chaldeans boaflcd j he may at the fame time bring back Z)i- 
vinativj, Jttpuries, Sooth-fa^ing, and give into all kinds of Fables : for 
thefe alfowere faid to defcend from long Experience. But we receive y^ro- 
logy as a part of Pbyficks, without attributing more to it than Reafon and 
the Evidence of things allows ; and ftrip it of its fuperftition and conceits. 
Thus we baniflithat empty notion about the horary reign of the Planets j 
as if each refumed the throne thrice in twenty four hours, fo as to leave 
three hours fupi;rnumerary : and yet this Fiftion produced the divificn of 
the JVeck, a thing fo ancient and fo univerfally receiv'd. Thus likewife we re- 
jeft, as an idle figment, the dodb^ine of Horofcofes, and the diftribution of 
the Houfcs % tho* thefe are the darling Inventions of Jjfrology, which have 
kept Revel, as it were, in the Heavens. And we are furprized that fome emi- 
nent Authors in JJlrology, fhould rell upon fo fljnderan argument foreredt- 
ing them ; as becaufe it appears by experience, that the Solftics, the Equi- 
noxes, the new and fid! Mvon, &c. have a manifeft operation upon natural 
Bodies, therefore the more curious and fubtile pofnions of the Stars muft 
produce more exquifite and fecret eftefts: whereas, laying afide thofe ope- 
rations of the Sun, which are owing to manifeft heat ■, and a certain attrac- 
tive virtue of the Moon, which cauils the fpring-tides -, the other effcfts of 
the Planets upon natural bodies, are, lb fir as experience reaches, exceeding 
fmall, weak and latent. Therefore the Argument fliould run thus : fince 
thefe greater revolutions nreable to effedl fo little ; thofe more nice and tri- 
fling differences of pofitions will have no force at all. And laftly, for the 

Calculation 

" The Author made an Attcmrt to fupply this Befideratum, as may be feen in the Ninth 
SuPTLEMENT to this V/ork. His D-fign wis to icfcue the Science from the ufjrpation of Ma- 
thematicks, and render it more cxcenlive, phi'ofaphical and fcrviceabie. But he does not appear 
to have iiad many followers in this way; few belides Mathematicinns thinking thenifclves 
qualified lo \m<^rove Afironomy \ andihe Alhonomical M.uhe'iiuticians ieldom cu.tivating more 
th^n X.\\<:Mathemiitical or Syflematical Part; as GetliUo. Kefler, H^aril, Hevetiiis. Ike. except Sir 
Jfaac Nervton : and upon his Foundation, Dr. Gregory. Dr. Keit. Mr. Mh'Jicn, ice. have in- 
troduced more l^atural ?.hilofofhy\\\XQ Aflronomy. However, thc/i^y/r^/Par/ of the Science has 
not hithcrro '.een fL-duIoufly cultivated, and kept clear oi Syfleminii Hyfolhefii. according to the 
X>ireBio;» and Examfie of the Loril \i3.con. S'c Morhof's Potyhijl. hUtbcmut . StolUlii de Difciplir 
nis MAthemmicis ,-, and H^oljii Element il Mat hejeas Uni-verf*. 



Sed. IV. P H Y S I C K S. yy 

Calculation of Nt7tivi/ies, Fortunes, good or bnd Hours of hufitiefs, and the like 
Fatalities ; they are mere levities that have little in them of certainty and 
folidity, and m.iy be plainly confuted by /-bx/ica! reafcns. 
^ 6. And here we judge it proper to lay down fome Rules for the exajni- joules for its 
station of Apological Matters ; in order to retain what is ufeful therein, and amendmnt. 
rejeft what is infignificant. Thus (r.) L't the greater Revolutions be retain'' d, 
hut the lejfer of Ho' of opes a>id Houfes be reject: d ; the former being like Ord- 
nance, which llioot to a great diflance ; whilft the other are but like fmall 
Bows, that do no execution, (i.) The ceUftial Operations affi£l net all kinds 
of bodies; but only the in re fen'ib'e. Here we except the operations of the 
Sun's heat -, which may doubtlefs penetrate Metals, and other fubterraneous 
Bodies: and confine the other Operations chiefly to the Air, the Humours, 
and the Spirits of things. (3,) All the celeHial Operations rather extend to 
Maffes cf Things, than to I'-.dividaals. Tho' they may obliquely reach fome 
Individuals alfo ; which are more fenfible than the reft : as a peftilmt con- 
ftitution of the air afFefts thole bodies which are leaft able to rtfifl: it. 
(4.) All the celejlial Operations produce net their effecis irjlantaneofjlx, and in a 
narrow compafs, but exert them in large portions of time avdfpace. Thus Pre- 
di£iions as to the temperature of a year, may hold good ; but not with 
regard to fingle days. (5.) There is no fatal Necejfity in the Stars. And this 
the more prudent y^rc/^ifi have conftantly allowed. (6.) We will add one 
thing morr, which, if amended and improved, might make for Alrology ; 
viz. that we are certain. The Celflial Bodies haverither Influences beftdesHeat 
and Light * ; but thefe Influences adt not otherwife than by the foregoing ^ j^^^ Aftro- 
Rulesj tho' they lie fo deep in Ph\ficks, as to require a fuller explanation. \og)- -KniMmgy 
So that, upon the whole, we muftrgilKr, as dtfedlive, an Ajirology "wnte 
in corf.rmUy to thtfe Princi-'les ; under the name of Astrologi A sana \ 

7. Thi; JUST Astrology fhould contain, (1.) The D'jElrine of the Ccm- Hevtcbtfuf-- 
mixtwe 'f Ray, viz. the Conjundion-, Oppofitions and other Situations, or t''"^- 
Afpecls of the Planets, with c:gird to one another •, their Tranfus thro' the 
Signs of the Zodiac; and their Situation in the lame Signs : as the fituation of 
Planets in a Sit^n, is a certain conjunftion thereof with the Stars of that5.^^;;. 
And as the Ccnjunblions, fo likewile Ihould the Oppofitions, and other 
Afpefts of th" Planets, wich regard to the celeftial Signs, be remark'd; which 
has not hitherto been fully done. The Commixtures of the Rays of the fix'd 

Stars, 

' The Author might prefume he hid a particular Reafon for this Olifervation, more than 
other Men; as he always fjintcd when rh= Mjon wis eclipled. Mr. Boyle offers feveral Obfer- 
vations for the fulk-r pront of rhe Proposition:, anJ fc-ems to have taken the occafion of conil- 
derin? the diffc-ent EffLcVs of Li^ht m different Punets, from this Hint. See AiriJgm. of 
hit fhilopophicaL l^orkt. Vol III. pj^. 34.,?,", ;6. S e a'lf) Pl-icUus tie Tills, in his Aflrologia, 
iiorinus in h\s Ajirologia Gallic», and CamfanelU's AjlroUgicornm Libri VII. ^ deSidtrali f*»- 
t» t-itando. 

*" This Work is not hitherto extsnt; nor Vhyflcks and Aftronomy, perhaps, improved far enough 
to afford it complear. The phiofophical Labours of Mr. Bcy/e, DwHook, Dt.Haltey, &;c. 'he 
Obfervation; of H?i,f/;«j, </» /«H/rc, Mr. Fhmjle/id, and. many other Members ofth.? Ro)til S3~ 
eiety and foreign AcaJemies, wirh all the Difcovcries of Sir Jfaac Newton, do but afford fome. 
Materials for 'he Toundation of tins Science; which was folidly begun by the Author in his N^tiir»L 
MifioryoftheWind. The great ufefulnefs of the Def^n in civil and aftive Life, may require \% 
tobcdilig^enily profecuced. See Children's ladago ji^rologkoi ^liaied it Londcn, 16/1, 



78 



P H Y S IC K s. Sedl. IV. 



Stars, with one another, are of ufe in contemplating the Fabrick of the 
World V and the nature of the fubjacent Regions : but in no refpeft for Pre- 
didions, becaufeatall times alike. (2.) This Jfirology Jhould take in the neareft 
approaches^ and the far theft removes of each Planet^ to and from the Zenith ^ 
according to the Climate: for all the Planets have their Summer and Winter j- 
wherein they dart their rays ftronger or weaker, according to their perpen- 
dicular or oblique diredion. So we queftion not but the Moon in Leo, 
has, in the fame manner as rhe Sun, a greater efFeft upon natural bodies with 
us, than when in Pifces ; by reafon of her greater perpendicular elevation, 
and nearer approach to the larger Stars. (3.) It fhould receive yUt Apogees 
and Perigees of the Planets ; -with a proper Enquiry into what the Vigour of the 
Planets may perform ot itfelf; and what thro' their nearnefs to us : for a 
Planet is more brisk, in its Apoge, but more communicative in its Perige. 
(4.) It fhould include all the other accidents of the Planet's Motions ; their ac- 
celerations, retardations, courfes, ftations, retrogradations, diftances from 
the Sun, increafe and diminutions of Light, Eclipfes, ^c. For all thefe 
things affe£l the rays of the Planets-, and caufe them to aft either weaker, 
ftronger, or in a different manner. (5.) This Aflrolog'j ffjould contain all that 
can by any means be known or difcovered of the nature of the Stars, both erratic 
and fix'd ; confidered in their own eflence and sftivity; viz. their magnitude, 
colour, afpeft, fparklingand vibrating of L,ight •, their fituation with regard 
to the Poles or Equinoftial : the Conftellations, which thicker kx., and 
which thinner ; which higher, which lower ; what fix'd Stars are in the 
Zodiac, and what out of it -, the different velocities of the Planets ; their 
different latitudes ; which of them are retrograde, and which not ; their dif- 
ferent diftances from the Sun ; which movefwifteft in their Apoge, and which 
in their Perige •, the irregularities of Mars, the excurfions of Venus, and the 
extraordinary phafes, accidents, and appearances obfervable in Venus and the 
Sun; with other things of this kind. {6.).Laftly, let it contain, from Tra- 
dition, the particular natures and alterations of the Planets and fix'd Stars: 
for as thefe are delivered with general confent, they are not lightly to be 
rejefted ; unlefs they direftly contradift phyfical reafons. AndoffuchOb- 
fervations let a just Astrology be formed : and according to thefe alone 
ihould Schemes of the Heavens be made and interpreted *. 
Its Ufes in g^ Such an Jftrology fhould beufed with greater confidence in Predinio}u 

but more cautioufly m Ele£fion ; and in both cales with due moderation. 
Thus Predictions may be made oi Comets, and all kinds of Meteors, Inun- 
dations, Droughts, Heats, Frofts, Earthquakes, fiery Erruptions, Winds, 
great Rains, the Seafons of the Year, Plagues, Epidemic Difeafes, Plenty, 
Famine, Wars, Seditions, Seds, Tranfmigrations of People ; and all Coin- 
motions 

' This may fliew that the principal vikof Aflronomy is toferve as a Balls for iju/l Ajlrold^y, 
or that Afironomy is not fo much to be cultivated for its own fake, as for laying the (•"oonda- 
tions of a more ufefu) Science, that of prediding the Changes of the Atmofpherc ; the Winds, 
the Weather, the Seafons, and the grand Commotions, and Contingencies on the Earth; with a 
difcoi'ery of the ways of preventing or guarding againft them. See the Author';, Hiftory of the 
Windi and Mr, Boyle on the new ufe of Afironomy, in his Memoirs for a general tiiftory of 
the Air. 



Prediction. 



Seel. IV. P H Y s I c K s. 79 

motions or great Innovations of things Natural and Civil, Fredinions may 
polTibly be made more particular, tho' with lefs certainty ; if when the 
general tendencies of the Times are found ; a good philofophical or po- 
litical judgment applies them to fuch things as are moft liable to this kind of 
accidents. For example, from a foreknowledge of the Seafons of any year, 
they might be apprehended more deftrudlive to OHi'es than Grapes ; more 
hurtful in Diftempers of the Limgs than the Liver ; more pernicious to the 
Inhabitants of /////j than Falle-<s ; and, for want of Provifions, to men of retire- 
ment, than Courtiers. &cc. Or if any one, from a knowledge of the Influence 
which the celeftial bodies have upon the fpirits of mankind, Ihould find it 
would affeft the people more than their Rulers, learned and inquifuive men 
more than the military, &c. For there are innumerable things of this kind, 
that require not only a general knowledge, gained from the Scars, which 
are the Agents, but alfo a particular one oi' the pa/live Subjeffs. 

9. Nor are Ele5lions to be wholly rejected ; tho' not fo much to be truft- And ^.U^lon, 
ed as Predidions : for we find in Planting, Sowing, and Grafting, Obfer- 

vations of the Moon are not abfolutely trifling ; and there are many parti- 
culars of this kind. But EleElions are more to be curb'd by our Rules, than 
Predidlions. And this muft always be remembred, that Eleclion only hdlds 
in fuch cafes where the virtue of the heavenly bodies, and the adlion of 
the inferior bodies alfo, is not tranfient ■, as in the examples jufl: mentioned : 
for the increafes of the Moon and Planets are not fudden things. But 
Pundtuality of time fhould here be abfolutely rejedted. And perhaps there 
•are more of thefe Inftances to be found in Civil Matters-, than fome would 
imagine. 

10. There are but four Ways of arriving at this Science^ viz. (i.) by future The vays of 
Experiments., {2.) paft Experiments, {■^.) 'Traditions, and {^.) Ph^tfical Reafons. arrMng ap 
But ( I.) 'tis in vain, at prefent, to think oi future Exreyiments, hi.C3.-^(c miny Aftrology. 
ages are required to procure a competent ftoclc of them. And (2) as for 

the pa/?, 'tis true they are within our reach-, but 'tis a work of labour and 
much time to procure them. Thus AJlrcl:gers may, if they pleafe, draw from 
real Hifliory all greater accidents, as Inundations, Pl?.gues, Wars, Sedi- 
tions, Deaths of Kings, &c. as alfo the pofirions of the Celeflial Bodies; 
not according to fictitious Horofcopes, but the abovementionsd rules of their 
Revolutions, or fuch as they really were, at the time-, and where the event 
^confpires, ered a probable Rule of Prediclion. (j.j All Traditions fhould 
bejwell fifted, and thofe thrown out that manifeflly clafh with ph\fical Rea- 
fot!\s ; leaving fuch in their full force as comport well therewith. And 
(4.) thofe phyficalReafons are befl fuited to this Enquiry, which fearch into the 
univerfal appetites and paffwns of Matter -, and the fimple genuine motions of 
the heavenly bodies. And this we take for the furefl Gtnde to Aflrology \ 

1 1.. 

* On the" Foundations here laid down, Mr. 'Bojle makes a defence oi Aflrology; and repre- 
fents it as one of the tioH ferviceable parts of Aflronomy. See hi: Memoin for a generai Hijlo- 
ryofthtAir. Alfridgm. Vol. III. pag. 5 5 — ;6. Accordingly, .4/ro«oOTy ^nd Aflrology were 
a'nciently reputed the fame Thing. In which Light fee alfo the Author's Specimen of anima- 
ted or /olid Aflronomy; in the Ninth Supple.ment to this Piece. And for the Hijlory of Ajlro- 
hgy, fee Sdmafiui dt Anuis Clima3erid}, ^ mticjitn^Aftrologift, 



So P H y s I c K s. Sedl. IV. 

Celeftial Ml- u. There remains another piece of wiW y^ro/o^y, the' ufually fepirated 
g'^^'^J*/"'''"^ from it, and transferred to Celeftial Magick, as they call it. 'Tis a ftrange fic- 
Aftiology '■''-'" of the human brain, the receiving the benign /Ifpe^of the Stars upon Seals 
and Signets of Gems or Metal, fuited to tlie purpofc ; fo as to detain and fix, 
as it were, the felicity of that hoar which would otherwile be volatile and fu- 
gitive. Thus to treafure up tht Relicks of Heaven, in order to revive and 
preferve the fleeting, and now dead hour, wherein they v/ere taken, is a fu- 
pcrftition exceeding that of the CathoUcks in preferving the Relicks of Saints. 
Let all fuch Dreams therefore be baniHi'd Philofophy. 
MJlraS Phy- 12. ABSTRACT Physicks may be jijftl/ divided into two parts; the 
jfichi divided Do^Kine of the Schemes of Matter, and the DoBrine of Appetites and Motions, 
into the Doc- Xlie 5t7^f;«i?j o/" Mfl//fr are denfity, rarity, gravity, levity, heat, cold, tan- 
Schemcs'if gibility, intangibility, volatile,fixed, determinate, fluid, humid, dry, undluous. 
Matter. crude, hard, foft, fragile, tenfile, porous, united, fpirituous, jejune, fimple, 

compound, abfolute, imperfedlly mix'd, fibrous and veiny, fimple poficion, or 
equable, fimilar, dilTimilar, fpecificate, unfpecificate, organical, inorganical, 
animate and inanimate : and farther than this we proceed not -, for fenfible 
and infenfible, rational and irrational, we refer to the DoBrine of Man. 
And Appetites 13. Jppetites and Motions are. of tvfok':nds ; us ht'ing either Jimple Motions, 
and Motions, •wherein the fpring of all natural Aftions is contained, that is, in refpeft of 
their Scliemes of IMatter ; or Motions compounded or produced : and with 
thefe the common Philofophy, which enters but little into the body of Nature, 
begins. But thefe compound Motions, fuch as Generation, Corruption, i^c. 
fhould be efteemed certain Refults or Effects of fimple Motions, rather xh-xrv pri- 
mitive Motions themfelves. The fimple Amotions are ( i .) motion of Refiftance, or 
preventive of penetration of dimenfions •, (2.)motion of Connexion, preventive of a 
Vacuum, as 'tis called; (3.)motion of Liberty,preventive of preternatural com- 
pre(rion,or extenfion; (4.) motion in a new Orb, with regard to rarefaction and 
condenfation; (5.) motion of the fecond Connexion, or preventive of folution of 
continuity; (6.) motion of the greater Congregation, or with regard to mafles of 
connatural Bodies, commonly called natural Motion; (7.) motion of the leflfer 
Congregation, vulgarly term'd motion ofSympathy andAntipathy; (8.)difpo- 
nent motion,with regard to the juft placing of Pares in theWhole; (9.)motion 
ofAfTimilationiOr multiplicative of its own nature upon another body; (lo.)mo- 
tion of Excitation, where the nobler agent excites the latent and benumb'd 
motion in another thing ; (11.) motion of the Seal, or impreflion, by an opera- 
tion without communication offubftance; (12.) regal motion, or the reflraint of 
other motions by a predominant one; (i j,)end!efs motion, or fpontaneous rota- 
tion; (14.) motion of Trepidation, or themotion of fyftole and diafl:ole,with re- 
gard to Bodies placed betwixt things advantageous and hurtful ;(i5.) and laft- 
ly, motion couchant, or a dread of motion, whicli is thecaufe of many effects. 
And fuch are the fimple motions that really proceed out of the inward rccef- 
fts of Nature ; an i which being complicated, continued, ufcd alternately, 
moderated, rep:;'ated, and varioufly combined, produce thofe compound Mo- 
tions or Refults of Motion we call Generation, Corruption, I icreaje. Diminu- 
tion, Alteration, "Tranfiation, Mixtion, Separation and Converfton''. 14. 

* The Dailrin: ariling from this f/^^fl^o/" Mo/ipw, is largely explained towards the elofe of 

the 



Sed. IV. P H Y s I c K s. 8 r 

14. The Meafures of Motions are an Attendant on Physicks; as fhew- The Meafures 
ing the effefts of quantity, diftance, or the fphere of adivity, intenfion "f^"'""' "" 
and remifllon, rtiort and long continuance, activity, dulnefs, and incita- phyUcks". 
tion. And thefe are the genuine parts of abstract Phvsicks ; which 

wholly conCiAs(i.) in the Schemes of Matter, (2.) Simple Motions, (3.) the 
Refults or Sums of Motions, and (4.) the Meafures of Motions. As for 
voluntary motion in Animals •, the motion in the A6lion of the Senfes ; the 
motions of the Imagination, Appetite, and Will ; the motion of Mind, the 
Determination, and other intelledual Faculties ; they have their own proper 
Do£Irines, under which we range them -, confining the whole of Physicks to 
Matter and Efficient, and affigning over Forms and Ends to Met a physicks. 

15. We mull: annex two remarkable Appendages to Physicks, with TwoAppen- 
regard rather to the manner, than the matter of Enquiry -, viz. Natural 'i*|" "* ^'^^' 
Problems, and the Opinions of the ancient Philofophers. The firft is an Jp- ('o^nauirai 
pendage of Nature at large ; and the other of Nature united or fummed up : Problems. 
both relating to a diligent kind of doubting ; which is no contemptible part 

of Knowledge. Now, Problems contain particular Doubts ; and Opinions, 
general ones, as to Principles and Structure. In the Books of Arijlotle we 
have a noble example of Problems ; deferving not only the Praifes, but the 
Iinitation of Pofterity : fince new Doubts are daily arifing. But the utmoft 
caution is to be ufed in fuch an Undertaking. The recording and propofing 
of Doubts has two advantages ; the one, as it defends Philofophy againft Er- 
rors, when that which is not clear, is neither judged nor aflerted ; left Er- 
ror thus fhould multiply Error ; but Judgment is fufpendcd upon it, and 
not made pofitive : the other is, that Doubts once regifter'd, are like fb 
many Sponges, which perpetually fuck and draw to themfelves the increafes 
of Knowledge i whence thofe things which would have been flightly pafled 
over, unlefs they had been doubted of before, come now from this very 
doubting to be more attentively confider'd. But thefe two advantages will 
fcarce ballance this fingle Inconvenience, unlefs well provided againft ; viz. 
that when a Doubt is once admitted for juft, and becomes, as it were, au- 
thentick, it prefently raifes up Difputants on both fides, who tranfmit to 
Pofterity the fame liberty of doubting ftill ; fo that Men feem to apply their 
Wits rather to nourifh the Doubt than folvc it. And of this we every 
where meet with examples in Lawyers and Scholars ; who, when a Doubt 
once gains admittance, would have it remain a Doubt for ever -, and engage 
themfelves in doubting, as well asaflerting: whereas the true ufe of Wit is 
to render doubtful things certain, and not certain ones doubtful. And 
therefore I fet down as wanting A Calendar of Doubts, or PROBiEh?s ACalend»r 
JN Nature ■, and recommend it to be undertaken, with care to blot out whereof is 

deficient. 

theI»JoT«m Org^num ; tho' it feems to have been little regarded in the modern mechantcal Vhilofofhy, 
which accounts for Phenomena, without fuch an exaft analyfis of Motion,- or dividing it into 
Its fcveral fpecies: how juftly, is another Queftion. Whoever converfcs with natural and artifi- 
cial Operations, fuch as Fermentation, VutrefaBion, and moft chemical Procefles, will perhaps 
find the ule and necclVuy of all thefe different Species, to produce different eftcds, as they ftiall 
be differently combined j and give the true Caufes of numerous f^«MWM<», which the' common, 
«e little attended to. 

Vol. I. M daily. 



82 



And(i.) the 
Opinions of 
the ancicn: 
Philofophers, 



Which is a, 
Work like- 
leife dejicient. 



Phy SICKS. Sea.IV 

daily, as Knowledge increafes, thofe that are clearly difcuffed and fettled *. 
And this Calendar we would have attended with another, of no lefs utility j 
for as in every Enquiry there are things plainly true, things doubtful, and 
things plainly falle, 'twere exceeding proper that along with a Calendar of 
Doubts, fliould go A Calendar of Falsehoods and Vulgar Errors, 
both in natural Hijior'j and Opinions ; that they may no longer difturb the 
Sciences ^. 

1 6. As to the Opinions of the ancient Philofophers, for example thofe of 
Pythagoras, Phtlolaiis, Xenophanes, Anaxagoras, Parmenides, Leucippis, Demo- 
crittts, and others, which Men ufually pafs (lightly over ; 'tis proper to caft 
a modeft eye upon them. For tho' Arijlotle, after the Ottoman manner, 
thought he could not reign fecure, without putting all his Brethren to death \ 
yet thofe who do not affeft Dominion and Rule, but the Enquiry and II- 
luftration of Truth, will find their account in beholding, at one view, the 
different Opinions of different Philofophers, as to the Natures of Things. 
But there is no room to expeft any pure Truth from thefe or the like Theo- 
ries : for as the celeflial appearances are folved both upon the Suppofitions 
of Ptolemy and Copernicus ; fo common experience, and the obvious face of 
things, may be applied to many different Theories: whilft a much ftritter 
procedure is required in the right difcovery of Truth. For as Children, 
when they firfl begin to fpeak, call every woman Mother •, but afterwards 
learn to diftinguifh their own : fo a childifli Experience calls every Philofo- 
phy its Mother ; but when grown up, will cafily diftinguifh its true one. 
In the mean time, 'tis proper to read the difagreeing Philofopbies, as fo many dif- 
ferent GlofTes of Nature. We could therefore wilh there were, with care and 
judgment, drawn up A Work OF THE Ancient Philosophies^ from the 

Lives 

* This Calendar of Doubts is not propofed as a temporary, but as a renewable Thing, to be 
continued down to After-ages; with an Expunftion of fuch Queries as are fully folved, and the 
inftrtion of new ones, as they arife, till Fhilofifhy is compleated. But I do not find any fuch 
Calendar extant in form ; as it might, perhaps to advantage, be kept in all Phitofaphical So- 
cieties, or Meetings oi learned Men. Des Cartes made Doubting the lirll Principle of his Philo- 

fofhy, MT.Glanvil wrote his Scepfis Scientifica to (hew that all dogmatical Do£trine is vain, and 
the Mother of Ignorance. The Motto of the Ryfal Society is Nitllius in Verba: many iToubts and 
Heads of Enquiries are contained in the Philo/ophical TranfaBions, and the Works of Mr. Boyle j 
^nd Sir Ifaac Nervton, at the End of his Opticks, has left afett of Queries of this kind that might be 
enlarged to Calendars, by a judicious Co/ZeSJo» from various Authors. And with this view may 
be confulted Alexandr. T.tjfoni Penjieri diverfi \ Am. Sengverdii Exercitationet PlyficA, the 
Works of la Mothe le Vayer, M. Bayle, 8cc. 

^* Dr. Frimrofe wrote upon the vulgar Errors cf Phyjick ; but Dr. Brovn, in his Pfeudodoxia 
Epidemica, feems to have expreffly intended to fupply, in a general and extenlive way, the 
De/ideratum here pointed out. To thoie who would continue the Delign, the learned Morhof 
recommends the perufal of Meric Cafaubon's Treatife of Credulity and Incredulity: and adds, 
that a diligent Enquiry iliould be made into the Caufe and Origin of Errors ; upon a difcovery 
*vhereof, our Admiration prefently ceafes; and abfurd Opinions link, that might otherwife be 
fupported by fome imaginary Prodigy. See Morhof's Polyhijior, Tom. II. Lib. II. Part I. 
Cap. I. Seft. 9. 

* The Work here propofed is of vaft extent, and a fit Undertaking for a Society, as intended 
to include all the ancient and modern Syftems of Philofophy; or the Hillory of Knowledge thro' all 
Ages and Countries. Conliderable Progrefs has, however, been made in itj particularly by 
VojjMs de Philofophia, (jf Philofophorttm SeBis; continued with a Supplement by Ruffeli printed 
iXjena, in the year 170/ ; by Paiicirollm de Rebus Inventis cc Perditis i by Pafchius de Novis 

invemis. 



Se(ft. V. M E T A p H y s I c K s. S^ 

Lives of the old Philofophers, Plutarch's Colleftion of their Opinions, the 
Citations of Plato, the Confutations of Arijlotle-, and the fcatter'd Relations 
of other Books, whether ecclcfiallical or heathen ; as LaSfantius, Pbilo, Phi- 
lojlriitus, &c. For fuch a Work is not yet extant : and we would advife it 
to be done diftinftly ; fo that each Philofophy be drawn out and continued 
feparate ; and not ranged under Titles and Colledions, as Plutarch has 
done. Y or Qvtry Philofophy, when entire, fupports itfelf ; and its Dodrines 
thus add Light and Strength to each other: which, if feparated, found 
ftrange and harHi. Thus, when we read in Tacitus, the A6ls of 7V>'o, or 
Claudius, clothed with the circumftances of Times, Perlons, and Occafions, 
every thing feenis plaufible ; but wlien the fame are read in Suetonius, dif- 
tributed under Chapters and Common-places, and not defcribed in the order 
of Time, they look monftrous, and abfolutely incredible. And the cafe is 
the fame with Philofopbj propofed entire, and difmember'd, or cut into Ar- 
ticles. Nor do we exclude from this Calendar^ the modern Theories and 
Opinions •, as thofe of Paracelfus, elegandy reduced by Severinus into a 
Bod-j and Harmony of Philofophy; or of Telefius, who, in reftoring the PMo- 
fophv of Parmenides, has turned their own weapons againft the Peripateticks ; 
or of Giibert, who revived the Dodlrines of Philolaus ; or of any other, pro- 
vided he be worthy. But as there are whole Volumes of thefe Authors ex- 
tant, we would only have the Refult drawn out, and joined to the reft*. 
And fo much for Phvsicks, and its Appendages. 



SECT. V. 

CyMETAPHYSICKS. 

i.rriO Metaphys'icks vtt nKxgnxht Enquiry of formal and final Caufes. Meraphyficki 

X But an Opinion has prevailed, as if the effential Forms^, or real Dif- '^'* ^n^'Ary 
ferences of "Things^ -were abfolutely undifcoverable by human means : granting, aiTfinal'"'' 

M 2 at Caufes. 

Inventis, qui&us facem frAtulit Aniiquitai ; by Stanley, in his Lives of the Thilofophers; by Her- 
■telot, in his Bibliotheque Univerfeltei by Nl. Bayle, in his ViSionary, Sec. For more CoUeBiont, 
Hifieries, and Writings to this purpofe, fee Struvii Bibliothecu Thilofo^hica, Morhof'% Potyhijlor, 
and Stollii IntroduBio in Hijloriam Liter «riam. 

• Many, perhaps, may imagine that the Ulefulnefs of fuch a Work would not fufficiently reward 
the Labour required to compile it: but feveral Advantages would attend it. Thus, in particu- 
lar, it might Ihew how Fhilofofbies have been, through all Ages, borrowed from one another; 
fo that 'tis almoft impofl'ible to find or invent one that has not been on foot before j that 
the modern eleftlc Philofophy, is but the revival of an old one; that evea when notional rhilofop./ty 
prevailed, yet Works were performed, (^c. and, in efteft, prove to univerfal Philofophy, what 
literary Hilary is to Hi/lory in general^ that is, in the Language of our Author, 'mLye. 

'• Obferve, that by Forms the Author means the fpecifick Differences of Things, whatever 
they be at the laft ; or that which fpecificallydiftinguifhes one Thing from another; a Man from 
a Horfe, Rofemary fiom Thyme, Cryllal from Diamond, Light from Heat, &c. without 
ufing the Word in the feemingly definitive, but abftrufe Senfe of Arifiotle and his Followers; 
■who make a Form to be a Suhftanci feen by nobody; but a Thing cxifting by itfelf in a fingle 
point ) fo as to be the adive Principle, or ib!e Caufe of all Adlions and Operations. 



Metaphysicks. Sedl. v. 

at the fame time, that if they could be difcover'd •, this, of all the Parts of 
Knowledge, would be the moft worthy of Enquiry. As to the poffibility 
of the Thing-, there are indolent Difcoverers, who feeing nothing but Sea 
and Sky, abfolutely deny there can be any Land beyond them. But 'tis 
maniRft tha.t Pla!o, a Man of a fublime Genius, who took a view of every 
thing as from a high Rock, f.iw in his DoSrine of Ideas, that " Forms were 
" the true Object of Knowledge •," tho' he loft the advantage of this juft 
Opinion, by contemplating and grafping at Forms totally abftradted from 
Matter, and not as determined in it* : whence he turned afide to Theological 
Speculations, and therewith infedted all his Natural Philofoj^/yy. But if with 
diligence, ferioufnefs, and fincerity, we turn our eyes to Aftion and Ufe, 
we may find, and become acquainted with thofe Forms., the knowledge 
whereof will wonderfully enrich and profper human Affairs. 
Simple Forms ^. The Forms of Subjlajtces, indeed, viz. the Species of Creatures^, are fo 
to be firft en- complicated, and interwoven, that the Enquiry into them is either vain, 
quired. q^ fhould be laid afide for a time, and refumed after the Forms of a more 

fimple nature have been duly fifted and difcover'd. For as 'twere nehher 
eafy nor ufeful to difcover the Form of a Sound that fhall make a Word, 
fince Words, by the Compofition and Tranfpofition of Letters, are infinite ; 
but prafticable and eafy to difcover the Form of a Sound, expreffing a fingle 
Letter ; or by what Collifion, or Application of the Organs of the Voice it 
was made; and as thefe Forms of Letters being known, we are riience di- 
redlly led to enquire the Forms of Words : So, to enquire the Form of an 
Oak, a Lion, Gold, Water, or Air, were at prefcnt vain •, but to enquire 
the Form of Detifity, Rarity, Heat, Cold, Gravity, Levity, and other Schemes 
of Matter and Motions; which, like the Letters, of tiie Alphabet, are few 
in number, yet make and fupport the EJfences and Forms of all Subftances ; 
is what we would endeavour after, as conftituting and determining that Part 
of Metaphyftcks we are now upon. 
rhh fart of Z- Nor does this hinder Phyficks from confidering the fame Natures, \n 
Metaphylicks their fluxile Caufes only : Thus, if the Caufe of IVhitenefs in Snow, or Froth, 
dyftUive. yf^fQ enquired into ; 'tis judged to be a fubtile intermixture of Air with Wa- 
ter: but this is far from being the Form of IVhitenefs, fince Air intermix'd 
with powder'd Glafs, or Cryftal, is alfo judged to produce Whitenefs, no 
lefs than when mix'd with Water : This, therefore, is only the efficient Caufe, 
and no other than the Vehicle of the Form ". But if the Enquiry be made 
in Metaphyfcks, it will be found that two tranfparent Bodies, intermix'd in 
their optical portions, and in a fimple order, make Whitenefs. This part 
of Met APHYSicKs I find defe^ive: and no wonder •, becaufe in the method 
of Enquiry hitherto ufed, the Forms of Things can never appear. The mif- 
fortune lies here, that Men have accuftom'd themfelves to hurry away, 
and abilrad; their Thoughts too haftily, and carry them too remote from 

Expe- 

* As Mr. Boyle has excellently (hewn, by a large Induiftion of Experiments, and Crucial In- 
fiances, wherewith moft of his fhyficul Enquiries are enriched. 

'' As Plants, Animals, Minerals; the Elements Fire, Air, Water, Earth, (^c. 

* That is, the Forrv is contained in it ; but the Analyfis not carried far enough, to fhew the 
Torm itfclfi or what Whitenefs is, independent of the Thing wherein ic reftdes. 

1 



Sed-.V. M E T A p H y s I c K s. 85 

Experience and Particulars ; and given themfelves wholly up to their own 
Meditations and Arguments =. 

4. The ufe of this Pare of Metaphyficks is recommended by two princi- its vfe t» 
pal Things : firfi, as 'tis the Office and Excellence of all Sciences to (hortcn f'"^"" '*' 
the long turnings and windings of Experience, fo as to remove the ancient JJJ° 
complaint of the fcantinefs of Life, and the tedioufnefs of Art ; this is bcft 
perform'd by colledling and uniting the Axioms of the Sciences into more 
g;ieral ones,, that fhall fuit the Matter of all Individuals. For the Sci- 
ences are like Pyramids, ereded upon the fingle Bafis of Hlftoyy and Exi^e- 

rience ; and therefore a Hijhry of Nature is (i.) the Bafis of Natural Pb'do- 
fophy; and (2.) the firft Stage from the Bafis is Physicks •, and (3.) that 
nearcft the Vertex Metaphysicks : But (4.) for the Vertex itfclf, '■Uhe 
« fFork which God worketh from the beginning to the end" or the funmary 
Law of Nature ; we doubt whether human Enquiry can reach it. But for 
the other three, they are the true Floorings of the Scie/tces. And as that Sci- 
ence is the moll excellent, which leaft burthens the Underftanding by 
its multiplicity, this Property is found in Metaphyficks ; as it contemplates 
thofcfimple Forms of Things, Denfity, Rarity, i^c. which we call Forms of 
the firfl Clafs: for tho' theie are few, yet, by their Commenfurations, and 
Co-ordinations, they conftitute all Truth^. 

5. The fecond Thing that ennobles this Part of Metaphyficks, relating to "ffl^J^"' 
Forms, is, that it releafes the human Power, and leads it into an immenfe p^„/;./ 
and open Field of Work : For Pb\ficks direfts us thro' n.irrow rugged 

Paths, in imitation of the crooked ways of ordinary Nature : but the ways 
of Wifdom are every where wide, and abounding in plenty, and variety of 
means. Phyfical Caufes, indeed, by means of new Inventions, afford light 
and direftion in a like cafe again : but he that underfiands a Form, knows 
the ultimate pofiibility of fuperinducing that Nature upon all kinds of Matter ; 
and is therefore the lefs reftrained, or tied down in his working -, eitlier as 
to the B.ifis of the Matter, or the Condition of the Efficients 

6. The fecond Fan of Metaphvsicks, is the Enquiry of final Caufes: Thefecond 
which, we note not as wanting; but as ill-placed : thefe Caufes being ufually phS,fi^f^//*" 
fought in Phyficks, not in Metaphyficks ; to the great prejudice of Philofophy : ftnal Caulis. 

for 

* It is eal'y ro obferve, chat Mr. Beyle'., Enquiries into the Origin ofVorms and ^alxties hi 
Sidiei, endeavour to I'upply this Deficienty, proceed upon the Direftions here laid aown, afid 
panicularly keep clofe to Experience. See the Abridgment of his Works, Vol. I. f»g. 1S7, to 
the end ox' that Volume. He Teems alfo to have chofe for his Enquiry the very Subje(Ss pointed 
out by the Lord Bacon i viz.- He»t, Cold, Gravity, Levity, Denjity, Rarity, See. as the limpleft and 
fittcft to lay the Foundation for difcovering the more complex Forms of Creatures, farticnlar 
Natures, or fyftematical Beings; as Plants, Animals, and Minerals, in their integral Subdivifions 
jefpe£t:vely: whence we are, for inftance, to derive the medicinal Virtues of Herbs, Roots, 
Flowers, C'^. For thyfuks, and Metaphyficks, have not obtained their End, till Forms are dif— 
covered j the Knowledge whereof will enable Mankind to produce Effe<n:s, in ail pofl'ible Cafes, 
equal or fuperior to thofe of Nature, and give us a great Command of her Works; as more 
ftilly appears in the Nivum Organum. 

* That is, a Knowledge offimple Forms, or the fpecifick Fjfences of general ^alities in Mut- 
ter and Motion, will, by Involution and Evolution (to ufe an algebraical Phrafe,) conlhtute and 
explain all the Truths of Philofophy ; whofe Perfeftion refts in the Knowledge of Forms. 

' That is, a Knowledge of Forms, will enable Mankind to effeft all phylical Poflibilitiesj as 
is hereafter particularly (hewn and illuftrated by Exaraples in the Novum Organum, 



86 Metaphysicks. Sed. Vi 

for the treating offtiaJ Caufes in Ph-jfich^ has driven out the Enquiry of phy- 
ftcal ones ; and made Men reft in fpecious and Jhadoivy Caufes •, without ever 
fearching in earneft, after fuch as are real, and truly pbyfical. And this was 
not only done by Plato, who conftantly anchors upon this ihore -, but by 
Ariftotle., Galen, and others : who frequently introduce fuch Caufes as thefe. 
" The Hairs of the Eye-lids are for a Fence to the Sight. The Bones for Pillars 
" whereon to build the Bodies of Animals. The Leaves of Trees are to defend 
*' the Fruit from the Sun and Wind. The Clouds are defignedfor watering the 
" Earth, &c." All which are properly alledg'd in Metaphyjicks ; but in 
Phyfcks are impertinent, and as Remoras to the Ship, that hinder the 
Sciences from holding on their courfe of Improvement ; and introducing a 
negleft of fearching after phsfical Caufes. And therefore the Natural Philo- 
fophies of Z)t7;;ot77/«,f, and others, who allow no God or Mind in the frame 
of Things ; but attribute the Strufture of the Univerfe to infinite Eflays 
and Trials of Nature, or what they call Fate, or Fortune ; and afTign'd the 
Caufes of particular things to the neceflity of Matter, without any inter- 
mixture o^ final Caufes ; feem, fo far as we can judge from the Remains of 
"their Philofophy, mirch more folid, and to have gone deeper into Nature, 
with regard to pb\fical Caufes, than the Philofophy of Ariflotle or Plato: and 
this only becaufe they never meddled with final Caufes ; which the others 
were perpetually inculcating. Tho' in this refpeft, Ariftotle is more culpable 
than Plato ; as dropping God, the Fountain of Final Caufes, and fubfti- 
tuting Nature in his ftead •, and, at the fame, receiving /«a/ Caufes thro' his 
affeftion to Lrgick, not Theology. 
Their oj^ce 7. Thck final Caufes, however, are not falfe, or unworthy of Enquiry in 
«ndufe. Metaphyftcks; but their excurfion into the limits o( jbfical Caufes, hath 

made a great devaftation in that Province •, otherwife, when contain'd 
within their own bounds, they are not repugnant to phyfical Caufes : for 
the Caufe, that " the Hairs of the Eye-lids are to preferve the Sight," is no 
way contradictory to this, that " Pilofity is incident to the Orifices of Mcif- 
" ture i" and fo of the reft : thefe two kinds of Caufes agreeing excellently 
together -, the one expreffing the Intention, and the other the Confequence 
only. 

8. Nor does this call Divine Providence in queftion ; but rather highly 
confirms and exalts it: for as lie is a greater Politician, who can make others 
the Inftruments of his "Will, without acquainting them with his Defigns, 
than he who difclofes himfelf to thofe he employs ; fo the Wifdom of God 
appears more wondrous, when Nature intends one thing, and Providence 
draws out another •, than if the Charafters of Providence were ftamped upon 
all the Schemes of Matter, and natural Motions. So Ariftotle had no need of 
a God, after having once impregnated Nature with final Caufes ; and laid it 
down, that " Nature does nothing in vain ; always obtains her Ends, when 
*' Obftacles are removed, &c." But Democritus, and Epicurus, when they 
advanced their Atoms, were thus far tolerated by fome ; but when they af- 
ferted the Fabrick of all things to be raifed by a fortuitous Concourfe of 
thefe Atoms, without the help of Mind, they became univerfally ridiculous. 
So far are phyfical Caufes from drawing Men off from God, and Providence, 

that. 



Sedl. VI. Natural Magic K. 87 

that, on the contrary, the Philofophers employ'd in difcovering them can find 
no reft, but by flying to God or Providence at laft \ 



SECT. VI. 

Of Natural Magic k.. 

r. rnplHE Practical Doctrine of Nature we likewife neceffari-7*f praftical 
J_ ly divide into two Parts, correfponding to thole of the Speculative'*'; Doftnne »/ 
for Phyficks, or the Enquiry of efficient and material Caufes, produces ^^^^^^'■"^^^'j;^^ 
Mechanicks ; and Metaphyficks, the Enquiry ofFortns, produces Magick "'.fpomlence to 
whilft the Enquiry of final Caufes is a barren thing, or as a Virgin confe- the theoreti- 
crated to God. We here underftand that Mechanicks, which is coupled with '^^h '°'^'["Z 
phyfical Caufes; {qt he^id^s thth^rt effeclive ox empirical Mechanicks, which ^.j^j^^^^j^^j^ 
has no dependance on Pbyficks, and belongs to Natural Hiftory, there is ano- 
ther not abfolutely operative^ and yet not ftridlly philofophical. For all' 
Difcoveries of Works, either had their rife from accident, and fo were 
handed down from age to age ; or elfe were fought by defign : and the lat- 
ter were either difcovered by the light of Caufes and Axioms ; or acquired by 
extending, transferring or compounding fame former Inventions : which is a thing 
more ingenious and fagacious than philofophical. But the Mechanicks here 
underftood is that treated by Arijlotle promifcuoufly ; by Hero in his Pneuma- 
ticks ; by that very diligent Writer in Metallicks, George Jgricola ; and by 
numerous others in particular fubjedls'': fo that we have no omiffion to 
note in this point, only that the mifcellaneous Mechanicks, after the example 
of Arijlotle, fhould have been more carefully continued by the Moderns -, -^«^ Magick» 
efpecially with regard to fuch Contrivances whofe Caufes are more obfcure, 5"^ *' 
or their Effeds more noble * : whereas the Writers upon thefe fubjedls per--' ' 
form very fuperficially. And it appears to us, thatfcarce any thing in Nature 
can be fundamentally difcovered, either by accident» experimental attempts, 
or the light of phyfical Caufes ; but only by the difcovery of Forms ^ Since, 

there- 

* This Subjeft is profecuted b^ Mr. B^le, iu a particular Trentife, entitled, AnZnquiry into 
the final Caufes of natural Things. 

* See above of rhib[ophy, Se£t. III. 9. 

* In what fenfe, Magick is here underftood, fee below, §. i. 

* Who deicribe luch Arts, Experiments, or Inventions as arc ufcd in ordinary Life. 

* Inftances ot this kind are, perhaps, the artificiul Stone 01" tlie ancients, wherewith thejr 
buik their Amphitheatres and Monuments of perpetity; the working the Asiejlus into incom- 
buftible Cloth ; the making of a foft or malUable Cl.tfs, See. See Vancirollus tie Reius memo- 
ralnliius five deferditis. 

' The common Method of Ittventien, for want of a Knowledge of Forms, proceeds upon a 
mixture ct ph-.fic.il Rea/oning, and repeated Trials i by which means fevera! Difcoveries have 
been made: but if Farras were known, that is, what pjrticubrs conftitute things, or give 
them their feveral Natures, nothing would thea be lefi to accidentj but Men might proceed 



88 Natural Magic K. Sed. VI. 

therefore we have fet down as wanting that part of Metaphyficks which treats 
o^ Forms, it follows that Natural Magick, which is relative to it, tniijl 
alfo be wanting. 
Magick, in 2. We here underftand Magick m its ancient and honourable fenfe : among 
what fenfe to the Perftans, it flood for a fublimer Wifdom ; or a knowledge of the relations 
^e «Wer/?i;ff(/. Qf univerfal Nature: and we would have it fignify that Science, which leads 
to the knowledge of hidden Forms, for producing great Effects ; and h^ joining 
Agents to Patients, felting the Capital Works of Nature to view. The com- 
mon Natural Magick found in Books, gives us only forae childifh and fuper- 
ftirious traditions and obfervations of tlie Sympathies and Antipathies of 
Things } or occult and fpecific Properties •, which are ufually intermix'd 
with many trifling Experiments, admired rather for their difguife, than for 
themfelves : but as to the truth of Nature, this differs from the Science we 
propofe, as much as the Romances oi Arthur of Britain, Hugh of Bourdeaux, 
or other imaginary Heroes, do from the Commentaries of C/rfar, in truth of 
narration. Cf:far in rcahty performed greater things, tho' not by Roman- 
tick means, than fuch fabulous Heroes are feign'd to do. This kind of Lear- 
ning is well reprefented by the Fable of Ixion ; who thinking to enjoy JunOf 
the Goddefs of Power, embraced a Cloud -, and thence produced Centaurs 
and ChimcBras : for fo thofe who, with a hot and impotent dtfire, are car- 
ried to fuch things as they fee only thro' the fumes and clouds of imagina- 
tion ; inftead of producing Works, beget nothing but vain Hopes, and mon- 
flrous Opinions. This degenerate natural Magick has alfo an effeft like cer- 
tain fleepy Medicines, which procure pleafing Dreams : for fo it firft lays 
the Underftanding afleep, by introducing fpecifick properties, and occult 
virtues; whence men arc no longer attentive to the difcovery of real Cau- 
fes ; but reft fatisfied in fuch indolent and weak Opinions : and thus it in- 
finuates numberlefs pleafing Fiftions, like fo many Dreams. 
rhiwecikncfs 3- And here we may properly obferve that thofe 5«V«ti?; which depend 
^f the common too much upon Fancy and Faith, as this degenerate Magick, Alchemy, Aflro- 
Magick, Al- iggy_^ gj[-_ have their Means and their theory more monftrous than their 
chemy, and ^.^^^ ^^^ Atlion. The converfion of ^dckfilver into Gtld is hard to con- 
ceive •, tho' it may much more probably be effefted by a man acquainted 
with the nature of gravity, colour, malleability, fixednefs, volatility, the 
principles of Metals and Menftruums, l^c. than by one who is ignorant of 
\.\\tk Natures ; by the bare projeftion of a few grains of the Elixir. Un- 
derftand the fame of the prolongation of Youth, or retarding of old Age -, 
which miy more rationally be expefted, byobferving a fet of Rules, well 
form'd upon the Art of Medicine, than from a few drops of any precious 
Liquor or C^iincefTence*. But men are fo headftrong and notional, as not 

only 

«Jireftly from this Knowledge, to the mod capital Worhs, without intermediate Trials. But 
this is anticipating the Dodtrineof the Novum Orgitnum ; tho' with a view to prepare the way 
to it. And if we could fuppolc ourlelves Speftators of the Operation that pafles in the Minds 
of illuftrious Inventors ; fuch as Mr. Boyl», or Sir Jfnnc Newton, for inftance ; furely we fhould 
perceive Ibmething like this Invefllgiition of Forms, here meant by the Author; or a train 
of Thoughts, that af'er due exclufions and rejeftions, lead up to the Invention. 

' The Author's Enquiry into Life and Death, proceeds upon no fuch weak or fuperftitious 
Hopes i but in the folid way of phyfical Rcafon, Experiment, Obfervation, laborious Search, 
and the Inveftigation of Forms. 



I 



Se(a.VI. ' Natural Magic K. 89 

only to promife themfelves Things impoflible ; but alio hope to obtain the 
mod difficult Ends, without labour or Iweat. 

4. This PraHkalDo5frwe of Nature requires two Appendages, of very Two appenj*. 
great confequence. The /r/? is, that An Inventory be made or t h e ^^' """'''' '* 
Stock of Mankind ; containing their whole P(?/7J:/^5;.'j and ■fi?''/"«^-f» whe- p^^"j,g'^f 
ther proceeding from A'ij/«r(? or Art ; with the addition alfo of things for- Nature. x'ii,. 
merly known, but now loft: fo that he who goes upon new Difcoveries, T'O^^lnven- 
may have a knowledge of what has already been done *. This Inventory tory c/icnow- 
will be the more artificial and ufeful, if it alio contain things of every ' 
kind, which, according to common Opinion, are ?w/;<5//;Z'/<?; aslikewife fuch 
as feem'd next to impoflible, yet have been efFefted -, the one to whet the 
human Invention., and the other to direft it ; fo that from ihck Ojitatives 
and Potentials y AHives may the more readily be deduced. 

r. The fecond Thinzn that a Calendar be made of such Experi-;^'',''^^ ) * 

-> J ■!^ , Calendar of 

MENTS A3 ARE MOST EXTENSIVELY USEFUL; AND THAT LEAD TO ^^.^j.^j, £x, 

THE Discovery of others. For example, the Experiment of artificial ^^znmiFXi. 
freezings by means of Ice and Bay-Salt, is of infinite extent; and difcovcrs 
a fecrct Method of Condenfation, of great fervice to mankind ^. Fire is 
ready at hand for rarefaiVion, but the means of Condcnfation are wanted. 
And it would greatly fhorten the way to Difcoveries, to have a particular 
Catalogue of thefe leadiho Experiments^, 



" This is amthei of the grand IPorlis, conceived in tTie Mind of the Author, that requires 
the united Labours of many to execute. The Literary Hi/lory, the Hijlory of Arts, and other 
'Difiderata, above fcc down, might, if extant, aff )rd great Ligiit and AlTidance in the Collec- 
tion. Among the Books of principal ufe to the Defign, may be reclcon'd the Natural Hifto- 
ries of particular Nations; Travels, Voyages, Books of Arts, Books of Inventions, and Unher- 
fal Diciionaries; for inftance Fifo's H'ifiories of rhs InJies, Thevenot, Taverni:r, Dampier, and 
xrachitr's Voyages, Keri's Art of Glafs, the Marquis of U^orcefier's Scantlings of Inventions, 
TanciroUnsdt Reins memorabilibui, Pegelius'sThefnurus Rerum SeleBarum,de tana's Magifierium 
Xaturt (^ Artis, Vafchins de Invent'is novis ^ aritiqnis, Becher's Narrifche Weifaljelt i but par- 
ticularly Mr. C/camaers's Cyclopedia. See Morhof's Folyhijlor. Tom I. Cap. xx. de FruHu otnnis 
hi/lorit Biiliothecarid. 

* How far this Experiment has been applied by Mr. Boyle, appears from his Hijlory of Cold ; 
which proceeds almoft wholly upon it: tho' it ftill remains capable of infinite applications ^ as 
to the Concentration of Wines, Vinegar, Spirits, iiic. the procuring oi frefli Water at Sea i the 
niiking of Salt out of Sea- Water, ^c. 

* This Work, fo ixt as I know, remains unattempted ; but might be tct about to good ad- 
vantage, fince the experimcn ai Labours of Mr. Boyle, Dr. Hook, and many other eminent Mem- 
bers of the Rcy;i/ Society, znA French Academy. Gf what Ccrvice leading i:xperimeiits zre in Phi- 
ioibphy, may appear from the Difcoveries of Mr. Bo)le, and Sir I/aac Hewton; which were ge- 
nerally made by their means. 



^'oL.I. N SECT. 



9^ 



Mathematicks. Sedl. VII. 






SECT. VII. 

Of Mathematicks. 

TiieO^rt a«(/i.'rT~lWAS well obferved by Jrijlotle, that Phvsicks and Mathema- 
u/eo/Mathe- ^ TICKS produce Practice, or Mechanicks: therefore, as we have 
mane s, treated both tht fpeculaiive and praRkal part of the Doctrine of Na- 
ture •, we fhould alfo confider Mathematicks, as an auxiliary Science 
to both: which being received into Philosophy, comes as a third part 
after Physicks and Metaphysicks. But upon due recolleftion, ifwede- 
fign'd it as a fubftantial and prificipal Science ; it were more agreeable to Method 
and the Nature of the thing, to make it a part o'i Metapbyficks. ¥or ^an- 
tity, the Subject of Mathematicks, applied to Matter, is as the Dofe of Na- 
ture, and produibive of numerous Effe6ts in Natural Things •, and therefore 
ought to be reckon'd among effential Forms. And {o much did the power of 
Figures 3.ndNu//ibers prevail with the ancients, that Democritus chiefly placed 
the Principles of the Variety of Things in the figures of their Atoms: and 
Pythagoras alTerted that the nature of things confifted of numbers. Thus- 
much is true, that of natural Forms, fuch as we underftand them, ^lantity 
is the moft abllradled, and feparable from Matter : and for this reafon it 
has been more carefully cultivated, and examin'd into, by mankind, than any 
other Forms ; which are all of them more immerfed in Matter. For, as, to 
the great difadvantage of the Sciences, 'tis natural for men's minds to delighc 
more in the open Fields of Generals, than in the Inclofures of Particulars ; 
nothing is found more agreeable than Mathematicks, which fully gratifies 
this appetite of expatiating and ranging at large. But as we regard not only 
Truth and Order, but alfo the benefits and advantages of mankind; itfeems 
beft, fince Matheinaticks is of great ufe in Phyficks, Metaphxfich, Mechanicks, 
and Magicks, to make it an Appendage, or Auxiliary to them all. And this 
we are in fome meafure obliged to do ; from the fondnefs, and towering 
notions of Mathematicians, who would have their Science prefide over P/jv- 
/!cks^. 'Tis a ftrange fatality, that Mathemaiich z.n<l Logicks, which ought 

to 

^ The learned Morhof xhas confirms the juftnefs of this Obfervation ; " To fay the truth, 
" the modern Philofopliy has ftill the lame Defeftj for at this day moft of our pljilofep/iicsl 
" DoBrim is vmac Mathemmical i foas to appear fubtile in the dsmonltration of thofe Proper- 
" ties which come chiefly under the conlideration oi Mathematicians; whilft m difcovering' 
" thciiiternal Caufes of Things, ihe l.Iathenjaticinns prove as infufficient as the Peripateticks; who, 
" inftead ot Mathematicks, make Logick prefide over Phyficks. The middle way rtiould be chole 
" betwixt thcfe two extremes; andthefenfe and meaning of Nature difcovered." See Morhof's 
Polyhifl. Tom. II. pag. 149. If this Dotfrins, fo fully laid down by the Lord Bacon, had beea 
followed, the Moderns might probably have made many more fubftantial Difcoveries in Natural 
Thilofofhy, Anatomy, Chemijlry, and Medicine ; tiian by a rafli application of Mathematifki, 
which, inltead of promoting, has prejudiced thefe Sciences. 



Se<ft. VIL M A T H E M A T I C K S. 91 

to be but handmaids to Phyftcks, fhould boaft their certainty before it ; and 
even exercife dominion againft it. Bac the place and dignity of this Science 
is a fecondary confiJeration, with regard to the thing itftlf. 

2. AIatheina!icks\s e:\z\\tr pure or 7nix'd. To tlie /«ri? belong the Sciences DlvUcd int» 
employ'd about Quantity, wholly abftra£led from Matter and pbyficalf*';^'^'^ 
Axioms. This has t-ivo parts. Geometry, and Arithmelick ; the one regarding ""^' • 
continued, and the other difcrete Sluaijtity. Thefe two Sciences have been 
cultivated with very great fubtilty and application : but in plain Geometry 
there has nothing confiderable been added to the Labours of Euclid ; tho' 
he lived many ages fince. The BoSirine of Solids has not been profecuted 
and extended, equal to its ufe and excellency, neither by the ancients nor 
the moderns : and m Arithtnetick there isftill wanting a fufficient Variety 

OF SHORT AND COMMODIOUS MeTHODS OF CALCULATION, efpccially ^'^' ^/'^■"'/ 

with regard to Progreffions ; whofe ufe in Phy/icks is very confiderable. Nei- •'^"^j^ij.l^j^"^ 
ther IS Algebra brought to perfection. As for the Pythagorical and Myfiical 
Arithmetick, which began to be recovered from Proclus, and certain Re- 
mains oi Euclid, 'tis afpeculative Excurjion: Tiie Mind having this misfor- 
tune, that when it proves unequal to folid and ufeful things, it fpends itfelf 
upon fuch as are unprofitable =■. 

3. Alix'd Mathematicks has for its fubjedt Axio?ns, and the Parts of P by- The Defects ef 
ficks i and confiders Quantity fo far as may be alTifting to illuftrate, demon- mtX'lMa.the- 
ftrate, and actuate thole; for without the \\z\^ of Mathematicks, many parts ^^^!-^ ^/pjjy^ 
of Nature could neither be fufficiently comprehended, clearly demonftrated, ficks im- 
nor dexteroufly fitted for ufe. And of this kind are PerfpeSlive, Mufick, frcves. 
Ajironomy, Cofmograpby, Architeclure, M.echanicks, &c. In mix'd Mathema- 
ticks we at prefent find no entire Parts deficient ; but foretell there will be 
many found hereafter, if Men are not wanting to themlelves : For if Phy- 
f.cks be daily improving, and drawing out new Axioms, 'twill continually 
be wanting frefli z^i?c?Lncts from Mathematicks ; fo that the Parts of mix' d 
Mathematicks, muft gradually grow more numerous ''. 

N 2 SECT. 

* No part of Learning has perhaps teen more cultivated fince this Author wrote than Ma- 
thtmaticks ; \nhm\ic\i, that every other Science, or the Body of Philolbphy itfelf, ftems ren- 
dered Mathematical. The DoStrine of Solitls has been improv'd by feveral; the fhorter ways of 
Calculation here noted as deficient, are in good meafure fupplied by exaft Tables of Xo^flr;V^OT/. 
uilgtbra has been ib far improved and applied, as to rival, or almoft prejudice, the ancient 
Cecmetry. Add to this, the new Difcoveries of the Method of Fluxions, the Method of Tangents, 
the DoSrine of Infinites, the Squaring of Curves, &c. For the prefent Syftem of Mathematical 
Learning, fee fVclfii Eiementa Mathefeos univerfa, in two Volumes 4r(;, printed at Hall in the year 
1711-. or for a more curfory View, Father Ca/lel's MathematiqueUniverfelle, publiflied this year 
173 1. But tor the Hiflory of Mathematicks, fee VoJ^us de itniierfs. Mathefeos Katitra (^ Conjii- 
lutione, the Almageft of Kicciolus, Morhof's Fctyhifl. Mathemat. and Woifius's Commetitatio de 
Scriftis Mathematicis, at the End of ihefecoijd Volume of his Eiementa Mathefeos tmi-verfi. 

'■ As in effeft they are at this day, by the modern improvements in O^ticks, Vhonicks, Hydro- 
fiaticks, Fneumaticks, Fortification, Cumery, Surveying, &c. 



92 7^^ Doctrine ^ Man. Seif^.VlIK 



SECT. viir. 

'The Doctrine of Man: 
And Jirji, of the Human Person. 



TfjeiujlinunJi i-T TAv'ing gone thro' the two parts of Philosophy that relate to the 
andufeofDl- XTl Deit Y, and to Nature, we comc now to the third, or the Know- 
tjifan in the LEDGE OF OUR SELVES ; which to US is the End of the Sciences ; tho' buta part 
Sciences. ^^ Nature ^ And here we muft admonifli mankind, that all Divifions of the 
Sciences are to be underftood,. and employ'd, fo as only to mark out and 
diftinguifh ; not tear, feparate, or make any Iblution of continuity in their 
body : the contrary praflice having render'd particuLir Sciences barren, 
emily, and erroneous ; whilft they are not fed, fupported and kept right, by 
their common parent. Thus we find Cicero complaining of Socrates., that he 
firft disjoin'd PMf//£>//;j {rom Rhdorick ; which is thence become a fro^hy^ 
talkative Aru So the Art of Phyjick, without the affiftance of Natural Phi- 
lofophy, differs but little from Empirictfm. 
TheVioStuna 2. TheDocTRiNE OF Man divides itfelf into ftcs/^r//, or into Human 
of Man divi- and CiviL PHILOSOPHY ; as it confiders Man feparatCy or joined in Society. 
^''^ '"'"I"': Human Philosophy confiftsin the 5«Var(?j that regard the Body, andthofe 
PhUoibphy^' ^^^^ regard the Soul of Man. But before we defcend to a mere particular diftri-i 
bution, 'tis properto make one general Scixhce-, of the Nature and 
State OF Man; whichcertainlydeferves to be freed from the reft,and reduced 
to a Science by itftlf. And this willconfift of fuch Things as are common, 
both to the Body and the Soul. It may likewife be divided into two parts ; viz. 
according to the individual Nature of Man ; and the Connexion of the Soul 
and Body.. The former we call the Doctrine of the Person ofMs^n ; 
and the other the Doctrine of Union. All which being common and 
mix'd matters, cannot te fcparately referr'd to the Sciences tha.t regard the 
Body, nor to thofe that regard the SouL 
TheVoSh'me 3. The DocTRiNEOF THE HUMAN Per SON principally confifts in two 
of the human Things ; the Confideration of the miferies of mankind ; and its prerogatives or 
Perlon. excellencies. There are many Writings, both Philofophical and Theological^ 

that elegantly and copioufiy bewail the human Miferies: and it is an agreeable 
and wholefome topic. But the Prerogatives of tnankind are not hitherto de- 
fcribed. Pindar in his Praife of Hiero fays, with his ufual elegance, that 
he cropt the Tops of every Virtue : and methinks it would greatly contribute 
to the encouragement and honour of mankind, to have thefe Tops, or uimcji 
extents of human Nature, collecled from- faithful Hiftory: I mean the greatejl 
length wh,reto human Nature of itfelf has ever gone, in ibe ftveral KiiDovi- 
MENTs of Body- and M[ND^ Thus 'tis faid o(Cc?far, that he could dic- 
tate to five amanuenfcs at once. We read aUo of the ancient Rhetoricians;. 

as 

* See above Ssft. III. 1. 

''■ The Author himlelfmight fare!y make an eminent Inftance ofthis kind, as having grafp'd 
the whole compifs oF ancient Knuw.ed.;:*, and ftruck out new iMe'hods for improving aL tJsa 
Sciences, end cx'.ending^ the Empire of Ai«» over the Works of Nature. 



Sed.VIII 77v Doctrine ^ Man. 93 

as Protagoras, and Gorgiai ; and of the ancient Phi'.ofophcr?, as CalHUhtmSt 
Pojpuhnius and Carneacles, who could, with eloquence r.nd copioufners, difpute 
off hand, on either fide of an argument : which fhews the powers of the 
Mind to advantage. So does alio what Cicero relates of his mafter Archies, 
I'iz. that he could make extempore a large number ot excellent Verfes upon 
the common tranllidtions of life. 'Tis a great honour to the Memory, that 
C}ru5 or Scipiy could call fo many thoufands of men by their names. Nor 
are the victories gain'd in the moral virtues lefs fignal than thofe of the in- 
telledhial faculties. What an example of patience is that oi Anaxarcbus^ 
who when put to the torture, bit off his own tongue, and fpit it in the Ty- 
rant's face ^ We have many inftances of great ferenity and compofure of 
mind at the time of Death ; as particularly in the Centurion, mention'd 
by Tacitus, who being bid by the Soldier, appointed his executioner, to 
flretch out his neck llrongly, replied, '■'■ Iv^ijh you may firike as fircngly." 
Sir Thcmas More, the day before his execution, being waited upon by his 
Barber, to know if he would have his hair off, refub'd it ; with this anfwer, 
thar " the King a>:d he bad a difpute about bis Head, atid till that were ended 
be znotdd bejlciv no ojt upon it. And even when he had laid his head upon 
the block, he raifed himfelf again a little, and gently puctir.g i:is long beard 
afide, lixid, this fiirel-j has not offended the Ki>:g. By thefe examples it will 
appear that the iVIiracles of human Nature, and the utmoft Powers and Fa- 
culties, both of Mind and Body, are what we would have colledled into a; 
Volume, that Ihould be a kind of Register OF HUMAN Triumphs. And 
with regard to fuch a Work, we commend the Defign of Valerius Maximus 
znd Pliny; but not their care and choice*. 

4, The Doctrine o.f Union, or of the common Tye of Sciil and Bods, has^^ Tioclflnf 
/wo /i^r/f; for as, in all alliances, there is mutual Intelligence, ^nd mutual j-^^'"^"*'". 
Offices i fo the Union of the Mind and Body requires a defcription of theB„<A/. 
manner wherein they difcover, and aft upon, each other, by Notices, or In- 
dication and hnpreff.on. The Defcription by Indication, has produced two Arts 
of Prediction ; the one honoured with the Enquiry of Arijioile, and the 
other with that of Hippocrates. And tho' later Ages have debafed thefe 
Arts with fuperftitious and fantaftical mixtures ■, yet, when purged, and 
truly reftored, they have a folid foundation in Nature,, and ufe in Life. 
The frji- of thefe is P hyfiognomy ; v/hich, by the Lineaments of the; 
Body, difcovers the Difpoiitions of the Mind. The fecond is, the Interpre- 
tation of Natural Dreams; which, from the Agitations of the Mind, dif- 
covers the State and Difpofitions of the Body. I find the former deficient in 
one part ; for x\\q^ Ariftotle hzs, with great ingenuity and diiig"nce, treated ^'^' ^'"^"''* 
the Strufture of the Body at reft'' ; he dropt the confldr-aii-.u 'f it in MotioniP^^'^'^^''^ 
or Gejlure; which is no lefs fubjeft to the Obfervations of Art, and more *"'" 
afeful than the other. For the Lineaments of the Pod, fhew the general 
Inclinations and Difpofitions of the Mind j whilft the Motions of the Face, 

and 

*-}<\x.tVan}y'ilVonJen b/ the little World, was a Work intended tofupply, in fome meafure- 
thi5 Depderatum. as himfelf intinia e; in the Preface. 

i» See h:s H.y/IogMmHn, with he Hotei of d^millm BMhs. See iKoBattiJla Poru'i Opuf 
lii^jicffioatctim. ' ' 



^4- 7"^^ Doctrine OF Man. Se<fl.VIII, 

and the Geftures of the other parts, not only do the fame, but alfo exprefs 
the prefent Difpofition and Inclination : for as the Tongue applies to the Ear, 
fo does Gefture to the Eye. And this is well known to many fubtile and 
defigning Perfons ; who watchfully obferve the Countenance and Geftures 
of .others -, and value themfelves for their talent of turning fuch Difcoveries 
to their own advantage : And it muft be acknowledged an excellent way of 
difcove in:^ DilBinulacion in others -, and of admonifliing Men to chufe pro- 
per times and opportunities for their Addrefles: which is no fmall part of 
civil Prudence. A PVork upon this Doclrine of Gejlure, would not only prove 
ufeful in particular cafes, but ferve as a general Rule ; for all Men laugh, 
weep, blufh, frown, ^c. alike : and this holds of nearly all the more fub- 
tile Motions '. But for Chiromancy, 'tis abfolutely a vain thing, and unwor- 
thy to be mentioned among thofe we are now treating ^ 
Interpretation 5. The INTERPRETATION OF Natural Dreams has been much la- 
of Dreams; bour'd ; but mix'd with numerous Extravagancies. We Hiall here only ob- 
its befi Foita- f^yyQ Qf ij^ (-hjif aj prefent it ftands- not upon its beft Foundation •, which is, 
that zvhere the faine thing happens from an internal Caufe, as alfo ifually hap- \_ 
pens from an external one, there the external A^ion paffes into a Dream. Thus - 
the Stomach may be opprefs'd by a grofs internal Vapour, as well as by 
an external Weight : whence thofe who have the Night-mare, dream that a 
Weight is laid upon them -, with a great concurrence of Circumftances. So 
again, the Vifcera being equally toffed by the agitation of the Waves ac 
Sea; as by a collection of Wind in xht Hypochondria: hence melancholy 
Perfons frequently dream of failing, and toffing upon the Waters. And 
Inftances of this kind are numerous '. 
Iht VoUrine 6, The fecond part of the Doctrine of Union, which we call Lm- 
?C'yP''5^'°"pRESSioN, is not yet reduced to an Art; and but occafionally mentioned 
X'J^'mj ofby Writers. This alfo has two parts : as confidering (i.) how, and to what 
the Body upon degree, the Humours and Conjlitution of the Body may affeSl the Soul, or aul 
the Soul. upon it: and (2.) bow, and to what degree, the Paffions and Apprehenfwns of 
the Soul may affe5l and work upon the Body. The firft of thefe we fometimes 
'find touched in Medicine ; but it has ftrangely infinuated itfelf into Religion^ 
Phyficians prefcribe Remedies for the Difeafes of the Mind, viz. Madnefs, 
Melancholy, l^c. as alfo to chear the Spirits, firrengthen the Memory, ^c, 
but for Diet, choice of Meats and Drinks, Wafliings, and other Obfervances 

relating 

" The learned Mor^o/ obferves, that this Bocirine cf rehjing the Minds of Men by external 
Signs, may be many ways ufeful to a Politician ; and mentions an eminent Inftance thereof, 
from the Relation of a certain Venetian Ambajfador, concerning the Court of Rome, who, by 
this means, difcover'd how the Pope and Cardinals flood affedted to the State of Venice. He 
afterwards enumerates thefeveral Writers upon this Subjeft. Ste.\\\i Polyhiflor, Torn. II. Lib. Ill, 
de ArlibHsdivinaioriis ^Magia. See alfo an anonymous Tieatilc of the different iff ills of Men, 
printed at London, in the year ififip. 

^ Of the Vanity of Chiromancy, fee Pafchiiis de novis Inventis, p. 604, d^c. and for other 
Authors, who have iliewn the weaknefs of this Art, fee Stollii Introducl. in Hijloriam Liter a- 
ri.im, pag.41 3. 

= Infomuch, that fome will adign the occafions of their Dreams from a recollcflion of what 
haspaffed, in relation to themfelves, before-hand ; or from the Traniaftions of the preceding Days. 
It were to be widicd we had a faithful Hiflory of this kind, drawn from Obfervation, and Ex- 
perience, without any mixture of Hypotheju, or Tar.cy. For we might hence be led into s^ioie 
rational and philofopliical Knowledge of the Mmd ind iis Open t.ons. 



Sedl.VIII. 7^5 Doctrine of Man. 95 

relating to the Body -, they are found immoderately m'iht Se^ of the Py- 
thagoreans, the Afanicbfan HercJ}\ and the Law of Mahomet. There are 
alfo numerous and drift Ordinances in the ceremonial Law, prohibiting the 
eating of Blood and Fat-, and diftinguifhing the unclean Animals from the 
clean, for Food. Even the Chrijiian Religion, the' it has thrown off the 
Veil of Ceremonies, ftill retains the ufe of falling, abdinence, and other 
things that regard the fubjeftion and humiliation of the Body ; as things not 
merely ritual, but advantageous. The root of all thefe Ordinances, be* 
fides the ceremony and exercife of Obedience, is, that the Soul Jhould fym- 
pathize andfuffer with the Body. 

■7. The other part, which confiders the Operations of the Soul upon the Mil the jic~ 
Body ; has likevvife been received into Medicine: for every prudent Phyfician thm of the 
regards the Accidents of the Mind, as a principal Thing in his Cures ; that ■^""^' "f"* '** 
greatly promotes or hinders the Effedls of all other Remedies. But one "'■''' 
Particular has been hitherto {lightly touch'd, or not well examin'd, as its 
uftfulnefs and abftrule nature require; viz. hctv far afix'd and rivelted Ima- 
gination may alter the B'.dy of the Imaginart : for tho' this has a manifeft 
power to hurt, it does not follow,. it has the fame to relieve: no more than 
becaufe an Air may be lb peiliient, as fuddenly to deftroy i another Air 
iliould be fo wholefome, as fuddenly to recover. This would be an En- 
quiry of noble ufe ; but it requires a Delian Dii'er ; for it is deep plunged*. 

8. But among thefe Doctrines of Union, or Confent of Soul and Body, ^lEnquIry 
there is none more neceiTary, chan an Er.quiry into the proper Seat and Hahi- "fi"! 'f ^ f^"* 

r T r^ 7 r I n ? ■ , -^ r^ ] ] ■ r\ c- • of the Soul rt' 

iatton of each taculty oj the ooul in the Bod\, and its Organs, oome, in- commended. ' 
deed, have profecuted this Subjedl ; but all ufually delivered upon it is either 
controverted, or (lightly examin'd ; fo as to require more pains and accuracy. 
The opinion of Plato, which feats the Under/landing in the Brain, Courage in 
the Heart, and Senfuality in the Liver, fhould neither be totally rejeded, 
nor fondly received ''. 

* The Author bat begun this "Enquiry in his Sylva Sylvarum, under the Article Imagina- 
tion; and it has been fince profecuted by many ; particularly with a view to the Cure tf Dif- 
lafei. See tajchius de novii Inventis, &c. Cap. VI. de Jnventh Medicis, the Art of cjring by 
Expe&ation, Medicinn Mentii ^ Corporis Stahlii, Cafrubon of Enthufiafm, Maliranche's Re- 
/ercht de In Verite, and Morhofs Volyhiftor, Tom. II. pag.449, &e. 

*" This particular Enquiry, ieeins to have been almoft over-look'd by the later Thilofofhers ; 
what has been done upon it, may, in fome meafure, appear {lom Morhof'sFclyhiJlor, Tom.il. 
Part II. Lib. II. Cap. 48. de Homine, f^ Cap. 29. de Senfibus Animalium ; Le Cterc's fncumato- 
legia,^ Struvii Bihliotheca Philcfofhica, Cap. V. Sedt. 10. 0- Stotlii IvtroduH. in Jiijitrium ii« 
ttrnriam, de Vnentnuttlogia , 



SECT, 



96 77je Doctrine of the Human Body. Se£l. IX. 



SECT. IX. 
Of the Doctrine i}f the Human Body. 

TniT>)5nnt I. ' ■ 'HE DocTRiKE OF theHumanBody divides icfelf according 
of the Body di. J[ (q the PerfeEliatis of tlie Body, whereco it is fubfervient. Tiiefe 
Xtl'Si- P^i^^-^°fi^ ^r- fo^rv Vi%.{.i.) Health, (2.) Comelinefs, (3.) Strength, and 
fying.Gym- (40 Pkafure : to which correfpond as Relatives, (i.) the Arts of Medicine^ 
nnjliciij, aij (z.) Beautifying, [^,) Gynn'jftlcks, and (4.) the Art of ^/c^gaKiTi-. Medicine 
m ^r/ e/ -J a^ noble Art, and honourably defcended, according to the Poets; who 
make Apo'lo the primary God, and his Son yE/culapius, whom they alio deify, 
the firfl: Profeffir thereof: for as, in natural 'Things, the Sun is the Author and 
Fountain of Life ; fo the Phxfician, who preferves Life, feems a fecond Ori- 
gin thereof. Buc Medicine receives far greater honour from the Works of 
our Saviour •, who was Phyfician both to Soul and Body : and made the 
latter the ftanding Sabjefl of his Miracles; as the Joz// was the conftant Sub- 
jefb of his Do^rine. 
Rea/ins of the ^- ^^ ^'' '^^''^ Things that Nature has created, the human Body is moft 
Difficulties Capable. of P^elief; tho' this Relief be the mofl: liable to Error. For as thi 
and imperfec- fubtilty and variety of the Sabjedt affords many opportunities of Cure ; fo 
cinV ^^'^'*'' likewife a great facility of Miftake. And therefore, as this Art, efpecially 
at.prefent, ftands among the mod nnjeSiural ones ; fo the Enquiry into it 
is to be placed among the moft fubtile and difficult. For of all natural 
Bodies, we find none fo varioufly compounded as the human : Vegetables are 
nourilhed by Jiarth and Water ; Brutes by Herhs and Fruits ; but JVIan feeds 
upon the Flefh of living Creatures, Herbs, Grain, Fruits, different Juices 
and Liquors -, and thefe all prepared, prefcrved, dreffed, and mixed in end- 
lefs variety. Befides, the way of living among other Creatures is more 
funple, and the Affeftions that acl upon the Body, fewer, and more uni- 
form : but Man in his Habitation, his Exercifjs, Pafllons, i£c. undergoes 
numberlefs changes. This variable and fubtih Compofition, and Fabricic 
of the human Body, makes it, like a kind of curious mufical Inflrument, 
eafily difordered : and therefore the Poets juftly join'd Mufick and Medicine 
in Apollo ; becaufe the Office of Medicine is to tune the curious Organ of the 
human Body, and reduce it to Harmony. 
The means of 3- The SuhjeSl being fo variable, has render'd the Art more conjeSIural; 
removing the and left the more room for bnpoflure. Other Arts and Sciences are judged 
Difficulties, m ^f j^y jj^j^j^ Power and Ability, and not by Succefs, or Events. The Lawyer 
Au. ^ is judged by the Ability of his Pleading ; not the IJfue of the Caufe : The Pilot, 

by directing his Courfe ; and not by the Fortune of the Voyage : whilft the Phy- 
fician has no particular AcJ, that dearly demonftrates his Ability -, but is 

principally 



Se<^. IX. 7^^ Doctrine of theHuuMi Bod\\ g» 

principally cenfuredby t\it Event: which is very unjiift: for who can tellifa 
Patient die or recover, whether it were by //r/, or hyAcddeJit? 'Wh^nczlmpojlure 
is frequently extoll'd, and Virtne decried. Nay, the Weaknefs and Credu- 
lity of Men is luch, that they often prefer a Mountebatik, or a Ctow.hig- 
fVoman, to a learned Phyfician. The Poets were clear-fighted in difcerning 
this Folly, when they made yEfadapim and Circe Brother and Sifter, anti 
both Children of Apollo. For in all times, Witches, old Women, and Im- 
poftors, have, in the vulgar opinion, ftood Competitors with Phyficians. 
And hence Phyficians fay to themfelves, in the words of Solomon, If it befali 
to me., as befalL'tb to the Fools, why JJmild I labour to be more wife ? And there- 
fore one cannot greatly blame them, that they commonly ftudy fome other 
Arty or Science, more than their ProfelTion. Hence, we find among them 
Poets, Antiquaries, Criticks, Politicians, Divines, and in each kind more know- 
ing than in Medicine -, no doubt, becaufc they find that mediocrity, and 
excellency in their own Art, makes no difference in Proft or Reputation : 
for Men's Impatience of Dileafes, the Sollicitations of Friends, the Sweet- 
nefs of Life, and the Inducement of Hope, make them depend upon Phy- 
ficians, with all their Defedts. But when this is ferioufly confider'd, it turns 
rather to the reproach, than the excufe of Phyficians: who ought not hence 
to defpair, but to ufe greater diligence. For we fee what a power the Sub- 
tilty of the Underftanding has over the variety both of the Matter and 
Form of Things. There is nothing more variable than Men's Faces -, yet 
we can remember infinite Diftinftions of them : and a Painter, with a few 
Colours, the praftice of the Hand and Eye, and help of the Imagination, 
could imitate thoufands, if brought before him. As variable as Voices are, 
yet we can eafily diftinguifh them in different Perfons •, and a Mimick will 
cxprefs them to the life. Tho' the Sounds of Words difi^er fo greatly, yet 
Men can reduce them to a few fimple Letters. And certainly 'tis not the 
InfufRciency, or Incapacity of the Mind ; but the remotenefs of the 
Objedl, that caufes thefe Perplexities and Diftrufts in the Sciences ; for as the 
Senfe is apt to miftake at great diftances, but not near at hand ; fo is the 
Underflandtng, Men commonly take a view of Nature, as from a remote 
Eminence ; and are too much amufed with Generalities : whereas, if they 
would defcend, and approach nearer to Particulars ; and more exaftly and con- 
iiderately examine into things themfelves ; they might make more folid and 
ufeful Difcoveries. The Remedy of this Error, therefore, is to quicken or 
ftrengthen the Organ, and thus to approach the Objed. No doubt, there- 
fore, it Phyficians, leaving Generalities for a while, and fufpending their Af- 
fent, would advance towards Nature ; they might be able to vary their Art 
as Diftempers vary. They fiiould the rather endeavour this, becaufe the 
Pbilofophies, whereon Phyficians, whether Methodifls or Chemifs, depend, are 
tfifling; and heci^uk Medicine^ not founded on Philofopby, is a weak thing. 
Therefore as too extenfive Generals, tho' true, do not bring Men home to 
aftion ; there is more danger in fuch Generals as ere falfe in themfelves. and 
feduce, inftead of direding the Mind. Medicine, therefore, has been rather 
frofefs'i, th:m laboured : and yet more labour'd thin advanced ; as the pa: ns 
.^'o'- !• O beftow'd 



98 



Medicine </i- 
■videdinto (i.) 
the Preferva- 
tionofHealth, 
(i.) »^eCure 
«f Difeafes, 
and (3.) th» 
Prolongation 
e/Life. 



The Prefcrva- 
tion of Health 
not well treat- 
ed of. 



The Cure of 
Difeafes im- 
ferfeSLy 
hattdlea. 



The Hippo- 
cratica Mf- 
ihod of Medi- 
cinal Reports 
difcontinued. 



7^^ Doctrine £/' //5^ Human Body. Sed.IX. 

beftow'd thereon, vsfere rather circular than progreffive : fori find great Repe- 
tition, and but little new Matter., in the JVriters of Phyfick. 

4. We divide Medicine into three parts, or Offices; viz. (i.) the Prefer- 
vation of Health, (2.) the Cure of Difeafes, and (3.) the Prolongation of Life, 
For this laft part, Pbyficians feem to think it no capital part of Medicine^ 
but confound it with the other two: as fuppofing, that ifDi/f^/i be prevented, 
or cured after invafion, long Life muft follow of courfe. But then they do 
not confider, that both Prefervatlon and Cure regard only Difeafes, and fuch 
Prolongation of Life as is intercepted by them: whence the means of fpinning 
out the full Thread of Life, or preventing, for a feafon, that kind of Death 
which gradually fteals upon the Body by finiple Refolution, and the laafting 
of Age, is a Subjeft that no Phyfician has treated fuitably to its Merit". 
Let none imagine we are here repealing the Decrees of Fate and Providence, by 
eftablifhing a new Office of Medicine ; for, doubtlefs. Providence alike dif- 
penfes all kinds of Deaths, whether they proceed from Violence, Difeafes, or 
the courfe and period of Age ; yet without excluding the uie oi Remedies and 
Preventions : for Art and Indufiry do not here over-rule, but adminifler to Nu' 
ture and Fate. 

5. Many have unskilfully written upon the Preservation of Health ; 
particularly by attributing too much to the Choice, and too little to the S^uantity 
of Meals. As to ^tantity, they, like the Moral Philofophers, highly com- 
mend Moderation ; whereas, both fafting changed to cuftom, and full feed- 
ing, where a Man is ufed to it, are better Prefervatives of Health, than 
thofe Mediocrities they recommend ; which commonly difpirit Nature, and 
unfit her to bear excefs, or want, upon occafion. And for the feveral Exer- 
ci/'es, which greatly conduce to tlie Prefervatlon of Health, no. Phyfician has 
well diftinguifhed, or nbferved them*" ; tho' there be fcarce any tendency to 
a Difeafe, that may not be corrected by fome appropriated Exercife. Thus 
Bowling is fuited to the Difeafes of the Kidneys ; Shooting with the long Bow, 
to thofe of the Lungs ; Walking and Riding, to thofe of the Stomach % &c. 

6. Great pains have been beftow'd upon the Cure of Diseases; but 
to fmall purpofe. This part comprehends the Knowledge of the Difeafes in- 
cident to the human Body, together with their Caufes, Syjnptoms, and Cures, 
In this fecond Ojfice of Medicine, there are many Deficiencies. And firft, we 
may note the difcontinuance of that ufefu! Method of Hippocrates, in wri- 
ting Narratives of Particular Cu res zuitb diligence and exa^nefs ; contain- 
ing the Nature, the Cure, and Event of the Dijlemper. And this remarkable 
Precedent of one accounted the Father of his Art, need not to be backed with 
Examples derived from other Arts ; as from the prudent praftice of the 
Lawyers, who religioufly enter down the more eminent Cafes, and new D-- 
cifions ; the better to prepare and direct themfelves i -, future. This Continuation, 
therefore, c/" Medicinal Reports, we find deficient; efpecially in form 

of 

' The Amhor, therefore, attetnpfd it. in his Ntttuml Biflary of Life end Death. 
^ For the ancient Cymaajiichs, f.e Vo£iuj de quataor Artibus fopuloriim ; Hleroa. MercHriati) 
de Arte Cymnnftica ., and Fajchins de novis Iniientis, quiiiis facem frattdit Antiq:iita}. 
f Ds.fHlUr has lately wrote upon this Subjeft, as a Vhyjician. See his MsUicinnCymnitfiicf^ 



oed.IX. 7^^ Doctrine o/" /-6^ Human Body. 99 

of an entire Body, digefted with proper care and judgment*. But we do 
not mean, that this Work fliould extend to every common Cafe that hap- 
pens every day -, which were an infinite Labour, and to little purpofe ; nor 
yet to exclude all but Prodigies and Wonders, as feveral have done : for 
many things are new in their manner and circumltances, which are not new 
in their kind ; and he who looks attentively, will find many Particulars 
worthy of abfervation, in what feems vulgar. 

7. So in Anatomy, the general parts of the human Body are diligently compamtivt 
obierved, and even to nicenefs : but as to the variety found in different Anatomy dt- 
Bodies, here riie Diligence of Phyficians tails. And therefore thd* fimpkfi'""*- 
Anatomy has been fully and clearly handled; yet Comparative Ana- 
tomy /; deficient. For Anatomifts have carefully examin'd into all the 

Parts, their Confiftencies, Figures, and Situations ; ka pafs over the different 
Figure, and State of thofe Parts in different Perfins ''. The Reafon of this 
Defea, I take to be ; that the former Enquiry may terminate upon feeing 
two or three Bodies difiedted •, but the other being comparative, and cafuai, 
requires attentive and ftrift application to many different Difleftions : Be- 
fides, the firft is a Subje6t, wherein learned yi?«<7/(pwf/?^ may fhew themfclves 
to their Audience ; but the other a rigorous Knowledge, to be acquired 
only by filent and long Experience. And no doubt but the internal Parts, 
for variety and proportions, are little inferior to the external -, and that 
Hearts, Livers, and Stomachs are as different in Men, as Foreheads, Nofes, 
and Ears. And in thefe differences of the internal Parts, are often found the 
immediate Caufes of many Difeafes ; which Phyficians not obferving, fome- 
times unjuftly accufe the Humours, when the fault lies only in the mechanick 
Structure of a Part. And in fuch Difeafes, 'tis in vain to ufe Jl!eratii-es, as 
the cafe admits not of being alter'd by them ; but muft be affeded, accom- 
modated, or palliated by a Regimen, a.nd familiar Medicines. 

8. Again, Comparative Anatomy requires accurate Obfervations 
upon all the Humours, and the Marks and Impreflions of Difeafes in diff^erent 
Bodies upon DifTedlion : for the Humours are commonly pafs'd over, in 
Anatomy, as loathfome and excre?nentitious things ; whereas 'tis highly ufeful 
and neceflary, to note their nature, and the various kinds that may fome- 
times be found in the human Body ; in what Cavities they principally lodge ; 
and with what advantage, difadvantage, and the like. So the Marks and 
Impreffions of Difeafes, and the Changes and Devaftations they bring upon 
the internal Parts, are to be diligently obferved in different DilTedions ; 

O 2 viz. 

* This Continuntion cfthe Hlfiory of Cafes in Fhyfick, is not hitherto on foot, in the Form here 
direfted; and perhaps no confiderable Foundations are laid for it, by all the numerous Writers of 
06/ervAtions. However, the thing intended feems of late attempted by Baglivi, in the way of 
cloft and attentive Clinical Obfervation, in his Treatife de Fraxi Medica ad prifiam Objervandi 
rationem revocanda; and regiftring the Thmcmena of Difeafes: from which, wlien carried to a 
due length, and properly ranged for the Underftanding to work upon, a folid Knowledge of 
the Nature, Cntifes, and Cures of Dijlempers may probably be derived ; in the fame manner as 
other ufeful Difcoverics are made in Arts, and the Syftem of the World; according to theDi- 
re^iion and Example of the Lord Bacon, in his i^atural Enquiries ; and particularly his Hiflory 
b/ Life and Death. 

^ One would expeft, fo diligently as Anatomy has been cultivated fince the Difcovery of the 
Circulation, that this Bart of Medicine fliould not flill remain deficient. 



100 7^^ Doctrine o/ //5^ Human Boon Seel. IX. 

viz. Impofthumes, Ulcerations, Solutions of Continuity, Putrefadlions, Cor- 
rofions, Confurnpnons, Contraftions, Excenfions, Convulfions, Luxations, 
D (locations, Obftriftions, Repletions, Tumours; and preternatural Excrc- 
fcencies, as Stones, Carnofities, Wens, Worms, ^c. all which fliould be very 
carefully examined, and orderly digefted in the Comparative Ana- 
tomy we fpeak of; and the Experiments of ftveral Phyficians be here col- 
lected and compared together. But this variety of Accidents, is by Atiato^ 
mifts, either flightly touched, or elfe paffed over In filence *. 
TheDefeBcf 9- That Defe^ in Anatomy, ov/ing to its not having been pradtifed. 
live Anatomy, upon live Bodies, needs not be fpoke to ; the thing itfelf being odious, cruel,. 
ho-i-o to be and juftly condemned by Celjus : yet the Obfeivation of the Ancients is 
P'tP '^ ■ fru,', that many fubtile Pores, ParfcAges, and Perforations appear not upon 
Dilfedlion, becaufe they are clofed and concealed in dead Bodies \ that might 
be open and manifeft in live ones. Wherefore, if we would confult the 
Good of Mankind, without being guilty of Cruelty ; this Anatomy of live 
Creatures fhould be entirely deferted, or left to the cafual lnfve£lion of Chi- 
rurgeons ; or may be fufficiently perform'd upon living Brutes, notwithftand- 
ing the diffimilitude between their Parts and thofe of Men,- fo as to anfwer 
the Defign ; provided it be done with judgment. 
AU'orhitnint- I o. Phyficians, likewife, when they enquire into Difeafes, find fo many. 
ing upon In- which they judge incurable, either from their firft appearance, or after a 
curable Dd- certain Period ; that the Profcriptions of Seylla, and the Triumvirate, were 
trifling to th&Prcfcriptiofis of the Phyficians ; by which, with an unjuft Sentence,, 
they deliver Men over to Death : numbers whereof, however, efcape with 
lefs difficulty, than under the Rotnan Profcriptions. A Work therefore is. 
wanting upon the Cures of reputed Incurable Diseases*"; that Phy- 
ficians of Eminence and Refolution, may be encouraged and excited to pur- 
fue this matter, as far as the nature of things will permit : fince to pro- 
nounce Difeafes incurable, is to eflahlifh Negligence, and Careleffnefs, as it were 
by a Law ; and fcreen Ignorance from Reproach. 
The office of a ^ ' • ^^^ farther, we efteem it the Office of a Phyfician, to mitigate the Pains 
ihyficinn to and Tortures of Difeafes, as well as to reftore Health ; and this not only when 
procure eafy fgch a Mitigation, as of a dangerous Symptom, may conduce to Recovery ; 
but alfo, when there being no farther hopes of Recovery, it can only ferve 
to make the paffage out of life more calm and eafy. For that complacency in 
Death, which Augujlus Cirfar fo much defired, is no fmall Felicity. This 
was alfo obferved in the Dtath of Antoninus Pius,, who feemed not fo much 
to die, as to fall into a deep and pleafing Sleep. And 'tis deliver'd of Epi- 
curus, that he procured himfelf this ealy Departure ; for after his Difeafe 
was judged defperate, he intoxicated himfelf with Wine, and died in that 

Condi- 

* And fo it continues, in the general, to this day: e^ice'pt fome extraordinary Cafes, fuch as thofe 
pubiifhed in the Philofofihicai Tranfaciiont, and German Efliemeriile} ; which, indeed, afford abun- 
dance of Injiaiicei fie for the Comparative Anatomy here sketch'd out. 

*" This Work has not, perhaps, hitherto appeared in ihat extent which the Subjeft requiresj 
bur niiny Materials may be coilcfted for it from the Writings of Phyficians, the Hiftories o{ 
extraoidinary Cures, by Arcidcnr, Nature, Empirical Remedies, Mineral Waters, ^c. particu- 
larly from feveralot Mr Boy/#'s Philofophical Pieces, the Thilo/ophicalTraj)faciio)ii,lhe German i^he.^^ 
mtridii, &c. See alfj a imall Treatije of IncHvable Difeafe); printed at Londen, lyzj.- 



Heaths. 



Se(^.IX. T/je Doer RiK E c/ i^eHv MAS Body, ioi 

Condition. Biic the Phyficians of our I'imes make a fcruple of attending 
tlie Patient afcer the Difcafe is thought pnft cure •, tho', in my judgment, if 
tixcy wfre not w.inting to their own Profcfilon, and to Humanity itfelf, they ^^ ^^ ^^. 
fhouU here give their attendance, to improve their Skill, andmake the dying i,,f",/f Means 
Perfon dep^irt with greater Eafe and Tranquillity, fp'e tberefore fet dciun as of proem m^ 
defiac'fit. An Enquiry after a Method of causing an Extkrnal Compofmcj/» 
Composure in Dying' : calling it by the mme of external, to diftinguifh ^^-^^^^ '^^' 
it from the intenuil Compofure, procured to the Soul in Death. 

1 2. Again, we generally find this Deficiency in the Cures of Difiafes, that tho* 
the prefenc P/jv/;f/>y?j tolerably purfue the gi/ieral htsntions of Cures ■■, yet they 
have no Particular Medicines, WHICH, BY a Specifick. Property 
REGARD particular Diseases I fot they lofe the benefit ofTraditions, 
and approved Experience, by their authoritative Procedure in adding, taking 
avray, and clianging the Ingredients of their Receipts at pleafure i alter the 
manner of Apothecaries, fubftituting one thing for another ; and thus haugh- 
tily commanding Medicine, fo that Medicine can no longer command the 
Difeafe. For except Fenice-Treacle, Mitbridate, Diafcordntm, the Confeuiion 
cf Aikermes, and a few more, they commonly tie themfelves ftridly to no 
certain Receipts : the other ialeable Preparations of the Shops being in readi- 
nefs, rather for general Purpofes, than accommodated to any particular Cures ; 
for the-j do not principally regard fame one Difeafe, but have a general Virtue 
of opening Obftrudlions, promoting Concoftion, i£c. And hence it chiefly 
proceeds, that Empiricks, and Women, are often more fuccefsful in their Cures, 
than learned Phyficians ; becaufe the former keep ftriftly and invariably to 
the ufe of experienced Medicines, without altering their Compofitions ''. I re- 
member a famous Jew Phyfician in England, would fay, " your European 
*' Phyficians are indeed Men of Learning ; but they know nothing of /rtr/f- 
" cular Cures for Difeafes." And he would fometimesjeft a little irreverently, 
and lay, " our Phyficians were like Bifhops, that had the Keys of binding and 
** loafing ; but no more'." Tobeferiousj it might be of great confequence, 

if 

" Phyficians feem to apprehend fome Danger, or unfavourable Conftruftion, in purfuing this 
Tiepgn; for I have mer with nothing upon the Subjett: and all that they venture to do in 
Pradiice, is feldora more than to order Opiates, where they have an intention to render Death 
more calm and placid. The Author had certainly no defign of recommending any Method for 
this purpofe, that {hould be dangerous, immoral, or contrary to the Rules of Humanity, Dc- 
«ency, and good Senfe i as may appear by the feveral unexceptionable Methods he propoles for 
lengthening Life, in his Hi/lery of Life and Death. If he had been more explicit upon the ways 
he thought of, for procuring an eafy Death, perhaps he would not have confined himfelf to 
Internals 1 but have mentioned alfo fome external Contrivances for foothing the Mind, lulling 
theSenfes. and introducing Compofure; as by grateful Odours, foft and folemn MufUk, fleafmg 
Sights, refrefmng Baths, &c. But P^y/fJi can fcarce bear the mention of fuch things as thefe; and 
therefore whoever would write an ufeful Treatife on this Subjedl, (hould guard it with Addrefs 
and "Judgment. 

^ What the Author here recommends, is a Difcovery oi Specifick Medicines; a Subjeft nobly 
treated by hlr. Boyle: and to fay the Truth, the Improvement of Medicine principally depends 
on the Knowledge and Ufe of Specifcks ; but the Art of difcovering them, without leaving the 
BuCnefs to Chance and Accident, feems very little known in our time; tho' the Author, long 
fmce, taught and praftifed it : I mean, he taught it in his Novum Organum, and pradifcd it 
Jo his Hijlery of Life and Death. 

' Thus Dr.^Kin^ comp ains, that the (landing Medicines of the Shops are left fo coarfe ia 
their CompofitioD, that we can do little more than purge oi vomit with them; whereas, the 

removal 



102 2^^ Doctrine o/' ^^^ Human Body. Se£t. IX. 

if fome Phyficians, eminent for Learning and Praftice, would compile 
'AU'ork ofi^- A Work of approved and experienced Medicines in particular 
proved Re- DISEASES. For tho' one might fpecioufly pretend, that a learned Phyfician 
medies want- ^^^^^ rather fuit his Medicines occafionally, as the Conftitution of the Pa- 
tient, his Age, Cuftoms, the Seafons, is'c. require, than reft upon any cer- 
tain Prefcriptions ; yet this is a fallacious Opinion, that under-rates Experience, 
and over-rates human Judgment. And as thole Perfons in the Roman State 
were the moft ferviceable, who being either Confuls, favoured the People, or 
Tr'ibuneSt and inclined to the Senate ■, fo are thofe the heft Phyficians, who 
being either learned, duly value the Traditions of Experience ; or Men of 
eminent Praftice, that do not defpife Methods, and the general Principles of 
the Art. But if Medicines require, at any time, to be qualified, this may 
rather be done in the Fehkles, than in the Body of the Medicine, where 
nothing fhould be alter'd without apparent neceffity. Therefore this part 
c/"Pkysick which treats of authentick and positive Remedies^, 
we mle as deficient: but the bufinefs of fupplying ir, is to be undertaken with 
great judgment -, and, as b'j a Committee of Physicians, cbofe for that 
purpofe. 
Theimitiuhn 13. And for the Preparation of Medicines ; it feems ftrange, efpecially as 
of natural jnineral ones have been fo celebrated by Chemifts, tho' fafer for external 
Springs"/?/- ^'"'^" internal ufe -, that no body hath hitherto attempted any artificial 
tUnt, imitations of natural Baths, and medicinal Springs -, whilft 

'tis acknowledged that thefe receive their virtues from the mineral Veins thro* 
which they pafs : and efpecially fince human induftry can, by certain 
reparations, difcover with what kind of Minerals fuch Waters are impreg- 
nated ; as whether by Sulphur, Vitriol, Iron, &c. And if thefe natural im- 
pregnations of Waters are reducible to artificial Compofitions, it would then 
be in the power of Art to make more kinds of them occafionally -, and ac 
the fame time to regulate their temperature at pleafure. This part, there- 
fore, oi Medicine, concerning the artificial imitation of natural 
Baths and Springs, wefet down as deficient ; and recommend as an eafy 
as well as ufcful undertaking ''. 

14. 

removal of inveterate Obftru£lions, and Difeafes fcated in the habit of the Body, require fuch 
Remedies, as will preferve their Virtues to the fartheft Stages of Circulation, and operate there, 
without affefting the firftPaflages. See his Pharmaceutick Lectures, and MecA<i»/Va/.4c««»f 
cf the Operations of Medicines on the human Body, in the Appendix to them. 

* Such Medicines, if any where to be found, might, one fliould think, appear in the pub- 
lick Fharmacopoeias of particular Countries, or in the moft approved, or beft authorized PraC' 
tices of every Age; v>;hich have ufually been made publick by'fome Writer or other. But who- 
ever looks attentively into fuch Books, will not find what might be expeftedj or what the na- 
ture of Men and Tilings is certainly capable of affording ; as if there were fome ftrange Fatality 
attending the Art whereon the Lives and Felicities of Mankind depend. Dr. Sydenham, how- 
ever, among the Zngliflj, made fome praftical Improvements in Medicine; and our hier Thy- 
jiciam are got into a ready and commodious Method of Practice j which is, in fome meafure, 
digefted of late into a Body, for the fcrvice of others, under the Title of A New Practice op 
PaysiCKi the third Edition whereof is the more corrcft, and fomewhat enlarged. 

'' And yet it has not been hitherto profecuted to that length the Subjcdl requires. 'Dr. Lifter, 
however, and Mr. Boyle, fet in earned about it ; the one writing de For.tibus Medicntis Anglit, 
ard the other Memoirs for the Natural Hiflory of Mineral Waters: the Royal Academy of Sciences 
-«t f*rij, aUb, thought it an Enquiry worthy of their illuftrious Body, as appears from their 

Memoirs ,• 



Se<a. IX. 7^^ Doctrine ^ //'^ Human Bod V. 103 

14. The laft Dif.cuncy we fhall mention feeins to us of great importance -, Tl;! Pliyfi- 
viz. that the Methods of Cure in uje_ are too fmt to effeSl any Ihir.g that_ J'^^"-f„,'','''^ 
difficulty cr zery confuierabk. For it is rather 1'^/« and faltering, than juft 
and rational, to expecl that any Medicine fliould be fo effeftiial, or fo futc- 
cdsful, as by the fole ufe thereof to work any great Cure. It muft be afotv- 
trful Difccurfe, which tho' often repeated, fhould correft any deep-rooted 
and inveterate vice of the Mind. Such Miracles are not to be expedled : 
But the things of greareft efficacy in Nature, are Order, Perfeverancey 
and an artificia! Change cf applications ; which tbo' they require exaft 
judcfment to prefcribe, and precife obfen'ance to follow ; yet this is am- 
ply recompenced by the great effects they produce. To fee the daily 
Labours of Phyficians in their Vifits, Confultations, and Prefcripcions, 
one would think that they diligently purfued the Cure, and went di- 
reftly in a certain beaten Track about it : but whoever looks attentively 
into their Prefcriptions and Direftions, will find, that the nroft of what they 
do is full of uncertainty, wavering, and irrefolution ; without any certain 
View, or Foreknowledge, of the Courfe oftheCur^. Whereas they (hould 
from the firft, after having fully and perfedly difcovered the Difeafe, chufe, 
and refolve upon, feme regular Procefs or Series of Cure ; and not depart 
from it without fufficient reafon. Thus Phyficians fhould know, for ex- 
ample, that perhaps three or four Remedies rightly prefcribed in an invete- 
rate Difeafe, and taken in due order, and at due diftances of rime, may 
perform a Cure •, and yet the fame Remedies taken independently of each 
other, in an inverted order, or not at fi:ated periods, might prove abfo- 
lutely prejudicial. Tho' we mean nor, that every fcrupulous and fuperfiitious 
Method of Cure, lliould be efteemed the beft ; but that the Way fliould 
be as exaft as 'tis confined and difficult. And this part of Medicine 'xs note 
tis deficient, under thename c/the Physicians Clue or Directory ». And^,,, ^rinci- 
thefe are the Things wanting in the Doifrine of Medicine, for the cure offally n Natu- 
Difeafes, but there ftiil remains one Thing more, and of greater ufe, than ''^' P^ilofo- 
all the reft, viz. a genuine and active natural Philosophy, ^^y^^",^"^^j 

WHEREON TO BUILD THE Science OF PHYSICK^ ^rt. 

Memoirs; and the Sieur daClos, and many others, both in France, England and elfewhere, have 
wrote upon the Sub-eift; but none perhaps to better purpofe than T>x. Hoffman: who proceed- 
ing upon d:reft Experiment and Oifer-mtion for a feries of years, has fhewn that Medicine may 
receive very confiderab.e improvements in this Way. Thefeijeral Pieces of h\s upon this fubjeft, 
lately pubiifhed, with a few Notes, under th= Title of Nero Experiments and Obfervations up- 
#n Mineral Waters, may perhaps confirm this to the £n^/i/7; Reader. 

* This FiLUM Medicinale. as the Author terms it. or Mettiod of prefcribing Medicines in 
their 6efl. exacieft. and moji direct order, for effecting a Cure, is not, that I know of, profcfledly 
wrote upon, fhyficians, however, ufually obferve lome kind of ordei in their Prefcriptions, 
Thus, for inftance, they begin -he Ctire of inflammatory Difeafes with Bleeding, then proceed 
to Emeticks, next to Perfpiratives , or Sudorifcks; then, near the Crifis, to Opiates, Alteratives, 
and Non-fignificants; and conclude with Purgatives and Stomachicks . But whether this order 
could not be altered for the better in fome points, or improved in the whole, may iekweEnquirf; 
at lead the Phyjcal Reafons whereon this Order depends, have not hitherto been fatisfaftorily 
(hewn J fo tha: it feems rather a Mechanical Procefs, autKoriied by Cuilom, than a rjcional 
Method fcieotifically deduced, or the beft that poffibly might be difcovered. 

* The modern Phy licians have not been wanting i n their endeavours to found their Art upon the 
eutrent Phikfophies of their Times. Thus Phyfick, that was lately C«r^e/7«», is now becoming 

Htmmi»»' 



104 2^^ Doctrine ^//5^ Human Body. Sed.IX. 

The third purt i^. We make the third Part of Medicine regard the Prolongation of Life : 
fhfwlTor '^^^^ '^^ "^"' ^^''^' ^"'^ deficient; tho' the moft noble of all : for if it may 
frolonging tic fupplied, Medicyr.e will not then be wholly verfed in fordid Cures 5 nor 
i//e,deficient. Phyficians be honoured only fornecefTity -, but as Difpenfers of the greateft 
earthly Happlnefs, that could well be confer'd on Mortals : for tho' fhe 
World be but as a wildernefs to a Chriftian travelling thro' it to the pro- 
mii'd Land ; yet it would be an Inftance of the divine Favour, that our 
clothing, that is, our bodies, fiiould be little worn while we fojourn here. 
And as this is a capital .part of Phyfick, and as we note it for deficient., we fhall 
lay down fome Diredtions about it^, 
Admomiioni 1 6. And firfl, no Writer extant upon this Subje6b has made any great or 
with regard to ufcful difcovery therein. Ariftotle indeed has left us a fhort Memoir, where- 
the prolonga- j^, x!i\tK are fome admonitions after his manner, which he fuppofes to be all 
1 e. j.|^^j. ^^^ j^^ ^^ij ^jr j.j^^ matter ; but the moderns have here wrote fo weak- 
ly and fuperftitioufly, that the Subjeft itfelf, thro* their vanity, is reputed 
vain and fenfelefs. (2.) The very Intentions of Phyficians upon this head 
are of no validity; but rather lead from the point than direft to it. For 
they talk as if Death confided in a deftitution of heat and moifture ; and 
therefore that natural heat fhould be comforted, and radical moifture che- 
rifhsd: as if the Work were to be effedled by Broths, Lettuce, and Mal- 
lows; or again, by Spices, generous Wines, Spirits, or chemical Oils ; all 
■which rather do hurt, than good. (3.) We admonifh mankind, to ceafe 
their Trifling, and not weakly imagine that fuch a great work as retard- 
ing the Courfe of Nature can be efFedled by a morning's draught, the ufe 
of any coftly Medicines, Pearls, or Aurum Poiabile itfelf; but be aflared, 
that the prolongation of Life is a laborious work, that requires many kinds of 
Remedies, and a proper continuation and intermixture thereof: for it were 
ftupidity to expedb, that what was never yet done, fhould be effedled, other- 
wife than by means hitherto unattempted. (4.) Laftly, we admonifh them 
rightly to obferve and diftinguifh betwixt what conduces to Health, and 
what to a long Life : for fome things, tho' they exhilarate the Spirits, 
ftrengthen the Faculties, and prevent Difeafes ; are yet deftruftive to 
Life, and, without ficknefs, bring on a wafting old Age : whilft there arc 
others which prolong Life, and prevent Decay ; tho' not to be ufed with- 
out danger to Health: fo that when employed for l\\t prolongation of Life, 
fuch inconveniencies muft be guarded againft, as might otherwife happen up- 
on ufing them. 

17- 

Newtonian. But the Natural Vhilofofhy here noted by the Author, as wanting, for this pur- 
pofe, fliould not be derived from any particular Syftemsj Luc collefted from Nature her fclf. 
The Experiments and Oblcrvationsof Mr. Boyle, the Pliilojiphical TranfaHions, and trench Me- 
moirs, afford many Materials for this Work; which, upon the foundation of the modern nie- 
«chanical Experience, feems begun by that excellent Phyficiaii Dr. Friderick Hoffman, in his 
•Medicinal, Chemical, and Philojophical Vieces. 

' The Author had not, at ihis time, wiote his Hifiory of Life and Death; which proceeds 
exaftly upon the following Directions ; and is rhe Execution of the flan here laid down : tho' 
offered not as a finiflied Hifiory, but as an IntrodtiHion to farther Enquiry upon this interefling 
Subjedl i which has not been fince profecuted fuitably to its Merit. See Morhof's telyhijltr, 
Tom. II. Parti. Lib. 11. pag. ipj. 



Sed.IX. 7^/5^ Doctrine ^//5^HuMAN Body. 105 

17. Things feem to us prefervable either in their 0«;« Suhjlance, or by Ti?>eIntentions 
Repair : in their own Subjiance, as a Fly, or an Ant, in Atnher j a Flower, an *"'' '"^l,"^^^^, 
Apple, &c. in CoKfervatories of Smw ; or a Corps in Balfam : by Repair, as /|,^^i„^''i,,y*!" 
in i'/rJOTif and mechanick Engines. He who attempts to prolong Life, muft 

pradife both thcfe iVIethods together ; for feparate, their force is lefs. The 
bumar. Bnly muft be preferved as Bodies inanimate are ; again, as FUme •, 
and laftly, in ibme meafure as Machines are preferved. There are, <:herefore, 
three Ifitea/ic/is for the prolongation of Life, viz. (i.) to hinder v/afte, (2.) fe- 
cure a good repair, and (3.) to renew what begins to decay. I Wafte is 
caufcd by two depredations ; viz. that of the internal Spirit ; and that of 
the external Air : and both are prevented two ways, viz. by making th^tic 
agents lefs predatory, or the patientr, that is, the Juices of tlie Bo 'y, lefs 
apt to be prey'd on. The Spirit is rendered lefs pred^uory, if either its 
fuoftance be condenfed ; as, (i.) by theufe of Opiates, Preparations of Ni- 
tre, and in Contriftation -, or (2.) if ic be leflened in Quantity, as by Parting 
and Dieti and (3.} if it be moderated in its motion, as by reft and quiet. The 
ambient Air becomes lefs predatory, eitlier when 'tis lefs heated by the 
Sun, as in the cold countries, caves, hills ; or kept from the body, as by 
clofe skins, the plumage of birds, and the ufe of oil and ungu.^nts, with- 
out fpices. The juices of the body are rendred lefs fubjcdt to be prey'd 
on, if made more hardy, or more oleaginous, as by a rough aft'-ingent diet, 
living in the cold, robuft exercifes, the ufe of certain mineral Baths, fweec 
things, and abftaining from fuch as are fait or acid -, but efpecially by means 
offuch Drinks as confift of fubtile parts, yet without acrimony or tartnels. 
II. Repair is procured by Nourifhment ; and Nourifhmcnt is promoted four 
ways : (i.) by forwarding internal concodtion, which drives forth the Nourifh- 
mcnt ; as by medicines that invigorate the principal Vifcera ; (2.) by exciting 
the external parts to attradl the Nouriftiment; as by exercife, proper Fridions, 
Undions and Baths ; (3.) by preparing the Aliment itfelf, that it may more 
eafily infmuate, and require lefs digeftionj as in many artificial ways of 
preparing meats, drinks, bread, and reducing the Effefts of thefe three to 
one*. Again, (4.) by thelaft aft of afllmilation, as in feafonable fleep, and ex- 
ternal applications. III. The Renovationof parts worn out is perform'd two 
ways ; either by foftening the habit of the body, as with fuppling applica- 
tions, in the way of Bath, Plaifter, or Undtion, offuch qualities as to infi- 
nuate into the parts, but extradl nothing from them ; or by difcharging 
the old, and fubftituting new moifture, as in feafonable and repeated purg- 
ing, bleeding, and attenuating Diets, which reftore the bloom of the body. 

18. Several Rules for the cottduii of the Work are derivable from thefe In- Ruhs fonhe 
dications ; but three of the more principal arc the following. And firjl, conduS of th* 
prolongation of Life is rather to be expelled from flated Diets, than from any com- ^<"'*- 

mon regimen of Food, or the virtues of particular Medicines : for thofe things 
that have force enough to turn back the Courfe of Nature, are commonly 
too violent to be compounded into a Medicine, much more to be mix'd with 
the ordinary food : and muft therefore be adminiftred orderly, regularly, and 

* See the Author's Ne-o AtUnth, Supplement I. and ihcSylv:tSylvarum, under the Artifhs 
Foods and Nourishment. 

Vol. I. P at 



io6 T^^DocTRiNE (p/* i'>^^ Human Body. Sedl.IX. 

at fet periods. (2.) We next lay it down as a Rule, that the 'prolongation 
of life be expelled, rather from working upon the Spirits, and mollifying the parts^ 
than fro?n the manner of alimentation. For as the human body, and the internal 
ftrufture thereof, may fuffer from three things, viz. the Spirits, the Parts, 
and Aliments ; the way of prolonging life, by means of alimentation, is te- 
dious, indireft and winding •, but the ways of working upon the Spirits and 
the Parts, much fhorter : for the Spirits are fuddenly aflfefted, both by 
Effluvia and the Paflions, which may work ftrangely upon them -, and the 
Parts alfo by Baths, Unguents, or Plaifters, which will likewife have fud- 
den imprefllons. (3.) Our laft Precept is, that the foftening of the external 
Parts be attempted by fuch things as are penetrating, ajlrirgent, and of 
the fame nature with the body : the latter are readily received and enter- 
tained -, and properly foften : and penetrating things are as vehicles to thofe 
that mollify -, and more eafily convey, and deeply imprefs the virtue thereof; 
whilft themfelves alfo, in fome meafure, operate upon the Parts : but 
Aftringents keep in the virtue of them both, and fomewhat fix it, and al- 
fo ftop Per-fpiration, which would otherwife be contrary to mollifying, as 
fending out the moifture : therefore the whole affair is to be effefted by thefe 
three means ufed in order and fucceflion, rather than together. Obferve only, 
that tis not the intention of mollifying to nourifh the parts externally •, but 
only to render them more capable of Nourifhment : for dry things are lefs 
difpofed to affimilate. And fo much for the Prolongation of Life, which we 
make the Third, or a new Part of Mc-dicine *. 
The Arts of 1 9. The yfr/ of Decoration, or Beautifying, has two Parts, civil and effe- 
Becorntiondl- ffiifj^(g_ For cleanlilefs, and decency of the body, were always allow'd to 
llund'cSe-' proceed from moral modefty and reverence ; f.rjl, towards God, whofe crea- 
minate. tures we are -, next, towards Society, wherein we live ; and laftly, towards 

ourfelves, whom we ought to reverence ftill more than others. But falfe 
Decorations, Fucus's and Pigments, deferve the imperfcdlions that conftant- 
ly attend them •, being neither exquifite enough to deceive, nor commodious 
in application, nor wholefome in their ufe. And 'tis much that this de- 
praved cuftom of pail ting the Face, fhould fo long efcape the penal Laws, 
both of the church and ftate •, which have been very fcvere againft Luxury 
in apparel, and effeminate trimming of the hair. We read oi Jezabel, that 
fhe painted her Face; but not fo of Eft her and Judith. 
Gymnafticks 20. We take Gvmnasticks, in a large fenfe, to fignify whatever relates to 
divided into the hability whereto the human body may be brought, whether ofaffivity 
the Arts of ^^ j-^^j^^j.ji^^^ ACTIVITY has two parts, Strength and Swiftnefs ; fo has 
^the^'Ajts^c} Endurance or Suffering, viz. with regard to natural Wants -, and 
fufering. Fortitude under Torture. Of all thefe, wc have many remarkable Inftan- 
ces, in the Pradicts of Rope-dancers, the hardy Lives o'i Savages, i\irpr\z\n?r^ 

Strength 

* This Tun of Medicine continues new ftill, as not being hitherto received and cultivated 
by Fhyficmns, as any part of their ProfeiTion; tho' perhaps it depends upon more certain Prin- 
ciples than the fare of Difeafes, and i<;, in its nature, capable of luperftding the other Parts of 
the Profrjfion. Ir' the Author's Hijioy of Life and Death were to be contmued, Mr. Grawit's 
Natural and Political Obfervations upon the Bills of Mortality, the Philofiphical Tranfaiiions, 
and the German Ephemeridei,3Te proper Bi-oks to confult for the puvpofc See alio Morhofs 
iolyhiftor. Cap. deTempore, and tafchins de Nwis luventis, &c. Cap. VI. Je Inventis Medicis. 



Sed. IX. Tlje Doctrine of the\i\5i.\.\ n Body. 107 

Srren2;th of Lunaticks, and the ConfV.mcy and Reiblution of many under ex- 
quificc Torments. Any other Faculties that fall not within the former Di- 
vifion, as Diving, or the power of continuing long under water without 
refpiration, and die like, we refer them alio to Gymnasticks. And here, 
the' the things themfelves arc common ; yet the Philofophy and Caufes 
thereof are ufualiy negledlcd -, perhaps becaufe men are perfuaded that fuch 
mafteries over Nature, are only obtainable, either from a peculiar and natural 
difpofition in fome men, which comes not under Rules -, or by a conftant cu- 
ftom from childhood, which is rather impofed than taught. And tho' this 
be not altogether true, yet 'tis here of fmall confequence to note any Defi- 
ciency, for the O'.ympick Gam^s are long fince ceas'd •, and a mediocrity in 
thefe things is fufficient for ufe ; whilft excellency in them, ferves common- 
ly but ibr mercenary fliew. 

2 I. The Arts of Elegance are divided with refpeft to the two Senfes ^^' ■^'■tt ef 
of Si^hl and Hearing. Pai>:tbi^ particularly delights the Eye ; fo do nume- ^'&y"^^_ ^i- 
rous ok\\:v tiugnificent Arts, relating to Buikiings, Gardens, Apparel, .Veflels, lUoJ'tl thl' 
Gems, &c. Miifuk pleafes the Ear, with great variety and apparatus of Eye and tht 
Sounds, Voices, Strings, and Inftruments : and anciently IV^Uer-orgaris were ^"' 
cfleemed as great Mafter-pieces in this Art., tho' now grown into difufe. 
The Arts which relate to the Ey and Ear, are, above the reft, accounted 
liberal; thefe two Senfes being the more pure ; and the ^S'aVw^j thereof more 
learned, as having Mathematkks to attend them. The one alfo has fome 
relation to the Memory and Detnonftrations ; the other, to Manners and the 
Pajfions of the Mind. The Pleafures of the other Senfes, and the Arts em- 
ploy'd about them, are in lefs repute ; as approaching nearer to fenfuality 
than magnificence. Unguents, Perfumes, the Furniture of the Table, but 
principally Incitements to Luft, fhould rather be cenfured than taught. And 
it has been well obferved, that while States were in their increafe, military 
Arts flourifhed-, when at their heights, the liberal Arts ; but when upon their 
decline, the Arts of Luxury. With the Arts ofPleafure, we join alfo xht jocular 
Arts ; for the Deception of the Senfes may be reckon'd one of their De- 
lights. 

22. And now, as fo many things require to be confidered with relation 
to the human Body, viz. the Parts, Humors-, FunSlions, Faculties., Accidents^ 
&c. fmce we ought to have an entire Doclrine of the Body of Man, which 
fhould comprehend them all ; yet left Arts ftiould be thus too much mul- 
tiplied, or their ancient limits too much diforder'd ; we receive into the Sy 
fiem of Medicine, the Doftrines of the Parts, Funftions, and Humors 
of the Body •, Refpiration, Sleep, Generation; the Foetus, Geftation in the 
Womb; Growth, Puberty, Baldnefs, Fatnefs, and the like ; tho' thefe do 
not properly belong either to the Prefervation of Health, the Cure ofDifea- 
fes, or the Prolongation of Life ; but becaufe the human body is, in every re- 
fpcd, the fubjsd: of iVIedicine. But for voluntary Motion and Senfe, we refer 
them to the DoSfrine of the Soul, as two principal parts thereof. And thus 
we conclude the Do5frine of the Body, which is but as a Tabernacle to the 
Siul. 

P 2 5 E C T. 



lo8 *The Doctrine of the Human Soul. Sed. X. 



SECT. X. 

Of the Doctrine of the Human Soul. 

■tk r» ^rxne '• \ y\7^ "°^ come to the Doctrine of the Human Soul, from whofe 
«/r^« human VV TreiTures all Other I)5^n«« are derived. It has two Parts, the 
Soul divided one treating of the rational Soul, which is divine ; the other, of the irra- 
into the Doc- ^g^^i Sou!, which we have in common with Brutes. Two different Ema- 
7pked Sat>-^' "^^^""^ u/6'o://j are manifeft in the firft Creation, the one proceeding from 
ftance and the Breath of God \ the other from the Elements '. As to the primitive 
that e; the Emanation of the rational Soul; the Scripture fays, God formed Man of the 
kaiiuveSo\il.^.^^j} ^j- ^;,^ £a:tb, and breathed into hh noflrils the breath of Life: But the 
Generation of the irrational and brutal Soul, was in thefe words ; Let the 
TFater bring fotth; Let the Earth bring forth. And this irrational Soul in 
Man, is only ;;.n inftrument to the rational one ; and has the fame origin in us, 
-as in Brutes, viz. the duji of the Earth ; for 'tis not faid, Godform'd the body of 
M.in of the duft of the Earth ; but God formed Man, that is, the whole Man, the 
Breath of Life excepted, of the dujlof the Earth. We will therefore ftile the 
firjl Part oi the general DoSlrineof the human Soul, the Doctrine of the infpired 
Subjlance ; and the other Pa't, the Doctrine of the fenfitive or produced Soul. 
But as we are here treating wholly of Philfophy, we would not have bor- 
rowed this Divifton from Divinity, had it not alfo agreed with the Principles 
cf Phihfophy, For there are many excellencies of the human SjuI above the 
Souls of Brutes, manifeft even to thofe who philofophize only according to 
fenfe. And wherever fo many, and fuch great excellencies are found, a 
fpecifick difference fhould always be made. We do not, therefore, approve 
that confufed and promifcuous manner of the Philofophers, in treating the 
functions of the Soul i as if the Soul cf Man d'x^^v'A in degree rather than 
^ fpecies, from the Soul of Brutes ; as the Sun diff rs from the Scars, or Gold 
from other Metals. There may alfo be another Divifton of the general 
Doctrine of the human Soul, into the Do^rine of the Subjlance and Faculties of 
the Soul i and that of the Ufe and Objects of the Faculties. And thefe two 
Divifions being premifed, we come to particulars. 
The Enquiry 2. The Doctrine of the infpired Subjlance, as alfo of the Subflance of the 
ifuothe SiJ- rational Soul, comprehends feveral Enquiries, with relation to its nature j as 
jlmce of the whether the Soul be native, or adventitious ; feparahle, or infeparable ; mor- 
Tefir-'ftf'in- '^^^ ^^ immortal; how f^^ 'tisfubje^ to the Laws of Matter, how far not, and 
/rfr'i Theo- the like.? But the points of this kiaJ, tho' they might be more thoroughly 
togy. fifced in Philofophy than hitherto th^^v have been -, yet in the end they rnuil 

be turned over to Religion, for determination and decifion: ocherwife they 

will 

* Thus Man is divided into three diftinft Parts, lAx, Bod), Soul, and Sfirit, acco»ding to the 
Doftrineot' Pteip, the primicLvc Chriluns, and Ibmi ot'thj Afji/er«;. See Fafchiits dt Novii 
Inx/mtiiipig. ij-^, j6o. Sec alfo below, §. }. 



Secfl.X. 7^^ Doctrine ^^/$<?HuMAN Soul. 109 

will lie expofcd to various Errors, and Illufions of Senfe. For as the Sul- 
flance of the Soul was not, in its creation, extraded, or deduced from the 
mafs of Heaven and Earth, but immediately infpired by God -, and as the 
Laws of Heaven and Earth are th; proper fubjefts of Philofophy ; no know- 
ledge of the fubftance of the rational Soul can be had from Philofophy, 
but muft be derived from the lame divine Lifpiration, whence the Subftance 
thereof originally proceeded. 

3. But in the DoHrine of the fenfitive or produced Soul; even its fubftance T*« l«^«»ry 
may bejuftly enquired into-, tho* this Enquiry feems hitherto wanting^ :''f*^'^^^^'^' 
for of what fignificancy are the terms of Aufus Ultimtts, and Forma Corporis ioicCted, ' 
and fuch logical trifles, to the knowledge of the Soul's Subftance ? The 
fetifitiv Soul muft be allow'd a corporeal Subftance, attenuated by heat, 

and rendered invifible ; as a fubtile breath, or Aura, of a flamy and airy 
nature, having the foftnefs of air in receiving imprefTions, and the aftivity 
of fire in exerting its adlion ; nouriftiM partly by an oily and partly by 
a watry fubftance ; and diffufed thro* the whole body : but in perfed crea- 
tures, refiding chiefly in the head -, and thence running thro' the nerves ; 
being fed and recruited by the fpirituous blood of the Arteries ; as Tele- 
Jius, and his Follower Donius, in fome meafure have ufefully fliewn. There- 
fore lei this Do^frine he mor^ diligently enquired infn ^; becaufe the ignorance 
of it has produced fuperftitious and very corrupt opinions, that greatly lef- 
fen the dignity of the human Soul ; fuch as tlie Tranf migration and LuJirH' 
tion of Souls thro' certain periods of years ; and the too near relation, 
in all refpefts, of the human Soul to the Soul of Brutes. For this Soul in 
Brutes is a principal Soul, whereof their Body is the Organ -, but in Man 
'tis itfelf an Organ of the rational Soul, and may rather be called by the 
name Spirit than Soul, 

4. The Faculties of the Sold are well known; viz. the Underftanding, Rea- Xi&e Doftrine 
fon, Imagination, Memory, Appetite, Will, and all thofe wherewith Logicks 'f 'f'f Soul 
and Elhicks are concern'd. In the Do^rine of the Soul, the Origin of ^"J^J" f*^^ 
thefe Faculties mud be phyfically treated, as they may be innate and ^d- f^e origin of 
hering to the Soul : But their ufes and obj^fts are referr'd to other Arts, in VaoiltUs. 
And in this part nothing extraordinary has hitherto appear'd ■= -, tho' we do 

not indeed report it as wanting. This Part of the Faculties of the Soul has 
alfo two Appendages, which as they have yet been handled, rather prefent 
us with fmoak, than any clear flame of truth ; one being the dodrine of 
natural Divination ; the other of Fafcination. 

5' 

* See Cordtmoy, h Vifcernment du Corps & de I' Ante; di la forge, Truilte d« I'Effrit dt 
it iHomme ; (^ hUlhranche, Referche de U Verite. 

*' This Enquiry lies greatly embroiled by the Moderns ; fome feeking the Soul all over the 
'Body, fome in the Blood, fome in the animal Spirits, fome in the Heirt, fome in the Ventricles 
of the Brain, and fome, with Jpj C«r«j, in the Chndula Pinealis. If the Difcovery bepoiTible» 
the bcftway of making it, is perhaps that o\ the Author laid down in the Novum Org»num,ior 
the condtUi of Enquiries, and the inveftigation of Forms; as without fome fuch Method tho 
M-nd Iccmsbutto f:arch in the Dark. [\\. Petit wr ire a curious Piefe relating to this fubjeft, 
entitled, de Anima Corfori coextensa; printed at Vnris i66f. See zKoHobokenius de Sede Aoi- 
tnt in Corpore humano. 

' Sec Mr. Lecke'i EJfay ttpon human Vhderfimding, and Father Matbrmcbe's Referche dt te 
Verite. , 



no 7^5 Doctrine <?/'/y6^ Human Soul. Sed.X. 

Tuvs AffM- 5. Divination has been anciently, and properly, divided into Artificial 
dages of this 2^nd Naiural. The rtr//^«,3/ draws its Predidlions by reafoning from the in- 
Tyiv{n"t\'oa ' dication of figns : Bat the natural predi<5ts from the internal forefight of 
and Fafcina- the mind -, without the afliftance of figns. Artificial Divination is of two kinds; 
'ioi' one arguing from Caufes ;' the other only from Experiments, conduced by 

blind authority. The latter is generally fuperftitious. Such were the 
heathen Dodtrines about the infpeftion of Entrails, the flight of Birds, 
i^c. AnAt\\t^onr\3.\ Ajlrology of the Chaldeans \vsi^\\\x\the.ttt\\ Both kinds 
oi artificial Divination fpread themfelves into various 5cjf«rd';. The Afirolo- 
ger has his predidtions from the Afpe^i of the Stars. The Pbyftcian too 
has his -, as to death, recovery, and the fubfequent fymptoms of difeafes ; 
from the Urine, Pidfe, Afpeii of the Patient, &c. The Politician alfo is not 
without his prediftions ; * O urbem venalem, £5? cito periluram, fi emptorem in- 
venerlt ! The Event of which Prophecy happened foon after -, and was 
firft accompliflied in Sylla, and again in Cafar. But the Predidions of 
this kind, being not to our prefent purpole, we refer them to their proper 
Arts: and fiiall here only imz of natural Divination, proceedingfrom the in- 
ternal power of the Soul. 
Ts'i-v'inntion 6. This alfo is of two kinds ; the one «a/ii;^, the other by z>_^2/.v. The 

from the in- native fcfts upon this fuppofition, that the Mind abftradbed or colle£led in 
^Th s'Tdi- ^'•'^'^' ^"^ "°^ diffufed in the organs of the body, has from the natural 
tided intone- power of its own eflTence, fome foreknowledge of future things. And this 
five, andthat appears chiefly in fleep, extafies, and the near approach of Death -, but 
by influx. morc rarely in waking, or when the body is in health and fl:rength. And this 
ftate of the mind is commonly procured, or promoted, by abftinence ; and 
principally fuch things as withdraw the Mind from exercifing the fundlions 
of the Body -, that it may thus enjoy its own nature, without any exter- 
nal interruption. But Divination by influx, is grounded upon another fup- 
pofition, viz. that the Mind, as a mirror, may receive a fecondary illumination 
from the foreknowledge of God and Spirits -, whereto likewife the above 
mention'd ftate and regimen of the Body are conducive. For the fame 
abftraftion of the Mind caufes it more powerfully to ufe its own nature ; 
and renders it more fufceptive of divine influxes: only in Divinations by in- 
flux, the Soul is feized with a kind of rapture, and as it were impatience 
of the Deity's prefence, which the Ancients called by the name o [acred 
fury ; whereas in native Divination the Soul is rather at its eafe, and free. 
Fafcination y^ FASCINATION is the Power and intenfe Aol of the Imagination ufon the 

\mlfLation ^"'^y of ^f other. And here the School of Paraceljus, and the Pretenders to 
Natural Magick, abufively fo called, have almoft made the force and appre- 
henfion of the Imagination equai to the Power of Faith, and capable of 
working Miracles. Others, keeping nearer to Truth, and attentively con- 
fidering the fecret Energies and Impreflions of Things ; the Irradiations of 
the Senfes ; the Tranfmifllons of Thought from one to another •, the Con- 
veyances of magnetick Virtues, ^c. ' are of opinion, that Impreflions, Con^ 
veyances, and Communications, might be made from Spirit to Spirit ; be- 

caufe 

• O Cityfetto file, whofe deftruftion is at hand, if it find a purchafcr! 



Imagination. 



Sed:.X. 7^^ Doctrine £/" //5^ Human Soul. hi 

caufe Spirit is, of all things, the moft powerful in operation, and eafieft to 
work on: whence many Opinions have fpread abroad of Mafter-Spirics; of 
Men ominous, and unlucky, of the Strokes of Love, Envy, and the like. 
And tliis is attended with the Enquiry, how the Imagination ma-j be heiqhteti'd 
and fortified? For if a ftrong Imagination has fuch power, 'tis worth know- 
ing by what means to exalt and raife it ". 

8. But here a Palliative, or Defence, of a great part of Ceremonial Magick, Ceremonial 
would flily, and indiredly, infinuate itfelf, under a fpecious, tho' dangerous, Magick »»} 
Pretence, that Ceremonies, Characters, Charms, Gefliculations, Amulets, and " ""* '' 
the like, have not their power from any tacit, or binding, Contraft with evil 
Spirits; but that thefe ferve only to ftrengthen and raife the Imagination of 

luch as ufe them •, in the fame manner as Images have prevail'd in Religion, 
for fixing Mens Minds in the Contemplation of Things, and raifing the De- 
votion in Prayer. But allowing the Force of Imagination to be great, and 
that Ceremonies do raife and ftrengthen it -, allowing alfo that Ceremonies 
may be fincerely ufed to that end, as a phyfical Remedy, without the leaft de- 
fign of thereby procuring the affiftance of Spirits •» yet ought they ftill to be 
held unlawful : becaufe they oppofe, and contradift, that divine Sentence pafs'd 
upon Man for Sin -, In the Sweat of thy Brov; thou Jhalt eat thy Bread. For 
this kind of Magick offers thofe excellent Fruits, which God hath ordained 
fhould be procured by Labour, at the price of a few eafy and flight Ob- 
fervances. 

9. There are two other Doolrines, which principally regard the Faculties ^n" <"^^'' 
of the inferior or fenfttive Soul, as chiefly communicating with the Organs of f^'e feniJtne 
the Body ; the one is, of "ooluntary Mction ; the other, of Senfe and Senfibility. Soul, liz.. 
The former has been but fuperficially enquired into ; and one entire Part of thatofwa\w 
it is almofl wholly neglefted. The Office and proper Scrufture of the "J^'^°,"°?' 
Nerves, Mufcles, i^c. requifue to mufcular Motion -, what Parts of the senrc/i»</ Sen- 
Body reft while others move •, and how the Imagination afts as Diredor of fibility. 
this Motion, To far, that when it drops the Image whereto the Motion ten- 
ded, the Motion itfelf prefently ceafes ; as in walking, if another ferious 
Thought come acrofs our Mind, we prefently ftand ftili ; with many other 

fuch Subtilties ; have long ago been obferved and fcrucinized : But bow the 
CompreJJions, Dilatations, and Agitations of the Spirit, which, doubtlefs, is the 
Spring of Motion, ftiould guide and rule the corporeal and grois Mais of 
the Parts, has not yet been diligently fearched into, and treated. And no 
wonder, fince the fenfitive Soul itfelf has been hitherto taken for a Principle 
of Motion, and a Function, rather than a Subftance. But as 'tis now known TheDoBrint 
to be material •, it becomes neceflTary to enquire, by what Efforts fo fubtile and «/m^fcuUr 
minute a Breaih can put fuch grofs and folid Bodies in motion'^. Therefore, as r^""^'"""^" 
this part is deficient, let due Enquiry be made concerning it. 

10. 



hcient. 



■ The ways of working upon, or with the Imagination, are touched by the Author, in his 
SvLVA Sylvarum, under the Arude Imagination. See more to this purpole in Det Cartes \i-pon 
the fajjiont, Cajauton upon Enttiufiajm, Father Malbramhe'% Referche Jt la Verite, and tha Lord 
Shafttihury's Le'.ter upon Enthujiafm. 

* Mufcular Motion ftill remains a kind of Myftery in Philofophy, not penetrated to fatisfaftion, 
ev« by the modern mechanical and mathematical Learaing. Tte Exiftence, or Agency of 

hniPiAi 



112 75^5 Doctrine o/*/^^ Human Soul. Se<a.X. 

Ti&«Doarioe lo. Sense and SENSIBILITY have been much more fully and diligently 
of Senfe and enquired into, as well in general Treatifes upon the Subjeft, as in particular 
fidmhmo ^'"'•f ' viz- PerfpeStive, Mufick, &c. but how juftly, is not to the prefent In- 
Parts. tention. And therefore we cannot note them as deficient: yet there zrt two 

excellent Paris wanting in this Do£irine ; one, upon the difference cf Perception 
and Senfe ; and the otlier, upon the Form of Light. In treating of Senfe and 
Senfibility, Philofophers fhould have premis'd the difference between Per- 
ception and Senfe, as the Foundation of the whole : for we find there is a 
manifeft Power of Perception in moft natural Bodies •, and a kind of appetite 
to chufe what is agreeable, and to avoid what is difagreeable to them. 
Nor is this meant of the more fubtile Perceptions only ; as when the Load- 
ftone attrafts Iron ; or Flame flies to Petreol; or one drop of Water runs into 
another •, or when the Rays of Light are reflefted from a white Objedl -, or 
when animal Bodies aflimilate what is proper for them, and rejedt what is hurt- 
ful ; or when a Spunge attradls Water, and expels Air, ^c. for in all cafes, no 
one Body placed near to another, can change that other, or be changed by 
it, unlefs a reciprocal Perception precede the Operation. A Body always 
perceives the Paffages by which it infinuates ; feels the Impulfe of another 
Body, where it yields thereto ; perceives the removal of any Body that 
with-held it, and thereupon recovers itfelf ; perceives the Separation of its 
Continuity, and for a time refifh it ; in fine. Perception is diffiifed thro* all 
Nature *. But Air has fuch an acute Perception of Heat and Cold, as far 
exceeds the human Touch ; which yet paffes for the meafure of Heat and 
Cold. This Do^rine, therefore, has two Defe£is ; one, in that Men have gene- 
rally paffed it over untouch'd, tho' a noble fubjedb : the other, that they 
who did attend to it, have gone too far, attributed Senfe to all Bodies^ and 
made it almoft a fin to pluck a Twig from a Tree, left the Tree fliould 
groan, like Polydorus in Virgil. But they ought carefully to have fearch'd 
after the difference betwixt Perception and Senfe ; not only in comparing fen- 
fible with infenfible Things, in the entire Bodies thereof, as thofe of Plants 
and Animals ; but alfo to have obferved in the fenfible Body itfelf, what fhould 

be 

«»i»»«i Spirits is difputed i the introdu£lion of a fubtile elaftick Medium is thought hypothetical ; 
and the Arguments produced for various Hypothefes, in this obfcure Subjeft, feem inconclufive. 
Perhaps we have not proceeded regularly in the Enquiry, or patiently obferved and regifter'd 
all the Phsenomena relating to it ; but feen a little, prefumed a great deal, and fo jump'd 
to imperfeiS and contradiftory Conclufions: as will ever be the cafe, if this Author's fober and 
laborious Method of Enquiring, or a better, if a better be difcoverable, do not take place in 
Thllofofhical SuijeSs. See Borelli de Motu Animalium,Boerhaave's Inflitutiones Media, Sir Ifaac 
Hemon's ^^eries at the end of his Opticks, and Dr. Pemierton's Preface to Comper's Anatomy. 

" This form of Speech may appear fomewhat harlh at firft, becaufc Perception is generally 
ufed for Animal Perception, and the later Philofophers do not attribute a kind of animal Senft- 
tion to Matter, as Campanella and Helmont did : but the Expreflion means no more, than the 
general and particular ways wherein Bodies afFeft each other. Thus the power of AttraHio», 
or Gravitation, as we now vulgarly call it, is common to all Matter j and may, in a due fenfc, 
be termed its general Perception. And fb rtrfiftance is felt by Bodies upon contaft, ^c. This 
Dodtrine is more fully explained in the Novum Organum, where the feveral kinds of Motion 
are confider'd; and requires to be duly profecuted for the Improvement of Philofophy : as the 
Thing whereon all the Phenomena and Effedls of Nature depend ; and comprehending all the 
ways whereby Bodies affeft, alter, and a<ft upon each other : all which ways, may be con- 
fider'd as fo many Appetites, or original Impreffions in Bodies; or, to ufe the modern Phraf», 
as fb many Laws of Nature. 



Sed. X. 7)5^ Doctrine (j/'M^ Human Soul. 113 

be the caufe that fo many Adlions are performed without any Senfe at all. 
Why the Aliments are digcfted and difcharged ; the Humours and Juices 
carried up and down in the Body ; why the Heart and Pulle beat •, why 
the Vifccra aft as fo many Work-lhops i and each perform its refpedlive Of- 
fice V yet all this, and much more, be done without Senfe. But Men have 
not yet fufficiently found of what nature the ASlion of Senfe is ; and what kind 
of Body, what Continuance, what Repetitions of the ImprelTion are required 
to caufe Pain or Pleafure. Laftly, they fcem totally ignorant of the diffe- 
rence between fimj-le Perception and Senfe ; and how far Perception may be 
caufed without Senfe. Nor is this a Controverfy about Words, but a Mat- 
ter of great Importance. Wherefore let this Doctrine be better examined, as 
a thing of capital, and very extenfive, Ufe. For the Ignorance of foine an- 
cient Philofophers in this point, fo for obfcured the Light of Reafon, that 
they thought there was a Soul indifferently infufed into all Bodies ; nor did 
they conceive how Motion of Election, could be caufed without Senfe ; or Senfe 
exijj, without a Soul. 

II. That the Form of Light fhould not have been duly enquired into, j-^j Enquiry 
appears a ftrange over-fight ; efpecially as Men have beftow'd fo much pains into the On- 
upon Perfpe^ive: for neither has this Art, nor others, afforded any valuable 8'" ««^Form 
Difcovery in the fubjed of Light. Its Radiations, indeed, are treated, but CjV„'f ' '' 
not its Origin : and the ranking of Perfpeofiz'e with Matbematicks, has pro- 
duced this Defed, with others of the like nature ; becaufe Philofopby is thus 
deferted too foon. Again, the Doolrine of Light, and the Caufes thereof, 
have been almoll fuperftitioufly treated in Plnficks, as a Subjedl of a middle 
nature, betwixt natural and divine ; whence certain Platonijfs would have 
Light prior to Matter itfelf : for they vainly im.igin'd, that Space was firfb 
fill'd with Light -, and afterwards with Body : but the Scriptures plainly fay, 
that the Mafs of Heaven and Earth ivas dark, before the Crccition of Light. 
And as for what is phyfically deliver'd upon this Subjeft, and according to 
Senfe, it prefently defcends to Radiations ; fo that very little Pbilofophical 
Enquiry is extant about it. And Men ought here to lower their Contem- 
plations a little, and enquire into the Properties common zo all lucid Bodies ; 
as this relates to ihtForm of Light: how immenfely foever the Bodies concern'd 
may differ in dignity, as the Sun does from rottenWood, or putrefied Fifh '. We 
fliould likewife enquire the caufe why fome things take fire, and when heated 
throw out Light, and others not. Iron, Metals, Stones, Glafs, Wood, 
Oil, Tallow, by Fire yield either a Flame, or grow red-hot. But Water 
and Air, expofed to the moft intenfe Heat they are capable of, afford no 
Light, nor lb much as fhine. That 'tis not the property of Fire alone to 
give Light ; and that Water and Air are not utter Enemies thereto, ap- 
pears from the dafliing of Salt- Water in a dark Night, and a hot Seafon -, 
when the fmall Diopsof the Water, ftruck off by the motion of the Oars in 
rowing, feem fparklingand luminous. We have the fame appearance in the 
agitated Froth of the Sea, called Sea-lungs. And, indeed, it Ihould be enquired 
what Affinity Flame and ignited Bodies have with G!ow-worms, the Luciola, and 
the Indian Fly, which calls a Light over a whole Room ; the Eyes of certain 
* Which have a remarkable luminQHt troferty. 

Vol. I. Q^ Creatures 



114 1'he Doctrine of the Sedl. XI. 

Creatures in the dark -, Loaf-Sugar, in fcraping or breaking -, the Sweat of a 
Horle hard ridden, ^c. Men have underltood fo little of this matter, that 
moft imagine the Sparks ftruck b:t\vixt a Flint and Sleel, to be Air in attrition. 
But fixe the Air ignites not with Heat, yet apparently conceives Light, whence 
Owls, Cat=, and many other Creatures fee in the Night ; (for there is no Vifion 
without Lighc -,) there mull be a native Light in Air ; which, tho' weak and 
feeble, is p.oportion'd to the vifual Organs of fuch Creatures-, fo as to fuffice 
them for Sight. The Error, as in moft otlier cafes, lies here, that Men have 
not deduced the common Forms of Things from particular Inftances ; which is 
what we make the proper bufinefs of Metaphyfuks. Therefore let Enquiry be 
made into the Form and Ongins of Light ; and, in the mean time, we fet it down 
as def.c'eJit ^. And fo much for the Do£lrine of the Su.hjlaiwe of the Soul, both 
rational and fenfitive, with its Faculties ; and the Appendages of this Dotlrine. 



SECT. XL 

The Doctrine of the Faculties of the 
Human Mind. 

The noBrine \.f ■ ^H E DoHrine of the human Underfanding, and of the human IFlll, 
of the mental J^ ^^g ]j]^e Twins ; for the Purity of Illumination, and the Freedom of 
'^"^"'wtoTo- ^^^l-> began and fell together : nor is there in the Univerfe fo intimate a Sym- 
g'ck'l and " pathy, as that betwixt frutb and Goodnefs. The more fhame for Men of Learn- 
Ethickt. incr, if in Knowledge they are like the winged Angels, but in Affeftions like the 
crawling Serpents; having their Minds indeed like a Mirror; but a Mirror 
foully fpotted. 

2. The DoElrine of the Ufe and OhjeSfs of the mental Faculties, has two parts, 
well "known, and generally received; viz. Logicks and Elhicks. Logicks 
treat of the Underftanding and Reafon ; and Et hicks of the PFill, Appelile, 
and AffeSlions : the one producing Refolulions, the other ABions. The Ima- 
gination, indeed, on both fides, performs the Office of Agent, or Erabaflfador ; 
and affills alike in the judicial and minifterial Capacity. Senfe commits all 
forts of Notions to the hiagination ; and the Reafon afterwards judges of 
them. In like manner Reafon tranfmits feleft and approved Notions to the 
Imagination, before the Decree is executed : for Imagination always precedes 
and excites voluntary Motion ; and is therefore a common Inftrument both 
to the Reafon and the Will: only it has two Faces; that turn'd towards 
Reafon bearing the Ejfgy (f Truth ; but that towards Adion, the Effigy of 
Goodnefs : yet lb as to appear the Effigies of Sifters. 

3- 

* This Subjeft has been nobly profecuted, and the Deficiency here noted, in good meafure 
fupplied by the Labours and Difcoveries of Mr. ^oyU and Sir Ifmc Htxeton. The Author in- 
deed carried the Enquiry to a confiderable length himfclf, by means of the Friftn, and other Con- 
trivances ; as appears by the large Example for inveftigating the Form of Light in the Novum 
Organum; and his Table of Enquiry for the particular Hiftory of Light and Splendor, in the en- 
trance of the Seal» IntdleHus. See Mr. Boyle of CtUurs, and Sir Ifaac Newton's 0}tifh. 



SecH:. XI. Faculties;?/' //5^ HumanMind. 115 

3. But the Ivi ginaiiu» is more than a mere MefTenger; as being inveftedTif'» Power of 
with, or, at 1 -aft, uuuping no imall Authority, btfides delivering the Mef- 'f- ''"^-j"^' 
liige. Thus, AnJtotU well obferves, that the Mind has the fame command over £J,Q_ 

the Body, as the M.ilcr over the Slave; but Rcalbn over the Imagination, 
the lame that a M^giftrate has over a free Citizen ; who may come to rule 
in his turn. For in Matters of Faith an J. Religtoti, the Imagination 
jnounts above Reason. Not that divine Illumination is feated in the Ima- 
gination -, but, as in divine Virtues, Grace makes ufe of the Motions of the 
Will ; fo in Illumination, it makes ufe of the Motions of the Ima^mation : 
whence Religion follicits accefs to the Mind, by Similitudes, Types, Parables, 
Dreams, and Vifions^. Again, the Imagination has a confidercble fway in 
Pgrfuafion, infinuated by the power of Eloquence : for when the Mind is 
footh'd, enraged, or any way drawn afide by the artifice of Speech; all this 
is done by raifing the Imagination: which now growing unruly, not only 
infults over, but, in a manner, offers Violence to R.eafon ; partly by blind- 
ing, partly by incenfing it. Yet there appears no caufe why we Ihould quit 
our former Divi/icn : for in general, the Imagination does not make the Sci- 
ences ; fince even Poetry^ which has been always attributed to the Imagina- 
tion, fhould be efteem'd rather a Play of Wit, than a Science. As for the 
Power of the Imagination in natural things, we have already ranged it under 
the Dc5frine of the Sottl^ ; and for its affinity with Rhetorick, we refer it to 
the Art of Rhetorick". 

4. This part of human Philofophy which regards Logick, is difagreeable toV0je»ee the 
the tafte of many ; as appearing to them no other than a Net, and a Snare#'''f "/'"""J' 
of thorny Subtil ty. For as Knowledge is juftly called the Food of the" ^^"^ " 
Mind ; lb in the defire and choice of this Food, moft Men have the Appetite 

of the Ifraelites in the Wildernef%; who, weary of Manna, as a thin, tho' ce- 
leftial Diet, would have gladly return'd to the Flejh-pots : thus, generally 
thofe Sciences relifh beft, that participate of fomewhat more filling, and 
nearer related to Flefli and Blood •, as Civil Hijlory, Morality, Politicks ; 
whereon Mens Affeftions, Praifes, and Fortunes turn, and are employ 'd : 
whilft the other dry Light offends, and dries up the foft and humid Capacities of 
moft Men. But if we would rate things according to their real worth, the 
rational Sciences are the Keys to all the reft •, for as the Hand is the Inflru- 
ment of Inftruments, and the Mind the Form of Forms ; fo the rational Sci- 
ences are to be efteemed the Arts of Arts. Nor do they dired: only, but 
alfo ftrengthen and confirm ; as the ufe and habit of fhooting, not only en- 
ables one to fhoot nearer the Mark ; but likewife to draw a ftronger Bow. 

5. The Log-;Va/ -^r/i are four •, being divided according to the Ends they The four u- 
lead to: for in rational Knowledge, Man endeavours (i.) either to find what^'*"*^ ^^''"• 
be feeks ; (2.) to judge of what he finds ; (3.) to retain what he has approved^ 
or (4.) to deliver what he has retained: whence there are as many Ra- 
tional Arts-, I'iz. (i.) the Art of Enquiry, or Invention ; (2.) the 
Art of Examination, or Judging; (3.) the Art of Custodv, or 
Memory ; and (4.) the Art of Elocution, or Delivery. 

0^2 6. 

* See hereafter, 5j5.XXVI1I. of InrpiredThtology. 
•> See above, Secl.X. "^ 

« See hereafter. i^e<?.XVllL 



1 16 Ths Doctrine of the Sed.Xf. 

Invention of 6. INVENTION IS of two very different kinds ; the one of Arts andSciences, 
tvoJnnds,re-^Yi^ otiier of Arguments and Difcourfe. Tiie former I fet down as abfolutely 
md k^m- deficient. And this Deficiency appears like that, when in taking the Inven- 
mcnts. rory of an Eftate, there is fet down, in Cajh, nothing : for as ready Money 

will purchafe all other Commodities ; fo this Art, if extant, would procure 
all other Arts. And as the immenle Regions of the Weft-Indies had never 
been difcover'd, if the ufe of the Compafs had not tirft been known ; 'tis 
no wonder, that the Difcovery and Advancement of Arts liath made no greater 
progrefs, when the Art of Inventing, and Difcovering, the Sciences remains 
ihe Art e/ hitherto unknown. That this part of Knowledge is wanting, feems clear : 
inventing \ttiioT Logick profeffes not, nor pretends, to invent either mechanical or liberal 
deficient. ^rts ; nor to deduce the Operations of the one, or the Axioms of the other -, 
but only leaves us this Inftrudion in paflage, to believe every Artift in his 
own Art. Celfus-, a wife Man, as well as a Phyfician, fpeaking of the em- 
pirical and dogmatical Sedls of Phyficians, gravely and ingenuoufly acknow- 
ledges, that Medicines and Cures were firft difcover'd, and the Reafans and 
Caufes of them difcourfed of afterwards : not that Cai/fes, firfi derived from 
the nature of things, gave light to the Invention of Cures and Remedies. And 
Plato, more than once, obferves, that Particulars are infinite ; that the higheft 
Generalities give no certain DirecJions ; and therefore, that the Marrow of all 
Sciences, whereby the Artift is difiinguifhed from the unskilful Workman, confifti 
in middle Propofitions, jvhicb Experience has delivered and taught in each par- 
ticular Science. Hence thofe who write upon the firft Inventors of things^ 
and the Origins of the Sciences, rather celebrate Chance than Art ; and bring in 
Beafts, Birds, Fifhes, and Serpents, rather than Men, as the firft Teachers of 
Arts. No wonder, therefore, as the manner of Antiquity was to confecrate 
the Inventors of ufeful things, that the ASgyptians, an ancient Nation, to 
which many Arts owe their rife, had their Temples fiU'd with the Images of 
Brutes, and but a few human Idols amongft them. 
Men hitherto y. And if we fhould, according to the Traditions of the Greeks, afcribe 
'"bT tesr'/l»"-^^ ^^^ Invention of Arts to Men ; yet we cannot fay that Prometheus ftudied 
Realbn for ^hc Invention of Fire ; or that when he firft ftruck the Flint, he expected 
Inventions. Sparks ; but that he fell upon it by accident ; and, as the Poets fay, ftole it 
from Jupiter. So that as to the Invention of Arts, we are rather beholden 
to the wild Goat for Chirurgery ; to the Nighiingal for Mufick •■, to the Siork 
for Glyfters ; to the accidental flying off of a Pot's Cover, for Artillery j and, 
in a word, to Chance, or any thing elfe, rather than to Logick. Nor does the 
manner of Invention, defcribed by Virgil, differ much from the former ; viz. 
that Practice and intent Thought by degrees ftruck out various Arts^. For this 
is no other than what Brutes are capable of, and frequently pradife ; viz. an 
intent Sollicitude about fome one thing, and a perpetual exerciie thereof; 
which the neceffity of their Prefervation impofes upon them: for Ci- 
cero truly obferved, that Pra£iice applied wholly to one thing, often conquers 
both Nature and Art^. And therefore, if it may be faid, with regard to. 
Men, that continued Labour and cogent Necejfity mafters every thing ; fo it 

may 
= Ut larias Ufus mediiande extunderet jlrttt 

Paulatim. 
* Ufus mi rei deditHs, & i^suram & Atm fill viatifi _ , 



Sed.XI. Faculties of the Human Mind. 117 

may be asked, with regard to Brutes, Who taught them Inftindl? Who 
taught the Rave/i, in a Drought, to drop Pebbles into a iiollow Tree, where 
(he chanced to fpy Water, that the Water might rife for her to drink? 
Who taught the Bc'e to fail thro' the vaft Ocean of Air, to diltant Fields, 
and find the way back to her Hive ? Who taught the Jta to gnaw every 
Grain of Corn that fhe hoards, to prevent its fprouting? And if we obferve 
in Firgi/, the word extundere, wliich implies Difficulty ; and the word pau- 
latim, which imports Slownefs ; this brings us back to the cafe of the Egyp- 
tian Gods ; fince Men have hitherto made little ufe of their rational Facul- 
ties, and none at all of Art, in the Invcftigation of Things. 

8. And this Affcrtion, if carefully attended to, is proved from ^^'^^ Form ji,gxjre of In- 
of Lo^cal Induction, for finding and examining the Principles of the Sciences: Anecmn per. 
which Form being abfolutely defeftive and infufficient, is fo far from per- '^'"■'^'^ "'"' 
feeling Nature, tliat it perverts and dillorts her. For whoever attentively"^'^ "^'' 
obferves how the cEthereal Dew of the Sciences is gather'd, (the Sciences being 
extrafled from particular Examples, whether natural, or artificial, as from 

fo many Flowers,) will find that the Mind of its own natural Motion makes 
a better hdu^ion, than that defcrib'd by Logicians. From a bare enumera- 
tion of Particulars, in the logical manner, where there is no contradicJory In- 
Jiance, follows a falfe Conclufion ; nor does fuch an Indu^ion infer any thing 
more than probable conjeflure. For who will undertake, when the Parti- 
culars of a Man's own Knowledge, or Memory, appear only on one fide ; 
that fomething direiftly oppofite fliall not lie concealed on the other ? as 
if Samuel fhould have taken up with the Sons of JeJJe brought before him, 
and not "have fought David, who was in the field. And to fay the truth, as 
this For?n of InduSion is fo grofs and ftupid, it might feem incredible, that 
fuch acute and fubtile Genius's as have been exercifed this way, could ever 
have obtruded it upon the World ; but that they haded to Theories, and 
Opinions ; and, as it were, difdain'd to dwell upon Particulars : For they 
have ufed Exa?nples, and particular Infances, but as Wkifflers, to keep the 
Croud off, and make room for their own Opinions ; without confuking them 
from the beginning, fo as to make a juft and mature Judgment of the truth 
of things. And this Procedure has, indeed, ftruck me with an aweful and re- 
ligious wonder, to fee Men tread the fame Paths of Error, both in divine 
and human Enquiries. For as in receiving divine Truths, Men are averle to 
become as little Children ; fo in the apprehending of human Truths, for 
Men to begin to read, and, like Children, come back again to the firft Ele- 
ments of IndidSlion, is reputed a low and contemptible thing. 

9. But, allowing the Principles of the Sciences might be juftly form'd hy jt ginnhii 
the common Indu^ion, or by Senfe and Experience; yet 'tis certain that the ami correH 
hiver Axioms cannot, in natural things, be with certainty deduced by S)llo- Induftion u 
gifm from them. For Syllogifin reduces Propo/itions to Principles, by inter- *""'^' 
mediate Propofitions. And this Form, whether of Inventionin or Prcof, has place 

in the popular Sciences ; as Eihicks, Politicks^ Law, &c. and even in Divinity j 
fince God has been pleafed to accommodate himfelf to the human Capacity : 
but in Phyficks, where Nature is to be caught by Works ; and not the Ad- 
verfary, by Arguments ■> Truth, in this way, flips thro' our Fingers ; be- 
I cauft 



ii8 7^^ Faculties ^/ /^^ Human Mind. Sed. XL 

caufe the Subtiky of the Operations of Nature, far exceeds the Subtiky of 
Words*. So ihit Syllogif/n thus failing, there is every where a necefliry for 
cmploving a genuine and fo?Tf(5? Induction ; as well in the more general 
Principles, as the irierior Propofitions. For Syllogifvis confill of Propo- 
fitions, Propofitions of /^r^j j but Words ^a.re the Signs of Notions : where- 
fore if thefe Notions, which are the Souls of PFcrds, be unjuftly and unfteadily 
abftrafted from things, the whole StrutSture muft fall. Nor can any labo- 
rious fubfequent Examination of the Confequences of Arguments, or the 
Truth of Propofitions, ever repair the Ruin : for the Error lies in the firft 
D'ig'ftion ; which cannot be redtified by the fecondary Funftions of Nature **. 
The •ami of ^^- ^^ ^^^ ^'^^■> therefore, without caufe, that many of the ancient Philo- 
<;e)s:ii»e In- fophers, and fome of them eminent in their way, became Acadejnicks and 
daaion, the Scepticks ; who denied all certainty of human Knowledge : and held that the 
Cu« eff/Scep- Underftanding went no further than Appearance and Probability. 'Tis true, 
fome arc of opinion, that Socrates-, when he declared himfelf certain of no- 
thing, did it only in the way of Irony, and put on the Diffimulation of 
Knowledge •, that by renouncing what he certainly knew, he might be 
thought to know what he was ignorant of Nor in the later Academy, which 
Cicero follow'd, was this Opinion held with much reality : but thofe who 
exceird in Eloquence, commonly chofe this Se^, as the fitteft for their pur- 
pofe ; z'iz. acquiring the Reputation of Difputing copioufiy on both fides of 
the Queftion : thus leaving the high Road of Truth, for private Walks of 
Pkafure, Yet 'tis certain there were fome few, both in the old and new 
Academies, but more among the Scepticks, who held this Principle of 
doubting, in Simplicity and Sincerity of Heart. But their chief Error lay in 
accufing the Perceptions of the Senfes ; and thus pluck'd up the Sciences b'j 
their roots. For tho' the Senfes often deceive, or fail us ; yet, when in- 
duftrioufly affifted, they may fuffice for the Sciences : and this not fo much 
by the help of Inftruments, which alfo have their ufe, as of fuch Experi- 
ments, as may furnifli more fubtile Objefts, than are perceivable by Senfe. 
But they fhould rather have charged the Defeds of this kind upon the Er- 
rors, and Obftinacy of the Mind, which refufes to obey the nature of things ; 
and again, upon corrupt Demonftrations, and wrong ways of arguing and 
concluding, erroneoufly infer'd from the Perceptions of Senfe. And this we 
fay, not to detraft from the human Mind, or as if the Work were to be 
deferted ; but that proper alTiftances maybe procured, and adminifter'd to 
the Underftanding, whereby to conquer the Difficulties of Things, and the 
, . r-r Obfcurities of Nature. What we endeavour is, that the Mind, by the help 
dication, or" "/ -^^^f f"^y become equal to Things j and to find a certain Art of Indication, 

Direftion, Of 

va» I g. J .pj^.^ Obfervation is of the utraoft importance: infbmuch, that it is fcarce poflible, for 

want of a Philojhphicai Language, to exprefs, with Accuracy and Vrecifion, the Discoveries al- 
ready made in Nature: as may evidently appear in the Writings of that fuccefsful Philofopher 
Sir Ifaac Nevten. 

'• To iiluftrate this Doftrine by an Example; we need but confider the general Procedure of 
Philolbphers in their Refearches, by means of Reajoning, Sufpofitions, and uncertain £j[ays, in- 
ftead of attentive Obfervation, careful Experiment, and Cenfirmatien by repeated Trial. Thus the 
Principles oi Mineral H'aters have long been reafon'd about, fuppoied and guefled at; and but of 
late begin to be deduced by clofe Obfervation, Experience, the Me'.hod of Rejeffion, and juft Indue- 
tie». And the fame holds true proportionably in Ajlronomy, Medkint, and other Branches of Ffyjicki. 



Sed.XII. Learned Experience. "9 

or Direo'Jion, to difclofe, and bring other Jrts to light, tog"ther with their 
Jxioms nnd Effe.ls. And this Jri we, upon juft ground, report as deficient. 

II. This Art of Ivdication has two Parts : for Indicat'wjt proceeds Tif <wo f«rfi 
(i.) {vom Experbnent to Experiment; or (2.) 'irom Experiments to Axioms •■>''f''"' ^'^■ 
which may again point out new Experiments. The former we call Learned 
Experience ; and the latter the Interpr»etation of Nature, 
Novu/n Organum, or new Machine for the Mi/ai. The firfi, indeed, as was 
formerly intimated, is not properly an Jrt, or any part of Philofophy ; but 
a kind of Sagacity: whence we fometimes call it the Chafe of Pan \ borrow- 
ing the Name from the Fahle of that God^ And as there are three ways 
of°walking-, viz. (i.) either by feeling out one's way in the dark-, or 
(2.) when being dim-fighted, another leads one by the hand •, and (3.)bf 
dircding one's Steps by a Light : fo when a Man tries all kinds of Experiments^ 
without Method, or Order, this is mere groping in the dark; but when 
he proceeds with feme Diredion, and Order, in his Experiments, 'tis as if 
he were led by the hand •, and this we underftand by learned Experience : but 
*for the Light itfelf, which is the third way, it muft be derived from tlic 
Novum Organum ^. 



SECT. XII. 

0/* Learned Experience. 

i.rTpHE Defign of Learned Experience, or the Chafe of Pan^^TheDefignof 
X. is to fliew the various ways of making Experiments : and as we note Learned Ex- 
it for deficient; and the thing itfelf is none of the cleareft ; we will here^"'^°"' 
give fome fhort Sketch of the JFork. The manner of Experimenting chiefly 
confifts in the Variation, ProduStion, Tranflalion, Inverfion, Compulfton, Ap- 
plication, Conjun^ion, or any other manner of diverfifying, or making Chance- 
Experiments. And all this lies without the limits of any Axio?n of Inven- 
tion : but the Interpretation of Nature takes in all the Tranfitions of Experi- 
ments into Axioms, and of Axioms into Experiments ^. 

2. Experiments are varied firji in the SubjeSf ; as when a known Experiment, The -ways of 
having rejled in one certain Subjlance, is tried in another of the like kind : Z'"^I'"ff„f„t) 
Thus the making of Paper is hitherto confin'd to Linen, and not appl ied (■,'_) i„ j^« 
to Silk, unlefs among the C/'/«f/^ -, nor to Hair- Stuflfs and Camblets ; nortoSubjeft. 
Cotton and Skins : tho' thefe three feem to be more unfit for the purpofe, 
and fo fhould be tried in mixture, rather than feparate. Again, Efigraft- 
ing is praftifed in Fruit-Trees, but rarely in wild ones •, yet an Elm grafted 
upon an Elin, is faid to produce great Foliage for fliade. hifition likewife 
in Flowers, is very rare, tho' now the Experiment begins to be made upon 
Musk-Rofes ; which are fuccefsfully inoculated upon common ones. We al- 
fo place the Variations on the fide of the thing, among the Variations in the 

I Matter, 

* See the Table of Pan explain'd above, SeH. II. of Poetry. 
*■ Vii.. The fecond fart of the Instauration. 
' f''*- The ftarting, hunting, and purfuing of all natural Th'ingt. 
' This Subjeft is fully profecuted in the Novum Organum. 



I20 Learned Experience. SeA.XII. 

Matter. Thus we fee a Scion grafted upon the Trunk of a Tree, thrives 
better than if fet in Earth : and why fhould not Onion-feed, fet in a 
green Onion, grow better, tlian when fown in the Ground by irfelf •, a 
Root being here fubftituted for the Trunk, fo as to make a kind of Infition 
in the Root? 
(t..) In theEf- 3- -^'^ Experiment may h varied in the Efficient. Thus, as the Sun's Rays 
ficitnt. are fo contrafted by a Burning-glafs, and heighten'd to fuch a degree, as 

to fire any combuftible Matter : may not the Rays of the Moon, by the 
fime means, be actuated to fome fmall degree of warmth •, fo as to fhew 
whether all the heavenly Bodies are potentially hot ? And as luminous 
Heats are thus increafed by GJafTes : may not opake Heats, as of Stones and 
Metals, before ignition, be encreafed likewife ? Or is there not fome Pro- 
portion of Light here alfo ? Amber and Jet, chafed, attraft Straws ; whence 
^icere if they will not do the fame when warmed at the fire ? 
(j.) In the 4. An Experiment may be varied in ^antity, wherein very great care is 

^lamity. required, as being fubjeft to various Errors. For Men imagine, that upon 
increafing the Quantity, the Virtue fhould increafe proportionably : and 
this they commonly poftulate as a mathematical Certainty ; and yet 'tis utterly 
falfe. Suppofe a Leaden-Ball, of a pound weight, let fall from a Steeple, 
reaches the Earth in ten feconds •, will a Ball of two pounds, where the Power 
of natural Motion, as they call it, Ihould be double, reach it in five ? No, 
they will fall almoft in equal times -, and not be accelerated according to 
Qiiantity. Suppofe a Dram of Sulphur would flux half a pound of Steel j 
will therefore an Ounce of Sulphur flux four Pounds of Steel ? 'Tis no con- 
fequence -, for the Stubbornnefs of the Matter in the Patient is more increafed 
by Quantity, than the Aftivity of the Agent. Befides, too much, as well 
as too little, may fruflrate the Efi^e£t : thus in fmelting and refining of Me- 
tals, 'tis a common Error to increafe the Heat of the Furnace, or the 
Quantity of the Flux ; but if thefe exceed a due Proportion, they prejudice 
the Operation : becaufe, by their Force and Corrofivenefs, they turn much 
of the pure Metal into Fumes, and carry itofi^-, whence there en fues, not 
only a lofs in the Metal, but the remaining Mafs becomes more fluggifli and 
intradtable. Men fhould therefore remember how ^Efop's Houfe-wife was 
deceived, who expeded that, by doubling her Feed, her Hen fhould lay 
two Eggs a day -, but the Hen grew fat, and laid none. 'Tis abfolutely 
uniafe to rely upon any natural Experiment, before proof be made of it, both 
in a lefs and a larger quantity. 
(^.) By-Repe- r. An Experiment is produced two v/2.ys, viz. hy Repelition and Exten/wn; 
the Experiment being either repeated, or urged to a more fubtile thing. It 
may ferve for an Example of Repetition, that Spirit of Wine is made of Wine, 
by one diftillation ; and thus becomes much Itronger, and more acrid, than 
the Wine itfelf : will likewife Spirit of Wine proportionally exceed itfelf in 
flrength by another diffillation ? But the Repetition alfo of Experiments may 
deceive •, thus here the fecond Exaltation does not equal the Excefs of the firft ; 
and frequently, by repeating an Experiment, after a certain pitch is obtain'd. 
Nature is fo far from going farther, that fhe rather falls back. Judg- 
9ient, therefore, mufl: be ufed in this afJitir. So Quickfilver put into melt .d 

Lead, 



tutm. 



Se<ft. XII. LearnedExperience. i2r 

Lead, when it begins to grow cold, will bearrefted, and remain no longer 
fluid: but will the fame Quickfilver, often ferved fo, become fix'd and 
malleable ? 

6. For an Example of Extenfion \ Water made pendulous above, by means (,-.) By £.v<f». 
of a long Glafs-ftem, and dipp'd into a mixture of Wine and Water; will /<"'• 
feparate the Water from the Wine •, tiie Wine gently rifing to the top, and 

the Water defcending, and fettling at the bottom. Now as Wine and Water, 
being two different Bodies, are feparable by this contrivance ; may likewife 
the more fubtile parts of Wine, which is an entire Body, be feparaced from 
the moregrofs, by this kind of Diftillation, perform'd, as it were, by Gravity i 
fo as to have floating a-top, a Liquor like Spirit of Wine, or perhaps more 
fubtile? Again, t\\Q Loadjlom draws /ro« in fubftance i h\\tW\\\ Loadjlone, 
plunged into a folution of Iron, attract the Iron, and cover itfelf with it ? 
So the magnetick Needle applies to the Poles of the World : but does it do 
this after the fame courfe and order that the celeftial Bodies move ? Sup- 
pofe the Needle held at the South Point, and then let go -, would it now turn 
to the North by the Weft or Eaft ? Thus Gold imbibes Quickfilver con- 
tiguous to it v but does the Gold do this without increafing its own Bulk, 
fo as to become a Mafs fpecifically heavier than Gold? Thus Men help 
their Memories by fetting up Pidures of Perfons in certain places •, but 
would they obtain the fame end, if, neglefting their Faces, they only ima- 
gined the Adlions or Habits of the Perfons ? 

7. An Experiment may be iransfer'd three ways; viz. (i.) by Nature, or (<5) Bji Tnn(- 
Chance, into an Art-, (2.) from one Art, or Pradice, to another; and ^a^^'l"' 
(3.) from one part of an Art to another. There are innumerable Examples /row Wurc 
of the transferring of Experiments from Nature, or Chance, to Arts; as intoaoArt. 
nearly all the mechanical Arts owe their Origins to flender beginnings, af- 
forded by Nature, or Accident. 'Tis authoriz'd by a Proverb, that Grapes 

among Grapes ripen fooner. And our Cyder-Makers obferve the rule : for 
they do not ftamp and prefs their Apples, without laying them on heaps, for 
a time, to ripen by mutual Contad ; whereby the Liquor is prevented from 
being too tart. So the making of artificial Rainbows, by the thick fprink- 
ling of little drops of Water, is an eafy Tranfiation from natural Rainbows 
made in a rainy Cloud. So the Art of Diftillation might be taken, either 
from the falling of Rain, and Dew, or that homely Experiment of boiling 
Water ; where Drops adhere to the Cover of the VeflTel. Mankind might 
have been afraid to imitate Thunder and Lightning, by the invention of 
great Guns; had not the chemical Monk received the firft hint of it by 
the impetuous Difcharge, and loud Report, of the Cover of his Veflcl \ But 
if Mankind were defirous to fearch after ufeful things, they ought attentively, 
minutely, and on fet purpofe, to view the Workmanftiip and particular Ope- 
rations of Nature ; and be continually examining and cafting about, which 
of them may be transferred to yirts ^ : for Nature is the Mirror of Art. . 

* This Accident is related of Barth. Schwartz., a Dmifj Monk. 

•> There are many Inftances of .^rf; copied from Nature in M. Sertlls Treatife de I» Science 
univerftlle. 

Vol. r. 3R. S., 



122 Learned Experience. Sed.XII. 

Terom one Art 8. Nor are there fewer Experiments transferrahle from one Arty or VraElicey 
to tinother. fg another; tho' this be rarely ufed. For Nature lies every where obvious to 
us all •, tho' particular Arts are only known to particular Artifts. SprBacles 
were invented for a help to weak Sights -, might not, therefore, an Inftru- 
ment de difcovered, that applied to the Ears, fliould help the Hearing ^ ? 
Embalming preferves dead Bodies ; could not therefore fomeihing of like 
kind be transferred to Medicine, for the prefervation of live ones ? So the 
Praftice of fealing in IFax, Cements and Lead, is ancient, and paved the 
way to the printing on Paper, or the Art of the Prefs. So in Cookery, Salt 
preferves Mjats better in Winter than in Summer : might not this be ufe- 
tiilly transferred to Baths, and the occafional Regulation of their Tempera- 
ture? So by late experience. Salt is found of great efficacy in condenfing, 
by the way of artificial freezing: might not this be transferred to the con- 
denfing of Metals ; fince 'tis found that the Aqua fortes, compos'd of Salts, 
dilTolve Particles of Gold out of fome lighter Metals ? So Painting re- 
freflies the Memory by the Image of a thing: and is not this transferred in 
what they call the Art of Memor'j ? And let it be obferv'd, in general, that 
nothing is of greater Efficacy in procuring a ftock of new and ufefid Inven- 
tions, than to have the Experiments of numerous mechanick Arts known to 
a fingle Perfon, or to a few, who might mutually improve each other by Con- 
verfation : fo that by this Tranjlation of Experiments, Arts might mutually 
warm, and light up each other, as it were, by an intermixture of Rays ''. For 
altho' the rational way, by means of a new Machine for the Mind, promifes 
much greater things •, yet this Sagacity, or learned Experience, will, in the 
mean time, fcatter among Mankind many Matters ; which, as fo many 
miffive Donatives among the Ancients, are near at hand. 
And from one 9. The transferring of Experiments frorn one fart of an Art to another, dif- 
partofmArtfers little from the transferring one Art to another. But becaufe fome Arts are 
fo another. ^^ extenfive, as to allow of the Tranflation of Experiments within them- 
felves, 'tis proper to mention this kind alfo ; efpecially as 'tis of very great 
moment in fome particular Arts. Thus it greatly contributes to enlarge they/r/ 
of Medicine, to have the Experiments of that part which treats of the Cures 
of Difeafes, transferred to thofe parts which relate to the Prefervation of 
Health, and the Prolongation of Life. For if any famous Opiate fhould, 
in a pefbilential Diftemper, fupprefs the violent Inflammation of the Spirits ; 
it might thence feem probable, that fomething of the fame kind, render'd 
familiar by a due Dofe, might, in good meafure, check that wafting Inflam- 
mation which fteals on with Age '. 

10. 

' K'lrcher claims the honour of an Invention of this kind, in his Fhonottrgta ; tho' perhaps 
the Ear-Trumpet was ufed in England before his time. 

*■ On this Foundation was built that noble Defign of Mr. Boyle, for putting out Apprentices 
to particular Trades ; chiefly with a view of having the Knowledge and Praifices of fuch 
Trades afterwards communicated to hi mlelf, or others, whom he (hould depute for the purpofe. 
And whoever would confer a Angular Benefit upon Mankind, and improve Philojofly in earneft, 
could not, perhaps, do better, than by putting luch a Delign in execution. 

' Viz. That kind of Heat, or Inflammation, which dries the Fi/>res, turns the Cartilages and 
Tendons bony, and thus ftops the Offices and Funftions of the Body j whence Decay and Death 
are naturally brought on by old Age. 



SeA. XII. Learned Experience. 123 

10. An Experiment is inverted, when the contrary of ivhat the^.x-iy-) The In- 
PERiMENT J^jezc's, ts prcved : for example, Heat is increafed by Burning- ^".'""^ "/^-^" 
Gl.ifles : but may Cold be fo too? So Heat, in diffufing itfelf, rather mounts f^''""'""' 
upwards ; but Cold, in diffufing itfelf, rather moves downwards. Thus, if an 

iron Rod be heated at one end, then eroded upon its heated end, and the Hand 
be applied to the upper part of the Rod, the Hand will prefently be burnt; but 
if the heated end be placed upwards, and the Hand applied below, it will be 
burnt much flower. But if the whole Rod were heated, and one end of ic 
wet with Snow, or a Sponge dipp'd in cold Water : would the Cold be 
fooner propagated downwards, than upwards, if the Sponge Avcre applied 
below ? Again, the Rays of the Sun are reflefted from a white Body, but 
abforbed by a black one : are Shadows alfo fcatter'd by black, and col- 
lected by white Bodies ? We fee in a d,;rk place, where Light comes in only 
at a fmall Hole ; the Images of external Objedts are received upon white Pa- 
per, but not upon black. 

1 1. An Experiment is compell'd, zvhere 'tis urged or produced to the (S.^TheCom- 
Annihihtion or Deftru8ion of the Power ; the Prey being onlv catch'd in the puliiono/£*- 
other Chafes, but kill'd in this. Thus the Loadftom attradts Iron ; urge t^''""»''- 
therefore the Iron, or urg? the Loadftone, till they attradtno longer: for 
example ; if the Loadftone were burnt, or fteep'd in Aq^ua forth, would ic 
entirely, or only in part, lofe its Virtue.'' So if Iron were reduced to a 

Crocus, or made into prepared Steel, as they call it, or diffolved in Aqua 
fortis ; would the Loadftone ftili attradl it ? The Magnet draws Iron thro' all 
known Mediums, Gold, Silver, Glafs, ^c. Urge the Medium, therefore, 
and, if poflible, find out one that intercepts the Virtue. Thus make trial of 
^dckfiher. Oil, Gums, ignited Gold, and fuch things as have not yet been 
tried. Again, M/f/-o/2o/d'j have been lately introduced, which ftrangely mag- 
nify minute Objedls : urge the ufe of them either by applying them to Ob- 
jefts fo fmall, that their power is loft ; or fo large, till 'tis confounded. 
Thus, for example, can Microfcopes clearly difcover thofe things in Ui-ine, 
which are not ocherwife perceptible? Can they difcover any Specks, or 
Clouds, in Gems that are perfeftly clear and bright to appearance ? Can 
they magnify the Motes of the Sun, which Democritus miftook for Atoms, 
and the Principles of Things ? Will they fhew a mix'd Powder of Vermi- 
lion and Cerufe in diftinft Grains of Red and White ? Will they magnify 
larger Objefls, as the Face, the Eye, ^c. as much as they do a Gnat or a 
Mite ? Or reprefent a Piece of fine Linen open as a Net ? 

12. The Application of an Experiment, is no more than an inge- (9.) T&eAp- 
mous Tranfation of it to fame other Experiment of ufe : for example, all Bodies plication of 
have their own Dimenfions and Gravities. Gold has more Gravity and lefs ^^^^ 
Bulk than Silver, and JVater than PFine ; hence an ufeful Experiment is derived 
for difcovering what proportion of Silver is mix'd with Gold ; or of fFater 
with /^7w ; from a knowledge of their Meafure and Weight ; which was 
the grand Difcovery of Archimedes. Again, as Flefli putrefies fooner in 
fome Cellars than in others, 'twere ufeful to transfer this Experiment to the 
Examination of Airs^ as to their being more or lefs wholefome to live in ; 

R 2 bv 



periraencs. 



1 24 LearnedExperience, Sedl.XII. 

by finding thofe wherein Flefh remains longeft unputrefied : And the fame 
Experiment is applicable to difcover the more wholefome or peftilential Sea- 
fons of the Year. But Examples of this kind are endlefs ; and require that 
Men fhould have their Eyes continually turn'd one while to the Nature of 
'Things., and another while to human Ufes. 
(io.)Ti<Con- 13. The Conjunction of an YLxpz^iMti^T, is a ConneHion andChain 
juniftion of of Applications., when thofe things which were not ufcful Jingle, are made nfeful 
Experiments, ^y Connexion : for example, to have Rofes or Fruits come late, the way is 
to pluck off the early Buds, or to lay bare the Roots, and cxpofe them to the 
open Air, towards the middle of Spring; but 'tis much better to do both 
together. So Ice and Nitre feparate, have a great power of cooling ; but 
a much greater, whenmix'd together. But there may be a Fallacy in 
this obvious Affair, as in all cafes where Axioms are wanting -, if the CoJi- 
junffion be made in things that operate by different, and, as it were, con- 
trary ways. 
(11.) Chance- i4> As for Chance-Experiments, thefe are plainly an irrational and 
Experimcms. wild Procedure -, when the Mind fuggefts the trial of a thing, not becaufe any 
Reafon or Experiment perfuades it, but only becaufe nothing of the like kind 
has been tried before : yet even here, perhaps, fome confiderable Myftery 
lies concealed j provided no ftone in nature were left unturn'd : for the capital 
things of Nature generally lie out of the beaten Paths -, fo that even the 
abfurdnefs of a thing, fometimes proves ufeful. But if Reafon alfo be here 
join'd, fo as to fliew that the like Experiment never was attempted, and yet 
that there is great caufe why it fhould be ; then this becomes an excellent 
Inftrument, and really enters the Bofom of Nature. For example, in the 
Operation of Fire upon natural Bodies, it hath hitherto always happen'd, 
that either fomething flies off, as Flame and Smoke, in our common Fires, 
or at leaft, that the parts are locally feparated to fome diftance, as in Diftilla- 
tion ; where the Vapour rifes, and the Fseces are left behind •, but no Man hath 
hitherto tried clofe Diflillation *. Yet it feems probable, that if the Force of 
Heat may have its Aftion confined in the Cavities of a Body, without any 
poflibility of lofs or efcape, this Proteus of Matter will be manacled, as 
it were, and forced to undergo numerous Transformations ; provided only 
the Heat be fo moderated and changed, as not to break the containing Vef- 
fel. For this is a kind of natural Matrix, where Heat has its Effeft without 
feparating, or throwing off the Parts of a Body. In a true Matrix, in- 
deed, there is Nourifliraent fupplied ; but in point of Tranfmutation, the 

cafe 

• The Thing here meant is not, as appears from other Paflages of the Authsr, the commoa 
<[Ufe Dtgeftion, Dijl'llation vfithout the admiflion of Air, or clofe Sublimatimi as in making 
Mercury precipitate fer fe; hat a nea Digejlien, pradlifedby means of the Digestor, or hollow me- 
talline £ngjne, made fo ftrong and firm, as to endure a great Violence of Fire; which is an Ope- 
ration that had not, perhaps, been pra£tiled at the time our Author wrote; but is the reputed 
Invention of M. Pafin, and Mr. Boylei tho' they neither of them carried the Difcovery to any 
great length : and even at prefent it feems to reft in the making of Soops, or foftening of a/is- 
mal Bones, tho' applicable, perhaps, to much nobler Purpofes. . See more upon this head, ia 
MQThof'ifBljhifior,T:<3ta.\l,^^g.iiisj, 



Se<?l.XIir. The Invention <?/* Arguments. 125 

cafe is the fame '. And here let none defpair or be confounded, if the Ex- 
periments they attempt Ihould not anfwer their Expedtation : for tho' Succefs 
be indeed more /"/^d/r/Tf ; yet FiSjVi^rc', frequently, is no lefs informing: and it 
muft ever be remembred, that Experiments of Light are more to be defired, 
than Experiments of Profit. And fo much for Learned Experience, as 
we call it -, which thus appears to be rather a Sagacity y or a.fcen(ing of Naturct 
as in hunting, than a direft Science ^. 



SECT. XIII. 

Of the Invention of Arguments: and 
Topical Invention. 

l.-fTPHE Invention of Arguments is not properly an Invention', rhe invmthn 
P for to invent, is to difcover things unknown before ; and not to re- ofArgHmmti, 
colled, or admit, fuch as are known already. The Office and Ufe of this **'"* 
kind of Invention, feems to be no more, than dextroufly to draw out from 
the Stock of Knowledge laid up in the Mind, fuch things as make to the 
prefent purpofe : for one who knows little or nothing of a Subjeft propofed, 
has no ufe of Topicks, or Places of Invention ; whilft he who is provided of 
fuitable Matter, will find and produce Arguments, without the help of Art, 
and fuch Places of Invention ; tho' not fo readily and commodioufly : whence 
this kind of Invention, is rather a bare calling to Memory, or a Suggeftion 
with Application, than a real Invention. But fince the Term is already received, 
it may ftill be called Invention ; as the hunting in a Park may be call'd hunt- 
ing, no lefs than that in the open Field. But not to infift upon the Word, 
the Scope and End of the thing itfelf, is a quick and ready ufe of our Thoughts, 
rather than any Enlargement or Increafe of them. 

2. There are tisjo Methods of procuring a Stock of Matter for Difcourfe ; viz. TwMethoJt 
(i.) either by marking out, and indicating the Parts wherein a thing is to be ef procuring 
fearch'd after, which is what we call the Topical Way ; or (2.) by laying ^^»'"' f»', 
up Arguments for ufe, that were compofed before hand, relating to fuch ,heToilcl"" 
things as frequently happen, and come in difpute ; and this we call the and tit 

PronTP- promptuary. ■ 

* Much Light of Direftion for producing uncommon Effefts, may be derived from this 
Tajfage, as it opens the way for an exaft and powerful Imitation of Nature, in her clefe Me- 
thods of operating, in the Formation of Animals in the Uterus, and the Egg; the Produ^ioa 
of Metals and Minerals, in the dofe Caverns of the Earth, ^c. See Morhf, in the placea bove- 
quoted ; and confult Experience, as to the clefe Operations of the FMrnace. 

^ ThisSe<£tion appears to have beenHttle underftood, even by fome eminent Men ; whocen- 
fure the Scheme of the Author, and think that Experiments muft needs be cafual, and the human 
Underftanding unable to direft and conduft them to ufeful purpofes, unlefs by accident. The 
Misfortune feems to lie here, that few converfe fo familiarly with Nature, as to judge what 
may be done in this v/ayj or how the numerous Difcoveries of the Lord Bacon, Mr. Boyle, 
T):. Hooi, Sir IfaacSewton, itc. were made. An attentive Perulal of the Now. y. Qrc'ano.m, 
where this Subjeft is largely profecuted, will unravel the A^y?frv. 



126 T;??^ Invention o/* Arguments: Sed.XIII. 

Promptuary Way : but the latter can fcarce be called a part of Science., 
as confifting rather in diligence than any artificial Learning. Arijtotle 
on this head ingeniouQy derides the Sophifts of his time, faying, they a^ed 
like aprofefs'd Shoemaker, who did not teach the Art of Shoeniaki>ig., butfet out 
a large Jiock of /hoes, of different fhapes and fixes. But it might be replied, 
that the Shoanaker who fhould have no fhoes in his fhop, and only make 
them as they were befpoke, would find few cuftomers. Our Saviour 
fpeaks far ocherwife of divine Knowledge, (zymg. Therefore every Scribe which 
is inftruoled into the kingdom of heaven, is like unto a man that is an houjloolder, 
which brings forth out of his treafure things new and old. 

3. We find alfo that the ancient Rhetoricians gave it in precept to the 
Orators, to be always provided of various Comtnon Places, ready furnifhed 
and illuftrated with Arguments on both fides; as for the intention of the 
Latv againft the words of the Law ; for the truth of Arguments againft 
Teftimonies, and vice verfa. And Cicero himfelf being taught by long expe- 
rience, roundly aflerts, that a diligent and experienced Orator ihould have 
fuch things as come into 'difpute, ready laboured and prepared, fo as that in 
Pleading there fhould be no neceffity of introducing any thing new, or occafio- 
nal, except new Names, and fome particular Circumflances. But as the firft 
o/)^K»/f of the Caufe has a great efi'eft in preparing the minds of the Audience, 
the exadnefs o'iI)emoflhenes]\iAotd^ it proper to compofe before-hand, and 
have in readinefs, feveral Introduiflions to his Harangues and Speeches: and 
thefe Examples, and Authorities,may juftly over-rule the opinion of Ariflotle, 
who would have us change a whole IVardrobe for a pair of Sheers. This 
promptuary Method, therefore, fhould not be omitted, but as it relates as well 
to Rhetorick as to Logick, we fhall here touch it but flightly ; defigning to 
confider it more fully under Rhetorick *. 

4. We divide topical Invention into general and particular. The general h 
fo copioufly and diligently treated in the common Logicks, that we need not 

Topical Tn. dwell upon its explanation : we only obfer\'e by the way, that this topical 
■vention divi- Method h not Only ufed in Argumentation, and clofe Conference, but alfo 
ral'and iarti- '"^(Contemplation, when we meditate or revolve anything alone. Nor is its 
cular. office only confin'd to the fuggefting, or admonifliing us, of what Ihould be 

affirmed or afierted -, but alfo what we fhould examine or queftion: a pru- 
dent queftioning being a kind of haf-knowledge ; for, as P/s/o juftly obferves, 
a Searcher mufi have fome general notion of the thing he fearches after, 0- 
therwife he could never know it when he had found it ; and therefore the 
more comprehenfiveand fure o\i.x Anticipation is, the moredired: and fhort will 
be the Invejligation. And hence the fame Topicks wiiich conduce to the clofe 
examining into our own Underftandings, and colleding the Notices there 
treafured up, are Jikewife affiftant in drawing forth our Knowledge. Thus, 
if a perfon, skilful in the point under queftion, were a: hand, as we might 
prudently and advantageoufly confult him upon it ; in like manner, we may 
ufefuUy feled and turn over Authors and Books, to inftrud and inform our 
felves about thofe things we are in queft of. 

» See hereafter, Seel. XVIII. 



Sed. XIII. and Topical Invention. 127 

5. But the PARTICULAR TOPICAL INVENTION isiTlUch morC COTifllX- The particu- 

cive to the fame purpoles, and to be eftcemed a highly fertile thing. Some '"'■ 'f;'''i'/«- 
Writers have lately mentioned it ; but 'tis by no means treated accordino- "^'"'""^ <^«'^- 
to its extent and merit. Not to mention the Error and Haughtinefs which 
have too long reigned in the Schools ; and their piirliiing with infinite iubtilty,' 
fuch things as are obvious,without once touching upon thofe that lie remote ; 
we receive this Topical hivefition as an extremely ufeful thing that affords cer- 
tain Heads of Enquiry and Iiivjfligation appropriated to particular Suhjet^s and 
Sciences. Thefe /'/rt^t'j are certain mixiurci oi Logick, and the peculiar mat- 
ter of each Science. 'Tisan idle thing, and fhews a narrow mind to think 
that the Art of difcovering the Sciences may be invented and propofed in pcr- 
feftion from the beginning ; fo as to be afterwards only exercifed and 
brought into ufe : for men Ihould be made fenfible, that the /olid and real 
Arts of Invention grow up and increafe along with Inventions themfelves : fo 
that when any one firft comes to the thorough examination of a Science^ 
he fhould have fome ul'eful Rules of Difcov-ery ; but after he hath made a 
confiderable progrefsin the Science itfelf, he may, and ought, to find out new 
Rules of Invention ; the better to lead him ftill further. The way here is 
like walking on a Flat, where after we have gone fome length, we not only 
approach nearer the End of our journey ; but alfo have a clearer view of 
what remains to be gone of it: fo in the Sciences, every ftep of the way, as 
it leaves fome things behind, alfo gives us a nearer profpedt of thofe that 
remain: and as we report this particular topical Invention defcient ; we think 
proper to give an Example of it, in the Subjeft of Gravity and Levity. 

6. (i.) Let Enquiries be tnade what kind of bodies are fufceptihle of the mo- An example 
tion of Gravity ; what of Levity : and if there be any of a iniddle or neutral "f 'be t'"'ti- 
Nature. '"'"'' t°pical 

7. (2.) After thefwiple Enquiry of Gravity and Levity, proceed to a cotnpa- thT}uy^a'"f 
rative Enquiry ; viz. which heavy bodies weigh more, and which lefs, in the fame Gravity /,»i 
dimenfions ; and of like ones, which mount upwards the fwifter, and which the Levity. 
flower. 

8. (3.) Enquire what effetl the quantity of the Body has in the tnotion of Gravi- 
ty. This at firft fight may appear a needlefs Enquiry, becaufe Motion may 
feem proportionable to Quancity, but the cafe is otherwife. For altho' in 
Scales, Quantity is equal to the Gravity, yet where there is a fmall refiftance, 
as in the falling of bodies thro' the Air, Quantity has but little force to 
quicken the defcent : for twenty pounds of lead, and a fingle pound, fall 
nearly in the fame time. 

9. (4.) Enquire whether the quantity of a Body may be fo increafed, as that 
the Motion of Gravity fhallbe entirely lojl; as in the Globe of the Earth, which- 
hangs pendulous without filling, ^iccre, therefore, whether other maffes may be 
fo large as to fujlain themfelves. For that Bodies fhould move to the centre 
of the Earth, is a fidion : and every mafs of matter has an averfion to 
local motion, till this be overcome by fome ftronger impulfe \ 

(50 

" Hence the famous Law of Motion, that Bodies would for ever continue in that ftate of 
Reft or Motion, wherein they once are, if fome other Caufe did not put them ourofic. Hence 

tbe 



128 7^^ Invention (9/*Arguments: Sed.XIIL 

10. (5.) Enquire into the Eff'eols and Nature of refijling Mediums, as to their 
influencing the Motion of Gravity ; for a falling body either penetrates and 
cuts thro' the body it meets in its way, or elfe is (topped by it. If it pafs 
through, there is a penetration, either with a fmall refiftance, as in Air j or 
with a greater, as in Water. If it be ftop'd, 'tis ftop'd by an unequal re- 
fiftance, where there is a preponderancy; as when Wood is laid upon Wax •, or 
by an equal refiftance, as when Water is laid upon Water, or Wood upon 
Wood of the fame kind: which is what the Schools pretend, when they idly 
imagine that bodies do not gravitate in their own places. And all thefe circum- 
ftances alter the motion of Gravity ; for heavy bodies move after one way in 
the ballance, and after another in falling : and, which may feem ftrange, after 
one way in a ballance fufpended in the Air, and after another in a ballance 
plunged in Water ; after one way in filling thro' Water, and after another 
when floating upon it. 

1 1. (6.) Enquire into the EffeBs of the Figure of the defcending Body, in direH- 
ing the Motion of Gravity: Suppofe of a figure broad and thin, cubical, 
oblong, round, pyramidal, &c. and how Bodies turn themfelves whilft 
they remain in the fame pofition as when firft let go. 

1 2. (7.) Enquire into the EffeSls of the Continuation and Progrejfcn of the Fall, 
or Defcent itfelfy as to the acquiring a greater impulfe or velocity ; and in what 
proportion and to what length this velocity is increafed : for the Ancients, upon 
flender confideration, imagin'd, that this Motion being Natural, was always 
upon the increafe. 

13. (8.) Enquire into the EffeBs of Diflance, or the near Approach of a Body 
defcending to the Earth *, fo as to fall fwifter, flower, or not at all ; fuppoftng it 
were to be out of the Earth's fphere of activity, according to Gilbert's opinion ; 
as alfo the Effects of plunging the falling Body deeper into the Earth, or placing 
it nearer the furface: for this alfo varies the Motion, as is manifeft to thofe 
who work in Mines. 

14.(9.) Enquire into the EffeHs of the difference of Bodies, thro* which the 
Motion of Gravity is diffufed and communicated ; and whether *tis equally cotnmu- 
nicated thro* [of t and porous Bodies, as thro' hard and folid ones. Thus if the 
beam of a fcale were one half of wood, and the other of filver, yet of the 
fame weight; enquire whether this would not make an alteration in the 
fcales : and again, whether metal laid upon wool, or a blown bladder, 
would weigh the fame as in the naked fcale. 

15. (10.) Enquire into the Effects of the diflance of a lody from the point offuf- 
penfton in the com?tiunicalion of the Motion of Gravity ; that is, into the earlier 
or later perception of its inclination or deprejji on : 3.s in ic^iles, where one fide 
of the beam is longer, tho' of the fame weight with the other, whether this 
inclines the beam ; or in fyphons, where the longer leg will draw the water, 
tho' the Ihorter, being made wider, contains a greater weight of water. 

16. (11.) Enquire into the EffeHs of intermixing or coupling a light Body and a 
heavy one, for leffening the Gravity of Bodies; as in the weight of creatures alive 
and dead. 17.(12.) 

the Km InertU of Matter, or its Indifpofition to Motion or Reft: and hence the Gravitation 
of Matter, and the Infignificance of Mashtmmcal Ctntres in the bufinefs of Attradipn. 



.Se<^.XIII. 17;;^ Topical Invention. 129 

17. (12.) Enquire into the Jfcaits and Defcents of the ligther and heavier parts 
of one entire Body : vjhence curious feparations are often made; as in the feparation 
of wine and water, the riftng of cream from vulk, &c. 

18. (13.) Enquire what is the Line and Birebtion of the Motion of Gravity, 
and how far it refpe^s the Earth's centre, that is, the mafs of the Earth ; or the 
centre of its own Body, that is, the appetite of its parts. For thefe centres are 
properly fuppofed in Demondrations •, but are othcrwife unfcrviceable in 
Nature. 

19. (14.) Enquire into the Comparative Motion of Gravity, with other 
Motions, or to what Motions it yields, and what it exceeds. Thus in the Mo- 
tion they call violent, the Motion of Gravity is with-held for a time ; and 
fo when a large weight of Iron is railed by a little Loadftone, the Motion ot 
Gravity gives way to the Motion of Sympathy. 

20.(15.) Enquire concerning the Motion of the ^ir, whether it rifes upwards^ 
«r be as it were neutral; which is not eafy to be difcovered without fome ac- 
curate Experiments: for the rifing up of Air at the bottom of Water, ra- 
ther proceeds from a refiftance of the Water, than the Motion of the Air •, 
fince the fame alfo happens in Wood \ But Air mixed with Air makes 
no difcovery ; for Air in Air may feem as light, as Water in Water fecms 
heavy : but in Bubbles, which are Air furrounded with a thin pellicle of 
Water, it ftandsftill for a time. 

21.(16.) Let the Bounds of Levity he enquired after ; for tho' Men make the 
Centre of the Earth the Centre of Gravity, they will perhaps hardly make 
the ultimate convexity of the Heavens the boundary of Levity •, but rathei-, 
perhaps, as heavy bodies feem to be carried fo far, that they reft, and grow as 
it were immoveable -, light bodies are carried fo far, that they bejgin a 
Rotation, or circular Motion. 

22. (17.) Enquire the caufe why Vapours and Effluvia are carried fo high, as 
that called the middle region of the Air ; fince the matter of them is fomewhat 
grofs ; and the rays of the Sun ceafe alternately by night. 

23. (18.) Enquire into the tendency of Flame upwards ; which is the more ah- 
ftrufe, becaufe Flame perifhes every moment, unlefs perhaps in the midfl of larger 
Flames : for Flames broken from their continuity, are of fmall duration. 

24. (19.) Enquire into the motion and activity of Heat upwards ; as when Heat 
in ignited Iron fooner creeps upwards than downwards. And thus much by 
way of Example of our particular Topical Enquiry. We muft, for a Conclu- 
fion, admonifh mankind, to alter their particular Topicks in fuch manner, as 
after fome confiderable progrefs made in the Enquiry, to raife Topick after 
Topick^, if they defire to afcend to the Pinnacle of the Sciences. For my 
own part, I attribute fo much to thefe particular Topicks, that I defign a par- 
ticular Work upon their Ufe, in the more eminent and obfcure fubjefts 

' As when a Plate of Wood is prefs'd with the Hand againft the bottom of a Pail of Waters 
for if the Hand be now taken away, the Wood is thrown up by the Water with great 
Tiolence. 

* The Method of doing this, is particularly explained fo the Novum Organum. 

Vol. I. S of 



130 7^5 Art (?/* Judgment. Seft.XIV. 

of Nature: for we are matters of queftions, tho' not of things». And here 
we clofe the Subjeftof Invention. 



SECT. XIV. 

Of the h^T 0/* Judgment. 

Tht Art of I'TTITE come now to the Art of Judgment, which treats of the «<t- 

Judgment by \l\ ture of Proof OT Demon ftratioK This Jrt, as 'tis commonly re- 

induaion, di- ^^■^y^^^ concludes either by Induolion or Syllos-ifm : for Enthvmemes and E)Cr 

ruft and ge- aniples are only abridgments or thele two ". As to judgment by Indu^ton, we 

mme. need not be large upon it ; becaufe what is fought, we both find and judge 

of, by the fame operation of the Mind. Nor is the matter here tranfadled 

by a medium, but diredtly -, almoft in the fame manner as by the Senfe : 

for Senfe, in its primary objefts, at once feizes the image of the objeft, and 

aflents to the truth of if. 'Tis ocherwife in Syllogifm, whofe proof is not 

direft, but mediate ; and therefore the Invention of the Medium, is one thing j 

and Judgment, as to the confequence of an argument, another : For the 

Mind firft calls about, and afterwards acquiefces. But for the corrupt Form 

of InduSfion, we entirely drop it; and refer the genuine one to our Method of 

interpreting Nature *. And thus much of Judgment by InduSJion. 

The Art tf 2. The Other by Syllogifm is worn by the File of many a fubtile Genius, 

Judgment by ^^^ reduced to numerous fragments -, as having a great fympathy with the 

Syllogifm, hi Yi^irazn Underftanding: for the Mind is wonderfully bent againft fluftuating ; 

"^'"' and endeavours to find fomething fix'd and unmoveable, upon which, as a 

firm bafis, to reft in its Enquiries. And as Arijlotle endeavours to prove, 

that in all motion of bodies, there is fomething ftill at reft -, and elegantly 

explains the ancient Fable of Atlas, fuftaining the Heavens on his fhoulders, 

of thePo/<?i of the World, about which the revolutions are performed : fo men 

have a ftrong defire to retain within themfelves an Atlas, or Pole for their 

Thoughts, in fome meafureto govern the fluduations and revolutions of the 

Underftanding : as otherwife fearing their Heaven fhould tumble. And hence 

it 

" Tho' no exprefs Work of thtf Author was publifhed with this Title, yet all his particulw 
imiuiries proceed in this Method; as the Hiflery of Winds, Life and Death, &c. and the fame 
was carefully followed hy the Ry»l Society, for a confiderable time; by drawing up Headsof En- 
quiries upon particular Subjefts; fending them abroad j and publiftiing them in their f/ii/o/flf^/V/i/ 
TranfuHions. The fame was likcwife obferved by Mr. Boyle, and moft other fucccfsful Enqui- 
rers into Nature, fince the Lord Bacon. See more to this purpofe in the Novum Organum, 
and IntroduBions to the third and fourth Parts of the Instauration. 

^ An Enthymeme is no other than a Syllogifm of two Propolirionj, the third bein^ fupplied 
by the Mindj as the word itfelf imports; iadlnduclion is no more than a firing of Inflances, or 
Examfles, brought upon any Head. 

' M leaft the Affent is given fo quick, asfcsrce tobediftinguilhed fronj the Sen&tion itA:lf- 

f Vix,. the Novum Organum. 2 



Se(ft. XIV. The Art «t/* Judgment, 131 

it is, that they have been ever ha fly in laying the Principles of the Sciences^ 
about which all the variety of Difputes might turn without danger offal- 
ling ; not at all regarding, that whoever too haftily catches at Certainties, 
(hall end in Doubts ; as he who feafonably with-holds his Judgment, fhall 
arrive at Certainties. 

3. 'Tis therefore manifcft that this Art of judging bv Syllogism Its ojjice. 
is nothing more than a ReduHion of Propofitions to their Principles, by middle 
Terms, But Principles are fuppofed to be received by confent ; and exempt 

from Queftion -, whilft x}[\& Invention of middle 7>;-otj is freely permitted to 
the fubtiky and inveftigation of the Wit. This Redu£iion is of two kinds, 
direct and inverfe. 'Tis dire^, when the. Propofition itself is reduced to the 
Principle ; and this is called ojlenfive Proof: 'Tis inverfe, when the Contra- 
diftory of the Propofition is reduced to the Contradi6tory of the Principle ; 
which they call Proof by abfurdity : but the number or fcale of the rniddle 
Terms is diminifhed, or increafed, according to the remotenefs of the Pro- 
pofition from the Principle. 

4. Upon this foundation, we divide the Art of Judgment nearly The Art «f 
as ufual, into Jnaly ticks, znd the Doctrine of Blenches, or Confutations -, the J^fjS""_"f <>'- 
firft whereof fupplies Dire^ion, and the other Caution : for Anahticks di- Analyr^ck", 
refts the true Forms of the confequences of Argu?nenti, from which if we vary, we and the Doc 
make a wrong Conclufion. And this itfelf contains a kind of Elench, or redar- trine of Coo.- 
gution ; for what is right, fhews not only itfelf, but alfo what is wrong. Yet f"^*"°°5- 
'tis fafeft to employ Eienches, as Monitors, the eafier to difcover ftUacies ; 

which would otherwife enfnare the Judgment. We find no Deficiency in 
Analsticks ; for 'tis rather loaded with fuperfluities, than deficient'. 

5. We divide the Doolrine of Confutations \nto three parts, viz. (i.) the TheDoHrine 
Confutation of Sophifins, (2.) the Confutation of Interpretation, and (3.) the "/Conftiu- 
Confutation of Images or Idols. The Doctrine of /Z)^ Confutation of So- "°"s '/iWerf 
PHI SMS, is extremely ufeful: for altho' a grofs kind of Fallacy is notim- confutation of 
properly compared, by Seneca, to the Tricks of Jugglers ; where we know Sofhifms. 
not by what means the things are perform'd, but are well affur'd they are 

not as they appear to be : yet the more fubtile Sopbifms not only fupply 
Occafions of Anfwer ; but alfo in reality confound the Judgment. This part 
concerning the Confutation of Sophifms is, in Precept, excellently treated by 
Arijiotle ; but ftill better by Plato, in Example ; not only in the Perfons of 
the ancient Sophifts, Gorgias, Hippias, Protagoras, Euthydemus, &c. but even 
in the perfon oi Socrates h\mk\\ ; who, always profefling to affirm nothing, 
but to confute what was produced by others, has ingenioufly exprefs'd the 
feveral Forms of Objections, Fallacies, and Redargutions. Therefore in this 
part we find no Deficiency ; but only obferve by the way, that tho' we place 
the true and principal Ufe of this DoBrine in the redargution of Sophifms ; yet 
'tis plain, that its degenerate and corrupt ufe tends to the raifing of Cavils, and 
Contradidionsjby means oithokSophifms themfelves: which kind of Faculty is 

S 2 highly 

• Upon theSubjeft oi Analpicks, fee Welgelius in his Andyjis Arijlotelica, tx Enclide rejii- 
$Ht», and Morhofm his iolyhtfior. Tom. I. Lib. II. cap. 7. dt Methtdis variU. 



132 the Art of Judgment. Se£t.XIV. 

highly eflreemed, and has no fmall ufes" : Tho' 'tis a good diflinftion made 
between the Orator and the Sophift, that the former excels in fwiftnefs, as 
the Grayhoundi the other in the turn, as the Hare. 
(i.)TheCen- 6. Witli regard to the Confutations of Interpretation, wemuft 
futation of here repeat what was formerly faid of the tranfcendental and adventitious 
Interpret^, conditions of Beings, fuch as Greater, Lefs, Whole, Parts, Motion, Reft, &c. 
'""*' For the different way of confidering thefe things, which is either Phy/tcallj 

or Logically, muft be remember'd. The Phyf.call'reatment of them we have al- 
loted to primary Pbilofophy ; but their Logical Treatment is what we here call 
the Confutation of Interpretation. And this we take for a found and ex- 
cellent part of Learning : as general and common Notions, unlefs accurately and 
judicioufly diftinguilhed from their Origin, are apt to mix themfelves in all 
Difputes, fo as ftrangely to cloud and darken the Light of the Queftion ; and 
frequently occafion the Controverfy to end in a quarrel about Words : for 
Equivocations and wrong Acceptations of Words, efpecially of this kind, 
are the Sophifms of Sophifms : wherefore 'tis better to treat of them feparate, 
than either to receive them into primary Pbilofophy or Meiaphyficks ; or again 
to make them a part of Analyticks, as Ariftotle has confufedly done. We give 
this Do£lrine a name from its Ufe ; becaufe its true ufe is indeed Redargution 
and Caution, about the employing of Words, So likewife that part concerning 
Predicaments, if rightly treated, as to the cautions againft confounding or 
tranfpofing the terms of Definitions and Divifions, is of principal ufe ; and 
belongs to the prefent Article. And thus much for the Confutation of In- 
terpretation. 
(^)Andtht 7- As to the Confutations of Images, or Idols, we obferve that 
CmfMation of Jdols are the deepefb Fallacies of the human Mind •, for they do not de- 
Idols, or falfe ceive in particulars, as the reft, by clouding and enfnaring the Judgment ; 
Notions. j^ij^ from a corrupt predifpofition, or bad complexion of the Mind; which 
diftorts and infefts all the anticipations of the Underftanding. For the 
Mind darkened by its Covering, the Body, is fas from being a flat, equal 
and clear Mirror, that receives and refleds the rays without mixture ; but 
rather a Magical Glafs, full of Superftiiions and Apparitions. Idols are im- 
, , ,. . , , pos'd upon the Underftanding, either (i.) by the general Nature of Mankind^ 
(2.) the Nature of each particular Man; or (3.) by Words, or communicative 
Nature. Thefirft kind we call Idols of the Tribe -, the fecond kind. 
Idols of the Den •, and the third kind. Idols of the Market *•. 
There is alfo a fourth kind, which we call Idols of the Theatre ; be- 
ing fuperinduced by falfe Theories, or Pbilofophies, and iht perverted Laws 
of Demonftration. This laft kind we are not at prefent concerned with ; as 
it may be rejected and laid alide : but the others feize the Mind ftrong- 

* For example, by giving occafion to farther Thought, Enquiry, and Difpute, which may 
•nd in feme new Difcovery, or thefaller clearing up and confirming fome Truth. 

'' The Reader (hould not be (hocked at the ufe of thcfe »e» Terms; fince the Doctrine of 
Idols was itfelf new at the Time that this was wrote : and being perhaps never togched upon 
before, the Author was obliged, for clearnefs and diftinftion fake, to givedifcriminating Names 
to the feveral Aflbrtmentt of thefe //»//« NofMW j the DeHrlm whereof 15 oiore fully explainsd 
and illuftrated ia the Novum Orcahum* 



Sed.XIV. The Art «/* Judgment. 133 

ly, and cannot be totally eradicated. Therefore no Art of yfnalpiiks can 
be expeft^d here •, but the Dc"nne of the Confutanon of Idols is the prmary 
DoiJh>:e of Idols. Nor indeed can the Dol}rine cf Idols be reduced to an 
Art ; but can only be employ'd, by means of a certain contemplative Pru- 
dence, to prevent them. 

9. For Idols OF the Tribe*-, 'tis obfervable that the nature of the (lO/»'»^^^»^-» 
JJnderJianding is more affedted with Affirmatives 3.nd Aclives., than with Nega- 'f'^' Tube, 
iives and Privatives ; tho' in juftnefs it fhould be equally affedted with them 

both : but if things fall out right, or keep their courfe, the Mind receives afronger 
imprejfion of this, than of a much greater number oi Failures, or contrary Events : 
which is the Root of all Superflition and Credulity. Hence Diagoras, being 
fhewed in Neptune's Temple, many votive Pictures of fuch as had elcaped Ship- 
wreck ; and thereupon asked by his Guide, if he did not now acknowledge the 
divine Power ? anfwered wifely. But firjl fhew me where tkofe are painted that 
were fhipwrecked, after having thus paid their voivs. And the cafe is the fame, in 
the rimilar5«/)(fr/?i/;o«jof aftrological Predidlions, Dreams, Omens, fe'c". Again, 
the Mind being of itfelf an equal and uniform fubjlance, prefuppofes a greater 
unanimity and uniformity in the nature of things, than there really is ; whence 
our thoughts are continually drawing parallels, and fuppofing relations in 
many things that are truly different, and fingular. Hence the Cbemijls have 
fantaftically imagined their four Principles correfponding to the Heavens, 
Air, Earth, and Water ; and the Mathematicians their circular Motions of 
the celcftial bodies, i^c. And again, Men make themfelves, as it ivere, the 
Mirror and Rule of Nature. 'Tis incredible what a number of Idols have 
been introduced into Philofophy, by the reduclion of Natural Operations to 
a^ corref^ondence with human Actions \ that is, by imagining Nature adls as 
Man does : which is not much better than the Heref^ of the Anthropomor- 
phites, that fprung up in the cells and folitude of ignorant monks ; or the 
opinion of Epicurus, who attributed a human figure to the Gods. Velleius, the 
Episurean, need not, therefore, have asked, -why God fhould have adorned the 
Heavens with Stars and Lights., as Majler of the Works ? For if the grand 
ArcbiteSi had aded a human Part, he would have ranged the Stars into 
fonre beautiful and elegant order ; as we fee in the vaulted roofs of Palaces ; 
whereas, we fcarcefind among fuch an infinite multitude of Stars, any figure 
either fquare, triangular, or reftilinear : fo great a difference is there betwixt 
the Spirit of Man, a.nd the Spirit of the Univerfe. 

10. The Idols of the Den have their Origin from the peculiar Na- (i.)The idoU 
ture, both of Mind and Body, in each perfon ; as alfo from Education, Cu- "/ '^e^kn. 
ftom, and the Accidents of particular perfons. 'Tis a beautiful Emblem that 

of Plato's Den ** ; for, to drop the exquifite fubtilty of the parable, if any one 
Ihould be educated from his infancy in a dark cave, till he were of full 

age, 

• Thefe might otherwife be called partial Idols; as being owing to the pirtiility or ob- 
liquity of the MinJ; which his its particular bent ; and admits of ibme things more readily 
than others, without a manifeft Realbn affign'd for it to the Underftanding. However Uus be, 
they maoifeftiy belong to the Triie of munkinJ. 
_ * Whence the Author apjarently wok tue^ Appellation, I^h oftbi Den, 



134- 



'The Art of Judgment. Sed.XIV» 



Ani{->,) the 
Iilols of the 
^larket. 



The DoHrint 
tf Idols defi- 
cient. 

An Afpendtx 

to the Art of 
Judgment de- 
ficient. 



age, and fhould then of a fudden be brought into broad day-light, and behold 
tliis Apparatus of the Heavens and of Things ; no doubt but many ftrange 
and abfurd fancies would arife in his Mind : and cho' men live indeed in the 
view of the Heavens; yet our Minds are confined in tiie cavt-rns of our Bo- 
dies •, whence of neceflity we receive infinite Images of Errors and Falfaoodis 
if the Mind does but feldom, and only for a fliort continu.Tnce, leave its 
Den •, and not conftantly dwell in the contemplation of I^^turt ; as it were 
in the open day- light. And with this Emblem of P/iita's Den, agrees the 
faying of Heraclitus ; viz. that Menfeek the Sciences in their oivn narrow Worlds, 
aJul not in the wide one. 

11. But the Idols of the Market give the greateft liifturbance 5 
and from a tacit agreement among mankind, with regard to the impofition 
of Words and Names, infinuate themfelves into the Underftanding : for Words 
are generally given according to vulgar conception ; and divide things by 
fuch differences as the common people are cap.ible of ^ : but when a more 
acute Underftanding, or a more careful Obfervation, would diif inguifh things 
better ; Words murmur againft it. The remedy of this lies in Definitions ; 
but thefe themfelves are in many refpefts irremediible •, as confifting of 
Words : for Words generate Words ; however men may imagine they have a 
command over Words ; and can eafily fay they will /peak with the Fulgar, 
and think with the Wife. Terms of Art alfo, which prevail only among the 
Skilful, may feem to remedy the mifchief -, and D'finitions premifed to Arts 
in the prudent mathematical manner, to correft the wrong acceptation of 
Words: yet all this is infufBcient to prevent the feducing incantation of 
Names, in numerous refpefts, their doing violence to the Underftanding, and 
recoiling upon it, from whence they proceeded. This evil therefore re- 
quires a new and a deeper Remedy ; but thefe things we touch lightly 
at prefent ; in the mean time, noting this Doctrine of grand Confuta- 
tions; or the Doctrine 0/ //&!? NATIVE and adventitious Idols of 
the Mind, for deficient ^. 

12. There is alfo wanting a confiderable Appendix to the AH of Judgment. 
Ariflotle indeed marks out the thing, but has no where delivered the manner 
of effecting it. The defign is to fliew what Detnonflrations JJjotdd be applied to 
what SubjeSls ; fo that this Doftrine fliould contain the Judging of Judg- 
ments ". For Ariflotle well obferves, that we fhould not require Detnonflra- 
tions from Orators, nor Perfua/wn from Mathematicians : fo that if we err ia 
the kind of proof. Judgment itfelf cannot be perfeft. And as there are 
four kinds of Demonftration, viz. (i.) by immediate Confent, and common 
Notions; (2.) by InduHion; (3.) by Syllogifm; and (4.) by Congruityy 
which Ariflotle juftly calls Demonftration in Circle ; each of thefe Demonftra- 
tions has its peculiar Subjeds, and Parts of the Sciences, wherein they are of 
force ; and others again from which they are excluded : for infilling upon 

too 

• whence we have the Reafbn of thefe Appellations ; and in particular, the term liolt of 
the Market. 

^ It is fupplied m the Novum Organum. 

' What has been done towards fupplying this Deficiency, may be ften in Morhof's Tolyhijlar, 
Tom. I. Lib. II. cap. 4.. dt Sttbftdiis dirigendi Judicii, 



Se<n:.XV. 71)& Art o/" Memory. 135 

too ftrift proofs in fome Cafes -, and ftill more, the facility and remiflhefs, in 
refting upon Oight proofs in others ; is what has greatly prejudiced and ob- 
ftrudted the Sciences. And fo much for the Jrt of Judgment. 



SECT. XV. 

Of th& Art of Memory. 

I, W\ E divide the Art of Memory, or the keeping and retain- 7*« Art of 
V V ING Of Knowledge, into ivjo Parts; viz. the Dcnrir.e of Helps Memory di- 
for the Memory ; and the Do5frme of the Memory itfelf The Help for the ]!,^/JJ"'°f' 
Memory is Writing : and we muft obferve, that the Memory, without this uelfsfor the 
affiftance, is unequal to things of Length and Accuracy ; and ought not other- Mmerj, 
wife to be trufted. And this holds particularly in Indu£iive Philofo^hy, and 
in the Interpretation of Nature ; for one might as well undertake to make 
an Almanack by the Memory, without writing, as to irterpret Nature by 
bare Contemplation. Scarce any thing can be more ufeful in the ancient and 
popular Sciences, than a true ^ndflid Help for the Memory ; that is, zjujl and 
learned Digeji of Common-places. Some, indeed, condemn this Method of 
Common-placing what one reads or learns, as prejudicial to Erudition, hin- 
dering the courfe of Reading, and rendring the Memory indolent •, but as 
it is a wrong Procedure in the Sciences to be over-hafty and quick, we judge 
it of great fervice in Studi s, unlcfs a Man be folid, and compleatly inftruc- 
ted, to beftow Diligence and Labour in fetting down Common-places ; as it 
afiords Matter to Invention, and colledts and ftrengthens the Judgment. 
But «mong all the Methods and Comman-place Books we have hitherto feen, 
there is i,ot one of value * ; as favouring of the School rather than the 
World, and ufing rather vulgar and pedantical Divifions, than fuch as any 
way penetrate Things. 

2. And for the Memory itfelf, it feems hitherto to have been negligently •^»'' '^' ^**" 
and faperficially enquired into. There is indeed fome Arc of Me?nory extant : ^^"^iVufAf, 
bu. I know that much better Precepts for co-nfirmmg and enlarging the Memory 
mav be had, than this Jrt contains ; and that a better Pradtice of the Art it- 
fe'f rriay be form'd, than what is at prefent received. And I doubt not, if 
any ;.e were ditpofed to make an oPientatious fhew of this Art, that many 
fjr^i./Jng things might be perform'd by if, and yet, as now managed, 'tis 
but barren and ufelefs. We do not, however, pretend that it fpoils, or fur- 
charges tiie natural Memory, which is the common Objeftion ■, but that 'tis 
not dexcroufly applied for aflifting the Memory in real Bufinefs, and fe- 

rious 

' L sen the Subjeft of C(!WWfl»-?i/»«, confult Morfeo/'s P»/y^i/?or, Tom. I. Lib. I. Cap. zi, 
dc r , .- ,', CjmiKunium Serif (oriou) i and Mt.Lt(keiCommm-Fla(e, in his Difionrfe of the Ctn' 
dniivj ius U'.utrjinniiing. 



136 'Ths Art of Memory. Sed.XV. 

rious AfFairs. But this turn, perhaps, I may receive from tht political Cour/e 
of Life I have led •, never to value what has the appearance of Art, without 
any ufe. For immediately to repeat a multitude of Names, or Words, 
once repeated before ; or off- hand to compofe a great number of Verfes up- 
on a Subjeil •, or to touch any Matter that occafionally turns up with a faty- 
rical Comparilbn ; or to turn ferious things into jeft ; or to elude any thing 
by Contradiftion, or Cavil, &c. of all which Faculties there is a great Fund 
in the Mind •, and which may, by a proper Capacity and Exercife, be carried 
almoft to a miraculous height •, yet I efteem all the things of this kind no more 
than Rope-dancing, Antick Pofturcs, and Feats of Adtivity. And indeed 
they are nearly the fame things -, the one being an abufe of the bodily, as 
the other is of the mental Powers : and tho' they may caufe admiration, they 
cannot be highly efteemed. 

Tmintentions 3. This A RT OF Memor Y has two Inte}itioiis; viz. Prtsnotion, and Em- 

ofthe Art of Uem. By Pranotion, we underftand the breaking off of an endlefs Search ; 

Memory, VIZ. ^^^. ^j^g^ one endeavours to call any thing to mind, without fome previous 
Notion, or Perception of what is fought for, the Mind ftrives and exertsitfelf, 
endeavours and calls about, in an endlefs manner: But if it hath any certain 
Notion before-hand, the Infinity of the Search is prefently cut lliort -, and 
the Mind hunts nearer home, as in an Inclofure. Order, therefore, is a ma- 
fiifeji Help to Memory. For here there is a previous Notion, that the things fought 
for mujl be agreeable to Order. And thus Ferfe is eafier remembred than 
Frofe ; becaufe if we flick at any word in Ferfe, we have a previous Notion, 
that 'tis fuch a word as muft (land in the Verfe: and this Pr^enotion is tbefirft 
part of Artificial Memory. For in Artificial Memory, we have certain places 
digefted, and propoled beforehand : but we make Images extemporary, as they 
are required ; wherein we have a previous Notion, that the Image mull be fuch 
as may, in fome meafure, correfpond to its place •, which thus flimulates the 
Memory, and, as it were, ftrengthens it, to find out t!ie thing fought for. 

AndEmblitn. 4- ^^t Emblems bringdown intellcftual to fenfible Things ; for what is 
fenfible, always ftrikes the Memory ftronger, and fooner imprefles icfelf, than 
what is intelle5iual. Thus the Memory of Brutes is excited by fenfible, but 
not by intelleftual Things. And therefore it is eafier to retain the Image 
of a Sportfman hunting the Hare, of an Apothecary ranging his Boxes, an 
Orator making a Speech, a Boy repeating Verfes, or a Player ading his 
Part i than the correfponding Notions of Invention, Difpofition, Elocution^ 
Memory ; and Atlion. There are alfo other things that contribute to ajfift 
the Memory, but the Art at prefent in ufe, confifts of the two above- 
mentioned » : and to treat of the particular Defeats of Arts, is foreign to our 
prefent purpofe ^ SECT. 

* I fuppofe, that the ^rr e/Mewory, now commonly taught by Af«««7-ilf'«/f«>'.r, is little more 
than a Lefture upon the Foundations here laid down; and perhaps their Secret is difcloied in 
Sir Hugh Flat's Jevel-Houfe of Art and Nature; printed at London, in the year idj'j. Se« 

pag- 7 7 80. ot that Edition. Confult alfo, upon the Means of improving the MemSfy, Morhof's 

Felyhijior, Tom. I. Lib. II. Cap. 4. Je Subfidiis dirigendi Judicii. 

' The Author intended a Dtfcourfe ttfon the Helps of the intelleHual Faculties j and began the 
firft Draught of it, as wc find in his Letter to Sir Henry Suvilk: but the Dcfign was left un- 

compleatcd; 



Sedl.XVI. 75^ Doctrine ^Delivery. i^j 



SECT. XVI. 

Cy* //5^ Doctrine ^Delivery; and firji^ of the 
Elements of Speech. 

I. TTirE next proceed to the Art of delivering^ uttering, and communl- Traditive 

V Y eating fuch Things as are difcover'd, judg'd of, and trealtr'J ur> tn P^'^tr ne <ffi- 
the Memory: and this we call by the general Name of Traditive Doc- '^'^^'^ ""<> 
TRINE i which takes in all the Jrts relating to ffords and Dlfcourfe. For MeXo'd.^w 
akho' Reafon be as the Soul of Difcourfe ; yet they ought both to be treated Ornament of 
feparate, no lefs than the Soul and Body. We divide this Traditive ^P^c^»- 
Doctrine into three Parts ; viz. with regard (i.) to the Organ, {2.) the 
Method, and (3.) the lilujlration, or Ornament, of Speech and Difcourfe. 

2. The. vulgar Dj^rine of the Organ of Speech, call'd Grammar, is of Grammar, «f 
two kinds i the one having relation to Speaking, the other to Writing. For, J""! '"'"''• ''f' 
as Arijlotle well obferved, IFords are the Marks of Thoughts', and Letters of Speaking and 
Words : and we refer both of thefe to Grammar. But before we proceed to Writing. 
its feveral Parts, 'tis necefTary to fay fomething, in general, of the Organ of 
this Traditive Doctrine ; becaufe it feems to have more Defcendants befides 
Words and Letters. And here we obferve, that whatroer may be fplit into 
differences, fiifficiently numerous for explaining the variety of Notions, provided 
thefe differences are fenfihle, may he a means of conveying the Thoughts from 
Man to Man * : for we find that Nations of different Languages, hold a 
Commerce, in fome tolerable degree, by Geftures. And from the Praftice 
of fome Perfons born deaf and dumb, but otherwife ingenious, we fee Con- 
verfation may be held betwixt them, and fuch of their Friends as have learn'd 
their Geftures. And 'tis now well known, that in Chi-na, and the more 
Eajlern Provinces, they ufe at this day, certain real, not }iomlnal CharaSfers, 
to exprefs, not Letters or Words, but Things and Notions ; infomuch, that 
numerous Nations, tho' of quite different Languages, yet, agreeing in the 
ufe of thefe Characters, hold correfpondence by Writing ^. And thus a Book 

corapleated ; and little more done towards it, than the colledling of a few Hints, which fliew 
that the Author delign'd to conllder the ■Knys of improving the Memory, as well as the Judg- 
ment ; and intended, principally, to recommend Praliice, and the acquiring a Habit. 

* Hence, perhaps, feveral ways of communicating our Thoughts might be invented, befides 
thoie already in ufe^ -uiz.. by applying, after a different manner, to the Ser.fes; as by different 
Colours, Sounds, Signs, and ToMf/;!?;, differently changed and combined. Petr. MontatMs. FaSricius 
ai> Acinapendente, Dt.lVallis, Di. Holder, Bi!hop tf'ilkins, Mr. Falctner, and Joh. Conrad. Am- 
man, have fome things relating to this Subjeft. 

^" See more to this parpofe mSpizeliusde Re UterariaChinenfitm,Ed. Lugd.Bat. 1660; JVeii's 
Hifiorical EJfay upon the Chincfe Language, printed at London, in 1669^ Father Befnitr's Reunion 
atsLangues. Father U Com^te, and other oi the Mijfonariti Lf.ters. 

^ oL. I. T wrote 



ijS 7^^ Doctrine (?/* Delivery. Se^l.XVL 

wrote in fuch Charaolers, may be read and interpreted, by each Natio;i, in 
its own refpeiStive Language. 
The Signs of "}. The Signs of Things, fignificative without the Help or Interpofition- 
Things divided of [f^ordi, are therefore of two kinds: i\\z one. congruous, x\\e oxhzr arblfar-j. 
into con- Qf j.|^g ^^^ kind, are Hicroglyphicks and G^-Jlures ; of the fecond, real Cba- 
arbitrary; raofers. The ufe of Hieroglyphicksxs of great antiquity ; being held in vene- 
•viz.. (I ) Hie- ration, efpecially among that moil ancient Nation the E^ypliaiis ; infomuch 
roglyphicks fj^-jj j;|iis feems to have been an early kind of Writing ; prior to the In- 
nmlGeHuies. y^j^^i^^ of Letters; unlefs, perhaps, among the Jd'a'j ^ And Gejlures are a 
kind of tranfitory Hieroglyphicb : for as IFords are fleeting in the pronuncia- 
tion, but permanent when wrote down ; fo Hieroglyphuks, exprefs'd by Gef- 
ture, are momentary ; but when painted, durable. When Periander, being 
confulted how to preferve a Tyranny newly ukirped, bid the McfTinger 
report what he fiw ; and going into the Garden, cropt all the talleft Flowers j., 
he thus ufed as ftrong an Hkrcglyphick^ as if he had drawn it upon Paper. 
filReal 4- Again, 'tis plain that Hi EROGLVPHicKsandGEsruRES, have always 

Charadcrs. fome fimilitude with the things fignified ; and are in reality Emblems: 
whence we call them congruous Alarks of Things : but real Chara^ers have 
nothing of the Emblem ; as being no lefs mute than the elementary Letters 
themfelves; and invented altogether at Difcretion, tho' received by Cuftom, 
as by a tacit Ag,reement. Yet 'tis manifeft, that a great number of them. 
is required in writing r for they muft be as numerous as the radical Words. 
This Do^rine, therefore, concerning the Organ of Speech, that is, the Marks 
of Things, lae fet dozen as wantingT' For altho' it may feem a matter of little 
ufe, whilft Words and Writing with Letters are much more commodiuos 
Organs of Delivery ; yet we think proper here to mention it, as no incon- 
fiderable thing. For whilfl: we are treating, as it were, of the Coin of in- 
telleilual Matters ; 'tis not improper to oblerve, that as Money may be made 
of other Materials befides Gold and Silver ; fo other Marks of Things may- 
be invented, befides IVords and Letters^. 
The Office ani 5- Grammar holds the place of a Conduftor, in refpedl of the other 
ir/e of Giixa- Sciences ; and tho' the Office be not noble, 'tis extremely necefTary -, efpe- 
^*E: cially as the Sciences, in our times, are chiefly derived from the learned Lan- 

guages. Nor fhould this Art be thought of fmall Dignity, fince it afts as 
an Antidote againft the Curfe of Babel ; the Confufion of Tongues. Indeed, 
human Indufl:ry ftrongly endeavours to recover thofe Enjoyments it lofl: 
through its own default. Thus it guards againfl the firfi general Curfe, the 
Sterility of the Eartli, and the eoAing our Bread in the Sweat of the Brow, by 

all 

* See Cutifmits'i Tolyhifior SymMicus, and SymBolica Mgypiorum Sapientla, Ed. Par. i5iS. 
And tor oth';r Writers upon this Subjeift, fee Morhofs Folyhijior, Tom. 1. Lib. IV. Cap.i. </e 
■variis Scripturs. modis. 

^ On his Fouiiaanon, Biiliop Wilk'ms undertook his laborious Treatife of a real CharaBer, or 
Philofophical Language ; tho' Dalgarn publifhed a Treatiie on the fame Subjeft before him; 
viz.. at London, m me Year i66i. In rhe fame Year, Becher alfo publifiied another to the lame 
purpife at Frankfort, entitled. Character pro Notitia Lingiiarum univerfali. See more upon this 
Subjeil in Joach.m Friifchii Lingun Ltuhvicett, Kircher's tolygrn^bm, Fafchiiis'i Invents Hova^^ 
^tiqita^ and Meihof'i Foijkijhr. 



Sedl. XVL The Doctrine of Delivery. 139 

all the other Arts; as againft the /rc«^/, the Confufion of Languages, it 
calls in the afliftance of Gramvuv. Tho' this Art is of little ufe in any ma- 
terml Language ; but more ferviceable in learning the foreign ones •, and 
mofl of all in the dead ones, whicli now ceafe to be popular, and are only 
prelerved in Books. 

6. We divide Grammar alfo, into two Parts, Literary and Philofophi- Grammar dl- 
cal ; the one employed fimply about Tongues themfelves, in order to their "'-"/'''^""''/«f- 
beingmore cxpeditioufly learned, or more correftly fpoke ; but the othei-is /^W;";"^/"" 
in fome fort fubfervitnt to Philofophy: in which view Cafar wrote his Books of 
jinalogy, tho' we have fome doubt whether they treated of the Philofophi- 

cal Grammar now under confideration. We fufpedl, however, that they 
contained nothing very fubtile or fublime •, but only deliver'd Precetts of 
pure andcorrcn Difcourfe., neither corrupted by any vulgar, depraved Phrafes, 
and Cuftoms of Speech, nor vitiated by Affedation : in which particular 
the Author himfelf excell'd *. Admonifli'd by this Procedure, I have form'd 
in my Thoughts, a certain Grammar, not upon any Analogy which Words 
bear to each other ; but fucb asJJjould diligently examine the Analogy or Rela- 
tion betwixt Words and Things ; yet without any of that Hermeneulical Doc- 
trine-, or Douirine of Interpretation, which is fuhfervient to Logick. 'Tis cer- 
tain that Words are the Traces or ImprefTions of Reafon -, and Impreffions 
afford fome Indication of the Body that made them. I will therefore here 
give a fmall Sketch of the Thing. 

7. And frfl, we cannot approve that curious Enquiry, which Plato, hov/- ^ Philorophi'. 
ever gave into, about the impofition and original Ety?nology of Names ; as fup- '^^^ Grammar 
pofing them not given arbitrarily at firft, but rationally and fcientifically "^fi'"'*^- 
drrived and deduced. This indeed is an elegant, and, as it were, a waxen 

fubject ; which may handfomely be wrought and twifted : But becaufe it 
feems to fearch the very Bowels of Antiquity, it has an awful appearance -, 
tho' attended with but little Truth and Advantage ^ But it would be a DireHtonsfoi 
noble kind of a Grammar, if anyone, well vers'd in numerous Languages, fuffljmg it, 
both the learned and vulgar, fhould treat of their various Properties-, and 
fliew wherein each of them excell'd, and fell Ihort: for thus Languages 
might be enriched by mutual commerce •, and one beautiful Image nf Speech, or 
one grand Model of Language, for juftly exprejfmg the Senfe of the Mind,form'dy 
like the Fenus oiApelles, from the excellencies of feveral. And thus we fhould, 
at the fame time, have fome confiderable Marks of the Genius and Manners 
of People, and Nations, from their refpedive Languages. Cicero agree- 
ably remarks, that the Greeks had no word to exprefs the Latin ineptum '^ ; 
becaufe, fays he, the fault it denotes was fo f^miliar among them, that they 
could not fee it in themfelves : a Cenfure not unbecoming the Roman Gravity. 
And as the Greeks ufed fo grsat a Licentioufnefs in compounding of Words, 
-which the Romans fo religiouQy abftained from ; it may hence be collected, 

T 2 that 

* Seethe Account of C-Cj'ir's Books </« ./ina/o^fM, given above in the Preliminaries, i'fiS. Ill 6f. 
Thofe who are carious to look inco this Matter, may find ir fuccinitly treated iuMorhofi 
Tclyhi/ior, Tom. I. Lib. IV. Cap. j. tie Lingua uni-verfali (^ frim^tJ/i, 
5 in Englijh, unluitable, cbildifb, or trifling Behaviour, 



140 



The Accidents 
9f l^'onls he- 
longing to 
Grammar. 



"the Mtufun 
jtftVords the 
Origin ofVer- 
fification and 
Froibdia. 



T^e Doctrine 0/ Delivery. Se6l.XVI, 

that the Greeks were better fitted for /irtSy and the Romans for Exploits : as 
variety of Jris makes compound Words in a manner necefTary ; whiift Civil 
Bufinefs, and the Affairs of Nations, require a greater fimplicity of Expref- 
fion. The Jews were fo averfc to thefe Compofitions, that they would 
rather ftrain a Metaphor than introduce them. Nay, they ufed fo few words 
and fo unmJx'd, that we may plainly perceive from their Language, they 
were a Nazarite People ; and feparate from other Nations. 'Tis alfo worth 
obferving, tho' it may feem a little ungrateful to modern Ears, that the 
atieient Languages are full of Declenfions, Cafes, Conjugations, Tenfes, and 
the like •, but the later Languages, being almofl deftitute of them, flothful- 
ly exprefs many things by Prepofitions and auxiliary Verbs. For from hence 
it may eafily be conjedlured, that the Genius of former Ages, however we 
may flatter ourfelves, was much more acute than our own. And there are 
things enow of this kind to make a Volume. It feems reafonable, therefore, 
to diftinguifh a philosophical Grammar from a fimple //to-^r_y ow, and 
to fet it down as deficient '. 

8. Ail the Accidents rfJVords., Z5 Sound, Meafure, Accent, like wife belong 
to Grammar. But the primary Elements of fimple Letters, or the Enqui- 
ry with what PercufTion of the Tongue, Opening of the Mouth, Motion of 
the Lips, and Ufe of the Throat, the Sound of each Letter is produced, ha,s 
no relation to Grammar ; but is a part of the DoQrine of Sounds, to be treated 
Mnditv Ssnfe and fenjible Objecfs^. T\\t Grammatical Sound we fpeak of, re- 
gards only Sweeinefs and Harjhnefs. Some harjh a.ndfiveet Sounds are general; 
for there is no Language but in fome degree avoids the Chafms of concur- 
ring Vowels, or the Roughnefs of concurring Confonants. There are others 
particular or refpeftive, and pleafing or dijpleafing to the Ears of different 
Nations. The Greek Language abounds in Dipthongs, which the Rotnan ufes 
much more fparingly -, and fo of the reft. 

9, But the Mea/ure of fFords has produced a large body of Art ; viz. 
Poetry, confider'd not with regard to its Mia//«r, which was confider'd 
above % but ks Style, and the Strufture of Words; that is, Verftfication : which 
tho' held as trivial, is honoured with great and mimerous Examples. Nor 
fhould this Art, which the Grammarians call Profodia, be confined only to 
teaching the kinds of Verfe and Meafure ; but Precepts alfo fhould be added, 
as to what kind cf Verfe is agreeable to every SubjeSf. The Ancients applied 
Heroick Verfe to Encomiutn, Elegy to Complaint, lambick to hive£iive, and 
Lyrick to Ode and H)7nn ; and the fame has been prudently obferved by 
the modern Poets, each in his own Language : only they deferve Cenfure 

in 

* Confiderable Pains have been beftow'd upon this Subjeft by various Authors ; an accouat 
whereof is given by Morhof, in his Tolyhiftor. See Tom. I. Lib. IV. Cap. 5,4, j-. or more par- 
ticularly, Abraham. Mylii de Lingm BelgicA, cum aliis Linguii, communitate; Henrici Schivii 
Dijfert mimes Phitolpgic£ de Origin» Linguarum £J> quiiufdam earnm attributii , Thorn. Hayne de 
Linguis in genere, 0« de ■variarum Linguarum Harmonia, in the jiffendix to his Cramm/nie* 
Latins, Compendium, and Dr. IVallis's Grammatica Lingui Anglicans. 

^ This is the Subjeft which y. Conrad. Amman has profecuted with great diligence, in his 
Surdus loqnens, ini Dijfertatiode Lt^utlui the firft printed AX. uimjlirdam, in 169», and the 
Sift in 1700. 

I Sea. II. of PoET»y. 



Se<fl.XVI. 7!5^ Doctrine ^Delivery. 141 

in this, that fome of them, thro' iSe£tiUon of Antiquity, have endeavoured 
to fet the modern Languages to ancient Meafure ; as Sapphick, E.'egiack, Sec. 
which is both difagreeable to the Ear, and contrary to the ftrudlure of fuch 
Languages. And in thefe cafes, the Judgment of the Senfe is to he jreferred to 
the Precepts of Art. Nor is this an Jrt, but the abufe of Art j as it does 
not perfect Nature, but corrupt her. As to Poetry, both with regard to 
its Fable and its P'erfe, 'tis like a luxuriant Plant, fprouting not from a Seed, 
but by the mere vigour of the Soil : whence it every where creeps up, and 
fpreads itfelf io wide, that it were endlcfs to be follicitous about its De- 
fers. And as to the Accents of Words., there is no neceluty for taking notice 
of fo trivial a thing ;. only it may be proper to intimate, that thefe are ob- 
ferved with great exadnefs, whilft the Accents of Sentences are ne- 
gleded : tho' it is nearly common to all mankind, to fink the Voice at the 
end of a Period -, to raife it in Interrogation, and the like^ And fo much 
for that PartoiGraitiinar which regards Speaking. 

ID. Writing is pradifed either by means o^x\\t common Alphabet, now Nyriting^Mf-' 
vulgarly received ; or of a /?^;v/ and /■ricv^/d' o«r-, agreed upon betwixt parti- |^^^'^^'^'P|^^* 
cular perfons, and called by the name of Cypher. But here a Queftion 
arifes about the common Orthography ; viz. whether Words JJjould be wrote 
as they are pronounced, or after the co!n>non manner ? Certainly that reformed 
kind of Writing, according to the Pronunciation, is but an ufelefs Specula- 
tion ; becaufe Pronunciation itfelf is continually changing ; and the Deriva- 
tions of Words, efpecially from the foreign Languages, are very obfcure. And 
jaftly, as Writing in the received manner, no v/ay obftruds the manner of 
Pronunciation > but leaves it free -, an Innovation in it is to no purpofe. 

1 1. There ixc fever al kinds c/ Cyphers ; as thefimple ; thofe tnixt with The DoHrint 
Non-fignificants •, thofe confiding of two kinds of Charafters ; Wheel-Cyphers, "/Cyphers, 
Key-Cyphers, Word-Cyphers, &c. There are three Properties required in Cy- 

jihers ; viz. (i.) that they be eafy to write and read •, (2.) that they be 
trufty and undecypherable ■, and (3.) if poflible, clear of fufpicion. For if a 
Letter (hould come into the hands of fuch as have a power over the Wri- 
ter, or Receiver ; tho' the Cypher itfelf be trufty, and impoffible to Decy- 
pher, 'tisftill fubjeft to Examination and Queftion junlefs there be no room 
to fufpecfl or examine it. 

12. There is a new and ufeful Invention to elude the Examination of a Cy- a Cjfhir n 
pher ; viz. to have two Alphabets, the one of fignificant, and the other of dnirt l.x»-._ 
non-fignificant Letters •, and folding up two Writings together ; the one con- "'"""""'• 
veying the Secret, whilft the other is fuch as the Writer might probably 

fend without danger. In cafe of a ftridl Examination about the Cypher, the 
Bearer is to produce the non-fignificant Alphabet for the true ; and the true 
for the non-fignificani ; by which means the Examiner would fall upon the 

out- 

■ The Sta^e having culrivated the Acctnting efSintmces more than the SchocU the Rules of 
this Art might, perhaps, to advantage be borrow'd from thence , in order to foro» an early 
Habit of graceful Speaking. 



142 2^d Doctrine of Delivery. Secfl.XVl. 

butward Writing ; and finding it probable, fufpedt nothing of the in- 
ner '. 
ACyphervoid 13. But to prevent all Sufpiciofi, we fhall here annex a Cv/'/j^r of oiir own, 
pfsujficion. ^hich has the higheft perfeftion of a Cypher; that of fignifying Omnia 
PER Omnia •, any thing by every tbin^^ ; provided only the matter in- 
cluded be five times lefs than that which includes it ; without any other 
condition or limitation. The Invention is this •, firfl: let all the Letters of the 
Alphabet he refolved into two only-, by Repetition and Tranfpofition: for a 
Tranfpofition of two Letters^ thro' five places^ or different arrangements, 
will denote two and thirty differences ; and confequently fewer, or four and 
twenty., the number of Letters in our Alphabet ; as in the following 
Example. 

yf BiLiTERAL Alphabet, confifttng only of a andh changed through 
Jive 'Places y fo as to reprefent all the Letters of the common 
Alphabet. 

Example of K, A = aaaaa 

Biliteral Al- B :z= aaaab 

phabet. C = aaaba 

D = aaabb 

E = aabaa 

F = aabab 

G = aabba 

H = aabbb 

I = abaaa 

K =abaab 

Tyj , , I f Thus, in order to write an A, you write five a^s, 

■Kg- ~^L, < or aaaaa •, and to write a B, you write four 

O = abbaf ^ ^'^^ ^^'^ °"^ ^' °^ aaaab ; and fo of the reft. 

P =:abbba 

Q^=abbbb 

R =baaaa 

S = baaab 

T = baaba 

V = baabb 
W=babaa 
X = babab 

Y =babba 
Z = babbb 

14. 

■ The publifhing of this Secret fruftrates its intention; for the Ixaminer, tho' hefhould find 
t'he eutwxrd Letter proiAile; would doubtlefs, when thus advertifed, examine the jasfrjnot- 
withftanding its Alphabet were delivcr'd him for Hon-Jignificants. 

J For this Cyfhtr is prafticablc ia all things that are capable of two differences. 



Se£l.XVI. 7;^^ Doctrine <?/* Delivery, 14.3 

14. And here, by the way, we gain no fmall advantage ; as this Contri- Ani cxfable 
vance (hews a Method of expreffing, and fignifying one's Mind, to any di- "-^^"^f '"'"'* 
ftancc, by objedts that are either vifible or audible; provided only the ob- 

jefts are but capable of two Differences ; as Bells, Speaking-trumpets, Fire- 
works, Cannon, ^c. B.it for Periling, let the included Letter be refolvcd into 
l\\\?, bill! eral Alphabet : fuppofe t\\d.t Letter were the word Fly ; it is thus 
refolvcd : 

F L Y. 

aabab ababa babba ^. 

15. Let there be alfo at hand t'ujo other common Alphabets, differing only An Example 
from each other in the make of their Letters ; fo that, as well the Capital as f'^J""^/')^ , 
the Small be differently fliaped, or cut, at every one's difcretion : as thus ^^^^ 

for Example, in Roman and Italick ; each Roman Letter conftantly reprefcnt- 
ing A, and each Italick Letter B. 

The Jirfi, or Roman Alphabet. 

A, a. 

B, b. 

C, c. 

D, d. 

E, e. 

F, f. 

G, g- 
H,h. 

I, i. 

K, k. 

--' ■ CAU the L-efters of this Roman Alphabet 
■»t' ■ ^ are read, or decyphered, by tranflating 
q' ' ^ them into the Letter A, only. 

P' p.' 
Q,q. 
R, r. 
S, s. 
T, t. 
V, V. 

U, XX. 

W,w. 
X, X. 

Y, y. 
Z, z. 

The 

*■ * Compare thefe dirferent Combination; of a and b, with the SiliterAl Alphabet above j and 
you will find they correfpond to the Letters F, L,Y, that is, denote the Word Fly. 



144 7!5^ Doctrine c/' Delivery., Sed.XVI, 

The fecondt o-r Italick Alphabet. 



A 


<:. 


B, 


^. 


c. 


c. 


B, 


d. 


£, 


e. 


F. 


f' 


G, 


I- 


//, 


h. 


/, 


i. 


K, 


h 


U 


I. 


M, 


m. 


N, 


n. 


0, 


0. 


P, 


P- 


^ 


?• 


R, 


r. 


s. 


s. 


^, 


t. 


K 


V. 


u. 


u. 


fr. 


w. 


X, 


X. 


r. 


y- 


2, 


2. 



'AH the Letters of this Italic^ Alphabet are 
read by tranflating them into the Letter 
B, only. 



An^xitmflt 1 6- Now adjuft or Et any external double-faced IVritwg, letter by letter, to the 

ofttdjufiing internal Writing, firll made biliterate; and afterwards write it down for xhtLetter., 

tbttwout- or Epistle, to be fent. Suppofe the^x/ifrW/F/i/w^gwereSTAY tillIcome 

TO YOU 5 and the internal one were Fly : then, as we faw above, the word 

/7y, refolvedbymeansofthe£i&.r«/^/f>^.His J^^^ J^^^ ^Jj,^_ 

whereto I fit, letter by letter, the Words, Stay till I come to you j 
obferving the ufe of my vno Alphabets of differently ihz^t<^ Letters : thus 

aabab ababa babba 

Strty t i/ i ^o me to you. 
Having now adjufted my Writing, according to ail my Alphabets, I fend it to 
my Correfpondent ; who reads the fecret IVIeaning, by tranflating rhf Roman 
Letters into a's^ and the Italick ones into Vs., according to the Roman and 

Italick 



Se6l. XVII. 7"/^^ Method f?/* Speech. I45 

Italick Alphabets ; and comparing each combination of five of them with the 
Bili'.eral Alfhabel*. 

17, This Doctrine of Cyphers has introduced another, relative to it -, The Art ef 
viz. the Art of Decvphering, without the Alphab-l of the Cipher, or ^7y«/w«5fi. 
knowing- the Rules whereby it w.is form'd. This indeed is a Work of La- •' 
bour and Ingenuity, devoted, as well as the former, to the fecret fervice of 
Princes. Yet by a di/lge'it Precaution it may be render' d ufelrfs ; tho', as matters 
now ftand, 'tis highly ferviceable. For if thtCyphers in ufe were good and 
trufty, f^vcral of them would abfolutely elude the Labour of the Decypherer j 
and y t remiin commo-Jiojs enojgh, fo as to be readily wrote and read: 
But through the ignorance and un^kiifulnefs of Secretaries and Cltrks, in the 
Courts of Princes, the mod important Affairs are generally committed to 
weak and treacherous Cyphers ^ And thus much for the Organ of Speech. 



SECT. XVII. 

Of the Methodo/'Speech. 

i.rriHE Doctrine concerning the Method of Speech, h^s The Method of 

\_ been ufually trea'ed as a part of L^girk: it has al o found a pl.ice '^p'^'ch con/,. 
in RhHoruk, under the nam^ of D.foftiiofi ; but the 7I cing of it in the train p^^,*', 'g/ 
of cher Art', has introduced a n-gleft of many ufeful things relating to Tiaditive 
it. We therefore think proper to advance a /ubjlaniial an J cifit il Doc- Prudence. 
TRINE 0/ Method, under the :^^wr:?/ A^iaw^ o'^traditive Prudence '. 
But as the kin U of Mslhjd are various, we fhd! rather enumrate thin di- 
videx}TAxn. \ but for omonly Mdthod^ and perpetual Iplitting and lUbJividing, 

' The Cypher here dfcribed, is of itf-lf fomewhat fjbtile, till it comes to be pra£lf.d on 
laftr ; but rendered much mive difficult, by the inaccurate manner wherein it has been print- 
ed through all the Editions. We hope, however to have rend^r'd the Invention intelligible; 
and to have exprefs'd the Senfe of th- Author; tho" not direft'y as it ftands in the Original. 
Thofe who delire a fuller Exp'anation may confult BilTijp IVilkins's fecret and fmft Meffenger ; 
or rather Mr. V^lconer'i Cryptomenyji PatefaBu, or Art of fecret loformntion difclofed, without A 
Key. The trujlinefs of th s Cypher depends upon a dsxrous uie of two Hands, or two ditferent 
kinds of Letters, in the fame Writing ; which the skilful Decypherer, being thus advertiied of, 
will be quickli^hted enough to diicern; and conf^quently be able to decypher : tho' a Found»- 
tiort fcems here laid for feveral other Cyphers, thac perhaps could neither be fufpefted nor de- 
cypher'd. 

*> Trie Art of Cyphering is doabtlefs capable of great improvement. 'Tis faid that King 
Charles the fi:ft had a Cypher confilting only ofa ftrait Line, differently inclined ; and there are 
ways of Cyphering by the mere punftjation of a Letter ; whilft the Words of the Letter (ha!! 
be Non-lignificants ; or Senfe, that leaves no room for Sufpicion. It may alfo be worth con- 
iidenn^, whether the Art of decyphering. could not be applied to Languages ; fo as to tranlla"e, 
for inllince, a Heirer» Book without underftanding Hebrew. See Morhof de variis Serif tun 
iittdis, Polyhijt. Tora.L Lib. IV. cap.i. and Mr. Falconer's Cryptomemfis Patefacia. 

* Method, in general, may be defined the O der wherein the Mmd proceeds from known 
Principles to make farther Difcoveries, in all the Sciences. 

Vol. I. U it 



146 '3the Method of Speech. Sedt.XVIL 

it fcarce need be mention'd ■■, as being no more than a li^l Cloud of Doc- 
trine that foon blows over : tho' it alfo proves deltru£iive to the Sciences ; be- 
caufe the obfervers thereof, when they wreft Things by the Laws of their 
Method; and either omit all that do not juftly fall under their Diwyzowj ; or 
bend them contrary to their own Nature •, fqueeze, as it were, the Grain out 
of the Sciences ; and grafp nothing but the Chaff. Whence this kind of Me- 
thod produces empty Compendiums, and lofes the foHd Suhflance of the Sciences *. 
Method diftln- 2. Let l\\t firjl difference of Method be, therefore, betwixt the Doc- 
guijlied into f/inial and Initiative. By this we do not mean, that the initiative Method 
Inktative." ^^ould treat only of the Entrance into the Sciences ; and the other their entire 
■ Doctrine: but, borrowing the word from Religion., we call that Method 
initiative, which opens and reveals the Myfteries of the Sciences ; fo that as 
th.e Do^lrinal M-E.Tiio-0 teaches., t)\t Initiative Mztuot) ihcfiAdintimate : the 
Do5irinal Method requiring a belief of what is deliver'd •, but the Initiative 
rather that it fhould be examin'd. The one deals out the Sciences to vulgar 
Learners -, the other as to the children of Wifdom : the one having for its 
End the Ufe of the Sciences., as they now ftand •, and the other their Pro- 
grefs and farther Advancement. But this latter Method fecms deferted. For 
the Sciences have hitherto been delivered, as if both the Teacher and the 
Learner defired to receive Errors by confent : the 'Teacher purfuing that 
Method which procures the greateft belief to his DoElrine ; not thaC 
which moft commodioufly fubmitsit to examination: whilft the Learner de- 
fires prefent Satibfaftion, without waiting for a juft Enquiry ; as if more 
concerned not to doubt, than not to miftake. Hence the Maftcr, thro' de- 
fire of Glory, never expofes the weaknefs of his own Science ; and the Scho- 
lar, thro' his averfion to Labour, trys not his own Strength. Whereas Know- 
ledge, which is delivered to others as a Web to be further wove, fliould, if 
poffible, be introduced into the Mind of another, in the manner it was firfl: 
procured. And this may be done in Knowledge acquired by InduSiion ; buc 
for that anticipated and hafty Knowledge we have at prefent, 'tis not eafy 
for the Pofleflbr to fay by what road he came at it. Yet in a greater or 
lefs degree, any one might review his Knowledge ; trace back the fteps of 
his own Thoughts •, conient afrefli ; and thus tranfplant his Knowledge in- 
to the Mind of another, as it grew up in his own. For 'tis in Jrts as im 
Trees •, if a Tree were to be ufed, no matter for the Root ; but if it were 
to be tranfplanted, 'tis a furer way to take the Root, than the Slips. Sothe^ 
Tranfplantation now praftifed of the Sciences, makes a great fhow, aS it 
were of Branches, that, without the Roots, may be fit indeed for the Builder, 
The Initiative but not for the Planter. He who would promote the growth of the Sciences^ 
Methoddeh- fhould be lefs follicitous about the Trunk or Body of them ; and bend his 
cient. care to preferve the Roots, and draw them out with fome little Earth a- 

bout them. Of this kind of Tranfplantation there is fome refemblance in 
the Method of Mathematicians ^ ; but in general we do not fee that 'tis either 

ufed 

° This is fpoke with particular regard to R»w«j, his/nj-wW M«W, and D/fS/owifj J of which. 
fee more below, §. S. 

^ To this purpafe fee l^olfius's Brevis Commentntio de Mtthodo Mfthemtitka, prcfix'd to his 
£lementitMatkefeoiUmverfiii as alfo his ic^if A; taiiMetn^hyfitki. 



Sed. XVII. T^e- Method of Speech. 14.7 

iifed or enquired after : We therefore pl.ice it among the Deficiencies, under 
the name of the Traditive Lamp, or, a Method for Posterity ». 

3. There is another ^/^(frt-Wd" of Method, bearing fome relation to the for- r^e concealed 
mer Intention ; tho' in reality almoft oppofite to it : both of them have this Method. 
in common, that they feparate the vulgar Audience from the j'elcSl ; but 
herein they are oppofite, that the former introduces a more open, and the 
other a more fecrct way of Inftrudtion, than the common. Hence let them 
be diftinguifhed, by terming rhe former plain or open, and the latter the 
learned or concealed Method: Thus transferring to the manner of De- 
livery the difference made ufe of by the Ancients -, efpecially in publifhing their 
Books. This concealed, or enigmatical Method, was itfelf alfo em- 
ployed by the Ancients with prudence and judgment'' ; but is of late dif- 
honoured by many, who ufe it as a falfe light to fet off their counterfeit 
wares. The Defign of it feems to have been, by the Veil of Tradition to 
keep the Vulgar from the Secrets of the Sciences ; and to admit only fuch as 
had, by the help of a Mafter, attained to the interpretation of Jar^ 5'.'Z)f«^j ; 
or were able, by the ftrength of their own Genius, to enter within the 
Veil. 

4. The next difference of Method is of great moment, with regard to Tin AJva». 
t^t Sciences; as thefe are delivered either in the vf3.y of /Iphorifm, or Met ho- W^fjo/Aphp. 
dically. It highly deferves to be noted, that the general cuftom is, for "[""j^ f"*' 
men to raife, as it were, a formal and folemn Art, from a few Axioms and " ° *' 
Obfervations upon any fubjeft ; fwclling it out with their own witty Inven- 
tions ; illuftrating it by Examples -, and binding the whole up into Method. But 
that other way of DHivery, by Aphorifms, has numerous Advantages over the 
Methodical. And /r/?, it gives us a proof of the .^«/ifesr's Abilities; and 
fhews whether he hath entered deep into his SuljeSl or not. Aphorifms are 
ridiculous things, unlefs wrought from the central parts of the Sciences ; and 
here all Illuftraiion, Elxcurfion, Variety of Exampks, Dedudion, Con- 
nexion, and particular Defcription, is cut off •, fothat nothing befides an ample 
Jlock of Obferva lions is kft for t':e matter of Aphorifms. And, therefore, no 
Perfon is equal to the forming of Aphorifms, nor would ever think of them, 
if he did not find himfelf copioudy and folidly inftru(5ted for writing upon 
a Subjedt. But in Methods, fo great a power have Order, Connexion, and 
Choice ^- , that fnethodical Productions fometimes make a fhow of I know not 
vfhit fpecious Art ; which if they were taken to pieces, feparated and undrefs'd, 
would fall back again almoft to nothing. Secondly, a methodical Delivery has 

U 2 the 

* Perhaps M. Tfchirnhtui's Mtdicin» Mentis, five Tentamen genuim togici, in qnn Mjferitur 
dtMithodo iitegtndi incognitas V'tritates, may pave the way for fupplying this De/ideratum ; 
as proceeding upon a Mathematical 3.adAlgehaical Youndation, to rail'e a Method ot Dilcover- 
ing unknown Truths. 

*» As by Pythagoras, who deliver'd the Myjleries of the Sciences in the way of Kumbers and 
Symbols, or by a certain Notation inftead of Letters. And Ibmewhat of this kind has long 
prevailed among the Chinefe; who by cem'm Jigttr'd Lines exprefs not only their phyfical, but 
their moral and ftUtical Dodrines. See Martini's Hiftery of the Chinefe ; and Merhof's idyhipi. 
Tom. I. Lib. H. cap. ;. de Methodis variis, pag. 3514., jpf. 

* Tantum /eries junciu-aque follet ; 

Tantum de medio Cnmitis accedit hontris. « 



148 7^^ Method o/ Speech. Sed. XVIT. 

the Power of enforcing Belief and Confent, but diredts not much to praoiica^ 
Indications ; as carrying with it a kind o( Demonftralion in Circle^ where the 
parts mutually enlighten each other ; and fo gratifies the Imagination the 
more: But as aclions lie fcattered in common Life, fcattered Infiru5iions 
fuit them the beft. Lajll)', as Aphorifms exhibit only certain fcraps and 
fragmentsof the 5c-;tf;f^j 1 they carry with them an Invitation toothers for 
adding and lending their Afiiftance : whereas Methods drefs up the Sciences 
into Bodies •, and make men imagine they have them compleat. 
The Method 5. Th;re is a farther Difference 0/ Method ; and that too very confide- 
h ^'il'"" rable. For as the Sciences are delivered either by Affertions, with their Proofsy 
Teit'j'^ith'' °'' '^y ^^J^'0"^y with their Anfwers -, if the latter Method be purfued too 
diferttitn. f^T, it retards the Advancement of the Sciences, no lefs than it would the 
march of an Army, to be fitting down againft every little Fort in the way : 
whereas if the better of the Battle be gained, and the fortune of the War 
fteadily purfued, fuch leffer places will furrender of themfclves : tho* it muft 
be allowed unfafe, to leave any large and fortified place at the back of the 
Army. In the fame manner. Confutations are to be avoided, or fparingly 
ufed, in delivering the Sciences ; fo as only to conquer the greater Prejudices 
and Prepoffeffions of the Mind, without provoking and engaging the leffer 
Doubts and Scruples. 
ThiMethtdto 6. Another Difference of Method lies in fuiting it to the Suhje5i ; for 
fuit tht Sub- ]\4a{bematicks, the moft abftradt and fimple of the Sciences, is deliver'd one 
^' ' way ; and Politicks, the more compound and perplexed, another. For an uni- 

form Method cannot be commodioufiy obferved, in a variety of Matter. And 
as we a.pprovt: of particu'ar To/icksfor Invention; fo we muft, in fome mea- 
fure, allow of particular Methods for Delivery*. 
The Method 7- There is another Difference 0/ Method to be ufed with judgment, in^ 
af conquering delivering the Sciences ; and this is govern'd by the Informations and Antici- 
Prejudice, potions of the Science to be delivered, that are before infiifed, and imprcfled 
upon the Mind of the Learner. For that Science which comes as an entire 
ftranger to the mind, is to be delivered one way ; and that which is familia- 
rized by Opinions already imbibed and received, another. And therefore, 
Ariflotle, when he thought tochaftife, really commended Demccritus, in fay- 
ing, if we would difpuie in earnejl, and not hunt after Comparifons, &c. as if 
he would tax Democritus with being too full of Comparifons : whereas they 
whofe InJlruSlicns are already grounded in popular Opinion, have nothing left 
them but todifute and prove % whilft others have a double Task, whofe Doc- 
'trines tranfcend the vulgar Opinions-, viz-, firjt^ to render what they deli- 
ver intelligibl- •, and then to prove it. Whence they muft ofneceffity have 
recourfe to Simily and Metaphor -, the better to enter the human capa- 
city *". Hence we find in the more ignorant Ages, when Learning was in 

its 

* The particutar Topicks for Invention were treated above Sect. XIII. and for the particular 
Method of Delivery, which the Author approves, he has given us Inftanccs of it, in his Novum 
Organttm, Hiflory of Life and Death, Winds, Sec. 

* The Reader will all along bear in mind, that this was the fituation of the Author in his, 
time; and on tha' Icore difpcnfe with his Tiguratiie Style: tho' it may not be altogether fo, 
neceffiiy at prelencj when we are more accutlom'd to think Phiioibphically and Fjedy. 



Se<H:.XVII. The Method <?/" Speech. 149 

its infancy, and thofc Conception?, which are now trite and vulgar, were new, 
and unheard of; everything was full of Parables and Simiiittules : other- 
wife the things then propofed would either have been pafTed over without 
due notice and attention, or elfe have been rejefled as Paradsxes. For 'tis a 
Rule in the Doclrine of D^liver)\ that every Science which coinporis not "with 
y^nticipatiofti and Prtjuciices, mujl fuk the ajjijlance of Si?nilies and Alhifions. 
And thus much for the different kinds of Methods ; which have not hither- 
to been obferved : But for the others, as the Analytic, Syflatic, Diceretic, 
Cryptic, Homeric, &c. they are already juftly difcovcred and ranged*. 

8. iViETHOD has two parts, one regzrd'mg the Difpcfitioii of a whole Work, Method Jivi- 
or the Subjedl of a Book ; and the other, the Limitation of Propofitions. For ^j/,l"l'[lf^ 
Architcifure not only regards the Fabrick. of the whole Building •, but alfo anU the limi- 
the Figure of the Columns, Arches, (^c. for Method is, as it were, the ration ofir»* 
Architecture cf the Sciences. And herein Ramus has deferved better, by reviv- ffii'm- 
ing the ancient Rules of Method, than by obtruding his own Dicotomies. 

But I know not by what fatality it happens, that, as the Poets often feign, 
the moji precious things have the mofi pernicious keepers. Doubtlefs the endea- 
vours of Ramus about the reduftion of Propofitions tlirew him upon his 
Etitomes, and the F^ats and Shallows of the Sciences. For it muft be a fortu- 
nate and well-dire<5lcd Genius, that fhall attempt to make the Axioms of the 
Sciences convertible, and not at the hme. time render them circular; that is, 
keep them from returning into themfelves. And yet the Attempt of Ramus 
in this way has not been, ufelefs. 

9. There are ftill two other Limitations of Proportions, befides that for Three timlta- 
making them convertible ■, the one for extending, and the other for producirg tionsoftrt^o- 
them. For if it bejuft that the Sciences have two other Dimenfions, befides ■'""""" 
Depth, viz. Length and Breadth, their Depth bearing relation to their Truth 

and Reality, as thefe are what conftitutes their Solidity -, their Breadth may 
be computed from one Science to another -, and their Length from thehigheft 
Degree to the lovveft, in the f^me Science : the one comprehends the Ends 
and true Boundaries of the Sciences ; whence Propofitions may be treated di- 
ftinftly, and not promifcuoufly ; and all Repetition, Excursion and Confu- 
fion avoided ; the other prefcribes a Rule how far, and to what particular 
Degree the Propofitions of the Sciences are to be reduced. But no doubt 
fomething muft here be left to Pradtice and Experience -, for men ought to 
avoid the extreme oi AntoninusPius, and not mince Cummin- feed in the Sciences, 
nor multiply divifions to the utmoft. And 'tis here well worth the enquiry, 
how far we fhould check ourfelves in this refpeft. For we fee that too extenfive 
Generals, unlefs they be reduced, afford little Information-, but rather ex- 
pofe the Sciences to the ridicule o^ practical Men ; as being no more fitted 
for practice, than a general Map of the World to ftiew the road from. 
London to Tork. The beft Rules may well be compared to a metalline Spe- 
culum, which reprefents the images of things; but not before 'tis poll fh'd : 
For fo Rules and Precepts are ufefiil, after having undergone the File of Ex- 
perience. But if thefe Rules could be made exad and clear from the. 

firft 

* See Mirhof'i Tolyhijlor, Tom, I. Lib. II. cap. 7. ie Mefhfdis vHTih, 5, 



15a RHETORiCKi or Oratory. Sedt.XVIII. 

firft, it were better; becaufe they would then ftand in lefs need of Expe- 
rience*. 
Superficial 10. We muft not omit that feme men, rather oftentatious than learned. 

Methods. y^^y^ hibour'd about a certain Method, not deferving the name of a true Me- 
thod ; as being rather a kind of Imr>ofture : which may neverthelefs be ac- 
ceptable to fome bufy minds. This Art fo fcatters the drops of the Scien- 
ces, that any pretender may mifapply it for Oftentation ; with fome ap- 
pearance of Learning. Such was the Art of Lull-j *" •, and fuch the Ty/;»- 
cofmia cultivated by fome: for thefe are only a colledtion o^ Terms of Art 
heaped together, to the end that thofe who have them in readinefs, may feem 
to underftand the Arts whereto the Terms belong. Colledtions of this kind 
are like a Piece-broker's Shop', where there are many Slips, but nothing of 
great value. And thus much for the Science which we call Traditive 
Pritdence ^ 



SECT. XVIII. 

Of Rhetorick, or Oratory. 

TheMference 1. 1, tTTTTE next proceed to the Do^rwe of Ornament in Speech, called by the 

AotaandEXo- » ▼ name 01 KHETORicK or Or ATOR Y, This, in itfelf, is certainly 

quence. an excellent Science ; and has been laudably cultivated by Writers. But to form a 

juft Eftimate, Eloquence is certainly inferior to Wijdom. The great difference 

between them appears in the words of God to M/fes, upon his refufing, for 

want of Elocution, the Charge affign'd him : Aaron Jhall be thy Speaker ; and 

thou Jh alt be to him as God. But for Advantage and popular Efteem, Wif- 

dom gives place to Eloquence. The wife in heart Jloall be called prudent ; hut 

the fw-et of tongue /hall find greater things, {a.ys Solomon : clearly intimating, 

that IVifdom procures a Name and Admiration ; but that Eloquence is of 

greater efficacy in Bufinefs and civil Life. 

•The eultlvti- 2. And for the cultivation of this Art ; the emulation betwixt Ariflotle and 

*wence car- ^^^ Rhetoricians of his time i the earneft ftudy of Cicero ; his long practice. 

Tied to a gre»t and 

height. 

• The Author, in this 5«iS/tfn, does not perhaps proceed altogether with his ufual Solidity andDi- 
ftinftnefs; as having not yet thoroughly digeftcd thcDefign ot his Novum O'ganum iVf\i\c]\ may 
be confidered as a Treat'ife upon Method; and a reduftion of this more \ook Doclrine, to Rules. 

'' Viz.. the tranfcendental Art, which taught a Method of treating all Subjetts, in an oftenta- 
tious, or affeftedly learned manner. 

^ The DoBrine of Method was diligently cultivated by des Cartes, in his Book de Methodo ; 
who endeavoured to reducK the whole Bulinefs of it to four Rules; which however arc found 
in the Precepts oi Arifiotle. Jehart. Beyer undertook to write upon this Subjcdf, in his Filum 
Lalyrinihi. according to the Dcfign of the Lord Bacon, but appears not to have underlfood the 
Author; and has rather obfcured his Dodlnne than improved it. But M. Tfchirnhaui feems to 
have treated the Subjecl fuitably to its merit, in his Medicina Mentis, mentioned above, in the 
Note to §. I. A great variety oi' Methods .have been advanced by different Authors ; an ample 
Catalogue whereof we have in Morhofs Volyhift. Tom. I. Lib.II. cap. 7. de Methodis variis. 



Se6l.XVHI. Rhetoric K, cr Oratory. 151 

and ucmoft endeavour, every way todignify Oratory, hath made thefe Au- 
thors even exceed themfclves, in their books upon the Subjeft. Again, the 
great Examples of Eloquence found in the Oratiotis of Demo/thefies and Cf- 
cero ; added to the perfcftion and exadnefs of their Precepts, have doubled 
its advancement. And therefore the Deficiencies we find in it, rather turn 
upon certain Collections belonging to its Traifi, than upon the Docirine and 
Ufe of the Art itfelf. 

3. But, in our manner, to open and ftir the Earth a little about the Roots The office and 
of this Science ; certainly Rhetorick is fubfervient to the Imagination, as Logick UfiofRhetO' 
is to the Underjianding. And if the thing be well confider'd, the Office and "''*• 
Ufe of this Art, is but to apply and recommend the Dilates of Reafon to 
the Imagination, in order to excite the Affections and Will. For the Admi- 
niftration of Reafon is difturb'd three ways; viz. (i.) either by the En- 
fnaring of Sophiftry, which belongs to Logick ; (2.) the Delufion of Words, 
which belongs to Rhetorick -, or (3.) by the Violence of the AfFedtions, which 
belongs to Ethicks. For as, in tranfliding bufineis with others. Men are 
commonly over-reach'd, or drawn from their own Purpofes, either by Cun- 
ning, I?nportufiity, or Vehemence ; fo in the inward bufinefs we tranfadl with 
ourfelves, we are either, (i.) undermined by the Fallacy of /Arguments i 
(2.) difquieted and follicitcd by the Affiduity of hipreffions and Ohfervations ; 
or {2,.) Jfoaken and carried away by the Violence of the Paffwns. Nor is the 
State of human Nature fo unequal, that thefe Arts and Facilities fliould have 
power to difturb the Reafon., and none to confirm and ftrengthen it: for they 
do this in a much greater degree. The End of Logick is to teach the Form 
of Arguments, for defending, and not for enfnaring the Underjianding. The 
End of Ethicks is fo to compofe the Affections ; that they may co-operate with 
Reafon, and not infult it. And laftly, the End of Rhetorick is to fill the 
Imagination with fuch Obfervations and Images, as may affift Reafon, and 
not over-throw it. For the Abufes of an Art come in obliquely only -, and 
not for praftice, but caution. It was therefore great injuftice in Plato, tho' it: 
proceeded from a juft Contempt of the Rhetoricians of his time, to place 
Rbdorick among the voluptuary Arts ; and refemble it to Cookery, which cor- 
rupted wholefome Meats, and, by variety of Sauces, made unwholefome 
ones more palatable. For Speech is, doubtlefs, more employ'd to adorn 
Virtue, than to colour Vice, This Faculty is always ready •, for evoy Man 
fpeaks more virtuoujly, than he either thinks or a^s. And 'tis excellently ob- 
ferved by ^njwfjiif^w, that fomething of this kind was ufually objeded tO' 
Clean ; who, as he always defended the worft fide of a Caufe, was ever in- 
veighing againft Eloquence, and the Grace of Speech ; well knowing that 
no Man could fpeak gracefully upon a bafe Subjecl ; tho' every Man eafily 
might upon an honourable one. For Plato elegantly obferved, tho' the Ex- 
preffion is now grown trite, that if Virtue could be beheld, floe would have 
great Admirers. But Rhetorick, by plainly painting Virtue and Gopdnefs,. 
renders them, as it were, confpicuous : for as they cannot be feen by the 
corporeal Eye ; the next degree is to have them fet before us as lively as 
poltible, by the ornament of Words, and the ftrength of Imagination.. 

The 



152 Rhetorick, Of Oratory. Se£l.XVIII. 

The Stoicks, therefore, were defervedly ridiculed by Cicero^ for endeavouring 
to inculcate Virtue upon the Mind, by fliort and fubtile Sentences and Coit- 
clufions; which have little or no relation to ths /maginalion, znd the IViH. 
Its Fomr and 4. Again, if the AffeSfinns were orderly, and obedient to Reafon, there 
Efecfi. would be no great u(e of Perfuafion and Infmuation, to gain accefs to the 

Mind; ic would then be fufficient, that Things themfelves were nakedly and 
fimply propofed and proved : but, on the contrary, the AtFeftions revolt 
fo often, and raife fuch Difturbances and Seditions, that Reafon would per- 
fe<5lly be led captive, did not the Perfuafion of Elquence win over the lt7ia- 
ghiation from the fi ie of the Pafiions ; and promote an Alliance betwixt it 
and Reafon, againft the Afe5lions. For we muft obferve, that the Affeuliotn 
■themfelves always aim at an apparent Good ; and, in this rcfpedl, have fome- 
thing common with Reafon. But here lies the dilference ; that the AffeSlions 
principally regard a prefenc Good; vf)\\\^ Reafon, feeing far before it, chufes 
alfo the future and capital G:)od. And, therefore, as prefent Things ftrike 
the linaginatim ftrongeft, Reafon is generally fubdued : But when Eloquence, 
and the Power of Perfuafim, raife up remote and future Objeds, andfet them 
to view as if they were prefent ; then Im igmation goes over to the fide of 
Reafon, and renders it viftorious. Hence we conclude, that Rhetorick can 
no more be accufed of colouring the worjl Part, than Logick of teaching So- 
fhijtry. For we know that the DoEfrines of Contraries are the fame ; tho' their 
\5k be oppofite : And Logick does not only differ from Rhrtorick, according 
to the vulgar Notion, as the firft is like the Hand clench'd, and the other 
like the Hand open ; but much more in this, that Logick confiders Reafon 
in its natural State; and Rhetorick, as it ftands in vulgar Opinion: whence 
Ariftotle prudently places Rhetoriik between Logick and E'hicks, along with 
Politicks, as partaking of them both. For the Proofs and Dimonftrations of 
Logick, are common to all Mmkind ; but the Proof md P-rfuifim of Rhe- 
torick, muft be varied according to the Audience ; like a Mufician fuiting 
himfeif to different Ears. And this Application and Vtriation of Speech^ fhould, 
if we defire its Perfedlion, extend fo far, that if the fime things were to be 
deliver'd to different Perfons ; yet a different Set of Words fhojld be ufed 
to each. Tho' 'tis certain that the greateft Orators, generdiy, have not this 
political and fociable Eloquence in private Difcourfe : for whiUl they endeavour 
at Orniiment, and elegant Forms of Speech, they fall not upon thit ready 
Application, and familiar Style of Difcourfe, which they might with more 
advantage ufe to Particulars. And ic were certainly proper to begin a new 
Enquiry into this Suhje^ : we therefore place it among the D'Hriencies, under 
the title of Prudential Conversation» ; which the more attentively 

a 

* This Subjeft has not, that I find, been profecuted fuitably to its Merit. The Author him- 
feif touches upon rt below, i'fiSf. XXIII. oi Civil Dc5i'^ine; as alio in his Ejfay on Difcourfe ; and 
in that of Negotiating : but the Art of Coiverfation, foundtd upon jujl Principles, and reduced to 
Rules, feems ftill dtiicient. The Foundations for this are. in lome ineafure, laid by the learned 
Morhof. iti the Sketch of his Homiletice Erudita. See Potyhiji. Tom I. Lib. I. cap. if. See 
alfo J'a. Andr. Bo[ii de Prudentia cj> Eloqiienti» Civiti comparanda, Ed Jenac, 1698, & Prudea- 
iie tonfetltatorh (n ufuin Auditorii Thomajkni, Ed. Hais Magdeburg. 1711. 



Seel. XVIII. Rhetorick, or Oratory. 153 

a Man confiders, the higher Value he will fet upon it : but whether this be 
placed under Rbetorick or PoUticks, is of no great fignificance. 

II. 5. We have already obferved, thit the Defi de-rat a in this y^r/, are ra,- A Colleamef 
ther Appendages than Pa'ts of the Art itfelf^ : and all of them belong to the^"?*!''^^ "'' 
Repcjiton thereof; for the furnifhing of Speech and Invention. To proceed /J^"'],'^^^"^^ 
in this View; /r/?, we find no Writer that hath carefully followed ths and ZvU,ich- 
prudenc Example oi Arijlotl, who began to colleJI popular Mark; or Co-cient; aja» 
ioiirs, of apparent Good and lE-viL, as ue.l ftmple as comparative. Thefe, in „^Pf" ?^ '* 
reality, are but Rhetorical Sopbifms ; tho' of excellent ufe, efpecially in Bufi-' ""' 
nefs, and prlvat' Difcourfe. But the Labour of Ariftotle about thefe Colours^ 
has three Defefts ; for (i.) tho' they are numerous, he recites but few;* 
(2.) he has not annexed their i^ffl':/rg;</fow ; and (3.) he feems not to have 
underfl:ood their full ufe : for they I'crve as well to affeul and move^ as to de- 
monflrate. There are many Forms of Speech, which, tho' fignificative of the 
fame things, yet affeft Men differently ; as a fharp Inftrument penetrates 
more than a blunt one, fjppofmg bot:h of them urged with equal Force. 
There is nobody but would be more affedled by hearing this Exprefflon, 
Hew your Enemiis 'Will trmnph upon t':is'° ? than if it were fimply faid, ms 
"will injure your Affairs: therefore chefe Stings and Goadj cf Speech are not to 
be negledled. And fince we propofe this as a Dfileratum, we will, after 
our manner, give a Sketch of it, in the way of Exanij^ tes ; for Precepts will 
not fo well illuftrate the Thing. 

6. In De'iberatives, we enq:<ire what is Gocd, what Evil ; and of Good, Examples of 
which is the greater ; and of Evil, which the lefs. Whence the Perfuader's'^' Metl^oJ of 
Task, is to make things appear ^joi or e-vil, and that in a higher or lower 'i^- i,fL\'eln! " 
gree ; which may be perform'd by true ani folid Reafons, or reprefented 
by Co'.ours, popular Glojfes, and Circu/nfiances, of fuch force as to f.vay an 
ordinary Judgment ; or even a wife Man, that does not fully and confiie- 
rately attend to the Subjeft. But befides this Power to alter tlie nature of 
the Subject in appearance, and fo lead to Error, they are of ufe to quicken 
and ftrengthen fiich Opinions and Perfuaftons as are true ; for Reafons nakedly 
d-liver'd, and always after one manner, enter but heavily, efpecially with de- 
licate Minds : whereas, when varied, and enliven'd by proper Forms and 
Infinuations, they caufe a ftronger Apprehenfion, and often fuddenly win 
the Mind to a Refolution. Laltly, to make a true and fafe Judgment, no- 
thing can be of greater Ufe, and Prefervation to the Mind, than the Dif- 
cove--j and Reprehenfion of thefe Colours \ fhewing in what cafes they hold, 
and in what not : which cannot be done without a comprehenfive Knowledge 
of Things ; but when perform'd, it clears the Judgment, and makes it lefs apt 
to flip into Errors 

' See above. Sect. XVIII. i. 

•" Hoe Ithacus velit, & magna mercenntr AtrU&. 

c This Paragraph is taken from the Fragment of the Colours of Good and Evn., ufually 
printed as %n Appendix to the Author's Effays. That Fragment was reconCder'd, better digefted, 
and finiflied by the Author, in order to fit it for this Place, in the De Augmentis Scientia- 
RUM J to which himfcf alTign'd it in the Latin Edition. The reafon of its being called a Frag- 
ment, was, that the Author had madealargeColledlionof fuch kind oiSophifms in hi., youth ; but 
could only find time in his riper y(ar5, toacd the Fallacies and Confutations ot the following twelve. 

Vol. I. X Sophism 



154 Rhetorick, or Oratory. Sed.XVIII. 

Sophism I. 

Sophifm I ''• ^'^^^ ^^''^ praife and celebrate^ is Good j what they difpraife 

and cenfiire^ Evil. 

itsDetiB'ion. '"T^ H I S Sophifm deceives four ways -, vl%. either thro' Ignorance, Deceit, 
Party, ov t\\Q natural Difpofition of the Praifer or Difpraifer. (i.) Thro' 
Ignorance ; for what fignifies the Judgment of the Rabble, in diftinguifhing 
Good and Evil ? Phocion took it right ; who being applauded by the Mul- 
titude, asked, JVI^at he had done atnifs '^ (2.) Thro' Deceit; for thofe who 
praife or difpraife, commonly have their own Views in it ; and fpeak not 
their real Sentiments *. "Tis naught, 'tis naught, /ays the Buyer ; but when 
he is gone, he bcajttth. (^.) Thro' Party ; for Men immoderately extol 
thofe of their own, and deprefs thofe of the oppofite Party. (4.) Thro' Dij'po- 
fithn ox Temper ; for fome Men are naturally form'd fervile and fawning-, 
and others captious and morofe : fo thnt when fuch Perfons praife or dif- 
praife, they do but gratify their own Humour j without much regard to 
Truth. 

Sophism II, 

Sophifm 1. 8. What ts commended, even hy an Enemy ■, is a great Good, but 
what is cenfiired, even by a Friend, a great Evil. 

ItsToHndatUn nnYi^ Fallacy feems to lie here ; that 'tis eafily believ'd, the Force of 
■■■ Truth extorts from us what w? fpeak againft our Inclination. 

Its Deteiiion. This Colour deceives thro' the Subtilty both of Friends and Enemies. For 
Praifes of Enemies are not always ngainft their Will, nor forced from them 
by Truth; but they chufe to bcRow them where they may create Envy, or 
D inger, to their Adverfary. Again, this Colour deceives, becaufe Enemies 
fometimes ufe Praifes, like Prefaces, that they may the more freely calum- 
niate afterwards. On the other fide, it deceives by the Craft of Friends ; 
who alfo fometimes acknowledge our Faults, and fpeak of them, not as 
compell'd thereto by any Force of Truth •, but touch only fuch as may do 
little hurt, and make us, in every thing elfe, the beft Men in the world. 
And laflly, it deceives, becaufe Friends alfo ufe their Reproofs, as Enemies 
do their Commendations, by way of Preface, that they may afterwards 
launch out more fully in our Praifes. 

Sophism 

? Laiidnt venitUs, qui vhU extrndere, merces. ^ 



Sed. XVIII. Rhetorick, ^;' Oratorv. 155 

Sophism III. 

9. To be deprived of a Good, is an Evil ■, and to be deprived of an so^Mmi 

Evil, a Good. 

npHis Colour deceives two ways -, viz. either by the comparifon of Good its FalUciet. 
*■ and Evi! ; or by the Succefllon of Good to Good, or Evil to Evil. 
(i.) By Comparifon: thus if it were Good for Mankind to be deprived of 
Acorns, it follows not that fuch Food was bad ; but that Acorns were 
good, tho' Bread be better. Nor, if it were an Evil for the People of Si- 
cily to be deprived of Dionyfi'.is the elder, does it follow that the fame Dio- 
nyfius was a good Prince ; but that he was lefsevil than Dionyfius the younger. 
(2.) By Succejfion: for the Privation of a Good does not always give 
place to an Evil, but fometimes to a greater Good \ as when the BloJJom 
falls, the Fruit fucceeds. Nor does the Privation of an Evil always give 
place to a Good ; but fometimes to a greater Evil. .For Milo, by the Death 
of his Enemy Clodius, loft a fair Harveft of Glory, 

Sophism IV. 

10. fVhat approaches to Good, is Good--, and ijsjhat recedes /rtf»/ Sophifm 4. 

Good, is Evil. 

"Tp IS almoft univerfal, that Tubings agreeing in Nature, agree alfo in Place ; obfervnt'm, 

■*■ and that Things difagreeing in Nature, differ as widely in Situation : for 
all things have an Appetite of aflbciating with what is agreeable ; and of re- 
pelling what is difagreeable to them. 

This Colour deceives three ways ; viz. by Depriving, Oh/curing, and Pro- its Fallacies^ 
teeing, (i.) By Depriving: for the largeft things, and moft excellent in 
their kind, atcraft all they can to themfelves, and leave what is next them 
deftitute ; thus the Under-wood growing near a large Tree, is the pooreft 
Wood of the Field-, becaufe the Tree deprives it ofSap, and Nourifliment, 
Whence 'twas well /aid, that the Servants of the Rich are the greatefl Slaves. 
And it was witty of him, who compared the inferior Attendants in the 
Courts of Princes, to the Vigils of Feaft-days, which, tho' neareft to Feaft- 
days, are themfelves but meagre. (2.) By Obfcunng : for 'tis alfo the Na- 
ture of excellent things in their kind, tho' they do not impoverifh the Sub- 
ftance of what lies near them, yet to overfhadow and chfcure it. Whence 
the Aftrologers fay, that tho' in all the Planets, Conjundion is the moft per- 
fect Amity •, yet the Sun, tho' good in Afpedt, is evil in Conjunftion. 
(3.) By Proteiling: for things come together, not only from a fimilitude 
of Nature ; but even what is evil, flies to that which is good, efpecially 
in civil Society, for Concealment and Proteftion. Thus Hypscrify draws 
near to Religion for Shelter^: So San£fuary-Meny who were commonly 

X 2 Male= 

• Sife latet vUium freximitaie boni. 



156 Rhetorick, or Oratory. Sedl.XVITI. 

Malefaftors, ufed to be nearefl: the Priejls and Prelates : for the Maji'fly of 
good Things is fuch, that the Confines of ihern are Reverend. On the other fide, 
Good draws near to Evil., not for Society, but for Converfition and Refor- 
mation. And hence Phyficians vifit the Sick, more than the Sound : and 
hence it was objecfted to our Saviour, that he converfed with Publicans and 
Sinners. 



Sophifra f . 



Illujiration. 



VittHlon. 



Sophifm 6. 



DeteHkn. 



Sophism V. 

11. As all Tarties challenge the firft place ; that-, to which the 
reft unanimoujly give the fecond, Jeems the beft : Each taking 
the firft place out of Ajfe£iion to itfelf\ but giving the fticond., 
where 'tis really due. 

'TnH U S Cicero attempted to prove the Academicks to be the beft Se5i v. 
■*• for, faith he, ask a Stoick which Philofophy is beft, and he will pre- 
fer his own : then ask him, which is next beft, and he will confefs, the 
Academicks. Ask an Epicurean the fame Qaeftion, who can fcarce endure 
the Stoick ; and as foon as he hath placed his own SeEl, he places the Acade- 
micks n xt him. So if a Prince feparately examined feveral Competitors 
for a Place •, perhaps the ableft, and moft deferving man would have moft 
fecond Voices. 

This Colour deceives in refpeft of Envy ; for men are accuftom'd next af- 
ter themfelves, and their own Fadion, to prefer thofe that are fiftefi, and 
moft rliable ; with intent to ex' lode fuch as would obftruft their Meafures : 
whence tliis Col ur of Mijliorit-j and Preheminence, becomes a Si^n of Ener- 
vation and IVcahiefs. 

Sophism VI. 

12. That is abfohttely beft^ the Excellence whereof is greateft^ 

TPH I S Colour has thefe Forms : let us not wander in Generals : let us compare 
*■ Particular -with Particular, &c. and tho' it feem ftrong, and rather Lo- 
gical than Rhetorical; yet it is fometimesa Fallacy : (i.) becaufe many things 
are expofed to great danger,, but if they efcape, prove more excellent than 
others: whence their ICind is inferior, as being fubjeft to Accident and Mifcar- 
riage -, tho' more noble in the Individual. Thus to inftance in tne Bioffms of 
March, one whereof, according to the French Proverb, is, if it efcape Accidents, 
worth ten Bloffoms of May : ' ; fo that tho' m general, the Bloiroms of May excel 
the Bloflbms.of Marc'j ; yet in Individuals the beftBloffoms of March may be 
prefer'd to the beft of Alay. (2.) Becaufe the Nature of things in fome Kinds», 
or Species, is more equal, and in others more unequal. Thus warm Cli- 
jnates generally produce People of a ftiarper Genius than cold ones ; yet the 

extra^Qr». 

* Bourgeon de M.trs, Enfam dt Parifs 
Si mi efchafe, bien laut dix. 5 



Secfl.XVIII. Rhetorick, or Oratory. 157 

extraordinary Genius's of cold Countries ufually excel the extraordinary Ge- 
nius's of the warmer. So in the cafe of Armies, if the Caufe were tried by 
fingle Combat, the Vidory might often go on tiie on; fide ; but if by a 
pitclied Battle, on the other : for Excellencies and Superiorities are rather acci- 
dental Things ; whilft Kinds are governed by Nature, or Difcipline. (3.) Laftly, 
manx Kinds have much Refufe ; which countervails what they have of ex- 
cellent: and therefore tho' Metal be generally more precious than Stone, yet 
a Diamond is more precious than Gold. 

Sqphism VII. 

1 3 . TVhat keeps a Matter fafe and entire, is Goodi but 'what leaves Sophifm 7; 
no Retreat, is bad : for Inability to retire, is a kind of Impotency -, 
but To'uuer is a Good. 

'TTHUS jEjbp feign'd, that two Frogs confuking together, in a time of illujlration.. 
■*• Drought, what was to be done ; the one propofed going down into a 
deep Well, becaufe probably the Water would not fail there: but the 
other anfwer'd, if it fhould fail there too, how fhall we get up again ? And 
the Foundation of the Colour lies here, that human Aftions are fo uncertain, FonnJation^ 
and cxpob'd to D.nger, that the beft Condition feems to be that which has 
mo&i Outlets. And zhh Perfuafwn turns upon fuch Forw/j as thefe : ^'ou Jhall 
engage yourfdf: y u /hall net be your own Carver : you Jhall keep the matter in 
your own bands, &c. 

The Fallacy of the SothJfin lies here -, (i.) Becaufe Fortune prefles fo clofe DeteHion^ 
upon human Affairs, that fbme Refolution is neceflary : for jwt to Refolve, 
is to Ref'lve : fo that Irrefolution frequently entangles us in NecefTities more 
than refolving. And this feems to be a Difeafe ot the Mind, like to that of 
Covetoufnefs; only transf rred from the Define of pofleffing Riches, to the 
Defire of pofTrffi-g Free-will and Power : for as the covetous man enjoys no 
part of hi PofTeflions, for fear of lefiening them ; fo the unrefolved Man 
executes nothing •, that he may not abridge his Freedom, and Power of Afting. 
(2.) Becaufe Neccfllty, and the Fortune of the Throw, adds a Spur to the 
Mind ; whence that Saying, in other refpelts equal, hut in necejfity ftipcrior. 

Sophism VIII. 

i+. That Evil we bring upon oiirfelves, is Greater -^ and that pro-. Sophifm&^ 
ceedtng from without us, Lefs. 

TDEcaufe Remorfe of Conf.ience doubles Adverfiry : as a Concioufnefs of- jUu/lratien. 

one's own Innocence is a great fupport in AfBidVion. Whence the Poets 
exaggerate thofe Sufferings moft, and paint them leading to Defpair, where- 
in the Perfon accufes and tortures himfelf^ On the other fide, Perfons lef- 
fen, and almoft annihilate their IVIisfortunes, by refleding upon their own In-, 

nocence 
^Sequt unam cl»mtt caufrm^ue, ca^uttjjut mulorum. 



xs8 



Vttelim. 



Sophifm 9. 



Illujlrathn. 



The Tallacies 
of the Jirft 
fart. 



Rhetorick, or Oratory. Sec^l.XVIII. 

nocaice and Merit. Befides, when the Evil comes from without, it leaves 
a Man to the full liberty of Complaint ; whereby he fpends his Grief, and 
cafes his Heart : for we conceive indignation at human Injuries, and either me- 
ditate Revenge ourfelves, or implore and expett it from the Divine Vengeance. 
Or if the Injury came from Fortune itfelf j yet this leaves us to an Expoftula- 
tion with the Divine Powers*. But if the Evil be derived from ourfelves, 
the Stings of Grief ftrike inwards •, and flab and wound the Mind the deeper. 
This Colour deceives, ( i .) by Hope ; which is the greateft Antidote of Evils: 
for 'tis commonly in our power to amend oux Faults ; but not our: Fortunes. 
Whence Demojlbenes faid frequently to the Athenians, " fVhat is worjl for 
" th:! pa/I, is bejl for thi future ; fince it happens by NegleSt and MifconduSl, that 
•*■ joJtr Affairs are come to this low Ebb. Had you indeed a^fed your parts to the 
" fey?, and yet Matters fhould have thus gone batkwa'dv there would be no 
" hopes of Amendment : hut as it has happened principally thro' your own Er- 
" rors, if thcfe are corre^ed, all may be recovered." So Epi5i€tus, fpeaking of 
the degrees of the Mind's tranquillity, afllgns the loweft place to fuch as ac- 
cufe others •, a higher, to thofe who accufe themfelves -, but the high'eft, to 
thofe who neither accufe themfelves nor others. (2.) By Pride, which fo 
cleaves to the Mind, that it will fcarce fuffer men to acknowledge their 
Errors. And to avoid any fuch Acknowledgment, they are extremely 
patient under thofe Misfortunes, which they bring upon themfelves : for as, 
when a Fault is committed, and before it be known who did it, a great 
ftir and commotion is made -, but if at length it appears to be done by a 
Son, or a Wife ; the buftle is all at an end : and thus it happens when one 
muft take a Fault to one's felf. And hence we frequently fee that Women, 
when they do any thing againft their Friend's confent ■, whatever Misfor- 
tune follows, they feldom complain, but fet a good face on it. 

Sophism IX. 

15. The 'Degree of Trivation feetns greater than that of Diminu- 
tion J and the Degree of Inception greater than that of Increafe. 

'T^IS a Pofition in Mathematicks, that there is no proportion between 
■*■ Something and Nothing ; and therefore the degrees of Nullity and 
^iddity feem larger than the Degrees of Increafe and Decreafe : as 'tis 
more for a Monoculus to lofe an Eye, than for a Man who has two. So if 
a Man has loft feveral Children, it gives him more grief to lofe the laft, 
than all the reft ■, becaufe this was the Hopes of bis Fa?nily. Therefore, the 
Sibyl, when fhe had burned two of her three Books, doubled her Price 
upon the third -, becaufe the lofs of this would only have been a degree of 
Privation, and not of Diminution. 

This Colour deceives, (i.) in things^ whofe ufe and fervice lie in a Suffi- 
ciency, Competency, or determinate Qiiantity: Thus if a Man were to 
pay a large Sum upon a Penalty, it might be harder upon him to want 

twenty 

? At^iiU Deos, atque .4jIra,v0CAt crtiJelia, Mxter. 



Sedl.XVIIL Rhetoric K, d?r Oratory. 159 

twenty Shillings for this, than ten Pounds for another occafion. So in run- 
ning through an Ej}ate ; the firj} ftep towards it, viz. breaking in upon 
the Stock, is a higher degree of mifchief than xht Lift ; viz. fpending the 
lift Penny. And to this Colour belong thofe common Forms ; 'tis too late 
to pinch at the bottom of the Purfe ; as good never a ivbit, as fiever the bet- 
ter, &c. (2.) It deceives from this Principle in Nature, that the Corruption 
of one thing is the Generation of another; whence the ultimate Degree of Pri- 
vation itfelf, is often lefs felti as it gives occafion, and a fpur, to fomenew 
Courfe, So when Demoflhenes rebuked the People, for hearkening to the 
diflionourable and unequ.U Conditions of King Philip, be called thofe Con- 
ditions the Food of their Sloth and Indolence, which they had better be with- 
out ; becaufe then their Induftry would be excited to procure other Reme- 
dies. So a blunt Phxjlcian, whom I knew, when the delicate Ladies com- 
plained to him, thej were they could not tell how, yet could not endure to 
take Phyfick, he would tell them, their ix;ay iiuas to be fick, for then the-j luould 
be gLid to take an^^ thing. (3.) Nay, the Degree of Privation itfelf, or the 
extremeft Indigence may be ferviceable -, not only to excite our Induftry, but 
to command our Patience. 

The fecon.d part of this Sophifm ftands upon the fame Foundation ; or the Thefecond 
Degrees betwixt Sotnethiig and Nothing ; whence the Commort-place of extol- /'■"'' "f'^f 
hrig the beginnings of ever-j thing: -u; ell begun is half done, &c. And hence ^°]'^^'j'° • 
the' Superftition of th& ^Jlrolcgers, who judge the Difpofition and Fortune 
of a, Man, from the inft.int of his Nativity or Conception. 

This C lour deceives, (i.) becaufe many Beginnings are but imperfed Of- AnddeteBed. 
fers and Eflays, which vanifli and come to nothing, without Repetition and 
farther Advancement; fo that here the fecond Degree feems more worthy 
and powerful than the firft ; as the Bod\-horfe in a Team draws more than 
the Fore horfe : whence 'tis not ill faid, the pcond JVord makes the ^larrel; 
for the //-y? might perhaps have proved harmlefs, if it had not been retorted : 
therefore zhpfrjl gives the occafion indeed ; but thefecond makes reconciliation 
more difficult. (2.) This 55/>/^//ot deceives by JFearinefs, which makes Pf/^t- 
verance of greater dignity than Inception: for Chance or Nature may give a 
Beginning ; but only fettled Affeftion, and Judgment, can give Continu- 
ance. (3.) It deceives in things, whofe Nature and common Courfe car- 
ries them contrary to the firft Attempt ; which is therefore continually fru- 
ftrated, and gets no ground, unlefs the force be redoubled. Hence the 
common Forms : net to go forwards, is to go backwards ; running up hill ; reiving 
againfi the fr earn, &c. But if it be with the ftream, or with the hill, then the 
degree of Inception, has by much the advantage. (4.) This Colour not 
only reaches to the degree of Inceition from Power to Adion, compared, 
with the degree from Aftion to Increafe ; but alfo to the degree from WanCr 
of Power to Power, compared with the Degree from Power to Aftion:? 
For the Degree from ivant of Power to Power, feems, greater than that/ro/»v 
Power to A^ion. 

Sophism/ 



i6o 



Rhetorick, or Oratory» Sedl.XVIIL 



Sophiim 10, 



lUuJIrtttion. 



Veteciion. 



Sophism X. 

1 6. TVhat relates to Truth, is greater than isi^hat relates to Opi- 
nion : hit the meafiire and trial of 'what relates to Opinion, is 
'what a Alan would not do, if he thought he were fecret. 

O O the Epicureans pronounce of the Stoical Felicity, placed in Virtue, that 
'^ it is the Felicity of a Player, who, left by his Audience, would foon fink 
in his Spirit-, whence they in ridicule call Virtue a Theatrical Good: But 'tis 
otherwife in Riches » and Pleafure ^ which are felt more inwardly. 

The Fallacy of this Colour is fomewhat fubtile ; tho' the Anfwer to the Ex- 
ample be eafy •, as Virtue is not chofen for the fake of popular Fame ; and as 
every one ought principally to reverence himfelf : fo that a virtuous man will 
be virtuous in a Defart, as well as a Theatre ; tho* perhaps Virtue is made fome- 
what more vigorous by Praife ; as Heat by Refledlion. But this only de- 
nies the Suppofition, and does not expofe the Fallacy. Allowing then, that 
Virtue, joined with Labour, would not be chofe, but for the Praife and 
Fame which ufually attend it ; yet it is no Conftqufnce, that Virtue 
fhould not be defired principally for its own fake ; fince Fame may be only 
an impellent, and not a conjlituent or efficient Caufe. Thus, if when two Hor- 
fes are rode without the Spur, one of them performs better than the other; 
but with the Spur the other far exceeds ; this will be judged the better 
Horfe. And to fay that his Mettle lies in the Spur, is not making a true 
Judgment : for fince the Spur is a common Inftrument in Horfemanfiiip, 
and no Impediment or Burden to the Horfe, he will not be efteemed the 
worfe Horfe that wants it -, but the going well without it, is rather a point of 
Delicacy than Perfeftion. So Glory and Honour are the Spurs to Virtue ; 
which tho' it might languifli without thtm; yet fince they are always at 
hand unfought, Virtue is not the lefs to be chofen for itfelf, becaufe it 
needs the Spur of Fame and Reputation: which clearly confutes the ^o- 
phifm. 

Sophism XL 
Sophifm II. 17. JVhat is procured by our own Virtue and Indujiry, is a greater 
Good 5 and what by another's^ or by the Gift of Fortune, a lefs. 

Ulu/trathn. 'T~'HE Reafons are, (i.) Future Hope ; becaufe in the Favours of others, or 
•*• the Gitts of Fortune, there is no great certainty ; but our own Virtue 
and Abilities are always with us. So that when they have purchafed us one 
Good, we have them as ready, and by ufe better edged, to procure us ano- 
ther. (2.) Becaufe, what we enjoy by the benefit of others, carries with it 
an obligation to them for it ; whereas what is derived from ourfelves, comes 

without 

• Fobulus me fibilat ; at mihi pUudo. 

^ Grata fnb imo 

C»udiA cfffde fremeni. vultu fimtiUnte pudortm. 



Se<^. XVIII. Rhetorick, or Oratory. i6i 

without clog or encumbrance. Nay, when the Divine Providence beftows 
Favours upon us, they require Acknowledgment, and a kind of Retribu- 
tion to the Supreme Being ; but in the other kind. Men rejoice^ as the Prophet 
{peaks, and are glad; they offer to their Toils, and facrijice to their Nets. 
(3.) Becaufe, what comes to us unprocured by our own Virtue, yields not 
that Praile and Reputation we affedt -, for Anions of great Felicity may 
produce much Wonder ; but no Praife. So Cicero faid to Ccefar, we have 
enough to adrnire, but want fomewhat to praife '. (4.) Becaufe, the Purchafes 
of our own Induftry are commonly joined with Labour and Struggle ; which 
have not only fome Sweetnefs in themfelves, but give an Edge and Relifh 
to Enjoyment, yenifon is fweet to him that kills it ''. 

There are four Oppofites or Counter-Colours to this Sophifm, and may ferve as j, , counter- 
as Confutations to the four preceding Colours refpeftively. (i.) Becaufe Felicity Colours and 
feemstobea work of the Divine Favour -, and accordingly begets Confidence Confutation. 
and Alacrity in ourfelves, as well as Refpcft and Reverence from others. And 
this Felicity extends to cafual things i which human Virtue can hardly reach. 
So when C^sfar faid to the Mafter of the Ship in a ftorn^. Thou carrieft Cte- 
far and his Fortune ; if he fhould have fiid, thou carrieft Caefar and his Vir- 
tue, it had been but a fmall fupport againft the danger. (2.) Becaufe thofc 
things which proceed from Virtue and Induftry are imitable, and lie open 
to others -, whereas Felicity is inimitable, and the Prerogative of a fingular 
Perfon. Whence in general. Natural things are prefer'd to Artificial ; be- 
caufe incapable of imitation. For whatever is imitable, feems common, and 
in every one's power. (3.) The things that proceed from Felicity, feem free 
Gifts, unpurchafed by Induftry •, but thofe acquired by Virtue, feem bought : 
■whence Plutarch faid elegantly of the Succeffes of Timoleon, (an extremely 
fortunate man) compared with thofe of his Contemporaries, Agefilaus and 
Kpaminondas, that they were like HomerV Verfes, and hefides their other Ex- 
cellencies, ran peculiarly fmootb, and natural. (4.) Becaufe what happens 
unexpectedly, is more acceptable, and enters the Mind with greater pleafure : 
but this effetl cannot be had in things procured by our own Induftry. 

Sophism XII. 
18. What conjijis of many divijible Tarts is greater, and more One Sophiim i». 
than iz'hat conjijis of fewer : for all things when viewed in their 
Tarts, ftem greater; whence alfo a plurality of Tarts fhews 
bulky : but a plurality of Tarts has the Jlronger EjfeEi, if they 
lie in no certain order ; for thus they refemble Infinity, and fre- 
'vent Comprehenfion. 

T^HIS Sophifm appears grofs at fiift fight •, for 'tis not plurality of Parts Explanation. 

alone, without majority, that makes theTotal greater: yet the Imagination 
is often carried away, and theSenfe deceived with this Colour. Thus to the 
Eye the Road upon a naked Plain may feem fhorter, than where there are 
Trees, Buildings, or other Marks, by which to diftinguifh and divide the 

» ^t, miremur habemus ; qut lauitmus txfiHamui. 

* Suavis cihui k vtnutH. 

Vot. I. Y Diftance. 



i62 Rhetorick, or Oratory. Secfl.XVIir. 

Diftance. So when a monied Man divides iiis C'lefts and Bgs, he ferns 
to himfelf richer than he wis; and therefore a wiy to amphfy any thing, 
is to break it into fevtral p'lrcs, and examine them fepararely. And this 
makes the greater Jh'rw, if done without Order; for Confifion (hews things 
more numerous thm they are. But Matters ranged and fer in order, ap- 
pear more confined ; and prove that nothing is omitted : whi'ft fuch as are 
reprefented in Confufion, not only appear more in number, but leave a fuf- 
picion of many more behind. 
Confutation. This Q/oz/r deceives, (i.) if the Mind entertain too great an opinion of 
any thing-, for then the breaking of it v/ill deftroy that falfe Notion, and (hew 
the thing really as it is •, without Amplification. Thus if a Man be fick, or in 
pain, the time feems longer without a Clock than with one : for the' rh: irk- 
fomnefsof Pain makes the time feem longer than it is ; yet the meafuring of 
it correfts the Error, and fliews it fhorter, than that falfe opinion had con- 
ceived it. And fo in a naked Plain, contrary to what was juft before ob- 
ferved, tho' the way, to the Eye, may feem fhorter when undivided ; yet 
if an Opinion hence arifes, that 'tis much fhorter than it w 11 be found ; 
the_ fruftration of that falfe Expeftation will afterwards caufe it to appear 
longer th?n the Truth. Therefore, if a Man defign to encourage the falfe 
Opinion of another, as to the greatnefs of a thing, l:t him not divide and 
fplit it, but extol it in the general. This Colour deceives, (2.) if the Mat- 
. ter be fo fir divided and difperled, as not all to appear at one view. So 
Flowers growing in feparate Beds, (hew more than if they g-ow in one Bed ; 
provided all the Beds are in the fame Plot, fo as to be viewed at once; o- 
therwife they appear more numerous when brought nearer, than when fcat- 
ter'd wider : and hence landed EJlates, that lie contiguous, are ulually ac- 
counted greater than they are : for if they lie in di.fcren!; Counties, they 
could not lo well fall within Notice. (3.) Th's ^r^y^r/w deceive?, thro' the ex- 
cellence of Unity above Multitude: for all Coiipofition is an infdlible fign 
of deficiency in Particulars *. For if One would lerve the turn, it were belt ; 
but Djfefts and Imperfeftions r quire to be pieced and helped out. So 
M.i'thi, cumber'' d about many ihiyigs, was tol.l that Owt- was fufficient. And 
upon this Foundation Mfop invented the Fable, how the Fox bragg'd to 
the Cat, what a number of Devices and Stratagems he had to get from the 
Ilounds ; when the Cat fiid (he had but one, and that was 10 climb a 
Tree : which in fait was better than all the Shifts of Reynard. Whence 
the Proverb, Muha novit vtil/es, fed felis um<m magnum'^. And the Moral 
of the Fable is this; that 'tis be'Atcr reLlng upon an able and trufly Friend in 
a dijiculty, thiin upon all the Fetches and Contrivances of one's own Wit. 

It were eafy to colleft a large number of this kind of Sophifins ; whereto 
if their Fallacies, and Deteciions were annexed, it might be a work, of ccn- 
fiderible (ervice ; as launching into Primary Pbilofopby, and Pclituks, as well 
?lS Rhetorick'^. And fo much for the popular tnarks, or Colours of apparent 
Good and Evil, both /nnij^znd comparative.- 

III. 

^ Et qu£ non frofii-^t fingi l:i, multa juvunt. 
^ The Fox iiad in.HiySn.tj, but 1 he; Cat a capital one. 

^ One Ktalbn why lituc has been done towards I'upplying t\i\i Deficiency , is, peihaps, rhe 

difficulty 



in 

n 



SccT-.XVIII. Rhetorick, or Op.atory. 163 

III. 19. A f'-cond Colleol'.on wanring to the Apparatus of Rh.^lorkk, h tlut ^ ColUr?ii»>- 
timated by Cicero, when he d:rj(5ts a fet of Common-rAaces, fuiced to both "/''iJdi <) An- 
les of the Qa?ftion, to be had in readinefs. But we extend this Precept /^''-^bIT- 
farther -, fo as to include, not only judicial, but alfo deliberative and demon- r'uk. 
jlrative Forms. Our meaning is, that all the Places of common ufe, whether 
for Proof, Confutation, Perfuafion, Bijfuafion, Praife, or Difpraife ; flinuld he 
ready fludied, and either exaggerated, or degraded, -with the utiw^ft effort cf Ge- 
nius, or, as it "ivre, perve'p Refolution, b.-ryond all vieafv.re of Truth '. And 
the beft way of forming this' Colle^ion, both for Concifenefs and Ufe, we 
judge to be that of contrading, and winding up thcfe Places into certain 
acute, and fhort Sentences -, as into fo many Clues, which mayoccafiond- 
ly be wound off into larger Difcourfes. And fomething of this kind we find 
done by Seneca ; but only in the way of Sxpfofitions or Cafes. The follow- 
ing Examjies will more fully illuRrate our Intention. 



For. 



Beauty. 



20. The Djformed endeavour, by 
M-dice, to keep themfclves from 
Contempt. 

Deformed Perfons are commonly 
revenged of Nature. 

Virtue is internal Beauty -, and 
Beauty external Virtue. 

Beauty makes Virtue fliine ; and 
Vice blufh. 



Againll, 
^ Virtue, like a Diamond, is beft f^'^'"?'"/"'. 

Pl'^'n iet. Colte^ion, 

As a good Drefs to a deformed 

Perfon ; fo is Beauty to a vicious 

Man. 

Thofe adorned with Beauty, and 

thofe affefted by it, are generally fhal- 

low alike. 



Y 2 



Boldness. 



difficulty that attends it. Numerous Sophifm, of great infljence, might indeed be colleded from 
Boo\ii of Morality Policy, Phyficks, Chemiftry, and many other paits of Ph loliiphy, as well as 
from commjn Converiation ; but to tbew wherein the Fallacy of fuch 5o/>^i/>wj ii«. and clearly 
.to confu'c them, may often require a penetrating Capicity, and a coniiderable Degree of At- 
tention Whence a Work of th.s kmd cannot be executed upon the Phn of the Author, but 
by men of general Knowledge, clear D.fcernm^nt, Mathematical Sagacity, and ftrong Judg. 
ment. Bit if luch a Work were extant in if; due hti ude, it mighr afford an en'eriaining, as 
well as ufefal Pi£tare of human Miture; anH fh^w, that nearly all the Arguments in common 
uie are but a kind oi Safhifms: and thus defend the Mind againft them. 

* p.iferve howe/er, that thefe Places are l\ill to be true and jull, if taken in a loiver or 
hightr Key, o-herwfe they would be but mere Sophiims and Irnpoflure. Thus the two lides 
of the Queftion, may by moderation be made lo comport j for inftance, 

For. 
Virtue, like a Diamond, is befi plain /et. 
Against. 
Virtue, in a graceful Perfon^ Jliews to greater advantage. 
Thefe are Anrithets, or Opnouiesj but reconci.able by relaxing, or ibftening the Rigour of 
each Poli'ion: fo that tho' Virtue fljevos -well, when plain fet ; yet it Jliews i>etter, when accompa- 
nied with graceful Behaviour. But in Pleading and Perfuading, more regard is had to Exaggera- 
tion and ftrong ExprciTi in than to Modera'ion at^d exaifl Truth. The part of the Judge is to 
moderate, and balance, both iides of the Queftion, 



164 



Rhetoric K, or Oratory. Sed. XVIII. 



Bold 

For. 

21. A bafhful Suitor fhews the 
way to deny him. 

Boldnefs in a PoHtician is like Ac- 
tion to an Orator -, the firft, fecond, 
and third Qualification. 

Love the Man, who confeffes his 
Modefty ; but hate him who accufes 
it. 

A Confidence in carriage fooneft u- 
nites Affedtions. 

Give me a referved Countenance, 
and open Converfation. 



NESS. 

Againjl. 

Boldnefs is the Verger to Folly. 

Impudence is fit for nothing but 
Impofture. 

Confidence is the Fool's Emprefs, 
and the Wife Man's Buffoon. 

Boldnefs is a kind of Dulnefs, jotn'd 
with a Perverfenels. 



Ce R E M 



For. 



22. A graceful Deportment is the 
true Ornament of Virtue. 

If we follow the Vulgar in the life 
of Words, why not in Habit and 
Gefture ? 

He who obferves not Decorums 
in fmaller matters, may be a great 
Man •, but is unwife at times. 

Virtue and Wifdom^ without all Re- 
fpeft and Ceremony, are, like foreign 
Languages, unintelligible to the Vul- 



gar, 



He, who knows not the Senfe of 
the People, neither by Congruity, 
nor Obfervation, is fenfelefs. 

Ceremonies are the tranflation of Vir- 
tue into our own Language. 



N I E S. 

j^gainft. 

What can be more difagreeable than 
in common Life to copy the Stage ? 

Ingenuous Behaviour procures E- 
fteem ; but Affedation and Cunning, 
Hatred, 

Better a painted Face and curled 
Hair, than a painted and curled Beha- 
viour. 

He is incapable of great Matters, 
who breaks his Mind with trifling Ob- 
fervations. 

Affectation is the glofly Corruption 
of Ingenuity. 



Cons t a n c y. 



For, 



23. Conftancy is the Foundation of 
Virtue. 

He is miferable who has no Notion 
of what he fhall be. 

If Human Judgment cannot be con- 
ftant to things ; let it at leaft be true 
to itfelf 

Even Vice is fet off by Conftancy. 
Inconftancy 



Againft. 

Conftancy, like a churlifh Portrefs, 
turns away many ufeful Informations. 

'Tisjuft that Conftancy fhould en- 
dure Crofles i for it commonly brings 
them. 

The fiiorteft Folly is the beft. 



Sed.XVIII. Rhetorick, tiv Oratory. 

Inconflancy of Fortune,with Incon- 
ftancy of Mind, makes a Dark Scene. 

Fortune, like Proteus, is brought 
to herfelf by perCftin 



no- 



For. 



24. No Virtue is fo often delinquent 
as Clemency. 

Crueky, proceeding from Revenge, 
isjuftice ; if from Danger, Prudence. 

He who fhews Mercy to his Ene- 
my, denies it to himfelf. 

Phlebotomy is as neceflary in the Bo- 
dy PDlitick, as in the Body Natural. 



G R U E L T V. 

Againfl. 
He who delights in Blood, is either 
a wild Beaft, or a Fury. 
To a good Man, Cruelty feems a 



mere Tragical Fidtion. 



For 



Del 



25. Fortune fells many things to 
the Hafty, which Ihe gives to the 
Slow. 

Hurrying to catch the Beginnings 
of things, is grafping at Shadows. 

When things hang wavering, mark 
them ; and work, when they incline. 

Commit the beginning of Adlions 
to Argus, with his hundred Eyes ; 
the end to Briareus, with his hundred 
Hiinds. 



D I S S I -M u 



ror. 



26.Dinimulation is a IhortWifdom. 

We are not all to fay» tho' we all 
intend, the fame Thing. 

Nakednefs, even in the Mind, is un- 
comely. 

Diflimulation is both a Grace and 
a Guard. 

Diflimulation is the Bulwark of 
Counfels. 

Some fall a Prey to Fair-Dealing. 

The open Dealer deceives as wtli as 
the Diflembler : for many either do 
not underftand him, or not believe him. 

Open-dealing is a Weaknefs of 
Mind. 



A Y. 

AgaJ'!'^. 

Opportunity offers the Handle of 
the Bot.Io firft, then the Belly. 

Opportunity, like the Sihl, dimf- 
nifhes the Commodiry, but enhances 
the Price, 

Difpatch is Pluto^s Hilmet. 

Things undertaken fpeedily, are ea» 
fily performed. 



L A T I O N. 

Againft. 

If we cannot think juftly, at leafl; 
let us fpeak as we think. 

In Ihallow Politicians, Diflimula- 
tion goes for Wifdom. 

The DiflJembler lofes a principal In- 
ftrument of Aftion, Belief. 

Diflimulation invites Diflimulation, 

The Diflembler is a Slave. 



165 



Empiri. 



i66 



Rhetorick, ot* Orator?. Secfl.XVIII. 



Empire. 



■"or. 



27. To enjoy Hippinefs, is a great 
Bkfiing •, but to confer it, a g-ea^ r. 

Kings are more like .^tar? r'^an M n ; 
for til y have a pOA-erf il Infliv^nce. 

To refill God's Vicegerents, is to 
war againil Heaven. 



Aga'mfl. 

'Tis a mifprable State, to have few 
ihin ,s to difire, and many to f-^ar. 

Princes, like the ccleHial Bodies, 
Vave much Veneration, but no Reft. 

Mortals are admitted to Jupiter's 
Table, only for fport. 



Envy. 



28. 



For. 
'Tis natuial to hate thofe who 



reproach us. 

Envy in a State, is like a whole- 
fome Severity. 



Aga'wfl. 

Envy has no Holidays. 

Death alone reconciles Envy to 
Virtue. 

Envy purs Virtue to the trial, as 
Jum did Hercules. 



Evidence agahift Arguments. 



For. 



Againfi. 



29. To rely upon Arguments, isi If Evidence were to prevail againfl: 
the part of a Pleader, not a Judge. 'Aigamnts, a Jjdge would need no 

He who is fway'd more by Argu- Stnie but his H aring. 
inents than Teftimony, truds more to Argu n nis are an Antidote againft 
"Wit than Senfe. 'the I'oiibn of Teltimonies. 

Arguments might b; trufted, if Tliofe Pioofs are fafcft believed. 
Men committed no Abfurdities. Wuicii feldomell deceive. 

Arguments agiinft Teftimonies, 
make the Cafe appear fl range, but 
not true. 



Facility. 

For. 

30. Give me the lVI.in who con- 
plies to another's Humour widioui 
Flattery. 

The flexible Man cjmes neateft to 
the nature of Lold. 



Agaipjl. 

Facility is wanr or Judgment. 

The good Offices of eafy Natures 
feem Debts, and their Denials, Inju- 
ries. 

He thanks only himfelf, who pre- 
vails upon an eafy Man. 

All Difficulties opprefs a yielding 
Nature ; for he is eng.ged in all. 

Eafy Natures feldoin come off with 
credit. 



Flat- 



Sed.XVIII. Rhetorick, or Oratory. 



167 



Flattery. 



For, 



31. Flattery proceeds from Cuf- 
tom, nithcr than ill D.fign. 

To convey Inftrudtion with Praife, 
is a Form due to the Great. 



Againft. 

Flattery is the Style of a Slive. 

Flattery is the Varni.'h of Vice. 

Flattery is fowling with a Bird Call. 

The Deformity of Flattery is Co- 
medy ; but the Injury, Tragedy. 

To convey good Counfelj is a hard 
Task. 



Fortitude. 



For. 



32. Nothing is terrible, but Fear 
itfclf 

Pleafure and Virtue lofe their Na 
ture, where Fear difquiet^. 

To view Danger, is looking ou: to 
avoid ir. 

OtLer Virtues fibdu:^ Vice j but 
Fortitude even conquers Fortune. 



Ayijnl. 

A ftrar.ge Virtue t'laf, to defire to 
deflroy, ro f-cure D-ltri.6tion. 

A gOD-il ' Vi. rur truly, which even 
Drunkinmfs can caufe. 

A Prodigal of his own Life, threa- 
tens th ■ Liv_s of oc lers. 

Fortitude is a Virtue of the Iron- 
Age. 



Fortune. 



For. 



3 ■{. Publick Virrues procure Praife i 
but p ivate ones. Fortune. 

Fona.'if, like the Muk -JVa\., is a 
CIulKr of fmall, twinkling, namclcis 
Virrues. 

Forcune is to b; honouiM and re- 
fp fted, tho' ir were but tor her 
Diughtcri^, Confidence and Autho- 
rity. 



Jgmft. 

The Folly of one ivlan, is the For- 
tune of a no her. 

Tnis my be commended in For- 
tune, that if fhe makes no FLftion, 
(he gives ro Pioeftion. 

The G e.t, to decliiie Envy, wor- 
fnip Fortune. 



Friendship. 

Fcr. Aminfl. 

To contract FriendHiip, is to pro- 
cure Encumbrance. 

'Tis a weak Spirit, that divides For- 
cune with anotner. 



34. Friendfhip does the fame as 
Foiritude -, but more aiirerabl /. 

Friendrtiip gives the Relilli to Hap- 
pinls. 

The wcrft Solitude, is 'o want 
Friends. 

'Tis jaft that the hollo'ft -hearted 
Ihould not find Friindinip. 



Health, 



i68 



Rhetorick, e>/* Oratory. Se<a.XVIII. 



Health, 



For. 



35. The Care of Health fubjefts 
the Mind to the Body. 

An healthy Body is the Tabernacle, 
but a fickly one, the Prilbn of tlie 
Soul. 

A found Conftitution forward- 
Bufinefs ; but a fickly one makes man) 
Holidays. 



Againft. 

Recovery from Sicknefs, is Reju- 
"enefcency. 

Pretence of Sicknefs, is a good Ex- 
cufe for the Healthy. 

Health too llrongly ce.Tients the 
Soul and Body. 

The Couch has govern'd Empires ; 
and the Litter, Armies, 



Honours. 



For. 



36. Honours are the Suffrages, not 
of Tyrants, but Divine Providence. 

Honours make both Virtue and 
Vice confpicuous. 

Honour is the Touchftone of Vir- 
tue. 

The Motion of Virtue is rapid to 
its place ; but calm in it : but the 
Place of Virtue is Honour. 



Agatnft. 

To feek Honour, is to lofc Li- 
berty. 

Honours give command where 'tis 
beft not to will ; and next, not to be 
able. 

The Steps of Honour are hard to 
climb, flippery a-top, and dangerous 
to go down, 

M^n in great Place borrow others 
Opinions, to think themfelves happy. 



Jests. 



For. 



37. A J?ft is the Orator's Altar. 

Humour in Converfation, prefer ves 
Freedom. 

'Tis highly politick to pafs fmooth- 
ly from Jeft to Earncft, and vice 
verfa. 

Witty Conceits are Vehicles to 
Truths, that could not be otherwife 
agreeably convey'd. 



Againji. 

Hunters after Deformities and Com- 
parifons, are defpicable Creatures. 

To divert important Bafinefs w^ith 
a J-:fft, is a bafe Trick, 

Judge of a Jeft, when the Laugh 
is over. 

Wit commonly plays on the Sur- 
face of things : for Surface is the Seat 
of a Jeft. 



Ingratitude, 



For. 



38. Ingratitude «is but perceiving 
the Caufe of a Benefit. 

The defire of being grateful, nei- 
ther does Juftice to others, nor leaves 
one's felf at liberty. 

A 



Againjt, 
The Sin of Ingratitude- is not made 
penal here, but left to the Furies. 

TheObligations for Benefits, exceed 
the Obligations of Duties; whence In- 
gratitude is alfo unjuft. 

No 



Scft.XVIII. Rhetorick, or Oratory. 



A Benefit of an uncertain Value, 
merits the Icfs thanks. 



No publick Fortune can exclude 
private Favour. 



169 



In 



NOVATION. 



For. 



39. Every Remedy is an Innova- 
tion. 

He who will not apply new Reme- 
dies, muil expe<5t new Difeafes. 

Time is the grcatcft Innovator ; and 
why may we not imitate Time ? 

Ancient Precedents are unfuitable, 
and late ones corrupt and degenerate. 

Let the Ignorant fquare their Ac- 
tions by Example. 

As they who firft derive Honour to 
their Family, are commonly more 
worthy than thofe who fucceed them ; 
fo Innovations generally excel Imita- 
tions. 

An obftinate adherence to Cuftoms, 
is as turbulent a thing as Innovation. 

Since things of their own courfe 
change for the worfe, if they are not 
by prudence alter'd for the better •, 
what End can there be of the 111 i" 

The Slaves of Cuftom are the Sport 
of Time. 



Agabifl. 

New Births are deformed thing». 

No Author is accepted, till time 
has authoriz'd him. 

All Novelty is Injury -, for it de- 
faces the prefcnt ftate of things. 

Things authoriz'd by Cuftom, if 
not excellent, are yet conformable ; 
and fort well together. 

What Innovator follows the Ex- 
ample of Time, which infinuates new 
things fo quietly, as to be almoft im- 
perceptible ' .^ 

Things that happen unexpefted, 
are lefs agreeable to thofe they benefit; 
and more affliding to thofe they in- 
jure. 



Justice. 



For. 



40. Power and Policy are but the 
Appendages of Juftice -, for if Juftice 
could be otherwife executed, there 
were no need of them. 

'Tis owing to Juftice, that Man to 
Man is a God ; not a Wolf 

Tho' Juftice cannot extirpate Vice, 
it keeps it under. 



jigainfl. 

If Juftice confift in doing to another 
what we would have done to our- 
felves ; then Mercy is Juftice. 

If every one muft receive his due ; 
then furely Mortals muft receive Par- 
don. 

The common Juftice of a Nation, 
like a Philofopher at Court, renders 
Rulers aweful. 



* One can fcjrce help anfwering to this Queftion; the Lord Bacon : who his reformed the 
S:ate of Learning fo quietly, that hisC juntry-men fcarce perceive how or by whom it wascffefted. 



Vol. I. 



Know- 



170 



Rhetorick, or Oratory. 



Sea. XVIII. 



Knowledge and Contemplation. 



For. 

41. That Pleafure only is accor- 
ding to Nature, which never cloys. 

The fweeteft Profped: is that be- 
low, into the Errors of others. 

'Tis beft to have the Orbits of the 
Mind concentrick with thofe of the 
Univerfe. 

Ail depraved Affeflions are falfe Va- 
luations ; butGoodnefs and Truth are 
ever the fame. 

Law 



Againft. 

A contemplative Life is but a fpe- 
cious Lazinefs. 

To think well is little better than 
to dream well. 

Divine Providence regards the 
World ; but Man regards only his 
Country. 

A political Man fows even his 
Thoughts, 



tor. 

42. 'Tis not expounding, but di- 
vining, to recede from the Letter of 
the Law. 

To leave the Letter of the Law, 
makes the Judge a Legiflator. 



Againfl. 

Generals are to be conftrued fo as 
to explain Particulars. 

The worft Tyranny is Law upon 
the rack. 



Learning. 



For. 



4^. To write Books upon minute 
Particulars, were to render Experience 
almoft ufelefs. 

Reading is converfing with the 
Wife -, but afting is generally con- 
verfing with Fools. 

Sciences of little fignificance in 
themfelves, may fharpen the Wit, 
and marfhal the Thoughts. 



Agahiji. 

Men in Univerfities are taught to 
believe. 

"What Art ever taught the feafon- 
able Ufeof Art? 

To be wife by Precept, and wife 
by Experience, are contrary Habits ; 
the one forts not witii the other. 

A vain ufe is made of Art ; left it 
fhould otherwife be unemploy'd. 

'Tis the way of Scholars to fhew 
all they know ; and oppofe farther In- 
formation. 



Life. 



For. 



44. 'Tis abfurd, to love the Acci- 
dents of Life above Life itfelf. 

A long Courfe is better than a Ihort 
one, even for Virtue. 

With- 



AgainJ}. 
The Philofophers, by their great 
Preparation for Death, have only 
render'd Death more terrible. 

Men fear Death thro' Ignorance, 
as Children fear the Dark. 

I There 



Sed. XVIII. RHETORiCK, <9r ORATORy. 



Without a Compafs of Life, we 
can neither learn, nor repent, nor 
perfeft. 



There is no PafTion fo weak, but, 
if a little urged, will conquer the Fear 
of Death. 

A Man would widi to die, even 
thro' Wearinefs of doing the Cinne 
things over and over again. 



171 



L O <i.U A C I T Y, 



For. 



fuf- 



but 



for 



45. Silence argues a Man to 
pe6t either himfelf or others. 

All Reftraints are irkfome, 
efpecially that of the Tongue. 

Silence is the Virtue of Fools. 

Silence, lil<.e the Night, is fit 
Treacheries. 

Thoughts, like Waters, are beft in 
a running Stream. 

Silence is a kind of Solitude. 

He who is filent, expofes himfelf to 
Genfure, 



Againji. 

To fpeak little, gives Grace and 
Authority to what is deliver'd. 

Silence is like Sleep •, it refreflies 
Wifdom. 

Silence is the Fermentation of the 
Thoughts. 

Silence is the Style of Wifdom j and 
the Candidate for Truth. 



Love. 



For. 



46. Every Man feeks, but tlie Lover 
only finds, himfelf. 

The Mind is beft regulated by the 
Predominancy of fome powerful Af- 
fedlion. 

He who is wife, will purfue fome 
one Defire -, for he that affefts not 
one thing above another, finds all flat 
and diftafteful. 

Why fhould not one Man reft in 
one Individual ? 



Againji. 

The Stage is more beholden to 
Love, than civil Life. 

I like not fuch Men as are wholly 
taken up with one thing. 

Love is but a narrow Contempla- 
tion. 



Magnanimity. 



For. 



47. When the Mind propofes ho- 
nourable Ends ; not only the Virtues, 
but the Deiries are ready to affift. 

Virtues proceeding from Habit, or 
Precept, are vulgar ; but thofe that 
proceed from the End, heroical. 



Againft. 
Magnanimity is a poetical Virtue, 



Z 2 



Nature. 



172 



Rhetorics, or Oratory. Sedl.XVIII. 



Nature. 



For. 



48. Cuftom goes in Arithmetical, 
but Nature in Geometrical Progref- 
fion *. 

As Laws are to Cuftom in States •, 
fo is Nature to Cuftom in particular 
Perfons. 

Cuftom, againft Nature, is a kind of 
Tyranny ; but eafily fupprefl-id. 



Againfl. 

Men think according to Nature, 
fpeak according to Precept, but aft 
according to Cuftom. 

Nature is a kind of a School- 
Mafter •, Cuftom, a Magiftrate. 



Nobility. 



For. 

49. Where Virtue is deeply im- 
planted from the Stock ; there can be 
no Vice. 

Nobility is a Laurel confer'd by 
Time. 

If we reverence Antiquity in dead 
Monuments •, we fiiould do it much 
more in living ones. 

If we defpife Nobility in Families, 
what difference is there betwixt Men 
and Brutes? 

Nobility Ihelters Virtue from Envy, 
and recommends it to Favour. 



Agamjl. 

Nobility feldom fprings fromVirtue •, 
and Virtue feldomer from Nobility. 

Nobles oftener plead their Ancef- 
tors for Pardon, than Promotion. 

New rifing Men are fo induftrious, 
as to make Nobles feem like Statues. 

Nobles, like bad Racers, look back 
too often in the Courfe. 



PoPULARiT y. 



For. 

50. Uniformity commonly pleafes 
wife Men ; yet 'tis a Point of Wifdom 
to humour the changeable Nature of 
Fools. 

To honour the People, is the way 
to be honour'd. 

Men in place are ufually awed, not 
by one Man, but the Multitude. 



Againft. 

He who fuits with Fools, may hinv 
felf be fufpedted. 

He who pleales the Rabble, is com- 
monly turbulent. 

No moderate Counfels take witii 
the Vulgar. 

To fawH on the People, is the bafeft 
Flattery. 



For. 
51. Praife is the reflefted Ray of 
Virtue. 

Praife 

..^ Tjiat is, C-^om gets gfoiyid flower than nature. 



Praise. 

Againft. 
Fame makes a quick Meflenger, 
but a rafh Judge. 

What, 



Sec^. XVIII. Rhetorick, or Oratory. 



173 



Praife is the Honour obtain'd by- 
free Voices. 

Many Scates confer Honours •, but 
Praife always proceeds from Liberty. 

The Voice of the People hath 
fomcthing of Divine -, elfe how fliould 
fo many become of one mind.'' 

No wonder if the Commonalty 
fpeak truer than the Nobility -, be- 
caufe they fpeak with lefs danger. 



What has a good Man to do with 
the Breath of the Vulgar ? 

Fame, like a River, buoys up 
Things light and fwoln -, but drowns 
thofe that are weighty. 

Low Virtues gain the Praife of the 
Vulgar •, ordinary ones aftonifh them : 
but of the higheft, they have no feel- 
ing. 

Praife is got by Bravery more than 
Merit ; and given rather to the Vain 
and Empty, than to the Worthy and 
Subftantial. 



Preparation. 



For. 



52. He who attempts great Mat- 
ters with fmall Means -, hopes for 
Opportunity, to keep him in Heart. 

Slender Provifion buys Wit, but 
not Fortune. 



Againft. 

The firft Occafion is the beft Pre- 
paration. 

Fortune is not to be fetter'd in the 
Chains of Preparation. 

The interchange of Preparation and 
Adtion, are politick -, but the fepara- 
tion of them oftentatious, and unfuc- 
cefsful. 

Great Preparation is a Prodigalj 
both of Time and Bufinefs. 



Pride. 



For. 

5J. Pride is inconfiftent even with 
Vice : and as Poyfon expels Poyfon, 
fo are many Vices expell'd by Pride. 

An eafy Nature is fubje<5l to other 
Men's Vices -, but a proud one only 
to it's own. 

Pride, if it rife from a contempt 
of others, to a contempt of itfelf, at 
length becomes Pbilofojihy. 



Againft. 

Pride is the Ivy of Virtue *. 

Other Vices are only Oppofites to 
Virtues ; but Pride is even contagious. 

Pride wants the beft Condition of 
Vice, Concealment. 

A proud man, while he defpifes o- 
thers, negleds himfelf. 



For. 



54. That is unfeafonable Wifdom, 
which is not ready. 

He 



Readinbs», 

Jgainjl. 
ThatKnowledge is not deep fetch'd, 
which lies ready at hand. 

Wit 



Vixj, On account of creeping and twining aboutit. 



174 



RhetoriCk, or Oratory. 



Sea.XVlII. 



He who errs fuddenly, fuddenly re- 
forms his Error. 

To be wife upon Deliberation, and 
not upon prefent Occafion, is no great 

Matter. 



iight- 



Wifdom is like a Garment 
eft when readieft. 

They whofe Counfels are not ri- 
pened by Deliberation, have not their 
Prudence ripened by Age. 

What is fuddenly invented, fudden- 
ly vaniflies. 



For. 
Revenge 



Revenge. 



is a kind of 



^^. Private 
<vild Juftice. 

He who returns Injury for Injury, 
violates the Law, not the Perfon. 

The fear of private Revenge is ufe- 
ful ; for Laws are often afleep. • 



Againfl. 

He who does the wrong, is the Ag- 
greflbr •, but he who returns it, the 
Protraftor. 

The more prone men are to Re- 
venge, the more it fhould be weeded 
out. 

A revengeful Man may be flow in 
Time, tho' not in Will. 



Ri 



For. 



56. They defpife Riches, who de- 
fpair of them. 

Envy at Riches has made Virtue a 
Goddefs. 

Whilft Philofophers difpute whe 
ther all things fhould be referr'd to 
Virtue, or Pleafure ; let us be col- 
lefting the Inftruments of both. 

Riches turn Virtue into a common 
Good. 

The Command of other Advanta- 
ges are particular ; but that of Riches 
univerfal. 



H E S, 

Jgainft, 

Great Riches are attended, either 
with Care, Trouble, or Fame ; but 
no Ufe. 

What an imaginary Value is fet 
upon Stones, and other Curiofities, 
that Riches may feem to be of fome 
Service ? 

Many who imagine all things may 
be bought by their Riches, forget 
they have fold themfelves. 

Riches are the Baggage of Virtue ; 
neceflary, tho' cumberfome. 

Riches are a good Servant, but a 
bad Matter. 



Supers 
For. 
57. They who err out of Zeal, 
tho' they are not to be approved, 
fhould yet be pitied. 

Mediocrity belongs to Morality, 
Extremes to Divinity. 

A fuperftitious Man is a religious 
Formalift. 
I fliould fooner believe all the Fa- 
bles, 



T I T I O N. 

ylgainfl. 

As an Ape appears the more de- 
formed for his refemblance to Man ; 
lb the fimilitude of Superftition to 
Religion, makes it the more odious. 

What Affeftation is in civil Mat- 
ters, fuch is Superftition in divine. 

It were better to have no Belief 
of a God, than fuch an one as dilho- 
nours him. Ic 



SeA.XVIII. Rhetorick, or Oratory. 



blesand Abfurdities of any Religion ; 
than that the Univerfal Frame is with- 
out a Deity. 



It was not the School of Epicurus., 
but the Stokks, that difturbed the 
States of old. 

The real Atheifts are Hypocrites ; 
who deal continually in holy things 
without feeling. 



175 



Suspicion. 



For. 



58. Diftruft is the Sinew of Pru- 
dence; and Sufpicion a Strengthner 
of the Underflanding. 

That Sinceriw' is juftly fufpefted, 
which Sufpicion^eakens. 

Sufpicion breaks a frail Integrity, 
but confirms a ftrong one. 



/tgairtj}. 
breaks the 



Bonds of 



Sufpicion 
Truft. 

To be over-run with Sufpicion, is a 
kind of Political Madnefs. 



Taciturnit y. 



For. 

59. Nothing is concealed from a 
filent Man ; for all is fafcly depofited 
with him. 

He who eafily talks what he knows, 
will alfo talk what he knows not. 

Myfleries are due to Secrets. 



T E M P E 



For. 



60. To abftain and fuflain, are near- 
ly the fame Virtu°. 

Uniformity, Concords, and the 
Meafure of Motions, are things Cele- 
ftial •, and the Ciiarafters of Eternity. 

Temperance, like wholefome Cold, 
colkds and ftrengthens the Force of 
the Mind. 

When the Senfes are too exquifite 
and wandring,they v/ant Narcoticks ; 
fo likewife do wandring Affedlions, 



j^gainji. 

From a filent Man all things arc 
concealed; becaufe he returns nothing 
but Silence. 

Change of Cuftoms. keeps Men fe- 
cret. 

Secrecy is the Virtue of a Confejjhr. 

A clofe Man is like a Man un- 
known. 

RANGE, 

Againft. 

I like not bare negative Virtues; they 
argue Innocence, not Merit. 

The Mind larkguifhes, that is not 
fometimes fpirited up by excefs. 

I like the Virtues, which produce 
the Vivacity of Action, not the Dul - 
nefs of PalTion. 

The Sayi/igs, " N'ci to ufe, that you 
" may not dejire " " Not to defire, that 
'•'■you may not fear., &c. proceed from 
pufiUanimous, and didrullful Natures, 



Vain* 



iy6 



Rhetorick, or Oratory. Sedl.XVIII. 



Va I n-Gl o r y. 



For. 



6i. He who fecks his own Praife •, 
at the fame time feeks the Advan- 
tage of others. 

He who is fo ftrait-laced, as to re- 
gard nothing that belongs to others, 
will perhaps account publick Affairs 
impertinent. 

Such Difpofirions as have a mixture 
of Levity, more eafily undertake a 
publick Charge. 



Aga'injl. 

The Vain-glorious are always Fac- 
tious, Falfe, Fickle, and upon the 
Extreme. 

Thrafo is Gnatho'?, Prey. 

'Tis fhameful in a Lover, to court 
the Maid inftead of the Miftrefs -, but 
Praife is only Virtue's Hand-maid. 



Unchastity. 



For. 



62. 'Tis Jealoufy that makesChafti- 
ty a Virtue. 

He mult be a melancholy Mortal, 
that thinks Venui a grave Lady. 

"Why is a Part of Regimen, pre- 
tended Cleannefs, and the Daughter 
of Pride, placed among the Virtues ? 

In Amours, as in Wild-fowl, there 
is no Property, but the Right is tranf- 
ferred with Pofleffion. 



Againji. 

Incontinency is one of Cirri's worft 
Transformations. 

The unchafte Liver has no reverence 
for himfelf ; which is flackening the 
Bridle of Vice. 

They who, with Paris, make Beau- 
ty their Wifh, lofe, as he did, Wif- 
dom and Power. 

Alexander fell upon no popular 
Truth, when he faid, that Sleep and 
Lull were the Eameft of Death. 



Watchfulness. 



For. 

63. More Dangers deceive by Fraud, 
than Force. 

'Tis eafier to prevent a Danger, 
than to watch its approach. 

Danger is no longer light, if it 
once feem light. 



Wife and 
For. 
64. Charity to the Common- wealth 
begins with private Families, 

Wife and Children are a kind of 
Difcipline -, but unmarried Men are 
niorofe and cruel. 

A 



Againfi. 

He bids Danger advance, who buc- 
kles againft it. 

Even the Remedies of Dangers are 
dangerous. 

'Tis better to ufe a few approved 
Remedies, than to venture upon many 
unexperienced Particulars. 

Children. 

Againft. 
He who hath Wife and Children, 
hath given Hoftages to Fortune. 

Generation and Ifiue, are human 
Adls ; but Creation, and its Works, 
are divine. 

IITue 



Sea. XVIII. 



Rhetorick, or Oratory. 



177 



A fingle Life, and a chilJlefs State 
fit men for nothing but Flight. 

He I'acrifices to Death, who begets 
no Children. 

The happy in other refpefts are 
commonly unfortunate in their Chil- 
dren ; left the human State fhould too 
nearly approacli the divine. 



iniie is the Eternity of Brutes ; but 
Fame, Merit, and Inftitutions, the 
Eternity of Men. 

Private Regards generally prevail 
over publick. 

Some affeft the Fortune of Priam, 
\n furviving his Family. 



Youth. 



For. 

65. The firft Thoughts and Coun- 
fels of Youth, have fomewhat di- 
vine. 

Old Men are wife for themfelves •, 
but lefs for others, and the publick 
Good. 

If it were vifible, old Age deforms 
the Mind more than the Body. 

Old Men fear all things, but the 
Gods. 



Againft. 

Youth is the Field of Repentance. 

Youth naturally defpiles the Au- 
thority of Age ; that every one may 
grow wife at his peril. 

The Counfels whereat Time did 
not aflift, are not ratified by him. 

Old Men commute Venm for the 
Gracsi ^. 



()(>. The Examples of Ant'ithets., here laid down, may not perhaps deferve 
the place affign'd them : but as they were colledled in my youth ; and 
are really Seeds, not Fkia^crs, I was unwilling they fhould be loft. In 
this they plainly fhew a juvenile Warmth ; that they abound in the moral 
and demonjlrative kind, but touch fparingly upon the deliberative and ju- 
dicial. 

IV. 67. A l\\\rdi.Colleclion\v^T\x.\v\g to the Apparatus of Rhetorick., is vihs-t ^colleclioncf 
we call Lejfer Forms. And thefe are a kind of Portals., Pojlern-doors, Outer- lef^r Terms, 
Rooms, Back- Rooms, and Paffiges of Speech ; which may ferve indifferently for wanting in 
all Subjects: i\ic\\:ii Prefaces, Ccticlufions, Bigrejfions, Tranfttions, &c. por '^"'^^°-''^ '• 
as in Building, a good Diftribution of the Frontifpiece, Stair-cafes, Doors, 
Windows, Entries, Paflages, and the like, is not only agreeable, but ufeful : 
fo in Speech, if the Acceflories, and Under-parts, be decently and skilfully 
contrived and placed, they are of great Ornament and Service to the whole 
Strufture of the Difcourfe. Of thefe Forms, we will juft propofe one Ex- 

' The Reader will find confiderable Ufe made of this Coileftion by the Author, in his 
Essays; and other pans of his Works. It were eafy to continue llich a Collection, in the way 
of an Alfhxbeticiil Common-place : and the Ufefulnefs of the Thing might well recommend it; 
as in moft parts of Lite, and both in writing and fpeaking, we have frequent Occalions for _ 

fhort and fenteotious Arguments j as well to defend oarieives, as to preva.l upon oihers. There 
is alfo a more capital Ufe of fuch a Colleciion; viz. that of afl'ifting the Underftanding, and 
enabling the Mind to form a true Judgment of Things; when both fides of the Qjeftion are 
thus pleaded for with the utmoft Strength. And Ibme Colledions of this kind, we find in federal 
School-Books, ufed by the younger Scholars, as a Helpin making their Themes or Exercifei: But 
the Thing in its full extent, according to the View of the Author, is perhaps ftiU wanting. 

Vol. I. A a ample 



lyS Criticism, fl;;2(^ School-Learning. SecS.XIX 

ample or two ^ For tho' they are Matters of no fmxll ufe •, yet becaufe, 
here we add nothing of our own, and only take naked Forms from Demojlhe- 
nes, Cicero, or other feled Authors ; they may feem of too trivial a nature, 
to fpcnd time therein, 

' 68. EXAMPLES OF LESSER FORMS. 

A Conclusion in the Deliberative. 
So ihe paji Fault may be at once amended; and future Inconvenience prevented. 

Corollary of an exact Division. 

That all jna^ fee I would conceal nothing by Silence ; nor cloud any thing by 
TFords. 

A Transition, with a Caveat. 

But let us leave this Subje5l for the prefent •, Jlill referving to ourfelves the 
Liberty of a Retrofpe5iion. 

A Prepossession against an inveterate Opinion. 

I will let you underflandto the full, what fprungfrom the thing itfelf; what 
Error has tacFd to it ; and what Envy has raifed upon it. 

And thefe few Examples may ferve to Ihew our meaning as to the Lejfer 
Forms of Speech ^ 



SECT. XIX. 

Criticism, «;^fl? School-Learning.. 

^••v -«J i.r I ^Here remain xyio general Appendages to //6^ Doctrine of De- 
Critiafm una I ,0 1 1 c 

School-Learn- JL. LIVERY; the One relating to Criticism ; the other to ochool- 

ing, Apfen- Lea RNiNG. For as the principal part oitraditive Prudence S turns upon the 

dxges to the Writinv r 

Doarine of ° 

Delivery. a gee the Lord Shaftesiury's Advice to an Author. 

^ Tho" the Ancients may leem to have perfefted Rhetorlck ; yet the Moderns have given it 
new Light. Gerhard Vojjius bcftow'd incredible Pains upon this Art ; as appears by his Book 
de Natura (°f Conftitutione Rhetorices ; and flill more by his Inftittitiones Orator'u. See alio 
Wolfgang. Schoenfieder'i Apparatus EloquentU ; Tefmarl Exercitationes Rhetorics., &c. Several 
French Authors have likewife cultivated this Subjeft; particularly Unpin, in his Reflexions fur 
I'Eloquence i Bohours, in his Maniere de bien Tenfer dans les Oiivrages de I'Efprit; and his V en- 
fees Ingenienfes; Father Lamy, in his Art de Parler. See alio M. Cajfander's French Tranfation 
of Arijiotie's Rhetoricks ; the anonymous Pieces, entitled, I'Art de Venfer, and I' An de Verfuader; 
Le Clerc's Hiftoria Rhetorics,, in his Afs Crilicti; and Stoll'lHS dt Arte Rhitoricn, in his Irttre- 
duCiio in Hiftoriam Liter ariam. 

5 See above Sect, XV'IL i, 1, O'f. 



Se(n:.XIX. Criticism, ^7;?/^School-Learning. 179 

writing; fo its relative turns upon the reading cf Books. Now Reading is 
either regulated by the AfTiftance of a Mafter j or left to every one's pri- 
vate hulnjlry : but both depend upon Criticism and School-Lear- 
ning. 

2. Criticism regards, firjl, the exa^ correHing and piihlijlnng of npprov-Crhkifm di- 
ed Authors ; whereby the Honour of fuch Authors is preferved •, and the ne- '^"""'^j'' "■ 
ceifary Afliftance afforded to the Reader. Yet the mifapplied Labours and "fi^Urla 
Induftry of fome, have in this refpe<5t proved highly prejudicial to Learning : fublifli'mg cf 
for many CnV/V^i have a way, when they fall upon any thing they do not ■^«'^'"'*- 
underftand, of immediately fuppojing a Fault in the Copy. Thus, in that Paf- 

fage of Tacitus, where a certain Co/i?;/)! pleads a Right of Proteftion in the 
Senate, Tacitus tells us, they were not favourably heard ; fo that the Am- 
baffadorsdiltrufting their Caufe, endeavoured to procure the Favour of 77- 
tus Vinius by a Prelent, and fucceeded : upon which Tacitus has thefe 
Words •, Turn dignitas (sf anliquitas Colonies valuit : Then the Honour and An- 
tiquity of the Colony had weight ; in allufion to the Sum receiv'd. But a con- 
fiderable Critick, here expunges Turn, and fubftitutes Tantum ; which quite 
corrupts the Scnfe. And from this ill praftice of the Criticks, it happens^ 
that the 7noft correSled Copies are often the leafl correal. And to lay the truth, 
unlefs a Critick is well acquainted with the Sciences treated in the Books he 
publifhes, his Diligence will be attended with danger. 

3. K fecond thing belonging to Criticism, is the Explanation and Illu-{r.) The illu- 
firation of Authors; hy Comments, Notes, Colleclions, &c. But here an ill A"'"'"''/ 
cuftom has prevailed among the Criticks, of skipping over the obfcure Pai'-^J/^, g^c. 
fages; and expatiating upon fuch as are fufficiently clear : as if their Defign 

were not fo much to illuftrate their Author, as to take all occafions of 
fhewing their own Learning and Reading. It were therefore to be wifhed, 
that every original Writer, who treats an obfcure or noble Subjedl, would 
add his own Explanations to his own Work •, fo as to keep the Text conti- 
nued and unbroken, by Digreffions or Illuftrations ; and thus prevent any 
wrong Interpretation, by the Notes of others '^, 

4. Thirdly, there belongs to Criticifm the thing from whence its Name is(j.) ACen- 
derived ; viz, a certain concife Judgment, or Cenfure of the Authors puhliJJied spurt eftlnm. 
and a Comparifon of them with other Writers, who have treated the fame Sub- 

je5l. Whence the Student may be directed in the choice of his Books -, and 
come the better prepared to their perufal : and this feems to be the ultimate 
Office of the Critick ; and has indeed been honour'd by fome greater Men 
in our Age, than Criticks are ufually thought ''. 

Aa 2 5. 

* It were much to be widied, the Author had fet an Example of this in his own Philofophical 
Works; which might then have been currently underftood; and not hive continued in a manner 
unknown, as they have done, except to a few. But the Misfortune may lie heie, that an 
Author cannot always forefee what Parts of his Works will be lead intelligible to his Readers 
the whole being generally become clear and ftrong to himfelf, by repeated Thought or Experience. 

* The Author iias given us an uncommon Speczwra of this partofCriiiny)», in hisCenfuieof the 
Works of the more eminent Philopofhers ; which makes the Tenth Supplement to the Augmentis 
Hcienti^rum. But the Subjeft of Criticifm itfelf has been confiderably changed, and improved, 

fine? 



i8o Criticism, ^W School-Learning. Sedl.XIX. 

School u am- 5. For the Doctrine OF School-Learning, it were the fliortcft way to 
ins *o <>': ^ refer to ihejefuils ; who, in point of Ufefulnefs, have herein excell'd : yet we 
'i^"f, "' ^°'' m\l lay down a few Admonitions about it. "We highly approve the Educa- 
^ ' tion of Youth in Colleges; and not wholly in private Houfes, or Schools^. 

For in Colleges, there is not only a greater Emulation of the Youth, among 
their Equals, but the Teachers have a venerable Afpeft and Gravity i which 
greatly conduces towards infinuating a modeft Behaviour, and the forming 
of tender Minds from the firft, according to fuch Examples : and befides 
thefe, there are many other Advantages of a Collegiate Education. But for the 
Order and IVlanner of Difcipline, 'tis of capital Ufe to avoid too concife Me- 
thods, and too hafty an Opinion of Learning v which give a Pertnefs to the 
Mind ; and rather make a fhow of Improvement, than procure it. But 
Excurfions of Genius are to be fomewhat fivour'd •, fo that if a Scholar per- 
form his ufual Exercifes, he may be fulTer'd to Ileal tim.e for other things, 
whereto he is more inclin'd. 
Two WW e/ 6- It muft alfo be carefully noted, tho' it has, perhaps, hitherto efcaped 
preparing the Obfervation, that there are two correfpondent ways of enuring, exercifing. 
Genius. ^nd preparing the Genius : the one, beginning with the eafier, leads gradually 

on to more difficult things •, and the other commanding and impofing fuch 
as are harder at firft •, fo that when thefe are obtain'd, the eafier may be 
more agreeably difpatch'd. For 'tis one Method to begin Swimming with 
Bladders •, and another to begin Dancing with loaded Shoes. Nor is it eafy 
to fee how much a prudent Intermixture of thele two ways, contributes ta 
improve the Faculties both of Body and Mind*". 
Studies tofnit 7. Again, the fuiting of Studies to the Genius, is of fingular Ufe : which 
the Genius. Mafters fnould duly attend to -, that the Parent may thence confider what 
kind of Life the Child is fitteft for. And further, it muft be carefully ob- 
ferved, not only that every one makes much greater Progrefs in thofe things 
- whereto he is naturally inclin'd ; but alfo, that there are certain Remedies 
in a proper Choice of Studies, for particular Indifpofuions of Mind. For 
example •, Inattention, and a Volatility of Genius, may be remedied by Ma- 
fhematicks ; wherein, if the Mind wander ever fo little, the whole Demon- 
ftration muft be begun a-new ". 

8. 

fincc his time; infomuch as to be reduced into the form of an Art; as particularly by the 
learned M. le Clerc, in his Ars Crilica, who defines Criticifm the Art, {i ) of Interpreting the 
ancient Writers, whether profricul or poetical; and {1.) iliflingtiijliing their genuine Writings from 
fiurious: Thus taking m a part omitted by the Lord Bacon. To which might aifo be added 
the Difcovery of Impofitions, Interpolations, Prevarications, Pyracies, Mutilations, and Suppref- 
lions, e^c both of the ancient and modern Authors; with the ways of reiSifying, adjulling, 
and fupplying the fame. In fhort, Criticifm, according to the later Acceptation, is the Art of 
Judging of Hijiorical FaSs, Monuments, Books, and their Authors. And to take Criticifm in 
this Light, the Books that have been written upon it, in the laft, and the prefent Age, might 
furnifh out a Library. Many of them are enumerated by Morhof, Struvins. Stollius, and other 
Writers upon Volymathy, and Literary Hiflory. 

* See Osborn'i Advice to a Son. 

* The Author intended a Difcourfe upon this Subjeft, as appears by his Letter to Sir Keray 
Saville. See Supplement V. 

^ See the Author's Essay v^onStiidies; Supplement XI. 



Sed.XIX. Criticism, ^?/</School-Learning. i8i 

S. Exercises, alio, are of great Efficacy in teaching: but few have ob- The proper ufs 
ferved, that thefe fhould not only be prudently appointed; but prudently "Z'^"''^"""'' 
changed. For, as Cicero well remarks, Faults^ as zvsll as FacuUies, are gene-^'''"'-^^'' 
rally exenis'ti in Exercifes; whence a bad Habit is fometimes acquired, and 
infinuated together with a good one. 'Tis therefore lafer, that Exercii'es 
fhould be intermitted, and now and then repeated, than always continued 
and follow'd. Thefe things, indeed, may, at firft fight, appear light and 
trivial •, yet they are highly efFedual, and advantageous. For as tlie great 
increafe of the Roman Empire has been juftly attributed to the Virtue and 
Prudence of thofe fix Rulers, who had, as it were, the Tuition of it in its 
Youth , fo proper Difcipline, in tender Years, has fuch a Power, tho' latent 
and unobferved, as neither Time, nor future Labour, can any way fubdue in 
our riper Age. 

9. It alfo deferves to be remarked, that even ordinary Talents in great r/^c^,?;^,, ;,/• 
Men, ufed on great Occafions, may fometimes produce remarkable Effefts. the stage re- 
And of this we will give an eminent Inftance ; the rather becaufe the Jefuils ""^"""'^^^'l as 
judicioufly retain the Difcipline among them. And tho' the"thing itfelf be^^v/J^' "f vij- 
difreputable in the Profeflion of it, yet it is excellent as ^. Difcipline : we 
mean the Aolion of the Theatre ; which ftrengthens the Memory, regulates the 
Tone of the Voice, and the Efficacy of Pronunciation ; gracefully compofes the 
Countenance and the Gefture ; procures a becoming degree of Afilirance ; and 
laftly, accuftoms Youth to the Eye of Men. The Example we borrow from 
Tacitus^ of one Vihdenus, once a Player, but afterwards a Soldier in the Panno- 
fiian Army. This Fellow, upon the death of Anguftus, raifed a Mutiny ; fo 
that Blefns, the Lieutenant, committed fome of the Mutineers : but the Sol- 
diers broke open the Prifon, and releafed them. Upon which, Vibulenus thus 
harangu'd the Army : " I'ou, fays he, have rejlored Light and Life to thefe 
" foor Innocents : but ivho gives back Life to my Brother ; or my Brother to me ? 
" He was fnt to you, from the German Army, for a comnmi Good -, and that- 
*' Man tnurder'd him lajl Night, by the hands of his Gladiators, whom he al- 
" ways keeps ready to murder the Soldiers. /^/?/it'i?r, Blefus, where hafl thou 
" thrown his Corpfe ? Even Enemies refufe not the right of Burial. When I 
" Jhall, with Tears and Embraces, have perform'' d my Duty to him, command 
*' me alfo to Death ; but let our Fellow-Soldiers bury us, who are ?//urder'd 
" only for our Love to the Legions." With which Words,-' he rais'd fuch a 
Storm of Confternation and Revenge in the Army, that unlefs the thing had 
prefendy appear'd to be all a Fidion, and that the Fellow never had a 
Brother, the Soldiers might have murder'd their Leader: but he afted the 
whole as a Part upon the Stage \ And thus much for the Logical 
ScIE^JCES \ SECT. 

* This Example is evidently produced, not for Imitation; but only to (hew the Force of 
ABion and Elocution, and what confiderable things they are capable of effecting. 

>> The Subjeft of SchoUftick Di/dflineis the more lightly touched by the Author, becaufe he 
refers us to the Je[uits, who are certainly great Mafters in the Art of Education ; but it does 
not appear that their Example is confiderably follow'd in England: particularly as to the Thea- 
trical Exercifes here recommended. Tis true, in feveral of our capital Schools, the Scholars 
annually ad fome ancient or modern Comedy ; but this they ufually do after a childifii manner 3 

without 



i82 Ethicks, or Morality. Se<^. XX« 



SECT. XX. 

Of Ethicks, or Morality. 

The subjea: I- \?\/^ ^, next proceed to Ethicks -, which has the human Will for its 
and office of VV Subje^. ReafoH governs the FAll; but apparent Good feduces it. 
Ethich. J1-5 Motives are the AfFeftions -, and its IVIinifters, the Organs and voluntary- 
Motions. 'Tis of this Doftrine that Solomon fays, Ke^p ihy Heart with all 
diligence ; for out of it are the Actions cf Life. The Writers upon this Science^ 
appear H!<.e Writing-Majlers, who lay before their Scholars a number of beau- 
tiful Copies ; but give them no Diredlions how to guide thJr Pen, or fhape 
their Letters : for fo the Writers upon Ethicks have given us fhining Draughts, 
Defcriptions, and exaft Images of Goodnefs, Virtue, Duties, Happincfs, i^c. 
as the true Objefts and Scope of the human Will and Defire -, but for ob- 
taining thefe excellent and well-defcribed Ends, or by what means the Mind 
may be broke and fafhion'd for obtaining them, they either touch this Sub- 
ject not at all, or (lightly ^. We may difputc as much as we pleafe, that 
moral Virtues are in the human Mind-, by Habit, not by Nature ; that generous 
Spirits are led by Reafon, hut the Herd ^y Reward and PunifJjment ; that the 
Mind miijl befetjiraight., like a crooked Stick, by bending it the contrary way, &c. 
But nothing of this kind of Glance and touch, can in any way fupply the 
want of the thing we are now in queft of''. 
The great im- 2. The Caufe of this Negleft I take to be, that latent Rock whereon fo 
ferfeaion of niany of the Sciences have fplit ; viz. the Averfion that Writers have to 
t li rine. ^^^_^^ ^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ vulgar Matters, which are neither fubtile enough for Dif- 
pute, nor eminent enough for Ornament "^. 'Tis not eafy to fee how great 

a 

without having been broke and form'd to an Audience, by a previous Courfe of Exerci/ei ; fo 

as to give them the graceful Accent, the decent Deportment, and the ready Addrefs, which re- 
commend a Man totheFavour of the World, and fit him forBufinefs: But this is a Point which 
the7?/«i/jprincipally labour J and accordingly their Pupils commonly have a much more manly 
and polite Behaviour, than other Pupils of equal (landing; without that flieepifh Modefty on the 
one fide, and that pragmatical Affurance on the other, fo difudvantageous and difagreeable in 
civil Society. See this Affair more fully coniider'd by Morhof in his Volyhiftor ; de Curricula 
Scholajlico ; de Curricula Academic» ; de Vedagogia regia; & de Exercitationibus. See alfo Mr. Locke 
tf Educntion. 

■'■ For the HiJIory of Morality, conCult Scheurlius'sBiiliograplfiaMoralis, Ed.i6S6. Placcius's 
Epitome Bihliothtc& Moratis, Fafchius de -variis Moraii;i tradendi modii formifque, 1707. Bar- 
teyrac's Preface to his French Tranflation oi Puffendorf de Jure Nature ^ Gentium, and Stollii 
Jiitroditclio in Hijloriam Literariam, pag. 691 — 7j-i. 

*■ Viz.. The Cultivation, or Regulation, of the Mind, (^e. See below, 3. 

' This is laid down as a general, or fundamental Caufe ; from whence naturally flow many 
particular ones, as Ignorance, Negleft, unruly Paflions, ^c. which Vincent. Placcius has drawn 
out into a Table; as imagining them omitted by the Author. See Commentarium de Merali 
Scientia augenda; of which, more in the fubfequent Note^. 



Sed.XX. Ethicks, or Morality. iH-? 

a Misfortune hath proceeded hence ; that Men, thro' natural Pride and Vain- 
glory, fhould chule fuch Subjefts and Methods of treating them, as may 
rather fhow their own Capacities, than be of ufe to the Reader. Seneca 
fays excellently. Eloquence is hurtful to thofe it infpires -uAth a d^'fire of ilfelf^ 
and not of things : for Writings fliould make Men in love with the Subjedt ; 
and not with the Writer. They, therefore, take the juft Courfe, who can 
fay of their Counfels as Demojlbenes did -, If you put tbefe things in execution, 
you fhall not onl-j jraife the Orator for the prefent ; but yourfelves alfo foon after, 
when your Affairs arc in a better pofure. But in Ethicks, the Philofophers 
have culled out a certain fplendid IVlafs of Matter, wherein they might prin- 
cipally fhow their Force of Genius, or Power of Eloquence: but for other 
things, that chiefly conduce to Pradtice -, as they could not be fo gracefully 
fet off, they have entirely dropt them. Yet fo many eminent Men, furely, 
ought not to have defpair'd of a like Succefs with Virgil •, who procured as 
much Glory for Eloquence, Ingenuity, and Learning, by explaining the 
homely Obft-rvations of Agriculture, as in relating the heroick Afts of JSneas. 
And certainly if Men were bent, twt upon writing atleifure, what may be read 
at leifure, but really to cultivate and improve aflive Life ; the Gcorgicks of 
the Mind ought to be as highly valued, as thofe heroical Portraits of Virtue, 
Goodnefs, and Happinefs, wherein fo much pains have been taken. 

3. We divide Ethicks into two principal Doilrines; the one of the Ethicks 4- 
Model or Image of Good'', the other of the Regulation and Culture of the Mind; '^'*'' '"'<> '^* 
which I commonly exprefs by the word Georgtcks'^. The firft defcribes the J^"f 'i't^J 
Nature of Good ; and the other prefcribes Rules for conforming the Mind to it. and the Geor- 
The Dohrine of the Image of Good, in defcribing the nature of Good, con- gicki of the 
fiders it either as fimple, or compounded ; and either as to the kinds or de- ^^""^• 
grees thereof In the latter of thefe, the Chrijlian Faith has at length abolifn'd 
thofe infinite Difputes and Speculations, as to the fupreme degree of Good, 
call'd Happinefs, Bleflednefs, or the Sunnnum bonum; which was a kind ofrheHeathe» 
heathen Theology. For, as Ariftotle faid, Touths might he happy, iho' only in Summum 
Hope ; fo, according to the Diredlion of Faith, we muft put ourfelves in the ^'°Vf!w'^' 
ftate of Minors ; and think of no other Felicity, but that founded in Hope, chijlianity. 
Being therefore thus deliver'd from this oftentatious Heaven of the Heathens, 
we may, with lefs offence to Truth and Sobriety, receive much of what 
they deliver about the Image of Good. As for the nature of pofitive and fimple j-he Heathen 
Good, they ha%'e certainly drawn it beautifully, and according to the ]^\'ie,Treatmint of 
in feveral Pieces, exadlly reprcfenting the Forms of Virtue and Duty •, lY.^'xr fofitive and 
Order, Kinds, Relations,. Parts, Subjeds, Provinces, Anions, and Difpen-^"'^'* '^''''* 

fit ions. 

* For the Reafon of this Appellation, lee 5fc?. XXI. i. 

* This Divifion of Ethicks is thought too general by Vincent. Flaccitts, who has endeavour'd 
to improve the Author's Doctrine of Morality. The Title of the Work is de Morali Scientia 
augenda Commeiitariiim. in Franc. B.tconi, &c. de Dignitate Q' Augmentis Scisntinrum Librum 
feftimum ; Ztbic& Dochins, Originem, Incrementu, Decrements, FortnnaiKqiie pfr varias gentes 
~jariam, ai> Orbe candito, hucufc^ue fummatim exhibms, &C. Francofurt. 16^77. The Divijion 
thisWriter would eftablifh, is that hereafter intimated, 5ec?.XXII. i. or the fame as iaMcdicine, 
whence he ufes the Terms rhyflologia. Moratis, Nofologia Moralis, Semeiotica Moralis, Therapew 
tica Moralis, and would introduce a kind of Chirnrgin MqtaUs ; thus making moral Philofophers 
the Pfyficiitas of the Mind. 2. 



184 Ethicks, (J/' Morality. Sed.XX. 

ficions. And all this rhey have recommended and infinuated to the Mind, 
with great Vivacity and Siibtility of Argument, as well as Sweetnefs of Perfua- 
fion : at the fame time faithfully guarding, as much as was poflible by Words, 
againft depraved and popular Errors and Infults. And in deducing the na- 
O' comparn- ture of Comparative Good, they have not been wanting; but appointed three 
tt-.e Gcoil. Orders thereof; they have compared contemplative, and atStive Life together ; 
diftinguifhed between Virtue with reludlance, and Virtue fecured and confirmed; 
reprefented the Conflift betwixt Honour and Advantage ; ballanced the Vir- 
tues, to fhew which over-weigh'd ; and the like : fo that this part of the 
Image of Good, is already nobly executed ; and herein the Ancients have 
fliown wonderful Abilities. Yet the pious and ftrenuous Diligence oftheDivijies, 
exercifed in weighing and determining Studies, moral Virtues, Cafes of Confcience, 
and fixing the Bounds of Sin, have greatly exceeded them. But if the Phi- 
lofophers, before they defcended to the popular and received Notions of 
Virtue and Vice, Pain and Pkafure, &c. had dwelt longer upon difcovering 
Thilr failure. t\\z Roots and Fibres of Good and Evil; they would, doubtlefs, have thus 
gain'd great Light to their fubfequent Enquiries: efpecially if they had con- 
i\i\ttdiX.]\t nature of Things, as well as moral Axioms, they would have fhorten'd 
their Doctrines, and laid them deeper. But as they have entirely omitted 
this, or confufedly touch'd it, we will here briefly touch it over again ; and 
endeavour to open and cleanfe the Springs of Morality, before we come to 
the Georgicks ^ of the Mind ; which we fet down as deficient. 
Tm Appetites 4- -^'^ things are endued with an Appetite to two kinds of Good ; the one, 
inallihingi; as the thing is a Whole in itfelf ; the other, as 'tis a Part of fome greater 
viz.i'f//-Go(j</, Whole : and this latter is more worthy and more powerful than the other ; 
and Good of ^^ jj. j-gj^jj j-q jhe Confervation of a more ample For7n. The firft may be 
called Individual or Self -Good ; and the latter, Good of Conwiunion. Iron, by 
a particular Property, moves to the Loadftone ; but if the Iron be heavy, 
it drops its Affection to the Loadfbone, and tends to the Earth ; which is 
the proper Region of fuch ponderous Bodies. Again, tho'denfeand heavy 
Bodies tend to the Earth, yet rather than Nature will fufi'er a Separation in 
the Continuity of Things, and leave a Vacuum, as they fpeak ; thefe heavy 
Bodies will be carried upwards, and forego their Affe6tion to the Earth ; 
to perform their Office to theWorld. And thus it generally happens, that the 
Confervation of the more general Form, reguhites the lefler Appetites. 
But this Prerogative of the Good of Communion is more particularly im- 
prefs'd upon Man, if he be not degenerate, according to that remarkable 
Saying of Pompe-j ; who, being Governour of the Ciiy-Purveyance, at a 
time of Famine in Rome, and entreated by his Friends not to venture to 
Sea, whilft a violent Storm was impending ; anfwer'd, 7l/y Going is necejfary, 
but not my Life : fo that the defire of Life, which is greateft in the Indivi- 
dual, did not with him outweigh his Affedlion and Fidelity to the State ^. 

But 

* For the Meaning and Rcafon of this Expreflion, fee above, 1. and hereafter, 5ei?. XXII. 
1,1, ej>c. 

'' And thus Morality feems abfolutely founded in the Laws of Nature. See Bifhop Cumber- 
land'% Difquifitio Philofophica de Legibus Nutiini the Religion of Nature delineated, by Mr. H'ool- 
lajltn i and the Enquiry into our Ideas of Beauty nnd Virtue, by Mr. Hiitchitifon. 



Se<fl.XX. Ethicks, or Morality. 185 

But no PhUofuphx, Se£i, Religion, Lazv, or Difcipline, in any Age, l.as fo 
highly exalted the Good of Communion, and lb flir deprels'd the Good of In- 
dividuals,' as, the Chriftian Faith. "Whence it may clearly appear, that one 
and the fame God gave thcfe Laws of Nature to the Creatures, and the Chri- 
Jtian Law to Men. And hence we read, that fome of the eleft and holy 
Men, in an Extafy of Charity, and impatient Dcfire of the Good of Com- 
munion, rather wiflied their Names blotted out of the Book of Life, than that 
their Brethren fhould mifs of Salvation. 

5. This being once laid down, and firmly eftablifh'd, will put an end Sevcral^ef- 
to fome of the fobereft Controverfies in ?noral Philofophy. And frjl, it J!^""''"*^"!'^^' 
determines that ^ejlion about the preference of a contemplative to an aoiive „/„ ^^^ p^^. 
Life, againft the Opinion of yirifctle : As all the Reafons iie produces for a ceMng Voun- 
contemplative Life, regard only private Good, and the Pleafure or Dignity of '''»"'''«; viz. 
an individual Perfon ; in which refpefts the contemplative Life is, doubtk-fs, '^'^j-^'/'^' ^^'^. 
beft ■, and like the Comparifon made by Pythagoras, to aiTert the Wononr per able to a 
and Reputation of Philofophy : when being ask'd by Hiero, who he was, he contemplative 
anfwer'd, " I am a Looker-on -, for as, at theOlyfnpick Games, fome come to try ^'fi- 
" for the Prize; others to fell; others to meet their Friends, and be merry ; 
"■ hut others again come merely as SfeUators ; J am one of the latter." But Men 
ought to know, that in the Theatre of human Life, 'tis only for God and 
Angels to be Spe^ators. Nor could any doubt about this matter have arifen 
in the Church, if a monaflick Life had been merely contemplative, and un- 
exercis'd in ecclefiafiical Duties ; as continual Prayer, the Sacrifice of Vows, 
Oblations to God, and the writing of Theological Books, for propagating the 
Divine Law, &c. But for a mere contemplative Life, which terminates in it- 
felf, and fends out no Rays either of Heat or Light into human Society ; 
Theology knows it not. 

6. It alfo determines the ^eftion, that has been fo vehemently contro- (2.) whether 
verted between the Schools of Zeno and Socrates, on the one fide, who placed ^f'"'J.''. 
Felicity in Virtue, fimple or adorn'd ; and many other Sedts and Schools on tue'or 'vlea- 
the other; as particularly the Schools of the Cyrenaics and Epicureans, who /«re. 
placed Felicity in Pleafure : thus making Virtue a mere Hand-maid •, without 
which, Pleafure could not be well ferved. Of the fame fide is alfo that 
other School of Epicurus, as on the reformed Eftablifhment, which declared 
Felicity to be nothing but Tranquillity and Serenity of Mind. With thelc alfo 
join'd the exploded School of Pyrrho and Herillus, who placed Felicity in an 
abfolute exemption from Scruples, and allowing of no fix^d and conftant nature 
of Good and Evil ; but accounting all Aftions virtuous or vicious, as they pro- 
ceed from the Mind by a pure and undifturbed Motion, or with Averfion 
and Reluftance. But 'tis plain, that all things of this kind relate to trivtite 
Tranquillity, and Complacency of Mind ; and by no means to the Good of 
Communion. 

7. Again, upon the Foundation above laid, we may confute the Pbilnfo- (j) wliether 
phy of Epicfetus, which refts upon fuppofing Felicity placed in things within felicity h 
our power, left we fhould otherwife be expos' d to Fortune and Contingence : as \^ll'f,^"l,i,hi^ 
if it were not much happier to fail of fuccefs in juft and honourable De- ^«V )omr. 
Vol.. I. Bb fjgns, 



i86 



(4.) whither 
the Caufes 
of Difqidet 
are to be 
avoided, or 
the Mind pre- 
fared againfi 
them. 



{<;.) Methtr 
a Moralift 
Jheidd quit 
Society. 



Ethicks, or Morality. Sect.XX. 

fjgns, when that Failure makes for the publick Good ; than to fecurean un- 
interrupted Enjoyment of thofc things, which make only for our private 
Fortune. Thus Gonfaho, at the head of his Army, pointing to Naples., 
nobly protefted, he had much rather, by advancing a ftep meet certain 
Djath, than, by retiring a ftep prolong his Life. "And to this agrees the 
wife King., who pronounces a good Coitfcience to be a continual Feajl ; thereby 
fignifying, that the Confcioufnefs of good Intentions, however unfuccefsful, 
affords a Joy more real, pure, and agreeable to Nature, than all the other 
Means that can be furnifhed, either for obtaining one's Defires, or quieting 
the Mind. 

8. It likewife cenfures that Abufe which prevail'd about the time of 
EtiSidus, when Philofophy was turn'd into a certain Art, or Profeffion of 
Life ; as if its defign were not to compofe and quiet Troubles, but to avoid 
and remove the Caufes and Occafions thereof: whence a particular Regimen 
was to be enter'd into for obtaining this end, by introducing fuch a kind of 
Health into the Mind., as was that of Herodicus in the Body, mention'd by 
A'-i(lotle ; whilft he did nothing all his life long, but take care of his Health ; 
and therefore abftain'd from numberlefs things, which almoft deprived him 
of the ufe of his Body : whereas, if Men were determin'd to perform the 
Duties of Society ; that kind of bodily Health is moft defirable, which is able 
to fuffer and fupport all forts of Attacks and Alterations. In the fame man- 
ner, that Mind is truly found, and ftrong, which is able to break thro' nu- 
merous and great Temptations and Diforders : whence Diogenes feems to 
have juftly commended the Habit which did not warily ahftain, but 
courageoufly fuflain ; which could check the Sallies of the Soul on the fteepeft 
Precipice ; and make it, like a well-broke Horfe, flop and turn at the 
fhorteft warning. 

9. Lajlly, It reproves that Delicacy and unfociable Temper obferved in 
fome of the moft ancient Philofophers, of great repute-, who too effeminate- 
ly withdrew from civil Affairs, in order to prevent Indignities and Trouble 
to themfelves ; and live the more free, and unfpotted in their own Opinions: 
as to which point, the Refolution of a true Moralift fhould be fuch as Gon- 
falvo requir'd of a Soldier ; viz. fiot to weave his Honour fo fine, as for ever-j 
thing to catch and rend it *. 

• It may be added, that the two feemingly oppofite Syjlems of Morality, at prefent on foot, 
the one turning upon the Principle of Self-Love, the other upon the Principle of Benevolence, are 
eafily adjufted upon the fame Foundation. The modern tVriters upon this Subjefl of Morality, 
are numerous; an account of which maybe found in Struvius'sBiiliolhecnPhilofopbica, Cap. VI. 
de Script oril>us Philofofhii PraHia, (^ figillatim Ethicis, pag.iof — 161. And again, in Stollius'i 
IntroJuHio in Hijloriam Literariam, de Difciflina Ethica, pag.798 — S23. 



m 



SECT. 



Sea. XXI. Self-Good, ^c, 1B7 



SECT. XXI. 

0/" Self-Good, ant^ the Good of Communion. 

I. I. TTirE divide Individual, or Self-Good, into ^6?rj^ and /),7/7?^r. Self-Good </i- 
V V This difference of Good is alfo found imprefs'd upon the Nature '^/'/^'^ '»'" ^^- 
of all Things; but principally fhews itfelf in two Appetites of the Creatures ■•^^^^/'" ^''■'' 
viz. (i.) tha.t of Self' Prefervation and Defence; and (2.) that of Mk//2/ /)V«^ 
and Propagating. The latter, which is a^ive, fecms ftronger and more wor- 
thy than the former, which is paffroe. For, throughout the Univerfe, the ihe aBive 
celeflial Nature is the principal Agent •, and the terrejtrial, the Patient. And moft predomi'i 
in the Pleafures of Animals, that of Generation is greater than that of """'• 
Feeding •, and the Scripture fays, 'lis more blejfed to give, than to receive. 
And even in common life, no Man is fo foft and effeminate, as not to pre- 
fer the performing and perfcfling of any thing he had fet his mind upon, 
before fenfual Pleafures. The Preheminence of a^ive Good, is alfo highly 
exalted from the confideration of the State of Mankind ; which is mortal, 
and fubjedl to Fortune. For if Perpetuity and Certainty could be had in 
human Pleafures, this would greatly inhance them ; but as the cafe now 
ftands, when "voe count it a Happinefs to die late ; when we cannot boafl of to- 
morrow ; when we know not what a Day may bring forth j no wonder if we 
earneftly endeavour after fuch things, as elude the Injuries of Time : And 
thefe can be no other than our Works ; accordingly in Scripture 'tis faid, 
ibeir Works follow them. 

2. Another confiderable Preheminence of a5live Good is given it, and fup- 
ported, by that infeparable Affecftion of human Nature, the Love of Novelty, 
or Variel'^. But this Affeflion is greatly limited in the Pleafures of the Sen- 
fes, which make the greateft part of PaJJive Good. To confider how of- 
ten the fame things come over in Life ; as Meals, Sleep, and Diverfion ; 
it might make not only a refolute, a wretched, or a wife, but even a de- 
licate Perfon wifh to die. But in Adions, Enterprizes, and Defires, there 
is a remarkable Variety, which we perceive with great Pleafure ; whilft we 
begin, advance, reft, go back to recruit, approach, obtain, 6ff. Whence 
'tis truly faid, that Life without Purfuit is a vague and languid thing : and this 
holds true both of the wife and unwife indifferently. SoSolofnonla.ys, even a 
brainfick Manfeeks to fatisfy his Dffire, and meddles in every thing. And thus tlie 
moft potent Princes, who have all things at command, yet fometimes chufe 
to purfue low and empty Dtfires •, which they prefer to the greateft af- 
fluence of fenfual Pleafures. Thus A^fro delighted in the //^r/), Commodus'm. 

Bb 2 Fencing, 



i88 



Individual 
aftivc Good, 
Jiffen from 
tioe Good of 
Communion. 



S E L F-G o o D, and 



Sed. XXI. 



Pa(Tive Good 
i'w'idid into 
feifedlivc. 



jftsf/Confer- 

wtive. 



Fencings Antoninm in Racifig, &c. So much more pleafing is it to be aftive 
than in poflcflion ! 

3. It muft however be well obferved, that acfive, individual Good, differs 
entirely from the Good of Communion ; notwithftanding they may fometimes 
coincide. For altho' this individual aHive Good often produces Works of 
Beneficence, which is a Virtue of Commumon •■, yet herein they differ, that 
thefe fForki are perform'd by moft Men, not with a defign to aflift or be- 
nefit others, but wholly for their own Gratification or Honour ; as plainly 
appears, when a5iive Good falls upon any thing contrary to the Good of Com- 
tnunion. For that gigantick Paflion, wherewith the great Difturber sof the 
World are carried away ; as in the cafe of S-^lla, and others, who would ren- 
der all their Friends happy, and all their Enemies miferable ; and endeavour 
to make the World carry their Image ; which is really warring againft Hea- 
ven : this Paflion, I fay, afpires to an a^five, individual Good, at leaft in 
Appearance, tho' it be infinitely different from the Good of Communion. 

4. We divide Passive Good into Confervative and Perfective: for every 
thing has three kinds of Appetite, with regard to its own individual Good ; 
the/r/?, topreferveitfelf ; tht fecond, to perfeft itfelf ; and the ihird, to mul- 
tiply or diffufe itfelf. The laft relates to a^ive Good, of which we have 
fpoke already ; and of the other two, the Perfetiive is the moft excellent. 
For 'tis a lefs matter to preferve a thing in its State, and a greater to exalt 
it's Nature. But throughout the Univerfe are found fome nobler Natures, to 
the Dignity and Excellence whereof inferior ones afpire ; as to their Origins: 
whence the Poet faid well of Mankmd, that they have an ethereal Vigour, and 
a celeftial Origin ^ : for the Perfection of the human Form confifts in ap- 
proaching the Divine or Angelick Nature. The corrupt and prepofterous 
Imitation of this perfeofive Good, is the Peft of human Life i and the Storm 
that overturns and fweeps away all things : whilft Men, inftead of a true 
and effential exaltation, fly, with blind Ambition, only to a local one.. For 
as Men in ficknefs tofs and roll from place to place, as if by change of fi- 
tuation they could get away from themfelves, or fly from the Difeafe ; fo in 
Ambition, Men hurried away with a falfe Imagination of exalting their own 
Nature, obtain no more than change of Place, or eminence of Port. 

5. Confervative Good is the receiving and enjoying of things agreeable to 
our Nature. And this Good, tho' it be the moft fimple and natural, yet 
of all others it feems the loweft and moft effeminate. 'Tis alfo attended with 
a Difference, about which the Judgment of Mankind has been partly un- 
fettled, and the Enquiry partly negledted. For the Dignity and Recom- 
mendation of the Good of Fruition or Pleafure, as 'tis, commonly called, con- 
fifts either in the Reality or Strength thereof : the one being procured by 
Uniformity, and the other by Variety. The one has a lefs mixture of Evil ;. 
the other a ftronger and more lively imprefTion of Good: which of thefe is 
she beft, is the ^(eftion. But whether human Nature be not capable of 
both at once, has not been examined. 



( 



* Jgneuseft cllii vigor ^ cxhfiU origo. See Virgil. 2S.mU. Lib. vi. v, 730. 



Seel. XXI. the Goon i?/' Communion. 189 

6. As for the ^tejl'wn ; it began to be debated between Socrates and a whether reli- 
Sophlft. Socrates averted, that Felicity lay in a conftant Peace and Tratiquilli- '^/J'^-flJ." 
ty'ofMi>:d; but the Sophift placed it in great Jpfetiie and great Fruition. or'arMi/'I- 
From reafoning they fell to railing-, when the Sophifl faid, the Felicity of m». 
Socrates was the Felicity of a Stock or a Stone : Socrates, on the other 

hand, faid, the Felicity of the Sophijl was the Felicity of one who is always 
itching, and always fcratching •- and boih Opinions have their Supporters. 
For the School even of Epicurus, which allowed that Virtue greatly conduced 
to Felicilv, is on the fide of 5'(?rri7/f-.?. And if this be the cafe, certainly Vir- 
tue is more ufeful in appeafing Dilbrders, than in obtaining Defires. The 
Sopbiji's Opinion is fomcwhat favoured by the Aflertion above mention'd ; 
viz. that Perfe^i-ve Good is fuperior to Con/ervative Good ; becaufe every ob- 
taining of a Dcfire feems gradually toperfed Nature: which tho' not tlrift- 
ly true ; yet a circular motion has fome appearance of a progreflive one. 

7. As for the other point, whether human Nature is not at the fame time i^rfj^ther the 
capable both of Tranquillity and Fruition; a juft determination of it will render Miulbe at 
the former Queftion unneceflary. And do we not often fee the Minds of Men oiicecapaMeof 
fo framed and difpofed, as to be greatly affeded with preient Pleafures, and '^'""^"'[^'fy 
yet quietly fuffer the lofs of them .'' Whence that Philofophical ProgrelTion, ' 

Ufe not, that you may not wijh •, IViJJi not, that you may not fear ; feems an 
Indication of a weak, diffident, and timorous Mind. And, indeed, moft 
Doflrines of the Philofophers appear to be too diifruftful -, and to take more 
care of Mankind than the Nature of the thing requires. Thus they increafe 
the fears of Death, by the Remedies they bring againft ir. For whilit they 
make the Life of Man little more than a Preparation and Difcipline for Death; 
'cis impo'ffible but the Enemy muft appear terrible, when there is no end of 
the Defence to be made againft him. The Poet did better for a Heathen, 
who placed the End of Life among the Privileges of Nature *. Thus the 
Philofophers, in all cafes, endeavour to render the Mind too uniform, and 
harmonical ; without inuring it to extreme and contrary Motions. And the 
Reafon feems to be, that they give themlelves up to a private Life, free 
from difquiet and fubjeftion to others: Whereas Men fhould rather imi- 
tate the Prudence of a Lapidary, who finding a Speck, or a Cloud, in a 
Diamond, that may be ground out without too much walle, takes it away ; 
or otherwife leaves it untouch'd : and fo the Serenity of the Mind is to 
be confulted, without impairing its Greatnefs. And thus much for the Doc- 
trine of Self-Good ^ 

II. 8. The Good of Communion, which regards 5'ot-?>/v, ufually goesby j.^^ Good of- 
the name of Duty ; a word that feems more properly ufed of a Mind well- Communion, 
difpofed towards others: whilft the Term Virtue is ufed of a Mind well hon» far treat- 
formed and compofed within irfelf Duty, indeed, feems at firft to be of f^> «■"''how 
political Confideration ; but if thoroughly weighed, it truly relates to the ZJJT.' ''' 

rule 

' ^ui fpatiiim iiit« extremum inter munera fonat 

* This Doctrine of Self-Good feems to be now generally confidered under the Notion of prir 
fate, and the Gooii of Communion, under tliat of fublick Virtue. See the Lord Shafteiburfs> 
ChfitUeriJlicki ; and the Enquiry into our Iileat of Beauty »nd Virtue. 



I go Self-Good, and Sedl.XXI. 

rale and government of one's felf, not others. And as in Archite^iire, 'tis 
one thing to fafhion the Pillars, Rafcers, and other Parts of the Building, 
and prepare them for the Work -, and another, to fit and join them together : fo 
theDodrine of uniting Mankind in Society, differs from that which renders 
them conformable and well-affeded to the Benefits of Society. This Part 
concerning Duties, is likewife divided into two ; the one treating of the 
Duties of Man in common, and the other of Refpel^ive Duties -, according to 
tht Profejfion, Vocation, State, Per/on and Degree of Particulars^. The firfl 
of thefe, we before obferved ^, has been fufficiently cultivated, and explained, 
by the ancient and later Writers. The other alfo has been touched here 
and there •, tho' not digefted and reduced into any Body of Science "^. We do 
not, however, except to its being treated piece-meal ; as judging it the beft 
way to write upon this Subjeft in feparate parts **. For who will pretend 
he can juflly difcourfe, and define upon the peculiar and relative Duties of 
all Orders and Conditions of Men ? But for Treatifes upon this Subjed, 
which have no tinfture of Experience, and are only drawn from general 
and Scholaflick Knowledge -, they commonly prove empty and ufelefs Per- 
formances. For tho' a By-ftander may fometimes fee what efcaped the 
Player ; and altho' it be a kind of Proverb, more bold than true with 
regard to Prince and People, that a Spectator in the Valley takes the beft view 
of a Mountain ; yet it were greatly to be wiflied, that none but the moil 
experienced Men would write upon Subjects of this kind. For the Contempla- 
tions of fpeculative Men in aolive Matters, appear no better to thofe who 
have been converfant in Bufinefs, than the DifTertations oi Phormio upon 
War appeared to Hannibal ; who efleemed them but as Dreams and Dotage. 
One Fault, however, dwells with fuch as write upon things belonging to 
their own Office or Jrt ; viz. that they hold no mean in recommending and 
extolling them. 
The BoHr'm 9. To this Part of the refpeclive Duties of Vocations, and particular Profef- 
«f Frauds nnd jiopj^ belongs another, as a Doctrine xtlmve, or oppofite, to it ; viz. the 
Corruptions j)oclrine of Cautions, Frauds, Impoftures, and their Vices. For Corruptions 
Morally. ^""^ Vices, are oppofite to Duties and Virtues : not but fome mention is al- 
ready made of. them in Writings; tho' commonly butcurforily and fatyri- 
cally, rather than ferioufly and gravely. For more Labour is beftowed in 
invidioufly reprehending many good and ufeful things in Arts, and expo- 
fing them to ridicule -, than in feparating what is corrupt and vicious therein, 
from what is found and ferviceable. Solomon fays excellently, a Scorner 
feeks fVifdofn, and finds it not ; but Knowledge is eafy to him that underflands. For 
whoever comes to a Science, with an intent to deride and defpife, will doubt- 

Icfs 

* For the Modern Writers in this way, fee Morhof's Volyhiflor. Tom. III. Lib. I. de fhilofofhi^ 
moralii Scriptorlbui; ^ StoUii Introductio in HiJIoriam Lherarum, de Vhitofophu generatim mo- 
rati: in particular, confult ^HJfendorf, de Officio Homi/tis Qf Civjs. 

*> See above Sea. XX. 3. 

<= This appears to be attempted by Grotius, in his Book de Jure Belli ac Pacts i and by Puf- 
fendorf in his de Jure Nature ©■ Gentium. See M. Burbeymc's Tranilation pf the latter into 
trench, with Annotations. 

* Many Inftances whereof, the Author has given us in his ^Jftyi, and the Sapieniia Veternm. 



\ 



Se£l. XXI. the Good of Co u m union. 191 

lefs find things enow to cavil at -, and few to improve by. But the ferious 
and prudent treatment of the Suhje£l we fpeak of, may be reckoned among 
the ftrongeft Bulwarks of Virtue and Probity. For as 'tis fahuloufly 
related of the Bcffilisk, that if he fees a Man firft, the Man prefenily dies j 
but if the Man has the firft glance, he kills the Bafiluk: fo Frauds, hnvo- 
ftures, and Tricks, do no hurt, if firfl difcovered -, but if they flirike firft, 
'tis then they become dangerous, and not otherwife. Plence we are beholden 
to AUchiavel, and Writers of that kind, who openly and unmasked declare 
what Men do in faft ; and not what they ought to do'. For 'tis impolTi- 
ble to join the J-Vtfdom of the Serpent, and the Innocence of the Dove ; with- 
out a previous knowledge of the Nature of Evil : as without this, Virtus 
lies expofed and unguarded. And farther •, a good and jujl Man cannot corred 
and amend the Vicious and the IFickcd, unlefs he has firll fearched into all the 
Depths and Dungeons of Wickednefs. For Men of a corrupt and depraved 
Judgment, ever fuppofe that Honefty proceeds from Ignorance, or a certain 
fimplicity of Manners •, and is rooted only in a Belief of our Tutors, In- 
ftruftors. Books, Moral Precepts, and Vulgar Difcourfe. Whence unlefs 
they plainly perceive, that their perverfe Opinions, their corrupt and di- 
ftorted Principles, are throughly known to thofe who exhort and admonilh 
them, as well as to themfelves, they defpife all wholefome Advice ; accor- 
ding to that admirable Saying of Solomon : A Fool receives not the words of the 
Wife, unlefs thou fpeakejt the very things that are in his heart. And this 
fart of Morality, concerning Cautions, and respective Vices, we 
fet down as wanting; under the Name of sober Satyr, or the Insidesof 
Things^ 

10. To the Do5lrine o/ respective Duties, belong alfo the mutual xhe mutual 
Duties between Husband and JVife, Parent and Child, Majler and Servant; Duties of Men 
as alfo the Laws of Friendfhip, Gratitude, and the Civil Obligations of Frater- ^^W '" ''«- 
nities. Colleges, Neighbourhoods, and the like ; always underftanding that thefe-^'^^^ '^^ "" 
things are to be treated, not as Parts of Civil Society, in which View they be- 
long to Politicks ; but fo far as the Minds of Particulars ought to be in- 
ftruded, and difpofed to preferve thefe Bonds of Society "=. 

11. The Docfrine of the Good of Communion, as well as of Self-Good, treats Comparative 
Good not only fitnply, hut comparatively ; and thus regards the balancing of *^'""'.''/'^'""" 
Duty betivixt Man and Man, Cafe and Cafe, Private and Piiblick, Prefent 

and Future, &c. So in the Difcourfe betwixt Brutus, Cafftus, and others, 
as to the Confpiracy againft Ctsfar ; the Queftion was artfully introduced, 
whether it were lawful to kill a Tyrant : The Company divided in their Opi- 
nions 

* Perhaps the Trearife of H'teron. Cardan de Arcanis Vnulentii Civilis, is a capital Perfor- 
mance in this way; as expofing numerous Tricks, Frauds, and Stratagems of Government; f* 
as to prevent the honeft-mindcd from being impofed upon by them. 

'' The Author's Essays, in their Latin Edition, have the Title of Sermonei fidcles, fve Inte- 
yiora Rerum; as if intended to fupply this Deficiency; vvhich in feme nieafurc they do: but 
the Defign has not, perhaps, been duly profecuted fince. See the Eleventh Supplement, to 
the Je AuGMENTis Scientiarum. 

• This appears to be the Scheme of the M4>ole Duty of Mani tho' the Author there proceeds 
upon the Footing of Revelation, as well as the Lnw of Mature, 



192 Cultivation of the Mind. Sec^.XXII. 

nions about it i fome faying it was lawful, and that Slavery was thegreateft 
of Evils; others denying it, and afferting Tyranny to he lefs deftruflive 
than Civil War ; whilft a third kind, as if Followers of Epicurus, made it 
an unworthy thing, that wife Men (hould endanger themlelves for Fools. 
'&\xix.\\&Czk^oi comparative Dulles are numerous; among which this Que - 
(lion frequently occurs ; Whether Juflice may be ftrained fir the fafety of one's 
Country, or the like confidcrable good in future? As to which, Jafon the nef- 
falian ufed to fay, fhme Things iniifl he done unjuflly, that many ?nore may 
he done jujily. But the Anfwer is ready : prefent Juflice is in our power ; 
but of future Juflice we have no fecurity. Let Men purfue thofe things 
which are good and juft at prefent ; and leave Futurity to divine Providence *. 
And thus much for the Doctrine of the Image of Good. 



SECT. XXII. 

Of the Cultivation of the Mind. 

The Doarine ^Xl^J^ ncxt proceed to the Cultivation of the Mind; without which 
of the Cure of V V the preceding Part of Morality is no more than an Image or beautiful 
the Mind de- Statue, without Life or Motion. Ariflotle exprefsly acknowledges as much : 
pcient. ^j iq'^^ therefore necejfary, fays he, to fpeak of l^irtue ; what it is, and whence 

" it proceeds: for it were in a manner ufelefs, to know Virtue, and yet be igno- 
" rant of the ways to acquire her." And tho' he has more than once re- 
peated the fame thing ; yet himfelf does not purfue it. And fo Cicero gives 
it as a high Commendation to Cato, that he embraced Philofophy, not for 
the fake of difputing, as moft do ; but of living Philofophically. And tho' 
at prefent few have any great regard to the Cultivation and DifcipUne of the 
Mind, and a regular Courfe of Life ; whence this part may appear fuper- 
fluous ; yet we cannot be perfuaded to leave it untouched : but rather conclude 
with the Aphorifm of Hippocrates^that thofe who labour under a violent Difeafe, 
yet feeJn infenfible of their pain, are difirdercd in their Mind. And Men in this 
cafe want not only a Method of Cure, but a particular Remedy, to bring them 
to their Senfes. If any one Ihall objedt, that the Cure of the Mind is the Office of 
Divinity ; we allow it : yet nothing excludes Moral Philofophy from the train 
of Theology; whereto it is as a prudent and feithful Hand-maid, attending and 
adminiftring to all its wants. But tho', as the Pfalmi/i obferves, the Eyes of 
the Maid are perpetually waiting on the Hands of the Miflrefs ; yet doubr- 
lefs many things muft be left to the Care and Judgment of the Servant. So 
Ethicks ought to be entirely fublervient to 'Theology, and obedient to the 
Precepts thereof; tho' it may (till contain many wholefome and ufeful 

Inftruclions, 
■ See the Religion of Nature delineated, by Mr. Wotllajioa. 



I 



Se£l. XXII. The C u l t i v a r i o n of the M i n d. 193 

InftruiSlions, within irs own Jimits. And therefore when weconfider the ex- 
cellence of this part of Morali'y, we cannot bi!t greatly wonder 'cis not hi- 
therto reduced to a BoJy of DoiTrine : which we are oblig'd to note as defi- 
cient ; and fliall therefore give fome Sketch for fupplying it. 

2. ArAfii-jl, as in all cafe of Prafcic^, we muft here diftinguifn tn^The tilings in 
Things in our power, and thofe that are not : for the one may be altered, V^'J-'f^" '^ 
whilll: the other can only be applied. Thus the Farmer has no command j,^^'//^''^"'^/^ 
over the Nature of the Soil, or the Seafons of the Year; nor the Phyficianfo;/;;j<C/.rf. 
over the Conftitution of the Patient, or the Variety of Accidents. In the 
Cultivation of the Mind, and the Cure of its Dfeafes., there are three things to 

be confidered ; viz. (i.) the different Dffofiiions, (2.) the Affeolicns, and (3.) 
the Remedies: anfwering in Phyfick to the ConjHtntion., the Diflemper, and 
the Medicines. And of thefe three, only the laft is in our power. Yet we 
ought as carefully to enquire into the things that are not in our power, as 
into thofe that are ; becaufe a clear and exa£h Knowledge thereof is to be 
made the Foundation of the Do5lrine of Remedies ; in order to their more com- 
modious and fuccefsful Application. For Clothes cannot be made to fit, un- 
Lfs meafure of the Body be firfb taken. 

3. The fir ft Article therefore of the Culture of the Mind, will regard the ^ rf^rto/ /A» 
diffrenr Matures or Difpofitions of Men. But here we fpeak not of i\\tChariiBer$,or 
Vi\^\r Pro^enfities to Virtues and Vices; or Perturbations and Pafllons : but '^'"/"■"' °/ 
ofluchasare more internal and radical. And I cannot fometin^.es but won- ^^-^[j'^^"' . 
dtr, that this Particular fhould be fo generally neglefted by the Writers both 

ot Morality and Politicks; whereas it might afford great Light to both thofe 
Sciences. In Ajlrolo^ical 'Traditions, the Natures and Difpofiticns of Men are 
tol rably difbinguifhed, according to the Influences of the Planets ; whence 
fome are laid to be by Nature form'd for Contcfutlation, others for Politicks, 
others for IVar, &c. So likewife among the Poets of all kinds, we every 
where find Cnaraftcrs of Natures ; tho' commonly drawn with excefs, and 
bigger than the truth '. And this Subjeft of the different Chambers of 
Difpofitions, is one of thofe things wherein the common Difcourfe of Men 
is wifer than Books : a thing which feldom happens. But much the beft 
Matter of all for fuch a Treatife, may be derived from the more prudent 
Hiftorians ; and not fo well from Elogies or Panegyricks, which are ufual- 
ly wrote foon after tiie Death of an illuftrious Pcrfon ; but much rather 
from a whole Body of ILJlory ; as often as fuch a Perfon appears : for fuch an 
interwoven Account gives a better Defcription than Panegyrick. And fuch 
Examples we have \n Livy, of African:'. s and Cato; in Tacitus, of Tiberi:is, 
Claudius, and Nero ; in Herodian, of Sepirnius Severus ; in Pbdip de Conines, 
of Lewis the. Eleventh; in Cuicciardine, of Ferdinand of Spain, the E7nperor 
Maximiliar., Pope Leo, and Pope Clement. For thefe Writers, having the 
Image of the Perfon to be described conftantly before them, fcarce ever 
mention any of their A6Vs, but .it the fame time introduce fomething of their 
Natures. So, likewife^fome Relations which we have feen of the Conclaves at 

* As particularly in Homer, the Charadlers of Achilles, Hedor, Brifeii, Helen, Sec, 

^^o L. I. , C c Rome, 



194 T'he Cultivation of the Mind. Sed. XXII. 

Rome, give very exact Characters of the Cardinah : as the Letters of 
Ambafladors do of the Counfellors of Princes. Let, therefore, an accurate 
and full Treacife be wrote upon this fertile and copious Subjed. But we do 
not mean, that thefe Characters fhould be received in Ethicks, as perfect civil 
Images ; but rather as Out-lines, and firft Draughts of the Images them- 
felves : which being varioufly compounded and mixed one among another, 
afford all kinds of Portraits. So that an artificial and accurate DifTettion 
iTiay be made of Mens Minds and Natures, and the fecret Difpofition of each 
particular Man laid open ; that from a knowlegde of the whole, the Precepts 
concerning the Cures of the Mind, may be more rightly form'd^'. 

4. And not only the Characters of Difnofitions itnjirefs'd by Nature, fhould 
be received into this Treatife ; but thofe alio which are otherwife impofed up- 
on the Mind by the Sex, Age, Country, State of Health, Make of Body, Sec, 
And again, thofe which proceed from Fortune ; as in Princes, Nobles, com- 
mon People, the Rich, the Poor, Magifirates, the Ignorant, the Haipy, the 
Miferahle, &c. Thus we fee Plautus makes it a kind of Miracle to find 
an old Man beneficent ''. And St. Paul commanding a Severity of Difcipline 
towards the Cretans, accufes the Temper of that Nation from the Poet : 
^he Cretans are always Lyars, evil Beafts, and flow Bellies. Sallujl notes it 
of the Temper of Kings, that 'tis frequent with thetn to defire Contradictories '. 
'Tacitus obferves, that Honours and Dignities commonly change the Temper of 
Mankind for theworfe'^. Pindar remarks, x!a3X. a fudden Fluf) of good For- 
tune generally enervates aytd flackens the Mind''. The Pfalmiji mtimsites, that 
'tis eafter to hold a 7nean in the height, than in the increafe of Fortune^. 'Tis 
true, Ariftotle, in his Rhetoricks, curforily mentions fome fuch Obfervations ; 
and fo do others up and down in their Writings : but they were never yet 
incorporated into jnoral Philofophy ; whereto they principally belong, as 
much as Treatifes of the difference of Soil and Glebe, belong to Agriculture ; 
or Difcourfes of the different Complexions or Habits of the Body, to Medi- 
cine. The tiling muft, therefore, be now procured ; unlefs we would imitate 
the Rafhnefs of Empiricks, who employ the fame Remedies in all Difeafes 
and Coiijlitntions. 
, _ - .^^ 5. Next to this Doolrine of Characters, follows the Doctrine of Af- 
cfihe Affec- FECTiONS AND PERTURBATIONS; which, we obfcrvcd above, are xhtDif- 
iiom depciem. eafs of the Mind. For as the ancient Politicians faid of Democracies, that 
the People were like the Sea, and the Orators like the Wind ; fo it may be 

truly 

» With this view, confuk les CharacJeres ties FaJJ^ans, far M. de In Chamire, Ed. Amft. 16 fS. 
lil.Clnrmont de CoajeHandis latentibui Animi affeSiiiusi reprinted by Cmringim ; Neuheu/Hlhea- 
triim Jngenii hiimemi, fm de Hominum cogmfcenda Indole c?" Animi Secretis.iCn ; Mr. Eve- 
Ijn's DigreiTioa concemng Phyjiognomy, in his Difcourfe of Medals; les Characleres de Theofhrajie, 
avec les Mceurs de ce Steele, far M. de la. Bruyere, 1700. See Stollii IntrodnH'to in Hijloriam 
Literariam, pi^.Sij. See alfo more to th.s purpofe above, SeH.lV. 

^ Benignuas qu'ulem hiijui opfido ut adolejcentuli eft. 

= Flerumque RegU xolimtates, ut lehementes funt i fic mobiles, fxfeque iffr fibi- (tdvBrfxi 

•1 Solus Vefvajianus mutatus in melius. 

' Sunt qui maguam felicitatem concoquere non fojfunt. 

I If Riches fly to thee, fst not thy Heart upon them. 



Sed.XXII. The Cultivation of the Mind. 195 

truly fiid, that the nature of the Mind would be unruffled, and uniform, 
if the Affci5tions, like the Winds, did not dillurb it. And here again, we 
cannot but remember that Anfiotle, who wrote fo many Books of Ethicks, 
fhould never treat of the Affections, which are a principal Brancli thereof-, 
and yet has given tliem a place in his Rbeloricks, wliere they come to be 
but lecondarily confider'd : for his Difcourfes of Pleafure and Pain, by no 
means anfwer the end of fuch a Treatife -, no more than a Difcourjl- of 
Lights and Splendor, would give the Doi^rine of particular Colours. For 
Pleafure and Pain are to particular AffeEllons, as Light is to Colours. The 
Stoicks, fo far as may be conjeftured from what \wz have left of them, 
cultivated this Subjedl better ; yet they rather dwelt upon fubtile Defini- 
tions., than gave any full and copious Treatife upon it. We alfo find a 
few fhort elegant Pieces upon fome of the Ajfe^ions ; as upon Anger, falfe 
Modeft-^, and two or three more : But to fay the truth, the Poets and Hifto- 
rians are the principal Teachers of this Science : for they commonly paint to 
the life in what particular manner the AfTeftions are to be rais'd and in- 
flamed ; and how to be footh'd and laid : how they are to be check'd and 
reftrained from breaking into Action •, how they difcover themfclvcs, tho* 
fupprefs'd and fmother'd -, what Operations they have ; what turns they take ; 
how they mutually intermix ; and how they oppofe each other, i^c. Among 
which, the latter is of extenfivc ufe in moral and civil Affairs : I mean, how 
far one PalTion may regulate another ; and how they employ each other's 
afliftance to conquer fome one ; after the manner of Hunters and Fowlers, 
who take Beaft with Beaft, and Bird with Bird -, which Man, perhaps, with- 
out fuch Affiftance, could not fo eafily do. And upon this Foundation refts 
that excellent and univerfal Ufe of Rewards and Punifhments in civil Life. 
For thele are the Supports of States ; and fupprefs all the other noxious Af- 
feEiions by thofe two predominant ones. Fear and Hope. And, as in civil Go- 
vernment, one Faftion frequently bridles and governs another; the cafe is 
the fame in the internal Governinent of the Mind*. 

6. We come now to thofe Things which are within our own power, and^'^^'f-""^^ 
work upon the Mind, and affeft and govern theWill and the Appetite : whence TJ^ferthZin- 
they have great Efficacy in altering the Alanners. And here Philofophersj^^enfe the 
Ihould diligently enquire into the Powers and Energy of Cufiom, Exercife, Ha- Mind. 
hit. Education, Exainple, Imitation, Emulation, Company, Friendflnp, Praife, 
Reproof, Exhortation, Reputation, Laws, Books, Studies, &c. for thefe are the 
things which reign in Mens Morals. By thefe Agents, the Mind is form'd 
and fubdu'd •, and of thefe Ingredients, Reviedies are prepared ; which, lb 
far as human Means can reach, conduce to the Prefervation and Recovery of 
the Health of the Mind. 

Cc 2 7. 

• Upon this Subje<fl, confuk Lilius Peregrintis de nofcendis ^ emendandis Animi affecHonibus, 

Ed. Lipfix 17 14. Placcius de Typo Medicim moralis ; M. Ferault de I'Ufa^e des Pajjions, 1668. 

Johnn. Francifc. Buddius de Morbis mentis humam, de Sanitate mentis humam, & de Remediis 

moriorum, quiins mens laiorat i in his Elements I'hilo/ophiti Praclic£. Lib. de- Philofophia raorali, 

• Sett. III. Cap. 3,4,6. See Stollii Intrtduci. in mjiQri/imLittraritim, pag.Si},8i4. 



io6 7^7^ Cultivation ^//6^ Mind. Se£t.XXII. 

Examples ^. To glvc an Inftiince or two in Ciijtom and Habit ; the Opinion of 

hcnof in Cuf- ja^-it^gllj feems narrow and carelefs, which aflerts X.\\zt Cuftom has no potoer 
to^i aotlHa- ^^^^ ^^^^ Actions which are natural; 'ufing this Example^ that if a Stone be a 
thoufund times throivn up into the Air, yet it -x-ill acquire no tendency to afpon- 
taneous Afcent. And again, that by often feeing or hearing, we fee and hear 
never the better. For tho' this may hold in fome things, where Nature is ab- 
foluce •, yet 'tis ocherwife in things where Nature admits Intenfion and Re- 
miffwij in a certain latitude. He might have feen, that a ftrait Glove, by 
being often drawn upon the Hand, will become eafy •, that a Stick, by ufe 
and conrinuance, w U acq' lire and retain a bend contrary to its natural one ; 
that the Voice, by Exercife, becomes ftronger and more fonorous ; that Heat 
and Cold grow more tolerable by Cuftom, i^c. And thefe two laft Ex- 
am -iles come nearer to the point, than thofe he has produced. Be this as it 
will ; the more certain he had found it that Virtues and Vices depended upon 
Hibit, the more he fliould have endeavour'd to prefcribe Rules how fuch 
FLibics were to be acquired, or left off: fince numerous Precepts may be 
form'd, for the prudent directing of Exercifes, as well thofe of the Mind, 
as the Body. We will here mention a few of them. 
(i.) Tlnu 8. And thefrfi ihall be, that frotn the beginning we beware of impofng 

Tashi be My Jjgth more difficult, and more fuperficial Tasks than the thing requires. For 
froportioneJ. jf ^qq g,,gjj- a Burden be laid upon a middling Genius, it blunts the chear- 
ful Spirit of Hope •, and if upon a confident one, it raifes an Opinion, 
from which he promifes himfelf more than he can perform ; which, leads 
to Indolence : and in both cafes the Experiment will not anfwer Ex- 
peftation. And this always dejefts and confounds the Mind. But if the 
Tasks are too light, a great lofs is fuftain'd in the amount of the Progrefs. 
(1.) That the p. (2.) To procure a Habit in the Exercife of any Faculiy, let twoSeaJons be 
"•ft '*"^J'°''fi principally obferved; the one when the Mind is beft, and the other when'ti; 
I'folferveJ!' "voorft difpofed for Bufinefs : that by the former, the greater difpatch may be 
made; and by the latter, the Obftruftions of the Mind may be wore do%vn 
with a ftrenuous Application : whence the intermediate times will flide away 
the more eafily and agreeably. < 

(J.) To e»Je.-i- 10. (3.) The third Example fhall be the Precept which Arifotle tranfiently 
-uour flrenu- ^nentions •, viz. to endeavour our utmoft againji that whereto we are ftrongly 
"mature. impfWdby Nature; thus, as it were, rowing againft the Stream, or bending 

a crooked Stick the contrary way, in order to bring it ftrait. 
(4.) That II. (4.) A fourth Precept may be founded on this fure Principle; that 

things he not (f^g Mind is eafier, and more agreeably drawn on to thofe things which are not 
"l^P 2«j- principally intended by the Operator, but conquer'' d or obtained without preme- 
ditated Bdfign ; becaufe our Nature is fuch, as in a manner hates to be com- 
manded. There are many other ufeful Precepts for the regulating of Cuftom ; 
and if Cufto'in be prudently and skilfully introduced, it really becomes a 
fecond Nature: but if unskilfully and cafually treated, it will be but the Ape 
of Nature, and imitate nothing to the life ; or aukwardJy, and with de- 
formity, %_ 

12, 



Sed.XXII. 75^ Cultivation of the Minh. 197 

12. So, wich regard to Books, Studies, and Influence over our Manners, rA< Co»</«<7 
there are numerous ufcful Rules and Diredtions. One of the Fathers, in"?"!/'""» 
great leverity, call'd Poetry tlie Dsvil's JVine ; as indeed it begets mSffy^'"''"'' 
Temptations, Dcfires, and vain Opinions. And 'tis a very prudent Sayin J 
of Jrijhde, deferving to be well confider'd, that young Men are improper 
Hi.irers of Moral Philofophy ; becaufe the Heat of their Paffions is not yet 
alLiy'd, and temper'd, by time and experience. And to (Iiy the truth, the rea- 
fon why the excellent JVnthigs and moral Difcourfes of the Ancients have fo 
little elfeci: upon our Lives and Manners, feems to be, tiiat they are not 
ufually read by Men of ripe Age and Judgment -, but wholly left to un- 
experienced Youths and Children. And are not young Men much lefs fit 
for Politicks than forEibicks ; before they are well feafoned with Religion, and 
the Doflrines of Morality and Civility ? For being, perhaps, depraved 
and corrupted in their Judgment, they are apt to think that moral Diffe- 
rences are not real and folid ; but that all things are to be meafured by 
Utility and Succefs, Thus the Poet fa id, fuccefsfid Fillany is called Virtue \ 
The Poets, indeed, fpeak in this manner fatyrically, and thro' Indignation j 
but fome Books of Politicks fuppofe the f^mie pofitively, and in earneft. 
For Alachiavel is pleafed to fay, " ifCcsfar had been conquered, he would have 
become m-re odious than Catiline-^* as if there was no difference, except in 
point of Fortune, betwixt a Fury made up of Luft and Blood, and a noble 
Soirit, of all natural Men the mcft to be admired, but for his Ambition. 
And hence we fee how neceffary it is for Men to be fully inltracled in' 
moral Doflrines, and religious Djties, before they proceed to Politicks. 
For thofe bred up from their youth in the Courts of Princes, and the 
midft of Civil Affairs, can fcarce ever obtain a fincere and internal Probity 
of Manners. Again, Caution alfo is to be ufed even in moral Injlruclions^ 
or at leaft in fome of them, left Men fhould thence become ftubborn, ar- 
rogant, and unfociable. So Cicero fayj of Cato ; the divine and excellent 
^.alui?s -due fee in him are his own ; but the things he fometlmes falls in, are 
all derived, not from Nature, but his hvjruBors. There are many other 
Axio :is and DireSiions, concerning the things which Studies and Books beget 
in the Mindi of Men ; for 'tis true, that Studies enter our Manners ; and fo 
do Converfation, Reputation, the Laws, l^c. 

13. Bat there is another Cure cf the Mind, which feems ftiil more accu- TlnCureof 
rate, and ehborate than the reft •, deperti-ling upon this Foundation, thai the "" ^:''"'^ ''^' 
Minds of all Men are, at certain ti'mes. In a more perfeEl, and at others in a f^''^','"^ ''f " j 
more depraved State. The defign of this Cure is therefore to isr.prove the iefi perfeS 
good times, and expunge the bad. There are two practical Methods ofs'^t'- 
fixing thz good times i viz. (i.) determined Refolutions ; and (2.) Obfervances 
or Exercyes : which are not of fo much fignificancy in themfc Ives, as be- 
caufe they continually keep the Mind in its duty. There are alfo two ways 
of expunging the bad times ; viz. by fcmie kind of Rede??iPtion, or Extiation 
of what is paft ; and a new Regulation of Life for the future. But this 

pare 

* Vrofferum 0- felix Scelus, Virtus vocatur. 
And again, 
lUa Crucetn pretium /ceteris tulit, hie Diadema, 






igS TIdb Cultivation of the Mind. Sed-XXII. 

part belongs to Religion \ whereto moral Philofophy is, as we faid before, the 
^nuine Hand-maid. 
Charity the ^14. We will, therefore, conclude thefe Georgicks of the Mind\v\t\\ that Re- 

mlSliY "^ '"^^^' '^'^''^^' °^ "'^ °^'^^''^' '^ ^*^^ ftorteft, nobleft, and moft effeftual for 
forming the Mind to Virtue, and placing it near a ilate of Perfection •, viz. 
that lue chufe and propofe to ourfehcs jujl and virtuous Ends of our Lives and 
Ailions ; yt fiich as zue have, in fome degree, the Faculty of obtaining. For if 
the Ends of our Actions are good and virtuous, and the Refolutions of our 
Mind for obtaining them fix'd and conftant, the Mind will direftly mould 
and form itfelf, at once, to all kinds of Virtue. And this is certainly an Ope- 
ration refembling the "Works of Nature ; whilft the others above- mention'd 
feem only manual. Thus the Statuary finiihes only that part of the Figure 
upon which his Hand is employ'd ; widiout meddling with the others at that 
time, which are ftill but unfafliion'd Marble : Whereas Nature, on the 
contrary, when flie works upon a Flower, or an Animal, forms the Rudi- 
ments of all the Parts at once. So when Virtues are acquir'd by Habit, 
whilft we endeavour at "Temperance, we make but little advances towards 
Fortitude, or the other Virtues ; but when we are once entirely devoted to 
juft and honourable Ends, whatever the l^irtue be, which tiiofe Ends recom- 
mend and direft, we fhall find ourfjlves ready difpos'd, and pofTefs'd of 
fome Propenfuy to obtain and exprefs it. And this may be that State of 
Mind which Anjlotle excellently defcribes, not as virtuous, but divine. So 
Pliny propofes the Virtue of Trajan^ not as an Imitation, but as an Example 
. of the Divine Virtue ; when he fays. Men need make no other Pravers to the 
Gods, than that they would be but as good and propitious toMortais, as Tnja.n z.vas. 
• But this favours of the prophane Arrogance of the Heathens ; whografp'd 
at Shadows larger than the Life. The Chrijlian Religion comes to the point, 
by imprefling Charity upon the Minds of Men : which is moft appofuely 
call'd the Bo>!d of PerfeSiion ; becaufe it ties up, and faftens all the Virtues 
together. And it was elegantly fud by Mf«<7«i3?^r di fenfual Love, which 
is a bad Imitation of the divin^, that // -was a better Tutor for human Life., 
than a left-handed Sophijl : intimating that the Grace of Carriage is better 
form'd by Love, than by an auhiva'-d Preceptor ; whom he calls left-handedy 
as he cannot by all his operofe Rules and Precepts, form a Man fo dextroufly 
and expeditioufly, to value himfelfjuftiv, and behave gracefully, as Love can do. 
So without doubt, if the Mind be poflefs'd with the Fervor of true Charity^ 
he will rife to a hi^:^her degree of Perf.dlion, than by all the Dotfrine cf 
Ethicks ; which is but a Sophift compar'd to Charity. And as X^nophon 
well obferved, whilft the other Paffions, tho' they raife the Mind, yetdif- 
tort and diiconi^'of:- it, by their Extacies and ExceiTes •, whilft Love alone, 
at the fame timo compofes and dilates it : fo all other human Endow- 
ment?, which we admire ; whilft they exalt and enlarge our Nature, are 
yet liable to Extravagance : but of Charity alone, there is no Excefs. The 
Angels afpiring to be like God in power, tranfgrefs'd and fell ; J -will afcendy 
and be l.':e the mojl high : and Man afpiring to be like God in Knowledge^ 
tranfgrefs'd and fell; 'je fhall he as Gods, knowing Good and Evil : But in 

afpiring 



SecTt.XXIII. Civil Doctrine. 199 

afpiring to be like God in Goodnefs or Charity, neither Man nor Angel can, 
or fliall tranfgrefs. Nay, we are invited to an Imitation of it ; love yo^^ 
Enemies ; do good to thofe that bate you ; pray for thofe that defpitefully ufe ana 
perfecute you ; that ye may be the Cbildren of your Father, which is in Heaven : 
for he maketh his Sun to rife upon the Good and upon the Evil ; and fends bis Rain 
upon the Jujl and upon the Unjufl *. And thus we conclude this part of Moral 
Do^rine, relating to the Georgicks of the Mind. 

15. There might, however, be added, by way of Appendix, this Obfer- Appendix to 
vation ; that there is a certain Relation and Congruity found between the Good //«Georgicks 
of the Mind, and the Good of the Body. For as the Good cf the Body confifts 'f ''•'« ^'°'^- 
in (i.) Health, (2.) Comi linefs, (3.) Strength, and (4.) Pleafure: fo the 
Good of the Mind, confider'd in a moral light, tends to render it (i.) found 
and calm, (2.) graceful, (3.) ftrong and agile for all the Offices of Life, 
and (4.) poflefs'd of a conftant quick Senfe of Pleafure, and noble Satif- 
fadtion. Bat as the four former Excellences are feldom found together in 
the Body -, fo are the four latter feldom found together in the Mind ^. 
And thus we have finifhed that principal Branch of human Pkiofipby, which 
confiders Man, out of Society, and as confifting of a Body and a Soul. 



SECT. XXIII. 

Of Civil Doctrine; and firji^ ^Conversation 

and Decorum. 



T 



Here goes an old Tradition, that many Grecian Philofophers had a rhe An cf 
folemn Meeting before the Ambaffador of a foreign Prince ; where silenci. 



each endeavoured to fhew his Parts, that the Ambaflidor might have fome- 
what to relate of the Grecian Wifdom : but one among the number kept 
filence •, fo that the Ambafliidor turning to him, ask'd. But what have 
you to fay, that I may report it ? he anfvvered. Tell your King, that you have found 
one- among the Greeks who knew how to be ftlent. Indeed I had forgot in this 

Compendium 

• The Author, in making Morality terminate in theChriftian Doftrine of Charity, has been 
followed by many, and thus occafion'd feveralSyftems of Chrijlian Ethickii among the princi- 
pal whereof, are the Ethic» Chrifiinnn oi Lambertus Damns i the Ethlca Sacra of Dandinus^ 
Tlacciui de trucin fncipuo Vhilofopbn moralh genu'mo ; Joannis Cirelli Ethica Chrijiiann i Dr. 
Henry More, in his Enchiridion Ethicum; Henricus Ernefiius, in his Introdnciio ad veram Vitam ; 
and feveral more. See Struvius's Biiliotheca Vhilofofhica, Cap. 6. de Scriptorihus PhilcfophiA 
tracUcA, ^^ Jigillatitn Ethicis. 

*' This Doffrine of the Georgicks of the Mind, is exprefTly endeavoured -o be fupplied by Pro- 
feflbr IVefnfeld, in the Book he entitles Arnoldi Wefenjeld. Georgicn Animi (y Vits, feu Ftitholo- 
gia pruBica, moralis nempe & ciuilis, ex phyficis tMque fontihis refetita. Fran^ij'. i6(>j-, cj> i 7 i 2. 
Some Account of this Work is given in xhe Acta Ernditoritm. Men/. Auguji. 1C96. See alio 
Jtan. Irnnc. BMd*Hs de Ciiltnrn Ingeniorum, Ed. HaU lopj. 



200 Civil Doctrine: Seca.XXIII. 

Compendium of Art:^ to infert the Art of Silence. For as we fliall now foon 
fg|be led by the Courie of the Work, to treat the Subjefc of Gov^ru- 
ine;U \ we cannot have a better occafion for putting the Art of Silence in 
practice*. C'cero makes mention not only of an Art., but even of an Eh- 
qtience to be found in Silence ; and relates in an Epiftle to Atticus, how once 
in Converfation he made ufe of this Art : On this cccafion, fiys he, / af- 
fumed a part of yAir Eloquence ; for I faicl nothing. And Pindar, who pecu- 
liarly ftrikes the Mind unexpefted, with fome fhort furprizing Sentence, 
has this among the refb; Things unfaid have fometimes a greater EffeB than 
fa'id. And, therefore, I have determined either to be filent upon this Siib- 
jedl, or, what is next to it, very concife. 
The Bonrine 2. CiviL KNOWLEDGE turns upon a Subjc'dl of all others the mofl immerfed 
o/ Civil Poll- in Matter-, and therefore very difficultly reduced to Axioms. And yec 
V'^^fTiZ' there are iome things that eafe the Difficulty. For (i.) as Calo laid, that 
cult th.in E- i"^ Romans were like Sheep, eafier to drive in the tlock than Jingle ; \o in 
thick]. this refpefl the Office of Ethicks is, in fome degree, more difficult than that 

q\' Politicks'^. (2,) Again, £;Z)zVyfj endeavours to tinge and farnifh the Mind 
with internal Goodnefs ; whilft civil Dotirine requires no more than external 
Goodnefs ; which is iufficient for Society <^. Whence it often happens, that a 
Reign may be good, and the 'Times bad. Thus w^ fometimes find in facred 
Hijlory, when mention is made of good, and pious Kings, that the People 
had not yet turn'd their Hearts to the Lord God of their Fcthrrs. And there- 
fore in this refpeft alfo, Ethicks has the harder task. (3.) States are moved 
flowly, like great Machines •, and with difficulty : and confequcncly not foon 
put out of order. For, as in Egypt, the feven years of Plenty fupplied the 
•^even years of Famine ; fo in Governments, the gool Regulation of former 
Times, will not prefently fufferthe Errors of the fucceeding, to prove de- 
ftruftive. But the Refolutions and Manners of particular Perfons are more 
fuddenly fubverted : and this, in the laft place, bears hard upon Ethicks, but 
favours Politicks. 
Civil Know- 3. Civil Knowledge has three Parts ; fuitable to the three principal Adls of 
fcffprilti Society, viz. (i.) Converfation, (2.) Biiftnefs, and (3.) Government. For there 
(i.)o/c"»w- '^'"'^ '^^'"'^^ kinds of Good, that Men defire to procure by Civil Society ; viz. (i.) 
fttion, (i.) Refuge from Solitude ; (2.) AJfiftancein the Affairs of Life \ and {'^.)PrcteBion 
Bufinefs, ii.) againft Injuries. And thus there are three kinds oi Prudence, very different. 
Government, and frequently feparated from each Other ; viz. (1.) Prudence in Conver- 
sation, (2.) Prudence IN Business, (3.) Prudence in Government'^. 

4- 
» The Author here makes a Complement of his Silence to Kingj'AWf/, as if he would not pre- 
tend to fpeak of the ^rf J d/£ot;)Z>c, to one who knew them fo well; but the true Reafon appears 
to be, that he thought it improper to reveal the Myfterics of Si^Jfe. See below Sect. XXV. i. 
'' Vix.. Harder to make Men /ingly virtuous, than ■conforma.bU in Society; becaufe as the Au- 
thor ellevvhere obferves, 'tis a Principle in huma' Nature, to be more affeded in publick than 
in private i as any one may be fenfible, who has iver been at a Kehearfal, and a Play. 

* Hence there ought to be a due difference preferved betwixt Ethicks and Foliticks, tho' ma- 
ny Writers feem to mix them together j and form a promilcuousDoftrineofthe Lawof Nflfwre, 
Morality, Policy, and Religion together ; as particularly certain fcripcural Cafuifts and political 
Divines. 

* From a Mixture of thefe three parts of Civil DoEtrine, there has of late been formed a new 

^ kind 



Sec^.XXIV. 0;^ Conversation <7W Decorum. 201 

4'. Conversation, as it ought not to be over-afFedted, much lefslhould The Efe(} of 
it be flighted : fince a prudent Conduft therein, not only exprefles a certain ■D«("'«»'. 
Gracefulnels in Men'sMannersj but is alfoof greataiiulance in the commodious 
Difpatch both of publick. and private Bufinefs. For as Action, tho' an ex- 
ternal Thing, is fo efTrntial to an Oratci\ as to be preferred before the other 
weighty, and more internal parts of that Art ; fo CoaverfatioK, tho' it con- 
fift but of Externals, is, if not the principal, at lead a capital Thing in the 
Man of Bufinefs, and the prudent management of Affairs. What effc<5t 
the Countenance may have, appears from the Precept of the Poet ; Con- 
tradi5l not your Words by y^ur Looks ^. For a Man may abfolutcly cancel, 
and betray the Force of Speech, by his Countenance. And fo may Actions 
themfelves, as well as Words, be deftroyed by the Look -, according to 
Cicero, who, recommending Affability to his Brother towards the Proven- 
cials, tells him, it did not wholly confift in giving eafy accefs to them, un- 
lefs he alfo received them with an obliging Carriage. 'Tis doing nothing, fays 
he, to admit them ivith an open Door, and a lock'd up Countenance'^. But if 
the management of the Face alone, has fo great an Effcft -, how much 
greater is that oi familiar Converfation, with all its Attendance? Indeed the 
whole of D(?^cr«w and Elegance of Manners, feems to reft in weighing and 
maintaining, with an even ballance, the dignity betwixt ourfelves and others -, 
which is well expreffed by Livy, tho' upon a different occafion, in that Cha- 
racter of a Perfon, where he fays, that / may neither feein arrogant nor ob- 
noxious ; that is, neither forget my cwn nor others Liberty. 

5. On the other fide ; a Devotion to Urbanity, and external Elegance, ter- -j-j^g ■ruUso' 
minates in an aukward and difagreeable Affeftation. For what is more pre- Decency. 
pofterous than to copy the Theatre in real Life ? And tho' we did not fill into 
this vicious Extreme, yet we fliould wafte time, and deprefs the Mind too 
much, by attending to fuch lighter matters. Therefore, as in Univerfities, 
the Students, too fond of Company, are ufually told by their Tutors, that 
Friends are the 'Thieves of Time-, fo the afTiduous Application to the Decorum 
of Converfation, fteals from weightier Confiderations. Again, they who ftand 
in the firft rank for Urbanity, and feem born, as it were, for this alone j 

kind ofDodirine, which they ca'lby the nime of Ci-i'i/ Vrudence. This Doftrine has been prin- 
cipally cultivated among the Germans-, tho' hitherto carried to no great length. Yci Hermannus 
Conrin^ius performed fomewhat confiderable in this way, in his Book de Cizili Trudentln, pub- 
hfted :n 'he year 1 661 ; and Chriftian Thomajius has treated it excellently in theiitt.e Piece enti- 
tled, Priw* lineiyde Jure- confultorum Frudentia Confultatoria, Sec. firft pubiilTied in the year iTof, 
but thtrth:rd Edition, with Notes, in 1711. The Heads it confiders, are, (i.)ifePr«</c;2*i«i»^e«cr^i 
(i ) de Prndemiji confultatorin ; (3.) de Trudentln Juris ccnfMltorum ; (4) de Frudentia confti- 
lertdi, intuitu aciionum propriarumi {f)de Frudentia dirigtndi aBiones proprixs in converfatione 
quoti.liaxa , (6.) de Frudentia in Con-uerfatione felecia; (7.) de Frudentix-intititu Societatum do- 
mefticarum ; (8.) de Frudentia inSocietate Civili, and (9.) de Frudentia alios 0- aliis confulendi. 
The littie Piece alfo of Andr. Softus, de Frudentia Civili comparand», deferves the perufal. A 
few more German Autho' ; have treated this Subjeft; but generally in their own Langjage. 
See Morhof de Frudentia Cizilis Scriptoribus ; Struvii Biiliothecu Fhilofopljica, cap. 7. and StoUii 
Introduclio in Hi/loriam Literariam, de Frudentia Folitica. 

* Sec lultu dejirue verba tuo. 

^ ail ir.tereft habere oftiltm afertum, Vhltum claufum, 

Vo L.I. D d feldom 



202 71^^ Doctrine of BiJsiness. Sedl.XXIV» 

feldoni take pleafure in any thing elfe -, and fcarce ever rife to the higher 
and more folid Virtues. On the contrary, the confcioufnefs of a defe6l in 
this particular, makes us feek a Grace from good Opinion •, which renders 
all things elfe becoming : but where this is wanting, Men endeavour to fupply 
it by Good Breeding. And further ; there is fcarce any greater or more fre- 
quent obftru6tion to Bufinefs, than an over-curious Obfervance of external 
hecorum, with its attendant, too follicitous and fcrupulous a choice of Times 
and Opportunities. Solomon admirably fays, he that regards the (Vinds, Jhall 
not [oiv ; and be that regards the Clouds., Jhall yiot reap. For we mud make 
Opportunities oftener than ive find them. In a word •, Urbanity is like z Gar- 
ment to the Mind; and therefore ought to have the Conditions of a Garment •, 
that is, (i.) it fliouldbe fafhionable; (2.) not too delicate or coftly ; (3.) 
it fhould be fo made, as principally to fhew the reigning Virtue of the Mind, 
and to fupply or conceal Deformity : (4.) and laftly, above all things, 
it mud not be too flreight •, foas to cramp the Mind, and confine its Mo- 
tions in B ifinefs. But this part of Civil DoBrine, relating to Coiiverfation, 
is elegantly treated by fome Writers ; and can by no means be reported' 
as deficient ". 



SECT. XXIV. 

The Doctrine (j/" Business. 

The Vocirine I. TTtTE divide the Doctrine of Business into the Dft'Jnw of various 
cf Bufinefs di- \j \j Occafions, znd ths DoLirine of Rifii);g in Life. The firft includes all 
■viMintothat ^.j^^ poffible variety of Affiiirs •, and is as the Amanuenfis to common Life : 
ccfioZTmi bi-it the odier collecls, and fuggefts, fuch things only, as regard the improve- 
Rj/iw^ i»Li/e.ment of a Man's private Fortune ; and may, therefore, ferve each perfon 

as a private Regifier of his Affairs. 
NoBooks writ- 2, No One hath hitherto treated the Do^rine of Bufinefs fuitably to its Me- 
ten upon the j-jj. . ^q j.],p great Prejudice of the Char.ifter both oi Learning and Learned 
Bufinefs. ^^" • ^°^ ^''O"'' hence proceeds the Mifchief, which has fixed it as a Reproach 

upon 

* It fcems of late more cultivated amoSg the Trench andGermanf, than among the Engli/ii; 
the Morale tlu Monde ; the Modeles de Converfations i the Reflexions fur le Ridicule, ^ fur les 
moyens de I'exiter ; la Politejfe des Moeurs ; I'Art de Vlaire duns la Converfation ; ^ Trid. Gentz,- 
kenius's DoBrina de Decora, in his Syfiema Fhilofophii, may defervethe perufal. This laft Work, 
which is lately publifhed in Germany, treats (1.) of 'he nature of Decorum, and its Foundationj 
(i.) of National Decorum; (3.) of Human Decorum; (4.) the Decorum ofYi^jth and Age; 
(f.) the Decorum of iMen and Women; (6.) the Decorum of Husband and Wife; (7.) the 
Decorum of the Clergy; (8.) the Decorum of Princes , and (9.) the Decorum of the Nobi- 
lity, and Men of Letters. See Stollii IntroduHio in Uijloriam Litertiri«m, de DoUrina ejus quod 
eji Decorum, pag. 795-, 796. 



Secft.XXrV. 7/?^ Doctrine ^ Business. 203 

upon Men of Letter s, that Learning and Civil Prudence are feldom found to- 
gether. And if we rightly obferve thofe three kinds of PrwJt'wrc', which we 
lately faid belong to CivH Life^ ; tliat o^ Converfation is generally dcfpifed by 
Men cf Learning, as a fervile thing, and an Enemy to Contemplation ; and 
for the Government of Stdtes, tho' learned Men acquit themfelves well when 
advanced to the Ht:lm, yet this promotion happens to few of them : but for 
the prefent Subjecf, the Priidence of Bufirufs, upon which our Lives princi- 
pally turn, there are no Books extant about it ; except a few Civil Admoni- 
tions, collected into a little Volume or two, by no means adequate to the 
Copioufnefs of the Subjcdl. But if Books were written upon this Subjeift, 
as upon others ; we doubt not that learned Men, furniflied with tolerable 
Experience, would far excel the unlearned, furniflied with vrwich greater Expe- 
rience; and outflioot them in their own Bow ^ 

3. Nor need we apprehend that the Matter of this Science \s x.oo various, This DcBrlne 
to fall under Precept •, for 'tis much kfs extenfive than the Dolfrine of '^"^'^'^ '* 
Government, which yet we find very well cuhivated. There feem to have 
been fome ProfLfibrs of this kind of Prudence among the Romans, in their 
befl days. For Cicero declares it was the Cuftom, a little before his time, 
among the Senators mofl: famous for knowledge and experience; a.5 Corun- 
canius, Curius, Ltslius, &c. to walk the Forum at certain hours, where they 
offered themfelves to be confulted by the People ; not fo much upon Law, 
but upon Bufinefs of all kinds-, as the Marriage of a Daughter, the Educa- 
tion of a Son, the purchafing of an Eftate, and other occafions of common 
Life. Whence it appears, that there is a certain Prudence of advifin<; even 
in private Affairs ; and derivable from an univerfal Knowledge of Civil Bu- 
finefs ; Experience, and general Obfervations of fimilar Cafes. So we find 
the Book which i^ Cicero wrote to his Brother, de petltione Covfulatus^ 
(the only Treatife, fo far as we know, extant upon any particular B..finefs ;) 
tho' it regarded chiefly the giving of Advice upon that prefent Occafion ; 
yet contains many particular Axioms of Politicks, which were not only of 
temporary ufe, but prefcribe a certain permanent Rule for popular Elec- 
tions. But in this kind, there is nothing found any way comparable to the 
Apborifms of Solomon % of whom the Scripture bears Teftimony, that his 
Heart zvas as the Sands of the S;a. For as the Sand of the Sea encompaffes 
the extremities of the whole Earth, fo his Wifdom comprehended all 
things, both human and divine. And in thofe Apborifms are found ma- 
ny excellent Civil Precepts and Admonitions, befides things of a more theo- 
logical Nature, flowing from the depth and innermoft Bofom of Wifdom % 
and running out into a moft fpacious field of Variety. And as we place 
the Doiirine of various Occafions among the Defiderata of the Sciences, we will 

D d 2 here 

» See above ^*^. XXIII. 5. 

'' This raiy be extended to Civil Knowledge in general, fo as to comprehend not only Poli- 
tick!, Converfrtion, and Bufmefs; but alio Commerce, and the particular Arts of Agriculture, W»- 
vi^ation, Arcliitecfure, I'P'xr, Trades, &c. For a Man of general Knowledge, luch as the Author, 
or ^^r. Boyle for inflance, muft needs be more capable of improving any particular Art or 
Science, than a perfon wholly bred up to, and employed about one Bufmefs only. 



204 ^^ Doctrine of Business. Se(^.XXlV. 

here dwell upon ic a little -, and lay down an Example thereof, in the way 
of explaining Ibme of thefe /Ipborifms, or Proverbs, of Solomon. 

A specimen A Specimen of the Doctrine of various Occasions, in the com- 
"/'^- mon Bnjinefs of Lije i by ivay of A'g\\on(w\ and Explanation. 

Aphorism I. 

4. A foft Anfwer appeafes Anger. 

The -way of jF the Anger of a Prince, or Superior, be kindled againft you ; and it be 
Zxcufmg n ■■' now your turn to fpeak ; Solomon diredts, (i.) that an Anfwer be made ; 
Jattlt. and C2.) that it be foft. The firft Rule contains three Precepts •, wz. (i.) 

To guard againft a melancholy and ftubborn filence : for this either turns the 
fault wholly upon you, as if you could make no Anfwer ; or fecretl' im- 
peaches your Superior, as if his Ears were not open to a juft Defence. (2.) 
To beware of delaying the thing ; and requiring a longer day for your De- 
fence : which either accufes your Superior of Paffion ; or fignifies that you 
are preparing fome artificial turn, or colour. So that 'tis always beft direct- 
ly to fay fomething for the prefent, in your own excufe, as the occafion re- 
quires. And (3.) To make a real Anfwer ; an Anfwer not a mere Con- 
fejfion, or bare Submiffion ; but a mixture of Apology and Excufe. For 'tis 
unfafe to do otherwife ; unlefs with very generous and noble Spirits, which 
are extremely rare. Then follows the fecond Rule ; that the Anfwer he 
Villi and foft, not ftiff and irritating » 

Aphorism II. 

5. A prudent Servant fhail rule over a foolifh Son, and divide the 
Inheritance among the Brethren. 

The ConduB tN every jarring Family there conftantly rifes up fome Servant, or humble 
of a vi/e Ser- A friend, of fway, who takes upon him to compofe their Differences, at his 
'^'^"'' own difcretion -, to whom, for that reafon, the whole Family,. even the Ma- 

tter himfelf, is fubjeft. If this Man has a view to his own Ends, he foments 
and aggravates the Differences of the Family ; but if he prove juft and up- 
right, he is certainly very deferving. So that he may be reckoned even as 
one of the Brethren ; or at leaft have the diredion of the Inheritance, in 



trufl-. 



Aphorism 



• How the Author put this Dodlrine in pradtice, appears by his Anfwer to the Houfe of 
Peers. See the Letter, towards the End of the Fifth SufrLEWENx to this Wr*. 



Sccfl.XXIV. 7^^ Doctrine (t/* Business. 205 

Aphorism III. 

6. If a "Ji'ife Man contends iz'ith a Fool, 'xhethcr he be in anger, 

or injefl, there is no quiet. 

"liyE are frequently admonifhed to avoid unequal Conflids ; that is, not toT-/-? Volly of 
*^ itrive with the Stronger : But the admonition oF Solomon is no lefs "^*^- ^"/^^"^"•^^aj. 
ful ; that we fhould not ftrive with the Worthlefs : for here the Match is„^f^_ 
very unequal -, where 'tis no Vi6tory to conquer, and a great Difgrace to be 
conquer'd Nor does it fignify if, in fuch a conteft, we fhould fometimes deal 
as in Jcft ; and fometimes in the way of Difdain and Contempt: For what 
courfc foever we take, we are lofers % and can never come handfomely off". 
But the word cafe of all is, if our Antagonift have fomething of the Fool 
in him ; that is, if he be confident and headftrong. 

Aphorism IV. 

7. Lifi^n not to all that is /poke, leji thou ^oiildfi hear thy Ser- 

'vant curfe thee. 

*TrlS fcarce credible what Uneafinefs is created in Life, by anufelefs Cu- The Tread/try 
*■ riofuy, about the things that concern us : As when we pry into "f "f^¥* ^'^ 
fuch Secrets, as being difcovered, give us diftafte •, but afford no affiftance 
or relief. For (r.) there follows Vexation and Difquiet of Mind -, as all hu- 
man things are full of Perfidioufnefs and Ingratitude. So that tho' we could 
procure fome Magick-Glafs, wherein to view the Animofities, and all that 
Malice which Is any way at work againft us ; it were better for us to break 
ic direftly, than to ufe it. Epr thefe things are but as the ruftling of Leaves;- 
foon over. (2.) This Curiofity "always loads the Mind withSufpIcioni which 
is a violent Enemy to Counfels ; and renders them unfteady and perplexed. 
(3.) It alfo frequently fixes the Evils themfelves ; which would otherwife have 
blown over. For 'tis a dangerous thing to provoke the Confciences of Men, 
who fo long as they think themfelves concealed, are eafily changed for the 
better: but if they once find themfelves difcovered, drive out one Evil with, 
another. It was therefore juftly efteemed the utmoft Prudence in Pompey\. 
that he direftly burnt all the Papers o^ Ser tortus, unperufed by himfelf, or 
others.. 

Aphorism V. 
8. Poverty comes as a Traveller, but Want as an armed Mam 

'T'H IS Aphorifm elegantly defcribes how Prodigals, and fuch as take noT^sw^j. offt- 
*- care of their Afi^airs, make fliipwreck of their Fortunes. For Debt, ^'^'J^ "* 
and Diminution of the Capital, at firft fleals on gradually, and almoft im- 
perceptibly, like a 7raw//fr; but foon after, Want invades, as an armed Man •, 

that 



206 



The danger of 

reproving 

mckid. 



The Doctrine o/ Business. Sea.XXIV» 

that is, with a hand fo ftrong and powerfjl, as can no longer be refifted : 
for 'twas juftly fiiid by th; Ancients, that Nect-fllcy is of all thino-s the 
ftrongeft. We muft, therefore, prevent the Traveller, and guard againft 
the armed Man. 

A P H O R I S M VI. 

9. He '■joho inflrulis a Scoffer, procures to himfelf reproach ; and he 
'[vho reproves a iz'icked Man, procures to himfelf a Stain. 

"" 'f "T" H I S agrees with the Precept of our Saviour, not to throw Pearls be- 
' ^ ■'■ fore Swine. The Aphorifm diftinguiflies betwixt the Aftions of Pre- 
cept and Reproof; and again betwixt the Perfons of the Sco'-'ier and the 
IVicked : and laftly, the Reward is diftinguifhcd. In the former cafe. Precept is 
repaid by a lols of Labour;, and in the latter, of R,^proof, 'tis repaid with aStain 
alfo. For when any one inftrufts and teaches a Scorner, he firft lofes his tiiTie ; 
in the next place, others laugh at his Labour, as fruitlefs and mifapplied; 
and la/llv, the ^.rorwr himfelf difdains the Knowledge delivered. But Acre 
is more Danger in reproving a wicked Man -, who not only lends no Ear, 
but turns again, and either direflly rails at his Admonifher, who has now 
made himfelf odious to him ; or at leall, afterwards traduces him to others. 

Aphorism VII. 

10. A wife Son rejoices his Father, hut a foolijh Son is a Sorrow 

to his Mother. 

The Virtues "T" H E Domeftick Joys andGriefs of Father and Mother from their Children, 
and Vices of "* are here diftinguiflied : for a prudent and hopeful Son is a capital plea- 
chiUren Mf- f^re to the Father ; who knows the value of Virtue better than the Mother, 
fll%l,ler and therefore rejoices more at his Son's difpofition to Virtue. This Joy may 
from the Mo- 'ilfo be heightened, perhaps, from feeing the good Effeft of his own Manage- 
ment, in the Education of his Son ; fo as to form good Morals in him by 
Precept and Example. On the other hand, the Mother fuffers and par- 
takes the moft, in the Calamity of her^o?/; becaufe the maternal Affeftion 
is the more foft and tender : And again, perhaps, becaufe fhe is confcious that 
her Indulgence has fpoil'd, and depraved him. 



ther. 



II, 



Aphorism VIII. 

The Memory of the Juf is bleffed i but the Name of the wicked 

Jha/l rot. 



The difference 
Setrveert the 



117E have here that diftinftion between the Charafter of good and evil Men, 
' • which ufually takes place after Death. For in the cafe of good Men, 
nnllfdMrn ^'^^" Envy, that purfues them whilft alive, is extinguiflied, their Name pre- 
<ifier Death. Gently fiourifhes ; and their Fame increafes every day. But the Fame of bad 

1 Men, 



Sed.XXlV. 7^^ Doctrine «/"Business. 207 

Men, tho' it may remain for a while, thro' the Favour of Friends and 
Faftion •, yet foon becomes odious ; and at length degenerates into Infamy, 
and ends, as it were, in a loathfome odour. ^ 

Aphorism IX. 

1 2 . He "ujbo troubles his own Houfe, j]dall inherit the Wind. 

'T'HIS is a very ufeful Admonition, as to Domefhick Jars and DifFeren-^ni^FoW^»/ 
■* ces. For many promife themfdves great matters from the feparation^t''.''"?"'^^'"'' 
of their Wives ; the difinheriting of their Children ■, the frequent changing 
of Servants, i£c. as if they fliould thence procure greater Peace of Mind, or 
a more fuccefsful Adminiftration of their Affairs : But fuch hopes common- 
ly turn to Wind ; thefe Changes being feldom for the better. And fuch 
Difturb^rs of their Families, often meet with various Croffes and Ingratitude, 
from '^hofe they afterwards adopt and chufe. They, by this means alfo, 
brhig lil Reports, and ambiguous Rumours upon themfelves. For as Ckero 
well obferves, all Alen's Cbaraofers proceed from their Domeflicks. And both 
rhefe Mifchiefs Solomon elegantly expreffes, by the PcJJeJjlon of the Wind: 
for the fruftration of Expectation, and the raifing of Rumours, are juftly 
compared to the Winds. 

Aphorism X. 

13. The End of a T^ifcoiirfe is better than the Beginning. 

TPHIS Aphori'm corrects 1 common Error, prevailing not only among x/^^ 0»««- 
fuch .as principally ftudy Words, but alfo the more prudent -, -j/2;. xhzifioncfcon- 
Men are more foUrcitous about the Beginnings and Entrances of their Dif- "^M"'""" *^ 
courfes, than about the Conclufions: and more exadly labour their Prefaces * "S'*''* '' 
and Introductions, than their Clofes. Whereas they ought not to negleft 
the former ; but (hould have the latter, as being Things of far the greater 
Confequence, ready prepared beforehand ; cafting about with themfelves, 
as much as pofTible, what may be the laft IflTue of the Difcourfe •, and how 
Bufinefs may be thence forwarded and ripened. They ought further, not 
only to confider the windings up ofDrfcourfes relating to Bufinefs; but to 
regard alfo fuch turns as may be advantageoufly and gracefully given upon 
departure ; even tho' they fhould be quite foreign to the matter in hand. It 
w.as the conftant practice of two great and prudent Privy -CounfeUors, on whom 
the weight of the Kingdom chiefly refted, as often as they difcourfed with 
their Princes upon Matters of State, never to end the Converfation with 
what regarded the principal Subjedl •, but always to go off with a Jeft, or 
fbme pleafant Device ; and as the Proverb runs, 'Ujafhing off their fall-water 
Difcourfei withfrefh, at the Conchifion. And this was one of the principal 
Arts they had. 

Aphorism 



2o8 7^^ Doctrine o/BusiNEss. Sec^.XXIV- 

Aphorism XL 

14- As dead Flies caufe the befi Ointment to yield an ill Odour; 
fo does a little Folly to a Man in Refuiation for fVifdom and 
Honour. 

Little Faults 'TT'HE Condition of Men eminent for Virtue, is, as this Jphorifm exceU 
readily cen/ii- '■ lently obferves, exceeding hard and miferable -, becaufe their Errors, tho' 
re^ in wife ^y^^ (q fmall, are not overlooked : But, as in a clear Diamond, every lit- 
^"^ tie grain, or fpeck, ftrikes the Eye difagreeably, tho' it would fcarce be ob- 

ferved in a duller Stone; fo in Men of eminent Virtue, their fmalleft Vices 
are readily fpied, talk'd of, and feverely cenfured ; whilft in an ordinary 
Man, they would either have lain concealed, or been eafily excufed. VS^'hence 
a little Folly in a very wife Man -, a fmall Slip in a very good Man ; and 
a little Indecency in a polite and elegant Man ; greatly diminilh their Cha- 
racters and Reputations. It might, therefore, be no bad Policy, for Men 
of uncommon Excellencies, to intermix with their Aftions a few Abfurdi- 
ties, that may be committed without Vice ; in order to refcrve a Liberty, 
and confound the Obfervation of little Defefts. 

Aphorism XII. 

1 5 . Scornful Men enfnare a City -, but wife Men prevent Ca- 
lamity. 

The Capable yx may feem ftrange, that in the Defcription of Men, formed, as it were, 
Thelf^ata- ^'^ Nature, for the Deftruftion of States, Solomon fhould chufe the Cha- 
^/^_ rafter, not of a proud and haughty, not of a tyrannical and cruel, not of 

a rafh and violent, not of a feditious and turbulent, not of a foolifh or un- 
capable Man ■, but the Charafter of a Scorner. Yet this choice is becom- 
ing the Wifdom of that King ; who well knew how Governments were fub- 
verted, and how preferved. For there is fcarce fuch another deftrudive 
thing to Kingdoms, and Commonwealths, as that the Counfellors, or Sena- 
tors, who fit at the Helm, fliould be naturally Scorners ; who, to Ihew them- 
felves courageous Advifers, are always extenuating the greatnefs of Dan- 
gers j infulting, as fearful Wretches, thofe who weigh them as they ought -, 
and "ridiculing the ripening Delays of Counfel and Debate, as tedious 
Matters of Oratory, unferviceable to the general Ifllie of Bufmefs. They de- 
fpife Rumours, as the Breath of the Rabble, and things that will foon pafs 
over -, tho' the Counfels of Princes are to be chiefly directed from hence. 
They account the Power and Authority of Laws, but as Nets unfit to hold 
great Matters. They rejeft, as Dreams and melancholy Notions, thofe 
Counfels and Precautions, that regard Futurity at a difiance. They fatyrize 
and banter fuch Men as are really prudent and knowing in Affairs -, or fuch 
as bear noble Minds, and arc capable of advifing. In fhort, they fap all 
the Foundations of Political Govermnent at once : a thing which deferves the 

greater 



SeA.XXIV. 7%e Doctrine (5/* Business. 209 

greater Attention, as 'tis not effefted by open Attack, but by fecret Uncler- 
minincr : nor is it, by any means, fo much fufpeded among mankind as it 
deferves *. 

Aphorism XIII. 

16. The 'Prince "jvho willingly hearkens to Lyes Jjas all his Servants 

wicked. 



W 



'"HEN a Prince is irijuditioufly difpofed to lend a credulous Ear to CredulUyuer^i 
Whifperers and Flatterers •, peftilent Breath feems to proceed from {^rmchus m 
him i corrupting and infeding all his Servants: and now fome fearch into 
his Fears, and increafe them with fiftitious Rumours •, fome raife up in him 
the Fury of Envy, efpecially againft the moft deferving -, fome, by acciifing 
Ot others, walh their own Stains away ; fome make room for the Prefer- 
ment and Gratification of their Friends, by calumniating and traducing their 
Competitors, ^c. And thefe Agents are naturally the moft vicious Ser- 
vants of the Prince. Thofe again, of better Principles and Difpofitions, after 
finding little Security in their Innocence ; their Mafter not knowing how 
to diftinguifli Truth from Failhood •, drop their moral Honefty, go into the! 
eddy Winds of the Court, and fervilely lubmit to be carried about with 
them. For as Tacitus fays of Claudius, There is nofafety with that Prince, in- 
to whofe Mind all things are infufed and direSled. And Comines well obferves, 
that 'tis better being Servant to a Prince whofe Sufpicions are endlefs, th a whofe 
Credulity is great. 

Aphorism XIV. 

17. Ajujl Man is merciful to the Life of his Beafl, but the Mef^ 
cies of the Wicked are crtieL 



N 



Ature has endowed Man with a noble and excellent Principle of Com- Compajfon tt 
paffwn, which extends itfelf even to the Brutes, that by divine Appoint- *« UmitU. 
ment are made fubjedt to him. Whence this Companion has fome refem- 
blance with that of a Prince towards his Subjedls. And 'tis certain, that 
the nobleft Souls are moft extenfively merciflil : For narrow and de- 
generate Spirits think Compaflion belongs not to them ; but a great Soul, 
the nobleft part of the Creation, is ever compaffionate. Thus under the 
old Law there were numerous Precepts not merely ceremonial, as the or- 
daining of Mercy, for example, the not eating of Flefh with the Blood 
thereof ; t?r. So likewife the Sefts of the Effenes and Pythagoreans totally 
abftained from Flefh •, as they do alfo to this day, with an inviolated Su- 
perftition, in fome parts of the Empire of Mogul. Nay the Turks, tho' a 
cruel and bloody Nation, both in their Defcent and Difcipline, give Alms 
to Brutes ; and fuffer them not to be tortured. But left this Principle 

* The Author, perhaps, bad his Eye upon publick as well as private Aflemblies. 
Vol. I. E e might 



210 7^^ Doctrine o/ Business. Seft.XXIV. 

might feem to countenance all kinds of Compaffion •, Solomon wholefomely 
fiibjoins, 'That the Mercies of the Wicked are cruel; tliat is, when fuch great 
Offenders are fpared, as ought to be cut off with the Sword of Juftice. For 
this kind of Mercy is the greateft of all Cruelties; as Cruelty affefts but 
particular Perfons •, whilft Impunity lets loofe the whole Army of Evil- 
doers ; and drives them upon the Innocent. 

Aphorism XV. 

1%. A Fool [peaks all his Mind ; but a wife Man referves fome- 

thing for hereafter. 

trohen Dif- TT H I S ^/&or//wz feems principally levell'd, not againft the flitility of light 
ccurfe frefer'J ^ Perfons, who fpcak what they (hould conceal ; nor againft the pertnefs 
u continued, ^j^j, which they indifcriminately, and injudicioufly, fly out upon Men 
and Things ; nor againft the talkative humour with which fome Men 
difguft their hearers ; but againft a more latent Failing, viz. a very im- 
prudent and impolitick management of Speech ; when a Man in private 
Converfarion fo dircfts his Difcourfe, as, in a continued ftring of Words, to 
deliver all he can fay, that any way relates to the Subject : which is a great 
prejudice to Bufinefs. For, (i.) Difcourfe interrupted and infufed by par- 
cels, enters deeper than if it were continued, and unbroke ; in which cafe 
the weight of things is not diftinftly and particularly felt, as having not 
time to fix themfelves ; but one Reafon drives out another, before it had ta- 
ken root. (2.) Again, no one is fo powerful or happy in Eloquence, as 
at firft fetting out to leave the Hearer perfeftly mute and filent ; but he will 
always have fomething to anfwer, and perhaps to objeft, in his turn. And 
here it happens, that thofe things which were to be referved for Confutation, 
or Reply, being now anticipated, lofe their Strength and Beauty. (3.) Laft- 
ly, if a Perfon does not utter all his Mind at once, but fpeaks by ftarts, 
firft one thing, then another, he will perceive from the Countenance and 
Anfwer of the Perfon fpoke to, how each particular affedts him ; and in 
what Senfe he takes it : and thus be diredted, more cautioufly, to fupprefs 
or employ the matter ftill in referve. 

Aphorism XVI. 

19. Ifthe^ifpleafiireofgreat Men rife up againft thee, for fake 
not thy Tlace : for pliant Behaviour extenuates great Offences. 

■The Methodof^J^^^^ '^^^°'''f^ ftiews how a Perfon ought to behave, when he has in- 
recovering * curred the Difpleafure of his Prince. The Precept hath two parts. 

Prince's F»- (i.) that the Pcrfon quit not his Poft ; and (2.) that he, with Diligence 
■vour. and Caution, apply to the Cure ; as of a dangerous Difeafe. For when Men 

fee their Prince incenfed againft them ; what thro' Impatience of Difgrace ; 

Fear of renewing their Wounds by fight ; and partly to let their Prince 

behoFd 



Sed. XXIV. The Doctrine (j/'Business. 211 

behold their Contrition and Humiliation -, 'tis ufual with them to retire 
from their Office or Employ ; and fometinies to refign their Places and Dig- 
nities into their Prince's hands. But Solomon difapproves this Method, as 
pernicious. For, (i.)ic publifhesthe Difgracc too much-, whence both our 
Enemies and Enviers are more emboldened to hurt us-, and our Friends 
the more intimidated from lending their alTiftance. (2.) By this means the 
Anger of the Prince, which perhaps would have blown over of itfelf, had 
it not been made publick, becomes more fixed -, and having now begun to 
difplace the Perfon, ends not but in his Downfall. (3.) This refigning car- 
ries fomething of Ill-will with it, and fhews a diflike of the Times -, which 
adds the Evil of Indignation to that of Sufpicion. The following Remedies 
regard the Cure: (r.) Let him above all things beware how by any Infen- 
fibility, or Elation of Mind, he feems regardlefs of his Prince's Difpleafure ; 
or not affefted as he ought. He fliould not compofe his Countenance to a 
ftubborn Melancholly ; but to a grave and decent DejeSlion : and fhew him- 
felf, in all his Aftions, lefs brisk and chearful than ufual. It may alfo be 
for his advantage to ufe the AfliRance and Mediation of a Friend with 
the Prince -, fcafonably to infinuate, with how great a Senfe of Grief the 
Perfon in difgrace is inwardly affected. (2.) Let him carefully avoid 
even the leaft occafions of reviving the thing which caufed the Difpleafure ; 
or of giving any handle to frelh Diftafte, and open Rebuke. (3.) Let him 
diligently feek all occafions wherein his fervice may be acceptable to his 
Prince ; that he may both Ihew a ready Defire of retrieving his paft Offence, 
and his Prince perceive what a Servant he muft lofe if he quit him. (4.) 
Either let him prudently transfer the Blame upon others ; or infinuate that 
the Offence was committed with no ill defign •, or fhew that their Malice, who 
accufed him to the Prince, aggravated the thing above meafure. (5.) Laft- 
ly, let him in every refpedt be watchful and intent upon the Cure. 

Aphorism XVII. 

20. The fir ft in his own Caufe, isjuft : then comes the other Tarty, 

and enquires into him. 

T"" H E firft Information in any Caufe, if it dwell a little with the Judge, mre to eon- 
takes root, tinges and poflelTes him fo, as hardly to be removed again ; ?«"■ frepof- 
unlefs fome manifeft Falfity be found in the matter itfelf; or fome Artifice ■^"''^"' * 
be difcovered in delivering it. For a naked and fimple Defence, tho' juft and ■'" ^'' 
prevalent, can fcarce balance the prejudice of a prior Information ; or of 
itfelf reduce to an equilibrium the Scale of Juftice that has once inclined. 
It is, therefore, fafeft for the Judge to hear nothing as to the Merits of a 
Caufe, before both Parties are convened i and beft for the Defendant, if he 
perceive the Judge prepoflefled, to endeavour, as far as ever the Cafe will 
allow, principally todeteft fome Artifice, or Trick, made ufe of by the Plain- 
tiff to abufe the Judge. 

E e 2 Aphorism 



212 



7^^ Doctrine «j/" Business. Sed.XXIV. 



Aphorism XVIII. 

21. He who brings up his Servant delicately-, foallfind him Jlubborn 

in the end. 



he tcny of ■pRincesand Mafters are, by the Advice of Solomon, to obferve Modera- 
'nr.aging A j-jon in Conferring Grace and Favour upon their Servants. This Mode- 



The 

managing — j-,on m conferring Urace and I'avour upon 

Tervanti"" ration confifts in three things, (i.) In promoting them gradually; not by 
fudden ftarts. (2.) In accuftoming them fometimes to Denial. And, (3.) 
as is well obferved by Machiavel, in letting them always have fomething 
further to hops for. And unlefs thefe particulars be obferved. Princes 
in the end, will doubtlefs find from their Servants Difrefpeft and Obftinacy, 
inftead of Gratitude and Duty. For from fudden Promotion arifes Infolence; 
from a perpetual obtaining one's Defires, impatience of Denial ; and if there 
be nothing further to wifli, there's an end of Alacrity and Induftry. 

Aphorism XIX. 

22. yf Man diligent in his Bujinefs ^ all ft and before Kings •■, and 
not be ranked among the Vulgar. 



Difpatch, the 
®tialification 
mojl required 
by Prince J. 



The Folly of 
yporfliipping 
the next Heir, 



r\F all the Virtues which Kings chiefly regard and require, in the Choice 
^^ of Servants, that of Expedition, and Refolution, in the difpatch of Bufi- 
nefs, is the mod acceptable. Men of depth are held fufpeded by Princes ; 
as infpefting them too clofe ; and being able by their ftrength of Capacity, 
as by a Machine, to turn and wind them, againft their Will, and without 
their Knowledge. Popular Men are hated > as (landing in the light of Kings; 
and drawing the Eyes of the Multitude upon themfelves. Men of Courage 
are generally efteemed turbulent, and too enterprizing. Honeft and juft 
Men are accounted morofe •, and not compilable enough to the Will of 
their Mafters. Laftly, there is no Virtue but has its Shade, wherewith the 
Minds of Kings are offended ; but Difpatch alone in executing their Com- 
mands, has nothing difpleafing to them. Befides, the Motions of the Minds 
of Kings are fwift, and impatient of delay : for they think themfelves able 
to effeft any thing •, and imagine that nothing more is wanting, but to have 
it done inftantly. Whence Difpatch is to them the moft grateful of all Things, 

Aphorism XX. 

23. If aw all the living which walk under the Sum with the 
fucceeding youngTrince^ that fl)all rife up in his ftead. 

nr HIS Aphorifm points out the Vanity of thofe who flock about the next 

•■• SucceflTors of Princeu. The Root of this, is the Folly naturally im- 

' planted in the Minds of Men-, w'z. their bei.ng too fond of their own Hopes. 

For fcarce any one but is more delighted with Hope than with Enjoyment. 

2 Again, 



Sed.XXIV. 7^^ Doctrine ^ Business. ^ 213 

Again, Novelty is pleafing, and greedily coveted by human Nature: and 
thefe two things, Hope and Novelly, meet in the Succeflor of a Prince. 
The Jphorif?n hints the fame that was formerly faid by Pompey to Sylla, and 
again by Trbeiiusof Macro, that I he Sia: has more Adorers rifmg than fetting. 
Yet Rulers in poiTeffion are not much afFedted with this, or efteem ic any 
great matter ; as neither Sylla nor 'Tiberius did : but rather laugh at the 
Levity of Men -, and encounter not with Dreams : for Hope, as was well 
faid, is but a waking Dream. 

Aphorism XXI. 

24. T^ere was a little City, mann'd but by a fe'ia\ and a mighty 
King dreisj his Army to it, ere6ied Bulwarks againjl it, and 
entrenched it round : now there was found within the JValls a 
poor wife Man, and he by his IVifdom delivered the City j but 
none remembred the fame foot Man. 

nr HIS Parable defcribes the corrupt and malevolent Namre of Men, rhe Reward 
who in Extremities and Difficulties generally fly to the Prudent and of the more 
the Courageous ; tho' they before defpifed them : and as foon as the Storm ^'/"""'H- 
is over, they rtiew Ingratitude to their Prefervers. Machiavel had reafon 
to put the Queftion, '■'■ IVhich is the more ungrateful towards tht well-defer- 
ving, the Prince or the People ? tho' he accufes both of Ingratitude. The 
thing does not proceed wholly from the Ingratitude either of Princes or 
People -, but it is generally attended with the Envy of the Nobility ; who 
fecretly repine at the Event, tho' happy and profperous •, becaufe it was 
not procured by themfelves. Whence t4iey leflen the Merit of the Author, 
and bear him down. 

Aphorism XXII. 
25. The Way of the Slothful is a Hedge of Thorns. 

'T'HIS y/p/&o>-//7» elegantly ftiews, that Sloth is laborious in the end. For x*« Wt/»»- 
•■■ diligent and cautious Preparation guards the foot from ftumbling, and tage of con- 
fmooths the way before 'tis trod; but he who is fluggifh, and defers all 'ri-vingBHfi- 
things to the laft Moment, mull of neceffity be at every ftep treading as "'^'^ 
upon Brambles and Thorns -, which frequently detain and hind;r him : and 
the fame may be obferved in the Government of a Family : where if due 
Care and Forethought be ufed, all things go on calmly, and, as it were, 
fpontaneoully, without Noife and Buftle : but if this Caution be negledled ; 
when any great Occafion arifes, numerous Matters croud in to be done at 
orice i the Servants are in confufion ; and the Houfe rings. 



Aphorism 



214 ^^ Doctrine <?/ Business. Sed.XXIV. 

Aphorism XXIII. 

2 6. He liiho nfpeEis Terfons in Judgment, does ill i andwill for- 
fake the Truth, for apiece of Bread. 

Tacility of T""HIS Aphorifm wifely obferves, thac Facility of Temper is more perni- 

Temper ferni- *- cious in a Judge than Bribery : for Bribes are not ofFer'd by all ; but 

cious m a, there is no Caufe wherein fomething may not be found to fway the Mind 

J" S'- Qf j|.,e Judge, if he be a Refpefter of Perfons. Thus, one fhall ^be refpefted 

tor his Country, another for his Riches i another for being recommended 

by a Friend, l^c. So that Iniquity muft abound where Refpeft of Perfons 

prevails •, and Judgment be corrupted for a very trifling thing, as it were 

for a Morfcl of Bread. 

Aphorism XXIV. 

27. j4 poor Man, that by Extortion opprejfes the 'Poor, is like a 

Land-flood that caufes Famine. 

Rich Cover- 'T'HIS Parable was anciently painted by the Fable of the Leech, full 
tiouri prefer d ^- and cmpt-j ; for the Oppreffion of a poor and hungry Wretch is much 
u por ones, j^^^g grievous than the Oppreffion of one who is rich and full •, as he 
fearches into all the Corners and Arts of Exaftion, and Ways of raifing Con- 
tributions. The thing has been alfo ufually refembled to a Sponge ; which 
fucks ftrorgly when dry, but lefs when moift. And it contains an ufe- 
ful Admonition to Princes, that they commit not the Government of 
Provinces, or Places of Power, to indigent Men, or fuch as are in debt ; 
and again to the People, that they permit not their Kings to ftruggle with 
Want. 

Aphorism XXV. 

28. A jufl Man falling before the IVicked, is a troubled Fountain, 

and a corrupted Spring. 

Unjufi and HT HIS is a Caution to States, that they Ihould have a Capital Regard 

fiMick Sen- ^ to the paffing an unjuft or infamous Sentence, in any great and weigh- 

tencesvorfe ty Caufc •, where not only the Guilty is acquitted, but the Innocent con- 

'jn'urie^^'*'' demned. To countenance private Injuries, indeed difturbs and pollutes the 

"^ '' '' clear Streams of Juftice, as it were, in the Brook 5 but unjuft and great 

publick Sentences, which are afterwards drawn into Precedents, infedl and 

defile the very Fountain of Juftice. For when once the Court goes on the 

fide of Injuftice ; the Law becomes a publick Robber, and one Man really a 

Wolf to another. 

Aphorism 



Secl.XXIV. 75^ Doctrine (j/'BusiNESs. 215 

Aphorism XXVI. 

29. Contract no Friend^ip 'with an angry Man ; nor ivalk with a 

furious one. 

•Tp H E more religioudy the Laws of Friendlliip are to be obferved amongft The Caution 
*■ good Men, the more Caution fhould be ufed in making a prudent '■f?""'^. '" 
Choice of Friends. The Nature and Humour of Friends, fo far as concerns f^"f^%;/tf. 
ourfelves alone, fhould be abfolutely tolerated •, but when they lay us un- 
der a Neceffity, as to the Charafter we fhould put on towards others ; this 
becomes an exceeding hard and unreafonable Condition of Fiiendfliip. 'Tis 
therefore of great moment to the Peace and Security of Life, according 
to the direftion of Solomon, to have no Friendfhip jwith pafTionate Men -, 
and fuch as eafily ftir up or enter into Debates and Quarrels. For fuch 
Friends will be perpetually entangling us in Strifes and Contentions •, fo that 
we muft either break off with them, or have no regard to our own fafety. 

Aphorism XXVII. 

5 o. He who conceals a Fault, feeks Friendfhip ; but he who re- 
peats a Matter, feparates Friends. 

TpHERE are two ways of compofing Differences, and reconciling the The way of 
Minds of Men -, the one beginning with Oblivion and Forgivenefs -, pocuringKe- 
the other with a Recolkdion of the Injuries ; interweaving it with Apolo- """ ""«"'• 
gies and Excufes. 1 remember it the Opinion of a very wife Politician, 
" That he who treats of Peace without repeating the Conditions of the Dif- 
" ference, rather deceives the Mind with the fweetnefs of Reconciliation, 
" than equitably makes up the Matter." But Solomon, a flill wifer Man, 
is of a contrary Opinion -, and approves of forgetting ; but forbids a repe- 
tition of the Difference, as being attended with thefe Inconveniencies : (i.) 
that it rakes into the old Sore; (2.) that it may caufe a new Diff"erence; 
(3.) and laftly, that it brings the Matter to end in Excufes: Whereas both 
fides had rather feem to forgive the Injury, than allow of an Excufe. 

Aphorism XXVIII. 

l\. In every good Work, is Tlenty i but where Words abound^ 
there is commonly a Want. 

oOlomon here diftinguifhes the Fruit of the Labour of the Tongue, and The Mftrence 
*J that of the Labour of the Hand; as if from the one came "Want, pfj^ixt «yf- 
and from the other Abundance. For, it al molt conftantly happens, that ('.J7i''rfr-'* 
they who fpeak much, boafl much, and promife largely, are but ha.r- fin. 
ren ; and receive no Fruit from the things they talk of: being feldom 

indu- 



2i6 The Doctrine </ Business. Sedi.XXIV, 

induftrlous or diligent in Works, but feed and fatisfy themfelves with Dif- 
courfe alone, as with Wind : whilft, as the Poet intimates, He who is confcious 
to himfclf, that he can really effcCl, feels the Satisfaftion inwardly, and keeps 
filent ^ : whereas, he who knows he grafps nothing but empty Air, is full of 
Talk and It range Stories. 

Aphorism XXIX. 
32. Open Reproof is better than ficret Affe^ion^ 

The Keproof 'T^ HIS Aphofifm reprehends the Indulgence of thofe who ufe not the 
tine to Friends. A Privilege of Friendfliip, freely and boldly to admonifli their Friends, 
as well of their Errors as their Dangers. " What fhall I do? lays an eafy 
*' good-natured Friend, or what courfe fhall I take ? I love him as well as 
" Man can do •, and would willingly fufFer any Misfortune in his {lead : 
" but I know his Nature -, if Ideal freely with him, I fhall offend him: 
" at lead chagreen him ; and yet do him no Service. Nay, I, {hall fooner 
•' alienate his Friendniip from me, than win him over from thofe things he 
" has {ixed his Mind upon." Such an effeminate and ufelefs Friend as this, 
Solomon reprehends ; and pronounces, that greater advantage may be recei- 
ved from an open Enemy : as a Man may chance to hear thofe things 
from an Enemy, by way of reproach ; which a Friend, thro' too much 
Indulgence, will not fpeak out. 

Aphorism XXX. 
33. A prudent Man looks well to his Steps i but a Fool turns afide 

to "Deceit. 

that Honefly TT HERE are two kinds of Prudence ; the one true and found -, the other 
is true Folicy. degenerate and falfe : the latter Solomon calls by the Name of Folly- 

The Candidate for the former has an eye to his Footings, looking out for 
Dangers, contriving Remedies, and by the A{ri{tance of good Men defend- 
ing himfelf againft the bad : he is wary in entring upon Bufinefs, and not 
unprovided of a Retreat; watchful for Opportunities •, powerful againft Oppo- 
fition, t?f. But the Follower of the other is wholly patch'd up of Fallacy and 
Cunning -, placing all his hope in the circumventing of others, and forming 
them to his flmcy. And this the Aphorifm juftly rejedls, as a vicious, and even 
a weak kind of Prudence. For, (i.) 'Tis by no means a thing in our own 
power •, nor depending upon any conftant Rule : but is daily inventing of new 
Stratagems, as the old ones fail and grow ufelefs. (2.) He who has once the 
Charafter of a crafty, tricking Man, is entirely deprived of a principal In- 
ftrument of bufinefs, Triift ; whence he will {ind nothing fucceed to his 
wiih. Laftly, however fpecious and pleafing thefe Arts may feem, yet they 
are often frultrated ; as was well obferved by Tacitus, when he faid, that crafty 
and bold Counf lis, tho' pleafant in the Ex^e^atmh are hard to execute; and un^ 
happy in the Event. 

Aphorism 

' ^i filtt tft Tirmfti. 



Sc<^.XXIV. 75;^ Doctrine o/" Business. 217 

Aphorism XXXI. 

34. Be not over-righteous, nor make thyfelf over-wife; for why 
fljouldjl thou fuddenly be taken off ^ 

^11 ERE are times, fays 'Tacitus , ivherein great Virtues meet with certain The danger tf 
•■ Ruin. A nd this happens to Men, eminent for Virtue and Jtiftice, f ^"'^ ^''■'«« 
fometimes fuddenly ; and fometimes after it was long forefeen. But if Pru- "'^''•'r/me^ 
dence be alfo joined, fo as to make fuch Men cautious, and watchful of their 
own fafety •, then they gain thus much, that their Ruin fliall come fud- 
denly ; and entirely from fecret and dark Councils: whence they may 
efcape Envy, and meet Deftrudlion unexpeded. But for that over-righ- 
teoufnefs exprefled in the Aphorifm ; 'tis not underflood of Virtue itfelf, in 
which there is no Excefs, but of a vain and inviduous Affedlation, and 
Shew thereof -, like yiViXX. Tacitus \ni\mit&9, oi Lepidus ; making it a kind of 
Miracle, that he never gave any fervile Opinion, and yet Hood fafe in fe- 
vere times. 

Aphorism XXXII. 

3 5- Give occajion to a wife Man, and his Wifdom will be en- 

creafed. 

'~r* ¥{IS Aphorifm diftinguiflies between that Wifdom which has graven The difference 
up and ripened into a true Habit, and that which only floats in the betwixt Jlml- 
Bjain -, oris toft upon the Tongue, without having taken root. The for- '«w'""'/»"'"^ 
mer, when occafion offers, is prefently rouzed, got ready, and diftended, •^''"'*^'^*- 
fo as to appear greater than itfelf ; whereas the latter, which was pert be- 
fore, (lands amazed and confounded, when occafion calls for it : fo that 
the Perfon, who thought himfelf endowed with this Wifdom, begins to 
queftion whether his Prjeconceptions about it, were not meer Dreams, and 
empty Speculations. 

Aphorism XXXIII, 

36. To praife one's Friend aloud, rifing early, has the fa^ie effeSi 

as curfing him. 

■jyiOderate and feafonable Praifes, dropt occafionally, are of great fervice rh r j 7 
■•• ■*■ to the Reputation and Fortunes of Men •, whilfl: immoderate, noify and J ll^J^f 
fijlfome Praifes, do no good, but rather hurt, as the Jphorfn expreffes k. led m Fr/tife. 
For (i.) they plainly betray themfelves to proceed from an excefs of good- 
will ; or to be purpofely defigned, rather to gain Favour with the Perfon, 
by falfe Encomiums, than to paint him juftly. (2,) Sparing and modtfl: 
Praifes generally invite the Company fomewhat to improve them -, but 
^'OL-I. Ff profufe 



2i8 The Doctrine o/ Business. Sed-XXIV, 

profufe and immoderate ones, todetraft, and take off from them (3.) The 
principal thing is, that immoderate Praifes procure envy to the Perfon 
praifed -, as all extravagant Commendations feem to reproach others that 
may be no lefs deferving. 

Aphorism XXXIV. 

37. As the Face pjines in Water, fo are Mens Hearts manifejl to 

the Wife. 

Tht»ivan- nTHlS Jpbonffn diftinguifhes between the Minds of prudent Men, and 
tage of Know- ■'■ thofe of others ; by comparing the former to Water, or a Mirror, 
ledge. which receives the forms and images of things -, whilft the latter are like 

Earth, or unpoliflied Stone, which reflefts Nothing. And the Mind of 
a prudent Man is the more aptly compared to a Glafs, becaufe therein 
one's own Image may, at the fame time, be viewed along with thofe of o- 
thers •, which could not be done by the Eye, without afTiftance : but if the 
Mind of a prudent Man be fo capacious, as to obferve and diftinguifh an 
infinite diverfity of Natures and Manners in Men ; it remains, that we endea- 
vour to render it as various in the Application as 'tis in the Reprefenta- 
tion ». 

rarther Dl- 3^- And fo much by way of Example of the Docfrine of various Occa- 
riBlons about fions. For thus, it was not only ufual among the Jews, but very common al- 
ihe Method of ^Q among the wife Men of other ancient Nations, when they had, by obfer- 
ft<Te«^ ' " vation, hit upon any thing ufeful in common Life, to reduce and contraft- 
it into fome fhort Sentence, Parable, or Fable. Fables anciently fup- 
plied the defeft of Examples ; but now that times abound with variety of 
Hiftories, 'tis better, and more enlivening, to draw from real Life. But 
the method of writing beft fuited to fo various and intricate a Subjeft, as 
the different Occafwm of Civil Bufinefs, is that which Machiavel chofe for 
treating Politicks ; viz. by Obfervation, or Difcourfe, upon Hiftories and 
Exa.nples. For the Knowledge which is newly drawn, and, as it were, un- 
der our own Eye, f''om Particulars, beft finds the way to Particulars again. 
And doubiljfs, 'tis much more conducive to Praftice, that the Difcourfe 
fol'iovv the Example, than that the Example follow the Difjourfe. And 
this regards not only the Order, but the Thing itielf ; for when an Exam- 
ple is propofed as the B.ifis of a Difcourfe, 'tis ulli Jiy propofed with its 
whole Apparatus of Circumftances •, which may fometimes correft and fup- 
ply it ; whence it becomes as a Model for Imitation and Praiflice: whilft 
Examples, produced for the fake of the Treatife, arc but fuccinftly and naked- 
ly quoted ; and, as Slave.., wholly attend the Call of the Difcourfe. 
rhetnoftcom- 39. 'Tis worth while to obferve this difference-, that as the Hiftories of 
modioli! Me- Timcs afford the beft matter for Difcourfes upon Politicks, fuch as thofe 

thoii for the . ^f 

fHrfofe. 

' ^IfufitylmumerU Moribus apm er'tt. 



SedV. XXV. Self-Policy. 219 

of Machiavel^ ; fo the Hiftories of Lives are mod advantageonfly iifed for 
inftruftions of Bufinefs : becaufe tliey contain all the poflible variety of Oc- 
cafions and Affairs, as well great as fniall. Yet a more commodious Foun- 
dation may be had for the Precepts of Bufinefs, than either of thefe Hifto- 
ries ; and that is, the difcourfing upon prudent and ferious Epiftles, fuch as 
thofe of Cicero to Jtticus, Sec. For Epiftles reprefent Bufinefs nearer and 
more to the Life, than either Ann ds or Lives'". And thus we have treated 
of the Matter and Form of the firft part of the Do5lrine of Bufinefs, which 
regards Variet) of Occafiom ; and place it among the Defiderata". 



SECT. XXV. 

Of Self-Policy; or ^-6^ Doctrine o/" Rising in 

Life. 

I. i.'TpHERE is another part of the Doctrine of Business, diffe- PfivateTdh 

jL. ring as much from the former, as the being wife in the general, cy diferent 
and being -ujijefor one's felf. The one feems to move, as from the Centre to f''""* Z"*^^'^*^' 
the Circumference ; and the other as from the Circumference to the Centre. 
For there is a certain Prudence of giving Counfel to others ; and another of 
looking to one' s fian Affairs : both thefe indeed are fometimes found united, 
but ofteneft feparate. As many are prudent in the Manrigement of their own 
private Concerns ; and weak in publick Adminiftration, or the gi^irg Ad- 
vice : like the Ant, which is a wife Creature for itfelf, but pernicious in a 
Garden. This Virtue of Self-Wifdom was not unknown even to the Roman, 
thofe great Lovers of their Country : Whence fays the Comedian, the wife 
Man forms his own Fortune^; and they had it proverbial amongft them, 
Ever-j Man's Fortune lies in bis own hand'. So Livy gives this Character of 
the elder Cato, ' ' Such was his Force of Mind and Genius., that where-ever 
he had been born., he feem'd formed for making his own Fortune.'* 

2. But if any one publickly profefs'd, or made open ftiow of this kind ts not to Be 
of Prudence, 'twas always accounted, not only impolitick, but ominous and profejfeJ. 
unfortunate ; as was obferved of Timotheus the Athenian^ who after having 

F f 2 performed 

• Efpecially his Prmetpi, with the Notes oi Conringius, Ed. 1660. 
'See above e/ History, Stti.l. j6. 

' The Author's Eflays, or Sermones Fideles, being fhort Difcourfes upon a varietyof Mora!, 
Political, and Oeconoroical SubjeSs, may be efteemed a farther Attempt to fupply this Defi- 
ciency in the Dodirine of Various Ocenfions. See Supplement XI. to this Piece Je Angmtntis 
Scientiarum. 

^ Nam fol fafitni fingit forttinam Jiii. 

* Water iiuif^Me fertH/i* proprit. 



220 



S E L F-Po L I C Y 



or. 



Sea. XXV. 



The DoBrine 
efrijing in 
Life deficient. 



An Example 
tf the wily to 
Juffly it. 



performed many great Exploits, for the honour and advantage of his Country, 
and giving an account of his Conduft to the People, as the manner then 
was, he concluded the feveral Particulars thus ; " A?id here Fortune bad no 
*' JJjare :" after which time, nothing ever fucceededin his hands. This was, 
indeed, too arrogant and haughty, like that o^ Pharaoh in Ezekiel ; " Thou 
" fayfi ^^^^ River is 7ni}ie, and I made m'^felf " or that oi Habakkuck, " They 
" rejoice, and facrifice to their Net \" or again, xh-ii oi Mezenttus, who cal- 
led his Hand and Javelin his God ^ ; or laftly, that of Julius Ca-far, the on- 
ly time that we find him betraying his inward Sentiments : for when the 
Arufpex related to him, that the Entrails were not profperous, he mutter'd 
foftly, " They jhall he letter when I pleafe ," which was iliid not long be- 
fore his unfortunate Death. And indeed this excefllve confidence, as it is a 
prof-ine thing ; fo it is always unhappy. Whence great, and truly wife Men 
think proper to attribute all their Succefles to their Felicity -, and not to their 
Virtue and Induftry. So S\lla ftyled himMi happy, not great ; and Qrfart 
at another time, more advifedly, faid to the Pilot, " Thou carrieft Cafar 
and his Fortune." 

3. ButthefeExpreffions, " Every one*s Fortune is in his oicn hand ; A wife 
" Manjhall controul the Stars; Every -way is pajfable to Virtue, &c." ifun- 
derftood, and ufed, rather as Spurs to Induftry, than as Stirrups to Infolence; 
and rather to beget in Men a Conftancy and Firmnefs of Refolution, than 
Arrogance and Oftentation ; they are defervedly eftecmed found and whole- 
fome. And hence, doubtlefs, it is, that they find reception in the Breafts 
of great Men ; and make it fometimes difficult for them to diffemble their 
Thoughts. So we find Auguflus Cafar, who was rather different from, than 
inferior to his Uncle, tho' doubtlefs a more moderate Man, required his 
Friends, as they flood about his Death-bed, to give him their Applaufe at 
his Exit ; as if confcious to himfelf, that he had afted his part well upon the 
Stage of Life. And this part of Dodtrine alfo is to be reckoned as deficient : 
not but that it has been much ufed and beaten in Praftice ; tho' not 
taken notice of in Books. Wherefore, according to our Cuftom, we fhall 
here fet down fome Heads upon the Subjedl ; under the Title of the Self- 
Politician, or the Art of Rising in Life. 

4. It may feem a new and odd kind of thing, to teach Men how to make 
their Fortui>es. A DyBrine which every one would gladly learn, before he 
finds the Difficulties of it. For the things required to procure Fortune, are 
not fewer or lefs difficult than thofe to procure Virtue. It is ns rigid and 
hard a thing to become a true Politician, as a true Moraliji. Yet the treat- 
ing of this Subieft nearly concerns the Credit, and Merit, of Learning. 
'Tis of great importance to the Honour of Learning, that Men of Bufinefs 
fhould know. Erudition is not like a Lark, which flie . high, and delights 
in nothing but finging •, but that 'tis rather like a Hawk, which loars ;Joft 
indeed, but can ftoop when fhe finds it convenient, and feize her Prey. 
Again, this alfo regards the Perfeftion of Learning ; for the true Rule of a 

perfect 



* Dextra mihi Dent, ^ Telum^ quod mij/ile liirt. 
Nunc adjint 



Sedl. XXV. />5^ Doctrine ^ Rising IN Life. 221 

perftdl Enquiry, is, that nothing can be found in the material Globe which 
hai not its correfpcndent in the Cryftalline Globe, the Unde-rfianding ; or, that 
there is Nothing found in Pra^ice, which has not its particular Do8rim 
and Theor-j ». But Learning efteems the Building of a private Fortune, as 
a Work of an inferior kind. For no Man's private Fortune can be an End 
any way worthy of his Exiftence. Nay, it frequenly happens, that Men of 
eminent Virtues renounce their Fortune, to purfue the Things of a fubli- 
mer Nature. Yet even private Fortune, as it is the inftrument of Virtue, 
and doing good, is a partiadar DoBrviey worthy of Confideration. 

II. 5. T\\\%Do^rineh.'!i?,ifi Precepts, fome whereof are yaw/w^rj or collec- ColUaiveVre- 
tive, and others fc altered and various. The collc5five Precepts are founded "/"'- ^iz.^^t 
ina>7? Knoidedge, (i.) of ourfehes, and {2.) of others. Let this, therefore, f/l^ZTd'' 
be the firft, whereon the Knowledge of the reft principally turns-, that we firft of others, 
procure to ourfelves, as far as poffiUe, the Windoijj once required by Momus : next of our 
who feeing lb many Corners and Recefles in the Struflure of the human Z^''^"- 
Heart, found fault that it fhould want a Window •, thro' which tiiofe dark 
and crooked turnings might be viewed. This Window may be procured 
by diligently informing ourfelves of the particular Perfons we have to deal 
with •, their Tempers, Defires, Views, Cuftoms, Habits ; the Afliftances, 
Helps, and Aflurances, whereon they principally rely, and whence they re- 
ceive their Power -, their Defeftsand Weaknefl'es, whereat they chiefly lie open, 
and are accefTible -, their Friends, Factions, Patrons, Dependants, Enemies, 
Enviers, Rivals ; their Times, and Manner of Accefs; their Principles, and the 
Rules they prefcribe themfelves, tfff. But our Information Ihould not wholly 
reft in the Perfons, but alio extend to the particular Actions, which from time 
to time come upon the Anvil ; how they are condufted •, with what Succefs ; 
by whole Afliftance promoted ; by whom oppofcd ; of what Weight and 
Moment they are ; what their Confequences, (s!c. For a Knowledge ofpre- 
fent Artions, is not only very advantageous in itfelf ; but without it the 
Knowledge of Perfons will be very fallacious and uncertain. For Men change 
along with their Adions ; and are one thing whilft entangled and furround- 
ed with Bufinefs ; and another when they return to themfelves. And thefe 
particular Informations with regard to Perfons, as well as Actions.^ are like 
the minor Propofitions in every aftive Syllogifm: for no Truth, nor excel- 
lence of Obfervations, or Axioms, whence the mafr political Propofilions 
are formed, can give a firm Conclufion, if there be an Error in the minor 
Propoftion. And that fuch a kind of Knowledge is procurable, Solomon af- 
fures us-, who fays, that " Counfel in the Heart of Man is like a deep Water-, 
but a wife Man will draw it out :" for altho' the Knowledge itfelf does not 
fall under Precept, becaufe it regards Individuals -, yet Inftrudions may be 
given, of ufe for fetching it out. 

6, Men may be known fix different ways -, viz. (i.) by their Countenance, six Ttap of 
(2.) ihe'ir I Fords, (3.) their Actions, (4.) their Tempen, (5.) their Ends, and knowing Men. 
(6.) by the Relation of others, ( i .) As to the Countenance, there is no 2:reat il '^ ^^ '^' 

matter 

* This i= more fully explained and illuRrated in the Kovum OrgxnHra, where Jhetry aiid 
Praciice are treated together, as conftitutiDg one infeparable Dochme. 



222 Self-Policy; or, Sed.XXV, 

matter in that old Proverb, Fronti nulla fides : for altho' this may be faid, 
with fome truth, of the external and general Compofure of the Countenance 
and Gcfture; yet there lie concealed certain more fubtile Motions, and 
Aftions of the Eyes, Face, Looks and Behaviour ; by v?hich the Gate, as 
it were, of the Mind, is unlocked and thrown open. Who was more clofe 
than Tiberias ? yet Tacitus, on feveral occafions, obferves a Difference be- 
twixt his Speech, and his inward Sentiments. And indeed 'tis hard to find 
fo great, and mafterly a DiiTembler ; or a Countenance, fo well broke 
and commanded, as to carry on an artful and counterfeit Difcourfe, v/ith- 
out fome way or other betraying it. 
(:.) By Words. 7- (2.) The TFordso^ Men are full of Deceit : but this is well detefted two 
ways ; viz. either when Words are fpoke on the fudden, or in pajjion. So 
Tiberius being fuddenly furprized, and hurry'd beyond himfelf, with a ding- 
ing Speecli from Jgrippina, went a ftep out of his natural Diffimulation. 
For, fays Tacitus, iTie thus drew an uncommon Expre£ion from his fccret Breaji; 
and he rebuked her as being offended, becaufe /he did not rule. Whence the Poet, 
not uniuftly calls thefe Perturbations, Tortures ; Mankind being compell'd 
by them to betray their own Secrets^. And Experience fhews, that there 
are very few fo true to their own Secrets, and of fo clofe a temper, as not 
fometimes, thro* Anger, Oftentation, Love to a Friend, Impotence of Mind, 
or fome other Affeftion, to reveal their inward Thoughts. But nothing fearches 
all the Corners of the Mind fo much, as Difftmulation frailifed agamjl Diffi- 
mulalion, according to the Spanip Proverb -, tell a Lje, and find a Truth ^ 
(3.) By Talis. 8. (3.) Even /vz^^ithemfelves, tho' the fureft Pledges of the human Mind, 
are nor altogether to be trufled ; unlefs firlt attentively view'd and confider'd, 
as to their Magnitude and Propriety. For 'tis certain, that Deceit gets it- 
fdf a credit in fmall things, that it may praftife to moie advantage in 
larger. And the Italian thinks himfelf upon the Crofs mth the Cryer, or put 
up to fale, when, without manifeft caufe, he is treated better than ufual. 
For fmall Favours lull Mankind, and difarm them both of Caution and In- 
duftry •, whence they are properly call'd by Demofihenes, the Baits of Sloth. 
Again, we may clearly fee the crafty and ambiguous nature of fome 
AAions, which pafs for Benefits, from that Trick praftifedby Mucianus up- 
on Antony : for after a pretended Reconciliation, he mofl treacheroufly ad- 
vanced many of Antony's Friends to Lieutenancies, Tribunefhips, &c. and, by 
this Cunning, cjntirely difarm'd and defeated him, thus winning over Antony*s 
Friends to himfelf"^. 
(4.') Byfftmg 9- But the fureft Key for unlocking the Minds of others, turns upon 
of Tempers; fearching and fifting, either their Tempers and Natures, or their Ends and 
4tnd{s.)di(co-j)gjl^^^. and the more weak and fimple, are beft judged by their Temper ; 
■virmgofEnds.^^^^ the more prudent and clofe, by their Defigns. It was prudently and 
wittily, tho', in my judgment, not fubftantially, advifed by the Pope's Nuncio, 
as to the choice of another to fucceed him, in his refidence at a foreign Court j 

that 



-Fi»» tortus ^ ira. 



•> See the Author's EJfay upon Simulation and Diflimulation, Supplement XL 
c See Tacit Hs Hificr. Lib. IV. cap. 39. 



Se£l.XXV. //5i?DocTRiNE ^ Rising IN Life. 223 

that they fhould by no means fend one remarkably, but rather tolerably 
wile ; becaufe a Man wifer than ordinary, could never imagine what the 
People of that Nation wc^re likely to do. 'Tis, doubtlefs, a common Error, 
particularly in prudent Men, to meafure others by the Model of their own 
Capacity. Whence chey frequently over-flioot the Mark ; by fuppofing that 
Men projeft and form greater things to themfelves, and praftife more fubtil ^ 

Arts, than ever enter'd their Minds. This is elegantly intimated by the 
Italian Proverb: There h alwaxi lej's Mon), lefslFifdom, and lefi Honejly, than 
People imagine. And therefore, in Men of fmall Capacities, who commie 
many Abfurdities -, a Conjedlure muft rather be form'd from the Propenfity 
of their Nature, than from their Ends in view. Whence Princes alio, tho* 
for a quite different reafon, are beft judged by their Tempers ; as private 
Perfons are by their Ends. For Princes, who are at the top of human De- 
fires, have feldom any Ends to afpire after, with Ardor and Perfeverance ; by 
the Situation and Diftance whereof, a Diredion and Meafure might be taken 
of their other Aiftions. And this, among others, is a principal reafon v/hy 
their Hearts., as the Scripture declares, are iinfearchable. But every private 
Man is like a Traveller, who proceeds intently to the End of his Journey,, 
where he fees up. Hence one may tolerably conjedlure what a private Man 
will, or will not do •, for if a thing be conducive to his Ends, 'tis probable 
he will do it ; and vice verfa. And this Information, from the diverfiry of 
the Ends and Natures of Men, may be taken comparatively, as well as 
fimply ; fo as to difcover what Humour or Difpofition over-rules the reft. 
Thus Tigellinus, when he found himfelf outdone by TurpiUanus, in admini- 
ftrbg and fuggefting to Nerd's Pleafures, fearch'd, as Tacitus liiys, into the 
Fears of Nero ; and by this means got rid of his Rival '. 

10. As for that fecond-hand Knowledge of Mens Minds, which is had (<>■) b> f/^e R?- 
from the relation of others ; it will be fufficient to obferve of it, that De- ^'Jl'^^" "f "' 
feels and Vices are beft learnt from Enemies ; Virtues and Abilities, from 

Friends ; Manners and Times, from Servants ; and Opinions and Thoughts, 
from intimate Acquaintance : for popular Fame is light ; and the Judgment 
of Superiors uncertain ; before whom Men walk more masked, and fecret. 
The trueft Charafler comes from Domejiicks. 

11. But the fhorteft way to this whole Enquiry, refts upon three Parti- ■^/«"""'"'T 
culars ; viz. (i.) in procuring numerous Friendfhips, with fuch as have ^n ^^//'f '*"/; 
extenfive and general Knowledge, both of Men and Things ; or, at leaft, in „^j„^ i^a/f;^ 
fecuring a Set of particular Friends, who, according to the diverfity of Oc- 
cafions, may be always ready to give a folid Information upon any point 

that ftiall turn up. (2.) In obferving a prudent Mean, and Moderation, be- 
tween the freedom of Difcourfe and Silence ; ufing Frankn^fs of Speech moft ' 
frequently: but when rhe thing requires it, Taciturnity. For opennefs of 
Speech invites and excites others to ufe the fame towards ourfelves ; which 
brings many things to our knowledge : whilft Taciturnity procures Truft, 
and nukes M:n willing to depofite their Secrets with us, as in their own 
Bofom. (3.) In gradually acquiring fuch a Habi; of Watchfubefs and In- 

teninels 

• See Taciiut Aan»\. Lib. XVI. Cap. 18, 19, 



224 



S E L F-Po L I C 



ory 



Sed.XXV. 



The Knovi- 
ledge to be 
procured of 
eurfelves by 
Self-Exami- 
nutlm. 



tentnels in all Dlfcourfe and Aftion, as at once to promote the bufinefs in 
hand ; yet take notice of incidental matters. For, as EpiSfetus would have 
a Piiilofopher lay to himfelf, in every Adion, " [will do this, yet keep to my 
♦' Rule:" fo a Politician (hould refolve with himfelf in every Bufinefs, 
" / will drive this Point ; and yt learn fomewhat of future life." And there- 
fore fuch Tempers as are wholly intent upon a prefent Bufinefs, without at 
all regarding what may intervene, which Montaign acknowledges was his 
own Defed, make excellent Minifters of State ; but fail in advancing their 
private Fortunes. A principal Caution muft alfo be had, toreftrain the Im- 
petuoficy, and too great Alacrity of the Mind ; left much Knowledge fhould 
drive us on to meddle in many M itters : for nothing is more unfortunate 
and raili, than fuch a Procedure. Therefore, the variety of Knowledge, to 
be here procured of Men and Things, comes but to this ; that we make a 
judicious Choice both of the Matters we undertake, and of the Perfons 
whofe AlTiftance we ufe ; that we may thence know how to manage and dif- 
pofeall things with the greater Dexterity and Safety. 

III. 12. Next to the Knowledge of others, comes the Knowledge of our- 
felves .- and it requires no lefs diligence, but rather more, to get a true and 
exaft Information of ourfelves, than of others. For that Oracle, Know 
thvfelf, is not only a Rule of general Prudence •, but has alfo a principal 
place in Politicks. And St. James excellently obfcrves of Mankind, that " he 
" who views his Face in a Glafs, inflantly forgets bis Features." Whence we 
had need be often looking. And this alfo holds in Politicks. But there is a 
difference in Glafles: The divine one, wherein we are to behold ourfelves, is 
the IVord of God ; but the political Glafs is no other, than the Slate of Things 
and Times wherein we live. A Man, therefore, muft make a thorough Ex- 
amination, not partially like a Self- Lover, into his own Faculties, Powers, 
and Abilities •, and again, into his Defeds, Inabilities, and Obftacles : fum- 
ming up the account, fo as to make the latter conftantly appear greater, and 
the former rather lefs than they are. And upon fuch an Examination, the 
following Particulars may come to be confider'd. 
. PT/tjs/^cr ^3- Let the firjt Particular be, how far a Man's Manners and Temper 
the Temper fuit with the Times : for if they agree in all refpefts, he may ad more freely, 
and at large, and follow the bent of his Genius \ but if there be any Con- 
trariety, then he muft walk more cautiouQy and covertly in the whole Scene 
of his Life ; and appear lefs in publick : as Tiberius did j who, being con- 
fcious that his Temper fuited not with the Age, never frequented the pub- 
lick Shews •, and for the Lift twelve Years of his Life, came not to the Se- 
nate. Whereas, Angufius lived continually in open fight. 
(1.) met her 14. Let iht facnd Coiifideraiion be, how a Man can relifb the Profefjions , 
the reptitaile or Kinds of Life in ufe, and repute ; out of which he is to make a choice : 
kinds of Life j^^ ^^^^ j^ j^j^'' Profeilion be not already enter'd upon, he may take that 
are ''^''"*^'^- ^j^i^-j^ js „-,ofl; fuitable to his Genius: But if he be already got into a kind 
of Life, for which he ii unfit ; that he may, upon the firft opportunity, quit 
it, and take to another. As Valentine Borgia did ; who being educated by 

his 



fuits the 
Times. 



Sedl.XXV. /-6^ Doctrine (s/'RisiNG in Life. 225 

his Father for the Priefthood, afterwards renounced it, follow'd his own In- 
clination, and appear'd in a military Charadter. 

15. Let i. thud Conftderat'lon be, how a Man flands, compared ivUh his{i.)^'l>ciher 
Equals and Rivals^ who may alfo probably be his Competitors in his For- '^Z*"' ^' "* 
tune-, and let him hole} that Courfe of Life, in which there is the greateft^'^"'" 
want of eminent Men, and wherein 'tis moft likely that himfelf may rife 

the highcft : as Cefar did ; who was firft an Orator, a Pleader, and fcarce 
any thing more than a Gown-man : but when he found that Cicero., Hor- 
tenfius, and Calulv.s bore away the Prize of Eloquence ; and that none had 
greatly fignaliz'd themfelves in War, except Pompe'j, he quieted the Gown ; 
and taking a long farewell of Civil Power, went over to the Arts of the 
General and the Emperor ; whereby he role to the top Pinnacle of So- 
vereignty. 

16. Let the fourth Conftderation be, to regard one's own Nature and Tem-(^^.) Toregnrd 
per, in the choice of Friends and Dependants. For different Men require dti^-onesovinTem' 
ferent kinds of Friends: fome, thofe that ar^; grave and fecret: others, fuch^f^^.'" '^* 

as are bold and oftentatious, i^c. 'Tis worth obferving, of what kind ^^^'j°li^Jf 
Friends of Julius Ce^far were ; viz. Antony, Hirtius, Batbus, Dolobella, Pol- 
lio. Sec. who ufually fwore to die, that he might live* ; thereby expreffing an 
infinite AtFi.clion for Cafar, but an Arrogance and Contempt towards every 
body elfe. And they were all Men diligent in Bufinefs 5 but of no great 
Fame and Reputation. 

17. Let a fifth Conftderation be, to beware of Examples, and not fondly {<;.) Not tt. 
fquare one's felf to the Imitation of others ; as if what was atchieved by them,/"''""' E^""»- 
muft needs be atchieved by us •, without confidering the difference there may ? f'*"]'- 
be between our own Difpofition and Manners, compared with theirs we 
propofe to imitate. Pompey manifeftly fell into this Error ; who, as Cicero 

writes of him, had thefe Words often in his Mouth ; Sy'la could do this ; why 
Jhd- nt I? In which particular, he greatly impos'd upon himfelf: For 
Sylld's Temper and Method of ading, differ'd infinitely from his ; the one's 
being fierce, violent, and prefTing to the end ; the other's compos'd, mindful 
of the Laws, and direfting all to Majefty, and Reputation : whence he was 
greatly curb'd, and reftrain'd, in executing his Defigns. And thefe Confide- 
rations may ferve as a Specimen of the reft. 

18. But 'tis not enough for a Man to know himfelf; he muft alfo confiderr^^' * a^^b 
how he may moft commodioufly and prudently, {\.) fhew, (2.) exprcf,'"''fi'^'"'^. 
(3.) wind and fajfjionh'imMf . (i.) As for/j^ty -, we fee nothing more fre-y-f//'»» <„;. 
quent in Life, than for the lefs capable Man to make the greater Bgure. vantage. 
*Tis therefore no fmall excellence of Prudence, by means of a certain Art, 

and Grace, to reprefent one's beft fide to others ; by fetting out our own 
Virtues, Merits, and Fortune, to advantage-, which may be done, without 
Arrogance, or rendring one's felf difigreeable : And, on the other fide, ar- 
tificially concealing our Vices, Defedls, Misfortunes, and Difgraces ; dwel- 
ling upon the former, and turning them, as it were, to the light ; but pal- 

• Itg viijente Cijart rsori»r. 

Vo L. I. G g Hating 



226 S E L F-P o L I c V ; or, Sea.XXV. 

Hating the latter •, or effacing them by a well-adapted Conftrudion, or Inter- 
pretation, ^c. Hence Tacitus fays of Mucianus, the mod prudent Man of 
his Time •, and the moft indefatigable in Bufinefs; that *' he had an Art of 
'■'■ jhewlng the fair fide of whatever he f poke or aBcd^.^'' And certainly ic 
requires feme Art, to prevent this Condu6l from becoming fulfoine, and 
defpicable: yet Oltentation, tho' to the firft degree of Vanity, is a Fault in 
Ethicks, rather than in Politicks. For as 'tis ufually fiid of Calumny, that 
if laid on boldly, fome of it will ftick : fo it may be faid of Oltentation» 
unlefs perfeflly monftrous and ridiculous •, '■'■paint vourfefjlrongly, and fome 
" of it will lajt." Doubtlefs it will dwell with the Croud, tho' the wifer fore 
fmile at it ; fo that the Reputation procured with the numbsr, will aburi- 
dantly reward the Contempt of a few. But if this Oftentation be managed 
with Decency, and Difcretion, it may greatly contribute to raife a Man's 
Reputation -, as particularly, if it carry the appearance of native Candour 
and Ingenuity ; or be ufed in times furrounded with Dangers, as among the 
military Men in time of war, i^c. Or again, if our own Praifes are let 
fall, at it were by accident -, and be not too ferioufly or largely infifted on ; 
or if any one, in praifing himfelf, at the fame time mixes it with Cenfure and 
Ridicule-, or la ft ly, if he does it not fpontaneoudy, but is provoked to it by 
the Infolence and Reproach of others. And there are many who, being by 
Nature folid, and confequently wanting in this Art of fpreading Canvas to 
their own honour, find themfelves punifhed for their Modefty, with fome di- 
minution of their Dignity. 
:&iep tip-the 19. But, however Perfons of weak Judgment, or too rigid Morals, may 
'Efteem 0/ Kir- difaljow this OJlentation of Virtue ; no one will deny, that we fhould endea- 
'***' vour to keep Virtue frotn being undervalued thro' our negle£f ; and lels efteem'd 

than it deferves. This Diminution, in the Efteem of Virtue, happens three 
ways; viz. (i.) when a Pcrfon prefents, and thrufts himfelf, and his Service 
into a Bufinefs unasked : for fuch Services ar<; thought fufficiently rewarded 
by accepting them. (2.) When a Man, at the beginning of a Bufinefs, over- 
exerts himfelf, and performs that all at once, which fliould have been done 
gradually : tho' this, indeed, gains early Commendation, where Affiiirs fuc- 
ceed ; but in the end it produces Satiety. (3.) When a Man is too quick;> 
and light, in receiving the Fruit of his Virtue, in Praife, Applaule, and Fa- 
vour ; and pleafes himfelf therewith : againft which, there is this prudent 
Admonition; '■'■ beware left thou feem unaccufioni'd to great things, iffuchfmali 
" ones delight thee.^' 
jind conceal 20. A diligent Concealment of Defers, is no lefs important, than a pru- 
kis own De- dent and artful Manifcftation of Virtues. Defers arc principally conceal'd 
^'' and cover'd under three Cloaks, viz. (i.) Caution, (2.) Pretext., and 

(3.) Affurance. (i.) We call that Caution., when a Man prudently keeps 
from meddling in Matters, to which he is unequal ; whilft, on the other 
hand, daring and reftlefs Spirits are injudicioufly bufying themfelves in things 
they are not acquainted with; and thereby publilh and proclaim their own 
Defefts. (2.)"Weca}lthatPrf^<>A'/, when a Man, with Sagacity, and Prudence, 

paves 
*<See Tteit.HiJier. Lib. il. Cap. 80. 



Sed.XXV. /i^^ Doctrine (j/" Rising IN Life. 227 

paves and prepares himfelf a way, for fecuring a favourable and commodious 
Interpretation of his Vices and Defers ; as proceeding from different Prin- 
ciples, or having a different Tendency, than is generally thought. For as 
to the Concedment of Vices ; the Poet faid well, that Vice often skulks in the 
Verge of Virtue*. Therefore, when we find any Defeof in ourfclves, we 
mull endeavour to borrow the Figure and Pretext of the neighbouring Vir- 
tue for a Shelter: thus the Pretext of Dulnefs is Gravity, that of Indolence^ 
Confideratenefs, ^f. And 'tis of fervice to give out fome probable Reafon 
for not exerting our utmoft Strength; and fo make a Neceffity appear a 
Virtue. (3.) Ajfwance., indeed, is a daring, but a very certain and effedtual 
Remedy ; whereby a Man profeffes himfelf abfolutely to flight, and defpife 
thofe things he could not obtain ; like crafty Merchants, who ufually raife the 
Price of their own Commodities, and fink the Price of other Mens. The' 
there is another kind of AJfiirance., more impudent than this, by which a 
Man brazens out his own DsfeHsy and forces them upon others for Excel- 
lencies ; and the better to fecure this end, he will feign a diftruft of him- 
felf, in thofe things wherein he really excels: like Poets, who, if you ex- 
cept to any particular Verfe in their Compofition, will prefently tell you, 
that fmgle Line co'fl them more pains than all the rejl ; and then produce you 
another, as fufpefted by themfelves, for your Opinion ; whilft, of all the num- 
ber, they know it to be the befl:, and leaft liable to Exception. But above all, 
nothing conduces more to the well-reprefenting a Man's felf, and fecuring his 
own Right, than not to difarm one's felf by too much Sweetnefsy and Giod- 
tiature ; which expofes a Man to Injuries, and Reproaches -, but rather, in all 
cafes, at times, to dart out fome Sparks of a free and generous Mind, that 
have no lefs of the Sting than the Honey. This guarded Behaviour, at- 
tended with a ready Difpofition to vindicate themfelves, fome Men have 
from Accident and Neceflity, by means of fomewhat inherent in their Per- 
fon or Fortune ; as we find in the Deformed, Illegitimate, and Difgraced ; 
who, if they do not want Virtue, generally prove fortunate. 

21. (2.) The exp-effing, or declaring of a Man'' s felf., is a very different /7« »,«yf 
thing from the Jhe^ujing himfelf; as not relating to Virtue, but to the particu- exprefs him' 
lar Adtions of Life. And here nothing is more politick, than to obferve a fif- 
prudent or found Moderation, or Medium, in difclofing or concealing one's 
Mind, as to particular Ad:ions. For tho' profound Silence, the hiding of 
Counfels, and managing all things by blind and deaf Artifice, is an ufeful 
and extraordinary thing; yet, it often happens, that Diffimulation produces 
Errors, which prove Snares. And we fee, that the Men of greateft repute 
for Politicks, fcruple not openly, and generoufly, to declare their Ends, 
without Diffimulation : thus Sy!:a openly declared, he wifh'd all Mortak 
ha'p\, or unhappy, as they were his Friends, or Enemies. So Cafar, upon his 
firft Expedition into Gaul, profefs'd he had rather he the firfi Man in an ch- 
fcure village, than the fecond at Rome. And when the War was begun, he 
proved no Diffembler ; if Cicero fays truly of him, that he did not refufe ; 
hit, in a manner, required to he called Tyant, as he zi;as. So we find, in an 

Gg 2 Epiftle 

* Sift latet ■u'ltium proximuate Spui. 



228 Self-Policy; or, Sedl. XXV. 

Epiftle of Cicero to Attkiis, how little of a DifTembler Angujlus was -, who, 
athis fiift entrance upon Affairs, wiiilft he- rcmain'd the Delight of the Senate, 
ufed to fwear in this form, when he harangued the People ; ita Parentis 
Honores confeqiii Uceat : which was no lels than Tyranny itfelf. 'Tis 
true, to falve the matter a little, he would at thofe times ftretch !iis Hand 
towards the Statue of Julius Ccefar, eredted in the place; whilft the Au- 
dience fmiled, applauded, admired, and cried out among themfejves, What 
does the Toulh mean ? &c. but never fufpeded him of any ill Dcfign, who 
thus candidly and ingenuoufly fpoke his m.ind. And yet all thefe we have 
named, were profperous Men. Pompey, on the other hand, who endeavour'd 
at the fame Ends, by more dark and concealed Methods, wholly bent him- 
felf, by numberlefs Stratagems, to cover his Dcfires and Ambition -, wlilft 
he brought the State to Confufion -, that it might then of neceffity fubmit 
to him, and he thus procure the Sovereignty, to appearance againft his 
•will. And when he thought he had gain'd his Point, as being made file 
Conful, which no one ever was before him, he found himfelf never the 
nearer •, becaufe thofe who would, doubtlefs, have affifted him, underftood 
not his Intentions: fo that at length he was obliged to go in the beaten 
Path; and under pretence of oppofing Cafar, procured himfelf Arms, and 
an Army : fo flow, cafual, and generally unfuccefsful, are the Counfels cover'd 
with Diflimulation ! And Tacitus feems to have had the fame Sentiment, 
when he makes the Artifice of Dijftmulalion an inferior Prudence, compared 
with Policy ; attributing the former to 'Tiberius, and the latter to Augujlus : 
for fpeaking of Livia, he fays, fie lias well iefnper'd -with the Aits of her 
Husband, and the DiffimuUtion of her Son. 
He muft bend 22. (3.) As for the bending and forming of the Mind, we fhould, doubtlefs, 
mjform his ^q q^^ utmoft to render it pliable, and by no means ftiff and refracftory, 
^ to Occafions and Opportunities ; for to continue the fame Men, whtn we ought 

not, is the greateft Obftacle Buftnefi can meet with : that is, if Men remain as 
they did, and follow their own Nature after the Opportunities are changed. 
Whence Livy, introducing the elder Cato as a moft skilful Architeft of his 
own Fortune, adds, that he was of a pliant Tetnp'^r : and hence it is, that 
grave, folemn, and unchangeable Natures generally meet with more Re- 
fpeft than Felicity. This Dcfcft fome M^n have implanted in them by 
Nature, as being in themfelves ftiff, knotty, and unfit for bending ; but in 
others, 'tis acquii'd by Cuftom, which is a fecond Nature •, or from an Opi- 
nion, which eafily fteals into Mens Minds -, that they fhould never change 
the method of afting, they had once found good and profperous. Thus 
Machiavel prudently obferves of Fabius Maximus, that be would obfiinately 
retain his eld inveterate Cuftom of delaying and protrafling the War ; when now 
the nature of it was changed, and required brisker Meafures. In others again, 
the f une Defeft proceeds from want of Judgment -, when Men do not 
feaioniibly diftinguifh the Periods of Things and Adtions ; but alter too late, 
after the Opportunity is flipt. And fomething of this kind Bemofthenes re- 
prehended in the Athenians, when he faid, they were like Ruftics in a Fencing- 
Schooly who always, after a Blow, guard the part that was hit, and not be- 

fori 



Sccl. XXV. /Zv Doctrine (j/'Ris IN G in Life. 229 

fore. And laft'y, this £)/fi5 happens in others, becaufe they are unwilling 
that the l.ibour they have taken in the way once entered, fnould be loft ; and 
know not how to found a Retreat : but rather truft they fhall conquer Oc- 
cafions by Perfeverance. But this ftickage and reftivenefs of tlic Mind, 
from whatever Root it proceeds, is higlily prejudicial to Bufinefs, and 
Mens private Fortunes: on the contrary, nothing is more politick, than to 
make the Wheels of the Mind conccntrick with the Wheels of Fortune -, and 
capable of turning together with them. And thus much of the two _/;</«- 
mar'j or colleSlive Precejts, for advancing one's Fortune. 

V^'. 25. The fcjUer'd Precepts for rifing in Life, arc numerous: Vft inflames of 
fliall fingle out a few by way of Example. The firft is, that the 5af/- '"'/'"''«««'«i 
der cf his Fortune properly ufe and apply his Rule; that is, accuftom his^.?"^^^-'^"!^ _ 
Mind to meafure and ellimate the Price and Value of Things, as they con- vj^,. ,„ fp,j. ' 
duce more or lefs to his particular Fortune and Ends : and this with diligence, mate thingi 
not by halves. 'Tis furprizing, yet very true, that many have the Logi-j'^fi^h 
cal Part of their Mind fet right, and the Mathematical wrong ; and judge 
truly of the Confequences of things, but very unskilfully of their Value. 
Hence fome Men are fond of Accefs to, and Familiarity with Princes ; 
others, of popular Fame ; and fancy thefe to be great Enjoyments: whereas 
both of them are frequently full of Envy and Dangers. Others, again, 
meafure things according to their difficulty, and the labour beftowed ia 
procuring them -, imagining themfelves muft needs have advanced as far as 
they have moved. So Cafar, to defcribe how diligent and indefatigable the 
younger Cato was to little purpofe, faid in the way of Iron), that he did 
all things with great labour. And hence it happens, that Men frequently 
deceive themfelves •, when having the affiftance of fome great or honourable 
Perfonage, they promife themldves all manner of Succefs : whilft the truth 
is, they are not the great eft, but the fit eft Injlruments that per for 7n Bufinefs beft 
and quickefl. For improving the true Mathematicki of the Mind, it fhould be 
principally noted, what ought to come firft, what fecond, &c. in the raifing 
and promoting a Man's Fortune. And, in the firft place, we fet down the j-,, ^^^„^1 (^g 
Emendation of the Mind : for by removing the Obftacles, and levelling theuind. 
Inequalities of the Mind, a way may be fooner open'd to Fortune •, than 
the Impediments of the Mind be removed, with the affiftance ot Fortune. 
And, in the fecond place, we fet down Riches ; whereto moft, perhaps, To promr* 
would have affign'd the firft, as their ufe is fo cxtenfive. But we condemn ^"''^* 
this Opinion, for a reafon like that of Machiavel, in a fimilar cafe: for tho' 
it was an eftabliffi'd Notion, that Money is the Sinews of War, he faid, more 
juftly, that War had no Sinews, but thofe of good Soldiers. In the fame man- 
ner, it may be truly affirm'd, that the Sinews of Fortune are not Money, but 
rather the Powers of the Mind ; Addrefs, Courage, Refolution, Intrepidity, 
Perfeverance, Moderation, Induftry, iSc. In the third place, come Fame and ^amt. 
Reputation ; and this the rather, becaufe they have certain Tides and Seafons, 
wherein, if they be not opportunely ufed, 'twill be difficult to recover 
them again. For 'tis a hopelefs Attempt, to recover a loft Reputation. In 
the laft placCj we fet down Honours, which are eafier acquir'd by any oi Honour:^ 

the 



230 



E L 



F-Po 



L I C Y 



or. 



Sea. XXV. 



the former three, much more by a Conjunftion of them all, than any one 
of them can be procured by Honours. Bur, as much depends upon obferv- 
ing the Order of Things ; fo likewife, in obferving the Order of Time ; in 
difturbing of which. Men frequently err, and haften to the End, when they 
fhould only have confulted the Beginning : and fuddenly flying at the greatell 
things of all, rafhly skip over thofe in the middle -, thus negledingthe ufeful 
Precept, Attend to what is immediately before you. 
Kot ioeneoun- 24. Onr fee Olid Precept is, to beware of being carried by Greatnefs, and Pre- 
tsr great Dif- fumption of Mind, to things too difficult; and thus of Jlriving againft the Jiream. 
ficidties. «Yis a prudent Advice, in the raifing of one's Fortune, to yield to Necef- 
fity*. Let us look all round us, and obferve where things lie open ; where 
they are inclofed, and blocked up ; where they ftoop, and where they 
mount •, and not mifemploy our Strength, where the way is impaflable. 
In doing this, we fhall prevent Repulie •, not ftick too long in Particulars v 
win a Reputation of being moderate •, give little offence ; and laftly, gain 
an opinion of Felicity : whilft the things that would probably have happen'd 
of themfelves, will be attributed to our own Induflry. 
TomaUOf- 25. A third Precept, which feems fomewhat to crofs the foi'mer, tho' not 
fortmittes. ^]^^^ ^q\\ underftood, is, that we do }iot always wait for Opportunities ; but 
fometimes excite and lead them. This, Demojlhenes intimates in a high Strain, 
when he fays, " that as *tis a Maxim for the General to lead his Army; fo a 
" wife Man ffjould lead things; make them execute his Will; and not himfelf 
" be obliged to follow Events." And if we attend, we fhall find two dif- 
ferent kinds of Men, held equal to the management of Affairs : for fome 
know how to make an advantageous ufeof Oportunities, yet contrive or pro- 
ject nothing of themfelves •, whilft others are wholly intent upon forming 
Schemes, and negleft the laying hold of Opportunities, as they offer : 
but either of thefe Faculties is quite lame, without the other. 
To engage in 26. 'Tis a fourth Precept to undertake nothing that necejfarily requires much 
no long Pur- time ; but conftantly to remember, Tune is ever on the IVing^. And the only 
f**"'- reafon why thofe who addift themfelves to toilfome Profeilions, and Em- 

ploys, 3.% Lawyers, Authors, &c. are lefs verfed in making their Fortune, is 
the want of time from their other Studies, to gain a knowledge of Particu- 
lars •, wait for Opportunities i and projeft their own Rifing. We fee in the 
Courts of Princes, the moft effeftual Men in making their own Fortunes, and 
invading the Fortunes of others, are fuch as have no publick Employ ; but are 
continually plotting their own Rife and Advantage. 
To aS nothing 27. A fifth Precept is, that we^ in fome meafure, imitate Nature, which does 
in vain. nothing in vain : and this is not very difficult, if we skilfully mix and inter- 
lace our Affi\irs of all kinds. For, in every Adion, the Mind is to be fo 
inftrufted and prepared ; and our Intentions to be fo dependant upon, and 
fubordinate to each other ; that if we cannot gain the higheft Step, we may 
contcr.re'ly take up with the fecond, or even the third. But if we can hx 
on no part of our Profped: ; then we fliould direft the pains we have been at to 
fome other End : fo, as if v/e receive no benefit for the prefent, yet at leaft, to 

' Tatis accede, Deifc^ue. o' 

y Sedfugit interea, fugit irreparaiile tempus. 



Sed.XXV. /.-^j Doctrine (?/* Rising in Life. 231 

gain ibmewhat of tiiture advantage. But if we can ohMin no folid Good 
from our Endeavours, neither in prefent nor in hiture, L:C us endeavour, ac 
leaft, to gain a Reputation by it, or fome one thing or other : always com- 
puting w'.th ourfelves, that, from every A6lion, we receive fome advantage 
moreorlefsi and by no means fuffering the IVIind to defpond, orbeafto- 
niTa'd, when we fliil of our principal End. For there is nothing more con- 
trary to political Prudence, than to be wholly intent upon any fingle thing : 
as he who is fo, muft lofe numberlefs Opportunities, which come fide-ways 
in Bufinefs ; and which, perhaps, would be more favourable and conducive 
to the things that Ihall turn up hereafter; than to thofe that were before 
purfued. Let Men, thsrefore, well underftand the Rule •, " thefe things Jhould 
*' be done ; but thofe JJoould not be omitted." 

28. T\\<tfixtb Precept is, that tue do not too peremptorily oblige ourfelves to^'! '**/ '"*' 
any thing ; tho' it feem, at firft fight, not liable to contingency : but-'j^^^'''/^'^^ 
always referve a Window open to fly out ; or fome fecret back-door i'or thing. 
Retreat. 

29. A feventh Precept is, that old one of Bias, provided it be ufed not t^of to 6etc^ 
treacheroufly, but only by way of Caution and Moderation. " Love as iffl'''"'sb '"^- 
" you tvere once to Hate; and Hate as if you were once to hove." For it Cur-r^^j * " *''" 
prizingly betrays and corrupts all forts of Utility, to plunge one's felf too 

far in unhappy FricndHiips, vexatious and turbulent Quarrels, or childifli 
and empty Emulations. And fo much, by way of Example, upon the 
Do^rine, or Art, of Rifing in Life. 

30. We are well aware, that good Fortune may be had upon eafier Con-CWFur/w»» 
ditions than are here laid down : for it falls almoft fpontaneoufly upon-'^"'""""^! 
fome Men ; whilft others procure it only by diligence and AfTiduity, with- ""' 

out much Art, tho* ftill with fome Caution. But as Cicero, when he draws 
the perfect Orator, docs not mean that every Pleader either could or fhould be 
like him ; and as in defcribing the Prince, or the Politician, which fome have 
undertaken, the Model is form'd to the perfed Rules of Art -, and not ac- 
cording to common Life : the fime Method is obferved by us, in this Sketch 
of the Self-Politician. 

31. It muft be obfen'ed, that the Precepts we have laid down upon x\\is The preceding 
Subjeft, are all of them lawful; and not fuch immoral Artifices, as Ma-^J"^^'' ^"^ 
chiavel fpeaks of; who diredts Men to have little regard for Virtue itfelf, ""'"'"''' * 
but only for the fiiew, and publick reputation of it: "• becaufe, fays he, the 

' ' Credit and Opinion of Virtue, are a Help to a Man ; hut Virtue itfelf a Hin- 
" drance." He alfo direfts his Politician to ground all his Prudence on 
this Suppofition, that Men cannot be truly and fafcly worked to his purpofe, 
but by Fear ; and therefore advifes him to endeavour, by all poffible means, 
to fubjed them to Dangers and Difficulties, Whence his Politician may 
feem to be what the Italians call a Sower of Thorns. So Cicero cites this 
Principle, " let our Friends fall, provided our Enemies perijh ;" upon which 
the Triumvirs adted, in purchafing the Death of their Enemies, by the De- 
ftruftion of their neareft Friends. So Catiline became a Difturber and In- 
cendiary of the State, that he might the better filh his Fortune in troubled 

Waters j 



232 



S E L F-Po L I C Y 



or. 



Sea. XXV. 



No Immora- 
lities to be 
fraciifed in 
mijin^ a For- 
(me. 



Tift Gsods cf 
the Mind to 
6e firfl fre- 
Kstred. 



Waters-, declaring, that if h'ls Fortune tvas fet on fire^ he would quench it, not 
laitb IVater^ but Deftru^ion. And fo Lvfander would fay, that Children were 
to be decofd with Sweet-Meats; and Men by falfe Oaths: and there are nu- 
merous other corrupt and pernicious Maxims of the fime kind ; more in- 
deed, as in all other cafes, than of fuch as are juft and found. Now if any 
Man delight in this corrupt or tainted Prudence, we deny not but he may 
take a fhort cut to Fortune -, as being thus difentangled, and fct at large 
from all reftraint of Laws, Good-nature and Virtue ; and having no regard 
but to his own Promotion : tho' 'tis in Lifi as in a Journey, where the 
Iliorteft Road is the dirtieft -, and yet the better, not much about. 

32. But if Men were themfelves, and not carry'd away with the Tem- 
pefl of Ambition, they would be fo far from ftudying thefe wicked Arts, 
as rather to view them, not only in that general Map of the World, which 
fliews all things to be Vanity and Vexation of Spirit ; but alfb in that more 
particular one, which reprefents a Life feparate from good Aftions, as 
a Curfe -, that the more eminent this Life, the greater the Curfe ; that 
the nobleft Reward of Virtue, is Virtue itfelf ; that the extremefl: Pu- 
nifliment of Vice, is Vice itfelf : and that, as Virgil excellently obferves, 
good Actions are rewarded -, as bad ones alfo are punirtied, by the Con- 
Iciounefs that attends them*. And, indeed, whilfl IVIen are projedling, and 
every way racking their Thoughts, to provide and take care for their 
Fortunes, they ought, in the midft of all, to have an eye to the Divine 
Providence ; which frequently over-turns, and brings to nojght, the Machi- 
nations and deep Devices of the Wicked : according to that of the Scrip- 
ture, he has conceived Iniquity, and Jhall bring forth Vanity. And altho' Men 
were not in this Purfuit to praftif^ Injuftice, and unlawful Arts •, yet a con- 
tinual, and reftlefs fearch and ftriving after Fortune, takes up too much of 
their time, who have nobler things to regard. Even the Heathens obferved, 
that Man was not made to keep his Mind always grovelling on the ground ; 
and, like the Serpent, eating the Daft ^ 

3^. Some, however, may flatter themfelves, that by what finifler means 
foevjr their Fortune be procured, they are determined to ufe it well when 
obtained ; whence it was faid of Augnftus Cafar, and Septimius Sivsrus, that 
" they ought never to have been born, or never to have died :" fo much Evil 
they committed in afpiring, and fo much Goo 1 thev did when feat°d. But 
let fuch Men know, that this recompenfing of Evil with Good, tho' it may 
be approved after the Aftion ; yet is juftly condemned in the Difign. 

Lafily, 

* ®«<e vobiu tfut dign», viri, pro lauJibus iftis 
Praemia po^e rear folvi? Pulcherrima frimutn 
Dii raorefijuc dubunt veftri 

This feems to be the Foundation of all Morality, Virtue, and true Volicy, and well deferves 
to be fully explained, deduced, and applied in Social, Civil, and Political Life. See the Lord 
Shaftesbury upon Virtuf, and o\XT Author upon Ethicks, Se^.XX.XXI. andinhis Ellaysp^j^w. 

!" Att^ue nffgit humo Divina: particulam Aurse. 
Ajain^ 
Os homini fublime dejit, caelnmque tiieri 
Jttffit; Q> erecios ad fider» toUere vultus. 



Sed.XXV. /yJ^DocTRiNE <9/'RisiN6 IN Life. - 233 

Lnjlh, it may not be amifs, in this eager Purfuit of Fortune, for Men 
to cool thenilclves a little with the Saying of Charles the Fifth to his Son j 
viz. " Fortune is like the Ladies, who generally /corn and difcard their over- 
*' earnefi Admirers." But this laft Remedy belongs to fuch, as have their 
Tafte vitiated by a Difeafe of the Mind. Let Mankind rather reil upon 
the Corner-ftone ot D.vlnit^ and Philofophy •, both which nearly agree in 
the thing that ought firft to be fought. For Divinity fays, Seek yc Jirft 
the Kuigdcm of God, and aU other things Jfjall he added unto you: fo Philo- 
fophy diredts us, firft to feek the Goods of the Mind; and the reft will either 
be fupplied, or not much wanted. For altho' this Foundation, laid by 
human Hand?, is fometimes placed upon the Sand; as in the cafe of Bru- 
tus, who, at his death, cried out, " O Virtue, I have reverenced thee as a 
•' Being; but alas, thcu art an empty Name! yet the fame Foundation is 
ever, by the Divine Hand, fixed upon a Rock. And here we conclude 
the DoHrine of Rif.ng in Life i and the general Doolrine of Bufinefsy to* 
gether ^. 

■ The general DoBrhie of Bujinefs has been but fparingly touched, fince the time of our Au« 
thor. The Germans, however, feem to have purfued it, in ibme tolerable degree, under 
the Title' ot Oeconomicat Prudence ; or the Art of improving a private Fortune: fo as to bring it 
under a kind of Rules. Thole who have applied themfelves to the Improvement of mecha- 
nical Arts, Agriculture, Navigation, Trade, Commerce, &c. may alio be reckoned in this num. 
ber. Somewhat of the fame kind feems to have been the original Defign of the Royal Society : 
and the Learned Morhof judges it expedient, that Profrjfors of this Art fhould be appointed in 
Univerlities. Doubtlcli, the Improvement and Introduftion of ufeful and neceflary Arts, is a 
ready and laudable way of advancing one's private Fortune; as by the difcovery of new Machines, 
toeale the Labour of the Hand; the railing of Wa'er by Fire j the fawing of Timber by Wind- 
mills; the Invention of new Methods for fliortening Works; the Cultivatingand Tranfplanting 
of foreign Vegetables ; the refining of Sugar ; the making of Wines; the fweetening of Sea- Water, 
&c. according to the Defign of the Author, in his «en» Atlantis, Sylva Sylvarum, and particular 
Hijlories. For the other Writers in this way, coaCalt Morhof s Folyhijior Oeconomicus, Tom. III. 
Lib. 3. Struvins's Bi/>liotheca Fhilofophica, Ci^.g. tie Scriploritm Oecommicii, zai Stollii Intra^ 
iuSit in tiijloriam Literariam, de Arte Oeconomica. 




Vol. I. Hh SECT. 



234- ?^^ Doctrine o/* Government. Sedl.XXVI. 



SECT. XXVI. 

T^e Doctrine «^/'Government: andfirji^ of Extend- 
ing the Bounds of^ m p i r e. 

Thi Art ef i.TXT E come now to the Art of Empire, or the Do^rhie of Gover- 
£mfii-e, V V f'if^g ^ ^i^^^ i which includes Oecomm'ich ', as a C'lly includes a 

Family But here, according to my former Refolution ^ I impofe Silence 
upon myfelf •, how well qualified foever I might feem to treat the Subjedb, 
from the conftant courfe of my Life, Studies, Employs, and the publick 
Polls I have, for a long feries of Years, fuftained ; even to the higheft in 
the Kingdom ; which, thro' his Majefty's Favour, and no Merit of my 
own, I held for four years. And this I fpeak to Pofterity, not out of often- 
tation ; but becaufe I judge it may fomewhat import the Dignity of Lear- 
ning, to have a Man, born for Letters rather than any thing elfe, who 
Ihould, by a certain Fatality, and againft the bent of his Genius, be com- 
pelled into aftive Life ; and yet be raifed, by a prudent King, to the great- 
eft Pofts of Honour, Truft, and Civil Employ '. And if I (hould hereafter 
have leifure to write upon GoverJtment ; the Work, will probably either be 
pofthumous or abortive ''. But in the mean time, having now feated all 
the Sciences, each in its proper place -, left fuch a high Chair as that of Go- 
vernment., ftiould remain abfolutely vacant ; we here obferve, that two parts 
of Ciz'il DoSrine, tho' belonging not to the Secrets of State, but of a more 
open and vulgar Nature', are deficient ; and fliall therefore, in our man- 
ner, give Siecimens for fupplying them. 

2. 

* The Art o^ Governing it Tamily. 

* See above, SeH. XXIII. i. 

* Tint the Author's bent of Genius, was to Study and Contemplation, appears from feveral 
of his Letters to private Friends. See SurpLEMENT;V. 

"* It appears by i'everal Iniimations, that the Author frequently revolved the Subjeft of Go- 
vernment inhis Mind j as if he wanted, or expcfted, to be called upon to treat it. See his Let- 
ters. And for a Specimen of his Abilities in this way, fee the Political Mythology, in his S»- 
fientiit Veterum , his Political Ejjap i the Prudent Statefm»n, iad the Difcourfe of a IVar with 
Spain. But for any diredl Syftem, or profefTed Difcourfe of Government, there was none pub- 
liftied before his Death or after j whatever he might have written, either in order tofupply the 
Deficiency of his New Atlantis, or the general Deficiency of mankind. 

* Here again is plainly intimated the reafon why the Author does not treat the Subjedl of 
Government, as he has done the reftj viz.. for fear of revealing what is not fit to be generally 
known. See above Se£i. XXHL i. And yet an attentive Reader of his feveral Political Pieces, 
as that oilVar, the Peace of the Church, the Prudent Statefman, the Political Mythology of the 
Ancients, &c. will perhaps tiad abundantly more of this kind, than after fuch an Evalion could 
well be expedcd. 



Sed.XXVI. The Doctrine of Government. 235 

2. The Art of G')vernme>:t\x\z\\At% three politica! OJpcfs ; viz. (i.) the Pre- Hi-ii.lfd xoUh 
SERVATiON i (2.) the Happin'ESj-, and {}.) the Enlargement ^" « ''f-^'"''^/'"' ' '^ 
State. The two former have, in good meafure, been excellently treated tiotJiz'^tbe 
byfome*; but there is nothing extant upon the lad : wliich we therefore H.>/';>iwy^,flK^ 
note as defcieal ; and propofe tiie following Sketch, by way of Example, for (?) ''" ■^"»- 
fupplvina; it; under the Title of the Military Statesman, or the i*'-^''"'''" "-f 

IJOCTRINE OF EXTENDING THE DOUNDS OF EMPIRE. 

THE MILITARY STATESMAN: TheM'itarv 

Sratcfm;:ii, or 
or, Docirine of en- 

A SPECIMEN OF THE DOCTRINE OF EN- iZ^L^'"' 



LARGING THE BOUNDS OF EMPIRE. 



pire, deficient. 



3. The Saying of Thjmlftodes, if applied to himfelf, was indecent and The different 
haughty, but if meant in general, contains a very prudent Obfervation, Talents of 
and as grave a Cenfure. Being asked, at a Feaft, to touch a Lute ; he an- ^o'"^''""''- 
fwered, ' ' H^ could not fiddle ; but he could raife a fmall Village to a great Ci/y." 
Which Words, if taken in a political Seiife, excellently defcribe and diftin- 
guifh two very different Faculties in thole who are at the Helm of States. 
For upon an exacft Survey, we fliall find fome, tho' but very few, that be- 
ing raifed to the Council-board, the Senate, or other publick Office, can 
enlarge a fmall State, or City; and yet have little Skill in Mufick: but 
many more, who having a good hand upon the Harp, or the Lute, that is, 
at the Trifles of a Court, are fo far from enlarging a State, that they rather 
feem defigned by Nature to overturn and ruin it ; tho' ever fo happy and 
flouridiing. And indeed thofe bafe Arts, and Tricks, by which many 
Counfellors, and Men of great place, procure the Favour of their Sove- 
reign, and a popular Charafter, deferve no other name than a certain knack 
of Ftddlvig; as being things more pleafing for the prefent, and more orna- 
mental to the Pradtitioner, than ufeful, and fuited to enlarge the Bounds, 
or increafe the Riches of the State, whereof they are Minifters. Again, 
there are, doubtlefs, Counfellors and Governours, who tho' equal to Bufi- 
nefs, and of no contemptible Abilities, may commodioufly manage Things 
fo as to preferve them from manifeft Precipices and Inconveniences ; tho' 
they by no means have the creative Power of building and extending an Em- 
pire. But whatever the Workmen be, let us regard the Work itfelf ; viz. 
what is to be deemed the true Extent of Kingdoms and Republicks ; and 
by what means this may be procured : a Subjedt well deferving to lie con- 
tinually before Princes, for their diligent Meditation ; left by over-rating 
their own Strength, they ftiould rafhly engage in too difficult and vain En- 
terprizes ; or, thinking too meanly of their Power, fubmit to timorous and 
effeminate Counfels. 

H h 2 4. 

' For ^Account of thefe Writers, fee Morhof's Polyhijlon, Tom. III. Je Trudinti* Civ'ilh 
Striporibus ; and Stollii ImroduH. in Hijl. Uternr. Cap. V. dt Vrnitntin t>litm. 



236 7^^ Doctrine <?/" Government. Sed.XXVI. 

The difference 4. The Greatnefs of an Empire, in point of Bulk and Territory, is fub- 
of States. je£|- fo Menfuration ; and for its Revenue, to Calculation. The number of 
Inhabitan;:s may be known by Valuation or Tax; and the number and extent 
of Cities and Towns, by Survey and Maps : yet in all Civil Affairs, there 
is not a thing more liable to Error, than the making a true and intrinfick 
Eftimate of the Strength and Riches of a State. The Kingdom of Hea- 
ven is compared, not to an Acorn, or any large Nut ; but to a Grain of 
Muftard-feed -, which tho' one of the leaft Grains, has in it a certain quick 
Property, and native Spirit, whereby it rifes foon, and fpreads itfelf wide : 
fo fome States of very large Compafs, are little fuited to extend their 
Limits, or procure a wider Command •■, whilft others of fmall Dimenfion, 
prove the Foundations of the greateft Monarchies. 
The Greatnefs 5- Fortified Towns, well-ftored Arfenals, noble Breeds of War-Horfe, 
•/s'Mm,/?oip armed Chariots, Elephants, Engines, all kindsof Artillery, Arms, and the 
'«^* «/'"""<■''• like, are nothing more than a Sheep in a Lion's Skin •, unlefs the Nation it 
felf be, from its Origin and Temper, ftout and warlike. Nor is number 
of Troops itfelf of any great fervice, where the Soldiers are weak and ener- 
vate : for, as Firgil well obferves, tlae Wolf cares not how large the Flock is. 
The Perjian Army in the Planes of Arhela, appeared to the Eyes of the 
Macedonians, as an immenfe Ocean of People ; infomuch that Alexander's 
Leaders being ftruck at the fight, counfell'd their General to fall upon them 
by night; but he replied, " I will 7iot fteal the Vitlory:" and 'twas found 
an eafier Conqueft than he expedled. Tigranes, encamped upon a Hill, 
with an Army of four hundred thoufand Men, feeing the Roman Army, 
confifting but of fourteen thoufand, making up to him ; he jefted at it, and 
faid, " Thofe Men are loo man\for an Emb.'^JJ'\:,but much too few for a Battle:'* 
yet before Sun-fct he found them enow to give him chafe, with infinite 
Slaughter. And we have abundant Examples of the great inequality betwixt 
Number and Strength. This therefore may he frji fet down, as a fure and 
certain Maxim, and the capital of all the reft, with regard to the greatnefs 
of a State, that the People be of a Military Race ; or both by Origin and 
Difpofition warlike. The Sinews of War are not Money, if the Sinews of 
Men's Arms be wanting ; as they are in a foft and effeminate Nation. 
'Twas a juft Anfwer of Solon to Crt^fus, who Ihewed him all his Treaiure : 
" Tes, Sir, but if another fhould come with belter Iron than ■jou, he would be 
*' Majler of all this Gold." And therefore, all Princes whofe native Sub- 
jects are not hardy and military, fliould make avery modeft eftimate of their 
Power ; as, on the other hand, thofe who rule a ftout and martial People, 
may well enough know their own Strength ; if they be not otherwife want- 
ing to themfelves. As to hired Forces, which is the ufual Remedy when 
native Forces are wanting, there are numerous Examples, which clearly fhew, 
that whatever State depends upon them, tho' it may perhaps for a time ex- 
tend its Feathers beyond its Neft, yet they will mew foon after. 
A People op- 6. The Bleffing of Judah and IJfachar can never meet; fo that the fame 
frefs'd vith Tribe,or Nation, fliould be both the Lion'sWhelp, and the Jfs under the Burden: 
ffr'^i^de "°'' ^^" * People, overburd ened with T axes, ever be ftrong a nd war like. 'Tis 



r 



Sc(n:.XXVI. 7!^^ Doctrine ^Government. 237 

true, that Taxes levied by publick Confenr, lefs difpirit, and fink the Minds 
of the Subjed, than thole impofed in abfolute Governments ; as clearly ap- 
pears by what is called Excife in the Netherlands -, and in fome meafure, by 
the Contributions called the Subftdies in England. We are now fpeaking of 
the Miiuh ; and not of the Wealth of the People : for Tributes by confent, tho' 
the fame thing wich Tributes mpofed, as to exhaufling the Riches of a King- 
dom ; yet very differently affeft the Minds of the Subjeft. So that this 
alfo muft be a Maxim of State ; that a People opprejffed with Taxes is unfit to 
rule. 

7. States and Kingdoms that afpire to Greatnefs, mufl be very careful That the K»- 
that their Nobles and Gentry increafenot too much ; otherwife the com- *'^^ be few. 
mon People will be difpirited, reduced to an abjeft State •, and become^^jg> 
little better than Slaves to the Nobility : As we fee in Coppices, if the Stad- 

dles are left too numerous, there will never be clean Under- wood ; but the 
greatefl: part degenerates into Shrubs and Bullies. So in Nations, where the 
Nobility is too numerous, the Commonalty will be bafe and cowardly •, and 
at length, not one Head in a hundred among them prove fit for a Helmet i 
efpecially with regard to the Infantry, which is generally the prime Strength 
of an Army. Whence, tho' a Nation be full peopled, its Force may be 
fmall. We need no clearer Proof of this, than by comparing £;7^/rtW and 
France. For tho' England be far inferior in extent, and number of Inhabi- 
tants; yet it has almoft conftantly got the better o? France in War : for 
this reafon, that the Rufbicks, and lower fort of People in Eiigland, make 
better Soldiers than the Peafants o^ France. And in this refpedt 'twas a ve- 
ry political and deep forefight of Henry the Seventh of England, to confti- 
tute lefler fettled Farms, and Houfes of Husbandry, with a certain fixed and 
infeparable Proportion of Land annexed ; fufiicient for a Life of Plenty : fo 
that the Proprietors themfelves, or at lead the Renters, and not Hirelings, 
might occupy them. For thus a Nation may acquire that Charafter which 
Virgil ^iwe.% of ancient Italy, " a Country ftrong in Arms, and rich cf Soil^, We 
mufb not here pafs over a fort of People, almoft peculiar to England, viz. 
the Servants of our Nobles and Gentry ; as the loweft of this kind are no 
way inferior to the Yeomanry for Foot-fervice. And 'tis certain that the hof- 
pitable Magnificence and Splendor, the Attendance and large Train, in ufe 
among the Nobility and Gentry of England, add much to our Military 
Strength; as, on the other fide, a clofe, retired Life among the Nobility, 
caufes a want of Forces. 

8. It muft be earneftly endeavoured, that the Tree of Monarchy, like the That the n«- 
Tree of Nebuchadnezzar, have its Trunk fufficiently large and ftrong, to "^" ^* "? 
fupport its Branches and Leaves •, or that the Natives be enow to keep tbefo- 'for'^tZvo- 
reign Subjects under : whence thofe States beft confult their Greatnefs, which reignm, 
are liberal of Naturalization. For it were vain to think a handful of Men, 

how excellent foever in Spirit, and Counfel, fliould hold large and fpacious 
Countries under the yoke of Empire. This indeed might perhaps be done 
for a feafon j but it cannot be lafting. The Spartans were referved and dif- 
ficult 
• Ttrra puns Arm'ti, atque ubere Clti». 



<^T^S 7^^ Doctrine ^/ Government. Sed.XXVL 

ficult in receiving Foreigners among them-, and therefore fo long as they 
ruled within their ov/n narrow Bounds, their Affairs Itood firm and ftrong : 
but foon after they began to widen their Borders, and extend their Domi- 
nion farther than the Spnrlan Race could well command the foreign Crowd-, 
their Power funk of a fudden. Never did Commonweijlth receive new Ci- 
tizens fo profalely as the Reman -, whence its Fortune was equal to fo pru- 
dent a Conduft : and thus the Romans acquired the moft extenfive Empire 
on the Globe. It was their Ciiftom to give a fpeedy Denization, and in 
the higheft degree -, that is, not only a Right of Commerce, of Marriage, 
and IniiTrlcance -, but alfo a Right of Vote, and of ftanding Candidate for Pla- 
ces and Honours. And this not only to particular Perfons ; but they con- 
<^..f"^errtd it upo.i whole Families, Cities, and fometimes whole Nations at 
once. Add to this, their Cuftom of fettling Colonies ; whereby Roman Roots 
were tranfplanted in foreign Soil. And to confider thefe two Praftices to- 
gether j it might be faid, that the Romans did not fpread themfelves over 
the Globe, but that the Globe Ipread itfelf over the /?o;«i7«j.- which is the 
fecurcft Metiiod of extending an Empire. I have often wondered how the 
Spanifi Government could with fo few Natives inclofe and curb fo many 
Kingdoms and Provinces. But Spain may be efteemed a fufficiently large 
Trunk -, as it contains a much grearer Tradl of Country than either Ro7ne 
or Sparta did at firft. And altho' the Spaniards are very fparing of Na- 
turalization, yet they do what comes next to it; promifcuoufly receive 
the Subjefts of all Nations into their Army : and even their higheft Milita- 
ry Office is often conferred upon foreign Leaders. Nay, it appears that Spain 
at length begins to feel their want of Natives; and are now endeavouring 
to fupply it. 
The fofter me- 9. 'Tis Certain, that the fedentary Mechanick Arts, pradis'd within 
chanick Arts doors ; and the more curious Manufaftures, which require the Finger ra-« 
tobeleftto tlicr than the Arm, are in their own nature oppofite to a military Spirit. 
*■ "Z"'- jyjgj^ Q^ ^j^g Sword, univerfally delight in exemption from Work ; and dread 
Dangers lefs than Labour, And in this Temper they muft be fomewhat 
indulged ; if we defire to keep their Minds in vigour. 'Twas, therefore, a 
great Advantage to Sparta, Athens, Rome, and other ancient Republicks, 
that they had the ufe, not of Freemen, but generally of Slaves, for this kind 
of domeftick Arts. But after the Chriftian Religion gained ground,'"the ufe 
of S^Aves was in great meafure abolifhed. What comes neareft this Cuftom, 
is to leave fuch Arts chiefly to Strangers ; who for that purpofe fhould be 
invited to come in ; or at Icaft be eafily admitted. The Native Vulgar 
fliould confift of three kinds ; viz. Husbandmen, Free-fervants, and Handy- 
craftsmen, ufed to the ftrong mafc uline Arts ; fuch as Smithery, Mafonry, 
Carpentry, i^c. without including the Soldiery. 
Arms to be ID. But above all 'tis moft conducive to the greatnefs of Empire, for a 
fludiedmd ti^iUon to profefs the Skill of Arms, as its principal Glory, and mojl honourable 
frofejfedbya, £j„pigy . fgr ji^g things hitherto ipoke of, are but preparatory to the ufe of 
fiw.""^ -^rrns ; and to what end this Preparation, if the thing itfelf be not reduced 
to Aftion ? Romulus, as the Story goes, left it in charge to his People at 

his 



Se(ft:.XXVI. 7^^ Doctrine ^Government. 239 

his death, that of all things they fliould cultivate the Art of War ; as 
that which would make their City the head of the World. The whole Frame 
and Structure of the Spartan Government, tended, with more Diligence in- 
deed than Prudence, only to make its Inhabitants Warriors. Such was alfo 
the Pradice of the P erfi a !7s and Macedonians ; tho' not fo conftant and lad- 
ing. The Britons, Gauls, Germ:2ns, Goths, Saxons, Nor?nans, &c. for fome 
time alfo, principally cultivated Military Arts. The Turks did the fame ; 
being not a litde excited thereto by their Law : and (till continue the Difci- 
pline ; notwichftanding their Soldiery be now on its decline. Of all 
Chrijlian Europe, the only Nation that ftill retains and profefTcs this Difci- 
pline, is xheSpaniJh. But it is fo plain, that every one advances fartheft in 
what he ftudies moft, as to require no enforcing. 'Tis fufficient to intimate, 
that unlefs a Nation profefledly ftudies and praftifes Arms, and Military 
Difcipline, fo as to make them a principal Bufinefs, it muft not expcift 
that any remarkable Greatnefs of Empire will come of its own accord. On 
the contrary, 'tis the moft certain Oracle of Time, thp.t thofe Nations which 
have longeft continued in the Study and Profeffion of Arms, as the Ro- 
mans and the Turks have principally done, make the moft furprizing Pro- 
grefs, in enlarging the Bounds of Empire. And again, thofc Nations which 
have flourifhed, tho' but for a fingle Age, in Military Glory -, yet, during 
that time, have obtained fuch a greatnefs of Empire, as has remained with 
them long after, when their Martial Difcipline was flackened. 

II. It bears fome relation to the foregoing Precept, tha.t a Sl^te JhouIdTdattheLam 
have fuch Laws and Cuftoms, as may readily adminifter jujl Cav.fes, or at leaft Xlw^'f^/i 
Pretexts, of taking Arms. For there is fuch a natural Notion of Juftice \m.- Qccafioni of 
printed in Men's Minds, that they will not make War, whicli is attended jflir. 
with fo many Calamities, unlefs for fome weighty, or at leaft fome fpecious 
Rcafon. The Turks are never unprovided of a Caufe of War ; viz. the 
Propagation of their Law and Religion. The Romans, tho' it was a high 
Degree of Honour for their Emperors, to extend the Borders of their Em- 
pire, yet never undertook a War for that fole end. L,et it, therefore, be a 
Rule to all Nations that aim at Empire, to have a quick and lively fenfi- 
bility of any Injury, done to tl\eir frontier SubjeiEts, Merchants, or publick 
Minifters. And let them not fit too long quiet, after the firft Provoca- 
tion. Let them alfo be ready and chearful in fending Auxiliaries to their 
Friends and Allies : which the Romans conftantly obferved -, infomuch that 
if an Invafion were made upon any of their Allies, who alfo had a defen- 
five League with others, and the former begg'd Affiftance feveraliy, 
the Remans would ever be the fiift to give it, and not fuffer the Honour of 
the Benefit to be fnatched from them by others. As for the Wars anciently 
waged from a certain Conformity, or tacit Correfpondence of States, lean- 
not fee on what Law they ftood. Such were the Wars undertaken by the 
Romans, for reftoring Liberty to Greece; fuch were thofe of the Lacedemo- 
nians and Athenians, for eftablifliing or overturning Democracies, or Oligar- 
chies ; and fuch fometimes are thofe entered into by Republicks or King- 
doms, under pretext of protecting the Subjects of other Nations ; or deli- 

I vering 



240 21;^ Doctrine <?/" Government. Sedi.XXVI 

vering them from Tyranny. Ic may fuffice for the prefent purpofe, that no 
State expefl any Greatnefs of Empire, unlefs it be immediately ready to 
feize any juft occafion of a J'Far. 
Amtionto 12. No one Body, whether Natural or Political, can preferve its Health 
healwAyina- wiihout Exetcife •, and honourable IVar is the wholefome Exercife of a King- 
JiforlVar. (ioiH OX Commonwealih. Civil fFan indeed are like the Heat of a Feverj 
hut a War abroad is like the Heat of Motion, wholefome: for Men's 
Minds are enervated, and their Manners corrupted by fluggifli, and unacftive 
Peace. And hov/ever it may be as to the Happinefs of a State -, 'tis doubt- 
lefs befl for its Greatnefs, to be, as it were, always in Arms. A veteran 
Arrnw indeed, kept conftantly ready for marching, is expenfive •, yet 
it gives a State the difpofal of things among its Neighbours; or, at 
leaft, procures it a great Reputation in other refped:s : as may be clearly feen 
in the Spaniard \ who has now, for a long Succeffion of Years, kept a land- 
ing Arm-j^ tho' not always in the fame part of the Country. 
The advun- 13. The Dcviinion of the Sea is an Etilc?ne of Monarchy. Cicero, in a 
ta^e of being Letter to Atticus, writing of Pompey''s Preparation againft Ccefar, lays, the 
mnjieriatsea. £)gf,gp,s Qf Pgnipgy are like thofe of nemijlocles ; for be thinks theyivho com- 
mand the Sea, command (be Empire. And doubtlefs Pc?ntey would have wea- 
ried C(?far out, and brought him under, had he not, thro' a vain Confi- 
dence, dropt his Defign. 'Tis plain, from many Examples, of how great 
confequence Sea-fights are. The Fight at Allium decided the Empire of 
the World : The Fight o( Lepanto ftruck a Hook in the Nofeof the Turk : 
And it has frequently happened, that Vidories, or Defeats at Sea have put a fi- 
nal end to the War ; that is, when the whole Fortune of it has been committed 
to them. Doubtlefs the being Majler of the Sea, leaves a Nation at great li- 
berty to aft ; and to take as much, or as little of the War as it pleafes : 
whilft thofe who are fuperior in Land Forces, have yet numerous Difficulties 
to ftruggle with. And at prefent, amongft the European Nations, a Naval 
Strength, which is the Portion of Great Britain, is more than ever, of the 
greateft importance to Sovereignty ; as well becaufe moft of the Kingdoms 
of Europe are not Continents, but in good mt^imt furrounded by the Sea ; as 
becaufe the Treafures of both India feem but an AccefTory to the Dominion 
of the Seas. 
The Soldiers to '4- The TFars of later times feem to have been waged in the dark, 
be honourably compared with the variety of Glory and Honour ufually reflefted upon the 
rewarded. , military Men of former Ages. 'Tis true, we have at this day, certain mi- 
litary Honours, dcfigned perhaps as Incentives to Courage ; tho' common 
to Men of the Gown, as well as the Sword : we have alfo fome Coats of Arms, 
and publick Hofpitals, for Soldiers worn out, and difabled in the Service : but 
among the Ancients, when a Vidtory was obtained, there were Trophies, Fu- 
neral Orations, and magnificent Monuments, for fuch as died in the Wars. 
Civick Crowns, and Military Garlands, were befl:owed upon all the Soldiers. 
The very name of Emiperor was afterwards borrowed by the greateft Kings, 
from Leaders in the Wars. They had folemn Triumphs for their fuccefs- 
tlil Generals : They had Donatives and great Largejfes for the Soldiers ; when 

the 



Sed.XXVI. The Doctrine ^Government. 24.1 

the Army was disbanded : Thefe are fuch great and dazzling Things in the eyes 
of Mortals, as to be capable of firing the mod frozen Spirits, and enflaming 
them for War. In particular, the manner of Triumph among the Romans 
was not a thing of Ptigeantr'^, or empty Show ; but deferving to be reckoned 
among the wifefl and moft noble of their Cuftoms : as being attended with 
thefe three Particulars-, viz. (i.)the Glory and Honour of their Leaders ; 
(i.) the enriching of the Treafury with the Spoils ; and (3.) Donatives to 
the Army. But their triumphal Honours were, perhaps, unfit for Monar- 
chies i unlefs in the Perfon of the King or his Son : which alio obtained at 
Rome in the times of its Emperors ; who referved the honour of the Triumph, 
as peculiar to themfelves, and their Sons, upon returning from the Wars, 
whereat they were prefent ; and had brought to a Conclufion : only confer- 
ring their Veftments, and Triumphal Enfigns upon the other Leaders. 

15. But to conclude, tho' no Man, as the Scripture teftifies, can, by ta- !*«* Et»pire> 
king care, add one Cubit to his Stature, that is, in the little Model of the hu- '"p7/Vr«-'^" 
man body •, yet in the vail Fabrick of Kingdoms and Commonwealths, 'tis fence. 
in the power of Kings and Rulers to extend and enlarge the Bounds of Em- 
pire : for by prudently introducing fuch Laws, Orders, a.ndCuJloms as thofe 
above mentioned, and the like, they might fow the Seeds ofGreatnefs, for 
Pofterity and future Ages. But thefe Counfels feldom reach the Ears of 
Princes ; who generally commit the whole to the Direflion and Difpofal of 
Fortune '. 

' Finding the DoHrine ef Government more diretSIy applied to War, in a Piece of the Au- 
thor's, infcribed to Prince Charles, in the year 1624, on occafion of a War with Spain i it 
ieems proper to make it Supplemental to this of the Military State/man, under the Title ot 
the Twelfth Supplement to this general Work. And oblerviag alfo the gene:i\Do6lrine of Go- 
vernment, farther extended, and enlarged by the Author, in his Advice to Sir George ViUierj; 
it appeared fuitable to the Defign, that this likewife fhould be made Supplemental to the Doc- 
'Srine of Government ; as being a Sketch of (he Prudent Minijler, correfponding to the preceding one 
of the Military Statefman; tho" not indeed fo well digefted by the Author. See the Thirteenth 
Supplement to this general Work. 




Vo L. I. I i SECT, 



242 735^ Doctrine ©/"Universal Justice ; o;^, Sed. XXVII. 



SECT. XXVII. 

Ti^g Doctrine <?/" Universal Justice: <?r, the 
Fountains of Equity. 

Telithians iefti.f t ""HE Other Defideratum we note in xh.& Art of Government, is the 
qualified to j^ DocTRiNE OF UNIVERSAL JusTicE, or the Fountains of Law ^ 

ieiiefju/lke' "^^^V '^^^'^ ^^'^^ hitherto wrote upon Laws, write either as PM5y2)//6(?rj or 
' Lawyers. The Philofophers advance many things that appear beautiful in 
Difcourfe, but lie out of the road ofUfe : whilft the Lazvyers, being bound 
and fubjed to the Decrees of the Laws prevailing in their feveral Countries, 
whether Roman or Pontifical, have not their Judgment free -, but write as in 
Fetters. This Doolrinc, doubtlefs, properly belongs to Slatefmen -, who befl: 
underftand Civil Society, the Good of the People, Natural Equity, the 
Cuftoms of Nations, and the diflerent Forms of States. Whence they are 
able to judge of Laws by the Principles and Precepts, as well of natural 
Juftice, as of Politicks. The prefent view, therefore, is to difcover the 
Fountains of Juftice and Puhlick Good; and, in all the parts of Equity, to 
give a certain Charafter and Idea of what is juft ; according whereto, thofe 
who defire it, may examine the Lau>s of particular Kingdoms and States ; 
and thence endeavour to amend them. And of this Doflrine, we fhall, in 
our ufual way, give an Example aphoriftically, in a fingle Title. 

A SPECIMEN OF THE METHOD OF TREATING 
UNIVERSAL JUSTICE: 
or, 
THE FOUNTAINS OF E QJJ I T Y ». 

INTRODUCTION. 

Aphorism I. 

Three Toiitt' j. Either Law or Force prevails in Civil Society. But there is fome Force- 

Xufiice^^'^' '^'^^ refembles La-vo ; and feme Lazv that refembles Force, more than Juftice. 

Whence there are three Fountains of Injaftice ; viz. (i.) mere Force, (2.) 7na- 

licious Enfnaring, under colour of Law ; and (3.) the Severity of the Law 

itfelf 

Aphorism II. 
The FounJa- 3. The Ground o^ private Right is this. He who does an Injury, receives 
tion of private Profit or Plealure in the Action ; and incurs Danger by the Example : whilft: 
^i^'- others 

"Whoever would continue, or improve the Work here begun, may confult Morhof's Polyhifior, 
Tom. 111. Lib.VI. itefurilpriuhntUuniverfaliiScriptoribui ; Strtivii BMiothecVhilofofh. Cap. 6, 7. 
de Scrlptoribui Politicit ; and SteUii IntroduS. in Uifi. Liter, pag. -JSi' ^'^' ^^J'"^ l^aturali. 



Sed. XXVII. the Fountains of Equity. 243 

orhers partake not with him in that Profit or Pleafure ; but think the Ex- 
ample concerns them: whence they eafily agree to defend themfelves by 
Laws^ left each Particular fliould be injured in his turn. But if it Hiould 
happen, from the Nature of the Times, and a Communion of Guilt, that 
the greater or more powerful Part fhould be fubjedt to Danger, rather than 
defended from it, by Law ; Fadion here difannuls the Law : and this cafe 
frequently happens. 

Aphorism III. 

4. But private Right lies under the Protecftion of puhlick Laws : for Law Vrivitte night 
guards the People, and Magiftrates guard the Laws. But the Authority ^" ^\^l\"f"^ 
of the Magiftrate is derived from the Majefty of the Government, the /^^" 
Form of the Conftitution, and its fundamental Laws. Whence, if the po- 
litical Conftitution be juft and right, the Laws will be of excellent ufe ; but 

if otherwife, of little Security. 

Aphorism IV. 

5. PubUck Law is not only the Preferver of private Right, (o as to ^tt'^ vublkk taws 
it unviolated, and prevent Injuries; but extends alfo to Religion, Arms, extend to Re- 
Difcipline, Ornaments, fFeallh, and all things that regard the Good of a ''/""'"^''""' 
btate. 

A PH R I s M V. 

6. For the End and Scope of Laws, whereto all their Decrees and Sanc-x,&, e„j ^jc 
rions ought to tend, is the Happinefs of the People: which is procurable, tawj. 
(i.) by rightly inftrudling them in Piety, Religion, and th- Duties of Mo- 
rality ; (2.) fecuring them by Arms againft foreign Enemies; (3.) guarding 

them by Laws againft Fadlion, and private Injuries ; (4.) rend ring them 
obedient to the Government and Magiftracy ; and (5.) thus caufing them 
to flourifli in Strength and Plenty. But Laws are the Inftruments and Si- 
news for procuring all this. 

Aphorism VI. 

7. The hfi Laws, indeed, fecure this good End; but many other Laws r^e '/'iff «»« 
fail of it. For Laws differ furprizingly from one another ; infomuch, that "/ ^'"^^• 
fome are, (i.) excellent; others, (2.) of a middle nature; and (3.) others 

again abfolutely corrupt. We fliall, therefore, here offer, according to the 
beft of our Judgment, certain Laws, as it were, of Laws' : from whence an 
Information may be derived, as to what is well, or what is ill laid down, 
or cftablifhed by particular Laws. 

I i 2 A p H o- 

' As laying down the juft Foundations, and Rules of the Law; for the Law itfelf is go- 
vern'd by Reafon, Juftice, and good Senfe. But perhaps thefe Aphorifms of the Author fol- 
low the particular Lutp of England too clofe, to be allow'd, by other Nations, for the Foundalioas 
of uni'.erfal fiiftice ; which is a very exrenfive Subjeft. See Stmvit BibUethsc. Fhilofofh. Cap. 8. 
Je Scriporibus Juris Katnrx ^ Gentium. 



244 '^^ Doctrine <?/ Universal Justice; or, Se(El.XXVIL 



A goedlav, 
»knt. 



Certainty ef- 
feitrial to n 
La». 



Aphorism VII. 

8. But before we proceed to the Body oi particular Laws', we will briefly 
touch upon the Excellencies and Dignities of Laws in general. Now that 
may be efteemed a goo^ Law, which is, (i.) clear and certain in its Senfe, 
(2.) juft in its Command, (3.) commodious in the Execution, (4.) agreeabfe 
to the Form of Government, and (5.) produdlive of Virtue in the Subje(5l\ 

TITLE 1. 
OF THAT PRIMARY DIGNITY OF THE LAW, CERTAINTY. 

Aphorism VIII. 

9. Certainty is fo eflential to a Law, that a Law without it cannot be juff. 

Vox if the Trumpet gives an uncertain Sound, iicho ftiall prepare himfelf to the 
Batik ? So if the Law has an uncertain Senfe, who (hall obey it ? A Law, 
therefore, ought to give warning before it ftrikes : and 'tis a true Maxim, 
that the heft Law leaves leaft to the Breaft of the Judge ; which is effected 
by Certainty. 

Aphorism IX. 

10. Laws have two Uncertainties; the one where no Law is prefcribed ; 
the other when a Law is ambiguous and obfcure : wherefore we muft firft 
fpeak of Cafes omitted by the Law ; that in thefe alio may be found fome 
Rules of Certainty. 

Aphorism X. 
Three Kerne- jj. The narrownefs of human Prudence cannot forefee all the Cafes that 
^'". '"Fl^"', Time may produce. Whence «fw Cafes, and Cafes omitted, frequently turn up. 
*T1 ' "^ ' And for thd'e there arc three Reinedies, or Supplies ; viz. (i.) by proceeding 
upon Analogy, (2.) by the ufe of Precedents, tho' not yet brought into a 
Law; and (3.) by Juries, which decree according to Confcience a.nd Difcre.- 
tion ; whether in the Courts of Equity, or of Common Law. 



Tuo XTneer- 
tainties in 
Laws. 



Law. 



'K.eajon- pre- 
fer'ii to Cuf- 
torn. 



Aphorism XI. 
1 2. ( I .) In Cafes omitted, the Rule of Law is to be deduced from ftmilar Cafes j 
but with Caution and Judgment. And here the following Rules are to be 
obferved : Let Reafon he efteemed a fruitful, and Cuftom a barren thing ; 
fo as to breed no Cafes. And therefore what is received againft the Reafon 
of a Law, or where its Reafon is obfcure, fhould not be drawn into Pre- 
cedents. 

Aphorism XII. 

Cafes omitted j^. A great publick Good, fnuft draw to itfelf all Cafes omitted; and 

ZuillickAd-'^^'^^^'^'^^^^^^ ^ '"^^ remarkably, and in an extraordinary m.anner, regards 

vintagi. and procures the Good of the Publick, let its Interpretation be full and ex- 

tenfive. A p h o- 

' See hereafter, Seft. XXVII. 9S. 

'' Thefe are fo many fcveral Titles, or general Heads, laid down by the Author, as if he ia- 
teaded a full Tieatife upon the Subjeft : but he here only confiders the fiift of them. 



Secfl. XXVII. the Fountaiks of Equity. 245 

Aphorism XIII. 

14. 'Tis a cruel thing to torture the Laws, that they may torture «-f taw wof 
Men : whence fenal Laws, much lefs capital Laws, fhould not be extended'* be wrefied, 
to new Offences. But if the Offence be old, and known to the Law, and 

its Profecution fall upon a new Cafe, not provided for by Law, the Law 
muft rather be forfaken, than Offences go unpuniilaed. 

Aphorism XIV. 

15. Statutes that repeal the Cotnmon Law, efpecially in common znA statntet of 
fettled Cafes, fliould not be drawn by Analogy to Cafes omitted: For when ^'"Z"^''' ""f "> 
the Republick has long been without an entire Law, and that in exprefs Cafes, cafeslmituk 
there is little danger if Cafes omitted fhould wait their remedy, from a 

new Statute. 

Aphorism XV. 

16. 'Tis enough for fuch Statutes as were plainly temporary Laws, en- 
acted upon particular urgent Occafions of State, to contain themfelves 
within their proper Cafes, after thofe Occafions ceafe ; for it were prepofte- 
rous to extend them, in any meafure, to Cafes omitted. 

Aphorism XVI. 

17. There is no Precedent of a Precedent ; but Extenfion fhould reft ^» P''^«''f«^ 
in immediate Cafes : otherwife it would gradually Aide on to diffimilar Cafes ; "/ * ^'■^««'"^^ 
and fo the Wit of Men prevail over the Authority of Laws, 

Aphorism XVII. 

18. In fuch Lazos and Statutes as are concife, ExtenHon may be more Extenfan 
freely allow'd ; but in thofe which exprefs particular Cafes, it fhould be '""''^ ."' '"'^" 
ufed more cautioufly. For as Exception ftrengthens the Force of a Law in ^;<,L'^iwjl 
unaccepted Cafes j fo Enumeration weakens it in Cafes not enumerated. 

Aphorism XVIII. 

19. An Explanatory Statute ftops the Current of a precedent Statute ; nor 
does either of them admit Extenfion afterwards. Neither Hiould the Judge 
make a Super-Extenfion, where the Law has once begun one. 

Aphorism XIX. 

20. The Solemnity of Forms and Aofs, admits not of Exieufion to R- Solemnity aiT" 
milar Cafes : for 'tis lofing the nature of Solemnity, to go from Cuftom to""'^ "^' "f 
Opinion ; and the Introduclion of new things, takes from the Majtfty of the ^ ^"■''^ * 
old. 

Aphorism XX. 

21. The Exteufion of Law is eafy to After-Cafes, which had no ex-'Extmfions» 
iftence at the time when the Law was made : for where a Cafe could not -^fier-Oifes 
be defcribed, becaufe not then in being, a Cafe omitted is deera'd a Cafe ^"^^' 
exprefled, if there be the fa.me reafon for it. 

A P H o- 



24-6 2^^ Doctrine /pfUNivERSAt Justice; or^ Sed, XXVII. 

Aphorism XXI, 

By Vncedents 2 2. (2.) We come next to Precedents •■> from which Jttjlice may be derived, 

under due Rt- where the Law is deficient : but referving Cuftom, which is a kind of Law, 

gH ations. ^j^j j.]^^ Precedents which, thro' frequent ufe, are pafled into Cuftom, as into 

a tacit Law •, we fhall, at prefent, fpeak only of fuch Precedents as happen 

but rarely -, and have not acquired the Force of a Law : with a view to fliew 

how, and with what Caution, a Rule of Jujlice may be derived from them, 

when the Laiv is defedive. 

A P H O H I S M XXII. 

Trecedentsto 23, Precedents are to be derived from good and moderate Times; and 
he derived ^^^ ^vovn fuch as are tyrannical, fidtious, or diflblute : for this latter kind are 
Times!" ^ fpurious Birth of Time, and prove more prejudicial than inftrudlive. 

Aphorism XXIII. 

Modern Prece- ^4* Modern Examples are to beheld the fafeft. For why may not what 
dents the was lately done, without any inconvenience, be fafely done again ? Yet recent 
/"M- Examples have the lefs Authority : and, where things require a Reftoration, 

participate more of their own Times, than of right Reafon. 

Aphorism XXIV. 

jinc'tent Frece- 25. Ancient Precedents are to be received with Caution and Choice: for 
deus to be j-^e Courfe of Time alters many things ; fo that what feems ancient, in time 
mUted '"^Y' f'^'" Difturbance and Unfuitablenefs, be new at the prefent: and there- 

fore the Precedents of intermediate Times are the beft, or thofe of fuch 
Times as have moft agreement with the prefent •, which ancient Times may 
happen to have, more than later. 

Aphorism XXV, 
Trecedentsto 26. Let the Limits oi 2i Precedent be obferved, and rather kept within 
be Limited, than exceeded ; for where there is no Rtde of Law, every thing fhould be 
fufpefted : and therefore as this is a dark Road, we fliould not be hafty to 
follow. 

Aphorism XXVI, 

Varti.il Vrece- 27. Beware of Fragments, and Epitomes of Examples; and rather confider 
dents to be j.]^g whole of the Precedent, with all its Procefs : for if it be abfurd to judge 
^g^tnft. "' upon /Yi'/ 0/" a L-zic, without underftanding x.\\^ whole; this fhould be much 
rather obferved in Precedents ; the ufe whereof is precarious, without an evi- 
dent Correfpondence. 

Aphorism XXVII. 

The Tmnfmif- 28 'Tis of great confequencc thro' what hands the Precedents pafs, and by 
/ion of Vrece- whom they have been allow'd. For if they have obtain'd only among Ckt-ks 
f^^yj ''"'and Secretaries, by the Ccurfi; of the Court, without any manifeft Knowledge 
of their Superiors -, or have prevail'd among that Source of Errors, the Popu- 
lace ; they are to be rejeded, or lightly efteem'd. But if they come before 5^«^- 

tors. 



SeA.XXVII. the Fountains of EotjiTY. 247 

tors. Judges, or py'uicipd Courts ; fo that of neccfTity tliey mufl: have been 
ftrengthen'd, at lead by the tacit Approval of proper Perfons, their Dig- 
nity is the greater. 

Aphorism XXVIII. 

29. More Authority is to be allowed to thofe Examj^les, which, tho' lefs 
ufed, have been publifh'd, and thoroughly cinvals'd -, but lefs to thofe that 
have lain buried, and forgotten, in the Clofet, or Archives : for Examples., 
like Waters, are wholefomeft in the running Stream. 

Aphorism XXIX, 

30. Precedents in Law fhoukl not be derived from Hiflory ; but hom ^''^"''""^ *"' 
publick Afts and accurate Traditions : for 'cis a certain Infelicity, even among ° """ •'*'""■''■• 
■the beft Hiftorians, that they dwell not fiifficiently upon Lavjs, and judicial 

Proceedings ; or if they happen to have fome regard thereto, yet their Ac- 
counts are far from being authentick. 

Aphorism XXX. 

31. An Example rejeSfed in the fame, or next fucceeding Age, fliould not shouU not 
eafily be received again, when the fame Cafe recurs : for it makes not fo <"«/(? ^^ ^*^- 
much in its favour, that Men fometimes ufed it ; as in its disfavour, that they ^nl'/rekaed. 
dropt it upon Experience. 

Aphorism XXXI. 

32. Examples are things o^ DireBion ^nd Advice, not Rules ov Ordtrs ; -precedents are. 
and therefore fhould be fo managed, as to bend the Authority of former timts Matter of di- 
to the fervice of the prefent. "^j'"' ""^ 

Aphorism XXXII. 

33. (3.) There fliould be both Courts, andjuries, to iudge according to(?) Courts 
Cofjfcience and Difcretion ; where the Rule of the Law is defcftive : for Laws, as"''*! J"'?''.'' 
we before obferved, cannot provide againft all Cafes ; but are fuited only to ^^ ^'^^^^^^'^ 
fuch as frequently happen: Time, the wifefl: of all things, daily introducing 

new Cafes. 

Aphorism XXXIII. 

34. But new Cafes happen both in criminal Matters, which require Punifh- The Cenfirial 
ment ; and in civil Caufes, which require Relief. The Courts that regard ««'^■'''■'"'"■•'''^ 
the former, we call Cenfirial, or Courts of Juftice ; and thofe that regard the ^'"*''"- 
latter, Prcetorial, or Courts of Equit'j. 

Aphorism XXXIV. 

35. The Courts of Jujlice fhould have Jurifdidtion and Power, not only Co'"''^''/7'C'^ 
to punifli new Offences, but alfo to increafe the Penalties appointed by j;he '""^^''' ^*'^' 
Laws for old ones, where the Cafes are flagrant and notorious ; yet not niMr.g newt 
capital : for every enormous Crime may be eltcemed as a new one. opnces.. 

I A P HO^ 



248 The Doctrine tf/UniviiRSAL Justice*, or, Sedt. XXVII. 

Aphorism XXXV, 
Courts of ■56. In like manner, the Courts of Equity fbould have Power, as well of 

J'J^J"^^^^' abating the Rigour of the Law, as of fuppfying its Defeds : for if a Remedy 
flyi/js the ^^ afforded to a Perfon neglefted by the Law ; much more to him who is 
Law. hurt by the Law. 

Aphorism XXXVL 

Jw/ltv;rl- 37- ^°'^''' ^^^ Cenforial, and Prcztorial Courts, lliould abfolutely confine 
erd'marycljh. themfelves to enomious and extraordinary Cafes ; without invading the or- 
dinary JurifdiEfions : left otherwife the Law fhould rather be fupplanted, 
than fupplied. 

Aphorism XXXVIL 
Juriftlinhns 38. Thefe 7«n/2/f(.7;o/75 fhould refide only \n fupreme Courts ; and not be 
to he lodged communicated to the lower: for a power of fupplying, extending, or mo- 
^Couui""' derating the Laws, differs but little from a power of making them. 

Aphorism XXXVIII. 

^^"f !■" ""'', 39- Thefe Courts of Jurifdi5iion flaould not be committed to a fingle Per- 

■Bfjevera ^^^ ^ ^^^ copfift of feveral : and let not their Verdift be given in filence ; 

but let the Judges produce the reafons of their Sentence openly, and in full 

audience of the Court ; fo that what is free in power, may yet be limited 

by regard to Fame and Reputation. 

Aphorism XXXIX. 

Sentence of 40. Let there be no Records of Blood, nor Sentence of capital Crimes 
Life «nd Death puffed jn any Court, but upon known and certain Laws : God himfelf firfb 
0» Imwn pronounced, and afterwards inflidted Death. Nor fliould a Man lofe his 
um. Life, without firft knowing that he had forfeited it. 

Aphorism XL. 

That there be 4-1 . In the Courts of Juflice, let there be three Returns of the Jury % that 

*fT^""^"' the Judges may not only lie under no neceffity of abfolving, or condemn - 

*/ «/»7- jp)g .^ {jm; j]fQ |^,^vg ^ liberty of pronouncing the Cafe not clear : And let 

there be, befides Penalty, a Note of Infamy, or Punifhment, by way ofad- 

monifliing others ; and chaftifing Delinquents, as it were, by putting them to 

the blufh, with Shame and Scandal. 

Aphorism XLI. 

Theprepara- 42- I" Courts ofjujlice, let the firft Overtures, and intermediate Parts of 
five Parts of all great Offences, be punifli'd ; tho' the End were not accomplifh'd. And 
great Crimes this fhoukl be the principal ufe of fuch Courts: for 'tis the part of Difci- 
"^"^""'■^^^''■pline, to punifh the firft Buddings of Offences ; and the part of Clemency, 
to punifh the intermediate Adions, and prevent their taking effed. 

Ap HO- 



Sedl. XXVII. the Fountains of Equitv. 249 

Aphorism XLII. 

43. Great regard muft be had in Courts of Equit-j, not to afford Rdxd Citfei-aUlmgly 
in thofe Cafes, which the Law has not fo much omitted, as defpifed for °l'^l^lJf\^^ 
their Levity ; or, for their Odioufnefs, judged unworthy of a Remedy. ^^ relievid. 

Aphorism XLIII. 

44. But above all, 'tis of the greateft moment to tlie Certainty of the The Court i of 
Laws we now fpeak of, that Courls of Equiiy keep from fwclling, and over- f'^'"'^.'?. ^" 
flowing ; left, under pretence of mitigating the Rigour of the Law, they ^'/JJ'' '" 
ihould cut its Sinews, and weaken its Strength, by wrefting all things to 

their own difpofal. 

Aphorism XLIV. 

45. No Court of Equity Ihould have a right of decreeing againft a Statute, No Equliy- 
under any Pretext of Equity whatever : othcrwife the Judge would be- f/"/^".^^'^ 
come the Legillator, and have all things dependent upon his "Will. sutHte. 

A p ii o R I s M XLV. 

46. Some conceive the Jurifdiiiion which decrees according to Equity and The Courts of 
Confcier.ce, and that which proceeds according to ftri5l Jujiice, fhould be de- |?«'.7 «»^^ 
puted to the fame Courts; whilft others would have them kept diftinft ■{f^tMJiina. 
which feems much the better way. There will be no diftindtion of Cafes, 

where there is a mixture of Jurifdidions : but Arbitration will, at length, fu- 
perfede the Law. 

Aphorism XLVI. 

47. The ufe of the Prcetor's Table ftood upon a good Foundation among Thejudges in 
the Romans, as that wherein he fet down, and publiflied, in what manner he ^?"^|^? ^^*J 
would adminifter Juftice. According to which Example, the Judges in r,///,/"^ *""* 
Courts of Equity, fhould propofe to themfelves fome certain Rules to go by, 

and fix them up to publick view : for as that Law is ever the beft, which 
leaves leaft to the breaft of the Judge ; fo is that Judge the beft, who leaves 
leaft to himfelf ^. 

Aphorism XLVIL 

48. There isalfo another way of fupplying Cafes omitted; viz. when one Retfo/peaivt 
Law is made upon another, and brings the Cafes oniitted along with it. This „a"'„^^^ '^^r 
happens in thofe Laws, or Statutes, which, according to the common Phrafe, cretion. 
look backwards. But Laws of this kind are to be feldom ufed -, and with great 

caution : for a Janus-Face is not to be admired in the Law. 

Aphorism XLVIII- 

49. He who captioufly and fraudulently eludes, and circumfcribes the i^^'f''f"' '* 
Words or Intention of a Law, dcferves to be hampered by a fubfequent ^^^'J "^^^Le 

* The Author made a Speech to this Effe<ft, upon receiving the Seal, and taking tis Place 
m Chancery. See Supplement IV. 

Vol. I. Kk Law. 



250 



And for cor- 
roborating 
and confirm- 
ing. 



Laws regard- 
. Ing Futurity, 
way alfo be 
tetroffeHive, 



7:^^ Doctrine ^Universal Justice; or, Se6t. XXVII, 

.Law. Whence, in fraudulent and evafive Cafes, 'tis juft for Laws to carry 
a Retrofpeftion ; and prove of mutual afliftance to each other : fo that he 
who invents Loop-holes, and plots the Subverfion of prefenS Laws, may, at 
leaft, be awed hy future. 

Aphorism XLIX. 

50. Such Laws as ftrengthen and confirm the true Intentions of AHs 
and InftrumentSy againft the Defedts of Forms and Solemnities, very juftly in- 
clude paft Aftions : for the principal Fault of a relrofpe8ive Law, is, its 
caufing difturbance ; but thefe confirming Laws regard the Peace and Settle- 
ment of Tranfaftions. Care, however, muft be had, not to difturb things 
once adjudged. 

Aphorism L. 

51. It fliould be carefully obferved, that not only fuch Laws as look back 
to what is paft, invalidate former Tranfaftions ; but fuch alfo as prohibit 
and reftrain things future, which are necelTarily connected with things paft : 
fo, if any L^to fhould prohibit certain Artificers the Sale of their Wares in 
future ; this Law, tho' it fpeaks for hereafter, yet operates upon times paft ; 
tho' fuch Artificers had then no other lawful means of fubfiftins;. 



Declaratory 
Lavs to be 
iriaSed where 
RetrofpeBion 
is juft. 



The Obfcurity 
if Lams from 
four Origins. 



Viz. Ex- 
cejfive Accu- 
mulation of 
Laws which 
may prove 
•very perni- 
cious. 

Two ways of 
making new 

'">Citutes. 



Aphorism LI. 

52. AW Declaratory Laws, tho' they make no mention of time paft, yet 
are, by the very Declaration itfelf, entirely to regard paft Matters : for the 
Interpretation does not b;gin with the Declaration ; but, as it were, is made 
contemporary with the Law itfelf And therefore Declaratory Laws fliould 
not be enabled, except in Cafes where the Law may be retrofpefted with 
Juftice. And fo much for the Uncertainty of Laws, where the Lavj is extant. 
We proceed to the other part, where the Laws, tho' extant, are perplex'd 
and obfcure. 

Aphorism LII. 

53. The Obfcurity of Laws has four Sources ; viz. (i.) an Accumulation 
of Lazvs ; efpecially, if mix'd with fuch as are ohfolete. (2.) Jn avihiguous De- 

fcription, or want of clear and difiinU Delivery. (3.) yi Negleff, or Failure, in 
inftituting the Method of interpreting Juftice. (4.) And laftly, a Clafhing and 
Uncertainty of Judgments. 

Aphorism LIII. 

54. The Prophet fays, " It floall rain Snares upon them ;" but there are no 
worfe Snares, than the Snares of Laws; efpecially the penal : which growing 
excefTive in number, and ufelefs thro' time, prove not a Lanthorn, but Nets, 
to the Feet. 

Aphorism LIV. 

55. There are two ways in ufe of making 7teiv Statutes; the one confirms 
and ftrengthens the former Statutes in the like Cafes, at the fame time adding 
or altering fome Particulars : the other abrogates and cancels all that was en- 

aded 



Secfl. XXVII. the Fountains of Equity. 251 

afbed before •, and inftead thereof, fubftitutes a'new uniform Lnw. And the 
latter Method is the beft. For in the former, the Decrees become compli- 
cate and perplex'd •, and tho' the Bufmsfs be perform'd, yet the Body of 
Laws, in the mean time, becomes cornipt : but in the latter, greater Dili- 
gence muft be ufed, when the Law itfelf comes to be weighed a-new ; and 
what was before enafted, to be reconfider'd, antecedent to its paffing : by 
which means the future Agreement, and Harmony of the Laws, is well 
confulted. 

Aphorism LV. 

56. It was in ufe among the Athenians, for fix Perfons annually to ex- rheContrx. 
amine the contradiHor) 27//(?i of their Laws-, and propofe to the People fuch diaorie$m 
of them as could not be reconciled -, that fome certain Refolution might be ^''"' '." ^.^ 
taken about them. According to which Example, the Legiflators of every flopr"inter' 
State fhould once in three, or five Years, as it fliall feem proper, take a re- lals. 
view of thcfe Contrarieties in Law: but let them firft be infpedted, and pre- 
pared, by Committees appointed for the Purpofe -, and then brought in, 

for the general Afiimbly to fix, and eftablifh ; what fhall be approved by 
Vote. 

Aphorism LVI. 

57. But let not an over-diligent and fcrupulous Care be ufed in reconciling 
the contradi^ory Tides of Laws, by fubtile and far-fetched Diftindtions : for 
this is the weaving of the Wit. And whatever appearance it may have of 
Modefty and Reverence, 'tis to be deem'd prejudicial ; as rendering the 
whole Body of the Laws difllmilar, and incoherent. It were therefore much 
better to fupprefs the worft ; and fuffer the beft to ftand alone. 

Aphorism LVII. 

58. Obfolete Laws, that are grown into difufe, fhould, in the fame manner, oifohte Laws 
be cancel'd. For as an exprefs Statute is not regularly abrogated by difufe ; '* ^* 'i^nceld. 
it happens that, from a Contempt of fuch as are obfolete, the others alfo 

lofe part of their Authority. Whence follows that Torture of Mezentius, 
whereby the living Laws are kill'd in the Embraces of the dead ones. But 
above all things, a Gangreen in the Laws is to be prevented. 

Aphorism LVIII. 

59. And let Courts of Equity have a right of decreeing contrary to ohfo- Ceurts of 
lete Laws, and Statutes not newly enafted ; for al tho', as is well obferved, ^^««j' '"/j'"* 
no body fhould be wifer than the Laws ; yet this fhould be underftood of * J^f„^' fj!' 
the Laws when they are awake, and not when they fleep. But let it be the trary to obfo- 
Privilege, not of Judges in the Courts of Equity, but of Kings, folemn '«« ^'^'' 
Counfels, and the higher Powers, to over-rule later Statutes found prejudi- 
cial to publick Juftice ; and to fufpend the Execution thereof by Edidls, 

or publick Ads, till thofe Meetings are held which have the true power of 
repealing them ; left, otherwife, the Safety of the People Ihould be en- 
danger'd. 

Kk 2 Apho- 



252 The Doctrine of Universal Justice ; or^ Sed. XXVII. 

Aphorism LIX. 
New Digefts 60. But if Laws, hcap'd upon Laws, fhall fwell to fuch a vaft Bulk, and 
ofha-wi how labour under fuch Confufion, as renders it expedient to treat them a-new, 
to be undertu- ^^^ reduce tliem into one found and ferviceable Corps ; it becomes a Work 
of the utmoft importance, deferving to be deem'd heroical : and let the Au- 
thors of it be ranked among Legiflators, and the Reftorers of States and 
Empires*. 

Aphorism LX. 
jlnd iffecled. 61. Such an Expurgation, and new Digeft of Laws, is to be effedled by 
five Particulars; viz. (i.) by omitting all the obfolete Laws, which Juftinian 
calls ancient Fables ; (2.) by receiving the mofi approved ContradiJIories, and 
aboliJJnng the reft ; (3.) hy expunging Laws of the fame purport, and retaining 
only one, or the moft perfect; (4.) hy throwing out fuch Laws as determine no- 
thing; only propofe Slueftions, and leave them undecided : (5.) and laftly,hy 
contra£ling and abridging thofe that are too verbofe and prolix. 

Aphorism LXI. 
62. And it would be very ufeful in fuch a new Digeft, feparately to range 
and bring together all thofe Laws, received for common La-uo, which have 
a kind of immemorial Origin •, and on the other fide, the Statutes fuper- 
added from time to time : becaufe in numerous Particulars in the Prailice 
of the Law, the Interpretation and Adminiftration of the cojnmon Law dif- 
fers from the Statute Law. And this Method was obferved by Trebonianus, 
in his Digeft and Code. 

Aphorism LXII. 
6^. But in fuch a fecond Birth of the Law, and fuch a Recompilement 
of the ancient Books and Law?, the very Words and Text of the Law it 
felf fliould be retained ; and tho' it were neceflary to colleft them by Frag- 
ments, and fmall Portions, they may afterwards be regularly wove toge- 
ther. For allowing it might perhaps be more commodious, and with re- 
gard to the true reafon of the thing, better to do it by a new Text, than 
by fuch kind of Patch-work •, yet in the Law, Style and Defcription are 
not fo much to be regarded as Authority, and its Patron, Antiquity : other- 
wife this might rather feem a Work of mere Scholar-fhip and Method, than 
a Corps of majeftick Laws. 

Aphorism LXIII. 
64. 'Twere advifeable in making this new Digeft, not utterly to abolifh 
the ancient Volumes, and give them up to Oblivion -, but fufrer them atleaft 
to remain in fome Library, tho' with a Prohibition of their common ufe : 
becaufe in weighty cafes it might be proper to confult and infpeft the Re- 
volutions 

* E'lfe few will care to be concerned in fo difficult and laborious an Undertaking; tho' a 
thing in itfelf of imracnfc utility. See Tmired's IJfay for tt general Reguktw» of tht La». 
Ed, 2. 1717. 



Sed:. XXVII. the Fountains of Equity. 253 

volutions and Series of ancient Laws. 'Tis alfo a folemn thing to intermix 
Antiquity with things prefent. And fuch a mw Body of Laws, ought to re- 
ceive the Sandion of all thofe who have any Legiflative Power in the State ; 
left under a pretence of digefting the old Laws, new ones fliould be fecretly 
obtruded. 

Aphorism LXIV. 
6^. 'Twere to be wifhed, that fuch a Recotnpikment of the Laws might 
be undertaken in fuch times as excel the ancient, (whofe Afts and Works 
they model a-new) in point of Learning and univerfi.l Knowledge: the con- 
trary whereof happened in the Work of Jujlinian. For 'tis an unfortunate 
thing, to have the Works of the Ancients mangled, and frt together again, 
at the difcretion and choice of a lefs prudent, and lefs learned Age. But it 
often happens, that what is neceflary, is not beft. 

Aphorism LXV- 

66. Laws are ohfcurely defcrihed either ( i ,) thro' their Loquacity and Super- -^ po-plexed 
fluity of Words ; (2.) through Over-Concifenefs ; or (3.) through their Pre- 't"'^.''^'""'' 
ambles contradtcling the Body of the Law. Laws'i 

A P H O R ISM LXVI. 

67. We at prefent treat of the Ohfcur'U) which arifes from their ill De- The Verbofty 
fcription \ and approve not the Loquacity and Prolixity now ufed in draw- '>S '^^ Law te 
ing up the Laws ; which in no degree obtains what is intended by it ; but ' ""'^""'f'^- 
rather the contrary : for whilft it endeavours to comprehend and cxprefs 

all particular Cafes in appofitc and proper Didlion, (as expe£ling greater 
certainty from thence -,) it raifes numerous Queftions about Terms : which ren-" 
ders the true and real Defign of the Law more difficult to come at, thro' 
a huddle of Words. 

Aphorism LXVII. 
6^. Nor yet can we approve of a too concife and affedled Brevity, ufed for 
the fake of Majefty and Authority -, efpecially in this age •, left the Laws 
fhould become like the Lesbian Ride''. A mediocrity therefore is to be 
obferved, and a well-defined generality of Words to be found ; which tho* 
it does not accurately explain the Cales it comprehends, yet clearly ex- 
cludes thofe it does not comprehend. 

Aphorism LXVIII- 
69. Yet in the ordinary political Laws and Edicfs, where Lawyers are 
feldom confulted, but the Politicians truft to their own Judgment ; things 
ought to be largely explained, and pointed out to the Capacity of the Vul- 



gar. 



Apho- 

• TheLesiians are faid to have made their Rules from their Buildings; fo that if the Build- 
ings were erroneous, the Rules they worked by became fo tooj and thus propagated the Er- 
ror: fo if the Laws were wrote concife, as if drawn up in perfeft Times, or with an af- 
feiftation of a fententious or majeftick Brevity, they might propagate Errors, iaftead of cor* 
reding them. 



254 7^^ Doctrine o/ Universal Justice; or^ Seel. XXVII. 

Aphorism LXIX. 

^ -n. "JO. Nor do we approve of tedious Preambles at the head of Laws : thev 

ties of Lavs to werc anciently held impertinent •, as introducing Laws in the way ot DifpitCt 
befliort. not in the way of Command, But as we do not fuit ourfelves to the Man- 
ners of the Ancients -, thefe Prefaces are now generally ufed of Neceffity ; 
nor only as Explanations, but as Perfuafives to the paffing of the Law in 
the AiTemblies of States -, and likewiie to fatisfy the People : yet, as much 
as poflible, let Preambles be avoided •, and the Laitj begin wth comman- 
ding. 

Aphorism LXX. 

■jhtfullvur- 71. Tho' the Intent and Mind of the Law, may be fometimes drawn 

fort of the from thefc Preambles ; yet its Latitude and Extent fhould by no means be 

Li-w not al- derived from them : for the Preamble frequently fixes upon a few of the 

lufrom'the' rnore plaiifible and fpecious Particulars, by way of Example •, whilft the 

preamble. Law itl'elf contains many more : or, on the contrary, the Law reftrains and 

limits many Things ; the rcafon whereof it were not neceflary to infert in 

the Preamble : wherefore the extent of the Law is to be derived from the 

Body of the Law i the Preamble of