(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The philosophy of sacred history considered in relation to human aliment and the wines of ..."

Google 



This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 



m^r^mmmtmmmmm^uiimmm'mm 



mmm 




600091 041 L 




THE 



PHILOSOPHY 



OF 



SACRED HISTORY 



CONSIDERED IN RELATION 



TO 



HUMAN ALIMENT AND THE WINES OF SCRIPTURE 



BT 



SYLVESTER GRAHAM. 



EDITED BY HENRY S. CLUBB. 



LONDON: 

HORSELL & CAUDWELL, 335, STR^^Xi. 



1859. 



PREFACE BY THE EDITOR. 



SyIiYbsteb G]6tAHAM> the author of the following pages, 
beoame a popular lecturer on temperance and physiology 
in the United States in 1832, and during the ten succeeding 
years, he promulgated his views with great earnestness, 
zeal, and eloquence. In 1839, he published his lectures 
in a work entitled, "The Science of Human Life," in 
which what has been^ denominated the " Graham System " 
was fully developed anj^ ^pounded. It has since been 
twice published in Great'^BritjEun, wliere it has received 
higb commendation. ••- • ' .. 

Assuming in ** The Sci/ftncd^oTpuman,Life '* the position 
that the proper food of mw ^^that which is obtained in a 
direct manner from the vegetable kingdom, and that the 
flesh of animals as food, as well as alcohol as drink, are 
opposed to man's physical, moral, and spiritual interests, 
and maintaining his position by arguments drawn from 
scientific facts which have never to our knowledge been 
either refuted or disproved, he became subject to attacks 
from men who professed to base their reasons for consum- 
ing these articles on Scripture testimony. This appeared 
to be the only ground wliich he had not fully ditwuaa^d vcl 



IV PBICPACB. 

his very elaborate lectures, and therefore the onexm which 
he was most assailed. Having had an education for the 
ministry, in which capacity he served with more or less 
regularity for some years in connection with the Presby- 
terian Church, and latterly as an independent preacher, he 
naturally felt deeply on this subject, believing it impossible 
that a system which his experience and observation, com- 
bined with scientific research, convinced him was highly 
beneficial to the human race, could be contrary to the 
teachings of the word of God ; and with an earnest desire 
to arrive at the truth, he applied himself with great 
industry to this object, to discover the philosophy of sacred 
history in relation to human aliment. 

The plan was, to publish the work in four numbers. 
He published three numbers during his lifetime; but, 
owing to a variety of conflicting circumstances, he did 
not live to issue the fourth. The stock of the first three 
numbers was purchased by Messrs. Fowlbb and Wells 
of Mrs. Graham; and, having occasion to examine his 
manuscripts for the purpose of preparing the ** Life of 
Sylvester Graham" for the London publishers of Graham's 
works, we discovered the manuscript (probably a first 
draft) of the concluding portion of the work. This we 
have endeavoured to arrange so as to harmonize with the 
portion previously published ; have compiled a copious 
index, and thus rendered the volume as complete as we 
believe it was originally intended to be by the author. 

Though we cannot endorse all the sentiments expressed, 
nor can we approve of all the methods of reasoning 
adopted, we can commend the work as highly useful both 
for study and reference to all who are interested in the 



PREFACE. V 

great qaqntion of Biblical history in relation to the great 
moral reforms which are acknowledged as among the 
most prominent features of this nineteenth century. The 
purpose aimed at is one of great importance and utility, 
and the untiring industry, the earnest but candid spirit 
with which the various interesting passages of Scripture 
are discussed, will place this among the most valuable 
contributions to Biblical and reformatory literature. 

New York City^ 

October IQth, 1854. 



CONTENTS. 



PBBFACB BT THB EDITOR . 3 

JUDEX . 9 

PART I. 

THB OLD TBSTAMSMT DISFBNBATIOlf 23 

PART II. 

THB NBW TBSTAMBNT DlSFBHIATIOlf 267 



. 



INDEX 



SIOBOM 

Asrofi appointed the moath of Mobm S88 
tbeological notions of .^ S7§ 

Abel, real state of m. 196 

sacrifice of ... .». ... 199 

Abraham, divine porpose in calling S23, 

SSI, SS9 
Absolate and arbitrary tests never 

imposed by Ood ... 130, liS,154 
Abbolote meaning of the Word ... 61 
Abstract idea of Ood, how arrived at 64, 

181 
Accommodated dispensations 300 — 310 
Adam and Eva, the bead and scarce 

of the whole human laoe 15S, 193— -19$ 
Adam and Eve, behavioor of, in the 
garden .- ... ... ... 108 

Adam and Eve, diildlike simplicity 
and ignorance of ... ... ... 109 

Adam, all that was understood of the 

curse by ... 113, 158, 194 
early ideas of God of ... „ 181 
effect of the transgressions of 

on posterity ^ ... 87, 167 
first sin of ... ^ ... 155 
instinctively in the kingdom 

of Ood... ^. 93,183,159,196 
instinctively obeyed the laws 
of his nature... ... 60, 93 

made a living animal 103, 104, lis, 

181, 194 
meaning of the word ... 116 

naming the cattle by ... 118 

popular notions concerning ... 95 
state in which he commenced 
existence ... ... ... 106 

tmderstaodingof in relation to 

the prohibition ... 152, 194 

Adaptation, great law of ... 176,229 

of all God's revelations to 

man 65, 66, 175, 209, 889, 

235—839, 253—857, 880 

Adaptation of the economy of grace 178, 

178 
A£Bections, physiolo^cal, always iden- 
tified in the consciousness ... 29 
Ahab, reigc of — ... m. 365 

Ahasiah, reign of ... «. ... 367 

Alcohol assails at cnce the whole na- 
ture of man ... 149, 184 
nature of, and relations to man 67 
leads to mordar 280 



ssonov 
Alexander, oonqnest of at Filestine 889 
Allegoriaal imp(urt of some of the Mo- 
saic records 186 
the Scriptures 
explained by the vloume of nature 1 50, 

159 
All events determined by the consti- 

tntional laws of God 68 

An things made of common matter 16, 71 
Andents, the, not the source of true 

theology 128, 158, 159, 164, 178 

Angels, now kept fk-om sinning ... 168 
Ahger of JehoviJi against Moses ... 838 

839 
Animal appetites the principal causes 

of human action ... 31 

instincts, the physiology and 

philosinphy of 86 

Animals sacrificed, why 64 

what made for ... 147, 148 
Anthropopathy of the Scriptures 186, 809, 

836, 237, 852, 307 
Anthropomorphism of the objects of 

man's worship 60, 64, 136, 175 

Apotheosis of departed heroes ..< 138 
Appetites, three specified by our 

Saviour ... 139, 142 

Asa, reign of 3G5 

As man, so is his God ... 64, 271 

Available, Egyptian institutions to 

Aioses .•• •«. ..• ... 317 

Authority divine, durability of in the 

Mosaic economy 33? 

Baalpeor, worship of ... »• ... 341 
Balaam's ass miraculously endowed 83 
Beasts brought to Adam to be named 114, 

118 
Be^il shddd&y ... 237, 244, 247, 262 

Best, God always does the 90, 168, 295, 

284, 285 
Bible accordance of the, with science 74 
account of man's creation 72, 73 
ground on which the author 

consults the 188, 190 

not given to teach natural science 18 1 
not inconsistent with scientific 

deduction 439 

rightly understood, represents 

God as consistexit ^^^ 

teaching, warn xA \^<i Al'^^ viv 

trueprov\iiCOQtt»kie -« •• '^'^A 



INDEX. 



SIOTIQI 

Bible cannot prove nor disprore that 

flesh and wine are panicioos 187, 188 
Blood for blood ... ... 318,219 

Body and sool reciprocally dependent 25 
Bodily habits should be consistent 

with physiolt^cal law ^, S3 
exOoyment and sensual indal> 
gences necessary forces ». 314 

Born again m. 84 

Brain, the seat of mental, moral and 

religious powers ^ ... 34 
naturally concurs with the 

demands of organic lifis .«. 26 
sympathises with the stomach 
and partakes of the physio- 
logicai condition of all other 

PoTCtt ••• ••• ••• »•» 3o 

thegrandoentre of animal life Stf 
Bread received tram heaTen to prore 

ulofll ••• ••• ••« ••• ••« SoO 

Breaking the tables, significance of 38S, 

S83 
Cain and Abel and their offerings ~. 197 
Calf worship, demonstration of S8i, 31S 
Capital punishment ... 318, 319, S31 
Carnal influences in relation to ap- 
preciating truth S5, 47, 51 

Carnal influences souroe of erroDeoos 
conscience ............ 49 

Carnal ordinances retained, not ori- 
ginated by Moses ... ... ... S81 

Cattle, none slaughtered in the wU- 

domess but for religioas purposes SSO 
Categories of Mosaic laws ... ^ 803 
Cause and efl^. relation between ... 68 
Certainty of constitutional law ... 148 
Chaldea, condition of m. ^ Z7i 

Chanco, no such thing as ... ... 58 

Charai'ter and purposes of Ood ascer- 
tainod ... .^ 69, 175, 180 

Charity, without, nothing arails ... 83 
Charlemagne, rererenee to ... ... 63 

Chomisitry. mineralogy, ^., agree 

with tho Bible ^ 181 

Cherubim, what and where ... 158, 164 
Choice of good, net certain, but oon- 
ditional ... ... .^ ... 68 

iTioscu i)eoplo «. ... .« 247, 850 

Christ being with His disciples in 

thi> kingdom ... ... 897 

could not come sooner than 
lie did ... ... .M 207 

otonial roign of ... .. 893 

fonioktiu i>y His disciples ... 416 

in advance of His age ... 178 

instructions of, addressed to 

His disciples in aU time ... 433 

Christian dispensation, tint "^erer- 

lastiug kingdom" ......... 171 

Christian dispensatioa of highw dig- 
nity than tho Mosaic ... ... 996 

Christian diapensalten, why not In- 

trtMiueti) M^in 171 

( '/imti.iiiirj', oJoir pnmm of 1S8, 17« 
<.Vir/«rfuniaiiii<t8n^wfM-drlaUBCQl ^t* 
«vr/cJ. no two 4f «M wi- 
fi:ju ia tht - " 



sBon 
Christ, law of, for permitting what is 

not best ^ 4 

ministry of^ better than that 
of Moses ... ... ... 8 

not tmderstood by his disd- 

pies ... »m» ... 109, 1 
prayer ot at last supper ^ 4 
resurrection of ... ... ... 4 

Church of Christ, adyanoement of the 4 
Gean and unclean beasts, the origin 

Ul ••• ••• *•• ••• «vw« 7 

Clothing of the primitive ouui 156, 1 

Clouds, wind, rain, Ac, governed by 
fixed laws ....«.« ... , 

Code, moral, first given to man sim- 
ple and succinct ... ... ... I: 

Cohexistence of sacrifices with acer- 
tain state of man ... SOl, 303, Z> 

Command of God, every law of na- 
ture a 9^ 133, 130, 161, 166, 1! 

Complex nature 31, 33, S3, 96, S7, 38, S 

47,1 

Compound powers and complex ope- 
rations ... .M ~. .M Z'. 

Condnding i^peal ... ... ...41 

Conclusions regarding the Old Testa- 
ment ... M .— 31 

Concordant teadiings of the Bible 
and nature ... .«. ... 175, li 

Concubinage, why tolarated S80,-8S9, 9i 

Concnrrenoe of carnal i^nP^tes with 
religions instixiets ... ... 

Conditional necessity or fatality 

Conduct of Ood dianges, but not his 
principles or laws ... 

Conflict between moral and religions 
truth and carnal nature 

Confound men, the natural and spi- 
ritual powers of Ood 

Conftision of languages 

concerning the manner of 
regeneration ... ^ I 

Gonsdenee, various opinions con- 
ceniing .m 36—! 
the eaoses of erroneous 

ConsdoQS tkeedom of man's moral 
aetions ... «. ... 77,79,1 

Consdousness, mental, general law of ! 

Constitutional laws of Ood determine 
all events ... ... ... ... < 

Com and wine, blessings ... S80, 3! 

Covenant, Sinaic, bearing and per- 
formance of .. .« % 

Covenant, Sinaic, fium and featorea 
determined by the state ofthe Jews t 

Covenant, the new »P»intn»\ .^ i 

with Noah ... SIS, s: 

Conversion of water into wine •« 4! 

Creation of all things ftom conunon 

ulftIXQ« ••« ••• ••• «•« 

Creeping thing, every, to be eaten .« S 
CrisU in the aBOrs ef the dtosaa 

peoBle — 

Ctttflte eC thft vBoritan or n CM 



... s: 



M. i 






INDEX. 



sionoff 
CmM and piOmiae, the 143, 144, 19S 
oomprehended tbebaman spe- 

dM ^ .^ .« 165, 195 
of God upon His creatures, a' 

benevolent annmiciation „. 137 
on the serpent and the human 

pair ^ Ill, lis 

or consequences announced to 

woman and to man 144, 165 
spiritual import of the, not 

denied... 113 

I will not, the ground any more 

for man's sake 112 

Cot off man .^ ^ 77,204,2:29 

Dance aad rejoice before Jeboyah 245, 254 
Daniel, Hananiah, Meshael, and Aza- 
riah, probably accustomed 
to Togetable ft)od ... 873, 374 
moral power of .« ^ 376 

mooessftd experiment of, cor- 
roboratire of Togetariui doc- 
trine ... ».* ... ••• oo4 
suooessAiI experiment o^ no 

miracle m. 375 

David, reign of .« ». ^ 361 

Death of Moses, approach of the ... 343 
Decalogue given ... .» 269 

not snpematuraUy reveal- 
ed to Moses ... .„ 297 
not understood by the peo- 
ple when enunciated ... 293 
D^ravity of the carnal appetites 
renders men unable to receive 

religions truth ^ 85 

Devdopment of God's moral and spi- 
ritual kingdom on earth 31, 
64, 74, 76, 121, 171, 172, 323 
of mind, language, fto. 64, 98, 
131, 136, 156 
of the economy of grace 172 
of the Godhead in the 
human soul 64, 109, 121, 158 
Diet of man always determined by 

his condition 201 

Disciples of Christ, degenerate con- 
dition of ... ••• ... ... 415 

Discretion of Moses as a law-maker 

297, 298, 302, 305 
Discrepancies in the Mosaic record 126 
Diseases brought upon the Egyptians 263 
Dispensation, accommodated i!85, 286 
Dispensations, Patriarchal, Mosaic, 
and Christian, their relative adapt- 
odness .•* M* *.. «.. 171 

Diqiensation, the old, superseded by 

IflO uCw ••• «•• ••• ••• 0«/2 

Divine authority for the true mean- 
ing of the Mosaic record 126, 164, 182, 

300 
Divine authority of the sacred Scrip- 

tnia M. M> M. ,.« ... 300 
Diviaa bmevoleooe aim» atthe well- 

oditf af man .» •«. ... 187 

TOilailiiiliiMilIwi iajvnemeot with 

jtntt ~. ^ ... 198 
0fUfJfMk» of the BiUe 

• ••> i 35 




SBOTTOI 

Divisions Of the subject ... ...890 

Divorce, why permitted by Moses ... 215, 

280, 329, 332 
Dominion of man ... 123, 124, 129 
Dreams, unpleasant, how produced 28 
Drmiken firativity around the calf 270, 

274, 277; 282, 820 
Drunkenness, best in the staie in 

which it ooQurs 67 

Duty equally to obey the laws of 

body and soul 74 

" Dying thou shalt die" ... 125, 130 
Earth a gardon of Rden ... ... 74 

brought forth for man and 

DUcvSiC ••• «•• •«• ••• Avo 

capable of sustaining a dense 
population ... ... 72, 147 

Economy of grace adapted to man's 

moral freedom 172 

Economy of grace developed as man 

is devdoped 109 

Effects of the sin of Adam on his 

posterity 167, 194 

Efficacious motive with the Jowd ... 274 

Egyptian castes 231 

Egyptians made willing to let Israel 

Sw ••• ••• ••« ••• ••• ZvA 

Egyptian writing, a complex system 126 
Eg>Tt, polytheism, &c., of ... 231, 233 

£U)ah, efforts of ... 365 

fed by ravens »* 366 

'Eloheha 'ilohim^^tte God of gods 273, 

307 
'Elohi of Egypt and of all people 244, 248, 

249, eO-J— 254 
*Bl&dm could only be propitiated by 

sacrifices 380, 319 

of Egtpt could cause light- 
nings, &c. 272 

of the Patriarchs common 
to all ... ... ... 237 

the common appellative for 
the gods of all nations in 
early time 226, 237, 299 

Eloquence, fandamental principle of 

Demosthenes 39 

Ei Sh&ddai 237, 244, 247, 262, 273, 280 
Era of the Judges, conduct of the 

people during the ». S55 

EsseneSjthe 441 

Estrangement from God typified 200, 212, 

224, 257 
Eternal and temporal interests of 

man in harmony 74 

Eternal life, how lost by Adam ... 167 
Events, good and evil, all determined 

by constitutional law ... 68 
of providence, &c., spoken of 
as God's personal super- 
natural doing ... .M 117 
Eve, affections of, when tempted ^ 141 
sensual transgression of «.^\SL*t 

" Fvery creature of GoA VmA** •« ^^*^ 
Every Jew must pieseuXiwi&o'Sw^^im^ 
three times a 7©ai a.t Wi^ ^^^^^r;! 
Every Jew partook of Yaao^uww- 
ing ... ." ^\^,Vi^ 



xii 



Hum* 



SBonos 
ETwy moying ihing tliat liT0th man 

osn rat ■ ••• — ••• 186 
thing fitted tu tbe end of its 
being ..• M« ... ... 7S 

Bridenoes from Sinai, why not all 

from a god like a ealf .« S79, MO 
Kridenees of Ood, sensible ones only 

appreciated by the Jews SOI 
of nature as Talid as those 

of revelation 4 

Experience rereals the laws of Ood 60 
Experiment with man from Adam to 
Abraham ... ... ... ... 83S 

Expulsion from the garden of Eden, 
what and how 58, 159, 161, 165, 196 

EzeUel, propheey of 872 

Fall of human nature in Adam 167, 194, 

195 

of man considered ISS 

P'atality apparent, not real ... 67, 68 

Pat things a blessing 280, 390 

Fear of man on all animals 217 

Feasts, three a year *... ... ... 316 

Final causes of the Mosaic economy 811 
Piro and brimstone of Sodom, &c. ... 322 

First-bom slain ... m. ... 258 

cause of all things, God 4, 16, 82 

fruits offered, &c. 292 

principles first to be ascertained 

and set forth 2 

Flagitiousness of Adam's first sin ... 155 
Flesh and alcohol, effoets of, on man 180 
eaten before the flood ... 205, 216 
eating and wine-drinking not 
consistent with the highest 
condition of human nature 885 
eating and wine-drinking per- 
mitted on sufibranle ... 878 
rating and wine-drinking in- 
consistent with Christianity 379 
and wine, why tolerated by 

Moses ... 320 

rating diminishes the sensorial 

power of the nerrous system 436 
rating, the Instftil tendency of 435 
lustetb against the spirit 33, 51, 

139, 
Flesh^moat and intoxicating sub- 
stances, the emct of, 

compared 488 

effects of, on man 183, 185 
given to the Hebrews on 

their Journey ... 266 

the argument concerning 80 
nse of, before the flood 200 
when it may be raten 186 
why permitted to Noah 214, 

215 
why were the Hebrews 
commanded to rat at the 

passorer 253, 257 

pots and bread to the fun 265,321 
Flocks and herds, why taken ... 274 
Food of man at first in the garden llO, 

123^125 
the human species, vegtp- 
tahle 193 



sionoH 
Food oi the human species, same 

after the Ml «• ... 9ft, 214 

Food which deprayes, sensualiaw re- 
ligion and the object of worship 175 
Forbidden fruit, trae nature and 

character of 145 

Forbidden fruit, intoxirating sub- 
stances 149 

Forbidden fruit produces exeessiTO 

libidinousness ... 142 

Fragmentary character of Genesis, 
ii. and iii. chapters 119, 118, 123, 126, 

129, 157, 159, 165 
Freedom f6r good in man, insepara- 
ble firom ftvedom fbr eyi) 67 

Freedom , nooral, of Moses as lawgiver 306 
Fruit of the Tine, the new, what 
meant by »• ... ... ... 403 

Fruits of the earth, presented to the 
object of worship ... ... 61, 64 

Future existence not distinctly taught 

in the Old Testament ... 310 
existence brought to Hght by 

Jesus Christ 310 

happiness, not the sole end of 

Ilio ••• ••• •«• »•• 7D 

interests of the soul identified 

with the present 74 

garden of Eden, what and 
where ... 150, 159, 161, 

Genesis not a regular consecutive 

single history ... 115,126 
not to be interpreted by later 
Scriptures ... 98, 134 

probable origin of 115 

ii. 19, explained ... ... 118 

iii. 21—24 explained 156—158 
Geology not a science by which 
biblical interpretation must be 

governed ... 189 

Gideon, Jeptha, and Sampson, cha- 

aSCvClS OX ••• ••• ••• ••• wD7 

God always does the best that in the 

nature of things can be done 90, 

168,295 
better understood than ever be- 

lOFO ••• ••• »•• ••• XZo 

can learn nothing by experience 207 

compelled to destroy men at the 
flood ... ... ... ... 172 

continually more and more re- 
vealed to man 128 

could not keep man from sin- 
ning and yet in moral freedom 167, 

194 

could not plainly tell man if he 
cnose ... ... ... ... ot 

cuts off man only when it is 
better to destroy than to 
spare 90, 172 

expostulates with man for sin 80 

glory of, and the happiness of 
man, identified «. ... 81 

has always adapted his revela- 
tions to the state of man 7S, 175 

has constitutionally limited his 
own mond and spiritual power 229 



DIDXS. 



ZIU 



UOTtOH 

Ctod lias ever pi o wcut ed bis great 

pnrposas ••• •»• ••• 7* 

has no bodily fonn m. 5S, 78 
lUM power to make or destroy 
worlds ..• ••• ••• •» 88 

Godhead, impress of, received by 

mAn M* M« 7S, 73 
tile moral powers of the, 
wielded by man ... 78 
Qod, how man comes to the true 

idiea of ... — ••• "• 6i 

Godlike mind and eharaeter, deve- 
loped in man ... — 7S, 74 
Godliness, what is ... ... ... 61 

God manifiNt in the flesh ... 79,89 
must be studied from nature 
and revelation ... ... ... 18 

DatnreandaCttribntesof ... 16 

notion of; uonresponds with the 
condition of man; complex 
natmreof 6(V-4t«, 157, 178, 224, 889 
of the Bible and -of natnre one 4, 289 
God puts his Spirit into man, writes 

his law upon man*s heart, &c 81, 

8S 
Spirit of. and God*s moral attri- 
butes begotten in man 76, 81, 85 
supposed to smell, taste, and eat 
with his votaries ... ... 880 

the kingdom U, a state or con- 
dition M. M. M. .M 394 

Tested with all the attributes of 
man in the Scriptures 1S6, 809, 

880 
Good and eiH an bodily with the 

Jews ... 880, 380 
life and death, placed 
before man ... 68 

Grand condnsion as to the divine 
validity and authority of the Sinaic 
dispMisatlon ... ... ... 303 

Grand scope and spirit of the Bible 
meaning ... .*• m. ... 174 

Graves in Bgypt ... ... ... 860 

Greek language came into use in 
Jndea m. ... m. m. 889 

Green hecb brought fbrth for beast 
and creeping thing ... .« 148 

Ground of the anthor't biblical argu- 
ment .M ... M. ... 188, 190 

Guide, human, necessary to all 

XSsoid ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ZifA 

Harltentwg Pharaoh's heari;, causing 
evil, «!, in what sense done by 

vOQ »•• »•• ••• ••• oZ) oo 

Bardness of heart, cause of 215, 302, 316, 

325 
Harmony between nature and the 

revealed word of God .. ... 187 
Harmony between the taws which 

govern the body and soul ... 83 

Bwmony between the natural and 

moral attributes of God 88, 92, 161, 165, 

804 
Harmony between thenatural, moral 

and rdigions rdations of man to 

Qod »M M* • • M. S3 



ssonoi 
Health of body Important to the 
interests of the som ... ... 437 

Health, on what condition alone 
promised m. ... ... ... 864 

Hearts crinkled from an evil con- 
science M. M. ••. ... 149 

Hebrew and Greek languages, their 
correspondence m. ... ... 99 

Hebrews, history of, heart-sickening 363 
state of, under Joshua ... 852 
the character of, during the 

reign of Saul 360 

the determination of the, to 

have a king 359 

Highest good of man, what it is and 

how secured 74 

Hereditary depravity and iniquity, 

what it is » 87, 154 

Hippocrates, prescriptions of ... 431 

Hobab as a guide, &c. 899 

Holiest of all not yet made manifest 286, 

310 
Holiness, without which no man 

shall see the Lord ... .~ 47,64 
Human attributes ascribed to otdccts 

of worship 60,64,136,809 

Human nature all fell in Adam ... 167 
as a whole, all laws 
addressed to ... 191 

Hygienic covenant 864 

Idea of the spiritual nature and moral 

attributes of Ood .» ... 64,121 
Idolater always confirmed by every 
thing, ftc. ... ... ... ... 65 

Idolatrous tendency of man from 

Adam to Moses 311 

Idolatry and superstition in favour of 
tiie doctrine of an inherentreligious 
dement ... ... ... ... 55 

Idolatry, first step of Moses to prevent 314 
of the Jews in Bgypt 231, 841, 
279—281, 309, 311, 312 
of the lowest kind, better 
than no religion ... 63 

If God were to speak ever so plainly, 
man would understand according 
to his state ... ... ... ... 65 

Ignorance increases the activity of 

the religious instinct 57 

linage of God in man, what is the ... 73 
Images of Jehovah prohibited 270, 309 
Imaginations of man's heart evil, how 

Sm9 vuO ••• ••• ••• ••• 3»X3E 

Immorality not taught in the Old 

Testament 310 

Jew s had no clear notion 
of ... 275, 301, 810 
bnposibilitles iu relation to God's 

moral and spiritual government 91 
Imposibility for the unregenerate to 
understand tlie true nature of sal- 
vation ... ••• ... ... 418 

Individuals often in advance of their 

age in theology ... 178 

Iniquities of the dtticx^ Yi<v« \Viii\A^ 

upon the cYvMT«n .« •« 11^^Si^ 
lioa&it^ ca\xBe(V\kl Minvoa&iVs ... ^£^ 



IV 



mvBx. 



sionoi 
rnstincts, animal, when depraved, 
their efiisct on the mental, mora], 
and religions powers 87, 35, 47, 01 
mtinots, appetites, and propensities, 
natural and acquired, pnre and de- 
praTod, their law of action on the 

DFcUQ ••• ••• ••• ••• •«• «Q 

Instincts, deprayed, become the min- 
isters of error, and lead astray ,- 93 

Institntions, religions, how always 
of God ••• ••• •« •<• 66 

Intellectual, moral, and religions 
character corresponds with the 
physiological condition ... .» 47 

Intercourse between Ood and Adam 131 

the patriarchs 
and the heathen ... S87 

Intermany with the idolatrous, the 
Jews must not ^ SIS 

Interpretation, the, of every part of 
Scripture must agree with the 
^hole, and with the truth of God 
in nature ... — ... 15> 130 

Interpretation of God's word to man 
must be understood ... 10, II, 15 

Interpretation true method of ... 134 

Intoxicating substances assail the 
whole oomplez nature Of man 149, 

150, 154 

Intoxicating substances, command 
of Christ not to take m. ... 4S8 

Intoxicating substances, instm^ 
menta of the spirit of sensuality 149 

Intoxicating substances lead to mur- 
der ... •« •*• •«. •*. 880 

Intoxicating substances make man 
toknow^wdandeYll 149 

Intjoicating substances produce 
lew^ess, and the effects implied 
in the curse ... — >- ... 149 

Intoxicating substances the forbid- 
den fhiit M ... 149 

Intoxicating substances, their dietetic 
and sacramental nse must stand or 
fall together » ». 448 

Intoxicating substances, the use of 
opposed to the economy of God's 

^i 3iC6 ••• ••« •#• ••• ••• sOs 

tntoxicating wine, did Jesus not for- 
bid the use of? 410 

Isaac and Jacob, their character and 
ante-Mosaic posterity, timid and 
sensual •«. •»• ■•• .m 885 
Isaac degenerated from Abraham, 
and Jacob from Isaac ... ... 888 

Israelites, atject state of the ... 848 
a feast of flrah the ruling 

motive of ... 874, 309 
all they could appreciate 
had been done ... 851, 870 
at Mount Sinai ... 868 

a vital part of the Egyp- 
tian education of, was 

to sacrifice 880 

believed the Elohim tasted 

with tbem 880 

calf, worship of the, showed 



nonoH 
that carnal <»dinanoes 
must be retained ... 881 
Israelites cared less f6r religious 
truth than for religions 
enjoyment 276 

commanded to take every 
man a lamb ... ... 258 

consternation of^ at the 
enunciation of the law 869 

could not be restrained 
from flesh and wine ... 320 

crisis in the afilEtirs of the 869 

degeneracy of into Egyp- 
tian bondage .» ... 888 

degraded, heathenish^dol- 
atrons, and animal state 
of ... ... ... 300 

demand an Elohim of 
Aaron ... 870, 875—277 

demand fox an Elohim but 
a pretext m. ... 877 

did not understand the 
enunciations ... ... 878 

eatingthe flesh of the lamb 857 

educated to sacrifice, to eat 
wine, kc. 280 

elohim of Egypt filled their 
minds 271 

ever strongly inclined to 
idolatry ... ... ... 310 

exempted from the plagues 849 

flesh given to the ... 866 

form and foatures of the 
covenant determined by 
the state of the ... 369 

from Egypt to Canaan — 
fit>m idolatry to the wor- 
ship of Jehovah ... 881 

had the, been permitted to 
go without delay, they 
would have returned 848 

had the, been prepared, the 
decalogue would have 
been their constitution 881, 

308 

heathenish state of the 880 

highest ideas of, of good 
and evil 880 

if permitted to slay their 
cattle would repeat it as 
often as they lusted ... 381 

impossible to lead them 
from Egypt to Canaan 
by pure moral force ... 891 

incorrigibly idolatrous at 
the Mosaic epoch ... 313 

increase of male children 
among the ... ... 331 

Jehovah spares the, be- 
cause of the interoession 
of Moses „, ... 878 

led by Moses 889 

many generations the 
abject and despised 
slaves of Egypt „. 844 

murmured for fiesh «. 865 
water ^ 867 



OIDBZ. 



XV 



SBOnOH 

tadttes Bust be so deliTered as to 

know' that Ood does it SIS 

muit be gOTomed by such 
motiyes as will move 
-tbeiD »• ••• ••• S8S 

miut be led by eflteadons 
BotiTes 810 

feast at a oommon centre 
trieunially „, ... 316 

no idea of the spiritual 
nature of Ood ...370, 810 

not prepared for the hi^- 
astmotiTes 810 

«ften resisted all, and 
would hare retomed, 
bat for siq^ematoral 
power 291, 890 

pass throagh the Red Sea S68 

Pharaoh most refuse to 
let the, go, and be ex- 
tremely cruel to them 243 

plUlosophjr of tilie conduct 
of the 270 

promise to do all that Je- 
hovah bath spoken ... 268 

rec£^italatioo respecting 
the ... ^ 271, 280 

reciprocal prejudices of, 
with the Egyptians ... 231 

x^Toach Moses and Aaron 
as impostors ... ... 346 

Sinaic manifi9staiions 
adapted to 272 

sensuality actuated them, 
even in religion.. ...242 

theological notions of the 

241, 271, 280 

tbed^eal notions of the, 
At the foot of Sinai m. 271 

what was required of the 172 

why commanded to eat 
flesh ... ... 253, 207 

why Ood did not lead 
them through the land 

of the Philistines 209 

eob,import of the name of, charac- 
ter of S20 

the conduct of, in Padan-aram 237 

hoshaphat, character of 368 

horam, reign of 367 

ibOTah never commands nor sanc- 
tions lying and tbefb ... 204 

object of the signs and 
wonders of 266 

promises to take the Jews 
to himself as a chosen 
people ... ••• ... 247 

thanksgiving to ... ... 449 

why did not supply them 
with flesh daily 321 

why gave the flesh as a 
curse ... ... ... 321 

will not go up ki the 
midst of the people 

283, 284, 307 
eremlsb, new kingdom or cove- 
nant with ... ... 286 



8S0TI0S 

Jeremiah, Jndgments pnmonnoed by 871 
Jesoa Christ called a wine-bibber ... 427 
not recorded as taking 
wine ... M. M 4S8 

Jethro's advice to Moses 298 

Jewels, why were the Jews oom- 

manded to borrow .« ... ... 208 

Jews, see ^ Israelites." 

Judgment, how influenced by the 

feelings ... .» «. ... 29 
Judges, the, not ia sdnooe of the 

PGOpiO ••• ••• ••« ••• ••* av7 

Juice of the grape not formented ... 400 
Justice, how num comes primarily 

to the notion of 64, 121 

Key to the philosophy of Sacred 

Seripiurt m. ^ 176 

Kingdom of God may come, and bis 
will may be done on 
earth ... «• ... 75 

whatisthe.M 394 

heaven when man is in the 81 
in the human world ... 121 
priests a holy nation 368, 260 
Kings of Judah and Israel, charac- 
ters of the .M •.. M. ... 369 
Knowledge, {daath ydtf^Ad) primarily 

of sensual import ... 161 
essential to man's highest 

good ... 180 

of truth essential in rege - 
neration ... ...85, 93, 122 

Konh, Dathan, and Abiram, rebel- 
lion of... ... ... M. ... 389 

Labor, how made a curseM.144, 165, 198, 

195 
Lamb, Paschal, ordered ... ». 3iS, 258 
Land flowing with milk and honey, 

a blessing «• 280, 820 

Language, ambiguity of ... ». 9 
confusion of, why .« 283 
ccmtinually being per- 
fected ... 98 

of Adam 1 14 

of God in nature 165, 204, 280 
of prophecy may have a 
deeper meaning than 
understood by the pro- 
phet ... ... . ... 107 

Language of revelation adapted to 

the state of man 64, 66, 68 
of the Bible in accordance 
with the laws of revela- ^ 
tion ... •.. ••• i88 

Last Supper 888 

Law of God in nature with strongest 
possible certainty against man's 
sensutj use of pernicious sub- 
stances ... ... ••• ••. 148 

Laws of God govern the exercise of 

his own power ...88, 89. 90, 168, 229 
Laws of man's whole nature to be 

known and obeyed .. 187 

Laws of nature and of revelation 

equally of God 4, 60, 92, 128, 127, 191 
Laws of nature aa otAigsXan ea^oA^ 
of revelation ..,%, W,Mi,S%,\^\^'>aa 



xA 



8XCVX0K 

Law waf added beeaoM oi txanigrai- 

aion««> •*. ... ••. 286 
weak thxoujB^ the flesh .» 1S9 
Legation of Motes and Aaron to 

Pharaoh m. .» .« ... 844 
Legitimate efficiency of Ood's moral 

Eower ..77, 7S, 80, 300 
et us make man in our own 
image. «•• v.^ ... ... 7« 

Le61am, the meaning of ... 168, 204 
Lewdness, duuracteristic of the hu- 
man race > • 1S9, 142 
ooncomitant with the tree 
use of intoxicating sub- 
stances ^ 149 

Libated wine ... .„ ... 280, 820 
grateftil to Elokim ... 320 
Life, human, abreviatiaa of 160, 165, 204 
of God in the soul of man 93, 122 
Light of nature to be employed in 
illuminating the tetter of the re- 
vealed word.. ... .M .» 164 

..Longevity, the laws of 165, 183 

Long life considered a great blessing 

280,820 
Looking/ up to the ancients for theo- 
Jm^al light .. ... ... 128,158 

Lord of earth, man the ». ... 74 

Lotochal — thou Shalt not eat .» 180 
Love and hatred of the Jewi. em- 
ployed by Mosea ...812,315 
supreme ... ». ... ... 33 

Lust excited to worshipping the calf 275, 

820 
Lycurgns, Solon, and Moses as law- 

given ... ... ... 805 

MalMmmed, cimunand ci, not to 

drink wine .- ... ». ,- 420 
Man always under the moral govern- 
ment of Qod ... ... .M 80 

as a species constituted to sub- 
eist on the products of the 

vegetable kingdom 198 

constitution of, ttae best that 

could be 17, 18 

could not have been made more 

perfect ... ... 207 

fiulof, notipreventable 18 

intellectuality of, not sufficient 26, 

80 
must be studied and under- 
stood, In order to understand 

revelatitm IS 

Manna, given for forty years, essen- 
tially vegetable food 821 

Man, necessarily religious 58 

place of, in creation m. 16, 17, 21 
representative of God on earth 74 
Man's relation to the world as to his 
loou ... . . ... .M • • 159 

Man, tendency of, to adulterate the 

truth 448 

the crowning work of creation 124 
was cut off in mercy by the 

flood M* ... .M ... 17(9 

will have a god corrsspoDding 
vith his condition ... ... 68 



Materialism, fhe ftufhoi's irkfiri eoih 
ceming ... 22 

Meats and drinks and camal ordi- 
nanoes of Moses 814 

Meat, sigrnificance of the word in the 

J)lUlv ••• ^%m ••« ••• »•• 4^7 

Mediator between God and man 200, 257 
Mekhisedeo, the order of . . . . 286 
Mental consciousness, general law of 28 
Minding of the flesh is death, con- 
trary to minding God 82, 83, 51, 103, 139 
Mind, powo: of the, to ascertain 
moral and religious truth greatly 
depends on the condition of the 

bodily organs 47, 81 

Miracles as seldom as possible ... 6 
true purpose of 88, 800, 805 
Miraculous gifts no proof of cegeae* 

I^B^avIl ••• ••« ••• •*• f Ov 

Miriam's leiffosy ., 336 

Moral ability to understand truth ... 35 
and religious character and 
actions correspond with the 
physiological state of the 

body 29, 47, 51 

and religious truth, demands 
of, resisted by the carnal na- 
ture . . M. ... ... _JU 

fOTce insufficient to control the 

Jews 291, 320, 846 

freedom or agency of man can- 
not be forced ... ». ... 19 
fireedom, what it is and what 

it is not 67—611 

government of God m. 76,81 
low, grand bearing of, on ani- 
mal man ... .^ m 82 
power of God, the fbroe of de- 
pending on man's susoepti- 

Dility M. ... 8( 

tense, causes that impair the... 4] 
effects of a feeble or morbidly 

active 41 

established with refe- 
rence to man's grega- 
rious and tocial cha- 
racter ... M. ... jff 

Moral tente, power and ftmcticmt of 

Motaio dispensation less intrinsically 

exceltent than the Christian f], 

386 
economy weak and unpro- 

fltable 286, 314 

history, concise, summary, 
clouded by fiction and tra- 
dition... •• M. ..9* 
history of the primitive state 

of things M. 123 

institutions, why so camal ... 80T 
record, brevity, luceinctness 

of the... ... tM$ 

fragmentary 116, 118, 128. ISB- 

129, 157, 1» 
record, part simple narrative 
and pfiitexptinitive,flgiii»' 
tive,&c. M« — ^. 12B 



tKDSZ* 



xm 



notion 

actually initituted and pto- 
oMlgatod hit U«a ^ 2»h SM 

adopted by PbanM»h'8 
daughter 231 

things in the oooatitation of, 
designed to fit him. Sec. 297, 805 

anger of God kindled against 238 

and Aaron appear beftxe Pha- 
raoh and demand that the 
Inraeliica ahaU be pennitted 
to go free ... .» ... 244 

atfree aa Lyimrgus and Solon 80G 

at his own oiscretion ordained 
iawt, ape., 297, 298, 802, 305, 306 

at Sinai, theological notions 

<■• ••• ••• •«• ••« miv 

became the ftiUy ordained 
Mediator, 8k 298 

before Pharaoh had a teirible 

idea of Jehovah 244 

" by ttie hand of," what does 
tiULsmeant m. «• ... 295 

eonsaanded to toad the people 283 

death of ,^ ^ ... 849 

daeeenda ftan the mount— 
bnaki fhe tables, fto., ... 282 

divine agency controlled the 
wiU of, to a very limitted 
extent ... ... 297, 805 

eoEOTciiedhto own Judgment 
in perfect moral fteedom ... 298 

805 

Uot of, shone, fto. .« ... 284 

fled to Midian ... ..« 282 

Ood, wliilepceparingt was alao 
pBsparingthelflBidites, &c. 240 

g wi itt yte advance of his gene- 
ration- ...178, 230, 272, 807 

in his bitter diiappotatment 
ftpreaches YtkOtah ... M7 

intcteedee fte Israel after 
the worship of the calf «• 278 

tailed with pt^ytheism 282, 288, 

236 

Jehovah appears to, in the 
budi «%. M. ... M. 286 

knew the ten commandments 
^oreemmoiated at Sinai 297, 

805 

iMt oevmaat of ^ ^847 

saade the beat that could be 298, 

809 

Bsatoied ideas of, on theology 844 

matured ideas <rf', on theology 

compared with those of So- 
crates and Plato ^ ..845 

BO intermediate angelic agen- 
cy between Jehovah and 294, 296 

now for the first time exer- 
cised faith in God 239 

obliged to adapt his measures 
to the Jews as God's vice- 
•ovent». 242, 266 

poqrtheism and anthropomor- 
phism of ... ... 251, 807 

prohibitedPwhathe couJd, and 
tenanted wist hs must ..< 820 



sxcnoK 
Moses, reci^tulation of the history of 278 
terases to leave the little ones 

behind 250 

r^esents Adam and Eve as 
simple, child-like, and igno- 
rant 108 

the mediator and only malach 

of the covenant 294, 296, 298 
theological notions of, when 

at Sinai ... 278 

the people must have full 

confidence in 269 

the purposes of God in rela- 
tion to ... 229 

though taucht of God still 
understood according to the 
condition and circumstances 

of his nature 186 

to be instead of a God to 

Aaron ... m. ... 288 
vicegerency of, summary re- 
view of 850 

▼icegerent of God 242, 250, M6, 

267, 269, 270 
was employed to make the sta- 
tutes of the dispensation 298 
what did, understand 285, 262 
M6lk t&tHtttk. «I>ying thou shalt 

die;'W.e., thou wilt begin to die 125 
Motives adapted to act with greatest 

efficiency on man ... 178, 229, 282, 240 
Motives brought to bear on Abraham224 

Adam ... 194 
Isaac ... 226 
Moses 282, 242 
Noah 218, 222 
the Israel- 
ites M» Mi 
of ftar induced Moses to 
obey Jehovah and return to Egypt 287 
Motives presented to man, always 

adapted to his state...l72, 175, 229, 812 
Motives^ spiritual and eternal, held 

out by the Gospel ... ^5 
the most efficacious must 
be used with the Jew% 
and these are sensual 242, 
283, 284, 810, 812 
Mount Sinai, divine exhibitions on 269 
N&hash, curse nronounoed on ... 143 
the prunitive, radical mean- 
ing of ... ... M« 188 

^de " Tempter." 
Nakedness of Adam and Bve and 

N&haih ... .» 116 

Name of Jehovah put in Moses ..• iOI 

Vide "Jehovah." 
Naming the beasts and fowls by 

Adam .« ... ••• fl8 
Natural and moral man, difference 

between the ... 108 

Natural and moral power of God, 

diffin»nce between the ... 76,808,89 
Natural language of God, what is the 165 
power canAOt act «a «.«Sxm^ 



XVUi 



INDBZ. 



8BCTI0N 

Nature and revelation eannot difagree 4 
and the revealed word, one 
great system of revelation 
complete ... 127, 181, 229 
the first great volume of reve- 
lation 127, 229 

Nature the handiwork of Ood 4, 229 
what is not in, is in the word 
of Ood, and vice versa ... 187 
Nazarite, case of the ... .» ■ ... 382 
Nearest approach of the early inhabi- 
tants of the eart^ in idea and ex- 
perience to spirit 136, 137 

Necessities and attributes of God in 

creating man 17 

which govern the actions 
of God ... 17,18,90,168 
Necessity that man should be free to 

81I1««« ••• ••• ••• 10/ 

which gives validity to 
an institution, should be re- 
moved before the institution is 
repudiated ... •» ... ... 804 

Nepheth, meaning ot ... .» ... 97 

N^es of animal life, their situation 

and funptions 26 

organic life, their situa- 
tion and functions ... 25 
New Testament considered as a 
whole, ommsed to the use of intoxi- 
cating drmks ... . . 488 

New Testament, written in Greek . . 289 
quotations from the 
originid ... ... 289 

Noah, character of ... ... ... 208 

offering of 209, 212 

when intoxicated ... .» 149 
Nostrils, flesh came out at the ... 822 
Note, concerning the perpetuity of 

man's earthly existence ... 74 
Goneeming primitive writing 

of Egypt 126 

on the Hebrew voweis ... 96 
Objections to abstinence from flesh 

and wine from the Bible 183 

Object of worship always corresponds 
with the character of the wor- 
shipper M. 60, 64 

Object of worship, how sensualized 

in the mind ef man 175 

Object of worship necessary to sa- 
crifice 275, 820 

Obsolexent institutions ... 286, 303 
Offerings, herbs, fruits, animals, 
were according to the condition and 
circumstances of man's complex 
nature 61, 64, 199, 200—202, 209, 

210, 224, 225, 257 
Old forms of superstition and idol- 
atry, retained by Moses ... 809 
instiutions, when and how laid 
asicie ... •«. ... ... S04 

Original calling and commission of 

man 70, 74, 128, 124 

''Othat there were such a heart in 

mUGOI ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• oV 

f^UVdise on earth «. ... ... 74 



BBcnox 
Patriarchal dispeniation adapted to 

the times ^ I7i 

Patriarchs' notions of EUfhim ... 237 

Paul, command of, to Timothy ^ 431 

keeps under his body ... 85, 51 

Paul's interpretation of Genesis 2, 7 

104, 118 
teachings adapted to man's 

condition 412 

testimony concerning the Mo- 
saic dispensation ... i7l, 286 
Perfect religion... ... .^ ... 98 

Pharoah banishes Moses from his 

presence for ever ... 251 
begins to fear losing his 
slaves ... ... ... 349 

convinced by the death of 
the first-bom ... ... 858 

effects which the plagues 

had upon 249,850 

hardening the heart of 88, 88, 

245, 848 
judged the Jews had no 
tutelary God, because of 
their abandoned state ... 844 
knew as much ahoutEldhim 
as Moses did, yet knew 
not TehSvah ... ... 844 

not yet willing to emanci- 
pate his slaves .» m. 851 
pursues the Hebrews, and 
is lost ... ... M. 860 

repents, and pursues Israel 860 
Pillar of a cloud used to sustafai 

Moses' authority «. m. «• 891 
Plague, from indulgence in the desire 

for flesh 886 

twenty-four thousand de- 
stroyed by the ... ... 848 

Plagues sent to Bgypt .. 849, 850 

Plams of Moab, Hebrews on the ... 841 
Politico-religious economy of Moses 814, 

815,818 
Polygamy, concubinage, slaveiy, 
&c., tolerated among the Jews, 880, 

889,888 
Polytheism recognized in the Deca- 
logue ... ... ... ... ... 873 

Possibilities and impossibilities with 

God 7, 17, 18, 91 

Power, moral and spiritual efficacy 
of, determined by the 

state of man 300 

of God, moral and spiritual, 
constitutionally limited 88, 
89, 90, 166, 177, 194, 300 
Priesthood, a single tribe consecrated 

to the office of the ... 818 
a very important ele* 
ment in the Mosaic 
economy, not origin- 
ated by Moses, out 
retained as an ancient 
and necessary institu- 
tion ... M. M« 817 

oommanded to drink no wine 
or strong drink 886, 881 



ticnoH 

sthood, eroy tidng done by th«, 

to make the sacei^ 

dotal institution effi- 

cadons m. ... 318 

had existed from the 

earliest times ^ 381, 817 
Mosaic economy of the 818 
lata, gifta, offisrings, ho^ belonged 

to the ... ^ ... 819 
held no portion of the land— 
made dependent on the 
piety of the people — fed 
firom the table of Jehovah 
bygifMandoffsringsSlS, 319 
of Egypt, learning of the 231, 

317 
polytheism, of the ... «. S8S 
aitlTe inhabitants of the earth, 
liTeraally xeligioas, snperstitiona, 
(t crudely moral, owing to the 
ndition and circnmstanees of 
1^ nature .^ «• m* ... 57 
[maire character of the Chris- 

in dispensation » 45S 

;iOBi none made by the Hebrewa 
the heroic age — ... — 356 
liUtion, primitire, nature and 
lal oanae ot, considered ... 183, 1S5 
lenaitiea, animal — vide *' Instinets," 
>het, language of a, will be his 
own, however ftill of in- 

ipiration 104 

may not understand the pro- 
Sneoy he utters ... 8, 137, 164 
tltiato^ means necessary, as the 
wa, &C., belieTed ... ». 380,819 
est against a perversion of the 

inciples advanced «• 189 

idence, events, extraordinary 
dowmenta, &c., attributed to m. 117 
dM, <ta meaning ... ... ... 101 

ihiko* and tarkikos^ nice difBar* 
ce between the words ... m. 108 
riological condition of Moses ... 837 
lie execations — ^their effects ... 381 
MMO ot Ood And purpose of man 
t to be confounded ». 152, 800 
KMO of Ood and purpose of man 

widely different 79, 107, 
158, 845 
concerning man ef- 
fected by simple 

means 153 

in man's earthly ex- 
istence .~ 70, 74 
in the economy of 
grace ... 170, 173 
KMoa of Divine benevolence 176, 183, 

188 
ingdown old institutions is not 
iUung up new ones ... ... 804 

ag down old institutions— when 
)it and when wrong ... ... 304 

la given to eat once and again — 
facta ... ... 866,331,883 

id stole the gods of her father 811 
m in man and theioireranimals 26 



sxcnoH 
BeeapitolitlOD eoiMeniiog .the v»- 
Udity of the Mosaic 
economy ... ... 8I« 

in refnrence te the 
Sinaic covenant 871 

379 
Recapitulatiaia ... ... 891, 408, 440 

Reception of truth, the author's .m 436 
Record, Mosaic, fh^pnentary cha- 
racter of, and origin ... 115 
the Patriarchal, symbolical 115, 
183, 185, 186, 183 
Reehabitea, case of the ... ... 383 

Rejoice befbre Jehovah, the Jews ... 819 
Ri^eneration analogous in all re- 
spects to natural 
generation ... — 84 
economy of; establish- 
ed by Ood ... 84, 107 
V essential to a return 

to the spiritual 
• kingdom of Ood ... 196 
impossible but by an 
intelligent and cor- 
dial reception of 
truth .M ... 196 
if God could absoluU- 
Iff effect it at any 
moment, the Bible 
represents Him as 
greatly inoonsis- 
tent ... ... ... 88 

moral agency of man 
as essential to, as 
Divine infiuenoe ... 84 
not possible except ac- 
cording to Divine 
constitution ... 83 
power employed in, 
wholly diffnrent f m 
that employed in the 
gift of miracles ... 84 
true way in which pro* 
duced ... 85, 1Q7 
Relations of man to all things ... 98 
to God twofold 
— natural and 
moral ... 23, 165 
tohisfood93,159, 165, 

191 
Religion always leads man up — 

always instituted by God 66 
however atject, always bet« 
ter than the man, and 
serves to make him bet- 



ter .M 



68 



how sensualised ... ... 17S 

natural to man 58 

the, which obtains in any 
state of things, is always 
the best that can be in 

that state ... 68 

the worst better than none 63 
Religions doctrine must harmonise 

with physiolo^oal law 38 



alike 



'Ki'^^W 



SECTION 

ReUgbnu iiutliict maa^ giwlest re- 

stmint ••• ••• 69, 68 

Instinct established ivith 
reference to man's soli- 
tary relations to his 
Creator ... ... ... 06 

BapntUation of existing institutions S84 
Resenred power of Ood, 167, 17i, 806, 2S9 
Resisted, the Je^rs, all the moral 
force, and made physical power ne- 
cessary... ... fi91, 320 

Besisting the Holy Spirit 82 

Baafponsibilities of man enhanced by 

every law of necessity m. ... 68 
Restrained, the Jews, as llur as possi- 
ble firom flesh and wine 

820, 824 
the Jews, fimn flesh and 
wine on retoming to 
Egypt ... .M ... 820 
Retained, Moses, all institutions, &c. 

• 808, 809 
Retaliation, Patriarchal, Mosaic and 

Christian mle... 316,219 

Retrograde tendency of mankmd ... 811 
the Jews wonld, &c. ... 810 

RflfQlation and nature must agree ... 4 
character of, indicated by 

the state of man ... 176 
Ood always adapts his, to 
tibe condition and cir- 
cumstances of man's 
nature ... 64, 109, 121, 171 
howcTcr ftill, man must 
mulerstand according to 
his state m. ... ... 66 

laws which gervem 64, 109, 121 
Bavelations made to our ^rst parents 

adapted to their state 94 

Reyolt tmm the ^Iritual kingdom 
of God retrieved only by regene- 
ration .» 89, 169, 196 

Right of Jehovah to do any tiling ... 205 
Riotous feasting and lewdness ... 820 
Riotousness of the primeval raee ... t05 

810, 818 
Rock of Horeb giving water ... ... 867 

Sacerdotal economy of Moses, bor- 
rowed bom Bgypt ••• **• *.• tX7 
43Mred Scriptures, no wish to invali- 
date but to de- 
fine ... M. 800 
qinalifioations pre- 
requisite to un- 
derstanding them 800 
Sttriflee of Noah, whence the ... 819 
flMriiloes, annual, continuous horn 

Abel to Noah 811 

animal, neither adapted to 

Ood nor man ... 192, 809 
Bible testimonv concern- 
ing God's estimation of 

199, 810 
•very Jew must partake 

of his own 800 

Unix origin and laws, 61, 99, 
SCO, 801, 809 



sionoi 
Saorifloai to 6lt)eots of wonh^ in 
the days of Moses» with 
great sensual tadulgeooe 
and riotous exeess ... SiS« 
845,819,880. 
Sacrificing of animals early connected 
with the eating of 
flesh w. M* M Ml 
the first-bom or only son 
by Abraham •« ... 824 
Sacramental institution, conclusions 
on tne ». ... ... ... ... 40v 

Saints, how kept fkom sinning ^ itt 
Samuel, an honorable ezoepclon to 
the generally depraved condittan (rf 

the Hebrews ... «• 859 

Sandwich Islanden .^ — .« 68 
Saturated with Polytheisin, Moiaif 
minci ..» ... ... ... ..• #s« 

Saul of Tarsus, conversion of «. 97 
Scientific truth an auxiliary in tin 
acquisition of spiritual m. ... 418 

Seal, the great ... ^ ... «« 898 
Sedusiveness wrong «• .» ... 75 
Seed of regeneratioa ... ..• M, 85 

the woman wounded liy that 
of regeneration 188, 189^ 148 
See God, Moses desired to «.. ^ 9M 
SenrtUe evidences of Ood only Mp* 

predated by tiM Jewa^. ML 

tlO 
forms and carnal ctdinan- 
ces, oMe**VlaU>]e 
forms," 
for visible olleota oT 

worship .M 8<M|,fl0 
used in the service of 
the invisible Jeho* 
vah ... ^ 9U 
Seoiual appetite moved to the firtt 

sin M. 167«19l 

d^oyment the highest good 

to the Jews ... 864, ST5 
experience the evil know- 
ledge ... ... 80^81 

motives actuate man in pio- 
portion to phyaiologioal 
depravity m. .« 91 
motives, when undepiraved, 

true guides ... 159, 175 
ttansgiession of Adam af- 

flBcted his posterity m. U4 

transgression of Eve .^ 48 

Sepatifce people, for what purpose ... 888, 

879, 818 
Separation elfoctual, permanent, the 
second thing for Moses 
to effect ... ... .M 819 

the grand Hne qua non m. 818 
Septuagint generally read by the Jewik 
and quoted by the NewTestameni 
writers ... ... ... •m .•• *Ba 

Serpent figuratively alluded to in the 
curse .M ... ... ... M. lis 

Shame of nakedness caused by sen- 
sual excess ... ,- ... *^ lit 
flfiM qma mon of the Mosaio econony lit 



I' 



" 



I 



tZCTIOV 

D. why did or does Ood pennit— 
the cause of... m. «. M, ltf7, 194 
•Tee may be made ofpeo^ not Jews 81S 
of tbe U. 8. eonditioa of; oom- 
pared with that of the Jews 880 
3W piogrees of mankind in the at- 
taimnent of CSiristiaa knowledge IM, 

178,S8«,tll 
leil, taste, te. attributed to the ob- 
ject of worship .M 64 
attributed to God ... t09 
S80,S19 
eiety responsible for its actions and 

Inflaenoes .«. MO 

responsible for the crimes com- 
mitted in drankenness ... til 
lomon, reign of ... •«. ,- 88S 
»rrow of man, how caused 144, 165, 198 
lecies, human, vide" Human nature 
as a whole." 

>nl, destiny of beyond the grave ... 70 
ererydiildbomwitha ... 106 
of man in the modem sense of 
the word not denied ... ... 105 

physiological laws of the, same 
as those of Titaltty .«. ... St 

state (tf the, in an infemt ... 106 
snl^ected to laws and condi- 
tions common to the animal 
khigdom M. M« ... 70 
what and where is the ... 3S, 70 
irereifnty of God, what is the... 18, 79 
»irit and spiritual things, how 
thought and spoken of by 
the primitiye inhabitants 

of the earth 186 

how man comes to the notion 

Ov ••• ••• ••• ••• Ov 

Jews had no idea of 279, 880, 883, 

810 

of Christ, teachings of the ... 439 

of Ood, part written, etc., in 
man 81, 85. 107 

of God's moral attributes, if 
imparted to man at any 
moment, the Bible repre- 
sents God as inconsistent ... 88 

<rf God's moral attributes in 
man — ••• *— 76, 81 

of God's moral attributes in 
nan illustrated ... 81, 98, 107 

of sensuaUty ... 189. 142, 289, 877 

that actuates man is charao- 
rterizedTby the actions of man 188 

of the prophet subjjeot to the 
prophet 107, 164 

of truth will guide you into all 
truth ... ... ... 109, 185 

what was the, that seduced 



Bto 



139 



(iritnal goTemment of God ... 76, 81 
te^ben and Paul concerning angels 96 

iWl small voice " .» 77 

ibstitute for visible object of wor- 
ship M« — ... •«. Sol, 808 
ipematural gifts no evidence of 
jp^Ainess ••* .•. ... •.• 83 



tKCTIOK 

SuMfitltiaBooneeniBfrQmMntioB 86 
TUMrnade of the eongi^gatiiiRi, typi- 
cal eharaeter of the ... ^ ... 489 
TUcing lifo, Otrine law 0QBceming...8l4, 

818, 819, 281 
Temple of God, defilemeDt of the ... 431 
Ttanpter, Na'hash, sensual eharaeter 
e« ... ... M. ... ,,, 188 

Tempter not a serpent or other ani- 
mal 13S, isSy 

of Bve and of Jesus, not 
eoruoreal but spiritual ... 187 
Ten (kmrnandmenls not underrtood 

by the Jews .« sps 

Testimonies covered with the veil of 

carnal ordinanees ^ 814 

Theological notions of man determin- 
ed by the state of his nature ... 60, 65 
Thirst, an instinct for water, hov 

depraved .« leo 

" Thou Shalt not kill *• 818, 819 

Three appetites implicitly specified 

by our Saviour... 189, 140, 295 
departments in the kingdom 

of God 5, 76 

ftietsinrelation to flesh-eating 381 
Tithes commanded to be presented 

at the eentre ^ 816 

Tiller of the ground, flrst-firuits, of- 
ferings, &o. .M 80S 

Tongues are for a sign to them that 

believe not 88 

Tradition not the true origin of sac- 
xmccw ••« ••• ••• 9^ ««« 3vX 

Tree of life, how man is kept firom by 

depraved appetites 59, 60, 161, 165, 196 
Tree of the knowledge of good and 

evil ... 181, 141 

Tree of the knowledge of good and 

evil, relates to sensual experience 181 
True meaning of Scripture by divine 

authority ... 126, 164 

Truth, ability to understand ... 85, 175 

all of divine authority 297 

ascertained by experience, or 

revealed 297 

borrows no legitimate effici- 
ency flrom natural power ... 78 
every law in nature a princi- 
ple of, a commandment of 

God M ... 9/t 

if man speak, it is God's truth 78 
illuminates the Bible 127, 182 
in harmony with nature ...127, 191 
moral f<»ce of, precisely the 
same, whether uttered by 
man, angel, or God ... 78 
must be understood and wil- 
lingly received in regen«i- 
ration ... ... ... ... 86 

of natural science, the truth 
of God... ... ... ... 181 

the grand object of inquiry ... Ji 
greatest moral power ... 7s 
moral potency of God 77^aHcv 
only seod ot t«%,«Q£t«>^v>w liA 



mDBZ. 



SECTION 

'lYuth, those who love, have nothing 
to fea: from science... ... .» 445 

Tutelary gods 232, S44, 245 

Typify Christ 224, 257 

Twofold rule I7d 

force of love and hatred 
employed in the Mosaic economy 812 

313, 815 

Understandingj^ability of the, to per- 
ceive and appreciate moral and 
religious truth, corresponds with 
man's physiological state .. 35, 47, 175 

Understanding impaired by depra- 
vity 167, 175, 196 

Unexperienced bodily and temporal 
evil ... 118, 194 

Unity of God's attributes and syste- 
matic unity of his laws ... 5, 23 
in the system of physiological 
laws of sonl and body ... 23 

Union of intellectu^, moral and reli- 
gious powers with organized mat- 
ter in man ... ... ... . . 23 

Universal usage, opinion, and senti- 
ment of feasts 277, 299 

University of the priests of Egypt 317 

Unregenerate, the, either disobey the 
commands of Ood, or adhere to 
their literal interpretation 419 

Veil the, on the face of Moses 284, 314 
on the decalogue 284, 314 

Vegetable productions the natural 
food of man ... ... ... 198 

^ag«table productions the natural 
food of man, the same after the fall 195 

Vicegerent ofheaven, man the ... 31 

God, Moses the 234, 242, 

250, 266, 267, 269, 270, 278, 291, 294, 289, 

297 

Vileness of man, not from his de- 
graded worship, but his worship 
from his vileness 62 

Violence of man, causes him to offer 
bloody sacrifices 62 

Visible demonstrations of the Divine 
presence, necessary to satisfy Moses 
and the people 307, 310 

Visible forms, necessary substitutes 
for visible objects ... .» 314, 381 

Volume of nature, recourse to legiti- 
mate, where the word fails ... 27, 129, 

150, 159 

Volume of nature, the first great 
volume of divine revelation... 27, 229 

Vowel points of the Hebrew language 
recent «• .m ... .. 135 



tscnov 
Wants, natural, artificial, and de- 
praved, how act upon the mind S6 
Wants, natural, artificial, and de- 
praved, how confounded in the 
mental consciousness: their de»- 

potism... «. ... , 26 

Wasteftil expenditure of miradea, &c. S94 
Water, the most natural drink of man, 

a pure emblem ... ^ ^451 
" What were all these things made 

for?" 147, 148 

" Who shall give us flesh to eat? " 322 
Why did God suffer man to sin? ... 167 
Wickedness of man before the flood 1S2, 

142, 205 
Wfldemess of Paran, rebellion in the 337 
Wine, adulterated used at the Sa- 
crament ^ 447 

fermented, and its effects... 404 
how depraving to the thirst; 

effect of, on the system 160 
in what sense did Jesus 

speak of drinking ... 403 
referred to by Jesus Christ, 
unfermented ... ... 407 

Wines, mixing of, with water among 

the Greeks ^ 498 

Wine, substitute for fermented, at 

the Sacrament 450 

the, produced miraculously, 
unintoxicating, proved by 
moral certainty ... .^ 430 
the use of in religious ordinan • 

ces ... M. 446 

Wisdom of Solomon, imperfection of 

VUC ••• ••• ••• «»« ««« wvw 

Woman made of a rib 125 

sensualministrationsof, their 

effect on man 199 

trials of, in childbearing 144, 192 
Word of revelation must be in har- 
mony with the truth of nature 4^ 127, 

161 
Words applied to God with a corres- 
ponding meaning 136 

used in primitive human 
speech, nearly all of sensual 
and physical import ... 136 

Works of the flesh 39 

Worse and worse, man waxed ... 72, 204 
Worshippers must be splendidly de- 
corated 252—254 

Worship in the days of Moses 242, 245 
Wrong-doing of man cannot be abso- 
lutely prevented 18 



PHILOSOPHY OF SACRED HISTORY. 



PART I. 



OLD TESTAMENT DISPENSATION. 



PHILOSOPHY OF SACRED HISTORY. 



GENERAL INTRODUCTOEY EXPLANATIONS. 

1. In every matter worthy of the serious consideration of the human 
mind, truth should be the grand object of inquiry, and, in order to 
arrive at truth most clearly and most conclusively, first principles 
should always, as far as possible, be ascertained and set forth, as the 
general foundation of all argument on any question discussed : and 
this is particularly necessary in all matters of controversy : because, 
without the ascertainment of first principles as the basis of reasoning, 
controversy rarely amounts to anything more than a war of words, and 
seldom serves to advance the cause of truth. 

2. For these reasons, I shall make it my first business to ascertain 
and set forth, as clearly and as fully as possible, those first principles 
pertaining to the subject I now undertake to examine, on which the 
validity and conclusiveness of all my subsequent reasoning will depend. 
If the first principles on which I base my argument are true, and all 
my reasoning is in legitimate accordance with those principles, then 
my conclusions must be true, whether they agree with the opinions of 
others, or not. 

3. It is, therefore, of primary importance that, all who follow me in 
my present investigations, should be very careful to satisfy their minds 
whether the first principles which I lay down, are true or not ; and if 
they admit them to be true, that, they should be equally careful to 
observe whether all my reasoning is strictly consistent with those first 
principles or not ; and if they admit my first principles to be true, and 
all my reasoning to be strictly consistent with them, then surely, 
must they acknowledge my conclusions to be true, even though they 
are wholly at variance with their own previously received opinions and 
cherished sentiments. 

4. So vaguely and erroneously do most people think concerning the 
Deity, that it becomes necessary, when treating on subjects which 
involve general principles in theology, to make many statements and 
explanations which, to better informed minds, appear exceedingly trite. 
Thus, it is very common to hear people who receive the Bible as the 
word of God, speak of the God of the Bible as a Being entirely distinct 
from the God of Nature ; and to see them manifest something like 
horror at the intimation that, the well -ascertained evidences of Nature 
are, so far as they go, equally valid and authoritative with the evidences 
of Revelation. But every intelligent individual should clearly under- 
stand that, if the Bible is in truth a record of Divine Revelation, tbe 
God of the Bible and the God of Nature is one andl^^ ^^.m^'Sk^wi^', 

"ft 



and that Nature, when rightly understood and interpreted, is as truly 
a revelation of God as the word of Divine inspiration is. The eternal 
and infinite Jehovah is the omnipotent and intelligent First Cause of 
all things. Nature is his own handiwork ; and every law, and principle, 
and property of Nature is the inscription of his omnific will and pur- 
pose ; and hence "the invisible things of him from the creation of the 
world are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, 
even his eternal power and Gtodhead." Every law of Nature, therefore, 
is as truly the law of God, and when accurately ascertained, is as 
truly obligatory in all its bearings upon man as any law or word of 
Revelation ; and consequently it is impossible that any word of Reve- 
lation should, as a permanent law, be contrary to the laws of Nature ; 
for, were it otherwise, the omniscient and infinitely wise Creator and 
Gk)vernor of the universe would contradict himself, and show himself a 
God of confusion and not of order. 

5. Moreover, it is no less true that G^d governs the material world 
by a system of fixed laws, than it is that he governs the moral and 
spiritual world by a system of equally fixed laws. Indeed, as the moral 
attributes of God are in systematic unity with his natural attributes, so 
is his moral government in systematic unity with his natural: and 
hence, truly speaking, the laws of the natural world and the laws of 
the moral and spiritual world constitute but one great and harmonious 
system of Divine government. The Divine conduct, or modes of 
administration may change with the condition and circumstances of 
the beings governed, but the great principles or constitutional laws of 
the moral and spiritual kingdom of God are eternal and immutable. 

6. And the fact that a God of infinite knowledge, and wisdom, and 
power, and goodness has established the constitution and relations of 
things, those permanent laws by which he governs the natural and 
moral universe, demonstrates that it is infinitely best for all things that 
there should be such permanency of constitutional laws, and that it is 
incompatible with the greatest natural and moral good of creation, that 
the established laws of Nature should be frequently suspended or dis- 
turbed. And all we know of the nature of things, and of the history of 
the Divine government since the creation of man, goes to prove that, 
God, as a general rule, prefers to bring about all effects both in the 
natural and moral world, by the regular operation of the permanent 
laws which he has established in Nature ; and that he never miraculously 
suspends those laws, or produces supernatural effects, except for great 
moral purposes, on very extraordinary and extremely rare occasions, 
and when, from such exercises of his power and displays of his majesty, 
a greater good than evil will, on the whole, result. 

7. Again, few people seem to have an accurately and clearly defined 
notion of the power of God, and especially in relation to his moral 
government. "All things are possible with God," it is affirmed ; and 
this, rightly understood, is true ; but, as popularly understood, is utterly 
erroneous. The exact statement is this: All things possible are 
possible with God ; but there are some things naturally impossible, 
and, therefore, these are not possible with God. Thus, for example, 
it is notpo3sible for God to be and not to be at the same instant ; nor is 
it possible for him to cause anything to exist and not to exist at one 



and the same instant ; and this is true of every law, and principle, and 
property in the natural and moral constitution of things. Furthermore, 
It is wholly inconsistent with the true philosophy of things to confound 
the natural and moral power of God, and speak of his natural omni- 
potence as heing employed as a direct and immediate moral force or 
cause in his moral government. These distinctions are of first 
importance, and should ever he kept clearly and fully in view in all 
reasoning concerning the moral government of Gk)d. 

8. With these explanations before us, we are prepared to understand 
that, in all appeals to the Bible concerning the moral government of 
God, and the bearings of Divine law on the nature, condition and 
and actions of man, we ought always to consider that the sacred 
Scriptures, so far as they are of Divine authority, are authentic and 
true records of revelations from God to man ; and, therefore, if the 
Bible be truly what it claims to be, it must necessarily as a whole, 
when rightly understood, teach only such doctrines as are perfectly 
consistent with the nature, character, and purposes of God, and with 
the real nature, condition, and character of man. 

THE NATURAL AND NECESSARY AMBIGUITY OF HUMAN LANGUAGE. 

9. But the nature of human language and the association of sounds 
and written characters with ideas, are such as to render it impossible 
that all people should, with the certainty of philosophical necessity, 
receive definitely, exactly, and only the same ideas from the same 
language, simply from a knowledge of its grammatical structure and 
signification. A very little reflection on the nature of language, and 
a limited observation of every day's experience, are sufficient to con- 
vince every intelligent mind of the truth of this proposition, without 
any elaborate discussion and illustration of it in this place.* 

10. Therefore, in order to a correct understanding of the grand 
scope and meaning of the Bible, as a whole (without which under- 
standing we cannot safely interpret its particular precepts and 
instructions) two things are indispensably necessary. First, that, by 
the honest use of all our powers and means, we ascertain as fully and 
as accurately as possible the real nature, and permanent condition, and 
constitutional character of man, as a subject of the physical, and moral, 
and spiritual government of God. 

11. The nature of language, I say, renders this necessary; for^ 
without first clearly and accurately establishing these two points, as 
the fundamental criteria of all reasoning concerning the relations 
existing between God and man, and the involved responsibilities and 
duties, mankind can never come to a unity of opinion in regard, even 
to the most general doctrines of the Bible. 

12. All the evidences of Nature as well as of Revelation are to be 
honestly and diligently examined, in order to ascertain as fully as is 
possible for the human mind, the true nature, character, and purposes 
of God. 

13. The permanent constitutions and relations of things, as well as 
the instructions of Revelation, are to be diligently and honestly 

• See Graham on the Science of Human Lite, ISH, d seq. 



studied, in order to ascertain the real nature, condition, and character 
of man, as a subject of the natural, moral, and spiritual government of 
God. Indeed, the true signification and bearing of the language of 
Bevelation concerning the nature, condition, and character of man, 
cannot be fully ascertained and, therefore, understood without an 
accurate knowledge of the true nature and relations of man. 

14. But we cannot expect to ascertain from a knowledge of the 
constitutions and relations of things the particular details of the moral 
and civil history of the human race. For this information, we must 
depend on written records and oral traditions and testimonies, and 
always with a confidence equal to the force of the moral and natural 
evidence in favour of the truth and authenticity of these sources. 

15. In referring to the Bible, therefore, as the authentic record of 
the revealed instructions of God to man, in order to understand accu- 
rately and fully the purport and bearing of those instructions, we must, 
I say, have a true notion of the character and purposes of their Authw, 
and of the nature, condition, and character of man. For a genuine 
revelation from God must necessarily be consistent with his true nature, 
character, and purposes ; and a genuine Bevelation from Grod con- 
cerning man, must necessarily be consistent with the real nature, 
and condition, and constitutional character of man. 

THE NATURE AND ATTRIBUTES OF GOD, AND THE NATURE, CONDITION, AND 

RELATIONS OF MAN. 

16. The Bible, then, as a whole — corroborated by the evidences of 
Nature, teaches us that God is an eternal ^ sel/'Cxistent, immutable f 
omnipotent t omnipresent, omniscient, infinitely wise, and just, and 
true, and good, and holy Spirit. And that man was created with fixed 
constitutional relations to God and to the material world, made in the 
image and after the likeness of God — formed of the dust of the earth, 
or of the matter common to all material things ; that man was placed 
at the head of the animal kingdom, and endowed with rational, and 
moral, and religious faculties, and constituted a moral agent; and, 
therefore, in the grand constitution and economy of things, was the 
created lord of the earth, and had a natural dominion or supremacy 
"over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the 
cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that 
creepeth upon the earth." Or, in other words, man was placed higher 
than all these ; higher in the order of creation, higher in his endow- 
ments, higher in his relations, higher in his responsibilities, and higher 
in his destiny ; and, therefore, all these were made naturally subject 
to man, in the fulfilment of his final cause, or the great end for which 
he was created, and the still greater final cause of all created things 
composing this world of ours. 

17. Now then, let us contemplate for a few minutes, with the most 
serious, and solemn, and energetic application of our minds, the work 
of God in the creation of man. Consider a self-existent, eternal, 
immutable, omnipotent, omnipresent, omniscient, and infinitely wise, 
iand just, and true, and good, and holy Being, about to produce a 
creature who should be bodily formed from the common matter of the 



world ; with an organisation adapted in structure to all the purposes 
and ends for which it was made ; and endowed with vital powers for 
the performance of all requisite organic functions ; and still more 
highly endowed with animal sensibilities and consciousness of being, 
and the power of volition and voluntary action ; and more highly gift^ 
still with intellectual and moral faculties, so as to render it a moral 
agent, and, as a whole, an intellectual and moral animal, subject, in 
the very laws of its constitution, to a permanent system of natural and 
moral government. Is it not necessarily true that a being of infinite 
knowledge knew everything perfectly P — that he knew all possible truth 
and error P — right and wrong P — ^that he clearly saw and fully under- 
stood the fitness and harmony of things, and all possibilities in the 
exercise of creative power P Is it not necessarily true that a Being of 
infinite wisdonif thoroughly understood how to adjust the principles in 
the constitution of such a creature as man, in the most perfect manner 
possible in the nature of things P Is it not necessarily true that a Being 
of infinite j>oii;6r could produce a creature like man, whose whole nature, 
with all its faculties and powers, was constituted in the wisest and 
best manner that in the nature of things is possible P And is it not 
necessarily true that a Being of infinite truths and righteousness ^ and 
goodness, and holiness would create and endow man upon the wisest 
and best constitutional principles possible in the nature and fitness of 
things? Does not an omniscient Being perfectly know the right P 
Can an infinitely true, and just, and good Being choose the wrong P 
Is there not, therefore, in the natural fitness of things a moral necessity 
which governs the actions of God P — a necessity consisting of the morsd 
impossibility for God to choose to do wrong P 

18. Hie sovereignty of God, therefore, does not consist in his absolute 
power and wiU to do anything and ever3rthing irrespective of the 
natural truth and fitness of things ; but it consists in this : — that there 
is no power above him which controls his actions and directs his conduct ; 
but with entire supremacy, he, from a necessity founded in the very 
constitution of his own nature, chooses his own actions and orders his 
own conduct, in accordance with the truth and fitness of things. Let 
us understand this point perfectly if possible ! It is impossible for God 
to cause a thing to be and not to be at one and the same instant (7), 
and this natural impossibility alone, limits his natural power, as to 
extent. He is infinite in knowledge, wisdom, truth, righteousness and 
goodness, and therefore, it is impossible for him to act ignorantiy, un- 
wisely, erroneously, unjustly or malevolently ! These constitute the only 
necessities which govern the actions of God ! Hence it is impossible 
that God constituted man, and established his relations on principles 
less perfect, less true, less fit, than he had wisdom and power to do ; 
and, consequently, it is necessarily true that God did create man, and 
establish the constitutional laws of his nature in the wisest and best 
manner possible ; and it necessarily follows that if man was not so 
constituted as to render his moral wrong-doing impossible, it was not 
in any measure owing to any want of wisdom and goodness in God ; 
but wholly to an impossibility in the nature of things. 

19. In adjusting and establishing the constitutional principles of 
human nature, and of his own government over masi, ^odi, )i\i^T^^Qt^^ 



6 

acted independently of all things except the necessities I have named 
(18), and exercised his entire and uncontrolled sovereignty ; but, having 
established the moral powers of man, and the principles of his own 
moral government over him, and the economy of their operations, God 
did not, nay — I speak with solemn reverence — he could not, reserve to 
himself the power of controlling man as a moral agent, in any manner 
or by any means inconsistent with the established constitution and 
economy of things ! He retained the power to transform man into a 
moral being of another nature, or to destroy him entirely whenever he 
thought best. But he could not, in the nature of things, reserve any 
power by which he could absolutely force the free will of a human 
moral agent ; or compel man to act voluntarily against his own choice ! 
for this would require the possibility for a thing to be and not to be at 
the same time ; which is absurd. 

THE NATURAL CONSTITUTION AND RELATIONS OF MAN. 

20. In regard to the natural constitution and relations of man, it 
cannot justly be expected that on this occasion I shall enter at large 
into all the details of the subject. They who have listened to my full 
course of lectures on the Science of Human Life are well aware that 
it requires not less than about fifty popular lectures of an hour and 
a half in length, to examine and illustrate this deeply interesting 
subject in all its principles and bearings; and, therefore, they can 
neither expect nor wish me, in the argument now contemplated, to 
lead them over this extended field of investigation; and as this 
work is intended principally for those who have heard my extended 
course, they who have not, I hope will not complain, nor misunder- 
stand me, if I here only state many important points which are fully 
examined and explained in my course on the Science of Life. I trust 
the time will come when I shall be able to present that Course of 
Lectures to the public in a printed form, and then all will have the 
means of judging for themselves of the merits of what I teach.* 

21. Man, as we have seen (16), is placed in the great scale of 
creation, at the head of the Animal Kingdom, and endowed with 
intellectual and moral powers : or, in other words, man has first, a 
material nature in which he comes under laws common to the whole 
material world ; then he has an organic nature, superinduced upon 
his material by a higher order of constitutional laws, which are 
common to the whole organic world ; then he has an animal nature, 
superinduced upon his organic, by a higher order of constitutional 
laws which are common to the whole Animal Kingdom ; then he has 
an intellectual nature superinduced upon his animal, by a still higher 
order of constitutional laws which are common to the whole intellectual 
world ; then he has a moral nature, superinduced upon his intellectual 
and animal by a still higher order of constitutional laws which are 
common to the whole moral world ; and finally, he has capacities for 
a spiritual nature, superinduced upon his intellectual and moral by the 
highest order of constitutional laws operating in this world. 

* This expectation has been realised ; and my lectures on the Science ot Human 
Life are now before the public, so that every one can read and judge for himself. 



22. They who have heard my lectures on the Science of Life, will 
remember that in them I endeavoured to explain this matter as fully 
as a subject which is, at least, in some degree mysterious, is explicable 
to the human mind ; and they will recollect that the whole force of my 
argument was against the doctrine of materialism ; and that, if my 
reasoning was correct, I demonstrated that the human soul which is 
the substratum of mind and moral feeling or sentiment, cannot be the 
result of organised matter. (Scienceof Life 530, g^ 5^5.) Nevertheless, 
it is entirely and incontrovertibly certain that all which is immaterial 
and immortal in man, is organically incorporated, and acts in and 
through his organisation during the present state of his being, as 
intimately and completely, as if it were merely a property of peculiarly 
organised matter ; and all its powers and manifestations are subject to 
precisely the same laws as govern the powers and manifestations of 
vitality. Hence, in studying the intellectual and moral phenomena of 
man, with a view to the ascertainment of general principles in relation 
to his intellectual and moral nature and character, he is always to be 
contemplated as an organised intellectual, moral and religious animal, 
and with strict reference to his peculiar condition and relations as such. 

23. By this wonderful union of intellectual and moral and religious 
powers with organized matter, man, alone, of all terrestrial beings, is 
Drought into a two-fold relation to his Creator. In his material nature, 
man, in common with all other material forms and substances, holds a 
fixed relation to his Creator, as the great, first and continually efficient 
Cause, by which matter and all material forms and properties and 
powers are what they are. This relation only embraces the natural 
attributes of God. In his moral and religious nature man holds a fixed 
relation to his Creator as an infinitely true, and just and benevolent, 
and good and holy Being, and Judge, and Father. But as there is, of 
necessity, an essential and perfect harmony between the natural and 
moral attributes of God (5), so is there a perfect harmony between the 
natural and moral and religious relations which man holds to his 
Creator ; so that the perfect fulfilment of the one requires the perfect 
fulfilment of the other. That is, the constitutional laws which govern 
ihe living organised body of man, and on which all his physiological 
properties and powers and interests depend, harmonise most perfectly 
with the constitutional laws which govern his intellectual and moral 
and religious nature. So that the highest and best condition of the 
human body requires a perfect obedience, not only to its own physio- 
logical laws as living organised matter, but also to the constitutional 
laws of the intellectual, and moral, and religious nature associated 
with it ; and the highest and best condition of man's intellectual, and 
moral, and religious nature, requires a perfect obedience, not only to 
its own constitutional laws, but also the constitutional laws of the body 
as living organised matter ; and consequently the violation of the 
constitutional laws of the one is necessarily attended with an infraction 
of the constitutional laws of the other. Hence, therefore, no moral or 
civil law or religious doctrine can be adapted to the highest and best 
condition of man's intellectual, moral, and religious nature, which is 
not strictly consistent with the physiological laws of his body ; and, on 
the other nand, no bodily habit, indulgence, or xegvmeii tMi\i^ ^wjXft.^ 



8 

to the highest and best condition of his body which is not strictly 
consistent with the constitutional laws of his intellectual, moral, and 
religious nature. 

24. I have fully shown in my lectures on Human Life (Sections 260, 
532, et seq.)j that, in the complex and wonderful structure of man, the 
brain, in connexion with the nervous system generally, constitutes the 
special organism appropriated to the intellectual, and moral, and 
religious powers and manifestations. 

THE NEKVOUS SYSTEM OF THE HUMAN BODY, AND THE PHYSIOLOGICAL 

PHILOSOPHY OF THE HUMAN MIND. 

25. The exceedingly interesting and important doctrines concerning 
the nerves of organic and animal life, with all their nice distinctions 
and peculiarities of vital properties and functional powers, have also 
been fully set forth in my lectures on the Science of Life (Section 202, 
et seq.) and cannot on this occasion be repeated ; albeit, it is necessary 
they should be carefully studied, in order to a thorough and accurate 
knowledge of the subject before us. It must now suffice, however, to 
say that the nerves of organic life are those which enter into all the 
organs and preside over all the functions concerned in the development 
and sustenance of the body ; and they are called the nerves of organic 
life, because they preside over all those functions which are common to 
all organised bodies, vegetable and animal, such as the conversion of 
food into sap or blood, and the circulation of this fluid throughout the 
organised system, and the conversion of it into the various solids and 
secreted fluids of the body, the production of vital heat, &c. ; and 
because, in a perfectly healthy state, all the functions over which they 
exclusively preside are performed without the consciousness of the 
organised being ; so that a human being has no more consciousness of 
these functions in perfect health than a vegetable has. This system of 
nerves has several subordinate centres of organic perception and action 
situated in difierent parts of the two great cavities of the body, and a 
common or grand centre, situated back of the pit of the stomach, which 
presides, in a general manner, over all the functions of organic life ; 
thus bringing the whole complex machinery into a harmonious 
co-operation, and uniting all in one vital economy, by which life 
is perpetuated, and the interests of each and every living part duly 
maintained. 

26. The nerves of animal life consist of the brain and spinal marrow, 
and those nerves which, coming from almost every part of the body, 
are connected with these as means by which the brain, as the grand 
centre of animal life, is enabled to perceive, by special sensations, all 
external things and qualities, and all internal wants and conditions, of 
which the welfare of the organized being requires that it should be 
conscious ; and also those nerves by which the stimulus or actuating 
energy of the will is conveyed to the various muscles concerned in 
voluntary motion. The great primary function of this system of nerves, 
therefore, is to perceive and satisfy those wants of the vital economy 
which require animal consciousness, and voluntary power and action ; 
and hence, from the lowest to the highest orders of animals^ including 



9 

man, it is a universal law of animal nature^ that the domain of 
organic life manifests its wants to the centre of animal perception 
in such a manner as to cause the animal to exercise its voluntary 
powers for the satisfaction of those wants. These manifestations 
constitute what are called the animal instinctsr and propensities ; and 
so far as these instinctive wants or animal propensities, and their 
relation to and influence upon the cerebral organs or brain are con- 
sidered, man is constitutionally in the same predicament with the 
lower animals. All his internal wants and propensities appeal to his 
intellectual and voluntary faculties, and excite their action, and 
naturally cause them to concur with and seek the satisfaction of the 
bodily desires. And although there is an almost infinite distance 
between the reason of man and that of the highest order of the lower 
animals, yet the philosophy of his reasoning is precisely the same as 
that of the elephant, the horse, &c., and, consequently, is governed by 
the same general laws. But man's superior intellectual and voluntary 
powers not only increase his ability to procure the supplies of his bodily 
wants in all the varying circumstances of seasons and conditions, but 
also increase his ability to multiply those wants by his artificial modes 
of satisfying them, and by the artificial circumstances of social and 
civic life, till he has engrafled upon the constitutional instincts of his 
nature a thousand artificial wants, which exert their influence upon his 
intellectual and voluntary powers in precisely the same manner as his 
original instinctive wants do, and always with a more despotic and 
imperious energy and tendency to excess, in proportion to their degree 
of depravity, or to their departure from physiological integrity ; and 
out of these innumerable wants which are engrafted upon the natural 
propensities and sensibilities of his body spring a multitude of others 
m connexion with the social and civU mstitutions and customs of 
society. These thousands of artificial wants soon come to be so inti- 
mately and completely associated with the natural wants, that they are 
rarely distinguished in the mental consciousness and voluntary action, 
and all of them, with dififerent degrees of energy and despotism, press 
their demands upon thfe mental faculties, urging or compelling those 
decisions of the mind and those exercises of the voluntary powers by 
which they can be satisfied or indulged. 

27. So far, then, as the natural appetites, desires, and propensities 
are indulged, in accordance with the real wants of the body, and in 
conformity with the laws of the vital constitution, they are inconsistent, 
not only with the highest well-being of the body, but with the best 
condition and operation of the mental and moral faculties. But when 
their indulgence exceeds the real wants of the body, or in any manner 
violates the laws of the vital constitution, not only are the natural 
instincts, propensities, and sensibilities depraved, and the artificial 
wants multiplied, and the despotism of their influence on the mental 
faculties increased, and the integrity of their physiological indications 
destroyed, but the body is injuriously affected, the intellectual, moral, 
and religious powers impaired, and the whole nature of man deteri- 
orated. This state of things so completely involves all the constitutional 
powers in the complex human system, and so modifies the operations 
and results of the vital economy, that the progeny necessaixiX^ "g^tXak^ ^1 



10 

the general jJhysiolo^cal condition of the progenitor, and, consequently, 
physical, or, rather, physiological depravity is, in the nature of things, 
necessarily hereditary, leading not only to moral depravity and wicked- 
ness, but also to all the diseases and sufferings with which the human 
body is afflicted. This Is the only philosophical connection between the 
first sin of Adam and the subsequent sins of his posterity ; and it is 
only thus, in the nature of things, that God visits the iniquities of the 
fathers upon the children to the third and fourth generation. 

28. But there are other ways through which the organic influences 
affect the mental powers and operations besides the channels of the pro- 
pensities and appetites. The brain, by means of anatomical connections 
and physiological relations and dependencies, is so intimately associated 
with all the other parts of the organized system, that it necessarily par- 
takes of the general condition of the whole, and sympathizes, in some 
measure, with every part, and very powerfully, with the stomach and 
other organs concerned in the general function of nutrition, and the 
perpetuation of the species. But it is impossible for the mental con- 
sciousness to discriminate between those general physiological affections 
of the body, which excite and qualify intellectual action, and those 
which are produced by intellectual action. Thus in sleep, the distress 
which arises from certain physiological conditions of the body, and causes 
a terrible or gloomy dream, is always and necessarily, in the mental 
consciousness, purely the effect of the dream : and the same is true in 
the intellectnal operations when awake. If an individual under the 
exhilarating influence of wine, or any other stimulus to which he is 
accustomed, enters intx) religious exercises, all the pathos or exhilaration 
produced by the stimulus necessarily becomes, in his mental conscious- 
ness, the effect of his mental action, and is therefore, in his judg- 
ment, purely a religious affection ; and the same would be necessarily 
true, if his mind were exercised on any other subject. And on the 
other hand, if, by any means, a morbid physiological depression is 
caused in the body, the mind becomes commensurately sad or gloomy or 
disconsolate, and contemplates corresponding subjects ; and all the 
dejection and misery, arising from the physiological condition of the 
body, becomes, in the mental consciousness, exclusively the effect of 
the mental actions on the subjects contemplated, It is, therefore, a 
constitutional law of human nature, that the physiological excitements 
and depressions of the body, by whatever cause produced, always and 
necessarily become identified, in the mental consciousness, with the 
legitimate mental effects, and govern the intellectual actions and deter- 
minations accordingly. 

29. This exceedingly important principle in the physiological philoso- 
phy of the human mind, is very closely associated with another of no 
less importance in relation to the moral and religious nature and char- 
acter of man and to God' s moral and spiritual government over him. 
It is always, and necessarily true, that, when the human mind contem- 
plates any subject, the feeling experienced during such action of the 
mind, becomes the criterion of the importance of the subject contem- 
plated. Thus, let an individual contemplate religion with little or no 
feeling, and whatever may be the language of his tongue, the subject 
is, in reality, of little immediate importance, in his judgment ; but let 



11 

him consider the same subject under strong feelings, and its immediate 
importance, in his judgment, necessarily becomes equal to the intensity 
of his feeling, whether these be purely the effect of his mental action 
on the subject, or in a great measure the result of the physiological 
condition of the body; and the same is true, whatever be the subject on 
which the mind acts. This is the fundamental principle in the philoso- 
phy of human eloquence ! It was on this principle that Demosthenes 
moved an Athenian populace as with the fiat of Omnipotence ! For it 
is a constitutional law of human nature, that, as man feels, so he 
judges — so he acts ! And as the general physiological affections of the 
body, by whatever cause produced, always and necessarily become iden- 
tified in the mental consciousness with the legitimate mental effects, 
and are attributed by the mind to the subject contemplated, as the 
exciting cause, it follows of necessity that man's intellectual and moral 
and religious character and action always greatly correspond with the 
physiological character and condition of his body. 

30. Such being the physiological philosophy of the human mind, it is 
necessarily true, that if man were only elevated above other animals by 
superior intellectual and voluntary powers, his natural elevation would 
answer no other end than to increase the distance of his fall and the 
depth of his degradation and misery ! He would, indeed, be the vilest 
and most wretched of all terrestrial things. With all his intellectual 
and voluntary powers, subservient wholly to his bodily wants (26), and 
those wants multiplied beyond number, and increased continually, in 
depravity and despotism, his superior powers would only constitute a 
superior ability to make himself miserable and to destroy himself and 
others. His reasoning powers would be employed with little more than 
the excitements of his appetites and feelings — and in securing the 
means of self-indulgence — and in devising the crafty or the violent 
measures by which he could procure or destroy whatever his lusts or 
passions demanded — ^his judgment would be but the dictates of his pro- 
pensities ; desire would constitute his only principle of action ; and this 
would lead him downward, deeper, and deeper into the abyss of animal 
depravity, and subjugate his intellectual powers to more and more 
degrading and debasing vassalage to his sensuality. Never would his 
reason remonstrate with his passions — never would his judgment con- 
demn his indulgence ; strength would constitute the right of precedence, 
and power the law of possession ; and man would prey upon his fellow 
creatures with an energy and cruelty, by so much the fiercer and more 
destructive and terrible than the most ferocious of other animals, as he 
possessed superior intellectual and voluntary powers to deprave him- 
self, and to devise and carry into execution more crafty and skilful 
plans of destruction. 

THE CONSTITUTIONAL POWERS AND PHYSIOLOGICAL PHILOSOPHY OF MAN*8 
MORAL AND RELIGIOUS NATURE AND ACTION. 

31. To prevent this natural tendency of man's animal nature, and to 
prompt his intellectual powers to elevated and extensive efforts in the 
attainments of truth and wisdom, and to capacitate him for a godlike 
character and destiny, and to fit him, as the vicegetftiiXi ^^ \v^w«a. o^ 



12 

earth, to develope the moral and spiritual government of God in the 
human world, a wise and benevolent Creator has endowed him with 
social and moral and religious instincts, or powers, which are instituted 
with fixed and precise adaptations to his anmial nature and social rela- 
tions on the one hand, and to the moral character and purposes of God, 
on the other, and are thereby fitted to incite him to know and obey the 
concordant, constitutional laws of his whole animal, intellectual, moral 
and religious nature, and thus secure his own highest good and happi- 
ness, and the highest good and happiness of his fellow creatures ; and in 
so doing, fulfil the Divine scheme of benevolence, which has, in the 
constitution of things, identified the supreme glory of God with the 
highest good and happiness of man. 

32. In regard to the moral faculties of man, I can only here repeat 
so much of what I have said in my lectures on the Science of Human 
Life (Section 614, et seq.), as is necessary for the completeness of my 
present argument. The animal nature of man, as we have seen (26), 
may be considered the basis of his human existence. Its passions, its 
propensities, its appetites, with all the artificial wants that are engrafted 
upon the bodily instincts and sensibilities, constitute the primary and 
principal elementary causes of activity to his mental powers, and tend 
continually to induce his rationality to concur with his animal desires, 
or to consent to, and provide for the gratification of all his sensual and 
selfish appetites and wants, both natural and artificial. And this is 
what the apostle Paul calls " the minding ofthefiesh .-" and with equal 
physiological and religious truth, he declares that the minding of the 
flesh is death : for, as we have seen (30), it inevitably leads, if unre- 
strained, to the speedy destruction of the bodily and mental and moral 
and religious powers, and to the extermination of the race. But the 
moral and religious powers which Gk)d has constitutionally established 
in human nature, come in to regulate the carnal nature of man, with 
reference to moral and religious law, which, as we have seen (23), 
perfectly harmonizes with the physiological laws of man's nature. And 
the great bearing of moral and religious law on the animal nature of 
man, is to hold the carnal passions, propensities and appeUtes in perfect 
subjection to a rationality which is enlightened and governed by moral 
and religious truth. 

33. Moral and religious truth says. Thou shalt love that supremely 
which is intrinsically most excellent and worthy of being loved, — which 
is the moral character of God, — and which being supremely loved, will 
not only secure thy own highest and best condition, but the supreme 
love of which, in thee, is most perfectly compatible with, and conducive 
to the highest and best condition of thy fellow creatures. But carnal 
nature says, I will love that supremely to which I have the strongest 
propensity, which is self indulgence. Here then is the conflict of man's 
moral probation, — between his carnal nature with all its natural and 
acquired appetites and wants, and God's moral and religious truth. 
For the flesh lusteth against the spirit of truth, and the spirit of truth 
striveth against the flesh : and therefore, the minding of the flesh 
beyond the true and proper requirements of the constitutional laws of 
human nature, or beyond the true and proper supply of the real wants 
of the body, is of necessity, in the nature of things, contrary to supreme 



xo 



love to God ; for it is not obedience to the laws of Qod ; neither indeed 
can be ; because it is a direct transgression of those laws. (27.) 

34. The moral and religious nature of man is established by the 
Creator to preside over and control this conflict, and is made responsi- 
ble at the bar of God's eternal and immutable truth, for the issue ; and 
necessarily subject to the penalties which result from the infraction of 
God's laws. On the one hand, man's carnal nature is continually 
pressing for indulgence, and exerting its seductive influence on the 
rational powers to draw them into concurrence with its propensities 
and appetites (26) ; while on the other hand, the moral and religious 
truth of God, which perfectly harmonizes with his natural truth, con- 
stitutionally established in the physiological laws of the human body, 
(23) demands of man's moral and religious nature the entire subjuga- 
tion of his carnal passions, propensities and appetites to its own 
spiritual requirements, and declares that he who desireth to transgress 
is essentially guilty of the act. This philosophy is clearly set forth and 
forcibly illustrated in Paul's description of his own exercises, in the 
latter part of the seventh chapter of his Epistle to the Romans. 

THE MORAL ABILITY AND INABILITY OF MAN. 

35. The whole controversy of the schools concerning man's moral 
ability and inability may therefore, be resolved simply to this, — namely, 
his ability to will and act in obedience to moral and religious truth, 
subject as his intellectual, moral and religious powers are to the influ- 
ences of his carnal nature. (26.) His moral ability is always precisely 
equal to the degree in which his moral and religious powers hold his 
carnal nature in subjection to moral and religious truth ; — and his 
inability is always precisely equal to the degree of influence which his 
carnal nature exerts upon his intellectual, moral and religious powers, 
in opposition to moral and religious truth. Hence Paul declares to the 
Corinthians, in confirmation of this same principle, " I therefore so run, 
not as uncertainly ; so fight I, not as one that beateth the air, but I keep 
under my body and bring it into subjection ; lest that, by any means, 
when I have preached to others, I myself should be a castaway." The 
more the intellectual and moral and religious powers of man are under 
the control of his carnal nature, the greater is his inability to perceive 
and understand and comply with the requirements of moral and 
religious truth ; and therefore, whatever tends to deprave the carnal 
passions, propensities and appetites of man, and increase their energy 
and despotism, and multiply his carnal wants, necessarily and direcSy 
increases his inability to perceive and understand and comply with the 
requirements of moral and religious truth, and obey the constitutional 
laws of his nature. 

THE MORAL SENSE AND CONSCIENCE. 

36. Let US now, therefore, endeavour more fully to understand the 
true nature and philosophy of man's moral powers. All mankind are 
conscious of possessing an attribute or power, which in our language is 
called the Conscience. But theologians, metaphysicians and philo- 
sophers have seemed to be quite as much in the daiV %& ^^i^ xxx^fc-wrcL^ 



14 

multitude, concerning the real nature and power of the conscience. 
Some tell us that, it is that faculty of the soul which discriminates 
between right and wrong ; or which approves of what is right and dis- 
approves of what is wrong ; so far at least, as to establish the great 
lines of demarkation between right and wrong — between virtue and 
vice. Others, canning this view still farther, assert that, the con- 
science is, in every breast, an innate rule of right, which each indivi- 
dual is bound to obey: and by which, each may measure his own 
actions ; and therefore, that, in all matters of conscience, man has a 
natural and inalienable right to entire and unrestricted liberty. Others 
again, perceiving that the conscience of different persons under different 
circumstances and with different education, sanctions and enforces 
things entirely different and diametrically opposite, are led to believe 
and assert that, conscience is wholly a result of education, and therefore, 
no criterion of right, or virtue. 

37. But these opinions are all founded on erroneous notions of the 
nature and powers of man's moral faculties. Every human being who 
is not an idiot, and who is old enough to understand the exercises of his 
own mental and moral powers, has something within him, which, when 
excited, acts determinately, and definitely approves or disapproves of 
specific moral actions and qualities. This is what all men call Consience. 
But this is neither a simple nor innate power or faculty of the soul : — 
it is of a complex character, and as such wholly the result of education ; 
and is, with no degree of certainty, a rule of right. 

38. It is not, however, more certain that the intellectual faculties of 
man are innate, than it is that the moral sense is an innate power, — a 
constitutional principle in the moral nature of man. But this is not to 
be confounded with the conscience, in accurate philosophical reasoning. 
The moral sense is in no degree the result of education ; nor can it be, 
in any manner, educated, except in being rendered more or less suscep- 
tible and active and powerful. It always and necessarily remains the 
same, simple moral sense : — ^the same in the Pagan, the Jew, the Ma- 
homedan and the Christian ! — the same in a Hottentot, a Newton, a 
Paul ! — the same simple moral sense which informs no man what is 
right nor what is wrong : — and has no more power than the sense of 
hunger has, to discriminate, even on the broadest grounds, between right 
and wrong — between virtue and vice ! It is ever, under all circumstances, 
the same simple moral sense, giving the consciousness that there is a 
distinction between right and wrong — a consciousness of duty and of 
responsibility ; and when excited to perform its function, its definite, 
determinate and only language is, "Be right! — be right!" But, 
what that right is, it has in itself, no power to determine or ascertain. 
For this, it depends entirely on the intellectual faculties, which collec- 
tively, in their mental unity, I call the understanding. Whatever the 
understanding, acting under the influence of the moral sense, fully 
determines to be true or right, the moral sense necessarily receives as 
right ; and afterwards, when excited in relation to the same thing, this 
complex power, resulting from the co-operation of the moral sense and 
understanding prompts the soul to obey as right. Thus, suppose the 
proposition be laid before the mind of a man totally uneducated in 
morality and religion, and who knows nothing of the customs and 



15 

opinions of mankind, that it is his duty to kill his parents when they 
become so old and infirm as not to be able to provide for themselves. 
His moral sense can neither intuitively nor by any process of reasoning 
tell him whether the proposition is true or false. His understanding 
only can examine and weigh the evidence in the case, and come to a 
conclusion or decision as to the truth or falsity of the proposition. But 
while the understanding is doing this, the moral sense can more or 
less energetically and continually exert an influence upon it which says, 
"Be right ! — be right ! '* — and thus cause the understanding to examine 
and weigh the evidence in the case, with greater attention, diligence 
and scrupulosity. And if by any means, the understanding, acting 
under this influence of the moral sense, is fully brought to the conclu- 
sion that the proposition is true, the moral sense has no power, in itself, 
to test the accuracy of the conclusion, and therefore, necessarily receives 
it as true : and this conclusion or mixed result of the simultaneous 
action of the moral sense on the understanding, and of the understand- 
ing on the proposition, becomes a definite and determinate moral 
sentiment of the soul, which is so intimately associated with the moral 
sense, as to be instantly called up as a dictate or determinate impulse 
of the moral sense, whenever this simple power is excited to action in 
reference to the same proposition. And this definite and determinate 
moral sentiment is what all men call the conscience. 

39. We see, then, that in this supposed case, the moral sense of the 
individual cannot possibly tell him whether it is right or wrong for him 
to kill his parents when they become old and helpless. It can only tell 
him to be right. But the conscience, formed in the manner I have 
described, tells him definitely and determinately that it is right and duty 
for him to kill his parents when they become old and helpless. 

40. Now change the circumstances of this individual, and let the 
same proposition again be presented to his mind, and let his moral 
feelings be excited on the subject, and all the real evidence in the case 
be presented to him in a true light; — his conscience will come up at 
once, and say definitely and determinately, ** It is right to kill the 
parents," &c. But if the new circumstances and new array of evidence 
can shake his confidence in the former conclusion of his understanding, 
and cause him to doubt the correctness of it, the voice of his conscience 
will become feebler and feebler as the strength of his doubts increases ; 
while the voice of his moral sense, with commensurately more and more 
energy and importunity, will say, *'Be right! beric^ht!" — and if, under 
this influence of his moral sense, and in view of all the evidence which 
is now presented to him, his understanding comes fully and confidently 
to the conclusion that the proposition is false, and that it is wrong for 
him to kill his aged and infirm parents, and right and duty to protect 
and cherish them, then this conclusion will become a definite and 
determinate moral sentiment of his soul, taking the place of the former 
one. And now his conscience will determinately tell him that it is 
wrong for him to kill his aged parents. So that, the conscience of the 
same individual may tell him at one time, it is right, and at another 
time that it is wrong to kill his aged and helpless parents. Yet, in all 
this, the moral sense undergoes no change ! Its simple, single and 
unerring cry is always, when excited to action, **Be ng\i\.\-Ai^Tv^c>^.V'' 



16 



CAUSES OF XaBOMEOUS CONSCIENCE. 

41. But the moral sense, I have said, may be cultivated as to the 
degree of its activity and energy or influence : — and in this respect its 
laws are the same as the common physiological laws of the body. It 
may, at all times, be extremely feeble, from the want of proper exer- 
cise, so that, it will never with energy urge the nnderstandin^ to 
ascertain the truth on any point. It may also be greatly impaired 
and almost totally obliterated by the continued violations of the consti- 
tutional laws of human nature (23.) Whatever in food or drink, or any 
other bodily indulgence or habit, vitiates or impairs the sensorial power 
of the nervous system (Science of Life, 530) commensurately impairs 
the moral sense ; and all intentional violations of the constitutional laws 
of man's moral nature, — every voluntary departure from strict right- 
eousness, truth, holiness, &c., necessarily impairs the moral sense; and 
when these causes are combined, and their action continued, they often so 
completely blunt or deaden the moral sense, that the apostle Paul justly 
compares the eflTect to the searing of a hot iron. On the other hand, 
the moral sense may by much exercise and careful cultivation be ren- 
dered exceedingly vigorous and active, and exquisite ; so that it will, on 
all occasions, and in every — even the most inconsiderable — amoral action 
and operation of the mind, energetically and healthfully urge the under- 
standing to decide aright — to act aright. But the moral sense may also 
become excessively and morbidly active and acute — causing the most 
intense mental suffering, and even producing monomania or general 
insanity. Whatever, in food or drink, or any other bodily habit or in- 
dulgence, produces a general, morbid irritability and sensibility in the 
nervous system, always tends to produce a morbid excess in the moral 
sense of conscientious people; filling the mind with the unhealthy scru- 
ples and remorseful anguish and perhaps despair : and sometimes rouses 
it up in most fearful energy, in those who have never before attended to 
its wholesome monitions, and fills them with the most terrible remorse 
and horror ! Beligious exhortations and appeals, also, which are of an 
impassioned and terrific character, and which greatly excite the mora] 
sense, without properly enlightening the understanding, always tend tc 
produce a morbid excess in the moral sense, and frequently cause partial 
or total insanity ; and very rarely lead to real and permanent good. 

42. When the moral sense is feeble and inactive, it does not throw a 
due degree of influence on the operations of the understanding, bul 
suflTers it either to neglect or carelessly examine or unfairly weigh evi- 
dences, and thus come to erroneous conclusions and form a false con- 
science. When, on the other hand, the moral sense is, by any means, 
rendered morbidly active and energetic, it throws so vehement anc 
distracting an influence on the understanding, as to impair the accurac} 
of its operations, and exceedingly weaken or totally destroy its confidence 
in its own conclusions : and thus the mind is kept in a distressing state 
of incertitude and perplexity and conscientious doubt; which onlj 
increases the insane energy of the moral sense. And in this mannei 
the keenest and most excruciating excess of human misery is frequently 
produced. 



17 

43. In all cases, when a morbid nervous irritation and sensibility 
attend the exercises of the moral sense, the diseased nervous sensibility 
necessarily becomes identified in the mental consciousness with the 
moral sense (28), and thus increases the unhealthy energy of its 
influence upon the understanding, and proportionably increases in the 
estimation of the mind the importance of the subject in reference to 
which the moral sense is exercised. 

44. Having thus ascertained the precise nature and power of the 
moral sense and of the conscience, and to what extent a want of 
integrity in the moral sense is conducive to an erroneous or imsoimd 
conscience, I proceed to the consideration of other sources of a false 
conscience. 

45. We have seen (38) that, the moral sense ever and only says — 
" Be right ! — ^be right ! " — and has in itself no power to determine or 
ascertain what is right, but for this, depends entirely on the under- 
standing' ; and that, whatever the understanding fully determines to be 
right, when acting under the influence of the moral sense, the moral 
sense necessarily receives and enforces as right : and therefore, if by 
any means the understanding is fully brought to an erroneous con- 
clusion on any moral or religious subject, the conscience on that subject 
necessarily becomes fallacious. Now, with reference to the formation 
of the conscience, there are several sources of erroneous conclusion in 
the understanding besides those which I have already named. 

46. Much has been said about intuitive knowledge ; but I apprehend 
that there is very little meaning in the language. Except in the per- 
ception of our simple ideas, there is always necessarily more or less of 
reasoning in every operation and exercise of the mind. The under- 
standing, therefore, always arrives at its conclusions much as a jury 
arrive at their verdict. When any subject or proposition is brought 
before the mind, there must be some evidence for or against the truth 
of the proposition, and generally both. It is the business of the intel- 
lectual faculties to examine these evidences with proper care, and to 
come to a conclusion in the affirmative or negative of the proposition, 
according to the true force or weight of the evidence in the case. But 
if the true evidence in the case be neglected, or but lightly and care- 
lessly considered; or if but a small part of the true evidence be 
examined ; or if the evidence be unfairly presented ; or if false evidence 
be presented as true, the understanding, even under the promptings of 
the moral sense, may come to an erroneous conclusion, and fully 
determine that to be true or right which is not really so, and thus a 
fallacious conscience is formed. 

47. Furthermore, we have seen (26) that the intellectual faculties 
are constitutionally and intimately associated with the natural instincts, 
propensities and appetites of the body — ^that these latter so act upon 
the intellectual and voluntary powers, as to cause them naturally to 
concur with the instinctive demands, and satisfy the appetites — that 
the thousands of artificial wants which are engrafted upon the natural 
instincts and sensibilities of the body, act upon the mental faculties, in 
precisely the same manner as the natural instincts and propensities do, 
but with more vehemence and despotism in proportion to their depravity ; 
that it is impossible for the mental consciousness to ^sctSsDMi^X^.^i^'^^^^^ 



18 

those general physiological affections of the body, which excite and 
qualify intellectual action, and those which are produced by intellectual 
action ; and therefore, the physiological excitements and depressions of 
the body, by whatever cause produced, always, and necessarily, become, 
identified in the mental consciousness with the legitimate mental effects, 
and govern the intellectual actions and determinations accordingly 
(28) ; and that when the human mind contemplates any subject, fiie 
physiological affection experienced during such action of the mind, 
always and necessarily becomes the criterion of the importance of the 
subject contemplated (29) ; and hence, it follows of necessity, that 
man's intellectual and moral character and condition greatly correspond 
with the physiological character and condition of his body ; and hence 
also, it is a constitutional law of human nature that as man feels, so he 
judges — so he acts. All the carnal influences of the human body, there- 
fore, and especially those which result from the depravation of the natural 
instincts and sensibilities, such as every lust for every kind of intoxicating 
and every stimulating drink and substance ; and every appetite and 
desire engrafted upon the body, or growing out of the artificial habits 
and circumstances of society, are directly adverse to accurate percep- 
tions, reasonings and conclusion of the mind on all moral and religious 
subjects : and therefore, it is a constitutional law of human nature, that 
the ability of the understanding to ascertain moral and religious truth, 
in view of facts and evidences presented, and accessible to it, always and 
necessarily corresponds with the physiological and moral purity of the 
individual. (35.) This fundamental principle in the moral and religious 
nature of man, is explicitly affirmed and definitely intended by the 
apostle Paul when he declares, that *' without holiness no man can see 
the Lord." 

48. Thus, for illustration, suppose a man to be strongly addicted to 
the use of tobacco, and suppose we should attempt to convince him, that 
it is morally and naturally wrong to chew tobacco, or to use it in any 
way, as a means of sensual gratification. Now, in the first place, that 
man's tobacco has impaired the delicacy of his moral sense. (14. ) In the 
second place, it has, in some degree, impaired the nice powers of under- 
standing to perceive moral truth. (27. ) In the third place, it has established 
in the physiological economy of his body, an appetite whose despotic and 
often irresistible influence upon the intellectual and voluntary powers, 
vehemently urges, and even compels the understanding and will to comply 
with its demands. (26.) When, therefore, we attempt to convince him 
that it is morally and naturally wrong for him to use tobacco, we shall, 
in the first place, find it extremely difficult to reach his moral sense through 
the opposing energy of his lust. In the second place, his lust will not 
suffer his mind to fix its attention seriously and earnestly on the evidence 
which we present ; but will keep it constantly employed in contemplating 
the importance of the gratification to his happiness, or in seeking for 
arguments to defend and justify the indulgence, or for evasions and sub- 
terfuges from the force of our evidence. In the third place, if we succeed 
in rousing his moral sense and fixing his attention, and forcing our evidence 
upon him, his lust will not suffer his understanding to weigh that evi- 
dence with impartiality and honesty ; but will compel him to weigh it 
with an imequal balance, like one who weighs the gold he receives, in a 



19 

pair of iron scales, with a powerful magnet lying concealed under the 
scale which contains his weights, and drawing it down with a force which 
makes the gold appear of no weight at all. His lust will not suffer him 
to measure our evidence by any standard of truth, but forces him to 
measure it by its own despotic and vehement energy ; and thus makes 
it appear as nothing. Or if we happen to approach him at a moment 
when his lust is slumbering in the stupefaction of a recent debauch, or if 
by any means we succeed in silencing his lust, and by the assistance of 
his excited moral sense and the force of our evidence, turn the balance 
of his understanding in favour of truth, and convince him that it is wrong 
for him to use tobacco, hardly shall we cease to urge our evidence direictly 
upon his attention, before his reviving lust will rise up with clamorous 
and impetuous importunity, or irresistible imperiousness, and bring his 
understanding to a full conclusion that it is not wrong for him to use 
tobacco — and thus, he will establish a fallacious conscience, and return 
like a swine to the mire and like a dog to his vomit ! In this manner, 
every lust and appetite, natural and engrafted, according to the energy 
of its influence on the intellectual and voluntary powers, tends to produce 
erroneous conclusions in the understanding, and thus cause an unsound 
or fallacious conscience. 

49. We find, therefore, that the carnal influence of the human body 
on the intellectual and moral powers, is the grand primary source of 
erroneous conclusions and of a fallacious conscience. And this impor- 
tant and incontrovertible principle in mental and moral physiology, is 
explicitly and fully asserted by the apostle Paul in his epistle to the 
Hebrews. He exhorts the Hebrew proselytes to Christianity, to prepare 
themselves to contemplate and understand and receive and love and 
obey the simple and pure and sublime doctrines of the gospel, by having 
their hearts sprinkled from an evil or unsound conscience ; or, by being 
cleansed from all those lusts and appetites and prejudices which have 
led their understandings to erroneous conclusions, and thus established 
an unsound conscience in them ; and unfitted them to receive the gospel 
in all its naked and beautiful simplicity of truth. 

50. If by any means, therefore, the understanding, under the prompt- 
ings of the moral sense, is brought to an erroneous conclusion, and 
fully determines that to be true or right which is really erroneous or 
wrong, the moral sense necessarily receives it as true or right and 
prompts the soul to obey as right ; and thus man acts conscientiously 
wrong. And this is what Jesus meant when, seeing the Jews acting 
with great zeal conscientiously wrong, he said to them, " If your eye 
be unsound, or diseased, your whole body is full of darkness." When 
an unsound or fallacious conscience is once established, it is next to 
impossible to remove it ; especially in any matter which relates to the 
carnal propensities and appetites. Because the moral sense has, in 
itself, no means of testing the soundness of the conscience, and no way 
of removing an unsound conscience, but by the accurate operations 
and conclusions of the understanding, and the unsound conscience being 
the advocate of the carnal propensities and appetites which begot it, 
quiets the moral sense, and prevents its acting on the understanding, 
to excite it to a new examination of evidence, and to bring it to new 
conclusions ; and therefore, man has, in himself, no ^s^%\\A.Qi\i \5^ ^\^<^\. 



20 

that as erroneous or wrong which he conscientiously believes to be tme 
and right, and especially when the rejection inyolves the giving up of 
some sensuality or selfishness ; and if others attempt to convince him 
that it is wrong, his unsound conscience instantly interposes itself 
between such attempts and his moral sense, and keeps that quiet, while 
his carnal lusts rise up to prevent the mind from attending to tibe evi- 
dence presented, or to force the understanding to weigh the evidence 
with an unequal balance ; and all the while, they justify themselves by 
the unsound conscience which is their offspring : and hence, as a gen- 
eral rule, it is impossible, by any means, to remove an unsound con- 
science, until the carnal lusts and inordinate appetites and prejudices 
are subdued. And it was in view of this great difficulty of removing 
an unsound conscience, and of the great evils to which such a conscience 
leads, that Jesus declared to the deluded Jews, " If therefore ^e light 
which is in you be darkness, how great is that darkness I " 

51. Now, as the condition of the intellectual and moral faculties, and 
the power of the mind to ascertain truth, and especially moral and 
religious trutii, greatly depend, as we have seen (47), on the condition 
of lie bodily organs, therefore, whatever increases the influence of the 
propensities, desires and appetites of the body, on the intellectual and 
moral faculties, beyond the real and true wants of the human system, 
not only depraves the organs, and leads to all the forms of bodily 
disease and suffering and to untimely death, but also necessarily 
impairs the intellectual and moral and religious faculties, stupefies 
the moral sense, blunts the perceptive and reflective powers of the 
mind, and renders man less and less capable of perceiving and appre- 
ciating moral and religious truth, and of being acted on by any other 
than sensual motives. Hence the Scriptures declare that " the animcU 
man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God ;" because they are 
insipid or of no force to him : his moral and religious susceptibilities 
are not adapted to them : and therefore, he cannot know them because 
they are ** spiritually discerned." And it is a state of gross sensuality, 
and consequent intellectual and moral stupidity and darkness, which 
the Scriptures signify when they say, " The heart of this people is 
waxed fat, and their ears are dull of hearing, and their eyes have they 
closed, lest they should see with their eyes and hear with their ears, 
and understand with their hearts, and should be converted, and 1 should 
heal them." Hence the New Testament is replete with passages 
affirming the intimate relation between the carnal influences and the 
moral character and conduct of man, and earnestly exhorting and 
entreating believing Christians to crucify the flesh with the lusts 
thereof — ^to walk not after the flesh — to siUffer not sin to reign in the 
mortal body by obeying the lusts thereof— to keep under 8ie body, 
and bring it into subjection — to present it a living sacrifice, holy, 
acceptable to God— to render it a temple of the holy spirit — even of the 
living God ! Because the flesh lusteth against the spirit and the spirit 
against the flesh — and the minding of the flesh is death, because of sin, 
or the transgression of the constitutional laws of the animal, intellectual 
and moral nature of man (23) ; but the minding of the spirit of truth 
is life and peace, because of righteousness, or of obedience to those 
constitutional laws ; and consequently, he that soweth to the flesh, shall 



21 

of the flesh reap corruption ; but he that soweth to the spirit, shall of 
the spirit reap life everlasting! and therefore, godliness, or strictly 
obeying the laws which GK>d has constitutionally established in the 
animal, intellectual, moral and religious nature of man (21), is profit- 
able or serviceable to all, having promise of the life that now is and 
that which is to come. 



THE BBLiaiOUS INSTINCT — ITS POWER AND THE PHILOSOFHT OF ITS 

ACTION. 

52. All the explanation which I have given of the nature and power 
of the moral sense, and of the philosophy of its operations in producing 
the conscience, and in qualifymg the moral character and actions of 
man, is strictly applicable to the religious instinct. For it is beyond 
all question true, uiat, there is an element in the human constitution, 
which incites to the acknowledgment of a superior Being — an object 
of worship. But this instinct has, in itself, no power to determine wnat 
is the true object: for this, like the moral sense (38), it depends 
entirely on the understanding. Whatever the understanding, when 
acting under the influence of the religious instinct, fully determines to 
be the true object of worship, this instinct necessarily receives as the 
true object, and prompts the soul to acknowledge and worship as such. 

53. The element of a religious character being constitutionally inhe- 
rent in human nature, man is necessarily a religious animal : but there 
is no constitutional necessity or certainty that his religion will be the 
religion of truth. According as he uses the powers and means which 
he possesses and which lie within the reach of his capabilities, so will 
his religion be true or false. But whether his religion be true or false, 
man must be religious or cease to be what he constitutionally is ! From 
the operation of the same causes which produce a false conscience 
(41, et seq.), his religion may, indeed, be nothing but the most sava^ 
and abject superstition and idolatry : or, if possible, it may be of a still 
lower and more brutal order than this ! or, it may run into the most 
atheisticaUy religious fanaticism against religion ! but still, ransack the 
earth and ocean, and wherever you find a human being who is not an 
idiot — ^however savage his condition, however brutal his state, if you 
are skilled in studying man, you may find in him, the constitutional 
rudiments of a moral and religious character. 

54. Some have supposed that, the universal idolatry and gross 
superstition of the primitive inhabitants of the earth, and of uncivSized 
portions of the human family in all times, demonstrate that, there is 
no inherent religious element in human nature. " Because," say they, 
** if GK>d had established a religious instinct in the constitution of man, 
that instinct would have been true to its final cause, and infallibly led 
man to the true worship of the true Gk>d : and consequently, the more 
purely instinctive man was, the more truly would he be religious : and 
therefore, the primitive inhabitants of the earth, when in the most 
infantile state of mind as to knowledge and understanding, would have 
becm instinctively true in their religion." 

55. Thds reasoning is superficially plausible, but fundamentally ot^- 
neouf. It assumes tiiat, the religious instinct shonl^ ^«ae&^\xi \^&^^ 



22 

detenninately, the power to ascertain the true object of worship, and 
infallibly to lead man to that obiect. But if the moral sense possessed 
the power to discriminate intuitively and infallibly between right and 
wrong (38), and the religious instinct had the intrmsic power to ascer- 
tain the true object of worship, what would be the need of intellect and 
knowledge and understanding and reason in regard to morality and 
religion P Such, however, is not the true philosophy of the human 
constitution. The religious instinct is simply a feeling of deference, 
reverence, adoration, which prompts the intellectual faculties, the un- 
derstanding, the reason, to ascertam the true object on which it should 
act ; and will not be satisfied witJiout some object towards which it can 
be exercised : and whatever the understanding, under the promptings 
of the religious instinct, fully determines to be the true object of wor- 
ship, this instinct necessarily receives as the true object, and prompts 
the soul to acknowledge and worship as such ; and with equal sincerity 
and confidence and devotion, whether that object be the living and true 
God, or a departed hero, or lawgiver, or one of the heavenly bodies, or 
a bird, or four-footed beast, or creeping thing, or graven image. 

56. The religious instinct, like the moral sense, is capable of being 
rendered more or less active and powerful ; and is influenced in the 
same manner and to the same extent, by the physiological conditions 
and affections of the body. (41, et seq.) In one respect, however, these 
elements of the human constitution differ. The moral sense is estab- 
lished with more direct reference to man's gregarious character and 
social relations, while the religious instinct is established with more 
direct reference to man's individual and solitary relations to his Creator ; 
and consequently, as a general law, in proportion as man is removed from 
the complicated interests and influences of society, and is in a state of 
Rudeness or solitude, his moral sense is little exercised, while these 
very circumstances tend directly to give activity and power to the 
religious instinct ; and hence, man may be very religious, while, at the 
same time, he is very far from true morality. Nevertheless, it is 
necessarily true, that, in proportion as man's religion is true, his 
morality wiU be true. 

THE RELIGION AND MORALITY OF THE PRIMITIVE INHABITANTS OF THE 
EARTH, ACCORDING TO CONSTITUTIONAL LAWS. 

57. It was, therefore, strictly in accordance with the constitutional 
laws of human nature, that the primitive inhabitants of the earth were 
universally and exceedingly religious, with far more of reverential 
feeling than of knowledge and truth in their religion, while, at the 
same time, their morality was crude and barbarous, and incompatible 
with the true, individual and social interests of man. As a general 
fact, the simplicity of their habits and their modes of life were favour- 
able to a high degree of sensorial power — the ten thousand wants and 
cares and perplexities of artificial life, were unknown to them — much 
of their time was spent in observing external things and in attention to 
internal affections and impulses : the intellectual and moral man was, 
as yet, little developed, and human knowledge was too limited and too 
vague to comprehend true notions of spiritutS nature and moral attri- 



butes of the Deity, and of His relations to man, and man's relations 
and responsibilities and duties to Him. They contemplated the varied 
aspects and phenomena and events of Nature with deep sensibility, 
and nearly everj^hing was profoundly mysterious to them, and served 
continually and greatly to excite their religious instinct. They looked 
up into the heavens and meditated with solemn awe. The solitude of 
the forest, the loftiness of the mountain, and all other sublimates in 
Nature, conspired to enhance this feeling ; while the howling tempest^ 
the terrific lightning, and the earth-shaking voice of thunder, filled 
them with consternation ! All these, together with disease and death 
And the numerous adversities and ills which they experienced or 
observed, were regarded by them as the immediate manifestations of 
the power and wrath of a terrible Being whose destructive anger was 
easily provoked and with difficulty appeased ! Their very ignorance of 
the nature and philosophy of things increased the activity and power 
of the religious instinct, while it rendered the understanding unable to 
ascertain the true object of worship (46) and left it in darkness to 
arrive at such conclusions as the combined energy of the religious and 
moral instincts, and the dread of evil, and the carnal propensities and 
appetites and depravities compelled it to. (47.) 

THB ESLIOIOUS NOTIONS, ACTIONS AND CHARACTEB OF MAN DETERMINED 

BY CONSTITUTIONAL LAWS. 

58. These results, however, were in no measure contingent or for- 
tuitous. Everything in the universe has a determinate relation to 
fixed, constitutional principles ; so that, accurately speaking, with refer- 
ence to the constitutional laws of things, chance, or accident, is impos- 
sible ! *' Not a sparrow falleth to the ground, but in accordance with the 
fixed laws of God in nature !" We contemplate the heavenly bodies, and 
arrive at clear convictions and full demonstrations of the general laws 
pertaining to planets and the Solar System, and assert, with scientific 
assurance, the certainty of determinate eflfects from the operation of 
determinate laws 1 But when with a less carefully investigating eye 
we gaze, from time to time, upon the clouds, and behold them, now 
frowning darkly over us and seeming to portend a dreadful storm, and 
yet passing away without a drop of rain ; and now, with a diflTerent 
aspect, and at a moment when we look not for it, pouring out upon us 
a drenching shower, we conclude that everything relating to clouds and 
rfidn and other atmospheric phenomena, is wholly contingent and without 
any determinate law ! Yet the truth is, that, there are in reality, equal 
fixedness of law and equal certainty of determinate results in regard to 
the latter that there are to the former. Every atmospheric phenomenon 
is governed by as determinate constitutional laws as those which govern 
the movements of the planets in the solar system ; so that, clouds of 
(Bvery character, winds, rain, lightning, thunder, &c., are always and 
necessarily the determinate efiects of determinate causes, strictly 
according to constitutional law. 

69. AU this is exactly true of human nature, and of the moral and 
religious notions, actions and character of man. We contemplate the 
human body, and perceive that it is subject to tix© \aw c^ ^w\\aJ^^\:L 



24 

like every other form of ponderable matter. We examine its structure 
and discern fixed laws of organization, and ascertain that all its Yital 
properties and functional powers are determinately established upon 
fixed principles of constitution and relation. But, when we contemplatd 
the great diversity and contrariety of moral and religious opinion, adioi 
and character in the human world, we hastily conclude that everything 
here is utterly contingent : and so far as human purpose and forecast 
are concerned, this conclusion is sufficiently correct ; but with reference 
to the constitutional laws and economy which Qod has established ii 
nature, it is entirely erroneous. Such is the constitution of human 
nature (21 ), such are the laws of relation between the body and the intel- 
lectual and moral and religious powers of man (26), such the fixed rela- 
tions of man's whole nature to his Creator (23), and to all created thin^ 
around him, and such his moral relations to his fellow man, that his 
actions and character are always and necessarily the determinate 
effects of determinate causes, according to the constitutional laws of 
God in nature. With reference to these laws, it is a matter of no 
possible contingencv, but of entire and necessary certainty, how man will 
act, and what will be his moral and religious notions and character in 
certain conditions and circumstances of his nature. 

man's theology, kbligion, and bxligious observances oorbespond 

WITH the condition AND CIRCUMSTANCES OF BIS COMPLEX NATURE. 

60. From a necessity in the natural constitution and economy of 
things, therefore ( 18), man will, in a certain condition and circumstances 
of his nature, possess exalted and just ideas of Gk>d as his Creator and 
heavenly Father, and worship him in spirit and in truth ; in a certain 
other condition and circumstances of his nature, man will necessarily 
regard the Supreme Being more as an absolute Despot, and worship 
him with more awe and dread and terror, than holy love and filial confi- 
dence : and so according to the condition and circumstances of his nature, 
man will, from constitutional necessity, worship an invisible Being, 
or the sun, or moon, or a bird, or four-footed beast, or creeping thing, 
or a lifeless image : and from the same constitutional necessity, he wUl 
invest the object of his worship with human attributes, and ascribe to 
it more or less of his own passions and appetites and motives, and seek 
to propitiate it by ways and means of corresponding character. Hence, 
the history of the human world, when accurately understood, is as true 
and infallible a revelation of the laws of Gk)d, concerning man, as, 
in the nature of things, can possibly be made ; and whether we come to 
a knowledge of these laws by a direct, supernatural revelation, or by 
investigation and experience, they are equally the laws of Giod and 
equally authoritative to man. (4.) And hence we know that it ia 
a constitutional law divinely established in the nature of things, that 
the nearer man is in truth to God — whether understanding!^ or 
instinctively — or the more perfect his conformity with all the divine 
laws of his nature, the more simple and consistent with the true 
character of God will be his religion, and the less will he make use of, 
snd depend upon external ceremonies and ot^MiMie^, «i» Tafe«si& of 
Averting the judgments or securing the favoui oi Qtod*, asA^«i«s^vsc 



I 



25 

he recedes from theological truth, or the more erroneous his ideas of Gk>d 
and his religious sentiments are, the more will he use and depend upon 
external ceremonies and observances as means of propitiating the object 
of his worship. Thus Adam, while he remained m Uiat state of native 
purity in which he came from the hands of his Creator, and, as it were, 
instinctively obeyed all the laws of God in his nature, seems to have 
employed no external religious ceremonies. But from Adam to Christ, 
just in proportion as man has depart^ from the true idea of Grod and 
true rebgious sentiment, he has multiplied his religious observances, 
and depended on them as essential to his success in propitiating the ob- 
ject of his worship. But Ciurist, who was in the bosom of the Father, 
and in whom dwelt the fulness of the Gtodhead, taught every man to 
make his own heart the temple of the living Grod, and erect his altar 
there, and, in spiritual service offer himself a living sacrifice, holy 
and acceptable to GK)d. 

THE ORIGIN AND CONSTITUTIONAL LAWS OF RELIGIOUS OFFERINGS AND 

SACRIFICES. 

61. Again, from the premises before us, we know with infallible cer- 
tainty, that it is a constitutional law of God established in the nature of 
things, that, man will, in a certain condition and in certain circumstances 
of his nature, present some of the fruits of the earth in his religious 
services, as propitiatory offerings to the object of his worship : and that, 
in a certain other condition and circumstances of his nature, he will with 
certainty offer sacrifices of animals for the same purpose : and that, in 
a certain other condition and circumstances of his nature, he will, with 
equal certainty and for the same purpose, offer human sacrifices ! and 
80 with regard to every other religious ceremony, observance or ordi- 
nance : in all cases, and inevitably, all such observances are the deter- 
minate effects of determinate causes, according to the constitutional 
laws of God in Nature. Tet the fact, that it is a constitutional law of 
God established in the nature of things, that, in certain conditions and 
circumstances of human nature, man will, in his religious services, 
sacrifice animals or human beings, as means of propitiating the object 
of his worship, in no measure proves that such worship is adapted to the 
true nature and character of Gk)d, but solely, that it is adapted to the 
nature and character of man in the particular condition and circum- 
stances in which it naturally takes place. 

MAN ALWAYS WORSE THAN HIS RELIGION — RELIGION "aLW ATS HIS GREAT- 
EST RESTRAINT — THEREFORE, THE WORST RELIGION IS BETTER THAN 
NONE, AND THE BEST THAT CAN BE IN THE STATE OF THINGS IN 
WHICH IT OBTAINS. 

62. It may be thought, however, that if such are the results of the re- 
ligious instinct — if, by any possible perversion or depravity of the human 
focultieSf the religious instmct can be made to prompt man to worship 
heasts and creeping things and lifeless images, and to oS^t Yl\^ ^^'W ^t 
fellow man in propitiatory sacrifice to the object of ^la -^rox^V^,'^^^^^^ 
better that sucb an instinct bad never been implanted m ^^ \x«m«s^ 

eoBstitatioD, But this is a conclusion too haslaly dr«wii feoxci«o:^^^2^^ 



26 

and very limited investigations of the matter. It is indeed shocking to 
contemplate man so deeply depraved — so shrouded in the midnight of the 
soul, that he can bow with solemn sincerity and reverential awe before 
a brute beast or senseless image, and offer his children or fellow men in 
sacrifices to it ! Yet it should be remembered that it is not the wor- 
shipping of such objects, nor the offering of such sacrifices, which makes 
man so vile ; but that it is the vileness of man which makes him worsh^ 
such objects and offer such sacrifices : and that, erroneous and shocking 
as such religion is, it is still vastly better than none ! and infinitely 
better that there should be no religious instinct, than no intrinsic ele- 
ment of religion in the human soul ! For even in this state of horrible 
superstition, man is worse than his religion ! and his religious instinct!^ 
the most efficient power that restrains him from being worse than he is. 
63. It is, therefore, a constitutional law of human nature, that in 
proportion as man recedes from true religious intelligence and virtue, 
and sinks into the depraved animal, he must be governed, in all things, 
by means which appeal mainly to his religious instinct. Hence it has 
always been found that, the more widely man has departed from true 
civilization, the more largely have religious institutions and observ- 
ances entered into the constitution and economy of his civil govern- 
ment; and where his appetites and depravities could be by no other 
means restrained, the special prohibitions of his god have been imposed 
upon them. Thus when Charlemagne found it impossible, by any 
earthly power or penalties, to restrain his subjects from inebriation, he 
more effectually accomplished his purpose by making the penalty of the 
offence excommunication from the church and consequent exposure to 
the wrath of God ! Thus, the Princes and rulers of the Sandwich 
Islands, before their rude state was disturbed by the Missionaries, 
found it necessary to "taboo," or declare sacred to their gods, certain 
kinds of fish and other things, which they wished to restrain the people 
from consuming, and from the consumption of which they could in no 
other way restrain them : and the same thing has ever been correspond- 
ingly true of all other portions of the human family, according to the 
condition and circumstances of their nature. Nor has this been a mere 
expedient, sagaciously devised and instituted by man ; but a natural 
and determinate result, in strict accordance with the constitutional 
laws of God established in the nature of things : and human experience 
could not fail to reveal it to the human understanding. We cannot, 
therefore, calculate the depths of degradation to which man would have 
sunk, without an instinctive religious element in his nature: but we 
know that, with it, he has never sunk so low in degradation and de- 
pravity and wickednesss, but that, still, his propensities and tendencies 
were worse than his religion ; and always, his religious instinct has 
been the most efficient power to restrain him from being actually more 
vile, more wicked, more atrocious than he was! while, on the other 
hand, we know that without it, he could never be exalted to a very high 
degree of moral cultivation, and with it, he is capable of a godlike ele- 
vation of character and action ! Hence, therefore, the religion which, 
according to the divine constitution and economy of things, naturally 
arises from any condition and circumataivces o^ TciaxCa h^Xxvt^, is alMia-i^s 
tAedest that is possible in that particular state of thxugs V>S^, «sA 



27 

serves to restrain man from being worse than he is in that state, 
s to make him better than he would be without it : and hence 
e general conclusion, that, even idolatry of the lowest kind, is, 
tate of things where it naturally exists, incomparably better 
religion ! The wisdom and the benevolence of God, therefore, in 
ihing the religious instinct in the human soul, are fully demon- 
both by the true philosophy of things, and by all the experience 
luman race ! 

raiCTL GOVERN DIVINE REVELATION. NOT THE DIVINE IMPORT, 
THE STATE OF MAN DETERMINES THE PRACTICAL CHARACTER OF 
LATION. AS MAN, SO HIS GOD. 

But, it will perhaps be demanded — Could not God, if he chose, 
jrevent all this error and delusion, by a clear and full revelation 
self to man P and therefore, does not the fact, that there has 
a the human family from the earliest times, such a wide diversity 
lion and sentiment in regard to theology and religion, prove 
J such revelation ever has been made P Here again, we meet 
ose plausible errors which demonstrate the limitedness of human 
dge, the looseness of human reasoning and the self-complacency 
lan vanity. It ought to be known and well understood, that, 

necessity in the nature of things, man primarily comes to all 
ions of God and religion, through the medium of his own nature 
perience ! That is, it is utterly impossible for man to come to 
ion, or, in any manner attain to the idea of an intelligent spirit, 
primarily, from the consciousness of his own mental existence 
tion I and it is utterly impossible for man to come primarily, to 
a of the abstract attribute of justice or goodness or holiness, or 
her quality in the moral character of God. The terms, in 

language, used to represent, or signify these ideas, would neces- 
be wholly without meaning to man, unless he could, in some 
fay, first come to the ideas themselves : and the only way possi- 
the nature of things, by which he can primarily come to the 
is his own consciousness and individual and social experience, 
•forms certain actions in relation to others, which are designated 
terms "just, good," &c., as denoting the quality of the actions, 
on comes to contemplate the actions as manifestations of , certain 
es of mind and moral feeling, and thence, ultimately, arrives, in 
ogress of his mental and moral development, at the abstract 
•f justice, truth, goodness, holiness, &c., and is then prepared to 
.te them in the complex, abstract idea of God. It is, therefore, 
nature of things, necessarily true, that, precisely according to 
jree of his own mental development and cultivation, will be the 
ess and accuracy of man's idea of a purely spiritual existence : 
ecisely according to the development and true cultivation of his 
nature, will be his ideas of " justice, goodness," &c : and conse- 
y man always and necessarily invests the object oi \3i^ -^w^Sm;:^ 
ttributes corresponding with his own. (60.") li "Vift S& V\ssva«^ 
nore than an animal, the object of his 'WOTsYlV© tdxxsX. '^«fte»«» 
t/f form of a man or beast, or of some othet ^nsvVJVB \Sdmx«,, w^a. 



28 

be endowed with appetites and lasts and passions, and be aetoafcedliy 
motives and seek enjoyments like his own. If he is wholly sensnlli 
his god is likewise so, and must be worshipped and propitiated by meaai 
adapted to gratify his smell and taste and other sensual appedtes aol 
lusts. If man delights in the fruits of the earth, he will present lodl 
as he considers the choicest of them in propitiatory offerings to tiN 
object of his worship ! If he takes greater pleasure in the flesh of 
animals, he will sacrifice the best of his animals to his god ! If he k 
blood-thirsty and revengeful and truculent, his god will be sanguinaiy 
and vindictive and cruel ! If he is gentle and kind and philanthropic^ 
his god will be benevolent, and merciful and beneficent. If his intel- 
lectual, moral and religious powers are fully and truly developed and 
cultivated, his god will be a self-existent and eternal Spirit, infinitely 
wise and true and just, and good — ^infinitely excellent, and perfect in 
all his natural and moral attributes ! It is, therefore, a general and 
necessary truth, that, as man^ so his god ! and hence the Scripturoi 
declare, that, without holiness — ^without natural and moral purity, 
which involves the spirit of Qod's moral attributes, no man can see^ 
can perceive, or come to the true idea of God ; for die " animal man caD 
have no perception of spiritual things." (47.) 

65. If, therefore, God were at any time to speak from the heavens 
in tones which could be distinctly heard by every inhabitant of the 
earth, and declare, in the native tongfueof every man, " I am the living 
and true God ! the eternal Spirit I the omnipotent Creator and Ruler oi 
all things ! I am a God of infinite knowledge, and wisdom, and truth, 
and justice, and goodness, and mercy, and holiness ! therefore be ye 
true and just and good and merciful and holy as I am, and worship me 
in spirit and in truth!" the declaration would serve, in no degree, to 
bring mankind to a unity of idea and sentiment in theology and reli- 
gion ! but would, from a necessity in the nature of things, serve only 
to confirm each individual in those theological notions and religiooi 
sentiments, which he before possessed in accordance with the condition 
and circumstances of his nature. (60,) The idolater of the lowest grade 
could not possibly understand anything from the language, whidi he 
had not already attributed to the object of his worship ! and the same 
would necessarily be true of man in every other state of his nature* 
Indeed, this important constitutional principle is implicitly affirmed by 
Grod himself in his instructions to the prophet Ezekiel, xiv. 3 — ^7, ** Son 
of man; these men have set up their idols in their heart, and put the 
stumbling-block of their iniquity before their face : should I be inouired 
of at all by them P Say unto them, thus saith the Lord God, tivery 
man that separateth himself from me, and setteth up his idol in hu 
heart, and putteth the stumbling block of his iniquity before his face, 
and cometh to the prophet to inquire of him concemmg me, I the Lord 
will answer him, according to the multitude of his idols. " And, at this 
moment, it is true of the Christian world, that with the same Sacred 
Scriptures — the same verbal revelation of God in their hands, and the 
same theological evidences of Nature before them, it is questionable 
whether two individuals, out of two hundred millions, can be found of 
exactly the same theological ideas and religious sentiments ; but univer- 
sally and necessarily, men's theological notions and religious sentiments 






29 

ffer according to the difference in the condition and circnmstances of 
idr nature : they differ, therefore, not according to the revelation 
hich God really makes of himself, but according to their understanding 
'it; and consequently, no explicitness or definiteness of divine revela- 
in can possibly make this greatly otherwise ! The only way possible 
. the nature of things, by which all men can be brought to a unity of 
leolog^cal opinion and religious sentiment, is to bring them all to exactly 
le same condition and circumstances of their whole complex nature. 
66. We arrive, then, by rigid induction at the general and irrefragable 
ndusion, that, however full and explicit the revelations of God — 
ywcver specific his precepts — however definite his commandments, 
ill, from the very nature of things, man will and must understand 
rery divine revelation according to his own intellectual and moral 
ate ; and his notions of God and of divine requirements will corres- 
)nd. And hence it may be asserted as a law of necessity in the nature 
r AingB, that divine revelations, as imderstood by man, always corres- 
3nd wiili the condition and circumstances of man's whole complex 
atnre (60), and therefore, that in effect, God always necessarily adapts 
is revelations to the condition and circumstances of man's nature — 
istituting, as the legitimate results, of the constitutional economy of 
lings (61), such forms of worship as are best fitted to man in that 
articular state in which they naturally obtain, and such as serve, in 
le greatest degree, to lead man from that state towards the true object 
f worship, and to bring him forward in intellectual and moral and 
piritaal progress. 

ATAUTT APFAKENT, BUT NOT REAL. NO ABSOLUTENESS IN THE DIVINE 

GOVERNMENT. 

67. Will it be said that my reasoning goes to establish the doctrine of 
atality, and shows man to be little more than a passive subject of divine 
K>wer and purpose P This is taking too narrow a view of things. We 
lave seen (17) that (xod, with infinite knowledge, and wisdom, and 
2;oodness, and power, adjusted and established the constitutional princi- 
ples and relations of human nature, and of every other created thing 
[4) ; and we know that it is a law of God in the nature of things, that 
saccharine matter, in a certain condition and in certain circumstances, 
diall undergo a process which we call vinous fermentation ; and that 
this process shall result in a certain combination of elements, which 
necessarily forms a substance that we call alcohol ; that this substance 
is necessity of such a constitution, and possesses such properties in 
relation to human nature, that, if a certain quantity of it is taken into 
the human stomach, it necessarily will so affect the whole nature of man, 
that his understanding and reason will be wholly unsettled, his voluntary 
self-control abolished, and he will fall down in a general paralysis and 
stupefaction of all his powers ! and we know also that in a certain 
condition and circumstances of human nature, man certainly will drink 
alcoholic liquor to intoxication. And it is perfectly certain that, in the 
particular condition and circumstances of man's whole complex nature, 
in which drunkenness takes place, it is best man should be drunk ! Or, 
in other words : since, from a necessity in the nature of thin^ (J-^^^ 



30 

sticli is the nature of man, and such is the nature of alcohol and other 
intoxicating substances, if man is so sensual — so given to the indulgeiM 
of depraved animal appetite, that, if free to act as he chooses, he certainlj 
will drink alcoholic liquors, or use other intoxicating substances for 
sensual gratification, those effects on the human system which we eiS 
drunkenness are, in the particular condition and circumstances in which 
they take place, best for man; and demonstrate the wisdom and 
goodness of divine providence, in so constituting things that, when mu 
is so sunk in depraved sensuality that he will not be sanctified or 
cleansed by the spirit of truth, nor influenced by any directly elevatiiig 
motive, he certainly will indulge his depraved appetites, and receive, in 
the natural and necessary consequences of his indulgence, such a scourg- 
ing or chastisement as is best adapted to reform him, and make hm 
wiser and better for his sufferings. But does all this constitute an ab- 
solute* law of God, that man shall become a drunkard P Or does tiie 
constitutional law of God, that in a certain condition and certain circum- 
stances of man's nature, he certainly will drink intoxicating liquors to 
inebriation, prove that drunkenness is absolutely as acceptable to God as 
sobriety P or that it is as compatible with man's own highest good and 
with his true relations to his Creator P Certainly not ! Yet this justly 
illustrates the economy of the Divine Government, with reference to the 
charge of fatality ; and shows that the constitutional law of necessity, 
which, operating through the moral agency of man, results in that whidi 
is not compatible with his own highest good, nor with his true relations 
to his Creator, is always conditional and not absolute. On condition ih9i 
man leaps from a precipice or some other eminence, he necessarily falls 
towards the centre of the earth ; and the velocity of his descent, the 
momentum he acquires, and all the other consequences of his leap, are 
determined by the fixed laws of God in Nature ; and he cannot be 
absolutely prevented from leaping from the precipice consistently with 
his entire moral freedom ! For, of necessity, in the nature of things 
(19), man's entire moral freedom to choose good, involves the necessity 
of his entire moral freedom to choose evil ; and the constitutional 
laws which God has established in Nature, necessarily determine the 
consequences of his choice. 

68. It is not, in the nature of things, possible, therefore, that man's 
choice of good should be rendered absolutely certain ! but the certainty 
of his choice of good as well as of evil, is rendered necessarily condition^ 
by the very nature of things (18), and hence God declares in his word, 
and has revealed in his works, and has confirmed by all human experi- 
ence to the understanding and reason of man, " Behold I set before you 
good and evil, blessing and cursing, life and death !" and when man 
chooses good, the constitutional laws divinely established in Nature as 
certainly determine the consequences, as when he chooses evil. Every- 
thing, therefore, in the course of Nature, which seems, in the superficial 
view, to wear the aspect of fatality, is, in truth, but the constitutional 
fitness and fixedness of relation between cause and effect, according to 
the adjustment of infinite knowledge, and wisdom, and goodness, and 
power (19) : and demonstrates that the moral freedom of man does not 

* Let it be kept in mind, that, Iu8etheiwoTda\)8o\ute«a^SS.a^wvs«kXSN«*»\.^%\]gQify 
entire independi nee of all conditions and ciicumataacea. 



it 

II 



31 

consist in the power to act independently of the constitutional laws of 
Nature, and plunge into the flames, or the flood, or leap from the 
precipice, or indulge himself in any manner as he chooses, and determine 
the consequences by his choice ; but it consists in his power to act in 
iccordance with the laws of Nature (4) to his own good, or in violation 
3f those laws, to his own evil: and hence, every necessity in the nature 
>f things, which bears on man's moral action and destiny, serves to 
enhance his responsibleness as a moral agent, and render it more solemn 
and momentous. 

ras FBIMART AND PARAMOUNT PURPOSE OF MAN's EARTHLY EXISTENCE. 

69. Having ascertained from the general scope and spirit of the 
Bible as a whole (16), corroborated by the evidences of Nature, what 
Qod is, in his nature and character ; and having investigated the nature, 
condition and relations of man (20, et seq.), it remains for us to inquire, 
What are the divine purposes in the creation and earthly existence of 
man ? And in entering upon this inquiry, it is necessary that we 
^ould be exceedingly cautious lest we mistake tradition for revelation. 

70. For nearly two thousand years, at least, and we know not how 
much longer, a portion of the religious world has considered the des- 
tiny of the human soul beyond the grave as the grand purpose of human 
existence upon earth. But, if the interests of the human soul, as 
distinct from man's earthly relations and interests, were the primary 
and paramount purpose of the Divine Mind in giving existence to man, 
it is not easy to perceive why God should incorporate that soul (22), in 
a body made of dust of the earth and constructed with organs nicely 
fitted for all its faculties and functions, and thus bring it into close 
and important relations with earth, and subject it to conditions and 
influences common to the animal creation. (26). 

71. Without intending to detract one jot or tittle from the Christian 
estimation of the value of the soul and the importance of its eternal 
interests, I must in truth affirm that, this view of the subject is 
neither scriptural nor philosophical. The Bible, with beautiful sim- 
plicity, asserts that God first created the heaven and the earth ; or 
matter in the various forms of the inorganic world ; and that out of 
this conmion matter of the world (16), he produced the vegetable king- 
dom — the grass, the herb yielding seed, and the fruit tree yielding 
fruit after its kind : and, from the common matter of the world, he 
next produced the animal kingdom — the fish of the sea, the fowls of 
the air, and all the animals of the earth. 

72. In the work of creation thus far, God had given to each form of 
matter its specific constitution, and endowed it with all the properties 
and powers necessary for the fulfilment of the special and general pur- 
poses for which it was created. He had made the earth capable of 
sustaining vegetable life and growth to an extent equal to the wants 
of a dense population ; he had given to each vegetable form such an 
organization, and endowed it with such vital powers as fitted it for its 
condition and wants and end of being ; he had given "U) ^«i.c\i «si\ms\, 
all the constitutional capacities, all the consciousness <it \ievTi%, ^ ^^ 
power of roluntaij motioD, aJi the instinct and a\\ t\ie \n\«t^?»«ci^^ ^"^^ 

j£s nature and condition, and all the particular and geuet^ i^nst^^'^ 



32 

of its existence, rendered necessary. The earth could exul 
sustain vegetable life and growth, and the animal creation cou 
measure, subdue the spontaneous production of the vegetable kii 
but as yet, " there was not a man to till the ground." There 
native inhabitant of earth, who possessed the constitutional fa 
for such a degree of intelligence and voluntary power, as would « 
him to discern and carry into effect the great intellectual and 
purposes of God in the creation of our world, none of all the 
things of earth, capable of receiving the impress of the God 
and of discerning and responding to the mental and moral mai 
tations of the Creator, none constituted with a capacity to rec 
through the knowledge and love of, and obedience to the truth, 
power to evolve in moral action and character and influence 
indwelling and actuating moral spirit of Jehovah. (34.) And God s 
*' Let us make man in our image, after our likeness ; and let 1 
have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the . 
and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creep 
thing that creepeth upon the earth. And the Lord God formed m 
of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath 
life, and man became a living creature. So Gcod created man in I 
own image; male and female created he them. And Qod blesst 
them; and God said unto them. Be fruitful, and multiply, an 
replenish the earth, and subdue it, and have dominion over the fish o 
the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing tha 
moveth upon the earth." 

73. Now the Scriptures abundantly teach us that Gk)d has no bodily 
form ; and therefore when God said, ** Let us make man in our image, 
after our likeness," he could not have reference to the bodily form of 
man, but to man's mental and moral constitution and capabilities. God, 
therefore, according to the idiom of the sacred Scriptures, took a portion 
of the common matter of the world, and moulded it into the organiza- 
tion of an animal, and breathed into it the breath of life, and endowed 
it with capacities corresponding with the divine attributes, and thereby 
rendered human nature, in its earthly condition and relations, capable 
of developing a Godlike mind and character : and thus, man was made 
in the image and after the likeness of God. 

74. The Bible, therefore, both in its particular statements and in the 
gfeneral scope and spirit of its meaning, fully accords with the true 
revelations of God in Nature, in teaching us that the primary purpose ol 
Gk)d in the creation and earthly existence of man, was that, man, as a 
terrestrial being, should be the mental and moral representative of his 
Maker — the " lord of earth," having such dominion over all his subordi- 
nate fellow animals, and over the vegetable and mineral kingdoms, tu 
would enable him, in accordance with the constitutional laws of God ir 
Nature, to subject all things to his purposes, and, in doing this, t< 
develope in human nature the moral and spiritual kingdom of God oi 
earth, and thus render earth a garden of Eden — a Paradise of humai 
virtue and happiness, and thereby fit the human soul for a state o 
eternal blessedness, when it had completed its terrestrial stewardship 
and laid off its earthly tabernacle and returned in purity and wisdon 
and goodness to its Author. Or, in other words, man was designed U 



lire on earth as if this were the only sphere of his existence,* — ^to haye 
dominion over animate and inanimate things — ^to till the ground— to 
replffliish the earth and subdue it— -to govern all things by the laws of 
€rod in Nature ; and, by a conformity to those laws, to secure his own 
highest good and the highest good of all things under his control, and 
thus render himself godlike in wisdom and goodness and happiness, on 
earth. But, as the temporal interests of man are in perfect harmony 
with his eternal interests, that life which secures his highest good here 
fits him, also, for his highest good hereafter : and hence, the Scriptures 
declare that '* godliness has promise of the life that now is and that 
which is to come :'* and hence, also, as we have seen (23), the constitu- 
tional laws of man's animal and intellectual and moral nature are 
established in systematic unity — associating intimately the present and 
foture well-being of the soul with the true interests of the body, and 
rendering it as truly man's religious duty to obey the laws which 
primarily relate to his body, as those which are peculiar to his soul. 

75. It is not, therefore, consistent with the constitution of human 
nature, nor with the divine purpose in man's creation and earthly 
existence, nor with the highest future good of man, that he should spend 
this life in such cares and services, designed to secure his future 
happiness, as shall cause him to disregard any of the true, individual, or 
sooal, earthly interests of human nature, or neglect any of his earthly 
duties : but every law of God in his nature and relations, requires that, 
he should diligently exercise aU his powers and employ all his means, 
to render himself godlike here ; — godlike in wisdom and virtue and 
beneficence — and render earth heaven-like in holiness and righteousness 
and happiness ; that ** the kingdom of God may come and his will may 
done on earth as in heaven ;*' leaving the happiness of a future state to 
follow such a terrestrial life, as a natural and necessary consequence 
in the divine constitution and economy of things. 

THS DIFFEBENCE BETWEEN THE NATURAL AND THE MORAL POWER 

OF eOD. 

76. I have spoken (7) of the diflference between God's natural and 
moral power, and (31, 74) of the development of his moral and spiritual 
government on earth. It is essential to the right understanding of the 
argument before us, and to the just estimation of the force of my 
reasoning, that these points should now be clearly and accurately 
explained. We have seen (5), that there are three departments in the 
great system of divine government in our world : — the physical, the 
moral and the spiritual. The physical government of God consists of 
that system of laws, constitutionally established in the nature of things, 

* The material qualities and vital constitution and economy of the human body, 
and all the analogies of Nature, show that man as an mdividual was not originally 
designed to exist eternally on earth : yet the Scriptures do not even intimate that 
Adam would ever have died, if he had not sinned : and it is the general belief of the 
Ch.istian world, and perhaps of all portions of the human family, that, if the great 
progenitor of the species had always strictly obeyed the laws of his Creator, he 
would have lived on earth for ever. The doctrine, therefore, that man was designed 
to live on earth as if this were the only sphere of his existence, cannot be offensive 
nor surprising to any, especially when taken in connection with the great ttvithtkal 
•iicb ftn earthly lifie is the true way to fit the soul for b\essedx\e%» \^^otv^\\v« %wt^. 



by which all things are governed simply as sahstanoes irilhoat r efe rqMi 
to intelligence and moral agency in them. (23.) The moral goY crni awt 
of God consists of that system of constitutional laws, which goyemsfti 
voluntary actions of intelligent beings, as moral agents, b^ an econamf 
of motives arising from intrinsic conditions and extrinsic circumstancei. 
(19.) The spiritual government of God consists of that system of 
constitutional laws, which governs the voluntary actions of intelligent 
beings, by an economy of intrinsic principles, or by the indweUing 
influence of the spirit of Gk>d*s moral attributes. 

77. The natural power of God, therefore, pertains to his character 
as the efficient cause of things, and is employed in creating and sup- 
porting worlds, — in giving existence and sustenance to all created Ic 
things, — in establishing, in each particular substance, its specific t^ 
constitution and properties, and in regulating all its phenomena. The Is 
moral power of God is employed purely, in an economy of motives, by t 
which man is induced to act of his own free choice, without a con- ic 
sciousness of coercion or constraint. (7,19.) Thus, if God, in order to Sie 
prevent a mr.n's drunkenness, were to strike him dead, or paralyze his ^ 
powers of voluntary action, or shut him up in prison, or put beyond ^ 
nis reach all intoxicating substances, it would be purely an exercise of 
natural or physical power, and leave the man in heart and disposition 
no less a drunkard than before ; but if God should place before the 
intemperate man such motives as would induce him, of his own free 
choice, to deny his appetite and turn away from his intoxicating 
substances, and become a temperate man, it would be purely an 
exercise of moral power. Hence, therefore, it is, in the nature of 
things, impossible that the physical omnipotence or natural power of 
God should, in any measure, be employed as a direct and immediate 
moral force. It cannot lay hold on the human faculties and compel 
man to choose freely to exercise a free will. (19.) Albeit, the natural 
power of God can be employed, to a certain extent, as an indirect moral 
force. Thus, if an individual, in spite of every moral consideration to 
the contrary, should attempt to perpetrate an act of wickedness, and 
GK)d should suddenly interpose a terrible manifestation of his natural 
power, it might appal the transgressor, and cause him to choose to 
refrain from the execution of his wicked purpose, rather than brave 
the power he feared would destroy him ; yet this kind of voluntary 
desistance from the outward act would serve, in no measure, to 
purify his heart and conscience, or improve his moral character : and, 
consequently, it is, in the nature of things, impossible that the moral 
power of God can borrow any legitimate efficiency from his physical or 
natural power. It is not in ** the great and strong wind which rends 
the mountains and breaks in pieces the rocks ; nor in the earthquake, 
nor in the fire, but in the still small voice " of truth, that the moral 
potency of God resides ! 

78. In the exercise of his natural power, God does not come forth 
in a personal *and bodily form, perceptible to human vision, or in any 
manner appreciable by the human senses. But he stands, as it were, 
behind his works, and manifests his almightiness in and through them, 
— in the tempest, the thunder-storm, the volcano, the earthquake, the 
movements of planets and of systems of planets, and in all t^e other 



35 

physical phenomena of Nature. So, neither does he, in the ordinary 
administration of his moral government, come forth in a personal and 
bodily form, perceptible to human senses, to exercise his moral power 
in the human world. This, like his natural power, is manifested or 
exerted through the medium of his works. He has, in various degrees, 
adapted the things which he has made, to act as motive powers on man, 
and cause his voluntary action ; but peculiarly has he invested man 
with attributes (72) which enable him to wield, to the full extent of 
its legitimate efficiency, the moral power of the Godhead. God is 
truth ! and all truth is of God ! If man speaks truth, it is God's truth ! 
and it is impossible, in the nature of things, that it can derive any 
legitimate efficiency from the lips or physical power, or any other 
property or circumstance of him who utters it. Its legitimate 
efficiency, as a pure moral force, in producing the results of human 
destiny, under the moral government of God, is, and necessarily must 
be precisely the same, whether uttered by man, or by an angel, or by 
God himself in a bodily form ! This we know with certainty from the 
nature of things ; and the Son of God implicitly teaches us the same, 
when he makes Abraham in the parable declare concerning the 
impenitent on earth, "If they hear not Moses and the prophets, 
neither will they be persuaded, though one rose from the dead." 

79. The moral power and government of God, in the human world, 
and the moral power and government of man are, therefore, in some 
respects identical, and in others, different and distinct. God's moral 
government on earth, as we have seen (76), consists in that system of 
constitutional laws, by which all the moral actions of man are governed, 
and all the consequences determined ; and his moral power consists in 
that fitness and force which he has constitutionally given to things 
(78) to move man to voluntary action, with conscious freedom of choice 
and will. The moral government of man consists in the operation of 
the moral laws of God through human agency, resulting inevitably in 
human good or evil, according as man's voluntary actions are in con- 
formity with, or in violation of those laws : and the moral power of man 
for good or evil consists in the right or wrong exercise, in and through 
human agency, of that motive force which Gk>d has constitutionally 
adapted things and qualities and circumstances to exert on man. In 
adjusting and establishing the constitution and economy of his moral 
government, therefore, God acted in his distinct and independent sove- 
reignty (19) ; but in the exercise of his moral power and the develop- 
ment and maintenance of his moral government in the human world, he 
acts in and through the moral agency of man : so that, in practical 
effect, God's moral power and man's moral power are the same ; and so 
far as man exercises moral power in a right manner, with a right spirit 
and to right ends, GK)d is manifested in the flesh ! God is in man 
carrying on his moral government and accomplishing his moral purposes ! 
and although the purposes of man are often widely different from the 
purposes of God, and the moral action of man, and the consequences of 
his moral action, greatly at variance with divine benevolence, yet, 
inasmuch as the constitutional laws which God has established in the 
moral nature and relations of things govern all the moral actions of 
man and determine all the consequences, the moxdl ^^^ximv^^ ^1 



36 

God in the hnman world, and the moral government of m. 
identical. (60.) 

80. If the natural and moral power of GU>d were identical, or 
measure convertible — ^if Gbd possessed an absolute moral omnip( 
by which he could effect all Ms moral purposes in the human 
irrespective of the moral constitution of man, and of the conditio, 
circumstances of man's complex nature (21, et seq.), the Bible 
be full of the most egr^ous contradictions, and represent God i 
most inconsistent, disingenuous, and truthless of beings ! For, thrc 
out the Bible, we find God expostulating with man for his sins, 
declaring that He sincerely and earnestly desires man to forsake 
evil and self-destro3^ng ways, and turn to the way of righteous 
and peace. Thus, concerning Israel, He says, " O tiat there were 
heart of obedience in them, ^at they would fear me, and keep all 
commandments always, that it might be well with them and with tl 
children for ever !" "0, that they were wise, that they understood tl 
that they would consider their latter end !" " But my people woi 
not hearken to my voice ; and Israel would none of me. So I ga 
them up unto their own hearts* lust : and they walked in their o« 
counsels.*' 0, that my people had hearkened unto me, and Israel ha 
walked in my ways !*' ** 0, that thou hadst hearkened to my command 
ments ! then had thy peace been as a river, and thy righteousness as tht 
waves of the sea !** " Say unto them, As I live, saith the Lord, I haw 
no pleasure in the death of the wicked ; but that the wicked turn from 
his way and live : turn ye ! turn ye from your evil ways ! for why will 
ye die, house of Israel P" And we find Jesus Christ, whom the 
Scriptures declare to be the Son of God, in whom dwelt the fulness of 
the Godhead, who possessed all power, weeping over the city of Jerusalem, 
and exclaiming in tones of the deepest compassion, ^'0, Jerusalem! 
Jerusalem ! thou that killest the prophets and stonest them which are 
sent unto thee, how often would I have gathered thy children together, 
even as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings, and ye would 
not !" '* 0, that thou hadst known, even thou, at least in this thy day, 
the things which belong unto thy peace ; but now they are hid from 
thine eyes !" " And ye will not come unto me that ye may have life !" 
Verily, if the natural and moral power of Grod were the same, or if the 
natural omnipotence of God could be employed as a direct and immediate 
moral force, then such language from the Everlasting Father, and from 
ihh incarnate God, would be utterly insincere and hypocritical. But 
when we know that the natural power of God can in no measure be 
employed as a direct and immediate moral force, nor impart any legiti- 
mate efficiency to his moral power (77) ; and when we know that, from 
a necessity in the nature of tlungs (18), the moral power of Qod consists 
purely of that fitness and force which he has constitutionally given to 
things (78), to move man to voluntary action with conscious freedom of 
choice and will ; and that its legitimate efficiency is, and necessarily 
must be, precisely the same whether it be exerted by man, or by an angel, 
or by God himself in a bodily form (78) ; and when we know that, from a 
necessity in the divine constitution and economy of things, the practical 
effect of the moral power of God depends almost infinitely less on its 
own intrinsic quality than on the moral susceptibility of man— <on the 



37 

londition and circumstances of man's complex nature (35), we see that 
lie Bible represents God in perfect consistency with his true character 
—and that God's tender expressions of compassion for erring and self- 
dSdcdng and self-destroying man, and of earnest desire that man will 
'orsake his transgressions and return to the way of life and peace, are 
perfectly sincere and truthful. 

"HB DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE MORAL AND SPIRITUAL GOVERNMENT OP 

GOD. 

81. The natural and moral power of God are not more generally 
unfounded in the human mind than are his moral and spiritual govern- 
nent. Indeed, the word " moral" is most vaguely used, not only by 
he unlearned in their common parlance, but even by the erudite and 
cientific, in their elaborate metaphysical and theological dissertations. 
ii its strictest, and most radical and primitive sense, however, its 
neaning comprehends only the manners, or outward voluntary actions 
»f man : and God's moral government in the human world, as we have 
leen (76), consists of that system of constitutional laws established in 
lie nature of things, which governs the voluntary actions of man, by 
m economy of motives (79), and which determines the consequence of 
hose actions. But the spiritual government of God consists of a 
ystem of constitutional laws, which governs the voluntary actions of 
ntelligent beings by an economy of intrinsic principles, or by the 
ndweUing influence of the spirit of God's moral attributes. Thus,* 
^ben an individual, in his dealings with his fellow men, gives exact 
reight or measure, and makes true statements, or represents thin^ 
Toly, because he dreads the penal consequences of violating certam 
avil laws, or because he wishes to secure public confidence and a good 
reputation, or because he fears the retributions of God if he sins — or 
irhen he maintains good morals, or manners, that he may be respected 
md esteemed in society — or strictly observes all established religious 
rites and ordinances that he may escape the future punishment of the 
incked, or secure the future blessedness of the righteous, he is acting 
mder the moral government of God ! he is voluntarily controlled by 
sxtemal motives, according to fixed laws established by the Creator in 
the constitution of things. But when an individual acts righteously 
from the spirit of righteousness — ^walks uprightly from the spirit of 
rectitude — ^maintains good morals from the spirit of integrity, without 
Miy servile regard to the frowns or favours of others, the good or evil 
}pmion of society — loves Gk)d supremely and yearns and strives after 
}neness with Him — ^not because he fears he shall suffer punishment 
beyond the grave if he displeases Him, nor because he hopes he shall 
be rewarded beyond the grave if he pleases Him, but because the spirit 
>f God is within him, quickening his mortal body — controlling his in- 
lellectual and moral faculties — ^producing his moral character and 
naking him supremely happy in its exercises — in a word, when the 
jpirit of all God's moral attributes dwells in man and is the spirit of 
us oym soul, and produces his moral actions, he is under the spiritual 

• A few sectioni of tliis work have been published in a lectuxe, on the Reapoiitl- 
ileiiess of human beings, in tiie exercise of theii moial po^eT«% 



^vemment of Gk>d ; he is in the kingdom of heaven. And accord- 
ingly, Gkxi declares by the mouth of Jeremiah concerning the new eof»- 
nant, or spiritual regimen which he had determined to established A 
the human world, " I will put my law in their inward parts and writs 
it in their hearts ; and will be their Gk)d, and they shall be my peOTle.** 
And again by Ezekiel, *' A new heart also, will I give you, and I will 
put my spirit within you, and cause you to walk in my statutes, and ys 
shall keep my judgments to do them." And He who is the Way, and 
the Truth, and the Life, declares, '* Except a man be bom of the Spirit 
he cannot enter into the kingdom of God." John also testifies, " We 
know that God abideth in us by the Spirit which he hath given us." 
" For as many as are led by ihe Spirit of God," says Paul, " they aw 
the children of God. The Spirit itself beareth witness with oiu: spirit 
that we are the children of God." And hence he exhorts the Ejphesiaiis 
to "be renewed in the spirit of their mind." And Peter affirms the 
same doctrine when he declares that the children of God " purify their 
souls by obeying the truth in the spirit imto unfeigned love." 

THE MODE AND MEANS OF SPIRITUAL BEaENERATION. 

82. Concerning the manner in which GK)d imparts his Spirit to man, h 
and developes his spiritual kingdom in the human soul, there is a con- L 
fusion in the common mind, which has been made so deep by education, L 
and rendered so permanent by tradition, that it is well nigh impossible \\ 
to remove it, even by the clearest and strongest light of truth. Never- L 
theless, it is essential to the right understanding of the philosophy of 
the Divine government, as exemplified in the history of mankind, that 
the truth in relation to this point should be clearly perceived and accu- 
rately understood. The radical error in the matter, is that men con- 
found the physical power or natural omnipotence of Gk>d (76), with the 
moral efficiency of the divine Spirit in the human soul ; and entertain 
the notion that, in some mysterious way, the Holy Spirit can act 
directly and immediately, and with irresistible energy on the soul, and 
produce its regenerating and sanctifying effects, in the perfect passive- 
ness of man's moral nature, and without any necessary connection with 
means and conditions. But, if it were in the nature of things possi- 
ble for God, at any moment, to impart the actuating spirit of his moral 
attributes (81) to the human soul, by an absolute exercise of his power, 
and wholly irrespective of man's moral agency, and of the condition 
and circumstances of his complex nature (51), how could the repeated 
declarations of God in the Scriptures, of his abhorrence of sin, and his 
desire that man should cordially obey him in the spirit, and be holy 
and happy, be reconciled with the history of the human world P Gk)d, we 
have seen (4, 16), is a self-existent, eternal, immutable, omnipresent, 
omniscient and omnipotent Spirit, and as such, he is the creator of the 
world — the First Cause of all things in Nature, and has physical power 
to make or destroy worlds at any moment : but such are the constitu- 
tional laws of Nature, which God, in infinite wisdom, and goodness, 
and power, has adjusted and established ('19), that it is not in the 
nature of things possible for the actuating spirit of God's moral 
attributes to be imparted to the human soul, except through such an 



39 

economy of means and conditions, as the constitutional laws of man*s 
moral nature and relations, and free agency, render necessary. Hence 
the Scriptures, in every part, speak of man as having the ability to with- 
stand, and as actually resisting that power of God by which the regen- 
erating and sanctifying spirit is begotten in the human soul, "finie, 
there are particular passages of ^ripture, which seem to imply an 
absolute power in God to produce, at any moment, any moral or spiritual 
effect, in the human soul, which he chooses : but these passages are 
only the peculiar idioms of language, adapted to the condition and 
drcomstances of those to whom they were addressed (66), while their 
true meaning is in perfect accordance with the great principles of 
divine government which I have asserted. 

m&AcuLous eiFTs no not prove the possessor to be in spiritual 

UNITY WITH GOD. 

83. In the progress of the divine administration in our world, God, 
according to the Bible, has, from time to time, found it necessary, for 
great moral and religious purposes, to make those extraordinary man- 
ifestations, which evince a power superior to the laws of Nature, and 
which we call miracles. (6.) This was signally the case during the 
earthly ministry of our Saviour, and his immediate disciples : and the 
Scriptures speak of the power of working miracles, of speaking in 
unknown tongues, &c., as the gifts of the Holy Spirit; and most men 
confound the divine energy by which these gifts are bestowed, with 
that by which man is " renewed in the spirit of his mind." But such 
a notion is utterly erroneous. The gift of miracles, of tongues, &c., is 
purely a result of the exercise of God's physical omnipotence or natural 
power, and serves, in no measure, to beget the Spirit of God in the 
soul of him that receives and exercises such gifts : nor are these gifts, 
in any measure, designed for such effects ; nor is it in the nature of 
things possible that they can act directly and immediately, as legiti- 
mate causes of such effects. All miraculous gifts are designed as 
demonstrations of the divine authority of certain great truths which it 
is the will of Gtod to establish in the human mind. "Wherefore, 
tongues are for a sign," says Paul to the Corinthians, '* not to them 
that believe, but to them that believe not." And it was not always, if 
ever, essential to the accomplishment of this purpose, that, they on 
whom such gifts were bestowed, should be the truly regenerate and 
spiritual children of God : nor were such gifts, of themselves, any cer- 
tain evidence that they who received them were spiritually regenerated, 
in the evangelical sense of the word. Balaam's ass was made none 
the more a child of God and none the less a brute, by receiving the 
miraculous power to speak to his master in a human language .- and, 
according to Sacred History, many human beings, during the Patri- 
archal and Mosaic Dispensations, were, for great moral and religious 
purposes in the divine government, gifted with supernatural powers, 
who were far enough from being the children of God after the type of 
Christ. And, even in the apostolic days, many of the professors of 
Christianity were of this description. Hence, Paul earnestly exhorts 
tiie Corinthians not to pride themselves in such gvitA, n.OT "^Y^^ «s^ 



dependence on them as evidences of their safety with regard to "tiie 
great salvation.*' For, says he, ** Though I speAk with the tongnieicf 
men and of angels, and have not charity, I am became as somidiBg 
brass or a tinkUng cymbal. And though I have the gift of prophecfi 
and understand all mysteries and all knowledge, and though I have m 
faith so that I could remove mountains, and have not charity, I am 
nothing." 

THE TRUTH OF GOD UNDEESTANDINaLT AMD CORDIALLY RECEIVED ASH 
OBETED, IS THE SEED, BT WHICH THE SPIRIT OF OOD IS BEOOTlKIt 
IN THE HUMAN SOUL. 

< 

84. The power of Gk)d, therefore, which is exerted in the spiritnal 
regeneration of man, is, in its character and in the mode of iti 
operations, totally different from that by which man is endowed with 
miraculous gifts. The divine economy of regeneration is necessarily 
determined by the constitutional laws which God has establi^ed in the 
nature of things ; and in that economy. Hie moral agency of man ii 
as essential as the spiritual influence of God. Our Saviour and his 
apostles speak of the spiritual regeneration of man as analogous, in 
all particulars, to natural generation. They speak of GUmI's begetting 
his spiritual children— of the seed of God by which spiritoal ctmception 
is produced in the human soul — of gestation, travail, birth, new-boro 
babes, and little children. '* Verily, verily, I say unto thee. Except a man 
be bom again he cannot see the kingdom of Gtod — Except a man be 
bom of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God." " Tte 
seed is the word of God ;" is the language of our Saviour. *' Being 
bom again," says Peter, '* not of corruptible seed, but of incorruptible, 
by the word of Grod which liveth and abideth for ever." " Of his own 
will begat he us with the word of truth," says James, " that we should 
be a kind of first-fruits of his creatures." "Born, not of blood, nor of 
the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of GK)d," says John, 
" And whosoever is born of God, doth not commit sin, for his seed 
remaineth in him." And Paul declares to the Corinthians, ** In Christ 
Jesus, I have begotten you through the gospel." 

85. Nothing is more evident from the nature of things, nor from the 
Revealed Word, than that, in the divine economy of regeneration, 
truth is necessarily the seed by which the human soul is quid^ened into 
the conception of the Spirit of God ! The word of divine truth is 
received into the heart — ^is cordially received and obeyed — ^is received 
and obeyed in the love of it ; and by these means — ^in this manner, the 
spirit of Truth — the spirit of God's moral attributes, is begotten in the 
soul, and man becomes a new-bom babe — a new creature in Christ 
Jesus ; and thus God, according to his promise, puts his spirit in man, 
and writes his law in the human heart, and establishes his spiritual 
kingdom in the human soul. But there is no intrinsic property or 
power in the word of divin etruth by which it can absolutely regene- 
rate man, at any moment — or by which the Spirit of God can be begot- 
ten in the human soul independently of the moral agency of man. If 
man turns his ear away from the truth, and shuts his heart against it, 
it can produce no regenerating efliects in him. The word of truth 



41 

weached to the Jews in the wilderness **did not profit them." says 
Paul, " not being mixed with faith in them that heard it." " Where- 
fore, as the Holy Spirit saith, To-day, if ye will hear his voice, harden 
not your hearts, as in the provocation, in ^e day of temptation in the 
wilderness." And again, to the Thessalonians he saith, "We thank 
God without ceasing, because when ye received the word of God which 
ye heard of us, ye received it not as the word of men, but (as in truth) 
as the word of God, which effectually worketh also in you that believe." 
" Because God hath from the beginning chosen you to salvation through 
sanctification of the Spirit and belief of the truth." And again, he 
saith to the Colossians, " The new man in Christ is renewed in know- 
ledge after the image of Him that created him." And Stephen, when 
remonstrating with his infatuated persecutors, says, *' Ye stiff-necked, 
and uncircumcised in heart and ears I ye do always resist the Holy 
Spirit ! as your fathers did, so do ye." 

86. The truth, therefore, must be understandingly and willingly 
received, and sincerely believed, and cordially obeyed, or man cannot 
be spiritually regenerated — ^the spirit of God's moral attributes cannot 
be begotten in the human soul : for Gk>d, in infinite wisdom, and good- 
ness, and power, has so constituted things, that, it is impossible for this 
result to be effected by any other means or in any other way. And, 
consequently, the notion that the Spirit of God can, as it were, like the 
electric or ma^etic fluid, enter into man, and, by its own absolute 
power, effect his spiritual regeneration, at any moment, without the 
mstrumentality of truth — ^without the exercise of man's moral agency 
in heartily believing, loving and obeying the truUi, is a dark and delu- 
sive superstition. 

THB BEGEMERATION OF SAUL OF TARSUS NOT MIRACULOUS. 

87. There is perhaps, no fact recorded in Sacred History, concerning 
wMch the Christian world has entertained a more erroneous notion 
than that of the conversion of the apostle Paul. This fact is invariably 
spoken of as being signally miraculous : and is frequently cited as a 
proof of Gk)d*s absolute power to convert whom and when he will. Yet 
the true spiritual regeneration of Paul was nowise different from that 
of any other man, either in the power by which it was effected, in the 
economy of its operations, or in the nature and philosophy of its effects. 
Saul of Tarsus was an ardent and conscientious man, in whom the 
moral and religious instinct was largely developed and very active. 
He was a strict Pharisee, and full of zeal for God according to the 
creed of that sect. In common with the whole Jewish nation, he was 
c(mfidently expecting the promised Messiah. But his whole education 
had, by every intellectual law of his nature, formed, and established in 
his mind, notions utterly at variance with the real character and mis- 
sion of Jesus of Nazareth. His mind, therefore, was not in a condition 
clearly to perceive and accurately to estimate the true evidence that 
existed in relation to the Messia^ship of Jesus, and consequently all 
Sttdi evidence was nugatory to him, and failed to convince his mind 
that Jesus was truly tbe Christ ; and therefore, he sincerely believed 
Jesus and his followers to be impostors, and enemies to the Common- 



wealth of Israel and to Qod ; and eonscieaiioasly fSdt that he was dote , 
God acceptable senrice in putting the ChriatiaBi to death. BntM] 
saw that Saul, with all his error of opinion and action, was eonsMF! 
tiously sincere, and only needed to be fully conyinced of the tmtliili 
obey it. In this state of things, " Saul, breathing out threateningi irf 
slaughter against the disciples of the Lord," left Jerusalem for Damsi- 
eus in pursuit of them ; " and as he journeyed, he came near Bamaseait 
and suddenly there shined round about him a light from heayen, aai 
he fell to the earth, and heard a voice simng unto him, Saul, Sidi 
why persecutest thou meP And he said. Who art thou, LordP ill 
the Lord said, I am Jesus whom thou persecutest." Now, all that WM 
miraculous in this transaction was designed solely to oonyince SmI 
that Jesus was the true Messiah — the Lord of Life ; and haying pco- 
duced this conviction, there all the effect of the miracle ended in rehnoa 
to Saul's coDversion, and Uie truth of God was left in its simplicity, to 
be the seed of spiritual regeneration in the soul of Saul, according to 
the divine economy constitutionally established in the nature of thiiigi: 
and therefore, the spiritual regeneration of Saul was, in the power hj 
which it was effected, and in the mode and philosophy of its operatkmi 
and effects, necessarily identical with that of every other human beinf 
who, since the fall, has been spiritually bom of GK>d. (5.) 

THE POWER OF aOD ALWATS CHARACTERIZED BT ITS MODS OF OFBRA- 

TION AND EFFECTS. 

88. Let it be clearly understood then, that the power of God is alwayi 
characterized by the moie of its operation and the effects which it pro- 
duces. That power which acts directly and immediately, in creatmg, 
qualifying, sustaining and controlling substances, without regard to 
moral action in them, is God's natural power ; and this is limited, as to 
its extent, only by the impossibility of causing a thing to be and not to 
be at one and the same instant ; and as to its mode, only by the im- 
possibility for a God of infinite knowledge, and wisdom, and truth, and 
righteousness, and goodness, to act ignorantly, erroneously, unjustly, at 
malevolently. (18.) That power which is employed in an economy of 
external motives, to make man act voluntarily, with conscious freedom 
of choice and will, is Gbd's moral power (76) : and this is limited, not 
by man, nor by fate, nor by any superior power to God, but by a con- 
stitution and economy of things, which God, in infinite knowledge, and 
wisdom, and goodness, and power, adjusted and established : and this 
Divine constitution of things renders it impossible for God's moral 

Sower to be absolute, and man at the same time to possess moral free- 
om. (19.) For this would require the possibility for the same thing 
to be and not to be at one and the same instant. (7.) God, therefore, in 
making man a moral agent, by the very constitutional laws upon which 
he, in his own sovereignty, established man's moral freedom, necessarily 
fixed the limits of his own moral power, and determined the mode of 
its operations, and the conditions on which the degree of its effective 
force depends. Nevertheless, inasmuch as the constitutional laws 
upon which God has founded the moral freedom of man, govern all his 
moral actions and determine all the^consequences, therefore, whether 



43 

1, in his moral freedom, acts from the force of one motive to good, 

-' #r of another to evil, he acts equally imder Ihe moral government of 

. - 4od : and it is in this philosophical sense, that when Pharaoh, from the 

"" iJNroe of one motive or class of motives, refused to let the Israelites 

' 'leave Egypt at the request of Moses, Qod hardened his heart ; and when 

ftom the force of another motive, he consented to let them go, God 

softened his heart : and it is in this philosophical sense that " the king's 

lieart is in the hand of the Lord ; as the rivers of water, he tumeth it 

whithersoever he will :" and that, " a man*s heart devisethhis way ; hut 

the Lord directeth his steps,*' and that, '* the gospel is the savour of life 

unto life, to one, and the savour of death unto death, to another :" and 

it is in this philosophical sense that we are to understand the Scriptures 

when they say, '' I the Lord form the light and create darkness ; I 

make peace and create evil; I the Lord do all these things!" and, 

" Shall there be evil in a city, and the Lord hath not done it P*' (82.) 

89. That power which is employed in making man willingly act in 
accordance with the laws of Grod — in harmony with the divine nature, 
by an economy of inward principles, or by the indwelling and actuating 
Spirit of God*s moral attributes, is Qod*s spiritual power (81 et seq.) ; 
and this, like his moral power, is necessarily limited ; and the mode of 
its operations, and the conditions on which the degree of its effective force 
depends, are necessarily determined by a divine constitution and econo- 
my, adjusted and estaolished by infinite knowledge, and wisdom, and 
goodness, and power. The natural power of God cannot be resisted 
by man ; but God's moral and spiritual power can be resisted (82) ; not 
by a self-originated or self-acquired power in man ; but by a power 
which Gk)d, in his own sovereignty, and infinite wisdom, has given man 
in the divine constitution and economy of things. There is, however, 
this important difference between the economy of God's moral govern- 
ment, and that of his spiritual government, in the human world — 
whether man acts from the force of one motive to good, or from the force 
of another motive to evil, yet, inasmuch as the laws which govern his 
free action, under the force of motive, and which determine the con- 
sequences of his action, are divinely established in the nature of things, 
man, in either case, acts equally under the moral government of God ; 
but, under the spiritual government of God, man always, from a 
necessity in the nature of things, acts from a true spirit, with a true 
intention, in accordance with the spiritual law of Gk>d. (79.) The mo- 
ment man deviates from this, he revolts from the spiritual government 
of God ! and so long as he continues to deviate, he is in a state of revolt ! 
"he is not spiritual but carnal." 

60D AI.WAYS DOES THE BEST THAT IN THE NATURE OF THINGS CAN BE. 

90. We often hear theologians attempt to apologize for the divine 
permission of sin in our world, by saying that *' God does not prefer sin, 
m itself considered ; but all things considered he does prefer it.'' If 
by this language it is meant that God could have things better if he 
would, it is an awfully blasphemous assertion ! a shocking impeach- 
ment of all the divine attributes (18) ! but if it is meant that, anterior 
to the creation of man, God, in the exercise of all his mtxi\\A ^\Xx&x^^> 



44 

saw all thiDgs— all truth, all fitness, all possibilities, allre8iilts--aiidi 
that the intellectual and moral and religious animal, man, with all Ul 
constitutional relations, could not be created in the wisest and M 
manner possible, and permitted to exist on earth, through a suooessktt 
of generations, without the consequences which actually^ have resulted 
from man's creation and earthly existence, and vet in view of all fhiik ^ 
preferred on the whole, that man should exist, the assertion is beyond 
all question true : and the statement clearly and accurately shows thit, 
the question in the Divine Mind has not been whether man should be 
what he has been from his creation, or be made better ; but whethflr 
man should be what he would be or not be permitted to exist. Hence, 
we find that throughout the whole history oi the divine administraticB 
in the human world, whenever man has transgressed to such a dmree 
that his continued existence would, on the whole, be a greater evil thin 
good, in the grand scheme of divine benevolence, Gtod cuts him ciS, 
either by a miraculous exercise of his natural power, or by a consti- 
tutional economy in nature. 

91. Whenever, therefore, in the following argument, I assert ai^ 
impossibilities in relation to the moral and spiritual government of Goo, 
in the human world, let it be remembered that the predication is made 
wholly on the principles which I have now fully explained (88, 89), 
and that it in no measure irreverentiUr limits the power of GK>d ; bat 
simply affirms those limits which Crod in his own sovereignty has 
established by the constitutional laws of Ihin^. A continual recol- 
lection of this explanation will obviate those mistakes or misapprehen- 
sions which may otherwise be made. 

MAN, IN THE PERFECT PURITY AND INTEGRITY OP HIS NATURE, MAT, TO 
A CERTAIN EXTENT, INSTINCTIVELY, AS WELL AS UNDER8TANDINGLT, 
PERCEIVE AND OBEY THE TRUTH. 

92. There is another point of great importance to the argument 
before us, which it is necessary I should explain, before I proceed to 
apply the principles I have advanced, to the history of the divine govern- 
ment in the experience of the human world. We have seen (4, 17) 
that God in infinite wisdom and goodness and power, adjusted and 
established every law of Nature, and consequentiy, that, every 
law of Nature is as truly the law of God, as a law of Revelation is 
(60) ; and so far as it has any relation to, or bearing upon man, his 
obedience to it is as truly the will of God, and as essential to his own 
good, as if it was an express statute in the Word of God. We have 
seen also (23) that, the constitutional laws of man*s corporeal nature, 
and the constitutional laws of his intellectual, moral and religious 
nature, are established in such intimate relation and svstematic unity, 
that the highest and best condition of the human body requires a 
perfect obedience, not only to its own physiological laws as living, 
organized matter, but also, to the constitutional laws of tiie intellectui^ 
moral and religious nature associated with it : and the highest and 
best condition of man's intellectual, moral and religious nature requires 
a perfect obedience, not only to its own peculiar constitutional laws, 
but also, to the constitutional laws of the body as living organized 



45 

and, consequently, the violation of the constitutional laws of 
is necessarily attended with an infraction of the constitutional 
the other. Perfect religion in man, therefore, consists in his 
in the spirit all the laws of his nature and relations (74) ; and 
short of this is loving God with aU our powers and capabilities, 
Ing ourselves according to the constitutional laws of God, in 
and loving our brethren of the human family as ourselves ! 
C short of this is a full, practical exemplification of " Glory to 
the highest, and on earth peace, and good will to man." 
have said (85) that, from a necessity in the divine constitution 
•nomy of things, truth is the seminal principle, and the only 
principle of the Spirit of God in the soul of man. Every law 
in Nature is a law or principle of truth ; and consequently, 
mstitutional law in the whole complex nature of man is a law 
e truth — an institution of the divine will — a commandment of 
nd so far as man obeys it, in the spirit of it, he is in harmony 
)d — he is under the spiritual government of God (81) ; and 
es the life of God in his own soul, and secures the good of his whole 
and this is equaUy true whether man obeys tie truth under- 
gly or instinctively. For, there is an instinctive, as well as 
I perception of, and obedience to truth. Thus, God has consti- 
hings, that everything in this world has specific properties in 
I to the human constitution, which are adapted to act favourably 
ivourably on the nature of man ; and God has organised and 
d man with determinate relations to those properties.* He has 
im the special sense of touch, to perceive the tangible properties 
js; the special sense of taste, to perceive the gustatory proper - 
things ; the special sense of smell, to perceive the olfactory 
ies of things ; the special sense of hearing, to perceive the audi- 
jperties of things, and the special sense of sight, to perceive the 
)roperties of thiags. And in the original state, ere man had, in 
lasure, depraved any of his natural senses or powers, he could, 
special sense of taste and smell, with infallible accuracy, 
tively discern the truth of the gustatory and olfactory properties 
gs, in relation to the physiological interests of his nature ; and 
as he strictly obeyed the truth thus instinctively perceived, the 
n his whole nature was precisely the same as if he had arrived 
mowledge of that truth purely by an exercise of his reasoning 
. And all the attributes of God unite to make it certain (18) 
I that state in which man came from the hands of his Maker, 
in his organization, and perfectly pure, such was the balance 
Q his intellectual faculties, and the moral and religious instincts 
limal propensities, and such the adjustment of each and all of 
dth reference to the ends for which they were instituted, that 
igious and moral and animal instincts, all concurred to prompt 
) obey the constitutional laws of his nature (31): and, while 
the state of things, man, even with extremely limited knowledge 
I infantile understanding of abstract principles and moral 
38, may live, as it were, instinctively, in harmony with God 
ids spiritual government, obedient to his holy will. But man 

See Graham's Lecturer on the Science of Human Lile, ^%^^ et m^. 



46 

haying transgressed the laws of God in his nature, his native holineii 
being lost, the integrity of his instincts is gone, they become thi '■ 
ministers of error ra&er than of truth, and continually lead him astray t- 
and therefore, in order to his restoration to the spiritual kingdom d 
God, it is in the nature of things necessary that he should be 
** renewed in knowledge after the image of Him that created him ! " He 
must understandingly belieye and obey the truth in the love of it, ot ltd 
he cannot be regenerated ! the spirit of GK>d's moral attributes cannfll lu 
be begotten in his soul. (86.) 



APPLICATION OF THE FOREOOING PRINCIPLES AND EXPLANATIONS TO SACBS9 
HISTORY. STATE IN WHICH MAN COMMENCED HIS EXISTENCE. MSANDM W^ 
OF THE PHRASE, *' LIVING SODL." GEN. ii. 7. 

94. Now, in applying the principles before us, to the history of the 
divine government in the human world, the most difficult part of the 
task, is to ascertain, with accuracy and precision, the facts in human 
experience which, when correctly apprehended, constitute the true 
phenomena of the divine will, and the legitimate data of our reasoning. 
(60.) And this difficulty meets us most imposingly, on the ver? 
threshold of the investigation. So exceedingly concise and summary is 
the Mosaic history of the primitive period of the world, and so abun- 
dantly have traditionary interpretations and poetical fictions enlarged 
upon and embellished that history, that it is hardly possible for us 
to divest ourselves wholly of the misguiding influence of erroneous edu- 
cation and fanciful associations, in relation to the original family of man. 

95. The notion seems to be generally entertained that, tiie great 
pjrogenitor of our race, before his first transgression, was not only in a 
sinless and holy state, but that, he also possessed a largely developed 
and most extensively informed mind, and an extraordinarily rich and 
highly exalted moral character : that a very polished and perfect lan- 
guage was divinely communicated to him, adapted to an unlimited 
range and scientific accuracy of discourse : that he was endowed with 
something like intuitive knowledge of all things, and an angelic wisdom 

. of understanding : in short, that as he daily held converse with angels 
and with God, so he was elevated in intellectual and moral condition, 
near to the state of angels. But this view of the subject, however 
pleasing and poetical it may be, is very far from being warranted by 
the nature of things, or by any authentic record of the case. The 
sacred Scriptures, though somewhat indefinite concerning these par- 
ticular points, are, nevertheless, sufficiently explicit and definite in 
regard to the general character, condition and circumstances of Adam, 
to show that, the Mosaic record harmonizes perfectly with scientific 
demonstration: and the confirmation which these reciprocally affi^rd 
each other is so complete as to remove every ground of reasonable doubt. 

96. They who read only our English version of the sacred Scriptures, 
however, and who understand its language according to present usage, 
can hardly derive from it the full force of the evidence in relation to 
the primitive state of man which the original Hebrew and Greek afford. 
The English word " soul " is now always used to svgiat^ " Xk^ «^\iYlMftl, 

rational and immortal substance in man, 'w'inK^ ^\AXi^s;v)is^^^m£L^tnTSk 



47 

and, in our translation of the history of the creation, man is 
shed from all the other creatures which God made, by the 
jnt of " a living soul." But this distinction is not found in 
nal text. The same words which are rendered " living soul," 
ersion, in relation to man, Gen. ii. 7, are in the original, used 
lely the same sense, in relation to all the other animals : and 
Ldently, if " nephSsh " * is rendered soul in one case, it ought 
I every case where it is used with the same original meaning ; 
n the description of the creation of the animal kingdom, 
read thus: **And God said, Let the waters bring forth 
itly the moving creature that hath \nephSsh 'hayyd] a living 
d fowl that may fly above the earth, in the open firmament of 
And God created great whales and every [nephSsh ha 

living soul that moveth, which the waters brought forth 
itly after their kind," &c. ** And God said, Let the earth bring 
le [nephSsh *hdyyd'] living soul after his kind, cattle, and 
; thing, and beast of the earth after his kind. And God said, 
/ beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to every- 
at creepeth upon the earth, wherein there is [nepMsh ^hdyya] 
r soulf I have given every green herb for meat." (Gen. i. 20, 
JO.) "And the Lord formed man of the dust of the ground, 
athed into his nostrils the breath of life, and man became 
h*hayya] a living soul." "And the Lord God brought unto 
jvery beast of the field, and every fowl of the air, which he had 
out of the ground, to see what Adam would call them ; and 
ver Adam called every [nephSsh ^hdyya] living soul, that was 
le thereof." (Gen. ii. 7, 19.) And, proceeding still further in 
aic history, we read as follows : ** And God spake unto Noah 
lis sons with him, saying. Behold, I establish my covenant with 
i with yo]ir seed after you, and with every [nephish ha ^hayyd'\ 
toul that is with you, of the fowl, of the cattle, and of every 
the earth with you. And God said. This is the token of the 
t which I make between me and you, and every [nephSsh 
living soul that is with you, for perpetual generations. And I 
lember my covenant which is between me and you and every 
h *hdyyd] living soul of all flesh. And the bow shall be in the 
ad I will look upon it that I may remember the everlasting cove- 

y object is to adapt this work to those who read only the English language, 
isary to state here, that, the Hebrew language has five vowel sounds, a, e, 
ach of which has a long, middling, and short sound, indicated in this 
oUows — a long, as in father; a middling, as in family; & short, as in man: 
>unds like ey in they ; e middling, like ei in neighbour ; i short, as in 
long, like ee in seen ; i middling, like ie in mischief; i short, as in pin :•— 
in ffo; middling, as in holiness ; 6 short, as in solemn : — a long, like oo 
u middling, like ue in rue; H short, as in full. The half- vowel e repre< 
! shortest possible sound of e, as in below. There are also two or three 
f-vowel sounds which it is not necessary for me to denote in this work. I 
ioft aspirate (') alone, to represent the first letter in the Hebrew alphabet, 
ispirated 'h instead of hh, to represent the eighth letter or 'Heth, which has 
ittural sound like that which we make in hawking up pkle^ro. ttom. tbft 
rhe rough aspirate (') 1 use to represent the sixteenll^ \eUett v.«.* A-^n 
/ the force of wbicb, aa well as that of the first leUet, OT*A-Uplv,\axi^'^ 
r {*) however, may be considered as representing avery %Vvott>oxfe*Ji>Ka^^, 
w; C)aa more rough and guttural, and 'fc aa deeply ^uUxmcA mi^xwi.^^ 



48 

nant between Ood and eyery [nepiMsh 'hipya] Uving soul of al 
that is upon the earth." (Cten. ix. 8, 9, 10, 12, 15, 16. ) And if u 
tinue to translate the Hebrew word nephfyh by the English wor« 
in other instances in which it is used in the same primary sen 
shall read as follows : " But the flesh with the soul thereof, wl 
the blood thereof, shall ye not eat." (Gen. ix. 4.) ** For the s 
the flesh is in the blood, and I have given it to you upon the al 
make an atonement for your souls : for it is the blood that mak 
atonement for the soul. For it is the soul of all flesh ; the bloo< 
is for the soul thereof : therefore, I said unto the children of 
Ye shall eat the blood of no manner of flesh ; for the soul of a] 
is the blood thereof." (Lev. xvii. 11, 14.) "Be sure that th« 
not the blood ; for the blood is the soul : and thou mayest not < 
soul with the flesh." (Deut. xii. 23.) ** And surely, your bl 
your souls will I require ; at the hand of every beast will I reqi 
and at the hand of man ; at the hand of every man's brother 
require the soul of man." (Gen. ix. 5.) ** If men strive,*' &c., * 
mischief follow, thou shalt give [nephfyh la^hSth ndpMsh'] so 
soul" (Exod. xxi. 23.) "And the XiOrd said unto Moses in I^ 
Go, return into Egypt, for all the men are dead which sought thy 
(Exod. iv. 19.) " And Reuben delivered Joseph out of the ha; 
his brethren, and said, Let us not kill his soul." (Gen. xxxvi 
" And the Lord said unto Satan [^concerning Job] Behold he is 
hand, but save his soul." (Job. li. 6.) ** Job said, What is mi 
that I should prolong my soul V* (Job. vi. 11.) "Arighteou 
regardeth the soul of his beast." (Prov. xii. 10.) 

97. The Hebrew word nephSsh^ in its radical, substantive an< 
vative forms, is used about seven hundred times in the Old Testa 
It is most generally rendered either soul or life, in our English v 
at the discretion of the translators. In some instances, in th( 
connection, and with precisely the same original meaning, 
rendered both soul and life. Thus, in Gen. xix. 19, 20, Lot s 
the angel, "Behold now thy servant hath found grace in thy 
and thou hast magnified thy mercy which thou hast showed unto 
saving my [naphshi] life : and I cannot escape to the mounta 
some evil take me and I die. Behold now this city is near to ile€ 
let me escape thither and my \naphshi] soul shall live." (See ali 
xvii. 11.) (96.) In its primitive radical sense, it means to breai 
take breath : and in its substantive form, breath — the vivify: 
animating breath. In its most comprehensive, primitive se: 
means, not what is peculiar to man, but what is peculiar to the : 
kingdom — ^to " all fiesh" (Lev. xvii. 14), namely, animal life 
basis of animal consciousness, sensibility, perception, feeling, ir 
appetite and voluntary power. And hence, it is often used in a j 
ary and figurative sense, to signify the animal soul, not o 
comprehending the animal feelings, emotions, appetites, &c. ; bi 
as incorporated, and including the body with all its animal, intel 
and moral attributes or powers : and accordingly, all the propert: 
powers of the animal, intellectual and moral nature of man, are, 
Hebrew Scriptures^ figuratively attxVbuted \o ncphftsh. TViw&, t\ 
is said to live ; to have appetite •, to desVre ^ood\ \o "\ift \i\fli^ 



49 

; to long to eat, and to lust for certain kinds of food ; to be 
I with unclean food ; to be full to loathing ; to be empty ; to 
; to be dried away, from want of food, &c. And again, nepMsh 
X) be in jeopardy ; to be feared for, trembled for, fled for ; to be 
;d ; to be slain, to be put to death ; to die ; to be dead. Thus ; 
3ever hath slain any soul,*^ &c. (Num. zxzi. 16.) "Will ye 
me among my people," &c., " to slay the souls that should not 
to saye the souls alive that should not live P " (Ezek. xiii-. 19.) 
Toshua took Makkedah and smote it with the edge of the sword, 
king thereof he utterly destroyed, them, and all the souls that 
erein ; he smote it with the edge of the sword, and all the souls 
re therein." (Josh. x. 28, 30.) *' And Samson said. Let my soul 
h. the Philistines.*' (Judges xvi. 30.) " All the days that a 
;e separateth himself unto the Lord, he shall come at no dead 
(Kum. vi. 6.) "Neither shall the high priest go into any 
mil nor defile himself for his father or for his mother." (Lev. 
) See also, Num. ix. 6, 7, 10, and xix. 11, 13, where nephSsh 
in the same sense, and rendered body^ by our translators : and 
di. 4, and Num v. 2, where it is rendered, the dead. And, 
nephXsh is said to think; to know, to have knowledge; to 
)er; to love; to hate; to rejoice; to grieve; to melt for 
ss; to be lifted up; to be cast down; to be proud; to be 
; to thirst after God ; to pant after the Lord ; to be poured out 
the Lord ; to desire evil ; to take vengeance ; to touch an 
I thing ; to sin ; to swear ; to commit trespass, &c. NephSsh 
io used by the Hebrews, as soul is by us, to signify the indi- 
luman being or person : as " All the souls that came out of the 
:' Jacob were seventy souW^ (Exod. i. 5) ; " according to the 
of your souls " (Exod. xvi. 16) ; "all the souls of the house of 
^bich came into Egypt were three score and ten." (Gen. xlvi, 
If a man be found stealing a soul of his brethren of the 
1 of Israel, and maketh merchandise of him, or selleth him, 
at thief shall die." (Deut. xxiv. 7.) "If a priest buy a soul 
is money," &c. (Lev. xxii. 11.) "And the souls [i.e., the 
that they had gotten in Haran," &c. (Gen. xii. 5.) 
t is important here, to remark that, the book of Genesis was 
y written some thirty or forty years earlier than any other part 
Hebrew Scriptures ; and that, the time during which the Old 
ent, as a whole, was being written, was not less than a thousand 

And, during this time, the Jews were, as a general fact, 
lly developing the intellectual and moral man (66) ; and, as a 

and necessary consequence, their language was, almost con- 
r, undergoing changes, as to the constituent elements in the 
X ideas signified by their words, and becoming more and more 
lysical and rich in meaning. (64.) Hence nephSsh, and many 
lebrew words which were, originally, of a purely animal import, 
lly took on a metaphysical meaning, and came more and more 
sed to signify mental and moral qualities. And hence, also, it 
ously not a correct method of Biblical m\«r^TeX.^\A.ciix^., \s> 
me the meaning of words in the book of Qeiieais,\i^ ^^ "O^^ ^"^ 
e in the later Hebrew Scriptures. 



50 



CORBESFONDBNCE BETWEEN THE HEBREW AND THE GREEK. 

99. The Greek word psuche^ in its radical, substantive and derivativtf 
forms, exactly corresponds, in signification, both primary and secondary, 
literal and figurative, with the Hebrew word nephgsh : and, accord* 
ingly nephSsh is always rendered psuche in the Septnagint. Thus, 
nephSsh ^hayyd in the Hebrew [living creature and living soul in our 
English version]. Gen. i. 20, 21, 24, 30; u. 7, 19; ix. 10, 12, 15, 16; 
Lev. xi. 10, &c. (96), is psuche zosa {living psucke] in the Septuagint: 
and nepMsh meth^ or dead nephSsfi^Tne&nmg in a figurative sense of 
the word '*nepkSsh" dead body^ Lev. xxi. 11 ; Num. vi. 6, &c. (97) 
is rendered psuche tStSlSutekuia, or dead psuche^ in the Septuagint: 
and nephSsh ta'hath ndphSsh [life for life']i Exod. xxi. 23, is psuehen 
anti psuches : — and so, in nearly every instance throughout the Old 
Testament, the Hebrew word nepMsh, whether used in its primitive or 
secondary, literal or figurative sense, is represented by psuche, with a 
corresponding meaning in the Septuagint. And it is an interesting 
consideration in regard to this Greek version of the Old Testament, 
that we have little reason to doubt that, at least, so much of it as the 
five books of Moses, was made nearly three thousand years befnre 
Christ, by learned Jews, with whom both the Hebrew and the Greek 
had all the freshness of living languages. 

100. Psuche, in its various forms, occurs more than a hundred 
times in the original text of the New Testament ; and like nephSsh in 
the Old Testament (97), is generally rendered either soul or life, in 
our English version, at the discretion of the translators ; and like 
nephSsh, also, it is predicated both of man and the lower animals. 
Thus in Rev. viii. 9 ; xvi. 3, " And the second angel sounded, &c., 
and the third part of the creatures which were in the sea and had 
psuchas \life'\ died. And the second angel poured out his vial upon 
the sea ; and it became as the blood of a dead man ; and every psuche 
zosa [living soul] died in the sea." So in Lev. xi. 10, ** Every nepJi^h 
ha^hayyd [living sout\, or soul which lives in the waters, and hath 
not fins and scales, shall be an abomination unto you." While Paul 
was preaching at Troas, in the night, a young man who was sleeping 
in a window, " fell down from the third loft, and was taken up dead. 
And Paul went down and fell on him, and embracing him said, 
Trouble not yourselves ; for his psuche [life] is in him." (Acts xx. 
9, 10.) So in 1 Kings xvii. 21, 22, "And Elijah stretched himself 
upon the [dead] child three times, and cried unto the Lord and said, 
O Lord, my Gtod ; I pray thee let this child's nephish [sout] come into 
him again. And the Lord heard the voice of Elijah ; and the nephSsh 
[soul] of the child came into him again, and he revived." " And the 
angel of the Lord appeared, in a dream, to Joseph, in Egypt, saying, 
Arise and take the young child and his mother, and go into the land of 
Israel; for they are dead which sought the young child's psuchin 
[life.] (Matt. ii. 20.) "Take no thought for your psuche [life\, 
what ye shall eat or what ye shall drink. Is not the psuche [life] 
more than the food," &c. P (Matt. vi. 25.) " For, whosoever will save 
his psuchen [life] shall lose it ; and whosoever will lose his psuchen, 
[life'] for my sake, shall find it. For, what is a man profited if he shall 



51 

e whole world and lose his own psucfien ]soul or life ?1 or what 
man give in exchange for his psucfies^* isoul or life f ] (Matt. 
, 26.) So in Job ii. 4, *' All that a man hath will he give for 
t?isJid " [life] ** For the Son of man is not come to destroy 
isuchas \lives\ but to save them." (Luke ix. 56.) *' The Son 
. came not to be ministered unto, but to minister ; and to give 
ichen \Hf^\j^ ransom for many." (Matt. xx. 28.) So in 
. 10, 15, "When thou shalt make his naphsho [soul, i.e., Zi/c] 
ring for sin, &c. : — ^because he hath poured out his naphsJid 
.c, life] unto death," &c. And John x. 11 — 17, "The good 
rd giveth his psuchen \life'\ for the sheep. I am the good 
rd, and I lay down my psuchen \life'\ for the sheep." Also, 
iii. 16, " Because he laid down his psuchen {life"] for us : and we 
» lay down o\xrpsuchas [livesly for the brethren." " Peter said 
im. Lord, I will lay down my psuchen [life'] for thy sake." 
dii. 37.) "Men that have hazarded their psuchas [lives] for 
oe of our Lord Jesus Christ." (Acts xv. 26.) " Neither count I 
icTien [life] dear unto myself, so that I might finish my course 
»y," &c. (Acts XX. 24.) "I perceive that this voyage will be 
lit and much damage, not only of the lading and ship, but also 
rpsucJion** [lives]. Acts xxvii. 10 — and inverse 22, "Now, I 
you to be of good cheer ; for. there shall be no loss of psuches 
%mong you, but of the ship." "And the merchants of the earth 
iveep and mourn over Babylon ; for no man buyeth their 
uidise any more — ^the merchandise of gold, and silver, and 
LS stones," &c. "and bodies and psuchai anthropon** [souls of 

Rev. xviii. 13. So in Ezek. xxvii. 13, " They traded be 
fh ddam" [in the souls of men.] 

The primary sense of the verb psucho is to breathe ; and the 
imple, primary sense of the substantive psuche, is breath — ^the 
ng or animating breath of all animals : and in its most compre- 
e primary sense, like nephSsh in the Hebrew (97), it means 
{ Ufe as the basis of animal consciousness, sensibility, perception, 
^, instinct, appetite and voluntary power. And hence, by a figure 
jcb in which a part is put for the whole, it is sometimes used to 
B all these, together with the intellectual and moral powers, in 
mplex idea of man : as in Luke xii. 19, " 1 will say to my 
; [sout], psuche, thou hast much goods laid up for many years ; 
line ease J eat, drink, and be merry," Immediately following, 
er, it occurs in its more simple and primitive sense : " But God 
ito him, Thou fool ! this night do they require thy psuchen [Hf^] 
i ; then whose shall those things be, which thou hast provided P" 
b. iv. 12, it is used to distinguish animal life with its attributes, 
>n to all animals, from the more purely metaphysical or spiritual 
i of man. (28.) " The word of God is quick and powerful, and 
T than any two-edged sword, piercing even to the dividing 
ise of psuches [soul] andpneumatos" [5^in^],t.c.. discriminating 
jn the animal sensibilities, affections, &c., andtlie^ute\^«^\t\toxaJL 
ses ; and, with this discriminating power, accataXj^^ ^^o^erKov^ 
ral quality of the thoughts and intents of tYie\ieaT\,. ^'i^.^ ^'^^ 
in 1 Tbess. v. 23; it is used to distingidsli aiiYixxaXViX^^*^^*^J^ 



52 

peculiar attributes, both from the spirit and from the body. " I pnfj 
Gtod your whole pneuma [spirit] and psuehe [sout] and soma [boM 
be preserved blameless unto the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ" Ii 
other instances it is used to signify the deprayed animid sensibilituii 
appetites, and passions, as affecting or influencing the intellectual aol 
moral character and conduct of man. (26.) Thus, in James iii. U, 15. 
*' If ye have bitter envying and strife in your hearts, glory not ; $m 
lie not against the truth. This wisdom descendeth not irom above, M 
is earthly, psuchike [sensual]^ devilish." And in Jude, 18, I%- 
*' Kemember how that they told you there should be mockers in till: 
last time, who should walk after their own ungodly lusts. These \d 
they who separate themselves, psuekikoi [sensucU], having not ttt 
spirit." So in Prov. xxiii. 2, *' Put a knife to thy throat if thoa kv 
ba*Sl nepJ^gsh" [a greedy man, a sensttalistf given to apjtetUi.] 
Also, in Hab. ii. 5, ** Yea, also, because he transgresseth by wine,ks 
is a proud man, neither keepeth at home, who enlargeth his ndphdi 
[desire or lust] as hell [she^ol], and as death, and cannot besatimed.' 
In three instances p^uc^ is rendered mind; thus. Acts xiv. 2, "M 
the unbelieving Jews stirred up the gentiles, and made their psnekm 
[minds] evil-affected against the bretidren." And PhU. i. 27, *' Staiii 
last witn one spirit and with one psuchi^* [mind,] And Heb. ziL 9b 
*'Lest ye be wearied and faint, in yovs psrtmas** [minds], h 
John X. 24, "How long wilt thou m4ikeusto doubt" {psuchen *emiB 
airSis;) hold our mind in suspense — perplex our souls InEph. vL 
6, "Doing the will of God ek psuches" [from the heart]. And 
Col. iii. 23, "Whatsoever ye do, do it ek psuches [heartily] as to the 
Lord." 

102. In a very few instances in the Gk)spels, and somewhat more 
frequently in the Epistles, psuehe is used in a more purely metaphysi- 
cal sense to signify the immmial soul of man. Thus, Matt. z. 28, 
"Fear not them which kill the body, but are not able to kill tlM 
psuchen [soul;] but rather fear him who is able to destroy both 
psuchen [soul] and body in hell" [gehenna]. And James i. 21, 
"Receive with meekness the engrafted word, which is able to save 
yowc psuchas^* [souls]. And 1 Pet. i. 9, "Receiving the end of your 
faith, even the Salvation of your psuchon " [^omZjJ. But this signifi- 
cation evidently came into use among the Jews, with the more clearly 
defined ideas of man's immortality " brought to light by Jesus Christ 
(98), and which, at most, are but dimly and indistinctly shadowed forth 
in the Old Testament : and it is, nevertheless, fully manifest, even 
from the New Testament use of the word, that its primitive signification 
concerning human beings relates exclusively to me animal nature of 
man. And the Apostle Paul, who was a more thorough Greek scholar, 
and who, from education, had a more accurate knowledge of the prim- 
itive and radical meaning and force of the word, than any other New 
Testament writer, though he sometimes employs it in a secondai^ 
sense which relates to the immortal nature of man, generally uses it 
with a strict regard to its primitive meaning, to signify simply animal 
life, or, more comprehensively, the animal nature of man : and it is in 
tMs sense that he uses it in his ftrsl e^piaWft to ^^ C.QTvxi>Cci:\«Qa^ Tiot 
cnJjr in contrasting the animal with the 8^vc*\t\x»\Ti«.tvaft ^i txi*5v,\sssS 



53 

in contrasting the first with the last Adam ; or Adam with Christ : 
■Id in so doings, solves the very question under consideration. 

Xli THAT CK>D MADE OF MAN IS NATURAL. — ^PAUL*S INTBRFBSTATION OF 

GBNESIS ii. 7. 

103. **.Now, we have received,*' says Paul, "not the spirit of the 

rorld, but the Spirit which is of God ; that we might know the thin^ 

liat are f reel^r given to us of GK>d. Which things also we speak, not in 

Am words which man's wisdom teacheth ; but which the holy Spirit 

boadieth, comparing spiritual things with spiritual. But the psuchikos 

amihropos \animcU man] receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God ; 

flir they are foolishness unto him, neither can he know them, because 

lliey are spiritually discerned.'* (1 Cor. ii. 12 — 14.) In our English 

'WefTtnon of uie New Testament, vsuchikos, in this and subsequent pas- 

Mges of the same Epistle, which I shall examine, is, without any pro- 

|nety or definiteness of meaning, rendered *' natural." For the word 

watuTCLi, in its true sense, is as strictly applicable to the spirit as to the 

\ody. All that Gtod made of man, whether corporeal or spiritual, whether 

lertaining^ to his bodily or intellectual or moral nature, is equally 

vttural : and therefore, to speak of the natural man or natural oody, 

in ccmtradistinction to a spiritual man or spiritual body, is absurd. It 

n true that we speak of the moral man in distinction from the natural : 

and with propriety ; because we still include in the meaning of the word 

natural, all the constitutional faculties and powers of man's whole 

complex nature — as well his intellectual and moral, as his prehensive 

and locomotive, or upper and lower limbs : and by the word moral we 

mean only his voluntary exercise of his natural faculties and powers, 

and the inherent results of that exercise. The moral sense, or any in- 

teUectual faculty in the human constitution, therefore, is as truly a 

natural faculty, as any bodily power with which man is constitutionally 

endowed. It is the animal man that receiveth not the things of the 

Spirit of God, as the context clearly shows : for the Apostle having 

asserted this of the psuchikos anthropoSy immediately applies the 

doctrine to the Corinthian proselytes, and affirms of them, *'And I, 

brethren, could not speak unto you as unto spiritual, but as unto 

sarkikois—even as unto babes in Christ." Here, it is manifest that 

psueJUkos and sarkikos are used as convertible terms, to signify the 

same thing. And, indeed, both of these terms are always used in the 

New Testament, to distinguish the animal man from the spiritual : 

and also sarx yiesh] from which the adjective sarkikos [cama^^ is 

derived, has, in general, the same signification. Critically speakmg, 

however, there is a nice difference between the New Testament meaning 

ci psuchikos and that of sarkikos. The former signifies the animal 

man in distinction from the spiritual, without necessarily including the 

idea of depravity ; the latter signifies the animal man with all his 

depraved mstincts, appetites, propensities, lusts, &c. Thus, in the 

passage under consideration, the Apostle says to the Corinthians, " For 

whereas there is among you envying, and strife, and 6i^\ci\i%,vc^ '^^ 

•OvrKagUah word earmai, U from the Latin adlectWe oamaUi, ^«A:<i«^ ^<^^QD^ 
tarv, ear$$i*, which meant Aeah, 



not sarkikoi" [camaW] And, again, Rom. vii. 14 — ^24, **We knoff.^ 
that the law is spiritual but I am sarkikos"' [eamat], have a deprml' 
animal nature — a body of death ! so that I do not so perfectly and m» 
variably obey the Spirit, as I would ; or, as in tlie spirit of my mind I 
desire and determine to. (34). And also, 1 Pet. ii. 11, ** Dearly belofri, 
I beseech you, as strangers and pilgrims, abstain from sarlnkon *ipi» 
thumion [fleshly lusts^ which war against the soul." (32.) *' This Im^ 
then (Gal. v. 16, 17), Walk in the iS^nrtY, and ye shall not fulfil the 
lusts of the fiesh. For the flesh lusteth against the Spirit, and te 
Spirit against the flesh ; and these are contrary the one to the oUier; 
so that ye cannot do the things that ye would." (33.) For (Bom. Tifi. 
5, 6, 7), '* They that are after the flesh do mind the things of the fleshi 
but they that are after the Spirit, the things of the Spirit. For te 
minding of the flesh is death ; but the min£ng of the Spirit is life and 
peace ; because the minding of the flesh is enmity against God ; fnr it 
IS not subject to the law of Gk>d :" i.e., the minding of the flesh is eon* 
trary to the minding of the law of God. And (Gal. v. 24), "Thef 
that are Christ's have crucified the flesh with the afifections and lusts." 
" I beseech you, therefore, brethren, by the mercies of God (Rom. tL 
1), Uiat ye present your bodies a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable onto 
Gk)d, in spiritual service." (35.) But this nice difference is not always 
observed, and psuckikos, as we have seen (101), is sometimes used to 
signify the depraved animal sensibilities, appetites, and passions, as 
affecting or influencing the intellectual and moral character and con- 
duct of man ; and sarkikos, in some instances, signifies simply the 
animal nature of man, without necessarily including the idea of de- 
pravity. (26.) Thus, 1 Cor. ix. 11, *'If we have sown unto you 
spiritual things, is it a great thing if we shall reap your carnal things P" 
i.e., *' If ye have received from us those things which minister to your 
spiritual wants, is it not just that we should receive from you uiose 
things which minister to our animal wants P (See also Rom. rv. 27.) 
Nevertheless, whether this difference is observed or not, yet in all cases 
psuchikos and sarkikos are used to distinguish the animal man from 
the spiritual; and the true rendering of psuchikos is " animal." And, 
therefore, in 1 Cor. xv. 42 — 47, the soma psuehikon is tlie animal body 
" which is sown in corruption and dishonour and weakness, and raised in 
power and glory, an incorruptible soma pneumxitikon [spiritual body.] 
There is a soma psuehikon [animal body], and there is a soma 
pneumatikon [spiritual body]. And so it is written, " The first man 
Adam was Sis psuchen zosan [a living animal] ; the last Adam, Us 
pneuma zoopoioun [a quickening or vivifying Spirit.] Howbeit, that 
was not first which is pneumatikon [spiritual;] but that which is 

fsuchikon [animal;] and afterward that wmch is pneumatikon 
spiritual] . The first man is of the earth, earthy ; the second man is 
the Lord from heaven." 

104. The apostle here quotes the very language of the Septuagint in 
relation to Adam, Gen. ii. 7, *^ Sis psuchen zosan" a living animal; 
and this, beyond all question, is fiie true rendering of the Hebrew 
niphSsh 'hdyyd in Gen. ii. 7, as well as in Gen. i. 20, 21, 24, 30, &c. 
(96) where it relates to the lower amma\&*. an^ \iJdfe \.T\xfe \x^\>k&WiQ\i of 
ibe passage into English is majnfeaUv aa ioWsw*-. " Kxi^^^\fiit^<^sA 



55 

fanned man of the dost of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils 
fte breath of life, and man became a living animal," 

105. Let it not be supposed, however, that it is in anywise my object 
to establish this rendermg of the passage in question, in order to prove 
that man has no soul, in our modern sense of the word. I wish to 
ihow, what every scholar knows or may know to be true, that the 
uephish ''hdyyd of the Hebrew text, or psuche zosa of the Greek, does 
not distinguish man from other animals. In my Lectures on the 
Science of Haman Life (522, et seq.)^ I believe I have gone as far as 
any one can go in human science, to prove that man has an immaterial 
and immortal soul : and I have already shown in this work (72 — 74) 
that man was distinguished, by his Creator, from all other animals, in 
being made in the image and after the likeness of his Maker, in being 
constituted, organized, and capacitated to receive the mental and moral 
impress of the Gh>dhead — ^to be the mental and moral representative of 
God on earth. 

106. Tet, admitting all this, the question still with force and propri- 
ety recurs — ^In what condition did Adam actually commence his earthly 
existence? No one, surely, who believes in the immateriality and 
immortality of the human soul, will question that every living child is 
bom with such a soul. Every perfectly formed child is born with all 
flie intellectual and moral faculties of a full-grown man ; capable, by 
a proper exercise of those faculties, of gradually developing, in the 
progress of life, the intellect and moral character of mature age. Yet, 
18 not eveiT child, at the moment of its birth, entirely destitute of intel- 
lect and of all moral character, save that which consists in constitutional 
&ealties and predispositions P With all its innate faculties and powers, 
then, is the child, at the moment of its birth, when it first receives into 
its nostrils ** the breath of life," sensibly any thing more than a '* living ^ 
human animal V* possessing even jet, but, as it were, dim and shadowy 
animal consciousness and sensibihty and instinctive wants P And, so 
far as consciousness and manifestation are considered, is it not true, as 
the Apostle affirms, "That is not Jirst which is spiritual^ but that 
which is animal ?" 

WHAT OOD CBSATES IN MAN, AND WHAT MAN MAKES IN HIMSELF. 

107. What then, did Gk)d make in man P The human constitution. 
The combined, organic, and animal, and intellectual, and moral, and 
spiritual faculties, powers and capacities, by the proper exercise of 
which all the final causes or ends designed by the Creator are eftected. 
(21.) It might seem presumptuous to affirm that God could not make 
human mind, independently of the exercise of the mental faculties of 
man. (18.) But, so far as he has given us capacities to understand his 
works, and so far as he has made the laws of his actions intelligible to 
us, it is, in the nature of things, impossible. (7, 20.)* God makes the 
nental and moral faculties of man ; and man makes his own mind, and 
his own actual f moral character. Nevertheless, it is perfectly consistent 

*See Graham's Lectures on the Science of Human Life, S^O, ef w^% 
fj lue the ward aefuafbeie to distinguish the moral clxaiactei toT 'V)Wa\vX^%\&.^-' 
ridnsl is penonally leaponaible, ^m constitutional faculties, pTe^Ss^o%\\.\sti) %l^. 



with the nature Of things, for God, eHher by natural or by supematanl 
means, to excite the constitutional powers of man to sudi an adaoa ■ 
shall result in tiie prophetic mind, and in the true prophecy ; eren wfaoi 
the individual himself has no spiritual nor moral assimilation of dur- 
acter, nor concurrence of purpose with God (83) ; yes, even when tin 
individual does not truly and fiQly understand the import of the propheif 
which he Utters. Yet, from constitutional necessity, in every case of 
inspiration, "the spirit of the prophet is subject to the prophet** 
(1 Cor. :6y. 32); that is, the individual inspired will always, uA 
necessarily, have ideas, images, and associations in his own mind, and 
express himself in a language and manner corresponding with Uie coo* 
dition and circumstances oihis complex nature (64, et seq.): but the 
figures of speech which he uses — the prophetic la^g^age which he 
employs, may have a divine meaning, vastly deeper, and broader, and cf 
far other bearing, than the prophet himself intends or understands. It 
is also perfectly consistent with the nature of things, for God, hv lot 
own instituted means (82, et seq,) to inspire the soul of man with hn 
own holy Spirit. But all this is widely different from absolutely en« 
dowing a newly-born, or newly-created human being, with a created 
human mind, in its full development and maturity of knowledge and 
wisdom. 

108. Moreover, such a notion is manifestly incompatible with ^ 
Mosaic history of the primitive state of man ; every particular of which, 
relating to the condition and circumstances and actions of our first 
parents, before and immediately after " the fall,'* denotes their childlike 
simplicity, and inexperience, and ignorance ; and evinces that they 
commenced life without "the knowledge of good and evil." The 
situation in which they were originally placed ; tiie instructions which 
they received ; the nature of the prohibition and of the penalty ; the j 
character of the tempter ; the mode of the temptation and of the trans- 
gression ; the confiding simplicity with which Eve listened to the tempter, 
and with which Adam received " the forbidden fruit'* from his wife ; the 
effect which the transgression had on the consciousness of the trans- 
gressors ; the childlike ignorance of the nature and attributes of God, 
with which ** Adam and his wife hid themselves from the presence of 
the Lord, among the trees of the garden, because they were naked** (64) ; 
the artless simplicity with which they apologized for their disobedience, 
and the nature of the evils divinely announced to the tempter and the 
human pair as the consequences of what they had done — all concur in 
the demonstration of man's infantile ignorance, in his primitive state, 
concerning the nature and character and purposes of GK)d, and concern- 
ing his own nature and relations and interests. 

109. Our Saviour, just before he was betrayed, speaking to his disciples 
of the instructions he had been giving to them concerning spiritual 
things, said unto them, " These things have I spoken unto you in 
parables ; but the -time cometh when 1 shall no more speak unto you 
in parables, but I shall show you plainly of the Father. I have yet 
many things to say unto you, but ye cannot bear them now. Howbeit, 
when he, the Spirit of truth, is come, he will guide you into all truth.** 
Was the import of these declarations exl[ia\x'a>te^\xi\V% ».Y^\\<c.«.\Aoxi \ft X^i't 

Immediate disciples of Jesus P EvidenU^ Tio\.\ IV. "««» hq'Qdmv^ Vsa 



57 

than a general and permanent principle, which I have shown (d5) to 
be a law of God, constitutionally established in the nature of tiiingi ; 
namely, that the clearness and fulness of divine instructions to man, 
ahraya and necessarily correspond with man's ability to perceive and 
midenitand ; or, in other words, God always necessarily, adapts his 
RTelations to the condition and circumstances of man's complex nature. 
(66.) And h^ce, it is necessarily true that, if Adam h»i possessed 
that high degree of intelligence, that eztensiveness of knowledge, that 
aecnracy of understanding in regard to the spiritual nature and 
nunral character and purposes of God, and in regard to his own im- 
mortal nature and relations and interests, which many have fanci- 
fblly supposed; or even, if, in these respects, he had been equal 
to the most intelligent Christian of the present day, the divine 
eominunications to him, and his moral exercises and manifesta- 
tions in relation to them, would have been of an entirely different 
diaracter. The moral and religious instructions would have been of 
that high order which defines the duties and interests growing out of 
the moral and religious constitutions of man, and out of the moral and 
qiiritual relations which he holds to his Creator and to his fellow 
creatures: and the motives to obedience would have been of a cor- 
responding nature. The interests and penalties announced, as de- 
pending on the moral action of man, would have been explicitly such as 
are brought to light in the Gospel ; and the convictions, and contrition, 
or remorse, which would have followed the transgression, would have 
been such as evince a clear and deep perception of the sinfulness of 
tran^ressing the spiritual and righteous law of an infinitely good and 
holy God. 

110. But, instead of such a state and manifestation of things, we see 
Adam and his wife, in a state of childlike innocence and unconscious 
nakedness, without the knowledge of good and evil, placed in a garden 
to dress it and to keep it, and divinely informed that some of the fruits 
of that garden were adapted to their alimentary wants, and therefore, 
these were their natural and proper food ; and of these, they might 
freely eat: but of a certain kind of fruit in the garden, they must not 
eat nor touch, lest they died ; that the woman yielding to the sugges- 
tions of the tempter, without any apparent hesitation of mind or scruple 
of conscience, took of the forbidden fruit and did eat ; and gave also 
unto her husband with her, who, without expressing any disapprobation 
of her conduct, or evincing any unwillingness to comply with her 
wishes, readily partook with her in the transgression. And, when they 
had experience the immediate effects of what they had eaten, what 
were the consequences, so far as their consciousness and conduct are 
considered P To what knowledge did they attain P To what perceptions 
of truth were their eyes opened P Did they perceive that they had 
sinned against a spiritual and holy God P that they had ruined their 
own souls, and brought death and eternal ruin on all their posterity P 
And were they overwhelmed with spiritual convictions of, and godly 
sorrow for their sin P Bid they seek the divine presence, and prostrate 
themselves in the dust before God, and cry out, m the bitter anguish of 
tiieir spirits, " God ! we have disobeyed thy holy commandment ! 
We have sinned against thee and against our own 90\v\&\ «aA "OkSsrv ^^ 



loathe and abhor ourselves, and feel that we are not worthy to appear 
before thee ; but deserve to be cast out from thy presence for ever P* 
No : nothing of this ! But, " tiie eyes of them liotn were opened, aod 
they knew that they were naked : and they fastened the small branchei 
of the fig-tree together, and made themselves girdles for their knni. 
And they heard the voice of the Lord GKxl walking in the garden, in 
the cool of the day : and Adam and his wife hid themselves from the 

£resence of the Lord God among the trees of the garden. And the 
lOrd God called unto Adam, and said unto him. Where art thou P Aiid 
he said, I heard thy voice in the garden, and I was afraid !" But why 
was Adam afraid ? why did he hide himself among the trees of the 
garden ? Was it because he rightly understood the character of Qod| 
and had true convictions of sin, and could not come into the divine 
presence with all his guilt upon him ? No I But he was afraid end 
hid himself because he was naked! 

111. Now, is it in the nature of things possible that, if Adam had 
possessed even the intelligence of an enlightened Christian of the preseDt 
day, concerning the nature and attributes of God, if he had had any 
just notions of the divine spirituality and ubiquity and presdencei he 
would have attempted to hide himself, among the trees of the garden, 
from the all-seeing eye of Jehovah, because he was naked ? But» if 
Adam was mentally and morally a mere infant, nothing could be more 
true to nature than his behaviour. He acted just as a httle child woold 
act now in similar circumstances. " He thought as a child, he felt aa 
a child, he understood as a child, and he spoke as a child.** (64.) And 
God said unto him, " Who told thee thou wast naked ? Hast thou eaten 
of the tree whereof I commanded thee thou shouldst not eat P** Mark 
the childlike simplicity of the reply. *' The woman whom thou gavest to 
be with me, she gave me of the tree, and I did eat. And the Lord God 
said unto the woman, What is this that thou hast done P And the 
woman said nd^hash beguiled me and I did eat.*' And the Lord God 
said unto nd*hash, What P " Thou fallen spirit ! Thou arch-adversary I 
because thou hast seduced the human pair into sin, and thereby brought 
death and eternal ruin on the human kind, thou shalt endure a deeper 
misery, a fiercer remorse in the eternal hell of thine own ungodly mind P" 
No : nothing of this. But (according to our English version), ** Because 
thou hast done this, thou art cursed above all cattle and above every 
beast of the field : upon thy belly shalt thou go, and dust shalt thou eat 
all the days of thy life. And I will put enmity between thee and the 
woman, and between thy seed and her seed ; it shall bruise thy head, 
and thou shalt bruise his heel.** 

112. And now, what did God say to the human pair P Did he speak 
to them of the enormity of their sin against him, and against their own 
souls, and the souls of all their posterity P Did he talk to them of 
spiritual death, and of the retributions of eternity ; and of the covenant 
of grace and its economy of salvation P No : but, adapting his revela- 
tions to the condition and circumstances of their complex nature (66), 
he simply announced to them the natural and necessary, temporal and 
sensible consequences of their transgression. (23.) *' Unto the woman he 
said, I wi)l greatly multiply thy sorrow and t^^ conte^iviw •. m suffering 

and pain thou shalt bring forth children-, and liSaj d^%\t^ ^^;a.\i^ \s^ 



r 



59 

fty husband, and he shall rule over thee. And unto Adam he said. 
Because thou hast hearkened unto the voice of thy wife, and hast eaten 
of the tree of which I commanded thee, saying, Thou shalt not eat of it : 
enrsed is the ground for thy sake ; with toil and fatigue shalt thou eat 
tfit all the days of thy life. Thorns also, and thistles, shall it bring 
ftrUi to thee, and thou shalt eat of the herb of the field — the products of 
ti&age. In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return 
Uto the gn*ound ; for out of it wast thou taken : for dust thou art, and 
into dust shalt thou return.*' 
^ 113. Let it be remembered that, I do not in any measure call in 

rtion Uie spiritual import of the original language of this portion of 
Sacred Record, nor deny that it was, in the divine meaning and 
nirpose, all that the most spiritual-minded Christian ever understood 
It to be. But it is fully evident from every view of the subject, that 
Adam had no notion of any meaning to it beyond that which lay, obvi- 
ously, on its very face, and related exclusively to a bodily and temporal 
experience, which terminated with his return to the dust from which he 
was taken (64) : and even this notion of inexperienced bodily and 
temporal evil was necessarily very dim and indistinct. For, as Paul 
dedares to the Corinthians (103), The psuchikos anthropos [animal 
man] receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God : neither can he 
know them, because they are spiritually discerned ; and it is written. 
The first man Adam was made kispsuchen zosan [a living animal :] of 
the eartib, earthy : for that was not first which is spiritual^ but tnat 
wMch is animal : and afterward that which is spiritual." Indeed, 
nothing can be more manifest than that, the apostle Paul, in contrast- 
mg the progenitor of our species with the Lord Jesus Christ, intended 
to represent ** the first Adam," as commencing his existence a mere 
human animal : with all the elements and powers of the human consti- 
tution perfect, with faculties and capacities for the development of a 
Go^ike intellectual and moral and spiritual character ; but in a state 
of intellectual and moral and spiritual infancy ; full of the consciousness 
of aniTTn^l existence and sensibilities and wants ; actuated by animal 
appetites and desires ; and transmitting to his posterity a natiure, of 
which it is always truly predicable — ^that is not ^5^ which is spiritual, 
but thi^ which is animal. (27.) 

ORIGIN OF HUMAN LANGUA6B. 

114. Having fully shown that Adam commenced his existence in a 
state of mental and moral infancy, it is hardly necessary that I should 
say any thing in refutation of the fanciful, and even absurd notion, that 
he received, at his creation, the divine endowment of a rich and perfect 
kmguage, adapted to the use of a highly intelligent being (95) : and 
more especially, as the Mosaic Record neither expresses nor intimates 
any such idea ; but, on the contrary, affords a clear and very conclusive 
inrerence against such a notion. For the Sacred Record informs us. 
Gen. ii. 19, that, ** the Lord QtoA brought unto Adam every beast of 
the field and every fowl of the air which he ha4 ^orm^^ owX. ol \^ 
ground, to see what Adam would call them : and "wYL^X&ocset K.^»mL 
called every living creature, that was the name theteo^.'^ KsA^sjet^ 



it is important, not only in reference to* the particular qoettion not 
under consideration, but also, in reference to the general argomMl 
before us, that I should enter somewhat extensively, into two or tiiral 
explanations concerning the interpretation of this and other passagesdif 
Scripture which may come under our notice. 

115. In the first place, then, it is perfectly evident that, at least, fl» 
first portion of the Mosaic Record, comprising the first ten or elefei 
chapters of Genesis, has not, throughout, the unity, consecutiTeaM 
and chronological order of a single, original and systematic history, tf 
primeval things ; but is manifestly fragmentary, and, in all reasooaUe 
probability, made up, under divine guidance, of portions of difoeBt 
sacred traditions, or perhaps, compiled from written documents, or 
symbolical records made at a much earlier i>eriod, without a strid 
regard to chronological accuracy, and transmitted in the patriardul 
line through Noah and Abraham to Moses. Be this as it may, however, 
it is certain that the second * and third chapters of Genesis, are not i 
regular continuation of the history of things, from the first chapter to 
the fourth, but, in a style strikingly different from that which precedes 
and succeeds them, and in langua^, sometunes literal in meaning and 
minute in detail, and at other times highly figurative and exoeedmg]| 
summary and comprehensive in signification, they present an irregolar 
tissue of fragments, which are arranged in the text with little r^^ud to 
chronological order. Some of these fra«^ents are but repetitions of 
portions of the first chapter concerning the original creation and state 
of things ; and others give a more particular account of the primitive 
condition and circumstances and conduct of man : some relate imme- 
diately to the first human pair as individuals ; and others, without limi- 
tation of time or place, relate to man as a species. 

116. In the second place, the word adanit which is used in the 
Hebrew Scriptures about five hundred times in relation to human 
beings, means man as a spedes rather than as an individual ; and in 
the original text, does not, by its own proper signification, distinguish 
the progenitor of our race from others of the human kind. While he 
was the only one of the kind — the whole of human nature — ^he was, as 
a species, distinguished from the rest of the animal creation, by the 
word or name ddam : and after the species had become numerous, the 
same word still signified the whole, as a species, just as our English 
word man does. Thus: Gtod said, '*Let us make ddam in our image, 
after our likeness, and let them have dominion," &c. " So Gtod created 
A-a ddam in his image,'* &c., " male and female created he them ; and 
hd ddam became a living creature." (Gen. i. 26, 27 ; ii. 7.) "This is 
the book of the generations of ddam. In the day that Gtod created 
ddam, in the likeness of Gtod made he him. Male and female created 
he them ; and blessed them, and called their name ddam, in the day 
when they were created." (Gton. v. 1, 2.) " And it came to pass when 
hd ddam [men] began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters 
were bom unto them, that the sons of the gods [Slohim, Psalm. 
Ixxxii. 6 ; John x. 34, 35] saw the daughters of hd ddam [men'] that 
they were fair ; and they took them wives of all which they chose. 

•The first chapter of Genesis properly includes the first three verses of the second 
chapter. 



61 

the Lord said. My Spirit shall not always strive with bhd ddctm, 
], for that he also is flesh : yet his days shall be an hundred and 
f years. And Gk>d saw that the wickedness of hd ddam [171071] 
reat in the earth, &c., and it repented the Lord that he had made 
',cun [man] on the earth," &c. ; " and the Lord said, I will destroy 
lam [mart] whom I have created, from the face of the earth. 
yi. 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7. " And the Lord said in his heart, I will not 
; corse the ground any more for the sake of hd ddam [man] . (Gen. 
81.) " ijid surely your blood of your lives will I require at the 
of ha ddam [man] : and at the hand of every ish [man^s] brother 
'. require the life of hd ddam [man]. Whoso sheddeth the blood 
I ddam [maUf] by bd ddam [man] shall his blood be shed ; for in 
mage of God made he M ddam" [man]. (Gen. ix. 5, 6.) In 
Qg the first five or six chapters of Genesis in the original, there- 
a strict regard must be had to connection and circumstances, in 
to determine whether the word ddam signifies man in the indi- 
1 person of our first parent, or man as a species, without reference 
y individual : and accordingly, our translators have retained the 
ew word Adam^ or rendered it man^ in our English version, as 
judged would best give the meaning of the original text : for, in 
y every instance, the word wian, in these chapters, represents the 
lew word ddam in the original. 

r. In the third place, it is in accordance with the constitutional 
which God has established in the nature of things (57, etseq,)^ 
man, in a certain state, or condition and circumstances of his 
5 complex nature (21, et seq,), necessarily contemplates, under- 
s, and speaks of the events of divine providence and of all 
ordinary attributes, endowments, and properties of created things, 
,e effects of the immediate, personal agency of the Deity. (82.) 
hence, this is the general usage of the Hebrew Scriptures, and 
' writings of greatest antiquity ; and the general usage of man, in 
ame condition and circumstances of his nature, in every period of 
and in every part of the world. And these constitutional laws 
>t be nullified by any direct revelation from God to man : for, as 
ive seen (66) however full and definite may be the divine import 
revelation, yet, man always, from constitutional necessity, under- 
B that revelation, according to the condition and circumstances of 
miplex nature. 

^. With these explanations before us, if we turn to the third 
«r of Genesis, we shall readily perceive that the thread of the 
itive preceding the nineteenth verse and following the twentieth, 
Idenly broken off by the fragment comprising the nineteenth verse 
nost of the twentieth : that this fragment, so far, at least, as it 
js to the creation of the beasts of the field, and the fowls of the air, 
dely out of chronological order ; and does not, in any respect, 
ir to be a record of what actually took place between the point of 
at which the Lord God said, *' Itis not good that man should be 
! : I will make an help meet for him ;" and the point at which the 
God caused a deep sleep to fall upon man, and took a rib from hiB 
and made a woman. On the contrary, the whole fragment seems 
76 a general, explicative sense, without any definiteness as to time 



and place. When, therefore, we read in the nineteenth Terse of tiii 
second chapter of Genesis, that, out of the groond Uie Lord God finrnad 
every beast of the field and every fowl of the air, and brought than 
unto hd ddam [man] to see what he would call them : and whatscerw 
hd ddam [manJcaUed every living creature that was the name thereof^ 
we are not, according to any correct rule of exigesis, to understand thati 
after God had created man and planted a garden for him, and put him 
into it to dress it and to keep it, and instructed him what to eat and what 
not to eat ; and said, " It is not good that man should be alone ; I wiQ 
make an help meet for him,** he then, at that particular point of tixneb 
formed out of the ground, every beast of the field, and every fowl of the 
air, and, in a personal and visible form (78), or by some exercise of 
miraculous power, immediately and at once, gathered all the <^T>iTifi«l« 
which he had made, around man, to see what he would call them. Nor 
does the language of this fragment necessarily, or even probably, mean 
that, all the beasts of the field and fowls of the air, then in existence, 
were at any time gathered, by an inamediate personal or miraculous 
act of God, around our first parent to receive their names from him 
(6) : but it is perfectly consistent with every true principle of interpre- 
tation, to understand this fragment to mean that, in the course of 
divine providence, the different species of the lower animals were 
brought under the notice of the human species, and were named by 
man. And the time during which God was thus bringing the beasts of 
the field and the fowls of the air to man, to see what he would call them, 
may, in strict accordance with the idiom of the Mosaic Becord, be 
understood to have extended through the whole period of our first 
parent's earthly existence ; and even much longer, without doing any 
violence to the structure and import of the text. 

119. The true idea, derived from a correct interpretation of the 
Mosaic Record, concerning the primitive language of man, therefore, 
is perfectly consistent with the natural philosophy of things : namely, 
that man, in the progress of his experience, and by the natural exer- 
cise of his own vocal and mental powers, gradually associated articulate 
sounds with his sensible perceptions, and with his internal affections, 
reflections and emotions, and thus, by degrees, formed a language 
adapted to his condition and circumstances. (98.) 

THE STATE IN WHICH ADAM ACTUALLY COMMENCEn HIS EXISTENCE. 

120. Taking the most pleasing as well as the most accurate view of 
the case, then, Adam was created perfect in all his constitutional facul- 
ties and powers. His bodily organization and form were perfect — 
symmetrical and beautiful; his intellectual and moral and religious 
faculties, powers, and capacities were of the highest and noblest order, 
compatible with the ** earthiness '* of his corporeal nature and with his 
human state (22) ; but he awoke to the consciousness of his existence, 
and opened his percipient senses on external things, even as a new-bom 
infant, with only this difference — ^Adam commenced his existence in the 
full development and vigor of his organization, in the full strength of 
his mental and moral faculties, ripe for the most energetic and effective 
action and attaii^ment : but his intellect was, in no measure, developed, 



63 

and he had no moral character, save that which consisted in constita- 
tkmal elements, and in native holiness, or, moral and spiritual and 
physiological cleanness from sin and depravity. (26.) His intellectual 
derelopment and moral character, from the nature of things, could only 
lesalt from his own exercise of his intellectual and moral faculties. 
(107.) This exercise was vastly more vigorous and efficient than that 
of an infant, and consequently his progress in the attainment of know- 
ledge, and in the general development of the intellectual and moral 
man, was commensurately more rapid. But still, as an infant learns 
to know its mother's person, long before it has any notions of her 
mental nature, and learns to love, and fear, and obey her, long before it 
has the least idea of her moral qualities, so Adam, in his mental and 
moral infancy, knew and loved and feared and obeyed God as his supe- 
rior and as his governor and protector, long before he had the most 
diadowy notion of his spiritual nature and moral character. 

121. Indeed, as we have seen (64), there was, in the nature of things, 
no possible way by which Adam could attain to correct notions of the 
spiritual nature and moral attributes of God, except through his own 
intellectual and moral consciousness, exercise and experience. Just in 
proportion as he, through his own mental and moral development and 
experience, came to accurate notions of purely intellectual and moral 
qualities, so he was able to entertain correct notions of spirit, truth, 
justice, goodness, &c., and to associate these in the complex abstract 
idea of God. (66.) Hence, from constitutional necessity (18), Adam's 
notions of GK)d were, at first, little more than an indistinct impression of, 
and reverence for, a superior power or force : and this power or force 
became, to Adam's understandmg, more and more intelligent, and more 
and more a Being of wiU and purpose and moral attributes, in propor- 
tion as Adam became more and more an intellectual and moral being. 
Or, in other words, in proportion as the intellectual and moral man was 
developed in Adam, the Godhead was actually revealed to him : accord- 
ing to that constitutional law of Nature (4) asserted by Christ to his 
disciples ; " When the Spirit of truth has come into your souls, he shall 
take of mine and show it unto you :" or, in proportion as the Spirit of 
truth possesses your souls, enlightens your understanding, and rules 
your whole nature, wiU the Gk)dhead in me be revealed to you. (109.) 
And the Mosaic Record, in perfect harmony with this natural philosophy 
and constitutional economy of things, represents the intercourse and 
interlocution between GK)d and Adam, as, in all respects, adapted to an 
intellectual and moral infant, who was made It nephSsh ^Myyd — Sis 
psucJien zosan — a living animal, of the earth, earthy ; in whom, that 
was not first which is spiritual, but that which is animal. (103.) More- 
over, all this is strictly consistent with what we have seen to be the 
primary purpose of God in the creation and earthly existence of man 
(69, et seq.) ; which was not that he should start on his terrestrial 
career, with high endowments of knowledge and wisdom ; but that he 
should commence his existence as the highest species in the animal 
kingdom ( 16), and by the proper exercise of his constitutional powers, 
develope, in the progress and duties of life, a Godlike intellect and moral 
character ; and, in so doing, develope and establish, in the human world, 
the moral and spiritual kingdom of heaven. (74.) 



ADAM WAS IKBTINCnyBLT IK THB KINGDOM OF GOD. 

122. But it may be demanded, If Adam commenced his existence in 
such a state of intellectual and moral infancy, how then, can it, with any 
propriety, be said that he was, before his first act of disobedience, in 
the kingdom of God ; and th^t, by that act of disobedience, he revolted 
from that kingdom, and " f^ into a state of sin and misery P " We 
have seen (21) that man has a complex nature; and that every faeol^ 
and power of his nature is instituted upon fixed, constitutional prind* 
pies : and that these constitutional principles are established in perfeek 
narmony and systematic unity ; and with determinate relations to tiie 
nature and character of God, and of created things (23) : so ^at, all 
the laws of God, relating to man, are constitutionally established in the 
nature of things. (4.^ We have seen also (93), that from a necesntf in 
the divine constitution and economy of things, truth is the semmal 
principle, and the only seminal principle of the Spirit of Gkd in the soul 
of man ; that every law of God m Nature is a law or principle of tmlh ; 
and consequently, every constitutional law in the whole complex nature 
of man, is a law of divme truth — an institution of the divine will-— a 
commandment of God : and man^s obedience to it is as truly the will of 
God, and as essential to his own good, as if it was an express statute in 
^e revealed word of God (92) ; and so far as he does obey it, in the 
^irit of it, he is in harmony with €k>d — ^he is under the spiritual 
government of God, and cherishes the life of God in his own soul, and 
secures the good of his whole nature : and this is equaUy true, whether 
he obeys the truth understandingly or instinctively. And all the 
attributes of God unite to make it certain (18) that, in that state in 
which man came from the hands of his Maker, perfect in his organiza- 
tion, and perfectly pure ; such was the balance between his intellectual 
faculties, and moral and religious instincts, and animal propensities, and 
such the adjustment of each and all of these with reference to the ends 
for which they were instituted, that the religious and moral and animal 
instincts all concurred (26) to prompt man to obey the constitutional 
laws of his nature ; and, while such was the state of things, Adam, even 
with extremely limited knowledge, and an infantile understanding of 
abstract principles, and moral qualities, lived instinctively rather than 
intelligently in harmony with God — under his spiritual government — 
obedient to his holy wiU. Yet, the animal nature of man, being the 
basis of his human existence (32), and all its appetites, propensities, 
and wants, acting upon his mental faculties in such a manner, as 
naturally to cause his mind to concur with, and seek the satisfaction of 
those appetites, propensities, and wants (26 — 29), Adam was, from 
constitutional necessity (18), ever liable to temptation and seduction 
" through the flesh ;" and hence, according to the Mosaic Record, this 
was the very point which Gtod fortified by prohibition, and the very 
point at which the tempter made his successful attack on human nature. 
[See also, Gen. vi. 3, and Rom. viii. 3.] 



. THE NATUBX OF TB^ PBIMITIYB PROHIBITION AMD TRANSGBESSION. 

123. Having thus fully contemplated the state in which the prog-en- 
iter of our species commenced his existence, we are now led to consider 
tiie nature of the primitiye prohibition of God, and the transgression or 
"fidl of man,'* as recorded by Moses. In so succinct and summary an 
•eoount, as Moses has giyen us, of the origin of things, and of the 
primitiye family of man ; and ^ven it, too — as is believed — under 
diyme guidance, on thei authority of sacred tradition, or written 
documents (115), and in a language peculiar to the intellectual and 
moral state of those times (107), it is evident that a large allowance 
most be made for the allegorical import of the language employed to 
r^resent, as it were, by a few comprehensive figures, a wide extent of 
lustorieal truth. The Mosaic History — probably in accordance with 
(me fragment of sacred tradition, or perhaps, symbolical record by some 
of the earlier patriarchs, and possibly of primeval origin — informs us, 
in a general manner, that God created the heaven and the earth, and 
all the heavenly bodies, and the different species of vegetables and 
animals, and, last of all, he created man, male and female, in his own 
image, and blessed them, and said unto them, "Be fruitful and multiply 
and replenish the earth, and subdue it ; and have dominion over the 
fish of the sea, and oyer the fowl of the air, and over every living thing 
that moveth upon the earth. And God said. Behold I have given you 
eyery herb bearing seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and 
every tree, in the which, is the fruit of a tree yielding seed ; to you it 
shall be for food.'* 

124. Here, then, let it be particularly observed, that, according to 
the first and most consecutive portion of the Mosaic Record concerning 
the origin and primitive state of things, man, male and female, is the 
crowning work of creation — the last creature which God made ; and 
his dominion, by divine constitution and commission, extends over the 
whole earth, including the mineral, vegetable, and animal kingdoms 
(74) ; and he is instructed to be fruitful and multiply, and replenish 
the earth and subdue it : and every herb bearing seed which is upon the 
face of aJl the earth, and every tree, in the which, is the fruit of a tree 
yielding seed, are, by divine constitution and appointment, given to man 
as his natural and appropriate food. 

125. In accordance, probably, with another fragment of sacred 
tradition, or another symbolical record, whose language has, evidently, 
a more figurative sense and allegorical import (115), the Mosaic History 
informs us, more particularly, that ** the Lord God formed man of the 
dust of the ground ; and planted a garden eastward in Eden, and caused 
to grow out of the ground every tree that is pleasant to the sight, and 
go^ for food ; the tree of life also, in the midst of the garden, and the 
tree of knowledge of good and evil. And he took the man and put him 
into the garden of Eden to dress it, and to keep it. And the Lord God 
commanded the man, saying, Of every tree of the garden thou mayest 
freely eat ; but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evU, thou shalt 
not eat of it ; for in the day that thou eatest thereof," moth tdmuth 
[dying thou shalt or wilt diei] a Hebrew idiom, which means, thou 



wilt begin to die. And now, according to this portion of the Mosaijw 
Record, the Lord God said, " It is not good that man should be alone ; 't- 
will make him an help meet for him." Before executing tiiis pu uKi w B -- 
however, the Lord God formed out of the ground every beast of the ft^lk: 
and every fowl of the air, and brought them unto Adam to see what hMc 
would call them : and after Adam had given names to all the animB]i^'£ 
the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam and took one of hif A 
ribs and made a woman and brought her unto him. X 

126. Now, it is obvious, at the first glance, that, if both of theflt& 
portions of the Mosaic Record are taken in ihe literal sense dT tlii V; 
language, as parts of the same continuous and consecutive hlstoried ■? 
narrative, there is a discrepancy between them, utterly irreconcilabls^ 
with the idea of divine inspiration. But, we have seen (115), that the ft 
second and third chapters of Genesis are not a regular continuation off 
the history of things, from the first chapter to the fourth, bat an irreg* t 
ular tissue of fragments, which are arranged in the text with litus m 
regard to chronological order ; and in a language peculiar to that state \ 
of human nature with which it co-existed (119) ; consisting, in part, of I 
words of literal meaning, and, in part, of words of highly figuratxfv . 
signification, or allegorical import.* If, therefore, we consider the fint 
portion of the Mosaic Record which I have cited above, from the first 
chapter of Genesis (123), as a simple historical narrative ; and the second 
portion, from the second chapter (125), as an explicative supplement or 
addition to the first, and of partly literal and partly allegorical import, 
we shall at once remove aU discrepancies, and render me whole per- 
fectly compatible with the idea of divine authority for the true meaning 
of the Mosaic Record (107) .* and the only difficulty which will remaiii 
will be that of coming, with entire certain^, to the true meaning of tiie 
language which has an allegorical signification. And t^s diffici:dty 
will, I believe, be found to be vastly less than is generally imagined. 

EVERY LAW OF NATURE A LAW OF GOD. — NATURE THE FIRST GREAT 

VOLUME OF DIVINE REVELATION. NATURE AND THE WORD ONE GREAT 

SYSTEM OF DIVINE REVELATION. 

127. We have seen (4, 93,) that, the eternal and infinite Jehovah is 
the omnipotent and intelligent First Cause of all things ; that Nature 
is his own handiwork ; and every law and principle and property of 
Nature is the inscription of his omnific will and purpose : that if the 
Bible is, in truth, a record of divine Revelation, the God of the Bible 
and the God of Nature, are one and the same Being ; that Nature, when 
rightly understood and interpreted, is as truly a revelation of God, as 
the word of divine inspiration is ; and that every law of Nature is as 
truly a law of God, and, when accurately ascertained, is as truly obli- 
gatory in all its bearings upon man, as any law or word of Revelation. 

* The " primitive writing of Egypt," says a learned writer, "is neither entirely 
representative, nor entirely ideagraphic ; i.e., using a mixture of figurative and sym- 
bolical characters : nor is it entirely phonetic. But it is a complex system — a mode 
of writing at once figurative, symbolical and phonetic, in the same text, the same 
phrase, and even in one and the same word." And of this description, was probably 
the primitive, patriarchal record (115), from which Moses derived the matter of the 
second and third chapters of Genesis. 



67 

tie have seen also (60) that the history of the human world, when 
Mmrately understood, is as true and infallible a revelation of the laws 
tf €}od, Goneeming^ man, as, in the nature of things, can possibly be 

ide ; and whether we come to a knowledge of these laws, by a direct, 
[■pematiiral revelation or by investigation and experience, they are 
[IpHiUy the laws of God, and equally authoritative to man. Nature, 
fterefore, is, in truth, the first great volume of divine Revelation, in 
tMeli the deeply written will of Qod lies ever ready to be disclosed to 
fte hmnan mind by the true developments of science. The Revealed 
Word is hut a Supplement to this first great Volume, containing, prin- 
^ftOf, divine instructions concerning moral and spiritual things, which 
Halore speaks not of, or. but faintly implies, or dimly indicates. What 
ii vanting in Nature, therefore, is in the Word ; and what is not in the 
Wioid is in Nature. And hence, Nature and the written Word together, 
Mte complete the one great system of divine Revelation to man : 
and hence also, the truth of Nature, and the true meaning of the 
Bevealed Word, must be in harmony. Nature, however, is more the 
VQiome of knowledge, and the Revealed Word is more the volume of 
fmtik. In all things, therefore, concerning which the Revealed Word 
is sflent, we are to look to Nature for the truth ; and when the Word 
does not folly explain itself, we are legitimately led to Nature for the 
explanation. And, indeed, it is a glorious and incontrovertible truth,. 
fiiat every advancement in the true knowledge of Nature — all true 
progress in the natural sciences, increases the light whidi beams upon 
the pages of the Revealed Word, and enables him who,, in humble 
dMality, is g^ded by the holy Spirit of truth, to look deeper and deeper 
into the divine Mind and more and more clearly and fully to understand 
the will and purposes of God. (109.) 

128. We are ever accustomed to look up to the ancients, and especially 
Of the patriarchal and Hebrew line, as being nearer to God, and better 
understanding his nature and character and purposes, than any of the 
human family who have existed in these later periods of time. But 
this is exactly the reverse of truth : for, as we have seen (109), it is a 
law of constitutional necessity, continually demonstrated in Nature, 
and repeatedly afiirmed in the inspired Word, that, always in proportion 
as the intellectual and moral and spiritual man is truly developed, the 
true God is revealed to him (121) : and hence, as a general fact, God 
has been continually becoming more and more clearly, truly and fully 
revealed to the human mind, from the creation of Adam, to the present 
hour. In Christ, "all fulness dwelt;" and the apostles, and the 
prophets before them, were distinguished instruments by which God 
gave forth the verbal embodiment of great truths to the world, to be 
more fully discerned and better understood by later generations (107) : 
yet, no mere man of earlier times — not even the prophets and apostles 
— ever had so full, so clear, so perfect a conception of the Godhead, as 
the most holy and enlightened children of God of the present age. The 
nominally Christian world, it is true, has made but sorry proficiency 
in the knowledge of divine things, for nineteen hundred years ; and 
most that call themselves Christians are still, like the Hebrew prose- 
lytes in the dAjs of Paul, **8uch as have need of milk and. ^q\. q\ ^\^ 
food ;" or, as the Cormtbian proselytes,, to whom the &^^\X<& ^^ ^Qiv:i\.^T^<^ 



68 

'STVHiV » r.7itt» spiritual, but as unto carnal, even as unto babes in Christ."..- 
Srvorrhrie**, the true disciples of Christ have, from generation to^^ 
o«ncniiv«i. ("ontinually realized the verity of his promise, that, the!" 
§pinJ fi( truth should guide his followers more and more deeply intnl;'" 
i^-?nr truth and more and more clearly reveal to them the fulness of ^'^ 
tht ^i^inity >" ^^' '^^ ^^^ ^^°™ *^® present to antiquity, therefore, /^ 
ft»- ^irfit by which to read the Oracles of God, is like turning from the ^ 
hiif^t m>i of day to the morning mist ; or, from the glorious effulgence "^ 
/^' m ^Oi'hinah within the veil to the dim radiance of the candles of ;^. 
tV^^^wtor sanctuary. 

rii^. Since, therefore, the simple historical narrative of the Mosaic ? 
I^A^vivl informs us, in a general manner, Grod created man, male and ^ 
^\«)o. in his own image, and gave him dominion over all the earth, *" 
4iri«l ^^vor the vegetable and animal kingdoms (74), and bade him be )'. 
fiy\\i«\\ and multiply and replenish the earth and subdue it, and gave ': 
>»«« <*vorj' herb bearing seed, which is upon the face of the earth, and '* 
^xvr\- 1 rob in the which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed for his food; ?!• 
^Xkx\ iiupo the fragmentary, supplemental and explicative portion of the •? 
K<h>>rd (126) informs us, in a more figurative language, that, God * 
|\)«n(o<l a garden eastward in Eden, and caused to grow out of the !: 
•ft^Miiul, every tree that is pleasant to the sight and good for food : the ^^ 
lit»o of life also, in the midst of the garden, and the tree of knowledge ^' 
^\f j^hhI and evil ; and put the man into the garden to dress it and to ^,' 
li^p it, and commanded him, saying, Of every tree of the garden thou ^ 
w*yost freely eat ; but of the tree of knowledge of good and evil, ^ 
tium nhalt not eat of it ; for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou wilt *^ 
W^\\\ to die ; that the woman yielding to the suggestions of the tempter, ^ 
t^H^k of the forbidden fruit and did eat, and gave also unto her husband ^ 
with her, and he did eat ; and the eyes of them both were opened, and ^ 
thov knew that they were naked : and since the Revealed Word neither \ 
explicitly nor implicitly informs us what this tree of knowledge of good 
una evil was ; and since what is not in the Revealed Word is in Nature, 
which is the first great volume of divine Revelation (127), we are legiti- 
nmtely led to the volume of Nature for a solution of this question, and 
Ant the ascertainment of the ground on which the primal prohibition 
WM made. 

tOD IMPOSES NO ABSOLUTE AND ARBITRARY LAWS ON MAN. — THE PRIMAL 
PBOHEBITION A LAW OF BENEVOLENCE FOUNDED IN THE NATURE OF 
THmeS. — THE KNOWLEDGE OOD WOULD KEEP MAN FROM. 

180. And, in the full and dear revelations which we, in this nineteenth 
ktury of the Christian dispensation, have of Gk>d in his word and in 
works and providence, are we not manifestly bound so to interpret 
le letter of a particular part of revelation, that it will harmonize per- 
KStly with the general scope and spirit of the Revealed Word as a 
whole, and with all we know of the divine character and government 
Mid purposes, from the revelations of God in his works P (4, 60.) And 
^joes not all we know of Gk)d and Nature teach us that, every divine 
li£jj]§tiiig to man is, with infinite wisdom and benevolence, founded 
of things, for human good (92) P that God imposes no 




69 

lalitnry and despotic law on man, merely to test his moral character 
'*!): bat that, every moral statute and precept and admonition of 
relation is founded on and in perfect harmony with the laws of consti- 
and relation divinely established in the nature of things P (23.) 
1 do we not know that man is constitutionally capacitated by the hand 
[if kb MaJcer, for knowledge (73) P and that his mdividual and social, 
Ed and eternal good requires that he should, according to the 
ipMral teaching of the Scriptures, grow in knowledge andinimder- 
■Hiding P (74.) It cannot be, therefore, that God prohibited man's 
irttunments in knowledge, in the purely intellectual signification of the 
VMd. Nor can it be that, God was imwilling that man should know 

ri, (V tiiat he should so understand evil, as to be even GKxllike in 
power to distinguish between good and evil. But, such is the 
flatnre of things, that there is a kind of knowledge which man cannot 
ilteiii to by experience^ without injuring his whole nature, without 
itginmng to die : and therefore, the constitutional laws of Gh)d in Nature 
(4} are against man's making such attainments in knowledge : and we 
■nre seen (92) that, every constitutional law in the whole complex 
wrtore of man (21) is a principle of divine truth — an institution of the 
dhdne will — a commandment of God ; and man's obedience to it is as 
Inly the will of God, and as essential to his own good, as if it was an 
vpress statute in the revealed word of God. This, then, is the kind of 
kaowledge which Qtod has, in the constitutional laws of Nature, pro- 
lobited ; the knowledge of good and evil, acquired by an experience, 
iriddi, from the nature of things, is necessarily attended with pernicious 
cffDcts. And let it be remembered that, the prohibition is included in 
fte dietetic regimen prescribed for man. *' Of every tree of the garden 
ttoa mayest freely eat ; but of the *ets Mdda*8th took wd ra — " tree of 
fhe knowledge of good and evil" 16 tocMl — " tfiou shalt not eat,^* 
ISie prohibition, therefore, primarily relates to sensual experience — the 
sercise, or indulgence of animal appetite ; and the penal consequence 
annoonced, is of a corresponding nature : — In the day that thou eatest 
thereof, moth tdmuth — **thou wilt begin to die;" or, as Eve repeats it 
to the tempter, ye shall not eat of it, neither shall ye touch it, p&i 
temStJiun — ** lest ye die." 

THS MATUBB OF THE TBEB OF KN0WLBD6E OF GOOD AND EVIL, AND 

THE NATURE OF THE TEMPTER. 

131. Moreover, the da*ah tohh ward — ** knowledge of good and evil" 
evidently relates to a sensual experience. Every Hebrew scholar is 
aware tibat the Hebrew verb yddhd*, which our translators have ren- 
dered " know" with its derivative da^Sth, " knowledge" is primarily 
of a sensual import, and means that consciousness or perception which 
man has of any thing, or knowledge which he acquires, by the exercise 
of the animal sensibilities, by sensual experience. Indeed, there is 
scarcely any one thing whidi this verb more frequently sig^es in the 
Hebrew text, than the exercise or indulgence of a merely animal 
a|>petite, as k;^ ^ ddam yddhS' eth* Mwd ishto (Gen. iv. 1) ; and its 
higher and more purely intellectual, or metaphysical si^ification^ 
wmch is manifestly secondary , was gradually su^etmdL\X!;s&^VBk.\}DA'^x^« 



70 

gress of intellectual and moral development. (98.) And the same Is 
true of the terms used to designate the qualities of what is known or ex- 
perienced — tobh wd rd — good and evil ; both of which primarily relate 
to an experience pertaining to man's animal nature (32), and without 
any reference to the abstract moral qualities, good and evil ; tobh 
signifying a state of agreeable consciousness, enjoyment, satisfaction, 
pleasure, well-being ; literally he feels well ; and ru'a signifying a 
disagreeable or unpleasant consciousness ; a state of depression, sadness, 
degeneracy ; an experience of ill ; a suffering of injury, or of pernicious 
effects. 

132. Again, the character of the tempter, and the nature of the 
influence which he exerted upon Eve, and of the curse which was pro- 
nounced upon him, aU concur to prove that the tree of knowledge of 
good and evil related to sensual experience. For, to assume that the 
nd*hash of the Mosaic Record literally means a serpent or any other 
mere animal, is to plunge into many and great difficulties, which admit 
of no satisfactory explanations. If we suppose that the fruit of the 
tree, of which the human pair were forbibden to eat, was the natural 
and appropriate food of an animal called nd^hash, and that Eve, seeing 
this animal eat of the tree without experiencing any injury, inferred 
that she also might eat of it with impunity, it is obvious that, in such a 
case the animal would be nowise blameworthy, and that, to punish him 
for what he did, would be unjust and cruel. Or, if we suppose that 
nd*hash was an animal originally possessing an erect form and the power 
of speech, and that he literally conversed with Eve, in the mann^ 
described in the Mosaic Record, it then becomes necessary to assume 
that the animal was transformed and greatly degraded in his nature, as 
a punishment for his wickedness, fiut the Record warrants no such 
assumption : besides, this would be wholly contrary to the idea strongly 
implied in subsequent Scriptures, and particularly in the New Tes- 
tament, and generally entertained by the Hebrew and Christian world, 
that, in a spiritual and peculiar sense, the seed of the woman — ^the 
Messiah — should be wounded by nd^hash, and in turn, should bruise his 
head. Or, if we suppose that the great Adversary — the Spirit of evil, 
entered into the serpent, or some other animal called nd^hasht and spoke 
and acted in and through that animal, in tempting Eve, our position is 
without any authority from the Mosaic Record, which neither expresses, 
implies, nor intimates such an idea. Besides, in such a case, the curse 
pronounced on nd^hash would be manifestly unjust and absurd. 

133. Nd'hash, therefore, cannot mean literally a mere serpent, nor 
any other mere animal : nor a serpent, nor any other animal possessed 
and actuated by Satan. And it is well known to every Hebrew scholar, 
that the word nd^hash has no signification which relates to the bodily 
form or motion, or any visible properties of a serpent, or any other 
animal ; but, it radically and primarily means to perceive or view atten* 
tively ; to search or scrutinize closely ; to find out, or acquire knowledge 
by experience. Thus, in Gen. xxx. 27, nthasTUi — I have es^erieneed, 
or learned by experience. Yet it is evident that the serpent is figura- 
tively alluded to in the curse pronounded on nd*hash; and there is 
reason to believe that, in the primitive symbolical record (123), from 
wiiicb Moses, under ^vine guidance, probably took this portion of his 



%^ Ustory, the figure of a serpent was the symbol used to represent 
W m'hash. 

K 134. According to our English version of the Scriptures, nd*h€uh, or 

F the serpent '* was more subtle than any beast of the field, which the 

p X«ord Grod had made.*' And we have this rendering, because the word 

I here translated svl^tle is found to have that meaning in the later 

I Hebrew Scriptures. But we have seen (98) that it is not a correct 

method of Biblical interpretation, to determine the meaning of a word 

in the book of Genesis, by the use of language long after this book was 

written. The true method is to determine the meaning of a word by 

flie grammatical structure of the text, the use of language in the same 

book and in the same age, by the circumstances of the case, and by the 

nature of things. (127.) 

135. It is a matter of common knowledge that the division of the 
•e?eral books of the Bible into chapters and verses is of comparatively 
recent date, and the vowel points of the Hebrew Scriptures are not of 
rery great antiquity. If, therefore, we begin at the last verse of the 
second chapter of Genesis and proceed according to the original and true 
eonnection of the Hebrew text, we shall read as follows : " And they were 
lioth *arumim [naked], the man and his wife, and they were not 
ashamed. Also, hannd'hash was ^drum more than any hayyath " life^ or 
Uve" [thing] of the field, which the Lord God had made." And this 
Ma^kash had such an influence upon the woman that she ate of the 
forbidden fruit, and gave also to her husband, and he ate; "and the 

Ses of them hoth were opened, and they knew, or were conscious that 
ey were ^erUmmim [naked"] And when they were called into the 
pesenoe of the Lord, Adam said, I heard thy voice in the garden and 
was afraid because I was *erdm [naked], and I hid myself. And God 
said, 'Who told thee that thou wast *erdm [naked ?] Here then we find 
that, radically the same word is used five times, in the same connection, 
concerning the same subject, and evidently with reference to the same 
idea. And here, only, does the word occur, in anything like the same 
form and signification, in the book of Genesis ; and it very rarely occurs 
in the five books of Moses. Moreover, it is evident that the original 
writer Intended to predicate the same thing of the human pair and of 
nd^hash with only this difiTerence, the word is used with more intensity 
of meaning in relation to l^e latter than to the former. The man and 
lis wife were both unconsciously naked. Also nd'hash was naked more 
lian any live thing of the field, which the Lord God had made. 

136. Now, it must be remembered that, at the time when this record 

i%s originally made, such was the state of the intellectual and moral 

itui, as to development, and such was the corresponding state of 

iBguage (119), that, nearly every word used in human speech was of 

uiinport whidi related primarily to the senses ; or, signified physical 

an animal properties ; and, consequently, the nearest approach which 

the could make, in idea and expression, to spiritual things or qualities, 

waE«o contemplate and speak of them as incarnated, and as manifested 

in tl flesh. Hence we find the primitive Scriptures vesting God with 

allt» attributes of man (64); and every term they use to designate 

the i%racter and actions of the Deity relates, in its primary sense, to 

the iture, condition, circumstances, actions or afifections of human 



72 

beings. (60.) Thus the verb kddSsh with its derivatiyes, which pri- 3= 
marUy means cleanness of bcMly, clothes, food, habitation, place, &c., it jC 
applied to Gk>d, to signify the cleanness of his nature and character, jr 
and his abhorrence of all uncleanness. And GK>d, through Moses, ht X» 
accordance with the constitutional laws which govern divine revelatuns .k 
(66, 107), uses the same term in relation to himself, and commands the '^ 
Jews to wash their bodies and clothes, and put every unclean thing onl ^ 
of their camp, because he is a clean, or holy Qod, and will not dweD l". 
with them nor walk in the midst of them, if he sees any undeamieit 
amongst them. And, in this manner, nearly every term in the early 
Hebrew Scriptures, which primarily relates to the physical, animal, 
intellectual or moral nature of man, is applied to God in relation to tito 
divine person, manifestations and conduct. 

137. When, therefore, the primitive record was made (123) that 
" nd'hash was *drum more than any live thing of the field whidi the 
Lord God had made," it was undoubtedly the nearest approach whidi 
man could then make, in idea and expression, to a spirit, or spiritual 
agent or influence. Na^hash was nakedi not only as to bodily dothiog, 
but naked as to the body itself. And every sound Biblical scholar is 
aware that the most rigorous fidelity to the Hebrew and €hreek Scrip- 
tures, does not render it necessary that we should understand either 
the tempter of Eve or the tempter of our Saviour, fo have had a bodily 
form and to have spoken audibly to the outward ear. And it is evident 
that our Saviour and the apostles John and Paul imply, in their alki- 
sions to the temptation and fall of our first parents, that, the tempter 
was a spirit. If it be said that the curse pronounced upon the tempter 
clearly miplies that he had a body possessed of animal attributes, the 
reply is that, for reasons already assigned (136), this was a necessary 
figure of speech, which, as we shall see, signified or symbolized, in a 
very strong and pertinent manner, the thing really intended. Besides, 
the sense given in our English version of the curse (Gen. ill. 14), in 
relation to the bodily attitude and motion of nffhash^ is rather figura- 
tively derived from, than radically signified by the Hebrew word 
gt ^honcfidf from gd'Mn, which primarily means to incline^ to bendy or 
bow down. Moreover, it should ever be remembered as a most impor- 
tant principle in Biblical interpretation, that, as a general rule, what, 
in the idiom of the Hebrew Scriptures, is said to be the curse of God 
upon any of his creatures, is a benevolent annunciation of the natura' 
and necessary consequences of sin, rather than a denunciation of th 
vindictive or punitive wrath of Gk)d. (130.) 

138. That nffhash was a spirit acting in Eve, in accordance wii 
the constitutional laws of her nature (26, et seq.), rather tiiana 
personal or bodily agent exerting an influence upon her, by verll 
argument or persuasion, is therefore clearly evident, from a fair inf - 
pretation of the Mosaic Record, from all the circumstances of the ee, 
and from the nature of things. (127.) As to the origin of this spir— 
whether it was what the Scriptures generally speak of as Satan Jie 
Devil, the Adversary, &c., or whether it naturally arose from the m- 
plex nature of man (21), under the itifluence of certain circumstces 
(18), is a question which is not necessarily involved in the g^ral 
argument before us; because, in eitlier case, the spirit nece^nly 



73 

acted in perfect accordance with the constitutional laws of man's nature 
(S6). and left him equally free as a moral agent, and equally respon- 
sible for his actions. And, as we know nothing of the attributes of a 
^irit, except from its manifestations and effects, and as all spiritual 
inflaences, of whatever origin, acting upon, or in man, necessarily 
become identified in his mental consciousness, with his own mind (28), 
It is philosophically accurate and proper, and thoroughly in accordance 
with the general usage of the Scriptures, to identify any spirit acting 
ia man, with the man himself, as a moral agent, and to characterize 
tte spirit by its manifestations and effects, or by the moral conduct of 
the man. 

THE CHARACTER OF THB TEMPTER. 

139. What, then, according to this rule, was the spirit which seduced 
"the mother of all living" and led to *'the original sin " of man P 
What is that spirit, as characterized by its manifestations and effects, 
whidi, acting m, and identified with man, is more accursed than any 
fiving thing of earth P which always inclines to degradation and 
undeanness P What is the spirit which, in effect, is the perpetual and 
most deadly enemy of the well-being of the human kind P which has 
deeply wounded not only the heel, but the whole nature of all " the 
leea of the woman P " the spirit which renders the laws of God weak 
and ineffectual to save man from sin, and which made it necessary for 
€k>d to " send his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh " for the redemp- 
tion of the race P the spirit which crucified the Son of Gk)d, and the 
head of which, the Son of God effectually bruises, in redeeming, regen- 
erating and sanctifying man P the spirit whidi renders the cross of 
Christ, in the spiritual import of the word, most essential to the salva- 
tion of man P the spirit which, in man, is the most implacable enemy 
of God P which " is not subject to the law of God, neither indeed can 
be ?" the spirit which has wrought in man all the evils announced in 
the primal curse — all the evils which the human family have suffered, 
and filled the earth with violence and misery and untimely death P The 
volume of Nature (127), the whole history of human experience (60), 
and the Revealed Word, answer with one voice — the Spirit of Sen- 
suality. Almost as soon as " man began to multiply on the face of the 
earth, the Lord said. My Spirit shall not alwa^ strive [bhd ddam] in 
man, for that he also isjlesh ;" that is, accordmg to the context (116), 
he is animal— -giYen to sensually — ^to the inordinate indulgence of the 
animal appetites. And our Saviour, characterizing the ruling spirit of 
man, and that which has been most ruinous to man's whole nature, and 
brought the heaviest judgments of heaven upon the race, says, *' As the 
days of Noah were, so shall also the coming of the Son of man be : for, 
as in the days that were before the flood, they were eating and drinking, 
marrying and giving in marriage, even thus shall it be in the day when 
the Son of man is revealed." But as these three great appetites impU- 
dtly specified by our Saviour, were implanted in the nature of man, by 
the Creator (18), and the exercise of them is necessary to Hie suste* 
nance and perpetuity of the race, the proper exercise of them can 
neither be offensive to God nor injurious to man ; but is in accordance 
with the constitutional and revealed laws of God. (27.) It is, there- 



74 

fore, the inordinate indulgence of these animal appetites — theprostita* ,^ 
tion of them to the spirit of sensuality ^ which Gbd means when he sayi \ 
that man " also \a flesh;" and which our Saviour means when he sayi ^^ 
** they were eating and drinking, marrying and giving in marriage.'* «. 
That is, they were too grossly sensual to perceive and understand and 
obey the truth of God. (30, 35, 93.) [See also Bom. i. 21— 32.] "God 
tempted no man," sajrg James, "but every man is tempted when he is 
drawn away of his own lusts and enticed. Then, when lust hath coo- 
ceived, it bringeth forth sin ; and sin, when it is finished, bringetli - 
forth death.*' And Paul declares that " the law was weak through Ha 
flesh." Or in other words ; that such was the force of the animal 
appetites — the controlling influence of the spirit of sensuality, on the 
intellectual and voluntary powers of man (26), that, "the law could 
not" restrain him from transgression. And, therefore, " the minding 
of the flesh is enmity against Grod ; for it is not in accordance with the 
law of God, neither indeed can be." And consequently, " they that are 
in the flesh/* or cherish the spirit of sensuality, " cannot please 6k>d." 
*^ For the flesh lusteth against the Spirit of God, and the Spirit strivetk 
against the flesh ; and these are contrary, the one to the other." 
Hence, " the minding of the flesh is death (32), but the minding of the 
8pirit is life and peace." What the law, therefore, could not do for 
the salvation of man, in that it was weak through the flesh, God sent 
his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh, to ^ect, by tiding upon 
him the animal nature of man — by " being tempted in all points like as 
we are,*' and yet through the fulness of the Holy Spirit overcoming the 
spirit of sensuality in the flesh, and bringing every animal lust and 
appetite, and every thought, into obedience to the spiritual law of God, 
and " presenting his body without spot to God ;" " that the righteous- 
ness of the law might be fulfilled in those who, having, through faith, 
received the Spirit of Christ (85), walk not after the flesh but after the 
Spirit." " For if any man have not the Spirit of Christ he is none of 
his." " And if Christ be in him the body is dead" — the animal appe- 
tites and lusts are subdued — ^the spirit of sensuality is crucified, because 
it leads to sin- " They that are Christ's have crucified the flesh with 
the aflections and lusts." " The old man is crucified with Christ, that 
the body of sin may be destroyed." Hence the exhortations, " Let not 
sin therefore, reign in your mortal body by obeying the lusts thereof." 
" But put ye on the Lord Jesus Christ, and make no provision for the 
flesh to fulfil the lusts thereof." "Walk in the Spirit and ye shall not 
fulfil the lusts of the flesh." "Now the works ot the flesh are these, 
adultery, fornication, uncleanness, lasciviousness, idolatry, witchcraft, 
hatred, variance, emulations, wrath, strife, seditions, heresies, envyings, 
murders, drunkenness, revellings, and such like." And, " Whence come 
wars and fightings among you P come they not hence, even of your lusts 
that war in your members P" Wherefore, " walk not according to the 
course of this world, according to the prince of the power of the air, the 
spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience, " "in the lusts 
of the flesh, fulfilling the desires of the flesh and of the carnal mind." 
" Mortify, therefore, your members which are upon the earth, fornica- 
tion, uncleanness, inordinate aflfection, evil concupiscence, and covetous- 
ness which is idolatry : for which things' sake the wrath of God cometh 



m the children of disobedience.'* Put off the old man which is comipt 
aeoording to the deceitful lusts ; and be renewed in the spirit of your 
mind; and put on the new man, which, after God, is created in 
rigfateoosness and in the holiness of truth." ** Abstain from fleshly 
faists, which war against the soul." "For Christ hath suffered for us 
in the flesh, that his Spirit may be in us, subduing the lust of the flesh, 
and purifying us from all undeanness," "that we may be partakers of 
the divine nature, having escaped the corruption which is in the world 
through lust." (103.) Wherefore, " present your bodies a living sacri- 
fice, holy, acceptable to God, a spiritual service." (51.) But, 1 might 
eontinne till I had filled a volume with citations of this kind, without 
exhausting the Scriptures ; for indeed, the Bible, from begining to end, 
is full of &e doctrine that the spiritual nd *hash of the Mosaic Record, 
as characterized by its manifestations and eflects in, and through 
human nature (138), the spirit which has brought upon the human 
race all the evils expressed and implied in the primal prohibition and 
the primal curse, is the spirit of sensuality, And the constitutional 
laws of Nature, and all human experience confirm this testimony of the 
Scriptores. (127.) 

1^. Hiere is, also, another idea in regard to this spirit, implied in the 
Mosaic Record, which has not been fully brought out. Nd'hashf we 
have seen (137), was naked not only as to bodily clothing, but as to the 
body itself. Yet, even this does not exhaust the meaning of the word 
in its peculiar application to nd^hash. The nakedness predicated of 
the hnman pair, of which " they were not ashamed," manifestly does 
not refer to the whole surface of the body, but to particular parts of the 
body; and it was to the consciousness of the nakenlness of these parts, 
^at, in the figurative language of the Record, the eyes of our first 
parents were opened by eating " the forbidden fruit : " and these were 
the only parts covered by the aprons or girdles which they made of the 
small branches of the fig-tree. The nakedness predicated of nd^kash, 
therefore, not only means that he was a spirit, but, a spirit whose influ- 
ence had a peculiar relation to these parts, and to the appetite pertaining 
to them : or, in other words, it was a libidinous spirit, whose influence 
was to bring the human pair, through improper indulgence, to the 
consciousness of their nakedness, 

THE TEMPTATION AND FALL, 

141. Tempted and seduced by such a spirit, then, to what other than 
a sensual experience of good and evil could our first parents be led ? 
And, as it is a constitutional law of the human mind, always to attribute 
to the object contemplated, all the physiological aflections of the 
body, identified with die mental consciousness, by whatever cause pro** 
duced (28) ; and as it is also a constitutional law of human nature, 
that, the mind always naturally contemplates those objects which 
correspond with the physiological state and aflections of the body, or, 
are adapted to satisfy the actuating appetite or desire, and always to 
estimate the importance of the object, oy the intensity of the affection 
or force of the appetite (29), therefore, the * its hddda'Sth tobh wd rd* — 
tree of the knowledge of good and evilf was of such a nature that Eve 



76 

eoutd contemplate it with sensual desire, as adapted to afibrdher sensnal 
enjoyment, or a pleasine sensual experience. And this is exactly in 
accordance with the Mosaic Record of the case. Nd^hcuh^ or the 
selfish spirit of sensuality, suggested to the mind of Eve, " God has for- 
bidden you to eat of the tree of knowledge of good and evil, pretending 
that its eifects on you will he pernicious : but, do not belieye it. Lo 
moth temSthun* — ye trill not begin to die ! for the fruit of the tree is 
adapted to make you feel well — to give you an experience of pleasure ; 
and God is afraid, if you eat of this tree, you will become as knowing 
and as wise as he his, in these things." And when the woman ter€^ 
tobh hd*ets Uma*dehdl we ehi thffawa hit Id'enaytm we ne^hmadk 
hd*ets U?iaseU—hy a close, prying, inquisitive, longing perception— « 
lustful gaze — a hankering look, saw that the tree was adapted to gratify 
sensual appetite — to make one feel well ; and that, it was a desire— a 
lust to the eyes : i.e., it excited a lustful look, or, ^e contemplation of 
it was attended with a longing desire — and that it was a tree to he 
desired — ^longed for — lusted after, to give one an experience of pleasure 
»« sensual gratification — ^to make one understand pleasure from, expe- 
rience — she took of the fruit thereof, and did eat ; and gave also unto 
her husband with her, and he did eat. And the eyes of them both were 
opened, and they knew, or bc^same conscious that they were naked, and 
they fastened the small twigs of the fig-tree togetiier, and made them- 
selves girdles for their loins. 

142. This, as every Hebrew scholar knows, is a true translation of 
the sense and spirit of the original text ; and from it, nothing can he 
more evident than that. Eve was actuat^ by a sensual spirit and led 
into a sensual transgression and experience. Moreover, it is fiilly 
manifest from the Record, that " the forbidden fruit " was adapted to 
produce an effect corresponding with the libidinous character of nd^hash, 
(140.) For, as we have seen (139), the three great appetites implicitly 
specified by our Saviour, as pre-eminently characterizing the spirit and 
conduct of man, were implanted in the human constitution by the 
Creator, for wise and good purjposes ; and the proper exercise of them 
cannot be offensive to God or mjurious to man. Hence, it is certain 
that, so long as the perfect integrity of these appetites was preserved, 
and they were only exercised in accordance with the constitutional 
ordination of God, man had no consciousness of nakedness, in relation 
to any of them ; and no sense of shame attended the exercises of any of 
them. And, therefore, it is certain that, nothing but an improper 
indulgence of one of these appetites — an indulgence in the spirit of 
sensuality, and merely for the sake of sensual enjoyment, produced, in 
the first human pair, the consciousness of their nakedness, and caused 
them to make their fig-leaf girdles for their loins, and to hide them- 
selves from the Lord, among the trees of the garden. And it is equally 
certain that, "the forbidden fruit " was of a nature adapted to excite 
them to this particular kind of excess. This is clearly evident from what 
we have already seen, and is confirmed by what immediately follows. 
When Adam confesses that he was afraid to appear in the presence of 
the Lord because he was naked, God demands of him, Who told thee 

•cm the representstive of the Hebrew oaph, has always the sound of * as in cap. 



77 

fluit thou wast naked P Hast thou eaten of the tree ^whereof I com- 
aumded thee that thou shouldst not eat P Conclusively implying that, 
the firoit of that tree was adapted to cause such an experience as would 
make man conscious of his nakedness, 

THE CUBSB AND THB PROMISE. 

143. And the man said, " The woman whom thou gayest to be with 
me, she gave me of the tree and I did eat. And the Lord God said 
onto the woman. Why hast thou done thisP And the woman said 
hinnffhcuh his?ishVani — nffhcLsh excited me and I did eat.'* And the 
Lord Qod said unto nd*hashf Thou sensual and debasing spirit! because 
th<m hast done this — i.e., it being thy nature to do this, thou art more 
Tile and accursed than any beast, or any live thing of the field ! Prone 
to the eartii, t^ou shalt grovel always m the dust, and be continually 
given to filthiness ! And I will put adversity between thee and the 
W(nnan, and between thy seed and her ^eed ; it shall bruise thy head 
and thoa shalt bruise his heel. Thou shalt ever lead human nature 
downward into sin and degradation and vileness; and fill the earth 
with disease and contention and violence and woe. For man is flesh, 
and, thou, spirit of sensuality, presiding over all his animal appetites, 
and continually depraving them, and augmenting their influence on his 
intellectual and voluntary powers (26), wilt ever impel him to mind the 
flesh. But the minding of the flesh is enmity against God and ruinous 
toman: for the lusts of the flesh bring forth, sin, and sin when it is 
finished, bringeth forth death : and wars and fightings and every other 
human evil ^1 result from minding the flesh. (51, 139.) But there 
shall come a seed of the woman whose spirit will strive against the flesh, 
who will condemn thee in the flesh, and overcome thee and subdue thee 
in his own human nature : and, for this, thou, actuating the human 
race, wilt put his body to death ! but with the shedding of his blood, 
will his spirit also be poured out upon all flesh ; and it shall take 
possession of the human soul, and bruise thy head and destroy thy reign, 
and restore man to harmony with God and Nature, and fill earth with 
holiness and peace, and heaven with rejoicing I 

144. Such is the true, spiritual import of the curse pronounced upon 
nd*hash. And unto the woman God said, I will greatly multiply thy 
sorrow and thy conception ; or, I wiU greatly multiply thy sorrow in 
child-bearing ; in sunering and pain thou shalt bring forth children ; 
and thy desire, or obedience shall be to thy husband, and he shall rule 
over thee. The Volume of Nature and all human experience concur in 
the demonstration of the perfect truthfulness of this divine annunciation 
to " the mother of all living." (127.) For, nothing in natural science 
or human experience is more certain than that, always, in proportion 
as woman yields to the spirit of sensuality, and gives herself up to the 
improper indulgence of sensual appetite, her sufiering and peril in 
child-bearing are increased ; and these effects are augmented by every 
deviation from the regimen which God has constitutionally appointed fbr 
man ; or by all indulgence in those fruits which Gk)d has constitutionally 
prohibited. (148. ) And, on the other hand, nothing is more certain than 
that, just in proportion as woman is obedient to the constitutional laws 



78 

of God, in her nature, and preserves the chastity of all her animal sensi- 
bilities and appetites, she is free from danger and suffering in child-be»- 
ing. And the sttme is true concerning the evils divinely announced to 
Adam, *' Because thou hast hearkened to the voice of thy wife, and hast 
eaten of the tree of which I commanded thee, saving, Thou shalt not eat 
of it : cursed is the ground for thy sake ; with toil and fatigue shalt thou 
eat of it all the days of thy life. Thorns also, and thistles, shall it 
bring forth to thee, and thou shalt eat of the herb of the field, the 
products of tillage. In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread tin 
thou return to the ground." Or, in other words, man being naturally 
given to sensual indulgence (26), if the earth were spontaneously to 
produce for him all that he desires without any labour or care on his 
part, he would riot in sensuality, till he had exterminated his species ; 
and, therefore, for man's sake, the earth shall not bring forth all tiiat 
is, in the highest degree, and most perfectly adapted to'man*s wants, 
without his tillage : so that, through industry, and the proper exercise 
of all the faculties of his nature, he may be kept from self-destruction, 
and his life and health and virtue ma^ be preserved. And nothing is 
more certain than, that just in proportion as man yields to the spirit of 
sensuality, and turns away from the true calling of God, in his nature, 
and seeks his enjoyments in forbidden fruits, or things pernicious to 
his complex constitution (23), labour becomes an irksome toil to him, 
and is regarded by him as a heavy curse ; and earth becomes to him a 
field of thorns ; and he eats of it with care and weariness and sorrow. 
And, on the other hand, just as in pro{)ortion as man is '* obedient to 
the heavenly calling" — is true to his nature and his GK)d, his animal 
wants are few and easily supplied, he delights in action and emploj^ment 
— labour is an enjoyment, a pleasure, a blessing ! and he eats the fruits 
of his industry with gladness. 

THE NATUBE OF THE FORBIDDEN FKUIT. 

145. It is perfectly evident, then, that the tree of knowledge of good 
and evil, of the Mosaic Becord, was some natural production of the 
vegetable kingdom — that it was something which Eve was tempted to 
partake of, by the spirit of sensuality — to gratify a sensual appetite — 
something which she contemplated and longed for, with strong sensual 
desire (141), something which gave the first human pair a knowledge 
of good and evil by sensual experience (131), something which was 
naturally pernicious to man (130), and the noxious qualities of which, 
so acted on his whole complex nature (21), as at once, and from consti- 
tutional necessity, to begin the work of death in both body and soul 
(23) ; and so deeply and thoroughly affected the human constitution, 
that the injury was necessarily inherited by all the posterity of the 
first transgressors. (27.) 

GENERAL CONCLUSIONS CONCERNING THE PROHIBITION, THE FORBIDDEN 

FRUIT AND THE FALL. 

146. And now, in view of all the evidence derived from the Mosaic 
Record, from the Volume of Nature and from human experience, let us, 
with honest minds, yield to the convictions and admit the conclusions, 
to which the divine teaching in these three great modes of Revelation, 



79 

nd fully leads ns. (127.) And let no one suspect that I am 
him into a labyrinth of subtleties, or endeavouring to distort 
tures into a forced meaning, in order to establish a favourite 
For, my only desire is to ascertain the truth : and I have no 

establish which depends on the solution of the particular ques- 
re us ; nor is it my intention to advance anvthing which will 
any of the fundamental principles, in the orthodox evangelical 
i faith. 

t appears, then, from the Mosaic Eecord (124), that Grod, in 
nal constitution of things, gave to man, for his natural and 
K)d, every herb bearing seed which is upon the face of all the 
nd every tree in the which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed, 
rder that the earth should be capable of sustaining the dense 
opulation which has since occupied portions of its surface, and 
sioly yet cover its whole surface, it was necessary that it should 

very great productive power. (72,) And, therefore, if there 
L no native inhabitant of earth, but man, and man emanating 
^iplying from a single original pair, the human population 

first, and long have been so small, that man could not possibly 
be vegetable luxuriance of the earth *, and the consequences, in 
ce with the constitutional laws of nature, must have been most 
ve to human life, from the decay of vegetable matter. In 
prevent this, myriads of animals of every size and form were 
mto existence, to be, as it were, the pioneers of man, in subdu- 
earth, and keeping the resources of life from becoming the 
f death. But, had only this class of subordinate animals been 

and left to feed upon the vegetable productions of the earth, 
Itiply and die, equally calamitous consequences would have 

from the putrefaction of animal matter. And, therefore, to 
J the beautiful scheme and economy of creation, other myriads 
als were brought into existence to subsist on animal matter : 
} numbers of which are, as it were, quickened into vital develop- 
id action, by the very putrescence of animal matter, which 
their existence necessary for the salvation of human life. Yet 
r not most of both of these great classes of animals, may, con- 

with the original constitution and design of things, and with 
lest well-being of our race, gradually give place to man, and 
.r before him, as human beings become sufficiently numerous 
le and cultivate the earth, and sufficiently correct in all their 
ad circumstances not to require the bed-bug and the body-louse 

maggot to be their scavengers in clearing away and consu- 
lt which would otherwise generate disease and death. 
Sence, therefore, though man was created in the image of his 
md constituted the natural lord of our earth, and though, in 
re developments of the divine purpose, the time may come when 
h will be all his own, and all its productive resources, imder 
iltivation, made fit for man's exclusive sustenance, yet, hitherto, 
1 hath, in obedience to the primal law of its Creator, brought 
5 green herb also for the beast of the field, and the fowl of the 
t£e creeping thing. And in the adaptation of its natural pro- 

to the great variety and diversity of wants in the animal king- 



80 

dom, some of those productions, though fitted perfectly for the end of 
their existence, are yet wholly unfit ror human aliment, and cannot be 
employed by man for dietetic purposes, nor for any mode of sentmal 
enjoyment, without immediate injury to human life and permanent 
damage to the human constitution. And the very fact that this is so, 
constitutes the strongest possible certain^ that the law of Qod in Nature 
(127), is against man's thus emplo^g them. This, then, is the primi- 
tive, constitutional law of prohibition to man, concerning every product 
of the vegetable kingdom which is pernicious to human nature — ^Te 
must not eat of it, neither may ye thlgge*u — touchy or have a sentual 
knowledge of it : that is, Ye must not eat of it, neither may ye employ 
it in any other mode of sensual gratification, pin tem&thun — lest yedie. 
For in the day that thou eatest thereof, moth tdmuthr—thou wiU begin 
to die. And it was because the thing prohibited was naturally pemi* 
dous to man, if eaten by him or employed in any other mode of sensu- 
ality, and because divine benevolence would secure man's well-being, 
and in, and through him the well-being of all subordinate creatures, 
and not to impose on man an arbitrary test of obedience, that God made 
the verbal prohibition. (130.) 

149. Now we know that, among those productions of the vegetable 
kingdom, which are poisonous to man, and the dietetic or sensual use 
of which, begins the work of death in him, there are some whidi are 
highly intoxicating ; or which have a highly exciting effect on the 
whole complex nature of man — rousing all the vital forces into active 
resistance — disturbing all the organic functions of the body, and greatly 
inflaming the animal appetites and lusts, and giving theni an imperious 
and despotic influence on the intellectual and voluntary powers. (26.) 
And we know that, when man is in one stage of the effect of these 
intoxicating substances, he has, in his own consciousness and estimation, 
pre-eminently the knowledge of good, (28.) He is as wise as a god I 
and, in nearly everything requisite to supreme human happiness, equal 
to a god ! and in another stage of the effect, he has a deep and bitter 
knowledge of evil ! and his eyes are opened by miserable experience — 
by distressing conviction ! and he is ashamed of his nakedness, and has 
no courage to show his face in the presence of his Maker. (110.) And it is 
the grovelling and the debasing spirit which leads to, and is cherished by 
this sensuality (141), which, peculiarly, in the allegorical sense of the 
language, is " cursed above all cattle, and above every beast of the 
field ; and which crawls upon its belly and eats dust all the days of its 
life." (143.) We know, also, that it is eminently the property of these 
intoxicating substances to excite libidinousness of feeling and lewdness 
©faction. (142.) Noah, when intoxicated, became naked like Adam; 
and Lot was made naked for incestuous purposes by the same means. 
And from that day to the present, throughout the human world, and 
most largely in the East, where polygamy and concubinage have been 
customary, intoxicating substances have been employed to excite and 
sustain the libidinous appetite. * And, in the amorous poetry and 

* " We know," said the woman of Persia to an American Missionary, " that the 
use of opium shortens the lives of our husband s, but it makes them better husbands 
while they do live, and therefore we prefer to have them use it. " The story of Leah's 
mandrakes shows what a good husband is, in the estimation of an Asiatic wife. 



81 

nogs of all ages, woman and wine have been almost inseparably asso- 
ciated. Furthermore, we know that the pernicious energy of these 
iBtozicating substances, assails at once the whole complex nature of 
man, and from constitutional necessity (23), ruins the soul in destroying 
the body (145), and thoroughly affects the hereditary or transmissaUe 
character of the constitution. (27.) 

150. The first great volume of divine Revelation, confirmed by all 
hnmaii experience, therefore, fully explains the allegorical import of 
tiie Mosaic Record (126, 127), and teaches us that the garden of Eden 
vas a beautiful portion of the eastern world, where man commenced 
hoB earthly existence, and that the tree of life consisted of those fruits 
of the earth, or vegetable productions which were naturally best adapted 
to sustain man in the most perfect state of all the attributes of his 
complex nature. For the 'its hd'hayyim [tree of life'] of the Hebrew 
text, has here, evidently a generic sense, and means a Kind or class of 
trees or vegetable productions rather than a single tree : and the 'its 
kidda, dth tobh wd rd* [tree of the knowledge of good and evil] may, 
•Iso, in perfect accordance with the Hebrew idiom, and the evident 
meaning of the text, be taken in a generic sense ; and it manifestly 
comprehends in its broadest signification, all the productions of the 
▼eg^etable kingdom, which are naturally ^isonous to man ; and pre- 
oninently those, whose exciting and intoxicating qualities render them 
c^Mible of being made the depraving means of debasing sensuality, and 
whose pernicious energy simultaneously attacks every faculty and 
power in the whole nature of man ; producing all the evil effects 
expressed and implied in the primal prohibition and curse (130, 143, 
144), and of which, it may, with peculiar propriety be said, In the 
day that man eats of them or employs them in any mode of sensuality, 
he begins to die. 

151. But, it will, perhaps, be objected that this is stripping the 
whole transaction of all its august moral dignity and spiritual import 
eoneeming the fall of man, the spiritual death of the soul, the federal 
relation of Adam to his posterity, involving the constitutional character 
Mid eternal interests of the human race, the covenant of redemption, 
fcc., and bringing it down to a simple transgression of the laws of God 
in Nature, by a childlike human being, who was, at most, but feebly 
conscious of his responsibility, and who but very imperfectly, if in any 
measure, understood even the temporal import of the prohibition in 
relation to himself, and had no notion of its spiritual meaning, and its 
relation to his posterity ; and but dimly, if at all, foresaw even the 
temporal consequences of his disobedience. In reply to these objections, 
it is necessary that I should here advance two fundamental principles 
in the philosophy of Sacred History, which ought never to be lost sight 
of by those who would rightly understand the Scriptures : and I must 
entreat my readers to keep them continually in remembrance, as they 
will be involved in' much of my subsequent reasoning. 

152. In the first place, then, the divine purpose is never to be con- 
founded with the human purpose. (79.) God may purpose a thing, and 
devise the scheme by which that purpose shall be accomplished through 
human agency : and man, as a moral agent, may fulfil that divine 
purpose, without having any such purpose in his own mind — without 



82 

hayixig any understanding or knowledge or notion of that porpose = 
whatever (107) : nay, indeed, without being conscious of any other ^ 
motive than the gratification of his own sensual or sordid appetite or := 
antipathy. Thus, God in infinite wisdom and benevolence, from con- x 
stitutional necessity (90), determined the death of his Son Jesus Christ, 
for the highest good of the human family : and Judas and the high 2 

Sriest and Pilate and others concerned in his death, fulfilled that l 
ivine purpose, without any such purpose or intention in their own minds, m 
and without any true notion of such a purpose in the divine mind. In c: 
the second place, the divine purpose concerning the natural condition ^ 
and moral destiny of man, can be eifected by the most simple means k 
and in the most simple manner. It is not necessary that all nature 
should be convulsed, nor that the foundations of the earth should be 
shaken, nor that angels, nor that human beings with angelic knowledge 
should be employed to bring about events of infinite importance, involv- 
ing infinite consequences. The neighing of a horse, the cackling of a 
goose, and things apparently more inconsiderable than these, have often 
been the means in the hands of God of afifecting the destiny of the 
human race. And, so, in regard to the primitive transgression of man. 
Such are the laws of constitution and relation which God has established 
in the nature of things (27), that it was not necessary for Adam as the 
great progenitor of the human kind, clearly and fully to understand the 
character and purposes of the Creator, and to look, with godlike intelli- 
gence, down the long line of his posterity, and perceive all the interests 
depending on his moral action, in order to his so transgressing the laws 
of God, as to involve all the consequences that have actually resulted. 
As a mere child in the knowledge of God and Nature — standing as he 
did, the constitutional head and source, and, as yet. whole of our species, 
he was fully competent, without any well-defined notion of the miport 
of the divine prohibition, even in relation to his own bodily existence 
and temporal well-being, and with the consciousness of no other motive 
than the gratification of an animal appetite, so to transgress the laws 
of God — so to involve the whole of human nature in the effect, as to 
open the way for all the evil that has followed, and render necessary 
all the means and gifts of grace that Grod has bestowed and man 
experienced. 

153. In the mental state and with the infantile experience of Adam, 
it was, therefore, not only possible, but in strict accordance with the 
constitutional laws of Nature (64—66, 107), that the true and full 
import of the divine prohibition should involve the spiritual and eternal 
interests of the whole human family, and yet to his understanding, com- 
prehend only some vague and uncertain bodily and temporary evil in 
relation exclusively to himself. And, taking the Mosaic record of the 
case separately, without any reference to subsequent revelation and 
experience, surely no one, even at this day, would understand the 
penalty announced, to be anything more than the extinction of life — 
the death of the body. And it is most evident from every fact and 
circumstance and aspect of the whole matter, that Adam had no notion 
of anything beyond this, and that his ideas even in relation to this, 
were extremely vague and indistinct. (113.) 

154. But we cannot well understand how it could comport with the 



83 

true character of Gk>d to impose an absolute and arbitrary test on Adam, 
iDTOlTing in the issue, not only his individual welfare for time and for 
eternity, but also, the temporal and eternal interests of myriads of 
human beings that should spring from him, while at the same time, he 
vas, from a necessity in the nature and condition of things, utterly 
incapable of understanding the import and bearing of that test. (66.) 
But, if from constitutional necessity (18), such are the properties and 
relations of things, that Adam could not eat certain vegetable produc- 
tums of the earth, without so aifecting his whole nature as to open the 
way to the bodily and spiritual, temporal and eternal ruin of himself 
and all posterity, then it was in keeping with all we know of the divine 
diaracter and conduct ( 130), and worthy of a God of infinite benevo- 
lience, to announce it to his creature man, even though, in the then 
existing state of things (121), Adam could not imderstand anything 
more of the divine instruction than its bodily and temporal import in 
relation to himself individually, and that, but very imperfectly. And 
this view of the matter is fully confirmed by consequent revelation, as 
well as by all human experience. For God repeatedly declares that 
he " visits the iniquities of the fathers upon the children unto the third 
and fourth generation :" and yet, he says by his prophets Jeremiah and 
Ezekiel, *'Say not that the fathers have eaten sour grapes and the 
children's teeth are set on edge. The son shall not bear the iniquity of 
the father, neither shall the father bear the iniquity of the son. 
Every one shall die for his own iniquity." But God cannot contradict 
himself : nor is there any real contradiction between these two portions 
of his Word. The one simply affirms what is true in the nature of 
things, and in the experience of the human race : namely, that, such 
are tiie constitutional relations of things, that, certain transgressions in 
the father, necessarily so affect his whole nature as to render it inevit- 
able that his progeny subsequently begotten, will, by natural inherit- 
ance, constitutionally partake, in some measure, of the results of his 
iniquity (27) : and the other, with pointed rebuke to the superstitious 
Jews for their traditionary and popular perversion of the meaning of 
the first of these passages, emphatically denies the doctrine of absolute 
imputation of guilt to the child for the sin of the father. It is not, 
therefore, consistent with Revelation, nor with sound reason, nor with 
the natural philosophy of things (127), to believe that God imposed on 
Adam an arbitrary test, and involved his posterity in an absolute impu- 
tation. But we know that it is strictly in accordance with the consti- 
tutional laws which God has established in the nature of things, that, 
if Adam indulged in sensual transgression, not only his own health, and 
life, and intellectual and moral powers and character, and temporal 
and eternal interests, were involved in the pernicious effects, but also 
his progeny, begotten in this " fallen state " of his nature, necessarily 
inherited from him the constitutional effects of his transgression. (27.) 
And it is a truth of the highest importance in confirmation of the views 
I have presented — a truth strongly expressed in the sacred Scriptures, 
and fully demonstrated in science, and confirmed by human experience 
(127), that, however ignorant man may be of the nature of things, and 
of the consequences of his action, yet it is a natural impossibility for 
him to indulge in the sensual use of intoxicating substances, without 



84 

"beginning to die," in the fullest and most fearfiil import of the 
language m the primal prohibition of Gk>d! without extending the 
pernicious effects oyer his whole complex nature, simultaneously 
destroying both body and soul, and thoroughly affecting the hereditary 
or transmissible character of his constitution. (149.) 

155. The explanation which I have given of the nature of the prim* 
itive prohibition of Grod, and transgression of man, does not, therefore, 
in reality, take from the transaction any of its moral dignity and 
spiritual import, nor in the least degree militate against any portion of 
sacred Scripture ; but harmonizes perfectly with me general scope and 
spirit of the Bible as a whole, and is entirely consistent with the 
doctrine of the apostle Paul in Rom. v. 12 — ^21, and 1 Cor. zr. 21, 22, 
concerning the relation which Adam holds to the human family, in 
regard to universal sin and death, and the relation which Christ h<dds 
to man in regard to righteousness and eternal life. Indeed, it is the 
only explanation of the matter that can be given consistently with the 
true meaning of the apostle, in these and other portions of his epistlcMk 
It is not to be denied, however, that this explanation is very greatly at 
variance with the popular notion in regard to the fia^tiousness of 
Adam's first act of disobedience. As the first transgression of hmnaB 
nature, which necessarily involved all of human nature in the oonse* 
quences, and opened the way for all the evil that has been, or shaU be 
experienced by man — not as an absolute penalty, but as a natural effect, 
continued through successive generations by a voluntary continuance of 
the cause — Adam's first act of disobedience was unspeakably important. 
Yet, in itself considered, simply as the personal act of our first parent, 
and with reference solely to his state and knowledge and understanding, 
and his moral purpose or intention, it was almost infinitely less flagitious 
than the every day and habitual actions of millions of his posterity, who 
with ignorant heads and perverse hearts and impious tongues have 
cursed Adam for " the original sin." So far as the moral character of 
the will is considered, Adam's first act of disobedience, compared with 
many an act, even of eminent professors of religion at this day, was, in 
truth, a very venial trespass. It was like that of an inexperienced 
infant, which, contrary to its parent's prohibition, thrusts its fingers 
into the blaze of a burning candle, not from a spirit or purpose of 
disobedience, but from a curiosity to know, compared with that refilled 
wickedness which highly intelligent and truly enlightened beings only 
can be guilty of. (128.) 

THE PRIMITIVE CLOTHING OF MAN. 

156. According to our English translation of the Mosaic record, 
after God had announced to the first human pair the consequences of 
their disobedience, he *' made them coats of skins and clothed them." 
But, it must be remembered that Adam and Eve were entirely without 
clothing before their first transgression ; and therefore, that, they were 
in a climate in which clothing was wholly unnecessary for the regula- 
tion of the temperature of the human body. And, as we have seen (140), 
the nakedness predicated of them, manifestly had no reference to the 
general surface of their bodies, but referred only to particular parts : 



85 

and it was to the consciousness of the nakedness of these parts alone,' 
that their eyes were opened by eating " the forbidden fruit :" and these 
were the oidy parts which they covered or sought to cover with their fig- 
leaf aprons or girdles. (142. ) And, from that day to the present, many» 
if not most of tiie inhabitants of that portion of the earth, have worn no 
other dothlAg than a mere girdle around the loins with a small skirt 
(ff apron in front : or, at most, a light skirt surrounding the lower part 
of the body, and extending from the loins to the knees. The idea, 
thoefore, that Adam and Eve were clothed in the skins of animals, in 
that warm climate, is utterly absurd ; and as entirely without authority 
from the Mosaic record, as from the nature of the case. The Hebrew 
word edthnoth, which our translators have rendered coatSi is from 
e&hdn, **he covers, hideSt conceals, keeps secret:^* and cdthnoth 
primarily means a cover — that which hides or conceals. And the 
word *or, which our translators have rendered skins, in its more 
primitiye sense, means nakedness, the same as 'drd and *drdr ; and, 
from tiiis meaning, it very naturally came, in the course of time 
(96, 119), to be used to signify the skin of llie human body, and still 
lainr, to sig^fy the skin of any animal. In the case before us, 
howerer, it is perfectly evident that the word is used in its primitive 
tense ; and particularly relates to the parts, of the nakedness of which, 
Adam and Eve were made ashamed, by their transgression. Cdthnoth 
'or, therefore, translated strictly according to the idiom of the Mosaic 
record, is " coverings of nakedness ;*' 'or being in the singular, and 
not in the plural number, as rendered by our translators : and the 
correct translation of the passage into English, is manifestly this, 
** Unto man and to woman, did the Lord Grod make coverings for their 
nakedness and clothed them." 

157. But how, and when, and for whom did the Lord God make 
*' coverings," according to the true meaning of the Mosaic Record P 
The expkuiations which I have given in sections 115, 116 and 117, are 
necessary to the accurate solution of these questions. The passage 
b^ore us is evidently an explicative fragment, thrown into the text of 
the Mosaic record, without any regard to chronological precision, and 
wholly indefinite, as to time, place and person. And all that the Holy 
Spirit teaches in the passage, is that, God, by the operation of the laws 
which he has established in the nature of things (58, 59), and which 
govern the actions of man, and regulate divine providence (88), caused 
tiie human kind to manufacture for themselves, out of the materials 
which the vegetable and animal kingdoms afforded them, such clothing 
for their bodies, as conditions and circumstances made necessary or 
convenient. And there is nothing in the true import of the passage 
which fixes the time of man's being thus clothed, at any particular 
period during the earthly existence of our first parents ; nor does the 
true import of the passage necessarily relate exclusively to the first 
human pair. . 

THE EXPULSION OF MAN FROM THE GARDEN OF EDEN. 

158. Immediately following the fragment which we have just 
considered, we fimd another, in the text of the Mosaic record, of a 
similar character, which, according to our English version, reads thus, 



86 

" And the Lord God said, Behold the man is become as one of us, to 
know good and evil ; and now, lest be put forth his hand, and take also 
of the tree of life, and eat and live for ever ; therefore, the Lord God 
sent him forth from the garden of Eden, to till the ground from whence 
be was taken. So be drove out the man : and he placed, at the east of 
the garden of Eden, cherubims, and a flaming sword which turned 
every way to keep the way of the tree of life." This fragment is wholly 
inexplicable upon any principles of exegesis relating to the grammatical 
structure and the use of language (9) : and the revealed Word as a 
whole, if taken separately from the volume of nature and human expe- 
rience, utterly fails to explain it. We are, therefore, legitimately and 
necessarily led to these three great sources of instruction, as constituting 
one complete system of divine revelation, for a true and satisfactory 
explanation of the passage. (127.) And here we learn that God is the 
same, yesterday, to-day and for ever. In him is no variableness nor 
shadow of turning. He is, in his real nature and attributes and prin- 
ciples of action, the same now, that he was in the days of Adam ; and 
was the same then that he is now : and, therefore, whatever would now 
be incompatible with his nature and attributes, would then have "be&k 
incompatible. Nevertheless, the Gtod of the human mind, has, from 
constitutional necessity (64 — 66), been continually changing, from the 
creation of Adam till now, as the intellectual and moral man has been 
more and more fully and truly developed. (121.) And hence, nothing 
could be more absurd than for us, wjth the fulness of divine revelation 
which we enjoy (128), to go back several thousand years, and take the 
character and conduct of God, as understood by the human mind, at a 
period in the history of our race, when the intellectual and moral man 
had hardly begun to emerge from the animal ; and when human know- 
ledge was little more than sensual experience. (131.) 

159. Permitted, as we are, to ** enter within the veil, by a new and 
living way," and contemplate the brightness of the divine presence, we 
know, with entire certainty, that it never could be true that the eternal 
and infinite Jehovah was afraid of man's approaching too near Himself, 
in knowledge of any kind ; nor that He was afraid that man, by any 
means, would live too long on earth. On the contrary, we know that 
our Heavenly Father desires us, and ever has desired His creature man 
to strive continually to come near to Him in knowledge and wisdom 
and goodness (130) ; and that He has placed before us every motive to 
live in such a manner that our days may be long upon the earth. (74.) 
It is not possible, therefore, that the fragment before us can be true, 
in the literal sense of the language, as a simple narrative of what 
actually took place between God and our first parents ; or, of the divine 
conduct in relation to the first human pair. And hence, it must either 
be spurious, or else it is a sacred allegory or parable, whose meaning 
of divine authority, is true to God and nature. (15.) And that it is the 
latter, the revelations of God, in nature, clearly and fuUy teach us. 
(92.) We know that God, in infinite wisdom and goodness, has so 
constituted things (17) that the well-being of man's whole complex 
nature depends upon^fixed laws (21) ; and that there are determinate 
laws of relation between man and his Creator and all created things. 
(23.) Man, as an animal, has wants and corresponding appetites and 



87 

special senses. (93.) He needs food and drink; and has hunger and 
thirst, and taste and smell. And while he remains in perfect harmony 
with all the laws of his nature, he is in the kingdom of God — in the 
^den of Eden ; and when in this state of integrity, the instincts which 
Sod has implanted in his nature, lead him to the tree of life, and 
prompt him to shun the tree of death. (122.) His undepraved sense of 
imell, with keenly discriminating perception, detects every noxious 
odour which taints the air that passes through his nostrils, and naturally 
impels him to turn away from the substance or the source from whence 
the poison emanates : and his undepraved sense of taste, with nicest 
discrimination, perceives the peculiar savour of every noxious substance 
that comes into his mouth, and naturally impels him to reject it 
instantly. But if man persists in receiving into his nose and mouth and 
stomach, those substances which are not adapted to his wants nor friendly 
to the physiological interests of his body, the senses of smell and taste, 
and the organic sensibilities associated with them,* by imperceptible 
degrees, lose their integrity, and finally, become so thoroughly depraved, 
aoid so entirely reconciled aod wedded to the substances which have 
depraved them, that they greatly prefer those substances to those 
which are bettei* adapted to the natural wants of man : and thus, 
depraved appetites are formed which act upon the intellectual and 
▼olontary powers, in precisely the same manner as the natural instincts 
do (26) ; but always with a degree of vehemence and despotism, pro- 
portionate to the degree of their depravity. And these depraved 
B/pp&dtes, being confounded in the mental consciousness with the 
natural instincts (28), it is impossible for man, in such a condition, to 
discriminate, intuitively, between them, or to know, from his conscious- 
ness or immediate experience, that his depraved appetites do not lead 
as truly and as directly to the tree of life, as his natural and undepraved 
instincts do. But, on the contrary, his consciousness and immediate 
experience serve most powerfully to establish him in the conviction, 
that the indulgence of his depraved appetites is the truest and most 
direct way to the tree of life. (150.) 

160. Thus, for instance, thirst is a natural instinct in man, and the 
tree of life, in relation to which this instinct is established, is pure 
water, or the aqueous juices of fruits (150) : and in the perfectly unde- 
praved state of this instinct, it always leads man to this tree oi life for 
its gratification.! But, let man, by any means, be induced to partake 
of the fermented juice of the grape as a beverage, and, from consti- 
tutional necessity, just in proportion as he substitutes this beverage 
for his natural drink, will the integrity of his natural instinct be 
impaired, and a depraved appetite will be formed, which will prefer 
the wine to the water, with a degree of intensity, and act on the 
intellectual and voluntary powers, with a degree of vehemence and 
^bspotism equal to the degree of its depravity. And as the depraved 
appetite is confounded in the mental consciousness with the natural 
instinct, it is impossible for man, in this condition, to know, from 
his consciousness, that its demand is not a natural and true want, 
and that the indulgence of it is not perfectly compatible with his 
permanent well-being. But, on the contrary, as the necessary con- 

• Lectures on the^cience of Htunan Life, 292, et teq. f ll>idf 1518, et teq. 



88 

sequences of the use of the wine are an immediate increase of vital 
action and expenditure, and an ultimate exhaustion and depression 
proportionate to the degree of excitement or stimulation caused by ^e 
wine, there will necessarily follow a commensurately urgent demand 
for relief: and, if in this state, man attempts to recur to the tree of 
life, or, to return to his natural drink, his depraved appetite powerfully 
and perhaps irresistibly craves the wine ;* and if, by any means, he is 
induced to drink the water, he does not enjoy it, his craving is not 
satisfied, and his depression is not relieved by it; but if he drinks 
the wine, it gratifies his importunate appetite, and almost instan- 
taneously relieves his depression, and fills him with satisfaction and 
enjojnnent. His consciousness and immediate experience, therefore, 
seem to compel him to believe that his depraved appetite is a true 
instinct of his nature, and that the wine is a genuine fruit of the tree 
of life: and thus, his depraved appetite becomes a controlling power, 
and as " a flaming sword which turns every way to keep the way of tiie i 
tree of life." And all this is strictly determined by the constitutional I 
laws of God in nature (58, 59), and is exactly true of every other 1 
instinct implanted in ^e human constitution, and of every d ep r a fti^J 
appetite which can be engrafted upon the natural instincts and ] 
sensibilities of man. (26.) 

161. Moreover, as we have seen (23, 27), such are the fixed and 
necessary relations between all the constitutional elements in the 
complex nature of man, that it is impossible for him to partake of those 
fruits, or indulge in any kind or manner of sensuality by which his 
natural instincts are depraved, without, in some measure, deteriorating 
his whole nature and abbreviating life (51) ; and, in proportion to the 
excess of the indulgence, tending to the extinction of life and the 
extermination of the species, f And, as every law of nature is an 
institution of the divine will — a commandment of God (93), it is a truth 
of divine revelation in the volume of nature (127), a truth of human 
experience and of scientific demonstration, that, God has, in the con- 
stitutional laws of nature, commanded that, if man " eats of forbidden 
fruit" (148) or indulges in pernicious sensuality, he shall, or, of 
necessity, must, in so doing, expel himself from the garden of Eden ; 
or, from that state in which he is in harmony with all the laws of his 
nature and with his Gtod, and abbreviate his life, and form depraved 
appetites which will, as a controlling power, and as with [laTidt 
ha'herebh] thejiame of a sword turning every way, prevent his return 
to the tree of life. 

162. The peculiar structure of the fragment under consideration is 
worthy of particular remark. It commences with stating what the 
Lord God said, in the first person concerning man, and before the 
sentence is completed, the Lord God is abruptly changed into the third 
person, and the last clause of the sentence is given in the Ifinguage of 
the narrator. Thus, ''And the Lord God said. Behold the man is 
become as one of us, to know good and evil: and now, lest he put forth 
his hand, and take also of the tree of life, and eat and live [le'dldm] 
for ever — therefore the Lord God sent him forth from the garden of 
Eden to till the ground from whence he was taken ;" instead of " Let 

* Lectures on the Science of Human Life, 1539, et ieq. f Ibid, 648, et $eq. 



89 

ns, or, I will send him forth from the garden/* &c, which would have 
been a regular conclusion of the sentence. 

163. It is also important to observe that f^^'o^m] here rendered 
**f(yr ever,*' is from ^aldmy which, like nearly all the other words in the 
Hebrew language, primarily relates to this life (119, 139), and primi- 
tively means a long duration or an indefinite period of time, a man's 
whole life, &c., and, in the progress of things, it came to comprehend 
in its signification, a period of time extending through generations, 
through the existence of an institution, or the political existence of a 
nation : and as the idea of eternity, or of endless duration began to be 
developed in the Hebrew mind, this word was employed to represent or 
signify that idea. (98.) Thus, Gen. vi. 3. •• And the Lord said. My 
Spirit shall not \le*6ldm] always strive with or in man, for that, he 
also is flesh." That is, man's life shall, or necessarily will be greatly 
shortened by his sensuality. (161.) And Exod. xxi. 5, 6, ''If the 
servant shaU plainly say, I love my master, my wife and my children ; 
I will not go out free ; then his master shall bring him unto the judges 
lelohitn, ** the gods ;"] he shall also bring him to the door, or unto the 
ooOr-post, and his master shall bore his ear through with an awl ; and 
he shall serve him [le'oldm] for ever.'* That is, during his life. 
Lev. XXV. 45, 46, " Of the children of the strangers that sojourn among 
you, shall ye buy, and of their families that are with you, which they 
D^at in your land : and they shall be your possession. And ye shall 
take them as an inheritance for your children after you, to inherit them 
for a possession ; and they shall be your bondmen,' or ye shall serve 
yourselves with them \^le^6ldni] for ever." That is, perpetually — during 
life, and from generation to generation. " I will give all this land unto 
the seed of Abraham, Isaac and Israel, and they shall inherit it [le^oldm] 
for ever." (Gen. xxxii. 13.) That is, so long as they are true to the 
covenant conditions on which it is given. (See Beut. chapters xxviii — 
xxxi). " The Sabbath is a sign between me and the children of Israel 
[le^dldnt] for ever," (Exod. xxxi. 17.) That is, during the existence of 
the children of Israel as a nation or a people, under the Mosaic Dispen- 
sation. And it is fully evident from the nature of the case (74), 
that, le*6ldm is used in this temporal and limited sense in Gen. iii. 22, 
*' Le»t he should put forth his hand and take also of the tree of life, and 
eat and live very long, or live out the period of which he was made 
constitutionally capable, the Lord God sent him forth from the garden 
of Eden, to till the ground from which he was taken : and placed at the 
east of the garden of Eden, cherubim [we-eth lahat ha' herebh] and 
with the fiame of a sword turning every way, to keep the way of the 
tree of life." 

164. But what were these sentinels that kept the way of the tree of 
life P It is well known to every thorough Biblical scholar, that the 
cherubim of the Hebrew Scriptures were — so far at least as visible 
forms and sensible attributes are considered — wholly the creatures of 
the human imagination — a part of the poetical machinery of the sacred 
writers,* Or, in other words, they were the forms by which the 

* " The cherubim were poetical winged beings, of the ancient Hebrews, having 
forms compounded of those of a man, eagle, ox and lion, the usual emblems of 
might and pewei."— TToA/. 



90 

inspired human mind mystically bodied forth ideas which it did not fully 
understand. (128.) For it must be remembered, that, from consti- 
tutional necessity, " the spirit of the prophet is always subject to the 
prophet" (107) ; that however full the divme inspiration, and whatever 
its real import, the images of the prophet*s mind, and the language by 
which he enunciates his prophecy, must correspond with the conditions 
and circumstances of his complex nature. (64 — 66.) And hence, there- 
fore, though the true meaning of all Scripture given by inspiration of 
God, is of divine authority, yet it is proper, and often necessary to 
employ all the light of divine revelation in the Volume of Nature and 
in the Inspired Word, to ascertain that true meaning. (127.) And by 
the aid of this light, we arrive at the certainty that the cherubim of the 
primitive Sacred Records (115) were but the mystical symbols of forces 
or agencies in the divine constitution and economy of things, which the 
intellectual and moral and religious man was not then sufficiently 
developed to understand. (136.) 

165. From every view of the subject, therefore, it is evident that the 
fragment under consideration is not a record of words spoken by Qod 
personally, nor a simple narrative of what actually took place betweoi 
the Creator personally and the first human pair. But it is a figurative 
or parabolical description of primeval events which took place according 
to the constitutional laws of God in Nature (4) ; and therefore, those 
events were, in truth, the language of Qod. Man really was created 
upon fixed constitutional principles which were established with neces- 
sary relations to his Creator and all created things (23) : and his own 
highest good and greatest longevity required that he should continue in 
strictest harmony with the laws of his nature and relations. Man 
actually did turn away from the tree of life, and eat of the tree of death 
(150), and, in so doing, he, from a necessity in the nature of things (18), 
was expelled from the garden of Eden (161), or driven out of that 
harmony with Nature and with God which alone makes earth a garden 
of Eden, and human life a paradisaical state ; and, in so doing also, he 
necessarily began to die (145), and formed depraved, vehement and 
despotic appetites which, with controlling and fiery energy, turned every 
way to keep him from the tree of life (160): and thus, he pursued a 
course which abbreviated the period of his earthly existence, and filled it 
with care and sorrow, and made the tillage of the earth, or the labour 
which was necessary to supply his wants, an irksome and painful toil to 
him. (144.) And as all this was determined by the constitutional laws 
of God in Nature (67), or resulted from the exercise of the moral 
agency of man, governed by the constitutional laws of God (79, 88), it 
is justly represented in the parabolical form of the Sacred Record as 
the language and action of God. (117.) The fact that, from the 
existence and determinate efficiency of the constitutional laws of God 
in Nature, man did, by his voluntary transgression, increase his 
intelligence in regard to good and evil, and, in so far as intelligence is 
considered, become more like God, is figuratively represented in the 
Sacred Record as the natural language of God, saying, " Behold the 
man is become as one of us, to know good and evil." And the facts, 
that, from the necessary efficiency of these laws of GJod, man's 
voluntary transgression shortened his life, and expelled him from the 



91 

garden of Eden, or destroyed that state of things which made earth a 
garden of Eden to him, and begat in him depraved appetites and 
propensities which prevented his return to the tree of life, or to a strict 
and entire conformity to all the laws of his nature and relations, and 
filled his earthly existence with care and toil and sorrow, are figura- 
tively and justly represented as the natural language of God, saying, 
" L^ man put forth his hand and take also of the tree of life and eat 
and live lle'dldm] very long " (163) ; and as the action of Grod, sending 
man forth from the garden of Eden to till the ground from which he 
was taken ; and placing between man and the garden, cherubim with 
the flame of a sword turning very way to keep the way of the tree of 
life. It is true of this supplemental, explicative fragment also (115), 
as of that which relates to the naming of the beasts (118), and that 
which relates to the clothing of man (157), that, it is inserted in the 
text of the Mosaic Hecord, without any reference to chronological order, 
or definiteness as to time. And although it unquestionably compre- 
hends the first human pair in its meaning, it evidently is not limited to 
them, but, like the word ddam (116), relates to man as a species rather 
than to any particular individual. Indeed, the primal ** curse " itself, 
though its divine announcement was occasioned by the transgression of 
the first human pair, manifestly comprehends in its import, the human 
kind as a species rather than our first parents as individuals: for 
surely, the evils specified in the curse, were but faintly realized by 
Adam and Eve, in comparison with what they have been by their 
posterity. 

166. Does any one ask how we can know that the foregoing explan- 
ation of the fragment under consideration is the true interpretation of 
the Holy Spirit's meaning ? I reply that we know with all the certainty 
of which the human mind is capable, that every law of Nature, is an 
institution of the divine will — a commandment of God (4) ; that. 
Nature is in truth, the first great volume of divine revelation, in which 
the deeply written will of God lies ever ready to be disclosed to the 
human mind, by the true developments of science, and by all true 
experience ; that Nature and the inspired Word together, make com- 
plete the one great system of divine revelation to man; that the 
truth of Nature and the true meaning of the inspired Word, must be in 
harmony ; that when the written Word does not fully explain itself, we 
are legitimately led to Nature for the explanation (127) ; that the 
hypothesis that the fragment in question is a simple narrative, in the 
literal sense of its language, of what Grod actually and personally said 
and did in relation to the first human pair, is utterly incompatible with 
the true nature and character of God (159), and with the laws which 
God has constitutionally established in the nature of things (15); that 
we know with the certainty of scientific demonstration, that, the fore- 
going explanation is, in all its principles and particulars, strictly true 
to Nature, and therefore, is a divine revelation in the Volume of 
Nature, and must be in harmony with the true meaning of the 
Revealed Word, and compatible with the nature and character of God 
and with the general nature of things : and we know, also, that, no 
explanation essentially dififerent from this can be given, which will be 
consistent with the facts in the case, with the true nature and character 



92 

of God, and with the general nature of things. Therefore, we know, 
with philosophical certainty, that this is the true explanation of the 
fragment in question, if the fragment is a genuine portion of the 
Sacred Record, whose true meaning is of divine authority : and, that, 
such is its character, is evident from the incontrovertihle truth that this 
explanation, which is a fair interpretation of its language, is true to Gkxi 
and true to Nature. (117.) 

WHY DID GOD SUFFER MAM TO SIN P THE EFFECT OF ADAM*8 SIN OH 

HUMAN NATUBE. 

167. But, it is demanded by a thousand tongues, If Grod is infinite in 
knowledge and wisdom and goodness and power, why did he suffer man 
to sin, and involve the race in such calamitous consequences ? The 
answer is in the fact. It was not, in the nature of things, possible to 
prevent it. (18.) God had the natural power not to make man (77); 
and he had iJie natural power to destroy man before he sinned : or, by 
destroying his moral freedom, to render it physically impossible for 
him to sin. But having made man and constitutionally established the 
laws and economy of man's moral agency, and of His own moral and 
spiritual government in the human world (81), it was not in the nature 
of things possible for God to suffer man to live in the full exercise of 
his moral freedom and prevent his sinning. (19, 90.) All the moral 
and spiritual power of God (88, 89), which could be brought to bear on 
Adam, was actually exerted upon him, to prevent him from transgress- 
ing the divine laws of his nature and relations (120, 121), and keep 
him in holy and happy obedience to those laws, and in moral and 
spiritual harmony with his Maker. (92.) Yet, against all this, Adam, 
in the full exercise of his moral freedom, while his mind was more 
occupied in contemplating indulgence, than it was in meditating on the 
divine prohibition (141), voluntarily jdelded to his excited desire, and, 
in yielding, transgressed the constitutional laws of his nature and 
relations (23), and consequently, his religious and moral and intellectual 
and corporeal powers all suffered in the transgression. (51.) And, 
although he continued under the moral government, he no longer 
remained in the spiritual kingdom of God (89, 122) : he was no longer 
in moral and spiritual harmony with God ; eternal life was no longer 
in him. And, as he was the great constitutional head and source, and, 
as yet, whole of human nature (152), all human nature, in him, had 
fallen from the highest and best state of the human constitution, and 
the moral and spiritual potency of divine truth on man (78, 93) was, 
thereby, necessarily diminished (35) ; and became, in effect, more and 
more limited and feeble as the depravity of man increased. (80.) 

168. Is it asked, *' How then does God keep angels from sinning P " 
I answer, that we know but little concerning angels ; and the most of 
that little, is that their nature and condition and circumstances are 
very different to man's, in the present state of human existence. ** But 
how does he keep saints from smning in this human state P" Does he 
keep them wholly from sinning P Be it as it may, this is certain — to 
whatever extent he does keep them from sinning, he does it on the same 
constitutional principles, and by the same constitutional economy that 



03 

entered into Adam^s probation and acted to prevent him from sinning : 
and the only difference is that, such was the intellectual and moral 
condition of Adam (120, 121), that the moral and spiritual power of God 
(88, 89), could not act on him as a moral agent, with sufficient force to 
keep him from sinning ; but saints, so far as they are kept from sin-, 
ning, can, and do receiye enough of the moral and spiritual influence of 
God to prevent them from transgressing his laws (80), or to cause them 
to choose to obey him. And let it be continually kept in mind (91), 
that, I do not, in anywise, irreverently limit the power of the Almighty. 
(7.) God, as we have seen (19), has, in his own uncontrolled 
sovereignty, with infinite knowledge and wisdom and goodness and 
power, adjusted and established, in the nature of things, a system of 
c<mstitutional laws (18); and thus necesarily defined the exercise and 
operations of his own powers, as well as of those which he has imparted 
to man. (88.) For, it is in the nature of things impossible (17) for 
God efiSiciently to establish and maintain a constitutional law in his 
creatures, without being himself governed by that law, so far as it 
defines his relation to his creatures. (89.) 

THB PARAMOUNT PURPOSE OF GOD IN THE ECONOMY OF QRACE : AND 
. THE LAW OF ADAPTATION IN THE REVELATIONS AND DISPEN SATI0N8 
OF GOD. 

169. Now, it is manifestly and incontrovertibly true that, the Bible, 
as a whole, in the grand scope and spirit of its meaning, teaches us 
that man, having revolted from the spiritual kingdom of God (89, 122), 
and spiritually alienated himself from his Maker, and destroyed that 
harmony between his own character and the divine laws of his nature, 
which is essential to his highest good, God, in sovereign mercy, intro- 
duced an economy of grace for the redemption and salvation of man, 
adapted to reclaim man from his state of revolt, and morally and 
spiritually reconcile him to his Creator, and reinstate him m the 
langdom of heaven (81), and restore him to the highest and best state 
of the human constitution, and bring him again into the inheritance of 
eternal life. (122.) 

170. To reclaim man, therefore, from his state of revolt, to bring him 
back into the spiritual kingdom of God (81) — into moral and spiritual 
harmony with his Creator, and with the constitutional laws of his own 
nature and relations (93)--to develope the moral and spiritual govern- 
ment of Grod, fully and perfectly in tiie human world (121), in order to 
the highest glory of God and good of man (92), is, and from the fall of 
man, has ever been the great, paramount pui'pose of God, concerning 
man, in the economy of his moral and spiritual administration. (10.) 

171. To accomplish this great paramount purpose, God, according to 
the Bible as a whole, has successively introduced the Patriarchal, the 
Mosaic and the Christian dispensations. But, is either the Patriarchal 
or Mosaic dispensation equal to the Christian, in adaptation to the 
highest and best condition of man, and in compatibleness with the real 
nature and character of Gtod P (61.) The apostle Paul explicitly answers 
this question in the negative; and affirms (Heb. viii. 7, tt ^6^.), that 
the Patriarchal and Mosaic dispensations were adapted to the condition 



94 

and circumstances of man at the time in which they were introduced 
(66) ; that they passed away because of their intrinsic defectiveness ; 
and that, in the Christian dispensation, was brought in the everlasting 
kingdom of spiritual truth and righteousness and peace, foretold by the 
prophets ; everlasting, because compatible with the real nature and 
character of God (16), and adapted to the permanent and inmiutable 
laws of man's nature and relations. (4, 92.) But who will, therefore, 
charge God with folly, and impiously assert that he trifled with his 
creature man, and imposed upon him that which was not best P Why 
did not God, immediately after the fall of man, introduce the Christian 
dispensation, and fulfil, at once, all that has been accomplished by the 
life and death and resurrection and spiritual dispensation of Christ, 
and all that has since been realized of the kingdom of heaven in the 
human world P For the same reason that Christ did not reveal himself 
fully to his disciples before he was crucified (109), and that Paul could 
not speak to the Corinthian proselytes as unto spiritual, but as unto 
carnal. (103, 128.) Gk)d did not do it, because it was, in the nature of 
^ings, impossible. (66.) Man could not receive it. (65.) Hence, there- 
fore, though the Christian dispensation, considered in relation to the 
real nature and character of God and to the highest and best condition 
of man, is incomparably better and more perfect than the Patriarchal, 
yet, when the Patriarchal dispensation was introduced, it was incom* 
parably better adapted to the existing state of things, than the Christian 
dispensation would have been : and as it was, in all its principles and 
results, governed by the constitutional laws of God in nature (60), it 
was the best that could then be introduced, or that could co-exist with 
that state of things (63) : and the same is true of the Mosaic dispensa- 
tion. (57, 66.) 

172. The economy of grace, in the dispensations of the divine 
administration, though adapted to man in his fallen state, is, never- 
theless, established in perfect harmony with all the constitutional laws 
of man's complex nature (21,93), and is, therefore, adjusted to the 
constitutional economy of man's moral agency and conscious freedom of 
choice and action (79) ; and hence, its principles have ever been 
developed to the human mind, just in proportion to the true develop- 
ment of the intellectual and moral and religious man (109); and 
the motives which it has presented to man, have always been such as, 
from the state of man's moral susceptibility (80), or from the condition 
and circumstances of his complex nature (51), have been adapted to be 
most efficacious in causing him to choose and act aright or, in leading 
him most surely and directly towards the greatest ultimate good. (88.) 
But all the moral and spiritual power of God (89), which could be 
brought to bear on man in the infancy of the race, was not sufficient to 
keep him, with conscious freedom of choice and action, from preferring 
those indulgences which were transgressions of the divine laws of his 
nature and relations (27), and therefore, he continued to wax worse and 
worse, and sink into deeper and more ruinous darkness and depravity ; 
till '* every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil 
continually," and God was compelled, in mercy, even to rebellious man, 
to exercise his only reserved power which could be efficient in the case 
— his natural omnipotence (76) — not to regenerate man, or renew him 



95 

in the spirit of his miDd, not to convert him as a moral agent, from the 
error of his ways ; for this was in the nature of things impossible 
(80, 82) ; but to cut him off (90), and thus, not only prevent him that 
perished from heaping up for himself a more intolerable measure of 
wrath, but, in the awful fact, produce a tremendous moral force to 
deter succeeding generations from transgression. (6, 77, 78.) 

173. The same divine economy of grace has been continued upon the 
same principles of adaptation to the moral freedom (68), and to the 
intellectual and moral and spiritual state of man, or to the condition 
and circumstances of his complex nature (66), from Adam to Noah — 
from Noah to Abraham — from Abraham to Moses — from Moses to 
Christ, and from Christ to the present hour. At every period of time, 
when God has, in any manner, revealed himself to man, or given 
verbal or written instructions or laws to any of the human family, he 
has always, in accordance with his own laws constitutionally established 
in the nature of things (4), adapted his modes and measures to the state 
of the recipients of his dispensation (57 — 66); and always required — 
what is in the nature of things necessary (121) — that they should 
advance to him, in mental intelligence and moral and spiritual holiness 
and goodness, of their own free choice, by the light of the truth and the 
means of knowledge which he has abundantly afforded them. (159.) 
And thus, from the first transgression of Adam to the present moment, 
€k>d, in the exercise of all the moral and spiritual power that could be 
brought to bear effectually on man, has been continually prosecuting 
the same great purpose of developing his moral and spiritual govern- 
ment in the human world (74)^-of redeeming man from his sins and 
reclaiming him from his revolt, and bringing him back into the 
spiritual kingdom of heaven (81), of assimilating him, in moral and 
spiritual character, to his heavenly Father (23), transforming him from 
the image of the earthy man Adam, to the image of the Lord from 
heaven — from glory to glory, as by the Spirit of the Lord, making him 
more and more a partaker of the holiness — of the divine nature of God ; 
till he comes to the perfect man, and attains to the fulness of the 
stature of Christ ; and is filled with all the fulness of God ; and is 
wholly brought, in spirit and soul and body, under the spiritual govern- 
ment of God ; and is spiritually one with God ; and again inherits 
eternal life. (90.) 

174. That this glorious doctrine constitutes the grand scope and 
spirit of the Bible's meaning, as a whole, no one who is sufficiently 
holy to perceive and love the beauty of truth, will, for a moment, deny : 
and, this doctrine being tnie, no truly good man — no one who is guided 
by the Holy Spirit of truth, will so construe or interpret any particular 
passage or portion of the Bible, as to make it bear as a general and 
permanent law, of divine authority, in contravention of the great 
economy of grace, and paramount purpose of God, concerning man, 
which are clearly and fully revealed in the Bible as a whole. 

175. We have now, by the concordant teaching of divine Revelation 
in the volume of the inspired Word, as a whole, and in the volume of 
Nature (10, 127), ascertamed the true nature and character of God 
f 16, 158) — the real nature and constitutional character, condition and 
relations of man (16 — 155)— the primary purposes of God in the 



96 

creation and earthly existence of man (69, 75), and the great, 
paramount purpose of God, concerning man, in the economy of grace. 
(169, 170.) By the same teaching, we have also ascertained that God, 
in infinite knowledge and wisdom and goodness and power, has so con* 
stituted things (L8), that His moral power, and his spiritual power are 
the only forces which can be exerted with direct and legitimate 
efficiency on man as a moral agent, to cause him to act with consdous 
moral freedom (19, 76, 87) ; that Gtod has, in the nature of things, 
given to man the constitutional ability to resist His moral and spiritual 
power (88, 89) ; that whatever serves to increase the force of the 
natural instincts and appetites, on the intellectual and voluntary 
powers of man (26), beyond the strictly normal operations and true 
wants of the vital economy (27), and still more, whatever serves to 
deprave the natural instincts and appetites, and thus to increase their 
energy and despotism, necessarily increases, in equal measure, man*8 
inability to perceive and understand and obey moral and religious 
truth (35, 41), or to be actuated by any other than sensual motives 
(47, 51), and necessarily sensualizes his religion and all his notions of 
a Supreme Being, and causes him to attribute to the object of his 
worship, appetites and passions like his own; and inclines him to 
worship that object with rites and ordinances of a corresponding 
character (52, 66, 159, 160) and therefore, that, from constitutionid 
necessity, God, in prosecuting his primary and paramount purposes 
concerning man (74, 170), has always, in effect, adapted his revelations 
and dispensations to the condition and circumstances of man's complex 
nature (66) : and always employed such motives and influences as, 
from the cotemporaneous state of man, were adapted to act with the 
greatest possible efficiency in causing him, with conscious moral 
freedom, to make progress towards the fulfilment of those purposes. (80.) 

THE LAW OF ADAI!7ATI0N, A GRAND KEY IN BIBLICAL INTERPRETATION. 

176. The law of adaptation in the moral economy of the divine 
administration, is, therefore, a fundamental principle in the philosophy 
of sacred history, and the grand key to all that would otherwise be 
mysterious or absurd, in the record of the revelations and dispensations 
of God to man. This law of the divine conduct, necessarily arising 
from the efficiency of the constitutional laws which God has established 
in the nature of things (60, 61), we know, with all possible certainty, 
that the real state of man, as to the condition and circumstances of 
his complex nature (21), always accurately indicates the character of 
the cotemporaneous revelations and dispensations of God, as understood 
by man ; or, the degree in which the divine manifestations are accomo- 
dated to the state of man. (66.) And so of the converse: we know, 
with utmost certainty, that the character of the divine manifestations, 
as understood by man, always accurately indicates the cotemporaneous 
state of man, in relation to the true nature and character of Grod, and 
with reference to the highest and best condition of which his own 
nature is capable. (109.) If, therefore, we find in the volume of the 
inspired word, any law, commandment, precept, permission, promise, 
or statement, which does not correspond with me true nature and 



97 

duuracter of Gfod, nor is compatible with the highest and best condition 
of man, we know with entire certainty, that, just so far as it is at 
▼arianee with these, if it is a genuine portion of the inspired word, it 
was accommodated to the cotemporaneous state of those to whom it was 
grren ; and that, the co-existence of that particular state of things, in 
^^ch it had its necessary origin (63), is essential to its validity : and, 
consequently, that it is not a form of divine authority which, like a 
constitutional law of God in nature, bears equally on all men, at all 
times : but is of a particular, limited, and temporary bearing, and is of 
divine authority only when and where the state of things exists which 
makes it necessary as a moral force, in carrying man forward in con- 
scious moral fireedom (79), towards the fulfilment of the great purposes 
of divine benevolence. (173.) And, on the other hand, when we can 
accurately ascertain the true state of man, in any period of time, 
whether he is a subject of sacred, or profane history, we know with 
certainty, tiiat the cotemporaneous mamfestations of God in relation to 
him, or the divine disi^ensations which he received, or under which he 
acted, were from constitutional necessity, in effect, adapted to that state. 
(66.) And hence, this twofold rule is a perfect and infallible criterion 
by which we can accurately determine the character of every portion of 
sacred history with reference to the real state of man at the time in 
which the record was made, and the degree in which the cotempora- 
nisons revelations and dispensations of God were accommodated to that 
state. And as this criterion will be largely employed in my subsequent 
reasonings it is important that the reader should not only keep it 
oontinuaUy in mind, but also, that he should carry along with him a 
dear and correct understanding of the principles upon which it is 
established. 

CONDITION AND CIRCUUSTANCBS OP MAN's COMFLSX NATOBS — ^THE PHRASE 

EXPLAINED. 

177. I have repeatedly said (60, et seq.) that, the revelations and 
dispensations of God are, &om constitutional necessity (90), always, in 
effect, adapted to the cotemporaneous state of man, or to the condition 
and circumstances of man's complex nature, at the time in which they 
are received. And now, lest my meaning in this language concerning 
man, should not be accurately understood by others, I will endeavour 
to explain it more fully. By *' the state of man" I mean succinctly to 
OHnprehend the condition and circumstances of man's whole complex 
nature. What t]^e complex nature of man is, I have clearly and fully 
stated in section 21. 3y "the condition" of man's whole complex 
nature, I mean to comprehend the condition of his body as to perfect- 
ness or imperfectness of organization and development, as to the 
perfectness or imperfectness of its physiological or vital condition and 
action, and as to the purity or depravity of its organic and animal 
sensibilities, instincts and appetites (26) : and the condition of the soul 
(22) as to its degree of intellectual, moral and religious development, 
and the correctness or erroneousness of its intellectual, moral and reli- 
gious education; (23.) And by ** th^ circumstances" of man's complex 
nature, I mean all things surrounding man, which in any manner 

H 



98 

affect, or exert any kind or degree of influence on any part, property, 
or power of his complex material, organic, animal, intdlectual, morid 
and religious nature. (92.) 

INDIVIDUALS OFTEN 6REATLT IN ADYANCE OF THEIR C0TBMP0RABIE8, IN 
THE KNOWLEDGE OF MORAL AND RELIGIOUS TRUTH. 

178. It is, however, important to remark that, though the revelations 
and dispensations of Grod are always, in effect, adapted to the cotem- 
poraneous state of man, yet it is nevertheless true, that, their fall 
import, or the divine meaning in them, is often vastly deeper and of 
much wider bearing than is understood by those who originally receive 
them. Thus, it is now perfectly evident Uiat, the prophets and apostles 
"who spake and wrote as they were moved by me Holy Spirit,'* 
embodied in human language, to be more and more clearly and fuUy 
revealed to the human mind, as the intellectual, and moral and 
religious man became more and more fully, and truly and developed 
(121), much that they did not themselves understand. (83, 107, 
128.) And, it is also true that individuals often receive and under- 
stand divine communications greatly in advance of the common, 
cotemporaneous state of man. This was signally the case with Moses, 
who, as it will appear in the progress of my argument, was individually 
brought into sncb. a state (177), that he received and understood divine 
instructions which neither the people whom he led out of Egypt, nor their 
posterity for many generations, were able to receive understandingly : 
but it was pre-eminently true of Jesus Christ, who was prepared to 
*' receive the Spirit without measure ; " and therefore, " it pleased the 
Father that in him should all fulness dwell." " He was in the bosom 
of the Father." ** He was in the Father, and the Father in him." 
" He was one with the Father." *' God was in Christ reconciling the 
world unto himself ; " and therefore Jesus was ** the tabernacle of €k)d 
with men, " the true shechinah " in whom dwelt all the fulness of the 
Godhead bodily, " to be revealed to the human world in exact proportion 
to the true development of the intellectual, moral and religious man. 
(109.) But, so far was he in advance of the common state of mankind, 
at the time of his advent, that none on earth could " understand his 
speech or hear his word:" and he found it impossible "to speak 
plainly of the Father, " even to his chosen disciples, while he was bodily 
with them. And now, though more than eighteen hundred years have 
passed away since Jesus of Nazareth began to utter the living word of 
God, and bade his disciples preach it to all the world, fpw of the human 
kind have so enlarged and sanctified their souls as to be able to receive 
and understand the true teachings of Christ ; while a large majority of 
those who profess to believe in him have scarcely a dim and shadowy 
notion of his true divinity. (128.) 

CHRIST THE TRUE TYPE OF A CHILD OF GOD. 

179. There is another criterion which relates to the law of adaptation 
in the divine manifestations (176), and which is essential to the accurate 
interpretation of certain portions of sacred history. " No man hath 
seen God at any time i the only begotten Son which is in the bosom of 



99 

the Father, he hath declared him." (John i. 18.) *' All things/* said 

Jesus, " are delivered unto me of my Father ; and no one knoweth the 

Son, but the Father ; neither knoweth any man the Father save the 

Son, and he to whomsoever liie Son will reveal him." (Matt. zi. 27.) 

"Before Abraham was, I am.*' (John viii. 58.) '* I am the way, and 

the trutli, and the life ; no man cometh unto the Father but by me.*' 

(John xiv. 6.) *' And there came a voice from heaven saying, This is 

my beloved Son in whom I am well pleased; hear ye him.** 

(Matt. iii. 7 ; xvii. 5.) And Paul declares (Heb. i. 1 — 3.) that, " God, 

who at sundry times and in divers manners, spake in time past unto 

the fathers by the prophets, hath in these last days spoken unto us by 

his Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, and who is the 

Inrightness of his glory and the express image of his person.** " GK>d, 

manifested in the flesh.'* (1 Tim. iii. 16.) '*For in him dwelleth all 

the fulness of the Godhead bodilv.** (Col. ii. 9.) And " God did 

predestinate ** that all who througn the regeneration and sanctification 

of the Holy Spirit became truly and fully his children, ** should be 

conformed to the image of his Son.** (Rom. viii. 26 — 29.) And, " as by 

niature, we all bear the image of the earthy man Adam, so in the 

regeneration all shall bear the image of the Lord from heaven.** 

(1 Cor. XV. 49.) *• Being changed into the same image, from glory to 

glory, even as by the Spirit of the Lord.** (2 Cor. iii. 18.) And shall 

" put on the new man which is renewed in knowledge after the image 

of him that created him.** (Col. iii. 10.) " Till we all come in the 

unity of the faith, and of the knowledge of the Son of God, unto a 

perfect man, unto the measure of the stature of the fulness of Christ." 

(Eph. iv. 13), and are filled with all the fulness of God.** (Eph. iii. 19.) 

These passages of Scripture, taken in their obvious sense and in strict 

accordance with the general scope and spirit of the Bible, as a whole, 

manifestly teach us this important doctrine — Jesus of Nazareth was the 

true and perfect type of a child of God ; to whose moral and spiritual 

image, all must be conformed in order to be truly one with God. ^ And, 

therefore, he is the true and perfect criterion by which we can accurately 

determine the character, in regard to true godliness, of every individual 

described in sacred history ; and thereby ascertain the true meaning 

of the language of sacred history concerning the characters which it 

describes. We know with all the certainty that can be derived from 

the teaching of the Bible as a whole, that, just so far as any human 

being falls short of a true and perfect conformity to the moral and 

spiritual character of Jesus Christ, he falls short of true and perfect 

godliness. And hence, we know, with the same degree of certainty, 

that, when the sacred Scriptures speak of men as "righteous,** "just," 

"perfect,** "the chosen of the Lord," "the servants of God,** "the 

saints of the Lord,** &c., just so far as those who are thus spoken of, 

really fell short of a true and perfect conformity to the moral and 

spiritual character of Jesus Christ, they fell short of true and perfect 

godliness ; and the language of sacred history concerning them was 

adapted, in its meaning, to the state of man at the time in which the 

record was made ; and the qualities predicated of them indicate their 

* Lectures on tbe Science of Human Life, 8. 949, 950. 



100 

character in relation to the general, Cotemporaneous state of mankind, 
or in relation to the particular purposes which they were ordained to 
serve in the great scheme of divine government, ratner than their true 
character in relation to the nature and character of Qod. (83.) 

THB EFFECTS OF FLESH-MEAT AND ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES ON THE 
CHARACTER AND DESTINY OF MAN, THIS IS A QUESTION IN NATURAL 
SCIENCE. HOW SOLVED. 

180. Having clearly and fully ascertuned the true nature and 
character of Qod ; the real nature and constitutional character, condition 
and relations of man ; the primary purpose of Gk)d, in the creation and 
earthly existence of man; the great, paramount purpose of God, 
concerning man, in the economy of grace ; and, in a general manner, 
the causes which render man, as a moral agent, incapable of being so 
acted on by the moral and spiritual power of God, as to be kept from 
sin with conscious freedom of choice and action, and which thereby 
hinder the accomplishment of the great purposes of divine benevolence, 
and prevent man's being brought into the spiritual kingdom of Qod 
(175), I now proceed to inquire more particularly — 

^ First, what effects the use of flesh as food, and of wine and alcoholic 
liquor of any kind, as a dnnk, has on the condition, character and 
actions of man, as a subject of the moral and spiritual government of 
God, with reference to the fulfilment of the great purposes of divine 
benevolence (32, 35, 76) ; and. 

Second, what are the bearings or teachings of the Bible, as a whole, 
in relation to these points: or, in other words, how far the sacred 
Scriptures may, by accurate interpretation, be shown to be in harmony 
with the true revelations of God, m the volume of Nature. 

181. It is evident that the first of these particular subjects of 
investigation, is mainly a question of natural science, and as such, 
must be solved by the revelations of God in the volume of Nature. 
For, we have seen (127) that, every law and principle, and property of 
Nature, is an institution of the divine will'— that N ature is, in truth, 
the first great volume of divine Revelation, in which the deeply written 
will of God lies ever ready to be disclosed to the human mind by the 
true developments of science, and by accurate experience — that the 
revealed Word is but a supplement to this first great volume, and, in 
strictness, as a pure revelation, contains, principally, divine instructions 
concerning moral and spiritual things, which Nature speaks not of, or 
but faintly implies, or dimly indicates ; and that the truth of Nature 
and the true meaning of the revealed Word, must be in harmony ; and, 
consequently, it is impossible that the true meaning of the revealed 
Word can, as a permanent law, be contrary to the laws of Nature. The 
truth of natural science, therefore, is the truth of God, and always 
comes with divine authority to man (4) : and the Bible, as the revealed 
word of God, must, when accurately interpreted, be perfectly consistent 
with what is true in chemistry, and mineralogy, and botany, and zoology, 
and astronomy, and every other natural science. Yet the Bible was 
not given to teach us the natural sciences ; and no correct philosopher 
thinks of going to the Bible to study these sciences. To ascertain what 



101 

is trae in these, he goes to the volume of Nature as the primary and 
irreversible code of the omniscient and omnipotent Creator and Kuler 
of all thin^. And, in regard to his Bible, he is satisfied if he finds 
nothing in it, which is apparently incompatible with the demonstrations 
of natural science ; and pleased if he finds it confirmed by scientific 
truth : knowing that the truth of Nature must stand, whether the 
apparent meaning of any particular portion -of the sacred Scriptures 
agrees with it or not. He, therefore, who truly loves and reverences 
the Bible as the revealed word of Grod, will not be forward to introduce 
it into controversies of a scientific nature, and oppose his interpretations 
of it to the demonstrations of science, in such a manner as to make it 
appear that the Bible and the truths of natural science are at variance : 
for he Imows that this must only serve to invalidate his Bible, and not 
the truth of science. But, the true philosopher, who cordially and 
nnderstandingly loves and reverences his Bible, will, as a scientific man, 
in all his investigations, and researches, pursue the truth for the truth's 
sake ; and when he has fully ascertained the truth of science, if he finds 
any apparent want of agreement between this and his Bible, he will, 
with the spirit of truth still ruling his soul, honestly set about such an 
examination of the matter, as will enable him to show that the disagree- 
ment is only apparent, and that when accurately understood, the Bible 
perfectly harmonizes with scientific truth ; or at least, that, the true 
meaning of the revealed Word is not incompatible with the truth of 
natural science. 

182. Thus, for instance, suppose I affirm that the sun is the centre of 
our planetary system, and that the earth and other planets revolve 
round it; and, immediately, some one, hot for controversy, comes 
forward and asserts that my statement cannot be true, because ihe Bible 
clearly teaches that the earth is fixed and the sun moves round it. 
Nothing is more certain than that he and I and the whole world with 
us, mi^t keep up a fierce and interminable controversy on this subject, 
and never come any nearer to a unity of opinion, nor to the knowledge 
of the trulh than we are at the outset, it we continued to draw our 
arguments from our interpretations of the language of the Bible, or 
continued to contend about the meaning of words. I will, therefore, 
say to my adversary, at the threshold of the dispute. Sir, I respect and 
love the Bible perhaps as much and as truly as you do, but I shall enter 
into no controversy with you concerning the doctrines of the Bible, in 
regard to astronomy. This is not a matter of Revelation ; but ot 
natural science. He replies that, the truth of natural science cannot 
contradict the truth of revelation. I admit it; and affirm that the 
revealed Word was not given to teach us natural science ; but that, the 
truth of natural science illuminates the pages of revelation, and enables 
ns with more clearness and accuracy to ascertain and understand the 
true meaning of the revealed Word. (127.) I then proceed to demon- 
strate, completely and incontrovertibly, by a scientific process, that the 
sun is the centre of our planetary system, and that the earth, with the 
other planets, revolves round it : and thus, I close up the controversy, 
and the whole intelligent world, capable of understanding my reasoning, 
is brought to one opinion on the subject. Does my adversary pertina- 
ciously eome forward again, and say, " I do not eare for your scientific 



102 

•demonstrations : here is my Bible ; and it plainly teaches that the earth 
stands still, and that the sun moyes romid it, and I guess God knows 
better than you, with all your philosophy, falsely so called ? ** I will 
reply, Man, do you indeed reverence your Bible and wish others to 
reverence it P Then strive not to dash it against this immoveable ro<^ 
of truth : for, although your efforts may never succeed in shaking your 
own superstition, yet be assured they will serve to convince others of 
the blindness of your superstition, or to impair their confidence in the 
authority of your Bible, or else, they will distrust your honesty in ur^g 
your Bible authority. But does he ask, '* Shall I then throw my Bible 
away, and take your natural science for my only guide P ** I answer, 
No. Go to the volume of the revealed word for all the instruction 
which it was designed to give you ; and to the volume of Nature for all 
the truth which God has written there for human science. And when 
you have clearly, fully, certainly ascertained a truth of Nature, remem- 
ber that, it is a truth of Qtod, which comes not to you clothed in any of 
the ambiguity of human language ; and therefore, that it cannot be 
rendered questionable on the ground of the uncertainty of the meaning 
of words. And if you find any portion of the revealed Word which 
seems either explicitly or implicitly to contradict this truth of Nature, 
remember that the revealed Word is in human language, and there- 
fore, is capable of being as variously interpreted as men individually 
are various in the condition and circumstances of their complex nature 
(8, 9, 65) ; that it is only the divine meaning of the revealed Word, 
which is of divine authority; and that the divine meaning of the 
revealed Word cannot contradict the truth of God in the volume of 
Nature. (127.) Therefore, when you have clearly and fully ascertained 
a truth of God in the volume of Nature, open your Bible in the light of 
this truth, and if any portion of the language of the; Bible seems to 
contradict it, honestly and diligently study your Bible, not for the sake 
of proving from it that your truth of Nature is true, but for the sake of 
accurately understanding the general scope and spirit of its meaning aa 
a whole, with which, the divine meaning of each particular passage 
must be consistent ; and, as sure as the Bible is the word of God, and 
your investigations and reasonings are accurate, you will find that the 
divine meaning of every portion of the revealed Word, taken in con- 
nection with all the circumstances under which it was given, and the 
constitutional laws which govern all divine revelations (66), is perfectly 
compatible with the truth of Nature, in whose light you study the 
Scriptures, and with every known truth in the volume of Nature. 

183. In this manner only, can the particular question now before us, 
be correctly met and accurately solved. I affirm that the use of flesh 
as food, and alcoholic liquor as a drink, is incompatible with the high- 
est and best state of human nature. But, immediately, a multitude of 
voices are heard vociferating, '* You are wrong, Sir ! you are wrong ! 
The Bible explicitly declares that God gave Noah and his family per- 
mission to eat every moving thing that liveth ; and that, Abraham the 
chosen of God, gave the angels of the Lord flesh to eat ; and that, God 
commanded the children of Israel to eat flesh at the supper of the 
passover, and miraculously supplied them with flesh to eat in the 
wilderness ; and that, Moses, under divine inspiration, permitted the 



103 

Jews to eat flesh, and commanded them to supply the priests with it for 
food; and that, Gtod caused the ravens to carry flesh to the prophet 
Elijah for his food ; and that, our Saviour and his inspired apostles ate 
animal food ; and Paul declared that * every creature of Gk>d is good, 
and nothing to be refused, if it be received with thanksgiving.* Ajid 
the Bible idso, expressly permits the use of wine as a drink ; and speaks 
of it as a blessing ; and Christ drank it and gave it to his disciples ; and 
made it for others to drink ; and instituted it in the sacramental supper, 
as a perpetual memorial of his blood shed for a sinful race ; and raul 
ordered Timothy to drink it; and the primitive Christians drank it 
under the apostolic sanction/' I reply to this multitude of gainsayers, 
I cannot enter into any controversy with you, in regard to what the 
Bible, according to your understanding of it, teaches on this subject. 
I shall not dispute with you about the meaning of words. For, I regard 
such controversies and disputes, as fruitful of no good, and as serving 
in no measure to the clear and satisfactoir ascertainment of truth. 
The question before us, is not a question of Kevelation, but of natural 
science ; and as such, I have fairly met it, and thoroughly examined it, 
and fully solved it, in my Lectures on the Science of Human Life. In 
those lectures, I have clearly and incontrovertibly shown * that, all the 
evidence of comparative anatomy, when correctly apprehended and 
accurately estimated, goes to prove conclusively, that man is naturally 
in no measure a flesh-eating animal, but is organized to subsist wholly 
on the products of the vegetable kingdom. And with eqtal conclusive- 
ness, I have also shown that all the evidence of physiology in relation 
to the matter, concurs in the demonstration of the same truth : that, 
taking man as a species extending through all generations, rather than 
as an individual in particular circumstances, and, taking the most 
perfect state of the human constitution as the true criterion or point of 
departure and reference in all reasoning on this subject, flesh -meat, in 
comparison with the best vegetable food, is much more stimulating in 
proportion to the nourishment which it actually imparts to the body — 
renders the general physiological action of the organic system more 
rapid and intense — accelerates all the vital functions, and deteriorates 
all the functional results — increases the expenditure of the vital proper- 
ties of the tissues and functional powers of the organs, and more rapidly 
wears out the vital constitution ; f that, it is not so conducive to the 
healthy g^rowth, and full development, and true proportions, and perfect 
symmetry and beauty of the body ; J that, it is not so conducive to 
suppleness, activity, agility and strength ; and will not sustain man so 
well and so long in hard labour and under fatigue, and exposure to 
changes of weather and of climate ; § that it tends to induce acute 
and chronic disease, diminishes the vital power of the body to resist the 
action of disturbing and morbific causes and noxious agents ; and, 
therefore, is neither so well adapted to preserve health and prevent 
disease, nor to enable the diseased body to recover health ; nor is it so 
conducive to long life and true bodily comfort and enjoyment ; || that, it 
diminishes the sensorial power of the nervous svstem, impairs the 
special senses, and the powers of perception and reflection, and renders 

« Science of Life, s. 809—860. t «• 861—926. 

t s. 927—996. ^ 8. 997—1064. s. I«65— II28. 



104 

the mind less active, clear and yigorous and spiritual ; that it increases 
the influences of the animal appetites, desires and propensities, on the 
intellectual, moral and religious faculties (26—34), and renders man 
more sensual, passionate and brutish — ^more immcnral, vicious and 
criminal, and less able to perceive and understand and obey moral and 
religious truth. (35.) In short, that, the use of flesh as food, serves to 
deteriorate the whole complex nature of man — ^to multiply disease and 
suffering, and error and wickedness in the human world, and abbreviate 
the period of human life, and increase the power of the animal over the 
intellectual and moral and religious man, and render man less able to 
understand the true nature and character of Gk)d, and the true relations 
between God and man (66), and less able to be actuated by any other 
than selfish and sensual motives (51), and thus serves to sink man 
into a deeper and darker and more brutally savage state of barbaiian 
heathenism.* 

184. Again, I have shown in my Lectures on the Science of Life, f 
that, alcohol is a destructive poison to the vital constitution of man ; 
and always immediately impairs the vital properties of the tissues on 
which it acts ; and, when concentrated to a pure state, a smaU quantity 
of it in the human stomach almost instantaneously destroys life. And, 
however diluted the form, the poisonous or antt-vital character of 
alcohol always remains ; and, to the extent of its energy, immediately 
impairs ihe vital properties and tends to the destruction of the vital coa- 
stitution of thb parts on which it acts ; and, by causing a vital reaction 
or antagonism, preternaturally excites the whole organic system; and, 
in proportion to its quantity, throws the organs into a violent action — 
disturbs all the functions and deteriorates all the functional results — 
increases the exhaustion of the constitutional powers — abbreviates the 
period of life, and so acts on the whole complex nature of man (145), as 
to tend to every kind of disease and suffering in the body, and to every 
kind of injury and wickedness, and the greatest misery in the soul, and 
to the utter destruction of every organic, and animal, and intellectual, 
and moral, and religious, and social faculty, and power. I have also 
shown X thS't, alcohol is not produced by any formative process in nature, 
but by a process of decay or destruction, called, by the chemists, " vinous 
fermentation," in which the saccharine matter or sugar which is produced 
by the vital economy of organized bodies, and which is an organic 
element, is resolved to chemical elements and, at the same time, in 
consequence of confinement, by human art, some of these chemical 
elements, as they are set free, or produced by the destruction of the 
saccharine constitution, enter into the alcholic constitution by a combi- 
nation peculiar to this process. Tiie deadly poison called alcohol, is, 
therefore, entirely a result of fermentation, and in no measure, of 
distillation ; and has precisely the same nature and properties wherever 
it is found ; precisely the same, whether in rum, brandy, gin, whisky, 
wine, beer, cider, or any other kind Of distilled or fermented liquors. 
And although when taken in small quantities and in a diluted form, its 
pernicious effects are exceedingly insidious, and the progress of its work 
of death is by imperceptible degrees, yet however diluted the form and 

• Science of Life, •. 1129—1251. t 8. 1559—1562. X &• 1375. 



105 

howerer small the quanti1y» its immediate and direct effect on the living 
tissues of the human body, is, from constitutional necessity, always 
pernicious; and firom the same necessity, its pernicious energy always 
sbnultaneoosly assails the whole complex nature of man. (149.) So 
that, in tiie day man drinks of it, he "begins to die, " in the fullest 
import of the lang^uage of the primal prohibition. (150.) The direct and 
certain tendency of alcoholic liquor as a drink, therefore, like that of 
fl&di as food, but in a vastly greater degree, is to sensualize, debase and 
destroy man's whole nature ; to increase the power of the animal over 
the intellectual, and moral and religious man, to render man less able 
to understand the true nature and character of Grod, and the true 
relations between God and man — ^less able to perceive and understand 
and obey moral and religious truth. In short, its direct and powerful 
tendency is to sink man in spirit and soul and body, into the lowest and 
most brutalized state of human degradation and perdition. (51, 153.) 

185. The use of flesh as food, and wine or any other kind of alcoholic 
liquor as a drink, therefore, is utterly incompatible with the highest and 
b(»t and happiest state of man's complex, organic, animal, intellectual, 
moral and religious nature (21) ; serves to keep man out of the spiritual 
kingdom of God — to prevent the success of the divine economy of grace 
(170), to retard the development of the moral and spiritual government 
of God in Hie human world, and thus to hinder the accomplishment of 
the great purposes of divine benevolence. (74.) 

186. Let it be clearly understood, however, that I do not place flesh- 
meat in the same category with alcohol, as a poison. I do not affirm 
that flesh-meat is in any degree, an actual poison to the human 
constitution ; nor that, the habitual dietetic use of it, in moderate 
quantities and under pr(n>er relations, is, in all conditions and 
circumstances, a source of more immediate and permanent evil than 
good to man as an individual. On the contrary, 1 freely admit, that, 
man, as an individual, may be brought into such a condition and placed 
in sudi circumstances as will render it both necessary and proper — nay, 
even best to eat flesh. But if there is any truth in anatomical and 
physiological science, and in the demonstrations of human history, I 
have fully and conclusively shown, in my lectures on the Science of 
Human Life, that the use of flesh as food is not conducive to the highest 
and best state of the complex nature of man as a species, extending 
through all generations. Human experience has fully and largely 
confiraied the doctrine of the Sacred Scriptures that man has the 
constitutional capability of deriving nourishment from *' every moving 
thing that liveth ; " and l^at, he may habitually use flesh as food, from 
generation to generation, and still, as a species, retain sufficient consti- 
tutional power to perpetuate himself, and in a measure, fulfil the 
relations and duties of individual and social life. * Tet it is none the 
less true that he cannot attain to the highest and best state of which his 
nature is capable, while he continues to eat flesh. 

187. Do m^ opposers still persist in asserting their Bible authority 
for the dietetic use of flesh and wine P Then, I reply to them, your 
pertinacity is blind and mischievous : for it is infinitely easier for you 

• Science of Life, MS— 65S. 



106 

to bring the authority of your Bible into discredit, in such a controversy, 
than to sha^e these scientific demonstrations. Tou may just as well 
tell me, at this day, that you have Bible authority for the doctrine that 
the earth stands still, and that the sun moves round it once in twenty- 
four hours, as to toll me that you have Bible authority for the doctrine 
that the use of flesh as food, and wine or any other kind of alcohol liquor 
as a driqk, is compatible with the highest and best stato of which human 
nature is capable : for the lattor proposition is quite as credible as the 
other, to an accurately informed mmd. Do t£ey captiously answer, 
*' that is just the wav of all you vain speculators who become 'wise 
above what is written ! * The Bible and every thing else must give way 
to make room for your favourite theories ! " I respectfully say to them, 
I trust that I love and reverence the Bible as truly and as much as you 
do. But it is not the print and paper and binding of the Book that I 
reverence. I love and reverence the divine truth and spirit of tiie 
Bible. And now, I am ready to take the Bible and sit down with you, 
and, in the light of the scientific demonstrations before us, caremlly 
and prayerfully study it from beginning to end ; and show you that 
every part of the Bible, when accurately interpreted, is perfectly con- 
sistent with these scientific demonstrations. And when T have done 
this, if you assert that I have not succeeded in proving, to your 
satisfaction, from the Bible, that the use of flesh as food, and of alcoholic 
liquor as a drink, is incompatible with the highest and best state of 
which human nature is capable, then I shall say I undertook no such 
thing ! the proposition before us does not belong to revelation, but to 
natural science, and therefore it is impossible to prove either the 
affirmative or negative of it from the Bible, so conclusively as to satisfy 
all minds, and put an end to controversy concerning it. But it must 
for ever remain an unsettled and vexed question, so long as the 
reasoning in regard to it is founded on evidence drawn from the 
Scriptures. I have fully demonstrated its truth on its own legitimate 
ground, as a proposition in natural science ; and I went with you to the 
Bible, not to prove from it the truth of the same proposition ; but, to 
show you that the Bible may, upon correct principles of interpretation, 
be made to harmonize perfectly, with those demonstrations of natural 
science ; and if I have not satisfied you on that point, you had better 
endeavour to harmonize the Bible with those demonstrations, in a 
manner more satisfactory to yourselves ; for while the constitutional 
laws which Gk)d has established in the nature of things remain in their 
integrity, the truth of those scientific demonstrations must, of necessity 
remain. And, let it also be remembered that, inasmuch as the great 
economy of divine benevolence embraces man's whole nature, and aims 
as truly at the health and happiness of his body as of his soul (23), the 
Bible, though it does not explicitly teach the science of physiology, does, 
in its moral and spiritual precepts and requirements, impUcitly demand 
that man should, to the full extent of his capabilities, and opportunities 
and means, acquire that knowledge of the nature and properties of 
things, which will enable him, in the greatest degree, to maintain the 
highest well-being of his whole nature, by the most perfect obedience 
to the laws of God in his nature and relations. (92.) 



107 



BE T&UE G&OUND OF BIBLICAL ARQUMENT IK RELATION TO ALL 

QITESTIONS IN NATURAL SCIENCE, 

188. Now, then, before I proceed to the second particular subject of 
inquiry which I have propounded (180), let it be clearly understood that, 
I do not go to the Bible to prove the doctrine which I have advanced 
concerning the effects which flesh as food, and alcoholic liquor as a 
drink, have on the character and destiny of man. We have learned 
from the One great System of divine Revelation, comprised in the 
volume of Nature and in the volume of the Inspired Word (127), what 
God is, and what man is, and what are the purposes of God concerning 
man, and what are the laws which govern the revelations and dispensa- 
tions of God to man (16, et seq.), and what are the effects of flesh as food, 
and alcoholic liquor as a drink, on the character and conduct of man, 
with reference to the fulfilment of the great purposes of divine benevo- 
lence. (175, 181 — 185.) All these points, therefore, are to be considered 
as clearly ascertained and fully established. And I go to the Bible for 
the sole purpose of showing that all those particular portions of Scrip- 
ture which seem to be at variance with the truths of natural science 
which I have advanced, may, by fair interpretation, be shown to 
harmonize perfectly with those trutibs : or, for ^e purpose of showing 
that, the divine meaning of the sacred Scriptures, when accurately 
ascertained, harmonizes perfectly with the true revelations of God in 
the volume of Nature. And this distinction is of the utmost import- 
ance: for there is an infinite difference between proving, from the 
Scriptures, the truth of a proposition in natural science, and showing 
that the Scriptures may fairly be so interpreted as to agree with the 
d^nonstrated truth of natural science. Thus, it would be impossible 
to prove from the Bible, that the sun is the centre of our planetary 
sj^tem, and that the earth revolves round it. On the contrary, several 
portions of sacred Scripture seem plainly to imply that the earth is 
fixed and the sun moves round it. And if, without scientific demon- 
stration to support us, we affirm that the language of those portions of 
Scripture was used in an accommodated sense, and was adapted to the 
state of man at the time in which the record was made (66), our inter- 
pretation would be received by few ; while the multitude would reject 
it with indignation and horror, and vehemently accuse us of heresy and 
blasphemy. But, when it is known to be a fully demonstrated truth of 
Datural science, that the earth revolves round the sun, it is at once 
perceived that the Bible must be made to agree with this scientific truth, 
or be invalidated by it ; and then, our interpretation is readily received 
as manifestly true. And, if we go still further, and accurately ascertain 
all the principles of science in the nature and relations of man, we shall 
find ttiat the very language of Scripture, which seemed to be at 
variance with the truths of natural science, is, in reality, strictly in 
accordance with the constitutional laws which goi^em all divine Reve- 
lations (60 — 66, 107), and could not be different, consistently with the 
integrity of those laws. The very language of the Bible, therefore, 
which has been thought by some, to afford the strongest grounds of 



108 

scepticism in regard to its genuineness and authenticity, is, in truth, 
the most powerful evidence of its genuineness and authenticity. All 
this is applicable to the doctrine which I have advanced concerning the 
use of flesh as food and alcoholic liquor as 'a drink ; and is essentud to 
the completeness of the general argument before us. It is im't>ossible 
to prove from the Bible, that the use of flesh as food and alooholie 
liquor as a drink, is incompatible with the highest and hest state of 
which human nature is capable ; and to assert this doctrine on BiUa 
authority, or without the support of scientific demonstration, is inerita* 
bly to involve ourselves in heated and vexatious controversy, whidiwill 
amount to little more than '* I say it is !'* and, " I say it is not !" and 
can never end in the full and satisfactory ascertainment of truth. But 
when we can assert our doctrine as a fully demonstrated truth of 
natural science, then the question is not. What can we make the 
language of the Bible mean, in relation to it P but, How shall we, in 
strict accordance with correct principles of interpretation, so explain it, 
as that, while we sacredly maintain its divine validity, we, at the same 
time, clearly show that its true meaning is perfectly compatible with 
the truths of natural science. The scientific demonstration has been 
made (18.3 — 186); and it only remains for me to show that the 
language of the Bible may, in accordance with correct principles of 
interpretation, and with the strictest regard to its divine authority, be 
so explained as to agree perfectly with the demonstrated truths of 
natural science, which I have advanced ; or, in other words, that, the 
divine meaning of the revealed Word is in perfect harmony with the 
true revelations of God in the volume of Nature. (127.) 

189. But, let me here enter my solemn protest against all perversions 
of the principles which I have advanced. Because I affirm that nature 
is the first great volume of divine Revelation to man, and that, the 
true meaning of the revealed Word must harmonize with the truths of 
natural science (127), let no idle dreamer set up the vagaries of his 
undisciplined mind as the true revelations of God in Nature, and insist 
that no meaning of the sacred Scriptures can be of divine authority, 
which is not compatible with his philosophy. Human fancy is not 
scientific demonstration. Nor is it enough that we have strong 
evidence in Nature, of the truth of an opinion which we entertain, S 
that evidence is, in the least degree, incomplete and inconclusive. 
Nothing short of a perfect scientific demonstration of the truth of a 
proposition — the full ascertainment that it is a constitutional principle 
or property of Nature, can justify us in asserting it as a criterion by 
which the true meaning of the sacred Scriptures, is to be determined. 
Hence, therefore, philosophers and men of science should be exceedingly 
modest in their pretensions to the authority of Nature, in opposition to 
the received interpretations of the Sacred Scriptures, so long as the 
grounds on which they predicate their natural authority, are, in any 
measure, wanting the support of complete scientific demonstration. 
Thus, in what is popularly called the "Science of Geology," many 
particulars are known which render the most recent theory that has 
oeen founded upon them, exceedingly plausible : but, the great consti- 
tutional principles or laws of Nature, which govern the formation of 
bodies like our earth, and the causes which qualify the action of those 



Itirt, in the various conditions and dreumstanoes of things, and which 
modify the results of their action, are not yet asc^^ined with sufficient 
otftainty, to justify us in calling geology a science in Hie proper sense 
of tiie word; and still less, in urging geological evidence as conclusire 
proof against the received interpretation of the sacred Scriptures. The 
opinions of geologists may he correct ; but they must be established by 
scientific demonstration before they can justly be asserted as the true 
revelation of €K>d in Nature, with which the true meaning of the 
revealed Word must harmonize. And all this applies to every other 
subject on which the human mind is exercised. It is far easier to 
dream than to reason — ^to fancy than to investigate — to speculate than 
to demonstrate : but not so safe, nor so conducive to the knowledge of 
the truth and the well-being of man. And he that does not love the 
truth more than he loves his own opinions, will never go very deep into 
the well after the water of truth, to satisfy his own thirst, and cannot 
be a safe guide to others. 

190. Having thus clearly and fully defined the ground of my Biblical 
argument, and laid down the principles which are to govern my reason- 
ings, I am now prepared — Secondly (180), to enter upon a thorough 
eramination of the Sacred Scriptures, for the sole purpose of showing 
that ^e divine meaning of the revealed Word is m perfect harmony 
wi^ the scientific truths which I have advanced and which I may 
hereafter advance. And let it be continually borne in mind, that, in 
j^rosecuting this argument, I shall carry along with me at every step, 
as a grand and infallible criterion in my reasoning, the twofold rule 
presented in Section 176 ; namely, that, the real state of man, in 
relation to the true nature and character of God, and with reference 
to the highest and best condition of which his own nature is capable, 
idways accurately indicates the character of the cotemporaneous 
revelations and dupensations of God, as understood by man : and, the 
character of the revelations and dispensations of God as understood 
by man, always accurately indicates the cotemporaneous state of man. 
[See 172, 175, 176.] 

ALL THB DIVINE INSTRUCTIONS CONTAINED IN THE BIBLE CONCERNINO 
THE FOOD OF THE HUMAN SPECIES AS A WHOLE, WEBE THOSE GIVEN 
TO ADAM, AND ABE STBICTLT CONSISTENT WITH THE TBUTHS OF 
NATUBAL SCIENCE. 

191. We have seen that, man was created with determinate relations 
to those substances in nature which were designed for his food (93, 159), 
and that, the constitutional laws by which the human body and its 
approj^iate aliment are adapted to each other, are institutions of the 
divine wUl— Ksommandments of God (161) : and that, the phenomena 
resulting from the efficiency of those laws, are, in truth, the natural 
language of God, by which man may, with certainty, be informed of tiie 
divine will and purposes to which those phenomena relate. (165.) We 
have seen also, that, as every law of Nature is a law of God, it is 
impossible that any word of Revelation should, as a permanent law, be 
contrary to the laws of Nature (4) ; but the true meaning of the 
revealed Word must be in harmony with the laws of Nature. (127.) 



no 

Hence, therefore, the true meaning of the revealed Word addressed to 
man as a species — ^to human nature as a whole, and not to man as an 
individual in particular circumstances, must be consistent with the 
permanent laws of constitution and relation which God has established 
in human nature ; and must be equally valid through all generations 
of mankind ; so lon^ as the human constitution remains the same. 
And it is perfectly evident that, the divine instructions which, according 
to the Mosaic Record, were given to Adam (116), were not addrttsed 
to him as an individual in particular drcumstajices ; but th^ were 
addressed to him as the human species — as the whole of human 
nature (167), and therefore, they were in perfect harmony with the 
laws of constitution and relation divinely established in the nature of 
things ; or rather they were revelations of those laws ,* and were 
adapted to the best state and greatest good of human nature, through- 
out all generations. 

192. It was to human nature as a whole, and not to the first man, 
as an individual, that God said. Behold I have given you every herb 
bearing seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree in 
the which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for 
food. It was to " ddam** as a species (116), that God said. Of every 
tree of the garden thou mavest freely eat ; but of the tree of the know- 
ledge of good and evil (145;, thou mayest not eat, neither mayest thou 
employ it in any other mode of sensuality lest thou die ; for in the day 
that thou eatest thereof thou wilt begin to die. (148.) It was to woman 
as the female part of the human kind, that, God declared that-, by her 
yielding to the spirit of sensuality (139), her sorrows and sufferings in 
child-bearing would be greatly increased; and that she, by ministering 
to sensuality in man, would make him a despotic and oppressive and 
sensual master, rather than a loving, protecting and continent husband. 
And it was to man as a species, that God said, *' Because of thy 
sensuality, cursed is the ground for thy sake: with toil and fatigue 
Shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy life. Thorns also, and thistles 
shall it bring forth to thee, and thou shalt eat of the herb of the field— 
the products of tillage. In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread 
till thou return to the ground : for out of it wast thou taken : for dust 
thou art and unto dust shalt thou return.'* (144, 165, 167.) 

193. It is, therefore, perfectly manifest that all the divine instructions, 
contained in the Bible concerning the food of the human species as a 
whole, are entirely and strictly consistent with what I have shown to be 
the constitutional laws of God in the nature of things (183) ; and affirm, 
explicitly, that, man as a species, comprehending all generations, is con- 
stituted to subsist on the products of the vegetable kingdom (123) ; or 
that, certain products of the vegetable kingdom, are, by divine consti- 
tution and appointment, the natural and appropriate food of the human 
species ; and best adapted to sustain man m the most perfect state of 
aJl the attributes of his complex nature. (124, 147, 150.) On this 
point there can be no reasonable doubt : for it is indubitably true that, 
while the first human pair were the constitutional head and source and 
whole of human nature, the divine instructions given to them concern- 
ing food, were adapted to the human constitution ; and, consequently, 
the divine laws thus revealed to them, were as permanent as the human 



Ill 

ition itself; and therefore, must, of necessity, remain equally 
rough all generations of the human species. 
But while it is entirely certain that the divine instructions 
> Adam concerning food were adapted to the human constitution, 
refore, were addressed to man as a species, and not to man as 
ridual in particular circumstances, it is equally certain that the 
ons which Gk>d made to our first parents, were, in the regulations 
>ed, in the duties required and in the motives presented, strictly 
[ to the condition and circumstances of their complex nature as 
lals ( 177) and therefore accurately indicate their state. (110, 176.) 
us of litUe more than an animal existence, and of their animal 
their knowledge extended not beyond the infantile results of very 
sensual perception and experience (131), and consequently, their 
auding comprehended only that which had informed their souls 
I this perception and experience. (113.) Of their higher moral 
ritual nature and relations and interests and wants, they had 
nite notion, and no other sentiment than the shadowy and 
ict impression caused by the action of surrounding influences on 
lintelUgent, moral and religious instincts. (38, 52---57, 120, 121.) 
nimial man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of Grod, neither 

know them because they are spiritually ^scerned ; and it is 
, The first man Adam was made a living animal, of the earth, 
" (103.) And, therefore, the interests and motives pertaining to 
I and eternal things were unperceived by him, and could not be 
; to bear efficiently upon him, as causes of moral action. (80, 88.) 
t, was he in a condition to receive even the higher order of 
il motives which are appreciated by the human mind, in 
re advanced stage of the development of the intellectual and 
lature of man. (121.) Those motives only, which pertained to 
nrests and wants of which he was conscious, could be brought to 
on him with any degree of moral force ; and those related wholly 
nimal nature and his temporal existence. And consequently, 
*al code divinely communicated to man in such a condition, was 
rily succinct and simple. "Be ye fruitful and multiply and 
sh the earth and subdue it ; and have dominion over the fish of 
, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that 

upon the earth. (74.) The herb bearing seed, and the tree 
vhich is the fruit of a tree yielding seed I have given you for 
Of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat ; but, of the 
Uie knowledge of good and evil (145), thou mayest not eat ; for, 
lay that thou eatest thereof, thou wilt begin to die." (125, 148.) 
^cording to the Mosaic Record, is the whole of the divine regimen 
1 on man in the primitive state of things. The regulations 
7ere prescribed to him, and the motives which were presented to 
his obedience, so far as he understood them, or had any notion 

import, related wholly to temporal interests, and to his animal 
ities, appetites and sudSerings. And even these, from the very 
of things, he could but faintly perceive and feebly appreciate. 

He had never seen a human bemg die ; nor had he realized in 
L experience, what it is to ** beg^ to die ;" and therefore, it was 
sible for him to have a clear and strong conception of the idea 



112 

of death, nor of the sufferings which are nroduced b^ those trans- 
gressions which begin, and carry on the work of death in man. (149.) 
Hence, therefore, as we have seen (167, 172), all the moral and 
spiritual power of Qtod (88, 89), which could be brought to bear on 
Adam in his primitive concUtion, was not sufficient to keep him from 
yielding to those animal desires which acted on his intellectual and 
moral powers in a manner which he did not understand (26), and led to 
voluntary conduct, the calamitous consequences of which he, from 
experience, yet knew nothing of, and could not contemplate, at one and 
the same instant, while he felt his desires and contemplated the indul- 
gence of tiiem I* and therefore, under all the restraints which infinite 
Wisdom and Goodness could impose upon him as a moral agent, con- 
sistently with his entire moral freedom, his animal desires, founded in 
the wants of his nature (122), and, in themselves, not sinful, being 
excited (143), controlled his intellectual and voluntary powers, and led 
first, to moral and then in necessary consequence, to jphysical trans- 
cession of the constitutional laws of human nature (191) : and thus, 
m the first human pair, all human nature fell from the highest and 
best state of the human constitution : for they were, as yet, the whole 
of human nature, and the source from which all other human beings 
must derive their constitution and natural attributes as affected by the 
fall. 

195. While, therefore, by this fall of human nature in the first 
human pair, the condition of the human constitution was changed, the 
relations which our first parents held to other created things and to the 
unborn human family, remained the same. They were still the human 
species as distinguished from other living creatures which God had 
made (116), they were still the whole of human nature, possessing, in 
themselves, the constitutional economy and power, by which all other 
human beings were to be produced, with natures like their own : and 
therefore, the divine instructions given to them as the human species 
in the fallen state, were still adapted to human nature as a ^ole ; 
and consequently, they bear with equal validity, on every generation 
and individual of the human kind. For, it is most certain that the 
consequences of human transgression which, according to the Mosaic 
Kecord, were divinely announced to the first human pair, were not 
limited to them as individuals, but comprehended the human species in 
all its generations ; and have been realized by every individual of the 
human family whose body has returned to the dust from which it was 
formed. (165,192.) Hence, therefore, when Gtod said to man, after his 
transgression (Gen. iii. 18, 19), *dchdltd eth'*esSbh Mssddheh — •* thou 
Shalt eat the herb of the field" — i.e., the vegetable productions of the 
earth shall be thy food, he said it not to Adam as an individual, but to 
ddam as a species (116) — to human nature as a whole. And the only 
difference between this, and the first divine instructions, concerning 
the natural food of man (Gen. i. 29), is that, God now declares that, 
in consequence of human sensuality and transgression, man shall 
procure his food with care and toiL (144.) 

* Lectures on the Science of Human Life, 576t 



113 



THE ORDER OF MOXrVES ORIQINALLY PRESENTED TO MAN — MAN*S 
DETERIORATION — THE ORIGIN OF SACRIFICES. 

196. We have seen (122) that man, in his primitive innocence, was 
instinctively, rather than intelligently, in the spiritual kingdom of God ; 
and (159 — 165) that, by his transgression, he not only expelled himself 
from that kingdom, but impaired the integrity of those natural instincts 
which in their original purity incited him to obey the laws of his nature 
and relations (92), and originated a depravity which naturally turned 
him from the ** tree of life " and impelled him towards the tree of death. 
We have seen also (93), that, when man has revolted from the 
spiritual kingdom of God (81), it is not possible for him to return to 
that kingdom except by spiritual regeneration ; and that it is, in the 
nature of things, impossible for man to be spiritually regenerated 
except by understandingly and cordially receiving and obeying the 
truth of God in the love of it. Hence, therefore, when man was in 
that primitive state of intellectual and moral infancy, in which he could 
only receive instructions and feel the force of motives which related to 
his temporal and bodily existence (194) and when, against the force of 
all the motives that could be brought to bear on him (175), he had 
transgressed the divine laws of his nature and relations (23), and 
originated a depravity which rendered him less able to perceive and 
understand and obey moral and religious truth (35), and continually 
inclined him to error (48), he, from a necessity growing out of the 
condition and circumstances of his complex nature (177), became more 
and more depraved, and more and more erroneous in his moral and 
religious notions, and tended ever to immorality and vice and super- 
stition and idolatry, and to the observance of corresponding ordinances, 
rather than to true morality and virtue and religion, and to pure, 
spiritual devotion. (52—66, 172.) 

197. As centuries rolled away, experience, as well as primitive 
revelation, taught man the advantages of cultivating the earth ; and, 
according to the Mosaic record, Cain, the first-born son of Adam, 
became a tiller of the ground , and, probably at a considerably later 
period, Abel, the second son, became a keeper of sheep. *' And in 
process of time, it came to pass, that Cain brought of the fruit of the 
ground an offering unto the Lord. And Abel also brought of the 
firstlings of his flock, and of the fat thereof." But we know that 
neither the offering of Cain nor of Abel was consistent with true ideas 
of the nature and character of God, nor with that pure, spiritual 
worship which man in the highest and best state of his nature offers to 
his Maker ; and therefore, they, with certainty, indicate the cotempo- 
raneous state of man (176), and show that Cain and Abel, instead of 
having improved upon the instructions which Adam had received, and 
advanced in the knowledge of theological truth, had greatly degenerated, 
and sunk into deeper darkness; and, from constitutional necessity, 
invested the object of their worship with attributes and passions 
corresponding with the condition and circumstances of their own 
complex nature. (60.) Cain, therefore, being a tiller of the ground, 
and being incited by his religious instinct to religious worship (52), 



114 

naturally brought of the fruit of the ground an offering to the Lord 
(61), and as naturally brought such fruit as he believed would be most 
acceptable to a Being whom his imagination invested with affections 
and appetites like his own. (64.) What this fruit was, we are not 
explicitly informed by the revealed "Word : but, all the revelations of 
Nature in relation to this question, as well as all the implications of 
the sacred Scriptures, seem to conspire to prove that it was an intoxi- 
cating substance. Adam and Eve, as we have seen (146 — 149), had 
made themselves acquainted with such a substance ; and all human 
history shows that, when man has once acquired an appetite for 
intoxicating substances, he does not readily and easily forss^e them. 
Our Saviour informs us that the antediluvians were excessive in the 
use of intoxicating liquor ; for, surely, if they had drank nothing but 
water J he would not have spoken of their *' drinking" as one of the 
characterizing forms of their sensual wickedness. (139.) And, after 
the flood, Noah became intoxicated as soon as he could procure the 
means : and we know that, from the days of Noah to the present time, 
in every nation and tribe and portion of the human family upon the 
face of the whole earth, where intoxicating substances have been used 
as means of sensual enjoyment, and where religious offerings have 
been made to the object of worship, some intoxicating substance has 
been included among these offerings, if, indeed, it was not the sole 
offering: and always, when man has made a libation of wine, or 
offered any other intoxicating substance to the object of his worship, he 
has partaken of it himself. And we know also, that these universal 
facts have not been mere accidents, but determinate results of the integ- 
rity and efficiency of the laws which God has constitutionally established 
in the nature of things. (58, 63.) Now add to all this, the recorded 
facts that, *'unto Cain and to his offering the Lord had not respect," 
that " Cain was very wroth" because his offering was rejected and his 
brother's accepted — that "the Lord said unto him. Why art thou 
wroth ? If thou doest well shalt thou not be accepted P and if thou 
doest not well, sin lieth at the door," and that, still, Cain, in his wrath 
murdered his brother, at that very early period in the existence of the 
human species, when — ^to use the language of phrenology — the organ of 
destructiveness had not yet acquired a sufficiently depraved and inor- 
dinate energy to impel man to murder, without being pretematurally 
excited, and we have an amount of evidence before us which falls little 
short of a complete demonstration that the fruit which Cain offered, 
was an intoxicating substance — that he was under the effects of it when 
he brought his offering before the Lord, and when he slew his brother. 
Still, let it be understood that this conclusion concerning the nature of 
the fruit which Cain offered, is arrived at rather by the force of infer- 
ence than of direct evidence; and is stated as what seems most 
probably true, rather than as incontrovertibly ascertained. Neverthe- 
less, it is entirely certain that whatever was the kind of fruit, it was 
offered with a darkened understanding and an unholy spirit. 

198. In almost equal darkness of mind with regard to the spiritual 
nature and moral character of God and the true relations between God 
and man, but with far more piety of feeling and of reverence, Abel, 
being " a keeper of sheep," from a constitutional necessity growing out 



115 

of the condition and circumstances of his nature (52 — 66), "brought of 
the firstlings of his flock and of the fat thereof/' as the most acceptable 
offering which he could make to such a being as he conceived the Lord 
to be : and Grod, seeing the piety of his spirit and sincerity of his heart, 
'*had respect unto him and his offermg,'* and blessed him in the 
service. 

199. The notion which is generally entertained by the Christian 
world, concerning Abel and his offering, is as fanciful and absurd as 
that which prevails in relation to Adam in his original state. (95.) 
There is not the slightest evidence in the Bible that God by direct 
revelation, instructed or commanded the first human pair, or their 
immediate offspring, or any of the primeval race, to sacrifice animals, 
or to make offerings of any kind to him ; nor that he required any other 
service of them, than a holy obedience to the laws of their nature and 
relations. (92.) The hypothesis that the animals of whose '* skins,'* 
God, according to our English version of Gen. iii. 21, made coats for 
Adam and Eve, were sacrificed by Adam, and therefore, Adam had 
been divinely instructed to make such sacrifices, is, as we have seen 
(156, 157), utterly without foundation. And we know with perfect 
certainty, that such sacrifices are in no measure adapted to the true 
nature and character of that Grod whom Jesus Christ has revealed to us 
(128, 159) ; nor in any measure adapted to man when he is in that state 
(177) in which he can rightly understand the nature and character of 
God, and "worship him in spirit and in truth." Indeed, the intel- 
lectual, moral and religious man was sufficiently developed in many of the 
Hebrew prophets and teachers, to perceive and enunciate this truth 
under divine inspiration, long anterior to the advent of Christ. (64, 98.) 
" Hath the Lord as g^eat delight in burnt offerings and sacrifices, as 
in obeying the voice of the Lord? Behold, to obey is better than 
sacrifice, and to hearken, than the fat of rams.^' (1 Sam. xv. 22.) 
** Sacrifice and offering thou didst not desire : burnt-offerings and sin 
offerings hast thou not required." (Psa. xl. 6.) ** For thou desirest not 
sacrifice that I should give it : thou delightest not in burnt-offering.'* 
(Psa. li. 16.) ** To what purpose is the multitude of your sacrifices unto 
me P saith the Lord ; I am full of the burnt-offerings of rams and the 
fat of fed beasts ; and I delight not in the blood of bullocks, or of lambs, 
or of he-goats." (Isa. i. 11.) ** Your burnt offerings are not acceptable, 
nor your sacrifices sweet unto me." (Jer. vi. 20.) "For I desired 
mercy and not sacrifice ; and the knowledge of God more than burnt- 
offerings.'* (Hos. vi. 6.) •* Wherewith shall I come before the Lord, 
and bow myself before the high God P shall I come before him with 
bumt-offermgs, with calves of a year old P Will the Lord be pleased 
with thousands of rams, or with ten thousands of rivers of oil P Shall 
I give my first-born for my transgressions, the fruit of my body for the 
sin of my soul P He hath showed thee, man, what is good : and 
what doth the Lord require of thee but to do justly, and to love mercy, 
and to walk humbly with thy God P ** (Mic. vi. 6, 7, 8.) And Paul, who 
was so prepared to receive the spiritual revelations of God by Jesus 
Christ (178), that he attained to a far more full and accurate under- 
standing of divine things than any of the prophets who had preceded 
him, or than any of his cotemporaries, affirms explicitly, in his epistle 



116 

to the Hebrews, that the ofFering of sacrifices cannot minister to the 
spiritual holiness of man. "For it is not possible that the blood of 
bulls and of ^ats should take away sins." And, applpng the language 
of David, in its divine import, to Christ, and thus givmg it the sanction 
and authority of our Lord himself, he says, ** Wherefore, when he 
cometh into the world, he saith, Sacrifice and ofiTeringthou wouldstnot: 
in burnt-offerings and sacrifices for sin, thou hast had no pleasure. Lo, 
I come to do thy will, God." (Heb. x. 1—7.) 

200. But, while it is certain that Abel, in tne depravity of his nature 
and the darkness of his mind, impelled by the strong action of his 
religious instinct (57), spontaneously "brought of the firstlings of his 
flock and of the fat thereof," as an offering, in his estimation best 
adapted to propitiate a Being whom he, with more solemn awe than 
filial confidence, contemplated as having appetites and passions like his 
own (60), yet, it is equally certain that the offering of Abel was a 
determinate result of the integrity and efiiciency of the laws which God 
has constitutionally established in the nature of things (61) ; and 
therefore, constitutionally of divine appointment — a divine institution 
of conditional existence and validity (67), and perfectly adapted to the 
particular condition and circumstances of human nature in which it is 
developed, and with which it co-exists. (63, 76.) Nor does this view of 
the subject militate in the least degree against the Christian doctrine 
concerning the typical relation between Abel's offering and the pro- 
pitiatory death of Christ. The very sacrificing of an animal to God, 
denotes that estrangement of man from his heavenly Father, which 
requires a Mediator between God and man, and makes an atonement 
for sin necessary to man's salvation. But we have seen (152), that the 
divine purpose is never to be confounded with the human purpose. 
God may purpose a thing, and establish the constitutional laws in 
Nature, by the integrity and determinate efficiency of which, that 
purpose shall be accomplished through human agency, and man as a 
moral agent, in the consciousness of entire moral freedom, may fulfil 
that divine purpose, without having any such purpose in his own mind 
— without having any understanding or knowledge or notion of that 
purpose whatever : nay, indeed, without being conscious of any other 
object than the accomplishment of some selfish end. Consequently, it 
is perfectly compatible with the constitutional laws of the divine govern- 
ment, and with the nature of things, that Abel should, of his own 
accord, in the deep, and even grossly superstitious darkness of his mind, 
offer the choicest of his animals to a Being whom he contemplated as 
having appetites and passions like his own, and still that it should be 
of divine ordination — a conditional institution of God (67) : and that 
God should design it as a type of the great propitiation which, in the 
fulness of time, should be made for those sins which had so alienated 
man from his heavenly Father, and so deeply involved him in moral 
and religious darkness as to render him capable of offering such a 
sacrifice ; while Abel should be wholly destitute of even a shadowy idea 
of such a thing, and be only conscious of his own purpose of propitiating 
the Being whom he reprarded with more superstitious terror than 
intelligent love. (57.) Abel's offering therefore, however erroneous his 
theological notions, and however gross his superstition, was, as a part 



' 117 

of the instrumentality in the moral government of Gtod (81), and in the 
divine economy of grace (169, 172), none the less a divine institution ; 
and, in the design of God, and to the understanding of all truly 
enlightened moral heings, none the less a type of the sacrifice of Christ 
for the sins of the world. Yet, being a divine institution solely in that 
it was a determinate result of the integrity and efficiency of the laws 
which God has constitutionally established in the nature of things, and, 
of consequent necessity, being perfectly adapted to that state of things 
in which it was naturally developed (61, 63), it was, therefore, an 
accommodated ordinance, and only valid in tJiat state of things in 
which it necessarily exists as the best means that can be employed in 
carrying man forward as a moral agent, in the consciousness of entire 
moral freedom, towards the fulfilment of the great purposes of divine 
benevolence. (66, 176.) 

201. Furthermore, the presentation of propitiatory offerings or 
sacrifices, to the object of worship, being a determinate result of the 
integrity and efficiency of the laws which God has constitutionally 
established in the nature of things (61), the practice necessarily 
increased as the degenerate human species multiplied on the face of 
the earth, and, throughout all generations, from Cain to the present 
day, has co-existed with that state of things in which it is naturally 
developed (63) : varying as to the particular character or nature of the 
offering, ifrith the variation of conditions and circumstances. (177.) 
This imiversal fact has been accounted for, as everywhere traditionally 
derived from a positive institution divinely given to the primitive 
family of man. But such a notion is without any authority either from 
sacred or profane history (199), and is utterly incompatible with the 
nature of things. It would be quite as consistent with sound reason, to 
say that the practice of eating has, through all time, been traditionally 
derived from the first human pair, by every individual of mankind, as 
to say that the practice of making religious offerings has found its way 
into every part of the earth and every period of time, and prevailed 
even among the rudest and most benighted portions of the human 
species, on the authority of a tradition which has come down from the 
original progenitor of our race. Nutrition is a natural want of man, 
and corresponding instincts are constitutionally implanted in his nature, 
which incite him to supply that want in some manner or another. But 
these instincts do not, in all possible states, absolutely and necessarily 
guide him to the food which is best adapted to his nature (26) : and yet 
the results of their action are always determinate. ( 1 59, ) The character 
of man's diet is always with certainty determined by the condition 
and circumstances of his complex nature. (177.) Precisely the same 
is true with regard to the faculties and functions of man's religious 
nature. Religion is a constitutional want in man, and he is instinc- 
tively incited to be religious. (52, 53.) But the character of the object 
of his worship, and the form of his religious services, are necessarily 
determined by the condition and circumstances of his complex nature. 
(60, 61.) 

202. The tiller of the ground regards with peculiar interest and 
delight, the first fruits of the tree or tiie vine which he has planted, and 
has more than ordinary pleasure in the first ripe fruits of his field ; 



118 

while the nomad or shepherd regards with equal interest and delight 
the firstlings of his flock ; and all men feel a pleasure at the birth of 
the first-bom son which no other earthly event imparts to them. 
Hence they who regard the object of their worship as having appetites, 
affections and passions like their own, as desiring what they desire, and 
prizing most highly what they prize most highly, naturally select these 
things as the most acceptable propitiatory offerings which they can 
make. The tiller of the ground, when, acting spontaneously from the 
incitements of his religious instinct, and greatly desiring to secure the 
favour of the object of his worship, naturally offers his first and choicest 
fruits: the shepherd, actuated by the same influences and motives, 
sacrifices the firstling of his flock, the lamb without a blemish, or the 
most beautiful young animal of his herd : while the sanguinary warrior, 
the slaughterer of the human kind, in his most solemn propitiatory 
services, offers his fellow man upon the altar of his god. (B4.) And in 
almost every nation, during great and protracted calamities which were 
regarded as the vindictive dispensations of an incensed deity, human 
sacrifices have been offered: and some, in nearly every nation, while 
under the strong workings of the religious instinct and g^eat dread of 
divine wrath, or intense desire to secure some peculiar and extraordinary 
divine favour, have sacrificed their first-bom son, or most beloved child, 
as the highest and most excellent offering that man can make to the 
supreme, mysterious, and terrible Dispenser of human destiny. 

203. So far as we have any historical or traditionary evidence, 
Abel's offering was the origin of taking life ; and it is a melancholy, 
but important lesson to learn how soon the destruction of life in the 
lower animals, by man, was followed by the destruction of human life. 
The breach which Abel made in life, opened the way to his own death 
by his brother's hand : and who can tell how much that bloody act of 
Abel, impaired in the breast of Cain the sense of the awful inviolability 
of life P Who can tell how deeply the sanguinary tide which Abel's 
hand first opened in our world, was freighted with the murders that 
have since made earth **a field of blood P" God only knows! But, 
surely, this is a matter worthy of the serious consideration of mankind. 
Abel's offering was also most probably the origin of that distinction 
between clean and unclean beasts which was established at a very early 
period in the existence of the human species : the clean beasts being 
such as were consecrated to sacrificial purposes. And, it is undoubtedly 
true that the primeval sacridcing of animals in religious service, either 
led to, or grew out of the dietetic use of flesh by man. So surely do the 
violations of the constitutional laws, divinely established in the nature 
of things, lead to moral and religious darkness and error, and the worst 
of human evils. (23, 92.) 

ABBREVIATION OF HUMAN LIFE. 

204. Be these things as they may, however, it is most certain that, 
against all the moral and spiritual power of God (88, 89), which the 
primitive inhabitants of the earth were in a state to have exerted on 
them, to keep them, in moral freedom, from transgression, they, as a 
general fact, continually waxed worse and worse ; and grew stronger 



119 

and bolder, and more violent in iniquity, as they multiplied (172), till 
Grod, according to the Mosaic Record (Gten. vi. 1 — 3), announced his 
determination to prevent this extreme maturity in wickedness, by 
greatly abbreviating the period of human life. *' And it came to pass 
when men [hd ddam] began to multiply on the face of the earth, and 
daughters were bom unto them, that the sons of the gods [eldhim — the 
dignitaries, the magistrates, the aristocracy*] saw the daughters of 
man, that they were fair ; and they took them wives of all which they 
chose. And the Lord said, My Spirit shall not [le'oldm] very long (163) 
strive, or continue \bhd ddam] in man (1 16), For that he also is flesh 
(139): yet his days shall be an hundred and twenty years." These 
hundred and twenty years are generally supposed to mean the period 
which should intervene between the time at which this revelation was 
made, and the destruction of ** all flesh " by the flood : and much pains 
have been taken to make out a Biblical chronology which shall agree 
with such an interpretation. But it appears to me very evident that 
the obvious and direct meaning of the language admits of no such 
application, and has no reference to the cutting off of the inhabitants 
of the earth by the flood, nor to the time that should elapse before that 
event. "We have seen (23, 92, 161, 165) that man was created with 
fixed constitutional relations to Grod as his Creator and his moral 
Governor, and that fixed constitutional relations are established 
between man's organic and animal and intellectual and moral and 
religious nature (21), so that, the interests of the one cannot be 
impaired without detriment to the interests of the other — the laws of 
the one cannot be violated without infringing the laws of the other. 
Man is, therefore, so constituted that religious and moral and intellect- 
ual errors involve the physical well-being of his nature, and physical 
errors involve the religious and moral and intellectual well-being of 
his nature : and hence, human depravity in any respect deteriorates 
man in all respects. " Whether we eat or drink or whatsoever we do, 
if we do not do all to the glory of Gk)d," i.e., in accordance with the laws 
of our nature and relations — or in other words, if we transgress any of 
the laws which God has constitutionally established in our nature, we 
necessarily, in some measure, impair our organic and animal and 
intellectual and religious powers, and serve to induce, in the individual, 
dl<(ease and suflering and untimely death (51), and cause in the human 
world, physical and moral and religious evil and abbreviation of the 
period of man's earthly existence. (161.) And it is a truth which all 
human experience has demonstrated, that excessive sensuality shortens 
life in the individual transgressor, and so affects the human constitution, 
Ihat when universal and habitual, it permanently abbreviates the 
period of life in the species as a whole' (27) : and the sacred Scriptures 

* The word elohim, often used by Moses and other Hebrew writers, in its plural 
form, as a title of the Supreme Being, was, evidently, not originally introduced into 
human language as a term peculiarly appropriate to God ; but it was primarily used 
to designate the most exalted, influential, leading and venerated men, and thence, 
rery naturally came to be applied to the Deity (136); but not exelusively; for it 
long continued to be applied both to God and man ; the same as our English word 
Lord is. And, accordingly, it is used in the Hebrew Scriptures to designate the gods 
of the heathen, and the magistrates and dlf^nitaries of human society, as well as the 
God of Israel. (See «. 163, and Psa. IxxxiL 6 ; John z. 34, 35.) 



120 

teach us, explicitly, that the divine annunciation under consideration 
was made with direct reference to the fact that the whole of manldnd 
had plunged into excessive sensuality ; •* all flesh had corrupted his way 
upon the earth ; " and also, that thenceforward, through succeeding 
generations, the duration of human life, as a general fact, continued to 
become more and more brief, till it was reduced to the shortest average 
period compatible with that degree of constitutional power which is 
necessary to the perpetuation of the species. * Moreover, the Hebrew 
word ru^hi rendered '* my Spirit " in our English version of Gen. vi. 3, 
though often used in the sacred Scriptures, in a secondary sense, to 
signify the creating and vivifying spirit or energy of Gk)d, evidently 
does not, in this passage, mean what we, under the Christian dispen- 
sation, rightly understand to be the Spirit of God. ( 128. ) In its primary 
radical sense, it means- to breathe^ to blow: and in its substantive 
form, breath; as in Gen. vi. 17, all flesh wherein is rua^h ^hayyim — 
*' the breath of life ; '* and, iti the passage before us, it manifestly 
means that " breath of life" which God ** breathed" into man when 
He made him, and by virtue of which, " man became a living creature." 
(103.) Also, the Hebrew form, lo^yddhon of the same passage, 
rendered in our Version " shall not strive" evidently has no such 
meaning in the original text. The primary radical sense of the verb 
is to be loWf depressed, humble^ degraded, debased. The ancient 
Versions, as Gesenius correctly says, give the sense well. The Vulgate 
has it non permanebit — shall, or will not remain or continue. The 
Syriac and Arabic render it shall or will not dwell. Beyond all 
question, therefore, when God, in view of the excessive sensuality of 
the primitive inhabitants of the earth, said lo-yddhon ru'hi bhd ddam 
le^oldm — my breath — i.e., the breath of life, the animating principle 
which I breathed into man — shall or will not very long continue in 
man^ or will not very long be debased in man, because he is flesh ; i.e., 
wholly given to sensuality, yet his days shall be an hundred and twenty 
years, it was simply an annunciation of the fact that, from a necessity 
arising from the integrity and efficiency of the laws which God has^ 
constitutionally established in the nature of things, the excessive 
sensuality of man would inevitably and greatly abbreviate the period of 
human life ; and not a denunciation of God's purpose to shorten the 
duration of man's earthly existence, by a direct, absolute, and miracu- 
lous exercise of his natural power (77) ; nor, by such an exercise of his 
natural power, to cut off the whole of the human species, at once. So, 
when God said to Noah after the flood, *' I do set my bow in the cloud, 
and it shall be for a token of a covenant between me and the earth," 
the bow was nevertheless a natural phenomenon, produced by the 
constitutional economy of Natiure (4, 58), and it was made the token of 
a covenant which was to be executed by virtue of the integrity and 
efficiency of the constitutional laws divinely established in the nature 
of things. Thus it appears that, in relation to the particular subject 
under consideration, the language of revelation and the natural 
language of God (165) are the same ; and that the true meaning of the 
revealed Word and the true revelations of God in the volume of 
Nature, are in perfect harmony. (127.) And it appears also, that 

• Science of Life, 650— €53. 



121 

judgment and mercy met together in this constitutional administration 
of death : for the shortening of human life curtailed the enormities of 
human wickedness. 

AirrBDILUYIAN USE OF FLESH-MEAT. THE FLOOD FORETOLD. 

205. Reasoning upon philosophical principles from the moral 
phenomena of the times, and from the implicit evidence of the sacred 
Scriptures, we are legitimately brought to the conclusion that mankind 
had become "riotous eaters of flesh and drinkers of wine" anterior to 
the flood : for upon no other ground can we satisfactorily account for 
the atrocious wickedness and abominations and violence, with which, 
according to the Mosaic Record, the earth was filled.* For " God saw 
that the rd^Sth — riotousness of man was great in the earth, and that 
every yetsSr — -form of the ma^hskebhotk — thoughts^ meditations, 
devices, purposes of his heart, was only evil continually. And it 
repented \nShSm, grieved] the Lord that he had made man on the 
earth, and it grieved or cut him at his heart. The earth also was 
corrupt before God : and the earth was filled with ^hdmds — oppression, 
wrong, violence. And God looked upon the earth, and behold, it was 
corrupt ; for all flesh had corrupted his way upon the earth." 
(Gen. vi. 5, 6, 11, 12.) The particular modes of the wickedness and 
corruption of the primeval race, are, as we have seen (139), explicitly, 
specified by our Saviour. " In the days that were before the flood, they 
were eating and drinking, marrying and giving in marriage." But, as 
I have already remarked (142, 197) it is very certain that, if they had 
only indulged these three great appetites for the legitimate fulfilment 
of the purposes for which they were implanted in the human constitu- 
tion — if they had only drank water, and that, simply to satisfy a 
natural thirst, and only eaten the food which God had constitutionally 
adapted to their wants and appointed for their use, and that, simply to 
sustain their bodies, and continently entered into the marriage relation 
with a chaste spirit and purpose, our Saviour would never have specified 
eating, drinking and marrying as characterizing their wickedness and 
depravity. Besides, all history shows that the feasting of mankind in 
every age, has been well-nigh inseparable from the use of flesh-meat. 
Even those tribes and portions of the human family who have habitu- 
ally subsisted on the products of the vegetable kingdom, have, with 
very limited exceptions, regarded animal food as essential to the 
character of a feast. Moreover, as I have fully shown in my lectures 
on the Science of Human Life (1229 — 1299) it has always been true, 
and from the nature of things must be true, that, other things being 
equal, those tribes, nations and races of the human species which have 
habitually and freely eaten flesh, have been far more sanguinary, fierce, 
cruel and violent; and when in a savage state, far more ferocious, 
degraded and heathenish than those who have subsisted exclusively on 
vegetable food : while those whose diet has consisted purely or the 
simple and appropriate products of the vegetable kingdom and water, 
and who have been free from the use of intoxicating substances, have, 

* See Lectures on the Science of Human Life, 1838. 



122 

unless trained to war by some ambitious leader, or pressed by extreme 
want, or excited by some exasperating circumstances, never been 
violent nor cruel: but have, on the contrary, been mild, gentle, 
peaceful and kind. It is entirely certain, therefore, that the antedilu- 
vians carried the indulgence of their animal appetites into great 
excesses of sensuality; and it is almost equally certain that their 
" riotousness " and violence and corruption, were connected with, and, 
in a great measure, flowed from their free use of flesh and wine. 

206. All the moral and spiritual power of God, which mankind had 
been in a state to have exerted on them, had failed to restrain them 
from ruinous transgression (172) and they had continued '* to work all 
uncleanness with greediness" till all flesh — the whole human species 
had corrupted — [hlsh''hithj destroyed] their way : i.e., they had so 
depraved their whole nature that they had entirely destroyed its original 
integrity and truthfulness, and had sunk so deep in sensuality, that 
their whole course tended directly to death, and hastened rapidly to the 
extinction of the species ; and through them the earth was filled with 
oppression, violence and outrage. Nothing, in the nature of things 
possible, remained, therefore, but for God, either to give man up to work 
out his own destruction and utter extinction with terrible wickedness, 
or to arrest the progress of his transgression and put an end to the 
horrid excesses of human sin and depravity by cutting off the race at 
once, and, as it were, re-commencing the generation of the human 
species mider the deterring influence of the awful catastrophe, and 
the preventive restriction of a greatly abbreviated period of life. (204.) 
This last measure God saw to be wisest and best, and most merciful 
even to the devoted race, and therefore it entered into the divine 
administration. ** And the Lord said, I will destroy man whom I have 
created, from the face of the earth ; both man and beast, and the 
creeping thing, and the fowl of the air : for it repenteth me that I have 
made them." 

207. But the accomplishment of the divine purposes of wisdom and 
benevolence in relation to human nature (170), required that at least 
one pair of this degenerated race, should be saved from the general 
destruction, to perpetuate the species. Is it asked why God did not 
sweep the earth clean of so corrupt a race, and begin the great experi- 
ment anew by creating another human pairP We have seen 
(17, 18, 107, 120, 124), that the first human pair were made as perfect 
as God could make them : and God can learn nothing by experience. 
To have swept all away, and created another human pair as perfect as 
in the nature of things could be, would, therefore, have been but to 
repeat the same human evolutions with the same general results ; and 
without making any progress in the fulfilment of the great purposes of 
divine benevolence. Is it demanded — How then could God bring such 
a being as Jesus Christ into oiur world P I reply that the state of the 
world as to the degree of the development of the intellectual, moral and 
religious man at the time of his coming, was as essential to his advent 
as any special divine agency concerned. (171.) With all the depravity 
and corruption of the race, then, anterior to the flood, still something 
had been gained : some progress had been made in the development of 
the intellectual and moral man. Developed, it is true, in error and 



123 

depravity and wickedness : still, developed in compass and energy and 
intelligence and understanding. So that, the best of this degenerated 
race, though vastly inferior to the first man in his original state, iiji 
point of purity and innocence and in soundness of the human constitu- 
tion^ was vastly superior to him in knowledge and understanding. And 
therefore, all things considered, it was wiser and better to perpetuate 
the species by the best of this corrupted race, than to destroy all, and 
create another human pair. 

CHARACTER OF NOAH AMD HIS COTEMPORARIES. 

208. According to the Mosaic Record, ** Noah found grace in the 
eyes of the Lord." And he "was a just man and perfect in his 
generations, and walked with Gk>d." But, in what sense of the 
language was Noah a just and perfect man? The principles of 
interpretation advanced m sections 176, 179, readily and fully solve 
this question. We know with certainty, from the testimony of sacred 
history, that Noah fell very far short of a true and perfect conformity to 
the moral and spiritual character of Christ ; and therefore, fell commen- 
surately short of true and perfect godliness : and, by so much as he fell 
short of this, he fell short of being truly a just and perfect man : and 
consequently, we know that these epithets were applied to him, in a 
largely accommodated sense. " All flesh had corrupted his way upon 
the earth ;" the whole human species had become ruinously depraved; 
and, amidst this universal degeneracy of mankind, Noah was a just 
man and perfect in his generations [bedhorothdyv — in his agrg], i.c, he 
was just and perfect for the age in which he livedo or, in comparison 
with his cotemporaries. He was the best man living, both in regard to 
his own intrinsic character and in relation to the divine purpose which 
he, as a moral agent, was ordained to fulfil: and though widely 
removed from true spiritual 'holiness, and deeply benighted as to 
theological and religious truth, still, he was a conscientious man, and, 
according to his imderstandin^ of things, was just and upright. (57.) 
It is evident, also, that the religious instinct was active and powerful 
in him (52), and that he sincerely cherished feelings of piety and 
habits of devotion, and a solemn regard for the authority and will of 
the Object of his worship. (56.) Hence, when God informed him of 
the approaching flood which should " destroy all flesh wherein is the 
breath of life, from under heaven," and instructed him how to prepare 
for it, Noah readily and cordially believed and faithfully obeyed the 
divine instructions. And thus, " By faith Noah, being warned of God 
of things not seen as yet, moved with fear, prepared an ark to the 
saving of his house ; in the which, he was a preacher of righteousness, 
and by the which, he condemned the world and became heir of the 
righteousness which is by faith." (Heb. xi. 7; 1 Pet. ii. 5.) And 
thus " Noah was a just man and perfect in his generations and walked 
with God." Subsequent events, however, fully proved that with all his 
perfection, Noah was far enough from just notions of the spiritual 
nature and moral character of God, and of the true relations between 
Qod and man ; far enough from being a spiritually enlightened and 
spiritually holy man. 



124 



NOAH*S OFFERINO. 

209. The first recorded act of Noah, after he left the ark, is that, 
" he builded an altar unto the Lord, and took of every clean beast and 
of every clean fowl and offered burnt-offerings upon the altar ;" an 
act which, while it evinces the activity and power of his religious instinct, 
and the piety of his feelings, equally demonstrates the darkness of his 
understanding and the erroneousness of his theological and religious 
notions. For, as we have seen (199), the offering of such sacrifices in 
religious services is wholly incompatible with the true idea of Grod, 
and with that state of man in which he is able to worship God in spirit 
and in truth : but, it is perfectly adapted to that state of man, in which 
he naturally invests the object of his worship with appetites, affections 
and passions like his own, and seeks to appease or propitiate that object 
with superstitious awe and dread, as a wrathful and vindictive bemg, 
rather than serves him with intelligent love and holy confidence, as a 
just and merciful Father. (60.) And the whole context of the Mosaic 
record in relation to this period in the history of mankind, represents 
God as having the parts and affections of a human being (136) ; and 
speaks of him as looking upon the earth, and seeing that it was corrupt, 
and being grieved at his heart, and repenting that he had made man, 
and as smelling a sweet savory or savor ofrest, when Noah offered his 
burnt-offering : all of which we know to be utterly incompatible with 
the true idea of God; and therefore, either cannot be a portion of 
divine revelation, or must be an adaptation of language to the under- 
standing of those to whom the revelation was made : and, in the latter 
case, accurately indicates the state of the recipients. (176.) 

210. Noah had been divinely, and very particularly instructed how to 
build the ark, and when to enter it, and what to take with him ; and, 
when "the waters were dried up from off the earth, and the face of the 
ground was dry," he was divinely instructed to leave the ark with his 
family, and to bring with him every living thing of all flesh, which he 
had taken with him into the ark "to keep alive,'* that they might 
*' breed abundantly and be fruitful and multiply upon the earth :" but, 
there is not in the sacred Record even the slightest intimation that 
Noah was instructed to " build an altar to the Lord and to take of every 
clean beast and of every clean fowl, and offer burnt-offerings upon the 
altar." Nor, as I have before stated (199) is there in the Mosaic Record 
the least intimation that any of the antediluvian race were divinely 
instructed to make such offerings. Yet it is morally certain that such 
offerings were extensively made by the antediluvians (201) : and it is 
philosophically certain that they were the determinate results of the 
integrity and efficiency of the laws which God has constitutionally 
established in the nature of things, and as such were of divine ordination. 
(200.) In our English version of Gen. iv. 26, we read that " unto Seth 
[the third son of Adam] there was born a son ; and he called his name 
Enos: then began men to call upon the name of the Lord." But 
every Biblical scholar is aware that it requires a very liberal construc- 
tion to give such a meaning to the original text. We know that, in the 
primitive ages the names of men were significant of particular qualities 
m those who bore them, or denoted the peculiar circumstances in which 



125 

vere bom or in which they lived, or the general, cotemporaneous 
of human society. Accordingly we find that, the name of Adam's 

son, Seth or shethf in its primary sense, means, noises tumult^ 
ir ; involving the idea of drinking, banqueting , carousing. And 
grees with the description given in Gen. vi. 5. •' And God saw that 
ickedness — rd^ath, noise, uproar, riotousness of man, was great 
i earth. (205.) And the name which Seth gave to his son, Enos 
losh, primarily means sickly, extremely and even incurably 
sed ; involving the idea of great weakness and frailness ; and 
J it came to he applied to man, as denoting a weak, frail, erring^ 
ring, dying creature. And taken in connection with all the other 
ace in the Mosaic Record relating to this period in the history of 
it cannot he doubted that the names Seth and Enos were given to 
idividuals who bore them, as significant of the cotemporaneous 
of the human race. And it was, in this state of things, according 
• Version, that " men began to call on the nam£ of the Lord, 
he original word here rendered **began*^ in its primary sense 
s to pierce, break, lay open, violate: and the most obvious, and 
ntly the true meaning of the passage, is that, in the days of Seth 
Unas, in the days of universal excess and revelry and tumult and 
.vity, men worshipped the Lord, or performed religious services 
ding to the incitements and dictates of their own depraved and 
liding instincts, and darkened understandings, and fierce sensual 
ites and lusts. (57.) And this corresponds strictly with what 
(diately follows in the sixth chapter, which is the regular historical 
jction of the text : and, the whole Mosaic history of the human 
y taken together warrants the inference, that this particular 
ge refers to the general practice of offering animal sacrifices in 
5Ction with riotous feasting and lewdness. (204, 205.) 
I. This practice ofoflfering animal sacrifices was, without doubt, 
;erruptedly continuous from Abel to Noah ; and from it, unques- 
bly arose the distinction of clean, from unclean beasts. (203.) And 
3, when Noah was instructed in relation to the animals which were 

taken into the ark, this distinction was named, not as a regulation 
J introduced, but as one long established, and perfectly familiar to 
1*8 mind. And God knowing the constitutional necessities (59) 
1 would arise out of all conditions and circumstances of man's 
•e (177), and knowing how man certainly would act in all conditions 
lircumstances, wisely and benevolently adjusted his providences to 
•est possible ends that could be accomplished consistently with the 
e moral freedom of man ; and in accordance with this adjustment, 
ucted Noah to " take of every clean beast by sevens, the male and 
5male ;" and of the beasts that are not clean, by two, the male and 
5maTe : so that, with certainty each species should be kept alive to 
Jed abundantly and be fruitfid and multiply upon the earth." For, 
e particular condition and circumstances of Noah's complex nature 
), he certainly would have sacrificed some of his clean or conse- 
id animals, even if he had but two of a kind, and thus, in such a 

would have cut off the species from the earth. Besides, it inay be 
rded as certain, that the clean animals of the antediluvians were 
ch kinds, that the general economy of things in our world required 



I 



126 

that this regulation as to the number of each species received into the 
ark, should be made, in order to the greatest universal good. (147, 148.) 
212. But, it will probably be demanded — If Noah's offering was not 
positively of divine appointment, if it so fully demonstrated the depravity 
of his nature, the darkness of his mind, and his wide spiritual and moral 
separation from God, how can it be true, in any sense of the language, 
that God regarded his service with complacency P that *' the Lord smelled 
a sweet savour" or savour of rest , while the victim was burning upon 
the altar P and *' said in his heart, I will not again curse the ground 
any more for man's sake ; for the imagination of man's heart is evil 
from his youth ; neither will I again smite any more every living thing 
as I have done. While the earth remaineth, seed time and harvest, and 
cold and heat, and summer and winter, and day and night shall not 
cease P" I reply that there is a far deeper meaning — a more profound 
philosophy in this portion of the original Record than meets the eye in 
our English version. The Hebrew word yetsir, which our translators 
have rendered ** imagination*' in this passage, radically and primarily 
means **to /orwi, to fashion, to make ; as in Gen. ii. 7. *' The Lord God 
formed man of the dust of the ground. The word Ubh, here strictly ren- 
dered hearty'' comprehends in its full import in this passage, the whole 
fen^ona/ power of man, including all his animal sensibilities, affections, 
appetites and lusts : and the original word ra* here rendered '• cw/," is 
from ra*a', *' to make a loud noise ; to be evil from the idea of raging, 
noise, tumult, uproar, which is referred to an evil disposition," a riotous 
propensity, a spirit of sensual excess and violence. The word evil in this 
connection therefore, in its full import, comprehends not only the idea 
of moral turpitude, but, also, of constitutional frailness, of natural 
susceptibility to misleading influences, and of natural propensity to 
error and transgression and sensual excess and riotousness. Indeed, 
the ideas of excessive sensuality and riotousness pervade the whole 
Mosaic history of the antediluvian portion of the human race. And 
the true meaning of the particular passage before us, manifestly is that, 
when Noah, in the solemn consciousness of the terrible judgment which 
had swept away his fellow-creatures and left a fearful desolation upon 
the earth, and in the deep loneliness of his spirit as he came forth from 
the ark into the awful solitude of the world, and, under the mighty 
workings of his religious instinct which all things in his condition and 
circumstances conspired to excite, and in the darkness of his benighted 
mind and depraved nature, built an altar to that dreadful Power who 
had " opened the windows of heaven and broken up the fountains of the 
great deep," and poured an all-destroying deluge upon the earth, and 
with a sincere desire to propitiate that dreadful Power, took of every 
clean beast and of every clean fowl which he had brought with him from 
the ark, and offered burnt-offerings upon that altar, Gx)d, knowing the 
nature and condition and circumstances of man — his frailty and his 
depravity, his complicated susceptibilities and the innumerable influences 
which operate upon him to produce a deep and incognizable self- 
deceptiveness of the heart (26), and to cause him to feel wrong and 
think wrong and judge wrong and act wrong even with conscientious 
sincerity (50) ; and knowing that Noah sincerely desired to offer an 
acceptable propitiatory sacrifice, in sovereign mercy and goodness 



127 

ccepted his service as the best which in the particular condition and 
ircumstances of his complex nature (177) he was able to render (61), 
nd 8.8 a typical demonstration of the necessity of a Mediator between 
rod and man (200), who should make such revelations and render such 
ervices as would reconcile man to his heavenly Father and bring him 
ito that state in which he can worship Grod in spirit and in truth. 
And the Lord said in his heart, I will not again curse the ground any 
aore for man's sake ; " for the/brwi of his heart, i.e., the complicated 
lements of his nature (21)— his constitutional frailness, and suscepti- 
dlity to temptation, and tendency to depravity incline him to evil — to 
txcessive sensuality — to * riotousness,* from his youth." 

rOB DIVINE COVENANT WITH NOAH AND EVERT LIVING CREATURE AFTER 
THE FLOOD. FLESH-MEAT PERMITTED, &C. 

213. Such was Noah when he became the patriarchal head of the new 
vorld ; and the covenant which, according to the Mosaic Record, God 
established with him and with his seed after him and with every living 
a'eature that was with him, and the order of motives which God pre- 
sented to him, and the regimen which God imposed upon him, corres- 
ponded with the condition and circumstances of his complex nature 
^172), and fully demonstrate that, in true moral and religious develop- 
oient he was elevated little above the rest of the animal kingdom, and 
had no idea of any existence beyond this life, or separate from the 
buman state ; nor of any good or evil which did not relate to his human 
nature and pertain to human experience : and even of this kind of good 
and evil, he had little notion of anything beyond that which consists in 
sensual enjoyment, and animal privations and sufTerings. (175.) As a 
moral agent, acting in the consciousness of entire moral freedom, he 
was, therefore, susceptible only to the force of a very low order of motives 
and such as relate to human existence and temporal interests. (194,) 
Accordingly, the obligations of the covenant which Gk)d established with 
" every living creature that came out of the ark," including Noah and 
his seed after him, were, on their part, to *' be fruitful and multiply and 
replenish the earth ;" and on the part of God, not to " cut off all flesh 
any more by the waters of a flood ;" nor any more to suffer '* a flood to 
destroy the earth ;" obligations which placed Noah and his sons in the 
same category with every other living thing of all flesh ; and which 
clearly and conclusively prove that they were in such a condition and 
in such circumstances of their complex nature (177) as to be able to be 
acted on as voluntary beings, by an order of motives little higher than 
those which are common to the whole animal kingdom, and relate to 
the animal instincts and appetites. (176.) 

214. " And Gk)d said unto Woah and his sons. The fear of you and the 
dread of you, shall be upon every beast of the earth, and upon every 
fowl of the air ; upon all that creepeth upon the earth, and upon all the 
fishes of the sea : into your hands are they delivered. Every remes, 
creeping thing that liveth, shall be food for you ; even as the green 
herb have I given you all these. But flesh with the life thereof, which 
is the blood ttiereof, shall ye not eat. And surely, your blood of your 
lives will I require ; at the hand of every beast w^ I require it, and at 



128 

the hand of man ; at the hand of every man's hrother will I require the 
life of man. Whoso sheddeth man's blood, by man shall his blood be shed : 
for in the image of God made he man." (Gen. ix. 2 — 6.) This, with the 
command to be fruitful and multiply and fill the earth, comprises all the 
divine requisitions and injunctions which, according to the Mosaic Record 
were imposed on Noah after the flood. And here, it is of the first 
importance to notice an essential and fundamental difference between 
the charter divinely given to Adam and that given to Noah. All the 
divine instructions given to Adam were, as we have seen (193, 195), 
addressed to him, not as an individual in particular circumstances, but 
as the human species — as the whole of human nature ; and were but 
the revelation of constitutional laws, established in the nature of things ; 
and therefore, their bearing and validity and divine authority are as 
extensive and permanent as human existence. (191.) But the divine 
instructions given to Noah were not addressed to him as the whole of 
human nature, but as an individual, or a particular portion of the 
human family, and with strict adaptation to particular circumstances ; 
and therefore, their validity and divine authority are co-existent and 
co-extensive only with the particular condition and circumstances to 
which they are adapted, and which render them necessary as the best 
possible means of carrying man forward in the consciousness of entire 
moral freedom, towards the fulfilment of the great purposes of divine 
benevolence. (176.) To " ddam" as man (116) — as the human species 
— as the whole of human nature comprehending all generations, 
God says. Behold, I have given, or constitutionally adapted and appointed, 
every herb bearing seed which is upon the face of all the earth, and 
every tree in the which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed, to be your 
food ; of every tree thou mayest freely eat ; but of the tree of the 
knowledge of good and evil (150) thou mayest not eat. (192.) But to 
Noah and his sons as a particular portion of the human family in ] 
particular circumstances, God says, *' Every creeping thing that liveth 
shall be food for you ; even as the green herb have I given you all 
these :" i.e., I have so constituted man and things, that the human 
body can derive nourishment, not only from its appropriate vegetable 
food, but also from animal substances, from "every creeping thing 
that liveth." 

WHY ANIMAL FOOD WAS PERMITTED. 

215. But, if flesh-meat is not consistent with the highest and best 
condition of human nature, why did God, according to the Mosaic 
Record, say to Noah and his sons, even in their particular condition 
and circumstances, " Every creeping thing that liveth shall be food for 
you P " I ask still farther. If it is consistent with the highest and best 
condition of human nature, that every creeping thing that liveth shall 
be food for man, why did God afterwards, by Moses, make so particular 
a dietetic distinction between clean and unclean animals (203), and so 
strictly, and under so terrible a penalty forbid the Jews eating the 
unclean P The answer to both questions is the same, and obvious. 
From the integrity and efiiciency of the constitutional laws divinely 
established in the nature of things, God is under the necessity of 



129 

ing his revelations to the condition and circumstances of man*s 
lex nature (65, 88, 91, 166), and always adopts such measures as 
n the nature of things, best fitted, with reference to the condition 
ircumstances of man, to promote the success of the great economy 
vine benevolence. (170.) Does any one regard this solution as 
;horized and presumptuous P I reply that it is expressly autho- 
by our Lord Jesus Christ. *' Moses, because of the hardness of 
hearts, suffered you to put away your wives : but from the 
ning it was not so.** Is it said that our Lord's solution meets 
ihe particular case of divorce P I answer that, if in any case it 
e shown, on the authority of our Lord Jesus Christ, that God has 
itted that which, though the best that could be in the particular 
tion and circumstances in which it was permitted, yet is not 
ately best, nor consistent with the highest and best condition of 
>n nature, and that this permission was given because of the 
less of the hearts of the recipients, or because of the particular 
tion and circumstances of their complex nature, then, this 
Qes a true and general rule — not by which we can determine 
is best — ^but by which we can always, in all cases, accurately 
the question why things not absolutely best, have been or are 
Ltted by GU>d in any condition and circumstances of man's nature. 
jord's declaration therefore, that, because of the hardness of their 
s, Moses permitted the Jews to put away their wives — which, in 
sginning was not so, or which was not consistent with the highest 
>est condition of man, does not prove that wine-drinking and 
•eating and polygamy and slavery and capital punishment, &c., 
ot consistent with the highest and best condition of human nature ; 
f in any other way, these positions can be clearly and fully estab- 
I, then, according to the strictest principles of sound logic, and 
the clearness and precision of mathematical reasoning, our 
ur*8 rule concerning divorce, legitimately and conclusively solves 
uestion, why these things were permitted. But, we have seen 
-187) that it is a matter of complete scientific demonstration that 
•drinking and flesh -eating are not compatible with the highest 
)e8t condition of man, and therefore I have the authority of our 
Jesus Christ and of the Holy Spirit in saying that the permission 
ah and his sons to eat animal food, was an accommodation of the 
3 administration to the particular state of things; or to the 
iporaneous condition and circumstances of man's complex nature. 

) 

\, It is, as we have seen (205) morally and philosophically 

n that mankind had become eaters of flesh and drinkers of wine, 
Lor to the flood ; and it is equally certain that Noah and his sons 
ecome accustomed to these articles, as means of sensual enjojnnent 
i indulgence of their appetites ; and had so depraved their natural 
icts and sensibilities by the use of them (160, 161) that they had 
to regard them as among the highest blessings of life and as 
)ensable to their greatest enjoyment ; and they were not in an 
ectual and moral condition to perceive and understand the true 
ns against man's eating flesh and drinking wine ; and still less 
they in a condition to be restrained by the moral and spiritual 

K 



< 



130 

power of God (88, 89), from indulging their depraved appetites in the 
use of these substances. Besides, the earth having been many months 
submerged, afforded no supply from the vegetable kingdom, immedi- 
ately after the flood, suitable for the food of man ; and therefore, Noah 
and his sons were in the particular condition and circiunstances which 
made it in legitimate accordance with the constitutional appointment of 
Gk)d for them to eat animal food. (186.) Indeed, the permission itself, 
rightly understood, is nothing more than the announcement of what is 
in the nature of things true : namely, that, God made man with a con- 
stitutional capability of deriving nourishment from animal, as well as 
vegetable matter, if his condition and circumstances make it necessary; 
and therefore the whole animal as well as vegetable kingdom was 
before Noah and his sons, for their use and subsistence according to the 
requirements of necessity. But this in no measure leads to, nor 
warrants, the conclusion that animal and vegetable food are equally 
oonducive to the highest and best condition of human nature ; nor that 
man was made to subsist on a mixture of the two. 

217. The divine annunciation to Noah and his sons concerning food, 
may, therefore, in its true import, be considered as the natural 
language (165) as well as the revealed word of God; and it evidently 
involves the idea that they had already attained to the knowledge l^ 
experience. (216.) And it is worthy of notice that with this permission 
toman to eat animal food, it is, for the first time, stated that, "the fear 
and the dread of man shall be upon every beast of the earth, and upon 
every fowl of the air, upon all that creepeth upon the earth and upon 
all the fishes of the sea.*' And, verily, these animals have all bad 
most bloody cause to fear and dread their human enemy, who has out- 
stript the fiercest of them in the ferociousness with which he has 
destroyed life, and fed upon the carcasses of the slain ! burying the 
dead in his own living stomach, till a resurrection of evils hath 
succeeded which hath filled the earth with calamities, and fattened it 
and made it drunk with human flesh and blood \ (203.) 

THE DIVINE LAW IN RELATION TO TAKING LIFE. 

218. All the reasoning which I have applied to the revelation made 
to Noah and his sons concerning food, legitimately and strictly applies 
also, to the revelation made to them in relation to taking life. Toman 
as a species — to human nature as a whole, comprehending all genera- 
tions, God says, '* Thou shalt not kill" But to Noah and his sons as 
a particular portion of the human family in a particular state or 
condition and circumstances of human nature, God says, ^' Surely, your 
blood of your lives will I require ; at the hand of every beast wiM I 
require it, and at the hand of man ; at the hand of every man's brother 
will I require the life of man. Whoso sheddeth man's blood, by man 
shall his blood be shed ; for in the image of God made he man." 
(Gen. ix. 5, 6.) It is entirely certain that this law of penal requisition 
is not founded in the direct relations which exist between God and man ; 
for the taking of the life of the murderer, can, in no measure, cancel 
nor extenuate his sin against God ; nor in any measure atone for his 
sin ; nor serve, in any degree to reconcile him to God ; nor in any 



131 

manner affect the relation which he, as a moral and religious 
', sustains to God. It is, therefore, entirely certain that it is a law 
I is founded solely, in the social relations existing between man 
nan, and which results from the integrity and efficiency of the 
itutional laws divinely established in the nature of things, and is 
sarily developed by a particular state or condition and drcum- 
es of man's complex nature (177), and consequently, it is of divine 
ity and authority only when and where the particular condition 
drcumstances, of man's nature exist, out of which it necessarily 
J. And this is manifestly the true import of the portion of the 
ic Record under consideration, and is explicitly confirmed by our 

Jesus Chsist. The Hebrew word which our translators have 
jred ** require** (Gen. ix. 5) radically and primarily means to 
I; to run ({ftert or pursue; and the idea which the original 
d clearly and strongly presents, is that of one man running after, 
adictively pursuing another. We have seen (204, 205), that " the 
. was filled with violence," before the flood ; and it is morally and 
sophically certain that among other acts of violence to which the 
liluvians were addicted, were those of murder and sanguinary 
ige. And we know that, from that time to the present, where the 
.tion and circumstances of man's complex nature have been the 
, " the avenger of blood" has pursued the homicide as vindictively 
Implacably as he did in the days of Lamech and Noah. And we 
' also, with perfect certainty, that this general fact has, in no 
ure, been a fortuity, but a determinate, conditional result of the 
rity and efficiency of laws which God has constitutionally estab- 
d in the nature of things. Hence, therefore, when God, according 
e Mosaic Record, declares to Noah and his sons, •* Your blood of 
lives will I sureiy avenge ; whoso sheddeth man's blood, by man 
his blood be shed," it is evidently not a revelation of what God as 
QOral and spiritual Judge and Father absolutely prefers, as in the 
ral fitness of things best, with reference to man's true moral and 
;ual relations to himself, nor as adapted to, or compatible with the 
ist and best condition of human nature ; but it is a divine annun- 
m of what God knew would, in a particular state, or condition and 
mstances of man's nature, necessarily result from the integrity and 
sncy of the constitutional laws which he had, with infinite wisdom 
>enevolence, established in the nature of things ; and therefore, 
divine annunciation is equivalent to the human idiom, " Whoso 
leth man's blood, by man will his blood surely be shed." '* The 
jer of blood will pursue him." So Jesus says to Peter, " All they 
take the sword shall perish with the sword." (Matt. xxvi. 52.) 
Ills is manifestly not an enunciation of our Saviour's willt nor the 
olgation of a positive law of God ; but a declaraticm of what, from 
itutional necessity, as a general thing, certainly takes place. 
lence begets violence." "Blood instigates to blood." So far, 
fore, is the recorded lanjOfuage of God to Noah and his sons, and of 
[xnrd to Peter, from being an expression of the divine will and 
>rity that man shall absolutely shed blood for blood, or take life for 
that, on the contrary, it clearly and strongly implies that it is the 
e will and pleasure that man shall come into that state of his 



132 

nature (177), in which he will be sufficiently susceptible to the moral 
and spiritual power of Gkxi (80) to be restrained by them, in the con- 
sciousness of entire moral freedom, not only from the act of taking life, 
but also, from entertaining the murderous feeling and sanguinary 
desire. And, accordingly, our Saviour declares the law of retaliation 
to be utterly incompatible with the true moral and spiritual relations 
which man, in the highest and best condition of his nature, sustains to 
God and to his fellow man, and utterly incompatible with the moral and 
spiritual kingdom which he came to establish on earth. 

219. But, shall the manslayer shed the blood of his fellow man with 
impunity P Shall the murderer be suffered to run at large and commit 
his outrages in society without restraint P Certainly not. The great 
constitutional law of God which says, *' Thou shalt not kill," is estab- 
lished in the very nature and fitness of things, and necessarily remains 
the same through all time, and bears with equal force on every 
individual of the human species, in all conditions and drcumstanoes of 
man's nature. The divine penalties of this law are the constitutional 
consequences of its infraction ; and therefore, are inevitable, and can 
neither be inflicted nor prevented by human power. But the huinan 
penalties growing out of the social relations and interests and obliga- 
tions of man, will vary with the condition and circumstances of man's 
complex nature. In that state of human nature in which the divine 
annunciation now under consideration, was made to Noah and his sons 
(208 — 213), "the avenger of blood" surely will pursue the manslayer 
till he hath vindictively shed blood for blood ; and this avenger will be 
the brother, or near kinsman or friend of the slain, or perhaps the whole 
tribe to which he belonged. In a more advanced stage of true civiliza- 
tion, some discrimination will be made as to the degree of the guilt of 
the homicide, and corresponding provisions will b^made by social action, 
like the Hebrew cities of refuge in the Mosaic economy, to protect the 
comparatively innocent, from the wrath of the aven^r. In a still more 
advanced stage of true civilization, social authority in a legal form, will 
interpose between the manslayer and the vindictive blow of the avenger, 
and judicially take the life of the murderer, for social good ; and as.all 
this conditionally results from the integrity and efliciency of the laws 
which God has constitutionally established in the nature of things, it is 
of divine authority ; not as that which is intrinsically and absolutely 
best, nor as that which is adapted to the highest and best condition of 
man ; but as that, which, from constitutional necessity, is developed in 
a particular state of human nature, and the best which can possibly 
co-exist with that state. (176.) Yet the greatest good of man and all 
the laws of God constitutionally established in human nature, require 
that man shall rise above that state with which such rules of action 
necessarily co-exist. (67.) 

220. It must, therefore, be obvious to every truly enlightened mind, 
that the spirit of the great paramount law of God in relation to taking 
life, requires that man, individually and socially, shall do all in hifi 
power to prevent the destru«tion of human life : and the bearing of 
this requisition extends to all the social arrangements, customs and 

inffuences, as well as to all the individw&l oiclioiis and circumstances. 
TJius, for iDstODce; it is now veil asceitavn^Oi \Xi^\., ^X. \^^\. ^Ocx^fc^ 



133 

fourths of all the homicides that take place in the United States, are 
connected with the use of intoxicating substances : and it is an old 
maxim of criminal law that drunkenness aggravates rather than 
extenuates the crime which it causes man to commit. But this maxim 
is egregiously wrong, and contraiy to every sound principle of intel- 
lectual and moral philosophy. Just so far as man is under the 
intoxicating influence of any intoxicating substance, he is, for the 
time, really insane ; and, in proportion to Uie degree of his insanity, he 
is in truth, no more responsible for his acts while thus insane, than he 
would be if his insanity were produced by any other cause : for the 
insanity is essentially the same, by whatever cause produced ; and in 
nearly every other case, it is equally produced by causes connected 
with man's voluntary action; and in a large majority of cases, by 
causes connected with his sensual indulgence. Nor in this case more 
than any other, does man choose the insanity which results from his 
indulgence. By imperceptible degrees, and perhaps without a suspicion 
of his danger, he forms a depraved appetite for intoxicating substances, 
and that appetite soon acquires a despotic influence in the moral 
economy of his nature (26 — 35, 160), and forces him to be willing to 
gratify it. • But, in yielding to the despotic, yet treacherous force of this 
appetite, he does not choose the evil consequences, but simply seeks to 
satisfy the demands of his imperious appetite ; and, in doing this, he 
takes into his system that which unsettles his reason and makes him a 
madman. Is it said that though he does not choose the evil conse- 
quences, still he knows they will inevitably follow his indulgence, and 
therefore, he is culpable for not resisting his appetite P This is not 
trae. He may know what has followed such indulgences, but, such is 
the deep deceitfulness of the sensorial operations of the human system, 
in such cases (159, 160), that, in every instance, when he 3^elds to the 
demands of his appetite, he resolves, in his own mind, to stop short of 
that excess which ensures the evil consequences. But the first step 
increases the force which impels him onward, and soon, against the 
better purposes of his soul, he is plunged into madness, and in that 
madness, sheds the blood of his fellow man : and, for that act of 
madness, the human avenger of blood puts him to death as not only 
guilty of murder, but of murder aggravated by his very madness. But 
€K>d sees not with human eyes and judges not with a human mind : but 
with exact justice harmonizing with true mercy, while he extenuates in 
no measure the real sin of the individual, spreads the guilt of the 
homicidal act over the whole of society, and holds society responsible 
for that act, just so far as it has, by any of its customs, regulations, or 
influences, contributed to make the individual a drunkard, or todevelope 
in him sudi a character and bring him into such a condition as rendered 
the act morally certain ; or, in any manner failed to do all that it could 
do to develope in him sudi a character and bring him into such a condi- 
tion as wonld render it morally certain that he would neither shed the 
blood of his fellow man, nor become a drunkard, nor form an appetite 
for intoxicating substances. (148.) And this is all true in relation to 
the existence and operation of both the idosv^n^ «.xi^ Ti^<^^d)cc^^ %^^ 
cause of every other form of human wic\Leaxies&. "^w \?i\.V)ckfe w^\«k 
raised that, Bodety as such, cannot "becoxaa TcassttiJ^ ^S^:S&?i ^^"t^ 



134 

responsible. There is a bar in the divine government at which 
communities and nations as well as individuals are arraigned, and 
made to answer for their conduct and receive according to their deeds ; 
and always, societjr as such, suffers the penalties of its transgressions 
and delinquencies, in the depredations and outrages which it sustains 
upon its interests, in the general decay of its integrity and corruption 
of its morals, and in the difficulty with which it develops that virtue in 
its members, which is equally essential to the social and individual 
well-being of man. 

221. But, has not God made it the duty of man, in any case, to take 
the life of the homicide ? I answer that God permits as a conditional 
necessity (67), rather than enjoins as an absolute good, the taking of 
human life in any case ; and his paramount requisition always is that, 
man shall voluntarily come into that state in which the necessity for 
such a permission does not arise from the condition and circumstances 
of his complex nature. Thus, God permits the avenger of blood 
vindictively to take the life of the manslayer, when the state of man is 
such that this regulation is developed by constitutional necessity, and is 
the best that can possibly co-exist with that state ; and, consequently, 
Just in proportion as the intellectual, moral and religious nature of man 
IS truly developed, both the necessity and the divine permission for such 
a regulation pass away, and the divine requisition rises in moral 
elevation. (109.) Hence, when the intellectual, moral and religious 
nature of man is sufficiently developed to enable him rightly to under- 
stand the economy of the divine administration in relation to man*s 
taking the life of man, God requires him to act in accordance with the 
high and holy spirit of that economy, for the accomplishment of the 
divine purposes of benevolence. (170.) We know that the taking of the 
life of the murderer, can, in no measure, serve to repair the injury 
which he has done, nor to expiate his guilt in the sight of Gtod. (218.) 
There are but two grounds, therefore, on which, in the light of 
Christianity, we can, with any show of reason, claim a necessity and 
consequent divine permission for taking the life of the murderer ; first, 
to prevent him from repeating his offence ; and second, to deter others 
from committing the same crime. That the shedding of blood for blood 
is, in a particular state, or condition and circumstances of man's 
complex nature, the best regulation to deter man from committing the 
crime of murder, that can possibly co-exist with that state, compatibly 
with man's moral freedom, is beyond all question true ; and therefore, 
in that particular state it has the divine sanction (219) ; but that it is 
an equally valid regulation in a far more advanced stage of true 
civilization, is utterly false. Every mind which is thoroughly and 
accurately informed on this subject, is scientifically certain that in such 
a state of civilization as ours, the shedding of blood for blood, in 
comparison with other measures which are wholly in the power of 
society, serves rather to increase than to diminish the number of 
murders, by rendering human life less awfully inviolable in the human 
estimation ; and when the criminal is publicly executed, few exhibitions 
more powerfully serve to deprave the moral feelings of the spectators 
and pre-dispose them to sanguinary crimes. Besides, it is manifestly 
unjust and essentially murderous to put one man to death to deter 



135 

others from crime; unless there is some other, paramount, and, in 
itself, sufficient cause to justify the taking of his life : and that other 
cause can only be a necessity in order to prevent him from repeating 
his crime. So far then, as we find ourselves shut up to the actual 
necessity of putting the murderer to death in order to prevent him from 
repeating his crime, we have a divine permission to take his life. But, 
if it is possible for us, by imprisonment, or by any other means, to put 
it out 01 his power to repeat his crime, and thus make society as secure 
from his further outrages as if he were really dead, the spirit of the 
great constitutional law of God, which always and every where says to 
human nature as a whole, '* Thou shalt not kill,^* entering into the 
gospel economy of salvation, requires not only that we should refrain 
from taking his life, but do all we can to convert him from his sins, 
and make him a sincerely and truly good man. 

THE WICKEDNESS AND IDOLATROUS BE6ENERACT OF MAN AFTER THE 

FLOOD. CONFUSION OF LANGUAGE, &C. 

222. It is, then, perfectly evident from the whole Mosaic Record of 
the divine revelations and dispensations to Noah and his sons, that they 
had no just notions of the spiritual nature and moral character of God, 
nor of the true relations between God and man (176) ; and that, such 
were the condition and circumstances of their complex nature (177) 
that they could be efficiently acted on as moral agents, only by a very 
low order of motives pertaining wholly to earthly existence, and mainly 
to animal wants and sufferings. Yet, after so terrible a catastrophe to 
the great drama of human wickedness, and after such signal demon- 
strations of the knowledge and power and punitive justice of God as 
they had witnessed, it might have been expected that they would 
religiously cherish in themselves, and transmit to their posterity such 
notions and sentiments in regard to their Creator as would deter them 
from that excessive sensuality and wickedness which had brought such 
direful judgments upon " all flesh." But, alas, how constant and how 
melancholy is the proof of man's continual and strong tendency to 
transgression and wickedness and death ! All the moral and spiritual 
power of GK)d (88, 89) which could be brought to bear on Noah and his 
sons and their posterity, even in view of the fearful destruction which 
had desolated the earth on account of the sin and depravity of the 
human species, was not sufficient to keep them from transgression nor 
to restrain the race from increasing degeneracy and idolatrous 
estrangement from God. Scarcely had the earth emerged from its 
terrible baptism, and begun to quicken into activity the vital economy 
of the herb and tree — not yet had the bleaching skeletons of thousands 
who had perished, ceased to be the awful memorials of the destructive 
judgment which human wickedness and violence and corruption had 
brought upon tiie living world, when ** Noah began* to be an husband- 

*The original verb *hahal here rendered began j is the same as in Gen. iv. 26. 
(see s. 210) and means to perforate, pierce, wound, loose, break, violate, lay open, 
profane, defile, cast down, destroy, and it derives its signification of incipiency from 
the idea of opening ; and still retains the idea of enormity, or something out of 
regular order. The ** ground meaning" of the "word enters in some degree into all 
its forms and BigniOcadona, Thus in Gen. vi. 1, ** A.i\d vX. caxofi Xq -^^ft^^^cAXk^ctSKCk. 



136 

man [ish hd adhdmdh — a man of the ground^'] and he planted a vine- 
yard : and he drank of the wine and was drunken ; and he was uncovered 
within his tent," and his unfortunate son Ham saw his father's shame, 
and thereby drew upon his unoffending posterity a deep and lasting 
curse from the lips of the wine-loving patriarch as he awoke from his 
debauch. (152, 200.) And hardly was this patriarch gathered to his 
fathers in the sleep of death, if indeed he did not still survive, when, 
according to the Mosaic Record, the whole race of his progeny had 
become so incorrigibly perverse that Gk)d declared that " nothing would 
be restrained from them which they had imagined to do :" or, in other 
words, all the moral and spiritual power of Grod which could be brought 
to bear upon them, was not sufficient to restrain them from that degree 
of wickedness which was incompatible with the ultimate fulfilment of 
the great purposes of divine benevolence (170) ; and therefore, God was 
again compelled by constitutional necessity (90) to bring into exercise 
his reserved onmipotence or natural power (77) and to check their moral 
excesses by physical impediments ; which he did in this instance, not 
by giving them a variety of new languages (119), but by confounding 
the one language which was common to all, and thus rendering them 
unable to ''understand one another's speech," and, by this means, 
" scattering them abroad upon the face of all the earth " and causing 
them to form a number of different dialects and tribes and nations, in 
order to the development of a very important measure in the economy 
of the moral government of Gk)d. 

CALL OF ABRAHAM. DIVINE PURPOSE IN CALLING HIM. HIS CHARACTER. 

223. The great experiment had been made with the first human pair, 
and with their posterity, from Cain to Noah, and again from Noah to 
Nimrod, of carrying man forward with the consciousness of entire 
freedom of choice and action, in the true development of his intellectual 
and moral and religious nature, and of the moral and spiritual govern- 
ment of God in the human world (76, et seq, 173) ; but, continuaUy 
had mankind degenerated and sunk into more degraded and vile idolatry 
and multifarious wickedness, till they had completed the great moral 
demonstration, that the human species could not be carried forward in 
moral freedom, to the fulfilment of the supreme purposes of divine 
benevolence (170), and brought into that state in which man can 
rightly understand the nature and character of God and worship and 
serve him in spirit and in truth, and could not be restrained by the 
oral and spiritual power of God from any evil " which the heart of 
man imagined to do," while " the whole earth was of one language and 
of one speech." Accordingly, that common language was broken up 
by a divine dispensation, and the one great family of man was 
scattered abroad upon the face of all the earth, to be formed into 

be/fan to multiply on the face of the earth,'* &:c. But man had multiplied from the 
first; and there is something more than the legitimate and regular multiplication of 
the species intended here : the idea of enormity is clearly presented. (204.) So in 
Gen. X. 8. Nimrod began to be almighty one in the earth: i.e., stept beyond the 
rightful exercise of power and assumed an undue degree of authority. And so in the 
sage under consideration, the idea is not that Noah simply commenced tilling 
•arth : but the original language clearly gives the idea of some enormity in 
iction ¥rith the planting of a vineyard by this " man of the ground." 



137 

separate tribes and nations, in order that, in due time, a particular 
portion of the human family might be separated and kept distinct 
from all the rest, by an economy in which even the frailness and 
depravities and sinful propensities and appetites and passions of man, 
should be made subservient to the greatest ultimate good of the 
human species — an economy in which the selfishness and pride and 
jealousy and hatred and cupidity of the human heart, as well as the 
higher attributes and susceptibilities of man, should be made to 
co-operate in sustaining institutions and customs necessary to the 
permanency of that separation and distinctness of the selected race, 
without which the world could not be prepared for the advent of the 
true Mediator between Qod and man, and for the true moral and 
spiritual manifestations of Gk>d in the flesh, and reconciliation of man 
to his heavenly Father. (173, 207.) 

224. In the prosecution of this design, it was necessary that some one 
should be elected to become the progenitor of the separate race : yet, 
notwithstanding the breaking up of the common language, and the 
consequent dispersion of the human species upon the face of the earth, 
the idolatrous propensity of man had continued to develope itself more 
and more fully, till even the faint and imperfect notions of the true God 
which the earlier patriarchs had entertained, were wholly blotted from 
the humian mind, and the universal family of man was given up to 
idolatry ; so that, of all the earth's inhabitants, he that was best fitted 
to answer the divine purpose in becoming such a progenitor, was taken 
from the bosom of an idolatrous household, and had from his childhood 
been accustomed to see his father and his kindred, and all with whom 
he associated, " serve other gods;" and, doubtless, had himself been a 
devout worshipper at his father's altar. (Josh. xxiv. 2.) In such 
circumstances and under such influences, the divine purpose could not 
be carried forward by human agency consistently with man's entire 
moral freedom ; and therefore, it was necessary that Abram should be 
separated as widely as possible from every circumstance and influence 
which served to make him willing to be idolatrous ; and this separation 
most be effected, not by the physical, but by the moral power of God 
(88, 89), by motives to which Abram would yield in the full conscious- 
ness of perfect freedom of choice and action. But in so small a degree 
Vas the intellectual, moral and religious man truly developed in him 
when he was divinely called to leave his father's house and his kindred 
and his country and go into a land which the Lord would show him, 
1}ial, the hi^est motives which God could bring to bear efficiently upon 
hiuit eoDiistently with his entire moral freedom, were such as might 
hKW9 been presented to him had he been only of a mortal nature, with 
ilo intccests b^nd this life, and no capacities for enjoyment beyond 
li» pjinrare of his body. (194.) "I will make of thee a great nation, 
aodnC will bless thee, and make thy name great ; and thou shalt be a 
tieiwiiig . And I will bless them that bless thee, and curse him that 
enxseDi ihee; and in thee shall all families of the earth be blessed." 
(Sen. zSL l--d.) There was in this last promise, a profound meaning 
^ \.tp num which Abram little understood. (152.) This, with all 
lOtives which were presented to him, he contemplated only 
and secular bearing ; the idea of his own and his 




<• ,■ 



138 

posterity's aggrandizement filled his soul ; and he looked forward to the 
possession of a good land, with great wealth and power ; and contem- 
plated a numerous seed, a mighty nation, and a long prospect of 
increasing prosperity and glory in himself and in his innumerable 
descendants. The order of motives presented to him therefore, concurs 
with the cowardly subterfuges and virtual falsehoods to which he had 
recourse in Egypt and in Gerar concerning his wife, and indeed, with the 
general history of his life, to evince the true state of his complex nature 
(176), and demonstrate that he fell almost infinitely .short of a true and 
perfect conformity to the moral ^nd spiritual character of Jesus Christ 
(179) ; and consequently, that all those epithets which are applied to 
him in the Sacred Scriptures designative of his eminent godliness, are 
used in a largely accommodated sense, and indicate the excellence of 
his character in comparison with that of his cotemporaries, and with 
reference to the divine purpose which he was ordained to accomplish, or 
serve, rather than the degree of his true moral and spiritual conformity 
of character to Grod. Yet, with all his theological darkness and moral 
and religious imperfections, and deeply educated bias to idolatry, Abra- 
.ham was, in the relative proportions of the constitutional elements of 
his character, and for the general cotemporaneous state of things, and 
for the particular purpose for which he was called, a surpassing 
excellent man ; and so far as he understood the divine revelations and 
dispensations which he received, he was the *' faithful servant " and 
sincere '* friend of God." The religious services which he performed, 
the altars which he built, the sacrifices which he oflfered to the Object 
of his worship, and his attempt to sacrifice his only legitimate son and 
heir, equally evince the darkness of his mind and the piety of his 
heart (57), and with equal certainty and force, demonstrate his wide 
separation from theological and religious truth, and the necessity for a 
Mediator between God and man, and typify the great propitiatory 
sacrifice that in the fulness of time was to be made for the sins of the 
world. (200.) Is it objected that, according to the Mosaic Record, 
Abraham was expressly commanded of God to sacrifice his son Isaac ? 
Let it be remembered that, from constitutional necessity (60, 91), God 
always in effect, adapts his revelations and dispensations to the condi- 
tion and circumstances of the recipients. (66.) The state of the human 
world was such in Abraham's day, that the sacrificing of the first-born 
son, or best-beloved child, was an existing religious observance which 
had been conditionally developed by the integrity and efficiency of 
constitutional laws divinely established in the nature of things. (61.) 
But for this, it is morally certain that God would not have commanded 
Abraham to sacrifice his son, and Abraham would not have attempted 
it if commanded. The fact, therefore, that this act of Abraham's was 
in compliance with a divine command, renders it a no less complete and 
forcible demonstration of his wide separation from theological and 
religious truth. But the fact that Abraham was prevented by the angel 
of the Lord from actually sacrificing his son and left to sacrifice one of 
the lower animals, as a substitute, warrants the conclusion that the 
whole transaction was ordained not more for the trial of Abraham's 
faith than for the prevention of human sacrifices in the chosen line and 
separate race. 



139 



ISAAC AND JACOB AND THEIR ANTE •'MOSAIC POSTERITY. 

225. What I haye said of Abraham, is, for the most part, true of 
Isaac and Jacob. The coyenant which was renewed with them, the 
objects which they contemplated, the interests which they cherished, 
the ends which they pursued, the characters which they exhibited, and 
the religious services which they performed, all concur in the demon- 
stration that they had no true notions of the spiritual nature and moral 
character of GK>d, and of the relations between God and man ; that they 
were, in views and feelings and actions little removed from the common 
idolatry of their times ; and that they could be efficiently acted on, 
consistently with their perfect moral freedom, only by motives of a 
temporal and secular nature and which mainly related to their animal 
sensibilities, enjoyments and sufferings. (176.) Indeed, both of these 
descendants of Abraham were greatly his inferiors in all the nobler 
elements of natural, moral and religious character ; and instead of 
improving on the light which he had received, they actually degenerated 
into more of the heathenish darkness that surrounded them. Isaac, in 
comparison with his father, was characterized by weakness, timidity, 
and sensuality: yet Gk)d iprotected him and blessed him with great 
wealth and honour and power ; and promised him a numerous posterity, 
for His " servant Abraham's sake," or for the sake of the divine purpose 
which Abraham and his seed were ordained to serve. (223, 224.) 
Jacob, as his name imports,* was distinguished for treacherous subtlety 
and supplanting craftiness. His whole life was little else than a 
tissue of circumventing stratagem and over-reaching cunning ; and 
even his religion was a compound of sensuality, cupidity, ambition and 
selfish superstition. Hence the character of the divine revelations and 
dispensations which he received (176) ; the sum of which were, ** The 
land which I gave Abraham and Isaac, I will give to thee and to thy 
seed ; and thy seed shall be as the dust of the earth ; and thou shalt 
spread abroad to the west, and to the east, and to the north, and to the 
south : a nation and a company of nations shall be of thee ; and kings 
shall come out of thy loins ; and in thee and thy seed shall all the 
families of the earth be blessed. (224.) And, behold, I am with theei 
and will keep thee in all places whither thou goest, and will bring thee 
again into tnis land ; for I will not leave thee until I have done that 
which I have spoken to thee of." And hence, also, the character of the 
conditions on which Jacob agreed to acknowledge Jehovah as his God ; 
*• And Jacob vowed a vow, saying, If God will be with me, and will 
keep me in the way that I go, and will g^ve me bread to eat and raiment 
to put on, so that I come again to my father's house in peace ; then shall 
Jehovah be my Gtod" 

226. And here, it is important, in order to a more full ascertainment 
of the theological notions and religious sentiments of the Hebrew 
patriarchs and their early posterity, that it should be considered that, 
m their days, all the nations and tribes upon the face of the earth, 
though deeply enveloped in heathenish darkness, were, from a necessity 

* Ta' akohht heel^atehert tupplantert atratagem'tnonger. See s. 210. 



140 

arising out of the constitution and condition and circumstances of their 
nature, exceedingly religious (57 et seq.); and though they all 
worshiped ** strange gods *' and nearly every different nation and tribe 
had its peculiar god, yet the theological notions and religious sentiments 
and language and forms and observances of each, were so nearly com- 
mon to all, that it required but a very small transition to pass from the 
religious faith and services of one to those of another. And hence we 
find the kings and rulers and priests of the different nations and tribes 
in which the Hebrew patriarchs sojourned and with which they had 
intercourse, often speaking to those patriarchs as if they rightly 
understood and intelligently acknowledged the one living and true God 
who had called Abraham and his seed to serve Him : and hence also, 
we often find them at one moment thus speaking of the Lord, and at 
the next moment, devoted to their idolatry as those who had not the 
least knowledge nor faintest idea of the true Grod. The true explanation 
of all this is that, while the people of every nation had their ownparticuliar, 
national god, which, they from education preferred to the god of any 
other nation, yet they believed that each other nation had its go^ 
which in power and beneficence might be nearly equal with its own ; 
and the criterion by which they determined the excellence of every god, 
was the degree of protection and prosperity and gratification which his 
votaries enjoyed. Such, with all the divine revelations and dispen* 
sations which they had received, were the notions entertained by the 
Hebrew patriarchs, in common with all the cotemporaneous inhabitants 
of the earth. They were conscious of being divinely instructed, but they 
were not conscious and they did not understand that other gods did 
not also instruct and protect their votaries. With such views, Jacob, in 
obedience to his father's commands, departed from his parents in Beer- 
sheba, to go to the kindred of his mother in Padan-aram, in pursuit of 
a wife. His way lay through a country in which he was exposed to 
many dangers, and his mind was full of anxiety in regard to what 
should befal him on his journey, and what should be the result of his 
visit to Padan-aram ; and when, and in what condition he should, if 
ever, return to his father's house. In this state of mind, when night 
came, he lay down to sleep, and Jehovah appeared to him in a vision, 
and promised to give him the land on which he lay, and to 
give him a seed as the dust of the earth, and to be with him and 
keep him in all places whither he went, and bring him again into 
the promised land. This was probably the first divine communication 
which Jacob had ever received; and it filled him with deep awe: 
'* And he awoke out of his sleep, and said. Surely, Jehovah is in this 
place and I knew it not. And he was afraid, and said, How dreadful 
IS this place ! this is none other than the house of God, and this is 
the gate of heaven." Now to suppose that the views and feelings of 
Jacob on this occasion, approached to anything like those of an 
enlightened and devout Christian when using such language in the 
sincerity and holy fervour of his heart, is utterly and egregiously 
incorrect. Even in this moment of reverential dread, with all his 
consciousness of the presence of Jehovah, Jacob's theological notions 
and religious sentiments were little more elevated then those of the 
surrounding heathen. (66.) All his ideas of the Deity were clothed in 



141 

sensible forms and vested with human attributes : and with all the 
impressions and convictions which hehad received in his vision, he still 
doubted whether the God who had appeared to him and made him such 
large promises, was greatly to be preferred to other gods ; and there- 
fore, he resolved that this point should be determined by the providence 
of this God towards him ; and vowed that, if this God would be with 
him and keep him, in his journey, from all harm ; and give him bread 
to eat and raiment to put on ; and bring him again to his father's house 
in peace and prosperity; then should Jehovah be his God. Be it 
remembered, however, that Jacob was not chosen of the Lord to be a 
perfect moral and spiritual pattern <o the world of a true child of God. 
The world was not then prepared to receive and appreciate such a 
pattern. (207.) But Jacob was chosen as the seed of Abraham, to be a 
lineal progenitor of a race by which God designed to prepare the world, 
in progress of time, to receive such a pattern, and with him, a better 
covenant and higher dispensation. (179.) "With all his moral and 
religious imperfections, therefore, Jacob was the best fitted of all the 
earth's inhabitants in his day, to serve the particular divine purpose 
for which he was chosen : and in this respect, he was the '* servant of 
CK)d," and to this end, God, according to his covenant promise, was 
with him to keep him and to bless him ; and, for the most part, to 
suffer, rather than to sanction his manners : because he could not, in 
any greater degree, be restrained from sin, consistently with his entire 
moral freedom : and the only alternative that remained, was for God to 
cut him off, or to suffer him to live in that measure of wickedness which 
he practised (90) ; and God saw that the greatest ultimate and universal 
good would result from the latter; and therefore God suffered his 
wrong-doing for the sake of the greatest ultimate good. 

227. With this explanation before us, we are not surprised to find 
this same covenanting Jacob, who had so craftily supplanted his brother 
and deceived his father, so soon afterwards exhibiting such loose 
morality, and practicing such selfish stratagems at Padan-aram, to 
enrich himself at the expense of his uncle and father-in-law, and 
claiming the sanction of the Lord for his conduct (56) : nor that there 
was so Httle true morality and piety in his household, that his beloved 
wife Bachel could steal and carry off, and, by deception and falsehood, 
keep her father's idol images ; nor that his children, while still under 
his own eye and paternal authority, should " cleave to strange gods," 
and worship idols. And, with this explanation before us, we are 
enabled rightly to understand much that is written in the early Hebrew 
Scriptures concerning the conduct of the chosen race and the intercourse 
and interlocution between them and the cotemporaneous tribes and 
nations surrounding them, which would otherwise be dark and inex- 
plicable to us. 

228. It was because God knew that allthe moral and spiritual power 
which could be brought to bear on the immediate posterity of Abraham, 
to elevate them towards true godliness, could not be suMcient to keep 
them from becoming more and more estranged from him, and from 
degenerating, in the course of a few generations, into open idolatry, 
that he said to that patriarch, '* Enow of a surety, that thy seed shall 
be strangers in a land that is not theirs, and they shall serve them ; 



142 

and they shall afflict them four hundred years." And in accordance 
with this divine prescience, Isaac degenerated from Abraham, and Jacob, 
from Isaac ; and when the progeny of Jacob had become established in 
Egypt, notwithstanding all the revelations and dispensations whidi their 
fathers had received from Jehovah, they soon lost all regard for the 
government and authority of the Grod of Abraham ; and by an easy, and 
scarcely appreciable degree of transition, gave themselves up to the idol- 
atry of the Egyptians, and sunk into the condition and circumstances of 
their whole complex nature which fitted them for that bondage into which 
they passed from a conditional necessity resulting from the integrity 
and efficiency of constitutional laws divinely established in the nature 
of things. (67, 68.) And so extremely abject did they become, and so 
closely wedded to the sensualities and depravities of their degradation, 
that the only way by which they could, in moral freedom, be made to 
leave Egypt for the promised land^ was to subject them to severe and 
protracted oppression and cruelty. 



RECAPITULATION. THE PURPOSES AND PROVIDENCE OF GOD IN RELATION 
TO MOSES. THE EDUCATION OF MOSES PREPARATORY TO THE OFFICB 
WHICH HE WAS DESTINED TO FILL AS THE LEADER, LAWGIVER AND 
TEACHER OF THE CHOSEN RACE. 

229. I have now arrived at that stage of my general argument, where 
it becomes necessary, by a brief recapitulation, to collect, as it were, 
into a single focus, many of the principles which have been developed 
in the progress of my reasoning, and some of which have already been 
frequently repeated. We have seen (4, 17, 18, 58, 59, 60, 92, 93, 127), 
that the eternal and infinite Jehovah is the omnipotent and intelligent 
first Cause of all things ; that nature is the work of his own hands ; 
and every law and principle and property of Nature is the inscription 
of his omnific will and purpose ; that if the Bible is in truth a record of 
divine revelation, the God of the Bible and the God of Nature is one and 
the same Being ; that Nature is the first great volume of divine revela- 
tion, in which the deeply written will of God lies ever ready to be disclosed 
to the human mind by the true developments of science and by all true 
experience ; that the inspired word is but a supplement to this first 
great volume, and the two, together, make complete, the one great system 
of divine revelation to man ; and hence the truth of nature and the true 
meaning of the inspired word must be in harmony; and no true 
meaning of the inspired word can, as a permanent law, be contrary to 
the laws of nature. Nature, therefore, when rightly understood, is as 
truly a revelation of God as the word of divine inspiration is ; and 
every law of nature is as truly a law of God, and when accurately 
ascertained, is of as much divine authority and is as truly obligatory in 
all its bearings upon man, as any law or word of divine inspiration is. 
We have seen also (5, 6), that God governs the moral and spiritual 
world by laws as fixed and permanent as those by which he governs the 
material world ; that though the divine conduct or modes of adminis- 
tration may change with the condition and circumstances of the beings 
gioverned, yet the great principles or constitutional laws of the moral 



143 

and spiritual government of God, are eternal and immutable ; and that 
the laws of the material world, and the laws of the moral and spiritual 
world, constitute but one great and harmonious system of divine govern- 
ment. And the fact that a Gk)d of infinite knowledge and wisdom and 
power and goodness, has established in the constitutions and relations 
of things, those permanent laws by which he governs the material and 
moral and spiritual universe, demonstrates that it is infinitely best for 
all things, that there should be such permanency of constitutional laws, 
and that it is incompatible with the greatest natural, moral and spiritual 
good of the universe, that the established laws of nature should be 
frequently suspended or disturbed. And all we know of the nature of 
things, and of the history of the divine government since the creation of 
man, goes to prove that God prefers to bring about all efiTects in the 
material, moral and spiritual world by the regular operations of the 
permanent laws which he has constitutionally established in the nature 
of things; and that he never miraculously suspends those laws or 
produces supernatural efiTects, except for the great moral and spiritual 
purposes, on very extraordinary and extremely rare occasions ; and 
when, from such exercises of his power, and displays of his majesty, a 
greater good than evil will, on the whole result. Furthermore, we have 
seen (88) ttiat, in the divine adjustment of things, the very laws which 
enter into the moral and spiritual constitution of man (21), and on 
which God, in his own sovereignty, has established man's moral 
freedom (19), necessarily limit both the moral and spiritual power of 
God, in their action on man as a moral agent (89), and determine the 
degree of their actuating efficiency, by the condition and circumstances 
of man's complex nature (^177), and render it constitutionally necessary 
* for the divine administration always to adapt its measures to the state 
of man (66, 172, 175) ; and, if possible, to employ such motives as will 
lead him forward, in the consciousness of entire freedom of choice and 
action, towards the fulfilment of the great purposes of divine benevo- 
lence (170) ; and physically to obstruct the way of his transgression or 
to cut him off, eittier by a constitutional economy in nature (204) or 
by a miraculous exercise of the natural power of God (77), when, by 
reason of extreme depravity and perverseness, he can no longer be 
restrained by any moral force, from that degree of wickedness which is 
incompatible with the ultimate accomplishment of the great scheme of 
divine goodness. (90, 206.) Again, we have seen (224) that God called 
Abraham from a world wholly g^ven up to idolatry, to become the 
progenitor of a separate and distinct race which, by divine teaching and 
discipline, should make progress in the true developments of the moral 
and religious man, and in the fulness of time, prepare the world to 
receive the true moral and spiritual revelations of God ; and we have 
seen (228) that, against all the moral and spiritual power of God that 
could be brought to bear upon them, the posterity of Abraham 
degenerated from their patriarchal head, till they had lost all regard 
for the God of Abraham, and for the covenant which He made with 
their fathers, and sunk into vile idolatry and ignominious bondage. 
And now, according to the eternal purposes of God, this exceedingly 
depraved and darkly idolatrous and extremely abject race must, as moral 
agents, in the consciousness of moral freedom, be led by the highest 



144 

motives which can be brought to bear efficiently upon them, not only 
from Egypt into Canaan, and from oppressive bondage into civil liberty, 
but from their extreme moral and religious darkness and depravity and 
degradation, into, at least, an oral acknowledgement and an outward 
ritual service of the invisible Jehovah, and as far as possible towaids 
that elevated state of man's nature in which he can worship God in spirit 
and in truth. And all this must be done by human instrumentality 
and human agency. A human being must be raised up who, as the 
vicegerent of GK)d, shall become iJbeir leader and law-g^ver and 
instructor. 

230. And now, in view of all these divine principles and purposes, 
and all these human facts and conditions, the great question which 
comes before us and demands our deep and deliberate consideration is 
this — ^Did a God of infinite knowledge and wisdom, who sees the end 
from the beginning, and whose counsels are from everlasting to ever- 
lasting, leave Moses to be born and educated, and to mature hii 
character, and to become more and more established and confirmed in 
his habits of thinking, feeling and acting, till he was eighty years old, 
without any regard, in the divine mind, to the services whidli he was to 
perform in relation to the chosen race, and to the qualifications necessary 
to fit him for those services? and thenceforward, make him wholly 
dependant on immediate divine revelations and dictations, and miracu- 
lous manifestations, for all he knew and said and did as the leader and 
law-giver and teacher of that race P Or did God, with infinite know- 
ledge and wisdom, according to his eternal purposes, through the 
integrity and efficiency of the laws which he constitutionally established 
in the nature of things, order everything in relation to the parentage, 
birth, education, condition and circumstances of Moses, so as to develope ' 
in him, as perfectly as in the nature of things was possible, such an 
organization, and such a physiological and intellectual and moral and 
religious constitution and character as best fitted him for the office 
which he was ordained to fill P Surely, it cannot be doubted that the 
latter of these propositions is the true one. All we know of the 
character and government of God, and of the nature of things, and of 
the history of the human world, goes to establish the certainty that God 
so ordered all things in relation to Moses, as to efiTect, as far as possible, 
by the operation of natural laws and means, all that the fulfilment of 
the divine purposes required in him, and left as little as possible to be 
done by supernatural means and miraculous suspensions and disturb- 
ances of the permanent laws and constitutional economy of nature 
(5, 6). Every event in the life of Moses, which is not expressly declared 
in the sacred scriptures, to be miraculous, is, therefore, to be regarded 
as a necessary coBditional result of the integrity and efficiency of con- 
stitutional laws divinely established in &e nature of thin^, and 
consequently, as the natural language of God, denoting the divine will 
according to the condition and circumstances of things to which it 
relates (165) ; or in other words, every event in the life of Moses, not 
miraculous, was constitutionally ordained of Gk>d, as the best that the 
nature, condition and circumstances of things would admit of in relation 
to the office which he was appointed lo fiV\. "ReciCi^, t\vft whole course 
of his life, from his birth tiU the divine ^xeaeuc^'v^&m-^Ttvi^sXsAVftXfiias^ 



in the burning bush (Exod. iii. 2), was a course of divine training 
and education preparatory to the duties which he was to perform as 
tiie leader, and lawgiver, and teacher of the chosen race (59) •* and 
all the true knowle^e which he acquired in this course of education — 
every truth which was revealed to him from the volume of nature, 
eiUier by the developments of science or by experience, was as much 
the truth of God, and as truly of divine validity and authority, and as 
essential to the completeness of his qualifications for the duties upon 
which he was to enter .as the servant of Grod, and Ieis essential to the 
success of the great enterpirise of which he was to be the principal 
human agent, as were the instructions which he afterwards received 
on Mount Sinai, by immediate revelations from Jehovah. (4.) 
Indeed, but for his previous preparations in the school of divine 
providence, by which the intellectual, moral and religious man was 
developed in him, far in advance of his brethren of the Hebrew race, 
he could not have received the divine instructions of Sinai with a 
better understanding of the character and purposes of God than they 
did who joined in the worship of the golden calf. (66, 178.) 

231. In natural science, and in the arts and refinements of 
eivilieation, Egypt was, at the time of Moses* birth, greatly in advance 
of every other portion of the world : and although the great mass of the 
people were extremely ignorant, and darkly superstitious and 
idolatrous, and had a sensual and degraded priesthood to minister in 
the service of their vile gods, yet there was an order of priests in 
£g3^t who had more largely cultivated their intellectual powers and 
more deeply and accurately studied the volume of nature (127), and 
attained to the knowledge of more natural, moral and religious truth 
than any other men on the face of the earth. This order of men 
instituted a school of learning and philosophy to which the seekers 
after knowledge, of every country, for centuries, resorted. In this 
school, Moses, according to divine purpose, was to be educated ; and 
become " learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians." (Acts vii. 22.) 
Here he was, as far as possible, to make all those attainments in 
natural science, in civil polity, in moral and religious philosophy, 
in theology, in sacred history and tradition, and in every otner kind of 
knowledge which would qualify him for the office that he was ordained 
to fill, and which would, in the greatest measure possible, preclude 
the necessity for the special revelations and direct dictation and 
miraculous manifestations of Jehovah, in order to the accomplishment of 
the divine purposes which Moses was raised up to serve. (230.) But 
such were the reciprocal prejudices and antipathies between the 
Egyptians and Hebrews, and such were the indelible distinctions of 
caste among the Egyptians themselves, that a general economy of 
nature was necessarily brought, as it were, into special requisition 
to accomplish the particular purpose of introducing Moses into this 
school. In accordance with the constitutional laws of nature, the 
relative conditions and circumstances of the Egyptians and the 
Hebrews were at this time, such as to cause that increase of males 
among the latter, which excited the fear of the former for Ib^ ^^ecwxv^ 
of the state and for their own personal ^ai^t^, wA \w^^^^ "^^ 
Egyptian gorernment to endeavour to "prc^euX ^^ ^^"^ ^V\^ '^'Si 



146 

dreaded, by destroying the Hebrew male infants at the moment of 
birth, by the hands of the midwives. This tyrannical and bloody 
measure, as such measures, from constitutional necessity, always do, 
served most powerfully to bring about the very end whicn the 
oppressors employed it to prevent, by causing the infant Moses to be 
exposed, in an ark of rushes, upon the waters of the Nile, where he 
was found and adopted by the daughter of Pharaoh, and thus became 
a member of the royal family, and in due time a pupil of the moit 
learned men of the kingdom, and was made a master of "all the 
wisdom of the Egyptians." 

232. But, with all the attainments of the £flf3rptian priests in 
natural science and experimental knowledge, the theological notions 
which they had derived from sacred traditions and from tihe volume of 
nature, were exceedingly dim, and mysterious, and imperfect, and 
deeply tinged with polytheism, extending to that species of idolatry 
which consists in the apotheosis of departed heroos, and other gretXij 
distinguished men, and embracing a multitude of tutelary gods. 
With these notions Moses became so thoroughly imbued, and by the 
force of forty years' education and association and habit, became so 
entirely Egyptianized in his character, that no high and holy order 
of motives could be brought to bear directly and immediately upon 
him with sufficient moral force to induce him, in the consciousneet 
of perfect freedom of choice and action, to exile himself for ever from 
the court of Egypt. But God had other schools for him to study in, 
and other lessons of wisdom for him to learn, under a severer 
discipline, and a more soul-developing experience ; and if he could not 
be induced to leave the honours and enjoyments of the Egyptian 
court for those humbler schools, by one order of motives, he must be 
by another. With all his exaltation as an adopted member of the 
royal family of Egypt, and as an accomplished student in the highest 
schools of philosophy, Moses still had Hebrew blood in his veins 
and Hebrew sympathies in his heart: "and when he was full forty, 
years old, it came into his heart to visit his brethren, the children of 
Israel ; and he went out to them, and looked on their burdens, and he 
spied an Egyptian smiting one of his Hebrew brethren. And he 
looked this way and that way, and when he saw that there was no 
man in sight, he slew the Egyptian and hid him in the sand. And 
when he went out the second day, behold, two men of the Hebrews 
strove together : and he said unto him that" did the wrong. Wherefore 
smitest thou thy fellow P And the aggressor replied, Who made thee a 
prince and a judge over us P intendest thou to kill me as thou killedst 
the Egyptian P And Moses feared and said, Surely this thing is known. 
Now when Pharaoh heard this thing, he sought to slay Moses. But 
Moses fled from the face of Pharaoh and dwelt in the land of Midian.** 
(Exod. V. 11 — 15.) Thus it was fully demonstrated that, such were 
the conditions and circumstances of Moses' complex nature (177), that 
the highest motive which could be brought to bear efficiently upon 
him as a moral agent, to induce him to exile himself from the court of 
Egypt, was the fear of being slain by Pharaoh: for God always 
employs the highest motives which can "b^ "Vstow^ViX. ^fa^ivwvtlY to bear 
oa man, to lead him forward in moral ^Tee^om,\.Q^«^'c^^^ IviNSiacasssl 
of the great purposes of divine benevdVence. ^^,Y^^«^ 



147 

233. But it will doubtless be objected that according to Paul 
(Heb. xi. 24 — 26), " Moses, when he was come to years, refused to be 
called the son of Pharaoh's daughter; choosing rather to suifer 
affliction with the people of GK>d, than to enjoy the pleasures of sin for 
a season ; esteeming the reproach of Christ greater riches than the 
treasures of Egypt ; for he had respect unto the recompense of the 
reward." Pair's avowed principle of being "made all things to all 
men *' (1 Cor. ix. 22), is largely illustrated in his epistle to the Hebrews : 
and though it becomes us to speak with profound reverence of all that 
was written by so eminently endowed and fully inspired an apostle, yet 
it is not to be denied that in the fervor of his benevolent zeal to con- 
vince his countrymen that Jesus of Nazareth was the true Messiah, he 
yielded quite as far as the Holy Spirit would suffer him, to his 
constitutional propensity to "craftiness and guile" (2 Cor. xii. 16), and 
dexterously employed in his ingenious argument, all that was pertinent 
in their traditions, as well as in their sacred Scriptures and religious 
rites. The facts in the case, according to the Mosaic record, show 
that, " when Moses was grown, he, amidst all his honours and pleasures, 
remembered his brethren in bondage, and visited them ; and, with deep 
commiseration, contemplated the oppression and wrongs which they 
endured, and probably with a strong desire to remove them. And 
when lie saw an Egyptian smiting one of his Hebrew briethren, his 
Hebrew blood was roused, and his indignation was deeply kindled ; and 
having cautiously looked around, and satisfied himself that there was 
no other person in si^ht to be a witness against him, he slew th^ 
Egyptian and hid him m the sand. But in spite of all his precaution 
and attempted concealment, Moses soon found that the knowledge of 
his homicidal act had reached the king, and that his only safety was in 
flight. Hoses, therefore, did choose to turn, for awhile, from the 
pleasures of the Egyptian court, and visit his brethren in their bondage ; 
and when he saw an Egyptian smiting one of his brethren, he did 
dioose to yield to his indignation and slay the Egyptian ; and when he 
found that his murderous deed had come to the knowledge of the king» 
and that Pharoah was seeking to slay him for it, he did choose to flee 
into the wilderness and dwell in the land of Midian, rather than to give 
his blood for the blood which he had shed, and his life for the life which 
he had taken. In effect, therefore, Moses actually did refuse to be 
caUed the son of Pharaoh's daughter, and chose rather to suffer 
affliction with his Hebrew brethren, than to remain in the unin- 
terrupted enjoyment of the pleasures of the Egyptian court; and 
esteemed the reproach of Christ — that is, such reproach as Christ 
endured — greater riches than the treasures of Egypt. Because he did 
choose those particular steps which resulted in his voluntary flight from 
the court of Egypt, with all its honours and treasures, ana in his 
permanent association with the chosen race in all their trials and 
afflictions, and his long endurance of those reproaches from that stiff- 
necked and perverse people, which Christ afterwards endured from a 
sinful world ; and thus he as effectually carried fbrwatd \]bi^ dvr^^ 
purpose, as if he had fully understood that pxirpoa^, ack^, V"^ «si ^'^ 
steadfastly upon it, acted with a continual and exdwsVife T^^^x^i. \r> *">^ 
fuMlment, And when the progress of diVme ^xcp? vds?aa^ V^.^ ^\J^ 



148 

revealed that purpose to the human mind, it was perfectly natural md 
philosophically accurate, for Stephen and Paul to speak of Hie condoet ■ 
of Moses as being in accordance with that purpose ; for, it is entir^ 
certain that Moses was philosophically actuated by that purpose ; hot 
it is equally certain that he was not morally actuated by it : — ^that is, 
he did not understand it, and contemplate the fulfilment of it as his 
motive of action. (152.) It is hardly to be doubted, however, that 
Moses had some traditionary knowledge of the covenant which JdMffih 
made with Abraham, and renewed with Isaac and with Jacob; andift 
is very possible that he cherished the secret purpose of some day or 
another attempting the deliverance of his brethren from their bondage. 
But, all we know of the divine administration in relation to Moses, m 
all the recorded facts in Moses' life anterior to the exodus of the Jews, 
concur in the demonstration of the truth that, when Moses fled fnm 
the blood-avenging wrath of Pharoah, into Midian, his theology wsi 
deeply tainted with polytheism (232); and that his ideas of the 
character and purposes of God, and of the relations between Gk)d aod 
man, were extremely vague and imperfect. (179.) 

THE MIDIAN EDUCATION OF MOSES. 

234. In Midian, as in Egypt, all things concurred, according to 
divine purpose, to fit Moses for the ofiice which he was ordained to fiU, 
as the vicegerent of God to the chosen race. (230.) He had, as an 
adopted member of a royal family, spent forty years in the very mart of 
nations, and in the highest schools of learning upon earth, and in the 
most enlightened and splendid court in the world, where his active and 
powerful mind had, by studious and vigorous application, treasured np 
a vast amount of varied knowledge : and now he was self-exiled from 
all these, and destined to spend forty years in a sternly wild and 
severely solitary desert, not in making higher attainments in knowledge 
and acquiring a purer theology from the teachings of a Midian priest, 
but — shut out from all the distractions, and pleasures, and allurements 
of a busy and sensual world, and embosomed in the deepest solitude and 
amidst the most impressive sublimities of nature — in digesting into 
wisdom, by the reflections and meditations of his own mighty mind, the 
knowledge which he had already acquired ; and in elaborating as per- 
fectly as was possible for such a mind from such materials, those great 
ideas which he was, in due time, to body forth, in the institutions to 
that complex political, moral, and religious economy which God 
designed to establish by him as the regimen of the separate race. (223.) 

235. It is not impossible that Jethro, having descended from Abraham 
in a line which had retained more of the simplicity and integrity of 
the nomadic character, and become less corrupted by intercourse with 
other portions of the human family, than had the posterity of Jacob, 
was in possession of more unsophisticated tradition which had come 
down from the earlier patriarchs (115), than was to be found amidst all 
the learning of Egypt: and if so, he undoubtedly imparted his 
traditionary lore to Moses. But, \\ie lao^X VcK^TVa.TA. ^e&tlon now 

before us, is not, what Moses saw an^ VftwcSL, "VsmX. 'wV^X. \kfc tv^S^ 
understood : and we have seen (J55, ^^')» Oci«X\io^cs«t ViCi^aA ^-s^^s. 



149 

fte oral or verbal commanications which man receives, still, from 
eonstitatioiial necessity, he always understands according to the 
iondUtion and circumstances of his complex nature (177) ; and that, 
the Qodhead is always actually revealed to him just in proportion to 
the true development of his intellectual, moral and religious nature. 
(109, 121.) Therefore, whatever were the instructions which Moses 
received in Egypt and in Midian, still, his right understanding of the 
nature and character of GU)d, and of the relations between God and 
man, depended much more on those reflective and meditative exercises 
of his own soul by which his intellectual, and moral, and religious 
powers, were most truly and largely developed andidisciplined : and all 
the circumstances of his situation in the desert, were greatly 
ooaducive to such exercises and to this kind of education. (234.) 

MOSSS* THEOLOGICAL AMD BELIGIOUS NOTIONS. 

236. Yet so slowly does the human mind advance in the knowledge 
of theological and religious truth, even under the best training of 
divine providence, and so deeply and thoroughly had Moses become 
imbued with the prevailing polyUieism and heathenish superstitions of 
his times (232), that, with all the advantages of his Midian school, at 
the end of his forty years' discipline in the desert, he was prepared to 
receive only a very greatly accommodated dispensation, and to under- 
stand only such divine revelations as*were adapted to a very low state 
of human nature, and such as were addressed to his animal senses and 
related wholly to earthly existence and temporal interests. (213.) 
Accordingly, the Mosaic record of the case, exactly corresponds with 
sudi a state of human nature in Moses, and fully demonstrates that his 
highest conceptions of the divine nature and character were inseparable 
Irom sensible forms and manifestations, and not only vested God 
with human attributes, but with the limitations of human powers and 
conditions. For God is represented as seeing the afflictions, and 
bearing the cry of the children of Israel in Egypt, and as coining down 
to deliver them out of the hands of the Egjrptians, and to bring them 
vp out of that land, unto a large and good land flowing with milk and 
honey ; and, in the prosecution of this purpose, as appearing to Moses 
at mount Horeb, in a flame of fire out of the midst of a bush, and 
watching to see what the effect would be on him ; and when the Lord 
saw that Moses turned aside to see the great sight why the bush was 
not consumed, Gtod called unto him out of the midst of the bush, and 
t>ade him not to draw nigh unto it, but to pull off his shoes from his 
feet, because the place on which he stood was holy ground. 

237. But, we know with entire certainty that all this anthropo- 
theology, or man-like representation of God, is utterly incompatible with 
the true nature and character of the Supreme Being, and therefore, we 
know with equal certainty, that, if it is a genuine portion of the Inspired 
Word, it is an accommodation of divine manifestations and revelations 
to Moses* understanding (66, 209), and accurately indicates the 
condition and circumstances of his complex ii«\.vxs«. ^*l^^\ .^"^^ "^^ 
subsequent context of the record stiU more fu\iVj coutexxa ^x^'tv^^ tjjl 

the subject; for the very declaration which cesa^ \ft '^ci^^^ ix^-o^ "^^ 



150 

midst of the burning bush — *' I am the God of thy father, the 
Abraham, the Gk)d of Isaac and the Gtod of Jacob," clearly impl: 
Moses had, at best, only a very dim, traditionary knowledge oft 
of his ancestors ; and had never understandingly made H: 
particular and sole object of his worship : and it also clearly 
that, whatever was his traditionary Imowledge of the GK)d 
ancestors, yet like those ancestors (226) he still believed 
existence of other gods, as potent to afflict and destroy and to 
and bless. For, had Moses been an intelligent worshipper 
Supreme Being, the divine declaration to him would not have 
•* lam the Gk)d of thy fathers ! " but, " I am God ! '* Moses, he 
had no such understanding of divine things, and therefore, whe 
saw that the bush burned and was not consumed," and hea 
voice which came to him from the midst of the bush, thoi 
believed that it was the voice of a god, and in terror hid his fa 
he had no just notion of the nature and character of the Beini 
whom the voice came. And consequently, when God announced 
the purpose for which He had ** come down," and proposed to sei 
to Egypt to bring out the children of Israel, Moses, in utter n 
confidence in the sustaining and protecting power of the God wh< 
to him, replied, ** Who am I, that I should go unto Pharaoh, tfi 
I should bring forth the children of Israel out of Egypt P " Wl 
I, a single, unarmed, unsupported man do against such a poten 
the king of Egypt P In answer to this objection Qtod assures hi 
He will be with him, and that he shall nave experimental p: 
divine assistance, in the fact that he shall bring forth the people 
Egypt, and they shall worship God on mount Horeb. Still 

Serplexed by the superstitious darkness and polytheism of hisowi 
loses betrayed his want of intelligent confidence in the Beii 
was addressing him, and avowed his apprehension of insuj 
difficulties on the part of his Hebrew brethren, even if Pharaoh 
be induced to let them go. " Behold," said he, " when I con 
the children of Israel, and shall say unto them, The God of your i 
hath sent me unto you; and they shall say unto me. What 
name P what shall I say unto them P " Thus fully implying tl 
God of Abraham, of Isaac and of Jacob, was utterly forgotten 
posterity of those patriarchs ; and that even Moses, with all his lei 
had now no name by which to distinguish Him to his brethrei 
other gods. Indeed, the Mosaic record explicitly teaches us (Exod. 
that God was not known to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, by his p< 
and distinguishing name, Jehovah ; but He was known to them at 
shddddy — a Ood of terrible retributive power: — that is, sue 
the notions which those patriarchs entertained of the Goi 
covenanted with them (226) : and as these notions differed littl 
the ideas of the divine nature and character, and of the re 
between God and man, universally entertained by their cotempc 
they knew their God only by the general appellative ^Sldh, or 

* be* elf f nd ^^ah, ^Stohim^ ^Slohij on the following page, f 
different forms of the same word, meaning god or gods. Se 
to s. 204. 



151 

*&ohiin, which was common to all the gods then worshipped by the 
human family. The posterity of those patriarchs had learned to 
distinguish the tutelary gods of Egypt and other nations with which 
they had intercourse, by proper names ; but for the God of their fathers 
they knew no distinguishing appellation : and therefore, when Jehovah 
announced himself to Moses as the ^Sloheoi Abraham, of Isaac and of 
Jacob, and commanded him to go into Egypt and lead out his brethren, 
Moses objectingly inquired, " When I come to the children of Israel, 
and shall say unto them. The ^Slohe of your fathers hath sent me unto 
you ; and they shall say unto me. What is His name P what shall I say 
unto them P " 

23S. For a moment, the divine majesty rose in manifestation to the 
sublime dignity of His true character, and, in language whose import 
was far in advance of Moses' understanding, replied to him, ^* I am 
THAT I AM ! and thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, I am 
hath sent me unto you ! '* But, instantly stooping again in His 
administration, to the condition and circumstances of those to whom he 
revealed His ^l. He bade Moses go and gather together the elders of 
Israel — the most intelligent, those who were richest in the traditions of 
their fathers, and were best prepared to receive and appreciate his 
testimony, and say unto them, **yehdvdh ^gldhe ^abhothechem — Jehovah, 
the Qod of your fathers, the God of Abraham, of Isaac and of Jacob, 
appeared unto me saying, I have surely visited you, and seen that which 
it done unto you in Egypt ; and I have said I will bring you up out of 
the affliction of Egypt unto a land flowing with milk and honey." 
Moreover, God assured him that they should hearken to his voice : and, 
with strict adaptation to the state of the captive people, and to the 
relative conditions and circumstances of the Hebrews and the Egyptians, 
particularly instructed him how to conduct his negotiation with Pharaoh, 
and foretold him how Pharaoh would act, and how he and his brethren 
should behave towards Pharaoh and towards the Egyptians ; and 
promised him all necessary divine assistance, and the final success of 
Lis mission, in the triumphant deliverance of his brethren from their 
bondage. But all this was not sufficient to secure the confidence of 
Moses in the God who spoke to him from the midst of the burning bush : 
" and he answered and said, But behold they will not believe me, nor 
hearken unto my voice ; for they will say, Jehovah hath not appeared 
nnto thee." Stooping still lower in the accommodation of the divine 
ccmduct to the condition and circumstances of Moses and his captive 
brethren, God met this last objection by giving him power to '* do such 
signs " as could not fail to convince his brethren of his divine commis- 
sion. Tet so destitute was the mind of Moses of true ideas of the nature 
and character of God, that even this sensible demonstration of the power 
of the Being who addressed him, failed to win his confidence, and cause 
him willingly to obey the divine mandate : " and he said unto Jehovah, 
O my Lord! I am not a man of words, neither heretofore, nor since 
thou hast spoken unto thy servant : but I am slow of speech, and of a 
slow tong^ie." And Jehovah replied to him, "Who hath made man's 
mouth P or who maketh the dumb or deaf, or the seeing, or the blind P 
have not I, Jehovah P Now therefore go ! and I will be with thy mouth 
and teach thee what thou shajt say." Moses had now ezhaujsted his 



152 

objections and God had fully met him at erery point; howbeit heitiQ 
believed not ; but, in the darkness of his soul, reluctated and refiised to 
obey : *' and he said, my Lord ! send, I pray thee, by the hand of him 
whom thou shouldest send. And the angfer of Jehorah was kindled 
against Moses ; and He said, Is not Aaron the Levite thy brother P I 
know that he can speak well. And also, behold, he cometh forth to 
meet thee ; and when he seeth thee he will be glad in his heart. And 
thou shalt speak unto him, and put words into his mouth ; and I will be 
with thy mouth and his moutn, and will teach you what ye shiU 
do. And he shall be thy spokesman unto the people ; and he shall be 
to thee instead of a mouth, and thou shalt be to him instead of a God. 
And thou shalt take thy rod in thy hand, wherewith thou shalt do 
signs.*' But why is this divine appointment of Aaron to be insteid 
of a mouth to Moses, and Moses to be instead of a God to Aaron, 
unless God designed ^at all the true knowledge which Moses had 
acquired in Egypt and Midian, should be essential to his qualificatiou 
as the leader and lawgiver and teacher to the chosen race ; and as far si 
possible, preclude the necessity for immediete supernatural instructions P 
(230, 231.) For, surely, if God had purposed to dispense wiUi all sneh 
qualifications in His human vicegerent to that race, and, by immediito 
supernatural revelations, to dictate all the laws, institutions, regulatiGOi 
and instructions which the chosen people were to receive. He woold 
have dictated immediately to Aaron, and made him His own mouth and 
spokesman to the people, instead of making him the mouth and spoket* 
man of Moses. 

THE MOTIVE WHICH INDUCED MOSES TO LEAVE MIDIAN FOR XGTFT. 
THE CONDITION AND CIRCUMSTANCES OF THE CHILDREN OF I8RAZ& 
WHEN MOSES CAME TO DELIVER THEM FROM BONDAGE. 

239. The awful manifestation of divine power which, in accommodatioB 
to human understanding, the sacred record calls ^^the anger of 
Jehovah" was so terrible to Moses, that it effected that in him as a 
moral agent, which the more gentle measures of the Almighty had 
failed to accomplish. He dared no longer withstand the authority of 
such a God, but, as much as in fear as in confidence, yielded to the 
mandate which came to him at last, with the tremendous emphasis of 
deeply kindled anger ; and thus he exhibited the moral demonstration 
that, as the /ear of the blood-avenging wrath of Pharaoh was the most 
powerful element in the moral force which induced him to leave Egypt 
for Midian, so now, the /car of the wrath of the God whose mandatory 
voice came to him from the midst of the bush that •* burned with fire 
and was not consumed," was the most powerful element in the moral 
force which induced him to leave Midian for Egypt. Nevertheless, it 
was at this moment of submission to God, that Moses began to exercise 
that faith of which Paul speaks in his epistle to the Hebrews (xi. 24 — ^29), 
that trust in the God of his fathers, which, from this moment onwai^ 
through his remaining days, always, in proportion to the perfectness of 
his obedience, became clearer and stronger, and more fully to hinu 
" the substance of things hoped for. the evidence of things not seen ; ** 
and enabled him to *' endure as seeing Him who is invisible." 



153 

240. But, while the great economy of dmneproridenee was, through 
tile integrity and efficiency of the laws which Qod had constitutionaUy 
established in the nature of things, working out the fulfilment of the 
diyine purposes in the Egyptian and Midian education of Moses, the 
same great economy was aJso, in the same manner, working to the same 
end, in the preparation of the captive Hebrews for their deliverance 
from bondage by the hand of Moses. Just in proportion as they, through 
excessive sensuality and depravity, had sunk into deeper debasement of 
character, they had, from consequent necessity, sunk, with equal 
measure, into deeper degradation of condition, and the hand of oppres- 
sion had borne proportionably more and more heavily and intolerably 
npon them, till the anguish of their afflictions so greatly exceed^ the 
enjoyment of their depraved indulgences, that, they were compelled to 
contemplate the wretchedness of their situation, and, in the depth of 
their misery, to cry out for deliverance. But their cries went up from 
the midst of thick darkness. Jehovah was unknown to them, and they 
knew no object of worship, but the vile things which the Egyptians 
Served; and on these they called in vain for succour. The most 
intelligent elders of the people, doubtless possessed some traditionary 
knowledge of the religion and theology of their ancient fathers ; yet 
from constitutional necessity, the ideas which they derived from this 
knowledge, corresponded with the particular condition and circumstances 
of their own complex nature (61); and they had no true notions of the 
nature and character of Gk>d, nor even of the excellence of that 
deliverance which God was preparing for them. They desired to have 
their afflictions nnd oppressions removed from them, rather than to be 
themselves removed from the condition which made them subject to 
inch oppressions and afflictions. But though they knew not Jehovah, they 
were known of Him. Darkly and idolatrously though their cries were 
uttered, still He heard them ; and selfish and sordid as were their sor- 
rows, still He knew them ; and, as the common Father of the human 
ffunily, He pitied them ; and as the covenant God of the seed of 
Abraham, He purposed to deliver them from their bondage ; and He 
saw that the severity of their afflictions was most effectually preparing 
them for their deliverance, by rendering them susceptible to an order of 
motives by which they, as moral agents, could be induced to leave 
Egypt- (80.) 



THB THEOLOGICAL MOTIONS OF THE HEBREWS. MOTIVES PBESENTBD TO 

THEM, 

241. In due time therefore, Moses, according to divine commission, 
appeared in Egypt, and gathered the elders of Israel together. And 
Aaron, having been fully instructed by Moses, ** spake all the words 
which Jehovah had spoken unto Moses, and did the signs in the sight of 
the people. And the people believed ; and when they heard that 
Jehovah had visited the children of Israel, and that He had looked 
m>on their lections, then they bowed their heads and worshipped.*' 
Dui what did they believe P and what, and how did they worship P It 
is entirely certain that they had no true ideas of the nature and 



154 

character of God, and of the relations hetween Gk>d and man. They 
had long worshipped the vile gods of Egypt, whom they, from oonditioDil 
necessity, had vested with appetites and affections like their own (60); 
and they had long ceased to consider that they, as a separate race, had 
a tutelary God of their own ; and they had no consciousness, nor any 
notion that a particular God, as the peculiar God of their ancestor!, 
had visited them and looked upon their afflictions, until they were 
informed of it by Aaron ; and when they heard Aaron's statement and 
saw his signs, they were convinced by his signs, that he was divindy 
commissioned ; and, on account of the signs which he did, they received 
his testimony, and believed that there was a particular Grod by the name 
of Jehovah, who was the peculiar God of their ancestors, and who had 
visited them in their bondage, and looked with compassion on their 
afflictions. In coming to this belief, however, they underwent no 
change in their theological and religious notions ; but entertained the 
same ideas of the nature and character of Jehovah, that they did of the 
gods of Egypt ; and worshipped him in the same manner, and with the 
same sentiments : — they bowed their heads and prostrated themselves 
with reverential awe i hoping and expecting from what they heard, that 
Jehovah was about to bless them in a way and manner conformable to 
their own wishes and ideas of enjoyment and happiness. (240.) 

242. In this abject state of the Hebrews, none but the lowest order of 
sensual motives could be brought efficiently to bear upon them, to induce 
them to leave Egypt with perfect freedom of choice and action. The 
highest motives which even Moses was prepared to receive for them 
from Jehovah, to be brought to bear upon them in due time, were that 
they should be delivered from their bondage and brought into the 
possession of a large and good land flowing with milk and honey. But 
the deeply depraved and debased slaves of Egypt, were not then pre- 
pared to be actuated by such motives. The good proposed was, in their 
estimation, too remote and uncertain, and lay beyond too many obstacles 
and privations ; and therefore, Moses, as the vicegerent of Jehovah, 
was under a constitutional necessity to adapt his measures to the con- 
dition and circumstances of their complex nature (177), and present 
such motives to them as would be effectual in leading them out of Egypt 
in the consciousness of moral freedom. Accordingly, he addressed 
himself to their strongest susceptibilities (63), and presented motives 
to them whose combined action was directed to associated religious 
instinct and animal sensibilities. In all the world, at that time, when 
any people publicly sacrificed to an object of worship, the service was 
always attended with every species of sensual indulgence and riotous 
excess ; and in this manner both the Egyptians and the Egyptianised 
Hebrews sacrificed to the gods of Egypt. And now, as the only possible 
motive by which these abject Hebrews could be led out of Egypt in 
moral freedom, Moses proposed to them, that they should go three days* 
journey into the wilderness, and there sacrifice and hold a feast unto 
Jehovah the God of their fathers. This motive was adapted to their 
susceptibilities and made them willing to go. But, had they been per- 
mitted to go without any opposition from Pharaoh, it would in no 
measure have served to carry forward the divine purpose in their sepa- 
ration and distinctness as a race. (223.) They would certainly have 



155 

gone into the wilderness, and sacrificed in dark and idolatrous super- 
stition, to a god which, in their ideas, would not have been different 
from the gods of Egypt ; and they would certainly have given tbem- 
selves up to riotous excess in eating and drinking and libidinousness 
and every other kind of sensu^ gratification ; and then they would 
certainly have returned to Egypt, more deeply depraved and more ex- 
tremely abject than when they went. 



THS FHILOOFHT OF THE DIVINB CONDOCT IN KBULTION TO THE HEBREWS 
AND BOTFTIANS. THE BLINONBS OF PHARAOH. THE TRIAL OF MOSES' 
FAITH. 

243. In order, therefore, to the carrying forward of the divine purpose 
in their deliverance, it was necessary, in the first place, that the 
Hebrews should not only be willing to leave Egypt, but that 
they should actually leave, in such a condition and under such cir- 
cumstances as would prepare them to be subsequently made willing to 
endure many and great and protracted hardships and privations, rather 
than to return to the place of their bondage and debasement ; and in 
the second place, it was necessary that the measures employed for their 
deliverance, should be such as would afford them the strongest possible 
evidence which they were able to receive, that Jehovah the God of their 
fathers was greatly superior to the gods of Egypt which they had been 
accustomed to worship ; and that he had commissioned Moses to be 
their guide and teacher. And, in order to these ends, it was necessary 
that Pharaoh, instead of suffering them to depart without any opposi- 
tion, should not only refuse to let them go, but should subject them to 
the severest and most cruel hardships and oppressions ; and finally, 
that Jehovah, in connection with the agency of Moses, should appear for 
their deliverance, by the most signal manifestations and terrible effects 
of his power. And to this grand issue, concurred all things pertaining 
to the conditions and circumstances of the Egyptians and Hebrews, and 
resulting from the integrity and efiiciency of constitutional laws divinely 
established in the nature of things. 

244. Accordingly, when Moses and Aaron "went in and told 
Pharaoh, Thus saith Jehovah the God ['Slohe] of Israel, Let my people 
go, that they may hold a feast unto me in the wilderness, Pharaoh said, 
Who is Jehovah, that I should obey his voice, to let Israel go P I know 
not Jehovah, neither will I let Israel go." Yet Pharaoh, who like 
Moses, '* was learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians," was very far 
in advance of the enslaved Hebrews, in intellectual knowledge of 
metaphysical theology and religion ; and was perhaps, little, if any 
behind Moses himself, in accuracy of ideas concerning the divine nature 
aiod character, and the relations between God and man. But he had 
also been educated in the polytheism of the Egyptian schools (232), 
and believed in the existence of a multitude of tutelary gods : — and, 
with him, as with all others, in those times, the criterion by which the 
excellence of any god was determined, was the degree of protection 
and prosper!^, and gratification which his votaries enjoyed. (226.) 
And as the Hebrews had, for several generations, been the abject and 



156 

despised slaves of the Egyptians, Pharaoh, from the condilion and 
circumstances of his complex natare (177), necessarily regarded thea 
as being too ignominious for the notice of any of the higher order of the 
^ds ; and as having no tutelary god of their own ; or, if any, a veiy . 
inferior, impotent, and despicable one. Consequently, when Moiei 
and Aaron came before him as the legation of the tutelary God of tiie 
Hebrews, and said, Thus saith Jehovah, the *il6ke of Israel, Let my 

Fsople go, that they may hold a feast unto me in the wildeme«i 
haraoh very naturally said, " Who is Jehovah, that I should obe^ lui 
voice to let Israel go P I know no God by the name of Jehovah, neither 
will I let Israel go." And it is evident that in the ideas of even Mmm* 
mind, Jehovah differed little from the wrcUhful, avenging^ destroying 
^glohe of his ancestors (237) : for he replied to Pharaoh tlurough Aaron« 
The ^ilohe of the Hebrews hath met us : let us go we pray thee, three 
days* journey into the desert, and sacrifice unto Jehovah our God, 
{^il6fienu]y lest he fall upon us with pestilence or with the sword. 

245. In such a state of things, it could not be otherwise than that 
this desire of the Hebrews to go out into the desert and slaughter 
animals, and eat and drink, and dance, and rejoice before their tutelary 
6h)d Jehovah (for such is the true import of the Mosaic record), should 
be regarded by Pharaoh, as the offspring of idleness and sensualitv: 
and therefore, it was perfectly natural, or, in other words, it was the 
necessary conditional result of the integrity and efficiency of divinely 
established constitutional laws of nature, that, Pharaoh should 
command the task-masters and officers of the people to ** let the woriL 
be heavy upon them, that they should not be idle and listen to false 
words." And thus, by increasing the hardships and afflictions of the 
Hebrews, and thereby carrying forward their preparation to be made 
willing to leave Egypt and to remain out of it, Pharaoh, in effect 
prosecuted the divine purpose; with a very different purpose in his 
own mind. (152.) And as in this, and every subsequent instance of 
his refusing to let the people go, every thought and feeling and action 
of Pharaoh, was a determinate conditional result of the integrity and 
efficiency of constitutional laws divinely established in the nature of 
things, God, through this constitutional economy of nature, hardened 
Pharaoh's heart, and made him obstinate [he'emddhtichdf Ezod. iz. 16], 
and in no other way. (See s. 59. 67, 68, 82, 88.) 

246. In the condition and circumstances of the case, it was not more 
natural for Pharaoh to impose heavier burdens upon the Hebrews, in 
return for their petition to be permitted to go out into the desert and 
hold a feast to their God Jehovah, than it was for the Hebrews to feel 
deeply disappointed in the issue. When Moses and Aaron came to 
them with the glad tidings, that the Gtod of their fathers had visited 
them in their bondage, and looked upon their afflictions, and had 
promised to deliver them out of the hands of their oppressors, they were 
elated with the idea that they were, by divine mterposition, to be 
immediately relieved from their afflictions, and liberated from their 
subjection to their Egyptian masters, and made free to do as they 
pleased, and to indulge themselves as they chose : and, in their under- 
standing of the matter, these results were to constitute the experimental 
proof that the tutelary God of their fathers had indeed visited them and 



157 

looked upon their afflictions, and taken them under His particular care. 
Consequently, when, instead of realizing their expectations, they found 
themselves subjected to more severe and cruel oppression, and learned 
that this increase of their oppression had been occasioned by the 
interference of Moses and Aaron professedly for their deliverance, they 
believed Moses and Aaron to be impostors, and regarded them with 
abhorrence ; and '* said unto them, Jehovah look upon you and judge ; 
because ye have made our savour to be abhorred in the eyes of Pharaoh, 
and in the eyes of his servants, to put a sword in their hand to slay us." 
247. Moses as little understood the philosophy of the divine conduct 
in this matter, as did his enslaved brethren ; nor was he less deeply 
disappointed and distressed than they. He could not doubt that he had 
been divinelv commissioned to do as he had done ; but with bis under- 
standing of things, he could not help but doubt either the power or the 
veracity of the w>d who had sent him into Egypt ; and, in the agony 
of his perplexity, he turned to Jehovah with the vehement expostula- 
tions of wounded generosity; saying, *'Lord ['ddhdndy], wherefore 
hast thou so evil entreated this people P why is it that thou hast sent me P 
For since I came to Pharaoh to speak in thy name, he hath done evil to 
this people ; neither hast thou begun to deliver thy people. " Jehovah 
knew the darkness of Moses* understanding, and the benevolence of his 
heart ; and with the forbearance of an infinitely merciful Father, 
graciously replied to him, " Now shalt thou see what I will do to 
Pharaoh ; for with a strong hand shall he let them go, and with a 
strong hand shall he drive them out of his land. I am Jehovah I I 
appeared unto Abraham, unto Isaac and unto Jacob as be*el shadddy^^ 
a Ood of terrible, chastising, afflicting, avenging, destroying power 
237, 244), but by my name Jehovah I was not known to them.* And 
I have also established my covenant with them to give them the land of 
Cannan, the land of their pilgrimage wherein they were strangers. 
And I have also heard the groaning of the children of Israel, whom the 

* There is, in this passage of Scripture, an apparent, but not real contradiction to 
earlier portions of the Mosaic Record. For, in the Mosaic history of Abraham, 
Isaac and Jacob, God. by the name of Jehovah, is represented as speaking to those 
patriarchs ; and they are represented as addressing him by that name. But, let it 
be remembered that no part of the Mosaic history of those patriarchs "was \7ritten 
till after the particular revelation vhich we are now considermg was made to Moset 
in Egypt ; and as that history was subsequently written by him for the descendants 
of those patriarchs, as a chosen and a separate race, and as Moses had no other appel- 
lation by which to distinguish to the understanding of the Hebrews, the God of 
Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, from the 'elohim or gods of the rest of the human family, 
be necessarily employed that appellation in his earliest history, and even put 
it into the mouths of their ancient fathers, in order to identify, in the mind of the 
children of Israel, the God who created all things, and the God who covenanted 
with those patriarchs, with the God who delivered them from bondage and spoke 
to them at Sinai. The divine intention in the particular revelation before us, how. 
ever, was not so much to teach Moses what particular articulate sounds the 
patriarchs used to signify the God they worshipped, as to teach him what were the 
ideas or notions which they had of the divine nature and character, and of the rela< 
tions between ,God and man. When I prepared the ninety-eighth section of this 
work for the press, twelve months ago, I entertained the commonly received opinion, 
that, Moses probably wrote the book of Genesis while he was keeping the flock of 
Jethro in Midian : but, subsequent developments of the intrinsic evidence in the 
history of Moses' life, have put it beyond a doubt in my mind, that he did not write 
any portion of the Pentateuch till after he had led the children of Israel to mount Bioai, 
and reoeived from Jehovah all the instructions which were there given to him. 



158 

EpfyptiaDS keep in bondage ; and I have remembered my corenaiit 
Wherefore, say unto the children of Israel, I am Jehoyah, and I will 
bring you out from the burdens of the Egyptians, and I will rid yoa of 
their bondage, and I will redeem you with an outstretched arm andwiUi 
great judgments. And I will take you to me for a people and I will be 
to. you a God [le^lohim] ; and ye shall know that I am Jehovah your 
God [^ilohini] , which bringeth you out from under the burdens of the 
Egyptians. And I will bring you into the land concerning which I did 
swear to give it to Abraham, to Isaac and to Jacob ; and I will give it to 
3^u for a heritage. I am Jehovah ! " 

248. With this renewed assurance from Jehovah, Moses returned, 
with strengthened confidence to his afflicted brethren, and related to 
them what the God of their fathers had spoken to him. But so greatly 
had they already been disappointed, and, as they believed, deceived by 
his promises, and so largely had his interference between them and 
Pharaoh occasioned an augmentation of their burdens and afflictiODi, 
that now, they could not give any credit to his testimony, nor even 
listen to his words : and he turned away from them, in that deep 
anguish of the soul, which is experienced only in those wounds which 
the true spirit of philanthropy receives from the rejecting hands of those 
whom it ardently desires and earnestly endeavours to bless. In this 
moment of discouragement and sadness, he was again divinely com- 
manded to " go in and speak unto Pharaoh, that he let the children of 
Israel go out of his land." This was a heavy and soul-trying 
requisition ; and he despondingly replied, " Behold, the children of 
Israel have not hearkened unto me ; how then shall Pharaoh hear me, 
who am of imcircumciscd lips P" my own Hebrew brethren even in their 
degradation and wretchedness, regard me as an impostor and refuse to 
listen to me ; how then can I, whose voice is not eloquent and whose 
words have no power, hope to be heard by the mighty king of Egypt, 
who despises my race and regards me as an idle and mischief-making 
vagrant P But Jehovah reassured and encouraged him and com- 
manded him to go in and demand of Pharaoh, in the name of the Cfod 
of Israel, that he let the people go ; and, if Pharaoh required any 
evidence of his divine commission, to exhibit those signs which he had, 
in Midian, received power to do. And Moses and Aaron went in unto 
Pharaoh and did as Jehovah had commanded. According to the 
Mosaic record, however, the magicians of Egypt, being called together 
by Pharaoh, ** did in like manner with their enchantments : but Aaron's 
rod swallowed up their rods." Now, whether these operations of the 
magicians were sheer illusions, or whether Jehovah, for purposes 
necessary to the grand issue, really turned their rods into serpents, the 
effect on the mind of Pharaoh, and even on the minds of Moses and 
Aaron, was precisely the same. To their understandings, the sign 
which Aaron did, and those which the magicians did, weie equally 
real : and Pharaoh probably considered them all as equally the effects 
of magic, while Moses and Aaron regarded them all as equally the 
results of divine efficiency ; and considered the whole transaction as 
virtually a competition between Jehovah the *SWhe of Israel, and 
the elohe of the Egyptians : and such was the general result, that 
Moses and Aaron were convinced that Jehovah was, at least, in some 



159 

re, superior to the gods of the Egyptians, inasmach as Aaron's 
allowed up the rods of the magicians ; while Pharaoh did not 
sr the evidence in the case, sufficiently forcible and conclusive to 
it him in believing that a God, whose authority he was bound to 
t, required him to let the Hebrews go into the desert and hold a 
and thus his *' heart was hardened " so that he refused to listen 
petition of Moses and Aaron. (See the close of s. 245.) 

JLOUSS SENT UPON THE BaTFTIANS. THEIR EFFECTS UPON PHARAOH. 

. Still pursuing that course of conduct which was the best that, 
nature, condition and circumstances of things, was possible, to 
;e the mind and heart of Moses in theological and religious truth ; 
pare the Hebrews to be made willing to leave Egypt in accordance 
he divine purpose ; to establish the conviction in their minds that 
)d of Israel was very greatly superior to the gods of the Eg}'ptians ; 
le had taken them under His immediate protection as His chosen 
i ; that it was He who delivered them from their bondage, and 
f oses was His servant, and was commissioned by Him to be their 
* and teacher, Jehovah brought a succession of plagues upon the 
ians, which as rapidly and efficiently as in the nature, condition 
ircumstances of things was possible, pressed forward to the great 
At first, Pharaoh saw nothing in the events which convinced 
hat they were such demonstrations of the divine will as made it 
uty to listen to the demands of Moses. But as the plagues 
le more and more severely afflicting, and the enchantments of the 
ians failed, Pharaoh began to believe that " the finger of 
m was in them ; " yet he was not convinced that it was the finger 
lovah, the tutelary ^(lohe of the Hebrews ; and therefore, he still 
3d to let the people go ; and bore upon them with a heavier and 
distressing hand. Accordingly, Jehovah so shaped His dispensa- 
as to force conviction on the mind of Pharaoh, that the God who 
ifflicting the Egyptians was indeed the Protector of the Hebrews ; 
8 Moses foretold him, while the divine judgments fell heavily upon 
her parts of Egypt and fearfully afflicted the Egyptians, the land 
>shen where the Hebrews dwelt, and all the children of Israel, 
ed a signal exemption. Pharaoh could, therefore, no longer resist 
^nviction that the calamities which were falling upon the Eg3rptian8 
the dispensations of a God who had espoused the cause of the 
bded and despised Hebrews, and whose power was terribly efficient 
enge and to destroy. But with this conviction, he was also deeply 
ihensive that something more was in the purpose of such a God, 
merely to bring the Hebrews to oflTer Him a sacrifice and hold a 
to Him in the desert ; and now, perhaps, for the first time, he began 
;mble for the security of his hold upon the Hebrew slaves. He 
fore desired, that the God of the Hebrews should be propitiated, if 
ble, without their leaving Egypt; and, accordingly he sent for 
s and Aaron, and said to them, *' Go ye, sacrifice to your God in the 
And Moses said. It is not meet so to do, for we shall sacrifice 
bomination of the Egyptians to Jehovah our God, and will they not 
08 if we do this before their eyes ? We will go three days* journey 



160 

into the wilderness and sacrifice to Jehovah our God, as He shall eom* 
mand us. Pharaoh replied, I will let you go, that ye may sacrifice to 
Jehovah your GK}d, in the wilderness, only ye shall not go very far aws? ." 
No sooner, however, was this particular judgment removed, onaer 
which he was smarting when he made this promise, than his fisar of 
losing his slaves became paramount to his fear of Jehovah, and he agtin 
refused to let the people go. 
250. At every step in this wonderful development of the divine 

Surpose, Moses became more and more confirmed in his confidence in 
ehovah the God of his fathers, and common surately more and more bold 
and peremptory in his demands before the Egyptian monarch. But hewai 
too truly a philanthropist, not to desire most sincerely to save even tbe 
cruel oppressors of his brethren, as far as possible, from the destroying 
judgments that surely awaited them if thev persisted in refusing to li 
go the people whom Jehovah had determined to deliver from their hand«< 
He, therefore, no less benevolently than resolutely, continued to obtrude 
himself into the presence of Pharaoh and to assure him, in the name of 
Jehovah the God of the Hebrews, that if he did not let Israel go, 
judgments more terrible would succeed, till he *' was made to know tod 
confess that there was none like Jehovah in all the earth, and untilt 
through his signal overthrowj the name of Jehovah should become 
known throughout the earth." Tet so great, in Pharaoh*s estimatioB, 
was the evil of losing his two millions of slaves, that he pertinaciooBly 
held on to them with a more closely grasping and cruelly oppressive 
hand, till the predictions of Moses were so fearfully realised by him and 
his people, that he was made to confess that he had sinned, that Jehovah 
was just, and that he and his people were wicked ; and to entreat Moeee 
to intercede for him. But no sooner was the affliction removed than 
Pharaoh blindly persuaded himself that he had been too superstitious, 
and again determined not to let the Hebrews go. Closely following 
this determination, Moses came with the denunciation of another judg« 
ment. And now the Egyptians began to take sides against their king, 
** and the servants of Pharaoh said unto him. How long shall this man 
be a snare unto us P Let the men go that they may serve Jehovah 
their God ; knowest thou not that Egypt is destroyed P " In this emer- 
gency Pharaoh proposed to Moses that the men should go into the desert 
and serve Jehovah, and that the little ones and flocks should remain 
behind. But Moses assured him that young and old, sons and daughters, 
flocks and herds, all must go, that they might hold a feast unto 
Jehovah. This excited the displeasure of Pharaoh, and Moses was 
driven from his presence. The judgment which followed, compelled the 
proud monarch to confess again, that he had sinned against Jehovah and 
against Moses, and to entreat Moses to intercede for him ; but it did not 
make him him willing to let Israel go ; and another, and more terrible 
judgment soon ensued which convinced Pharaoh that it was time for 
something to be done to appease the indignation of such a God ; and he 
called Moses and said, *' Go ye with your little ones and serve Jehovah ; 
but let your flocks and herds remain." Moses replied, ** thou must 
give us also sacrifices and burnt ofiTerings, that we may sacrifice unto 
Jehovah our God. Our cattle also shall go with us : there shall not a 
hoof be left behind ; for thereof must we take to serve Jehovah our God ; 



161 

and we know not with what we mast serve Jehovah until we come 
thither." Pharaoh now clearly perceived that Moses, as the vicegerent 
of Jehovah, aimed at nothing les^ than the deliverance of the Hebrews 
from his hand ; and, fearful as had been the judgments which he and his 
people had experienced, he was not yet prepared to consent to such a 
measure ; and lie again refused to let the people go. 

THB rBOOBESSrVB EDUCATIOir OF MOSBS. THE GENERAL CONDITION AND 
CIRCUHSTAHCBS OF THINOS IN BBLATK^ TO THE DELIVERANCE OF THE 
BSBBBWS. 

251. The ^and issue was now near at hand. Never had Moses» 
under the traming of divine providence, made such proficiency in the 
knowledge of theological and religious truth» as since he returned from 
Midian to Egvpt. Much grossness and man-likeness still attached to 
his notions of the divine nature and character, and he still retained 
much of his deeply-rooted polytheism: but he was now fully 
established in* the conviction, and bold in the confidence that Jehovah 
who had avowed himself the God of Abraham, of Issac and of Jacob, 
had promised to deliver the children of Israel from their bondage, and 
give them the land of Canaan for their inheritance, was the supreme 
God of heaven and earth, and fully able to do all that He had 
promised. The Hebrews, though too deeply depraved and too 
extremely abject to have any other than the grossest and most sensual 
notions of the divine nature and character, had witnessed nearly all 
the demonstrations that they could understand, of Jehovah's dis- 
tinctness from, and superiority to the gods of Eg^t: and the 
Egyptians had been too fearfully and too bitterly afflicted by the 
judgments of Jehovah, not to be convinced that the Hebrews had a 
tutelary Ood of terrible power : and not to desire most fervently, that 
His wrath should be turned away from them. The boldness and 
fidelity with which Moses had executed the commands of Jehovah, and 
the awful dispensations by which Jehovah had sustained the authority 
of Moses, had made " the man Moses very great in the land of Egypt, ' 
and impressed the Hebrews as deeply and clearly as human nature, in 
their condition and circumstances, could be impressed with the idea 
that Moses was divinely commissioned to instruct and guide them. 
The Hebrews were now ready and willing, according to their notions 
of the requisition (242, 245), to go out into the desert and hold a feast 
to Jehovah the God of their ancestors : and the Egyptian people were 
ready and willing to afford them any facility, to lend them any decor- 
ations and grant them any favour, by which that service could be 
hastened on and rendered most acceptable, which was to appease the 
anger of the God who had so ^evously afflicted them. But Pharaoh 
was not yet willing to emancipate his slaves ; nor were those slaves, 
with all the oppressive burdens under which they groaned, yet willing 
to be permanently separated from the sensual indulgences and enjoy- 
ments of Egypt, and prepared to enter upon that course of privation 
and discipline which awaited them in tne desert. It was therefore 
necessary that measures should yet be taken, not only by which 

n 



162 

Pharaoh should, in the moment of direful affliction, be made willing to 
let the people go ; but also, by which the greatest possible moral 
obstacles should be placed in the way of their return to Egypt. And 
precisely such measures were in the divine purpose, and ready to be 
put in execution. But first, divine benevolence directed Moses to 
warn Pharaoh of the coming evil, and afford him an opportunity to avert 
it, by obeying the command of Jehovah. The infatuated monarch, 
conscious that he had often violated his promise, and that he had nov 
no reasonable excuse for not compljdng with Moses' demand, and yet, 
being determined that nothing should induce him to emancipate his 
slaves, could no longer endure the presence of one who had been to 
him the prophet of so much evil ; and in the moment of exasperation, 
said to Moses, "Get thee from me ! take heed to thyself; see my face 
no more ! for in the day thou seest my face thou shalt die ! " Moses 
replied in the awful accents of prophetic denunciation, " Thou hast 
spoken well ! I will see thy face again no more ! And he went oat 
from Pharaoh in great anger." He then proceeded according to 
divine instructions, to call the elders of Israel together, and to teach 
them how to prepare themselves and the people for the service of 
Jehovah in the desert, and how to make ready for the wonderful 
deliverance which the God of their fathers was about to work for them 
by destroying, at the mid-hour of a single night, " all the first-born 
in the land of Egypt ; from the first-born of Pharaoh that sat upon his 
throne, to the first-born of the maid-servant that was behind the mill ; 
and all the first-born of beasts." 

252. The universal belief and custom of the times, required that, 
in order to render their service to the object of their worship, in the 
highest dftgree acceptable and propitiatory, the worshippers, when they 
held their religious feasts and danced before their VZo^im, must be as 
richly and splendidly decorated as possible : but the Hebrews had been 
too long under oppressive and cruel bondage to possess means of their 
own for such personal decorations ; and they were therefore instructed 
to- borrow them of the Egyptians, who, as we have seen (251), were too 
earnestly desirous that the ^'Sloke of the Hebrews should be propitiated, 
not to be willing to lend the worshippers every means in their power by 
which the service might, most surely, be rendered effectual: StiU 
prosecuting his divine intructions, Moses directed the Hebrews to take, 
every man a lamb, according to the house of his fathers, a lamb for a 
house, and on the evening of the night in which the first-born of the 
Egyptians were to be cut off, to kill the lamb, and receive its blood 
into a vessel, and to take a bunch of hyssop and dip it in the blood, 
and with it, strike the lintel and the two side-posts of the door of every 
house in which they should eat ; and to eat with unleavened bread and 
bitter herbs, the flesh of the victim roasted with fire : " and none of 
you," said Moses, "shall go out at the door of this house until 
morning. For Jehovah will pass through to smite the Egjrptians ; and 
when he seeth the blood upon the lintel and on the two side-posts, 
Jehovah will pass over the door, and will not suflTer the destroyer to 
come into your house to smite you," '* And the children of Israel 
went away and did as Jehovah had commanded Moses and Aaron." 



103 



Wtn CrOD CdMMANDSD THE HEBBXWS TO BORROW THS JEWELS OP THV 
BGTPTIANS AND TO EAT THE FLESH OF THE PASCHAL LAMB. 

253. But how shall this command to the Hebrews, to borrow of their 
Egyptian neighbours, "jewels of silver and jewels of gold," be recon- 
eiled to the attribute of righteousness in tne divine character P and 
the command to eat the flesh of the lamb, be made to harmonize with 
the doctrine that flesh-eating is not compatible with the highest and best 
condition of human nature P (185.) We know with entire certainty, 
that if this part of the Mosaic Record is a genuine portion of the 
Inspired Word, the whole of the divine conduct and administration 
which it represents, was a necessary accommodation to the condition 
«nd circumstances of the extremely depraved and debased and 
Jheathenish children of Israel. ^66.) For we know with entire cer- 
tainty, that, their notions concerning the efficacy of personal decorations, 
in propitiating the object of their worship (252), and the idea of Jehovah's 
coming down to smite the Egyptians, and seeing the blood upon the 
lintels and side-posts of the doors of the Hebrews' houses, and passing 
over them, is utterly incompatible with the true nature and character of 
God. (209.) Jehovah knew that, after all the divine manifestations 
which they had witnessed, and with all the impressions which those 
manifestations had made upon their minds ; and after all the afflictions 
Mid cruelties which they had experienced in their bondage, the Hebrews 
fitill entertained much the same ideas of the ^Slohe of their fathers that 
they did of the *eidfie of the Egyptians ; and had no anticipations of any 
good which was to result from their expected deliverance, except that 
which consisted in being liberated from the burdens imposed upon them 
by their task-masters, and having entire liberty to do what they pleased 
and indulge themselves as they chose (246) ; and He knew tiiat they 
would, therefore, no sooner enter upon their pilgrimage to mount Horeb, 
than they would experience those disappointments to their selfish and 
sensual expectations, which would cause them wholly to forget, or ex- 
tremely to depreciate the moral force which had induced them to leave 
Egypt, and cause them to remember, so exclusively and so lustfully, 
the sensual enjoyments and sordid comforts which they had left behind, 
that they would, with certainty, return to their bondage and degradation 
unless measures still more effectual were taken to prevent such a 
result, (242.) 

254. It is therefore philosophically certain that the entire amount of 
moral force employed in leading the Hebrews out of Egypt, was essen- 
tial to the fulfilment of the divine purpose ; and hence, it is perfectly 
certain, that their possession of those jewels was a necessary make- 
weight in that amount. The universal belief and custom of the times 
(252), requiring that all religious worshippers should decorate their 
persons as richly and splendidly as possible when they feasted and 
danced and rejoiced before their ^Slohim, in order to render their service 
in the highest degree acceptable and propitiatory, the Hebrews 
necessarily felt that, without such decorations, their service would be 
rather abominable than acceptable ; and therefore, they regarded the 
means of such decorations as exceedingly desirable, if not as indispen- 
sably requisite; and, consequently, Moses,. in accordauce with di^iu^ 



164 

SnstractioDS, directed them to borrow of their Egyptian iidghboar% 
'* jewels of silver and jewels of gold." And it is perfectly evident that 
the Hebrews did borrow them in good faith ; for, whatever were Mows' 
expectations and Pharaoh's apprehensions, it is certain that the musof 
the Hebrew people had no idea of anything more than that they wen 
to go three days* journey into the desert, and there hold a feast to 
Jehovah the G^ of their fathers (242), and then come back to Sgypt* 
and find that Jehovah, in return for their service, had softened ue 
heart of Pharaoh, and the hearts of their task-masters, and thus whdlj 
relieved them from their oppressions and burdens, and made them firea 
to do as they pleased and to enjoy themselves as they chose. (946.) 
And the Egyptian people, as we have seen (251), entertained modi 
the same notions ; and readily and freely lent the Hebrews their jewdi 
in order that the contemplatad religious service in the desert, shoidd 
more surely propitiate Jehovah, and avert His wrath from themselves. 
The supposition that the Hebrews in obedience to a divine command, 
borrowed the jewels of the Egyptians, with a clear nnderstandinff 
that they were never to return to Egypt, is utterly incompatible witiE 
the moral attributes of Jehovah, with the facts and philosophy of tibe 
case, and with the whole subsequent history of that generation of the 
chosen race. Nor, in case of such an understanding on the part of the 
Hebrews, would the fact that they had long served the Egyptians with* 
out requital, in any measures extenuate the wickedness or the act; for 
deception and falsehood and theft would, none the less, be virtiialh 
involved ; and these, i^ no conditioQS and circumstances, can Jehovah 
command or sanction, 

255. But Jehovah was dealing with the Hebrews as moral agents; 
and He perfectly knew what were the necessary and best possible 
measures, consistent with their moral freedom, by which they could be 
led out of Egypt and prevented from returning : — and He knew thfkt the 
efficiency of all the moral force whiph could be accumulated upon them, 
anterior to their leaving Egypt, would be exhausted before they reached 
mount Horeb ; and that they certainly would return, unless subsequent 
events exerted a new moral force upon them to induce them to continue 
on their journey: — and He knew that, it was therefore, not only 
necessary that they should be made willing to leave Egypt, and that 
Pharaoh should, in the moment of terrible aMcition, be made to consent 
to their going, but that, after they had departed, Pharaoh should be in- 
duced to pursue them with such demonstrations of hostility, as would, in 
effect, drive them beyond the Red Sea, and make them afraid to go back 
to Egypt ; and to these results the transactions between the Hebrews 
and Egyptians, in relation to the jewels, was greatly subservient. 
Indeed, the certainty that God always does the best that in the nature 
of things is possible (99), renders it certain that this transaction was 
not only the best that the nature, condition and circumstances of things 
would admit of, but indispensably necessary to the fulfilment of the 
divine purposes of benevolence. (223.) And surely, Jehovah had as 
perfect a right to take away the jewels of the Egyptians as He had to 
destroy their first-born ; and He had no right to do either because He 
was the almighty Maker of all things, but solely, because the greatest 
universal good required it. 



165 

256. A^in, Jehorah knew that if the Hebrews were actually led out 
of Eg^t in moral freedom, and effectually prevented from returning, 
their deeply deprayed sensuality, and consequently strong tendency to 
gross idolatry (al), would soon efface from their memory all that had 
b&Ba done by Him, to deliver them from the hand of Pharaoh ; and the 
whole moral force of theii^ deliverance would be utterly lost to all 
succeeding generations of the chosen race, unleM some institution was 
established in connection with that event by Which the remembrance 
of it should be perpetuated. The Hebrews were, therefore, divinely 
instructed (252), to take evei^ man a lamb, according to the house of 
their fathers, a lamb for a house, and, on the evening of the night in 
which the first-bom of the Egyptians were to be slain, to kill the lamb, 
and to put some of its blood upon the lintel and side-posts of their doors, 
not, in reality, that Jehovah might know in what houses the children 
of Israel were, but that they might know and remember for ever, that 
the awful event of that night was a special discriminating judgment 
of Jehovah for their deliverance. And that this remembrance might 
be kept aUve and perpetuated through all succeeding generations of the 
diosen race, to the end of that economy for which that race was 
■^arated from the rest of the human family (223), they were instructed 
to roast the flesh of the victim with fire, and to ** eat it with unleavened 
bread and bitter herbs ;" and conmianded to " observe this thing for 
An ordinance to them and to their children for ever :'* *' and it shall come 
to pass,'* said Moses, ** when ye be come to the land which Jehovah 
will give you, according as he hath promised, that ye shall keep this 
service ; and when your children shall say unto you, What mean ye by 
this service P ye shall say, It is the sacrifice of Jehovah's passover, who 
passed over the houses of the children of Israel in Egypt, when he 
■mote the Egyptians and delivered our houses." 

257. But, it may still be demanded why the eating of the flesh of the 
victim was divinely ordered in this institution, if flesh-eating is not 
compatible with the highest and best condition of human nature P I 
reply that, the sacrificing of an animal in propitiatory service to the 
*t&Jdm, and the eating of a portion of the flesh of the victim by the 
worshippers, did not originate in positive, divine appointment, but they 
were necessary conditional results of the integrity and efliciency of 
eon^titutional laws divinely established in the nature of things (199, 
et seq,) ; and as such, were now employed by Jehovah in necessary 
conformity to the universal faith and custom of the times, and in 
requisite accommodation to the moral susceptibilities of the children of 
IsraeL The whole institution, in all its features and elements, was 
adapted to the state of those to whom it was given, and to the end which 
it was designed to accomplish through their free moral action (253) ; 
and was, in every respect, the very best which the nature condition and 
circumstances of things admitted of, consistently with the moral freedom 
of the recipients, and with the carrying forward of the divine purposes 
through their moral agency. The eating of the flesh of the victim was 
the necessary element by which the institution was connected with the 
•ensual enjoyments of the recipients, and its perpetual observance, 
thereby, in the highest possible degree secured : and all the elements 
in this institution, evince that estrangement of the recipients from Gtod, 



166 

which rendered a Mediator hetween them and Ood BeoeMary (9f00)t 
and therefore, while it was the best possible measure whidi ooukl k 
adopted to perpetuate, through the successive generations of the sepante 
race, the rememberance of the event with which it was originally 
associated, it was also best fitted to typify the great sacrifice whichf ia 
the fulness of time, should be made for the sins of the world. (224.) 

THE DELIVERANCE OF THE HEBREWS. THE REASON WHY THET DD> XOt 

00 niRECTLT TO THE PROMISED LAND. 

258. The lamb having been slain, and its blood put upon the lintdi 
and side-posts of the doors, and the supper of the passover eaten, 
according to divine instructions, all things were now prepared for the 
grand issue ; *' and it came to pass that, at midnight, Jehovah smote 
all the first-bom in the land of Egypt ; and Fhara(^ and all his 
servants and all the Egyptians rose up in the night : and there was a 
great cry in Egypt, for Uiere was not a house where there was not one 
dead." In this moment of terrible affliction, Pharaoh was convinced 
that the God of the Hebrews must be propitiated, or he and his people 
must be utterly destroyed: **andhe called for Moses and AaiGaof 
night, and said, Rise up, and get you forth from among my people, both 
ye and the children of Israel ; and go, serve Jehovah, as ye have said. 
Also take your flocks and your herds as ye have said, and be gone : and 
bless me also. And the Egyptians were urgent upon the people that 
they might send them out of the land in haste ; for they said, We be 
all dead men. And the children of Israel did according to the word of 
Moses ; and they borrowed of the Egyptians jewels of sUver and jewels 
of gold, and raiment ." 

259. Such was the divine administration by which the Hebrews 
were made willing and free to leave Egypt ; and had they, understood 
the divine purpose in their deliverance (223), and been capable of being 
led, in moral freedom, directly to the promised land, by any motives 
consistent with the fulfilment of that purpose, they might soon have 
reached and possessed that land. But they were so deeply depraved, so 
thoroughly sensual, and so incorrigibly perverse that such a course was 
morally impossible (253) ; and therefore, *' when Pharaoh had let the 
people go, God led them not through the way of the land of the Philis- 
tines, although that was near ; for God said (165), Lest peradventure 
the people repent when they see war, and they return to Egypt. But 
God led the people about through the way of the wilderness of the Red 
Sea." (Exod. xiii. 17.) And still further accommodating the divine 
conduct and manifestations to the condition and circumstances of their 
complex nature (177), in order to brinp: to bear upon them the greatest 
possible moral force, to make them willing to continue on their journey, 
** Jehovah went before them by day in a pillar of a cloud, to lead them 
the way ; and by night, in a pillar of fire, to give them light, to go by 
day and night." 

260. In the mean time, Pharaoh having recovered from the conster- 
nation and anguish caused by the appalling judgment which, for the 
moment, made him willing to let the people go, and having been 
informed that they hod actually fled, and carried with them an immense 



167 

ant of the wealth of his subjects, in the Jewels and raiment which 
had borrowed, repented that he had suffered them to depart ; and 
ily pursued them with a powerful army, and overtook them encamp- 
by the Bed Sea. And, no sooner did the children of Israel behold 
Egyptians in pursuit of them, than, forgetting all the divine 
rpositions and manifestations which they had witnessed in Egypt, 
hat Jehovah had done for them, and all that He had promised them, 
wholly disregarded the visible evidence of His protecting presence 
le pillar of a cloud by day, and in the pillar of fire by night, they 
i themselves up to utter distrust and cowardice, and heaped their 
Uanimous and base reproaches upon Moses for having brought them 
such a situation. " Because there were no graves in Egypt," 
they, *' hast thou taken us away to die in the wilderness P Where- 
hast thou dealt thus with us, to carry us forth out of Egypt P Is 
this the word that we did tell thee in Egypt, saying. Let us alone 
we may serve the Egyptians P For it had been better for us to 
e the Eg3rptians, than that we should die in the wilderness." 
II. Moses, whose confidence in Jehovah as the tutelary ^Sldhlrn of 
Hebrews, was now fully established, ** said to the people, Fear ye 
stand still and see the salvation of Jehovah, which he will show 
to-day ; for the Egyptians whom ye have seen to-day, ye shall 
10 more for ever. Jehovah shall fight for you and ye shall hold 
' peace." In the prosecution of His great purpose of benevolence 
), Jehovah again appeared for their deliverance, and opened a 
for them through the Bed Sea and caused that sea to swallow up their 
nies in their sight; and thus afforded them another and more 
ble demonstration that the ^eiohim who had delivered them from 
• bondage, was greatly superior to the *Sldhim of Egypt, and able 
'Otect and deliver them in all emergencies. 
»2. For the passing moment, while the awful spectacle was before 
: eyes, and the impression was yet powerful in their minds, *• the 
»le feared Jehovah, and believed Jehovah and his servant Moses." 
what was the character of their fear and their belief P They feared 
believed Jehovah as el shadddi — the almighty Destroyer — the 
ble Avenger. (247.) And that such were the theological notions 
;h Moses himself still entertained, is fully evident from the song 
;h he composed himself and sung on the fearful occasion : *' I will sing 
shovah, for he hath triumphed gloriously. The horse and his rider 
I he thrown into the sea. Jehovah is my strength and song ; and 
I become my deliverance. He is my ' Hdhinit and I will prepare 
a habitation ; my fathers' ^Slohinij and I will exalt him. Jehovah 
man of war. [miVJidmdh — a devourer — a destroyer.] Jehovah 
is name ! Pharaoh's chariots and his hosts hath he cast into the 
' &c. " Thy right hand, Jehovah, has become glorious in power, 
right hand, Jehovah, hath dashed in pieces the enemy," &c. 
ho is like unto thee, Jehovah, among the *Slohim P" *' Jehovah 
1 reign for ever and ever !" &c. The whole idea of the song is 
Jehovah, the ^Slokim of Israel, had gloriously signalized himself 
'e the 'Slohim of Egypt, and all other ^Slohiniy by the great power 
; which he had destroyed the Egyptian hosts, and delivered his 
en people from their enemies. 



106 

263. Notwithstanding all the fear and belief, therefore, with wliidi 
their minds were inspired by seeing " the great work that Jehorah did 
upon the Egyptians," the awful scene where they had witnessed and 
acknowledged such a terrible interposition of divine power in thdr 
behalf, had been left but three days behind, before they again hroke 
out in murmurs and reproaches against Moses, because "the waters 
were bitter." Jehovah, ever true to his own great purpose, accom- 
modated his conduct to the perverseness of " a stiff-nedked people," 
and instructed Moses how to remove the cause of their complaint : and 
then "he made for them a statute and an ordinance; and there he 

5 roved them, and said, If ye will diligently hearken to the voice of 
ehovah, your 'glohimt and wUl do that which is right in his sight, and 
will g^ve ear to his commandments, and keep all his statutes, I wiU pal 
none of the diseases upon you, which I have brought upon the 
Egyptians ; for I am Jehovah that healeth you." 

THE HTGXENIC CM>VENAirr. THZ INCORRTOIBLE FERVERSEinSSS OF THX 

PEOPLE. IIANNA GIVEN. 

264. Here again let it be observed that in proposing this special 
covenant to the children of Israel, the only motives to obedience whidi 
Jehovah presented to them, were of a temporal nature and sndi as 
related to their human existence and bodily sensibilities and affections; 
because such only could be apprehended and appreciated by them; 
and because the nature of the covenant itself rendered the motives 
presented specially appropriate. The Egyptians, like all other 
portions of the human family, indulged themselves in such dietetic and 
other habits as were most gratifying to their depraved appetites and 
propensities ; and the natural and necessary consequences were that 
they were afflicted with diseases, and a large portion of them died in 
early life. The Hebrews had become as deeply depraved, and as 
thoroughly sensual as the Egyptians, and regarded the indulgence of 
their appetites, in eating and drinking savory things, as among the 
highest and most desirable enjoyments of life. But they had now 
nesciently entered upon a long wandering journey through a dry and 
barren desert where they must necessarily suffer many and severe 
privations, and particular^ in relation to sensual enjoyments : and such 
was the character of the climate of the country through which they 
journeyed and to which they went, that these privations were hardly 
more necessary from the want of the means of mdulgence, than they 
were for the preservation of health. Jehovah, therefore, knowing the 
ruling power of their sensuality, and the privations to which they must 
be subjected, and which were necessary for their good, took the earliest 
opportunity in which occasion served, to purpose a special covenant 
with them in relation to this particular matter. They had departed 
from the Red Sea and journeyed '* three days into the wilderness and 
fbund no water. And when they came to Marah, they could not drink 
the waters of Marah. fbr they were bitter :** and instead of confidently 
trusting in Jehovah and pationtly enduring their trials, they broke out 
in turbulent murmurs against Moses. But as water was necessary 
to their existence, and not merely a preferred means of sensual enjoy. 



169 

inent, Jehovah, withoat administering any rehiike, temoved tiie <!att8ef 
of their complaint ; and then, with special reference to the dietetic and 
othor hygienic regolations which he was about to establish for them as 
a chosen and separate people, he said, *' If ye will diligently hearken 
to the Toice of JehoriA, your *gl6hm, and will do that which is right in 
his sight, and will g^ve ear to his commandments and keep all his 
statutes, I will put none of the diseases upon you, which I have brought 
upon the Egyptians.** The promise was not absolute, but conditional ; 
and founded on the relations between cause and effect as determined 
by the constitutional laws of Nature. Jehovah promised them health 
(m condition that they obeyed the laws of health : and on this condition 
alone does he promise health to any of his animated creatures. 

265. Yet gracious as Jehovah was in this new demonstration of his 
protecting care and faithfulness and goodness to the Hebrews, the inter- 
position failed to secure their fidelity to him : for it was but a yery short 
Ume afterward, when " the whole congregation of the children of Israel 
broke out again, in murmurs against Moses and Aaron, in the wilder- 
ness, and said unto them, Would to 'gldhXm we had died by the hand of 
Jehovah, in the land of £gypt when we sat by the flesh-pots, and when 
we did eat bread to the full : for ye have brought us forth into the 
wUdemess, to kiU this whole assembly with hunger." The people who 
had been ground down by the iron-hand of relentless oppression in 
Egypt, tiU their cries of distress had risen up to heaven — the people 
who had witnessed all the plagues which Jehovah had sent upon tiie 
Egyptians for their sake — ^who had seen all the first-born in Egrpt 
slain in one night for their deliverance, and heard the wild and temnc 
lament of the bereaved, rise in horrid wailing from every house — ^the 
people who received from Jehovah repeated assurances that they should 
not only be delivered from the hands of their oppressors, but should be 
led into, and take possession of a pleasant and fruitful country, and 
become a free and happy and great and powerful nation — the people 
who had once ajid agam, since their departore from Egypt, expenenced 
the interposition of divine power, to rescue them from imminent danger, 
and to supply their wants— even this people, because they could not in 
the moment of hunger, be indulged in all the good things to eat for 
which they lusted, with an intellectual and moral imbecility indicating 
an elevation little superior to the brutes, basely uttered the impious 
wish that they had died by the hand of Jehovah, in the land of Eg3rpt 
when they sat by the flesh-pots and filled themselves with food, rather 
than to be brought into the condition in which they were placed ! Surely, 
erery jot of the moral machinery, every tittle of the moral force — even 
to llie borrowing of the jewels of the Egyptians — which Jehovah 
employed to make this deeply depraved and shockingly debased people 
willing to leave their Egyptian degradation, and to prevent their 
returning to it, was, in the nature, condition and circumstances of 
things, indispensably necessary. (254.) 

266. Taking occasion of this very perverseness of the people, Jehovah, 
in accommodating mercy and in necessary judgment, met their wants in 
a manner adapted to fix the deepest and most permanent conviction 
possible in their minds, that the *8ldhhn who had announced himself to 
them as Jehovah, the *ildhm of their fathers and their own ^ilohimf and 



who iiad, with such mighty signs and wonders, deliTeredtfaem firom tiie 
hand of Pharaoh, and brought them out of Egypt, and led them fhoi 
far on their journey, and promised them a large and good land flowing 
with milk and honey, for their inheritance, was infinitely superior to 
all other *glohim which men worshipped ; and was abundantly able at 
ail times to protect them and to supply their wants, and to fulfil all hif 
promises ; and also that Moses was His vicegerent, commissioned and 
clothed with authority by Him, to be their leader and teacher and 
lawgiver ; and that all their complaints against Moses, and all their 
resistance to his authority, were in reality murmurs and rebellioDS 
against Jehovah, and would be regarded and treated as such by Him. 
" And Jehovah said unto Moses, Behold, I will rain bread from heaven 
for you ; and the people shall go out and gather a certain rate eToy 
day, that I may prove them whether they will walk in my law or no, 
"And Moses and Aaron said unto all the children of Israel, At 
even, then shall ye know that Jehovah hath brought you oat of 
the land of Egypt. And in the morning, then ye shall see the gloiy 
of Jehovah ; for that he heareth your murmunngs against Jehovah: 
and what are we, that ye murmur against us P And Moses said, 
This shall be when Jehovah shall give you in the evening, flesh to 
eat, and in the morning, bread to the fidl : for that Jehov^ hearetk 
your murmurings which ye murmur against him: and what are 
weP Your murmunngs are not against us, but against Jehovah.** 
** And the whole congregation of the children of Israel looked toward 
the wilderness, and behold, the glory of Jehovah appeared in the 
cloud. And Jehovah spake unto Moses, saying, I have heard the 
murmurings of the children of Israel : speak unto them, saying At 
even ye shall eat flesh, and in the morning ye shall be filled with bread; 
and ye shall know that I am Jehovah your *ildhim." 

267. Hardly had Jehovah met this want, and hushed their murmurs 
in this signal manner, ere the people, even with a standing miracle 
before their eyes, because they were not supplied with water just at the 
instant when they thirsted for it, broke out again in wrathful and 
seditious "murmurs against Moses, and said. Wherefore is this, that 
thou hast brouc:ht us up out of Egypt, to kill us, and our children, and 
our cattle with thirst P" "And they did chide with Moses, and 
tempted Jehovah, saying. Is Jehovah among us or notP" "And 
Moses cried unto Jehovah, saying. What shall I do with this people P 
they be almost ready to stone me." The rock of Horeb is, by the 
miraculous exercise of divine power, made to pour from its bosom a 
living stream of water to satisfy their want, and to constitute yet 
another moral force to draw this perverse people, in the consciousness 
of moral freedom, from their gross idolatry, and sensuality and wicked- 
ness, to the service of Jehovah, and, for this purpose, to establish their 
confidence in Moses as the vicegerent of Jehovah. 

TH2 HTEBREWS AT MOUNT SINAI. THE DPTINE MANIFESTATIONS, AND 
ENUNCIATIONS ON THE MOUNT, AND THE EFFECTS UPON THE PEOPLE. 
THEIB WORSHIP OF THE MOLTEN OALP. 

268. " In the third month when the children of Israel were gone 



171 

out of the land of Egypt, the same day, came they to the wilder-^ 
>f Sinai," where Moses was divinely instructed to say to theia, 
have seen what I did unto the Egyptians, and how I bare you on 
3* wings and brought you unto myself. Now, therefore, if ye will 
my voice indeed, and keep my covenant, then ye shall be a 
iar treasure unto me above all people (for the whole earth is 
) ; and ye shall be unto me a kingdom of priests, and a holy 
n." *' And all the people answered together and said. All that 
rah hath spoken we will do." 

^. A momentous crisis in the affairs of the chosen people had now 
ed. They had been taken from their bondage in Egypt, and 
^ht to mount Sinai in the wilderness, to enter into a covenant with 
irah their ^ilohim^ which was to affect the destiny, not only of the 
lanting generation, but of their ^sterity for ever, and of the whole 
m family through their posterity: and whatever might be the 
t principles which the divine mind might embody in the forms and 
J m the features of that covenant, those forms and features them- 
8 must necessarily be determined by the condition and circum- 
les of the complex nature of the covenanting generation (66, 177) : 
such were the condition and circumstances of things, that it was 
isary that the covenant should be propounded on the part of 
rah, and accepted on the part of the people, through the me^itorial 
: of Moses : and therefore, it was of the first importance that the 
lence of the people in Mose^ as the vicegerent of Jehovah, should 
I fully and firmly established as possible. Moses had been up into 
lount, and had been divinely instructed to say to the children of 
d concerning the covenant into which they were about to enter, 
us saith Jehovah, If ye will obey my voice indeed, and keep my 
lant, then ye shall be a peculiar treasure unto me above all people ; 
fe shall be unto me a kingdom of priests and a holy nation." And 
le people had answered together, and said, *' All that Jehovah hath 
in we will do." But Jehovah knew that they were utterly ignorant 
emselves in relation to what they had promised, and that in the 
moment of temptation or lust, their promise would be forgotten, or 
ly disregarded by them ; and therefore, in order still farther to 
%te them to receive the mediatorial office of Moses, and be thereby, 
e gn^eatest pssible degree, consistent with their moral fre^om, 
ained from idolatry and transgression, and made willingly and truly 
Faithfully to worship and serve Him, He determined by the exercise 
le most powerful and efficacious means, in the nature, condition 
circumstances of things possible, to produce the strongest possible 
LCtion in their minds, that Moses was truly His servant, and 
enger and vicegerent, fully commissioned and authorized by Him 
) their leader, and teacher, and lawgiver, and to perform all the 
tdons of his vicegerency in the name of Jehovah the 'Slohtm of 
il. Accordingly, having through Moses commanded the people to 
tify and prepare themselves for His presence. He virtually 
3nded amidst clouds of darkness, and terrible thunders and 
nings, upon mount Sinai, and there, in the hearing of all the 
le, as with ♦' the voice of a trumpet sounding loud," uttered ia 
.endous accents, those fundamental laws in His moral government, 



Wliicii dorrespond with tiie dbxitftitutiotiailaWs ixi tfae nature of nun, nl 
in the true relations which man suBtains to his Creator, and to Ul 
fellow man» and which are, therefore, as extensire and {wrmanent ii 
their bearing and validity, as the existence of the human spedei. 
Hardly had the tremendous vdite hegsai its solemn enunciations, horn* 
ever, before thei people were so oren^helmed with fear, that they M 
in consternation from the mount, and in the tehement paroxysm of 
their terror, entreatingW said to Moses, ** Let not *ill6him speak witiiw 
lest we die ! but speak thou with us and We will hear and obej^.** And 
Moses said unto the pedple, *'Fear not; for *gl6?ihn is cotne to yarn 
yon, and that llis fear may be before your faces that ye sin not." 

270. Now then, what, consistent with the nature, condition ind 
circumstances of things (177), could be done more than had bem done 
to plant a deep and living convidion in the minds of the childreii of 
Israel, that toey had been divinely delivered from their oppressiTa 
bondage, and brought from Egypt to mount Sinai P — ^that the ^HSUm 
who had by such signal exercises of his power, delivered and proteetad 
them, was not the *il6him of the Egyptians, nor the *illdhim of any of 
the surroundingf nations ; but Jehovah, the *il6Jum of their flatlienf 
that Jehovah was immeasurably superior to all other ^ilohim t tihat he 
bad taken them to Himself as a separate and pe<!uliar people, and 
promised to keep them and ble^ them, if they would listen to His 
commandments, and obey His statutes which fie ^ve them by the hand 
of Moses P and that Moses was His vicegerent m whom He had pot 
His name, and ifhom He had clothed with full authority to lead then, 
to instruct them, to give them laws and to govern them in the name of 
Jehovah the ^Hlohlm of Israel P (230.) Every manifestation of divine 
power and majesty which they could appreciate, and whidi could throw 
a moral influence over them, had been Witnessed by them ; they had 
repeatedly experienced the direct interposition of divine power for their 
deliverance, and for the supply of their wants ; they had seen the 
terrible visitations of divine judgments on others, expressly for their 
sins ; they had often received assurances of divine favour, and protec" 
tion, and beneficence, if they would be obedient to the instructions 
which were given them by the hand of Moses : aAd they ha,d in every 
instance of divine interposition, been assured that the ^il6him who did 
these things for them, was not the *il6hun which the Egyptians 
worshipped, not the ^Sldhlm worshipped by any of the nations of the 
earth ; but Jehovah, the 'ilohvm of their fathers, and their own *iliihxmt 
and at last, they had witnessed the most terrific manifestations of the 
divine presence on mount Sinai, and with consternation, heard from 
amidst the thunders and lightnings, and thick darkness, the tTemendoiif 
voice that said, *' I am Jehovah, your ^ilohim, which brought you ottt 
of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage. Ye shall have no 
other ^eiohim before me! Te shall not make unto you anygravelii 
image, or any likeness of anything that is in beaten above, or that is 
in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under Under the earth. Ye 
shall not bow down to them nor serve them.'' And so great was their 
terror when they saw and heard these things, that they " removed and 
stood afar off, and said unto Moses, Spesik thou with us and we will 
hear: but let not V^Atm speak with us lest we die." Yet, notwith- 



173 

ftanding all these manifestations and rtyelatlGns, and prohibitions oir 
the part of Jehorah, and all these terrors and promises on the part of 
the Hebrews, hardly had the lightnings of Sinai ceased to flash on 
their eyes, and its thunders to peal on their ears, before this miserably 
degraded and wretehedly perrerse people, while Moses was waiting 
upon Jehovah in their behalf, ''gathered themselves together unto 
Akron, and said nnto him. Up ! make us *9l6hhn whid) sh^l go before 
us ; for as for this Moses, the n^an that brought us up out of the land 
of Egypt, we wot not what is become of him/' " And they broke off 
the golden earrings which were in their ears, and brought them unto 
Aaron," and he took them and made for the people a molten calf, 
which they worshipped in the blindest and basest idolatry; saying, 
" These be thy *i!lMim, O Israel, which brought thee up out of the land 
of Egypt." "And they rose up early on the morrow, and offered 
bomt-offeriogs and brought peace offerings ; and the people sat down 
to eat and to drink and rose up to [letsiChek*] laugh, shout, sing, 
dance, sport and wanton in unrestruned li»sciviousness and ebriety, 
(242, 245.) 



THX CONDUCT OF THE HEBREWS IN WOBSHIFFING THE MOLTEN CALF, 

EXFLAINED. 

271. The solemn and important questions which here urge themselves 
Upon ns, are these ; How was it morally possible for the Hebrews, in 
su<^ circumstances, to be guilty of such idolatry and sensuality P and 
why did God suffer them to perpetrate such wickedness P The only 
accurate solution of these questions is to be found in the principles and 
reasonings which have been presented in the Ipreceding part of this 
work, and some of which, it is necessary that I should now concisely 
recapitulate. We have seen (52 et seq.) that God has constitutionally 
implanted in the nature of man a religious instinct, which begets in 
him the religious sentiment, and incites him to acknowledge a superior 
Being — an object of worship ; and in some way or another, to worship 
that object. But that instinct has, in itself, no power to determine 
what is the true o^eot of worship. For this, it depends entirely on the 
nnderstanding. 'Whatever the understanding, when acting under the 
influence of the religious instinct, fully determines to be the true object 
of worship, this instinct necessarily receives as the true object, and 
prompts the soul to acknowledge and worship as such. And we have 
seen (56) that such are the relations which man's intellectual, and 
moral, and religious powers, hold to his animal nature (42, et seq.) that 
from constitutional necessity, his inability to perceive and understand 
and conform to theological and religious truth, is in exact proportion to 
the depravity of his animal sensibilities and appetites, tiie enormity of 
Ms sensuality and the want of the true development of his intellectual, 

♦ letsa*hek. " A word of ominoas import, implying not only snch sports as 
gtnging, dancing and merry-makiug in general, but in some cases also, a species of 
conduct which the epithet wanton as coneetly defines as any term which we deem 
it proper to employ. Compare the use of the same original word rendered mock, 
Gen. xxxix. 14. Compare also, Num. xzv. 1» 2."— 3i»A'« Notet* 



174 

moral and religious nature. And consequently (60), the objeet of 
man's worship, as understood by him, always necessarily corresponli 
with the condition and circumstances of his own complex nature. (l77 j 
If man himself is little more than an animal, the objiect of his wership 
must possess the bodily form of a man or beast, or of some other visilile 
thing, and be imbued with appetites and lusts and passions, and be 
actuated by motives, and seek enjoyments like his own : hence, as man, 
so his Ood. (61.) Therefore (65), if God were at any time to speak 
from the heavens in tones which could be distinctly heard by every 
inhabitant of the earth, and, in the native tongue of every miB, 
proclaim His own nature, and character, and purposes, and require- 
ments, yet however full and explicit His revelations, however spedfie 
His precept, however definite His commancbnents, all would serve in no 
degree to bring mankind immediately to a unity of idea, and of 
sentiment in theology and religion ; but would, from constitutional 
and conditional necessity (67), serve only to confirm each individoal in 
those theological notions and religious sentiments which he before 
possessed, in accordance with the condition and circumstances of hisown 
complex nature. (177.) Theidolatorofthelowestgrade, could not possibly 
understand anything from the language, which he had not already 
attributed to the object of his worship, and included in the system of 
his religion. (65.) And hence the law of constitutional necessity (66), 
that, divine manifestations and revelations, as understood by man, 
always correspond with the cotemporaneous condition and circumstancei 
of man's complex nature (60) ; and therefore, in effect, GU>d alwayi 
necessarily adapts his manifestations and revelations to the cotempora- 
neous condition and circumstances of man's complex nature. (01.) And 
consequently (176), we know with all possible certainty, that the real 
state of man, as to the condition and circumstances of his complex 
nature, always accurately indicates the character of the cotemporaneous 
revelations and dispensations of God, as understood by man : or the 
degree in which the divine manifestations are accommodated to the 
state of man. And so of the converse : we know with utmost certainty, 
that the character of the divine manifestations, as understood by man, 
always accurately indicates the cotemporaneous state of man in relation 
to the true nature and character of God, and to the highest and best 
condition of which his own nature is capable. Again we have seen 
(211) that, the Hebrews had, for generations, worshipped the ^Slohimoi 
Egypt till they had become thoroughly saturated with Egyptian idolatry, 
and theological ideas corresponding with those ^Slohim, had become 
almost as permanently and irradicably fixed in them, as the consti- 
tutional elements of their nature : so that, when, by virtue of the signs 
which Moses wrought before them in demonstration of his divine 
commission, and in confirmation of his testimony, the people believed 
his statement concerning Jehovah, the *Sldhim of their fathers, they 
underwent no change in their theological notions and religious 
sentiments, in coming to this belief, but entertained the same ideas of 
the nature and character of Jehovah, that they did of the ^Sldhim of the 
Egyptians, and worshipped him in the same manner and with the same 
sentiments. And even after they had witnessed all that Jehovah did, 
for their deliverance, in Egypt, they still entertained much the same 



175 

of the *iloh»m of their fathers, that they did of the *glohm of thd 
dans (253) ; and when they had arrived at the foot of mount 
all their experience had effected little change in their theological 
IS and religious sentiments. 

t. With these principles and explanations hefore us, we perceire 
he divine mamfestations on mount Sinai were, from constitutional 
conditional necessity (60, 67), adapted to the cotemporaneoufl 
'Aon and circumstances of the complex nature of the recipients 
; and therefore, accurately indicate the cotemporaneous condition 
ircumstances of the complex nature of the recipients. (176.) It 
wever, necessary here to remark that, the divine manifestations 
revelations on mount Sinai, were of a two-fold nature and 
ation : the one physical and demonstrative — the other moral and 
ptive : the former, adapted to the people — the latter, to Moses, 
as we have seen (178, 230), was far in advance of his Hebrew 
ren. And, what does the adaptation of the physical demonstrations 
: divine presence and majesty, on mount Sinai, indicate as to the 
iporaneous condition and circumstances of the complex nature of 
Hebrews P Evidently a very small degree of the true development 
tir intellectual, moral and religious nature — an exceedingly gross 
1 of the nature and character of God, and the relations between 
knd man. Moses was commanded to instruct the people to cleanse 
selves thoroughly for two days in succession, and to wash their 
!S, and be ready on the third day to witness the descent of Jehovah, 
*ei6him, upon mount Sinai. He was also commanded to set bounds 
the people, round about, and say unto them, " Take heed unto 
elves that ye go not up into the mount, nor touch the border of it ; 
bosoever toucheth the .border of the mount shall surely be put to 
; whether it be man or beast." And again he was commanded 
harge the people, lest they break through unto Jehovah to gaze, 
lany of them perish," ** And it came to pass on the third day in 
loming, that there were thunders and lightnings, and a thick 
upon the mount, and the voice of the trumpet exceeding loud, so 
all the people that were in the camp trembled." ** And mount 
was altogether on a smoke, and the smoke thereof ascended as 
noke of a furnace, and the whole mount quaked greatly." Yet,- 
these physical demonstrations of the divine presence and power, 
h stupendous and terrible enough to fill the people with the 
3st consternation, there still was nothing which necessarily 
ted to the mind of the Hebrews, a true and distinct idea of the 
e and character of God ; nothing which, to their understanding, 
lot perfectly compatil^le with their ideas of the ^Slohim of the 
bians, both as to nature and character, and as to substance and 
(65.) They did not understand why the *Slohim of the Egyptians 
not cause lightnings as fierce and thunders as tremendous, and 
with as terrible a voice : nor did they understand why the *Slohtm 
lid thus manifest himself to them, as Jehovah, the *8l6him of their 
rs, might not, consistently with all the attributes which had been 
ited in their presence, have a form like that of the supreme ^Slohim 
Egyptians, whose form had, from their earliest childhood, been so 
ately, inseparably and exclusively associated with all their ideas 



of a supreme object of worship, tiiat it was now hanDy posnUeM 
them to conceive of any other. True, Jehovah spoke to them from 
amidst the thunders and lightnings and thick darkness ; and, in in 
astounding voice, uttered the precepts and prohibitions and requisitioDi 
of the covenant which he proposed to establish between himself snd 
them, the fundamental portion of which was, *' Ye shall have no other 
*il6him before me ; nor represent me by the image or likeness of say 
thing in heaven above, or in the earth beneath, or in the water under 
the earth." But they were too ignorant, too brutish, and at the 
moment, too full of consternation to understand what that astoondinf 
voice enunciated (Deut. v. 5) : ** and they removed and stood afsr o^ 
and said to Moses, Speak thou with us, and we will hear, bat let not 
*£l6him speak with us lest we die.** 

MOSBS* THEOLOGICAL NOTIONS WHEN HE ARRIVBO, WITH TBS HZBBIWI, 

AT MOUNT SINAI. 

273. The verbal revelation from mount Sinai, I have seen (272), VM 
immediately to Moses, rather than to the people ; and to him for them 
ultimately. They, as we have seen, and shall yet more fully see, were 
then, utterly unprepared for it. And what does the verbal revelstka 
indicate as to the cotemporaneous condition and circumstances cf 
Moses' complex nature P Ql76.) We have seen what his EgyptiiB 
education was (232), and what was the result of his Midian educatioa 
(236), and of his subsequent experience in Egypt (251.) The Sacred 
Record infoims us (Acts vii. 22), that ** Moses was learned in all the 
wisdom of the Egyptians ; ** and we now know with certainty, that a psit 
of that wisdom was that, the '^^^tmhad reigned in Egypt tor thonsandi 
of years before the first of the Pharaohs ; and it is as nearly ascertained 
^at those ^ilohim consisted mostly, if not entirely, of the deified 

Eatriarchs and potentates of the antediluvian period. Be this as it may, 
owever, it is quite certain that the polytheism of Egypt, in the days 
of Moses, included many of the deified heroes and distinguished men of 
earlier times, and embraced a multitude of tutelary ^ilohim (232) ; and 
that Moses, during his forty years of Eg3rptian education, had become 
thoroughly, and almost incorrigibly imbued with this polytheism : so 
that, notwithstanding all the manifestations and revelations of Jehovsh 
to him at Midian (236 — 240), and subsequently in Egypt (241 et seq»\ 
and during his Journey with the children of Israel, from Egypt to 
mount Sinai (260, et seq.) ; and notwithstanding all the progress he 
had made in theology and religion (251, 261),' he actually arrived with 
his emancipated Hebrew brethren, at the foot of mount Sinai, with 
polytheism still deeply rooted in all the theological notions and 
associations of his mind ; and with his ideas of ^9l6hfm still clothed with 
much of human form, and human attributes, affections and appetites. 
(237, 251.) He had become fully convinced, and strongly established 
in the belief, not only that Jehovah was peculiarly the *il6Mm of his 
fathers, and of the children of Israel, but that he was the *el6he hd 
*gl6him — '* the Ood of gods" the supreme Being, who was greatly 
superior to all other *glohim in power and majesty ; but Jehovah was 
not yet in Moses* mind, the onljf *eidhm! nor had he yet ceased to he 



177 

in Moses' mind, much of the el sMddai — ^the terribly powerful, vehe- 
ment, avenging, destroying "^hlm oi Abraham. (247.) Indeed, it 
required another forty years of most eventful and instructive experience 
under the divine dispensations of the wilderness, to bring Moses' mind 
to anything like a clear and distinct idea of the unity and onliness of 
God. And hence, in accommodation to the cotemporaneous condition 
and circumstances of Moses' complex nature, the solemn decalogue from 
mount Sinai opens, not with the declaration that Jehovah is the only 
^ilohim; but with the recognition of the existence of other ^Sldhim^ and 
with the declaration that Jehovah, the 'eiohim of the children of Israel, 
is the ^ildhim who delivered them from their bondage ; and with the 
command that they shall have no other *ilohim before Him, nor make 
to themselves as representations of objects of worship, any graven 
image, or any likeness of anjrthing that is in heaven above, or that 
is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth. 

274. Let it now be recollected that, when Moses, in obedience to the 
command of Jehovah, returned from Midian to Egypt, to bring out his 
enslaved and deeply debased, and shockingly depraved and sensualized 
brethren, the highest motive which he could bring to bear effectually 
upon them, to induce them to leave Egypt, in the consciousness of 
moral freedom, was that, they should go three days' journey into the 
desert, and there slaughter animals, and eat and drink, and dance, and 
rejoice before Jehovah, the ^Slohtm of their fathers (241 — 255) ; that 
this motive was efficacious (242) ; that with this prevailing and 
absorbing motive before them, they prepared to leave Egypt ; and with 
this motive they borrowed the "jewels of silver, and jewels of gold and 
raiment " of the Egyptians. (254.) With this ruling motive they 
actually left Egypt : nor did Ihey relinquish it after they had passed 
the Bed Sea : but their constant remembrance and almost continual 
contemplation of it, from Egypt to mount Sinai, contributed, in no small 
measure, to produce those murmurings and more turbulent manifesta- 
tions of disappointment and dissatisfaction, which so frequently marked 
their progress. It was, therefore, with the most confident expectation 
of holding a ^hagh, a dance, a religious festivity (268), consisting of 
sacrificing, eating, drinking, dancing, singing, and indulging without 
restraint, in almost every kind of merriment and sensuality, before their 
tutelary '^ZoAtm, that they started from Egypt : and this expectation 
was greatly corroborated by their possession of the jewels and raiment 
of the Egyptians, in accordance with Moses' command (254), and still 
more powerfully, by the fact that their flocks and herds were taken with 
them into the desert, expressly for such a purpose (Exod. x. 25, 26) : 
and with the confidence and ardour of this expectation little abated, 
they arrived at the foot of mount Sinai. Nor did all the terrors of the 
divine manifestations on the mount, serve in any measure to remove 
or abate this expectation. On the contrary, the very fact, that they 
had, as they supposed, arrived at the place apppinted for their sacrifices 
and festivities before the *ildhim of their fathers, and the fact that that 
^elohim, though with most terrific displays of power, had actually 
manifested his presence to them, upon the mount, served in the 
greatest possible degree to give intensity to this expectation, and to 
produce an importunate and vehement desire for its consummation. 



178 

275. How then, in the nature, condition and circumstances of things, 
could it be otherwise than that the Hebrews should do as they did ? 
and how was it morally possible to restrain them from doing so P They 
were little more than depraved animals, who knew no greater good nor 
higher enjoyment than the indulgence of their propensities and 
appetites in social festivity. And we have seen (26) that it is a 
universal law of animal nature, including man, that the natural 
instincts, propensities and appetites act upon the centre of animal 
perception in such a manner as to incite the animal to exercise its 
voluntary powers for their satisfaction, and when depraved, they always 
act with a more despotic and imperious energy and tendency to 
enormity, in proportion to the degree of their depravity ; and in the 
same proportion diminish in man, the ability to perceive and under- 
stand and conform to the theological and religious truth (35); and 
proportionably sensualize his religion, and render it necessary for him 
to have a visible object of worship, invested with appetites and passions 
like his own. (175.) The Hebrews had long and earnestly expected 
the promised feast in honour of their tutelary 'ilohim. They supposed 
that they had reached the time and place when and where that feast 
was to be held. They longed to indulge their lusts in eating and 
drinking, carousing and libidinous revelling. But in all the world, at 
that time, such feasts were never held without sacrifices and offerings 
to some *Slohim, The universal custom of the human family, the 
common notion and sentiment of all mankind, the whole force of their 
own education, the intense excitement of their religious instinct from 
the recent exhibitions on the mount — in short, everything in the con- 
dition and circumstances of their complex nature (177), made it 
necessary, according to their views and feelings, that they should have 
some object of worship to whom their sacrifices should be made, or with 
whose sanction their animals should be slaughtered, and in honour of 
whom they should hold their feast. But they had no more idea of the 
spiritual nature and true moral character of God, and the true relations 
between God and man, than had the cattle which they brought with 
them from Egypt. Moses had withdrawn from their presence, and 
they knew not what had become of him. Aaron was next in authority. 
Their desire for a feast was vehemently importunate, and the ruling 
consciousness of their lust engrossed their souls, and occupied and 
controlled the operations of their minds, and thus completely shut out 
all other considerations, and rendered them, for the time, incapable of 
receiving the influence of any other motives than such as led in the way 
of their inclinations.* In this imperious orgasm of their whole nature, 
they gathered impetuously around Aaron, and clamorously cried out to 
him, '* Up ! make us 'Slohlm that shall go before us." 

AABON*S THEOLOGICAL MOTIONS WHEN HE MADE THE CALF. 

276. Aaron had seen enough of divine manifestations in Egypt, and 
during his journey thence, and upon the mount, to convince him that 

* Science of Human Life, «. 576. 



179 

the *eiohhn who had in connection with these manifestations, declared 
Himself to be Jehovah the ^Slolihn of the Hebrews, was a mighty and a 
terrible *glohim. But he had not seen enough to give him any true 
idea of the nature and character of Jehovah ; and the condition and 
circumstances of his own complex nature, were such as to render it 
impossible for him to conceive of any other form of an *glohim, than 
such as he had been accustomed to, all his days, in Egypt. From 
conditional necessity, therefore, if he made any bodily representation 
of an *iildhim, it must, in accordance with the theological ideas and 
associations of his own mind, be such as he had been accustomed to 
worship in Egypt, as the representation of the supreme 'Sldhim. The 
tumultuous and vehement demand of the people for an *^/o/tt/»mustbe 
satisfied. Accordingly, he received the golden earrings of the people, 
and produced for them a "molten calf; " and the people, who cared 
infinitely less for the truthfulness of their theology and religion, than 
they did for the enjoyment of their religious rites, and who, like too 
many of the human kind in all periods of time, desired to sacrifice and 
hold a feast to some 'eiohim, infinitely less for the honour of the ^ildhhn 
than for the indulgence of their own lusts, eagerly and joyfully received 
the golden calf from Aaron's hand, and enthusiastically exclaimed, 
•• These be thy 'ilohitnt O Israel ! which brought thee up out of the land 
of Egypt." 

277. But though Aaron, from conditional necessity (60), had, in 
compliance with Qie turbulent and irrepressible demand of the people, 
made them such a bodily representation of an 'Sldhim, as corresponded 
with the theological ideas and associations of his own mind, and such 
as the Egyptians made to represent their supreme 'Sldhim, yet he 
intended it not to represent the ^Slohim of the Egyptians, but to repre- 
sent Jehovah, the ^siohim of the Hebrews. And accordingly, when the 
people joyously received the golden calf and acknowledged it as the 
*&6Aim which brought them up out of the land of Egypt, '* he built an 
altar before it, and made proclamation and said. To morrow is a ^hagh, 
•-^a festive dance — ^to Jehovah ! " His attempt, however, to superinduce 
upon their old forms of idolatry, an acknowledgment of, and service to 
Jehovah, was entirely unsuccessful. The people were wholly intent on 
the indulgence of their lusts ; and their demand for an *eidhim was, in 
truth, but a pretext for that indulgence : as they could not, consistently 
with the universal usage, opinion and sentiment of the times, slaughter 
the animals which they wished to devour, and hold the feast which they 
so intensely desired, without an 'Sldhlm to whom the sacrifices should 
he made and the feast held. And therefore, when they received and 
acknowledged the golden calf as their tutelary *eidhtmt notwithstanding 
Aaron proclaimed a feast to Jehovah, they, in the dark depths of their 
ignorance and depravity, and truculent greediness of their lusts, actually 
sacrificed and held their feast to the spirit of sensuality, which, from 
the beginning, has been the great adversary of mankind. (139.) 
" And they rose up early on the morrow, and offered burnt offerings 
and brought peace offerings ; and the people sat down to eat and to 
drink, and rose up to laugh, and shout, and sing, and dance, and sport 
and revel in unrestrained lasciviousness and ebriety." (268.) 

278. Upon such a people, it was not in tiie nature, condition and 



180 

circumstances of things, possible for God to bring to bear snffident 
moral and spiritual power, to restrain them in the consdoosness of 
moral freedom, from their idolatry and sensual wickedness. (91.) He 
could have called into exercise His reserved omnipotence (167), and 
supernaturally have prevented the outward act of idolatry. He could 
have turned the lightnings of Sinai upon them and consumed their idol 
calf, and rolled His thunders about them till the earth had quired as 
with horror, and thus have filled them for the moment, with over- 
whelming consternation. But what would all this have availed with a 
people so incorrigibly " set on mischief P " Had they not just witnessed 
a similar exhibition of divine power, till they were almost dead with 
terror P And had they not been explicitly informed that the terrific 
exhibition was intended to convince them that Jehovah, the *gldhun who 
had delivered them from their bondage, and brought them out of the 
land of ^Egypt, was the Almighty *JEldhim who would have no other 
*Slohim before Him P and that it was intended also to confirm them in 
the assurance that Moses was the vicegerent of Jehovah, commissioned 
and authorized by Him to be their leader, and teacher, and lawgiver F 
Yet how utterly ineffectual had been the moral influence of this 
stupendous exhibition, to deter them from their sensual idolatry and 
wickedness. There was, therefore, in the nature, condition and 
circumstances of things, no other way by which Grod could arrest at 
once their wickedness, than that by which He arrested the wickedness 
of the antediluvians, and of the inhabitants of Sodom and Gomorrah 
(206) ; and this was the only way by which Jehovah proposed to Moses 
to put an immediate end to the wickedness of this incorrigibly perverse 
people, when he saw them wantonly worshipping the molten calf. 
*' And Jehovah said unto Moses, I have seen this people, and behold, it 
is a stiff-necked people. Now therefore, let me alone, that my wrath 
may wax hot against them, and that I may consume them ; and I will 
make of thee a great nation.'* £ut Moses, without making any excuse, 
or offering any apology for the wickedness of the people, earnestly 
entreated Jehovah not to suffer His wrath to wax hot against them to 
consume them from the face of the earth ; and the only argument with 
which he deprecated the anger of his ^Slohim^ and besought Him not to 
execute so terrible a purpose upon them, was Jehovah's own glory in 
the eyes of the Egyptians, and the covenant which he had made ]7ith 
Abraham, and with Isaac, and with Jacob, to multiply their seeds as the 
stars of heaven, and to give them the land of Canaan to inherit for 
ever. " And Jehovah repented of the evil which He thought to do unto 
His people." (209.) Yet earnestly as Moses, while he was in the 
mount, deprecated the destruction of the people by the wrath of his 
^Sldhimy when he descended, and came nigh the camp, and heard them 
boisterously shouting and singing, and saw them dancing around the 
molten calf, in bacchanal and lewd festivity, he adopted, to a fearful 
extent, the very measure by which Jehovah had proposed to put an end 
to their wickedness. *' He stood in the gate of the camp and said. Who 
is on Jehovah's side P let him come unto me I And all the sons of Levi 
gathered themselves unto him. And he said unto them, Thus saith 
Jehovah, the ^Slohim of Israel, Put every man his sword by his side, and 
go in and out from gate to gate, throughout the camp, and slay every 



181 

man his brother, and every man his companion, and every man his 
neighbour. And the children of Levi did according to the word of 
Moses : and there fell of the people that day, about three thousand 



men." 



fiBIEF RECAPITULATION. 

279. Now, before we proceed any farther in the details of this history, 
it is of great consequence that we should attentively reconsider m 
iuztaposition, a few important points involved in the general argument 
before us. In the first place, let it be recollected that God did not 
select the Hebrews from all the other inhabitants of the earth, to be 
his peculiar people, because they were more than all others a righteous 
and holy people. Jehovah expressly and repeatedly assured them, that 
he had not chosen them, and did not favour them on account of any 
goodness or merit of themselves ; for that, they were a perverse and 
stiffiiecked people, continually given to sensuality and idolatry, and 
rebellion against him. [Deut. is. 4. et seq,] But God chose them and 
protected them, and governed them by a peculiar dispensation, because, in 
the prosecution of his great purpose of redeeming man from sin, and 
folly developing and establishing his moral and spiritual kingdom in 
the human world, in a manner consistent with man's moral freedom, it 
was necessary, as we have seen (223), that he should select a portion 
of the human race, and separate them from a darkly and grossly 
idolatrous world; and, by a peculiar dispensation, adapted to their 
condition and circumstEinces, and to the great end which he had in view, 
keep them as distinct as possible from the rest of mankind, and accumu- 
late upon them, all the moral and spiritual power (88, 89) which they, 
by any means, could be fitted to have brought to bear efficaciously upon 
them, in order to lead them forward, in the consciousness of perfect 
freedom of choice and action, toward the fulfilment of his great scheme 
of benevolence. (170 — 173.) 

280. In the second place : the Hebrews, as we have seen (271), had 
been for centuries in bondage in Egypt, and had, from generation to 
generation, been accustomed to the exceedingly gross and vile idolatry 
of the Egyptians (231), until they had become so abject and sensual 
and ignorant and heathenish, that they were utterly unable to conceive 
any idea of God separate from visible forms, and sensible manifesta- 
tions. Of abstract moral and spiritual qualities they could form no 
distinct notion ; nor could they conceive of any enjoyment nor suffering ; 
of any comfort nor affliction ; of any good nor evil, except such as 
pertain to human existence and are essentially of a sensual nature. 
To live long, to be free from disease, to have abundance wherewith to 
indulge their appetites and lusts, to have power over their enemies, to 
have great possessions and great political eminence and dominion, was, 
in their estimation, to possess the greatest blessings that could be 
bestowed on them, by the most powerful and propitious and beneficient 
*gidJuin. To be deprived of these blessings — to be destitute of the 
means of gratifying their appetites, to be afflicted with disease, to be 
sold into bondage, to be subject to the vindictive power and wrath of 
their enemies, and to be cut of from the earth early in life^ the^ 



182 

regarded as the greatest and most direful evils with whidi the most 
wrathful and vindictive el sh&ddai could visit them. (244, 247.) 
Furthermore, it had been a most vital part of their Egyptian education, 
to sacrifice animals to the ^ilohim, in their religious services, and to eat 
largely of the flesh of those animals, and to drink wine or some kind of 
intoxicating liquor freely, at their religious feasts. Nay more; their 
Egyptian education had thoroughly and indelibly wrought into the 
verv texture of their intellectual, moral and religious character, the 
beUef, common to the whole human world at that time, that the ^fUlhm^ 
in some way corresponding with human sensibilities, appetites and 
enjoyments, actually partook with their worshippers of the offerings 
which were made to tnem, and of the feasts which were held to them : 
that they not only "smelted" but ** tasted "the "sweet savour "of 
those offerings ; and that the savour of the roasted flesh of consecrated 
animals and of libated wine, was peculiarly and pre-eminently gnratefiil 
to them :* and the idea had become intimately and inseparably asso- 
ciated with their religious notions and sentiments, that no propitiat<»7 
and acceptable feast could be held to the *ilohxm, without such sacrificet 
and such meats and drinks ; and that such meats and drinks could not 
be largely and freely used, except in religious feasts, or with the 
sanction of the ^Slohimj (63) ; and tiberefore, &at such meats and drinks 
were, in a measure consecrated to the *Sldhimf and among the ridiest 
and most desirable blessings which the ^Slohim bestowed on man. (275.) 
To partake of these sacred meat-offerings and drink-offerings, in 
religious service, before the image or shrine of any *eidhim, was, in 
their belief, to feast with the *ilohim; and to be permitted occasionally 
to enjoy these viands and beverages, in domestic and social hospitalities 
and festivities, was, in their belief, to be allowed to partake of the food 
of the ^Slohim ; and therefore, to be in a high degree favoured and 
blessed by the ^Stohim. Again, not only their Egyptian education, 
but the universal opinion, sentiment and custom of mankind, then, and 
in all preceding time, had fully and inconvertibly confirmed the 
Hebrews, in the undoubting belief, of the right and propriety and 
utility and moral necessity of polygamy, concubinage, slavery, vin^ctive 
retaliation, taking human life, and many other usages and institutions, 
which are utterly incompatible with the highest and best condition of 
human nature. 



WHAT WOULD HAVE BERN, IF THE PEOPLE HAD BEEN FBBPARBD FOR 
IT: AND WHY THE SINAI DISPENSATIONS WERE SUCH AS THST WEBS. 

281 . Such a people, in such a condition, and in such circumstances, 
Moses, by virtue of a divine commission, and in conformity to divine 
instructions, undertook to lead from Egypt to Canaan, from bondage 
to liberty, from heathenish darkness and ignorance, and excessive 
sensuality and gross idolatry, to the knowledge and worship of Jehovah, 
the 'Slohtm of their fathers, and their own 'glohim, (229.) And wc 
have contemplated his progress from the commencement of his under- 

• See Deut. xxxil. ST, and Judges ix. IS. 



183 

taking till we have seen his perverse people, afker all the divine 
dispensations which they had witnessed in Egypt, and experienced 
during their journey, and seen and heard from mount Sinai, taking 
advantage of his absence, to gratify their lusts under a religious 
pretext, and giving themselves up in drunken and lewd festivity, to 
the deeply-rooted idolatry of their hearts. Had the condition and 
circumstances of their complex nature been such as rendered them 
susceptible of an effectual moral force from the commandments which 
Jehovah enunciated to them from mount Sinai, the decalogue would 
have formed the politico-religious constitution of the Hebrew Common- 
wealth, in the Mosaic economy ; and not only all visible representations 
of ^eiohiniy but all the forms of their idolatrous rites and ceremonies, 
would have been laid aside for ever ; and the ordinances which thence- 
forward would have been in accordance with true theology and religion. 
But their conduct in worshipping the molten calf, fully demonstrated 
the conditional impossibility of carrying them forward in moral 
freedom, toward the fulfilment of the divine purpose for which they 
were chosen (223). by moral forces of so high and pure an order as 
those of the decalogue ; and conclusively proved the conditional 
necessity of retaining, as a substitute for a visible object of worship, 
a system of sensible forms and cardinal ordinances, adapted to a grossly 
sensualized state of man, and to an extremely small degree of the true 
development of his intellectual, moral and religious nature. (175.) 

282. Accordingly, when Moses descended from mount Sinai with 
the two tables of the fundamental moral laws of Jehovah in his hands, 
and heard the boisterous shouts and noisy merriment of the people, 
and beheld the molten calf, and saw them dancing in vile idolatry and 
intoxicated wantonness around it, his " anger waxed hot," and in the 
moment of vehement indignation, " he cast the tables out of his hands 
and brake them beneath the mount." To the cotemporaneous human 
mind, this last event seemed a mere accident ; and, so far as human 
purpose was concerned, it was indeed, nothing but an accident. But 
as a fact in the divine administration, it was a determinate result, 
pre^ant with deep and momentous meaning — its inaudible, but 
awfully eloquent language was. What are these tables to such a 
people P — How can they who have seen and heard and experienced 
what this people have, and who, nevertheless, can turn from the 
terrible manifestations of Jehovah upon mount Sinai, to worship such 
an Slohim in such a manner, rightly perceive, and truly appreciate and 
obey the holy laws divinely inscribed upon these tables P — It is, in the 
nature, condition and circumstances of things impossible ! They are 
little more than miserably depraved and incorrigibly perverse animals ; 
and as such, they cannot be controlled by motives and influences 
adapted to elevate moral and religious beings. From constitutional 
and conditional necessity therefore (67), they must, as moral agents, 
be governed by such motives and influences as they are susceptible of 
having brought to bear efficaciously upon them. (80.) They have no 
conception nor thought of the spiritual nature and true moral character 
of God, nor any notion of the true relations which man sustains to his 
Creator and to hit fellow man ; and therefore, cannot possibly appre- 
ciate the high and holy motives of true morality and godlmess. 



184 

They are grossly carnal and must be treated as sacb. The only 
dispensation by which they can, in any d^ee, consistently with their 
entire moral freedom, be controlled for good, and gradually elevated 
and led forward toward the fulfilment of the g^eat purpose of divine 
benevolence (170), must be such, as, stooping to their low condition, 
adapts itself to their susceptibilities, in sensible forms and ordinances, 
pertaining to their sensual enjoyment and temporal interests. (51.) 

283. Such was the solemn, but at the time, mysterious signification 
of the Holy Spirit, in the seemingly accidental fact of breaking the 
tables of the law beneath the mount. And this signification was 
explicitly confirmed by Jehovah, when Moses returned to Him in the 
mount, and confessed the great wickedness of the people. " Jehovah 
said unto Moses, Depart thou and the people which thou hast brought 
up out of the land of Egypt, and go up hence unto the land which I 
sware unto Abraham, to Isaac and to Jacob, saying. Unto thy seed will 
I give it — unto a land flowing with milk and honey. And I will send 
my angel before you, and I will drive out the inhabitants of the land : 
but I will not go up in the midst of you, lest I consume you by the 
way; for ye are a stiff-necked people." 

284. Stifinecked as the Hebrews were when receiving the Sinaic 
Dispensation, still, " in God they lived and moved and had their being," 
and He " was not far from every one of them." Yet Jehovah declared 
that, because of their obduracy and perverseness, He would not go up in 
the midst of them, to the promised land, lest He should consume them 
by the way ; but He would send His angel before them. How then 
was it that Jehovah would not go up in the midst of the children of 
Israel, but would send His angel or mdldch before them or in their 
presence P Manifestly thus : — the Hebrews had fully proved that it 
was, in the nature, condition and circumstances of things, impossible 
to govern them as moral agents and lead them forward in moral 
freedom toward the fulfilment of the great purposes of divine benevo- 
lence, by an economy of laws and ordinances and requirements which 
were strictly consistent with a pure state of true spiritual godliness ; 
and JehoviJb saw that, if he should attempt to execute such a dispen- 
sation on them, He would be compelled to destroy them utterly, for 
their continued transgressions ; and therefore, instead of going up in 
the midst of them by a dispensation which rigorously exact^ tneir 
holy and strict conformity to Him in His spiritual nature and moral 
perfections. He determined to lead them up, through the instrument- 
ality of his angel, or mdldch^ by a dispensation adapted to the condition 
and circumstances of their complex nature (177) ; and the best that in 
the nature, condition and circumstances of things, could be brought to 
bear efficaciously uiwn them for good. (175.) Accordingly, when 
Moses descended again from the mount, with other two tables in his 
hand, upon which had beea written the words of the covenant — ^the 
Ten Commandments, that were in the first tables, which had been 
broken, the skin of his face shone so brightly, that Aaron and the 
people could not look on him, and they were afraid to come nigh him. 
Wherefore, Moses put a vail on his face while he talked with them, 

se they could not bear the glory of his countenance. And thus, 
ite Holy Spirit signified that by reason, of the Tail that was 



^^becMii 



185 

ipon 'their hearts, neither the people nor the priesthood could then 
eceive and be governed by the pure, uncovered testimonies of Jehovah, 
Q the decalogue, but must noeds have those testimonies covered by the 
'ail of sensible forms and carnal ordinances ; and, consequently, must 
lecessarily receive the shadow of good things to, come, and not the 
'ery substance of those things. [Exod. xxxiv. 29-^5 ; 2 Cor. iii. 13 ; 
leb. X. 1.] 

285. This interpretation is divinely corroborated by the mouth of the 
)rophet EzeMel, and explicitly confirmed by the apostle Paul. In 
Szekiel, chap, xx., God declares that he made himself known to the 
^ildren of Israel, in Egypt, as Jehovah, their ^Slohim, who had come to 
leliver them from their bondage, and take them to himself as his peculiar 
leople ; that he commanded them to put away their sensual abominations, 
ind forsake their idolatry ; that they rebelled against him, and would 
lot hearken unto him, but clung to their idols and persisted in their 
^minations ; that he caused them to go forth out of the land of Egypt, 
md brought them into the wilderness. And, speaking with direct and 
pedal reference to the commandments solemnly enunciated from mount 
»inai, and afterwards written upon the two tables of stone which Moses 
)roke beneath the mount, He says, '* I gave them my statutes, and 
ihowed them my judgments, which, if a man do, he shall live in them. 
3ut they rebelled against me in the wilderness. They walked not in 
ny statutes, and despised my judgments ; for their heart went after 
heir idols." ** Wherefore, I gave them also statutes that were not 
jood, and judgments whereby they should not live" That is, when 
hey had fully demonstrated, by their worshipping the molten calf, that 
hey were not susceptible of sufficient moral force from the code of divine 
aws, written upon the two tables of stone, to be led in moral freedom by 
he motives of that code toward the fulfilment of the great purpose for 
rhich they were chosen (223), Jehovah, in necessary accommodation to 
he condition and circumstances of their complex nature (91), gave them 
itatutes and judgments which were not consistent with the highest and 
yest condition of human nature and the true relations between God and 
nan, but which were the best that in the nature, condition, and 
drcumstances of things, could possibly be brought to bear efficaciously 
tpon them as moral agents, in carrying them forward in the great scheme 
f divine benevolence. (170.) 

286. The apostle Paul, citing the words of inspiration by the prophet 
^eremiah, to show the transitoriness and obsolescence of the Levitical 
ode with all its rites and ordinances, as substituted for, or added to the 
)ecalogue, explicitly affirms that the whole Mosaic economy instituted 
ubsequently to the enunciation of the Ten Commandments from mount 
Sinai, was an accommodated dispensation adapted to the cotemporaneous 
ondition and circumstances oi those who received it ; that it " was 
\dded because of transgression,*^ or on account of the depravity and 
ensuality, and heathenish ignorance and idolatry and perverseness and 
bduracy of the recipients, which rendered them unsusceptible of the 
fficacy of a higher order of motives, and a purer moral regimen ; that 
be Levitical priesthood was made afler the law of a carnal commandment^ 
ud that its ministry consisted in the ■perfoiici'Mi^i^ q1 tv\R58» ^ks>^ 
remonies pertaining'to the flesh, which could iio\.c\ftMi'&^\3aft^wiS.1x^^ccL 



186 

sin, nor purify the conscience ; that the law gfiven in connection with 
that priesthood was weak and unprofitable, and brought nothing to 
perfection, but served merely as a school-master to bring the chMen 
people forward, in moral freedom, to a better state of things ; and 
therefore, it was not established as a permanent economy, bearing with 
divine authority equally upon all men, at all times, and in all conditioDi 
and circumstances, but was imposed on the Hebrews as a separate people 
*' until the time of reformation ;" or until they should be prepared to 
receive a higher and better dispensation. " Behold, the days come, 
saith Jehovah [Jer. xxxi. 31, 32], when I will make a new covenant wiUi 
the house of Israel and the house of Judah, not according to the 
covenant that I made with their fathers, in the day that I took them bj 
the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt, which covenant th^ 
brake, although I was a husband to them, saith Jehovah; but I will pii 
my laws into their mind, and write them in their hearts ; and I will be 
to them a Gbd ; and they shall be to me a people." [Heb. viii. 8, 9, 
10.] '* Now in that He saith a new covenant^ He hath made the fint 
old ; and that which decaveth and waxeth old is ready to vanish away. 
But if that first covenant had been faultless, then should no place have 
been sought for the second. [Heb. viii. 7 — 13.] Then, indeed, the 
first tabernacle had ordinances and services and a worldly sanctuary; 
for there was a tabernacle made, the first wherein was the candlestia 
and the table and the show-bread, which is called the sanctuary, and 
after the second vail, the tabernacle which is called the holiest of all, 
which had the golden censer and the ark of the covenant, wherein was 
the golden pot that had manna, and Aaron's rod that budded, and the 
tables of the covenant, and over it the cherubim of glory, shadowing the 
mercy-seat, of which we cannot now speak particularly. Now when 
these things were thus ordained, the priest went always into the first 
tabernacle, performing the services. But into the second went the high 
priest alone, once a-year, not without blood, which he offered for himself 
and for the errors of the people, the Holy Spirit this signifying, That the 
way into the holiest of all was not yet made manifest while the first 
tabernacle was yet standing, which was a figure for the time then 
present, in which were offered both gifts and sacrifices, that could not 
make him that did the service perfect, as pertaining to the conscience, 
which stood only in meats and drinks and divers washings, and carnal 
ordinances, imposed until the time of reformation, [Heb. ix. 1 — 10.] 
Moreover, if perfection were by the Levitical priesthood (for under it 
the people received the law), what further need was there that another 
priest should rise after the order of Melchisedec, and not be called after 
the order of Aaron P for it is evident that after the similitude of 
Melchisedec there ariseth another priest, who is made not after the law 
of a carnal commandment, but after the power of an endless life ; for 
He testifieth thou art a priest for ever, after the order of Melchiseidec ! 
And the priesthood being changed, there is made of necessity, also, a 
change of the law. [Heb. vii. 11 — 17.] For the law having a shadow 
of good things to come, and not the very image of the things, can never 
with those sacrifices which they offered year by year continually make 
the comers thereunto perfect; for it is not possible that the blood of bulls 
and goats should take away sins. And the sacrifices which the priests 



^ 



offer daily can never take away sins. [Heb. x. 1, 4, 11.] There is 
Terily, therefore, an abrogation of the preceding commandment for the 
weakness and unprofitableness thereof; for the law made nothing perfect, 
and only served to the bringing in of a better hope, by the which we 
draw nigh unto God. [Heb. vii. 18, 19.] Wherefore then was the law ? 
It was added because of transgression, till the Seed should come to whom 
the promise was made. Wherefore the law was our schoolmaster to 
bring us unto Christ. [Gal. iii. 19, 24.] And when the fulness of the 
time was come, Gtod sent forth His Son, made of a woman, made under 
the law, to redeem them that were under the law, that we might receive 
the adoption of sons. [Gal. iv. 4, 5.] And now hath Christ obtained 
a ministry which is as much more excellent than that of the Levitical 
priesthood as the covenant of which He is the Mediator, is better, and 
established upon better promises, than that of which Moses was the 
mediator. [Heb. viii. 6.1 ' He, therefore, taketh away the first 
dispensation, the services of which consisted in sacrifices and ofiieriDgs, 
ana burnt offerings and offerings for sin, which God desired not, neither 
had any pleasure therein, that He may establish the second, the service 
of whidi consisteth in doing the will of God from the heart, and purifying 
the soul by obeying the truth in the spirit." [Heb. x. 5 — 10, and 1 Pet. 
i. 22.] Surely, language cannot be more explicit, nor meaning more 
obvious than that in these passages of sacred Scripture. It was the 
express object of the apostle, m contrasting the Mosaic with the Christian 
Dispensation, to show the vast inferiority and great imperfectness of the 
former, and its utter incompetency to accomplish those ends for which 
the New Covenant was instituted. He, therefore, boldly asserts that 
the old Mosaic Economv, when considered in relation to the end to be 
accomplished by the Christian Dispensation, was weak and unavailing, 
and could bring nothing to perfection, or completeness ; or, in other 
words, was not adapted to bring man into true moral and spiritual 
conformity with God, but was merely a necessary and temporary 
accommodation of measures in the divine administration to the 
eotemporaneous condition and circumstances of the chosen and separate 
people, and as largely and forcibly signified the abject state of those to 
whom it was adapted as it shadowed forth, or typified better things to 
come. 

MEAMINa OF THE WOBD MALACH OR ANGEL AS USED IN RELATION TO 

THE MOSAIC MISSION. 

287. Buthere it is very important that we should, if possible, accurately 
ascertain the meaning of the word angel or mdldch as used in relation 
to the Mosaic mission and vicegerency. We have seen (283) that, when 
Moses returned to the Mount after the children of Israel had worshipped 
the molten calf, Jehovah commanded him and the people which he had 
brought up out of the land of Egypt to depart and go up to the land 
which He nad promised to give them, and said, " I will send a m&lach 
before thee." And shortly before this, Jehovah said [Exod. xxiii. 20], 
" Behold, I send a mdldch before thee to keep thee in the way, and to 
bring thee into the place which I have prepared. Beware of him ; and 
obey his voice. Provoke him not ; for he will not pardon your trans- 



gressions ; for my name is in him ! '* And here let it be partieaUily 
observed that when Jehovah speaks to Moses as the leader and teacher 
and lawgiver of the chosen people, He addresses him a« the subttitoti 
or representative of the people, and speaks to him as if speaking to the 
people themselves. It is, indeed, as if the information were a divine 
intuition in Moses to the people, not for his, but for their instrucdoo— 
a mdldchuth or message put into his hands for them. Hence, therefore, t- 
when we read in the sacred Scriptures, '* Behold, I send a milaeh before r 
thee to keep thee in the way, and to bring thee into the place whidi I 
have prepared, *' Beware of him ; and obey his voice. Provoke him not; 
for he will not pardon your transgressions ; for my name is in him," we 
are not to understand that this is a promise of Jehovah to send a niBick 
before Moses to keep him in the way, and to lead him into the prepared 
place, and a charge to Moses to beware of him and obey his voice, lee.; 
but this language is addressed through Moses exclusively to the people. 
Jehovah sends Moses as His messenger to the people with the messi^pe, 
*' Behold, I send a fnaZoc^ before you to keep you in theway^ and to bring 
you into the place which I have prepared. Beware of him ; and obey 
nis voice. Provoke him not, for he will not pardon your transgressions; 
for my name is in him ! But if ye shall, indeed, obey his voice, and do 
all that I speak, then I will be an enemy unto your enemies and an 
adversary unto your adversaries." 

288. The Hebrew word mdldch means one sent, a messenger, a 
forerunner, a harbinger ; that which goes before to prepare for that 
which is coming ; or that which ministers or serves to carry forward 
a purpose, or accomplish an end ; whether it be a person or thing ; an 
agent or instrument, acting under divine or human authority or 
control. The Greek word angelos, has precisely the same meaning ; 
and in the Septuagint, or Greek version of the Hebrew Scriptures (99), 
which was made by those with whom both the Hebrew and the Greek 
were living languages, the word angelos is invariably used to represent 
the word malach of the Hebrew text. In both languages the primitive 
meaning of the words relates to human agency, but the words came in 
time to be employed to signify also, a superhuman agency, or an 
instrumentality in the hand of a superhuman agent. In the days of 
Moses, however, and for many ages afterward, the Hebrew word 
m/ildch, whether used to sipmify simply a human agent or instru- 
ment, or employed to signiffy a superhuman agent or instrument, 
always com])rehended in its meaning, the idea of a visible person or 
thing ; and the same person might be a malach simply as a human 
agent, or as a superhuman agent, according as he was acting under 
human or divine authority or influence. The word mdldch in the 
Hebrew Scriptures, therefore, is used to signify either a human or 
divine messenger, harbinger or instrument ; but in which of these 
capacities the messenger or instrument acts or is employed, is never 
determined by the word itself, but by the commission or authority or 
power under which the agent or instrument acts ; or by some explicative 
epithet or phrase connected with the word. Thus, when Jacob was 
returning from Padan-aram to his native country, he sent mSldchim 
[plural of mdldch] before him to Esau his brother. [Gen. xiiii. 3.1 
And Jehovah said to the children of Israel, Behold I send a tndldch 



189 

*e you to keep you in the way. [Exod. zziii. 20, 23, and zxzii. 34, 
xxxiii. 2.] And Moses sent mdldchim from Eadesh unto the 

of Edom. [Num. xx. 14.] And Balak sent mdldchim to Balaam, 
m. xxii. 5. J And Joshua sent mdldchim to the tent of Achan. 
h. yii. 22.] Saul also sent maldchim unto DaTid's house to watch 

and to slay him in the morning. And Saul sent mdldchim to 
lah to take Dayid ; and when they saw the company of the prophets 
hesying, the spirit of ^ilohim was upon the mdldchim of Saul and 

also prophesied. [1 Sam. xix. 11, 20.] Jezebel sent a mdldehto 
ih : and Elijah fled into the wilderness ; and the mdldch of Jehoyah 
)lied him with bread and water. [1 Kings xix. 2, 5, 7.] Haggai 
prophet was a mdldch of Jehovah. [Hag. i. 13.] And Malachi 
prophet declares the priest to be a mdldch of Jehovah. [Mai. ii. 7.] 
J9. After the conquest of Palestine by Alexander the Great, the 
?k language came gradually into use among the Jews, and their 
sd Asiatic dialect, which had resulted from their several captivities, 
radually faded away before it : so that, long before the birth of 
ist, their Sacred Scriptures were read in the original tongue only 
le more learned few, while the people generally, read the Septuagint 
Freek Version. Hence, not only were the several parts of the New 
ament originally written in Greek, but all the quotations which 

contain, from the Sacred Scriptures of the Jews, were made from 
Septuagint Version, rather than from the Hebrew text. And hence, 
, uie word angelos is used by the Tew Testament writers in the 
e sense in which it is used in the Septuagint ; save that, in some 
&nces, in accordance with the later refinements in metaphysics, 
' employed it to signify an invisible spiritual messenger or agent. 

used in its primitive sense, however, in the New Testament, as in 
Greek Version of the Old, to signify a human being acting as a 
senger or harbinger either under human or divine authority or 
lence. Thus, the prophecy of Malachi [chap. iii. 1], "Behold, I 

send my mdldch^ and he shall prepare the way before me,*' is, 
»rding to the evangelists, Matthew and Luke, cited by our Saviour 
ipplication to John the Baptist : *• For this is he of whom it is 
t€ai, Behold, I send my angel before thy face which shall prepare 
way before thee." ** And John, calling two of his disciples, sent 
a to Jesus, saying, Art thou he that should come or look we for 
ther P'* And when they had heard and seen the words and works of 
IS, they returned to their master. ** And when the angels of John 
e departed, Jesus began to speak to the people concerning John." 
ke vii. 24, 27.] " And Jesus sent angels before his face, and they 
t, and entered into a village of the Samaritans to make ready for 
." [Luke ix. 52.] In each of these instances, the word ongel is 
lin its primitive sense, which is precisely the same as the primitive 
\e of the Hebrew word mdldch, John the Baptist, acting as the 
t)inger of the Messiah, is declared to be the angel or mdldch foretold 
be prophet Malachi who should go before the Lord to prepare His 

: and John's disciples, whom he sent with a message to Jesus, are 
sd " the angels of John :" and Jesus' disciples whom he sent before 

to a village of the Samaritans to make ready for him, are in the 
!tly primitive meaning of the word, called angels. 



190 

' 290. Both the Hehrew word m&ldch and the Greek word angdottxt 
sometimes used in the Sacred Scriptures to signify impersonal thingi, 
and even mere phenomena or appearances employed in, or connected 
with divine and other manifestations. Hius [Ezod. iii. 2], "The 
m&ldch of Jehovah appeared unto Moses in a flame of fire out of the 
midst of a hush." Here the word m&ldch^ manifestly means nothing 
more than the supernatural phenomenon of appearance which Moia 
saw, and which demonstrated to Moses' vision, the special presence of 
Jehovah : for it was not the m&ldch which spoke to Moses, but Jehovdi 
** 'SWhim called unto him out of the midst of the " appearance, or 
mdldch. In like manner ** the thunders and lightnings and the thiA 
cloud and the voice of the trumpet," by which Jehovah manifested hit 
presence on mount Sinai are alluded to in the Scriptures as the 
mSldchim of Jehovah ; and the pillar of a cloud by day and of fire far 
night which attended the journeyings of the Hebrews in the desert, is 
sometimes called the mdldch of Jehovah. And learned ezpoundert 
have long and laboriously endeavoured to prove that the wora mil&Bk^ 
as applied to the pillar of a cloud and of fire, comprehends in iti 
signification, the intelligent and divine agency connected with it: tnd 
some have contended that the inwrapt and mysterious agent whidi 
actuated the cloud and produced all its phenomena, and spoke from it 
in the name of Jehovah, was none other than the eternal Son of God. 
the great Mdldch of the Sinaic Covenant : and that this is the essentiil 
meaning of the word mdldch as applied to the cloud. All this, however, 
is not only purely fanciful, but utterly absurd. If there be any 
intelligible meaning to the Christian Scriptures, the Son of God u 
manifestly the m&ldch or angel of the new covenant : and the apostle 
Paul, in drawing a contrast between the old and new covenants, for the 
purpose of showing the greater dignity and higher sanction of the latter, 
lx)l(lly asserts that the whole angelic machinery of the Mosaic Dispen- 
sation, was immeasurably inferior to the angd of the new covenant 
But if the Son of God dwelling in and acting through the pillar of a cloud 
in the wilderness, was the m&ldch of the old covenant, the reasoning of 
Paul is absurd. The clearly evident truth, however, is that, the word 
m&ldch as applied to the cloud means nothing more than what wai 
perceived by the sight of those to whom it appeared ; and the cloud was 
called a mdldch of Jehovah, simply because it was employed by Jehovah 
as a means of earning forward His particular purpose in relation to 
the emancipated Hebrews ; and the Being or Agent who employed the 
cloud as the phenomenon of His presence and power, was none other 
than Jehovah Himself. 

291. We have seen (241 et seq.) that such was the state of the 
Hebrews at the time of their deliverance, and when they wor- 
shipped the molten calf in the wilderness, that they could form no 
conception of an 'glohim. nor of his agency, apart from sensible forms 
and evidences; and that it was only by the combination of all the 
complex moral forces which could possibly be brought to bear upon 
them, with much of the terrible manifestation and effect of the 
physical omnipotence of Jehovah, that they could be induced, in moral 
freedom, to leave Egypt ; and the entire history of their journey ingt 
and sojournings, from the time they left Egypt till the death of Mosei 



191 

m the borders of the promised land, fully demonstrates that, it was in 
ibe nature, condition and circumstances of things, utterly impossible 
M> lead them, in moral freedom, from Egypt to Canaan, by pure moral 
fiDrce. Aepeatedly did they resist all the moral power tibat could be 
tnrought to hear upon them, and would, with moral certainty, have 
returned to Egypt, but for the supernatural interposition of Jehovah's 
physical omnipotence. (77.) This conditional necessity, Jehovah 
•redl understood, and in adaptation to this necessity, He furnished 
Bf OSes, at his earliest need, with the pillar of a cloud by day and of 
Bre by night, as an ever-pretent magazine of reserved physical force 
tx> sustain his authority as the vicegerent of Jehovah, and to be called 
into action whenever his moral power was rendered wholly ineffectual 
by the obduracy and perverseness of the people. (88, 89.) This is 
toe true and simple character of the cloud as the mdldch of Jehovah. 
It was, as it were, charged with divine ener^. and subjected in a 
measure to the will of Moses, like the the miraculous forces with 
▼hich Jehovah armed him at Horeb for his mission into Egypt ; and 
"Was made to frown fearfully in dark anger, or glow terribly in hot 
wrath, or dart out lightning-shafts of fire, or utter tremendous sounds ; 
M emergencies required or extreme necessities demanded, for the 
carrying forward of the divine purpose. (280.) But in no respect 
was the cloud as the maldch of Jehovah, an intelligent agent ; nor did 
it in any instance as a mdldch^ exercise any of the faculties of an 
intelligent being. According to the Mosaic Record, Jehovah Himself 
sometimes spoke through the cloud to Moses; but never from the 
doud, nor tnrough the cloud, immediately and intelligibly to the 
people. Nay, indeed, there is no evidence that even Jehovah Himself 
ever spoke through the cloud to Moses, for any other purpose than to 
nistaiu before the people, Moses' authority as His vicegerent ; or, in 
other words, all the evidence in the case, goes to show that whenever 
Jehovah spoke through the cloud to Moses, it was less for the purpose 
of revealing anything new to Moses' mind, than for the purpose of 
sustaining Moses' authority with the people as His vicegerent, and 
enabling him, with the solemn sanction of His name, to instruct the 
i>eople and give them laws and regulations from knowledge which had 
Dy other means been imparted to him. (230.) In no respect, therefore, 
was the cloud as a maldcht a teacher nor a guide to Moses, nor to the 
people. It was simply an ever-present magazine of physical force, or 
a visible medium through which Jehovah, in cases of necessity, exerted 
his physical omnipotence for the sustenance of the vicegerency of 
Moses ; and was opaque during the day, and luminous during the night 
that it might be ever visible to the people and keep them constantly in 
mind of the divine validity of Moses' authority. It was, indeed, inci- 
dentally employed for minor purposes, but in all things, subordinate 
and subservient to the one great purpose. It is, therefore, exceedingly 
preposterous to suppose that the cloud with whatever else might really 
oe included in the meaning of the word mdldch as applied to the cloud, 
was the mdldch which Jehovah meant when He said to the Hebrews, 
•• Behold, I send a mdldch before you, or, in your presence, to keep you 
in the way, and to bring you into the place which I have prepared. 
Beware of him, and obey his voice ; provoke him not ; for he will not 



_ 



192 

pardon your transgressioDs ; for my name is in him ! ** For it ii 
certain that the cloud, as a m&ldch^ had no Yoice intelligible to the 
people ; gave them no commands ; uttered no edicts to them ; nor in 
any manner exercised jurisdiction or authority over them ; and thon^ 
by divine appointment and efficiency, it was made to signify to thim 
when to journey and when to rest, yet even in this respect it seemi to 
have been subject to the will of Moses; nor did it, nor any other 
superhumun mdldch obviate the necessity for a human guide who m 
well acquainted with the country through which the Hebrews paaed, 
and could lead them to the fountains and secret wells and best pasture- 
grounds of the desert. [Num. x. 29 — 32.] 

292. When the Hebrews had arrived at Kadish, on the borden of 
the promised land, Moses, as their leader, sent tnSldchim in the ninw .;;; 
of the people, to the king of £dom to obtain permission for Israel to >. 
pass through his country, and commanded the mSldchim to say to the 
king, in behalfof the people as a nation, *' Our fathers went down into 
Egypt, and we have dwelt in Egypt a long time ; and the EgyptiiBi 
vexed us and our fathers ; and when we cried unto Jehovc^, he heard 
our voice, and sent a maiden^ and hath brought us forth out of Egypt" 
[Num. XX. 14 — 16.] But when Jehovah, 'e^^tm, called to Moses oii of 
the midst of the burning bush, at mount Horeb, He said unto himi 
'* Behold the cry of the children of Israel is come up unto me; and I 
have also seen the oppression wherewith the Egyptians oppress them. 
Come now, therefore, and I will send thee unto Pharaoh, that thoa 
mayest bring forth my people, the children of Israel, out of Egypt 
And thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, Jehovah, the *Sl/^dm 
of your fathers, hath scut me unto you. And Jehovah said unto Mosei, 
I will surely be with thee, and this shall be a token unto thee, that I 
have sent thee : When thou hast brought forth the people out of Egypt 
ye shall serve *Sl6him upon this mountain." [Exod. iii. 1 — 15.] And 
when Moses returned to Jehovah in the mount, after he had rebuked 
and chastised the people lor their great wickedness in worshipping the 
molten calf, Jehovah said unto him, *' Depart, thou and the people 
which thou hast brought up out of the land of Egypt, and go up hence 
unto the land which I sware unto Abraham, to Isaac and to Jacob, 
saying, To thy seed will I give it.*' [Exod. xxxiii. 1.] From this 
collation of Scripture, which is in strict accordance with every other 
part of the Mosaic record, it is perfectly manifest that Moses was, in 
reality, the maldch which Jehovah sent into Egypt to bring out the 
children of Israel ; the maldch which led the children of Israel from 
Egypt to mount Sinai, and the maldch which led them from mount 
Sinai to the borders of the promised land : and there is nothing in the 
Hebrew Scriptures which warrants the opinion that there was any 
olher intelligent and paramount maldch employed by Jehovah in the 
transaction : and consequently it is obvious that if the word, *' maldch" 
in the message to the king of Edom, does not mean Moses himself, it 
docs not mean the unintelligent appearance of the burning bush, by 
which Jehovah sensibly manifested His special presence to Moses, or 
the unintelligent pillar of a cloud by day and of fire by night (289), or 
both of these, as instrumentally employed by Jehovah in establishing 
and sustaining the vicegcrency of Moses. And it is equally obvious 



198 

that when Jehorah said by Moses, to the children of Israel, "Behold, 

I send a nUUdeh before yoa, or in yoar presence, to keep you in the 

iray, and to bring you into the place whidi I have prepared ; beware 

^ him, and obey his yoice ; provoke him not ; for he will not pardon 

^four transgressions ; for my name is in him ! " — how much soever of 

aabsenrient angelic machinery may be included in the signification of 

the word mdlaeh in the admonitory promise, as intended by Jehovah, 

mr as understood by the people, yet Moses was, in reality, the only 

intelligent agent comprehended in the divine meaning of the wordf. 

It was with direct and immediate reference to Moses, as His 

commissioned, authorized and sustained vicegerent, that Jehovah said 

to the people, ** My name is in him ! " he is clothed with my authority ! 

commissioned to speak in my name I " Beware of him, and obe^ his 

▼oioe ; for he will not pardon your transgressions.*' And accordingly 

Paul says to the Hebrews [chap. z. 28J, *' He that despised Moses' 

law died without mercy, under two or three witnesses.*' 

203. But it will perha{>s be objected that, in the New Testament 
Scriptures Stephen, speaking with reference to the institution of the 
Sinaic covenant, says, **The law was received by the disposition of 
AMcto ** [Acts vii. 53J : and Paul, speaking on the same subject, says, 
"The law was ordamed bv angels in the hand of a mediator" 
[GaL iii. 19] : and again, he s^aks of the Levitical code as ** The 
word spoken by angels " [Heb. li. 2] : and therefore the inference is 
fUly warranted that the angels of God were employed as intelligent 
■gents in instituting and promulgating the laws given at Sinai, ^ut 
in this, as in all difficult questions,, it is infinitely more safe to 
endeavour to get at the true meaning of words, by an accurate 
knowledge of the things which the words are used to signify, than to 
attempt to ascertain the things, by the mere force of words, as 
determined by grammatical rules and the usus loquendi. Who, then, 
according to the Sacred Scriptures, did, under Jehovah, in fact, 
institute and promulgate the laws of the Mosaic Dispensation P and 
whence did the legislator derive his instruction and authority P We 
have seen that, from the first appearance of Moses among hjs 
enslaved brethren in Egypt, as the legate of Jehovah to effect their 
deliverance, until the advent of the divine presence upon mount Sinai 
had been consummated, in almost every instance of signal manifesta- 
tions of divine power in their behalf, the children of Israel were 
expressly informed that the great object of those manifestations, was 
that they might fear Jehovah and believe Moses^ His servant. And 
when Jehovah informed Moses for the instruction of the people, that 
He purposed to manifest His presence to them in awful grandeur and 
terrible solemnity, upon Mount Sinai, He explicitly declared that, the 
object of the manifestation, was that, the people might hear when He 
spoke with Moses, and believe Moses for ever. And Moses expressly 
affirms that all which the divine voice uttered on the Mount, in the 
hearing of the people, was the Decalogue, or Ten Commandments ; 
and that even this utterance was not understood by the people because 
they were afraid by reason of the fire, and went not up to the Mount : 
but that he stood between Jehovah and the people at the time, to show 
Uiem the word of Jehovah. [Deut. v. 1—22.] 



20 i. Now, so far as the human mind can understand the matter, it 
would seem a wasteful expenditure of miraculous demonstration, to do 
all this, for the purpose oi establishing^ the confidence of Uie people in 
Mose.s as their divinely commissioned and authorized leader, and teacher 
and lawgiver, unless Jehovah purposed that when the confidence of the 
people Wiis fully established in Moses as His vicegerent, Moses should, 
in the execution of his commission, act with the least possible depend- {. 
ence on supernatural machinery and miraculous interference. (6.) > 
For if Jehovah intended to employ an intelligent supernatural angelic i 
agency cognizable to the people, in instituting and promulgating the \ 
laws of the Mosaic Dispensation, it was of very little consequeDce to 
establish the confidence of the people in Moses. But there is nothing 
in the New Testament Scriptures which explicitly teaches that such 
an agency was thus employed; while the Mosaic Scriptures dearlv 
teach that the whole angelic machineiT employed in connection witn 
the viceg'erency of Moses, was en^)loyea by Jehovah not to supersede 
the authority of Moses, but to establish and sustain it : and every- 
thing in the recorded providence of Jehovah in relation to Moseii 
demonstrates the divine purpose of educating him to act as the mSlaeh, 
or angel of Jehovah to the chosen people. (230, et seq,) Accordinglyr 
when the people had witnessed the terrible manifestations of the divine 
presence upon the Mount, and in great consternation had said to 
Moses, " Let not *Sldhiin speak with us lest we die ! but go thou near 
and hear all that Jehovah our *ii6him shall say ; and speak thou nnto 
us, all that Jehovah our ^eiokim shall speak unto thee, and we wiQ 
hear it and do it : " — and when Moses, leaving the people afar off. had 
drawn near to the thick darkness where 'Slohim was, Jehovah said 
unto him, *' Send the people to their tents I but as for thee, stand thou 
here by me, and I will speak unto thee all the commandments, and all 
the statutes and the judgments which thou shall teach them, that they 
may do them in the land which I give them to possess." Here surely 
is no intimation of an intermediate, intelligent, angelic agency between 
Jehovah and Moses : but this passage, in strict accordance with the 
>yholc Mosaic Scriptures, clearly presents the idea that Moses was not 
only the Mediator of the Sinaic Covenant, but the only iutelligent 
mahlch or angel employed between Jehovah and the chosen people. 
As it is written, " And Moses called all Israel, and said unto them, 
Hear, Israel, the statutes and judgments which I speak in your ears 
this day, that ye may learn them, and keep them, and do them. 
Jehovah our ^Sldhhn made a covenant with us in Horeb. Jehovah 
talked with you face to face, in the Mount, out of the midst of the fire. 
/ stood between Jehovah and you at that time^ to show you the word 
of Jehovah ; for ye were afraid by reason of the fire, and went not up 
to the Mount." [Deut. v. 1 — 5.1 Also, after a repetition of the laws 
and regulations of the Mosaic Dispensation, it is written, '* These are 
the statutes, and judgments, and laws, which Jehovah made between 
him and the children of Israel, in Mount Sinai, by the hand of 
Moses." [Lev. xxvi. 46.] And again, "These are the command- 
ments and the judgments which Jehovah commanded by the hand of 
Moses." [Num. xxxvi. 13.] 
295. But what does the phrase, '* by the hand of Moses,* mean 



195 

in the passages of Scripture just cited P It is a figurative mode of 
speaking, common to all languages in their primitive state, and ^eatly 
abounding in the Hebrew Scriptures. The hand, as pre-emmently 
the executive of the will and the instrument of voluntary power, is 
pot for the agency of the individual spoken of : and sometimes the 
eomplez idea tropically signified, comprehends the person with all his 
attributes and faculties. Thus when Jehovah called to Moses from 
the midst of the burning bush, and proposed to send him into Egypt to 
bring out the children of Israel, Moses replied, bi ddhomai shela'hnd 
beyctdh tishla'h — •* my Lord ! send, I pray thee, by the hand thou 
wilt send." That is ; send I pray thee, the person, individual or agent 
whom thou wilt or shouldest send. (238.) And thus, in the passages 
above cited, in relation to making and promulgating the law by Moses, 
the phrase in question, evidently means the agency of Moses. Moses 
was the agent, or intelligent and voluntary instrument by whom 
Jehovah made and promulgated the law. 

296. How then, are we to understand the language of Stephen and 

Paul in relation to this matter ; which, though somewhat different in 

our English Version, is, in our Greek text, essentially the same ^ 

**the law was set, established, or covfim^d by the instrumentality of 

angels,*' (293.) Paul says, "The law was established by the 

instrument sdity of angels in'the hand of a mediator" [Gal. iii. 19] : 

or, as it reads in some of the ancient Greek manuscripts — *• the law 

was established by the instrumentality of an angel in the hand of 

Moses : and this, whether it is the original language of the sacred 

writer or not, unquestionably gives the true idea; for the word 

mesites, ** mediator," in .the received text, manifestly means Moses, 

who was in fact the mediator of the Sinaic Covenant. (294.) And 

let it be particularly observed as a very important consideration in the 

tolution of this question, that, both Stephen and Paul speak of the 

instrumentality of angels in establishing the laws of the Mosaic 

economy, not with the recognition of the superhuman nature and 

diaracter of those angels, nor for the purpose of showing the great 

dignity and high sanction of the Mosaic Dispensation, but for the 

express purpose of showing the much greater dignity and higher 

sanction of the Christian Dispensation. Thus Paul writes to the 

Hebrews, ** For if the word spoken by angels was stedfast, and every 

transgression and disobedience received a just recompense of reward, 

how shall we escape if we neglect so great salvation, which at first 

begun to be spoken by the Lord, and was confirmed unto us by them 

that heard Him P " [Chap. ii. 2.] And again, '* For if they escaped 

not who refused him that spake on earth, much more shall not we 

escape if we turn away from Him that speaketh from heaven." 

[Chap. xii. 25.] And yet again, " He that despised Moses' law died 

without mercy under two or three witnesses. Of how much sorer 

punishment suppose ye, shall he be thought worthy, who hath trodden 

under foot the Son of God." [Chap. x. 28, 29.] The Sinaic Covenant 

of which Moses was the maldch and the mediator, with all its angelic 

machinery, and instrumentality, and sanctions, is here, and throughout 

the whole of the epistle to the Hebrews, and elsewhere in the New 

Testament Scriptures, spoken of as an earthly and inferior afifair, in 



106 

comparuon, or rather contrast with the more purely and trannend- 
ently divine and heavenly dispensation, of which Jesos Christ the Sod 
of God is the Angela and the Mediator, and Surety. '* Jesus Ghriit 
the High Priest of our profession, is counted worthy of more f/iotf 
than Moses, inasmuch as He hath obtained a more excellent minutry, 
and is the Mediator of a better testament, which is established npoo 
better promises ; " or by higher sanctions. Hence, therefore, one of 
the two following conclusions in relation to the language under 
consideration, is necessarily true : — namely ; first — Stephen and ftd 
used the word angel in its singular, instead of its plurtU form, and 
by it meant Moses himself; as in some of the ancient Greek mano- 
scripts — *' the law was estabUshed by an angel in the hand qf Motet;" 
that is, in the person of Moses ; and transcribers have, in aooordsoes 
with more modern opinions, altered the word to the plural form ^Hir 
second ; Stephen and Paul used the word angels to signify the pillar of 
a cloud and of fire, and the thunders and lightnings, and the voice of 
the trumpet, and other unintelligent nUUdchim which Jehoifih 
employed to establish and sustain the authority of Moses as Hii 
vicegerent to the children of Israel, and by virtue of which, Moses was 
enabled to establish and execute the laws which he gave to the peoptei 
(290.) That the latter of these two conclusions is the true one, aid 
the true solution of the particular question before us, can hardly to 
doubted by any one who honestly, understandingly and thoroogUy 
studies the Sacred Scriptures. **The law was established by tw 
instrmnentality of angels in the hand of a mediator," or "in the 
hand of Moses." That is, the m&lackim or angels were subordinali 
and subservient to the mediatorial office of Moses. They were to the 
people the sensible evidences, and the only evidences whidi they ooold 
appreciate, of his divine authority, as their leader, teacher and 
lawgiver: and therefore, they were to the people the '* enyoM,*' 
the " surety " of the validity and divine sanction of the laws whi^ 
he gave them. Hence Paul says, that *' Jesus was made the engout^ 
the ' surety ' of a better dispensation.'* It was, in fact, therefore, hf 
the instrumentality of maldchim, or angels, in the mediatorial hand oif 
Moses that the Mosaic Code was established. Whether we adopt the 
latter or the former conclusion however, in either case, the New 
Testament Scriptures accord perfectly with the Mosaic Becord in 
describing Moses as the mediator of the Sinaic covenant, and as the 
only mdldch or angel which officiated as an intelligent agent between 
Jehovah and the children of Israel in the institution of that covenant, 
and acted as the vicegerent of Jehovah in framing and establishing 
the laws of the Mosaic Dispensation. 

THE EXTENT TO WHICH MOSES HIMSELF, AS THE MALACH AND MEDIATOE 
OF THE SINAIC COVENANT, OR DISPENSATION, WAS BESPONSIBLB FOR 
THE VALIDITY AND SANCTION OF THAT DISPENSATION. 

297. The questions which next come before us, demanding our 
solemn consideration, and the accurate solution of which, is of the 
frst importance and greatest consec^eae^ Vsi \3^^ -^V^V^ ur^ument 
eoDcerniDg the Mosaic dispenaatioii, m^ ii3DkR»^\'l^i '^^aaX. ^s^kqX.^^ 



w 

Hoses himself, as the wUttaeh and mediator of the Sinaic Covenant or 
dispensation, responsible for the validity and sanction of that dis- 
pensation P and to what extent is the dispensation to be reg^arded as 
a miracoloos and immediate revelation of Jehovah P Or, in other 
words. How far did the divine a^ncy. exerted in instituting and 
establishing the Mosaic dispensation, supernaturally and ahsolutely 
eoDtrol the will of Moses P and how far was that agency itself governed 
by the oonstitntional laws of nature (18, 88), leaving Moses in perfect 
mcMral freedom and responsibility, to act from his own judgment — ^to 
employ all the knowledge which he had by any means acquired, and, 
at his own discretion, to adapt his measures to conditions and circum- 
stances P In order to a true and complete solution of these questions, 
it is necessary that we should again recur to principles and reasonings 
whidi have been advanced in the preceding part of my general 
aigument; and for the sake of avoiding repetition, I request my 
leaders to turn back and read again with close and earnest attention, 
the hundred and twenty-ninth, and the hundred and thirtieth sections, 
in whidi are brought together most of the principles which relate to 
the particular questions now before us. And from these — from the 
^ude argument which we have thus far prosecuted — from all the 
TCvelations of GK)d in the volume of nature and in the inspired word 
(1S7), it is most evident that the divine agency supernaturally and 
•bmiutel^ controlled the will of Moses to a very limited extent : but 
that a^ncy was mainly exerted in the efficiency of the constitutional 
hnrs divinely established in the nature of things (4), and therefore, in 
Mrfeet consistency with Moses' entire moral freedom and responsibility. 
90 that, in his particular case, as Paul asserts generallv, " the spirit 
ef the prophet was subject to the prophets (107, 164.) Gk)d had, 
fkioiigh the constitutional laws of nature, ruled all thing^ in relation 
to the constitution and character of Moses, to make him what he was, 
and to move him in the consciousness of moral freedom, to act as he 
did. That is, Qod had done all that in the nature, condition and 
cirenmstances of things, was possible, to fit him in the highest degree, 
with respect to the physiolo^cal, intellectual, moral and religious 
qualities and properties of his character, for the office which he was 
ordained to fill. It was by virtue of the integritv and efficiency of the 
laws of God in the nature of things, that Moses had his Egyptian and 
Ifidian education. (230, et seq,) And every physical, and physio- 
logical, and moral, and religious, and theological, and politicaJ, and 
other truth, the knowledge of which Moses had by any means acquired, 
whether in the schools of the priests, or from Uie sacred records and 
traditions of Egypt, or in the sohtude of the Midian desert, was no less 
a truth of Gk>d, and no less of divine authority, and no less essential to 
the accomplishment of his mission as the leader, and teacher, and 
lawgiver of the chosen people, than were those truths which were 
miraculously enunciated from amidst the thunders, and lightnings, 
and thick darkness on Mount Sinai. For it should be continually 
borne in mind that " Ood is truth ; *' and that " all truth is of Qod; ^* 
and equaUy of divine authority, as a rule of action, whether ascertained 
by experience, or sdenla&c investigation, or ftnpecikttXvnvX. \£kS^\£^\^\i^ 
or mineuloaa enundation, (127.) Indeed, il is uol esSdiKiiiX ^'dX. ^^^3^ 



198 

the truths of the Decalogae, miraculously enunciated from Mmmt 
Sinai, were then supernaturally revealed to the mind of Moses. On the 
contrary, the whole economy of the divine administration in relation to 
Moses and the Mosaic dispensation, warrants the conclusion that those 
truths had been previously developed in Moses' mind, and that, they 
were miraculously and terribly enunciated from the Mount, in the 
hearing of all the people, for the two-fold purpose of confirming the 
truths in the mind of Moses, and of confirming the confidence oif the 
people in Moses as the vicegerent of Jehovah. 

298. Accordingly, when the terrible demonstrations of the dinne 
presence on the IVIount, had, as far as in the nature, condition and 
circumstances of things was possible, produced these efiects, and the 
people, in great consternation, had deprecated the voice of V/oAtm, and 
entreated Moses to stand between them and Jehovah their *gl6hm, and. 
as the mdldch of Jehovah, to speak unto them in Jehovah's stead, and 
promised to hear and obey the word by Moses, the tremendous voiee 
ceased to speak in the hearing of the ]>eople : and whUe the people, 
more in the mental, and moral, and spiritual, than in the pnytieal 
sense of the language, " stood afar off, Moses drew near unto tne HoA 
darkness where *Sldkim was;" and returned to the people with 
*'Jehovah*s name in him" clothed with full authority to speak to them 
in Jehovah's stead ; to instruct and direct them, and legislate for them, 
in all their individual concerns, and in all their domestic, and sodil, 
and civil, and political, and moral, and religious affairs and intereiti ; 
and to establish all his edicts, all his dictates, all his regulations, and 
all his doings, with the solemn sanction, **Thus saith Jehovah I" 
Thus Moses became the fully ordained mediator of the covenant which 
ensued, the maldch or angel of the dispensation which followed, the 
vicegerent of Jehovah, in framing and establishing the Mosaie 
economy. When, therefore, the Hebrew Scriptures state, in reference 
to the Sinaic dispensation, that " These are the statutes, and judgmenti, 
and laws, which Jehovah made between him and the children of Israel, 
in Mount Sinai, by the hand of Moses," they mean that Jehovah 
employed Moses as His vicegerent to make these statutes, judgments 
and laws for the chosen people ; and that Moses, in the legislative 
functions of his vicegerency, made, according to his own understanding 
and judgment from the knowledge he possessed, the wisest and best 
laws and regulations which the nature, condition and circumstances of 
things would admit of, consistently with the moral freedom of the 
people and the end to be accomplished through their free moral action. 
Or, in other words, that, Moses as the instrument of Jehovah, stiU, in 
perfect moral freedom and responsibility, exercised his own judgment 
on the knowledge he possessed, whether derived from supernatural 
teaching or acquired in the school of divine providence (297), and at 
his own discretion made such laws and established such institutions as 
he found, from the condition and circumstances of things, to be best 
adapted to the desired end. Accordingly when Moses, as the vice- 
gerent of Jehovah had, among other regulations, established the 
ordinance that the people should, on certain days, bring all their 
matters of controversy and contention l>efore him, for adjudication, 
Jcthro, his father-in-law, having heard of all that *elohtm had done for 



m 

, and for Israel his people, came unto Moses in the wilderness, 
he encamped at the mount of ^Slohvn, And it came to pass on 
)rrow, that Moses sat to judge the people : and the people stood 
ses from the morning unto the evening. And when Jethro saw 
aid to Moses, ** Why sittest thou thyself alone, and all the people 
by thee from morning until evening?" And Moses replied, 
luse the people come unto me to inquire of ^elokim. When they 
a matter, they come unto me, and I judge between one and 
iT ; and I make them to know the statutes of 'glohim, and his 
' And Jethro said unto him, ** The thing that thou doest, is not 

Thou wilt surely wear away, both thou and this people that is 
bee : for this thmg is too heavy fi>r thee ; thou art not able to 
m it alone. Hearken now unto my voice ; I will give thee 
el, and ^ilohim shall be with thee. Be thou for the people 
a'aiohim — * b^ore ^Hlohim,* that thou mayest bring the causes unto 
n : and thou shalt teach them ordinances and laws, and shalt 
them the way wherein they must walk, and the work that they 
do. Moreover, thou shalt provide out of all the people, able 
such as fear *(sldhim, men of truth, hating covetousness ; and 

such over them, to be rulers of thousands, and rulers of 
'eds, and rulers of fifties, and rulers of tens. And let them judge 
K>ple at all seasons : and it shall be that every great matter shall 
bring unto thee : but every small matter they shall judge : so 
it be easier for thyself, and they shall bear the burden with thee. 
)u shalt do this thing, and 'ilohim shall command thee so, then 
ibalt be able to endure, and all this people shall go to their place 
ice. So Moses hearkened to the voice of his fa^er-in-law, and 
U that he had said." [Exod. xviii. 1, et seq.l Here we find 
y the soothsayer of Midian, instead of Jehovah the ^Slohim of 
:, instructing Moses, and Moses at his own discretion, promptly 
ing the measures prescribed by Jethro, and soon afterward 
ishing them under the sanction of "thus saith Jehovah," as 
ment regulations in the Mosaic economy. 
K To those who read the Sacred Scriptures only in our English 
»n, Jethro appears to be quite an intelligent saint, and talks about 
ja- freely and knowingly, and worships Him as devoutly as Moses ; 
lerefore, it would not seem absurd to such, to suppose that Jethro 
; also be divinely inspired, and consequently, that what he advised 
i to do, was of divine authority. But we have seen (226, 237) , 
lU the nations and tribes on the face of the earth, at that time; 
leir gods whom they all worshipped, served and propitiated, in 
• the same manner ; and that ** Slohim" was the appellative or 
ion name of all gods: consequently, Pharaoh of Egypt, and 
elech of Gerar, and Jethro of Midian, could all speak of 'Slohim^ 
ffer sacrifices to *ilohimy jwithout any reference to, or knowledge 
hovah the *ilohim of ^Israel. Jethro, in common with all other 
>f his day, not only believed in the existence of many ^eWhim^ but 
every nation had its own peculiar tutelary *eidhm ; and he had 

what the tutelary *ei6him of the Hebrews, by the name of 
ah, had done for Moses and Israel his people, in delivering them 
bondage, and bringing them out of Egypt. And when he came 



200 

to see Moses at Mount Sinai, Moses told him all that Jehorah, as tbe 
tutelary *&ohim of the Hebrews, " had done unto Pharaoh, and to the 
Egyptians for Israel's sake ; and how he had delivered them." And 
when Jethro had heard Moses' statement, **he rejoiced for all the 
goodness which Jehovah had done to Israel ; and said. Blessed ba 
Jehovah, who hath delivered you out of the hand of the Egyptiui. 
Now I know that Jehovah is greater than all the 'iidhim ; for m the I 
thing wherein they dealt proudly, he was above them all. And Jethro 
took a burnt offering and sacrifices iovSldhwa and Aaron came, and 
all the elders of Israel, to eat bread with Moses' father-in-law, before 
the ^him" But so far is all this from proving tliat Jethro was an 
intelligent worshipper of the true God, as now understood by the 
enlightened Christian mind, it fully demonstrates the contrary ; and 
clearly shows that he was a polytheist, and considered it right to 
propitiate any *elohim, to whose wrath he might be ezpoeed ; and ta 
sacrifice to any ^ilohim whose favours he desired, or had received. In 
the case before us, however, his sacrifices were made, less for religiona 
than social purposes. According to the custom of the times, be wiabad 
to give a feast : but the universal religion of the times forbid that he 
should slaughter the animals necessary for the feast, without offering a 
portion of uie flesh, in burnt offering, to some one or more of the 
hlohlm, [Lev. xvii. 3, et 9eq,'\ Nevertheless, Jethro was undoubtedly 
a very upright, and devout, and worthy man for the tiroes in whidi he 
lived ; and had, from experience and observation and reflection, ac- 
quired no small share of true, practical wisdom. And if the counsd which 
he gave to Moses, was true counsel— or in other words, if, with respeefc 
to the ultimate fulfilment of the divine purposes of benevolenee^ 
it was the best adaptation of means to ends, which in the natore, 
condition, and circumstances of things was possible, then it was, in 
reality, as valid, and as truly of divine authority, as if it had been 
enunciated by a supernatural voice from amidst the thanders and 
lightnings and thick darkness on mount Sinai : and Moses, in adopting 
it, acted with perfect integrity as the vicegerent of Jehovah. And lo 
again, in regard to procuring the services of a guide. Notwithstanding 
the promise of Jehovah that He would send a mildeh before the diosen 
people to keep them in the way, and to bring them into the place wUdi 
He had prepared ; and notwithstanding the divine arrangement that 
the cloud by day, and appearance of fire by night, should signiiy 
to the people when to journey and when to rest, yet, in the perfert 
integrity of his character as the vicegerent of Jehovah, Moses, when 
about to depart with the people from mount Sinai, said to Hobab, his 
brother-in-law, who had resolved to return to his own land and kindred, 
" Do not leave us, I pray thee, but come with us : for thou knowest bow 
we are to encamp in the wilderness, and thou mayest be to ns instead 
of eyes." Moses was sufliciently informed in relation to the country 
through which he was about to lead his people, to be aware of the evils 
to which both the people and their flocks and herds would be liable, 
from the aridity and sterility of the desert; and he knew that Hobab, 
being a native of that country, and a nomad, or shepherd, was well 
acquainted with the whole region, and could guide him and his people, 
to the fountains and wells and pastures of the desert through which 



201 

vat pass: and, being conscious that he was himself the only 
mi tnSldeh of Jehorah, appointed to lead the chosen people to 
nised land« he felt the need of such a guide to *' be instead of 
> him ; and therefore it was virtually under the full sanction of 
saith JehoTah/' that he said to Hobab, go with us and be our 
' and what goodness Jehovah shall do unto us, the same will we 
thee." (Num. xxix. 30—32.) 

Let me not be misunderstood on this exceedingly important 
Nothing is farther from my intention or desire, than to attempt 
idate, in the least degree, the claim of the Sacred Scriptures to 
kuthority. My aim is accurately to define the legitimate authority 
Scriptures as the word of God, and show precisely, in what 
- ana to what extent, the divine sanction ^ves validity to them, 
lefiniteness with which this subject has hitherto, and generally, 
prehended by the human mind, and the solemn mystery whidi 
"ounded, and in a measure, enveloped it, have left wide room for 
1 conjecture and for superstitious error of opinion, respecting it. 
it is impossible for the human mind to attain to true ideas on 
ject, without just notions of the nature and character of Gk>d, 
the nature, condition and relations of man (16, et seq,), and 
erceptions of the difference between the physical, moral and 
1 governments of God (76, et seq,), and of the economy of God's 
nd spiritual governments, with respect to the relation of His 
ereignty to man's moral freedom. But the human mind has 
L understood the constitutional relations between God and man ; 
ot well understood that God, in adjusting and establishing the 
tional laws of man's moral nature and agency, necessarily set 
to His own moral and spiritual power, and determined the 
of those powers by the condition and circumstances of man's 
z nature. (19, 88, 177.) Hence the human mind has not well 
ood that the moral and spiritual power of God can borrow no 
ite efficiency from His physical omnipotence, and that the 
of Truth is always and essentially intrinsic, and therefore, cao 
be augmented nor abated in the smallest degree by the dignity 
ess of Sie being or instrument by which it is enunciated, revealed* 
le known. Consequently, the opinion has been universally 
ined that if the arch-angel of heaven should come to earth as 
isenger of God, and proclaim a truth to the human world, and a 
and obscure human person should utter another truth of equal 
d importance to the well-being of mankind, the divine authority 
truth proclaimed by the angel, would be as much greater than 
the truth uttered by the human person, as the dignity of the 
ly, would be greater than the dignity of the earthly enundator. 
B opinion is utterly erroneous. So that it could be made perfectly 
that what the human person uttered was true, it would be of 
ivine authority with the truth uttered by the angel. And hence» 
sculous phenomena and facts which have ever been connected 
e revelation of truth, have not been intended to g^ve validity to 
ith revealed, but to afibrd just grounds of confidence in the 
f of the enunciator. And so with respect to aeeommodated 
ations of the divine administration ; if Uie best measures are 



202 

adopted, and the best regulations are established, which the naton 
condition and circumstances of things will admit of, though the whole 
be done by a human agent, in his entire moral freedom, and in die 
exercise of his own judgment and discretion, from the knowledge he 
has acG[uired in a natural manner, without one word of supematml 
revelation, or the aid of a single miraculous demonstration, still the 
measures and regulations have allthe divine validity and autbori!y, 
that they could have, if dedicated to the human agent, by a miracnlooi 
voice from amidst preternatural thunders and lightnings anddarknen; 
or if they had been framed and established by the arch-angel of heaicn 
as the immediate instrument of Jehovah. 

301. This brings us precisely to the true position of things with 
respect to the Mosaic Dispensation. God knew from the b^inning 
exactly what Moses would have to do, as His vicegerent to the chosen 
people ; and He did not suffer Moses to spend eighty years without any 
education preparatory to the important omce which he was ordained to 
^11, and leave him to learn from the miraculous voice on mount Sinii, 
nor from any supornatural means, any truths, the knowledge of which 
he had the natural faculties and means to acquire. But all we know 
of the divine character and government, leads us to believe that near^ 
all the knowledge employed in framing and establishing the Mosaie 
economy, was acquired by Moses in the school of divine providence, 
rather than received by him from miraculous enunciation or super* 
natural revelation : and that, after Moses* confidence in Jehovah as the 
*ildhim of the Hebrews, was once fully established, all the miraculooi 
phenomena, manifestations and enunciations attending his mission, 
were for the purpose of establishing and sustaining his authority with 
the people, as the vicegerent of Jehovah, rather than for the purpose of 
revealing new truths, or imparting new instructions to him, or dictat- 
ing to him, " statutes and judgments and laws*' to be given to the 
people. 

302. In nearly every respect, therefore, the Mosaic economy was 
as purely the result of Moses' own moral agency, as if he had, in the 
whole affair, acted without any sensible evidence, or any consciousnen 
of special divine assistance : while, on the other hand, it was to all 
intents and purposes for which it was established, of as much divine 
validity and authority, as if Jehovah himself had, without any in- 
termediate human instrumentality, miraculously imposed the whole 
economy on the chosen people. Because Jehovah so ruled all things 
in relation to the whole affair, that Moses, as His vicegerent, in whom 
•* He had put His Name," or whom he had clothed with full authority 
to speak and act in His name, actually did the best that in the nature, 
condition and circumstances of things was possible ; and Jehovah 
himself could do no better. (91, 108.) Therefore Jehovah did it **iy 
the hand of Moses :" and Moses did it as the vicegerent of Jehovah, 
carr}'ing always in his hand the great seal of his commission, with 
which he impressed on all his ordinances, edicts and regulations, the 
bolemn sanction, **Thus saith Jehovah P' and still, in all things, he 
nrted with y>erfect moral freedom and responsibility, and availed 
himself of all the knowledge he possessed, and all the information he 
could obtain, however acquired or attained to, and exercised his own 



Jiidgment, and at his own discretion, adopted such measures and 
established such laws as he found to be the best that the nature, 
eondition and drcuinstanees of things would admit of. Hence, with. 
the strictest propriety, both the Hebrew and the Christian Scriptures 
speak of the Sinaic code as " the law of Moses" " Moses commanded 
us a law." (Deut. xxxiii. 4.) "For the law was given by Moses." 
(John i. 17.) And our Lord himself, according to the Evangelists, 
demands of the caviling Jews, '* Did not Moses give you the law P" Nay, 
indeed he goes farther, and not only affirms Uiat Moses gave the law, 
bat also explicitly affirms that he gave an accommodated law, and that 
he did so because of the obduracy and perverseness of his people ; or 
adapted his institutions to the condition and circumstances of their 
oomplez nature. "Moses, because of the hardness of your hearts, 
-suffered you to put away your wives ; but from the beginning it was not 
so." (215.) That is; though from conditional necessity this Mosaic 
ordinance was instituted, and was the best that in the nature, condition 
and circumstances of things, was then possible, yet it is incompatible 
with the highest and best condition of human nature, and with the 
best interests of man. 



OEAHD OONGLUSION IN BELATION TO THB DIVINE VALIDITY AND AUTHORITY 

OF THE SINAIC DISPENSATION. 

303. What, then, is the grand conclusion to which we are legitimately 
and necessarily brought in relation to the divine validity and authority 
of the Sinaic dispensation P Manifestly this; that, every ordinance, 
precept and regulation in the Mosaic economy, which is in perfect 
accordance with the laws which God has constitutionally established in 
the nature of things, is of divine validity and authority, as a perpetual 
and universal rule of action to all human nature, in all periods of time, 
and in all conditions and circumstances : and that every ordinance and 
precept and regulation in the Mosaic economy, which is not in perfect 
accordance with the laws which God has constitutionally established in 
the nature of things, is, in so far as it varies from those constitutional 
laws, an accommodated dispensation, necessarily adapted to conditions 
and circumstances, and is of divine validity and authority only when 
and where the conditions and circumstances exist, out of which arises 
the necessity for its existence. (66, 176, 200.) And consequently, it is 
necessarily not more true that the laws of the former category have the 
stability and permanancy of nature, than it is that the laws of the latter 
category are, in the very nature of things, obsolescent ; and therefore, 
the divine validity and authority, pertaining to the laws of both 
cat^^es, make it equally obligatory on man to conform to the laws 
of the former, and to do all he can to remove the conditions and 
circumstances which make the laws of the latter necessary, and, thereby, 
to make the greatest possible prog^ss in leaving accommodated institu- 

*tions behind, and in attaining to institutions more conformable to the 
constitutional laws of God in the nature of things. (127.) 

304. Let it be well understood, however, that the pulling down, or 
throwing off of old institutions, before the conditions and circumstances 



901 

which make them necessary, are removed, or left behindi is not trae 
progress, but rebellion against God and the social well-b^ng of mm. 
The mere insurrectionary repudiation of existing institutions because 
they are felt to be restraints upon frowardness and lost, or repngnint 
to sentiments of licentious freedom, is hearen-wide fromtiiatprogresiiTe 
change which is justified and demanded by the true economy of the 
divine governmeot. The only legitimate mode of laying aside an dd 
institution, is by growing into a new and better one ; or one adapted to 
a really improved and actually existing state of things: and, hf 
** growing into a new and better one," I mean that true progress in 
man, which develops in him the idea, the sentiment and sosceptibilify 
requisite to the existence and efficacious validity of a new ana bettor 
institution. The verbal forms of oral or written law, ate but wind 
or shadow, without any substantial reality as rules of action in the 
human world. It is only when the outward verbal forms are the tme 
exponents of the inward convictions and sentiments of the human sonl, 
that laws have an efficacious validity. And hence the vocation of the 
true reformer, is not to pull down old institutions but to erect and 
establish new and better ones, by producing those convictions and 
developing those sentiments in tiie human soul which naturally signify 
themselves in those outward modes that constitute the verbal forms <x 
moral and religious and civil laws and ordinances and regnlationi: 
being, as it were, by divine intuition, conusant, that, as the serpent Isyi 
aside his old skin by developing a new one under the old, and thns, 
gradually, as the new one forms, separating the old one from the 
conservative power of vitality and leaving it to consequent decay, so hf 
developing in the human soul, the ideas and the sentiments of new and 
better institutions, and through this economy, developing new and 
appropriate outward forms which gpradually substitute the old, the 
latter, without the necessity of any violence to demolish them, naiuraUjf 
fall into decay from their own defunctness. 



THE SOURCE, EXTENSIVENESS, DURABILITT, VALIDITY AND AUTHORITT OF 

THE MOSAIC EOONOMT. 

305. We are now prepared to contemplate the institution of the 
Mosaic economy witn a correct understanding of its source, its 
extensiveness, its durability, its validity and authority. We have seen 
that Jehovah did not leave Moses till he had arrived with the 
emancipated Hebrews at the foot of Mount Sinai, before He beg^n to 
educate him for the office of a lawgiver to the chosen jpeople (230) : 
that nearly all, if indeed, not quite all the knowledge in theology, and 
religion, and ethics, and jurisprudence, and civil polity, and political 
and domestic economy, and personal regimen, and ph^ical science, 
which Moses employeii in framing and establishing his institutions, 
was acquired or received before the miraculous enunciation of the 
Decalogue from the Mount. (291.) We have seen (297), that,' 
whether Moses acquired this knowledge in the schools of the priests, 
or from the sacred records and traditions of Egypt, or in the solitude 
of the Midian desert, or received it from miraculous enunciation, it 



205 

was eqnallf a part of his diyine education, and, by divine sanction, 
equally available to him in the performance of the functions of hit 
no^erency. In order to the full validity and authority of the Mosaic 
institutions, as divine dispensations, it was necessary Uiat they should 
be the best, that, in the nature, condition and circumstances of things 
were possible. And if the divine administration made this certain, it 
was perfectly the same, as to the divine validity and authority of the 
institutions, whether they were framed and established by a human or 
laperhamaQ instrumentality, or immediately by Jehovah himself; and 
perfectly the same, whether the instrumentality employed by Jehovah, 
aetedfrom His immediate and miraculous dictation, or from knowledge 
acquired by natural means. And this is precisely the true statement 
of the case with respect to Moses and the Mosaic institutions. Jehovah 
10 ruled all things in relation to Moses* natural character, and to his 
education, as to make it perfectly certain that his institutions would 
be the best that in the nature, condition and circumstances of things 
were possible : and all this, so far as Moses* agency was concerned, 
Vas effected through the economy of his entire moral freedom : his 
ovn " heart devised his way while Jehovah directed his steps," and, 
for the most part, he acted with as full a consciousness of entire 
freedom of choice and action, and as fully from his own understanding, 
•ad judgment, and discretion, as did Lycurgus or Solon or any other 
human lawgiver, in framing and establishing his institutions. And, 
after Moses had returned from Midian to Egypt, as the delegate of 
Jehovah, for the deliverance of the chosen people, the miraculous 
demonstrations which attended his mission were, as we have seen 
(291), like those which attended the earthly ministry of our Lord, not 
so much designed to instruct and edify him, as to establish and sustain 
bis authority with the people, as the vicegerent of Jehovah. 

306. The true view, then, in which we are to contemplate the great 
transaction of instituting the Mosaic economy, is precisely and exactly 
Jus ; Moses, in perfect moral freedom, worked out his own purposes, 
while Jehovah worked in him to will and to do the best that, m the 
nature, condition and circumstances of things was possible. (88, 89.) 
A^nd therefore, it is in strict accordance with truth, and indeed, the 
)nly strictly accurate view of the subject, that, while we continually 
recognize the divine authority and control in the whole transaction, 
we still contemplate Moses as acting in perfect moral freedom — 
Bmploying all the available knowledge he possessed, however acquired 
ir attained to — acting according to his own understanding — exercising 
liis own judgment; and, at his own discretion, adopting such measures 
ind establishing such ordinances, as the condition and circumstances 
>f things made necessary, in order to reach the desired end through 
the moral freedom of the chosen people. Moses, according to his own 
imowledge and understanding, did the best he could ; and Jehovah so 
ruled, that Moses actually did the best that in the nature, condition 
and circumstances of things was possible. With the continual recog- 
nition of this divine authority and control, I shall therefore, in rigorous 
conformity to truth and propriety, speak of Moses as acting in perfect 
moral freedom, and, according to his own understanding and judgment, 
in framing and instituting the Mosaic economy. 



S06 



WitT tflS MOSAIC INSTITUTIONS WBRS NOT XS88 CAKStXL AXD HOB 

SPIRITUAL. 

• 

307. Now, the constitutional philosophy of things, the reveUtioni of 
God in the volume of nature* the whole history of the divine gofem- 
mciit in the human world, and the testimony of the inspired word u 
a whole (l'i^)t all concur with the general argument before us, to maka 
it entirely certain that ha4 the cotemporaneous condition and circum- 
stances of the complex nature of the chosen people (177), been such u 
rendered them susceptible of an effectual moral force from the com- 
mandments which were miraculously enunciated to them from Moaot ■ 
Sinai, the Dccalo^e would have formed the politico-religious consti- 
tution of the Hebrew Commonwealth, in the Mosaic economy, and not 
only all visible representations of ^eiohinit but all the forms of their 
idolatrous rites and ceremonies, would have been laid aside forever; 
and the ordinances which thenceforward would have been observed by 
them, would have been in accordance with true theology and religion. 
(280.) Moses, ^ough not wholly prepared for this state of things, 
was, nevertheless, far in advance of his recently emancipated brethren. 
(178.) He was still deeply tinctured with polytheistic and anthro- 
pomorphous notions of ilohm, (251.) With utmost confidence he 
believed in Jehovah, not only as the tutelary *gl6hhn of the Hebrews, 
but as the highest and most powerful of all the 'Hldhlm (273) : bat ha 
still had sensual ideas of Jehovah, and contemplated Him as having 
attributes and passions like his own (230) ; and he still believed that 
other nations had their tutelary ^Slokim, which, though far less powerful 
than Jehovah, were not less wrathful and vindictive; and were 
sufficiently mighty to be exceedingly terrible and destructive to those 
as^ainst whom their wrath was kindled. Not only on account of the 
pervcrseness and obduracy of the chosen people, tiierefore, but also on 
account of the evils to which he and his people would be exposed from 
the wrath of the tutelary 'EUlhhn of other nations, if unprotected by 
Jehovah, Moses himself, as well as the people, contemplated the idea of 
being abandoned by their own tutelary 'ilohim, with the deepest anxiety 
and dread. And consequently, when Moses, and through him, the 
people heard that, Jehovah had determined not to " go up in the midst 
of them " (283) , though they little understood the divine meaning of 
the language, yet they were greatly dismayed, and in fear, humbl^ 
themselves. And Moses earnestly entreated Jehovah not to forsake 
him and the people which He had commanded him to bring up out of 
Egypt: and he said, "Now therefore I pray thee, if I have found 
grace in thy sight, show me now thy way that I may know thee, that 1 
may find grace in thy sight; and consider that this nation is thy 
pco])le." And Jehovah had compassion on him and said unto him, 
*' My presence shall go with thee, and 1 will give thee rest." And 
Moses replied, *' If thy presence go not with me, carry us not up hence. 
For, wherein shall it be known that 1 and thy people have found grace 
in thy sight P Is it not in that thou goest with us P So shall we be 
separated, I and thy people, from all people that are on the face of the 
earth." (21 L) A visible demonstration of a special divine presence 



207 

scessary to satisfy Moses and the people that they were the 
ir objects of Jehovah's favour and protection : and so sensual 
OSS were even Moses' ideas of his 'glohlm, that he desired to have 
le perception of Jehovah in the glory of his person. But Jehovah 
nto him, ** Thou canst not see my face : for there shall no man 
) and live.*' That is, '* no human being can see me with his 
eyes, or have a sensual perception of me : but I will make all 
3dness pass before thee— I will give thee sensible evidence of my 
ice, of my power and of my goodness, and a visible evidence of a 
I divine presence shall go with thee to sustain thy authority with 
jople as my vicegerent.*' (291.) The whole of this particular 
1 of the Mosaic Record manifests an accommodation of the divine 
istration to a very sensual state of the human soul, with respect 

theological and religious ideas and sentiments. Jehovah is 
ented as putting Moses in the cleft of a rock, and covering him 
lis hand while He passed by, so that Moses should not see His 
.nd as taking away His hand after He had passed by, so that 

might see His back parts : all of which has a grossness utterly 
patible with true ideas of God, and fully demonstrates that the 
ion and circumstances of the complex nature of the recipients of 
spensation, would admit of nothing higher and more consistent 
rue ideas of the nature and character of Qod and of the relation? 
m Gk)d and man. (176.) 

Notwithstanding the vagueness of the Mosaic record with 
t to chronological consecutiveness and precision, it is not to be 
d that a considerable time intervened between the enunciation 

Decalogue from Mount Sinai, and the promulgation of the 
uent Mosaic institutions. Moses evidently intended that the 
Igue should form the grand basis of all the^ institutions, 
nces and regulations which entered into the politico-religious 
ay of the Hebrew Commonwealth. Nor is it to be doubted that, 
) found his people in a condition to receive as high a dispensation 
ivas prepared to present to them, he would have estaolished a 
I far more simple in its character, and more consistent with 
apical, religious and moral truth, than the one which he actaalln 
ted. But the conduct of the people in worshipping the moltey 
$71), fully demonstrated that it was not in the nature, condition 
ircumstances of things possible, to cause them to worship the 
>le Jehovah in a manner suitable to His nature and character, 
> keep them in moral freedom, from open idolatry, without 
iog, as a substitute for a visible object oi worship, thp system 
sible rites, and ceremonies, and ** carnal ordinances,'' to which 
ad always been accustomed. Nay, indeed, it was not in the 
i, condition and circumstances of things possible, by any means 
tent with their entire moral freedom, to keep them from 
ing those sensible rites, and ceremonies, and carnal ordinances, 
»ir religious services. The very best that it was possible for 

to do, therefore, was to retain the forms of worship to which the 
! had always been accustomed, and which had become inseparably 
ated with all their theological ideas and religious sentiments, and 
tematize and regulate tliose forms in the best possible manner, 



208 

and, in the largest possible measure, to modify and shape them to tk« 
great purpose which he desired to accomplish. (281.) 



THB BBLiaiOUS RITES, CERSMONIXS AND ORDniAHCXS OF TBS MOIAIC 
ECOMOMT WE BE RETAINED RATHER THAN ORIGINATSD BT MOilS. 

309. I am fully aware that it is a common opinion, and that muf 
writers have laboured hard to prove that the religious rites and CMrdi- 
nances of the Mosaic economy were, for the most part, originally intro- 
duced into religious service, by Moses, acting under the immediate and 
miraculous dictation of Jehovah. But the opinion certainly is without 
any foundation in truth, and all the reasoning in its support, hu 
necessarily been feeble and inconclusive. Nothing in human history 
is more certain than that religious sacrifices, similar to those introdoced 
into the Mosaic economy, were common to all portions of the hnnua 
world, of which either sacred or profane history gives any account, long 
before the time of Moses. Indeed we have seen (199, 200), that, thi 
sacrificing of animals in religious service originated in the primitiTi 
family of man; and that it did not there originate as h positive diiiu 
institution, but as a necessary conditional result of the integrity and 
efficiency of constitutional laws divinely established in the natnreof 
things : and that the practice necessarily increased as the degeneratt 
human species multiplied on the face of the earth, and, throughoutitt 
generations, from Cam to the present day, has co-existed with that stats 
of things in which it is naturally developed. (201.) We have seenalso^ 
(274), that when Moses returned from Midian to Egypt to efiect the 
deliverance of his enslaved brethren, the efficacious motive which he 
presented to them to induce them to leave Egypt, was that they should 
go into the desert and sacrifice animals and bold a feast to Jehovah 
their tutelary *Sl6him ; and when Pharaoh said to Moses, *' Go ye, sene 
Jehovah ; only let your flocks and your herds be stayed," Moses replied, 
''Thou must give us also sacrifices and burnt-offerings that we maj 
sacrifice unto Jehovah our ^eiokim. Our cattle shall go with us: there 
shall not a hoof be left behind : for thereof must we take, to serre 
Jehovah our 'Sldhim^ and we know not with what we must serve Jehovih 
until we come thither." (Exod. x. 24-26.) This reply of Moses wis 
neither surprising nor strange to Pharaoh's mind. He was perfectly 
familiar with the idea and the practice of sacrificing animals to the 
^ilohim ; and the Egyptians had been perfectly familiar with the idea 
and the practice for ages before Moses was born ; and all the inhabi- 
tants of the land of Canaan, and of every other portion of the earth, 
were familiar with the idea and practice before the Hebrews left 
Egypt : and when the Hebrews " offered burnt-offerings, and brought 
peace offerings," in their worship of the molten calf, they manifestly 
did nothing new; but acted out the idea and the sentiment and 
observed the forms which had been familiar to them from childhood, 
and to their ancestors through all nreceding generations. (201.) And 
what I have said concerning sacrifices, with reference to the origin of 
the rites and ordinances and regulations comprised in the Mosaic 
economy, is mainly if not entirely true of all the other institutions and 
features of that economy. Instead of introducing entirely new forms 



200 

thip, Moses, firom conditional necessity, retained the old forms of 

ation and idolatry to which the people had been accustomed; and 

ncipal change which he made, was in taking away and solemnly 

Iting all images and representations and visible similitudes of 

and making the invisible Jehovah the object of their worship, 

use of their accustomed rites and ceremonies ; and thus their 

e forms of religious service, were made the substitute for a 

e object of worship, as the only means in the nature, condition 

cnmstances of things, possible, by which the chosen people could 

measure, be kept from outward idolatry of conduct, and, as a 

gradually elevated to the knowledge and true service of Jehovah, 

spared for the introduction of a better Dispensation. 

BUMMABT RECAPITULATION. 

Now, then, for the sake of the utmost perspicuity in our 
ngs, and force in our conclusions, let us, by a brief recapitula- 
*ing together some of the principal propositions in the general 
ent before us : and First. Jehovah did not elect the Hebrews to 
peculiar people, because of their own righteousness ; for they were 
remely perverse and rebellious people ; but he chose them and 
ed them from all the rest of the ungodly family of man, for the 
* accomplishing by and through them, as a separate people, his 
eat purpose of fully developing and establishing his moral and 
il government in the human world. (173, 223.; Second. The 
fa were so deeply sunk in heathenish ignorance and idolatry that, 
hey arrived at mount Sinai, they had not the most vague notion of 
ritual nature and true moral character of GK)d ; nor had they any- 
more than the most dim and shadowy and indefinite notion of 
immortality, and future state of existence, if, indeed, they had 
lat : and they certainly had no idea of any capacities and powers 
I, for enjoyment or suffering, separate from his animal and cor- 
nature. (280.) Third. They were, therefore, at the time the 
; economy was instituted, utterly unable to apprehend and 
iate any other than sensible evidences of Grod's existence and 
and goodness ; and consequently, Jehovah always indicated his 
presence and interposition to them, by sensible manifestations ; 
ey, in their darkness and stupidity, did not perceive why all these 
{Stations might not as well be the effects of an *gtohm resembling 
as of one having any other form. (272.) Fourth. From the 
ution, condition, and circumstances of their complex nature 
)re (177), they were continually and powerfully prone to worship 
tlohim whose form or image they could set before them, as the 
of their attention during their acts of devotion, or their religious 
» ; and consequently, they were ever, and strongly iaclined to 
y. (280.) Fifth. This separate people, as a race, must, according 
divine purpose, be led in moral freedom, not only from Egypt to 
>mised land, but from heathenish ignorance and idolatry, to the 
jdge and service of the invisible Jehovah. (281.) Sixth. As moral 
.they could be led only by motives which they could apprehend and 
date. (77.) Seventh. But, " the way into the holiest of all was 



210 

not yet made manifest ;'* they were not prepared to receive the li 
and holiest order of motives and influences* Having no knowledge 
spiritual nature, and true moral character of God, and of th 
relations existing between God and man, it was not possible foi 
to apprehend and appreciate the motives and ini^uences which 
knowledge affords : and having no ^ust notions oi man^s immo 
and future state of existence, no motives azfd influences relating i 
a state, could be brought to bear efficaciously upon them : and Sn 
a future state of existence is hardly alluded to, if indeed it is sug 
at all in the writings of Moses ; and the retributions of a futur< 
are never presented as motives, in the early Hebrew scripture 
they are not clearly and distinctly brought out in any part of t 
Testament, for the sole reason that such were the conditi( 
circumstances of the complex nature of the chosen people, wh 
Hebrew Scriptures were written, that they had little or no suscep 
for such an order of motives, and therefore such motives could 
brought to bear efficaciously upon them. (80.) It remained for ' 
Christ to bring life and -immortality to light," in a new and 
dispensation. (286.) Eighth. An order of motives and int 
which they could apprehend and appreciate—by which they coi 
would be actuated as moral agents, must therefore, from constit 
necessity, be adopted, in order to lead the people onward in 
freedom, toward the fulfilment of the great purpose of divine b 
lence. (170.) And the only motives by which the people c( 
actuated and governed in moral freedom, were such as perta 
time and sense, and related to man as a mortal being; and < 
their principle efficacy from their adaptedness to his animal ap 
desires, and propensities. (282.) Ninth. According to the 
: Scriptures (286), such an accommodated order of things was a 

established in the Mosaic economy. Considered in the highc 
* best condition of human nature, ** it was weak and unprofitabl 

iJ could make nothing perfect ;" but, considered in relation to th 

.'• existing state of the human race, and particularly the conditio 

circumstances of the complex nature of the chosen people, and t 
to be effected by them, it was the best that was then possible. A 
order of things would, with inevitable certainty, have utterly f 
carry them forward, and therefore would, of necessity, have lef 
to retrograde, according to their natural tendency, to the low< 
darkest depths of ignorance and degradation : but the Mosaic e( 
being adapted to, and acting efficaciously upon their moral susce 
ties, served as a school-master to lead them forward toward a 



Hi 

dJMptaiiOQ to the ootemporaneous coiufition and circmnstances of 
hosen people, and for the sake of the ulterior good which it was 
Uy impossible to reach in a better way. 

B FINAL CAUSES OF THE PECULIAR ECONOMY OF THE MOSAIC 

DISL^ENSATIOK. 

1. Bat in order to understand still more clearly and fully the 
liar economy of the Mosaic dispensation, let us still more largely 
smpl&te the final causes of that economy, or the reasons why the 
lancea and regulations of that economy were instituted. We have 
(208^ et seq.) that whatever were the revelations of Himself which 
made to Adam and his immediate posterity, not a gleam of the 
: of the knowledge of the living and true God remained in the mind 
lan at the time of the flood, except the dim and misty twilight in 
h's soul. (208.) And the light which after the flood was- shed afresh 
Toah and his family (213), was lost in utter darkness before the 
osion of tongues. (222.) And when Jehovah called Abraham (223). 
he human world was given up to idolatry ; even Terah^ the father 
braham, and all his household, served other ^glohim. (224.) And. 
withstanding the covenants which Jehovah made with Isaac 
Jacob (225), the immediate posterity of these patriarchs were 
inually idolatrous; and even Rachel the beloved wife of Jaeob had 
household images of tutelary ^gldhim, which she stole from her 
er Laban. (227.) And when Moses went into Egypt to bring out 
ehildren of Israel (241), he found them so abject in sensuality and 
ifaenish ignorance and idolatry, that they had no notion of a tutelary 
iim of their own, but worshipped the vile images of the 'Sldhlin of 
Egyptians ; and after all the mighty signs and wonders with which 
)vaii delivered them from their bondage and led them on their 
ney, and spoke to them in the wilderness, they gave themselves up 
16 presence of Sinai, to the worship of the molten calf ; while at 
same time, the whole human world besides, was wrapt in the very 
night of idolatrous polytheism. (226.) Thus we see illustrated in 
history of man, what can easily be demonstrated in his nature — 
, the natural tendency of man is always to retrograde from moral 
religious truth, to error and superstition and idolatry. (35.) 
12. The chosen people which Moses brought out of Egypt, and their 
:erity for many generations afterwards, were incorrigibly idolatrous ; 
all the inhabitants of the country through which they must pass, 
of the land which they went to possess, were swallowed up in the 
st and most abominable idolatry and wickedness* The fulfilment 
the great purposes of divine benevolence in relation to the whole 
oan family (173), required that some portion, at least, of this 
latTQUs world should be reclaimed, in order to prepare the way for a 
>ensation by which the whole world should, ** in the fulness of time," 
SUed with the knowledge of Jehovah, and all should know him from 
least even unto the greatest (223) : and for this end, Jehovah had 
»eted the Hebrews, who, from constitutional necessity, must be led 
irard in moral freedom, toward the accomplishment of the great 
•pofMj for which they were chosen, by an economy of motives and 



218 

regulations adapted to their condition and circamstancet. Butitwu 
not in the nature, condition and circumstances of things, possible, thU 
the Hebrews should bo permitted, in moral freedom, to nuz and aao- 
ciate and intermarry with the idolatrous inhabitants of the land, and 
yet be themselves kept from idolatry, and carried forward toward tiie 
fulfilment of the purposes for which they were chosen . It was therefore, 
indispensably requisite that the Hebrews should be separated from all 
the rest of mankind, and be permanently kept as a separate, distiiiet 
and peculiar people ; and that the strongest possible measure should be 
adopted, by which they could, in moral freedom, be restrained ftvm 
social fellowship and religious communion with their idolatrous nei^- 
hours. In order to this end, it was necessary that a dispensation shoold 
be adopted, whose economy would continually and in the most powerfol 
manner, tend to the great twofold effect, of the highest sense of tiieir ovn 
national dignity and importance, and the strongest possible attachiiient 
to their own domestic and social,, and civil and political and religioai 
institutions, on the one hand, and on the other, the strongest possible 
abhorrence and detestation of the institutions and customs of all oUier 
nations ; and that kind of disrespect and contempt for all other people, 
which regarded them as less elavated, less favoured and less consecrated 
than themselves. (268.) And all this must be effected in them as monl 
agents, acting in the consciousness of perfect moral freedom : and con- 
sequently, it was necessary that a dispensation should be adopted wludi 
included the strongest or most efficacious motives that, in ttie nature, 
condition and circumstances of things, could possibly be brought to beer 
on them to this effect : and these motives, we have seen were such u 
related wholly to time and sense ; and the most efficacious were such ai 
led to the indulgence of the carnal appetites. (282.) 

THE ORAMD SINS QUA NON OF THE MOSAIC ECONOMY. 

313. Here then we arrive at the grand sine qua non of the Mosaic 
economy ; or that, without which all else must prove abortive : nainelT, 
From the very nature, condition and circumstances of things, and the 
end to be accomplished, it was indispensably necessary that whatever 
were the measures required and the means employed for the purpose, yet 
at any rate and at all events, the chosen people must be separated from 
tlie rest of the inhabitants of the earth, and the political institutions which 
pi'oscrved them in their distinct and separate national capacity, must be 
permanently maintained ? and to secure this, with greatest certainty, 
all their natural and moral and religious instinct, appetites and feel- 
ings — their desires and aversions, sympathies and antipathies, hopes and 
fears, love and hatred, joy and sorrow — all must be brought into requi- 
sirion. To soouro their national fellowship and attachments in tlic 
hiiifhest degree and strongest manner, they must have some common 
centre of national interest, and often be brought together and associated 
in the participation and reciprocation of those enjoyments which they 
all could appreciate and in which they all could sympathize : and the 
more certainly to secure these results, the moral and religious instincts 
and feelings of the people must be made subservient; and again, in 
order to secure the co-operation of thcsci with greatest certainty, and 



213 

*eDder them moert effieadons, the religious institutions of the chosen 
leojple must be adapted to their natural propensities and appetites ; 
uid their religious duties must be founded more in self-indulgence than 
lelf-d^ial; and these principles and measures of accommodation, 
nasi be cairied to all possible extent compatible with the final cause, 
ur great end for which the dispensation was adopted and its peculiar 
soonomy established. And thus, all the individual and domestic and 
locial and civil and political and moral and religious interests and con- 
terns of the chosen people, must be woven into a single system, so as 
io produce tiie grand ultunate effect, by compound powers and complex 
yperations* 

rOB 8TBF8 NECESSART FOR MOSBS TO TAKE IN INSTITUTING HIS POLITICO- ' 

RELIGIOUS ECONOMY* 

314. We see, then, that the very first step for Moses to take in 
Instituting his j^litico-relig^ous economy, was to adopt measures by 
which he could, if possible, put an end to the idolatrous conduct of the 
dioeen people, and lead them to the worship of the invisible Jehovah. 
But we have seen (284), that the simple testimonies of Jehovah 
wlemnly enunciated from the Mount, and afterward written upon the 
two tables of stone, were too " glorious " for them, so that they could 
not look on them — they could not bear them ; and therefore the two 
tables of the testimonies were put into the ark and laid within the vail 
of the tabernacle ; and the testimonies themselves, were from con- 
stitutional and conditional necessity, covered with the vail of " carnal 
ordinances," of "types and shadows of good things to come." A 
system of visible forms of religious service, was retained as a necessary 
substitute for a visible object of worship; and thus, as the best 
possible means by which the people could be kept, in moral freedom, 
srom idolatrous conduct, they were permitted to use their sensible 
rites and ceremonies, in the service of the invisible Jehovah the 
tutelary *Sldhlm of Israel ; and that this service might not be neg- 
lected and abandoned, it was made sure by rights and observances 
eonnected with bo^y enjoyments and sensual indulgences ; and 
hence, as Paul declares, these ** consisted only in meats and drinks, 
snd divers washings, and carnal ordinances, which could not make him 
fliat did the service perfect, as pertaining to the conscience " (286) : 
sad hence also, these meats and drinks were such as were best adapted 
to secure the particular end for which they were permitted : namely, 
Ae perpetuity of the service ; even though they might not, in them- 
selves, be compatible with the highest and best condition of human 

nature. 
315. The second step necessary for Moses to take, in instituting his 

elitico-religious economy, was to adopt measures by which the 
ebrews could, in moral freedom, be separated from all the rest of 
the human family, and be permanently preserved in their national 
capacity, as a distinct and peculiar people ; and to effect this, the two 
opposite principles of love and hatred, must be brought into the most 
powerful action. They must regard Jehovah, the tutelary 'Sfdhhn of 
their nation, as incomparably greater and better than the *Sldhlm of 



214 

any other nation, and they must esteem themselres as « nation cboia 
of Jehovah for the highest and most sacred purposes, and cheruh th« 
most ardent attachment to all their religious, and politioJ, andeivili 
and social institutions ; and, on the other hand, tney most ciUtiuto 
the deepest abhorrence of the 'SloJum of all other nations, uid regnd 
their religious, and other institutions and customs, with the strongHt fcs 
detestation and hatred, and consider all other people as abominabty 4 
unclean, and as unworthy of all fellowship and alliance with them- 
selves, and only deserving to be destroyed for their great wickedneflk 
or, perhaps to some extent, used as slaves. 

316. We perceive therefore, that, in the Mosaic dispensation, a 
the state was erected for the support of the church, so the churdi vu 
made the principal engine in the support of the state. AH the 
religious rites and ordinances of the economy, and all the religiou h 
feelings of the people were brought in to sustain the interests of tbe 
state, while all the machinery of the state was brought into operatioi, 
to sustain and perpetuate those religious rites, and ordinances, ud 
feelings. The system of sensible forms and observances employed ii li 
the service of the invisible Jehovah as a substitute for a viBible object 
of worship, and which, in order to secure the perpetuilr of the serriee 
with the greatest possible certainty, were founded m the sensol 
enjoyments and indulgences of the people to the utmost extent com* 
patible with the accomplishment of the great paramount object of the 
whole dispensation, were also employed as very important and effica- 
cious moral forces in the politico-religious economy of the state. Ti 
make and keep the whole nation, one people, Moses established one 
great national centre and community of interests ; and to sustain and 
perpetuate this community of interests with greatest possible certaintf, 
he framed into it, in the largest possible measure, the religions, and 
political, and civil, and social, and domestic, and individual intereati, 
and feelings, and propensities, and appetites of every individual in the 
whole Commonwealth. To cement them together in the most intimite 
and inseperable unity as one people, he ordained that they should all 
assemble at the great national centre, three times a year, in cireom- 
stances most inviting and agreeable to them, and best calculated to 
create, and strengthen, and perpetuate in them, a national fraternity 
of affection, and attachment, and fellowship — best calculated to make 
every individual member of the Commonwealth feel that the nation 
was his nation — that the nation's *ildhim was his ^glohim; the nation'i 
institutions, his institutions ; the nation's rights, his rights ; the 
nation's wrongs, his wrongs ; and the nation's enemies, his enemies. 
And these national assemblies were, in the greatest possible measure, 
made sure, by religious feelings, and responsibilities, and duties. 
Every man in the nation was required to present his offerings and pay 
his vows to Jehovah, the ^Slohim of his nation, three times a year, at 
the great national centre. And, that all the people, even those who 
resided at a greater distance from this centre, might, with the greatest 
possible moral certainty, be made voluntarily to comply with this 
requisition, the strongest possible motives, compatible with the 
accomplishment of the great paramoimt object of the dispensation, 
were brought to bear upon them for this purpose. Ijiey were 



215 

a^aded to take with them to the great centre, tithes of their com, 
f their wine, and of their oil, and the firstlings of the herds, and 
ir flocks, and sacrifice and hold feasts to the *glohim of their 
: and if the distance was too gpreat for them to carry their gifts 
ferings with them, they were pennitted to sell them and take 
oney and purchase, at the place of worship, such things as they 

I for their religious service and social festivity. If their love of 
rvice of their ^Slohim was not sufiiciently powerful to carry them 

: great national centre, at all appointed times — if neither their 
al, nor their social feelings would induce them to go — if, hecause 
) hardness of their hearts and the grossness of their sensuality, 
kg but the indulgence of their depraved carnal appetites, would 
them there in moral ireedom, then, inasmuch as it was in- 
sably necessary that they should go, in order to the grand 
for which the whole economy was instituted, they were permitted 
tow their money for oxen, or sheep, or wine, or strong drink, 
itsoever their souls lusted {ifter, or most strongly desired, and 
id drink, and rejoice, with their h#useholds, before Jehovah their 
»• 

•RZESTHOOD AN IMPORTANT ELEMENT IN THE MOSAIC ECONOMY, 
BUT NOT ORIGINAL IN THE SINAIC DISPENSATION. 

. Another exceedingly important element in the Mosaic economy, 
hich contributed largely to its politico-religious efficacy, and to 
rpetoity, was the priesthood, which, as we have seen of sacrifices 
, was not original with Moses ; but, in one form or another, had 
d fh>m the earliest times, and been co-extensive with the human 
«• And at the Mosaic epoch there was probably not a nation 
ribe on the face of the earth, in which the sacerdotal office did 
dst. For centuries before the birth of Moses, the priesthood of 
t had constituted the most eminent, and distinguished, and 

II university in the world, where was taught all that was known 
Bology, religion, ethics, civil polity, jurisprudence, therapeutics 
latoral science (231) : and, in this university, Moses, as we have 
[273), had become " learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians/' 

Uie sacerdotal economy, in the Egyptian system of religion 
I, unquestionably borrowed all that he could render available' 
B own Sinaic institutions ; and it is not to be doubted that, not 
the principal features, but most of the minute details in the 
lotal economy of the Mosaic dispensation, were very similar to 
which Moses had seen in Egypt. 

U In order to give the priesthood the greatest possible dignity, 
e estimation of the people, Moses made it inaccessible to the 
iduals of every tribe in the Commonwealth, but one. A single 
was consecrated to this high and responsible office, throughout 
snerations. And, in order to render the sacerdotal institution 

efficacious in the grand politico-religious economy of the 
lumwealth, all things in the condition and circumstances of the 
Jiood, were, as far as possible, so adjusted and regulated as to 
lee the greatest possible moral certainty that the functions of that 



316 

office would be faithfully performed, and the politioo-reHspiKU m^ 
terests and services of the people thereby secured and perpetoAtod. 
In the distribution of the promised land, the sacerdotal tribe WM 
allowed no portion. (Deut. zviii. 1-5.) The priests were xdiAb 
entirely dependent on the piety of the people for their subsiitenee* 
Their food and raiment, and all their possessions were made to aecna 
to them from the religious services of the peoi)le. Just in proportkn 1 
as Uie people were faitibful and abundant in their tithe», and tacrifioei, ' 
and offerings to their *Sldhim, the priests were enriched; and, oh 
the other hand, just in proportion as the people neglected thdr 
religious duties and services, and withheld their tithes, and sacriiioei, 
and offerings, the priests were impoverished. From llie very naton^ 
condition and circumstances of tilings, therefore, the prie^ were 
continually under the influence of the most efficacious motives, to 
watch over the politico-religious interests of the state, and the religiooi 
concerns and conduct of every individual member of the Ommum- 
wealth : and to do all they could to sustain and perpetuate the politioH 
religious economy of the dispensation, in its most perfect inte^ity and 
greatest possible efficiency. 

319. This wise adjustment of things, however, was, in no degree, n 
arbitrary measure of Moses : but it was a necessary conditional raab 
of the integrity and efficiency of constitutional laws divinely established 
in the nature of things. (59.^ From the earliest times, to the daji 
of Moses, and for many generations afterwards, not only the Hebrews, 
but all the inhabitants of the earth, full^ believed that the ^iUAim* 
had senses and appetites corresponding with those of human beings, 
and that they not only saw and heardt but actually smelled m 
tasted the savour of the offerings which were made to them. (280.) 
Accordingly, the Hebrew Scriptures represent Jehovah as smelling ikt 
sweet savour of Noah's burnt-offering (Gen. viii. 21) : and as saying 
to the children of Israel in the wilderness, " If ye are disobe£ent 
and rebellious, I will not smell the savour of your sweet odoun." 
(Lev. xxvi. 31.) And again, " Where are their ^Sldhim which did eat 
the fat of their sacrifices, and drank the wine of their drink-offerings P" 
(Deut. xxxii. 37, 38.) And Moses says to the people, *' If ye are 
rebellious to Jehovah your 'SUihim^ ye shall go into captivity, and 
there shall ye serve *Sldfum which neither see, nor hear, nor eat, nor 
smell.'' (Deut. iv. 28.) These, and many other like passages in the 
Hebrew Scriptures, clearly and fully demonstrate that the chosen 
people, to whom the language was originally addressed, confidently 
believed that Jehovah, their 'Sldhim, did see and hear, and did stneU 
and taste the savour of the sacrifices and offerings which they made to 
him. And consequently, they, in common with all the cotemporaneous 
inhabitants of the earth, believed that they could not propitiate tiicir 
'Sldhlm and secure his favour, and protectiou, and his blessing on all 
their labours, and undertakings, and interests, without presenting to 
him such offerings as were grateful to his smell and taste. And what 



* *Eluhim is used in the Hebrew Scriptures, both in the singular 
and plural sense, to signify god or gods. See Note to s. 201. 



were, was, as we have seen, necessarily determined in their 
i, hy the condition and circumstances of their own complex 
e. (60.) That which was most agreeable to their own senses 
nost gpratifying to their own appetites, they fully believed to be 
acceptable and grateful to theur *Slohim. (64.) And as the 
n and continual presentation of their meat-offerings and drink- 
igs — of their sacrifices and oblations, to their *Sldhim^ required 
inistration of a regpilar priesthood, they believed that Uie priests 
peculiarly the servants of ^iWhim, and in a peculiar manner, 
.tuted a part of His household ; and that it was the will and 
ittion of 'Hdhim that the priest should depend wholly on what 
ed to them in the performance of His service for their sustenance ; 
they who served at the table of *gldhim should themselves be fed 
that table (Lev. xxi. 6, 8, 17, 21, 22) : and therefore, the 
i believed that it was not more their duty to furnish the table of 
ildhim with the choicest of those kinds of food and drink, which 
most savory to their own smell and taste, and most gratifying to 
own appetites, for the sake of ijie particular portions which their 
n required for his own personal use, than for the sake of 
ing sustenance to His sacerdotal servants. And, these sacred 
ies were made certain in the gpreatest possible degree consistent 
the moral freedom of the people, by the concurrence of their 
1 appetites with their religious instinct and sentiments : every 
'ho sacrificed or made an offering to ^Slohim being permitted, at 
ime time, to take a portion to himself and eat, and drink, and 
e before *Sl6him, (Deut. xiv. 22-26.) It was, therefore, in 
lary accordance with these ideas and sentiments previously 
)ped in the human soul, that Moses instituted the sacerdotal 
nt of his politico-religious economy, as the best that in the 
e, condition and circumstances of thmgs was then possible ; and 
landed the people, saying, " The priests, the Levites, and all the 
of Levi, shall have no part nor inheritance with Israel : they 
eat the offerings of Jehovah made by fire, and his inheritance. 
^ore shall they have no inheritance among their brethren. 
ah is their inheritance as he hath said unto them." (Deut. xviii. 
** And every offering of all the holy things of the children of 
I, which they bring unto the priest, shall be his : and every man's 
wed things shall be his : whatsoever any man giveth the priest it 
be his." (Num. v. 9.) " For Jehovah thy 'Slohim hath chosen 
lut of all thy tribes, to stand to minister in the name of Jehovah, 
nd his sons for ever." (Deut. xviii. 5.) 

[ AMD WINE, IN RELIGIOUS SERVICES AND FEASTS, RETAINED BT 
(ES, FROM CONDITIONAL NECESSITY ; BUT UNDER SUCH REOULATIONa 
IN THE GREATEST POSSIBLE MEASURE TO RESTRICT THE USE OF 
BM. 

). We have seen (280) that it had been a most vital part of the 
tian education of the Hebrews to sacrifice animals to the ^Slohlm, 
leir religious services, and to eat largely of the flesh of those 
eJs, and to drink wine or some kind of intoxicating liquor, freely^ 



218 

at fheir re^gious fbasts : and the idea had become intimately saA 
inseparably associated with all their religious notionB and sentimenti, 
that the savour of the roasted flesh of consecrated animiils, and d 
libated wine, was peculiarly and pre-eminently grateful to the ^itehm', 
and that no propitiatory and acceptable feasts could be h^d to tlie 
*Sldhim without such sacrifices, and such Meats, «tid drinks ; and tint 
such meats and drinks were, in a measure, consecrated to tiie ^UShm^ 
and among the richest and most desirable blessings whidi the *iiokm 
bestowed on man ; and that, to partake of these sacred meat-offeringi 
and drink-ofTerings, in religious service, before the image or shrine of 
any *Slohim^ was, in their belief, to feast with the ^Slohlm ; and to be 
permitted occasionally to enjoy tkese viands and beverages in domestic 
and social hospitality, and festivities, was, in their bcdief, to be allowed 
to partake of the food of the ^Slohlm ; and therefore, to be, in a Yojk 
degree, favoured and blessed by the ^ilohim. (Lev. ixi. 22.] wc 
have seen also (280), that the Hebrews had little knowledge or 
conception of any other enjoyments or sufFerings, blessings or 
afflictions, than such as pertam to man's earthly nature and temponl 
existence, llie possession of a land flowing with miUs and bonCT— 
abundance of corn and wine — feasts of fat things — ^long life — ^fniitnd- 
ness— conquest over enemies, and peace and security in the enjoyment 
of the bounties of the earth, on the one hand, and barFenoeM, 
privation, bondage, disease and untimely death, on the other, 
were, therefore, the most powerful or efficacious motives that could be, ' 
and almost the only motives that were presented to their minds to 
induce them to leave Egypt and go to the promised land ; to indaoe 
them to forsake their idolatry and serve Jehovah the invisible ^UShm 
of Israel ; to induce them, in short, to obey all the statutes, to falfil 
all the obligations, to perform all the duties, social, civil €uid religious, 
of the whole Mosaic dispensation. It was not, therefore, in the nature, 
condition and circumstances of things possible, by any means com- 
patible with their moral freedom, to restrain them wholly from eating 
flesh and drinking wine, if those articles were in their possession or 
obtainable to them. The expectation of slaughtering animals and 
having a feast of flesh and wine before their tutelary ^gldhhn in the 
desert, was the paramount moral force in the motives by which they 
were induced to leave Egypt ; and no other motive was so eiiicacioiu 
with them in all their journey from Egypt to Mount Sinai. (274.) 
And even with this ruling expectation, all the moral power that could 
be brought to bear on tliem was not sufficient, without the frequent 
interposition of the physical omnipotence of Jehovah, to restrain them 
tVom returning to Egypt, and to induce them to continue on their 
journey. (291.) Consequently, if Moses had attempted to cut them 
off at once, and entirely, from the use of flesh and wine in their 
religious services and feasts, and in their domestic hospitalities and 
social entertainments, it would inevitably have defeated the whole of 
his great enterprise. Neither the religious, nor sacerdotal, nor civil, 
nor political economy of the Mosaic dispensation could possibly have 
been sustained and made efficacious without the use of flesh and wine. 
Yielding therefore, to cond\l\oiia\ iicicft«&\\.'3,'^a«.«^ \"tOa\\a\ted only 
such kinds of animal food as 'were looaX. VEBm^^v^-^ wA^^«\>^^ 



• 

njundus, and destnictive to health of both body and soul ; and those 
unds, the use of which, he found it necessary to tolerate, he so 
employed in the politico-religious economy of his dispensation as to 
render them in the greatest possible degree effective as moral forces 
in the support of those very institutions by which the people were, in 
She greatest possible degree, restrained from the use of flesh. For, it 
is entirely certain, that, at least, during the forty years of their 
joumeyings and sojouraings in the wilderness, every measure was 
taken, consistent with the moral freedom of the people, to keep them 
from eating flesh. When they left Ejiypt, they drove with them 
immense flocks and herds ; and though Pharaoh stoutly objected to it, 
yet Moses strenuously insisted upon it, and would not go without 
them ; and the only reason which he assigned for taking the flocks 
and herds with him, was, that they would be requisite for religious 
purposes. "And Moses said thou must give us also sacrifices and 
numt-offerings, that we may sacrifice unto Jehovah our *Sldhlm. 
Therefore our cattle shall go with us ; there shall not a hoof be left 
behind ; for thereof must we take to serve Jehovah our 'eidhlm ; and 
we know not with what we must serve Jehovah, until we come thither." 
And it is perfectly evident that he assigned the same reason to the 
Hebrews themselves ; and taught them to regard their flocks and 
herds, so far, at least, as taking their life, and eating their flesh were 
considered, as consecrated to the service of Jehovah their 'Slohim. 
(63.) For, there is not a single instance recorded of their killing any 
of tneir animals, except for religious purposes, during all the time 
that they were in the wilderness. And as we have seen (275), they 
were incited by their lusts, to strip themselves of their jewels, and 
compel Aaron, in the absence of Moses, to make them an *eidhim to 
serre, as a mere pretence to slaughter some of their animals that they 
might have a feast of flesh and wine ; that they might sit down to eat 
anS to drink, and rise up to play, in drunken and lewd revelry : 
hecause they had been educated to believe and feel that it was 
saeriligious and impious to slaughter their animals, except in the 
service of, or a feast to some 'ilohim. 

321. This view of the particular subject now before us, is fully 
eonfirmed by three interesting facts in the divine administration. At 
the wilderness of Sin, it will be recollected (265), the whole congrega- 
tion broke out in the most bitter, reproachful and violent murmurs 
against Moses and Aaron ; and wished to *Sldhim that they had died by 
the hand of Jehovah in the land of Egypt, when they sat by the flesh- 
pott, and when they did eat bread to the full. Jehovah, on that 
occasion, established a special economy by which they were regularly 
supplied with manna for their daily food, for forty years. This 
manna, however produced, was of a vegetable nature ; ** and the 
people went about and gathered it, and ground it in mills, or beat in a 
mortar, and baked it in pans and made cakes of it." Another fact is 
that, on the same occasion Jehovah also gave them, in a single 
instance, the flesh of quails to eat ; and this is urged by the advocates 
for flesh-eating, as decided proof of the excellence of flesh-meat for 
man. "Because/* say they, ** God would ixot ^^^ \vy& ^^%«Ci tjwss'^^ 
ttDjr kind of food which was not good for ll:iQm.'' ^\>X \^ ^^tiW^HsiSw 



220 

t 
that flesh -meat was best for them, and if he designed to enomince 
them in eating it, why did he not say to them, by Moses, " Bdold, jt 
have flocks and herds without number ! slay, and eat, and maimnr 
not against Jehovah, nor against his servant Moses P" Why, insteid 
of this, did he, as a special providence, send them quails to eatP aal 
why, in announcing to them his determination to give them flesh to 
cat, did he do it more as a threatened judgment than as a promised 
blessing P more in the language of anger than of complacency P Thii 
is the true answer. They lusted for flesh, and there was, in the 
nature, condition and circumstances of things, no possible way to 
keep them in moral freedom, from returning to Egypt, but by giviDX 
them flesh. Jehovah could destroy them, or interpose physieu 
impossibilities ; but as moral agents, in the exercise of perfect ireedom 
of choice and action, they were not susceptible of having any higher 
or better motive brought to bear on them with sufficient emcacy to 
make them willing to refrain from returning to Egypt, and to continna 
on their journey towards the ultimate fulfilment of the divine porpoH^ 
without having flesh to cat on that occasion* It was, therefoni 
morally necessary that they should have flesh to eat : and if they had 
been permitted, on that occasion, to slaughter some of their animali 
and eat their flesh, no moral power could have restrained them 
afterwards, from repeating the act as often as they lusted for fieih. 
To keep them, therefore, in moral freedom, from the habitual and 
daily use of flesh-meat they were, at least while in the wildemeis, 
suffered to kill and eat of their flocks and herds, only in religiout 
services. (03.) But on the occasion which we are now considering, 
they would have flesh, or rebel against Moses and return to Egypt. 
To restrain them from such a revolt, and such disastrous consequences, 
and, at the same time, to preserve the moral power by which they 
were kept from daily slaughtering and eating of their flocks and herds; 
and also, to manifest himself in the transaction, in such a manner, ai 
still further to convince the chosen people, of his existence, his power, 
and his protecting presence, and care, Jehovah sent them quails to eat| 
and thus suffered tlie less, to prevent the greater evil. 

322. The third fact to which T have alluded (321), is the supply of 
the flesh of (luails to tliis lustini^ and froward people about a year after 
the case just dnscrilx^d. TIardly had they taken their departure 
from Mount Sinai, before these debased, and sensual, and rebellious 
creatures, fell a lusting and weeping again ; and said, ** Who shall 
give us flesh to oatP" and they went weeping and wailing al)mit. 
Moses, and entreating him to give them flesh to eat, till the afflicted 
man was sorely tried and began to wish himself dead : and he soenM 
to have been on the very point of yielding to the sensual importunities, 
and permitting them to fall like hungry wolves upon their flocks and 
herds and devour them, when Jehovah appeared for his relief, and 
declared to him, and through him to the people, that he had heard 
their weeping and he would give them flesh to eat: not for one, nor 
two, nor five, nor ten, nor twenty days, but for a whole month of days; 
until it should come out at their nostrils and should become loathsome 
to them. Will the advocates for flesh-eating say that this fact is in 
their favour ; because Crod would not give his chosen people anything 



221 

a».not good for them 9 As well might they assert that showers 
: and brimstone upon mankind are good for them, because, 
ling to the Mosaic record, Jehovah rained fire and brimstone 
Sodom and Gt>morrah. None, but the most perversely blind, can 
> see that this was an administration of Judgment ; and, in its 
I, a manifestation of divine wrath. For, as the Psalmist 
es, " Jehovah gave them their own desire : and they were not 
iged from their lusts ; but while the flesh was yet between their 
ere it was <;^ewed, the wrath of Jehovah came upon them, and 
: them with a very great plague : and the name of the place was 
. t?ie graves of lust^ because there they buried those that lusted, 
it is asserted, by some, that this destructive plague was a special 
liraculous dispensation of providence, on the people, as a punish- 
for their murmuring ; and, that, it did not, in any manner, grow 
' their flesh-eating, as a natural consequence. Yet, be it remem- 
, that their offence, in this instance, was lusting for fleshy and 
"Jehovah gave them their own desire,^^ and supplied them with 
to eat for a month of days ; and before they were estranged from 
lusts — while yet they continued to eat the flesh, the plague broke 
mong them and ** slew the fattest of them." That this disease 
\ dispensation of providence, is freely admitted ; but whatever of 
■natural energy may have been imparted to natural causes in the 
it is very certain that the result was produced by the operation of 
itutional laws divinely established in the nature of things ; and 
he disease was as philosophically and truly a pathological effect 
3 flesh-eating, as drunkenness is an effect of drinkiDg alcoholic 
r to excess. Indeed, the disease appears to have been what was 
Qtly called cholera morbus, which came on suddenly and was 
violent and fatal in its action ; precisely the natural consequences 
ch an indulgence in flesh-eating, in the condition and circum- 
es of the Hebrews at the time. And, accordingly, the authors of 
leptuagint version, with whom both the Hebrew and the Greek 
living tongues, rendered the Hebrew (Num. xi. 20) we hdydh 
i» ^zaro* by the Greek Aai ^estai umin eis choleran — '* and to 
t shall be for cholera.** 

I. But, let us contemplate this important fact in another point of 
If it did not enter into the economy of the divine administra* 
to restrain the Hebrews from flesh-eating as far as possible, 
jtently with their moral freedom, while they were journeying and 
ming in the wilderness — if they were daily or frequently permitted 
; flesh, why should they, on the occasion we are now considering, 
m subsequent occasions, give way to so strong a lust for flesh P 
(0 pusillanimously complain that they had nothing at all besides 
lanna to eatP (Num. xi. 6; xxi. 5.) And if Jehovah had 
sed to encourage their eating flesh, why, the question again 
9, were they not permitted on this occasion, to slaughter and eat 
of their immensely numerous flocks and herds ? There surely is 
her probable, nor plausible answer to this question than that 
1 1 have made to it, in considering the similar fact at the wilder- 
)f Sin. (321.) This stiff-necked and incorrigible people knew 
gher enjoyment than the indulgence of their sensual appetites. 



I 



222 

Hencer they were continually murmuring about their food and drink, 
and iDCcssaDtly lusting for something that would taste good and exdtB 
them. They remembered that their highest enjoyments in Egyvt, 
were in eating flesh, and drinking wine and strong drink; and by ^ 
fervently meditating on these by-gone indulgences, they kindled up 
the fires of their lust to- an intolerable degree of torment, and mads 
themselves miserable by contrasting their present condition in the 
wilderness, with thoir former condition in Egypt, when they sat by J". 
their flesh -pots, where they fully satisfied their appetites : and, like 
spoiled children, these debased and grossly sensusd creatures, broke 
out into weeping, and lamenting, and complaining, saying, "AVho sh^H 
give us flesh to eat? Who shall give us flesh to eatP We have 
nothing but this manna before our eyes, till our soul is dried awav ! 
O, that we had stayed in Egypt f 0, that we had died in Egypt ! ^or 
it had been better for us to die there in the midst of plenty, than that 
we should perish of hunger and thirst in this wilderness ! " Flesh 
they lusted for ; and flesh they must have by permission, or else, with 
moral certainty, they would rebel against Moses, and trample his 
authority under foot ; and, either slaughter and eat some of their 
flocks and herds, or " make them another captain and return to Egypt.** 
To keep them in moral freedom, from both of these courses of conduct, 
and, at the same time, to chastise them in such a manner as woald 
clearly evince the divine displeasure at their vile sensuality, and serve 
most p)werfully to deter them from again giving way to such debasing 
lusts, *' Jehovah gave them their own desire,*' and suffered them 
to indulge their depraved appetite, without restraint, till, as a natural 
and necessary consequence, a terribly violent and fatal disease was 
produced by their indulgence. 

32 1. It is perfectly manifest then, that, from the cotemporaneous 
condition and circumstances of the complex nature of the chosen people 
(177). flesh-meat and wine, were among the very strongest, or most 
efiicacious motives, which, in the nature of things, could possibly be 
brought to bear on them as moral agents, to carry them voluntarily 
forward towards the fulfilment of the divine purpose, for which the 
politico-religious economy of the Mosaic dispensation was instituted : 
and that, while these articles were, from conditional necessity, inserted 
in that economy, as indispensably requisite moral forces, the economy 
itself was made so to operate, as, in the greatest possible measure, 
consistent with the entire moral freedom of the people, to restrain them 
from the habitual and daily use of flesh-meat and wine ; and, by this 
very means, these articles were rendered the more powerful as motives 
to the performance of the politico-religious services and duties of the 
economy. (320.) And hence, as we have seen (31G), in order to secure 
with greatest possible moral certainty, the voluntary attendance of 
every Hebrew, at the great national centre, at the appointed times, 
those who resided at a considerable distance from that centre, were 
permitted to sell their gifts and offerings, and take the money and go 
to the national centre, and there " buy oxen or sheep or wine or strong 
drink, or whatsoever their souls lusted for, and, with their households 
eat and rejoice before Jehovah their Sldhim. (319.) 

325. But, wei*e these things permitted because they were, in them- 



225 

Ives best P or does the permission to use them on such occasions, prove 
exn to be compatible with the highest and best state of human nature P 
anifeatly not. They were evidently employed from conditional 
icessityr as indispensably requisite moral forces, to secure the voluntary 
tendance of every Hebrew at the appointed national feasts. Jehovah 
eferred that a love of his statutes, and a delight in his services, should 
the actuating motives of every one of his chosen people ; but, if by 
ason of "^the hardness of their hearts" (215), some were insusceptible 
being actuated by such elevated and holy motives, then they must be 
awn oy such motives as would act on them effectually : and, if they 
A no other moral susceptibilities than such as pertain to sensual 
•petites, then even their love of flcsh^meat and of strong-drink must 
I employed as moral means of securing their attendance at the great 
ktional feasts {31&} •, because such attendance, as we have seen (313), 
IB an essentia] part of the politico-religious economy of the Mosaic 
spensation, in order to the preservation and perpetuity of ^ the state : 
id from the very nature, concUtition and circumstances of things, it was 
dispensably necessary that the state should be preserved, in order to 
core the separation of the chosen people from all the rest of the 
jolatrous inhabitants of the earth; and this separation was indis- 
msably necessary in order to convert the chosen people themselves 
om idolatry ; and this was indispensaUy necessary, in order to elevate 
le chosen people to that condition in which they would be prepared 
c the recnption of a new and better covenant, established upon better 
romises ; and this was the great final cause, or eud of the whole 
UwEtic dispensation. 

HV 3tOSSS GAVE THE CHOSEN TEOPLB PERMISSION TO EAT FLESH WHEN 
THBY SHOULD HAVE BECOME ESTABLISHED IN THE PROMISED LAND, 
AMI> WHY WINE WAS NAMED AMONG THE BLESSINGS OF THAT LAND. 

326^. But it may be here demanded — If this reasoning be true, why 
id Moses, on the plains of Moab, after the Hebrews had completed 
heir disciplinary probation in the desert, and were about to enter the 
romised land, give permission to the chosen people, to kill and eat 
iesh in all their gates, whatsoever their souls lusted for, when they 
hould have become established in the land which Jehovah their 
flohim would give them to poHsess P (Ueut. xii. 13 — 28) ; and why 
ras wine so frequently promised them as one of the blessings of " the 
freat and good land'* which they were to inherit ? Let it continually 
le borne in mind, that, such were then the condition and circumstances 
f the complex nature of the chosen people (177), that they were not 
usceptible of having effectually brought to bear upon them any other 
notives than such as related to their temporal and earthly wants and 
nterescs, and mainly to their animal sensibilities and appetites (280) ; 
jid that, as moral agents, they could be led from Egypt, through the 
rildemess, to the conquest and possession of the promised land, only by 
he force of motives. (310.) They loved flesh-meat and wine, and 
"egarded them as amongst the choicest blessings that 'ilohtm could 
)estow on man (320); and they were not in a moral, nor mental 
lor physiological condition, to be convinced that these things were not 



good for them. (26, et seq,) If, therefore, Moses, as the vieenNBicf p^^ 
Jehovah, had said to them, "When ye shall have heoome estaUiflbeiis- Y ^ 
the land which Jehovah your *glohim will give you to possess, ye tWl jP-.^ 
in no wise drink wine nor strong-drink, nor eat flesh ; for sudi » WB rV- 
of these things is hurtful to human health, and injurious to themonli ¥ ^ 
of man, and destructive to true religion, and in no way consistent vith r^^ 
the highest and best state of human nature, nor with the true rdatioBS ^ ^ 
which man sustains to his Creator and to his fellow creatures," ndi 
an injunction would, with moral certainty, have driven them backints 
Egypt, and to the lowest and vilest depths of idolatry and wickedseH. 
(Heb. xi. 15.) For even with all these indulgences, held op n 
motives to lead them on, it was with the utmost difficulty, and only Iff 
adding the frequent manifestations of Jehovah's physical power, to tbe 
whole moral force which they were susceptible of having brought to 
bear on them, that they were carried forward as moral agents to tbs 
possession of the promised land. (291, 320.) 

327. But Moses had another and exceedingly important reason fat 
permitting the chosen people to eat flesh in all their gates, when tlNy 
should have become established in the promised land. All the inhaln- 
tants of that land had their tutelary *gl6hvn^ to whom they ofSeni 
sacrifices and offerings, and whom they worshipped and served, in I 
manner almost identical with that which Moses retained in his politieih 
religious economy : so that, the transition from one to the other— lO 
far as the forms and ceremonies of the service are considered, was, st 
that time, so short a step as hardly to be appreciable (226) : and 
throughout the whole land, the inhabitants had their altars erected on 
the high places, and in the groves, upon which they offered sacrifices to 
their *Sl6him, Of all this, Moses was fully connusant, and he well under- 
stood and accurately appreciated the enormous moral force, with which 
the lust for flesh -meat controlled the actions of the chosen people, and 
especially with respect to religious services ; inciting them to sacrifice 
on any altar and to any Slohhn, rather than not indulge their depraved 
appetite. (277.) And with the same integrity of understanding and 
accuracy of appreciation, he perceived how indispensably requisite it 
was to the success to the economy which he was instituting, that the 
great national centre of politico -religious interest, should be main* 
taincd, and the great national assemblies made sure; and that the 
most efficacious motives should be brought to bear on the people foF 
these purposes (313) ; and he clearly foresaw that when the chosen 
people should be in peaceable possession of the promised land, if they 
should strongly lust for flesh-meat, and still think that they might not 
eat it only in religious services or feasts, and the national centre should 
be at a distance from them, they would be induced either to erect private 
altars at home, or employ the old altars of the former inhabitants of 
the land, and sacrifice animals to some V/oAim, for the sake of gratify- 
ing their lust ; and so neglect the appointed services and feasts at tne 
national centre, and perpetuate their idolatry. He therefore, solemnly 
charged them, when they should possess the land which Jehovah their 
^aUihlm would give them, to take heed to themselves, that they offered 
not their burnt-offerings in every place they saw ; but in the place 
only which Jehovah should choose in one of their tribes : there should 



225 

7 their burnt-offerings, and there do all that he commanded 
Yet if they lusted for flesh, and were determined to eat flesh 
their souls longed for it, and the place which Jehovah their 
lad chosen to put his name there, should be too far from them, 
3y might kill of their herds and their flocks, and eat within 
.tea, whatsoever their souls lusted after. But they must not 
in their gates, the tithes of their com and wine and oil, nor 
lings of their herds and flocks ; nor any of their vows, nor 
offerings, nor heave offerings. These, every man with his 
. children and servants, and the Levite within his gates, must 
re Jehovah his ^ilohim at the great national centre, and there 
efore Jehovah his *ildhitn, 

S HEBREWS WERE COMMANDED TO EXTERMINATE THE INHABI- 
TANTS OF THE LAND OF CANAAN. 

Prom the argument before us, we perceive also, that the 
lation of the inhabitants of the land, which the chosen people 
pooess, was a necessary part of thie Mosaic dispensation, llie 
uman world, as we have seen (311), was, at this time* sunk in 
lest and most incorrigible idolatry, and abominable wickedness : 

inhabitants of the land which the Hebrews were to take 
m of, and dwell in, were, in these respects, probably more 
ly vile and irreclaimably flagitious, than any other portion of 
an family. They were continually warring upon and destroy- 
i other, in the most barbarous and cruel manner ; and all their 
snded to the deepest demoralization and depravity, and conse- 
to their own utter extermination : and it was, in the nature, 
a and circumstances of things, morally impossible to reclaim 
rate and save them; and equally impossible for the chosen 
> be permitted to associate and intermarry with them, without 
defeating the great purpose of divine benevolence for which 
as chosen, and the Mosaic economy instituted. The greatest 
1 good, therefore, required that they should be cut off; and 
Titably would have been cut off by the sword or by disease, if 
rews had not taken possession of their land. Yet, all this gave 
rews no right to destroy them. But Jehovah had a right to 
them, and He had a right to employ the Hebrews as his 
oers in the destruction of them. Jehovah necessarily destroyed 
carrying forward His great purpose of universal benevolence : 
ras the duty of the Hebrews to destroy them, because Jehovah,, 
ud of Moses, commanded them to do so : and he commanded them 

as the best means, in the nature, condition and circumstances 
B possible, by which the moral effects of good which resulted 
! transaction to the human world could be produced. Therefore, 
t a wicked, or an ignorant man will find fault with Jehovah or 
ses, for commanding the destruction of the nefariously and 
Iblv wicked inhabitants of Canaan. Nor indeed, does it appear 

divine administration was any more severe with them than it 
1 the adult generation of the chosen people themselves, which 
t of Egypt : nearly every one of which, was necessarily cut off 
squence of his incorrigible sinfulneo^t before the Hebrews^ 



226 

entered into the promised land. See Nunt. xir. 26--d5, and nri. 
63—65, and Deut. ix. 4—6, and xx. 16—18. 

KETALIATION, SLAYXRT, POLYGAMY, CONCUBINAaS, DITORCS, STC., VHT 

FBBMITTBD BY MOSEB. 

329. Most of the reasoning which I have applied to flesh-eating, ai 
an element of the Mosaic economy, is strictly applicable to the i« 
talionis, or vindictive regulations of that economy ; such as life for lift; 
eye for eye ; tooth for tooth, &c. ; and to slavery, polygamy, concufaiB" 
age, divorce, and other things tolerated, which are not compatible witk 
the highest and best state of human nature ; nor with the true reUtioBi 
between God and man. (280.) From the earliest period of human crinM^ 
to the days of Moses, the avenger of blood had implacably pursued the 
homicide, till he had wreaked full vengeance on him who had shed the 
blood of his brother, his kinsman or his friend (218) ; and there was do 
moral power on earth nor in heaven to stay the avenger's hand. Blood 
cried for blood ! and that cry must be appeased : and the curse of 
*Slokim was upon that brother, that kinsman, that tribe, that oatioDi 
which heeded not, and obeyed not that avenging cry ! Such was the 
deep, cordial, conscientious, irradicable belief of aJl portions of the 
human family, anterior to, and during the Mosaic epoch. The veiy 
best, therefore, that it was in the nature, condition and drcumstaacei 
of things, morally possible for Jehovah to do by the hand of Uota, 
was so far to sanction the universal usage of retaliation, as to authoriie 
the taking of life in all cases of wilful murder, and in some other caiet 
of high misdemeanor : less, however, for the purpose of enfordng the 
duty of taking life in such cases, than for the purpose of acquiring i 
moral power in this very authority, by which to abate, as far as possiUe, 
the truculent excesses of the vindictive spirit, and stay the aveeger'f 
hand from the comparatively innocent. Had Moses been sufficiently 
enlightened and sanctified in the true godliness of Christianity, to hsTC 
desired and attempted to put a stop to taking life in every case, his 
effort would have been wholly ineifectual. It would not have given the 
least check to the fierce excesses of sanguinary revenge. Jehorah 
therefore, wisely chose a Mediator for the Sinaic covenant, who wai. 
in all things, fitted for his office, in accordance with the condition and 
circumstances of the complex nature of the people, on whom the 
covenant was imposed. (177.) And Moses, who knew no better than 
to do the best that Jehovah knew the nature, condition and circum- 
stances of things would admit of, authorized the taking of life in case 
of wilful murder, and in some other cases of henious offence against 
the civil, political, moral and religious well-being of society, and Uiere- 
by gained a moral power by which he was enabled, in a very consider- 
able measure, to restrain the revengeful spirit of the chosen people, and 
give validity to such arrangements as would shield the innocent from 
the avenger's blow ; and mitigate the punishment of those whose guilt 
admitted of just palliation. (219.) (Num. xxxv. 9—34.) All this 
reasoning applies to every kind of retaliation tolerated by the Mosaic 
economy. 

330, With respect to slavery, it is strange that there has been so 
much puerile altercation and fruitless controversy about a point, the 



'. 



I-, 



227 

of which ought to have been clearly evident to every enlightened 
That human slavery has existed in different portions of the earth 
;he earlist period of human history, all who are acquainted with that 
y are well aware. Here then, is a great fact in human experience 
a phenomenon pertaining to the operations of the divine govern - 
—a development in the carrying forward of the divine purposes — 
id and unerasable record on the page of the volume of nature — the 
Teat volume of divine revelation. (127.) And verily, this is, in 
iMure, a casual fact — a fortuitous event ; but it is a determinate 
aonal result of the integrity and efficiency of constitutional laws 
sly established in the nature of things ; and as such, is of divine 
itment and authority. (200.) No sound-minded man can deny, 
IT a moment doubt that it is a law of Gk>d, in nature, that in certain 
ions and circumstances of man's complex nature, he shall be a 
(67.) And in this, as in all other truth the volume of nature and 
word of inspiration perfectly harmonize. But there is another, 
fundamental law of the divine government relating to this same 
ular subject, indelibly written and clearly displayed both upon the 
jf the volume of nature and of the word of inspiration ; and which 
amount and controlling in its requisition — ^perpetual in its exist- 
ind validity and universal in its bearing, through all generations 
1 all conditions and circumstances of man's com^plex nature : — 
ly, "2%ott shaltlove thy brother man as thyself!^* Yet there 
be perfect consentaneousness between all the laws of the divine 
ament ; and therefore, there can be no discordance between the 
ional law of slavery and the constitutional law of imiversal bene- 
ie. For it is necessarily true that the constitutional laws of the 
I government alway determine the spirit and character and final 
I of the conditional laws. And hence it i& necessarily true, that, 
nditional law of slavery is intended, by the divine mind, to carry 
rd the same divine purpose for which the constitutional law of 
rsal benevolence was instituted : namely, the glory of God in the 
sst universal good of man. The conditional law of slavery is there- 
obordinate to, and controlled by the constitutional law of universal 
olence. And hence, it is scientifically and philosophically certain 
ie conditional law of slavery, as a divine institution, does not make 
MT^e slave of another for the sake of the pecuniary benefi.t or 
. advantage of the slaveholder ; but for the tutelary and dis- 
vn benefit of the slave. For, while the eonc^tional law of slavery 
emei on the slave, the constitutional law of universal benevolence 
K)t« for one instant, remit, nor in the least degree abate the force 
paramount requisition on the slaveholder. Nothing in human 
e can be more certain, therefore, than that, under the divine ad- 
oration, one man becomes a slave to another, not that the enslaved 
« degraded and debased in consequence ; but that he may receive 
&Iatary discipline by which he will be improved and elevated : and 
vreholcler is not made the master who has a right to use the slave 
property, to serve his own selfish ends and gratify his own selfish 
tes ; but he is put in God's stead to the slave, and is solemnly 
by all the moral laws of the divine government and by all the 
tittioiial laws of his own and human nature's well-bein^> to d/o for 



328 

the slave, according to his abiUtieii, all that he would hate God dote 
himself ; and, by every means in his power, to endeavoar to raise tte r 
slave above the condition and circumstances of his complex natuni 
which constitute the essence of his slavery and make the form inevitaUe. 
And nothing in nature is more certain than that every infraction of thb 
obligation produces evil consequences to human nature as a whole, and 
re-acts with terrible energy on the oppressor. For, it is not in the na- 
ture of things possible for man to oppress man, without evil oonseqaencei 
to human nature as a whole, which will bear with special detriment a 
the immediate oppressor and his posterity. And it is a fearfully calami- 
tous blindness which shuts the perception of this {great truth from any 
human mind. On all these points the teachings of the volume of naton 
and of the word of inspiration are perfectly concordant. (170.) Tm 
both of these volumes of divine revelation we learn that God denoaneei 
slavery on man in certain conditions and circumstances of his compla 
nature (177) ; and denounces overthrow and destruction on those who 
hold man in slavery with the hand of oppression and cruelty rather 
than with the hand of benevolence and oenefaction — a benevoleim 
which sincerely desires, and a benefaction which earnestly endeavoursto 
raise the slave out of his slavery into all that constitutes true manhooi 

331. Moses found human slavery as extensive as human society, and 
as inveterate and incorrigible as human depravity : and there wu 
no moral power on earth nor in heaven by which it could, at once, te 
abolished. Jehovah, therefore, so ruled that Moses, as his vicegeraiti 
did the very best, in relation to slavery, that, in the nature, conditioB 
and circumstances of things, was then possible (306) : and that wai, 
as in relation to taking life (329), to authorize human slavery under 
(pertain limitations and regulations, not for the sake of enforcing nor of 
encouraging it ; but because it was morally impossible to prevent it; 
and for the purpose of acquiring in the very authority which sanctionel 
it as an institution, the moral power so to circumscribe and modify it, 
as to make it, in the largest measure possible, subservient to the great 
purpose of benevolence, for which the Mosaic economy was established. 
(311,312.) The Hebrews would have slaves; and they could not, ia 
moral freedom, be restrained from it. Moses, therefore, turned thii 
incorrigible perverseness to the best possible advantage, and with it, 
strengthened the wall of separation between the chosen people and their 
idolatrous neighbours, by permitting the Hebrews to buy slaves of the 
heathen round about them, and hold them as permanent and hereditary 
property ; and, at the same time, by this very permission, he acquired 
the moral power to restrain the chosen people from reducing any of their 
Hebrew brethren to perpetual slavery. (315.) On this same principle 
in the politico-religious economy of the Mosaic dispensation, the 
Hebrews were forbidden to take usury of their brethren, but permitted 
to take it of all other people : and forbidden to eat of anything that 
had died of itself, but permitted to give it to the stranger that WM 
within their gates, that he might eat it ; or they might sell it to an alien; 
but they must not eat it themselves because they were ** a people sepa- 
rated unto Jehovah," the holy *6lohlm, 

332. Concerning polygamy, concubinage, divorce, and other institn- 
tions and regulations of similar character in the Mosaic economy, it is not 



229 

lecessary that I should, enter into a particular and extended argument 
& order to show why they were permitted. The principles and reason- 
ng* which I have already presented, fully meet all such particular 
isses. (280.) " Moses, because of the hardness of your hearts, suffered 
'oa to put away your wives," said our Lord to the caviling Jews. And 
his explanation extends to every element and feature in the Mosaic 
Lupensation, which is not compatible with the highest and best state of 
raman nature. (215.) Neither the divorce, nor the concubinage, nor 
he polygamy, permitted by the Mosaic institutes was divinely autho- 
*ixea for the purpose of enforcing and sanctioning what was tolerated ; 
rat for the purpose of keeping a thoroughly sensual people within the' 
lerscribed limits of the authorized indulgence, and thus restraining 
hem. from gpreater excesses in libidinous sensuality, and preventing 
pceater and more mischievous enormites of sin. 



COIffSTITirnONAL SOURCE AND DURABILITT OF THE DIVINE AUTHORITT 
AHD TALuilTY OF THE ACCOMMODATED INSTITUTIONS OF THE MOSAIC 
XCOHOMT. 

833. All the divine authority and validity of the accommodated 
institutions and regulations of the Mosaic economy, therefore, accrued 
to them from the conditional necessity out of which they arose as the 
determinate conditional results of the integrity and efficiency of con- 
ttitational laws divinely established in the nature of things (58, 59) : 
and consequently, the divine virtue of those accommodated institutions, 
required of the people, on whom those institutions were imposed, that 
tiiey should advance out of the condition and circumstances of their 
eomplez nature, which made such institutions necessary. (303.) And, 
from the very nature and philosophy of things, the divine authority 
and validity of those accommodated institutions, necessarily passed 
away, by a constitutional abrogation, as the necessity for the institu- 
tions was left behind b^ the progress of the chosen people, in the true 
development of their mtellcctual, moral and religious nature. And 
hence, as the apostle Paul affirms, those institutions " were imposed 
on the chosen people till the time of reformation*' [kairos diorthoseos 
time of itraightening, rectifying ^ putting right,] (286.) 



BOW LONO DID THE DIVINE AUTHORITT AND VALIDITY OF THE ACCOM- 
MODATED INSTITUTIONS OF THE MOSAIC ECONOMT CONTINUE P 

334. The question, therefore, which, in the prosecution of our general 
argument, next comes before us and requires solution, is this, How 
long did the divine authority and validity of the accommodated insti- 
tutions of the Mosaic economy continue P and when did they pass away 
hy virtue of the reformation which constitutionally abrogated them P 
And tiie accurate solution of this question is to be found only in the 
subsequent history of the human world, and, more especially, in that 
of the diosen people. In this direction therefore, let us now pursue 
our way. 



230 

THE HtSTOaV OF THE CHOSEN FEOPLX CONTINUED. 

335. Considering them as rational, moral and religious beings, it .^ 
might be supposed, that after all the signal manifestations and terriUe 
judgments which they had witnessed and experienced from Jebovik 
their *Slohim, and all the precepts and commandments which they bad '^ 
received concerning idolatry and other forms of wickedness, the 
Hebrews, even in their peculiar condition and circumstances, wooM, 
thenceforward, be restrained from that open flagitiousness of oondnct, 
which had previously marked their course. But such was the darkened 
depravity and incorrigible perverseness of that '* stiff-necked people.** 
that it was nearly impossible to hold them under sufficient moril 
restraint, to save them from utter extermination : and we shall find 
that Jehovah was compelled very frequently to visit them with seven 
physical judgments, in order to sustain, in a requisite degree, the 
moral authority of his vicegerent Moses, as their leader and lawgiver. 

336. Scarcely was the economy of the Mosaic dispensation put into 
operation, before two of the leading members of the priesthood, in a fit 
of intoxication, so desecrated their oflice, that Jehovah was obliged to 
destroy them, in order to prevent them from repeating, and others finom 
perpetrating, the same abominable sacrilege : and uienceforward, fht 
whole priesthood were commanded, under the penalty of death, to drink 
no wine nor strong drink, when they went into the tabernacle of the 
congregation. And no sooner had this perverse people departed f^ 
mount Sinai, and entered upon their journey to the land of promisei 
under the command of Moses, and the guidance of the pillar of dood 
and fire (291), than they again commenced their murmurings; and in 
a very short time, Jehovah was obliged to send " a consuming fire" 
among them, as a judgment for their sins ; and to destroy many of 
them, in order to suppress their abominations and deter tnem from 
open rebellion against Moses. And this chastisement was hardly re- 
moved from them, in answer to the prayers of Moses, before thev broke 
out into a more open and turbulent opposition to their leader, becaose 
they had no flesh to eat. Jehovah, as we have seen (322), sent them 
quails, as a judgment for their sins ; and gave them their own desire. 
till out of their indulgence grew a most ^rful plague, which swept 
them off in multitudes, as the only means by which their wickedness 
could be restrained, and the moral government of Jehovah, by the 
hand of Moses, supported and rendered, in a requisite degree, effectoal 
with the survivors. Yet, in the very face of this awful visitation, 
which was specially intended as a physical means of moral restraint 
(77), even Miriam and Aaron, the sister and brother of Moses, and the 
most gifted and elevated of the nation, in the exercise of a wicked 
spirit of jealousy, poured their taunting sneers and bitter reproaches on 
him who had been divinely placed as in Grod's stead to the chosen 
people, and whoso authority Jehovah had repeatedly and in the most 
signal and solemn manner, demonstrated and sanctioned. Jehovah 
rebuked them for their vile temerity, and smote Miriam with leprosy, 
as a judgment to herself, and as a warning to all the people. Thus, 
in every way, and by all available means, did the divine administration 
constantly and continually endeavour to establish in the minds of the 



231 

people> the deep and permanent conviction of the existence of 
preme power and majesty, and of the protecting, care and 
Iness of Jehovah their 'ildhim, and of the delegated authority of 
egerent Moses, so as to render them, as far as possible, suscept- 
' being led forward, in accordance with the divine purposes, by 
.oral power. (77.) 

CBSXJJOM IN THE WILDERNESS OF FARAN — MOSES* PSTCHOLO0ICAL 
B— THE MOSAIC ECONOMY GRADUALLT DEVELOPED DURING THE 
J TSARS SFENt BETWEEN EGTPT AND CANAAN. 

At length, after about two years* absence from Egypt, the 
WB arrived at the wilderness of Paran, on the borders of the 
ed land ; and Moses, in obedience to a divine command, senc 

spies, a man from each tribe, to explore the land, and bring 
iformation to the people. After an absence of forty days, the 
eturned laden with the fruits of the land of Canaan, and stated 
was indeed a land flowing with milk and honey. And now, had 
isen people been in such a state of their intellectual, moral and 
lis nature, as rendered it possible for them to be led in moral 
n, to take possession of the promised land, in accordance with 
ine purpose of benevolence for which they were chosen (223), 
anderings would have been at an end, and they would have been 
BCtlv forward to the possession and enjoyment of the good land 
had been given to their fathers (225, 259), and promised to 
dves. But such was the state of their complex nature — so 
^y were the polytheism and heathenism of Egypt, ingrained in 
ry texture of their souls — so incorrigibly depraved and perverse 
hey — so grossly and irreclaimably sensual in all their desires, 

aU their ideas of human enjoyment, and of the divine nature 
aracter, and, withal, so pusillanimous and cowardly, that it was 
the nature, condition and circumstances of things, possible for 
)f them, who had grown up in Egypt, to be led forward to the 
don of the land of Canaan, in accordance with the divine purpose 
ich. Abraham and his seed were chosen. (312.^ Consequently, 
I Caleb and Joshua, two of the spies, were for gomg right forward 
loer and possess, yet when the other ten spies gave an evil report, 
oke of the men of great stature, and of the giants which they saw 
land, the whole congregation lifted up their voices and cried and 
ike cowardly and froward children. And all the people murmured 
t Moses and against Aaron, and said unto them, would *ildhim 
e had died in the land of Egypt ! or would 'eiohm we had died 
I wilderness — '* Because Jehovah hated us he hath brought us 
at of the land of Egypt to deliver us into the hand of the Amorites 
roy us." And they said one to another, ** Let us make a captain 
b us return into Egypt !" Then Moses and Aaron fell on their 
)efore all the assembly, and Joshua and Caleb rent their clothes in 
, and entreated the madly infatuated people not to rebel against 
ih their ^Hohim^ nor fear the people of the land ; for Jehovah 
*&okim was with them, and would surely fulfil the promises 
be had made to them and to their fathers, if they were faithful and 



232 

obedient to Him. And how did this nefariously peirerse and rebeffioM 
people receive the entreaty and exhortation of tnese brave and bonot 
men P Did they act like a holy people who were fitted to be govemedbj 
a high order of motives P like a chosen nation who were devoted to the 
service of the living and true God P Did they yield to the force of high 
moral power, and conform to the dictates of truth P Indeed, they did not! 
But they fully evinced their own true character ; and demonstrated thit 
it was not in the nature, condition and circumstances of thingi poiiible 
to exert sufficient moral force upon them to restrain them from thdr 
wickedness. In their unbounded turpitude of heart, they armed then- 
with stones and furiously rushed upon their sincere and true frieDdi, 
to kill them, because they told them the truth. And what prevented 
the accomplishment of their atrocious purpose P Did Jehovah cone 
forth in his omnipotence to ** change their hearts P " Did he pour oat 
his spirit on them to renew them P No I He had already brought ti 
bear upon them, all the moral power for which they had any susceptiliUf 
(80), and still they plunged on in sin! and Jehovah was obuged tB 
destroy them in an instant, or arrest their widLedness by some otbtf 
physical means. He burst upon them in the over-awing and terriie 
manifestation of his physical omnipotence, and they paused in diflmif I 
And Jehovah, as if utterly despairing of ever being able to fulfil Ui 
great purpose of benevolence with so perverse a people, again propoeed 
to sweep them from the face of the earth, and from his servant Moeeii 
raise up another nation to serve him I *' How long will this people 
provoke me P " said Jehovah to Moses, '* and how long will it be ere 
they believe me for all the signs which I have shown among them P I 
will smite them with the pestilence, and disinherit them, and make (tf 
thee a great nation and mightier than they.'* And now, observe the 
character of Moses' deprecation, which clearly and fully demonstratei 
the state of his own complex nature, with respect to his theologiesl 
ideas, and moral, and religious sentiments. " Jehovah ! if thoa 
Shalt kill all this people as one man, the Egyptians will hear of it, aod 
they will tell it to the inhabitants of this land, and then the natioos 
will say, Because Jehovah the *Sldhim of the Hebrews was not able 
to bring his people into the land which he sware unto them, therefore 
hath he slain them in the wilderness." How clearly here, the deeply- 
rooted polytheism of Moses' mind still betrays itself. Jehovah is, in 
his belief, the supreme 'glohim; the most powerful of all the '^/oAua; 
but still he is peculiarly the tutelary ^gldhim of the Hebrews ; and 
Moses is extremely jealous lest anything should take place which would 
give the surrounding nations reason to believe that the tutelary ^ildhlm 
of the Hebrews is less powerful, and less faithful and protective than 
their own *Slohim. And therefore, this is the paramount consideration 
which he presents to Jehovah as a reason why the rebellious Hebrews 
should not be suddenly destroyed, by a visitation of divine wrath, and 
he believes that this consideration will be most availing with his *ilkkm, 
Jehovah so far yields to the intercession of Moses as to refrain from 
cutting the rebels off at once, by pestilence ; yet he commands Motes to 
say unto them, " As truly as I live, saith Jehovah, as ye have spoken 
in* mine ears so will I do to you ; your carcasses shall fall in this 
•wilderness ; and all that were numbered of you, from twenty years old 



;r: 



,■• 



233 

and upward, who have seen my glory and my miracles which I did in 
Bgypt, and in this wilderness, and have tempted me now these ten 
times, and have not hearkened to my voice, hut have murmured against 
me, Bball perish in this wilderness ; and none of you, save Caleb and 
Joshua, shall come into the land which I sware to make you dwell 
therein. But your little ones which ye said should be a prey, them will 
I bring in, and they shall know the land which ye have despised : but 
they shall first wander in the wilderness and bear your iniquities, till 
your carcasses he wasted." The ten spies, however, who brought an 
evil report from the land of Canaan and discouraged the people, were 
■nddenly cut off by a plague. 

338. when the people were informed by Moses, that Jehovah had 

taken them at their word and declared that they should not enter into 

the promised land, but should die in the wilderness as they had desired, 

they mourned greaily ; and, all at once, became full of courage to go 

up and take the land ; and notwithstanding Moses peremptorily forbid 

them, and solemnly assured them in the name of Jehovah, that, if they 

Went up, they would be smitten before their enemies, and fall by the 

■word, yet they regarded not his prohibition nor heeded his warning, 

but perversely rushed on in disobedience, and were sorely smitten and 

discomfited, as Moses had foretold them. And now, in a somewhat 

more submissive spirit, and doubtless, in no small measure under the 

inflannce of alarm, they yield to the authority of Moses, who, according 

to divine instruction, leads them back into' the wilderness to wander 

there under the disciplinary measures of the divine administration, till 

the older and more intractable portion of them have died out, and the 

younger portion are fitted to enter the land of promise in accordance 

with the divine purpose of universal benevolence. And during those 

long years of wandering, and discipline, and chastisement, that 

strangely froward people continued to exhibit a living demonstration of 

their inoorrigibleness, and manifested, ever and anon, that turpitude 

of heart, and that insurrectionary and rebellious spirit, which made it 

necessary for them thus to wander and thus to be afflicted. During 

those long years of wandering also, very many, if not most of the 

statutes, ordinances, regulations, rites, ceremonies and observances 

pertaining to the civil, social and religious economy of the Mosaic 

dispensation, were ^adually adopted and established, as events 

suggested, and conditions and circumstances rendered necessary. And 

consequently, they accurately indicate the intellectual, moral and 

religious state of the chosen people during that time. (176.) 

REBELLION OF KOBAH, DATHAN AND ABIBAM, ETC. 

330. How long the severe chastisements and awful denunciations 
which the Hebrews received in the wilderness of Paran, served to curb 
their refractory spirits and keep them in subjection to the authority of 
Moses, is not ]^recisely determined by the Sacred Scriptures ; but the 
next recorded msurrection amongst them, was the powerful rebellion 
of two hundred and fifty princes of the assembly, headed by Korah, 
Dathan and Abiram. These restless and ambitious men rose up 
against Moses and Aaron with a design to depose them and usurp their 



284 

offices. Moses strenuously, but in vain, exerted on them all the mord 
power that they were susceptible of having brought to bear upon tbm. 
They resisted it with contumely and defiance. Nothing bat tbe 
destructive exercise of Jehovah's physical x>mnipotence could arreit 
their wickedness : and the earth was made to open beneath them, ud 
firo to come down upon them I and thus, the impious rebels were aU 
destroyed in the presence of the terrified congregation, for the deelind 
purpose of demonstrating to the survivors, J^ovah*s displeasure at tlie 
conduct of those who had perished, and his sanction of the officii! 
authority of Moses and Aaron, and his ordination of the institute 
priesthood. But the incorrigibly rebellious people, instead of bebif 
subdued and humbled, and rendered more tractable and obedient by 
the fearful visitation, only became the more obdurate and pervene; 
and, almost in the very face of the terrible judgment, they rose vf 
against Moses and Aaron, and accused them of having killed the peofile 
of Jehovah. And they gathered in great turbulence and wrath aronnd 
Moses and Aaron, and would, doubtless, have committed serious, if not 
fatal violence upim them, had not Jehovah arrested the progress of their 
madness, by a sudden and awful manifestation of his presence among 
them, in the cloud which covered the tabernacle of the congregation. 
Jehovah saw that it was in the nature, condition and circumstances of 
things, impossible to control them by pure moral power. Nothing 
but physical inability, or physical calamity, or the instant appre- 
hension of imminent destruction could restrain them : and, as if 
wearied out with their atrocious and unmitigable perverseness, he said 
unto Moses, Get you up from among this congregation that I mar 
consume them in a moment ! Moses and Aaron bowed to the earth, in 
reverential awe : and Jehovah sent a raging plague among the people 
which destroyed fourteen thousand and seven hundred of them, with 
almost the terrific instantaneousness of lightning. And Aaron, at the 
command of Moses, ran, with burning incense between the dead and 
the living, and the plague was stayed. 

340. Here again we may, with reason, pause to remark that, if 
anything in earth or in heaven could convince this stupid and debased 
people that Jehovah, their 'gldhimt was omnipotent to execute his judg- 
ments on transgressors, and that he was determined to sustain the au- 
thority of Moses as their leader and lawgiver, and of Aaron as their high 
priest, they had seen, and heard, and experienced enough for such pur- 
poses : and, in the moment of consternation, they confess it; and 07 
out, in the fulness of their terror, " Behold, we die ! • We perish ! We 
all perish ! Whosoever cometh anything near unto the tabernacle of 
Jeiiovah, shall die ! shall be consumed with dying ! '' Yet no sooner are 
they put to a little inconvenience, or curtailed in their sensual indul- 
gences, than they forget all past admonitions, and reproofs, and chastise- 
ments, and are wholly engrossed in, and governed by, their depraved and 
supreme selfishness. When water fails in the desert of Zin, they 
immetliately again, gather in turbulent murmurs and angry rei>roaches 
around Moses and Aaron, and begin to cry out, *' Would *e/dhm that 
we had died when our brethren died before Jehovah I And why have 
ye brought up the congregation of Jehovah, into this wilderness, that 
we and our cattle should die there P And wherefore have ye made as 



235 

iO come up oat of Egypt, to bring us into this evil place P It is no 
»la€e of seed, nor of figs, nor of pomegranates ; neither is there any 
water to drink.'* As a special providence, demonstrative of the 
Continual presence, and sustaining power, and protecting care of 
Fehovah, the rock of the desert is made to become a living fountain, to 
lupply their wants and silence their discontent. And it is interesting 
bo observe that, when their murmurs are founded on real wants, 
7ehovah does not visit them with judgments, but, with long-suffering 
mercy, bears with their weaknesses and gives them all needed supplies. 
Yet one complaint is hardly silenced before they find occasion for 
another. "And they journeyed from mount Hor by the way of the 
Hed Sea, to compass the land of Edom, and the people again became 
refractory in the way, and spake against 'ilohim and against Moses, 
Wherefore have ye brought us up out of Egypt to die in this wilder- 
ness ? for there is no food, neither is there any water, and our soul 
loatheth this light bread.** They really needed nothing; but they 
efaerifihed vile and sinful lusts till they became a torment to them, 
and instigated them to rebel against the authority of Moses and im- 
piously to speak against divine providence, and therefore *' Jehovah 
tent fiery serpents among them which bit the people and many of 
them died.*' This judgment aroused their fears again, and in the 
moment of trepidation, they confessed their sins ; and a brazen serpent 
raised up for them to look on and be healed. 

HEBREWS ON THE PLAINS OF MOAB, THET WORSHIP BAAL-PEOR. 
THE BSMNANT OF THOSE WHO WERE NUMBERED AT SINAI, CUT OFF 
BT ▲ PLAGUE. 

341. At length, having completed their wanderings in the desert, 
the Hebrews arrived on the borders of Canaan, and pitched their tents 
in the plains of Moab, there to sojourn for a season, in order to 
accomplish their preparations for taking possession of the promised 
land. They had now been forty years shut out from social intercourse 
with all other portions of the human family ; and, during that period, 
all had been done that it was. in the nature, condition and circumstances 
of things, possible for Jehovah to do by the hand of Moses, and by 
providential and miraculous co-operation with his agency, to develope 
m the soub of the chosen people such theological ideas, and such 
moral and religious sentiments, as would enable them clearly and 
distinctlv to discern the difference between Jehovah their own 'c/o^tm, 
and the Slohim of the surrounding nations ; and such as would render 
it morally certain that they would for ever refrain from worshipping 
any of the ^Slohim of the heathen round about them, and would 
faithfully serve Jehovah their own ^SWhtm, and keep all his statutes, 
and observe all his ordinances to do them. But, all the instructions 
and discipline and training which they had received, and all the 
solemn and majestic, and terrible manifestations which Jehovah had 
made of himself to them during the forty years of Moses' vicegerency, 
had, in so small a measure, elevated and sanctified them, and bad left 
them still so deeply debased, so thoroughly depraved, so grossly sensual 
and so darkly heathenish, that, no sooner did they find themselves in 



236 

social intercourse with the inhabitants of the land in wlueh tii^ 
sojourned, and under those social influences which acted on tint 
sensual susceptibilities to excite their lusts, than they, at once, bnks 
away from all the moral restraints which Moses had, for forty yem, 
endeavoured to establish around them in the forms of difinc^ 
authorized precepts, and admonitions, and warnings, and oommand- 
ments, and prohibitions, and penal statutes, and gave themsdyei up ti 
unrestrained licentiousness with the daughters of Moab; and with 
alacrity and eagerness, joined them in their festive sacrifices to thtir 
*ildhim, Baal-peor, and bowed down unto him and worshipped Um. 

342. And what, T ask, could have been done with a people n 
irreclaimably heathenized, so incorrigibly perverse, so nefariously vile^ 
b^ an economy of government, and an order of motives, adapted to ths 
highest and best state of human nature P Inevitable and otter 
destruction to the whole nation, must have been the consequence, u 
Jehovah saw, when they worshipped the calf at Mount Sinai, and 
declared to Moses, that he would not go up in the midst of them, lot 
he consumed them by the way, because of their indomitable turpitude 
of heart. (283, 281.) And now, we see them joined to Baal-peor ud 
rejoicing in his lewd and bacchanal services, as cordially as ii he hid 
been their tutelary and beneficent *glohim all their lives I And hor 
shall they be reclaimed from this g^eat wickedness f By any monl 
power, or spiritual influence acting on them as moral agents P Alu! 
there is, neither on earth nor in heaven, a pure moral force, which, is 
the condition and circumstances of their complex nature, can be brouglit 
to bear effectually upon them, to such an end! (91.) What then, is 
the best efficient measure that can be taken in llie case P Jehovah'i 
conduct demonstrates. His wrath is kindled against the transgressors; 
and he lets loose a raging plague among them ; and commands Moiei 
to take all the heads of the people, and hang them up against the son, 
that the fierce anger of Jehovah may be turned away from Israel 
Yet, before the plague was stayed, twenty-four thousand of the people 
perished by it : and this number included all that remained of those 
who were twenty years old and upward, when they left Egypt, save 
Caleb and Joshua. So that when this scourge had done its terrible 
work, there survived not a man of those who, in the wilderness d 
Par an, wished to *8ldkim that they might die in the desert rather than 
be led to the conquest of the promised land. (337.) 

MOSES* DEATH AT HAND. HIS THEOLOGICAL IDEAS AND RELIGIOCS 

SENTIMENTS IN HIS LAST DATS. HIS NEAR APPROACH TO THE TRCB 

IDEA OF THE UNITY AND ONLINESS OF DEITY. HIS THEOLOGY 

COMPARED WITH THAT OF SOCRATES AND PLATO. MOSES* SLOHIM A 
HOLY GOD. 

3i3. The vicegerency and the earthly existence of Moses were now 
drawing to a close. He had reached his hundred and twentieth year. 
Forty years had he led, and instructed, and given laws to the chosen 
people : and, in all that time, he had done his utmost to realize to 
them, all that he, as a messenger of Jehovah, had promised them, when 
he went into Egypt to deliver them from their bondage. (241.) But 



y, 



237 

tlieir heathenish depravity, and peryerseness, and incorrigiblencss, had 

•o fiir defeated his benevolent designs and efforts, that his life had 

Veen exhausted in those disciplinary measures which, from conditional 

Xfteoessity, were pre-requisite to their entering the promised land, in 

neoordance with the divine purpose for which they were chosen. (279.) 

Sad the emancipated Hebrews been prepared for it, Moses would have 

led them directly into the possession of all he promised them. (337.) 

Sut the heathenish darkness of their minds, and the incorrigible 

depravity and perverseness of their hearts, rendered it morally 

impossible for hmi to progress with them any faster than he did. So 

that, when he, at length, arrived on the borders of the promised land, 

with his people so far educated and trained, as to be prepared to enter 

upon the conquest of that land, he was, himself, too far advanced in 

life, to lead them to that conquest. 

^k4. Moses, therefore, as the mediator of the Sinaic Covenant, and 
as a type of Christ, so far bore the sins of his people, that, in conse- 
quence of those sins, he was obliged to spend the last forty years of his 
hfie in the desert, enduring from the people, and on their account, all 
that is most trying to a benevolent heart and divinely philanthropic 

Sirit : and thus, according to the divine meaning of the language of 
e apostle Paul, he suffered affliction with the chosen people, and bore 
from tbem such reproaches as Christ bore from a sinful world. (233.) 
Nor, was the disciplinary experience of his forty years' vicegercncy in 
the desert, without great educational benefit to Moses himself. For, 
as we have seen (273), he not only entered upon his office as the 
leader, and teacher, and lawgiver of the chosen people, with his mind 
thoroughly saturated with the polytheism of Egypt, but he passed 
through ihe solemn scenes, and witnessed the awful exhibitions of 
Sinai, and arrived at the wilderness of Paran, on the borders of the 
promised land, with much of that ingrained taint of his Egyptian 
education, still infesting his theological ideas and religious sentiments. 
(337.) And it was on this account, infinitely more than on account of 
any mere words which broke from his lips in the moment of indignation, 
when he smote the rock to procure water for the murmuring people in 
the desert of Zin, that Jehovah said unto him and to Aaron, " Because 
ye believed me not, to sanctify me in the eyes of the children of Israel, 
therefore, ye shall not bring this congregation into the land which I 
gave them." (Num. xx. 12.) 

345. Tet, more and more rapidly, as he ripened in years, and 
matured in wisdom, and drew near to the termination of his earthly 
existence, did Moses advance, under divine training, in the knowledge 
of theological and religious truth. And we hear him in his last hours, 
upon the plains of Moab, for the first time in all his life, making, in 
his solemn enunciations to the people, a very close approximation to 
the true idea of the unity and onliness of deitf/, (273.) "Know 
therefore, this day, and consider it in thy heart, that Jehovah he is 
*ildhim in heaven above, and upon the earth beneath : there is none 
else." " Hear, Israel ! Jehovah our *Slohim is one Jehovah : and 
thou shalt love Jehovah thy 'Slohim, with all thy heart, and with all thy 
soul, and with all thy might." " Thus saith Jehovah, Behold I, even 
I am he, and there is no ^Slohim with me." Almost continually, to the 



238 

last, however, does the ground- tint of Moses' Egyptian poly thnsm ind 
aut^ropotheology, blush through the better convictions of fais Iste 
years, and betray itself, cveu in his most sublime enunciations of 
divine truth — yehovdh *Sldfiechim hi' ^Slohi hd ^ilokm wa 'ddikom ks 
^ddhofum\ *' Jehovah your Oo4, he is Qod of gods and Lord (f 
lords" " A God great, mighty and terrible.'* Here, in Moses' lait 
hours, and mingling with his loftiest conceptions of deity, we haves 
supreme being largely vested with human attributes, and peeuliariy tki 
tutelary *Slohim of the Hebrews ; and a clear recognition of other, 
though greatly inferior 'Stohim and divine potentates. And, con- 
sidering the condition and circumstances of his complex nature (177)i 
and the cotemporaueous state of the human world, and the coniti- 
tutional laws which govern all divine revelations (66), it is lea 
surprising that Moses attained to no clearer and more accurste 
conceptions of theological truth, than it is that Socrates and Plato, the p 
wisest and best of the Greek philosophers, who flourished more than s 
thousand years later in the progress of the intellectual, moral and 
religious development of the human soul, more than a thousand yetn 
after the Mosaic theology had become a part of the living and perpetual 
human mind, were not one whit in advance of Moses in relation to 
polytheism. With them, the word theos, like the word 'elohtm with 
Moses, signified not a Qod, nor the Qod definite and personal; but 
indefinite, impersonal, all-pervading, all-energizing Divinity, whid 
evinced itself in all the operations, and more signally manifested itself 
in all the tremendous, all the awful, all the afflictive, and all the 
extraordinary events and pheuomona of nature ; and distributed itself 
iuto the multitudes of personal tutelary deities which the affairs of 
universal nature made necessary ; and each of which was endowed 
with a measure of divine potency and authority, and characterized \ii 
moral qualities corresponding with the rc(^uisitions of his particular 
charge, with reference to the greatest universal good. And, in the 
theology of Socrates and Plato, Jove was the highest impersonation of 
divinity, the supreme deity, the God of gods, as Jehovah was in the 
theology of Moses. So slowly has the true idea of God, and of the 
relations between Grod and man, been developed in the human soul, 
through successive generations of mankind, since the creation of Uie 
human species. (311.) In one respect, however, the Jehovah of the 
Mosaic theology, differed infinitely from all other impersonations of 
divinity, ever worshipped by man, before the advent of Jesus Christ: 
and that was in his characteristic moral quality and requisition of 
holineas. He was kddosh yehovdh — holy Jehovah — pure, clean; 
clean from libidinous lust ; clean from every sensual lust ; clean from 
any complacence in such lusts in His worshippers : and therefore. His 
fundamental requirement of His chosen people, was kodSsh — holiness, 
cleanness, *' Thou sbalt be am kddosh — a holy people; goy kddosh — 
a holy nation unto Jehovah thy 'Slohim; for Jehovah thy 'eiohxm hath 
chosen thee to be a special people unto himself, above all people that 
are upon the face of the earth." "Be ye therefore, holy, for I, 
Jehovah your ^Sldhim, am holy." Be ye clean in your persons ; clean 
in your habiliments and habitations ; clean in all your ways and 
habits ', clean in all your appetites and desires ; dean fiom lewd 



^^GBStiality ; clean from all inordinate lusts; dean from all unrigh- 

'feeooilness, and all wickedness ; clean in your bodies and in your souls 

toirai^ds JehoYah your *gldhlmj and clean in obeying faithfully and 

sineertily all his commandments. And it was expressly in relation to 

'&UE characteristic moral quality and fundamental requirement of 

Jehovah, that a very restricted dietetic regimen which almost wholly 

excluded flesh-meat and intoxicating drinks, was imposed upon the 

chosen people during the forty years of probationary discipline, which 

the^ spent m the desert, as adapted to abate their sensuality, and exalt 

their moral, religious and theological conceptions : and that the 

ordinance of circumcision was instituted in the Mosaic economy, as 

ad!apted, in some measure, to prevent inordinate libidinousness. 

MOSES, IN VIEW OF HIS APPROACH IIVO DEATH, DEVOTES HIMSELF TO THE 
▲CCOaCFLISHMENT OF HIS OFFICIAL LABORS. REVIEWS THE PAST ; SUR- 
▼BT8 THE PRESENT, AND CONTEMPLATES THE FUTURE, WITH RESPECT TO 
THE OONDCCT, CHARACTER, AND DESTINY OF THE CHOSEN PEOPLE. RE- 
VISES AND CODIFIES HIS LAWS AND ORDINANCES. EXHORTS THE PEOPLE 
TO BE FAITHFUL TO JEHOVAH THEIR 'eLOHIM. SOLEMLV PREDICTS THE 
CONSEQUENCES OF THEIR OBEDIENCE AND DISOBEDIENCE. ORDAINS 
JOSHUA AS HIS SUCCESSOR. ASCENDS MOUNT NEBO AND VIEWS TUB 
PROMISED LAND. RETIRES TO A SECLUDED SPOT AND DIES. 

346. Far, very far in a«lvance of his age, therefore, in moral, 
religioas and theological truth ; and to the full measure of human 
capacity in such a state of the human world, ripe in that wisdom 
which resulted from his peculiar experience under the extraordinary 
dispensations of Jehovah (207), Moses, in view of his approaching 
death, settled down with the children of Israel on the plains of Moabv 
to spend his last days in accomplishing all that remained for him to do 
as the vicegerent of Jehovah to the chosen people. In the prosecution 
of this object, he gathered all the people around him, and solemnly 
recounted to them, all that Jehovah their ^ffldhlm had promised to, and 
done for their fathers ; the mighty sign which He had wrought in 
Egypt ; the signal manner in which He had delivered them from their 
bondage ; His awful enunciations and terrible manifestations on 
mount Sinai ; all He had done to them and for them while they were 
In the desert; the reasons why He had so often visited them with 
severe judgments, and why He had cut off all that were numbered in 
the wilderness of Sinai; and reminded them how often they had 
murmured and rebelled against Jehovah their '^Atm, and accused him 
of hating them and designing to destroy them. He assured them that 
all the dealings of Jehovah with them, had been intended to benefit 
them ; that all the chastisements and afflictive judgments which they 
had suffered, had been made indispensable by their perverseness and 
obduracy of heart ; and that, Jehovah had in all his dispensations to 
them, been prosecuting the great and good purpose, not only of deliver- 
ing them from their bondage and leading them into a land flowing 
with milk and honey, but, also, of turning them from the worship 
of the strange 'Slohim, and from every form of idolatry and every kind 
of wickedness, and maldng them a separate, holy, righteous, prosperous, 



240 

powerful aDd happy people, wholly and heartily devoted to the se 
of Jehovah their own *gidhim : and yet, that, all they had seen 
heard and experienced in Egypt, and in the desert, during forty ; 
— all the mighty signs, and terrible judgments, and beneficent p 
dences and interpositions of Jehovah, had failed to give them a 
to perceive, and eyes to see, and ears to hear, even unto the very 
in which he was addressing them. (Deut. xxix. 4.) So that, 
actually stood before him, Siat day, on the plains of Moad, littli 
heathenish, and little more elevated as intellectual, moral and reli 
beings, than they were when first delivered from their Egy 
bondage. 

347. Such, then, was the state of the people for whom it was n 
sary for Moses, as the vicegerent of Jehovah, to frame and coc 
system of laws, ordinances and regulations by which they migl 
governed after his death; and carried forward, in moral free 
towards the fulfilment of the divine purpose for which they 
chosen. (279.) According to Moses' oWn explicit testimony, 
were, in point of intelligence and discernment respecting n 
religious and theological truth — in susceptibility to moral power, 
in grossness of sensuality, really little more than depraved hi 
animals. And to the condition and circumstances of the cos 
nature of such beings, it was necessary for him to adapt his ins 
tions and accommodate his institutions ; both in relation to the pr 
and to the future. To the faithful discharge of this arduous 
momentous duty, he, therefore, diligently and solemnly de 
himself. He repeated to the people the commandments i 
Jehovah their ^Slohim enunciated with a terrible voice amidst thui 
and lightnings and thick darkness on mount Sinai ; recited al 
laws, ordinances and regulations which he, in the name of Jeh 
had given them, during the forty years of his vicegerency ; and i 
such other laws, ordinances, regulations and authoritative instru( 
respecting their religious and political and civil and social 
domestic and individual affairs, interests, concerns and duti( 
were necessary to complete an extensive and complicated sj 
of politico- religious government, services and observances, ad 
both instantly and prospectively to their conditions and cir 
stances. He then called upon all of the congregation, fron 
oldest to the youngest — males and females, " to enter into a so 
covenant with Jehovah their ^Slohim^ and into the oath i 
Jehovah their 'Sldhim, made with them that day ; that He might, 
day, establish them for a people unto Himself, and that He mig 
unto them an ^Slohim, as He had said unto them, and as He 
sworn unto their fathers, to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob." 

348. Having administered this covenant to the people, Moses 
ceeded to present to them, in the most impressive manner, the hi; 
considerations and motives for faithfully keeping it, that the cond 
and circumstances of their complex nature, rendered them suscei 
of having brought to bear upon them with any moral efficacy, 
these, from conditional necessity (59, et seq.) all related to 
earthly existence, enjoyments and sufferings; and mostly, to 
sensual appetites and affections. He solemnly and earnestly asf 



241 

em that, if they would thenceforth utterly abandon all strange '^Atm, 
id put away all idols, and keep themselyes separate from all other 
ktions, a consecrated people unto Jehovah their 'eWhim, and faithfully 
rve Jehovah their 'Sldhim, who had brought them up out of the land 
' Egypt and done such great things among them, that they might 
low Hini and fear Him ; and would diligently keep all His command- 
ents and walk in His ordinances, then Jehovah their 'SLohim would be 
ithful to fulfil all His promises which he had made to them and to 
leir fathers : and would lead them forward into the great and good 
md 'which he had promised them ; and drive out all the inhabitants 
lereof, before them, and deliver it to them and to their children after 
lem, for a possession for ever ; and send them seed-time and harvest ; 
Qd cause the earth to bring forth abundantly, and fill their store-houses 
iUi corn and wine and oil, and every good thing ; and protect them 
rom evil beasts ; and destroy their enemies ; and save them from all 
iseases ; and make them fruitful ; and cause their days to be long 
pon the earth, and full of enjoyment ; and make of them a great and 
owerful nation, which should be above all the nations of the earth, and 
ontinue in perpetual prosperity and greatness and glory. But if they 
rould not fear Jehovah their *gldhim, and faithfully obey him, and 
liligently keep his statutes — if they continued to go after other 'SWhlm 
jid to serve them, and obdurately persisted in their wickedness, then 
f^ovah their '^^At/» would withhold from them the rains and the dews 
if heaven, and cause their land to be unfruitful, and their cattle and 
hemselves to be barren ; and send evil beasts among them ; and bring 
ill manner of diseases upon them ; and afflict them with famine and 
lestilence ; and deliver them into the hands of their enemies ; and drive 
hem away into bondage and tribulation ; and shorten their days upon 
he earth ; and multiply their sorrows; and cause them to become an 
)at-cast and despised people — a hissing and a by- word among all 
lations. " Understand, therefore, this day,** said Moses, " that Jehovah 
foor ^gldhim is He who goeth over before you ; as a consuming fire, He 
diall destroy the inhabitants of the land which ye go to possess, and He 
ihall bring them down before your face, so shall ye drive them out and 
iestroy them quickly as Jehovah hath said unto you. Yet after Jehovah 
^our *gldkiinha,th cast them out from before you, say not in your hearts, 
Por our righteousness Jehovah hath brought us in to possess this land, 
but for the wickedness of these nations Jehovah doth drive them out 
from before you. (328.) Not for your righteousness, nor for the upright- 
ness of your hearts, do ye go to possess their land ; but for the wicked- 
aess of these nations Jehovah your ^Sldhim doth drive them out before 
jrou, and that he may perform the word which Jehovah sware unto your 
fathers Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. (310.) Understand, therefore, that 
Jehovah your ^iWhim giveth you not this good land to possess it for your 
righteousness! for ye are a stiff-necked people. (279.) Remember, and 
forget not how ye provoked Jehovah your *ildhim to wrath in the wilder- 
aess: from the day that ye departed out of the land of Egypt, until ye 
came unto this place, ye have been rebellious against Jehovah." 
(Dent. ix. 3—8.) *' Behold, I set before you this day, a blessing and 
% curse ; a blessing, if ye obey the commandments of Jehovah your 
ildkim, which I command you this day ; and a curse if ye will not obey 



243 

the commandments of Jehorah your '^^im, but turn aside oat of 
way which I command yon this day, to go after other ^ilohxm^ whicl 
have known." (Beut. xi. 26—28.) '* I call heaven and earth 
record this day against you, that I have set before you, this day life 
death, blessing and cursing." But " I know your rebellion and i 
stiff neck. Behold, while I am yet alive with you this day, ye have I 
rebellious against Jehovah ; and how much more after my death 
•* I know jfchat after my death ye will utterly corrupt yourselves, 
turn aside from the way which I have commanded you ; and evil 
befal you in the latter days, because ye will do evil in the sigh 
Jehovah to provoke him to anger through the works of your ban 
** For ye are a nation void of counsel, neither is there any understan 
in you." " that ye were wise ! that ye understood this ! tha 
would be considerate of future consequences !" '* that there ' 
such an heart in them ! saith Jehovah, that they would fear me 
keep all my commandments always ; that it might be well with 1 
and with their children for ever !" (See Beut. xxvii — raiv.) 

349. Having completed his instructions and admonitions to the ch 
people, and made an end of writing the words of law, and accompli 
all the labours, and fulfilled all theduties of his vicegerency, and ordi 
Joshua to be his successor as a leader and ruler, Moses deliverei 
code which he had prepared, to the Levites who bore the ark o1 
Covenant of Jehovah, and commanded thchn to deposit it in the si 
' the ark, for the instruction and reproof of Israel after his death ; 
having solemnly taken his leave of the people, he, being a hundrec 
twenty years old, with an eye undimmed by time and a step unfalti 
with age, went up, from the plains of Moab, unto the mountain of '. 
to the top of Pisgah, whence, in the serene joy of devout contemph 
he gratefully surveyed the good land of promise, and then retired 
secluded spot in a valley in the land of Moab, and died alone, i 
presence of Jehovah his ^Slohim. Thus closed the earthly career o: 
of the greatest and best men that the world ever saw : and who, i 
instrument in the hand of God, did more to mould the characte: 
direct the destiny of mankind to good, than any other human 1 
that ever lived, before Jesus of Nazareth. And they who ca' 
noisily and bitterly at the bloody and dark features of the pol 
religious economy which he framed and established, manifest 
consideration of the irresistible necessities under which he acted 
of the unilluminable heathenism, the unmitigable truculence an< 
obdurate intractableness of the people with which he had to deal, ai 
which he instituted that economy. 

SUMMARY REVIEW OF MOSES' VICE6ERENCT. 

350. Now, in a summary and comprehensive review of the vicege 
of Moses, with reference to the general argument which we are p 
cuting, we clearly and distinctly perceive three great and concl 
circumstances occupying the field of our contemplation. The fi 
that, the period during which Moses was employed in develo 
adopting, digesting and establishing the institutions which cons 
the Mosaic dispensation, embraced the whole forty years of his oi 
life, extending from his return to Egypt as the deliverer of the cl 



243 

to his latest days in the plains of Moab : and very many, if not 
r those institutions were rramed or adopted as events suggested, 
nditions and circumstances rendered them necessary. (338.) The 
i is that during that whole period, the people which he led from 
ian bondage to the borders of the promised land, and for which his 
itioDs were established, hardly made the least appreciable progress 
i knowledge of moral, religious and theological truth, nor improve- 
in their moral and religious character. So that, they actually 
id from the hands of Moses into the hands of Joshua, very little, 
all, elevated above the thoroughly sensual and deeply depraved and 
ly heathenish and grossly idolatrous state in which Moses found 
a, when he went into Eg^pt to deliver them from their bondage. 
i.) And the third is that, Moses, as the vicegerent of Jehovah, from 
ititntional necessity adapted his institutions to the condition and 
5iunstancesof the complex nature of such a people : which condition 
1 circumstances, we have seen (176), accurately indicate the degree 
which the divine revelations and dispensations, as understoo<1 by the 
fipients, were accommodated to the state of those that recieved 

351. Here then, we have, reduced as it were to a focal point of view, 
le whole area of sacred history pertaining to the Mosaic epoch, and can 
ommarily survey, by a single act of vision, all the materials from which 
n haye deduced the philosophy of the Mosaic economy as a divine 
liipensation. And we clearly perceive that we are to regard the 
ohftracter of the Mosaic institutions, not as determined by the absolute 
tone of the holiness, goodness, knowledge and power of Jehovah, but 
ai necessarily determined by the condition and circumstances of the 
eomplez nature of the people on whom those institutions were imposed. 
ijid consequently the reasonableness of the claims of the Mosaic insti- 
tutions to divine authority and validity, is not determined by the degree 
in which those institutions harmonize with the divine attributes, but by 
their adaptedness to the state of the people on whom they were imposed, 
with reference to the end for which they were established. And we 
lave seen that that state was one of utter and incorrigible sensuality, 
depravity, ignorance, heathenism, and perverseness : so that, none but a 
low order of temporal and sensual motives could be brought to bear upon 
them with any moral efficacy. (280.) And even with this order of motives, 
•11 the moral power which they were susceptible of having brought to 
bear upon them, was not sufficient, without the frequent aid of Jehovah's 
physical omnipotence, to restrain them from flagitious wickedness and 
carry them forward, as moral agents, towards the fulfilment of the 
divine purpose for which they were chosen. (326). 

THS STATE IM WHICH THB HEBREWS CAME UNDER THE AUTHORITT OF 
JOSHUA. THEIR CHARACTER AND CONDUCT DURING HIS GOVERNlfENT. 
THB COVENANT WHICH HE ADMINISTERED TO THEM AT THE CLOSE OV 
BIS UFB. 

352. In the state just described, the Hebrews came under the 
authority of Joshua, to be led and governed by him in accordance with 



* See Note to Section 67, page SO. 



•\ 



T 



244 

the institutions of Moses. And the people solemnly promised to saWt -^ 
to his authority^ and to obey him the same as they had obeyed Moseii p^ 
on condition that Jehovah his *il6htm would sanction and sustun hii :^ 
authority by physical and miraculous demonstrations of his protecting 
presence and power, as he had sanctioned and sustained the authority 
of Moses. And Jehovah promised to be with Joshua as he had been 
with Moses ; and ** he magnified Joshua in the sight of all Israel, that 
they might know that he was with Joshua as he had been with Moses;" 
** and all the people feared Joshua as they had feared Moses, all the 
days of his life." Circumstances, however, rendered it much len 
difficult for Joshua to govern this perverse and refractory people, thia j"^ 
it had been for Moses. During the personal government of Moses, the k. 
people, for the most part, had no active employment, and, consequratly, 
had little else to do, than to cherish their animal appetites and Imte, 
meditate on their privations, contemplate sensual gratifications, brood 
on their discontents, and foment insurrections and rebellions. But 
Joshua gave them little time for such things. As soon as he coold 
complete the requisite preparations for an invasion of the promised 
land, he lied them into active martial service, and, during the greater 
part of his official life, kept them so continually in harness and 
hostilities of war, that their restless and truculent tempers hid 
sufficient vent upon the doomed inhabitants of Canaan ; and they had 
little leisure to devise and execute internal mischief, and little oppor- 
tunity to indulge their strong and incorrigible propensity to devote 
themselves to the sensual services of strange ^Sldhim. Yet, with all 
these circumstances favouring him, it was with no small difficulty tliat 
Joshua controlled their heathenish and perverse spirits, and kept them 
in subjection even to martial law. For as often as opportunity served 
them, they manifested that deep, incorrigible, hereditary turpitude of 
heart, which characterized them and their fathers as a race, and 
displayed itself in frowardness and disobedience, and sensual devotion 
to strange ^Slohlm, and insubordination and rebellion. And even 
Joshua himself evinced something of this national idiosyncrasy of 
soul, and in emergencies betrayed a grossness of theological conception, 
and a feebleness of faith in the promises of the tutelary 'eidhim of his 
fathers, which demonstrated but a small advance above the universal 
polytheism and heathenism of his times. Notwithstanding the divine 
assurances which he had received that he should be sustained, and 
should be victorious over the inhabitants of the promised land, and 
should divide that land among the chosen people for their inheritance, 
yet when, as an evidence of divine displeasure on account of a particular 
tresspass committed by an individual of the nation, a small division of 
the Hebrew army was routed by the enemy, Joshua rent his clothes and 
fell to the earth, on his face, before the ark of Jehovah, and cried out, 
*' Lord* Jehovah! wherefore hast thou at all brought this people 
over Jordan, to deliver us into the hand of the Amorites to destroy us? 
0, that we had been content, and dwelt on the other side of Jordan. 



* ^Adhondi, master^ lord — applied to human as well as divine 

beings. 



O Lord, what shall I say when Israel turneth their backs before their 
onemies P For the Canaanites and all the inhabitants of the land shall 
Ibear of it, and shall environ us round, and cut off our name from the 
earth ; and what wilt thou do unto thy great name P " (337.) 

3d3. According to his understanding of things, however, Joshua was 

a pious, upright and faithful servant of Jehovah ; and, to the best of 

liis abilities and means, endeavoured to perform, acceptably to his 

*il5him and beneficially to the people of his charge, the duties which 

derolved upon him as the leader and ruler of the chosen people of 

Jehovah. But, such was the general state of things, both with respect 

to Uie Hebrews and to the inhabitants of the land of Canaan, that 

Joshua was not able fully to execute the commission which he had 

received from Moses, to drive out all the inhabitants of the land, and 

divide the land among the children of Israel. Yet he pushed his 

conquest over a considerable portion of the territory which had been 

ffiven to Abraham, to Isaac and to Jacob, and to their seed after them, 

for an inheritance ; and the portions which he did not actually conquer, 

he nevertheless divided as Moses had appointed. In accordance with 

the instructions which he had received n'om Moses, he also caused to 

be read, in the hearing of the whole congregation of the children of 

Israel, all the statutes and ordinances, and all the blessings and 

cursing^ contained in the book of the law which Moses had written. 

Tet he failed to preserve as entire a separation between the chosen 

people and the inhabitants of the land, as Moses had commanded ; and 

was less exterminating in his conquests than the Mosaic injunction 

required ; but spared many of the inhabitants ; subjected them to 

tribute and bondage; and, to some extent, entered into treaties and 

alliances with them ; and thus perpetuated to the Hebrews, effectual 

temptations and opportunities for their indulMice in the grossly 

sensual services of strange ^Slohinif and all the nnui of wickedness to 

which they were incorrigibly prone. * 

354. As the close of his earthly existence drew near, Joshua, as 
Moses had done before him, gathered all the elders, aud judges, and 
officers of the tribes, and the whole congregation of Israel, around him, 
and said unto the people, " Thus saith Jehovah, *Sloh^n of Israel, Your 
fathers dwelt on the other side of the flood in old time, even Terah, 
the father of Abraham, and the father of Nachor ; and they served 
other ^eiohim" (224.) And Joshua proceeded to recite to them 
concisely, their whole history, from the calling of Abraham to the time 
in which he was speaking to them; and succinctly recounted the 
wonderful things which Jehovah their *glohim had done for them and 
for their fathers in delivering them from their bondage in Egypt, and 
in leading them through the desert into the good land which 3iey then 
possessed. And having done thii, he charged them, saying, "Now 
therefore, be ye very stedfast to keep and to do all that is written in 
the book of the law of Moses, that ye turn not aside therefrom to the 
right hand nor to the left; that ye come not among these nations 
which remain among you; neither make mention of the name of 
tiieir *ifl6himt nor cause to swear by them, neither serve them, nor bow 
yourselves unto them." " But fear Jehovah and serve him in integrity 
and faithfulness; and put away the *ilohim which your fathers served 



on the other side of the flood and in Egypt, and lenre ye JehonK p 
And if it leem eyil unto yon to serve Jehovfth, choose you Hoi dn ^ 
whom ye will serve ; whether the *ilohim which your fathers serrat ■'- 
that were on the other side of the flood, or the *gldhim of the Amoritci 
in whose land ye dwell : but as for me and my house, we will serre 
Jehovah. And the people answered and said, Far be it from us that 
we should forsake Jehovah to serve other 'ildhim : for Jehovah oar 
*Sl6Mm, he it is that brought us up and our fathers out of the luid of 
Eg3rpt, from the house of bondage, and which did those great signs is 
our sight, and preserved us in all the way wherein we went, ud 
among all the people through whom we passed. And Jehovah drave 
out from before us, all the people, even the Amorites which dwelt ia 
the land ; therefore, will we also serve Jehovi^, for he is our 'ilMk 
And Joshua said unto the people, Te cannot serve Jehovah, for he if 
*eidkim kedoshim — a holy *ildhim (345) ; he is a jealous ^ilohtm aai 
will not tolerate your transgressions nor your sins. If ye fomke 
Jehovah and serve strange *ilohim, then he will turn and do you hurt, 
and consume you after that he hath done you good. And the people 
said unto Joshua, Nay ; but we will serve Jehovah. And Joshua laid 
unto the people, Te are witness against yourselves, that ye have dioMi 
you Jehovah to serve him. And they said. We are witnesses. Nov, 
therefore, put away, said he, the strange ^ilohim which are among yon, 
and incline your heart unto Jehovah *^hun of Israel. And the people 
said unto Joshua, Jehovah our *ilohvn will we serve, and his voice viU 
we obey. So Joshua made a covenant with the people that day, sad 
set them a statute and an ordinance in Shechem." 

THE CHARACTER AND CONDUCT OF THE CHOSEN PEOPLE DURINe TBI 
ERA OFJBf JUDGES. CHARACTER OF THE JUDGES. 

355. Yet this 4P%ly heathenish people actually entered into this 
covenant and made these solemn acknowledgments and promises, with 
no higher conceptions of Jehovah, than they had of the *gl6hun of the 
Egyptians, of the Amorites, and of other surrounding nations : and the 
only notion by ^hich they, in their own minds, distinguished Jehovah 
from the ^Slohim of other nations, was that, he was peculiarly their own 
tutelary ^^lohim, who, by the exercise of his terrible power, had 
delivered their fathers from bondage, and given to themselves the good 
land which they possessed. And, consequently, when Joshua and the 
elders associated with him in the government of the Hebrew CommoB- 
wealth, were dead, the remembrance of Jehovah and of the covenant 
which they had entered into to serve him, soon utterly died out of the 
minds of the people, and they, without any real deterioration of 
intrinsic character, and with little defection in outward morals, readily 
and fully coalesced in ideas, sentiments and conduct with the inhabi- 
tants of the land which they had failed to drive out and destroy, and 
heartily, joyfully and zealously united with them in the grossly sensual 
and obscene services of their tutelary '^^^tm (341, 342), and thoroughly 
abandoned themselves to every kind of wickedness; intermarrying 
freely and wantonly with the nations which they had been command^ 
to exterminate ; sacrificing animals, and feasting, and carousing, and 



247 

iving loose to the most abominable lewdness and ebriety before the 
mages, and shrines, and altars of the strange ^Sldhim of the land, in 
very high place and every grove ; setting ap houses of strange ^Slohlm 
mong themselves, and consecrating priests to their services ; rioting 
ft unbounded sensuality ; truculently marauding and freebooting, like 
iwless BJid savage bandits, among the neighbouring nations, and even 
mong their own tribes ; waging ferocious and exterminating war, now 
ith other nations and now among themselves ; and plunging on from 
ae atrocity to another, till they had thrown off all the religious and 
Qoral restraints which Moses and Joshua had brought to bear upon 
heir fathers, and had earnestly endeavoured to render perpetually 
iffective through all the successive generations of the chosen people 
B41) ; and till even the regular priests of the house of Aaron, who 
lerved at the altar politically dedicated to the tutelary ^ilohim of their 
lation, " knew not Jehovah," and had become so corrupt and profligate 
^hat they made the services of the national sanctuary despicable and 
)diou8, by the outrage and sacrilege which they habitually perpetrated 
Ik the flJtar, and by the flagrant lewdness which they shamelessly 
araeticed at the very door of the tabernacle of the congregation ; and, 
in short, until the whole Hebrew nation had become so utterly 
abandoned and so flagitiously wicked that nothing but severe chastise* 
Dtents, and dreadful scourgings, and direful calamities could have any 
repressing and restraining effect on the depraved appetites, and sinful 
desires, and lusts, and passions, and conduot of the people. ' 

356. Such is summarily the history of this strangely froward people, 
daring the whole of that period of four hundred years, commonly called 
" The Heroic Age of the Hebrew Nation," or ihe Era of the Judges. 
Id all this time, the chosen people, as a nation, made not the smallest 
progress in the knowledge of moral, and relinofw, and theological 
truth, and hardly the least advance in civiliza&JDb^ In all this time, 
their theological ideas, and religious sentiments add lenrices were such 
as were common to the heathen nations which surrounded them, and 
with which they mingled. During this period, as often as the Hebrews, 
with all the restraining moral force which they were susceptible of 
having brought to bear upon them, had reached that dark depth in 
fdckedness and heathenism in which the very name of Jehovah was 
well nigh blotted from human memory, and which, therefore, was 
incompatible with the prosecution of the divine purpose for which 
Al»raham and his seed were chosen (312), Jehovah, executing the best 
measures that were, in the nature, condition and circumstances of 
things possible, raised up enemies against them, and " delivered them 
into the hands of the spoiler that spoiled them ; and sold them into the 
hands of their enemies round about ; ** and thus, by human instru- 
mentalities, chastised and scourged them, till the more intelligent 
portion of them were brought to remember the *Sldhim of tiieir fathers, 
and to acknowledge, at least with their lips, their allegiance to Jehovah 
as the tutelary ^ilohim of their nation, and to confess their sin in 
forsaking him and serving other *d2oAifm, and to cry to him for deliver- 
ance from the hands of their oppressors. Yet so dark was the 
heathenism, and so deep was the depravi^, and so indomitable was the 
perverseness of this people, that when Jdiovah had listened to their 



248 

cries and pitied them in their afflictions, and " raised up judges who ; 

delivered them out of the hands of those that spoiled them, they would T 
not hearken unto their judges but continued to go after other 'ilSfuMt L, 
and bowed themselves unto them." And always, as soon as their .'. 
deliverer was dead and the restraining influence of his personal ^ 
authority was removed, " they returned and corrupted themselves mora T~ 
than their fathers, in following other 'eiohim to serve them, and to bow '^ 
down unto them ; and they ceased not from their own doings, nor fron tl 
their stubborn way," till they had again reached that dark depth is 
wickedness and heathenism which made it necessary that they should 
again be delivered into the hands of their enemies, and subjected to 
oppressive bondage and cruel servitude, in order to perpetuate among 
them even the memory of the name of Jehovah the ^eidhhn of Israel 
And thus, during the whole era of the judges, the experience of Uie 
chosen people was almost a continued series of captivities and afflictioof 
for their wickedness in forsaking Jehovah and serving other ^ilokm, 
and of deliverances connected with such signal demonstrations of 
Jehovah*s interposition in their behalf, as were best adapted to convince 
them of the great superiority of Jehovah, the ^Sldhirn of their fsthen, 
over the ^Slohim which the^ were so prone to serve ; and best adapted 
to convince them that their own well-being was inseparably connected 
with their faithfulness to Jehovah, and their adversity inseparablj 
connected with their defection from Jehovah, and their devotion to 
strange 'SlOhlm. So that a very considerable portion of the era of tbe 
judges was spent by the chosen people in oppressive bondage, as the 
best measure of divine administration by which it was, in the nature, 
condition and circumstances of things, possible for them to be kept 
from utter and remediless apostasy, and for the divine purpose for 
which they were chosen, to be in any measure carried forward towards 
its fulfilment by their moral agency. ' 

357. Nor were the leaders or judges themselves, who were, from 
time to time, as occasion required, raised up for the deliverance of the 
chosen people, in any considerable degree elevated above the mass of 
the people in theological ideas and moral and religious sentiments. 
Being, as a general thing, somewhat more intelligent than their 
brethren — they had more discernment, and clearer notions, and & 
better understanding respecting the evidences which, in those times, 
determined in the human mind the character of universal divinity 
(315), and of any particular tutelary '8ldhhn. (226.) And, con- 
sequently, they more accurately perceived the relation betw^een their 
national theology and religion, and their national experience as to 
prosperity and adversity, and better understood those divine adminis- 
trations which demonstrated not only the superiority of Jehovah over 
other 'Slohlmt but also the certainty of his propitiousness when they 
served him, and the certainty of his judgments when they forsook him 
and served other *Hdh\m. Yet, with all these advantages, though, as 
instruments in the hand of Jehovah for the carrying forward of the 
divine purposes, they were the best that the nature, condition and 
circumstances of things rendered possible ; and, so far as considered in 
relation to the ends for which they were raised up, were such servants 
of Jehovah as the occasions required ; nevertheless, when considered in 



x^lation to theological, and religious, and moral truth, they were but 
ISttle elevated aboye the darkest heathenism and the most savasfe 
'ftanculence. And though they seemed to be staunch advocates and 
lieroic champions in the cause of Jehovah, yet their conceptions of his 
oliaracter were extremely gross and sensual, and they feared and served 
Sim only as the fearfully jealous, terribly wrathful, and dreadfully 
"Vindictive el skadddi of their ancestors. (247.) Even Gideon, and 
Jephthah, and Samson, the most distinguished of these chiefs, were 
little more than savage warriors and brigands ; and they hod no con- 
ceptions of the character of Jehovah, which, in their minds, made 
every stratagem, or treachery, or outrage, or cruelty, to secure their 
ends, inconsistent with their acceptable faithfulness to their ^gldhim, 
Gideon, with all the evidences which he received of divine assistance, 
with all his zeal for the tulelary *iWhim of Israel, and with all his 
heroic valour as Jehovah's champion against the enemies of the chosen 
people, multiplied his wives and concubines at pleasure, and had no 
theological ideas, nor religious sentiments, nor considerations Uiat 
ooald restrain him from taking the golden ornaments which were the 
spoils of war, and making a huge ephod, and setting it up as a substitute 
for the image of the *ilohim which he served ; and thus causing all 
Israel to gather in wantonness around it, and perform the same sensual, 
lewd, and bacchanal services before it, that they did before the images, 
shrines and altars of strange 'eiohim. Jephthah's conceptions of the 
character of Jehovah were so heathenish, that he hesitated not to ** offer 
up for a burnt-offering," to his ^eidhirn, his only child, in fulfilment of 
a vow made on the eve of battle, to secure divine assistance in con- 
quering and captivating the enemies of Israel. And Samson, though 
specially raised up and wonderfully endowed by Jehovah with strength 
and boldness, for the deliverance of the chosen people from the hands 
of their oppressors, was still little less heathenish in his theological 
ideas and religious sentiments, and little less wanton and dissolute in 
his morals, than were the Philistines, against whom his bravery was 
exercised. For it should ever be remembered that God can employ the 
worst of men to execute his purposes, and that miraculous endowments 
do not demonstrate true spiritual godliness in the possessor. (83.) 

358. Tet, heathenish, and corrupt, and flagitious as were the 
general character and conduct of the Hebrews during the era of the 
udges, still this period was not wholly lost to the cause of human 
rogress in moral and religious and theological truth. Some advance- 
ment was made in the true education of the human soul — in the 
evelopment of the kingdom of God in the human world. (170.) 
imidst the general defection, and depravity, and wickedness of the 
Qosen people, and, indeed, in no small measure by these very means, 
&muel was raised up, and educated to clearer and more just concep- 
bns of the divine character, and a better understanding of the 
r(ations between 6k>d and man, than had before been attained to by 
ay human being. Tet, in comparison with Jesus of Nazareth (179), 
e^n Samuel was, in his theological ideas, and in his religious and 
mral sentiments, little elevated above a heathen and a barbarian.''^ 



*Thi8 concludes what the authoi had prepared for the printer. The succeeding 



DETERMINATION TO HATE A KINO. — BEieMS OF BAUL, DATID, 8OL(«0K,flbU. %^ 

359. Not contoDted with the form of gOYemment which Mowi VA] 
giyen them, they, in imitation of the heathen nations round aW^ 
them, must have their king ; and the Lord gave them their deoreil 
judgment. 

360. The history of the Jews during the reign of Saul is a tisnie «C 
almost every species of wickedness. They were grossly ignorant of tti 
true nature and character of the living God, and had no heart to sern 
Him. It is true they often spoke of their national Gk)d, and sometiiDa 
professed to serve Him, and to seek instruction from Him ; but it vy 
all done with the darkened mind of an idolatrous and sensual people. 

361. David, when exalted to the throne of Israel, certainly rose hi^ 
above the character of the times that had preceded him, and he un- 
questionably became one of the most truly pious and godly men thit 
ever sat upon the Jewish throne, or adorned their history ; and he £4 
far more than any other of their kings or rulers to elevate the charteter 
and condition of the people, and raise the glor^ of the nation. Hii 
was, indeed, an heroic an Ulustrous reign, during which the MoMk 
institutions were more fully and scrupulously observed than they had 
ever been before and the national morality and religion were mon 
consistent with those institutions. Tet David, with all his piety and 
godliness, indulged extensively in polygamy and concubinage, and waa 
guilty of adultery and murder of the most flagitious character ; which, 
while it demonstrates far more the frailty of his nature than the 
insincerity of his religion, fully evinces the limitedness of his views 
concerning that morality which is founded on the truth in regard to 
the nature and character of God, and the relations existing between 
God and man. 

362. Not to dwell on the scenes of wickedness, and violence, and 
shocking outrage which marked the close of David's reign, and inter- 
vened between that and the establishment of Solomon on the throne of 
his father, we pause with astonishment to contemplate the almost 
incredible exhibitions of character developed in the wisest and most 
renowned of Hebrew princes. Having erected a splendid and magnifi- 
cent temple to the Qod of Israel, Solomon, with all the apparent pieti 
of a child of God, solemnly dedicated that temple to the service a 
Jehovah, and implored His abiding presence there, to hear the prayes 
of his people, and to instruct them and to bless them. And the gloi7 
of the Lord filled the house ; and God covenanted with Solomon, aiil 
told him, if he would serve the Lord in the integrity of his heart, ail 
keep His statutes, his throne should be established, and his reigi 
should be glorious, and the nation should be prosperous and happ; ; 
but if he turned away, he or his children, from serving the Lord, aid 
served other gods and worshipped them, then the Lord would cut -ff 
Israel out of the land which He had given them, and the temple shodd 

portion of the work is from what appears to be the fir»t drafts ttova. which he 
author evidently intended to compile the copy for the press. Although proboly 
not 80 complete in its arrangement as it would otherwise have been, we have ^re- 
ferred to present the matter as nearly as possible as left by the author, to attemplDg 
any re-arrangement. — ^£d. 



251 

be desecrated, and Israel should become a proverb and a brword 
amoni^ all people. With extensive knowledge, and extraordinary 
wisdom, Solomon pursued his gorgeous career, accumulating splendour 
upon splendour, till his throne and kingdom became one of the most 
powerful and glorious on the face of the whole earth. Now, does it 
seem credible, in the nineteenth century of the Christian era, tiiat a 
prince so wonderfully endowed, after the deeply solemn and interesting 
prayer which he had made to the living and true God at the dedication 
of the temple which he had built, and after the covenant which the 
Lord had made with him, and the divine instructions which he had 
««oeived, could give himself up to such unbounded excesses of wanton* 
neis and sensuality as Solomon did, and even become so extremely vile 
as to be guilty of gross idolatry P " For Solomon loved many strange 
women, together with the daughter of Pharaoh, women of the Moabites, 
Ammonites, Edomites, Zidonians, and Hittites; of the nations con- 
cerning which the Lord said unto the children of Israel : Ye shall not 
^ in to them ,neither shall they come in unto you ; for surely they will 
torn away your hearts after their gods. Solomon dave unto those In 
love. And he had seven hundred wives, princesses, and three hundred 
concubines ; and his wives turned away his heart. For it came to. 
pass, when Solomon was old, that his wives turned away his heart 
after other gods ; and his heart was not perfect with the Lord his God, 
as was the heart of David his father. For Solomon went after 
Ashtoreth, the goddess of the Zidonians, and after Milcom, the abomi- 
nation of the Ammonites ; and he built a high place for Chemosh, the 
abomination of Moab, in the hill that is before Jerusalem, and for 
Molodi, the abomination of the children of Ammon ; and likewise did 
he for all his strange wives, which burned incense and sacrificed unto 
their gods. And the Lord was angry with Solomon, because his heart 
was turned from tiie Lord God of Israel, who had appeared unto him 
twice, and had commanded him concerning this thing, that he should 
not go after other gods ; but he kept not that which the Lord com- 
manded. Wherefore the Lord said unto Solomon : Forasmuch as this 
is done of thee, and tiiou hast not kept my covenant and my statutes, 
which I have commanded thee, I will surely rend the kingdom f^om 
thee, and will give it to thy servant. For thy father David's sake I 
will not do it in thy days, but I will rend it out of the hand of thy son. 
Howbeit, for my servant David's sake, and for Jerusalem's sake, which 
I have chosen, I will not rend away aU the kingdom." 

363. Upon what principles in human philosophy can such phraomena 
in the character of man be accounted forr Either Solomon was 
guilty of the most heartless hypocrisy in his earlier pretensions to 
godliiiess, or he declined f^om a high state of true piety to the most 
atrocious apostacy ; or else, with all the wisdom which he jpossessed, 
and all the piety which he felt and manifested at the dedication of the 
temple, his views of the nature and character of God, and of the 
relations between God and man, were exceedingly dim and imperfect. 
The last of these propositions is unquestionably the true one, as is 
evident from the nature of the case, the condition of the world at the 
time, the writings of Solomon, and the revelations of the g08^l% ai^^^ 
therefore, the mental and moral traoaitioii fEonL\2bib d«dai»ii^QTi ^1 ^^u^ 



252 



f 



temple to the setting up of high places and erecting altan to the ; 
heathen gods, was by no means so great in Solomon as it appears to m 
at the present day. No other solution of this difficulty can be satis- 
factory, and no other principle of explanation can meet the othenriie 
unaccountable phenomena continually exhibited in the character sad 
conduct of the Jews. If, therefore, even Solomon, with all his wisdom, k 
was not in a condition to be governed by tJie highest and holiest ofder , 
of motives — if all the moral power and spiritual influence which hi 
was capable of having brought to bear on him, could not restrain h m 
from unbounded licentiousness and base idolatry, what was true of the 
emancipated slaves of heathen Egypt, when they stood in t^e wil- 
-derness of Sinai and received the Mosaic dispensation P and whatwM 
true of the long line of stiff-necked, and perverse, and rebellious, aai 
idolatrous generations of Jews which preceded and succeeded SolomooP 
Surely the close contemplation of the history of this peculiar people, ii 
enough to make one's heart sicken with horror and disg^t at the 
shocking manifestions of human depravity. We have b^ no meam, 
however, witnessed the rankest of their turpitude; for it seems tf '■_ 
though, with their increasing light of civilization, they increased in L 
the energy of their wickedness, and became sublimated in their pover 
of siu. 

IDOLATRT OF THE HEBREWS. — REIGNS OF ASA AND ABAB, ETC, 

364. As a judgment of heaven for their wickedness, the Jewiih | 
nation, after the death of Solomon, was rent asunder, and divided into 
two kingdoms, under Rehoboam, king of Judah, and Jeroboam, king of 
Israel. The latter, in order to prevent his people from going up to 
Jerusalem to worship at the temple, set up two golden calves in his 
realm — the one in Bethel, and the other in Dan ; and he said to the 
people : " Behold thy gods, Israel I which brought thee up out of the 
land of Egypt." And the people worshipped these gods with the same 
rites, and ordinances, and forms which were observed at the temple of 
Solomon in the service of the Lord. Is it possible to conceive of the 
vileness and brutal stupidity of a people who, after all that Israel bad 
seen, could receive and worship, as the gods that brought them up out of 
the land of Egjrpt, such vile things as these P Yet, inconceivable as it 
is, such was the baseness of that people, whom many calling themselves 
Christians in our day hold up as examples for their own conduct! 
Notwithstanding the warnings and special admonitions which Jeroboam 
received from the Lord, he persisted in his idolatry, and caused the 
people to sin, till he brought heavy judgments and utter extermination 
upon his house. While the kingdom of Israel was thus ripening in 
wickedness for the day of wrath, the kingdom of Judah under 
Rehoboam seemed to strive to surpass Israel in every abomination, for 
they also built them high places, and images, and gproves on every hill, 
and under every green tree ; and there were also Sodomites in the 
land, and they did according to all the abominations of the nations 
which the Lord cast out before the children of Israel ! and they exceeded 
in their sins all that their fathers had done. These abominations 
were, indeed, the natural consequences of the voluptuous and licentious 



of Solomon; but they neyertheless eyince the natural, and 
1, and moral condition of the people, and show to what extent 

'Uiey were capable of being restrained even by the Mosaic dispensation 

of divine government. 

365. Abiiah, the son of Hehoboam, succeeds his father on the 

'Urone of Judah, and reigns three years in great wickedness, and is 
ftllowed by his son Asa, a virtiious prince, who removed the idols 

"Vhich his father had made, and took away the Sodomites out of the 
land; but the high places were not removed. Nevertheless, Asa, 
according to the Ught which he had, was disposed to do right, and he 
Tttg^ed forty years in Judah, over a darkened, and superstitious, and 
idolatrous people, and kept up an almost continual and rancorous and 
bloody war with the kingdom of Israel. Five or six reigns of darkness, 
and idolatry, and treachery, and assassination, and multiplied abomi- 
nationsy followed the death of Jeroboam in Israel, at the end of which, 
Afaab, the most atrocious monster of them all in every species of 
wickedness, ascended the throne, and reigned twenty-two years in the 
rank enormities of sin. He practised and fostered idolatry in the most 
open and powerful manner, and corrupted the priesthood, and filled his 
kingdom with false prophets, and did more to provoke the Lord God of 
Israel to anger than all the kings of Israel that went before him. And 
now, I pause again, to ask, by what means shall Ahab and Israel, as 
free moral agents, be reclaimed from idolatry and sin P Shall the 
Lord come forth in miraculous manifestations, in mighty signs and 
wonders, as He did in Egypt and the wilderness P We have already 
seen the ineffectualness of such means as moral causes on this stiif- 
nedced people. They may, while present, terrify and dismay, and thus 
force a momentary pause in the outward action, while the heart 
remains unchanged in all its deep malignity of sinful propensity and 
norpose. There is, therefore, in tiie nature of things, no possible way 
iy which they can be truly reclaimed, except by receiving and obeying 
tiie truth in the love of it. But are they prepared for this P Let us 
see. At first view it would seem, amidst this general apostacy and 
wickedness of the Jews, as though the great purposes of divine benevo- 
lence, for which the Mosaic dispensation was established, were about to 
be entirely defeated, and that the promises of the Lord to Abraham 
could never be fulfilled in their higher import by the instrumentality 
of such a people. Yet, while the two kingdoms of the Jews seem 
emulous to exceed each other in every abomination and wickedness, 
and the knowledge of the Lord appears to be blotted from the whole 
nation, God is carrying on His great purpose, and in the midst of this 
general moral putrefaction is giving vitality to godliness in individual 
breasts, which is even stimulated and strengthened by the flagitiousness 
of the surrounding iniquities, and which shall lead on to the great 
accomplishment of the final cause of the whole dispensation, even to 
the bringing in of a better covenant and a better hope. Never before, 
perhaps, was there a higher standard of individual piety among the 
Jews than now. But these, to whom the law was as a schoolmaster 
to lead them unto Christ, were at this time comparatively few and 
humble, and they were among the despised and hated of the people. 
Among these, Elijah, the Tishbite of Gilead, was, according to the 



254 

light the world then had, pre-eminently a man of God, and a tme ani 
faithful prophet. Him the Lord raised up to preach the truth of QoA 
to the idolatrous and sensual Jews — to exert on them the moral power 
of Gk)d to the full extent to which they were capable of having it broagfat 
to bear on them. And how did they receive it P As a lie ! and hated 
him that spoke it ; and were maddened by it to deeper excesses ii 
wickedness ! And Elijah became the general object of hatred, and 
was as one proscribed and outcast of his nation. But the Lord united 
physical means with moral power; and in connection with Elijah'i 
prayers, sent a severe and protracted and most distressing drougfat 
upo|^ the land. Yet so far was this from softening the hearts of Ahab 
and his people, and causing them to forsake their sins, that it only 
exasperated them against the prophet to such a degree, that they would 
have killed him, as the malevolent author of their afflictions, if he had 
not, by divine instruction, hidden himself from them, and remained 
secluded till the judgement was about to be removed ; and then, to 
increase the prophet's moral power, the Lord sent him to Ahab, to tett 
that wicked prince the real causes of the troubles of Israel, aod to 
prove to him the difference between the true God of Israel and Bail 
which he served. And he requested Ahab to collect all Israel together 
at mount Carmel, and the prophets of Baal, four hundred and fifty, 
and the prophets of the grove, four hundred, which ate at Jezebd'i 
table. This being done, the Lord, in the most signal and deosiTe 
manner, demonstrated in the presence of all the people. His own 
existence, and His power over Baal, and all the base gods of the earth, 
and sanctioned the authority of Elijah, who, having made all the 
people confess that God was the Lord, slew all the false prophets, and 
then assured Ahab that abundance of rain was at hand ; and this 
declaration was soon verified. But did the truth of God by the mouth 
of Elijah, backed by these signal judgments and divine manifestations, 
arrest the course of idolatry and wickedness in Israel, and reclaim 
Ahab and his people P No. In spite of all, they persevered in their 
iniquities, hating the truth, and hating the faithful prophets of the 
Lord, and seeking to destroy them, till Ahab ended his nefarious 
career in braving the mandates of heaven, and went down in violence 
to a bloody grave. It was therefore impossible, in the nature of 
things, for a sufficient amount of the purely moral power of God to be 
brought to bear on Ahab, as a free moral agent, to reclaim him from 
his transgressions, and consequently, his physical destruction was the 
only means possible by which his career of wickedness could be com- 
pletely arrested. For not only Elijah, but Micaiah had faithfully and 
plainly declared to him the truth of God, by the reception of which 
alone, in the nature of things, his heart could be changed ; but he 
hated and rejected the truth, and was filled with wrath against the 
prophets ; and if he would not receive the truth in the spirit from the 
mouth of the prophets, neither would he from the mouth of the arch- 
angel of God. God's physical omnipotence might have crushed the 
rebel in an instant, but it could not compel him to love and obey the 
truth in the spirit ; * and without the moral instrumentality of truth, 

* See 1 Kings xix. 11—18. Strong wind, earthquake, fire, still small voice. 




re is not in the nature of things any way by which the heart of a 
ner ean be changed. Truth, therefore, constitutes the pure moral 
of God, and its fbrce on man, as a free moral agent, does not, 
not depend on its own intrinsic energy, but on the moral suscepti- 
of man ; and hence, " the day of Qod's power, when sinners are 
willing,*' is when men, by hearing the truth, have their moral 
ptibUities awakened to its action ; and they are thereby enabled 
"to fe^ its force, and are brought under its convictions, and imbibe its 
lK>ly spirit, by which they are converted from darkness to light. 



XLUAH FBD BY THB lUYXNS. — BEIGMS OF ABAZIAB AMD JBHORAM. 

366. But here we are interrupted by a vociferously reiterated 
doestion from a thousand noisy and carping tongues : " If flesh meat 
V not good for man, why did Gk>d cause the ravens to supply Elijah 
with it morning and evening P " It is possible that this question, with 
many similar ones, is sometimes put in honesty, and for conscience 
sake ; but it is probable that it is far more frequently put in defence of 
unclean sensuality and degrading lust. AH who are governed by the 
pure spirit of truth in this inquiry, can easily gather from what has 
already been said a full and satisfactory answer to the question. It is 
not contended that flesh meat is in any degree an absolute poison to 
the human body, nor is it denied that, under the peculiar circumstances 
in which the prophet was placed, a small quantity of it, plainly and 
umply prepared, might be eaten without any perceptible injury to his 
body or soul ; but it is asserted, upon the most irrefutable principles of 
scientific truth, as a general law, that flesh meat is not consistent with 
the highest and best condition of human nature. It has already been 
observed, that in all cases of special divine interposition in the temporal 
affisdrs of men, God, as far as the nature of the case will admit of it, 
acts by and through the ordinary laws which he has constitutionally 
established in the nature of things, and only when unavoidably neces- 
sary superinduces a new order of action. Some eminent biblical critics 
think that the word rendered " ravens " in the text before us is incor- 
rectly rendered, and that it means " Arabians." If this be true, then 
it is sufficient to say that the Arabians fed the prophet on such food as 
they were accustomed to eat themselves, without any divine instructions 
as to the kind of food ; but I am inclined to believe that the original 
word means ravens, as it is rendered in our version, and that, according 
to the Scriptures, the Lord moved the ravens by a kind of instinct to 
supply the prophet with food. But if God had only imparted to them 
this instinct, and left them to act naturally in all other respects, they 
would have carried him nothing but flesh, which was their natural 
prey ; but as this would not have been best, nor even comfortable for 
the prophet, GK)d superinduced another preternatural instinct, which 
prompted them also to go into the fields or elsewhere, and procure 
bread-corn, or grain, as the original word is properly rendered (see the 
same word, Isa. xxviii. 28), and carry it to the prophet. The only 
points of special divine interposition in this matter, therefore, were, 
first, the impulse to carry food to the prophet; and, second, thd 



impulse to procure a portion of vegetable food for the prophet In aU 
this it is evident that God neither suspended nor counteracted any of 
the constitutional laws of nature, nor did He preternaturally coi^ 
the action of those laws any further than was necessary to effect Hii 
particular purpose. It was, Uierefore, in perfect consistency with the 
nature of the divine influence on the birds, that they from their 
natural instinct selected the flesh, and from the preternatural instinct 
selected the bread- corn for the prophet*! food. And they were 
permitted to carry flesh to him, because, all things then existing in 
relation to the case being taken into consideration, it was best that it 
should be so. The fact, therefore, does not in the slightest degree 
militate against what is demonstrably true in physiological science— 
that flesh-meat is not consistent with the highest and best condition of 
human nature. If the contrary were true, why did not God supply the 
prophet with flesh-meat while he was with the widow at Zarephath, 
where not only Elijah, but the widow and her son, were miraculously 
fed during the whole time that the prophet abode there P And why, 
when Elijah afterwards fled from the wrath of Jezebel, and hid him- 
self in the wilderness, did not the angel of the Lord, like the bird of 
prey, provide a portion of a dead carcass, instead of a simple cake 
baked on the coals, and a cruise of water, for the prophet's food, to 
sustain him during his long and fatiguing journey of forty days unto 
Horeb, the mount of God P And why did Obadiah, who feared the 
Lord greatly, when he took a hundred prophets of the Lord, and hid 
them by fifty in a cave, to save them from the murderous hand of 
Jezebel, feed them on bread and water P All things considered, the 
case of Elijah goes farther to discountenance the use of flesh for human 
food than to sanction it ; and there is nothing, I say again, in the fact 
which in the least degree contradicts the physiological doctrine that 
flesh-meat is not consistent with the highest and best condition of 
human nature. And be it continually remembered, I do not go to the 
Bible to prove from it that flesh -meat is not best for man — this, I 
contend, is a purely physiological question ; and I only aim to show 
that the Bible does not contradict, but harmonizes with the truth of 
science. 

307. Let us return to our history. So far were the house of Ahab 
and the people of Israel from being reclaimed by the moral power and 
physical judgments of God, that Ahaziah, the son of Ahab, succeeded 
his father upon the throne of Israel, and reigned two years, in all the 
idolatry and wickedness of Ahab and Jezebel, and was followed by his 
brother Jehoram, who pursued the same course of idolatry, and every 
species of abomination. Thus, the people, instead of being restrained 
from iniquities, waxed worse and worse, till God visited Israel with so 
dire a famine, that mothers boiled their childi*en and ate them. But 
the king of Israel, instead of humbling himself before the Lord at this 
calamity, swore he would take off^ the head of the prophet Elisha for 
it. Jehu succeeds to the throne of Israel, and destroys the images and 
altars of Baal, and slays many of his worshippers, cuts off the whole 
house of Ahab, and professes great zeal for the Lord, in the bloody 
work of extermination j while in his heart he was himself idolatrous 
and ungodly. 



•T- 



257 

CHAAACTSR OF JSHOSHAPHAT, — JDDOMENT UPON I8RASL. 

368. In the kingdom of Jadah, Jehoshaphat succeeded Asa, and 
reigned twenty-five years. He was himself an amiahle and virtuous 
prince, and seemed to mean well in all he did ; nevertheless, he took not 
away the high places, but permitted the people to present their offer- 
ings and burn incense in the high places : and he was followed by a 
wm, who ran into all the abominations of the house of Ahab. 

369. It were deeply interesting and instructive to follow down the 
history of the two kingdoms of the Jews, in all the details of the suc- 
cessive reigns, but this would require more time than can be devoted 
to the subject on the present occasion. It is, however, a matter well 
worthy the attention of all who would correctly understand the cha- 
racter of this peculiar people, and the economy of that dispensation by 
which they were governed. Suffice it to say, that with the exception of 
now and then a virtuous prince, who made some efforts to destroy 
idolatry and reclaim the people, the thrones of Judah and of Israel, 
continued to be occupied by idolatrous and extremely wicked kings, 
who indulged and encouraged the people in almost every species of un- 
godliness and abomination, notwithstanding the faithful prophets of the 
Lord continually raised tlieir voices in admonition, and rebuke, and 
threatening. Isaiah, sternly faithful, boldly declared to the people 
their iniquities, and asured them that all the* judgments and afflictions 
whidi they and their fathers had suffered, had been in consequence of 
their transgressions, and were intended to reclaim them from their 
idolatry and sin. He told them that they had rebelled against the 
Lord, and forsaken Him, and had provoked the Holy One of Israel 
unto anger ; and were gone away backward ; and would revolt more 
and more ; for they were a sinful nation — a people laden with iniquity 
— a seed of evil doers— children that were corrupters — who had no 
soundness in them — ^that their sacrifices were abominable— their land, 
also, was full of idols — they worshipped the work of their own hands ; 
and that they should be visited with judgments till they were converted 
from their idolatry. (See 2 Kings xviii. 7, &c.) Heaven also, is full 
of remonstrances against their idolatry, and denounces awful judg- 
ments. (2 Kings iv. I, &c. ; vi. 6.) But, in spite of all the moral 
power which this perverse people were capable of having brought to 
Dear on them, onward, still onward, they posted in iniquity ; plunging 
deeper and deeper into wickedness and degradation, till they had pre- 

f tared themselves again for permanent bondage ; and all the people of 
srael were carried captives into Assyria, and the kingdom became 
extinct, and was blotted from the face of the earth. 

370. This judgment upon Israel was not only intended, in the 
economy of divine government, to arrest the career of wickedness in 
those who suffered, but it was specially intended, also, to increase the 
moral power of God on the equally perverse people of Judah, to restrain 
them from their idolatry and sin, and carry them forward towards the 
fulfilment of the great purpose of divine benevolence. But Jerusalem 
had become a city of idols, and Judah was wedded to trangression, and 
the truth of God only served to exasperate the rebellious people, and 
drive them to more horrible excesses in sin. 



258 



JESEMIAH S PROPHECIES AND JUDGMENTS. 



/ 



■* 
I* 



J- 
i 



371. By the mouth of the prophet Jeremiah, the Lord expostulates 
with them ; recounts His tender mercies to them, and their oontlDued 
disohedieuce and rebellion ; assures them that they had procured all 
their afflictions to themselves, by forsaking the Lord their God; and 
warns them of the inevitable consequences of their continuance in 
transgression ; and urges them to forsake their idols, and all thor 
evil ways, and turn unto the Lord, and live and prosper. " According 
to the number of thy cities are thy gods, O Judah ! Te have trans- 
gressed against me, saith the Lord. In vain have I smitten yooi 
children ; they have received no correction. My people have forgotten 
me, days without number. They have a revolting and a rebeUiooi 
heart; they have given themselves up to every excess of wickedness; ^ 
they have not been warned by the judgments which I have brought r 
upon Israel, but have practised the same abominations. A wondeHul 
and horrible thing is committed in the land. The prophets prophesy 
falsely, and the priests bear rule by their means, and my people love to 
have it so. Shall I not visit for these things, saith the Lord P Shall 
not my soul be avenged on such a nation as this P Can the Ethiopian 
change his skin, or the leopard his spots P Then may ye also do good, 
that are accustomed to do evil. Therefore, I will scatter them as the 
stubble that passeth away by the wind of the wilderness. This is their 
portion, because they have forgotten me, and trusted in falsehooi 
Woe unto thee, Jerusalem ! Wilt thou not be made clean P "When 
shall it once be P I will destroy my people, since they return not from 
their ways. Because your fathers have forsaken me, saith the Lord, 
and have walked after other gods, and have served them, and wor- 
shipped them, and have not kept my law ; and ye have done worse 
than your fathers (for, behold, ye walk, every one after the imagination 
of his evil heart, that they may not hearken unto me) ; therefore will 
I cast you out of this land into a land ye know not, and there shall ye 
serve other gods day and night, where 1 will not show you favour." 
(See Jeremiah xxxii. 26 — 35 ; also 44th chap., in toto.) The whole 
book of Jeremiah is replete with the most terrible descriptions of the 
blindness, and depravity, and atrocious wickedness of the Jews, and 
full of the most awful warnings of the judgments which were approach- 
ing, and would inevitably come upon them, if they did not repent and 
put away their idols and their abominations, and turn to the Lord. 
But what effect did all this have upon a people so inexpressibly perverse 
and incorrigibly wicked P It kindled their rage against the truth of 
(rod, and made them hate his faithful prophets, and seek to destroy 
them as false prophets, as slanderers, as disturbers of the peace, as 
enemies of the nation ! They were, therefore, in the nature of things, 
utterly incapable of being restrained, as free moral agents, by the moral 
power of God ; and, therefore, God's physical judgments were again 
brought in, to arrest their career of unbounded iniquity ; and they were 
sold into Babylon, and endured a captivity of seventy years, as the only 
means by which, out of this general mass of rottenness, sufficient god- 
liness could be raised up to carry forward the divine purpose of benevo- 
lence, in the fulUlment of the final cause of the Mosaic dispensation. 



259 

^ small remnant of the Jews were left in Jerusalem. But so far were 
Iiey from being converted by the judgments which had befallen their 
brethren, that they only seemed to be more hardened in their sins. 
3od, through the instrumentality of Jeremiah, exerted upon them all 
'^e moral power which they were capable of having brought tx> bear on 
Jiem, to induce them to forsake their iniquities, and remain at Jeru- 
lalem ; but they would not listen to the word of the Lord, but basely 
reviled and abused the faithful prophet for declaring it ; and they took 
Jeremiah and went down to Egypt, and there, with unspeakable 
baseness, gave themselves up to the vile idolatry of the Egyptians. 
Here, again, the moral power of God was exerted on them by the 
faitiiful prophet, to turn them from their idolatry ; but they resisted it 
witb contumely and wrath ; and with unbounded turpitude of heart, 
penisted in their sins till they were destroyed. 

CONDITION OF CHALDEA, — PROPHECY OF EZEKIEL. 

372. In Ghaldea, the great mass of the captives sunk into the vile 
degradation for which they had fitted themselves. Yet, there were 
Mme of those whose moral susceptibilities were alive to the dealings 
md teachings of God. Ezekiel, in stern severity, poured forth to his 
dnftil countrymen the faithful word of his prophecy. He delineated 
their character with the fidelity of truth, and pourtrayed their wickedness 
in all its forms and complexions ; and boldly declared to them, that 
firom the Egyptian to the Babylonish bondage, they had continually 
been a stiff-necked, perverse, rebellious, and idolatrous people, who 
voald not hearken unto the Lord, nor obey his statutes ; and that they 
liad drawn all their afflictions upon themselves, by disobedience ; and 
thafc a more terrible and entire destruction would come upon them, if 
they did not repent and turn to the Lord. 

DANIEL AND HIS COMPANIONS. 

373. Daniel was equally faithful and more conspicuous among the 
captive Jews, for his devoted piety and inflexible godliness. Conscious 
that sensual indulgence was utterly incompatible with spiritual holiness, 
he kept under his body, and brought it into subjection to enlightened 
and sanctified reason, by rigidly observing such a dietetic regimen as 
was best adapted to the highest and best condition of his whole nature. 
Nor were he and his three friends to be seduced from their well- 
established habits of virtue by the sensual temptations of a voluptuous 
court. Being of the number selected to be prepared to stand before 
the King of Babylon, they nobly refused to defile themselves with the 
royal luxuries of meat and wine that were appointed for their suste- 
Qance; but with unyielding integrity adhered to their simple and 
healthful diet of pulse and water, which they had fully proved to be 
highly conducive to the vigor of their bodies, the purity of their hearts, 
and the clearness, activity, and energy of their minds. And when, at 
the appointed time, those who had been selected were presented to the 
king, and he communed with them ; '' among them all was found 
none like Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah ; therefore stood 
they before the king ; and in all matters of wisdom and understanding, 



Unmi fhe Idnpr Inqurcid of them, he (band tlitfm fett tlmei Ut 
1^ tlie nui^dim and aitrologen that were in all his realm 
Daniel contmned eTen mito the first year of king Cyrus.** 

974. It is wimderfol to what sabterfoM the daiicened and 
mind of man will hare recourse, to erade the force of truth, i 
habits of the objector are at Tariance with its dictates. Sona 
sensuality ill accords with the elevated and pure simplidty o 
and his three friends, would fkin mate it appear that the I 
effbet connected with their diet was purely tne result of m: 
power. For how, say thify, could a natural experiment, in » 
time as ten dra^ fvoduce such eflbcts as are recorded in the 8a 
But this is altogether b^ging the question, and assuming 1 
had only lited Ua da^ m tioos manner ; whereas, every pre 

I . and almost certainty, is, that they made no change in their 

I adhered to the one which tbsj had long and, perhaps, alw; 

accustomed to i atid that the fairness and plumpness of thei 
i liances at the end of the ten daysi were little improved from i 

Krere at the cdmmencem^t of the experiment 

975. It is contrary to all correct nues of interpretation to 
daim ibr a murade Hrhere the Scriptures do not assert one, ai 
fhe phenomenon may be tnily and mirly accounted for by natu 

t and oertaiuly all the eflbcts recorded in the case before u 

j strictest accordance with the demonstrable principles of pi 

iTet, granting the whole eflbct to be miraculous, the case beai 
against the use of flesh and wine. J^or no law in regard to 
cab be more incontestably true than the one already advanci 
discudiSion — that Crod, in His special interpositions in the 
affairs of m^b, alWa^ operates by and through the ordinary la 
He has established m the constitutional nature of things, so : 
nature of the case will permit ; and He counteracts the ordiii 
or superinduces a new action, only when and to the extent 
unavoidably necessary by the nature of the case ; and henci 
quently produces His special effects, as in the case of giving i 
to the Jews in the wilderness of Zin, simply by imparting a 
preternatural energy to the ordinary laws. And this is all tb 
justly claimed in the case before us, even if a miracle be at 
namely, that He imparted a preternatural energy to the vital 
and thus produced, by the constitutional laws of nutrition, 
which would naturally have resulted from the natural operati' 
same laws in a longer time. For it would have been contr 
invariable rule of divme conduct, to counteract or suspend unn 
the ordinary laws of nature, and force an effect from pulse i 
for which they were naturally unfitted, when the means 
adapted to the same effect were at hand, and could, with e 
and infinitely more propriety be used. Moreover, such a f 
have been false in itself, deceptive in its moral influence, ai 
the way to the injury of others. For be it remembered th; 
case the diet was not adopted according to circumstances, 
case of Elijah and others, without an express and specific 
' effected by it, but on the contrary a specific end was exp 
noonced and particularly aimed at. Health, and vigour or 



261 

Sumess, and comeliness of countenance, and clearness of mind, and 

soundness of understanding, were the objects expressly aimed at, and 

4br the improvement of which the selected Jews were to be put in 

traiiiing ior three years ; aod to this end the kingf's meat and wine 

^ere appointed, and for this specific and declared end, Daniel preferred 

tke pulse and water. Now, if Daniel had been wrong, and if God had, 

under such circumstances, with miraculous power sanctioned the 

^Toneous preference of Daniel, He would have been virtually guilty of 

iklsehood, for it would have been demonstrating, in fact, that pulse and 

vater were adapted to an end which in reality they were not naturally 

iltted for. Bwt this could not be ; and, therefore, whether the effects 

4>f Daniers diet be considered natural or miraculous, the case equally 

and most decidedly corroborates the doctrine that flesh for food and 

wine for drink are not consistent with the highest and best condition of 

human nature, even whether the term meat in the text includes flesh 

«r not. But, in truth, there is not the least evidence of anything 

miraculous about the matter ; for there was no result which was not 

aeeording to the laws of nature, and no reason in the case why a 

mirade should be performed ; and the Scriptures neither explicitly nor 

impliedly teach us that there was anything miraculous in the affair. 

376. Daniel continually exerted upon his brethren the moral power 
«f Gbd, to redaim them from their idolatry and transgressions ; and 
with pious devotion confessed their sins before the Lord, and humbly 
aad lerveBtly supplicated the favour of heaven for them. And through 
Ihe mstrumentality of Daniel, and those of his brethren who were 
mere particularly asseciated with him, the name, and in some degree 
<he wonJup of the Lord God of Israel were preserved among the 
captive Jews in Chaldea. Most of the people, however, were too closely 
wedded to their idols, and too deeply sunken in depravity, to be 
redaimed by any moral power which they were capable of having 
hnmght to bear on them, and therefore they perished in their captivity. 
Nor eonld even a small portion of this perverse people be so reclaimed 
Orom their iniquities, but that almost immediately after their return to 
Jemsalem, they began again to practice <U1 their old abominations, in 
cpite of all the judgments which they and their fathers had experienced 
expressly for those sins, and in spite of the expostulations, and remon- 
strances, and comminations of the faithful prophets of Gk)d. And 
such eontinued to be the perverseness of this stiflfnecked people. Under 
the pore adndnistration of Gk>d's moral power, they continually waxed 
worse and worse, till God was compelled to bring in physical judgments 
to arrest their career of wickedness, and to enable Him to carry forward, 
hf tbeir free moral agency, His great plan of benevolence. By the 
most severe and repeated disciplinary judgments, God pretty thoroughly 
purged the nation from outward idolatry, or frt>m the worship of the 
lieathen idols, before the advent of Chnst. Still, however, they con- 
tinued to cherish, as though it were a constitutional part of their 
nature, their national perverseness of character — ^their fierce and 
ineorrigible obstinacy of heart. And when they had come most 
strictly to observe the rights and ordinances of the Mosaic dispensation, 
with all that tradition and superstition had superadded, there was even 
in 4^eir rdigion a ferocious and sanguinary spirit, which, like the 



heat of a fermenting mass, hastened or accelerated their destmctioD. 
But while the Hebrew nation as a whole was crnmbling to deenj, and 
fast approaching its final dissolution, Gh>d was canying lorwaid His 
^eat plan of benevolence, and preparing the moral world for the 
introduction of a better dispensation. 

377. In the person of Jesus Christ, God exerted npon the incor- 
rigible Jews a greater amount of moral power than had erer befiDre 
been brought to bear upon the human race. But in vain were Mosei 
and the prophets fulfilled in the coming of Christ — ^in yain did angris 
announce His birth — in vain did He heal the sick, and east eat 
evil spirits, and raise the dead, and do many mighty wotb which were 
never before done — in vain did He speak as none other ever spuke—in 
vain did He teach, and expostulate, and rebnke, and entreat — in T|un 
did He bring life and immortality to light, and all the selenan interots 
of a future state of retribution — in vain did His soul yearn with 
intense, with unutterable compassion for the deluded Jews — in Tain did 
He weep over them, and with all the moral energy of the Godhead 
desire their salvation — they would not believe on Him — ^thqr would 
not receive Him ; but they rejected Him — ^they hated Him — they 
crucified Him ! God was in Christ; in Him dwelt the falness of the 
Godhead, and all the moral power of the Gh)dhead was brought to bear 
on the Jews, so far as they were capable of perceiving and appreeiatiog 
it ; yet they rejected Him. It was not, therefore, in the nature of 
things, possible for Qod to bring sufficient moral power to bear od 
them, as free moral agents, to restrain them from their wiekednos, 
and convert them to Hmiself. For, as Jesns fully taught them, if they 
would not receive the truth in the love of it from Moies, and the 
prophets, and Himself, they would not so receive it though the dead 
rose to teach it ; nor could any signs or wonders, nor any exerciie of 
physical power, persuade or compel them so to receive it ; and withont 
receiving Uie truth in the love of it, they could not be taught of God— 
and without being taught of God, they could not oome to Him— and 
without coming to Him they could not be saved; and yet thej 
would not come to Him that they might have life. They Yoluntarily 
rejected Him — they voluntarily crucified him I The veil of the temple 
was rent ! The way into the holiest of all was made manifest, and Um 
Mosaic dispensation passed away. A better hope was brought iSi 
founded on better promises, and a better diroensation waa estahliahei 

378. Thus have we briefly contemplated the character and oonditioD 
of that peculiar people who received the Mosaic dispensation at Sinai, 
and hastily follow^ down their subsequent history to the end of that 
dispensation, and the bringing in of a better covenant. And we hare 
clearly seen from the very nature of things, as well as firom the enitv 
declarations of the Scriptures themselves, that, considered in diieet 
relation to the highest and best condition of human nature, the Mosaic 
dispensation was " weak and unprofitable," and " oould not make him 
that did the service perfect, as pertaining to the conscience ; " hot, 
considered in relation to the nature and condition of things at the tinM 
when, and the end for which it was established, it was the very best 
that could be adopted. It was, therefore, manifestly and ezpreaaly aa 
^ecommodated order of thinga, ado^\«4 q£ xi«c«wvtj^ in the nature cf 



263 

things, to the condition of those who receiyed it, and to the end for 
which it was established. It was the " shadow of good things to come, 
and not the rery image or substance of those things." It was a 
■ehoolmaster to discipline, and prepare them for a better order of 
things ; and thus served for the bringing in of a better hope, a better 
oorenant, established upon better promises ; and, consequently, it was 
not established as a permanent and universal order of things, but was 
imposed on the Jews till the time of reformation — till a new and 
better covenant should be brought in. Beyond all controversy, 
therefore, flesh-eating and wine-drinking, and polygamy, and divorce, 
and usury, and slavery, and the selling of beasts which had died of 
themselves to strangers, and to their heathen neighbours — and eye for 
eye, and tooth for tooth, and blood for blood, and many other things 
which are not consistent with the highest and best condition of human 
batnre, were sufiered among the Jews by the Mosaic dispensation, 
** because of the hardness of their hearts,*' or, in other words, because 
it was not possible in the nature of things to bring suthcient moral 
power to bear upon them, as fVee moral agents, to make them volun- 
tarily renounce and permanently refrain from tiiose things. 

379. Who, then, of the nineteenth century of the Christian era, that 
has any suitable respect for the moral dignity and capabilities of man, 
can be so blind, so sensual, so stupid, so absurd, so erroneous, and 
indeed so base, as to set up as rules of Christian conduct at the present 
day those tolerations of the Mosaic dispensation which owe their 
neeessary existence to the peculiar condition of an unimaginably 
ignonmt, and degraded, and sensual, and perverse, and idolatrous 
people, who had just bc^n emancipated from the lowest and vilest 
Mtate of human bondage, which they and their fathers had endured for 
more than four hundred years, and who had no hopes nor fears beyond 
the precincts of time and the interests of the body P 

COMCLUOING ARGUMENTS AND ILLUSTRATIONS. NAZARITZS, 

RECHABIT£S, ETC. 

380. Should all the slave population of the United States be suddenly 
emancipated, and driven at once beyond the Rocky Mountains, and 
there left to their freedom, they would in every respect be in an incom- 
parably more elevated condition than that of the Jews at the wilderness 
of Sinai. Tet if one of the best-informed and most intelligent among 
them should, even under divine influence, form and establish such a 
system of politico-religious government as was best adapted to their con- 
mtion and the very best by which they, as free moral agents, could be 
▼oluntarily governed, and fed forward to a remote part of the continent 
through many difiiculties, and trials, and terrible discouragements, to 
be established as a separate nation in a land of their own, and l^ the 
tame economy of government be separated from tlieir former errors and 
sensual indulgences, and elevated nrom their mental and moral degra- 
dation to the greatest possible extent, how immeasurablv far must such 
a system necessarilv be, in its adaption and economy, below such an one 
as would be best fitted for the same people when Uiey had attained to 
(he condition of enlightened freemen and elevated Christians : And 



264 

how egregiouflly and manifeBtlj absurd would they bo who, in the light 
of the present day, should set up as rules for their own conduct the 
toleration laws which were, in the necessity of the case, specially enacted 
for, and adapted to the peculiar condition of such a nation of 
emancipated and degraded slaves I Tet such is the conduct of all those 
who at the present day attempt to justify flesh-eating and wine-drinking, 
and slavery, and capital punishment by divine authority in the special 
statute laws of the Mosaic dispensation, which was adapted to the 
peculiar condition of the Jews, and imposed on them till Uie time o^ 
reformation. 

381. But while flesh -eating, and wine-drinking, and polygamy, and 
slavery, &c., were permitted in the politico-religious economy of the 
Mosaic dispensation, it is deeply interesting to find within the precincts 
of the same dispensation several instances of particular regulations, and 
many precepts and exhortations, which inculcate a higher order of 
things, and fully corroborate the doctrine which it is my object in this 
discussion to vindicate. The priests were forbidden (Lev. z. 8— 11) on 
pain of death to drink wine or strong drink when they went into the 
tabernacle of the congregation ; and this tabernacle in the wilderness 
corresponds with the inner court of the temple ; and hence the Lord, 
speaking by the mouth of Ezekiel, saith: ''Neither shall any priest 
drink wme when they enter into ^e inner court.'* But objectors wiU 
say that this prohibition was only to prevent the priests from being 
intoxicated wnen they were performing their services before the Lord, 
and does not show that the use of wine is in itself bad. Granting aU 
they assume, the case still proves conclusively that, all things considered, 
it was best for the priests, when fulfilling their highest and holiest func- 
tions, to abstain entirely from all intoxicating liquors, and for the obvious 
and express reason that they might have a purer frame of soul and a 
clearer state of mind, and thereby be the better enabled to discriminat( 
between holy and unholy, and between unclean and clean. But I leave 
this case for the present, as I shall have more, to say concerning it when 
considering the New Testament dispensation. 

382. The case of the Nazarite (Num. yi, \, et seq.), which has 
already been stated in relation to Samson, very clearly proves that evec 
in those times, when men would be more peculiarly and devotedlj 
separated to the Lord, it was best for them to abstain totally from th( 
use of intoxicating drinks and substances ; or, in other words, it cor* 
roborates the doctrine that wine-drinking is not consistent with th< 
highest and best condition of human nature *, and, therefore, the most 
strictly precautionary rules are prescribed for the Nazarite, in order U. 
prevent his using alcohol in any form or quantity while he is separatee 
to the Lord. Nor can it justly be said that abstinence from shaving ii 
made of equal importance with that of the use of wine in this case, foi 
it is unquestionably true that the beard and hair were permitted to gron 
unsbaved or cut, during this ^paration, as an outward sign of the 
separation, that it might be known to others when any one was per- 
forming the vow of the Nazarite, and thus, among other advantages, 
the more certainly secure the abstinence from wine. But, even admit- 
ting the truth of the objection, the case still proves that the more entirely 
one would be separateu and devoted to the Lord, the more totally must he 
abstain from intoxicating liquors and substances. (356.) 



265 

383. The case of the Rechabites (Jer. zxzv. I, &c.), to say the least 
cf it, clearly shows that God approved of their faithfully obeying their 
ftther in abstaining from wine ; and if it does not fully prove that men 
ought not to drink wine, it decidedly and entirely favours the doctrine 
that they are better without it. Nor is the force of this position at all 
weakened by anything in relation to their dwelling in tents. 

384. But the interesting case of Daniel, which I have already con- 
sidered, is in its full length and breadth, and in all its bearings^ a most 
decided and powerfiQ corroboration of the doctrine which it is my object 
to vindicate m this discussion. 

385. Several other cases might be adduced, and many precepts, and 
exhortations, and warnings may be selected from the Old Testament 
Scriptures of the same tenor ; but it is not necessary. Enough, abun- 
dantly enough, has already been said and proved to establish incon- 
hpov e r tl bly my general position, so far as the Old Testament Scriptures 
are cx>ncemed; namely, that the Bible as a whole, when nghtly 
understood in the general scope and spirit of its meaning, does not 
eontradict, but coincides with and confirms what is demonstrably true 
in science — ^that flesh-eating and wine-drinking are not consistent with 
the highest and best condition of human nature. And this doctrine we 
shall find still more fully and powerfully corroborated by the New 
Testament dispensation. 

386. Considering the Old Testament, then, as it trul^ is — a blended 
reli^ous, political, civil, domestic, and biographical history — and the 
Mosaic dispensation, in its principles and economy, as a politico-religious 
system of government, it may with the most perfect truth and propriety 
lie observed that flesh-eating, wine-drinking, polygamy, slavery, &c., 
were tolerations of the Mosaic dispensation, which belonged more 
particularly to its civil and political character ; that a land flowing 
with milk and honey, abundance of corn and wine, flocks and herds, 
feasts and festivities, &c., were held up as motives of obedience to that 
degraded and sensual people, who were not capable of being actuated 
by any higher order of motives, with a primary regard to the interests of 
the state ; while at the same time, the more purely religious designs 
of the same general dispensation aimed to elevate them from their 
sensual and degraded condition, and capacitate them for a higher order 
of motives, and thus ultimately bring them to a voluntary abandonment 
of that which they could not then be made to relinquish. And hence 
it is that while, on the one hand, in the Old Testament record, we find 
flesh and wine, and strong drink permitted, on the other, we find them 
decidedly discountenanced, by the more purely religious precepts, and 
exhortations, and examples. The one is an adaptation, necessarily 
arising from the exigences of time, and place, and condition of things, 
the ower is founded on the permanent principles of truth, in the con- 
stitutional nature of things, and therefore consistent with the highest 
and best condition of human nature; and of eternal validity and 
universal application. 

387. Gk)d grant that all who give their attention to this interesting 
subject may be deeply and most solemnly impressed with its importance, 
and saved from a cavilling temper and disposition ; and filled with and 
governed by the Holy Spirit of truth ! Amen. 



PHILOSOPHY OF SACRED HISTORY. 



PAKT 11. 



NEW TESTAMENT DISPENSATION. 



PHILOSOPHY OF SACRED HISTOEY, 



t^E LAST StPPERi 

388. In considering the gOApel dispensation with reference to the 
doctrines taught in my lectures on the " Science of Human Life," and 
Particularly the authority of Jesus Christ, in regard to the use of trine, 
1 shall select for the foundation of my General argument, St. Matthew 
^xvi* 29 : ** But I say unto you, I will not drink henceforth of this 
fruit of the vine, until that day when 1 drink it new with you in my 
J'atber's kingdom.** 

389. The interesting occasion of this language is well known to 
every reader of the New Testament Scriptures. It being the time of 
the feast of the Passover, and Jesus knowing that His earthly mission 
Was drawing to a close, sent His disciples from Bethany int6 the city of 
Jerusalem, to make arrangemetits and preparations for eating the 
Supper of the Passover ; and when the evening was come, Jesus and 
Hw disciples sat down to the supper in a large upper room in the city. 
Where, according to his directions, it had been prepared. Knowing 
that he was soon to be put to death, and that tnis was the last 
Opportunity He Would have to eat the passover with them, Jesus 
embraced the occasion to give them a great deal of deeply interesting 
instruction concerning his character and kingdom, so far as they were 
then able to understand the import of his language, and more 
particularly with a reference to that understanding which they should 
have when the Spirit of Truth should come to bring to their remem- 
brance the things which He had said and done. And He said unto 
them : *' With desire I have desired to eat this passover with you 
before I suffer ; for I say unto you, I will not any mOre eat thereof, 
until it be fulfilled in the kingdom of Grod« And as they were eating, 
Jesus took bread and blessed it and brake it, and gave it to the 
disciples, and said, Take, eat : this is my body, which is given for you ; 
this do in remembrance of me. And He took the cup also, after 
supper, and when He had given thanks, He gave it to them, and said 
unto them, Drink ye all of it ; for this is my blood of the New 
Testament, which is shed fftr many for the remission of sins. This do 
ye, as oft as ye drink t^, in retnembrance of me. But I sa^ unto you, 
1 will toot drink henceforth of this fruit of the vine, until that day 
when I drink it new with vdu in my Father's kingdom ; ** or, in the 
kingdom of God j or, according to Luke, " until the kingdom of God 
shall come.'* 



270 



DIVISIONS OF THE SUBJECT. 



390. Now, in order to understand the real and true meaning of our 
Lord in the language of this text, it is necessary that we should 
correctly ascertain, 

I. What is here truly intended by the phrase, "My Father's 
kingdom ** — or, as it is in Mark, " The kingdom of God." 

II. In what sense Christ here speaks of being with His disciples in 
His Father's kingdom. 

III. In what sense Christ here speaks of .drinking with His disciples 
in His Father's kingdom ; and, 

IV. What Christ truly means in the text, by the new fruit of the 
vine. 

BBCAPITULATION. THE OLD DiSFEMSATimi SUPERSEDED BT THE NEW. 

THE ETEBKAL BEIGN OF CHRIST. 

391. I. What is the kingdom of God? — In the preceding part of 
this discussion, we have seen that the Bible, as a whole, in the general 
scope and spirit of its meaning, teaches that God is an etenuJ, 
immutable, omnipotent, omnipresent, infinitely wise, and just, and 
true, and good, and Holy Spirit; that man was created with fixed 
constitutional relations to God ; so that the fundamental and perma- 
nent laws which were to govern man as a moral and spiritual being, 
grew out of the intrinsic nature and character of God, and therefore, 
that perfectly corresponding laws were necessarily established in die 
constitutional nature of man ; that man, in his first and best estate, 
while yet a sinless and holy being, possessed the moral and spiritual 
image, and was in the moral and spiritual kinpfdom of God : and when 
man had revolted from this kingdom, and fallen from his highest and 
best estate, and brought disease, and suffering, and premature death 
upon all human nature in and through him, God, in sovereign mercy, 
introduced an economy of grace, by which man might be redeemed 
from his fall, and restored to the spiritual kingdom or reign of 
heaven, and to the highest, and best, and happiest state of hum^n 
nature ; that, from the fall of Adam to the advent of Christ, God was 
continually aiming at the fulfilment of his great plan of mercy ; and 
that in carrying forward the scheme of his benevolence, he has always 
treated man as a free moral agent ; and therefore, of necessity in the 
nature of things, has always adapted his measures and means to the 
state and condition of man ; that in dealing with the antediluvians, 
with Noah and his immediate posterity, with Abraham, with the 
children of Israel in Egypt, and in the wilderness, and until the 
coming of Christ, God, continually aiming, in his divine administration, 
at the fulfilment of his great purpose of bringing mankind, as free 
moral agents, back into his spiritual kingdom, has, of necessity in the 
nature of things, adopted measures which were not in themselves 
fitted to the highest and best condition of human nature, but which 
were the best that the state and condition of man at the time would 
admit of; that the Jews at Sinai proved themselves utterly incapable 
of receiving and being governed by the simple and uncovered testi- 



XDonies of the Lord ; and therefore the tables of these testimonies were 
laid in the Ark of the Covenant, and placed within the veil of the inner 
'^bemacle, or the holy of holies, which was a figure of the gospel 
dspensation ; and an accommodated order of things, with an outer 
tabernacle, which was a figure of the time then present, and adapted 
to their condition as free moral agents, was established as a school- 
master, to prepare them for a high order of things ; and was then to 
give place to another and better dispensation, in which the veil would 
be removed, and the way into the holiest of all made manifest. 

392. If, therefore, perfection had been by the Levitical priesthood 
(for under it the people received the law), what further need was there 
that another priesthood should arise after the order of Melchisedec, 
and not after the order of Aaron P For, the priesthood being changed, 
there is made, of necessity, a change of the law. It is evident that 
after the order of Melchisedec there ariseth another priest, who is 
made not after the law of the carnal command, but after the power of 
an endless life. For there is verily a disannulling of the command- 
ment going before, for the weakness and unprofitableness thereof. For 
the law made nothing perfect, or accomplished nothing but the bringing 
in of a better hope, by which we draw nigh unto God. For what the 
law could not do, in that it was weak through the flesh, God, sending 
his own Son in the likeness of sinful fiesh, and for sin, condemned sin 
in the flesh, that the righteousness of the law might be fulfilled in those 
who walk not after the flesh but after the spirit. And inasmuch as 
not without an oath was He made priest, by so much was Jesus made a 
surety of a better testament. The Levitical priests offered gifts 
according to the law, who served unto the example and shadow of 
heavenly things. But now hath Jesus obtained a more excellent 
ministry, by how much also he is the mediator of abetter covenant, which 
was established upon better promises. But if the first covenant had 
been faultless, then should no place have been sought for the second. 
For, finding fault with them, He saith : " Behold, the days come, saith 
the Lord, when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel, 
and with the house of Judah. Not according to the covenant that I 
made with their fathers, in the day when I took them by the hand to 
lead them out of the land of Egypt ; because thev continued not in my 
covenant, and I regarded them not, saith the Lord. For this is the 
covenant that I will make with the house of Israel, after those days, 
saith the Lord ; I will put my laws into their mind and write themin 
their hearts, and I will be to them a God, and they shall be to me a 
people ; and all shall know me from the least to the greatest." Then, 
verily, the first covenant had also ordinances of divine service, and a 
worldly sanctuary. For there was a tabernacle made ; the first 
wherein was the candlestick, and the table, and the shew -bread, which 
was called the sanctuary ; and after the second veil, the tabernacle 
which was called the holiest of all : which had the golden censer, and 
the ark of the covenant, wherein was the golden pot that had manna, 
and Aaron's rod that budded, and the tables of the testimony ; and 
over it the cherubims of glory. Now when these things were thus 
ordained, the priests went always into the first tabernacle, performing 
the service ; but into the second went the high priest alone, once every 



\ 



272 



year, not without blood, which he offered for himself and for tihe erfon 
of the people — the Holy Spirit this signifying, that the way into ^ 
the holiest of all was not yet made manifest, while as the first taber* ^ 
nacle was yet standing : which was a figure of the time then present, .^ 
in which were offered both gifts and sacrifices, that could not make 
him that did the service perfect as pertaining to the conscience ; whidi 
stood only in meats and drinks, and divers washings, and carnal 
ordinances, imposed on them until the time of reformation. Bat 
Christ being come, a High Priest of good things to come, by a greater 
and more perfect tabernacle [the gospel dispensation], not made with 
hands, that is to say, not of this building, neither by the blood of goata 
and calves, but by his own blood, he entered in once into the holj p 
placC) having obtained eternal redemption for us. For if the blood of i 
bulls and of goats, and the ashes of a heifer sprinkling the unclean, i" 
sanctifieth to the purifying of the flesh, how much more shall the blood f^ 
of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without spot ^ 
to God, purge your consciences from dead works to serve the living t 
GK)d ? For the law having a shadow of good things to come, and not i= 
the very imap^e [or substance] of the thmgs, could never, with those j^ 
sacrifices which they offered year by year continually, make the comers ) 
thereunto perfect : for then would they not have ceased to be offered ? 1^ 
because that the worshippers, once purged, should have had no more | 
conscience of sins. But in these sacrifices there is a remembrance ^ 
again made of sins every year. For it is not possible that the blood of V 
bulls and of goats should take away sins. Wherefore, when he cometh 
into the world, he saith, Sacrifice and offering thou wouldest not, but a 
body hast thou prepared for me. In burnt-offering and sacrifices for 
sin thou hast had no pleasure. Then said I, Lo, I come to do thy wiU, 
O Lord I He taketh away the first that he may establish the second. 
By the which will we are sanctified, through the offering of the body 
of Jesus Christ once for all — who, after he had offered one sacrifice for 
sins, for ever sat down on the right hand of God. For by one offering, 
he hath perfected for ever them that are sanctified. And when Jesus 
had cried with a loud voice, he said, Father, into thy hands I commend 
my spirit ; and having said thus, he yielded up his spirit ; and the veil 
of the temple was rent in twain, from the top to the bottom, which veil 
is done away in Christ. (2 Cor. iii. 11.) Having therefore, brethren, 
boldness [or liberty] to enter into the holiest, by the blood of Jesus, by 
a new and living way, which he hath consecrated for us through the 
veil, that is to say, his flesh, let us draw near with a true heart, in full 
assurance of faith, having our hearts sprinkled from an evil [unsound] 
conscience, and our bodies washed with pure water. For we have an 
altar whereof they have no right to eat who serve the tabernacle. It 
is fully evident, therefore, that in perfect accordance with what had 
been writt^'n by Moses and the prophets, Christ came to do away with 
the Mosaic dispensation, the hopes and promises of which were of a 
bodily and temporal nature, and establish a new and better dispensa- 
tion, founded on better hopes, and better promises — even those which 
appertain to true spiritual godliness and eternal life. And this new 
dispensation was but a higher order of motives and influences, intro- 
duced for the fulfilment of the same great scheme of grace which had 



273 

intinaal operation from the fall of man. From the first 
nan, as we have seen, to the advent of Messiah, the divine 
tion in the patriarchal and Mosaic dispensation continoallj 
eclaiming the revolted race, and bring^g them back into 
>edience to the laws of heaven, into spiritual reconciliation 
it, on account of the natural, and mental, and moral oondi- 
Qkind, the world, before Christ came, was not able to receive 
testimonies of the law. The way into the holiest of all was 
aanifest, solely because mankind were not able to look into 
id Jesus at His coming find them able, though John the 
4 been sent to prepare the way. And therefore, Jesus 
igan to preach, and also commissioned His disciples to g^ out 
1, saying. Repent! for the reign of Qod, the kingdom of 
at hand ! is even come nigh unto you ! After this manner, 
pray ye : Our Father who art in heaven, hallowed be thy 
^ kingdom come ; thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven. 

the kingdom of God and His righteousness — let it be 
r your ruling desire and efiTort to be spiritually governed by 
ill of God, and to become righteous as He is righteous. For 
leth the will of my Father in heaven, shall enter into His 

If I by the Spirit of God cast out devils, then the kingdom 
ome unto you. The Son of man shall send forth His angels, 
hall gather out of His kingdom idl things that ofiTend, and 
1 do iniquity; then shall the righteous shine forUi as the 
kingdom of their Father. Verily I say unto you, there be 
[ing here who shall not taste of death till they have seen the 
f God coming with power. Except ye be converted and 
little children, ye shall not enter into the kingdom of God. 
, therefore, shall humble himself as a little child, the same 
test in the kingdom of heaven. How hardly shall they that 
s enter into the kingdom of God I Verily I sav unto you, 
ms and harlots go into the kingdom of God before you. 
say I unto you, the kingdom of Gk>d shall be tak^ firom you, 
x> a nation bringing forth the fruits thereof. The kingdom 
eth not with observation ; neither shall they say, Lo, here ! 
e ! for the kingdom of God is within you. Verily Psay unto 
. a man be bom again, he cannot see the kingdom of God — 
»e born of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of 

"the kingdom of God," says Paul, "is not in meat and 

n RIGHTEOUSNESS, AND PEACE, AND JOT IN THE HOLT SPIRIT.** 

•m of God is not in word, but in power. 

; disciples whom Jesus had chosen to be witnesses of His 

to bear testimony concerning Him, and preach Ihe gospel 
lould be put to death, in common with all the Jewish nations, 
ed that the kingdom which the Messiah was to establish 
bhly, civil kingdom ; and, therefore, notwithstanding all the 
I which they had received from their divine Master, they 
till the hour of His death to cherish the idea that Jesus 

the Jews from the Boman yoke, and establish such a 
. Palestine. And when, after His resurrection. He appeared 
d spake to them of the things pertaining to the kingdom of 



274 

God, they asked Him, saying, **Lord, wilt thou at this timereslon ui J 
again the kin^om to Israel P " His reply was profoundly sigiuficaiit, L' ^'* 
but wholly unintelligible to them at the time. He said onto tbcni 
** It is not for you to know the times or the seasons which the lite 
hath put in His own power ; but ye shall receiye power after that to 
Holy Spirit is come upon you ; and ye shall be witnesses unto ineW& _.. 
in Jerusalem and in all Judea, and m Samaria, and unto the otterBOA kr't^ 
part of the earth/* " God hath delivered us," says Paul, "from to Ji-^^ 
power of darkness, and hath translated us into the kingdom of HiidBK |^ ^' 
Son. Therefore we should walk worthy of God, who hath called ■ \^ 
into His kingdom and glory." "And I heard," says John, ** a ksl L-t^ 
voice, saying in heaven. Now is come salvation and strength, and to (r^^ 
kingdom of our God, and the power of His Christ. The kingdomi^ 
this world are become the kingdoms of our Lord and of His C^risl, md 
He shall reifiii for ever and ever.*' V/: 

394. The %ible as a whole, in the general scope and spirit of ib V^ 
meaning, teaches that the kingdom of God, spoken of by the prophetai 
and more fully revealed in the gospel, is not a thing of time and j^aee, 
but a state, a condition, a sj^iritual reign of the moral laws of God onr 
the actions, thoughts, passions, desires, propensities and appelatei rf 
man; a state in which man is spiritually reconciled to God, aal 
worships and serves him in spirit and in truth, and in all thiDgi ii 
governed by the spirit of His holy laws. This state or kingdom, 
according to the Bible as a whole, men are to enter into on earth : and 
they who faithfully abide in it to the end of their earthly pilgrimage^ 
will be glorified and happy in it eternally beyond the grave. 

395. In about ten or twelve instances in the New Testament, the 
kingdom of heaven, or of God, is spoken of with direct and perbau 
exclusive reference to a state of glory and happiness after death ; whue 
in about a hundred instances it is spoken of as that state of things od 
earth in which human nature is governed by the spirit of God's holy 
laws, and in which man is brought into a state of spiritual purity, and 
righteousness, and peace, and health, and happiness, and thus restored 
to the highest and best condition of human nature here, and prepared 
for endless happiness and glory hereafter. Hence, instead of carnal 
and temporal motives of obedience, as in the Mosaic dispensation, the 
highest order of spiritual and eternal motives is held up in the gospel 
dispensation of Christ. 

390. From the general scope and spirit of the Bible as a whole, and 
from the evident signification of the text and context under considera- 
tion, it is perfectly obvious that the phrase, ** My Father's kingdom," 
in the Scripture before us, means the spiritual kingdom of Qod on 
earth, which was then about to be manifested in the gospel dispensa- 
tion, that was soon to supersede the Mosaic dispensation, when the 
death of Christ should consummate all the types and shadows of the 
law, and when the veil of the temple should be rent, and the Holy 
Spirit should be poured out, and men should be born of the Spirit unto 
God, and enter His kingdom as little children, and grow in grace, and 
knowledge, and wisdom, till they were transformed into the image of 
the Lord, and attained to the fulness of the measure of the stature of 
Christ. 



275 

Tiat is meant by being with his Disciples in the Kingdom 
takes of the Disciples^ The Resurrection of Christ. — 
leavour to ascertain what Jesus means in the text before 
;aks of being with His disciples in His Father's kingdon^ . 
t of Christ's coming, the whole Jewish nation was con- 
ing the appearance of the Messiah of whom Moses and 
lad spoken. But the notions which were generaUy 
icting the condition and circumstances of that personage 
T contrary to what was true in regard to Jesus of Nazareth, 
,^enteel and respectable portions of society, as the world 
iideredHim altogether beneath theirnotice, and regarded 
3 with contempt and scorn, and if they spoke of Him at all 
idicule or condemn. Or if there was here and there an 
ng them who was more considerate and humble-minded 
le had not moral courage enough to brave public opinion 
ouse the cause of so humble and unpopular a person as 
, of necessity, in the nature of things, our Lord was 

believers and followers where he could ; and this, as a 
*se, was amongst the lowest orders of society, such as 
publicans. These were, at least, in no better temporal 
:han Jesus, and consequently were not compelled, acoord- 
icial distinctions of the world, to stoop down in order to 
es upon a level with Him ; and, therefore, they were not 
beir pride, nor by their fear of being considered ungen- 
ling to Him and witnessing His works. Nor did these 
the more omnipotent moral power of public opinion, 
>m receiving Him and followmg Him as the Messiah. 
'act that Jesus was Himself in very humble drcumstances 
!d to increase His popularity as a leader with the lower 

for they are always more ready to sympathize with and 
'hom they consider of their own sort, than those who 
insider themselves above them. 

>eople, in common with all Israel, were confidently ex- 
learance of the Messiah, and the general impression was 
as at hand. When, therefore, they listened to the words 
)t more when they beheld His works, they believed Him to 
whom they expected ; but they did not believe Him to be 
^as, for they <&d not, they could not then have the least, 
onception of His true character and mission. They, in 
11 their countrymen, fiilly believed that the Messiah of 
id the prophets had spoken would be an earthly prince. 
Id raise up to erect the Jewish nation into tiie most 
Lorious kingdom on earth. Such was the Messiah whom 
ed should come to deliver Israel from the Roman yoke 
eir hopes ; and such was the Messiah whom the fisher- 
, and others who believed in Jesus, conceived Him to 
irefore, Jesus bade them follow Him, everything con- 
them willing. They had no pride of standing in society 

worldly honors to rraounce — no wealth to give up — no 
s and family connections to hold them back — the force 
)n did not descend low enough to bear on them ; irhile» 



276 

OQ the other hand, to become the chosen followers and friends of Him : 
who was the anointed of God, and was to become the greatest earthly ], 
potentate — ^to share with Him His conquests and His glory — ^to be made 
the chief men and the princes of the realm, and ministers of state, and 
perhaps the counsellors of the throne, were motives large enough to fill 
the measure of their ambition, and powerful enough to make them willinff 
to forsake their fishing apparatus, and their otiber local interests, and 
obey the call of Jesus. WiUi views, and motives, and expectations, and 
plans, in all respects so entirely opposite to the real end for which th^ 
were called, and with minds so totally ignorant of the true character 
and mission of the Messiah, 'and, at that time, so utterly incapable o( 
understanding the truth concerning Him, and so deeply imbued with 
the bigotry, and superstition, and prejudices of their country, it was no 
wonder that their views and projects so continually ran counter tt 
those of their Master, and that dunng the whole of His earthly miniitiy 
Jesus was compelled so constantly to rebuke them, and found it so 
difficult to rule them as free moral agents to His divine purpose ; and 
only by the exercise of all His personal influence, and all thft moral 
power that they were capable of having brought to bear on then, 
together with the repeated signs and wonders which He wrou^ 
before them, was He able so to control them as to keepthem voluntanlj 
with Him, and lead them on in the prosecution of His great piupon 
of benevolence. On almost every occasion they misunderstood Hii 
instruction, and were continually rebuked for their want of understand- 
ing and faith. When Jesus spoke to them concerning His death and 
resurrection, they questioned one with another what the rising of the 
dead should mean ; and when Jesus charged them to remember what 
He said and did, that they might bear witness of Him after His death 
they understood not His saying. But they very well understood their 
own ambitious plans, and were so engrossed in their expectations of 
earthly glory, that they disputed among themselves, by the way, who 
should be the greatest, but Jesus assured them that except they were 
converted, and became as a little child, they should not enter into the 
kingdom of heaven. Yet they understood not this ; and not long after- 
wards, two of them came to Him full of their worldly ambition, and 
desired that they might sit one on His right hand and the other on Hif 
left in His kingdom ; but Jesus said to them, " Te know not what ye 
ask. " Still they clung to the fondly-cherished expectation of eartUy 
glory ; and even when they had sat down with their Master to supper 
at the Passover, on the night on which he was betrayed, there was a 
strife among them which of them should be accounted' the greatest. 

399. It was, therefore, in vain that Jesus endeavoured before Hif 
death to make His disciples understand the true nature of His mission, 
and of the kingdom which He came to establish. Carnal and temporal 
interests and things were constantly suggested and imaged forth to their 
minds when they heard Him speak. And, consequently, all that He 
eoold thfiQ do was by sensible and miraculous evidences to convince 
them tiwt He truly was the promised Messiah, and to store their 
ffiee vith thoee instmcCions which, when they should afterwards 
^l > wwle ffitanil the nature of His mission and kingdom, they 
~^^~ reoordf and the real and true m Aiming of which the 




277 

spirit of truth should at some future period enable His faithful followers 

understand. 

400. The Naples of our Lord were as fully conyiuced as it was 
Msible for them to be that he was indeed the Messis^ of whom Moses 
n the law and the prophets had spoken, and that He had come to 
■tablish the kingdom which had long been foretold by the prophets and 
bndly expected by the Jews. But still, to the last tiiey did not belieye 
eras to be what He truly was ! To the last they looked for a civil 
jn^dom on earth, and had not eyen the most indistinct idea of the 
pintual reign of €k>d. And when Jesus said to them at the supper* 
ible before He was betrayed, " Te are they which have continued with 
ie in my trials ; and I appoint unto you a kingdom as my Fatiier hath 
|ipointed unto me, that ye may eat and drink at my table in my 
angdom, and sit on thrones judgmg the twelve tribes of Israel,'* their 
oinds filled with pomp, and pageantry, and grandeur, and glory of a 
lYil kingdom, and their own worldly greatness and enjoyments. They 
Ad indeed been with Jesus in His trials, and had experienced so much 
f His gentleness, and kindness and compassion, that they had become 
rarmly attadied to him, and were willing to endure much for His sake, 
dde from their hopes and confident expectations in regard to His 
ingdom. Jesus had often spoken to them about His death and 
emrrection, but they still supposed the time of His death was far off, 
ad what he meant by the resurrection they knew not. When, 
herefore, Jesus told them that the hour had come when He must be 
etrayed into the hands of men, and put to death, they were exceed- 
ogiy cast down and disappointed, and thought all their fondly* 
henshed expectations were to be cut off. But He assured them that 
neh was not the case ; for though He must be put to death and leave 
hem a little while, yet they must not despair nor be sorrowful, for He 
wold come again to them, and their hearts should rejoice. '* There- 
ire let not your hearts be troubled ; ye believe in God, believe also 

1 me. In my Father's house are many mansions ; if it were not so, I 
'Oald have told you. I go to prepare a place for you : and if I go and 
rapare a place for you, I will come again, and receive you unto 
lyself, that where I am, there ye may be also. And whither I go ye 
BOW, and the way ye know." But all this was spoken in parable to 
wm, and they understood it not ; for they were not yet prepared to 
vre Him show ^em plainly of the Father, they could not yet perceive 
id nnderstand the truth. 'Therefore He did not tell them plainly ^at 
f Ms Father's house He meant God's administration of moral govern* 
ent; and by the many mansions, the different dispensations of the 
vine administration ; and that by His goin^ to prepare a place for 
am. He meant that His death was necessary in order to the closing up 
' the Mosaic dispensation and the introduction of the gospel dispensa- 
m, which was the place He went to prepare for them, and that the 
Qgdom which should be established by it, was that in which he would 
ign, and in which He would come unto tiiem and receive them into 

that where He spiritually was they might be also in the spirit, and, 
1 it were, sit on tnrones, judging the whole spiritual Israel of God. 
1 tfaii they were yet wholly incapable of understanding. And there* 
re th^ ssAd unto Him, We know not whither thou goest: and how 



eaa we know the way P Jesus replies, I am the Way, the Tmth, and 
the Life : no man cometh mito the Father but by me. If ye had known 
me, ye should have known the Father also ; and from henceforth ye 
haye known Him and seen Him ; or, hereafterye shall know TTim and 
see Him. They say unto Him, Show us the Father, and it sufficeth 
us. Jesus answers. Have I been so long a time with you, and yet have 
ye not known me P He that hath seen me hath seen the Father ; the 
words that I speak unto you, I speak not of myself; but the Father 
that dwelleth in me. He doeth the works. Still they understood none 
of His sayings. Then Jesus said unto them, " If ye love me, keep my 
commandments : and I will pray the Father, and He will giye yon 
another Comforter, that He may abide with 3^u for ever ; eren the 
Spirit of truth, whom the world cannot receive, because it seeth Him 
not, neither knoweth Him ; but ye know Him, or shall know Him ; for 
He dwelleth with you and shall be in you. He dwelleth with you in 
the words which I speak unto you ; and when, through the instrumen- 
tality of those words, ye shall be bom of the Spirit, He shall be in you. 
I will not leave you comfortless ; I will come to you. Tet a little 
while, and the world seeth me no more ; but ye (shall) see me ; because 
I live, ye shall live also. At that dayye shall know that I am in my 
Father, and ye in me, and I in you. He that hath my commandmenti, 
and keepeth them, he it is that loveth me ; and he that loveth me shall 
be loved of my Father, and I will love him, and will manifest myself 
to him." With minih still filled witJi sensible and earthly images, 
and having no idea of any perception of things but that of the natural 
senses, the disciples could not conceive how Jesus could show himself 
to them and not be seen by others ; and therefore in the darknen of 
their minds they inquire of him, '* Lord, how is that thou wilt manifest 
thyself unto us and not unto the world P " Jesus replied, ** If a man 
love me, he will keep my words, and my Father will love him, and we 
will come unto him, and make our abode with him. These things 
have I spoken unto you, being yet present with you. But the Com- 
forter, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, he 
shall teach you all things, and bring all things to your remembruiee 
whatsoever I have said unto you. Ye have heard how I said mxto yon, 
I go away, and come again unto you. If ye loved me, ye would rejoice 
because I said, I go unto my Father : for my Father is greater ^an I." 
In this figurative lang^iago our Lord embodied a most besutiftil 
sentiment. By going unto the Father and coming again unto them. 
He meant that He would take away His human person and spiritually 
reveal to them the Godhead which was in Him ; and therefore, if they 
truly loved Him for the grace of God which they saw manifoted in Him 
as a human being, much more would they rejoice in the spiritual 
perception of the fulness oif the Godhead in Him, which was a so much 
greater or more full dismay of the divine perfections than they could 
perceive in His human character. **But because I have said these 
things unto you, sorrow hath filled your heart. NeverUielcss, I tell 
you the truth ; it is expedient for you that I go away : for if I bo not 
away, the Comforter will not come unto you ; but if I depart, I will 
send him unto you." But why woviVd not the Comforter come unto 
Uiem unless Jesus went away V '&Q&«.\)Aft vcl V}Ky& ^^qieasdl vtscmn. of 



279 

Jesns centred all their false notions and expectations concerning a 
vorldly kingdom ; and in the moral constitution of things, it was not 
poBflibie, without His death and resurrection, for them to come to such 
an understanding of the truth as to receire the Comforter of whom 
Jesus spake. This Jesus well knew, and therefore He assures them 
that they were not able to understand Him then. *' Tet,** said He, 
** irhen ^e Spirit of truth is come, He will guide you into all truth. 
He shall glorify me : for He shall receive of mine and shall show it 
onto you. All things that the Father hath are mine : therefore, said 
I, that He shall take of mine and show it unto you. A little while and 
ye shall not see me, and again a little while and ye shall see me; 
because I go to the Father." These things were wholly unintelligible 
sad deeply mysterious to His disciples : and they said among them- 
selves. We cannot tell what He saith. Jesus replied to them, but they 
eoidd not understand Him ; and He said unto them : "These things have I 
spoben unto you in parables ; but the time cometh when I shall no 
more speak unto you in parables, but I shall show you plainly of the 
Father." 

401 . Now it is perfectly evident that when our Lord tells His disciples 
that He will come again unto them, and He will send the Comforter 
unto them, and the Father will come unto them and make His abode 
witii them. He means essentially the same thing in the three forms of 
the promise : " I will pray the Father, and He shall give you another 
Comforter, that He may abide with you for ever. I will not leave you 
eomfortless ; I will come to you. At that day ye shall know that I am 
in the Father, and ye in me, and 1 in you. Lo, I am with you always, 
even unto the end of the world. Where two or three are gathered 
together in my name, there am I in the midst of them. Behold, I send 
the promise of my Father upon you ; but tarry ye in the city of 
Jerusalem until ye be endowed with power from on high (for the 
Holy Spirit was not yet given ; because that Jesus was not yet glorified.) 
Ye shall be baptized with the Holy Spirit not many days hence." 

402. The apostles of our Lord so understood these iiimgs when they 
had entered into His spiritual kingdom. For, say they, " We are made 
partakers of Christ, if we hold fast our begun confidence stedfast unto 
the end : and truly our fellowship is with the Father and with His Son 
Jesus Christ. If that which ye have heard from the beginning shall 
remain in you, ye sdso shall continue in the Son and in the Father ; 
and hereby we kaow that He abideth in us, by the Spirit which He hath 
given us. Know ye not that ye are the temple of Ghod P that the Spirit 
of God dwelleth in you P Enow ye not that your body is the temple of 
the Holy Spirit, which is in you, which ye have of God P Ye are the 
temple of the living God ; as GK)d hath said : I will dwell in them and 
walK in them, and I will be their God and they shsdl be my people. 
Now if any man have not the Spirit of Christ, he is none of His : and if 
Christ be in you, the body is dead because of sin ; but the spirit is life 
because of righteousness. For as many as are led by the Spirit of God, 
they are the children of God. Enow ye not your own selves, how that 
Christ is in you, except ye be reprobates P I am crucified with Christ ; 
nevertheless, I live ; yet not I, but Christ that liveth in me I He that 
abided in the doctrine of Christ, he hath both the Father and the Son." 



280 

In short, the New Testament is full of the doctrine that Christ is irith :-. 
them, and dwells in those who haye entered into His kingdom, lad Ir 
become partakers of His spirit and His grace. And it is most eridenflj tiz 
in this sense that Jesus speaks in the text under consideration of being i 
with His disciples in His Father's kingdom, or the kingdom of heaTen. 
As we have fully seen, at the time He presented the cup, and uttered the 
language of the text to His diciples, they had not the most faint idea of 
His spiritual kingdom. On this same occasion He assured them that Bt 
must go away to prepare a place for them, and He would soon return to 
them and receive them to Himself; that where He was, there th^ h 
might be also ; and He would manifest himself to them, and He and the )% 
Fa&er would come to them and abide witiii them. From all this thqf 
plainly and correctly understood that the kingdom of which He spike 
was soon to be estaolished, and that in that kingdom He was to be 
with them ; but they were wholly in an error as to ^e nature of that 
kingdom, and the manner in which Christ would manifest Himself to 
them and abide with them, and be with His followers always, eyen noto 
the end of the world. 

403. ni. In what sense did Jesus thus speak ? — ^But in what sentt 
did our Lord, in the text before us, speak of drinking with His disciples ii 
the kingdom of heayen P On the eyening on which He was betrafed, 
while sitting at the supper of the passoyer, our Lord said unto Hii 
disciples, Te are they which haye continued with me in my temptationi: 
and I appoint unto you a kingdom, as my Father hath appointed unto me ; 
that ye may eat and drink at my table in my Idngdom, and sit on throoesi 

i'udging the twelve tribes of Israel. Beyond all question, the kingdom 
lere referred to was the spiritual kingdom of God on earth, which was 
800U to be introduced in the gospel dispensation ; and the kingdom which 
He appointed to His disciples was their apostolic rule or authority in that 
dispensation ; and the thrones on which they were to sit, were their 
high apostolic stations in the gospel dispensation : their eating and 
drinking at His table in His kingdom, was figurative language, signify- 
ing their participation with Him in the spiritual enjoyments of tibat 
kingdom. Albeit the diciples themselves took the whole passage in t 
literal and worldly sense. Again, after His resurrection and ascension, 
speaking to John in a vision, of the moral power he was exerting on 
mankind in the gospel dispensation. He says in highly figurative lan- 
guage, Behold, I stand at the door and knock : if any man hear my 
voice and open the door, I will come in to him and sup with him, and 
he with me. Tet, notwithstanding this language is highly figurative 
in regard to the kind and manner of enjoyment indicated, and simply 
signifies the spiritual sympathies and reciprocities and holy communion 
which obtain between Christ and his true followers in His kingdom ; it 
nevertheless plainly and fully teaches us the nature of Christ's partici- 
pation in the enjoyments or suiFerings of His followers in His kingdom. 
It clearly shows that whether He eats with them, or drinks with them, 
or rejoices with them, or whatsoever He does with them in His kingdom, 
it is only by dwelling spiritually in them, and governing their affections 
and thoughts, and giving a tone and temper to their souls with His 
Spirit and making them partakers of His grace, this most unquestionably 
is the sense in which He speaks, in the text under consideration, of 
drinking with His disciples ml^eWii^toaQl\L^w«ii, 



281 

404. IV. Wkai ia ike mew fntU of the vine f Fenmemied wime 
^md tie effects. Vwferwtemted wine. Oifjeetion answered, — We come 
thereftire finall]^ to inquire whMi Jesiu truly means in the text before ns, 
hy the new finnt of the Tine. From the days of Noah, and probably 
longer, mankind have been accustomed to use the juice of the grape, in 
one state or another, as drink. And from the flood to the present day, 
this Uqaor in its fermented state has been one of the greatest soourget 
tfamt the human race has been afflicted with, and not unfrequently hare 
the eTils arising from the use of it occasioned, even in what we call 
early times, the most seyere laws and rigorous measures against it. But 
neither the sererity of law, nor the rigour of measures, nor any measur- 
able amount of disease, and pain, and crime, and ignominy, and 
prematore death, nor yet the most terrible judgments of Heaven — nay, 
all of these together have not been so strong as the depraved appetite 
ef fSallen man. Even the extermination of the vine throughout the 
whole realms has only forced, a momentary pause in the bacdianal revel- 
ries of men ; for, like Noah, sanctified from the abominations of a 
mined world by the judgment which had destroyed his race, they have 
hastened, in the power and blindness of their depravity, to the cultiva- 
tion of the means of their sensual indulgence and disgrace and of the 
d^radation and destruction of their posterity. 

405. Besides the fermoited juice of the grape and other intoxicating 
liquorB spoken of in the Bible, the unfermented juice of the grape ii 
often named and alluded to ; and indeed, if what is true of modem 
Asis be any rule by which we may judge of ancient customs, we may 
eondode that the recently expremed and unfermented juice of the 
grape was a very common beverage in early times. In the days of the 
patriardi Jacob, according to sacred history, it was the usage in Egypt, 
for the king's cup-bearer to press the juice from the cluster of grapes 
into the kuig*s cup for his immediate use ; and we leara from the 
Book of Judges that people in those times, when they wished to make a 
feast, went out into the fields and gathered and trod their gprapes, and 
took the juice, and went into the house and ate and drank. Solomon 
says, " Honour the Lord with thy substance, and with the first-fruits 
of all thine increase : so shall thy bams be filled with plenty, and thy 
presses shall burst out with new wine.*' Isaiah also speaks of the 
"new wine which is found in the cluster;" and Joel, speaking 
prophetically and figuratively of the gospel dispensation, says : ** And it 
shidl come to pass in that day that the mountains shsdl drop down new 
wine, and the hills shall flow with milk," &c. This new wine, or Uie 
unfermented juice of the grape, was, with utmost certainty, what our 
Lord meant by the new fruit of the vine, in the text which we are 
considering. 

406. But some will reply that the Bible several times speaks of the 
intoxicating efiect of new wine, and therefore the term new wine in 
the Bible cannot mean an unfermented liquor. This difficulty only 
exists in our English translation of the Bible ; for if we examine the 
ori^al text of the Scriptures, we shall find that all those passages 
which speak of the intoxicating effects of new wine^ would be more 
faithfully and accurately rendered sweet wine. Thus, in Acts ii. 13, 15, 
when, on the day of Pentecost, the men that spake with tongues were 



282 

sapposed to be intoxicated, and were accused of being fall of new irinB, 
the Greek word ** gleukos" literally means sweet wine, from **glukMt!* 
sweet, and *'oinos" wine. But when our Lord says, in the text irhid 
we are discussing, " I will not drink henceforth of this fruit of Ibe 
vine, until that day when I drink it new with you in my Fatheh 
kingdom," He uses the term "kainos" which means literally mv, 
recenUy made — ^not changed or impaired by time. 

407. It is therefore beyond all controversy true, that the language o( 
the text under consideration means the recently expressed or 1mft^ 
mented juice of the grape ; and it is perfectly certain that thii vu 
what our Lord really intended to signify by the language ; ** Bat I ta 
unto you, I will not drink henceforth of this fruit of the vine, ODtU 
that day when I drink the recently expressed or imfermented joke 
with you in my Father's kingdom." 

408. Let us now very briefly bring together the main points of our 
argument, that we may the more clearly perceive the legitimacy of the 
general conclusion. 

I. The kingdom of Qod, in the sense of our text, means thit 
spiritual reign of the moral laws of God on earth which the discipleiof 
our Lord were about to enter into by gfospel regeneration, and beeome 
the first-fruits of the Spirit in the new dispensation. 

IL By being with His disciples, in the true sense of our text, Christ 
meant that spiritual presence in which He promised to return to them 
and manifest Himself to them soon after His death and resurreetioD, 
and abide in them and be with them always. 

in. The true sense in which Jesus speaks, in our text, of drinkiDg 
with His disciples in His Father's kingdom, is, that He would, by the 
indwelling presence and influence of His Spirit, so enlighten their 
minds, and purify their hearts with the truth, and so control their 
appetites, desires, and propensities, that they would be led by Hit 
Spirit to desire sincerely, whether they ate or drank, or whatsoever 
they did, to do all to the glory of God ; and, 

IV. By the new fruit of the vine, in our text, Jesus literally meant 
the newly expressed and unfermented juice of the grape; and He 
obviously thus expressed Himself with more of a negative than a 
positive purport : that is. He did not so much intend in the spirit aod 
practical bearing of the sentiment to afiirm that He would drink the 
new fruit of the vine with them in His Father's kingdom, as He did to 
affirm that He would not drink the fermented juice of the grape, nor 
any other intoxicating liquor, with them in His Father's kingdom. 

409. On the whole, therefore, it is most certain, from the general 
scope and spirit of the Bible, as a whole — from the clear meaning 
which the Holy Spirit teaches of the text under consideration, and 
from the very nature of things, that when our Lord stood at that 
awful and momentous period when the old dispensation was about to be 
closed up, and the new one to be brought in hj the offering up of His 
body, and instituted that solemn sacrament which has come down to us 
as the memorial of His death — when He took the cup which was at 
hand, containing, probably, light wine, or wine and water, and pre- 
sented it to His disciples, and bade them drink, and to perpetuate the 
act as a memorial of His bloody which was about to be shed, and then 






•tided, '* I will not drink henceforth of this fruit of the Tine until that 
day when I drink it new with you in my Father*s kingdom,*' our 
blessed and immaculate Saviour designed to embody in His language 
this deeply interesting and holy sentiment of truth, which He intended 
that Hie Spirit of truth, when He should come, should, ih due time, 
folly teach His followers : Though hitherto, while I hare been with 
you, I have not forbidden you the use of wine, which Moses, for the 
hardness of your father's hearts, permitted — and though now, on the 
dose of the Mosaic dispensation, I take this cup, whidi is at hand, 
eontaining intoxicating wine, and present it to you, for the purpose of 
instituting on this occasion, before I leave you, a perpetual ordinance 
for yon, as a memorial of my death, yet in the new dispensation it 
fhaJl not be so ; but when the kingdom of heaven shall come, and my 
Spirit shall dwell in my followers, to guide them into all truth, and to 
sanctify them by the truth in the progress of the development of the 
fulness of the riches of God in me, my Spirit shall, at some period of 
the Church, teach my true followers that they who would enter into 
the holiest of all must not drink wine nor strong drink. 

410. But why, then, it is asked, did not Jesus plainly tell His 
^ciples that they must not drink fermented liquors P Why did He 
not explicitly forbid their use of wine F There are several reasons 
why He did not. One is, because the Mosaic dispensation in which it 
was permitted was still valid, and continued in force till Jesus was 
offered up, and the veil of the temple was rent, and the way into the 
holiest of all was made manifest. Had any of His disciples or the 
Jews directly and distinctly put the question to Him, whether wine- 
drinking was good for man, and stated that Moses permitted it. He 
certainly would have replied the same as He did in regard to 
divorces : Moses, because of the hardness of your hearts, permitted it; 
nevertheless, it is not consistent with the highest and best condition of 
human nature. But as the question was not put to Him, and He did 
not wish unnecessarily to alarm their prejudices, and give them 
occasion in their bigotry and superstition to say that He condemned 
Moses' law, especially where no possible good could be effected by it, 
He therefore did not speak of it until He considered it a proper time, 
and then He named it in such a manner as not to alarm their 
prejudices, and lead to blind and unprofitable controversy on a subject 
that His hearers did not understand ; but He, as it were, made a 
verbal deposit in the memories of His disciples, of that doctrine 
which the Spirit of truth should in process of time fully reveal or teach 
to His followers. Another reason why Jesus did not plainly tell His 
disciples that they must not drink wine or strong drink, is, because it 
was not, in the nature of things, possible for them to understand the 
truth and spirit of His meaning, if He had. We have seen how 
entirely they misunderstood His true character and the nature of His 
mission and of His kingdom, and how continually they misunderstood 
and perverted the meaning of His words : and so utterly blind in heart 
and understanding were they to the holy truth which He taught, that 
after three years' attendance on His ministry, and witnessing of His 
mighty works, and listening to His private and special instruction, 
they were at the hour of His crucifixion as totally ignorant of His true 



284 

1 

Messiahship and of His kingdom as ihey were when Jesos first caUei 
them. Though Jesus repeatedly instructed Uiem as fullj as it was, in 
the nature of things, possible for Him to do, concerning His death and 
resurrection, yet the^ could not in any degree understand Him ; and 
they were iIb much disappointed at His death as ti^ough He had alwan 
told them that He could not die. Nor after His resurrection ooiud 
any human testimony, nor an^^ing short of sensible demonstratioD, 
conyince them that He was risen from the dead. '* For th^ under- 
stood not what the rising of the dead could mean ; " *' and as yet they 
knew not the Scriptures, that He must rise from the dead.'* Neitte 
when they had seen Him and heard His Toice aftqp He had risen did 
they haye any better notion of His Messi^ship and kingdom thsa 
before, for they asked Him if He would at that time restore the 
kingdom again to Israel. 



TSACHINQS OF JBSUS AMD OF PAUL ADAFTBD TO TBB CONDITION OF MAI. 

411. Now, if Jesus had told them plainly they must not use wine, 
or any other intoxicating liquor or substance ; in order to their M 
understanding of the truth and the spirit of His meaning, it would 
have been, of necessity in the nature of things, necessary for them to 
haye a true and full understanding of the nature of His Messiahship 
and of His kingdom ; and of the spiritual economy and bearing of that 
kingdom on human nature ; and of the peculiar effecte of alcohol and 
other intoxicaUDg substances on human nature, with reference to the 
spiritual economy and bearing of that kingdom : and in order to this, 
it would, of necessity in the nature of things, have been indispensably 
necessary for them to possess at least so much knowledge of the animal, 
mental and moral physiology of man, as would have enabled them to 
understand the constitutional and conditional relations, and reciprocal 
sympathies, and influences, and dependences between the human soul 
and body ; and these qualifications, taken together as a whole, could 
not be, without connecting with the constitutional operations of the 
mind, in its attainment of the proper degree of knowledge, the 
indwelling influence and guidance of that Spirit of truth which Jesus 
had promised His disciples should come to teach them the meaning of 
His instructions. But in none of these respects were they qualified to 
understand Him ; and therefore I say that Jesus did not tell them not 
to drink wine while He was with tliem, because it was not possible in 
the nature of things for Him to make them understand Him in the 
true spirit of His meaning. Hence Jesus, when engaged in washing 
His disciples* feet after the supper, explicitly declares to Peter, What 
I do thou knowest not now, but thou shalt know hereafter. And again, 
in His subsequent conversation, just before He went out into the 
garden where He was betrayed, He said unto them with reference to 
the instructions He had been giving them, and probably with reference 
to all they had ever heard Him teach : '* These things have I spoken 
unto you in proverbs [or parables] ; but the time cometh when I shall 
no more speak unto you in proverbs [parables], but I will show you 
plainly of the Father." That is, Though, by reason of the natural 



285 

darkness of your minds, yoar false education, your preconceived 
opinions, your wrong notions, and your want of a Imowledge of 
niritaal things, you have not been able to understand my true 
oaracter, and the nature of my mission and kingdom, nor the meaning 
of my words, nor the objects of my works, and therefore I have been 
obliged to speak unto you in figure and in parable, for the purpose of 
adapting my instructions to ^our condition, that ye mi^ht treasure it 
up in ^our memory ; yet the time cometh when the Spirit of truth will 
80 enlighten your minds, that ye shall truly understand the nature of 
my Messiahship and my kingdom, and by spiritual perception plainly 
•ee the Father in me, and be led to an understanding of the true 
import of my words and works which ye have witnessed while I have 
been with you. On the same occasion, sdso, Jesus said to His 
disciples, " I have yet many things to say unto you, but ye cannot bear 
them now ! " ye cannot understand me now : Howbeit, when He, the 
Spirit of truth, is come. He will guide you into all truth. He will not 
Qoly enable you to understand what I have said to you, but He will 
teach you many things that I have not yet spoken, and cannot now, 
because of the darkness of your minds. 

412. The same important principle is asserted by Paul, when he 
lays to the Corinthians : And I, brethren, could not speak unto you as 
onto spiritual, but as unto carnal ; for ye are yet carnal, and cannot 
understand spiritual things. And again to the Hebrews, when 
speaking of Melchisedec, he says : Of whom we have many things to 
say, and hard to be uttered, or e3qplained, seeing ye are dull of hearing, 
or are not sufficiently enlightened in these things, to be able to 
imderstand. 



8CIX2ITIFIC TRUTH AN AUXILIART TO SFIRmTAL TRUTH. OBEDIENCB 
^FROM FAITH. CONDITION OF CHRIST*S FOLLOWERS. 

413. But let me not be misunderstood in this matter. 1 do not 
affirm that a knowledge of human physiology, or any other scientific 
knowledge, is necessary to enable one to become a true Christian, but 
that such knowledge is essentially necessary in order to enable the 
followers of Christ truly and fully to understand the peculiar effects of 
alcohol and other intoxicating substances on human nature, wiih 
reference to the spiritual economy and practical bearing of the king- 
dom of God ; and that without such an understandmg, with many 
other qualifications, the disciples of Jesus could not have understood 
the true spirit of His meaning, if He had plainly told them that they 
must not drink wine. We may have much knowledge without the 
Holy Spirit of truth, and we may have the Holy Spirit of truth, in His 
guiding and sanctifying influences, with but little knowledge. Tet, 
they in whom the Holy Spirit of truth dwells, desire to grow in know- 
ledge and in understanding, and always gladly embrace, as the very 
aliment of their souls, all knowledge by which they can grow in grace 
and sanctification, and in the image of the Lord. And when the mind, 
which is fully under the influence and guidance of the Holy Spirit of 
truth is f^o greatly enlarged in knowledge, its ability clearly and fully 



286 

to nnderstand the teachings of God in His w