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3^arbar6 CoUfgf iibrarg 



J!lic.--U---'J--.-.--yciii^-* 






PHIIOSOPHT OF HEALTH: 



NATURAL PRINCIPLES 
or 

HEALTH AND CURE; 

OB, 

HEALTH AND CUKE ^TOHOUT DRUGS. 

MORAL BEARINGS OF ERRONEOUS APPETITEa 



By L. B. coles, M.D., 

YELLOW OF THE MASSACHCSETTS MEDICAL 80CIETT, AKD 
MEMBKB OF THE BOSTON MEDICAL A8S0CIAXI0II. 



.<■ 



TW£NT7.EiaHTH THOUBAND-SEYISEI) AND ENLABGSD. 



BOSTON: 
TICKNOR, REED, & FIELDS 

HDCOOLI. 






Gift of 
Oct . a, 1097. 



Eatered according to Act of Congress, in the yeftr 1851, 

BY L. B. COLES, 

la the Clerk's Office of the District Court for tho Biitriot of 

Massachusetts. 



G. C. BAND, 

Tbditkb Ain> Wholbsalb AcairT, 

No. 3 Cornhlll. 



STKRKOTTFXD BT 

HOBART t BOBBINS, 

mnr ERGUAin> TTPE ash STEKEOTTPE rOUKSZRTi 
BOSTON. 



PREFACE TO TWESH-SHTH EDUHH. 



A FORMER treatise on this general subject, of 
smaller size, was written as an e xp er im ent, to prove 
whether the peo{de in general were willii^ to be 
in&rmed on the science of right firing ; and whether 
they would a^^reciate tmth in its war6re against 
their mndi-loved and destractire sppe^xeB and habxts. 
In proof of the suoofas of that exp e rim ent, it may 
suffice to say, that the work has, in three years, passed 
throngh TwESTY'Tvm Editions, and the demand for it 
still continues. It has, therelbre, been thought beet 
to revise and enlarge it, so that it may contain mudi 
more instruction upon matters of sndi lital importance 
in practical life. 

It was (originally written, and is now re-written, 
under the most hearty sympathy with the sofferingi 
of humanity. The recollections of great iD health in 
early life, have ever called finth and kept alive that 
sympathy to the present hour. Hence, from the tiae 
of entering the medical profession, twenty-five years 
since, much attention has been given to the study of 
&cts relating to the laws of life and health, and the 
destructive nature of various popular appetites and 
practices which are working ruin to th^ phyacal, 
intellectual, and wonl wel&re of tUi generation. 



IT PBXFAGl. 

These ftots, compared and aasodated with other 
fiiots which have been developed by the researches of 
other men, are here set forth in a plain and »mple style, 
to be adapted to the reading of all dassos of people, 
and the benefit of everj oiie who wishes to be informed 
upon that which belongs to his highest earthly good. 

There is no canse of hnmon iii£feriDg so great as 
the want of intelligence among the people on tins sob- 
ject. There are c(»nparatiyely few who have even 
read the first word on this important matter; and 
therefore few who know any more about the structure 
and functions of their own bodies, or the natural laws 
which govern Iheir healthy eondition and the preven- 
tion of disease, than they know about the inhabitants 
of the moon. Those who think themselves wise on 
this subject, without reading, are of all persons the 
most ignorant of it. 

How, without reading, can any one tell how his 
blood is formed — how it circulates, or by what pro- 
cess his bread becomes his flesh and bones ? How can 
he know wherefore he respires through his lungs and 
his skin, and how diseases of those organs are engen- 
dered ? How can he know the seat and circulation of 
his electric fi>rces in the brain and nerves, which form 
the bond of union between his soul and body ? Let 
every individual wake up on this matter, and avail him- 
self of Nature's health-insurance policy, — for Nature 
always goes for health and long life. 

Thb Authob. 
BosToir, September, 1851 



CONTENTS. 



Page 

Vital OnoAXBt 9 

The Nervous System, 9 

The Circulating System, 14 

The Respiratory System, 17 

The Digestive System, 21 

PlOESTIYE PbOOESS, 26 

Mastication of Food, 25 

Formation of Chyme, 27 

Formation of Chyle, 28 

Evacuation of Bowels, 29 

PiETEno Laws, ' . • 88 

Hme taken ig)r Eating 88 

Time taken for Digesting, 85 

Time taken for Exercise, 42 

Time taken for Labor, 45 

Food aitd Dkinks, 51 

Quality of Food, 51 

Quantity of Food, 62 

Stimulating Drinks, 72 

Nourishing Drinks • • • 85 

Pabtioulab DisEOTioira, 88 

To Parents and Guardians, 88 

To Literary Institutions, 99 

To Professional Men, 107 

To Laboring Men, 118 

1* 



OnBsUiiiig, 



.lis 



On Indnjgeiioti, 124 

Hmu. Amcnom, 127 

Cheerfulneaa, 127 



BeueroleniM, ........ 180 

MklvTolenoe, 181 

OBLiaATiom TO lukw, 18S 

Phjiktl OUiiaticaii, 188 

Uoral ObUgatioQB, 186 

Taraoml Obligbtiona I8S 

8ocUI ObligBticms, 144 

HiiLrnr TtEi-soDDOTion, ...... 147 

Fatemsl PrindpK . . . . , . ,l4g 

FBternal BcfponiiUIi^ ** 149 

Hmtanud Prindple 166 

MMerntd BMpandtdll^, 168 

CusE OF Diseases 160 

B; Kemoving Caaaea 170 

Bj Tmaponxj Abatinanw, ..... 178 

By E^iteowtio DiKupHn*, 187 

ByltooiediraAgeDts, 196 

EBBOHEOng ApPBTITEi 209 

Ob Moral Acoountability, 210 

On Intelleotimt CharaoUr, 219 

On Mcrnil -Charduter ■ . 228 

On Chriitbn ChuMtar. 289 



INTRODUCTION 



Thbui it BBKndj any nfajeci m m m w a mStj 
leeted as a ksawledgd of the kwi of habk aad KAl 
All people love to be neQ, and dread to be sick; 
jet take little or no paiDB to aooMBBe tkeir heihk or 
to ward oflT disease, lliej ial^ge IkorippetiteB and 
iodinatioDS in violatioa of the lava «f keahh, natil 
tbey are overtaken witk tke penalty vUek die Great 
Author of oar boi^ has affixed to tfaeai* in tlie ftm 
of disease; and then knoir not wfcj or viMvefine tbej 
aie ill, or how to neofer. *" 

It may, witk p to piic ty, be said, tint mniitepn eaaea 
oat(^ twenty, if not ninety-nine oat «f a hnndred, of 
the ilk whidi annoy mankind, eqmally those of a 
chronic character, mi^t be avoided. We aught as 
wdl enjoy health, as a general nde, as to be groan- 
ing under pains and dJsRasm. Thoo^ we Bngjbt 
not be aUe to lepd meadea, small-poz, scarlet fevei; 
and many other contagioiis or epidemic disoasoa , ^at 
nearly all chronic disoasoa , and a very large proportian 
^ those whidi are acute, mi^t be prevented; and 
even those wluch could not be avoided, — for instance^ 
tliat fearful malady, the diolera, — by habitoal obe* 
dienoe to law, would be made of modi milder fbim. 

Yery^ttle is known by the people at hurgs oo this 
flobjeot, and what is known is very li^itly ap]^»ciatod. 



8 mTBODnoxioN. 

Soiiodj any sabjeot oan be presented to the oommn- 
Bity in which they take so little interest as that which 
immediately concerns their health, until they are over- 
taken with disease. Scarcely any subject is more 
unwelcome than this, especially to those who love their 
appetites more than health. They create a very 
large majority of their diseases by ignorance of their 
own organic laws — inform themselves on every sub- 
ject bat this — treat health as a matter of no account 
till destroyed — charge their sufferings to Providence, 

and DRUG THEMSELVES TO DEATH. 

These £sw pages are intended finr those who are 
willing to know what course is best in order to retain, 
or to regain, a healthy constitution ; for those who 
' have more regard for their own ultimate good than too: 
their present gratification ; for those who prefer the 
right way to that which fosters unlawM indulgence. 

It is not only a matter of expediency that we 
obey law in this respect, but a matter of duty. The 
laws which govern our constitutions are divine : and 
to their violation there is affixed a penalty, which 
must sooner or later be met. And it is as truly a sin 
to violate one of these laws, as it is to violate one of 
the ten commandments. Many seem to think that 
they have a right to treat their own bodies as they 
please; forgetting that Qod will hold them under 
obligation to physical as well as moral law, and that 
every infringement will meet with its le^timate and 
appropriate reward. '" L. p. C. 



PHILOSOPHY OF HEALTH. 



THE VITAL 0SGAK8. 

IJin)SR this head, those organs of the hod j are 
referred to, which are ooncemed most intimatel j m 
sustaining animal life, — withont the action of whidli, 
death must inevitably ensoe, — organs which form the 
baas of all b»ngs pofiseseang or^uiic vitality. 

THS VEMYOUB 8T8IEIC. 

Tsoi Bbadt 18 the seat and origin of aU the nervoas 
ftrees. It is made up of bandies of nerves. It is the 
seat of mental acticm. Its organic conformatioii m 
affected by the action and growth of the different diar- 
acteristicB of mind. Demonstrations in the science of 
phrenology prove this beyond a doubt. Man, in his 
original state, was created, doabtloss, with a perfect 
balance in the me and activity of the different phre- 
nological organs. But since the Ml a want of proper 
balance has diaracterized the whole human race. AH 
the organs of the brain subserve important purposes, 
while their action is kept within the limits originally 
intended for them. Even since th^ first derangement 
and perversion, they are never so extravagant in their 
action as to be absolutely ungovernable, so as to 
destroy the aoooontatnlity of their possessor. 



10 THS TITAL OB0ANB. 

Sometimes those phrenological tendencies are so 
strong that it requires great firmness and determina- 
tion to control them. TBese tendencies are partly 
congenital, and partly the growth of haHt. For the 
existence of those which are strictly inborn, no one 
himself is responsible ; bat for those tendencies which 
are the result of habit, every one possessing them is 
answerable. And as there are no inborn tendencies 
which cannot be governed, and as no one is responsible 
for their existence, there is no sin in their abstract 
being ; but the sin lies in allowing them any inor- 
dinate actbn. If they are originally extravagant, 
they can be governed ; and if governed, there will be 
no increase, but rather a decrease, in the proportion 
of their action. So that, on the whole, it is not the 
phrenology which gives habitual character, but habitual 
character which makes phrenology. A man's phreno- 
logical character will mainly be the product of his 
own habits of thinking, feeling, and acting. 

Hence the importance of every one's knowing his 
own phrenological tendencies, and essentially modify- 
ing them, by suppressing what is bad, and cultivating 
what is right. A knowledge of one's own phrenology 
helps a man to analyze himself. Hence, too, the 
importance of mothers' having a practical idea of 
the peculiar phrenological tendencies of each child; 
that they may know how to apply physical and moral 
discipline to the best possible advantage to the chil- 
dren under their care ; for it is in the power of mothers, 
in a great degree, to give a correct phrenological char- 



KIBTOCB ftUIUL. 11 



Mter to CMsh dnU vBder Aenr tahkn. E t e ij ■oth er 
flhould luiTe s pbreHdqgnl ^ait of ack child, ihI 
mke heradf aeqamled abo with Ihe fimrfampntil 
princ^es of phjaologr, that Ae maj be able to give 
such a ph jaoo-moial diadpiiiie to cadi, is wiD do 
hoDor to heiadf as a &idifiil modia', and irork cnt 
the phjacal and moral eahatkn of ho* ch3d. 

The Xebtes, proceedii^ as ^nej do from the bfiin, 
cany oat its infliiaices and rn min a iwfe into all the 
fiBictioiis ci the ammal eeonomj. Fran h go out 
vaiioas branches of nerrcs^ to tnmaBut, like so nan j 
telegraphic wires, the dectiic ihiid which is inaepan- 
blyoonoected with the YitalactioiK^eferj port of the 
body. The nerves generall j run in pairs fireaa the 
brain and spinal cord, — die great nerve of the \mAr 
bone, — to all parts of ^ bodj. A pair of nerres 
aie contained in one cord. One of this pair is the 
medium of sensation, and the other of mothe power. 
The one oommnnicates feding to and fiom the brain 
and an other parts of the body; the other ^es the 
power and the command of motioa of ererj part of 
the nrascnlar system. 

These nerves are, so to speak, tiie tekgr^ihie wires 
by which every port of the body, in regaod to its sens- 
ations and motions, holds intereoorse with every odier 
pari. They form the medium throogh whidi the 
brain recdyes intelligence from other parts, and gov- 
erns and controls all the organs of Tolontary motion. 
If , in the darkness of nig^ the end of the finger of 
the ezteoded ann diodd toadi a bnndiig iron, a me»- 



12 VBM YJXXL OBGAHB. 

nge by sensation would be forthwith sent firom the 
bonung end of the finger along the electric line to the 
brain, the general telegraph office, and immediatdj 
a command would be sent back, through the nerve of 
motion, commanding the removal of the finger. In 
this way, despatches are continually sent, during the 
active hours of life, on matters pertaining to motioii 
and sensation, to all parts of the system. 

Sometimes the nerves, by some injury, cease to 
operate, — cease to transnut their electric fluid fur- 
nished from the great galvanic battery, the brain, — 
by which the brain, or the will through the brain, 
ceases to command and control motion, and by which 
sensation is destroyed. We sometimes find a limb in 
what is called a sleep. This condition is caused by 
cutting off the circulating electricity in its course, by 
pressure on the nerve of the part. The pressure 
being removed, the electric fluid flows on, and sensa- 
tion and power of motion gradually return. 

Sensation and voluntary motion are not only depend- 
ent on a right electric circulation, but also those func- 
tions which involve involuntary action. Digestion in 
the stomach and the pulsation of the heart are carried 
on by electric forces. Cut the nerve communicating 
with the stomach, and digestion ceases; apply an 
electric battery, and digestion progresses again. The 
circulation of blood, through the heart and arteries, 
is doubtless kept up by the attractive and repulsive 
forces of electric currents. All the forces of nature, 
in the ouculating syst^n, ace greatiy dependent on 



TEX KjaSLYOVB BTBDEBf. 18 

this electric agency. The wounds of palsied limbs 
are &i slower in healing than of other parts. No 
vital function can be properly carried on, without a 
right performance of the electric forces. 

In view of these &cia, great pains should be taken, 
by those who care for health, to preserve the nervous 
system in a perfectly healthy state. Everything 
which tends to impair its tone, impairs the tone of the 
vital forces of every function of the body. And not 
only are these physical functions injured, but the men- 
tal forces also ; for the nervous system is the connect- 
ing medium — the medium of sympathy between mind 
and matter. Hence the wretched economy of all 
stimulants and narcotics on the nerves. The injury 
done to the electric forces by the use of such agents as 
the habitual use of tea, coffee, alcohol, opium, and 
tobacco, and especially the latter, is &r greater than is 
generally supposed. Of all those, alcohol, to the same 
degree of stimulation, injures the electric circulation 
the least. The influence of the other articles is more 
permanent and irretrievable ; yet their influences are 
so deceptive to their lovers, that few have understood 
their destructive power. Their exhilarating force, 
felt on taking them, blinds the mind to their reacting 
influence which must follow. Alcohol bums up the 
system by its carbon and inflammable gases, so that 
spontaneous combustion of the whole body sometimes 
takes place : but the nerves are less permanently dis- 
turbed by it, when used to the same extent, than by 

tea, or coffee, or tobaoco. 

2 



14 THB YUAL OBaANB. 



THX CntCtJLATINO BTSTKlf. 

The Heart, Abteries, Veins, and Cafillabies, 
are the principal organs through which the circulation 
of the blood is carried on. In the circulation of this 
fluid through these vessels, the heart recdives into its 
right ventricle the blood conveyed to it through the 
veins. This is called venous blood, and is of a dark 
color, on account of the amount of carbon contained in 
it. From the heart it is thrown into vessels contained 
in the lungs, by which it comes in contact with the 
air. Here it undergoes a change, and is returned to 
the left ventricle of the heart. Thence it is carried, 
by the pulsating forces of the heart and arteries, 
throughout the whole body. It is first thrown into 
large arteries, which divide themselves off into smaller 
ones, till they are reduced to the smallest conceivable 
ramification of vessels, called capillaries, for the dis- 
tribution of the blood to every part of the solids of 
the whole body. This object being aecomplished, the 
remaining matter of the blood is returned by the veins 
to the heart. 

In this way matter is carried to all parts of the sys- 
tem, for the supply of the waste that is constantly going 
on. In the young there is not only waste of matter 
to be replaced, but matter is needed for the growth 
and the perfection of the body. In persons of ripe 
growth there is matter constantly given off by the 
surface of the body, the lungs, and the organs of secre- 
tion and excretion, which must be replaced with fresh 



THE CIBCULiLTING SYSTEM. 15 

matter, or the body would soon perish. In diis way 
there is a constant change going on in the system, by 
which, once in about seven years, all the matter com- 
posing the body shall have been given off, and new 
matter supplied ; so that now we possess none of the 
matter which composed our bodies seven years ago. 
We are identically the same persons, but the matter 
composing " the house we live in " has been wholly 
changed. 

In view of these facts, a pure and healthy state of 
the blood is of vast importance. If we create impu- 
rities in the blood, they are carried to all parts of the 
fluids and solids of the whole body, and must, in some 
way, sooner or later, develop their fruits. Hence the 
importance of having our £x)d and drinks &ee irom 
all tendencies toward such impurities ; for the blood 
is supplied, as will soon be seen, from our food. If we 
use food adapted to create cancerous, scrofulous, or any 
other humors, we run the risk of having such humors 
develop themselves, sooner or later, in some part of 
the system. It may require a series of years for them 
to be exhibited, when it may be too late ever to eradi- 
cate them from the strong hold they have gained. 

After the blood of the arteries through the capillary 
vessels has given off its nutritive matter, as described, 
to every minute portion of the body, which nutritive 
matter consists in the red globules contained in it, 
made red by the oxygen with which they are impreg- 
nated, it is taken up by the veins which are distributed 
through all parts of the body, and returned back 



16 IHl TITAL 0B0AH8. 

to the heart. While on its way to the hearty just 
befinre reaching that organ, it is met by the great duct, 
oalled the thoradc doct, which coDveys into the return- 
ing blood the nutritive properties of the food, extracted 
from it by the digestiye organs. With this new 
supply of nutritious matter, the Uood goes to the 
heart, and then to the lungs, to receive a change by 
contact with the air, and continues its routine of cir- 
culation. 

The speed of action in the heart and arteries varies 
according to age, exertion, and excitement. The num- 
ber of^ pulsations per minute, in the unborn child, 
varies from 135 to 175 ; after birth, from 100 to 120 ; 
in adult persons, from 70 to 75. As ago advances, 
pulsation grows slower. At the age of 60 to 70 
years, it becomes reduced to 60, or a pulsation every 
second. The pulse of females is quicker than that of 
men. Motion and exertion increase the number of the 
pulse. Standing up, instead of laying down, increases 
it. Mental excitement greatly accelerates its motion. 
Stimulants, which produce a morbid excitement of the 
nervous system, increase the action of the heart and 
arteries. A draught of alcohol, a quid of tobacco, or 
cigar, will increase the pulse. A singjle cigar, by the 
fever it excites, will add from 15 to 20 beats per 
minute. These stimulants produce a diseased action 
and excitement of the heart and arteries, and thus 
induce a feverish motion in the pulse. 

It is calculated that the blood of an ordinary man 
will wdgh about thirty-five pounds; and that the 



17 



Wmmt nOOIl 

dnui two nd a Uf 




of certadn elfnipntMy r*™«^^« **»rtaS*>^ ^ iht\kai. 



for those oonlaiiied in Mnoe^bencmr. The 

and the Sidn, fimn the meiiom ihnvjgb iv^ick iM» 

interchange is made. 

The Lusgs eaos^ of an ^n^iww. znzatibsr of sufl 
edls. Connected vith these are snail taciES. li mi h 
ing oat fiom the bnodiial vAes^ xxA tkem vihm 
Iwranching from the trachea, or m in d ^ap R. At cvoj 
inhalation of air, these edk beeonae fiDed. Ai eroj 
ez^Miation of air, these orflf are nearh- enpiiedL 
When air is reoeiTed into the fanstz%, th*: liknd saC 
fiom the ri^ Tentride of the heart aMielE it. Ben 
the cazbonc^ the Uood is throvnoff in the fern of 
caihonic aesd gas ; vhik the oanrgen of the air takoi 
into the hmgs, is taken into the cirealaskn of the 
blood, and carried to eveiy part of the hxhr. Xogedier 
with reeeiving oxygen, dectr i e ii y it also Raoored and 
distriboted throo^ioat the bodj. 

Hie amoont of noarisfament derired froia lodibean 
a dose rdation to the sunoont <^ oxygen manred into 
the dicolatioo. The oxygen is abo fflwrataa] in ^* 
ing heat to the body. Hie carbon of the bkoifaeeooMa 
imited with the oxygen, the oxygen oonsaming theear* 
bon and finning carbomeaeidgK; theicibietheaiBoiiBi 
of Datmal heat dependi oo ike naaaai of oasjgBm 



18 TBB VITAL OBOAHB. 



into the lungs, and tlie amount of carbon of 
oar food ; by which, uniting with the oxygen of the 
air, animal heat is at once generated. The amount of 
air breathed, also, has to do with physical strength. 
The eagle is an animal of great physical power ; it 
inhales a very large amount of air. The oxygen, 
essential to nutrition, and the electricity, essential to 
nervous force, are taken into its lungs in very large 
proportions. 

The blood &om the veins, conveyed to the lungs, is 
of dark color, on account of the carbon it contains. 
Here an excess of carbon is given off m the form of 
oarbonic acid gas, and a corresponding amount of 
oxygen &om the air is taken in. This process of 
ezohan^g carbon &r oxygen, changes the color of 
the blood ; it gives to it a bright crimson complexion, 
which it retains till its oxygen is dispersed to the 
remotest parts of the body ; then the blood is taken 
again, comparatively deoxydizc-d, into the veins to be 
returned to the heart and lungs. The blood and air 
in the lungs meet and exchange their gases through 
the medium of a thin, delicate membrane, which pre- 
vents the blood from entering into the air-cells. 
When this membrane is ruptured, there is bleeding at 
the lung|3. 

It can easily be conceived, from these &cts, how 
important to the welfare of the whole system is the 
breathing of good air. If the atmosphere which we 
breathe is impregnated with hurtful gases, their influ- 
euoe 18 carried through the blood io every part of the 



THE BBfflKAIQBT BT8TEM. 19 

hoSj. If we are shut up in a dose room, eqieeiallj 
for the night, where the oocasioDal opening of the door 
cannot be depended on for relief, we nse np all the 
vital properties of the air in the room, consume all the 
oxygen, and give off carbonic add gas ; so that it 
becomes very offensive to one just entering the room, 
and very unhealthy to breathe over and over by the 
individual occupying it. We cannot be too carefbl to 
have a firee circulation of air in our sleeping apart- 
ment. Every school-room should have a v^itilator at 
the top of the room, where the bad air which rises 
can pass off, and give room for a firesh supply. 

K we are compelled to breathe air that is hurt^ 
it weakens the lungs, exposes them to disease engen- 
dered in their own cavities, or to disease carried to 
them from abroad. Many cases of bleeding at the 
lungs and of consumption have been induced by pro- 
tracted causes of this kind. Whenever we find a 
sleeping-room whose effluvia is unpleasant, we may 
know that its occupant is subjecting not only his lungs, 
but his whole system, to influences that are destructive 
to health, and ultimately to life itself. No air is 
fit to be breathed that has parted with its due pro- 
portion of oxygen, or is unduly charged with carbonic 
add gas. Unless the air to be breathed retains its 
natural equilibrium of elements, it is unfit for tiie 
healthy purposes of respiration. 

Consumption of the lungs has several different 
causes. One consists of those things which directly 
prostrate the vital fi)rceB : sooh as bad air, already 



20 XHX YTCAL OBOANS. 

deeoribed, and air vitiated by poiaonoiiB vapors, which 
directly enervate the texture of the lungs. Tobaooo- 
smoke is one of those poisonous vapors, which not only 
weaken and irritate the air-cells of the lungs, but, 
meeting tho blood as it comes up to receive its oxygen, 
sends its narcotic essence throughout the whole course 
of tho blood-vessels. Anything, indeed, whether 
received into tho system through the lungs, or in 
any other way, which weakens the powers of life, pre- 
dbposes to consumption, as well as other forms of dis- 
ease. A large proportion of consumptions arise from 
severe and protracted cases of dyspepsia. Sometimes 
foreign substances, dust and other hurtM matters, 
obtain access to the lungs, and irritate and inflame 
them. Vast damage has also, in past times, been done 
by pressing the lungs out of their place, and oppress- 
ing their expansion by lacing ; on which subject it ia 
not now necessary to enlarge. 

The Skin is also an organ of respiration. As the 
arterial blood flows out through the arteries into the 
capillary vessels, which unite the arteries and veins, 
it then gives off a portion of its elements to the 
atmosphere. It gives off a portion of carbon in car- 
bonic acid gas, and receives a portion of oxygen from 
the surrounding air. It also transmits electrical influ- 
ences which communicate between the body and the 
atmosphere. The healthful condition and action of 
the skin is greatly essential to health. Bad air will 
have its influence. Miasmatic influences take advan- 
tage of the fiust that the skin holds, in a great degree. 



THE DIOSSTin BYSTSM. 21 

the destiny of the body. If the action of the skin be 
retarded by having its pores and capillaries obstracted, 
there will at once be disturbance throughout the 
whole system. 

There is great sympathy between the skin and the 
internal organs. When the :Bmctions of the skin are 
deranged, there is disturbance in the action of the 
kidneys, which secrete from arterial blood elements 
which are not further needed. It also influences the 
liver, whose office is, the secreting and carrying off of 
matter collected from the blood circulating in the 
veins. The lungs, too, hold a close sympathy with the 
action of the skin. The whole system feels, when the 
skin suffers. Hence the importance to be attached to 
keeping the pores unclogged, by suitable washing, and 
unembarrassed by wrong sleeping arrangements. There 
should be needful bathing, but not excessive : the pores 
kept open, but not stimulated beyond their due action : 
and entire abstinence from the false and hurtfrd luxury 
of feather beds. 

THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM. 

There is no part of the human system which has 
such controlling influence over the whole body, as 
respects health or disease, as the Digestive Organs. 
Any derangement in these, especially the stomach, 
calls up a sympathy of action frx)m the whole animal 
economy. Nearly all the morbid actions found in the 
general system are produced from causes first operat- 
ing on the stomacL Hence, keeping the digestive 



THB VITAL OBGAHB. 



systeiii in a healthy state Becnres, as a general role, a 
healthy action in every other part of the phyncal 
organization. Therefore, to know sometlung of the 
anatomy and physblogy of the digestive organs, to- 
gether with the laws of digestion, seems indispensable 
for every individual who would know how to take care 
of his health. 

By the term digestive organs, arc meant the 
Mouth, Stomach, Liver, and Bowels, including the 
whole alimentary canal, commencing with the mouth 
and terminating with the extremity of the bowels. 
Extending through the whole length of this canal is a 
lining membrane, called mucous membrane, continuous 
throughout, from the lips to the opposite extremity. 
This membrane is filled, throughout its whole distance, 
with minute blood-vessels, and in some parts abundantly 
supplied with fine filaments of nerves. 

The Mouth, with its teeth and glands, commences 
the digestive process. The teeth are to masticate the 
food. The salivary glands give important aid, too, in 
digestion. There are three pairs of glands which pour 
the fluid which they secrete into the mouth. This 
fluid is called saliva. The effort of chewing excites 
these glands, and promotes the secretion of saliva, 
which is essential to the healthy digestive process. 
It is this fluid which is so lavishly secreted and cast 
away by tobacco-chewers. That which Nature re- 
quires for the welfare of the digestive process is wan- 
tonly and foolishly thrown away. The object for 
which the Creator made these glands, is perverted. 



I 



THE DIGESUyB SYSTEM. 28 

They are overtaxed in the amount they are made to 
secrete ; and this constant over-drafl, of itself, tends 
to lessen the vigor of the system. 

The saliva is formed from the blood ; and an excess- 
ive flow of it gradually diminishes the necessary 
quantity of this vital fluid. This being thrown oflF, 
the digestive organs are deprived of their due quantity 
to sustain properly the divine economy of animal life. 
Hence, sometimes tobacco-chewers have found that, on 
swallowing its juices, they have made themselves in 
better condition than when spitting it off. Although 
by this process they get more of the narcotic poison 
of tobacco, yet the saving of that important fluid, the 
saliva, has more than compensated them. How much 
better that men who profess to be above brutes, put 
away a habit so low and unnatural that brutes will 
not descend to it ; and cease to pervert this order and 
law of Nature, on which ultimate health and the nat- 
ural duration of life depend ! 

The Stomach is the most important organ of diges- 
tion. It has three coats : that which has most to do 
with digestion is the mucous coat, which lines it. 
This coat is supposed to furnish by its glands what is 
called gastric juice, which is. the principal agent of 
digestion in the stomach. This organ is abundantly 
supplied with nerves, and holds a very powerful sway 
over the whole nervous system ; so that, when the 
stomach is under the influence of disease, either acute 
or chronic, the whole system is immediately in a state 



24 TBB TITAL OBQANB. 

of sofferiDg. To secure, then, a healthy systan, the 
stomach must bo kept in health. 

The Liver has to do with digestion. This organ 
furniiihcs the bile. It is the largest gland in the body. 
Its office seems to be, to gather from and carry out of 
the system, substances which, if retained, would prove 
hurtful. When the liver is inactive, wo have what ia 
called jaundice ; the liver failing to take up from the 
system that substance which forms the bile. Wh^i 
this is the case, a yellow substance is found diffused 
throughout the entire system ; the white of the eyes, 
and sometimes the surface of the whole body, exhibit a 
yellow tinge. 

The bile, when properly secreted and discharged, 
meets the contents of the stomach as discharged into 
that part of the bowels nearest the stomach, and 
is there supposed to assist in the process of separatmg 
the nutritious part of that contents from the refuse 
which is to pass off" by the bowels ; but its more im- 
portant office, doubtless, is to aid the passage of the 
refuse, or the feces, by evacuation. The bile seems to 
be nature's appropriate stimulus to the bowels, without 
which, costiveness and other irregularities are likely to 
ensue. 

The Bowels contain the absorbent vessels, called 
lacteals, which take up the nutritious part of food, and 
carry it into the circulation of the blood for the support 
of the system. They consist of small tubes distributed 
along the course of the bowels, especially the small 
intestines, whose mouths suck up the chyle, conveying 



TEPI PIOmrVB PB0GBS8. 25 

it into the thoracic duct, and thence into the Tenons 
blood, before it reaches the heart. The bowels then 
convey the refnse part of the food out of the body. 

The whole length of the intestines is &om six to 
eight times that of the whole body. The mucous mem- 
brane which lines them, as before stated, is continuous 
&om the mouth to their extremity ; smd such is the 
sympathy of one part with another, that an injury to 
that portion which lines the mouth and stomach may 
manifest itself upon its other extremity. Tobacco, by 
its poisonous power in tiie mouth, has sometimes pro- 
duced the most inveterate piles. 



THE DIGESTIVE PBOCESS. 

H ASTIGATION OF FOOD. 

Mastication, or chewing, is the first step in the 
process of digestion. When food is taken, it should 
be thoroughly masticated before it is suffered to pass 
into the stomach. Without chewing, the food is too 
coarse and gross for the stomach, and is unprepared 
§Ofr the action of the gastric juice. Besides this, the 
action of chewing causes the food to be mixed with the 
saliva, which is an important item in the preparation 
of it for the action of the stomach and its juice. The 
food should therefore be finely broken up, and thor- 
oughly moistened with saliva. In order to accom- 
plish this end, it is highly necessary that food should 
be taken with sufficient moderation to g^ve time finr 

8 



26 THB DIOSSnTX PEOcns. 

the process of masticatioo, and the discharge of Baliya 
from the glands of the mouth. Eating fiist, or even 
talking while chewing, besides its inoongroity with 
politeness and good breeding, is directly at war with 
thorough mastication. 

Many persons seem to think that hurrying thnr 
meals to save time, is economy ; their business drives 
them, and they drive their time of meals into the 
smaUcst possible compass. This is miserable economy ; 
for when they hurry down their food, half chewed and 
half moistened with saliva, it deranges the process of 
digestion throughout ; and, as a consequence, the food 
not only sets bad on the stomach, and in time causes 
dyspepsia, but it fails to accomplish the sole object of 
taking it — the nourishment of the body. In order to 
derive nourishment from food, it must be well digested ; 
hence it must be well masticated. When, therefore, 
we hurry our eating, we hasten our steps on the wrong 
road. Time curtailed in eating, is worse than hiring 
money at three per cent, a month. If we cannot 
spare time to eat, we had better not eat at all. This 
idea cannot be too deeply impressed; thousands, by 
this kind of careless, reckless eating, have found them- 
selves the victims of dyspepaa and all its attendant 
train of evils. The digestive organs may bear the 
abuse a while without giving many signs of trouble ; 
but the penalty of that broken law must, sooner or 
later, come ; and it may come in the form of a broken 
constitution. 



FO&MATION OV OnTMI. 27 



FORMATION OV CHYHE. 

OhymifaciioD, or the transformation of fix)d into 
chyme, is the next important step in the process of 
digestion. The food, after mastication, passes into the 
stomach ; here it is formed into a homogeneous mass, 
partly fluid and partly solid, which is called chyme. 
What is the exact philosophy of this process, has been 
a matter of some discussion, into which it is not neces- 
sary now to enter ; nor is it yet satis&ctorily settled, 
so as to admit of any definite instruction being given. 

The theory which is now generally received, respect- 
ing the manner in which the stomach acts upon food 
is, that the gastric juice possesses a solvent power, by 
which the food becomes reduced to a uniform mass. 
The solvent power of the gastric juice is very great in 
healthy, vigorous stomachs, but varies in strength 
according to the energy of that organ. 

The solvent power of the gastric juice is evidentiy 
controlled by the vital principle, or principle of life. 
While the gastric juice of a healthy stomach acts vig- 
orously upon the hardest kind of food, yet sometimes, 
when it comes into contact with anything possessed of 
the principle of life, its power is stayed. Worms, 
while living, are not affected by it, but, when destroyed, 
are often digested. 

The gastric juice possesses the property also of coagf- 
ulating liquid albuminous substances. The stomach 
of the calf is used for this purpose by the dairy-women, 
in making cheese. When the infant throws up its 



tm MCUKUVB FBOOBB. 



milk beoanse the stomach is too fbll, that milk will be 
more or less curdled ; and, instead of OHifflderiog this 
onrdHng an indication of disease, it should be consid- 
ered a symptom of a healthy stomach. 

The time ordinarily occupied in the process of 
ohymi&ction, when &od has been properly masticated, 
has been ascertained to be &om four to fiye hours. Hie 
first hour of this period is occupied in the process of 
intermixing the food, after it enters the stomach, with 
the gastric juice. After this is accomplished, an alter- 
nation of contraction and expansion of the stomach, or 
a kind of revolving motion, takes place, and continues 
till the whole mass is cbnyerted into chyme, and is 
oonyeyed to the first intestine, the duodenum, or second 
stomach, to undergo another change. 

TOBHATION OV OHTLB. 

Ohylifaction, or the formation of chyle, is the next 
great step in the process of digestion. This takes 
place in the duodenum. The chyme firom the stomach 
IS let into this intestine littie by littie. A valve at 
the lower opening or outlet of the stomach prevents it 
from pas^ng any &ster than it can be disposed of in 
the fi>rmation of chyle. This fluid is a thin, milky 
liquid, extracted from the chyme, and then taken up 
by absorbent vessels, called lacteals, and carried to the 
blood. 

Hie chyle passes slowly through the duodenum, and 
in doing so becomes mixed with another fluid Aimished 
from the pancreas or sweet-bread, and the Inle from 



^ fiver. PiMng Urn domlj iknaa^ lb kqp 
intestme, ample tune m ffwat fir ^e htbeah to tdoe 
up ill thif in Tilinlilr Jn U i iiiiml iiitii itr iiiimliliMi 
fiMT tfe noaririimRnt and gfpart of die gyilML Tkm 
diyle, taken up bj Ae lacteak, ia &«ed j co Bf g iie d 
into Uood; and in aunj of ita ehacaetenaliea it werj 
doedy resembles blood. Hie pvoeeai bj irbick ^i 
ooaversion is carried on is called abaorpdon. That 
dasB of absorbent yeasdb called keteals are not onlj 
£xuid in the lower part of the first intflsripe, die dao- 
denrnn, bat are distzibBted freely along ti^ amafl 
intestines, and consid er ably akng the large intpwiinw, 
finr the porpoee, as befiire stated, of condnedng ti^ 
diyle in its appropriate coarse fiir tlie fcrmaliifMi €i 

tnOOQ* 

XTACCAnOV OF BOWZaUL 

£?aciiadoa, or the disdiaige of die lefbae part of 
fiiod tliroogh die bowels, is anodier, and the last step 
in die process (^ digestkn. Hus part of the subject 
has a yery important bearing uposi the condition of 
healdi. It is imposable for any one to e^joy good 
health while this office of die bowds is impa-fixdy 
perfimned. 

If the bowds axe idaxed and irritable, die fiiod is 
txnrne along too soon and too rxpySlj : this causes the 
process of diyli&ction to be imperfect ; the diyle is 
imperfecdy formed, and the lacteals have not safficient 
time to absorb it from die mass. This prevents the 
6od from noariBhing die sjBtem. Hence, diose who 

8» 



80 TBM BKOBXm FBOOBMi 

sofier from dhromo diarrhoea may eat largely, and yok 
grow weaker and weaker ; their food does not nomiflh 
tiiem ; the natritioos part of it passes off throng the 
bowels, instead of being taken into the blood. 

If the bowels, on the other hand, are constipated, 
the consequences are no less unhappy. No one can 
possibly bo well with costive bowels. The free and 
easy action of the bowels is as truly essential to health, 
as the free circulation of the blood. When the bowels 
are sluggish, the process of absorption of the chyle is 
retarded, and what chyle is absorbed is less pure and 
healthy ; so the quality of the blood is impaired. 

Besides the evils already mentioned, a costive state 
of bowels often causes a pressure of blood on the brain ; 
also derangement of the nervous system — excitability 
of the nerves, nervous headache, depression of spirits, 
and a long catalogue of sufferings, too numerous fi)r 
detail. Habitual costiveness impairs the tone of the 
stomach, and prevents its healthy action. Piles, also, 
with various degrees of severity, are often caused, 
directly or indirectly, by constipated bowels. 

The causes of costiveness are various ; and to point 
them out in detail would be, perhaps, a fruitless toil. 
But there is one cause, and a very common one, which 
daims attention here, — it is the habit of inattention 
to and neglect of the natural promptings of the bowels 
to evacuate themselves. Thousands on thousands, 
especially females, by a habit of checking the natural 
inclinations of the bowels to throw off their contents, 
have brought upon themselves an habitual costivenesB, 



mwAoaASiors ow womoB. 81 

winch, m tiiii6y DBS oort thfloi immenfls winftnng fluo 
wretchedness. 

No one should ever hold his bowels in check, if it be 
possible to avoid it. It can be readily peroeived, that 
doing this would tend to diminish the natoral effinrt of 
the bowels, and to collect thdr contents into a solid 
mass. Then the exertion required to empty the 
bowels, or the physic taken to aid and make effectual 
that exertion, tends also to increase the difficulty. 

A habit of costiveness should always be removed, if 
posdble ; and the best way of doing this is by a course 
of discipline. Those articles of food should be selected 
which have an influence to keep the bowels open. 
Bread made of flour has a tendency to constipate them. 
But brown bread, and bread made of wheat meal, have 
a tendency to open them; also molasses taken witli 
food has an additional' tendency. Fruits and greens, 
if the stomach can bear them, are adapted to relieve 
costiveness. 

The influence of the mind should also be brought to 
bear upon this difficulty. The operation of the mind 
on the physical system is always great, especially in 
chronic complaints. A person with costive bowels 
should have a mental determination to have a natural 
evacuation of the bowels at some regular hour in the 
morning; just after breakfast should be preferred. 
By a mental calculation — by bearing the subject in 
nund — by thinking and desiring — by electrifying 
the bowels into action by the force of thought — by 
intending to have them move about that hour, — 



8*2 . XBi BiaBinyi pbocbsb. 

very mudh may be done by way of fiusilitating BQoh a 
result. 

But if, instead of attending to a &yorable diet, and 
of thinking on the subject at the proper time, we treat 
the difficulty with medicines alone, we do harm rather 
than good ; for the more alteratives we take, the more 
is the trouble increased. The physic only OYercomes 
the constipation for the time, and afterwards leayes 
the bowels in a more torpid state. Still, rather than 
endure the consequences of costiveness, it is better to 
take alteratives, in conjunction with other means, until 
the difficulty can be overcome. When alteratives axe 
used in conjunction with discipline, they should be of 
the mildest kind. No proper pains should be spared 
in overcoming this derangement of nature, till a habitual 
and voluntary movement of the bowels, once in twenty- 
four hours, is secured. 

In this account of the digestive system, we see how 
our food is converted into blood for the nutrition <^ 
the body. The food is to be masticated in the mouth, 
&rmed into chyme in the stomach, separated into chyle 
in the duodenum, taken up by the lacteals, and con- 
veyed to the veins. Then passing through the lungs, 
and receiving oxygen from the air, which gives to it its 
crimson color, it becomes prepared to nourish every 
part of the body, by supplying it with matter for its 
growth, or to meet its waste. The purpose of eating 
should be to accomplish this object. And we should 
confine ourselves to the eating and drinking of those 
things which answer this end. That the digestive 



BXBTKEIO LIWB. B8 

organs may never be burdened with artideB which 
cannot be conyerted into blood ; and that the blood 
may never be adulterated with foreign subetances, which 
can never be assimilated into flesh. The essences of 
tea, and coffee, and alcohol, and tobacco, can never be 
converted into blood, or assimilated into flesh; but 
they are taken into the blood as foreign substances, in 
their unconverted state ; so that they not only produce 
a morbid excitability of the nervous system, but adul- 
terate all the fluids of the whole body, and even show 
their effects in the complexion. 



DIETETIC LAWS. 

TIME TAKEN FOB EATING. 

Time for eating has claims for attention. If persons 
intend to have health, their meals should be regularly 
timed and distanced. There is much importance to be 
attached to the kind of food which we allow ourselves 
to take ; but the time of taking it, together with the 
proper intervals between meals, has a much more 
important bearing on our health. Therefore, as just 
stated, meals should be regularly divided and distanced. 
A good common rule, for the time of meals for the 
laboring classes, is, breakfast at seven o'clock, dinner 
at one, and supper at seven. But, at different seasons 
of the year, and with different classes and occupaticms 
in society, the time of meals must vary. 

But, whatever hours may be selected as most c<m- 



84 mwTio LAWS. 

venient &r meols, they should be onifbrm ; and ior this 
reason : at the honr when the stranach is aooostomed 
to receive &od, the appetite is generally sharper, and 
the e^c juioea more oopio^a, than they ate immedi. 
ately before or after that time. If food be taken before 
the accustomed hour, the stomach is, as it were, taken 
by surprise, and is not fi)und in perfect readiness to 
receive it ; if the meal is delayed beyond the accus- 
tomed time, conunon experience teaches that the appe- 
tite is liable to lose its sharpness, — there is, fbr a 
while, less inclination to take food. The objection, 
however, against delaying a meal beyond the usual 
time, is very small compared with the objections against 
eating too soon ; because, when a meal or luncheon 
is taken soon after a previous one, the stomach has not 
had sufficient time to go through with the digestive 
process, and to recruit its energies for another effort. 
But when a meal is delayed longer than usual, thou^ 
the appetite may lose its sharpness for a short time, 
yet it will return again ; and the digestive power of 
the stomach will not have been impaired, unless the 
period of abstinence should be of long continuance. 

In the arrangement of regular meals, regard should 
be had to the hour of rest at night. Ten o'clock, as 
will hereafter be considered, is a favorable hour for 
retirement ; and no food should be previously taken, in 
all ordinary cases, within the space of two or three 
hours. If food be taken too near the time of sleep, so 
as to leave no chance for the more active parts of the 
digestive process to be performed, there will be found 



TDfB TAKEN TOB DiOBSTINa. 86 

general! J a dull, heavy pain in the head on the follow- 
ing morning, with diminished £^petite. llie food has 
laid comparatiyelj undigested through the night, be- 
cause, when we sleep, the whole system is in a quiescent 
state; the nerves which are called 'into action in the 
process of digestion are, during healthy sleep, inactive. 
A late supper generally occasions deranged and dis- 
turbed sleep ; there is an efibrt on the part of the 
nerves to be quiet, while the burdened stomach makes 
an effort to call them into action ; and between these 
two contending ofbrts, there is disturbance — a sort 
of gastric riot — during the whole night. This dis- 
turbance has sometimes terminated in a fit of apoplexy, 
and in death. 

TIME TAKEN FOB DIGESTINa. 

Time for digesting what is eaten demands of every 
one who values health a most serious consideration. 
Ignorance on this topic, and inattention to its import- 
ance even when understood, have involved thousands 
and millions in untold suffering and premature death. 
If it were possible so to impress the mind of commu- 
nity on this subject that they would obey nature's 
laws, — the laws which the Great Author of nature 
has given to our digestive systems, — we should see a 
very obvious change taking place in the standard of 
general health. The larger portion of people have 
no rules for eating, but to eat, as they say, " when 
they are hungry ; " having no regard to the time of 
eating, or to time for digesting ; but, like the short- 



80 fizxxEno LAwa. 

fed beasts, take a little here and there, whenever and 
wherever they can get it. They think their owa 
stomachs are a sufficient guide, in spite of fiicts and 
philosophy. Therefore, they eat whenever they feel 
inclined. 

Their stomachs would, perhaps, guide them in the 
right way, if a morbid action of that organ had never 
been induced by previous irregularities and indul* 
gences. But when irregularities have deranged nat* 
ural appetite, and placed in its stead a morbid one, 
then appetite is no longer a safe guide. In any pro« 
pensity of the body, there is a wide difference betweea 
the demands of healthy nature and morbid nature. 
Yielding to any denumd &om the latter, is wrong in 
principle, and bad in economy. This is not only true 
in relation to eating and drinking, but in regard to any 
other propensities of the body. 

Three meals a day are sufficient for all classes of 
persons, under all circumstances, and of all ages. For 
persons having weak stomachs, and many persons of 
sedentary habits, two meals a day, rightly distanced, 
might be preferable. But no individual, whatever 
may be his age, his occupation, or his health, should 
take solid food more than three times in one day. No 
person can do more than this without transgressing 
nature's laws. The reasons for this rule will soon be 
given. 

An argument against taking food at regular inter- 
vals is ol^n attempted from the fact that many dumb 
animals have no regular times of eating; and it is 



XIMB TAMOBS BOB KOXSIINO 17 

mged that these animalfl haye no other guide than the 
dictates of nature. In answer to this, it may be said, 
that the halnts of dumb beasts, siuce the introduction 
of ^n into the world, under the weight of which ** the 
whole creation," or, rather, as the original signifies, 
wnsBLY GBEATUBB, " groancth, being burdened," are not 
always in exact accordance with nature's rules. For 
instance, cattle are put into a lean posture, and they 
are nnaUe to gather a iidl meal at once ; they are 
obliged, perhaps, to graze all day long to obtain sufSi- 
oient subsistence. In such cases, to allow intervals 
betvreen meals, would be to undergo gradual starva- 
tion. But put dumb animal3 into Mi feed, and 
what do they do? They deliberately eat a full 
meal, and then cease eating till that meal is fully 
digested. Hence, the testimony taken &om this 
source, when we make a fair test, is unequivocally 
and uniformly in &vor of eating at intervals sufficient 
for digestion. 

Eating at intervals sufficiently long to allow the 
i^ d^estion of a meal before another is taken, is as 
truly essential to the good constitution and health of 
beasts, as of buman beings. The time was, Gv&i 
mthin the limits of fifteen or twenty years, when it 
was customary, on driving a horse on the road, to 
feed him about every ten miles. This was enough to 
kill the poor animal ; he had no time to digest his 
food, and derive nourishment from it ; and it is well 
that such a system has been abandoned ; and it would 
bo better still, if inteUigent beings would adopt a susi- 

4 



JIlJETJRiO LAWS. 



ikr rale of diet for Uiemselyefl, and those nndbr their 
care. Thoee who drive horses for pleasure-riding or 
in teaming, at this day, haying proved the folly of the 
old system, feed regularly three times a day. 

Under this rule, the animals eat, on the whole, less in 
quantity, are found in better order, and endure math, 
more : and why ? because they derive, by obedienoe 
to natural law, more nourishment from the same food, 
and do not break down the digestive organs by op- 
pressing them with too oft-repeated meals. But when 
individuals live as they list, and eat when they please, 
in disregard of right rules of diet, they commit a 
crime against nature. They sin against God, by treat- 
ing with contempt his laws ; they sin against their 
own bodies, by committing gradual suicide ; and the 
penalty of those violated laws must be met — there is 
no escape ; the punishment will, in some way, sooner 
or later come ; Nature will, without a single failure, 
take this matter in hand, and sustain the validity of 
her own laws. 

Now for the whys and wherefores of these direc- 
tions. In tho first place, food must be thoroughly 
masticated. This requires about halt an houb; 
especially at dinner, which is, generally and properly, 
the principal meal for the day. Inattention to and 
curtailment of time necessary for mastication, is a 
violation of physical law at the very outset of the 
digestive process; and one which, more or less, 
deranges all the other steps. In the second place, 
when food is lodged in the stomach, it requires ordi* 



deeded ikn a pan! AoEt ^ isnr Sid Si aaiiL 

TlmcfijRiy wo two imeais <st Tina'Hwin^ itommt ^ 
tiBomrd to eamt mmu » <adk zaar aan. x 
of at Insl nm ^xks: fcsranHP. 3S srr wBisa. 



^esdoo, to lie 9!w iArii^ wrsk 5l t:ai» SKfr oTiK: 

of tiiat penod, it pradaoB caafiBBB: dK^ 

die fiist seal if iBletninal; ibcflOBBB sk^ ^"IBF'4 

tottopthm^aaiXg mad htpm^ mew TBKgm 

BoeaodmMBal; tkoevill lie nniilnlifTa sn^isr 

die two proeeaes. and Indi &e aBoee&sdJT yviiLiiiadL 



of mUfiti oii, ham ife sae qnesisj asffi waStijfi 
^)od, k raodi leas. 

To IDastiate tins j M ihad of pRsefiedme ami m§ 



and Brookline, dioald set ooi £rgai Beacui&^EEiKi 
widi paaso^eis, and, aHer fiMPrnj. kuf cd^ ae &- 
tamoe, tlie drirer drald leeolket dbc ifaer^ -viBEe 
seYcral other pMPrngeg vkiB he had fep yxaw* ; 
and, instead of fi™hmg fc% |fimj t raBte.aBd ^aijo^ 
those left behind at ^ aot ngdbo^ ti%^aevh»k 
about, bringB Ub load hack, tafca nt the nm, and 

Ftnmdj mtUym i» tUa^iatha 



40 tsaano ulwil 

oourae whioh multitades take in respect to thmr ea&ig; 
one meal is half digested, and another is crowded upon 
it. The organs are kept continuallj at work, without 
systematic order, and without chance to rest and recruit 
their energies. 

The good effects of regular and simple diet may be 
seen by visitiDg our prisons. There the inmates are 
generally in possession of good health, notwithstanding 
their confinement and close air. Some have gone there 
greatly afflicted with dyspepsia, but have obtained a 
complete cure, and become robust ; and this at the time 
there must unavoidably have been a great and con- 
stant mental oppression. This is incontrovertible testi- 
mony in fevor of plain and regalar Uving. 

Besides the positive injury done to the digestiye 
organs themselves, by eating too often, and a sympar 
ihetic injury to the whole system, there is a sort of 
negative injury done to the entire system by the 
interruption of the process of nutrition. After break- 
fast has been taken, let a lunch be eaten about eleven 
o'clock, and the process of forming chyle is injured by 
the digestive energies being attracted too soon to the 
work of disposing of the eleven o'clock lunch ; and so 
on in the same manner, so long as meals and lunches 
succeed each other without giving at least five hours 
space for digestion. Hence, the system receives less 
nourishment from about twice the quantity of food per 
day, than it would receive under a regular, systematic 
diet, with a regular quantity. 

It is argued by somci as just stated, that the inolin- 



XIMa XAXIN IQR BieBBSQia. 41 

ntion to eat is a proper guide to the time and fire- 
quenoy of eating. But if we eat ten times a day 
habitoallj) the stomach is obliged to undergo such a 
change in its action, that we shall think we are hun- 
gry as many times. There comes up a disordered 
action of the stomach, and a morbid appetite ensues. 
What sort of a guide is a man's inclination to eat, who 
is just emerging from the prostrating power of a typhus 
fever ? And why is it that those who are always eat- 
ing are always hungry, while those who live on three 
meals a day are not inclined to eat till the regular 
meal-time comes ? 

But why contend against facts established by the 
researches of learned physiologists ? They have given 
us the time required for digestion ; we know that, this 
being correctly ascertained, we cannot interrupt that 
process , without detriment. And who is willing to 
sacrifice justice to himself, and to the Author of his 
being, for the paltry gratification of a moment? 
Thousands do it; but it seems too uncharitable to 
suppose they would do it with their eyes open, though 
it is to be feared too many are willingly blind. 

Whoever knows no law but the fearful dictates of 
wrong appetites, is like a ship, driven by fierce winds 
coastward, without anchor. If we would do right — 
if we would act upon principle — we must obey every 
righteous law. That is a safe and prosperous govern- 
ment where obedience to law is sustained ; that is a 
well regulated physical system whose physical law is 
obeyed. But how sadly this law is trampled under 

4# 



ftoi! How many there aie wbo rererse one of the 
best rales of life! While all should eat to UTi,ihej, 
impiously and wantonly, uyb to sat. In this way, 
they destroy the very foundation of all true enjoyment 
fiom temporal sources, and prejudice the prospect for 
the future life. The old heathen adage, " Let us eat 
and drink, for to-morrow we die," is the sum and sub- 
stance of their theology; they know no Gtod but 
thdr belly. 

TIMB taken fob EXEBCISB. 

Timo for exercise has an important connection 
with digestion, and is indispensable to health. It is 
important to the healthy state of body and mind. 
Bodily health cannot be secured without due attention 
to exercise. Persons of sedentary habits, especially, 
should give particular attention to this subject. Per- 
sons of active or laborious habits can make their 
business subserve the purpose of exercise, while those 
whose daily task requires little physical exertion need 
some other exercise. By such, let this part of the 
subject be particularly heeded. To illustrate what is 
meant, take the case of the shoemaker. "HiB business 
chains him to the bench ; it gives him insufficient bod- 
ily exercise ; he is too much confined. 

The shoemaker, then, or the man of similar occupa- 
tion, should endeavor to have a garden to cultivate, if 
in the country, because this is one of the very best 
kinds of employment for exercise ; it affords physical 
motion and exertion; it ^ves amusement to the 
mind, and it secures healthful influenoes from the earth. 



UMB xAKnr we ■kbroisb. 4t 

• 
If iliis meiiMi oannot be seoored, then resort Bhoold be 
bad to catdng wood, or some other nsefiil exertion ; if 
ibis cannot be obtuned, then be must resort to some 
artificial exercise ; at all events, some kind of brisk 
and smart exorcise sbonld be had early in the morning, 
before breakfast. This giyes activity and energy to 
the body, greatly invigorates the appetite, and exhil- 
arates the mind. This role applies to all sedentary 
habits. 

Merchant-men and coonting-room clerks shoold ao- 
Gostom themselves to con^derable daily exercise of 
body, in order to preserve a balance of muscular and 
nervous energy. A great tax is laid on this class of 
men for the expenditure of nervous forces. To pre- 
serve these, the muscular energies must be kept awake 
by some timely means. Each secular day should have 
its portion of time for this purpose. A short space 
each day might save many a broken constitution or 
premature age. 

Persons devoted to the mental labor of study and 
writing chdm a share of attention. Their principal 
physi(»l exercise should be taken on an empty stom- 
ach, i. e., just preceding a meal. Just after a meal, 
they should be at leisure, or amusement which requires 
no mental or physical exertion, for at least one hour. 
Then they are prepared for close study until near the 
time of the next meal ; leaving a Ettle space for relax- 
ation ; as also, when bodily exercise precedes a meal, a 
few minutes' relaxation before eating should be had, 
that the nerves may regain thdr equilibrium. 



4A nnenxio liwb. 

But wben exercise is spoken of in relation to tfak 
olasB, tliat which would agitate or exhaust the hody is 
not meant. Such exercise would be decidedly detri- 
mental. If they would give time for eating and for 
digesting, they conld perform a large amount of men- 
tal labor with far less time devoted to mere exercise, 
and that exorcise of a milder character, than would 
otherwise be required. But every one should accustom 
himself to some brisk, lively, cheerful daily exercise, 
if he values his health. The same rule applies with 
equal force to all, whatever maybe their calling, whose 
labors are of a mental character. Under these rules, 
three hours of dose study would be worth more than 
ox in the ordinary way. 

If students and professional men would preserve 
health, they must keep an equable balance between the 
physical and mental systems. This cannot be done 
without a portion of time devoted to some systematic 
physical discipline. That discipline should consist of 
something which not only gives exerdse to the body, 
but amusement and exhilaration to the fatigued mind. 
If this can be gained by the use of mechanical skill 
which can give a small income, it will add to the pecu- 
niary resources of those whose means are limited. But 
if the only practicable means of muscular exercise and 
mental exhilaration must consist of something that is 
of no pecuniary advantage, it is still of vast import- 
ance ; for, though it can furnish no money, it will 
secure that which can nowhere be bought with money. 
A ten-pin alley, aside from its bad moral odor, is one 



rat KABOB. 46 



of the b«rt modeB of ezercise. The gymoadiim ibr- 
niaheB the very best plan, doobtleeB, on the whole, ftr 
gmng bodilj vigor. Both of these call mto labor the 
musdes of the arms, ehest^ and abdimien. 

TDfB TAKEN KA LABOR. 

Severe ezertioD of body or mind, immediatel j after 
a fall meal, should be armded. No man should pnft 
himself to the severe exertion of mowing grass, pitdi- 
ing hay, planing boards, or severe exercise of mnscolar 
system of any kind, for about an hour after eating; 
and especially after ^Qnner, whidi is generally the 
largest meal. Every man can generaUy avcnd it, if he 
dlioose. ** Where there is a will, there is a way," is a 
vnlgar, bat a true proverb in such a case. The dail j 
business of some men is not of a kind to reqoire sooh 
exertion as woald need to be soqiended on Ihis ao- 
ooant ; bat where it is, this law most be observed, or 
damage will finally be felt. A man will sooner wear 
himself into old age and the grave, for n^lect of thiB 
nataral law. The same role lilies equally to mental 
labor. No man should put himself to dose stody 
immediately after a ftdl meal, neither to dose countings 
room labor, or teaching, or puUie qseakii^. In the 
latter, there is not only too great mental, bat also phys- 
ical exertion. 

Now fi>r a reason for this role ; let the dinner be 
taken for an illustration : why should we rest ftom 
much exertion after taking our dinner? And this rule 
applies with equal foroe to all dasses of pesaons and 



4B IIUEUIIO LAWBv 

all kinds of budneBB, wbich require severe nmcnnlar or 
moDtal exertion. The reason is this : while the ftod 
18 being mixed with and broken up by the gastric 
juice, which process generally occupies, in the case of a 
dinner, full one hour, the nervous energies — electric 
forces — of the whole system are drawn into sympathy 
with the stomach, and made tributary to this part of 
the digestive process : their aid is needed : this is a 
law which the Author of Nature has established, and 
it should be obeyed ; L e., nothing should be allowed 
to interrupt this natural arrangement. But, if we 
allow ourselves to make much bodily or mental exer- 
tion during the hour mentioned, we distract this 
arrangement ; because, when bodily exertion is made, 
the nervous energies are required and drawn in that 
direction, in aid of the muscular forces ; or, if the mind 
is made to labor, then the nervous energies are called 
in that direction. Hence, when body or mind is taxed 
considerably immediately after eating, the process of 
digestion is much c^turbed and interrupted. 

Everybody's experience corroborates the truthM- 
ness of this theory. We know that after a full meal, 
especially a dinner, there is a disinclination to much 
bodily action or mental effort ; so strong is the draft 
upon the nervous energy, or nervous fluid, or animal 
electricity, whichever it may be called, that it is with 
difl&culty we can call it in any other direction. There- 
fore, to make much exertion of body or mind imme- 
diately after a meal, is to violate a law of the animal 
economy. To attempt hard work, or study, within 



TDCS TAKBf lOE LABOE. 47 

(me honr afber eating, wOl indaoe in an j one, exoepi 
the most Yigorons system, with a cast-iron stomach* 
derangement in the functions of the digestiye organs; 
the &od wiQ not digest so well, and the system will 
not be as well noorished finom the same quantity of 
£x)d. Hence, the whole system is impaired, its yignr 
and durability are diminished, and life is shortened. 

It is in yain that we contend that nature has no 
rules — the Maker of these bodies no laws — yiolated 
law no penalty. It is worse than idle to say. Here are 
A, B, and C,-= — they have lived to a great age — 
have been robust, and have never observed these rules. 
The general rule is one thing, and the exceptions are 
another. These instances appear to be the exceptions 
to a general rule. But are they really and in all 
respects exceptions? Because some who have kept 
their bodies and souls in a gradual steeping of alco- 
holic liquor, have been apparently robust, and have 
lived to old age, is it proved that alcohol has never 
done them injury ? But, while one has lived a long 
life in violation of law with seeming impunity, a hun- 
dred and one, especially of those who have followed 
sedentary habits, literary men in particular, have grad- 
ually ruined their constitutions. 

Whoever has intelligence enough to know that na- 
ture has laws, is in duty bound to obey them, and not 
run the hazard of laying temptations for disease. And 
whoever will take the safe side of this matter, will 
always find it for his good. Even the former, in the 
most driving season of the year, will find obedience to 



48 imilH'AO LAlfB. 

law lo be tv his interart. Let him oonlbrm — and 
Ids men with him — to the old maxim, " after dimier 
at a while," even one hoor^ — or, what might be better, 
instead of sitting idle, let all hands do some lig^t mat- 
ter, snch as arranging and preparing tools, — and he 
will find, in the long ran, more work aooomplished, with 
less expenditore of strength. 

Let them work lightly for an hoar, — jost as 
they would treat a yalnable horse after a fnll meal, 
— and then closely task their energies until the 
time of another meal. This light exercise, im- 
mediately after eating, if it be something artificial, 
i. e., got up simply fi}r exercise, shoold not only be 
light, so as not to require real mascolar exertion, bat 
it should be something that is adapted to amuse and 
exhilarate the mind. The state of the mind has much 
to do with the health of the body, and especially the 
healthy and free action of the digestive organs. Hence, 
it is exceedingly important, in all efibrts at exercise, 
that the mind be interested in whatever the hands 
undertake. Anything that is a piece of drudgery to 
the imagination, would be of little service to the body. 
The fact that the nervous energies are attn^^ted in 
the direction of the digestive process immediately after 
a meal, which renders any considerable physical or 
mental exertion at that time particularly burdensome, 
is proved true in the conduct of dumb animals. When 
the ox or the horse has grazed a full meal, he imme- 
diately becomes indisposed for exertion or activity. 
And the same rule should bo observed, in regard to Ids 



TDIB TAKEN lOB LABOR 49 

labor, that has been reconimended for human beings ; 
he should never be forced into hard labor short of one 
hour after he has eaten his meal. The ferocious ani- 
mals, when ihey have taken a fail meal, lose for a time 
their fierceness, and are comparatiyely harmless. And 
so it is with men : if it be necessary to ask a favor of 
a morose or tigerish man, seek an interview imme- 
diately after dinner; if a charity is to be solicited 
from a creature who carries a miser's soul within his 
encasement of flesh, see him immediately afler dinner. 
At any other time than after a ftdl meal, he would 
refflst, and succeed, probably, in warding off every mo- 
tive ; but while the nervous energies are taxed with 
the digestive effort, he cannot rouse himself so well to 
meet the emergency. He will rather grant the favor 
asked, than annoy himself with the effort necessary to 
repel the invader. 

If a laborer commence hard work immediately after 
eating, the action of his nervous energies is distracted ; 
partly drawn toward the stomach, and partly forced in 
the direction of the muscular system. By this unnat- 
ural fitrced action of the nerves, the digestive process 
is impaired ; the food is not thoroughly broken up by, 
and mixed with, the gastric juice. By this unlaw- 
ful operation, the food is comparatively unprepared 
for all the rest of the process. The chyme and chyle 
must be imperfectly fbrmed, and the system, so far as 
each such meal is concerned, imperfectly nourished. 
Besides this, the fercing of the muscles to exerticm 
against the natural inclination of the nerves to supply 

5 



60 Dimno laws. 

the neoeasary power, gradually impaira die power and 
activity of the muscular system. 

The man who disregards this law will grow old 
&ster — other things heing equal — than the man who 
allows time for the thorough digestion of his food. It 
is his food which sustains him in labor ; therefore, he 
is in duty bound to ^ve that food the best possible 
opportunity to give him support. The same law pre- 
vails in dumb animals as in man. Whoever works his 
oxen or drives his horses immediately afler their eat* 
ing, will find, in the course of an experience suj£cient 
to test the point, that his beasts, under such a manage- 
ment, will soon wear out ; while his neighbor's beast, 
under a treatment which accords with nature's law, 
will be robust and endure. It is economy, then, as 
well as health, to yield obedience to this natural law. 

Mental labor should never be attempted within one 
hour after a meal is finished. If a close mental ap- 
plication be made immediately after eating, whether it 
be a merchant casting accounts, or a student getting 
his lesson, the digestive process is impaired ; the ner- 
vous energies are drawn, in a measure, away from the 
direction of the stomach to the brain. This unnatural 
action frequently causes an increased quantity of blood 
to be lodged on that organ, occaaoning a dull, heavy 
headache. Sometimes it will bring on a nervous head- 
ache. The influence of this course is also very inju- 
rious to the stomach. Hundreds and thousands of 
students and professional men have in this way brought 
upon themselves dyspepsia, with its long tram of untold 
symptoms and sufferintr?. 



FOOD AND DRINKS. 51 

Many a one has in this way broken irremediably his 
constitution. With too little physical exercise at the 
right time, and with mental labor at the wrong time, 
he has ruined himself for life^ or brought himself to a 
premature grave. Many a one has gone through a 
regular course of education, — prepared his mind for 
usefulness, — but, by haying neglected the laws of hk 
body, — neglected to keep up a proper balance of ac- 
tion between his physical and intellectual powers, — 
he has rendered himself disqualified for much execu- 
tion in the callings of life. His mind, though well 
disciplined, cannot act in this life without a body ; the 
bodily energies are so deranged and weakened as to 
hold the intellectual Acuities in a state of comparative 
imbecility. 



FOOD AND DRINKS. 

THE QUALITY OF FOOD. 

All our nutrition comes primarily from the vegeta- 
ble kingdom. If we eat flesh, the nourishment which 
made that flesh came from vegetables. The nutrition 
from the corn on which the hog is fatted becomes 
assimilated into his flesh ; and, by eating that pork, we 
get the nutrition of the com, animalised, after pass- 
ing through, and having been incorporated into, his 
system ; or, if we eat pork that has been &tted on dead 
animal matter, we get our v^table nutrition after its 
having passed through two processes of assimilation. 
But it is proposed to speak here of taking vegetable 
nutrition in its original state. 



62 VOOD AND DBINK8. 

This WB8 nnqiiestioDabl J the original method adopted 
by the Creator for the nourishment of man. Man, in 
his original, holy state, was provided for from the r^ 
etables of that happy garden which was giyen him to 
prune. The Creator gave to Adam charge of the gar- 
den, filled with fruits " good for food," which he was 
to dress, saying, " To you it shall be for meat." This 
was the Creator's original plan ; one animal was not 
to devour another animal for food. The eating of flesh 
was suffered, as one of the consequences of the fall. 

It is generally admitted, however, that no animal 
food was used till after the flood ; and its permission 
then may be put down with other things allowed and 
provided for by law, "because of the hardness of 
men's hearts," some of which were abrogated and 
repealed by the .Saviour. Swine's flesh — that worst 
of all flesh for eating — was even then prohibited. 
While it is not my object, however, to insist on entire 
abstinence from meats, it is due to show to Americans, 
who are eating more flesh than any other civilized na« 
tion, the English as a body not excepted, that the pro- 
portion of their meats to their breadstufife is enormous 
and detrimental. Living on the bread-stu£fe, and other 
productions of the V(^table kingdom, is undoubtedly 
the most natural and healthy method of subsistence 
for man. 

There never was probably an erroneous notion of 
such universal prevalence as the idea that muscular 
strength and endurance depend on animal diet. S(n- 
enoe and ftots are both at war with this error. What 



THB QUAIJn^T OV FOOD. 53 

is it which makes blood and flesh, and gives pennanent 
foToe to muscular fibre ? It is the nutritive properties 
of food. The breadstuff contain as large a proportion 
of nutritious matter as the meats. As much blood 
can be made of the grains, as of the same quantity of 
animal food. In other words, the elements of nutri- 
tion esseutiaJlj forming the chemical components of 
the blood, out of which all the solids of the body are 
made, are contained as largely in the breadstu£& as in 
flesh. These elements are Fibrine, Albumen, and 
Caseine. 

These elementary principles, found largely in the 
^uten of wheat, are indispensable to the maintenance 
of life — the supply of material through the blood for 
the formation of muscular fibre, and the constant 
waste of organized substance. When this supply is 
cut off, the body begins to waste, and finally dies. 
But there is no intelligent chemist or physiologist who 
will deny that, where the breadstuff form the pI:^lci- 
pal food, without the use of flesh, the system is as 
thoroughly ftimished with material for its supply of 
organized substance, as when meats are used. Arti- 
cles embracing these elements are called azotizisd 
substances, because they contain azote — an element 
essential to the formation of muscular fibre. 

There are other elements essential to the vital 
process of respiration, which, though they have noth- 
ing directiy to do with the formation of muscular fibre, 
are nevertheless indispensable to the mamtenance of 
lifo. Articles containing these eieanmiB are oalled 

6* 



54 lOOD AND SBIMXfl. 

iroH-ACOTiEED substaiioes. The principal ingredieni in 
ifaese is carbon. The union of carbon and oxygen, by 
respiration and the consequent chemical changes which 
occur, generates the heat by which the body is kept in 
an equable temperature in all kinds of weather and cli- 
mate. The carbon is burned, as it were, by the oxy- 
gen, and heat is evolved. Where there is a deficiency 
of one or the other of these two, there consequently is 
a diminution of healthy animal heat. 

Here we meet another popular error in regard to 
the indispensable necessity of animal food, viz., that, 
without meats, sufficient animal heat cannot be main- 
tained for cold weather. This, however, is a kind of 
fidthless theory in the mind of those who advocate it ; 
fbr they eat the same quantity of meat in the hottest 
weather that they are accustomed to use in the very 
oddest ; and at the south they use meats, especially 
the &t of pork, altogether more largely than at the 
north. But what is the scientific basis of this conclu- 
laon ? It has none. The carbon, which is essential to 
the production of animal heat, is contained more 
largely in the breadstuff than in the meats. The 
wheat and other breadstufis contain not only gluten, 
the basis of animal fibre, but starch, containing car- 
bon, the basis of animal heat. Hence, bread may, 
with scientific exactness, be called " the staff of life." 

A much larger proportion of carbon is contained in 
starch than in flesh. According to Dr. Carpenter, an 
Enghsh physiolo^t, fi)ur pounds of starch contain as 
much carbon as fifteen pounds of flesh. How, then, is 



> ' •" 



TEBQUALTTT 01* FOOD. 55 

the eating of flesh to favor the generation of heat nior« 
than bread ? Here this notion meets an overthrow at 
once. An inhabitant of the &igid zone may live on 
oil, and tallow, and fat, which largely contain carbon, 
and dispose of it, if to no advantage more than that 
&om the carbon of bread, jet without the damage he 
would experience from its use in a temperate or hot 
climate. But that the carbon of bread could not sus- 
tain him in Greenland, remains to be proved. Science 
says he could be sustained on bread. Facts, too, so 
&r as tested, are stubborn things, both in regard to 
the influence of bread on muscular flbre and on animal 
heat. 

Among the enormous flesh-eaters of America, few 
have given this matter a &ir test. A few years 
since, quite a large number not only left off meat, but 
undertook to lire on nothing ; and, finding themselves 
starving to death, Returned to their former diet. But 
there are a few who have found themselves well able 
to live on a generous supply of bread, with other veg- 
etable products, with advantage. Dr. Muzzey, of Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, wrote me, a few months since, that he 
still continued living exclusively on the fruits of the 
vegetable kingdom, — which kind of living he adopted 
some twenty years since, — and found himself healthy 
and vigorous. A gentleman of my acquaintance, who 
has spent fi>rty years in seafaring life, now aged nearly 
eighty-five, says that in all the hardships and ex- 
posures incident to sailing on seas and coasbs, his 
health has always been firm, oould endure oold bettw 



■ «. 



56 FOOD AND DJUNK8. 

than the most hardy of his crew; and yet he has never 
firom childhood ate of meat the amount of one ordinary 
meal per week. 

Another gentleman, belonging to this city, a dealer 
in wood and coal, aged about forty years, informed 
me, some three days since, that he never saw a sick 
day — had always been accustomed to muscular labor 
— knew no weather too cold for comfort — could bear 
great iatigue — and yet had never tasted of meat from 
his infancy. A more perfect specimen of manly vigor 
and soundness could not well be found. Hayward's 
History of Massachusetts gives account of a man, liv- 
ing in Worcester county, who, at the age of one hun- 
dred and sixteen years, was able to go out into the 
hay-field and mow. He had never ate meat from 
early childhood. The author of this work has tried 
this experiment for the last twelve years, and finds 
himself in more vigorous health, better able to bear 
changes in weather, and performing more wearing labor, 
than at any former period in life. 

The Hindoos, with a climate decidedly unfriendly to 
English and American people, live almost entirely on 
rice. They enjoy uniform health, and are able to per- 
form the most enduring muscular exertions. While 
the flesh-eating fi)reigner is afraid of heat and night 
air, and is groaning perhaps under an inflamed liver, 
the Hindoo can carry him upon his shoulders over hills 
and through streams, under a scorching sun by day, 
and sleeping on the bare ground at night. The natives 
of Sierra Leone live in the worst climate in the world. 



THE QUALITY OV FOOD. 57 

subsisting entirely on boiled rice, with a small quantity 
of fruits, and are strong, healthy, and long-lived. The 
laborers on the coast of Africa perform great manual 
labor, with a muscular power which is considered won- 
derful, having giant strength and perfect health, and 
live entirely on vegetable products. 

If we were to consult the instincts of our nature 
strictly, we should hardly be able to consider meat the 
most congenial diet ; for there are few places more 
uncongenial to the untutored nasal organs than a shop 
of fresh meats. Besides the unpleasant sight of slain 
beasts to a reflecting mind, — beasts slain for our 
devouring, — the smell of their raw flesh is repulsive 
to all, exce|»t those whose natural sense is blunted by 
the culture and indulgence of a voracious appetite for 
flesh. It seems to me, also, that flesh-eating is not 
only unnatural to our instincts, but to our physical 
organization. The following extract contains testimony 
on this point which seems appropriate : — 

" Flesh-Eating and Vegetable-Eating. — To con- 
sider man anatomically, he is decidedly a vegetable- 
eating animal. He is constructed like no flesh-eating 
animal, but like all vegetable-eating animals. He has 
not claws, like the lion, the tiger, or the cat ; but his 
teeth are short and smooth, like those of the horse, the 
cow, and the fruit-eating animals ; and his hand is 
evidently intended to pluck the fruit, not seize his 
fellow-animals. What animals does man most resem- 
ble in every respect ? The ape tribes : frugiveroua 
animals. Doves and sheep, by being fed on animal 



58 VOOD AND DBINK8. 

food (and they may be, as has been faHj proved), will 
oomc to refuse their natural food : thus has it been 
with man. On the contrary, even cats may be brought 
up to live on vegetable food, so they will not touch 
any sort of flesh, and be quite vigorous and sleek. 
Such cats will kill then: natural prey just as other cats, 
but will refuse them as food. Man is naturally a veg- 
etable-eating animal : how, then, could he possibly be 
injured by abstinence from flesh ? A man, by way of 
experiment, wjis made to live entirely on animal food ; 
after having persevered ten days, symptoms of incip- 
ient putrefaction began to manifest themselves. Dr. 
Lamb, of London, has lived for the last tlurty years 
on a diet of vegetable food. He commenced when he 
was about fifty years of ago ; so he is now about eighty, 
— rather more, I believe, — and is still healthy and 
vigorous. The writer of the Oriental Annual men- 
tions that the Hindoos, among whom he travelled, were 
so free from any tendency to inflammation, that he has 
seen compound fractures of the skull among them, yet 
the patient to be at his work, as if nothing ailed him, 
at the end of three days. How different is it with 
our flesh-eating, porter-swilling London brewers ! A 
scratch is almost death to them." — Flowers and 
Fruits, hy J. E. Dawson. 

It is not intended, in this small work, to dwell so 
particularly upon the kind of vegetable eating most 
oonducive to health, as upon the manner and regularity 
of eating. There are, however, some vegetables in 



TQB QUALITY OF FOOD. 69 

oommon use, wliich ought promptly and forever to be 
rejected. Cucumbers, though considered a luxury, 
should never be eaten. They are cold, indigestible 
things. True, some stomachs can seem to digest 
them with apparent impunity : so, too, some stomachs 
have digested steel; but this does not prove that 
it should be used for food. The condiments with 
which they are usually prepared do not assist in their 
digestion; except by over^timulating the stomach, 
which stimulating process always tends to weaken 
that organ. Condiments aid in digestion in the same 
way that alcoholic liquor aids a laborer in performing 
8Q extra task ; which process always tends to weaken 
the system. There are other articles which might be 
mentioned as inappropriate for the human stomach ; 
but a little common sense and observation will gener- 
ally decide what is proper and what improper. 

It is suitable and needful that continual sameness 
in diet should be avoided. It is better that there 
should be considerable sameness in each individual 
meal ; but the kind of articles of which different meals 
are composed may with benefit be varied. The more 
simple the diet, on the whole, the better. Compli- 
cated food, especially that which is compounded with 
various kinds of condiments, is bad; such as very 
rich puddings, cake, and pastry of various sorts. 
Mince-pies, wedding-cake, and plum-puddings, as they 
are generally made, should never be introduced iato 
the human stomach — and the prohibition need never 
extend beyond the human stomach, for dumb animals 



1 



60 FOOD AND DBINK8. 

could not be compelled to eat them. Hot bread, jnst 
from tbe oven, should never be ate till it has cooled 
and parted with its heated gases, which are hurtful to 
the stomach. Bread which is perfectly cold is more 
healthy for debilitated digestive organs. Cold bread 
toasted is not objectionable. 

Food should be simple, yet nutritious ; and so pre- 
pared — though not with stimulating ingredients — as 
to be palatable, — inviting to the appetite. If the 
food be poor, or poorly prepared, the stomach will 
loathe it. Here is found one cause why some have 
not been successful in their efforts to simplify their 
diet; they have reduced ttieir living to a poverty- 
stricken quality, by which their whole systems have 
become weakened. Food should be palatable and 
nutritious. It is not best that that kind of food should 
be constantly used which embraces within a given 
quantity the greatest amount of nutrition; but the 
nutritious and comparatively innutritions kinds should 
be used together : for instance, sugar is too nutritious, 
i. e., too much nutrition in a given quantity, to be 
used alone as a meal ; the digestive organs would soon 
break down with such an encumbrance. But sugar is 
a good article of diet, when used in conjunction with 
articles containing less nutrition in the same quantity. 

Simplicity of diet, i. e., living on simple, plain 
food, is exceedingly important in securing good health 
and a sound constitution. The great cause of the 
difference between the present standard of health and 
that of puritan times consbts in the difference in the 



THB QVAUTT OV TOOD. 61 

manner of Kving. Then, the people lived naturally ; 
now, they live artificially. Then, their food was plain, 
homely, and simple ; now, it is rich, delicate, and com- 
plicated. Then, the bean-porridge was the luxury; 
now, the highly-seasoned meats and the rich pastry. 
The children were brought up on plainer food than even 
their parents ; now, the little ones are invited to all 
the unnatural luxuries in which the parents indulge. 
Then, a plain brown crust, even without butter, was 
ate with relish ; now, nothing but the richest dainties 
will meet the demand. 

Fruits of various kinds are proper articles of diet 
in connection with other food. Apples, pears, plums, 
cherries, oranges, pine-apples, &c., may properly be 
made articles of diet, and come under the same rules 
and restrictions as other articles of food. They may 
be treated as mere luxuries, to be eaten at any and all 
times ; because they require very little effort of the 
digestive organs to dissolve them, and extract their 
nutrition. It is undoubtedly better, however, that 
fruit should be taken as other articles of diet, at the 
regular time of eating, as a part of the meal. As a 
general rule, fruit should be taken as a part of the 
regular dinner. Gt)od, ripe fruit, taken in this way, 
is beneficial to health, by way of variety ; and, if the 
bowels are at all sluggish, fruits are adapted to remove 
that difficulty. 

6 



62 VOOD AND DRINKS. 



THE QUANTITY OV FOOD. 



The quantity of food which it is necessary to take 
at each meal is not a matter of so much importance as 
the regularity and simplicity of diet. Some writers 
on diet have undertaken to prescribe certain limits to 
. the quantity of food to be taken, by weight. This 
would seem to be a difficult task. To measure out to 
each one a quantity suited to all the different circum- 
stances in which he may be placed, and to all persons 
according to their great variety of ages and constitu 
tions, would be a laborious undertaking, indeed : and 
it seems to be unnecessary. Whoever will govern 
himself by dietetic law — eat plain food — only three 
times a day — give time for food to digest — take 
proper exercise — will find little difficulty in settling 
the question, how much he ought to eat. Whoever 
will live right, need not ask his cook to weigh out his 
quantum of food : only give her a chance, and Damo 
Nature will settle that matter, and relieve him of all 
such burden of mind. A person with morbid appe- 
tite may cat too much ; and he should limit himself : 
but a perfectly healthy stomach will easily decide 
when it is sufficiently supplied. 

Many have been much injured by too rigidly lim- 
iting themselves in their quantity of food ; so that 
their systems were not sufficiently nourished. In the 
effort to change their course of living from great 
luxury to temperance, they ran over the line, into the 
opposite extreme. They reduced the quantity and 






THE QUANTITY OF lOOD. 63 

the quality of their food too low. By this course, they 
reduced their health and strength, and finally, per- 
haps, concluded that their former way of living was the 
best. The system must have nourishment, and the 
quantity must be varied according to circumstances-; 
and a perfectly healthy stomach will furnish the best 
index to the quantity demanded. 

It is a misfortune for any one, especially for one 
whose health has become deranged, to keep his mind 
continually dwelling on the questions, what he shall 
eat, how much, &c. ; because this continued mental 
anxiety tends to embarrass the free action of the 
digestive functions, and increase the difficulty. Still, 
he must give some attention to the subject in some 
way : he must not be reckless in regard to the laws 
of his existence. The better way is, let him make 
himself intelligent on the subject of the laws of his 
nature, and then he can keep himself within the 
limits of those laws without mental effort, as well as 
he can keep himself within the limits of civil law when 
once understood. 

The rule jp. regard to quantity often mentioned, to 
**eat until satisfied," is a bad one. The rule often 
given, too, in regard to the frequency of eating, to 
"eat when hungry," is also erroneous. When the 
digestive organs are in a perfectly healthy state, their 
instinctive demand for food, and their entire satisfac- 
tion as to quantity, would be a safe rule ; but when we 
know that a large portion of the appetites of this day 
are not healthy and natural, but morbid and desfcrao- 



64 TOOD AND DSINKB. 

tiye, mere appetite ceases to be a safe guide. If a 
man would have his stomach be a safe guide, he must 
be sure to let it have a chance to act naturally. In- 
stinct would guide us right ; but instinct has been 
perverted and oppressed, till its voice cannot be dis- 
tinctly uttered. 

No strenuousness is intended on the subject of ani- 
mal food : it is better to let each one choose for him- 
self. Yet it may not be improper that some sugges- 
tions should be made, some facts stated, and the 
results of experience shown, for the benefit of any who 
may be willing to heed them. Flesh-eating is cer- ^ 
tainly not necessary to health or strength, as every 
candid mind must see. If it be used, it must be 
used as a matter of fancy, and not of necessity. K 
the vegetable world did not furnish all the elements 
from which health and strength are derived, the sturdy 
horse and ox would find. themselves sadly unfurnished. 
They need the same elementary principles in their 
food which are needed for man. Flesh evidently, as 
already intimated, composed no part of the food pro- 
vided for man in his primeval state : its use came to 
be suffered in consequence of the fall. And if, as 
argued by some, the food obtained only from the veg- 
etable kingdom is not adequate to the sustenance of 
man, the Creator must have made a mistake in his 
first arrangement for the support of his creatures. . 

Some naturalists have classified man as in part a 
oaxnivorous animal ; but this would not prove it his 



THB QUANTITT 09 FOOD. 65 

duty to eat flesh : because either the indications of his 
classification are the result of his habits of flesh-«atii.g, 
or they existed before the fall, and mean nothing as 
relates to his mode of living. The teeth of the car- 
niyorous animals have either conformed to their habi^ 
or they existed in the present form before the fall, and 
consequently have nothing to do with their eating 
flesh ; for it cannot be supposed that animals devou]>»d 
one another in their primetal state. My eflR>rt now, 
however, is not so much to persuade any into an entire 
disuse of meats, as to show the impropriety of an 
over-proportion of them. 

One objection to eating so large a proportion of 
animal food lies, in the fact that it increases the pro- 
portion of our animalism. When the nutrition of 
vegetation comes to us tlurough the flesh of an animal, 
it has undergone a sort of animalization ; and, as it 
passes into our circulation, the proportion of the ani- 
mliam in our natures is mcreased by it. A serious 
objection would seem to lie against such a result ; for 
man is quite sufficiently animal, without taking this 
kind of stimulation to make him more so. 

The facts supporting the above statement are these : 
it is well known that, when hunters wish to prepare 
their hounds for the chase, f^ey confine the diet of 
those animals to flesh ; and that this course does in- 
erease the savageness of their dispositions. By its 
stimulating, animalizing properties, it excites the ani- 
mal propensities to increased activity and ferocity. 
It gives no more str^igth than that derived firom 

6* 



M VOOD AND nUKKS. 

biead ; but it excites the animal pasalons. When an* 
oient warriors desired to ^ve their soldiery a special 
fitting for the brutal battle-field, they would feed them 
exelunvely on flesh. When the gamester at cock- 
fightihg is preparing his fowl to win the prize, he con- 
fines him to flesh. The experiment of flesh-eating 
has been tried upon the cow. When she was confined 
to flesh food, rather tiup starve, she at length ate 
flesh ; and finally lusted iter it, and ate it as greedily 
as though she had belonged to tiie carnivorous race. 
But it changed her natural disposition to that of the 
tiger : she became ferocious. And she verified an- 
odier general rule with meat-eaters ; she lost all her 
teeth. 

It is generally admitted, also, among intelligent 
peq>le, that eating much flesh tends to diminish intel- 
lectual activity ; and that consequently it is not well 
fbr those who devote themselves to study to indulge 
largely in the use of meat. This general impression 
is founded on sound philosophy. When we increase 
the proportion of our animal nature, we oppress the 
intellectual. If students would make easy progress, 
they must not indulge themselves with eating much 
flesh; and the less, the better. If any would be emi- 
nent, too, in morals or religion, let them eat but little 
flesh ; if none, still the better. For, when we increase 
the activity of the animal propensities, we weaken 
the power of the moral sentiment, and endanger the 
reedtude of moral action. We need to encourage and 
oiiltivace our intelleotoal and moral powers, rather 



THB QUANUTT OV YOOD. 67 

thaa our earmdity. We are naturally savage enon^ 
in our dispositions, and fleshly enough in our appe- 
tites, without taking a course that will increase those 
qualities. There can be no question but that the use 
of flesh tends to create a grossness of body and spirit. 
A reference to the history and character of different 
nations alone would prove this. There is certainly a 
grossness in the idea of (me dumb animal's making 
food of another animal ; and- the idea of an intelligent 
being's devouring the flesh of another animate crea- 
ture is grosser still. And will the advocate of true 
refinement — will the advocate of moral purity and 
religion— indulge m such luxuries? 

Another objection to animal food is, it vitiates the 
fluids of the system. Practical demonstration has 
often substantiated this statement. Take the grea( 
mass of cases which require treatment for a humor, 
and it will generally be found that the individuals 
thus affected were, themselves or their immediate pre- 
decessors, large eaters of flesh. Even the cancer can 
generally be traced back, eitiier mediately or immedi- 
ately, to such an origin. And what has been found 
to be the most effectual remedy in cases of oommon 
humor? Abstinence from eating flesh. When we 
feed on flesh, we not only eat the muscular fibres, but 
the juices or fluids of the animal ; and these fluidi 
pass into our own circulation — become our blood — 
our fluids and our flesh. 

However pure may be the flesh ci the animals we 
eat, their fluids tend to engender in us a humonoiui 



6B lOOD AND DBINK8. 

slate of the blood. But the meat that is ^ven us in 
the markets is very fax firom being pure. The very 
prooess taken to fit the animals for market, tends to 
produce a diseased state of their fluids. The process 
of BtaU-feeding is a forced and tmnatnral one. by 
which the fluids become diseased ; and then we eat 
those diseased fluids. Some of our meat is fatted in 
country pastures ; but, by the time it reaches us, the 
process of driving to market has produced a diseased 
action of the fluids. 

If it be argued that these objections may lie against 
raw meat, but not agauist it when cooked, it may be 
answered^ that if meat can be cooked so severely as 
to remove its juices entirely, it might be comparatively 
harmless ; but just in proportion to those juices will 
be its nutrition, and also its injurious qualities ; be- 
sides, if the juices could be entirely removed, who 
would eat the meat? and how much nourishment 
oould be obtained from it V 

Animal food exposes the system more effectually to 
the causes of acute disease. Where the fluids are in 
a diseased state, the ordinary causes of disease find a 
more easy prey. Thousands on thousands of those 
who have been afiOicted with, or have died of fevers, 
small-pox, cholera, &c., might probably have escaped 
their deadly influence, if their fluids had not been 
vitiated by animal food. In cases of inoculation for 
small-pox, a dieting process is recommended, which 
very much mitigates the malignant character of the 
disease* But let an individual be inoculated who has 



THB QUANTITT OV FOOD. 69 

been accustomed to simplicity and regalariiy of diet, 
and especially who has been accustomed to abstinenoe 
from animal food, and he is already dieted ; he need 
not change his course ; he is prepared to have the 
disease with comparative safety. The use of meat is 
undoubtedly a fruitful source of disease, and a means 
of enhancing those diseases which are unavoidable. 
The severest cases of worms in children may, as a 
general rule, be found among the greatest meat- 
eaters. 

The vitiated state of the fluids is often seen in 
the character of wounds. In those whose fluids are 
pure, wounds heal readily. Smooth-cut wounds, if 
rightly treated, will heal by what is called ** the first 
intention," or the first effort of nature : while in those 
whose fluids are vitiated, there is a liability to exten- 
sive inflammation and ulceration. In cases of rough 
wounds and bruises, where the fluids are pure, nature 
gets up a cure with remarkable speed ; but in those 
whose fluids are corrupted, the process of cure \a gen- 
erally long protracted, and sometimes exceedingly 
obstinate and unmanageable. 

In Humboldt's description of the Indians of Peru, 
Mexico, Quito, and New Grenada, they are repre- 
sented as peaceful cultivators of the soil, remarkably 
exempt from disease, and free from physical deformi- 
ties. They live almost entirely on vegetable nour- 
ishment. In his narrative of himself, he gives the 
same decided testimony as to the character and habits 
of various other South American tribes. Our Amer^ 



70 lOOD ANB DBINKS. 

ioan IncBanSi who, in their savage state, live entirely 
on flesh, are short-lived, and greatly subject to epi- 
demic and contagious diseases. Whole tribes are 
sometimes swept off by measles, small-pox, and other 
maladies. In Nantucket and Martha's Vineyard, in 
1764, a fever appeared among the Indians dwelling 
there, which swept off 202 out of 340, in the course 
of six months. Its fatality was confined to those of 
entire Indian blood, and Indian dietetic habits. 

The inhabitants of the Pacific islands, in. their 
heathen state, were well built, fine featured, mild and 
pleasant ; and their physical strength and activity was 
such that Captain Cook's men stood no chance with 
them in boxing and wrestling. Their diet was almost 
entirely of vegetables. The Hottentots and New 
Hollanders, on the other hand, are ill::formed, stinted, 
dckly and short-lived. Their living consists almost 
entirely of animal food. They live on lizards, ser- 
pents, frogs, and other reptiles, and are without intel- 
lect, or a sense of right and wrong. 

Eating largely of meats tends, undoubtedly, not 
only to engender disease, but to make a demand for 
stimulating drinks. As before stated, Americans are 
the greatest meat-eaters in the civilized world ; and 
they drink more liquor, considering the light they have, 
and the means put forth for its suppression, than 
any other nation. The stimulus of the meats and 
their condiments leads to a demand for additional 
Btimulation in the form of drinks. 



THE QUANTITY OF FOOD. 71 

The objections, then, against meat-eating are three- 
fold, — intellectual, moral, and physical. Its tendency 
is to check intellectual activity, to depreciate moral 
sentiment, and to derange the fluids of the body. It 
is a consequent of the fall, and is adapted to enhance 
its evils. It is not essential to physical energy and 
strength : if it is, then the Creator, as before stated, 
made a mistake when he originally gave to man for 
his nourishment simply the fruits of Eden. 

Animal food is also too stimulating. Simple stim- 
ulus mixed with nutrition is what we not only do not 
need, but its tendency is injurious. Take two labor- 
ing men — one lives on meat, the other on vegetables ; 
— the meat-eater may at first be able to excel in the 
amount of labor performed in a given time, just as 
that man will excel who takes brandy with his meal ; 
but, in the long run, the man who depends on nutri- 
tion that is simple and unstimulating, will endure 
longer and perform more. Those who choose to eat 
flesh should take it only at dinner, and be satisfied 
with only one kind at a time. Those who are inclined 
to obesity would be far better without any meat ; but, 
if they use it, they should avoid the fat meats, and 
content themselves with that which is lean. All con- 
diments should be avoided with meats, as so many 
drugs, which have no place in the healthy stomach. 

The objections against eating flesh are, however, 
less forcible in the case of laborers than of those of 
intellectual and sedentary habits. While the laborer 
works off a measure of the evil influence exerted on 



72 FOOD AND DUIIU 

hb intelleotiud, moral and phyncal Byatonu^ the 
Bedentaiy man retains them. 

In speaking of the objections to meat-eatiiig, all 
kinds of flesh arc not meant : fish may be exerted ; 
and fowls arc altogether loss objectionable than tihe gen- 
eral run of quadrupeds. And the objections to meat- 
eating in general are not meant to bo urged with the 
9amo stronuousncss which is intended to be used in 
regard to other matters presented in this wwk : finr, 
whilo these may strictly be resolved into rules of nat- 
ural law, those may, perhaps, with propriety, oome under 
rules of expediency. Matters of fact have been atated,' 
deductions philosophically drawn, and pracUoal dem- 
onstrations presented; and every candid reader — 
. imbiased by a flesh-loving appetite — can ea»ly oome 
to the oonclusion for himself, whether it be better to 
eat, or to dispense with flesh in his diet 

STIMULATING DEINKS. 

If wo would enjoy health, all stimulants should be 
avoided as common drinks. They may be useftd as 
modioiucs, when nature falters and droops, and cannot 
resuscitate herself; but, as a beverage, stimulating 
drinks should be strenuously avoided. When stimu- 
lants are taken, the machinery of the system is hur- 
ried and driven too fast. And although by this means 
its activity and power may seem to be increased, yet a 
reaction must follow ; a corresponding debility must 
ensue ; then another stimulating draught is called for, 
to bring the system up again, and then another reao- 



STIMULATma DBINES. 78 

tion must follow. By this course of things, the real, 
natural vigor of the comstitution becomes gradually, 
and oftentimes imperceptibly impaired. Hence, if we 
would preserve a healthy system, instead of provoking 
nature to unnatural action, we must furnish her with 
sufficient healthy nourishment, and let her regulate 
her own mode and speed of action. Give her nour- 
ishment, and she will furnish her own stimulus, which 
will be far preferable to any promptings which art can 
invent. Sustain her in her natural action, and not 
force her to unnatural speed, which must result in 
weakening her innate powers. To live naturally, is 
to live healthily ; but to live artificially, is to tempt 
and foster disease. 

Let us suppose a case for illustration: a man 
undertakes a long journey; his horse naturally and 
easily travels at the rate of five miles the hour ; he 
can do this day after day, with proper care and feed- 
ing, and come out bright at the end of the journey 
But the foolish rider is not satisfied with this steady 
speed ; it would be more to his gratification to travel 
much faster ; so he goads up the poor animal to an 
unnatural speed — say eight miles an hour. He 
intends that forty miles shall be each day's travel ; 
and by going five miles the hour, eight hours on the 
road would be required for its accomplishment. But, 
by means of whip and spur, he performs the allotted 
distance in five hours, provided the abused beast do 
not give out before the day's work is finished. Now, 
any one of common s^ise can at once judge of the 

7 



74 TOOD AND DBIMK8. 

ability of the animal to perform a long joomey, and 
of his condition at the end o{ it, under such a system 
of driving. Every time his goading urges his animal 
faster than his natural speed, a reaction ensues ; which 
continued process wears fest upon his natural strength. 

Predsely in this way do those whose rule of living 
is their present gratification, treat their own animal 
systems. Instead of allowing nature to take her own 
speed, they goad her on to unwonted action, and con- 
sequently lessen her power to perform her functions, 
and her ability to endure her labor. Why not let 
nature alone ? Why interfere and jostle her natural 
operations ? Why spur on the noble steed to unnatu- 
ral fastness, break down his constitution, and disable 
him for reaching the end of his journey ? Besides all 
the wrong in the case, it is bad economy ; what is 
gained temporarily, is lost, and much more with it, 
ultimately. Let nature alone, and she will temper her 
speed to the laws of health and endurance; she 
needs no whips and spurs — she asks no help. While 
she is able to do her own work, all help is hindrance. 
The ammal that is driven beyond his five miles the 
hour ' by the whipping process, becomes so exhausted 
and dull, that even the five miles' speed cannot be per- 
formed without increasing the stimulus of the whip. 
So nature, by continued stimulus, becomes dull and 
lifeless in her operations, and cannot be kept up to the 
mark without goading her up more and more. 

Let the difference be well understood between stim- 
ulants and nutriments. The former term embraces 



STUniLATINa DBINK8. 75 

those things whicli ^ve xumataral speed of action, bat 
iRirnish no support, prqduoe no blood, and make no 
flesh. The latter term embraces those things whidi 
dapport vital action in its natural course, by furnishing 
material &r digestion or respiration, to be converted 
into blood, and assimilated into flesh. Pure stimuLanta 
formsh no blood ; they cannot be digested. They may 
contain some of the chemical elements fl}und in nutri- 
tious substances, but which, in their present chemical 
unions, cannot be digested or assimilated, and are 
thereibre poisonous to the system. The grains contain 
nutriment — contain substances which, in their pres- 
ent union, can be digested and converted into blood. 
But put these grains into the process of fermentation, 
and, by chemical changes, a new substance is formed, 
of such chemical constitution that it cannot be di- 
gested. 

Alcoholic Liquors of all kinds, whether strong 
beer, cider, wine, or brandy, should never be taken 
except as drugs; because, besides the danger of a 
drunkard's grave, tkey are all stimulants ; they im- 
part no nourishment to the system, but force its action 
to an unnatural degree. The idea that these liquors 
promote digestion is all a delusion. They give to the 
stomach an unnatural and forced action, which, while 
in health, it does not need ; and the longer it is sub- 
jected to this driving process, the more will it depend 
on stimulants. When the stomach is excited in this 
way, the brain also is excited ; and whoever uses alco- 
holic drinks as a beverage, is bo &r a drunkard ; flir 



76 FOOD AND DBINK8. 

no dividing-line con be drawn — no tranution bound- 
ary can bo made — between him who. drinks moder- 
ately, and him who drinks excesdvely. It is all wrong, 
and only wrong. It is all intoxicating, and only in- 
toxicating. He who drinks a little is a little drunk ; 
he who drinks largely is largely drunk. To be tem- 
perate in the use of good things in their place, is to 
use them with proper moderation. To be temperate 
in the use of bad things, or things out of place, is to 
let them alone. The way to be temperate in religion, 
is to have a zeal which is according to knowledge. The 
way to be temperate in fanaticism, is to let it alone. 
Temperance in eating bread is moderation ; temperance 
in regard to stimulants and narcotics is total absti- 
nence. 

CoFF£E is objectionable for a similar reason ; it is a 
stimulant — a kind of narcotic stimulant, bearing some 
resemblance to opium ; and so powcrM is its action, 
that it is considered and used as a most certain anti- 
dote to poisoning from opium. And it can readily be 
seen, that unless it was an article of much power itself, 
it oould never overpower such a j)oi8on. Coffee should 
never be placed on any other list than that of medi- 
dnes ; it should never be drank as a luxury or bev- 
erage. Mothers should never be so tender and affec- 
tionate toward their children as to give them such an 
article for their drink. That mother is insane who 
will value the immediate gratification of her child more 
than its future enjoyment of health and soundness. 
Her child will desire no such indulgence, if it has 



STIMITLATING DBINKS. 77 

never been aocustomed to it. If the habit has been 
formed, let it bo at once abolished- There are few 
things over which my very soul i"® groaned so deeply, 
as seeing mothers so igoorantly or carelessly under- 
Aiining the consti*«ttions of those whom they love, and 
for whose nfelfivre, moral and physical, they are greatly 
responsible. Yet, if they are determined to gratify 
their tender ones at all hazards of their constitatbns, 
they are, of course, at liberty to do so ; or, if any are 
disposed to treat themselves in the same way, there is 
no civil law against it ; but they break another law, 
which must be met, — a law of nature written by Jeho- 
vah on every nerve of the Human body. 

A French writer. Mens. A. Richard, says : " This 
liquor, taken warm, is an energetic stimuTant ; it has 
all the advantages of spirituous drinks, without any of 
their bad results ; that is to say, it produces neither 
drunkenness n(Hr all the accidents that accompany it." 
This is true to the very letter ; it produces all the 
injurious stimulant effects of alcoholic liquor, except 
taking away men's senses, and making them stagger 
and &11. 

Dr. Colet thus describes the effect of coffee, when 
taken in a large quantity for a length of time : " To 
gastralgia" — acute pain in the stomach — **that it 
occasions, is united, after a variable space of time, a 
kind of shivering, a trembling in the left side of the 
breast, an uncomfortable stitch in &ont of this region, 
accompanied by pain in breathing ; and, in addition, a 
general excitement, the characteristics of which are 

7* 



78 TOOD AND D&INK8. 

analogous to those of incipient intoxioation '' He teUs 
us, alf», that If this coarse is persevered in, spasms 
and oonyolsions are sometimes produced. 

Dr. Cottereau says : " I l»avo seen some young per- 
sons, who have taken excessive doboa of coffee to excite 
ihem to labor, fall into a state of stupidity, lose their 
appetite, and grow thin in an astonishing manner." 

A. Saint- Arroman, to whom credit is duo for fur- 
nishing the above extracts, says : " According to these 
counsels, given by men of skill, it is easy to compre- 
hend that coffee is sometimes more injurious than the 
great consumption of it would seem to indicate. Thus, 
how many persons are there who would know the 
cause of a disease not understood, and would be less 
disordered, if they thoroughly knew the effects of this 
liquor, and the circumstances in which it cannot fail 
to be injurious ! " 

It needs only to be added, that, in the estimation of 
the writer of this little work, — after having used it 
for several years, and since having abstained from it 
for some fift;een years, — coffee, in all cases, and under 
all circumstances, is bad ; that its stimulating qualities 
are decidedly injurious to the system, and ought never 
to be used, except when required as an antidote to 
poison, or for some other medicinal purpose. And, 
what makes it to be dreaded more than many other 
injurious things is, its evil working is so unseen and 
delusive. While it does not show itself like alcohol, 
yet its evil work is more certainly undermining the 
nervous system; and w)iile it tompia us to believe that 



STIMULATINa DRINKS. 79 

it Strengthens and supports, because it excites, yet 
it slowly enervates. It affects the whole system, and 
especially the nervous system, by its effects on the 
stomach. But, besides this, it creates a morbid action 
of the liver, especially where there is a tendency to 
bilious affections. It affects the circulation of the 
blood, and the quality of the blood itself, so that a 
great coffee-drinker can generally be known by his 
complexion ; it gives to the skin a dead, dull, sallow 
appearance. 

Coffee affects not only the body to its injury, but 
also tk«A mind. It has been called an " intellectual 
drink," becaoae it excites the mind temporarily to un- 
wonted activity. "But, unfortunately," says the 
French writer last qanted, " it is not without great 
prejudice to mind and body that man procures such 
over-excitements. After them come prostration, sad- 
ness, and exhaustion of the moral and physical forces; 
the mind becomes enervated, the body languishes. 
To a rich imagination succeeds a penury of ideas ; and, 
if the consumer does not stop, genius yiiil soon give 
place to stupidity." 

The longevity of some coffee-drinkers has been 
sometimes urged as proof that coffee does no harm. 
But we might just as well bring forward the fact that 
some great alcohol-drinkers, or some great opium-eat« 
ers, have lived sometimes to old age, in proof that 
alcohol and opium are harmless luxuries. It is impos- 
sible to judge always of the evil effects of an article 
we are using by any immediate perceptible result. We 



80 rOODB AND DBINK8. 

must inquire what is its imturo ; and then draw our 
conclusions as to what will be its ultimate effisct Tho 
most violent poisons may be used, afler a habit is 
established, with apparent impunity; such as tobaooo, 
opium, and arsenic ; and yet no intelligent man would 
dare to say these are liarmless luxuries. They are 
not harmless ; they expose their consumers to prema- 
ture sickness, old age, and death. And they see not 
the breakers until they arc dashed upon them. 

Tea - is another objectionable article, because of its 
stimulating properties. This is a direct, diffusible, and 
active stimulant. Its effects arc very similar tt) those 
of alcoholic drinks, except that of drunkenness. Like 
alcohol, it gives, for a time, increased vivacity of spirits. 
Like alcohol, it increases, beywid its healthy and nat- 
ural action, the whole aniiual and mental maohineiy ; 
after which there comes a reaction — a corresponding 
languor and debility. The wash-woman becomes ex- 
hausted, and must have her bowl of tea to recruit her 
energies, instead of giving nature a chance to recover 
herself. She depends upon art rather than nature, 
and each time lowers the standard of her own perma- 
nent strength. She accomplishes more in a short 
time, while her strength is artificial instead of natural; 
but is gradually, though perhaps imperceptibly, wear- 
ing herself out before her time. The nurse keeps her- 
self awake nights by this artificial process ; and each 
time, by imperceptible steps, lessens her natural strengtli. 
She thinks, with the wash-woman, that tea does her 
good — strengthens her, because, like the rum-drinker, 



STIMULATINQ DRINKS. 81 

she feels better under its immediately stimulating 
effects. 

The time was when ministers, instead of being 
largely inspired with the Holy Ghost, wrote and deliy- 
ered their sermons under the inspiration of ardent 
spirits ; but now, seeing that to be morally and phys- 
ically wrong, they not unfrequently labor under that 
artificial inspiration, which is quite as effectual, .con- 
tained in tea. By this process, they gradually impair 
their own natural ^ergy of body and mind ; for, when 
we drive up and overtax the forces of nature by stim- 
ulus, they ultimately fall in the rear of their original 
process of action. The green teas are much more 
powerful stimulants than the black. The Chinese do 
not use the green teas. Not long since, meeting a 
young Chinese, the inquiry was made why they did 
not drink their green teas. Putting his hands up to 
his head, he said, ** They burn all the hair off." They 
were too stimulating to the brain and nerves. 

Some have endeavored to understand from Liebig 
that one of the elementary principles of tea — theine 
— and of coffee — caffeine — which are the same in 
their primary elements, is important in the formation 
of bile. But it seems very plain that he only shows 
their medicinal properties to be appropriate in morbid 
conditions of the liver. In the same connection he 
shows that opium and cinchona contain elements 
which go into the formation of the substance of brain 
and nervous matter. He certainly does not mean to 
recommend these last-named drugs as articles of diet. 



82 FOODS AND DBIlfKB. 

Black tea will favorably affect a torpid liver; bat» 
when used, it should bo taken like other medicines, 
and relinquished when its object is answered. But, if 
taken in health, it would only tend to weaken that 
organ by over excitement, and ultimately produce 
the disease which it otherwise might be adapted to 
cure. So it is in regard to the use of any other drug, 
if used habitually. In all cases its stimulus is tem* 
porary, and followed by proportionate reaction and 
debility. It as truly intoxicates the nerves as alco- 
hol ; and its effects in strong doses are quite analo- 
gous. 

See a party of ladies met to spend an aftemocm, in 
a sewing-circle, it may be. Toward the close of the 
afternoon, their fund of conversationals becomes some- 
what exhausted ; but soon come the tea and eatables ; 
and, notwithstanding the opposing influences of a full 
stomach, the drooping mind becomes greatly animated, 
the tongue is let loose, and the words come flowing 
forth like the falling di-ops of a great shower. What 
does all this mean? Whence the cause of such a 
change ? It is the inspiration of the strong cups of 
tea. Then is the time for small thoughts and many 
words ; or, it may be, the sending forth of fire-brands 
of gossip and slander ; or if, perchance, religion be the 
topic, the inspiring power of tea will create an excited 
feeling very closely resembling that produced when 
religious rum-drinkers shed alcoholic tears. 

Tea, in large doses, produces convulsive motions, 
and a kind of intoxication. It enters into the circa- 



8TIMULATIN0 DRINKS. 88 

latioD, and affects the complexion ; it is not difficult to 
detect a great tea-drinker by looking at liis skin, which 
loses its bright and lively cast, and puts on a deadly 
lifeless, dried, and sometimes sallow appearance. It if 
said that in China the great tea-drinkers are thin and 
weak, their complexion leaden, their teeth black, and 
themselves affected with diabetes. Cases have not 
unfrequently come under the immediate inspection of 
the writer, where tea had for years almost literally 
been the food and drink, especially of seamstresses, 
who would sit up late nights. In such cases, about 
the only remedy would be, to prohibit the fiirther use 
of it. But generally this prohibiticm would be no 
longer heeded than while being uttered; for their 
dependence on it, and love for it, could not be easily 
broken up ; and but small compensation, in some cases, 
would seem to be gained by its discontinuance ; for 
tea had almost eaten them up ; leaving little more than 
bone and sinew, and a few scraps of dried flesh. 

In short, all stimulants are so many internal fires, 
which gradually burn up the machinery of organic life. 
Consequently, whoever uses tea or coffee as a common 
drink, spends his money for that which not only does 
him no good, but evil, and that continually. They 
are both innutritions, and stimulating to a degree which 
it is difficult for their devotees to calculate. Now, 
which shall we do ? Abstain, and bring under this 
evil appetite, or will we gratify it ? Will we deny 
ourselves, and derive the incalculable benefit as a com- 
pensatioDi or recklessly go on, and take the oonse- 



84 FOOD AND DBINKB. 

qucnces? Will young ladies and gendemeD treat 
their physical and mental systems lawfully, and aaTS 
to themselves a good constitution, or will they, at all 
hazards, indulge themselves in unlawful appetites, and 
have no principle by which to govern themselyes, bat 
their own gratification? Will they have regard to 
their own benefit, and that of coming generations, or 
will they, like the devotee to the intoxicating bowl, 
live for to-day, and let to-morrow provide for itself? 

Tobacco can scarcely be reckoned a drink, bat it 
comes properly on the list of stimulants, and thereftre 
receives some attention here. It is one of tho most 
powerful narcotic stimulants which vegetation pro- 
duces. It is classed by Linnaeus with Foxglove, Hen- 
bane, and other i)oisons, under tho name Atbopa, — 
one of the Fates, — whose duty was to take life. Its 
first influence is felt upon the nervous system. It 
excites and then deadens nervous susceptibility. When 
first taken, it acts with great and very peroeptible 
power ; but, afler the habit of its use has been long 
continued, tho nerves lase their sensibility to it in a 
great measure ; they become deadened and blunted to 
its apparent effects. Still, the poison is there, and is 
gradually undermining the vital forces of the system. 

Besides affecting the nervous system, it carries its 
essence into the circulation of the blood, which can be 
detected in the blood drawn from the veins of those 
who use it. It enters not only into the fluids, but into 
the solids of the body ; so that the Cannibals, when 
they meet with the body of a tobacco-user, detect its 



NOUBISHING DBINKS. 85 

presence in his flesh, and throw it away. Its es- 
sence is also given off continually by the skin in 
the sensible and insensible perspiration. In this way 
it is carrying gradually its deadly influences into evbrj 
portion of the body. The water in which a chewer or 
smoker bathes himself, when he stays in the warm 
water till perspiration takes place, is so strongly im- 
pregnated with its poison, that it will kill flies and 
vermin. 

Tobacco creates, at first, a feverish action ; a single 
cigar, as before stated, increases the pulse from fifteen 
to twenty strokes in a minute. Its secondary effect is 
to deaden the vital action of body and mind ; which 
influence can be easily felt, if its stimulus be sus- 
pended forty-eight hours. In this way it gradually 
wears out vitality, and shortens life ; so that those who 
indulge this ungentlemanly and contemptible habit 
are probably cutting off, by degrees, twenty-five per 
cent, of their natural existence. There is more dam- 
age done at present to the health and soundness of 
the men of this generation, by this waste of some 
30,000,000 of dollars annually in these United States, 
than is done by the use of alcoholic liquor. Those who 
woul4 know more of this matter must read my work 
on " Thu Beauties and Dbformitibs op Tobacco- 
using." 

KOUBISHINa DRINKS. 

As it has been said before, so let it be repeated, — 
which should be, at all times in health, a standing rule, 
— give to natoe a sufficient nutrition, and she will for- 

8 



86 VOOD AND DBINK8. 

nbh her o^m stimulus, far better than anytlung which 
art can do. Support nature, and let art go begging. 
Live naturally, and not artificially. The natural in- 
qiury ivill now be. What shall we drink ? 

Cocoa is a healthy drink. That which oomes in 
pound and lialf-jiound papers makes a Tory good drink; 
]}ut, on account of its oily nature, which is objectiona- 
ble, the cracked nut of cocoa is preferable : but cau- 
tion is neccssury not to make it too strong, because it 
contains a large amount of nutrition in a small com- 
pass, and may oppress the stomach and produce head- 
ache. The cracked nuts and shells, which come in 
I)ags of about thirty pounds, make the most convenient 
form for use. This mixture, made in moderate strength, 
say according to the following proportion and rule, is a 
nutritious, healthy drink. Take half a common tea- 
cupful of this cocoa-mixture, and add one quart of 
cold water ; boil moderately for about six hours, add- 
ing more water to supply the portion which boils 
away ; it is fit then for use, by adding milk, or cream, 
and sugiir. This makes a good substitute for oofiiee in 
the morning, and the same or simple shells in place of 
tea in the evening. There are various nourishing, 
healthy drinks, of a domestic character, such as bread* 
coffee, and others, which it is not important to describe 
or recommend. 

A cup half filled with hot water, sweetened and 
filled up with milk, makes a warm drink, fit for the 
most fastidious appetite. Hot drinks of any kind aro 
objectionable. They excite the pores of the skin, and 



NOUmSHINa DBINKS. 87 

expose the system to take cold bj sudden changes. 
They excite by the force of heat, and then debilitate 
the stomach. They should only be taken about blood- 
warmth. Moderately warm water, of itself, without 
considerable milk or cream, if taken to much extent, is 
also weakening to the stomach. 

Large quantities of any kind of drinks should be 
avoided. Even cold water may be taken too largely. 
Much depends upon habit : if we accustom ourselves 
to drinking much, we shall want much ; if we accus- 
tom ourselves to drink but little, we shall want but 
little. The objection to a large quantity is this : it 
distends the stomach beyond its natural dimensions, 
and therefore weakens it ; it also dilutes the gastric 
juice, and therefore weakens that fluid. One or two 
common tea-cups of any kind of drink, taken with our 
meals, is sufficient. If we take more, it injures the 
digestive process. Laborers, at their meals, and be- 
tween meals, are inclined to drink far too much. Their 
thirst, on the whole, is no less for drinking so largely, 
and they weaken themselves by it. Besides, in hot 
weather, many are seriously injured, and even some- 
times destroyed, by too large quantities of cold water. 
If they want to drink often, they must confine them- 
selves to very small quantities at a time. 

Unfermented beers — root, hop,^ and ^ger beers — 
are healthy drinks, if not taken too largely. Soda drinks, 
in the form of soda powders, or from soda foimtains, are 
also healthy, if used with moderation. The carbonic 
add gas which they impart to the stomach does not 
excite, bat is a moderately tonio and cooling beverage. 



88 PABTIOULAB DXBJBOnOMB 

PABTICULAR DIRECTIONS 

TO PARENTS AND OUA&DIAlfB. 

Parents havo a responsibility in regard to their 
offspring originating prior to their birth. Thmr own 
state of health — the health of father and mother — 
has a very important bearing upon the constitutions of 
their yet unboni children. If a father's nenrooa sj»- 
tern has ))een marred nnd broken by habits wluch are 
at war with nature's law, the children following him 
will be more or less unhappily affoctod. While, then, 
he is doing wrong to himself, ho is doing wrong and 
bringing suffering to his posterity. If a mother's sys- 
tem has been weakened by violations of law, her chil- 
dren will be obliged to participate with her in suffer- 
ing the penalty. And, haying received the inherit- 
ance of disease or debility before birth, they must, more 
or less, be the partakers of it through life. Parents 
have also a heavy responsibility on them, touching the 
moral character given to their children before birth. 
If parents are accustomed to undue indulgence in any 
of the natural propensities, — in eating or drinking, or 
any other animal appetite, — their children may in- 
herit appetites of the same kind, possessing a similar 
degree of undue activity and moral tendency. 

In the same way children are affected in th^ dis- 
positions. A child, after birth, and more or lees 
through life, will give a living illustration of the feel- 
ings and immediate character of his mother during the 
period of her pregnancy. If the mother, daring that 



TO PABENTS AND GtTAADIANS. 89 

period, especially the latter part of it, indulge a 
gloomy, evil-foreboding state of mind, her child will 
give proof of it in after life. If she indulge a peevish, 
or fretful, or crying disposition, her child will give her 
ample testimony to the fact after birth. Some have 
inherited, directly from a mother, an almost uncon- 
querable appetite for strong drink ; some for tobacco ; 
others, an almost uncontrollable inclination to theft ; 
not because their mothers, in all cases, were habitual 
drinkers or thieves, but because they suffered strange 
appetites and feelings to affect them strongly some 
time during their pregnancy. Some physicians would 
deny the truth of these statements ; but no one who 
has taken the pains of observing facts touching this 
matter, will be found in that category ; for facts are 
unconquerable things. The inspired proverb, — 
"Train up a child in the way he should go, and 
when he is old he will not depart from it," — contains 
a great practical truth as a general rule ; but, under 
the most judicious discipline, the child will bear, in ']. 
greater or less degree, the moral complexion and phys- * 
ical appetites which his mother gave him before; she 
gave him birth. 

Fathers, as well as mothers, and all those with 
whom a mother may associate, are involved in this 
responsibility. The father should remember that his 
manner and treatment of his wife during her preg- 
nancy has much to do with the disposition she may 
possess during that period. He should be careful to «/ 

remove, so &r as posdble, every source, real or imag- 

8* 



90 PAJLTlCULuVK DIRJSCTIUNS 

inaiy, of uneasiness, unhappiness, poevishnefli^ or 
gloominess, from her way. He should take pains to 
make her happy and cheerful ; and see iibat eyeiy 
appetite which comes up is, if possible, forthwith grat- 
ified. If that appetite should be for strong drink, ift 
had better be gratified to the full, rather than that she 
give, by that continued longing, an indelible imprint 
of that kind upon her offiipring. * 

In the light of these truths, what tremendous 
responsibilities ore evidently laid upon parents I The 
physical appetites, mental inclinations, and moral 
feelings, in a very large degree, are enstomped on the 
character of children so deeply in this way, that they 
may remain visible in all after life. If, through the 
moroseness of the father, the mother be driven into a 
desponding, discouraged and lifeless state of feeling, 
her child may bear traces of the same features of feel- 
ing for life. K she indulge in on irritable or ill-tem- 
pered disposition, she will probably mark these char- 
acteristics on her ofispring. If, on the other hand, she 
indulge a habit of great levity, trifling or recklessness^ 
she will probably see more or less of her own likeness 
in her child. 

Besponsibilities of unmeasured extent also ore laid 
on parents, in regard to the influence of a right phys- 
ical training of their children for the security of health, 
during childhood and youth. One great cause of the 
feebleness of constitution with which the great body of 
community is at this day afflicted, maybe found in the 
total ignorance or recklessness of parents and guardians 



TO PAEAMI8 AND aUASBIANS. 91 

ol the laws of health, as applied to those under their 
care. To look in upon many domestic circles, and 
see how the children are managed, is enough to move a^ 
heart of marble with sorrow for the children, and 
with indignation towards their parents. The children 
may be seen, about every hour in the day, with a 
lunch of bread, or pie, or cake, in hand. Their 
young and tender stomachs are kept in continual con* 
fusion and toil. Consequently, a deranged tone and 
action of that organ must exist, which prepares the 
way for other omnatural habits of eating and drinking, 
and lowers the tone of mental sprightliness and 
moral feeling. 

Children should eat only three times a day. They 
should be brought under the same dietetic rules which 
are laid down for all persons. It requires about as 
much time for their organs to digest food as is required 
for grown persons. And, if the digestive process be 
hurried and confused, their food does not nourish them 
as well, and they cannot grow as strong and robust. 
Little new-bom infants' constitutions are not imfre- 
quently ruined for life, by mismanagement. Because 
the child cries a little, it must be dosed with a little 
peppermint, or anise-essence, or paregoric, or some 
other stimulating article, which begins at once to de- 
range its stomach ; and through its stomach, its whole 
system is injured, and perhaps for life. And if the 
inquiry should be made, in after years, what can be 
the cause of such a feeble, slender constitution ? an 
enlightened observer might be able to reveal the 



d2 PARTICULAR DIRXCnOM 

Beoret, by Bhowing the treatment it reoeiTed ia iiH 
fancy. 

A systematic diet should always be adopted by 
mothers and nurses at the very dawn of the child's 
existence. In the first place, after birth, a little cold 
water only should be put into ihe child's mouth. 
The habit of beginning to give some stimulant, as 
though the Creator of the child had given it only half 
life enough, is perfectly murderous : instead of giving 
it a chance to live of itself, a course is taken wluoh is 
adapted to kill it ; or, if not kill it, to maim its Hide 
constitution for life. If the writer of ihb oonld be 
heard, ho would *' cry aloud, and spare not," in the 
ear of every nurse, with the little being in her arms. 
Let that coild live ! The Creator gave it natonl 
life : he made it to live : and it will live, if not killed. 
If it be necessary to give the child any nourishment 
before it can obtain it from the mother, it might take 
a little slippery-elm water, or something of that mild 
and simple nature : but, if it can draw its first nour- 
ishment from the fountain which the Author of its 
being has provided, it is better. 

Babes should be nursed but three times a day. 
This may seem a preposterous rule ; but let us reason 
together upon it. The food which nature has pro- 
vided for the child is adapted to its age and capacity 
for digesting ; and it requires about the same length 
of time for the in&nt to digest its meal as it does 
the man of ripe age to digest his ; and the various 
steps in the digestive process are the same in both 



TO PABSNTS AND QVASDUS8. M 

oaaes. Then, if five hours are required to complete 
the process well, why disturb it till it is finished ? By 
letting the child have only its regular breakfast, din- 
ner, and supper, it digests its food well, and is well 
nourished by it. But, adopt the course usually taken, 
and the little one's stomach is kept confused and op- 
pressed, and its system is but half nourished from the 
same quantity of food which would be requisite under 
a regular system. As infants are usually treated, 
they are subject to repeated vomiting, colic, and, not 
unfrequently, fits; and the cause is obvious: the 
stomach has been overloaded. Only feed infants 
right, and there is no reason why they should vomit, 
any more than grown persons. What danger can 
there be of a child's suffering fix)m wapt of food before 
the expiration of the five hours between meals, when 
they not unfrequently go from twelve to twenty-four 
hours, and sometimes longer, after birth, before they 
take any substantial nourishifient ? The idea that a 
child will suffer hunger, if it do not take food oftener 
than once in five hours during the day, is all nonsense ; 
and, worse than this, great injury is done by such a 
notion. The ** little and often" system is destructive 
— contrary to the laws of health — contrary to true 
philosophy and reason ; and should forever be aban- 
doned. 

As infants are now treated, they have but a small 
chance for life. By confusing and fretting their 
stomachs, they have wind, and colic, and heart-bum, 
and other distresses : dien, if they cry, they are pat to 



M PASnCULAR BIBEGTIOXB 

tihe breast, and nnncd so fall that thoy oannoC ory. 
They become so oppressed as to produce stapeftotkni 
of brain and nerves; and then, if at all restlesB, 
ihcy are put into the cradle and rocked from aide 
to side, till they have no senses left. Then the child, 
from extreme pressure of the stomach, vomits — Na- 
ture's kind effort to save it from fits and death. 
Tlien the mother or nurso exclaims, — "What a 
healthy child ! See how it vomits ! " 

Why does the child vomit ? Because the ainued 
stomach rebels against its ill-treatment, and tries to 
save itself. What sort of symptom of health would it 
be in an adult to go along the street vomiting up hia 
dinner ? Would the old ladies put their heads out of 
their windows, and exclaim, — ''0, what a healthy 
man that is ! " The stomach of the child should be 
so well treated that there should be no occasion for 
its vomiting. It should have a full breast on which it 
can depend for a full meal, three times during the 
day, and never be nursed during the night. If tho 
breast be scanty in its allowance, the child must nurse 
what it can get, and have its meal finished by a little 
diluted sweetened new cow's milk. Then let it be 
gently moved about for a while, and finally go to sleep. 

In this way the stomach has time to digest its food, 
and time to gather up its forces for imother regu- 
lar meal. Its meals should be about the time of reg- . 
ular meals for adults. Under this course J there would 
be little occasion for using those rooking j^cain- 
destroyers. Cradles could then be broken .ti|i-fbr 



TO PABXNTS AND GUAJRDIANS. 95 

fdel — a much better purpose thaa their present use. 
If any old ladies think they have more wisdom, let 
them attend the school of natural law another term : 
let them study Nature, and demonstrable facts. This 
matter has been tested. Since entering the medical 
profession, twenty-five years ago, it has been my 
determination to examine and test these and other 
matters pertaining to this general subject. And these 
truths, as demonstrated by myself and others of my 
acquaintance, fully sustain and justify my position. 

The most healthy and robust children which have 
ever come under my observation, were brought up 
in the way here advised. No failure in this experi- 
ment has ever come under my knowledge. Let 
those mothers try it who really wish for healthy chil- 
dren. Let the child have all it wants three times a 
day. Do not half nurse or feed it, and thus starve it 
to death, and then cry out condemnation : but give it 
a full breast, or make up a full meal by feeding : keep 
it awake an hour, and then let it sleep, if it choose, 
V till within a short space of another meal. Keep it 
clothed in accordance with the weather and the season, 
and give it free air to breathe ; and not keep it stived 
'ifi up in a room hot enough to roast beef, where the 
oxygen is all consumed by the fire and respiration, 
. /and no fresh air is admitted. 

>^ If infants fix)m the first were treated in this way, 
they would not only be more healthy, but altogether 
more quiet, and easy to be taken care of. Then, vor 
Btead oi patting the child to the breast to stop its moatfth 



06 PABTIOULAB DIBaCTXOiri 

and get rid rf its ciTing, it wonld feel better, and be 
fiir less likely to ciy . And generally, instead of wor- 
risome nights, — usually caused by a disturbed stom- 
ach, — it would sleep quietly till morning; and the 
mother with it. The food of the infiint, taken just 
before it sleeps, or in the night, interferes irith its 
quiet rest ; just as the rest of an adult person is die- 
turbod from a similar cause. This method baa been 
tried, and proved successful : let others try it. 

A gentleman recently informed me of a test he bad 
made in this matter. A child fell into his hands who 
lost its mother at its birth. He found himself obliged 
to bring it up by hand. He began and oontinned his 
undertaking, by giving the child as much milk, prop- 
erly prepared, as it would receive three times a day, 
and no more. He Kud, — "A more healthy, thriv- 
ing, robust child I never saw. It was subject to none 
of the ordinary illnesses of children, has continued in 
perfect health up to the present time, and is now 
twelve years of age." A relative informs me that bia 
femily physician in Vermont is bringing up his chil- 
dren in this way, from then: birth ; and that they are 
unusually healthy and vigorous. 

When children are old enough to take solid food, 
they should have only three meals a day. If they eat 
oftencr, their stomachs will be deranged, and their 
food will not so well nourish them. If any mother 
will take pains to look at the laws of digestion, she 
will at once see that no child can take food oftener 



TO PABXNTS INP OUABBIANS. 97 

than once in five honrs, without inter^Bring with a pre* 
vions meal, and injuring the healthful operation of the 
digestive organs. Those young people who have been 
brought up on the exclusive system of eating but 
three times a day, have been found to be more than 
ordinarily strong and healthy. While others have 
been afflicted with worms, colic, cholera-morbus, and 
a host of other ailments common to the young in gen- 
eral, they have usually escaped. 

Why, tiien, will mothers suffer their children to 
violate the laws of their natures, and expose them- 
selves to suffer the penalty of those violated laws ? 
Will a mother have such a tender concern for her 
ofl&pring's gratification, as to suffer it to destroy its 
own comfort and health, and perhaps life ? It is often 
said, '' My child has no appetite for breakfast; there- 
fore it must have a lunch before dinner." But this 
is a sure way of prolonging the difficulty ; the child 
will never be likely to have an appetite for break&st, as 
long as this irregular and unlawful course is indulged ; 
and especially as long as the child knows that he 
may depend on the precious lunch. Let the child go 
from breakfast-time till diniier, and it will not be long 
before he will eat his regular l»:eakfast. If parents 
would secure for their children a healthy appetite and 
a sound constitution, let them rigidly insist on their 
eating but three times a day, using simple food, and 
having other things in keepiog with nature's laws ; 
and, so £u* as all human means are concerned, thej 
may be sure of a^complishiog their purpos^/. 

9 



08 PARTICULAR BiRionon 

Tho almost continual hankering fixr fbod 
many children havo, arises wholly from a habit of con 
Btant eating. If their eating were reduced to a regu- 
lar habit, their appetite would become regokr. This 
irregular appetite is not natural; it is created, and 
unhealthy. If we get into a habit of eating seven 
times a day, we shall hanker after food as many times. 
If we once CHtabliHh a habit of eating but three times 
a day, we shall want food only as many times. Now, 
what will mothers and nurses do? WiU they begin 
with the infant by a regular system, and continoe it? 
or will they go on in the old beaten path, to the 
injuiy of those they profess to love and ohetish? 
Will they make a mock of parental love and fondnesB, 
by unrestrained and unlimited indulgence ? or will thej 
love so sincerely as to keep the child firom every hurt- 
ful thing ? That pretended love, which, knowing the 
evil consequences, at all hazards, seeks only to gratify, 
proves its own falseness. Shame — snAME on that 
mother's love which passes heedlessly by her child's 
chief and ultimate good, to indulge it in a momentary 
gratification, or to save herself the trouble of control- 
ling its solicitations I Shame on that mother's hi»- 
manity, even, whoso refined and tender sympathy 
cannot refuse indulgence where health, and, it may 
be, life are at stake ! If mothers and &thers have a 
substantial affection for their ofi&pring, let them man- 
ifest it under the dictates of reason and common sense 
— let them seek their permanent good. If those 
having the care of children would be able to give a 



TO MTBRABT INSTITUTIONS. 99 

final account of their guardianship in peace, let them, 
next to their morals, seek, for those under their charge, 
soundness of constitution. And, in doing this, thej 
do perhaps as much for their morals as could be dona 
through any other means; for physical and moral 
health are closely allied. 

TO LITERABY INSTITUTIONS. 

There is no class of persons who are under higher 
ohligations to observe the laws of health, than those 
who are connected, whether as teachers or pupils, 
with literary institutions. Thousands have been 
ruined for life, so £Eur as the enjoyment of health is 
concerned, and lost to the world, with all their native 
talents and acquired abilities, by violating those laws. 
Whereas, by attention and obedience to them, a bal- 
ance between the healthy action of body and mind 
might have been preserved, and themselves and the 
world would have enjoyed the avails of their eidstence. 
Young men and young ladies enter upon a course of 
education with good health, and, long before that 
course is finished, their constitutions give way, and 
they are obliged to retire from study j"^ or, if able to 
finish their education, they have scarcely physical 
energy enough left to apply their mental resources to 
any practical purpose. To effect a change which 
shall obviate this evil, will require the attention both 
of teachers and students. 

Students should live on simple food ; and remem- 
ber to '' eat to live, and not live to eat." To gor- 



100 PABTICULAB BIRICTZOHB 

mandixo is boncath tho dignity of one who has mind 
enough to mako it worth while to sahmit it to a pro- 
cess of culture : indeed, a man who has the sool of an 
intellectual being will never do it. Students should 
ayoid those things which are hard to digest. They 
should have food that is palatable, and well, yet witb 
simplicity, prepared. The less animal food — even 
none at all — the better. They should rigidly and 
scrupulously confine themselves to three — if not to 
two — meals a day; and for reasons given explicitly 
under Dietetic Eulcs. They should never apply their 
minds to study or reading at least for one hour after 
their meal is finished : but they should make them- 
selves amused and cheerful in some way which neither 
requires the effort of body or mind : they should be 
at leisure, and endeavor to enjoy themselves. The 
reason for this course^ as before stated, is, that if tlie 
nervous energies, required in the digestive proeess, 
are called away to some physical or intellectual efibrt^ 
great injury is done to the digestive department. 
From this cause, and perhaps mainly this, thousands 
on thousands have entirely broken down, and ren- 
dered themselves sufferers for life. 

After one hour from the time the meal is finished^ 
ihey may with safety set themselves down to study ; 
i. e., if they have eaten with such moderation as all 
students ought to use ; if not, they should wait longer ; 
— rather, if they will not eat properly, let them retire 
from the institution, which is no place for gluttons, 
and devote themselves to corporeid labor — labor at 



TO UTSKABY INSTITUTIONS. 101 

the anvil, or in the western wilds, felling trees, where 
they could practise engorgement with comparatiYe im- 
ponity. After spending nearly a half-hour in thor- 
oughly masticating their meal, — being careM not to 
spend that time in too much talking, which not only 
interferes with mastication, but may a^tate the mind, 
as would be the case in all argumentative conversation, 
— and then one hour in gentle amusement or cheerM 
leisure, they are ready to bend their whole mental 
force to study. Under this arrangement, six hours a 
day of study will accomplish more, in the long run, 
than twelve hours in the ordinary way. 

Exercise is another duty of students. It is exceed- 
ingly important that a balance between the mental and 
physical energies should be maintained ; otherwise the 
body withers under its superincumbent weight. To 
preserve this balance while the mind is laboring, and 
the body untasked, artificial exercise must be insti- 
tuted ; for bodily strength cannot be promoted without 
some kind of bodily exertion. If the electric forces 
of the nervous system are all kept under tribute to 
the intellectual feculties, the rest of the system be- 
comes weakened from want of use, and the mind soon 
wears out the whole body. 

The best time for exercise for students is about an 
hour before meal-times ; so as to ^ve about three- 
fburths of an hour for hard labor, and a quarter of an 
hour to rest, before eating. Exercise in this way can 
be taken once, twice, or three times a day, as ciroum- 
stanoes may require. The l^gth of time devoted io 

9* 



102 PABTICULUl DXBlOZEOn 

exeroiae, and the Bcverity of the efibrt wUch enoh one 
xequiroB, cannot be defined bj certain rnks : the oa^ 
Btitatkm and circumstances of each indiyidaal, aided 
by common sense, must determine. Bat every indi- 
Tidual student requires some exercise ; and it Bhoald 
be taken suffidcntlj prior to a foUowing meal to giTB 
a little respite from exertion just previous to attting 
down to cat. A division of time, between eabh mealf 
sometimes like the following, may do as a general rule : 
Spend half an hour in eating, one hour in leisure^ two 
and a half hours in close study, and one hour in labor ; 
leaving off iu season to get the system calm belbrethe 
next meal. One hour each day, however, will gener- 
ally bo found sufficient, if all other haUts are right. , 
The kind of exercise to be taken may properly be a 
matter of inquiry. To settle upon any one kind &r 
universal application, may be difficult A medianio^ 
shop exercise may bo very beneficial for body and 
mind. At any rate, it should be something which is 
adapted to give not only exercise to the muscular syeh 
tem, but, if possible, at the same time, a source of 
amusement. Making trunks and boxes may seouie 
this object Sawing or chopping wood, however prof- 
itable it may be, may require too severe exertaon, and 
may not prove to bo very much amusement to the mind. 
The bowling-alley, aside from the odium of its general 
character, its bewitching charms, and its tendenoiea to 
various kinds of dissipation, might afford amostdeara- 
ble method of promoting muscular strength and mental 
€B[hilarataon. Exercise in the line of agricultonl 



10 LIXKRABT IK8!I!ITimOK8. 108 

pnnmits, when it can be had, is, perhaps, everything 
considered, the best kind. In the use of this, thare is 
the advantage of the opai air, the smell of vegetation* 
the effluvia from the ground, and the vigorous action 
of the muscle of the arms and chest. This last ben- 
efit — one which may be had in other modes of exer- 
cise also — is very important generally, and especially 
where there is any tendency to felling in of the chest 
and lung affection. Gymnasium is an exerdse of 
very excellent influence. 

Walking is another kind of exercise usually em- 
ployed ; but it is one of very little service generally. 
It is better than nothing, but very insufficient. It 
only calls into exertion the lower limbs, which least 
need exercise, while the muscles of the chest and abdo- 
men, which require it most, are not called into exer* 
tion. Horse-back exercise has the same deficiency. At 
female schools some method should be chosen for exer- 
dse which combines the three important considerations 
above mentioned, namely, general muscular exertion, 
adapted to their strength, mental exhilaration, and the 
special action of the arms and trUtik. Jumping the 
rope is too exciting and severe. A bowling-alley for 
young ladies — who, of course, would never allow them- 
'selves to become dissipated — would be an ^oellent 
exercise and amusement for them. Let all students 
remember that, if they would preserve good health, 
TH]£T HUST EXSBCiss ; and that, in doing this, they 
also ^ve vigor and vivacity to th^ int^ect, as well as 
energy-and health to the body. 



104 PABTIOULAE DIKBCnOMS 

The managers of literary iiustitatiomt liaTe a grwt 
rcHpoDflibilitj in thitf matter. If they iroold aeonn 
the physical and intellectual wdfiure of those under 
their care, — which doubtless they would, — they mart 
put themselves to the trouble of providing for and xega- 
lating means to accomplish that object. One of their 
firat duties consists in passing a careful aomtiny npoi 
the habits of those proposing to enter an inatitation. 
No pupil should be admitted of known viciooa hafaita ; 
for he is not only in the way of nun himself, bat 
influence will be detrimental to others. Boea 
breath give proof that his whole circulating ayatem ia 
impregnated with the essential propertiea of alcohol ? 
He ought not to bo admitted. If the inatitation haa 
any regard for the physical, intcUectaal and moral 
character of its young men, regard for the inflnenoe 
of the institution upon the world, regard for the al- 
timate reputation which it may sustain among moral 
and Christian men, or regard for the approbation of 
Heaven, let them admit no young man witli the taint 
of alcohol in his breath and upon his soul. 

Tobacco-using, by chewing, smoking, or snuffing, 
is a vice of more powerful influence on the nervooa 
system, and the physical Actions in general, than the 
drinking of alcohol in the same proportion. It more ef- 
fectually enslaves its victim. It binds him with stronger 
bands to its degrading service. It is a habit almoafc 
infinitely more difficult to abolish, than to ^ve up the 
intoxicating cup. It more effectually intozioatea the 
body and mind. The word " intoxicate," fiom the 



TO LTTERABT UNiJTiTUTlOirS. 106 

Greek, Toxon, literally means to poiBon. Tobacco is 
a more powerful poison. It makes greater inroad 
upon the natural functions of tlie body. It is doing a 
worse work on the physical wel&re of the men of this 
generation. Hence, when its influence is suspended, 
there is a feelmg of greater loss ; so that men will fiur 
sooner relinquish the bottle, than their tobacco. And 
while it is working with such power upon the body, it 
affects mind and moral feeling. The same progress in 
intellectual and moral culture can never be made, 
other things equal, in those devoted to this vicious 
habit. Hence, let it be written upon the moral ensign 
of every college and seminary, '* No smokino allowed 

MiKKK. 

Provision should be made for the exercise of stu- 
dents. Means fi)r agricultural exercise should be pro- 
vided, if possible, for that portion of the year in which 
it is practicable. A mechanic's shop, or something to 
subserve the same purpose, should be provided for the 
winter season ; and a requirement on every student to 
attend on this important duty, should be established ; 
so that no loafer should find an easy passport through 
any literary institution. 

Eecitations should be so arranged as to accommo- 
date the periods allotted to eating and digesting food, 
and those devoted to labor and relaxation. A recita- 
tion should never be required just preceding or just 
succeeding a meal. If it immediately precede a meal, 
the nervous energies have been drawn so intently to 
Ae m«ntal efiort, that ihey oaimot at once be diverted 



106 PABTICULAK DXBBOnom 

and drawn toward the digestive effort llieraibra a 
short space should be granted for relaxatifln finom any 
active employment of the nervous system, immediatelj 
preceding a meal. If the recitation immediately smy 
coed a meal, the process of digestion is interrupted. It 
would be far better that recitations should be so ar- 
ranged as to come somewhere within the period allotted 
to close study. Then there would be no interference 
with the natural action of the system. But, to go into 
a recitation-room just after a meal, is a violation of 
law which is perfectly suicidal ; and to be forced there 
by academic law, is gradual manslaughter. 

And now the important question is, will the man- 
agers of literary institutions regulate this matter so as 
not to stand in the way of their students' obeying the 
laws of their being ? Will they hinder, or will they 
facilitate, their employing the proper method of secur- 
ing health of body and mind? Will they aid in 
keeping up such a balance between mental and physical 
power, that there may bo a prospect that the world 
will be benefited by the existence of their institu- 
tions? 

The food and drinks, also, which are furnished, 
should be adapted to the best interests of theur stu- 
dents. If meats be set aside, pains should be taken 
to furnish a palatable and wholesome vegetable diet ; 
and as coffee and tea should never see the inside of any 
apartment of a literary institution, nourishing drinks 
should be furnished in their place. Every institution's 
guardians should most earnestly recommend, if not 



TO PROFESSIONAL WES. 107 

require, ten o'clock to be the hour for closing study 
and for retiring to rest ; for there is nothing gained, 
but much lost, by studying after that hour of night. 
It is generally admitted, by medical men, that sleep is 
worth more before than after midmght, — that two 
hours' good sleep before twelve o'clock is worth more 
than four after that hour. 

TO PROFESSIONAL MEN. 

Those who accustom themselves to intellectual labor 
require habits of living somewhat different from those 
who are engaged in pursuits of a physical character. 
Though all should strictly obey the laws of their na- 
tures, physical and intellectual, yet, while some habits 
of living may be lawful, they may not be, under cer- 
tain conditions of life, expedient ; and^ indeed, what 
may bo lawftd for one, under certain circumstances, 
may not be lawftd for another, under other circum- 
stances. For iustance, as before stated, a person 
engaged in farming, can bear the evil effects of animal 
food better than one of sedentary* and literary habits. 
Since meat-eating, according to general admission, 
tends to oppress and check mental development, it 
becomes inexpedient, if not unlawful, for persons 
devoted strictly to intellectual pursuits, to practise it. 
It is doubtless inexpedient for any to use it ; but, in the 
case of those whose skill and useftdness depend upon 
an imclo«ded and active intellect, this inexpediency 
comes near the range of moral obliquity. 

In proof of the effects of flesh-eatang on the intel- 



108 PABTICULIB BiBEcnom 

Icctual faculties, sec the difference between the Frenoli 
liabits aud character, and those of that portion of the 
Kiiglish who live largely on animal food. The Eng^ 
li»h nobility are great meat-eaters, using it largely at 
each of their principal meals, and especially at their late 
suppers. What is the effect of this long-estafaliahed 
habit upon their physical and intellectual diaiBoter t 
They arc generally inclined toward the lymphatic tem- 
perament — a consequence of habitual stuffing with 
roast-beef, and other high-seasoned meats. And while 
we find a very few high-toned geniuses among them, 
the mass are indolent, stupid, and unintelligent. Ab 
a general rule, their great men have arisen from among 
the middle class, and firom under different dietetio 
habits. 

The French live principally on vegetahleB. Thej 
generally possess the nervous temperament, — a tem- 
perament adapted to literary and intelleotual habits. 
They have quick and energetic minds. They have a 
large flow of spirits, great vivacity and cheerMness, 
and are remarkably effective and productive in their 
mental character. It is well known that a very large 
proportion of various scientific works have originated 
from France. The science of medicine, with various 
collateral sciences, is highly indebted to the wakeful 
genius and indefatigable zeal of French intelleot for its 
advancement. 

Professional and literary men should live on simple, 
nutritious, and regular diet. The less exciting their 
food, the better ; in short, they should observe all the 



10 PBOHSSSIONAL HEN. 109 

rules of diet previously laid down. They should by 
no means use stimulating drinks. Their nervous sys- 
tems are more severely taxed than many other classes 
of men. Hence the absolute necessity of economizing 
the nervous strength ; and, if they would preserve 
that, they must not suffer their nerves to be artifi- 
cially and unnaturally excited. They should have 
wholesome nourishment, and then let nature herself 
supply her own well-balanced excitement. 

Of all excitants in the world, in popular use, tobacco 
should be avoided. Its effects on mind, though gen- 
erally unperceived, are great. Its first most deadly 
blow on physical welfare, is given through the nervous 
system, which forms the bond of union between the 
body and the soul. And whatever deadly influence 
strikes here, affects the mental forces. Men who have 
long used it, depend on its influence in the perform- 
ance of every extra mental effort. The greater the 
mental care or anxiety, the larger the dose of tobacco. 
And when this narcotic stimulant is wholly gone, their 
mental powers are in perfect wreck. They can do 
nothing until this fleshly lust is supplied. Even their 
religious devotions cannot be performed without it. 
If we would have mind endure, it must not be goaded 
up with such unnatural and powerful poisons. 

The clergymen of this country, in days prior to 
the temperance reformation, were accustomed to prepare 
and preach their sermons under, and in demonstration 
of ardent spirit. Now, among us, this method is 
abandoned; but there is a substitute which answers 

10 



110 PABTICULA& lOBlOXIOini 

prcciflcly the sniiie purpose, and is even 1)etter; ftr 
wh(^n the ardent was used too freely, — vhich not 
uiifriNiuciitly oi*curred, — the subject would reel under 
tlie weight of his accumulated ideas ; wlule the Bob- 
stitute e(|iuilly inspires the brain, without entirdy 
capsizing it. That substitute may be tea, coffiM, or 
tobnci-o. 

The writer, several years since, was accfna t omed to 
have, on entering his study, extreme nervous deprea- 
sion, — sinking of the ncr\'ou8 energies, — inBonmoh 
that it was iinpa«ible to make any mental efibrt while 
in tliat state ; a bowl of tea, therefore, — in aooord- 
anco with previous habits, — would be ordered; on 
taking which, the extreme depression would immeH> 
diately |>ass away, and a most cheerful and happy flow 
of spirits would take its place. Under this a sermon 
could easily l)c prejiared ; and on the Sabbath, under the 
same kind of stimulus, it could be preached. But a 
little time of such violation of law developed the fear- 
ful fact that nervous debility and depression were rap- 
idly increasing — that the more stimulus that was 
taken, the more must bo taken to meet the demand. 
Hence, the tea was abandoned entirely, and very soon 
the complaint disappeared, and has returned no more. 

This is an illustration only of facts which always 
will exist in every instance of tea-drinking under sim- 
ilar circumstances, whether they bo readily perceived 
or not. Ifow much better in every case, and espeo- 
ially in that of ministers, that they depend, in all 
their intellectual labors, on the real, substantia], and 



10 FROFEBSIONAIi HEN. Ill 

uniibrm inspiration of nature, than upon the spurious, 
fitful, debilitating excitement of some foreign stimu- 
lant ! How much better that the ministers of Christ, 
under such solemn and awful responsibilities as the 
preaching of the Gospel involves, lean on the divine 
energy of the Holj Ghost, than on the transient en- 
ergy of some artificial excitement ; — nay, how profane 
and wicked is such a departure from nature and from 
nature's God! 

How can a clergyman advocate temperance in all 
Uiings, while he himself is intoxicating his brain and 
nerves with one of the most powerful narcotics which 
ever grew upon the earth ? How can he plead that 
men should deny themselves of all ungodly lusts, — 
" abstain from fleshly lusts which war against the soul," 
— while he is indulging a lust which is emphatically 
"earthly, sensual, devilish " ? How would Paul, and 
Peter, and John, have looked in primitive times, preach- 
ing with a plug or a cigar of tobacco in their mouths ? 
How would they have looked, and the whole primitive 
church, spending individually from fifteen to thirty 
dollars annually of their stinted income for such gross 
indecencies — for indulgences which destroy the body, 
blunt mental activity, and resist the Holy Ghost? 
Such doings would have scandalized the name of Chris- 
tianity ; and the fact that the church in the United 
States is now consuming annually $5,000,000 for such 
gross idolatry, is a living, burning scandal on modern 
Zion. 

Tobaooo has been sometimes foolishly advised for a 



112 PAftTlCCLlft DZSKXIOan 

medicine, in that popular clerical diaeue-— Bnn- 
chiti^*. Hut in this as in all otlier casea recommended 
for the luoutli, it is injudicious. Instead of prevent- 
ing or curing this niuludy, it often creates or enooar- 
ages it. It' uiini:»tors would stand erect while speak- 
ing, instead of doul.iliug over the vocal avenue to read 
their pro^y sermons — if thej would preach in an 
ofl'-huud, a{iostulio ^tyle, — a style not only preventive 
of bronchitis, hut more effective on those whom they 
address, — they would prevent many a lame throat. 
Tying up tlic neck and £icc with extra cravats and 
shawls, is another fruitful source of brondutal aflEbo- 
tions. 

The injurious effects of tea, coffee, and tbbacoo, can- 
not bo counteracted by the habits of professional men, 
as much as by the habits of the laboring classes. They 
must either abandon them altogether, or bow down aa 
slaves to appetite, and take the consequences. Thej 
must abandon them, or consent to have less health of body 
and mind, and die sooner. See the sallow complexion 
and trembling hand of the barrister, especially as he 
advances in lite, who, instead of living natundly, has 
lived artificially all his days, — will he continue io 
barter his highest earthly good for such pottage ? He 
may live to old age, and so may the drunkard ; but, 
after all, he will die of gradual suicide. He would 
have lived longer and better without those artificial 
promptings which wear out the vital principle. 



TO LABOBINa MXN. 118 



TO LABORINQ MEN. 

If working men would endure long and accomplish 
much, they must work temperately and live rightly. 
Some men work too hard, and by this means violate a 
law of their physical nature. This is poor economy. 
Though for a day a man accomplish more, yet, in the 
end, he is certainly a loser. But temperate labor is 
both healthy and curative in its effects on the animal 
system. If the hosts of dyspeptics and consumptii^es 
could turn formers, they might dispense with drugs 
and doctors, and recover their health. But even form- 
ers themselves may utterly destroy their health and 
constitutions by excessive and ill-managed labor. To 
subject one's self to a severity of labor which the 
strength and constitution cannot endure, is a violation 
of physical law, which, sooner or later, will bring in 
its train a penalty apportioned to the amount of trans- 
gression. 

Another way in which labor maybe made injurious, 
is by inattention to the laws of digestion. Take the 
case of the farmer for an illustration. Though the 
amount of daily labor performed by him is not suffi- 
cient of itself to injure him, yet, by ignorance or dis- 
regard of the nature of the digestive process, he may 
do himself great injury. One way of injuring him- 
self may be by rapid eating, so that his food is no more 
than half masticated and half mixed with saliva. That 
food can comparatively do him but very little good. 
Or, if he take sufficient time to eat, and tixon imme- 

10* 



114 PIRTICULAB DIBBCTXOKB 

diatdj set himself about hard labor, the prooesB of 
digestion in the stomach becomes deranged and impexu 
feet. 

Ilenoc, his sysstcm is not nourished and Bostained, 
or else ho is obliged to overload his stomach with food 
in order to get sufficient support. But let him take 
ample time ibr Ciitlng, and then spend one hoar on 
light matters before he shall put himself down to aevere 
labor, and he will soon find himself a gainer in healtli, 
and in the amount of labor ultimately performed. Take 
the farmer, with his dozen hands, in ha^g-time, it 
may be. They hurry down a heavy dinner, then go 
out immediately to mowing grass or pitching hay. 
While all their nervous energies are needed in the 
digestive process, they are forcing them away from 
their duty to the muscular system. The men and 
their work move heavily, and at the close of day iihey 
fed exhausted and overdone. 

Let this same farmer, with his men, change his 
course ; they cat delibcrtitcly, they spend one hour in 
doing some light matter, and then apply themselves 
closely to work until the next meal. In this way they 
give time to masticate, time for the stomach to act, 
and then they work with ease, and despatch their 
task with much greater energy and speed ; and at the 
dose of the day they find themselves much less ex- 
hausted. Every man who knows how to manage 
beasts of burden, and studies economy, takes the same 
course with them which is here recommended fop 
laboring men. When men or ]^orses live and labor in 



TO LABOKING MEN. 115 

tiiiB way, they ordinarily eat less, are in better' oon« 
dition, do more work, and endure longer. No man of 
common sense will push his horse to severe draft or 
travelling, immediately after a full meal. Let him 
consider his own body worth as much as that of his 
horse. 

Laboring men should also eat temperately. They 
are under no necessity for using animal food, unless 
they choose it as a mere matter of fancy. They can 
be amply nourished on vegetable diet, else the pro- 
vision made for Adam and Eve, before the fall, was a 
failure. It has already been shown that all the ele- 
ments of nutrition are contained in the breadstuff. 
But whatever they eat should be simple, nourishing, 
and palatable. If they eat too largely, the stomach is 
oppressed, and requires a longer time to perform ita 
ftmctions. Some are in the habit of taking luncheons 
between meals. They often say they want a full stom- 
ach to lean over. This is bad philosophy, for reasons 
which need not here bo repeated. If they lunch 
habitually, of course, when luncheon-time comes, they 
feel a faintness at the stomach. And so it would be 
if they were to eat ten times a day. If they habitu- 
ate themselves to only three meals a day, they will 
suffer no more, nor even as much. Three meals a day 
is as much as they can lawfully dispose of; and when 
they take more, they are obliged to violate an import- 
ant law of the animal economy. They should be care- 
ful that they do not allow their supper to come near 
bed-time ; supper should come in season for. digestion* 



116 GENUAL DnKnOHB. 

Tlicn, on riaiiig in tho morning, the heftl and bodj ftd 
cluar and active. Jjct laboring men adopt theee n^ 
gcsiionfi, uml they will find them much to their inter* 
C8t and happincHS. 



GENERAL DIRECTIONS. 

OK SLEEPING. 

Sleep is as important to body and mind as fi)od is 
for tho general system. Without it, the health of the 
most robust would fail, and even life itself in time 
wither away. 8ome noed more sleep than otherSy per- 
haps, under the same circumstances. But those who 
are destined to la}x)r in body or in mind, need more 
sleop than those who are not exposed to fatigue. 

Laboring men should give themselves ample time 
fi)r sleep. They should retire to rest about nine or 
ten o'clock at night. Nine, perhaps, is the best hour, 
but never, in any ordinary case, should they sit up 
later than ten. They need, as a general rule, seven 
or eight hours of sleep ; and sleep before midnight is 
generally considered worth more than sleep for the 
same length of time aflcr midnight. They should rise 
in tho morning about five o'clock. 

Professional, literary, and mercantile men, should 
give themselves time to rest tho mind. They ought 
never to allow themselves to be awake after ten o'clock 
at night. Many may suppose that, by laboring over 
their books, or other business, till eleven or twelve 
o'olook at night, they gain time and money; bat this 



ON SLEEPINa. 117 

is a great mistake. When men undertake to cheat 
themselves, they always get a bad bargain. Dame 
Nature is jealous of her rights ; and whoever will be 
BO unwise as to trample them under their feet, will, 
sooner or later, be made to pay the damages. If we 
want health and ability to endure, we must obey law, 
by giving sujficient time, and the right time, for 
sleep. If any would shorten his time of sleep, let 
him not put off the hour of retirement, but rise 
earlier than the ordinary hour in the morning. 

Sleep, to be quiet and refreshing, should be on an 
empty stomach ; that is, the first steps in the process 
of digestion should be accomplished before retirement. 
Supper should be the lightest meal of the day, and 
should be taken at least two hours before bed-time. 
Some are in the habit of eating fruit after supper, and 
frequently late in the evening. Strong stomachs may 
dispose of fruit under such circumstances without ap- 
parent injury, but weak ones will suffer more or less 
from such a course. The better way is not to take 
anything, even the mildest fruit, after supper. The 
stomach should be allowed the privilege of rest, as 
well as the rest of the body. Dreams are generally 
the result of luncheons and suppers late in the evening. 
The revelations of night visions are doubtless, in many 
instances, the result of late suppers, producing invol- 
untary somnambulism. 

Another rule, indispensable to good health, is, never 
to sleep on feather-beds. They are non-conductors of 
the electrical currents which naturally communicato 



118 GENEKAL DIBSCTIOKB. 

between the surface of the body and the atmoophera. 
They oljstruct the passing of gaw» given off by senai- 
ble and insensible perspiration. They chock that part 
of respiration which is naturally carried on through 
the skin. They retain thoHC gaseous substances given 
off| and send hick ujion the Ixxlj* their hurtful agen- 
cies. The tendencies of some of these gases axe 
adapteil, among otlier evils, to generate fevers. Ow- 
ing to the non-conducting quality of these beds, these 
gases accumulate, and become very detrimental to the 
system. Another objection to them is, they are the 
general reservoir of the various exhalations of the dif- 
ferent persons who have lodged on them. They retain 
the effluvia and humors which may have been gathered 
in this way. Hence, for those who love health more 
than sofl beds, foathcr-beds should be rejected ; and 
husk, palm-leaf, or hair mattresses, adopted in their 
place, for all scajsons in the year. 

ON BATUINO. 

Cleanliness is a very imjurtant means of healtli. 
Some persons in low life, and some foreigners, are prao- 
tically great lovers of dirt, and at the same time seem 
to have good health and sound constitutions : but they 
are none the better for their filthincss. Their good 
health may be the result alone of their plain living ; 
while those in higher life, with all their cleanliness 
and ventilation, destroy themselves with their luxuries. 
But when the cholera and other violent epidemics 



ON BATHIKO. 119 

appear, their most fearM fimtsteps are traced in those 
districts and families where filth abounds. 

Every person ought to be accustomed to periodical, 
or, at least, occasional bathing. The pores of the skin 
are likely to become chocked and impervious, without 
it. The surface of the body becomes covered with a 
substance which prevents the action of the cutaneous 
vessels. Washing the surface from such an accumu- 
lation is very important both for the flavor and the 
health of the body ; for, when the skin is thus coated, 
the whole system is afifected by it. The natural exhala- 
tions, which are adapted to purify the blood and fluids 
generally, are thrown back upon the system ; then some, 
or all of the internal organs become oppressed, and 
cease their healthy functions. 

An obstructed skin is frequently produced by a 
sudden cold, by which the internal system becomes 
oppressed, and a fever ensues, unless the obstruction 
be speedily removed. A bath to meet such an emer- 
gency is necessary. A warm bath should be chosen 
when the action of the system is feeble, possessing but 
little power of reaction ; but where the system is more 
vigorous, promising to reiict so as to bring up a glow 
of warmth and a gentle perspiration, a cold bath may 
be preferable. 

The kind of water to be used is of some moment. 
Sea water may be the best for those in general who 
have been accustomed to the atmosphere of the sea- 
shore. It may be the best for any whose surface is 
too odd, lax, and flaodd, throwing off perspiration too 



r^ 



120 GENERAL DIXICnOEB. 

profumly, or that which is clammy and moAid. Sesi- 
bathing, cold or warm, as the iodividaal may be aUe 
to bear it, accompanied with dry friction, in Boch eaaes 
may prove very beneficial. A froih-water bath is 
unquestionably the best where a foyer, or a tendency 
to a fever exists. 

A cold or warm bath should bo selected in aooord- 
ancc with cia-umstances relating to the state of the 
general constitution, present strength, or the nature 
of an existing morbid affection. As before remarked, 
as a general rule, a warm bath may be the better one 
when the general strength is too feeble to admit of ft 
reaction of the system under the influence of oold 
water ; while a cold one may be better, where a toIe> 
ably vigorous habit exists. A cold bath may also be 
preferable, as a general thing, when resorted to as a 
luxury, or for the purpose of preserving health. The 
oold itself is a tonic to the skin, and throng the skin 
to the entire S3rstem ; while the general tendency of 
warm water upon the surface is weakening. When ft 
limb is inflamed, we often bathe it in warm water to 
reduce its action ; i. e., to weaken the present excited 
action of its vessels. 

The frequency of bathing is a matter of some inter- 
est. This depends mueh upon the constitution, health, 
habits, and employment of each individual. Those 
who live on meats and oily substances have much more 
occasion for frequent baths than thiose of dijBFerent hab- 
its. If persons would so regulate their habits of liv- 
ing as to keep the fluids of their systems pure, ih^ 



ON BATHINa. 121 

would have much less occasion for j&eqnent bathing. 
Hence, no specific role can be given for its nse, either 
as a preservative, restorative, or a luxury ; common 
sense and circumstances must determine its frequency. 

Too frequent bathing, however, is decidedly injur 
rious. Although hundreds perhaps suffer for want of 
it, while even one is injured by its frequency, yet 
there is such a thing as making too free use of a good 
thing. A person may bathe so often as materially to 
weaken himself, in the course of time. Anyone must 
be very filthy to need a bath every day. And if a 
bath be used every day by one who only needs one once 
or twice a week, and this course be persisted in fi)r a 
great length of time, much damage to the system must 
accrue. Very many, doubtless, have been greatly 
injured in this way, though that injury may not have 
been attributed to such a cause. 

Too frequent bathing does injury by stimulating the 
pores of the skin too much. When the skin acts nat- 
urally, it constantly throws off, by insensible perspira- 
tion or exhalation, a substance which it is necessary 
the system should part with for the continuance of life 
and health. When, from any cause, that exhalation 
is impeded, the system suffers by being oppressed with 
that which should be thrown off. But if the skin be 
made too active, it throws off too much, — more than 
is required, and more than the system can afiS}rd to 
spare : hence the body is gradually weakened. And 
though years may pass before this undue waste beper- 
oeiyed, yet it will sooner or later discover itself. Not 

11 



V 



122 OKNXBAL DDUKmOMI. 

nnfreqaently has the writer been eilled to pRMribe 
fiv debilitated children, when littk elae ooold or 
needed to be done except to proeeribe the use of too 
freqoent baths and washings. Some mothers are bo 
excessively afraid of their little ones being dirty, they 
will bathe and wash them several times a day. Snoh 
a course is liable to be veiy disastrons, eqpeeiaUy when 
warm water is nscd. When children are waelied for 
olcanlLness, cold water should generally be used ; bak 
even that should not be applied to the whole body so 
often as every day, if the strength and health of llie 
child be an object. 

A letter was received from the much honored John 
Quincy Adams, a few months priw to his deoease, 
answering some inquiries in relation to his experienee on 
bathing, in which he says he has practised it in a varieij 
of forms and ways, ** from first to second childhood," 
— an ** experience during more than threescore years 
and ten. ' ' He says, — "I continued it until within the 
last four or five years, when I found it no longer 
agreeing with my health, but operating rather nnfih 
vorably to it. Medical friends, and particularly my 
very ancient friend, the late Dr. Waterhouse, advised 
me to disuse it ; and my experience confirming bis 
admonitions, I have, with great reluctance, entirely 
renounced it." He adds, — ** And I parted from U 
as from a dear and deeply regretted friend. Though 
no longer able to enjoy it myself, I can very cheer- 
fully recommend it, — not only the praetiee of bathing. 



ON AMUSSMENSS. 11118 

bat of Bwimmiiig, — to all my friends under the a^ 
when King David could get no heat." 

There can be little doubt but that the fiuscinating 
luxury of bathing has stnnetimes led to such an undue 
use of it, as gradually to waste the physical energies, 
and induce premature old age. While the system 
possesses the vigor of youth and manhood, the too 
great waste of the body can be supplied by its recrea- 
tive force so effectually, that the debilitating effect is 
not noticed ; but when that power of recreation be- 
oomes much diminished, the loss becomes more per- 
manent and apparent. Let the young be admoni^ed 
lest this useful luxury be used intemperately. Other 
cases have come under observation, where bathing 
had been extensively practised f<»r years, but, as age 
came on, the system was not able longer to bear tlie 
excessive exhalations by insensible perspindion wfaidi 
the practice occasioned. Several persons have coo- 
firmed this opinion by relating their own experience. 

ON AMUSEMENTS. 

All amusements for recreation should of course be 
innocent, and free finom a tendency to any kind of dis- 
sipation. The periods daily allotted to exercise and 
relaxation may be more or less occupied in amuse- 
ments ; but generally there should be, a^de from this, 
some time occasionally spent exclusively in simple 
recreations. There should be occasional hunting and 
fishing excursions, temperance picnics, sleigh-rides^ 
and other pleasure parties and amusements. Oooft- 



124 UKNEBAL DIBX0TI0M8. 

Bional plays and games which have no evil tendeney, 
may be made profita1)lo to health. Some may think 
that such recommendations aro giving too great 
license ; but if they are properly chosen and managed, 
thero can be no harm from them, bnt great good. 

These occasional amusements are recommended not 
for the sake of the mere pleasure they aro adapted 
to give, but purely for the purpose of recreating and 
prcscr\-ing a healthy stato of body and mind ; 'whioh 
cannot always Ih) done without these aids. Those 
persons os^)ecially, who are devoted to constant mcntol 
labor, must have resort to some kind of mental relax- 
ation, or their constitutions will suffer loss : the mind 
cannot bear to bo kept constantly on the strotch of 
exertion; it will soon lose its elasticity and power, 
and the body give way. Clergymen should bo 
allowed the privilege of such amusements as are essen- 
tial to health of body and mind. Their labors aro 
very wearing to the powers of life. They should bo 
relieved occasionally from the monotony of mental 
toil which is constantly pressing on them. A little 
merriment now and then, short of levity, should not 
be considered derogatory to the sacredness of their 
calling. Without this, their systems may too early 
wear out, and their labors bo cut short. 

ON INDULGENCES. 

Under this head it is intended to speak of things 
which are inexpedient and unlawful. While honest 
and innocent amusements, used with judgment and 



temperanoe, aie tery hnpcxrtaiit hj way of giving eUuh 
tioity and strength to the mind and body, nnlawfol 
and intemperate indolgenoes injure and often rain 
both. There aie amusements which are innocent and 
harmless in their nature, that may used intemperately 
and unlawfully. Amusements should be used, not as 
means of mere pleasure, but of actual utiHly : and 
while kept under such a rule, all is well; but tiie 
moment ikej shall be used for the simple gratificataon 
they give, they are likely to engross too much of time 
and thought, and lead to ruinous results. But when 
persons resort to measures for their gratifieation which 
axe unlawful when used in any degree, the danger is 
greatly increased. 

Private indulgences claim attention here. In- 
dolgenoes which belong to married life, when used 
irith moderation, are conducive to health ; the mar- 
ried, all other things being equal, enjoy better 
health and live longer than the angle; but when 
these are allowed in excess, they reduce the vital 
energies, and diminish the powers of body and mind. 
All licentiousness, aside from its moral evils and deg- 
radation, is destructive to the human system. Many 
a young man has not only ruined his reputation and 
moral character, by licentious practices, but has 
spoiled his constitution for life. He has, early in 
1^, planted in his system the seeds of misery and 
premature death. One who has early in life given him- 
self to such habits, has unfitted himself for the fiitore 
iojojment of domestic b^pness. Thedegradalionof 

11* 



126 anrmAL niKxonoifB. 

hiB mind, and tho vitiation of hu appetite, haTe made 
him unfit to become the companion of Tirtue and 
refinement, and he is very likelj to continue the 
indulgence of his corrupted poasions in after life, 
whatever may bo the sacrifice to his moral and pbjB- 
ical character. 

Solf-indulj^nce ia another degrading, contemptible 
vice, which has destroyed its thousands and tens of 
thousands annually, both of males and females. Set- 
ting aside a comprison of its sinfulness, it is doing 
more injury to society than all other fonns of lioen- 
tiousness put together. Boys, and even girls, of 
respectable origin, of splendid original talents, have, 
by this unnatural practice, not only destroyed their 
phyacal systems, but have reduced their minds to 
comparative imbecility, and, in many cases, to complete 
idiotism. It would seem as though, if one were lost to 
all scnso of moral accountability on this subject, the 
idea of making one's self an idiot, to be a walking 
monument of self-destruction, would be enough, of 
itself, to deter tho most inveterate devotee to his paa- 
uons, from such habits. 

The bodily diseases produced in this way are fre- 
quently very formidable, and baffle the most profound 
skill. Sometimes they appear in the form of spinal 
affections, which send distress and wretchedness 
throughout tho whole nervous system. Accompa- 
nying this, will often be found a morose dispoation, 
dejection of mind, and melancholy. These aJTectiona 
are common to males and females. And added to 



MENTAL AnSOTIONS. 127 

iihese, there will not nnfreqaently appear in males, 
seminal incontinence, wasting away the vital energies, 
by the excessive and unnatural draft which it makes 
on the electric forces of the brain and nerves. 



MENTAL AFFECTIONS. 

The sympathy existing between the mind and the 
body is so great, that when one is affected, both are af- 
fected. If a person imagine even that he is sick, he is 
pretty sure to be sick. If, while in health, he be told, 
and made to believe, that his countenance indicates ill- 
ness, in a short time his whole S3rstem will become af- 
fected. Medicines have sometimes been known to pro- 
duce their specific ^ffect by a mere dread of taking 
ihem. Let the imagination be inspired with confidence 
that a certain medicine, or course of treatment, is going 
to perform a cure, and the cure is likely to follow. It 
is on this principle, that simple bread pills have some- 
times performed great cures ; and on this principle, 
doubtless, depends, to a very considerable extent, the 
success of any practitioner. 

CHEERFULNESS. 

This state of mind has much to do with the healthy 
action of the physical system. A cheerful and happy 
mind gives a free and easy circulation in the nervous 
system ; it aids in the circulation of animal electricity 
or nervous fluid, which gives support to the vital ener- 



128 MKHTAL AHIOTIOMB. 

gies of tho whole body. GheerfnliiMB, by ite aftet 
on tho ncrroas system, contributes nraoh towwd a 
healthy and free circulation of Uie blood. It haa to 
do, indeed, with the fonnation of the Uood, fay viztae 
of its influence on the process of digestion. A oheer- 
ful mind, especially during the hour set apart particn- 
larly for tho first effort of the stomach after a meal, is 
very important to an easy, thorough digestive procesa. 
If the mind bo attacked with grief, Uie food is not 
digested as well ; and consequently the system is not 
as well nourished. How commonly does Itt^wpfw 
of body follow continued grief! Why this? Be- 
cause grief hinders the process of nutrition. It doea ik 
in two ways : it hinders the thorough digestioii of the 
food, so that nourishment cannot as well be dimwn 
firom it, and it retards the action of the absorbent Tea- 
sels, which take up tho nutritive part of the fix>d, and 
oonvey it into tho blood. 

Whatever, then, may be an individual's eonditioii 
or circumstances in life, it will be great economy fixr 
him to mako himself cheerful and happy. However 
bitter may be tho cause of his grief, let him oultivite 
a spirit of resignation ; however painful may be his 
condition in life, let him endeavor to be content 
with such things as he has ; however dark his proa- 
peots, let him hope for good. While notlung is 
gained by despondency, much is lost. While oheer- 
fulness helps others to be healthy and happy, it is dP 
great benefit to one's self. 

Some have thought that much cheerfalnefls 



, USLANOHOIiT. 120 

contrary to true dignity and Christianity. But this 
is taking a narrow-minded view of things. It is no 
more a sin nor a breach of dignity to indulge in real 
oheerfiihiess, than it is to take wholesome food. 
There is a distinction to be made between cheerful- 
ness and levity. While levity may bo undignified 
and unchristian, genuine cheerfulness may be a part 
of dignity and Christianity both. Ministers have 
been sometimes charged with a want of spirituality, 
because at some of their social meetings they indulge 
' in some degree of merriment; but all this is in keep- 
ing with nature's law, and is absolutely essential to 
health. Their situation and calling ordinarily cir- 
oumscribe them in relation to sources of amusement, 
and their responsibilities are adapted to induce solem- 
nity of mind; and if this condition could not now 
and then be relieved, they could scarcely endure it. 
If we would be benefited by their ministrations, we 
must give them a chance to live. 

MELANOHOLY. 

This affection of mind has an opposite efkct on the 
general health, to that of cheerfulness. Melancholy 
deadens the circulation in the blood-vessels and nerves ; 
and also retards the action of the liver. It hinders 
the process of digestion and of nutrition, and tends to 
dry up the fluids of the whole system. 

A state of despondency and melancholy is a fre- 
quent accompaniment of deranged digestive organs. 
It sometimes is found to be both cause andeflfoctr It 



IM MENTAL AmOnONS. 

often oanses dyspepeia, mid whether it cause it ot not, 
it generally follows it; and then operates both a« 
oaose and eflfect. When melancholy, or a despairing 
state of mind, once exists, whether as connected with 
deranged digestive organs, or any other state of ill 
health, the cure becomes very much more difficult and 
doubtful ; and nothing comparatively can be effected 
by way of medication, for the benefit of the patient, 
till something be done for the mental affection. Some 
method must be had at once to attract the attention 
of the patient away from himself and his complaints. 
Hence, in selecting a method of cure, some exercise 
or employment must be chosen, which will interest 
and engage the thoughts, and prevent their being 
absorbed in himself; and those associated with him 
must put on the most cheerful aspect. 

BENEVOLENOE. 

Human sympathy is a quality of our natures which 
the Creator has implanted in us ; and whoever culti- 
vates and exercises it, yields to a law of his social 
character — obeys a law of his nature; and whoever 
cherishes a due spirit of obedience \o any law of his 
being, is doing that which is promotive of his health. 
In willing good to others, — which necessarily in- 
volves all practicable benefactions, — there is a pleas- 
urable feeling passes over the mind, which vibrates 
over the whole body ; and this heaven-bom vibration 
oi human sympathy and good-will, gives a glow of 
health to the whole mental and animal system. Heaoe, 



MALKWOUSKCJIL 131 

tlie &ct, that in times of the prevalence of pesti- 
lential diseases, those who devote themselves to the 
self-sacrificing effort of nursing and watching the sick 
and dying, while the victims of the malady are fast 
falling on their right and lefl, seldom become a prey 
to that malignant disease themselves. The great phi« 
lanthropist, John Howard, could never have endured so 
hag his labors amidst the varied death-damps of pris- 
ons and dungeons, and appalliug scenes of wretched- 
Bess to which he ^posed himself, had not the desire 
and the pleasure of doing good, for the sake of human- 
ity and of €k)d, given to his system unwonted power 
of refflstance to disease and endurance of toil. 

He who wills good to his fellow-beings, and, so &r 
as able, gives practical demonstration of his benevo- 
lence, is not only relieving the ills of human life in 
otiiers, but is at the same time contributing largely to 
his own health of soul and body. The Great Teacher 
of practical benevolence faHlj appreciated the personal 
benefit to be derived from the exercise of a spirit of 
benevolence, when he said, " It is more blessed to give 
than to receive." Let those who have never made the 
experiment, be^n at once to yield obedience to this law 
of their social being, and they will find tibat in so doing 
they will receive their reward. 

MALEVOLENCE. 

This affection of mind is contrary to every law of 
our social being. WiUing evil to our fellow-beings is 
contrary to the moral law of God, to the law of human 



182 MXNTAL AfFicnONS. 

brotherhood, and the law of our mental constitalaon. 
Whoever indulges this spirit, has sank oat of himself 
as he was constituted by the hand of his Maker, and 
become a fit subject for the companionship of demons ; 
where no other feelings than malice and revenge, crim- 
ination and recrimination, ever find a dwelling-place. 
A spirit of revenge fi>r injuries, finds a resting-place 
only in the bosom of ibols ; who defy the right of the 
Almighty to declare, "Vengeance is mine — I will 
repay:" much less will a malicious spirit, without 
provocation, find a place in his breast in which any of 
the milk of human kindness dwells. 

Whoever indulges this cold, misanthropic temper 
of mind, chokes the natural current of his soul ; and 
while that soul is thus constrained, and its social sym- 
pathies are becoming dried and withered, the whole 
physical organization feels its unnatural action, and 
becomes partaker of its uncommon depravity. This is 
to be seen in the very countenance. While the face 
of the benevolent man shines with the lustre of moral 
and physical health, that of the misanthropist is de- 
jected, downcast, and sullen. Why this difference in 
the physical conformation of the countenance ? Be- 
cause the soul acts upon the whole animal economy, 
and enstamps its own image upon the outward man. 
One who is versed at all in reading human character, 
can easily distinguish a benevolent man from one of a 
malevolent spirit, by the expression of his face. 



OBUOAXIONS XO L^W. 1S3 

OBLIGATIONS TO LAW. 

PHYSICAL OBLIGATIONS. 

He wlio would enjoy perfect health is obliged 
to obey organic law ; and from this absolute obliga- 
tion he cannot free himself; for if he transgress phys- 
ical law, he must endure the infliction of a physical 
penalty. While the violator of human law may 
escape the punishment due to his crimes, by keeping 
them out of sight, or by fleeing from the reach of 
justice, he who is guilty of transgressing the laws of 
his own animal economy, cannot escape with impunity 
-—his sin is sure to find him out. Though he may 
pass on for a while without arrest, yet, sooner or later, 
he will find himself overtaken, tried before Nature's 
oourt, and condemned. 

If we stand in the range of the tornado as it sweeps 
along its course, can we resist its power ? When the 
engine has accumidated a fierce velocity, can we cast 
ourselves before it with impunity? Can we stand 
beneath the weight of the spile-driver as it is loosed 
firom its fastenings, and escape the fatal power of the 
law of gravitation ? Can we cast ourselves from the 
towering precipice, and not be dashed in pieces? Yes, 
we may do all this, when nature has so changed that 
we can violate a single law of our physical being and 
not suffer damage. Yes, we may, when the God 
of nature shall repeal the laws which he has set 
to physical life; or when material things shall cease 

12 



184 OBUOATxosn «o law. 

to be governed by Deit j, and be kC loon upm tto 
mere contingencies of chance. 

Tlie inan who, by gnuliml aiUspo, deviatoB firam the 
pathway of physical Liw, may seem to pan od unin- 
jured fur a length of time, yet, by and by, he will be 
sure to foci the rod of pmiiiahment. He who din^ 
ganld dietetic law may not at first diaoover any i^juy, 
or, should he expericnoe suffering, he may not di» 
cover the Relation of the cause and the effisot, yet the 
con:iC(|ueiices of lii.s unlawful course will, aoooer or 
later, follow, and he cannot esciqie. The man who 
habitually steeps himself in aloohoUc Uquor, or the 
more deadly e&^nce of tobacco, may possibly life to 
threescore years and ten, and seem to be tolerably 
well ; yet ho has made himself liable to ftll suddenly 
dead, in consequence of the unseen firee ihat have for 
years been consuming his internal organs. The man 
who disobeys law in any other way may not now see 
that his system is injured ; yet when some outward 
cause of disease sludl approach him, he is overcome by 
it, simply because his previous habits have weakened 
the power of resistance in his constitution. 

The standard of general health is probably lower in 
the United States than in any other civiliied portion 
of the world. The average age is probably leas 
than half what it ought to be. And the standard of 
health and longevity is constantly degenerating. The 
physical habiU) of Americans are more in conflict with 
natural law, than those of any other civiliied nation. 
The greater part of those who are uncivilized — savage 



PBYSicAL cmuaAxiofirs. US 

«d heathen — are living in less rebellion against thdr 
own physical being than are Americans. Yery few 
die a natural d^th. The vast majority die of gradual 
suicide. If the tomb-stones of our grave-yards could 
bear witness, what would be their testimony ? Upon 
a tomb-stone in New Jersey tliere is written under 
the name of a young lady — '* Died of thin shoes ; " 
a declaration which might be truthfully written upon 
many others. Could they generally speak out as plainly, 
we should find here, ** Died of stimulants," " Died of 
narcotics," — and there, ''Died of an abused stom- 
ach," — and almost everywhere, "Died of gradual 
suicide." 

The Author of our being has ^ven to the human 
oonstitution a natural period of existence. But when 
we commit violence on our own vitality, we shorten 
its duration. We bring on premature old age, or 
create, by gradual stepis, &tal disease. To die of dis- 
ease is not, as a general rule, the way to die. We 
should die of age, and not of sickness. We should 
die as the much-venerated John Quincy Adams died 
-^ at his post, in the service of God and humanity, — 
not of disease, but of age — not because the vital 
powers had been violated, but because vitality had worn 
itself out. The men of this generation die by the vio- 
lence of their own hands. Their lamp of life goes out, 
not because the oil is exhausted, but because it has 
become so adulterated by the admixture of foreign 
and incongruous elements, that it can no longer bum. 

If the term of threesooro years and ten ought to be 



IM GBLI0ATI0M8 TO LAW. 

oonridered ihe proper arerage of healthy human life, 
we have greatly fallen firom that standard. At all 
events, oar average of American liife is evidently not 
one-half what it ought to be. It is said — though we 
have no very definite data on this point — to be a frac- 
tion less than twenty-seven years, .^d it is evidently 
growing shorter. The dietetic habits of Americans, in 
some respects, are growing worse and worse. Notwith- 
standing all temperance light and labors, there is at 
present an increase of liquor-drinking throughout the 
land ; and tobacco-using is a vice which is becoming 
more and more deep-rooted and devastating, especially 
among the young men, and even the boys, of this gen- 
eration. And unless there shall come a revolution in 
our American habits, which are forming the basis of 
physical and moral character, our race will soon come 
to a physical and moral ruin. 

MOBAL OBLIGATIONS. 

Next to our obligations to God, are our obligations 
to ourselves. If we are in duty bound to treat our 
Creator right, we are also, next to him, in duty bound 
to treat ourselves right. This becomes a matter of 
moral obligation toward him who made us, ^*whoae 
we are, and whom we ought to serve." 

The second table of the moral law, jcomprehended 
in this, " Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself," 
implies the preexistence of the law of self-love ; and 
the law of self-love involves the obligation of self-pro- 
teotion. Wh*t right have we to abuse, or even to 



MOMAIt OBLTOATIOMB Ul 

ne^g^eot oandveB ? To do that wliidi will injuie oar 
ocMiBtitation or health, is dnM in the sight of HeayeiL* 
To transgress physical law is transgressing God's law; 
for he is as troly the Author of physical law as he is 
the Author of the moral law. Whoeyer, therefore, 
violates the laws of life and health, ana against Gk)d as 
truly as though he break the ten commandments. 
Every man is under oUigation to obey those laws; 
and whoever dares vidate them will find " the way 
of transgressors is hard." 

The moral sense of community is exceedingly obtuse 
on this subject. With the great majority, appetite is 
the only law which governs ; and in spite of all that 
oan be said, it will probably, in a great d^ree, con- 
tinue to be so : and those who choose to have it so, 
must bear the consequences. But some may possibly 
be induced to examine their obligations and responsi- 
bilities in the case. Where is the consistency of being 
governed by principle instead of appetite, in r^ard to 
the demands of the moral law, and yet let appetite 
rule instead of principle in regard to physical law ? 
for, as before stated, when we violate physical law, we 
do truly violate moral obligation. Whoever will let 
appetite govern in one thing, is in a fiur way to let it 
govern in all things. Whoever, through appetite, will 
allow himself to eat too much or too often, is very 
likely to give license to all other appetites and passions 
in proportion to their strength and activity. 

When men will let moral principle govern their 
eating and drinking, they will greatly advance thehr 

12* 



188 QBUOATIONS TO LAW. 

phjnoil and moral welfare. Every efibrt made for 
the phjaieal salvation of community, should be based 
on moral principle. K the advocates of temperance 
had always stood on this platform,' they would have 
accomplished vastly more than they now have done. 
They have made the cause too much a matter of indi- 
vidual and public expediency. Instead of laboring 
sufficiently to show that every drop of liquor, taken 
as a luxury, is so much direct and t&gible sin 
against Ood, their efforts have been to show, more 
particularly, that, inasmuch as by the general and 
extensive use made of it, vast damage was done, we 
were bound, as a matter of expediency, or of moral 
obligation based upon general expediency, to entirely 
abandon its use ; that although the evils growiiig out 
of its use were very great, and, therefore, for the sake 
of example, we were bound to abandon it, yet it was 
not so much an evil per se ; that if there were no 
danger of an increased appetite, or of injury by exam- 
ple, a little might not be wrong. 

When the advocates of reform will plant their feet 
firmly upon the principle, that drinking a drop of Uiat 
burning poison is a violation of physical law which 
God has instituted in our physical being, and therefore 
a violation of moral obligation to him — laying the 
axe first at the root of the tree — they will stand 
where Heaven will give them moral power to move 
the world. They will then have the lever of Archi- 
medes, with its Mcrum, and the place to stand 
whidi he desired, by which to lift ihe earili from its 



nmSONAL OBUOATIONS. ISd 

lM0e. When men will stand on this fenndation, in 
advocating temperance, they will be likely to maintain 
oomdstenoy in their own habits. They wiU not bring 
upon themselves -the too just charge of hypocrisy in 
pleading temperance over a plug of tobacco ; of draw- 
ing their eloquence from the sensual inspiration of 
the smoking weed ; of pleading abstinence from the 
weaker bane, and indulging lusts for the stronger 
poison. No man can preach the Gospel or plead ita 
moral refi)rms with eloquence, while sinning against 
God with this idol in his mouth. If he would utter 
his words with moral force, they must proceed firom 

a FUBS BREATH, AND VBOM GLEAN LIPS. 

PERSONAL OBLIGATIONS. 

When conversing with men on the consequences of 
want of intelligence and practical interest in the laws 
of physical life, and the importance of waking up to 
our responsibility in the matter, they will often apolo- 
gize for their neglect and disregard for the subject 
during the past, and their indifference and apathy 
toward any future improvement, by a wholesale, un- 
meaning condemnation of the conduct of the world on 
this subject. They say, "We" — meaning all the 
world — " we know a great deal better than we do — 
if we were more enlightened, we would not regard it." 
This subterfuge, miserable as it is, sums up their 
excuse for a further neglect of the subject. Because 
the mass of the people are destroying the true basis of 
their highest earthly interests, they feel justified in 



140 OmOAXXONB XO L4W. 

letting tlieiiiflelye0 and children mxS&c mi, under Hia 
penaltieB of ignoranoe and ne^eoi of oiggoio Iaw. 

If the majority of men were steeping themselveB in 
akc^olic liquors, would this a&rd a valid reason why 
my feet should tread the same beaten path? The main 
question is not, what wiU the world do in this matter ? 
bat, what b our duty and our interest, as single indi« 
viduals — what will we ourselres do in this case ? Will 
we act in aooordanoe with our highest temporal good, 
and reoeive the reward, which is as sure as the promise 
of salvation to the righteous, or will we recklessly pass 
on and be punished ? These are questions &r every 
man and woman and child to settle aooordbg to the 
law of self-love and self-protection, written upon the 
tablet of every human soul. If we are su£fering the 
ills of violated law, we suffer for ourselves, — a suffer- 
ing world cannot relieve a single pain ; and if we die, 
we die hr ourselves, and the death of others cannot 
save us. Will we also, as individuals, attend on the 
duty of taking care of those whom Heaven has com- 
mitted to our charge ? Or will we say, because the 
rest of the world take no interest in the wel&re of 
their children, we will also let our own go on in the 
way of suffering and ruin ? 

Obedience to the laws of health should be made a 
matter of individual and personal duty. It is every 
individual's duty to study the laws of his being and to 
conform to them. Ignorance or inattention on this 
subject is sm ; and the injurious consequences of such 
a couxse make it a case of gradual suicide. The idea 



P1EB80NAL OBUGATIONS. 141 

that we may do what we please with oorselyes, is not 
only bad policy, and bad economy, but to do so is poe* 
itively wrong : it is sin against the Author of our 
being. And when persons knowingly or wantonly 
expose themselves to disease and death, by violating 
the laws of life and health, instead of calling the result 
a visitation of Providence, it should be called an act 
of suicide. 

If a man chew or smoke tobacco till the electric 
fi>rces of his nervous system are undermined, or the 
vital properties of lus blood are corrupted, or the 
secreting energies of his liver and kidneys are de- 
stroyed, and he consequently be laid upon a premature 
dying couch, would his sickness and death be properly 
considered visitations of Providence ? To send a note 
to church in such a case, as it is the custom to do, if 
the nature of the case were understood, would be in- 
sulting to Heaven. And there are thousands of sim- 
ilar notes offered at church, where the disease that has 
become the burden of prayer is no more a matter of 
Providence than is the State-prison for highway rob- 
bery, or the hangman's rope for murder. 

If a man has gormandized on meats for a series of 
years, till his blood and flesh are filled with cancerous 
or scrofulous humor, shall this infliction of penalty be 
called a Providence ? As well might we call delirium 
tremens a dispensation of Heaven for the sanctifica- 
tion of the soul. If men will sin against themselves, 
they must meet the punishment made due by the laws 
of their own organization. If they will rebel against 



1 



142 OTfiroiTmws xo law. 



ihej must abide the righteous deeiaons of na^ 
tore's court; and from these dedsioDS there is no 
iqppeaL The Almighty himself, without a mirade, 
oaoDot save a man from burning his flesh when it comes 
in ccmtact with living fire. If he would trust in Proy- 
idence to save him irom suffering, he must himself 
keep within the limits of divine law written on the 
human oonstitation. 

If the path of datj pass through a region of dan- 
ger, we may trust in Providence ; but when we reck- 
lessly throw ourselves under the car of Juggernaut, we 
must be crushed. An American gentleman was suf- 
fering severely from ill health. He had consulted the 
most skilful of American physicians, some of whom 
told him his sufferings were occasioned by tobacco, and 
he became himself satisfied that this opinion was cor* 
reot ; but, unwilling to relinquish this enslaving habit, 
he went to Paris, France, to take the advice of 
Dr. Broussais, to see if he could not institute some 
method of recovery which would allow him to continue 
this habit. 0, what folly ! Why did he not get up a 
petition, — for a long list of signers could have been 
obtained, — and send it to the court of Heaven, pray- 
ing that law, touching this indulgence, might be 
repealed? Such a step was the only one which 
could possibly have afforded the slightest hope ; for, 
while law remains as it is, the transgressor must 
Infier. 

The laboring man who eats quick and works imme* 
r,iii not only pursuing a course of bad eooop 



imaosAL ewsNkmam. 148 

omjybot is doing wrong to himself and to hisfOrealor. 
His is difiiinipihtng his power and dniabilitj for doing 
good. When a man of intdleetnal halxts ne^ects to 
Hye in aooordanoe with the laws of mind and body, he 
porsoes not only a bad policy, bfat secures for himself 
the ponidbnent due to his criminal conduct. The 
man who lives unnaturally instead of naturally, who 
allows his system to come imder the influence of stim« 
ulating drinks, or narcotic and poisonous drugs, does a 
material and important wrong to himself, and must 
expect to give account for his criminal conduct on the 
day of final judgment. 

The strange abandonment of prindjde whidi char- 
acterizes this generation in their treatment of them- 
selves, is almost enough to dishearten the most san- 
guine hopes of reform. Instead of seeking after a 
true knowledge of themselves, — the laws which sus- 
tain and govern their own animal existence, — and 
what course of living they ought to adopt to secure for 
themselves a sound state of health and long life, they 
foolishly and wickedly inquire, " What shall I eat, and 
wherewithal shall I enjoy the present hour ?" 

If we tell the devotee to the alcoholic draught, or the 
more poisonous and filthy narcotic, tobacco, that his 
daily potations, or the essences of the deadly weed, are 
secretly gnawing the tender cords that bind his soul 
and body together, he heeds us not. He will probably 
acknowledge the fiicts in the case, and, at the same 
time, with most perfect indi£fer^oe to consequences, 
and iosensilnlity to personal oUigatacms, will answer, 




144 OBUOATSOVB TO lAW. 

that he chooses rather to enjoy li& while he does liye, 
than to prolong life by curtailing present gratification. 
But what is duty — what is right — in the case? 
Haye we a right to prefer present gratification to 
permanent good? Have we any right to opoi an 
artery, and let the blood gradually run away, because 
we are delighted wiUi the crimson stream ? We have 
just as much right to do this, as we have to use rum, 
tobacco, tea, coffse, or any other hurtM agent, for 
mere gratification, against the highest earthly interests 
of our own life. If we would reach a high attainment 
in morals or in piety, wo must live for it. So, too, 
if we would have firm and enduring health, we must 
live fi)r it. 

SOCIAL OBLIGATIONS. 

In addition to our own personal obligations to phys« 
ical law, we are under high accountability in conse- 
quence of our relations to society. We are under 
obligations to law for the sake of posterity. Parents, 
and those who may expect to be parents, are called 
upon to take care of their health and constitution fi)r 
the sake of generations to come. If parents are of 
weakly or diseased constitution, the children must suf- 
fer, to more or less extent, the consequences. By the 
unlawfU course of parents in regard to themselves, the 
children suffer disease and premature death. 

Parents are also under obligation to teach and 
oblige their children to conform to physical law for 
their own sakes. The mother who suffers her children 
to eat irregularly, or violate the laws of their systemB 



800IAE OHUaATfONB. 146 

in any other may, oommits a crime against her o£^ 
spring, against humanity, and against Heaven, for 
which God will hold her responsible. She commits a 
erime against the dearest objects of her affections, the 
evil consequences of which, time may never be able 
wholly to remove, and eternity alone reveal to her under- 
standing. How strange and unaccountable, that moth- 
ers should love their children so tenderly as to indulge 
them in what they have occasion to know may injure 
their constitutions and impair their happiness for life ! 
May many children be delivered firom such motherSi 
and from sucli cruel kindnesses ! 

The managers and teachers of schools and literary 
institutions are under obligations to secure such faoili* 
ties for exercise and regulations in regard to the 
observance of dietetic law, as are adapted to preserve 
the health, promote the literary progress, and secure 
to the world the usefulness of their pupils. And stu- 
dents owe it to the world that they so walk in obedience 
to law, as to render their existence and advantages a 
blessing to society. 

Professional nien cannot disregard the laws of their 
own health, without infringing upon their obligations 
to community whom they serve. If their services are 
required, they are bound to make the most of their 
ability to meet the demand. The labors of any pro- 
fessional man, engaged in the active business of his 
calling, whether he be a clergyman, a physician, or a 
lawyer, make a severe draft upon the nervous system, 

13 



146 oBiieAnoNB to law. 

wluch win require all the sbrenglh that it can possibly 
oommand. 

Working men haye a responnbility in this matter 
Those who employ laborers are in duty boond, not 
only for their own interests, but for the interests of 
those who serve them, so to r^olate the hours of each 
day's labor, as to give their men a chance to liye, en- 
joy the blessiDgs of life, and sustain those who may 
fUl into their charge. Those who are employed to 
labor, are imder obligation to live in such a manner 
as to make themselves of service to their employers, 
and meet the demands of society at large. 

All who desire the welfare and improvement of 
flodety, are under obligation to exert an influence over 
ctikBFB on this subject, by example and precept. No 
man can live entirely isolated from his fellow-beings : 
his influence by word or deed is constantly telling pro 
or con the well-being of the world. Let him see to it 
that it be such, touching this matter, as shall make 
mankind the better and the happier for his having 
lived in it. Let him be at least a drop in the bucket 
of that great wheel which moves the vast machinery 
of human improvement in its onward coarse 



HEALTHY EEPRODUCTION OF 
HUMAN LIFE. 



The attention of the pablic has of late been called 
to this subject, and a considerable amount of infonna- 
tion, in the form of books and lectures, has been dis- 
seminated. And certainly that must be a very fastid- 
ious taste and a narrow mind which would objeet to 
giving to the people^ in a judicious style, such a piao- 
tical knowledge of themselves as is essential to the 
healthy reproduction of the species. Who should not 
know enough of the natural origin of human life to 
perceive his own ol:^gations respecting it, and to be 
able to see in what way he is liable to be a curse, or in 
what way a blessing, to his own immediate posterity, 
and to generations to come ? 

All information, however, given on this subject &r 
mere mercenary purposes, or to pamper an idle and 
vicious curiosity, should be most sternly repudiated. 
Nor is it best, even £)r laudable intentions, to go fur- 
ther into detail on these delicate matters, than is really 
necessary for the practical purposes of life. But so 
&r as these do require information to be given, all 
whimpering delicacy and stqperflnoas niceiieBB shoold 



148 BBALIHT BEPBOPUOnON. 

be looked out of countenance by the firm and steadfast 
eje of common sense. Let every individual so inves- 
tigate and know himself, as to be able in tbis matter 
to discharge his respon^bilities to humanity and to 
God. 

PATERNAL PBINCIPLB. 

This consists in the germinating element, which 
contains probably the entire infinitesimal rudiment of 
the future being. This germ, when examined by the 
aid of the microscope, is found to contain animalcula. 
Their fi>rm bears a striking resemblance to the human 
brain and spinal column. Those which proceed &om 
a robust constitution manifest great vital energy; 
while those firom a constitution of an opposite kind 
eixhibit an opposite character. In conjunction with its 
appropriate and tributary maternal element, this germ 
ultimately becomes developed into perfectly organized 
vitality. 

This germinating principle haa its origin unques- 
ticmably in the brain and nervous system, particularly 
that portion of the brain called cerebellum. To this 
part belongs the organ of amativeness, on the exist- 
ence of which the propagation of the species depends. 
On the healthy development and action of this organ, 
under the balancing and regulating power of intellect 
and moral sentiment, together with ^ vital qualities 
of a sound physical system, depend, in a very large 
degree, the physical and mental force which shall 
belong to the future offspring. 

Let it be remembered, the vital energy of the ani- 



PAXIBNAL BSaiPONSIBIIITT. 149 

• 

malcala depends Ga the healthy nervoiiB finroes of 
the paternal system. Numerous experiments of 
learned phydologists show this statement to be cor- 
reot. The Intimate conclusion, therefore, must inev- 
itably be, that the innate constitution of the o&pring 
must bear an immediate and necessary relation to the 
vital power of that system £rom which the germ pro- 
ceeds. 

In proof that the brain and nerves have a direct 
and positive agency in this matter, it is a well-attested 
fact, that in all cases of excess of amative indulgence, 
— a condition most injurious to the parent and the 
o&pring, — there is found a peculiar and enervating 
sensation in the head, especially in tiie region of the 
cerebellum, acc(Hnpanied with a degree of general nerv- 
ous prostration. In some instances there will be a 
periodical or protracted headache, which can only be 
removed when the cause ceases to be, and the imme- 
diate effects have passed away. That the quality of 
the paternal system, especially the brain and nerves, 
determines the character of the ofi&pring, is, therefore, 
a tan^blerpiatter of &ct. 

PATERNAL EBSPONSIBILHT. 

In view of these facts just adduced, the responsibil- 
ities which fall on those who are now liable, or may at 
some future period become liable, to ' be &thers, are 
inoalcolable. That man who practically disregards 
his obligations touching this matter, is not fit for the 
sooiefy of iBtellige&t beingp. While ha lives as he 
IS* 



UO BSAIAHT BaPBODUOXION. 

IistB, ftUowmg oat his deprayed and sdf-ereated appe- 
tites, regardless of his oldigatioDS to himself, his gen- 
eration, and his God, he is only fit to herd among 
swine and grovel in the mire of his own sensuality. 
We see that the rudiment of the future bdng is of 
paternal origin, and that the quality of constitution 
possessed by the parent determines, in a great degree, 
the character of that future being. Hence the con- 
olufflon is legitimate, that inattention to such responsi- 
bililies is in a high degree reprehensible, and even 
criminal in the sight of Heaven. 

Any departure from strict obedience to nature's 
laws tends to weaken Ihe system* And any process 
which, in any degree, produces this result, proportion- 
ahly disables an individual fi>r meeting his obligations 
to his race. The man who uses alcoholic liquor, is 
steeping his brain and nerves in that poison. He is 
taking one of the most deadly enemies to human life 
into the very citadel of his being. His brain, from 
whence the germ of a future being proceeds, is steam- 
ing and ^ming by the alcoholic fires which he has 
there kindled. Can this man suppose that he can take 
his daily, or even occasional dram, and his children 
escape the consequences? Ay, they cannot escape. 
As a general rule, — which may have exceptions, — 
there will be found physical or moral defects, and per- 
haps both, in their character. 

A case in proof is at hand : a fether of nine ohil- 
cben became by degrees a confirmed drunkard. Wh^ 
ftmi married, and until after his fborth ehild was bora, 



KAXSBNAL lUHPOlfBIfelLITT. 161 

he remained temperate: bat, being unfortunate in 
boainess, he suddenly became, and oontiuued, addicted 
to his cups, during which time his other five children 
■were bom. One of these was convicted of robbery, 
and served an apprenticeship in the State-prison ; an- 
other of theft ; another of larceny ; another, of slen- 
der constitution, became a drunkard ; the fifth was an 
idiot. The mother of all these was an excellent 
woman, and her first foxa diildren were intelligent and 
upright. These &cts are not alone ; there are many 
oases of a sinular character which testify to the same 
general truth. 

That man who chews and smokes his tobacco, is the 
individual to be addressed on this subject. He is 
doing that to himself which should be called gradual 
suicide; and that for his future ofi&pring which should 
be denominated manslaughter. It is to him that truth 
would direct her finger, saying, " Thou art the man ! " 
His brain and nerves are tinctured with that foul and 
loathsome thing. Its first deadly blow is felt in the 
nervous system. Its essences are carried into, and are 
corrupting the blood, and flesh, and all the solid sub- 
stance of the body. He is daily taking into his sys- 
tem an amount of the real essence of that wretched 
poison sufficient to destroy at once the lives of two or 
three men whose native sensibilities had never been 
deadened by its narcotic power. His nervous suscep- 
tibilities to its immediate efiects are blunted ; but the 
genuine poison, which, under other circumstances, 
would kill him, and many others with him, is, never- 



162 HBilOST BSPBOBUOnOir. 

thelees, lodged daily in his system, and most sooner 
or later cause him and his posterity to pay the penalty 
of violated law. 

And where, principally, has this poison lodged 
itself? On the brain and nerves. It is through 
this medium making gradual inroads upon his own 
physical and mental systems, and those of his imme- 
diate posterity. His brain, which is to give origin to 
other beings, is saturated with the poison. A poison, 
too, which affects not only his brain and nerves, but 
every |^nd, every membrane, and every tissue of his 
body. His children cannot escape being sharers in its 
hurtful agency. In view of this undeniable fact, will 
our young men, for fashion's sake, or £br a depraved, un- 
natural appetite's sake, continue this wicked gratifica- 
tion ? Will they, in spite of consequences, and in 
defiance of solemn obligation, go on, puffing their 
cigars, or chewing the deadly weed ? Do they lack 
fi)r moral courage to face and defend themselves against 
that created, depraved, and infernal appetite ? Are 
they beyond the reach of recovery — drawn down the 
current of an enslaving and overpowering propensity? 
Do they give it up ? — or has tobacco so deadened 
their moral sensibilities — which it is capable of doing 

— that they can look upon this whole subject with a 
dogged indifference ? 

People are apt to think that because a certain habit 

— which they perhaps in theory admit to be bad — 
does not immediately destroy life, or make them 
invalids, they are getting no harm, and are under no 



PAistof All BSNK)inHBiuflnr. 161 

obligation to change Hieir coarse. They judgeof thdr 
obligations to physical law, as they do of their obliga- 
tions to moral law ; that becanse judgment against aa 
evil-doer is not executed speedily, they may on oq 
with impunity. But punishment for violated physical 
law will sooner or later come ; and if they who offend 
could bear the rod alone, thdr crime against nature's 
government would seem to be of less consequence. 
But when we know that their innocent ofifepring most 
bear a share in the punishment due to tiieir parents, 
their ofifence seems to swell to a tenfold magnitude. 

Tobacco is one of the most deadly narcotics found 
upon the list of poisons. A very few drops of its con- 
densed properties will destroy life. Indeed, a single 
drop of its nicotine oil will kill the stoutest dog. 
It is sometimes used as a medicine, though rarely, in 
extreme cases, where nothing else will meet the indica- 
tions in the case. When used, it is generally ^ven 
by injection, in cases of lock-jaw, convulsions, and so 
on ; but is never given by those who understand its 
properties, but with the utmost caution. A little im- 
prudence might prove fatal. It should never be used 
as a medicine except by a judicious physician, even by 
external application ; finr so powerful are its poisonous 
qualities, that a small quantity laid upon the skin may 
prove &tal by mere absorption. If any doubt can be 
indulged in regard to its power, let any one who has 
never used it, chew a small piece, and the genuine 
efl^ of the article will soon manifest itself. And 
though the habitual use of it n^xspeAm the nervous 



164 wujJtBJ BBtmoiwoxiov. 

smneptifailitieB, jet the real power of the article is 
daily abeorbed into tlie system, and is doing by de- 
grees, and perhaps by imperceptible progress, its 
deadly work. And now returns the momentous ques- 
tion, in view of all the consequences, shall this demon- 
idol be longer worshipped, or trodden under foot ? 

All forms of licentiousness are destructive ; not only 
to those who indulge it, but those who may have the 
sad misfortune to inherit its poisonous fruits. This 
vice prostrates llie whole nervous system, and is de^ 
structive to tlie right quality of that principle which 
becomes the origin of life. If those who have ruined 
their constitutions by habits of this kind should ever 
become &thers, their children will probably give them 
sufficient proof that such a paternal relationship m 
never to be coveted. Another vile and vicious habit, 
no less ruinous to posterity, is self-indulgence. This 
secret sin is all but ruining the whole race. It often 
b^ns very early in life, and continues till its work of 
destruction has so enfeebled the reproductive power, as 
to render marriage inexpedient, and even improper. 

Any course of conduct, or habit of living, which 
tends to lower the standard of nervous strength, or to 
vitiate the fluids of the system, is deleterious to the 
constitution of the ofi&pring. Large eaters of meats 
will transmit a portion of the morbid influences which 
their habit of living has given to their own bodies, and 
these influences may pass on into the third and fourth 
generation. Every one, therefore, who ever expects to 
become a parent, should obey his own physical laws in 



PATERNAL BEBP0N8IBIIJt7. 166 

all things, not merely for himself, bat for the sake of 
his immediate posterity. 

Mental health, also, is essential ta healthy reprodno- 
tion. Great mental exertion and application — that 
which tends, temporarily, to diminish the animal force 
of amative feeling — is injorious for the time being to 
the reproductive power. This may account for the 
fact — in part at least — that great men seldom leave 
sons who are able to fill the places of their fathers. 
The talent of the child may not so much depend upon 
the degree of talent possessed by the parent, as upon 
the immediate equilibrity of his physical, mental, and 
moral forces. A healthy phydcal system, with well- 
balanced brain and nerves, and a well-cultivated moral 
and intellectual character, make up, then, the great 
leading qualifications to meet our responsibilities touch- 
ing this subject. 

There is another idea connected with this subject 
which may be important. There should be, in all 
cases, particularly in men of studious habits, a suffi- 
ciency of mental exhilaration, as well as bodily exer- 
cise, to maintain an equilibrium of nervous circular 
tion. The clerical profession are in special need of 
care touching this matter. Their calling involves the 
general idea, especially in the mind of a scrutinizing 
community, of great and uniform sedateness of deport- 
ment. Hence, partly from the nature of their calling, 
and partly fiom the expectations of the people, they 
are accustomed to suppress that natural buoyancy of 
spirit, and that letting off of the electridty of mirth- 



1&6 BEIiiLIHY SSPBODUCnON. 

ftdneBi, which are oommon to all persons, and whio!^, 
for health's sake, should, in some proper way, find 
opportunity to vent itself. 

This suppresfflon of nature's promptings must cause 
a kind of continual or occasional desire for mirth, 
which is kept pent up in the cloisters of the soul. It 
is the same feeling in kind which the boy felt, and 
could not suppress, when, by spontaneous impulse, he 
whistled aloud during the hours of school. Being 
asked, ** Did you whistle, John ? '' he promptly an- 
swered in the negative. ** George, did not John 
whistJe ? " " Yes, sir.?* « John, how is that — did 
you not whistle?" "No, sir — it whistled itself." 
This same kind of would-if-it-could feeling must inev- 
itably exist within those who are comparatively de- 
prived of the privilege of sufficient mental recreation. 
This may very philosophically account for that pro- 
verbial saying, which certainly has some foundation in 
&ct, that the sons of clergymen are the greatest 
rogues. They have this same would-if-it-could dispo- 
sition inborn in their mental constitutions, derived 
ftom the &ther. This feeling, finding no proper vent 
in him, was transmitted to the child. This, with the 
too ri^d discipline often applied, may correctly account 
for this peculiarity in this class of persons. 

MATBBNAXi PBINCIPLS. 

This consists in what is called the ovum, or e^, 
which bears a dose resemblance in character to that 
of the oviparous or egg-bearing animals. This ii? the 



MATBIMAL VKINCIPIJk 157 

Bftkiral dement ^ the reception of the primary prin- 
eiple or germ which is of paternal origiD. It is 
located, not in the interior, as is generally supposed, 
bat is on the exterior, upper, and lateral part of the 
uterus. The regular lunar period prepares the ovum, 
as well as the rest of the uterine system, for impreg- 
nation ; and, as a general rule, — a rule with but few 
ezoepdons, if any, — it will not receive that impres- 
sion after about eight days from the finishing of that 
period. When about eight days have expired since 
the closing of this lunar preparation, the ovum loses 
its susceptibility to impregnate, till another lunar 
period shall arrive. 

The whole course of l^e reproductive process, after 
nnpr^nation, is, in many of its essential i^tures, 
anali^us to that of oviparous reproduction. Soon 
after this process is formed, the ovum changes its 
location frcmi the exterior to the interior of the uterus, 
where it undergoes a faJl foetal development. The 
uterine system is concerned in the nutrition and per- 
fection of the foetus until it is brought to the birth ; 
and great care should be taken that nothing, at any 
stage of early life, shall transpire to derange its f\ino« 
tionary powers, and disable it for the purposes jfor 
which it was originally designed. 

The uterine system is liable to derangements of 
various kinds. One is displacement. This may be 
brought about by severe liftmg; jumping, and striking 
hard upon the feet; long-protracted standing; severe 
exeraae in jnnqdng rope ; severe ezerciae in dancing; 

14 



158 HBAi/rmr VEPBomucnov, 

tight lacing ; weight of skirts, and other causes. Any 
cause, too, whioh tends to weaken the general system 
will greatly promote this derangement. Irregularities 
of lunar periods often become matters of serious mo- 
ment. Where daughters have been brought up under 
proper physical training, — if tiieir discipline in respect 
to diet, open air, exercise, and other things, has been 
what it should be, — there will be little difficulty 
of this kind. But if parents have been guUty of neg- 
lecting these obligations, have brought up their daugh- 
ters too delicately, have not given sufficient attention 
to the development of their physical powers, or have 
allowed them to have irregular habits of diet, by which 
their digestive apparatus has become disordered, serious 
results of this kind may follow. If they have not 
given them precautions against such causes as sudden 
.^ odds, exposure of the feet by thin shoes, long-contin- 
ued cold feet, close dressing, costive bowels, and other 
hurtful influences, they may find occasion for repent- 
ance when it is too late to make amends. 

Mothers often suffer from being brought under the 
burden of pregnancy too soon after marriage — before 
they have become sufficiently acquainted with the 
changes incident to married life, new associates, new 
duties, and new cares. The thousand ill feelings 
which generally attend the bearing of the first child, 
are too early thrown upon them, and they become op- 
pressed, discouraged, and heart-sick. And their real 
ills are magnified in their own mind^ till they give up 
in utter despondency; and this desponding feeling ig 



ICAKBRNAL PBINCIPLK. 159 

often 80 impressed upon the spirit of the child, as to 
give to it a distinct feature of character, perhaps &t 
life. 

Again : mothers often suffer from being overtasked 
with bearing too many children — more than the con- 
stitution can endure. The idea that the Creator 
requires a mother to have as many children as can be 
beaten, is insulting to common sense. We might as 
well say that no one law of nature should ever be 
modified by any other law of nature, or have its pro- 
ductive forces limited. We might as well argue that 
inasmuch as vinous fermentation was a natural process, 
therefore it was our duty to put all the materials 
together which were capable of producing alcohol, into 
such contact that this chemical result should be real- 
ized. The truth is, a law of nature may be misap- 
plied, and bad ends accomplished. When we see $^' 
natural law ]ikely to apply its force tcx) far, it is due 
that we repress its course, or avail ourselves of some 
other natural law which is able to modify its bearings. 

It is right that we iodulge the promptings of nature 
in the use of delicious fruits, when such indulgence 
will not do any violence to other laws of life and 
health ; but when appetite is likely to infringe on 
other physical laws, it must be repressed until its in- 
dulgence will be in harmony with other departments of 
our nature. Married life is a dictate of nature insti- 
tuted by Heaven, — a means of health and longevity, 
— but its sole object is not the producing of children. 
This is only one object ; ar4 no parents should have 



160 HEALTHT BBFBODUCTION. 

more cbUdren than tbey are able, by divine ooansol and 
aid, to bring up for the service of Qod and humanity ; 
they should have no more children than the strength and 
constitution of the mother are able to bear.. If she be 
overtasked in this respect, she is driven to needkas 
8uffering herself, brings her o£fepring into life to bear 
inherited ills, and sends out into the world perhaps 
half a score of children imfitted, through her inability to 
train them, to answer any good end in life ; whereas, 
if she had only borne a few, she could have saved her 
own and her children's health, and, by the blessing of 
Heav^i, prepared them for usefulness. 

Although the Creator has made a law adapted to 
the continuance of the human species, he has appended 
to it some limitations, and exceptional clauses for our 
instruction and benefit ; and it is right and proper that 
people who are concerned in them, should know them, 
and avail themselves of the end for which they were 
divinely instituted. There is not probably a single 
medical man, of much experience, who will deny that 
there are many women, in married life, who ought to 
be excused altogether from having more children, or 
from having any at all. And what shall be done ? 
Shall they divorce themselves from the duties of mar- 
ried life ? Certainly not ; there is a proviso in the 
natural law of reproduction, which Heaven, for be- 
nevolent purposes, has introduced — which arrange- 
ment we are not to despise, or exclude from the prac- 
tical purposes of life. 

The fiu)t, therefore, that, as a general roley no 



MATBRNAL PBINdPUL 161 

woman is susoeptible of impregDation, after about 
eight days from finishing her lunar period until an- 
other comes, is one which needs to be understood for 

m 

important practical purposes of life ; and all foolish 
and bigoted &stidiousness against its promulgation 
should be frowned down by all sensible people ; for, 
if a knowledge of this law of Deity were brought to 
a general practical bearing, under the dictates of intel- 
ligent reason and conscience, the world would be saved 
from immense physical suffering and moral devasta- 
tion. Instead of there being so few bom who are of 
any importance to the world or to themselves, com- 
pared with the hosts of real and half-blood vagabonds, 
who are only degrading themselves and mankind, a &r 
larger proportion would be rightly tradned and edu- 
cated, and sent forth to elevate the sinking standard of 
humanity, and promote the physical, intellectual, and 
moral redemption of the world. 

There is great sympathy between the female nbind 
and her own reproductive system. The of&pring, 
while in its foetal state, receives an imprint from the 
maternal mind, which, though it may aflerward be mod- 
ified, can never be wholly eradicated. It there receives 
a mental and moral mould, the great outlines of which 
can never be obliterated. We go into a fiimily, and 
find some very different traits of character among the 
different children. Trace the history of these back to 
their foetal state, and the influences to which they were 
then exposed by the immediate operations of the moth- 
er's mind, and ^^ causes of these difEerenoes will th^ 

14* 



wmmmm"^^^* 



16B BMU/nCt BlPBODITOnON. 

appear. While die paternal inflnenoefl give the finst 
great oailines of character, the immediate maternal 
ioflucnces give the smaller peculiarities. 

This sympathy is also manifested in the efiects of 
sodden emotions and particular appetites. Deformi- 
ties of physical structure are not unfrequently pro- 
duced by a sudden impression being made on the 
mother's mind by the unexpected appearance of some 
firightM or disagreeable object. A case whidi has 
come under the observation of the writer, was of this 
sort. The mother, during her pregnancy, — some^ 
where about the sixth month, — indulged a great 
desire for partridge-meat. The husband went in search 
fi>r the fowl, but finding none, killed a ground-squirrel, 
and brought it home. She saw him at a distance, 
thought the partridge was coming, and prepared her 
cooking apparatus for its reception. She saw no more 
of her husband till he, with astonishing imprudence, 
threw the dead animal at her feet. She was shocked 
at the sight, and sadly disappointed. When the child 
was bom, it presented, in a striking manner, the feat- 
ures of the dead squirrel, as it lay prostrate before 
her. The arms could never be raised above an angle 
of forty-five degrees from the body. The hands re- 
sembled the animal's claws ; the elbow and knee 
joints were almost immovable, and bent in the opposite 
way from the natural direction. He lived to ripe 
manhood, but with the same degree of malformation 
and disability. Many illustrations of this kind might 
be adduced, together with cases of mother's marks, in 



MiXi&KUi aawoNnuuTsr. 16S 

proof of the greit Byttpaihy between ihe mother'0 
vegprodiurtive qrstem and the state of her mind. 

UATBBNAL RESPONSIBILITY. 

In anticipation of coming responsibilities, every 
young woman is bound to look well to herself. She 
can but know that the grand arrangement of Mature ia 
that she shall become a mother. Let her also know 
that her own state of constitution will, in a great de- 
gree, be tlie type of that of her future offspring. The 
talent, the moral tone, and the physical health of that 
(Spring will very much depend on her. Let her 
weigh tbis matter well, and prepare herself to meet 
approaching obligations. - Let her be prepared to give 
tlie right stamp of character to that living immortal 
being tkat may hereafter be committed to her charge. 

She should look well to her physical system. Let 
her diet and exercise be such as to secure a sound 
and well-balanced nervous system. Let her strenu- 
ously and scrupulously avoid all stimulating drinks 
and condiments which conflict with nature's laws, and 
do great mischief to the brain and nerves : that she 
live naturally, and not artificially. Her avocations 
or exercise should be such as give expansion and 
strength to her whole muscular system. Let her 
take special pains to expand her chest, that her 
breathing apparatus may be free in the exercise of its 
vital functions; for without a full chest, she may 
plant the seeds of consumption in the constitution of 
her ^ffijpiiiig brfora ilm Uzth. Ska riiooU adoft a 



164 /BMAISBY miP&OPUOXZON. 

ooarse of living which geoores puriiy of blood. A 
large proportion of humors are transmitted fipom gen- 
eration to generation. Scrofula is a disease which is 
inborn, through £Eithor or mother, in the constitution 
of thousands. This is chiefly the product ci exten- 
nve meat-eating in their progenitors. It may be ao- 
cumulating its forces for two or three generationB 
before its complete development. 

Let her look well to the character of her own 
moral constitution. She should choose dietetic habits 
which &vor moral culture ; and which will tend to 
give a preponderance to the moral sentiment over the 
animal system. For the sake of her posterity, if for 
no other purpose, let her make herself an intellectual 
being. Let her not live for the mere purpose of mer- 
cenary and selfish gratifications, but for Qtod and 
humanity. She should not live to eat, drink, and 
sleep, but to answer the great purposes of her being. 

She should also look well to the character of him 
who may become her matrimonial associate. Is he an 
intellectual being, or a mere animal ? Has he a good 
physical system, and has he a soul ? Is he a sensual 
being, living for no other purpose than to fill up the 
measure of his appetites and passions ? Has he cor- 
rupted his body and soul by dissolute habits ? Are 
his habits of life adapted to secure to him a sound 
phjTsical system ? for if his course of life is weaken- 
ing and vitiating his bodily nature, a degree of moral 
imbecilily will be likely to follow in its wake. Is he 
ooUiyating a sound nervous Efystem, or is he wantonly 



psnming a coarse that is duninishing the natural ex^ 
«rgy of his brain and nerv^, which will nnfit him to 
meet his responsibility to his posterity ? 

She filiould examine well his temperance habits. 
Does he appreciate the oanse of temperance ? if not, 
there is prima &cie evidence, in these days of light, 
of a laxness of moral principle, which endangers 
moral rectitude. Is he a young man of total absti- 
nence habits ? or does he now and then take a pleas- 
urable draft ? If so, he is dealing with that which 
may, sooner or later, ** bite like a serpent and sting 
like an adder." Trust him not. He is gradually 
stepping forward and onward in that path which has 
conducted millions to ruin. Think of the unmeasured 
woes of the drunkard's family ; then stand aloof and 
be excused from such a destiny. Is the number of 
the pure small? then prefer single blessedness to 
double misery. Nay; let the youug men of this 
generation know that they must quit their occaraonal 
drams, or go forever wifeless. Let them know that 
the young women of this generation cannot consent 
to share with them so fearful a responsibility as that 
of having a family of children whose only inheritance 
must be the hereditary taint of a drunken father. 

Let her see whether there is any other hurtful 
habit of which he is the slave. K he be free from 
the corrupting and debasing power of alcohol, is he 
free from that slower, surer, and more deadly poison, 
tobacco ? Let every young lady who seta any value 
upon herself, look well td this matter. When she 



166 UALXHT miPBODUOnON. 

0668 a young man so lacking in the essential qoalitida 
of a gentleman that he needs a cigar to finish him, let 
her be determined that she will prefer the acquaint- 
ance of those who do not require this appendage. 
And let her never suffer herself to be courted by one 
of corrupted breath and tobaooonizbd bkain. Let 
her never marry one whose habits will ever annoy 
her, and whose system is under a poison that is en- 
ervating the vital and moral energies of his whole 
nervous constitution, and that will a£^t her posterity. 

Will any one say this is a matter of fancy and not 
of fiicts? How comes it that the general idea that 
the physical condition of parents has a bearing upon 
the physical character of children, is universally ad- 
mitted, and yet there are no individual instances in 
which it is practically true ? The truth is, there are 
individual instances the world over, and everywhere ; 
but nobody seems to realize it. In every instance 
where either of the parents' habits are contrary to 
physical law, they are doing an injury which will be 
more or less felt in the generations following them. 

Let every young woman, and every young man, 
bring common sense and reason to bear upon this 
great and momentous subject. Let them so take care 
of themselves as to be prepared for the sober realities 
of life. Let them so fulfil their responsibilities, as 
that, when years shall have passed away, and their 
fiunily circle is gathered around them, they may not 
have cause to look back with sorrow upon the past, 
and with fearful forebodings toward the future. Let 



MACMBNAL BESPOKSIBILITT. 167 

• 

Aem be so careful in the selection of connubial asso- 
dates, that they may prove a mutual comfort to each 
other, and a blessing to the generations yet to come. 
Let them beforehand count the cost of indulgence 
in intemperate appetites and sensual dispositions, 
which must inevitably tend to enstamp upon their off- 
spring the grossness of their own physical and moral 
character. Let them not in this way make themselves 
responsible for the evU conduct of their children, 
which may bring their gray hairs with sorrow to the 
grave. But let them, by their physical, moral, and 
intellectual culture of themselves, be prepared to 
bring into existence a class of beings whose physical, 
moral, and intellectual character shall enable them to 
enjoy life, be an ornament to society, and a blessing 
to the world. 

What shall be said of him who will go on in known 
hurtful indulgences — feeding unnatural appetites, or 
crowding his natural ones by unnatural burdens? 
Shall he be reckoned amoug intelligent beings — 
beings endowed with a soul ? Inspiration calls that 
man a fool who seeks only, worldly good, and neglects 
his higher destiny. And is a man any less a fool who 
knows no higher rule of life than the mere gratificar 
tion of a depraved appetite ; indulgence which hazards 
health and life, and lowers the standard of his intel- 
lectual and moral being? Li doing this he puts him- 
self on a level with the soulless brute I Nay ; he 
puts himself fiir below the brute ! He cherishes ap- 



168 wuuaa bvboduotioh. 

petites 80 bw, yalgar, and mmalnral, ihat brutes will 
not stoop to be his associates. Brutes will not sip 
the dronkazd's diink; tliey will not ohew the tobaooo- 
eater's cod. 

How would the ox, or the horse, the dog, or eren 
the swine, degrade his nature, were he to use tobaeco 
— that deadly thing whioh is working greater phjsioal 
devastation to this generation than even alcohol itself ! 
What would a man think to find his horse eating the 
poisonous stuff? Would he not be alarmed for its 
effects on his strength and durability ? — for every one 
of much intelligence knows it to be Injurious to animal 
life. Let that same man ask himself whether his own 
body is worth less than that. of his beast; and inas- 
much as he has a higher nature, let it be saved firom 
the benumbing influence of the deadly weed. 

If he is endowed with reason, let him govern him- 
self; let him study to understand, and resolve to obey 
the laws of his being, which are the laws of Gt>D. 
Let each one resolve to do what he can to turn back 
the mighty current of physical and moral dedension 
which now threatens the eztincUon of the noble qual* 
ities of human nature, improve his higher being, and 

MVB POIt Qop ANP SuiU^ITT. 



NATURAL PRINCIPLES OF CURE; 

OB, 

CURE WITHOUT DRUGS. 



Among the oommon people, the wide distinction 
between Prevention and Cnre has not been generally 
recognized. They are apt to think that all books, 
relating to the laws of life and health, must of course 
be treatises on diseases and cures by drugs. They are, 
at least, often more eager to obtain reading matter in 
some contemptible quack-doctor book, which professes 
to teach them how to doctor themselves, than they are 
to get book§ to show how they destroy health and life, 
and how to prevent diseases, broken constitutions, and 
premature death. They regard Cube infinitely more 
important than Peevention. As a general rule, they 
more highly value a physician who, instead of warning 
them against the evils of violated law, will let them 
go on unmolested till they have ruined themselves, 
and then will be on hand to drug them thoroughly, 
even unto death, than they will that man who has the 
moral courage, in the cause of humanity, to peril his 
reputation to prevent them from encountering needless 
suffering and an early grave. 

16 



1 



170 CUBS Of MSXASn 

Thej want theur fidae appedtes and rainooB indul- 
genoes to be let alone ; and, when health is gone as a 
oonsequenoe, they want a doctor, or doctor book, to 
prescribe drugs which promise to restore health, in 
spite of their continuing the indulgence which canaed 
it. Or, if ihey set aside the cause for a short i^paoe, 
they wont to be so thoroughly drugged that Nature 
may never dare make such another outcry, so that 
they may return to their sins with hopeful impunity. 
At all events, they consider health a secondary matter 
— a matter comparatively of small importance until it 
is ruined, and then mourn over their pains and suf- 
ferings, when it is too late to make amends. They prac- 
tically consider the old proverb to be obsolete, ** An oonoe 
of prevention is worth more than a pound of cure." 
They go on with thdr unnatural indulgences, under- 
mining their physical vitality, until Nature, unable to 
bear abuse any longer, gives signs of woe ; then they 
resort, perhaps, to cures which only cure by death. 
The first step toward the cure of diseases 'is effected 

BY REMOVINa CAUSES. . 

Unless the original cause of any ^von disease be 
removed, there is no successful way of obtaining a 
permanent euro ; and by the removal of the ori^nal 
cause, perhaps in more than nine cases out of ten, 
Nature will remove the difficulty without the aid 
of any kind of medicine. It is the most consummate 
quackery to prescribe medicine to cure a disease, while 
the cause that produced it is not abandoned. If a 



BT BJSMOYINO CAUSES. 171 

Uvesr oomplaint, or kidney oomplalht, or any other 
glandular deraagemeDt shall occur, which has been 
produced by tobacco, coffee, tea, or any other narcotic 
or stimulant, it is an outrage on all common sense, as 
well as sdence, to prescribe remedies while indulgence 
in these false luxuries is continued. They must be 
abandoned, or health given up; and it is folly to 
inquire which should be relinquished, for they are all 
hurtful, and should be rejected. 

Here comes a lady with prostrated nervous system; 
and from this arises a diversity of complsdnts, — dys- 
pqpoa in its various forms and its hundreds of attend- 
ant su£Eerings, sick headaches and nervous headaches, 
with their periodical visits, gon^iess at the stomach 
and palpitation of the heart ; — any and all of these, 
and many more, have grown out of the long-continued 
use of stimulating drinks. Her dear wicked luxuries 
of coffee and teas, — especially the green teas, — by V 
their intoxicating power on the nerves, have gradually / 
and imperceptibly worn out their healthy tone ; they, 
are now in a morbid and irritable state, laying a broad 
jEbundation for ill health in a variety of forms. If her 
liver is the point to which her illegal living has 
directed its force, and her immediate sufferings arise 
from a torpid condition of that gland, accompanied 
with its usual attendant, a sluggish condition of bowels, 
she runs after some nostrum in the form of anti-bilious 
pills, or other quackery. She takes her pills, which 
force a temporary action that is genetally followed by 
greater pcostration- of niervcfQa force, giving ihid fivet^ 



172 CUBM OT DIBXAaiS 

greftter torpidity, and still oontinaeB her luznries of 
oofiee and tea. 

This is like a man's holding his hand in the fire till 
the skin is removed, calling on the doctor for a salye, 
while he is still holding his hand in the flame. If he 
wants the burned skin to be removed and a new one 
to take its place, he must take the hand out of the fire; 
he must put away the original cause. When he will 
do this, Nature will want little help to bring things 
again to their right bearings. But if he continues the 
oause, he may tax the skill of the whole medical 
world, and find no relief. If he will continue to vio- 
late law, he must meet the damages. But if he will 
oease rebelling against Nature, put away his weapooB 
of war&re, desist from destroying her vital forces, and 
let her have her o^vn way, ^e will put forth her very 
best efforts to set everything right. Nature always 
goes for health ; and so zealous is she in her under- 
takings, and so certain of the best possible issue, that 
we may rest assured that on her part no pains will be 
spared, and on our part no risk is run. 

\s Defore remarked, probably in nine cases out of 
ten of all the diseases in the world, especially those 
of chronic form, when the primary cause is removed, 
Nature requires no help from medicinal agents, and 
will perform her work of cure better without than with 
them. Where medicines are not really needed, they 
do harm instead of good ; for all medicinal agents are 
unnatural to the laws of healthy life. The philosophy 
of allopathic cure consists in creating an unnatural 



BT BUOYINO CAUSES. 173 

ooDclitioa of the animal eoommij, in opposition to the 
existing one. A morbid condition now exists ; another 
morbid condition is instituted in order to overoome and 
expel it. And if the medidne soooeed in lemoring 
it, still Nature must remove the nnnatnral condition 
produced by the medidne ; and if Nature alone can 
remove any existing disease by having its cause put 
iway, she will come out better in the end, than die 
mil if two morbid conditions, instead of one, are thrown 
in her way. 

My own department of the medical profeanon has 
been, in many instances, deficient in attention to the 
laws which belong to health. Thej study Pathology, 
or the laws which govern diseased life, but do not, 
as a general rule, direct suffident attention to laws 
which govern healthy life. The Homo9(^thists and 
Hydropathists give much attention to this subject. If 
a man comes to them for medical aid, they look into 
the lustory of the case. They inquire into his habits 
of eating and drinking ; carefully note all his phydcal 
errors, and proscribe ever3rthing which is in conflict 
'^'''Xnth the laws of health. In this way they put their 
patients upon the resources of Nature. While their 
medidnes, to say the least of them, are not drugging 
the patients to death, they are giving the powers of 
Nature an qyportunity to exert their healing finees ; 
and this fiict probably fiyrms the prindpal bads of 
their success. Nature gets a dianoe to pot forth heal- 
ing eoeigpes, which drug^^ has somethnes, nay, often, 

prevented. 

15* 



174 On&B Of DISMABEB 

CaseB have often oome under obsenration where per^ 
aona affected with chronks diaeases have been taking 
drugs prescribed by their physician, while at the same 
time they were indulging unnatural aj^tites in suffi- 
oient degree to account for all the attendant morbid 
symptoms. Several cases of prostrated health, from 
the use of tobacco, have &llen under notice, where 
seyeral members of the faculty have been consulted, 
each recommending his remedies, but not one of them 
00 much as intimating that tobacco possessed deadly 
properties. Even those who have noticed its deadly 
effects at all, have generally only half-condemned the 
practice, and merely recommended the lessening of the 
quantity, instead of entire and eternal abstinence from, 
it The prescribing of medicine to cure a disease 
which is the product of an unnatural habit unrelin- 
quished, is of all kinds of quackery in the world the 
most ^ormous and inexcusable. 

More than nineteen twentieths, probably, of all 
the diseases of which complaint is made, are created, 
directiy or indirectly, by the people who suffer from 
them ; and, as a general rule, if they will cease cre- 
ating the disturbance, Nature will recover herself 
better without medicines than with them. A portion 
of their diseases they create directly, by interference 
with natural law, without any other agency. Another 
portion of diseases are created indirectly. There are 
morbid conditions of the atmosphere, and also conta- 
ins, which cannot always be wholly avoided ; but, as 
a very general rule, these would touch us lightiy, if at 



BT BKMOTINO CAUSES. 175 

all, if we would not, by impairing the tone of natural 
vitality, open the door of the " house we live in," and 
invite them in. As fearfbl as are the ravages of the 
oholera, it is ccmiparatively little to be feared, if we 
will continnally pay obediaice to all the laws of 
organic life. But if we will abase the powers of our 
own vitality, we may expect chdera, or any other epi- 
demic or oontagioas disease, to walk in and take sadt 
a possession as may prove j&taL 

The great majority of &tal cases of cholera were 
made so by the intonperance of its victims. Many 
who nsed no spirituous liquors, used tobacco. Many 
who nsed no tobacco, had destroyed the equHbriam of 
ihek electric forces, circulating in the nervoos system^ 
by strong teas and coffees. Perhaps they had eaten 
luncheons and late saj^)ers, or had taken largely of 
meats and condiments. 

If we take sodi a natural course of habitual living 
as to secure a healthy and even-balanced circulation 
of the blood, and especially of the electric currents of 
the body, we shall be in comparativdy little danger 
from hurtful atmospheric influences. Neither diolera 
or any other morbid agency can find much chance to 
prey upon us. But if we derange the functions of our 
organism, though we may seem to do so with impunity 
to-day, yet to-morrow other destmetive causes may 
enter with deadly weapons. 

Hence we can see, if those who are soflEering ill 
health will read and inform themselves on the natural 
kwB. of healthy life, and cease violating them alto- 



176 OUBM OF SISIABBI 

gether, Nature will generall j perjform a core. If W6 
create a majority of all oar diseaseB by intemperate 
habits, we certainly can quit those luiHts and let the 
system recover itself. Seeking for remedies short of 
this, is the very worst of folly. It is spending time 
and money to no purpose, and wasting the vital ener- 
gies by medicines which, when they cannot effect good, 
are only increasing disease and hastening premature 
death. If, instead of resorting to drug-shops and 
quack-doctor books, men would see that all violations 
of natural law were put away, so that no embarrass- 
ment should oppress Nature, they would not only save 
themselves from a vast waste of money, but from many 
a rained constitution and loss of life, which silver and 
gold cannot replace. 

Oh, what consummate fools some people are ! If 
we recommend them a book on the laws of health, 
they will call it quackery, a catchpenny, or a humbug. 
Or, if we tell them at the bedside, that all they really 
need is abstinence from disobedience to some law of 
health — that 'they do not need drugs — they will 
think us ignoramuses, and probably send for some doc- 
tor, so destitute of skill or of honesty, that he will 
abundantly gratify them with medicines. The efiforts 
of an honest man they cannot appreciate; but the 
man who will ^nish them with a doctor book, prom- 
ising to show them how to cure themselves with medi- 
cines — the man who will really humbug for money — 
they will regard as a benefactor to the race. The man 
who will make a display oi powders and drops, w\aA 



BY REMOYING CAUSES. 177 

are only preparing them to diap into the grave, is at 
once reckoned one of the most skilful doctors of the 
age. 

The man who has not moral courage enough to 
repel the temptations which such ignorance furnishes, 
is not fit &r the profession. The man who will sedc 
a reputation at the peril of community, has not that 
degree of honesty which could prepare him for a sta- 
tion of such responsibility. He is obtaining money 
under &lse pretences, and even bartering the life that 
has been intrusted to his hands, for paltry gain. Nay : 
he is worse than a highway robber and murderer. He 
meets you not in the bold, frank attitude of his real 
character, as does the highwayman, letting you under- 
stand at once your danger and need of preparation 
for defence, but comes to you in the meanest hypoc- 
risy ; pretending to be deyoted to the cause of human- 
ity and the relief of human suffering, while he is 
willing to let you go on in your course of self-destruo- 
tion ; and then, instead of seeking to show you wherein 
you have departed from Nature's path, and turn yon 
back into it again, will deal out needless drugs, £or 
money and a reputation, which push you into the 
grave. 

Considering the ignorance of the people and their 
fondness for drugs — the abundance of quackery and 
the contingencies attending the administration of all 
medicinal agents — the increased indifference of the 
people toward the laws of health because there are 
plenty of doctors and medicines at hand — it is pretty 



178 CUBB OF DI81A8ES 

ndb to oonalade, setting aside the bendits of skilftd 
surgery, that the standard of health and longevity 
would be &r above its present position, if no medicines 
bad ever been Imown in the land, and not a phyacian 
bad ever set feot npon its soil. The existence of med- 
icines and physicians will probably continue to do more 
barm than good, until the friends of humanity will 
take more interest in difiusing among the people a 
knowledge of the laws of the human system which 
rdate to practical life, and the people themselves shall 
wake up to their own highest earthly interests in this 
matter, and those of their rising posterity. Then, and 
not till then, probably, will doctors and medicines 
become, on the whole, blessings to community. 

The second step toward the cure of disease is effected 

BY TEMPORARY ABSTINENCE. 

As a general rule, keep the stomach in right action, 
and the whole system will be right. This organ is 
very much exposed to hurtful influences, some of 
which cannot always be avoided. Although, as a very 
general rule, — a rule with few exceptions, — its mal- 
adies can be avoided by a knowledge of its peculiar 
functions and laws, yet it may possibly, by the strict- 
est care, become deranged, and the whole system be 
put into liability to suffering. Its lining membrane 
may become coated with a viscid mucous secretion, or 
its nervous tone may be temporarily prostrated, to 
that a healthy appetite may be gone, and the whole 
system brought under some form of fever. If, oh iStk 



BY TEMPO&ABY ABSTINENCE. 179 

approach of the disturbance, abstinence fix)m ordinary 
food be rigidly adhered to for a day or two, the stom- 
ach may free itself &om its causes of oppression. J£, 
instead of resorting to emetics and cathartics, as is 
frequently done, the person affected would cease all 
ordinary eating, and live on mere Indian gruel, till the 
stomach could have time to clear itself &om its mucous 
coating, or gather up its electric vigor, t^e whole diffi- 
culty might come to an end ; a protracted sickness, 
severe drugging, a large bill, and perhaps a premature 
grave, might be avoided. 

A popular idea exists, that when the stomach gets 
deranged, the bile has entered it, and must be dis- 
lodged. Hence, they will take emetics, throw up bile 
in the course of vomiting, and thus seem to prove tlidr 
notions correct. Whereas, the bile rarely comes up 
hill into the stomach except by the efibrt of vomiting. 
The bile they see is brought up &Qm bdow, fit)m the 
second stomach, or duodenum, by the severe reverted 
action of the stomach, calling into its sympathy its 
associated org^ms. The stomach would not much bet- 
ter bear bile introduced into it, without vomiting, than 
it would bear a decoction of tobacco on its first intro- 
duction. It would set up rebellion against it, and 
throw it off with almost as much eameBtneas, as it 
would against a solution of tartar emetic. 

Whenever the stomach has lost its tone or become 
oppressed by wrong eating, the only cure that can 
suffice, confflsts in temporary abstinence finom food. 
Hundreds and thousands have sick headadie, nervous 



180 CUBB OF mfiSASBB 

headache, heartburn, soar stomach, and other aihnents 
which are, if not caused, greatly enhanced by bolting 
down the food without stopping to masticate it ; and 
the poor foolish sufferers will swallow quarts of pills, 
neutraliidng salts, emetics, syrups, and a host of other 
tlungs, in hope of cure ; — and they make about the 
same progress that a- man would to drink himself 
drunk every day, and sleep himself sober every night. 
As long as they will swallow their fixxl whole, diey 
may expect to suffer. When they will cease insulting 
their stomachs by their swinish eating, they will find 
by short &siing, that organ to regain its strength. 

But &st eating is not the only promoter of gastric 
disturbance. The taking of condiments with meats is 
a crime against the stomach. Instead of leaving that 
organ free to carry on its own vital functions, they 
throw in pepper and ginger and spice and mustard. 
All these are as truly destructive to its tone and 
healthy action, as is alcohol. They produce unnatural 
excitement, and weaken natural strength. The taking 
of mustard with meats is a very popular habit, and 
one that is directly against health. If any one would 
inquire which he had better take, mustard or pulver- 
ized Spanish blistering flies, let them test their strength. 
Put a poultice of mustard on one arm, and a plaster 
of flics on the other, and see which can be borne the 
longest. This test will prove that the use of flies on 
meats would be less hurtful than the mustard. If 
these stomach complaints are produced by these unnat- 
ural and unnecessary agents, and a cure is denred. 



BT TBOWAST AWnXESCE. 181 

let ihesm disnuas these doiigB at onee, snd fiut mitfl 
Nature can porfbnn a core. 

Vast disturbance is the &eci effect of Tarioos stiBi- 
nlants. There are ladies snfifering from T a rioos foiBB 
of dyspep^ and its often accompaniment, oonsompCife 
oongh, which has been, to say ihe least, greatlj in- 
creased by stimulating drinks. They have created 
great fbndness &r their fiivorites, coffee and tea. lliey 
love their intoxicating povrer, as truly as the dronkaid 
loves his liquors, and for precisely the same reason ; 
because they spur up Nature — quicken a mind that 
is drooping under the reacti<Hi of a fimner excitemeot 
— produce a cheering sensation on the jaded nenrooi 
system. Tell them about abandoning sodi a habit, and, 
as in the case of the rum or tobacco dronkaid, jon 
might sooner succeed in p^suading them to abandon 
the Christian &ith. Tbey idll be fixind more firmly 
wedded to this worldly lust, than they axe to a healthy 
body, a sound mind, or a sanctified heart. Anumiatafal 
animal passion rules the day, over better jodgmeot, 
reas(m, conscience, and all the higher powers of natore. 
Health, with all its attendant blessings on the soul, is 
wortJi something, but their gratified pasnoo is vahad 
more. 

But they cannot have this and health too, after 
symptoms of suffering show themselves. Tbej most 
be content to suffer on, or put away their kM iqype- 
tites. The best cure for periodjeal or ptoinetcd ht^ 
ache, is ceasing to create or foster tha oomplaint. Tba 
best drops for consmnptive ooo^ eoosigti in dxoffMDg 

16 



182 OUU OF VEBMkgM 

the foolish habits whioh pxodnoe it, at keep it in ex- 
istenoe. Let them cease destroying the tone of the 
nervous system, from which arise a host of complaints, 
and these complunts will soon disappear. While this 
portion of our being is kept in tune, there is but little 
danger of mudi derangement But get this out of tune, 
and there is scarcely any trouble that may not arise. 
Treat the nervous system right, and Nature will then 
be able, not only to ward off outward causes, but to 
cure those which have originated in her own abused 
and weakened powers. And when medical men in 
general shall study out primary and original causes, 
and proscribe them, as careftdly as they now study 
immediate symptoms and the modus operandi of drugs, 
they may be able to save many a patient which they 
now hurry into the grave. 

When every physician will be as Mthful to the true 
principles on which the profession is nominally based, 
as was the great surgeon of New Hampshire, Dr. 
Amos Twitchell, whose memoirs have been published, 
and with whom it was my pleasure to be acquainted, 
much of human life will be saved. A man called to 
bring him grain ; saying that it was the last he should 
\>e able to bring : he was going with consumption. 
The Dr. regretted to learn that ; and inquired what 
he would give him to cure him. The man had no 
confidence in any method of relief, but agreed to try 
his advice if he would give it. His prescription was 
the proscription of tobacco. The man had pledged 
himself to follow the advice or forfeit fifty dollars 



BT TEMPGBLARY AifftUXESCE. 183 

Therefiyre, rather tlian lose that som, he quit his td- 
baooo. The next time the Dr. met him, two yeans, 
he was well and sound. The patting away of tobaooo 
was the only medicine he took. Many physicians 
would have said nothing of the tobacco, bat if re- 
quested, would have poured in the drugs. Where 
liver complaint, kidney complaint, or any other glan- 
dular disease, is the product of tobacco, the question 
comes, which is to be valued most, a healthy, sound 
body, or a plug of tobacco. 

A case has this moment, while writing, presented 
itself. A gentleman, with one side of his mouth 
swelled out with a quid of tobacco, has called and 
taken advice. The complaint is, turns of colic in the 
night. The advice given was, take no medicine, but 
cease druggmg with that potent enemy of the sound 
digestive organs, tobacco. He consented to the advice, 
and has signed the anti-tobacco pledge. Nightmare 
is a frequent complaint of tobacco-users. It so para- 
lyses the nerves of involuntary motion, that the lungs 
cease to operate, and death during the hours of sleep 
often ensues. The electric forces cease to circulate, 
and nightmare, and sometimes death occurs. Palpita- 
tion of the heart is another common complaint among 
tobacco-users, originating in a derangement of the ' 
nervous forces. What in these cases must be the mode 
of cure ? Shall we give drugs, or put away drugging ? 

Every medical man knows what ought to be done, 
bat will he do it ? will he search out the predispos- 
ing, and, it may be, the ezflitiDg cause, and insist eb 



184 CUBl OF lOBBASBS 

its removal ? It may be he too Ib guilty of this un- 
godly practice. The medical professor with whom 
my profession was studied, was an inveterate taker of 
snuff. Early in life his lower limbs suffered from par- 
tial paralysis. He also had turns of epileptic fits. 
At length mental imbecility and insanity came on, of 
which he died. Here were palsy, epilepsy, mental 
imbecility, and insanity, the evident product of snuff. 
And what would have been the proper remedy ? Ab- 
staining from the cause. Indeed, a disease from any 
cause is increased by an impaired state of the nervous 
system. And if we would have Nature seek a cure, 
we must not only abandon its cause, but abstain from 
every other violation of her laws, that she may be in 
the best possible state to war with disease. 

In all cases of disease from a humor in the circulat- 
ing fluids, in order to obtain a cure, there must be ab- 
stinence from everything that can have any influence 
in producing it, or keeping it alive. Every habit 
which may be guilty in the first degree, or which may 
aid and abet — everything operating principally or 
incidentally as a cause, — must be suspended. Meat- 
eating — especially the eating of fat meats — tends to 
produce a morbid state of the fluids. And in every 
case of humor of any kind, meats should be set aside, 
at least until Nature has had time to cleanse the fluids 
of the system. If the meats have probably been the 
original cause, they should be dismissed forever. If 
they only increase the difficulty, or if they only hinder 
the restorative energies of the system; they should be 



BT TmPOBABT ABSCINSNOB. 1S5 

0eft aside at least a soffici^it time to let the system 
deanse itself from this morbid condition. A diet prin- 
cipally of breadstntib, in the simplest form — not bj 
starvation, but in moderation — will greatly &(nlitate 
a core. 

A case has just come to mind, which shows the ulti- 
mate efifeot^ of protracted meat-eating. An elderly 
gentleman was stopping at the same hotel with me in 
Nashville, Tennessee, who was being doctored by some 
qnack for cancer. He had a ronning cancer on his 
hand, and was suffering immensely with it. He had 
another coming on lus nose, and still another on the 
other hand. His whole body was saturated with can- 
cerous humor. Inquiry was made, " What has been 
your habitual diet — have you ate meats largely?*' 
He answered tiiat meat had been almost the only 
article of his diet fhmi early lifb ; he relished nothing 
else in comparison with it : could not live without it 
My reply was, " You have been an extravagant meat- 
eater, and here are the consequences ; abstinence ftom 
flesh-eating can alone give you any permanent relief.'' 
This was a true cause of his malady ; if not the sole 
one, it was a sure and important cause of all his can- 
cerous humour. 

While in St. Louis, Missouri, a case of swelled and 
ulcerated leg came under observation. A man fifty 
years old had one limb greatly swollen and much ulcer- 
ated about the ankle. He was a moderate user of 
alcdid and tobacco, and excessively fond of the fottest 
<^flMt*—€q)eeially&ib*ooii— it was his living. The 

1«* 



186 OOSa OF DJBIAfllS 

fimb liad hitherto baffled all medical skill. Hio phyn- 
oiaos had tried their utmost skill at drugs internally 
and externally ; but no relief was gained. The man 
was finally induced to quit his rum, and tobacco, and 
meat : to apply simple cooling lotions to the limb, live 
on simple, generous, &rinaceous diet, and let Nature 
perfi>rm a cure. After a few weeks the ]^h had put 
on an aspect decidedly promising a complete cure. In 
this case the meats had doubtless the far greater 
agency than any other, in producing this derangement. 

All derangements of health which are increased by, 
or grow out of, an impaired tone of the nervous sys- 
tem, are dependent for cure on abstinence from every- 
thing that produces excitement and irritabilityjof that 
system. In all cases of dyspepda, periodical headache, 
palpitation of the heart, nervous prostration, and gen- 
eral debility, there should be total abstinence from all 
stimulating drinks and irritating condiments. If the 
oofiees, teas, and condiments, which have increased, if 
not wholly procured the disease, be continued, no cure 
can, of course, be reasonably or possibly expected. 

Indeed, whatever may be the kind of ill health suf- 
fered, there should be a careM search made to see 
whether there are any violations of natural law, direct- 
ly or indirectly, affecting the nervous system. For in 
all cases, a single violation will retard, if not prevent 
a cure. Treat Nature right in all respects, and 
she will abundantly reward the effort, by her very 
best exertion to restore and maintain health. 

In all cases of mental derangement, the same rule 



BT BTSXBMATIC DISCU^UNB. 187 

ihonld be adopted. Depressum of spiritfi and melaii- 
<^ly are greatly increased, if not wholly produced, 
by unnatural stimulants on the nervous system. 
Whether produced by them or not, no cure can well 
be obtained without abstinence &om them. Let the 
neryes be in an undisturbed and healthy condition, and 
Nature will make success^ war agsdnst almost any 
disease that attacks the system, whether it be purely 
physical, or physico-mental. It has grieved me much 
to find that, as a general rule, stimulating drinks are 
allowed the inmates of insane asylums. Insanity is 
onphatically a disease of the nervous system. Every 
drop, therefore, of tea or coffee should be strictly pro- 
hibited. Cool, nourishing drinks, and simple, gener- 
ous food, should be the living of those affected with 
this malady. Abstinence &om meat, also, is important. 
Heats are too stimulating to be used in such cases. 
A third step toward the cure of disease is efifected 

BT SYSTEMATIC DISCIPLINE. 

Lung affections are very much under ihe control of 
discipline. A contracted chest, whether hereditary, 
or produced after birth, is a general precursor and ac- 
companiment of consumption. This difficulty can be 
greatly, if not entirely, removed. A contracted chest 
can be expanded. Indeed, we may almost make our 
own lungs. When the chest is deficient in space, the 
lungs are compressed and irritated ; and they are un- 
able to inspire as much air as is necessary to properly 
oxydize the blood and prepare it for arterial circulation. 



188 ouKi OF PTimAmw 

Wlieii the blood which oomeB into the heart from the 
Yeans, is thrown from the heart into the longs, it oon- 
tains a sorplns of carbon — the basis of charcoaL 
Here it comes in contact with the air inhaled by the 
luigB, takes a portiitni of oxygen from the atmosphere, 
and giyes off its excess of carbon. Here, then, the 
Uood, by beoomiDg oxygenized and decarbonised, 
changes its color ; and, returning to Ihe heart, it is car- 
ried to every part of the system to supply its nutrition. 
It is then returned again through the veins, to the heart 
and lungs. Before entering the heart, however, it 
meets with the nourishment of our food, carried 
through the thoracic duct into the circulation. This 
being added, the blood again enters the heart. 

In this way the whole system is furnished with nu- 
trition. The oxygen taken in through the lungs, to- 
gether with a portion of electricity, is carried and 
distributed to all ports of the body, to maintain its 
substance and vitality. Hence the importance of hav- 
ing not only wholesome and well oxygenized air to 
breathe,- but a good frdl set of lungs to perform the 
process of breathing. If the chest is contracted, the 
lungs have not room to expand and receive a sufficient 
amount of air; and the vital powers become impaired. 
The blood is returned to the arteries imperfectly oxy- 
genized and electrified, and the whole system suffers. 
General health becomes impaired, the lungs themselves 
then o&ien become irritated and inflamed, and death by 
consumption ensues. 

A M chffBt iherafore becomes an important matter. 



BT STSTEBIATIO DISCIPLINE. 189 

If the chest is too narrow and flat, a discipline nrasil 
be gone into, in order to expand it. With proper 
^rt, the chest and the compass of the lungs may bo 
greatly enlarged. In this way consumption may be 
prevented. Even if it has already i^achied its pre- 
monitory symptoms, it may be averted ; or even in 
any stage short of ulceration, it can be cured. 

The manner of doing this consists first in standing 
erect. Persons with weak lungs are inclined to bend 
over their chest, letting the spine curve between the 
shoulders, till the lungs become flattened and depressed. 
Let every such person bring his mind immediately to 
bear upon the consequences of this state of things, 
and determine to stand erect ; let the &ont side of 
his body measure as much from the highest point on 
the head to his feet, as the back side from the same 
point. Let him also lay straight in bed ; with shoul* 
ders elevated by inclined plane, and head lying 
on the same Ime of elevation, with a single pillow. 
This unvarying erectness of posture will of itself ac- 
complish much in relieving oppressed lungs. * 

A second step to be taken consists in often inhaling 
large draughts of air ; distending the lungs as mudi 
as practicable. By continued practice the lungs will 
be made to contain more and more air : the air cells 
become expanded. This should be done many times a 
day until relief can be obtained. 

A third step consists in repeatedly — many times a 
day — throwing the arms and ^ib^ulders back. This 
may be aided by weights in titie bands — the dumb- 



^mm^^^^^^m^^mm .^ i iw^H^^«Mi^pa^ 



190 aoBM on vEsmkstB 

bellfl, or flometfaing eqmyalent The fihoolders should 
be kepi bade, and not permitted to corye roand the 
Imi^ If such be the degree of debility that tlie 
dioalders cannot be kept back, or in casee of cbildrai 
who cannot remember to do so, put on a Bhoolder 
faraoe. Bat where Nature is able to sustain herself 
in thb process, she will uldmatelj do better without a 
brace, than with it Those who use them are apt to 
dep^id on tiiem, without trying to disdpline them- 
seiyes. If people will bear this matter in mind, and 
can possibly support the e£fort, let it be done without 
a brace : do the same in respect to this, as ought to be 
done in respect to medicines ; use them as the last re- 
sort, where Nature cannot perform her own work 
alone. 

Where a cough exists, this will demand attention. 
One of the very best cures for cough, is to st(^ cough- 
ing. Instead of allowing it to have full sway, in- 
creasing the irritation of the lungs and bronchial tubes, 
let it be suppressed as far as practicable. This will 
diminish the irritation of the lining membrane of the 
bronchial tubes and the substances of the lungs. The 
less the coughing allowed, the less the inclination to 
cough. Where this effort cannot succeed, then some 
resort must be had to palliatives in the form of reme- 
dial agents. When this shall be done, let the mildest 
palliatives be used which are able to give relief, and 
U few opiates as possible. If a homoeopathic medicine 
will operate, so much the better. In all cases wheie 
a ooog^ is the result of consumptive lungs induced bj 



BT STBEBfAnO maaiBUisoL 191 

c^gpepna— -and such cases are not few — the besl 
ooogh-drops in all the world are made of dropping 
tiie habits in which the cause originated. 

Another important matter, is living and sleeping in 
apartments well ventilated. This is important as a 
means of health, or the relief from any form or kind 
of disei^. Every apartment of a house, and every 
sdiool-room and puUic hall, should have a ventilator 
at the top of the walL This allows the air in the 
loom to keep itself pure. A portion of the oxygen 
being taken up by the longs, and carbon being given 
off by them, the air becomes devitalized and nnfit fiir 
being received again into the lungs. This impure air^ 
being lighter than healthy ur, rises to the top of the 
room, and will pass off if it can find vent, leaving 
room for pure air to oome in. In this way the lungs 
are receiving new and healthy air by every inspiration. 

For the same reason, no one should sleep without 
free access to a change of air. The offensive smell of 
deeping rooms in the morning is owing to the re- 
peated breathing of the same air, till its vitality has 
become destroyed, and the impure exhalations from tiie 
body pent up in a close room, where the air cannot 
renovate itself. It is all folly fi>r people to talk of 
being so feeble that they cannot bear a window open, 
especially in summer, in the ni^t. Every one can 
bear air enough to sustain healthy breathing ; and all 
notions to the contrary are fodish and wicked. In 
small rooms, a window, or door, or both, should be 
opened in winter, as well as in fummer. Ifwebfcatht 



182 OUBB or JOSBASEB 

the same air twice, it oannot the seooiid time fiiniiah 
Boffioient oxygen for the blood. If people would giYe 
heed to these &ct8, they would prevent and even cure 
a large proportion of consumptive cases which appear 
among us. The strength and endurance of the whole 
system depend, in a very great d^ree, on the amount 
of healthy air that is breathed. 

Tight lacing — compressing the lungs with ropes^ 
and boards, and steel — is now nearly abandoned ; but 
still dresses are made too tight in the waist, and too 
much filled with whalebone. The chest should have 
free room to expand itself, and allow the lungs to fill 
with air. The breathing should meet no resistance 
from dress. 

There is great damage done at the present day to 
the health of females by hanging under-dresses upon 
the bowels. This unnatural weight dislocates the 
bowels and all the other viscera of the abdomen. 
It drags them downward from their proper location 
and connection with the stomach, diaphragm and 
lungs. This leaves a space between these organs which 
gives a sensation of faintness and sinking at the pit of 
the stomach, which is often called a " goneness." This 
leads often to a bending over of the chest and flatten- 
ing of the lungs. Other organs also suflfer. The 
liver is pushed downward and rendered torpid. The 
bile, which is the appropriate stimulus for the bowels, 
becomes deficient; the bowels become sluggish and 
costive ; and the blood is left impure because the bile is 
not properly taken up, as is shown in the countenance. 



-^ 



BT BigfMJATro momiRs. 1S3 

If ludierwould hare liealth and a pare, okar akm, 
tiiey nrast allow their hu^ to reeeire the air freel j, 
their liver a chanoe to deanse the blood, and their 
bowels an opportumty to dear themselyes. Unlefls 
they will do this, ih^ cannot long maintain a dear 
skin and a healthM jfeeling. Costiye bowds akoe are 
ruinous to a healthy body and a dieerfbl mind. This 
state of bowels is {mxlaoed, not only by a dnggish 
Hver, but by the whole viscera being {Hreased downward 
upon the lower intestine, and preventing its proper 
action by mechanical pressure. All other kinds of 
ooetiveness can be greatly overorane by disdj^ine in 
mind and diet; but thai which is eaosed by median- 
loal pressure cannot be cored till the pr eas ar e shall be 
removed. 

The use of physic in soeh a case would be as m- 
philosophical as taking an emetic to get rid of ti^ 
boots. The bowels and other organs wluch are £dlen 
down upon the lower bowd, must be pressed upward. 
Every wei^t should be removed from them, the 
dresses sm^nded finom the shoulders, and the boweb 
r^>eatedly pressed upward. If their drooping esmiot 
be overcome in this way, a sc^yporter should be worn 
till their native strength has accumulated. But idiere 
costiveness depends alone on the sluggish aetioD of the 
bowels themselves, it can be overcome by mental dis- 
dpline. The mind should be bron^t to bear every 
morning on their action. They should be broogfat 
under the magnetism of thou^. Let the mind elee- 
trifjT the bowels till they will nme^ A regular, sys- 

17 



.*.„ 



194 OUXI Of BZSIASBB 

tematio discipline in this way has overoome many m 
case of obstinate oostive habit. A mental determina- 
tion, persevered in, will sometimes effect that which 
never can be done with medicine. Indeed, medicines 
should never be taken for costiveness, if it be possible 
to do without them. Alteratives only increase the 
difficulty in the long run, as a general rule. 

Another complaint prevalent at the present day 
among ladies, is depression of the uterus. This ma/ 
be caused by a weakness in the ligaments which sus- 
pend it, or by a falling and pressure, as already de- 
scribed, of the bowels. Where it is produced by the 
latter cause, the remedy is obvious. Eaise the bowels 
up to their place, and keep them there. When this 
cannot be done without mechanical support, an abdom- 
inal supporter should be used, till Nature shall again 
be able to support herself; for, without this kind of 
relief in the case, there can be no cure of this uterine 
derangement. Here let every young female see how 
liable she is to incur immense suffering by the weight 
of heavy skirts hung upon the bowels, and resolve never 
to run the risk of ruining herself for life in this reckless 
way. The Bloomer costume is certainly to be com- 
mended for one of its characteristics, — all the skirt- 
ings are hung upon the body of the dress. This lets 
the shoulders carry the weight of the whole dress, and 
the bowels and other organs are left free from pressure. 

Where depression of the uterus is owing to debil- 
ity of the ligaments sustaining it, some means must be 
resorted to for the restoration of tone. This may gen- 



BY STgnmATlC DISCIPUMB. 195 

erallj be done bj giving tone to the mnscolar system 
in general ; for these difficulties are generally fonnd 
in those of feeble physical forces. Hence, restoring 
the general tone of the muscular system will qlyc tone 
generally to this part. That part of the system whidi 
can be exercised with the greatest advantage in these 
cases, is the arms and chest Instances have often 
occurred where females laboring under Aiis form of 
complaint were so feeble that they were almost, and 
'sometimes quite, unable to walk. 3Iany such have 
been cured by a process of exercise which only called 
into exertion the musdes of the arms and chest. By 
ffltting and lifting weights, tossing balls, and sndi 
other measures of discipline as were proportioned to 
their strength, many have been restored to perfect 
health and soundness. 

Millions of females are suffering far want of some 
vigorous employment of their physical energies. They 
do not go out enough and exercise in the open air, 
expand their lungs, and exercise their limbs. The 
English ladies generally, could almost take oqe of our 
puny, pale-faced American ladies in their hand, and 
carry them through town in their fingers. But walking 
is not sufficient exercise ; it only uses the muscles of the 
lower limbs. The most important part of the tjetem 
to be exercised, in any one of sedentary habits, is the 
arms and chest. An editor once said, "The hetst 
board for dyspeptic ladies, is a washboard." This 
remark contains sound philosophy. They need, not 
only for dyefpepda, bat finr the complaints just de- 



196 OUBl Of DUUEASBB 

Boribed, as well as others, some vigorous exercise fixr 
the nrasdes of the arms, chest, and abdomen. Bais- 
ing the tone here, will by sympathy raise the tone in 
other parts. There ought to be a bowling-alley or 
gymnasium-hall in every ward of our cities ; and our 
ladies and misses should feel compelled to spend an 
hour in them each day ; till they should put off their 
dingy whit^ faces, and put on Nature^s crimson dye. 
A £)urth step towards the cure of disease is effected 

BT RKMKDIAL AGENTS. 

By the term " remedial agents," it is not intended 
to say much on the ^ving of medicines. These, though 
sometimes necessary, are never to be given where 
any either practicable method of cure is at hand. If 
the use of medicine was confined to this rule, drug- 
shops would be seen retiring &om the corners of the 
streets, and the sick would remain to pay their doctor's 
bills themselves, instead of leaving the matter to their 
mourning friends. 

Water is one important remedial agent. This is 
both a means of prevention and cure. Bathing, to 
keep the skin right, is treated of in another part of 
this work. The use of water^ as a curative agent, is 
in some respects quite another matter. The degree 
of its application for cure, often found necessary, would 
be exceedingly injudicious in health. It would pros- 
trate the physical forces. It would cause too much 
matter to be thrown off in a given time. But when 
the system is &11 of morbid matter, then the sooner it 



BT BE&OEDI^L AGENTS. 197 

k parted with the better. And though the system be 
somewhat prostrated at first, it will soon gather a 
more healthy supply. 

Water may be used in all fevensh actions of the 
general system, or of parts of it. In general fever- 
ishness of the body, — hot, dry skin, — wra]}ping the 
patient up in a cold, wet, folded sheet, with a thick 
dry blanket outside, will soon lessen the fever, 
moisten the skin by perspiration, and reduce the 
pulse. Bepeating this may entirely break up a fever. 
So of a local inflammation. While stopping at a ho- 
tel, the landlord's little son had his hand badly bruised 
with the falling of a stone. He came home in great 
agony ; hand badly swollen, and inflammation running 
high. They were going to put on rum and worm- 
wood, and so on. My prescription was, put on nothing 
of the kind ; wrap up the hand in a wet, folded nap- 
kin, and put a flannel outside. In a short time the 
boy was asleep ; and when he waked, his hand was 
nearly free firom pain. The water extracts the extra 
heat, changes electric action, and opens the pores. 
This gives the natural Actions of the part, or of the 
whole body to which it may be applied, a chance to 
equalize and harmonize their action. 

For tumors, and general swellings, with inflamma- 
tion, water is applicable in any stage short of the 
formation of matter. Af^r matter has formed, then 
emollient poulticing and lancing become the only means 
of relief. But if local inflammations are treated right 
at first, they will generally be subdued without ihd 

17* 



198 OUXa Of DIB1ABB8 

ftrmtion of an absoeflB. Plenrisy , inflammatkm of the 
l1lngl^ liver, or kidneys, may be cured by this methocL 
Croup in children may be conquered by wraj^ing ap 
the part affected in water as described. When these 
diseases can be met in this way, it is infinitely better 
than reiprting to bleeding, purging, and yomiting. 
TioB course, in connection with treating the stomach 
with abstinence, gives Nature a chance to conquer dis- 
ease, instead of breaking it up by the power of drugs, 
and leaving Nature, with her enfeebled forces, to 
throw off the effect of drugs. In conquering disease 
with drugs, too, we run the risk of destroying the ad 
equate forces of Nature, and making a &tal case. 

There are many diseases which ori^nate in the 
existence of morbid matter in the stomach and bowels. 
In all cases of illness, the condition of those organs 
should be a matter of inquiry. Yomiting may some- 
times be indicated. If so, this can oflen be effected, and 
made sufficient by large draughts of blood-warm water. 
The bowels maybe moved with large injections of cold 
or warm water, accompanied perhaps by a cold sitting 
bath, and a large draught of cold water on an empty 
stomach. Every medical man, with common intelli- 
gence in the healing art, knows that there is remedial 
virtue in the use of water in such and similar cases, — 
that a good physician must be, in a good degree, a 
hydropathist. 

Electricity is another means of remedial agency. 
TboB wonderful principle in nature is an element in 
human vitality. Though it may not be called vitality 



BT BBKEDIAIi ACONTS. 199 

itfld^ yet it 18 80 doselj related and oonnected with it, 
that Tital action cannot be nudntained withoat it. Take 
electricity firom the human body, and not a vital Ac- 
tion coold be performed. Health depends greatly on 
an equilibnum of aoticm in the electric forces. Many 
diseases — those which have close connection with the 
nervons system — seem dependent on a morbid ccm- 
dition oi the electric currents of the body. In 
these cases particularly, if not in all others, electridty, 
as a remedial agent, may be seryiceable. It may rai- 
der service by fumidiing a supply of this fluid where 
the disease may be attended by a deficiency, or by 
equalizmg its aciion where its distributaon is dis- 
turbed by excess. 

There are different mediums through which this 
principle can be applied. One medium is the living 
human system. This may be called animal electricity, 
or, as it is now called. Animal Magnetism, or, more 
recently, Electro-Psychology and Biology. All these 
terms are used to refer Amdamentally to the same thing, 
but differ in regard to their modes of devebpment. 
The former relates to influences which are carried to 
the point of producing the magnetic sleep ; the latter, 
to a degree of the same kind of influence, controlling 
muscular motion and nervous sensation, while the sub- 
ject is perfectly conscious and wakeftd. In either of 
these ways, great good may be done ; and it would be 
well if every individual would learn the process by 
which electricity can be personally applied. Every 



200 OUBl Of IXDOASBS 

fikther, if not mother, of a family, should be aUe to 
practise this art in some degree. 

It is not necessary, nor is it best in all cases, to go 
throogh the labor of producing the electric sleep. In 
most cases, where any influence can be gained, that 
wluch is able to control motion is sufficient. If all 
diseased persons could be brought thus far under elec- 
tric influence, vast good could be accomplished in 
relieving human sufiering. Almost every disease, 
especially among those of the chronic form, could be 
cured or essentially relieved. Many cases of the worst 
form of paralytic affections have been cured in this 
way. Some cases where the patient had been confined 
to the bed for many years — some cases of complete 
paraplegia, or palsy of a part of the body — have been 
cured as though bj charm. It was done by simply 
supplying the part with a natural current of electric- 
ity. So, wherever palsy exists to any extent, there is 
a deficiency, or a destitution of electric force ; and if 
that force can be supplied, the disease is cured. 

Deficiencies in seeing and hearing, where the ocular 
and auditory nerves are at fault, may be relieved or 
cured by this means. Neuralgia and chronic rheu- 
matism can be treated with great success when their 
subjects can be brought under electric control. Swollen 
limbs, stiff" joints, and contracted tendons, have borne 
testimony to the practicability of this kind of relief. 
Many cases of cure — cures which seemed incredible 
— - could be detailed, if time and space would allow. 

Sometimes persons have unconsciously electrified 



BT BEHSDIAL AOBXTS. 201 

{hemselyes into a cure. A caae under the care of 
Dr. J. C. Warren illustrates this truth. A lady had 
a tumor on her neck which the doctor was about to 
amputate. He called for that purpose ; but she had 
just previously heard that a dead man's hand rubbed 
upon it would cure it. She plead with the doctor to let 
her try it. To indulge her, he consented. She ob- 
tained the dead hand and applied it. The tumor soon 
began to diminish, and finally disappeared. What 
was the philosophy of this cure ? Most evidently her 
mind became so strongly impressed with the certainty 
of a cure, that it electrified the part so powerfully as 
to set the absorbents at work, and the tumor was car- 
ried off. Warts are often removed in a similar way. 

By the same kind of influence, bread pills and other 
supposed medicinal agents have produced a wonderful 
efiect. While in New Orleans, a French barber wished 
me to see his wife, who had scarcely left her bed for 
several days. After due examination of the case, it 
was found she had had no movement of bowels for 
nearly a week. The first indication was to get them 
free. She had procured for herself a monstrous dose 
of physic, and was about to take it. This was post- 
poned, and a vial was called for, three fourths full of 
water. Taking a small porte monnaiefrom my pocket, 
turning round and rapping its steel edging on the vial, 
as though making a solution of some powerful ingre- 
dient, the vial, afler due shaking, was given in charge 
of the patient, with very specific directions as to its 
use. The exact number of drops, the precise interval 



202 OOBM OV DI8XASE8 

betwem doses, the sensations to be expected fiom it, 
and the final efieot to be produced, were ^ven with 
emphatic tone and apparent fidth. After the time 
had ekpscd which was set for its operation, it was 
found on inqmry that a full and &ee evacuation of the 
bowels had taken place. 

Here was a strong impression made upon the pa^ 
tient's mind, with which she had actually electrified 
her constipated bowels into a free evacuation; and 
this with no visible agency but fifteen drops, cau- 
tiously taken, of cold water. Great good can often be 
done, in a similar way, through the mind of the pa- 
tient, in the removal of his disease. This may be 
called imagination. Very well. When the objector 
will exactly define what the imagination is, perhaps 
there will be left no desire for controversy. Let tt be 
called imagination, or anything else. The name does 
not alter the fact, that mental electricity has produced 
a new and healthy action in the diseased part on which 
it was brought to bear. 

If all physicians would act on the eclectic principle, 
selecting valuable facts from all sources — embracing 
truth for truth's sake — picking it up in the streets, 
even though fallen from the devil's budget of lies — 
the healing art would be honored, and the relief of the 
suffering promoted. But so long as they shall cloak 
themselves up so closely in their own orthodoxy, as to 
reject truth, or refuse to examine the merits of a new 
idea, because it did not originate within the limits of 



BY BEMIDIAL AOSMTS. 203 

the r^ular &coltj, they will do damage to the pio- 
feesion and the world. 

Personal electricity may be used with great advan- 
tage withoat even trying to obtain the electric control, 
and without producing any spedfic impresmon on the 
mind of the patient. This is done by personal contact 
with the part affected, and by bringing the forces of 
the will of the operator to bear upon the removal of 
the complaint. At the same time, it is well to keep 
the patient's mind under promise of cure. There is a 
physician in this city, of quite extensive notoriety in 
the cure of diseased limbs and stiff joints, who actually 
performs striking cures in this way. He sits down to 
the stiff and swollen limb of his patient, and applies 
downward friction with perseverance and a determina- 
tion to conquer the difficulty ; and he socceeds where 
scores of physicians, with ordinary means, have found 
themselves entirely baffled. Some of the severest 
cases of rheumatic lameness and neuralgic pains, 
which have come under my care, have been signally 
cured in this way. 

Personal electricity may be successfully used in 
removing mental disturbances. A single case may 
illustrate this. A lady had become attached to a gen- 
tleman who had solicited her hand in matrimony ; but, 
on learning some foots which reflected on his moral 
character, she decidedly refused his offer. Her mind^ 
in consequence, became seriously depressed, and her 
health failed. Being promised relief by producing 
on her the electrio sleep, she coiwented to give it 



204 cvu o» 

m teat After piociiiciiig the deep, the mind of the 
operator, accompanied with manipnlatbnBtWaebroagkt 
to bear upon her brain and mental fbdingp. After the 
first operatioQ, she expressed dedded relief; and in a 
few days, by r^teating the effort, her mind and health 
seemed to be perfectlj reeoyered, and have remained 
so nnoe. 

A case of partial and periodieal insanity, which 
might be related, was cored in the same way. There 
is no doubt bat that a large portion of the inmates of 
our insane asylums could be oared by this means, pro- 
yided the eleotrio influence could be produced suffi- 
dently to bring on the electric sleep. Seyeral cases 
of insanity have been known to be cured, taken in 
hand in their incipient stages, through the efforts of 
an acquaintance. An effort should be made to pro- 
duce this influence, in all cases of ordinary insanity ; 
because, if the sleep can be produced, there remains 
little doubt of giving relief. 

Mechanical and chemical electricity can sometimes 
be applied with much utility. Electric shocks from 
the galvanic battery, or from machines which accumu- 
late electricity by friction, made to pass through dis- 
eased parts, may restore the equilibrium of electric 
action, on which alone a healthy action can be based. 
It is more difficult to bring this electric influence to so 
perfect a bearing upon diseased parts in this way, as 
by personal electricity, when such an influence can 
be produced. Under personal electricity, a well joint 
or other part may be put into agony of pain by 



B7 SmOlDUL AOXNTS. 205 

the will and tonch of the operator. So, on the same 
philosophic principle, a limb or other part under suf- 
fering from disease, may be set right. These changes 
are produced by disturbing the electric fiirces in one 
case, and by equalizing them in the other. Where 
such personal influences cannot be produced, the bat- 
tery may gradually reach and remove the difficulty. 
Every practising physician, if not every family, should 
have an electrifying instrument. The magneto-electrie 
battery is perhaps the most convenient instrument. 
But in the use of this kind of remedy, a skilful phy- 
sician should advise. 

Medicines, if used at all, should be the last resort. 
If homoeopathic remedies can be made to reach the 
disease, — and as to their efficacy it is not proper &r 
me to speak decidedly, not having given them a suffi- 
cient test, — they certainly are to be preferred ; fiwr 
they are sure to produce no unfavorable influence of 
themselves in any case. They may be insufficient, in 
some instances, but they poison no one to death. Even 
if they effiKst no good, they do no harm of themselves. 
But this cannot be sud of ordinary drugs. If they 
do not effect good, they do harm. If the morbid in- 
fluences which they always produce, do not meet and 
counteract the disease, they add another morbid and 
injurious influence to that already existing. In gen- 
eral, especially in chronic diseases, everything should 
be tried which can give any promise of relief, before 
resorting to medicines. Indeed, as a general rule, 
drug^g in chronic cases is iiie worst thing that can 

18 



1206 CUBS or osbbasb 

be done. If remoYing oaoaes, proper ahstineiioe, judi- 
doos discipline, and other means short of drugs, can- 
not avail, the patient had better, as a general rule, make 
up his mind to die honorably, than to drug himself to 
death. To this, every practitioner of long experience 
will agree. There is scarcely a tithe of the medicine 
used now which was formerly given. 

In recent and acute diseases, medicines may some- 
times be of service. Where they may be needed, &i 
be it firom me to lay down rules for persons uneducated 
in the profession, by which they may hope to practise 
medicine on themselves. We have quacks enough 
now, without trying to make all the people turn quack- 
doctors. Eegular physicians do not like to prescribe 
in any difficult case on themselves or families. Much 
less let the people turn doctors on themselves and 
fimiilies. In some small matters the people can take, 
without advice, some simple remedies; but for this 
they do not need a book. If a child should be in 
distress from an engorged stomach, they could give a 
tea of ipecac., or tincture of lobelia ; or, what might be 
better, a large draught of blood-warm water, until 
vomiting shall give relief. 

But when people will study to know the laws of 
health and prevention with one half the eagerness 
with which they grasp and devour some infernal 
quack-doctor book, and will obey those laws, — put 
away their rebellions against Nature, by which nine- 
teen twentieths of their infirmities originate, — there 
will be but little sickness lefl to be prescribed for by 



BY RRMEPTATi AGENTS. 207 

any one. When, too, thej use for the few diseases 
left, all other means of cure, there will be but little 
room for the use of medicines. But when any one 
has got into so deep trouble that nothing short of drugs 
can save him, let him have the best phjdcian that he 
can find — one that has been well educated in his pro- 
fession — to sit down by his bedside and prescribe 
remedies adapted to the case. Let him not try to 
tamper with himself, for physic is quite sufficiently a 
" conjectural art " in the hands of the most thoroughly 
educated men, without being made infinitely more so 
in untutored hands. 

It has been my settled eonyiction, fi>r many years, 
as be&re stated, that there is more damage than 
good done with medicine ; and that, owing to the ig- 
norance of the people, together with their reckless- 
ness on matters pertaining to the laws of physical 
life, their consequent misuse of the medical faculty, 
and their readiness in embracing all kinds of quackery 
— considering all this, it has been, for many years, my 
belief that the standard of health and longevity of our 
land would now be far above its present position, if 
there had never been a single physician or a single 
drug in it The opinion of Dr. James Johnson, editor 
of the Medical Chirurgical Beview, has strengthened 
this conviction. 

Dr. Johnson says: "I declare my conscientioua 
opinion, formed on long observatiim and reflection, that 
if there were not a single physician, surgeon, apoth- 
ecary, chemist, druggist, or drug, aa the &oe (f£ the 



SOS CUBS' Of ?WF"^—« BT BBMXDIAL AGXNT8. 

mtihf there would be leas ackness and less mortality 
than now. When we reflect that physic is a < oonjeo- 
toral art,' that the best physicians make mistakes, that 
medicine is administered by hosts of quacks, that it 
is swallowed by multitudes of people without any pro- 
fesBoonal advice, and that the world would be infinitely 
more careful of themselves if they were conscious that 
they had no remedy from drugs, — these, and many 
other ftcts, will show that the proposition I have made 
is more startling than untrue." 

Let it be remembered by all, that of all the cures 
that can ever be found, there is none that can be so 
Tsfaiable as prevention. Nature is always right in her 
action, and she always goes fi>r health. Disease is the 
result of unnatural agencies which generally may be 
redsted. Let Nature have her own way, and she will 
generally carry us safely through the voyage of life 
without wreck or founder, and allow us to die, not of 
disease, but of age. Notwithstanding the fall, the 
laws of physical life are perfect ; and if obeyed, they 
will defend us to the last. The fall deranged our 
moral being, but not directly our physical. Physical 
nature will operate right, if lefl to itself. Li this 
fiJlen world there are various external agencies for 
whose injurious influences we are not rei^nsible. But 
if Nature is not interrupted in her course by our own 
doings, she will always do her best to overcome all 
obstacles, and maintain a healthy action to the last ; 
and her voice can ever be heard, saying to every intel- 
ligent listener, Prevention is better than Cure. 



BRBONEOUS APPSXITE9 200 



THE MORAL BEARINGS 

OF 

ERRONEOUS PHYSICAL APPETITES. 



This is a subject rarely discussed, either by phys- 
iologists, philanthropists, or theologians. Tet is it one 
of vast importance, and ought to draw forth the intel- 
lectual and moral energies of those who are devoted 
to the elevation and salvation of the human race. It 
is one which ought especially to come from the pulpit, 
as a part of that Gospel which was instituted for the 
eternal well-being of men ; one which every minister 
of the Gospel should make familiar to his own mind, 
and give with clearness and force to the people. 

Every Gospel preacher ought evidently so to study 
the laws of physical life, and their bearings on the soul, 
that he may be able to speak on this subject correctly ; 
and; by an example of obedience to physical law, to 
preach it forcibly to his people. He should urge them, 
by precept and example, to ** abstain from fleshly lusts 
which war against the soul." It has fallen to me, in 
tibe Providence of Otod, to present this subject, dazing 

18* 



SIO Boumons APPirms 

dme jean past, on almost every Sabbath, in different 
ohnrohes throughout the Union. And many have 
seemed ready to awake from the lethargy of uncon- 
aoioos sensualism, and free themselves from the 
despotic reign of unnatural animal appetites^ 

XBBONEOUS APPETITES ON MORAL ACOOUNTABIUTT. 

Every indulgence of any unnatural appetite pro- 
dnoes a morbid state of the physical system. Every 
indulgence at war with natural instinct, is at war with 
the healthy condition of every function of organic life. 
Appetites which the Author of our being never insti- 
tuted, are so many violations of natural law, which is 
the law of God; and they secure for the o£fender» 
Booner or later to be administered, a certain and un- 
avoidable penalty. Every such violation of law is a 
on against physical life, exposing us to physical suffer- 
ing ; and, when it is done consciously, it is a sin against 
moral obUgation toward God, to be met on the day of 
final judgment. Hence the importance of trying to 
know the difference between the instinctive attributes 
of our being, and the destructive lusts which are 
made by habit ; that we may neither be found sinning 
against our own bodies or the Maker of them. 

Ood, the Creator of our bodies, has arranged the 
condition of their every fibre and function, and has 
pledged himself to maintain their right action, unless 
disturbed by some foreign agency, till age shall wear 
out the cords that bind us to life. Every law govern- 
ing the human system is as truly divine in origm, and 



ON MOIAL AOOOUKTABILITT. 211 

character, and anthoritj, as are the teachings of the 
Bible. And every nnnecessary and wanton deviation 
from obedience to this law, is as certainly a sin, as a 
violation of Gospel precept. Hence we are as troly 
under obligation to know and obey the former, as we 
are the latter. There are instances in which it may 
be necessary to transgress the laws of health, to answer 
the demand of some higher obligation, as in cases of 
illness in the family, where loss of sleep and other 
privations are unavoidable in the discharge of obvious 
duty ; but when we intelligently violate law for no 
justifiable end, we commit sin agidnst Gt)d, as cer- 
tainly as though we commit robbery. 

All the kingdoms of Nature reveal the law of God ; 
but nowhere is this command '' so fearfully and won- 
derfully made " to speak out to an intelligent mind, 
as in our own physical structure. Here has Jehoivah 
written his law, not by amanuenses, or inspired men, 
neither on parchment or on tables of stone ; but by lus 
own Almighty finger, upon every living fibre and 
function of the human body. To needlessly tnn»- 
gress a law of life, is therefore a violation of the law 
of God ; and from the physical ptmishment of that sin 
there is no escape and no redemption. No proptiatoij 
sacrifice has been made for this form of transgression. 
In some way, sooner or later, the suffering must come. 
Every transgression of physical law, committed con- 
sciously or unconsciously, unavoidably or wantonly, 
will reeeive the penalty made due in natural law; 
and, as just stated, if it be one which is commifctod 



212 XIBONSOUS APPSTITBS 

under ligbt, and for no worthy object, it becomes not 
only a sin against ourselves, bat a on against Gt>d. 
The physical penalty may appear in the form of sick- 
ness, broken consdtation, prematore decay and death, 
or in all these forms conjoined. The violation of 
moral obligation, with all its evils of a moral bearing, 
mnst be met when GU>d shall call ns to a final account. 

Whoever indalges in any onnatoral luxury, pro- 
duces a morUd action in the system, disturbs the 
equilibrium of organic vitality, and lessens its native 
vigor and durability. And this disturbing process is 
generally so insidious in its course, and so unrecog- 
nind in its final developments, — for nature will bear 
abuse silently as long as she can, — that the offender 
does not perceive the cloud of wrath that is gathering 
over him till he is pelted by the storm ; and even 
then he may be so ignorant of the laws of organic 
life and their penal code, that he knows not where- 
fore he is punished. He groans under pains and 
prostration which he cannot account for, and calls 
it the common lot of mankind, or the providence of 
€k>d, when it is only the final issue of a long warfitre 
between nature and his own habits. 

If a man would seek to live for no higher purpose 
than his own personal enjoyment, let him know and 
obey the laws of his own physical being. He who 
says, ** Let me live while I do live," and seeks en- 
joyment by indulgence in morbid appetites, is com- 
mitting a mighty mistake. He is practising the very 
worst kind of humbuggery, deception, and knavery 



ON MOBAL AOCOUNTABILITT. 213 

upoa himself. While he expects gain, he experiences 
loss ; and one which perhaps cannot be measured by 
any ordinary mediom of computation. Whoever ex- 
pects to gain by stepping out of nature's path — a 
path which Deity has marked out for him- — into one 
of his own designing, cheats himself egregiously. 

He who tries to be wiser than Gk)d, makes himself 
a ^1. Nature's path is wide enough for any man's 
footsteps. And a benevolent Providence has strewed 
it richly with varied luxuries for his sustenance and 
enjoyment. Deity has given us natural appetites 
which, if rightly indulged, will secure physical hap- 
piness and longevity. But, if we use those appetites 
wrongly, or create unnatural ones, and indulge them 
in any degree, we pervert nature, and take aU the 
responsibility of painful consequences upon ourselves. 
We contemn the arrangement of Heaven for our wel- 
&re and safety, and cast ourselves upon the boisterous 
sea of life, without compass or rudder, to be tossed, 
and driven, and dashed upon bars and reefs which 
stand thick outside of nature's channel. 

The Creator has given us these bodies to be our 
habitation — a dwelUng adapted to our highest comfort 
and welfare. Our individual identity does not consist 
in the body. The body is not the man. The man is 
really an invisible being ; and his body is the house 
in which he lives. The eye is no part of the man ; it 
is only the window of the house through which he looks 
out upon the world. The ear is no part of the man ; 
it is only the earthly medium through which sound is 



214 IRBONBOUS APPXTITS8 

oonyeyed to the dweller within. When the honse 
decays, he will live elsewhere. It is now a habitation 
fitted up by the Creator, of which he should be a 
fidthful steward and tenant, till called hence to give 
aocoont. But if he wantonly destroy that dwelling, 
suddenly or gradually, by setting it on fire to enjoy 
the splendor of the flames, or the grandeur of the 
lighted clouds of smoke, or by gradually digging away 
the foundation on which the vital structure is based, 
he stands charged with the crime of suicide boforo 
Heaven, and must answer to it in the day of judgment. 
Hence the importance which attaches to a knowl- 
edge of the structure and functions of organic life. 
People comparatively are intelligent upon every sub- 
ject but this. They know nothing of their habitation, 
or how to take care of it. They have never even 
looked in upon many of its apartments, and especially 
upon those which are the most elevated and important. 
They seem content with living forever in the very 
lowest room — the underground, basement story — 
satisfied with grovelling in mere earthly and sensual 
things; to the entire neglect of the vacant and un- 
furnished higher portions of their physical being, 
built by the Creator for the residence of the soul. 
They are content with living as menial servants, rather 
than walk up into a higher apartment, and bo the 
prince of the palace. They choose rather to be the 
brute portion of human nature, than to rise to the 
honor of being the soul of humanity, to dwell at a 
height which is but a little lower than the angels. 



ON MOBAL AGGOITNTABILITT. 216 

Deity has put every man under obligation to his 
own being to take care of his habitation ; and under 
bonds to Infinite Benevolence to take care of it for 
the purpose of his service and glory. His body is 
not his own ; it belongs to Him who made it. Hence 
it becomes the duty of every individual, for his own 
sake, and the sake of Grod, to inform himself on the 
laws of organized life, and religiously obey them. It 
is as truly a duty to read and be informed on this 
subject, as it is to study the precepts of the Bible. 
The study of the Bible first, and the study of the 
laws of life next. There is nowhere to be found so 
great a cause of human suffering as that of ignorance 
on this subject. Intelligence is the first step toward 
improvement. If we shut our eyes to light, for fear 
of its showing sins which we are unwilling to forsake, 
our criminality will not diminish. There are, perhaps, 
none so guilty as those who can see, yet will not see. 
When we shut our eyes to hide our sins, we not only 
admit the truth of our criminality, but take a course 
adapted to harden the heart. 

Whoever turns away from light in one case, pre- 
pares the way to disregard light in another. Who- 
ever violates moral obligation in one way, prepares 
himself for violating it in another. If we treat our 
own highest earthly interests with wantonness, we 
violate principle, which prepares the way for a trans- 
gression of it in any other case where temptation 
assails. He who will be reckless of his own interests, 
will be likely to be regardless of those of others. He 



216 ■BK0NB01TS APPXTITB8 

nbo will defraud himself for&lse gain, will be mora 
likely to cheat others under similar temptations. He 
who will knowingly murder himself, even by de- 
grees, is more likely to sacrifice the liyes of others. 
Like progress in the commission of crime against 
Bodety, every violation of principle in eating and 
drinking blunts the perceptions and admonitions of 
conscience. He who will smother conscience, because 
that monitor speaks the truth, to gratify some sensual 
passion which he knows is ruining himself, will be 
more ^ely, from desire of some selfish end, to sacii- 
fioe the peace and welfare of others. 

As before remarked, it is as truly a sin agunst 
Heaven, to violate a law of lifo, as to break one d 
the ten commandments. In this statement, no com- 
parison was attempted in the magnitude of crimes. 
This is a matter which no finite mind can fully meas- 
ure. Yet, not only is a violation of physiological law 
as truly a sin as theft or robbery, but some comparison 
may be made in the magnitude of the two crimes. 
Let us take the sin of highway robbery on the one 
hand, and that of — gluttony? — this is considered a 
sin of no small magnitude ; — alcoholic intoxication ? 
this, now, is also considered a notable crime; — to- 
bacco-using, a habit as yet uncriminated by public sen- 
timent, may represent the other side of the antithesis. 

A man goes out into the highway, and robs his neigh- 
bor to the amount of ten thousand dollars. He violates 
that law which says, " Thou shalt love thy neighbor as 
thyself," by taking the money of his neighbor, and 



ON MORAL ACCOmrTABIUTT. 217 

appropriating it to himself. The magnitode of hn 
crime, so far as its outward practical bearings are con- 
cerned, amounted to the sum of ten thou^nd dollars. 
Let us put this sum upon one page in the account. 
Upon the other page we will note, so fur as practicable, 
the amount of damage done by the tobacco habit, and 
see which is the heavier crime. And while this habit 
is singled out, it is intended to illustrate, in a degree, 
the criminality of every other vice which enters the 
enclosure of the soul through the month. 

The tobacco devotee is every hour of the day un- 
dermining his vitality. He is creating a morbid actiim 
of his nervous system, increafling the «peed of the 
circulation, adding from fifteen to twenty strokes per 
minute to the pulse by a single cigar, taking the 
essence of the weed into the blood, and produemg a 
morbid state of all the fluids and solids c^ the whole 
body, and at the same time spittmg off th&t £ro!n Ins 
mouth wMch was designed by the Creator, in its pure 
state, to be carried with the food into the stomach. 
By this process he is probably cutting off twenty-fire 
per cent, of his natural period of ezistencie. He u 
cutting off from fifteen to twenty years frwi bis nxn- 
ral life. How much is this to be reckoned m df/Harg 
and cents? How much would he j^ve, vrisa ]»i, 
conscious of the fiusts in the case, upon lux ys^xatrs^ 
dying bed, to have life ooDtiniKd to its ntvsxi v^rii^- 
inus? If the sum can be named, w^ will v^ }s 'knn^ 
How much are his aarices in tb^ wor>i Vr tA 
reckoned worth lor the mm pemi of iam, yrf/nUA 

19 



218 SBRONSOUB APFEEHIB 

he 13 liTing for some purpose worthy of a man ? Thea 
too, while living, he has been constantly diminishing 
the natural developments of nund and soul, by im- 
puring the body, the only medium through which 
they speak out to the world. How much is this loss 
to be reckoned in dollars and cents ? He is also car- 
rying morbid influences beyond himself into his pos- 
terity. He is not only robbing himself and the world 
of a part of his natural lifetime, and a part of his en- 
ergies, but is robbing his own sons and daughters of 
that which is beyond all price — that which millions 
of gold cannot buy. For no one can keep up a morbid 
action in his own person, and that especially which 
directly assails the nervous system, without transmit- 
ting a measure of that morbid influence into his pos- 
terity, — an influence which may reach even to the third 
and fourth generation. There is, indeed, no such thing 
as describing the boundary of its agencies. Like the 
stone cast into the sea, it moves the waters of the 
ocean. How much is this damage in doUars and cents ? 
Then, again, every man guilty of such a habit, is, 
on an average, leading probably some half-dozen 
young men and boys in the same sensual and ungodly 
course, by his eiLample, to incur all the damages and 
the guilt which are filling up the measure of his own 
accountability. Now, what is the magnitude of this 
man's crime as it will probably appear in the day of 
judgment ? What is the amount when put into dol- 
lars and cents ? What the amount of robbery com- 
mitted, when all the beailngs of his course are reck- 



ON INTELLECTUAL CHARACTER. 2l9 

oned up ? Will it amount to ten thousand dollars ? 
— or will it be an amount beyond all computation? 
Who, then, is the greater sinner in the light of eter- 
nal truth, the man who destroys himself and others, 
by sensualities, or the man who committed this high- 
way robbery of ten thousand dollars ? 

ERRONEOUS APPETITES ON INTELLECTUAL CHARACTER. 

The right balance of the mental organs very much 
depends on a right condition and action of the physical 
system. If such a course be taken as will excite un- 
duly the animal portion of our being, the standard of 
intellect is depressed. The sure tendency of any im-> 
natural stimulant or narcotic, is to degrade the stand- 
ard of our physical nature, and lower the tone of 
intellect Any undue excitement of the nervous sys- 
tem jostles the mental forces ; and this process contin- 
ued, weakens and prostrates them. After a while 
they come to depend on the physical stimulus to keep 
them from torpidity, and rouse them to life and action. 

Those who have been accustomed to indulgence in 
artificial stimulants,' as a general rule, have only given 
signs of mental power upon exciting occasions. In- 
stead of being always alive to the ready appreciation 
of everything that is passing, and the immediate aid 
of every enterprise and every call of humanity, they 
only now and then wake up to feel and act, when the 
unusually exciting nature of the subject, or a large 
dose of some stimulating drug, breaks through the 
doud that has darkened their mental vision. We 



220 XRBONEOUS APPETITES 

sometimeB meet with statesmen possessing great breadth 
and depth of intellect, but whose physical halnts have 
been so at war with nature, that their talents haye 
become comparatively buried up in the mire of sensual 
indulgences; and it now requires a power of stimulus, 
sufficient under other circumstances to produce a men- 
tal earthquake, to bring out their buried resources. 

Those who have become long accustomed to excitants 
and narcotics, have found themselves unable to perform 
much mental labor without them. When one steam 
of stimulus has become exhausted, another must be 
got up ; and especially when some extra weight of 
care, anxiety or labor is to be borne, tb^^n a fuller 
draught of alcoholic drink, or a stronger cup of coffee 
or green tea, or a larger plug of tobacco, must be 
taken to bring out and goad up the weakened energies 
of mind to their required bearings. If we would, on 
all occasions, have our mental forces awake and ready 
fer action, we must preserve the nervous system free 
from all stimulants. Give to the system healthM 
nutrition, but no artificial excitement. 

Depression of spirits is no uncommon result of con- 
tinued stimulants and narcotics. Gloominess of mind 
is closely connected with prostrated nervous energies ; 
and more or less will every nervous system suffer, per- 
ceived or unperceived, that is fretted with stimulants. 
Where there is extra excitement and its inevitable 
reaction, continually alternating each other, there must 
be some degree of damage done to the nervous and 
mental forces ; and when that damage becomes con- 



ON XNTBLLEOTUAL CHABACTEB. 221 

siderable, a degree of melancholy is very liable to 
ensae. This is true in regard to all stimulants, 
whether alcohol, coffee, tea, opium, or tobacco; and 
especially is it true of the latter. 

One writer, relating his own experience in tobacco, 
says : " At times I had feelings which seemed to border 
on mental derangement. I felt that everybody hated 
me, and I, in turn, hated everybody. I often lay 
awake nights under the most distressing forebodings. 
I have often arisen in fitful and half-delirious slumbers, 
and smoked my pipe to obtain temporary relief from 
these sufferings. I have often thought of suicide, but 
was deterred by a dread of a hereafter. In a few 
weeks aft^r entirely relinquishing this habit, all these 
things were gone, and my health fully restored." 
Many cases of a similar character, from the same and 
&om a similar cause, have come under my professional 
observation during the last twenty-five years. 

An irritable temper is another evil consequent on 
the use of stimulants and poisons. Excitants of all 
kinds, and especially narcotics, disturb the electrical 
currents of the nervous system. Electricity is con- 
stantly circulating in the nerves of the whole body ; 
and on the healthy condition of this circulating sub- 
stance depends, not only the vigorous and healthful 
state of the whole body, but especially a happy and 
quiet disposition. A disturbed state of the electric 
circulation is not only constantly tending toward ill 
health, but to a fretftd, dissatisfied, and peevish tem- 
per. If, therefore, any one would cultivate a qmi 

1»* 



m 



222 XKBONKOUB APPETITES 

and unruffled temper of mind, let him carefully ab- 
stain from every unnatural appetite. Let him be 
satisfied "with the instincts -which God has made, and 
the plentiful means he has furnished for the gratifica- 
tion of them in the varied fruits of the earth, which, 
are palatable to the taste, nutritious to the digestive 
system, and unoficndlng to the vital principle. 

Mental imbecility, in perceiving and determining 
against the wrong, is still another result of wrong 
physical appetites. There is oflen found want of 
courage, when a wrong habit is seen, to take up arms 
against it with a determination to conquer or die. The 
indulgence practised so enslaves the mind that its 
power to govern itself is comparatively destroyed. 
The reins of self-government have fallen from the 
hands of the higher man into those of the lower. 
The higher faculties in human nature have become 
slaves to the despotism of lust. Instead of judgment, 
reason and conscience, holding sway, appetites, even 
lower than those of the brute, have gained the 
ascendency, and they now sway the sceptre, — appe- 
tites contrary to instinct, and such as no brute can be 
compelled to create. The mental attributes of him 
who was created a little lower than the angels, are 
down-trodden and buried in the dust, under the iron 
heel of despotic lust. He who bows to this foul 
slavery is no longer a man, but has descended below 
the standard of the beasts of the field. 

The people — especially the American people — do 
not apply philosophy to their eating and drinking. 



ON INTELIACTUAL CHABACTBB. 223 

They do not take principle to enforce that self-denial 
which ought to distinguish them as moral beings ; and, 
filing to use principle here, shows signs of too little of 
it anywhere. He who will not, under light, apply 
principle to his eating and drinking, will not be likely 
to be very tenacious of its application anywhere. If 
animalism bears sway in one case, it is more likely to 
govern in another. If there be a want of regard for 
God's law in our physical nature, there will be less 
respect for it written anywhere else. If there be a 
disposition to disregard duty in this, there will be a 
tendency toward nullifying moral obligation in any 
other direction. If men will avoid light shining up<m 
one point of duty, they will probably try to shun it in 
others. If they will bury a living conscience to avoid 
ite rebnkes on their sdf-destraction, they wiU be likely 
to stifle its warning voice on other vices and other 
crimes. He who would have a clear mind to percdve 
these things, must have a body with right habits. 

Intemperance of any kind will deaden the native 
acuteness of the perceptive organs. Over-eatbg will 
not only blunt the vigor of bodily health, but stupefy 
the intellect. Even a moderate degree of habitual 
gluttony, will turn the purest genius into mere animal 
lustings, which war against God and humanity. There 
are few men of real genius who will make a god of 
their belly, because elevated intellect will generally be 
disgusted with such low and grovelling temptationn. 
A high range of thought canikot eome down to such 
sordid things. Bat there axe a lew of utrange and 



224 SBBONBOUB apfkuxbs 

inooDgraous compound, — where elevated genius seems 
surrounded with grovelling sensualities, — where, like 
an oasis in the midst of the desert, nund has no adequate 
diance for development and expansion ; and where, 
though it may sometimes show its original gigantio 
strength, there is still no soul to guide it; where 
things purely philosophic can be deeply &thomed, but 
where the perception of the right and the wrong, is 
weak, vague, and erratic. 

Intemperance is of two kinds. One consists in the 
over-indulgence of natural appetites; the other, in 
creating and indulging those which have no ori^n ia 
nature. The Creator has given us an inclination fi)r 
fbod adapted to the nourishment of the body. Mod- 
eration in its use is temperance ; immoderate indul- 
gence is intemperance. But even moderation in the 
use of things as luxuries which God never made for 
such a purpose, and things for which he never author- 
ized a taste, is intemperance. To be temperate in the 
use of natural appetites, is to indulge them rightly ; 
but to bo temperate in regard to unnatural indul- 
gences, is to let them entirely alone. *^ Touch not, 
taste not, handle not." Temperance is total absti- 
nence from wrong things, and moderation in right 
things. Either kind of intemperance is at war with 
the progress and prosperity of mind. 

If we would keep the digestive powers of mind free 
and vigorous, we must preserve a healthy state of 
physical digestion. There are few things that will so 
derange and oppress mental efficiency as a deranged 



ON INTELLECTUAL CHABACTEB. 225 

stomach. Gloominess, and a foreboding of all imag- 
inary evils, are common attendants. Deranged phys- 
ical organs produce a morbid state of mind ; and then 
a morbid state of mind increases the deranged action 
of the body ; so that, when this wrong action is once 
established, the evil consequences increase by constant 
action and reaction. The origin of the whole difficulty 
may be in either specif of intemperance. It may be 
by pushing the indulgence of natural appetites beyond 
their right boundary in respect to quantity, quality, 
or frequency ; or it may be by the most moderate in- 
dulgence in things which the Creator never intended 
fi)r such a purpose. 

The use of meats tends to lessen mental activity. 
Those especially who are devoting themselves to intel- 
lectual pursuits, would gain great advantage by total 
abstinence from them. Their being required for the 
maintenance of a vigorous muscular system, which is 
a very popular idea, is a perfect delusion. Thebread- 
stuffo, and other products from the vegetable kingdom 
of nature, as shown in a former part of this work, con- 
tain all the elements necessary for the replenishing of 
the body ; and some of them more largely than the 
meats. Facts are stubborn things touching this mat- 
ter. The laboring Irish, who literally use no meat till 
they come to this country, are among the most hardy 
men found in the world. They have constitutions as 
unyielding as brick-bats, and can withstand the hard- 
est knockings like sledge-hammers. But after being 
here a few years, they often become infirm, and die in 
early life from adopting American habits. 



226 xBKomous appxxitbs 

If meats were essential to the sustenance of a vig 
orons body, then a due proportion might be necessary 
for mental vigor, because of the dependence of mental 
development on physical soundness. But if meats are 
not essential to bodily energy, then we can safely put 
away that which will embarrass the mental powers. 
In the course of my travels, several cases have como 
under observation where individuals, for different rear 
sons, had abstained for a considerable time from the 
use of meats, and they uniformly have said that they 
had just as much bodily vigor, and a far larger amount 
of mental activity and force, during that period. 

But it must be remembered that when we leave our 
meats, we must not cease eating. When some of the 
followers of Mr. Graham relinquished animal food, 
they undertook to live on comparatively nothing. 
They went from one extreme to another. The body 
must have sufl&cient nourishment. We cannot live 
upon mere air. But the more simple and unstimu- 
lating the food which sustains the body in its healthy 
and vigorous state, the more active and forcible will be 
the mental system ; while that which deadens the elas- 
ticity of muscular fibre, stupefies the intellectual forces. 

ERRONEOUS APPETITES ON MORAL CHARACTER. 

Great sympathy exists between the physical and the 
moral nature. Physical habits have greatly to do with 
the general standard of virtue. Habits which create 
a morbid action of the bodily functions, have a tend- 
ency to produce a morbid state of moral feeling. 



ON MORAL CHASACTEB. 227 

Any habit which lowers the standard of healthy ac- 
tion in the human system, tends to degrade the powers 
of the higher nature. Habitual stimulants and nar- 
cotics applied to the nervous system, not only drive 
the body into an early grave, but insidiously produce a 
torpid state of moral sense. The creation and indul- 
gence of unnatural appetites disturbs the balance 
which the Creator originally gave to the organs of the 
brain. By their action on those portions of brain 
which relate to the animal propensities, they produce 
unwonted activity in them, by which their influences 
become disproportioned to those that relate to our 
moral nature. 

Eecklessness in bodily habits tends to recklessness 
in moral character. Those things which fret and de- 
range the stomach, tend to corrode the finer feelings 
of the heart. The stomach is an organ of vast con- 
trolling power. If this organ is right in its functions, 
generally all is right that pertains to the health of the 
body. If it is wrong, then all is wrong. So, too, it 
has vastly to do with the right formation of moral 
character. Such is its strong sympathy with the brain 
and nerves, which form the bond of union between soul 
and body, that it bears a powerful sway over moral 
sentiment. Hence, erroneous eating and drinking 
inevitably conduce to erroneous thinking and acting. 
Licentiousness in food and drinks leads to licentiousness 
in matters of moral feeling. A licentious body begeta 
a licentious soul. 

Pampering false animal appetites, or pushing natural 



228 XBBOMS0U8 APPinXEES 

ones bojond their proper boundary, gives a balance of 
power to the animal propensities oyer the moral senti- 
ments ; and this process continued, tends to animalize 
the soul, and brutify all the higher powers of the maUi 
— so that he ceases to govern himself, and becomes a 
servile captive to the sway of his own grovelling, sensual 
passions. Then all the attributes of the soul, like the 
Hungarian exiles under Austrian barbarity, beoome 
slaves to the despotism of animal lust. 

Depraved phy^cal appetites greatly obstruct moral 
culture in the rising generation. Unnatural luxuries, 
and irregular eating and drinking, by depraving the 
mind and corrupting the heart, greatly retard moral 
and religious instruction bestowed on the young. The 
mother who would instil virtuous principles into the • 
mind of her child, must begin by establishing in that 
child right physical habits — right habits of eating 
and drinking. She must insist on a proper use of 
natural luxuries, and the utter refusal of unnatural 
ones. Every mother, therefore, who would secure the 
phjrsical welfare, and through it the moral and eternal 
well-being of her children, should be herself a practi- 
cal physiologist, that she may know what are, and what 
are not, correct physical habits. She should acquwnt 
herself with the laws that govern physical life, and the 
nature of the popular sensual indulgences of the day, 
which war against physical and moral health. 

It is a most lamentable fact, that scarcely one to a 
hundred of the mothers, having such tremendous 



ON MO&IL CHABAOTSa. 229 

responfflbilities on them, has ever read the first word 
on practical physiology. The great mass of them are 
as ignorant of the proper physical training to be be- 
stowed on children for their physical and moral sound- 
ness, as are the herds and flocks on the hills. A vast 
amount of the crimes of the age is chargeable to the 
ignorance and indifference on this subject of the moth- 
ers of this generation. Even some of those who have 
read, do not appreciate its importance to themselves and 
others ; and are not prepared to enforce its teachings 
on those under their charge, because their example is 
wanting. 0, when will they wake up to this matter, 
and cease exposing themselves to a most fearful 
accountability ? 

If the mothers would have their sons become men 
with healthful bodies and hearts, they must guard 
them with special care against the gross and engross- 
ing sensualities of the men of this age. They must 
guard them against the indulgence of every appetite 
that can injure the stomach and nervous system, 
especially against the use of stimulants and narcotics. 
Not only alcohol, but other stimulants, should be 
avoided. The coffees and the teas, especially the 
green teas, as well as that most deadly of all poisons 
in popular use, tobacco, should be rejected. These 
sensualities, and especially the tobacco lust, all have 
their bearings on moral character ; and the earlier in 
life these habits begin, the more powerfiilly will they 
lower the standard of moral feeling. 

Sabbath-school superintendents and teachers have a 
20 



280 BBB0KB0U8 APFECm 

reqpODsibilitj in this matter. Pupils, with bad eating 
and drinking habits, are less susceptible to Bible in- 
struction. No one*at the present day would think of 
receiving a boy into Sabbath-school who was a habit- 
ual user of strong drink. Every one feels that alco- 
hol 80 encases the soul that it cannot comparatively be 
i*cachcd with religious instruction, nor even by the 
Spirit of Grod. There are other wrong habits which 
oppose themselves to divine instruction. If a pupil 
should offer himself for membership of a Sabbath- 
school class, whose breath and lips, though free from 
the debasing influences of strong drink, were, never- 
theless, corrupted with the taint and defiled with the 
stain of tobacco, he should be received only on the 
condition that he will abandon the vile habit. The 
truths of God cannot be so readily instilled into his 
mind, till his mouth is washed from the defilement of 
this great agent of Satan. 

Meat-eating, especially in the excessive proportion 
of its present use, has also its moral bearings. By its 
stimulating properties, it acts on the animal organs of 
the brain, increasing the activity of the animal pro- 
pensities. While it gives no additional strength and 
durability to the muscular system, but renders it more 
clumsy and torpid, it does give an undue degree of 
ferocity to our animal propensities. It makes us more 
animal, and less intellectual and moral. This is a 
matter, not of opinion, but of well, attested and gen- 
erally acknowledged fact. This brings us up squarely 
to the qoestioiii whether the indulgence of this less 



ON MORAL GHARAOTEB. 231 

natural and not essential form of nutrition, shall bd 
considered worth more than all the moral considera- 
tions connected with it. It is a habit not to be put 
upon the same list with the poisonous drugs, opium, 
alcohol, and tobacco ; but it is one that is doing its 
own work of injury to the tone of human sympathy 
and of moral feeling, — especially in the excess to 
which it is pushed in the United States, and more 
particularly at the South. 

The slaughtering of animals has a tendency, on 
those engaged in the business, to lower their estimate 
of life in general, and blunt the terror of shedding 
blood. If my life were to be put into the hands of 
jurors, where the decision of the case depended in any 
considerable degree upon their due apprehension of hu- 
man sympathy, and their right appreciation of human 
life, let me have any dass of enlightened citizens to 
sit on that jury-bench, rather than men from the 
slaughter-house. 

The surgeon is not subject to influences of this sort. 
He takes his knife in hand, not with any feeling of 
wantonness toward his fellow-being ; but, with a heart 
deeply stirred with human sympathy, he severs the 
morbid portion of the sufferer's flesh, that he may save 
him from ultimate suffering and premature death. He 
deadens not the flame of fellow-feeling burning in his 
breast, but keeps it the more alive by its fresh and oft- 
repeated kindlings, as case after case comes to his 
hands for counsel and relief. Not so with the slaugh- 
tPC-man. With wanton hands and indifferent heart, 



282 SBBOMIOUS APFRFITSB 

he strikes the fhtal blow npon the head of the helpless, 
unofiendiDg fellow-bciDg, fells him at his feet, and 
spills his blood upon the ground ; and this, simplj 
because he haDkers for his flesh I 

My heart was agonized, a few months since, at wit- 
nessing a scene of slaughter. The poor brute was 
pursued by men and dogs ; the latter seizing him by 
the ears, and the former, without compunction, apply- 
ing the head of the axe to his brain. The poor crea- 
ture ran for life, and bellowed for help. His cries for 
aid, and his struggles for escape, seemed enough to 
wake up heaven and earth to his sympathy ; but men 
and dogs, with like carnivorous zeal, pursued till blow 
after blow brought him to the ground, and the deadly 
stab was given to the current of life. My heart 
Blently exclaimed. If ever the disposal of my life 
shall be thrown into the hands of men, let it not fall 
into the hands of those who butcher life ! If ever that 
statute, requiring blood for blood, and life for life, 
shall cease to disgrace our civil institutions, we must 
not put butcher-men in our legislative halls. 

Furthermore : one bad physical habit prepares the 
way for another of a similar kind. Alcoholic drinks, 
by the morbid influences they produce on the mucous 
and nervous membranes of the mouth and stomach, 
create a demand for some other unnatural thing. 
Thus, alcohol prepares the way for tobacco, and tobacco 
for alcohol. Hence, as a general rule, these two arti- 
cles have been found associated in the same mouth. 



Om MOSAL CHABACIXB. 233 

They are twin sons of that Demon who goeth about 
seeking whom he may devour. They are two great 
agents of him who is seeking to destroy both soul and 
body. 

Bad physical habits lead also to bad moral habits. 
Bad physical and bad moral practices move in clusters, 
and abide together in families. Hence, it is :found 
that the veriest vagabonds on the earth are literaUy 
saturated with the combined essences of alcohol and 
tobacco. The red nose, the filthy lips, and the Sty- 
gian breath, are the standing ensigns of their calling, 
and the undisguised badges of the association to which 
they belong. Nature has fixed her mark of condem- 
nation upon them. She has branded them as culprits 
awsdting the final issues of their varied and associated 
crimes. 

Liquor-drinking, tobacco-using, gambling, and pro- 
fane swearing, form a common brotherhood of vices. 
Let this entire land be surveyed, and very rarely will 
there be found a pro&ne oath proceeding from any 
other than an impure breath and from defiled lips. 
Barely will a man be found insulting Jehovah to his 
face by profaning his name, among those of uncontam- 
inated lungs and unstdned mouth. These and other 
kindred habits may at any time be found in tippling 
and gambling recesses, mutually congratulating each 
other, " Hail fellows, well met ! " They are unwil- 
ling to be apart ; and will, probably, when once their 
acquaintance is established, continue their associated 
levelling^ till they shall be arreated and held to bail 

20* 



SM XUU>inK>17B APFKITEK 

fbr the day cif jndgment. And such is the siimlarity 
of their tastes and their tenacity for their social grat- 
ifications, that, if it were practicable, they would wish 
to indulge their lusts together, even for a dark eter- 
mty. There can scarcely be a doubt, if it be pos- 
sible, but that among those who will have lost their 
souls through the benumbing influences of strong 
drinks and narcotics, there will be wailings in hell 
afler rum and tobacco. 

Concddering the meyitable brotherhood of different 
morbid appetites, if we would promote temperance in 
respect to alcc^olic drinks, we must put away its twin 
— tobacco. Those who plead the cause of temperance 
with tobacco in theuT mouths, make themselyes con- 
temptible in the eyes of all who have any general 
light on the nature of kindred and associated appe- 
tites. While they profess to deny themselves of hurt- 
M lusts, and are putting them away in one ibrm, they 
are holding on upon them in another. They quit al- 
cohol and make up its loss by putting into the mouth 
a larger plug of tobacco. They deny themselves of 
the lesser, and continue the stronger poison. They 
put away the less filthy sin, and supply its lustings 
with a more enslaving and brutish indulgence, — one 
whose power to create morbid r^ults is greater than 
that of the worst kind of liquor, when taken with 
equal excess. 

In this matter, temperance men manifest a degrading 
cowardice. Professing open war&re with a great phys- 
ical and moral evil, they are still ardently embracing 



ON MO&AL CHAAACXBR. 286 

another evil that isdoingaworse and more secret work 
of rain to the physical, and also an extensive injury 
to the moral, wel&e of the men of this generation. 
While they are turning the devil out at one door, thej 
are inviting him in at another. They are wanting in 
the moral courage necessary to meet the foe in general 
combat at every avenue, determined to conquer or die. 
While the man signs the pledge and keeps tobacco in 
his mouth, he is scarcely half converted to the tem- 
perance principle. While he holds on to this accomf 
paniment and substitute £>r alcohol, he is more liaUe 
than though he would abolish both, to return again to 
his cups. 

If we would elevate the moral standard in any 
country or community, we must b^in by conectiiig 
their physical halHts. The people must put away finom 
themselves and the rising generation the practice of 
unnatural eating and drinking, and other physical 
vices. Is there not a serious declension in the stand- 
ard of virtue in our own &.vored America ? And is 
not that declension sUll moving in its onward and 
downward coone? Look at the character ^yi rhe 
young men of the day. Are tiiey as uniformly at- 
toitive to their obii^uioiia to parental ^vemnent, jnd 
to moral and rdlgkxia principie in aeoerai. m -wtsffi -hf, 
young men thion^ whose iddity uid anrai wnraig^ 
our country was reieased inm h^ 3horti rr*.. a^. 
made to shine fcrdi a die ^jm» i^r y >-.i^«iiw 
fifeedom? Can we J3«k ir Mti .ww «« ^rwie 



\ 



2M xBBONionB Appaxms 

Adams to come foiih firom the ranks of the joung men 
of our own day ? If we would see sach patriots ripen- 
ing into public life, we must look for them among men 
whose early habits are like those of the young Wash- 
ington, the young Franklin, and the young Adams. 

No one who ap^nreciates moral rectitude can take 
observation upon ' the demonstrations of immorality 
that now are given by young men, especially those 
residing in our large towns and cities, without agony 
of spirit. Let any man spend a Sabbath four or five 
miles out of the city, and see the carriage-loads of 
young men from town, riding as though in chase for 
life; racing horses; profamng the name of Deity; 
and disturbing even the quietness of the house of God. 
And what are the seals that perfect the bond of union 
among these associated violators of God's holy day ? 
The social glass, and the inspiring cigar. They drink 
to rouse them to great hilarity, and smoke to stupefy 
conscience and becloud its moral vision. Shall we 
look for high moral worth ever to be developed in such 
young men? 

Is not the standard of moral principle lower among 
business men than it was in the early history of our 
country ? And is not the standard of moral feeling 
among them growing lower and lower? Where can 
be found Q^'s noblest work — an honest man? 
Where the man whose integrity can bear, in all the 
departments of his sphere in life, the scrutiny of 
Heaven? Where the man that can be trusted out of 
sight? Is not the same amount of bu£dness transacted 



ox MOBAI. CHASAOXHL 287 

now with' almost infinitel j kas acUbeienoe to principle 
dian in earlier times? 

In poUdcal life, where are tiie men of strictlj moral 
and political integrity ? Where the men who serve 
their country for their eonntiy's good, — who are de- 
termined, whether friends are gained or lost, always 
to act from principle ? Where the men who do not 
care infinitely more for their own promotion in honor, 
than for all the highest interests of the land ? When 
the men, if our coontry should be inyaded, who, Hke 
our fathers, would lay freely on their country's altar 
'* their lives, their fortunes and their sacred honcHrs " ? 
Where the men who would come to the rescue to save 
our standard of civil and religions fr^eedom from being 
laid prostrate by some foreign power, provided thdr 
own personal safety or aggrandisement was not con- 
cerned ? Where the men who, if oar country was 
invaded, could shed as pure and philanthropic blood 
as did our fathers in the Bevolution 'i Where those of 
like holy patriotism ? — and " echo answers, where If '* 

There are men enough, in case of war, who woold 
enlist for the battle-field ; no matter whether the war 
were right or wrong ; whether it were based on correet 
prindple, or on the basest selfi^ness ; wliether it wen 
called for in self-defence, or a war of \Ufs ^f^p^im^m. 
They are ready for the fight, because their pbjueal 
habits have provoked undue Mf^iriij cif t}j« ^nivMl 
propensities; the combative and deiiftruetjre adiribut«s 
of the mind have gained asoendecMry <A'er ^nm'')!^^^ 
and human ayvF^tlij ; tiie low«r man pnrvaib <ffsif 



288 iRBONsons appetitbs. 

the higher, till brate ferocity has supplanted that true 
moral courage which always controls human wrath, 
and suffers death for human good and the honor 
of God. 

Look at the politioo-moral aspect which our country 
now presents, North and South. See the party feuds 
and sectional &ctions which are engendering strife and 
discontent. A few officious and officenseeking men, 
void of true patriotism, are endeavoring to promote 
their own popularity, by means adapted to undermine 
the fundamental principles of a truly republican gov- 
ernment, the real basis of human sympathy, and the 
genuine standard of moral rectitude. There are men 
North and South, who, though professedly zealous for 
the authority of the constitution, are infinitely more 
concerned for their own notoriety and elevation, than 
they are for the safety of the Union and tb^ interests 
of the people. There are men North and South, who, 
though they cry aloud and spare not for the safety of 
the Union, are so deficient in true patriotism, human 
sympathy, and moral integrity, that they are become 
the heaviest brakes to the car of American freedom. 

Intelligence and virtue are the two main pillars for 
the support of a republic. Without these no demo- 
cratic government can be permanent. General knowl- 
edge and moral principle alone can prepare any people 
to govern themselves. One of those pillars in our re- 
public is sound and firm. Intelligence is wide spread, 
and increasing in all the departments of American 
society. Let our virtue be equal, and our Union can 



OH CHUBZEAS CHimiOBB. 230 

neyer be in danger from civil commotioii. Let doB 
be wanting, and a gOTeniment wfa^e the widest intdr 
ligence prevails wiU &11 by its own hands. And if 
the standard of yirtne shall oontinne to descend in oor 
own land, as it has for the last few jears, oor govern- 
ment will be fonnd changed firom its original character, 
to that of anarchy and min. That principal pillar, 
virtue, is decaying at its very foundation. 

And wherefore this decline in virtue ? What can 
be done to bring back the moral integrity of early 
times ? Let the people bring back the physical habita 
of early times. Let them bring their eating and 
drinking into conformity to natural law and moral 
obligation toward Grod, and they will effect a mighty 
change in the standard of virtue. Let the mothers 
of this day train the rising generation to habits of 
virtuous eating and drinking, and they will lay a sure 
basis for virtuous thinking and acting. Let them 
cease to countenance stimulants and narcotics, and 
other physical vices which prompt undue animalism, 
and oppress the developments of the soul. Then, 
and not till then, will the decline of moral feeling 
cease its ebbing, and virtue's saving power begin its 
flowing tide. 

ERRONEOUS APPETITES ON CURI0TIAN CUARACTKit. 

The Bible presents us with the fearfal truth, that 
our physical nature is liable to be brought into warfare 
with our spiritual. It therefore charges vmUf** atMUin 
from fleshly hutowhieh war againitllMMml/' Jfw« 



mmmmm 



JMO ERBONIOUS APPXTITSS 

obey ihe laws which Gtod has given to our physical 
forces, thej wH perfectly hannpnize with those of our 
spiritual being ; so that, when we touch a chord of our 
{^y^oal sympathies, it will send forth a tone in perfect 
harmony with every ^bration of the heart. When 
we violate any law of organic life, we induce a morbid 
organic action, by which we affect, by mere sympathy, 
the spirit. But when we war directly against oral 
instinct, by the culture of unnatural appetites, we not 
only jostle, by sympathy, the healthful harmony of the 
flesh and spirit, but we create a lust which wars agsdnst 
the soul. Then, instead of our physical and spiritual 
emotions being able to keep time and harmony with 
each other, a civil war is instituted between the lower 
fiicultios and the higher attributes of our compound 
being. 

Every unnatural physical appetite, therefore, be- 
comes a warring lust. Everything that is at enmity 
with the instincts of nature, creates a diseased con- 
dition of the soul. Such is the relation which the 
inner and outer man bear to each other, that every 
morbid sensation, every indulgence by the mouth 
which Heaven has never sanctioned, embarrasses its 
healthful character. Some seem to suppose that the 
only lusts which the apostlo charges with making ag- 
gressions on the soul, are such as violate in some way 
the spirit of the seventh commandment ; whereas this 
is but one among many forms of sensualism which are 
preying upon the vital forces of true piety. More 
^damage is done to the soul at the present day by lust- 



ON CHBISTIAN OHISACTISB. 241 

fed idols whick find access to the internal man throngh 
the medium of the mouth, than in any other way — 
idol lusts which do not come as the result of natural 
appetites overreaching their true boundary, but appe- 
tites which have no origin in nature. 

An objector may refer me to the saying of Christ, 
'*Not that which entereth into the mouth, but that 
which proceedeth from^ it, defileth the man." But 
when the Saviour, in reproving the bigotry of the 
Jews in insisting on adherence to their traditions, told 
them that not the eating of bread with unwashed 
hands, but raider the words of the mouth produced 
moral defilement, he could not have intended to teach 
that the luxury of "wine which is a mocker," and 
of " strong drink which is raging," could do no harm 
to the soul. The apostle declares, that he who would 
make high attainments in godliness must be " tem- 
perate in all things." Of course he would have us 
understand that temperance in eating and drinking, 
as well as temperance in every other respect, was in- 
dispensable to proficiency in piety. He would have 
us "lay aside every weight," as well as every highly 
" besetting sin," that we may be able to run without 
embarrassment the Christian race, and obtain the 
Christian victor's prize. 

Temperance, as before stated, is of two kinds : mod- 
eration in the use of right things, and total abstinence 
from wrong things. Temperance, in the use of bread, 
is moderation ; temperance, in regard to strong drink, 
is total abstinence. To be temperate in reli^n is to 

21 



243 SBSOHIOUS APPJTITB8 

serve God with a steadfast zeal, which is according to 
knowledge ; to be temperate in regard to fimaticism, 
is to let it alone. We may be intemperate in the 
quantity of food. Glnttony buries the soul in gross 
sensuaHsm. Untimely eating, through its derange- 
ment of physical action, retards and diminishes spir- 
itoal zeal. All irrcgalarity in eating embarrasses our 
spiritoal emotions, by disturbmg vital functions. A 
dyspeptic stomach and a torpid liver are the enemies 
of Gt)d, and the opponents of the Holy Ghost 

The quantity and quality of food suitable at one time, 
is unsuitable at another. That quantity or quality 
adapted to a man of active or laborious life, during 
the business part of the week, would be unsuitable 
and morally wrong on the Sabbath. Vast damage 
is done to the spiritual welfare of the church by their 
Babbath-day eating. In many of our large cities and 
towns especially, they are in the habit of having even 
the largest and richest dinner of the whole week — a 
sort of Thanksgiving dinner — every Sabbath. While 
they require less and more simple food, they take it 
more largely and more complicated. While the quaur 
tity and the quality oppress the stomach, the mind is 
also embarrassed ; the highnseasoned meats obstruct the 
reception of truth and the unction of the Holy Spirit. 
In the afternoon, especially, the minister of Christ 
pours out potent truth with pathetic earnestness, but, 
instead of preaching to the understanding and the 
heart, he is preaching to roast beef. If he also has 
too grossly indulged, it is beef preaching to beef. 



ON CHRISTIAN OHARACTEB. 248 

Animal food, at all times, has its bearings on le- 
li^ous character. It ought to compose no part of a 
Sabbath-day's diet. But the taking of it at any time 
retards the progress of the soul in spirituality. By 
its oppressive influence on intellect, and by its sfamu- 
lating power on those animal propensities which, when 
they gain ascendency, degrade the moral feeling, it 
hinders spirituality and growth in grace. This is not 
a matter of fancy, but of facts. Everybody acknowl- 
edges that meats increase the activity of the passions ; 
and if so, then it is a matter of the plainest deduction, 
that they tend to lessen the susceptibility of the soul to 
die force of truth, and to advancement in spirituality. 
It requires more of the divine agency to convert a man 
who lives much on meat, — other things being equal, 
— than one who does not. It requires more sancti- 
fying grace wholly to subdue the Christian's body and 
soul to God, than it would if no meats composed any 
part of his diet. 

It may be said, the Bible does not prohibit the use oH 
animal food : true ; nor does it utter any express injunc- 
tion against gambling. How then do we judge that 
gambling is a sin ? Surely not by express declaration, 
but by a knowledge of &cts. What are the nature and 
e£^ts of gambling ? So, too, in regard to the eating 
of meats. What are the facts ? What the nature and 
efi^ts of meatreating? Philosophical facts reveal 
God's truth with as much plainness and authority as 
though it were written in the Bible. Now, then, it is 
a fiict, as before stated, that meat-eating stimulates the 



844 BBBOHIOUB APPJKnXEB 

to&Q of ili0 animal propensities, which, by inordinate 
mci&yitjf must oppress the soul ; and this &ct is no- 
wiiere among intelligent men disputed. Let this fact 
qpeak Har itself ; and let its tmth bear, at least, npon 
ihe excessive meat-eaters of the day. The question 
18 not one that diould be settled bj the voice of fashion 
or appetite, bat by the testimony of facts. 

It may be said, furthermore, tho Bible sanctions 
ihe nse of meats. Trae, it is allowed ; and so the 
eating of quails, with the consequences, was allowed 
vhen the Israelites murmured over the vegetable 
noorishment which Orod. had famished them. So 
polygamy was allowed and legalized. Divorce was 
also allowed and arranged by law, which the Saviour 
repealed; giving the reason why such things were 
pennitted : " Moses, because of the hardness of your 
hearts, suffered you to put away your wives." So, 
too, there was a law requiring a tooth for tooth, breach 
for breach, eye for eye, and life for life — capital pon- 
ishment. All this the Saviour repealed, and established 
a better law in its stead. In the times of Moses, 
laws were made which could best accomplish the ends 
of law. It avails nothing to put forth a law which 
public light and sentiment will not sustain. The 
Scriptures do not give precepts for every specific act, 
but lay down general principles which are appli- 
cable to all cases. When a question comes that is 
not settled by specific declaration, it must be looked 
at in the light of fiicts ; and if its fiicts chime with 
the spirit of general precept, well ; if not, then the 
question demands a negative. 



To aDotiier kind of mtempemte hdiii^fcfaigl ife 
use of stimulantB and naiootics. While wj &eb and 
distorb the nervous system, which is the bond of laion 
between the soul and the body, they derange and Unnft 
in a great degree the affections of the heart. The 
loye of strong drink, after that thirst is moe fimned, 
fastens with inveterate grasp on the spirit of the man. 
It is one of the most enslaving of all lustful appe- 
tites. Its enervatiDg and deadening influeooes on the 
intellect and the heart are sudi that its chains murt 
generally be broken before the Gospel and the &pnt 
of Gh)d can convince of sin and lead to the OroBS. But 
this is not the only lust which finds its way to tibe 
soul by the mouth. Hiere is another, more potest 
and more enslaving, — the passimi for tobaooo. It 
is a lust, not as noisy, but more enticing and irrenst- 
ible. It clutches its victim with greater finuness, and 
holds him with a more determined and unyieldifig 
grasp. 

There is no appetite 00 strong as thai whi^;h has no 
origin in nature. Appetites which are whrjly creatt^ 
and in conflict with our instincts, are ih^ *jUfM whkb 
most enslave the souL Among thieiM;, there is umm^ m 
dec^ticand powerM as the appetite for tli^t IwthiMBM 
weed which finds entertainment in alioMft ^ery inao'a 
mouth at the present day. There is no <itW i4>l ^A 
in Christendom which is requiring wt hx^, an aix^MM 
of sacrifice. No other idol is re(|UJrii>g wt u*wh i/t 
be laid upon its altar, ct time, of phywMAiJ ai^i u^/tni 
energies, and of peconiajryaiipifMri* itisMMMoMa^ 

21* 



S40 IBBOirBOUB AKPaCOZB 

lobbeqr oo ^ Saving's Bank of Ohnst, annuallj, of 
noi hm than $6,000,000, and leaving only lees than 
$1,000,000 for the various benevolent purposes annu- 
ally sostained by the chnroh. It is so blinding the 
eyes of the professed followers of Christ, that they 
think themselves sustaining a good evidence of piety 
while patting short of $1,000,000 into the Lord's 
treasury, and laying at the same time the annual 
oontribution of $5,000,000 upon its sensual altar. 
This sin^e fact shows that the churches, taken in 
the aggregate, are sening that " earthly, 'sensual, 
devilish" idol with more than five times as much 
mbI and devotion as they are the Saviour of the 
woild« 

Eaots developed by a cfhuioh in Texas, which were 
^ven me while in that State, testify on this point. A 
small ohuroh, and the only one, in a small village, 
thought it their duty to obtain, if practicable, stated 
preaching for that place. To do this, $300 were re- 
quired. They succeeded in raiang $200, but the 
remaining hxmdred could not be obtained ; there&re 
the place remained without stated preaching. On 
exa mi nation, it was found that the twenty male mem- 
bers of that church were expending annually $20 
each for their consumption of tobacco. Here, then, 
was the sum of $400 which they could cheerfully pay 
annually to their tobacco god, but could not spare an- 
other hundred for the honor of Christ, and the sal- 
vation of men throu^ the preaching of the Cross. 
They ohose to forego for themselves the privileges and 



QV CfHEDRIAV GHAKACm. 9411 



benefits of the Gospel, and to let the phoe 
eompaiatiYe heathenism, lather than eeue, in my 
degree, their devodon to lust, and save one handled 
dollars to add to that already obtained. Woald to 
Heayen this was an isolated instance! Bat may Qod 
have mercy upon the Ameriffui church, which is but 
&irly represented by this sin^ case, — $5,000,000 
for annual consumption of tobacco, and less than one 
million fi)r Christ and his cause ! 

Though this halnt is so mmeeeswy, so foolish, so 
hurtful, and so wicked, yet there is none whidi cannot 
be ^yen up with less saorifiee of feeling. It giyes an 
appetite that is dearer to its yictim than life itself 
and its suspensioQ brings tenors which are stronger 
than death. Many a man has testified to me that, 
thou^ he was ^y awaze that this fndnlgmiee was 
&st killing him, yet he couLn VOT gnre iiup, A stu- 
dent at Andover Theolopcal Institute had long been 
in the habit of using tobacco. In the ooorae of his 
studies his health Med. He was repeatedly tc^ that 
it was this whidi was killing him, and he eon feawi 
himself conaeioas of it. He was told that, unless he 
would quit it, he must ff^e up the idea of living to 
preach the Gospel, and M a aacrifiee to his appetite. 
With all this staring him in the fiwe, he continued ',u 
indulgence, left the institution, and soon afW dM, 

This article, being a more powerf:i] yAf^^ than 
alcohol, imprisons its vietims within i^rona^ "at? wa 
dows. The draawlrinker may r» 'fet/rrM -,7 iikf, 
moans «ii teas of a desGkte w3k «wl soAr AK 'M. 



948 IBBOIIIOUB APFEOXIS 

dreiL But let him who has long contmued to pay his 
devotioiis to tobaooo*s barning altar, find his ¥rife and 
children houseless and destitate, if he had no other 
means fi>r their supply of things needful, than to give 
up his tobaooo, the smoking embers on that unholy 
altar would cry out with xmceasing ydoe, " We must 
El OBATivniD ! " No present wants of those depend- 
ent on his purse, no affection's strong appeals, have 
eloquence enough to quell the notings of lust, and 
persuade its worshipper to forever cease this base idol- 
atry. 

The cause of humamty would find little sympathy 
in the hearts of men devoted to tobacco, if its demands 
oonld not be met without ceasing to bum incense to 
that god. Let twenty tobaoco-users pass before a hut 
of the poor, where they found, on a cold mid-winter 
night, a widowed mother with her children shivering 
over a few dying embers, with no ^el, and suffering 
from hunger, having ate their last morsel of bread 
twelve hours once, — and if their only means of 
giving relief consisted in giving up this useless habit, 
and give some portion of the money saved, for their 
relief, probably nineteen out of twenty of them would 
pass on, and let them fireeze and starve to death. 
This is a most appalling representation, but one which 
only needs putting to the test to prove its truthful- 
ness. 

Can any man carry out Christian principle and 
continue any destructive habit with his eyes open to 
its true oharooter? Christians are called upon to lay 



ON CHBISTLiN CHARAOXEB. 249 

their " bodies a living sacrifice " npon the altar of 
Christ. The apostle used the term " bodies," because 
the living human body is the only medium through 
which the mind and soul can now develop themselves. 
If the outer man is in an impaired state, the devdop- 
ments of the inner man suffer. If the physical sys- 
tem is subjected to habits which are antagonistic to 
its laws, then it wars against the soul. K the bodies 
offered upon Christ's altar were examined by the scru- 
tiny to which Jewish sacrifices were subjected, what 
would be the result ? How many would be left upon 
the altar, accepted ? No lame sacrifice could there 
be received ; no injured or diseased sacrifice could be 
tolerated. It must be a sound and valuable offering. 
How many such bodies are the professed people of God 
now offering as living sacrifioeB ? How many bodies, 
possessing all their native vigor and strength, are given 
to Christ ? How many, whose minds and hearts are 
iminjured by weaknesses of physical nature ? 

Many are kept from the house of God on the Sab- 
bath by their bodily infirmities. Others come to church 
in such physical feebleness that they can enjoy little, 
and be little profited. And yet nineteen-twentieths 
of those infirmities are the products of their own wil- 
ling ignorance and disregard of the laws of health. 
Where God has established a law, and affixed a penalty 
to ite transgression, can he reverse that law, or avert 
its punishment ? It is required of us that we " glo- 
rify God in our bodies and spirits which are his." 
Qan we glorify God in the Spirit white living in tbe 



260 xBBomous apfititbs 

known violation of the laws that belong to our spirit- 
ual heang set forth in Scripture? Certainly not. Nor 
can we, in any possibility, soitably glorify God in our 
bodies, while we violate the laws which God has at- 
tached to them. K, too, the body sin, it sins always by 
the consent and dictation of the mind. G^ie body acts 
not alone. Some of its strongest natural passions are 
awakened into excess by the agency of thought ; and 
when the passion ripens into action, the mind stDl 
assents. AU our unnatural appetites originate and 
continue by erroneous promptings of mind. If we 
would to the uttermost glorify God, therefore, we must 
keep body and spirit in con&rmity to law. 

When we wage war with our bodies, we war also 
against our souls, — not only because a healthy soul is 
dependent on a healthy body as its medium of devel- 
opment, but because of their mutual sympathy. A 
pious soul cannot prosper in an impious body. The 
heart cannot maintain consecration to Christ, while 
the body is serving its lusts. The inner man can- 
not faithfully serve Gt>d, while the outer man is 
serving the devil. The spirit of God cannot secure 
our growth in grace while the spirit of stimulants 
and narcotics is spreading its leaven through all the 
functions of the flesh. To preserve a wholly sancti- 
fied soul and spirit, we must have a wholly sanctified 
body. There must be harmony between the body and 
spirit, in order that the Spirit of God dwell in us. A 
discordant condition of the outer and inner nature, 
grieves the Divine Spirit. An irritated stomach and 



ON CHRISTIAN OHARACTEB. 251 

a deranged liver, resist the Holy Ghost. A morbid 
nervous system and a disordered brain, obstruct the 
workings of sanctifying grace, and endanger the final 
salvation of the soul. 

In view of these truths, the apostle lays great stress 
on the right condition of our physical nature ; and he 
gave us in himself a practical demonstration of his 
feith concerning them. He says : ** I keep under my 
body, and bring it into subjection, lest that by any means, 
when I have preached to others, I myself should be a 
castaway." He calls on us not to let sin reign in our 
bodies, that we should obey it in the lusts thereof. 
Neither to yield our members as instruments of un- 
righteousness unto sin. He asks us to put away the 
service of the flesh, and make no provision for its 
lusts ; and to " cleanse ourselves from all filthiness of 
the flesh and spirit, perfecting holiness in the fear of 
God." He encourages us, also, when he declares 
"There is therefore now no condemnation to those 
which are in Christ Jesus, who walk not after the 
flesh, but after the Spirit." 

The same apostle charges the Galatians to " walk 
in the Spirit, and not fulfil the lusts of the flesh ; " for 
the flesh lusteth against the spirit, and the spirit 
an;ainst the flesh. He then enumerates some of the 
forms of fleshly lusts ; among which, are " idolatry 
drunkenness, and such like." And, after mentioning 
some of the fruits of the Spirit, among which is " tem- 
perance," he adds : '* And they that are Christ's, have 
crucified the flesh with the affections and luste." Id 



252 XBBONBOUS APPBTIIES 

addressiDg I^inothy he says : " But they that will be 
rich, fall into temptation and a snare, and into many 
foolish and hurtful lusts, which drown men in destruc- 
tion and perdition." And yet, probably among all the 
lusts of that day into which wealth tempted the peo- 
ple, there was no one making its ingress upon the soul 
through the mouth, that was so " foolish and hurtM " 
as are some of the idolatrous appetites of the present 
times. 

While the mind occupies its earthly tabernacle, its 
vigor and acti^ty depend mucb upon the healthy con- 
dition of the vital forces. Whatever, therefore, 
depresses these, depresses the forces of the soul. 
The most deadly thrusts of tobacco are hurled at the 
very seat of physical life — the vital forces of the ner- 
vous system. Here is its chief work of destruction to 
the body ; and while doing this, it is also jostling the 
equilibrium and force of the immortal part. 

After long devotion to this narcotic, or to any 
other powerful unnatural agent, the mental and spir- 
itual forces are lost without it. A social religious 
meeting, composed of those who had long degraded 
their bodies and depraved the nervous system by such 
agents, and who had been deprived of them for forty- 
eight hours, would be a gloomy aflfair. No signs of emo- 
tion would be found there, except the internal meanings 
of denied lust, — little desire for anything but the 
refreshing of agonized appetite with its gratification. 
A fresh unction of the poisonous essence would be fkr 
dearer than the divine unction from Heaven. 



OH CHBIBHAH OHABAOIEB. 253 

Tobeooo, upon aa enlightened mind, is as truly an 
obstacle to the iDspiring agency of the Divine Spirit, 
80 is alcoholic liq[iior. It as certainly encases the soul 
with its dense incrustations over its susceptibilities. 
It blunts the arrows of divine conviction of sin. It 
resists sanctifpng grace bestowed upon the Christian. 
It destroys a sense of moral responsibility, and leads 
its devotees to spend money more cheerfully for its 
debasing sensualism, than for the glory of God. 

If the apostle had fi)und tobacco-using to be a habit 
of those times, especially in the church, requiring 
more than five times as much money as was given to 
Christ and his cause, he doubtless would not only have 
called it a ** foolish and hurtful " lust, but one that he 
would have pronounced and denounced as ** earthly, 
sensual, devilish." He would have felt constrained to 
say to Timothy, " flee youthful lusts," and especially 
that most enslaving one, the love of tobacco. He would 
have called upon the churches in general to cease burn- 
ing incense on such a filthy, unholy, and expensive 
altar. He would have earnestly entreated them to 
cease defiling the body, which is the temple of the 
Holy Ghost ; to cease ensnaring the soul set free by the 
Uood of atonement ; and cease annually robbing the 
ohurch, the banking-house of Christ, of $5,000,000 
of money. 0, when — when will the church wake 
up to sec her great besetting-sin of the present day ? 

There must come a revolution on this subject ; and 
the question to be answered is, Will the church come 
up to her duty in such a moral reform ? She ought 

22 



254 XRB0NE0U8 AFJPniTIB, KO. 

to take the lead in all reforms adapted to promote true 
religion and the exteneoon of the Qospel message to 
the world. Will she enlist as pioneer in this moral 
enterprise? Will her ministers come to the lesooe? 
Or will they, as too many ministers and churches did 
in the temperance effort, display an nngodly cowardice, 
fearing to ply their moral forces to the car of re£)rmy 
till they see it well in motion ; then, fearing to be left 
behind in disgrace, jump aboard on the very last end 
of the train, and ride in their glory to the summit of 
triiim{^, by the momentum gained by the exertions 
of those who profess no allegianoe to Christ, but are 
mere friends of humanity ? 

If we would eleyate the piety of the church, we 
must persuade its members to put away various sensu- 
alities which nullify the force of truth, and neutralize 
their spirituality. The church must act upon princi- 
ple, in eating and drinking, as well as in preaching and 
praying. When she ediall be governed by principle in 
all things, then will her standard of piety rise, — then 
will she be emphatically the light of the world. When 
she shall turn the channel through which $5,000,000 
flow for that which not only is a needless waste, but 
which crowns the climax of her. idolatries, — when 
she shall turn this channel into the Lord's treasury, for 
Bibles, and tracts, and Sabbath-school books, and the 
preaching of the Gospel at home and abroad, — then 
will she appear in the * brightness of the morning, 
fairness of the moon, deamess of the sun, and terrible 
in strength as an army with banners.' 



Illliill "'111 

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